UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Matthew Baillie Begbie, Judge of British Columbia, 1858-1866 Pettit, Sydney G. 1945

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MATTHEW BAILLIE BEGBIE JUDGE OE BRITISH COLUMBIA  1858 - 1866  ' MATTHEW BA1LLIE BEGBIE JUDGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1858 - 1866  by-  Sydney G. P e t t i t , B.A.  An essay submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e requirements f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Department o f H i s t o r y *  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1945  TABLE 01 CONTENTS  CHAPTER I .  Page  Th© Gold. Rush ••••••••••••»•••»•••••••••  1  CHAPTER I I . Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie  ••  EG  CHAPTER I I I . The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Law and t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Order  35  CHAPTER T V . H i s Honor's Honor •  •••  80  CHAPTER V.  Som© O&sos &••«•••••««••«••*••«••»»•»««•  US  CHAPTER VX. C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ......  151 168  CHAPTER I  THE GOLD RUSH*  No r e c o r d of the f o r m a t i v e years o f B r i t i s h Columbia can be complete w i t h o u t an account of the work of Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie.  As Judge of the mainland c o l o n y i t was  h i s t a s k t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n the law i n the t u r b u l e n t days o f the g o l d r u s h .  A t f i r s t t h e r e were no r o a d s ,  towns or v i l l a g e s , no courthouses  and no j a i l s .  He  no was  o b l i g e d t o t r a v e l as b e s t he c o u l d , on horseback or by waggon, sometimes on f o o t , p a s s i n g a l o n g p r e c i p i c e s and t o i l i n g through mountain gorges.  A t n i g h t he was  shelter i n a magistrate's cabin.  fortunate to f i n d  More o f t e n than not  he  s l e p t i n a s m a l l Hudson's Bay Company t e n t t h a t by day t o serve as chambers.  H i s was a v a s t c i r c u i t and one  had that  grew i n l e n g t h as i n the s u c c e s s i v e seasons the miners pushed up the canons t o f a b u l o u s C a r i b o o .  There were between twenty-  f i v e and t h i r t y thousand of t h e s e a d v e n t u r e r s  i n the  first  r u s h i n the s p r i n g of 1858, and.among them a l a w l e s s element o f gamblers, claim-jumpers  and gunmen who were accustomed  to s c o f f a t the law and d e r i d e i t s o f f i c e r s .  From A p r i l ,  through the l o n g summer, James D o u g l a s , Governor of the Colony of Vancouver I s l a n d , h e l d white man under the r u l e of law.  and I n d i a n a l i k e  A f t e r the t e r r i t o r y had become a  c o l o n y on November 19 he was able t o delegate these d u t i e s to Judge B e g b i e , who had a r r i v e d from England o f t h e same month.  on t h e s i x t e e n t h  I t was not l o n g b e f o r e t h e miners came  to e n t e r t a i n a h e a l t h y r e s p e c t f o r t h e g i a n t Judge and f o r the r e d c o a t s and b l u e j a c k e t s whom he c o u l d c a l l t o h i s a i d i f the need s h o u l d a r i s e .  F e a r l e s s and i n c o r r u p t i b l e , he  made h i s name a t e r r o r t o . e v i l d o e r s , and r a t h e r than f a c e his  s t e r n , i m p a r t i a l j u s t i c e i n t h e Q,ueen' s c o u r t they  a b s t a i n e d from v i o l e n c e o r f l e d t h e c o l o n y , never t o r e t u r n . A t a l e n t e d man, Judge Begbie served t h e colony i n many c a p a c i t i e s beyond t h e l i n e o f h i s o f f i c i a l d u t i e s , becoming, as i t were, Governor Douglas' f i r s t l i e u t e n a n t i n t h e f i e l d . I n a d d i t i o n t o the p a r t he played i n f r a m i n g t h e l a w , he made maps, s u p e r v i s e d t h e s a l e of town l o t s and made r e p o r t s on any s u b j e c t t h a t t h e Governor asked h i m t o i n v e s t i g a t e , , When the colony became more peaceable and s e t t l e d and more government s e r v a n t s were a t t h e Governor's d i s p o s a l , the Judge was r e l i e v e d o f t h e s e d u t i e s and was a b l e t o devote h i s time t o t h e c i v i l l i t i g a t i o n t h a t began t o i n c r e a s e i n volume as t h e miners reached C a r i b o o . I n t h e e a r l y days he had been lav/ maker and l a w g i v e r and not i n f r e q u e n t l y served as c o u n s e l f o r the defense and p r o s e c u t i o n a t t h e same t i m e . Such c o n d i t i o n s were p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d t o h i s d i s p o s i t i o n , which was a u t o c r a t i c , and t o h i s methods w h i c h , t o say t h e . l e a s t , were h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i n n a t u r e .  But when b a r r i s t e r s  appeared i n t h e c o l o n y and began t o p l e a d i n c o m p l i c a t e d cases t h e Judge c o n t i n u e d to a c t as a l a w unto h i m s e l f and.  as t h e r e was no Court of Appeal n e a r e r t h a n London, he g e n e r a l l y had h i s way.  As a r e s u l t the c o l o n y was i n an  u p r o a r d u r i n g t h e a s s i z e s , mass meetings of p r o t e s t were h e l d and on one o c c a s i o n a p e t i t i o n was sent t o the Governor demanding t h e J u d g l s d i s m i s s a l .  But Judge Begbie was  tough and as t e n a c i o u s as h i s b i t t e r e s t enemies.  as  When  they annoyed him he gave them a tongue l a s h i n g they never f o r g o t . . I f they went too f a r and he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t h i s contemptuous d i s r e g a r d would be t a k e n as an acknowledgment of  g u i l t , he would c l a p them i n j a i l .  He s u r v i v e d s t o r m  a f t e r storm, saw governors and governments come and go and d i e d i n 1894 at t h e age of s e v e n t y - f i v e , C h i e f J u s t i c e of the  P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia,, It  of  i s n o t u n n a t u r a l t h a t a legend s h o u l d s u r v i c e a  such unusual q u a l i t i e s .  man  The Begbie l e g e n d , which i s  s t i l l t o be encountered i n most p a r t s of t h e p r o v i n c e , has many r i c h f a c e t s .  I n the i n t e r i o r o l d e r r e s i d e n t s p o i n t t o  t r e e s from which they say Judge Begbie hanged a C a l i f o r n i a gunman w i t h h i s own hands. the in  Such s t o r i e s form the b a s i s o f .  l e g e n d of t h e Hanging Judge.  Those who have grown up  the n a t i v e son t r a d i t i o n denounce him as an a r r o g a n t  Englishman, a b u l l y and an ignoramus u n f i t t o a d m i n i s t e r the law t o the p e a c e f u l , r e s p e c t a b l e miners from C a l i f o r n i a . Anecdotes of h i s g r i m humor and sharp r e p a r t e e are  still  r e l a t e d i n c l u b s and o f f i c e s , and e l d e r l y newspapermen mimic his  s h r i l l d e n u n c i a t i o n s , f o r l i k e Bismarck, h i s g r e a t  s t a t u r e was o f f s e t by a h i g h p i t c h e d v o i c e .  I n such wise  t h e legends o f t h e Tyrant Judge and t h e E c c e n t r i c Judge have come i n t o b e i n g .  I n t h e o l d e r and s t i l l s t a t e l y homes o f  V i c t o r i a a r e t h e s u r v i v o r s o f a g e n e r a t i o n t h a t knew him i n h i s l a t e r years.  He l i n g e r s i n t h e i r memory as a dear f r i e n d  and a g r e a t gentleman.  They p o i n t w i t h p r i d e t o the c h a i r  i n which he always s a t o r t o t h e piano where he p l a y e d and sang f o r t h e i r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . As t h e i r c u l t i v a t e d v o i c e s take up t h e s t o r y o f "dear S i r Matthew" i t i s almost p o s s i b l e to see him s t r i d i n g down the d r i v e i n h i s g r e a t b l a c k h a t and cape, w i t h h a l f a dozen s p a n i e l s f r i s k i n g a t h i s heels® As Judge Begbie o f t e n remarked t o h i s f r i e n d , P e t e r O ' R e i l l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d people who a r e a l l o f a piece*  The most incongruous t r a i t s e x i s t i n t h e same p e r s o n .  We have a l l been s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d a t one t i m e or another t h a t a person whom we know t o be u n b e a r a b l y proud i s a l s o capable o f deep h u m i l i t y .  The s t e r n and r u t h l e s s a r e  sometimes k i n d and generous.  The Judge h i m s e l f possessed  many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were seemingly irreconcilable» I n the c o u r t s he appeared, and was, an a u t o c r a t o f a u t o c r a t s y e t he was a l s o by n a t u r e a man capable o f genuine h u m i l i t y . I t i s s m a l l wonder t h e n , t h a t a l e g e n d s h o u l d develop from t h e l i f e and work o f a man p o s s e s s i n g as he d i d so many q u a l i t i e s o f an u n u s u a l o r d e r .  I t i s a l s o no m a t t e r f o r  s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e Begbie l e g e n d s g i v e a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e o f t h e man, f o r i n each case they a r e founded on one o f many seemingly c o n f l i c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  In criminal  t r i a l s he was s t e r n , and d i d , on o c c a s i o n , sentence men t o death b u t a c t u a l l y such o c c a s i o n s were v e r y r a r e and he had  -51 more than an o r d i n a r y a v e r s i o n f o r t a k i n g human l i f e . There i s no w r i t t e n evidence i n e x i s t e n c e t o show t h a t he ever hanged a man,  or t h a t he ever w i t n e s s e d  an  execution.  To a d m i n i s t e r j u s t i c e so summarily would have been i n f l a g r a n t d i s r e g a r d of. the law, which p r o v i d e d t h a t the supreme pena l t y should be exacted o n l y w i t h the Governor's consent* He was,  indeed, t y r a n n i c a l i n h i s t r e a t m e n t of j u r i e s  c o u n s e l and he was  and  accustomed to g i v e wrongdoers a s e a r i n g  c a l l i n g down when he thought they m e r i t e d i t , y e t h i s were devoted t o him and y e a r s e l a p s e d w i t h o u t any  servants  unfortunate  courtroom scenes* . I t i s not as a handsome and i r a s c i b l e e c c e n t r i c , however, t h a t Judge Begbie m e r i t s a p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  As .the s o l e Judge of the Supreme Court  o f B r i t i s h Columbia up t i l l 1866 as an important  he deserves c o n s i d e r a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r , and i s e n t i t l e d t o a  p l a c e i n the r e c o r d s of our p a s t , however s m a l l the may  be®  place  But i t i s t h e p a r t he p l a y e d i n the f i r s t days of  the g o l d r u s h t h a t makes him one  of the l e a d i n g f i g u r e s  i n p r o v i n c i a l and even n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y .  Not t h a t the Judge  achieved what he d i d a l o n e , f o r t h a t i s a n o t h e r  legend*  The ground had been broken by Governor Douglas b e f o r e  he  1* A.B., "Some R e c o l l e c t i o n s of S i r Matthew B a i l l i e B e g b i e , l a t e C h i e f J u s t i c e of B r i t i s h Columbia", V a n c o u v e r . D a i l y P r o v i n c e , December 22, 1894, p. 610. A.B. was "Canon A r t h u r Beanlands• See B r i t i s h Columi a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 , No.4, p.305, Oct.1941.  -6-  he a r r i v e d and he had, b e s i d e s , s o l d i e r s and  s a i l o r s at h i s  c a l l , not t o mention c e r t a i n geographic c o n d i t i o n s t h a t maybe argued t o have weighed h e a v i l y i n the f a v o r o f law order.  and  He must be r e g a r d e d , t h e r e f o r e , as Governor Douglas'  a b l e l i e u t e n a n t , a s t r o n g e x e c u t i v e arm t h a t s t r e t c h e d over the w i l d e r n e s s t o b r i n g a l l men,  r e d and white a l i k e , w i t h i n  the framework of government and law® I t has been s a i d t h a t they played t h e i r p a r t s on a 2 small stage.  T h i s i s t r u e , i n the sense t h a t the  north-  west c o a s t was remote and t h a t t h e problems of t h e  tiny  colony were t r i v i a l i n comparison w i t h those of more ulous areas.  pop-  But i f the events of the time are s e t w i t h i n  the context of c o n t i n e n t a l movements and r i v a l r i e s i t becomes apparent t h a t the p o l i c i e s of L y t t o n and Douglas were momentous and t h a t Judge Begbie played an  important  secondary r o l e i n t h e u n f o l d i n g of our n a t i o n a l d e s t i n j f . N e a r l y a c e n t u r y has e l a p s e d s i n c e the hazardous days of the g o l d r u s h and w i t h the passage of time the of B r i t i s h Columbia has been t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d .  existence The  boundary  i s commonly accepted as a n a t u r a l f r o n t i e r completing  the  i n e v i t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f the c o n t i n e n t between the two  North  American n a t i o n s .  Yet i t r e q u i r e s on^y  a g l a n c e a t the  map  t o see t h a t t h e l i n e of demarcation between B r i t i s h Columbia and the b o r d e r i n g American s t a t e s has no geographic or  2. Sage, W.N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, T o r o n t o , The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1930, p.351,  -7logical justification*  Indeed, the whole boundary from the  A t l a n t i c to the P a c i f i c , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f the area of t h e Great Lakes, i s a r b i t r a r y , and marks the 3 o f economic and h i s t o r i c f o r c e s over geography.  triumph  T h i s emergence of p o l i t i c a l s e c t i o n a l i s m a t the expense o f c o n t i n e n t a l u n i t y has been the outcome of the i n t e r a c t i o n -  \  •  i  o f a complex of f o r c e s t h a t came i n t o b e i n g as the f r o n t i e r s  j  o f expansion moved westward.  I  The American f r o n t i e r , t h r u s t  forward by growing p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e , was  drawn s t e a d i l y  j  westward as the c o n t i n e n t y i e l d e d i t s t r e a s u r e s of l a n d , mine and f o r e s t *  /'  By the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  i•  the r i c h e s t and most a c c e s s i b l e p a r t of t h e c o n t i n e n t had been won.  Iowa and C a l i f o r n i a were a l r e a d y s t a t e s , M i n n e s o t a  and Oregon had been o r g a n i z e d as t e r r i t o r i e s .  Railways i  were pushed f o r w a r d and i t was not l o n g b e f o r e Nebraska and Kansas sprang i n t o b e i n g , soon to be f e d , a l o n g w i t h the r e s t o f the p r a i r i e r e g i o n , by the Union P a c i f i c . Thus by 1850  t h e r e had been l i t t l e t o d e f l e c t the  f r o n t i e r from i t s westward c o u r s e .  \  The a r e a n o r t h of the  Great Lakes had n o t i n g to compare w i t h t h e f e r t i l e l a n d s o f the middle west.  The L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d , the O n t a r i o P e n i n i  s u l a and the p r a i r i e s c o u l d not compete w i t h Texas and California.  Had these l a n d s been a t t r a c t i v e t h e r e i s no  doubt t h a t the American government would have secured them when t h e boundary was  f i r s t determined or subsequently  3. M c l n n i s , E.W., The Unguarded F r o n t i e r , a H i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n - A m e r i c a n - R e l a t i o n s , New Y o r k , DoubledayDoran, 1942, p . l . .  by  \ ;  d i p l o m a t i c a c t i o n and t h r e a t s o f f o r c e as i n t h e case o f 4 Maine, Oregon and Alaska® A f t e r 1850 t h e s i t u a t i o n r a p i d l y changed and a p e r i o d c r i t i c a l f o r t h e f u t u r e , i f not- -the . e x i s t e n c e , o f Canada ensued.  By t h i s time the f r o n t i e r had reached t h e P a c i f i c  and the whole of the American west was o c c u p i e d .  At the  same t i m e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e d and i t s f o r c e would soon be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l w h i c h , i n t h e west, was l i t t l e more t h a n a l i n e o f demarcation between t h e l a n d t h a t t h e Americans had o c c u p i e d and t h a t which t h e y had n o t wanted f o r t h e time b e i n g .  There was  t h u s ample r e a s o n why these vacant t e r r i t o r i e s s h o u l d become i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e t o l a n d l e s s a d v e n t u r e r s who were not i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e damands o f m a n i f e s t d e s t i n y * The Americans had o u t f l a n k e d t h e f r o n t i e r o f Canadian s e t t l e m e n t , which i n 1850 had n o t passed beyond t h e Great 5 Lakes. A t the same time t h e American m i n i n g f r o n t i e r was. f  moving northward i n a sharp p i n c e r movement toward the west6 e r n l i m i t s o f the g r e a t f u r empire o f the Hudson Bay Company •  4«  M c l n n i s , £p_. c i t . ,  p.. 6.  5. With t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e Red R i v e r Colony, which by r e a s o n o f i t s a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company, was a p o p u l a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t o n l y i n a r e s t r i c t e d sense. 6. R i c k a r d , T.A. " I n d i a n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Gold D i s c o v e r i e s " , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 , i i o . 1, pp. 3 -18, passim., January, 1938.  T h i s v a s t p r e s e r v e , e x t e n d i n g from t h e Great Lakes t o the shores o f t h e P a c i f i c , had remained, vacant w h i l e t h e f l o o d s o f American s e t t l e m e n t were p o u r i n g i r r e s i s t i b l y t o t h e western c o a s t .  There had never been i n Canada p o p u l a t i o n  p r e s u r e r e q u i s i t e t o overcome t h e b a r r i e r s o f the Hudson's Bay Company's p r i v e l e g e and t o push s e t t l e m e n t over t h e wastes o f t h e Canadian S h i e l d i n t h e wake of t h e f u r f r o n t i e r . Such a movement had t o w a i t f o r many y e a r s t i l l s t e e l c o u l d span these areas l i k e a g i a n t causeway t o t h e P a c i f i c .  In  t h e meantime, f o r a p e r i o d of more t h a n twenty y e a r s , t h e f a t e o f t h e f u t u r e dominion hung i n t h e b a l a n c e .  The l o s s  o f Oregon was an example o f t h e i r r e s i s t i b l e f o r c e o f American expansion and served as a warning t h a t a s i m i l a r  infiltration  might have s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i f s t e p s were not t a k e n e i t h e r to f o r s t a l l such a movement o r t o c o n t a i n i t w i t h i n a framework o f e f f e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y  0  L i k e so many elements i n t h e American c u l t u r e p a t t e r n the f r o n t i e r was e s s e n t i a l l y dynamic and spontaneous. I t passed beyond t h e r e a c h o f c o n s t i t u t e d government and d i s appeared i n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s where t h e s e t t l e r s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own government and drew up t h e i r own law.  Having  thus. e s t a b l i s h e d o a s o r t : o f sovereignty.rof o c c u p a t i o n they c a l l e d on Congress t o t a k e over t h e c o u n t r y .  I n Oregon t h e  p i o n e e r s l o s t no time i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r o v i s i o n a l  govern-  ment and a s s e r t e d t h e i r s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s w i t h f i e r c e patriotism.  I n the international c r i s i s that followed  e f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t won t h e day©  -10Of these dangerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s the B r i t i s h Government was  p a i n f u l l y aware.  The  t h r e a t was  l e n g t h i n both houses, where i t was  debated a t  great  f i n a l l y decided t h a t a  colony should be e s t a b l i s h e d on Vancouver I s l a n d t o form a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t f u r t h e r American m i g r a t i o n .  As none of the  members was w i l l i n g t h a t the mother country should f o o t the b i l l i t was  f i n a l l y agreed, t h a t the Hudson's Bay Company was  b e s t f i t t e d t o undertake the t a s k .  A f t e r long negotiations  an arrangement was made, and on January 13, 1849, was  the colons?'  e s t a b l i s h e d under terms t h a t were to c o s t the government  n o t h i n g and t h a t would enable the Company, opposed t o s e t t l e ment y e t f e a r f u l o f American o c c u p a t i o n ,  to make an a d j u s t -  ment t o the s i t u a t i o n i n terms most s a t i s f a c t o r y t o i t s e l f . The  p r e c a u t i o n s t a k e n by the B r i t i s h government were  j u s t i f i e d by subsequent e v e n t s .  The  i n c u r s i o n of Americans  which they had f o r s e e n w i t h some a l a r m was  soon t o come,  though the a t t r a c t i o n which drew them northward was .not l a n d but. g o l d .  T h i s m i n e r a l , which was  to p l a y so l a r g e a p a r t  i n the next two decades, had been d i s c o v e r e d as e a r l y as  1833  on t h e shores of Okanagan Lake by D a v i d D o u g l a s , the  celebra=  t e d b o t a n i s t , but t h e f i r s t s t r i k e t o a t t r a c t miners  was  made on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s i n 1850.  After this  d i s c o v e r y had been i n v e s t i g a t e d by the Hudson Bay Company news soon spread to t h e g o l d f i e l d s of California® s h i p s l e f t Puget Sound and w i t h adventurers  s i x s a i l e d from San  eager f o r a new  Two  Francisco  bonanza*  A l t h o u g h the g o l d soon p e t e r e d o u t , the event I s of  -11s p e c i a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r i t put t h e p o l i c y o f 1849 t o t h e t e s t and served as a d r e s s r e h e a r s a l f o r t h e drama o f 1858* As we have seen, the B r i t i s h government had c r e a t e d t h e c o l o n y of "Vancouver I s l a n d t o s e r v e a s a b a r r i e r t o American expansion*  Here, on t h e s o u t h e r n r i m o f B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y •  was an o r g a n i z e d government which, e n j o y i n g an a u t h o r i t y and p r e s t i g e t h a t t h e company never possessed, c o u l d e s t a b l i s h an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n any p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h P a c i f i c i o n s where t h e home government deemed i t n e c e s s a r y .  possessThus,  when news o f t h e d e p a r t u r e o f American miners f o r B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y a r r i v e d , machinery was ready f o r a c t i o n t h a t had not been p o s s i b l e i n Oregon.  A l t h o u g h t h e r u s h proved a  f i a s c o , James Douglas, who had succeeded t h e unhappy B l a n shard j u s t as t h e excitement was b e g i n n i n g , was a b l e t o a c t d i r e c t l y as an o f f i c e r o f t h e Crown.  I n t h i s c a p a c i t y he  c a r r i e d f a r more a u t h o r i t y than he would have as. a s e r v a n t of a p r i v a t e company, and was, a t t h e same t i m e , a b l e t o l e a r n what s t e p s t o t a k e i n such an emergency and t h e p r e c i s e a t t i t u d e o f the home a u t h o r i t i e s on v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f procedure and p o l i c y , Douglas, i n d e e d , f e a r e d t h e w o r s t .  He had spent  six-  teen y e a r s i n Oregon where he had w i t n e s s e d t h e a r r i v a l o f the American  s e t t l e r s and t h e p a t t e r n o f events which ensued.  I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s he was determined t o adopt extreme measures and i f n e c e s s a r y , back them w i t h f o r c e .  He  had h e a r d of the l a w l e s s n e s s r i f e i n C a l i f o r n i a and sought n a v a l a i d from A d m i r a l Moresby t o p r o t e c t n o t o n l y B r i t i s h  I. ..  -  I'  •  !  s o v e r e i g n t y but a l s o , wnich was a t l e a s t e q u a l l y dear t o him, 7 Hudson Bay i n t e r e s t s and p r o p e r t y a l o n g the c o a s t * The  i '  •  B r i t i s h government d e c l i n e d t o permit e x c l u s i o n o f f o r e i g n miners but made Douglas L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r of t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and i n s t r u c t e d h i m to i s s u e l i c e n s e s on 8 terms s i m i l a r t o those employed i n A u s t r a l i a * By t h e time Douglas had a c t e d on h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t h e g o l d f e v e r had d i e d o u t .  The miners had found o n l y a few  r i c h pockets and these were l o c a t e d i n w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d areas To Douglas' g r e a t r e l i e f t h e Americans departed southward and once a g a i n t h e n o r t h e r n area was i n t h e e x c l u s i v e hands o f the f u r t r a d e r .  But t h e home a u t h o r i t i e s had e s t a b l i s h e d  p r e c e d e n t s o f p o l i c y and Douglas had had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o learn their attitude.  He was thus i n a p o s i t i o n t o make  s u i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e event o f a s i m i l a r o c c u r r e n c e * The excitement over t h i s s t r i k e had n o t l o n g subsided b e f o r e rumors and r e p o r t s of s i m i l a r d i s c o v e r i e s on t h e mainland began t o c i r c u l a t e .  I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y g o l d had  been, found f i r s t by the I n d i a n s , as i t had on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , and c a r r i e d t o t h e Hudson Bay Company o f f i c i a l s f o r purposes of t r a d e .  A c c o r d i n g to Rxckard t h e  company agent at.Kamloops had o b t a i n e d dust from the n a t i v e s as e a r l y as 185S and t h e r e i s evidence t o show t h a t t h e 7. Douglas t o Moresby, January 29, 1852, Correspondence r e l a t i v e t o t h e D i s c o v e r y o f Gold a t Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d , p.6. 8.  P a k i n g t o n t o Douglas, September 27, 1852, op. c i t . , p. 7 1 , i b i d .  I  I  -13metal was  brought t o o t h e r p o s t s In the i n t e r i o r .  It is  thus very l i k e l y t h a t the d i s c o v e r y at G o l v i l e i n 1855 not s u r p r i s e Douglas g r e a t l y , though the r i c h n e s s of  did the  s t r i k e as d e s c r i b e d by Angus McDonald,.the agent i n charge o f t h a t f o r t , l e d him t o w r i t e a f u l l r e p o r t t o Labouchere on A p r i l 16, 1856,  i n which he expressed the b e l i e f  that  s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s might be found i n o t h e r p a r t s of the  country.  l o r t h e time b e i n g t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s l e d t o no widespread a c t i v i t y , but through 1857 contained-frequent  Douglas' l e t t e r s and  references  to g o l d .  despatches  A l e t t e r t o Donald  McLean at Kamloops on February 10 of the same y e a r i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h a t agent t o encourage I n d i a n s to p r o s p e c t and to b r i n g t h e i r dust; and nuggets t o the fort.« apparently  hoped s t i l l t h a t the .company could m a i n t a i n  monopoly and  a  so p r e v e n t an i n f l u x of t h e American a d v e n t u r e r s  whom h e . f e a r e d so much. he was  Douglas  By the  end of the y e a r , however,  not so sanguine, f o r i n December he informed the  B r i t i s h government t h a t he a n t i c i p a t e d an i n r u s h of miners i n the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g . represent  Though he had no  authority.to  the Crown on the m a i n l a n d , he i s s u e d a  and r e g u l a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those t h a t he had 9  proclamation  i s s u e d f o r the  Q/ueen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , I r o n i c a l l y enough, i t was own  t h e Hudson Bay  s h i p , the O t t e r , w h i c h s t a r t e d the r u s h .  Company's The  purser  9. Howay, F.W. / B r i t i s h Columbia, the M a k i n g o f a P r o v i n c e , T o r o n t o , Ryerson, 1928, p. 119.  -14had brought w i t h him some o f t h e dust c o l l e c t e d by t h e Thompson R i v e r I n d i a n s w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n s t o have i t melted i n t o a b a r a t t h e San F r a n c i s c o mint.  The s t o r y was soon  out and so began t h e s p e c t a c u l a r g o l d r u s h o f 1858 and perhaps one o f t h e most . c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s i n Canadian history® D u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and summer o f 1858 between 25,000 and 30,000 men poured i n t o B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y .  Most o f them  came by sea from C a l i f o r n i a and landed a t V i c t o r i a o r E s q u i m a l t , w h i l e o t h e r s disembarked a t Puget Sound, whence they hoped t o make t h e i r way t o t h e d i g g i n g s by o v e r l a n d r o u t e . The m a j o r i t y of t h e miners were American c i t i z e n s , though a c o n s i d e r a b l e s p r i n k l i n g of o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s gave a s t r o n g cosmopolitan  c o l o r i n g to t h e movement.  These men had one  end i n view, and t h a t was the r a p i d a c q u i s i t i o n of a fortune© Most o f them were l a w a b i d i n g and from past experience knew t h a t t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s would be served b e s t under t h e r u l e of law.  There were, however, c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s i n h e r e n t i n  the s i t u a t i o n t h a t might l e a d o n l y t o o , e a s i l y t o t h e l o s s o f the t e r r i t o r y t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . There was, f i r s t o f a l l , t h e danger of an I n d i a n r i s i n g . The n a t i v e s n a t u r a l l y r e s e n t e d the i n c u r s i o n of l a r g e numbers of whitemen i n t o t h e i r a n c e s t r a l domains. to  They had come  t r u s t t h e Hudson Bay s e r v a n t s , p a r t l y from t h e b e n e f i t s  to be d e r i v e d from t r a d e but c h i e f l y because t h e company s e r v a n t s were j u s t and had a profound knowledge o f the Indian character.  The Americans, on t h e o t h e r hand, they  hated and m i s t r u s t e d , f o r word soon reached t h e n o r t h e r n  -15t r i b e s of t h e b l o o d y wars t h a t had f o l l o w e d the American f r o n t i e r as i t moved west and turned northward toward the Eraser. There was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e danger from l a w l e s s n e s s . Though a d i s t i n c t m i n o r i t y , the gunmen, gamblers and r o w d i e s might get t h e upper hand of t h e l a w as t h e y had done i n C a l i f o r n i a and i n i t i a t e a- r e i g n of t e r r o r .  This, of course,  would have l e d t o a s t r u g g l e between t h e V i g i l a n t e s and the Lav/ and Order f a c t i o n w i t h a l l i t s a t t e n d a n t anarchy. E i t h e r o f t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , p l a y i n g on t h e j i n g o sentiments and autonomous t e n d e n c i e s o f the American f r o n t i e r s m e n c o u l d have o n l y one outcome.  The m i n e r s would  o r g a n i z e themselves and c a l l on t h e i r mother c o u n t r y f o r help.  B r i t a i n would be p o w e r l e s s t o a c t and t h e r e can be  no doubt as t o t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e American  Government.  Whether w i l l i n g or u n w i l l i n g t o i n t e r v e n e , t h e y would have been compelled by p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o sweep a s i d e the f l i m s y b a r r i e r of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary and extend t h e b o r d e r of the R e p u b l i c t o t h e " f i f t y - f o u r f o r t y " o f P o l k ' s e l e c t i o n 10 war c r y .  Had t h i s happened, as i t might e a s i l y have done,  t h e r e can be no doubt t h a t the r e s t of t h e c o u n t r y west of the Lakes would have f a l l e n i n t o American hands.  How  long  the o l d e r c e n t r e s , t h e Canadas and the M a r i t i m e s , c o u l d have h e l d out would have been a q u e s t i o n f o r m a n i f e s t d e s t i n y alone t o d e c i d e * 10. M o r t o n , A.S., A H i s t o r y of t h e Canadian West, t o 1870 - 71. T o r o n t o , N e l s o n , n.d., p. 751  -16Ixom these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i t i s apparent t h a t James Douglas was  c a l l e d upon t o a c t at a time as c r i t i c a l as  any i n t h e h i s t o r y of Canada, and t o him must be g i v e n the l a r g e r share of t h e c r e d i t f o r s a v i n g the P a c i f i c coast f o r B r i t a i n and making p o s s i b l e the c r e a t i o n of the Dominion o f to-day.  I t i s t r u e t h a t he was t o r n by two l o y a l t i e s  and  t h a t i n t r y i n g t o serve both he exceeded h i s a u t h o r i t y and l a i d h i m s e l f open t o charges of b e i n g too p a r t i a l t o the i n t e r e s t s of p r i v a t e monopoly. " But i t must be remembered t h a t he served i m p e r i a l i n t e r e s t s f a i t h f u l l y and w e l l .  As  Governor o f t h e Colony of Vancouver I s l a n d he h e l d a key p o s i t i o n as p r o v i d e d i n the p o l i c y of 1849; he was the on the spot who was t o take charge and prevent a Champoeg.  man  second  T h i s he d i d , and h i s success g i v e s him a p l a c e  i n our n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y * As Douglas had a n t i c i p a t e d , the f i r s t s i g n s of t r o u b l e came from t h e I n d i a n s .  During the previous year,  1857,  the n a t i v e s had a s s e r t e d and m a i n t a i n e d a monopoly of the diggings.  They had not r e s o r t e d t o v i o l e n c e , but by p r e s s -  ure of s u p e r i o r mumbers shouldered the whites away from the b a r s and kept them f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  Governor Douglas knew,  however, t h a t t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s c o u l d not c o n t i n u e and t h a t when t h e r u s h came a s e r i o u s outbreak would be almost c e r t a i n t o take p l a c e . I n the May  o f 1858, b e f o r e the American  immigration  reached i t s peak; he p a i d a h u r r i e d v i s i t t o the canon, where he found ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s f e a r s .  At H i l l ' s  -17Bar the n a t i v e s and miners were on t h e verge of c o n f l i c t . Having fought w i t h the I n d i a n s i n C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon, Idaho and Montana the American miners as a c l a s s had not e s t a b l i s h e d a creditable record.  As a r u l e t h e y were high-handed and  a g g r e s s i v e , d i s p l a y i n g none- of the t a c t and i n s i g h t of the Canadian f u r t r a d e r .  Douglas t o l d the miners  p l a i n l y t h a t t h e law he meant t o enforce was redman and whiteman a l i k e . s k i l l of the Hudson Bay  psychological  Then, w i t h the  to protect characteristic  t r a d e r he d i s t r i b u t e d g i f t s among  the n a t i v e s and t o o k t h e i r c h i e f i n t o government s e r v i c e . A l t h o u g h order was about the f u t u r e .  r e s t o r e d he was  not o p t i m i s t i c  News had reached him t h a t the  Indians  of Oregon had defeated U n i t e d S t a t e s t r o o p s and he knew t h a t t h i s would be an i n c e n t i v e t o f u r t h e r a g g r e s s i o n  as  the i n c r e a s i n g number of w h i t e s poured up the r i v e r .  As  f e a r e d , a s e r i e s of s m a l l a f f r a y s culminated  he  i n a pitched  b a t t l e at China B a r , where a r e l i e f " p a r t y under an American miner, C a p t a i n Snyder, found Ned  Stout and f o u r  others  making a l a s t d i t c h s t a n d behind a rude b a r r i c a d e .  Douglas  hastened t o the scene w i t h a p a r t y of sappers and m a r i n e s . He found to h i s r e l i e f t h a t t h i n g s had  quietened  down, b u t ,  s e e i n g the l a t e n t h o s t i l i t y , took s t e p s to assure t h e miners of h i s p r o t e c t i o n and the I n d i a n s t h a t t h e i r r i g h t s would be respected.  He d i s t r i b u t e d g i f t s t o the l a t t e r and  them a s e c t i o n of the r i v e r f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e use.  granted To  cut at one of the r o o t s of the t r o u b l e he i s s u e d a proclama t i o n f o r b i d d i n g the s a l e of l i q u o r t o the  Indians*  -18Th e miners had "been a r r a n g i n g t h e i r own a f f a i r s i n p o p u l a r a s s e m b l i e s known as "miners' meetings".  They set  up t h e i r own m i n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and i s s u e d p r o c l a m a t i o n s f o r b i d d i n g t h e s a l e of i n t o x i c a n t s and arms t o Indians® Governor Douglas saw i n t h e s e meetings the seeds of an autonomous movement t h a t might l e a d , as i t had i n Oregon, t o a p r o v i s i o n a l government and f i n a l l y , a n n e x a t i o n .  He  t h e r e f o r e s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e d of the s t e p s t a k e n by Snyder and Graham i n sending an armed f o r c e t o the scene of the t trouble.  He u p b r a i d e d the miners and made i t c l e a r t o them  t h a t armed f o r c e must i n the f u t u r e be t h e s o l e p r e r o g a t i v e , of t h e  Governor. Douglas' a s c t i o n ended t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of war between  the n a t i v e s and the miners f o r the t i m e b e i n g .  The I n d i a n s  accepted h i s a s s u r a n c e s , were impressed w i t h h i s prompt a r r i v a l w i t h t r o o p s and bowed t o the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of w h i t e occupation.  The miners understood t h a t they were d e a l i n g  w i t h an u n u s u a l l y s t r o n g man who would not t o l e r a t e  any  attempts on t h e i r p a r t t o set up t h e i r own government.  As  autumn drew near many of them l e f t f o r t h e s o u t h , d e c r e a s i n g the p r e s s u r e on the I n d i a n s and g i v i n g Douglas a b r e a t h i n g s p e l l i n which t o t i g h t e n h i s g r i p on the ground he had Perhaps the most dangerous phase was  won.  o v e r , f o r up t o  September the Governor had been o b l i g e d t o h o l d h i s own almost unaided.  Very soon a mainland c o l o n y would be e s t a b -  l i s h e d w i t h h i m s e l f as governor.  H i s p r e v i o u s a c t s would  be v a l i d a t e d and he would have t r o o p s and o f f i c i a l s t o a i d him.  But a t the same t i m e t h e miners were t o p r e s s up the  -19eanon and pass f a r i n t o t h e wastes of C a r i b o .  Others were  to i n f i l t r a t e t h e Columbia b a s i n , a r e a s so remote t h a t Douglas, o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f g o v e r n i n g two separate c o l o n i e s , would be powerless t o keep o r d e r i n the v a s t i n t e r i o r w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f a l i e u t e n a n t who shared i n some measure h i s own remarkable qualities®  CHAPTER I I  MATTHEW BAILLIE BEGBIE.  When i t came t o a p p o i n t i n g a man .to a c t as Judge i n the  new c o l o n y S i r Edward Bulwer L y t t o n r e c o g n i z e d a t once  t h a t h i s c h o i c e must be governed by the s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h a t remote p o s s e s s i o n . From Douglas* despatches i t was apparent t h a t courage, i n t e g r i t y and g r e a t powers of endurance would be h i g h l y n e c e s s a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s * To c o n t r o l t h e I n d i a n s and keep o r d e r among the miners would demand t h e f o r t i t u d e and p h y s i c a l presence of a M c L o u g h l i n or a Douglas.  I n the g o l d f i e l d s , where t h r e a t s and b r i b e s  were a common r e s o r t and where t h e r e were unusual opportuni t i e s t o use o f f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r g a i n , t h e judge must be a man o f impeccable c h a r a c t e r .  As t h e c o u n t r y was a  w i l d e r n e s s , t r a v e l meant l o n g j o u r n e y s under t h e most t r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f c l i m a t e and t e r r a i n *  Professional qualificat-  i o n s a l o n e , no m a t t e r how h i g h , would n o t s u f f i c e t o c a r r y a man over t h e s e immense d i s t a n c e s i n the f a c e o f every h a r d s h i p and danger, n o r would t h e y dissuade C a l i f o r n i a toughs from r e s o r t i n g t o gun and bowie.  As L y t t o n s a i d , t h e judge  must be a man who c o u l d , i f n e c e s s a r y , t r u s s a murderer up  -Sill and hang him from the n e a r e s t t r e e . man  i n the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n who  In order to f i n d a  c o u l d meet these requirements  L y t t o n sought the a d v i c e o f S i r Hugh C a i r n s , the S o l i c i t o r General i n the second Derby A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , who recommended a s t r u g g l i n g young b a r r i s t e r w i t h whom he had read l a w a t L i n c o l n ' s Inn f i f t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e , a Mr. Begbie, whose unusual p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s and l o v e of t r a v e l and  adventure  a d m i r a b l y f i t t e d him f o r t h e position© There can be no doubt t h a t Begbie c r e a t e d a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n at h i s f i r s t i n t e r v i e w .  He was s i x f e e t f i v e i n  h e i g h t , w e l l p r o p o r t i o n e d and c o u r t l y i n demeanor.  His hair  and beard were dark, f o r he was o n l y t h i r t y - n i n e , and served to b r i n g out the c o n t r a s t of h i s luminous grey eyes.  His  h i g h p i t c h e d v o i c e came, as a s u r p r i s e on f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e , but i t s e f f e c t was not l a s t i n g , we are t o l d , because of h i s g r e a t p e r s o n a l charm. Born i n the t r o p i c s i n 1819, he was the son of C o l o n e l Thomas S t i r l i n g Begbie, 44th F o o t , a v e t e r a n o f the P e n i n s u 12 l a r War. H i s mother was the daughter o f G e n e r a l B a i l l i e ,  11. Crease, L i n d l e y , " S i r Matthew B e g b i e " , V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , June 19, 1938, p.4. 12. "A L e c t u r e i n C a r i b o o " , V i c t o r i a D a l l y C o l o n i s t October 5, 1863, p.3. T h i s l e c t u r e was d e l i v e r e d by Judge Begbie a t R i c h f i e l d , He i s r e p o r t e d t o have s t a t e d d e f i n i t e l y t h a t he had been born i n the t r o p i c s . There i s no f u r t h e r evidence to support the a l l e g e d statement or t o show i n what p o r t of t h e t r o p i c s h i s b i r t h p l a c e was l o c a t e d . As a r u l e he i s s a i d t o have been born i n Edinburgh or England•  -22an o f f i c e r who served w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n i n the N a p o l e o n i c campaigns.  On t h i s s i d e of t h e f a m i l y he was r e l a t e d t o  the c e l e b r a t e d p h y s i c i a n , Dr. Matthew B a i l l i e , a f t e r whom he was p r o b a b l y named.  The S t i r l i n g s , w i t h whom the Begbies  appear t o have i n t e r m a r r i e d were a l s o a m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . The b e s t known member o f t h e Begbie f a m i l y i s the l a t e H a r o l d Begbie who became famous a s ' t h e "Gentleman w i t h a D u s t e r " . B e f o r e w i n n i n g n o t o r i e t y as a p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r Begbie w r o t e , i n a d d i t i o n t o a l a r g e number of n o v e l s ,  several r e l i g i o u s  works and a b i o g r a p h y o f G e n e r a l Booth,  The son o f a S u f f o l k  parson, H a r o l d Begbie reminds us o f the judge, who was a good chruchman and a devout C h r i s t i a n .  