UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of the woman in the major short stories and novels of Ricarda Huch Sanders, Joan 1962

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DEVELOPMENT OP THE WOMAN IN THE MAJOR SHORT STORIES AND NOVELS OP RICARDA HUCH by JOAN SANDERS B. A., Queen's Un i v e r s i t y , 1951 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of GERMAN We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1962 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3, Canada. Date /AsSl^JL IS / / 96 2 — - i i -A b s t r a c t In t h i s t h e s i s , the development of the major women p r o t a g o n i s t s i n R i c a r d a Huch's novels and sho r t s t o r i e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d . E v o l v i n g from p u r e l y Romantic f i g u r e s to women who combine Romantic and r a t i o n a l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s , R i c a r d a Huch's women undergo three stages of development which correspond t o three d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s i n the l i f e of the author, spent i n Z u r i c h , Bremen-Vienna-Trieste, and Munich. In Z u r i c h , R i c a r d a Huch i s absorbed i n the woman who i s an i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a completely Romantic outlook; a woman who i s dominated by emotion of such power t h a t i t u l t i m a t e l y overcomes the w i l l t o l i v e i t s e l f . In the second p e r i o d of her w r i t i n g , R i c a r d a Huch p o r t r a y s women, whose l i v e s are al s o c e n t r e d i n emotion but are endowed w i t h e t h i c a l purpose. They are w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e connections w i t h home and s o c i e t y f o r the sake of the men they l o v e . The t h i r d and l a s t p e r i o d d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t of R i c a r d a Huch's l i f e i n Munich where she i s a wi f e and mother. The f i g u r e of P a r f a l l a i n Aus der Triumphgasse serves as a t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o t a g o n i s t l e a d i n g t o R i c a r d a Huch's f i n a l statements on woman's p l a c e i n the world. Set i n b l e a k e s t p o v e r t y , t h i s n o v e l shows us woman reduced t o her most e s s e n t i a l nature and dep r i v e d of any m o r a l i t y except d e v o t i o n to her c h i l d r e n . Woman i s now seen as a p a s s i v e c r e a t u r e doomed t o l o v e , t o s u f f e r and to s a c r i f i c e i n v a i n . Never-t h e l e s s , she ensures the continuance of mankind and f i n d s - i i i -c o n s o l a t i o n and purpose i n t h a t f u n c t i o n . Rose i n M i c h a e l Unger and M a i e l i e s i n Von den Konigen und der Krone r e c a p i t u l a t e the whole development o f R i c a r d a Huch's woman. They b e g i n as n a i v e c r e a t u r e s c e n t r e d i n emotion, t h e y g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e e t h i c a l purpose, they f i n d t h e i r s a c r i f i c e r e j e c t e d , t h e y are d e voted t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n and the y a re l e f t as o n l o o k e r s i n l i f e . R e s i g n ed but not d e s p a i r i n g , t h e y choose t o observe the c o u r s e of events r a t i o n a l l y . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of R i c a r d a Huch's women c h a r a c t e r s would not be complete without a d i s c u s s i o n o f the Romantic concept o f woman. In no one p a r t i c u l a r c h a p t e r of h e r c r i t i c a l works on t h e Romantics, does R i c a r d a Huch d e a l w i t h Romantic woman, but throughout h e r w r i t i n g s on the Romantics, she d i s c u s s e s i n g e n e r a l b o t h N o v a l i s ' and F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l ' s views on t h e r o l e of woman. The f i r s t c h a p t e r of t h i s t h e s i s d e a l i n g ' w i t h C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l i s i n c l u d e d because of h er a f f i n i t y w i t h R i c a r d a Huch. There i s no doubt a f t e r r e a d i n g R i c a r d a Huch's w r i t i n g s on C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l as a g r e a t Romantic f i g u r e , t h a t they are k i n d r e d s p i r i t s even though a c e n t u r y s e p a r a t e d them. Not o n l y was R i c a r d a Huch i n t e r e s t e d and impressed by C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l but her female c h a r a c t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n her l a t e r p e r i o d s o f w r i t i n g , bear marked resemblance t o C a r o l i n e . Marie Baum, one o f R i c a r d a Huch's c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , has compi l e d R i c a r d a Huch's correspondence w i t h h e r , o t h e r f r i e n d s and b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s i n two volumes, e n t i t l e d B r i e f e an  d i e Freunde (Tubingen, 1955), and Leuchtende Spur, Das Leben R i c a r d a Huchs (Tubingen, 1950). I have r e l i e d h e a v i l y on t h e s e two volumes t o show the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between - i v -the author's development and that of her feminine characters mentioned above. - i v -Table of Contents Chapter 1: C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l - a Romantic Predecessor 1 Chapter 2: Z u r i c h P e r i o d 14 Erinnerungen von L u d o l f U r s l e u dem Jungeren "Haduvig im Kreuzgang" "Der Mondreigen v o n . S c h l a r a f f i s " Chapter 3' Bremen-Vienna-Trieste P e r i o d 34 "Era C e l e s t e " "Der arme H e i n r i c h " Chapter 4: Munich P e r i o d 49 Aus der Triumphgasse  M i c h a e l Unger Von den Konigen und der Krone C o n c l u s i o n 90 Appendix 94 B i b l i o g r a p h y 96 Chapter 1 In a s s e s s i n g R i c a r d a Huch's p o r t r a y a l o f the woman, we soon r e c o g n i z e h e r indebt e d n e s s t o the Romantics. From the b e g i n n i n g o f h e r l i t e r a r y c a r e e r we f i n d h e r d e a l i n g w i t h two m o t i f s which dominate many Romantic works: a) the p r o b l e m a t i c e x i s t e n c e o f the man and b) h i s s a l v a t i o n i n the l o v e o f woman. In such works as S c h l e g e l • s L u c i n d e , the woman i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i v i n i t y . She i s a t one w i t h h e r s e l f and the w o r l d and i t i s i n l o v e o f h e r t h a t r e s t l e s s man a l s o f i n d s peace. S i g n i f i c a n t l y L u c i n d e c u l m i n a t e s i n an " I d y l l e iiber den Miissiggang," f o r Romantic man f i n d s e a r t h l y happiness p r e c i s e l y i n t h e b a s i c u n q u e s t i o n i n g and p a s s i v e a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e s y mbolized i n the l i f e o f woman. Woman i s not seen as b a s i c a l l y moral, f o r m o r a l i t y i s merely one more concept which man i n h i s c e a s e l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y has d e v i s e d . Of G r a f i n von G. i n Brentano's Godwi we r e a d , " S i e h a t t e gar k e i n e A b s i c h t , a l s zu l e b e n , und l a c h t e a l i e n meinen Unmut hinweg.11"'" Woman p o s s e s s e s the same q u a l i t i e s as a c h i l d . Indeed the i n c l u s i o n o f an apostrophe t o c h i l d -hood ( C h a r a k t e r i s t i k der k l e i n e n W i l h e l m i n e ) i n S c h l e g e l ' s L u c i n d e i s not f o r t u i t o u s . The woman i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d o r i d e n t i f i e d w i t h N a t u r e . But i n such w r i t e r s as N o v a l i s , Nature i s not a term employed t o d e s i g n a t e t h e whole of animate l i f e . The r e a l m o f the inan i m a t e i s i n c l u d e d Brentano, C : Godwi, B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e s I n s t i t u t , Wien, 1902. - 2 -w i t h i n the d e s i g n a t i o n . N o v a l i s i s l u r e d by a female image i n t o p o s i t i v e , even e c s t a t i c acceptance o f death, and thus expands t h e symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e of Romantic woman t o i n c l u d e a f f i r m a t i o n of t h e whole c y c l e of l i f e and d e a t h . While c o n s t a n t l y aware of the p r o x i m i t y o f death and o f u l t i m a t e preponderance o f a m o r a l i t y i n the u n i v e r s e , the Romantics seek a v a l u e t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e i r n i h i l i s t i c i n s i g h t s . N o v a l i s f i n d s t h i s v a l u e i n s a c r i f i c e and b u i l d s the "Marchen" i n H e i n r i c h von O f t e r d i n g e n around t h a t c o n c e p t . The t o t a l n e g a t i o n o f death i s removed by d y i n g on b e h a l f o f a per s o n o r i d e a l . Mutter Herz ( o f the Marchen) embodies t h i s i d e a i n her s e l f - w i l l e d immolation. In c o u n t l e s s works of a l e s s a l l e g o r i c a l n a t u r e t h e Romantics v a r y the theme o f s a c r i f i c e and a s s i g n the r o l e o f the s a c r i f i c i a l agent to t h e woman. In N o v a l i s we a r e o f t e n p u z z l e d t o f i n d C h r i s t c o n c e i v e d o f as a female but H i s death f o r mankind i s r e g a r d e d as the e x p r e s s i o n o f the s a c r i f i c i a l i n s t i n c t w i t h which woman i s endowed. Even t h e " L i e b e s t o d " i s f r e q u e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t he female impulse which seeks m o r a l i t y i n deat h r a t h e r than i n l i f e ( e . g. Dio t i m a ' s d e a t h i n H o l d e r l i n ' s H y p e r i o n ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t R i c a r d a Huch, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e o b j e c t i v i t y i n her p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Romantic thought ( D i e Romantik) devotes no d i s c u s s i o n t o the woman as a p a s s i v e i d e a l . R a t h e r she c o n s i g n s a l e n g t h y c h a p t e r a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the work t o a r h a p s o d i c a p p r a i s a l of C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l , whose l i f e i n no way can be c o n s t r u e d as an emulation o f the b a s i c f e m i n i n e type i n Romantic w r i t i n g s . R i c a r d a Huch w r i t e s a t some l e n g t h on the s o - c a l l e d "Andro-gynenproblem" but ot h e r w i s e n e g l e c t s t o d i s c u s s t h e Romantic - 3 -c o n c e p t o f woman. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s u c h c u r s o r y t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r must l i e i n R i c a r d a H u c h ' s own l a c k o f s y m p a t h y f o r t h e p a s s i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d l i f e w h i c h R o m a n t i c woman b y a n d l a r g e r e p r e s e n t s . The m a t u r e R i c a r d a H u c h i s n o t an i n n o c e n t a b r o a d i n t h e w o r l d n o r a woman s o i n f l a m e d w i t h l o v e a s t o c a s t away h e r l i f e f o r a man. S u c h f i g u r e s a p p e a r i n h e r e a r l y w o r k s b u t i n h e r l a t e r w r i t i n g s s h e r e j e c t s t h e R o m a n t i c i d e a l . I n h e r own p e r s o n a l l i f e a n d i n t h e l i v e s o f h e r l a t e r c r e a t i o n s , woman h a s g a i n e d a p o s i t i v e r a t i o n a l i s m . I n o t h e r w o r d s , s h e h a s come c l o s e r t o t h e R o m a n t i c p i c t u r e o f m a n — a n a c t i v e r e a s o n i n g c r e a t u r e s t r i v i n g f o r p u r p o s e , a n d may be s a i d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t t h e a n d r o g y n e c o n c e p t w h i c h R i c a r d a H u c h d i s c u s s e s w i t h s u c h c o n v i c t i o n i n D i e R o m a n t i k . A u s d e n wogenden p s y c h o l o g i s c h e n A n s c h a u u n g e n d e r R o m a n t i k e r hob s i c h immer d e u t l i c h e r d a s I d e a l b i l d d e r A n d r o g y n e d e s G a n z m e n s c h e n , d e n J a c o b Bohme d i e I d e a o d e r S o p h i e n a n n t e ; S o p h i e n a m l i c h , z u d e u t s c h W e i s h e i t , w e i l d i e s W o r t v o n " w e i s e n " komme u n d d e r Name a n d e u t e , d a s s s i e d e n M e n s c h e n n a c h dem Z i e l e w e i s e , d a s e r z u e r r e i c h e n h a b e . U n e r m u d l i c h e i f e r t e F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l g e g e n d i e V e r h e r r l i c h u n g d e r r e i n e n M a n n l i c h k e i t u n d W e i b l i c h k e i t : " Nur s a n f t e M a n n l i c h -k e i t , n u r s e l b s t a n d i g e W e i b l i c h k e i t i s t d i e r e c h t e , w a h r e u n d s c h o n e . " ! I n r e a d i n g R i c a r d a H u c h ' s d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e R o m a n t i c 2 P e r i o d , one c a n n o t f a i l t o n o t i c e t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n R i c a r d a a n d C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l . C a r o l i n e i s a woman who B l i i t e z e i t d e r R o m a n t i k , L e i p z i g , 1920 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n L e i p z i g , 1 8 9 9 ) , p p . 2 0 1 - 2 0 2 . A u s b r e i t u n g u n d V e r f a l l d e r R o m a n t i k , L e i p z i g , 1920 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 0 2 ) . - 4 -possesses the basic passive typology which the Romantics posi t e d i n t h e i r concept of woman. At the same time, she disp l a y s i n her l i f e a resolute bearing and a p r o c l i v i t y towards action at variance with that concept. One's attention i s focused on these seemingly contradictory c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n F r i e d r i c h Schlegel's d e s c r i p t i o n of her. Sie vernahm jede Andeutung, und s i e erwiderte auch die Frage, welche nicht gesagt war. Es war nic h t moglich, Reden mit i h r zu halten; es wurden von selbst Gesprache, und wahrend dem steigenden Interesse s p i e l t e auf ihrem feinen Gesichte eine immer neue Musik von g e i s t v o l l e n Blicken und l i e b l i c h e n Mienen. . . . Und doch zeigte eben diese Frau bei jeder grossen Gelegenheit Mut und Kr a f t zum Erstaunen, und das war auch der hohe Gesichtspunkt, aus dem si e den Wert der Menschen b e u r t e i l t e . l While possessing, on the one hand, a highly s e n s i t i v e receptive i n t e l l i g e n c e , on the other hand, she i s endowed with unusual a c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s . At t h i s point i t i s of i n t e r e s t to observe the educational backgrounds of the two women. Both Ricarda and Caroline are deprived of any d i s c i p l i n e d schooling i n t h e i r formative y e a r s — R i c a r d a , beginning her formal studies only at the age of 22, Caroline, never persuing any course of systematic study i n her l i f e . This f a c t makes t h e i r achievements a l l the more remarkable. They are both endowed by nature with i n t e l l e c t u a l power and a rugged i n d i v i d u a l i t y which help them resolve the complex problems of t h e i r l i v e s . In 1?84, at the age of 21, Caroline Michaelis marries Dr. Bohmer and together they leave the U n i v e r s i t y c i t y of Gottingen to take up residence i n the small v i l l a g e of Schlegel, F r i e d r i c h : Lucinde. Ein Roman, B e r l i n , L e i p z i g , 1926, pp. 120-121. - 5 -C l a u s t h a l where Dr. Bohmer i s t o open h i s medical p r a c t i c e . Mein Bruder w i r d mich dem Manne geben, dem er mich s e i t meiner K i n d h e i t bestimmt hat, seinem besten Freund, der mich schon d i e Z e i t iiber l i e b t . I c h e r f u l l e durch d i e s e H e i r a t d i e Wiinsche meiner F a m i l i e , meiner Freundinnen und d i e s e i n i g e n und mein eigenes Herz i s t lange einverstanden mit ihnen. G e l e i t e t durch d i e s e s t a r k e n Griinde habe i c h meine Wahl g e t r o f -f e n . I c h h e i r a t e einen liebenswurdigen Mann und einen g e l i e b t e n , mit einem Character wie es n i c h t v i e l e g i b t . Den Freund eines g e l i e b t e n Bruders, den Bruder der besten Freundin d i e i c h h i e r habe. I c h gehe i n eine r e i z e n d e F a m i l i e d i e mich mit offenen Armen aufnimmt.l Her words b e l i e the outcome of her marriage. C a r o l i n e makes an attempt to enter i n t o the l i f e of the s m a l l town but she shows no i n t e r e s t i n the work of her husband or i n h e l p i n g the needy i n the community. From her l e t t e r s , one gathers t h a t she has time o n l y to read books from the l i b r a r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of Gottingen and t o dream of l e a v i n g t h i s f o r s a k e n v i l l a g e of C l a u s t h a l . A l l Dr. Bohmer's s o l i c i t u d e cannot arouse C a r o l i n e from her d e p r e s s i o n . Deeply d i s t u r b e d by her surroundings, she pours out her l o v e on her c h i l d . The depth of such l o v e i s expressed i n l e t t e r s t o her s i s t e r L o t t e M i c h a e l i s . Auguste i s t r e i z e n d l i e b l i c h , i c h bete s i e an, das zu hoffende K i n d i s t nur e i n Unkepunz i n meiner E i n b i l d u n g s k r a f t , i c h l i e b es n i c h t v o r h e r , wie i c h jene l i e b t e . 2 The same maternal a f f e c t i o n i s echoed i n R i c a r d a Huch's l e t t e r s as she w r i t e s about the c h i l d of her unhappy marriage to Ceconi. 1 C a r o l i n e n s T L e b e n , Reinhard Buchwald, Hsgb., L e i p z i g , 1914, p. 12. o Op. c i t . , p. 24. "Das zu hoffende K i n d " r e f e r s to her second c h i l d who d i e d a few years l a t e r . - 6 -Konntest Du's doch einmal sehen, i c h glaube, es /das Kind7 i s t noch hundertmal schoner geworden. Mund und K i n n s i n d genau wie b e i Manno, das habe i c h so gern; es l i e g t j a unleugbar Willensschwache d a r i n a u s g e d r i i c k t , aber gerade das hat doch auch wieder so etwas Susses und Ruhrendes.l S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e death of Dr. Bohmer, j u s t f o u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e i r marriage, C a r o l i n e r e v e a l s h e r s t a t e o f unhappiness p i n a l e t t e r t o h e r l i f e l o n g f r i e n d , L u i s e G o t t e r . J u s t how l o n g C a r o l i n e c o u l d or would have endured her l i f e w i t h i n t h i s p r i s o n , one cannot surmise but once he r husband has died,, she has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o "spread her wings." The f a c t t h a t C a r o l i n e has an u n c o n s c i o u s d r i v e w i t h i n her t o l i v e f u l l y , b o t h t o g i v e f r e e r e i n t o her emotions and to d evelop h e r i n t e l l e c t , makes i t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t the r i s k of danger i n Mainz^ w i l l o n l y a t t r a c t h e r t h e r e , r a t h e r than f r i g h t e n h e r . Too l o n g she has been kept i n f e t t e r s — n o w i s the time to f l y . B e s i d e s the l u r e of t h e new s o c i e t y i n Mainz t h e r e i s the added d e s i r e t o f o r g e t a d i s a p p o i n t i n g l o v e a f f a i r w i t h T a t t e r . C a r o l i n e , t r u e t o h e r n a t u r e , shows h e r g r e a t l o v e f o r him and f e e l s t h a t she can make him happy. However, he does not come f o r w a r d and though she Baum, M a r i a : Leuchtende Spur, Tubingen, 1950, p. 111. Sidgwick, A.: C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l and h e r f r i e n d s , London, 1899, PP. 37« "You knew me i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t hemmed me i n on a l l s i d e s . I have been c r u e l l y r e l e a s e d from i t , n e v e r t h e l e s s I f e e l t h a t i t i s a r e l e a s e . I l o o k back on t h a t time /Clausthal7 w i t h h o r r o r and t r e m b l i n g , and speak o f i t w i t h morbid enjoyment as a c a p t i v e does of h i s p r i s o n . " Mainz was under s i e g e d u r i n g t h e war between A u s t r i a and F r a n c e i n 1792. Georg T a t t e r was i n the d i p l o m a t i c s e r v i c e and w h i l e he was i n G o t t i n g e n , C a r o l i n e met and f e l l i n l o v e w i t h him. - 7 -never q u i t e f o r g e t s him, she knows t h a t i n Mainz, t h e r e w i l l be many d i s t r a c t i o n s t o ease h e r l o s s . A c l o s e p a r a l l e l may be drawn t o an episode i n R i c a r d a Huch's l i f e . R i c a r d a comes to Z u r i c h t o t r y t o f o r g e t h e r l o v e f o r R i c h a r d Huch, her m a r r i e d c o u s i n . F o r h e r , the U n i v e r s i t y w i t h a l l i t s f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t u d y i n g opens up f a s c i n a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . To escape her u n f o r t u n a t e l o v e , she p l u n g e s i n t o h e r work as i f the c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e f o r knowledge cannot be s a t i a t e d . When i t becomes c l e a r t h a t R i c h a r d w i l l renounce her r a t h e r than l e a v e h i s f a m i l y , she, l i k e C a r o l i n e , i s b i t t e r l y d i s a p p o i n t e d . Aber tr o t z d e m i c h e i n s e h e , dass es vollkommen r i c h t i g i s t , dass i c h das Opfer b i n , i s t es doch u n b e g r e i f l i c h , wie i c h es e r t r a g e n s o i l . Du w e i s s t , wie k l a g l i c h i c h es f i n d e , so jammervoll von einem Tag i n den anderen h i n e i n zu e x i s t i e r e n . Und doch weiss i c h n i c h t , wie i c h es anders tun s o i l . I c h weiss n i c h t , wozu i c h a u f s t e h e , wozu i c h esse, wozu i c h a r b e i t e , wozu i c h e x i s t i e r e . . . . i c h habe manchmal w a h r h a f t i g g e g l a u b t , i c h traumte, w e i l es mir zu e n t s e t z l i c h s c h i e n , urn wahr zu s e i n . l However, she arouses h e r s e l f , a c c e p t s F a t e ' s decree and, most important of a l l , d i r e c t s her thoughts and e n e r g i e s t o the f u t u r e . She r e f u s e s t o i n d u l g e i n s e l f p i t y , o r e v e n t u a l l y even, to acknowledge l o v e as the prime v a l u e i n l i f e . p R e t u r n i n g t o C a r o l i n e ' s l i f e w i t h t h e F o r s t e r s i n Mainz, we l e a r n t h a t Mainz i s r e t a k e n by the Germans and t h a t C a r o l i n e and her daughter are i m p r i s o n e d because of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the F r e n c h . Many and w i l d are the a c c u s a t i o n s made a g a i n s t C a r o l i n e : t h a t she i s m i s t r e s s of the F r e n c h Leuchtende Spur, pp. 9 0 - 9 1 . F r a u F o r s t e r had grown up i n G o t t i n g e n b e f o r e her marriage and had been f r i e n d l y w i t h C a r o l i n e . - 8 -Commandant, that her brother-in-law i s , i n f a c t , her husband, and that Forster and she l i v e together as man and wife. Caroline refutes these charges with courage and frankness but her arguments are not convincing since, at the time, she i s c a r r y i n g a c h i l d whose father i s unnamed. At such a c r u c i a l moment when a passive woman, as commonly depicted i n the Romantic's stereotype, would have crumbled, Caroline rouses h e r s e l f to action and doggedly begins l i f e again, thinking only of the problems of the moment. Although Ricarda Huch i s i n no way compromised as Caroline i s , she i s faced with the choice of e i t h e r succumbing to her emotions or beginning l i f e anew. In Ricarda Huch's l e t t e r i n 1894 to J . V. Widmann, her l i t e r a r y mentor, she expresses a v i t a l i s m which precludes embitterment. "Das Schrecklichste auf der Welt erscheint mir, wenn man s i c h gegen das Leben v e r b i t t e r t . " ^ And Caroline, w r i t i n g from her prison room to F r i e d r i c h Wilhelm Gotter, expresses t h i s same f e e l i n g : 2 "An Muth f e h l t es mir n i e . " She accepts the blame f o r her actions and does not grumble. She has given her love to someone, blaming only h e r s e l f f o r the outcome. This i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c moral i n t e g r i t y i s p a r a l l e l e d i n Ricarda Huch, who frequently speaks of l i v i n g i n the present un-trammeled by past occurrences. Aber der Augenblick i s t , das e i n z i g Sichere. . . . Ich habe das Gute i n meiner Natur, dass i c h j e g l i c h e U n b i l l sofort v o l l s t a n d i g vergesse, sowie ein Sonnenblick kommt.5 Leuchtende Spur, p. 77. Carolinens Leben, p. 85. Leuchtende Sour, p. 77. - 9 -We hear C a r o l i n e i n the f o l l o w i n g passage e x p r e s s i n g the same f e e l i n g as R i c a r d a Huch. I c h sage n i c h t heute, i c h w i l l d i e s tun und morgen, i c h w i l l e i n anderes, und jedesmal so z u v e r s i c h t l i c h , a l s wenn es ewig g e l t e n w u r d e — n e i n , es malt s i c h wohl sehr d e u t l i c h i n meinen fiusserungen, dass i c h , n i c h t w e i s s , was i c h t u n s o i l — h i s der Moment kommt. To C a r o l i n e ' s a s s i s t a n c e comes Wilhelm S c h l e g e l . She i s a l l o w e d to l e a v e p r i s o n to l i v e near L e i p z i g where her c h i l d i s b o r n . C a r o l i n e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o marry Wilhelm, about whom she had laughed s i x y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , and had e x p r e s s e d w i t h f u l l c o n f i d e n c e , " S c h l e g e l und i c h ! i c h l a c h e , indem i c h es s c h r e i b e ! N e i n , das i s t s i c h e r — a u s uns w i r d n i c h t s , " ' i s a f a c t which does not seem c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c h a r a c t e r of a woman who s t a t e s c l e a r l y and p r o u d l y t h a t she a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o the d i c t a t e s of h e r h e a r t , w i t h o u t r e g a r d to "bill s o c i e t y . In a l e t t e r t o J u l i e G o t t e r on F e b r u a r y 18 , 1803, a f t e r C a r o l i n e had d e c i d e d t o l e a v e S c h l e g e l , she w r i t e s : . . . und i c h gewann immer mehr Ursache mich f u r e i n e e n t s c h i e d n e und o f f e n t l i c h e Trennung zu e n t s c h l i e s s e n , n i c h t ohne Kampf, w e i l es mir s c h r e c k l i c h war, auch noch durch d i e s e s gehn zu mussen, das i c h aber e n d l i c h durchaus f u r P f l i c h t h i e l t ; i c h konnte und w o l l t e S c h l e g e l n n i c h t mehr a l l e s seyn und h a t t e i n n nur v e r h i n d e r t , i n n , der i n der B l u t h e s e i n e s Lebens s t e h t , auf andern Wegen s e i n Gl i i c k zu suchen. Dazu kam, dass meine Gesundheit mir n i c h t d i e Hoffnung l a s s t M u tter zu werden; und so w o l l t e i c h i n n auch dessen n i c h t berauben, was mir ihm zu gewahren v e r s a g t war.'' C a r o l i n e ' s b e l i e f , t h a t the a r r i v a l of a c h i l d would have s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r marriage, i s echoed i n a l e t t e r of R i c a r d a Huch's t o M a r i a Baum i n 1899 i n which she r e f e r s t o the B l u t e z e i t der Romantik, p. 33* C a r o l i n e n s Leben, p. 35• Op. c i t . , p. 366. - 10 -problems which she and Ceconi were having during the f i r s t year of t h e i r marriage. "Wenn wir Kinder hatten, ware das v i e l l e i c h t anders. . . Caroline's words, i n a l e t t e r to J u l i e Gotter on the 1 8 t h of February, 1803, Dagegen hatte i c h behutsamer seyn s o l l e n die Heyrath mit ihm n i c h t einzugehen, zu der mich damals mehr das Drangen meiner Mutter a l s eigner W i l l e bestimmte. Schlegel hatte immer nur mein Freund seyn s o l l e n . . . ."2 are reminiscent of words written while s t i l l a young g i r l i n Gottingen: " . . . i c h kann ohne Liebe leben, aber wer mir die Freundschaft nimt, der nimt mir a l l e s , was mir das Leben l i e b macht. . . , n y I t i s during her l i f e with Schlegel that she experiences the f e e l i n g of companionship but not of love. In t h i s atmosphere, Caroline begins to develop her l