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Some factors which influence the use of dwarf and semi-dwarf apple trees for commercial orchards in the… Van Roechoudt, Louis Laurent Leon 1962

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SOME FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE USE OF DWARF AND SEMI-DWARF APPLE TREES FOR COMMERCIAL ORCHARDS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ' by Louis Laurent van Roechoudt L.A.S., U n i v e r s i t y o f Louvain, 1930  A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of Horticulture  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1962  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  I further agree that permission  f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his  representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be alloived without my written permission.  Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date  AwiuJ,  *f  j  |<)  - II -  ABSTRACT  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was" c a r r i e d evaluate  some o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e  o f dwarf and semi-dwarf orchards  out i n order t o  apple trees  i n t h e Okanagan V a l l e y  i n commercial  of B r i t i s h  T h r e e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s were f o u n d prime in  the use  Columbia. t o be- o f  importance: the p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y o f the trees  t h e o r c h a r d , t h e t r e e f o r m as d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e  pruning  and t r a i n i n g  system c a r r i e d  nature o f the r o o t s t o c k In t h e Doornberg  out and the  used.  O r c h a r d s a t Okanagan C e n t r e  where t h e e x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d , trees  semi-dwarf  on M a i l i n g V I I r o o t s t o c k t r a i n e d  and p l a n t e d  a t a h i g h d e n s i t y p e r a c r e gave t h e  optimum e a r l i e s t  and t o t a l  yields  The e x p e r i m e n t s were c a r r i e d  and. r e t u r n s . out from  t i m e up t o t h e e n d o f t h e s i x t h g r o w i n g variety  as hedgerows  planting  season.  The  o f a p p l e u s e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t was G o l d e n  Delicious.  - Ill -  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  I.  P  G  E  INTRODUCTION  1  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  3  Historical  notes  . . . .  The M a i l i n g nomenclature  . . . . . . .  3 5>  E v o l u t i o n of the p l a n t i n g concept . . . i n the Netherlands  6 7  i n Germany  11  i n Switzerland  18  i n North America  II.  A  • •  21  R e s u l t s obtained i n B.C  29 ~  R e s u l t s obtained i n Oregon . . . »  31 3k  MATERIALS AND METHODS. . . . . . . . . . .  34-'  The environment . . . . . . . . . . . . Experimental outlay . . . . . . . . .  .  Semi-standards. . . . . . . . . . . . Spindle-bush t r e e s . . . Semi-dwarfs Trellised  3& •  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  hedgerow t r e e s .  36 37 37  Standard t r e e s . . . . . . . . . . . . C u l t u r a l management  37 38  Soil. Fertilization  35  38 . . . . . . . . .  . . .  38  Irrigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3 9 "  Pruning . . . .  39  - IV -  CHAPTER  r i l u r j  Thinning  k-1  Spraying  l|2  Harvesting III.  . k3  RESULTS  U-3  Semi-standard bush t r e e s S p i n d l e - b u s h as f i l l e r  trees  . . . . .  U-3  Semi-standards combined w i t h s p i n d l e s . as f i l l e r  trees  . . . . . . . . .. . .  4-6  Semi-dwarf bush t r e e s Hedgerows  . . . • •  Stand.ard t r e e s  . . . . . . . . . . . .  lj-9  . . .  I n d i v i d u a l y i e l d s i n r e l a t i o n to  . . .  Photographical Production DISCUSSION  50  . . . . . . .  52  . . . . . . . . . . . .  54-  Tree form and r o o t s t o c k  IV.  JU-T  S p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s as permanents  Recapitulation  kh  56  illustrations  charts  60  . . . .  65  .  T r e l l i s e d hedgerows . . . . . . . . . .  65  Semi-dwarf bush t r e e s  70  Spindle-bush t r e e s  71  . . . . . . . . . .  Semi-standards Standards  •  71 72  . . . . . . . .  Semi-standards combined w i t h S p i n d l e s • as f i l l e r s V.  