I t seems t h a t most  of the Begbie f a m i l y were e i t h e r s o l d i e r s o r clergymen, a f a c t t h a t b r i n g s them w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n t h a t has produced i t s Gordons, H a v e l o c k s and Montgomeries, I n l a t e r y e a r s Begbie s a i d t h a t he had a c c e p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n g l a d l y and t h a t he had never r e g r e t t e d d o i n g s o . I t s c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n appears t o have been the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a v e l and adventure t h a t i t a f f o r d e d him.  He once t o l d  an audience a t R i c h f i e l d t h a t he c o u l d s c a r c e l y remember a time when he had not been t r a v e l l i n g from one p l a c e t o ano t h e r and t h a t h i s e a r l i e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n of c h i l d h o o d was o f 13 b e i n g on board a Dutch v e s s e l bound f o r Antwerp.  From  e a r l y manhood he made i t a p r a c t i c e t o t r a v e l abroad every y e a r , h i s rambles t a k i n g him t o most o f the c o u n t r i e s o f 13.  v. supra.,  p.21, n .  ^23Europe and even t o Turkey.  A c c o r d i n g t o Beanlands t h e judge,  an extremely modest man, was i n c l i n e d t o deprecate  h i s ex-  p e r i e n c e s , h u t on o c c a s i o n r e g a l e d h i s f r i e n d s w i t h t a l e s 14 t h a t were worthy of p u b l i c a t i o n . There were, i n a d d i t i o n , monetary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t made t h e o f f e r a t t r a c t i v e t o a man i n Begbie's p o s i t i o n .  He  had not succeeded i n g a i n i n g a f o o t i n g i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n and had secured employment as a r e p o r t e r f o r the Law Times and l a t e r , because o f h i s e f f i c i e n c y , a s s p e c i a l shorthand to the Lord Chancellor.  clerk  To a man d o i n g work o f t h i s k i n d  a j u d g s h i p a t £800 per annum must have been i r r e s i s t i b l e .  If  i t i s t r u e t h a t h i s b r o t h e r , Thomas S t i r l i n g B e g b i e , had supplanted him i n a l a d y ' s a f f e c t i o n s , sentiment as w e l l as i n t e r e s t p l a y e d a p a r t i n h i s acceptance* He had gone i n t o l a w n o t because i t a t t r a c t e d h i m g r e a t l y but because i t seemed about t h e b e s t t h i n g t o do when he f a i l e d t o w i n a l u c r a t i v e appointment i n h i s f  c o l l e g e , P e t e r h o u s e , Cambridge.  F o r reasons f o r which he  was e n t i r e l y t o blame he d i s a p p o i n t e d and s u r p r i s e d h i s t u t o r s by t a k i n g what was c o n s i d e r e d f o r him a mediocre 15 degree when he graduated i n 1841.  A marked a v e r s i o n f o r  t a k i n g l i f e r u l e d , out t h e s e r v i c e s and he had a t t h e same 14.  A.B., op. c i t . ,  p. 610  15.  He r e a d l a w i n London a t L i n c o l n ' s I n n between 1841 and 1844. He t o o k h i s M.A. ...and was c a l l e d t o t h e B a r i n 1844.  -24time such s t r o n g views about r i t u a l and such a sense of h i s unworthiness t h a t i t was not p o s s i b l e f o r him t o e n t e r the church.  I t seems t h a t he never cared g r e a t l y f o r law.  His  g r e a t a p t i t u d e was f o r l o g i c and mathematics, s u b j e c t s which c a l l f o r a n a l y s i s and the d e d u c t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s . on the o t h e r hand, was based on precedents and  Law,  statutes.  I t teemed w i t h q u i d s and q u i d i t i e s t h a t seemed t o Begbie's type of mind a h o p e l e s s jumble of nonsense.  He always i n -  s i s t e d t h a t i t was a waste of time t o read s t a t u t e s and p r e cedents as they were both c o n f u s i n g and confused. of  He  may,  course., have been r a t i o n a l i z i n g h i s own p e r s o n a l d i s t a s t e  f o r the s u b j e c t * He was, none t h e l e s s , an e x t r e m e l y a b l e man. i t may  be s a i d t h a t he was b r i l l i a n t .  Indeed  One o f h i s most  i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s , Canon Beanlands, d e s c r i b e s him as somet h i n g of a g e n i u s , r e l a t i n g t h a t a t t h e age of t h r e e young Begbie n e g l e c t e d h i s t o y s t o s i t i n a c o r n e r p o r i n g over Sandford and Merton.  He was n a t u r a l l y the d e s p a i r of h i s  f i r s t t e a c h e r , a sergeant i n h i s f a t h e r ' s regiment, who  was  soon o b l i g e d to i n f o r m C o l o n e l Begbie t h a t he c o u l d t e a c h the young p r o d i g y no .more.  A t t h i s time the C o l o n e l i n h e r -  i t e d a c o m f o r t a b l e e s t a t e from a m a t e r n a l r e l a t i v e  which  enabled him t o s e t t l e h i s w i f e and f a m i l y on the i s l a n d o f Guernsey.  The boy's mathematical  a b i l i t y was a l r e a d y so  apparent t h a t h i s p a r e n t s sent him t o s t u d y under a e c c e n t r i c who had been S e n i o r Wrangler  a t Cambridge.  brilliant The  l a d ' s p r o g r e s s was so r a p i d t h a t a t the age of f o u r t e e n he  competed f o r and won a s e n i o r s c h o l a r s h i p a t E l i z a b e t h College.  As he was  too young to a v a i l h i m s e l f of t h i s oppor-  t u n i t y he a t t e n d e d Guernsey C o l l e g e where he won s h i p f o r Peterhouse,  Cambridge.  a scholar-  He had not been l o n g a t the  u n i v e r s i t y b e f o r e he was marked as a coming man  who  would  emerge as S e n i o r Wrangler and win a l i f e f e l l o w s h i p . A l t h o u g h he had s e t h i s h e a r t on t h i s honor Begbie f a i l e d t o come near t h e h i g h p l a c e everybody expected him to  take.  .  I n mathematics he came out a w r a n g l e r i t i s t r u e ,  but he stood too f a r down the l i s t t o be g i v e n the f e l l o w s h i p . In  c l a s s i c s he took a second, n a r r o w l y m i s s i n g a f i r s t .  His  undoing, o f c o u r s e , had been h i s v e r s a t i l i t y and l o v e o f life.  He was  an a l l round a t h l e t e , a s i n g e r and  he drew w e l l and above a l l , he was the l i f e of many a charmed c i r c l e .  violinist,  a bon v i v a n t who  He rowed f o r h i s c o l l e g e  and i s s a i d to have s t r o k e d the u n i v e r s i t y e i g h t * f i v e s and t e n n i s and went i n f o r d r a m a t i c s . a number of c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s .  became  He  played  He belonged t o  Of these he o f t e n spoke  w i t h p l e a s u r e , e s p e c i a l l y o f a s m a l l c l u b he founded h i m s e l f . To q u a l i f y a l l members had t o be t a l l e r than he.  On  one  o c c a s i o n Begbie and h i s f r i e n d s went up t o London and off  a g i a n t a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n , seven f e e t h i g h , and  i t i n t h e i r rooms as an emblem o f the c l u b .  carried  installed  I n the summers,  when more s e r i o u s s t u d e n t s were doing t h e i r r e a d i n g , Begbie was  o f f t o the c o n t i n e n t where he t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h  Belgium, H o l l a n d , S w i t z e r l a n d , Germany, S p a i n and  France, Italy.  On these journeys he spent a g r e a t d e a l of time i n p i c k i n g  up languages and i n making sketches of people and p l a c e s  that  caught h i s fancy» I t was a t Cambridge t h a t he l e a r n e d s h o r t h a n d , p r o b a b l y for  amusement, f o r he l o v e d t o b e g u i l e h i s time w i t h  conundrums, cards and t r i c k s i n mental a r i t h m e t i c . M i s s O ' R e i l l y l i k e d to r e l a t e how  puzzles, The  late  the Judge used t o confound  her f a t h e r by computing t h e q u a n t i t y of c o a l i n the heaps on the Hudson Bay wharf.  Perhaps i t was  h i s l o v e of the  complex t h a t l e d him to chose the p a r t i c u l a r system of  short-  hand t h a t he used i n h i s notebooks and c o u r t r e c o r d s .  He  c o u l d not have s e l e c t e d a more d i f f i c u l t one.  The  or more cumbersome  f i r s t Pitman system had been p u b l i s h e d  when Begbie was  in  a l a d of s i x t e e n , and though i t was  1835, by  modern standards e x t r e m e l y clumsy, i t surpassed the Gurney 16 system which the Judge used i n s i m p l i c i t y and u t i l i t y .  16. I t r e q u i r e d a great d e a l of time to f i n d out t h a t Judge.Begbie used the Gurney system. None of the s h o r t hand e x p e r t s i n V i c t o r i a c o u l d r e c o g n i z e the s c r i p t , l e t alone r e a d i t . A t the time when the p r e s e n t w r i t e r was about t o g i v e up the I n v e s t i g a t i o n he r e c a l l e d t h a t C h a r l e s D i c k e n s had been a c o u r t r e p o r t e r and t h a t he was o n l y seven y e a r s o l d e r than B e g b i e . I t seemed t o be a r e a s o n a b l e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t b o t h men used the same system. When copies of Gurney were o b t a i n e d from the L i b r a r y the o f Congress and t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a P u b l i c L i b r a r y the assumption p r o v e d t o be c o r r e c t . As the system i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to r e a d and as the Judge used h i s own m o d i f i c a t i o n s and s h o r t c u t s , t r a n s c r i p t i o n and e d i t i n g the notebooks w i l l take a f u l l two y e a r s ' work. I t i s s a i d t h a t Thomas Begbie c a r r i e d away the Judge's p r i v a t e papers, and w i t h them, perhaps, i n t i m a t e r e c o r d s i n shorthand.  -27Two b a t t e r e d notebooks which he a p p a r e n t l y c a r r i e d w i t h him on h i s journeys through Caribo a r e p r e s e r v e d i n t h e Provi n c i a l Archives.  They a r e w r i t t e n e n t i r e l y i n shorthand  and have, up t o t h e p r e s e n t , proved u n d e c i p h e r a b l e .  Sample  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s taken from separate pages c o n t a i n n o t h i n g o f significance.  T h i s and Beanlands' comment t h a t "he was no  d i a r i s t " l e a d one t o conclude t h a t they w i l l n o t r e v e a l much of t h e Judg's i n n e r  life.  Apart from t h e notebooks t h e o n l y p e r s o n a l document t h a t has s u r v i v e d Begbie i s h i s w i l l .  I t i s a l o n g document  h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l i n i t s language and forms a r e o b v i o u s l y arranged  so t h a t h i s b e n e f i c i a r i e s should be saved expense  and inconvenience  i n obtaining their legacies.  been s a i d o f h i m t h a t he was extremely  I t has o f t e n  c o n s i d e r a t e and t h e r e  could be no b e t t e r evidence of t h i s t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t on his  death bed - f o r h i s l a s t i l l n e s s was l o n g and very p a i n -  f u l - he should be so c o n s i d e r a t e o f o t h e r s .  Two o f h i s  bequests t h r o w some l i g h t on a s i d e o f h i s l i f e t h a t he never a l l o w e d t o become p u b l i c .  It isstill  said of him  t h a t he was k i n d t o the u n f o r t u n a t e , o f t e n h e l p i n g them w i t h anonymous g i f t s of money, o r when anonymity was n o t p o s s i b l e , by o t h e r devious ways.  He made one bequest t o a C.F. Moore,  an obsoure person,  i t seems, who had s u f f e r e d a g r e a t  from i l l f o r t u n e .  The Judge l e f t him t h e i n t e r e s t on  deal  $4,000 and t h e use- of one o f h i s houses r e n t f r e e f o r l i f e . Another c l a u s e i n t h e w i l l made p r o v i s i o n f o r a d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e who had been r e s i d i n g i n James Bay f o r some y e a r s .  -28I t i s s a i d t h a t he supported t h i s woman, Mary H e l e n  Baillie,  and the phrase, " a c c o r d i n g t o my p r e v i o u s arrangement her"  with  suggests t h a t he had assumed some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  her I n the p a s t *  He w i l l e d her |S5 a month f o r l i f e .  The w i l l was made on March 14, 1894, but as t h e l o n g V i c t o r i a s p r i n g passed i n t o summer i t became apparent t o the  d y i n g man t h a t he had o v e r e s t i m a t e d the v a l u e of h i s  e s t a t e and t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o make c e r t a i n adjustments. A c c o r d i n g l y he drew up a c o d i c i l on June 9 which m o d i f i e d some o f h i s bequests, and i n c l u d e d a number o f s m a l l l e g a c i e s f o r f r i e n d s h i p ' s sake.  To the clergymen w i t h whom  he had dined on Saturday n i g h t s he l e f t #100 of  c l a r e t o r saute m e  "at t h e i r choice".  l e f t two cases " a t h i s c h o i c e " .  each and a case  To O ' R e i l l y he  He d i d not f o r g e t h i s  house keeper and gardener, each of whom r e c e i v e d $500. Another phrase, " t o Ben Evans, my o l d f r i e n d , I g i v e $100," u n d e r l i n e s a l o n g and p e c u l i a r f r i e n d s h i p t h a t caused amusement i n V i c t o r i a .  Evans, was o f f i c i a l l y the c o u r t usher  but i s femembered today as an u n o f f i c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r and f r i e n d of t h e Judge*  An ex-poacher from the West of England,  he almost i n v a r i a b l y accompanied the  him on h i s rambles over  S a a n i c h p e n i n s u l a , c a r r y i n g h i s gun and encouraging him  i n breaking regulations* Begbie was impeccable i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h women and a f t e r t h e manner of b a c h e l o r s who f o l l o w the c e l i b a t e way of l i f e , formed l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h the wives and daughters o f h i s f r i e n d s .  One l a d y has s a i d o f him, "he  was  -29always k i n d , most c o n s i d e r a t e and had the most charming o f doing l i t t l e t h i n g s f o r us".  way  I t i s pleasant to r e a l i z e  t h a t a f t e r f i f t y y e a r s t h e r e are people  s t i l l living  who  can d e s c r i b e h i s v i r t u e s w i t h o u t e x a g g e r a t i o n , f o r the l a s t r e q u e s t i n the c o d i c i l confirms the l a d y ' s statement;  "I  w i s h Mrs. Crease and Mrs. Drake t o have a dozen p o t t e d p l a n t s and a dozen r o s e s o f t h e i r c h o i c e . " I n r e l i g i o u s matters as i n the case of h i s g e n e r o s i t y the Judge was v e r y r e t i c e n t .  He was a good churchman and  a l e t t e r to C o l o n e l Moody d i s c l o s e s t h a t he had s t r o n g views 17 on d o c t r i n e .  He was,  i t appears, i m p a t i e n t o f forms and  r i t u a l and seemed to f a v o r t h e e v a n g e l i c a l movement i n the Church of England.  There are h i n t s about him here and  there  t h a t suggest t h a t he was not many g e n e r a t i o n ' s removed from the more moderate o f Cromwell's f o l l o w e r s . While he drank wine i n moderation a g r e a t d e a l , was  he never took s p i r i t s .  He wore b l a c k  a b l e t o quote s c r i p t u r e s a t g r e a t l e n g t h ,  and chose many of h i s f r i e n d s among the c l e r g y .  His b i t t e r  d e n u n c i a t i o n s of excess and crime a t the end o f c r i m i n a l t r i a l s had a p u r i t a n twang to them.  Though a u t o c r a t i c and  a r r o g a n t i n manner he had the i n n e r u n c e r t a i n t y and h u m i l i t y t h a t i s not uncommon i n the p u r i t a n t y p e .  I t i s not s u r -  p r i s i n g t h a t h i s c a r e f u l i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r h i s f u n e r a l , both i n the w i l l and the c o d i c i l , bespeak a c e r t a i n h u m i l i t y o f spirit.  17.  He a l l o w e d o n l y $200 f o r expenses and d i r e c t e d t h a t  Begbie t o Moody, November 4, 1862, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -30his  grave be marked by a wooden c r o s s b e a r i n g h i s name, dates  and the i n s c r i p t i o n , "Lord, be m e r c i f u l t o me  a sinner".  devoted gardner and l o v e r o f f l o w e r s , he requested  A  t h a t no  wreaths of any k i n d be put on h i s g r a v e . The Judge's r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s d i d not permit him" t o view the w o r l d as a v a l e of t e a r s and l i f e as a p e r i o d for  sober p r e p a r a t i o n f o r another existence.-  As an A n g l i c a n  he saw no harm i n p l e a s u r e and had no f e a r of h a p p i n e s s . I t i s t r u e , of course, t h a t h i s s o c i a l l i f e i n V i c t o r i a seems h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l  at t i m e s , t h a t h i s p l e a s u r e s were  too c a r e f u l l y arranged, but t h a t i s not uncommon w i t h those who  have no home l i f e and must choose between l o n g grey  evenings a l o n e and the s o c i a l w h i r l . When t h e l o n g and t i r e s o m e  c i r c u i t s were over Begbie  went home to V i c t o r i a f o r a w e l l deserved r e s t .  Of h i s f i r s t  home, reputed to have been at t h e c o r n e r of Moss and S t r e e t s , n o t h i n g i s known to-day. he d i e d i n 1894  Fort  I t i s the house i n which '  which l i n g e r s h a p p i l y i n the memory of the  older V i c t o r i a n s .  I n those days i t was  l o c a t e d on  the  n o r t h - e a s t e r n l i m i t s of the c i t y , a d i s t r i c t which became f a s h i o n a b l e at the t u r n of the century but which i s now  a  m o t l e y of second-rate apartment b u i l d i n g s and r a t h e r seedy middle c l a s s d w e l l i n g s .  I t was  a bungalow of moderate  p r o p o r t i o n s , s t a n d i n g i n s p a c i o u s grounds on the e l e v a t i o n where C o l l i n s o n and Cook S t r e e t s now  slight  intersect.  I n the d i s t a n c e were the sea and the Olympic Mountains of which.he had an unimpeded view a c r o s s the F a i r f i e l d marshes*  -31I t was  here t h a t he and, Ben Evans shot duck i n v i o l a t i o n of :  the c i t y by-laws• The man  Judge was an e n t h u s i a s t i c gardener and employed a  f u l l time t o a t t e n d t o h i s lawns and f l o w e r beds»  There were two  g r a s s t e n n i s c o u r t s and a s t r e t c h of lawn  t h a t he had p l a n t e d w i t h seeds t h a t he had c o l l e c t e d i n the interior.  There were f r u i t t r e e s , h o l l y f o r C h r i s t m a s , as  he s a i d , and the f i n e s t d i s p l a y of r o s e s i n the B e s t remembered are the t e n n i s p a r t i e s .  city. Clad i n  s p o t l e s s w h i t e and wearing a b l a c k v e l v e t j a c k e t , S i r Matthew conducted the r i t u a l of what came to be known as "Tuesday Tennis."  W i t h decorum and  p a r t n e r s and  considerable  arranged the games.  t a c t he  As a r u l e he  appointed partnered  the weaker p l a y e r i n t h e f i r s t set and t h e n , h a v i n g found an e q u a l l y c h i v a l r o u s s u b s t i t u t e , conducted h i s guests about the garden on l i t t l e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t o u r s t o the  various  p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t . When c h e r r i e s were i n season he arranged w i t h h i s Chinese servant to p i c k a q u a n t i t y of them and t o arrange them on the branches of a nearby bush so t h a t they would be w i t h i n the reach of a l l who There were, a l s o , s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s had no part..  wanted them. i n which the l a d i e s  These were t h e Saturday n i g h t d i n n e r parties©  As a r u l e the Judge i n v i t e d a number of clergymen f o r e a r l y 18 d i n n e r and a couple of hours c o n v e r s a t i o n over the p o r t .  18. Canon A r t h u r Beanlands, Archdeacon S c r i v e n the Rev. P. Jenns.  and  He appears t o have c o n t r o l l e d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n much as he d i r e c t e d t h e t e n n i s , drawing out each o f t h e g u e s t s on h i s p a r t i c u l a r subject.  Jenns was an e n t h u s i a s t i c  amateur  astronomer and a l l o f them appear t o have been i n t e r e s t e d . i n l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y .  The Judge, h a v i n g a good memory,  quoted a t g r e a t l e n g t h and w i t h o u t e r r o r from h i s f a v o r i t e p o e t s , Horace, M i l t o n and Shakespeare.  He had no use f o r  contemporary p o e t r y , s a y i n g t h a t i t had no depth, and passed s c a t h i n g remarks about C h a r l e s Dickens whom he c o n s i d e r e d 19 t o r e p r e s e n t t h e worst f e a t u r e s o f democracy. A t n i n e , o r t h e r e a b o u t s , t h e clergymen d e p a r t e d , t o make way f o r l a y f r i e n d s and o l d companions of the upper country l i k e Peter O ' R e i l l y . spent a t c a r d s .  The r e s t of the evening was  The Judge e x c e l l e d a t w h i s t , which was then  as p o p u l a r as b r i d g e to-day.  A c c o r d i n g t o Lady D u f f e r i n  he was c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t p l a y e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  She  gave a charming s k e t c h of Begbie i n h e r j o u r n a l , d e s c r i b i n g ' . SO an o c c a s i o n when he p l a y e d v e r y p o o r l y i n d e e d ; C h i e f J u s t i c e S i r Matthew Begbie d i n e d With u s . He i s a v e r y b i g man, v e r y amusing, and t h e w h i s t p l a y e r o f B r i t i s h Columbia; however on t h i s o c c a s i o n D. and I beat him t h o r o u g h l y . H i s mind was, I  19.  A.B., op. c i t . , passim.  20. D u f f e r i n and Ava, H a r l o t G e o r g i n a , M a r c h i o n e s s o f , My Canadian j o u r n a l , 1872 - 8; e x t r a c t s from my l e t t e r s home w h i l e L o r d D u f f e r i n was G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , London, John Murray, 1891, p. 254.  -33suppose, d i s t r a c t e d , f o r I found a f t e r w a r d s t h a t he had planned t o serenade u s , and had arranged f o r some young l a d i e s t o come up a t 9:30 t o s i n g w i t h him a t our windows; so he. was a l l t h e time l i s t e n i n g f o r t h e sound of wheels, w h i l e he was a t t e n d i n g t o t h e trumps w i t h h i s eyes. A t l a s t D., who had j u s t gone away t o do some b u s i n e s s , h e a r d v o i c e s i n t h e garden, and w i t h w e l l - f e i g n e d astonishment rushed i n t o t e l l me. We brought t h e s i n g e r s i n and gave them t e a . August 1876  Thursday, 1 7 t h .  Oh Sunday mornings S i r Matthew attended s e r v i c e a t S t . John's, t h e n l o c a t e d on the p r e s e n t s i t e o f t h e Hudson's Bay  store.  As h i s l e g s were too l o n g t o a f f o r d him comfort  i n t h e c h o i r s t a l l s , he s a t i n a s p e c i a l c h a i r a t the end n e a r e s t t h e l e c t e r n , and when he r o s e t o read t h e l e s s o n people wondered whether h i s body would ever s t o p going up. He r e a d b e a u t i f u l l y , d e s p i t e h i s h i g h t h i n v o i c e , w i t h o u t accent o r t r a c e of a f f e c t a t i o n . I n s i n g i n g , however, he was not so s u c c e s s f u l .  He had been t r a i n e d i n I t a l y and  as he grew o l d e r i t became h i s c o n c e i t t h a t c h o i r and cong r e g a t i o n depended on h i m f o r l e a d e r s h i p .  But t h e o r g a n i s t ,  whom t h e o t h e r s f o l l o w e d , poured f o r t h h i s p r a i s e s a t a more r a p i d tempo, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e Judges song f o l l o w e d t h e r e s t l i k e a reedy echo. A f t e r morning s e r v i c e i t was p a r t o f h i s s o c i a l r i t u a l t o go t o t h e O ' R e i l l y s f o r l u n c h , where he t a l k e d a t g r e a t l e n g t h about I r e l a n d , h o r s e s and t h e o l d days o f t h e g o l d rush.  He appears t o have been on the b e s t of terms w i t h  most o f t h e prominent f a m i l i e s o f t h e day, p a r t l y , as t h e l a t e M i s s O ' R e i l l y s a i d , because he i n f u s e d so much l i f e  -34i n t o any p a r t y he a t t e n d e d . He was much sought a f t e r f o r weddings and dances.  There i s a photograph i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l  A r c h i v e s o f a wedding group, t a k e n a f t e r the marriage o f James Douglas's daughter, M a r t h a .  S i r Matthew, c l a d i n  h i s customary b l a c k , looms head and s h o u l d e r s above t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r t y and w i t h h i s w h i t e h a i r and beard l o o k s l i k e Zeus h i m s e l f on a f r i e n d l y v i s i t . H i s memory l i v e s on t o t h i s day a t P e n t r e l e w , t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e Crease f a m i l y .  P e n t r e l e w i s a l o n g , two-  s t o r i e d b u i l d i n g s e t i n s p a c i o u s grounds on F o r t S t r e e t , a t the s o u t h e r n boundary o f t h e o l d Dunsmuir e s t a t e . o f t h e l a s t o u t p o s t s of the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d .  I t i s one  I t i s English  i n atmosphere, and suggests the w o r l d t h a t Jane A u s t e n d e s c r i b e d and Tennyson knew.  The drawing room i s n o t much  changed s i n c e . S i r Matthew's day and a f i r e burns i n t h e same g r a t e where he s t r e t c h e d and warmed h i s l o n g l e g s on w i n t e r evenings.  As a r u l e he announced h i s a r r i v a l by b e a t i n g on  the door w i t h h i s f i s t s and c a l l i n g out i n a t o r r e n t o f Chinook.  F o r many y e a r s , says M i s s Crease, he spoke o f  England as i f i t "were j u s t o u t s i d e t h e d o o r " , b u t towards the end o f h i s l i f e began to speak of B r i t i s h Columbia as home.  Though he would never have a d m i t t e d i t , Judge Begbie  had become a Canadian,  CHAPTER I I I .  THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LAW AND THE PRESERVATION OF ORDER.  S i r Edward Bulwer L y t t o n gave no s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s to the young c o u r t r e p o r t e r , Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie, whom he had appointed Judge o f t h e Colony o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  He d i d  i t i s t r u e , make i t c l e a r t h a t he must a t a l l c o s t s p r e s e r v e o r d e r among the American m i n e r s , and he informed h i m t h a t he must a s s i s t Governor Douglas i n any department o f government where he could be o f use, but he w i s e l y l e f t i t t o the men on the spot t o shape t h e i r p o l i c i e s i n the l i g h t o f l o c a l ditions . tasks  r  con-  The new Judge was thus c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two g r e a t  those o f c r e a t i n g a J u d i c i a r y and o f making t h a t system  supreme.  I t was an immense u n d e r t a k i n g , and one t h a t must be  started without delay.  A c c o r d i n g l y he s e t out f o r t h e d i s t a n t  P a c i f i c colony as soon as he had r e c e i v e d h i s commission from the Queen on September 2, 1858, a r r i v i n g i n time t o p a r t i c i p a t i n t h e i m p r e s s i v e ceremonies t h a t marked i t s t r a n s i t i o n from f u r kingdom t o g o l d  1858,  21.  colony,  B r i t i s h Columbia had been c r e a t e d by the A c t o f August 2 .21 • • commonly«known as t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A c t , but i t was  21 & 22 V i c t o r i a , c. 99.  -36n o t u n t i l November 19 of the same y e a r t h a t the new c o l o n y was f o r m a l l y ushered i n t o e x i s t e n c e .  Judge Begbie, w i t h o u t whom  the ceremony could not p r o p e r l y t a k e p l a c e , a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a from San F r a n c i s c o on Tuesday, November 16, and embarked w i t h Governor Douglas and h i s s u i t e f o r the mainland on the f o l l o w i n g Wednesday.  The o f f i c i a l p a r t y , c o n s i s t i n g of the Governor,  R e a r - A d m i r a l Baynes, o f f i c e r commanding the n a v a l f o r c e s o f the P a c i f i c S t a t i o n , H i s Honor, Judge Cameron, C h i e f J u s t i c e of Vancouver I s l a n d , and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s were c a r r i e d by H.M.S. S a t e l l i t e to Point Roberts.  Here they spent the n i g h t and on  the f o l l o w i n g day were conveyed by the Hudson's Bay Company's s h i p O t t e r t o the company's steamship, B e a v e r w h i c h a w a i t e d %  them a t t h e mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r .  Both v e s s e l s then p r o -  ceeded t o O l d F o r t L a n g l e y where a detachment  of R o y a l E n g i n -  e e r s under t h e command of C a p t a i n Parsons disembarked.  The  p a r t y t h e n c o n t i n u e d t o New F o r t L a n g l e y , where the o f f i c i a l ceremony was t o take p l a c e on the f o l l o w i n g  day.  /  A l t h o u g h F r i d a y broke grey and r a i n f e l l h e a v i l y d u r i n g the day, the o c c a s i o n l a c k e d none of t h e pomp and c o l o r t h a t had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the j o u r n e y of the Governor and h i s a i d e s from V i c t o r i a .  There were detachments o f b l u e j a c k e t s and  sappers t o f o r m a guard of honor.  A s a l u t e of e i g h t e e n guns  boomed one by one from t h e Beaver*  I n the h a l l o f t h e main  b u i l d i n g of the f o r t , n a v a l and m i l i t a r y u n i f o r m s and t h e robes o f the judges l e n t c o l o r and s o l e m n i t y t o the ceremony, symboli z i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Queen's s e r v a n t s were t o b r i n g o r d e r and p r o g r e s s to the w i l d e r n e s s . The ceremony began w i t h Douglas' address t o B e g b i e .  At  -37the end o f h i s speech he a d m i n i s t e r e d the oaths o f o f f i c e  and  a l l e g i a n c e and d e l i v e r e d t o him the Queen's commission as\Judge i n the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Judge Begbie then admin-  i s t e r e d s i m i l a r oaths to Douglas and read a l o u d h i s Governor's commission.  Taking the commission, Governor Douglas proceeded  t o read the p r o c l a m a t i o n s upon which the a u t h o r i t y and  func-  t i o n s o f h i s government were to be' e s t a b l i s h e d . F i r s t , he read a p r o c l a m a t i o n r e v o k i n g the Hudson's Bay Company's l i c e n s e t o e x c l u s i v e t r a d e w i t h the I n d i a n s , so f a r as the new concerned.  colony  was  He then p r o c l a i m e d t h r e e o t h e r l a w s . . The f i r s t  was  the A c t o f August 2, 1858, which c r e a t e d the Colony o f B r i t i s h Columbia and made p r o v i s i o n f o r i t s law and government, and second was  the  a p r o c l a m a t i o n v a l i d a t i n g the a c t s o f Douglas and  h i s o f f i c i a l s b e f o r e the p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h i s a c t . was a p r o c l a m a t i o n d e c l a r i n g t h a t E n g l i s h law was  The  third  i n force i n  the c o l o n y as p r o v i d e d f o r i n the A c t o f August 2, 1858, 22 t h a t the a c t s o f 1803 and 1822,  which had p l a c e d the  and western  t e r r i t o r i e s under the law and j u r i s d i c t i o n o f Upper Canada, s h o u l d cease t o have f o r c e i n , and be a p p l i c a b l e t o , the  Colony  o f B r i t i s h Columbia. On November 21 Governor Douglas l e f t the f o r t t o resume work on the p r e s s i n g problems t h a t c o n f r o n t e d him as Governor o f two c o l o n i e s . Another s a l u t e o f guns marked h i s d e p a r t u r e , an observance f i t t i n g the man Douglas was 22.  and the s i t u a t i o n , f o r James  an a u t o c r a t by d i s p o s i t i o n and he was  t o r u l e the  43 George I I I , c. 138, and 1 & 2 George IV, c. 66.  -sa-  go i d c o l o n y i n the grand manner o f the o l d c o l o n i a l  governors.  F o l l o w i n g the l e t t e r r a t h e r than the s p i r i t o f the A c t of  1853,  he a p p o i n t e d C o l o n e l Moody and Judge Begbie as members o f the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l f o r B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h which he was work throughout h i s tenure o f o f f i c e . i n March, 1859,  and was  C o l o n e l Moody, who  T h i s C o u n c i l was  to created  e s s e n t i a l l y advisory i n function.  i n a d d i t i o n t o commanding the R o y a l  Engin-  eers, h e l d a dormant commission as L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r  of B r i t -  i s h Columbia and a c t e d as C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands and Works I n t h i s f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d Moody's p o s i t i o n was portance.  o f the f i r s t  He had charge o f the armed f o r c e which was  the c o l o n y should the need a r i s e . o r d e r s among the miners he was  im-  t o defend  I n the event o f s e r i o u s d i s -  t o take charge o f the s i t u a t i o n 23  i f i t proved too g r e a t f o r the c o l o n i a l p o l i c e t o c o n t r o l . Under h i s charge the Engineers made surveys and b u i l t  roads.  As C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands and Works Moody had c o n t r o l o f the s a l e o f l a n d s .  There are no minutes of the c o u n c i l meet-  i n g s , but i n the l i g h t of D o u g l a s ' / d i s l i k e and d i s a p p r o v a l o f Moody i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t he c a r r i e d much weight i n the 24 meetings.  Judge Begbie, by v i r t u e of h i s p o s i t i o n , a c t e d i n  an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i n the m a t t e r o f l e g i s l a t i o n .  As  he  23. L y t t o n t o Douglas, November 1, 1858, E n c l o s u r e , I n s t r u c t i o n s t o C o l o n e l Moody, B r i t i s h Columbia P a p e r s , P t . l , p.74. — L y t t o n went t o g r e a t p a i n s t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be n o t h i n g more harmful t o a community t h a n the confoundi n g of the d u t i e s o f s o l d i e r s w i t h the f u n c t i o n s of the police. 24.  Sage, op. c i t . , pp. 298 - 301, passim.  served as A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l was appointed  up t o March, 1859, when G.H.  Cary  t o t h a t p o s i t i o n , i t i s t o he presumed t h a t he 25  a c t u a l l y promulgated the f i r s t laws of the colony. a l s o p r o b a b l e t h a t Begbie continued pending enactments.  It is  t o g i v e a d v i c e on a l l im-  From h i s correspondence i t appears t h a t  he f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h Governor Douglas and the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Yf-.A.G. Young, but u n f o r t u n a t e l y  seldom  committed h i s views t o paper. U n l i k e C o l o n e l Moody, Judge Begbie seems t o have had a warm r e g a r d f o r Governor Douglas.  Both men were a u t o c r a t i c  and a r b i t r a r y and had l i t t l e use f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u tions.  They must have been drawn t o g e t h e r by bonds o f mutual  sympathy when p i l l o r i e d by the c o l o n i a l p r e s s .  While the  Governor endured the s l i n g s o f Amor de Cosmos on Vancouver I s l a n d , Judge Begbie s u f f e r e d a h a i l o f arrows from John Robson, the t r e n c h a n t  e d i t o r of the mainland B r i t i s h Columbian.  Douglas was d e e p l y • g r a t e f u l t o Begbie f o r the f i r m manner i n which he a d m i n i s t e r e d he performed.  t h e law and f o r t h e many s e r v i c e s t h a t  Y e t Begbie, w i t h a l l h i s f a u l t s was not the  k i n d o f man t o i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f , and he r e v e a l e d a t the famous f a r e w e l l banquet t o Douglas t h a t he had almost i n v a r 26 i a b l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h him.  M u t u a l r e s p e c t and common sym-  p a t h i e s were s u f f i c i e n t l y great t o enable them t o work i n h a r 25. The A c t and the P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1858 d e c l a r e d E n g l i s h law t o be i n f o r c e , but the l a t t e r made p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r o c l a m a t i o n of laws r e q u i r e d by l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . 26. "Grand Banquet.", D a i l y B r i t L s h C o l o n i s t , March 11, 1864, p.3.  -40mony t o g e t h e r .  I n a p r i v a t e report t o the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e  Governor Douglas was a b l e t o commend. Begbie i n t h e h i g h e s t 27 terms: A b l e , a c t i v e , e n e r g e t i c and h i g h l y t a l e n t e d , Mr. Begbie i s a most v a l u a b l e p u b l i c s e r v a n t . I feel g r e a t l y indebted t o him f o r t h e z e a l o u s d i s c h a r g e o f h i s o f f i c i a l d u t i e s and for many s e r v i c e s beyond the s t r i c t l i n e o f o f f i c i a l duty. I t would be imp o s s i b l e I think t o f i n d a person better q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n he f i l l s and f o r t h a t o f C h i e f J u s t i c e when the appointment i s made. Such p r a i s e c o u l d n o t have been w r i t t e n w i t h o u t a c e r t a i n amount o f good w i l l as a f o u n d a t i o n . The r e p o r t i s undated, • • •• 28 but i s b e l i e v e d by D r . W.N. Sage t o have been w r i t t e n i n 1863. As antagonism t o Judge Begbie was v e r y s t r o n g a t t h a t time i t i s not unreasonable t o conclude  t h a t t h i s " C o n f i d e n t i a l Report  on O f f i c e r s " was i n p a r t an attempt on t h e p a r t o f Governor Douglas t o p u t i n a good word f o r t h e "Tyrant Judge o f B r i t i s h 29 Columbia." The  f i r s t o f Judge Begbie's " s e r v i c e s beyond t h e s t r i c t  l i n e o f o f f i c i a l duty" was h i s journey i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r from Y a l e i n March, 1859.  I t i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as h i s  f i r s t c i r c u i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and such i t was, f o r he was accompanied by A r t h u r Thomas Bushby, h i s c l e r k and r e g i s t r a r ,  27.  Sage, op. c i t . , p.301.  28.  I b i d . , p.302.  29. T h i s was an e p i t h e t commonly employed by Robson i n h i s l o n g and b i t t e r a t t a c k on t h e Judge. Robson had ample reason, p e r s o n a l and o t h e r w i s e , f o r h i s a b u s i v e e d i t o r i a l s , v. i n f r a , Ch. I V and V, passim.  -41and C h a r l e s N i c o l , the h i g h s h e r i f f . m i s s i o n , however, was  The  c h i e f purpose of the  to estimate the r e s o u r c e s and  the t e r r a i n of the h i n t e r l a n d . The Judge was f o r the u n d e r t a k i n g .  He was  describe  admirably  fitted  s t r o n g , a t h l e t i c and s u i t e d by  nature and t r a i n i n g f o r a s c i e n t i f i c reconnaissance  of t h i s  k i n d . H i s d i a r i e s c o n t a i n numerous c a l c u l a t i o n s o f l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e , m e t e o r o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f graphical features.  The l o n g r e p o r t which he submitted  topo-  enabled  Douglas to form a v e r y c l e a r p i c t u r e o f the southern p o r t i o n o f the E r a s e r b a s i n ; l a t i o n had  I n the Judge's o p i n i o n the American popu-  submitted  r e a d i l y to B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y , - a t r i b u t e  to Douglas' work i n the p r e v i o u s summer.  He c o n s i d e r e d  the  l a n d w e a l t h y both i n m i n e r a l s and I n a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s but made i t c l e a r t h a t the l a t t e r could not be r e a l i z e d u n t i l a s a t i s f a c t o r y system o f l a n d tenure had been worked out and 30  a  •proper system of communications had been e s t a b l i s h e d . I t was Judge Begbie's s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t s t h a t brought him i n t o c o l l i s i o n w i t h C o l o n e l Moody and h i s E n g i n e e r s . f i n d him p e r f o r m i n g  We  d u t i e s t h a t were d e f i n i t e l y those o f the  Department o f Lands and Vforks,.and  i t seems t h a t t h i s was more  than the p r o f e s s i o n a l and r e g i m e n t a l p r i d e o f the R o y a l E n g i neers c o u l d endure. 30.  A l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o Douglas i n March,  Begbie t o Douglas, A p r i l — ,  1859,  1859  Begbie L e t t e r s .  T h i s r e p o r t i s to be found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P a p e r s , P t . I I I , p.24 f f . I t was subsequently p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y i n 1861. The p r e c i s i o n o f Begbie's d e s c r i p t i o n s and the l o g i c o f h i s c o n c l u s i o n s r e v e a l a n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y f o r s c i e n t i f i c work.  -42shows him making arrangements f o r a f e r r y and l a y i n g out the town l o t s a t F o r t Hope.  A t the same time he wrote t o Moody,  r e a u e s t i n g him, v e r y c o u r t e o u s l y , t o be good enough t o a p p o i n t ••• ^ ' '31 ' M a g i s t r a t e N i c o l as a s u r v e y o r .  When the Judge, a c t i n g on i n -  s t r u c t i o n s from Governor Douglas, drew maps and submitted them to the Department o f Lands and Works, the C o l o n e l I c i l y r e quested him t o send them.to the Governor i n f u t u r e , g o i n g on 32 to say t h a t Douglas would i n t u r n d i r e c t them t o h i s o f f i c e . Up t o t h a t time the Judge had begun h i s o f f i c i a l communications to Moody w i t h the i n f o r m a l and f r i e n d l y "My dear C o l o n e l " and c l o s e d them w i t h "Please remember me to P a r s o n s and the others'.' T h e r e a f t e r he wrote w i t h a r c t i c f o r m a l i t y .  Begbie has l e f t us  a glimpse o f h i m s e l f on the r o a d , making o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e c o r d i n g them w i t h a touch o f m a l i c i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  In  a  33 r a t h e r p e rI s ohave n a l lae tpocket t e r ' t o sYoung, he answers l i k e d , Begbie e x t a n t ,whom which v e r y w ewrote: limy o b s e r v a t i o n s a t Cayoosh and L y t t o n agreed w i t h ' the s c i e n t i f i c gentlemen w i t h i n l e s s t h a n a m i l e . As i t i s more t h a n l i k e l y t h a t he r a l l i e d the o f f i c e r s on the accuracy o f t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s , one can understand L i e u t e n a n t  31.  Begbie t o Moody, March 17, 1859, Begbie L e t t e r s .  32. Moody t o B e g b i e , December 31, 1861, Department o f Lands and Works, L e t t e r Book. 33.  Begbie t o Young, August 26, 1861, Begbie L e t t e r s ,  P r i o r t o h i s appointment as C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Young had served on t h e Boundary Commission. I n h i s c o n f i d e n t i a l r e p o r t t o the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e Douglas p r a i s e d Young as h i g h l y as he d i d B e g b i e . See Sage, op. c i t . p. 301.  t  -43Palmer's f e e l i n g s when he wrote t o Moody from h i s camp i n the 34 Cariboo: He has no r i g h t t o be mapping when t h e r e a r e R.E.'s i n the country. Palmer was eager t o p u t the "Arch Enemy" as he c a l l e d him, out 35 of b u s i n e s s , f o r t e n days l a t e r he wrote: I t r u s t t o be a b l e on my r e t u r n t o s k e t c h f o r you a r e a l l y f a i r map o f t h e C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t , a map t h a t w i l l be o f v a l u e t o miners and o t h e r s , and thus Messrs. Begbie, Epurn & Co. w i l l , I s i n c e r e l y hope, be p l a y e d o u t . Judge Begbie performed these s e r v i c e s w h i l e r i d i n g cuit.  cir-  I n the e a r l y days i t was h i s custom t o s t a y s e v e r a l days  i n the various centres.  As a r u l e c o u r t b u s i n e s s consumed o n l y  a p a r t o f t h e time a t his. d i s p o s a l , the r e s t o f which' he devoted t o the. s p e c i a l t a s k s t h a t Governor Douglas asked him t o 36 ' perform.  He became a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s and  on the t r a i l s o f the i n t e r i o r , t a l k i n g t o a l l , s e e i n g a l l and remembering a l l .  