i t e r a r y t a l e n t s . Her natural t a l e n t s are such that she becomes almost immediately the centre of a t t r a c t i o n of the group of young Romantics i n Jena. The p r a c t i c a l proof of her l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y may be judged from the remarks of w r i t e r s of the time. F r i e d r i c h Schlegel c o n t i n u a l l y urges Caroline to send him her comment, c r i t i c i s m and a r t i c l e s , and hopes that each number of the Athenaeum would have the Leuchtende Spur, p. 104. Carolinens Leben, p. 366. Ca r o l i n e . B r i e f e aus der Fruhromantik, E r i c h Schmidt, Hsgb., L e i p z i g , 1913, P» 6$. Caroline Schlegel and her f r i e n d s , pp. 87-88. Caroline's anonymous c r i t i c i s m of Muller's B r i e f e eines .jungen Gelehr-ten received t h i s r e p l y from the author: "I do not know the w r i t e r but he i s my most c o n f i d e n t i a l f r i e n d . No one has ever s a i d i n a review or discovered from my writings so much that i s true of my p o s i t i o n and character." - 11 -" e s p r i t de C a r o l i n e . " While Caroline recognizes that Wilhelm i s not a soulmate i n the Romantic sense, she i s at the time able to be a true f r i e n d and counsel to him. Ricarda Huch, l i k e Caroline, i s not able to f i n d her r e a l love i n Ceconi, yet, a f t e r t h e i r divorce and u n t i l h i s death, she remains h i s c l o s e s t and dearest f r i e n d . Wir waren so i n n i g verbunden, dass i c h immer das Gefuhl hatte, wenn einer von uns sturbe, mussten die beiden anderen mit. . . . Wenn wir w i r k l i c h i n n e r l i c h getrennt waren, weiss i c h n i c h t , wie i c h es uberwinden s o l l t e ; aber so / a l s Freunde7, denke i c h , kann doch noch a l l e s gut werden.2 Caroline's l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s are evidently s a t i s f i e d through the a s s o c i a t i o n with Schlegel and h i s l i t e r a r y f r i e n d s , but t h i s alone does not s a t i s f y the p o l a r i t y of her being. And so, the stage i s set f o r the appearance of S c h e l l i n g who i s destined to captivate t h i s complex p e r s o n a l i t y , Caroline. For the f i r s t time i n her l i f e , she i s able to forget h e r s e l f t o t a l l y i n her love f o r S c h e l l i n g . Her whole p e r s o n a l i t y becomes a l i v e with the awareness of t h e i r mutual devotion. Here again, she i s ready to defy "bourgeois morality by f o l l o w i n g the d i c t a t e s of her heart. To S c h e l l i n g she writes i n March 1801: Spotte nur n i c h t , Du Lieber, i c h war doch zur Treue gebohren, i c h ware tr e u gewesen mein Lebenlang, wenn es die Gotter gewollt hatten, und ungeachtet der Ahndung von Ungebundenheit, die immer i n mir war, hat es mir die schmerzlichste Muhe gekostet untreu zu werden, wenn man das so nennen w i l l , denn inner-l i c h bin i c h es niemals gewesen. . . ., niemals konnte i c h wie Jacobi ausrufen: verlasse Dich n i c h t Op. c i t . , p. 1 3 5 . Leuchtende Spur, pp. 147-148. - 12 -auf Dein Herz. Ich mtisste mich verlassen auf mein Herz uber Noth und Tod hinaus, und hatte es mich i n Noth und Tod g e l e i t e t . l P a r t i a l l y disguised here, within protestations of l o y a l t y , i s an adherence to the Romantic imperative which places ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with f a t e rather than personal motivations. One hundred years with the va r i e d p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s changes separate Caroline Schlegel and Ricarda Huch, yet both women possess one q u a l i t y i n common, which determines t h e i r l i v e s — t h i s q u a l i t y i s the r e f u s a l to re g r e t . Both women di s p l a y courage, determination and calmness, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are determined by an ultimate complete t r u s t i n t h e i r emotions. Caroline and Ricarda could e a s i l y have become enmeshed i n t h e i r own emotions only to wallow i n s e l f - p i t y and unproductiveness because t h e i r emotions are dominant by nature. But they possess a strength of w i l l which goads them to actions and which precludes any regret f o r past mistakes. They are guided by t h e i r emotions and are not induced to change t h e i r ways. They simply accept the outcome with u t t e r calm—even the outcome of s i t u a t i o n s which would have broken Werther. For them, l i f e i s f u l l of ups and downs and each s t r i v e s to re c o n c i l e the demands of heart with the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e . Both Ricarda and Caroline have t h e i r own pri v a t e code of morality. Caroline r e a l i z e s that to be true to h e r s e l f she must leave Wilhelm Schlegel even though she knows that t h i s act contravenes bourgeois morality. Following her motto she marries S c h e l l i n g Carolinens Leben, pp. 242-243. - 13 -and o n l y then, i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him, does she e x p e r i e n c e t r u e h a p p i n e s s . R i c a r d a Huch shocks the m o r a l i t y o f h e r times by l o n g c o n t i n u i n g t o l o v e h e r c o u s i n , t he husband o f h e r s i s t e r L i l y . R i c a r d a i s r e a d y t o a c c e p t the consequences i n v o l v e d . But e v e n t u a l l y , she r e a l i z e s t he n e c e s s i t y o f r e n u n c i a t i o n , a t r a i t , which i s p o s i t i v e w i t h her and which i s v e r y e v i d e n t i n her women c h a r a c t e r s o f the p o s t Z u r i c h p e r i o d . Both C a r o l i n e and R i c a r d a b e l i e v e i n and f o l l o w t h e motto: "To t h i n e own s e l f be t r u e ! " , y e t t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e danger of f o l l o w i n g emotions t o t a l l y . They c u l t i v a t e o b j e c t i v i t y i n l i f e ; they a re o b s e r v e r s i n p a r t , but t h e y s t i l l r e t a i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l i f e . To be s u r e , C a r o l i n e does not pos s e s s R i c a r d a ' s c r e a t i v e powers. She i s s a t i s f i e d t o be of c r i t i c a l h e l p t o S c h l e g e l and t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s about h e r . R i c a r d a exceeds C a r o l i n e i n becoming a c r e a t i v e w r i t e r . In the f i r s t p e r i o d o f R i c a r d a Huch's l i t e r a r y endeavours, which b e g i n i n Z u r i c h , she p o r t r a y s women who are c o m p l e t e l y Romantic f i g u r e s . But when she b e g i n s t o study Romanticism, w r i t i n g about t h a t p e r i o d and i t s l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s , she c r e a t e s many women c h a r a c t e r s whose p e r s o n a l i t i e s a re r e m i n i s c e n t o f C a r o l i n e . As she p r o g r e s s e s i n her w r i t i n g , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t she embodies the q u a l i t i e s , b o t h o f the Romantic woman, l e d by h e r emotions and the a c t i v e woman, governed by r e a s o n , and i t i s i n t h e f u s i o n o f t h e s e two extremes t h a t she emulates C a r o l i n e . However, f o r C a r o l i n e , happiness l i e s i n l i f e ; f o r R i c a r d a Huch, i t a l s o l i e s i n t h e p r i v a t e w o r l d o f l i t e r a t u r e . - 14 -Chapter 2 R i c a r d a Huch, i n h e r w r i t i n g s o f the Z u r i c h p e r i o d , p o r t r a y s t h e l i f e o f t h r e e i n t e r e s t i n g women. These female p r o t a g o n i s t s , G a l e i d e , F r a u S a l d e 1 and H a d u v i g , 2 are young, b e a u t i f u l c h i l d r e n of Nature, who a l l o w t h e i r f e e l i n g s f u l l sway over t h e i r l i v e s . They c o u l d s t e p from t h e pages o f a f a i r y t a l e , were i t not f o r a c e r t a i n depth o f p e r s o n a l i t y which i s l a c k i n g i n the f a i r y t a l e p r i n c e s s e s . They say a d e f i n i t e "yes" t o l i f e and r e c e i v e s o l a c e and j o y from t h e b e a u t i e s of Nature . To determine why the women p l a y a dominant, y e t i n a c t i v e r o l e , one may l o o k a t the stage o f development which R i c a r d a Huch has reach e d a t t h i s t i me. She i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the i r r a t i o n a l " i c h " , t he woman guided by her emotions. Women s u f f e r i n g from u n r e q u i t e d l o v e a r e v e r y r e a l t o R i c a r d a Huch a t the time, when she i s not o n l y f a r from her b e l o v e d R i c h a r d , but i s s u f f e r i n g from the knowledge t h a t he i s not f r e e t o marry h e r . Her i n n e r -most f e e l i n g s a re expressed i n the p o e t r y o f t h i s p e r i o d even more so than i n h e r p r o s e . Was f u r e i n Feuer, o was f u r e i n Feuer Warf i n den Busen mir der L i e b e Hand. Schon s e t z t es meinen z a r t e n L e i b i n Brand Und wachst an d e i n e r B r u s t noch ungeheuer. Zwei F a c k e l n l o d e r n nun i n e i n s zusammen: Die Augen, d i e mich anschaun, s i n d zwei Kerzen, See "Appendix," p. 94. See "Appendix," p. 94. - 15 -Die L i p p e n , d i e mich kussen, s i n d zwei Flammen, Die Sonne s e l b s t h a l t i c h an meinem H e r z e n . l P o s s e s s i n g unusual i m a g i n a t i v e powers, as w e l l as the d e s i r e f o r a r a t i o n a l i s t i c approach t o l i f e , she i s a b l e to endow her women c h a r a c t e r s w i t h s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s , s t r e s s i n g a t f i r s t , t o a f a r g r e a t e r degree, the element o f f a n t a s y . In t h e l a t e r n o v e l s we have i n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e o f the r a t i o n -a l i s t i c approach t o l i f e . I n t he Z u r i c h p e r i o d she i s drawing from her own e x p e r i e n c e s and from pe o p l e she o b v i o u s l y knows w e l l , so i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the women c h a r a c t e r s p l a y a l a r g e r o l e , i n d e e d , bear many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R i c a r d a and her stu d e n t f r i e n d s i n Z u r i c h . While the one R i c a r d a works h a r d a t U n i v e r s i t y and becomes engrossed i n h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , the o t h e r R i c a r d a , which shows most f o r c e f u l l y i n her works o f t h i s p e r i o d , i s t h e p e r e n i a l l y y o u t h f u l , g l o r i o u s l y u n i n v o l v e d g i r l who l e t s F a t e and her emotions d e c i d e h er f u t u r e . I t o f t e n seems as i f R i c a r d a Huch wishes i n t e n s e l y t o p r e s e r v e the a t t r i b u t e s o f youth and hopes t o secure them i n the f i g u r e s o f her women c h a r a c t e r s . Apprehensive o f growing o l d , she f r e q u e n t l y laments i n d i r e c t l y , t h rough non-c h a l a n t l y y o u t h f u l c h a r a c t e r s , the t r a n s i t o r i n e s s o f l i f e . Such a f e e l i n g , however, comes t o f u l l e x p r e s s i o n i n a few of h er e a r l y works. W i t h i n the framework o f a f a i r y t a l e p (Dornroschen) , she l o o k s at l i f e w i t h the o v e r z e a l o u s eyes of y o uth and f e e l s p a i n and sadness when she r e a l i z e s t h a t L i e b e s g e d i c h t e , L e i p z i g , 1915, p. 6 . Dornroschen. E i n M a r c h e n s p i e l , L e i p z i g , 1902. - 16 -l i f e i s so f l e e t i n g . Dornroschen v i s i t s the cemetery one day and, as she l o o k s a t the s t o n e s , she i s suddenly d i s -mayed t o r e a l i z e t h a t l i f e does not c o n t i n u e f o r e v e r and, i n h e r sorrow, she c r i e s out: "Warum i s t d i e Welt so schon, Und so s c h n e l l v o r b e i das L e b e n ? " 1 The answer she r e c e i v e s i s : "Das i s t Menschentumi K i n d , der S t e i n am Wege d a u e r t , 2 3 Wir vergehen." With her c r y "0 u n e r t r a g l i c h l " she sums up t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s o f i d e a l i s t i c young men and women who have so many dreams and p l a n s f o r t h e i r l i v e s but who sense the t h r e a t i n the s w i f t p a s s i n g o f time. The magic p o t i o n i n t h i s p l a y , which promises e t e r n a l l i f e , i s the o b j e c t of a v e r y r e a l y e a r n i n g — t h a t o f youth t o p r o l o n g i t s s t a t e i n d e f i n i t e l y . Dornroschen expresses h e r d e l i g h t a t the p r o s p e c t o f e t e r n a l l i f e i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : Willkommen s e i das Schone, kam' es auch Aus e i n e s Drachens H o h l e l J a , nun str o m t ' s Auf mich h e r e i n wie Q u e l l e n von den Bergen Im F r u h l i n g , wenn der hohe Schnee z e r s c h m i l z t . 0 Sonne, welch e i n Gliick s a h s t du noch n i e , Wie meines s e i n w i r d . ^ The women c h a r a c t e r s d i f f e r from t h e i r c r e a t o r i n as much as t h e y are c o m p l e t e l y unequipped t o b a t t l e w i t h t h e h a r d m a t e r i a l i s t i c w o r l d i n which t h e y l i v e . R i c a r d a Huch, a t t h i s t ime, i s working i n the S t a d t b i b l i o t h e k i n Z u r i c h , f u l l y aware t h a t she has to support h e r s e l f y e t r e g r e t t i n g the hours which she cannot spend w r i t i n g . I n her x Op. c i t . , p. 28. 2 I b i d . 5 I b i d . 4 Op. c i t . , p. 40. - 17 -correspondence w i t h J . V. Widmann who was h e r l i t e r a r y mentor, we r e a d what a s t r u g g l e i t i s f o r her t o work i n such d u l l s u r r o u n d i n g s , when her h e a r t i s l o n g i n g f o r e x p r e s s i o n . S e i t i c h d i e ersehnte B i b l i o t h e k a r s t e l l e habe, l e i d e i c h an M e l a n c h o l i e und Lebensuberdruss, was mir urn so v e r h a s s t e r i s t , a l s i c h von Natur h e i t e r b i n . l B e i m ir dau e r t d i e d i c h t u n g s l o s e , d i e s c h r e c k l i c h e Z e i t noch immer an, so e i n Amt i s t e i n r e c h t e r Bampfer, i c h komme mir schon ganz wie *l'homme machine* v o r . 2 Yet she, u n l i k e h er women c h a r a c t e r s , l e a r n s t o d i r e c t her own d e s t i n y , n ot a l l o w i n g h e r s e l f t o wallow i n the mire o f d e p r e s s i o n and s e l f p i t y . One has the f e e l i n g t h a t R i c a r d a Huch c r e a t e s t h e s e women to p r o v i d e f o r h e r s e l f an escape from the tedium o f o r d i n a r y l i f e and a l s o a r e a s s u r a n c e as to t h e v a l u e o f a d i s c i p l i n e d e x i s t e n c e . With t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the n o v e l , E r i n n e r u n g e n von  L u d o l f U r s l e u dem Jungeren, which appears i n 1 8 9 3 , t h e p u b l i c f i r s t becomes aware of the d e e p l y Romantic w r i t e r , R i c a r d a Huch. The E n g l i s h t i t l e , E r o s I n v i n c i b l e , does i n f a c t i n d i c a t e the main theme o f the n o v e l , v i z . the f o r c e o f l o v e , so u n p r e d i c t a b l e , so s t r o n g , and so a l l - e m b r a c i n g t h a t one i s powerless to r e s i s t i t . Indeed, i t i s more p o w e r f u l than l i f e i t s e l f . G a l e i d e ( t o a l e s s e r degree F r a u S a l d e aud Haduvig from the same p e r i o d ) s e r v e s t o bear out t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e n t i o n s expressed i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r of t h e work. Prom the c o n f i n e s o f h i s monastery c e l l , the Leuchtende Spur, p. 66. Op. c i t . , p. 68. E r i n n e r u n g e n von L u d o l f U r s l e u dem Jungeren, S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 2 0 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n B e r l i n , 1 8 9 3 7 . - 18 -n a r r a t o r o f the n o v e l , L u d o l f U r s l e u , muses over h i s p a s t l i f e i n the wo r l d and contemplates the f a t e o f human b e i n g s , i n g e n e r a l , and h i s f a m i l y , i n p a r t i c u l a r . Das Leben i s t e i n g r u n d l o s e s und e i n u f e r l o s e s Meer; j a , es hat wohl auch e i n U f e r und g e s c h u t z t e Hafen, aber l e b e n d g e l a n g t man da h i n n i c h t . L L i f e t h e n , f o r him, i s a c e a s e l e s s f l u x i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e l e n t l e s s l y dashed about. The i n d i v i d u a l may f i n d peace and calm but not w h i l e he i s t o s s e d about on t h i s sea of l i f e . The n a r r a t o r p i c t u r e s the human h e a r t as a s m a l l boat r i d i n g t he seas, where i t sometimes s i n k s when overpowered by the waves; a g a i n , a t times i t i s r a i s e d t o l i m i t l e s s h e i g h t s from where i t seems t o touc h the sky. There are moments of p r i d e and triumph. But such e l a t i o n never l a s t s . Soon the boat i s t o s s i n g a g a i n i n the t u r b u l e n t seas, s t r u g g -l i n g t o keep a f l o a t . The boat, a c c o r d i n g t o L u d o l f , never r e a c h e s t h e harbour d u r i n g i t s j o u r n e y because t h e harbours are o n l y i n the " J e n s e i t s . " G a l e i d e ' s boat ( h er h e a r t ) remains i n deep t u r b u l e n t water, never a p p r o a c h i n g the p r o t e c t i o n o f the shore. Her h e a r t i s s t r o n g ; i t wit h s t a n d s the f e a r and the h o r r o r o f the c r u e l seas, and i t b e a t s w i l d l y and j o y o u s l y when i t i s l i f t e d t o t h e h e i g h t s . I t i s the h e a r t o f the detached o b s e r v e r who p r o b a b l y f a r e s b e s t by a v o i d i n g t h e h e i g h t s and depths o f emotions, but who never r e a l l y e x p e r i e n c e s a moment of supreme e l a t i o n . Prom the vantage p o i n t o f the h e r m i t ' s c e l l , L u d o l f e x p l a i n s t h a t he, u n l i k e h i s s i s t e r Op. c i t . , p. 5. - 1 9 -G a l e i d e , i s an o b s e r v e r of l i f e . Mein Boot, welches e i n e l e i d l i c h u n s c h e i n b a r e F a h r t h a t t e , g e r i e t i n e i n e n g r o s s e n Sturm und S c h i f f b r u c h und wurde an den S t r a n d g e s c h l e u d e r t . N i c h t gemach-l i c h l i e f i c h e i n i n d i e Bucht, i c h ward ausgespieen wie Robinson. . . . Aber es ward mir so gut, dass i c h , wenn i c h auch n i c h t mehr l e b e , doch n i c h t t o t b i n , sondern das weite Wasser, das i c h d u r c h f u h r , vom Strande aus b e t r a c h t e n und meine R e i s e bedenken kann. I c h habe immer gefunden, dass das Beschauen das Schonste im Leben s e i . . . . Wer aber oben auf dem Balkon s t e h t oder nur auf e i n e G a r t e n t t i r g e k l e t t e r t i s t oder sogar nur aus e i n e r Dachrinne muhselig h e r v o r l u g t , der hat es a l l e s v o r s e i n e n Augen, a l s ware er der H e r r g o t t , und es wurde a l l e s ihm v o r g e f u h r t e i g e n s zu s e i n e r L u s t . 1 L u d o l f , the o b s e r v e r , i s c l e a r l y more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l a t e r R i c a r d a Huch, who, l i k e w i s e , stands a p a r t but i s n e v e r t h e l e s s s t i l l bound t o l i f e . As evidence to support h i s c o n v i c t i o n , L u d o l f proceeds to u n f o l d the s t o r y of a w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l y ( h i s f a m i l y ) i n the n o r t h o f Germany, whose f o r t u n e and fame are r u i n e d t hrough f a t e f u l l o v e . G a l e i d e and E z a r d , c o u s i n s , are overcome suddenly w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r each o t h e r which i s d e s t i n e d to endure d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t E z a r d i s m a r r i e d and has a c h i l d . E z a r d ' s w i f e , L u c i l e , d i e s and the p a t h seems c l e a r f o r G a l e i d e and E z a r d f i n a l l y t o be u n i t e d . But now, w i t h a suddenness which d e f i e s e x p l a n a t i o n by r e a s o n or l o g i c , E z a r d l o s e s h i s power over G a l e i d e . Gaspard, who, i r o n i c a l l y , i s t h e b r o t h e r o f E z a r d ' s w i f e , succeeds i n c a s t i n g upon G a l e i d e a s p e l l of such i n t e n s i t y t h a t she u l t i m a t e l y jumps from a window t o her death, a t h i s command. E z a r d d i e s some y e a r s l a t e r and t h e one r e m a i n i n g member of the U r s l e u f a m i l y , L u d o l f , t a k e s r e f u g e i n a monastery t o l i v e Op. c i t . , pp. 6-7 • - 20 -i n q u i e t and r e f l e c t i o n away from f r i g h t e n i n g and dangerous l i f e . G a l e i d e ' s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h Ezard suggests R i c a r d a Huch's i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h R i c h a r d , her c o u s i n . Undoubtedly, she c o u l d not have w r i t t e n such a p e n e t r a t i n g and sympa-t h e t i c account of these l o v e r s had she h e r s e l f not undergone such a s t r o n g emotional experience. I n F r i i h l i n g i n der Schweiz, 1 a book of reminiscences of her l i f e i n Z u r i c h , R i c a r d a Huch d e s c r i b e s y o u t h f u l f r i e n d s who bear a marked resemblance to her p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s p e r i o d . D e s c r i p t i o n s of Haduvig and Frau Salde conjure up c o n s c i o u s l y e x o t i c c r e a t u r e s p o s i n g as Romantic p r i n c e s s e s . S i e /Haduvig7 war an diesem Abend u n b e s t r i t t e n e B a l l -k o n i g i n gewesen. Sehr schon war schon i h r seltsamer Aufputz: s i e t r u g e i n schneeweisses K l e i d , an dem n i c h t s F a r b i g e s zu sehen war ausser einem Buschel r o t e r Mohnblumen im G u r t e l . . . . E i n K r a n z l e i n ebensolcher Blumen war i n i h r e Locken gedruckt und l o d e r t e wie e i n Flammenring uber ihrem b l a s s e n G e s i c h t , sodass s i e s i c h beim Tanzen ausnahm wie eine von E r l k o n i g s Tochtern, von denen man s a g t , dass s i e tiber dem n a c h t l i c h e n Moore hinschweben, I r r l i c h t e r i n den schwarzen, f l a t t e r n d e n Haaren.2 . . . l e g t e s i e /Frau Salde7, a l s der Abend nun e n d l i c h kam, e i n l o s e s weisses K l e i d an und l o s t e d i e Haare auf. . . . Nachdem i h r Kopf d i c h t be-k r a n z t war, f i n g s i e an, s i c h d i e Blumen urn den L e i b zu s c h l i n g e n , b i s s i e einen ganzen G u r t e l b i l d e t e n . . . . I n i h r e n Wasserrosen s c h i e n s i e ihm e i n e r Nixe zu g l e i c h e n , d i e aus dem See g e s t i e -gen i s t und s i c h unter d i e Menschen gemischt hat.3 F r i i h l i n g i n der Schweiz. Jugenderinnerungen, Z u r i c h , 1938. "Haduvig im Kreuzgang," Erzahlungen, L e i p z i g , 1919, V o l . I I , p. 61. "Der Mondreigen von S c a l a r a f f i s , " Erzahlungen, L e i p z i g , 1919, V o l . I I , pp. 112, 115, 118. - 2 1 -Whenever t h e r e was an o c c a s i o n f o r c e l e b r a t i o n , R i c a r d a Huch and h e r f r i e n d s made a p o i n t of d r e s s i n g i n some p a r t i c u l a r f a s h i o n , o f t e n t o r e p r e s e n t some season of the y e a r or some o b j e c t o f n a t u r e . On one such o c c a s i o n she w r i t e s : Wir s t e l l t e n d i e v i e r Elemente v o r , d i e s i c h merkwurdig gut u n t e r uns v e r t e i l e n l i e s s e n ; Hedwig Waser war das Feuer, Marianne P l e h n d i e Erde, L u i s e von H e h l e r d i e L u f t und i c h das Wasser. P r a c h t i g s t a n d Hedwig das s c h a r l a c h r o t e K l e i d und der Kranz von r o t e n K l a t s c h -r o s e n ; i c h h a t t e einen s e i d e n e n , m a t t b l a u und weiss g e s t r e i f t e n S t o f f l o s e angeworfen. 1 I n t e r e s t i n g t o us, who are aware of the g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e water has i n Romantic symbolism and, i n d e e d , i n her own works, i s the f a c t t h a t R i c a r d a Huch chooses t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s element on such o c c a s i o n s . We a l s o know t h a t she p l a c e s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the c o l o u r of f l o w e r s and t h e i r meaning. In "Der arme H e i n r i c h " she r e c o u n t s a f a i r y t a l e i n which she e x p l a i n s why the r o s e i s r e d . A hummingbird i s wounded, 2 i t s b l o o d c o v e r s the white r o s e and the f l o w e r becomes r e d . Thus t o her, r e d r o s e s are symbolic o f a broken h e a r t , sorrow and l o v e . In a l e t t e r t o J . V. Widmann i n 1 8 9 4 , she t e l l s about the c e l e b r a t i o n of her t h i r t i e t h b i r t h d a y : I c h wechselte ab mit einem Rosenkranz und einem von Wasserrosen. E i n e Schwarze mit einem d i c k e n , d i c k e n Kranz von Mohn, ach j a , das i s t d i e Haduvig aus der G e s c h i c h t e , wie e i n e e i n z i g e Plamme sah s i e aus.^ R e t u r n i n g to R i c a r d a Huch's f i r s t n o v e l , we f i n d t h a t G a l e i d e , as a c h i l d , shows tend e r n e s s and a f f e c t i o n f o r a l l around he r as w e l l as a remarkable innocence, knowing n e i t h e r hate F r u h l i n g i n der Schweiz, p. 1 5 * "Der arme H e i n r i c h , " E r z a h l u n g e n , L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 , V o l . I , p. 1 6 7 . Leuchtende Spur, p. 7 8 . - 22 -nor jealousy. She seems i n u t t e r harmony with the world, and e s p e c i a l l y with nature outside. This i s observed by her brother Ludolf on one of t h e i r early t r i p s to Switzer-land. As i t i s the f i r s t time they have been together i n the mountains, Ludolf i s astonished as he watches Galeide*s reactions to her surroundings. Galeide war auch mit, und ohne grosses Erstaunen von s i c h zu geben, rannte s i e mit wilder Freude i n diese schone Natur hinein, a l s ob s i e es nie anders gehabt h a t t e . 1 To the young g i r l L u c i l e , who comes int o the household to teach Galeide French and l a t e r marries Ezard, Galeide shows nothing but approval and love. She knows no h a l f measures and whomever she loves she wants to possess. This f a c t i s revealed to us not as a f a u l t but proof of unreserved emotions. Sie /Galeide7 hatte eine A r t , die Menschen, die s i e l i e b hatte und die i h r g e f i e l e n , mit i h r e r Zuneigung wie mit einem starken Magneten an s i c h zu Ziehen und f u r s i c h zu haben . . . es war ih r e Natur, und s i e handelte aus ihrem gedanken-losen u n e r s a t t l i c h e n Herzen heraus.2 Such unbounded love i s also given to L u c i l e ' s c h i l d Harre, who i s named Galeide's godchild. Innocence i s l o s t , however, as Ezard becomes the object of her love. Suddenly, without warning, they are overcome with a passion which i s expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g l y r i c a l passage: . . . s i e wussten beide noch genau zu sagen, wie i n diesem Augenblick eine wohltuende Zu-f r i e d e n h e i t uber s i e gekommen s e i , so suss zu Ludolf Ursleu, pp. 1 5 , 16 Op. c i t . , pp. 45-46. - 23 -empfinden, wie s i e noch n i e zuvor etwas g e f i i h l t zu haben g l a u b t e n . l A l t h o u g h t h e y do not r e a l i z e a t t h a t moment what the f e e l i n g means, i t marks the t u r n i n g p o i n t o f t h e i r l i v e s and l e a d s t o t h e i r u l t i m a t e d e s t r u c t i o n . However n a i v e and harmless th e y may b e l i e v e t h e i r l o v e t o be a t t h a t moment, the y c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e i t s power. L i k e t h e Romantics, R i c a r d a Huch sees l o v e as a demon— b e a u t i f u l but i n f i n i t e l y d e s t r u c t i v e , and employs the ambivalent image o f f i r e i n s p e a k i n g o f i t . S i e mochten s i c h a n f a n g l i c h a r g l o s d i e s e r Zuneigung g e f r e u t haben wie e i n e r Blume, d i e i n e i n e r warmen Nacht a u f g e b l u h t i s t und am Morgen i n i h r e r P r a c h t d a s t e h t , oder wie e i n K i n d d i e Weihnachtsbescherung a n s t a u n t , d i e ihm ungesehene Hande, wahrend es s c h l i e f , v o r seinem B e t t c h e n a u s g e b r e i t e t haben. Aber d i e L i e b e i s t w a h r h a f t i g einem Peuer zu v e r g l e i c h e n , i n s o f e r n a l s s i e s i c h n i e m a l s begnugt, sondern s t e t s mehr Nahrung w i l l , s i c h r e c k t und r i e s e n h o c h an-s c h w i l l t zu f u r c h t b a r e r S c h o n h e i t und zum Verderben a l l e s dessen, was i h r im Wege s t e h t . 