Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Vocational training for rehabilitation in British Columbia for World War II veterans to March 31, 1945 Tracy, Wilmot Edward 1945

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1945_A8 T7 V6.pdf [ 43.68MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105729.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105729-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105729-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105729-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105729-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105729-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105729-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105729-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105729.ris

Full Text

VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR REHABILITATIOH IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR WORLD WAR I I VETERANS TO MARCH 51, 1945 BY WILMOT EDWARD TRACY i A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF ! 1 • • • 1 THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF • I MISTER OF ARTS } IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION- j . . . . . . . . „ 1 - i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ^P©f Q.C0 • • • • # • • • • • • • • • • # • • • • • • • • • • v i x OilQ.jP"b ©3? 1 • • • •. • • • * • •. • • * • • * • * • • • • 1 PARE 1: BACH*EtOUND STUDIES Chapter 2 H i s t o r i c a l background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 3 Leading to P.O.5210 and the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-or d i n a t i o n Act . . 35 Chapter 4 P.C•5210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 45 PARC 2: ADMTOSTRATION Chapter 5 Machinery designed t o handle r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures 65 Chapter 6 Stepping stones on the road to c i v i l l i f e . . . . 74 PART. 5.: VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Chapter 7 Medical and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of v o c a t i o n a l "t»i'£iiiiiii££ • • • • • • • - • • • « « • • * • - • 0 « • * 33 Chapter 8 Interviewing and c o u n s e l l i n g 98 Chapter 9 V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B.C. . . 109 : Chapter 10 T r a i n i n g i n schools . . . . . . . . . . 123 Chapter 11 T r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y . 142 Chapter 12 Costs and r e s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g programme . . . . 150 PART 4.: CONCLUSIONS Chapter 13 Evaluations of the t r a i n i n g programme 168 Chapter 14 I m p l i c a t i o n s 178 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 B il) 1 iO£3j 3?o.plxy • • • • • » * • • • • •» • • • • « * • # • 199 - i i -LIST Off GHAETS Page Chart 1: Showing development of Government Departments and Agencies Concerned w i t h veteran care from Chart 11: Showing Dominion Government Committees concerned w i t h post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . . 39. Chart 111:Summary of important parliamentary measures connected w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . . . 44a Chart 1Y: Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Department of Veterans 9 A f f a i r s 66 Chart Y: Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Canadian v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g branch of the Department- of Labour . . . 71 t - i i i -; LIST PIT TABLES Table 1: Showing numbers of veterans taking. V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n v a r i o u s types of s cli o oX £ ) • » • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 113 Table 11; Showing numbers of veterans t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n March 1945 116 Table 111: D i s t r i b u t i o n of veterans t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1 1943 to February 38 1945 „ . 118 Table IV: Monthly enrolments of those t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n Canada together w i t h the number and. percentage t a k i n g t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h ClO l\Ulit) 3.9. • • e • e e • « •. • . • »_ • « « • • 119 Table V: . P o p u l a t i o n of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h percentage of Canada's population r e s i d e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Table V I : Enrolment of veterans at end of each month du r i n g the- year ending February 1945 i n the v a r i o u s Canadian v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . i ... . . . . . .. . . 127 Table V l l : Table V l l l : Table IX: Table X: Table X I : Attendance r e p o r t of veterans i n Canadian v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the year ending.Marctf 31, 1945 . . . . . 128 Monthly increases i n enrolment i n government schools and p r i v a t e schools f o r the year ending March 31, 1945 . . . . . 130 Monthly enrolment i n p r i v a t e trade and commercial schools p r o v i d i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r veterans from A p r i l 1, 1944 t o March 31, 1945 . . . 132 L i s t of correspondence schools, courses given, and enrolment of veterans at February 28, 1945 135 Number of veterans t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g by correspondence courses from A p r i l 1, 1944 t o March 31, 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 - i v -L i s t of Tables Ctd Page Table X l l : L i s t of private,trade,and commercial schools g i v i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g t o discharged mem-bers of the f o r c e s , w i t h enrolment by the month, from August 1944 t o February 1945 Table X l l l : Increases i n enrolment of veterans t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g under Schedule "L" i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1, 1942 to March 51, 1945s-. . . . • . » -.. . . . . . . 138 « e « 140 Table XiV: Increases i n enrolment of veterans i n t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l I, 1945 to March 31, 1945 . . . . Table XV: Monthly enrolment of veterans t a k i n g t r a i n i n g i n I n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1, 1944 to March 31, 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . Table XVI: Dominion-Provincial t r a i n i n g , programme, B r i t i s h Columbia. Enrolment and expenditures from i n -auguration of programme t o date. (January 31, 1945 . . . . . . 14V 149 e • * 152 Table XVII; Table XV111: Table XIX: Table XX: Table XXI: Cost statement i n connection w i t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of veterans i n war emergency t r a i n i n g and s p e c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l a s s e s from A p r i l 1, 1944 t o February 28, 1945 . . . . . 153 Expenditures and enrolment f o r those discharged from the armed for c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia from -1941 t o 1945 156 Showing r i s i n g c o st per t r a i n e e i n each successive year from 1942 t o 1945 156 Cost of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g per man per month August 1917 t o December 1918 157 Percentage of veterans d i s c o n t i n u i n g courses i n V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1944 to March 1945 . . . . . . . . . . 160 Table X X I I : Eollow-up record of graduates from V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g schools 163 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Graph showing increase i n numbers of veterans t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n various types of schools . . . :'. Figure 11: Graph showing f l u c t u a t i o n s i n percentage of Canadian veterans t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . Page 114 121 Figure 111: Graph showing attendance increase i n a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l a s s e s i n Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the year ending March 31, 1945 . . . . . . . . . 129 Figure IV: Graph showing increases i n enrolment i n p r i v a t e schools g i v i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1, 19fe4 t o March 31, 1945 . . . . . . . 133 Figure V: Graph showing increases in^monthly enrolment i n schools g i v i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1, 1942 t o March 31, 1945 . . . . . . . . 141 Figure V I : Graph showing inc r e a s e s i n monthly enrolment of veterans tak i n g t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Colurabia from October 1, 1943 to March 31, 1945 148 - v i -AGiaTOWLEDGJvIElOTS The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge h i s indebtedness to Dr. G.M.Weir, of the Education Department, f o r h i s many valuable suggestions, and f o r the i n s p i r i n g i n t e r e s t he showed i n t h i s work; to Lt.Col.F.T.Eairey, Regional D i r e c t o r of T r a i n i n g f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r a l l o w i n g f r e e access t o a l l a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s ; to Mr. C o l l i n s , of the Canadian Y o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g O f f i c e i n Vancouver, who read and c a r e f u l l y checked the manuscript; and t o the many other o f f i c i a l s i n the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s and the Department of Labour who were h e l p f u l i n connection w i t h the gather-i n g of necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . W.E.Tracy September, 1945. - v i i -PREFACE Since the turn of the century, Canada has had nearly t h i r t y years experience i n d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of veteran r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n and re-establishment. Consequently, "veteranology" has become a very broad t o p i c with ramifications into a l l f i e l d s of Canadian endeavour. Therefore, i n order to present an adequate a p p r a i s a l o f the present Canadian Rehabilitation Programme f o r veterans in a compact u n i t of w r i t i n g , i t i s necessary to s e l e c t a t y p i c a l segment of the entire programme and dwell on i t i n a d e t a i l e d f a s h i o n . The f o l l o w i n g fourteen chapters, therefore, are l i m i t e d to an account of the Vocational and Technical T r a i n i n g given to World War II veterans to assist them to become r e - e s t a b l i s h e d in c i v i l l i f e . This portion of the whole f i e l d of rehabilitation was chosen as being r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Canada's work i n rehabilitation for the reason that i t illustrates in an apt manner the many rami-fications of veteran welfare in such fields as Psychology, Medicine, Sociology, and Education. The Canadian Rehabilitation programme for veterans of the Second World War i s actually in i t s infancy. Only a small percentage of Canada's se r v i c e men and women have been discharged and establish-ed as ci v i l i a n s . The present study, extending to March 31, 1945, i s consequently of an interim nature. It is important to note in this connection that because the developments in the f i e l d of veteran - v i i i -rehabilitation are in a state of flux, any attempt at surveying the f i e l d cannot be considered a waste of time and energy* Indeed, i t is imperative that data be gathered and assessed periodically In order to ensure right direction of effort. In this report sufficient detail is included so that besides giving a clear picture of voca-tional Training for Rehabilitation in British Columbia to March, 1945, i t may serve as the foundation for future treatment of the subject. VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR REHABILITATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR WORLD WAR 11 VETERANS TO MARCH 51, 1945 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On September 10,'1939 Canada entered World War 11, Since then the years have brought many and great changes, especially in the outlook and attitude of the Canadian people. While i t is true that we a l l have experienced a measure of prosperity because of the war, at the same time we have grown to accept sacrifice and depriva-tion as part of the pattern of daily l i v i n g . Also, as far as is possible for any country whose own-territory has not been raided, the people of Canada have f e l t the painful effects of war. Scarcely a family has been untouched by the absence of members on active ser-vice, for even up to September 30, 1944 the estimated total intake into the Armed Forces stood at 970,906.1 In addition, hundreds of families have endured the sorrow of casualties. O f f i c i a l figures, up to January 31, 1945 show 87,609 of which 32,155 are li s t e d as 2 dead or presumed dead. 1. Canada*s New Problem Now at last the end is in view. Already the gigantic transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy has begun. Thousands of service men have been discharged from the forces, l a r g e plants 1. p.52, Canada at War, No.44, Feb.-Mar. 1945, War Information Board Booklet, Ottawa. 2. Vancouver province, B.C., May 13, 1945. are retooling in preparation for peacetime operations - these and many other indications show that Canada has started on the road back to peace-time l i v i n g . How abrupt and how d i f f i c u l t this transition w i l l be is a matter of conjecture. • However, we do know that these are a few things involvedj (1) the rehabilitation and re-establishment of a l l our service men and women; (2) the re-orientation of those in war industry to peace-time occupations; (3) the re-settling of those who l e f t permanent homes to work in defence plants along with those who w i l l not be re-absorbed into the peace-time industries of the eon-verted plants; (4) the displacing of thousands of women from wartime created opportunities back to homes and to hom©making; and (5) the re-organization of l i f e in general on a peace-time basis. In'this transition from a wartime to a peace-time economy thousands of Canadians w i l l be affecte'd. An approximate figure showing this can be computed in the following manner from these stat i s t i c s . ^ Total population, 14 years of age & over 8,865,000 Total in Armed forces 784,000 * Total gainfully occupied 4,232,000 Total in Armed forces or gainfully occupied 5,016,000 3. pp.48-49, Canada at Wafc, No.42, Nov.-Dec. 1944, Wartime Informa-tion Board, Ottawa. 4. Includes prisoners of War and persons missing but s t i l l on strength. Excludes persons enlisted but on leave and engaged in civiliazjoccupations• 5. Does not include women gainfully occupied on farms or in farm homes, and does not include wage and salary workers who are temporarily unemployed because of "No Job" or "Lay-off." -3-Estimating that 20 to 25 per cent of a l l gainfully occupied persons w i l l s u f f e r dislocation, one can reckon that between 850,000 and 1,000,000 persons w i l l f a l l i n t o t h i s c l a s s . I f the t o t a l number of persons in the armed f o r c e s i s added to t h i s f i g u r e , between 1,634,000 and 1,784,000 people are represented. N a t u r a l l y not a l l of these people w i l l be a f f e c t e d at once, but we know f o r a surety that sooner or later their lives w i l l be disrupted in order that the transition from war to peace may be completed w i t h i n a reasonable time a f t e r the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s . While we f e e l that we are b e t t e r prepared to attack the problem of reconstruction from World War 1 experience, we realise too that the problems facing us are many times l a r g e r than those 6 presented over twenty-five years ago. In World War 1 about 650,000 Canadians enlisted in the armed forces - mostly infantrymen. In World War 11 there were in the neighbourhood of 800,000 in a l l branches of the Services. Towards the end of the f i r s t World War there were only about 300,000 men and women employed on war contracts. Now there are close to 1,300,000 employed d i r e c t l y or indirectly in war work. From A p r i l , 1914 to March, 1920, the total expenditure was $1,670,000,000 as compared with the gigantic sum of $10,825,518,000 spent from 1939 to the spring of 1944. Then, too, there are v i v i d memories that a l l d i d not go well in the years following 1918. Owing to the lack of "ceiling" or 6. passim, March, L.C., and Firestone, O.J., "Will there be jobs." Canadian Affairs, Canadian edition, Vol.2, No.18, Oct.l 1944. . " s t a b i l i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s " a f t e r the war, there was a boom which everyone c o n s i d e r e d - b e n e f i c i a l . People changed t h e i r minds abruptly when depression came i n 1921 and recovery lagged u n t i l 1925. Again came, not s t a b i l i t y , but another misleading boom from 1926 to 1929. In the l a t t e r year the number of people employed i n Canada t o t a l l e d more than 3,700,000. But t h i s boom d i d not l a s t , and i n 1933 employment reached the minimum f i g u r e of 3,100,000 w i t h unemployment at the staggering f i g u r e of 700,000. A c t u a l l y the p i c t u r e was worse than t h i s because thousands were employed o n l y on a part time b a s i s or i n jobs paying next to s t a r v a t i o n wages. Recovery from t h i s depression came slo w l y and j u s t as Canadians were g e t t i n g used to a measure of economic s t a b i l i t y , c r u e l war st r u c k again i n 1939. The prevention of a recurrence of these a l t e r n a t i n g periods of pseudo p r o s p e r i t y and a c t u a l depression i s of paramount importance to Canada. Our n a t i o n cannot endure such r e p e t i t i o n s , nor w i l l the Canadian people t o l e r a t e such i n s t a b i l i t y . JDhis. shows that the process of Reconstruction presents many formidable pro-blems which w i l l put to the t e s t not only government p o l i c i e s but also the character arid w i l l o f the Canadian people. I f there i s any c o r r e l a t i o n between Canada's success o r f a i l u r e i n the Reconstruction era and the speed w i t h which she commenced work on the post-war problems, her success i s assured. W i t h i n three months a f t e r the s t a r t o f the war the Dominion Govern-ment e s t a b l i s h e d by Order i n C o u n c i l 7 the Cabinet Committee on 7. P.D. 4068 1/2, 8 Dec. 1939 -5-Demobilization and Re-establishment® The purpose of this Committee was: "to procure information respecting and give f u l l consideration to and report the problems which w i l l arise from the demobilization and discharge from time to time of members of the Forces during and after the conclusion of the present war, and the rehabilitation of such members into c i v i l life."® In the autumn of 1941 the plans developed under this Cabinet Committee were embodied in the f i r s t legislation applicable to those demobilized from the armed forces. This piece of legisla-tion, called the Post-Discharge Re-establishment Order, was unpre-cedented so far as making provision for the training of the dis-charged man or woman for some appropriate peace-time occupation was concerned. But i t did not insure that there would be jobs awaiting him upon his disharge or upon his completion of training under the Re-establishment order. Growing recognition of the fact that the future of the ex-Service man or woman depends to a large measure on the economic conditions of the times led to the passage of a new order in council^ by which the terms of reference of the Cabinet Committee were broadened to include a l l diversified phases of re-construction in Canada. In this way Canada began her post-war planning - planning 8. p. 1, Report of the Mvisory Committee on Reconstruction, Ottawam 1944. 9. P.O. 1218, 17 Feb. 1941. which we hope will lead to economic stability and the establishment of a national minimum standard for a l l Canadians, service-man and ci v i l i a n , young and old. It is interesting to note that the con-sideration of the service-man is the hub around which the wheel of reconstruction was f i r s t formed, and now is turning. Also, while i t is true that the rehabilitation of veterans must proceed simul-taneously with the general re-?establishment of a l l those who are solely engaged in wartime industrial activity, the welfare of the former i s of f i r s t consideration. To the service man on his return to c i v i l l i f e we have a moral obligation. Talk as we may about the hardships and sacrifices of those on the home front, we a l l agree that the service man's contribution is by far the greater. This does not mean that the ones who have served in uniform should receive special privileges and reward. Moreover^ the majority of' service men- do not seek special considerations. They ask for the same privileges and train-ing opportunities as would have been theirs had they"honourably re-mained in c i v i l i a n l i f e while others put on the uniform. The whole question of c i v i l re-establishment of ex-members of the armed forces cannot be described comprehensively unless the following are understood: (1) What the Service man was like before entering the forces; (2) What the Service l i f e did to him. The next section of this chapter deals with these two matters, and leads logically to section 3, viz. , Problems of Returned Men. 2. The Veteran BefDre considering what the s o l d i e r was l i k e before h i s ind u c t i o n , the f i r s t great question to be s e t t l e d i s , What i s a Veteran? As i n the case of many words i n our language, there i s a wide v a r i a t i o n between a d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , the l e g a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n and popular o p i n i o n . For example, one d i c t i o n a r y s t a t e s that a veteran i s "One who has had long experience i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . " Another one says a veteran i s "One who has been long exercised i n war." Thus i t f o l l o w s from these d e f i n i t i o n s that a person may be discharged from the armed f o r c e s and not be c l a s s i f i e d as a veteran, because the experience may have been very short or the hardships and b a t t l e s of a campaign may not have been experienced. A d i c t i o n a r y t h e r e f o r e does not help very much i n t h i s matter. There are a few main cons i d e r a t i o n s i n connection w i t h the term "veteran." One i s that m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i s involved which i n t u r n means that there i s a sworn agreement under an oath of a l l e g i a n c e f o r a minimum period of s e r v i c e . Another i s that the s e r v i c e man i s u s u a l l y i n uniform, i n one of the three s e r v i c e s from which withdrawal cannot be made f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d u n l e s s r e l e a s e i s made by a u t h o r i t y . In c o n t r a s t , there are forms of s e r v i c e such as merchant n a v y ^ a i r r a i d c i v i l i a n defence, from which a person may withdraw at h i s o p t i o n . 10. Merchant Kavy personnel may q u a l i f y f o r pension by way of d i s a b i l i t y due t o enemy a c t i o n . This point of o b l i g a t i o n r u l e s out the ex-members of these s e r v i c e s from coming under the terms of l e g i s l a t i o n designed p r i m a r i l y f o r those who have served i n one of the three armed f o r c e s . A veteran therefore i s defined as a —. " 'discharged person' - - -. - who, subsequent t o June 30 1941 has been honourably discharged or r e t i r e d from or has honour-ably ceased to serve on a c t i v e s e r v i c e i n : ( i ) The Naval, M i l i t a r y , or A i r Forces of Canada, provided, w i t h respect to t h i s c l a s s , that such person was i n r e c e i p t of e i t h e r a c t i v e s e r v i c e r a t e s of pay or of Permanent Force r a t e s of pay while s e r v i n g i n the s a i d Forces during the present war, or, ( i i ) The Canadian Women's Army Corps, e s t a b l i s h e d by Order i n Cou n c i l P.G. 6289, dated August 13, 1941, or ( i i i ) The Royal Canadian A i r Force, (Women's D i v i s i o n ) , e s t a b l i s h e d by Order i n Co u n c i l P.O. 790, dated February 3, 1942, i n c l u d i n g t h i s Force when known as the Canadian Women's A u x i l i a r y A i r Force, or ( i v ) The Women's Royal Canadian Naval S e r v i c e , e s t a b l i s h e d by Order i n C o u n c i l P.O. 56/6755, dated 31st J u l y , 1942, or (v) The M i l i t a r y , Naval or A i r Forces of H i s Majesty other than H i s Majesty's Canadian Forces, provided, w i t h respect to t h i s c l a s s , that such person was domiciled i n Canada a t the time of h i s enlistment t h e r e i n i n the present wax.""'"'" 11. P.O. 5210, 13 J u l y 1944, ( O f f i c e Consolidation) ~ I n the Chapter f o l l o w i n g , the terms veteran, ex-service man, discharged member of the s e r v i c e s , are a l l used synonomously, and they include women, even when the masculine form i s used alone. T© the i n d u c t i o n centres come men and women w i t h every p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l equipment. I n the medical examination that f o l l o w s the physique i s checked very c l o s e l y w i t h the r e s u l t that men or women showing any weaknesses are not taken i n t o the s e r v i c e s . A c t u a l l y then, as f a r as the p h y s i c a l equipment i s concerned, the se r v i c e men and women are hand picked. This, however, i s not e n t i r e l y t r u e as f a r as the p s y c h o l o g i c a l equipment i s concerned. I n contrast t o a p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y which i s e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l handicap of the same degree of seriousness i n respect to s u c c e s s f u l adjustment t o m i l i t a r y l i f e , i s very o f t e n impossible t o recognise. As a r e s u l t , thousands of men and women have been inducted i n t o the s e r v i c e s who are pss^ehologically u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s t;ype of experience, w i t h the consequence t h a t thousands of these same people have been r e j e c t e d before they have progressed very f a r i n t h e i r m i l i t a r y c a r e ers. A p s y c h o l o g i c a l handicap makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r a s e r v i c e man t o e f f e c t h i s adjustment to Service l i f e . H i s acquired behaviour pat t e r n s , i f unhealthy, c o n s t i t u t e one r e a l handicap of t h i s k i n d . Unless these patterns are unlearned, adjustment may be p a i n f u l or even impossible. Another handicap i s emotional immaturity and since there i s a goodly percentage of adolescents and persons i n t h e i r -10-post adolescent stages of mental development i n the s e r v i c e s , there are many thousands who f o r t h i s reason experience d i f f i c u l t i e s i n harmonizing w i t h the demands of m i l i t a r y l i v i n g . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s matter of emotional m a t u r i t y has profound repercussions on readjustment to c i v i l i a n l i f e a f t e r discharge. Behaviour patterns and a degree of emotional m a t u r i t y are only two of the many a r t i c l e s of equipment that every s o l d i e r takes with him. Jus t because they are u n d i s c e r n i b l e t o the eye does not l e s s e n t h e i r importance as t o l l s t h a t make an adjustment to m i l i t a r y l i f e easy or hard. Along w i t h these two main a r t i c l e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l equipment are others that a l s o determine the degree of ease w i t h which adaptation t o s e r v i c e l i f e i s e f f e c t e d . These are: (1) i n t e l l i g e n c e ; (2)aggressiveness or p a s s i v i t y ; (3) a b i l i t y of the nervous system to stand s t r a i n s ; (4) co-ordinating, power of the nervous system; (5) temperament; and (6) c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . I f a s o l d i e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l equipment contains a r t i c l e s of m a t u r i t y , outgoinghess and f l e x i b i l i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s adjustment to s e r v i c e l i f e w i l l not be too arduous. On the other hand, i f i t contains unhealthy p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s such as immaturity, hypersensitiveness and e c c e n t r i c i t i e s , t r o u b l e i n adaptation i s bound t o ensues. I n the c r o s s - s e c t i o n of men and women en t e r i n g the fo r c e s there are a l l degrees of ease of adjustment t o t h i s new l i f e . I t i s important t o note that no matter what k i n d of p s y c h o l o g i c a l equipment a c i v i l i a n takes i n t o the f o r c e s w i t h him, the new l i f e does something t o th a t -11-equipmeirt. Now what i s the impact of t h i s new l i f e and what i s the r e s u l t of i t ? F i r s t of a l l the r e c r u i t goes through an a t t e s t a t i o n which takes the form of a n • a f f i d a v i t to sworn p a r t i c u l a r s of age, place of b i r t h , pre-enlistment h i s t o r y , and s i m i l a r matters. The r e c a u i t engages to serve f o r a period of not l e s s than one year, provided His Majesty should so r e q u i r e h i s s e r v i c e s . He i s than "—- inducted, clothed, f e d , housed, paid, t r a i n e d and kept under s u p e r v i s i o n by a. c a r e f u l l y graded h i e r a r c h y operating w i t h a r t i c u l a t e d r o u t i n e and es t a b l i s h e d procedures under a code of law which permits punishment f o r offences not con-sidered crimes i n c i v i l l i f e . He i s g i v e n a number and d e t a i l s of major i n c i d e n t s i n h i s l i f e are now recorded c a r e f u l l y . He i s i n o c u l a t e d , vaccinated and re c e i v e s p e r i o d i c a l medical i n s p e c t i o n , and t o refuse would render him l i a b l e to t r i a l f o r an offence under m i l i t a r y law. H i s time i s no longer h i s own. He i s given t a s k s , put on parade, d r i l l e d ; i m p l i c i t obedience i s demanded and i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n t e r d i c t e d ; escape i s d e s e r t i o n punishable by m i l i t a r y c o u r t . He l i v e s i n a group and must l e a r n to become part of that group, t r a i n e d t o accept t h e i r support and give h i s i n emergency i n u n i t a c t i v i t y . H i s m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l welfare are provided f o r , and adv i s e r s , experts and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s are made a v a i l a b l e -a l l s t r i c t l y on a p a t t e r n which keeps the command i n c o n t r o l , -12-and channels i n a graded l i n e from g r e a t e r to l e s s e r rank. He must c h e e r f u l l y accept h i s rank and h i s s o c i a l status i s determined by i t . W hilst he may be c a l l e d a p r i v a t e , h i s l i f e i s now an open book.,. His conduct and bearing are now subject to the c l o s e s t s c r u t i n y - h i s person i s not immune from i n j u n c t i o n s as to c l e a n l i n e s s , hygiene and care. Even the d e t a i l as t o beards and h a i r c u t s i s r i g i d . K i t s , boots, buttons, badges, set of cap, r i f l e , equipment a l l may be occasion f o r rebuke, commendation, or re-arrangement. This m e t i c u l o s i t y of p r o h i b i t i o n , these admonitions and exhor-t a t i o n s aim at conditioned r e f l e x e s Q.f a l e r t a t t e n t i o n , prompt discharge of d u t i e s assigned, and w i l l i n g acceptance of orders however disagreeable. The r e a c t i o n to emergency must be standardized and automatic The s e r v i c e man must be ready to go wherever sent and to f i g h t when c a l l e d upon, and i f unlucky d i e under very hard c o n d i t i o n s ....... The channel ot complaint i s provided f o r . The p r o v i s i o n of a l l p h y s i c a l needs, the c h a p l a i n and welfare s e r v i c e s , the periods of leave, the sense of doing a r e a l job, the comradeship, the constant changes and movement, ... - these t h i n g s , together w i t h the f a c t t h a t , i n time, the yoke of d i s c i p l i n e becomes e a s i e r , make m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e not unbearable t o most and f r a n k l y , i n some of i t s aspects, enjoyable to some."-*-^  12. p.6, Robert England, "Discharged," Macmillan, Toronto, 1943. -13-A u t h o r i t i e s i n the v a r i o u s branches of the Services point out that a long c a r e f u l l y - p l a n n e d c o n d i t i o n i n g course i s required t o make a s o l d i e r out of a c i v i l i a n . On h i s entry i n t o s e r v i c e l i f e he must unlearn most of h i s old" h a b i t s and l e a r n new ways' of walking, t a l k i n g , t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g . He a l s o has to surrender most of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y and becomes a small cog i n a l a r g e machine. P o s s i b l y most se r i o u s of a l l he surrenders n e a r l y a l l h i s c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s and at the same time he i s r e l i e v e d of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F or example, he can spend h i s month's pay the day he gets i t and s t i l l be assured of a place to eat and sleep f o r the r e s t of the month. The army, navy or a i r f o r c e pay h i s b i l l s , take care of h i s f a m i l y , l o o k a f t e r h i s h e a l t h and even arrange most of h i s amusements. The Service man must ther e f o r e make adjustments t o : (1) l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y (2) the separation from former l i v i n g h a b i t s (3) loss, of accustomed i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and (4) l o s s of the freedom of c i v i l i a n l i f e I f he makes the adjustment then the r i g o r s of t r a i n i n g become e a s i e r and s e r v i c e l i f e becomes t o l e r a b l e . The s e r v i c e man soon i d e n t i f i e s h imself w i t h the group because t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n means emotional s e c u r i t y - an; important p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r , but i t i s e s s e n t i a l that he f e e l that he has achieved t h i s "belongingness" i n order t h a t compensation f o r the l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y be r e a l i s e d . So constant i s the impact of t h i s new l i f e that soon the memory of c i v i l i a n -14-l i f e becomes hazy, and' f o r those w i t h a long ••service re cord.,memory trac e s tend to become n i l . Since a l l the energies and thoughts are d i r e c t e d toward the grim business of k i l l i n g and d e s t r u c t i o n , any-t h i n g e l s e seems t r i f l i n g and unimportant. A l l t h i s means that a man or woman who has been exposed t o the c o n d i t i o n i n g process of making a s o l d i e r out of a c i v i l i a n f o r any len g t h of time i s a changed person. Re-entry i n t o c i v i l i a n l i f e must be accompanied by re - c o n d i -t i o n i n g as c a r e f u l l y planned and as thoroughly c a r r i e d out as the process followed i n making a s e r v i c e man out of a c i v i l i a n . This leads t o a d i s c u s s i o n of some of the commoner problems f a c i n g s e r v i c e men and women on t h e i r r e t u r n t o c i v i l l i f e . AFTER DISCHARGE • Every s e r v i c e man who has been absent from home f o r any l e n g t h of time i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d on home coming. The cherished dream f o s t e r e d while i n the f o r c e s was i d e a l i z e d and the r e t u r n c o n s t i t u t e s a severe j a r back to r e a l i t y . Many f r i e n d s have matured, others have t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r l o y a l t i e s , and some have evaporated. The f a m i l y f o r g e t s that the s o l d i e r has changed i n many ways and tends t o t r e a t him i n the same way as before. Wives and c h i l d r e n have become accustomed t o g e t t i n g along without the head of the house, and so the returned s o l d i e r tends to f e e l t h a t he i s not a necessary part of the heme. There are other d i f f i c u l t i e s on home coming. A c e r t a i n -15-resentment at having to leave the s e r v i c e s brings, on an a t t i t u d e of temporary mil d depression. S e l f d i s c i p l i n e has been f o r g o t t e n to some estent along w i t h an un w i l l i n g n e s s t o take the f u l l personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Fear of-the f u t u r e , shyness i n a group of c i v i l i a n s , consciousness of having to c o n t r o l p o s s i b l e language v u l g a r i t y are some of the f a c t o r s t h a t make r e - e n t r y i n t o the r o l e of a c i v i M a n d i f f i c u l t . As i n the adjustment t o m i l i t a r y l i f e , t h i s re-adjustment back to c i v i l l i f e i s easy f o r some and hard f o r others. Moreover these adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s have an e f f e c t not only on the veteran but a l s o on h i s f a m i l y , h i s f r i e n d s and the community. A .well planned r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . p r o g r a m must be based on the fundamental p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s that surround adjustment pro-cesses. Many worth while e n t e r p r i s e s f a i l e n t i r e l y f o r t h i s reason. Men i n charge f a i l t o see w i t h c l a r i t y the t r u e o b j e c t i v e s and do not understand how the means employed are r e l a t e d to these o b j e c t i v e s . Le5 us, t h e r e f o r e , make-a statement of the o b j e c t i v e s of an i d e a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program according t o a l i s t prepared by Dr. W i l l a r d Waller, a s s o c i a t e p r o f e s s o r at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York. "(1) To re s t o r e the veteran t o the competitive p o s i t i o n which he would have o c c u p i e d i f he had never been c a l l e d f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . (2) To r e i n s t a t e him i n the communicative process of society?: making him a c i v i l i a n once more, w i t h the knowledge, i n t e r e s t s , h a b i t s , and sentiments of a c i v i M a n . -16-(3) To encourage and help him to overcome any handicap, p h y s i c a l or mental, which he may have i n c u r r e d as a r e s u l t of s e r v i c e . (4) To a s s i s t him t o -take h i s place once more i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of community, s t a t e , and n a t i o n . (5) ' To help and encourage him t o overcome a t t i t u d e s of b i t t e r n e s s and antagonism, and t o e s t a b l i s h a normal and rewarding r e l a t i o n w i t h f a m i l y , church, and community."^ I t i s obvious then t h a t the work of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n v o l v e s the f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , church, community, the government, and any other group w i t h which the veteran w i l l come i n t o contact. In e f f e c t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n these o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d above should always be kept i n mind, and at a l l times attempts should be made to devise means of reaching these ends. Any agency d e a l i n g w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of veterans must s t r i v e towards t o t a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . For example, the governmental department i n charge of p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g must make sure that•the r e s u l t s of every i n t e r v i e w , together w i t h any moves made on behalf of the veteran w i l l d e f i n i t e l y help the veteran t o make a permanent and s a t i s f y i n g adjustment to the l i f e of a c i v i l i a n . C i t i z e n committees must make sure that t h e i r e f f o r t s are founded on d e f e n s i b l e 13. p.259 - W i l l a r d W a l l e r . The Veteran comes back. Dryden press New York:::.: 1944. • • * . » -17-p r i n c i p l e s governing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e l s e harm w i l l r e s u l t . People at l a r g e must l e a r n t h a t veterans have problems; not - th a t veterans are problems. To sum up, a s u c c e s s f u l approach to the whole question of veteran re-establishment l i e s i n knowledge of the veteran's problems, the aim of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and the und e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s government the readjustment process. aiPLQYMENT AH) TBAINDT& Hot one of the veteran's problems can be solved unless he has s a t i s f a c t o r y employment. " S e l f support i s e s s e n t i a l to s e l f - r e s p e c t ; holding a job i s one of the c e n t r a l d i s c i p l i n e s that g i v e backbone to our l i v e s . The job i t s e l f i s the source of many of our s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary t o f i n d jobs f o r a l l veterans who are able and w i l l i n g to work."-^ This by i t s e l f sounds simple, but the p i c t u r e i s f a r more complicated. In post-war years i f jobs are obtained f o r veterans while thousands of war workers are unemployed, the l a b o r market w i l l cause an upset that w i l l e f f e c t the veteran who w i l l not q u i e t l y s i t by and watch others s u f f e r p r i v a t i o n . At the present time many i n Canada are very p e s s i m i s t i c 14. p.278. o p . c i t . - W a l l e r . -IB-regarding f u l l employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s even a f t e r the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d during which some unemployment i s expected. However, one point remains c r y s t a l c l e a r , and that i s , our economic system must f u n c t i o n so that there w i l l be jobs enough f o r a l l , veteran and c i v i l i a n a l i k e . I f such f u n c t i o n i n g i s not p o s s i b l e , a c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n a f f e c t i n g a l l Canadian people w i l l r e s u l t . I n t h i s connection an i n t e r e s t i n g and e n l i g h t e n i n g survey1*-5 was made i n 1943 by Dr. G.MiWearf, former D i r e c t o r of T r a i n i n g i n the Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . 1 6 "The survey i s an e f f o r t , by such means as (were) a v a i l a b l e , t o assess f u t u r e p o s s i -b i l i t i e s w i t h regard t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s rfahat may be a v a i l a b l e f o r members of the armed f o r c e s t o f i n d u s e f u l careers f o r themselves i n 17 Canada i n the post-war p e r i o d . " Dr. Weir approached the problem of a n a l y z i n g occupational o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n an o b j e c t i v e manner, hence h i s f i n d i n g s , taken l i g h t l y by c e r t a i n press h o s t i l e t o the Dominion Government, are now recognized as being reasonably accurate. According t o h i s f i n d i n g s there w i l l be i n the v i c i n i t y of 1,462,500 a d d i t i o n a l jobs f o r men and women i n Canada a f t e r the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . This f i g u r e r e -presents the minimum number of a v a i l a b l e jobs, and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g 15. The Survey was w r i t t e n up i n the form of an I n t e r i m r e p o r t , and was, t h e r e f o r e , not published. At Dec. 1 1943 only three copies are i n e x i s t e n c e . 16. Since 1944 t h i s Department has been known as the Department of Veterans' A f f a i l ' s . 17. P. 1, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, No.l, S p e c i a l Committee on Reconstruction & Re-establishment,-House of Commons, 1944. -19-to note that t h i s number i s i n keeping w i t h the estimated post-war job requirements of 4,700,000 published i n '^Canadian A f f a i r s " on October 1, 1944. 1 8 Also i n the surrey, primary a t t e n t i o n i s given t o the sub-j e c t of t r a i n i n g , c h i e f l y because i t i s the keynote of the government's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p o l i c y . Preparing the f i t f o r jobs as w e l l as the u n f i t c o n s t i t u t e s an i n t e g r a l part of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of veterans. A person i s termed u n f i t i f he i s unprepared f o r the kind of employ-ment necessary t o make the most f r u i t f u l use of h i s inherent c a p a c i t i e s . This i s why the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program f o r Canadian veterans in c l u d e s not only the d i s a b l e d but a l s o those who have the c a p a c i t y t o acquire t r a i n i n g f o r a more s k i l l e d and more remunerative c l a s s of work. I t i s on t h i s matter of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r veterans t h a t a t t e n t i o n i s now focussed. I n t h i s study of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, d e t a i l s w i l l show that i n the a t t a c k on the problem of " f i t t i n g the u n f i t f o r jobs" much care has been taken i n basing the whole p l a n on the sound p r i n c i - .. p l e s j o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and re-establishment. I t i s v i t a l and necessary t o ensure sound p r o v i s i o n f o r the veteran i n respect to h i s s e r v i c e experience, and h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s on r e t u r n i n g to c i v i l l i f e . The f o l l o w i n g chapters show th a t a l l these fundamental f a c t s upon which any s u c c e s s f u l veteran t r a i n i n g scheme must be based, have been, f u l l y considered and are now being put i n t o p r a c t i c e . 