UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The polygonal graphing of climatic factors of forest areas of British Columbia Pillsbury, Richard Washburn 1945

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1945_A8 P54 P6.pdf [ 11.2MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105725.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105725-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105725-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105725-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105725-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105725-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105725-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105725-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105725.ris

Full Text

1  -A  1' H  h  "THE POLYGONAL GRAPHING OF CLIMATIC FACTORS OF FOREST AREAS OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA. By R i c h a r d Washhurn . P i l l s h u r y  A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e r e t i r e m e n t s f o r t h e degree o f MASTER OF ARTS I n t h e Department of BIOLOGY AND BOTANY  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1 9 4 5 .  - i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Page PREFATORY INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  iv  INTRODUCTION  1  METHODS  1  CHOICE OP STATIONS.». .  2  CHOICE OF FACTORS  3  ARRANGEMENT OF FACTORS  4  METHOD OF SCALING FACTORS  5  DISCUSSION OF METHODS  6  INDIVIDUAL STATIONS Victoria Nanaimo Sidney Vancouver Agassiz Ocean F a l l s Uoluelet. Quatsino B e l l a Coola P r i n c e Rupert Massett K a m i oops Vernon Summerland Oliver S a l m o n Arm R e v e l s t oke Rossland... Kaslo Nelson Golden Quesnel. P r i n c e George Telkwa F o r t S t . James Invermere Fernie  17 .  •o  ;"'  « »« «  17 21 24 27 33 35 40 42 45 48 54 58 61 62 64 66 67 69 71 73 76 78 82 85 87 89 91  - i i i SUMHARIZATION OF EACH FOREST REGION  95  Coast f o r e s t , S e o t i o n s 2-4 Coast f o r e s t , S e c t i o n 1 Columbia f o r e s t Montane f o r e s t Subalpine forest Grassland Comparison o f average polygons  96 98 102 104 107 108 I l l  CONCLUSION  112  SUMMARY  113  BIBLIOGRAPHY  115  TABLES I t o X I I MAP  ( f o l l o w page 1 1 8 )  -ivPREFATORY INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The undertaken  work p r e s e n t e d  i n t h i s t h e s i s was o r i g i n a l l y -  a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r A. H.  w i t h t h e purpose o f demonstrating  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e  method o f p o l y g o n a l g r a p h i n g t o c l i m a t e s . that,  i f those  Hutchinson,  I t was b e l i e v e d  f a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e most d i r e c t l y b e a r i n g u p o n  the c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e  f o r n a t i v e s p e c i e s were g r a p h e d b y t h i s  m e t h o d , d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n s s h o u l d be p r o d u c e d , w h i c h o n comp a r i s o n w i t h t h e known e c o l o g i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s w o u l d d i s t i n c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the graph-patterns  show and t h e  native biotas. I n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s p l a n , i t has appeared t o plaoe t h e polygons  t h a t developed  necessary  on l e f t - h a n d p a g e s , i n  o r d e r t h a t t h e y may be more r e a d i l y o o n s u l t e d a s t h e t e x t u a l matter  i s read.  few c a s e s  Because o f others t y p i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n a  a p o l y g o n may n o t f a o e t h e t i t l e - n a m e o f i t s s t a t i o n  w h i c h oomes n e a r t h e b o t t o m o f a p a g e , b u t o v e r t h e p a g e , f a c i n g t h e main body o f d a t a f o r i t s s t a t i o n . c o n t e n t s g i v e s t h e page o f t h e s t a t i o n - n a m e ily  of i t s polygonal The  ly  cited  The t a b l e o f  and n o t n e c e s s a r -  graph.  b i b l i o g r a p h y oontains not only references  direct-  i n t h e t e x t , b u t a l s o a number o f r e f e r e n c e s t o w o r k s  used as g e n e r a l background  information, forming the matrix f o r  t h e s p e c i f i c p o i n t s e n u m e r a t e d and f o r t h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e that i spresent  i n the w r i t e r ' s mind.  -vThe  w r i t e r wishes t o express  h i s s i n c e r e t h a n k s and  g r a t i t u d e t o t h e p r o f e s s o r s and r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s i n t h i s  field  who h a v e b e e n o f t h e g r e a t e s t a s s i s t a n c e ; e s p e c i a l l y t o P r o f e s s o r A. H. H u t o h i n s o n f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g  suggestions,  e n c o u r a g e m e n t and p a t i e n o e ;  t o P r o f e s s o r V. E . S h e l f o r d o f  the U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s ,  who f i r s t  field  o f dynamic e c o l o g i o a l r e s e a r c h  opened t h e d o o r o n t h e on a n i m a l s ;  t o Professors  V. E. B r i n k , I . M o T a g g a r t Cowan, and B. G. G r i f f i t h  o f the  d e p a r t m e n t s o f Agronomy, Z o o l o g y and F o r e s t r y f o r t h e i r many h e l p f u l suggestions  about p r o b l e m s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and  climatic conditions i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a ; t o Mr. N a p i e r  of t h e Dominion M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Servioe, V i o t o r i a , oHmate and a n n o t a t e d  oopies  of t h e "Climate  Dennisai  f o r d a t a on  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a " , and t o Mr. F. S. M c K i n n o n , d i r e c t o r o f t h e Research D i v i s i o n , B. C. F o r e s t tions  S e r v i o e , who l e d h i m t o t h e p u b l i c a -  o f H a l l i d a y and T h o r n t h w a i t e .  express  Finally,  I wish t o  my g r a t i t u d e t o T r a o y P i l l s b u r y , who s p e n t a g r e a t  many h o u r s i n h e l p i n g w i t h m a t h e m a t i c a l r e d u c t i o n s d a t a and t y p e d paper.  the f i r s t  of weather  copy o f t h e o r i g i n a l d r a f t o f t h i s  THE POLYGONAL GRAPHING OP CLIMATIC FACTORS OF FOREST AREAS OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA.  INTRODUCTION The  p u r p o s e o f t h i s w o r k i s t o show t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  o f p o l y g o n a l g r a p h s t o t h e p r o b l e m o f d e s c r i b i n g and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the types  of climate which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e  different vegetation associations i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  METHOD The  use of polygonal  The  theory o f polygonal graphing  has b e e n d e v e l o p e d was d e c i d e d  graphs. of ecological  and e x p l a i n e d b y H u t o h i n s o n  (194-0).  It  t o t r y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e method t o s u o h d a t a  as c o u l d be o b t a i n e d , f o r t h e o l i m a t e s o f s i g n i f i c a n t in British  data  stations  Columbia.  Souroe o f c l i m a t i c  data.  Data used were t a k e n  from t h e published  Monthly  Weather Reoords o f t h e Dominion M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e f o r t h e y e a r s 1927 t o 1 9 3 7 , i n c l u s i v e . was made o f t h e c o n d e n s a t i o n s found  i n t h e annual  I n a d d i t i o n , muoh u s e  of the e x t e n s i v e Dominion  publication,  "Climate  of B r i t i s h  data  Columbia"  f o r 1927 t o 1 9 3 7 , i n c l u s i v e , p u b l i s h e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e a t V i c t o r i a , under t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f the Superintendent  of t h e Dominion M e t e o r o l o g i o a l  Observatory  -2at V i c t o r i a . two:  first,  The r e a s o n s  f o r c h o o s i n g t h e y e a r s s t a t e d were  i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o be  o f r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l u e a s i n d i c a t o r s o f a c t u a l o l i m a t e , w e a t h e r r e o o r d s must be t a k e n f o r a t l e a s t t e n y e a r s ; second,  a t t h e time  o f i n i t i a t i n g t h e p r o j e o t , 1937 was t h e  most r e c e n t y e a r f o r w h i o h o o m p l e t e d a t a were p u b l i s h e d , a s the  "Monthly  a f t e r date.  Weather Record"  i s always  p u b l i s h e d two y e a r s  The r e a s o n f o r u s i n g e l e v e n r a t h e r t h a n t e n  y e a r s ' r e c o r d s was, t o a l l o w i f p o s s i b l e f o r d e f e o t i v e r e o o r d s . F o r two s t a t i o n s  one y e a r ' s r e o o r d s a r e l a c k i n g o r i n c o m p l e t e .  I n eaoh case, t h e break  i s i n t h e y e a r 1929.  These t w o  s t a t i o n s a r e added t o t h e l i s t a s b e l o w . Ohoioe o f s t a t i o n s . Twenty-seven s t a t i o n s were ohosen i n two c a t e g o r i e s : 1.  Fourteen s t a t i o n s , having  sunshine  r e c o r d s f o r t e n o r more y e a r s . 2.  Thirteen additional stations,  s i m i l a r d a t a , exoept  with  f o r t h e l a o k of sunshine  records. The geographic  c h o i c e o f s t a t i o n s was made t o g i v e a s w i d e a  range as p o s s i b l e w i t h i n each o f t h e d i f f e r e n t  Forest Sections of Halliday's f o r Canada".  (1937) " F o r e s t  Classification  When p o s s i b l e , s t a t i o n s w e r e c h o s e n a l s o f o r  boundary r e g i o n s , o r "ecotones"  o f C l e m e n t s and S h e l f o r d  (1939) p p . 2 8 , 2 3 3 . The  s t a t i o n s chosen a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g :  -3V i o t o r i a , S i d n e y , Nanaimo Vancouver,  Agassiz  U c l u e l e t , Quatsino, P a l l s , B e l l a Coola Massett, Prince  Ocean  Rupert  ( S e a - l e v e l p h a s e o f Montane F o r e s t , Coast F o r e s t , S e c t i o n (Coast  Forest,  Seotion  2)  (Coast  Forest,  Seotion  3)  (Coast  Forest,  Section  4)  Kamloops, Vernon, Summerland, O l i v e r  (Grassland)  Salmon  (Columbia-Montane Ecotone)  Arm  Nelson, Kaslo,  Rossland  Revelstoke I jvvfermere,  Golden  1)  Forest,  (Columbia F o r e s t , Seotion  1)  (Columbia F o r e s t ,  2)  Section  (Montane F o r e s t ,  Seotion  1)  Quesnel  (Montane F o r e s t ,  Seotion  T e l k w a , P o r t S t . James, P r i n c e George  (Montane-Boreal T r a n s i t i o n , Seotion M4)  Pernie  (Sub-Alpine  2-3)  Forest, Seotion  2)  Choice of f a o t o r s . Eight Sunlight i n the  f a c t o r s w e r e c h o s e n , as  F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ; L o n g e s t Dry  F r o s t l e s s Season; C o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the P-E  Hours  Period  of  i n the  of P r e c i p i t a t i o n effectiveness  F r o s t l e s s Season ( g i v e n as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the  annual  index); Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n ; P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  index (I'  follows:  ( I of Thornthwaite, 1931); Temperature e f f i c i e n c y  of Thornthwaite);  index  p e r o e n t a g e - o o n o e n t r a t i o n of Temperature  e f f i o i e n o y i n the three  summer months ( a f t e r  number o f d a y s i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n .  Thornthwaite);  These e i g h t  were c h o s e n as b e i n g t h o s e most w i d e l y h e l d  as o f  weight i n b i o t i o  Shelford,  e f f e c t - v a l u e ( C l e m e n t s and  faotors  greatest 1939,  KEY  CHART  p. I 6 3 - I 6 4 ) ,  and  as b e i n g t h o s e most c o m p l e t e l y  from meteorologioal data. had  t e n o r more y e a r s  O n l y 15 s t a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h  of sunshine  t h e s e , T r a n q u i l l e , was  disoarded  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y t o Kamloops.  reoords  are l e f t  t o 1937,  For the remaining  Columbia  and  as t o o s i m i l a r and  s t a t i o n s , o n l y s e v e n f a o t o r s oan be the polygons  available  one  too  of  olose  thirteen  o b t a i n e d and  f o r these  open a t t h e e i g h t h a n g l e .  The  hope i s  e n t e r t a i n e d t h a t a t l e a s t some s t a t i o n s w i l l i n t h e f u t u r e be oompleted w i t h sunshine  reoords.  A r r a n g e m e n t o f E a o t o r - r a d i i i n t h e Key The  v a r i o u s f a c t o r s are arranged  Chart.  i n the  accompanying  k e y c h a r t , s o t h a t e a c h f a c t o r i s shown b e t w e e n t h o s e w h i c h i t i s most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d a s e x p l a i n e d b y ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. set  4 7 7 - 7 9 , who  or related  (Choioe  i n p r i n o i p l e those having  phenomena may  names o f t h e f a c t o r s  Hutchinson  w h i l e d e a l i n g w i t h a somewhat d i f f e r e n t  o f f a c t o r s , shows how  like  with  best'be  associated.  t o do The  with  aotual  i n t h e p r e s e n t work a r e g i v e n above  of f a c t o r s ) reading i n a counterclockwise  series  order. The  e i g h t f a c t o r s are  brevity labelled  on t h e  f o r purposes of c l a r i t y  respective radii  as  and  follows:  Hours o f S u n l i g h t i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n i s  F.S.  Sun.  Length  is  E.S.  Da.  is  S.C.  T-E.  is  I'  o f F r o s t l e s s Season i n days  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e efficienoy  3  ( J l iQ <  T e m p e r a t u r e e f f i c i e n c y I n d e x ( ^,g-32() P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s Index  115./  P  i s I.  -5Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n inches  i s P.  P e r Cent o f P-E i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n  i s P.S. P-E.  Longest  I Dry Period i n the Frostless Season, i n days d u r a t i o n , Method  o f s o a l i n g each  factor.  A l l factors are plotted as t h e s q u a r e The  i s F.S. L . D r .  on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r a d i i  roots of the actual numerioal values  obtained.  n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s g i v e n o n e a c h p o l y g o n a l g r a p h a r e how-  e v e r t h e a o t u a l v a l u e s i n each oase, not t h e square r o o t s . The  reason f o r t h i s treatment  follow  will  be g i v e n i n a p a p e r t o  shortly. In  Hutohinson's  (194-0) method o f g r a p h i n g e o o l o g i o a l  d a t a , i t i s t a k e n more o r l e s s f o r g r a n t e d end  desired i s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n not o f data, important  t h i s be, but of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  data a r e plotted  reason, a l l  of a polygon  into  three  h y p o - meso- and s u p e r - b i o o l i m a t i c b a n d s  as t h e y a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y i n n e r , m i d d l e radii  Forthis  on r a d i i w h i c h a r e i n t u r n d i v i d e d  e q u a l segments, c a l l e d  though  o f t h e d a t a i n a manner t h a t  w i l l be m e a n i n g f u l a s w e l l a s a o c u r a t e .  as  that the principal  ( H u t c h i n s o n , 194-0).  and o u t e r p a r t s o f t h e They a r e r e f e r r e d t o  ( e . g . ) H-, Ho, H/, a c o o r d i n g a s t h e v a l u e s a r e l o w , m i d d l e  or h i g h h y p o b i o t i o .  The i d e a i s t h u s p r e s e n t e d , t h a t f o r a n y  f a c t o r t h e r a n g e o f b i o l o g i o a l v a l u e i n t h e meso-band i s e x a c t l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e range o f b i o l o g i o a l v a l u e o f t h a t f a c t o r i n t h e hypo- and s u p e r - b a n d s .  O n l y i f t h i s be t r u e c a n  t h e f i n a l p o l y g o n be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t t r u l y t h e b i o l o g i o a l  -6v a l u e of t h e whole complex the  whole  of f a c t o r s .  This i s of oourse  o b j e c t i v e o f any c o m p r e h e n s i v e  u n i t s suoh as biomes  or associations.  study of eoologioal  ( C l e m e n t s and  Shelford,  1939). DISCUSSION OF METHODS Securing values of In  s t u d y i n g t h e s o a l i n g o f each f a c t o r on t h e key  chart, i t w i l l light  be s e e n t h a t e a c h must be e v a l u a t e d  of the a c t u a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the f a c t o r The  the  "Hours  involved.  o f S u n l i g h t i n the F r o s t l e s s Season" i s  As  t e n y e a r s o f t h e s e r e c o r d s were  o n l y t h i r t e e n u s e f u l s t a t i o n s , and  eight  graphed were o b t a i n e d by t a k i n g f r a c t i o n s  of the monthly  i n e a c h y e a r and a d d i n g t h e s e t o t h e t o t a l s f o r t h e  of  The  George,  The e x a c t f i g u r e s  t h e months i n w h i c h t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n b e g a n and  months.  available  f o r Prinoe  t h a t i s t h e number f o r w h i o h t h e y a r e g i v e n .  for  i n the  t o t a l t a k e n from t h e "Monthly Weather Reoord" f o r t h e  f r o s t l e s s months. for  factors.  totals  ended  frost-free  f r a c t i o n s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y d i v i d i n g t h e number  d a y s i n t h e month b e l o n g i n g i n t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n by t h e  t o t a l number o f d a y s i n t h e m o n t h .  The b e g i n n i n g and  end  d a t e s o f t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n a r e t a k e n i n e a c h o a s e as t h e h a l f w a y p o i n t b e t w e e n t h e e a r l i e s t and l a t e s t the of  last killing autumn.  f r o s t o f s p r i n g and t h e f i r s t  T h i s i s a d m i t t e d l y n o t good  occurrences of killing  statistical  e x o e p t where a s m a l l number o f c a s e s i s i n v o l v e d .  frost  practioe, In the  present  i n s t a n c e , t h e r e a r e o n l y e l e v e n oases f o r eaoh  s t a t i o n , and ingless.  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e m e d i a n d a t e w o u l d be mean-  I t must be remembered t h a t t h i s w h o l e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i s based upon reoords  of eleven s p e c i f i c years  exact v a l u e s g i v e n f o r any  one  o n l y , and  the  s t a t i o n are always subject t o  r e v i s i o n by a n y o n e w i s h i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e o o r d s  f o r many  more y e a r s . The starting and  " F r o s t l e s s Season" i n t h i s paper i s defined  on t h e d a y  a f t e r the  s t o p p i n g t h e day  fall,  before the  t o seoure  or lower".  In the  definition,  i n spring,  f r o s t i n the  frost".  o r two  l a t t e r case,  l e s s s e a s o n ends on t h e f i r s t n i t i o n was  killing  d e f i n i t i o n as,  r e a d i n g o f 30°E. o r l o w e r ,  of 3 2 ° P .  frost  I t has  been  a w o r k a b l e d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h i s , and  w r i t e r f i n a l l y t o o k h i s own one  first  Note the e x p r e s s i o n , " k i l l i n g  difficult  is  last killing  day  of 32°  a s s u m e d , a f t e r g e t t i n g t h e U. that recording a k i l l i n g  "A k i l l i n g  suocessive  frost-  or 3 1 ° .  defi-  S.  This  Weather B u r e a u  f r o s t depended on  o t h e r c r i t e r i o n , a minimum t e m p e r a t u r e  lower"  (Atlas  growing  o r a l l y assured  they take a k i l l i n g  in British  C o l u m b i a would  d i r e c t o r of a Dominion E x p e r i m e n t a l has  of 3 2 ° P .  of American A g r i c u l t u r e , 1 9 3 6 ) .  s e a s o n a t a l l , w h i c h i s not  true.  The  not  the absence or  latter  C o l u m b i a , as t h e n have  Very  no  r e c e n t l y , the  S t a t i o n (Laoombe, A l b e r t a )  the w r i t e r t h a t at the E x p e r i m e n t a l f r o s t t o be  frost  obviously the  o f any  many r e g i o n s i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h  the  readings  o b s e r v a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n by t h e r e c o r d e r o r , " i n t h e  d e f i n i t i o n d i d n o t make much s e n s e ,  as  less than 6°  Farms  of f r o s t , i.e.,  -8n o t a b o v e 26°F. and  He  even tomatoes,  i s quite explioit a r e not k i l l e d  i n saying that  above t h i s  nor even s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d , i n the p e r i o d This being so, c e r t a i n anomalies p r e t t y w e l l accounted  cereals,  temperature,  o f J u n e and  July.  of the p r e s e n t graphs  are  f o r , as f o r i n s t a n o e t h e meso-range o f  f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n i n d a y s - 81 t o 196.  O b v i o u s l y , i f 81 d a y s  w i l l not mature wheat, t h e n i t i s s c a r c e l y m e s o - b i o t i c i n value.  But by t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s a s s u m p t i o n  f r o s t as 30°F., s u o h a l e n g t h o f s e a s o n may  of a  "killing"  w e l l be meso-  bioclimatio.  The is  determined  summer t o t a l  "Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e  a f t e r T h o r n t h w a i t e ' s method o f d i v i d i n g  a v e r a g e s were d e t e r m i n e d  sum (i'  "Temperature e f f i c i e n c y  The  maxima, m i n i m a  1  ) of the t w e l v e monthly  p. 6 4 4 ) .  Thornthwaite's This i s the  temperature  The  British  i n the  v a l u e o f I ' was  "Monthly Weather Reoord"  Columbia".  F o r some r e a s o n some m o n t h l y  filled  ratios where T found  means  or i n " C l i m a t e o f  o f t e n o m i t t e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n p u b l i c a t i o n and g e n e r a l l y be  annual  efficiency  every year of t h e base p e r i o d , u s i n g the monthly  published  may  Thorn-  o f T h o r n t h w a i t e ) , t a k e n f r o m t h e f o r m u l a i ' = T-32 4 temperature.  and  index.  Index " ( I ' o f  aocording to  ( T h o r n t h w a i t e , 1931,  i s t h e mean m o n t h l y for  = Si').  a s f o r t h e a n n u a l T-E  t h w a i t e ) has b e e n d e t e r m i n e d directions  the  o f i ' v a l u e s ( 2 \ ' ) by t h e a n n u a l v a l u e o f I ' .  (summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  The  effioienoy"  i n from the P r o v i n c i a l  means a r e  these  omissions  publication.  -9I n t w o i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e was no r e o o r d a t a l l ( R o s s l a n d , A u g u s t 1932 and J u l y 1 9 3 4 ) , and v a l u e s were  interpolated  f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n m o n t h l y w e a t h e r map f o r t h o s e m o n t h s , showi n g isotherms o f v a r i a t i o n from t h e average.  I n August o f  1932 t h i s was g i v e n a s 2 ° a b o v e a v e r a g e a t R o s s l a n d , and i n J u l y , 1934*  1 ° above a v e r a g e .  Prom t h e I ' v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e d minimum and a v e r a g e v a l u e s a r e g r a p h e d .  as a b o v e , t h e maximum, This average i s n o t  n e o e s s a r i l y t h e same as t h a t d e t e r m i n e d b y u s i n g t h e p u b l i s h e d a v e r a g e m o n t h l y means, w h i c h a r e , o f o o u r s e , f o u n d l e n g t h s o f t i m e and v a r y s l i g h t l y inoluded  e a c h y e a r a s new r e c o r d s a r e  i n t h e g e n e r a l average. The  "Precipitation effectiveness  T h o r n t h w a i t e ) i s 2 115./ precipitation, always 1  for varying  P  ?  I  Index" ( I o f  where P i s t h e t o t a l  monthly  T i s t h e mean m o n t h l y t e m p e r a t u r e , and n i s  ( i n practice n i s disregarded).  These v a l u e s were  worked o u t , m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s , a s were t h e T-E v a l u e s , and here a g a i n t h e averages a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y those derived  from long-term averages.  identical  with  A p p a r e n t l y , i n mapping  T h o r n t h w a i t e i n d i c e s , t h e v a r i o u s w o r k e r s h a v e a l w a y s worked on t h e p u b l i s h e d  average v a l u e s , w h i c h , as n o t e d , a r e based  on w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t b a s e p e r i o d s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s . instanoe, i n B r i t i s h years  C o l u m b i a , V i o t o r i a a v e r a g e s a r e f o r 51  (56 y e a r s n o w ) , and a t O l i v e r f o r 13 ( 1 9 ) y e a r s .  values of I are divided values.  Por  The  a t 36 and 121 t o d e f i n e t h e meso  I n some i n s t a n c e s , a s P r i n o e R u p e r t , U o l u e l e t and  -10Ocean P a l l s , t h e v a l u e s a r e o b v i o u s l y f a r o u t o f a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o u s u a l s u p e r i o r v a l u e s as g i v e n i n T h o r n t h w a i t e ' s  paper.  T h i s i s o n l y t o be e x p e o t e d i n r e g i o n s where t h e t e m p e r a t u r e effectiveness  ( I ' ) v a l u e s a r e o n l y f a i r w i t h no g r e a t  of heat a t any t i m e seasons.  extreme  and g e n e r a l l y h i g h p r e o i p i t a t i o n a t a l l  Suoh r e g i o n s a r e few and p r i n c i p a l l y f o u n d  o f t e n named b y p l a n t g e o g r a p h e r s  i n regions  "temperate r a i n f o r e s t s " .  w i l l be b r o u g h t out i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l  As  stations,  there  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt t h a t t h i s extremely  h i g h P-E  value  i s a r e a l i t y on a c c o u n t o f t h e tremendous r u n - o f f w h i c h  o o o u r s i n a l l s u c h r e g i o n s and n o t , a s T h o r n t h w a i t e (p.640),  suggests  i n the failure of additional  index  himself  precipitation  a b o v e a n u n o e r t a i n maximum t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p h y s i o l o g y o f protoplasm excess  because water s u r f e i t e d  o r g a n i s m s f i n d no v a l u e i n  of moisture. T h e r e may be a q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e e s s e n t i a l v a l i d i t y  o f t a k i n g ^ " i a s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r one season.  F o r e x a m p l e a t A g a s s i z i n 1934 and 193 5 t h e i v a l u e s  from January  t o December, i n c l u s i v e , a r e : 1934 44.44 7.90 21.17 3.80 14.80 1.67 3.91 2.14 5.91 13.46 24.65 37.07  JE i  a  1  180.92  1935 111.70 9.10 17.11 5.00 1.31 9.00 3.43 2.02 6.41 18.27 14.49 11.41 209.25  -11Now,  t a k i n g t h e -Z: i v a l u e s f r o m t h e a v e r a g e end  the growing season  ( 1 8 t h November) i n 1934  is,  t h a t f o r any  1935,  "to t h a t i n  t h e v a l u e i s 2 3 8 . 9 8 , o r a d i f f e r e n c e o f a b o u t 15$. one g r o w i n g s e a s o n , s u r e l y t h e  of  The  point  effectiveness  IZ  o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n s h o u l d be t h e v a l u e o f s i n c e t h e end  of the previous growing season.  thwaite i n h i s o r i g i n a l paper  ( 1 9 2 9 , Chap. XV,  t h e months Thorn-  p. 636  et  i n a r b i t r a r i l y determining  i n d e x f o r eaoh s t a t i o n i n terms  However, S h e l f o r d  Now,  ( T h o r n t h w a i t e , 1931,  seq.) i s a p p a r e n t l y o n l y i n t e r e s t e d t h e P-E  i for all  of the c a l e n d a r y e a r .  i n t e r a l . ) working  on  c o d l i n g moths, d i s c o v e r e d a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n between abunda n c e and  r e p r o d u c t i o n i n one s e a s o n , and t h e c l i m a t i c  o f t h e p r e c e d i n g a u t u m n a l and h i e m a l c o n d i t i o n s .  The  factors same  i m p l i c a t i o n i s n o t e d b y many a u t h o r s i n t h e s e t t i n g o f  fruits  o r s e e d s , b o t h i n h o r t i c u l t u r e and  forestry,  1941,  I h a v e n o t f o u n d any  1943).  I n t h e oase o f t r e e s ,  (see A l l e n ,  p e r i m e n t a l r e c o r d s p u b l i s h e d t o show a p o s s i b i l i t y ing the p h y s i c a l factors  from s u c h o b v i o u s l y b i o t i c  or of s t o r i n g reserves of d i f f e r e n t  ex-  of s e p a r a t ones a s  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f p r o d u o i n g i n c r e m e n t s o f woody t i s s u e d e f i n i t e age  G.S.,  of  food-bases  b e f o r e h e a v y p r o d u c t i o n o f s e e d becomes p o s s i b l e .  In view,  however, o f the f a c t t h a t s t u n t e d , d i s e a s e d , o r o t h e r w i s e r e t a r d e d mature i t may  t r e e s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y a r e heavy  seed p r o d u c e r s ,  be t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s e e d b y n o r m a l t r e e s  s p e c i e s as D o u g l a s  fir  i s the r e s u l t  of such p h y s i c a l  of suoh factors  as u n u s u a l l y l o w t e m p e r a t u r e s , d r o u g h t , o r e x o e s s i v e h e a t and p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e months p r e c e d i n g t h e g r o w i n g  season.  -12T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e o t h e r f a o t t h a t i n many staminate  c o n e s and  l a t e summer and Experiments  a r e p r o d u o e d i n embryo d u r i n g t h e  autumn p r e o e d i n g d i s c h a r g e  1943).  (Allen,  on t h i s m a t t e r , w h i l e v e r y d e s i r a b l e , a r e  ingly difficult subjects.  catkins  cases  because of the sheer s i z e  C l i m a t e - s i m u l a t i o n apparatus  of t h e  exceed-  experimental  w o u l d h a v e t o be  on  a g i g a n t i c s o a l e , beyond t h e p r e s e n t t e o h n i c a l c a p a c i t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g t o say n o t h i n g of f i n a n o i n g such Scientific of  data w i l l  probably always  be  projects.  restricted  to  observation with continually increasing precision,  n e s s and  completeness,  periods of ten years  o r more and  by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f  faotors,  of p o l y g o n a l g r a p h i n g .  a p p a r e n t l y yet been p u b l i s h e d . lute  freedom from  minute-  of n a t u r a l f a o t o r s over uninterrupted  faotor data with other related t h e method  those  No  single  as f o r i n s t a n c e , by  such  o b s e r v a t i o n s have  I t i s t o be n o t e d  i n t e r r u p t i o n i s necessary,  t h a t abso-  i n order to  even  b e g i n t o b a s e c o n c l u s i o n s on d a t a o f a c c u r a c y o o m p a r a b l e t o •experimental  results.  M e a n w h i l e , i t may admittedly empirical calculated of  be p r e f e r a b l e t o u s e  Thornthwaite's  f o r m u l a e , b u t t o show them not  f r o m t h e g e n e r a l means, b u t a l s o a s t h e  o n l y as extremes  a n n u a l c a l c u l a t i o n s , w i t h t h e median v a l u e s a l s o , as i s  done i n t h i s method  of polygonal  graphing.  F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n of the v a l i d i t y t a k i n g a l l p r e o i p i t a t i o n i n a m o n t h w i t h a mean b e l o w 2 8 . 4 ° as i f i t had thwaite, 1931,  temperature  o c c u r r e d a t o r above 2 8 . 4 ° E .  p. 6 3 9 - 6 4 1 ) .  of  I t i s a matter of repeated  (Thornobserva-  -13t i o n t h a t where t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e snow on t h e w i t h prolonged  d e a r w e a t h e r and  temperatures  ground,  b e l o w 32°P.>  t h e snow i s n o t made a v a i l a b l e b y m e l t i n g , b u t g r a d u a l l y sublimes B.  C.,  into the a i r .  i n January  approximately  and  The  w r i t e r saw  February  this  o f 1935,  t h r e e weeks, t h e d e p t h  ooour a t Anyox,  when, i n a p e r i o d  o f snow g r a d u a l l y d e o l i n e d  f r o m a b o u t 6 f e e t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g t o a b o u t 18 end  of a p e r i o d of c l e a r ,  the streams f r o z e n .  t i o n " o f snow was  inches at  oalm weather, w i t h t h e  s t a t i o n maximum s e l d o m a s h i g h as 32°P. d r y and  of  The  weather  snow  oontinued  T h i s phenomenon o f " d r y  commented on by a l l and  the  sundry,  and  evaporaled  e v e n t u a l l y t o a d r o p i n l e v e l o f t h e w a t e r i n t h e power  dam,  f r o m a n a v e r a g e o f 60  feet t o a depth  feet,  a very serious matter  f o r the  m i n e s and  smelter.  p a r e n t l y not  I t i s suggested  that t h i s  o f P-E  i n t h e n o r t h , may  index values  a r e computed, o f c o u r s e , rainfall,  Granby Company p o w e r s u p p l y  and  no method h a s  i n some y e a r s .  In t h i s Thornthwaite's of such and  P-E  the  ratios  s n o w f a l l and  yet been suggested,  a l l t h a t i s desired i s standard  widely recognized  The  of t o t a l  of overcoming the d i f f i c u l t y here expressed. purposes,  common  seriously invalidate  from reoords  to  c o n d i t i o n , ap-  f a m i l i a r t o w o r k e r s i n f l o w e r l a t i t u d e s but  knowledge t o t h o s e actuality  i n March o f only 6  apparently,  Por  present  computation  of a  factor. c o n n e c t i o n , i t may  empiricism holds  h e r e be  questioned i f  good i n t h e e x t r e m e c o n d i t i o n s  C a n a d i a n c l i m a t e s as t h o s e  of northern s t a t i o n s throughout  of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h the  country.  The  Columbia question  -Harises thus:  In the present  instance of exoessively high  p r e c i p i t a t i o n combined w i t h l o w maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s , muoh o f t h e e x c e s s  i s o f no v a l u e w h a t e v e r t o t h e  b e o a u s e o f t h e r a p i d r u n - o f f , and mechanical  ones.  of long-continued and  upon the  animals,  for reptiles.  distribution, egg-laying  soil-dwelling  forms.  oontinual,  p e c u l i a r f o r mammals, f o r b i r d s ,  Amphibians should  do t e e m i n t h i s r e g i o n , w h i l e s o i l o u t , as t h e y  spore  o o l d r a i n s a r e c h r o n i o and  w i l l be  are  beating effeot  f o r f u r - b e a r i n g and  a s w e l l a s u p o n t h e g r o u n d - and  the c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e and  are the  r a i n s u p o n p o l l e n and  O b v i o u s l y , when d r e n o h i n g  vegetation  i t s only r e a l effects  P r i n c i p a l l y , these  c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e  very  c e r t a i n l y seem t o be.  thrive,  and  indeed  i n s e c t s should  be  they  drowned  T e r r e s t r i a l mollusks  e x c e e d i n g l y numerous, t h o u g h of a p p a r e n t l y  few  species,  are and  t h e r e a r e p r a o t i c a l l y no r e p t i l e s and  v e r y few b i r d s  except  /.s  to vegetation,  these  w a t e r f o w l , even i n open c o u n t r y , mechanical mat  w a t e r e f f e c t s a r e shown i n t h e n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l  o f m o s s e s , l i v e r w o r t s and  u p o n swimming g a m e t e s ; and w h i c h f e s t o o n t h e t r e e s and  p t e r i d o p h y t e s , a l l dependent  i n t h e g r e a t development o f l i c h e n s o a r p e t r o c k s , woody s t e m s ,  e v e n i n p l a c e s t h e moss c a r p e t i t s e l f .  To  one  who  has  and not  seen i t , t h e p e c u l i a r assemblage of v e g e t a t i o n forms a l m o s t hygrophytic  i n nature  is difficult  t o oomprehend.  See,  for  c o m p a r i s o n , Chas. D a r w i n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S o u t h e r n C h i l e (Darwin,  Ch. X,  I I , XIII).  