2 P e r s o n a l g u i l t p l a y s almost no p a r t i n t h e development of G a l e i d e ' s p a s s i o n . Rather f a t e i s s t r e s s e d . G a l e i d e and E z a r d seem t o be d e s t i n e d f o r each o t h e r as i f no o t h e r two peo p l e c o u l d make such a harmonious whole. T h i s f a t a l emotion i n t h e end d e s t r o y s t h e i r f a m i l y , causes the deat h o f G a l e i d e ' s mother, the sadness and j e a l o u s y o f L u c i l e and the melancholy o f G a l e i d e ' s f a t h e r . But so s t r o n g i s t h e i r l o v e t h a t n o t h i n g can change G a l e i d e ' s d e c i s i o n t o l i v e o n l y f o r E z a r d . " . . . b e s t a n d i g wusste s i e , dass s i e a l l e s wurde tun und a l l e s l e i d e n konnen, auss e r an E z a r d voruberzugehen. 1 Op. c i t . , P. 91. 2 Op. c i t . , P. 92. 3 Op. c i t . , P. 139. - 24 -Galeide i s compelled to break up Ezard's marriage to L u c i l e , yet she experiences no remorse, only consciousness that she ought to f e e l i t : Sie sah mich mit einem grossen B l i c k an und sagte: •Ich denke: wenn s i e nun krank wiirde und st u r b e i ' Du weisst doch, dass das f u r uns Gluck und Rettung ware. Wenn i c h also mein Herz gewahren l i e s s e , musste i c h es wunschen. Das i s t e n t s e t z l i c h s i c h zu sagen.-4-Neither her words nor her actions make her f e e l g u i l t y because she i s a natural creature, i s amoral. With monstrous irony the capriciousness of f a t e and of love becomes c l e a r . The havoc occasioned by Ezard's and Galeide's love i s a l l f o r nought. Just as suddenly as consuming passion had swept over them one evening many years e a r l i e r , so now the magic of Gaspard, the uncouth Swiss peasant overcomes Galeide. She i s helpless to r e s i s t h i s a t t r a c t i o n . . . . Gaspard hat es mir angetan. Ich weiss nicht wie, noch wie das uberhaupt moglich sein s o l l t e , aber so i s t es, er hat mich behext und bezaubert, anders kann es nicht s e i n . Ich weiss mir nicht mehr zu helfen.2 When Galeide v i s i t s the home of L u c i l e ' s mother, she r a r e l y sees Gaspard, who spends most of hi s time working i n the f i e l d s . When he f i n a l l y appears he addresses very few words to her and otherwise takes l i t t l e or no notice of her. I t i s only when he plays h i s v i o l i n i n the evening that Galeide senses that he i s t e l l i n g her of h i s love. So powerful i s the message that she becomes ensnared i n i t s s p e l l . As we know, the power of music and the r e l a t i o n between Op. c i t . , p. 286. Op. c i t . , p. 316. - 2 5 -music and l o v e a re r e c u r r e n t themes among the Romantics. B e t t i n a von Arnim w r i t e s t h a t the Romantics l i k e n e d them-s e l v e s t o s t r i n g s o f an i n s t r u m e n t , f o r t h e wind t o move at w i l l . 1 F o r them music i s the h i g h e s t form o f a r t . I t i s f e l t by them to be synonymous w i t h the i n f i n i t e harmony w i t h which t h e y l o n g t o be u n i t e d . In many w r i t e r s the power o f music i s equated w i t h the i n t o x i c a t i n g e f f e c t o f wine. I t enables them t o l e a v e the w o r l d o f r e a l i t y so t h a t the s o u l may enjoy f o r a moment an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f the i n f i n i t e . Hor' i c h f e m e nur h e r , wenn i c h f u r mich g e k l a g t , S a i t e n s p i e l und Gesang, schweigt mir das Herz doch g l e i c h ; B a l d auch b i n i c h verwandelt, 2 B l i n k s t du, pu r p u r n e r Wein, mich an. To s t i r one's deepest emotions, t o cause t h e s o u l t o become i n t o x i c a t e d so t h a t no r e a s o n p r e v a i l s , such i s the e f f e c t o f Gaspard's music on G a l e i d e . The l a c k o f v e r b a l communi-c a t i o n between G a l e i d e and Gaspard demonstrates t h a t t h e i r l o v e has no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e a s o n , but i s a magic phenomenon l i k e music. U n t i l t h a t moment she has always t r u s t e d h er h e a r t t o d i r e c t h e r a c t i o n s . Suddenly she b e g i n s t o doubt, because she senses how l i t t l e she i s i n command of h e r h e a r t . She r e a l i z e s what sadness and d i s g r a c e she has brought on her f a m i l y . G a l e i d e f e e l s " a l s ob mein S t e r n vom Himmel weg x ware."-^ A l t h o u g h s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o E z a r d she cannot break Gaspard's s p e l l . A t t h i s c r u c i a l i n s t a n t when she has A u s b r e i t u n g und V e r f a l l d e r Romantik, p. 2 5 5 . 2 Op. c i t . , p. 2 5 5 . ^ L u d o l f U r s l e u . p. 3 3 5 . - 26 -r e t u r n e d home from S w i t z e r l a n d to seek s e l f - c o n t r o l , Gaspard, as i f t o a s s u r e h e r d e s t r u c t i o n , a r r i v e s i n the c i t y . N o t h i n g she does p l e a s e s Gaspard. In d e s p e r a t i o n she asks him whether he would l i k e h e r t o jump out the window, t o which he answers, "Oui, Mademoiselle." She, h e l p l e s s under h i s s p e l l , c a r r i e s out h i s wish. L i f e has no meaning f o r G a l e i d e i f her l o v e f o r Gaspard i s not answered. Rosa S a r t h o r n , who w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , l o v e s i n t e n s e l y but l i f e i t s e l f p r o v e s t o be a s t r o n g e r f o r c e t h a n l o v e . G a l e i d e , however, c o m p l e t e l y succumbs t o l o v e which as we see d e s t r o y s her and her own f a m i l y . Through her l o v e f i r s t f o r E z a r d , then f o r Gaspard, the t r a g i c f a t e of the f a m i l y i s f u l f i l l e d . T h i s we know from the one r e m a i n i n g member, L u d o l f , who r e t i r e s t o a monastery. G a l e i d e * s whole l i f e i s an a f f i r m a t i o n of " G e f u h l i s t a l l e s " and as a b s o l u t e Romantic she stands alone among the major female p r o t a g o n i s t s o f R i c a r d a Huch's n o v e l s . True t o her r o m a n t i c c h a r a c t e r G a l e i d e c a r e s l i t t l e f o r orthodox r e l i g i o n . J u s t as a l l o f R i c a r d a Huch's women, b e f o r e t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t r a g i c l o v e , are c h i l d r e n o f n a t u r e , so, t o o , i s G a l e i d e . She never develops the a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t ; she can o n l y f o l l o w her emotions. We f e e l t h a t her a t t i t u d e toward the w o r l d i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t advocated by S c h l e i e r m a c h e r . Euer G e f u h l . . . i s t eure Frommigkeit. Den W e l t g e i s t zu l i e b e n und f r e u d i g s e i n e n Werken zuzuschauen, das i s t das Z i e l a l l e r R e l i g i o n , und F u r c h t i s t n i c h t i n der L i e b e . l F o r F r a u S a l d e , l i k e w i s e , Nature i s God. (The term "Salde" S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , F.: S a m t l i c h e Werke, B e r l i n , 1835, 1/1. - 27 -appears f r e q u e n t l y i n medieval l i t e r a t u r e where i t means joy o u s n e s s , g a i e t y and i n some i n s t a n c e s i s used as a synonym f o r " Frau Welt.") F r a u S a l d e i s reprimanded and a c t u a l l y brought t o c o u r t because of her l a c k of f e e l i n g f o r r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s . Due t o h e r c a r e f r e e a t t i t u d e , which seems a s a c r i l e g e t o t h e narrow-minded C a t h o l i c v i l l a g e r s , she d e r i v e s her name "S a l d e , " " w e i l s i e immer l a c h t und n i e i n d i e K i r c h e g e h t . " 1 In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y , F r a u S a l d e r e p r e s e n t s the amoral c r e a t u r e whose o n l y c o n c e r n i s h e r emotions. S i m i l a r l y , Haduvig, a nominal P r o t e s t a n t becomes suddenly i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e V i r g i n Mary, a t t e n d s the Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h but j u s t as suddenly changes h e r mind and i s once a g a i n i n the P r o t e s t a n t f o l d . A l l of t h i s , we f i n d , o r i g i n a t e s i n an e m o t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n t o a g h o s t l y monk. Emotion and p i e t y are equated i n h e r . When t h e r e i s a d i s c u s s i o n as t o whether L u c i l e s h o u l d become a P r o t e s t a n t i n o r d e r t o marry E z a r d , G a l e i d e says: "Aber warum s t r e i t e t i h r ? . . . man t r i t t e i n f a c h zum Glauben des Mannes oder der F r a u uber, urn h e i r a t e n p zu konnen." In t h i s judgment she f i n d s a v e r y p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t of Haduvig and F r a u S a l d e , and i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t r e l i g i o u s c o n f e s s i o n means l i t t l e t o h e r . J u s t as c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l i g i o n p l a y s a s m a l l p a r t i n her l i f e , t o the same ext e n t h e r i n t e l l e c t i s not f o r m a l l y developed.< Her whole l i f e c e n t r e s around f e e l i n g , which e x c l u d e s l i v e l y . p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n y t h i n g e l s e . "Mondreigen von S c h l a r a f f i s , " p. 88. L u d o l f U r s l e u , p. '.47. - 28 -Sie u n t e r h i e l t s i c h aber n i c h t gerne allzulange von wissenschaftlichen oder sozialen Dingen, denn s i e war nicht so emsigen und strebsamen Geistes wie der Urgrossvater oder zum B e i s p i e l L u c i l e , welche beide bestandig etwas zu erfahren und zu lernen suchten.l In v i o l e n t contrast to Galeide i s L u c i l e , Ezard's wife. She arouses some p i t y i n the reader but does not e n t i r e l y escape a harsh judgment from Ricarda Huch. Frequently Ricarda Huch expresses her opinion that woman ought not to allow her p e r s o n a l i t y to become l o s t i n her husband's nor demand that he submerge h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i n the woman's. In commenting p about Dorothea Schlegel, f o r example, she blames her f o r causing F r i e d r i c h Schlegel to f a l l from h i s pinnacle of a r t i s t i c achievement, since absolute devotion to marital concerns preempts the claim of art upon him. From the beginning of t h e i r marriage L u c i l e has suppressed her own p e r s o n a l i t y i n order to achieve a c l o s e r union with Ezard. Far from r e a l i z i n g t h i s close bond, she antagonizes him by not developing her own p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t s . F e e l i n g neglected and bewildered by h i s ever i n c r e a s i n g lack of i n t e r e s t i n her, L u c i l e takes refuge i n reminiscing on the past, when she and Ezard were very much i n love. She comes to l i v e completely i n a dream world neither wanting to recognize Ezard as he r e a l l y i s , nor wishing to hear rumours about h i s love f o r Galeide. F i n a l l y when she must face Galeide with accusations, she indulges i n the wildest exaggerations, simply because she i n s i s t s on thinking of Ezard only as Op. c i t . , p. 140. Bl t i t e z e i t der Romantik,pp. 19-20. - 29 -he i s i n her dreams L u c i l e r e f u s e s t o admit what i s happening. She chooses t o r e t r e a t i n t o h er dream w o r l d , where she can p r e s e r v e her own i l l u s i o n s as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . When an epidemic o f c h o l e r a sweeps over the c i t y , L u c i l e c o n t r a c t s the dreaded d i s e a s e . I t i s as i f she no l o n g e r f e l t s u f -f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o c o n t i n u e m i s c o n s t r u i n g f a c t s , and once she f e e l s her dream w o r l d i r r e p a r a b l y c r u m b l i n g , she succumbs t o the d i s e a s e and d i e s . G a l e i d e , on the o t h e r hand, never r e t r e a t s from r e a l i t y i n t h i s manner. To be s u r e , her w o r l d i s d i s t o r t e d , t h a t i s , c e n t r e d c o m p l e t e l y around her h e a r t , but i t i s no w i s h f u l c r e a t i o n o f f a n t a s y . In "Der Mondreigen von S c h l a r a f f is," a s h o r t s t o r y o f t h i s p e r i o d , R i c a r d a Huch p r e s e n t s us w i t h much the same s i t u a t i o n as i n L u d o l f U r s l e u . The author has drawn r i c h l y h ere from her p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n S w i t z e r l a n d . The male c h a r a c t e r , Dominik, i s modelled on a student o f c h e m i s t r y whom R i c a r d a Huch had met i n Z u r i c h ; the town S c h l a r a f f i s i s s uggested by t h e s t u d e n t ' s v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a s m a l l Swiss v i l l a g e which i s h i s home; the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e st u d e n t h i m s e l f (which appears i n F r u h l i n s i n der Schweiz) reminds one not o n l y o f Dominik but a l s o o f Gaspard i n L u d o l f U r s l e u . E r f i e l auf d u r c h s e i n Dunkles; zwei schwarze Augen g e h e i m n i s v o l l g l i t z e r t e n . . . . er s p i e l t e gern d i e Geige. E i n e S t e l l e aus der damals neuen C a v a l l e r i a r u s t i c a n a g e f i e l mir besonders gut; es war denn, a l s ob d i e Nacht auf dem t o t e n s t i l l e n P l a t z e s e l b e r zu si n g e n b e g i n n e . l Dominik, l i k e Gaspard, c a s t s a s p e l l over the woman he l o v e s . E r u h l i n g i n der Schweiz, p. 80 - 3 0 -F r a u S a l d e l o n g s f o r Dominik, y e t she i s c o m p l e t e l y b e w i l d e r e d at h i s s t r a n g e b e h a v i o u r towards h e r . Her a t t r a c t i o n t o Dominik i s e n t i r e l y s e n s u a l , o t h e r w i s e t h e y have n o t h i n g i n common. She cannot see him wit h o u t l o s i n g a l l j o y of the moment.. T h i s a t t i t u d e towards him comes from a f e e l i n g o f g u i l t which h i s s e n s u a l p e r s o n a l i t y causes t o arouse i n h e r . S i e sass /im Boot7 mit dem Rucken gegen Dominik, so dass e r nur e i n wenig von ihrem K i n n und i h r e n Wangen sehen konnte, aber p l o t z l i c h d r e h t e s i e den Kopf nach dem U f e r h i n und wurde s e i n e r gewahr. Im s e l b e n A u g e n b l i c k wich d i e s t r a h l e n d e F r o h l i c h k e i t aus ihrem G e s i c h t e , und s i e senkte den Kopf so t i e f , dass Dominik nun nur noch i h r e n demtitig gebogenen Nacken s a h . 1 She, l i k e G a l e i d e , doubts f o r one moment the d i c t a t e s of her h e a r t and laments h e r l o s s o f innocence which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a happy c h i l d h o o d . As advo c a t o r of the t r a d i t i o n a l pagan moon dance, F r a u S a l d e a n t a g o n i z e s t h e v i l l a g e p r i e s t and c o u n c i l l o r s who c o n s i d e r her i n f l u e n c e i n the community damaging. She i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e l f - r e l i a n t t o be a b l e t o i g n o r e the d i f f i c u l t i e s and l e a v e t o c o n t i n u e her l i f e e lsewhere. She i s l i k e a f r i g h t e n e d animal, n ot knowing which way t o t u r n . I n s t i n c t i v e l y , she t h i n k s o f Dominik as the one p e r s o n i n the w o r l d who w i l l p r o t e c t h e r , but Dominik i s f a r i n a f o r e i g n l a n d and so i t remains s i m p l y an o v e r -powering and, i n our eyes, p i t i f u l l o n g i n g i n h e r h e a r t t h a t he w i l l appear t o save her from her f a t e . Aber F r a u S a l d e f u n i t e s i c h wohl d o r t und dachte, wenn nur e i n e i n z i g e r S t e r n kame, so w o l l e s i e denken, er habe i h n g e s c h i c k t , und w o l l t e v e r t r a u e n und warten.2 "Mondreigen von S c h l a r a f f i s , " p. 1 3 9 . 2 Op. c i t . , p. 1 5 8 . - 31 -No s i g n comes and she i s d e s t r o y e d . F r a u S a l d e ' s l i f e , l i k e G a l e i d e ' s , c e n t r e s around emotion, hut G a l e i d e e x p e r i e n c e s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f l o v e than F r a u S a l d e . G a l e i d e ' s r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o E z a r d i s a f u l l l o v e composed of many elements i n c l u d i n g sex. They are c o u s i n s , they have grown up i n the same environment, they a r e from the same s o c i a l s t r a t a , t h a t i s , t h e y have much i n common. However, n e i t h e r F r a u S a l d e and Dominik nor Gaspard and G a l e i d e have a n y t h i n g i n common. The two women are a t t r a c t e d by an o p p o s i t e p o l e , but the a t t r a c t i o n i s the p u r e l y magic, t h a t i s , i r r a t i o n a l p u l l o f s e n s u a l urges which t h e y cannot r e s i s t . We might s p e c u l a t e — i f G a l e i d e and F r a u S a l d e had s u f f e r e d and l o s t as d i d R i c a r d a Huch, Rosa, and E z a r d , t h e y might have a c q u i r e d the f o r t i t u d e t o w i t h s t a n d the demonic onslaught o f Gaspard and Dominik, t h a t i s , t h e i r s p i r i t would have been developed to c o u n t e r a c t the senses. Both women have not s u f f e r e d and thus i r o n i c a l l y a r e doomed. F r a u S a l d e and G a l e i d e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Romantic i n t h a t they are l o n g i n g f o r a man who i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l t h e i r hopes and d e s i r e s . Making no r e a l attempt t o guide t h e i r own d e s t i n y , t h e y are b l i n d t o t h e dangers o f such o n e s i d e d p r e o c c u p a t i o n and are u l t i m a t e l y c r u s h e d . The women (Haduvig may a l s o be i n c l u d e d ) are o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g h a p p i n e s s w i t h a man and i n b e i n g l e d and d i r e c t e d by him. I f they have o t h e r c o n c e r n s , t h e s e a r e o n l y c a s u a l . One can i n f a i r n e s s say t h a t not one of t h e s e women c h a r a c t e r s i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t a i n -ments or a r e a l c a r e e r . They are young, l o v e l y and unpre-d i c t a b l e and want t o be dominated by a man. There i s no - 3 2 -thought o f c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h a man, r a t h e r r e a d i n e s s t o be d i r e c t e d by the p a r t n e r . The Z u r i c h women are r e p r e s e n t e d as f i g u r e s who are d r i v e n . They l i s t e n t o t h e i r i n n e r b e i n g and f e e l compelled t o go forward, always s e e k i n g the un-a t t a i n a b l e . The mature R i c a r d a Huch who i s an a c t i v e woman i n t he wo r l d , does not appear i n any of thes e c h a r a c t e r s . She overcomes t h e Romantic q u a l i t i e s embodied i n G a l e i d e . She i s s t r o n g enough not t o succumb t o h e a r t b r e a k , and c u l t i v a t e s v a l u e s o t h e r than emotion. T h i s r e q u i r e s almost superhuman f o r t i t u d e . She c o n s t r u c t s G a l e i d e and the o t h e r s as images o f what she might have been ( i n d e e d what she once was) i n o r d e r t o r e a s s u r e h e r s e l f o f the v a l u e o f what she has done i n her own l i f e . R i c a r d a Huch f o l l o w s h e r h e a r t but she a l s o t h i n k s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , she i s endowed w i t h b o t h Romantic and r a t i o n a l i s t i c elements. She i s c a p t i v a t e d by G o t t f r i e d K e l l e r , t he r e a l i s t , as w e l l as N o v a l i s , the R o m a n t i c i s t . She sees l i f e as governed by the d i c t a t e s o f her emotions but she a l s o r e f l e c t s upon t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e , and, a l t h o u g h she i s not c a s t upon the beach l i k e L u d o l f U r s l e u , she a t l e a s t r e c o g n i z e s the v a l u e o f b e i n g an o b s e r v e r i n l i f e . Her f r i e n d s are s u r p r i s e d when R i c a r d a Huch d e c i d e s t o l e a v e her b e l o v e d Z u r i c h . They know how much she l o v e s the c i t y and i t s p e o p l e , and t h e r e f o r e cannot u n d e r s t a n d why she wants t o l e a v e t o a r a t h e r d o u b t f u l p o s i t i o n as a t e a c h e r i n Bremen. What the y do not r e a l i z e i s t h a t R i c a r d a Huch has r e a c h e d a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n h e r l i f e and has enough courage t o t u r n h e r back on s e c u r i t y and f r i e n d s t o make her way out i n t o u n p r o t e c t e d l i f e . She has c a s t a s i d e - 33 -c o n s i d e r a t i o n s imposed upon her by her emotional l i f e and determines t o devote her l i f e t o a more worthy g o a l , where both the Romantic and the r e a l i s t have a p l a c e . Z u r i c h p r e s e n t s f o r her t h e f o u n d a t i o n of h e r l e a r n i n g , the break w i t h her c l o s e f a m i l y c i r c l e i n Braunschweig and what i s o f utmost importance, the b e g i n n i n g o f h e r l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . With t h i s background she f e e l s c ompelled t o move on t o meet new c h a l l e n g e s . I c h w o l l t e v o r a l i e n Dingen l e b e n und e r l e b e n . Es war mir zumute a l s ob i c h i n e i n e M e e r e s s t i l l e g e r a t e n . . . . Da war n i c h t mehr zu begehren, zu wagen: so l a g i c h da und musste so l i e g e n i n qualender Beklemmung. 1 F r u h l i n g i n der Schweiz, p. 119 - 34 -Chapter 5 The y e a r f o l l o w i n g R i c a r d a Huch's d e p a r t u r e from Z u r i c h was f i l l e d w i t h many d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s . F i r s t o f a l l , she was unhappy a t the s c h o o l i n Bremen, where she was t e a c h i n g a l o n g w i t h h e r f r i e n d Marianne P l e h n from Z u r i c h . R i c a r d a Huch had never f e l t a t ease i n the c l a s s room. A f t e r the second attempt a t t e a c h i n g i n Bremen she knew t h a t t h i s type o f work c o u l d never s a t i s f y h e r . Then i t was d u r i n g t h i s time t h a t she saw R i c h a r d a g a i n and t h e l o v e which she had f e l t f o r him n i n e y e a r s b e f o r e became a l l the more p o w e r f u l . An extremely s t r o n g bond e x i s t e d between R i c h a r d and h i s c h i l d r e n , which p r e v e n t e d him from o b t a i n i n g a d i v o r c e immediately. However, a f t e r much thought and p l a n n i n g he d e c i d e d t o move to P a r i s where R i c a r d a Huch c o u l d j o i n him. R i c a r d a ' s j o y knew no bounds. Thus i t was a l l the more d e v a s t a t i n g when R i c h a r d soon r e v e r s e d h i s d e c i s i o n and t o l d h er he would not p a r t from h i s c h i l d r e n . She w r i t e s a t t h i s time: I c h weiss n i c h t , wozu i c h a u f s t e h e , wozu i c h esse, wozu i c h a r b e i t e , wozu i c h e x i s t i e r e . . . i c h habe manchmal w a h r h a f t i g g e g l a u b t , i c h traumte, w e i l es mir zu e n t s e t z l i c h s c h i e n , um wahr zu s e i n . l T h i s a c t o f r e j e c t i o n p r o v i d e d a s t e r n t e s t of c h a r a c t e r which R i c a r d a met c o u r a g e o u s l y . She went f i r s t t o Vienna, began working on her a p p r a i s a l of the Romantics, and w h i l e i n V i e n n a met Dr. Ermanno C e c o n i , a young I t a l i a n , working Leuchtende Spur, pp. 9 0 - 9 1 - 35 -as an a s s i s t a n t i n a d e n t i s t ' s o f f i c e . T h i s v e r y s e n s i t i v e , h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d man had l o s t h i s mother at a v e r y young age and a f t e r t he second marriage o f h i s f a t h e r he had s u f f e r e d from the l a c k o f b o t h m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l c o m f o r t s . That t h i s young man had r e t a i n e d a p u r i t y o f h e a r t throughout a l l t he d i f f i c u l t i e s o f h i s l i f e , made the deepest i m p r e s s i o n upon R i c a r d a Huch. In no way d i d Ermanno C e c o n i t a k e over R i c h a r d ' s p l a c e i n her h e a r t , but R i c a r d a f e l t t h a t she was i n v e s t e d w i t h a h e a l i n g c a p a c i t y and t h a t through her l o v e , she would be a b l e t o g i v e C e c o n i the happiness which had been d e n i e d him i n h i s youth. R i c a r d a Huch was q u i t e aware o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s which marriage would i n v o l v e , not o n l y was she seven y e a r s h i s s e n i o r , but t h e y were o f c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t temperaments and had grown up i n v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t environments. R i c a r d a Huch exp r e s s e s her doubts i n a l e t t e r t o M a r i a Baum i n 1897: Wenn es w i r k l i c h dazu kommt, dass i c h Manno h e i r a t e , . . . werde i c h v i e l l e i c h t sehr u n g l i i c k l i c h . Das h a l t e i c h f u r ganz gut m o g l i c h . Aber i c h glaube, dass i c h das eher e r t r a g e n kann a l s das r u h i g e Gluck. W e i s s t Du, meine ei n e H a l f t e i s t e i n h i l f l o s e s K i n d , das gern v e r h a t s c h e l t und g e p f l e g t s e i n mochte, meine andere i s t k r a f t i g und m u t t e r l i c h und mochte etwas t u n und s i c h a u f o p f e r n f u r das, was s i e l i e b t . D i e s e S e i t e w i r d Manno h a u p t s a c h l i c h i n Anspruch nehmen, und Du kannst D i r denken, dass das K i n d s i c h e i n b i s s c h e n v e r z a g t und e l e n d f u h l t . Aber i c h glaube, mein I n s t i n k t sucht jemanden, der meine K r a f t i n Anspruch nimmt.I F o l l o w i n g her i n s t i n c t R i c a r d a Huch m a r r i e d C e c o n i i n V i e n n a i n 1898. From V i e n n a t h e y moved t o T r i e s t e where C e c o n i a g a i n worked as an a s s i s t a n t i n a d e n t a l p r a c t i c e . The d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p between R i c a r d a and C e c o n i becomes Op. c i t . , p. 97 - 36 -the b a s i s of the p o r t r a y a l of M a i e l i e s and Lasko i n R i c a r d a Huch's l a t e r n o v e l , Von den Konigen und der Krone. Whereas the women i n the Z u r i c h p e r i o d are a l l c a s t i n the r o l e of women s u f f e r i n g from u n r e q u i t e d l o v e , the p r i n c i p a l women c h a r a c t e r s i n the Bremen-Vienna-Trieste p e r i o d p l a y a redemptive r o l e , i n the Romantic t r a d i t i o n — o n e i n which they s a c r i f i c e e v e r y t h i n g i n c l u d i n g t h e i r l i f e f o r t h e i r l o v e r ' s sake. I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the redemptive women whom R i c a r d a Huch c r e a t e s here are expressions of the author's own m o t i v a t i o n i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Ceconi. The two women i n whom the redemptive r o l e i s developped 1 2 most f o r c e f u l l y are A g l a i a i n "Fra C e l e s t e " and L i e b h e i d l i i n "Der arme H e i n r i c h . " I n "Fra C e l e s t e , " the s e c r e t a r y , who i s a l s o the n a r r a t o r , t e l l s about h i s famous master who has a wor l d wide r e p u t a t i o n f o r h i s r e l i g i o u s o r a t o r y . We l e a r n t h a t C e l e s t e has become a monk because h i s beloved A g l a i a married a r i c h man when he, C e l e s t e , was on l y a poor baker. A g l a i a seems from the outset t o be very s i m i l a r t o G a l e i d e i n L u d o l f U r s l e u . Both develop from the t o t a l l y n a t u r a l and amoral c r e a t u r e s suggested i n the Greek ' A v X ^ K - a n d Galanta meaning a s o r r o w f u l sea nymph. The r o o t " l e i d " i n G a l e i d e ' s name a l s o h i n t s at the f u t u r e s u f f e r i n g and pa s s i o n which end i n her death. A g l a i a ' s n a i v e t e i s l o s t as she, many years a f t e r her marriage t o a wealthy man, hears F r a C e l e s t e d e l i v e r a sermon i n her p a r i s h church. She r e c o g n i z e s him immediately and i s completely overcome See "Appendix," p. 95. See "Appendix," p. 95• - 37 -w i t h a f e e l i n g o f l o v e f o r him, a r e a c t i o n which i s p a r a l l e l e d i n G a l e i d e . The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s d e s c r i b e the l o n g awaited r e u n i o n between A g l a i a and C e l e s t e : . • . d i e Augen v o l l Tranen, d i e L i p p e n z i t t e r n d von Sehnsucht und Hoffnung, wie e i n e z a g h a f t e S e e l e v o r dem h a l b o f f e n e n Tore des P a r a d i e s e s , g o l d i g umflossen von dem himmlischen L i c h t e , das daraus h e r v o r s t r o m t , aber demutig und fur c h t s a m zuruckgebogen, wenn v i e l -l e i c h t der E n g e l mit dem Schwerte d i e Su n d e r i n v e r -scheuchen w o l l t e . 