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Manifestations of impulse, ego and superego in adolescent girls Smordin, Marcelyn Mary 1962

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MANIFESTATIONS OF IMPULSE, EGO AND SUPEREGO IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS by MARCELYN MARY SMORDIN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19^7 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1962 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3, Canada. Date ~T7 ABSTRACT The general purpose of t h i s study was to carry out an investigation based on psychoanalytic concepts as a frame of reference. Adolescent g i r l s were chosen as subjects. The primary object was to assess the usefulness of the i d , ego, superego (IES) test as a means for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between delinquent adolescent g i r l s of high r a t i n g i n adjust-ment and those of low r a t i n g . Two q u a l i f i e d observers, in a t r a i n i n g school for delinquent g i r l s , were asked to agree on a choice of two groups of g i r l s whose d a i l y behaviour in the school had shown one group to possess and the other to lack the a b i l i t y to make s o c i a l l y acceptable adjustment. The subjects in both groups were given the IES Test and the scores were compared to determine whether the tests would d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the groups. None of the eight hypotheses concerning the expected differences of the two contrasting groups with regard to impulse, ego and superego test scores were confirmed. However, the arithmetic trends in the scores were consistent with the experimental hypotheses i n seven out of eight Instances. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s I wish to acknowledge the valuable a s s i s t a n c e and constant sympathetic and e n t h u s i a s t i c encouragement accorded to me by Dr. Edro S i g n o r i . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3 D e f i n i t i o n s 3 I I I . THE TESTS 10 Arrow Dot Test 10 P i c t u r e Story Completion Test 12 P i c t u r e T i t l e Test 14 Photo A n a l y s i s Test 17 IV. , PROCEDURE 20 Assumptions 20 Method 21 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n of Observers 22 Subjects 23 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 24 V.-i RESULTS 26 Arrow Dot Test 26 S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s 26 D i s c u s s i o n . . . . . 26 Summary of t e s t scores 27 P i c t u r e Story Completion Test 28 S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s 28 D i s c u s s i o n 28 Summary of t e s t scores 29 i i i CHAPTER PAGE P i c t u r e T i t l e Test 30 S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s 30 D i s c u s s i o n 30 Summary of t e s t scores 31 Photo A n a l y s i s Test 32 S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s 32 D i s c u s s i o n 32 Summary of t e s t scores . . . . . 33 VI. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 34 V I I . SUMMARY 38 BIBLIOGRAPHY 41 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM The general purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the behaviour of adolescent g i r l s guided by concepts developed through psychoanalysis as a frame of reference. The primary object was to assess the usefulness of the IES (impulse, Ego and Superego) t e s t as a means f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between delinquent-adolescent g i r l s of high r a t i n g i n adjustment and those of low r a t i n g i n adjustment. In t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n i t a l s o may be p o s s i b l e to throw some l i g h t on the usefulness of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n s t r u c t s as guides t o the assessment of behaviour. The IES t e s t was used i n t h i s study f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: a) The t e s t authors Dombrose and S l o b i n (1959) have shown t h a t , to a l i m i t e d degree, c e r t a i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l concepts can be used to define simple t e s t s i t u a t i o n s which y i e l d q u a n t i f i a b l e measures, of impulsive, r e a l i s t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and conscientious behaviour. b) Such p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l concepts have been accepted, to some extent over the past 38 years, as e f f e c t i v e explanations of behaviour. Delinquent adolescent g i r l s detained i n a t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n were chosen as subjects f o r the study because: a) The t e s t was devised o r i g i n a l l y f o r the assessment of behaviour of males and v a l i d a t i n g s t u d i e s !up to date, w i t h 2 the exception of Golden's (1954), have a l l been concerned w i t h males, hence the d e c i s i o n to apply the t e s t to females seemed t i m e l y . b) T r a d i t i o n a l opinion a s s e r t s t h a t delinquents tend to e x h i b i t i mpulsive, conscienceless and i r r e s p o n s i b l e behaviour; the type of behaviour which the t e s t i s designed t o measure. c) There were assurances that i n a t r a i n i n g school,• where delinquent adolescent g i r l s are placed under order of the B. C. J u v e n i l e Courts, one would have a v a i l a b l e q u a l i f i e d judges who have been able to l i v e w i t h and observe the sub-j e c t s f o r a p e r i o d of time. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was undertaken and designed both f o r the purpose of studying the r e s u l t s of the t e s t and compar-i n g the t e s t data w i t h the adjustment r a t i n g s , based on personal and inti m a t e contact w i t h the subjects made by two observers t r a i n e d i n the readjustment f i e l d . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OP LITERATURE The IES t e s t i s one of the f i r s t t e s t s devised to give a " q u a n t i f i a b l e measure of Impulse, Ego and Superego." I t c o n s i s t s of t e s t s i n s t a n c i n g a s e r i e s of standard s i t u a t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to e l i c i t behaviour which w i l l , according to the authors, Dombrose and S l o b i n (1951), "allow the impulse, ego and superego to manifest themselves i n a r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e and q u a n t i f i a b l e manner." D e f i n i t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g are d e f i n i t i o n s of the terms Impulse, Ego and Superego as Dombrose and Sl o b i n i n t e r p r e t e d them from Freudian psyc h o a n a l y t i c theory. Impulse. Dombrose and S l o b i n (1951) r e j e c t the i d concept by s t a t i n g "as a r e s u l t of the vagueness of the jLd. concept, i t w i l l be noted that the announced purpose of t h i s research makes no mention of the i n f l u e n c e of the i d upon the f u n c t i o n of the ego, but r a t h e r concerns i t s e l f w i t h the in f l u e n c e of impulses upon ego f u n c t i o n i n g . The concept of impulse has a more st a b l e h i s t o r y and a more p r e c i s e meaning than . i d . " Impulse then i s defined as f o l l o w s : An impulse i s "a q u a n t i t y of psychic energy p r e s s i n g f o r discharge.... 