Por f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the v a l i d i t y thwaite's  formula  i n o o e a n i o c l i m a t e s , see  Forbes  of Thorn(1932),  whose a r t i c l e The  suggests  the complexity  "Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n " i s t a k e n d i r e c t l y  the published meteorologioal The  of t h e problem. from  reoords.  " P r o s t l e s s Season C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P r e c i p i t a t i o n  e f f e c t i v e n e s s " f a c t o r i s introduced i n t h e d e s i r e t o express periodicity, one  s i n c e t h e mere f a o t o f a h i g h  does n o t e x p r e s s  the true b i o t i o worth.  n i z e d by Koppen, H a l l i d a y , T r e w a r t h a , use  I index or a low  o f code l e t t e r s t o e x p r e s s  This i s recog-  and o t h e r s , i n t h e i r  m o d i f i c a t i o n of the major  p r e o i p i t a t i o n v a l u e s , i n t e r m s s u c h a s "summer d e f i c i e n c y " , "winter d e f i c i e n o y " a d e q u a t e at a l l seasons", present  a t a l l seasons",  "defioient  e t o . The f a c t o r F.S. P-E i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e  p a p e r must, a s e x p l a i n e d u n d e r s e v e r a l s t a t i o n s , be  t a k e n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e P, I , and P.S. L . D r . f a c t o r s , f o r r e a l understanding  of the c l i m a t i c s i t u a t i o n .  This, of course,  i s b u t one more a d v a n t a g e o f t h e p o l y g o n a l method o f p r e s e n tation.  The  "Longest Dry P e r i o d i n t h e P r o s t l e s s Season" -  36 t o 14-4 d a y s may a p p e a r a s r a t h e r a l o n g d r o u g h t p e r i o d t o be m e s o - b i o c l i m a t i o , b u t n o t e s t o n and S h r e v e ( 1 9 1 6 ) (1936),  this  that f o r comparison w i t h  or t h e " A t l a s o f American A g r i c u l t u r e "  f a c t o r i s not t h e l e n g t h o f a "normally d r y "  p e r i o d , b u t t h a t o f any d r y p e r i o d whatever. be  determined,  Living-  o n most o f t h e B r i t i s h  So f a r as c a n  Columbia Coast t h e r e i s  no n o r m a l l y d r y p e r i o d , b u t t h e r e a r e o f t e n p e r i o d s w h i c h a r e  I i  -16extremely dry.  F o r example,  the l o n g e s t d r y p e r i o d  i n the P r i n o e Rupert  i n t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n i s 38  h u t i n F e b r u a r y t h e r e a r e onoe i n t e n y e a r s o r so f i r e s w h i c h oannot  district, days,  forest  occur without quite prolonged drought.  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t drought of not o v e r  3^  months i s v e r y b a d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h good p r e o i p i t a t i o n t h e r e s t o f t h e y e a r , and a meso- v a l u e f o r t h e P-E g i v e n v a l u e of "longest dry p e r i o d i s the longest such period  index.  i n the f r o s t l e s s  i n the growing season.  season" I n some  cases t h e r e are s e v e r a l of e q u a l l e n g t h , even t h r e e or o f 20 days e a c h , e.g., K a m l o o p s , 1 9 3 1 , Nanaimo and 1935.  S i n c e t h e s e a r e s e p a r a t e d by  t h a n 5 d a y s o f 0.1  beyond itself.  Agassiz,  i n c h average p r e c i p i t a t i o n p e r day,  exact s i g n i f i c a n c e  four  "wet" p e r i o d s o f n o t  t h e y c a n n o t be lumped t o g e t h e r ( L i v i n g s t o n and The  The  less  then  S h r e v e , p.27£)  of such s u c c e s s i v e s h o r t droughts i s  t h e scope of t h i s  paper, and^presents a problem i n  I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i n the p r e s e n t s t a t e  of know-  l e d g e on t h e s u b j e c t , t h e f a c t o r o f t h e l o n g e s t d r y p e r i o d i n t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n as h e r e d e f i n e d significance.  Especially  is in itself  on o u r o o a s t and  of strong  on t h e w e s t e r n  s l o p e s o f o u r i n t e r i o r r a n g e s , where t h e s o i l c o v e r i n g t h e glaoiated bedrock i s s t i l l rare intervals  extremely t h i n , the occurrence at  o f e x t r e m e l y d r y c o n d i t i o n s may  be a  definite  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , not a l o n e f o r v e g e t a t i o n but a l s o f o r animals, e s p e c i a l l y f o r i n s e o t l a r v a e , m o l l u s k s and e x a m p l e i s i n t h e dead  amphibians.  a r e a s o f sphagnums and  An  e r i c a d s on t h e  h i l l s i d e and h i l l t o p moors on t h e c o a s t , a r e a s w h i c h  from  -17personal  o b s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g many y e a r s h a v e b e e n s e e n t o p e r -  s i s t e n t l y become c o v e r e d i n years  o f extreme  w i t h v e g e t a t i o n whioh t h e n d i e s o f f  droughts.  INDIVIDUAL STATIONS The  assessment o f each f a c t o r i s f o l l o w e d by a  general v a l u a t i o n of the polygon  e v o k e d by a l l t h e f a c t o r s o f  t h e s t a t i o n o o l l e c t i v e l y , and f i n a l l y t h e p o l y g o n preted  i n terms o f i t s p o r t r a y a l of t h e b i o t i c  i s inter-  complex i n  which the s t a t i o n i s located. VICTORIA Hours of S u n l i g h t  ( P . S. Sun.)  In the f r o s t l e s s season, the values h o u r s t o 1826.5 h o u r s ,  a v e r a g e 20,43.1 h o u r s ,  f r o m 2218.5 give t h i s  factor  a s u p e r - b i o t i c a v e r a g e v a l u e , w i t h -'even t h e minimum o f v e r y high meso-biotio  worth.  There i s only a s m a l l b i o t i c  range  f r o m minimum t o maximum v a l u e s . Days i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S . The  l e n g t h o f s e a s o n , f r o m 357 d a y s t o 266 d a y s ,  average 307.09 days, i s h i g h l y s u p e r b i o t i o . is  Da.)  But, sinoe  f r o s t , though not n e o e s s a r i l y a t r u e k i l l i n g  ably t h i s high b i o t i c value  i s an exaggeration  frost,  there prob-  of the real  w o r t h o f t h e f a o t o r , s i n c e o n l y 8 d a y s ( 0 . 0 2 $ ) more w o u l d p l a c e i t i n t h e a o t u a l s u b t r o p i c v a l u e s , and 58 d a y s more ( 1 5 . 9 $ ) would p l a c e t h e s t a t i o n i n t h e t r o p i o s .  But s i n c e  -18-  t h e s e a o t u a l v a l u e s do biotio value  occur,  i t i s obvious  that the  depends t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t u p o n  real  other  faotors. Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e (S.C. T-E7 This f a c t o r , 38.34$, verges  with values  efficiency  43.03$ to 34.03$,  i s a l s o e n t i r e l y s u p e r b i o t i c , a l t h o u g h a t minimum i t on m e s o b i o t i o  t h i s and  t h e two  worth.  preceding  I t i s notable t h a t the ranges f a c t o r s are  amounts, c a u s i n g t h e s i d e s of t h e  of almost  inner  and  from i t .  I t i s a l s o t o be n o t e d  p. 41)  this  equal  outer  t o be h e r e n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e a v e r a g e and  (1937,  average  of  biotio  polygons  equidistant  that aocording t o H a l l i d a y  range of the p r e s e n t  f a o t o r i s warm  temperate, v e r g i n g upon s u b t r o p i c a l .  Temperature e f f i c i e n c y Index  f  (I )  T h i s temperature f a c t o r , regarded and  o t h e r s as  The  values,  by  Thornthwaite  o f m a j o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , h e r e shows i t s  59.5  to 48.5,  average 53.2,  station  i n Thornthwaite's  "Microthermal",  plus" provinoes.  I n b i o t i c v a l u e , i t i s here graphed as  to lower-  and  place the  importance.  H a l l i d a y ' s "Temperate  mesobiotic, w i t h a s m a l l range.  oations place V i c t o r i a t e m p e r a t e " and  A l l three  i n a temperature-value  "warm t e m p e r a t e " .  serves to p a r t l y e x p l a i n the f a i l u r e  of t h e  classifi-  between  This b i o t i c value  mid-  "merely  also  extraordinarily  l o n g f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n t o p r o d u c e more t h a n m o d e r a t e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e o l i m a t e as a w h o l e .  -19Preoipitation This factor,  e f f e c t i v e n e s s Index ( I ) w i t h v a l u e s 104.64 t o 4 4 . 2 3 ,  72.03, i s e n t i r e l y m e s o b i o t i o , the l o w e r s i d e of m e s o b i o t i o ; to  average  w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e range  t h i s i s H a l l i d a y ' s "Humid p l u s "  "Sub-Humid", t h e a v e r a g e b e i n g  "Humid".  This lower  o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s shows t h e s t a t i o n a s a dry p a r t of a v e r y moist r e g i o n . still  n o t t o be r e c k o n e d  on  range very  Even a t the l e a s t , i t i s  as d e f i o i e n t  i n moisture  - that i s ,  " a r i d " or "semi-arid".  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n This factor,  (P)  r a n g i n g f r o m 37.19  average 27.63, i s low i n t h e m e s o b i o t i o hypobiotic value at times. r e l a t i v e l y , but b i o t i c value effectiveness  w i s e be  Also, i n spite  fluctuation  into  in  so g r e a t as t h a t o f i t s  o f the l o w v a l u e  e f f i c i e n c y b e i n g a l s o low  o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o be  expeoted.  range running  that the  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s not (I).  inches,  range i s r a t h e r enormous,  i t i s t o be n o t e d  o i p i t a t i o n , temperature effectiveness  The  t o 17.29  of pre-  causes  h i g h e r t h a n would  This i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  of these  the  other-  three  f a c t o r s appears h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  E r o s t l e s s Season C o n c e n t r a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e n e s s (E.S. P-E)  Precipitation  T h i s f a o t o r shows a v e r y w i d e r a n g e o f v a l u e s , f r o m 88.3$ t o 34.5$, a v e r a g e 5 7 . 4 $ . gether s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s an a t t e m p t  f a c t o r as  I am not  i t stands.  t o show t h e g e n e r a l h u m i d i t y and  apparent alto-  It is really  availability  of  -20p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the growing season. Rainfall Periodicity as d e s c r i p t i o n s  criteria  I n some ways,  Halliday's  ( 1 9 3 7 , p. 41) a r e more s u i t a b l e  of t h i s v a r i a t i o n , b u t t h e y i n t r o d u o e a d o u b l e  v a r i a n t , season plus v a r i a t i o n , which i s s c a r c e l y graphable i n such a oonneotion.  However, t h i s  f a c t o r as h e r e p r e s e n t e d  shows a d e f i n i t e s u p e r b i o t i c r a n g e , s p e c i a l l y the l e n g t h y f r o s t l e s s  season.  In this  explicable  connection, this  from factor  s h o u l d n e v e r be r e a d a l o n e , b u t a l w a y s e v a l u a t e d a l o n g w i t h the l e n g t h of f r o s t l e s s  season.  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  i n the F r o s t l e s s Season  T h i s f a c t o r , r a n g i n g f r o m 320 t o 43 d a y s , 118,  of tremendous v a r i a b i l i t y ,  and  (F.S.  L.Dr)  average  with occasional extensions  t o o v e r t e n months d u r a t i o n , s e r v e s t o e x p l a i n much i n t h e otherwise d i f f i o u l t  a n a l y s i s o f t h e f l o r a and  character of the r e g i o n .  The  general biotic  droughts are never  superbiotic  i n v a l u e ; t h e i r l e n g t h i s on t h e a v e r a g e n e a r t h e h y p o o r i n f e r i o r r a n g e , and whole  the o c c a s i o n a l ten-month  span gives the  f a c t o r a g r e a t e r range i n the h y p o b i o t i c t h a n even i n  t h e m e s o b i o t i c band..  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c The  polygon f o r t h i s  expected, an extreme  complex  at this  station.  s t a t i o n s h o w s , as s h o u l d be  development  o f t h e Madrona-Oak a s s o c i a -  t i o n , which i s i n t h i s region at i t s n o r t h e r l y l i m i t s .  Victoria  i s t h e C a n a d i a n s t a t i o n f a r t h e s t removed g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  from  t h e o u t s k i r t s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f o r e s t t y p e , and shows i t s c l i m a t e f e a t u r e s i n o u r most e x t r e m e  therefore  form.  -21The  b i o t i c polygon f o r V i c t o r i a  on t h e w h o l e shows  a p e c u l i a r d i s t o r t i o n i n t o s u p e r b i o t i o v a l u e s i n such as l e n g t h o f f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n and t e m p e r a t u r e showing  dearly  a g e n e r a l development  factors  periodicity,  t h r o u g h most o f t h e  y e a r o f e q u a b l e , c o o l t e m p e r a t u r e s w i t h no g r e a t c o n t r a s t i n t e m p e r a t u r e f r o m e a r l y s p r i n g , t h r o u g h summer t o l a t e  fall,  and no l a c k o f h u m i d i t y a s a r u l e , b u t r a t h e r a s u p e r b i o t i o development  of effective preoipitation.  there i s a d e f i n i t e l y deficient  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  rainfall,  accompanied  by  rare b u t severe droughts, which serve t o throw t h e climate polygon d e f i n i t e l y  o f f c e n t r e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of s u p e r b i o t i o  s u n s h i n e , f r o s t - f r e e s e a s o n and e q u a b l e mean m o n t h l y  tempera-  t u r e s , w i t h a y e a r l y t e m p e r a t u r e e f f i o i e n c y i n d e x b a r e l y above the cool-temperate v a l u e .  NANAIMP Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( P . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s a r e f r o m 1 7 1 1 t o 1495 h o u r s , a v e r a g e There i s a s m a l l r a n g e , and a l l e n t i r e l y Days i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n  1634'8.  M/.  ( P . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 287 t o 2 0 3 , a v e r a g e 243 d a y s .  A  considerable b i o t i c range, a l l v a l u e s s u p e r b i o t i o , give  this  s t a t i o n a bias towards t h e v e r y s u p e r i o r i n temperature values. Summer O o n o e n t r a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e (S.C. T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 45.97$ t o 3 8 . 6 2 $ ,  efficienoy  average 42.12$.  These  -22v a l u e s a r e f r o m M/ t o S o , w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e and t h e average d e f i n i t e l y s u p e r b i o t i c Thornthwaite  These v a l u e s a c c o r d i n g t o  and H a l l i d a y p l a c e t h e s t a t i o n a s warm  temperate.  Temperature e f f i c i e n c y Index ( I ' ) "Values  f r o m 61.5 t o ,52.75, a v e r a g e 55.5,  v e r y s m a l l range.  These v a l u e s a r e c l o s e o n t h e l o w e r  of mid-mesobiotio.  According t o Thornthwaite  t h e s t a t i o n would be M i c r o t h e r m a l pectively; that t h i s  with a side  and H a l l i d a y ,  o r Temperate p l u s , r e s -  o r i n o t h e r w o r d s , n e a r l y Warm T e m p e r a t e .  Note  i s higher than V i c t o r i a ' s values, but s t i l l  very  d e f i n i t e l y n o t Warm T e m p e r a t e . P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s Index ( I ) Values  f r o m 1 2 1 . 0 4 t o 58.29, a v e r a g e 96.13, w i t h  considerable range. a v e r a g e b e i n g Mo.  The v a l u e s  a r e f r o m b a r e l y S t o M-, t h e  T h i s i s H a l l i d a y ' s Sub-humid p l u s t o Humid  p l u s , t h e a v e r a g e b e i n g b a r e l y Humid p l u s .  I n o t h e r words,  there i sa l a r g e v a r i a t i o n i n y e a r l y value  of precipitation,  as s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t a t i o n i n inohes of droughts.  from t h e p a r t i c u l a r range o f p r e c i p i -  and f r o m t h e e x t r e m e l y  wide range i n l e n g t h  Nevertheless, the station i s p r i n c i p a l l y  d e c i d e d l y humid l o c a l i t y ,  a  with normally plenty o f r a i n f a l l .  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) Values  f r o m 4 3 . 6 4 t o 2 1 . 9 4 i n o h e s , a v e r a g e 35.27,  w i t h a medium r a n g e . o l o s e r t o Mo. of r a i n f a l l ,  The v a l u e s  a r e Mo t o H/, a v e r a g e M-  There a r e o c c a s i o n a l y e a r s  of poor b i o t i o  as should appear from t h e l o n g  droughts.  value  -23" F r o s t l e s s Season C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P r e o i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s (F.S. P - E l V a l u e s f r o m 39.9$ t o 24-.9$, a v e r a g e 33.9$. is slightly  less biotio  range here t h a n i n t h e  There  precipitation  f a o t o r , and a l l a r e w e l l i n t o t h e m e s o b i o t i o r a n g e .  Here  again this  frostless  f a c t o r i s d o u b t l e s s i n c r e a s e d by t h e l o n g  season.  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  i n the F r o s t l e s s Season  (F.S.  L.D4  V a l u e s f r o m 155 t o 23 d a y s , a v e r a g e 80, w i t h a v e r y great b i o t i o  range.  The  extremes  h y p o b i o t i c , t h e a v e r a g e Mo. oase  are from s u p e r b i o t i o t o  T h i s extreme  range, as i n the  o f V i c t o r i a , u n d o u b t e d l y e x p l a i n s t h e p r e s e n c e o f Madrona,  G a r r y oak, and  other plants  o f t h e Madrona-Oak a s s o c i a t i o n ,  p l a n t s more m e s o p h y t i c b e i n g u n a b l e t o compete i n y e a r s o f extreme  drought. P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c The  climatic  a m e s o b i o t i o v a l u e and  complex  variability,  and t h i s  station.  p o l y g o n f o r N a n a i m o shows on t h e form of the b i o t i o  b i o t i o l e n g t h o f f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n and of t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y .  at this  The  complex  w i t h super-  superbiotio  periodicity  l e n g t h o f d r o u g h t s shows a h i g h  i s associated  w i t h a low mesobiotio  v a l u e o f p r e o i p i t a t i o n and h i g h m e s o b i o t i o r a n g e o f tion efficiency.  precipita-  On t h e w h o l e , t h e c l i m a t i o c o m p l e x  t o be d e f i n i t e l y d i s p l a c e d  whole  toward  the f a c t o r s  of long  appears growing  s e a s o n , h i g h s u n s h i n e v a l u e , and h i g h v a l u e o f e q u a b l e a n n u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of thermal e f f i c i e n c y . ward t h e h i g h g e n e r a l v a l u e s o f a l l  There  i s a tendenoy t o -  f a c t o r s found i n the l o w e r  5 id ney  -24B. C. c o a s t f o r e s t and away f r o m t h e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d o f t h e Madrona-Oak f o r e s t r e g i o n . nearness o f t h e mountains water of the S t r a i t  T h i s i s p o s s i b l y due t o t h e  t o t h e westward  and  t o t h e warm s e a -  of Georgia, f a c t o r s not here  b u t a b s e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r two s t a t i o n s V i c t o r i a and  complex  discussed,  of t h i s f o r e s t  region,  Sidney. SIDNEY  Hours o f S u n l i g h t  (F.S.  V a l u e s f r o m 2000 t o 1714  Sun.) h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1868,  a medium r a n g e , t h e mean b e i n g c l o s e r t o t h e u p p e r  extreme,  which i s s u p e r b i o t i c , w h i l e the lowest v a l u e i s s t i l l Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n V a l u e s f r o m 331 t o 2 0 3 , siderable  (F.S.  a v e r a g e 24&  with  M/.  Da.) days.  A con-  range, w h o l l y s u p e r b i o t i c , w i t h an average of 8  months w i t h o u t f r o s t , and n o t l e s s t h a n 200 days a t  least.  This s t a t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y h i g h i n b i o t i c v a l u e of l e n g t h of growing season, b e i n g c l o s e t o V i c t o r i a  i n t h i s regard.  Summer O o n o e n t r a t i o n o f T e m p e r a t u r e (S.C. T-ET  efficiency  V a l u e s f r o m 4 5 . 0 5 t o 37.83, a v e r a g e 4 2 . 1 6 $ .  These  v a l u e s a r e f r o m So t o M /, a v e r a g e s u p e r b i o t i c , w i t h a medium range.  They a r e c l o s e t o t h o s e of Nanaimo, h i g h e r t h a n f o r  Victoria.  T h i s would  i n d i c a t e , as i s a c t u a l l y t h e c a s e , a  tendenoy t o l e s s e r development at  Victoria.  o f t h e Madrona-Oak f o r e s t  than  -25" Temperature  e f f i c i e n o y Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 57.50 t o 4 8 . 5 0 , s m a l l range.  a v e r a g e 52.32, w i t h a  T h i s i s v e r y c l o s e t o V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo  v a l u e s , and w i t h t h e g r e a t d e v e l o p m e n t f a o t o r s i n each case, produoes  of the previous three  t h e skewness o f t h e c l i m a t i c  polygon which i s a p p a r e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Madrona-Oak f o r e s t .  of stations i n the  T h i s e f f e c t may, o f c o u r s e , be due p a r t l y  t o t h e rainshadow o f t h e Vancouver  Island Mountains, but i t  i s n o t c l e a r l y s o , as y e t .  Precipitation effectiveness  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 119.98 t o 53.74, a v e r a g e 8 8 . 6 8 .  A large  r a n g e , n e a r l y c o v e r i n g t h e m e s o b i o t i o , f r o m a l m o s t S t o M-, t h e mean b e i n g c l o s e r t o t h e h i g h e x t r e m e a s i n V i c t o r i a , n o t i n Nanaimo.  T h i s f a c t o r a s i n t h e o t h e r two s t a t i o n s o f t h e  type, i s apparently associated w i t h the temperature to produce pear that extreme  a p e c u l i a r range  of drought f i g u r e s .  Sidney, having a lower temperature  efficiency  I t would a p -  effectiveness  t h a n N a n a i m o , and a h i g h e r a v e r a g e a n n u a l  rainfall  t h a n V i c t o r i a , has a r e s u l t a n t l a c k o f p r o l o n g e d droughts which r e a l l y separates i t from i t s n e i g h b o r i n g s t a t i o n s t o n o r t h and s o u t h . extreme  Of t h e t h r e e , S i d n e y a l o n e h a s no h y p o b i o t i o  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n  effectiveness.  Annual P r e o i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 52.08 t o 1 9 . 0 2 , a v e r a g e 3 4 . 2 1 i n c h e s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m above Mo t o H, w i t h t h e mean c l o s e r to t h e h y p o b i o t i c .  This i n d i c a t e s as f o r a l l  Madrona-Oak  -26s t a t i o n s , a l o w b i o t i c v a l u e o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , but here app a r e n t l y t h e t e m p e r a t u r e e f f i c i e n c y i s l o w enough t o c o u n t e r act  p r e c i p i t a t i o n d e f i c i e n c y , a t l e a s t t o some e x t e n t .  i t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e r a i n f a l l  Also  i s b e t t e r spread o u t , as  d r o u g h t - l e n g t h does n o t r e a c h h y p o b i o t i c  values.  F r o s t l e s s Season C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( F . S . P-E) Values from 53.5 t o 2 8 . 1 , average 4-2.2$.  There i s  a c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m s u p e r b i o t i c t o b e l o w Mo. that there are v i o l e n t  fluctuations  i n periodicity  not found i n V i c t o r i a ;  e v e n a t most w i t h 3 3 1 d a y s  n o t o v e r 5 3 . 5 $ o f t h e P-E oame i n t h i s t i m e .  I t appears of r a i n f a l l  frostless,  That i s , a b o u t  4 6 . 5 $ o f t h e y e a r ' s t o t a l P-E i n d e x oame i n j u s t o v e r one month ( 3 4 d a y s )  of winter.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h t h e same  shortest l e n g t h o f f r o s t l e s s season  (203 days) a s Nanaimo,  2 8 . 1 $ was t h e l o w e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f / p r e o i p i t a t i o n ness a t S i d n e y , w i t h 2 4 * 9 $ a t Nanaimo. i n t e r m e d i a t e between t h e extreme  effective-  Here a g a i n , S i d n e y i s  o f V i c t o r i a , with cold  water  s u r r o u n d i n g s and N a n a i m o , w i t h r a i n s h a d o w and warm summer s e a temperatures. Longest Dry P e r i o d  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s Season  (F.S. LDr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1 1 5 t o 33 d a y s , a v e r a g e 72 d a y s , w i t h a considerable range. a v e r a g e b e i n g Mo.  The e x t r e m e s a r e f r o m b a r e l y S t o M-, t h e T h i s r a n g e , l e s s b y 50 d a y s t h a n f o r  Nanaimo, and 9 4 d a y s s h o r t e r t h a n a t V i c t o r i a , p r o b a b l y i s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t abundance o f mesophytic oonifers near t h i s  s t a t i o n , and a l s o d o u b t l e s s i s a s s o c i a t e d  -27w i t h t h e l o w e r i n g o f t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y h e r e as compared Nanaimo.  Also, this  moved f r o m i m m e d i a t e r a t h e r low at Sidney.  s t a t i o n i s farther inland  The  e l e v a t i o n , t o o , may  h a v e t o be  But t h e r e l a t i v e s h o r t n e s s  o f d r o u g h t s r e m a i n s somewhat d i f f i c u l t P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i o  v a l u e and  and h e n c e r e -  e f f e o t s of sea-temperatures which are  c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e .  The  with  to  explain.  complex a t t h i s  station.  c l i m a t i c p o l y g o n f o r S i d n e y shows a m e s o b i o t i o  form of the b i o t i c  complex,  v a l u e s f o r l e n g t h of f r o s t l e s s p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  w i t h the  characteristic  season, thermal e f f i c i e n c y ,  l e n g t h of d r o u g h t found a t o t h e r s t a t i o n s  i n t h e Madrona-Oak r e g i o n .  There  i s a higher annual  precipi-  t a t i o n r a n g e , b u t on t h e w h o l e t h e p o l y g o n shows t h e same distortions  i n e x a g g e r a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e and  as a t o t h e r s t a t i o n s i n t h e same f o r e s t  sunlight  effects  region.  VANCOUVER. Hours o f S u n l i g h t V a l u e s f r o m 1629  (F.S.  Sun.)  t o 1420  T h e r e i s a s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m mid  h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1582  m e s o b i o t i o (Mo)  hours.  to lower  m e s o b i o t i o ( M-). Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n V a l u e s f r o m 280 t o 206  (F.S.  Da.)  days, average 241.5.  medium r a n g e , w h o l l y s u p e r b i o t i o , f r o m So t o S-, Summer C o n o e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  (S.C.  T-E)  A  average  S-.  -28-  V a l u e s f r o m 4-5.07 t o 3 7 . 6 5 , s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M/, a v e r a g e T-E I n d e x  a v e r a g e 4.1.80$.  A  S-.  (I«)  V a l u e s f r o m 62.25 t o 5 2 . 2 5 , a v e r a g e 55.82. s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o M-, a v e r a g e  A very-  Mo.  P-E I n d e x ( I ) A  V a l u e s f r o m 186.50 t o 1 0 1 . 8 2 , a v e r a g e 1 5 7 . 4 9 . considerable  range  f r o m So t o M/, a v e r a g e  S-.  This  factor i s  e v i d e n t l y h i g h l y s u p e r b i o t i c , and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s u p e r b i o t i o r a n g e s o f f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n and t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y c o n c e n t r a t i o n , should velopment forest  e n a b l e one t o p r e d i c t a t r e m e n d o u s d e -  of vegetation  such as a c t u a l l y  i s found i n t h i s  region. Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 6 7 . 6 t o 37.82 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 57.13  inches.  A good r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o M-, a v e r a g e M/.  Note  that  t h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y g o o d , and t h e a v e r a g e , a s w i t h t h e I index, i s c l o s e t o the upper  extreme.  P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n P-E ( P . S . P-E) V a l u e s f r o m 34 t o 1 7 . 7 , a v e r a g e 2 7 . 5 $ . f r o m M/ t o n e a r l y H, a v e r a g e  Mo.  This  A good  f a c t o r shows t h e r e s u l t  o f t h e r e g u l a r summer d r y s e a s o n w i t h e x t r e m e l y h e a v y during l a t e it  fall,  range,  w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g .  i s t o be r e g a r d e d a s w h o l l y m e s o b i o t i c  rainfall  Note h o w e v e r t h a t i n value.  _ . 29  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. L.Dr.) 54. d a y s .  V a l u e s f r o m 93 t o 29 d a y s , a v e r a g e  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m t h r e e months t o l e s s t h a n one, t h e a v e r a g e M/.  As i n o t h e r c a s e s ,  i t must be r e m a r k e d  be s e v e r a l s u o h p e r i o d s  i n one s e a s o n . 27.5%  That t h i s  that the length  of only s l i g h t l y l e s s  extent,  i s s o , i s shown b y t h e a v e r a g e  of the year.  of  frostless 72.5$  I n o t h e r words,  o f t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s f o u n d i n o n l y 1/3 whole  con-  frostless  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n an average  s e a s o n l a s t i n g n e a r l y 66$  S-,  54 d a y s , d o e s n o t show t h a t  of l o n g e s t d r y p e r i o d , a v e r a g i n g t h e r e may  M- t o  T h i s f a c t o r shows t h e b a s i s o f t h e l o w  c e n t r a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e p r e o i p i t a t i o n i n the l o n g season.  A con-  of the  year.  Portrayal  of the b i o t i c  Vancouver  s t a t i o n i s at K i t s i l a n o ,  s h o r e o f E n g l i s h Bay, and  while  complex on t h e  i t is'undoubtedly  south  i n the  Southern Coast s e c t i o n of t h e Coast F o r e s t r e g i o n , y e t i t i s so c l o s e t o t h e Madrona-Oak T r a n s i t i o n S e c t i o n t h a t o n l y 4m i l e s w e s t , on P o i n t  Grey a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , t h e r e a r e s c a t t e r e d M a d r o n a s , and o f E n g l i s h Bay,  on t h e n o r t h  from near H o l l y b u r n west t h e r e  a r e a l s o common  Madrona t r e e s , w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t e d h e r b s , B r o d i e a normally it  occurring i n the T r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n .  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e v a l u e s  and l e n g t h o f f r o s t l e s s  shore  and  Camassia,  Consequently,  f o r hours o f s u n l i g h t  s e a s o n combine w i t h l e n g t h o f l o n g e s t  d r o u g h t t o g i v e a p o l y g o n q u i t e s i m i l a r i n shape  and  size  on  -30t h e s e r a d i i t o t h a t f o r N a n a i m o , and n o t u n l i k e t h e o t h e r s o f t h e Madrona-Oak s e c t i o n .  N o t i c e p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e upward  swing  o f t h e s u n l i g h t a n g l e , t y p i o a l o f Madrona-Oak p o l y g o n s , b u t not t y p i c a l  of other o o a s t a l s t a t i o n s , such  Prince Rupert.  as A g a s s i z and  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , V a n c o u v e r shows S v a l u e s  of e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r e o i p i t a t i o n , n o t found Oak s t a t i o n , and h i g h l y M v a l u e s f o r a n n u a l  i n any M a d r o n a precipitation.  As  w i l l be s e e n on o o m p a r i n g g r a p h s o f o t h e r c o a s t a l s t a t i o n s , t h i s extension of these r a d i i i n t o these high values gives a skewness toward  moisture  conditions which i s t y p i c a l  of a l l  t h e C o a s t P o r e s t e x o e p t i n g t h e t r u e Madrona-Oak S e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , the shortness radius produces a s l i g h t all  and at  efficiency  concavity at t h i s angle,  other ooastal stations  nearly f l a t ,  of the thermal  resembling  e x o e p t Madrona-Oak, and b e i n g s o  i t shows a g a i n t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r  t h e Madrona-Oak S e c t i o n , a l l s t a t i o n s  o f which a r e convex  the I ' angle. Vancouver, t h e n , has a c l i m a t e as graphed which i s  i n t e r m e d i a t e between those  o f t h e Madrona-Oak S e c t i o n o f t h e  C o a s t F o r e s t on t h e one h a n d , and t h e t y p i c a l on t h e o t h e r .  Coast  Forest  There i s l e s s s u n l i g h t i n t h e f r o s t l e s s  season  t h a n i n t h e Madrona-Oak, and more t h a n o n t h e r e s t o f t h e coast.  The f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n i s o f s u p e r i o r l e n g t h ,  averaging  8 months, and t h e summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e r m a l  efficiency  i s l o w b» s u b p r o v i n c e o f T h o r n t h w a i t e ,  temperature  e f f i c i e n c y i s Micro-thermal Temperate p l u s  1  (C /).  while the  ( C ) , or according t o H a l l i d a y ,  The P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s I n d e x  -31(157.4-9) i s s i m p l y "wet", o r "A", and H a l l i d a y .  However, i t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s  classification is insufficient. of  a c c o r d i n g t o b o t h Thornthwaite  Halliday  Vancouver. Index  But  s, might  list  be e x p e c t e d t o  cover  " r " i s " M o i s t u r e abundant a t a l l seasons",  P-E  o v e r 4 8 , and h i g h e s t i n d e x o f s e a s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s  than h a l f the t o t a l unless t o t a l s t a t e m e n t s and  criteria,  e x o e e d s 128.  Index  o f 157, and  a frostless  s e a s o n o f 2/3  t h i s t w o - t h i r d s of the y e a r averages  from these  of the  Thorn-  year  Index d e r i v e d from  o n l y 27.5$.  n u m e r i c a l f i g u r e s a r e , s u m m a t i o n o f P-E  Index  less  o f a o l i m a t e where, w i t h  (8 months a v e r a g e ) , t h e amount o f t h e P-E  season, h i g h 61.74,  Now,  i t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t n e i t h e r  t h w a i t e n o r H a l l i d a y has a n y c o n c e p t  P-E  ( p . 4-1) g i v e s a  s u b t y p e s o f h u m i d i t y p r o v i n o e s i n w h i c h he g i v e s f o u r s u b -  t y p e s , o f w h i c h two, r and  P-E  simple  The  r a t i o s i n the  l o w 2 9 . 2 1 , a v e r a g e 4-2.56.  Now,  actual frostless  while a  o f 4.2.56 f o r a w h o l e y e a r p^uts a s t a t i o n i n H a l l i d a y ' s  "sub-humid p l u s " s u b - p r o v i n c e , t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l f a c t s r e m a i n t h a t t h e r e a r e d r o u g h t s a v e r a g i n g 54- d a y s , and  that  months f r o m May t o S e p t e m b e r i n c l u s i v e a r e r a t e d by  the  P r o v i n c i a l P o r e s t B r a n c h as a " f i r e the a c t u a l p e r i o d i c i t y period  season";  further than  this,  of a r e a l l y dry season d u r i n g t h i s  i s so well-known  and t a k e i t f o r g r a n t e d .  t o the i n h a b i t a n t s t h a t t h e y expect i t I t must be  remembered a l s o , i n t h i s  c o n n e c t i o n , t h a t i n t h e whole g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a around Strait  the  the  o f G e o r g i a , t h e a t m o s p h e r i c h u m i d i t y i n summer i s  u s u a l l y n o t h i g h , b u t v e r y l o w , r e a o h i n g 30$ To t h o s e f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h i s  quite  frequently.  combination of maritime  -32t o p o g r a p h y and l o w h u m i d i t y  i s apparently  scaroely credible.  