1 Her demonic d e v o t i o n t o C e l e s t e i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f G a l e i d e ' s r e a c t i o n t o Gaspard. A g l a i a d e c i d e s without thought o f consequences, t h a t she w i l l renounce h e r husband, home and f a m i l y t o f o l l o w h e r l o v e r C e l e s t e and t o spend the r e s t of h e r l i f e a t h i s s i d e . In a l e t t e r t o him, she says, p "Wenn Du mich r u f s t , komm' i c h und b l e i b e b e i D i r ewig." Her i r r a t i o n a l n a t u r e a l l o w s f o r no doubts about her a c t i o n s . Her eagerness and w i l l i n g n e s s t o c a r e f o r C e l e s t e when he becomes i l l shows her r e a d i n e s s t o make any s a c r i f i c e f o r him and t h i s s a c r i f i c e i s i n d e e d made i n the l o v e - d e a t h w i t h which t h e work ends. L i k e her Romantic p r o t o t y p e s , A g l a i a i s not r e l i g i o u s a c c o r d i n g t o orthodox s t a n d a r d s . She r a r e l y goes t o c h u r c h and then o n l y t o admire the speaker i n the p u l p i t , t he o b j e c t of her l o v e . E i g e n t l i c h h a t t e s i e s i c h nur u n t e r h a l t e n und ausruhen, a l l e n f a l l s etwas Neues hb'ren w o l l e n , aber d i e Rede des Monches s c h u t t e l t e i h r Herz g e w a l t i g , wenn s i e eben auch n i c h t S c h r i t t f u r S c h r i t t dem Gedankengange f o l g t e , "Pra C e l e s t e , " E r z a h l u n g e n , L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 , V o l . I , p. 2 9 . Op. c i t . , p. 18. - 38 -den er ^ F r a Celeste7entwickelte; s i e v e r t r a u t e s i c h dem s t a r k e n F l u g e s e i n e r Worte, der s i e w e i t wegtrug iiber Lander und Meer i n ein e fremde und doch heimische H e r r l i c h k e i t . I A g l a i a ' s l o v e i s d i r e c t e d toward the elements o f d i v i n i t y i n a human b e i n g r a t h e r than the D e i t y i t s e l f . L i k e Werther and the Romantics she f i n d s i t i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e i v e of a God who i s not t h e God of l o v e . In the per s o n of C e l e s t e she f e e l s she worships the v e r y h i g h e s t o f God's c r e a t i o n s . F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l expresses the same c o n c e p t i o n i n a l e t t e r t o Dorothea: I c h wenigstens . . . konnte n i c h t l i e b e n , ohne auf d i e Gefahr der C h e v a l e r i e etwas anzubeten; und i c h weiss n i c h t , ob i c h das Universum von ganzer S e e l e anbeten konnte, wenn i c h n i e e i n Weib g e l i e b t h a t t e . Aber f r e i l i c h , das Universum i s t und b l e i b t meine Losung. L i e b s t du wohl, wenn du n i c h t d i e Welt i n der G e l i e b t e n f i n d e s t ? 2 In A g l a i a ' s mind, a f f i r m a t i o n o f the d i v i n e i n the e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p j u s t i f i e s the t r e a c h e r o u s b e h a v i o u r toward her husband and i n such an a t t i t u d e we f i n d a p a r a l l e l t o C a r o l i n e ' s f e e l i n g s when she d e s e r t s A. W. S c h l e g e l f o r S c h e l l i n g . A g l a i a ' s s o l e c oncern i s t h a t C e l e s t e ' s m o r a l i t y may not have been l u l l e d t o s l e e p by h i s d e v o t i o n t o h e r : . . . s i e w i s s e wohl, dass s i e u n r e c h t gehandelt habe, konne es aber durchaus n i c h t bereuen, h i n -gegen f u r c h t e s i e , D o l f i n /Txa. Celeste7, der j a * e i n h e i l i g e r Mann s e i , nehme A n s t o s s daran . . . But f a r from w o r r y i n g how the c h u r c h w i l l judge her a c t i o n s , F r a C e l e s t e w o r r i e s t h a t A g l a i a may s l i p away from him and Op. c i t . , p. 28. As quoted by R i c a r d a Huch i n B l i i t e z e i t d e r Romantik, p. 255. " F r a C e l e s t e , " p. 33. - 39 -t h a t a f t e r h e r d e a t h he w i l l be c o m p l e t e l y a l o n e a g a i n . We f e e l t h a t he, as a man of the c h u r c h , s h o u l d p o s s e s s s u f f i c i e n t s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h t o comfort him a f t e r A g l a i a 1 s d e a t h — o n the c o n t r a r y , he c o n s i d e r s o n l y temporal l i f e and l a c k s t h e f a i t h t o s u s t a i n him when h i s p r e s e n t happiness i s taken from him. Da kam s i e und s a g t e , dass s i e mein ware, und i c h f u n i t e , wie mein Herz warm und v o l l wurde und d i e schneidende, k a l t e E i n s a m k e i t von mir wegging . . . . Nur manchmal kam mir d i e Angst, das G l i i c k s g e f u h l , an das i c h mich gewohnt h a t t e , konnte p l o t z l i c h verschwinden und mich a l l e i n i n e i n e r wusten, k a l t e n , u n e n d l i c h e n Hohle stehen l a s s e n . . . . Das E i n z i g e , was mein war, woran i c h g l a u b t e , woran i c h meine S e e l e festgebunden h a t t e , v e r d u n s t e t mir auf den Handen wie e i n T r o p f e n WasserJ-'-The Dornroschen theme of the t r a n s i t o r i n e s s of l i f e i s echoed again i n the d e s p a i r of F r a C e l e s t e . As i s c o n s t a n t l y the case i n R i c a r d a Huch's work, the man of the c l o t h i s r e v e a l e d t o be j u s t as weak a r e e d as h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s . A g l a i a does f a l l i l l . I n e x p l i c a b l y C e l e s t e r e f u s e s t o see her u n t i l he succumbs t o the p r e s s u r e o f h i s s e c r e t a r y t o go t o v i s i t h e r . We f i n d t h a t he has remained away from her s i c k bed i n o r d e r not to be reminded of t h e i n e v i t a b l e end of t h e i r l o v e . In answer t o her q u e s t i o n , "0, warum l i e b s t du mich n i c h t m e h r? , 2he answers i n d e s p a i r , " I c h w i l l d i c h ewig, ewig, ewig l i e b e n , nur v e r l a s s mich n i c h t ! S t i r b n i c h t 1 S e i wieder mein!" At t h a t moment i t i s c l e a r t o h e r t h a t she must d i e — h e l o v e s her and he has a v o i d e d her o n l y 1 Cp* c i t . , pp. 7 4 - 7 5 . 2 0P« c i t . , p. 7 8 . 0p« c i t . , p. 7 9 . - 40 -because he l o v e s h e r too much and cannot accept her approaching death. At t h a t moment l o o k i n g at her l y i n g h e l p l e s s on the couch he can t h i n k o n l y o f what she means to him and of the t e r r i b l e l o s s he w i l l s u f f e r when A g l a i a d i e s . S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s A g l a i a i s found l y i n g w i t h a k n i f e i n h e r b r e a s t and the n a r r a t o r s p e c u l a t e s under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s she had d i e d . W o l l t e s i e den b i t t e r e n K e l c h des Todes, zu dem s i e v e r u r t e i l t war, zu einem L i e b e s t r a n k aus den Handen des Freundes machen? . . . Daraus, dass s i e mit un-v e r z e r r t e m G e s i c h t e wie e i n e Ruhende d a l a g , d u r f t e man s c h l i e s s e n , dass er d i e Tat s o f o r t a u s f i i h r t e , bevor s i e den Zustand s e i n e s Gemiites ahnte; v i e l -l e i c h t , v i e l m e h r , beugte s i e s i c h der er w a r t e t e n Umarmung des Freundes en t g e g e n . l When we l e a r n t h a t C e l e s t e has k i l l e d h i m s e l f at the same time i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t the Romantic l o v e - d e a t h has ta k e n p l a c e . Without h e r l o v e , C e l e s t e cannot go on l i v i n g and the c o n c l u s i o n i s a uni o n o f the two i n death. The s i t u a t i o n w i t h G a l e i d e and Gaspard i s d i f f e r e n t . G a l e i d e l i k e A g l a i a e x p e r i e n c e s an u n t h i n k i n g d e v o t i o n t o Gaspard, y e t i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Gaspard does not r e t u r n h e r l o v e . H i s momentary a t t r a c t i o n t o her i s e n t i r e l y s e n s u a l . She does not g i v e meaning t o h i s l i f e as A g l a i a does t o C e l e s t e ' s . G a l e i d e ' s death i s a p i t i f u l example of t r a g i c Romanticism where l a c k o f c o n t r o l over the emotions b r i n g s death w i t h o u t purpose. A g l a i a ' s death i s a s a c r i f i c e and as such has purpose. In "Der arme H e i n r i c h " R i c a r d a Huch has used the c h a r a c t e r s o f the medieval l e g e n d but has g i v e n each a d i f f e r e n t r o l e t han i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n . As i n Hartmann Op. c i t . , pp. 82, 85. - 41 -von Aue's work, H e i n r i c h a t the o u t s e t l o v e s l i f e and a c c e p t s a l l i t s p l e a s u r e s as h i s r i g h t f u l h e r i t a g e . A f t e r d e c e i v i n g h i s w i f e as w e l l as s e v e r a l sweethearts, even a l l o w i n g l i t t l e L i e b h e i d l i t o have her h e a r t c ut out so t h a t he may be h e a l e d from l e p r o s y , H e i n r i c h d i e s w i t h a b l i s s f u l s m i l e on h i s l i p s ! W i t h i n t h i s s h o r t s t o r y , R i c a r d a Huch p r e s e n t s t h r e e d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f women, who i n t u r n r e p r e s e n t t h r e e s t a g e s i n the development o f R i c a r d a Huch's woman: I r m i n -r e i c h , H e i n r i c h 1 s w i f e , r i c h , e g o i s t i c and s e l f - s a t i s f i e d , O l a i j a , a l o v e l y g i r l from S a l e r n o but sensuous and d e c e i t -f u l , and L i e b h e i d l i , a young peasant g i r l , p i o u s and s e l f s a c r i f i c i n g . I r m i n r e i c h enjoys n o t h i n g more than t o s i t w i t h a m i r r o r i n her hand and gaze a d m i r i n g l y at h e r beauty. Her whole w o r l d i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the frame o f the m i r r o r . A f t e r y e a r s o f absence, H e i n r i c h r e t u r n s t o f i n d her s i t t i n g at the window w i t h the m i r r o r i n her hand: " Er h a t t e s i c h e i n r e d e n konnen, s i e habe d i e ganze Z e i t , wahrend er abwesend war, so dagesessen und im S p i e g e l b e t r a c h t e t . . . . "^ She i s t oo i n d o l e n t t o be untrue t o her husband and as such i s l i k e a b e a u t i f u l d o l l which e x i s t s o n l y t o be admired. She makes no attempt t o understand H e i n r i c h and i s so d e v o i d o f a l l emotion t h a t she does not worry when H e i n r i c h must l e a v e t h e c a s t l e because o f the b l i g h t o f l e p r o s y . As l o n g as she i s u n d i s t u r b e d and can enjoy her own r e f l e c t i o n , a l l e l s e remains unimportant. O l a i j a has expanded the l i m i t s o f her egoism t o make her c a p a b l e of p h y s i c a l l o v e . She meets H e i n r i c h i n S a l e r n o "Der arme H e i n r i c h , " Erzahlungen, L e i p z i g , 1919, V o l . I , p. 133. - 42 -and she accompanies him when he c o n t i n u e s h i s j o u r n e y t o the H o l y Land. She t e l l s h er f a t h e r t h a t she needs freedom and wants t o see d i s t a n t l a n d s t o which he r e p l i e s : " F r e i h e i t und Leben! Das w i l l s t du n i c h t . E i n e n Mann w i l l s t du und L i e b e und Genuss. Es i s t das a l t e L i e d und t o n t mir e i n t o n i g und w i d e r l i c h . " 1 Her f a t h e r reminds her t h a t H e i n r i c h w i l l t i r e o f h e r and l e a v e her f o r another, but O l a i j a ' s p r i m i t i v e n a t u r e a s s u r e s her t h a t a br e a c h o f f a i t h on h i s p a r t w i l l be avenged. "Liegen l a s s e n w i r d e r mich v i e l l e i c h t . . . aber dann w i r d er n i c h t weitergehen." Her prophecy i s c o r r e c t f o r she k i l l s H e i n r i c h when h i s eye has t u r n e d t o a l o v e l y P e r s i a n s o n g s t r e s s . G a l e i d e and A g l a i a share much o f O l a i j a ' s p a s s i o n a t e demonic temperament but o n l y O l a i j a i s capable o f revenge. L i k e I r m i n r e i c h her v a l u e s a r e r e f l e c t e d ones. But h e r worl d c o n s i s t s of a double image i n the m i r r o r — h e r -s e l f and her l o v e r , when he ceases t o pose f o r h e r , h i s purpose i s gone and he must d i e . Of g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t t o us, o f c o u r s e , i s L i e b h e i d l i , s i n c e she has been a p a r t of the t r a d i t i o n s i n c e t h e time o f Hartmann von Aue, and i t i s i n h e r l i f e and t h a t o f H e i n r i c h where we must l o o k f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f R i c a r d a Huch's treatment. I n n e i t h e r Hartmann*s nor G e r h a r t Hauptmann's v e r s i o n o f t h e l e g e n d i s the g i r l a l l o w e d t o d i e i n o r d e r t o save H e i n r i c h . In both, L i e b h e i d l i and H e i n r i c h are u n i t e d i n marriage a f t e r L i e b h e i d l i has proven h e r s e l f r e a d y t o s a c r i f i c e h er l i f e f o r him. Not so i n R i c a r d a Huch's v e r s i o n . The d e t a i l s o f L i e b h e i d l i ' s t r i p a c r o s s the sea 1 0 P » c i t . , p. 1 5 4 . o Or>. c i t . . v. 155. - 43 -t o S a l e r n o and the a r r i v a l of t h e loathsome A l m a i n e t e who i s t o c u t out h e r h e a r t are f a c t o r s which arouse a f e e l i n g o f d i s g u s t and h o r r o r i n the r e a d e r a t the i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s of H e i n r i c h who p e r m i t s i t a l l t o happen. Here, as so o f t e n i n R i c a r d a Huch's works, we are made aware o f the dominance of i d e a over any o t h e r l i t e r a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Guided by a b i t t e r r e a l i s m , she c a r r i e s h e r o b s e r v a t i o n of man's d e f i c i e n t m o r a l i t y through to i t s c r u e l c o n c l u s i o n and i n so d o i n g r e s o l u t e l y i g n o r e s the clumsy e x t e n u a t i o n of the s t o r y which i t o c c a s i o n s . I n the f i r s t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o L i e b h e i d l i , we r e a d of her r e p u t a t i o n f o r u n p a r a l l e l e d v i r t u e and p i e t y . Her f a t h e r e x p l a i n s t o t h e l e p r o u s H e i n r i c h t h a t h i s daughter i s c a p a b l e o f e f f e c t i n g m i r a c u l o u s c u r e s and t h a t she as w e l l as h e r p a r e n t s d e s i r e H e i n r i c h to t a k e s h e l t e r i n t h e i r c o t t a g e . . . . das L i e b h e i d l i s e i nach dem U r t e i l der G e i s t -l i c h k e i t ringsum im Lande mehr den E ngeln a l s Menschen zu v e r g l e i c h e n und s e i e i n l e i b h a f t i g e r Segen Gott e s i n ihrem Hause, so dass s i e s i c h v o r der a l l e r a r g s t e n K r a n k h e i t n i c h t f u r c h t e t e n , im G e g e n t e i l begnadige s i e v i e l l e i c h t d e r Himmel damit, i h n durch des Kindes Gebet und P f l e g e gesund werden zu l a s s e n . I H e i n r i c h a c c e p t s the h o s p i t a l i t y of L i e b h e i d l i ' s p a r e n t s and from t h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n L i e b h e i d l i grows t o l o v e H e i n r i c h so t h a t h e r r e l i g i o u s z e a l as w e l l as e a r t h l y p a s s i o n become blended i n t o one p o w e r f u l d e s i r e to r e s t o r e H e i n r i c h ' s h e a l t h . At the same time she i s aware t h a t a c u r e w i l l t a k e him away from her and back t o h i s former e x i s t e n c e . Auch h a t t e e r d a r i n vollkommen r e c h t , denn s i e l i e b t e i h n mit samt seinem A u s s a t z mehr a l s a l l e s auf der Welt, und obwohl s i e e i n z i g s e i n e r K r a n k h e i t das i i b e r -schwengliche Gluck v e r d a n k t e , neben ihm l e b e n zu Op. c i t . , p. 1 0 5 . - 44 -d u r f e n , b e t e t e s i e t a g l i c h zu Gott und den H e i l i g e n urn s e i n e Gesundheit, j a dass es womoglich i h r ge-wahrt wurde, du r c h e i n g r o s s e s Opfer seinem gemar-t e r t e n L e i b e Genesung zu s c h a f f e n . l When H e i n r i c h makes known t o L i e b h e i d l i the method o f a p o s s i b l e c u r e f o r h i s d i s e a s e she f o r g e t s h e r p r i v a t e d e s i r e f o r h a p p i n e s s and i s o v e r j o y e d t h a t she can be the means through which he can r e g a i n h i s h e a l t h . However, even she i s daunted by the approach o f death. A r r i v i n g i n S a l e r n o where th e s a c r i f i c e i s t o be made, she l o s e s h e r o t h e r w i s e joyous n a t u r e . No l o n g e r does she l o o k f o r w a r d t o death, "wie auf i h r e H o c h z e i t , wiewohl s i e i h n noch e r s e h n t e , des-h a l b n a m l i c h , w e i l das s c h a r f e Messer des k l u g e n A r z t e s i n i h r e B r u s t g l e i t e n und das Herz he r a u s h o l e n wurde, das so schwer geworden war wie e i n g r o s s e r S t e i n und beklemmend auf i h r e S e e l e d r f i c k t e . " L i e b h e i d l i ' s d e s p a i r i s i n d u c e d n o t so much by her own weakness as by H e i n r i c h ' s b e h a v i o u r . H e i n r i c h g i v e s her no comfort. He shows no l o v e f o r h e r . He sees how her eyes i m p l o r e him "Lass mich l e b e n l " but he i s too e g o c e n t r i c to t h i n k of h e r needs. He i g n o r e s her unspoken p l e a and c r u e l l y t a u n t s her i n a mock b r o t h e r l y f a s h i o n about her l o v e f o r a l e p e r . Das L i e b h e i d l i empfand wohl, dass der R i t t e r s i e n i c h t wie e i n L i e b e n d e r f r a g t e , sondern nur aus N e u g i e r und T a n d e l e i und d e s h a l b t a t e n i h r d i e Worte so weh wie wenn e i n e s p i t z e Nadel i n i h r b l o s s e s Herz gebohrt wurde . . . 1 Op. c i t . , P. 1 0 7 . 2 Op. c i t . , PP . 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 . 3 Op. c i t . , P- 1 2 1 . 4 Op. c i t . , P. 1 2 0 . - 45 -R i c a r d a Huch draws out the n a r r a t i v e t o e x c r u c i a t i n g l e n g t h s . L i e b h e i d l i i s l e f t a lone i n a l a r g e room i n the D o c t o r ' s home as H e i n r i c h and t h e Doctor Almainete d i s c u s s h er f a t e . Here once more she p i c t u r e s H e i n r i c h as her s a v i o u r a r r i v i n g t o t e l l h er t h a t h e r l i f e w i l l not be s a c r i f i c e d . A g a i n s t a grotesque background of s u g g e s t i v e c o l o u r she w a i t s . E r / der Teppich7 war von l e u c h t e n d e r S c h a r l a c h f a r b e , mit B l a u durchschossen . . . denn s i e sah nur d i e r o t e Farbe und dachte an das warme, h e i l e n d e B l u t , das aus ihrem K o r p e r f l i e s s e n s o l l t e . Den B l i c k i n d i e s e damonische F l u t v e r s e n k t , h o r c h t e s i e mit b e w u s s t l o s e r Hoffnung, ob n i c h t der R i t t e r komme, urn i h r zu sagen: Du s o l l s t n i c h t s t e r b e n , du b i s t mir a l l z u l i e b . 1 The t e n s i o n i s h e i g h t e n e d i n p a r t by the r e a d e r ' s knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l outcome, y e t L i e b h e i d l i ' s p r a y e r i s not answered. The Doctor appears and p r e p a r e s h e r f o r her g h a s t l y death. R i c a r d a Huch was e v i d e n t l y a t t r a c t e d e a r l y i n her c a r e e r by t h i s l e g e n d and the s a c r i f i c i a l f i g u r e i n i t . She remarks i n B l u t e z e i t der Romantik: B e i d e s , germanisch und c h r i s t l i c h , i s t d i e m i t t e l -a l t e r l i c h e Legende von der L i e b e des j u n g f r a u l i c h e n K i n d e s zu dem a u s s a t z i g e n R i t t e r , eine L i e b e ganz Op f e r , ganz S e e l e , und dennoch l e i s e und suss e r -warmt von s i n n l i c h e m B l u t e . I n dem K r e i s e d i e s e r G e s t a l t e n fanden d i e Romantiker s i c h w i e d e r . 2 In t h i s r e s p e c t L i e b h e i d l i f o l l o w s the medie v a l v e r s i o n . A l t h o u g h p e r f o r m i n g a s a i n t l y f u n c t i o n , she i s s t i l l a woman. The s e n s u a l i t y o f an O l a i j a i s not e v i l , R i c a r d a Huch i m p l i e s , but must be d i r e c t e d toward t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o the. s a c r i -f i c i a l a l t r u i s m d i s p l a y e d by L i e b h e i d l i . L i e b h e i d l i s t a n d s , t h u s , as a f o r l o r n example o f the complete woman, the human Op. c i t . , p. 126. B l u t e z e i t der Romantik, pp. 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 . - 46 -b e i n g who p u r i f i e s s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o s p i r i t u a l d e v o t i o n of such i n t e n s i t y t h a t she i s w i l l i n g t o d i e f o r another human b e i n g . B i t t e r i r o n y c a s t s an i n d e l i b l e i m p r i n t upon the whole work s i n c e the woman's s a c r i f i c e i s on b e h a l f o f an unworthy i n d i v i d u a l . H e i n r i c h i s o n l y good w h i l e s u f f e r i n g . I n h a p p i -n e s s , e t h i c s a re l o s t . Not even a t death i s he r e p e n t a n t . B r o t h e r B a l d r i a n , who f o l l o w s him t o the H o l y Land o n l y i n o r d e r t o w i t n e s s the D i v i n e punishment he f e e l s sure i s f o r t h c o m i n g ( t h i s d i s t o r t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s z e a l i s another of t he innumerable i r o n i e s w i t h i n t h e s t o r y ) , i s d i s a p p o i n t e d . H e i n r i c h d i e s w i t h a sublime s m i l e upon h i s l i p s . Without a doubt t h i s i s R i c a r d a Huch's c r u e l l e s t work. The " n a t u r a l " woman of the Z u r i c h p e r i o d i s a g a i n p r e s e n t i n the s h o r t s t o r i e s , " F r a C e l e s t e " and "Der arme H e i n r i c h . " But a change makes i t s e l f m a n i f e s t i n the redemptive r o l e s which A g l a i a and L i e b h e i d l i p l a y . In Z u r i c h , b e f o r e her marriage t o C e c o n i , R i c a r d a Huch had been p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e problem o f u n f u l f i l l e d l o v e . Now she b e g i n s t o c o n s i d e r the wider i m p l i c a t i o n o f l o v e between two peop l e and t o t h i n k i n terms of how each can c o n t r i b u t e t o the s p i r i t u a l growth o f the o t h e r . There i s more emphasis on the s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h and r e v i t a l i z i n g power o f l o v e than on pure p a s s i o n . The p a s s i o n which R i c a r d a Huch f e l t f o r R i c h a r d w h i l e i n Z u r i c h f i n d s i t s p a r a l l e l i n the B z a r d -G a l e i d e r e l a t i o n s h i p where the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f l o v e i s emphasized r a t h e r than the c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e i r p e r s o n -a l i t i e s and i t s a b s o l u t e t r a g e d y i n t h e Gaspard e p i s o d e . The V i e n n a - T r i e s t e p e r i o d b r i n g s w i t h i t R i c a r d a Huch's - 47 -marriage t o C e c o n i and a t the b e g i n n i n g some contentment i n her r o l e o f w i f e and mother. Her p a s s i o n f o r R i c h a r d had succumbed at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y t o a s t e a d i e r f e e l i n g o f w e l l -b e i n g as t h e w i f e of C e c o n i . An Manno habe i c h d i e h e l f e n d e L i e b e , wie Du es nennst, e r l e b t , i c h kann ihm das n i e v e r g e s s e n , i c h danke ihm das Beste, was i c h habe. . . . An ihm i s t das Wunder-ba r e , dass d i e L i e b e b e i ihm so f r e i von j e d e r M o r a l , uberhaupt von jedem Gedanken i s t , und gerade darum s p u r t man den g o t t l i c h e n Hauch so besonders s t a r k . T h i s " h e l f e n d e L i e b e " was a s u s t a i n i n g f a c t o r a t a time when R i c a r d a Huch was e x p e r i e n c i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r f r u s t r a t i o n s those o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l woman who i s a l s o a w i f e and mother. Some of t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n i s poured out i n l e t t e r s t o her f r i e n d Marie Baum i n 1 8 9 9 : Denke D i r , i c h s c h r e i b e D i r mit dem B u s i /daughter/* im Arm, worunter d i e S c h r i f t n a t u r l i c h l e i d e t . . . . Zum V e r z w e i f e l n i s t es, dass i c h gar n i c h t zum A r b e i -t e n komme . . . . D i e s e r Wunsch zu a r b e i t e n und das Nie-dazukommen m a r t e r t mich b e s t a n d i g . ^ In h er w r i t i n g s o f t h i s p e r i o d R i c a r d a Huch i s a t t e m p t i n g t o t h i n k out f o r h e r s e l f how much a woman s h o u l d s a c r i f i c e f o r h e r husband and j u s t what h e r r o l e i n the man-woman r e l a t i o n -s h i p s h o u l d be. The Romantic concept o f woman as t h e redemptive f a c t o r always appears at the f o r e f r o n t and o f t e n , as i n "Der arme H e i n r i c h , " the woman's e f f o r t i s undeserved. Something o f t h i s f e e l i n g may have e x i s t e d i n h e r own r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h C e c o n i . Should she s t a y i n T r i e s t e , s h o u l d she g i v e up her w r i t i n g t o devote a l l h er energy t o C e c o n i — t h e s e and many more thoughts must have o c c u p i e d R i c a r d a Huch's mind Leuchtende Spur, pp. 