18. P.7, Marsh, L.C., F i r e s t o n e , O.J., op. c i t . -20-PART 1 ,: „ BAQKJ3-R0U1D, STUDIES. Page Chapter 2. H i s t o r i c a l background 21 Chapter 3. Leading t o P.G. 5210 and the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act 35 Chapter 4. P.O. 5210 45 -21-' CHAPTER 11 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND An account of any chosen aspect of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would be incomplete without considering the h i s t o r y of developments w i t h regard to war veterans f o l l o w i n g World Ylar 1. The experiences of demobiliza-t i o n and re-absorption i n t o c i v i l l i f e of the members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force which served i n 1914-18, have l e f t an i n d e l i b l e mark i n Canadian h i s t o r y . Events, p o l i c i e s , and d i f f i c u l t i e s since World War 1 have had a profound e f f e c t on p u b l i c opinion, the adminis-t r a t i o n of veterans' a f f a i r s , and l e g i s l a t i o n designed to meet the need of veterans. In one chapter i t i s impossible to go deeply i n t o the h i s t o r y of veteran re-establishment i n Canada. Therefore, t h i s account must n e c e s s a r i l y be an attempt t o " h i g h - l i g h t " s i g n i f i c a n t items which have a bearing on present r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problems. When the question of veteran care f i r s t arose during the years 1914-18, the v o i c e of inexperience was l o u d l y heard i n the utterance of such elaborate and high-sounding statements as: "Canada • • ' v a i s going t o be c o u n t r y / f i t f o r heroes to l i v e i n , " and "Our heroes deserve the best." I n f a c t , most Canadians thought t h a t w i t h very l i t t l e expenditure of e f f o r t the returned s o l d i e r s would be able t o enjoy the f r u i t s of t h e i r s a c r i f i c e . But despite a l l good i n t e n t i o n s , Canada was not equipped to r e c e i v e her veterans. . While general -22-p o l i c i e s were f a i r l y d e f i n i t e , many h a s t i l y conceived plans were put i n t o a c t i o n , and, as a r e s u l t , they f e l l s adly short of the desired mark. The . M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission June 1915, saw the establishment of the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission by Order-in-Gouncil.^ This body undertook the h o s p i t a l i z a -t i o n of wounded and d i s a b l e d men. L a t e r i n the same year the powers of t h i s group were extended so t h a t property necessary f o r adequate h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n could be rented or leased, and c o n t r o l over the manage-ment of a l l h o s p i t a l s was granted t o the Commission. Gradually . the use of many buildings.and p r o p e r t i e s across Canada were secured, some rent f r e e , and i n January 1916, a V o c a t i o n a l Secretary was appointed because t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s were inaugurated i n the h o s p i t a l s . The Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment I t became i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent t h a t the M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission could not handle a l l the a f f a i r s of returned men and so a new arrangement was necessary. Accordingly, i n February 1918, the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment was created. The M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l s Commission was absorbed i n t o t h i s new department and was then known as the I n v a l i d e d S o l d i e r s ' Commission, r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o the M i n i s t e r of the new department. Organization was complete under a Deputy M i n i s t e r and 1. P.C. 1540. -23-included o f f i c e r s i n charge of a l l branches of the work of re-estab-lishment, such as, Medical S e r v i c e s , V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Orthopaedic and S u r g i c a l Supplies, Information and Se r v i c e , Equipment and Supplies, Dietetics.andExpenditures. -In short, the department was connected w i t h everything that concerned the veteran. Granting h o s p i t a l t r e a t -ment, conducting pensions examinations, f i n d i n g employment, arranging f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and paying f u n e r a l expenses were some of the 2 fun c t i o n s of the D.S.G.E. For o r g a n i z a t i o n purposes, Canada was d i v i d e d i n t o ten u n i t s , "A" to "K", wi t h headquarters at Montreal, H a l i f a x , Kingston, Toronto, Guelph, Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary, Vancouver and F r e d e r i e t o n respect-i v e l y . At each u n i t headquarters there was an A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , a D i s t r i c t V o c a t i o n a l O f f i c e r , and a U n i t Medical O f f i c e r w i t h necessary s t a f f s . I n d u s t r i a l R e t r a i n i n g Before discharge, a s o l d i e r was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Department of M i l i t i a and N a t i o n a l Defence, but a f t e r h i s release from s e r v i c e , the D.S.G.E. assumed a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - f o r l i f e d u r ation i f necessary. Every man discharged from the Canadian Forces who was 3 a minor, o r who recei v e d a d i s a b i l i t y which prevented h i s r e t u r n to 2. A b b r e v i a t i o n used f o r the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-estab-lishment 3. A person who e n l i s t e d before h i s eighteenth b i r t h d a y . -24-h i s previous occupation was e n t i t l e d t o r e t r a i n i n g , f r e e of charge, i n a trade or pro f e s s i o n of h i s own choice. By an arrangement w i t h the Department of M i l i t i a and N a t i o n a l Defence, a standing order was issued that no s o l d i e r could r e c e i v e discharge papers before a c e r t i f i c a t e was furnished that he had been interviewed by a representative of the D.S.G.R. to determine whether he would need or would be l i k e l y t o need i n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n i n g . I f a veteran claimed that he was unable to do h i s previous work,' a Medical O f f i c e r had t o v e r i f y t h i s contention. However, i f a man was e l i g i b l e f o r a course i n r e t r a i n i n g no coercion was used to fo r c e him to do so contrary t o h i s wishes. I n general, the plan of procedure was as f o l l o w s . An a p p l i c a t i o n f o r V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g or I n d u s t r i a l R e t r a i n i n g was placed before the Disabled S o l d i e r s ' T r a i n i n g Board. This body was composed of the D i s t r i c t V o c a t i o n a l O f f i c e r , or h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a medical o f f i c e r and three o r f o u r members of an advisory committee, one of which was.a repre s e n t a t i v e of the work chosen by the a p p l i c a n t . I f the Board passed the a p p l i c a t i o n a conference was arranged between the i n t e r -viewer, the veteran, and the t r a i n i n g employer o r i n s t r u c t o r , as the case might .be. The T r a i n i n g Board had the power t o extend or d i s -continue a man's t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . I t was the p o l i c y of the D.S.G.I, to r e t a i n only returned men as int e r v i e w e r s , a sound idea from a l l viewpoints. During such r e t r a i n i n g p eriod the Government provided through the D.S.G.R. a maintenance allowance f o r the veteran, h i s -25-f a m i l y or dependents. S i n g l e men received $60.00 per month, and married men #85.00 per month, w i t h a d d i t i o n a l increases f o r c h i l d r e n up to $110.00. The i n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n i n g was c a r r i e d on i n u n i v e r -s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , t e c h n i c a l 'and a g r i c u l t u r a l schoolSj and i n i n d u s t r y throughout the Dominion. These i n s t i t u t i o n s were of three c l a s s e s : (1) Department or " i n s i d e " schools; (2) "outside" schools, such as business c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ; and |3) i n d u s t r i a l establishments. P r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g under a c t u a l shop c o n d i t i o n s i n the p l a n t of l e a d -ing manufacturers was given i n conjunction w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l work of the c l a s s e s . Opinions d i f f e r regarding the r e s u l t s of the I n d u s t r i a l R e t r a i n i n g p l a n . N a t u r a l l y no one i s so rash as to a f f i r m that the r e s u l t s of the experiment met the expectations of i t s sponsors. Reasons f o r t h i s were m u l t i p l e and v a r i e d . Nor can i t be s a i d that i t was a complete f a i l u r e . General success i n such endeavours cannot be measured i n terms of the numbers of completed courses, but i n terms of what the r e s u l t would have been i f t r a i n i n g had not been g i v e n . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s 4 present a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n . . Employed as t r a i n e d .... 63.96% of a l l who took t r a i n i n g . Employed otherwise 24.99% of a l l who took t r a i n i n g . 4. p.29, Report of the Veterans' A s s i s t a n t s Commission, Veterans' Assist a n c e Commission of Canada, 1937, Ottawa. -26-T o t a l employed .88.95% Presumed employed ... 5.95% F a i l u r e s , s i c k , deceased, or gone T o t a l 100.00% 43,357 men were t r a i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t trades or were given the b e n e f i t of high school and u n i v e r s i t y courses f o r a pe r i o d of one year. T o t a l Dominion Expenditure i n r e t r a i n i n g plan #27,838,420.61. Average cost per man $642.07. Curative Workshops and 7/ard Occupations Besides managing the I n d u s t r i a l R e t r a i n i n g of Disabled Veterans, the D.S.G.R. made a v a i l a b l e two o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r men i n h o s p i t a l s . These were c a l l e d "Ward Occupations" and "Curative Workshops." The f i r s t was c u r a t i v e only and was intended t o help overcome i n s t i t u t i o j a l i s m by p r o v i d i n g some mental and p h y s i c a l exer-c i s e during the convalescent p e r i o d . G i r l s who wished to a s s i s t by working i n the h o s p i t a l s were g i v e n t r a i n i n g i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and a f t e r a p e r i o d of e i g h t tenths o r so were graduated as Ward A i d s . They were s t a t i o n e d i n nearly every h o s p i t a l where veterans were t r e a t e d , and were i d e n t i f i e d by the uniform of the Department. They were under the d i r e c t i o n of the Commanding O f f i c e r -27-of the h o s p i t a l and h i s doctors. Curative Workshops, the second of the b e n e f i t s provided f o r h o s p i t a l i z e d p a t i e n t s , were attached t o every m i l i t a r y and departmental h o s p i t a l i n Canada, and were administered and c o n t r o l l e d by the D.S.G.R. . This p r o v i s i o n was f o r convalescent p a t i e n t s who were able to leave the wards f o r short periods. The work i n these shops was heavier than i n the Ward Occupation. Choice of occupations was very extensive, as may r e a d i l y be seen by the f o l l o w i n g l i s t : S i g n w r i t i n g , steam engineering, music, stenography, e l e c t r i c i t y , commercial, weaving, barbering, woodworkingj telegraphy, and many others t o t a l l i n g approximately twenty-six were given to those who wished t o take p a r t . Work along any chosen l i n e provided mental stimulus to overcome depression, and very o f t e n i n d i c a t e d a man's a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r a f u t u r e occupation. Since the work was mainly c u r a t i v e , i t was the doctor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p r e s c r i b e i t i f needed. No attempt was made to complete any t r a i n i n g s t a r t e d , unless of course the veteran on discharge e l e c t e d to continue i n the same l i n e of work a f t e r e n r o l l i n g i n I n d u s t r i a l R e t r a i n i n g . By the end of 1921, the D.S.C.R. was past i t s peak as f a r as d e a l i n g w i t h V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g was concerned... S t a f f reductions became necessary as general a c t i v i t i e s lessened. From the beginning the D.S.C.R. had been used as a temporary set-up t o cover the emergency of d e m o b i l i z a t i o n , and as the years passed the h e a l t h of the veterans became of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e and importance than t r a i n i n g or placement. -28-Thus, i n 1928, the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment became known as the Department of Pensions'and N a t i o n a l Health, w i t h powers t o handle a l l cases of veteran c i v i l re-establishment. The Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health e x i s t e d u n t i l June 1944. On that date the Departaient of Veterans A f f a i r s was formed to take i t s p l a c e . Pensions Along w i t h the problems of preparing d i s a b l e d veterans f o r c i v i l l i f e by g i v i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , was the matter of pensions. I t was hot u n t i l 1921 that the D.S.C.R. was put i n charge of the administering of pensions. A b r i e f survey of the pension a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a f t e r the l a s t World War i s of i n t e r e s t f o r i t shows once again that there i s very l i t t l e that i s new i n t h i s matter of veteran re-establishment. / In June 1916, the Board of Pension Commissioners was appointed. This Board administered the Pensions Act of 1916, and decided on a l l matters of pension settlement. I n 1918 the o r i g i n a l Pensions Act was amended by Order-in-Gouncil. This amendment forms the b a s i s of the present Pensions A c t . . Although the Pension Board became part of the D.S.C.R. on January 1 1921^, t h i s body continued to e x i s t and f u n c t i o n as before. 5. P.O. 2936. A f t e r the•Ralston Report of 1924> a Federal Appeal Board was formed which had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of passing judgment on o l d pension cases, t h i s Appeal Board functioned u n t i l 1930, handling during that time a l l appeal cases from the Board, of Pensions Commissioner. I n 1930, the Appeal Board was abolished and a Pensions T r i b u n a l was set up, which h e l d meetings across Canada w i t h the power t o handle new cases i n a d d i t i o n J!o d e a l i n g w i t h o l d appeals. So a s s i s t the .Tribunal i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of claims, a Veterans' Bureau was formed i n each d i s t r i c t , MA" t o "E", while the Crown provided a Commission C o u n c i l and cases f o r the a p p l i c a n t , In 1933 the Pension T r i b u n a l and Crown C o u n c i l were abolished by amendment, and up to 1939, hearings were conducted by two members of the Canadian Pensions' Commissioners. The Veterans' Bureau s t i l l continued t o a i d any a p p l i c a n t i n the pr e p a r a t i o n of h i s case, and made arrangements f o r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n before e i t h e r the Commission or the Appeal Board. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Pensions has taken the r e s u l t of a quarter of a century's experience. Here again i s c l e a r evidence t h a t the present war i s merely,a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the previous s t r u g g l e even t o the extent of the machinery and measures. -50-Land Settlement To round out the general p i c t u r e of the h i s t o r y of r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n i n Canada, a d e s c r i p t i o n of land settlement i s necessary. At f i r s t the Department of the I n t e r i o r had c o n t r o l of S o l d i e r S e t t l e -ment on the l a n d , but l a t e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was handed over t o the Department of Mines and Resources. Opportunity f o r s e t t l i n g on land was granted t o any veteran, able Qr d i s a b l e d . The o r i g i n a l S o l d i e r Settlement Act of 1917 was predicated on the assumption that there -were f r e e s u i t a b l e Dominion lands. This premise has turned out t o . be unsound, as such lands were n e i t h e r a c c e s s i b l e to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n nor s u i t a b l e i n other regards. Accordingly, the o r i g i n a l Act was amended g i v i n g the S o l d i e r Settlement Board power t o purchase land f o r settlement. Operations began March 1919 i n connection w i t h t h i s work of purchasing and a l l o t i n g lands, w i t h a s t a f f of l e s s than two hundred persons f o r the whole Dominion. / This number g r a d u a l l y i n -creased u n t i l i n June 19E0 the s t a f f t o t a l l e d 1,594. The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s show why the S o l d i e r Settlement undertaking a f t e r l a s t war has aroused so much c r i t i c i s m . By March 31 1940, out of approximately 25,000 who had taken advantage of land o p p o r t u n i t i e s between 1918 and 1921, the s i t u a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : Remaining on lan d o r i g i n a l l y chosen 8,.118 Pai d o f f loans from the Government ....... 2,750 Sold out e q u i t i e s 884 Abandoned scheme ........................15,041 _____ : p a s s i m . n r, Gordon W u r c l i i s o n Director oi S o l i i e r S e t t l e m e n t , S p e c i a l Committee on Land S e t t l e m e n t oi V e t e r a n s oi t h e P r e s e n t W a r , M i n u t e s oi P r o c e e d -*/a|S and. E v i d e n c e , No. Z } T k u r S c t a - y , .May 14, 1 S 4 Z . -31-O r i g i h a l C a p i t a l Investment ...-*............... *'» .f 1G9,034,331 T o t a l r e c o v e r i e s from' o r i g i n a l advances #65,640,518 Beeoverable value of loans (appr02c,) 30,000,000 Gross recovery 95,640,518 C a p i t a l l o s s .............................. £$>13,393,813 Administration. (1918-1941) ..... .V..-... .-............. $25,910,495' The f a c t that over h a l f of the 25,000 o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s abandoned the scheme e i t h e r v o l u n t a r i l y or by n o t i c e does not mean tha t a l l these t h i r t e e n thousand-'failed i n the land settlement venture,. Many l e f t the country f o r i n d u s t r i a l work i n the c i t i e s , which was p l e n t i f u l between 1920 and 1929. Other f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to wastage of e f f o r t and to the i n a b i l i t y of many to make a success were: (1) Lack of t r a i n e d s t a f f i n settlement operations; (2) I n f l a t i o n a r y p r i c e s at the time s o l d i e r s were s e t t l i n g on the l a n d ; (3) high i n t e r e s t r a t e on loans making the burden of debt very great; (4) settlement.on the P r a i r i e s , representing about seventy per cent of a l l was d i f f i c u l t due to drought and market f l u c t u a t i o n s i n g r a i n p r i c e s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s showed c o n c l u s i v e l y that a new approach must be found f o r the whole problem. Accordingly, the General:Advisory Committee oh Land Settlement developed proposals which were l a t e r incorporated i n t o the new Veterans' Land Act-, While t h i s Act passed 6 « See Chapt e r'111. -32-i n 1942 i s undoubtedly a great improvement on.the S o l d i e r Settlement plan, i t remains to be seen whether i t w i l l be a success or not when i t i s put i n t o operation. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS PRIDE TO 1959 Between 1924 and 1959 two main developments r e l a t i n g t o the welfare of veterans took place. The f i r s t was the report of the R a l s t o n Commission which drew a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t that veterans who had undergone the e x e r t i o n and s t r a i n of s e r v i c e were pre-aged to an extent that i t c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s a b i l i t y . The second was the a c t i o n of the Canadian Legion at i t s 1929 Regina Convention i n u r g i n g the Govern-ment t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r the men who s u f f e r e d premature; breakdown or who were "burnt-out" as a r e s u l t of t h e i r war experience. As a r e s u l t of these two e f f o r t s the War Veterans' Allow-ance Act was passed i n 1930. The act was administered by the War Veterans Allowance Board which was empowered to pay allowances to any veteran of s i x t y years or o l d e r i f there were d i s a b i l i t i e s t hat rendered him unemployable. The depression years of the t h i r t i e s bore h e a v i l y on the veteran and showed that something more than mere f i n a n c i a l help was needed i n order t h a t veterans u n f i t f o r work could be t r a i n e d f o r s u i t a b l e employment, and t h a t jobs be found f o r others who were out of work. The Veterans' A s s i s t a n c e Commission of 1956 i n v e s t i g a t e d and took a c t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n the formation of' committees i n the C H A R T 1. SETOAL ADMINISTRATION D.S.C.R, became the ) Department of Pensionsjf--and national Health. ) A* Dep. of Soldier C i v i l ) Re-establishment )< farmed M. H. C. absorbed) 4v CHART SHDWINC DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH VETERAN CARE FROM 1915-1939. Military Hospitals)* Commissions ) PENSIONS Canadian Pensions) Commission took. )<— charge. ) I I Pension's Tribunal) formed k — Federal Appeal) Board formed H~ < Pensions earns -fVunder Control«--of D.S.C.R. A T I I Board of Pension Commissions — formed 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1926 1924 1923 1922 1921 19 20 1919 1917 ivi IS 1-914 WELFARE ffl. V. A. Act - -> amended W. V. A. Aot ~* amended LAND 'Veterans ^Assistance ?i Commission War Veterans —?Allowanc e Aot passed The Ralston -^Commission and Report Soldier Land Settle-ment Board started functioning under ->D. of Land later under D. of M. & R. KEY: War Prosperity Depression -33-l a r g e r c i t i e s t o a s s i s t veterans and t o encourage employers to give them work. I n other places small holdings were s t a r t e d , probationary t r a i n i n g stimulated, and s u i t a b l e jobs f o r d i s a b l e d and o l d e r veterans were found. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s Commission r e s u l t e d i n two amendments i n 1936 and 1938, t o the War Veterans' Allowance Act of 1930. These amendments gave a i d to veterans over f i f t y - f i v e who, owing t o pre-aging coupled w i t h d i s a b i l i t i e s , were unable to m a i n t a i n themselves. CONCLUSIONS No matter now much Canada's f i r s t attempt at veteran r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n i s berated, \?e must concede t h a t as a f i r s t attempt i t had many commendable features and was s u r p r i s i n g l y w e l l executed. From the veterans' point of view, p r o v i s i o n f o r pension, land, and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was f l a t t e r i n g and the general o u t l e t s f o r t h i s i n t e r e s t was i n general pleasant and i n s t r u c t i v e . But now t h a t Canada i s again faced w i t h the problem of c a r i n g f o r over 800,000 veterans, the shortcomings of t h i s f i r s t attempt must be given f u l l considera-t i o n so t h a t there w i l l not be any r e p e t i t i o n of f a i l u r e . This time the veterans must be assured of g e t t i n g "more f o r h i s money" than he d i d twenty-five years ago. A l s o , because of the great s t r i d e s made i n v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l education i n the l a s t two and a h a l f decades, the veteran should d e r i v e proportionate b e n e f i t from these advances. Again the great increase i n s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge i n the -34-f i e l d s of-psychology, sociology, and mental hygiene, should render a l l agencies governmental and c i v i l i a n , more able t o meet the needs of veterans. A c t u a l l y , then, Canada's f i r s t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n attempt con-s t i t u t e s the basis of a challenge t o the people of today. Our a b i l i t y to p r o f i t by former e r r o r s , and to u t i l i z e a l l recent knowledge and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n the handling of t h i s g i g a n t i c problem w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the r e s u l t s of our e f f o r t s on the behalf of those d i s -charged from the Armed Forces. -35-CHAPTER 111 TRADING TO B. G. 5210 MED THE VOCATIONAL TMINING CO-ORDINATION ACT The growth, of the v a r i o u s Dominion Government agencies d e a l -ing w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and .re-establishment of World War 1 veterans was traced b r i e f l y i n the previous chapter. To review, between 1918 and 1921 the agencies that dealt w i t h the m a j o r i t y of s e r v i c e men:-In 1919, 1 the D.S.C.R's e n t i r e s t a f f numbered 8,121. By 1920 the s t a f f was enlarged t o approximately 9000. Likewise the s t a f f of the S o l d i e r Settlement Board increased from l e s s than 200 to 1,594 between March 1, 1919 and June 1920. The Board of Pension Commissioners, one of the e a r l i e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s designed t o deal w i t h ex-service men reached a t o t a l s t a f f of over 800 by 1920. Of course, these o r g a n i z a t i o n s reduced the number of employees when d e m o b i l i z a t i o n was complete, and so from 1920 on e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d i n f o l l o w i n g up p r e v i o u s l y presented cases. However, even w i t h the passage of time veterans* a f f a i r s continued to be of impor-tance throughout the twenties and t h i r t i e s up to the s t a r t of the pre-sent war. For example, i n 1937 the Veterans' Assistance Commission had t o reorganize and set i n a c t i o n some of the ventures of the c i v i l re-establishment of the post-war years, such as, workshops, probation-ary t r a i n i n g , loans f o r t o o l s and equipment, small holdings and a 2 vigorous employment campaign f o r veterans. In 1941, there were 12,850 1. p.9. Annual Report, Department of S.C.R., S e s s i o n a l Paper No.14, 10 George V - Al920. 2. p.107, England, Robert, Discharged, 1944. -36-veterans over s i x t y years of age r e c e i v i n g the allowance provided by the War Veterans Allowance Act of the same year. This short resume shows that Canada's experience i n veterans' a f f a i r s has been broad and continuous from the early- y e a r s of the World War of 1914-18. As a r e s u l t of the continuous experience there are many o f f i c e r s i n the forementioned governmental departments who possess an intimate knowledge of the problems of the re-establishment i n t o c i v i l l i f e of s e r v i c e men. The Canadian Legion and other ex-Service men or g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e w i s e have very i n t e r e s t e d and competent l e a d e r s . To these i n t e r e s t e d and earnest p a r t i e s goes much of the c r e d i t f o r an e a r l y attack on the problem of veteran r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r i s i n g out of the present war. They i n s i s t e d that s p e c i f i c and immediate a t t e n -t i o n be given the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problem by the Dominion Government. The f o l l o w i n g summary th e r e f o r e serves t o show the government's e a r l y and systematic a t t a c k on the problem, demonstrated i n the immediate formation of committees, and i n the r e s u l t i n g unprecedented l e g i s l a t i o n 1. DOMINION (TOvEMtMETO COMMITTEES \ f On December 8j 1939, a s p e c i a l committee of the Cabinet was formed t o consider the problems of d e m o b i l i z a t i o n and r e e s t a b l i s h -ment. I t co n s i s t e d o f the M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works, the M i n i s t e r of , N a t i o n a l Defence, the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , the M i n i s t e r of Labour, and the M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health as Chairman. 3. P.O. 4068 1/2. -37-By an Order-in-Gouncil dated August 10, 1940,an I n t e r -departmental General A d v i s o r y Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y of senior members of the C i v i l Service who had s p e c i a l ex-perience i n connection w i t h the ..problem. This committee began the formation of sub-committees, thus mapping out the whole question of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and. re-establishment. I n the autumn of 1941, the plans that were developed under, the d i r e c t i o n of the Cabinet Committee and Advisory Committee on Demobilization and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n were embodied i n a general Order-i n - G o u n c i l , P.C. 7633, which set f o r t h the s p e c i f i c arrangements a p p l i c a b l e to those, who were demobilized from the S e r v i c e s . The d e t a i l s of that programme, r e v i s e d l a t e r by P.O. 5210,are described i n the next chapter; but i t can be pointed out, i n summary, that the proposals f o r d e m o b i l i z a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n include a l l those pro-v i s i o n s t h a t are deemed necessary to q u a l i t y the veteran f o r g a i n f u l employment i n some appropriate peacetime occupation. By means of medieal and p h y s i c a l care, along w i t h v-ocational t r a i n i n g and r e -education, the discharged i n d i v i d u a l i s t o be equipped f o r a job. But t h i s p l a n d i d nothing t o ensure t h a t there would be employment f o r the v e t e r a n when he i s ready f o r employment. This l a t t e r f a c t l e d to the broadening of the terms of reference of the Cabinet Committee to incl u d e a l l phases of Recon-s t r u c t i o n . On September 2, 1941 4 a Committee on Reconstruction was 4. P.C. 6874 -38-formed of not more than s i x members whose duty was- to c o l l e c t and arrange information regarding r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p o l i c i e s i n Canada and abroad. This group was d i r e c t l y responsible to the Cabinet Committee and a l l reports were t o be submitted d i r e c t l y t o that body. A report was submitted l a t e r by the Reconstruction Committee which d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h recommendations regarding the changes i n governmental machinery which seemed e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e recon-s t r u c t i o n planning. The r e p o r t was not adopted i n i t s e n t i r e l y , but a f t e r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n the Government passed two y r d e r s - i n - G o u n c i l 5 i n January 1943. These made p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e c o n s t i t u t i o n of the Advisory Committee on Reconstruction. Both of these bodies were d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the P r i v y C o u n c i l r a t h e r than t o the Cabinet Committee. Since the l a c k of space f o r b i d s f u r t h e r d e s c r i p -t i o n of these committees and sub-committees, the Chart on page 39 i s presented showing f u r t h e r d e t a i l s i n condensed form. The passing of the unprecedented Order-in-Council, P.C.7633, has already been mentioned i n connection w i t h the work of the Committee on D e m o b i l i z a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n formed i n August 194G. This Committee was then re s p o n s i b l e not only f o r t h i s Order-in-Council, but f o r other measures concerning v e t e r a n w e l f a r e . These.are: 6 7 The Veterans' Land Act, Post-discharge B e n e f i t s f o r Women, and Preference i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e T h e eight sub-committees l i s t e d 5.. P.C. 608 and P»C. 609 6. August 1, 1942. 7. P.C. 2602, A p r i l 1, 1942 8* P.C• 8541 1/2 WNION GO CASIIVET COMMITTEE OAJ O £ MO 6SL/Z AT/ON 6 P£ E6TA&LL/SAAASEA/T A//AV OF HP A/ H CO^^E/YQR 0 m RUALC WO A ATS m m AAA TZONAL CAAEAKE " "AGRACC'L TLAA7£ ,t " L ABQi A M • TPAE £ £ COMMERCE ADV/SOARY COMAT/TTEE /RECOAAS T&VGT/Q/V OFV A=?R.B£NSOf6H^{RC TING PPES) HON. D.G.AA'XENZIE-CHIEF COAW BOARD OF CRAIN COA/M'SS/OAAfRS jS AA^LEA AATPRES. CANADA PA\CM£RS,LTD. ARTHURSL*RVEY£A~CWL £AI6lA/££R 1 OR A.CV&H-LACB- RRESiOENT OA \ CC/EENS C/N/YERS/Tr /RESEARCH ADV/SOR 6R.bC-MARSH * SECRETAR Y-U £.*ACATAY tOAtY SWLO/AAS ANNEX OTTAWA l£<4<3 J A MJL£ -{PRIN NfcG/L L r—; CAAAiAEps/ry) ^X-OFAIC/O A CO-ORO/NAT/AG AAEAAL9£PS. T REPRESENTATIVE OA" ' COMMITTEE OH EGOMOJA/C*' POL/CY. CHA/RAAAN- CANAOIAN SECTION, •JOINTECOAIOM/C COMMITTEE. KM. CAMCPQAV- CHIEF HEAT OA R<A5UC WORft-S . CMAIRUAN* AOA/SOfiY COMlA I J V DEAfO&U IZ AT/ON A REHA&/L /TAT/OA/ 4 VAZE CHNFtMAH - OF AOOVE CO UN) AEMSORV COMA4/TTEB CAA ECONOM/C fouc r /=> C <50Aj CHAIRMAN - WCCLAPA-DEP. AT/N OAAINANCE W.'CE-C/jA/R.Mii - W.A.MACKINTOSH- SPECIAL ASSASTjANT TO DEP. AT/A/. OA AAAAAWCE //ECTOR A/'AMAION-CHAIR MAN G.S. H. BARTON- OS P. AA..Y. OA AGR/C(ALTl/P)E CHAS. CAMPBELL- : £ P A/AY OA A/AYES & RESOUFSES ; D.*S. AVNAA - DEP. AAYN. OA AVSA/ER/ES OOA/ALO GOROOAA— CNA/PMAAI OA W.RT.E3. R.A.C SAAAVR7V- 0£A*T. OA AfO'/V. cSt SUR*AJ.Y AO. A? HEEA/EY- CI ERAC TO RA?/ZY COCANCAL £• SZCP£TARY TO CA£i/Af£T \A/AR COMM/TTEE'. ARTHUR MANAMA RA ASSOC/J4T£ D£f^ AJ/S/.Of IABOVR sSSCAEZAR r- RJS. RiR vcr OA 7AA/AA BOARD AA/D AAE&.OA THE COAfAfOO/TT' PR/CES STAB/IJZAT/OA/ CORAOPAT/OAJ OLIVER A44STEA-ACT/A0 OER Af/A/. OA TRADE AAD COMMERCE NORMA At RO&ER7SbH~- i/A/OEAt <£& OF STATE FOR EXTERNAL AFFAIRS HEA/AtY £>£&R0St£RS -CER.AA/N. OR NATIONAL OER£AAC£ (ARMY) HC/6H.D.SSCVELYJ COMM. OA COS TOAf\S • GAtAMAAAR. TO\NEP$-(GOV. BAXA/A OF CAAIA\CXA\J w. vS. WOODS- AystQCAAtrr CEP, AA/AA, OA R£At3SON<& . DEPARTMENT OF £XTE&NAL AFFAiRS CAXA/AEJAAAJ xSECTAOAi JLVAJT ECQAJOAAAC COMMITTLES AOQ ^ J O P *JC/AAAE «T. AJttA CAAAVaAfAA/-OP. VV. A. NfACM/NTO&AA €LC 3AT£ASAA/-0£A7. OAAAWI.dt SUPPLY lAsS. AiOCCNAlAiE -OEAT. OA ASRICUL7UPE A*. L J<££/VL£YsSJDE- DEPT OF EXTERNAL AAAA/F*$ O. A 6 HE- TON - SANA OF CAWAlOA . LA/SQAi OAF/CEP- HA A\NGtA3 SECRETARY- *AJ. OECATCH M M . CAB/NET A& PC 6QT4 6EP7'&./94I TAAE AGLLQ\AA/A'£ EAt+YT SCttf"GOA/AfATTEES HASA/A/G COMAX-ETTAD AEPOA7AS VT£A>£ DCXJCAAA^GFO OA/ xS£A>T A&<?£ THE A*EASCAA?EiS AOOA>T££> APE AAV BftACXEXS. PREFERENCE /N7A/E PV6L/C SEA7I/ACE (PC 6S4A *) LJNO SETTLEMENT-(VETERANS 'A.AN& ACT, 1*3 .#£ INTEPPCAPTEEi E/XAG4rAOA/(PC.?6~33. A-A0.4A rvST-OESCAMAPGE BENAA/TS RJR WOMAN {PC. 2*OZ -/*'* ACAWSQA^Y COT\f/W/TT££ ON DEA*Q£4tJZA TAQ/V & filEA/Aa/l/TAT/OAY C <S42/- AOS YO SC/A-COMM/TTAS ON ADM/A/ASTRAT/ON OA SPAC/A L AV'VAOS A\4/?£/4M£NTAA?y CO/s/Nf/TA££ ON CANTEA/f fC/A/OS R£AX?R7"£0, S£ ' 7 . sS0,a-COAfA//TTE£ A?E TV/NAD AQR THE TAME SAING &r C.RC. 2* - S> - ^2. CAAA/PMAN-CAA/EA ADAA/AVASTP/4TAIAE O . A>.AS. A"A, SC/A3 - C OAsfAs?/ TTESS £y/f*-orM£'N7 CHAIRMAN-CH/EF EMPLOYMENT OAA/CAR C/NEAAPiCrMENT /A'SVRANCA COAAM/SS/ON RETRAINING CASi/ALT/ES CHAIRMAN-CM.3{ £>EPAP7AfENT OA P A)NL N.H VOCAT/Q/VAL TRAAN/NG QA^lRA^AAy-Ei/A^ECTORdF YXPEAAAfENTAL lAARMS KSERWCE, \DART or FQST-D/SCA/ARGt >SR>AC/^L YOA D/SCH/IRSED CRAIRMAN -D/PACTOA7, H/ST0R/CA/. V SACT/CNj A)APT QE/WT/OAAAL SMOAAEN VE/AQaASrCAtAATRE Q*5E§ CA/A/PAfAN— EW.AITAA47A/AAS OAAN CF Af£0/C/Af£ VA</V£A?J/TT OAA*M Ay£TC/RN£p SCU.Q/E.R$k A¥*/QR/T/£<S AAATAAOOS C///R/A A/fRA/— /N6CARANC6 CO^VT/POllER OA" APECOROG — SJOLECjrtirs £jFAV'<2 A SPACC/A TC/RAL CONSEPYATION P>OST-lAYAP NCX/SAAAG EMPLOYMENT AA/D DEVELOPMENT COAASERVATAON A.WO COAAAAC/N/TY OPPORTUNITIES A>RO^ECTS CNAIRMAYA- CNA'RMAN--QA'-AYEsJOCRCES PLANNING HON. £>. 6AYATAZAS CAA/AA C OMMASS10 NERT BOARD OA SRA/Af COASAJT/SS/OA/EA FOR CANAOA) CAAA/R MAN-OR. R£ WALLACE (A^AAAC/AML. QUEENS UNIVERSITY AT/AYG3TOH) CAAA/RMAN -AK.AA. CAMERON (CA/AEA ENG/NEfi OEPT OF AC/MAC woR/rs OTTAWA) OR.CA.CffRT/S (OEA>T OA ECOAAOAJAGS QCAEENS MVAWRSnb P. R. BAAISOC/6H ACTING ARES. TRAOES A NO LABOUR CONGRESS. CANADA PQs&>T - WAR PROBLEMS OA WOAfEAA CHAIRMAN -+f/?S. R. A AA* WILL/A' (GO\AT HOUSE WANAAAA>£G) QTASEA? COMMITTEES AKS F?EQC/AREC SP>£C/AL_ <ST/AO/£<S J TAVA6 CHART AS SAXSELO ON COMM/TTEE CHARTS EQUNO IN THE A^ENO/CES OF -40-oii the chart d i d much of the ground work w i t h regard t o these pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n , and having completed t h e i r work were discharge^ as from September 29, 1942, According to one of„the p r o v i s i o n s of the Post-discharge Ee-establishment Order, P.O. 7633, now: known as P.C.5210, a discharged person can e l e c t to take v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , or other educational t r a i n i n g i n order to f i t himself f o r employment or re-employment. Grants are payable i n respect of approved t r a i n i n g provided t h a t the discharged person makes acceptable progress i n the t r a i n i n g . Pre-v e n t i o n of d u p l i c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and unnecessary expense caused the Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health t o make arrangements w i t h the Department of Labour to provide a l l . the v o c a t i o n a l and tech-n i c a l t r a i n i n g requested by ex-members of the s e r v i c e s . This Depart-ment was the l o g i c a l one t o look a f t e r the t r a i n i n g programme because . i n i t , had developed, p r i o r to 1939, the machinery s p e c i a l l y designed t o provide t r a i n i n g along v o c a t i o n a l l i n e s . There has, t h e r e f o r e , grown up w i t h i n t h i s department a body of experience i n v o c a t i o n a l guidance, v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and employment placements t h a t has proved to be of .immeasurable value i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e - e s t a b l i s h -ment of veterans. The growth of l e g i s l a t i o n designed p r i m a r i l y f o r peacetime t r a i n i n g and l a t e r adopted t o the war emergency i s now t r a c e d with, reference to the chart on page 40a. The.spring of 1937 saw the Dominion P r o v i n c i a l Youth T r a i n i n g Programme commence operation. The idea behind t h i s was to t r a i n -41-young people between the ages, of s i x t e e n and t h i r t y , f o r v arious occupations. Great s t r i d e s were made through co-operation w i t h Departments of Education, A g r i c u l t u r e , and Labour of the P r o v i n c i a l Governments, and through the use of the t e c h n i c a l education f a c i l i t i e s already e x i s t e n t i n the provinces. By e a r l y summer of 1939 P a r l i a -ment passed the Youth T r a i n i n g Act which made p r o v i s i o n f o r the con-t i n u i n g of the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s begun under the Youth-Training Pro-gramme of 1937. From the beginning of the programme i n May 193,7 to March 51, 1942, 221,418 9 people were given t r a i n i n g . ;To supplement the Youth T r a i n i n g progress the government introduced a Dominion-Provincial War.Emergency Programme i n June. 1940, which l a t e r received the f u l l co-operation of a l l the provinces. This programme was continued under a u t h o r i t y of Order-in-Gouncil, which invoked the War Measures Act f o r the purpose of overcoming c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s of the Youth T r a i n i n g Act i n regard to the c i r -cpnstances and age l i m i t of t r a i n e e s and the percentage cost t o be borne by the Dominion. Under t h i s p l a n , t r a i n i n g was given: (a) to members of the armed s e r v i c e s , (b) to persons who were to be e n l i s t e d i n the s e r v i c e s as tradesmen, (c) t o persons entering war i n d u s t r i e s . A t o t a l of. 75,766 persons were e n r o l l e d i n t r a i n i n g between A p r i l 1 1941 and March 51 1 9 4 2 1 0 which g i v e s a,, f a i r i n d i c a t i o n of the extensive-9. p..14 Review of the Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g Programme and the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y Programme, Ottawa, 1942. 10. p.18 Report of the Dominion-Progincial Y o u t h T r a i n i n g Pro-gramme, and the War Emergency T r a i n i n g Programme f o r f i s c a l year ending March .51, 1942, Ottawa, 1942. , -42-ness of the t r a i n i n g , programme. P.O.7633, the o r i g i n a l Post-discharge Re-establishment Order came i n t o existence i n the f a l l of 1941. One of i t s main p r o v i s i o n s was that all:members discharged, from the forces a f t e r J u l y 1 1941 were e l i g i b l e f o r v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . I t was l o g i c a l , t h ere-f o r e , t h a t the Department of Labour was given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t r a i n i n g these veterans. Again, t o c i t e a few f i g u r e s , f o r the f i s c a l y e a r . A p r i l 1, 1941 to March 31, 1942, 2,400 veterans of the 1914-18 war and discharged s o l d i e r s of the present war were e n r o l l e d i n War It Emergency Pre-employment T r a i n i n g c l a s s e s across Canada* The Youth T r a i n i n g Act of 1939 expired on March 31, 1942 and immediately was framed the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Go-ordihation A c t . This Act covers: '"any form of i n s t r u c t i o n the purpose of which i s t o f i t any' person f o r g a i n f u l employment or to increase h i s s k i l l or e f f i c i e n c y t h e r e i n ' . S p e c i f i c a l l y i t authorizes- t r a i n i n g to f i t persons f o r war s e r v i c e , e i t h e r i n i n d u s t r y or the armed f o r c e s , to f i t discharged men and women f o r employment, to f i t anyone f o r work i n the conservation o r development of the n a t u r a l resources vested i n the Crown; i t authorizes d i r e c t research i n i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and the dissemination of information; i t provides f o r co-operation w i t h any province i n a v a r i e t y of p r o j e c t s i n c l u d i n g a youth t r a i n i n g programme, v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r apprentices or supervisors 11. ibid , p- ar. -43-i n any in d u s t r y , and the post-war developments of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g at the secondary school l e v e l . The Act i s administered by the M i n i s t e r of Labour through a supervisor of t r a i n i n g i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the V o c a t i o n a l d r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l . This C o u n c i l con-s i s t s of not more than seventeen members, w i t h equal repre-s e n t a t i o n of employees and employers and the i n c l u s i o n of such other groups as the Governor-General-in-Council may determine." The Act, however, d i d not become law u n t i l August 1st of that year, and so the War Emergency T r a i n i n g and Youth T r a i n i n g was c a r r i e d on by s p e c i a l Order-in-Council under the a u t h o r i t y of the War Measures Act w i t h funds a l l o t t e d from war a p p r o p r i a t i o n s . Under the hew Act, the Dominion bears the l a r g e share of the , cost w i t h funds from war a p p r o p r i a t i o n s * Provinces and m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s supply the shop f a c i l i t i e s of the t e c h n i c a l schools f r e e of charge. P r o v i n c i a l governments pay c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e costs and share w i t h the Dominion the cost of machinery and equipment purchased. Fur t h e r d e t a i l s of the running of t h i s t r a i n i n g scheme i n connection w i t h the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of war veterans i s considered i n l a t e r chapters. H . p.41. N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , Report of Committee on Post War Problems of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , March, 1944. . There are some s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s i n connection w i t h Canada's preparation f o r g i v i n g v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g t o discharged members of the s e r v i c e s . One i s that a t the outbreak of the present war there was a considerable body of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p u b l i c s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s , who, because of t h e i r knowledge of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problems and phases of the general welfare of World War 1 veterans,.were l a r g e l y responsible f o r the s u c c e s s f u l committee a c t i o n described e a r l i e r i n the chapter. C r e d i t must go to them_,for through t h e i r work the important pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n which now form the b a s i s of our veteran a d m i n i s t r a t i o n came into being. Another s i g n i f i c a n t point i s that past developments i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l education, r e s u l t i n g i n the success-f u l - o p e r a t i o n of the Youth T r a i n i n g and War Emergency T r a i n i n g Pro-gramme, now provide an i d e a l set-up f o r g i v i n g ex-service men and women t r a i n i n g f o r c i v i l re-establishment. These two f a c t o r s show that, there i s a b s o l u t e l y no reason why the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p l a n f o r veterans should f a l l short of i t s mark. However, i f t h i s does happen, the primary f a u l t : w i l l not l i e e i t h e r w i t h those who were res p o n s i b l e f o r the governing l e g i s l a t i o n , nor w i l l i t be a t t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of seasoned knowledge i n v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . C H A R T 111. SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT PARLIAMENTARY MEASURES CONNECTED WITH VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR EEHABILITATION Members of the Forces discharged after July 1st, 1941, are el igible for benefits according to P. C. 7633 and P.O. 5210. The Unemployment Insurance Act of 1941 provides ~* that a l l discharged members of the Forces are covered for the service period after completion of 15 weeks insurable employment within one year after discharge. -S»THE POST-DISCHARGE RE-ESTABLISHMENT ORDER, P. C. 7633 (Now P. C. 5210). Mar. 31 1937 Mar.31 1938 Mar.31 1939 Mar. 31 1940 Mar .31] 1941 Mar. 31 Mar. 31 Oct. 1942 August 1943 Mar. 31 1944 Mar. 31 1945 I I DOMINION-PROTINCIAI YOUTH IR| msmm i D.