When a s h o o t i n g a f f r a y o c c u r r e d and t h e r e  were no c o n s t a b l e s nearby t h e miners s e i z e d the g u i l t y p a r t i e s and h e l d them, knowing t h a t Judge Begbie would h u r r y t o the 37 spot. H i s presence i n the c o u n t r y became a guarantee o f law  34.  Palmer t o Moody, August 17, 1862, Palmer L e t t e r s .  35.  I b i d . . August 27, 1862.  36. He was g r a d u a l l y r e l i e v e d o f these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as more o f f i c i a l s were a p p o i n t e d . 37. Speedy T r i a l o f P r i s o n e r s A c t , A p r i l 23, 1860, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o c l a m a t i o n s , 1860. T h i s enabled Begbie t o h o l d c o u r t on t h e spot w i t h o u t d e l a y f o r commission. I t i s s a i d t h a t he conducted such t r i a l s m the open.  -44and order, as L y t t o n had f o r e s e e n .  He was  not u n l i k e the  r  i t i n e r a n t J u s t i c e s of Henry I s and Henry I I V s day, c a r r y i n g the r o y a l w r i t to the remote ends o f the domain.  •  I n a d d i t i o n t o court d u t i e s and t h e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s mentioned above, Judge Begbie was the C i v i l and C r i m i n a l J u d i c i a r y .  a l s o busy i n e s t a b l i s h i n g P r i o r to h i s inauguration  as Governor, James Douglas had a p p o i n t e d m a g i s t r a t e s ,  justices  of the peace, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and a c o l l e c t o r of customs.  He  had, i n d e e d , a c t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a rude c o u r t of law a t F o r t 38 Hope to t r y W i l l i a m K i n g f o r t h e murder of W i l l i a m Eaton. Whether or not t h i s a c t , g e n e r a l l y conceded t o be i l l e g a l , was v a l i d a t e d by the P r o c l a m a t i o n o f November 19 i s a f i n e p o i n t 39 o f law. H i s appointments, however, were v a l i d a t e d , and i t remained f o r him, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Judge Begbie, to round out the work he had summer o f 1858.  s t a r t e d i n t h e f a t e f u l s p r i n g and  Douglas had a l r e a d y sent L y t t o n a p l a n f o r a  j u d i c i a r y which had been drawn up by George Pearkes, 40 s o l i c i t o r of Vancouver I s l a n d .  crown  L y t t o n ^approved the p l a n  but suggested t h a t i t s h o u l d be submitted  to Judge Begbie-on  his  a r r i v a l and t h a t he s h o u l d c o n s i d e r i t s e f f i c a c y i n the 41 l i g h t of l o c a l conditions. 33. Douglas t o L y t t o n , October 12, 1858, P a p e r s . P t . 2 , p.10. 39.  B r i t i s h Columbia  Sage, op. c i t . , p.228.  40. Douglas t o L y t t o n , October 26, 1858, P a p e r s . P t . 2 . p.10. 41. L y t t o n t o Douglas, December 30, 1858, •p. 74.  B r i t i s h Columbia op. c i t . ,  -45The Pearkes p l a n made p r o v i s i o n f o r a Supreme Court under a C h i e f J u s t i c e and two p u i s n e Judges. had been commissioned  Judge Begbie, however,  as a p u i s n e Judge w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h a t he would l a t e r be e l e v a t e d t o the C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p , the promotion t o be governed not o n l y by the n a t u r e of the s e r v i c e s rendered but a l s o by the c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the colony. C h i e f l y f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons and p a r t l y because Judge Begbie o b j e c t e d , the a u t h o r i t i e s never a p p o i n t e d a d d i t i o n a l p u i s n e 42 Judges t o the Supreme Court d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . Judge Begbie d i d ' n o t become C h i e f J u s t i c e u n t i l t h e eve of 43 confederation.  T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was never d u r i n g the  p e r i o d b e f o r e 1871 a Court of Appeal n e a r e r than London, a f a c t t h a t caused i n c r e a s i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as time went on. In  a d d i t i o n t o t h e Supreme Court t h e r e were a l s o the  County Courts f o r p e t t y cases and the Gold  Commissioner's  C o u r t , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g a s p e c i a l i n n o v a t i o n a r i s i n g from l o c a l conditions.  M a g i s t r a t e s p r e s i d e d i n County Court and  came to e n j o y the t i t l e o f Judge, a p u r e l y c o u r t e s y t i t l e  and  one not to be confused w i t h the rank o f a p u i s n e Judge.  It is  thus t h a t P e t e r O ' R e i l l y and o t h e r m a g i s t r a t e s are r e f e r r e d t o to-day as Judges.  I n a s i m i l a r manner Gold Commissioners  g i v e n the same t i t l e .  are  From the p o i n t o f v i e w o f the i m p o r t -  ance o f t h e work they d i d and the scope o f t h e i r  jurisdiction  42.  Begbie t o Seymour, March 11, 1865, Begbie L e t t e r s . I b i d . . A p r i l 11, 1865.  43.  Government G a z e t t e , May  31,  F o r d e t a i l s v. i n f r a . , Ch. V I .  1870.  -46 the l a t t e r enjoyed and deserved a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s t i g e . Some o f them served i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f m a g i s t r a t e as w e l l as t h a t o f g o l d commissionerj and t h i s i n i t s t u r n l e d t o an even w i d e r c o n f u s i o n o f terms, s i n c e e i t h e r a m a g i s t r a t e o r a g o l d commissioner came to be r e f e r r e d t o by a l l t h r e e t i t l e s , judge, m a g i s t r a t e and g o l d commissioner. Another d e t a i l t h a t sometimes l e a d s t o a l i t t l e confusion i s the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was, a c t u a l l y , o n l y one commissioner, the r e s t b e i n g known t e c h n i c a l l y as a s s i s t a n t - c o m m i s s i o n e r s . The commissioner had charge o f , a n d w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , a l l mining m a t t e r s .  He s u p e r v i s e d t h e a s s i s t a n t s i n t h e i r v a r -  i o u s d i s t r i c t s and had the power, s u b j e c t to t h e Governor's consent, t o employ o r d i s c h a r g e these men. were heard i n the Gold Commissioner's  A l l mining cases  Court whence a p p e a l  c o u l d be made t o the Supreme C o u r t . A n c i l l a r y t o the Gold Commissioner  and h i s c o u r t was the  M i n i n g , B o a r d , a body o f miners a p p o i n t e d by the l o c a l commissioner.  I t s r e l a t i o n and f u n c t i o n 'was n o t u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e  Grand J u r y .  The-members r e p o r t e d a l l g r i e v a n c e s and needs,  p r o v i d i n g the raw m a t e r i a l out o f which m i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n was f i n a l l y made. to  These b o d i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d I n 1862, ceased  f u n c t i o n i n 1864 and came t o l i f e a g a i n i n 1866.  Their  u s e f u l n e s s was s e r i o u s l y l i m i t e d by the f a c t t h a t too many p a r t i e s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e framing o f m i n i n g laws.  The  m i n e r s , who knew l i t t l e o f t h e law, s u b m i t t e d t h e i r views t o the l a w y e r s , who knew l i t t l e about m i n i n g .  To make m a t t e r s  worse t h e miners made t h e i r recommendations i n the d i s t a n t i n t e r i o r w h i l e t h e Governor, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and t h e o t h e r  -47o f f i c i a l s caine t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a t the c o a s t .  There was no  adequate l i a i s o n between the two b o d i e s because the g o l d commissioners were overburdened w i t h work and c o u l d not make the l o n g journey from the mines when r e q u i r e d t o do so. The machinery f o r s e t t l i n g miners' d i s p u t e s had s i m i l a r f l a w s , a t t r i b u t a b l e t o human f r a i l t i e s t h a t c o u l d not be f o r e seen n o r subsequently overcome by r e m e d i a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  Many  o f the d i s p u t e s arose from what i s known t e c h n i c a l l y as "unlawf u l encroachment",  o r i n the language of the m i n i n g camps,  "claim-jumping".  I n such cases t h e r e was almost i n v a r i a b l y  an appeal from the d e c i s i o n of t h e Gold Commissioner's C o u r t . I f the i n j u r e d p a r t y , the p l a i n t i f f , l o s t the ease, he n a t u r a l l y sought j u s t i c e by appeal i n the Supreme C o u r t .  I f the  p l a i n t i f f won, the defendant was f r e q u e n t l y w i l l i n g t o f i g h t the case a g a i n the h i g h e r c o u r t , because Judge Begbie's dec i s i o n s and conduct o f m i n i n g l i t i g a t i o n were so unusual t h a t men were w i l l i n g t o take v e r y good odds t h a t the d e c i s i o n a g a i n s t them would e i t h e r be m o d i f i e d o r r e v e r s e d .  T h i s then,  r e s u l t e d i n l o n g and r u i n o u s cases t h a t became so numerous that i n j u r e d p a r t i e s began t o wonder whether or not i t would be cheaper t o c u t t h e i r l o s s e s from the "jump" by s t a y i n g out o f court.  Another e v i l a r i s i n g from such c a s e s , and one f o r  w h i c h the Judge was not g r e a t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , was the use o f i n junctions.  When a s u i t was f i l e d the c o u n s e l f o r p l a i n t i f f  secured an o r d e r from the c o u r t f o r b i d d i n g o p e r a t i o n s of any k i n d on the d i s p u t e d ground.  T h i s o r d e r , or i n j u n c t i o n ,  l i t e r a l l y l o c k e d up the c l a i m u n t i l the end o f t h e case.  As  Judge Begbie had an immense c i r c u i t and an i n c r e a s i n g number  -48o f cases t o hear each y e a r , r i c h c l a i m s were sometimes f r o z e n f o r an e n t i r e season. occurrence  I t was, f u r t h e r m o r e , n o t an uncommon  t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the Supreme Court r e s u l t e d i n  the case b e i n g taken i n t o Chancery.  T h i s meant another  delay,  w i t h the i n j u n c t i o n s t i l l i n f o r c e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the t r o u b l e t h a t o c c u r r e d a t L i l l oet over t h e a r r e s t o f t h e Granford b r o t h e r s t h e County Courts 44 were c o m p a r a t i v e l y f r e e o f s t r i f e and c o n f u s i o n . Magistrates P e r r i e r and Whannell were fatuous and Whannell, indeed, was 45 something o f a rogue.  They were soon d i s c h a r g e d , however,  and t h e r e s t o f the m a g i s t r a c y e s t a b l i s h e d a r e c o r d f o r i n d u s t r y and e f f i c i e n c y .  Elwyn, who had' i n v e s t e d money i n a v a l u -  a b l e c l a i m , r e s i g n e d as soon as Governor Douglas made i t c l e a r t h a t he c o u l d not p e r m i t r e s p o n s i b l e government s e r v a n t s t o 46 .have any p a r t i n such a c t i v i t i e s .  He had proved h i m s e l f an  a b l e man and i t was t o be r e g r e t t e d t h a t the government d i d not pay h i m s u f f i c i e n t t o keep him i n t h e s e r v i c e . Most o f t h e m a g i s t r a t e s were r e c r u i t e d from the'upper middle c l a s s i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s and had come t o t h e Colony n o t so much t o make a q u i c k f o r t u n e as t o make a c a r e e r and a home f o r themselves i n the new w o r l d .  Judge Begbie, who was both l o y a l and gener-  ous t o h i s c o l l e a g u e s , p a i d them a w e l l earned t r i b u t e i n h i s 44. W r i g h t v s . C r a n f o r d . T h i s case was heard a t L i l l o e t i n t h e Supreme Court before Judge Begbie, October 15 - 16, 1862. v. i n f r a , Gh. V., p a s s i m . M a g i s t r a t e E l l i o t t made s e r i o u s mistakes i n i s s u i n g the warrants f o r t h e i r a r r e s t . 45. B a r k l e y t o Douglas, Melbourne, May 31, 1859, B r i t i s h Columbia P a p e r s , P t . I I . 46.  v. i n f r a , Ch.IY., passim.  -49-  i l l u m i n a t i n g r e p o r t t o Young i n January,  1865:  I t h i n k H i s E x c e l l e n c y & the p u b l i c have every reason t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s e r v i c e s rendered. Those s e r v i c e s c o u l d not be rendered w i t h o u t a degree o f e x e r t i o n and p e r s o n a l h a r d s h i p s undergone, wch. perhaps a bare sense o f simple d u t y would not always r e q u i r e , and, wch., c e r t a i n l y are not e l i c i t e d by any e x t r a o r d i n a r y remuneration o r immediate •reward: and which can t h e r e f o r e o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d to an .anxious d e s i r e i n e v e r y o f f i c e r t o do h i s v e r y utmost i n h i s department, t o the s a c r i f i c e o f h i s ease and comfort & v e r y o f t e n o f h i s h e a l t h . There were never more than seven o f these l o c a l judges i n the Colony and when i t i s remembered t h a t most o f them served as A s s i s t a n t Gold Commissioners  as w e l l , the t r u t h o f Judge Beg-  b i e * s statement t h a t they were i n s p i r e d by a h i g h sense o f duty becomes v e r y apparent. The m a g i s t r a t e s were supported by a r e g u l a r p o l i c e f o r c e of f i f t e e n c o n s t a b l e s under C h i e f I n s p e c t o r Brew,- a l u d i c r o u s l y s m a l l number i n view o f the s i z e o f the t e r r i t o r y and the n a t u r e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I t was, o f c o u r s e , extremely difficult  t o o b t a i n men  s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s work, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the f i r s t two o r t h r e e y e a r s o f the g o l d r u s h .  The  salaries  were p i t i f u l l y s m a l l and c o u l d not compete w i t h the l u r e o f the mines.  I n the r e p o r t c i t e d above Judge Begbie made strong  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o S e c r e t a r y Young t o urge the n e c e s s i t y f o r h i g h e r wages.  I t gives a v i v i d picture of l i v i n g conditions  i n Cariboo at that time.  He d e s c r i b e d the r a t e o f pay as " i n -  e x p l i c a b l y i n a d e q u a t e " and went on to show t h a t a c o n s t a b l e ' s pay o f t w e n t y - f i v e pounds a month s c a r c e l y s u f f i c e d t o keep  47. Begbie t o Young, Received January 19, 1863, Letters.  Begbie  -50body and s o u l t o g e t h e r .  Up t o September, 1862,  meals had  cost  t e n s h i l l i n g s . , but a f t e r t h a t t h e y had been reduced to e i g h t shillings.  T h i s meant t h a t t o eat three meals a day a t the  f i r s t r a t e would cost f o r t y - f i v e pounds a month and a t the second, t h i r t y - s i x pounds a month.  B o a r d i n g houses, those  o f f e r i n g the cheapest r a t e s , charged about twenty-four a month.  The  s a l a r y thus.provided  a t the reduced p r i c e s .  l i t t l e more than 48 As Begbie wrote:  pounds  subsistence  The pay of a c o n s t a b l e i s £25 a month - not enough' t h e r e f o r e to p r o v i d e him w i t h two meals a day, w i t h out a l l o w i n g a n y t h i n g f o r c l o t h e s (wch. I need not remark are extremely expensive and r a p i d l y worn out) tobacco an o c c a s i o n a l s t i m u l a n t or any of the o t h e r e x t r a s wch. a rough mountain l i f e j u s t i f i e s and a l most demands. I n s p i t e of the poor wage o f f e r e d f o r what the Judge c a l l e d the "most t h a n k l e s s d u t i e s i n v o l v i n g g r e a t  personal  f a t i g u e exposure and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " C h i e f I n s p e c t o r Brew managed t o b u i l d up a f o r c e of e f f i c i e n t c o n s t a b l e s .  These  were drawn from the r a n k s of a c e r t a i n c l a s s of Englishmen who,  l i k e the m a g i s t r a t e s , had  home.  come i n quest of a c a r e e r and 49 Judge Begbie d e s c r i b e s . t h e m as men:  ... who have h i t h e r t o f i l l e d s u p e r i o r s t a t i o n s i n l i f e : some of them even h a v i n g h e l d f i e l d o f f i c e r s commissions i n Her M a j e s t y ' s army - and most of them are p r o v i d e d w i t h some s m a l l means of t h e i r own  48.  Begbie to Young, l o c . c i t .  49.  Loc. c i t .  a  I t was w e l l f o r t h e c o n s t a b l e s  t h a t they had some means o f  t h e i r own, f o r Judge Begbie's k i n d words gained them l i t t l e more t h a n o f f i c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n . On the o c c a s i o n s  t h a t c a l l e d f o r a l a r g e r number o f p o l -  i c e t h a n were a v a i l a b l e s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s were sworn i n f o r a p e r i o d of days o r weeks as c o n d i t i o n s might r e q u i r e .  Wed  McGowan's posse o f roughnecks who c a r r i e d o f f t h e i n d i g n a n t Whannell were s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s  - officially.  I n t h e Grouse  Creek a f f a i r t h e Gold Commissioner e n r o l l e d about twenty o r t h i r t y o f these men.  I n Begbie's o p i n i o n s p e c i a l s were r a r e l y  as e f f i c i e n t as t h e r e g u l a r s because o f a l a c k o f knowledge and  experience. 50  They were, however, p a i d n e a r l y twice as  much. One o f t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s and perhaps one o f t h e g r e a t e s t dangers o f the day was t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dust and nuggets t o the c o a s t .  I n 1861,  Governor Douglas w i t h t h e  a s s i s t a n c e o f C a p t a i n G o s s e t t e s t a b l i s h e d the Gold E s c o r t . This imposing and romantic body was composed o f R o y a l E n g i n e e r s , f u l l y armed and-mounted, under the command o f Thomas Elwyn, who l a t e r became a M a g i s t r a t e and Gold Commissioner. Elwyn o f f e r e d h i s p e r s o n a l precious  guarantee f o r t h e s a f e t y o f t h e  c a r g o , but when t h e government would n o t g i v e s i m i l a r  assurances o f s a f e d e l i v e r y miners m a n i f e s t e d r e l i a n c e i n t h e p r i v a t e concerns t h a t took up t h e work.  Thus t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  f a i l e d and o t h e r s had a s i m i l a r f a t e , b r i n g i n g a l o s s t o t h e government o f some $80,000. 50.  Begbie t o Young, l o c . c i t .  -52The I n d i a n s gave l i t t l e t r o u b l e a f t e r the summer of when Douglas' prompt a c t i o n and ious disorder.  j u s t measures prevented  1858,  ser-  I n most cases i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n t r o u b l e s  arose from consumption of l i q u o r and when white men  became i n -  v o l v e d w i t h I n d i a n women.  constables  As e a r l y as 1861 I n d i a n  were employed w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n over I n d i a n a f f a i r s . men, ing  These  when c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , a c q u i t t e d themselves w e l l , showg r e a t p r i d e i n t h e i r o f f i c e , w h i c h was  baton.  d e s i g n a t e d by a  When f o u r Haidas were murdered by a group of Chemain-  us I n d i a n s n a t i v e c o n s t a b l e s from Nanaimo a r r e s t e d the murderers i n t h e f a c e of the whole Chemainus t r i b e and them t o Nanaimo t o stand t r i a l .  conducted  I n 1863, when I n d i a n troubles  broke out on the G u l f I s l a n d s , n a t i v e c o n s t a b l e s were sent t o apprehend the wrongdoers who would, i t i s s a i d , have,escaped had i t not been f o r the s k i l l and courage of the I n d i a n ers.  offic-  I t seems t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s encouraged the I n d i a n s -  g i v i n g them s m a l l rewards f o r g o o d  service.  by  Judge Begbie,  who.was. g e n e r a l l y v e r y w e l l disposed t o n a t i v e s and  inclined  to  be l e n i e n t w i t h them i n c o u r t , f a v o r e d cash rewards. 51 one c o n s t a b l e he w r o t e :  Of  The n a t i v e s p e c i a l d i s p l a y e d so much t a c t & p e r s e v erance t h a t I ordered him a s p e c i a l reward o f $10 as i t i s v e r y u s e f u l t o encourage t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of s e r v i c e . While the Judge does not seem t o have e x e r t e d much more  51. Begbie t o B a l l , A c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , September 3, 1866, Begbie L e t t e r s .  than a f r i e n d l y i n f l u e n c e i n m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the m a g i s t r a c y and the p o l i c e o f the c o l o n y , he p l a y e d an important p a r t , which has been s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d , i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Bar.  H i s acceptance of some l a w y e r s and r e -  j e c t i o n of o t h e r s l e d f i n a l l y t o a storm of p r o t e s t i n the B r i t i s h Columbian, and f i n a l l y t o p e t i t i o n s t o Governor Douglas and the Duke of N e w c a s t l e , S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s . Throughout t h e c o n t r o v e r s y Begbie never deigned t o  acknowledge  p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m , and a l l h i s l e t t e r s t o the Governor were w r i t t e n w i t h p r o p e r j u d i c i a l detachment.  Y e t t h e r e were p e r -  s o n a l f e e l i n g s and p r e j u d i c e s i n v o l v e d , f o r the i s s u e came t o a c l i m a x when he r e f u s e d t o admit George A. Walkem, an ambit i o u s l a w y e r from Upper Canada w i t h whom he had had a v i o l e n t 52 q u a r r e l i n the C r a n f o r d case. The B r i t i s h Columbia A c t o f August 2, 1858, made o n l y g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r the j u d i c i a r y .  There were no s p e c i f i c  enactments as t h e r e had been i n the case of Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1849.  Governor Douglas and Judge Begbie were thus t o some  extent f r e e t o adopt any l i n e o f a c t i o n t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f a l o c a l n a t u r e seemed t o r e q u i r e .  I t soon became n e c e s s a r y  f o r the Judge t o submit -for t h e Governor's a p p r o v a l some 52.  A t L i l l o e t on October 15, 1862, i n Wright v s . C r a n f o r d .  George A. Walkem was born i n I r e l a n d but came t o Canada a t the age o f n i n e . He was educated i n Quebec and q u a l i f i e d t o p r a c t i s e i n both Upper and Lower Canada. I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t s t a n d a r d s i n Upper Canada were h i g h and t h a t Walkem was an a b l e l a w y e r . When r e f u s e d admittance by Judge Begbie Walkem rode c i r c u i t , g i v i n g a d v i c e , sub r o s a , as the Judge s a i d , and c o n d u c t i n g cases from the p u b l i c benchea T h i s l e d to an u n d i g n i f i e d row i n the L i l l o e t c o u r t . The two C r a n f o r d cases r e v e a l Begbie's i g n o r a n c e o f law and h i s b u l l y i n g methods.  -54d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the employment o f c o u n s e l and a t t o r n e y s i n the courts o f the colony.  W r i t i n g t o Douglas on December  15, 1858, he p o i n t e d out t h a t absence o f c o u n s e l made i t necess a r y f o r him t o a c t as a d v i s e r as w e l l as judge, and t h a t such circumstances made him d e s p a i r o f g i v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e s u i t o r s and o f m a i n t a i n i n g the d e s i r a b l e h i g h c h a r a c t e r o f a B r i t i s h Court o f Law,  There were, he went on, persons  giving  a d v i c e sub r o s a , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d h a r m f u l and which c o u l d be brought t o an end by c a l l i n g p r o p e r l y l i c e n s e d 53 practitioners into existence. The immediate problem was t o decide what r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be made t o o b t a i n immediately the b e s t a v a i l a b l e t a l e n t . There i s no doubt t h a t Judge Begbie's p r e f e r e n c e was f o r E n g l i s h b a r r i s t e r s , but as t h e r e were none i n t h e colony a t 54 the time he was compelled t o make a temporary  arrangement.  I n t h e l e t t e r mentioned above he wrote: Now h e r e , t h e r e b e i n g no E n g l i s h b a r r i s t e r s o r a t t o r n e y s , i t seems t o be e x p e d i e n t t o take t h e b e s t t h a t can be g o t . He a c c o r d i n g l y drew up an Order o f Court on December 27, 1858, which made p r o v i s i o n f o r temporary  and permanent r o l l s .  Per-  manent e n r o l l m e n t was open t o b a r r i s t e r s , a t t o r n e y s and s o l i c i t o r s who were e n t i t l e d t o p r a c t i s e a t t h e b a r i n England, S c o t l a n d , o r I r e l a n d and t o those who should be i n s t r u c t e d i n  53.  Begbie t o Douglas, December 15, 1858, Begbie L e t t e r s .  54,  Loc, c i t .  -55B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d .  Temporary l i c e n s e  would be granted f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x months a f t e r t h e Order o f Court to. those q u a l i f i e d t o p r a c t i s e i n any p a r t o f the B r i t i s h Empire o u t s i d e o f the U n i t e d Kingdom and t o b a r r i s t e r s q u a l i f i e d t o p l e a d i n t h e Supreme Court o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . To the Judge's c o n s t e r n a t i o n b a r r i s t e r s c o u l d not be found who were q u a l i f i e d to. a v a i l themselves temporary o r t h e permanent r o l l s .  o f e i t h e r the  The former p r o v i s i o n ex-  p i r e d on June 30, 1859, and was n o t renewed.  N e a r l y three  years l a t e r , on December 13, 1861, he wrote t o James Douglas and informed him t h a t a p a r t from t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l t h e r e was  o n l y one b a r r i s t e r q u a l i f i e d t o p r a c t i s e i n the c o l o n y .  Begbie made i t c l e a r t h a t he had no. d e s i r e t o change t h e exi s t i n g r u l e - t h a t o n l y b a r r i s t e r s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s c o u l d p r a c t i s e - and expressed t h e hope t h a t "... a s u f f i c i e n t number o f d u l y educated p r a c t i t i o n e r s may a r r i v e from t h e mother c o u n t r y . "  He had, no doubt, been p r e j u d i c e d , o r had  h i s p r e j u d i c e s strengthened by t h e u n q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s who were now b e g i n n i n g t o haunt the c o u r t s as he rode c i r c u i t . Most o f these men were from Upper Canada, where, i r o n i c a l l y enoughj, they had n o t made a f o o t i n g i n t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n , and l i k e the Judge h i m s e l f , had come t o B r i t i s h Columbia t o make a new s t a r t .  As a r u l e they d i d n o t succeed  i n disposing  him v e r y f a v o r a b l y t o c a n d i d a t e s from t h a t c o l o n y u n l e s s they were men oi' marked a b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y . A Canadian who d i d w i n t h e Judge's a p p r o v a l was a Mr. B a r n s t o n , an Upper Canadian b a r r i s t e r who had come t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858,  He p r a c t i s e d a t f i r s t on a temporary  -56r o l l and. was l a t e r g i v e n permanent s t a t u s .  This occurred i n  June, 1860, when the absence o f q u a l i f i e d c o u n s e l was b e g i n n i n g t o be f e l t a c u t e l y .  But even t h e n , Judge Begbie made i t  c l e a r t h a t w h i l e t h e r e was no power t o c o n t r o l him i n making t h i s d e c i s i o n he would not do so w i t h o u t the a p p r o v a l o f the 55 Governor. A l t h o u g h B a r n s t o n proved h i m s e l f t o be a man  of integ-  r i t y and of t o l e r a b l e a b i l i t y , h i s a d m i t t a n c e l e d t o the upr o a r over George A. Walkem.  By the end o f 1862 a number o f  b a r r i s t e r s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s had been a d m i t t e d and the l i t i g a n t s i n the c o l o n y were a b l e t o o b t a i n c o u n s e l .  There  was a l s o a number of Canadians who wished t o be e n r o l l e d but were, under the Order of Court of December 27, 1858, not eligible.  Thus, when on September 30, 1862, Governor Douglas  forwarded Walkem*s p e t i t i o n , Judge Begbie was a b l e t o s t a t e t h a t i t was' not w i t h i n h i s power t o comply w i t h the p r a y e r of Mr. Walkem.  He p o i n t e d out t h a t the temporary r o l l f o r those  b a r r i s t e r s who were not q u a l i f i e d t o p r a c t i s e a t the E n g l i s h bar  had e x p i r e d on June 30, 1859, and t h a t the p r e s e n t r u l e s  for  a d m i s s i o n , which had been s a n c t i o n e d by the"Governor and  the  S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e Colonies,, bound h i s hands " a l -  most as e f f e c t u a l l y as i f they had o r i g i n a l l y been i s s u e d as i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r my conduct by Her M a j e s t y i n C o u n c i l " . 56 membering B a r n s t o n , the Judge c o n t i n u e d :  Re-  55.  Begbie t o Douglas, December 13, 1861, Begbie L e t t e r s .  56.  Begbie t o Young, November 29, 1862, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -57I say "almost" as e f f e c t u a l l y f o r i n one i n s t a n c e about 18 months ago I c e r t a i n l y i n f r i n g e d them, i n the case o f Mr. B a r n s t o n a gentleman from Canada r e s i d e n t i n these C o l o n i e s s i n c e 1858. But t h a t case was immediately communicated t o H i s E x c e l l e n c y t o gether w i t h a statement o f i t s p e c u l i a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . There was a t t h a t time o n l y one Gentleman p r a c t i s i n g i n the Colony which caused a n e c e s s a r y and most marked i n e q u a l i t y i n a l l cases and s u i t s where one s i d e and o n l y one s i d e c o u l d o b t a i n any l e g a l o p i n i o n or a s s i s t a n c e t h e r e was p o s i t i v e l y a g r e a t e r amount of apparent unfairness, than where no p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e whatever c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by e i t h e r s i d e . I t h e r e f o r e , i n v i e w o f t h e p u b l i c convenience t o which a l o n e a l l r e g u l a t i o n s on such a s u b j e c t a r e t o be r e f e r r e d , admitted Mr. B a r n s t o n t o p r a c t i s e on a temporary r o l l , immediately announcing t o H i s E x c e l l ency the f a c t of such temporary a d m i s s i o n and a l s o Mr. Barnston's a p p l i c a t i o n to be f u l l y a d m i t t e d . Upon t h i s l a t t e r a p p l i c a t i o n a l l a c t i o n was f e r r e d f o r some months.  de-  A t the end of t h i s time i n ' t h e absence o f a l l obj e c t i o n and Mr. B a r n s t o n h a v i n g shown a t l e a s t a t o l e r a b l e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the d u t i e s of h i s p r o f e s s i o n and t h e r e b e i n g s t i l l o n l y one B a r r i s t e r r e s i d e n t i n the Colony he was e n r o l l e d as an o r d i n ary B a r r i s t e r . -  But I f e l t t h a t even under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s every apology and e x p l a n a t i o n were i m p e r a t i v e l y r e q u i r e d from me f o r d e p a r t i n g from the r u l e s which I had v o l u n t a r i l y undertaken t o observe - a d e p a r t u r e which i n my o p i n i o n n o t h i n g but an urgent n e c e s s i t y c o u l d excuse. A t the p r e s e n t day however no such u r g e n t necess i t y appears t o e x i s t . There have been d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t A s s i z e s here no l e s s than s i x gentlemen i n Court e v e r y day, and two o t h e r s have t r a n s a c t e d b u s i n e s s here d u r i n g the l a s t week, a l l e n t i t l e d t o conduct l e g a l p r o c e e d ings, three of these h a b i t a u l l y r e s i d e i n t h i s Colony and go the c i r c u i t s . L i t i g a t i o n i s I am happy t o say not so r i f e as t o be beyond t h e p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y o f these g e n t l e men t o conduct but r a t h e r the c o n t r a r y . Such was Judge Begbie's e x p l a n a t i o n why he had e n r o l l e d  one  -58Canadian b a r r i s t e r and r e f u s e d t o do t h e same f o r another. I n c l o s i n g he made two r e v e a l i n g remarks.  He s t a t e s , as i f  t o u n d e r l i n e t h e f a c t t h a t a d m i s s i o n o f Canadians was no l o n g er n e c e s s a r y , t h a t more E n g l i s h b a r r i s t e r s were about t o s e t up i n p r a c t i c e .  S i g n i f i c a n t of h i s o p i n i o n o f Walkem a r e t h e  l a s t two paragraphs: I make no a l l u s i o n s whatever t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o r m o r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of any of t h e a p p l i c a n t s as I c o n c e i v e the q u e s t i o n t o be d e f i n i t e l y s e t t l e d sof a r as I am concerned on t h e above g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r ations. I have o n l y t o suggest t h a t such i n q u i r y s h o u l d i n a l l cases be made as t o the antecedents o f a l l gentleman a d m i t t e d t o p r a c t i c e , under any r u l e s . H i s d i s l i k e o f Walkem was w e l l known a f t e r the C r a n f o r d case and i t was a l s o w e l l known t h a t he l o o k e d w i t h g r e a t d i s f a v o r on some o f Walkem's c o n v i v i a l h a b i t s .  A l t h o u g h the l a t t e r  seems t o have enjoyed a c e r t a i n amount of p o p u l a r i t y as shown by t h e f a c t t h a t a p e t i t i o n was s i g n e d on h i s b e h a l f and sent t o t h e Governor on February 14, 1863, t h e r e were o t h e r s who 57 • • c o n s i d e r e d him a s c o u n d r e l .  Moberly, f o r example, i n a  p r i v a t e l e t t e r t o A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Crease expressed an o p i n i o n w i t h which Judge Begbie might have c o n c u r r e d , but would n o t 58 have committed t o the w r i t t e n word: Do n o t on any account t r u s t o r p l a c e t h e s l i g h t e s t  57. "Admission o f B a r r i s t e r s " . , B r i t i s h March 4, 1863.  Columbian,  58. M o b e r l y t o Crease, October 19, 1864, Moberly Letters.  confidence i n a n y t h i n g .Walkem may say or do - he i s a c o n t e m p t i b l e underhanded s c o u n d r e l . H e ' l l be a curse i n the House - T h i s I w i l l e x p l a i n t o you when I g e t down, I put you on your guard because he p r e tends t o be my v e r y best f r i e n d . A v a i l yourself of t h i s h i n t v e r y q u i c k l y but keep i t t o y o u r s e l f . Walkem's cause and t h a t of the Canadian b a r r i s t e r s t a k e n up by John Robson i n the B r i t i s h Columbian.  was  In a  s e r i e s o f outspoken e d i t o r i a l s i n January and February of 1863 Robson denounced Begbie as a t y r a n t , an incompetent and as a man who d e l i b e r a t e l y excluded Canadian b a r r i s t e r s from p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r t h a t a c l i q u e of E n g l i s h l a w y e r s might grow r i c h a t the expense o f t h e p u b l i c . I n the meantime Governor Douglas forwarded the p e t i t i o n and a l l the correspondence r e l a t i v e t o Walkem's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r admittance t o the bar t o the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s who Walkem.  suggested t h a t i t might be as w e l l t o admit Mr.  T h i s l e t t e r was forwarded t o Judge Begbie on A p r i l  30, 1863, accompanied by a d e s p a t c h from Governor Douglas r e q u e s t i n g him t o c o n s i d e r the case df Walkem as b e i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t of B a r n s t o n i n 1861. in.  B e g b i e , however, would not g i v e  I n a l e t t e r t o Douglas w r i t t e n i n answer t o t h i s r e q u e s t  he r e f u s e d t o admit Walkem on the grounds t h a t i t was not w i t h i n h i s power t o do so.  He d e c l a r e d a l s o t h a t the S e c r e t a r y  o f S t a t e l a c k e d a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the q u e s t i o n , and r a t h e r than s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Walkem be a d m i t t e d was r e a l l y aski n g f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n .  As f o r the p e t i t i o n , the Judge  went on, w i t h an o b l i q u e t h r u s t a t Walkem, n o t h i n g was  easier  i n the two C o l o n i e s t h a n t o secure the p u b l i c sympathy f o r n o t o r i o u s and c o n v i c t e d c r i m i n a l s .  With a more d i r e c t t h r u s t  he p o i n t e d out t h a t s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d "be passed, an u n d e r t a k i n g t h a t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government and not o f the j u d i c i a r y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e a d m i s s i o n of t h i s c a n d i date was not a c c e p t a b l e t o the members o f the bench and the 59 bar. Douglas, i t appears, had made up h i s mind t h a t Walkem and Canadian b a r r i s t e r s s h o u l d be a d m i t t e d , and a c c o r d i n g l y r e quested Judge Begbie t o make out an Order of Court p e r m i t t i n g lawyers from any p a r t of t h e Queen's Dominions t o p l e a d a t the B r i t i s h Columbia bar.  On June 18, 1863, the B r i t i s h Columbia  Government passed the L e g a l P r o f e s s i o n s A c t which as Judge Begbie suggested i n h i s l e t t e r of May 11, was the o n l y means o f making a d m i s s i o n o f Canadians and o t h e r s who were not q u a l i f i e d t o p l e a d a t the E n g l i s h bar a d m i s s i b l e i n B r i t i s h Colum60 bia. The way was now c l e a r f o r Judge Begbie t o e n r o l l any Canadian b a r r i s t e r s who made a p p l i c a t i o n and could s a t i s f y him t h a t t h e y were p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d . ' Walkem's p e t i t i o n had been i n h i s hands s i n c e e a r l y October, 1862„  He was  qualified  t o p r a c t i s e i n t h e c o u r t s o f both Upper and Lower Canada. Begbie, however, s t i l l d e l a y e d h i s a d m i s s i o n and d i d not e n r o l l him t i l l November 21, f i v e months a f t e r the passage of t h e A c t . On t h a t v e r y day he r e c e i v e d a communication from the Governor, dated October 1, w i t h e n c l o s u r e s from the Duke o f Newcastle 59.  Begbie t o Douglas, May 11, 1865, Begbie L e t t e r s .  60.  B r i t i s h Columbia P r o c l a m a t i o n s , 1863.  -61a s k i n g what s t e p s had been t a k e n t o admit Mr. Walkem.  It is  open t o q u e s t i o n whether Begbie a d m i t t e d Walkem a f t e r r e a d i n g the e n c l o s u r e s from H i s Grace.  There i s no o f f i c i a l  letter  o f t h e Judge's i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s answering Douglas. There i s j however, an u n f i n i s h e d and unsigned l e t t e r i n h i s h a n d w r i t i n g t h a t suggests t h a t he was v e r y angry.  Perhaps,  i f he had e n r o l l e d Walkem-before r e a d i n g the e n c l o s u r e s from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e he would not have g i v e n i n d i c a t i o n s o f bad 61 temper. The fragment reads as f o l l o w s : W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o your despatch o f the 1 O c t r . w i t h e n c l o s u r e s from h i s Grace the Duke o f Newcastle r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as t o the s t e p s t a k e n i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e a d m i s s i o n o f Mr. Geo. A. Walkem t o p r a c t i s e i n the Supreme Court o f B r i t i s h Columbia I have t o i n f o r m you t h a t Mr. Geo* A. Walkem was t h i s day a d m i t t e d t o p r a c t i s e and d u l y e n r o l l e d a c c o r d i n g l y . As H i s Grace the Duke of Newcastle appears t o take a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s m a t t e r and as i t may p o s s i b l y r e l i e v e t h e a n x i e t i e s o f I t seems t h a t the Judge changed h i s mind j u s t as the t i d e o f h i s sarcasm began t o r i s e , r e a l i z i n g t h a t he c o u l d not go as f a r as h i s anger prompted him.  Some time l a t e r , when Walkem  was r i d i n g c i r c u i t as a f u l l y a c c r e d i t e d b a r r i s t e r , Judge B e g b i e s a t w a t c h i n g him from t h e k i t c h e n window of a f r i e n d ' s house a t Y a l e .  To h i s d e l i g h t t h e b a r r i s t e r had g r e a t d i f f i -  c u l t y i n mounting h i s h o r s e , and when f i n a l l y he d i d so he p i t c h e d headlong i n t o a t h o r n bush on the o t h e r s i d e . y e l l e d w i t h d e l i g h t and rushed out t o h e l p h i s f a l l e n  Begbie col-  league.  61.  Begbie t o — — ,  November 21, 1863, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -62Wymond Walkem r e l a t e s i n h i s r e m i n i s e n c e s t h a t Judge Begbie had r e f u s e d t o admit h i s b r o t h e r from p e r s o n a l pique 62 a r i s i n g from the C r a n f o r d case.  I n that p a r t i c u l a r instance  the Judge had been t e c h n i c a l l y c o r r e c t . a t the time e n r o l l e d , had undertaken  Walkem, who was n o t  t o take p a r t i n t h e de-  fence o f the C r a n f o r d b r o t h e r s a t L i l l o e t .  T h i s he was en-  t i t l e d t o do so l o n g as he d i d n o t assume t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f accredited counsel.  When t h e t r i a l opened he u n w i s e l y took  h i s seat i n the s p e c i a l p l a c e s e t a s i d e f o r b a r r i s t e r s . Judge Begbie a t once ordered h i m t o s i t elsewhere. u n w i s e l y , perhaps,  Walkem o b j e c t e d ,  but'With a c e r t a i n amount o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  As the Judge d i d n o t p e r m i t people t o oppose h i s w i l l i n c o u r t he shouted a t Walkem, and o f course a n o i s y scene ensued. There were, however, o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . By a d m i t t i n g B a r n s t o n he showed t h a t he was n o t b l i n d l y p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t Canadian c o u n s e l .  He p r e f e r r e d , however, t o have  E n g l i s h b a r r i s t e r s p r a c t i s i n g a t t h e B r i t i s h Columbia bar.  He  seems t o have c o n s i d e r e d them b e t t e r t r a i n e d and, on the whole, men o f h i g h e r i n t e g r i t y .  A t t h a t time the p e c u l i a r c o n d i t i o n s  p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e g o l d f i e l d s doubly j u s t i f i e d h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the h i g h e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s .  The miners were l i t i g -  i o u s by i n c l i n a t i o n and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n l e n t i t s e l f t o d i s pute.  They were thus n a t u r a l p r e y f o r d i s h o n e s t lawyers who,  i n f e s t i n g m i n i n g communities, would encourage l i t i g a t i o n f o r the f e e s they c o u l d g e t o u t o f i t ,  some o f them going so f a r  as t o c o n s p i r e t o b r i n g a c t i o n on f a l s e charges w i t h a view t o 62. Walkem, Wymond, S t o r i e s o f E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Vancouver N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , 1914, p.26.  s h a r i n g the proceeds i n the event o f winning the case. Techn i c a l l y known as champerty, t h i s p r a c t i c e would have eaten i n t o the p r o s p e r i t y o f the community and dragged the c o u r t s i n t o the g u t t e r .  F e a r i n g t h i s i n p a r t i c u l a r and low  standards  i n g e n e r a l , Judge Begbie, an abstemious and u p r i g h t man, not l o o k f a v o r a b l y on a t o s s p o t from Upper Canada.  could  L i k e those  o f everybody e l s e , h i s judgments were compounded o f p r e j u d i c e s , guesses and a modicum o f sense. The bulk o f Judge Begbie's correspondence i s concerned w i t h the problems d e s c r i b e d above.  