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 . Op. c i t . , pp. 1 1 0 , 1 1 3 . - 48 -and c e r t a i n l y A g l a i a and L i e b h e i d l i r e f l e c t i n v a r y i n g degrees the concern which R i c a r d a f e l t about h e r new r o l e as w i f e . Prom a o n e - s i d e d r a t h e r s e l f i s h p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h e r own f e e l i n g s , as e x p e r i e n c e d i n Z u r i c h and r e v e a l e d i n h e r works o f t h a t p e r i o d , R i c a r d a Huch moved towards a more r e a l i s t i c , l e s s i n t r o v e r t e d i n t e r e s t i n the r o l e s o f man and woman as p a r t n e r s . T h i s development was t o c o n t i n u e i n Munich towards an ever i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the p a r e n t -c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f her p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h problems of marriage r a t h e r than w i t h the s u b t l e shades of p a s s i o n . - 49 -Chapter 4 I t a l y , with i t s scenic beauty, i t s temperamental people and e x c i t i n g h i s t o r y , provides the background of three of Ricarda Huch's most important novels—Aus der Triumphgasse, 1 2 3 Michael Unger, and Von den Konigen und der Krone. The stimulus f o r w r i t i n g them dates from Ricarda Huch's two years' stay i n T r i e s t e from 1898 to 1900. A. Aus der Triumphgasse With domestic hardships to bear, with a new language and customs to l e a r n , Ricarda Huch came to r e l y g r e a t l y upon her housekeeper Giovanna. This same Giovanna i s immortalized as F a r f a l l a , the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the f i r s t of Ricarda's works written i n Munich, Aus der Triumphgasse. F a r f a l l a ( "butterfly" i n I t a l i a n ) i s an appropriate name fo r someone who i s constantly i n motion, always aware of death and the t r a n s i t o r i n e s s of l i f e , and one, who i s Aus der Triumphgasse, Lebensskizzen, Jena, 1 9 2 0 ( f i r s t published i n L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 2 ) . Michael Unger, B e r l i n , 1 9 2 8 ( f i r s t published under the t i t l e V i t a somnium breve i n L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 3 ) . Von den Konigen und der Krone, L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 ( f i r s t published, i n l ^ w ) . Else Hoppe i n Ricarda Huch, p. 2 2 9 , r e f e r s to Giovanna: "Und die Gestalt der F a r f a l l a i s t i h r e r Aufwarterin Giovanna nachgebildet." - 50 -desperately l a c k i n g substance i n her existence. In b r i e f moments of r e l a x a t i o n her features and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , her eyes give evidence of the beauty she once was before her l i f e became a constant b a t t l e against hunger and poverty. In t h i s story as i n Ludolf Ursleu and others, Ricarda Huch uses the technique of i n d i r e c t n a r r a t i o n . The " M i t t l e r " who unfolds the story to us i s Belwatsch, a r i c h man who has i n h e r i t e d a home i n a poor d i s t r i c t of T r i e s t e . As a tenant i n Belwatsch's house, l i v e s F a r f a l l a with her seven f a t h e r -l e s s c h i l d r e n . Belwatsch, f o r the f i r s t time, comes into close contact with poor people when he v i s i t s F a r f a l l a . Inspired by these as s o c i a t i o n s , he begins to analyse t h e i r behaviour and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s . Eventually, a f t e r many disappointing experiences among such people, he becomes e n t i r e l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d and abandons any hope f o r t h e i r f uture. His a l t r u i s t i c thoughts are prefi g u r e d i n one of Ricarda Huch's l e t t e r s to Marie Baum i n 1901: Man kann n i e wieder ein ganz gesunder und froher Mensch werden, wenn man einmal i n den Jammer des Lebens h i n e i n -gesehen hat. Selbst mein Gliick an Busi /her daughter7 i s t getrubt; wenn i c h das sxisse, runde, unschuldige ~~ Gesicht sehe, sehe i c h im Geist die elenden kleinen Gesichter daneben, die niemand l i e b t . 1 Ricarda's f e e l i n g s of un i v e r s a l sympathy are akin to that voiced by the expressionists i n poems such as Franz Werfel's Weltfreund: A l s mich dein Dasein tranenwarts entriickte Und i c h durch d i c h i n s Unermessne schwarmte, Erlebten diesen Tag nicht Abgeharmte, Miihsalig M i l l i o n e n Unterdriickte? 2 Leuchtende Spur, p. 138. Werfel, Franz: Gedichte aus den Jahren 1908 - 1 9 4 5 , Privatdruck der P a z i f i s c h e n Presse, Los Angeles, 1946, p. 16. - 51 -F a r f a l l a h e r s e l f i s a p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n and hardened woman, who l o o k s a t l i f e around her w i t h almost t o t a l r e a l i s m . She f e e l s h a r r a s s e d by l i f e , b u t , as i s perhaps t y p i c a l of her countrymen, r e t a i n s an o b j e c t i v i t y e x p r e s s e d i n humour. Amidst her h a r d s h i p s she shows r e s i g n a t i o n but l i t t l e b i t t e r -n e s s . I n a few moments d u r i n g the day when she p e r m i t s h e r s e l f t o s i t w i t h t h e o t h e r women around the w e l l i n the square, we hear her t e l l w i t h humour and v i g o u r s t o r i e s from h e r youth, i n c l u d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n f o l k t a l e s . Only here, i n the r o l e o f e n t e r t a i n e r , does she l o s e t he hardened e x t e r i o r w i t h which she n o r m a l l y b a t t l e s the w o r l d . Her o u t l o o k toward t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s o l a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n i s ambiguous. She d e r i d e s the ch u r c h y e t admits t h a t she a t t e n d s Mass, o f f e r s up her p r a y e r s and take s p a r t i n r e l i g i o u s p i l g r i m a g e s because the chu r c h r e p r e s e n t s t o her the o n l y hope, however v a i n , f o r a b e t t e r l i f e . We are c o n s t a n t l y reminded i n Triumphgasse t h a t the chu r c h i s the one p l a c e where the poor, i n body and i n s p i r i t , may f i n d a moment's r e s t . F a r f a l l a r e l a t e s t h a t her l i f e , l i k e a g i a n t wheel, r e v o l v e s s o l e l y around her p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h f o o d and money u n t i l the moment she e n t e r s the c h u r c h . A l s i c h nun aber i n e i n e r h a l b d u n k l e n S e i t e n k a p e l l e v o r der gr o s s e n Madonna u n t e r dem Kreuze n i e d e r g e -k n i e t war, s t a n d d i e s Rad auf einmal s t i l l , ohne dass i c h bemerkt h a t t e wie, und es war gerade, a l s h a t t e s i c h i n meinem Innern e i n e Thlir a u f gethan, d i e i c h sonst immer zug e h a l t e n h a t t e . . . . F a r f a l l a laughs a t the peop l e making p i l g r i m a g e s y e t j o i n s them i n the hope t h a t a t l e a s t one of her p r a y e r s w i l l be Triumphgasse, p. 54. - 52 -answered. R e a l i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e t e l l s her, to be s u r e , t h a t i t i s a waste o f time to keep on hoping: . . . Gott hat d i e Armen n i c h t l i e b . I c h werde mein Leben l a n g h a r t und a u f s a u s s e r s t e a r b e i t e n mussen, doch n i e genug haben, und s c h l i e s s l i c h , wenn i c h n i c h t s mehr thun kanh, im Armenhaus s t e r b e n . Und doch habe i c h mit Wissen n i e etwas Boses gethan oder wenigstens n i c h t mehr a l s Tausende, d i e Z e i t l e b e n s im Glucke schwelgen.l But F a r f a l l a s t i l l has a glimmer o f i d e a l i s m which cannot be e x t i n g u i s h e d even though l i f e f o r h e r h o l d s n o t h i n g but c o n f u s i o n , p o v e r t y , and d i s t r e s s . Aber wenn man im E l e n d i s t , s t r e c k t man d i e Arme aus und f l e h t a u f s Geradewohl i n den Himmel h i n e i n , wie auch E r t r i n k e n d e urn H i l f e s c h r e i e n und d i e Arme aus-s t r e c k e n , s e l b s t wenn w e i t und b r e i t niemand zu sehen i s t , der r e t t e n konnte . 2 R i c a r d a Huch i s a g a i n employing a theme here which f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n her e a r l y w o r k s — t h e r o l e of the Church and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m as i t a f f e c t s men's l i v e s . She b e l i e v e s t h a t the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y are so caught up w i t h i n t h e i r dogmatic b e l i e f s t h a t t h e y w i l l attempt t o c r u s h a n y t h i n g which stands i n t h e i r way. She, " e i n geborener P r o t e s t a n t " ^ (as she c a l l s h e r s e l f ) c a s t i g a t e s the c l e r g y f o r t h e i r i n t o l e r a n c e . Many, she m a i n t a i n s , see t h r o u g h the dogmas but c o n t i n u e t o w i e l d power over the p a r i s h i o n e r s i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r the c l e r g y ' s s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s . We f i n d F r a C e l e s t e p r e a c h i n g as i f a n g e l s had i n s p i r e d him, y e t s t a t i n g p r i v a t e l y t h a t the o n l y s a t i s f a c t i o n he d e r i v e s from h i s p r o f e s s i o n i s i n the knowledge of the e f f e c t h i s Op. c i t . , p. 52. Op. c i t . , p. 15. Leuchtende Spur, p. 34. - 53 -o r a t o r y has on h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s . He preaches repentance to s i n f u l mankind yet does not f o l l o w the r u l e of c e l i b a c y him-s e l f . Wonnebald Puck 1 i s a cheat, a f r a u d , an immoral man, who w i t h i n the p r o t e c t i o n of the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d church i s a ble t o g i v e the impression of being a v i r t u o u s , honest man of p r i n c i p l e . He uses a l l the t r i c k s he knows to secure h i s p o s i t i o n as a r e v e r e d and h o l y man among h i s f l o c k . He p l a y s on t h e i r s u p e r s t i t i o n s , ignorance and awe. The h e i g h t of h i s p e r f i d y occurs when he a l l o w s a young, innocent and honest g i r l , Lux, t o be blamed f o r what he h i m s e l f has brought a b o u t — t h e rob b i n g of the Madonna's j e w e l s . T h i s was done i n order t o pay o f f h i s m i s t r e s s . Subsequently, he a l l o w s Lux t o be banned from the town w h i l e he r e t a i n s h i s h i g h p o s i t i o n and i s e l e v a t e d t o s a i n t h o o d a f t e r death. Again, B a l d r i a n , the p r i e s t i n "Der arme H e i n r i c h " awaits d a i l y God's vengeance on H e i n r i c h because of the l a t t e r ' s behaviour, yet B a l d r i a n c l a i m s t o l o v e H e i n r i c h and cannot t e a r h i m s e l f 2 away from the k n i g h t . The P r i n c e ' s w i f e i n Der neue H e i l i g e has not produced an h e i r to the throne and the p r i e s t s , w o r r y i n g about t h i s s i t u a t i o n , are q u i t e prepared t o stoop t o the basest t r i c k e r y i n order t o ensure an h e i r f o r t h e i r c i t y and r u l e r . Nor does the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y escape R i c a r d a 3 Huch's i r o n i c comments. Both i n the Hahn von Quakenbruck^ Lebenslauf des h e i l i g e n Wonnebald Puck, L e i p z i g , 1905. Der neue H e i l i g e . N o v e l l e n , L e i p z i g , 1924 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 0 ) . Der Hahn von Quakenbruck und andere N o v e l l e n , L e i p z i g , 1910. - 54 -and Von den Konigen und der Krone, we are introduced to ministers who are r i g i d and d o c t r i n a l , showing none of the basic q u a l i t i e s of C h r i s t i a n i t y . In the works previous to Triumphgasse, the church i s not treated as a s p i r i t u a l f o r c e , but rather i s seen e n t i r e l y from the point of view of the c r i t i c a l onlooker or s a t i r i s t . Galeide, Frau Salde and A g l a i a do not attend church; i f they do, i t i s from habit rather than from c o n v i c t i o n . Even Haduvig i s r e a l l y more at t r a c t e d to the person of her phantom p r i e s t than to the Roman Cathol i c r e l i g i o n per se. In the case of the p r i e s t i n "Mondreigen von Sc h l a r a f f i s , 1 1 r e l i g i o n i s lampooned by comparing the p r i e s t to a f r o g . The church represents r i g i d organization which r e l i e s on r u l e s and orders to f u r t h e r i t s aims rather than on the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y enjoined by i t s founder. The bigotry, as evidenced i n the luxurious and corrupt l i f e of the high church o f f i c i a l i n "Fra Celeste," and the c r u e l t y , stemming from ignorance, as witnessed i n the destruction of Frau Salde i n "Mondreigen von S c h l a r a f f i s , " r e f l e c t the author's a t t i t u d e towards a r e l i g i o n which has become stagnant. To be sure, although Ricarda Huch attacks i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e l i g i o n , she i s very conscious of the need of a s p i r i t u a l force to oppose the strong r a t i o n a l materialism of her times. "Ich b in zwar sehr glaubig, aber nicht e i g e n t l i c h r e l i g i o s , " 1 she writes to Marie Baum i n 1915. This i n t e r e s t i n C h r i s t i a n truths i s the motivating f o r c e of her l a t e r works on Luther and r e l i g i o n . Leuchtende Spur, p. 194. Luthers Glaube. B r i e f e an einen Freund, L e i p z i g , 1916. Der Sinn der H e i l i g e n S c h r i f t , L e i p z i g , 1919. - 55 -However, w i t h i n the r e a l m o f t h e n o v e l and s h o r t s t o r y we f i n d almost e x c l u s i v e l y i r o n i c comments about the abuses and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s w i t h i n the Roman C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s . The n a r r a t o r of Triumphgasse, Belwatsch, h i m s e l f a r e l i g i o u s s c e p t i c i s c u r i o u s t o l e a r n what a t t r a c t s the p e o p l e t o t h e c h u r c h . He e n t e r s t h e c a t h e d r a l on Good P r i d a y not t o worship but t o t r y to i n v e s t i g a t e why the p a r i s h i o n e r s a t t e n d s e r v i c e s , w i t h the i r o n i c r e s u l t t h a t he h i m s e l f becomes caught up i n the beauty and i n s p i r a t i o n o f t h e r i t u a l . I c h h o r t e den Akkord n i c h t nur, sondern sah i n n wie e i n e Blume aus G o l d s i c h langsam o f f n e n d zu e i n e r S c h a l e e n t f a l t e n , aus der s i c h Gnade auf d i e elenden Menschen e r g i e s s t . E i n e andere, u n s i c h t b a r e Welt h a t t e s i c h aufgethan, d i e ebenso l a u t e r , s u s s , wahr und s e l i g war, wie d i e unsere f a l s c h , u n f l a t i g , v e r -dorben, v e r z w e i f e l t . Es gab a l s o etwas Hohes und Schones, etwas, das u n e n d l i c h hoher iiber mir s t a n d , a l s i c h iiber den U n g l i i c k l i c h e n , d i e i c h v e r a b s c h e u t e , und d i e s G o t t l i c h e beugte s i c h mit warmster, l i e b e n d -s t e r S e e l e auf uns a l l e herab . . . . I c h h a t t e auf d i e Kniee s t i i r z e n und Tranen der Anbetung v e r g i e s s e n mogen und a l i e n , d i e i n der K i r c h e waren, das Himmlische Geheimnis entdecken.I In t h i s q u o t a t i o n i t i s easy t o r e c o g n i s e R i c a r d a Huch s p e a k i n g — a woman, who f o r a moment i s a l l o w i n g her h e a r t t o t a k e over from h e r r e a s o n . She i s a l l o w i n g emotion to creep i n t o an o t h e r w i s e s c e p t i c a l work. R a t i o n a l compunctions d i s a p p e a r i n the j o y which the author e x p e r i e n c e s when she acknowledges the power of God t o e l e v a t e t h e s e wretched p e o p l e . R i c a r d a Huch would p a s s i o n a t e l y l i k e t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e was a h i g h e r , b e t t e r l i f e f o r the p e o p l e of the Triumphgasse, but her sense of r e a l i t y and acute c o n s c i o u s n e s s Triumphgasse, pp. 514,315 - 56 -of t h e miser y she sees around h e r, e v e n t u a l l y e x t i n g u i s h t h i s spark o f p a s s i o n a t e f a i t h . L a t e r , i n f r o n t o f the church, she watches the same peo p l e and remarks t h a t " s p a t e r werden s i e auch B e s t i e n und b e i s s e n und f r e s s e n s i c h . " 1 R i c a r d a Huch's attempt t o make h e a r t and r e a s o n c o o p e r a t e i s l a t e r on s t r i v e n f o r by some e x p r e s s i o n i s t s : Es g i b t k e i n e n anderen A r a r a t des F r i e d e n s a l s den neuen Bund des G e i s t e s mit dem k l o p f e n d e n H e r z e n . 2 Belwatsch's e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s s i m i l a r t o F a r f a l l a ' s f e e l i n g s when she, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r i n d i g e n t slum d w e l l e r s , h o l d s out her arms t o C h r i s t i n the v a i n hope o f mercy. I t i s o n l y w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f the church t h a t the poor p e o p l e enjoy a few moments of s p i r i t u a l e l a t i o n b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r m i s e r a b l e l i f e o u t s i d e i n the r e a l w o r l d . The d i v i n e c h a r i t y , which th e s e u n f o r t u n a t e s v a i n l y d e s i r e from C h r i s t , resembles i n some measure the human l o v e which R i c a r d a e x p e r i e n c e s i n her own p r i v a t e l i f e . An Manno habe i c h d i e h e l f e n d e L i e b e . . . e r l e b t , i c h kann ihm das n i e v e r g e s s e n , i c h danke ihm das Beste , was i c h habe . . . . An ihm i s t das Wunder-ba r e , dass d i e L i e b e b e i ihm so f r e i von j e d e r M o r a l , libe.rhaupt von jedem Gedanken i s t , und gerade darum s p u r t man den g o t t l i c h e n Hauch so besonders s t a r k . . . Es stromt dann e i n e g o t t l i c h e K r a f t von ihm aus, i n der a l l e s a u f l e b t . I c h h a t t e immer das G e f u h l , i c h konnte n i c h t s t e r b e n solange Manno b e i mir ware.5 But none of the poor whom she d e p i c t s , l e a s t o f a l l F a r f a l l a , f i n d s such grace e i t h e r human or d i v i n e . Op. c i t . , p. 311• Unruh, F r i t z von: Reden, F r a n k f u r t e r S o c i e t a t s - D r u c k e r e i GmbH., A b t e i l u n g B u c h v e r l a g , F r a n k f u r t am Main, 1924-, p. 29. Leuchtende Spur, pp. 101-102. - 57 -In o r d e r t o s u r v i v e , F a r f a l l a has t o accommodate h e r s e l f t o any k i n d o f work which w i l l b r i n g i n a few K r e u z e r . T h i s she does without any sense of shame or f a l s e p r i d e ; she i s courageous enough t o i g n o r e the t a u n t s o f h e r s i s t e r who c o n s i d e r s F a r f a l l a an o u t c a s t too degraded t o be a l l o w e d i n h e r home. F a r f a l l a , a l t h o u g h p o s s e s s i n g the d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i n d u s t r y t o p r o v i d e f o r her f a m i l y , d i s p l a y s no i n i t i a t i v e i n t r y i n g t o a l t e r f a t e v i o l e n t l y , f o r she sees no v a l u e i n r e b e l l i o n . T h i s f a t a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e common t o many women c h a r a c t e r s throughout the works o f R i c a r d a H u c h — G a l e i d e , A g l a i a and L u x — a c c o u n t s , i n l a r g e p a r t , f o r t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o the men and t o the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r l i v e s . One must acc e p t what F a t e d e c r e e s , must endure i t and must never t r y t o change i t . F a r f a l l a f e e l s she i s compelled by f a t e t o endure the i n c o n s i d e r a t e b e h a v i o u r of her husband. Belwatsch asks h e r how i t i s t h a t " I h r Frauen waret ohne Manner, wie es s c h e i n t , b e s s e r daran, und doch k r i e c h t i h r ihnen immer nach. Was i s t das? I s t es Dummheit? T o l l h e i t ? L i e b e ? " 1 t o which F a r f a l l a r e p l i e s : "Es i s t S c h i c k s a l . . . a l l e s i s t Bestimmung, p f l e g t R i c a r d o zu sagen, und i c h glaube, dass 2 er r e c h t h a t . " The word "Bestimmung" i s r e p e a t e d many times throughout the n o v e l t o j u s t i f y woman's i n a b i l i t y t o assume an a c t i v e r o l e i n l i f e . "Bestimmung" causes t h e woman t o l o v e and t o s u f f e r as a r e s u l t . F a r f a l l a , who can be r u t h l e s s a t t i m e s , admits she would take back her husband, who had once l e f t h e r p e n n i l e s s t o f e n d f o r h e r s e l f and her c h i l d r e n , Triumphgasse, p. 7 6 . 2 I b i d . - 58 -i f o n l y to p r o v i d e a f a t h e r f o r t h e f a m i l y . Subsequently, when a l e t t e r comes from America to say t h a t her husband i s i l l and would l i k e t o r e t u r n t o I t a l y t o d i e , i t i s her daughter, Nanni, who t a k e s d e c i s i v e a c t i o n w h i l e F a r f a l l a h e r s e l f remains s i l e n t . Nanni h a r d l y remembers her f a t h e r , y e t she f e e l s t h a t he has committed a g r e a t wrong i n d e s e r t i n g h i s f a m i l y and d e n y i n g them t h e i r r i g h t t o have a f a t h e r and p r o v i d e r . She w r i t e s t o her f a t h e r and t e l l s him: "Wir s i n d u n s e r e r Mutter K i n d e r , n i c h t Deine. Wenn Du arm und v e r l a s s e n im S p i t a l e s t i r b s t , so i s t es G o t t e s G e r e c h t i g k e i t . " But F a r f a l l a who s u f f e r e d from h i s b e h a v i o u r f a r more than her daughter says: " . . . aber i c h h a t t e ihm k e i n boses Wort 2 g e s c h r i e b e n , so wenig wie e i n g u t e s . " F a r f a l l a i s f a t e d t o be a woman and, as such, must l o v e . Love i s bound t o b r i n g s u f f e r i n g , s i n c e men, i n R i c a r d a Huch's w o r l d , f o r the most p a r t do not know the meaning of l o v e . F a r f a l l a i s p a s s i v e i n h e r acceptance of the g e n e r a l f a t e o f woman, not j u s t i n her own p r i v a t e m i s f o r t u n e . She i s c o m p l e t e l y unable t o a c t w i t h r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y when i t concerns he r husband. Such unswerving l o y a l t y to one's husband, however d i s l o y a l he may have proven to be, i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the l i f e o f her daughter V i t t o r i a . H aving been t r e a t e d s h a m e f u l l y by her husband, a complete n ' e r - d o - w e l l , V i t t o r i a promises her mother, s i s t e r and b r o t h e r - i n - l a w never t o see him a g a i n , y e t we l e a r n : "Pasquale /her busband7 • • • h a t t e V i t t o r i a a u f g e s p i i r t . . . s i e g e t r o f f e n und wie es s c h e i n t 1 Cp* c i t . , p. 230. 2 I b i d . - 59 -mit L e i c h t i g k e i t iiberredet, wieder zu ihm zu Ziehen," again demonstrating how she, as a woman, succumbs to her "Bestimmung." The way of Nature i s f a t e f o r these women just as f o r Galeide i n Ludolf Ursleu or f o r any of the countless female protagonists of Ricarda Huch's works. Thus, the f a c t that a c h i l d i s born out of wedlock i s condoned by F a r f a l l a , since according to her thinking i t i s something which cannot be a l t e r e d . I t i s the way of Nature. Wenn heutzutage ein Madchen heiraten w i l l , so muss es zuvor einen Geliebten haben, aber keiner b l e i b t i h r langer a l s einige Wochen, wenn s i e seinen Willen nicht t u t ; das l i e g t i n der Natur, und es h i l f t n i c h t s , s i c h zu widersetzen. . . . dass die Natur nun einmal so i s t und man s i c h darein finden muss. 2 However, the abject resignation displayed towards the c r u e l t y of husbands and lovers i s not evident i n the f e e l i n g s of the women f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Nature has fated women to bring c h i l d r e n into the world and nourish them. This purpose transcends even love f o r man and indeed woman's own l i f e . Consequently F a r f a l l a i s f i e r c e l y proud of her c h i l d r e n and s a c r i f i c e s her own pleasure f o r them. The t h r i l l that the chi l d r e n express when she brings home a few flowers or makes a l i t t l e toy from old m a t e r i a l — t h i s happy f e e l i n g which emanates from the ch i l d r e n i s r i c h reward f o r her. Passive acceptance of b r u t a l treatment from her husband i s breached only when he threatens the c h i l d r e n . Nur wenn er auf die Kinder schalt oder mit dem Fusse nach ihnen s t i e s s , habe i c h s i e v e r t e i d i g t und ihn gebeten, l i e b e r fortzugehen und s i c h die , uble Laune draussen, wo er wolle, zu v e r t r e i b e n . Op. c i t . , p. 190. 2 OP* c i t . , pp. 168-169. On. c i t . . 0. 46. - 60 -She does a l l she can to make the r e m a i n i n g few y e a r s o f R i c c a r d o ' s l i f e more c o m f o r t a b l e and happy a l t h o u g h she i s t h o r o u g h l y r e a l i s t i c h e r e , t o o , and unashamed t o say t h a t she p r a y s f o r h i s de a t h . She e x p l a i n s t h a t she f e a r s f o r h i s f u t u r e , s h o u l d he l i v e l o n g e r than she. The l a c k o f emotion w i t h which she t a l k s about h i s death, even i n h i s pre s e n c e , seemingly b e l i e s the extremely c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between them and, a g a i n , i n d i c a t e s her complete submission to t he d i c t a t e s of f a t e . A f t e r the c h i l d r e n have matured, F a r f a l l a ' s m i s s i o n i n l i f e has been f u l f i l l e d and "Bestimmung" p e r m i t s o n l y t h a t she l i v e on without thought f o r f u r t h e r h a p p i n e s s . Not even t h e g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o f V i t t o r i a ' s m a rriage w i t h Pasquale causes her mother t o o b j e c t , because i t i s "Bestimmung" t h a t V i t t o r i a as a woman s h o u l d l e a d such a t e r r i b l e l i f e . D e s i r e s f o r l e g i t i m a t e h a p p i n e s s remain b u r i e d so d e e p l y i n h e r subcon s c i o u s n e s s t h a t F a r f a l l a h a r d l y knows whether she has ever e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t f e e l i n g . I c h habe n i e m a l s Z e i t gehabt mich zu b e s i n n e n , ob i c h g l u c k l i c h oder u n g l u c k l i c h ware. . . . S e i t i c h i n s E l e n d gekommen b i n , h a t t e i c h b e s t a n d i g so v i e l zu denken, wie i c h t a g l i c h B r o t f u r d i e K i n d e r bekame, dass i c h iiber mich n i c h t nachdenken k o n n t e . l From her d a i l y m i s f o r t u n e s , F a r f a l l a f i n d s r e s p i t e i n the chur c h as we have noted, and a l s o i n the p r o x i m i t y o f the sea. The comfort o f the church, she r e c o g n i z e s , i s i l l u s o r y . There i s no s p e c u l a t i o n about the s o l a c e which the sea a f f o r d s , y e t R i c a r d a Huch i s e v i d e n t l y d e a l i n g w i t h a m o t i f f a v o u r e d by the Romantics and a l s o employed elsewhere i n her own Op. c i t . , p. 5 3 . - 61 -works. In "Mondreigen von S c h l a r a f f i s , " Dominik i s f a s c i n a t e d by the water and spends much of h i s time o b s e r v i n g the coming and g o i n g o f t h e waves, v i s u a l i z i n g h i s f u t u r e b e f o r e him. The i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraphs of L u d o l f U r s l e u c o n t a i n an expansive metaphor based on the s i m i l a r i t y o f human f a t e to a f r a i l v e s s e l upon the he a v i n g ocean of t h e l i f e f o r c e . As i n Undine and c o u n t l e s s o t h e r Romantic w r i t i n g s , the sea i s r e g a r d e d as the t a n g i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the A b s o l u t e — the m a t r i x o f l i f e and at the same time the r e p o s i t o r y f o r the m o r t a l s h e l l c a s t o f f a t death. C o n t a c t w i t h the sea thus p r o v i d e s i m p l i c i t r e a s s u r a n c e i n the i n v i o l a b l e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h i n g s and reduces temporal human s u f f e r i n g s t o t h e i r p r o p e r i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . No f o r c e , however, i s s u f f i c i e n t t o r e c l a i m F a r f a l l a f o r humanity. P o v e r t y and d e g r a d a t i o n have l e f t an i n e r a d i -c a b l e s k e p t i c i s m c o v e r i n g h e r b e t t e r i m p u l s e s . Her s k e p t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l human motives i s brought out most c l e a r l y i n h er r e l a t i o n s w i t h Belwatsch. Belwatsch, the exponent of good b r e e d i n g and t r u s t , c o n s i d e r s t h a t k i n d n e s s e s he performs w i l l be ac c e p t e d i n good f a i t h . Not so, f o r i n F a r f a l l a 1 s w o r l d a l l k i n d n e s s e s (few as they a r e ) are r e g a r d e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n . She can never r e a l l y t r u s t any human b e i n g a f t e r h a v i n g l i v e d so l o n g i n an atmosphere of d e c e p t i o n and c h i c a n e r y . She i s a p p a r e n t l y f o n d o f Belwatsch but she i n v a r i a b l y d i s -a p p o i n t s him