4 It i s primarily sexual and aggressive which are important for understanding personality.... By aggression i s meant the exercise of derogation, violence or power upon some object i n an endeavour to injure or destroy i t . It may be expressed i n a va r i e t y of ways but uses primarily the musculature of speech. The term sexual i s not e a s i l y defined psychoanalytically. It r e f e r s to a wide range of pleasurable -exci'tat±on and discharges i n addition to the customary r e s t r i c t i o n to genital union." Ego. Dombrose and Slobin (1951) use Freud's d e f i n i t i o n of ego as "the representative i n the mind of the r e a l world." Ego functions i n h i b i t immediate discharge of impulses i n accordance with r e a l i t y . " Functions of the ego can be grouped broadly under the headings of perception, integration and execution. By means of sensory organs, i n s t i n c t u a l impulses and external r e a l i t y are perceived. Subjective demands are then harmonized and then integrated with external circumstances With reference to the impulse t h i s i s accomplished by the use of defense mechanisms and controls of m o t i l i t y which delay, modify or p r o h i b i t discharge and with reference to the external world, by r e a l i t y t e s t i n g ... the discovering of the prop-e r t i e s and necessities of r e a l i t y . This involves judgement, reasoning, and the use of learning from past experience, i . e . , memory. In pursuing t h i s course the ego i s said to follow the r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e ... the postponing of g r a t i f i c a t i o n for 5 the a n t i c i p a t i o n of greater s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the f u t u r e . Stated another way ' I t represents the best deal the organism i s able t o negotiate w i t h r e a l i t y under given c o n d i t i o n s 1 . " Superego: Golden (195*0 has been very apt i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of superego as i t a p p l i e s t o Dombrose and S l o b i n J s research. I t i s as f o l l o w s : "The superego may be t h e o r e t i -c a l l y defined as that p o r t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y which i s the e x t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the moral p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i e t y , or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , of the moral p r i n c i p l e s of the parents. The concept of superego combines Freud's e a r l i e r concepts of ego i d e a l and conscience. Having incorporated both the reward-i n g and p u n i t i v e aspects of the i d e a l i z e d parents, the superego can i t s e l f be rewarding or punishing. While much of i t f u n c t i o n s on a conscious l e v e l , a s t i l l greater p a r t of i t remains unconscious." Freudian p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l t h e o r i e s have been challenged on the b a s i s that the nature of the phenomena i n question i s by no means c l e a r cut and w e l l understood, and t h e r e f o r e , do not lend themselves to accurate observation and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r e d i c t i o n s . An unfounded theory can be of value, however, i f i t gives r i s e t o worthwhile subsequent research. The r a t i o n a l e that Dombrose and S l o b i n have employed i n attempting t o b r i n g these t h e o r i e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s that although they f e e l that a " c o n s t r u c t " such as conscience (superego) or i d or ego cannot be v a l i d a t e d , the concept i t s e l f i s u s e f u l 6 i n e x p l a i n i n g d i v e r s e phenomena. They draw the analogy to the concept of i n t e l l i g e n c e , the manif e s t a t i o n s of which, when given an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , can be measured qu i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y . They have made observations about the mani-f e s t a t i o n of the i d , ego, and superego i n very r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s , and on t h i s b a s i s have devised a s e r i e s of t e s t s which attempt to reproduce the s i t u a t i o n s by a l l o w i n g the subject to p r o j e c t himself and h i s r e a c t i o n s i n t o the s i t u a t i o n s . In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h i s s e r i e s of t e s t s the authors have used the t h e o r e t i c a l explanatory concepts t o confirm the p r e d i c t a b l e v a r i a t i o n s of t e s t scores from group t o group of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d s u b j e c t s . The groups then were given the t e s t s t o evaluate the p r e d i c t i o n s . The authors c l a i m " i f i t can be demonstrated that the number of c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s made i s greater than that expected by chance, then the t e s t s w i l l be shown t o have v a l i d i t y , and the h y p o t h e t i c a l constructs u n d e r l y i n g them to have value i n e x p l a i n i n g behaviour." A l i m i t e d number of research s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out e v a l u a t i n g the IES t e s t s , u s i n g subjects d i f f e r i n g i n age, sex, and behaviour a b n o r m a l i t i e s . Dombrose and S l o b i n (1951), Charnes (1953). and Golden (1954) have a l l presented m a t e r i a l supporting the v a l i d i t y of the t e s t s . Dombrose and S l o b i n 1 s groups c o n s i s t e d of 15 n e u r o t i c p a t i e n t s , twenty p s y c h o t i c s and t h i r t y normal s u b j e c t s . In t h e i r study hypotheses were made from a n a l y t i c a l theory concerning the 7 r e l a t i v e impulse, ego, and superego strengths that were expected i n these three groups. They were able to show th a t t h e i r s cale d i s t i n g u i s h e d beyond chance expectancy between the three groups ... that i s p r e d i c t i o n s concerning each group's behaviour were confirmed beyond e x p e c t a t i o n . Of over 100 hypotheses made by Dombrose and S l o b i n , 75 per cent were sub-s t a n t i a t e d by the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s . Charnes (1953) t e s t e d 39 elementary school boys, 33 high school boys, and 32 f a t h e r s . Using the same c r i t e r i a as Dombrose and S l o b i n (1951) he made p r e d i c t i o n s guided by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l theory concerning Impulse, ego and superego strengths of " l a t e n t " , , "adolescent", and "ad u l t " groups. P r e d i c t i o n s made i n t h i s study were a l s o supported beyond chance expectancy. Of a t o t a l of 36 p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r group comparisons, 7 d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t at or beyond the 2 .05 l e v e l of confidence on both the , t I and the x t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t by the • t * t e s t alone, 8 by the x alone, although by chance only 1.8 could be expected. Golden Is (1954) research sought t o e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d -i t y of the t e s t s on the b a s i s of ev a l u a t i o n s of a c t u a l behaviour. He took 6 l g i r l s and 6 l boys from grades f i v e and s i x and had three teachers r a t e them independently on t h e i r classroom behaviour. The teachers had known the c h i l d r e n f o r at l e a s t s i x months, and agreement of two of the r a t e r s was necessary 8 f o r i n c l u s i o n of each subject i n t o one of the f o l l o w i n g groups: (a) w e l l adjusted; (b) imp u l s i v e ; (c) anxious and r i g i d combined. In