-P .Y .T . carried on I under r e l i e f Legislation— then i n effect. D. -P .Y .T . carried on under the ..YOUTH TRAINING ACT of «-1939 - (expired Mar.31,1942). THE VOCATIONAL TRAINING CO-ORDINATION ACT 'passed August 1942, authorized, 1. War Emergency Training commenced in June 1940, and was oarried on under special Order-in-Council. This was necessary because the War Measures Act was revoked to overcome certain restrictions and agree-ments of the Youth Training Act regarding age limits, for training and percentage oost borne by the Government. 2. Funds for carrying on the War Emergency Training from i ts inception to August 1942, and the D.-P .Y.T. from A p r i l 1st, 1942 to August 1942 came from the War Appropriation Fund. 1. A continuation of the D.-P .Y.T. program. 2. The War Emergency Training Program, whloh operates under 3 schedules: (a) "G" - tradesmen for fi. C . A . F. (b) "K" - tradesmen for Army, Navy, and Industry. (c) "L" - Rehabilitation -45-CBAPTER 17 P.O.5210 The f i r s t Post-discharge Re-establishment Order was passed by Order-in-Council P.O. 7633 on October 1, 1941, and was administered by the Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health continuously u n t i l August 1, 1944. This Order was experimental t o some extent i n that shortcomings were expected i n its' a p p l i c a t i o n . A d ministrators i n the Department concerned were given i n s t r u c t i o n s to apply the order as best they could, recommending amendments to i t when necessary. Revisions were made u n t i l f i n a l l y a l l improvements were incorporated i n t o the ' new Post-discharge Re-establishment Order, c a l l e d P.O.5210, which became law on August 1, 1944, the day the former one was revoked. This new order i s the embodiment of only a few of the b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e a f t e r discharge t o members of the Canadian Armed Forces. The War S e r v i c e Grants Act of J944^ l i s t s a l l these other b e n e f i t s . For the sake of b r e v i t y these are l i s t e d together w i t h a short explanation t o show how P.O.5210 f i t s i n t o the general scheme. There are two d e f i n i t e c l a s s e s of b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e , t o ex-service men and women. (a) Cash payments, claimable by a l l . - . 1. War-service g r a t u i t y - based on the l e n g t h of s e r v i c e . 2* R e h a b i l i t a t i o n grant- one month's pay f o r those who have served more than 183 days. 3. C l o t h i n g allowance - #100.00 f o r purchase of c i v i l i a n , ; c l o t h e s 1. Notes on the War S e r v i c e Grants Act appear i n the Appendix. -46-(b) B e n e f i t s a p p l i c a b l e t o re-e3tablishment in. c i v i l l i f e 1. Re-establishment C r e d i t - " i s p r i m a r i l y f o r those members of the f o r c e s who. do not e l e c t to take, bene-f i t s under the Veterans' Land Act, 1942, or any, educational, v o c a t i o n a l o r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t s , " under P,G.5210. T h i s Re-establishment C r e d i t ' i s equal i n amount t o the War Service G r a t u i t y . 2. Other Re-establishment B e n e f i t s : - These are: (a) B e n e f i t s under the Land Act (b) B e n e f i t s under P.C.5210, the Post Discharge Re-establishment Order, such as v o c a t i o n a l or educational t r a i n i n g . I f a veteran has e l e c t e d to take b e n e f i t s of e i t h e r of these two pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n , and these b e n e f i t s f are l e s s than the amount of the Re-establishment c r e d i t a p p l i c a b l e to him, the d i f f e r e n c e may be made a v a i l -able t o him f o r any of the purposes designated i n the Grants A c t . Now that the p o s i t i o n of P.C.5210 i s c l e a r l y shown i n the l a r g e r framework of l e g i s l a t i o n designed t o meet a l l the variegated needs of veterans, l e t us r e t u r n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s Re-estab-lishment Order. 2. P.2, Notes on the War Service Grants Act, 1944, see Appendix. -47-A knowledge of the general p r i n c i p l e s on which P.O.7633 and P.O. 5210 are based i s necessary i n order that t h e i r general purport be understood. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s concerned w i t h f o u r fundamentals on which reasoning i n connection w i t h both Post-discharge orders i s based. These are: (1) E e h a b i l i t a t i o n and General Education; (2) E e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Be-establishment; (3) P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e ; and (4) the E q u i t y of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . (1) REHABILITATION AND. .GENERAL EDUCATION Education and t r a i n i n g are important f e a t u r e s of P.O.5210. Eor when one considers that the education and t r a i n i n g of a l a r g e number of s e r v i c e men was cut short by the war, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would thus be incomplete unless p r o v i s i o n was made whereby the ex-service men could f i n d h i s postponed o r i n t e r r u p t e d s c h o o l i n g . P.O.5210 sees t h i s education and t r a i n i n g of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as i n a separate category from general education defined under the B.N.A. A c t . Under t h i s a c t , p u b l i c education f a l l s w i t h i n the ex-c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l governments. From the beginning i t was never intended t h a t P.O.5210 should enfringe i n the s l i g h t e s t degree on the educational autonomy of the province. I n r e a l i t y , P.O.5210 i s an emergency enactment under the War Measures Act, designed t o a s s i s t i n the re-establishment of those who j o i n e d the f o r c e s . Whether or not f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r -48-a g r i c u l t u r a l , t e c h n i c a l , or other education i s provided, i s e n t i r e l y i r r e l e v a n t to the s p i r i t and operation of t h i s emergency measure. Of course, o f f i c i a l s i n the departments concerned w i l l welcome the opportunity of using p r o v i n c i a l educational p l a n t s and personnel where the l a t t e r are conveniently and economically a v a i l a b l e . Besides, the Post-discharge Re-establishment Order contem-pl a t e d no p r a c t i c e of making any educational grants t o p r o v i n c i a l , municipal, or u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s other than f o r the s o l e and s p e c i f i c purposes of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I n the l a t t e r ease the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s do not " p r e s c r i b e " , but ra t h e r they "approve" t r a i n i n g programmes as a c o n d i t i o n precedent to the g i v i n g of grants to t r a i n e e s . This r i g h t i s reasonable when the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s imposed on the f e d e r a l o f f i c e r s by P.O.5210 are considered. Thus i t seems apparent from these f a c t s that P.C.5210 does not invade the f i e l d of education as defined by S e c t i o n 93 of the B,N.A. Ac t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the War Measures Act suspended the B.N.A. Act so t h a t there would be no s t a t u t o r y hindrances t o the s u c c e s s f u l prosecution of the war. As soon as h o s t i l i t i e s cease there may have to be a r e v e r s i o n to the "st a t u s quo" as f a r as education i s concerned and i t can be stated that there e x i s t s a l a r g e f a c t i o n who intend to see t h a t t h i s i s done. To that group, c o n t i n u a t i o n of educational p r a c t i c e s as under the Post-discharge Re-establishment Order threatens to- undermine the p r i n c i p l e of the B.N.A.Act, Secti o n 93, which pro-t e c t s the educational r i g h t s of any r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y . I t i s , -49-therefore, fortunate t h a t the framework of P.O.5210 i s based on the fundamental t h e s i s t h a t education f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s a n a t i o n a l a f f a i r , confined to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ^ and ther e f o r e i s not w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l sphere of j u r i s d i c t i o n as defined by the h i s t o r i c Act of Confederation. (2) REHABILITATION AND. RE-ESTABLISBMENT The preamble of the Post-discharge Re-establishment Order emphasized i t s purpose, namely, to f a c i l i t a t e the o r d e r l y re-estab-lishment i n c i v i l l i f e of persons discharged from the s e r v i c e s . Also i t aims to e s t a b l i s h p a r i t y as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e between discharged personnel who may r e t u r n t o insurable employment and those i n i n s u r -able employment during the war period* L a s t l y , the order arranges f o r the payment.by the Dominion Government of c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the Unemployment Insurance Fund f o r the pe r i q d of s e r v i c e since J u l y ^,1941, f o r those who enter i n s u r a b l e employment a f t e r discharge * More con-c i s e l y , "the Order endeavours t o b r i n g discharged persons back i n t o the ordinary framework of employment, of t r a i n i n g , of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y 3 against unemployment, of e d u c a t i o n a l opportunity." Under the Order, a discharged person i s not e n t i t l e d , as of r i g h t , to gr e a t e r asafistance than that necessary f o r h i s s u c c e s s f u l re-establishment i n c i v i l l i f e , or i n that s t a t u s i n c i v i l l i f e that, w i t h i n reason, he would i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y have a t t a i n e d had h i s career not been i n t e r r u p t e d * There are, of course, many border 3. p.195. England, R. op. c i t . -50-l i n e cases and these are given the b e n e f i t of reasonable doubt. I t does not f o l l o w t h a t these persons are e n t i t l e d t o t r a i n i n g courses out of l i n e w i t h t h e i r p h y s i c a l or mental a b i l i t y . Because they d i d t h e i r duty when c a l l e d on does-,ngt mean that they are e n t i t l e d t o s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . As a matter of f a c t , the m a j o r i t y do not. seek s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . With the exception of the very few who are guided by s e l f i s h and u n c i t i z e n l i k e motives, the, m a j o r i t y of youths e l i g i b l e under P.C.5210 ask only f o r the same p r i v i l e g e s and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s as.would have been t h e i r s had they honourably remained 4 i n c i v i l l i f e w h i l e others undertook m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . We f i n d then, t h a t the general o b j e c t i v e of Ganada'e plan f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of her armed f o r c e s i s that every discharged man or woman s h a l l be i n a p o s i t i o n to earn a l i v e l i h o o d . The plan c o n s i s t s o f g i v i n g discharged personnel, where p o s s i b l e , the necessary s k i l l and t r a i n i n g to help themselves. The whole scheme of r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n can succeed only to the extent that (1) ex-service personnel are prepared t o help themselves, and (2) t h a t the country i s able t o provide opportunity. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , then, r e a l l y means r e - e s t a b l i s h -ment f o r whose who wish to be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i n c i v i l l i f e . 4. passim. P r i m c i p l e s Governing T r a i n i n g f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , S i g n i f i c a n c e of P.O.5210. Issued under a u t h o r i t y of Hon. Ian MacBenzie, M i n i s t e r of Pensions & N a t i o n a l Health, Ottawa. -51-•-'(3)' PBI7ATE 3MTEBPBISE - and A MAIN; IMPLICATION An examination of .the two major assumptions on which Canada's reco n s t r u c t i o n s are founded w i l l d i s c l o s e the viewpoint of the whole pl a n . One major assumption i s that " f u l l employment" w i l l be p o s s i b l e i n the post-war years, and the other i s that government c o n t r o l w i l l r e l a x g r a d u a l l y and a r e t u r n to p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w i l l f o l l o w . I n respect t o the f i r s t of these, references were made i n Chapter 1 to a survey of post-war employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s conducted by Dr. Weir. His f i n d i n g s founded on the same assumptions as were published by the F e d e r a l Advisory Committee on Reconstruction provide proof t h a t f u l l employment i n the post-war years i s p o s s i b l e . While h i s f i n d i n g s were based, t o a great extent, on objective evidence, he s t i l l had t o r e l y on o p i n i o n evidence from competent persons and experts. The evidence of these people was volunteered a f t e r an understanding of the second assumption above: t h a t , p r i v a t e enter-p r i s e w i l l r e t u r n and. remain as a predominant feature of our post-war economy. This r e t p r n i s necessary because p r i v a t e or i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e i s complementary to s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and not c o n t r a d i c t o r y to i t . The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t expresses t h i s very c l e a r l y . " ... no n a t i o n ever achieved greatness by s a c r i f i c i n g s e c u r i t y while e x t o l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e . I n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y are not mutually e x c l u s i v e . They suggest complementary r a t h e r than c o n t r a d i c t o r y desiderata which are e s s e n t i a l f o r the achievement not merely of n a t i o n a l greatness tout of s u r v i v a l as w e l l . There can be no enduring i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e that i s not buttressed by some measure of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . The mentally harassed and economically handicapped c i t i z e n f r e q u e n t l y becomes a l i a b i l i t y to the community r a t h e r than an as s e t . Worry over l a c k of s e c u r i t y undermines both p h y s i c a l and mental reserve and weakens morale. On the other hand, a type of s e c u r i t y dispensed by a p a t e r n a l i s t i c government w i t h i n d i s e r i m i h a t i n g l a r g e s s e , t o worthy and unworthy a l i k e , w i l l engender a p a r a l y z i n g i n d i f f e r e n c e to i n d i v i d u a l en-deavour t h a t must e v e n t u a l l y destroy both the moral and p h y s i c a l f i b r e of i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s . Without s o c i a l s e c u r i t y there can be no e f f e c t i v e opportunity f o r i n d i v i d u a l achieve-ment and hence no worthwhile i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e . The order of genesis i s : - s e c u r i t y , opportunity, e n t e r p r i s e r a t h e r than the reverse; although i t might be argued that e n t e r p r i s e w i l l e ventually create both the opportunity and s e c u r i t y necessary f o r success. Surely, however, i t i s an important f u n c t i o n of government, as ref e r e e among oppos-ing i n t e r e s t s , to ensure the type of opportunity ahdesecurity that w i l l enable i n i t i a t i v e t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . " 5 5. p.18. G.M.Weir - Survey of E e h a b i l i t a t i o n , ( I n t e r i m Report) Ottawa, December, 1943. -53-Hence one of the most important impl i c a t i o n s : of P.O.5210 i s t h a t t h i s Order shows how i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e can he encouraged by making c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n f o r s e c u r i t y through self-determined opportunity f o r betterment. This working proof w i l l do much toward d i s p e l l i n g the doubt e x i s t e n t i n the minds of many people t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e cannot maintain a h a l f s a t i s f a c t o r y employment l e v e l i n the post-war era. To these people the only a l t e r n a t i v e i s s o c i a l i s m , but i t appears that the m a j o r i t y of Canadians are not ready to go s o c i a l i s t . A p r a c t i c a l and working example of the theory expressed i n the obove quo t a t i o n w i l l show t h i n k i n g Canadians t h a t p r i v a t e enter-p r i s e i s a n e c e s s i t y i n order, that f u l l employment become a r e a l i t y and t h a t Canada's gene r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n plans be s u c c e s s f u l . THE EQUALITY OF REHABILITATION A f t e r the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n i t may be h e l p f u l to present a statement on the equity of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I t i s l a r g e l y on a reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e that an understanding and i n t e l l i g e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P.G.5210 must be based. I n a democratic s t a t e , the i n d i v i d u a l i s e n t i t l e d to c e r t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s . H is r i g h t s , c o n s i s t i n g Qf -anequality of opport-i t y - of l i f e , l i b e r t y , and the p u r s u i t of happiness - i s counter-balanced by that of e q u a l i t y of s a c r i f i c e . I t i s obvious then that there cannot be complete e q u a l i t y e i t h e r of opportunity or of s a c r i f i c e , regardless of whether the country i s i n a s t a t e of peace or war. -54-... This p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y of s a c r i f i c e i s important In considering the question of r e h b i l i t a t i o n and the veteran. I t involves, at l e a s t i n theory, the maintenance of a sta t e of e q u i l i -brium of r i g h t s and d u t i e s as among the members of a democratic cpmmunftys^ I n other words, the assumption i s that no c i t i z e n should : be required to s a c r i f i c e more than h i s f e l l o w s to the s t a t e . ; • "When the s e r v i c e s required by the community of an i n d i v i d -u a l i n v o l v e an i n j u r y g r e a t e r than the s a c r i f i c e r e q u i r e d i of a l l members of the community, the o b l i g a t i o n a r i s e s f o r the community to d i s t r i b u t e over i t s members the burden of the i n j u r y i n question, i n order to re s t o r e the e q u a l i t y of s a c r i f i c e . " 6 In many cases the members of any community cannot r e s t o r e complete e q u a l i t y of s a c r i f i c e by the payment of monetary or other b e n e f i t s t o those who have suffered severe war casualty, as i n the instance of b l i n d n e s s . However, the attempt a* adequate compensa-' t i o n ^ as symbolized by the terms of the Be-establishment order, i s .- p o s s i b l y the most reasonable approach t o the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e . I t means t h a t those who were not c a l l e d on to wear the uniform provide the compensation f o r the d i s a b i l i t i e s s u f f e r e d by those able to f e n l i s t i n the f o r c e s . Therefore, from t h i s p o i n t of view of pre-: serving the balance between r i g h t s and s a c r i f i c e s , P.C.5210 i s a compensation measure designed to make good, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , to 6. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e , S e r i e s E. The Disabled'Mb.6. -55-discharged persons, l o s s e s a t t r i b u t a b l e to war s e r v i c e * Those q u a l i -f i e d under the terms of the Order are deemed to have a c l a i m f o r com-pensation that i s r e a l l y based on t h e i r r i g h t s as i n d i v i d u a l s i n a democratic s t a t e . ...... (5) THE TERMS OF P.O. 5210 These compensations - c a l l e d b e n e f i t s i n P.C.5210 - provide f o r a l l v a r i e d emergencies that p o s s i b l y could be encountered by the s e r v i c e man on discharge. Under the terms of the Order, the M i n i s t e r o f Veteran's a f f a i r s i s authorized t o pay subsistence allowances to ex-service men under these circumstances, l i s t e d so as to correspond to the b e n e f i t s l i s t e d i n P.G.5210. (a) While awaiting employment opportunity. (b) While t a k i n g a course of v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . (c) While awaiting r e t u r n s from an e n t e r p r i s e i n which he i s engaged on h i s own account, e.g., farming, (d) While temporarily i n c a p a c i t a t e d from accepting work or from t a k i n g t r a i n i n g because of a d i s a b i l i t y not covered by the Department's care and treatment r e g u l a t i o n s . (e) While completing an e d u c a t i o n a l course i n t e r r u p t e d by e n l i s t m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , the members of the f o r c e s are included under the Unemployment Insurance Act of 1940 on s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s and terms which are a p p l i c a b l e to c i v i l i a n workers, except that i n the case of -56-the s e r v i c e man the government pays the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of both the em-plo y e r and employee i n t o the insurance fund. This i s the main p r o v i -s i o n of Part 2, of the Post Discharge Re-establishment Order. F u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of these b e n e f i t s now f o l l o w . (a) While w a i t i n g employment opportunity: Payment of t h i s b e n e f i t - c a l l e d out-of-work b e n e f i t - may be made to a discharged person f o r any period during which t h i s person i s unable to obt a i n s u i t a b l e employ-ment. However, the Department makes the proviso that to be e l i g i b l e a person must be capable and a v a i l a b l e f o r work. The b e n e f i t s h a l l not be continued beyond eighteen months a f t e r discharge, nor s h a l l i t be p a i d f o r the f i r s t nine days of employment, whether continuous or not. The rat e s of payment s h a l l be i n accordance w i t h Part 1 of the schedule of P.0.5210, and s h a l l be subject to red u c t i o n by an amount equal to pension, wage, s a l a r y , or any other income w i t h i n the period the out-of-work b e n e f i t i s p a i d . (b) While t a k i n g a course i n v o c a t i o n a l o r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g : Payment of a grant may be made t o a discharged person who i s pursuing v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . This t r a i n i n g must be approved by 7 the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s and must be based on the type of work which w i l l best f i t the veteran f o r permanent employment or r e -employment. The grant i s payable so long as the t r a i n e e makes progress 7. In Tune 1944, the Department of Pensions & N a t i o n a l Health was abolished and the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s was formed^ Hon. Ian Mackenzie i s the m i n i s t e r of t h i s newly-formed department. -57-to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Department. I n general, the t o t a l period f o r which a grant may be paid s h a l l exceed n e i t h e r the discharged person's period of s e r v i c e nor the period of one year. But, i f a discharged person's period of se r v i c e i s g reater than a year, and the Department i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d t o q u a l i f y him f o r employment i n the occupation f o r which he i s b.eing t r a i n e d , then the grant may be continued f o r a period which, w i t h the year already spent, does not exceed h i s period of s e r v i c e . No grant w i l l foe paid i f the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g i s not made w i t h i n twelve momths a f t e r discharge or twelve months a f t e r the ces s a t i o n of h o s t i l i t i e s . Exceptions are made i f a person i s i n r e c e i p t of a pension and i s unable to secure or hold steady employment because of a p o t e n t i a l p h y s i c a l and mental i n c a p a c i t y f o r work. In such cases, a l l the foregoing l i m i t a t i o n s l i s t e d as sub-paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of the Order 8 may be waived by the Department. T r a v e l l i n g expenses are allowed f o r one r e t u r n t r i p from the t r a i n e e ' s u s u a l place of residence t o the place where the course i s being h e l d . A l s o , t u i t i o n fees, student fees, and a t h l e t i c fees are paid by the Department. The complete schedule of monthly r a t e s f o r non-pensioners and pensioners are on the l a s t page of P.0.5210, included i n the Appendix. Overleaf i s the t a b l e of subsistence 8. Reference here i s to be O f f i c e C o n s o l i d a t i o n included i n the Appendix. -58-allowance payable t o non-pensioners t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . SINGLE NO DEPEN-DENTS MM & WIFE' C H I L D R E N • ONE : TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX Part 2: V o c a t i o n a l & Educ. T r a i n i n g -Non-pensioners. Para. 6,8, & 9 60.00 80.00 92.00 104.00 114.00 122.00 130.00 138.00 A d d i t i o n a l amount f o r person i n l i e u of wife - ^20.00 per month " ii w dependent-parent - #15.00 " " (c) While a w a i t i n g returns from p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e : Many ex-s e r v i c e men w i l l wish t o r e t u r n t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e of some k i n d o r another. I n many kinds of such e n t e r p r i s e a p e r i o d of time lapses before returns s t a r t to accrue. For example, a veteran may put what-e v e r savings he has i n a small business $r farm e n t e r p r i s e , and i n t h i s case he may be obliged t o wait some time before r e c e i v i n g s u f f i c i e n t cash returns t o cover l i v i n g expenses. Under the Order the p e riod of e l i g i b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d to eighteen months from date of discharge, w i t h the exception of time spent i n h o s p i t a l . This means that the time p r o v i s i o n f o r grants to those embarking i n p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s l i m i t e d . I t must be w i t h i n the f i r s t year and a h a l f a f t e r discharge and not a f t e r t h a t time. (d) While tem p o r a r i l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d : According t o the terms of the Post-discharge Re-establishment Order, grants are payable to a -59-veteran who i s •temporarily i n c a p a c i t a t e d because of a non-pensionable d i s a b i l i t y . A veteran completely i n c a p a c i t a t e d f o r workcor t r a i n i n g i s not e l i g i b l e under the terms of P.O.5210. Thus i t becomes apparent t h a t the Department of Veterans/ A f f a i r s knows th a t there would be confusion i f completely i n c a p a c i t a t e d ex-service men were tre a t e d as r e h a b i l i t a b l e cases. (e) While completing i n t e r r u p t e d education: Discharged men and women who are able t o enter a u n i v e r s i t y may be given subsistence grants together w i t h payment of fees t o the u n i v e r s i t y throughout the whole p e r i o d of t h e i r course, p r o v i d i n g such students can maintain adequate grades. The t o t a l period f o r which a grant may be paid s h a l l not exceed the discharged person's period of s e r v i c e unless i n the case of outstanding achievement, i n which instance the Depart-ment may continue the grant beyond the. maximum p e r i o d . Grant No.5 aims t o take care of the t r a i n i n g of Canadian f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l men and women who have seen s e r v i c e i n the' f o r c e s . Discharged members of s p e c i a l m e r i t can take a complete u n i v e r s i t y course and continue on to post-graduate work. The l e g i s l a t i o n regarding these f i v e b e n e f i t s i s included i n Part 1 of the Post-discharge Re-establishment Order. Part 11, .as already mentioned, i s concerned w i t h the veteran's p o s i t i o n i n regard to the recent Unemployment Insurance A c t * I t has already been stated that members of the fo r c e s who on discharge returned to in s u r a b l e employment should have p a r i t y under the act w i t h c i v i l i a n -60-workers as from J u l y 1, 1941, the date the act became e f f e c t i v e . When such members have completed f i f t e e n weeks i n insured employment they are e n t i t l e d t o the same b e n e f i t s under the Act as though they had spent the whole of t h e i r period i n the s e r v i c e s since J u l y 1,1941, i n i n s urable employment. Those discharged before t h i s date are not concerned because p r i o r t o that date the Unemployment Insurance Act was not i n e f f e c t . For those who do not enter insured employment, the out-of-work b e n e f i t s - c a l l e d B e n e f i t 1 under the Order - give the s e c u r i t y which, a f t e r a l l , i s the primary object of the N a t i o n a l Unemployment Insurance programme. I t i s r e c a l l e d that B e n e f i t No.l i s payable during the f i r s t year and a h a l f a f t e r discharge f o r those able t o work, but f o r whom no opening i s a v a i l a b l e . This b e n e f i t covers a l s o those who are e n t e r i n g insurable employment up to the end of t h e i r required f i f t e e n weeks. I n connection w i t h the ex-service man's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the Unemployment Insurance Fund while i n s e r v i c e , the Post-discharge Re-establishment Order s t i p u l a t e s t h a t these c o n t r i b u t i o n s are paid by the Dominion Government out of the War A p p r o p r i a t i o n Fund. The r a t e of c o n t r i b u t i o n i s the average of the c o n t r i b u t i o n r a t e s f o r the f i r s t f i f t e e n weeks employment i n the post-discharge p e r i o d . Adjustments are made i n computing the amount of the government con-t r i b u t i o n so that no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i l l e x i s t between the discharged -61-persons who continue i n uninsurable employment and the discharged who become es t a b l i s h e d i n insurable work. This i s apparent when one considers that the l a t t e r group could enjoy the f u l l p r o t e c t i o n of out-of-work b e n e f i t s and grants, and i n a d d i t i o n would have t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s p a i d f o r them f o r t h e i r whole period of war s e r v i c e subsequent to J u l y 1, 1941. The adjustment e s t a b l i s h e s a reasonable p a r i t y between the two groups, more p a r t i c u l a r l y keeping i n mind t h a t , without any time l i m i t a t i o n , a discharged person may a v a i l himself of h i s war s e r v i c e r i g h t s under the Unemployment Insurance Act by enter-ing insurable employment. The above are the main consi d e r a t i o n s inherent i n the p r o v i s i o n s of f.G.5210. The M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health administered the f i r s t - P o s t - d i s c h a r g e Re-establishment Order P.O.7635 up .to the time i t was revoked i n August 1944. H i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y continued on i n respect t o the second order P.O.5210, u n t i l 1944, when the Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health was abolished and the Department of Veteran's A f f a i r s e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t s place. Therefore, since the aforementioned date, the M i n i s t e r of the Depart-ment of Veterans' A f f a i r s , Honourable Ian MacKenzie, formerly M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health - has had the continued r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the second-Re-establishment Order. From the d i s c u s s i o n so f a r i t i s c l e a r l y seen that P.O.5210 not only a s s i s t s the i n d i v i d u a l but embodies an attempt to improve the medium through which the veteran may be able t o help h i m s e l f . -62-I M l e the Order i s c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds that the subsistence allowances of $60 and $80 are i n s u f f i c i e n t , there i s evidence t o the e f f e c t that any increases i n these amounts would tend t o defeat the main aim of the Order, that i s , to help the veteran to h e l p h i m s e l f . Viewing the p i c t u r e from t h i s angle, i t i s evident that the guiding p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e before generosity was adhered to i n drawing up the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the Re-establishment Order. The f i n a n c i a l need or the s e r v i c e record of an e x - s e r v i c e man or woman i s not featured i n P.0.5210. With regard to the f i r s t of these, the amounts o f the grants under the v a r i o u s b e n e f i t s are s i z a b l e anough to provide f o r re-establishment, t h a t i s , i f the veteran i s w i l l i n g to deny himself to a s l i g h t extent during the re-establishment p e r i o d . The aim i s to conserve the taxpayer's d o l l a r but at the same time to make grants ample enough to provide reasonable help towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In connection w i t h the second, the veteran's s e r v i c e record, there seems t o be no reason why t h i s should enter i n t o the question of re-establishment whatever. B e n e f i t s under the Order are not rewards f o r s e r v i c e . I t was designed as a "forward l o o k i n g " piece of l e g i s l a t i o n , forward look-ing i n that i t s scope of i n t e r e s t l i e s i n the veteran's r e - e s t a b l i s h -ment i n t o c i v i l l i f e , w i t h concern f o r war s e r v i c e l i m i t e d only to l e n g t h of time spent i n uniform. There has been c e r t a i n c r i t i c i s m that P.O.5210 does nothing -63-toward h e l p i n g those now working i n war i n d u s t r i e s whose need f o r c i v i l re-establishment i n the r e - t o o l i n g or t r a n s i t i o n period w i l l be "as great as f o r the veteran. I t was assumed that war workers should have no unsurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s t o overcome i n e f f e c t i n g t h e i r own re-establishment i n a peace-time economy* In a l l they had no time l o s s , and c e r t a i n l y the m a j o r i t y of them p r o f i t e d f i n a n c i a l l y by t h e i r wartime occupations. Hence i t . i s apparent that i f r e l i e f i s necessary i t i s up to other agencies to make p r o v i s i o n f o r members of t h i s group. P.O.5210 or any other s i n g l e u n i t of l e g i s l a t i o n could not p o s s i b l y provide f o r every type of s a c r i f i c e and endeavour. With t h i s i n mind t h i s ^rder was l i m i t e d t o meet the needs of the veterans, and i t i s deemed adequate i n t h i s regard. The above d i s c u s s i o n of the terms of P.O.5210, the p r i n c i -p l e s on which i t i s based, and some of the inherent i m p l i c a t i o n s show > t t h a t t h i s Re-establishment Order, g e n e r a l l y speaking, i s w e l l balanced i n every respect. However, t h i s near p e r f e c t i o n does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y guarantee the r e s u l t s of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. Much depends on the machinery designed f o r veterans. In the next chapter the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l o rganisations designed f o r c a r r y i n g our r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n measures are described, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r veterans. _64-Page Chapter 5. Machinery designed to handle r e h a b i l i t a t i o n HLGcl3U.3?@ S • • • • « • • « • • * * • • • • • a 65 Chapter 6. Stepping stones on the road t o c i v i l l i f e . 74 -65-GHAPTER V MACHINERY DESIGNED TO ^ HANDLE, PwEHABILITATION MEASURES .. . (1) The Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s Previous mention has been made that the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and re-establishment of veterans r e s t s w i t h the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s . Back i n 1939 t h i s Department, then known as the Department of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health, was entrusted w i t h the management and c o n t r o l of a l l matters r e l a t i n g i n any way to the.care, treatment, re-establishment i n c i v i l l i f e , or care of the dependents of any ex-service man of Canada @%' any a l l i e d country. Thus, pensions, medical and s u r g i c a l care, land settlement, veterans* allowances, v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , : and other s i g n i f i c a n t items r e l a t i n g to veterans are handled d i r e c t l y by the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s . I t i s q u i t e obvious that the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a l l the sub-a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the head department r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The chart on the f o l l o w i n g page shows the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l the agencies, boards and commissions concerned w i t h the various aspects of veteran a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g are some important p o i n t s to be n o t i c e d . In each of the twelve D i s t r i c t s i n Canada the organ i z a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the scheme f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The D i s t r i c t Adminis-t r a t o r has o f f i c e r s i n charge of the f o u r main concerns of veterans: BASED OA/ OFF/C/AL CHART copr CHART I TH£~ OEPARTMENT OF VETe&aMS* AFFAIRS FULL AND aCLUSW£ •jm/StXICTlON OVER ADJUDicsrr/afit-OF EN7I7LEM&N7 TO ANQ AWARCUNS Of ACM-SIONS, AND ZtC/vlM/STR/WA/z OF PENSIONS WAR VETERANS'' FUOWFNCF BOARD \/E~TEPANS!> It.Mb ACT {OFFICER- 1 L i BDJUDICA7ION OF ENTITLEMENT TO & AWARDS cu" VETERANS' AtiOWANCE, V/toaws. CCWFA&SIOH ALLOWANCE, & COAL SERWCC RENS'OAI. \FtlU -HUE \ FARMING, WE\ SMALL ~ W O L antes: [SOLDER ' FMYMEAIT6, D/SBC/nseAfSA/rj, QKA/VTJ PENSIONS AND 3ALAPIES coii^Tswt •SFRV/CES,J RADIOLOGY, FWYSIOTHERAPY, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY; HEALTH & OCCORAT/ONAL CENTRES', DENTAL SEP:V/CE<S. GE/VEFAL ADMINISTRATION OFSAN/ZA7/ON A OPERATIC*/ OF ALL. DBRA RTMEtAJTS & THEIR ACT/f/r/£$; 'STAFF dc OUAR7ERSJ S70REB & £QC//FV*EWTI ^£CR£7ARIA£ SbFVtUIC RELATIONS I ALLOWANCES & OgNeF/TS; •STATISTICS • , REHASIL. /7ATION\ TRAN/N6 EDUCATIONAL & VOCATIONAL r^C/IOAA/CE f)DM/NISTF*A~7/QN <%FlSC*tAL SERVICES INTERVIEWING, COUNSELLING'> LIAS'ON WITH BUSINESS, INDUSTRY SCVT. AND OTHER, AGENCIES. -67-H o s p i t a l s and Medical Services, Land, Bens ions, a n d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Each of these departments has a contact i n Ottawa, and as a r e s u l t close l i a s o n e x i s t s between them. This co-ordinating,, scheme i s c a r r i e d s t i l l f u r t h e r , even to the organ i z a t i o n w i t h i n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . T his s e c t i o n administers the War Grants Act and P.C.5210, and so f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are di v i d e d between the Tr a i n i n g and Education S e c t i o n , the Veterans' Welfare Section, and R e - e s t a b l i s h -ment C r e d i t s S e c t i o n . O f f i c e r s i n charge of each sub-section i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver deal d i r e c t l y , when necessary, w i t h the corresponding o f f i c e r i n Ottawa. This i s shown on the ehart by means of d o t t e d - l i n e s . The c h i e f advantage of t h i s p lan of each sub-department down east i s that Dominion c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n matters i s p o s s i b l e i n t h i s way as w e l l as through the D i s t r i c t Super-v i s o r and D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t o r through t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Veterans' A f f a i r s . The Department of Labour was asked t o t r a i n a l l the veterans who wished v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g by means of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P l a n . Dominion co-o r d i n a t i o n between the Department .of Veterans' A f f a i r s and the Department of Labour on the question of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s main-ta i n e d by means of mutual planning of the D i r e c t o r of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n the former and the Supervisor of T r a i n i n g i n the l a t t e r . I t i s evident the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l organizations f o r -68-c a r r y i n g out the programme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have both c e n t r a l i z e d and d e c e n t r a l i z e d aspects. This eombinaMon makes adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r the cognizance of d i s t r i c t d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as f o r dominion co - o r d i n a t i o n . (:S.) THE DEPARTMENT Off, LABOUR A few years before the s t a r t of the present war the Depart-ment of Labour set up the framework f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l Youth' T r a i n i n g Programme. I n ,1940, the War Emergency Programme which inc l u d e s R.C.A.E., Army and Navy T r a i n i n g , was i n -augurated, and i n 1941 the M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health arranged t o have v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r discharged members of the s e r v i c e s provided by the Department of Labour. At the present time, however, War Emergency T r a i n i n g i s p r a c t i c a l l y n i l ; there i s no t r a i n i n g given t o members of the R.C.A.E/. and very l i t t l e t o the Army and Navy. At the same time there i s an ever i n c r e a s i n g number of discharged members of the Armed Eorees t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and i t appears that s h o r t l y ' t h e a c t i v i t i e s of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g w i l l d e a l e n t i r e l y i n connection w i t h t h i s plan of Veteran Welfare. .. The departmental machinery of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g was p r i m a r i l y designed and organized f o r peacetime l i v i n g . While wartime emergency has changed, i t s sphere of a c t i v i t y as f a r as type of t r a i n i n g for. Canadian youth by the Dominion w i l l continue a f t e r -69-the war along peacetime l i n e s . I t has therefore been the p o l i c y of the Department of Labour t o leave the b a s i c framework i n t a c t as f a r as p o s s i b l e , making necessary a d d i t i o n s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n without d i s t u r b i n g the nucleus of the whole s t r u c t u r e . To i l l u s t r a t e the s t r u c t u r e , on page 71 i s a chart showing the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the Department of Labour designed to c a r r y out the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programme. A few comments w i l l serve t o emphasize the excellende of the b a s i c p l a n . Under the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Labour i s the Dominion D i r e c t o r of T r a i n i n g . I n t h i s connection i t i s r e c a l l e d that i n the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s there i s a T r a i n i n g Branch, being part of the R e h a b i l i t a t i o h S e c t i o n . In charge of the branch i s a Superintendent of T r a i n i n g , and i t i s between jrhis o f f i c e r and the D i r e c t o r of T r a i n i n g i n the Department of Labour t h a t c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the two departments i n respect t o v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g e x i s t s . This c o - o r d i n a t i o n goes s t i l l f u r t h e r f o r i n each Veterans' A f f a i r s Off i c e - i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Department of Laboui?, Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch, who has a place on the R e h a b i l i t a -t i o n Board, the body th a t passes judgment on every veteran a p p l i c a n t f o r b e n e f i t s of any k i n d . Advantages of the close working are obvious. Since i t i s demanding too much to expept that a c o u n s e l l o r i n the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s be an expert i n occupations and r e l a t e d f i e l d s p e r t a i n i n g to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , the presence of a w e l l - t r a i n e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the t r a i n i n g agency solves many -70-d i f f i e u l t i e s . This representative, i s on hand t o answer questions, s e t t l e problems, and, i f necessary, do f u r t h e r c o u n s e l l i n g . Because of t h i s arrangement the veteran i s guaranteed a gre a t e r degree of personal s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i le t a k i n g p r e l i m i n a r y steps towards c i v i l re - e st ab l i shment. -11-C H A R I V. DOMINION AND PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CANADIAN VOCATIONAL TRADING BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR MINISTER OF LABOUR DEP. i i n . DOM. DIRECTOR OF TRAINING f - - $ Position corresponds to that of Supt. of Vco. Tr. in, Dept. of T i l . I . S . Bi P. 0,. ONT, MAN.'