by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t she doubts the s i n c e r i t y o f h i s f r i e n d s h i p when she asks: "Wer wei s s , ob S i e dann heute noch so f r e u n d l i c h mit mir s p r a c h e n ? " 1 T h i s i s a q u e s t i o n 1 Op. c i t . , p. 206. - 62 -which he does not understand, s i n c e he l i v e s i n a s o c i e t y m a t e r i a l l y a f f l u e n t and outwardly at l e a s t c o r r e c t and p o l i t e i n d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s . The d e v i c e of c o n t r a s t i n g Belwatsch and F a r f a l l a g i v e s the r e a d e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o r m u l a t e h i s own a n a l y s i s and a v o i d s a c l i n i c a l approach t o F a r f a l l a * s p e r s o n a l i t y . P o v e r t y has d e s p o i l e d F a r f a l l a of the t r u s t which l i e s at the r o o t s of any s o c i a l d e a l i n g s . In the r u t h l e s s w o r l d she i n h a b i t s , s c r u p l e s and t e n d e r f e e l i n g s can never be p e r m i t t e d to dominate the mechanics o f a c q u i s i t i o n . She must have a " r e a l i s t i c " view of the w o r l d i n o r d e r t o l i v e . When she comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h a w o r l d where s u s p i c i o n of motives i s not a n e c e s s i t y , her " r e a l i s t i c view" becomes a sad impediment t o h a p p i n e s s . Even i f , i n her h e a r t , she v a l u e s Belwatsch's k i n d n e s s e s , she s t i l l i s i n c a p a b l e of changing the f e e l i n g of d i s t r u s t which by now i s almost i n t u i t i v e w i t h h e r . I n her mind, Belwatsch i s one of t h e r i c h who w i l l never u n d e r s t a n d what i t means to go w i t h o u t a meal, or t o have no o i l t o l i g h t the house at n i g h t . Belwatsch, coming from a s o c i e t y , which r e c o g n i z e s a code of e t h i c s , t r u s t s F a r f a l l a s u f f i c i e n t l y t o l e a v e her i n charge of h i s house w h i l e he i s absent from the c i t y . T h e r e f o r e , on h i s r e t u r n , he i s p e r p l e x e d t o f i n d t h a t F a r f a l l a has not o n l y l e f t the house but has taken a p o r t i o n of t h e r e n t money w i t h h e r . T h i s i n r e t u r n f o r a l l the k i n d n e s s e s B e l w a t s c h had shown h e r ! He does n o t , o f c o u r s e , r e a l i z e t h a t v i r t u e f o r F a r f a l l a e n t a i l s p r o v i d i n g f o r her f a m i l y by any means, r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g momentary moral impulses to overcome p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s a f f i r m e d throughout t h a t l o v e f o r h e r f a m i l y i s s u f f i c i e n t - 63 -cause f o r betraying f r i e n d s h i p , and her action here i s therefore condoned rather than condemned. B.t Michael linger In a l e t t e r to Reinhard Buchwald on the 12th of November 1944, Ricarda Huch r e f l e c t s on her past experiences, p a r t i c u -l a r l y on those which lead to a t r a n s i t i o n i n her l i f e . Ungefahr s e i t meiner Heirat kam ein Bruch i n mein Wesen. Bis dahin war i c h , was man f a l s c h l i c h heidnisch nennt, besser elementarisch nennen s o l l t e , i c h f o l g t e hemmungslos meinen l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h e n Gefiihlen und Antriebenl.1 In the above quotation Ricarda Huch r e f e r s to her p e r s o n a l i t y at the time of w r i t i n g Aus der Triumphgasse. From the c r i t i c vantage point, however, i t can be argued that the e f f e c t of the changes i n the author are more evident i n Michael Unger. In Michael Unger where Rose i s portrayed as a mature counter-part of Galeide, Ricarda Huch allows the r a t i o n a l side of her being to assume prominence i n so f a r as she i s able to temper the " l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h e n Gefiihle und Antriebe," which pre v i o u s l y played a dominant r o l e i n the author's l i f e as well as i n the l i v e s of her female characters. Rose Sarthorn r e f l e c t s t h i s change i n the author. Rose develops from a gay carefree "Bacchantin," much l i k e the e a r l i e r Galeide, in t o a mature woman experiencing sorrow and despair, yet overcoming them, and i n so doing, gaining f o r the f i r s t time a balanced outlook on l i f e . Ten years a f t e r w r i t i n g Ludolf  Ursleu, Ricarda Huch s t i l l l i s t e n s to her heart, but the B r i e f e an die Freunde, p. 283. - 64 -r a t i o n a l s i d e o f her c h a r a c t e r assumes prominence, s u f f i c i e n t to enable her to endure r e j e c t i o n by R i c h a r d and, moreover, to r e a l i z e t h a t l i f e without him i s not meaningless. G a l e i d e would n o t have been a b l e to cope w i t h such a r e j e c t i o n but Rose S a r t h o r n , i n whom the q u a l i t i e s o f R i c a r d a Huch's o l d e r , more mature s e l f a r e dominant, never p e r m i t s l o v e to r u l e h e r l i f e c o m p l e t e l y . A l t h o u g h Rose l o n g s t o have her l o v e and l i f e f u l f i l l e d by marrying M i c h a e l , s t i l l she p r e p a r e s h e r s e l f f o r any e v e n t u a l i t y by s t u d y i n g and g i v i n g a r t l e s s o n s . A f t e r she i s c r u e l l y r e j e c t e d by M i c h a e l she i s a b l e t o say: ". . . d i e Erde i s t immer schen und gut . . . . E r s t wenn i c h das ve r g e s s e n konnte, ware i c h ganz v e r l o r e n . A s E a r f a l l a u n c o n s c i o u s l y t u r n s t o the sea f o r c o n s o l a t i o n , Rose t u r n s t o the whole e a r t h as an u l t i m a t e c o n s o l a t i o n i n the most s h a t t e r i n g hour o f h e r e x i s t e n c e . She does not l o s e h e r l o v e f o r the b e a u t i f u l i n l i f e , o r t h e d e s i r e t o l i v e on. She m a r r i e s another man, w h i l e s t i l l i n d e s p a i r over M i c h a e l ' s d e c i s i o n t o renounce her, but f i n d s r e a l h a p p i n e s s o n l y i n the c h i l d r e n whom she has borne. Here a g a i n as i n Triumphgasse, the accomplishment o f woman's m i s s i o n t a k e s precedence over l o v e f o r a man. Rose had f i r s t e n t e r e d the linger h ousehold at the r e q u e s t o f M i c h a e l ' s w i f e Verena, who wanted Rose t o p a i n t the p o r t r a i t o f her young son. Rose brought w i t h h er a f r e s h n e s s , warmth and n a t u r a l n e s s which made an immediate and f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n on the f a m i l y . We n o t i c e t h a t h e r eyes are e s p e c i a l l y M i c h a e l Unger, p. 3 7 5 • - 6 5 -i n t r i g u i n g and seem to say t o a l l : "Komm zu mir, i c h mache d i c h f r e i , i c h mache d i c h s c h o n . " 1 F o r Rose t h e r e i s s t i l l l i t t l e u g l i n e s s or d i s o r d e r i n the world and h e r whole b e i n g expresses a harmony which i s the envy of Verena. S i e r u h t i n s i c h s e l b e r und f a s s t d i e ganze Welt i n i h r e b i l d e n d e S e e l e . S i e i s t r e i c h und b e d a r f G o t t e r und Menschen n i c h t . 2 Her harmony w i t h Nature, s i m i l a r t o t h a t which G a l e i d e seems to p o s s e s s , p r e c l u d e s any i n t e r e s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , indeed i t makes of her a pagan, as she d i r e c t s her p r a y e r s t o the moon or to t h e e a r t h . When Nature has impressed her d e e p l y she k n e e l s and p r a y s : "Mutter Erde, segne d e i n K i n d . " Rose i s , however, r e l i g i o u s and her r e l i g i o n i s e n t i r e l y an a f f i r m a t i o n of l i f e . Rose's whole b e i n g expresses t h i s f e e l i n g of innocence which the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n the book v a i n l y l o n g to r e c a p t u r e . Ich mochte a l l e s v e r s c h l i n g e n , b i s meine S e e l e v o l l ware . . . . was s i e t a t und s a g t e , stromte i n schweren W e l l e n aus einem goldenen Brunnen, f i e l wie a u s g e r e i f t e F r u c h t e von einem sommer-l i c h e n Baume.-^ As i f such c l o s e n e s s t o Nature i n s p i r e d w o r s h i p p e r s , M i c h a e l i s overcome w i t h sudden l o v e f o r Rose. Whereas G a l e i d e can o n l y o f f e r E z a r d h e r l o v e , Rose opens up a new w o r l d of i d e a s 1 Op. c i t . , p. 34. 2 Op. c i t . , p. 38. Op. c i t . , p. 41. h B l i i t e z e i t der Romantik, p. 181, where R i c a r d a Huch quotes F. S c h l e g e l : "Der Gedanke des Universums und s e i n e r Harmonie i s t mir e i n s und a l l e s " as she e x p l a i n s the joyous f e e l i n g of b e l o n g i n g to the u n i v e r s e and b e i n g i n harmony w i t h i t and n a t u r e . M i c h a e l Unger, p. 101. - 6 6 -f o r M i c h a e l and encourages him t o l e a v e home and f a m i l y t o f u r t h e r h i s knowledge of s c i e n c e s . As he pursues h i s new l i f e of study at the U n i v e r s i t y and i s i n s p i r e d by i n t e r e s t i n g and knowledgeable p e o p l e to r e f l e c t on human problems, he r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s the power of Rose's l o v e which spurs him on t o adopt a new mode of l i f e , detached from a l l p r e v i o u s s u p e r f i c i a l commitments. M i c h a e l i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t o n l y through Rose can he r e a l l y l i v e : " J a — e r war s i c h bewusst, dass er nur durch s i e und mit i h r d i e K r a f t b e s a s s , d i e iiber s e i n e Natur h i n a u s g i n g . O n the o t h e r hand Rose's harmonious b e i n g d i s t u r b s M i c h a e l i n as much as he b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f t o be s u p e r f l u o u s i n her l i f e . He f e e l s t h a t she i s a b l e t o d e l v e i n t o the m y s t e r i o u s depths of her s o u l and f i n d t h e r e e v e r y t h i n g which she needs i n o r d e r t o be c o m p l e t e l y happy. When he mentions h i s m i s g i v i n g s t o her, she i s c o m p l e t e l y p u z z l e d and a s s u r e s him p a s s i o n a t e l y : "Nur w e i l du schon b i s t , i s t d i e Erde schon, nur w e i l i c h d i c h l i e b e , l i e b e i c h 2 auch mich und d i e Welt." We n o t i c e now t h a t not o n l y M i c h a e l has been a l t e r e d by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p but Rose i s h e r s e l f no l o n g e r c o m p l e t e l y a c h i l d of n a t u r e . Her p e r s o n a l emotion now shapes her w o r l d . Du w e i s s t es j a n i c h t . . . e i n s t b e g l i i c k t e es mich, Schones zu sehen und zu s c h a f f e n , was mir schon s c h i e n ; j e t z t b i n i c h s e l b s t schon und s c h a f f e mich s e l b e r , w e i l w i r uns l i e b e n . * Op. c i t . , p. 9 6 . Op. c i t . , pp . 101-102. Op. c i t . , p. 102. - 67 -F o r Rose at t h i s moment " G e f i i h l i s t a l l e s . " " A l l e s Leben i s t e i n Geschaft der L i e b e , " d e c l a r e s Rose i n the s p i r i t o f G a l e i d e , "und was i s t und g e s c h i e h t , i s t n i c h t s a l s f l i e g e n d e r Same der grossen Erdblume, d i e unsere l i e b e s t r u n k e n e n Sinne entzunden s o i l , u n s t e r b l i c h e S c h o n h e i t h e r v o r z u b r i n g e n . 1 , 1 Now whatever h e r h e a r t d i c t a t e s , she a c c e p t s as r i g h t and good. Because she r e l i e s on her h e a r t she becomes a c u t e l y aware o f almost i m p e r c e p t i b l e changes o f f e e l i n g or a t t i t u d e i n o t h e r human b e i n g s . She knows how d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r M i c h a e l to f o r g e t c o m p l e t e l y t h a t h i s c h i l d i s a t home, a s k i n g f o r h i s f a t h e r and not r e a l i z i n g why h i s f a t h e r i s f a r away. Both Rose and M i c h a e l f e e l t h e p r e c a r i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p and are compelled to b a n i s h thought about the f u t u r e . She e x c l a i m s , "du w i r s t mir doch n i e ganz gehoren . . . aber s p r i c h n i c h t davon, denn i c h habe d i c h j e t z t und w i l l n i c h t p w e i t e r denken" and "was du auch s a g s t und wie f e s t auch d e i n W i l l e i s t , mein G e f i i h l weiss es b e s s e r und l a s s t s i c h n i c h t s ausreden; l a s s uns aber heute n i c h t von der Zukunft sprechen." Such words from the l i p s o f a p e r s o n who such a s h o r t time b e f o r e was e n t i r e l y f r e e of c a r e and r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s J Now acceptance o f t h e moment comes o n l y through e f f o r t . D u r i n g the e i g h t y e a r s , i n which she knows and l o v e s M i c h a e l , Rose undergoes even f u r t h e r development. R i c a r d a Huch's e a r l i e r c r e a t i o n , G a l e i d e , on t h e o t h e r hand, does not change as she grows o l d e r , but remains a woman 1 OP* c i t . , p. 229. 2 OP. d t . , p. 157. 5 I b i d . - 68 -dominated by her h e a r t and, as such, d e s t r o y s h e r s e l f from the same b a s i c impulse as Goethe's Werther. Rose has never stopped l o v i n g M i c h a e l but t h a t l o v e cannot be f u l f i l l e d . She i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h an element i n l i f e which she cannot a f f i r m . E v e n t u a l l y she sees t h a t l o v e must not be allowed t o dominate l i f e i t s e l f and i n a search f o r other value she t u r n s t o a r t , which u n t i l then has been more of a hobby than a v o c a t i o n . She has p r o f i t e d from the v a r i o u s disappointments and setbacks i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M i c h a e l t o develop a more o b j e c t i v e view of l i f e . 1 Awareness t h a t a l l i s not b e a u t i f u l and good and t h a t what i s u g l y and bad cannot always be overlooked, c a l l s f o r t h a s h i e l d of o b j e c t i v i t y , a s u s t a i n i n g power to p r o t e c t her from her own emotions. M i c h a e l senses more a c u t e l y than befo r e t h i s f e e l i n g of independence w i t h i n Rose and i s convinced t h a t he no longer i s necessary f o r her e x i s t e n c e , w h i l e r e a l i z i n g , at the same time, t h a t she has become a l l the more necessary f o r him. He p l a n s t o leave f o r South America to begin l i f e again as a s c i e n t i s t and t o take Rose w i t h him. When Verena, h i s w i f e , l e a r n s t h a t M i c h a e l plans t o l e a v e f o r South America and once s e t t l e d t h e r e t o send f o r Rose, she t e l l s him t h a t he must make one Goethe: Die L e i d e n des jungen Werthers, B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e s I n s t i t u t , Wien, 1902, p. 119. In t h i s l e t t e r L o t t e admonishes Werther to develop h i s t a l e n t s : " I h r G e i s t , I h r e Wissen-s c h a f t e n , I h r e T a l e n t e , was b i e t e n d i e Ihnen f u r mannig-f a l t i g e Ergetzungen dar! S e i n S i e e i n Mann!" Rose d i s p l a y s the same h e a l t h y p o s i t i v e approach to l i f e i n developing her own t a l e n t s a f t e r r e c o g n i z i n g what f a t e has ordained i n s t e a d of c h e r i s h i n g her h e a r t s i c k n e s s . G a l e i d e r e a c t s t o the Werther s i t u a t i o n as a t r u e Romantic. Rosa has enough of C a r o l i n e ' s r e a l i s m and r a t i o n a l i s m t o a v o i d t h a t f a t e . Again on the 16th of June, 1771, L o t t e t e l l s Werther at t h e i r f i r s t meeting: "Und wenn i c h was im Kopfe habe und mir auf meinem verstimmten K l a v i e r einen Contretanz v o r -trommle, so i s t a l l e s wieder gut" (p. 3 3 ) . -- 69 -f i n a l d e c i s i o n : e i t h e r t o renounce Rose and remain w i t h h i s son, or t o renounce h i s son f o r e v e r . T h i s i s a f r i g h t e n i n g moment f o r M i c h a e l but he d e c i d e s i n f a v o u r of Rose. l e t something happens to M i c h a e l when he l e a v e s h i s son and journeys to Rose. Where he once f e l t f r e e and j o y f u l i n her p r e s e n c e , he now f e e l s n o t h i n g . Rose b e l i e v e s him to be i n bad humour, a s t a t e which w i l l pass q u i c k l y . Eut a new aspect of M i c h a e l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s suddenly brought i n t o the s t o r y . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s son's happiness c l a i m s precedence over h i s own p r i v a t e d e s i r e s . Es i s t k e i n Schmerz, was i c h f i i h l e , es i s t n i c h t s , was durch Weinen und Klagen b e s s e r werden konnte, es i s t etwas v i e l Schlimmeres, Krankes; i c h sehe fortwahrend M a r i o s h i l f e f l e h e n d e s G e s i e h t v o r mir, so wie er aussah, a l s i c h f o r t g i n g ; es i s t v o r mir, wohin i c h b l i c k e , und e r r e g t mir d i e Angst, i c h miisste es ewig sehen und n i e m a l s etwas a n d e r e s . l We l i s t e n almost i n c r e d u l o u s l y as he c a l l s t o Rose: "Ich l i e b e d i c h n i c h t mehr. I c h f i i h l e n i c h t s f u r d i c h a l s M i t -2 l e i d , dass i c h d i r das sagen muss." M i c h a e l has been compelled t o p a r t from h i s son many times b e f o r e . Why then, one may ask, does he d e c i d e at t h a t p a r t i c u l a r moment t o renounce Rose i n o r d e r t o r e t u r n to the boy even though he admits t h a t i t i s Rose who has g i v e n him e i g h t y e a r s of j o y and f u l f i l l -ment? During the e i g h t y e a r s w i t h Rose, M i c h a e l has f e l t t h a t she has developed more and more and has become mature and c a p a b l e , not n e e d i n g h i s a s s i s t a n c e o r s t r e n g t h , whereas h i s son has become i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent upon him. I r o n i c a l l y , Rose's c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e i r l o v e i s h o p e l e s s p r e v e n t s i t s 1 OP- c i t . , p. 322 2 I b i d . - 70 -f u l f i l l m e n t . She f i n d s s a t i s f a c t i o n elsewhere and M i c h a e l r e a l i z e s at the c r u c i a l moment o f d e c i s i o n t h a t she does not depend upon him, w h i l e h i s son does. S i n c e so much o f M i c h a e l  Unger i s r e l a t e d t o the aut h o r ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s , i t i s f a i r to say t h a t R i c h a r d and h i s attachment t o h i s f a m i l y i s i n the back of her mind when she c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n where she a l l o w s M i c h a e l t o r e j e c t Rose i n f a v o u r o f h i s son. "^Michaels7 L i e b e zu seinem Kinde . . . z e h r t e an ihm und zog s e i n B l u t aus, wahrend s e i n e L i e b e zu Rose i h n s t a r k und f r o h und g l u c k l i c h gemacht h a t t e , " 1 but the c h i l d ' s u t t e r and complete dependence on him f o r c e s him t o d e c i d e i n h i s son's f a v o u r . T h i s c r i s i s now makes i t p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y s e the s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y Rose has o b t a i n e d . To be s u r e , d u r i n g the e i g h t y e a r s w i t h M i c h a e l , Rose has s t e a d i l y matured and has proven h e r s e l f t o be " t a p f e r , h o f f n u n g s v o l l , umscnauend und wachsam."' She had gained a new depth of p e r c e p t i o n , she sees much which b e f o r e she i g n o r e d and she has broadened her knowledge i n every sphere. However, when M i c h a e l l e a v e s h e r , her l i f e stands s t i l l . At one s t r o k e every u n c o n f e s s e d hope f o r , the f u t u r e i s e x t i n g u i s h e d . "Wo war i c h f r u h e r , dass i c h d i e t r o s t l o s e H a s s l i c h k e i t n i c h t sah, von der das Leben v o l l i s t ? " ^ she as k s . As an agent f o r the o b j e c t i v e o u t l o o k espoused by the o l d e r R i c a r d a Huch, the aut h o r i n t r o d u c e s 1 Op. c i t . , P. 3 2 7 . 2 Op. c i t . , P. 3 6 8 . 3 Op. c i t . , P. 375. - 71 -the F r e i h e r r , a f r i e n d and l a t e r Rose's husband. He t e l l s h e r t h a t she has been l i v i n g i n an u n r e a l w o r l d w i t h M i c h a e l and t h a t a l t h o u g h the s p r i n g t i m e o f h e r l i f e i s over, w i t h the d e p a r t u r e o f M i c h a e l , she s t i l l has t h e summer and autumn i n which she may f i n d much happiness and reward. G r a d u a l l y he i s a b l e t o open her eyes t o a f u t u r e f u l l o f hope even though the b r i g h t n e s s of l i f e has d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h M i c h a e l . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f Rose's new o u t l o o k , a l t h o u g h growing out of e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b i t t e r s u f f e r i n g , i s s t i l l a f f i r m a t i v e toward l i f e . "Wer ruckwarts s i e h t , g i b t s i c h v e r l o r e n , wer l e b t , muss vo r w a r t s s e h e n . " 1 These words echo the p h i l o s o p h y of b o t h the mature R i c a r d a Huch and her Romantic p r e d e c e s s o r , C a r o l i n e S c h l e g e l . The determined a t t i t u d e t o c o n t i n u e s e e k i n g p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n l i f e even a t the d a r k e s t hour i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s and i n t h i s a t t i t u d e l i e s t h e b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n between G a l e i d e and Rose. Here one can t r a c e the a u t h o r ' s own development. G a l e i d e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f a b s o l u t e Romanticism and hence i s not modelled a f t e r R i c a r d a but o n l y a p a r t o f R i c a r d a — t h e p a r t which was predominant i n h er e a r l y Z u r i c h w r i t i n g s . Rose i s R i c a r d a - C a r o l i n e , because she changes. Rose l o s e s i n t u r n h e r o r i g i n a l n a i v e a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e and her t o t a l immersion i n emotion and u l t i m a t e l y r e p l a c e s them w i t h a c a u t i o u s but p o s i t i v e acceptance b u i l t upon reasoned e x p e r i e n c e . Op. c i t . , p - 72 -C. Yon den Konigen und der Krone In the e a r l y Munich p e r i o d R i c a r d a Huch i s s t i l l v e r y much i n v o l v e d i n t h e c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f t h e Romantic S c h o o l — t h e p o l a r i t y o f the Romantic p e r s o n a l i t y , the l o v e -death theme, the importance of t h e sea and music. A l l t h e s e are r e f l e c t e d i n h e r n o v e l s . The "Marchen," as developed by the Romantics, i s of immediate i n t e r e s t to R i c a r d a Huch i n t he w r i t i n g o f her n o v e l Von den Konigen und der Krone. While the work i s a developmental n o v e l , one i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two w o r l d s — o n e taken from the t i m e l e s s r e a l m o f the f a i r y t a l e , and another c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o contemporary r e a l i t y . Some such ambivalent p r o d u c t i o n must have been a t the b a s i s of N o v a l i s ' d e f i n i t i o n : "Marchen, wie T i e c k s L i e d e r — r o m a n -t i s c h e P h a n t a s i e n aus dem t a g l i c h e n L e b e n . " 1 With t h i s purpose i n mind R i c a r d a Huch l e a d s the r e a d e r t o a mountainous ar e a c o m p l e t e l y c u t o f f from a l l modern communications, l y i n g s o u t h e a s t o f T r i e s t e . The descendants of the r u l e r s i n the a n c i e n t realm (known t o the Romans as L i b u r n i a ) are s t i l l r e v e r e d but are i n f e a r o f d i s c o v e r y by the p r e s e n t day regime and are f o r c e d i n t o the same abysmal p o v e r t y which oppresses t h e i r s u b j e c t s . A crown, handed down w i t h i n the dynasty i s hidden i n the p r i n c i p a l i t y w a i t i n g t o be c l a i m e d by L a s t a r i , the l i v i n g member of the dynasty. Suddenly bereaved o f h i s w i f e and f i n d i n g i t almost i m p o s s i b l e t o earn enough money to f e e d h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y o f t h r e e , L a s t a r i , d e c i d e s Wasmuth, Ewald, Hgb.: N o v a l i s , Pragmente 1, H e i d e l b e r g , 1957, P. 383. - 73 -t h a t he must l e a v e the c o u n t r y t o earn some money. When L a s t a r i r e t u r n s twenty y e a r s l a t e r , he f i n d s t h a t the crown has d i s a p p e a r e d from i t s h i d i n g p l a c e . A r e l a t i v e r e t u r n i n g from the p r i n c i p a l i t y r e l a t e s how t h e youngest son of L a s t a r i , who had remained i n the mountainous community, had drowned w i t h the crown i n h i s hand, r a t h e r than a l l o w i t t o be c l a i m e d by o u t s i d e r s . But now L a s t a r i t a k e s h i s o l d e r son Lasko w i t h him out i n t o the w o r l d f a r from the c o n f i n e s of t h e i r l e g e n d a r y r e a l m . He does w e l l i n v a r i o u s j o b s , p romptly spends a l l h i s money and each time must be g i n a l l over a g a i n . He i s never s a t i s f i e d ; h i s s o u l i s tormented; he must go on; y e t he never d e f i n e s what h i s g o a l i n l i f e i s . He r e a l l y does not know what he i s s e a r c h i n g f o r , but the i l l u s o r y s e r v i c e to the crown p r e v e n t s h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t r u e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . Here i s a k i n g , r e d u c e d to the p o s i t i o n of a beggar. He p o s s e s s e s a l l the n o b l e charm, t h e f i n e outward appearance, the power t o a t t r a c t those around him as b e f i t s a k i n g , y e t the f a m i l y has l o s t i t s v i t a l energy, and L a s t a r i , as t h e d i r e c t descendant, has n e i t h e r the s t r e n g t h n o r the w i l l t o set h i m s e l f a r e a l g o a l to work f o r and a t t a i n . I n her p o r t r a y a l s of L a s t a r i and a l s o o f Lasko, h i s son, R i c a r d a Huch i s showing how Romantic man appears t o the non-Romantic. H i s r e a l worth i s not a p p r e c i a t e d nor o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d by o t h e r s , who s i m p l y view him as a w o r t h l e s s member of s o c i e t y The theme o f the crown appears c o n t i n u a l l y throughout the n o v e l . I t has t h e same symbolic v a l u e as t h e "blaue Blume" of the Romantics. The l o n g i n g f o r something which i s f a r o f f , u n a t t a i n a b l e i n l i f e , i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i n b o t h symbols. Not o n l y the crown but t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c n o t i o n are s y m b o l i c a l . The f a m i l y i s s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l t r e a t -ment by f a t e whether i n g l o r y or s u f f e r i n g . - 7 4 -because he has not made a s u c c e s s of l i f e m a t e r i a l l y . The Romantic man, f o r h i s p a r t , f e e l i n g t h a t l i f e has no r e a l v a l u e , l o n g s t o escape t h i s w o r l d f o r the w o r l d of the b l u e f l o w e r . L a s t a r i c o n s o l e s h i m s e l f i n a s i m i l a r way w i t h the r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t he w i l l some day c l a i m h i s r i g h t f u l crown. Lasko, however, f o r c e s h i m s e l f t o p r e t e n d t h a t l i f e has r e a l v a l u e . He s t u d i e s to become a d o c t o r , m a r r i e s a l o v e l y young woman, ta k e s over the management of a f a c t o r y owned by h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , a l l of which makes him appear s u c c e s s f u l i n the eyes of the w o r l d . In f a c t he has found no a b i d i n g happiness e i t h e r and i s plagued by the v o i c e which r e p e a t s "wozu, wozu?" He, t o o , i s a K i n g and, l i k e h i s f a t h e r , does