Golden*s own words, " t e s t v a l i d i t y i s not being e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of t h e o r e t i c a l formulations which attempt t o e x p l a i n the dynamics u n d e r l y i n g c e r t a i n types of behaviour; i n s t e a d i t r e l i e s upon behaviour i t s e l f as an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . " Because Golden 1s groups d i d not in c l u d e those whose behaviour deviated s e r i o u s l y from the norm i n any way he r e j e c t e d the ordinary use of t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n comparing the groups. He f e l t that since he was d e a l i n g w i t h the centre p o r t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n both t a i l s having been excluded, he would not l i k e l y f i n d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between " a r b i t r a r i l y " determined sub groups i n the p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y he used the t - t e s t as a conser-vative' .estimate based upon d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of observed d i f f e r e n c e s , and a non-parametric s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n as a " l i b e r a l " estimate based only upon d i r e c t i o n s or rank order of scores. Of 33 hypotheses made, 15 were supported, at or beyond the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e according t o the con-s e r v a t i v e t e s t , w h i l e of 45 p r e d i c t i o n s of rank, 39 were c o r r e c t . I t was attempted i n the present study t o v a l i d a t e t e s t scores on a ba s i s s i m i l a r t o the procedure used by Golden (1954) by studying the a c t u a l behaviour of adolescent g i r l s and a v o i d i n g a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d groups as used by Dombrose and S l o b i n (1951) and Charnes (1953). The observers i n the 9 present study seemed to be not only more q u a l i f i e d but i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to evaluate behaviour than the teachers used by Golden ( 1 9 5 4 ) , since they possessed more d e t a i l e d knowledge about each subject's p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n because of t h e i r t r a i n -i n g and continuous contact w i t h the sub j e c t . Furthermore the observers were asked to choose only those subjects whose behaviour they could d e f i n i t e l y r a t e as high or low i n terms of adjustment. The teachers i n Golden's study had to rat e a l l sub j e c t s , 122 school c h i l d r e n and assign each to one of three behavioural groups. I t seems u n l i k e l y that Golden's teachers would have s u f f i c i e n t knowledge about the behaviour patterns of 122 c h i l d r e n to c l a s s i f y a c c u r a t e l y each i n t o a s p e c i f i c group. In order to e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of the t e s t s cer-t a i n hypotheses have been made concerning the responses given by the two groups on' each of the four t e s t s . I f i t can be shown that these two groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r t e s t scores then the t e s t i s v a l i d f o r use w i t h s i m i l a r groups of s u b j e c t s . CHAPTER I I I THE TESTS The IES Test i s a composite of se v e r a l t e s t s , f o r each of which b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s are given below: Arrow Dot T e s t 1 The Arrow Dot t e s t i s a s e r i e s of 23 problems r e q u i r i n g the subjects t o draw the shortest p o s s i b l e l i n e from the po i n t of the arrow t.o the dot, between which are i n t e r s p e r s e d a v a r i e t y of s o l i d l i n e s and bl a c k bars, defined as b a r r i e r s ; and dashed l i n e s and gapped bars which are not defined by the i n s t r u c t i o n s . This t e s t i n v o l v e s responses i n d i c a t i v e not only of impulse, ego or super ego t r a i t s but a l s o memory f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s , a b i l i t y t o absorb i n s t r u c t i o n s , and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of each t e s t , s c o r i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n s and sample t e s t s may be found i n MONOGRAPH SUPPLEMENT 3. PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS. The IES TEST, Montana State U n i v e r s i t y , Missoula, Montana. 11 I n s t r u c t i o n s : The examiner reads the i n s t r u c t i o n s aloud and demon-s t r a t e s w i t h three examples. There are i n s t r u c t i o n s p e r t a i n -i n g t o the f a l s e h a r r i e r s - - t h e s o l i d b l a c k l i n e s and the hlack oars. Pressure i s placed on the subject by asking her t o solve a l l the problems as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e and by r e c o r d i n g the a c t u a l time w i t h a stop-watch wh i l e the subject attempts to complete them. Ra t i o n a l e : The arrow i s considered t o represent impulse f o r c e s because of i t s symbolic use, and a l s o on the b a s i s of the i n s t r u c t i o n s r e q u i r i n g an a c t i v e extension of the arrow to the dot. The heavy bars and s i n g l e bars are b a r r i e r s t o the attainment of the g o a l . The dashed l i n e s and gapped bars may be considered f a l s e b a r r i e r s , as there are no i n s t r u c t i o n s about i n t e r p r e t i n g them, and any conception of these as true b a r r i e r s to be circumvented must come from the subject h i m s e l f . Prom the way the subject avoids or neglects to avoid t h e . b a r r i e r s i s i n f e r r e d the f u n c t i o n i n g of h i s impulses, ego, and superego. For example--the impulse-ridden i n d i v i d u a l i n t e n t upon a c h i e v i n g g r a t i f i c a t i o n w i l l often ignore or v i o l a t e i n t e r v e n i n g b a r r i e r s without due c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the demands of r e a l i t y . 12 Scoring: The responses t o each problem are scored i n terms of ( i ) u n c o n t r o l l e d impulse expression, (E) ego i n t e g r a t e d , r e a l i s t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n and (S) superego i n h i b i t e d . As the score on any one v a r i a b l e goes up, the other v a r i a b l e s must decrease. Therefore each score r e f l e c t s the i n t e r a c t i o n among the variables.''' Hypotheses: As the Arrow Dot Test i s p a r t l y a motor performance t e s t , the scores should be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the "expressed behaviour" of the s u b j e c t s . Thus the aggressive and impulsive subjects who comprise the group r a t e d low on adjustment should have the higher Impulse score. I t can then be hypothesized t h a t ; 1. More impulse expressive routes w i l l be taken by the group r a t e d low i n adjustment. 2. More ego c o n t r o l l e d routes w i l l he taken by the group r a t e d high i n adjustment. P i c t u r e Story Completion Test The P i c t u r e Story Completion t e s t c o n s i s t s of t h i r t e e n sets of cartoons, each having two or three cartoons which begins a s t o r y . The subject i s then requested t o end the This a p p l i e s t o each of the other three t e s t s used i n t h i s research. 