I t i s thus the o n l y e x i s t -  i n g r e c o r d o f h i s s e r v i c e to B r i t i s h Columbia i n l a y i n g down the s t r u c t u r e o f the law. H i s despatches do not g i v e a comp l e t e account o f t h i s . i m p o r t a n t work because so much p o l i c y was  determined by c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Governor and h i s o f f i -  cials.  I n the same manner the Judge kept i n t o u c h w i t h the  m a g i s t r a t e s , g o l d commissioners and p o l i c e as he rode through the c o u n t r y .  He heard t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s , c o n s i d e r e d  .problems and c a r r i e d t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s a s p e c i a l sense he was represented  their  to the government.  In  the government on horseback, f o r he  both the l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s of  the crown. H i s o t h e r g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n to B r i t i s h Columbia, and indeed, t o the Dominion, was l a w and o r d e r .  the p a r t he p l a y e d i n p r e s e r v i n g  U n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s achievements i n t h i s regard  have passed i n t o l e g e n d , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t p o s t e r i t y p i c t u r e s him as a r u t h l e s s man  who,  by a l o n g s e r i e s o f hangings,  cowed the e n t i r e m i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n t o submission British flag.  to the  Such a p o r t r a i t i s d i s t o r t e d , f o r he was  by  no  -64means unaided i n h i s work, he sentenced v e r y few men t o death, and an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was law abiding.  There were, however, a number o f gunmen and rowdies  i n t h e country who might v e r y w e l l have t u r n e d t h e c o l o n y ups i d e down had they been p e r m i t t e d t o d i s r e g a r d t h e l a w .  Dis-  o r d e r begets anarchy and when anarchy p r e v a i l s t h e p e a c e f u l c i t i z e n s seek a i d wherever i t can be o b t a i n e d .  As the b u l k  o f t h e miners were American the n e c e s s a r y a i d would have been f o r t h c o m i n g w i t h the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d . Such a c a l a m i t y d i d not come t o pass because Governor Douglas and Judge Begbie succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e l a w and p r e serving order.  With Douglas t o support him and w i t h armed  f o r c e s a t h i s c a l l Judge Begbie e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s p e c t f o r l a w thatC'Wdn him t h e p r a i s e s o f h i s worst enemies. The Judge had not- been i n the c o l o n y t h r e e months before an event o c c u r r e d which, though t r i v i a l i n I t s e l f , was t o put the f o r c e s o f l a w and order t o a t e s t and r e v e a l t h e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h which t h e a u t h o r i t i e s had t o d e a l .  E a r l y i n January,  1859, news came t o C o l o n e l Moody a t Derby, and l a t e r , t o Gove r n o r Douglas a t V i c t o r i a , t h a t a v e r y s e r i o u s outbreak o f d i s o r d e r had taken p l a c e a t Y a l e .  Without w a i t i n g f o r i n -  s t r u c t i o n s from the Governor, Moody s e t out f o r Y a l e w i t h C a p t a i n Grant and a company o f twenty sappers.  I n the mean-  time Douglas had r e c e i v e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y l e t t e r from C a p t a i n Whannell, t h e m a g i s t r a t e a t Y a l e , who d e c l a r e d t h a t he had been s e t upon by a band o f armed r u f f i a n s under the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e n o t o r i o u s Ned McGowan.  These men, he continued, had  entered h i s c o u r t d u r i n g s e s s i o n , s e i z e d him, h i s j a i l e r and  two p r i s o n e r s and c a r r i e d them o f f t o H i l l ' s Bar. 63 e l u s i o n he wrote:  I n con-  The town and the d i s t r i c t are i n a s t a t e b o r d e r i n g on anarchy; my own and the l i v e s o f the c i t i z e n s are i n imminent p e r i l . . . A n e f f e c t i v e blow must a t once be s t r u c k on the o p e r a t i o n s o f these outlaws, e l s e I tremble f o r the w e l f a r e o f the Colony. Douglas f e a r e d an outbreak o f the k i n d d e s c r i b e d by Whannell as much as a n y t h i n g t h a t could b e f a l l the c o l o n y .  He remem-  bered McGowan's a r r i v a l i n V i c t o r i a seven months b e f o r e a t t h e head o f a gang o f American a d v e n t u r e r s , many o f whom had taken p a r t i n "Walker's r a i d on N i c a r a g u a .  McGowan, whom everybody  knew t o be wanted by the V i g i l a n t e s o f San F r a n c i s c o , had f i r e d a s a l v o o f guns as h i s s h i p e n t e r e d the h a r b o r .  The  Governor thus saw, i n what he b e l i e v e d t o be an i n s u r r e c t i o n l e d by t h i s man, a c h a l l e n g e t o B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y which, i f not answered, would c u l m i n a t e i n another Champoeg. Douglas a t once secured a i d from the Boundary Commission and from H.M.S. S a t e l l i t e .  T h i s f o r c e , c o n s i s t i n g o f a hun-  dred marines and b l u e j a c k e t s complete w i t h a s m a l l cannon, was despatched t o L a n g l e y whence i t was t o proceed up r i v e r on o r d e r s from C o l o n e l Moody. L i e u t e n a n t Mayne, who had been sent i n advance by canoe, caught up W i t h Moody a t Hope, where he was about t o embark w i t h Judge Begbie f o r Y a l e .  The t h r e e a r r i v e d on a S a t u r d a y  to f i n d no s i g n s o f d i s o r d e r or>of an i n s u r r e c t i o n .  On the  63. Howay, F.W., The l a r l y H i s t o r y o f F r a s e r R i v e r Mines, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1926, p.57.  f o l l o w i n g day C o l o n e l Moody h e l d d i v i n e s e r v i c e i n the c o u r t house f o r a l a r g e c o n g r e g a t i o n o f miners. The events t h a t had l e d t o the despatch o f a hundred s a i l o r s and marines proved t o be n o t h i n g more dangerous than a c l a s h between two f a t u o u s m a g i s t r a t e s . 1858,  Gn Christmas Day,  a H i l l ' s Bar miner had a s s a u l t e d a negro named D i c k s o n .  The miner, a man named F a r r e l , f l e d w i t h an accomplice t o H i l l ' s Bar.  M a g i s t r a t e Whannell o f T a l e i s s u e d a warrant f o r  t h e i r a r r e s t and sent i t t o M a g i s t r a t e P e r r i e r o f H i l l ' s B a r , r e q u e s t i n g him t o s e i z e the men and send them t o him t o f a c e trial. so.  P e r r i e r , who had hear F a r r e l ' s s t o r y , r e f u s e d t o do I n s t e a d , he i s s u e d a warrant f o r t h e u n f o r t u n a t e negro,  whom the o v e r - z e a l o u s Whannell had clapped i n j a i l pending t h e t r i a l o f P a r r e l , and sent Constable H i c k s o n down t o Y a l e t o a r r e s t Dickson.  H i c k s o n , i t appears, was o v e r b e a r i n g , and so  enraged t h e s e n s i t i v e m a g i s t r a t e o f Y a l e t h a t he Imprisoned him f o r contempt o f c o u r t .  P e r r i e r was a l s o s e n s i t i v e about  the honor o f h i s c o u r t , and r e g a r d i n g the a r r e s t o f h i s cons t a b l e as an a c t o f contempt sent a posse o f men t o rescue H i c k s o n and t o a r r e s t h i s b r o t h e r m a g i s t r a t e , t h e j a i l e r and 64 the negro. to  Though armed, Whannell was o b l i g e d t o g i v e i n  s u p e r i o r numbers.  He was a r r a i g n e d b e f o r e P e r r i e r and  f i n e d f i f t y d o l l a r s f o r contempt o f c o u r t . While t h e s e s e r i o - c o m i c events were t a k i n g p l a c e , t h e miners o f Y a l e and H i l l ' s Bar began t o h o l d i n d i g n a t i o n 64. McGowan l e d t h e posse, a f a c t t h a t gave the whole a f f a i r such a bad odor.  meetings t o champion the cause o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m a g i s t r a t e s . I t i s not unreasonable t o assume t h a t a v i o l e n t outbreak might have t a k e n p l a c e had i t not been f o r the r a p i d i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the a u t h o r i t i e s .  The T a l e miners were adherents o f the San  F r a n c i s c o V i g i l a n c e Committee, w h i l e those o f H i l l ' s Bar had been p a r t i s a n s o f the Law and Order f a c t i o n , r e a l l y an aggreg a t i o n o f the l a w l e s s element.  Judge Begbie s a i d o f them  w i t h t r u t h t h a t the l i v e s o f t h e i r l e a d e r s would not be worth 65 "an hour's purchase i n any s t r e e t i n San F r a n c i s c o " .  These  men n a t u r a l l y regarded the miners o f T a l e as dangerous enemies and were l i k e l y t o shoot i t out w i t h them a t the l e a s t provocation.  The danger o f t h i s l a t e n t antagonism became c l e a r when  Judge Begbie suspended the H i l l ' s Bar m a g i s t r a t e , P e r r i e r , from the r o l l s .  S h o r t l y a f t e r h e a r i n g t h i s McGowan happened t o  meet Dr. F i f e r , a former member of the V i g i l a n c e  Committee.  Words ensued and McGowan a t t a c k e d the d o c t o r on the s t r e e t , o n l y a few y a r d s from where Moody and Begbie were q u a r t e r e d . C o l o n e l Moody was alarmed.  He a t once sent o r d e r s t o  the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s t o march from Hope t o T a l e and t o the marines and s a i l o r s t o proceed.from L a n g l e y . morning t h e E n g i n e e r s had reached T a l e .  By the next  Deeming t h i s show o f  f o r c e s u f f i c i e n t , Moody s e n t word t h a t o n l y the marines need continue on t h e i r way.  McGowan, who had never encountered  anything l i k e t h i s before, surrendered himself, apologized to Moody and p a i d a f i n e imposed by Judge B e g b i e . 65.  Begbie t o Douglas, January 14, 1859, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -68Ned McGowan's War,  as the i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e d above have  come t o be known i n the h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, thus ended p e a c e f u l l y enough.  As a f i t t i n g G i l b e r t i a n f i n a l e Med  and h i s  f r i e n d s e n t e r t a i n e d the v a r i o u s o f f i c e r s and o f f i c i a l s a t luncheon. W i t h the passage o f time, however, the events j u s t desc r i b e d have become s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the student  of the p e r i o d .  Viewed i n r e t r o s p e c t they a f f o r d an answer t o many of t h e basic questions  concerning  the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f law and o r d e r .  c l e a r from the f i r s t t h a t Governor Douglas was the l a r g e r i s s u e s i n v o l v e d and t h a t he was  It is  k e e n l y aware of  both w i l l i n g  and  a b l e t o use overwhelming f o r c e and t o go t o any expense t o make 66 the Queen's law supreme. colony i n 1863,  The R o y a l E n g i n e e r s ,  left  the  were always at Judge Begbie's back, as i t were,  d u r i n g the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d . continued  who  A f t e r t h e i r departure  i t was  a  source of s t r e n g t h t h a t n a v a l f o r c e s c o u l d be marched  i n t o the i n t e r i o r i n the event of s e r i o u s t r o u b l e . sometimes argued t h a t the n a t u r e a d e t e r r e n t t o crime.  The  It is  of'the country l e n t i t s e l f  c r i m i n a l , i t i s s a i d , had o n l y  as one  p l a c e o f e g r e s s , and t h a t was through the mouth o f the E r a s e r , where I n s p e c t o r Brew and h i s c o n s t a b l e s kept a sharp eye open 67 f o r such men. What c r i m i n a l i n the i n t e r i o r c o u l d hope t o  66. B r i t i s h Columbian, June 27, 1861, p.1. Contains an e x c e r p t from "Harper" f o r May of the same y e a r , s t a t i n g t h a t C a p t a i n W r i g h t of the E n t e r p r i s e charged s i x or seven thousand d o l l a r s f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g t r o o p s . 67. Howay, E.W., Sage, W.N., Angus, H.E., B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Toronto, Ryerson, 1942, p.175.  -69make h i s way through an almost e n d l e s s w i l d e r n e s s w i t h o u t succumbing t o v i o l e n c e o r s t a r v a t i o n ?  T h i s i s an a t t r a c t i v e  argument, but one w i t h which Judge Begbie would not agree, f o r he c o n s i d e r e d escape easy and t h a t t h e c o u n t r y l e n t i t s e l f t o 68 crime f o r t h a t r e a s o n .  Whatever t h e r o l e o f geography, i t  i s c l e a r t h a t t h e c h i e f f a c t o r i n t h e maintenance o f law, as the  a f f a i r a t T a l e shows, was t h e d e s i r e and w i l l f o r o r d e r  t h a t animated Governor Douglas and h i s o f f i c i a l s , and t h e overwhelming, armed power t h e y had a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l i n t h e event of t r o u b l e t o o s e r i o u s f o r t h e g a l l a n t but p i t i f u l l y  small  police force. The McGowan i n c i d e n t thus forms t h e b a s i s o f an i n t e r e s t ing  comparison o f c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h and American t e r r i t o r y .  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e miners i n B r i t i s h Columbia was Americans and n e a r l y a l l o f them had come from t h e g o l d f i e l d s o f C a l i f ornia.  They belonged t o t h e same m i n i n g f r o n t i e r and so no  d i s t i n c t i o n can be made between t h e groups n o r t h and south o f the  b o r d e r i n terms o f s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  The  m a j o r i t y o f t h e men i n t h e American west c h e r i s h e d l a w and o r d e r as much as t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s who had pushed n o r t h i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia. the  common o r d e r and t h e m i n i n g a r e a s were t o r n w i t h feud and  faction. for  Y e t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s l a w l e s s n e s s was  Good and bad elements s t r u g g l e d f o r c o n t r o l which  v a r i o u s reasons t h e s t a t e and f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s had  f a i l e d to maintain.  68.  Begbie t o Douglas, November 30, 1861, Begbie L e t t e r s .  S i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s emerged b r i e f l y at T a l e and H i l l ' s Bar. The l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , P e r r i e r and Whannell, proved t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the o f f i c e s t h e y h e l d .  As i n the U n i t e d States  when a u t h o r i t y proved weak a l a w l e s s f a c t i o n began t o a s s e r t i t s e l f , t o be opposed by another, which, i n the name of law and o r d e r , was ready t o e m b r o i l the community i n what amounted to l i t t l e b e t t e r than gang w a r f a r e .  But u n l i k e the author-  i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , those i n B r i t i s h Columbia were w i l l i n g and a b l e t o suppress Law and Order and V i g i l a n c e Commi t t e e s a l i k e , whether they appeared a t T a l e and H i l l ' s Bar o r anywhere e l s e .  Nor c o u l d t h e r e be found i n . t h e American West  a body o f l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s and p o l i c e so r e s o l u t e and so de69 v o t e d t o duty as those i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  As f o r Judge  Begbie, both f r i e n d and f o e agreed t h a t he was the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the Queen's law. I t i s apparent from such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t Judge Begbie o c c u p i e s a somewhat l e s s prominent accorded t o him i n l e g e n d .  p l a c e i n h i s t o r y than t h a t  He d i d ' n o t work a l o n e , m a i n t a i n i n g  o r d e r singlehanded as Douglas had done i n the summer of  1858.  With Governor Douglas t o support him, and a s m a l l but e f f i c i e n t body o f l a w o f f i c e r s a t h i s s i d e , he was  the s t r o n g arm o f a  w e l l c o n s t i t u t e d system o f government and l a w which, a u t o c r a t i c as i t was,  served t o keep the c o l o n y B r i t i s h when i t might  e a s i l y have become American. 69. T r i m b l e , W.J., The M i n i n g Advance i n t o the I n l a n d Empire, Madison, W i s c o n s i n , B u l l e t i n o f the U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , H i s t o r y S e r i e s I I I , no.S, 1914, p.196,  -71He rode up and down t h e c o u n t r y , y e a r by y e a r , h o l d i n g c o u r t and l a y i n g down a system o f government and law. he w i t h whom the American miners f i r s t came i n c o n t a c t .  I t was In  c r i m i n a l m a t t e r s they found him f e a r l e s s , j u s t , and on t h e whole, m e r c i f u l .  While i t i s t r u e t h a t he f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h  a r e c o r d f o r i m p a r t i a l i t y and sound judgment i n t h e c i v i l c o u r t s i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a word o f adverse c r i t i c i s m of h i s c r i m i n a l t r i a l s .  H i s methods were rough and ready but  they never p u t the accused a t an u n f a i r d i s a d v a n t a g e . Wherever he' h e l d c o u r t , whether i t was i n the o f f i c i a l government b u i l d i n g s , i n a barn o r a s t r i d e h i s horse i n t h e open a i r he managed t o c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i v e atmosphere E n g l i s h c o u r t o f law.  o f an  He c a r r i e d h i s robes w i t h him and was  always c l a d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o the c o u r t over which he happened to p r e s i d e . I n c r i m i n a l c a s e s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n murder t r i a l s , ' he endeavored t o have a c h a p l a i n i n a t t e n d a n c e . In  t h e e a r l y days desperados sometimes sent him l e t t e r s 1  t h r e a t e n i n g h i s l i f e should he pass ' sentence on one o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . On some o c c a s i o n s he read these communications t o the assembled c o u r t , i n v i t i n g t h e sender t o p r o e e e d w i t h t h e a s s 70 a s s i n a t i o n . I t i s r e l a t e d t h a t once w h i l e seated on t h e upper f l o o r o f an h o t e l verandah he overheard a group o f r u f f i a n s o f 71 t h i s k i n d l a y i n g p l a n s t o shoot him as he rode out o f town.  70. A s t o r y i s t o l d o f h i s c a l l i n g on one o f these anonymous l e t t e r w r i t e r s and g i v i n g him a f r i e n d l y but f i r m l e c t u r e on t h e b e n e f i t s o f good b e h a v i o r . 71. Beck, A.E., " S i r Matthew B e g b i e , T e r r o r o f Lawbreakers of B.C. E i f t y Y e a r s Ago," Vancouver Sunday P r o v i n c e , Maga z i n e S e c t i o n , p.S.  A f t e r l i s t e n i n g f o r some time he went t o h i s room and r e t u r n e d w i t h a p a i l o f s l o p s which he emptied over t h e i r heads t o show his  contempt f o r them. He had not r i d d e n c i r c u i t many times b e f o r e news spread  through the c o u n t r y t h a t Governor Douglas' Judge had an i r o n hand.  Lawbreakers  apprehended.  l e a r n e d t o expect a s t i f f sentence i f  Many o f them, s u s t a i n e d a shock when he added a  flogging to the penalty.  Begbie b e l i e v e d t h a t a j u d i c i o u s  use o f the whip was e f f i c a c i o u s i n the case o f h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s , d e t e r r e d some and induced o t h e r s t o l e a v e the country. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e McGowan i n c i d e n t he expressed h i s views on 72 the matter t o Douglas: He (Mr. Brew) o b j e c t s v e r y much t o f l o g g i n g . My i d e a i s t h a t i f a man i n s i s t s upon behaving l i k e a b r u t e , a f t e r f a i r warning, & wont' ( s i c ) q u i t the Colony; t r e a t him l i k e a b r u t e & f l o g him. :. The S p r i n g A s s i z e s a t Hope and Y a l e i n 1861 saw some sharp sentences f o r t h e f t .  A John Burke'" appeared on a charge o f  s t e a l i n g two p a i r s o f b l a n k e t s .  When found g u i l t y Judge  Begbie gave h i m n i n e months hard l a b o r , and two"Chinese, who had s t o l e n a p i s t o l , he gave two y e a r s w i t h hard l a b o r .  It  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e t h a t p r i s o n e r s a w a i t i n g t r i a l grew apprehensive as t h e a s s i z e s drew near.  A number o f  c r i m i n a l s broke out o f L i l l o e t j a i l when they heard o f h i s approach.  72.  They knew they were g u i l t y and they knew what t o  Begbie t o Douglas, March 25, 1859, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -73expect.'° C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r b e l i e f he was more i n c l i n e d , t o l e n i e n c y than s e v e r i t y when on those almost r a r e o c c a s i o n s i t was his  duty t o pass sentence on a p r i s o n e r f o r murder.  He had a  h o r r o r o f t a k i n g human l i f e and t h e p r o s p e c t o f condemning a f e l l o w being t o death touched h i s conscience deeply.  His  h a b i t o f h a v i n g a c h a p l a i n i n c o u r t on such o c c a s i o n s was not prompted by a l o v e o f pomp. the  He was t h e k i n d o f man who f e l t  need o f s p i r i t u a l support almost as much as the p r i s o n e r .  On more t h a n one,'case he passed sentence o f death and subs e q u e n t l y expressed a p p r o v a l o f commutation.  A f t e r sentencing  the  I n d i a n , Quahook, t o death he wrote t o t h e Governor sug74 g e s t i n g t h a t he modify t h e punishment: ... the I n d i a n s and the murdered man had been g e t t ing drunk t o g e t h e r : and ... i n t h i s t h e r e was some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g about a female. I am q u i t e aware t h a t i f 2 men engage i n a b u r g l a r y o r any o t h e r crime, & one k i l l t h e o t h e r , even by a c c i d e n t , i t i s murder: but s u r e l y , when i t i s the seducer, and the f a r more g u i l t y p a r t y as t o t h e o r i g i n a l crime who i s k i l l e d i t wod. n o t be ' i r r a t i o n a l t o modify the punishment o f t h e murderer. On another o c c a s i o n , when he had sentenced an I n d i a n t o death for  murder, M a g i s t r a t e B a l l i n t e r c e d e d on h i s b e h a l f , s t a t i n g  t h a t the p r i s o n e r had saved a w h i t e man's l i f e some t h r e e years before.  Governor Douglas granted a r e p r i e v e and t h e p r i s o n e r  was h e l d i n j a i l a t L y t t o n .  Begbie wrote t o t h e Governor  73.  Begbie t o Young, June — , 1862, Begbie L e t t e r s .  74.  Begbie t o D o u g l a s  t  A p r i l 7, 1860, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -74a s k i n g f o r commutation. recommendation 75"  Though he made an attempt t o put h i s  on a l e g a l b a s i s h i s r e a l motive y/as humanitar-  ±a.n:  I am n o t a t a l l convinced t h a t h i s e x e c u t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y , a l t h o u g h I am sure t h a t i t would have been g u s t , but a f t e r so l o n g a r e p r i e v e I cannot but t h i n k t h a t the sentence ought t o be commuted t o p e n a l s e r v i t u d e f o r a term o f y e a r s . I t i s s c a r c e l y r i g h t t o keep a poor f e l l o w on the t e n t e r hooks f o r so l o n g & hang h i m a t l a s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s addresses t o j u r i e s , g e n e r a l l y u t t e r e d i n r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n , gave h i m a r e p u t a t i o n on more than one o c c a s i o n f o r a love o f imposing the supreme p e n a l t y .  In  those days t h e j u r o r s were f r e q u e n t l y Americans, many o f whom 76 were as l a w l e s s as t h e accused.  1  To B e g b i e s i n d i g n a t i o n they  sometimes brought i n v e r d i c t s o f n o t g u i l t y and manslaughter when t h e evidence p o i n t e d v e r y c l e a r l y t o p r e m e d i t a t e d murder. When t h i s happened he denounced t h e j u r y and t h e accused i n t h e h o t t e s t language, sometimes e x p r e s s i n g r e g r e t t h a t he c o u l d not hang t h e l o t o f them.  When t h e g u n m a n , G i l c h r i s t , was proved  beyond shadow o f doubt t o be g u i l t y o f d e l i b e r a t e murder, h i s c o m p a t r i o t s gave a v e r d i c t o f manslaughter. The Judge i s r e ' ' • • ' 77 p o r t e d by Wymond Walkem t o have addressed them t h u s :  75.  Begbie t o Douglas, A p r i l 20, 1861, Begbie .betters. .  76. I n the e a r l y days t h e r e were seldom enough B r i t i s h , s u b j e c t s t o c o n s t i t u t e a j u r y . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the Judge swore i n Americans on such o c c a s i o n s w i t h o u t aski n g t o o many q u e s t i o n s . The p r a c t i c e was l e g a l i z e d by the J u r o r s A c t , 1860. See B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s , 1860. 77.  Walkem, V/., op. c i t . , p.28.  -75P r i s o n e r , i t i s f a r from a p l e a s a n t d u t y f o r me, to sentence you o n l y t o imprisonment f o r l i f e . Your crime was u n m i t i g a t e d , d i a b o l i c a l murder. You deserve to be hanged. Had the j u r y performed t h e i r duty I might now have the p a i n f u l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f condemning you t o death, and you, gentlemen, are a pack o f D a l l e s h o r s e t h i e v e s , and, p e r m i t me t o say, i t would g i v e me g r e a t p l e a s u r e t o see you hanged, each and e v e r y one of you, f o r d e c l a r i n g a murderer g u i l t y o n l y of manslaughter. T h i s case i s now famous, and though everybody i s agreed t h a t G i l c h r i s t deserved t o be hanged and t h a t Judge Begbie was justified  i n making h i s b l i s t e r i n g a d d r e s s , h i s remarks have  g i v e n the l a s t i n g ' i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he would hang p r i s o n e r s v e r y g l a d l y and w i t h o u t any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f m i t i g a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as the j u r y c l a i m e d t h e r e were i n the case o f G i l christ.  Y e t the t r u t h i s t h a t the Judge was s a t i s f i e d w i t h  t h e i r v e r d i c t and perhaps g l a d t h a t he d i d not have t o impose the  death sentence. 78 wrote:  I n h i s account o f the t r i a l t o Douglas he  T h i s wod. have been o f course 'death by misadventure' i n C a l i f o r n i a - i n England G i l c h r i s t wod. p r o b a b l y have been hung - i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s not p e r haps an a l t o g e t h e r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t t h a t G i l c h r i s t was c o n v i c t e d o f manslaughter & sentenced t o p e n a l s e r v i t u d e f o r l i f e , w h i l e h i s ' f r i e n d s ' (who are w e l l known t o the p o l i c e , and t o me) have l e f t the c o l o n y and are n o t , I t h i n k , l i k e l y t o r e t u r n . Perhaps the s e c r e t o f h i s achievement i n m a i n t a i n i n g o r d e r i s to be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the c r i m i n a l ' s f r i e n d s the  country.  78.  left  They b e l i e v e d Begbie was a "hanging judge."  Begbie t o Young, January — ,  1863, Begbie L e t t e r s .  There ..was, i n d e e d , a remarkable absence o f crime throughout t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . to  Tear by y e a r Judge Begbie was able  r e p o r t t h a t t h e amount o f crime i n B r i t i s h Columbia was  very small i n proportion t o the population. the  He modestly gave  c r e d i t t o o t h e r s and never, by any means, made r e f e r e n c e  to h i s own p a r t i n t h e achievement. 79 communication on crime he wrote:  In his f i r s t  official  There have been b u t 3 murders committed s i n c e I f i r s t began t o h o l d c o u r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They were a l l committed by I n d i a n s : i n every ease the Indians' were drunk. Some n i n e t e e n months l a t e r good o r d e r c o n t i n u e d t o p r e v a i l . In  a l o n g despatch which accompanied  c a l e n d a r s o f the c o u r t s  h e l d s i n c e t h e p r e v i o u s June t h e Judge expressed h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s and went on t o g i v e h i s reasons f o r the. c o n t i n u e d peace and good o r d e r .  As t h i s i s t h e  o n l y communication i n which he wrote a t any g r e a t l e n g t h on 8G the m a t t e r i t deserves c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n : I t i s a continued subject of thankfulness that the amount o f crime s t i l l remains v e r y s m a l l i n comparison w i t h what, might have been a n t i c i p a t ed from the amount o f p o p u l a t i o n , t h e e x t e n t and d i f f i c u l t y o f the c o u n t r y over which t h e popu l a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d , the h a b i t s n a t u r a l l y i n duced by t h e u n s e t t l e d and e x c i t i n g l i f e o f a miner, and from the i m p u n i t y which c r i m i n a l s might"hope f o r , l o o k i n g t o t h e s t a t e o f commu n i c a t i o n s and the s t a t e o f t h e Country gene r a l l y , t h e p r o x i m i t y o f a l o n g open F r o n t i e r a c c e s s i b l e by u n f r e q u e n t e d p a s s e s , and the  79.  Begbie t o Douglas, A p r i l 7, 1860, Begbie L e t t e r s .  80.  Begbie t o Douglas, November 30, 1861, Begbie L e t t e r s .  n e c e s s a r i l y d i s t a n t and scanty P o l i c e f o r c e . I t i s c l e a r however t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s almost u n i v e r s a l l y r e s p e c t , and obey the laws, and v o l u n t a r i l y p r e f e r good order and p e a c e f u l i n d u s t r y , t o the v i o l e n c e and bloodshed t o w h i c h other Gold mini n g r e g i o n s have been s u b j e c t e d : and w i t h such d i s p o s i t i o n s the p o l i c e f o r c e scanty and s c a t t e r e d as i t i s , appears t o have been h i t h e r t o s u f f i c i e n t not o n l y to r e s t r a i n from crime those who might o t h e r w i s e have committed deeds of v i o l e n c e , but i n gene r a l t o b r i n g t o J u s t i c e the few persons who have a c t u a l l y been g u i l t y . The e x c e p t i o n s where c r i m i n a l s have evaded J u s t i c e d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r , are I t h i n k o n l y 3 i n number, one accused of murder w h i c h from what I have l e a r n t , would p r o b a b l y amount t o no more than manslaughter, another w i t h s h o o t i n g w i t h i n t e n t t o murder; the t h i r d f o r l a r c e n y . I n these t h r e e cases, t o o , the r e s u l t proves the g e n e r a l apprehension o f c r i m i n a l s , t h a t the o f f i c e r s o f J u s t i c e are not to be t r i f l e d w i t h f o r t h e r e i s h a r d l y a doubt but t h a t a l l these 3 persons q u i t t e d the Colony w i t h such speed t h a t p u r s u i t was u s e l e s s , and the community here are not l i k e l y t o be t r o u b l e d w i t h them.again. I am happy to say t h a t the c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s of the p a s t year do not appear t o c o n t a i n any other . p a r t i c u l a r which c a l l s f o r - e s p e c i a l remark. F o u r t e e n months l a t e r the Judge reported t h a t good order 81 tinued to p r e v a i l :  con-  I think that notwithstanding c e r t a i n occurrences the s e c u r i t y of l i f e & p r o p e r t y i n the r e moter d i s t r i c t s of the Colony i s not o t h e r w i s e t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y and w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t r a s t f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the s t a t e of any o t h e r c o u n t r y o f s i m i l a r extent i n the w o r l d . * A more d i s i n t e r e s t e d observer,  Cheadle, noted i n h i s ' j o u r n a l  81. Begbie t o Young, R e c e i v e d January 19, Begbie L e t t e r s .  1863,  -78i n the f o l l o w i n g August.: • ••Order • famously kept i n C a r i b o o : . . .only 2 murders t h i s year. Some two months l a t e r Cheadle passed the Judge near C l i n t o n and a p p a r e n t l y impressed by h i s achievements, • i f not h i s 83 appearance, j o t t e d down a s i m i l a r comment: Passed Judge Begbie on horseback. Everybody p r a i s e s h i s j u s t s e v e r i t y as the s a l v a t i o n o f Cariboo and t e r r o r o f r o w d i e s . Even the B r i t i s h Columbian, which had been such a b i t t e r opponent o f Begbie, wrote w i t h g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the good o r d e r p r e v a i l i n g i n the Kootenay.  At the b e g i n n i n g of the  r u s h t o t h a t d i s t r i c t i n the summer of 1864 t h e r e were probably a thousand men on W i l d Horse Creek.  M a g i s t r a t e O ' R e i l l y had  only f i v e constables at h i s d i s p o s a l t o deal w i t h a t h r e a t of d i s o r d e r , but when word c i r c u l a t e d t h a t Judge Begbie was  on  h i s way through the mountains w i t h .a p a r t y of M a r i n e s a l l became q u i e t as i f by magic. 84 v a i l i n g good o r d e r :  John Robson wrote o f the p r e -  On a r r i v i n g a t Kootenay Judge Begbie found an empty j a i l and a c l e a r d o c k e t - not a s i n g l e  82. Cheadle, W.B., J o u r n a l o f T r i p a c r o s s Canada, 1862-3, Ottawa, Graphic P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1914, p.222. 83.  I b i d . , p.243.  84. " P a u c i t y o f Crime", B r i t i s h Columbian, November 18, 1865, p.3.  •case, e i t h e r c i v i l o r c r i m i n a l , a w a i t i n g a b d i c a t i o n . . . I n a colony l i k e t h i s , where t h e outlawed o f s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r i e s i s supposed t o concent r a t e , the p a u c i t y o f crime i s something v e r y remarkable. U n h a p p i l y f o r Judge Begbie t h i s was one o f t h e few, i f n o t t h e o n l y o c c a s i o n , on which John Robson was able t o w r i t e about him w i t h o u t abuse and contempt.  Begbie was a c -  cused o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p e c u l a t i o n i n mines and i n l a n d , an a c t i v i t y s t r i c t l y f o r b i d d e n t o a l l o f f i c i a l s by the Governor himself.  A t t h e same t i m e t h a t storms were brewing over these  m a t t e r s t h e Judge was c a u s i n g an u p r o a r i n C a r i b o o .  As we  have seen, he had had l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e i n England and had never come t o know t h e l a w v e r y w e l l .  H i s rough and ready  methods had served v e r y w e l l i n t h e e a r l y days, but as t h e C a r i b o o developed he was n o t e q u a l t o t h e t a s k s imposed upon him as a judge i n t h e c o m p l i c a t e d l i t i g a t i o n a r i s i n g from d i s p u t e s between m i n i n g companies.  He had, t h r o u g h h i s e a r l y  e x p e r i e n c e s become a law unto h i m s e l f , and he proved u n w i l l i n g or unable t o change.  He had been a success i n t h e Canyon,  but he was t o prove a f a i l u r e i n C a r i b o o .  CHAPTER I V .  HIS HONOUR'S HONOUR  D u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d rumor o f c o r r u p t i o n i n h i g h p l a c e s spread through the two c o l o n i e s . invariably  adverted t o t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  These r e p o r t s almost on t h e p a r t o f govern-  ment o f f i c i a l s i n s p e c u l a t i o n i n mines and i n l a n d .  While  t h e r e was no law e x i s t i n g t h a t forbade government s e r v a n t s t o own p r o p e r t y  o r i n v e s t money i n l o c a l e n t e r p r i s e s Governor  Douglas very p r o p e r l y c i r c u l a r i z e d a l l o f f i c i a l s f o r b i d d i n g them t o make use o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r o f i t •85 s p e c u l a t i o n and investment. I n t h e m a t t e r o f l a n d , where s p e c u l a t i o n appears t o have been r i f e , t h e e x i s t i n g laws made i t p o s s i b l e f o r o f f i c i a l s t o secure by pre-emption o r by o u t r i g h t purchase l a r g e p a r c e l s i n areas where t h e r e were s i g n s o f an i n f l u x o f s e t t l e r s o r where t h e r e was l i k e l i h o o d o f a town d e v e l o p i n g . clamation  Under the P r o -  o f January 4, 1860, g e n e r a l l y known as t h e P r e -  emption A c t , B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s and a l i e n s who took the oath o f a l l e g i a n c e c o u l d pre-empt l a n d a t a cheap r a t e and under 86 a t t r a c t i v e terms.  The pre-emptor was r e q u i r e d t o enter  86. Pre-emption A c t , J a n u a r y 4, 1860, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o c l a m a t i o n s , 1858 - 1865. 85. v. i n f r a . , p.82, n«  -331.  i n t o p o s s e s s i o n and r e c o r d h i s c l a i m t o any q u a n t i t y not exceeding 160 a c r e s w i t h the n e a r e s t m a g i s t r a t e . fee was e i g h t s h i l l i n g s .  The r e c o r d i n g  A f t e r continuous o c c u p a t i o n and the  improvement o f t h e p r o p e r t y t o t h e v a l u e o f t e n s h i l l i n g s an a c r e t h e pre-emptor could a p p l y t o t h e l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e f o r a Certificate  o f Improvements,  T h i s e n t i t l e d him t o complete  payment f o r the p r o p e r t y a t a r a t e not exceeding t e n s h i l l i n g s an a c r e and so secure a Crown Grant o r c l e a r t i t l e . emptor c o u l d , a f t e r t h e C e r t i f i c a t e  The p r e -  o f Improvements had been  g r a n t e d , t r a n s f e r h i s i n t e r e s t s t o a purchaser who would comp l e t e the payments t o t h e Crown.  The pre-emptor was a l s o  permitted t o acquire a d j o i n i n g land. I n t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f January SO, 1860, p r o v i s i o n was made f o r t h e s a l e o f suburban l o t s and surveyed c o u n t r y lands by a u c t i o n , and when u n s o l d by a u c t i o n , by p r i v a t e s a l e a t the p r i c e o f t e n s h i l l i n g s an a c r e and t h e b a l a n c e payable a t the e x p i r a t i o n o f two y e a r s .  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s enactment l a r g e  areas were bought as soon as t h e R o y a l Engineers had completed the s u r v e y s . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , had been passed w i t h a view t o e s t a b l i s h i n g farming communities i n the c o l o n y and as such was a w i s e p r o v i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, i t d i d n o t prove t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y i r o n c l a d t o prevent s p e c u l a t i o n .  I n t h e matter o f p r e -  emptions t h e r e was a number o f l o o p h o l e s o f which the shrewd and unscrupulous among t h e miners and government o f f i c i a l s took advantage.  When, f o r i n s t a n c e , , i t became apparent t h a t  the development o f a new m i n i n g area would be f o l l o w e d by an  -82i n f l u x o f p o p u l a t i o n and the growth o f a town t o serve as a d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e f o r t h e new d i g g i n g s , s p e c u l a t o r s would pre-empt l a n d , secure C e r t i f i c a t e s o f Improvements from easygoing m a g i s t r a t e s , and s e l l i t as an e n t i r e b l o c k o r i n even more p r o f i t a b l e q u a n t i t i e s as town l o t s .  O f f i c i a l s seldom  enquired t o o c l o s e l y i n t o t h e matter o f improvements and p r e emptions were not always r e c o r d e d at t h e o f f i c e o f the n e a r e s t magistrate. pre-emption  The i n f o r m a l i t y o f r e c o r d i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a 87 c l a i m a t Lac L a Hache.  As t h e l c c a l m a g i s t r a t e  was absent two c l a i m a n t s appeared before Judge Begbie, who was h o l d i n g c o u r t a t B r i d g e Creek, and submitted t h e i r c l a i m s . These were, as u s u a l , w r i t t e n on blank paper, and t h e Judge s c r i b b l e d an endorsement on them.  He took no s t e p s t o see  t h a t they were r e c o r d e d w i t h t h e l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e .  One o f  the a p p l i c a n t s took t h i s s t e p on h i s own v o l i t i o n , but t h e other d i d not.  The l a t t e r subsequently o b t a i n e d a C e r t i f i -  cate o f Improvements from a m a g i s t r a t e a t C l i n t o n who, i t 1  seems, was s a t i s f i e d w i t h Begbie s'endorsement and accepted the p e t i t i o n e r ' s word f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e improvements. S i x t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1878, t h e same man submitted  these  rough documents, o f which t h e government had no r e c o r d , and obt a i n e d h i s Crown Grant. Under these c o n d i t i o n s i t was easy t o o b t a i n l a n d and a government r u l i n g i n 1861 d e f i n i t e l y r e s t r i c t e d l o c a l magist r a t e s i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers when c l a i m s 87. L a i n g , F.W., C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on the Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858 - 1871, V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l Archives, 1939, p.10.  -83were made.  I n a l e t t e r dated A p r i l 3, 1861, t o T.C. Brew,  the m a g i s t r a t e a t New Westminster who had succeeded 88 the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y wrote:  Spaulding,  I t appears t o H i s E x c e l l e n c y . . . t h a t Mr. S p a u l d i n g , when a c t i n g as r e c o r d i n g o f f i c e r . . . w a s i n the h a b i t o f r e f u s i n g t o r e c o r d pre-emption c l a i m s by reason o f l a n d being a l r e a d y recorded o r occupied, o r f o r some other reason; whereas i t i s t h e duty o f the, r e c o r d i n g o f f i c e r t o accept any r e c o r d which may be tendered t o him, even though a t t h e time he may be p r i v a t e l y o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e document i s v a l u e l e s s , because every a p p l i c a n t has t h e r i g h t t o form h i s own o p i n i o n and t o make h i s own c l a i m and t o support h i s own r i g h t as he l e g a l l y may and he i s not t o be p r e v e n t e d from a s s e r t i n g those r i g h t s by any one's p r i v a t e o p i n i o n . T h i s r u l i n g , which was embodied i n a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r on A p r i l 89 20, 1860, opened t h e way f o r s p e c u l a t i o n .  I t was now  p o s s i b l e t o pre-empt l a n d i n any p l a c e where the government was  about t o make r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r a t o w n s i t e , t h e m a g i s t r a t e s  being powerless t o r e f u s e such p e t i t i o n s .  At f i r s t sight the  r u l i n g appears t o have been something o f a blunder.  Governor  Douglas, however, d i d not have the a c t i v i t i e s o f p r i v a t e specu l a t o r s i n mind when he d i r e c t e d S e c r e t a r y Young t o i s s u e these i n s t r u c t i o n s .  H a v i n g l e a r n e d t h a t government o f f i c i a l s  were up t o t h e i r ears i n s p e c u l a t i o n , he decided t o render such a c t i v i t i e s i m p o s s i b l e i n the f u t u r e .  To prevent magis-  t r a t e s from r e f u s i n g t o r e c o r d pre-emptions on l a n d they thems e l v e s d e s i r e d he i s s u e d the c i r c u l a r c i t e d above. 88.  L a i n g , op. c i t . , p.10.  89.  I b i d . , p.11.  That the  -84. i n s t r u c t i o n s opened the way oversight.  f o r the p u b l i c t o s p e c u l a t e was  H i s second step was  d i r e c t and f i n a l .  