I t i s however a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n almost e q u a l l y u n u s u a l f r e e dom f r o m t h u n d e r s t o r m s and t h i s  a g a i n i s supposed t o i n d i c a t e  constancy of atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s . is high, averaging  a b o u t 5? i n o h e s .  The a n n u a l  preoipitation  Here, a g a i n , t h e r e i s t h e  matter o f p e r i o d i c i t y , f o r t h e greater part of t h e p r e o i p i t a t i o n ocours i n t h e w i n t e r , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e out t h e y e a r it  ocourring  e x c e p t i n t h e months o f J u l y and A u g u s t ,  i s w e l l t o remember, a s i s s t a t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s  that t h e occurrence  o f d r o u g h t s oannot be p r e d i o t e d  s i n c e a n y month may h a v e a l a r g e It  Here paper,  by m o n t h s ,  rainfall.  i s s t r a n g e , h o w e v e r , t o n o t e t h a t i n Koppen's  Map o f t h e c l i m a t e s o f t h e e a r t h a s g i v e n i n T r e w a r t h a p l a t e I I ) , t h e c l i m a t e of t h e S t r a i t included  through-  i nthat  o f t h e west c o a s t  the r e s t o f t h e coast  of B r i t i s h  of Georgia  i s deliberately  o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and  Columbia.  The r e a s o n f o r  t h i s i n c l u s i o n , r e q u i r i n g as i t does a s h a r p , the c l i m a t e - b o u n d a r i e s ,  (1943,  s m a l l swing o f  i s u n f a t h o m a b l e , s i n c e c l i m a t e and  v e g e t a t i o n b o t h show i n d i s p u t a b l e u n i t y w i t h t h e Csb c l i m a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n and Oregon.  T h o r n t h w a i t e ' s map  (Trewartha  p l a t e I I I ) i s much more n e a r l y c o r r e c t , a s i t shows (B C'r) the u n i t y o f g e n e r a l type American Coast ranges.  i n t h e r a i n s h a d o w o f t h e I s l a n d and  Here, a g a i n , however, i t i s h a r d l y  correctly l a b e l l e d , since, while very rainfall  erratic  i n summer c a n h a r d l y b e c a l l e d  i n spacing, the  "adequatewhen  communities a r e unanimously d r i v e n t o p r e c a u t i o n s pected,  r e c u r r e n t summer d r o u g h t .  human  against ex-  -33AGASSIZ Hours  of S u n l i g h t i n the F r o s t l e s s Season  V a l u e s f r o m 1320  t o 990  (F.S.  Sun.)  h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1182.8 h o u r s ,  w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e f o r t h i s f a c t o r , f r o m Mo t o n e a r l y  H.  Note t h e c o n c a v i t y o f t h i s a n g l e o f t h e p o l y g o n . Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  Season  V a l u e s f r o m 274 t o 203  (F.S.  Da.)  days, average  231.73 d a y s ,  w i t h a medium r a n g e ; a l l v a l u e s S, f r o m So t o S-, Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  (S.C.  T-E  average  oavity  A  considerable  S-.  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 61.75 r a n g e , f r o m Mo  t o M-,  t o 51, average  average about  Mo.  54.77.  A  small  Note the d e c i d e d  oon-  of t h i s a n g l e . P-E  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 278.39 t o 7 6 . 5 4 , a v e r a g e 1 7 1 . 4 9 . r a n g e , f r o m beyond high range  S/ t o Mo,  average  So,  Note  A wide  the extremely  o f t h i s f a c t o r , w h i c h as f o r a l l o t h e r p u r e l y  coastal forest stations the  S-.  T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 48.29 t o 3 7 . 6 5 p e r o e n t . r a n g e , f r o m So t o M/,  average  r u n s beyond  t h e t h e o r e t i c a l bounds o f  superbiotic. A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 90.63 t o 30.49 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e  A c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M-,  a v e r a g e Mo.  58.43.  At t i m e s  -34the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s , Frostless  for this  Season  deficient.  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E  V a l u e s f r o m 63.8 r a n g e , f r o m S- t o Mo,  region, almost  t o 29.9$, average 4 3 . 0 .  a v e r a g e M/.  i s only 30$.  moisture-deficient  T h i s would  V a l u e s f r o m 66  concentration  c e r t a i n l y show a t e x t r e m e s  i n the F r o s t l e s s  t o 18 d a y s , a v e r a g e  r a n g e , f r o m S- t o a b o v e Mo,  a v e r a g e M/.  Season  a  (F.S. L.Dr.) A medirm  54 d a y s .  Note t h a t ,  s t a t i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y i n the  m o i s t u r e b e l t , and  A medium  summer.  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  Vancouver, t h i s  P-E)  Note t h a t w i t h a minimum  f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n o f n e a r l y 7 m o n t h s , t h e minimum o f P-E  (F.S.  unlike  favourable-summer-  two months i s a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y l o n g d r o u g h t ,  w h i l e i n some y e a r s t h e r e i s n o t t h r e e weeks b e t w e e n wet periods The a v e r a g e , h o w e v e r , i s t h e same as f o r V a n c o u v e r , n e a r l y  two  months. P o r t r a y a l of t h e b i o t i c Agassiz, the s i t e  complex.  o f a Dominion  Government  mental S t a t i o n ,  i s s i x t y m i l e s and  from t h e S t r a i t  o f G e o r g i a , and among t h e m o u n t a i n s .  c o n s e q u e n t l y l e s s extreme  Experi-  more up t h e F r a s e r  d r o u g h t and  greater  valley I t has  precipitation  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , with annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n averaging almost e x a c t l y t h e same as a t V a n c o u v e r .  The  extremes, however, a r e  g r e a t e r , as m i g h t be e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e t o p o g r a p h y .  One  does  n o t e x p e c t Madrona-Oak p l a n t s h e r e , y e t some a r e f o u n d e s p e c i a l l y on d r y r o c k y s o u t h e r n s l o p e s , where e x p o s u r e s and  -35topography cause edaphic c o n d i t i o n s t o reproduoe t h e g e n e r a l biotio  o o n t r o l - e f f e c t s s e e n i n more l e v e l  lands of the  true  Madrona-Oak r e g i o n . The  shape  similar to that  of t h e whole p o l y g o n i s p e c u l i a r , v e r y  o f Vanoouver,  w i t h the low m e s o b i o t i o v a l u e s  o f s u n l i g h t , and t h e f a c t o r s f o r l e n g t h o f g r o w i n g  season,  t e m p e r a t u r e e f f i c i e n c y c o n c e n t r a t i o n and p r e c i p i t a t i o n skewed i n a way t h a t the westward  is typical  o f t h e whole  slopes of the coast.  series of stations  Note p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e  on tiny  range o f t e m p e r a t u r e e f f i c i e n c y , t h e s u p e r i o r range o f i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e y e a r , and t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h r a n g e preoipitation effectiveness.  Note, though, t h a t a l l  of the  factors  a r e meso- o r s u p e r - b i o t i c , w i t h t h e s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e low e x t r e m e  of s u n l i g h t .  OCEAN F A L L S /  Hours  of S u n l i g h t  (F.S.  Not r e c o r d e d f o r t h i s  Sun.)  station.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n  (F.S.  Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 292 t o 187 d a y s , a v e r a g e 2 3 8 . 6 4 d a y s . A medium r a n g e , f r o m So t o M/, Note t h a t t h i s as V a n c o u v e r ,  a v e r a g e S-,  almost e n t i r e l y  s t a t i o n h a s a f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n n e a r l y t h e same hundreds  of m i l e s t o the south.  This i s quite  p o s s i b l y due t o t h e l o c a t i o n i n a p o c k e t a t t h e head f i o r d , w i t h mountains shore.  S.  a l l around, even impending  of a  over the  The w e a t h e r s t a t i o n i s c l o s e t o t i d e w a t e r ,  and  -36o l o u d i n e s s must g i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e f r e e d o m f r o m induced  frosts  stratification-  ( s e e T r e w a r t h a , pp. 2 5 , 27, 43-44)> w h i c h a r e  v e r y u n l i k e l y t o o c c u r on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f a m o u n t a i n out o f t h e s e a , e s p e c i a l l y o f t u r b u l e n c e , as a t Ocean  where t h e r e i s e g r e s s t o a n a r e a Palls.  Summer O o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E V a l u e s f r o m 50.5 s m a l l range, from also,  rising  (S.C.  T-E)  t o 42.5$, average 4 6 . 2 4 $ .  t o b a r e l y S, a v e r a g e M/.  A  Note t h a t  here  l e s s t h a n h a l f of t h e r a t h e r low ( m i c r o t h e r m a l ) tempera-  t u r e e f f i c i e n c y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e summer m o n t h s . T-E  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 53.5 range, e n t i r e l y P-E  to 37.0,  average 45.64.  A  small  M-.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s enormous, f r o m 918.72 t o 5 2 8 . 3 , a v e r a g e 639.13A c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , c o v e r i n g t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f more t h a n biotic  b a n d , b u t a l l a v a s t amount beyond  any o r d i n a r y v a l u e .  T h i s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r e m e n d o u s p r e c i p i t a t i o n and T-E  one  low  index. Annual P r e o i p i t a t i o n  (P)  V a l u e s v e r y g r e a t , f r o m 241.32 t o 121.66 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 181.13 i n c h e s . beyond the  A c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m So t o f a r  t h e s u p e r b i o t i o S/,  n u m e r i c a l r a n g e i s 120  a v e r a g e beyond  S/.  Note h e r e t h a t  i n c h e s , o r more t h a n t w i c e t h e  normal p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Vancouver.  I n a l o c a l i t y where t h e  -37extreme minimum r a i n f a l l obvious  i s o v e r 120  inches a year, i t i s  t h a t d o u b l i n g t h i s minimum would mean l i t t l e ,  in a flat  unless  c o u n t r y s u o h as t h e Amazon v a l l e y , where i t c o u l d  mean t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n o r m a l deep i n u n d a t i o n o f t h e flood  plain,  animal  and  t h e d r y i n g o f t h e l a n d s o t h a t i n some y e a r s  r a n g e s w o u l d be  better germination.  g r e a t l y e x t e n d e d and  However, where t h e n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n i s  v i r t u a l w a t e r - l o g g i n g , t h e r e w o u l d be animals  seeds have a  little  advantage t o  which are n e a r l y a l l a r b o r e a l , or t o seeds which are  adapted t o water-logged the graphing  substrata.  I n other words, here,  o f t h e P f a c t o r f o r Ocean P a l l s ,  i s a very  example o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f g r a p h i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s t h e i r square r o o t s , thereby relative at  the  importance  o f extreme  f r o m S-  f r o m 51.7  t o Ho,  the h y p o b i o t i c range, up t o t h e  first  of r a i n .  T h i s was  i n o h e s , and  approximately. and  The  the  A large  (1936),  b e e n b a r e l y 18  t h e low y e a r f o r p r e c i p i t a t i o n , f o u r months t h e t o t a l was  I t i s t o be n o t e d  P-E)  extreme p r o j e c t i o n i n t o  comes f r o m a s i n g l e y e a r  o f S e p t e m b e r t h e r e had  where t h e m o i s t u r e  and  great  (F.S.  t o 33.9$, average 4.4.4$.  a v e r a g e M/.  i n the l a s t  the  quantities.  P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E Values  as  of f a c t o r s at t h e i r upper extremes,  o f t h e m as s q u a r e r o o t s /does n o t p r e v e n t  demonstration  in  good  giving a t r u e r evaluation of  same t i m e , where t h e t r u e v a l u e s a r e u n u s u a l l y  the g r a p h i n g  range,  the  t h a t such  when inches  121.66 10 3  inches  e x t r e m e s do  f a c t o r s are a l l n o r m a l l y so h i g h ,  occur, the  occasional severe depression i s undoubtedly the value f o r the b i o t a .  In t h i s  c o n n e c t i o n i t must be  t h a t e v e n t h e m o n t h l y minimum was t h a t one the B.  c o u l d n o t s a y t h e r e was  p e c u l i a r t o p o g r a p h i c and  controlling  1.55  noted  inches i n August,  a r e a l drought, exoept  so under  e d a p h i o f a o t o r s f o u n d h e r e on t h e  0. c o a s t , as n o t e d f o r P r i n c e  s l o p e s and t h e t h i n humus t h a t  Rupert.  Because  of the steep  forms t h e o n l y s o i l ,  the  only  e f f e c t o f t h e normal heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s t h e encouragement of  e p i p h y t i o mosses, l i c h e n s and  a l g a e , and t h e v i g o r o u s  g r o w t h o f s e m i - a q u a t i c s s u c h a s Sphagnum on h i l l s i d e s v i r t u a l l y bare rock.  and  Most o f t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s n o t  " e f f e c t i v e " i n T h o r n t h w a i t e ' s s e n s e a t a l l , as i t n e a r l y r a p i d l y r u n s away i n m u l t i t u d i n o u s s t r e a m l e t s and  h e r e c a u s e a r e a l d r o u g h t , u n l e s s t h e r e i s much or low heavy  all  cascades.  Thus a p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f o n l y 1 o r 2 i n c h e s i n a month  fog  on  can  accompanying  o l o u d s , w h i c h i s not,/normally t h e case i n  r a i n l e s s weeks.  Longest Dry P e r i o d  i n the F r o s t l e s s Season  (P.S. L.Lr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 25 t o 12 d a y s , a v e r a g e 17 d a y s . r a n g e , f r o m So t o S-,  a v e r a g e So.  The maximum, 25 d a y s , i s  due t o a s i n g l e u n b e l i e v a b l e m o n t h , A u g u s t oord  of r a i n .  The  1930, w i t h no r e -  month o f J u l y ended w i t h a h e a v y r a i n ,  ran  t h e "wet  p e r i o d " w e l l i n t o August, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  for  commencing a d r y p e r i o d  w i t h l e s s t h a n 1/10 y e a r ( 1 9 3 0 ) was  A small  a t t h e end  i n c h average r a i n .  of the f i r s t Note  not p a r t i c u l a r l y dry i t s e l f  which  rule  5 days  h o w e v e r t h a t "this ( P = 196.99 i n c h e s  -39i n 1 9 3 0 ) , w i t h 5.36  inohes  i n J u l y and  19.02  inohes  i n Septem-  ber.  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i o Everything the w a t e r - f a c t o r s  complex  s a i d of P r i n c e Rupert i s t r u e here,  exaggerated.. w i t h 105  f r o s t l e s s season, but  There i s an  extremely  c o a s t and  expected  i n comparing s t a t i o n s of the  of mountain f i o r d s .  enormous r a i n f a l l ,  and  f a n t a s t i c a l l y h i g h P-E  emphasized n o r t o o  ing  index,  ranging  I t probably  often repeated,  drought-length  d i f f e r e n c e s between r e g i o n s  the unaccustomed  open s e a an  mild, cool temperatures, g i v i n g a f r o m 528  observer  t o 918.  This  mid-coast  c a n n o t be t o o  strongly  t h a t where t h e w a t e r f a c t o r s  reach such p r o p o r t i o n s , the low-value t u r e , s u n l i g h t and  Rupert,  As n o t e d a b o v e , t h e r e i s  of oourse e x p l a i n s H a l l i d a y ' s r e f e r e n c e t o the r e g i o n as t h e w e t t e s t .  long  days v a r i a t i o n i n l e n g t h ; a l l  o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e a l s o more v a r i a b l e t h a n a t P r i n c e as w o u l d be  with  f a o t o r s s u c h as  tempera-  are t r u e c o n t r o l s , e s t a b l i s h -  otherwise  d r e n c h e d i n what t o  seems a u n i f o r m i t y o f s u r p l u s  water.  P o r where s u n l i g h t i s c u t down as a t P r i n c e R u p e r t t o a mere 915  h o u r s maximum, o r a n a v e r a g e o f 3^  a v e r a g e 199.9 1 h o u r a day  days of t h e  frostless  hours a day  s e a s o n , an  increase of ^ to  i n the l e n g t h of b r i g h t sunshine i s a  t r e m e n d o u s i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l r a d i a t i o n , w h i l e an r a i n f a l l from Prinoe  relatively  increase  R u p e r t ' s a v e r a g e 90.55 i n c h e s t o  P a l l s ' a v e r a g e 181.13 i n o h e s volume and  i n the  means m a i n l y  number o f n e a r b y s t r e a m s , and  of  Ocean  an i n c r e a s e i n the a more c o n s t a n t  flow  -40of water.  I n b o t h p l a c e s , t h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e  i s not n o r m a l l y a super-abundance of w a t e r , w h i l e t h e r e e a s i l y be a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n i n c i d e n t  may  sunlight.  UCLUELET Hours o f S u n l i g h t No  (F.S.  Sun.)  records.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S .  Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 209 t o 142 d a y s , a v e r a g e 180.5 f a i r r a n g e , f r o m l o w S- t o Mo,  average  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E V a l u e s f r o m 41.2 s m a l l r a n g e , So t o l o w S-,  (S.C.  T-E)  a v e r a g e S-.  The  P very  S value of t h i s  o f open c o a s t o r w e s t e r n  exposure  generally. T-E  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 50 t o 41.25, a v e r a g e 4 6 . 5 5 .  A very  s m a l l r a n g e , a l l M-. P-E  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 420,27 t o 1 6 8 . 6 s , l a r g e r a n g e , f r o m f a r beyond S/ t o S-, Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  inches.  a v e r a g e 318.10. average above  A  S/.  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 135.98 t o 60.19  A  M/.  t o 37.5$, a v e r a g e 39.27$.  f a c t o r appears c h a r a c t e r i s t i c stations  days.  inches, average  A c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m S/ t o M/,  average  105.91 S-.  -41F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E f r o m 30.6  Values range, and  f r o m Mo  t o 1 1 . 2 $ , a v e r a g e 23.1$.  a v e r a g e h i g h II-.  t o H/,  compare w i t h Ocean F a l l s and  Bella  range,  f r o m 61 t o 25 d a y s ,  f r o m S- t o l o w  Massett,  M/,  P r i n c e Rupert,  other western  exposure  Ocean P a l l s and  ed a r e a s  like  S. and  and  P-E  Contrast  for Prince  f o r percentage  C o o l a and  The  is s h o r t e r , a l s o , than expected. t h r o w i n g t h e whole p o l y g o n P-E  of  shelterThis season  t h a n f o r the  l e n g t h of f r o s t l e s s  season  T h i s has t h e e f f e c t  of  i n t o the mesobiotic  Index,  c e n t r a t i o n of temperature  distribu-  appearance t o the f r o s t l e s s  indioes.  of  Rupert,  Vancouver.  value, associated with longer drought-periods  p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  with  compare w i t h a l l  r a t i o s resembling those  Ocean F a l l s , B e l l a  o t h e r e x o e s s i v e P-E  A small  of a b s o l u t e v a l u e s  index resembling those  gives a p e c u l i a r l y indented P-E  S e a s o n (F.S. LJJr.)  complex  Agassiz, with values  t i o n of temperature  here,  stations.  Note t h e p e c u l i a r c o m b i n a t i o n P-E  fair  a v e r a g e 38 d a y s .  Ocean F a l l s ,  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i o  p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  A  Coola.  average almost  and  P-E)  Note l o w v a l u e s  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d i n t h e F r o s t l e s s Values  (F.S.  band,  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e S-  except  summer c o n -  efficiency.  On t h e w h o l e , t h e g e n e r a l shape o f t h e  polygon  conforms v e r y w e l l t o t h e g e n e r a l t y p e  f o r the  Coast F o r e s t  regions of H a l l i d a y ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  I t s h o u l d be  however t h a t , j u s t a s U c l u e l e t r e s e m b l e s Ooean F a l l s  noted in its  -42b i o c l i m a t i c polygon,  so a l s o i t a o t u a l l y l i e s  C o a s t a l F o r e s t r e g i o n , C3 The s o u t h e r n map s h o u l d  i n t h e same  or mid-coast region of H a l l i d a y .  b o u n d a r y o f t h i s r e g i o n a s shown on H a l l i d a y ' s  a l m o s t o e r t a i n l y be e x t e n d e d down t h e w e s t  o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o j u s t n o r t h o f Sooke.  coast  T h i s i s a case  o f a l o c a l e x t e n s i o n somewhat l i k e t h a t o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e  of  t h e Madrona-Oak f o r e s t c o n d i t i o n s a l o n g t h e m a i n l a n d  coast.  The c o r r e c t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d  observa-  on t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l  t i o n n o r t h o f S o o k e , and a l s o f r o m c o n v e r s a t i o n s  w i t h a number  o f f o r e s t e c o l o g i s t s , s u c h a s D r . A. H. H u t c h i n s o n , Griffith, Division. the  C3  D r . B. G.  and w o r k e r s i n t h e B. C. F o r e s t B r a n c h R e s e a r c h The c o n s e n s u s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  i s , that i n the north  c o a s t a l s t r i p n e a r P o r t A l i c e , i s p e r h a p s 20 m i l e s  w i d e , and more o r l e s s p a r a l l e l s t h e o u t e r c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , g r a d u a l l y c l o s i n g w i t h the shore  line,  until  Sooke i t e x t e n d s n o t more t h a n a few h u n d r e d y a r d s  near  inland.  T h i s e f f e c t seems t o be s i m i l a r t o some o t h e r a n o m a l i e s i n British due  C o l u m b i a c o a s t a l f o r e s t e x t e n s i o n s , and i s p o s s i b l y  t o a combination  climatic,  of edaphic  f a c t o r s ( t h i n n e r s o i l s ) and  s u c h as t h e s u f f i c i e n c y  of moisture  s e a w a r d s and  i t s p r o g r e s s i v e d i m i n u t i o n i n l a n d , a s shown b y c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p o l y g o n s o f U c l u e l e t and o f O u a t s i n o , locus-values  f o rt h e polygon  and i t s f a c t o r s r e s e m b l e t h a t o f  -Agassiz, r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f Ocean F a l l s QUATSINO H o u r s o f S u n l i g h t ( F . S . Sun.) No  records.  where t h e shape and  or Prince  Rupert.  -43Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n  ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 273 t o 186 d a y s , a v e r a g e 220.78 d a y s . A medium r a n g e , f r o m So t o h i g h M/,  a v e r a g e S-.  i s much h i g h e r t h a n f o r U c l u e l e t , about  Note  this  100 m i l e s s o u t h , o r  L§- d e g r e e s o f l a t i t u d e .  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  (S.C.  T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 4,7 t o 3 8 . 1 $ , a v e r a g e 4 1 . 3 7 $ . r a n g e , f r o m h i g h S- t o M/,  average  the  station.  more e x p o s e d T-E  Ucluelet  small  A w i d e r range than at  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 51.25 s m a l l range, e n t i r e l y P-E  S-.  A  t o 4 1 , average 46.16.  A. v e r y  S-.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 330.92 t o 184.06, a v e r a g e 260.64. good r a n g e , f r o m f a r beyond of  S/ t o So, a v e r a g e  on t h e  A  limit  S/. Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n V a l u e s f r o m 4-9.7  t o 2 9 . 4 i a . a v e r a g e 4 C . 3 i n . A medium  r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S- t o Mo, swing o f t h i s  factor,  (P)  a v e r a g e l o w M/.  Note t h e  s i m i l a r t o Agassiz, Vancouver,  b u t u n l i k e a l l o t h e r C3 and l o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  C4  Massett,  stations.  i n the P r o s t l e s s Season  V a l u e s f r o m 63 t o 28 d a y s , a v e r a g e 37 d a y s . r a n g e , f r o m S- t o l o w M/,  outward  a v e r a g e M/,  almost  S.  (P.S.  L.Dc)  A small  Portrayal of the biotic  complex  The p o l y g o n f o r Q u a t s i n o shows a n e a r l y complex, t h e o n l y l a r g e e x c e p t i o n s l e s s s e a s o n and t h e P-E t o V a n c o u v e r and A g a s s i z  Index.  mesobiotio  being t h e l e n g t h o f f r o s t -  In fact, i t i s quite  similar  e x c e p t i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p-E  r a t i o s and i n a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  T h e s e f a c t o r s show v a l u e s  that are obviously associated with a very long f r o s t l e s s w h i c h i n c l u d e s some r a t h e r l e n g t h y value, microthermal  season,  d r y p e r i o d s , and w i t h a l o w -  temperature e f f i c i e n c y .  I t i s notable  w i t h a n a v e r a g e p r e o i p i t a t i o n o f a b o u t 85 i n c h e s and a  that  frost-  l e s s s e a s o n o f 220 d a y s , t h e a v e r a g e o f o n l y A0% o f t h e P-E index  i n this  220 d a y p e r i o d must be due t o t h e l e n g t h i n e s s o f  d r y p e r i o d s , w h i c h a v e r a g e 37 d a y s f o r t h e l o n g e s t year. if  one e a c h  T h i s whole p e c u l i a r a r r a y o f f a c t o r - v a l u e s i s unexpected  one m e r e l y e x a m i n e s t h e l o c a t i o n o f Q u a t s i n o on t h e f o r e s t -  t y p e map, b u t i n c o n s i d e r i n g l o c a l g e o g r a p h y t h e m a t t e r i s dearer,  because t h i s s t a t i o n w h i l e w e l l w i t h i n the apparent  bounds o f t h e 03 f o r e s t r e g i o n i s a l s o p r o t e c t e d conditions, being topographic  intricate  Coast) s t a t i o n .  local  t h e b i o c l i m a t i o complex  T h i s a g a i n i s a n example o f t h e  j i g s a w p a t t e r n o f o l i m a t e s and e c o l o g i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s  on t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia coast.  oaks a t Hope, and on t h e r o c k y tain.  oceanic  i n l a n d on a n i n l e t t h a t appears t o g i v e  conditions approximating  o f a 02 ( S o u t h  from  These a r e p r o b a b l y  Compare t h e o c c u r r e n c e southern  slopes  o f Sumas Moun-  i n the range of microclimates  t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y i s l a n d e d communities.  of Garry  Such a r e u s u a l l y  c o m m u n i t i e s , b u t t h e y may be p u r e l y t o p o g r a p h i c ,  or relict  as w e l l .  -45BELLA COOLA Hours  o f S u n l i g h t ( F . S . Sun.)  No r e c o r d s . Bays i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  Season  ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 208 t o 119 d a y s , a v e r a g e 160.45 d a y s . considerable  r a n g e , f r o m S- t o b e l o w Mo, a v e r a g e M/.  this i sthe shortest frostless  Note  A that  s e a s o n a t minimum, o f t h e c o a s t  s t a t i o n s , and t h e s h o r t e s t a v e r a g e . Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n  o f T-E (S.C. T-E) A small  V a l u e s f r o m 56 t o 4 ° . 4 $ , a v e r a g e 4 8 . 9 7 $ . r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, a v e r a g e M/.  Note t h a t minimum and  average n e a r l y c o i n c i d e . T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 47.75 t o 3 8 . 2 5 / a v e r a g e 4 2 . 6 6 .  A very  s m a l l r a n g e , a l l M-. P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 278.59 t o 1 5 4 . 6 1 , c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m j u s t beyond Bella  Coola,  average  S/ t o S-.  also, i s i nthe A humidity  218.08. Note  province  A  that  of Halliday,  as a r e M a s s e t t , A g a s s i z , and V a n c o u v e r . Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 80.09 t o 43.48 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e inches. l o w M/.  A medium r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M/ t o h i g h M-,  62.40  average  -46Frostless  S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( F . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 21.1 t o 1 1 . 6 $ , a v e r a g e 1 6 . 3 $ . ate range,  A moder-  f r o m h i g h M- t o l o w H/, a v e r a g e b a r e l y M.  This i s  t h e l o w e s t v a l u e o f t h i s f a c t o r o f a l l t h e s t a t i o n s on t h e C o a s t , and w i t h t h e s h o r t f r o s t l e s s  s e a s o n i t means h e a v y  w i n t e r and f a l l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , w i t h l i g h t r a i n f a l l  i n the  growing season.  Longest Dry P e r i o d  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s Season  (F.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 81 t o 28 d a y s , a v e r a g e 42 d a y s . r a n g e , f r o m S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e M/,  This i s a t y p i c a l  A fair C2 f o r e s t  factor. P o r t r a y a l of t h e b i o t i c The  shape  of t h e B e l l a  t h a t f o r C2, C3 and C4 •  complex Coola polygon i s t y p i c a l o f  B u t i t s s i z e , and t h e n u m e r i c a l  v a l u e s o f i t s f a c t o r s , a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h o s e o f C2 and certain interior forests, (Montane) f o r e s t s .  such as t h e  SA ( s u b a l p i n e ) and M  A c t u a l l y , i t may be c l o s e r t o t h e CL.  ( C o l u m b i a n ) f o r e s t t y p e , a s a t N e l s o n and K a s l o .  This result  may s u r e l y be p u t down a s due t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i o n a t t h e head  o f one o f t h e l o n g e s t i n l e t s  on t h e c o a s t ,  that  composed o f F i t z h u g h Sound, B u r k e and N o r t h B e n t i n c k C h a n n e l s . The b e s t g e n e r a l a c c o u n t their varied  o f t h e f o r e s t s o f t h i s r e g i o n and  c o n t r o l s i s c o n t a i n e d i n a p a p e r by M i s s B l a n c h e  McAvoy, (McAvoy 1 9 3 1 , p. 1 4 1 - 1 4 7 ) .  In this region there are  c o n s i d e r a b l e stands of Douglas F i r ,  especially i n the valley  of t h e B e l l a  Coola R i v e r .  This occurrence o f Pseudotsuga,  -47r a t h e r i s o l a t e d on t h e  coast,  Hutohinson probably the f o r e s t to the rises.  As  east  Coast P o r e s t  takes aocount of the  from the  C o a s t Range, where t h e  i n the  a g a i n under Massett, the t i o n s of the  to Professor  r e s u l t of m i g r a t i o n  of the  explained  i s according  A.  H.  Montane  B e l l a Coola  d i s c u s s i o n u n d e r Ocean P a l l s ,  c o m p o s i t i o n of the b i o t i o i s not  associa-  understandable unless  g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y and  and  of the  one  exceedingly  b r o k e n t o p o g r a p h y , f r o m w h i c h b a s e s i t becomes c l e a r t h a t faciations  of the  f o r e s t on t h e  R u p e r t R e g i o n (C4  o f H a l l i d a y ) a r e due  by g l a c i a l c o n d i t i o n s  and  of o u t e r  land-forms freed  with the  i n t e r i o r was  p a p e r ( p . 146) less i s the  Queen C h a r l o t t e s and  the  to recent  more o r l e s s s i m u l t a n e o u s from the  i c e before  established.  o l o s e r the  the  the  i n t e r i o r s p e c i e s , w h i c h has  s i t c h e n s i s under c o a s t a l To  C o o l a has  the  sum  the  P-E  the  s i t c h e n s i s , and apparently  o r e l s e c a n n o t compete  with  conditions.  matter, the  shape of a t y p i c a l  b i o c l i m a t i c complex of B e l l a 03  o r C4  s t a t i o n , but  a l l f a c t o r - v a l u e s r e d u c e d , so t h a t a l l but mesobiotic  the  greater i s  not  P.  contact  forest l i e s t o tidewater,  Note t h a t i t i s P i c e a  not' m i g r a t e d w i t h D o u g l a s f i r ,  isolation  As n o t e d i n M i s s McAvoy's  p e r c e n t a g e o f P s e u d o t s u g a and  engelmanni, the  Prince  interference  percentage of P i c e a . P.  the  the  t h e P-E  with  index  are  o r p r a c t i c a l l y h y p o b i o t i c , g i v i n g , e x c e p t f o r the  i n d e x and  p r e c i p i t a t i o n , r a t h e r t h e p i c t u r e of a  or, S u b - A l p i n e f o r e s t ; t h i s b e a r s out i n the l o c a l i t y  of the  and  M o u n t a i n hemlock, the  W e s t e r n and  the  actual  Montane  intermingling  i n t e r i o r Douglas f i r w i t h S i t k a spruoe l a t t e r three  species  -48owing t h e i r d o m i n a n c e p r o b a b l y t o t h e m o i s t u r e f a c t o r s consequent compete.  inability Bella  and  o f o t h e r Montane o r S u b a l p i n e s p e c i e s t o  Coola r e p r e s e n t s a t r a n s i t i o n or ecotone  s t a t i o n b e t w e e n C3  ( M i d c o a s t ) f o r e s t and  Montane f o r e s t ,  as  V a n c o u v e r and Nanaimo r e p r e s e n t a n e o o t o n e b e t w e e n t h e C2  or  S o u t h c o a s t f o r e s t and t h e CI o r Madrona-Oak f o r e s t . PRINCE RUPERT Hours  o f S u n l i g h t i n the P r o s t l e s s Season  V a l u e s f r o m 915-5  This s t a t i o n , the l a s t  Sun.)  t o 4 7 1 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 709.7 h o u r s .  A c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m H/, Ho.  (P.S.  n e a r l y M-,  t o H-,  average above  c o a s t a l s t a t i o n having s u n l i g h t  records,  i s definitely deficient  season.  That t h i s  i n s u n l i g h t i n the  growing  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y due t o s p r e a d o f r a i n f a l l  i s shown b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h V a n c o u v e r ,  w h i c h has  o n l y 41  days  l o n g e r a v e r a g e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , b u t -873 more h o u r s o f s u n l i g h t . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , of s u n l i g h t t o t a l  i n December and  o n l y about  10  January, the average  more f o r V a n c o u v e r , a l t h o u g h  t h e more n o r t h e r n s t a t i o n (54° N o r t h as compared t o 4 9 ° s h o u l d have much l e s s  s u n i n w i n t e r and  North)  more i n summer, e x o e p t  f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n c i d e n c e of c l o u d y weather.  It i s inter-  e s t i n g h e r e t o n o t e t h a t V a n c o u v e r has e x t r e m e l y d e n s e , e n d u r i n g w i n t e r f o g s , and none i n summer, w h i l e P r i n c e has none i n w i n t e r and  hours  longRupert  common s e a - f o g s i n summer.  Days i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n V a l u e s f r o m 240  (P.S.  Da.)  t o 179 d a y s , a v e r a g e 1 9 9 . 9 0  days.  -49A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m n e a r l y So t o M/, a v e r a g e S-. Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 48.08 t o 4 0 . 9 1 $ , a v e r a g e 43.92$.  A  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M/, a v e r a g e S-. Temperature  1  e f f i c i e n c y Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 44*5 t o 3 6 . 5 , a v e r a g e 4 0 . 3 6 .  A very  s m a l l r a n g e , e n t i r e l y M-, n e a r l y H/. P r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s Index ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 377.9 t o 2 1 1 . 1 9 , a v e r a g e  268.91.  c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m f a r beyond t h e e x t r e m e range  theoretioal  o f S/, t o l o w S/, n e a r l y So, a v e r a g e a b o v e S/.  abnormality i s , of course, the r e s u l t low t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y  in-  This  of a s s o c i a t i o n of very  ( I ' ) with high annual  precipitation  and v e r y s h o r t d r o u g h t s .  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 117.81 t o 7 2 . 