1 3 s t o r y by s e l e c t i n g one p i c t u r e from three c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d . These c h o i c e s r e p r e s e n t impulse, ego and superego s o l u t i o n s . S c o r i n g ; The c h o i c e s permit one impul s e - e x p r e s s i v e , one ego-i n t e g r a t i n g , and one s u p e r e g o - i n h i b i t i n g ending, and are scored a c c o r d i n g l y . R a t i o n a l e : In t h i s t e s t i t i s assumed t h a t the s u b j e c t ' s choice of response w i l l be r e l a t e d i n some way t o the comparative st r e n g t h s of her own impulses, ego, and superego, and to her h a n d l i n g of them. T h i s s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e d s t o r y s i t u a t i o n w i t h m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e endings al l o w s the s u b j e c t t o f e e l t h a t she i s c o n s i d e r i n g a s i t u a t i o n e x t e r n a l t o h e r s e l f . Consequently, Dombrose and S l o b i n ( 1 9 5 1 ) b e l i e v e d t h a t the responses t o the PSC t e s t express the s u b j e c t ' s conception of the o u t s i d e world. The (I) score measures the degree t o which the s u b j e c t (a) sees others a c t i n g i m p u l s i v e l y and (b) responds t o the impulse a r o u s i n g aspects of her environment. The (E) score i n d i c a t e s how o b j e c t i v e l y she p e r c e i v e s the e x t e r n a l world without p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s upon the impulse-laden or m o r a l i s t i c conscience-bound a c t i v i t y . 14 The authors suggest that the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the (S) score he regarded as t e n t a t i v e as the d i f f e r e n c e among t h e i r v a l i d a t i n g groups was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Hypotheses: I f the group considered low i n adjustment may be presumed to respond to impulse-arousing aspects of the environment, while the group r a t e d high i n adjustment should have a more r e a l i s t i c conception of the impulsive and conscientious behaviour of others, one might hypothesize t h a t : l ) the group r a t e d low i n adjustment w i l l have the higher impulse score. (2) the group r a t e d high i n adjustment should have the higher ego score. P i c t u r e T i t l e Test The P i c t u r e T i t l e t e s t c o n s i s t s of twelve p i c t u r e s f o r each of which the subject i s r e q u i r e d to provide a t i t l e . In order t o score t h i s t e s t the s u b j e c t s 1 designations are then compared w i t h a manual of t i t l e s which emphasize the Impulsive, r e a l i s t i c or supergo aspects of the p i c t u r e s . Sample Card 5. This card shows a couple embracing i n a doorway i n the moonlight, a man and woman p o i n t i n g out of the upper window and a car parked at the curb. 15 Scoring: I, E , S, or D A score i s awarded to t i t l e s organized around; ( i ) an impulse laden a c t i v i t y ( E ) an integration of emotional or orienting factors of the picture (s) a conscience dominated attitude (D) any t i t l e which reveals that the subject had put great psychological distance between herself and the s i g n i f i c a n t content of the picture. Suggested scoring  I Score Lover 1s'Land Stolen Moments. Stolen Kiss. Having Pun. Necking. Kissing. Love. Nosy Neighbors. Back-Alley Love. Necking i n the doorway. Love on the Street. Love i n the Morning. Snoop. Peeping Toms. E Score Good night-. Saying Goodnight. Saturday Night. Saturday date. Home af t e r a Date. F i r s t Date. Gut Late. Coming Home Late. Ea r l y Morning. S Score Watchful Parents. Irate (Angry) Parents. Anxious Parents. Caught. Now You'll Catch I t . There's Cur N e l l . Parents up Late. Watching i n the Morning Hours. Father Knows Best. Go Home. Its Getting Late. D Score Street Scene. Parked Car. L i f e i n the ..City. Moonlight Night. IS Score Love. Love Without Permission. A Daughter and Her Parents. 16 R a t i o n a l e : In t h i s t e s t the subject must create a response of her own. I t i s assumed that the subject w i l l be aware that t h i s response w i l l r e f l e c t her own f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s or thoughts, and t h e r e f o r e her ego must be w i l l i n g to accept the m a t e r i a l revealed i n her t i t l e . The responses w i l l i n d i c a t e the extent to which the subject can recognize and accept her own impulses and superego pressures. The impulse score i n d i c a t e s the subject's r e c o g n i t i o n of her own impulses, but does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that they are accepted or commended. A low impulse score i n d i c a t e s the subject's l a c k of awareness of these f o r c e s i n h e r s e l f , a minimizing and r e j e c t i n g of these impulses. Therefore the ex-tent to which the two groups w i l l d i f f e r on the impulse score cannot be p r e d i c t e d . According to the authors, the superego score i n d i c a t e s "the awareness and r e c o g n i t i o n of superego standards, w i t h accompanying- f e e l i n g s of being 'good 1 and 'had'. This i s awareness of one's own conscience and i t s p r i c k i n g s . Thus a high S score r e v e a l s conscious f e e l i n g s of being bad, unworthy or g u i l t y , w h i l e a low S score r e v e a l s minimum aware-ness of superego pressures from the s e l f , and l i t t l e moral s e l f e v a l u a t i o n " . " ... the type of response given a Defense score represents an a c t i v e avoidance of d i s c o m f o r t i n g g u i l t or a d e n i a l of conscious g u i l t f e e l i n g s by means of withdrawal or s t e r i l e i d e a t i o n . " 17 A h i g h ego score i n d i c a t e s "a strong ego, able t o e x e r c i s e good judgement, i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y , and respond r e a l i s t i c a l l y and s a t i s f y i n g l y to one's i n n e r and outer environment." Hypotheses: Keeping i n mind the suggested i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the thre e scores two hypotheses can be made about the behaviour of the two groups: 1) The group r a t e d h i g h on adjustment w i l l have the hig h e r E s c o r e . 2) The group r a t e d low on adjustment w i l l have the lower S s c o r e . Photo A n a l y s i s T e s t The Photo A n a l y s i s t e s t has 9 middle-aged men's photographs t o which the su b j e c t a s s i g n s b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Three p l a u s i b l e answers are p r o v i d e d f o r two q u e s t i o n s which are answered about the presumed behaviour and f e e l i n g s of each photographed male. T h i s i s i n e f f e c t a m u l t i p l e c hoice t e s t which encourages p r o j e c t i o n of impulse, ego and superego behaviour. For example, the su b j e c t i s presented w i t h photograph C and asked; 18 1 . Does t h i s man l i k e most to s c o r i n g impulse) ego) superego) A. f i g h t B. r e l a x C. pray 2. Does he u s u a l l y do s c o r i n g A. what he t h i n k s i s best B. what older people t e l l (ego) (superego) him to C. whatever he wants to do (impulse) R a t i o n a l e : I t i s assumed th a t the s u b j e c t s ' responses bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r own dynamics. In t h i s t e s t the mechanism of p r o j e c t i o n works In s e v e r a l ways. The subject may p r o j e c t onto each photograph how she would l i k e (con-s c i o u s l y or unconsciously) to r e a c t i f she were free to behave i n a manner of her own choosing. I t i s , however, p o s s i b l e that she may not i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f so s t r o n g l y w i t h male photographs but would p r o j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of other important males i n her l i f e onto each photograph. In e i t h e r case responses to each question w i l l r e f l e c t the behaviour and f e e l i n g s of e i t h e r the subject h e r s e l f or those w i t h whom she i s emotionally i n v o l v e d . I t i s assumed that an i n d i v i d u a l who i s impulsive or i r r e s p o n s i b l e has learned to act i n that manner from close s o c i a l contact w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s endowed w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f t h i s i s the case, notwith-standing the sex of the photographed person, p r o j e c t i o n of behaviour and f e e l i n g s can he used as i n d i c a t o r s of the sub-j e c t ' s own i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n i n g and r e l a t i o n s h i p • t o r e a l i t y . 