. VICTORIA. Superintendent VANCOPVER-Sapt. of Voc. Ir. EELOWNA Superintendent: Assistant Supt, Staff 1. .See Chart on -page 4*6 |-u re '"Training-Eduoat ibnai: •Vocational Guidahoe".: • V i c t o r i a and Eelowna each have one representative of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . The o f f i c e r i n V i c t o r i a i s the C.V.T. represen-t a t i v e on the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Board i n that c i t y , i f i t i s necessary that he be present. The o f f i c e r i n Eelowna i s responsible f o r super-v i s i n g a l l a c t i v i t i e s of h i s department i n the- I n t e r i o r , and since veterans are being t r a i n e d i n i n d u s t r y and i n p r i v a t e schools through-out the province, t h i s f i e l d man has t o supervise an extensive area. In b r i e f , i t i s the duty of t h i s agency t o provide v o c a t i o n -a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g to any veteran whose plan of re-establishment has been approved by the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Board. As mentioned e a r l i e r the p r o v i s i o n of t h i s desired t r a i n i n g has been f a c i l i t a t e d by u s i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n b u i l t up under the War Emergency T r a i n i n g Programme. N a t u r a l l y the v a r i e t y of t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r veterans had t o be broadened, due t o the f a c t that peacetime l i v i n g n e c e s s i t a t e s a much ' wider choice of jobs* Besides t h i s i s the extended scope of t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y , and a wider use of i n s t r u c t i o n i n schools. Since a thorough d e s c r i p t i o n of these types of t r a i n i n g i s found i n Chapters 9, 10, and 11, nothing more need be s a i d at t h i s p o i n t except t h a t i t i s indeed f o r t u a a t e t h a t Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g was a w e l l organized and adequately developed body both from the veterans' and the c i t i z e n tax-payers' standpoint. The former stands t o gain by coming i n t o contact w i t h a proven and experienced group, while the taxpaper ' p r o f i t s by the knowledge that the investment i n equipment and machinery i s put to good use i n c a r i n g f o r the v o c a t i o n a l needs of the ex-service man or woman. C e r t a i n l y from t h i s viewpoint no f a u l t can be found w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n developed by the, Department of Labour i n pre-war years. Assuredly, Canadian "Vocational T r a i n i n g w i l l remain as a valuable and experienced body long a f t e r the t r a i n i n g of veterans i s complete. CHAPTER 6 STEPPING STONES ON THE BOAD BACK. TO CIVIL LIFE , For most veterans the r e t u r n to c i v i l l i f e i s f a r from easy. Many f a c t o r s determine the degree of d i f f i c u l t y with which t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s made. Age on enlistment, length of time i n s e r v i c e , nature of s e r v i c e and the presence of any d i s a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from war experience become hurdles i n the path l e a d i n g back towards normal l i v i n g . Degrees of ease or d i f f i c u l t y encountered are as v a r i e d i n number as there are men. and women discharged. Returned s o l d i e r s endured an experience whieh others have not f e l t . None can completely understand t h i s experience and i t s f a r reaching e f f e e t s except the s o l d i e r s themselves. T h e i r point of view has been broadened by t r a v e l and by d i v e r s i f i e d s o c i a l contacts, and t h i s i n i t s e l f has r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r m a t u r i t y e s p e c i a l l y i n the younger age groups. The i n - S e r y i c e t r a i n i n g , as already sta t e d i n Chapter 1, tends to undermine i n i t i a t i v e , w i t h the r e s u l t , t h a t the s o l d i e r when discharged i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by being to a la r g e extent without a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . During the f i r s t or second month a f t e r r e -e n t e r i n g c i v i l l i f e , the e x - s o l d i e r tends to d i s p l a y a l a c k of o r i g i n a l i t y towards s t a r t i n g anything on h i s own power. And yet*, a f t e r t h i s c r i t i c a l period has elapsed, the m a j o r i t y of ex-Service men show a higher fcating of i n i t i a t i v e than men who have never been sub-j e c t e d t o t h e m i l i t a r y experience. Let us t u r n to the wounded s o l d i e r and see what h i s "road back" t o d a i l y l i v i n g means. From the time he entered the h o s p i t a l so badly wounded that he could tnot r e t u r n to a c t i v e l i f e i n "the army he was on the way back t o c i v i l l i f e . Long months of£.llness and con-valescence feave the s o l d i e r too much time to t h i n k of h i s misfortunes and d i s a b i l i t i e s . For such a one, p s y c h o l o g i c a l treatment i s necessary i n order t o e f f e c t a smooth r e t u r n to c i v i l i a n s t a t u s . Indeed i t i s no exaggeration to say t h a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a l l veterans i n v o l v e s a measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l treatment, f o r even a s e r v i c e man Tifho has not l e f t Canada experiences an emotional disturbance when he i s faced w i t h l i f e on c i v v y s t r e e t . Therefore, f o r those who have seen and heard the t e r r i b l e t h i n g s that go w i t h war, t h i s disturbance i s markedly g r e a t e r . In the period of r e - o r i e n t a t i o n t o the l i f e of a c i v i l i a n a l l these memories and impressions t h a t seem of paramount importance at the time of discharge must be put aside or reorganized i n t o patterns that w i l l help t o meet the new c i v i l i a n needs w i t h v i g o r and firmness. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l t h a t the discharged veteran should f i r s t of a l l t u r n h i s face to the f u t u r e - a t r u l y great p s y c h o l o g i c a l process i n the m a j o r i t y of cases. Since t h i s i s discussed more f u l l y i n the next, chapter no more w i l l be s a i d here except to s t r e s s the f a c t that the i n i t i a l steps back t o c i v i l l i f e are the most important ones.. L o g i c a l l y , these f i r s t steps.are taken when the s e r v i c e man i s s t i l l . i n uniform and i s ; a w a i t i n g h i s discharge e i t h e r from the ranks or from h o s p i t a l . F or convenience, then, the r e s t of the chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o two se c t i o n s , the f i r s t d e a l i n g w i t h the procedure followed by the p h y s i -c a l l y able veteran, and the second w i t h the r e t u r n to c i v i l l i f e of the h o s p i t a l i z e d cases. The P h y s i c a l l y Able Veteran By t h i s heading i s meant any veteran who was not confined to h o s p i t a l immediately p r i o r t o , or at the time of, dise&arge. . The term then covers any veteran who i s not a c a s u a l t y case i n the sense that there i s any d i s a b i l i t y . He ther e f o r e i s able to go on h i s own power to the o f f i c e s of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s and make arrangements f o r h i s own r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . > For these, the i n i t i a l steps towards c i v i l re-establishment have been made through the e f f o r t s of the p e r s o n n e l : c o u n s e l l i n g ser-v i c e s i n the Army, Navy, and A i r Force. By means of l e c t u r e s and t a l k s the s e r v i c e men are made f a m i l i a r with the b e n e f i t s of P.0.5210 along w i t h other information of i n t e r e s t to them. A veteran i n l i n e f o r discharge i s granted a personal i n t e r v i e w and the t r a i n e d s e r v i c e c o u n s e l l o r records p e r t i n e n t f a c t s regarding the man's future plans. This information i s tabulated and made a v a i l a b l e l a t e r t o the r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e r s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s p l a n followed by each of the three s e r v i c e s i s along the r i g h t l i n e , but there are d e f e c t s . The main one i s the -77-l a c k of co-ordination between the three s e r v i c e s and the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s . Each body has i t s own l a r g e l y independent or g a n i z a t i o n , and i t s own set of plans f o r the e f f e c t i v e a t t a c k of the problem of pre-discharged r e - o r i e n t a t i o n t o c i v i l l i f e . How i n f i n i t e l y more e f f e c t i v e i t would be i f a l l three personnel s e r v i c e s were organized under one department and a d e f i n i t e period at the time of discharge reserved f o r personal guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g , l e c t u r e s , f i l m - s t u d i e s - a l l t o a i d the veteran to make h i s necessary r e - a d j u s t -ments when he f i n a l l y i s discharged. However, evem under the present arrangement the serviceman i s discharged with, a f a i r knowledge of h i s " B i l l of B i g h t s " , but i n the m a j o r i t y of cases he i s f a r from being mentally prepared f o r the e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t world he i s ent e r i n g , simply because he has not been given complete i n s t r u c t i o n over a space of time necessary f o r t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l re-adjustment. " . Although the d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s have i n d i v i d u a l p r i n t e d -forms f o r discharged veterans, s t i l l the e s s e n t i a l information a v a i l -able from these forms i s fundamentally the same. A f t e r a l l p a r t i c u -l a r s are f i l e d , the contact w i t h m i l i t a r y l i f e i s terminated by the s e t t l i n g of such matters as pay, r e - i i a b i l i t a t i o n grant, c l o t h i n g allowance, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , discharge c e r t i f i c a t e and general s e r v i c e badge. The discharged veteran then u s u a l l y goes t o the o f f i c e s of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s where h i s case i s t r e a t e d i n d i v i d -u a l l y , and h i s many needs s a t i s f i e d t o the greatest p o s s i b l e extent. -78-Within twenty-four hours of discharge, the papers so made out, along w i t h the medical h i s t o r y record, are sent to the Welfare O f f i c e i n the appropriate d i s t r i c t . Immediately they are received they are put on f i l e along w i t h other p e r t i n e n t information, such as the summary of the S e r v i c e Counsellor's i n t e r v i e w . In the Vancouver o f f i c e s there i s a general information desk where a l l a p p l i c a n t s are given a primary i n t e r v i e w . I f the veteran wishes to t a l k p r i v a t e l y and c o n f i d e n t i a l l y about h i s plan of a c t i o n on any matter whatsoever, he i s introduced t o a t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r who determines the best p o s s i b l e course of a c t i o n . I n c i -d e n t a l l y , these general c o u n s e l l o r s are equipped to advise and d i r e c t enquirees on any t o p i c s from the reading of P.C.5210 down to m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and even on matters of f a i l u r e of correspondence between home and a s e r v i c e man overseas, • <•' I f the veteran wishes t o f i n d employment he i s a s s i s t e d -In doing so through d i r e c t l i a s o n between the Veterans' A f f a i r s O f f i c e and the Employment Service of Canada, In t h i s connection i t can be. estimated that about t h i r t y to f o r t y per cent of a l l discharged per-sonnel w i l l seek employment. In t h i s quest the discharged man i s f i n d i n g i t a d i s t i n c t advantage t o have spent time i n the f o r c e s . A c t u a l l y at t h i s date jobs are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y p l e n t i f u l and so these veterans have had no d i f f i c u l t y i n procuring s u i t a b l e occupation. -An a p p l i c a n t d e s i r i n g t o take advantage of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , or any-other of the b e n e f i t s provided by the post-discharge -79-Re-establishment Order, i s introduced by t h i s general interview t o a s p e c i a l i z e d c o u n s e l l o r acquainted w i t h the course the veteran d e s i r e s to f o l l o w . This man deals w i t h the case c a r e f u l l y and compiles a f u l l statement of the man's pre-enlistment and s e r v i c e h i s t o r y which i s placed before the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Board f o r f i n a l d e c i s i o n . This form i s known as the A u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r T r a i n i n g B e n e f i t s W.D.I. A c l o s e s c r u t i n y of a copy of t h i s form i n the Appendix shows the information asked. A l s o , on the back i s shown the form provided f o r the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Boardb d e c i s i o n . I f the veteran changes h i s plans and d e s i r e s some other b e n e f i t he i s turned over to another s p e c i a l i z e d c o u n s e l l o r i n the one or the other two main f i e l d s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Welfare or Re-establishment C r e d i t s , and his.case i s . d e a l t w i t h a c c o r d i n g l y . The e a r l y s p r i n g of 1945 saw the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s assuming ^he task of c o u n s e l l i n g veterans along v o c a t i o n a l l i n e s . And, since A p r i l 2, 1945 there has been a representative of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n the Veterans' A f f a i r s O f f i c e who f u l l y co-operates w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s on matters p e r t a i n i n g to V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . This has r e s u l t e d i n c a r e f u l and f a i r l y accurate guidance, a very important f a c t o r i n ensuring complete veteran re-establishment. A l l f i n a l d e c i s i o n s are made by the R e ^ - h a b i l i t a t i o n Board. This body i s composed of head o f f i c e r s , or t h e i r r e presentatives i n the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , i n c l u d i n g a Medical O f f i c e r . -80-A l l a p p l i c a t i o n s , whether new or r e v i s i o n cases, are subjected t o t h i s group, which meets d a i l y . A complete f i l e on. each case contains a l l information needed and judgments are made a f t e r weighing a l l p o i n t s . I f there i s any reasonable doubt the d e c i s i o n goes i n the veteran's favour. When an a p p l i c a n t f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s passed by t h i s board the applicant i s then r e f e r r e d to the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g O f f i c e f o r f i n a l arrangements. Discharged i n H o s p i t a l Any member of the Canadian f o r c e s considered by medical a u t h o r i t i e s to be i n need of treatment and not l i k e l y t o be f i j ? f o r f u r t h e r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i s accepted f o r treatment by the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s . H i s t r a n s f e r from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Department of M i l i t i a and N a t i o n a l Defense f o l l o w s immediately a medical board's d e c i s i o n . As soon as the t r a n s f e r i s completed the medical board proceedings are sent to the appropriate o f f i c e r ' I n the . Services so that discharge papers can be completed. Following the d i s -charge from a h o s p i t a l under the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , the treatment r e g u l a t i o n s of the Department become operative and the question of entitlement t o pension i s decided by the Canadian Pension Commission. In the h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n period p r i o r t o discharge, and i n the treatment period a f t e r discharge the veteran has opportunity to decide on h i s course of a c t i o n following-pjaleaseffrom h o s p i t a l . Since i t i s -81-impossible f o r the man undergoing treatment t o go to a representative of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , p r o v i s i o n i s made whereby an o f f i c e r i n the Department v i s i t s the veteran. This idea of bringing., the f a c i l i t i e s of the Department to the bedside of the s o l d i e r p r i o r t o h i s r e t u r n to c i v i l l i f e was s t a r t e d back i n the middle of 1941* Two o f f i c e r s , c a l l e d Personal Service O f f i c e r s , were appoInted, one i n the Shaughnessy H o s p i t a l , and the other, i n an Eastern Canadian M i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l . T h e i r duty was to i n t e r v i e w and advise the h o s p i t a l i z e d cases who were under the care of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s . By means of interviews the discharged men were acquainted w i t h the terms of P.C.5210, and informa-t i o n was given them t h a t would help them plan t h e i r f u t u r e . * Due t o the increase i n the number of d i s a b i l i t y cases i n the m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l s ^ two more Personal Services. O f f i c e r s were added, one placed i n the C h r i s t i e Street. H o s p i t a l i n Toronto and the other i n Winnipeg* F i n a l l y , there was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the d i s a b l e d cases c o n s t i t u t e d a problem t h a t demanded s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and so the Casualty T r a i n i n g S e c t i o n of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s was" e s t a b l i s h e d near the, beginning of t h i s year, w i t h a head o f f i c e r i n charge i n Ottawa. There are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h i s S e c t i o n i n a l l the main Canadian m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l s and the c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f s are .-. i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y i n order t o meet the needs of those r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n . I n the Casualty T r a i n i n g S e c t i o n , the o f f i c e r l o o k i n g a f t e r a c e r t a i n veteran assumes f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the ease regardless of what the desired b e n e f i t s are. l o r example, i f a veteran s t a r t s v o c a t i o n a l " t r a i n i n g and then switches over to a new plan i n v o l v i n g Re-establishment c r e d i t s , the? o r i g i n a l c o u n s e l l o r continues t o handle the necessary d e t a i l s . F i n a l judgment on the g r a n t i n g of any b e n e f i t s i s made by the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Board. In d i s a b i l i t y cases the report and advice of the medical o f f i c e r on t h i s board assume great importance i n deciding on the veteran's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n s . I f a veteran i s able t o leave h o s p i t a l and the board has granted v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , he i s eneour-ageS to do as much as he can f o r - h i m s e l f In the way of f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e s c h o o l or i n d u s t r i a l establishment i n which to take h i s t r a i n i n g . Two case h i s t o r i e s serve to show th a t i t i s the p o l i c y of the Veterans* A f f a i r s Department to help the veteran on the road t o re-establishment by having him assume h i s i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r i g h t from the s t a r t , and t o s o l v e h i s own problems as f a r as he i s a b l e . Case H i s t o r y No.l Lieutenant Z, a n _ a r t i s t , l o s t h i s r i g h t arm below the elbow i n b a t t l e . The Personal S e r v i c e s O f f i c e r i n the Shaughnessy H o s p i t a l succeeded i n convincing t h i s man t h a t w i t h t r a i n i n g he could continue i n ' h i s former occupation by using the l e f t hand. I n the l a s t few days before r e l e a s e from h o s p i t a l , -83-Lieutenant X found f o r himself a s u i t a b l e a r t school 'in Vancouver and s h o r t l y afterwards commenced t r a i n i n g . A f t e r completion of the course t h i s veteran maintains that he i s a b e t t e r a r t i s t than he was before. The Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s supplied him w i t h an a r t i f i c i a l limb and a mechanical drawing apparatus to enable him to draw l i n e s w i t h greater speed. As a r e s u l t of the co u n s e l l o r ' s psycho-l o g i c a l approach to t h i s d i s a b l e d man's problem, a very great d i f f i c u l t y was surmounted through the man's own e f f o r t s . What i s of paramount importance, t h i s veteran's f u t u r e i s secure and h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s reasonably complete. Case H i s t o r y No.2 A man, employed as a l o g s c a l e r i n c i v i l i a n l i f e , j o i n e d the fo r c e s and l o s t h i s r i g h t arm j u s t above the elbow. He con-sidered that occupation i n h i s o l d trade was impossible be-cause of the d i s a b i l i t y . The Personal Service O f f i c e r en-couraged him t o l e a r n t o w r i t e w i t h h i s l e f t hand, v/hich he di d by t a k i n g lessons f o r a few hours each day during h i s convalescence. With the help o f an a r t i f i c i a l limb and a clamp to ho l d the t a b u l a t i n g board i n place t h i s veteran i s now s c a l i n g l o g s - h i s readjustment t o c i v i l l i f e complete. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n of able veterans, every a p p l i c a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g passed by the -84-B e h a b i l i t a t i o n Board i s sent to the Vancouver Supervisor of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . The ap p l i c a n t i s u s u a l l y interviev/ed and e n r o l -ment f o r t r a i n i n g i n a government school, p r i v a t e school or i n ind u s t r y i s secured. Here again the veteran i s encouraged to make h i s own deci s i o n s and to make h i s own arrangements. As i n the cases c i t e d , the veteran's choice of school or i n d u s t r y t r a i n i n g establishment i s respected, because i t means that he i s assuming t h e . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s own re-establishment i n c i v i l l i f e . From the above data i t i s evident that the "stepping stones" to c i v i l l i f e are w e l l placed thereby making the t r a n s i t i o n from m i l i -t a r y t o c i v i l i a n l i f e easy and simple. The absence of cumbersome methods and unnecessary red tape promises an ease i n handling the i n -creasing numbers of discharged men and wpmen. At present the main o f f i c e s of the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s i n Vancouver are i n the Shaughnessy M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l , w h i l e the l e - h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch i s l o c a t e d i n the o l d H o t e l Vancouver. I n V i c t o r i a the Department has acquired the use of the Belmomt.tBuilding, a seven storey s t r u c t u r e , and i n i t are a l l o f f i c e s necessary f o r complete veteran a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Casualty T r a i n i n g Sections are l o c a t e d i n the Veterans' A f f a i r s h o s p i t a l s f o r obvious reasons. In conclusion, the t e s t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s w i l l be the handling of the l a r g e r numbers of -85-dischargedmen and women who w i l l r e t u r n to c i v i l i a n l i f e when the war i s over. A f t e r World War 1 a c r i t i c i s m voiced by a large number of veterans was that i n the rush f o l l o w i n g d e m o b i l i z a t i o n , many men were not t r e a t e d c o r d i a l l y nor w i t h care by the Department of S o l d i e r s C i v i l Re-establishment, I t i s easy to imagine how such calousness and p o s s i b l y carelessness can creep i n when understaffed o f f i c e s are stormed c o n t i n u a l l y by impatient throngs of veterans. Prevention of t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s p o s s i b l e by making c e r t a i n t h a t an ample w e l l - t r a i n e d s t a f f i s always on hand to give the required a t t e n t i o n to the numbers entering the o f f i c e s . I n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a there i s confidence on the part of the o f f i c i a l s i n charge that the emergency caused by a l a r g e number of a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be met s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and that there should be no c r i t i c i s m of the methods of handling the r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n problems of discharged s e r v i c e personnel. There seems l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y of having a. c e r t a i n two or three week period set aside at the time of discharge f o r the purpose of g i v i n g veterans needed c o u n s e l l i n g and d i r e c t i o n p r i o r to t h e i r return to c i v i l . . A . This means that the b r i e f contact w i t h the Veterans' A f f a i r s Department i s a very important one. These f i r s t steps on the road back to c i v i l l i f e are made easy or hard by the treatment received at the hands of t h i s body. I f ex-service men and women are to take t h e i r places as d e s i r a b l e c i t i z e n s without undue mental s t r e s s they must be tr e a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , w i t h f a i r n e s s and understanding as the keynote. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n then cannot be termed s a t i s f a c t o r y unless veterans make -86-t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l re-adjustment q u i c k l y and smoothly, and therefore q. great share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s matter r e s t s with the personnel In the governmental departments concerned. -87-PART 3: VOCATIONAL TRAINING I N BRITISH COLUMBIA Page Chapter 7. Medical and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of v o c a t i o n s ! *fci*8.niii.T-^ « • • * * • • • * • • • » • • • • 88 Chapter 8. Interviewing and c o u n s e l l i n g . . . * . 98 Chapter 9. Y o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Chapter 10. T r a i n i n g i n schools 123 Chapter 11. T r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Chapter 12. Costs and r e s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g programme . . . 150 -88-CBAPTER 711 . MEDICAL ASPECTS OF VOCATIONAL TEAMING-"There i s no more important f u n c t i o n than the medical treatment of s e r v i c e men who iiaye been discharged i n . h o s p i t a l and who require to be restored t o as near a normal c o n d i t i o n of h e a l t h as p o s s i b l e . " "The steps necessary t o the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of h o s p i t a l i z e d ex-service men involve complete medical and s u r g i c a l a i d , i n c l u d i n g e l e c t r o , physio- and occupational therapy, to reduce d i s a b i l i t y con-sequent upon i n j u r y t o the minimum; p r o t h e s i s - the proper, f i t t i n g of and i n s t r u c t i o n i h the use of a r t i f i c i a l limbs, apparatus and appliances, thereby s u b s t i t u t i n g as f a r as p o s s i b l e f o r what has been l o s t ; re-education - both f u n c t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l - t o hasten and encourage economic and s o c i a l re-adjustment, and organized a i d and • i • f a c i l i t i e s t o assure employment consonant w i t h r e s i d u a l d i s a b i l i t y . " From t h i s concise statement by Robert England the emphasis, on treatment i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d . I n these two paragraphs no mention i s made of compensation by way of pension, although such i n d e m n i f i c a t i o n i s guaranteed i n case of d i s a b i l i t y t r a c eable t o M i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Payment of compensation alone would not c o n t r i b u t e t o the r e - e s t a b l i s h -ment of the r e c i p i e n t as a producing member of s o c i e t y . Indeed, ex-perience has proved that monetary compensation alone tends to encourage i n v a l i d i t y , w i t h deterimental r e s u l t s . Treatment i n any shape or form 1. p.118, England, Robert, o p * . c i t . -89-i s imperative so that a handicapped veteran might he able t o make h i s own s o c i a l and economic readjustment. Without t h i s , h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would e x i s t ' i n name only. Vi/hen reference i s made to d i s a b i l i t i e s or handicaps, i t must be remembered that these can be mental as w e l l as p h y s i c a l . When there i s a b o d i l y i n j u r y , a c e r t a i n mental i n s t a b i l i t y i s always present. This mental exhaustion w i l l disappear i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the i n j u r y cases, but i t must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i f the medical o f f i c e r i s to give f u l l j u s t i c e to the returned s o l d i e r ' s problem. From experience i t has been found t h a t even the most appar-e n t l y h o p e l e s s l y d i s a b l e d veteran can, under guidance and d i r e c t i o n , achieve a good measure of c o n t r o l over h i s handicap, and can become a s e l f supporting and u s e f u l member of s o c i e t y . This a b i l i t y to over-come the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y depends to a great extent on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the handicapped veteran." T h i s leads t o the most, d i f f i c u l t problem confronting those i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t a r i s e s from the- presence of a great number of cases where some mental c o n d i t i o n with or without accompanying b o d i l y d i s a b i l i t y precludes the normal use of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n • f a c i l i t i e s . Many discharged men s u f f e r i n g from some p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s -turbances are unable t o make the best use of b e n e f i t s such as t r a i n i n g , l a n d settlement or even preference i n employment. '. A l l major and minor mental disturbances are r e f e r r e d t o i n a general way as Neuropsychiatric Cases. Under t h i s general term are included such conditions as Schizophrenia, Paranoia, Manic Depressive, I n v o l u t i o n a l Psychoneuuosis of a l l kinds, Psychosis, Psychopathic P e r s o n a l i t y , Mental D e f i c i e n c y , Syndromes, P e r s o n a l i t y Defect, E n c e p h a l i t i s , E p i l e p s y , and some others. They masquerade under many d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s . The severe ones are i n s a n i t i e s while some may be a l i t t l e more than average moodiness or gloominess. Others may adopt the guise of a p h y s i c a l ailment as peptic u l c e r s , heart diseases or some other organic t r o u b l e . Again there are some manifested in. com-pul s i o n s to count trees or cracks i n sidewalks, or i n a n t i s o c i a l behav-i o u r , delinquency, crime and u n e t h i c a l p r a c t i c e s . Whatever the mani-f e s t a t i o n , i t i s the outward expression of some impairment of the owner's adjustment equipment. Diagnosis and prognosis of these d i s -orders l i e i n the realm of the s p e c i a l i s t , and i n t h i s connection i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to s a y th a t much progress has been made i n treatment, which i n the case of returned s o l d i e r s f o l l o w s the l i n e s used i n c i v i l i a n cases. The incidence of Neuropsychiatric cases i n connection w i t h m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y i s indeed s t a r t l i n g . The f o l l o w i n g quotation while based on s t a t i s t i c s of the armed f o r c e s of the United States i n d i c a t e s the magnitude of t h i s problem. "As of September 1944 approximately one and a h a l f m i l l i o n men have been discharged from m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e since P e a r l Harbour. Some were separated foom service because of average reasons; others f o r dependency reasons, and some were honourably d i s --91-charged a f t e r court m a r t i a l . The remainder have been "medical" discharges, e i t h e r f o r p h y s i c a l or mental causes. Nearly one-: h a l f , i . e . 45 per cent of a l l medical discharges from the armed : f o r c e s are f o r some p s y c h i a t r i c reason. Already more than 300,000 men have been discharged f o r p s y c h i a t r i c c o n d i t i o n s , and about JO,000 more are being discharged each month. I n a d d i t i o n t o these, another m i l l i o n and a quarter men (about 13 per cent o f - a l l those between eighteen and t h i r t y - e i g h t . years of age coming up f o r i n d u c t i o n board examinations) have been r e j e c t e d by i n d u c t i o n board examiners as manifesting some mental or emotional c o n d i t i o n (a p s y c h i a t r i c c o n d i t i o n ) that made them u n s u i t a b l e "for m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Among these psyehla-t r i c a l l y discharged and r e j e c t e d groups comparatively few of the mental o r emotional c o n d i t i o n s could be described as " i n s a n i t y . " - The overwhelming percentage of "them f e l l under the t e c h n i c a l head-ing of "psycho neurosis", which i s an emotional d i s o r d e r , t o be 2 sure, but i n i n t e n s i t y and i n nature f a r from i n s a n i t y . " Abnormal mental s t a t e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y associated w i t h war, because as we a l l know, our c i v i l mental i n s t i t u t i o n s are f u l l of people whose disturbances have a r i s e n i n c i v i l l i f e . But the unnatural s i t u a t i o n s inherent i n wartime service a c t i v i t y are p r e c i p i t -a t i n g f a c t o r s i n the development of psychoneurotic and other mental S. p*15-16, P r a t t j G.S. M.D., S o l d i e r t o c i v i l i a n , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1944. s t a t e s . Many of the servicemen who have broken down under the tensions produced by ser v i c e l i f e In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y would have maintained t h e i r e q u i l i b r i u m had they been l e f t as c i t i z e n s . This f a c t shows the impor-tance of co r r e c t a p p r a i s a l and a l l o c a t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l on enter-ing the f o r c e s . In a d d i t i o n to the many discharges caused by nervous disorders and mental c o n d i t i o n s a l a r g e number are caused by the presence of stomach, u l c e r s s heart t r o u b l e , and other f u n c t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s . These p h y s i o l o g i c a l conditions have a clos e connection w i t h an upset mental s t a t e . Then, again, there i s a group discharged f o r various forms of inadequacy and i n e f f i c i e n c y . I n t h i s group are cases of mental d e f i -ciency, psychopathic s t a t e s , neurosis and psychosis. Among t h i s number a l s o are men who are s o c i a l l y maladjusted w i t h v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n s . Again, i n t h i s category are those whose apathy denotes mental l i f e f a r ' below normal standard. In respect t o the groups discharged as being i n e f f i c i e n t or inadequate, those discharged as s u f f e r i n g from nervous and mental con-d i t i o n s , and those discharged as s u f f e r i n g from some p h y s i o l o g i c a l con-d i t i o n r e l a t e d to a mental s t a t e , there are a l l degrees of d i f f i c u l t y i n the process of readjustment t o c i v i l l i f e . To many the r e t u r n to , c i v i l i a n s t a t u s tends to improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . Others have con-s c i o u s l y or unconsciously sought by malingering to maint a i n t h e i r i n v a l i d i t y so as t o secure p r i v i l e g e s , pension, e t c . , and t h i s tends to l e a d t o c o n t i n u a t i o n and p o s s i b l e exaggeration of the d i f f i c u l t y . I t i s with'these v a r i o u s types that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , o f f i c e r s have t o dea l , and i t i s q u i t e obvious that the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g i n the work p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r re-establishment are many indeed. A l l ITeuropsychiatric cases detected by the medical o f f i c e r s are t r e a t e d c a r e f u l l y before the veteran i s allowed t o r e t u r n to c i v i l i a n l i f e . Medical o f f i c e r s aim t o re s t o r e them to as near a normal c o n d i -t i o n as p o s s i b l e . But there are neuropsychiatries who have been found inadequate as members of the f o r c e s , and who are subject to breakdown under heavy r e t r a i n i n g f o r c i v i l l i f e . They are the ones who make poor p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustments and because of t h e i r unpredictable and un-warranted a c t i o n s are a source of worry to o f f i c i a l s responsible f o r t h e i r re-establishment. TnroUghout the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n i t must be kept i n mind that the: great m a j o r i t y of discharged men, even those w i t h the minor .'if • n e u r b p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s , f i n d i t p o s s i b l e to adjust themselves p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y without undue d i f f i c u l t y . As f a r as the general r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n of these people i s concerned the general p u b l i c can help immeasurably. I f we take the a t t i t u d e t h a t the veteran's a c t i o n s are i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n s of our own, given s i m i l a r provocation, we can create that kindof atmosphere t h a t w i l l do wonders i n expe d i t i n g h i s r e a d j u s t -ment to c i v i l l i v i n g . I t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t a f i l e i s made f o r each es-serviee man or woman making a p p l i c a t i o n to the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s f o r any b e n e f i t s allowable under present l e g i s l a t i o n . In t h i s f i l e i s -94-the veteran's s e r v i c e record along w i t h h i s medical record. To these Sre added any a p p l i c a t i o n forms, such as W.D.I., the A u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r T r a i n i n g B e n e f i t s form, or any of the others according t o the d e s i r e s of the veteran. I t . i s a l s o remembered that when the a p p l i c a t i o n comes before the R e h a b i l i a t i o n Board the f i l e i s l a i d on the t a b l e and the d e c i s i o n i s t h e r e f o r e based on a l l the f a c t s of the case. I n the case of veterans who have suffered;some d i s a b i l i t y and have the r e f o r e received h o s p i t a l treatment, the medical record assumes great importance i n the g r a n t i n g of any b e n e f i t s . From t h i s i t i s apparent that the cases handled by the Casualty T r a i n i n g S e c t i o n are the ones that need the c a r e f u l judgment of the medical o f f i c e r , because a l l of them are-handi-capped i n some way or other. The % d i c a l O f f i c e r must advise as to the s u i t a b i l i t y , from a medical standpoint, of the choice of t r a i n i n g s e l e c t e d by the veteran. He i s u s u a l l y contacted by the c o u n s e l l o r i n the Casualty T r a i n i n g S e c t i o n i f there i s any doubt as t o the wisdom of the choice of the man i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . I n t h i s respect care must be taken or great i n j u s t i c e may be done. Therefore,, when such an, exigency a r i s e s the Medical O f f i c e r must have the f u l l e s t information about the case i n question, and must be c a r e f u l about accepting the opinions of other o f f l e e r s or medical boards. A t a b u l a t i o n of the gross and minute b o d i l y i n j u r i e s must be accompanied by an accurate diagnosis of the man's mental c o n d i t i o n . The medical o f f i c e r must, therefore, s i z e up the man from every angle, so that when i t comes t o the question of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t , the advice of the coun-s e l l o r and the d e c i s i o n of the board w i l l be accurate. - The m a j o r i t y of cases are e a s i l y decided. A small percentage however, present v a r y i n g degrees of d i f f i c u l t y . As stressed e a r l i e r i n the chapter, cases that have undergone ne u r o p s y c h i a t r i c treatment are the most d i f f i c u l t to decide, because even i f cure i s e f f e c t e d there i s no guarantee that the s t r a i n of t r a i n i n g i n any v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d w i l l not cause another breakdown. For example, i f a man was h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r neurasthenia, he should not be advised t o t r a i n t o be a h o i s t i n g engineer, f o r i n that l i n e of work the l i v e s of many men depend upon the steadiness of h i s nerve, ftis judgment, and the quickness w i t h which h i s mind a c t s i n an emergency. To s t a t e another example,. a man subject to e p i l e p t i c f i t s would be advised against l e a r n i n g any trade where there i s machinery or where the t a k i n g of a f i t would.jeopardize the s a f e t y of others. Such considerations seem f a i r l y obvious even to the. l a y man, but i n t h e i r s i m p l i c i t y they i n d i c a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t might a r i s e . From the p h y s i c a l standpoint the occupational t r a i n i n g and the occupation must be s u i t e d to the d i s a b i l i t y . A man with l e g amputation, p r o v i d i n g he has the necessary schooling and p r e r e q u i s i t e i n t e r e s t , could q u i t e s a f e l y take t r a i n i n g i n draughting. Conversely, a. man w i t h an a r t i f i c i a l limb should not take t r a i n i n g i n an occupa-t i o n , where the atmosphere i s prone t o be overheated or damp, as under such c o n d i t i o n s the stump w i l l sweat and chafe. In t h i s matter of -96-s u i t a b i l i t y of . t r a i n i n g and occupation, knowledge of the r e l a t i o n between the various occupations which a man may f o l l o w and d i s a b i l i t i e s i s imperative f o r the c o u n s e l l o r who very o f t e n has to supply t h i s i nformation t o the enquiring ex-service man. During the period of t r a i n i n g and i n the months f o l l o w i n g , the discharged veteran i s subject to medical check-up. I f the choice i s the r i g h t one, and the man i s happy i n h i s work, h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be considered on i t s way. I f some chr o n i c c o n d i t i o n breaks i n t o a c t i v i t y , such as excema as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g i n f u r c u t t i n g , a change has to be made immediately. I f a man has been allowed to take t r a i n i n g against which he was advised, and he f i n d s that he was wrong because of the i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of t h a t work w i t h h i s s t a t e of h e a l t h , h i s p l an of t r a i n i n g must be a l t e r e d . F o r t u n a t e l y , there are com-p a r a t i v e l y few such cases, which i n i t s e l f speaks w e l l f o r the ex-c e l l e n c e of work of medical o f f i c e r s and Department of veterans' A f f a i r s c o u n s e l l o r s . Before concluding t h i s chapter on the medical aspects of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , a b r i e f word about that d i s a b i l i t y which t o the c a s u a l observer seems t o c a l l f a r more a t t e n t i o n than most others -that of b l i n d n e s s . The Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d has been o f f i c i a l l y appointed by the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s as the a f t e r - c a r e agency f o r the war b l i n d e d . A general t r a i n i n g centre has been e s t a b l i s h e d at 78 Admiral Road i n Toronto where by A p r i l 1st of -97-t h i s year some twenty new war blinded w i l l be r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g . This t r a i n i n g w i l l i n c l u d e physio-therapy, j o i n e r y , the operation of power d r i v e n machinery such as d r i l l presses, e t c . , weaving, p o u l t r y r a i s i n g , the operation of concession stands p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Fede r a l b u i l d i n g s which have been made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose, together w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n various forms of s t a f f work w i t h the I n s t i t u t e . Those war b l i n d e d who.prefer t r a i n i n g i n Tancouver may. reeeive such t r a i n i n g i n a l i m i t e d degree, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c l u d i n g concession stand operation and home-) teaching. At present n o n e are t a k i n g advantage of t h i s . This chapter, extremely general as i t i s , shows the clos e r e l a t i o n which e x i s t s between the work of the Medical Branch and that of the . I n t e r v i e w e r s , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f i e l d men, a n d i n s t r u c t 0 : r O n l y by such .close teamwork can those who have s a c r i f i c e d most i n t h i s war, by reason of some p h y s i c a l o r mental d i s a b i l i t y , be s u c c e s s f u l l y r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n c i v i l l i f e . -98-CBAPTER ,7111 GUIDANCE AND QOUl^ELLING In the complexity of modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g have assumed great importance. Even f o r those most capable i t i s not always easy t o f i n d a way i n the pandaemonium of t w e n t i e t h -century l i f e . In. i n d u s t r y , guidance s e r v i c e s , personnel bureaus and personnel managers are doing much i n connection w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g , s e l e c t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n of employees. I n schools, too, a greater impetus i s being given to guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g . , The need f o r guidance i n connection w i t h discharged members of the f o r c e s i s i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s of a survey of p r e - e n l i s t -1 ment vocations c a r r i e d on i n the three s e r v i c e s . Up t o August 31, 1942, of the 347,900 men who e n l i s t e d , only 27,000, or about e i g h t per cent, had s p e c i f i c plans f o r post-war employment. About 212,000 had no plans but dlid have a preference f o r c e r t a i n types of work, and 108,000 had no s p e c i f i c plans and no preference. As Dr. Weir says, "Surely these data i l l u s t r a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of comprehensive guidance programmes to be made a v a i l a b l e f o r those who already f e e l the'need, or who may be persuaded t o appreciate the need, of being helped i n choosing t h e i r 2 l i f e ' s work." I t seems h i g h l y l o g i c a l t h a t i n t e r v i e w i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g i n the general scheme of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r veterans, takes i t s 1> p.260, Weir, G-.M. op. c i t . 