an  He i n -  s t r u c t e d Young t o w r i t e d i r e c t l y to the o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d , o r d e r i n g them t o a b s t a i n from such a c t i v i t i e s and admonishing them s e v e r e l y . Governor Douglas* i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t w h i l e m a g i s t r a t e s were not s e r i o u s l y i m p l i c a t e d i n l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n e i t h e r by pre-emption or by the m a n i p u l a t i o n of the s a l e of surveyed l a n d s , h i g h e r o f f i c i a l s were deeply i n v o l v e d . i s no evidence t o show t h a t Judge Begbie was  guilty,  There  but  Douglas d i s c o v e r e d t h a t C o l o n e l Moody, through the advantages he enjoyed as C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works, had cured i n the New  se90  Westminster d i s t r i c t alone n e a r l y 2,000 a c r e s .  The Governor's views on the matter and a s t r o n g p r o h i b i t i o n were expressed i n a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r dated A p r i l 5, 1861. In a d d i t i o n S e c r e t a r y Young wrote a s t r o n g l e t t e r t o Moody on the 91 same d a t e . A s i m i l a r communication was sent t o George Hunter Cary, the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l .  I t summarized h i s a c t i v 92  i t i e s and c o n t a i n e d a sharp rebuke f o r h i s c u p i d i t y . f a r as Cary was  So  concerned, Governor Douglas' admonition had  salutary effect.  He made no f u r t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n s and  h i s various claims to lapse.  90.  L a i n g , op. c i t . ,  91.  Ibid.,  92.  Loc. c i t .  p.12.  p.11.  a  allowed  C o l o n e l Moody, however, seems  t o have d i s r e g a r d e d  the Governor's i n s t r u c t i o n s and t o have  continued  to purchase land up to the time of h i s departure f o r 93 England i n 1863. S i m i l a r rumors of s p e c u l a t i o n i n mining c l a i m s on  the  p a r t of government servants; began t o c i r c u l a t e through the colony.  When the t i d e of p u b l i c i n d i g n a t i o n had r i s e n to a  c o n s i d e r a b l e h e i g h t the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t came out w i t h a 94 s t r o n g but not immoderate a r t i c l e on the s u b j e c t . no a c c u s a t i o n s  I t made  or a l l e g a t i o n s but p o i n t e d out t h a t p u b l i c s e r -  v a n t s , i n c l u d i n g members o f the j u d i c i a r y , should be p r o h i b i t e d from s p e c u l a t i o n of t h i s k i n d i n the i n t e r e s t o f good government and the d i g n i t y of the law. 50, 1862,  Nine days l a t e r , on October  the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , a c t i n g on i n s t r u c t i o n s from  the Governor, sent a c i r c u l a r t o a l l government o f f i c i a l s s t a t i n g t h a t the p r a c t i c e must stop and t h a t a l l p u b l i c s e r vants owning mining p r o p e r t y must e i t h e r r e l i n q u i s h i t or 95 .. resign; I n the meantime M a g i s t r a t e Elwyn had read the a r t i c l e the C o l o n i s t  of October 21, and on the same day t h a t  in  Secretary  Young.had sent out the c i r c u l a r s vircote t o him from L i l l o e t , s t a t i n g t h a t he owned a share i n a c l a i m a t W i l l i a m s Creek and t h a t r a t h e r than g i v e i t up he was 93.  L a i n g , op.  cit.,  prepared t o r e s i g n i f  p.11  94. "Should Judges S p e c u l a t e i n M i n i n g C l a i m s " ? , B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , October 21, 1862, p.2. 95. C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s 1862, p.332.  Daily  L e t t e r Book, No.4., October 30,  -86-  Governor Douglas wished him t o do so.  Judge Begbie a l s o  r e c e i v e d a c i r c u l a r , but h i s answer t o Young was not couched i n the m i l d and complaisant terms employed by Elwyn.  He asked  whether the c i r c u l a r was addressed t o him s p e c i f i c a l l y .  His  c l o s i n g words were a p r e l i m i n a r y rumble of t h e v o l c a n i c i n d i g 97 n a t i o n t h a t was t o f o l l o w i n a l a t e r despatch: I am a t a l o s s t o know whether I am t o c o n s i d e r the c i r c u l a r . . . a s b e i n g addressed t o m y s e l f . I am u n w i l l i n g t o assume i t t o be so i n t e n d e d , as I shod, i n t h a t case, w i t h whatever p a i n , f e e l compelled t o answer i t a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h than by the mere acknowledgment of i t s r e c e i p t . On the same day, November 5, Young wrote t o ask the Judge outr i g h t whether o r not he had an i n t e r e s t i n a m i n i n g c l a i m i n 98 Cariboo.  B e f o r e an answer was f o r t h c o m i n g t o t h i s p o i n t e d  q u e s t i o n he r e c e i v e d Begbie's l e t t e r o f November 5 and wrote a c o o l but sharp r e p l y .  A f t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f the 99 c i r c u l a r he gave t h e Judge's k n u c k l e s a r a p : H i s E x c e l l y . does not q u i t e comprehend your obs e r v a t i o n as t o your u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o assume t h a t i t has any r e f e r e n c e t o you, and as t o the p a i n i t would cause you t o r e p l y t o t h a t . C i r c u l a r a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h than by a mere acknowledgment. The Judge's i n d i g n a t i o n knew no bounds when he r e c e i v e d  96.  Elwyn t o Young, October 30, 1868, Elwyn L e t t e r s .  97.  Begbie t o Young, November 5, 1862, Begbie L e t t e r s .  98. Young t o Begbie, November 5, 1862, L e t t e r Book, no.4, p.338, no.341. 99.  I b i d . , p.344, no.353.  -87Young's l e t t e r o f November 5.  A f t e r the usual curt o f f i c i 100 acknowledgments he gave r e i g n t o h i s f e e l i n g s : I e n t i r e l y deny the r i g h t o f any man (except i n a s u i t p r o p e r l y i n s t i t u t e d ) t o have any answer from me a t a l l concerning my own p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y e i t h e r i n o r out o f t h i s c o l o n y - and I r e s e r v e to m y s e l f t h e e n t i r e r i g h t o f answering o r r e f u s i n g t o answer any q u e s t i o n s o f the above c h a r a c t e r for the future. On t h e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n however I f e e l a t l i b e r t y t o i n f o r m you t h a t I do not h o l d and have never y e t h e l d any mining c l a i m o r any p a r t o f any m i n i n g c l a i m i n t h e Cariboo d i s t r i c t o r elsewhere i n t h i s Colony o r i n Vancouver I s l a n d e i t h e r i n my own r i g h t o r as t r u s t e e f o r any other p e r s o n .  He had, however, g i v e n some cause f o r g o s s i p , as he was com p e l l e d t o admit i n t h e next paragraph: Yftiere r e p o r t s a r e , as i n t h e p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e , e n t i r e l y harmless and i n d i f f e r e n t , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o a s s i g n any f o u n d a t i o n f o r them. But i f t h e r e p o r t t o wch. you a l l u d e be the same wch. has o f t e n been t a l k e d o f i n my p r e s ence, i t may ( i f I may h a z a r d a guess) have v e r y n a t u r a l l y a r i s e n from the circumstance t h a t i n September l a s t w h i l e a t W i l l i a m s Creek, I advanced some money t o a Mr. H.P. Walker, t o enable him t o complete t h e purchase money f o r an i n t e r e s t i n a m i n i n g c l a i m t h e r e , wch. he purchased a c c o r d i n g l y . - I n some sense i t i s p e r f e c t l y t r u e t h e r e f o r e , even t h a t I am i n terested i n that claim; f o r i t c e r t a i n l y i s a contingency, t h a t i f t h a t c l a i m t u r n s out t o be unremunerative I s h a l l not be r e p a i d my a d vance so soon, perhaps n o t a t a l l , as wod. be the case i f i t should t u r n out t o be r i c h . But upon t h a t c l a i m s p e c i f i c a l l y I have no mortgage, no l i e n , n o r any d e c l a r a t i o n o f t r u s t r e l a t i n g t o t h e whole o r any p a r t o f the c l a i m . 5  01  I n c l o s i n g he l a p s e d from t h e l e g a l i t i e s o f t h e above and g  100.  Begbie t o Young, November 19, 1862, Begbie L e t t e r s  101.  From a man named T r a v i s .  Walker was a b a r r i s t e r .  -88e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s anger once more: The enumeration o f these d e t a i l s appears t o me so i m p e r t i n e n t t h a t I shod, not know i n what terms t o a p o l o g i z e f o r communicating them i n a p u b l i c d e s p a t c h , were i t not t h a t they r e a l l y seemed t o be i n q u i r e d a f t e r i n your despatch o f the 5 t h i n stant. Governor Douglas accepted t h i s l e t t e r as an u n q u a l i f i e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the charges made, and i n t i m a t e d h i s deep s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the m a t t e r .  Rumors, he s a i d , were b e i n g sedu-  l o u s l y spread i n London as w e l l as i n B r i t i s h Columbia and he was g l a d t o be i n a p o s i t i o n t o f o r w a r d a d e n i a l t o the home a u t h o r i t i e s should t h e y r e q u i r e i t .  He p o i n t e d o u t , however,  t h a t where p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s were r e p o r t e d t o be c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h p u b l i c d u t i e s i t was the duty o f the E x e c u t i v e t o pursue 102 the f u l l e s t e n q u i r i e s . Elwyn was l o t h t o r e s i g n , and b e f o r e doing so p o i n t e d out t o Young t h a t t h e miners' c o m p l a i n t t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n j u s t i c e w h i l e members o f the j u d i c i a r y were mixed up i n m i n i n g c l a i m s had, so f a r as he was concerned, no foundation i n f a c t . Of over one hundred and twenty mining d i s p u t e s s e t t l e ! i n h i s c o u r t d u r i n g the season o f 1862 o n l y two had been appealed, and i n each case h i s d e c i s i o n 103  had been confirmed i n  the Supreme Court by Judge Begbie. He f e l t compelled t o bow t o the Governor's w i s h e s , however, and r a t h e r than g i v e up h i s 102. Young t o Begbie, December 1, 1862, L e t t e r Book, No.5, p.10, no.383. 103.  Elwyn t o Douglas, December 9, 1862, Elwyn L e t t e r s .  -89i n t e r e s t s , tendered h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n the same m a i l . W h i l e Judge Begbie*s e x p l a n a t i o n and Elwyn's r e s i g n a t i o n gave s a t i s f a c t i o n t o Governor Douglas they d i d not g r e a t l y a l l a y p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and s u s p i c i o n .  There were, i n -  deed, not a few i n the c o l o n y who continued to be c r i t i c a l and antagonistic.  The r e f o r m element i n the two c o l o n i e s , l e d by  DeCosmos and Robson, regarded a l l o f f i c i a l misdemeanors as the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t o f a r b i t r a r y government. bia,  In B r i t i s h  which was governed l a r g e l y from Vancouver I s l a n d  Columby a  governor and o f f i c i a l s whom many c o l o n i s t s regarded as despots, Judge Begbie came t o be a symbol o f a l l t h a t was bad i n a r b i trary rule.  He had a l r e a d y f a l l e n f o u l o f j u r i e s and b a r r -  i s t e r s and was a t the time o f the d i s p u t e about t o be desc r i b e d , up t o h i s e a r s i n the C r a n f o r d t r i a l s .  H i s conduct  i n these cases brought d i s c r e d i t t o him as a Judge and t o the j u d i c i a r y o f which he was the head.  He was handsome, c o u r t l y  and p h y s i c a l l y i m p r e s s i v e , and he was p r o b a b l y the best educ a t e d man i n the c o l o n y .  These q u a l i t i e s , w h i c h won r e s p e c t  i n some, engendered a sense o f i n f e r i o r i t y I n o t h e r s which i n i t s t u r n begot antagonism and. m a l i c e .  He was o p i n i o n a t e d and  i r o n i c i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , and when angered h i s sarcasam c u t l i k e a whip.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t p e o p l e were ready t o be-  l i e v e the worst o f him and a n x i o u s f o r a chance t o m a l i g n him. Such an a t t a c k came o n l y a week a f t e r the Judge had w r i t t e n t o deny p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the m i n i n g v e n t u r e i n C a r i boo.  On November 26 an anonymous l e t t e r appeared i n the  104.  Elwyn t o Young, December 9, 1862, Elwyn L e t t e r s .  B r i t i s h Columbian h i n t i n g b r o a d l y t h a t Judge Begbie had  ac-  cepted a b r i b e to secure g r a n t o f a C e r t i f i c a t e of Improvements 105 on a pre-emption a t Cottonwood. i n g the date November 7, 1862,  I t was a l o n g l e t t e r , bearand the l e t t e r A as the  nature o f the anonymous correspondent.  sig-  A r e f e r e n c e t o the  e v i l s o f gambling l e n d s support t o the view t h a t the w r i t e r was  the Rev. A r t h u r Browning, a M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r , who  had  no  use, i t appears, f o r the t o l e r a n c e accorded t o gaming by the 106 Governor and the J u d i c i a r y .  Beginning w i t h references to  Elwyn and h i s c o n s t a b l e s , and to Begbie's l o a n to Walker t o enable him to purchase a share i n T r a v i s ' c l a i m , A then brought out a new a l l e g a t i o n , based on i n f o r m a t i o n he had recentlya c q u i r e d a t W i l l i a m s Lake, to the e f f e c t t h a t Begbie had r e c e i v e d a g i f t o f twenty a c r e s i n r e t u r n f o r u s i n g h i s i n f l u ence t o o b t a i n a C e r t i f i c a t e o f Improvements. .The  l e t t e r ran  as f o l l o w s : To the E d i t o r o f the B r i t i s h Columbian. S i r . - There i s an o l d p r o v e r b about c l o s i n g the s t a b l e door, & c , i t s v e r i f i c a t i o n may be seen i n the l a t e c i r c u l a r i s s u e d by the Government. I knew, the m a g i s t r a t e s knew, the p u b l i c knew, t h a t a Cons t a b l e i n Elwyn*s o f f i c e was working two c l a i m s d u r i n g h i s tenure o f o f f i c e , and t h a t he o n l y h e l d h i s p o s i t i o n w h i l e the success o f those c l a i m s was d o u b t f u l . Others i n t h a t o f f i c e h o l d not one c l a i m but many; and i t i s s a i d that, the v i r t u o u s Elwyn w i l l look upon t h i s c i r c u l a r as a most p r e c i o u s v e h i c l e of r e s i g n a t i o n . That the C h i e f J u s t i c e signed the cheque a s s u r i n g T r a v i s o f h i s pay i s w e l l known, and as t h e r e  105.  B r i t i s h Columbian, November 26, 1862,  p.5.  106. Howay, E.W., S c h o l e f i e l d , E.O.S., B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1914, v o l . 1 1 , p.663.  -91are more ways of k i l l i n g a cat & c , why i t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t H i s Honor may have r e c e i v e d d i v i d e n d s without purchasing a c e r t i f i c a t e . •What, i s the d i f f e r e n c e between a good mining c l a i m and a d e s i r a b l e pre-emption c l a i m . I f Judge Begbie c o u l d a c c e p t twenty a c r e s o f l a n d from Dud Moreland, and i f t h e s a i d Moreland c o u l d , on appeal t o the s a i d Judge procure a c e r t i f i c a t e o f improvement i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the w i l l o f the r e s i d e n t M a g i s t r a t e , why he, the s a i d Judge, can h o l d a c l a i m or.twenty, and f e e l no qualms of conscience w i t h a l . The f a c t i s , s i r , t h a t much of the a c t i o n o f o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n t s i n C a r i b o o was a b u r l e s q u e on the m a j e s t y o f B r i t i s h law. Cons t a b l e s whose p o v e r t y was, conspicuous p r e v i o u s t o t h e i r e n t e r i n g C a r i b o o , c o u l d , on a merely nominal s a l a r y , v e n t u r e on an o u t l a y of r i s k from which prudent men o f means would have shrunk. The s u p e r i o r s o f these men so f a r as d i s c o u n t e n a n c i n g s e t t h e example of v e n a l i t y . Thus o f f i c e r s and o f f i c i a l s became c r e a t u r e s o f i n t e r e s t and the i n s t r u m e n t s o f a l l who had p r o s p e c t s t o o f f e r -in exchange. I blame not the needy f o r t h i s , but the Government who a p p o i n t e d and s u s t a i n e d them. There are men i n t h i s Colony, and i n the magist e r i a l corps t o o , above r e p r o a c h . I t i s the i n t e r e s t o f every e x e c u t i v e t o a p p o i n t such men w i t h s a l a r i e s approximating at l e a s t to t h e i r n e c e s s i t ies. L e t the o f f i c e r s o f these he men o f chara c t e r a l s o , and l e t us hear.no more o f needy s p e n d t h r i f t s b e i n g p l a c e d i n p o s i t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y merely t o "make a r a i s e " . I cannot c l o s e t h i s w i t h o u t a d v e r t i n g t o the most a b o r t i v e e f f o r t s of the C h i e f J u s t i c e and the m a g i s t e r i a l corps of C a r i b o o i n the matter o f gambling. The c h i n k , c h i n k o f the gambling t a b l e - the c u r s e s of i t s devotees - nay, even the dead v i c t i m o f i t s f u r y told with s t a r t l i n g vividness i t s horrors. Yet no hand a r r e s t e d i t s course, no o f f i c i a l power denounced i t s presence. I t may be p r o p e r , i t i s s u r e l y easy,, t o scathe a poor w r e t c h on whom the v e r d i c t of " g u i l t y " has j u s t f a l l e n ; but i t would cause us t o see i n our C h i e f J u s t i c e a n e a r e r approach t o the f e a r l e s s d i g n i t y o f the B r i t i s h Bench d i d he a r r e s t the v i t a l i t y o f crime by the d e s t r u c t i o n of i t s cause. New Westminster, Nov.  7 t h , 1862.  A.  As h i s l e t t e r t o Young, denying p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m i n i n g  -92v e n t u r e s indicates,••Judge p e r s o n a l honor.  Begbie was  v e r y s e n s i t i v e about h i s  He had a l r e a d y had much to endure i n the  way  o f sharp c r i t i c i s m from the B r i t i s h Columbian, and he  now  stung beyond endurance.  was  Gn the Monday f o l l o w i n g A's  l e t t e r , December 1, he c a l l e d the e d i t o r , John Robson, a f u t ure P r e m i e r of the P r o v i n c e  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t o c o u r t ,  and  on the f o l l o w i n g day sentenced him t o p r i s o n f o r contempt of court. There i s d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n t o t h i s day as t o whether Judge Begbie was' g u i l t y of a c c e p t i n g a b r i b e from Dud and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . was  The  Moreland  q u e s t i o n i s a l s o asked whether he  involved i n i l l e g a l speculation i n land.  p e r s o n than the l a t e Judge Howay c o n s i d e r e d  As no l e s s a Begbie t o be  i o u s l y i m p l i c a t e d , i t i s w e l l t o examine i n d e t a i l the 107 ious  events t h a t had  l e d up t o A's  ser-  var-  famous l e t t e r .  J u s t s o u t h of the mountains where the r i c h s t r i k e s were made i n 1862  t h e r e l a y an open p r a i r i e l a n d , bounded by  L i g h t n i n g Creek and the Cottonwood"River. these streams the f o r e s t was  At the j u n c t i o n of  s c a n t y , the s o i l good, feed  p l e n t i f u l and the a r e a as a whole made an e x c e l l e n t p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e i n t o the mountains t o the n o r t h .  The p l a c e  was  soon t o be known as Cottonwood.  Some few m i l e s t o the  on L i g h t n i n g Creek, where the new  road i n t e r s e c t e d t h a t stream,  was  east,  another s p o t which gave promise of becoming a f a r m i n g  d i s t r i b u t i n g centre.  and  Known as Vanwinkle i t served as a  s t o p p i n g p l a c e f o r government o f f i c i a l s on t h e i r journeys t o the mines. W r i t i n g from t h i s p l a c e on J u l y 15, 1862, 107. Howay, S c h o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . , p.664.  Magis-  -93 t r a t e O ' R e i l l y informed S e c r e t a r y Young t h a t a number o f s p e c u l a t o r s had taken l a n d , w i t h o u t even t r y i n g t o pre-empt i t , and. were a l r e a d y p a r c e l l i n g i t and s e l l i n g town l o t s . He went on t o say t h a t he had put a stop t o t h i s p r a c t i c e and ordered them t o t a k e out proper pre-emption c l a i m s , 108 T h i s t h e s p e c u l a t o r s had done w i t h o u t a murmur. F u r t h e r a l o n g t h e Creek, a t Cottonwood, s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s were t a k i n g p l a c e .  I n t h e f i l e s of the P r o v i n c i a l  Department o f Lands t h e r e i s a Pre-emption Record f o r J u l y 23, 1862,  showing t h a t on t h a t date D.C. M o r e l a n d and  James C. Wade had d u l y pre-empted 160 a c r e s .  The r e c o r d  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a C e r t i f i c a t e o f Improvements had been o b t a i n e d b u t no date i s e v i d e n t .  None o f the r e c o r d s  shows  t h e name o f t h e o f f i c i a l who g r a n t e d t h e pre-emption o r t h e C e r t i f i c a t e o f improvements.  This p a r c e l i s o f f i c i a l l y  r e c o r d e d a s L o t 437, The a d j o i n i n g p a r c e l o f 160 a c r e s , L o t 438, was pre-empted by George M. Cox two days l a t e r , on J u l y 25. The f o l l o w i n g n o t a t i o n i s w r i t t e n on t h e record:  " T h i s c l a i m was p r e v i o u s l y recorded by him June  1 4 t h , 1862."  The r e c o r d s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t a C e r t i f i c a t e  of Improvement had been g r a n t e d , but no date i s g i v e n n o r 109 i s t h e name o f t h e r e c o r d i n g m a g i s t r a t e . 108,  O ' R e i l l y t o Young, J u l y 15, 1862,  O'Reilly Letters.  109* B r i t i s h Columbia,, Department of Lands., Land Pre-emption Records, C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , Cottonwood and L i g h t n i n g Creek A r e a , L o t s 457, 458, P./r. 169, 170. For a copy o f t h e a c t u a l r e c o r d s see L a i n g , o p . c i t . , p.331. M r , L a i n g does not g i v e the c h a i n o f t i t l e s t h a t f o l l o w these r e c o r d s i n t h e Departmental f i l e s .  -94News o f t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n soon reached the coasts f o r on J u l y 30, the B r i t i s h Columbian p r i n t e d an a r t i c l e on the 110 subject. A p a r t from two q u e s t i o n a b l e statements the r e p o r t was a c c u r a t e and v e r y p r o p e r l y i n s i s t e d t h a t the government should t a k e steps t o prevent sharp p r a c t i c e o f 111 this kind. D e s c r i b i n g the v a l u e of the l a n d as a p o t e n t i a l townsite the a r t i c l e  continued,  Three shrewd Americans s e e i n g a l l t h i s , have, we are informed, pre-empted t h r e e s e c t i o n s of 160 a c r e s each, i n such a manner as t o comprise a l l t h a t would be a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e purposes above i n d i c a t e d ; $nd, h a v i n g l a i d a p o r t i o n o f i t o f f i n town l o t s , are a c t u a l l y s e l l i n g them a t $£50 a p i e e e l Now, w h i l e we cannot but admire the shrewd e n t e r p r i s e thus e v i n c e d by these p e r s o n s , we are not b l i n d to the i m p r o p r i e t y o f p e r m i t t i n g t h i s s o r t of t h i n g t o be c a r r i e d on f o r v e r y obvious r e a s o n s . In the f i r s t p l a c e , these.men, b e i n g f o r e i g n e r s , can a c q u i r e no r i g h t s t o the s o i l , and cannot, o f course, g i v e t i t l e s w i t h the l o t s , t o those who are green enough t o purchase from them; so t h a t the b u s i n e s s of s e l l i n g such l o t s i s , under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , simply a s w i n d l e . But a p a r t f r o m t h a t , i t would be the duty of Government t o s t e p i n and l a y out a town, s e c u r i n g to the revenue the proceeds, p r o v i d e d t h a t a. town i s l i k e l y t o s p r i n g up t h e r e . We are i n f o r m e d t h a t p a r t i e s have been warned o f f , and g i v e n t o understand t h a t u n l e s s t h e y purchased l o t s they cannot be a l l o w e d upon the ground* The a u t h o r i t i e s would do w e l l t o g i v e t h i s s u b j e c t immediate a t t e n t i o n . By August M a g i s t r a t e 0 ' H e i l l y had moved down t o C o t t o n wood f r o m Vanwinkle*  I n a l e t t e r to Young on the f i r s t  of  t h a t month he r e p o r t e d t h a t M o r e l a n d , Wade and Cox had p r e -  110, 1862,  "A New p.2.  Town-site", B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 30,  111, The r e c o r d s g i v e no evidence t h a t Moreland s o l d any whatsoever. These men pre-empted two p a r c e l s , not three.  -95empted l a n d t h e r e and t h a t t h e r e was every s i g n t h a t a town would soon be e s t a b l i s h e d .  The l e t t e r c o n t a i n s no comments  on t h e l e g a l i t y o f t h e s e pre-emptions, and no request i s 112 made f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o r i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e m a t t e r .  He  had met Judge Begbie t h e r e , and may very w e l l have d i s c u s s e d the m a t t e r w i t h him, and not a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e Judge's views on the q u e s t i o n , may have sent t h i s l e t t e r t o o b t a i n o f f i c i a l comment and t o c l e a r h i m s e l f should t h e government take s t e p s i n the m a t t e r * Two weeks l a t e r , on August 15, he wrote a g a i n ,  saying  t h a t Judge Begbie was s t i l l l a i d up w i t h rheumatism a t Cotton-wood.  He s t a t e d t h a t Begbie was h i g h l y p l e a s e d  the work Cox had done on t h e road t o Q u e s n e l .  with  Cox, i t  appears, had secured a c o n t r a c t from O ' R e i l l y t o r e p a i r t h e r o a d on August 1.  On August 16, M a g i s t r a t e O ' R e i l l y wrote  a g a i n t o Young, sending an a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m M o r e l a n d , Cox and Wade f o r a c o n t r a c t t o b u i l d a b r i d g e a c r o s s t h e S w i f t • • . 113 ' • R i v e r at. i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h L i g h t n i n g Creek. This bridge, s  o f course, would b r i n g t h e Q,uesnel road r i g h t onto Cox' pre-emption.  The a p p l i c a t i o n was made on J u l y 23, t h e day  t h a t M o r e l a n d and Wade made t h e i r pre-emption c l a i m , and two days before Cox made h i s .  I t would appear t h a t t h e s e t h r e e  Americans were working t o g e t h e r i n a v e r y c l o s e p a r t n e r s h i p  112.  O ' R e i l l y t o Young, August 1, 1862, O ' R e i l l y L e t t e r s .  113, O ' R e i l l y t o Young, August 15, 16, 1862. O ' R e i l l y Letters. The S w i f t R i v e r and L i g h t n i n g Creek combine t o form the Cottonwood. The former i s o f t e n known as t h e l a t t e r *  and as we s h a l l see from remarks o f Dud Moreland*s, they p r o b a b l y h e l d the two pre-emptions j o i n t l y w i t h Moreland as 114 t h i e f partner. I n the meantime L i e u t e n a n t Palmer o f t h e Rosral E n g i n e e r s was j o u r n e y i n g to Cottonwood s i t u a t i o n there.  t o t a k e s t o c k o f the  He had broken h i s barometer on t h e way up  c o u n t r y and was anxious t o c o n c e a l t h i s from Judge Begbie, who was bound t o use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o d i s p u t e h i s c a l culations.  Palmer's antagonism t o t h e Judge i s r e f l e c t e d ". ' .115 i n h i s l e t t e r t o Moody from A l e x a n d r i a on August 17: I n C a r i b o o we s h a l l d o u b t l e s s meet w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f adventure & r e c o g n i z e a c q u a i n t a n c e s up t o t h e i r elbows i n mud. I am so s o r r y C o l , about t h e Barometer. I d i d my b e s t t o p r e s e r v e i t & g l o r i e d i n i t s u s e f u l n e s s . I f I meet the "Arch Enemy" I musn't l e t him know I am reduced t o b o i l i n g water* He must be shut up and my a l t i t u d e whatever a l t i t u d e i t may be t h r u s t w e l l down h i s t h r o a t . Happily h i s Latitude of Alexandria i s 6 miles out, h i s l o n g i t u d e p r o b a b l y 18 ... I'm s p i t e f u l , but I can't h e l p i t . He has no b u s i n e s s t o be mapping when t h e r e a r e R . C ' s i n the c o u n t r y . Palmer t r a v e l l e d northward and made h i s headquarters a t what he c a l l e d "Van Winkle C i t y " .  H i s l e t t e r from t h a t  p l a c e on August 87, a d d r e s s e d . t o Moody, i n d i c a t e s t h a t he had no s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s as to h i s a c t i o n s a t Cottonwood, but i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t he had g e n e r a l o r d e r s t o r e s e r v e  114, I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they t o o k t h e oath o f a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e Queen t o make t h e i r pre-emptions v a l i d . 115,  Palmer t o Moody, August 17, 1862, Palmer L e t t e r s .  any l a n d t h a t he thought might be r e q u i r e d f o r a  townsite:  I t r u s t t o be a b l e on my r e t u r n t o sketch f o r you a r e a l l y f a i r map of the C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t , a map t h a t w i l l be of v a l u e to miners & o t h e r s , and thus M e s s r s . B e g b i e , Spurn & Co. w i l l I s i n c e r e l y hope, be " p l a y e d o u t " . . . I omitted t o mention t h a t Cottonwood i s t h e name g i v e n t o the j u n c t i o n of L i g h t n i n g ., Creek w i t h S w i f t R i v e r , the spot I have r e s e r v e d as a t o w n s i t e and where a s m a l l mining settlement and s t o r e depot has a l r e a d y sprung up — o f course the whole of the l a n d i s a l r e a d y pre-empted and M a s t e r Begbie has h i s f i n g e r i n the p i e , but I can't h e l p that* I have a l s o to t e l l you t h a t O ' R e i l l y ( s i c ) f u l l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h me i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the mouth of L i g h t n i n g ' C r e e k possesses many advantages as a t o w n s i t e • • • I t r u s t you w i l l t h e r e f o r e approve the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I have assumed i n r e s e r v i n g f o r the Govt, a p o r t i o n of the l a n d i n t h i s neighbourhood s u i t a b l e f o r a town, & i n p o s t i n g a P u b l i c N o t i c e t o t h i s e f f e c t , a copy of which accompanies t h i s letter* I t i s apparent f r o m t h i s communication t h a t O ' R e i l l y , who  was  a f i r m f r i e n d of Begbie's and L i e u t e n a n t  Palmer,  who  was  n o t , were b o t h i n agreement t h a t the area was  by n a t u r e and circumstance f o r a t o w n s i t e and should r e s e r v e d f o r the government w i t h o u t d e l a y . h e a r d , and a p p a r e n t l y  had w i t h O ' R e i l l y about t h i s we s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e at t h i s t i m e .  be  Palmer had  b e l i e v e d , t h a t Judge Begbie was  ved i n i l l e g a l s p e c u l a t i o n i n l a n d .  suited  also invol-  What c o n v e r s a t i o n  .he  can not a s c e r t a i n from the Magistrate  O ' R e i l l y kept a  c a r e f u l d i a r y throughout h i s l i f e but u n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s descendants do not w i s h t o d i s c l o s e i t s contents*  116.  Palmer t o Moody, August 17, 1862,  Palmer L e t t e r s .  -98-  As t h e r e s i d e n t M a g i s t r a t e  i n t h e d i s t r i c t i t was  O ' R e i l l y t o whom t h e Cottonwood pre-emptors made t h e i r c l a i m s and whom, according  t o A's l e t t e r , Judge Begbie had  r e q u e s t e d t o r e g i s t e r pre-emptions a g a i n s t h i s b e t t e r judgment,  A l e t t e r w r i t t e n from T a n w i n k l e on September 2 117  e x p l a i n s h i s p a r t i n the t r a n s a c t i o n .  E v i d e n t l y uneasy  about t h e s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r Palmer had r e s e r v e d the l a n d i n q u e s t i o n , he decided t o make h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r t o Governor Douglas,  He had,  i t appears, v i s i t e d  Williams  Lake on August 50, where he l e a r n e d t h a t Cox was about t o a p p l y t o t h e Supreme Court through Mr. H.P, Walker f o r a mandamus t o compel him, Improvements.  O ' R e i l l y , t o grant a C e r t i f i c a t e of  He went on t o d e s c r i b e t h e circumstances  under which he had r e f u s e d t o grant t h i s t o Cox..  According  t o O ' R e i l l y , Cox had made a p p l i c a t i o n t o him t o pre-empt l a n d a t Cottonwood on J u l y 25. A t t h a t t i m e , O ' R e i l l y s a i d , no improvements had been made, so A e p o i n t e d  o u t t o Cox t h a t  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h e l a n d would be r e q u i r e d by t h e government and t h a t an o f f i c e r o f t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s was t h e n on h i s way t o Cottonwood to make what r e s e r v a t i o n s he necessary.  considered  Cox l o s t no t i m e , f o r as O ' R e i l l y s t a t e d , he  commenced t o improve t h e l a n d t h a t v e r y day, J u l y 25, and on the f o l l o w i n g day, two hours b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f L i e u t e n a n t Palmer, sent h i m c e r t i f i c a t e s s i g n e d by two w i t n e s s e s 117.  O ' R e i l l y ,to Young, September 2, 1862, O ' R e i l l y Letters,  «-99»  d e c l a r i n g t h a t he had improved the l a n d t o the e x t e n t o f t e n s h i l l i n g s an a c r e .  On the next day, J u l y 87, Cox  appeared i n person and a p p l i e d f o r a C e r t i f i c a t e of ment.  Improve-  T h i s , O ' R e i l l y s t a t e d , he r e f u s e d to g r a n t , because,  n o t w i s h i n g t o throw o b s t a c l e s i n the way of the government, he d i d not care t o t a k e such a s t e p w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y from the Governor.  A t t h i s p o i n t Cox secured t h e mandamus and  when O ' R e i l l y appeared i n c o u r t Judge Begby r u l e d t h a t the complainant was e n t i t l e d to the C e r t i f i c a t e and ordered O'Reilly to issue i t .  M a g i s t r a t e O'Reilly c a r e f u l l y enclosed  a copy of the mandamus. TWo  o t h e r people were i n W i l l i a m s Lake a t the time o f  Cox' a p p l i c a t i o n .  One was the m y s t e r i o u s A, and the o t h e r  was Dud M o r e l a n d .  B e f o r e the c o u r t opened JL and Moreland  met and stopped f o r a c h a t .  D u r i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n , which,  o f c o u r s e , l e d " t o t h e anonymous l e t t e r , Moreland spoke of t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s as i f he, and not Cox and Wade, were the pre-emptor, the a p p l i c a n t f o r the C e r t i f i c a t e o f Improvements and t h e complainant i n the f o r t h c o m i n g mandamusa  I t i s to  be concluded t h a t M o r e l a n d , Cox and Wade were i n v e r y c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h M o r e l a n d as c h i e f .  Such an  arrangement  i s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e b a s i s f o r the statements made by Morel a n d t o A and i n a subsequent l e t t e r t o the p r e s s . Of a l l t h e contemporary  s o u r c e s , Begbie's C o u r t Record  Book i s the most b a r r e n o f d a t a .  Whereas most Judges wrote  e x h a u s t i v e n o t e s and comments on the cases t h e y were h e a r i n g , Begbie s c r i b b l e d a few a b b r e v i a t e d sentences t h a t c o u l d have  -100l i t t l e meaning t o anybody but h i m s e l f . 1, 1862,  H i s notes f o r December  the day on which Robson was a r r a i g n e d f o r contempt  of c o u r t , were very b r i e f indeed, and on the f o l l o w i n g day, when he sentenced the e d i t o r t o j a i l , t h e r e i s no e n t r y a t all,  Prom Begbie"s b r i e f headings and Robson*s e d i t o r i a l s  i t i s p o s s i b l e to p i e c e t o g e t h e r the g e n e r a l t e n o r of h i s remarks on t h a t o c c a s i o n when he won the t i t l e o f "Tyrant Judge." A l t h o u g h the c o u r t was t o s i t a t t e n o ' c l o c k , Judge Begbie d i d not make h i s e n t r y t i l l e l e v e n - t h i r t y *  Upon  t a k i n g h i s seat he s a i d he f e l t compelled t o t a k e n o t i c e o f what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be a g r o s s contempt of c o u r t . r e a d i n the p a s t , on many o c c a s i o n s , improper  He  had  articles  d e a l i n g w i t h h i s conduct, but he had chosen to d i s r e g a r d them as they were f r e q u e n t l y so i n c o r r e c t t h a t they d i d not deserve n o t i c e .  The  statements c o n t a i n e d i n the l e t t e r signed  by A, however, c o n s t i t u t e d a d i r e c t innuendo t h a t he  accepted  twenty a c r e s as an inducement t o g i v e a f a l s e judgment i n mandamus« and so c o n s t i t u t e d a d i r e c t contempt, of c o u r t t h a t c o u l d not be p e r m i t t e d t o pass. c o n t i n u e d , was e n t i r e l y f a l s e .  T h i s innuendo, he  He had not accepted a g i f t  o f l a n d and t h e r e was not a shadow of f o u n d a t i o n t o the 118 motives a l l e g e d .  118* Judge B e g b i e , Court Notebook, December 1, 1862 A p r i l 16, 1863, p . l .  —  -101Begbie went on t o e x p l a i n t h e events which had g i v e n r i s e t o what he c o n s i d e r e d a scandalous r e p o r t . been taken i l l a t Cottonwood  He had  and as he was unable t o t r a v e l  wished t o e r e c t a s m a l l house f o r s h e l t e r and warmth. a p p l i e d t o Cox f o r a p i e c e o f l a n d .  s  He  Cox o f f e r e d him a  s i t e i n h i s own garden o r any o t h e r s i t e t h a t he might s e l e c t a t any p r i c e he cared t o pay.  As might be expected,  Begbie chose a p i e c e o f l a n d a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from the garden and o f f e r e d Cox t e n s h i l l i n g s an a c r e .  As the l a t t e r  was a pre-emptor and had t h e r e f o r e no r i g h t t o s e l l , the Judge gave him h i s note f o r t h e sum, and r e g i s t e r e d h i s own c l a i m t o pre-empt the twenty a c r e s .  A t t h i s p o i n t John  Robson's account c l o s e s , a l t h o u g h he s t a t e d t h a t t h e Judge went on t o e x p l a i n a t g r e a t l e n g t h the l a w i n t h e m a t t e r o f h i s o r d e r i n g O ' R e i l l y t o g r a n t t h e C e r t i f i c a t e o f Improvement t o Cox* Judge Begbie c l o s e d h i s a d d r e s s by s t a t i n g t h a t John Robson, i n p u b l i s h i n g A' s communication, was g u i l t y of a n  g r o s s contempt of c o u r t , and ordered him t o appear the next day t o show cause why he should n o t be committed t o p r i s o n * On t h e f o l l o w i n g day t h e e d i t o r made h i s appearance and s t a t e d t h a t A was not a t the time a c c e s s i b l e .  He was t h u s  o n l y i n a p o s i t i o n to say t h a t i f the i m p l i e d charge were u n t r u e , he r e g r e t t e d i t s p u b l i c a t i o n .  T h i s q u a l i f i e d apology  brought an o u t b u r s t of r a g e from the Judge.  He informed  Robson t h a t the had g i v e n the statement h i s emphatic cont r a d i c t i o n the day b e f o r e and t h a t a q u a l i f i e d apology  -102aggravated the form of the o f f e n s e .  When t h e e d i t o r d e c l i n e d  t o make any f u r t h e r statement Begbie turned t o a p o l i c e 119 o f f i c e r and ordered him t o l o c k the e d i t o r up. Robson went t o j a i l ••••amidst tithe cheers of the  large  crowd t h a t had assembled o u t s i d e the courthouse.  He knew  t h a t h i s i n c a r c e r a t i o n would be r e g a r d e d by a l a r g e s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the two  c o l o n i e s as an a c t of  intol-  e r a b l e tyranny and t h a t a t the p r i c e of a p a i n l e s s martyrdom he had become t h e r e c o g n i z e d  champion of c i v i l  liberty.  That n i g h t between 400 and 500 people attended a p u b l i c meeting t o p r o t e s t Judge Begbie's a c t i o n . Ramage of New  Councillor  Westminster took the c h a i r , r e s o l u t i o n s were  passed and arrangements made f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of a memorial t o be sent to the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n London,  At the  close  o f the meeting the c i t i z e n s marched t o the j a i l t o cheer the imprisoned e d i t o r , Robsonj who  had been p e r m i t t e d t o take w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s  w i t h him t o p r i s o n , wrote h i s famous e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d A V o i c e From t h e Dungeon, which appeared i n p r i n t on the '' •; --< • • ., • 120 f o l l o w i n g S a t u r d a y . He addressed h i s r e a d e r s as f o l l o w s : F e l l o w c o l o n i s t s I V/e g r e e t you from our dungeon. S t a r t l e d by the w i l d s h r i e k s of a d y i n g maniac on the one hand, and the c l a n k i n g of the murderer's :  119, p,2,  "The  Assizes',' B r i t i s h Columbian, December 3,  120, "A V o i c e from the Dungeon", December 6, 1862; p , l , '..  1862,  B r i t i s h Columbian,  -103c h a i n s on t h e o t h e r , w h i l e t h e f o u l and scant atmosphere o f our c e l l , loaded w i t h n o x i o u s e f f l u v i a from t h e f i l t h y dens occupied by l u n a t i c s , renders l i f e almost i n t o l e r a b l e , our r e a d e r s w i l l o v e r l o o k any incoherency o r want o f connected thought i n o u r writings® D e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f as t h e v i c t i m o f a deadly blow t h a t had been s t r u c k a t l i b e r t y , he went on t o say t h a t h i s own f a t e was t h e f a t e o f a n obscure i n d i v i d u a l , and i m p l o r e d h i s r e a d e r s n o t t o endanger t h e i r own freedom by a t t e m p t i n g t o l i b e r a t e h i m . The cause was t h e t h i n g *  As f o r h i m s e l f ,  Robson c o n t i n u e d , he was s u s t a i n e d by t h e thought t h a t , l i k e G a r i b a l d i , he t o o , was l y i n g i n j a i l , s u f f e r i n g f o r t h e cause of human l i b e r t y .  He f e l t , t o o , a k i n s h i p w i t h  S p a r t a c u s and B p i c t e t u s , f o r i n c l o s i n g he w r o t e : •••The P r e s s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s v i r t u a l l y e n s l a v e d . There a r e two ways o f b e i n g e n s l a v e d t h a t o f S p a r t a c u s and t h a t o f E p i c e t e t u s . The one breaks h i s c h a i n s ; t h e o t h e r shows h i s soul® When the f e t t e r e d w r i t e r cannot have r e c o u r s e to t h e f i r s t method, t h e second remains f o r him© Accept — a l l o f you — our deep f e e l i n g s o f g r a t e f u l emotion, and, h a v i n g t r u t h and l i b e r t y i n s c r i b e d upon your banner, Heaven w i l l s m i l e upon your path and crown w i t h g l o r i o u s success your war a g a i n s t o p p r e s s i o n and wrong* T h i s a r t i c l e appeared, f r o n t page.  i t i s n e e d l e s s t o s a y , on t h e  When Robson*s r e a d e r s turned t o page t h r e e they  must have been c o n s c i o u s o f a sense of a n t i - c l i m a x when they saw t h e f o l l o w i n g : L i b e r a t e d . S i n c e w r i t i n g the a r t i c l e on our f i r s t page we have been d i s c h a r g e d from custody* F u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s i n our n e x t * I t was not a change o f h e a r t on t h e p a r t o f Judge B e g b i e , however, t h a t e f f e c t e d Robson's r e l e a s e .  I t was a  -104= change of mind on the p a r t of the martyred e d i t o r h i m s e l f  e  •Whether the "noxious e f f l u v i a " was t o o much f o r him or whether he f e l t t h a t l i b e r t y and h i s own i n t e r e s t s could be b e t t e r served o u t s i d e the p r i s o n w a l l s i s not c e r t a i n .  On  F r i d a y , December 5, he r e q u e s t e d t o be t a k e n b e f o r e Judge Begbie, and on a r r i v i n g a t c o u r t presented him a w r i t t e n statement.  