19 In short I t can he assumed that the s u b j e c t s 1 responses bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r own dynamics. Scoring: The s c o r i n g i s made d i r e c t l y i n terms of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s assigned to the photographs i n response t o the questions. Hypotheses: The behaviour of the group r a t e d high i n adjustment should be more ego-oriented and they should see others a c t i n g i n a more s o c i a l l y acceptable manner, while the group r a t e d low should have stronger impulses to p r o j e c t and should see others a c t i n g i m p u l s i v e l y . Thus one might hypothesize t h a t : 1, The group r a t e d high i n adjustment should have the higher ego score. 2 . The group r a t e d low i n adjustment should have the higher impulse score. CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE The v a l i d i t y of t h i s study depends mainly upon l ) the accuracy of the observer's r a t i n g of the behaviour of the subjects and 2) the a b i l i t y of the t e s t s to measure these same behaviour t r a i t s . In the previous chapter the IES t e s t s have been de s c r i b e d . In the present chapter some of the var-i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the observer's r a t i n g of the behaviour and the c o n t r o l s used w i l l be considered. Assumptions In order to ca r r y out t h i s study the f o l l o w i n g assumptions have been made. 1. That the observers were r a t i n g the subjects according to the same behaviour c r i t e r i a t hat the t e s t purports to measure. 2. That these same behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would  manifest themselves i n the s e t t i n g chosen f o r t h i s study. Conclusions as to the behaviour manifested would take i n t o account the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s s p e c i f i c environment as having a l i m i t i n g or l a s t i n g e f f e c t or no e f f e c t at a l l on the un d e r l y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . 3. That the observers were q u a l i f i e d and able t o r a t e the subjects on the same behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v i z . impulse, ego and superego, measured by the t e s t . 21 4. That a number of subjects possessing the c a p a c i t y f o r good s o c i a l adjustment would be a v a i l a b l e f o r study i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . 5 . That the subject's performance on the t e s t s would r e v e a l the u n d e r l y i n g dynamic s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . Method Two f u l l time s o c i a l workers at the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l T r a i n i n g School f o r Delinquent G i r l s were asked t o choose two groups of g i r l s whose d a i l y behaviour i n the school had shown them e i t h e r t o possess or to l a c k the a b i l i t y to make s o c i a l l y acceptable adjustments. The observers were asked to agree f u l l y on the choice of each su b j e c t . Of the 75 p o s s i b l e subjects i n the school two groups, 22 i n a l l were s e l e c t e d because only these o f f e r e d p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the worth-w h i l e , c a r e f u l and r e l i a b l e observation r e q u i r e d i n t h i s study. According to the observers the s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s were guided by the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : " P e r s o n a l i t y character-i s t i c s as observed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n over s e v e r a l months such as; m a n i f e s t a t i o n of emotional upheavals, performance i n t h e i r school work or i n the h a i r d r e s s i n g , sewing or t y p i n g courses and general a t t i t u d e to l e a r n i n g . " Those subjects who were more r e s p o n s i b l e , p e r s e v e r i n g , c o n s c i e n t i o u s and emotionally s t a b l e were given a 'high' r a t i n g i n adjustment 22 while those who were i r r e s p o n s i b l e , impulsive, immature, indo-l e n t , lacked a sense of f a i r p l a y and were n e g l e c t f u l of s o c i a l chores were given a 'low 1 r a t i n g . E i g h t of the subjects had been under observation f o r a p e r i o d of between one and two years, s i x f o r a p e r i o d longer than seven months and the remaining e i g h t subjects f o r a p e r i o d of between 4 and 7 months. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the Observers Both observers were experienced s o c i a l .workers w i t h one year of graduate t r a i n i n g taken at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work. One of the observers was the d i r e c t o r of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the school and had f i f t e e n y e a r s 1 experience not only w i t h j u v e n i l e g i r l s hut i n other r e l a t e d f i e l d s . The second observer had four y e a r s 1 experience In the f i e l d of s o c i a l work and seven months s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h delinquent g i r l s i n the school. As c o u n s e l l o r s they were i n close contact w i t h the subjects and were i n a p o s i t i o n to evaluate r e p o r t s from c l i n i c s , teachers, house mothers and s t a f f about the behaviour of each g i r l . These observers, because of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , were f a m i l i a r w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l concepts used i n the t e s t s and i t was reasonable to assume that when e v a l u a t i n g the behaviour of the subjects they were t h i n k i n g i n the same frame of reference as the authors of the IES t e s t . 