2-, p.261, i b i d . place as being j u s t as important a f e a t u r e as the a c t u a l t r a i n i n g ; Sor the success of the l a t t e r f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n c i v i l l i f e depends a great deal on g e t t i n g the veteran s t a r t e d on the. r i g h t course* Furthermore, since the average cost of g i v i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g to, each man involves considerable expenditure, i t i s imperative that the man, be headed f o r success. A man cannot be termed t h i s unless the course chosen i s i n l i n e w i t h h i s a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , and t h i s f o r a l a r g e percentage depends almost completely on the e f f i c a c y of the counselling progaramae* This s e r v i c e i s not necessary f o r a l l veterans* and so elaborate c o u n s e l l i n g i n these already, "decided" cases would be waste-f u l . The main problem r i s e s when there i s no knowledge of i n d u s t r i a l work and no i d e a of what the course of a c t i o n i s to be. I n t h i s cate-gory are thousands of young s e r v i c e men whose enlistment f o l l o w e d d i r e c t l y or c l o s e on t h e i r school l i f e . I t i s mainly w i t h t h i s group t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance assume the h i g h e s t importance * The degree of success of guidance depends e n t i r e l y on the c o u n s e l l o r . A c o u n s e l l o r must be a person possessinghigh q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s . F i r s t of a l l , he should have a wide general experience i n the trades, along w i t h t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g so that he can understand by personal experience the t r a i n i n g the man has to go through* I f he has had experience i n the h e a v i e r occupations, and has known the r i g o r s of the u n c e r t a i n t y of the labour market, h i s experience i s invaluable i n d e a l i n g w i t h those veterans whose pre-war employment was i n the -100-u n s k i l i e d or s e m i - s k i l l e d heavy occupations. I t i s also considered e s s e n t i a l t h a t a c o u n s e l l o r should be a returned man. Voluntary enlistment i n Canada i s probably responsible f o r a s t r o n g f e e l i n g on the part, tof an e x - s o l d i e r against the c i v i l i a n of m i l i t a r y age holding o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s i n administering r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n measures. This f e e l i n g leads t o d i s t r u s t and l a c k of confidence. A l s o i having experienced s e r v i c e l i f e , the c o u n s e l l o r can t a l k w i t h the veteran on an equal f o o t i n g . Again, because of the amazing amount of a p p l i e d psychology i n the business of c o u n s e l l i n g , a c o u n s e l l o r should have a sound background i n t h i s s u b j e c t . He must be sympathetic, adaptable, d i p l o -matic and s u b t l e . He must have i n i t i a t i v e w i t h a knowledge of handling men. Indeed, i t i s no wonder t h a t w i t h such high p r e r e q u i s i t e q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o procure men who could undertake t h i s work, l o t t hat there are no such men, but perhaps: the men best qualified'may f i n d more l u c r a t i v e and permanent employment elsewhere than i n r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n o f f i c e s J I t was f o rtunate that the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s could have the s e r v i c e s of the experienced i n t e r v i e w e r s of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from the s t a r t of the t r a i n i n g programme up t o March of t h i s , year. These in t e r v i e w e r s w i t h t h e i r wide experience i n occupations and a l l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t r a i n i n g were i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n t o h e l p the veteran w i t h h i s problems. However, the c o u n s e l l -in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s now undertaken by: the Department of Veterans' -101-- A f f a i r s * i t s e l f and i t c a r r i e d out by personnel t r a i n e d s p e c i a l l y f o r the job. This s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i s given by the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s i n Ottawa to s e l e c t groups having the necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I n a course l a s t i n g three weeks these prospective c o u n s e l l o r s are given a course c o n s i s t i n g of two p a r t s . The f i r s t , l a s t i n g two weeks, deals w i t h the d e t a i l s of l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o veteran re-establishment along w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g methods. The second part deals s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h problems of a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , which,, i n the case of these t r a i n e e s , i s the Department of, Veterans' A f f a i r s . When t h i s b r i e f three weeks i s over the t r a i n e e i s considered equipped t o step i n t o any r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f f i c e i n Canada and commence the d u t i e s of a i d i n g discharged s o l d i e r s i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s u i t -able course towards c i v i l re-establishment. As at ApB-iJ 21,. 1945, three hundred and eighty-two graduates > t of t h i s t r a i n i n g school have been posted to the various Veterans'' Welfare O f f i c e s i n Canada. At present there are e i g h t y - f o u r i n t r a i n i n g , \ Since the t r a i n i n g school f o r these people i s at Ottawa*-. the graduated c o u n s e l l o r s who are placed i n the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n are at a s t r i c t disadvantage. Many are from eastern Canada o r i g i n a l l y and so they have no d e f i n i t e knowledge of occupations or employment i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Furthermore, the absence of extensive and. up-to-date p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l on job surveys and jofe analyses f o r the province or even, f o r Canada makes i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r these c o u n s e l l o r s jjo become w e l l acquainted w i t h the s i t u a t i o n -102-i n a short time. Here, the co-operative assistance of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g O f f i c i a l s has proved invaluable t o these people. • - I n t h i s work of guidance the i n t e r v i e w e r has three matters t o consider. One i s the a p p l i c a n t , the second i s the job, while between these two l i e s the t h i r d , t r a i n i n g . The preparation of the a p p l i c a n t f o r the job depends on the determination of the k i n d of job a v a i l a b l e f o r the candidate and the. s u i t a b i l i t y of the candidate f o r the p o s i t i o n . I n the remainder of t h i s chapter are discussed the f i r s t two of these important matters. The t h i r d , t r a i n i n g , i s t r e a t e d more,.fully i n Qhapters 9, 10, and 11. -When a veteran makes . a p p l i c a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t s , h i s complete Service h i s t o r y , pre-enlistment occupational h i s t o r y , medical record and discharge c e r t i f i c a t e are a v a i l a b l e to the c o u n s e l l o r and are used as the b a s i s of the i n t e r v i e w . U s u a l l y these contain s u f f i c i e n t information to enable the c o u n s e l l o r t o suggest the most d e s i r a b l e course of a c t i o n f o r the a p p l i c a n t . On the other hand, i f the documents do not give enough inf o r m a t i o n ^ then before necessary d i r e c t i o n s are given, i n t e l l i g e n c e , aptitude and i n t e r e s t inventory t e s t s are given. I n c i d e n t a l l y , there are not ] many of these."indeterminate" cases, but when they do appear they are sent t o the Vancouver School Board Tests and ffieasurements Department.: Many veterans who.have no preconceived idea of what occupa-t i o n they wish to enter come before the c o u n s e l l o r apparently under , the i l l u s i o n t h a t he i s a " f o r t u n e - t e l l e r " who i s able to "see" -103-t l i e i r e n t i r e f u t u r e l i f e . I t i s quite p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n t e r v i e w e r would be able to judge such an applicant from the f i l e contents and plan a course of a c t i o n t h a t would i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y be found e n t i r e l y acceptable. But t h i s would notj.be i n harmony with one of the basic p r i n c i p l e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and that i s , that the veteran must make up h i s own mind* To help him do t h i s the c o u n s e l l o r u s u a l l y gives him.various suggestions and advice to serve as "food f o r thought", and the veteran i s t o l d to r e t u r n l a t e r * Sometimes he i s advised t o v i s i t i n d u s t r i a l establishments where he can observe eertain, l i n e s of work i n which he has shown professed i n t e r e s t . This group as a whole are easy to handle. A more d i f f i c u l t group t o counsel c o n s i s t s of those unreasonable persons who p e r s i s t i n i l l - a d v i s e d notions of what v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d i s best f o r t h e i r re-establlshment. I n t h i s group are some of the m i l d n e u r o p s y c h i a t r y ! cases described i n the previous chapter. In d e a l i n g w i t h these the c o u n s e l l o r t r i e s suggestion, persuasion and reason t o make them see the f o l l y of wasting a l l t h e i r c r e d i t s f o r re-establishment on t r a i n -ing f o r an occupation that i s not i n keeping with, t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s o r t h a t w i l l not s p e l l permanence. U s u a l l y a l a r g e number of i n t e r -views and a great deal of guidance i s e f f e c t i v e i n s t e e r i n g the veteran i n t o a s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g . I f t h i s cannot be done, and the a p p l i c a n t p e r s i s t s i n h i s notions, there i s no other a l t e r n a t i v e but to grant the d e s i r e d t r a i n i n g . F o r t u n a t e l y there are very few of these cases. Besides the trouble' they cause p r i o r to being -104-granted the t r a i n i n g , immediately they r e a l i z e they have made a mistake they begin to r a t i o n a l i z e and by t h i s process proceed to blame the .Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s or the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r the whole misguided,, a f f a i r , thereby g i v i n g the depart-ments concerned a great deal of unfavourable p u b l i c i t y * S p e c i a l mention must be made of job a n a l y s i s because of. i t s importance i n p l a c i n g handicapped men* I n t h i s connection i t may be mentioned too th a t only a few people i n the province have systema-t i c a l l y gathered any survey m a t e r i a l on the a l l i e d t o p i c s of occupa-t i o n s and,occupational needs p a r t i c u l a r t o B r i t i s h Columbia. G e n e r a l l y speaking, i n . t h i s field,Canada i s f a r behind the United S t a t e s . However, there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the task of t r a i n i n g men i n l i n e s of "permanent" work v / i l l give an impetus to i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s along these l i n e s . Many la r g e f i r m s have attempted job a n a l y s i s on a small s c a l e , and so.according t o r e p o r t s of the N a t i o n a l S e l e c t i v e Service many such f i r m s are employing more .and more handicapped man, both veteran and c i v i l i a n . This work of h e l p i n g handicapped people to be placed i n a job where they can give the employer good measure i s c a r r i e d on by a Regional Supervisor of S p e c i a l Placements i n the Unemployment Insurance Commission. "One ob j e c t i v e of job a n a l y s i s i s the l i s t i n g of occupations which can be. undertaken by employees handicapped by p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . The scheduling of s k i l l s and C o - r e l a t i o n of these w i t h the demands made upon p h y s i c a l physique -105-and stamina, together w i t h the question of readaptation of machinery t o accord w i t h s u b s t i t u t e d f u n c t i o n s of dis a b l e d men involves-hot only a survey of the mechanical equipment, but suggests the use of f a t i g u e and other s t u d i e s , , which.,, have been f o r years under, research by i n d u s t r i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . " 3 I n a study" completed i n 1943 by c e r t a i n members of the Psychology Department, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, f o r the Employment Ser v i c e D i v i s i o n of the Unemployment Insurance Commission, many i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s have been d i s c l o s e d . Some of these are best summarized as f o l l o w s : (a) The general p u b l i c has misconceived ideas regarding the handicapped person and h i s problems. Eor example, the p u b l i c s t i l l considers a person w i t h v i s i b l e p h y s i c a l impairment as being " d i s a b l e d " and therefore "not able" t o do very much of anything. However, i f the d i s a b i l i t y i s not a v i s i b l e i n j u r y , . s u c h a handicapped person i s expected to c a r r y on i n an ordinary f a s h i o n . I n t h i s connection the S p e c i a l Placement O f f i c e r s are doing valuable work i n educating employers t o the f a c t that d i s a b i l i t i e s are handicaps, and th a t a handicapped person: i s u s u a l l y normal i n every other way. 3. p.240, England/ .Robert, : op. ©it. . 4. By G-.P.Cosgrave,.' R.J.R.Bell, and If.L.Thompson, published i n 1943. -106-(b) Under judgment and i n the l i g h t of c e r t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a , , only seventy-six jobs out of a t o t a l of the 1,152 were shown to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r handicapped persons.: In e f f e c t t h i s means then that i n t h i s study 93*6% of a l l jobs can be handled by persons who s u f f e r some d i s a b i l i t y . Of course, i t i s important to note that the study was based on about 1,200 handicapped cases and, th e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t s can be regarded as being ,"symptomatic." (c) The study r e v e a l s that " i n the case of handicapped persons the unimpaired senses and b o d i l y and mental functions are r e q u i s i t i o n e d to compensate - and o f t e n to overcompensate -f o r those senses and f u n c t i o n s that have been impaired. The keener eye, the more d e l i c a t e touch, a c u i t y o f hear-• i n g , and p a i n s t a k i n g c a u t i o n on the job are assets t h a t f r e q u e n t l y more than counterbalance the d e b i t s on the handicap s i d e of the ledger. Indeed, i f the handicapped workers are given the appropriate type of. employment -and t h i s covers a wide segment ;of the i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d s -i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown that they are the v i c t i m s of fewer accidents than are non-handicapped employees; that the handicapped are the cause of fewer breakages i n i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , and t h a t , by and l a r g e , they are an e q u a l l y great, i f not greater, source of p r o f i t to -107-v employers than are t h e i r non-handicapped competitors. The keen and i n t r u d i n g awareness of the handicap and the dominating:anxiety not to " f a l l down on the job" may not be an asset to the mental h e a l t h of the handicapped worker, but these a t t r i b u t e s are assuredly no handicap to the f i n a n c i a l w e l f a r e of the employer." 5 This Toronto U n i v e r s i t y Survey goes much f u r t h e r than the mere d i s c l o s u r e of the above f a c t s . Tarious jobs f o r varying degrees of d i s a b i l i t y are suggested and l i s t s of occupations are shown. These data should prove to be of s o l i d value to the handicapped person, t o t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r s i n the Casualty T r a i n i n g S e c t i o n and to t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s and employers. As f a r as the d i s c u s s i o n on the "job" i s concerned, i t may appear: that undue a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d t o the handicapped* and what has been done on h i s b e h a l f . This may be t r u e , but i n any event the added emphasis i n t h i s f i e l d shows the need of organized concrete data on Canadian occupations f o r the able veteran and c i v i l i a n a l i k e i n the post-war years. I t i s obvious that such occupational surveys and job analyses would involve much continuous work i n connection w i t h the c o l l a t i o n of m a t e r i a l on census data, research s t u d i e s , and schemes of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h subsequent indexing o f . a l l m a t e r i a l . In the post-war years such a wealth of 5. p.270, Weir, G-.M. 'op.c'it. -108-i n f ormation' would prove to be invaluable f o r use i n schools, p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n the s e n i o r h i g h school where v o c a t i o n a l guidance i s becoming more and more d e f i n i t e and f a r more reaching.. I n concluding t h i s chapter, a summary of the s a l i e n t points i s presented: (a) Y o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n v o l v e s three t h i n g s : 1* the: veteran; 2. the job; .3* the t r a i n i n g . (b) Guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g are j u s t as important features i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme as the a c t u a l t r a i n i n g . (c) A very l a r g e percentage of veterans need guidance i n the , v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d and therefore i n respect to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . (d) C o u n s e l l i n g i s a co-operative e n t e r p r i s e i n that the veteran must be w i l l i n g to accept help and then t o make up h i s own mind a f t e r he has been un - c o e r c i v e l y d i r e c t e d . (e) The necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a c o u n s e l l o r are very h i g h . ( f ) Job a n a l y s i s and occupation l i s t s are important develop-, ments i n connection w i t h handicapped veterans as c a r r i e d out by the Toronto U n i v e r s i t y Survey. • (g) The guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g programme f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has great i m p l i c a t i o n s i n f u t u r e education '•• • -109-GHAPTER IX VOCATIONAL TRAINING- FOR REHAB ILITATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA In the years f o l l o w i n g World War 1, when i n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n -i n g was being given t o handicapped s o l d i e r s , much was s a i d about t h i s unique problem of t r a i n i n g and the n e c e s s i t y f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l system quite, d i f f e r e n t from any e s t a b l i s h e d before that time. Since those days great s t r i d e s have been made i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . WeH equipped t e c h n i c a l schools s t a f f e d by competent i n s t r u c t o r s have sprung up a l l over t h r country. The Youth T r a i n i n g Programme c a r r i e d oh by the Department of Labour added g r e a t l y to the s t o r e of know- ' ledge of vocations, t r a i n i n g requirements, and methods of training-. This f i n a l l y emerged i n t o the War Emergency Programme and s i n c e 1940 thousands have been t r a i n e d i n t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l l i n e s . Thus when the question of p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g f o r members of the Canadian Armed Forces who wished to prepared f o r some v o c a t i o n came t o the f o r e , the Department of Labour through the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n -i n g was prepared f o r the t a s k . I t was known that i n the t r a i n i n g of veterans problems would a r i s e . These problems emerge, out of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the returned s o l d i e r student and a c i v i l i a n student, and can be summarized as f o l l o w s : -1. A returned man's experience has been such t h a t h i s problems are best understood by those who have had the s i m i l a r experience. 2. A veteran has a more mature and a broader point of view. 5. A f t e r ah adjustment has heen made the veteran u s u a l l y has more i n i t i a t i v e than the average c i v i l i a n . '.4.- In: the m a j o r i t y of cases the desire t o l e a r n and the degree of a p p l i c a t i o n i s g r e a t e r than w i t h c i v i l i a n students. 5, Yeterans of a l l ages come up f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g at the same time. 6. Among these ex-service men are a l l classes from the i l l i t e r -ate t o the w e l l educated and from the very, d u l l to the v e r y • i n t e l l i g e n t . 7» A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of these veterans are married or have dependents and c i v i l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 8. A l a r g e number of these people have been. wage earners p r i o r to e n l i s t m e n t , 9. They must be able to enter and leave c l a s s e s at any time. 10. They r e q u i r e schools or t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s which are open a l l the year. . • , • These f a c t s i n d i c a t e the points i n which t h i s work of voca-t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r veterans d i f f e r s from ordinary education. I t means that courses should be short, Intensive and' p r a c t i c a l w i t h the f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the work c l e a r l y seen. I t would be advisable t o group, the veterans i n c l a s s e s by themselves, owing t o the f a c t that f o r the most part they do not f i t i n w i t h the immature adolescents found i n our own c i v i l i a n schools. The t r a i n i n g system followed must be very f l e x i b l e indeed i n order to meet the problem of v a r i a b l e - I l l -attendance and a b i l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . These things were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g O f f i c i a l s as V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n grew. This t r a i n i n g i s c a r r i e d out under Schedule M L n of the'War Emergency T r a i n i n g Programme. Schedule "E" of the programme i s s t r a i g h t Yfer Emergency T r a i n i n g given t o c i v i l i a n s , and Army* Havy and A i r force personnel. Schedule nG" i s provided f o r the R.C.A.E. alone. These schedules are mentioned because equipment i n use under Schedules "K" and "G" w i l l be turned over f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g ' purposes as t r a i n i n g under these schedules i s c u r t a i l e d . T r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s provided.in f o u r ways; L. Dominion P r o v i n c i a l S p e c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C l a s s e s . £• P r i v a t e Commercial and Trade Schools. 3 i T r a i n i n g i n l n d u s t r y . 4. Correspondence Courses. The f i r s t of these were e s t a b l i s h e d because the Department of Labour found i t cheaper to run th^se c l a s s e s than to pay the fees required by the p r i v a t e schools. As the demand increases, new c l a s s e s w i l l be organized. At the present time there are fourteen of these, s p e c i a l c l a s s e s w i t h attendance ranging a l l the way from 3. up to 38.^".. Ten of these c l a s s e s are i n s i x government schools, w h i l e the other f o u r are i n the Vancouver Technic a l School. There are no government schools e s t a b l i s h e d outside of Vancouver. ' v 1. Enrolment i n February, 1945 -112-A great v a r i e t y of p r i v a t e schools are providing t r a i n i n g f o r veterans. There are about t h i r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia with a monthly enrolment ranging from one to twelve i n the month of February, 1945. A l l fees are paid by the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . T r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y i s f a s t becoming more popular, espec-i a l l y among the men discharged from the f o r c e s . I t i s r e f e r r e d t o as "on the job" t r a i n i n g and veterans t a k i n g advantage of t h i s p l a n have a permanent job while l e a r n i n g the trade or business, d e t a i l s of t h i s type of t r a i n i n g are given i n Chapter 11. The maximum number t a k i n g correspondence courses i n any month during the past f i s c a l year has been 41. There has been a s l i g h t increase i n enrolment since 1943, but the numbers t a k i n g t r a i n i n g t h i s way i s very s m a l l i n comparison to the enrolment i n p r i v a t e schools, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l a s s e s , or i n i n d u s t r y . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e and graph show the numbers t a k i n g -t r a i n i n g i n each year i n the v a r i o u s types of t r a i n i n g . ~//s-TABLE 1; Showing numbers of Veterans talcing Vooational Training in Brit ish Columbia in various types of sohools. YEARS Deo. 1/41 -- Mar. 31/43 Apr. 1/42 -- Har. 31/43 Apr. 1/42 -- Har. 31/44 Apr. 1/45 - . Mar. 31/45. SCHOOLS : Men Women Total Men Women Total Men a omen i'otal Men Women Total Dominion-Provincial Special Rehabilit-ation Classes* (from Deo. 1/41.) 8i t 53 - 53 89 4 (1) 93 128 9 137 332 56 388 Industry Training (From 0ot,l/43) • - - r - - - 34 1 25 186 11 197 Private Sohools and Trade Sohools (from Jan.1/43) - - 18 - 92 32 124 173 113 286 Correspondence Courses (from July 1/ 43) - - - ' - 11 - .11 41 - 41 TOTALS : 53 - - 107 ] 4 111 : 255 42 ; 297 732 180 912 1. These Veterans were in War Emergency Training Classes. Ho Speoial Rehabilitation . : Classes set up until the next year. - 1 1 4 -F I G U R E 1 -115-Table 11 on page 116 ,' g i v i n g the f i g u r e s -for the month of March 1945, shows a s t a t i s t i c a l breakdown of men and women takin g t r a i n i n g i n the va r i o u s types of c l a s s e s . The number of veterans who discontinued during the months f o r reasons other than completion of t r a i n i n g s t a r t s at 32. The main reasons f o r t h e i r discontinuance were, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the course chosen, un w i l l i n g n e s s t o c a r r y on w i t h a l i m i t e d subsistence allowance and condition' of h e a l t h . TABLE 11: Showing numbers of Veterans talcing Vocational Training In Bri t ish Columbia for March, 1945. TYPE OF TRAINING; REHABILITATION CLASSES INDUSTRY TRAINING PRIVATE SCHOOLS CORRESPONDENCE COURSES TOTALS Classifications Men Women Total Men Woman Total Men Women Total Men Women Total In training at f i r s t of month 148 27 175 86 6 92 98 74 J.72 34 - 34 473 Enrolled during month 66 15 81 24 3 27 20 5 25 1 - 134 Discontinued during month .17 2 19 6 1 7 2 4 6 - - - 32 Completed Training 37 - 27 1 - 1 14 6 20 1 - • 1 49 In training at end of month 170 40 210 • ioa 7 110 102 69 171 34 - 34 525 -117-Table 111 shows the numbers who have taken t r a i n i n g i n the va r i o u s c i t i e s i n , B r i t i s h Columbia, the breakdown being f o r the two designated years. Accurate comparison of these ( two years i s not po s s i b l e as the s t a t i s t i c s f o r March 1945 were not Included. However, .a-few general observations can-be .made regarding the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a i n e e s . . For the two years recorded about 90% of a l l those t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the province were, e n r o l l e d i n Vancouver C i t y . There, are many reasons f o r t h i s preference on the part of the veterans. One i s that a l l the government schools are located i n the c i t y . Another i s the presence of a greater v a r i e t y and excellence of p r i v a t e schools i n Vancouver where t r a i n h g may be taken. Added t o these reasons i s the greater choice of i n d u s t r i e s that give promise of permanent employment and-attract the m a j o r i t y t£i B r i t i s h Columbia's l a r g e s t c i t y . -//a -IAB1E 111: Showing Distribution of Veterans Taking Vocational Training In Bri t ish Columbia from A p r i l 1, 1943 to February 28, 1945. . Year (1) A p r i l 1, 1943 - Mar oh 31, 1944 a A p r i l 1, 1944 - Fet ruary 28, li 45 Means of Training W.E.I.P.(2) Classes & Speoial Re-habil i tat ion Classes Private Schools In Industry r orres-toondence Total C .V.T . Schools Private Schools In Industry o w o 83 a to o a Totals CITY VANCOUVER 166 136 21 323 307 232 139 it 1 678 VICTORIA 3 11 3 17 - 19 18 37 KELOWHA - 3 1 4 - 1 5 • 6 VERNON - 3 - 3 2 1 P Cb B ta 3 NEW WESTMIHSTE 1 - 3 - 3 - 6 s 9 COURTENAY - - - - 1 - 1 TRAIL - - - - - 1 - 1 NELSON - - - - 7 1 8 KAMLOOPS • . - - - - — ,1 1 PENIICTON - - - - 1 2 3 CHILLIWACK - - - - - 1 - ' 1 11 11 40 40 TOTALS 169 156 25 11 ; 361 ; 307 271 170 40 788 1. Transfers not deducted from the figures for the year ending March 31, 1944. 2. War Emergency Training Program -119-' •In conclusion, t a b l e s and graphs are presented t o compare the numbers t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h that of the whole of Canada. Table IT shows the Monthly enrolments t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the three years w i t h the percentage t a k i n g t r a i n i n g i n t h i s province. .. ' TAB 1^ IT Showing monthly enrolments of those t a k i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n Canada, together w i t h the number and percentage tak i n g t r a i n -ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F i s c a l year , ending F i s c a l year ending F i s c a l year Month March 31, 1943 March 31, 1944 Dec.1 31, 1944 Canada B.C. Canada B..0-. Canada l'B.'0-.i Apr* 159 11 6.9 195 23 11.8 817 140 17.1 May 138 12 8.7 180 33 18.4 805 171 21.0 June ', 94 5 5.3 182 32 17.6 856 172 20.0 J u l y 121 10 8.2 •. 201 21.8 883 188 21.2 Aug. 106 11 10.4 236 45 19.2 973 219 -22.4 Sept. 79 & 5.0 226 49 21.6, 1070 253 23.6 Oct. 89 10 11.2 214 52 24.4 1319 285 21,6 Nov. 124 21 16.9 278 60 21,6 1609 305 18.8 Dec* 187 20 10.6 398 68 17.0 1952 339 17.3 Jan. 195 20 10.2 458 72 15.6 Feb. 233 18 7.7 626 99 15.6 Mar. 235 27 11.4 : i 644 J 120 18.6 < I n order t o a s c e r t a i n whether B r i t i s h Columbia i s g e t t i n g more than her share of those veterans d e s i r i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , we can compute the percentage of Canada's pop u l a t i o n r e s i d e n t i n t h i s I province. T h i s g i v e s a rough i n d i c a t i o n of the p r o p o r t i o n of t r a i n e d ?veterans which can be absorbed by t h i s province without the r i s k of -ISO-premature d e p l e t i o n of occupational o p p o r t u n i t i e s which undoubtedly would r e s u l t from too l a r g e numbers. TABLET SHOWING POPULATION OF CANADA3 AND BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH PERCENTAGE OF. CANADA'S POPULATION, RESIDENT POPULATION OF . Percentage Year CANADA BRITISH COLUMBIA population i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1939 11,267,000 792,000 7.02 1940 11,381,000 805,000 7.07 1941 11,507,000 818,000 7.1 1942 11,654,000' 870,000 7.4 1943 11,814,000 900,000 7.6 2. p.79. Canada Year Book, 1943-44 -122-Such i s the general p i c t u r e of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia., C e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s and trends are observed; but, since the complete h i s t o r y of t h i s t r a i n i n g programme i s t o be t o l d , the drawing of conclusions i s avoided. The f o l l o w i n g two chapters d e a l w i t h t r a i n i n g i n schools and t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y . D e t a i l s given serve t o round out the general study portrayed i n the present chapter. -123-CHAPTER X VOGATIONAL TPAINING IN SCHOOLS / This chapter deals w i t h d e t a i l s of the t r a i n i n g given to ex-service personnel i n schools throughout the province. T r a i n i n g i s o f f e r e d i n Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g or Government Schools, P r i v a t e , Trade, Commercial schools and a l s o by correspondence courses. Each of these can best be t r e a t e d separately w i t h a summing up at the end of the chapter. CANADIAN BOCATIOIt&L.TMPTIMG SCHOOLS These were e s t a b l i s h e d by the Department of Labour f o r the express purpose of p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g t o ex-service men and women. At the time of w r i t i n g , a l l schools are l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, hence t r a i n e e s must come t o t h i s c i t y t o e n r o l l . The i n s t r u c t o r s are paid by the Department of Labour and are under the l o c a l supervisor of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g O f f i c e i n Vancouver. The Department of Labour i s re s p o n s i b l e f o r payment of fees i n c u r r e d by any v e t e r a n t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . ^ When a number take t r a i n i n g i n p r i v a t e , commercial or trade schools, the amount of these fees becomes a considerable monthly sum. I n such cases, i t i s l e s s expensive f o r the Department to e s t a b l i s h a school of i t s own. This, of course, i n v o l v e s the procurement of quarters, purchasing of equipment and engaging of i n s t r u c t o r s * 1. Subsequent t o A p r i l 1, 1945, fees are paid by the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s . -124-Besides economy, there are other advantages i n having govern ment schools f o r the t r a i n i n g of discharged servicemen. One i s th a t the c l a s s e s i n a l l these schools except one c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of veterans. This avoids the c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g from the "Service-caused between veterans and the average student found i n any p u b l i c or p r i v a t school. This one exception where veterans, and r e g u l a r p u p i l s are i n the same b u i l d i n g s i s the Vancouver T e c h n i c a l School. Even a casual observer around the school can see as w e l l as sense the d i f f e r e n c e i n ages, outlook and l i f e experience between the adult veteran and the adolescent student. A l s o i s evident the p o s s i b i l i t y of some of the veterans e x e r c i s i n g an unwholesome i n f l u e n c e on the r e g u l a r students. Not that these ex-service men d e l i b e r a t e l y t r y to f l o u t a u t h o r i t y or cause t r o u b l e , but th a t because of t h e i r m a t u r i t y , t h e i r s e r v i c e ex-perience and p o s s i b l y an antipathy regarding being c l a s s e d w i t h a younger group, t h e i r a t t i t u d e i s i n the main not d e s i r a b l e as f a r as d i s c i p l i n e i s concerned. I t must be remembered t h a t t h i s i s not true f o r every veteran t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the Vancouver Techni-c a l as i n any other p r i v a t e school where the c l a s s e s are mixed. Indeed, many f i t i n very w e l l and t h e i r i n d u s t r y and a p p l i c a -t i o n serve as an i n s p i r a t i o n t o the younger group. But then,, the few who do not f i n d i t easy t o " a c c l i m a t i z e " themselves - and there are always those i n any group - can undermine the good influen c e of the others. Eor example, i n the same school, there was an instance -125-of a young,veteran who wore a cap while working i n the shops among the r e g u l a r t e c h n i c a l students, despite the f a c t t h a t he knew i t was against the r u l e s . Again, i n a c e r t a i n l a r g e h i g h school i n a c i t y i n Washington State, the student c o u n s e l l o r claims t h a t h i s time i s p r a c t i c a l l y f i l l e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h a mere handful of veterans e n r o l l e d i n the school. ; Another advantage of separate classes i s that the i n s t r u c t o r s f o r these veterans are chosen p a r t l y f o r t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y shown i n the handling of s e r v i c e men's work. This i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , because many of those t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g commenced w i t h i n a month a f t e r discharge. This f i r s t month", as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , i s i n general the most d i f f i c u l t f o r the veteran as f a r as r e - o r i e n t a t i o n to c i v i l l i f e i s concerned. . In t h i s c r i t i c a l p eriod a c a r e f u l l y chosen i n s t r u c t o r f can do inestimable good, beyond the realm of v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . This leads d i r e c t l y t o a t h i r d advantage i n having separate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l a s s e s . Under such an arrangement the veteran's f e e l -ings and emotions are considered. One can e a s i l y imagine the f e e l i n g s of a veteran placed i n a c l a s s of adolescents years younger than him-s e l f , and y e t these adolescents can p e r s i s t e n t l y make b e t t e r marks and of times a b e t t e r showing than he can.. Even i f the class-mates are of the same age, no common f e e l i n g i s enjoyed, because each sees t h i n g s through d i f f e r e n t eyes. The veteran's judgments are naturally-tempered as a r e s u l t of r i g i d s e r v i c e experience. Furthermore, i n -126-the r e c o n d i t i o n i n g p e r i o d he needs the companionship of veterans t o help him readjust' h i s l i f e back t o c i v i l i a n standards. A l l these instances support the contention t h a t s e r v i c e men should be t r a i n e d i n separate c l a s s e s and i n separate b u i l d i n g s from the re g u l a r groups of p u p i l s . The advantages of such homogeneity and segregation are r e a l i z e d i n a l l but o&e of the seven government schools f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n set up by the Department of Labour. Table VI shows the names of the various schools, the courses o f f e r e d , and enrolment at the end of seven months i n 1944 and 1945 f o r men and women. From the t a b l e a few points deserve mention. Among the men, D i e s e l , motor mechanics, machine shop, carpentry, and cabinet making and e l e c t r i c a l are the most popular l i n e s chosen. Among women, h a i r d r e s s i n g and commercial have the greatest attendance. With the exception of machine f i t t i n g and a i r c r a f t maintenance, a l l clas s e s show i n c r e a s i n g enrolment. Table V l l g i v e s a d e t a i l e d report of attendance from A p r i l 1 1944 to March 31, 1945. The f o l l o w i n g graph, based on the t a b l e , shows the gradual increase of enrolment i n these government c l a s s e s . -127-TABLE ¥1 Table showing Enrolment of Veterans at end of each month • during the Year ending February 1945, i n the -various Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Schools i n Br i t i s h - C o l u m b i a SCHOOLS A s • 0 N D J F Men: . Vancouver Technical School.. Machine F i t t i n g • * « • • Carpentry 14 13 11 14 15 15 14 D i e s e l 22 25 22 22 21 21 18 D r a f t i n g » • • 3 2 4 2 Motor Mechanics 9 5 5 11 14 16 17 B r i c k l a y i n g • 1 « • • 9 1 0 - P a c i f i c . . E l e c t r i c a l 6 7 7 8 8. 10 13 Machine F i t t e r s 1 * « • • Machine Shop 6 5 7 9 9 13 17 441-Seymour.. Barbering 8 7 8 9 10 11 10 576-Seymour.. Instrument Rep. 8 10 9 10 9 9 8 McDonald Annex.. : Sheet Metal 3 6 6 6 6 7 7 Seaview.. Pre-Matric. » • * * 15 38 Inverness S t r e e t . , 'Hairdressing • * • 2 , 4 Women Inverness S t r e e t . . Power Machine.Op. 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 Ha i r d r e s s i n g • • 9 • 10 14 Commercial « • • 9 • • • 10 Seaview .. Pre- M a t r i c . « • • • 2 - IZ8 -TABLE V l l : Attendance Report of Veterans in Canadian Vocational Training Sohools in British. Columbia. APRIL 1st 1944 to MARCH 31, 1945. For month ending Apr.30 May 31 June 30 July 31 Aug. 31 Sept. 30 Oct. 31 H O T . 3 0 Deo.31 Jan.31 Feb. 28 Mar.31 Classif -ication Men or Women M. W. M. W. M. W. M. M. W. M. W* M. W. M. W. M, W. M. W. M. W. M. W. In Tra ining at f i r s t of month 35 2 35 3 37 3 47 4 61 4 77 4 78 3 76 3 92 2 94 2 123 14 148 27 Enrolled during . -month 16 1 14 1 18 3 21 2 33 - 16 2 11 2 23 - 13 i ' 41 13 60 17 66 15 Discontinued X X X X during month 16 - 12 1 8 2 7. 2 11 - 7 - 10 1 2 - 5 - 7 1 13 2 17 2 Completed and plaoed in jobs 1 - 4 - 3 1 i- 1 5 - 6 2 2 1 2 1 - - 1 - 13 2 25 -In training'at end of month 35 , 3 37 3 47 . 4 61 4 77 4 78 3 7 6 3 92 2 94 2 123 14 148 27 170 40 Total Student 556 49 722^ 61 879 64 1085^ 1281. 10611 1174 50 44 20 141- 320 691i ' days instruction 60s -78i 66 1602 1373 1886%^ 2436i 3190£ X These figures inolude those who completed training • i •" 'during'the 'month. '•'••' -130-PRIVATE SCHOOLS Before r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l a s s e s were organized i n government schools, a l l those t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g were obliged t o attend p r i v a t e trade or commercial schools. However, since the s p e c i a l c l a s s e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d the enrolment i n the l a t t e r i s i n c r e a s -i n g at a f a s t e r r a t e than i n the p r i v a t e schools. These f i g u r e s , showing monthly enrolment f o r each month i n 1944-1945, show the t r e n d . TABLE 7111 Chart. showing Monthly Increase i n Enrolment i n Government Schools,& P r i v a t e Schools f o r the year ending March 31, 1945 ' - 1944 1945 A M J J A S 0 U D J F M Government Schools 38 40 51 65 81 81 79 94 96 137 175 210 P r i v a t e Schools 79 82 86 87 92 116 121 137 133 13$ 172 171 The v a r i o u s kinds of t r a i n i n g "given i n these schools are as f o l l o w s : -Gommercial Barbering Beauty Culture H a i r d r e s s i n g Engineering Commercial A r t s Voice Culture Costume Designing Wdreless Badiotelegraphy Occupational A g r i c u l t u r e Gardening and H o r t i c u l t u r e P o u l t r y Husbandry Dressmaking -131-The numbers of returned men and women t a k i n g t r a i n i n g i n these trades vary from one up to about f i f t e e n or twenty. The t a b l e on the next, page shows a complete l i s t of a l l the schools who include veterans i n the classes and who therefore r e c e i v e fees payable by Canadian.Vocational T r a i n i n g . I n t h i s l i s t are the names of two high schools and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. These are c l a s s i f i e d as " p r i v a t e " because fees are paid on behalf of those e n r o l l e d , i n the same way as f o r other schools. The enrolment i n d i c a t e d the popu-l a r i t y of the vo c a t i o n ehosen. A l s o i s shown the dimi n i s h i n g increase i n enrolment i n those trades now taught i n the government sc h o o l s . -J3Z-TABLE IX: Showing Monthly .Enrolment in Private Trade and. .Commercials Providing Vocational Training for Veterans. APRIL 1, 1944 - MARCH SI, 1940. MOUTHS Apr , May June July Aug. Sept. Oc t . He >v. De 0. J an. b. ME r . Men or Women M. W. . M. W. M. W. M.: W. M. W. M. W.., M. W. : M. W. ' M. W. M. W. M. 11. M. W. In training at f i r s t of month 54 22 57 22 57 25 59 27 52 35 50 42 72 44 70 51 78 59 71 62 75 61 98 74 Enrolled during month 12 4 13 \ 5 10 ', 7 ; 4 11 12 11 31 7 14 11 14 14 6 9, 9 10 38 19 20 5 Discontinued dur-ing month -X-Includes those who completed train-9 I 4 13 X 2 8 X 5 11 L 3 9 1 3 - 9 1 4 10 3 4 8 11 ; 4 2 4 ing. Completed t ra in-ing and placed. 