Upon r e a d i n g t h i s Judge Begbie ordered Robson's  release. The document t h a t Robson had w r i t t e n appeared i n p r i n t as a p a r t o f a b o l d e d i t o r i a l i n t h e next i s s u e of the 131 B r i t i s h Columbian* q u a l i f i e d apology.  S t r i c t l y speaking, i t was a l i m i t e d o r Robson, i t w i l l be n o t i c e d , c o n f i n e d  h i m s e l f t o s a y i n g t h a t he r e g r e t t e d p u b l i s h i n g t h e innuendo t h a t Judge Begbie had accepted the l a n d as a g i f t .  He made  no a p o l o g y f o r the o t h e r i m p u t a t i o n s i n the l e t t e r , and  as  we s h a l l s e e , c o n t i n u e d i n a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s t o q u e s t i o n Judge Begbie's p a r t i n the t r a n s a c t i o n a t Cottonwood.  His  apology was as f o l l o w s J May  i t p l e a s e Your L o r d s h i p The communication s i g n e d A, which appeared i n t h e " B r i t i s h Columbian" newspaper of t h e 24th u l t . was p u b l i s h e d i n . t h e o r d i n a r y course of b u s i n e s s , and was o h l y c u r s o r i l y glanced over by me b e f o r e i t was handed to the c o m p o s i t o r , and I was not aware t h a t a n y t h i n g i t c o n t a i n e d c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d i n t o a contempt of C o u r t , o t h e r w i s e i t would not have been i n s e r t e d i n t h a t paper*  121. "Our D i s c h a r g e " , B r i t i s h Columbian,, December 10, 1862, p.2.  -105Your L o r d s h i p s t a t e d on t h e Bench t h a t you p a i d ten s h i l l i n g s per a c r e f o r t h e l a n d which t h e communication i m p l i e d you accepted as a g i f t ; consequently t h e communication c o n t a i n e d a statement n o t warranted by f a c t s ; and I have to e x p r e s s my r e g r e t , and o f f e r my apology f o r a l l o w i n g such statement t o be p u b l i s h e d i n t h e s a i d " B r i t i s h Columbian" newspaper* John Robson t h e n reviewed the* case i n v e r y s t r o n g terms*  He  s t a t e d t h a t the t r a n s a c t i o n d i d n o t stand i n any b e t t e r odor so f a r a s Judge Begbie was concerned t h a n i t had s i n c e he "rendered the d i r t more p a l p a b l e by p r o v o k i n g p u b l i c ism."  critic-  What, he asked, had been the o b j e c t o f Cox and h i s  p a r t n e r s i n o f f e r i n g such generous terms and a c c e p t i n g so l o w a p r i c e when they were r e f u s i n g t o s e l l o t h e r l o t s because they a n t i c i p a t e d a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e s ? And a g a i n , i f t h e p r e s s were not t o be p e r m i t t e d t o c r i t i c i z e Judge Begbie*s s p e c u l a t i o n s , no matter how d e s e r v i n g t h e y were o f s t r i c t u r e , t o what extremes o f c o r r u p t i o n c o u l d His  L o r d s h i p n o t go? On December 15 another l e t t e r from A. appeared i n the  paper.  A. who had been f o l l o w i n g events v e r y c l o s e l y ,  wrote t o v a l i d a t e some of h i s statements w i t h a d d i t i o n a l 122 information*  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s l e t t e r , he had met Dud  Moreland a t W i l l i a m s Lake e a r l y i n September.  Moreland  complained t o A o f an a r t i c l e i n the C o l o n i s t whiflh had accused him o f p a r c e l l i n g out h i s l a n d a t Cottonwood 128. "Two L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r " , B r i t i s h December 13, 1862, pp* 3 - 4 .  into  Columbian,  -106town l o t s ana of, s e l l i n g them a t h i g h p r i c e s .  1 2 3  He  denied  t h a t he had done t h i s and s a i d t h a t t h e o n l y l a n d t h a t he had disposed Begbie.  o f was t h e twenty a c r e s he had g i v e n  Judge  A t t h i s p o i n t A. asked Moreland whether t h i s l a n d  was f o r government use and Moreland r e p l i e d t h a t i t was n o t . A. then i n q u i r e d whether t h i s was t h e l a n d f o r which O ' R e i l l y had r e f u s e d t o grant a C e r t i f i c a t e of Improvements.  More-  l a n d s a i d t h a t i t was from t h e same p a r c e l and t h a t he intended t o sue Mr. O ' R e i l l y f o r o b s t r u c t i n g him i n t h i s manner* Since t h e pre-emption r e c o r d s , O ' R e i l l y ' s l e t t e r and Begbie's order o f c o u r t i n s t r u c t i n g O ' R e i l l y t o grant t h e C e r t i f i c a t e of Improvements a l l bear Cox' name, Moreland's statement i s c o n f u s i n g .  A correspondent w r i t i n g under t h e  nom de plume L i b e r t a s d e c l a r e d t h a t Moreland had s o l d t h e l a n d t o Cox and Wade, presumably a t the time Judge Begbie a c q u i r e d t h e twenty a c r e s , and so„, r e f e r r e d t o the land as h i s e i t h e r from h a b i t o r because t h e o t h e r two men had n o t 124 completed t h e i r payment.  The r e c o r d s of the. Department  o f Lands show t h a t no such t r a n s f e r was made.  I t may be  supposed t h a t Moreland was a s e n i o r p a r t n e r o r a s s o c i a t e i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e and s o had a c q u i r e d t h e h a b i t o f r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p r o p e r t y a s h i s and t o Cox and Wade's a c t i o n s as h i s * As another a l t e r n a t i v e i t may be suggested t h a t he was t h e 123.  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . J u l y 27y 1862, p.3.  124.  "Two L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r " , op. c i t . , p.p. 3 - 4 .  Jcind of man g i v e n t o speaking i n the f i r s t person* Reassured by A's second l e t t e r , Robson resumed the attack.  On December 27 he wrote an a r t i c l e demanding t h a t  a C h i e f J u s t i c e be a p p o i n t e d .  He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the f  volume of l i t i g a t i o n and the v a s t e x t e n t of Judge B e g b i e s c i r c u i t was too g r e a t  a  t a s k f o r one man,  and t h a t i n cases  of crime and debt the accused were h e l d t o o l o n g i n j a i l pending t r i a l .  Robson urged a l s o , and w i t h good sense,  t h a t w i t h the appointment of a C h i e f J u s t i c e a Court of Appeal should be e s t a b l i s h e d , not o n l y because such a c o u r t was a necessary p a r t o f any j u d i c i a l system but a l s o  because  i t would serve as a check on Judge B e g b i e , i n whosse com125 petence and j u s t i c e few people l o n g e r had any c o n f i d e n c e . The demand f o r a Court of Appeal was a shrewd  stroke*  Q u i t e a p a r t from Judge Begbie's shortcomings i t was, as Robson p o i n t e d o u t , v e r y n e c e s s a r y .  I t would s c a r c e l y be  p o s s i b l e t o have the Judge d i s m i s s e d , but i f another Judge were a p p o i n t e d as C h i e f J u s t i c e , Begbie would be b o t h h u m i l i a t e d and l i m i t e d i n h i s powers.  Robson was-ready f o r  a campaign t o a t t a i n t h i s end and as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t r o k e he announced t h a t he would soon p u b l i s h " ... the f i r s t chapter of the C r a n f o r d wrongs, i n c l u d i n g an account of the of the c e l e b r a t e d t r i a l s , Wright v s , C r a n f o r d a t L i l l o e t , and C r a n f o r d v s . Wright a t New  Westminster."  125. "We Want a C h i e f J u s t i c e , " B r i t i s h December 27, 1862, p . l .  Columbian  -108Robson, however, was Cottonwood a t h i s d i s p o s a l .  soon t o have more ammunition from On January 17, 1863  the D a i l y  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t p u b l i s h e d a l e t t e r from Dud Moreland which purported  t o exonerate Judge Begbie, but which a c t u a l l y made  matters worse f o r him.  M o r e l a n d , who  seemed t o be q u i t e  unaware t h a t so much o f the case hung on whether or Begbie had accepted the twenty a c r e s as a g i f t ,  not  declared  o u t r i g h t t h a t he had g i v e n him the l a n d and t h a t he had  a  p e r f e c t r i g h t to g i v e Judge Begbie or any other person any 126 p a r t of h i s p r o p e r t y whenever he saw f i t to do 1  M o r e l a n d s l e t t e r was  so«  something of a b o m b s h e l l , f o r i t  f l a t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d Judge Begbie's statement i n c o u r t he had p a i d Cox  t e n s h i l l i n g s an acre f o r the l a n d .  as Robson and h i s s u p p o r t e r s  were concerned i t was  that So f a r  p r o o f pos-  i t i v e t h a t , t h e Judge had accepted a b r i b e t o secure a Cert i f i c a t e o f Improvements and t h a t he had t a k e n p a r t i n i l l e g a l speculation.  On January £6, 1865, ^ wrote a t r i -  umphant l e t t e r t o d e c l a r e t h a t he had been r i g h t and Bobson had played  a "manly and 127  Begbie i m b r o g l i o , "  c o n s i s t e n t course i n the  I n the i s s u e t h a t contained  A's  l e t t e r Robson d e c l a r e d t h a t Judge Begbie*s p o s i t i o n darker than ever.  He  that  was  c l o s e d the a r t i c l e as f o l l o w s :  126, "The Cottonwood Land T r a n s f e r " , D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , January 17, 1863, p.3, 127. 1863,  "That Twenty A c r e s " , B r i t i s h Columbian, January 31, p.3.  -109... and we may s a f e l y l e a v e t o the p u b l i c the t a s k of drawing t h e i r own i n f e r e n c e s as t o which has t h e s t r o n g e s t inducement t o d e p a r t from the truth", the g i v e r or the r e c e i v e r , as w e l l as t o decide whether "A" was not j u s t i f i e d a f t e r a l l i n w r i t i n g , and we i n p u b l i s h i n g , t h a t sentence which i t s u i t e d H i s L o r d s h i p ' s purpose t o c o n s t r u e i n t o contempt of c o u r t ! Judge Begbie may t r u l y e x c l a i m "Save me from my f r i e n d s " i f t h e y a l l are as i n d i s c r e e t as h i s Cottonwood a d m i r e r . V e r i l y t h i s u g l y c l o u d grows b l a c k e r and b l a c k e r . T h i s e d i t o r i a l c o n t a i n e d s t r o n g words, i m p u t a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as l i b e l l o u s .  Perhaps Robson was  e r a t e l y c h a l l e n g i n g Judge Begbie to take a c t i o n .  delib-  The  Judge,  however, remained s i l e n t , and so d i d most o f h i s f r i e n d s . Two p e o p l e , who c o u l d s c a r c e l y c l a i m more t h a n a c q u a i n t a n c e , took up c u d g e l s f o r him.  The f i r s t was an I r i s h m a n , F e l i x  8  0 B y r n e , who, w r i t i n g under the name, P h i l o - J u n i u s ,  em128  barked on a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s b e g i n n i n g March 12, 1863. While he d i d Begbie no harm as Moreland had done, 0'Byrne was c a r r i e d away by h i s own v e r b o s i t y and f i l e d t o cont r i b u t e a n y t h i n g to t h e Judge's defense save abuse.  He  d e s c r i b e d Robson's a r t i c l e of February 28 as b e i n g "the emanation of a morbid mind, i n s p i r e d by c h a o t i c e f f u s i o n o f the head, rancorous m a l i g n i t y of the h e a r t , and the most f e t i d p r u r i e n c y o f the i m a g i n a t i o n . "  Begbie's o t h e r champion  the Rev. Mr. P r i n g l e , the A n g l i c a n clergyman a t Hope wrote a l o n g but temperate l e t t e r t o the B r i t i s h Columbian which appeared i n the i s s u e of A p r i l 29, 1863.  P r i n g l e chid  Robson f o r h i s s t y l e of w r i t i n g and suggested t h a t i t would 128. " T h e ' B r i t i s h Columbian' and t h e Bench", D a i l y B r i t i s h . C o l o n i s t . March 12, 1863, p.3.  have served the honor of a l l concerned b e t t e r i f he had sent a memorial t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n London.  Pringle,  t o o , had no arguments t o o f f e r save t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e to b e l i e v e t h a t Judge Begbie would stoop t o t h e p r a c t i c e s 129 alleged, Robson f e l l on both c o n t r i b u t o r s , abused them r o u n d l y 130 and d e c l a r e d t h a t 0'Byrne was a h i r e l i n g of B e g b i e ,  In  a l a t e r i s s u e Robson r e p o r t e d t h a t he was among t h e F e n i a n s who i n June, 1866, were r e p o r t e d t o be g a t h e r i n g t o a t t a c k 131 B r i t i s h Columbia, He p u b l i s h e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e g l e e news o f 0'Byrne's b e i n g a r r a i g n e d by the American a u t h o r i t i e s 132 on charges of embezzlement. Such a r e t h e a v a i l a b l e f a c t s of t h e Cottonwood l a n d d e a l and the famous contempt of court case.  Had Judge Begbie  aocepted twenty acres of l a n d as a b r i b e to secure a C e r t i f i c a t e o f Improvements? . P r o v i d i n g t h a t he purchased the l a n d a t t e n s h i l l i n g s an acre and recorded h i s own p r e emption c l a i m , was he i n v o l v e d i n s p e c u l a t i o n ? 129.  I f he was  B r i t i s h Columbian, A p r i l 29, 1863, p.3,  130. " P h i l o J u n i u s and H i s M a s t e r " , o p . c i t . A p r i l 4, 1863, p.3. 131.  " W i l l They Come?", op. c i t . . June 23, 1866, p.2.  132. 1865.  " P h i l o Junius i n Trouble",  op. c i t . .  A p r i l 18,  -Illinnocent o f both charges, was he j u s t i f i e d i n p u t t i n g John Robson i n j a i l ? • So f a r as t h e d i r e c t evidence i s concerned t h e r e i s h i s word a g a i n s t t h a t of A and M o r e l a n d .  B u t as A based  h i s a c c u s a t i o n on a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e l a t t e r i t i s r e a l l y a m a t t e r of Moreland's word a g a i n s t t h a t o f t h e Judge. Since Moreland made s e v e r a l statements t h a t were i n c o r r e c t n  i t might be consluded t h a t he meant " s o l d " and n o t g a v e " i n h i s l e t t e r t o the C o l o n i s t .  Judge Begbie was, w i t h t h e  e x c e p t i o n o f h i s l o a n t o Walker and the i n c i d e n t s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f r e e of any t a i n t so f a r as h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y was concerned.  Those l i v i n g to-day d e c l a r e him  the s o u l o f honor and l a u g h a t t h e n o t i o n o f h i s a c c e p t i n g a bribe.  I n t h e second p l a c e , Governor Douglas appears t o  ahve been s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e Judge was not i n v o l v e d , f o r t h e r e i s n o t correspondence on t h e m a t t e r . •• Had he e n t e r t a i n e d any doubts Douglas would have made an i n v e s t i g a t i o n as he had done when he r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s t h a t Begbie had bought a share i n T r a v i s ' c l a i m a t W i l l i a m s Creek.  Douglas  had not h e s i t a t e d t o reprimand Gary and Moody f o r t h e i r speculations i n land. overlooked  I t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t he would have  s i m i l a r l a p s e s on t h e p a r t o f Judge B e g b i e .  There a r e good grounds f o r b e l i e f t h a t t h e Judge acquired the land f o r s p e c i a l personal uses.  He rode one o f  the l a r g e s t c i r c u i t s i n the B r i t i s h Empire, f o r t h e area under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n extended from t h e P a c i f i c coast t o t h e R o c k i e s and from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary t o t h e n o r t h e r n  -112 creeks of Cariboo,  He t r a v e l l e d over t h i s v a s t a r e a i n a l l  seasons, t h r o u g h snow and r a i n and i n the s c o r c h i n g heat o f the i n t e r i o r summers.  J.T. S c o t t , i n a l e t t e r t o the  B r i t i s h Columbian, g i v e s us a glimpse o f the Judge on c i r c u i t 133 i n l a t e October: ... The n e x t morning 1 was up i n good season, and ars A n t l e r Creek was o n l y 25 m i l e s d i s t a n t , a f t e r a h u r r i e d b r e a k f a s t I was a g a i n on the r o a d . On going up the Snow-shoe Mountain I met w i t h Judge Begbie and s u i t e , t o i l i n g t h e i r way over the snow-capped peaks of C a r i b o o . The Judge's own account of h i s l i f e i n the i n t e r i o r , w h i l e l e s s c o l o r f u l , g i v e s a more r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e o f h i s 134 hardships: N o r t h of Q u e s n e l l e R i v e r the two Commissioners d u r i n g the p a s t season f i x e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e headquarters a t W i l l i a m s Creek and a t Van W i n k l e , these being t h e . p r i n c i p l e c l u s t e r s of s t o r e s and miners i n the C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t . A t W i l l i a m s Creek a l o g house was b u i l t by Mr. Elwyn, rwcn;.V; b e i n g d i v i d e d a c r o s s t h e middle gave accommodation f o r w r i t i n g i n t h e one h a l f , a space o f about 12 f t . by 16 f t . — and on t h e o t h e r h a l f , of e q u a l s i z e b but p o s s e s s i n g the i n e s t i m a b l e l u x u r y of a f i r e p l a c e , Mr. Elwyn, h i s s e c r e t a r y , and 3 C o n s t a b l e s had bunks p i l e d upon each o t h e r , i n wch each man c o u l d spread h i s b l a n k e t s s e p a r a t e l y . At Van W i n k l e , Mr. O ' R e i l l y had not found the means of p r o v i d i n g h i m s e l f w i t h any such l u x u r y - and the whole of the b u s i n e s s o f the d i s t r i c t had t o be conducted i n a t e n t , wch was  133. S c o t t , J.T., "A T r i p to C a r i b o o " , B r i t i s h Columbian October 31, 1861, p . l . 134. Begbie t o Young, Received January 19, Begbie L e t t e r s .  1863,  -113the s o l e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e weater f o r him, and the books and r e c o r d s of the d i s t r i c t . The c l i m a t e i n the C a r i b o o i s a t times e x c e e d i n g l y wet, as i n a l l h i g h mountainous r e g i o n s — and i t i s not unusual to have t o r r e n t s of r a i n f o r a week t o g e t h e r almost w i t h o u t i n t e r m i s s i o n . The t e n t b e i n g the same as my own, (a s i n g l e t e n t 15 e l l s i z e , o f the Hudson's Bay Co.) I suppose w i t h s t a n d s the weather no b e t t e r than my own and a l t h o u g h i t answers v e r y w e l l i n t o l e r a b l e weather or even f o r a few days of r a i n , and where the- camp i s changed from time to t i m e , I f i n d t h a t my t e n t becomes o c c a s i o n a l l y covered w i t h mildew i n the i n s i d e , w h i l e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o keep books & c d r y , and a l l w r i t i n g , & r e c o r d i n g i s c a r r i e d on a t the g r e a t e s t i n c o n v e n i e n c e . B e s i d e s the ground b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y c o l d & damp, and t h e r e b e i n g no o p p o r t u n i t y of approaching a f i r e w i t h o u t going out i n t o t h e heavy r a i n , a l l c o o k i n g or d r y i n g any a r t i c l e s o f a p p a r e l becomes e x t r e m e l y i r k s o n e : and a l l o f f i c e r s who have t o remain f o r any l e n g t h of time i n t h a t d i s t r i c t ought to be p r o v i d e d a t l e a s t w i t h one room h a v i n g a f i r e p l a c e where they may a t l e a s t be sure to meet a dry p l a c e to l i e on, and the means of warming themselves and d r y i n g t h e i r c l o t h e s , k e e p i n g t h e i r books &c and p l a c i n g a t a b l e so as t o be a b l e t o w r i t e . }  I t i s t h u s not a matter f o r s u r p r i s e t h a t Judge Begbie t r a c t e d rheumatism.  con-  He was l a i d up w i t h i t a t Cottonwood,  i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , ' i n the summer of 1862, and as he s t a t e d i n c o u r t , o b t a i n e d l a n d from Cox to b u i l d s u i t a b l e 135  living  quarters.  and  S i n c e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s were so h a r s h  the government was not d i s p o s e d t o p r o v i d e proper q u a r t e r s f o r i t s o f f i c e r s , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Judge Begbie to s e t up q u a r t e r s f o r h i m s e l f , a t h i s own 135.  v. s u p r a . , pp. 101 - 102  expense.  decided  -114T h i s explanation occurred t o the e d i t o r of the D a l l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , but he was not prepared t o accept i t on t h e grounds t h a t twenty a c r e s was a l a r g e p i e c e o f l a n d on 136 which t o b u i l d a house. requirements.  But Judge Begbie had s p e c i a l  When he rode c i r c u i t i n the autumn o f 1861  he had a t r a i n of t w e l v e h o r s e s , t h r e e of which were h i s own* He would n a t u r a l l y want p a s t u r a g e , space f o r a barn and 137 c o r r a l s , and perhaps a f i e l d f o r hay.  I n t h a t case twenty  a c r e s would not be an e x c e s s i v e q u a n t i t y o f l a n d . Another p a r t o f the case a g a i n s t him i s t h e charge t h a t he compelled M a g i s t r a t e O ' R e i l l y t o g r a n t Cox a C e r t i f i c a t e o f Improvements.  His< c r i t i c s t o o k t h i s as evidence  o f a b a r g a i n between him and t h e Cottonwood p a r t n e r s .  In  r e t u r n f o r a g i f t of twenty a c r e s he was t o o b t a i n t h e papers t h a t O ' R e i l l y had v e r y p r o p e r l y r e f u s e d t o g r a n t t o Cox.  B e g b i e , however, e x p l a i n e d t h e l a w t o M a g i s t r a t e  O ' R e i l l y when he acceded t o C o x * / p e t i t i o n i n mandamus, and a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no r e c o r d of h i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o deduce i t from h i s correspondence and t h e exi s t i n g laws.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t under t h e Governor's  r u l i n g i n h i s C i r c u l a r o f A p r i l 20, 1860, a m a g i s t r a t e 136. " M u z z l i n g t h e P r e s s " , D a i l y B r i t i s h Colonist,, December 4, 1862, p.2. , 137. Begbie t o Douglas, F e b r u a r y 21, 1862, Begbie Letters.  —115— could, n o t r e f u s e t o record, a pre-emption c l a i m . had been, t h e r e f o r e  8  138  O'Reilly  t e c h n i c a l l y wrong i n s t a t i n g h i s  o b j e c t i o n t o Cox' c l a i m .  He had a l s o r e f u s e d t o g r a n t a  C e r t i f i c a t e of Improvements because, as he s t a t e d a t t h e t i m e , t h e l a n d was s h o r t l y t o be r e s e r v e d I f Cox,  f o r t h e government.  as O ' R e i l l y b e l i e v e d , had commenced t o make h i s  improvements j u s t twenty f o u r hours before making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r h i s C e r t i f i c a t e , i t i s h a r d t o conceive t h a t he was a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l u e o f h i s l a n d t o t h e e x t e n t o f £80 i n that time.  How, i n e x p l a i n i n g the l a w t o O ' R e i l l y , d i d  Judge Begbie j u s t i f y t h i s c l a i m ?  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t  Cox p r e s e n t e d two t e s t i m o n i a l s t o c e r t i f y t h a t he had made the r e q u i s i t e improvements.  Judge Begbie may have  considered  them v a l i d o r he may have r u l e d t h a t they must be accepted w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , i n the s p i r i t o f t h e C i r c u l a r o f 1860. He was fond o f broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d .  Believ-  i n g t h a t t h e l a w was.made f o r man, and t h a t s t a t u t e s were c o n f u s i n g , he p r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i d e r a problem i n l a w from 139 common sense and p e r s o n a l knowledge of t h e case.  He  approved o f Cox' work on t h e roads and probably d e c i d e d t h a t he was worthy o f a g r a n t . 158.  v. supra,  As f o r t h e o b j e c t i o n so  p. 83  139. I t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t he s t a t e d i n open c o u r t t h a t t h e s t a t u t e s were muddled and t h a t he seldom l o o k e d i n t o them.  -116f r e q u e n t l y made t h a t the Cottonwood p a r t n e r s were Americans and t h e r e f o r e not e l i g i b l e to h o l d l a n d , i t may out t h a t by t h e • A l i e n s A c t of 1859  be  pointed  the means of n a t u r a l i z -  a t i o n were simple« There remains one more q u e s t i o n , t h a t of the of h i s i m p r i s o n i n g John Robson,  justice  There can be no doubt t h a t  the p u b l i c a t i o n t o which Judge Begbie took e x c e p t i o n t a i n e d m a t t e r t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d a l i b e l and be construed as a contempt of c o u r t .  con-  as such c o u l d  To have i n s t i t u t e d  procedin&s f o r l i b e l would have been more f a i r , but where, or i n what c o u r t s could such charges be heard? Judge Begbie's a c t was  a r b i t r a r y and,  As i t was,  s i n c e he gave John  Robson o n l y a day i n which t o prepare h i s defense, i t might be d e s c r i b e d i n the e d i t o r ' s .own words, u n j u s t  and  tyrannous. The  f o r e g o i n g i s not a defense of Judge Begbie.  It  i s , r a t h e r , an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of' c e r t a i n events made i n the l i g h t of h i s h a b i t s of mind and methods of procedure.  On  the whole i t seems t h a t the evidence f o r h i m - i s somewhat s t r o n g e r than t h a t brought a g a i n s t him.  But when circum-  s t a n t i a l evidence i s i n v o l v e d and important  data i s not  a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e i s i n t h i s case as i n a l l o t h e r s , a c e r t a i n r e s i d u e of u n c e r t a i n t y . l a s t word.  One.fact alone may  be t a k e n as the  There i s no evidence t o show t h a t he ever owned  a f o o t of l a n d a t Cottonwood.  There:' i s no r e c o r d of h i s  pre-emption c l a i m , no s i g n that he secured of Improvements or o b t a i n e d a Crown Grant.  a Certificate H i s name never  -117appears i n the c h a i n o f t i t l e s t h a t extends from 1862 t o 1901.  By whatever means he o b t a i n e d h i s twenty a c r e s ,  he a l l o w e d them t o l a p s e , and p r o b a b l y d e s t r o y e d h i s own r e e o r d o f pre-emption.  CHAPTER 7.  SOME CASES.  As g o l d mining remained the c h i e f b a s i s of the c o l o n i a l economy up t o t h e time o f the u n i o n i n 1866 i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the b u l k of the c i v i l l i t i g a t i o n of the day arose from t h a t i n d u s t r y . causes of d i s p u t e .  There were, on t h e whole,  two  The best known, of course, was the  f r e q u e n t c o n f l i c t t h a t developed over r i g h t s to c e r t a i n claims.  As a r u l e t h e p o i n t of i s s u e i n cases of t h i s k i n d  was encroachment and breach of c o n t r a c t . not easy t o s e t t l e .  Such d i s p u t e s were  They p r e s e n t e d d i f f i c u l t p o i n t s of law  and i t was hard t o e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y of the evidence given.  The second cause of l i t i g a t i o n was t o be found not  i n t h e mines themselves but i n the a n c i l l a r y f i e l d of t r a n s port.  I n those days b o t h c o l o n i e s depended on the U n i t e d  S t a t e s f o r most of t h e i r consumption goods, which were r o u t e d from San F r a n c i s c o to V i c t o r i a and New Vfestminster and t r a n s p o r t e d from Douglas t o the g o l d f i e l d s by waggon and mule t r a i n . I t sometimes happened t h a t packers f a i l e d to d e l i v e r goods a t t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n by the time s p e c i f i e d i n t h e i r c o n t r a c t , o r l o s t and damaged them i n t r a n s i t .  On some  -119o c c a s i o n s c e r t a i n consignments were h e l d up, w h i l e were h u r r i e d through.  others  The mines c l o s e d f o r t h e w i n t e r  and as t h a t season approached p r i c e s n a t u r a l l y d e c l i n e d . There was, as a r e s u l t , always- the r i s k t h a t through l a t e d e l i v e r y a merchant might he l e f t w i t h a l a r g e s t o c k o f goods on h i s hands or be compelled t o s e l l a t g r e a t l y reduced p r i c e s .  On some o c c a s i o n s b u s i n e s s men s o l d a t  cost and even below cost i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n funds t o meet their b i l l s .  When t h i s happened t h e merchants blamed t h e  packers and r e f u s e d t o pay t h e i r c a r r y i n g charges.  The  t r a n s p o r t companies sued f o r debt. :  A t the time of t h e famous Cottonwood scandal a d i s p u t e of t h i s k i n d arose between t h e c a r r y i n g company o f G,B. Wright and the C r a n f o r d b r o t h e r s , who had come t o t h e Colony i n t h e s p r i n g o f t h a t y e a r t o engage i n b u s i n e s s i n t h e goldfields.  The younger of t h e b r o t h e r s , Robert C r a n f o r d ,  a r r i v e d f r o m San F r a n c i s c o w i t h some f o r t y tons of merchand i s e which he intended t o s e l l a t W i l l i a m s Creek,  Shortly  a f t e r w a r d , a t some time between A p r i l 15 and 20, h i s b r o t h e r , John P. C r a n f o r d , a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a .  He s t a t e d a t t h e  time t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o s e t up i n b u s i n e s s as a commission merchant and t h a t he was i n no way a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s b r o t h e r Robert-.  He a l s o brought a cargo o f merchandise  w i t h him from San F r a n c i s c o , I n t h e meantime Robert C r a n f o r d had entered  into  n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Gus Wright t o have h i s goods c a r r i e d t o L i l l o e t , whence they were t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t o W i l l i a m s  -ISOCreek by another company,  John C r a n f o r d a l s o d i s c u s s e d  the q u e s t i o n w i t h G.B. Wright and appears t o have secured an u n d e r s t a n d i n g , on b e h a l f o f h i s b r o t h e r , as t o t h e term o f c r e d i t t o be a l l o w e d .  On A p r i l 25, 1862, Robert C r a n f o r d  and G.B..'Wright e n t e r e d i n t o an agreement t h a t was s a t i s f a c t o r y t o both p a r t i e s .  Wright agreed t o c a r r y t h e goods t o  L i l l o e t a t n i n e cents a pound, payable s i x t y days a f t e r delivery.  He a l s o undertook, i n t h e event of a drop i n  f r e i g h t charges, t o lower h i s own r a t e s a c c o r d i n g l y *  Wright  a s s u r e d C r a n f o r d t h a t i t would t a k e twelve days a t the l o n g e s t t o c a r r y h i s goods t o L i l l o e t and t h a t i t would r e q u i r e another t h i r t y days to convey them from t h a t p l a c e t o W i l l i a m s Creek.  A l l goods were t o be marked t o Robert  C r a n f o r d , care o f G.B. Wright and Company.  Wright e n t e r e d  a memorandum o f agreement i n h i s pocket-book, and Robert Cranford l e f t f o r the i n t e r i o r , apparently w e l l s a t i s f i e d • w i t h t h e arrangements he had made, and c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e term o f c r e d i t would a f f o r d him ample time t o s e l l enough 140 goods to pay h i s f r e i g h t b i l l s when they came ..due. Robert C r a n f o r d a r r i v e d a t L i l l o e t on May 5, 1862, and supposing t h a t h i s merchandise would b e g i n t o a r r i v e w i t h i n t h e n e x t week, made arrangements w i t h the H a s k e l l Company t o c a r r y i t t o W i l l i a m s . Creek.  A f t e r w a i t i n g two  weeks H a s k e l l was o b l i g e d t o i n f o r m C r a n f o r d t h a t he c o u l d a f f o r d t o w a i t no l o n g e r , as he had another cargo o f f e r e d .  140.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  December 27, 1862, p.3  -121He generously r e l e a s e d the l a t t e r from any charge f o r the delay* . .The f i r s t consignment  o f goods a r r i v e d on May 28, t o  be f o l l o w e d a t i n t e r v a l s by o t h e r cargoes, a l l of w h i c h , the C r a n f o r d s i n s i s t e d , were s e r i o u s l y l a t e .  Some of t h e  goods were p e r i s h a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y bacon, which goes r a n c i d very q u i c k l y i f exposed too l o n g to t h e heat of the i n t e r i o r summer. I t was charged t h a t Wright had f a i l e d t o d e l i v e r more than a t o n o f the goods consigned t o him.  T h i s was brought  out i n the second case, t h a t o f C r a n f o r d v s . W r i g h t , and served as ground f o r a sharp exchange between Judge Begbie and c o u n s e l f o r the p l a i n t i f f s .  The p o i n t was never p r e s s e d ,  however, but was used, as we s h a l l see, as reason f o r nonpayment on the f r e i g h t charges f o r t h e e a r l i e r  consignments.  The e s s e n t i a l f a c t i n both cases was the l a t e d e l i v e r y o f goods and C r a n f o r d ' s r e f u s a l t o pay the charges.  In general,  the goods were consigned between A p r i l 30 and June 28 and should have been d e l i v e r e d between May 12 and J u l y 10 a c c o r d i n g t o Wright's a s s u r a n c e s .  A c c o r d i n g t o the C r a n f o r d s t h e y  were n o t d e l i v e r e d u n t i l d a t e s between May 28 and September 10.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , few o f the goods reached L i l l o e t i n l e s s  than t h i r t y days, w h i l e n e a r l y the whole o f them was d e t a i n e d much l o n g e r .  About a t h i r d of the whole consignment  was  d e t a i n e d between s i x t y and s e v e n t y - f i v e days. The C r a n f o r d s a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t between June 18 and 20 over 52,000 l b s . were consigned t o Wright and t h a t a l l o f t h i s  122save 600 l b s . was a t Douglas between June 20 and 25, y e t none reached L i l l o e t i n l e s s than t h i r t y - t h r e e days, w h i l e n e a r l y h a l f was d e l a y e d from s i x t y t o s e v e n t y - f i v e days. The goods d e l i v e r e d a f t e r August 25 —  over 23,000 l b s , —  c o u l d not be forwarded t o W i l l i a m s Greek because of the l a t ness of the season.  Goods d e l i v e r e d a t L i l l o e t a f t e r J u l y  23 c o u l d n o t be d e l i v e r e d a t W i l l i a m s Greek before p r i c e s had f a l l e n so low as b a r e l y t o cover c o s t s . Robert C r a n f o r d spent the season a t L i l l o e t , as he c l a i m e d , watching W r i g h t ' s own merchandise  g o i n g up t o the  g o l d f i e l d s w h i l e h i s own remained a t Douglas.  As he  was  s u f f e r i n g from rheumatism he sent h i s b r o t h e r , John P. C r a n f o r d , up t o W i l l i a m s Creek t o s e l l h i s merchandise. ?/right had t u r n e d a deaf e a r t o Robert C r a n f o r d ' s complaint but i n August, demanded payment. his  C r a n f o r d answered t h a t  b i l l f o r damaged and l o s t goods would more than cover  the c o s t s of f r e i g h t t o date.  On September 4 he wrote t o  W r i g h t , i n f o r m i n g t h a t he had, by d e l a y i n g d e l i v e r y of h i s goods, p r e c l u d e d the B o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s b e i n g a b l e t o pay 141 the b i l l . On September 8, Y/right appeared b e f o r e M a g i s t r a t e E l l i o t t i n the County C o u r t at L i l l o e t and informed him t h a t he wished t o t a k e proceedings a g a i n s t the C r a n f o r d b r o t h e r s f o r debt.  A c c o r d i n g t o the procedure of the day  Wright made a sworn d e c l a r a t i o n or a f f i d a v i t t h a t R. and J .  141.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  December 27, 1862,  p.3.  -123C r a n f o r d were indebted t o him f o r t h e sum o f £1719 15s« 3d* for  goods s o l d and d e l i v e r e d t o them.  Magistrate  Elliott  then made out a w r i t t o t h e p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s o r d e r i n g them to t a k e t h e C r a n f o r d s i n t o custody.  T h i s o r d e r , or c a p i a s  ad respondendum, t o use t h e t e c h n i c a l term, was v a l i d so l o n g as t h e a f f i d a v i t was p r o p e r l y sworn and d e c l a r e d .  To  accompany t h e c a p i a s , which o n l y p r o v i d e d f o r t h e a r r e s t o f the d e b t o r s , M a g i s t r a t e E l l i o t t made out an Order o f Court commanding them t o appear f o r t r i a l , s p e c i f y i n g t h e time and 142 place of the hearing.  He made t h i s out from the Supreme  Court. Robert C r a n f o r d was apprehended a t L i l l o e t on t h e same day, September 8, and was h e l d i n p r i s o n f o r e i g h t y - f o u r days.  H i s b r o t h e r , John C r a n f o r d , was a r r e s t e d a t W i l l i a m s  Creek on September 27, and was h e l d i n custody f o r a p e r i o d of s i x t y - s i x days* The  ,  Cranfords secured t h e a d v i c e and s e r v i c e s o f Mr*  Walkem who a t t h a t time was n o t a member of t h e b a r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, a l t h o u g h , as we have seen, he was q u a l i f i e d to p l e a d i n both Upper and Lower Canada.  The t r i a l was h e l d  i n the Supreme Court a t L i l l o e t on October 15 and 16 b e f o r e Judge Begbie.  When t h e c o u r t sat -Mr. Walkem took h i s seat  i n the place a l l o c a t e d to counsel.  Judge Begbie  ordered him t o r e t i r e t o a proper p l a c e .  immediately  A h o t exchange o f  142. I t has n e v e r been c l e a r whether E l l i o t t made out t h e order a t t h i s t i m e , o r on some subsequent occasion®  -124words ensued and i t i s t o b e - i n f e r r e d from the contemporary accounts t h a t he was a b l e t o conduct t h e defence o n l y under certain restrictions. The defence sought t o show t h a t John C r a n f o r d was not a p a r t n e r and was t h e r e f o r e l i a b l e f o r h i s b r o t h e r ' s 143 a l l e g e d debts.  I n support o f t h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h e defend-  a n t s o u t l i n e d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which Robert C r a n f o r d had e n t e r e d i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h W r i g h t •  The c o n t r a c t o r  had come t o Robert C r a n f o r d * s o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a on A p r i l 25 and s t a t e d t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o make an agreement based on t h e terms d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h the two b r o t h e r s .  A c c o r d i n g t o t e s t i m o n y , Wright s a t down a t  9  C r a n f o r d s desk and, t a k i n g out h i s pocket-book, s a i d , "What i s t h e s t y l e o f your f i r m ? "  Robert C r a n f o r d t e s t i f i e d ,  and h i s b r o t h e r s u p p o r t e d him, t h a t he answered, "R. C r a n f o r d , Junior.  I am the o n l y person concerned i n t h e b u s i n e s s . " . 144 Wright t h e n wrote t h e memorandum o f agreement as f o l l o w s : A p r i l 25. Agreed w i t h R. C r a n f o r d , J r . , to c a r r y goods f o r him from Douglas t o L i l l o e t a t 9 c t s . , p e r l b * , d u r i n g t h e ensuing season, payable s i x t y days a f t e r d e l i v e r y , and a p r o v i s o , i f f r e i g h t s f a l l , r a t e s t o be l e s s . Then, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e evidence o f t h e d e f e n d a n t s , Wright got up, r e a d t h e c o n t r a c t a l o u d and asked Robert C r a n f o r d i f  143,  B r i t i s h Columbian, December 31, 1862, p.3.  144.  Loo, c i t .  -125i t were s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  Robert C r a n f o r d r e p l i e d , "yes".  On the f o l l o w i n g morning, October 16, Wright was t o produce h i s pocket-book* submitted  asked  When read t o the j u r y and  t o the court f o r i n s p e c t i o n , however, the terms  were d i f f e r e n t f r o m those d e s c r i b e d on the p r e v i o u s day the defendant.  by  The phrase "& B r o t h e r " , w r i t t e n i n a d i f f e r -  ent c o l o r e d i n k , had been squeezed i n t o the margin, and "t  w  was  added "him"  to make "them".  The  a  "e" i n t h i s pronoun  o b v i o u s l y changed f r o m " i " and the dot remained above  the l e t t e r .  Judge Begbie examined the book, d e c l a r e d t h a t  the changes had been made and  s a i d t h a t he supposed t h a t  s i n c e the book belonged t o Mr. Wright he c o u l d do what he l i k e d with i t . o f the i n k was little was  He a l s o suggested t h a t the d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l i n n a t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e of  significance.  Turning to W r i g h t , the Judge s a i d he  sure t h a t the p l a i n t i f f c o u l d g i v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y  ation.  explan-  • I n answer t o Judge Begbie's q u e s t i o n , W r i g h t  admitted  t h a t he had changed the e n t r y , s a y i n g t h a t he-had done so on the day t h a t i t was  issued.  The  Judge p o i n t e d out t o  the J u r y t h a t W r i g h t ' s admission of making t h i s change  was  to be c o n s i d e r e d i n h i s f a v o r r a t h e r than a g a i n s t him®  At  t h i s p o i n t the C r a n f o r d s , r e g a r d i n g the Judge's comment as h i g h l y p r e j u d i c i a l to t h e i r , case, hastened t o produce evidence t o show t h a t Wright had not made the change on A p r i l 25 but a t a much l a t e r d a t e .  They produced a number  of b i l l s , i n v o i c e s and l e t t e r s from t h e p l a i n t i f f addressed  -126t o Robert C r a n f o r d . Among these t h e r e was a r e c e i p t f o r $130, dated A p r i l 30, made out i n Wright's h a n d w r i t i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t h e defendants c a l l e d f o r Wright's day book and showed t h a t up t o August 27 a l l e n t r i e s had been made out t o Robert; C r a n f o r d * Wright's bookkeeper t e s t i f i e d t h a t he had been i n s t r u c t e d t o change t h e e n t r y t o R. and J . C r a n f o r d a f t e r that date.  Both b r o t h e r s denied t h a t they had ever r e c e i v e d  a t any t i m e , one s i n g l e communication from Wright t h a t was made out t o them j o i n t s .  They m a i n t a i n e d , on t h e o t h e r  hand, t h a t t h e p l a i n t i f f had changed t h e c o n t r a c t and t h e day book on September 8, the day t h a t he had sworn t h e affadavit.  I n p r o o f o f t h i s charge, which was s t r i c t l y  c o n j e c t u r e , R o b e r t C r a n f o r d s t a t e d t h a t on t h a t day a man named Brady walked i n t o h i s s t o r e and asked him h i s b r o t h e r ' name.  When he t o l d him John, Brady walked a c r o s s t h e  s t r e e t and went i n t o Wright's o f f i c e .  When John C r a n f o r d  was a r r e s t e d a t W i l l i a m s Creek the w r i t was made out "John" C r a w f o r d , n o t " J . P . " C r a n f o r d and n o t "John P." C r a n f o r d * These arguments  c l o s e d t h e f i r s t p l e a of t h e defence -  t h a t John C r a n f o r d was n o t a p a r t n e r and had t h e r e f o r e been subjected t o i l l e g a l a r r e s t .  The second p o i n t t h a t t h e y  sought t o e s t a b l i s h was t h a t Robert C r a n f o r d d i d n o t owe Wright t h e sum s p e c i f i e d i n t h e w r i t , and t h a t when damaged and l o s t goods were d u l y a s s e s s e d i t would be found t h a t p l a i n t i f f , and n o t t h e defendant, was t h e d e b t o r .  Robert  D r a n f o r d proceeded t o show t h a t Wright had d i s r e g a r d e d t h e  -127terms o f the c o n t r a c t i n a s s e s s i n g h i s l i a b i l i t y .  He had  been g i v e n a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t s t a t i n g t h a t t h e f r e i g h t was t o be ."payable s i x t y days a f t e r d e l i v e r y " . was  Since t h e w r i t  i s s u e d on September 8 he was t h e r e f o r e l i a b l e f o r f r e i g h t  d e l i v e r e d a t L i l l o e t on or before J u l y 10. To meet t h a t account he had a b i l l of $4,000 a g a i n s t t h e defendant f o r l o s t and damaged goods. I n r e b u t t a l Wright t e s t i f i e d t h a t John C r a n f o r d had r e s c i n d e d the c o n t r a c t , and t h a t t h e t e r m o f c r e d i t was t h u s no l o n g e r o p e r a t i v e ,  When pressed f o r w i t n e s s e s o r  t a n g i b l e w r i t t e n evidence he was compelled t o admit t h a t he had n e i t h e r a t h i s d i s p o s a l .  