2 1 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e inches.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M/, a v e r a g e S-.  t h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n has a p e c u l i a r factor  90.55  Note t h a t  d i s t r i b u t i o n , as t h e next  shows. Frostless  S e a s o n P-E ( F . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 48.7 t o 2 5 . 6 $ ,  average  39.4$.  wide r a n g e , f r o m M/, n e a r l y S-, t o M-, a v e r a g e Mo. i s e n t i r e l y m e s o b i o t i o , and m o s t l y b e l o w Mo.  J* f a i r l y T h i s range  Note t h a t , i n  a f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n o f 200 days a v e r a g e l e n g t h , t h e r e i s n o t  -50o v e r a t most 4 9 $ o f t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and o n the average  l e s s t h a n 40$.  When t h i s  i s taken i n oonjunotion  with t h e r e l a t i v e l y high annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  (average  over  90 i n c h e s ) and e x t r e m e l y h i g h a n n u a l P-E i n d e x ( a v e r a g e 2 6 9 ) , it  i s v e r y c l e a r t h a t a n enormous r a i n f a l l  s e a s o n o f f r o s t , and t h i s  on t h e a v e r a g e  oomes i n t h e s h o r t  i n O c t o b e r , November,  and December ( r e s p e c t i v e l y 1 2 . 8 5 , 1 2 . 8 4 , and 1C.99 i n c h e s ) , w i t h a n average  t o t a l f o r t h o s e t h r e e months o f 34.68 i n c h e s ,  o r more t h a n a t h i r d  o f t h e whole a n n u a l r a i n f a l l .  Adding  t h a t f o r J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y and M a r c h , t h e r e i s a n a v e r a g e t o t a l f o r t h e s e 6 months o f 6 1 . 3 4 i n c h e s o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and t h i s  concentration of winter r a i n f a l l  helps t o e x p l a i n  the r e l a t i v e l y low c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the exoessive p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e f r o s t l e s s season, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e c o a s t a l b e l t  of B r i t i s h  Longest Dry P e r i o d  Columbia.  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (P.S. L.DK)  V a l u e s f r o m 38 t o 7 d a y s , a v e r a g e r a n g e , f r o m So t o M/, n e a r S-, a v e r a g e small size  o f d r y p e r i o d s emphasizes  t h e Madrona-Oak r e g i o n and t h a t  S-.  20 d a y s .  This extremely  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  o f t h e open c o a s t .  11 y e a r s t h e r e was n o d r y p e r i o d  A small  When i n  l o n g e r than 3 8 days, i t i s  o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e i s n o r m a l l y an abundance o f m o i s t u r e i n the growing season.  However t h i s must be t a k e n a l o n g w i t h  one e d a p h i c f a c t o r , w h i o h i s t h e e x t r e m e l y s h a l l o w s o i l bedrock ing  everywhere  i nfloodplains  i n this recently-glaciated o f streams.  region,  over  except-  The s o i l i n most p l a c e s i s a  -51b a r e f o o t o r t w o o f p e a t y humus o v e r a few i n c h e s o f d a y o r sand and t h e n a b r u p t l y t h e b e d r o c k .  I n a week o f d r y w e a t h e r  t h i s m a t e r i a l becomes q u i t e d r y , and a p e r i o d o f 20 days  with-  out r a i n may c a u s e a l l b u t t h e l a r g e r c r e e k s t o d r y u p , e x c e p t those fed by s n o w f i e l d s o r g l a o i e r s . tedly xeric and  c o n d i t i o n s i n many a r e a s , w i t h s c r u b b y h e a t h s  Krummholz - l i k e t a n g l e s  d w a r f i n g o f t h e dominant Picea,  on many o f t h e l o w h i l l s ,  o f enormous s i z e  and g n a r l e d  and a  Thu,ja and T s u g a , w h i c h a l o n g w i t h  .Abies and C h a m a e c y p a r i s  with trees  T h i s l e a d s t o unexpec-  form t h e u n i v e r s a l  forest,  on f l o o d p l a i n s and g l a c i a l  o r scrubby i n d i v i d u a l s  o f t h e same s p e c i e s  till, else-  where.  Portrayal of the b i o t i c  complex  P r i n c e Rupert weather s t a t i o n i s a t t h e r a d i o  sta-  t i o n o n D i g b y I s l a n d , a t t h e n o r t h end o f t h e h a r b o u r e n t r a n c e and a m i l e o r more f r o m t h e c i t y p r o p e r .  I t was moved h e r e  some t i m e a b o u t t h e y e a r 1 9 2 7 , when t h e r e c o r d s used i n t h i s p a p e r commence.  I t i s a b o u t t h e same e l e v a t i o n a s t h e o r i g -  i n a l s t a t i o n , b u t some 3 t o 4 m i l e s w e s t and t h e r e f o r e somewhat removed  f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Mount Old f i e l d , t h e 2300  f o o t r i d g e w h i c h t o w e r s o v e r n e a r l y t h e whole city  of Prince  Rupert on t h e s o u t h .  length of the  I t i s , however, d o u b t f u l  i f there i s a significant difference i n sunlight.  There i s  u n d o u b t e d l y some i n c r e a s e i n e x p o s u r e t o t h e s o u t h e a s t g a l e s which o f t e n r e a c h v e l o c i t i e s w i n t e r , b u t windspeeds  o f 60 t o 70 m i l e s a n h o u r i n t h e  a r e n o t shown on t h e g r a p h s .  The  s t a t i o n may  be t a k e n as a good example o f t h e  climate, being  completely  south  northeasterly.  T h e r e a r e no  i s l a n d s 10  To  t o 20 m i l e s  land  of the  shadow.  Queen C h a r l o t t e  the  Islands  nearly straight line f a c t o r (P.S.  depression  on t h e  L.Dr.).  Note a l s o t h e  low rain  I ' f a c t o r , and the  excessive  the  on the  dry  develop-  superbiotic  l e n g t h of  l e n g t h of d r y p e r i o d s , t o g e t h e r  frostless  w i t h amount  of  precipitation. On  comparing these p o i n t s w i t h  other polygons  s t a t i o n s f r o m V a n c o u v e r t o Ocean P a l l s and be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e with  the  The  c a s t s no a p p a r e n t  b e t w e e n p r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) and  f o r temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  s e a s o n and annual  sweep t o  open P a c i f i c .  ment o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ; and values  full  Note, i n the c l i m a t e p o l y g o n , the deep d e p r e s s i o n  the s u n l i g h t f a c t o r , the  period  mountains west,  t h e w e s t , s c a t t e r e d moun-  away g i v e  w e a t h e r f r o m D i x o n E n t r a n c e and  a  3000 f o o t m o u n t a i n s  e a s t w a r d and  o r n o r t h f o r many m i l e s .  tainous  coast  exposed t o t h e westward, w i t h  2000 f o o t r i d g e s e v e r a l m i l e s 5 to 8 miles  open  i s a general  Ocean P a l l s , P r i n c e  Uoluelet, i t w i l l  s i m i l a r i t y amongst t h e m ,  R u p e r t and  U c l u e l e t showing  the  g r e a t e s t development of t h e p e c u l i a r p o l y g o n - s h a p e . be n o t e d t h a t R u p e r t has  of the  stations north  sunshine records.  a l s o by t h e p e r i o d i c i t y are s i m i l a r i n h a v i n g pected t h a t t n i s  It  of Vancouver, only  However, j u d g i n g  f a c t o r s s u c h as p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  for  temperature  by t h e  will Prince  other  efficiency,  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n , a l l these s t a t i o n s  d e f i c i e n t sunshine.  f a c t o r when a v a i l a b l e w i l l  I t i s t o be show a  ex-  depression  -53as t y p i c a l  f o r t h e o p e n c o a s t r e g i o n ( C f 6 o f T r e w a r t h a and  Koppen; A C ' r o f T h o r n t h w a i t e ) . cessive r a i n f a l l and  T h i s i s t h e r e g i o n o f ex-  (A), d e f i c i e n t temperature  (microthermal  abundant r a i n a t a l l seasons ( r ) , w i t h which  few a c q u a i n t e d  w i t h t h e r e g i o n would d i f f e r .  ever, l i k e a l l i n v e s t i g a t o r s d i r e c t l y Columbia, has found  i t necessary  t y p e s , so w h i l e Thornthwaite  estimate  H a l l i d a y , how-  oonversant  with  t o subdivide these  c a l l s a n y P-E i n d e x ( p . 41)  "wet", i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , H a l l i d a y  C)  British  broad  o v e r 128  g i v e s two degrees W  o f " w e t n e s s " , 128 - 1 9 1 , "A", and 192 u p , A./", c a l l i n g  both  "wet".  except  Here, t h e present w r i t e r agrees  with Halliday,  i n t h i s , t h a t i t i s probably dangerous t o f i x hard-and-fast distributions  o f organisms i n B r i t i s h Columbia on t h e b a s i s o f  c l i m a t e , o r t o assume t h a t p r e s e n t climaxes.  communities a r e t r u e  The g r a p h s o f t h e c l i m a t e s p r e s e n t e d  here do, i t  i s b e l i e v e d , r e p r e s e n t c l i m a t e s , b u t i t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t g l a c i a t i o n was v e r y r e c e n t , e s p e c i a l l y  on t h e n o r t h coast,  and h e r e v e r y o f t e n t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a p s e u d o - o l i m a x , due to the extremely limited covered.  t h i n substratum  time w h i c h has e l a p s e d In this  a b o v e b e d r o o k , and t o t h e  s i n c e t h e r e g i o n was i c e -  c o n n e c t i o n , note  t h a t H a l l i d a y ' s C3 o r m i d -  coast r e g i o n has t h e h i g h e s t r a i n f a l l , y e t oontains f i r and l i t t l e  S i t k a Spruce,  r e g i o n has l e s s r a i n f a l l , Spruce developed  Douglas  w h i l e h i s C4, o r n o r t h - o o a s t  y e t has no Douglas f i r ,  has S i t k a  t o i t s optimum, and y e t h a s no A b i e s  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s .  In this  i n g t o read t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s  on t h e  connection, i ti s interest-  o f Cooper (1923, 1931, 1939),  -54who  observes t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y pure stands  a r e f o u n d on m o r a i n a l  d e p o s i t s , even a t t i m e s  is s t i l l  under the t i l l .  normally  expect  to  of Sitka  find  So  Spruce  when t h e  i t would a p p e a r t h a t we  Sitka  should  S p r u c e most a b u n d a n t i n t h e  r e g i o n s most r e c e n t l y g l a c i a t e d ( t h a t i s , n o r t h e r l y ) when t h e s u r r o u n d i n g species.  d i s t r i c t s are a l r e a d y covered  T h i s would e x p l a i n the  occurrence  the m i d - c o a s t r e g i o n of h i g h e s t r a i n f a l l  by  other  ( s e e a l s o McAvoy, therefore  more s u i t e d t o t h e D o u g l a s f i r t h e r e i s n o n e .  lack i n the n o r t h coast f l o r a f a c t o r s , s i n c e i n the  q u i t e common, h a v i n g  c a n n o t be  obviously migrated  To sum  t o temperature e a s t , w i t h much  up,  from the south  presumably of longer  the p o r t r a y a l of the  those  of other c o a s t a l s t a t i o n s i n the  Giant  Cedar r e g i o n , but  i s t o be  A l a s k a , and  region.  MASSETT  No  records.  with  i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t  r e g i o n o f ( G l a c i e r Bay,  H o u r s of S u n l i g h t ( F . S .  post-  W e s t e r n Hemlock-  t h e p o s t - g l a c i a l f o r e s t i n v a s i o n s as d e m o n s t r a t e d by  geographical features of the  through  bioclimatic  complex a t t h i s s t a t i o n c o i n c i d e s , m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s ,  et a l . i n the  This  c o l d e r w i n t e r s , Douglas f i r i s  o f l e s s e r r a i n f a l l and  glacial history.  due  i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s due  s h o r t e r g r o w i n g s e a s o n and  regions  except  of Douglas f i r i n  1 9 3 1 ) , w h i l e i n a r e g i o n o f l e s s e r r a i n f a l l and supposedly  ioe  Sun.)  of  Cooper  as shown by  _  5 5  -  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S .  Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 200 t o 120 d a y s , a v e r a g e 168.17 d a y s . A medium r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S t o h i g h M-, Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n  o f T-E  average  (S.C.  M/.  T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 47 t o 3S.9$, a v e r a g e 4 2 . - 4 8 $ . r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M/, T-E  average  A small  S-.  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 47 t o 3 5 . 7 5 , a v e r a g e 42.66. r a n g e , f r o m M- t o h i g h H/, P-E  n e a r M,  average  A  small  M-.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 182.18 t o 1 4 1 . 4 7 , a v e r a g e 162.76. s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m So t o S-,  average  Annual P r e o i p i t a t i o n  S-.  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 6 5 . 6 2 t o 52.12 inches.  average low  F r o s t l e s s Season Concentration  range, c l u s t e r e d about coinoides  57.64  inches, average  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo,  o f P-E  M/.  (F.S.  t o 2 4 . 9 $ , a v e r a g e 28.7$.  V a l u e s f r o m 34.1 Mo.  A  Note t h a t the average  P-E) A  small  nearly  w i t h t h e minimum. Longest Dry P e r i o d  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. L.Lr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 47 t o 15 f a i r r a n g e , f r o m So t o M/,  d a y s , a v e r a g e 27 d a y s .  average  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c The  outstanding  A  S-. oomplex  feature of the Massett polygon i s  - 65  i t s r e g u l a r i t y , within mesobiotic l i m i t s . f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n may  be  Note t h a t t h e  o n l y 4 months, b u t a v e r a g e s  months, w i t h a maximum n e a r l y 7 months. a t P r i n c e R u p e r t , n e a r l y due  That  i t i s less  the  similarly  index, which w i t h l o n g e r droughts presuppose  clearer skies.  much  T h i s i n t u r n i s t o be e x p e c t e d i n t h e e a s t e r n  Queen C h a r l o t t e s , b o t h b e c a u s e o f t h e l o w , r e g u l a r and t h e r a i n shadow e f f e c t  topography  o f the low w e s t e r n mountains.  summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e e f f i c i e n c y i s q u i t e as e x p e c t e d , and t h i s w i t h t h e l o w t o t a l T-E 4-3)  than  e a s t on t h e m a i n l a n d , i s p r o b a b l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e muoh l o w e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n and l o w e r P-E  5^  over  index  The low,  (average  g i v e s c o o l e r summers t h a n i n p l a c e s o t h e r w i s e s i m i l a r .  Note a l s o t h e p e c u l i a r l y u n i f o r m s m a l l n e s s o f r a n g e s f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n and l e s s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Mas s e t t  droughts.  T h i s i s doubt-  i s on a l o w i s l a n d ,  with  40 t o 60 m i l e s o f s e a t o t h e n e a r e s t m a i n l a n d , and t o t h e r e l a t i v e u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e sea t e m p e r a t u r e s . here i s seldom the cold  o v e r 60°P., and  California  c u r r e n t and  s u c h as t h e E r a s e r and winter temperature West Wind D r i f t .  sea-water  y e t because o f t h e absence o f any l a r g e g l a c i e r f e d r i v e r s  Skeena, which  freeze i n winter,  the  o f t h e s e a depends a l m o s t s o l e l y on t h e T h i s warmer s u r f a c e w a t e r comes i n t h r o u g h  n e a r b y D i x o n E n t r a n c e , and year.  The  is fairly  constant, year a f t e r  C o n s e q u e n t l y , one h a s i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s t h e  e x p e c t a t i o n o f c o o l , m o i s t , u n i f o r m c o n d i t i o n s s u o h as in Ireland,  i n much t h e same s i t u a t i o n .  The  found  d i f f e r e n c e i f any  i s due t o t h e w e s t e r n l o c a t i o n o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e moun-  -57tains  on Graham I s l a n d , g i v i n g M a s s e t t a r a i n shadow d r o u g h t  e f f e c t n o t found  i n I r e l a n d t o t h e same e x t e n t .  A remarkably uniform olimate i s depicted w i t h exoessive factors,  (163).  t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , and w i t h t h e r a t h e r r e g u l a r l o w it  o f 58 i n c h e s  c o o l , w i t h an average r a i n f a l l  and a h i g h e f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n  no  Under topography,  i s o n l y t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e c o n i f e r s show a  g r o w t h t h a t i s e x t r e m e l y u n i f o r m and w r i t e r has s e e n S i t k a s p r u c e l o g s 11^  o f tremendous s i z e .  f e e t i n d i a m e t e r , and  t h e r e a r e r e c o r d s o f them up t o o v e r 14  feet.  The  G i a n t Cedar,  Y e l l o w C y p r e s s and W e s t e r n Hemlock r e a c h p r o p o r t i o n a t e As n o t e d e l s e w h e r e , t h e a b s e n c e o f A b i e s i s a l m o s t due t o t h e same c a u s e a s t h a t o f P s e u d o t s u g a , and  ( S h e l d o n , 1912)  and  sizes.  certainly this i s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t r a n g e , d e g e n e r a t e remnant of a herd  The  caribou  t h e a b s e n c e o f many mammals t y p i c a l  of t h e C o a s t P o r e s t on t h e m a i n l a n d .  This i r r e g u l a r i t y  in  d i s t r i b u t i o n produces a f a c i a t i o n i n the t e r m i n o l o g y o f bioecologists  ( C l e m e n t s and  S h e l f o r d p. 24-3).  As e l s e w h e r e i n t h e C o a s t P o r e s t biorne, t h e l a c k o f c o v e r t o b e d r o o k h e r e p r o d u c e s muskegs and o f raw p e a t d e r i v e d is d i f f i c u l t  h e a t h s , o r moors,  f r o m sphagnum m o s s e s , and  i n places i t  t o say w h i c h i s the c l i m a x or the p o s t - c l i m a x ,  f o r e s t o r muskeg.  I t appears l i k e l y  fluctuations lasting  t h e r e have been c l i m a t i o  o v e r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s , when b o g s s p r e a d  o v e r t h e u p l a n d s and t h e n t r e e s f o l l o w e d ,  o n l y t o be  killed  by m o o r - f i r e s i n d r o u g h t - p e r i o d s , as t h e w r i t e r h a s s e e n i n the  P r i n c e Rupert d i s t r i o t .  These droughts a t t i m e s k i l l  the  sphagnums and e r i c a d s , e v e n i f t h e t r e e s a r e n o t f i r e - k i l l e d . Then l a r g e a r e a s o f b a r r e n r e s u l t , raw humus o f f t h e b e d r o c k  o f t e n w i t h washing of t h e  i n t h e h e a v y autumn r a i n s .  A l l this  i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e p e c u l i a r g r a p h f o r M a s s e t t , w i t h i t s unexp e c t e d l y h i g h e r r a n g e s o f d r o u g h t - l e n g t h and f r o s t l e s s when c o r r e l a t e d  season,  with the uniformity of other factors. KAMLOOPS  Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( F . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1668 t o 1383 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1488 h o u r s . A s m a l l range, c l o s e upon t h e average  Mo.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.) V a l u e s f r o m 205 t o 15 5 d a y s , a v e r a g e 181.5 d a y s . A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e  M/.  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 55.72 t o 4 8 . 4 2 $ , s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, a v e r a g e  a v e r a g e 52.31$.  A  M/.  T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 55.25 t o 4 6 . 7 5 , a v e r a g e 50.95. small range, e n t i r e l y  A very  M-.  P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 54.46 t o 1 4 . 2 3 , a v e r a g e 26.43. s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e H/. ^semi-arid p l u s  r  category.  A con-  This i s Hallidays  -59A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 17.98 t o 6.4.2 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e inches.  9.88  A medium r a n g e , f r o m H/ t o h i g h H-, a v e r a g e Ho. Prostless  Season G o n c e n t r a t i o n  o f P-E ( F . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 4.0.8 t o 8.1$, a v e r a g e 29.1$. s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Ho, a v e r a g e  A con-  M-.  L o n g e s t D r y P e r i o d i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F. S. L D r . ) V a l u e s f r o m 175 t o 44 d a y s , a v e r a g e 100 d a y s . l a r g e r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M/ t o H/, a v e r a g e h i g h Portrayal of the b i o t i o The  A  M-.  complex  p o l y g o n i s s m a l l i n a r e a , and i t s r a d i i a r e  d e f i n i t e l y d e f i c i e n t i n the moisture f a c t o r s , only the f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n e n t e r i n g t h e s u p e r b i o t i c band.  The s u n l i g h t i n  the f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n i s p u r e l y m e s o b i o t i c .  I f t h i s seems  u n u s u a l l y l o w , w i t h t h e d e f i n i t e l a c k o f r a i n f a l l and l o n g d r y p e r i o d s , i t i s w e l l t o n o t e h e r e t h a t much o f t h e a r i d i t y o f t h e B. C. g r a s s l a n d s not b y c l e a r n e s s observers  seems c a u s e d by s i m p l e  of the s k i e s .  that the grassland  I t i s reported  lack of rain, o r a l l y b y many  IC  o r Dry B e l t " h a s a g r e a t d e a l o f  the t i m e a grey hazy s k y , a p p a r e n t l y "oheerful grey s k y " of t h e Peruvian  much t h e same as t h e coast.  There i s a f a i r l y  l o n g f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , b u t n o t s o l o n g a s on t h e open c o a s t i n t h e same l a t i t u d e , a t maximum. i n t e r i o r s t a t i o n s o f B. C ,  there  the h i g h Coast ranges o f p r o d u c i n g  N o t e t h a t a s w i t h a l l other i s a definite  e f f e o t from  a c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e , by  -60the d r y i n g  o f t h e a i r masses f r o m t h e P a c i f i c and t h e s o u t h -  ward movement o f P o l a r a i r masses a l o n g t h e m o u n t a i n that are so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p. 2 0 8 - 2 0 9 ) .  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  (Trewartha,  The summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e  e n c y i s h i g h e r t h a n o n t h e C o a s t , as w o u l d ing t h i s  trenohes  effici-  be e x p e c t e d , t h r o w -  f a c t o r w e l l i n t o the mesobiotio range.  The T-E i n d e x  (I') i t s e l f i s f a i r l y high, being Halliday's  "Temperate p l u s " ,  t h a t i s , v e r g i n g u p o n warm t e m p e r a t e .  i s extremely  l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n , as appears factors are both deficient being Halliday's  There  from the polygon.  Moisture  and h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , t h e P-E i n d e x  "Semi-arid p l u s " , but v a r y i n g from h i s  to"Sub-Humid p l u s " .  E v e n a t t h e maximum, 54-, t h i s  "Arid"  factor  i n d i c a t e s l o w p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r t h e r e g i o n and t h e f a c t o r b e i n g s o s m a l l , i t o b v i o u s l y a t i t s minimum i s a g o v e r n i n g factor f o rthe region.  The a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y  l o w , b e i n g u n d e r 6^- i n c h e s a t t i m e s and s e l d o m r i s i n g the average  o f about  10 i n c h e s .  above  Since the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  P-E i n t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n i s n e v e r o v e r 4-1$, and may d r o p t o 8$, i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t i n some y e a r s t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l l y no available moisture at a l l .  T h i s accounts f o r t h e northward  e x t e n s i o n o f s u c h x e r o p h y t e s a s c a c t i and sage b r u s h , e t c . , w h i c h c a n w i t h s t a n d s u c h p r o l o n g e d and s e v e r e d r o u g h t .  Fur-  ther, the l e n g t h of droughts i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t V i c t o r i a and  e l s e w h e r e i n t h e Madrona-Oak r e g i o n , and h a s i n b o t h  places produced  a like biotic  effect,  of grassland areas  amongst x e r o p h y t i c t r e e s s u c h a s J u n i p e r c e d a r and D o u g l a s f i r , w i t h c a c t u s and l i l i a o e o u s f o r b s  i n both regions.  The  -61f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e P. C. G r a s s l a n d s w i l l up w i t h t h e o t h e r g r a s s l a n d and d r y b e l t  be t a k e n  stations.  VERNON H o u r s o f S u n l i g h t ( F . S . Sun.) V a l u e s f r o m 1532 t o 1241 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1390 h o u r s . A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o M-, a v e r a g e c l o s e t o minimum. Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.) V a l u e s f r o m 196 t o 137 d a y s , a v e r a g e 161.6 d a y s . A s m a l l range, from t h e low l i m i t  o f S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e  M/.  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 57.1 t o 5 0 . 0 , a v e r a g e  54.0. A s m a l l  r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, a v e r a g e Mo. T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 5 1 . 5 0 t o 42.5.0, a v e r a g e 4 6 . 6 1 . s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M- t o l o w M-, a v e r a g e  A very  M-.  P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 7 0 . 5 0 t o 3 3 . 0 9 , a v e r a g e 47.30. medium r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/, a v e r a g e  A  M-.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 20.74 t o 11.33 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e inches.  A s m a l l r a n g e , h i g h H/ t o Ho, a v e r a g e  16.17  H/.  P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( F . S . P~E) V a l u e s f r o m 37.5 t o 1 5 . 3 $ , a v e r a g e 27.0$.  A  -62o o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m l / t o H/, L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d V a l u e s f r o m 110  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s Season  average  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i o p o l y g o n f o r Vernon  as t h a t f o r K a m l o o p s , w i t h l e s s ranges i n g e n e r a l .  M-.  Mo.  complex  e x a g g e r a t i o n and  smaller  f a c t o r i s s m a l l e r , but  P-E  l e n g t h of drought are a l l  n e a r e r t o m e s o b i o t i o means i n t h e c a s e o f V e r n o n .  Note,  h o w e v e r , t h e t y p i c a l f l a t t e n i n g on t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n in all,  A  shows t h e same g e n e r a l shape  The s u n l i g h t  i n d e x , a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  All  (F.S. L.Dx)  t o 48 d a y s , a v e r a g e 75 d a y s .  medium r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo,  The  average h i g h  V e r n o n shows a t y p i c a l B.  c l i m a t i c polygon, mesobiotio f o r a l l  factor.  C. g r a s s l a n d b i o f a c t o r s except water,  and h e r e t h e o n l y d e f i n i t e l y d e f i c i e n t , h y p o b i o t i c  factor  is the s i n g l e  I t appears  one o f a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i t s e l f .  t h a t n e i t h e r a r e d r o u g h t s l o n g e n o u g h n o r mean t e m p e r a t u r e s h i g h enough t o d e p r e s s t h e P-E  i n d e x below t h e sub-humid.  i s , t h e n , t h e a c t u a l l a c k o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n t h a t must p l a c e V e r n o n i n t h e g e n e r a l g r a s s l a n d biome a l o n g w i t h o t h e r stations.  SUMMSELAND Hours  of Sunlight  (F.S.  V a l u e s f r o m I 5 6 2 t o 1292 hours.  P s m a l l r a n g e , c l o s e t o Mo,  Sun.) hours, average average  Mo.  1470.5  It  -63Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n V a l u e s f r o m 207 t o 156  Da.)  d a y s , a v e r a g e 184.2  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w S- t o l o w M/, Summer C o n o e n t r a t i o n  (F.S.  o f T-E  average (S.C.  days.  M/. T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 54.95 t o 4 8 . 2 0 $ , a v e r a g e 51.88$. s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, T-E  Index  average low  M/.  (I')  A very  V a l u e s f r o m 5 5 . 5 0 t o 4-5.75, a v e r a g e 5 1 . 2 3 . s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o mid-M-, a v e r a g e P-E  M-.  Index ( I ) t o 15-51, a v e r a g e 3 0 . 1 1 .  V a l u e s f r o m 51.29 medium r a n g e , h i g h M- t o Ho,  average  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  A  H/.  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 16.34- t o - 6 . 7 7 • i n c h e s , a v e r a g e inches.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m H/ t o H-, Prostless  Season  V a l u e s f r o m 48.3  average  Concentration  o f P-E  (P.S.  t o 15.5$, a v e r a g e 29.6$.  l o n g e s t Dry Period  11.70  Ho.  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S t o b a r e l y H, a v e r a g e  P~E) A  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. I.Dr.)  r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o l o w M-,  P o r t r a y a l o f the b i o t i c A t y p i c a l grassland  con-  Mo.  V a l u e s f r o m 129 t o 50 d a y s , a v e r a g e 75 d a y s . considerable  A  average low  A  M/«  complex  polygon, w i t h only length of  -64f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n and superbiotio.  There  i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E  reaching the  i s t h e u s u a l good v a l u e o f s u n l i g h t ,  the t y p i c a l f l a t t e n i n g  of the polygon at the  and  precipitation  f a c t o r , the l a t t e r being the only completely hypobiotic  fact02:.  A l s o u s u a l a r e t h e h y p o b i o t i c v a l u e s of t h e extreme minima f o r P-E  f a c t o r s , and t h e l o n g d r o u g h t  periods.  OLIVER Hours  of Sunlight  (F.S.  Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m I 6 4 7 t o 1178 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1315 A medium s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ t o M-, t h a t t h e a v e r a g e i s r e a l l y h i g h M-,  V a l u e s f r o m 198 t o 142  T-E  Index  extreme.  Da.)  average low  Summer O o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo,  (F.S.  Note  d a y s , a v e r a g e 167.73 d a y s .  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S t o Mo,  V a l u e s from 56.10  a v e r a g e Mo.  close t o the low  Bays i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n  hours.  (S.C.  T-E)  t o 47.39$, average average low  M/.  51.65$.  A  M/.  1  (1 )  V a l u e s f r o m 62.25 t o 51.25, a v e r a g e 55.75.  An  e x t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o mid-M-, a v e r a g e h i g h  M-.  Note t h a t t h i s and t h e v a l u e s f o r V a n c o u v e r a r e t h e h i g h e s t T-E  indices i n the P-E  province.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 41.22  t o 11.97, a v e r a g e 20.49.  A  medium r a n g e , f r o m M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e  M/.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 1-4.34 t o 5 . 0 1 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 8.54. inches.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w H/ t o h i g h H-, a v e r a g e Ho. Prostless  Season  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( P . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 5 8 . 6 t o 11.4-$, a v e r a g e 3 1 . 1 $ . s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m S- t o H/, a v e r a g e Longest Dry Period  A con-  Mo.  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (P.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 153 t o 60 d a y s , a v e r a g e 98 d a y s .  A  c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m ¥1/ t o h i g h H/, a v e r a g e h i g h M-. Portrayal of the biotio  complex  T h i s p o l y g o n i s o f t y p i c a l g r a s s l a n d shape and d i m e n s i o n s , w i t h a l l f a c t o r s m e s o b i o t i o e x o e p t P-E i n d e x and precipitation,  whioh a r e t y p i c a l l y h y p o b i o t i o .  The f r o s t l e s s  s e a s o n P-E p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e i s u n u s u a l l y w i d e - r a n g i n g , w i t h extremes the  i n s u p e r - and h y p o b i o t i c b a n d s .  The p o l y g o n shows  t y p i c a l f l a t t e n i n g a t the p r e c i p i t a t i o n  faotor, while the  f r o s t l e s s - s e a s o n P-E i s u n u s u a l l y e x a g g e r a t e d . i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e n a r r o w r a n g e wide r a n g e  of dry period  This l a t t e r  o f t h e T-E i n d e x and t h e  lengths. SALMON ARM  Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( P . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1302 t o 1131  h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1200 h o u r s .  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o M-, a v e r a g e  M-.  -66Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  Season (F.S.  V a l u e s f r o m 193  days, a v e r a g e 159.7  t o 11  m o d e r a t e r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M/ t o M-,  average  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  (S.C.  V a l u e s f r o m 57.38 t o 5 0 . 2 5 $ , s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, T-E  days.  T-E) A  M/.  Index ( I ' )  s m a l l r a n g e , w h o l l y M-,  average  a v e r a g e 4-6.82.  A very  M-.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 82.23 t o 3 3 . 9 0 , a v e r a g e 5 8 . 9 4 . m o d e r a t e r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ t o h i g h H/, Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  average  A  M-.  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 2 4 . 4 4 t o 11.61 inohes.  inches, average  19.37  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m H/ n e a r l y M, t o Ho, a v e r a g e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E Values from 30.9  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  moderate r a n g e , f r o m t h e S-M  average  H/.  P-E) A  M-.  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 98 t o 35  d a y s , a v e r a g e 64 d a y s .  b o r d e r t o h i g h M-,  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c S a l m o n Arm  (F.S.  t o 12.28$, a v e r a g e 20.68$.  moderate r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/,  The  A  M/.  a v e r a g e 53.68$.  average low  Values from 50.75 t o 4 1 . 7 5 ,  • P-E  Da.)  A  average  Mo.  complex  polygon i s of the grassland  form,  but w h o l l y m e s o b i o t i c e x c e p t i n g t h e P r e c i p i t a t i o n w h i c h shows t h e t y p i c a l biotio.  There  grassland  factor,  f l a t t e n i n g i n t o t h e hypo-  a r e no e v i d e n t w i d e r a n g e s and t h e P-E i n d e x  is i n Halliday's  "sub-humid  ff;  h i s sub - humid ".  plus  m  r a n g e , t h e minimum l y i n g i n  This i s associated  w i t h a l o w e r T-E i n d e x  t h a n f o r t y p i c a l g r a s s l a n d , and f i t s  i n very well with the  p o s i t i o n o f S a l m o n Arm, b e t w e e n t h e Okanagan ( V e r n o n ) and Thompson (Kamloops)  g r a s s l a n d s ; a c t u a l l y i t i s wooded and  belongs r a t h e r t o the t a n g l e d  eootones  o f Montane  forest,  C o l u m b i a f o r e s t , and G r a s s l a n d b i o m e s w h i c h h e r e o c c u r i n a rather i n d i s t i n c t , effeots  labyrinthine  of c l e a r i n g ,  maze c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e  o v e r g r a z i n g , l u m b e r i n g , f i r e s and f a r m -  ing.  