1 - 3 1 , 3 2 - 1 - 2 2 2 1 - 2 2 1 - - - - a. 7 2 In training at and of month >7 22 57 25 59 27 52 35 50 42 72 44 70 51 78 59 71 62 75 61 38 74 102 69 - 1 3 3 --134-QORRESPOHDENCE SCHOOLS III the past year only 4 1/2%'of a l l those t a k i n g ' v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g d i d so by correspondence. A l s o , i t i s of i n t e r -est to note t h a t no women are e n r o l l e d i n any of the courses. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the courses taken i n the past two years by veterans; R e f r i g e r a t i o n Pulp and Paper E l e c t r i c a l work; ...Goal Mining S t r u c t u r a l engineering Ship Draughting ' . Locomotive engineering Plumbing and Steam f i t t i n g Merchandising Accountancy Personnel management Radio engineering Economics Steam engineering Elementary p r i n c i p l e s of I n d u s t r i a l , mathematics ra d i o D i e s e l Haval a r c h i t e c t u r e These courses are given by the schools l i s t e d below: I n t e r n a t i o n a l . Correspondence. . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Accountants I n s t i t u t e of Chartered Accountants Shaw School Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Science & Technology High School Correspondence Hopkins Engineering . -135-Table X shows the numbers of those i n t r a i n i n g at the end of February 1945, and Table X I f o l l o w i n g shows d e t a i l e d attendance record f o r the year ending March 31, 1945. TABLE X SHOWING COERESPONDENGE SCHOOL COURSES GIVEN AND ENROLMENT OF VETERANS AT FEBRUARY 28, 1945 SCHOOL • ' COURSE '• :N0. (IN TRAINING) ENROLLED AS AT - FEB. 28, 1945 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Oorres. X E l e c t r i c a l 3 X R e f r i g e r a t i o n 3 S t r u c t u r a l engineering 1 X Locomotice 2 X Merchandising - 1 Personnel management 1 Economics 1 Pulp and paper 1 X Coal mining 1 X Ship draughting 1 ,, X Plumb ing and steam f i t t ing 1 X Naval a r c h i t e c t u r e 0 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Accountants X Aecountanty 12 I n s t i t u t e of Chartered Accountants X Chartered accountancy 2 Shaw School Accountancy 1 Canadian I n s t , of Science and Technology X Radio engineering 3 High School Correspondence S Steam engineering X Elementary p r i n c i p l e s of radio I n d u s t r i a l math. Hopkins Engineering D i e s e l X Enrolment f o r courses at August 31, 1944 only i n those marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k 2 One student e n r o l l e d f o r t h i s course i n March, 1945 -/S4> -(1) TABLE! XI : Humber of Veterans taking Vocational Training By Correspondence Courses, April 1, 1944 - Maroh 31, 194S. Month A p r i l May June July Aug. . Sept. Oct. Hov. Deo. Jan. Feb. March Classification In training at f i r s t of month 10 19 25 29 28 26 .21 33 37 41 41 34 Enrolled during Month 9 6 4 4 - 2 5 4 1 - 1 Discontinued during month - • - - (2) 4 2 - - - - 4 -Completed Training - - - (3) 1 - - - - 1 3 1 In training at . end of month 19 25 29 28 26 31 33 37 41 -41 34 34 (1.) Ho women enrolled during this year. (2.) Includes those who quit or were released. (3.) Reported as placed i n employment. -137-GENERAL REMARES Under the present scheme of allowing'ex-service personnel to take t r a i n i n g i n government, or p r i v a t e or correspondence schools, a veteran experiences no d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a means of g e t t i n g d e s i r e d t r a i n i n g i n any d i v e r s i f i e d f i e l d whatever. This i s evidenced by the f a c t that f o r many of the courses chosen only one or two are e n r o l l e d . This i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y that the p o l i c y of al l o w i n g the veteran a wide choice of t r a i n i n g - provided, of course, that such t r a i n i n g w i l l lead t o permanent re-establishment - i s a wise one. The next t a b l e s and the graph f o l l o w i n g show the gradual increase i n the numbers e l e c t i n g to take v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g through the medium of schools. -138-TABLE X I I L i s t of P r i v a t e Trade and Commercial Schools g i v i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g to Discharged Members of the Forces w i t h Enrolments by the month from August 1944 to Feb. 1945 SCHOOL TRAINING CITY *44 (Mos of the y e a r ) ' 4 5 MM: - .A S 0 N D J F . Duffus Commercial Vancouver 15 15 15 13 7 9 11 W i l l i s n .1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Pitman ti - 1 2 2 2 3 4 Western ti » 1 1 1 1 1 1 -. Sprott-Shaw t» it 1 1 2 3 4 4 11 Sprott-Shaw u V i c t o r i a 3 3 .3 3 2 3 3 Nelson B u s . C o l l n » -Nelson - - 1 2 3 4 6 Lownds ti New West. - 2 2 2 4 MeEwen-Wilkie n Vernon - 1 1 1 1 1 2 L l o y d - G r i f f i n n P e n t i c t o n 1 Moler Barbering Vancouver 5 5 4 3 3 3 4 Moler Beauty c u l t . n 2 4 4 5 5 5 5 Navigation School ti 1 - 1 2 .3 3 a Hopkins Engineering ti 2 °3E - 2 3 3 North Coast Welding Co. IT •- •-' 1 - - - -Faulkner Smith Comm. a r t It 3 6 6 7 6 6 2 A r t School it It - 5 6 8 7 7 12 Gideon Hicks Voice c u l t . It 1 -J.Goodman Costume design tt ' 1. 1 1 1 1 1. 1 Spjoott-Shaw Wireless tt 11 20 17 17 16 13 11 King Edward « n 1 5 4 4. 3 3 . 4 Sprott-Shaw V i c t o r i a - - 1 1 - -• -Sprott-Shaw Radiotelegraphy tt 1 .Mr. McLean P r i v a t e t u t o r Vancouver - — 1: L 1 1 -TJ..B «G.... Occup. a g r i c . tt - - - - -. - 4 Tj.B.e. Gard. & H o r t i . 1 U.B.G. ' ... P o u l t r y hus. tt 1 V i c t o r i a H.S. Educ. t r a i n i n g V i c t o r i a - - - l 1 1 3 Courtnay H.S. Courtenay 1 Maxine Beauty c u l t . Vancouver 1 1 1" - - - -x L e f t o r discontinued during month -139-TABLE X l l Otd. ' L i s t of P r i v a t e Trade and Commercial Schools g i v i n g V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g t o Discharged Members of the Forces w i t h Enrolments by the month from August 1944 to Feb. 1945 SCHOOL TRAINING CITY '44 (Mos of the year)'45 WOMEN ' A S 0 N D J F Nelson Bus. College Nelson 1 1 1: 1 1 mm Duffus Commercial Vancouver 9 7 6 8 6 5 9 Pitman n it 5 7 8 11 11 10 12 Western tt ti 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 McEwen W i l k i e tt Vernon 2 2 Sprott-Shaw it Vancouver 8 7 9 11 11 11 11 Sprott-Shaw it V i c t o r i a 1 1 2 3 3 4 6 Lowhds tt New Vfest. 2 1 1 1 . 1 2 1 T r a i l B u s . C o l l . ti T r a i l — —, ™ — mm 1 C e n t r a l " " tt C h i l l i w a c k — _ — 1 1 1 1 Moler _ H.D.&.B.cult. Vancouver 5 6 8 8 10 9 9 Maxine ti tt tt 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 J.Goodman Costume design 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 Acad, of XJ.A. Dressmaking n 5 •5 6 5 3 3 3 ; Acad, of TJ.A. tt V i c t o r i a _ _ _ _ • — — ' 1 El-Mar Handcraft" Vancouver _ _ 2 3 6 Gideon Hicks • Voice c u l t . tt _ — 2 % 3 3 3 : Faulkner Smith Comm. a r t it / _ _ 1 1 2 2 1 A r t School it « « 1 Sprott-Shaw Ra d i o t e l e g r a p h y V i e t o r i a _ 1 1 1 1 1 1 V i c t o r i a Hairdeessing it « .. « « 1 1 Holly b u r n Bus.College West. Van. 1 1 1 1 1 l x s L e f t or discontinued during month. -140-TABLE X l l l SHOWIMG IITOREIASES IN EMOiMENT OE vlSTERANS TAKING VOCATIONAL ?.BAINING IJEDEE.S0HE1IJ.LE "L" IN.BRITISH COLUMBIA . FROM. APRIL 1 1.942 to MARCH 31 1945 Tr a i n i n g given i n C.V.T. Schools, P r i v a t e Schools, and Correspondence Dates At f i r s t of month ENROLMENT, E n r o l l e d during the month At end of month [Courses Placed i n jobs A p r i l 11 3 12 2 May 12 3 : 5 7 ' June' 5 : 11 10 4 J u l y 10 8 11 5 , August ; 11 4 7 Sept.: 4 11 .10 3 ; ,Oct. 10 12 21 1 : Nov* 21 11 20 10 Dec. , 20 20 12 Jan. 20 12 18 4 Eeb* 18 16 27 5 March 27 11 23 11 A p r i l 23 19 33 6 May : 33 15 32 13 June - . 32 27 44 9 .!'. J u l y : 44 16 ,45 10 August 45 22 49 14 ',: Sept.; 49 17 52 11 Oct* 52 ' 17 61 •' '6. ! Nov. 61 22 65 12: 1 Dec * 65 14 66 5 Jan. 66 44; : 91 '5:': I ' Feb. :• 91 37 107 4 March 107 42 123 -* 6 , • A p r i l 123 1 37 136 : 2 ' • | ;.. l a y 136 38 147 -' 8 ] June 147 42 166 9 i J u l y 166 ,42 180 3 • ' i August 180 56 199 7 Sept. 199 , 61 228 12 .Oct, 228 40 233 4 ] \ .Nov. ' 233 - 56 268 7 i Dec. 268 '• 32 270 1 ! Jan. 270 '74 314 1 I Eebi 314 • -134:, 381 16 ;' - March 381 107 415 27 - 1 4 1 -- i 4 a -CHAPTER 11 TRAINING- IN INDUSTRY Pr e v i o u s l y i t has been stat e d that many discharged persons" are now requesting t r a i n i n g i n many occupations f o r which no s u i t a b l e f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t , and f o r which s u i t a b l e f a c i l i t i e s cannot be estab-l i s h e d i n any pre-employment t r a i n i n g centre. A l s o , i t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g of t h i s k ind i s being c a r r i e d out on the job; i n f a c t o r y , shop, or o f f i c e . D e f i n i t e arrangements have been made f o r t r a i n i n g of t h i s k i n d and are now being put i n t o p r a c t i c e . The Canadian.Vocational T r a i n i n g Programme has engaged a number of f i e l d representatives whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to contact employers of a l l types i n t h e i r assigned area, w i t h the view of f i n d -ing t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r veterans. "This i s d e f i n i t e l y not a survey to estimate h y p o t h e t i c a l labour requirements at some date i n the f u t u r e nor i s i t concerned with employ-. ment i n u n s k i l l e d occupations. I t i s l i m i t e d t o a s c e r t a i n i n g t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d work which are immediately a v a i l a b l e w i t h employers. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s tabulated and turned over t o the d i s t r i c t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n boards so that i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l l discharged persons they may have a f a i r l y comprehensive idea of what o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g e x i s t at any- given time i n t h e i r own area."I When an ex-service man or woman i s assigned f o r t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y by the D i s t r i c t R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Boardm the f i e l d r epre-s e n t a t i v e f o r Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g makes c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e 1. p.24. Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g programme and Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l War Emergency t r a i n i n g programme. (Ottawa 1944.) Report of the Dominion D i r e c t o r of T r a i n g f o r . t h e f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1944. -|43- • arrangements w i t h the prospective employer and t r a i n e r . I f the veteran t r a i n e e has not designated a f i r m o r business establishment where the' t r a i n i n g i s t o be taken the f i e l d man f i n d s a s u i t a b l e place. Factors considered before p l a c i n g the traine e i n an in d u s t r y f o r t r a i n i n g are as f o l l o w s : (a) The nature of the occupation i n question. •(b) The work processes t o be learned. This point assumes great importance i n cases where d i s a b i l i t y e x i s t s . (c) Whether oi? not any p r e r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g or supplementary t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . (d) The l e n g t h of the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . This v a r i e s t o some extent according t o the trade or occupation. In general the period i s about a year i n l e n g t h . (e) The prospect of subsequent employment. I t i s assumed that a great m a j o r i t y of those t a k i n g t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y w i l l be employed when the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d i s f i n i s h e d . There may be a few cases, however, where an employer who i s w i l l i n g t o t r a i n an ex-service man l a c k s the t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n h i s own establishment. I n such instances t r a i n i n g i s completed i n another shop or o f f i c e , w i t h subsequent employment agreed on with f i r s t employer. '. ( f ) The wage th a t the employer w i l l pay the t r a i n e e a f t e r the completion of the t r a i n i n g . (g) The wage that the employer w i l l pay the t r a i n e e during the t r a i n i n g period* U s u a l l y i t i s considered e q u i t a b l e f o r the employer and the t rainee a l i k e to set the " i n t r a i n i n g " wage at about 60 per cent of the wage to be paid oh completion.. N a t u r a l l y i t would be u n f a i r t o the employer t o pay a l l of t h i s l a t t e r sum* because obviously at the f i r s t and to some extent throughout the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d the t r a i n e e s l a c k of e f f i c i e n c y would not ?/arrant such a wage. So, i n order to r e l i e v e the employer of any undue f i n a n c i a l burden i n t h i s connection, and a l s o to give the t r a i n i n g program o f f i c i a l s some r i g h t s w i t h respect t o supervise and i n s p e c t i o n of such t r a i n i n g , the Depart-ment of Veterans* A f f a i r s has arranged t o reimburse the employer a c e r t a i n percentage of the wage pai d . This percentage i s subject to r e g u l a t i o n s concerning the "> amount of allowance to which the a p p l i c a n t i s e l i g i b l e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , pension payment, number of dependents and other f a c t o r s . The amount of the reimbursement i s on a s l i d i n g s c a l e , w i t h the amount refundable by the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s g r a d u a l l y decreasing and the amount p a i d by the employer g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g as the t r a i n e e acquires p r o f i c i e n c y and therefore becomes more valuable to the employer. A p r a c t i c a l example w i l l serve to make t h i s c l e a r . -145-Wage on completion of t r a i n i n g $125.00 per month Wage during t r a i n i n g . f100,00 per month (80% of $125) Month Amount refunded to employer Part paid by employer January • t o March to May to J u l y ' . t o Sept. to Nov. to Dec. 680.00 65,00 #20,00 35,00 1 GEE : YEAR'S • '. ;• TRAINIHS 50.00 35,00 20.00 5,00 50 .60 .65,00 ' • ' ' 80.00 95.00 The f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the t r a i n i n g programme v i s i t the trainees p e r i o d i c a l l y , u s u a l l y every two weeks, to check on the t r a i n i n g g iven and t o a s c e r t a i n i f both the employer and the tr a i n e e are s a t i s f i e d w i t h the e x i s t i n g arrangement. Where the occupation chosen by the veteran i s a s p e c i f i e d trade under the B r i t i s h Columbia Apprenticeship Act, t r a i n i n g arrange-ments ame made and c l e a r e d through the P r o v i n c i a l Apprenticeship a u t h o r i t i e s . At p resent, c r e d i t i s given f o r the work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f i n i s h e d under the t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y p l a n . No a c t u a l contact, e x i s t s between the t r a i n e e and the employer. On the surface i t looks very i n e q u i t a b l e as f a r as the former i s con--146-cerned. • But the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g O f f i c i a l s safeguard the veteran from unscrupulous employers who are a f t e r cheap labour and who would not intend e i t h e r t o give sound t r a i n i n g or to employ the t r a i n e e at the end of 'the,lower wage t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . Since a t r a i n e e i s given the l i b e r t y t o discontinue h i s t r a i n i n g at any time or Of r e f u s i n g employment at the termination of the t r a i n i n g p eriod, the employer must have the p r i v i l e g e of discharging the veteran i f he i s i n e f f i c i e n t or u n s u i t a b l e . In other words, t h i s freedom of a c t i o n must work both ways. During the year ending March 51, 1945, an average of 15 per cent of those e n r o l l e d i n in d u s t r y q u i t or discontinued before the completion of t h e i r t r a i n -i n g . Some of these gave up at the i n s t i g a t i o n of the employer, but the m a j o r i t y discontinued f o r reasons other than those o r i g i n a t i n g at the instance or d e c i s i o n of the employer. As stated i n a previous chapter there was no t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y before the year 1945. Since that time i t has made great s t r i d e s i n p o p u l a r i t y as a means of t r a i n i n g . To the end of March 1945 t r a i n i n g has been given i n seventy-five d i f f e r e n t occupations. I n the appendix i a a l i s t of these arranged i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order. -147-TABIE.X1Y Table showing increases i n Enrolment of Veterans " T r a i n i n g i n Industry In, B r i t i s h , Columbia from A p r i l 1 1943. to March.51 1945 Dates Month ' 2 Enrolment At f i r s t E n r o l l e d Enrolment of month during month at end of month •; 1945 A p r i l No t r a i n i n g i n indu s t r y g i ven i n these months October November - 3 3 December 3 3 6 1944 January 6 3 8 •• ; February 8 8 13 March 13 8 17 A p r i l ' 17 13 26 May . 26 5 25 June 25 6 • :22 J u l y 22 22 39 August 59 19 54 , i ; ' • 1945 September 55 14 57 October :•• 57 . 21 72 — November 72 14 71 December 71 18 84 Jahuary> 84 21 84_. February 84 22 ..92 March 92 27 110 2. The sum of the numbers i n column one and the numbers i n column two, l e s s the numbers i n column three, i s equal to the number of meh or women who discontinued or q u i t t r a i n i n g and those who completed the t r a i n i n g . -148-Table XV.: Showing Monthly Enrolment of Veterans Taking Training i n Industry in B. 0. from A p r i l 1, 1944 to March 31, 1945. MOHTH ;Api May Jul le July Aug, Sept. Oct. Nov. Deo, Jan. Feb, Mar. Men or Women M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. M. W. In training at f i r s t of month 16 1 35 1 24 1 21 1 37 2 52 2 56 1 69 3 68 3 81 3 78 6 86 6 Enrolled during month 12 1 4 1 5 1 21 1 19 - 14 - 19 2 13 1 17 1 18 3 22 0 24 3 Discontinued training during month 5 - 10 11 - 9 - , 4 - ' 9 - 6 - 8 1 3 1 15 - 8 - 6 1 Completed t ra in-ing & placed i n employment 1 - - 5 - 1 - - - 2 - - - 1 - 1 - 6 - 6 - 1 -Completed train-ing but not placed In training at end of month 35 1 1 21 •1 37 2 52 2 ; 56 1 69 3 68 3 81 3 78 6 86 6 103 7 -150-OHAPIER X l l COSTS AND BESULTS OF THE KEBABILITATION PROGRAMME (A) COSTS Figures to show cos t s of the t r a i n i n g programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o n s t i t u t e the main body of t h i s chapter. Wo attempt i s made to a r r i v e at an average t o t a l cost of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n per man t a k i n g v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . One reason f o r t h i s i s that the sub-sis t e n c e and other allowances are paid by the Department of V e t e r a n s 1 A f f a i r s and such accounts are separate finm those kept by the Department of Labour T r a i n i n g Program. I t i s even d i f f i c u l t t o compute w i t h any degree of accuracy the a c t u a l cost df the t r a i n i n g programme. Reasons f o r t h i s are as f o l l o w s : 1. T r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n under Schedule "L", from 1941 t o 1943 was l a r g e l y c a r r i e d on i n the War Emergency T r a i n -ing Classes along w i t h Schedules "G" and "K". Therefore, the costs f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of veterans are to a l a r g e extent inseparable from the costs of t r a i n i n g tradesmen f o r the R.A.G.F.., and f o r the Army, Navy, and Industry, as c a r r i e d on under the two schedules above. S i Many t r a i n e e s have been admitted to courses or c l a s s e s already i n operation so that l i t t l e o r no a d d i t i o n a l cost was thereby i n c u r r e d . -151-3. Trainees placed i n p r i v a t e trade, or commercial schools or i n correspondence courses had t h e i r t u i t i o n fees paid by the Department of Labour. > 4. For those e n r o l l e d i n t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y , the Department has i n c u r r e d no costs other than f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and su p e r v i s i o n . The main items of expenditure under Schedule "L" are f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , t u i t i o n fees, and, i n some cases, i n s t r u c t o r s * s a l a r i e s and the cost of m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s . Under the Dominion-Provincial agreements of the War Emergency T r a i n i n g Pro-gramme, a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l three schedules, t r a i n i n g i s to be given i n t e c h n i c a l schools, s p e c i a l .training centres and i n i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . The provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s supply the shop f a c i l i t i e s , where p o s s i b l e , f r e e of charge. P r o v i n c i a l governments pay c e r t a i n adminis-t r a t i v e costs and share w i t h the Dominion ' i n the cost of machinery and equipment purchased. A l l other costs are paid by the Dominion out of the War A p p r o p r i a t i o n Fund. ~ Table XVI shows the enrolment and expenditures f o r a l l three Schedules of the War Emergency T r a i n i n g Programme, together w i t h the Youth T r a i n i n g Programme c a r r i e d on under Schedules "G" and "H", from inauguration up t o January 31, 1945. From t h i s study only 2 1/2 per cent of a l l those e n r o l l e d i n a l l the programs have been discharged members of the forces,, and expend-i t u r e s on behalf of t h i s group was 3.5 per cent of the grand t o t a l . - 7 5 8 . -As at Jan.31,1945 WAR EMERGENCY TRAIN INS: TABLE XVI - DOMINION-PROVINCIAL TRAINING- PROGRAMMES, BRITISH COLUMBIA ENROLMENT AND: EXPENDITURES FROM INAUGnRATION OF PROGRAMMES; TO DATE Dominion Provincial E^endlture , Period of training Enrolment Expenditure Dept. of labour Dept.. of Ed. . Total Vote 69(o) (a) GRAND TOTAL Schedule "K" - War Emergency Training, (1) Training of Civi l ians for War Industry (E) Trade Classes for Army Personnel (3) Classes for Navy Personnel (4) Classes for Air Forces July 1940 to date 18,042) Nov, 1940 to date Jan. 1943 to date Nov. 1942 to date 7,908 ) 1781 155) 26,283 $l,081,222.70j#23>094.29 $417.39 Schedule "G" - Aircraft Mechanics (R.C.A.F, Personnel) (1) Ground Crew (2) Air Crew (3) : Claris & Stenographers (Women's Div. R.C.A.F.) Aug. 1939 to date Sov. 1941 to date Sept. Sept, 1942 to 1943 4,996) ) 2,579) ) ) 194) 7,769 ) ) 610,007.53) 16,869.51 ) 28,028.83 Schedule "L" - Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of those discharged from; the Armed Forces Deo. 1941 to date 1,089 YOUlH TRAINING- (50-50 shareable): Sohedule "C" - Urban Oooupational Trg. i Various Classes to train persons for gainful employment Sept. 1937 to date 7,257 Schedule "A" - Student Aix Bursaries awarded Sept. 1939 to date 1,026 TOTALS " 43,424 ) 80,804.10) 176,273.32)163,881.14 88,931.00) 58,952,00 $2,037,238.65f262,796.94 1,995.78 8,144.54 29,979.00 252.23 $40,536.7l|28,281.06$331,614v71 GRAND T0TAL|2,368,853136, -/ss-TABEE X V I I : COST STATEMENT IN CONNECTION WITH THE REHABILITATION OF PERSONS DISCHARGED FROM ARMED FORCES HI WAR EMERGENCY TRAINING AND S P E C I A L REHABILITATION CLASSES. FROM APRIL 1, 1944 to FEBRUARY 28, 1945 VANCOUVER ALLOWANCE TRAVEL MATERIALS TUITION • FEES EO,UIPMFNT INSTRUCTION SALARY TRAVEL SUPERVISION SALARY TRAVEL GENERAL ALTERATIONS OTHER CHARGES TOTAL Vano Oliver Taohnical 914.27 436.95 4,904.83 28,91 1,095,98 77.52 23. 88 7,482.34 910 Pacific 1,419.07 134.61 5,764.83 3,776.99 .9,00 . 72.75 11,167.25 Seaview 860.88 1,361.16 135.62 264.42 • 7,39 2,629.47 576 Seymour 217.56. 4,29 2,288.22 239.98 5,50 2,755.55 441 Seymour 775.26 60.00. 1,103.00 1,379*44 774,60 20.75 4,113*05 Inverness Street 437.47 22.00 621.67 956.89 104.39 2,853.16 32.38 5,027,96 laoDonall Street, 156.61 107.37 1,129.87 47.77 3.38 1,445,00 f 4,781.12- 82.00 2,407.89 17,775,24 28.91 6,175.33 3,204.10 . 166.03 34,620.62 -154-TABLE x y i i , e t a , PRIVATE SOHOOLS •_ Vancouver: M a t e r i a l * 3 T u i t i o n Other Costs T o t a l s _.PftfJ&s. Softool' of Commerce Sprott Shaw Business College Pitman Business College W i l l i s College of Business . ... Hollyburn College of Business Goodman's Sch. of Costume Desig Vancouver School of A r t Navigation School H.Eaulkner Smith Sch. of A r t Ac ademy of U s e f u l A r t s King Edward High School Vancouver Techni c a l School Western School of Commerce Moler Beauty School Maxine Beauty School Vancouver Engineering Academy B.C.School of Pharmacy Gideon Hicks J,R,McLean North Coast Welding Co. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Society of B.C. J i r s t A i d ' -Mar Handicraft 11,00 131.20 123,30 30.35 115.64 ; 48.70 6.90 54.50 13.55 1.00 3,045.00 4,131.20 1,765.00 283.75 15.00 437.50 540.00 215.00 625.00 566.25 264.85 10.00 68.50 2,310.15 333,50 266.50 35.00 615.00 108.00 150.00 401.75. 50.00 206.00 23.00 3,056.00 . 4,262.40 1,888.30 314.10 15.00 437.50 655.64 215.00 : 673,70 573.15 264.85 10.00 68.50 \ 2,387.65 347.05 266.50 35.00 615.00 108.00 150.00 • : 401.75 50.00 1.00 206,00 ' New Westminster: -Lownds School of Commerce 60.06 496.25 556.30 . V i c t o r i a : • V i c t o r i a High School Spr o t t Shaw Business I n s t . 53.45 60.00 1,007.90 -60,00 1,061.35 Nelson: Nelson Business, College 97.40 : 398.50 495,90 Kelowna: \ Herbert's Business College 2.00 10.00 12.00 Vernon: McEwen W i l k i e Business College 13.45 314.00 327*45 G h i l l i w a c k : C e n t r a l Business College T r a i l : T r a i l Business College 11.58 13.05 45*00 . ... 2.0,0,0' 56,58 33.05 ' TOTAL 787.12 18,794.00 23.00 : L9..604.12 -155-TABLE XVII Gtd. CORRESPONDENCE SOHOOLS I n t e r n a t i o n a l Correspondence I n s t , of Chartered Accountants High School Correspondence I n t e r n a t i o n a l Accountants Soc. I n s t , of Science & Technology Schools TOTAL .  M a t e r i a l s . T u i t i o n T o t a l s 4.50 868*07 872.57 350.00 350.00 1.00 4.00 5.00 729.50 729,50 15*00 15.00 1.50 15.00 16.50 7.00 1,981,57 1,988.57 OTHER GENERAL EXPENSES: T r a v e l Expenses Sup e r v i s i o n • • -Equipment S a l a r i e s T r a v e l Operating Expenses A l t e r a t i o n s Other changes Regional A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S a l a r y " " T r a v e l i n g Costs " 11 • Operating " TOTAL GENERAL EXPENSES ' TOTAL PR0v"3EN0IAL CONTRIBUTION 2.90 47.82 70.13 12,131.14 2,103.39 1,757.85 302.49 6.79 588.08 219.38 121,37 17,351.34 73,565.25 2,478.02 G.R. A N D T 0 T A L $76,043.27 -156-TABiLE ,XV111 EXPEITOITURES .AMD.. EmQIMEM1. FOR THOSE DISCHARGED EROM THE; ARMED., FORCES IN.BRITISH COLUMBIA-Schedule " L " REHABILITATION Year D O E L . expenditure Pr.ov. expend. T o t a l 1941-1942 Costs included i n w i t h Wartime Emergency Programme 1942-1943 3,182.95 3,182.95. 1943-1944 •; •, 15,611.56 15,611.56 !. .. .1944^1945 ( l e s s Mar./45) 73,565.25 2,478.02 1 76,043.27 TABLE XIX - SHOWING RISING COST PER TRAINEE . IN EACH SUCCESSIVE YEAR. Year No. of t r a i n e e s Average cost per year Per month 1942-1943 111 28,67 =. 2.39 1943Q1944 297 52,56 4.36 1944-1945 788 97*64 8.87 ; ( l e s s Har,/45) 1. S t a r t i n g A p r i l 1, 1945, 50 per cent of equipment costs w i l l be paid by the Department of Education i n s t e a d of by the Department of Labour. -157-TABLE XL COST Off VOCATIONAL TRAINING PER, MM PER MONTH, AUGUST 1917 TO DECEMBER 1918 2 Months . , DISTRICT . r-B.c. Av. f o r Sanada August #10.47 $15.76 September 9.47 15.45 October 11.87 14.06 November 5.4S 12.21 December 9.68 12.27 January 15.47 18.07 February 10.44 16.71 March 9.71 17.72 A p r i l 14.10 17.45 May 18.62 18.77 June - 12.15 22.87 J u l y 16.78 20.23 August 15.79 19.92 September 16.14 23.13 October 20.52 25.22 November 20.57 20.89 December 21.25 18.53 Average -. • ; 14.02. t 18.07 NOTE: This t a b l e does not in c l u d e pay^and allowances. 2. p.162 W.E.Segsworth, R e t r a i n i n g Canada's d i s a b l e d s o l d i e r s . 1920. -158-Taking the War Emergency Programme alone, 5.1 per cent were ex-service men and women and t r a i n i n g f o r them amounted to 4.5 per cent of the t o t a l f o r the Schedules " I ? ' , "G", and " L " . Tables XV111 and XIX show a breakdown of expenditure under Schedule " L " . F i g u r e s show that no d e f i n i t e expense i n respect to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was borne by the province of B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l : 1944. The increase i n average cost of t r a i n i n g per man per month shows a, r a p i d increase; and as the whole. War Emergency Programme becomes devoted t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g , the f i g u r e w i l l become higher. Table XX, l i s t i n g the cos t s of t r a i n i n g i n 1917 and 1918, shows the average expenditures per man per month i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a l s o f o r Canada. At the present, conclusions based on a comparison of these f i g u r e s t o the average i n Table XIX would be unwarranted f o r many reasons, but the f i g u r e s do show the range of cost s of t r a i n i n g i n 1917 and 1918 and how they compare w i t h present expenditures. Any comparisons, t h e r e f o r e , must be made w i t h i n very broad l i m i t s . In concluding the chapter on costs a d e t a i l e d statement of the expenditure f o r : r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia from A p r i l 1 1944 to February 28 1945 i s presented i n Table X V I I . The f i r s t page shows expenses i n c u r r e d by the Government Schools, and the second, contains the l i s t of expenses i n c u r r e d by P r i v a t e Schools and Corres-pondence Schools, together w i t h the l i s t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s . -159-(B) Results of the T r a i n i n g Programme A d e s c r i p t i o n of the t r a i n i n g programme f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would not be complete nor adequately t r e a t e d unless the r e s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g were examined. I n the s e c t i o n of the chapter a summary attempt i s made to present a few s t u d i e s i n t h i s respect. Two general questions occur t o mind i n connection w i t h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . These are (1) Do a l l those who e n r o l l f o r t r a i n i n g complete t h e i r courses? (2) Are those who f i n i s h e d t h e i r courses employed i n the work f o r which they are t r a i n e d ? In regard t o the f i r s t of these questions, the f o l l o w i n g -t a b l e i s shown. -160-TABLE XXI TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF VETERANS DISCONTINUING COURSES IN. VOCATIONAL. TRAINING IN BRITISH COnjMBIft - FROM APRIL. 1944 TO MARCH 1945 GOVT. SCHOOLS PRIVATE SCHOOLS .INDUSTRY TOTALS : 1944 •;• • A p r i l 52 14 26.9 90 11 IS ©2 29 2 6.9 171 27 15.7 ; May ' 48 8 16.6 92 10 10.8 31 5 1.5 171 23 13.4 ! June 55 4 7.2 91 5 5.5 26 3 1.1 172 12 6.9 • July- 69 4 5.8 97 10 10*3 43 4 9.3 209 18 8.9 August 92 11 11.9 102 10 9.8 58 4 6.9 252 25 ' ' J9 .9 : September 88 7 7.9 119 3 2.5 67 9 13.4 274 19 6.9 • October 90 11 12.2 132 10 7.5 78 6 7.6 300 27 9.0 November 96 2 2 141 4 2.8 80 9 11.2 317 15 4*7 December 101 5 4.9 146 13 8.9 88 • 4 4.5 335 22 6.5 : 1945 ; J anuary 145 8 5.5 148 12 8.1 99 15 .15.1 392 35 8 . 9 . ; February 190 15 7.8 187 15 8 • LOO 8 8 477 38 7*9 \ March 229 19 8.3 177 6 3.5 L18 7 5.9 524 52 6.1 Average f o r year: 9.7 7*4 7*6 8*2 ' In Table XXI the number of e n r o l l e d t r a i n e e s who t r a n s f e r r e d to another type of school or t r a i n i n g are included along w i t h those who discontinued completely. This study, then, gives the percentage of those who commenced a c e r t a i n course of t r a i n i n g and discontinued, e i t h e r t o drop out e n t i r e l y or t o t r a n s f e r t o another c l a s s . However, since the number of t r a n s f e r s i s very small, the percentage f o r whose who q u i t e n t i r e l y are very s l i g h t l y l e s s than those given i n the t a b l e . The highest percentage d i s c o n t i n u i n g courses and t r a n s f e r r -i n g t o other courses f o r the year s t u d i e d was i n the Government Schools, w h i l e p r i v a t e schools and i n d u s t r y came about the same. These d i f f e r e n -ces are so s l i g h t t h a t no conclusion can be drawn. When one r e a l i z e s t h a t n e a r l y ninety-two per cent of every one hundred chose a course and then proceeded on t o the completion of the same course, speaks well f o r the c a l i b r e of the veteran, the guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g program, and the,, quality of the t r a i n i n g g i v e n . C e r t a i n l y , i f the percentage of the successes i n the t r a i n i n g program remains as high i n the next few years as i n the .year studied above, there w i l l be no complaint* 'Many veterans discontinue the t r a i n i n g course w i t h the idea of postponing i t u n t i l a l a t e r date. The chances of h i g h l y remunera-t i v e employment i n war i n d u s t r y l e a d many to f o l l o w t h i s p l an of a c t i o n . And then there are some .who have no i n t e n t i o n of t a k i n g t r a i n i n g at a l a t e r date. They are s a t i s f i e d t o s e t t l e f o r the remainder of t h e i r re-establishment c r e d i t s and to f i n d employment. A small number d i s --162-continue because of medical reasons w h i l e a few r e - e n l i s t i n the f o r c e s . In connection w i t h the second question r a i s e d e a r l i e r regarding the follow-up of those who completed t r a i n i n g , the f o l l o w -ing record of 45 men and women graduates from Government and P r i v a t e schools i s tabulated. This study extends from June 1944 to November 1944. -165-TABLE XK11 TABLE ;SHOWING FQLLOW-UP EECQRD OF GRADUATES FROM; PRIVATE SCHOOLS Hen Mr .A Mr.B Mr.G Mr.D Mr .E Mr.E ' Mr.G Mr .H •JJr. I Mr.J ' Mr. K fib.If Mr.Ii Mr.N. Mr.O Mr.P Mr.R •Mr.S Mr .T Mr.U School Sprott Shaw King Edward Sprott Shaw Lownds Pitman. Lownds Moler N a v i g a t i o n School ' Duffus Hopkins Engineering Navigation School.... Sprott Shaw Duffus Moler Maxine Sprott Shaw Duffus Moler Sprott Shaw ¥ocation Locat i o n when l a s t reported Wireless n n Commerce B a r t e r i n g Navigation Commerce Engineering Navigation Wireless Commerce n Barbering H a i r d r e s s i n g Commerce n Barbering Wireless H o t e l Manager at Quesnel S t i l l i n c l a s s Radio Operator, Park, S.S, I n the h o s p i t a l w i t h t u b e r c u l o s i s With the B.C.Government, Essondale With P.Burns Co., Vancouver, Working i n the Temple Barber Shop, V i c t o r i a An apprentice at the Moler shop. Skipper. Owns h i s ship - a f i s h packer - "Foam." Log S c a l e r employed' by,the . B.C.Government Moved t o the Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands Skipper on a tug Radio Operator, Park, S.S. Employed by C.M.Oliver & Co., Vancouver Employed at Cranbrook* B.C. ' Apprentice i n shop on Commercial Dr. Vancouver Operating own shop at Courtenay, Vancouver I s l a n d Employed at C.I.V.Q,. Employed by the B.C.Pulp & Paper, Co; Owns h i s shop at Gourtenay, Vancouver Island Employed somewhere up the Coast - 1 6 4 -TABLE XO .1 Gtd REG0PJ3 OF GRADUATES FROM CANADIAN TOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOLS Men ! T r a i n i n g School Tocation Occupation. Location l a s t reported Mr .A Vancouver Technical ,v : Mr .33 Machine f i t t f ix F i t t e r i n a Vancouver shipyard 576 Seymour Instrument F . H i n c h l i f f e f/atch R e p a i d " . Repair Mr.G Tancouver Tech. D r a f t i n g Dominion Bridge Co, Mr.D « ii . Motor Mech. Whereabouts unknown 1 . Mr.E n n it tt Transferred to D i e s e l j •m.f it it D i e s e l C a t e r p i l l a r Service Agency, Regina Mr.G " I I tt Ghappell B r o s . i Tancouver 1 ' Mr.H n it Motor Mech. White Truck Co..j Tancouver • : Ma?.I 576 Seymour Instrument Owns own ship i n Tancouver, .Repai r Robson and Bute " : [ Mr,J Tancouver Tech. D i e s e l Works i n a steam plant •! Mr.K it M tt Await ing §. deep sea be r t h . > . Mr.L tt tt Motor Mech, ,R.G.M.E., Ford P l a n t , Burnaby This study extends from. June 1944 to November 1944 -165-TABLE 2X11 Ctd RECORD 03? WOMEN GRADUATES FROM ALL TYPES OF. SCHOOLS Women School Vocation Where employed at l a s t report ; Miss A Duffus Comme rce. Employed as a C i v i l Stenographer ; Miss B it tt Employed by D r j Lamont, Vancouver ; Miss G • Miss D \ Miss E ; Miss F Maxine Sprott Shaw Duffus Sprott Shaw .Hairdressing Commerce tt Working at Woodward's Beauty Salon Employed at the P r o v i n c i a l Courthouse . Employed at the Vancouver Ice & Cold Storage Working at Duffus on her own : Miss G Duffus it Employed at the Georgian Pharmacy• '\ Miss H McEwen-Wilkie n At the Vernon C i t y H a l l Miss I tt n tt Where employed unknown \ Mi s s J-} M i s s K : Inverness S t . n tt Power Machine » tt Employed at the Leckie B 0 o t Fac t o r y Works, at the Watson Glove Manufacturing Co. Vancouver. This rece#d i s from June 1944 t o November 1944 -166-The record j u s t studied shows what one would expect at the present time when occupational o p p o r t u n i t i e s are p l e n t i f u l . Those t r a i n e e s who have the acumen t o p e r s i s t w i t h the t r a i n i n g course undertaken can be c e r t a i n of employment i n the v o c a t i o n of t h e i r choice on completion. No mention has been made of any follow-up of any who t r a i n e d i n i n d u s t r y . A l l these people, w i t h i n s i g n i f i c a n t exceptions, are employed i n the f i r m i n which t r a i n i n g was given* In summing Up, very l i t t l e can be s a i d concerning the r e -s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g programme t o date. The sure t e s t w i l l come i n the t r a n s i t i o n period xvhen jobs w i l l not be as p l e n t i f u l as at the present, i t i s safe to p r e d i c t that i f the o f f i c i a l s i n charge of the T r a i n i n g Program continue to make an e f f o r t t o guffle the ex-service man or woman i n t o t r a i n i n g whieh w i l l l e a d t o permanent and s a t i s f y -ing employment, the program as a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measure w i l l undoubted-l y continue t o be a success. -167-PAHP 4: CONCLUSIONS . .'. Page Chapter 13. Evaluations 168 Chapter 14. Im p l i c a t i o n s . . . . . . . . 178 -168--CB1PTER 13. EVALUATICMS In previous chapters a f a i r l y d e t a i l e d study of the t r a i n i n g program f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been made wi t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the general r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme as a background 'followed up by a d i s c u s s i o n of the m^in i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . I t i s now time t o summarize some of ,the s a l i e n t p o i n t s i n the t r a i n i n g program w i t h r e -ference t o the general o b j e c t i v e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n stated i n Chapter 1. l e Measures and Machinery: (a) Measures: The d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o v i s i o n s of P.Si'5210 i n Chapter IT makes f u r t h e r extensive comment unnecessary. The important p o i n t s i m p l i e d i n t h i s order are as f o l l o w s : (1) The veteran i s not e n t i t l e d t o g r e a t e r assistance than i s necessary f o r h i s s u c c e s s f u l establishment i n c i v i l l i f e . (2) The b e n e f i t s derived under the order do not c o n s t i t u t e a reward f o r s e r v i c e nor does m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e e n t i t l e a man or woman to s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s under the order. (5) The ex-se r v i c e man must help h i m s e l f . (4) The veteran i s allowed freedom of choice of a c t i o n , but care i s taken t o protect veterans against embarking on i l l - a d v i s e d ventures that are not i n keeping w i t h t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s or do not o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s of success. (b) Machinery: To date of w r i t i n g the Dominion and P r o v i n -c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Department of Labour and Veterans' -169-A f f a i r s are w e l l worked out and are therefore unmistakably sound. Of course the balance of o r g a n i z a t i o n does not guarantee the success of the whole v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g schema f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . . This w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l only to the extent t h a t those r e s p o n s i b l e know the p r i n c i p l e s i nvolved and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the ends d e s i r e d . I n t h i s connection the w r i t e r was impressed i n the many interviews w i t h the res p o n s i b l e ones i n the va r i o u s departments by the w e l l founded grasp of the problem of veteran re-establishment possessed by a l l . I f the s i n c e r i t y of thought followed up by unhindered and th e r e f o r e e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n continues, there i s no danger of any p o s s i b l e f a i l u r e as f a r as the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n end i s concerned. (c) C o u n s e l l i n g : The importance of the task of c o u n s e l l i n g ' i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has already been i n d i c a t e d . T h e , q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s needed f o r such a t a s k are v e r y h i g h , yet because of comparatively lovr s a l a r i e s few are a t t r a c t e d to t h i s work w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t there are not enough of these, t r a i n e d and competent people i n the Veterans' A f f a i r s O f f i c e . When the a p p l i c a n t s are few, a short-handed s t a f f can manage w i t h n e i t h e r the veteran nor the c o u n s e l l o r s u f f e r i n g i l l - e f f e c t s , but when thousands of new cases make an appearance during each month as there w i l l be s h o r t l y , the r e s u l t i s obvious. Unless adequate s t a f f s are provided i n advance of the rush -170-of d e m o b i l i z a t i o n , veteran c r i t i c i s m regarding treatment i n "cord-wood" s t y l e w i l l r e s u l t . A commendable feat u r e of the whole r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme f o r veterans ,is, the emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . I n t h i s process the case method i s used and i s entrusted to only those s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r the work. I f there i s a s u f f i c i e n t number of these t r a i n e d people a v a i l a b l e when the peak l o a d of a p p l i c a t i o n s i s reached, then the i n d i v i d u a l case method w i l l not d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o a short u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r -view. Since the main purpose i n considering the veterans i s t o minimize the p o s s i b i l i t y of the p o s s i b l e p l a c i n g of "square pegs i n round Boles", and the time required to take an average case takes hours, i t i s l o g i c a l to conclude that anything l e s s than.the r e q u i r e d minimum would be e n t i r e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . This question time element leads to the matter of short-cuts i n the c o u n s e l l i n g program, •" As va l u a b l e s h o r t - c u t s the use og standardized t e s t s cannot be overrated. But at the present time l i t t l e use i s made of t e s t s and measurements i n the .counselling process., Right now the groundwork should be l a i d f o r extensive t e s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e when the numbers of discharged s e r v i c e man and women become overly l a r g e . L i k e every one e l s e that i s i n a quandary about apt i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s f o r vocations, the e x - s e r v i c e man i s more w i l l i n g to act on the diagnosis -171-from t e s t s than on personal advice. Then from t h i s viewpoint i t would be more economical from the time-consuming angle t o use machine scored t e s t s i n cases that are i n doubt as to t h e i r course of a c t i o n . Findings from such a t e s t i n g program would c o n s t i t u t e a valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n to educational prac-t i c e s i n the f i e l d . The T r a i n i n g Program: (a) I n B r i t i s h Columbia the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s integrated w i t h the needs of i n d u s t r y . The Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f i e l d men keep a close tab on employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s so that veterans can be d i r e c t e d away from vocations t h a t have no immediate f u t u r e . Also the veterans are given accurate information regarding the requirements of the P r o v i n c i a l Apprenticeship Laws so t h a t an ex-service man ' commencing an apprenticeship governed trade w i l l do so w i t h no misunderstanding. Again, c l o s e co-operation w i t h the N a t i o n a l S e l e c t i v e S e r v i c e makes i t p o s s i b l e to keep matters on subse-quent employment up-to-date and t o provide jobs f o r veterans who have no employment l i n e d up a f t e r t r a i n i n g . While these f a c t o r s seem l i k e simple matters to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e i r mention serves to show th a t the t r a i n i n g program o f f i c i a l s have acted on these o b l i g a t o r y p o i n t s . (b) S e l e c t i o n of P r i v a t e Schools and Establishment f o r Industry T r a i n i n g : Most.private schools.value t h e i r reputa--172-•t ions' t o such an extent that they w i l l not HHtsrtake advan-tage of the vejyeran by extending h i s course needlessly, or by g i v i n g poor i n s t r u c t i o n . This i s not always t r u e of the i n d u s t r i a l establishments. As mentioned i n an e a r l i e r chapter the f i e l d men of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g are c a r e f u l t o determine whether the f i r m i n question i s genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n the veteran's welfare or i s mainly a f t e r cheap labour. I t i s fo r t u n a t e that the senior members of the Cana-dian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g here i n Vancouver are f a m i l i a r w i t h v o c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and are therefore competent t o pass judgment on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t r a i n i n g both from the t e c h n i c a l and edu c a t i o n a l standpoints. A l l those who have anything t o do w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g of veterans agree- t h a t from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l viewpoint i t i s b e t t e r to have the veterans i n c l a s s e s separate from r e g u l a r • c i v i l i a n c l a s s e s . At the time of. w r i t i n g t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e i n the case of p r i v a t e schools where veterans enrollment i s s m a l l . This p r i n c i p l e of segregation i s , i n operation i n the government schools f o r s e r v i c e men alone and since the estab-lishment of these s c h o o l s i s l e s s expensive than the use of p r i v a t e schools more governmental schools w i l l be organized when the enrolment of veterans becomes l a r g e r . (c) I n s t r u c t i o n : In the m a j o r i t y of cases the veteran com-p l e t e s h i s arrangements f o r the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g he wishes -173-w i t h i n a few weeks a f t e r h i s discharge. This means that every t r a i n i n g centre i s a l s o a re-adjustment centre f o r the s o c i a l i -z a t i o n of the veteran. In the i n i t i a l part of the t r a i n i n g p e riod the ex-service-man must be aided i n obtaining the r i g h t p erspective of h i s own problems and must s i z e them up object-i v e l y from s o c i e t y ' s viewpoint. This places a great r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y on the shoulders of the i n s t r u c t o r s who, i n order to f u l f i l t h i s t a s k should have a f a i r knowledge of veteran psychology and p s y c h i a t r y . In p r a c t i c e , however, Canadian • V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g endeavours t o engage i n s t r u c t o r s in; the government schools who are veterans themselves, and the war experience of these persons helps them g r e a t l y i n an under-standing of the new veteran and h i s problems. Since the average veteran i s more mature i n many ways than c i v i l i a n s of the same age group they must be handled d i f f e r e n t l y i n c l a s s e s i n school or i n d i v i d u a l l y i n industry. I n general the veteran should be allowed freedom, and whatever d i s c i p l i n e i s required must come from w i t h i n himslf.