Robert C r a n f o r d ,  probably  a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h Walkem, enumerated a s e r i e s o f reasons why W r i g h t ' s statement was f a l s e .  He s t a t e d t h a t  he had r e c e i v e d no n o t i c e , w r i t t e n o r v e r b a l , t o the e f f e c t t h a t the agreement had been t e r m i n a t e d .  F r e i g h t s had  r i s e n d u r i n g t h e season, y e t Wright, no l o n g e r bound by the c o n t r a c t , as he claimed,: had n o t undertaken t o charge more.  Nor had he informed h i s employees of any change© I t must be admitted t h a t when i t came time t o charge  the j u r y a t t h e end o f t h e case Judge Begbie's t a s k was n o t an easy one. Some of the evidence was circumstantial®  In  other i n s t a n c e s w i t n e s s e s were not a b l e  to substantiate  t h e i r testimony with t a n g i b l e evidence.  As t o t h e c l a i m  t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t had been r e s c i n d e d , n e i t h e r p a r t y was able t o do more t h a n produce d e c l a r a t i o n s on o a t h .  The C r a n f o r d s  c o u l d only t e s t i f y t h a t they had not r e c e i v e d b i l l s and  -128other commercial papers addressed t o them j o i n t l y .  John  Robson, who had q u i t e r e c e n t l y been thrown i n t o j a i l by Judge B e g b i e , charged t h a t he was b i a s e d i n f a v o r o f t h e 145 plaintiff®  He had, indeed, p o i n t e d out to t h e j u r y t h a t  Wright's a d m i s s i o n t h a t he had changed the terms o f t h e c o n t r a c t was t o be t a k e n as a p o i n t i n h i s f a v o r .  Truth  i n c o u r t i s to be commended but i t can sometimes persuade a j u r y t h a t t h e speaker i s a shameless r a s c a l .  When Wright  admitted t h a t he had a l t e r e d a c o n t r a c t the j u r o r s might e a s i l y have jumped t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he was capable of any d u p l i c i t y .  I n those days t h e packer was r o u n d l y  cursed by miners and b u s i n e s s men and perhaps the Judge was just i n giving the scale a t i l t .  S i m i l a r l y i t was incumbent  upon him t o i n s t r u c t t h e j u r y t h a t some of t h e C r a n f o r d * s evidence was c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . .What l a i d Judge Begbie open t o . c r i t i c i s m was n o t p a r t i a l i t y so much as l a c k o f experience  and knowledge.  He  embarked on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f lav/ t h a t a man o f more extens i v e experience  would e i t h e r have avoided  proper q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . p o i n t i n ease.  o r expressed w i t h  H i s l a s t charge t o t h e j u r y i s a  He thought, and perhaps r i g h t l y , t h a t t h e  j u r y must weigh t h e q u e s t i o n o f John C r a n f o r d ' s  liability.  I n order t o a i d them he proceeded t o e x p l a i n the lav; on t h e matter. his  John C r a n f o r d , he e x p l a i n e d , had been employed by  b r o t h e r t o a t t e n d t h e s t o r e a t ¥/illiams Creek, and a f t e r  145.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  December 51, 1862, p.3.  -129-  b e i n g appointed  t o t h a t p o s i t i o n had shown g r e a t z e a l and  energy i n t h e d i s c h a r g e o f h i s d u t i e s .  T h i s , argued t h e  Judge,, gave the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he might be a p a r t n e r .  He  c o u l d i n t h i s way u n c o n s c i o u s l y have made h i m s e l f a c o contractee*,  I t was t h e r e f o r e t h e duty of t h e j u r y t o assess  John C r a n f o r d ' s  l i a b i l i t y f r o m t h i s p o i n t o f view*  I n o r t h e r words, Judge Begbie had r a i s e d a d i f f i c u l t point i n the law of contract.  He was j u s t i f i e d i n doing s o ,  -but i t may be asked whether he e x p l a i n e d i t adequately.  To  l e a v e t h e j u r y w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a man i s l i a b l e as a c o - c o n t r a c t e e because o f h i s i n d u s t r y and a p p l i c a t i o n was not j u s t .  The e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n was not complete and  was based on evidence as c i r c u m s t a n t i a l as any t h a t he had r u l e d out i n t h e case of t h e C r a n f o r d s . The j u r y r e t u r n e d a v e r d i c t i n the: f a v o r o f Wright*' They found t h a t John C r a n f o r d was a p a r t n e r , t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t had been r e s c i n d e d and t h a t t h e two b r o t h e r s owed Wright |9,500. Although  the Cranfords made a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a new  t r i a l Judge Begbie r e f u s e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e p e t i t i o n and ordered t h a t they be committed t o p r i s o n where, a c c o r d i n g to the l a w o f those days, they were t o remain u n t i l  they  s e t t l e d w i t h W r i g h t o r proved themselves t o be bankrupt© Mien t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r another t r i a l f a i l e d , they sought t o have t h e i r a r r e s t s e t a s i d e on t h e grounds t h a t i t had been i l l e g a l .  I n h i s appeal t o t h e j u r y Robert  C r a n f o r d had made t h i s p l e a , b u t , i t appears, d i d n o t make  -130 the most of h i s case. the C r a n f o r d  b r o t h e r s made a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e l e a s e i n the  Supreme C o u r t . was  false.  A f t e r they had "been i n j a i l some time  They had a l r e a d y p l e d t h a t the  affidavit  When Wright made i t out he had d e c l a r e d t h a t  C r a n f o r d s owed him the s p e c i f i e d sum s o l d and . d e l i v e r e d .  the  of money f o r goods  B e f o r e they were a b l e to develop t h e i r  argument Judge Begbie i n t e r r u p t e d , s t a t i n g t h a t men  sometimes  make sheaves of a f f i d a v i t s , o f t e n w i t h o u t r e a d i n g them.  It  was  and  c l e a r t o a l l t h a t Mr.  Wright meant f r e i g h t charges,  t o q u e s t i o n the a f f i d a v i t was p l a i n t i f f vd-thout any  t o impute a f a l s e oath to the  justification.  •In the Supreme Court they o f f e r e d a more e x t e n s i v e case f o r r e l e a s e .  According  to E n g l i s h law, which was  also  the law of the C o l o n y , a c a p i a s could be i s s u e d f o r the a r r e s t of a d e b t o r o n l y under s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . c o n d i t i o n s were t h a t a c r e d i t o r must take oath t h a t debtor i n t e n d e d The  t o abscond, o r t h a t he had  These the 146  absconded.  a f f i d a v i t sworn by Wright n e i t h e r mentioned nor under-  took t o suggest i n t e n t on the p a r t of the C r a n f o r d s to abscond.  Judge Begbie i n t e r r u p t e d once a g a i n , t h i s time t o  contradict counsel.  He  s t a t e d f l a t l y t h a t the  a l l e g e d i n d e b t e d n e s s , and t h a t was a l l t h a t was  affidavit necessary  t o g i v e the c a p i a t v a l i d i t y . I n f u r t h e r support of the motion f o r r e l e a s e of  the  p r i s o n e r s c o u n s e l f o r the C r a n f o r d s a l l e g e d t h a t under the 146.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  January 7, 1863,  p.3.  -131B r i t i s h Columbian S m a l l Debts A c t , 1859, M a g i s t r a t e  Elliott  had. no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i s s u i n g the c a p i a s ,  'He argued t h a t  s i n c e t h e A c t c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e amount  recoverable  b e f o r e any County Court Judge could n o t exceed £50 and t h a t t h i s o f f i c e r could i s s u e a c a p i a s f o r a debt o f £20 and upwards. M a g i s t r a t e E l l i o t t was n o t empowered t o make out a w r i t f o r the sum Wright•had s p e c i f i e d . Judge Begbie would not c o n s i d e r t h i s argument.  He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e A c t was  drawn up on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t was d e s i r a b l e and expedient t o a f f o r d a speedy method of r e c o v e r i n g s m a l l debts up t o £50 The i s s u i n g o f a c a p i a s was a speedy method and t h e r e f o r e County Court Judges were e n t i t l e d t o i s s u e such w r i t s f o r large v  debts. As a f i n a l argument Robert C r a n f o r d t e s t i f i e d t h a t  when he had been a r r e s t e d he asked t h e S h e r i f f t o produce the .necessary Order of C o u r t .  T h i s the S h e r i f f Would n o t ,  or;••-could n o t do,, and the document, was n o t f o r t h c o m i n g  till  the opening of t h e t r i a l a t L i l l o e t on October 15, Upon examining the order counsel found t h a t M a g i s t r a t e E l l i o t t had i s s u e d i t out o f t h e Supreme C o u r t , a court i n which he had .147 no j u r i s d i c t i o n and no a u t h o r i t y t o i s s u e w r i t s .  Judge  Begbie, however, o v e r r u l e d t h e o b j e c t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t 1  Elliott s  procedure had been c o r r e c t .  147. Judge E l l i o t t , o r M a g i s t r a t e E l l i o t t was Deputy R e g i s t r a r o f the Supreme Court a t t h e t i m e . Begbie d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s o f f i c e e n t i t l e d h i m t o make out the :writ, however. He r u l e d t h a t he could do so as a Judge of t h e County C o u r t .  -132The l e g a l i t y of the C r a n f o r d ' s a r r e s t and was thus f u l l y s u s t a i n e d .  imprisonment  The Judge had r e j e c t e d every  argument a g a i n s t i t , and by so d o i n g had c r e a t e d a precedent f o r procedure i n f u t u r e cases of the k i n d .  The C r a n f o r d  b r o t h e r s went back to p r i s o n but were l a t e r r e l e a s e d from custody when they s i g n i f i e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n of t a k i n g p r o c e d i n g s a g a i n s t Wright f o r breach of c o n t r a c t .  A t the  b e g i n n i n g of the a s s i z e the C r a n f o r d s had o c c a s i o n t o appear b e f o r e the Judge t o make c e r t a i n arrangements f o r t h e impending l i t i g a t i o n .  He informed them t h a t t h e i r a r r e s t 148  and imprisonment had been a mistakes What reasons Judge Begbie had f o r r e v e r s i n g h i s j u d g ment i n t h i s m a t t e r was not apparent*  I t does not m a t t e r  g r e a t l y whether he was compelled to admit t h a t i t was t h e a f f i d a v i t , the c a p i a s or the o r d e r . o f c o u r t t h a t was a t f a u l t , or whether he saw t h a t t h e e n t i r e procedure had been wrongs :  What' is s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t he, a h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t and a b l e man, •"'•could"make such serious, m i s t a k e s .  T h i s , : and o t h e r  •blunders, "'all'.point t o the f a c t t h a t he was not w e l l v e r s e d i n l a w and procedure* The second C r a n f o r d case, which opened i n New Westm i n s t e r on December 6 and l a s t e d through e l e v e n , stormy days, was even more r e v e a l i n g than the t r i a l a t L i l l o e t .  While  the'Judge'S l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge were o n l y too •apparent i t a l s o became c l e a r that, h i s i r a s c i b i l i t y and 148.  B r i t i s h Columbian.  December 20, 1862,  p.3.  -133a r b i t r a r y temperament t m f l t t e d him f o r the e x e r c i n e of h i s j u d i c i a l duties.  As the case progressed  Judge Begbie's  i r r i t a t i o n mounted t o bad temper, which at the end of the t r i a l became downright r a g e .  In t h i s s t a t e of mind he  lost  the l a s t semblances of t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y and d i g n i t y of h i s o f f i c e and was g u i l t y of a most d i s g r a c e f u l and a r b i t r a r y act.. • The  Cranfords  r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r charge t o breach of  c o n t r a c t and d i d not sue f o r the goods which they had s l y a l l e g e d t o have been damaged and l o s t .  previou-  But a f t e r the  manner of c o u n s e l , R i n g , and h i s j u n i o r , M c C r e i g h t , who appearing  were  f o r the p l a i n t i f f s , sought to i m p l a n t c e r t a i n i d e a s  i n the minds of the jurymen t h a t were p r e j u d i c i a l t o the c h a r a c t e r of the defendant.  M c C r e i g h t , who  opened the  case,  p o i n t e d out t h a t .'-while he disavowed any attempt t o charge l a r c e n y , he suggested t h a t the jury.would- i n f e r grave m i s conduct- on the p a r t of Mr. W r i g h t .  A t t h i s p o i n t Judge -  Begbie v e r y p r o p e r l y I n t e r r u p t e d , s a y i n g t h a t he c o u l d not permit such i m p u t a t i o n s  to be c a s t on the defendant.  He  went on, i n a manner r a t h e r d i c t a t o r i a l , t o say t h a t  counsel's  i m p u t a t i o n s were d i s g r a c e f u l and t h a t they would r e c o i l h i s own head. He  on  M c C r e i g h t , n i g h t l y or wrongly, f i r e d back.  s a i d t h a t he had no f e a r t h a t d i s g r a c e would a t t a c h t o  and t h a t he d i d not r e q u i r e to be taught h i s duty.  Begbie  i s r e p o r t e d t o have become very angry a t t h i s retort® C o u n s e l had been r u d e , whatever the j u s t i f i c a t i o n may been, but the Judge was unwise and wrong i n p e r m i t t i n g  have  him  -134h i m s e l f t o l o s e h i s temper.  I t i s said, t h a t he t u r n e d t o  R i n g and asked him t o withdraw the case from h i s j u n i o r . R i n g r e f u s e d , s a y i n g t h a t the statements made by h i s l e a r n e d f r i e n d had h i s e n t i r e concurrence and a p p r o b a t i o n , Begbie l e t the matter go,  A Judge., no matter how g r e a t the p r o v -  o c a t i o n , should not l o s e h i s temper and so p e r m i t h i m s e l f 149 to make t h r e a t s which he- was not prepared t o make good. D u r i n g the proceedings tempers grew h o t t e r and tongues grew s h a r p e r .  Judge Begbie was rude to R i n g and McCreight  and t o the j u r y as w e l l .  He appears to have had p l e a s a n t  words f o r W r i g h t ' s c o u n s e l , Walker and Gary, and so exposed 150 h i m s e l f to John Robson's charges of p a r t i a l i t y . When R i n g r o s e t o d i s p u t e . a p o i n t t h a t Walker had j u s t made the Judge would not l i s t e n t o him and s a i d , " S i t down, Mr. R i n g . " 151 Mr. Walker has f o r g o t t e n more t h a n you ever knew". When Cary o b j e c t e d t h a t c o u n s e l f o r the p l a i n t i f f was  prejudicing  the'minds of the J u r y , Begbie agreed w i t h him.that a g r e a t m i s c h i e f . h a d been done.  Speaking of the g e n e r a l a b i l i t y of  j u r o r s i n i n s t a n c e s of t h i s k i n d t o keep an open mind, he i s r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d , "True, Mr. Gary, we are supposed  149.  B r i t i s h Columbian, December 13, 1862,  p.2.  150. Robson, who appears t o have o v e r l o o k e d n o t h i n g i n p r e p a r i n g h i s b i t t e r a t t a c k , f a i l e d to mention t h a t Walker Was the b a r r i s t e r t o whom Begbie l e n t money t o i n v e s t i n T r a v i s ' c l a i m . See Cahpter I V , 151,  B r i t i s h Columbian,  January 21, 1865,  p.3.  -135t o know these t h i n g s , as we are educated, and are a b l e t o keep them i n abeyance t i l l we hear the o p p o s i t e b e f o r e f o r m i n g a c o n c l u s i o n , but the j u r y are not so; they hear the s t a t e 158 ment and draw the c o n c l u s i o n a t once!" A t t h e end of the p l a i n t i f f ' s case Judge Begbie i n d i c a t e d h i s i n t e n t i o n of d e c l a r i n g n o n - s u i t , which meant, 153 i n other words, t h a t he was awarding the case to W r i g h t . What prompted him t o take t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t e p i t i s hard to say*  To many i t must have meant p a r t i a l i t y .  might have been the r e s u l t of sheer bad temper.  It  It is  v e r y l i k e l y t h a t he was convinced t h a t the C r a n f o r d s had no case a g a i n s t Wright and t h a t i n order t o t e r m i n a t e t h e s t r i f e i t would be b e s t t o s e t t l e the m a t t e r at once. Whatever the Judge's motives were, R i n g r o s e t o c o n t e s t his decision.  He proved t o be the * s t r o n g e r man i n the con-  t e s t and a f t e r a l o n g and b i t t e r engagement f o r c e d the Judge 154 t o concede the p o i n t . I t was on t h i s o c c a s i o n , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h a t Begbie s a i d to Ring,. " R e a l l y , Mr. R i n g , 155 i t must s u r e l y be a f t e r d i n n e r w i t h you."  I t seems t h a t  the b a r r i s t e r would not be put down., f o r t h e Judge i s 152. B r i t i s h Columbian, January 10, 1865, p.3. 153.  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , December 29, 1862,  154.  I b i d . , December 29, 1862,  155.  B r i t i s h Columbian, January 21, 1863, p.3.  p.3.  p.3.  -136-  r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d i n g r e a t e x a s p e r a t i o n , " I do not know how t o stop you, u n l e s s I order you t o be removed out of 156 Court*" The newspapers r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g the case Begbie' a p o l o g i z e d t o R i n g i n open c o u r t and t h a t t h e b a r r i s t e r s a i d t h a t he c o u l d not accept i t u n l e s s he tendered 157 the same r e g r e t s t o h i s j u n i o r . Whether t h i s t r a n s p i r e d on t h e o c c a s i o n d e s c r i b e d above i s not c e r t a i n , but as t h e event i s one of t h e two most i n t e n s e scenes o f t h e whole t r i a l , t h e r e i s some l i k l i h o o d t h a t t h i s was the o c c a s i o n * Whenever the apology was made, M c C r e i g h t d i d not g i v e Judge Begbie an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make i t *  He jumped t o h i s f e e t and  d e c l a r e d t h a t he had never i n h i s whole l i f e had t o endure so many i n s u l t s and t h a t he found i t i n e x p r e s s i b l y irksome to  have a n y t h i n g to do i n a c o u r t where t h e Judge presided®  He would not dare t o use t h e language o u t s i d e t h e c o u r t t h a t 158 he had used i n i t l When a l l t h e evidence had been heard and the time came f o r Judge Begbie t o sum up and charge t h e j u r y he 159 announced t h a t he would not r e a d h i s n o t e s on t h e case. A f t e r a few remarks he charged t h e j u r y t h a t they must f i n d 156,  Loc. c i t ,  157,  Loo, c i t .  158,  Loo, c i t .  159,  B r i t i s h Columbian, January 10, 1863, p.5*  -137whether t h e c o n t r a c t had "been r e s c i n d e d .  I f i t had n o t ,  then they must assess what was reasonable  time f o r t h e t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n of goods from Douglas t o L i l l o e t .  This being done,  i t . remained t o estimate the-.value o f t h e goods when they . should have a r r i v e d , and t h e v a l u e when they d i d arrive*. 160 The d i f f e r e n c e between these v a l u e s must be t h e damages. R i n g and' Mc.Creights were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the.summing up because i n t h e i r o p i n i o n Judge Begbie had omitted much of t h e evidence t h a t they c o n s i d e r e d f a v o r a b l e t o t h e i r clients.  Wright had t e s t i f i e d t h a t he had made t h e changes  i n t h e c o n t r a c t a t t h e time i t was f i r s t drawn up.  To r e f u t e  t h i s p o i n t counsel c a l l e d Mr» Walkem to prove t h a t he had s a i d t h e o p p o s i t e a t the L i l l o e t h e a r i n g and t h a t he was t h e r e f o r e g u i l t y of p e r j u r y .  The Judge r e f u s e d t o c o n s i d e r  Walkem's evidence as r e l e v a n t and d e c l a r e d t h a t i f R i n g .proved Wright the b i g g e s t l i a r i n t h e w o r l d he would not 161 prove h i s c a s e .  A p a r t from t h e q u e s t i o n whether Judge  Begbie was r i g h t o r wrong i n t a k i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e f a c t remains t h a t he gave every appearance o f f a v o r i n g the defendant© A f t e r t h e j u r y had been c o n f i n e d f o r n e a r l y t h i r t y hours Judge Begbie c a l l e d them back i n t o c o u r t .  The f o r e -  man s t a t e d t h a t they had not been a b l e t o come to an 160.  B r i t i s h Columbian, January 21, 1863, p.3.  161.  L o o , cit®  -138agreement.  I t appears t h a t e i g h t had decided i n f a v o r o f t h e  C r a n f o r d s , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g f o u r were e i t h e r u n c e r t a i n o r d e f i n i t e l y i n f a v o r o f Wright,  Those who were f o r t h e  p l a i n t i f f p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e h i l l o f p a r t i c u l a r s had n o t been sent i n i n t i m e , and i f they c o u l d r e t u r n t o the j u r y room they would come t o a unanimous d e c i s i o n .  One o f t h e 162  m i n o r i t y i s s a i d t o have c a l l e d out t h a t he would never  agree.  As Judge Begbie had r e f u s e d e a r l i e r i n t h e t r i a l t o p e r m i t t h e d e c i s i o n t o be made by a m a j o r i t y v o t e , i t was now h i s duty t o e x p l a i n t h e l a w t o t h e jurymen and t o answer any q u e s t i o n they might ask him. asked t h e Judge t o do t h i s ,  R i n g rose t o h i s f e e t and  Begbie, however, appears t o have  been i n a s t a t e o f g r e a t exeitement.  He r e f u s e d  Ring's  r e q u e s t , and d i s m i s s e d t h e j u r y . R i n g rose a g a i n , but t h i s time addressed h i m s e l f t o Mr. Matthew, t h e R e g i s t r a r o f t h e Supreme C o u r t .  When the  R e g i s t r a r , i n answer t o the i n d i g n a n t b a r r i s t e r ' s q u e s t i o n , answered t h a t he had the r o l l s i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , R i n g asked him t o s t r i k e h i s name, o f f , McCreight the same r e q u e s t .  jumped up and made  A f t e r some h o t words w i t h t h e Judge, t h e  p a i r walked out of c o u r t . As i n t h e case o f the imprisonment o f John Robson, a l a r g e p u b l i c meeting was c a l l e d .  On t h i s o c c a s i o n t h e  c i t i z e n s presented a complimentary address t o t h e two 162.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  December 20, 1862, p.3.  -139c o u n s e l s e x p r e s s i n g a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r courageous stand a g a i n s t t h e t y r a n t Judge.  Both b a r r i s t e r s made s h o r t speeches,  and a Mr. G r i e v e , one of t h e jurymen, gave h i s v e r s i o n o f 163 what had gone on i n the j u r y room. ?  To many people Judge B e g b i e s apparent p a r t i a l i t y t o Wright and h i s t y r a n n i c a l b e h a v i o r were a r e p e t i t i o n o f what they b e l i e v e d t o be h i s ..unsavory d e a l i n g s a t Cottonwood and his  a r b i t r a r y treatment of John Robson.  Y e t t h e r e i s some  evidence t o show t h a t t h e Judge h i m s e l f had s u f f e r e d a t Wright's hands and had no r e a s o n to f a v o r t h e man.  Writing  t o Douglas a year b e f o r e t h e C r a n f o r d s entered i n t o t h e i r 164 i l l s t a r r e d c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e packer Begbie s t a t e d ; I p a i d 10c. p e r pound f o r p a c k i n g some t h i n g s — t h e y were d e l i v e r e d piecemeal a t Cayoosh, some not t i l l t h e e l e v e n t h day from Douglas: some s t o l e n — some broken. T h i s was by t h e l a r g e s t and perhaps the b e s t p a c k e r s on t h e l i n e ; Wright •: and N e l s o n . What i s t h e use of a waggon r o a d f o r such a set? They w i l l squabble and f i g h t to t h e end o f t h e chapter« B a r r i n g b r i b e r y , and t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e , what were t h e Judge's m o t i v e s ?  I t may be answered from t h e  testimony o f many people who knew him t h a t t h e y were good motives.  I t was h i s c h a r a c t e r and methods t h a t l e d him  i n t o such c o n f u s i o n .  We have seen from t h e f i r s t C r a n f o r d  t r i a l t h a t he d i d not know l a w and procedure.  We a l s o  163.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  December 20, 1862, p.3.  164.  Begbie t o Douglas, A p r i l 20, 1861, Begbie Letters.  -140know t h a t he scorned l a w hooks, t h a t he would n o t l e a r n the law.  I n the e a r l y days he had been the law.  He made  i t , dispensed i t and sometimes acted as defense and p r o s ecution.  He made up h i s mind what the v e r d i c t should he  and secured t h a t v e r d i c t .  But 1868 was n o t 1858.  Barristers  were appearing i n t h e c o l o n y , jurymen were no l o n g e r awes t r i c k e n horse t h i e v e s , from the D a l l e s , and l i t i g a t i o n was becoming more t e c h n i c a l . not change h i s ways.  But t h e Judge would n o t , o r c o u l d  I t i s thus v e r y l i k e l y t h a t he had  made up h i s mind t h a t t h e C r a n f o r d s had no case a g a i n s t W r i g h t , and was bound t o b r i n g t h e t r i a l t o t h a t conclusion,, I n f l a g r a n t d i s r e g a r d o r ignorance o f t h e l a w he sought t o d e c l a r e n o n - s u i t a t the end o f t h e p l a i n t i f f ' s  evidence.  When proved wrong, he, Judge of t h e Supreme C o u r t , made an apology t h a t t h e i n d i g n a n t c o u n s e l would n o t a c c e p t .  At  the end o f t h e t r i a l , as a crowning d i s g r a c e , he d i s m i s s e d the j u r y , l e a v i n g t h e u n f o r t u n a t e C r a n f o r d s saddled w i t h heavy c o s t s amounting t o £1, 810. The C r a n f o r d b r o t h e r s were sent back t o p r i s o n , t h i s t i m e , i t i s t o be presumed, on another a f f i d a v i t and w r i t . They determined  t o take t h e case t o t h e Supreme;?; Court o f  Vancouver I s l a n d , n o t as a c o u r t o f a p p e a l , but p o s s i b l y on the grounds t h a t the o r i g i n a l c o n t r a c t had been drawn up i n t h a t Colony w i t h a V i c t o r i a f i r m .  A c c o r d i n g l y they  were r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n and departed t o make p r e p a r a t i o n s 165 f o r another s u i t . The case never reached t h e c o u r t , however,  165.  B r i t i s h Columbian., A p r i l 4, 1863, p.3.  -141and the D a l l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t o f A p r i l 15, 1863, r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e d i s p u t e had been amicably s e t t l e d t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n 166 o f f r i e n d s o f both p a r t i e s . A f t e r t h a t time Robert C r a n f o r d d i s a p p e a r s from s i g h t . H i s o l d e r b r o t h e r , John, seems t o have prospered, f o r h i s name appeared as a member o f t h e board o f d i r e c t o r s o f t h e 167 B r i t i s h Columbian C o a l M i n i n g Company.  D e s p i t e h i s mis-  f o r t u n e s he was a b l e t o take an o p t i m i s t i c v i e w of l i f e 168 as the f o l l o w i n g n o t i c e from t h e B r i t i s h Columbian i n d i c a t e s . Victoria Mr. J".P. C r a n f o r d d e l i v e r e d a l e c t u r e . a t t h e I n s t i t u t e on Thursday evening t o a l a r g e audience. The t e x t was " L a t e n t C h r i s t i a n i t y i n Modern Governments." The l o c a l papers d e s c r i b e the l e c t u r e as being very a b l e , and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y received® Whatever the f e e l i n g s of the C r a n f o r d b r o t h e r s may have been, John Robson n e i t h e r f o r g a v e n o r f o r g o t .  During  the ensuing y e a r s he r e c o r d e d and c r i t i c i z e d every q u e s t i o n a b l e a c t of Judge Begbie.  I n t h e s p r i n g of 1866 two s u i t s  were e n t e r e d a g a i n s t P e t e r O'Ren/lly, and i n each case t h e Judge i n t e r v e n e d on b e h a l f o f t h e defendant, who, as i t was w e l l known, was a c l o s e f r i e n d of h i s .  I n t h e case o f  Eddy v s . O ' R e i l l y , heard i n New Westminster a t t h e end o f  166.  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 15, 1863, p.3.  167.  B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 27, 1865, p.2.  168®  Ibid.,  A p r i l 29, 1865, p.3.  -142March, 1866, Judge Begbie told, t h e j u r y t h a t t h e evidence of t h e defendant was e n t i t l e d t o more c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a n t h a t o f the three: w i t n e s s e s  f o r the p l a i n t i f f .  The j u r o r s ,  however, r e f u s e d t o be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Judge's i n s t r u c t i o n s and found a v e r d i c t i n f a v o r of Eddy*  Begbie f o r t h w i t h s e t 169  the v e r d i c t a s i d e , thereby g i v i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o h i s f r i e n d * S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d , when t h e a s s i z e s opened a t L i l l o e t i n A p r i l o f t h e same y e a r , Judge Begbie took an even stronger stand on b e h a l f o f O ' R e i l l y .  I n t h e course of the t r i a l  he t o l d t h e j u r y t h a t i f t h e y found t h e v e r d i c t f o r t h e p l a i n t i f f , Walden, he would s e t i t a s i d e .  To make sure  t h a t they would not d i s r e g a r d h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s a s t h e j u r o r s had done a t New Westminster he d i s m i s s e d t h e case before 170 they could a r r i v e a t a v e r d i c t . Here a g a i n , a r e i n s t a n c e s o f t h e Judges a r b i t r a r y methods:, and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , o f h i s h a b i t o f appearing t o be p a r t i a l t o one of the d i s p u t a n t s . ; John Robson, i n a r e s t r a i n e d and d i g n i f i e d a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d A Court o f A p p e a l 171 Wanted,  p o i n t e d out t h a t Judge Begbie may have been p e r f e c t l y  r i g h t i n h i s . assessment o f t h e evidence and h i s p r e r o g a t i v e as Judge p e r m i t t e d him t o weigh the evidence f o r t h e b e n e f i t 169. * ' B r i t i s h ; Columbian, May 19, 1866, 170.  Ibid*,  May 23, 1866, p.3.  171.  Ibid*.  May 19, 1866,  p.l.  p.l,  -143of the j u r o r s .  But t o assume t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f t h e j u r y  was n o t o n l y i l l e g a l b u t t y r r a n o u s , and as Robson p o i n t e d out w i t h a c e r t a i n amount of t r u t h , would l e a d t o t h e s u r r e n d e r of the r i g h t t o t r i a l by jury© There:was, of c o u r s e , a d e a l - o f p u b l i c i n d i g n a t i o n about these cases and t h e i s s u e s they i n v o l v e d , b u t as nobody but t h e u n f o r t u n a t e p l a i n t i f f s o r defendants a c t u a l l y s u f f e r e d d i r e c t l y , t h e p u b l i c took no a c t i v e steps t o secure r e d r e s s or reform.  I t was Judge Begbie's d e c i s i o n s and procedure  i n mining d i s p u t e s t h a t brought about a c t i v e measures t o secure h i s d i s m i s s a l , o r , a s an a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e e s t a b l i s h ment of a Court o f Appeal,"  As we have a l r e a d y seen, t h e  m i n i n g laws were never adequate t o t h e needs o f the m i n e r s , and the machinery f o r s e t t l i n g t h e i r d i s p u t e s c r e a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t h e r than a l l a y i n g i t . from the Gold Commissioner's  The r i g h t o f appeal  Court t o t h e Supreme Court  brought the cases b e f o r e Judge Begbie i n the Supreme C o u r t , I n such l i t i g a t i o n h i s d e c i s i o n s and methods c r e a t e d a storm iof p r o t e s t even g r e a t e r than t h a t which had f o l l o w e d t h e Cranford cases.  I n a d d i t i o n t o reversing the decisions of  j u r i e s and o t h e r a r b i t r a r y a c t s , he sometimes took t h e case i n t o Chancery, a l o n g and expensive p r o c e s s .  Some o f h i s  d e c i s i o n s i n t h i s court created great d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  In  the famous B o r e a l i s v. Vi/atson case he a c t u a l l y r e v e r s e d t h e 172 d e c i s i o n he had made i n t h e Supreme C o u r t !  172.  B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 11, 1866,  p.2.  -144What made t h i s l i t i g a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y s e r i o u s f o r some of the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d was the process o f i n j u n c t i o n s which l e d t o the c e s s a t i o n of m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on the d i s p u t e d c l a i m . ' Important and v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t i e s would sometimes l a y f a l l o w throughout a n , e n t i r e season because, i n many cases, boundary d i s p u t e s had never been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e a l t w i t h or had been appealed from the Gold C o u r t s .  The growth  of the e v i l was noted by John Robson who p r i n t e d t h e f o l l o w 173 i n g despatch from C a r i b o o i n t h e summer of 1865: Owing t o a d i s p u t e r e s p e c t i n g t i t l e s and boundaries Judge Begbie has p l a c e d an i n j u n c t i o n upon the t h r e e w e l l known r i c h c l a i m s , A u r o r a , S a w m i l l , and Watson, the case to be t r i e d a t t h e f a l l a s s i z e s h e r e , i f not s e t t l e d meanwhile. Thus t h r e e of the r i c h e s t c l a i m s are l o c k e d up, p r o b a b l y f o r the season. D u r i n g the n e s t season the A u r o r a company a g a i n e n t e r e d i n t o l i t i g a t i o n , the outcome of which l e d t o a p e t i t i o n f o r i Judge Begbie^*s d i s m i s s a l .  The p a t t e r n of; h i s b e h a v i o r d i d  not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h a t i n o t h e r c a s e s , and as Walkem wrote i n a l e t t e r to Crease, he gave every i n d i c a t i o n o f 174 making h i s d e c i s i o n b e f o r e t h e case came i n t o courts There i s a g r e a t row brewing on the Creek & Cox i s r e a l l y the cause of i t i n a g r e a t measure. . He at l e a s t foments i t and Begbie's judgments i n the B o r e a l i s as w e l l as some o t h e r s u i t s have g i v e n r i s e t o i t . The f a c t i s t h a t no man f e e l s safe i n a c i v i l a c t i o n . The judge's f e e l i n g and  173.  B r i t i s h Columbian,  August 5, 1865,  p.3.  174.  Walkem t o Crease, June 10, 1866, Walkem letters.  -145p r e j u d i c e s before the T r i a l & h i s acquaintance w i t h one o f the p a r t i e s & the f a c t s gleaned & too w i l l i n g l y l i s t e n e d t o by h i m s e l f are a l l canvassed b e f o r e the j u r y i s ever dreamt o f . T h i s c e r t a i n l y i s a d e p l o r a b l e s t a t e of t h i n g s , and the miners are about t o take v e r y d e c i s i v e steps t o stop i t . Whether Cox i s meant by Walkem to foment t r o u b l e by h i s d e c i s i o n s i s not c l e a r .  I t would be nearer the t r u t h to  conclude t h a t the foment-, came from the r i g h t of miners t o appeal t o the Supreme Court than from any p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of M a g i s t r a t e Cox, who was, i n d e e d , very p o p u l a r w i t h the miners and was w i d e l y p r a i s e d f o r h i s s t a n d i n the A u r o r a 175 dispute.  Walkem's d e s c r i p t i o n of Judge Begbie's methods  i s o n l y too c l e a r , and h i s words were w e l l borne out i n the  :  famous A u r o r a case® ' I n the s p r i n g o f 1866 t h e A u r o r a Company n o t i f i e d a n e i g h b o r i n g company, the D a v i s M i n i n g Company, to appear a t C l i n t o n - t o answer an a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t would then be made, on F r i d a y , May  25, 1866,  f o r an i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n them from  working a c e r t a i n p i e c e of ground.  The A u r o r a Company sent  one of i t s employes, a Mr. H a z e l t i n e , t o B r i d g e Creek, where he met  Judge Begbie on h i s way n o r t h t o t h e a s s i z e s .  He  o b t a i n e d from the Judge, w i t h o u t any d i f f i c u l t y , i t appears, an o r d e r t o M a g i s t r a t e Cox, as Deputy R e g i s t r a r of the Supreme C o u r t , t o i s s u e an i n j u n c t i o n and t o a t t a c h the s e a l of the Court t h e r e t o , as the s e a l s of the R e g i s t r a r were i n t h e  175.  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , June 11, 1866, p.2. B r i t i s h Columbian, dune 13, 1866, p.3.  -146waggons, which had "broken down, and were some m i l e s behind* H a z e l t i n e took the order to Mr. H.P.  Walker, who p r e s e n t e d i t  to M a g i s t r a t e Cox i n the Court House a t R i c h f i e l d and r e quested him t o a t t a c h the s e a l of the Court t o t h e i n j u n c t i o n . Cox s a i d he had c o n s i d e r e d the m a t t e r v e r y c a r e f u l l y and had come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he c o u l d not a c q u i e s c e .  He r e a d  Walker a. statement t h a t he had w r i t t e n t h e n i g h t b e f o r e , 176 s e t t i n g f o r t h reasons f o r h i s r e f u s a l .  I t r a n as f o l l o w s :  I h o l d no commission as Deputy R e g i s t r a r o f the Supreme C o u r t , nor never d i d h o l d one; I have a c t e d as such f o r the accommodation of t h e p u b l i c and the Supreme C o u r t ; and i t i s not l a t e r than the Express b e f o r e l a s t I remarked, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o cases a g a i n s t the S h e r i f f , t h a t a l l my a c t s done as Deputy R e g i s t r a r of the Supreme Court must have been i l l e g a l . I e n t e r t a i n as h i g h r e s p e c t and esteem f o r Mr. Begbie, as Mr. Begbie, and a l s o as Supreme Court Judge of the Colony as any man i n i t ; but f i n d i n g now t h a t i t i s attempted t o drag me i n t o t h i s d i s a g r e e a b l e q u a r r e l and a c t c o n t r a r y t o my own r u l i n g and cons c i e n c e , I would, i f I a c t u a l l y d i d at t h i s moment, h o l d a commission as Deputy R e g i s t r a r of t h e Supreme C o u r t , r e s i g n the post a t once. There are Court s e a l s i n the Record O f f i c e , which are a t Mr. Walker's d i s p o s a l ; but they w i l l not be i s s u e d as s e a l s out of the Supreme Court by me as Deputy R e g i s t r a r o f the same* The cause of the A u r o r a Company and few s u p p o r t e r s , f o r most of  the mining community regarded i t s s u i t a g a i n s t the D a v i s  Company as a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o secure ground f o r which 177 i t had no c l a i m .  M a g i s t r a t e Cox had t a k e n a s i m i l a r  p o s i t i o n i n what he c a l l e d " t h i s d i s a g r e e a b l e t r o u b l e " . 176.  B r i t i s h Columbian, June 9, 1866,  p.3.  177.  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e June 28, 1866, p.2  t  -147-  Wltjtout choosing o r naming s i d e s he had made h i s f e e l i n g s very c l e a r * Walker obtained  the i n j u n c t i o n from t h e R e g i s t r a r  when he a r r i v e d a t R i c h f i e l d , and t h e case was heard  before  Judge Begbie and a s p e c i a l j u r y i n the Supreme Court on June 9, 1866, The j u r y , which c o n s i s t e d of seven men, had been s e l e c t e d w i t h a g r e a t had been summoned. and  care.  F o r t y e i g h t f r e e miners  F i v e o f these were c h a l l e n g e d  by c o u n s e l 178  seven drawn by l o t from the remaining f o r t y - t h r e e .  It  was c l o s e on midnight when t h e j u r y agreed on t h e v e r d i c t , which was t h a t t h e 130 f e e t i n d i s p u t e 179  should be e q u a l l y  d i v i d e d between the two companies, . The d e c i s i o n , which many had f e a r e d might go t o t h e A u r o r a Company, gave widespread s a t i s f a c t i o n . of the C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l  The e d i t o r  wrote an e n t h u s i a s t i c account o f t h e  t r i a l and t h e j u r y ' s d e c i s i o n .  John-.Robson echoed h i s  s e n t i m e n t s , but w i t h ' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s t a t i n g t h a t he was • not y e t ready t o d i s c u s s t h e conduct o f the Judge i n the 180 case. He quoted t h e S e n t i n e l as f o l l o w s : We must say we l o o k upon t h i s t r i a l as a c o n c e s s i o n t o t h e p u b l i c sentiment, a f a c t t h a t must cause much s a t i s f a c t i o n t o those who a r e l i k e l y t o b r i n g forward q u e s t i o n s i n our c o u r t s o f law, as many 178.  B r i t i s h Columbian, June 27, 1866, p.2.  179.  I b i d , , June 20, 1866, p.3.  180.  I b i d . , June 27, 1866, p.2.  -148. l i t i g a n t s p r e f e r s u f f e r i n g an immediate l o s s r a t h e r t h a n i n c u r the r i s k o f running t h e g a u n t l e t of t h e whole course from t h e Gold Commissioner t o Chancery. •The c o u r t assembled on Monday, June.11, t o wind up the ease.  Resplendent i n w i g and r o b e s , Judge Begbie summ-  oned the a p p e l l a n t and respondent before, him and t o l d them t h a t he c o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h e .-verdict-.  He would, however,  r a t h e r than t a k e the case i n t o Chancery, s e t t l e the m a t t e r i f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e s u i t would a p p o i n t him s o l e a r b i t r a t o r ! C o u n s e l f o r t h e A u r o r a Company accepted t h e o f f e r a t once. .The D a v i s Company's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s "asked f o r an adjournment t o t h e n e x t day. When t h e c o u r t met on T u e s d a y m o r n i n g c o u n s e l f o r t h e D a v i s Company s t a t e d t h a t h i s c l i e n t s r e f u s e d 181 t o e n t e r i n t o any such agreement. The E a v i s Company, i n the meantime, c o n c e i v e d t h a t they might n o t serve t h e i r I n t e r e s t s by r e f u s i n g t h e Judge's a r b i t r a t i o n and on June 14 i n f o r m e d him t h a t they would be p l e a s e d t o put t h e i r case i n his* hands.  F i v e days l a t e r ,  on Tuesday, June 19, t h e Judge summoned t h e p a r t i e s t o c o u r t t o ' h e a r h i s a d j u d i c a t i o n , which was i n f a v o r , o f t h e A u r o r a Company.  He s t a t e d b l u n t l y t h a t he c o u l d n o t agree  •with t h e f i n d i n g of t h e j*ury, and t h a t i f j u r y a f t e r j u r y 182 were t o f i n d such a v e r d i c t I t c o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o s t a n d . 181.  B r i t i s h Columbian, June 27, 1866, p.2.  182. C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , June 21, 1866, c i t e d i n D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e , June 28, 1866, p . 2 e  -149-  On the evening o f t h e f o l l o w i n g Saturday,.June 23, between 500 and 600 miners from the s u r r o u n d i n g creeks assembled i n f r o n t of t h e R i c h f i e l d Courthouse to p r o t e s t f  Judge B e g b i e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the law* 183 passed were as f o l l o w s :  The r e s o l u t i o n s  1. That i n t h e o p i n i o n of t h i s meeting the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e m i n i n g laws by Mr. J u s t i c e Begbie i n t h e Supreme Court i s p a r t i a l , d i c t a t o r i a l and a r b i t r a r y , i n s e t t i n g a s i d e the v e r d i c t o f the j u r i e s , and c a l c u l a t e d t o c r e a t e a f e e l i n g of d i s t r u s t i n those who have t o seek r e d r e s s i n a Court of J u s t i c e * 2. That t h i s meeting pledges i t s e l f t o support the Government i n c a r r y i n g out the laws i n t h e i r i n t e g r i t y and begs f o r an i m p a r t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e ; t o t h i s end we d e s i r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Court of A p p e a l , o r the immediate removal o f Mr. J u s t i c e B e g b i e , whose a c t s i n s e t t i n g a s i d e the law have d e s t r o y e d c o n f i d e n c e , and are d r i v i n g l a b o r , c a p i t a l and e n t e r p r i s e out of the Colony* 3© That a committee of two persons be a p p o i n t e d to: w a i t upon H i s E x c e l l e n c y the A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e Government, w i t h the f o r e g o i n g r e s o l u t i o n s , and e a r n e s t l y impress upon him the immediate n e c e s s i t y of c a r r y i n g out„ithe wishes of the people* Two m i n e r s , John McLaren and Erank L a u m e i s t e r , were a p p o i n t e d t o c a r r y t h e r e s o l u t i o n s to t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  Expenses  o f t h e j o u r n e y were t o be d e f r a y e d by p o p u l a r s u b s c r i p t i o n . J u d g i n g by t h e enthusiasm of the meeting, t h e r e i s no t h a t the f u n d was e a s i l y r a i s e d .  