RE VBISTOKE Hours  of Sunlight  ( P . S . Sun.)  No r e c o r d s . Pays i n t h e P r o s t l e s s Season  ( P . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 174 t o 106 d a y s , a v e r a g e 127.27 d a y s . A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o M-, a v e r a g e  Mo.  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 58 t o 5 2 . 6 $ , small range, c l o s e t o t h e average  a v e r a g e 55.57$.  A very  Mo.  T-E Ind ex ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 45-75 t o 37.5, a v e r a g e 4 1 . 9 1 . t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e , a b o u t t h e a v e r a g e l o w M-.  An e x -  -68P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 175.38 t o 7 7 . 8 3 , a v e r a g e 147.37. s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m So t o Mo, a v e r a g e  A con-  S-.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 45.7 t o 21.94 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 37.02 inches.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/, a v e r a g e h i g h M-. Prostless  Season  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( P . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 21.3 t o 8.5$, a v e r a g e 13.1$. r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e Longest P r y Period  A medium  H/.  i n the Prostless  S e a s o n (P.S. L<Lr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 83 t o 24 d a y s , a v e r a g e 46 d a y s . medium r a n g e , f r o m S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e Portrayal of the b i o t i c The  A  M/.  complex.  R e v e l s t o k e complex has t h e t y p i c a l  interior  m o u n t a i n f o r e s t p o l y g o n , h i g h i n P-E i n d e x and i n l a c k o f p r o longed d r o u g h t s , but low m e s o b i o t i c i n a l l even h y p o b i o t i c  o t h e r f a c t o r s and  i n f r o s t l e s s season concentration of p r e c i p i -  tation effectiveness.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s l o w mean t e m p e r a t u r e s ,  w i t h most p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h e f a l l , much o f i t a s snow.  w i n t e r and e a r l y  spring,  T h i s s n o w f a l l i n t u r n l e a d s t o even  less  d r o u g h t e f f e o t t h a n one m i g h t e x p e c t , e v e n f r o m t h e l e n g t h o f d r o u g h t v a l u e s g i v e n , and t h i s the Columbia  i n t u r n t o t h e development  of  f o r e s t w h i c h i n many ways r e s e m b l e s t h e C o a s t  f o r e s t , b o t h i n s p e o i e s - o o m p o s i t i o n and i n h a b i t .  The l a o k  of s u n l i g h t r e c o r d s f o r t h e C o l u m b i a f o r e s t e x c e p t a t N e l s o n  -69i s a s e r i o u s drawback, but as seen a t N e l s o n , t h e r e i s l e s s sunshine t h a n f o r any o t h e r s t a t i o n , e x c e p t i n g P r i n c e and I n v e r m e r e .  The v e r y s h o r t f r o s t l e s s  alpine-montane d i s t r i o t  season i n t h e sub-  i s the explanation here.  The s t a t i o n  i s mesobiotio except i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , has a s u p e r b i o t i o  index, i n Halliday's  Rupert  which  "Wet" A p r o v i n c e , b u t  a h y p o b i o t i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e f r o s t l e s s season, which i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e h e a v y w i n t e r r a i n and s n o w f a l l . polygon i s f l a t t e n e d  The  on t h e T-E f a c t o r t o n e a r t h e h y p o b i o t i c ,  and e x t e n d e d on t h e P-E i n d e x and d r o u g h t f a c t o r s t o w a r d t h e superbiotio. ROSSLAND Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( F . S . Sun.)  No r e c o r d s . Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 166 t o 104- d a y s , a v e r a g e 1 4 3 . 8 d a y s . s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m ¥</ t o M-, a v e r a g e  M/.  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) Values from 65.9 t o 52.8$,  average 58.5$.  r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ t o h i g h M-, a v e r a g e  A small  Mo.  T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) Values from 46.25 t o 37.75,  average 4 1 . 2 5 .  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M- t o h i g h H/, a v e r a g e  M-.  A very  A  -70P-B  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 134-12 t o 4 6 . 0 , r a n g e , f r o m l o w S- t o M-,  average low  Annual P r e o i p i t a t i o n  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M-  M/.  t o Ho,  t o 7.1$,  r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d V a l u e s f r o m 162  20.2  i n c h e s , average average  P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E Values from 25.7  A medium  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 36.03 t o 13.75 inches.  average 9 6 . 1 2 .  H/. (F.S.  average 12.1$.  P-B)  A medium  H/.  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( E S . LPr.)  t o 36  d a y s , a v e r a g e 80 d a y s .  c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m b o r d e r o f S t o h i g h H/, Portrayal of the b i o t i o  A  average  Mo.  complex  The p o l y g o n f o r R o s s l a n d on c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h o s e f o r K a s l o and  N e l s o n shows t h e same g e n e r a l shape f o r a l l  CL  s t a t i o n s , but w i t h c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n  the case of R o s s l a n d .  v a l u e s are lower i n  N o t e t h a t t h e T-E  b i o t i c w o r t h h e r e , t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n i s s h o r t e r , and  the  l e n g t h o f d r y p e r i o d s i s o f g r e a t e r r a n g e and i s o f l o w e r average b i o t i c v a l u e .  This l a t t e r factor is associated  h y p o b i o t i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E  with  i n t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , and  very d e f i n i t e l y hypobiotic p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  These t h r e e f a c t o r s  s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o h a v e a downward t e n d e n c y , a s R o s s l a n d i s q u i t e c l o s e t o the Columbia v a l l e y g r a s s l a n d s , which w h i l e not r e c o r d e d i n t h i s  p a p e r must be e x p e c t e d t o h a v e t h e same  -71general m o i s t u r e - d e f i c i e n c i e s as the grasslands v a l l e y s and o f g r a s s l a n d s not v e r y  i n general.  of the western  Rossland i s , i n f a c t ,  f a r g e o g r a p h i c a l l y f r o m t h e e c o t o n e o f t h e CL 1  f o r e s t and t h e g r a s s l a n d . KASLO Hours o f S u n l i g h t No  ( F . S . Sun.)  records.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.) V a l u e s f r o m 206 t o 136 d a y s , a v e r a g e 171.82 d a y s . A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S t o Mo, a v e r a g e Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n  M/.  o f T-E ( S . C . T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 57 t o 50.8$, a v e r a g e 55,1$. s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w 11/ t o Mo, a v e r a g e  A very  Mo,  T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 4 6 , 2 5 t o 37.75, average 41.25.  -A v e r y  s m a l l r a n g e , a l l c l o s e t o t h e a v e r a g e , l o w M-. P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 140.47 t o 6 2 . 9 8 , a v e r a g e 102.48. c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m S- t o h i g h M-, a v e r a g e  A  M/.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 37.14 t o 19.27 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 28.35 inches. low M-.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M- t o h i g h H/,  average  -72F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n P-E V a l u e s f r o m 35.1  (P.S.  P-E) A con-  "to 1 1 . 2 $ , a v e r a g e 1 7 . 5 $ .  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o H/, l o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  average low  M-.  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (P.S. h.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 98 t o -34 d a y s , a v e r a g e 65 medium r a n g e f r o m v e r y l o w S- t o h i g h M-, P o r t r a y a l o f the b i o t i c  days.  average  A  M/.  complex  T h i s s t a t i o n , i n t h e CI 1 o r S o u t h e r n S e c t i o n of Halliday's  C o l u m b i a P o r e s t R e g i o n , shows a f a i r l y  p o l y g o n , e x c e p t i n g t h e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n P-E pears unusually high f o r t h i s  forest region.  typical  f a c t o r , which  This i s rather  s u r p r i s i n g i n v i e w o f the p r e c i p i t a t i o n , w h i c h i s n o t b u t may  be e x p l a i n e d b y t h e l e n g t h  w h i c h a v e r a g e s a b o u t 30  of t h e f r o s t l e s s  high,  season,  days l o n g e r t h a n a t t h e o t h e r s t a t i o n s  in this region.  T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f two  t h a n a v e r a g e may  be due t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f K a s l o , remote  d r i e r r e g i o n s and  factors rather higher  on K o o t e n a y L a k e , w h i c h would  e f f e c t s upon f r o s t s .  t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l P-E  have some  f a l l p e r i o d s which h e l p t o raise falling within this  season.  index i s not e s p e c i a l l y h i g h f o r t h i s  f o r e s t r e g i o n , as N e l s o n e q u a l s i t and  Revelstoke ( i n the  N o r t h e r n S e c t i o n ) exceeds  index places t h i s  station i n Halliday's and t h e T-E vince  (C).  from  The l o n g e r f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n u n d o u b t e d l y  i n c l u d e s t h e w e t t e r s p r i n g and  N o t i c e t h a t t h e P-E  ap-  it.  The P-E  "Humid p l u s " h u m i d i t y p r o v i n c e ( B / ) ,  i n d e x p u t s i t i n h i s "Temperate" t e m p e r a t u r e p r o T h i s s t a t i o n , t h e n , l i k e N e l s o n , i s i n the heart  -73of a t y p i c a l  development o f t h e S o u t h e r n S e c t i o n of t h e  Columbia F o r e s t , w i t h a l l o f f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , P-E  f a o t o r s m e s o b i o t i o , and t h e i n d e x and  extremes  dry periods reaching the  s u p e r b i o t i o , w h i l e t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i s u n i f o r m from y e a r t o y e a r and v e r g e s on t h e c o o l t e m p e r a t e o r h y p o b i o t i c . t a t i o n and  T-E  index are t y p i c a l l y small f a c t o r s ,  t h e p o l y g o n , w h i l e t h e P-E  flattening  i n d e x between them e x t e n d s t o t h e  s u p e r b i o t i o b a n d , as do t h e d r o u g h t f a c t o r and t h e season  Precipi-  frostless-  length. EEL SON Hours o f S u n l i g h t V a l u e s f r o m 1235  (F.S.  Sun.)  t o 993 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1155  hours.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o t h e v e r g e o f H, a v e r a g e h i g h Lays i n the F r o s t l e s s  Season (F.S.  Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 197 t o 117 d a y s , a v e r a g e 143 medium r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S- t o M-,  average  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E V a l u e s f r o m 58.13 s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, T-E  A  Mo. T-E)  t o 48.4-4$, a v e r a g e average  days.  54*50$.  A  Mo.  Index ( I ' )  Values from 48.0 s m a l l r a n g e , a l l M-, P-E  (S.C.  M-.  t o 39.75, a v e r a g e 4 2 . 9 6 .  average low  A very  M-.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 145.78 t o 7 0 . 0 3 ,  a v e r a g e 106.47.  A  -74medium r a n g e , f r o m S- t o h i g h M-, Annual P r e o i p i t a t i o n  average  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 38.93 t o 21.13 inohes.  M/.  inches, average  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M-  t o h i g h H/,  30.41  average  low  M-. F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n P-E  (F.S.  P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 21.8 t o 7 . 4 5 $ , a v e r a g e 13.9$. r a n g e , f r o m M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e h i g h L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  H/.  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 96 t o 33  d a y s , a v e r a g e 56 d a y s .  medium r a n g e , f r o m b a r e l y S t o h i g h M-, P o r t r a y a l o f the b i o t i c  average  r e g i o n w i t h s u n l i g h t r e c o r d s and  P-E  complex  so t h i s  i s the only  Forest complete  Here i s a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i g h  i n d e x v a l u e s w i t h low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , because the  f a c t o r i s a l s o low, v e r g i n g Coast f o r e s t s t a t i o n s ,  on h y p o b i o t i c .  shows a s i m i l a r i t y t o t h o s e o f t h e C2 and  s e a s o n , P-E  i n d e x and  of the  definitely  The  complete  frostless  freedom from droughts.  i s t o be n o t e d t h a t t h e r a n g e s a r e a l l  polygon  C4 c o a s t f o r e s t ,  sunlight, high i n length of  i n d e x v a l u e , and  sunlight  f a c t o r than Nelson, a l -  though A g a s s i z i s l o w e r a t t h e extreme.  low i n T-E  In f a c t ,  only P r i n c e Rupert w i t h  hypobiotio sunlight i s lower i n this  it  A  M/.  N e l s o n i s the only s t a t i o n i n t h e Columbia  polygon.  A medium  However,  s m a l l or moderate,  and a l l f a c t o r s a r e m e s o b i o t i o on t h e a v e r a g e  except  frostless  -75s e a s o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E, w h i c h i s h y p o b i o t i c .  Also note  t h a t i n many c a s e s o f t h e C o l u m b i a f o r e s t , p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s hypobiotic. semble t h a t variant  That i s , t h e C o l u m b i a f o r e s t  c l i m a t e does r e -  of t h e Coast f o r e s t , but i t i s a p o o r l y developed  o f t h a t c o m p l e x , and t h i s i s p r o b a b l y t h e r e a s o n f o r  the l o n g o o n f u s i o n i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Columbia forest,  P o r many y e a r s i t was g e n e r a l l y  extension of the coastal forest  classed as an i n t e r i o r  (Weaver and C l e m e n t s )  i n d e e d many o f t h e same s p e c i e s i n common, e s p e c i a l l y fir,  W e s t e r n h e m l o c k and G i a n t c e d a r .  would  p r e f e r t o r e g a r d i t as a r e l i c t  having Douglas  The p r e s e n t w r i t e r o f a g e n e r a l g l a c i a l or  p r e g l a c i a l f o r e s t biome, which, cut o f f from t h e Coast by i c e o r s n o w f i e l d s i n t h e Cascades  and C o a s t M o u n t a i n s , h a s s i n c e  r e - e n t e r e d t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n v a l l e y s , c a r r y i n g E n g e l mann S p r u c e , n o t S i t k a , and W e s t e r n L a r o h (unknown t o t h e c o a s t f o r e s t ) and t h e i n t e r i o r f o r m o f D o u g l a s P i r . T h i s would make s e n s e a s p a r t o f a g e n e r a l p a l e o - e c o l o g i c a l other fragments of which of t h e D e v i l ' s i n Lake  still  a r e known, a s t h e o c c u r r e n c e  C l u b ( E c h i n o p a n a x h o r r i d u s ) on t h e l i e Rojrale  Superior. Finally,  i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t , where H a l l i d a y ' s  map shows t h e Okanagan g r a s s l a n d d i v i d e d forest  pattern  on t h e e a s t b y a narrow b e l t  p r e s e n t w r i t e r found  from the sub-Alpine  o f Montane f o r e s t , t h e  i t t o b e , a t l e a s t near Kelowna,  Montane f o r e s t , b u t t h e C o l u m b i a , w i t h H a l l i d a y ' s a s s o c i a t i o n o f Douglas f i r ,  not t h e  typical  Hemlook, G i a n t C e d a r , E n g e l m a n n  Spruce and W e s t e r n L a r o h , t h a t t o u c h e s t h e S u b - A l p i n e .  -76Residents of the d i s t r i c t  a s s u r e d me  t i o n c o n t i n u e d f o r m i l e s , and  t h a t t h i s same a s s o c i a -  indeed i n October the l a r c h e s  were c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r g o l d e n c o l o r f o r many m i l e s n o r t h and s o u t h .  I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t o n l y a l a r g e - s c a l e map  show t h i s n a r r o w the  Columbian b e l t ,  and  certainly  b e l o w i t was  u s u a l Y e l l o w P i n e - J u n i p e r Cedar f a c i a t i o n  forest,  running into the  would  o f t h e Montane  grassland.  GOLDEN Hours No  of Sunlight  (F.S.  Sun.)  records.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n  (F.S.  Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 137 t o 54 d a y s , a v e r a g e 100 d a y s . c o n s i d e r a b l e range  f r o m Mo t o l o w H/,  average  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E V a l u e s f r o m 61.8  T-E)  average  A  small  Mo.  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 4.0.0  t o 32.75, a v e r a g e 36.13.  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h H/ t o l o w M-, P-E  M-.  t o 5 3 . 8 $ , a v e r a g e 58.71$.  r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ t o h i g h M-, T-E  (S.C.  A  average almost  very M.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 80.72 t o 4 1 . 7 9 , a v e r a g e 6 1 . 3 8 . r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/  t o l o w M-,  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  average h i g h  A  small  M-.  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 26.30 t o 1 2 . 6 2  i n o h e s , average  17.76  -77inches.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m t h e H-M  b o r d e r t o Ho, a v e r a g e  F r o s t l e s s Season C o n c e n t r a t i o n Values from  19.1 t o 6 . 6 $ ,  r a n g e , f r o m M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e  o f P-E  (F.S.  average 11.2$.  considerable  H/.  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i o  forest  average  A  M/.  complex  i n t h e S o u t h e r n S e o t i o n o f t h e Montane  (Ml of H a l l i d a y ) , a long narrow b e l t  the v a l l e y of the headwaters Rivers.  (F.S L.Dr.)  t o 26 d a y s , a v e r a g e 58 d a y s .  r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M-,  Golden l i e s  P-E) A small  l o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n V a l u e s f r o m 106  o f whioh l i e s i n  o f t h e K o o t e n a y and  Columbia  Aocording to H a l l i d a y , j u s t n o r t h of Golden i s the  Northern S e c t i o n o f the Columbia F o r e s t  (CL 2 ) .  This i s the  only s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t i o n f o r t h e Ml f o r e s t , s i n c e the P r i n c e t o n and  Montane F o r e s t .  or  dubiously  L y t t o n p a r t i c u l a r l y seems r a t h e r i n t h e  o f an ecotone s t a t i o n between The  others,  L y t t o n , e i t h e r have u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c o r d s  ( i n t h e case of L y t t o n e s p e c i a l l y ) a r e o n l y v e r y  nature  H/.  f o r e s t and  Grassland.  p o l y g o n has a n o t i c e a b l y p e c u l i a r s h a p e ,  e x t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e s o f a l l b u t d r o u g h t p e r i o d s and of f r o s t l e s s season. wholly mesobiotic,  length  Phe summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E i s  averaging  i t s e l f i s almost completely  58.71$, w h i l e t h e T-E h y p o b i o t i c , 36.13  i t near t o H a l l i d a y ' s "Cool Temperate index i s m e s o b i o t i c ,  with  Index  average  p l u s " , or C .  making The  P-E  0 / "Sub-humid p l u s " o f H a l l i d a y , w h i c h  -78i s d o u b t l e s s reached only because 17.76  inches i s associated  well distributed  t h e mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n  w i t h a l o w T-E  i n d e x and  i n c h e s p e r month.  a p p e a r t h a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E which i s h y p o b i o t i c  (11.2$)  i s due  I t would season,  mainly t o the short  season  Thus t h e l e n g t h o f  d r o u g h t , 58 d a y s , i s n o t s o v a l u a b l e as i t m i g h t a t t i m e s i t seems t h a t t h e r e may  April,  i n the f r o s t l e s s  o f 100 d a y s , e v e n a t minimum 54 d a y s .  106  is fairly  t h r o u g h t h e y e a r e x o e p t i n g March and  w h i c h a v e r a g e t o g e t h e r o n l y 0.81  of  appear  since  be a s i n g l e d r y p e r i o d  of  d a y s , w i t h a g r o w i n g s e a s o n o f o n l y 137 d a y s ' maximum,  and w i t h t h e a v e r a g e r a i n f a l l i n c h a month. dry period  o f A p r i l and  T h i s means t h a t t h e e x t r e m e  March u n d e r  one  maximum o f t h e  i s p r o b a b l y a c o n t r o l l i n g f a o t o r , and  i t s importance  c a n n o t be i n d i c a t e d as a mere n u m e r i c a l q u a n t i t y i n t h i s The  Ml b i o c l i m a t i c  p e c u l i a r f o r m and f a c t o r and and T-E  case.  complex appears t h e n t o have a  s i z e , skewed o f f c e n t r e t o w a r d t h e d r o u g h t  e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l on t h e f a c t o r s o f p r e o i p i t a t i o n  Index. QUESEEL Hours of S u n l i g h t No  (F.S.  Sun.)  records.  Days i n t h e '.Frostless S e a s o n  (F.S.  Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 120 t o 98 d a y s , a v e r a g e 1 1 1 . 5 6 A v e r y s m a l l r a n g e , Mo t o M-,  average h i g h  M-.  days.  -79Summer C o n o e n t r a t i o n o f T-E Values from 60.7 r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ T-E  (S.C.  T-E)  t o 52.1$, a v e r a g e 58.8$.  t o h i g h M-,  average  P small  Mo.  1  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 4-0.75 t o 3 3 . 7 5 , a v e r a g e 3 7 . 5 7 . extremely s m a l l range, the  H-M  f r o m l o w M- t o h i g h H/,  average  Index ( I )  Values from 66.63 t o 28.69, r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/,  average  average  53.39. A  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 22.4-3 t o 12.13 A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h E/  i n c h e s , average t o Ho,  average  P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P~E Values from 32.5  Longest Pry P e r i o d  average  V a l u e s f r o m 61 t o 18 d a y s , a v e r a g e  P o r t r a y a l o f the b i o t i c Quesnel l i e s  and t h e o n l y good one  P~E) A  S e a s o n (P. S. L.Dr.) 38 d a y s .  average almost  A  S.  complex  i n t h e ecotone between H a l l i d a y ' s  and M3 o r C e n t r a l D o u g l a s F i r and Montane P o r e s t .  H/.  M-.  i n the P r o s t l e s s  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h S- t o M/,  18.19  (P.S,  t o 1 0 . 1 $ , a v e r a g e 22.0$.  medium r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/,  small  M-.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  the  near  boundary. P-E  inches.  An  N o r t h e r n Aspen S e c t i o n s  M2 of  I t i s t h e o n l y s t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r M3, f o r M2.  Since i t l i e s  near the heart  -80of the  g e n e r a l r e g i o n , i t was  "Detailed  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e  chosen. area  As  H a l l i d a y says (p.  i s unfortunately  I t would a p p e a r t h a t H a l l i d a y s e p a r a t e s  M2  and  M3  soanty." largely  t h e r e l a t i v e dominanoe o f D o u g l a s F i r , w h i c h i s s a i d t o "soanty" north The  of  greater thermal  f o r Quesnel i s lower,  higher  (18.19 and  (53.39 and creased  17.76  although  inches  frostless  values  very  The  P-E  the average r a i n f a l l  respectively).  at Quesnel.  due  This  lower  As a m a t t e r o f f a c t ,  aside  G o l d e n r e a l l y b e l o n g s on t h e  Sub-Alpine f o r e s t , while Quesnel i s a true  Forest  Station.  m a t t e r o f t h e d o m i n a n c e o f D o u g l a s F i r and sections  i n f o r m e d by  of the  Company r e c o r d s  s o u t h was  Aspen i n the I n 1924,  ( i n t h e M4  Section), that  showed t h a t 75 y e a r s b e f o r e  t h e w h o l e v a l l e y and  the  country  "spruce"  t h a t t h e r e had  and  "fir".  The  o n l y on t h e n o r t h s l o p e s as a r u l e .  writer Fraser,  f o r many m i l e s  which l e f t  I t was  three  (that i s ,  older records  been v a s t f o r e s t f i r e s ,  the  o l d Hudson's  i n t h o s e days c o v e r e d w i t h a dense s t a n d  principally  the  t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government a g e n t a t F o r t  on t h e N e c h a k o R i v e r  about 1850)  Montane F o r e s t .  fringe  Montane  At t h i s p o i n t i t seems r e l e v a n t t o i n t r o d u c e  Bay  P-E  t o the i n -  of t h e  was  is  i n d i s p u t a b l e resemblance of t h e i r b i o c l i m a t i c p o l y -  gons, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t  northern  be  season,  efficiency.  61.38, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i s p r o b a b l y  T-E  from the  an appearance  of Golden, w i t h a l o n g e r  s h o r t e r d r o u g h t s , and index  on  M2.  p o l y g o n f o r Q u e s n e l has  s i m i l a r to that  25)  of c o n i f e r s , showed conifers  this prevailing  -81p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n which l e d the w r i t e r t o i n q u i r e , s i n c e i n h i s employment o n s u r v e y N a t i o n a l Railways  the matter  the f o r e s t c o v e r had become  p a r t i e s f o r t h e Canadian  of p e c u l i a r discontinuities i n obvious.  a p p e a r t o be m e r e l y p i o n e e r s ,  The A s p e n and B i r c h  of a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y stage i n  t h e s u c c e s s i o n , whose c l i m a x i s q u i t e p o s s i b l y a m i x e d f o r e s t not u n l i k e t h e B o r e a l , o f w h i o h W h i t e S p r u c e and B l a c k  Spruce  c e r t a i n l y r e a c h and e n t e r t h e M4 s e c t i o n o f H a l l i d a y .  Here,  again, the composition  o f t h e t r u e o l i m a x , a s on t h e n o r t h e r n  c o a s t , seems a c t u a l l y u n c e r t a i n t o t h e w r i t e r , s i n c e i t a p pears  p l a i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n s o f the present  sion of the recency in this spread  day a r e a n  expres-  o f t h e r e t r e a t o f t h e i c e and i n a d d i t i o n ,  i n t e r i o r r e g i o n i t appears t h a t the occurrence fire  i n the past  century  o f wide-  has a l t o g e t h e r a l t e r e d t h e  i m m e d i a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n and frequency  o f D o u g l a s F i r and p o s s i b l y o f o t h e r c o n i f e r s .  this connection,  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n 192-4 Mr,  James T u r n b u l l , t h e r a n g e r  i n the Hazelton d i s t r i c t ,  out t o t h e w r i t e r a s o l i t a r y  pointed  l a r g e D o u g l a s F i r on t h e e a s t e r n  s l o p e s o f t h e R o c h e r De B o u l e m o u n t a i n s , as a s o l i t a r y of t h e d e n s e r s t a n d s Lake.  In  outlier  a hundred m i l e s t o t h e e a s t , near Burns  More r e c e n t l y , D r . V e r n o n B r i n k has o r a l l y n o t e d t h e  occurrence  o f "some" D o u g l a s f i r i n t h e K i s p i o x v a l l e y ,  miles n o r t h  o f H a z e l t o n and a p p a r e n t l y  isolated  The whole B u l k l e y v a l l e y h a s , o f c o u r s e , fires i n the present scattered  century,  on t h e v a l l e y  20  from a l l o t h e r a .  s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y from  so t h a t c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t i s very  f l o o r and t h e whole r e g i o n now  begins  -32t o r e s e m b l e t h e A s p e n S e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r i o r Montane P o r e s t . PRINCE GEORGE Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( P . S . Sun,)  V a l u e s f r o m 795 t o 691 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 732 h o u r s . An e x t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e , a l l H/. Days i n t h e P r o s t l e s s  S e a s o n ( P . S . Pa.)  V a l u e s f r o m 120 t o 59 d a y s , a v e r a g e 91.45 d a y s .  A  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/, a v e r a g e l o w M-. Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E. ( S . C . T-E) Values from 66.67 t o 53.9$, r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o M-, a v e r a g e  a v e r a g e 58.31$.  A small  Mo.  T-B I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 35.5 t o 3 0 . 5 , a v e r a g e 33.77.  An  e x t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m t h e M-H, b o u n d a r y t o H/, a v e r a g e n e a r l y M. P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s from 93.05  t o 39.85,  average 69.54.  A small  r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o l o w M-, a v e r a g e Mo. Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 27.80 t o 1 4 . 8 6 i n o h e s , a v e r a g e inches.  22.58  A v e r y s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w M- t o H/, a v e r a g e h i g h  H/. P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( P . S . P~E). V a l u e s f r o m 28.8 t o 7 . 6 $ , a v e r a g e 1 7 . 5 $ .  A small  -83r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o Ho, a v e r a g e l o w M-.  l o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n {'F.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 76 t o 22 d a y s , a v e r a g e 44 d a y s . s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e Portrayal of the b i o t i c  A  M/. complex  A t y p i c a l p o l y g o n o f t h e Montane f o r e s t .  N o t e , how-  e v e r , t h a t t h e T-E i n d e x i s a l m o s t w h o l l y h y p o b i o t i c , b e i n g near H a l l i d a y ' s  " C o o l T e m p e r a t e p l u s " , and t h e summer c o n c e n -  tration very high.  Note, a l s o , t h e v e r y low v a l u e of s u n l i g h t  h e r e a t t h e o n l y t r u e Montane s t a t i o n w i t h s u n l i g h t  records.  U n d o u b t e d l y t h i s i s due t o t h e b r i e f f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n i n p a r t , but a l s o i t i s due t o a c t u a l l y h i g h e r summer r a i n f a l l ,  June  b e i n g t h e w e t t e s t month o f t h e y e a r , and S e p t e m b e r n e x t , w i t h August n o t f a r b e h i n d . ( 2 . 0 2 , respectively). summer r a i n ,  In fact, Prince  Transition.  inches average,  George i s i n a r e g i o n o f  i f s u c h f i g u r e s a r e o f much v a l u e .  only n a t u r a l , t h e n , t o f i n d ing into t h i s  2 . 0 1 and 1 . 8 4  I t would be  the B o r e a l f o r e s t species extend-  r e g i o n , w h i c h H a l l i d a y c a l l s M4, o r Montane There a r e o c c a s i o n a l t r e e s  o f White and B l a c k  S p r u c e , a l t h o u g h t h e E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e i s abundant t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e B u l k l e y and Skeena  Rivers.  through t o It is  u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t H a l l i d a y does n o t ( p . 25) e x p l a i n t h e t e r m " T r a n s i t i o n ^ " i n naming t h i s  Section.  I f i t i s implied  t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s b e t w e e n t h e S u b - a l p i n e and Montane  that  forests,  the t e r m i s c e r t a i n l y o f v e r y b r o a d a p p l i c a t i o n , s i n c e t h e so-oalled  S u b - a l p i n e f o r e s t appears t o descend  here t o b a r e l y  -842000 f e e t , and  t h e w h o l e r e g i o n (M4)  i s one  t h o u s a n d s o f s q u a r e m i l e s , more o r l e s s  of some t e n s  c o n s t a n t l y pervaded  by s p e c i e s o f t h e B o r e a l f o r e s t , s u c h as B l a c k S p r u c e . i s i n t e r e s t i n g , too, t h a t throughout to  this  It  r e g i o n f r o m west  e a s t o c c u r s t h e t y p i c a l l y B o r e a l a q u a t i c o r swamp h e r b ,  the w i l d  Calla,  Calla palustris.  p i c t u r e seems r a t h e r one across t h e v e r y low and  of  Pine Passes,  of a t h i r d  o f i n v a s i o n by t h e B o r e a l  (2500-foot)  H a l l i d a y ) i n i t s lowland  be a  pervasion  C o l u m b i a was  i s r e a l l y the  the s i t e  of the  in British  d r i f t l e s s Yukon V a l l e y .  (SA2  of  ecotone of the  I t s h o u l d n e v e r be  overlooked  Cordilleran  w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s a p p e a r s t o have l e f t  less valleys  two  " I n t e r i o r Sub-alpine"  aspects  Montane P o r e s t s .  that B r i t i s h Sheet,  Porest  f o r e s t , t h e S u b - a l p i n e , by t h e s p e c i e s of That i s , the  the  p a s s e s o f t h e n o r t h , Monkman  r a t h e r than t h a t t h e r e should  b o r d e r i n g biomes.  B o r e a l and  To t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r ,  Ice  certain  C o l u m b i a , as w e l l as t h e  drift-  well-known  As a r e s u l t , i t i s p r i m a r i l y d e s i r a b l e  i n e v a l u a t i n g the p l a n t communities i n t h i s  province, to  con-  s i d e r t h e m as d e r i v e d f r o m a t l e a s t f o u r P l e i s t o c e n e s o u r c e s , namely, t h e  C o a s t and  Montane f o r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d  t r u e B o r e a l f o r e s t , and t h e d r i f t l e s s a r e a s the Y u k o n V a l l e y i s most i m p o r t a n t . complicated by the  The  S t a t e s , the  o f t h e North of w h i c h  picture is further  r e c e s s i o n , a d v a n c e , and  renewed r e c e s s i o n  of g l a c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the p a s t thousand y e a r s the l a s t r e c e s s i o n b e g i n n i n g a p p a r e n t l y a few (Cooper,  1931,  t h i s aspect  pp.  88-93).  o f the B.  To add  or so,  centuries  ago  p o s s i b l y another weight  C. e c o l o g i c a l p u z z l e , i s t h e  peculiar  to  -85b r e a k i n t h e G r a s s l a n d biome i n t h e s o u t h e r n Okanagan.  In  c o n v e r s a t i o n s , b o t h Dr. B r i n k and D r . I . M. Cowan have s t a t e d that a t Mclntyre B l u f f s  on t h e Okanagan R i v e r t h e r e i s a  d i s t i n o t b r e a k i n b o t h f l o r a and f a u n a , as f o r example t h e Greasewood s t o p s h e r e , and a p p a r e n t l y s o do h o r n e d Neither of these observers i s s a t i s f i e d f o r t h i s break,  toads.  as t o t h e r e a l  reason  c o n s i d e r i n g i t may v a r i o u s l y be due t o a i r  drainage e f f e c t s i n extreme y e a r s , o r t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e oliffs  coinciding with northerly conditions at the distribu-  tional limits,  o r (and t h i s  seemed t o a p p e a l t o them) i t may  be t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a s h e e r l a g i n c o l o n i z a t i o n caused b y the c l i f f s  of Mclntyre Bluffs  since g l a c i a l times.  i n t e r r u p t i n g northward m i g r a t i o n  See a l s o M. Manson's a r t i c l e  (Manson,  1903). TELKWA  Hours o f S u n l i g h t ( F . S . Sun.) No r e c o r d s . Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1C7 t o 40 d a y s , a v e r a g e 6 9 . 