23 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Subjects The s u b j e c t s were not matched f o r age or i n t e l l i g e n c e . The 22 s u b j e c t s , 10 of whom were r a t e d h i g h and 12 r a t e d low i n adjustment, ranged i n age from 14 t o 17i y e a r s . They were of average or above average i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one who was b o r d e r l i n e . T h e i r s c h o o l grades ranged from seven to eleven i n c l u s i v e . A l l s u b j e c t s were of white parents w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one n a t i v e B. C. I n d i a n . The m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s were born and r a i s e d i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a . Those who were not from Vancouver came from o u t l y i n g communities of B r i t i s h Columbia. They had a l l been committed t h i s T r a i n i n g School f o r Delinquent G i r l s which serves' the J u v e n i l e Courts of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. C o n t r o l of t e s t i n g procedure: Each s u b j e c t was approached by her s o c i a l worker, and asked to v o l u n t e e r f o r the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . The t e s t s were d e s c r i b e d as i n t e l l i g e n c e or a p t i t u d e t e s t s . The motiva-t i o n of the s u b j e c t s was, i n the o p i n i o n of the t e s t examiner, good and there seemed to be no conscious e f f o r t made to give f a l s e answers. The order i n which the t e s t s were presented was such as to w i t h h o l d t h e i r t rue nature. The f i r s t was the Arrow Dot, f o l l o w e d by the P i c t u r e Story Completion, then the P i c t u r e T i t l e t e s t , and, f i n a l l y , the P h o t o a n a l y s i s t e s t . T h i s 24 procedure r e p r e s e n t s a departure from the sequence l a i d down i n the manual which seems to r e a d i l y d i s c l o s e t o the s u b j e c t t h a t the t e s t s are designed to assess p e r s o n a l i t y . Care was taken by the observers not to d i s c l o s e t o the t e s t examiner the category i n t o which each g i r l f e l l , and such i n f o r m a t i o n was only t o be r e v e a l e d a f t e r a l l t e s t s were completely scor e d . The t e s t examiner, however, t o maintain r a p p o r t t a l k e d t o each s u b j e c t d u r i n g the t e s t p e r i o d , and may have u n w i t t i n g l y made c e r t a i n judgements about the per-sona l q u a l i t i e s of each s u b j e c t . Such judgements may have I n f l u e n c e d the s c o r i n g on the P i c t u r e T i t l e t e s t which was the only t e s t where s c o r i n g i s not given i n completely o b j e c t i v e terms. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s S p e c i f i c a l l y the purpose of the study was to determine whether the two groups, i . e . , the group r a t e d h i g h and the group r a t e d low on adjustment d i f f e r e d from each other i n t h e i r IES t e s t r e s u l t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t used to evaluate such d i f f e r e n c e s was the ' f - t e s t . , . The problem arose as to whether to use a one or two-t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c c o r d i n g to Ferguson (1959)> i f we are i n t e r e s t e d i n a d i f f e r e n c e i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , and may have no p r i o r grounds f o r p r e d i c t i n g the d i r e c t i o n of The formulae used f o r the computation of the ' f - t e s t i s g iven by Ferguson (1959) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION, Pages 131-145. 25 the d i f f e r e n c e we must use the t w o - t a i l e d t - t e s t . I f we have reason to b e l i e v e t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e , i f i t does occur, w i l l occur i n one d i r e c t i o n only, the one t a i l e d t e s t should be used. Since the hypotheses p r e d i c t the d i r e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e , that i s , which group w i l l score higher than the other i n each case, a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used. In doing t h i s i t has been s p e c i f i e d which t a i l of the d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be i n v o l v e d , and have discounted the chance p r o b a b i l i t i e s of the other. CHAPTER V RESULTS Arrow Dot Test S p e c i f i c P r e d i c t i o n s : , I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t ; 1. More impulse expressive routes would be taken by the group r a t e d low i n adjustment. 2. More ego c o n t r o l l e d routes would be taken by the group r a t e d high i n adjustment. D i s c u s s i o n There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on the impulse, ego and superego scores at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, the two ego scores showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the .25 and .10 l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the ego and impulse scores, although not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l were i n the d i r e c t i o n pre-d i c t e d by both hypotheses. That i s , more impulse expressive routes were taken by the group r a t e d low In adjustment and more e g o - c o n t r o l l e d routes were taken by the group r a t e d high i n adjustment. Summary of IES Scores on the Arrow Dot Test df - 17 Impulse Ego Superego Ratings High Low High Low High Low Vlean Scores 2.22 3.5 18.71 16.71 2.07 1.96 SD 2.066 2.830 2.860 3.493 1.587 1.170 Level of t .987 P < .25 1.215 p < .25 > .10 .163 P < .25 2 8 P i c t u r e Story Completion Test  S p e c i f i c P r e d i c t i o n s : 1. The group r a t e d low In adjustment would have the higher impulse score. 2 . The group r a t e d high i n adjustment should have the higher ego score. D i s c u s s i o n There was no d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on the impulse, ego and superego score at the . 0 5 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The impulse scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at between the . 2 5 and . 1 0 l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n c e i n scores, although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , were i n the d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d by both hypotheses. That i s , the group r a t e d high i n adjustment had the higher ego score and the group r a t e d low i n adjustment y i e l d e d the higher impulse score. 2 9 Summary of IES Scores on the P i c t u r e Story Completion Test df = 2 0 Impulse Ego Superego Ratings High Low High Low High Low Mean Scores 1 . 5 2 . 4 2 7 . 0 6 . 7 5 4 . 5 3 . 8 3 SD 1 . 9 1 0 1 . 5 4 2 2 . 2 8 0 2 . 1 2 3 1 . 9 1 0 1 . 5 6 8 L e v e l of t 1 . 1 9 1 p < . 2 5 > . 1 0 . 2 4 3 not s i g n i f i c a n t P < . 2 5 . 8 6 1 not s i g n i f i c a n t P < . 2 5 30 P i c t u r e T i t l e Test S p e c i f i c P r e d i c t i o n s : 1. The Group r a t e d high on adjustment would have the higher E score. 2. The group r a t e d low on adjustment would have the lower S score. D i s c u s s i o n : The f i r s t hypothesis that the group rated high i n adjustment would have the higher ego score was confirmed at the . 10 l e v e l of confidence. That i s , there were only ten chances i n 100 that a d i f f e r e n c e as great as that could be obtained by chance. The second hypothesis c l a i m i n g that the group r a t e d low i n adjustment would have the lower superego score was n e i t h e r confirmed i n magnitude nor d i r e c t i o n . Of the two groups of subjects the group whose behaviour was r a t e d low showed as much awareness of g u i l t as the group r a t e d high. The i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the superego scores of the two groups i n d i c a t e s that the groups who have made a poor a d j u s t -ment i n the school have as much awareness of superego stand-ards w i t h the accompanying f e e l i n g of being bad or good as the b e t t e r adjusted group. 31 Summary of IES Scores on the P i c t u r e T i t l e Test df = 20 Impulse Ego Superego Ratings High Low High Low High Low Mean Scores 3.15 3.83 4.7 3.4 4.15 4.67 SD 1.627 1.841 2.193 2.271 2.202 1.3114 L e v e l of t .877 P < .25 p < .25 > .10 .627 P < .25 32 Photo A n a l y s i s Test S p e c i f i c P r e d i c t i o n s : 1. The group r a t e d high i n adjustment should have the higher ego score. 