not p o s s e s s the w i l l t o r e t u r n t o s e a r c h f o r the crown. L i k e h i s f a t h e r he i s a v i c t i m of h i s own y e a r n i n g , which of n e c e s s i t y must go u n f u l f i l l e d , f o r f u l f i l l m e n t would remove the purpose f o r f u r t h e r l i v i n g . A l t hough R i c a r d a Huch echoes the Romantics i n v a r i o u s r e s p e c t s , as we can see, she d e p a r t s from N o v a l i s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of what a "Marchen" s h o u l d be, by combining f a n t a s t i c and r e a l i s t i c components i n t o her n o v e l . The f a i r y t a l e p r i n c i -p a l i t y w i t h i t s K i n g s , legends and crown i s interwoven i n t o the d a i l y l i f e o f the middle c l a s s b o u r g e o i s i e c o m p l e t e l y i n v o l v e d i n making money, wearing t h e l a t e s t f a s h i o n s and p o s s e s s i n g a l l m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t s . I n t o t h i s m a t e r i a l i s t i c atmosphere s t e p two g i a n t s of a d i f f e r e n t w o r ld, L a s t a r i and Lasko and w i t h them come a l l the g l i t t e r and excitement and n o b i l i t y of a l i f e which modern man w i t h h i s low h o r i z o n s may never e x p e r i e n c e . The r e a d e r , unaware of R i c a r d a Huch's purpose, may f i n d the s t r a n g e c o a l e s c e n c e of two spheres of - 75 -l i f e o b j e c t i o n a b l e . The m e r i t of her w r i t i n g , however, l i e s i n her a b i l i t y t o p l a c e Romantic man here i n a modern s e t t i n g and t o t r a c e the d i f f i c u l t i e s and d e s p a i r he e x p e r i e n c e s , w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o l i v e i n a w o r l d f o r e i g n t o h i s n a t u r e . We e x p e r i e n c e t h i s as an anachronism. Thus the marriage of Lasko, the l a s t descendant of the K i n g s , w i t h M a i e l i e s , a young g i r l from t h e i n d u s t r i a l N o r t h i s doomed from the b e g i n n i n g . The K i n g ' s f a m i l y has always m a r r i e d i n t o a c e r t a i n f a m i l y and s i n c e Lasko has broken t h i s t r a d i t i o n o n l y sorrow and t r o u b l e w i l l r e s u l t . Lasko, whose a n c e s t r y o r i g i n a t e s i n the Romantic South, the domain of s e n s u a l a l l u r e m e n t and the i r r a t i o n a l , i s j o i n e d i n marriage w i t h M a i e l i e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the n o r t h e r n i n f l u e n c e , the r a t i o n a l , pure p u r p o s e f u l h e a l t h y and s t r o n g b e i n g . The a t t r a c t i o n of t h e s e p o l e s i s overwhelming but the outcome o f t h e i r u n i o n i s a c a t a s t r o p h e . M a i e l i e s , who, we f e e l , s h o u l d have m a r r i e d her c o u s i n R i z z o , a man v e r y s i m i l a r t o h e r s e l f , i s a t t r a c t e d at f i r s t g l a n c e t o Lasko. She i s aware of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of Lasko's p e r s o n a l i t y , y e t she f i r m l y b e l i e v e s t h a t once she i s m a r r i e d to him, her l o v e w i l l a c t as a c a l m i n g f o r c e , as a r e f u g e where Lasko can f i n d p e a c e — " d e n n s i e h a t t e den unbewussten Glauben, dass mit i h r der Genius des Lebens s e i . . . . L a s k o r e p e a t e d l y warns her t h a t they s h o u l d not l i v e t o g e t h e r because sue i s h e a l t h y and s t r o n g and good, whereas he i s i l l and morose, but she answers him: "Wenn du b e i mir b l e i b s t und mich l i e b h a s t , w i r s t du Von den Konigen und der Krone, p. 156. - 76 -g l u c k l i c h s e i n wie i c h . " Convinced t h a t she a l o n e can cure her husband, M a i e l i e s i s at times j e a l o u s o f Lasko's d e v o t i o n to h i s f a t h e r . I n her p r a c t i c a l eyes, L a s t a r i i s not worthy of such d e v o t i o n because he cannot h o l d a p o s i t i o n f o r any l e n g t h o f time, he never has any money and he c o n t i n u a l l y asks Lasko f o r h e l p . She cannot o v e r l o o k h i s l i e s and weak-nesses because she a s s o c i a t e s them w i t h h i s n e g l e c t o f Lasko w h i l e a young boy. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r h e r , a t the b e g i n n i n g of h e r m a r r i e d l i f e , t o understand what f o r c e s b i n d f a t h e r and son t o g e t h e r when Lasko's youth was d e v o i d of f a m i l y d e v o t i o n , l o v e and comfort. Now t h a t Lasko i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n l i f e , i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e to M a i e l i e s t h a t he f a i t h f u l l y c a r e s f o r the f a t h e r who n e g l e c t e d him i n h i s youth. . . . i n i h r e n Augen war e r n i c h t s B e s s e r e s a l s e i n w i l d e r Bar, der b r u l l e n d d urch d i e Walder geht, t u t , was ihm g e f a l l t , und s i c h b e k l a g t , wenn d i e u b r i g e n T i e r e n i c h t g e l a u f e n kommen, urn s i c h ihm zum F r e s s e n a n z u b i e t e n . Lasko . . . b e h a r r t e d a b e i , dass L a s t a r i u n t a d e l h a f t s e i und i n j e d e r Lage g r o s s gehandelt habe, wenn das auch von i h r , d i e , im Schutze des Hau-ses e i n g e s c h l o s s e n , von den Drangsalen und Wonnen 2 des Lebens n i c h t s ahne, n i c h t b e g r i f f e n werden konne. Lasko and L a s t a r i share a view o f l i f e which M a i e l i e s can never p o s s i b l y u n d e r s t a n d o r even glimpse. No power of h e r s i s s t r o n g enough t o p e n e t r a t e and change the e r r a t i c men-t a l i t y o f f a t h e r and son. Not through l o v e but o n l y through death w i l l the two men f i n d peace a t l a s t . In o t h e r works of R i c a r d a Huch, we f r e q u e n t l y encounter women who have the a b i l i t y t o change men, but here where the author i s d e a l i n g Op. c i t . , p. 128. Op. c i t . , p. 44. - 7 7 -c o n s c i o u s l y w i t h an embodiment o f Romanticism, not even l o v e can overcome the s i c k n e s s o f "Sehnsucht." Lasko f e e l s , as do t h e Romantics, such a keen awareness of deat h t h a t he c o n s i d e r s Death h i s c o n s t a n t companion. He even t e l l s Maie-l i e s t h a t the l o n g i n g f o r death i s s t r o n g e r than t h a t o f h i s attachment t o h e r . 1 Du b i s t d i e Lebendige, und der Tod kann d i r n i c h t s antun; wer w e i s s , ob d i r das Leben n i c h t von meinem Grab d i e a l l e r s c h o n s t e n Kranze f u r d e i n e S t i r n p f l u c k e n w i r d . 2 At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r marriage, Lasko momentarily f o r g e t s h i s melancholy and p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h death. He and M a i e l i e s speak of t h e i r awaited son whose name w i l l be Divo b e f i t t i n g a v e r y s p e c i a l c h i l d . Nach langerem Wahlen und Wegwerfen e i n i g t e n s i e s i c h auf den Namen Divo, a l s den k o n i g l i c h s t e n und hel d e n m a s s i g s t e n , der ih n e n e i n f i e l ; denn s i e z w e i f e l t e n n i c h t , dass i h r Sohn zu Ruhm und Schon-h e i t auserkoren s e i n werde . 3 Lasko f e e l s t h a t h i s r e s t l e s s n e s s w i l l be s t i l l e d w i t h the a r r i v a l o f Divo and t o g e t h e r w i t h M a i e l i e s ' u n f a l t e r i n g l o v e , he w i l l a t l a s t be t r u l y happy. Both M a i e l i e s and Lasko f e e l c l o s e r t o each o t h e r as t h e y p r e p a r e f o r t h e i r f u t u r e w i t h Divo. However, a f t e r more than a y e a r , then two have passed and s t i l l M a i e l i e s has not borne a son, Divo's name i s heard l e s s and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y u n t i l i t seems as i f the Garrod, H. ¥., ed.: Keats P o e t i c a l Works, O x f o r d , 1939. "And f o r many a time I have been h a l f i n l o v e w i t h ease-f u l death," Ode to a N i g h t i n g a l e , p. 259. Op. c i t . , p. 209. Op. c i t . , p. 136. - 78 -name and the dream c h i l d have never e x i s t e d i n t h e i r minds. Divo, as the o b j e c t of i n t e n s e d e s i r e , approximates the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the crown. The crown i s , however, h e r e d i t a r y , i . e. p r o p e r t y o f Lasko from b i r t h , and u n i t e s him w i t h h i s f a t h e r i n a common a t t i t u d e towards l i f e . Divo i s t he dream of M a i e l i e s and Lasko. He i s t o u n i t e them i n an a t t r a c t i o n s t r o n g e r than the momentary s e n s u a l r e a c t i o n from which t h e i r marriage has a r i s e n . But Divo i s never born. The dream i s d i s p e l l e d w i t h time, j u s t as t h e i r marriage e v e n t u a l l y breaks asunder. At t h i s moment the author i n t r o d u c e s the c h a r a c t e r who shares M a i e l i e s 1 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s and who seems, by c o n t r a s t , the husband i n t e n d e d by n a t u r e f o r h e r . R i z z o i s a c t i v e , h e a l t h y , o p t i m i s t i c , e v e r y t h i n g which M a i e l i e s needs to draw out the b e s t i n her p e r s o n a l i t y and t o make her l i f e f u l l and rewarding. M a i e l i e s has grown up c l o s e t o R i z z o and has thought o f him as a b r o t h e r , s i n c e t h e i r n a t u r e s are so s i m i l a r . I r o n i c a l l y i t I s R i z z o who i n t r o d u c e s Lasko i n t o t he f a m i l y . Now many y e a r s l a t e r , R i z z o r e t u r n s from abroad and a f t e r one v i s i t w i t h M a i e l i e s r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s she whom he d e s i r e s . At t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time when M a i e l i e s i s alone (Lasko i s away on b u s i n e s s ) and f e e l s her i s o l a t i o n k e e n l y , she welcomes R i z z o ' s company as a b r i g h t r e l i e f . And suddenly he i s no l o n g e r a f r i e n d and r e l a t i v e but a man whom she l o v e s . R i z z o assumes a s i g -n i f i c a n c e i n her l i f e which she c o u l d not have s u s p e c t e d p o s s i b l e b e f o r e , f o r now she f e e l s the deepest l o n g i n g f o r communication w i t h a s o u l a k i n t o her own. But however s t r o n g her emotion i s at t h i s moment, she r e f u s e s t o accept - 79 -R i z z o as a l o v e r . The i n i t i a l f a s c i n a t i o n to Lasko i s s t i l l deep w i t h i n her, and i n the f i n a l i n s t a n c e h e r l o y a l t y and l o v e p r e v a i l . R i z z o i s f u r i o u s , l e a v e s M a i e l i e s , seduces Moga, M a i e l i e s 1 maid, and then l e a v e s a g a i n f o r a c r o s s the seas. M a i e l i e s i s wise enough t o know t h a t she i s o n l y a t t r a c t e d t o R i z z o as compensation f o r L a s k o 1 s c r u e l words and a c t i o n s . She cannot he compared wi t h G a l e i d e i n t h i s r e g a r d because the l a t t e r a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o an overwhelming p a s s i o n f o r E z a r d , whereas M a i e l i e s ' a t t r a c t i o n t o R i z z o i s sim p l y the r e s u l t o f bewilderment, sadness and p a i n . M a i e l i e s , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the p u r e l y Romantic woman, d i s p l a y s a much g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b t l e t y . G a l e i d e , a t r u l y Romantic f i g u r e , t h i n k s o n l y of the moment and i s a s l a v e t o the d i c t a t e s o f her h e a r t ; M a i e l i e s , however, d i s p l a y s a more r a t i o n a l , mature n a t u r e by t h i n k i n g about her l i f e w i t h Lasko and not a l l o w i n g a sudden f l a s h of p a s s i o n t o d e s t r o y the f o u n d a t i o n s o f her l o v e . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e a d o p t i o n o f a c h i l d ( a c t u a l l y Moga's and R i z z o ' s ) causes the f i n a l break between Lasko and Maie-l i e s . T h i s c h i l d , which was to f o s t e r a f e e l i n g o f c l o s e -ness and harmony between Lasko and M a i e l i e s , o n l y b r i n g s w i t h i t p a i n and anger once i t s r e a l i d e n t i t y i s d i s c o v e r e d . However, i n the b e g i n n i n g , t h e r e are times when Lasko f o r g e t s t h a t the baby (named Dragaino) i s not the l o n g - a w a i t e d c h i l d of h i s union w i t h M a i e l i e s . Lasko knows t h a t the baby's r e a l mother i s Moga, but w h i l e o b s e r v i n g the c h i l d one day i n Moga's pre s e n c e , comments on the boy's resemblance t o h i s f o s t e r mother M a i e l i e s : - 8 0 -Ich habe mich schon o f t gefragt . . . ob das ein witziger Z u f a l l i s t , oder ob das innige Zusammen-leben der beiden macht, dass s i e einander i n n e r l i c h und demgemass auch a u s s e r l i c h g l e i c h werden; wenn man die Bildsamkeit eines Kindes bedenkt, i s t das keineswegs u n g l a u b l i c h . 1 Lasko's observation here c a l l s to mind an important Romantic motif appearing notably i n Novalis* poem " A s t r a l i s " (Heinrich von Ofterdin^en), where the b i r t h of Heinrich's c h i l d i s a t t r i b u t e d to intense s p i r i t u a l rather than p h y s i c a l union. Goethe under the influence of S c h e l l i n g attempts the same thing i n the Wahlverwandtschaften, with the i m p l i c a t i o n that s p i r i t u a l parentage supersedes p h y s i c a l . At the baptism of Eduard's and Charlotte's c h i l d , he writes: Das Gebet war v e r r i c h t e t , O t t i l i e n das Kind auf die Arme gelegt, und a l s s i e mit Neigung auf dasselbe heruntersah, erschrak s i e n i c h t wenig an seinen offenen Augen, denn s i e glaubte, i n i h r e eigenen zu sehen, eine solche TJbereinstimmung hatte jeden uberraschen mussen. M i t t l e r , der zunachst das Kind empfing, st u t z t e g l e i c h f a l l s , indem er i n der B i l -dung desselben eine so auffallende S h n l i c h k e i t , und zwar mit dem Hauptmann e r b l i c k t e , dergleichen ihm sonst noch ni e vorgekommen war.2 In the Wahlverwandtschaften, each parent loves a person other than the i n d i v i d u a l to whom he i s married and the c h i l d bears not the features of his p h y s i c a l parents, but those of t h e i r longing. In the case of Maielies and Rizzo, although t h e i r love i s not f u l f i l l e d p h y s i c a l l y , evidence of i t i s stamped i n d e l i b l y upon the face of Rizzo's and Moga's c h i l d . Moga has but served as the physical instrument f o r Rizzo's thwarted longing. A f t e r Lasko's death some years l a t e r , Op. c i t . , p. 294. Heinemann, K a r l , Hgb.: Goethes Werke, "Wahlverwandtschaften," p. 363. - 81 -Dragaino, i r o n i c a l l y , r e f u s e s to have any c o n t a c t w i t h h i s r e a l f a t h e r . H i s mother M a i e l i e s suggests t h a t perhaps he would l i k e t o have a new f a t h e r , to which Dragaino asks: "Kommt Papa w i e d e r ? " 1 M a i e l i e s t e l l s him t h a t a new f a t h e r would come to l i v e w i t h them, t o which Dragaino r e p l i e s p e m p h a t i c a l l y : "Den wurde i c h t o t s c h l a g e n I " As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the j o y which M a i e l i e s and Lasko share w i t h the a r r i v a l of R i z z o ' s c h i l d does not l a s t l o n g . The most d i f f i c u l t t e s t of M a i e l i e s ' c h a r a c t e r i s y e t t o come. Lasko l e a v e s home a f t e r l e a r n i n g t h a t R i z z o was the c h i l d ' s f a t h e r , and M a i e l i e s , f i n a l l y moved by Moga's wishes to have the c h i l d c o m p l e t e l y f o r h e r s e l f , a l l o w s the s e r v a n t to l e a v e and take the baby w i t h he r . The baby c o u l d be at b e s t o n l y a p i t i f u l s u b s t i t u t e f o r Divo, the i d e a l . M a i e l i e s must r e a l i z e t h a t the chasm between Lasko and h e r s e l f can never be b r i d g e d . She stands alone without husband or c h i l d . In h e r d e s p a i r she seeks comfort n e i t h e r i n the Roman C a t h o l i c church, as does Verena, when M i c h a e l Unger d e s e r t s her, nor i n a p r o f e s s i o n , as does Rose. But l i k e Rose, M a i e l i e s t o o , i s a b l e t o summon up r e s e r v e s t r e n g t h and w i l l power and b e t r a y s t o no one her i n n e r h e a r t b r e a k . Suddenly a b e n e v o l e n t f a t e seems to i n t e r v e n e . A f t e r l e a v i n g M a i e l i e s ' home, Moga becomes v e r y i l l . Knowing she i s g o i n g to d i e , Moga asks f o r M a i e l i e s and admits to her t h a t she had never been capable o f l o o k i n g a f t e r the boy nor of l o v i n g him as M a i e l i e s d i d and s t i l l does, and she Von den Konigen und d e r Krone, p. 355. 2 I b i d . - 82 -begs M a i e l i e s t o c a r e f o r him a f t e r her d e a t h . At almost the same time, M a i e l i e s r e c e i v e s word from Lasko, who i s l i v i n g w i t h h i s f a t h e r on a farm, a s k i n g h e r to v i s i t him. Lasko's i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , almost w h i m s i c a l a c t i o n seems to d i s p e l l a l l the sadness and anger which he and M a i e l i e s have undergone, and so the g r e a t hope f o r a l i f e of happiness seems almost r e a l i z e d . But f a t e has been k i n d o n l y i n o r d e r t o b o l s t e r a f i n a l i l l u s i o n . M a i e l i e s a r r i v e s at L a s t a r i ' s farm o n l y to l e a r n t h a t Lasko has been murdered by h i s h a l f b r o t h e r Z i z i t o i n an a c t of r a g e . Her s o l e c o n s o l a t i o n i s found i n her u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h L a s t a r i which t h e i r mutual g r i e f b r i n g s about. In the f a c e of Death, e x t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s f a l l away and common e s s e n t i a l humanity i s l e f t . L a s t a r i b r i d g e s the emotional gap between them when he r e q u e s t s t h a t the boy Dragaino be c a l l e d h i s g r a n d c h i l d . The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the k i n g s and the p r a c t i c a l modern w o r l d , between Romanticism and a f f i r m a t i o n of v a l u e s i n t h i s l i f e , i s symbolized i n t h e i r rapprochement. C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the p e r s o n a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h L a s t a r i , we note a t u r n to n a t u r e on M a i e l i e s ' p a r t , l i k e w i s e i n d i c a t i n g a new wish to i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f not w i t h a c t i v e s o c i e t y a l o n e , but w i t h the whole u n i v e r s e . Vor der k l e i n e n t a g l i c h e n B e s c h a f t i g u n g , d i e s i e daheim gehabt h a t t e , g r a u t e i h r ; aber d i e B e w i r t -s c h a f t u n g des grossen Gutes, der D i e n s t der Elemente, das r e i z t e i h r e K r a f t e zu s c h a f f e n d e r T a t i g k e i t . i In t h i s work the two dichotomous elements of R i c a r d a Huch's p e r s o n a l i t y have been r e c o n c i l e d . The Romantic has made a Op. c i t . , p. 3 5 1 . - 83 -c o n c e s s i o n — h e w i l l r e c o g n i z e as h i s h e i r the son of purpose-f u l a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . The s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d human b e i n g has a l s o changed h e r c o u r s e . A f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g f u l l r e c o g -n i t i o n o f the f u t i l i t y i n h e r a c t i v e c o u r s e , she t u r n s t o the A b s o l u t e i n t h e form of n a t u r e , as a l a s t r e f u g e . Concrete evidence of the change i n M a i e l i e s i s o f f e r e d at the end of the n o v e l . She remains t r u e t o Lasko's memory. She r e f u s e s R i z z o when he sues f o r her hand. W i t h i n the a r e a o f n o v e l s and s h o r t s t o r i e s , R i c a r d a Huch's e a r l y Munich p e r i o d , 1901 to 1909, p r o v i d e s her most s t r i k i n g women c h a r a c t e r s . Each i n h e r own way stands alone and t o g e t h e r mark the p i n n a c l e o f R i c a r d a Huch's c r e a t i v e c a r e e r . They appear a t a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n i n the a u t h o r ' s l i f e . From now on, R i c a r d a Huch t u r n s h e r a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y towards r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p u r s u i t s . Throughout the y e a r s i n Z u r i c h and Bremen, R i c a r d a Huch had been concerned w i t h h e r s e l f , her s t u d i e s and her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h R i c h a r d . Through h e r marriage to Ermanno C e c o n i , h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l i f e and p e o p l e of a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y and w i t h the b i r t h of a c h i l d , R i c a r d a Huch became l e s s concerned w i t h the " i c h " and t u r n e d h e r a t t e n t i o n t o h e r f a m i l y and t o the problems, f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l , i n T r i e s t e . A l l these f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d to a more r a t i o n a l o u t l o o k on l i f e , the e f f e c t of which we have noted. C e c o n i was unable to e s t a b l i s h h i s own d e n t a l p r a c t i c e i n T r i e s t e without f u r t h e r study and R i c a r d a f e l t t h a t her b u s i n e s s c o n t a c t s w i t h p u b l i s h e r s were much b e t t e r i n Germany. Eben kommt e i n B r i e f von P r o f . Exner aus Wien, dass Mannos Gesuch n i c h t b e w i l l i g t worden i s t ; a l s o mit T r i e s t und Wien i s t es aus. D i e g r o s s t e - 84 -S c h w i e r i g k e i t i s t nun, den Ort zu f i n d e n . Es h a n d e l t s i c h urn I t a l i e n oder D e u t s c h l a n d . In I t a l i e n kommen i n B e t r a c h t : Venedig, Genua, T u r i n , F l o r e n z , denn Rom i s t zu t e u e r und d i e Konkurrenz i s t zu g r o s s . . . . In D e u t s c h l a n a waren j a e i g e n t l i c h nur Miinchen und B e r l i n , b e i d e s n a t u r l i c h e i n g r o s s e s R i s i k o . ^ So i t was t h a t the C e c o n i f a m i l y moved from T r i e s t e t o Munich, where both R i c a r d a and Ermanno c o u l d work under b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s , and i t was i n Munich t h a t R i c a r d a put on paper what she had seen, heard and e x p e r i e n c e d i n T r i e s t e — b e g i n n i n g w i t h the n o v e l Aus der Triumphgasse. F a r f a l l a stands a t the c e n t r e o f t h a t work bot h as an i m p r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r and as a v i t a l embodiment o f R i c a r d a Huch's thoughts r e g a r d i n g the p l a c e o f woman i n l i f e . S e c o n d l y , the near n a t u r a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f t h i s d e s t i t u t e woman g i v e s the r e a d e r an awareness o f the l i f e , h a r d s h i p s , emotions and l o n g i n g s which are p r e s e n t i n t h e people o f the lower s o c i a l s t r a t a . However, R i c a r d a Huch i s not a s o c i a l r e f o r m e r who preaches t o her r e a d e r s and ex h o r t s them t o a c t i o n . She i s concerned, f i r s t of a l l , w i t h p o r t r a y i n g F a r f a l l a i n an o b j e c t i v e l i g h t and does not i n any way attempt to b e c l o u d F a r f a l l a ' s shortcomings i n o r d e r t o p u l l a t the r e a d e r ' s h e a r t s t r i n g s . Such o b j e c t i v i t y enables the r e a d e r to see a l l f a c e t s o f F a r f a l l a ' s c h a r a c t e r , the bad as w e l l as the good. Her i r r a t i o n a l w a r i n e s s , h e r apparent d i s -l o y a l t y t o her b e n e f a c t o r , her unconcerned, detached a t t i t u d e towards the s u f f e r i n g about h e r — t h e s e q u a l i t i e s are c o u n t e r -b a l a n c e d by the z e a l o u s c a r e she take s o f her c h i l d r e n , her un c e a s i n g b a t t l e a g a i n s t hunger and i l l n e s s and the q u i e t Leuchtende Spur, p. 116. - 8 5 -acceptance o f the woman's "Bestimmung." Through a l l her h a r d s h i p s she r e a f f i r m s the d e s i r e t o l i v e and t o c o n t i n u e l i v i n g as l o n g as t h e r e i s one ounce of s t r e n g t h l e f t i n h e r body. The y o u t h f u l Rose i n M i c h a e l Unger r e p r e s e n t s the complete harmonious acceptance o f l i f e which t o her c o n s i s t s s o l e l y of goodness and beauty. Through her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M i c h a e l she g r a d u a l l y develops from t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of her joyous e x i s t e n c e , t o t h e exte n t t h a t she r e c o g n i z e s u g l i n e s s and wickedness, and e x p e r i e n c e s g r e a t sadness. Through h e r , M i c h a e l c a t c h e s a glimpse o f the v a l u e and depth of a f u l l l i f e which he f a i l e d t o ex p e r i e n c e i n t h e tedium o f h i s bo u r g e o i s l i f e w i t h i t s s t a t i c v a l u e s and u n e x p l o r e d emotions. Rose widens the scope o f h i s t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g and s e e i n g , and a l t h o u g h she i s s a c r i f i c e d i n f a v o u r of M i c h a e l ' s son, she had r e n d e r e d him a s e r v i c e . Through t h i s u n f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e her n a i v e approach t o l i f e i s s h a t t e r e d . When Mi c h a e l l e a v e s h e r , i t i s as i f a v e i l has been l i f t e d from her eyes. She suddenly sees t h e world as i t r e a l l y i s . Warum b i n i c h b l i n d und h a s s l i c h geworden? . . . Warum sehen meine Augen n i c h t s mehr a l s mein s c h i m p f l i c h e s Elend? Was mir einmal r o t und grun und wonnevoll e r s c h i e n , das sehe i c h g r e l l , schmutzig und unbedeu-te n d . Deine Baume und Blumen t r o s t e n mich n i c h t mehr, Mutter Erde! Und doch b i s t du schon, du Ewige, wie du warst, nur i c h b i n b l i n d und krank, dass d i e ^ Schonheit mich anwidert, d i e du uber mich a u s s c h i i t t e s t . Rose r e c a p t u r e s t h e j o y of l i v i n g through the l o v e f o r the c h i l d r e n whom she bears a f t e r her marriage to the F r e x h e r r . The c h i l d r e n become the o b j e c t o f her hopes as M i c h a e l had been b e f o r e . M i c h a e l Unger, p. 3 6 9 . - 86 -The most c o n v e n t i o n a l of the t h r e e women i s M a i e l i e s and as such i s not so s t r i k i n g as F a r f a l l a o r Rose, The daughter of a f a c t o r y owner, M a i e l i e s had grown up i n a v e r y s h e l t e r e d , b o u r g e o i s atmosphere and o n l y succeeds i n moving beyond the narrow l i m i t s o f middle c l a s s l i f e when she m a r r i e s Lasko. Through h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Lasko, she becomes more s e l f - r e l i a n t , and more t o l e r a n t , y e t u n t i l h i s death she n e ver q u i t e l o s e s the t r a i t s o f an e a r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l u p b r i n i n g . She, a t times, e x p e r i e n c e s j e a l o u s y when Lasko p u t s h i s f a t h e r b e f o r e her, she i s aware of s o c i e t y and the d u t i e s o f a w e l l - t o - d o middle c l a s s matron, she i s generous and q u i t e s e l f - s a t i s f i e d — a l l o f thes e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be found i n any p e r s o n . However, M a i e l i e s does have an important r o l e i n Von den Kb'nigen und der Krone, p r e c i s e l y because she i s "normal" and i s m a r r i e d t o a " K i n g , " a s p e c i a l p erson who i s i n no way s u i t e d to the "normal" b o u r g e o i s e x i s t e n c e . The c o n t r a s t between M a i e l i e s , h e r u p b r i n g i n g , her t h i n k i n g , her emotions, and Lasko s e r v e s t o b r i n g Lasko's d i f f i c u l t i e s i n an i n s e n s i t i v e s o c i e t y i n t o c l e a r e r p e r -s p e c t i v e . Both M i c h a e l Unger and Von den Kb'nigen und der  Krone may be r e g a r d e d as "Bildungsromane" i f one c o n s i d e r s , as t he aut h o r ' s o b j e c t i v e , the p o r t r a y a l of t h e development i n t he two p r i n c i p a l women f i g u r e s , Rose and M a i e l i e s . As young g i r l s , Rose and M a i e l i e s are t h e n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s t h e i r names imply, y e t through the exp e r i e n c e of l o v e , both women develop f a r beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r s h e l t e r e d p o s i t i o n s i n l i f e . A f t e r a l l t he v i c i s s i t u d e s o f t h e i r c a r e e r s are p a s t , the women emerge s t r o n g , p o s i t i v e i n a t t i t u d e and s e l f - r e l i a n t . They have bo t h s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y - 87 -from u n f u l f i l l e d l o v e , but have not g i v e n way to s e l f p i t y when d e s e r t e d . They emerge from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s mature, a c t i v e and ready t o accept any a d d i t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e which l i f e may o f f e r . As l i f e approaches i t s end (we never f o l l o w them as f a r as d e a t h ) , both women have withdrawn from a c t i v e l i f e , c o n t e n t t o l o o k on "from t h e shore" t o be the o b s e r v e r s of l i f e , as expounded i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f L u d o l f U r s l e u . However, Rose and M a i e l i e s are s t i l l p o s i t i v e and o p t i m i s t i c and c l i n g to a l i v i n g v a l u e , symbolized i n t h e g u a r d i a n s h i p over a c h i l d . C o n c e r n i n g Rose, we hear o f h e r complete and u t t e r d e v o t i o n t o her c h i l d r e n and how she i g n o r e s the l a c k of money and m a t e r i a l comfort which c h a r a c t e r i z e her e x i s t e n c e . M a i e l i e s 1 l o v e f o r Lasko i s s t r o n g and steady but h e r l i f e i s o n l y t r u l y f u l f i l l e d when she has Dragaino a t her s i d e . The r e a d i n e s s w i t h which the t h r e e mothers make s a c r i f i c e s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n has a p a r a l l e l i n the l i f e of R i c a r d a Huch. A l r e a d y i n 1 9 0 3 she i s e x p r e s s i n g doubts about her marriage w i t h C e c o n i and i n the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r , h e r upper-most worry i s about the f u t u r e o f her daughter: Nachher f i e l mir dann noch e i n , dass i c h iiberhaupt gar n i c h t einmal wusste, was und wie, a u s s e r dass i c h etwas weniger m a t e r i e l l e Sorgen haben mochte und Z e i t zum A r b e i t e n , und dann v o r a l l e m d i e Gewiss-h e i t , dass B u s i n i c h t s w i d e r f a h r t . . . . Was i c h sonst noch mochte, Mannos Temperament e i n b i s s c h e n zu andern, i s t auch unmoglich.