8 d a y s . medium r a n g e , f r o m M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e  A  H/.  Summer C o n e e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) Values from 6 7 . 2 t o 52.8$, r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ t o l o w M-, a v e r a g e  a v e r a g e 60.9$.  A  - small  M-.  T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 30.75 t o 2 4 . 5 , a v e r a g e  27.73.  An  -86extremely small range, e n t i r e l y  H/.  • P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 61.57 t o 3 1 . 4 7 , a v e r a g e 41.52.  A small  r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o h i g h H/, a v e r a g e l o w M-. A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 19.57 t o 10.68 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 1 3 . 6 2 inches.  A v e r y s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m H/ t o Ho, a v e r a g e l o w H/. Prostless  S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( P . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m ?4 t o 2.6$, a v e r a g e 11.7$. r a n g e , f r o m M- t o H-, a v e r a g e longest Pry Period  A medium  H/. i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (P.S. I.Lr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 72 t o 32 d a y s , a v e r a g e 52 d a y s .  A small  r a n g e , f r o m v e r y l o w S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e Iv]/. Portrayal  of the b i o t i c  complex  T e l k w a has a p o l y g o n o f t y p i c a l Montane f o r e s t but w i t h a l l droughts.  f a c t o r s low i n b i o t i c v a l u e excepting length of  T h e r e i s a v e r y s h o r t f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , w h i c h may  be due t 0 t h e e l e v a t i o n as i t l i e s  form,  (2000 f e e t )  or t o a i r drainage effects,  i n a s m a l l amphitheatre of low h i l l s ,  t h e s e and h i g h l a t i t u d e .  or t o both  I t i s noteworthy, t o o , t h a t ,  the s h o r t g r o w i n g s e a s o n t h e r e i s a l s o a v e r y l a r g e  with  average  p r o p o r t i o n ( a b o u t 75$) o f t h e s e a s o n d r y . T h i s , w i t h t h e l o w p r e c i p i t a t i o n , means a r a t h e r h a z a r d o u s  c l i m a t e f o r o r o p s , and  p r e v a i l i n g l y c l e a r s k i e s which d o u b t l e s s a l s o r a i s e the  -87frequency of f r o s t s .  However, t h a t i t i s s t i l l  f o r e s t r e g i o n i s shown n o t o n l y b y t h e remnants coniferous  C. s e m p e r v i r e n s P e r s . , especially associated  and  and t h e two s p e c i e s  could  of Corydalis,  w i t h t h e range o f t h e t r u e  n o t be i n c l u d e d  Lodgepole  I t i s unfortunate  f o r s u c h s t a t i o n s as  and T e r r a o e , w h i c h a l s o show t h e t y p i c a l  of l o d g e p o l e  p i n e , A s p e n and t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d  pioneers.  I n c l u s i o n o f s o much d e t a i l was  this time,  s i n c e t h e Skeena and  apparently  very  complex  i s known d e f i n i t e l y  forbs  C. a u r e a W i l l d . , w h i c h seem t o be  p i n e , P. c o n t o r t a v a r . M u r r a y a n a .  Hazelton  of f i r e s w e p t  f o r e s t , b u t a l s o by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s u c h  as P o l e m o n i u m h u m i l e R. & S.,  records  i n t h e Montane  that New  development forbs  as  not proposed  at  B u l k l e y v a l l e y s are themselves  i n their biotic  communities  and  little  o f them. PORT ST. JAMES  Hours No  of Sunlight  (F.S.  Sun.)  records.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s V a l u e s f r o m 106  Season  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n  average  o f T-E (S.C.  Values from 67.25 t o 57.8$,  T-E  Da.)  t o 38 d a y s , a v e r a g e 6 7 . 5 6 d a y s .  medium r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M- t o Ho,  r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o l o w M-,  (F.S.  average  H/., T-E)  average 6 1 . 7 $ .  A small  M-.  Index ( I ' )  Values from 32.0  to 26.75,  A  average 2 9 . 8 6 .  An  -88exceedingly  s m a l l range, e n t i r e l y  P-E  H/.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 5 6 . 3 4 t o 36.32, a v e r a g e 4 6 . 0 6 . s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M- t o b a r e l y H, a v e r a g e Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n V a l u e s f r o m 17.75 inches.  very  M-.  (P)  t o 12.56  I4..86  i n c h e s , average  An e x t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e , a l l H/. P r o s t l e s s Season  Concentration  V a l u e s f r o m 20.0  t o 7.1$,  r a n g e , f r o m M-  t o Ho,  average  L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  (P.S.  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m S- t o  P-E)  average 13.1$.  average n e a r l y  39 d a y s .  P r i n c e George,  complex  mesobiotic  values  biotic  character  mainly  ML,  therefore  and  s e a s o n and h y p o b i o t i c  f o r e s t as c o n t r a s t e d  f o r M3 and  like  that  s h o w i n g d i s t i n c t l y t h e same  hypobiotic' length of f r o s t l e s s o f t h e M4  A  S.  A t y p i c a l Montane f o r e s t p o l y g o n , v e r y  ture e f f i c i e n c y  small  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (P.S. L.Dr.)  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c  f o r T e l k w a and  A  H/.  V a l u e s f r o m 58 t o 20 d a y s , a v e r a g e  M3 and  A  tempera-  with the better,  M2 a t Q u e s n e l , and t h e h i g h meso-  o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a t Salmon A.rm, w h i c h i s  o f G o l d e n , w h i c h i s Ml a t h i g h  e l e v a t i o n and  c l o s e r t o t h e more n o r t h e r l y Montane s e c t i o n s ,  M4.  nevertheless  Note a l s o t h a t h i g h e r t h a n M4  I n v e r m e r e , w h i c h i s M1-SA2, i s stations i n these factors.  M2,  -89The w h o l e p o l y g o n f o r F o r t S t . James shows a hypob i o t i c range,  (excepting f o r drought) that  i s t o be e x p e c t e d  i n so n o r t h e r l y a s t a t i o n , w e l l w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n o f H a l l i d a y ' s S u b - a l p i n e 2, w h i c h on c o n s u l t i n g t h e p o l y g o n f o r F e r n i e , u n d o u b t e d l y S u b - a l p i n e s t a t i o n , w i l l be s e e n t o v a r y from the b i o c l i m a t i c is  complex o f the n o r t h e r n f o r e s t .  one more r e a s o n why  northern forest called  the present w r i t e r b e l i e v e s  radically This  this  " I n t e r i o r Sub-alpine Section" i s  e c o l o g i c a l l y speaking an e x p r e s s i o n of the i n t e r m i n g l i n g Montane and B o r e a l f o r e s t s . discussion are offered interpretation.  an  These b i o o l i m a t i c polygons  as d e f i n i t e  It i s fully  of under  evidence i n f a v o u r of t h i s  r e a l i z e d t h a t f u t u r e surveys of  n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and w e a t h e r r e c o r d s f r o m t h o s e r e g i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m , and be e x p e c t e d t h a t more a b u n d a n t ,  detailed  i t is to  observations w i l l  show a l l t h r e e f o r e s t s t o be p r e s e n t a t d i f f e r e n t s i t e s e l e v a t i o n s , where now  a l l i s a vast  and  puzzle.  IFVERMBRE Hours of S u n l i g h t V a l u e s f r o m 985  (F.S.  Sun.)  t o 732 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 857  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m v e r y l o w M- t o H/, Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s V a l u e s f r o m 128  Season  average h i g h (F.S.  hours. H/,  Da.)  t o 97 d a y s , a v e r a g e 112.27 d a y s .  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o M-,  average h i g h  M-.  -90Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  (S.C.  T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 63.3 t o 57.4$, a v e r a g e 59.9$. s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o M-, T-E  average h i g h  M-.  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 4.4,.25 t o 31.5, e x t r e m e l y s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w MM and  A very  a v e r a g e 36.10.  t o h i g h H/,  An  average  between  H. P-E  Index ( I ) t o 18.18, average 30.40.  V a l u e s f r o m 43.17 r a n g e , f r o m l o w M- t o Ho,  average h i g h I i / .  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n V a l u e s f r o m 14.65 inches.  (P)  t o 6.4-7  i n c h e s , average  A v e r y s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m H/ t o H-, Prostless  average  S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E  V a l u e s f r o m 38.3  A small  10.86 Ho.  (P.S.  t o 11.8$, a v e r a g e 23.7$.  c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o H/, L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  average  P-E) A  M-.  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (PS. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 93 t o 22 d a y s , a v e r a g e 59 d a y s . medium r a n g e , f r o m S- t o h i g h M-,  average  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c  complex  A  M/.  A l t h o u g h s u p p o s e d l y i n t h e e c o t o n e o f Montane and Sub-alpine Forests,  I n v e r m e i e has a p o l y g o n t h a t i s d e f i n i t e l y  o f t h e Montane f o r e s t t y p e , e x c e p t f o r i t s g r o s s l y precipitation  (P) and P-E  ( I ) f a c t o r s , and t h e  deficient  peculiar  -91s k e w i n g o f t h e p o l y g o n t o w a r d s t h e summer d r o u g h t and f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n P-E ( P . S . P-E) f a c t o r s , b i o t i o bands.  ( F . S . L.Dr.)  near  the super-  T h i s e f f e c t s u g g e s t s a t e n d e n c y t o summer r a i n  r a t h e r than t o winter r a i n , but i n conjunction with the length of f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , i t s u g g e s t s a f a i r l y  even  through the year o f a decidedly d e f i c i e n t  rainfall.  the  whole p o l y g o n s u g g e s t s a g r a s s l a n d  forest,  distribution  station rather than a  and i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a t r u e S u b - a l p i n e  ( F e r n i e ) i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Invermere Montane f o r e s t  i n i t s climatic  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Map, I n v e r m e r e  type.  In fact,  station  i s a t best mostly According to the Forest  i s i n t h e eootone between t h e  S o u t h e r n S e o t i o n o f t h e Ifontane F o r e s t (ML) and t h e I n t e r i o r Sub-alpine  (SA2) F o r e s t .  type o f f o r e s t  Apparently i t i s actually  e c o t o n e , w i t h a tendency toward  c l i m a t e , as t h e r e i s a s c a t t e r i n g , land  i n this  grassland  p o o r development  of grass-  i n the region.  FERNIE Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( F . S . Sun.)  No r e c o r d s . Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  Season  ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 135 t o 98 d a y s , a v e r a g e 115  days.  A  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w M/ t o M-, a v e r a g e h i g h M-. Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 6 2 . 2 t o 54-.2$, a v e r a g e 5 9 . 2 $ . range, around  Mo, a v e r a g e  Mo.  A small  T-E  Index ( I ' )  V a l u e s f r o m 39 t o 3 3 , a v e r a g e 35.2. s m a l l r a n g e , a l l on t h e M-H P-E  An e x t r e m e l y  border, average b a r e l y  H/.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 249.1  t o 1 0 9 . 2 , a v e r a g e 155.7.  l a r g e range, from the upper l i m i t  o f S/ t o M/,  A  average  S-.  T h i s i s t h e o n l y c a s e away f r o m t h e c o a s t of s u c h a h i g h index. Porest  Note t h a t i t i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t  o f any  P-E  Columbia  station. Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 58.53 t o 2 9 . 6 5 i n o h e s , a v e r a g e inches.  A medium r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o M-,  average h i g h  Note t h a t t h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s t h e h i g h e s t o f any s t a t i o n g i v e n , though l o w e r t h a n f o r coast s t a t i o n s s i m i l a r P-E  M-.  interior with  indices.  P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E V a l u e s f r o m 13.7 t o 5.4$, r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Mo, small value f o r t h i s frostless  42.67  a v e r a g e M/.  a v e r a g e 9.5$. This i s an  (P.S.  P-E)  -A s m a l l  extraordinarily  f a c t o r c o n s i d e r i n g the l e n g t h of the  season. L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  i n t h e P r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 85 t o 21 d a y s , a v e r a g e 47 d a y s , medium r a n g e , f r o m S- t o Mo,  average  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c  A  M/.  complex  Pernie i s the only s t a t i o n t r u l y w i t h i n the  Sub-  -93alpine forest  o f t h e m o u n t a i n s , and i t shows a  remarkable  d i s s i m i l a r i t y from a l l others i n i t s p o l y g o n a l graph. is a close s i m i l a r i t y season,  t o Invermere i n t h e l e n g t h of f r o s t l e s s  and i n t h e summer c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E.  ever, the s i m i l a r i t y  There  o f o u t l i n e ends.  l a c k o f r a n g e i n t h e l o w T-E i n d e x for  t h e P-E i n d e x  ted  w i t h a good m e s o b i o t i o  H e r e , how-  There i s a p e c u l i a r  ( I ' ) , and an enormous v a l u e  ( I ) ; t h i s s u p e r b i o t i o P-E v a l u e preoipitation  i s associa-  ( P ) , b u t t h e n the  d i f f e r e n c e from a l l others appears i n t h e f r o s t l e s s  season  P-E ( P . S . P - B ) , w h i c h i s e n t i r e l y h y p o b i o t i c i n p e r c e n t a g e . W i t h 2 5$ t o n e a r l y 4 0 $ o f t h e y e a r f r o s t l e s s , t h e o f P-E i n t h i s p e r i o d i s o n l y 13.7$ t o 5 , 4 $ , 9.5$.  I n t h e months O o t o b e r t o F e b r u a r y  o f 22 i n c h e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n 5 months. of 6 i n c h e s and  of r a i n f a l l  of r a i n ,  only  i n c l u s i v e , an average  occurs, or over  50$  I n t h e w i n t e r months, h o w e v e r , w i t h minimum means i n J a n u a r y  o f 18 and 21 d e g r e e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  o f c o u r s e , a v e r y h i g h P-E v a l u e than f o r c o a s t a l stations n a t u r a l l y , mostly  o f 56.62  w i t h a v e r a g e mean t e m p e r a t u r e s  60 d e g r e e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  February  averaging  I n J u n e , J u l y and A u g u s t , t h e r e i s a n a v e r a g e  t h e means d r o p t o 26 d e g r e e s , and  percentage  This  means,  f o r t h e s e months, h i g h e r  of corresponding  rainfall.  This i s ,  snow i n F e r n i e , where a t a n e l e v a t i o n o f  3300 f e e t t h e r e i s a n a v e r a g e o f 126  i n c h e s o f snow.  This  i s a t r u l y s u b - a l p i n e c o n d i t i o n , and c o n t r a s t s w i t h 53 i n c h e s o f snow a t F o r t S t . J a m e s , e l e v a t i o n 2800 f e e t , and 31 i n c h e s at  I n v e r m e r e , e l e v a t i o n 2840 f e e t .  The e x c e s s i v e  precipita-  t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , p a r t l y due t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f F e r n i e on  -94t h e west s l o p e s  of t h e  Rocky Mountains, y e t  d i f f e r e n t polygon of c l i m a t e f o r e s t , a t 34-00 f e e t w i t h 120 One  indisputably  i n the  i s a b i o c l i m a t i c complex t h a t  f r o m any  o t h e r of the  i n the  t o the  conclusion region,  i s markedly d i f f e r e n t  s t a t i o n s here p r e s e n t e d whether or t o be  in a  Sub-alpine  p a r t i c u l a r l y p e c u l i a r shape of t h i s  polygon  shows e s p e c i a l l y a n a s s o c i a t i o n o f e x t r e m e l y i n v a r i a b l e , v a l u e s w i t h h i g h l y s u p e r b i o t i c P-E  p r e c i p i t a t i o n (P), with P-E This  not  region. The  T-E  a  Columbia  Sub-alpine f o r e s t  t h e s e o t h e r s t a t i o n s a p p e a r on t h e map forest  quite  i n c h e s of snow.  i s led almost inescapably  t h a t at F e r n i e , there  from Rossland  i t has  r a t i o s (P.S.  P-E),  sub-alpine  station  a wholly and  i n d e x and  hypobiotic  a superbiotic  mesobiotic  p e r i o d i c i t y of  length  of  droughts.  shows a s h a r p l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ,  d o u b l y skewed b i o c l i m a t i c c o m p l e x .  low  -95SUMMARIZATIONS OF FACTORS FOR EACH FOREST REGION. F o r p u r p o s e s o f s u m m a r i z i n g and c o m p a r i n g t h e general b i o c l i m a t i c  f a c t o r s w i t h i n each Forest  between t h e d i f f e r e n t  Regions,  the values  R e g i o n , and  o f each f a c t o r o c -  c u r r i n g among t h e s t a t i o n s o f e a c h f o r e s t r e g i o n a r e summarized i n Table  XII.  In this table,  the f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r each f a c -  t o r a r e t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e found a t any s t a t i o n i n each s e c t i o n , the lowest v a l u e average v a l u e s  found  o f a l l the s t a t i o n s of the r e g i o n .  ing p o i n t s should two  be n o t e d :  columns, t h e f i r s t  except  i n t h e s e c t i o n , and t h e a r i t h m e t i c a l  (1) t h e Coast F o r e s t  The f o l l o w i s given i n  including a l l the coastal sections  Madrona-Oak lumped t o g e t h e r , and t h e second  column  b e i n g t h e Madrona-Oak s e c t i o n ; (2) Salmon Arm i s o m i t t e d  from  t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a s b e i n g t o o mixed i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be thus  i n c l u d e d i n a n y one r e g i o n ; (3) t h e S u b a l p i n e  i s o n l y F e r n i e , and no o t h e r ; a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e Montane The  ( 4 ) T e l k w a and F o r t S t . James Region.  columns, a r e headed w i t h H a l l i d a y ' s l e t t e r s f o r  the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o save space. "lower  Coast,  R e g i o n (SA)  mid-Coast, Northern  Coast";  Thus, C2~4 i s  CI i s "Madrona-Oak";  CL i s " C o l u m b i a F o r e s t " ; M i s "Montane"; SA i s " S u b - a l p i n e " ; and  G i s "Grassland". finally,  a composite polygon  averages (taken from Table values are l e t t e r e d  i s g i v e n showing the  XII) of a l l Forest  Sections.  on t h e g r a p h , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d  No  confusion,  -96b u t t h e y may be r e a d f r o m T a b l e X I I o r f r o m t h e Key C h a r t . T h i s c o m p o s i t e g r a p h i s i n t e n d e d m e r e l y t o show g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and c o n t r a s t s , picture  o f t h e whole b i o c l i m a t i c  i n p r e s e n t i n g a generalized  complex  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  I f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a p p e a r s v e r y j u m b l e d and c o m p l i c a t e d , t h a t i s s i m p l y t o be e x p e c t e d i n a r e g i o n o f s u c h complex c o n d i t i o n s a n d s u c h numerous d i f f e r e n t  natural  climatic regions.  It  s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t on one f a c t o r t h e r e i s a n obv i o u s c l o s e agreement,  namely,  t h e T-E i n d e x , w h i c h f o r a l l  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s a low? m e s o b i o t i c a v e r a g e v a l u e , nearly hypobiotic. classifications  This i s entirely  of a l l  i n agreement w i t h t h e  a u t h o r s who p u t t h i s  I v l c r o t h e r m a l o r C o o l Temperate c l a s s .  province i n the  And f i n a l l y , t h e o n l y  t r u l y h y p o b i o t i c averages are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h factors.  even  precipitation  E v e n h y p o b i o t i c s u n l i g h t , e x c e p t i n t h e M4 s e c t i o n ,  i s due t o h e a v y  precipitation, COAST FOREST, SECTIONS 2 - 4  Hours  of Sunlight  ( F . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1629 t o 4 7 1 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 884 h o u r s , / i l a r g e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o b e l o w Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s  Ho, a v e r a g e H/. Season  ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 292 t o 119 d a y s , a v e r a g e 205 d a y s .  A  c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m So t o b e l o w Mo, a v e r a g e b a r e l y S-. Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E.) V a l u e s f r o m 56 t o 3 4 - 4 $ , a v e r a g e 4 3 $ .  A medium  -97r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o So, a v e r a g e l o w S-. T-E Index ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 62.3 t o 3 5 . 8 , a v e r a g e 4 7 . 0 . r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o h i g h H/, a l m o s t M, a v e r a g e  A small  M-.  P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 918.7 t o 7 6 . 5 , a v e r a g e 274.6.  A  t r e m e n d o u s r a n g e , f r o m v e r y f a r o u t s i d e t h e S b a n d , t o Mo, average  j u s t beyond  S/.  Note t h a t t h i s  exaggeration of I  v a l u e s does n o t come f r o m t h e s t a t i o n s w i t h t h e l o w e s t T-E i n d i c e s , but from those h a v i n g c l o s e t o average v a l u e s ,  Ocean  P a l l s , Ucluelet, Quatsino.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 24-1.32 t o 30.49 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 62.34 inches.  A v e r y l a r g e r a n g e , f r o m beyond  M-, a v e r a g e M/.  Note a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s  t h e S band t o l o w factor with high  P-E v a l u e s and l o w T-E v a l u e s . P r o s t l e s s Season  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( P . S . P-B)  V a l u e s f r o m 63.8 t o 1 1 . 2 $ , a v e r a g e 32.8$. r a n g e , f r o m n e a r l y So t o H/, a v e r a g e Mo.  A large  Note h e r e , t h a t t h e  e x t e n s i o n i n t o t h e H band p r o d u c i n g t h e l a r g e r a n g e i s due t o two d i f f e r e n t c a u s e s , t h e l o w p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d May t o September,  i n t h e C2 s e c t i o n , and t h e s h o r t e r  less season i n the B e l l a  C o o l a and M a s s e t t r e g i o n s .  frostThis i s  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c a u t i o n i n a p p l y i n g v e r y generalized  data t o such v a r i e d  c o u n t r y as B r i t i s h  Columbia.  -98. Longest  Dry P e r i o d  i n the Frostless  S e a s o n (P.S L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 93 t o 7 d a y s , a v e r a g e 34.5 d a y s . s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m So t o Mo, a v e r a g e b a r e l y P o r t r a y a l of t h e b i o t i c  S,  complex  Remembering t h a t , a s e m p h a s i z e d very generalized  A con-  u n d e r F.S. P-E, t h e  d a t a must be c a u t i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d ,  polygon i s i n general outline very d i s t i n c t i v e ,  and q u i t e  d i f f e r e n t from any o f t h e polygons f o r o t h e r r e g i o n s . shows a b r o a d e x p a n s e a c r o s s t h e g r o u p  this  of f a c t o r s  It  f o r drought,  s u n l i g h t and t e m p e r a t u r e , w i t h a r e - e n t r a n t a n g l e a t t h e T-E i n d e x , and a l o n g , u l t r a - s u p e r b i o t i c r a n g e i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n and p r e c i p i t a t i o n - e f f e c t i v e n e s s . to t h i s  The c l o s e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n  form i s t h e S u b a l p i n e , which however d i s t i n c t i v e l y i s  of low mesobiotio s i z e , w i t h l i t t l e  range  on a n y f a c t o r and  h y p o b i o t i c a v e r a g e f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n P-E, and T-E i n d e x , Note,  f i n a l l y , that  on t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia  coast,  as would  be e x p e c t e d , t h e s u n l i g h t f a c t o r a v e r a g e s  hypobiotic,  but t h i s  must be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e Madrona-Oak  s e c t i o n which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y almost superbiotio i n average s u n l i g h t v a l u e , q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from a l l  the rest of  the c o a s t r e g i o n .  COAST FOREST, SECTION 1 Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( F . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m 2219 t o 1495 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1849 h o u r s . / medium r a n g e , f r o m S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e a l m o s t S.  Note t h a t  -99-  these h i g h v a l u e s are a s s o c i a t e d  with a superbiotic  frostless  season.  Lays i n t h e F r o s t l e s s V a l u e s f r o m 359 medium r a n g e , average  Season (F.S.  t o 2 0 3 d a y s , a v e r a g e 265  A  So.  Values from 45.9 r a n g e , f r o m h i g h M/, T-E  T-E)  t o 34.0;'.', a v e r a g e 4 1 . 0 $ .  A  small  S-.  1  Index ( I )  s m a l l r a n g e , MP-E  (S.C.  n e a r l y S, t o So, a v e r a g e  Values from 61.5 t o Mo,  to 48.5,  average  average  54.0.  A very  M-.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 121  t o 4-4.2,  r a n g e , f r o m a l m o s t S t o l o w M-, Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  average 8 5 . 7 .  average above  small  Mo.  32.37  inches, average  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/,  characteristic  A  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 52.08 t o 1 7 . 2 9  the  days.  from t h e u p p e r t o t h e l o w e r l i m i t o f t h e S band,  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  inches,  Da.)  a v e r a g e M-.  This i s  f a c t o r o f t h e CI f o r e s t s e c t i o n ; t a k e n  w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f u n b r o k e n d r o u g h t , i t i s p r o b a b l y t h e most directly  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p e c u l i a r b i o c l i m a t i c and  complex,  quite d i f f e r e n t from that Prostless  o f most o f t h e c o a s t .  S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E  Values from 88.3  biotic  to 24.9$,  (P.S.  average 4 4 . 5 $ .  P-E) A con-  -100s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m S/ t o l o w Mo, this  f a c t o r as e m p h a s i z e d  a v e r a g e M/.  under V i c t o r i a ,  r e i t e r a t i o n of the l e n g t h of f r o s t l e s s a l l b u t 6 days o f t h e P-E  Note  i s here merely a  season.  Obviously, i f  o f t h e y e a r were f r o s t l e s s , t h e n a t l e a s t  should occur i n t h i s period.  88$  It i s significant,  h o w e v e r , t h a t l e s s t h a n 2$ o f t h e y e a r s h o u l d p r o d u c e 12$  that  of i t s p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  about  I n o t h e r words,  the  w i n t e r i s r a i n y and t h e l o n g g r o w i n g s e a s o n o f t e n n e a r l y rainless.  longest Pry Period  i n the Frostless  S e a s o n (P.S, L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 320 t o 23 d a y s , a v e r a g e 90 d a y s . l a r g e r a n g e , f r o m l o w H-,  a l m o s t z e r o , t o S-, a v e r a g e  P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c  A very Mo.  complex  The g e n e r a l i z e d Madrona-Oak p o l y g o n shows a  clear  resemblance t o that o f the Grasslands, with the d i f f e r e n c e s chiefly  i n t h e a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and P-E  as i n t h e l e n g t h o f f r o s t l e s s  season.  f a c t o r s , as w e l l  On a l l t h e s e  t h e Madrona-Oak has much t h e g r e a t e r v a l u e s . the g e n e r a l aspect o f t h e p o l y g o n i s t h a t  factors,  Nevertheless,  of a Grassland.  T h i s becomes more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d when i t i s remembered t h a t , i n Canada a t l e a s t , t h i s definite  a s s o c i a t i o n does d e v e l o p  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r a s s y openings  i n a r e a , and  o f t e n o f many a c r e s  f u r t h e r t h a t t h e s e open a r e a s h a v e a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h them p e c u l i a r l i l i a c e o u s p l a n t s , t h e A l l i u m s , B r o d i e a s , C a m a s s i a s , and a l s o t h e D e l p h i n i u m s , A c o n i t u m s , and  various  -101composite forms, a l l tending t o c h a r a c t e r i z e a grassland vegetation.  There a r e  even c a c t i  o p e n i n g s o f many o f t h e i s l a n d s o f t h e As distinctive stations.  a final  (Opuntia)  i n the  region,  summary, t h i s b i o c l i m a t i o p o l y g o n  i n f o r m and  range, although  T h e r e a r e now,  is  based u p o n o n l y  i n the near future,  i s i n d i c a t e d a n y w h e r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t shows  s i g n of d e f i n i t e v a r i a t i o n i n the g e n e r a l i z e d graph of f o r e s t , w h i c h i n c l u d e s i s l a n d s and m a t e l y 200 to  the  shores  S t a t e s as t h e  7 7  l e a s t 200  u p o n one this  m i l e s more.  75  Too  few  miles from the  known  c o u n t r y " , and  " P u g e t Sound R e g i o n ,  salient geographical  i s , that i n B r i t i s h  a very  of a region approxi-  Gulf of Georgia  p r a c t i c a l l y unbroken southward from the  any this  m i l e s l o n g by 75 m i l e s w i d e , b e i n g t h e a r e a  i n h a b i t a n t s as t h e  the United  at  three  however, o t h e r sun s t a t i o n s i n the  r e g i o n g i v i n g p r o m i s e o f more numerous d a t a Nothing  well-developed  Strait  as  in  i t extends  of Georgia  much e m p h a s i s c a n n o t be  for  laid  f e a t u r e of t h i s f o r e s t type,  Columbia i t r a r e l y seashore,  e x t e n d s more  and  than  e x c e p t i n g the v a l l e y s of  e a s t e r l y - f l o w i n g s t r e a m s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , where c o n d i t i o n s l i k e those ley  of the maritime  shores  are  s e t up  i n t h e warm v a l -  f l o o r s around t h e margins of c e r t a i n l a k e s .  Throughout  t h e r e g i o n t h e c l i m a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l e a r , d r y summers and  autumns, and  able r a i n . severe  c o o l w i n t e r s and  long springs with  consider-  T h e r e i s nowhere any r e a l l y h e a v y r a i n f a l l ,  c o l d , and  the s p r i n g begins  i n February  while  autumn o f t e n p e r s i s t s w e l l i n t o Beoember.  This  cal  frostless  e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e l e n g t h y d r o u g h t s and  nor  the  i s the  practi-  season  -102so unexpected  at t h i s  latitude  on a w e s t e r n s e a b o a r d , and  s t r o n g l y resembles a f a r northern extension, h i g h l y  localized,  of t h e Mediterranean-type c l i m a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . COLUMBIA FOREST Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( F . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1235 t o 993 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 1155  hours.  A s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o h i g h H/, n e a r l y M, a v e r a g e h i g h MDays i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.) V a l u e s f r o m 2 0 5 t o 104 d a y s , a v e r a g e 147 d a y s . medium r a n g e , f r o m S- t o M-, a v e r a g e  A  l'o.  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s from 6 5 . 9 t o 48.4$, average 56.0%'. medium r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o  A  a v e r a g e ft'.io.  T-E I n d e x ( I ' ) V a l u e s f r o m 48.0 t o 3 2 . 3 , a v e r a g e 4.1.0.  A very  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m M- t o H/, a v e r a g e l o w M-. P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 1 7 5 . 4 "to 4 6 . 0 , a v e r a g e 113.0. siderable  r a n g e , f r o m So t o M-, a v e r a g e h i g h Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n  A con-  M/.  (P)  V a l u e s f r o m 45.70 t o 1 3 . 7 5 , a v e r a g e 28.99. medium r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o H/, a v e r a g e l o w M-.  A  -103-  F r o s t l e s s Season  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( F . S . P-E)  Values from 3 5 . 1 t o 7 . 1 $ ,  average 1 4 . 1 $ .  A con-  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o Ho, a v e r a g e h i g h H/. Longest Pry Period  i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (P.S. I.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1 6 2 t o 24 d a y s , a v e r a g e 6 2 d a y s . s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m h i g h H/ t o S-, a v e r a g e Portrayal  of t h e b i o t i c  As n o t e d u n d e r s t a t i o n s  A con-  M/.  complex of t h e Columbia  there i s a d i s t i n c t tendency t o resemblance  forest,  o f t h e Coast  f o r e s t , b u t a s a l s o n o t e d b e f o r e , t h e C o l u m b i a complex  would  be a p o o r l y - d e v e l o p e d e x p r e s s i o n o f C o a s t a l c o n d i t i o n s . e v e r , on e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l i z e d  How-  p o l y g o n s , i t w i l l be  observed t h a t t h e r e a r e d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t u r e . Not o n l y a r e a l l f a c t o r s i n t h e C o a s t a l complex  o f l o w e r v a l u e i n t h e Columbian t h a n  (except s u n l i g h t average), but t h e pro-  p o r t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t , a s shown b y c o n v e x i t y r e p l a c i n g c a v i t y a t s u n l i g h t and T-E i n d e x a n g l e s .  Both  con-  precipitation  and T-E i n d e x a v e r a g e s a r e n e a r t h e h y p o b i o t i o band, and extreme v a l u e s o f a l l b u t t h r e e f a c t o r s a r e i n t h e h y p o b i o t i c . P r e c i p i t a t i o n v e r g e s on d e f i c i e n c y and T e m p e r a t u r e  efficiency  does a l s o , w h i l e s u n l i g h t does n o t , r e l a t i v e l y . Only t h r e e f a c t o r s r e a c h s u p e r b i o t i c v a l u e s , at  even  e x t r e m e s , t h e s e b e i n g l e n g t h o f droughts', l e n g t h o f f r o s t -  l e s s s e a s o n , and P-E i n d e x .  The l a t t e r ,  of course, i s a s s o c i -  a t e d w i t h f a i r p r e c i p i t a t i o n and l o w T-E i n d e x , w h i l e  even  -loathe s h o r t e s t dry period average.  i s o n l y 10  days l e s s t h a n t h e  F i n a l l y , t h e l o n g e s t f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n (206  o n l y one day l o n g e r t h a n t h e c o a s t a l a v e r a g e , w i t h a  coastal days) i s differ-  ence o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 days i n t h e a v e r a g e s . T h e r e seems l i t t l e  doubt t h a t t h e c l i m a t e of t h e  Columbia  f o r e s t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Coast f o r e s t ,  at least  (and t h i s i s p o s s i b l y  different would  i t s major s i g n i f i c a n c e ) i s l e s s  f r o m t h e c o a s t c l i m a t e t h a n f r o m any o t h e r .  