- This enforces the two previous contentions t h a t veterans should r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n separate c l a s s e s and that the i n s t r u c -t o r s , besides being capable t e c h n i c a l men, should be competent to a i d the veteran r e - o r i e n t h i m s e l f t o the ways of " c i v v y s t r e e t . " (d) Courses: Because a l l veterans e l e c t i n g to take v o c a t i o n a l -174-t r a i n i n g have l o s t valuable time out of t h e i r l i v e s i n the p u r s u i t of war they f e e l t h a t they must get back t o work as soon\ as p o s s i b l e and waste l i t t l e time on the way i n connec-t i o n with g e t t i n g d e s i r e d t r a i n i n g . Generally, those who e l e c t to take v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g want the p r a c t i c a l work alone w i t h no unnecessary courses thrown i n . However, i t would be of great value to: them i f supplementary l e c t u r e s were given i n the schools on the basic rudiments of p o l i t i c a l science, the humanities, l i t e r a t u r e , and other subjects that would a i d the-mai-adjusted veteran t o formulate wholesome a t t i t u d e s . The subject matter of these courses could e a s i l y be organized from the veteran's viewpoint and i f presented p r o p e r l y would i n t e r e s t even the l e a s t academically minded of those t a k i n g Y o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . • • f " B e t t e r than any other s t u d i e s , t h e humanities can work upon the veteran's unwholesome a t t i t u d e s and help him t o become a c i t i z e n i n a world of peace once more,"l I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the above idea i f put before the veterans now would appeal to a very few. However, i f they were taught.^that t h i s added knowledge was necessary, very few would neglect the opportunity, e s p e c i a l l y i f the l e c t u r e s were g i v e n i n an i n t e r e s t i n g manner understandable to the veteran. C e r t a i n l y , i f such l e c t u r e s on some of these .297, W i l l a r d , Walter. o p . c i t . -175-" l i b e r a l " subjects were included i n the v o c a t i o n a l courses now o f f e r e d i n the government schools, i t would help toward , the t o t a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the veteran, and would probably save much time i n the -readjustment process. (e) Follow-up: P e r i o d i c v i s i t s by the f i e l d men to the schools and i n d u s t r i e s where veterans are t r a i n e d , besides proving to the t r a i n e e s that the department i s i n t e r e s t e d i n them, enables c o r r e c t i v e measures t o be applied, i f necessary This follow-up e x i s t s even a f t e r the veteran has completed h i s t r a i n i n g and i s s i t u a t e d i n a jo b . As mentio&ed before there are obstacles i n t h i s p o s t - t r a i n i n g follow-up s e r v i c e i n respect to keeping accurate tab on a l l graduates. T h e i r value cannot be underestimated when a survey of the where-abouts of a l l t r a i n e d veterans i s attempted l a t e r . P u b l i c I n t e r e s t : Hb one i s no naive as t o t h i n k f o r one moment th a t a 1 well-modulated o r g a n i z a t i o n would be without e r r o r s i n the handling of veterans. Moreover, the adm i n i s t r a t o r s them-selves are the f i r s t to admit t h a t they make mistakes. Unfortunately f o r the government agencies, these mishandled cases - and there are v e r y few that could be c a l l e d such -come before the p u b l i c eye by way of " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r s columns i n the newspapers or by "word of mouth" from person to person i n a community. And again i t i s unfortunate t h a t -176-these e x c e p t i o n a l cases are the ones remembered while at the same time hundreds of examples of successfil handling ' pass by unnoticed. I t would be a wise move on the part of t h e j c e h a b i l i t a t i o n .-agencies i f more p e r i o d i c write-ups, presenting ungamished f a c t s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were put i n the newspapers or d e l i v e r e d over the r a d i o . Two t h i n g s would be achieved i f t h i s were done. One i s t h a t the general p u b l i c would r e a l i z e j u s t what i s being done f o r veterans and would therefore h e s i t a t e to c r i t i c i z e the e n t i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on the b a s i s of an exception. The other i s t h a t the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would be made known to the p u b l i c so that community e f f o r t s t o a i d the veteran would be given more accurate d i r e c t i o n . As Dr. F r e d e r i c k C . B e l l , c h i e f medical o f f i c e r , Shaughnessy' H o s p i t a l says: "The average veteran does not want h i s problems . dramatized, but he does want o p p o r t u n i t i e s and some i n i t i a l help I n t a k i n g advantage of them. .... Mr. C i t i z e n must be prepared to p a t i e n t l y understand the problems of men who have passed through the d i s l o c a t i n g experience of war and show r e a l and genuine i n t e r e s t i n h i s employment." 2 So much f o r a summary and evaluation of the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n up to March 31, 1945. Changes and a l t e r a t i o n s w i l l undoubtedly be made as Canadian Armed Forces become demobilized . When the !)ask of re-estab-2. Taken from the Vancouver D a i l y Province, March 31, 1945. -177-• l i s h i n g the hundreds of thousands of our s e r v i c e men i completed i n the years to come a comprehensible report w i l l show c o n c l u s i v e l y t o what extent we have p r o f i t e d by our f i r s t attempts i n veteran a f f a i r s twenty-five years ago, and i n the years 193 9 t o 1945 e -178-CHAPTER XIV IMPLICATIONS OF THE fBAINBTG PROGRAMME During the war-time emergency, the Dominion Government was forced to take over the r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of such important matters as manpower and i n d u s t r y i n order that the war he s u c c e s s f u l l y prosecuted. In doing t h i s a g r e a t e r degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of con-t r o l has r e s u l t e d w i t h many unmistakable b e n e f i t s . Regardless of whether there w i l l be a complete r e v e r s i o n to the pre-war economy or not, there s t i l l w i l l remain d e f i n i t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o n a t i o n a l welfare which w i l l i n f l u e n c e Canada's f u t u r e . Reference here i s p r i n c i p a l l y to the r e s u l t s of the.enactment of such l e g i s l a t i o n designed p r i m a r i l y f o r veterans, i n which are c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a t i o n s i n i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n and p r a c t i c e which presage to a f f e c t the framework of l i v i n g i n Canada. I n t h i s chapter, t h e r e f o r e , some of these broader i m p l i c a -t i o n s are discussed along w i t h some misconceptions t h a t have a r i s e n . 1. FEDERAL AIDS. FOR CERTAIN PUBLIC, SERVICES I t i s a t r u i s m to s t a t e that the F e d e r a l Government should pay an;appreciable share of the mounting costs of c e r t a i n p u b l i c s e r -v i c e s such.as P u b l i c Health, S o c i a l Welfare, and Education. Since these s e r v i c e s are of paramount importance t o n a t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and good c i t i z e n s h i p , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o conceive that the Canadian people have permitted the out-moded B r i t i s h North America Act to remain as a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r a i t - j a c k e t against p r o g r e s s i v a F e d e r a l a i d along -179-these l i n e s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s matter a f f e c t i n g Canada's n a t i o n a l economy must be straightened out before t h i s country can take her : r i g h t f u l place i n the new world order that w i l l a r i s e out of t h i s war. .Some attempts hare been made by the Dominion to f u l f i l i t s : apparent o b l i g a t i o n s . In 1913, the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act was ••; passed making p r o v i s i o n f o r - t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f10,000,000 to the .* provinces on a reward f o r e f f o r t b a s i s . The T e c h n i c a l Education Act ! of 1919 provided s i m i l a r grants t o each province. In 1942 the Voca-• t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act, and i n 1943 the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Aojt were passed p r o v i d i n g g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o the provinces c a r r y -ing on such education. I n a d d i t i o n , the groundwork f o r a f a r - r e a c h -• ;• i n g Dominion Health Insurance Act has been prepared. These were the • beginnings of c l o s e r Dominion-Provincial co-operation i n the matters } that have a d i r e c t bearing on n a t i o n a l u n i t y and w e l f a r e . Thus, w h i l e I t i s true t h a t the Dominion Government has" i been p r o v i d i n g some assis t a n c e i n the support of p r o v i n c i a l schools ; f o r more than twenty-five years, s t i l l there are i n existence r i g i d I boundary l i n e s demarking f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The ; r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme, w i t h i t s emphasis on e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n -• • a l t r a i n i n g , the c o s t s of which are c h i e f l y borne by the Dominion, w i l l h e l p erase those boundary l i n e s , and i n doing so help t o b u i l d up adequate h e a l t h , welfare, and educational standards supported i l a r g e l y by F e d e r a l monies. -180-S. THE TRAINING PROGRAMME'S POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTIONS EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS There are d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the t r a i n i n g programme w i l l , give a welcomed impetus to some slow s t a r t i n g and slow m a t e r i a l -] i z i n g movements i n the educational world. So, from t h i s p o i n t of view, i any a i d t h a t the programme may give toward the complete r e a l i z a t i o n of ; these d e s i r e d trends w i l l be considered as a d e f i n i t e c o n t r i b u t i o n . I n the matter of v o c a t i o n a l guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g i n our I schools the experience of the t r a i n i n g programme f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; should provide i n s p i r a t i o n . Each of the three s e r v i c e s has i t s own ; guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , where t r a i n e d personnel administer : t e s t s and int e r v i e w servicemen. Information from these sources i s i tabulated and passed on to the c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s of the Department of Veterans* A f f a i r s when a man or woman i s discharged from the s e r -! v i c e s . As a r e s u l t of these i n t e r v i e w s , both i n the s e r v i c e s and a f t e r discharge, a la r g e number of men and women are aided i n se l e c -t i o n of t h e i r course of a c t i o n , w i t h l i t t l e time l o s t and l i t t l e i mental energy wasted by f r u i t l e s s and i l l - a d v i s e d wanderings. Discharged personnel are no more important than the youth of to-day s t i l l talcing i n s t r u c t i o n i n our p u b l i c schools. Tet w i t h i. few exceptions nothing of a d e f i n i t e nature i s done i n our schools f o r these thousands of c i t i z e n s of to-morrow i n the way of guidance, personal, V o c a t i o n a l , o r e d u c a t i o n a l . I n a sense, much of the blame f o r t h i s may be l a i d a t the door of the teachers themselves, who -181-because of l a c k of t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance make no e f f o r t : i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Many teachers who shun t h i s t y p e of work due to a f e e l i n g of i l l - p r e p a r e d n e s s would w i l l i n g l y attend s p e c i a l i z e d courses at the Summer School of Education or at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i f such course's were given. As i t i s , anyone who i s i n t e r e s t e d i i n guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g jtaust go t o the United States or to Eastern ; Canada f o r complete t r a i n i n g . T h i s s i t u a t i o n should be considered ' c a r e f u l l y and thoroughly by those i n charge of arranging courses, because nothing i s more important than the c a r e f u l t r a i n i n g of teachers entrusted iWith the. task of "guiding" the youth of today i n t o v o c a t i o n a l and educa-t i o n a l l i n e s . The l a y e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s are b l i n d as f a r as seeing the n e c e s s i t y f o r a complete and well-balanced program of guidance and •counselling i n our schools. Unfortuaately, i n our predominately de-c e n t r a l i z e d system of education here i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s l a y group Ihas l a r g e c o n t r o l of the purse s t r i n g s , and few of them can s ee the need f o r r e t a i n i n g on the s t a f f of each secondary school at l e a s t a t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r whose t a s k i s t o devote a l l h i s time t o the work of guidance. Indeed, in.many areas, t h i s parsimonious a t t i t u d e towards education i n g e n e r a l i s f u r t h e r witnessed i n an u n w i l l i n g n e t a t o allow the purchase of even the rudimentary t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s so necessary ; l . A course i n Guidance was o f f e r e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1945 Summer Session. -182-i n guidance work. I t i s a fond hope that the extensive work done i n c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , of veterans w i l l give an impetus to work i n t h i s - f i e l d i n our own p u b l i c schools. A v o c a t i o n a l guidance ^programme would be incomplete unless : the r e s u l t s of a continuous i n d u s t r i a l survey were made a v a i l a b l e to i those helping p u p i l s make t h e i r choice of a l i f e ' s work*, When employ-: ment p o s s i b i l i t i e s become l e s s p l e n t i f u l than at the present, i t i s } imperative t h a t t r a i n i n g be g i v e n only i f there i s a chance of 'employ-•> ment a t the end. Reference here i s made p a r t i c u l a r l y t o -vocational ; and t e c h n i c a l schools where adolescents plan on some vo c a t i o n and I s p e c i a l i z e , t o some extent before graduation. I n the past there are : many examples of a continued output of graduates i n t o already .crowded vocations and p r o f e s s i o n s . I f there i s t o be any balance whatever main-; t a i n e d between t r a i n i n g output and v o c a t i o n a l needs, then an attempt 1 must be made to assess the occupational needs of the province and d i s -t r i c t so t h a t waste of e f f o r t be avoided.on the part of the p u p i l and teacher a l i k e . I n the T r a i n i n g Programme f o r veterans, care i s taken t h a t there are o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the graduate before the course i s f i n i s h e d . F o r example, near the end of 1944, the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g o f f i c i a l s found, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r i n t e g r a t e d surveys, that the occupational f i e l d of mechanical d e n t i s t r y i n Canada was f i l l e d and t h a t veterans would, a f t e r t h a t date, be guided away from any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of that course.. I f i t were not f o r the c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the f i e l d of d e n t a l mechanics i n Canada, made a v a i l a b l e -185-to those, responsible f o r the guidance work, then i t i s p o s s i b l e that man^ would be now t a k i n g the t r a i n i n g which u l t i m a t e l y would lead them i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n that i s on the f i l l e d l i s t . Such information regarding needs and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of" t h i s and hundreds of other voca-' t i o n s w i l l be invaluable f o r post-war peace time l i v i n g . .The record of the t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y p l a n f o r r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n w i l l give the impetus t o the furtherance of the use of t h i s k i n d of t r a i n i n g i n the post-war e r a . There i s reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n the f i n a l year of study, t e c h n i c a l students would p r o f i t much by work-' ing part time i n a shop or i n d u s t r i a l establishment. Also i n the ; case of the primary B.C. I n d u s t r i e s as f i s h i n g , s p e c i a l government ! owned t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s oould be provided f o r those who were s e l e c t e d f o r t h a t i n d u s t r y , i n the form of t r a i n i n g boats w i t h a capable ' i n s t r u c t o r i n charge. The same arrangement could apply t o the lumber-; i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e i n d u s t r i e s . I t i s an anomaly that we expect much from our b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s but are not prepared t o defend t h e i r f u t u r e management by ensuring the proper and systematic t r a i n i n g of those u l t i m a t e l y t o be engaged i n them. However, i f the t r a i n i n g programme i n i n d u s t r y does speed up the e v o l u t i o n and u l t i m a t e p r a c t i c e of those ideas b r i e f l y d e a l t w i t h above, i t would probably be p a r t l y due t o the f a c t that the t r a i n i n g programme has made an a c t i v e impress on' educational p r a c t i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d s . -104:-STSMMLmLMG GOUBSES There may be a tendency t o s t a r t " s t r e a m l i n i n g " c e r t a i n courses i n our curriculum, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the secondary l e v e l s . By t h i s term i s meant the trimming of a l l p a r t s of a course that have no d i r e c t i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a c e r t a i n v o c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n which i s considered the "end-product" of the educative or t r a i n i n g process. I n some cases and f o r c e r t a i n groups t h i s would be a decided step forward. To give an example, i t seems r a t h e r w a s t e f u l of v i t a l energy t o f o r c e t e c h n i c a l school groups of lower than average adademie a b i l i t y through the t r a d i t i o n a l courses of algebra and geometry, when experience has c o n s i s t e n t l y shown t h a t the greater part of such courses to these groups i s merely a nebulous m u l t i p l i c i t y of separate and meaningless items. Doubtless t h i s s i t u a t i o n may be p a r t l y blamed on poor teaching p r a c t i c e s and overcrowded c u r r i c u l a , where the i n s t r u c t o r has not the time to guide these "not so capable" p u p i l s through the courses. So, f o r s p e c i a l groups as i n the example above, " s t r e a m l i n i n g " Of c e r t a i n courses would succeed i n g i v i n g to those p u p i l s of l i m i t e d a b i l i t y s u f f i c i e n t means t o enable them to achieve t h e i r working g o a l . C e r t a i n cautions must be exercised i n the matter of "stream-l i n i n g " . I t must be remembered th a t i n our p u b l i c schools we must aim at t r a n s f e r values and other values of s o c i a l u t i l i t y . The aim of " s t r e a m l i n i n g " courses, as already c a r r i e d out i n the Service T r a i n i n g - .. i . . . and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n T r a i n i n g Programme, i s t o f a c i l i t a t e s p e c i f i c -185-t r a i n i n g f o r a s p e c i f i c work. This means t h a t those who would set out t o r e v i s e p a r t s or wholes of our courses of study should be always ; mindful of t h i s matter of t r a n s f e r values and i t s importance i n the . imparting of a l i b e r a l education. "The school-subject curriculum has sometimes f a i l e d ..to meet the requirements of t r a n s f e r because of too great a p r o p o r t i o n of a b s t r a c t i o n s . As a . r e s u l t , i t has been memorized but not understood. At other times i t has 3 0 emphasized mere f a c t s that the l e a r n e r has not sensed s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s which would t r a n s f e r t o wide areas of l i v i n g . The l i f e - s i t u a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m i s r i c h i n concretes and i n minor g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , but i t s l a c k of sequence . and l o n g i t u d i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n prevents i t from reaching s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . The remedy again seems t o be some c a r e f u l l y planned combina-t i o n of the two approaches." 2 This quotation r e f e r s t o the much broader aspect of "curriculum" work, but then one can conceive of even whole curriculums 1 being "streamlined" j u s t i n the same way as c e r t a i n courses have been ' i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g . So, whether i t a p p l i e s to a subject, a course of study, or to a curriculum, the broader con-; cepts of educational psychology and philosophy must be considered and : weighed c a r e f u l l y before submitting the whole or the part t o degrees , of wholesale a l t e r a t i o n . 2. p.461, The Psychology of Learning, 41st Yearbook, Part 11, N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education, 1942, P u b l i c School P u b l i s h i n g Company, Bloomington, I l l i n o i s . -186-S.OME BtlSOOIOm.OMS As a r e s u l t of the t r a i n i n g programmes i n the s e r v i c e s and i n the f i e l d of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n some misconceptions have a r i s e n . The .: commonest i s to judge our p u b l i c school education by using r e s u l t s of s e r v i c e or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t r a i n i n g as a c r i t e r i o n . For example, we hear statements to the e f f e c t t h a t the t r a i n e e s l e a r n much f a s t e r while i n the s e r v i c e s ; thus i t naturally: f o l l o w s t h a t t h e i r i n s t r u c -t i o n i s s u p e r i o r . As a r e s u l t , many conclude something must be done about our school system. I t . i s §uite p o s s i b l e that l e a r n i n g i s f a s t e r but that i s to be expected when i t i s considered t h a t : (1) the t r a i n e e s are more mature, (S) the m o t i v a t i o n i s intense, (3) there are few subjects i n the c u r r i c u l u m , (4) the text-books are a l i v e w i t h i n t e r e s t being based e n t i r e l y on the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n the t r a i n e e ' s subject of i n t e r e s t . * This leads t o the next misconception, a l l too prevalent i n the minds of parents and p u p i l s a l i k e . Education, to many, i s con-sid e r e d as only an unpleasant means to become p r o f i c i e n t enough to q u a l i f y f o r some k i n d of a p o s i t i o n . F r a n k l y speaking, to thsm, education i s p r i m a r i l y f o r " j o b - g e t t i n g " , not f o r " l i f e " i n general. As a r e s u l t , when our young people hear of speedy t r a i n i n g courses w i t h a job awaiting on completion, they i n a d v e r t e n t l y c r i t i z e the system that compels them to spend ySars i n needless pr e p a r a t i o n before being able t o enter t r a i n i n g f o r the same k i n d of work. They s e l e c t -187-: course and- contents of subjects, then proceed t o c r i t i z e them on the grounds t h a t most of the s u b j e c t s w i l l be of l i t t l e or no use t o them : i n - t h e occupation they intend t o enter. Unfortunately, t h i s i s t r u e of p a r t s of our curriculum, but,.that does not discount the f a c t that i n g e n e r a l a l l c r i t i c i s m along t h i s l i n e i s due t o the l a c k of under-standing of the true purpose of education. B r i e f l y stated, t h i s pur-pose i s the development of c i t i z e n s w i t h a broad and an i n t e l l i g e n t comprehension of l i f e and i t s values. In t h i s process are emotional, s o c i a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l adjustments, which include the a c q u i s i t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . In other words, the education of to-day must be " L i b e r a l " not merely " V o c a t i o n a l : " and when we say " L i b e r a l " we inc l u d e the v o c a t i o n a l s i d e of the preparation f o r l i f e . I f the f u t u r e peace and s e c u r i t y of the world i s t o be guaranteed, great importance must be p a i d t o the power of education as a rmolding f o r c e . ' S u r e l y the peoples of the world w i l l now r e a l i z e the power of education, by observing the distortion.produced i n the minds of the German youth of to-day by a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d educational programme. The w i t -nessing of the stupendous t a s k of re-educating these y o u t h f u l Germans who were given an ''Education f o r Death" should awaken the -public t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of the true value and,need of a c a r e f u l l y balanced education process for,Canadian c h i l d r e n and Canadian youth. On r e f l e c t i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s described above, i t i s evident t h a t the whole r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme as embodied i n P.C.5210, the F o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act, and other veteran l e g i s l a -- -188-t l o t i o n , are-permeated w i t h a l t r u i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s a surety that these p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d t o a much wider community i n f u t u r e years. Even now we have evidence t h a t these same p r i n c i p l e s are s l o w l y penetrating the body p o l i t i c of Canada, and therefore the J i n f l u e n c e of fundamental t r u t h s may be retarded but never permanently i averted,. So On we s h a l l have s t a t e h e a l t h insurance vjast'as we now • h a v e s t a t e unemployment insurance. There w i l l be F e d e r a l support of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n general to a much grea t e r degree than at the present. Popular regard f o r the worth of education as a u t i l i t a r i a n • as w e l l as a c u l t u r a l n e c e s s i t y i n the adult world w i l l m a t e r i a l i z e because of the growing r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s b e n e f i t s . The development of a more considerate a t t i t u d e toward mental i l l n e s s e s and other p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , an acknowledgment of the tremendous value of a programme of mental hygiene f o r a l l , - these and many other; progressive movements w i l l g r a d u a l l y emerge as Canada's community mindedness grows. I n t h i s great u n f o l d i n g process, the t r a i n i n g pro-: gram f o r veterans along w i t h the other r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plans w i l l stand out as milestones of progress, f o r i n their.enactment they have contributed towards general n a t i o n a l development i n the many spheres of n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y l i s t e d above. -189-APPENDIX L i s t of vocations i n which t r a i n i n g i n industry-was given from October 1943 to March 1945 L i s t of f i r m s t h a t gave t r a i n i n g i n i n d u s t r y t o ex-members of the s e r v i c e s from October 1943 to March 1945 O f f i c e c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the post-discharge re-establishment order, P.0.5210 W„D.l - A u t h o r i z a t i o n of t r a i n i n g b e n e f i t s form Notes on the war s e r v i c e grants act, 1945, Army E d i t i o n . -190-LIST OF VOCATIONS IN WHICH TRAINLNG IN INDUSTRY WAS GIVEN FROM OCTOBER 1945.TO MABCH,1945 ' A d v e r t i s i n g Drapery F i t t i n g A r t i f i c i a l Limb Making ?„• « -r Dry Gleaning Assaying E l e c t r i c a l Appliance Repairs Auto Body Repair E l e c t r i c a l Construction Auto I g n i t i o n Farm Machinery Repair Auto Mechanic French P o l i s h i n g AUto P a i n t i n g F r u i t L a b o r a t i s t Baking Fur C u t t i n g Barbering F u r n i t u r e Making B i c y c l e Repairing Ham Boning Blaeksmithing ; H o r t i c u l t u r e Butchering . Insurance Salesmanship Book-keeping I n t e r i o r Decorating Cabinet Making Jewelry Manufacturing Carpentry Jewelry Repair Chartered Accounting Lab Technician Cleaning and Dyeing Linoleum Laying Coach P a i n t i n g Lithography Cooking. Loeksmi t h i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n Machinery Repair Cost F i n d i n g Machinist Dental Mechanics Metal P l a t i n g D i e s e l M u s i c a l Instrument Repairs -191-News Reporting O f f i c e Equipment Repairs O p t i c a l Work Optometry Orthopaedics Pharmacy-parts C l e r k Photography Piano Tuning and Repair Plumbing Plumbing and Sheet Metal P r i n t i n g Radio S e r v i c i n g Radio and E l e c . Maintenance Technician R e c e p t i o n i s t R e f r i g e r a t i o n R e t a i l Dress Business Railway Telegraphy Seed Sales and Service S e r v i c e S t a t i o n Attending Shipper & Paper C u t t e r Shoe Making Shoe Repairing Stockkeeping and Auto Parts T a i l o r i n g U p h o l s t e r i n g Wheel Manufacturing, Grinding and Repair Welding X-Ray Technician -193-LIST OF FIRMS THAT HATE GIVEN TMINING LN INDUSTRY TO EX-MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES FROM OCTOBER 1943 TO MARCH 51, 1945. La r r y Webster & Son A.Lundberg & Go. CM. and S. Co. " Auto Metal and Radiator '* Auto House " G.Rochester & Sons " Bob Bodie " Boultbee L t d . " A.W.Carter " A.W.Ribchester " Vancouver Motors " Vernon Garage " Watkins Motors " C a p i t o l Motors " Peebles Motors " P i l o t Garage " Candido Garage " Roy Howard " Stonehouse Motors " Turner's Auto Radiator " and Fender Shop A d v e r t i s i n g Auto Body Repair Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver T r a i l Vancouver Vernon Nelson Langley P r a i r i e K a t o l o o p s Vancouver -193-G r a n v i l l e Auto Body Shop J e f f r e e & J e f f r e e Wilson & Cabeldu Anderson Garage Davis Drake Motors Wat k i n s Motors Boy Howard Begg Motors Wilson & Cabeldu Harold Evans Cox's Bakery N a t i o n a l System of Baking C a p i t o l Barber Shop Harry Carter Harry Boutledge Spencer's L t d . Ray's L t d . Rankin's L t d . McLellan, McFeely & P r i o r Kenyon K i l l i c k G.Scott M.B.East R i d d e l l , Stead & Co. Roy Stevens Auto Body Repair Auto I g n i t i o n Auto Mechanic Vancouver V i c t o r i a Auto Motor Maintenance Auto Mechanic Auto P a i n t i n g it ti Baking t! Barbering B i c y c l e Repairing " '! Butchering Vernon Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver ¥ictoria Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver Vancouver al s o at New West, Bookkeeping Cabinet Making Carpentry Chartered Accountancy Cleaning and Dyeing Kelowna Ponti c t o n V i c t o r i a n Vancouver -194-Canadian Bakeries Goach P a i n t i n g Vancouver Green Gold G r i l l Cooking " A r i s t o c r a t i c Hamburgers " " Georgia H o t e l " " Coast Construction Co. Construction " Lumberman P r i n t i n g Co. Cost F i n d i n g " Dr. Lemon Dental Mechanics " Dr. F l e t c h e r " " n ' Dr-i M a r s h a l l » " " Hope U t i l i t i e s D i e s e l Operation " F i n n i n g T r a c t o r D i e s e l Operation " McFarlane •& Co. D i e s e l and I g n i t i o n . " David Spencer L t d . Drapery F i t t i n g " Draughting Campbell Bros. Dry Cleaning " Sweet S i x t e e n " " / " Four S t a r gleaners " " " Standard E l e c t r i c E l e c . Appliance " Repairing Murphy E l e c t r i c Co. E l e c * C o n s t r u c t i o n V i c t o r i a R i e k e t t s - S e w e l l E l e c t r i c E l e c . Apprentice Vancouver McLennan, McFeely & P r i o r Farm Machinery Repair Eelowna P.GiSwift French P o l i s h i n g Vancouver Langes Laboratory Langes Laboratory " F o s t e r F i n e Furs Fur C u t t i n g " Wilkes F u r r i e r " " V i c t o r i a Advance Mfg. Co. Furniture.Making Vancouver -195-Canada Packers Smith Avenue Nursery Langley Nursery R i v e r s i d e Nursery R i t c h i e s Lyd. P r u d e n t i a l L i f e Crawford P a i n t i n g L t d . E . J . T r a y l i n g P a c i f i c Gold D.R.Manson G.P.Erwine Ham Boning H o r t i c u l t u r e V i c t o r i a Vancouver Langley P r a i r i e " Vancouver Insurance Salesmanship " I n t e r i o r Decorating " Jewelry Manufacturing " Jewelry Repair " Laboratory Technician " Locksmithing " Linoleum Laying n Lithography ". Machinery Repair Machinist E l e t c h e r Lock & Key Custom B u i l t E l o o r s West Coast Lithographers Uneeda P r i n t e r s I n t e r i o r Contracting Jordan & R u s s e l l G.Sezsmith " Vancouver I s l a n d P l a t i n g GoMetal P l a t i n g Knighton M u s i c a l Shop Vancouver Sun Vancouver Province Remington Rand Addressograph Sales M u s i c a l Instrument Repair News Reporter O f f i c e "Equipment Repair P e n t i c t o n Vancouver Kelowna V i c t o r i a Vancouver -196-Mational Cash. R e g i s t e r Underwood, E l l i o t t F i s h e r Ebert Howe Imperial O p t i c a l W.Francks Begg Motors Wilson & Cabeldu Cunningham Drugs R e l i a b l e Drugs Duncan McPhail Campbell Studios Robert F o r t Whiteford Studios Photo Arts. L t d . H.H.Stark B.Boe L t d . Fred Walsh & Son F.N.Hamilton Dugald McGeachy " Hodgsons L t d , " Clayton L t d . » W.G.Davies " B a r r & Anderson " Wrigley P r i n t i n g P r i n t i n g O f f i c e Equipment Repair O p t i c a l Work Optometry Orthopaedies P a r t s C l e r k Pharmacy Photography Vancouver Piano Tuning & Repair Plumbing Plumbing & Sheet Metal V i c t o r i a Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver -197-McLennan, McFeely & P r i o r Radio S e r v i c i n g Kelowna Radio Appliance Go. Radio S e r v i c i n g & V i c t o r i a Maintenance Dr.Rutledge »s Dental ClinmdReceptionist Vancouver McLennan, McFeely & P r i o r R e f r i g e r a t i o n " Vancouver Ice & Cold Storage " " A r c t i c R e f r i g e r a t i o n " " Linde Canadian 11 it Canadian Ice Machines M " Sweet Sixt e e n R e t a i l Hress Business " Railway Telegraphy - " R i t c h i e s Ltd.' Seed Sales & S e r v i c e " Percy Ho l l a n d Service S t a t i o n Attending M Bulman Brothers Shipper & Peper Cutter " Thurston &^  Sons Shoe Making n Harvey Boot Factory " " J.R.Donald Shoe R e p a i r i n g " A.V/.Johnson " " ^ " Standard Shoe Repair " " " Albert&s Shoe Repair " " " R.J.Howe " " " Georgia Shoe Repair " " " Som Rozen " " " G.F.Dobson ' ' •« tt New West»r» E.G.•McDonald n " n -198-S.Vaccaro Hudson's Bay Go. tt « G.T.Caswell W.J.Heads General Truck Sales Park Fashion Clothes Gordon Campbell S t y l a n f i t Small & Boyes Burnaby Upholstering B i l t w e l l L t d . Restmore L t d . C h e s t e r f i e l d Salon A - l U p h o l s t e r i n g A.P.Madsen & Co. Gordon Richardson Welding Shop Eelowna Machine Works Canadian «T ohn Woods V i c t o r X-Ray Shoe Repairing tl H ft tt tt II tt tt Stockkeeping & Auto P a r t s T a i l o r i n g . n tt U p h o l s t e r i n g it it it it % n Wheel G r i n d i n g & Repair Welding tt tt X-Ray Engineering Eelowna Vancouver V i c t o r i a Vancouver tt tt n tt tt tt Burnaby Vancouver tt w tt t! w Eelowna Vancouver tt 1944 OFFICE CONSOLIDATION OF THE POST-DISCHARGE RE-ESTABLISHMENT ORDER Order in Council of July 13, 1944 P.C. 5210 DEPARTMENT OF PENSIONS AND NATIONAL HEALTH OTTAWA OTTAWA EDMOND CLOUTIER PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 1944 VOL. IV—No. 5 E X T R A C T CANADIAN WAR ORDERS AND REGULATIONS OTTAWA, CANADA, NOVEMBER 6, 1944 Order in Council providing that payments to discharged persoris under paragraphs 6, 8 and 9 o£ the Post-Discharge Re-Establishment Order shall not be liable to taxation * I P.C. 128/8367 Certified to be a true copy of a Minute of a Meeting of the Treasury Board, approved by His Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the 81st October/ 1944-The Board had under consideration a memorandum from the Honourable the Minister of Veterans' Affairs, concurred in by the Honourable the Minister of National Revenue, reporting: "That under and by virtue of Order in Council P.C. 5210 of the 13th July, 19*4, known as The Post-Discharge Re-establishment Order, the Minister of Pensions and National Health is authorized to make payment of a grant, under conditions therein set forth, to a discharged person who is pursuing vocational or technical training or other educational training which has been approved by the Department of Pensions and National Health as training which will fit him or keep him fit for employment or re-employment, or will enable him to obtain better or more suitable employment; And that the amounts of such grants have been determined on the basis that there should be no deduction therefrom by reason of taxation under the Income War Tax Act, Now, therefore, the undersigned, with the concurrence of the Minister of National Revenue, has the honour1 to recommend that Your Excellency in Council, under the War Measures Act, be pleased to order that moneys granted to a discharged person under the provisions of paragraphs 6, 8 and 9 of Order in Council P.C. 5210 of the 13th July, 1944, known as The Post-Discharge Re-establishment Order, shall not be liable to taxation under the Income War Tax Act." The Board concur in the above report and recommendation, and submit the same for favourable consideration. A. D . P . H E E N E Y , Clerk of the Privy Council. OTTAWA : Printed by EDMOND CLOXJTIEB, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1944. 21107 VOL. IV—No. 5 E X T R A C T CANADIAN WAR ORDERS AND REGULATIONS OTTAWA, CANADA, NOVEMBER 6, 1944 Order in Council amending the Post-Discharge Re-Establishment Order P.C. 108/8367 Certified to be a true copy of a minute of a Meeting of the Treasury Board, approved by His Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the 31st October, 1944. The Board recommend that Order in Council P .C. 5210, dated July 13, 1944, known as The- Post-Discharge Re-Establishment Order, be amended by deleting sub-paragraph (6) of paragraph 5 thereof and by renumbering sub-paragraph (7) as sub-paragraph (6). ! A. D . P . H E E N E Y , Clerk of the Privy Council. OTTAWA : Printed by EDMOND CLOUTIEE, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1944. 21106 The Post Discharge Re-establishment Order P.C. 5210 A T T H E G O V E R N M E N T H O U S E A T O T T A W A THURSDAY, the 13th day of July, 1944. PRESENT: His EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR GENERAL IN COUNCIL: His Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of Pensions and National Health, is pleased to revoke "The Post-Discharge Re-Establishment Order", as amended, made by Order in Council, P.C. 7633 of October 1, 1941, and it is hereby revoked as -of August 1, 1944. His Excellency in Council, on the same recommendation, and under the authority of the War Measures Agt, Chapter 206, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1927, is further pleased to make the Order hereto appended and it is hereby made and substituted for the Order hereby revoked, effective August 1, 1944. A. D . P . H E E N E Y , Clerk oj the Privy Council. 13172—2 3 T H E POST-DISCHARGE RE-ESTABLISHMENT ORiDEK 1. T M B Order may be referred to as "The Pof^ Discharge Re-l&tablisfcment * Order." ' , 2. In this Order, unless the eontexly'o&herwiBe requires;-^ -• (a) "active service" includes -service of a "Member (JH.D.) of the Cafiadiatt. Army" and any service, of an "R. Recruit" during which °"h&' is considered/' ' to be oil active service by yirtue. of "Reserve Army (Special) -Reg^ ataons,--1941"; • (b) "child" means (i) a legitimate child of the discharged person, or (ii) an illegitimate child of the" discharged person for •whom 'he is paying; , maintenance or whom, he ie otherwise supporting and <m whose account ( Dependents Allowance was being paid by the Department of National. Defence at the time of his. discharge, or • -(iii) a step-child or legally adopted child of the -discharged person feeing maintained by him, or (iv) when- the discharged person is a woman, an illegitimate .child, of su«h discharged person, born during service or within nine months .thereafter-/ and who is being maintained by her, >-provided, in any case, that.suc]j child, if a boy, is under sixteen ~and, if a girl, is- under seventeen years- of age; (c) "Department" means the Department of Pensions and -National Health; (d) "discharge'* means the ddsc-Karge or retirement from or the ceasing to serve on active service of a "discharged person" as hereinafter defined; "* (e) "discharged person" means any person who, .subsequent to June 30, i94J, has , . been honourably discharged or retired from or has honourably ceased to- servfe ' on active service in 1 "(i) The Naval, Military or Air Forces of. Canada, provided^  with respect to this class, that such person was in receipt of either active service rates. of• pay or of Permanent Force rates of pay while serving in the said; Forces during the present war, Or (ii) The Canadian Women's Army Corps, established by Order, in Council P.C. 6289, dated August 13, 1841, or (iii) The Royal Canadian Air Force {Women's iDjvision), established by Order in Council P.C. 790, dated February 3, £942, including this.Force when i known, as the Canadian Women's* Auxiliary Air Force, or (iv) The Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service, established, by Order in Council, P.O. 66/67S5, dated July 31, 1943/ or . * (v) The MiJit&ry, Naval or. Air forces of His Majesty other than. His Majesty's Canadian Poroes* provided, with respect to -'this class, that such-/ person was domiciled in Canada at the time of his enlistment therein in the present war; . Provided thatin respect of a grant under paragraph 6/8 or 9 or clause .