- 1-In 1 9 0 5 , a f t e r much c o n s i d e r a t i o n , R i c a r d a Huch d i v o r c e s C e c o n i . S i x y e a r s l a t e r , R i c a r d a f i n d s h e r s e l f i n the t e r r i b l e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o choose between her husband Leuchtende Spur, p. 142. - 88 -R i c h a r d , whom she m a r r i e d i n 1 9 0 7 and her daughter B u s i . R i c h a r d i s extremely j e a l o u s o f R i c a r d a ' s l o v e f o r her daughter and w i l l not a l l o w B u s i to l i v e w i t h them. In one of h e r poems from L i e b e s g e d i c h t e , R i c a r d a t r i e s d e s p e r a t e l y to t e l l R i c h a r d t h a t b o t h she and h e r daughter are l o n g i n g t o be l o v e d by him and to r e t u r n h i s l o v e . In j e n e r Z e i t , da i c h d i c h n i c h t mehr nannte, Schuf i c h e i n Weihgefass aus e d l e r Erde Und barg d a r i n , d i e e i n s t an d i r e n t b r a n n t e , Die Elamme, dass s i e r e i n gehutet werde. Von der empfangnen Brunst e r r o t e n d bebte Das Weihgefass, doch sprang es n i c h t e n t z w e i . K e i n Eunken meiner L i e b e s g l u t entschwebtel Nun nimm es du, dass es d i r h e i l i g s e i . l Yet R i c h a r d remains deaf t o the r e q u e s t . Other rea s o n s f o r the d i v o r c e became e v i d e n t but from R i c a r d a Huch's c o r r e -spondence i t i s c l e a r t h a t a mother i s s p e a k i n g , a mother who would s a c r i f i c e her p e r s o n a l happiness r a t h e r than d e s e r t her daughter. Die V e r n a l t n i s s e mit B u s i drucken so namenlos auf mich, i c h w i l l aber n i c h t daruber s c h r e i b e n . . . . I c h habe Euch a b t e l e g r a f i e r t , w e i l R i c h a r d u n t e r s o l c h e n Depressionen l e i d e t , dass e r niemanden sehen kann. Das Schlimmste i s t , dass er B u s i auch n i c h t sehen kann, i c h habe s i e schon am Sonn-t a g wieder nach Hunchen g e b r a c h t . ^ The d e c i s i o n i s made. R i c a r d a Huch d i v o r c e s R i c h a r d and t o g e t h e r w i t h B u s i she r e t u r n s t o Munich. The c h i l d r e n i n the n o v e l s of her Z u r i c h and Bremen p e r i o d s remain shadows b e s i d e the l i v i n g , v i t a l c h i l d r e n who appear i n the t h r e e n o v e l s of t h i s p e r i o d . Nor d i d the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p p l a y the dominant r o l e i n the L i e b e s g e d i c h t e , p. 5 0 * Leuchtende Spur, pp. 1 5 8 - 1 5 9 * - 8 9 -p r e v i o u s works as i t does i n the n o v e l s under d i s c u s s i o n . Over and over a g a i n the f e e l i n g of a mother's complete d e d i c a t i o n to her c h i l d r e n i s r e f l e c t e d throughout these t h r e e n o v e l s . From F a r f a l l a ' s l i p s we hear: S e i t i c h i n s E l e n d gekommen b i n , h a t t e i c h be-s t a n d i g s o v i e l zu denken, wie i c h t a g l i c h B r o t f u r d i e K i n d e r bekame, dass i c h uber mich n i c h t nachdenken konnte. 1 And Rose and M a i e l i e s w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passages: S i e h a t t e K i n d e r bekommen und b e i i h r e n und des F r e i h e r r n g e r i n g e n Einnahmen und b e i der S o r g l o -s i g k e i t im Ausgeben d u r f t i g g e l e b t . D a r u n t e r l i t t e s i e aber kaum, w e i l s i e i n i h r e r uber-schwenglichen L i e b e f u r d i e K i n d e r a l l e s andere, was geschahe, nur wie i n einem schwachen Traume e r l e b t e . 2 Die M a i e l i e s l a c h t e g l u c k l i c h und r i e f : 'Du hast r e c h t , w i r brauchen k e i n e n /Mann7, w i r brauchen k e i n e n l ' worauf s i e i h n k r a f t i g i n d i e L u f t schwang, wieder h i n s t e l i t e und s i c h auf und ab mit ihm im Garten j a g t e , dass s e i n jauchzendes G e l a c h t e r hoch i n d i e dunne H e r b s t l u f t s t i e g . 3 R i c a r d a Huch's woman, then, f i n d s purpose i n her n a t u r a l maternal f u n c t i o n . We see the p r o t a g o n i s t s o f M i c h a e l Unger and Von den Konigen und der Krone u l t i m a t e l y a c c e p t i n g the same r o l e as F a r f a l l a . To l o v e and t o s u f f e r i s woman's d e s t i n y , but not her d o w n f a l l . L i f e goes on and as such i s woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Aus d e r Triumphgasse, p. 53« M i c h a e l Unger, p. 4 3 4 . Von den Konigen und der Krone, p. 356. Conclusion A f t e r completing the three novels discussed i n Chapter 4, Ricarda Huch turns her attention to p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s works. In a scattered c o l l e c t i o n of short s t o r i e s dating from 1910 to 1947, there i s not one outstanding female cnaracter. In Der falsche Grossvater, 1 Ricarda Huch i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n one aspect of the p o l i t i c a l scene of the day rather than i n portraying any one female character. 2 Again i n Weisse Nachte, Ricarda Huch i s much more i n t r i g u e d by the memoirs of Paleologue, the French ambassador to the Russian court, than she i s i n the po r t r a y a l of great women. The penetrating study of the Russian mentality coupled with the psychological observations of the French ambassador make a f a s c i n a t i n g short story, but there i s no attention paid to the development of female characters. Thus when we discuss the "woman" i n Ricarda Huch's f i c t i o n , we need only consider the r o l e she plays i n the author's works up to and in c l u d i n g Von den Konigen und der  Krone. During the years 1894 to 1910, changes i n Ricarda Huch's thinking and outlook were i n e v i t a b l e , due to experiences of great emotional s t r e s s at various stages i n her l i f e . I t i s therefore i n t e r e s t i n g and not s u r p r i s i n g that she creates Der falsche Grossvater, Erzahlung, Wiesbaden, 1947. Weisse Nachte, B e r l i n , 1943. - 91 -at v a r i o u s times women c h a r a c t e r s who r e f l e c t v e r y c l o s e l y the stage o f development which t h e author h e r s e l f has reach e d . T h i s n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n towards Romanticism mentioned above i n her Z u r i c h w r i t i n g s , took the form of gay, amoral c r e a t u r e s moving o n l y w i t h i n the sphere o f t h e i r own emotions and unconcerned w i t h r e a l i t y . G a l e i d e i s n a i v e and so n a t u r a l t h a t she exposes h e r s e l f t o t r a g e d y i n c o n t a c t w i t h the f u l l c o m p l e x i t i e s of l i f e . She f a l l s w i l d l y i n l o v e w i t h her c o u s i n y e t her l o v e f o r him never develops i n t o a s t r o n g hond o f mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Her l o v e a f f a i r w i t h E z a r d does not mean enough i n her l i f e t h a t she can save h e r s e l f from becoming i n v o l v e d w i t h Gaspard, a boor, who i s simply a t t r a c t e d t o h e r s e n s u a l l y . G a l e i d e cannot f a c e up t o l i f e . She t a k e s no blame f o r her a c t i o n s ; i s unconcerned t h a t her c o u s i n has made g r e a t s a c r i f i c e s i n o r d e r t o be f r e e t o marry h e r , or t h a t her a f f a i r w i t h her c o u s i n has caused such g r i e f i n her f a m i l y . She i s dominated by her s u b j e c t i v i t y . Both she and F r a u S a l d e are doomed to d e s t r u c t i o n due t o t h e i r u n r e f l e c t i n g , u n r e s t r a i n e d n a t u r e s . The women of the second p e r i o d , A g l a i a and L i e b h e i d l i , are v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . However, t h e r e i s one major d i f f e r e n c e . They are moral. They are p r e p a r e d to s a c r i f i c e e v e r y t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r l i v e s , f o r the men they l o v e . They are p a s s i v e l i k e the Z u r i c h women, but they are f i l l e d w i t h the overwhelming d e s i r e t o o f f e r them-s e l v e s as a s a c r i f i c e i f n e c e s s a r y . They have a purpose i n l i f e , c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n G a l e i d e and F r a u S a l d e . While F a r f a l l a d i s p l a y s a p l e t h o r a o f f a u l t s and v i c e s , m a i n l y due to her u n f o r t u n a t e environment, even here R i c a r d a - 92 -Huch f i n d s p o s i t i v e v a l u e . Indeed she i s s u b j e c t i n g woman to the most s t r i n g e n t t e s t by p l a c i n g her a g a i n s t a background of extreme m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l p o v e r t y . F a r f a l l a emerges from the experiment c l i n g i n g to the a b s o l u t e e s s e n t i a l o f woman's n a t u r e : d e v o t i o n t o h e r o f f s p r i n g and human d e s t i n y . In her l a t e r n o v e l s , R i c a r d a Huch's women a f t e r the most severe m i s f o r t u n e m a i n t a i n the same f o r t i t u d e as F a r f a l l a and c l i n g t o purpose ( u s u a l l y i n the form o f a c h i l d ) . Rose i n M i c h a e l Unger and M a i e l i e s i n Yon den Konigen  und der Krone show a marked development from t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . These women e x p e r i e n c e a development of c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the n o v e l . As young g i r l s they are p u r e l y p a s s i v e Romantic f i g u r e s who l e t t h i n g s happen t o them without q u e s t i o n , but a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g sorrow and h e a r t b r e a k t h e y become s u f -f i c i e n t l y a c t i v e women, who know how t o d i r e c t t h e i r l i v e s , tempering t h e i r emotions w i t h r e a s o n and c h a n n e l i n g t h e i r l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g towards t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Both M a i e l i e s and Rose show themselves ready to s a c r i f i c e e v e r y t h i n g i n o r d e r t o h e l p t h e i r l o v e r s . But c o n t r a r y t o A g l a i a and L i e b h e i d l i , t h e i r s a c r i f i c e i s not a c c e p t e d . The men r e j e c t the women's d e s i r e to h e l p them and thus t h e women f i n d themselves l e f t w i t h o u t an o b j e c t f o r s a c r i f i c e . At t h i s p o i n t R i c a r d a Huch makes i t v e r y c l e a r t h a t a woman can and must go on l i v i n g even though her l o v e (which seems to be a prime v a l u e at the t i m e ) , has been r e j e c t e d . These women must f i n d purpose i n e x i s t e n c e . T h i s comes f i n a l l y i n an a c t i v e l i f e and i n t h e i r d e v o t i o n to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In a c o n c i s e e v a l u a t i o n of G o t t f r i e d K e l l e r ' s a r t i s t r y , R i c a r d a Huch w r i t e s : "Er hat d i e e n d l i c h g e r e i f t e n F r i i c h t e - 9 3 -der Romantik auf g o l d n e r S c h a l e g e r e i c h t . " One can a l s o say t h a t R i c a r d a Huch was a b l e to take the most p o s i t i v e t r a i t s of the Romantics and b l e n d them w i t h the r e a l i s m of a 1 9 c e n t u r y r e a l i s t t o g i v e to the l i t e r a r y world a s y n t h e s i s of the two. B e g i n n i n g w i t h what a p p a r e n t l y was a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n towards the Romantics, a l o v e f o r the whole w o r l d and a d e s i r e t o s a c r i f i c e h e r s e l f f o r o t h e r s , she n e v e r t h e l e s s d e v e l o p s g r a d u a l l y a more r e a l i s t i c approach to l i f e , which imposes r e s t r i c t i o n s upon even the b e s t emotions, a l t h o u g h never c o m p l e t e l y f o r s a k i n g one f o r the o t h e r . In t h i s remarkable combination of two d i v e r g e n t p a t t e r n s of l i f e , R i c a r d a Huch p r e s e n t s her c o n c e p t i o n o f woman's d e s t i n y . A u s b r e i t u n g und V e r f a l l der Romantik, p. 3 0 . - 94 -Appendix t o Chapter 2 F r a u S a l d e : appears i n "Der Mondreigen von S c h l a r a f f i s . " The s t o r y t a k e s p l a c e i n a s m a l l Swiss v i l l a g e where the p r i e s t wishes t o put an end to a y e a r l y f e s t i v a l , which he c o n s i d e r s pagan. T h i s f e s t i v a l t a k e s p l a c e when the moon i s f u l l ; young and o l d j o i n hands to dance i n a c i r c l e , c h a n t i n g songs i n honour of the moon. Although Dominik ( the v i l l a g e c h e m i s t ) , i s a good Roman C a t h o l i c , he does not comply w i t h the wish of the p r i e s t and r e f u s e s t o s i g n a p e t i t i o n a s k i n g f o r the a b o l i s h -ment of the dance. A c e r t a i n F r a u S a l d e , who never goes to c hurch, i s blamed al o n g w i t h Dominik f o r o r g a n i z i n g o p p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t the p r i e s t . Dominik, who s i l e n t l y l o v e s F r a u S a l d e and sees i n h e r h i s f u t u r e w i f e , d e c i d e s t o l e a v e town, w i t h the i d e a t h a t when he becomes famous i n a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y he w i l l r e t u r n and make F r a u S a l d e h i s w i f e . She i s l e f t alone t o b a t t l e the a u t h o r i t i e s who judge her c r u e l l y f o r ha v i n g taken a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the s o - c a l l e d pagan dance and g r a d u a l l y t h e y make her l i f e so unbearable t h a t she goes out i n t o the l a k e , f a l l s i n t o the water and i s drowned. Dominik r e t u r n s and l e a r n s t o h i s d e s p a i r what has happened. When she had r e a l l y needed him, he had been f a r away. 'Haduvig;: i s the main c h a r a c t e r i n the s h o r t s t o r y "Haduvig im Kreuzgang." She i s a d e l i g h t f u l young g i r l who d r i v e s her f a t h e r t o d i s t r a c t i o n because of her changes of mood and mind. She imagines t h a t she has seen and c h a t t e d w i t h a dead monk i n the c l o i s t e r of t h e c h u r c h . Such are the powers of her i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t she becomes i n t e r e s t e d i n the monk's p a s t and i n so d o i n g t a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n t h e C a t h o l i c Church and e s p e c i a l l y the V i r g i n Mary. The monk t e l l s h er t h a t he must keep wandering u n t i l he has found h i s t r u e l o v e and t h a t then o n l y a k i s s from her can remove the c u r s e from him. Haduvig k i s s e s the phantom and i t immediately d i s a p p e a r s . A f t e r t h i s she r e t u r n s t o the P r o t e s t a n t f o l d , f o r g e t s about her p r e v i o u s g r i e v a n c e s w i t h t h e c h u r c h and agrees h a p p i l y t o marry her c o u s i n F r i t z who has f o r g i v e n her f o r her escapade w i t h the phantom. - 95 -Appendix to Chapter 5 A g l a i a : i s a young w e l l - t o - d o woman who one day h e a r s by chance a sermon by a p r i e s t ( F r a C e l e s t e ) whom she r e c o g n i z e s as the baker's a p p r e n t i c e who used to d e l i v e r b r e a d to her p a r e n t s ' home. At t h a t time she had been a t t r a c t e d to him but because of the d i f f e r e n c e i n s o c i a l rank, her p a r e n t s had found ways to dampen he r i n t e r e s t i n the young boy. A g l a i a was soon m a r r i e d t o a r i c h o l d e r man i n t h e town. A f t e r h e a r i n g F r a C e l e s t e ' s sermon, A g l a i a f o l l o w s him t o h i s l o d g i n g s where t h e y d e c l a r e t h e i r mutual l o v e . Without h e s i t a t i o n A g l a i a renounces her husband and f a m i l y i n o r d e r to be w i t h C e l e s t e . A f t e r a few y e a r s of t r u e h a p p i n e s s , A g l a i a f a l l s i l l . C e l e s t e cannot bear to see her, because he f e e l s t h a t he w i l l l o s e h i s o n l y p o s s e s s i o n i f she d i e s . F i n a l l y one day he i s persuaded to v i s i t h e r , and s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s she i s found dead w i t h a k n i f e i n her b r e a s t . That same day, C e l e s t e i n g r e a t d e s p a i r drowns h i m s e l f — the f i n a l a c t i n the L i e b e s t o d . L i e b h e i d l i : i s a peasant g i r l , l i v i n g w i t h her p a r e n t s as s e r f s on the l a n d s of R i t t e r H e i n r i c h . H e i n r i c h , s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s marriage w i t h I r m i n r e i c h , c o n t r a c t s l e p r o s y and must l e a v e h i s c a s t l e . L i e b h e i d l i , known f a r and wide f o r her p i e t y , searches f o r H e i n r i c h and persuades him to l e t her and her p a r e n t s l o o k a f t e r him d u r i n g the c o l d w i n t e r . H e i n r i c h complies w i t h her wishes and d u r i n g the months t o g e t h e r H e i n r i c h r e a l i z e s t h a t L i e b h e i d l i has grown to l o v e him. When H e i n r i c h t e l l s of a p o s s i b l e cure f o r l e p r o s y , i f a young maiden s a c r i f i c e s her l i f e f o r the l e p e r , L i e b h e i d l i announces immediately t h a t she w i l l be the s a c r i f i c e . H e i n r i c h and she j o u r n e y to S a l e r n o where he a l l o w s her to be s a c r i f i c e d , a l t h o u g h he knows how much L i e b h e i d l i l ongs to be h i s w i f e . Her s a c r i f i c e i s not i n v a i n . H e i n r i c h r e c o v e r s h i s good h e a l t h and w i t h h a r d l y a thought of L i e b h e i d l i t a k e s up w o r l d l y p l e a s u r e s a g a i n . Even when he i s k i l l e d by an angry m i s t r e s s , he d i e s w i t h a s a t i s f i e d s m i l e on h i s l i p s . - 9 6 -Bibliography Works of Ricarda Huch: Annette von Droste Hulshoff, ausgewahlt und mit einer E i n l e i t u n g versehen, L e i p z i g , 1 9 3 2 . Ausbreitung und V e r f a l l der Romantik, L e i p z i g , 1920 ( f i r s t published i n L e i p z i g i n 1 9 0 2 ) . Aus der Triumphgasse, Jena, 1920 ( f i r s t published i n L e i p z i g i n 1 9 0 2 ) . B l u t e z e i t der Romantik, L e i p z i g , 1 9 2 0 ( f i r s t published i n 1 8 9 9 ) . B r i e f e an die Freunde, ausgewahlt und eingefuhrt von Marie Baum, Tubingen, 1 9 5 5 . Der F a l l Deruga, Roman, B e r l i n , Wien, 1 9 1 ? . Der falsche Grossvater, Erzahlung, Wiesbaden, 1 9 4 7 . Der Hahn von Quakenbriick und andere Novellen, L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 0 . Der l e t z t e Sommer, Eine Erzahlung i n Bri e f e n , L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 0 . Der wiederkehrende Christus, Eine groteske Erzahlung, L e i p z i g , Dornroschen, E in Marchenspiel, L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 2 . E i n l e i t u n g zu: Carolinens Leben i n ihren B r i e f e n , L e i p z i g , 1 9 2 3 ( f i r s t published i n 1914). Entpersb'nlichung, L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 . Erinnerungen von Ludolf Ursleu dem Jiingeren, B e r l i n , 1 9 2 0 ( f i r s t published i n 1 8 9 3 ) . Erzahlungen, Band 1 und 2 , L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 . Estavayer, Corona, 1 1 ( 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 ) , pp. 7 5 7 - 7 6 6 . F r i i h l i n g i n der Schweiz, Jugenderinnerungen, Zurich, 1 9 3 8 . G o t t f r i e d K e l l e r , L e i p z i g , 1914 ( f i r s t published i n 1904). Mein erstes Jahrzehnt, Das I n s e l s c h i f f , X l l ( 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 ) , pp. 226-- 97 -Michael Unger, B e r l i n , 1 9 2 8 ( f i r s t published under the t i t l e V i t a somnium breve, L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 3 ) . Natur und Geist a l s die Wurzeln des Lebens und der Kunst, Munchen, 1914. Neue Gedichte, L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 7 (published i n 1 9 1 3 under the t i t l e Liebesgedichte). Quellen des Lebens, Umrisse und Weltanschauung, L e i p z i g , 1 9 3 5 * Seifenblasen, Drei scherzhafte Erzahlungen, S t u t t g a r t , L e i p z i g , 1 9 0 5 . Urphanomene, Zurich, 1946. Von den Konigen und der Krone, Roman, L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 ( f i r s t published i n 1 9 0 4 ) . C r i t i c i s m and Memoirs concerning Ricarda Huch and her works: Baum, Marie: Leuchtende Spur, Das Leben Ricarda Huchs, Tubingen, 1950. Baumer, Gertrud: Ricarda Huch, Tiibingen, 1 9 4 9 * Bleuler-Waser, Hedwig: Uber Ricarda Huch, B e r l i n , 1 9 0 4 . Buchwald, Reinhard: Bekennende Dichtung, Zwei D i c h t e r b i l d n i s s e , Ricarda Huch (Hermann Hesse), S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 4 9 . : "Ricarda Huch," Das I n s e l s c h i f f , X V ( 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 129-145. Fechter, Paul: "Ricarda Huch," The Gate, 11(1948), p. 3 1 . Plandreau, Audrey: Ricarda Huchs Weltanschauung as expressed  i n her p h i l o s o p h i c a l works and i n her novels, Chicago, 1948. : "Ricarda Huchs Novellen," Germanic Review, I X V T l 9 5 0 ) , pp. 26 - 3 7 . Goes, Albrecht: "Mass Gelebten Lebens," Welt und Wort, V l l ( 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 3 1 2 - 3 1 3 . G o t t l i e b , E l f r i e d e : Ricarda Huch, L e i p z i g , B e r l i n , 1 9 1 4 . Grenzman, W.: Deutsche Dichtung der Gegenwart, Frankfurt am Main, 1 9 5 3 , pp. 1 3 7 - 1 5 2 . Gunther, Herbert: "Ricarda Huch," Merkur, 1 ( 1 9 4 7 - 4 8 ) , PP. 937-942. Gunther, Joachim: "Die grosse Unzeitgemasse, 1 1 Hochland, 1 V ( 1 § 5 2 ) , pp. 5 1 - 5 2 ? - 9 8 -Hoppe, E l s e : R i c a r d a Huch, Weg, P e r s o n l i c h k e i t , Werk, S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 5 1 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 5 0 ) . R i c a r d a Huch, P e r s o n l i c h k e i t und Werk i n D a r s t e l l u n g e n i h r e r Freunde, A t l a n t i s V e r l a g , B e r l i n , 1 9 3 4 . Huch, Rudolf: Aus einem engen Leben, L e i p z i g , 1 9 2 4 . Mann, Thomas: "Zum 60. Geburtstag R i c a r d a Huchs," Bemuhungen, Neue Folge der gesammelten Abhandlungen und k l e i n e n Aufsatze (Ges. Werke, Bd. X, B e r l i n , 1925), pp. 2 4 9 - 2 5 6 . Mutzer, P a u l a : Die Schweiz im Werke R i c a r d a Huchs, Bern, L e i p z i g , 1 9 3 5 . Niederdeutscher Almanach, " U n v e r o f f e n t l i c h t e B r i e f e von R i c a r d a Huch an Anne K l i e , " Oldenburg, 1 9 5 9 , pp. 1 4 6 - 1 5 0 . Radbruch, Gustav: " V i e r l o s e B l a t t e r f u r R i c a r d a Huch," Die Sammlung, 1 X ( 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 3 5 5 - 3 6 0 ) . S t r i c h , F r i t z : " R i c a r d a Huch," Das I n s e l s c h i f f , X l l ( 1 9 3 1 ) , pp. 2 0 9-226. W a l z e l , Oskar: " R i c a r d a Huchs Romantik," Vom G e i s t e s l e b e n des 18. und 1 9 . Jahrhunderts, L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 1 , pp. 9 5-134. : R i c a r d a Huch, E i n Wort iiber d i e Kunst des E r z a h l e n s , L e i p z i g , 1916. W i t t o w s k i , V i c t o r : "Eine B r i e f f o l g e von R i c a r d a Huch," S t u d i i n onore d i Lorenzo B i a n c h i , Bologna, I960, pp. 4 8 9 - 5 0 4 . A d d i t i o n a l Works c o n s u l t e d : B e i s s n e r , F r . , Hgb.: H o l d e r l i n , Samtliche Werke, S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 5 7 . Brentano, Clemens: Samtliche Werke, B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e s I n s t i t u t Wien, 1 9 0 2 . Buchwald, Reinhard, Hgb.: C a r o l i n e n s Leben, L e i p z i g , 1914. Garrod, H. W.: Keats' P o e t i c a l Works, London, 1 9 3 9 . G u n d e l f i n g e r , F., Hgb.: Steffens„ H., Lebenserinnerungen aus dem K r e i s der Romantik, Jena, 1 9 0 8 . K a h n , W a l l e r s t e i n , Carmen: S c h e l l i n g s Frauen: C a r o l i n e und  P a u l i n e , Bern, 1 9 5 9 . P r e i t z , Max, ed.: F r i e d r i c h S c h l e g e l und N o v a l i s , Darmstadt, 1 9 5 7 . - 9 9 -Schlegel, F r i e d r i c h v.: Lucinde, B e r l i n , L e i p z i g , 1926. Schleiermacher, F r . : Samtliche Werke, B e r l i n , 1835. : Uber Freundschaft, Liebe und Ehe, Eine Auswahl aus seinen B r i e f e n , S c h r i f t e n und Reden, H a l l e , 1 9 0 9 . Schmidt, E r i c h , Hgb.: Caroline, B r i e f e aus der Fruhromantik, L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 3 , Sidgwick, A.: Caroline Schlegel and her f r i e n d s , London, 1 8 9 9 , Stenzel, Gerhard, Hgb.: Die Deutschen Romantiker, Wien, 1957, Susman, Margarete: Frauen der Romantik, Jena, 1931* Unruh, F r i t z von: Reden, Frankfurter Societats-Druckerei, Frankfurt am Main, 1924. Waitz, G.: Caroline und i h r e Freunde, L e i p z i g , 1882. Wasmuth, E., Hgb.: Novalis, B r i e f e und Dokumente, Heidelberg, 1 9 5 4 . Werfel, Franz: Gedichte, Aus den Jahren 1908 - 1 9 4 5 , P r i v a t -druck der P a z i f i s c h e n Presse, Los Angeles, 1946. 

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