e x p l a i n t h e e x i s t e n c e and  Columbia  f o r e s t as s o m e t h i n g  or  This  s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n of the  of a r e l i c t ,  i t s s p e c i a t i o n being  due t o t h e c o n f i n e m e n t o f members o f a p e r v a d i n g P l e i s t o c e n e forest  t o a r e a s w h i c h most n e a r l y r e s e m b l e i n c l i m a t e t h e  original Pleistocene conditions. them, o r may  have i m p r o v e d  The  open c o a s t c o n t i n u e s  u p o n them f o r many c o n i f e r s ,  t h e r e g i o n o f t h e C o l u m b i a f o r e s t shows a n i n c r e a s i n g l y ous e n v i r o n m e n t , w i t h i n c r e a s e d decreasing p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  i n s o l a t i o n and  in British  rigorand  T h i s p r o c e s s has r e s u l t e d t h u s f a r  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e c l i m a t e s o f t h e two until  drought  while  forest regions  C o l u m b i a a t l e a s t t h e y a r e shown by p o l y g o n a l  g r a p h i n g t o be q u i t e  unlike.  MONTANE FOREST Hours o f S u n l i g h t ( F . S . V a l u e s f r o m 1302  Sun.)  t o 691 h o u r s , a v e r a g e 966  A medium r a n g e , f r o m Mo t o Ho, a v e r a g e  on t h e H-M  hours.  border.  -105" Days I n t h e f r o s t l e s s  S e a s o n ( F . S . Da.)  V a l u e s f r o m 193 t o 38 d a y s , a v e r a g e 1 0 0 d a y s . c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m a l m o s t S t o Ho, a v e r a g e Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E  M-.  ( S . C . T-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 67.3 t o 5 0 . 3 $ , a v e r a g e 5 8 . 3 $ . r a n g e , f r o m l o w M- t o M/, a v e r a g e T-E I n d e x  A  A medium  Mo.  (I' )  V a l u e s f r o m 50.8 t o 24.5, a v e r a g e 35.-4-  A small  r a n g e , f r o m M- t o H/, a v e r a g e on t h e H-M b o r d e r .  P-E I n d e x ( I ) V a l u e s f r o m 93.1 t o 31.5, a v e r a g e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o h i g h H/, a v e r a g e  56.0.  A medium  Mo.  A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) V a l u e s f r o m 27.80 t o 10.68 i n c h e s , a v e r a g e 17.73 inches.  A small range,  Frostless  f r o m v e r y l o w M- t o Ho, a v e r a g e  H/.  S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E ( P . S . P-E)  V a l u e s f r o m 32.5 t o 2.6$, a v e r a g e 16.0$.  A con-  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o H-, a v e r a g e on t h e H-M b o r d e r . L o n g e s t Dry P e r i o d  i n the Frostless  S e a s o n (F.S. L.Dr.)  V a l u e s f r o m 106 t o 18 d a y s , a v e r a g e 4,7.5 d a y s . medium r a n g e , f r o m M- t o S-, a v e r a g e P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c  A  M/.  complex  This i s a polygon of d i s t i n c t i v e  shape and p r o p o r -  -106t i o n s , w h o l l y meso- o r h y p o b i o t i c e x c e p t i n l e n g t h o f d r o u g h t , w h i c h shows a s u p e r b i o t i c minimum o f 18 d a y s . ever,  of d o u b t f u l a p p l i c a b i l i t y  l e n g t h of f r o s t l e s s  earlier,  s e a s o n , 38 d a y s .  even t h i s  This  here e x p l a i n e d  frost  t h a t Table XI  cause o f t h i s m a t t e r of severe Porest enquiry  localities,  (27°P.) i s not a  killing  frost,  should  season.  or r e s t r i c t  w o r k (and  g i v e s d a t e s as n o t e d . the  end  of the  be-  was  Weather Bureau  I n the  future i t i s  f o r C a n a d a , 26°P. as  o f grow-  s t a t i o n s considered  f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n , but  XI the  for stations  o f each g i v e n .  used.  s e r i e s of Monthly  in  here presented) Table  upper date i s the beginning,  o a s e s , t h e l o n g e r p e r i o d was  a  to s t a t i o n s for which  Farm s e r v i c e g i v e s l e n g t h s  P o r t S t . James t h e r e a r e o f t e n two  that, i n the  IT. S.  one's d a t a  f o r some n o t The  may  of  seen that there  frost".  Meanwhile, f o r a l l the  the present  lower,  be  either take,  the Dominion Experimental ing  It  Prom T a b l e X I , w h i c h g i v e s  c o n f u s i o n s e t up by t h e  t h a t one  Farm u s a g e .  midsummer f r o s t s i n Montane  it will  r u l i n g t h a t 32°F. i s a " k i l l i n g likely  killing  i s included p r i n c i p a l l y  of t h e w r i t e r .  a c t u a l dates f o r each year,  seas-  as  w h i c h l e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  on t h e p a r t  considerable  short growing  ( s e e T a b l e X I B ) , and  f r o s t according t o Pominion Experimental be  i s , how-  when t a k e n w i t h t h e minimum  on i s a t P o r t S t . James, i n 1930 explained  This  I t should  like  In such  a l s o be  noted  Weather R e c o r d s s u p p l i e d  by  t h e D o m i n i o n M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e , t h e number f o r A p r i l 193-4 and  i s missing. hence t h e 1934  F o r some r e a s o n ,  no r e q u e s t  season i s omitted  could  secure i t ,  from averages of s t a t i o n s  -107w h i o h m i g h t h a v e a f r o s t l e s s s e a s o n commencing i n / p r i l . is  noted  i n T a b l e X w i t h t h e words "1934 The  possibility  out".  s u m m a r i z e d p o l y g o n f o r Montane F o r e s t s h o u l d  compared w i t h t h a t f o r S u b a l p i n e t h a t u n d e r no  This  circumstanoes  F o r e s t , when i t w i l l be  does i t a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e  be  seen  is  any  of c o n f u s i o n , w h i l e comparing the polygons f o r  F o r t S t . James and they f i t very  T e l k w a w i t h t h e g e n e r a l i z e d Montane  well.  This, then,  polygon,  i s t h e f i n a l argument o f  w r i t e r at t h i s time f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s  northern region  the  with  t h e Montane F o r e s t , as p o s s i b l y a B o r e a l - M o n t a n e e c o t o n e , for  b e l i e v i n g the  r e g i o n d e f i n i t e l y unconnected w i t h the  and Sub-  alpine.  SUBALPIlfE FOREST As t h e r e  i s o n l y one  Columbia Subalpine to  s t a t i o n given  i n the  f o r e s t , t h a t i s , F e r n i e , i t i s not  g e n e r a l i z e from t h i s ,  and  a l l general  made f r o m t h i s p o l y g o n a r e done i n t h e  standing  of t h i s weakness.  probable and  of a l l other regions  complex.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as  under-  different  a distinctly different  climatic  T h e r e a p p e a r s l i t t l e doubt of i t s p r o p e r  Subalpine,  and  future with other t r u l y  a l l on t h e  de-  o r s e c t i o n s t h a t i t seems most  i t o n l y r e m a i n s t o compare i t  Subalpine  unwise t o i n c l u d e A l b e r t a Subalpine course,  full  t h e p o l y g o n i s so  that Fernie represents  biotic  i n the  But  possible  c o m p a r i s o n s and  ductions  from those  British  stations.  I t seemed  s t a t i o n s as t h e y a r e ,  e a s t e r n s l o p e s and  would be  expected to  of be  -108much d i f f e r e n t  i n b o t h c l i m a t i c and b i o t i c  complexes.  This  comparison i s a subject f o r a separate i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t o look into s i m i l a r i t i e s  and d i f f e r e n c e s on o p p o s i t e s l o p e s o f t h e  Continental Divide.  An i n d i c a t i o n o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s  present paper, i n t h e comparisons  i s i n the  of c o a s t a l sea l e v e l  sta-  t i o n s i n t h e C I , C2 and C3 s e c t i o n s , w h i c h a r e shown t o be distinctly mountain  d i f f e r e n t as t h e y l i e on e a s t w a r d o r westward  exposures,  GRASSLAND Hours o f S u n l i g h t  ( F . S . Sun.)  V a l u e s f r o m 1668 t o 1178 h o u r s , a v e r a g e L416 h o u r s . A medium r a n g e , f r o m M/ t o h i g h H/, a v e r a g e  Mo.  Days i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n ( g . S . Da.) V a l u e s f r o m 207 t o 142 d a y s , a v e r a g e 174 d a y s . s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w S- t o Mo, a v e r a g e  A  M/.  Summer C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E ( S . C . T-E) V a l u e s f r o m 57.1 t o 4 7 . 4 $ , range,  a v e r a g e 52.5%.  A small  f r o m Mo t o M/, a v e r a g e l o w M/. 't-E  Index ( I ' )  Values from 62.3  t o 42.5, average  s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m l o w M- t o Mo, a v e r a g e P-E  51.3.  A very  Mo.  Index ( I )  V a l u e s f r o m 54.5 t o 1 1 . 9 , a v e r a g e 25-7-  A medium  -109r a n g e , f r o m M- t o Ho,  average  H/.  Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n V.?lues f r o m 17.98 inches.  (P)  t o 5.01  !\ s m a l l r a n g e , f r o m H/ t o H-,  average  Ho.  F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f P-E V a l u e s f r o m 58.6  t o 8.1%,  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m S- t o H$,  10.04  i n c h e s , average  (F.S.  a v e r a g e 29.9$.  average  P-B)  A con-  Mo.  L o n g e s t P r y P e r i o d i n t h e F r o s t l e s s S e a s o n (F.S. L.Pr.) V a l u e s f r o m 175  t o 44 d a y s , a v e r a g e 91 d a y s .  s i d e r a b l e r a n g e , f r o m H/ t o h i g h M/, P o r t r a y a l of the b i o t i c  average  Mo.  complex  In t h i s p o l y g o n c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e Columbia  grassland c l i m a t e stand  small b i o t i c  range  v/ith a wide range  of f r o s t l e s s o f P-E  This i s a very d e f i n i t e  A con-  out.  British  Particularly,  the  season l e n g t h i s associated  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , f r o m 58.6$ t o  8.1$.  i n d i c a t i o n of a f e a t u r e of g r a s s l a n d s  o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d , n a m e l y t h a t t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a v e r y wide v a r i a t i o n i n m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , from extremely a r i d v e r y good, a l m o s t humid, i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s .  to  T h i s i s a good  i n d i c a t i o n and w a r n i n g a g a i n s t a t t e m p t i n g t o judge a n e c o l o g ical  c o m m u n i t y o r i t s h a b i t a t on t h e b a s i s o f few o r s c a t t e r e d  weather  observations. toother  periods.  noteworthy f a c t o r i s the lengths of dry  Here, the Grassland  p o l y g o n may  be compared  with  -110t h a t o f t h e 0 1 , Madrona-Oak F o r e s t .  N o t i n g t h a t t h e CI  f o r e s t has a l m o s t t h e same a v e r a g e d r y p e r i o d  (90 d a y s ) , see  a l s o t h a t i t h a s much l o n g e r e x t r e m e d r o u g h t s , the p e r i o d under examination.  at least i n  Thus i t i s e a s y t o s e e why t h e  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Madrona-Oak F o r e s t t e n d s t o d e v e l o p g r a s s l a n d , and i n many ways i t s c l i m a t i c p o l y g o n t h a t of t h e true Grasslands. sulted. had  Table  I X may be c o n -  Here i t i s shown t h a t , f o r e x a m p l e , Nanaimo i n 1935  others  o f 21 o r 22 d a y s , m a k i n g a t o t a l  drought c o n d i t i o n s . other years.  periods,  hasty  o f 88 d a y s '  The same i s t r u e o f o t h e r s t a t i o n s , and  T h i s t a b l e was a s s e m b l e d i n c h e c k i n g d r y  and i n many c a s e s  m u l t i p l e droughts;  this  i t w i l l be n o t e d  i s submitted  that there are  as a c a u t i o n a g a i n s t  judgments as t o t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of d r y p e r i o d  length at different  s t a t i o n s , when based  s i n g l e l o n g e s t drought i n each Further than these  p o i n t s , i t i s t o be s e e n t h a t i n  polygon  ted,  rainfall,  always d e f i c i e n t  on t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e  year.  general the Grassland  shows o n l y what i s t o be e x p e c l o w P-E I n d e x , good T-E I n d e x ,  e x c e l l e n t l e n g t h of growing season (average low  resembles  n o t o n l y a " l o n g e s t d r y p e r i o d " o f 23 d a y s , b u t a l s o had  three  in  Finally,  areas o f  142 d a y s ) , good  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f T-E i n summer, and good s u n l i g h t .  l a t t e r f a c t o r has a l o w e r v a l u e t h a n explained under the separate the s u n l i g h t records  This  one m i g h t e x p e c t , b u t a s  s t a t i o n s ( c f . K a m l o o p s , p. 5 9 ) ,  are only of "bright sunshine",  of t h e time t h e r a i n l e s s s k y c a r r i e s a grey  w h i l e much  cloudy haze.  This  -Illis  s e l d o m found i n t h e Madrona-Oak r e g i o n o f t h e c o a s t , where  r a i n l e s s weather i s normally and  a c c o m p a n i e d by b r i l l i a n t  sunshine  blue sky. The G r a s s l a n d  tinctive  summary p o l y g o n ,  then,  shows a d i s -  f o r m and s i z e , b u t one n o t e s s e n t i a l l y  f a rdistant  f r o m t h e Madrona-Oak e x c e p t i n g i n r a n g e and a b s o l u t e f a c t o r s , and i n t h e v e r y  size of  marked d e f i c i e n c y o f r a i n f a l l .  COMPARISON OP THE AVERAGE POLYGONS OF A L L POREST SECTIONS. This f i g u r e i s presented of the complexity  p u r e l y as a n  illustration  and v a r i e t y o f t h e m o s a i c o f c l i m a t i c  w h i c h h a s p r o d u c e d t h e v a r i e d b i o t a and m u l t i t u d i n o u s i c a l groups o f B r i t i s h t o be d r a w n f r o m t h i s  Columbia.  The p r i n c i p a l  f i g u r e a r e two:  First,  types  ecolog-  conclusions  t h a t on t h e  w h o l e t h e c l i m a t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e mesob i o t i c , with s u p e r b i o t i c length of f r o s t l e s s value fall  i n some p a r t s , and w i t h two r e g i o n s and some s l i g h t l y d e f i c i e n t  u s u a l l y no s e v e r e  deficient  i n sunlight.  There i s  w i t h heat w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d  throughout the  ( T - E c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n summer i s meso- t o s u p e r b i o t i c ) .  S e c o n d , t h e s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f more t n a n t h r e e is  i n rain-  d r o u g h t , and t h e c l i m a t e i s g e n e r a l l y c o o l -  t e m p e r a t e and m o s t l y year  s e a s o n and P-E  c o n f u s i n g and n o t o f more t h a n v e r y  or four graphs  generalized  usefulness.  -112-  The Professor applied  method o f p o l y g o n a l  A , H, H u t c h i n s o n ( H u t c h i n s o n ,  t o eight b i o l o g i c a l l y  selected  g r a p h i n g as developed by 1936,  important f a c t o r s , at c a r e f u l l y  s t a t i o n s i n s i x d i f f e r e n t major types of v e g e t a t i o n  associations  o r biomes i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , shows c l e a r l y and  d i s t i n c t l y that differences i n the b i o t i c ted  1 9 4 0 ) , when  complex a r e a s s o c i a -  c l o s e l y w i t h s i x d i f f e r e n t forms of p o l y g o n a l  T h e s e g r a p h s assume f o r m s d i s t i n c t dimensionally  graphs.  e n o u g h b o t h a n g u l a r l y and  t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y may be u s e d t o e x t r a -  polate the b i o t i c  c o m p l e x o r t h e c l i m a t i c complex o f any  station i n this region, d i s t i n c t l y pointed  from weather records  alone.  It is  o u t , however, t h a t s i n g l e v a l u e s  derived  f r o m t a b l e s o f means may l e a d n o t o n l y t o mis judgment o f a given  s t a t i o n , b u t even t o e r r o r i n e x p e c t a t i o n s  actual biota native at the station. out  Further,  as t o t h e  i t is p o i n t e d  t h a t p r e s e n t b i o t a s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e of  c o n t e m p o r a r y c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , b u t may w e l l b e , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n some i n s t a n c e s , m e r e l y t h e r e s u l t o f m i g r a t i o n a l lagging it the  or topographic  i s pointed  barriers.  This  migrational  o u t , i s due t o t h e r e c e n c y  lagging,  of d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f  C o r d i l l e r a n i c e - c a p , and t o i t s s e l e c t i v e w i t h d r a w a l due  to the complexity Columbia.  o f t h e m o u n t a i n and i s l a n d s y s t e m s o f B r i t i s h  A particularly  i l l u m i n a t i n g explanation  o f some o f  the r e s u l t s o f t h i s l a g i n e c o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n i s contained  -113i n a v e r y r e c e n t p a p e r by Mo Cabe and Cowan on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n recent times  o f new r o d e n t s p e c i e s on t h e B. C. c o a s t  (McCabe and Cowan, 1 9 4 5 ) .  This paper c o n t a i n s , according t o  P r o f e s s o r M. Y. W i l l i a m s , t h e b e s t b i b l i o g r a p h y on t h e g l a c i a l and p o s t - g l a c i a l h i s t o r y It i s finally  of B r i t i s h concluded  C o l u m b i a t h a t he has seen.  that the a p p l i c a t i o n of the  method o f p o l y g o n a l g r a p h s t o t h e e c o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s o f British useful  Columbia  i s both v a l i d  and p r o m i s i n g  of d e f i n i t e l y  results.  SUMMARY The t h e o r y o f p o l y g o n a l g r a p h i n g tors  of m u l t i p l e fac-  i s applied t o the climates of the d i f f e r e n t  regions of B r i t i s h  forest  C o l u m b i a a s mapped and named by H a l l i d a y  i n h i s " P o r e s t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Canada", w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e Boreal P o r e s t areas  of the n o r t h , which are only  s l i g h t l y known and f o r w h i c h f e w o r no w e a t h e r r e c o r d s e x i s t e d at the time  o f i n i t i a t i n g t h e work.  T w e n t y - s e v e n s t a t i o n s a r e g r a p h e d , and i n a d d i t i o n six  " g e n e r a l i z e d " p o l y g o n a l graphs a r e presented  g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h each f o r e s t r e g i o n ; these t h r e e graphs a r e accompanied  thirty-  b y a k e y c h a r t and a f i n a l  of superimposed average polygons, The method  t o show t h e  one f o r e a c h f o r e s t  of securing data, the choice of f a c t o r s ,  graph  type.  their  v a l i d i t y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y a r e d i s c u s s e d and e x p l a i n e d , and a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e drawn f o r each f a c t o r a t each s t a t i o n o r  group  of s t a t i o n s , between t h e v a l u e s  o f t h e f a c t o r s and  the  e x i s t i n g b i o t a of the v e g e t a t i o n a l s e c t i o n or region. F i n a l l y , and are  i n passing,  drawn b e t w e e n t h e b i o t i c and  c o m p a r i s o n s and  b i o c l i m a t i c complexes  s e v e r a l s t a t i o n s i n t h e i r s e c t i o n s and between f o r e s t r e g i o n s . explanations and  the  of the  b e t w e e n s e c t i o n s and  Ln m a k i n g t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s , p o s s i b l e  are o f f e r e d , derived  from p e r s o n a l  from t h o s e of o t h e r s , q u a l i f i e d  published  contrasts  observations  i n t h e i r f i e l d s , who  have  p a p e r s o r made s u r v e y s of t h e o r i g i n s and t r e n d s  contemporary b i o t a of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  of  -115BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , G. S., 1941- A b a s i s some c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s .  f o r f o r e c a s t i n g seed c r o p s o f J o u r . F o r . 3_9: 1014-1016.  1943. The embryogeny o f B s e u d o t s u g a t a x i f o l i a (Lam.) Britt. Am. J o u r , B o t . 3 0 : 6 5 5 - 6 6 I . A u t e n , J . T., 1932. W a t e r a b s o r p t i o n c a p a c i t y soils. J o u r . F o r . 30 ( 2 ) : 230.  of forest  B a t e s , C. G., 1925. The r e l a t i v e l i g h t r e q u i r e m e n t s coniferous seedlings. J o u r . F o r . ?J3: 8 6 9 - 8 7 9 .  o f some  B a t e s , C. G., and R o e s e r , J . , 1928. L i g h t i n t e n s i t i e s r e a u i r e d f o r growth of c o n i f e r o u s s e e d l i n g s . Am. J o u r . Bot. 15: 185-194. B. 0. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia. R e p o r t s f o r t h e y e a r s 1927-1937. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C. B o e r k e r , R. H., 1916. E c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u p o n t h e g e r m i n a t i o n and e a r l y g r o w t h o f f o r e s t t r e e s . Univ. Studies. 16 ( 1 - 2 ) : 1-89. U n i v . o f N e b r a s k a , L i n c o l n , Neb. B r y a n , K i r k , 1 9 2 8 . Changes i n p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s by change i n ground w a t e r l e v e l . E c o l o g y 9 ( 4 ) : 474-478. Chapman, R o y a l N., 1929. The measurement o f t h e e f f e c t s o f ecological factors. T r a n s . IV I n t e r n a t . Cong. Entom.: 408-411. ( P a p e r No. 194, M i s c . S e r i e s , M i n n . Ag. E x p . Sta.) C l e m e n t s , F. E., 1934. The r e l i c t method i n dynamic J o u r . E c o l . , 2 2 : 39-68. C l e m e n t s , P. E., and S h e l f o r d , New Y o r k .  V. E., 1939.  ecology.  Bio-Ecology.  C o o p e r , W. S., 1923. The r e c e n t e c o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y o f G l a c i e r Bay, Alaska. E c o l . 4: 9 3 - 1 2 8 , 223-246, 355~365. 1931. Ecol.  A t h i r d e x p e d i t i o n t o G l a c i e r Bay, A l a s k a . 12 ( 1 ) : 6 1 - 9 5 . J a n . 1 9 3 1 .  1939. Ecol.  A f o u r t h e x p e d i t i o n t o G l a c i e r Bay, A l a s k a . 20: 130-155. Ap. 1939-  -116Darwin, C h a r l e s , I860. J o u r n a l of Researches d u r i n g the Voyage o f H.M.S. " B e a g l e " . 2nd E d i t i o n , I 8 6 0 . D a v i d s o n , J o h n , C a v e r h i l l , P. Z., P r e b l e , E. A., and H u t c h i n s o n , A. H., 1926. B r i t i s h Columbia. N a t u r a l i s t ' s Guide t o t h e A m e r i c a s , pp. I 5 O - I 6 5 , Baltimore. E i d m a n n , H., 1929. The e c o n o m i c a l v a l u e o f a n t s f o r o u r forests. T r a n s , IV I n t e r n a t . Cong. Entom.: 3 5 4 - 3 5 5 . P a s s i g , 0. L., 1914. The p e r i o d o f s a f e p l a n t g r o w t h i n Maryl a n d and D e l a w a r e . M o n t h l y Weather Rev. 4 2 : I 5 2 - I 5 8 . U. S. D. A. l e a t h e r B u r e a u . W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. F i n n e l l , H. H., 1928. E f f e c t o f wind Am. Soc. A g r o n . 2 0 : 1206-1210.  on p l a n t g r o w t h .  F o r b e s , W. T., 1932. A n o t e on T h o r n t h w a i t e ' s new t i o n of climate. Geog. Rev. 2_2: 4 7 8 - 4 8 0 .  Jour.  classifica-  F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f B. C., 1923. F o r e s t s and f o r e s t r y i n B. C. R e v i s e d r e p o r t t o t h e I m p e r i a l F o r e s t r y C o n f e r e n c e , 1923. 1928. F o r e s t s and F o r e s t r y i n B. C. n a i r e o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire f o r e s t r y  Replies to questionConference,  73  1935. F o r e s t r y i n . C. S t a t e m e n t p r e p a r e d by t h e Forest S e r v i c e f o r the B r i t i s h Empire F o r e s t r y Conference, South A f r i c a , 1935. F r o t h i n g h a m , E. H., 1909. Douglas F i r : a study of the P a c i f i c C o a s t and R o c k y M o u n t a i n f o r m s . U. S. D. A.. For. S e r v . C i r c . 150. 1909. W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. H a l l i d a y , W. E. D., 1937. A f o r e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. F o r . Serv. ^ u l l . 89, Dept. Mines R e s . , Canada. Ottawa. Hansen, Henry P., Washington.  1939. Bull.  P o l l e n a n a l y s i s o f a bog n e a r Spokane, T o r r . B o t . C l u b 6 6 : 215-220. Ap.1939.  Henny, A. J , C l i m a t o l o g y o f t h e U. B u l l . Q.  S.  IJ. S. Weather B u r e a u ,  Hofmann, J u l i u s V., 1924. The n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n of D o u g l a s f i r i n the P a c i f i c Northwest. U. S. D. A. D e p t . B u l l . 1200. Ap. 1924. H u t c h i n s o n , A. H., 1936. The p o l y g o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of p o l y phase phenomena. T r a n s . Roy. Soc. Canada. S e r i e s 3, S e c . 5, 3 0 : 1 9 - 2 6 . 1940. P o l y g o n a l graphing of e c o l o g i c a l data. (4) : 4 7 5 - 4 8 7 .  Ecol.  21  -117J a e n i c k e , A. J . , and F o e r s t e r , M. H., 1 9 1 5 . The i n f l u e n c e o f W e s t e r n y e l l o w p i n e f o r e s t on t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n and m e l t i n g o f snow. U. S. Wea. B u r . , Mo. Wea. Rev. 3 4 : 115-126.  Mar. 1915.  L a r s e n , J . A.. 1 9 3 0 . F o r e s t t y p e s o f t h e n o r t h e r n Rooky M o u n t a i n s and t h e i r c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l s . Ecol. 11: 631-672. L i v i n g s t o n , B. E., and S h r e v e , P., 1 9 2 1 . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as r e l a t e d t o c l i m a t i c conditions. C a r n . I n s t . Wash., Pub. 2 8 4 . Washington, 1921. L u n t , H e r b e r t A., 1938. P o r e s t s o i l E c o l . 19 ( 1 ) : 5 0 - 5 6 .  problems  i n New  England.  L u t z , H. J . , 1 9 3 0 . O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e i n v a s i o n o f n e w l y formed g l a c i a l m o r a i n e s b y t r e e s . E c o l . 11 ( 3 ) : 5 6 2 - 5 6 7 . McAvoy, B l a n c h e , 1 9 3 1 . E c o l o g i c a l survey region. B o t . Gaz. 92 ( 2 ) : 14-1-171.  of t h e B e l l a  Coola  McCabe, T. T., and Cowan, I a n MoT., 1 9 4 5 . Peromyscus m a n i c u l a t u s m a c r o r h i n u s and t h e p r o b l e m o f i n s u l a r i t y . T r a n s . Roy. Can. I n s t . , XXV: 1 1 7 - 2 1 5 , p i . V. Mans on, M., 1 9 0 3 . P o r e s t a d v a n c e o v e r g l a c i a t e d B. C. P o r . O u a r t . 1: 9 4 ~ 9 6 .  areas i n  Raber, Oran, 1937. Water u t i l i z a t i o n by t r e e s , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e economic f o r e s t s p e c i e s of t h e N o r t h Temperate Zone. IJ. S. D. A., ¥.±so\ P u b . 2 5 6 : 1-97. Reed, Wm. G., 1 9 1 6 . P r o s t and t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n . A t l a s of Am. A g r i c u l t u r e . U. S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . W a s h i n g t o n . 1936. (Paging of t h i s section i n the a t l a s i s i n c o r r e c t .) R i g g , Geo. B., and R i c h a r d s o n , C. T., 1 9 3 8 . P r o f i l e s o f some Sphagnum bogs o f t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t o f N o r t h America. E c o l . 19 ( 3 ) : 4 0 8 - 4 3 4 . S h e l d o n , C h a r l e s , 1 9 1 2 . The W i l d e r n e s s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c Coast I s l a n d s . New Y o r k . S h e l f o r d , V i c t o r s . , 1929. Baltimore.  L a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d  Show, S. B., 1919. C l i m a t e and f o r e s t f i r e California. J o u r . P o r . 17: 965~979.  ecology.  i n Northern  -118S h r e v e , P., 191-4. The r o l e o f w i n t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s i n d e t e r mining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t s . Am. J o u r . B o t . 1194-202. 1916. The W e i g h t o f P h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n t h e s t u d y o f p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . P l a n t World 19: 53-67. 1916'. T h o r n t h w a i t e , C. W., . Geog. Rev. 2 1 : 1933. (with 1941. #421.  1931. The 633-655.  climates  C l i m a t e s of t h e World. map). A t l a s of C l i m a t i c Types  o f Worth  Geog. Rev.  23:  o f t h e U. S.  America. 437-440. 1900-1939.  T r e w a r t h a , G l e n n T., 1943. An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w e a t h e r and climate. 2nd ed. 1943. T u r n a g e , W. pheric U. S. P. A.,  B., and S h r e v e , E d i t h B., 1939. Note on aridity. E c o l . 20 ( 1 ) : 107-109. 1936.  Atlas  of American  atmos-  Agriculture.  U. S. D. A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 1912 ( a ) . Red A l d e r , A l n u s oregana N u t t . S i l v i o a l l e a f l e t 53. S e p t . 18, 1912. 1912 ( b ) . O r e g o n Oak, l e a f l e t 52. Sept. 21,  Quercus 1912.  g a r r y a n a Doug.  Silvical  V i s h e r , S t e p h e n S., 1943 ( a ) . Some i n f l u e n c e s u p o n A m e r i c a n c l i m a t e o f t h e o c e a n , C-ulf, G r e a t L a k e s , l a t i t u d e and mountains. B u l l . Am. M e t e o r . Soc. 2L_ ( 3 ) : 79-84. Mar. 1943. 1943 ( b ) . Monthly.56  P r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i a t i o n i n t h e TJ. S. ( 4 ) : 3 6 4 - 3 6 9 . Ap. 1 9 4 3 .  Sci.  1943 ( c ) . N o v e l A m e r i c a n C l i m a t i c Maps and t h e i r i m p l i c a tions. U. S. Wea. B u r . M o n t h l y Weath. Rev. J u n e , 1943. 1944. B r e e z i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e U. 113-116. Weaver, J . E., and C l e m e n t s , P. E., 2nd e d . New Y o r k .  1938.  Whit f o r d , H. N., and C r a i g , R. D., 1918. Columbia. Comm. C o n s e r v . O t t a w a .  S.  E c o l . 2_5 ( 1 ) :  Plant Ecology. Forests  of  British  TABLE  I .  DATA V a l u e s  FOR BIOCLIMATIC T a b u l a t e d  A . N o t e :  S t a t i o n s 1937,  V i c t .  N a n ,  S i d .  a r e  except  P . R u p .  a r e  POLYGONAL  H i g h ,  SUNLIGHT-RECORDING t a b u l a t e d t h a t  a s  l i s t e d  s u n l i g h t  P . G e o . A g a s .  A v e r a g e .  STATIONS. i n  s t a t i o n s  V a n .  GRAPHS  L o w , a n d  " C l i m a t e a r e  o f  g i v e n  B . C . " f o r f i r s t .  O l i v .  Sum,  V e r n ,  N e l s .  Kant,  S . A n a  I n v e r .  F . S .  2218.5  1711  2000  915.5  795  :1 3 2 1  1629  1647  1562  1532  1235  1668  1302  985  Sun  1826  0  5  1495  1714  471  691  990  1420  1178  1292  1241  993  1383  1131  782  2 0 4 3  a  l  1 6 3 4 . 8  1868  709.7  732  1582  1315  1470.5  1390  1155  1488  1200  857  :1 1 8 2 . 8  F . S .  359  287  331  240  120  274  280  198  207  196  197  205  193  D a .  266  203  203  179  59  203  206  142  156  137  117  155  111  307  243  246  1 9 9 , 9  91.45  231.7  241.6  167.7  184.2  161.6  143  181.50  159.7  128 97 112.3  S . C .  4 3 . 3  4 5 . 9  45.1  4 8 . 1  66.6  4 8 . 3  4 5 . 1  56.1  5 4 . 9  5 7 . 1  5 8 . 1  55.7  5 7 . 4  63.3  T - E  3 4 , 0  3 8 . 6  3 7 . 8  4 0 . 9  5 3 . 9  37.7  3 7 . 8  4 7 . 4  48.2  5 0 . 0  4 8 . 4  4 8 . 4  50.3  5 7 . 4  3 8 . 3  4 2 . 1  42.2  4 3 . 9  5 8 . 3  42.7  4 1 . 8  51.7  5 1 . 9  5 4 . 0  54.5  52.3  53.7  59.9  59.5  6 1 . 5  57.5  44.5  3 5 . 5  6 1 . 8  62.3  62.3  55.5  51.5  4 8 . 0  55.3  50.8  44.3  4 8 , 5  5 2 . 8  48.5  3 6 . 5  30.5  5 1 . 0  5 2 . 3  51,3  45.8  4 2 . 5  39.8  46.8  4 1 . 8  31.5  5 3 . 2  5 5 . 5  52.3  4 0 . 4  33.8  54.8  55.8  55.8  51.2  46.6  4 2 . 9  5 1 . 0  46.8  36.1  104.6  1 2 1 . 0  119.9  377.9  93.1  278.4  186.5  41.2  51.3  70.5  145.8  54.5  82.2  43.2  44,2  5 8 . 3  53.7  211.2  3 9 . 9  76,5  101,8  1 1 . 9  15.5  33.1  70,0  14.2  3 3 . 9  18.2  7 2 , 0  96.1  88.7  268.9  69.5  171.5  157.5  20.5  30.1  47.3  106.5  26.4  5 8 . 9  30,4  3 7 . 1 9  4 3 . 6 4  52.08  117.81  2 7 . 8 0  90.63  67.60  14.34  16.34  20.74  38.93  17.98  24.44  14.65  17.29  21.94  19.02  7 2 . 2 1  1 4 . 8 6  30.49  37.82  5.01  6.77  11.33  21.13  6.42  11,61  27.63  35.27  34.21  90.55  22.58  58.53  57.13  8.54  11.70  16.17  30.41  9.88  19.37  F . S .  88.3  39.9  53.5  48.7  2 8 . 8  63.8  3 4 . 0  58,6  48.3  37.5  21.8  40.8  3 0 . 9  38.3  P - E  3 4 . 5  24.9  28.1  25.6  7.6  29.9  17.7  1 1 . 4  15.5  15.3  7.5  8.1  12.3  11.8  \%)  5 7 . 4  3 3 . 9  42.2  3 9 . 4  17.5  4 3 . 0  27.5  31.1  29.6  2 7 . 0  1 3 . 9  29.1  20.7  23.7  F . S .  320  155  115  38  76  66  93  153  129  110  96  175  98  93  43  23  33  7  22  18  29  60  50  48  33  44  35  22  118  80  72  20  44  41  54  98  75  75  56  100  64  59  I»  I  P  L . D r ,  6.47 10.86  TABLE  I . DATA  B .  Q u a t s .  FOR BIOCLIMA.TIC  STATIONS  POLYGONAL  WITHOUT  U o l .  M a s s .  B . C o o l  O . F a l l s  T a l k .  107  SUNLIGHT  F • S"fc. J  .  GRAPHS  RECORDS  Q u e s .  R e v l .  G o l d .  F e r n .  R o s s .  K a s .  137  F . S .  273  209  200  208  292  106  120  174  D a .  186  142  120  119  187  40  38  98  106  220.8  180.5  168.2  160.5  238.6  6 9 . 8  67,6  1 1 1 . 6  127.3  135  166  206  54  98  104  136  100  115  143.8  171.8  S »G •  47  4 1 . 2  47  56  5 0 . 5  6 7 . 2  67.3  60.7  5 8 . 0  6 1 . 8  62.2  65.9  57  T - E  38.1  3 4 . 4  3 9 . 9  4 6 . 4  4 2 . 5  52.8  57.8  5 2 . 1  52.6  5 3 . 8  5 4 . 2  52.8  50.8  (%)  4 1 . 4  3 8 . 8  42.5  48.97  4 6 . 2  60.6  61.7  5 6 . 8  55.6  58.7  59.2  58.5  55.1  5 1 . 3  5 5 . 3  4 7 . 0  4 7 . 8  53.5  30.8  3 2 . 0  4 0 . 8  4 5 . 8  4 0 . 0  3 9 . 0  4 1 . 0  46.3  3 3 . 8  37.5  32.8  3 3 . 0  32.3  37.8  37.6  4 1 . 9  36.1  3 5 . 2  36.9  41.3  1 7 5 . 4  140.5  I«  I  P  4 1 . 0  4 1 . 3  35.8  38.3  3 7 . 0  26.8  27.7  29.9  42.7  42.7  4 2 0 . 3  182.2  278.6  918.7  6 1 . 6  56.3  66.6  168.6  141.5  154.6  528.3  31.5  3 6 . 3  28.7  260.6  318.1  162.8  218.1  639.1  45.3  46.1  5 3 . 4  102.66  135.98  65.62  80.09  241.32  19,57  17  22,43  4 5 . 7 0  26.30  58.53  36.03  37.14  68.43  6 0 . 1 9  52,12  43.48  121.66  10.68  12,56  12.13  21.94  12,62  29.65  13.75  19.27  105.91  57.64  62.40  181.13  13.62  14.86  1 8 . 1 9  37.02  17.76  42.67  2 0  28.35  2 4 . 0  2 0 . 0  32.5  21.3  19.1  13.7  25.7  2.6  7.1  1 0 . 1  8.5  6.6  5 . 4  7.1  11.2  11.2  9.5  12,1  17.5  46.2  4 7 . 3  330.9 184.1  8 5  0  4 5  4 5 . 6  24.5  -  .75  80.7  249.1  134.1  77.8  41.8  109.2  4 6 , 0  62,9  147.4  6 1 . 4  155.7  96.1  102.5  4  2 0  3 5 . 1  F . S .  49.7  30.6  34.1  21.1  51.7  P - E  2 9 . 4  1 1 . 2  2 4 . 9  1 1 . 6  3 3 . 9  (%)  40.3  2 3 . 1  28.7  1 6 . 3  4 4 . 4  11,7  1 3 . 1  2 2 . 0  13.1  F . S .  63  61  47  81  25  72  58  61  83  106  85  162  98  21  36  34  47  80  65  L . D r .  28  25  15  28  12  32  20  18  24  26  37  38  27  42  17  52  39  38  46  58  HOURS (14 V i c .  Nan.  1927  1836  1928  2041  1929  OF SUNLIGHT S t a t i o n s  S i d .  P . R u p .  P . G e o .  1523  1738  828  N . R .  1677  1824  821  2091  1697  1987  833  I N T H EAVERAGE  w i t h  10  y e a r s  o r  A g a s .  V a n .  O l i v e r  990  FROSTLESS more  o f  Summ.  SEASON  r e o o r d s )  N e l s .  V e r n .  Kam,  S.Arm.  Inv.  782  1420  N . R .  1292  1241  993  1405  1146  N . R .  1177  1528  1400  1560  1523  1229  1546  1201  870  N . R .  1247  1627  1268  1536  1429  1150  1580  1297  896  1930  2052  1660  1945  929  795  1173  1631  1166  1562  1366  954  1418  1211  851  1931  2136  1705  1884  631  793  1321  1698  1179  1394  1352  1200  1456  1138  841  1932  1915  1645  1720  482  614  1095  1514  1339  1463  1364  1242  1413  1192  847  1933  1903  1697  1834  509  727  1108  1491  1300  1434  136 9  1161  1422  1183  921  1934  2131  1733  2000  718  728  1282  1616  1435  1465  1426  1222  1383  1302  803  1935  2226  1794  1976  700  803  1283  1589  1428  1498  1385  1196  1520  1131  806  1936  1933  1711  1926  719  729  1298  1529  1464  1531  1399  D e f . R e c l 6 6 8  1209  985  1937  1827  1512  1714  674  692  1037  1324  1422  1440  1341  1194  824  EXTREME  M P AVERAGE  VALUES:  HIGH,  1257  1557  LOW, AVERAGE:  2226  1794  2000  929  803  1321  1698  1464  1562  1523  1257  1668  1302  985  1827  1512  1714  509  614  990  1324  1166  1292  1241  954  1383  1131  782  EXTREME (Not  AND AVERAGE  VALUES  N e c e s s a r i l y  t h e  HIGH,  FROM  same  as  LOW,AVERAGE  ABSOLUTE A v e r a g e ( F .  