{«) of paragraph, 7 of this Order, "discharged person" shall include a person coming within any of the said classes who ihas -been honourably discharged or retired fromsof has honourably ceased to serve on active service therein at any time during the said war; (/) "enlistment" means enlistment or enrollment in, or appointment to commission-, in, any of the Forces or Corps aforesaid; (g) "married person" means:— " ( (i) ,a -man whose wife is being maintained wholly or -mainly by .him, or (ii) a married woman who has a husband dependent on her, or (iii) a person who is married, a widow or widower, who maintains, wholly or mainly one or more children'; (ft) "Minister" means the Minister of Pensions and National Health.;' . 5 (t) "parent" means a parent or person in lieu of a parent, if such parent or person is in a dependent condition and was solely or mainly maintained by the discharged person during his service, or was solely or mainly maintained by him for a reasonable time prior to the award of the benefit or grant, or becomes in a dependent condition during the period such benefit or' grant is payable ; 0') "pensionable disability" means a disability in respect of which pension has been granted under the Pension Act; (fc) "pension" means a pension under the Pension Act; (0 "rehabilitation grant" means a grant made pursuant to the provisions of Order in Council P .C. 7521 dated December 19, 1940, as amended; ; (m) "service" means service in any of the Forces or Corps aforesaid during the present war; (n) "university" means a university or college of educational standards approved by the Department. 3. The Minister may make regulations which, in his opinion, are necessary or advisable for the carrying out of the provisions of this Order. 4. In the Regulation contained in Order in Council P .C. 80/4430 of May 27, 1942, respecting persons serving on ships, the reference to paragraphs 6 and 13 of Order in Council P.C. 7633 of .October 1, 1941, as amended, shall be deemed to be reference to paragraphs 6 and 16 hereof. $ P A R T O N E BENEFIT NUMBER ONE—OXTT-OF-WOBK BENEFIT 5. For any period during which a discharged person is capable of and available for work but unable to obtain suitable employment, payment of out-of-work benefit may be made to him upon the terms and subject to the conditions following:— (1) Out-of-work benefit shall not be paid for the first nine days of unemployment, whether continuous or not, nor for any period for which he may have been paid a rehabilitation grant, and the total .period for which it may be paid shall not exceed his period of service nor shall it in any case exceed fifty-two weeks. (2) Out-of-work benefit shall not be paid or continued beyond eighteen months after discharge, provided that the Department may in its discretion exclude from such period any time within such period during which the discharged person was a patient or ,put-patient of any hospital or health institution or was in'"receipt of a grant under this Order awarded because of temporary incapacitation. (3) Where the Unemployment Insurance Fund- has been credited with an amount pursuant to paragraph 18 of this Order, the total period for which he may receive out-of-work benefit shall be reduced by one-fifth of the period for which such credit was made. (4) A discharged person shall not be deemed to be disqualified fo.r out-of-work benefit by reason only that he has declined an offer of employment under conditions as described in paragraph (b) of Section 31 of The Unemployment Insurance Act, 1940, or by reason of his refusal of employment the acceptance of which would involve the consequences described in Section 32 of the said Act, and he shall not be deemed to be unemployed for any period or day as described in Section 33 of the said Act, but he shall be disqualified for' out-of-work benefit in the circumstances defined in.Section 43 of the said Act. (5) The rates of payment of out-of-work benefit shall be in accordance with Part ,1 of the Schedule of this Order, subject to reduction by such amount on account of any pension, Wages, salary, Unemployment Insurance benefit or other income the discharged person may have received or be entitled to receive in respect of the period for which such out-of-work benefit is paid, as to the Department seems right. (6) In the case of a person discharged from the Canadian Women's Army Corps, the Royal Canadian Air Force (Women's Division) or the Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service, the rate of out-of-work benefit shall not exceed the rate of pay of the discharged person at the date of discharge. (7) Out-of-work benefit-Bball not be .paid to a married W0^towM(^/:h&¥%ii9baod'' ia, in the opinion of the Department, capable of. matoteintog/her eitherr?w,fc'o%,'soY: mainly and under legal. obligation so to do."' " i J & -• B B N B P E B HtTflESBB TWO—VCOATIONAL AND TECHNICAL tfitMNBSro-' '• . • .'~ ' '"* • •"' • ->*•-: 6; Where a discharged persons-is piirsuing- vocational1 or 'technical '1*8ihlng-!,GrMtbe¥^ educational training which has been .approved .by the Iiey>^ment^'<fi&^^r,whs^k<i will fit him or keep him fifefor. employment or re-employment, or will efcaBle him.to^ obtain better or more suitable .employment, payment ot a grant -nlay-:&e". naad<*' to, •  him for so long as he. makes progress in.such training its' the satisfaction, of the : Department, upon therms and subject to. the eondi&ioBB following.^ -'- ' . • (1) .Except as otherwise .provided in'this paragraph,- the. totalvpferiod t^e-wltfBlt a. groat thereunder may be paid, shall not exeeed the-'discharged pei3onf8%eriod 6£ service nor shall it in any. ease exceed fifty-two weeks, provided that the.©epartmant'•' may regard such period as being exclusive of any- time, within suck period* during,-. whioh the discharged person waAa .patient, or (Hit^ atient. of any hospital or health--:''' institution. » » ..• ••>•*.-, ., (2); In the- case of a- discharged person, whose period of service kaa exceeded*• 52 weeks,;such grant may .be contmued--for a .period which,, together with the period of grant hereunder and/w<any other grant -or benefit wSwohhe •may^ ihave-. leeeired• '• under this Order, does not exceed in all his period of service, qfr in the opinion of the Department^  the discharged person has made satisfactory progress, in jhfe trauiing ; but requires additional training- to qualify him1 lor employwent-in the o^ccupaition1 <Eof• which, he is-being trained. * ' • ' • •*-'' -(3) In no case shall a grant.hereunder-be paid if application therefor is not made within twelve months after the cessation .-'of hostilities -at the present W^ f or-such'-^  earlier date as may be. fixed 'by the Governor'in Oouncil or within twelve ifloiiths-aitei1' discharge,, whichever is She later date, provided that in ;detennjnihg sufih^peiibd the : Department may. regard the.-same.-ae being exclusive of-any tira'a, within'suoh e^riod','"' during which the discharged person was a patient or out-patient eff Shy: hospital • health institution.. - - * •-.> . v^.-. (A.) In ,the case of a grant hereunder to a discharged person who is in ^ receipt of.-pension, all ox any of the limitations imposed by sub-paragraphs fl?,..(2-) And (3J hereof .may bB waived if, in the opinion of. the Department, such .discharged person-, is. unable, to follow his pre-war occupation or 'his.• principal post-w.ar occupation- Or.the-occupation for which he was .previously granted training by the' Department, and has been unable .to secure or -hold steady, employment though, possessing a potential physical and mental capacity .for work1. - • --(5) Where thev discharged person is not in receipt-of .a pension, the rate of pay-ment of grant hereunder shall be- in accordance .with Part 2 -af the Schedule of this;'. -Order, and; where the 'discharged person is. in receipt1 of - a-peasioru, the. raije at payment of .grant hereunder shall .be in an .amount which, wjien added' to the discharged ..person's pension^ - inclusive of.-.additional -pension,.'.equaTs the .rate'set -forth in Part 3 of the said Schedule applicable to -a thschawced'-person oi- his 'Status-,- and in either case Buch grant shall be subject to reduction by such amount on acoourft" of any wages, salary or other income, sueh' person may have received or-'be entitled to receive in respect of the period for which, sueh 'grant -is paid,, as to the -Department. •seems/'right. (0)- P^he Department may pay. to a = discharged' pew>n^ pursuing.>a corase.-here* under and ;who is a married person or a person in respect of whom, -an additional allowance for dependents is being- paid imder-this Order,, a living allowance of. -five-' dollars per week for any week whilst he is necessarily '-living Way 'from his. Usual1 --place 'of residence in pursuing -such..course and is .thereby, in- the opinion of the"; Department-obliged to-incur extra living- expenses; . • ••-:.-.• • - - <&) "Where such discharged person's place oi residence .during a-aourse^ herenndW-; is-at such'.distance from tire place where the course is being flield 'that daily'itranapor*." tation to-and from such place is advantageous as an alternative to.changing hia plac? of residence, he may be allowed transportation, to and frora..aueh place each day that . such course'necessitates, at a tqtal cost-not exceeding five dollars per--week-.-:- -" - • : 7 (7) (a) The Department may allow to a discharged person pursuing a course hereunder travelling expenses for one trip from his usual place of residence to the place where the course is being held and one trip in return, or one trip from his usual place of residence to the place where the course is being held and one trip to such 'other place where in the interests of rehabilitation it is deemed by the Depart-ment advisable for him to go and to which he can go without incurring greater travelling expenses. (b) For the purpose of this paragraph, "travelling expenses" means,— (i) railway transportation, with sleeping berth if necessary, and/or reasonable charge for other modes of transportation when necessary and when supported by proper vouchers; or (ii) Transportation by privately owned automobile when authorized with a mileage allowance of three cents per mile or the equivalent of one railway fare irrespective of the number of passengers carried; and in either case (iii) the cost of meals in transit, if not provided by the transportation company, at one dollar each. (8) Where a grant is being paid to a discharged person hereunder, or where a grant might be paid hereunder but for reduction on account of pension, wages, salary or other income, the Department may authorize an additional payment to be made on behalf of such person not exceeding the tuition fees, student fees, athletic fees or other charges and costs of his course. BENEFITS NUMBER THREE AND NUMBER FOUR—AWAITING RETURNS FROM ENTERPRISE; TEMPORARY INCAPACITY 7. If the Department is of the opinion that, having regard to the special cir-cumstances of the case, a grant will prove effective in re-establishing a discharged person who t (a) is engaged in agricultural or other enterprise on his own account and is awaiting returris therefrom, or who (b) is temporarily, incapacitated from accepting work or from taking training by reason of a disability, and is not entitled to care under the Department's treatment regulations, , a grant may be paid to such discharged person upon the terms and subject to the conditions following:— (1) No grant shall be paid hereunder for any period for which the discharged person has been paid or is entitled to be paid a re-habilitation grant. (2) The total period for which a grant may be paid hereunder shall not exceed the discharged person's period of service nor shall it in any case exceed fifty-two weeks. (3) The rates of payment of grant hereunder shall be in accordance with Part 1 of the Schedule of this Order, subject to reduction by such amount of any pension, wages, salary, or other income the discharged person may have received or be entitled to receive in respect of the period for which such grant is paid, as to the Department seems right. (4) No grant under clause (a) of this .paragraph (Benefit No. 3) shall be paid unless application therefor shall have been made within twelve months after cessation of hostilities of the present war or such earlier date as may be fixed by the Governor in Council or within twelve months after discharge, whichever is the later date, provided that in determining the said period of twelve months the Department may regard such period as being exclusive of any time, within such period, during which the discharged person was a patient or out-patient of any hospital or health institution. (5) No grant under clause (b) of this paragraph (Benefit No. 4) shall be paid or continued beyond eighteen months after discharge. BENEFIT NUMBER FIVE—UNIVERSITY EDUCATION (UNDERGRADUATE) 8. In ease any discharged person (a) has been regularly admitted to a "university before his discharge, and resumes within one year and three months after discharge a course, academic or professional, interrupted by his service, or ib) 6ecom.es .regularly admitted to -a university^  .and commences • ony^ suco*;vc&iiiBe "t" within one year and three- mentis after his discharge,'-or - " -(e) because of ill health or because his admission to the university has been-conditional upon his fulfilling some additional- matriculation r-efluS^ mettts^  or for any other good reason shown. tO'-the satisfaction -o£;.th"ft .iDepartrneiffi^ --•. delays resumption or -commencement of such course bey-ond-fche aforementioned • • ' periods, • •* ' a grant may be paid tO;sucb discharged person for any period during wMch.-heipUtsues^ ' such course, upon the. terms and subject.to the conditions following:—- '-' • -: (1) In no .case shall a grant hereunder -be continued, to. a -discharged- "person-, who fails in more than two classes or subjects in any academic year,, or who, having iailed_in either one or two classes or subjects, also/ails mneither or bo&'supplementary -examinations next offered by the university in such classes or subjects. ' - tj-. :. <2).The total period for which a -grant may be paid hereunder ".'shall, aoi^te " greater tih&n the discharged person's.-period of service unless Ibis progrew;and'-'attera^  -• meats in his course are-such that the Department deems dt in.his interest -and in the public interest 6hat the grant should be continued. '(3)... Where the discharged person is not in receipt of a pension, the-iate of pay-ment of grant hereunder shall be in accordance with Part-'2"of-;the Schedule of this Order, and, where the discharged person is in receipt of a pension*, tihe rate'efTpayinenlf .-i of grant hereunder shall be in an amount which, when added to/the discharged" person's pension, inclusive of additional pension, equals the r*ie set forth'-in Part 3 • of the said Schedule applicable to a discharged person of -Ms -status, and-in. either case such grant sha'H-foe subject, to reduction .by such amount-on- fl^:imt-<©f-"Wiy' '• wages, salary, or other income such person may- have receded- or be entitled- to receive in respect of the period for which such grant is paid) as' to the- Department seems' ; right. ' " - • • ' v „(4) Where a grant is being.paid to 4 discharged person hereunder, or,where a ;grant might be paid hereunder but .for reduction on account of pension, wages* ,salftry" -. or other income, the (Department .may authorize an ••additional' payment to toe-~.raade' on behalf of such person not exceeding the tuition fees, .student fees, athletic -fees -. or other charges and costs- of his course. ^ B E N E F I T N O M B E H F I V E — T ^ N J V E B S I T T E D U C A T I O N ( P O S T - G R M H T A T B ) . • 9, In case <any discharged person • - >-. (a) has .entered upon a postgraduate 'course, either academic or professional, ' in a university before enlistment, or was about to do -so at' thB-' time of his enlistment, or, having completed hie undergraduate course in <a university after his.discharge, enters upon a post-graduate course as aforesaid, and1 -(b.) -resumes or commences such post-graduate.-course within -* . •" (i) one year from his discharge, or (ii) one year from the commencement, -next following his discharge, of such course in such university; if his discharge precedes-such commencement: by not more than three months, :or, , - • (iii) an the case of a discharged, person who completes his' trndergraduato1. • -course after his discharge,as soon asmay^ be after-such completion, <--', . if the Department, having considered, such pe-rson's att&inmebis and his. course, deems ; it in the public, interest that such, discharged person should .continue' such;, course;-a .:• gntnt may-be paid to him'for any period during which he pursues such course upon7 , the terms and subject to the conditions following:^ -(1) The total period for which a grant may be paid hereunder together .with any period for which he may have received ar grant for undergraduate education under' paragraph 8 of this Order shall not exceed'the discharged peraonV period of-.services unless his, progress- and achievements are so outstanding that, .-in..the--opmion'io|,:the'. -? Department, it is1 important in the public interest that the grant ^ should be continued! (2) Where the discharged person is not in receipt of a pension the rate; of.payment.:, of grant hereunder shall be in accordance with Part 2 of the Schedule of tois prder, and, where the discharged person is in receipt of a. pension, the rate of payment 9 of grant hereunder shall be in an amount which, when added to the discharged person's pension, inclusive of additional pension, equals the rate set forth in Part 3 of the said Schedule applicable to a discharged person of his status, and in either case such grant shall be subject to reduction by such amount on .account 6*f any wages, salary, or other income such person may have received or be entitled to receive in respect of the period for which such grant is paid, as to the Department seems right. (3) "Where a grant is being paid to a discharged person hereunder, or where a grant might be paid hereunder but for reduction oni account of pension, wages, salary or other income, the Department may authorize an additional payment to be made on behalf of such person not exceeding the tuition fees, student fees, athletic fees or other charges and costs of his course. SCHEDULE—DEPENDENTS' ALLOWANCE, ETC. 10. In construing the meaning of the Schedule of this Order the following rules shall apply:— (1) The additional amount for a person in lieu of wife may only • in the discretion of the Department be paid to a woman who, although not legally married to the discharged person, was living with him at the time of his enlistment and on whose account Dependents' Allowance was being paid by the Department of National Defence at the time of his discharge. (2) In the case of a person who is married and who maintains one or more children, or in the case of a widower who maintains one or more children and in either case who qualifies as af "married person" under the definition thereof and is being paid a benefit or grant .as such, the additional amount paid as a "married person" shall be diminished by the difference in rates as between a married person and an unmarried person unless there exists a daughter, in respect of whom no amount is payable as a child, or other person, competent to assume and who does assume the household duties and the care of the child or children. (3) The additional amounts for dependents provided in the said Schedule are the maximum amounts payable to or in respect of such dependents but, if lesser amounts are, in the opinion of the Department, sufficient for the maintenance of such dependents, lesser amounts may be paid. (4) In lieu of the monthly payments set forth in the said Schedule, pro rata payments may be made semi-monthly or weekly, in the discretion of the Department. CORRESPONDENCE COURSES 11. (1) The Department may authorize pavment of fees in respect of a corres-pondence course for a discharged person in hospital undergoing treatment by the Department where the responsible medical officer of the Department consents thereto on medical grounds. Such payment may extend beyond fifty-two weeks or the length of period of service of the discharged person, and, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 14 of this Order, shall not preclude or in any wise diminish any other benefit or grant under this Order. (2) The Department may authorize payment of fees in respect of a correspondence course for a discharged person who is employed if, in the opinion of the Department, such course is necessary to the successful rehabilitation of such discharged peron and is directly related to the occupation in which he is employed. Such payment may extend beyond fifty-two weeks or the length of the period of service of the discharged person, but the amount of the payment shall in no case exceed the amount of grant under paragraph 6 of this Order which otherwise would have been payable. G E N E R A L PROVISIONS 12. (,1) Where a discharged person is requested under authority of the Department to appear at any district office of the, Department or elsewhere for rehabilitation consultation, he may be allowed transportation expenses from his place of residence to the place of consultation and return together with other travelling expenses. 10 (2> (o)i "Transportation" for the purpose of this paragraph means railway transpor-tation with sleeping berth if necessary, and/or reasonable charge for Other modes of transportation when necessary and when supported by proper vouchers; (6) When a privately owned automobile is used the transportation allowance shall be three cents per mile or the equivalent of one railway fare, irrespective of the number of passengers carried. (3)' "Other travelling expenses" for the purpose of this paragraph means (a) meals in transit, if not provided by the transportation company, at §1,00 each; (6) board and quarters during the time detained which will wherever possible be furnished at a Departments] institution but as to which if not furnished at a Departmental institution the following rates shall apply:— Meals each, $0.50; Lodging $2.00 per night. 13. No benefit or grant shall be paid under this Order while the discharged .person is residing elsewhere than in Canada except in special cases of grants under paragraphs 6, S or 9 of i his Order in which, in [he opinion of the Department, training elsewhere than in Canada is deemed advisable. M. JS'oL more than one grant may be paid to any person under this Order for any period nor shall any grant be paid to any person for any period for which he is paid out-of-work benefit hereunder, and except as otherwise specially provided in this Order the total period for which a person may receive out-of-work benefits or grants or any permutation of the same shall not exceed his period of service nor shall it in any case exceed fifty-two weeks. , 15. Notwithstanding anything in this Order contained the Department may, for any reason deemed sufficient (a) refrain from authorizing any payments under this Part, or (6) on new facts being brought to attention, make any authorization under this Part which has been previously refused, or rescind or amend any authorization made under this Part, the decision of the Department otherwise being final, or (c) authorize that payment of an out-of-work benefit or grant or any instalment or portion of instilment thereof be made to some person other than, the discharged person but on his behalf. 16. Any payment under this Part shall be made out of monies provided for the purpose. PART TWO 17. Any discharged person who completes fifteen weeks in insurable employment under the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1940, within any period of twelve months, whether continuous employment or not, shall, for the purpose of the said Act, be deemed (<i) lo have received unemployment insurance benefit under the said Act for a continuous period (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to. as "benefit period"), immediately prior to the commencement of sueh fifteen weeks, equal to lhi> period, if any, for which he received out-of-work benefit under Part 1 hereof, but not exceeding in total in any case, -three-fifths of his period of service after June 30, 1941, and (b) to have been in insurable employment immediately prior to the commencement of the said benefit period for a period equal to his service after June 30, 1941, and the said insurable employment shall be deemed to have been continuous as nearly as may be without being contemporaneous with any period during which the said person ^dually was in. insurable employment under the said Act prior to the said benefit period. 18. As soon as may be, after The Unemployment Insurance Commission ascertains that a discharged person has completed fifteen weeks in insurable employment as aforesaid, there shall be credited to the Unemployment Insurance Fund out of the 11 War Appropriation of The Consolidated Revenue Fund if such credit is made during the year ending March 31, 1942,- and out of moneys -appropriated for the purpose if such credit is made thereafter, the amount of the combined employer's and employed person's contribution under the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1940, for a period equal to the difference between his period of service after June 30, 1941, and one and two-thirds of the period for which, under sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph 17 hereof, he is deemed to have been in receipt of unemployment insurance benefit, and the rate of the said combined contribution shall be the average of the contributions-shown by such person's unemployment book to. have been paid by him and on his behalf for the said fifteen weeks; and for the purpose of the said Act, the said discharged person shall be deemed to have been bona fide employed in insurable employment during the said period of service and all contributions shall be deemed to have been paid under the said Act in respect of the said discharged person during the said period of service. 19 If on making any report on the financial condition of the Unemployment Insurance Fund the Unemployment Insurance Advisory Committee finds that the said Fund has been adversely affected by reason of the provisions of paragraphs 17 and 18 hereof, the Committee shall in its statutory report state the amount and the manner in which the said Fund has been adversely affected as aforesaid, and the Governor in Council may on receipt of said report take into consideration immediate measures to remedy any depletion of the said Fund due to the operation of this Order which depletion shall have been established by the aforesaid report of the Unemployment Insurance Advisory Committee. D U L E OF M O N T H L Y RATES-(Paragraph 10) Additional amount lor Additional amount ibr ,« b, oi w i M 2 0 - « l p«r month <WP>!»W° g }• | S « 1)'. ARMY EDITION 15th A U G U S T , CANADA NOTES ON THE WAR SERVICE GRANTS ACT, 1944 (WITH TABLE SHOWING EXAMPLES) AND ON CERTAIN BENEFITS AVAILABLE AFTER DISCHARGE TO MEMBERS OF T H E CANADIAN ARMED FORCES N.B.: The War Service Grants Act, 1944, comes into force 1st January, 1945, or on such earlier date between 1st October, 1944 and 1st January, 1945 as may be fixed by proclamation A . There are two classes of benefits available to members of the Canadian Armed Forces after discharge: 1. Cash payments of (a) W A R S E R V I C E G R A T U I T Y (see paragraph B below) ; (6) R E H A B I L I T A T I O N GRANT (see paragraph C below); and (c) Clothing allowance (see paragraph D below). 2. Benefits applicable to readjustment to civil l ife. These consist of: (a) R E - E S T A B L I S H M E N T CREDIT (see paragraph E below); and (6) Various other Re-establishment Benefits (see paragraph F below). War Service Gratuity B . The W A R S E R V I C E G R A T U I T Y is payable under The War Service Grants Act, 1944. A l l members of the naval, military and air forces of His Majesty raised in Canada who have served on active service during the present war either without territorial limitation or in the Aleutian Islands, and who have been honourably discharged, are entitled to the W A R S E R V I C E GRATUITY. There are certain provisions in favour of Canadians who have served in His Majesty's forces other than those raised in Canada. The W A R S E R V I C E G R A T U I T Y is made up of: (a) BASIC G R A T U I T Y (i) for every 30 days' service in the Western Hemisphere (while enlisted or obligated to serve-without territorial limitation) $7.50 (ii) for every 30 days' service overseas or in the Aleutian Islands . . . . 15.00; (b) P A Y A N D A L L O W A N C E S for every 6 months' service overseas or in the Aleutian Islands, or proportionately for periods less than 6 months—7 day's pay and allowances which include dependents' allowances where applicable and subsistence allowance in any event at standard Canadian rates. In computing the length of service, periods of leave of absence without pay, absence without leave, penal servitude, imprisonment or detention and periods when pay is forfeited are not included. 50OM—8-44 (5435) 15134 The WAR SERVICE GRATUITY will be paid In monthlv instalments commencing one month after discharge and not exceeding the amount of pay and allowances paid immediately prior to discharge, plus subsistence allowance, even if the latter was not paid prior to discharge. The- WAR SERVICE GRATUITY or. any unpaid balance thereof is payable under certain ; conditions to dependents of a sailor, soldier or airman who died while serving- or before . the, gratuity was fuUy paid to him. Rehabilitation Grant C. The present rehabilitation grant is payable to all members of the naval, military or air . forces of His Majesty raised m Canada who have served on active service for at Jeast 183 days. It consists of 30 days' pay and allowances, and Is payable npon discharge. Clothing Allowance D. The present increased clothing allowance is payable in the amount of 8100.D0 to all members of the forces retired or discharged on or alter 1st August 1944. Kc-establisEuneni Credit E. The RE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT'is available under the provisions of The War Service ' Grants Act, 1944. It is primarily for those members of the forces who do not elect to taker ; benefits under the Veterans' Land Act, 1942, or any educational, vocational or technical training benefits. In order to assist them in their re-establishment, all such members of the forces entitled to the WAR SERVICE GRATUITY are eligible, in addition thereto, for a 1 RE-ESTABLISHMENT CRBDIT. to be used for certain specified .purposes shown below, equal in amount to the BASIC GRATUITY payable to them. .. All or aoy part of the RE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT may at any time within a period of 10 years be mode available to sueb member if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Minister that such credit is to be used, for1 (i) the acquisition of a home, to an amount not exceeding § of the equity as determined under the Act; (ii) the repair or modernisation of his home,- ii owned by him; (iii) the purchase of furniture and household equipment for his domestic use, to an amount not exceeding § of the cost; (iv) working capital for his profession or business; (v) the purchase of tools, instruments or equipment for his .trade, profession or business;, (vi) the purchase of a business, to an amount not exceeding & of the equity fund required-for the purpose; (vii) payment of premiums under any insurance scheme established, by the Government-of Canada; (vni) the purchase of special equipment required for educational or vocational training; (is) any other parpoae authorized by the Governor-in-Council. If a man has elected to take educational, vocational or technical training benefits or benefits-'-under the Veterans' Land Act, and these benefits are less than the amount of the RErESTAB--LISHMENT CREDIT applicable to him, the difference may be made available for any of the-, purposes specified above. If, on the other hand, the RE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT has been used wholly or m part and later an application ie made for educational, vocational or technical training benefits or benefits under the Veterans' Land Act, such benefits may be granted, but a compensating adjustment must be made in respect of the credit already received. Various Giber Re-establishment Benefits , p. Various other rights and privileges are already in force by legislation and Order-in-Council in favour of veterans of this war (referred to collectively as ' the Reha-bi) Station Programme"). Benefits under The War Service Grants Aet are distinct from and ia addition to these other rights and privileges; but this statement is subject to the reservation that the RE-ESTAB-LISHMENT CREDIT is not available to those who elect to take benefits under the Veterans' Land. Aet or educational, vocational or technical training benefits, except to the extent and subject to the adjustments indicated in the last clause of paragraph E above. G.- Both the WAR SERVICE GRATUITY and the RE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT are tax free and may not be assigned or attached for debt. However over payments of service pay and allowances may he deducted from the WAE SERVICE GRATUITY. H. The above notes are primarily an attempt to paraphrase some of the salient points of The War Service Grants Act but they do not purport to state the exact terms of the Act or to include all of its provisions. For complete and precise information, reference should be made to the Act itself. I. The Tabic included in this pamphlet shows examples of the BASIC -GRATUITY and -also the TOTAL GRATUITY payable under The War Service Grants Act, JS44. The present rehabilitation grant and the present clothing allowance are also included in the Table, but are shown separately. J , The RE-ESTABLISHMENT CREDIT described in Notes E and F is not included in the Table but woud be in addition to the amounts listed therein. 3 •i I S3 13 51 I S3 I 8*1 -1 -1! S3 131 a i °. m lag S Si SIS 5 sss 3 5 83 SSS 5 i si 5 ia sss 1 iS ESS 6 m gas § -J * § | SS . sss gas s S S3 IS sss SIS 3 E ss Is 888 SSS s I ss SS SSS ISS 3 3 88 IS sss 1 1 a ss ISI 82 ss SSS SIS s 5 se If sss gsa i S3 fl 8238 S8S. s f 88 m 8S8 SSI 3 % 4 I SI SSS 11 JSP s. IS sss r," §3 in — is i 1 3 88 IS SSI s s ss SS sss SIS 5 ss S3 °ss sSS ? s ss IS SHI s 5 ss S3 sss SSS 5 1 a 83 888 ISS 2 s 3S8 ill s a 88 SS 888 sss s S s ESS gSS 1 88 SB sss SSS s 5 1 a 88 888 85! 8 § 8$ gs 388 3 i SS S» S8S SSI s 5 SS8 SSS S s 88 SS sss SSS £ s i I - \ SBS E 1 i sis S t; sss 1 1: SSS E i \ SSS I 6; SSI S \ 681 s I: BSS S S; sm i §: SSS g i ° s i SSI 5 8 : *SS i S : 888 1 a : sgS 3 8 : sgs g 7 '838 1NO gg eo m o CO —I o «5« OOMM 828 JQOO OCT sag OH (ON CO T-< r-<10 O 5E> CO • OCOO • "3NO • h#C4 — NC<JO OCOO Tncsc-t O CO o o 0-* 9SS o -3 «S ON S8 N m an 83 N CO -^t ooo ro ooo TO CO t-t 1 I-H Q.Q o<o ooo eoo o to o O OO WHO «D OS ON. loco NO O <oo o OOCO i-H N OCT s§ |o a TO r-l H" OO o oo ooo woo o oesi , O OS WNO o OM to to S58'8 1 O TW to o TO <M CDOEO CO s o >o J0«0 O W TOOS O CT CO OO ?28 >S8 o >o o N T—< O o *o O CTi-lO COi=< ON "3<M TO O "tft 00 o NOO 1 CO CO i-i °1 £2§ S GO N OOO O OOO iNoQO — CO —I °8S WOO CD<OQ ON ON 00 N 3 O TO >o CO M< CO »o O O 0(0 0 -- OO CO CO o OO CO i—I c  . Jot ^ ^ .13 g> ooo US(DO « *H o 303 a E"< _M EH § £3-1 ,o ? E* «| EH 3 o . PH 2.9 CD TO (8 •log E^JJfH Q •S • m ' 03 •H M <! W3 m 8 I ! 1 i 8* 1 ss 888 i 8SS | se SIS li ssss . e . 8* sags gggs 83 383 S ggSg CP! 1 4 S3 838 SSS -J i s lis = li SSS 3 S3 1 Si sas i m\ S3' SSS s •HI ii 4 i 88 sss SSS ! 88 s ss -838 3 SiSSS SS II Bs 3 SS 1 li mn ! 'SS -SSSS -1 1 88 - * iss 3 SS -sis; SS SS sss IIS sss i ss : IS x • SSS g S3 . II' 4 - ™ sss -1 Si -,--T c SS - §! SI 1 1 sis S %% I 8-3-i §1 4 1 SS IS 888 ESS S SS Lis gas g III? 83 ; ' IS 888 *. S 8S 3 88 -f - « pas 1SS g • ss ! SS sss s«S l SS !- 8! 4 1 88 . 5« S8S 8S8 1 SS 352 S $ SSSi SS SS 888 ;SS 8 33 g_ Si sas SIS £ SS -r • ias S SS i Si 4 i 88 -sss SIS 3 SS i m «-SSS c SSSi 88 :- ss sss SSS 8 SS ass SSS t 88 1 il SSS 3 S3: ! gf i - § 888 SSS s s 1 S SIS 3 S \ -888 SIS 8 8' S S sag sas 3 g . i % 888 SSS g s s s 5 s S 888 RSS S 8 s s 338 SSS 2 S I 'g sss SSS 8 8 S g 3 g s s sss SUS I s 1 6 i f 8 s sss SSS 8 S s * S28 »ss 3 S g S »ss S 8 | 8 li! 2 S sss „,| g. s -i -•3 1 I f I 18 1 1 I ii f i.l i I Benefit 2 5 D E P A R T M E N T O F V E T E R A N S A F F A I R S S e r i a l No. AUTHORIZATION OF TRAINING BENEFITS H . O . U S E (!) D i s t r i c t . . Reg. No SURNAME CHRISTIAN NAME Rank (la) Address Pension No. % D i s a b i l i t y awarded.. .. (lb) Monthly rate.. (2) Date of Enlistment Date of Discharge (2a) Place of Enlistment Place of Discharge (3) Months' Served: (a) In Canada (b) Out of Canada.. (3c) Months of Entitlement (see W.D. 12) (3d) Service Trade (3e) Rank attained-(4) Where served out of Canada (4a) Reason f o r Discharge (4b). P r i n c i p a l d i s a b i l i t y ( i f any) ( Married..- (7) No. of Children.. (5) Age (6) ( Single (7a) Ages ( Widower Dependent Parent ..months (7b) I f married i s he supporting his wife? (8) P r i n c i p a l occupation before enlistment (9) Length of experience i n that occupation years (13) Training or Course approved (13a) Ultimate occupational goal (14) Is applicant registered with National Selective Service?.. (16) Is he receiving Unemployment Insurance Benefits? (16a) Is applicant now employed? Where? (17) Monthly income, from other sources, during t r a i n i n g (18) Educational Background (schools, grades and ages on completion; other courses).. (19) Pre-Enlistment Employment ( l a s t f i r s t ) Name of Employer Job Duration Wages (19a) Post-Discharge Employment W.D. 1 Tr. 200M-2-45 Req. 157 - 2 -(20) Nature and Place of Employment on Completion of Training _._ (21) Has he previously applied for or received assistance under P.C. 5210? Specify. (22) Has he plans for financing t r a i n i n g beyond entitlement? (23) Counsellor's Summary: DECISION OF DISTRICT REHABILITATION BOARD Date Authority i s hereby given to pay R e h a b i l i t a t i o n under Benefit # .' at the rate of $ per month for . weeks for t r a i n i n g i n T^'AIMI"'^^" CENTOE"o^'^sr^ii-^^^^^^ E f f e c t i v e Date - (Signed) - Chairman. Medical Officer, (where applicable) I f a p p l i c a t i o n declined, reason f o r d e c l i n i n g Follow-up (Head Office use) -199-BXBLIOGRAPHY (1) BOOEB AND IvIAMSGRIFTS C h i l d , I r v l n L*, and Van de Water, Marjory, ( E d i t o r s ) . Psychology f o r the r e t u r n i n g serviceman. I n f a n t r y Journal, Penguin Books, V-New York, 1945 David, John E i s e l e . P r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . . A.S.Barnes & Company, Inc., New York, 1943. England, Robert. Discharged. A commentary, on c i v i l re-establishment of veterans i n Canada. Toronto, Macmillan, 1943. P r a t t , G.S. S o l d i e r t o c i v i l i a n . McGraw-Hill, New York, 1944. Segsworth, Walter, R e t r a i n i n g Canada's d i s a b l e d s o l d i e r s . J.d'L.Tache, P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1920. Waller, W i l l a r d . The veteran comes back. Dryden Press, New York, 1944. Weir, George M. Survey.of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (Interim Report) Ottawa, Dec. 1943. (2) ARTICLES ' ' . ' • • . ' • Beck, Stanley. "Back to c i v i l l i f e and what?" Vancouver Sun, Magazine Secti o n , August 5, 1944* Buswell, G.T. "Organization and sequence of the curriculum." F o r t y - f i r s t Year book, Part 2, N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Education. P u b l i c Schools P u b l i s h i n g Co., Bloomington, I l l i n o i s , 1942. Cameron, D.lwen. "The r e - i n t e g r a t i o n of the war veteran i n industry." The Canadian Medical A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l . Vol.51, No.3, 202-206, September, 1944. Chisholm, Major-General G.B. "P s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment of s o l d i e r s ' t o army and to c i v i l i a n l i f e . " The American J o u r n a l of Psychi a t r y , Vol.101, No.3 , 300-302, November, 1944. Marsh, X.C. and F i r e s t o n e , O.J. " W i l l there be jobs." Canadian A f f a i r s . Canadian E d i t i o n , Vol.1, No.18, October 1, 1944. -200-A r t i c l e s Ctd Meakins, B r i g a d i e r J.O. "The r e t u r n i n g serviceman and h i s problems." The Canadian Medical Assn. Jou r n a l , Vol.21, No.3, 195-202, Sept. 1944. Weir, George M. "Jobs f o r the f i t and f i t t i n g the u n f i t f o r jobs." Proceedings, Canadian E l e c t r i c a l Assn., 16-20, 54th Annual Meeting, 1944. (3) NEWSPAPERS AMD BOOKLETS Canada at War. Published by the Wartime Information Board. #40, September 1944; #42, November-December, 1944 #44, Eebruary-March, 1945. Canadian A f f a i r s . V o l . 2 , No.9, Canadian E d i t i o n , June 1, 1944 Vancouver Province. Vancouver, B.C. March 31, 1945 and Mar 13, 1945. (4) GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Annual Report, Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l Re-establishment, S e s s i o n a l paper No.14, 10 George V,.August, 1920, Ottawa. An Act t o provide f o r the insurance of veterans by the Dominion of Canada, 8 George VI, Chapter 49, 443-451; assented t o August 15, 1944; Edmund C l o u t i e r , King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. . An Act respecting the c a r r y i n g on and co-ordination of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 6 George V I , Chapter 34, 179-182; .assented to August 1, 1942. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. An Act to provide f o r the payment of war se r v i c e g r a t u i t i e s and f o r the grant of re-establishment c r e d i t s t o members of H i s Majesty's f o r c e s i n respect, to s e r v i c e during the present war. Chapter 51, 8 George V I ; assented t o August 15, 1944. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. "Back to C i v i l l i f e . " Issued under the a u t h o r i t y of Hon.Ian A.MacKenzie, M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health. Second e d i t i o n , August 25, 1944. "Canada's work for, d i s a b l e d s o l d i e r s . " Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l . Re-establishment, Ottawa, 1919. -201-G^vernment Documents Ctd Canada Year Book, 1943-1944. C i v i l employment reinstatement Act., 1942. B i l l 5, F i r s t reading, January 28,-1942, House of Commons, Canada; Edmund C l o u t i e r , King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1942. Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g programme and the Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l War Emergency T r a i n i n g programme. Report of the Dominion Supervisor of T r a i n i n g f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1941. Ottawa, 1941. Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g programme and the Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l War Emergency T r a i n i n g programme, Report ..of the Dominion Supervisor of T r a i n i n g f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1942. Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g programme and the Dominion-, P r o v i n c i a l War Emergency T r a i n i n g programme. Report of the Dominion Supervisor of T r a i n i n g f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1943. Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g programme and the Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l War Emergency T r a i n i n g programme (Canadian Voca-t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . ) Report of the Dominion D i r e c t o r of T r a i n i n g f o r t h e . f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1944. . ' •' f Labour Gazette, 1915-1944. Monthly p u b l i c a t i o n s , January 1945 to March 1945. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence No.l, S p e c i a l Committee on Reconstruction and the reestablishment. Wednesday, February 9 1944 and February 23,. 1944. Session 1944, House of Commons, Ottawa, 1944. .Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence Mo.3, S p e c i a l Committee on Reco n s t r u c t i o n and reestablishment. Session 1944, House of Commons, Ottawa. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, Ho.5, S p e c i a l Committee on V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . 1 Thursday, May 28, 1942, House of Commons, Ottawa, 1942. P r i n c i p l e s governing t r a i n i n g f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n c e of P.O5210. Issued under the a u t h o r i t y of Hon. Ian Mackenzie, M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l Health, Ottawa-.. -202-Government Documents Ctd. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Canada's f i g h t i n g men. A B r i e f submitted on J u l y 2, 1945 t o the House of Commons Committee on Post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and reestablishment. ' Canadian Legion Press, Ottawa, 1943. Report of the Advisory Committee on Reconstruction, September 24, 1943, Ottawa. Report of the Committee on Post war problems of Canadian univer-s i t i e s . ' N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , March, 1944. Report of the S o l d i e r Settlement of Canada, Canada S o l d i e r S e t t l e -ment Board. Ottawa, 1921. Report of the work of the Department of S o l d i e r s ' C i v i l R e e s t a b l i s h -ment. 1915-1917; 1917-1938. Ottawa. Report of the Veterans' Assistance Commission. Canadian Veterans' Assistance Commission, Ottawa, 1937. Report of the Returned S o l d i e r s ' A i d Commission f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of P r o v i n c i a l S ecretary, 1916; 1917; 1920. V i c t o r i a , B.C. Review of the Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g programme f o r t h e ' f i s c a l year ending March 31,/1939. Ottawa, 1939. Review of the Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g programme and the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t r y programme f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1940. Ottawa, 1940. Studies and. Reports - S e r i e s E (Disabled men) N o . l . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e , Geneva, 1921. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105729/manifest

Comment

Related Items