doubt  When t h i s arrangement  183.' D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e , June 28, 1866, p.2*  had  -150been made t h r e e cheers were g i v e n f o r Judge Cox, t h e V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e , the B r i t i s h Columbian, the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , the Cariboo S e n t i n e l , t h e Chairman, the S e c r e t a r y , and t h e Queen®  A f t e r t h r e e groans f o r Judge Begbie t h e  meeting adjourned®  CHAPTER V I .  CHIEF JUSTICE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.  The A d m i n i s t r a t o r  of t h e Government, Mr. B i r c h ,  r e c e i v e d McLaren and L a u m e i s t e r w i t h every  courtesy,  gave f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s and accepted t h e i r petition.  Two days l a t e r , on J u l y 5, the A d m i n i s t r a t o r 184  gave the d e p u t a t i o n an o f f i c i a l r e p l y .  Studiously  a v o i d i n g comment on t h e miners' p r o p o s a l t h a t Judge Begbie should be removed from o f f i c e , B i r c h d e a l t w i t h t h e a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o l u t i o n , t h a t a Court o f Appeal should be established.  He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t had been under  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r some time and t h a t no one was-, more anxious f o r t h e p r o j e c t e d change than Mr. Begbie.  The Government  had gone as f a r as making p r o v i s i o n i n t h e e s t i m a t e s f o r a second Judge, but was d e l a y i n g t h e appointment because of t h e p r o j e c t e d union o f t h e two C o l o n i e s .  He s t a t e d  t h a t w i t h t h e amalgamation o f t h e C o u r t s of the C o l o n i e s a Court of A p p e a l would be immediately e s t a b l i s h e d . Knowing t h a t p a r t o f t h e t r o u b l e i n C a r i b o o was due t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g m i n i n g laws,. B i r c h 184.  B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 18, 1866, p.2.  -152suggested t h a t the M i n i n g Board s h o u l d be brought back i n t o s e r v i c e and urged the miners t o e l e c t such a body w i t h o u t a n y - f u r t h e r d e l a y . He s a i d n o t h i n g of the p o s s i b i l i t y of l i m i t i n g the r i g h t of appeal from t h e d e c i s i o n s of the 185 Gold Commissioner's C o u r t . The A  statement t h a t Judge Begbie  was  :  s t r o i i g l y i n f a v o r of a !?0Ui"fc of Appeal met With, f l a t ;  c o n t r a d i c t i o n from John Robson. who a s s e r t e d t h a t everybody i n the Colony knew t h a t the Judge was b i t t e r l y opposed 186 to the measure.  Begbie appears t o have avoided d i r e c t  d i s c u s s i o n of t h e t o p i c i n h i s correspondence.  There i s an  i n t e r e s t i n g l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o the Governor on A p r i l 11, 1865 i n which he attempted t o undermine t h e p r o j e c t by 185. The Gold M i n i n g Ordinance, 1865, (B.C. Proclama t i o n s , 1865) was amended A p r i l 2, 1867, to l i m i t appeals t o the Supreme Court from the Gold Commissi o n e r ' s Court from d e c i s i o n s t h e r e on p o i n t s of f a c t . I t was a t e l l i n g commentary t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n had t o be enacted t o save l i t i g a n t s from the hands of a Judge of the Supreme C o u r t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s change came too l a t e t o save a l a r g e number of miners from e x p e n s i v e , and sometimes d i s a s t r o u s , litigation© :  186. "The M i n e r s and the J u d i c i a r y , " B r i t i s h Columbian, J u l y 18, 1866, p . l . I n t h i s a r t i c l e John Robson was s k e p t i c a l about the p r o j e c t e d .union and f e a r e d t h a t t h e Court of A p p e a l i s s u e would drag on w i t h o u t settlements  -153s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e was There was,  no n e c e s s i t y f o r a second judge.  he s a i d , no inconvenience f e l t by  suitors,  a l t h o u g h he f e l t t h a t an i n c r e a s e i h l i t i g a t i o n was contingency t h a t should not be overlooked.  a  Should t h a t  a r i s e , he recommended an e x t e n s i o n of the powers of County Court m a g i s t r a t e s Supreme C o u r t .  t o i n c l u d e l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y i n the  He  s t a t e d t h a t t h i s would p r o v i d e means  of d e a l i n g w i t h a d d i t i o n a l cases i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the Colony a t one t i m e , whereas the appointment of another judge would not a c h i e v e t h a t end..  I f , f o r instance.,  Judge Begbie argued, he were s e r v i n g i n C a r i b o o and colleague  i n Kootenay, the l i t i g a n t s i n New  would be no b e t t e r o f f than b e f o r e .  his  Westminster  I f he were t o go  t o the c o a s t , then the opening of the c o u r t s i n Cariboo would be h e l d up,. i n p r a c t i c a l terms.  I t was  an i n g e n i o u s  argument, couched  I n the e n t i r e despatch t h e r e i s no T  mention- of a Court of A p p e a l . Yv ithout an a d d i t i o n a l judge 187 '} no such body could e x i s t . I t was  n a t u r a l t h a t Judge Begbie should have c e r t a i n  r e s e r v a t i o n s about a Court- of A p p e a l .  He was  of the. antagonism t o him i n b o t h C o l o n i e s .  f u l l y aware  The  p e t i t i o n drawn up In R i c h f i e l d on June 23, 1866,  miners* made i t .  v e r y c l e a r -that a l a r g e s e c t i o n of the community wished t o get r i d of him, and f a i l i n g t h i s , to subordinate t o a judge i n h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y .  187.  Should the two  Begbie t o Seymour, A p r i l 11, 1865,  him  judicatures  Begbie L e t t e r s .  -154be amalgamated i n the coming u n i o n , h i s own s t a t u s put him a t a d i s t i n c t d i s a d v a n t a g e . •••When_Sir Edward Bulwer L y t t o n appointed him he made him Judge of the Supreme C o u r t , and wrote t o Douglas on August 14, 1858, s t a t i n g t h a t i n the event of the Colony growing i n importance and the Judge p r o v i n g h i m s e l f competent, he should be promoted t o the 188 s t a t u s of C h i e f J u s t i c e * -  The promotion was never made,  f o r .reasons t h a t can not be determined.  Judge Begbie  made no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the m a t t e r u n t i l some time i n 1866, when he was informed by Governor Seymour t h a t the e n t i r e q u e s t i o n was under c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a r e s u l t 189 o f t h e coming u n i o n *  When the Colony of Vancouver  Island  was f u r n i s h e d w i t h a Supreme Court i n 1856 the judge g i v e n the t i t l e and s t a t u s of C n i e f J u s t i c e .  The  was  first  Judge, D a v i d Cameron, a l i n e n draper w i t h a j u d i c i a l 190 frame- of mind, r e t i r e d i n 1865. H i s successor, Chief J u s t i c e Needham, came t o enjoy g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y i n the •  •  • •  ." -  •.  t  '•  1  •  i s l a n d c o l o n y , and t h e r e was both hope and f e a r t h e r e and on .-••the. mainland .about h i s f u t u r e s t a t u s . Judge Begbie thus 188. L y t t o n t o Douglas, Record O f f i c e T r a n s c r i p t s , Vo1.1, p t t i e 189.  v. i n f r a , p.156, n.  190. C h i e f J u s t i c e Cameron was Douglas' b r o t h e r i n - l a w . A l t h o u g h he had no t r a i n i n g i n l a w he seems t o have g i v e n s a t i s f a c t i o n as a Judge.  -155found h i m s e l f c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a r i v a l - , eminently more popular than he, and e n j o y i n g a h i g h e r s t a t u s * The union of the two C o l o n i e s was p r o c l a i m e d on •: November 19, 1866, and to the c o n s t e r n a t i o n of the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and f a c t i o n s the Act of Union made no express d e c l a r a t i o n concerning t h e Supreme Court Vancouver I s l a n d .  of  The a u t h o r i t i e s concerned were fhus  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a problem t h a t i n v o l v e d both and p e r s o n a l i s s u e s .  Was  constitutional  i t to be i n f e r r e d f r o m the a c t  t h a t t h e I s l a n d Court was t o continue or t h a t i t was abrogated,  thus b r i n g i n g t h a t t e r r i t o r y under the  juris-  d i c t i o n o f the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia?  If i t  were abrogated,  t h e r e would be the thorny q u e s t i o n of the  s t a t u s of Judges,Begbie and Needham.  I t c o u l d be argued  t h a t a b r o g a t i o n had a b o l i s h e d C h i e f J u s t i c e Needham's office..  On the o t h e r hand a ease: might be made to show  t h a t h i s o f f l e e , d e r i v e d from the Queen's commission and  not  from the Order i n C o u n c i l of 1856 which had e s t a b l i s h e d the Supreme Court of Vancouver Island®  I f t h i s were t r u e ,  Needham•'•would, continue as a C h i e f J u s t i c e a f t e r h i s c o u r t had :been d i s s o l v e d .  I n the event of a b r o g a t i o n , t h e r e  c o u l d be no doubt that, Needham ..would., be o f f e r e d a j u d g s h i p i n the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia.  One  Judge would  not s u f f i c e f o r the v a s t a r e a i n c l u d e d i n the union Needham was both a b l e and p o p u l a r .  I f he accepted  an o f f e r , would he do so on c o n d i t i o n s t h a t him to Judge Begbie?  and such  subordinated  -156Begbie was g r e a t l y concerned, over t h e matter and  drew  up ;two memoranda, one f o r the E a r l o f Carnarvon and t h e 191 o t h e r f o r Governor Seymour*  W r i t i n g a t g r e a t l e n g t h he  set f o r t h h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e problems and made a p l e a t h a t he, s h o u l d not be superseded.  involved I n the  memorandum f o r Carnarvon he p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e A c t abrogated t h e E x e c u t i v e * a n d L e g i s l a t u r e of t h e Colony o f 'Vancouver I s l a n d .  He then went on to''show t h a t t h e  J u d i c a t u r e , b e i n g an organ o r mouthpiece o f t h e E x e c u t i v e , ceased t o e x i s t w i t h t h e a b r o g a t i o n of t h e E x e c u t i v e , i n t h e same way he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p of the Colony o f Vancouver I s l a n d s u f f e r e d t h e same f a t e as t h e C o u r t .  The commission o f C h i e f J u s t i c e Needham  was e f f e c t i v e . d u r i n g H e r " M a j e s t y ' s p l e a s u r e , and s i n c e the consent of t h e CroWn must be taken t o be g i v e n f o r a l l t h e l o g i c a l consequences o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n , t h e n , l i k e t h e C o u r t s , t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p i t s e l f ceased t o e x i s t . 191. Memorandum f o r t h e R i g h t Honourable t h e E a r l o f Carnarvon., one o f Her M a j e s t y ' s p r i n c i p a l S e o r e t a r y s '(sic) o f S t a t e r e s p e c t i n g t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p i n t h e Supreme Court o f B r i t i s h Columbia, December 28, 1866, Begbie L e t t e r Book. Memorandum as t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e Court (Vancouver I s l a n d ) i n a l e t t e r t o H i s E x c e l l e n c y ( p r i v a t e & c o n f i d e n t i a l ) March 22, 1866, Begbie L e t t e r Book. W.K. Lamb q u e s t i o n s t h e d a t e , s e t t i n g i t a t some time i n 1867. See Lamb, "Judge B e g b i e : Memoirs and Documents" B.C.H.Q*, v o l . 5, no.2, p.142, A p r i l 1941.  -157Having demolished the c o u r t and o f f i c e of h i s r i v a l , ' Judge Begbie proceeded t o advance h i s c l a i m s to t h e C h i e f Justiceship.  He made out, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , a v e r y  fair  account of h i s s e r v i c e s and achievements as " c h i e f judge of the Supreme court in-.."British Columbia",. a s k i n g t o know why he s h o u l d , a f t e r being promised promotion, he superseded. He d e s c r i b e d a c c u r a t e l y , t h e h a r d s h i p s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of his  work.  P o i n t i n g to t h e c r i m i n a l s t a t i s t i c s , he showed  the absence of crime and r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e r e had been o n l y f o u r or f i v e highway r o b b e r i e s s i n c e h i s f i r s t c i r c u i t i n . 185;9.  He d i d not. c l a i m t h a t t h i s was h i s own  achievement,  but gave generous c r e d i t t o the p o l i c e and m a g i s t r a t e s , a r g u i n g t h a t the s t a t i s t i c s showed no u n f i t n e s s i n him t o be-a judge.. H i s t h i r d , c l a i m i s remarkable and i t i s t o be r e g r e t t e d t h a t John Robson never had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o review i t i n h i s e d i t o r i a l s .  The Judge's statement deserves  quotation: T h i r d l y , as t o the c i v i l s i d e of t h e c o u r t , I s h a l l o n l y say, t h a t though many cases of g r e a t v a l u e have passed through my hands, t h e r e has never been a s i n g l e a p p e a l from any d e c i s i o n of mine. I have not indeed heard of one case i n which any counsel has g i v e n an o p i n i o n t h a t an appeal c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l and I t h e r e f o r e c l a i m t h a t the r e s u l t s on the c i v i l s i d e of t h e c o u r t a r e as f a v o u r a b l e as on the c i v i l side. No doubt John Robson would have p o i n t e d to the C r a n f o r d b r o t h e r s who had e n t e r t a i n e d the i d e a of p l e a d i n g t h e i r case i n t h e . c o u r t s of Vancouver I s l a n d and to the D a v i s M i n i n g Company who did,, i n a sense, c a r r y t h e i r cause t o a c o u r t o f a p p e a l , a l t h o u g h Judge Begbie c o n s t i t u t e d t h a t c o u r t i n h i s c a p a c i t y of s o l e a r b i t r a t o r .  There was, o f  -158 course, no o t h e r c o u r t t h a n the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n London, t o which a p p e a l s c o u l d fee c a r r i e d .  R i n g , Walkem, M c C r e i g h t  and o t h e r s must o f t e n have pondered t h i s w i t h r e g r e t * In•",closing, Judge Begbie ventured t o suggest t h a t had i t not been f o r the a c c i d e n t o f "nomenclature" p r e c e d ence would have been accorded him as a m a t t e r of course© He c o u l d not see, he w r o t e , why,  i n v i e w of h i s achievements,  which would compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h r e s u l t s anywhere i n t h e Empire, he s h o u l d be superseded.  He p o i n t e d out a l s o ,  t h a t w h i l e Needham was competent, he was h i s j u n i o r a t t h e . E n g l i s h / b a r and on^the c o l o n i a l bench*  .  When Judge Begbie h e a r d t h a t a compromise was t o be e f f e c t e d , he prepared a memorandum f o r Governor Seymour, i n which he s t a t e d h i s v e r y s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e plan® The arrangement  of which he d i s a p p r o v e d was designed t o  s a t i s f y Judge Needham as w e l l as h i m s e l f and to appease the people, of Vancouver I s l a n d .  There were t o be two separate  j u d i c i a r i e s , one f o r the I s l a n d and one f o r the mainland* The Supreme Court of Vancouver I s l a n d and the. C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p of t h a t c o u r t were to be c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g s u b s i s t e d s i n c e t h e Order i n C o u n c i l of 1856.  I n a d d i t i o n , Judge  Begbie was t o have the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a p u i s n e judge on Vancouver I s l a n d and Judge Needham was t o s e r v e i n a s i m i l a r c a p a c i t y on the m a i n l a n d .  '  Begbie's arguments a g a i n s t the arrangement  show t h a t  he was out to be C h i e f J u s t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n a single judiciary.  He was not w i l l i n g t o accept a compromise.  -159H i s f i r s t c l a i m was l i m i t s i n a colony  t h a t the l e g i s l a t i v e l i m i t s and  judicial  c o i n c i d e , and s i n c e the a u t h o r i t y of the  Government of B r i t i s h Columbia embraced both the mainland and the I s l a n d , he c o u l d not see why  the a u t h o r i t y of the  j u d i c i a r y of the Colony d i d not do the same. o b j e c t i o n t o the p r o p o s a l was  H i s second  t h a t he c o u l d not  conceive  of any l e g a l means whereby he c o u l d be made a puisne judge on Vancouver I s l a n d .  The  c o u r t s of t h a t I s l a n d d e r i v e d  from the Order i n C o u n c i l of 1856, of the l a t e , and now Islands  which was  an instrument  e x t i n c t , Government of Vancouver  I n o&ther words, the Supreme Court of Vancouver  I s l a n d would e x i s t w i t h o u t a u t h o r i z a t i o n and government.  c o n t r o l by  any  Under t h e Order i n C o u n c i l appointments were t o  be-made by l e t t e r s p a t e n t under the p u b l i c s e a l of the Colony.  How,  asked Judge B e g b i e , c o u l d he be  appointed  p u i s n e judge by the l e t t e r s patent and under the p u b l i c s e a l of an e x t i n c t c o l o n y ? The.position not c l e a r .  of Judge Needham i n the c o n t r o v e r s y  is  I n the memorandum to Governor Seymour, Judge .  Begbie s t a t e d t h a t he understood that. Needham's, views about t h e Supreme C o u r t of Vancouver I s l a n d and h i s p o s i t i o n of C h i e f J u s t i c e i n t h a t c o u r t c o i n c i d e d w i t h h i s own  opinion.  W.K.  Lamb, however, o f f e r s the o p p o s i t e  t h a t Judge Needham contended t h a t h i s c o u r t 192 unimpaired by the A c t of U n i o n .  192.  Lamb, o p . c i t . ,  p.134.  continued  view,  -160-  In  the meantime f e e l i n g had been running h i g h on  the mainland a n d i n V i c t o r i a .  The f o l l o w e r s o f John Robson  hoped t h a t however t h e m a t t e r were s e t t l e d , Judge Begbie would he p l a c e d i n a subordinate p o s i t i o n .  In Victoria,  p u b l i c a l a r m t h a t t h e I s l a n d would come under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f Judge Begbie found e x p r e s s i o n i n an e d i t o r i a l i n 193 the C o l o n i s t :  A.  Judge Needham ( s i c ) w i l l , -of course, r e s i g n before Consenting t o be t h e subordinate o f Judge B e g b i e , of B r i t i s h Columbia, and i f the l a t t e r i s e l e v a t e d to t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s h i p o f t h e U n i t e d C o l o n i e s , w i t h t h e other preferments t h a t i t i s rumored w i l l f o l l o w , H i s Excellency w i l l r a i s e a storm of i n d i g n a t i o n throughout t h e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h ( s i c ) o f the two C o l o n i e s . We- have succeeded i n o b t a i n i n g a sound, able-and p o p u l a r man t o a d m i n i s t e r our laws, the revenue of the Colony i s pledged t o pay • f o r t h a t p r i v i l e g e , and the. people w i l l not be content t o accept an i n f e r i o r a r t i c l e f o r t h e i r money. A p e t i t i o n t o H i s E x c e l l e n c y i s t a l k e d of,, and Covernor Seymour w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o y i e l d to the p o p u l a r ' w i l l . The  p e t i t i o n t o which t h e w r i t e r r e f e r r e d had a l r e a d y  been submitted t o Seymour on November 18, a day before t h e u n i o n had been declared.-  I t c o n t a i n e d o n l y one p r a y e r , and  t h a t was t h a t Needham should be made C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e United Colonies.  -After some two Weeks had passed t h e  Governor r e p l i e d t o t h e committee on December 4.  He c o u l d  not comply w i t h t h e p r a y e r of the p e t i t i o n , he s a i d ,  193. D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e , November 21, 1866, p.2  -161be cause- t o do so would invade the r i g h t s of Judge Begbie©' Seymour's l e t t e r , which appeared i n the C o l o n i s t on December 5, deserves c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n , as i t r e v e a l s the i m p a r t i a l a t t i t i t u d e and d e s i r e f o r compromise t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s 194 p o s i t i o n throughout the c o n t r o v e r s y * He wrote i n p a r t :  :  I t i s very b e n e f i c i a l f o r a community when such c o n f i d e n c e i s p l a c e d i n the i n t e g r i t y , honor and a b i l i t y of i t s , p r i n c i p a l judge, and I must say t h a t I have had no w i s h i n any way t o I n t e r f e r e w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e or the l o c a l p o s i t i o n of Mr:. Needham. To a p p o i n t t h a t gentleman, however q u a l i f i e d , t o the p o s i t i o n o f C h i e f J u s t i c e " o f t h e U n i t e d Colony, would i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n , and p o s s i b l y invade the r i g h t s of another J u d i c i a l o f f i c e r who has done good and v a l u a b l e s e r v i e e on the n e i g h b o u r i n g mainland f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s antecedent to the a r r i v a l among us of the one you d e s i r e t o be p l a c e d i n the more prominent position., Mr. Begbie proceeded t o the more r e s t r i c t e d B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the w e l l grounded expecta t i o n t h a t he was a t a f u t u r e date t o be the C h i e f J u s t i c e , o f t h a t p o r t i o n at l e a s t , of the t e r r i t o r y comprised w i t h i n the a n c i e n t l i m i t s of the Colony. Numerous p e t i t i o n s would, I doubt n o t , were i t thought n e c e s s a r y , t e s t i f y ' t o the p u b l i c c o n f i d ence i n Mr. B e g b i e . Under t h e s e . c i r c u m s t a n c e s the c l a i m s of the two gentlemen appear t o me t o be about e q u a l , w i t h s l i g h t b a l a n c e , perhaps, i n f a v o r of Mr. B e g b i e , on account of the s u p e r i o r l e n g t h of h i s s e r v i c e . E n t e r t a i n i n g t h i s o p i n i o n , I proposed t h a t these two gentlemen s h o u l d , f o r the p r e s e n t a t a l l e v e n t s , be Judges of the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia. The one r e t a i n i n g h i s precedence i n the C o u r t s of the I s l a n d , t h e o t h e r i n those o f the m a i n l a n d . The s a l a r i e s t o remain untouched. T h i s p r o p o s a l , which appeared uno b j e c t i o n a b l e i n Downing S t r e e t , does n o t , I r e g r e t t o say, s a t i s f y your wishes nor the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f one, a t l e a s t , of the c a n d i d a t e s .  194. D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e , December 5, 1866, p.3.  -162Seymour's i m p a r t i a l i t y i s a l l the more t o h i s c r e d i t when we are a f f o r d e d a glimpse of h i s p r i v a t e a t t i t u d e t o Judge Begbie,, Among the Begbie L e t t e r s there i s one w r i t t e n to the C o l o n i a l Secretary  i n A p r i l , 1865, r e q u e s t i n g an  e x t r a •allowance f o r t r a v e l l i n g expenses.  Such r e q u e s t s  were n o t uncommon on t h e p a r t of the Judge, but i t must be remembered t h a t he made such p e t i t i o n s on b e h a l f o f h i s f e l l o w o f f i c e r s o f t h e l a w more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n he did f o r himself*  On t h e back o f t h e communication a r e t o  be found s c r i b b l e d comments t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y i n Seymour's hand w r i t i n g .  Each o f the n o t a t i o n s bears the  i n i t i a l "F.S." and a d a t e , presumably t o denote t h e time 195 when the comment was i n s c r i b e d * 21 A p r i l 1865: ..  Judge's t r a v e l l i n g expenses® There i s something v e r y disgusting i n a l l t h i s . Have you g o t h i s l e t t e r t o me on t h e s u b j e c t i n r e p l y t o my note? F • Se  18 A p r i l 1865: To t h e C o l . Secy. Think i t would be w e l l f o r me to send f o r t h e Judge-and e x p l a i n matters. I confess that I f e e l r a t h e r d i s g u s t e d w i t h h i s way of g o i n g on. You might a l l u d e t o the c a r r i a g e o f beans and bacon at the p u b l i c expense. I f e e l s i c k o f t h e man. You might ask O ' R e i l l y as t o t h e number o f h o r s e s employed t o b r i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n t o t h e Creek f o r t h e Judge* F. S* 195.  Begbie t o Young, A p r i l  , 1865, Begbie L e t t e r s .  -163 To the C o l . S e c 23 A p r i l 1865: Judge's t r a v e l l i n g expenses, I hope I have n o t h i n g more t o say to t h i s shabby a f f a i r , F« S » Governor Seymour had made i t c l e a r t o the  people  t h a t they might expect a compromise s e t t l e m e n t of the c o n t r o v e r s y , but seventeen  l o n g months were t o elapse  b e f o r e t h i s p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n was  put i n t o e f f e c t .  This  came about when the C o u r t s D e c l a r a t o r y Ordinance of May 1868,  continued the powers and j u r i s d i c t i o n of the  C o u r t s , and the Supreme Courts Ordinance,  1869,  the q u e s t i o n of t h e s t a t u s of the two Judges, p r o v i s i o n s of the l a t t e r Judge Begbie was Chief J u s t i c e of the Mainland Needham became "The  two  settled Under the  styled  "The  of B r i t i s h Columbia," w h i l e  C h i e f J u s t i c e of Vancouver I s l a n d , "  Each enjoyed precedence over the other i n h i s own ion.  1,  jurisdict-  The p e r s o n a l n a t u r e of the" s e t t l e m e n t and the f a c t  t h a t such an arrangement should not c o n t i n u e i s apparent i n the p r o v i s i o n s t h a t the Courts should be merged when a vacancy o c c u r r e d by reason of the death, r e s i g n a t i o n or o t h e r causes o f e i t h e r Needham or Begbie,  I n March,  1870,  C h i e f J u s t i c e Needham r e s i g n e d to become C h i e f J u s t i c e of T r i n i d a d , and a t l o n g l a s t Judge Begbie became C h i e f J u s t i c e of B r i t i s h Columbia© Governors came and went, the Colony passed  into  C o n f e d e r a t i o n and became a p r o v i n c e of the Dominion, but  -16%-  Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie went on, and i n time became somethin of an i n s t i t u t i o n .  He bad a l o t . t o l i v e down, but w i t h  the passage of the y e a r s the r e a l i t i e s of h i s complex l i f e and c h a r a c t e r gave p l a c e t o the Begbie  legends.  P e o p l e f o r g o t t h a t he had been a court r e p o r t e r l i v i n g the f r i n g e of Bohemian c i r c l e s i n London before h i s  on  appoint  ment, and t h a t h i s rough methods of d e a l i n g w i t h rowdies i n 1858  and 1859  were not adequate t o the  l i t i g a t i o n t h a t developed a f t e r 1862.  complicated  I n t h a t y e a r he  had  been charged w i t h i l l e g a l s p e c u l a t i o n i n a mining c l a i m and c o m p l i c i t y i n a r a t h e r shady l a n d d e a l .  He  honest e d i t o r i n t o j a i l f o r an i n d i s c r e t i o n , and  threw an conducted  two c i v i l cases i n a most incompetent manner, showing hims e l f t o be both tyrannous and i g n o r a n t i n h i s d e c i s i o n s . I n the year 1862  two b a r r i s t e r s asked t o have t h e i r names  removed from the r o l l s and r e f u s e d i n open c o u r t t o accept his  apology.  A f t e r t h a t y e a r a r i s i n g t i d e of p r o t e s t  a g a i n s t h i s incompetence and a r b i t r a r y methods grew t i l l a p e t i t i o n was  signed f o r h i s d i s m i s s a l .  the addage about the e v i l t h a t men  Yet i n s p i t e of  do, these shortcomings  have been almost f o r g o t t e n . It  seems t h a t he changed-some of h i s ways a f t e r the  Union of the C o l o n i e s i n 1866.  While he e n t e r t a i n e d t h e  b e l i e f , as we have seen, t h a t h i s c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  was  of a h i g h c h a r a c t e r , the contemporary r e c o r d s show l i t t l e , i f any, c r i t i c i s m of t h e k i n d t h a t dogged h i s s t e p s i n the  -165-  middle  'sixties'.  He must, a f t e r those y e a r s , have m o d i f i e d  h i s conduct and methods.  There was  the f e a r of being  super-  seded . t o serve as a check, and a f t e r 1871 t h e r e were the S u p e r i o r Court and the Dominion a u t h o r i t i e s to keep him in his. place. As the P r o v i n c e grew and prospered h i s t a s k s became l e s s arduous, and he was-able t o spend more time i n h i s " V i c t o r i a j which he d e c l a r e d t o f r i e n d s to be the most ;  b e a u t i f u l town i n the w o r l d .  The p i o n e e r s l o o k e d back on  the p a s t w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n and remembering t h a t the Judge had shared t h e i r h a r d s h i p s and him as, one of themselves.  adventures, .came to regard  Such a s s o c i a t i o n s l e d them to  take a p r i d e i n the - e c c e n t r i c g i a n t , and s t o r i e s o f h i s . co.urage-.j - w i t and e c c e n t r i c i t y grew s l o w l y i n t o legend.  He  had always enjoyed g o s s i p i n g , and on h i s rambles w i t h Ben Evans* the Judge'-:stopped i n the c l e a r i n g s and a t the  farm-  houses t o chat and exchange s t o r i e s of the o l d days. • Reports o f h i s s e c r e t g i v i n g and goodness of h e a r t began to l e a k o u t .  A r e p o r t e r named Oscar Bass who  used-  to d i s t r i b u t e h i s anonymous g i f t s , l a t e r r o s e t o be Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l .  I h t i m e , as he progressed i n the  w o r l d , he.broke h i s promises and r e l a t e d a c t s of g e n e r o s i t y t h a t an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n would not have b e l i e v e d of the t y r a n t judge® He never q u i t e l o s t h i s f a c u l t y f o r r e n d e r i n g d e c i s i o n s u n a c c e p t a b l e t o the e n t i r e community.  I n 1885, when  t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l of o p p o s i t i o n t o the i n f l u x of  -166Chinese l a b o r i n t o the V i c t o r i a d i s t r i c t , he. was the o n l y r e s i d e n t who d i d not o b j e c t t o them.  He  perhaps extolled  t h e i r v i r t u e s and proved to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n , a t l e a s t , by the most d e v i o u s arguments, t h a t they would not a f f e c t the l o c a l l a b o r market, and r e f u s e d t o hear a word a g a i n s t 196 them*. I n 1874 he l e f t f o r England on a y e a r ' s f u r l o u g h .  The  C o l o n i s t p r i n t e d an e d i t o r i a l r e c a l l i n g h i s g r e a t s e r v i c e s t o the Colony i n the e a r l y days.  As t h i s was h i s o n l y  p o s i t i v e achievement, the e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r was not a b l e t o e x t o l the r e s t of t h e Judge's a c t i v i t i e s i n p o s i t i v e terms, 197 but concluded the a r t i c l e w i t h a generous t r i b u t e . ...we should be wanting i n a sense of duty were we t o r e f r a i n from e x p r e s s i n g what we know t o be the o p i n i o n of the whole c o u n t r y to a f e a r l e s s and f a i t h f u l p u b l i c servant and an a b l e and honest Judge. He had, i n d e e d , been f e a r l e s s and h o n e s t , as h i s o l d enemy, M c C r e i g h t a d m i t t e d . M c C r e i g h t , i n d e e d , h e l d him t o be impartial.  T h i s was more t h a n t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r the  C r a n f o r d case, and the honest I r i s h m a n had come to r e a l i z e t h a t what he had once c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i a l i t y was more a 198 d e f e c t o f judgment than of c h a r a c t e r . The Queen, i t appears, had heard good words of t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e , and c o n f e r r e d a k n i g h t h o o d on him d u r i n g 196.  D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , March 15, 1885,  197.  I b i d . , October 10, 1874,  198.  Beck, o p . c i t . , -passim.  p.3.  p.2.  -167h i s y e a r ' s h o l i d a y i n England  i n 1875.  The  journey a c r o s s  had been rough and the v e s s e l was n e a r l y wrecked.  But the  C h i e f J u s t i c e was an o l d t r a v e l l e r and s u r v i v e d the ordealo On h i s r e t u r n i n December, 1875, people s a i d he l o o k e d t e n y e a r s younger.  When news c i r c u l a t e d t h a t he was back i n  V i c t o r i a , t h e town band serenaded him and f r i e n d s  gathered  about t o b i d him welcome.' I t had been h i s custom on Sundays to take l u n c h w i t h the O ' R e i l l y ' s , who  had b u i l t a home a t t h e Gorge.  As S i r Matthew's Chinese cook c o u l d never make r i c e pudding to h i s t a s t e , Mrs. O ' R e i l l y g e n e r a l l y served t h i s d i s h f o r d e s s e r t a c c o r d i n g to the Judge's r e c i p e .  For n e a r l y  e l e v e n y e a r s he never f a i l e d t o enjoy h i s r i c e pudding© I n 1893, however, h i s a p p e t i t e waned, and by the end of the year he began t o show the unmistakable  s i g n s of cancer.  He r e f u s e d an o p e r a t i o n and r e j e c t e d drugs, s a y i n g t h a t he c o u l d not endure the thought o f d u l l i n g h i s mind. I t was h a r d , he found, t o keep h i s mind c l e a r as the spread.  cancer  The p a i n became v e r y s e v e r e , and he t o l d M i s s  Agnes McKay, the daughter of h i s o l d f r i e n d , Joseph McKay, t h a t i t b l o t t e d out the p r e s e n t and a l l memory o f the p a s t . As the summer o f 1894 drew on he took t o h i s bed. P e t e r O ' R e i l l y began to s i t w i t h him a t n i g h t .  I n June  On the  n i g h t of June 10, S i r Matthew s a i d , "You must l e a v e me to-night, O'Reilly.  I must make my peace w i t h  I n t h e morning he was  dead.  God."  alone  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Part I .  P r i m a r y S o u r c e s . W r i t t e n M a t e r i a l s i n the A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia* 1.  B e g b i e , Matthew B a i l l i e , Court Notebooks, Notes P r o c e e d i n g s i n the Supreme C o u r t of B r i t i s h Columbia. March, 1859 - May 8, 1861. December 1, 1862, - A p r i l 16, 1863. A p r i l 24, 1863 - A p r i l 23, 1864. May 2, 1864 - May 5, 1865. May 8, 1865 - J a n u a r y 15, 1867. January 15, 1867 - F e b r u a r y 16, 1870.  2.  B e g b i e , Matthew B a i l l i e , D i a r i e s and M i s c e l l a n eous N o t e s , 1860 - 1866, 1866 - 1869 W r i t t e n i n shorthand. '  .•  3.  B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f Lands, Land Pre-emption R e c o r d s , C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , C o t t o n wood and L i g h t n i n g Creek A r e a .  4.  Despatches. B r i t i s h Columbia Despatches from London, v o l . 1 , September 1, 1858 - December 31, 1858. Transcriptions. B r i t i s h Columbia Despatches t o London. V o l . 1 , October 12, 1858 - J u l y 4, 1859. V o l . 2 , J u l y 6, 1859 - June 24, 1860. V o l . 3 , J u l y 6, 1860 - A p r i l 17, 1861.  -169Despatches to Vancouver I s l a n d , January 26, 1856 - August 1 6 , " 1 8 5 8 . Governor B l a n s h a r d . Correspondence Outward, 1849 - 1851. (Despatches to London). Governor Douglas, O r i g i n a l O f f i c i a l L e t t e r Boole, 1855 - 1859. (Despatches t o London) Letters. Begbie L e t t e r s , ' 1858 - 1871. Browning L e t t e r s . Elwyn L e t t e r s . Moberly L e t t e r s . Moreland L e t t e r s . O'Reilly Letters. Palmer L e t t e r s . Walkem L e t t e r s . Letter  Books.  Attorney-General's  Department.  October 21, 1861 - May °"27, 1863. May 23, 1863 - F e b r u a r y 8, 1866. F e b r u a r y 10, 1866 - A p r i l 20, 1870. Begbie L e t t e r Book.  (Dates u n c e r t a i n )  B e g b i e . Matthew B a i l l i e , Supreme Court Correspondence , (Outward) November 28, 1865 - J u l y 16, B.C.  1878.  Colonial Secretary's Office.  L e t t e r s t o the Department of Lands and Works. September 29, 1860 - September 16, 1865. September 17, 1863 - May 30, 1872. L e t t e r s t o L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r Moody. January 10, 1859 - September 8, 1860.  -170Miscellaneous L e t t e r s . May 3 1 , 1859 - J u l y 24, 1860. . J u l y 25, 1860 - September 18, 1861. September 18, 1861 - November 19, 1862. November 19, 1862 - November 20, 1863. November 22, 1863 - September 7, 1864. September 7, 1864 - December 29, 1866. January 4, 1867 - December 30, 1870. Lands and Works Department. Correspondence (Outward) March t o August, 1859. August, 1859, - August, 1861. August, 1861 - May, 1865. J u l y t o November, 1863. Correspondence t o t h e Governor. August, 1859 - March, 1860. F e b r u a r y , 1860 - A p r i l , 1861. A p r i l , 1861 - September, 1863© Correspondence t o t h e Governor and C o l o n i a l Seoretary. September, 1863 - November, 1864. M i n u t e Books of the Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. August t o November, 1861. February 10, 1860 - November 12, 1861. F e b r u a r y , 1866 t o March, 1870. F e b r u a r y t o March, 1866. June, 1870 t o June, 1878. A p r i l , 1870 t o J u l y 1877. Primary Sources. P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l s i n the A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o c l a m a t i o n s , 1857 - 1865, 1863 - 1866. Correspondence r e l a t i v e t o t h e D i s c o v e r y o f Gold a t Q,ueen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d (1855). F u r t h e r Correspondence r e l a t i v e t o t h e D i s c o v e r y of Gold a t Queen C h a r l o t t e ' s I s l a n d (1855)^ Papers r e l a t i v e t o t h e D i s c o v e r y of Gold on F r a s e r ' s R i v e r (1858)  Papers r e l a t i v e t o t h e A f f a i r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. P a r t i ; 1859; P a r t I I , 1859; P a r t I V , 1862.  P a r t I I I , I860;  Papers r e l a t i v e t o t h e Proposed Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d . P r e s e n t e d t o both Bouses o f P a r l i a m e n t by Command o f Her" M a j e s t y . 51, May, 1866. (1866) ~~ F u r t h e r Papers r e l a t i v e t o the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d . (1867). Primary Sources.  Newspapers.  Colonist. T h i s newspaper underwent s e v e r a l changes o f t i t l e These changes a r e as f o l l o w s : The o r i g i n a l t i t l e , The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , changed on J u l y 31, 1860 t o The D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . On. June 25, 1866 i t became the The D a i l y B r i t T s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e . On January 1, 1887- i t changed a g a i n t o The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . The B r i t i s h Columbian. The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l . The Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e . The Vancouver Sunday P r o v i n c e . The Vancouver Sun. The V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e .  PART I I . Secondary Seources.  Books.  1.  Anderson, W i l l i a m , The S c o t t i s h n a t i o n ; o r , t h e surnames, f a m i l i e s , l i t e r a t u r e , honours and b i o g r a p h i c a l h i s t o r y o f t h e people o f S c o t l a n d , Edinburgh, E u l l a r t o n , 5 v o l s .  2.  B a n c r o f t , H.H., H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia„ San F r a n c i s c o , H i s t o r y Company, 1890.  3.  Cheadle, W.B., Cheadle's j o u r n a l o f t r i p a c r o s s Canada, 1862 - 1865; w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n and holies by A.G. Doughty and Gustave L a n c t o t , Ottawa,  4.  D u f f e r i n and A v a , H a r i o t Georgina (Hamilton) M a r c h i o n e s s o f , My Canadian j o u r n a l , 1872-8; e x t r a c t s from my l e t t e r s home w r i t t e n w h i l e L o r d D u f f e r i n was Governor-General, London, John Murray^ 1891.  5.  Howay, F.W., B r i t i s h Columbia? the making o f a p r o v i n c e , Toronto, R y e r s o n , 928.  6.  Howay, F.W., The e a r l y h i s t o r y of the E r a s e r r i v e r mines, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , ( A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir no. 6 ) .  7.  Howay, F.W., Sage, W.N., Angus, H.F., B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c Slope from F u r Trade t o A v i a t i o n . T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n , 1942, (The R e l a t i o n s o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d -States; e d . H.F. Angus.).  8.  L a i n g , F.W., C o l o n i a l farm s e t t l e r s on t h e mainland B r i t i s h .Columbia, 1858 - 1871; w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h , V i c t o r i a , 1939.  9.  M c l n n i s , E.W., The Unguarded F r o n t i e r , a H i s t o r y o f American and Canadian R e l a t i o n s , New Y o r k , Doubleday Doran, 1942.  -173-  10.  M a r t i n , A,, R e p o r t s o f M i n i n g Cases. 1855 t o 1902, 1908 t o 1907. Toronto, C a r s w e l l , 1903, 2 vols*  11,  Mayne, R.C., Four Years i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , London, Murray, 1862. ~  12*  M o r r e l l , W.P., 1940.  13*  R e i d . R.L., "The F i r s t C h i e f J u s t i c e , S i r W i l l i a m ( s i c ) Begbie", i n Howay, F.W., B u i l d e r s of the West, a Book of Heroes. Toronto, Ryerson, 1929.  14.  Sage, W.N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1930.  15.  S p i n k s , W.W., T a l e s of the B r i t i s h Columbia F r o n t i e r . Toronto, R y e r s o n , 1933.  16.  T r i m b l e , W.J., The M i n i n g Advance i n t o t h e I n l a n d Empire, Madison, W i s c o n s i n , 1914. ( B u l l e t i n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , no. 638, H i s t o r y s e r i e s I I I , n o . 2 . ) .  17.  Walkem, W.W., S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Vancouver N e w s - A d v e r t i s e r , 1914.  18.  W i l l i a m s , M.F., H i s t o r y o f the San F r a n c i s c o Committee of V i g i l a n c e of 1851, B e r k l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1921, publications i n history, vol.  The Gold Rushes, London. B l a c k ,  XEJL.).  Secondary S c o u r c e s , J o u r n a l s . 1.  B a n w e l l , S., "A F r o n t i e r Judge", The Canadian Bar Review, September, 1938.  2.  Lamb, W.K., "Memoirs and Documents" r e l a t i n g t o Judge B e g b i e , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y v o l . 5, no.2, pp. 125 - 147, A p r i l , 1941.  3.  M a r t i n , A., " R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Judge B e g b i e " , L e t t e r o f Mr. J u s t i c e M a r t i n t o the E d i t o r , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5, no. 4, October, 1941.  t  -174=  4.  N o r r i s , L., "Robson and Begbie", Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . ( S i x t h Report",' 1935.")". Vancouver, W r i g l e y P r i n t i n g Company. 1936. pp. 99 - 113.  5.  R i c k a r d , T.A., " I n d i a n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e Gold D i s c o v e r i e s " , B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y v o l 2, n o . l , pp. 3 - 1 8 , January, 1938. —  

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