2 . The group r a t e d low i n adjustment should have the higher impulse score. D i s c u s s i o n : There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on the impulse, ego and superego scores. However, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n ego and impulse scores, although not s i g n i f i c a n t , were In the d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d by both hypotheses. That i s , the group r a t e d low i n adjustment had the higher impulse score and the group-r a t e d high i n adjustment had the higher ego score. 33 Summary of IES Score on the Photo A n a l y s i s Test d f = 20 Impulse Ego Superego Ratings High Low High Low High Low Mean Scores 3.6 4.83 10.2 8.75 4.2 4.42 SD 2.2.44 2.351 2.959 2.819 2.561 2.334 L e v e l of t 1.194 not s i g n i f i c a n t P < .25 1.115 not s i g n i f i c a n t P < .25 .2007 not s i g n i f i c a n t P < .25 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION OP RESULTS I t has been shown i n the a n a l y s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l t e s t scores of the Arrow Dot, Photo A n a l y s i s , P i c t u r e Story Completion and P i c t u r e T i t l e t e s t s t h a t these t e s t s have not been able to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the groups r a t e d h i g h and low on adjustment when the customary t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e — the t - t e s t was used. Of e i g h t hypotheses made concerning the expected v a r i a t i o n s of the two groups, none were con-f i r m e d . That i s , there was no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between two groups at the . 0 5 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . However, the a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e i n the scores are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the experimental hypotheses i n seven out of e i g h t i n s t a n c e s . That i s , not c o n s i d e r i n g the magnitude of the d i f f e r e n c e of the t e s t scores of the two experimental groups, the d i r e c t i o n i n which the a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e occurred was the same as p r e d i c t e d i n the hypotheses i n a l l cases but one. Hence the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s why such d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not r e a c h the l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . S e v e r a l reasons may be advanced to account f o r the small d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were obtained. The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the nature of the experimental groups used i n the study. Although the observers were able to r a t e the behaviour of the s u b j e c t s they were s t i l l r a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y abnormal s u b j e c t s i n t h a t they were a l l d e l i n q u e n t s as d e s c r i b e d by the j u d i c i a l 3 5 system of the province. Because the subjects were a l l drawn from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y abnormal population any great d i f f e r e n c e i n score between the two groups probably should not be expected to occur. I t may have been presumptuous to assume that a group of subjects which could be r a t e d high i n adjustment would be a v a i l a b l e f o r study i n t h i s type of i n s t i t u t i o n . However, since there i s a d e f i n i t e t rend which the t e s t scores f o l l o w i t seems reasonable t o suggest that i f a group of delinquents could be matched f o r age, i n t e l l i g e n c e and socioeconomic background w i t h a more c o n t r a s t i n g group of non delinquents i t may be hypothesized that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e might occur between the t e s t scores of two such groups, and the t e s t s would he u s e f u l f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between delinquent and non delinquent j u v e n i l e females. I t may have been wrong to assume that the subjects would manifest the behaviour p a t t e r n (impulse, ego and superego strength) under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the t r a i n i n g school where they were being observed. I t i s p o s s i b l e that some of the subjects i n the group r a t e d high could have been a f f e c t e d by the school environment such that a true p i c t u r e of t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e was not manifested. I t i s conceivable that t h i s type of s h e l t e r e d t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n might have had a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on some of the subjects which could account f o r a good s o c i a l adjustment w i t h i n the 36 i n s t i t u t i o n but not n e c e s s a r i l y elsewhere. Our next assumption was that the observers who were r a t i n g the behaviour of the two groups of subjects were accurate i n t h e i r judgements. Apart from the c r i t e r i a of agreement i n the r a t i n g s no independent t e s t was made to determine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the o v e r a l l judgements. Hence there may have been erroneous placements i n the groups. Another assumption was that the t e s t s themselves would give a measure of impulse, ego and superego strength i n j u v e n i l e delinquent female s u b j e c t s . I t may be that the t e s t s are not v a l i d f o r use w i t h female subjects as they-were o r i g i n a l l y designed f o r use w i t h males. In c o n s i d e r i n g the t e s t s themselves the nature of the m a t e r i a l used t o construct the t e s t s w i l l not he discussed as other s t u d i e s have shown the t e s t to he v a l i d f o r males. However, t h i s experimenter would recommend a d i f f e r e n t approach to the s c o r i n g of these t e s t s when used w i t h subjects s i m i l a r to those used i n t h i s study. As the t e s t s are scored now each item i s given an equal score of "one" poi n t under the cate g o r i e s of e i t h e r impulse, ego or super-ego. When these t e s t s are used w i t h a s p e c i f i c group of subjects ( d e l i n q u e n t s ) , as they were i n the present study, some of the items seemed to be "loaded" whereas others appeared t r i v i a l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e v e a l the u n d e r l y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of impulse, ego and superego. Though i t d i d 37 not seem reasonable to give equal weight i n the sc o r i n g of each response, no attempt has been made to determine what the i d e a l method of s c o r i n g might be. In s p i t e of a l l the f a c t o r s that might confound the t e s t r e s u l t s the f a c t that there i s a d e f i n i t e trend which the t e s t scores f o l l o w suggests that there are p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r u s i n g t h i s t e s t to assess p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . Moreover, i f some refinement of these t e s t s can be achieved the Arrow Dot, P i c t u r e Story Completion and P i c t u r e T i t l e t e s t s would seem to have the most promise since a d i f f e r e n c e beyond the . 