FROSTLESS F r o s t l e s s  SEASONS Season)  S . SUN)  2218.5  1711  2000  915.5  795  1321  1629  1647  1562  1532  1235  1668  1302  985  1826,5  1495  1714  471  691  990  1420  1178  1292  1241  993  1383  1131  782  2043.1  1634.8  1868  709.7  732  1582  1315  1470,5  1390  1155  1488  1200  857  1182.8  TABLE  I I I .  LENGTH (A)  1927  F r o s t  ( I f  3 2 ° , t h e n  2  a t  V i c .  N a n .  297  203  203  S i d .  =  OF FROSTLESS  ( K i l l i n g  2  SEASON  s u c c e s s i v e 1 s t  days  a t  i n  F a l l  d a y 3 2 °  I N DAYS  ( F . S . D a . )  3 2 ° F .  below,  o r  d a y o f  F r o s t l e s s  i s  l a s t  P . G e o .  A g a s .  Van.  187  60  203  229  187  81  237  271  P . R u p .  o r  O l i v e r  one  d a y  Summ.  V e r n .  152  193  155  160  174  160  3 0 ° F . ) Season)  N e l s , >  K a m .S . A r a  l a v .  148  155  175  112  141  175  152  120 102  1928  333  273  261  1929  293  215  224  240  105  208  221  142  193  164  120  170  188  1930  ' 337  252  243  179  59  212  207  183  156  137  120  193  139  114  1931  318  252  255  207  94  247  243  167  196  151  124  170  169  128  1932  277  272  276  194  95  274  272  153  171  169  117  205  135  97  1933  304  237  230  190  75  224  233  182  182  163  157  187  173  106  1934  359  287  331  119  232  280  161  1935  321  206  208  194  79  213  206  172  172  145  145  159  111  120  211  209  198  198  196  161  196  162  119  119  229  266  175  207  176  197  205  193  102  128  1936  273  211  211  200  1937  266  265  265  221  VALUES:  EXTREME AND AVERAGE 359  287  331  240  120  274  59 91.45  266  203  203  179  307  243  246  1 9 9 . 9  (B) 1927  297  203  1928  318  239  1929  293  223  1930  256  252  1931  265  2X3.  1932  277  268  1933  '  268  304  LENGTH  OF FROSTLESS  .  HIGH,  LOW,  120  AVERAGE:  280  198  207  196  197  205  193  203  206  142  156  137  117  155  111  231.73  241.55  SEASON  167.73  (KILLING  115  184.2  FROST  g  .161.6  143  181.50  159  97 s  70  XX2*27  3 2 ° F . )  192  187  41  203  202  149  183  155  129  155  154  106  243  181  81  225  225  129  174  152  139  175  152  116  215  186  105  208  2XX  120  193  153  101  170  158  102  224  179  59  206  207  120  156  137  120  182  121  114  311  177  / jsfjst  230  236  167  173  124  124  170  141  116  273  194  261  259  117  171  117  117  186  135  96  148  (39 (59  249  '  49  195  210  162  (21 (18  268  251  147  172  178  163  127  177  (31  121  1934  359  285  271  1935  217  190  208  188  206  202  159  172  145  132  146  111  103  211  174  117  199  209  198  198  159  152  196  152  112  195  119  229  2^!?2  153  178  139  139  176  180  89  (81  (46 1936  273  1937..  266.  211 _  239  . _ . . _.240_  69  I C o m p a r i s o n as  u s e d  P r i n c e  o f  L e n g t h  i n t h i s George  o f  paper,  F r o s t l e s s (B)  a n d Invermere  Seasons  a c c o r d i n g i n 1932,  t o  a t  14  S t a t i o n s  U . S . Weather  1933,  1934,  i n  i n B r i t i s h  B u r e a u . t a b l e  ( B ) .  N o t e  Columbia  (A)  c o n f u s i o n  a t  TABLE  I I I  (C)  LENGTH K i l l i n g  F r o s t  a  2  (Where  OF FROSTLESS  s u c c e s s i v e 2  B . C o o l .  v a l u e s  SEASON  r e a d i n g s  g i v e n  i n  one  Q u a t .  U c l .  M a s s .  1927  193  N . R .  155  176  203  (58  86  1928  233  185  187  187  251  91  67  1929  224  160  200  136  242  66  79  1930  186  142  120  119  207  (18  57  O . F a l l s  T e l k .  I N DAYS  3 2 ° F .  o r  y e a r ,  F t . S t . J .  ( F . S . D a . )  below, k i l l i n g  o r  one  f r o s t  a t i n  3 0 ° F .  o r  l o w e r .  J u l y )  Kas.  R o s s .  F e r n .  G o l d .  116  191  119  173  149  117  115  174  160  116  120  130  120 119  164  N.R.  106  N . R .  139  181  119  116  ( n o )  122  38  104  155  125  134  91  142  69  98  171  104  98  54  116  47  103  158  158  101  68  106  67  113  157  157  120  85  121  40  108  136  166  114  103  121  106  119  198  162  135  117  117  87  108  206  138  108  137  114  166  135  137  174  136  104  98  171.82  143.80  Ques.  Rev,  (29  li! (72  1931  231  171  188  169  209  (44  1932  273  191  167  208  218  1933  237  201  160  127  187  1934  274  175  184  159  292  1935  200  185  148  146  208  1936  210  209  182  162  244  1937  237  229  159  177  264  EXTREME  273 186 220.78  209 142 180.50  200 120 168.17  208 119 160.45  292 187 238.64  74 (38 (40 90 (31 (42 107 82  A N D AVERAGE  107 40 69.82  VALUES:  106 38 67.56  HIGH, LOW,  120 98 111.56  206  AVERAGE  115,00  54 100.00  106 127,  TABLE  I V .  SUMMER  CONCENTRATION  ( F i g u r e s  a r e  O F T - E RATIOS  p e r c e n t a g e s  o f  ( S . C . T - E )  annual  T - E  (I*)  V i c .  N a n .  S i d .  P . R u p .  P . G e o .  A g a s .  V a n e .  O l i v e r  Summ.  V e r a .  N e l s .  1927  3 9 . 4 2  45.97  4 5 . 0 5  48.08  6 6 . 6 7  4 8 . 2 9  45.07  5 6 . 1 0  54.95  57,07  58.13  55.72  57.38  60  1928  3 6 . 4 8  41,05  41.05  41.01  59.15  4 1 . 2 3  4 1 . 3 0  52.56  51.17  53.16  5 3 . 1 4  52.17  5 3 . 0 9  5 8 , 9  1929  3 9 . 4 2  42.18  4 4 . 9 4  42.42  5 3 . 9 0  4 3 . 6 0  4 4 . 2 9  52.83  51.67  54.05  56.55  5 2 . 5 0  5 2 . 6 6  60.8  1930  38.76  42.13  42.36  4 3 . 9 8  59.85  4 2 . 3 4  42.73  5 0 . 2 2  50.72  54.05  54.71  52.43  54.89  58.7 57.8  Earn.  S oArm.  I n v .  1931  3 7 . 2 2  40.43  4 0 . 0 9  40.91  57.25  4 0 . 6 9  4 0 . 0 9  51.33  5 1 . 9 4  53.72  54.65  51.11  53.76  1932  3 7 . 4 4  41.47  4 2 . 0 8  4 3 . 5 9  5 9 , 2 6  4 2 . 7 2  4 0 . 9 9  5 2 . 2 9  51.47  5 4 . 7 0  54.65  52.94  53.51  60.75  1933  39.22  4 3 . 5 2  44  4 5 . 8 9  59.37  4 4 . 6 1  4 2 . 8 7  5 2 . 9 4  53.81  54.19  56.55  53.54  55.87  6 0 . 6  1934  3 4  0 3  38,62  37,83  4 4 . 7 4  55.71  37.65  37.75  4 7 . 3 9  4 8 . 2 0  50.00  4 8 . 4 4  48.42  50.25  55.1  1935  37.66  4 3 . 1 2  41,43  4 5 . 0 3  63.93  42.13  4 0 . 5 4  5 1 . 4 0  53.55  54.71  55.35  52.31  5 5 . 6 9  61  1936  4 3 . 3 0  4 1 , 8 5  4 2 . 3 8  4 5 . 9 1  58.45  42.45  42.67  51.07  52,43  5 4 . 6 0  54.80  5 3 . 3 0  53.65  63.3  1937  38.76  4 2 . 9 9  42.23  4 1 . 5 2  57.89  43.46  4 1 . 5 2  5 0 . 0 0  50.73  5 3 . 4 0  5 2 . 5 4  50.96  50,75  5 7 . 4  4 3 . 3  45.97  4 5 . 0 5  4 8 . 0 8  66.67  4 8 . 2 9  45.07  56  34.03  3 8 . 6 2  37.83  4 0 . 9 1  5 3 . 9  37.65  3 7 . 7 5  3 8 . 3 4  4 2 . 1 2  42.16  43.92  58.31  4 2 . 6 5  4 1 . 8  Q u a t s .  U c l u .  M a s s .  B . C o o l . O . F a l l s  1927  47  4 0 . 4  49,7  56  50.5  6 6 . 8  57.6  1928  40  37.5  4 2 . 5  4 9 . 1  4 2 . 5  63.4  63.5  58  1929  42  41  4 1 , 8  4 8 . 5  4 5 , 1  58.6  58.5  5 5 . 4  5 4 . 2  1930  40  4 1 . 2  42  4 8 . 8  4 8 . 9  6 2 . 0  63  5 9 . 4  5 3 . 5  1931  39.3  3 7 . 6  41  4 9 . 3  4 6 , 4  60.3  61  56.3  56  1932  4 1 . 4  38  4 0 . 8  4 8 . 1  4 6 . 9  61  57.8  5 7 . 9  57.6  1933  43  39.6  4 3 , 4  49  49.3  57.2  5 9 . 6 6  57.5  58  1934  3 8 . 1  3 4 . 4  39.9  45  4 2 . 5  60.2  5 9 . 4  52.8  52.6  1935  4 1 . 8  38.8  41  49  44,6  64.5  6 7 . 2 5  60.7  1936  42  39.8  43.2  49.5  46.5  59.75  62.3  57.5  1937  41.5  3 8 . 8  42  4 6 . 4  4 5 . 4  52,8  5 9 . 4  52.1  0  «33  EXTREME  EXTREME  A M )AVERAGE  Telle. '  67.2  AND  VALUES:  F t . S t . J .  AVERAGE  HIGH,  .1  LOW, AVERAGE:  5 4 . 9 5  57.07  58.13  55.72  57.38  6 3 . 3  4 7 . 3 9  4 8 . 2  50  4 8 . 4 4  4 8 . 4 2  50.25  5 7 . 4  51.65  51.88  53.99  54.5  52.31  53.68  5 9 . 9  R e v .  G o l d .  F e r n .  R o s s .  Kas.  5 7 . 1  61.8  61.3  6 5 . 9  57  59.2  58.25  59.6  5 3 . 9  N . R .  62.2  N . R .  56  58.6  59  6 1 . 4  55.6  59.7  6 0 . 4  5 4 . 1  55.1  5 9 . 4  60  58.6  55.25  60.6  61.7  63.9  5 6 . 0  5 3 . 8  54.2  5 4 . 9  50.8  57.3  61  5 8 . 9  57  56.25  5 4 . 8  58  58.2  56.75  55.6  54.2  55  5 7 . 0  5 2 . 8  55.1  Ques.  VALUES:  56  H I G H , L O W ,,  AVERAGE:  47  41.2  47  56  50.5  67.2  67.25  60.7  58  61.8  62.2  65.9  57  38.1  3 4 . 4  3 9 . 9  4 6 . 4  42.5  52.8  57.8  52.1  52.6  53.8  54.2  52,8  50  41,37  38.84  42.48  48.97  46,24  60.64  61.7  56.84  55.57  58.71  59.2  58.5  55.1  o  8  TABLE  V .  TEMPERATURE-EFFICIENCY INDICES  V i c  N a n .  S i d .  P . R u p .  1927  5 2 . 0 0  5 2 . 7 5  5 0 . 5 0  1928  5 5 . 5 0  57.25  57.25  1929  5 2 . 0 0  5 2 . 7 5  1930  52.25  1931  P . G e o .  A g a s .  V a n e .  O l i v e r  Summ.  V e r n .  N e l s .  3 9 . 0 0  32.25  51.25  53.25  51.25  5 0 . 5 0  4 6 . 0 0  40.00  50.25  45.75  34.50  4 4 . 5 0  3 5 . 5 0  57.00  5 7 . 5 0  53.75  53.25  4 7 . 5 0  43.75  51.75  48.50  36.5.0  49.75  41.25  3 5 . 2 5  52.75  5 2 . 5 0  5 3 . 0 0  52.25  4 6 . 2 5  42.00  5 0 . 0 0  4 7 . 0 0  34.50  5 4 . 0 0  50.75  4 1 . 5 0  3 4 . 2 5  55.50  55.00  5 7 . 2 5  51.75  4 6 . 2 5  4 2 . 5 0  51.50  4 6 . 0 0  35.75  55.75  5 7 . 5 0  54.25  4 4 . 0 0  3 4 . 5 0  57.75  5 8 . 0 0  5 6 . 5 0  51.50  4 7 . 0 0  4 3 . 0 0  51.75  4 6 , 5 0  36.25  1932  52.75  54.25  5 0 . 5 0  3 9 . 0 0  3 3 . 7 5  53.25  5 5 . 5 0  5 4 . 5 0  5 1 . 0 0  45.25  4 3 . 0 0  46.75  46.25  35.75  1933  5 1 . 0 0  5 4 . 0 0  4 8 . 5 0  3 6 . 5 0  31.75  5 1 . 0 0  52.25  55.25  49.25  44.75  42.00  4 9 . 5 0  44.75  35.00  1934  5 9 . 5 0  61.50  5 7 . 5 0  3 8 . 0 0  3 5 . 0 0  61.75  62.25  62.25  5 5 . 5 0  5 1 . 5 0  48.00  55.25  50.75  38.75  1935  53.75  5 4 , 5 0  5 2 . 5 0  37o75  3 0 . 5 0  5 4 . 0 0  5 5 . 5 0  5 3 . 5 0  45.75  4 2 . 5 0  39.75  48.75  41,75  31.50  1936  4 8 . 5 0  56.75  5 2 . 5 0  39.75  3 5 . 5 0  54.75  56.25  5 8 . 2 5  5 1 . 5 0  4 8 . 0 0  44.25  53.00  4 8 . 0 0  44.25  1937  52.25  5 5 . 2 5  5 1 . 5 0  4 2 . 7 5  33.25  53.50  5 6 . 0 0  57.50  51.25  47.75  44.25  5 2 . 0 0  49.75  37.00  EXTREME  AND AVERAGE  VALUES:  HIGH,  Kam.  S . A n a .  I n v .  LOW, AVERAGE  5 9 . 5 0  61,50  5 7 . 5 0  4 4 . 5 0  3 5 . 5 0  61.75  62.25  62.25  5 5 . 5 0  5 1 . 5 0  4 8 . 0 0  55.25  50.75  44.25  4 8 . 5 0  52.75  4 8 . 5 0  3 6 . 5 0  3 0 . 5 0  5 1 . 0 0  52.25  51.25  45.75  4 2 . 5 0  39.75  46.75  41,75  31.50  5 3 . 2 0  5 5 . 5 0  52.32  40.36  33.77  54.77  55.82  55.75  51.23  46.61  42,96  50.95  46.82  36.10  Q u a t s .  U c l u .  M a s s .  B . C o o l .  O . F a l l s  T e l k .  R e v .  G o l d .  F e r n .  R o s s .  gas.  1927  4 2 , 5 0  4 4 . 0 0  35.75  38.25  4 6 . 5 0  27.50  3 1 . 0 0  40,75  4 2 . 0 0  3 4 . 7 5  3 3 , 0 0  32.25  38.50  1928  4 7 . 5 0  5 0 . 0 0  41.25  4 2 . 7 5  5 3 . 5 0  28.00  30.25  38,75  43.75  36.25  3 3 . 0 0  37.25  40.75  1929  4 1 . 0 0  4 4 , 5 0  41,25  41,75  4 8 , 7 5  26.00  2 9 . 5 0  3 7 , 0 0  44.25  N . R .  33,25  N . R .  39.25  1930  4 6 . 7 5  41.25  4 2 . 2 5  4 2 . 0 0  4 5 . 5 0  2 7 . 0 0  2 8 . 5 0  35.75  45.75  3 7 . 5 0  3 5 . 5 0  34.25  40.00  1931  49.50  49,25  46.25  4 2 . 0 0  4 4 . 7 5  27.75  2 9 . 5 0  36.75  4 1 , 5 0  3 3 . 5 0  37.25  39,25  40.75  1932  45,25  4 5 . 5 0  42.25  4 0 . 0 0  4 1 . 0 0  27.00  3 2 . 0 0  3 4 , 5 0  40.75  3 4 . 5 0  3 4 . 5 0  36.75  39.75  1933  4 2 . 5 0  4 4 . 7 5  39.75  40.75  3 7 . 0 0  29.75  29.75  3 6 . 5 0  4 0 . 0 0  3 5 . 0 0  3 4 . 0 0  3 4 . 0 0  4 0 . 5 0  1934  51.25  55.25  47.00  4 7 . 7 5  47.75  24.50  30.75  39.25  42.75  4 0 , 0 0  38.75  4 1 , 0 0  46.25  1935  4 6 . 0 0  47.75  4 4 . 5 0  43.75  4 6 . 0 0  2 7 . 5 0  26.75  33.75  3 7 . 5 0  32.75  3 3 . 5 0  3 5 . 5 0  37.75  1936  4 8 . 5 0  4 9 , 0 0  46,25  4 5 . 0 0  47.25  29.25  3 0 . 5 0  3 9 . 5 0  41.50  4 0 , 0 0  39,00  4 0 . 0 0  4 4 , 0 0  1937  4 7 . 0 0  4 9 . 5 0  42.75  4 5 . 2 5  4 4 . 0 0  30.75  2 9 . 0 0  40.75  41.25  3 9 . 0 0  35.50  38.75  46.25  46.25  EXTREME  AND AVERAGE  F t . S t . J .  VALUES:  Q u e s .  HIGH, LOW,  AVERAGE  55.25  4 7 . 0 0  4 7 . 7 5  5 3 . 5 0  30.75  3 2 . 0 0  40.75  45,75  40.00  39.00  4 1 . 0 0  4 1 . 0 0  41.25  35.75  38.25  3 7 . 0 0  24.50  26.75  33.75  37.50  32.75  33.00  32,25  37.75  4 6 . 1 6  4 7 . 3 4  42.66  42.66  4 5 . 6 4  27.73  29.86  37.57  41.91  36.13  35.20  3 6 . 9 0  41.25  51.25  TABLE  V I .  PRECIPITATION-EFFECTIVENESS  INDICES  (I)  A g a s .  Vane.  OliTT.  Summ.  67.46  156.63  170.31  24.89  229.38  39.85  103.21  1 2 4 . 7 0  17.19  5 3 . 7 4  221.85  4 8 . 0 9  7 6 . 5 4  101.82  60.68  252.75  48.72  93.65  117.26  1 0 4 . 7 6  99.85  303.14  59.46  139.75  95.26  103.26  3 7 7 . 9 0  93.05  278.39  V i c t .  N a n ,  1927  6 3 . 7 6  1928  S i d .  P , R u p ,  99.18  87.62  279,46  5 1 . 7 0  85.75  64.20  1929  44 a 23  5 8 . 2 9  1930  47.53  6 7 . 5 9  1931  7 0 . 5 7  1932  80.52  P , G e o .  V e r n .  N e l s .  41.17  64.07  126.60  31.01  4 1 . 3 0  83.80  11.97  18.53  4 1 . 9 0  1 6 . 1 4  17.99  33.09  185.62  20.21  15.51  172.67  1 8 . 9 7  31.43  Kam,  S.Arm  Inv.  54.46  63,57  35.99  14.23  33.90  24.58  70.03  26.80  4 2 . 7 0  40.54  77.36  15,03  48.44  23 © 52  3 8 . 8 6  119.17  19.53  55.38  21.14  47.05  132.38  17.11  64.62  35.21  1933  104.64  117.12  119.98  341.36  92.39  263.72  186.50  28.13  39.95  57.36  145.78  25.01  62.86  34.21  1934  76.79  108.31  98.99  295.39  82.77  180,92  157.80  15.82  20.56  4 0 . 8 0  1 0 0 . 7 0  16.25  53.98  22.12  1935  81.51  1 1 8 . 6 0  94,57  218.90  8 9 . 9 0  209.25  182.82  13.34  26.39  43.23  98.31  1 9 , 8 4  6 0 . 9 0  35.71  1936  8 2 . 9 0  81.55  86.49  2 6 6 , 7 0  76,77  195.46  1 5 1 . 3 4  17.49  37.40  42.17  94.26  30.68  7 9 . 7 4  1937  8 8 . 2 0  1 2 1 . 0 4  106,07  211.19  66,33  188.88  181.56  41.22  51.29  7 0 . 5 0  123,61  51.79  82.23  43.17  43.17  EXTREMES  AND AVERAGES:  HIGH,  18.18  LOW, AVERAGE:  104.64  121,04  119,98  3 7 7 . 9 0  93.05  278.39  1 8 6 . 5 0  41.22  51.29  7 0 . 5 0  145.78  54.46  82.23  44,23  5 8 . 2 9  5 3 . 7 4  211.19  3 9 . 8 5  7 6 . 5 4  101.82  11.97  15.51  33.09  70.03  14.23  3 3 . 9 0  18.18  72.03  96.13  88,68  268.91  6 9 . 5 4  171.49  157,49  20.49  30.11  4 7 . 3 0  106.47  26.43  5 8 . 9 4  30.40  Q u a t s .  U c l u .  M a s s .  B . C o o l  0 . F a l l s  T e l k .  F t » S " b •tJ •  Ques.  R e v .  G o l d ,  F e r n .  R o s s .  K a s .  1927  284.21  196.17  169.12  231.51  552.39  61.57  44.02  64.72  161.89  5 9 . 5 8  201.68  134.12  108.90  1928  248.18  192.74  172.90  200.32  553.43  48.66  36.32  28.69  100.46  44.12  136.30  4 6 . 0 0  85.33  1929  184.06  168.62  141.47  154.61  546.37  46.69  44.45  41.90  77.83  N . R .  110.59  N . R .  71,33  1930  238,22  301.21  164.54  199.15  682.57  3 1 . 4 7  39.88  39.13  95.22  44.17  109.20  70.54  62.98  1931  2 7 3 , 5 0  416.48  182.18  168.86  586.99  3 6 . 0 4  44,81  53.11  126,44  4 1 . 7 9  143.33  121.38  105.60  1932  330,92  410.83  175.49  314.85  918.72  45.39  4 4 . 0 0  59.38  175.38  78.39  232,54  113.40  137.22  1933  298.92  402.79  159.09  269.05  7 8 8 . 1 0  40.83  5 6 . 3 4  66.63  160.51  60.75  249.07  88.10  140.47  1934  264.14  328,12  179.87  216.38  7 0 1 . 5 4  48.45  50.39  57,21  160.55  7 2 . 9 0  152.79  89.40  1935  258.80  420.27  147.05  189.35  531.63  36.02  52.27  63.10  154.04  73.13  150.90  99.59  1936  216.26  306.10  146,62  278.59  640.41  57.32  52.90  47.92  137.36  58,21  139.75  6 9 . 0 4  80.87  1937  269.11  355.75  151.94  176.17  528.27  46.06  41.23  65.56  171.43  80.72  186,37  129.58  126.18  330.92  420.27  182.18  278,59  918.72  61.57  56  140.47  184.06  168.62  141.47  154,61  528.27  31.47  260.64  318.10  162.76  218.08  639.13  45.32  EXTREMES  AND AVERAGES:  HIGH,  103.06 105.30  LOW, AVERAGE:  66,63  175.38  80.72  249.07  134.12  36.32  28.69  77.83  41.79  109.20  46.00  62.98  46.06  53.39  147.37  61.38  155.68  96.12  102,48  .34  TABLE  V I I .  ANNUAL  V i c .  Nan.  S i d .  P . R u p .  P . G e o .  1927  25.58  3 5 . 8 0  31.69  86.97  19.46  1928  2 1 . 1 8  27.21  52.08  8 0 . 8 4  14.86  1929  1 7 . 2 9  2 1 . 9 4  19.02  82.35  PRECIPITATION  A g a s .  (p)  V a n o .  O l i v e r  Summ..  54.17  5 9 . 0 4  11.13  14.36  41.06  46.46  7.45  9.76  18.58  3 0 . 4 9  37.82  5.01  6.77  13.91  V e r n .  N e l s .  Kam.  20.74  36.03  17.98  13.27  2 4 . 8 0  6.42  11.61  10.48  21.13  9.89  1 6 . 3 4  1 2 . 2 9  S.Arm. 21.Q8  I n v . 14.07  1930  18.85  25.63  2 2 . 5 0  85.43  1 8 . 0 1  37.46  4 3 . 7 8  8.14  8.15  11.33  24.93  7.11  16.91  9.42  1931  2 9 . 6 8  39.93  38.16  101.43  19.81  51.84  6 7 . 6 0  7.55  7.31  14.61  3 2 . 8 4  8.04  18.21  7.98  1932  33.98  3 5 . 8 9  3 6 . 7 0  117.81  27.41  90.63  6 6 . 3 9  7.59  11.30  16.60  3 4 . 5 0  7.36  21.09  12.29  1933  3 7 . 1 9  43.02  41.02  106,82  27.80  81.93  64.22  9.04  13.62  19.00  38.93  9.72  20.59  1 2 . 4 0  1934  30.92  4 2 . 4 0  3 7 . 0 0  100.18  27.08  6 8 . 0 0  5 8 . 4 9  7.76  8.57  15.15  28.66  7.22  18.81  8.44  1935  2 7 . 0 0  41.06  3 0 . 8 0  7 2 . 4 8  25.53  60.15  6 2 . 2 3  6.74  10.53  15.98  2 6 . 9 0  8.90  20.80  10.93  1936  3 0 . 0 0  31.42  30.22  89,52  25.23  6 3 . 0 1  55.48  9.24  12,02  18.17  D e f R e c .  11.69  23.19  6.47  1937  32.21  4 3 . 6 4  37.07  72.21  24.57  64.02  6 6 . 9 7  14.34  1 6 . 3 4  1 9 . 4 4  35,38  14.23  2 4 . 4 4  14.65  3 7 . 1 9  4 3 . 6 4  52.08  117.81  2 7 . 8 0  90.63  6 7 . 6 0 .  14.65  1 7 . 2 9  21.94  19.02  72.21  14.86  3 0 . 4 9  27.63  35.27  34.21  90.55  22.58  58.43  Q u a t s .  U c l u .  M a s s .  B . C o o l .  O . F a l l s  T e l k .  EXTREME  AND  AVERAGE  VALUES:  HIGH,  LOW,  AVERAGE:  1 4 . 3 4  16,34  20,74  38.93  17.98  2 4 . 4 4  37.82  5.01  6.77  11.33  21,13  6.42  11.61  57.13  8.54  1 1 . 7 0  16.17  30.41  9.88  19.37  G o l d .  F e r n .  R o s s .  K a s l o  F t . S t . J .  Q u e s .  R e v .  1927  87.48  63.61  5 4 . 0 0  6 1 . 6 4  162.87 -  17.32  13.67  18.42  4 5 . 7 0  22.22  54.56  36.03  33.14  1928  8 3 . 5 9  69.88  5 9 . 8 1  59.06  184.25  11.18  12.56  12.13  2 9 . 6 9  14.55  41.96  13.75  25.32  1929  68.43  6 0 . 1 9  52.12  43.48  1 6 9 . 7 0  15.35  14.12  15.05  2 1 ; 1 4  N.R.  31.47  N . R .  20.34  1930  8 0 . 1 4  104.80  5 8 , 4 9  59.69  196.99  10.95  13.08  15.02  27.81  13.50  29.65  19.69  19.27  1931  90.16  135.98  65.62  53.88  179.48  10.68  12.83  17.87  3 8 , 9 5  12.62  39.45  2 9 , 3 7  28.76  1932  102.66  129.82  62.47  80.19  241.32  1 2 . 9 0  14.62  1 9 . 3 4  45.25  19.46  58.53  D e f . R e c  34.42  1933  91.68  129.27  55.96  72.54  212.95  1 0 . 9 0  17.35  21.47  41.65  26 . S O  57.51  20.68  37.14  D e f . R e c  29.58 27,58  1934  90.35  118.37  64.17  1935  78.85  128.48  52,35  54.53  1936  76.17  104.43  54.04  7 9 . 4 4  1937  8 9 . 6 8  120.20  55.05  5 2 . 4 9  6 8 . 5 5  15.78  15.78  21.28  40.95  20.31  4 1 . 0 0  159.41  11.23  16.16  18.87  38.15  20.76  37.82  25.72  121.66  19.57  17.75  18.24  36.85  15.93  3 2 . 6 5  16.87  22.10  155.58  13.91  1 5 . 5 4  22.43  41.25  23.30  44.73  31.94  34.15  208.17  EXTREME  AfTD  AVERAGE VALUES:  HIGH,  LOW,  AVERAGE:  102.66  135.98  65.62  80.09  241.32  19.57  17.75  22.43  4 5 . 7 0  26.30  58.53  36.03  37.14  68.43  6 0 . 1 9  52.12  43.48  121.66  10.68  12.56  12.13  2 1 . 9 4  12.62  29.65  13.75  19.27  85.45  105.91  57.64  6 2 . 4 0  181.13  13.62  14.86  18.19  37.02  17.76  42.67  20.20  28.35  6.47 10.86  TABLE  V I I I . V i c t .  PERCENT  CONCENTRATION  OF  PRECIPITATION-EFFECTIVENESS IN  N a n .  S i d .  P . R u p .  P . G e o .  A g a s .  V a n e .  O l i v e r  THE FROSTLESS  Summ.  V e r n .  N e l s .  SEASON Earn.  ( F . S . S . A r m  P-E) I n v .  1927  .707  .372  .535  .389  .076  .494  .269  .456  .266  .335  .190  .255  .309  1928  .451  .327  .524  .416  .211  .556  .301  .355  .483  .375  .175  .377  .249  .383  1929  .488  .311  .408  .256  .288  .638  .336  .313  .216  .217  .164  .209  .285  .148  1930  .883  .399  .492  .487  .158  .428  .339  .296  .374  .238  .218  .339  .212  .207  1931  .720  .294  .488  .393  .178  .462  .263  .261  .452  .277  .138  .300  .196  .307  .333  1932  .668  .389  .466  .406  .173  .359  .276  .114  .155  .243  .077  .295  .143  .159  1933  .459  .357  .361  .413  .125  .337  .260  .131  .259  .228  .144  .332  .171  .214  1934  .470  .356  .383  .328  .146  .393  .185  .316  .235  .281  ,075  .315  .212  .187  1935  .345  .249  .327  .415  .124  .299  .177  .393  .362  .281  .113  .408  .243  .238  1936  .504  .299  .281  .408  .199  .313  .282  .586  .294  .339  .108  .294  .132  .118  1937  .614  .374  .381  .422  .247  .456  .340  .194  .164  .153  .128  .081  .123  .317  EXTREME  AND  AVERAGE  VALUES:  HIGH,  LOW,  AVERAGE  .883  .399  .535  .487  .288  .638  .340.  .586  .483  .375  .218  .408  .309  .383  .345  .249  .281  .256  .076  .299  .177  .114  .155  .153  .075  .081  .123  .118  .574  .339  .422  .394  .175  .430  .275  .311  .296  .270  .139  .291  .207  .237  Q u a t .  U c l u .  Ques.  K a s .  F e r n .  G o l d .  Rev.  R o s s .  M a s s .  B . C o o l . O . F a l l s  T e L k .  F t . S t . J  1927  .399  .244  .256  .150  .516  " .056  .087  .101  .238  .082  .191  .179  .257  1928  .424  .240  .260  .163  .484  .240  .133  .306  .191  .137  .163  .160  1929  .412  .306  .328  .150  .423  .231  .200  .230  .164  .130  -  .102 .140  -  1930  .356  .262  .269  195  .394  .055  .077  .194  .351  .136  .073  .173  .169  1931  .418  .220  .284  .192  .475  .128  .095  .256  .206  .083  .103  .213  .107  1932  .409  .174  .293  .122  .339  .097  .181  .163  .117  .064  .087  .096  .078  1933  .414  .234  .341  .151  .371  .026  .071  .210  .169  .057  .094  .131  .075  1934  ..417  .248  .281  .191  .416  .137  .133  .248  .117  .054  .066  .085  .089  1935  .294  .112  .249  .149  .517  .053  .131  .170  .144  .131  .129  .118  .117  1936  .395  .243  .307  .116  .475  .156  .144  .213  .115  .095  .079  .109  .088  1937  .497  .260  .285  .211  .472  .123  .190  .325  .112  .075  .138  .097  .071  .257  0  EXTREME  AND AVERAGE  VALUES:  HIGH,  LOW,  AVERAGE  .497  .306  .341  .211  .517  .240  .200  .325  .351  .137  .191  .213  .294  .112  .249  .116  .339  .026  .071  .101  ,112  .054  .066  .085  .071  .175  .095  .112  .131  .121  .403  .231  .287  .163  .444  .117  .131  .220  DRY PERIODS IH FROSTLESS SEA50I)  TABLE IX.  (F.S.L.Dr.)  (Longest period with less than .1 i n . per day) 1927  1928  1929  1930  1931  1332  1933  1934  1935  160 155  187 84  320 155  169 97  63 63,63  59 70,70  43,42 68  84 65  97 21,22, 22,23  55 46,37  Sidney Pr.P.uport Pr. George Agassis  48 20 76 50  64 24,25 28 33  131 16 32 18  115 38 59 66  46,49 19 49 46  59 18 32 28  33,33 7,7,7 49 57  55 19 44 47  Vancouver Oliver Summerland  40 67 58  93 94 96  29 116 63,58  75 76 129  60 134 7S  37 153 86,80  53 148 66,75  54 60 60  91 24 22 20,20, 21,22 61 55 69  47 99 48,50  46 78 58,61 53  Yernon  70  80  76  110  70  96  55  48,48  108  Kelson Eamloops  50 44  74 95  63 108  84 176  65 57., 57 56  34 166  55,30, 35 33 107  96 153  38 63  33 RD 66  45 69,61  58 87 32 20 32 39,29 38,29 30,24'  62 78 37,26 17,RD 53 31 34 28  63 68 86 39 42 40 15 36  65 65 28 89 36 25,25 21,21 44  54 93 16 43 17,18 45 16,14 30  48,65 45 62 45 42 43 21 30,20, 20 12,16, 21 36 43 18,17 25 26 41 70 48,34  Victoria Hanaimo  Salmon Arm Lnvermero Ft.Vornilion Dunvegan Quatsino Ucluelet Uascett Bella Coola Ocean Falls Telknu Ft.St.Joir.es Quesnel Revolstoke Golden Fernie Rossland Kaslo  35;34 97 22 33 56 60 58 73 42 28,28 11 .P.. 61 23; 24 27,24 45 62 19  25,25  59 46 61 43 27 36 42; 28 43  59 27 26 52 58 21,21 85 85  12,10, 10 35 20 33,28 58 II.E. 51 11.R. 93  54  72 53 30 22 28,26 18,27 18 81  98 54 35 42 28;28 28,25 47 47,32  39 46 30 18,RD 63 41 32 31  12  14  20  16,9,9  17,13  20  13  72 58 55 83 106 39 52 61  47 34 45 62 68 70 68 66  47 26 22 34 82 27 36 45  38,39 31,33 59 24, 23 51 29,23 133 34,27  32 33 33 49 68 72 102 98  42+24 32 35 42 37 48 52 45  43 35,45 36 31 55 85 162 98  Wettest year i n B.C. 1927-37 (total precipitation) - 1937 Dryest " " " " « _ 1929 n  86 17,14 62 34,27  1936  1937 67 56 59,65 12 29 44,47  AVERAGE LENGTH OF FROSTLESS SEASON (1927-1937 inclusive) (F.S. Da.) " K i l l i n g Frost"  Av. Victoria Nanaimo Sidney Prinoo Rupert  307.09 243.00 246.09 199.90  Prinoe George Agassis Vancouver Oliver Summerlond  91.45 231.73 241.65 167.73 184.20  Vernon Ilelson Kamloops Salmon Arm Inveraere Quatsino Ucluelet Hassett Bella Coola Ocean F a l l s Tetaa Ft. St. James O.uesnel P.evelstoke Golden Fernie Rossland Kaslo  161.60 143.00 181.50 159.70 112.00 220.78 180.50 168.17 160.45 238.64 69.82 67.56 111.56 127.27 100.00 115.00 143.90 171.82  Years  .a  2 successive days at 32° or le< or 1 at 30° or loss.  Longest  11 11 11 10(193;j: out. 11 11 11 11 10(193;1 out. ) 10 10 " 10 " 10 " 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 11 10 11 11  Shortest  Dates  For F.S.P-E include  359 287 331 240  266 203 203 179  Fe 15 Ho 28 Mr 22 Ho 17 Mr 3 No 24 Ap 18 no 6  \ Fell. - Nov. 30 ^ Mar. - \ Nov. March - £ Nov. -|- Ap. - l/5 Nov.  120 274 280 198 207  59 203 206 142 156  Jn Mr Mr Ap Ap  3 17 20 17 23  Jun.-Jul.-Aug. \ Mar.-6/10 Nov. 1/3 Mar.-V Nov. |f Ap. - 1/3 Oct. Ap. - 5/6 Oct.  196 197 205 193 128 273 209 200 208 292 107 106 120 174 137 135 166 203  137 117 155 111 97 186 142 120 119 187 40 38 98 106 54 98 104 136  Ap My Ap Ap My Ap Ap My Ap Mr Jn Jn My My Jn My My Ap  22 Oc 10 2 Oc 3 25 Oc 16 30 Oc 6 27 Se 11 3 No 19 20 Oo 19 3 Oo 19 28 Oc 12 22 Ho 17 24 So 2 18 Au 27 31 Se 15 18 Oo 3 12 Se 14 17 Se 8 3 Oo 1 23 Oo 10  Sp 1 No 18 No 7 Oc 10 Oc 25  Above are Dates  I  \ Ap. - 1/3 Oct. May - Sept. 1/6 Ap. - % Oct. May - 1/5 Oct. 1/6 May - l/3 Sept. Ap - 2/3 Hov. 1/3 Ap. - 7/12 Oct. May - 7/12 Oct. May - 2/5 Oct. 1/3 Mar. - 3/s Nov. 1/5 Jun. - 1/15 Sept. 2/5 Jun. - 9/10 Aug. Jun. Sept. 2/5 May - 1/10 Oot. 3/5 Jun.- 7/l5 Sept. 7/15 May - 4/15 Sept. 9/10 May - Sopt. Sopt. 1/4 Ap. - 1/3 Oct.  j.  DATES INCLUSIVE OF LENGTH OF FROSTLESS SEASON  TABLE XI. ( K i l l i n g frost = 30° F. or 2 days at 32° F. or lower) Dates given are:  1929  1927  Feb.19 Deo. 8  1930  1951  1932  1934  1936  Honaimo  Apr.21 Mar. 5 Apr.10 liar. 7 Mar. 9 Mar. 9 Apr.11 N O T . 9 Dec. 2 Nov.10 Nov.13 Hov.15 Deo. 5 Dec. 3  Fob.25 Apr. 6 Apr. 4 Feb.21 Deo. 8 Oct.23 Oot.31 Nov.12  Sidney  Apr.21 Mar.15 Apr.10 Nov. 9 Hov.3P N Q T . 1 9  Jan.25 Apr. 4 Apr. 5 Feb.22 Deo.22 Pot.28 Nov. 1 Nov.13  Pr.Rupert  Apr.21 Apr. 7 Apr.10 Apr.13 Apr.20 May 5 Apr.12 Apr. Apr.16 Oct.24 Oct.10 Dec. 5 Oct. 8 Hov.12 Nov.14 Cot.18 Nov.29 Oct.26  Pr.George  Junel3 Jun. 7 May 30 J u l . 3 Aug.11 Aug.26 Sep. 1 Aug.50  Jun. 5 Sep. 7  Jun.10 Jun.12 May 23 Sep.14 Aug.23 Sep.18  Agassi!  Apr.21 Mar.26 Apr.10 Mar.15 Nov. 9 Hov.17 Nov. 3 Oct.12  Feb.lO 0ot.l4  Mar. 6 Apr. 9 Uar. 8 l!ar.30 Apr. 6 Mar.29 Deo. 4 Hov.18 Dec.24 Oct.28 Nov. 2 Nov.12  Vancouver Apr.21 Mar. 5 A p r . l l Mar.18 Deo. 5 Hov.50 Hov.17 Oct.10  Feb.15 Oct.15  Mar. 9 Apr. 9 Dec. 5 Nov.27  Summerland Apr.22 Apr.21 Pot.30 Oot.ll  Apr.19 Oot.28  Feb.14 Jan. 1 Deo.14 Deo.25  1935  Feb.18 Deo. 8  May 6 May 4 May 10 Oct. 4 Oct.10 Sep.28  Jan.29 Jan. 1 Mar. 4 Doo.31 Hov.I4 Deo. 5  1933  Victoria  Oliver  Jan. 3 Deo. 2  day after last f r o s t of spring day before f i r s t frost of autumn  Mar.15 Mar. 6 Mar. 4 Apr.11 Nov.12 Hov.15 Doc. 4 Nov.26  Mar.24 Apr.24 Apr.21 Sep.23 Oct. 7 Sep.20  Apr.16 Pot.14  May 9 Apr.21 Apr.21 Apr.20 Oot.ll Nov. 2 Pot. 8 Oct.IB  Feb.11 Apr. 2 Feb.20 Oct.28 Deo.50 Nov.12  Apr.14 Apr. 3 Oct.30 Nov. 9  May 28 May 14 Aug.14 Sep.10  May 25 Sep.20  Feb.24 Apr. 6 Apr. 6 Feb.21 Hov.30 Oct.28 Oct.51 Nov.13 May 10 0ct.l7  Kay 3 Apr. 6 Oct.21 Oct.20  May 7 Oot.28  Apr. May 3 Apr. 6 Apr. 8 Hov.10 0ct.21 Oct.20 Oot.31  Vernon  May 1 May 4 Apr.25 May 9 Apr.24 Oct. 2 Oct.10 Oct. 5 Sep.22 Sep.21  Apr.21 Oct. 6  May 1 Apr. Oct.10 Oct.17  May 4 Apr. 6 Sep.25 Oot.18  Nelson  May 8 May 2 May 9 May 27 Oct. 2 Sep.19 Sep. 5 Sep.23  May 21 Sep.21  May 27 Sep.20  Apr.21 Apr. Sep.24 Sep.19  May 4 Apr. 7 Apr.18 Sep.25 Sop.14 Oct.31  Iamloop3  May 1 Apr.19 Apr.19 Apr. 1 Pot. 2 Oct.10 Pot. 5 Oot.10  Apr.20 Uar.18 A p r . l l Apr. Oct. 6 Pot. 8 Oct.14 Oot.16  May 3 May 6 Apr. 8 Pot. 8 Oot.18 Oot.29  Tranquille  Apr.21 Apr.19 Qct.U Oct.28  Mar.24 Apr.21 Mar.14 A p r . l l Oct.ll Nov. 2 Oct. 8 Oct.18  Salmon Arm  May 2 May 4 Apr.25 Oct.25 Oct. 2 Oot.28  Invernere  May 29 May 11 May 28 May 27 Sep.17 Sep. 7 Sep. 6 Sep.17  May 11 Sep.15  May 29 Sep. 1  Jun.12 Sep.25  Ft. Vermilion  May 19 l!ay 12  May 23  Jun.21  Jun.12  Apr. Oct.16  May 9 Apr.24 May 27 Apr.21 Apr. Sep.24 Pot. 9 Pot. 8 Oct.10 Oct.16  May 29 May 29  Har.26 Oct.29  Jun. 4 Apr. 6 Mar.26 Sep.24 Sep.14 Oct. 4 May 28 Sep.19  May 13 May 18 Sep. 7 Aug.27  May 23) May 28 Kay 19) May 18 J u l . *) Jun. 7) Sep. 4 J u l . 6) Sep. 9 Jun.15) Sep. 3 Sep. 11) Sep. 6)  Sep. 6 Aug.18 Aug.24  Sep. 1  May 20  Sep. 4 Aug.16 Aug.lB  May 24 Jun. 5 Jul. 4 Jul.12 Aug. 4  Viotoria  Feb.18 Dec. 8  Mar.13 Fob.22 Nov.13 HQT.14  Hariaimo  Apr.21 Apr. 8 Mar.30 Mar. 7 Apr.19 Iiar.13 K a r . l l ?Tov. 9 Dec. 2 Hov. 7 Nov.13 Hov.15 Deo. 5 Deo. 3  Sidney  Apr.21 Oot.29  Pr.Rupert  Apr.21 Apr.13 May 13 Apr.13 May 20 May 5 Apr.30 Oct.24 Oct.10 Hov.14 Pot. 8 Nov.12 Nov.14 Oct.18  Apr. Apr.16 May 10 Apr.29 Hov.29 Oct.20 Oct.30 Hov. 9  Pr.George  Jul. 2  Jun. 7 May 20  Aug.ll  Aug.26  May 23) Jun. 7 May 14 Jun.12) Jun.14) Aug.14 Sep. 7 J u l . 1) J u l . 3) Aug.17)  Dunvogan  Jun. 7  Jun.26  Sep.14 Aug.3P  May 23 Sep.19  May 3 Apr. 6 Oct.21 Oct.20  May 7 Oct.29  Jun. 8  Jun. 8  Sep. 4 Aug.21  May 23 Jun. 9 Kay 14 Kay 17 NoJun.F.ec. Sep.16 Sep. Sep. 8 Sep.20  (IQXLIHG FROST = 32° F.) Jon.18 Dec. 2  Feb.19 Dec. 8  Apr. 2 Apr.10 Apr. 3 Apr.19 Hov.50 Hov.10 Hov.12 Nov.15  Jul. 3  Mar. 4 Feb.14 Dec. 5 Dec.14  Mar. 7 Dec. 4  Jun. 5  Jun.10 Jun.20 Jun.29 Sep. 1 Aug.30 Aug. 4 Jun. 1 Aug. 7 Jul. 8 Aug.31  Apr.21 Apr. 7 Apr.10 Uar.21 Hov. 9 Hov.17 Hov. 3 0ot.l2  Mar.26 Apr. 2 Feb.20 Oct.28 Dec.30 Hov.12  Feb.25 Apr.16 Apr. 4 Mar.19 Dec. 6 Pot.21 Oct.31 Nov.12  Mar.23 Mar. 5 Nov.26 Hov.3P  , Agassiz  Jan. 1 Dec.25  Apr. 4 Apr. 5 Mar.19 Oct.28 Hoy. 1 Hov.15  May 25 Sep.20  Feb.27 Mar. 8 Apr. 9 Mar. 8 Apr. 3 Apr. 6 Mar.29 Pot.14 Hov.23 Pot.2P Nov.5P Pet.25 Pot.21 Hov.12  Vancouver Apr.21 Apr. 7 A p r . l l Har.18 Nov. 8 Hov.17 Nov. 7 Oct.10  Feb.22 Oct.15  Oliver  Apr.24 May 27 Apr.16 May 10 Kay 3 Apr. 6 May 7 Oct. 7 Sep.20 Sep.24 Oct. 3 Oct. 8 Oct.20 Oct. 6  May 6 May 4 May 10 Pot. 1 SepjlS- Sep.:6  SumEOrlfmd Kay 1 Apr.21 Oct.30 Oct.ll  May 27 Sep.23  Mar. 9 Apr. 9 Mar.25 Apr.lP Apr. 6 Bar.17 Hov.22 Nov. 4 Hofr.30 Oct.28 Oct.51 Hov.13  Apr.19 May 9 Apr.21 Apr.21 Apr.20 Apr. Pot.28 P c t . l l Oct.10 Oct. 8 Oct.14 Oct.17  May 3 Apr. 6 May 7 Oot.21 Oct.20 Oct.31  Vernon  Mar. 1 May 4 Apr.25 Oct. 2 Pot. 2 Sep.25  May 9 May 21 Sep.22 Sep.21  May 27 May 1 Apr. Sep.20 Oot.10 Sep.19  May 4 Apr. 9 May 7 Sep.25 Sep.14 Sep.23  Nelson  May 27 Pot. 2  May 27 Sep.23  May 27 Sep.20  May 17 Sop.25  Xamloops  Kay 1 Apr.19 Apr.19 Apr.12 Oct. 2 Pet.IP Pet. 5 Pct.lO  Tranquille  May 4 May 28 Sep.19 Sep. 5  Apr.21 Pct.ll  May 21 Sep.21  Kay 21 May 22 Sep.24 Sep.19  Apr.20 Apr. 6 Apr. 20 Apr. Oct. 6 Oct. 8 P c t . l l Pot.16  May 3 Apr. 6 May 7 Sop.26 Pet.18 pet.29  Apr.19 Apr. 1 Apr.21 Kar.3P Apr.17 Apr. Oct.28 P c t . l l Hov. 2 Pet. 8 Pot.18 Pct.16  May 3 Apr. 9 Apr. 8 Oct.21 Oct.20 Oct.29  Salmon A™  May 2 Hay 4 May 18 Oct. 2 Oct. 2 Pet.22  May 27 May 21 May 27 Sep.24 Pet. 7 Oct. 8  May 1 Apr. Sep.25 Sep.19  Invernere  Jun. 4 May 15  May 28  May 27  May 23  May 29  Sep.17  Sep. 6  Sep.17  Sep.15  Sep. 1  Jun.12 May 23) May 28 Jun.22) Jul.2P) Jun.24) Sep. 7 Sep.18) Sep.13)  May 19 May 2P May 29  Jun. 3  Jun.2P  Ft. Verm  l  l  o  Sep. 7  Jun. 4 Apr.16 Apr. 8 Sep.24 Sep.14 Pet. 4 May 19 May 31 Sep. 7 Aug.27  Jun.21  Jun.12  Sep. 6 Aug.lB Aug.24 Aug.3P Aug. 4 Aug.3P  Sep. 4  Kay 2P  Jun. 8 May 13 Jun. 9 May 14) Kay 17 HoJun.P.ec. Jun. 2) Sep.16 Sep. Jun. 9) Sep. 3  n  Dunvegan  Apr.16 May 7 Sep.14- Sep.23  Jun. 7  Aug.26 Aug.14  Jun.26  Kay 29 Jun. 5 J u l . 4) Jul. 6 Jul.12) Jul.25 Jul.17} Aug.12)  Jun. 8  May 23) May 28 May 26) May 18 Jun.13) Jun. 2) Jun.15) Aug.lS Jun.16) Aug.13 Sep. 6)  Sep. 4 Aug.21  S a p P  8 ) ;  FROSTLESS SEASON  TABLE XI.  Day aftor last k i l l i n g f r o s t (30° F. or 2 of 32° or lowor) Day before f i r s t k i l l i n g frost (30° F. or 2 of 32° or lowor) 1927 - 1937  1927  1928  1934  1931  1935  Quatsino  May 1 Apr.14 Apr.10 Apr.12 Mar.29 Mar. 8 Apr.11 Mar.26 A p r . l l Apr. 5 Mar.22 N O T . 9 Deo. 2 N O T . 1 9 Oct.14 Nov.14 Deo. 6 Doc. 3 Deo.24 Oct.27 Oct.31 N O T . 1 3  Ucluelet  N.n.  Hassett  Mayl7 May 10 Oot.18 H O T . 1 2  Bella Coola  May 2 May 10 May 13 Oot.24 NOT.12 Sep.25  Ooeon Fall3  Apr.20 Mar.14 N O T . 8 NOT.29  Apr. 9 Har.23 Apr.19 Apr. 9 Apr.17 Deo. 6 Oct.15 Nov.13 NOT.12 0ct.20  Mar. 5 Apr. 2 Apr. 5 Feb.23 Deo.21 Oct.26 Deo. 4 N O T . 1 3  Telkwa  Juno 2 July 1  June 8  June21  Jun.15 Jul. 5  Jun.24 Jul.26  Jul. 3  Jun.20 Jul.29  Jun.24  Jun. 2 May 22 Jul.5  Jun. 5  Aug.27  Sep. 6 Aug.25  Jul. 1 Sep.14  Jul.24 Sep. 7  Sep.14  Jul.27 Sep. 6  Sep.21  Jul.2 Aug.15  Sep. 5  Aug.25  Jun. 3  Jun. 7  Jun.15  Jun.16 Jul. 4  Jun.30  Jul. 8  Jun.12  Jun.24 Jul.14  Jun. 6 May 23 Jul.6  May 31  Aug.27  Aug.12  Sep. 1  J u l . 1 Aug. 6 Aug.29 Aug.20  Sop,14  Jul.28  Jul.12 J u l . 3 Sop.18 Aug.14  Jun.18 Sop.23  Jun.12 May 23 Sep.22 Sep,12  Ft. St. Jame3  Quesnel  Apr. 8 Apr.18 May 9 Apr.19 Apr.21 Apr.16 Apr. 2 Apr.27 Apr. 5 Apr. 1 Oct. 9 Sop.24 Sep.27 Oct. 6 Oct.28 N O T . 2 Sop.23 Oct.28 Oct.30 Nov.15 May 2 May 27 NOT.17 Sep.23  Apr.20 Apr. 9 Apr.17 Oct.24 Sop.22 Sop.23  Apr.19 May 26 May 3 Apr.29 Oct.19 Oct.20 Oct.31 Oot. 3  May 27 Apr.20 Apr. 3 May 21 Apr.19 May 3 Apr. 5 Sep.22 Oot. 5 Oot.27 Sep.24 Sep.24 Sep .25 Sep.13  May 14 May 11 May 28 May 26 Sep. 6 Sep. 6 Sep.24 Sep.21  Jun. 5 Sep.16  Mar.29 Sep.21  Sop. 5 Aug.25  Jun. 7 May 17 Sep.21 Sep.12  Jun. 4 Sep.19  Apr.22 Apr.21 Apr.26 Apr.13 Apr.21 Apr.21 Apr.21 Apr.16 May 9 Apr. 6 Apr. 9 Oct.29 Oot.10 Oct. 6 Oct.10 Sep.22 Oot. 8 Sep.25 Sep.19 Oot.21 Oct.20 Oot.31 May 7 May 4 Oct. 2 Oct.10  Revelstoke  N.R.  May 28 May 21 Sep.23 Sep.22  May 27 Apr.21 Apr.16 Sep. 7 Sep.24 Sep.19  May 3 Apr. 9 May 8 Oct.15 Sep.17 Sep.22  May 24 May 4 May 20 May 8 May 11 May 27 Sep.17 Aug.27 Sep. 2 Aug.31 Sep.21 Sop. 1  May 29 May 23 Sep. 6 Sop.19  May 27 Sep.17  May 29 Sop.17  May 11 May 28 May 27 Sep. 7 Sep. 6 Sep.17  Jun.12 Sap.25  May 23 Sop.19  May 28 May 13 May 18 Sop.19 Sep. 8 Aug.27  May 26  Hay 10  Jun.19  Jun.25  Jun.11 May 13  May  Sep.17  Sep. 6  Sep. 1 Aug.24 Sep.21  Sep.17  Sep.21  Sep. 6  Oot. 4  Jun.12 May 22 Sep.25 Sep.19  May 28 Sep.25  May 14 May 31 Sep. 7 Sep.21  Jul.14 N.R. Jul. 7  May 10 Apr.22 May 9 Oct.30 Aug.29 Sep.24  May 4 May 29 Sept.14 Sep. 2  May 30 N.R. until Jun. Sep.18 Aug.29 Sep. 7  Jun.9 Jul. 10  May 25 Sep.23  Hay 29 Sep.21  May 19 Oct. 7  Ft.St.J. Jul.2-27°  May 2 Sep.14  June 1 Sep,16  a  TABLE  X I I . COMPARISON  OF FOREST  Max.  *  -  M i n .  REGIONS  - A T .  C2-4  CI  CL  1529  2219  1235  1302  1668  471  1495  993  691  1178  884  1849  1155  966  1416  F . S .  292  359  206  193  135  Da  119  203  104  38  98  142  205  265  147  100  115  174  F . S . S u n  S  9  C  0  T - E  I«  I  M  SA  G  207  56  45.9  6 5 . 9  67.3  62.2  57.1  3 4 . 4  3 4 , 0  4 8 . 4  50.3  54.2  4 7 . 4  4 3 . 0  4 1 . 0  5 6 . 0  58.3  5 9 . 2  52,5  62,3  61.5  4 8 . 0  50.8  3 9 . 0  62.3  35.8  48,5  3 2 , 3  24.5  3 3 . 0  42  4 7 . 0  5 4 . 0  4 1 . 0  3 5 . 4  35.2  51.3  918.7  121,0  1 7 5 . 4  93,1  249.1  5 4 , 5  76.5  44.2  4 6 . 0  31.5  109.2  11.9  113.0  5 6 . 0  155.7  25.7  ,5  274.6  85.7  241.32  52.08  4 5 . 7 0  27.80  58.53  3 0 , 4 9  17.29  13.75  10.68  29.65  5.01  62.34  32.37  28.99  17.73  42.67  10.04  F . S .  63.8  88.3  3 5 . 1  32.5  13.7  58.6  P - E  11.2  24.9  7.1  2.6  5.4  8.1  3 2 . 8  44.5  14.1  1 6 . 0  9.5  29.9  P  F . S . L . D r .  '  17.98  93  320  162  106  85  175  7  23  24  18  21  44  90  62  47.5  47  91  34,5  F o r names o f  c o l u m n s , see page 9 5 .  PRINTED  AT THE  OFFICE  OF  THE  SURVEYOR  GENERAL,  OTTAWA,  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105725/manifest

Comment

Related Items