2 5 l e v e l of. confidence was obtained i n some of the comparisons. Of these three t e s t s only the ego score of the P i c t u r e T i t l e t e s t showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the .10 l e v e l . CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY The g e n e r a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s g u i d e d by p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t s as a f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t was t o a s s e s s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e I ES ( i m p u l s e , ego and s u p e r e g o ) T e s t as a means f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g be tween d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s o f h i g h r a t i n g i n a d j u s t m e n t and t h o s e o f l ow r a t i n g and b y d o i n g so t o t h r o w some l i g h t on t h e u s e -f u l n e s s o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n s t r u c t s a s g u i d e s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f b e h a v i o u r . The I ES t e s t i s one o f t h e f i r s t t e s t s d e v i s e d t o g i v e a " q u a n t i f i a b l e measu re o f i m p u l s e , ego and s u p e r e g o . " I t c o n s i s t s o f t e s t s i n s t a n c i n g a s e r i e s o f s t a n d a r d s i t u a t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t b e h a v i o u r w h i c h w i l l , a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s , Dombrose and S l o b i n (1951). " a l l o w t h e I m p u l s e , ego and s u p e r e g o t o m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n a r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e and q u a n t i f i a b l e m a n n e r . " I t i s a c o m p o s i t e o f f o u r t e s t s ; The A r r o w D o t , P i c t u r e S t o r y C o m p l e t i o n , P i c t u r e T i t l e and P h o t o a n a l y s i s t e s t s . M e t h o d Two w e l l t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s , f u l l t i m e s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e T r a i n i n g S c h o o l f o r D e l i n q u e n t G i r l s w h i c h s e r v e s t h e 39 J u v e n i l e Courts of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia were asked t o agree on a choice of two groups of g i r l s whose d a i l y behaviour i n the school had shown one group to possess and the other to l a c k the a b i l i t y to make s o c i a l l y acceptable adjust-ments. Of the 75 p o s s i b l e subjects i n the school two groups, 22 subjects i n a l l were s e l e c t e d because only these o f f e r e d p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the form of comparison planned i n the study. Those subjects who were more r e s p o n s i b l e , conscientious and emotionally s t a b l e were given a high r a t i n g i n adjustment while those who were i r r e s p o n s i b l e , impulsive, immature, lacked a sense of f a i r play and were n e g l e c t f u l of s o c i a l chores were given a low r a t i n g . The two groups were then given the IES t e s t and the scores were compared to determine whether the t e s t s would d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the groups. Subjects The m a j o r i t y of the subjects had been under observation f o r a p e r i o d of a year and none l e s s than four months. They ranged i n age from 14 to 17i years, were of average or above average i n t e l l i g e n c e . Most of the subjects were born and r a i s e d i n the greater Vancouver area. A l l had been committed to the T r a i n i n g School through the B. C. J u v e n i l e Courts. Eight hypotheses were made i n regard to the t e s t scores of the two groups. In general terms the hypotheses p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups w i t h regard to impulse, ego and superego t e s t scores. 4o In order t o make these hypotheses the f o l l o w i n g assumptions, were made: 1. That the observers were r a t i n g the subjects accord-i n g to the same behavioural c r i t e r i a that the t e s t purports to apply. 2. That these same behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would manifest themselves i n the s e t t i n g chosen f o r t h i s study. 3. That the s u b j e c t s 1 performance on the t e s t would r e v e a l the u n d e r l y i n g dynamic s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . 4. That the observers were q u a l i f i e d and able t o r a t e the subjects on the same behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v i z . , impulse, ego and superego, measured by the t e s t . None of eigh t hypotheses concerning the expected v a r i a t i o n s of the two groups were confirmed. However, the a r i t h m e t i c trends In the scores were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the experimental hypotheses i n seven out of e i g h t instances One of the reasons advanced to account f o r the small d i f f e r e n c e s that were obtained i n v o l v e d the nature of the experimental groups used i n the study. Because the subjects were a l l drawn from a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y abnormal po p u l a t i o n any great d i f f e r e n c e i n score between the two groups probably would not be expected to occur. I f , however, a group of delinquents could be matched f o r age, i n t e l l i g e n c e and socioeconomic background w i t h a group of more c o n t r a s t i n g non delinquents i t may be that s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n to the same set of hypotheses could be obtained. 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bennett, Ivy. Delinquent and Neurotic C h i l d r e n . T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n i 9 6 0 . London, England. C a t t e l l , Raymond B. P e r s o n a l i t y and M o t i v a t i o n s t r u c t u r e and measurement. New York World Book Company, 1957. Charnes, G. The r e l a t i v e strengths of impulses, ego and superego i n l a t e n c y , adolescence and adulthood. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1953. Dombrose, L., and S l o b i n , M. An approach to the measurement of the r e l a t i v e strengths of impulses, ego, and superego, and the determination of the e f f e c t s of impulses and super-ego on ego f u n c t i o n s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Western Reserve Univ. , 1951. Dombrose, L. A. and S l o b i n , M. S. The IES Test Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s . Monograph Supplement 3 1958. Montana State Univer., Missoula, Montana. Ferguson, George. A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n Psychology and Education. McGraw H i l l Book Company, Inc. Toronto 1959. Freud, Sigmund. Beyond the Pleasure P r i n c i p l e . Boni and L i v e r i g h t P u b l i s h e r s . • New York. Freud, Sigmund. C o l l e c t e d Papers V o l . I, 1924. The Hogarth Press, 42 W i l l i a m St., W.C. 2 London. Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id 1927. The Hogarth Press L t d . , 42 W i l l i a m St., W.C. 2 London. Golden, D. M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of impulses, ego and superego In elementary school boys and g i r l s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Western Reserve Univer., 1954. Nebraska Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n i960, U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press (pages 173—On the P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l Theory of M o t i v a t i o n and Rapport) 

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