CONCLUSION  BIBLIOGRAPHY  , .  73  . . .  71;  ^  - V L I S T OP TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE Initial costs (Dutch  II.  establishment  f o r one a c r e GLiilders  Cumulative for  of orchard.  yields  . i n l\0  per acre  D e l i c i o u s and Mac I n t o s h ,  tances  apples  yield  at suggested  Corvallis,  Yields f o rnine Delicious  f o r the past 1 2  consecutive  years  b u s h t r e e s on M I I  i n t e r m e d i a t e h a r d y frame years  block  .  of Golden  t r e e s on M V I I r o o t s t o c k ,  i n the semi-standard  trained  filler . . . . .  f r o m a p e r m a n e n t - t e m p o r a r y t r e e com-  bination.  Permanents b e i n g  semi-standards  on M I I s t o c k , d o u b l e - w o r k e d , t h e f i l l e r s being root.  spindle-bush  trees direct  Record f o r the f i r s t  seasons.  , .  31  o f Golden  Y i e l d s i n b u s h e l b o x e s p e r a c r e and accumulated  29  planting dis-  s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s and u s e d a s  trees  . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .  Yields f o r s i x consecutive Delicious  VI.  Oregon  semi-standard  rootstock with  as  diff-  for several Mailing rootstocks.  years.  V.  on f o u r  o f G o l d e n and Red  B a s e d on a v e r a g e t r e e y i e l d  IV.  8  l b . boxes  (R.S. Summerland)  • C a l c u l a t e d p e r acre Delicious  investment  1939)  erent rootstocks III.  and-final  on M V I I  s i x growing  . . - . • . . « , , • • « . ,  J4.3  - VI TABLE VII.  PAGE Yield ing as  i n b u . boxes f o r t h e f i r s t  seasons o f Golden D e l i c i o u s delayed  open c e n t r e  on M V I I r o o t s t o c k .  s i x groxtftrees  bush trees  trained  and grown  Planting density:  131). 4.6  trees per acre. VIII-A.Yields  i n b u . b o x e s p e r t r e e , p e r a c r e and  accumulated  over the f i r s t  sons f o r G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s rootstock,  planted  t r e e s p e r acre hedgerows  s i x growing trees  sea-  on M I X  a t the d e n s i t y  o f 660  and f o r m e d as t r e l l i s e d  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  kl  V I I I - B , Same as t a b l e V I I I - A e x c e p t f o r t h e r o o t stock  w h i c h was M V I I  . . . . . . . . . .  I{.7  V I I I - C . Same as t a b l e V I I I - A e x c e p t f o r t h e r o o t s t o c k w h i c h was M I V i n t h i s IX.  Y i e l d s f r o m double worked Golden trees  on s e e d l i n g r o o t s t o c k s  first  t e n year p e r i o d  open  centre  o f Ij.8 X.  case  Yields  up  during the  a t the r a t e  1  . . . . . . . . . .  i n b u . boxes p e r t r e e  y i e l d s p e r acre  Delicious  - t r a i n e d as d e l a y e d  t r e e s and p l a n t e d  trees p e r acre  . . . »  I4.9  and p r o j e c t e d  and accumulated p e r a c r e ,  t o the s i x t h year f o r Golden D e l i c i o u s  spindle-bush  p l a n t i n g on M V I I r o o t s t o c k  at  o f 290 t r e e s p e r a c r e .  a density  . . .  51  -  VII  TABLE XI.  PAGE Individual yield t r e e up season tree  XII.  i n l o o s e bu. boxes p e r  t o t h e end  o f the s i x t h  growing  - i n r e l a t i o n to r o o t s t o c k type  52  form  Recapitulation i n bu.  table  a t the end  of accumulated  of the s i x t h  yields  growing  season i n r e l a t i o n w i t h the p l a n t i n g Yield  and  concept.  ratio.' i n r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d  t r e e y i e l d s as u n i t y  . „  %L\.  - VIII  LIST  OP  -  FIGURES  I . PHOTOGRAPHIC  ILLUSTRATIONS  FIGURE 1.  PAGE  Double-worked on s e e d l i n g  2.  stock  on M I I r o o t s t o c k  season  Semi-dwarf  Semi-dwarf trees  Golden D e l i c i o u s i n i t s 6th  6.  .  56  bush  growing 57  on M V I I as s p i n d l e - b u s h growing year  Delicious  trees  . • • » • « .  Irrigation  i n i t s 3rd  by overhead  . . • •  T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o f G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s 6th  growing  i n their  6th  growing  6th  growing  *  58  trees  season *  T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o f G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s on M I V i n t h e i r  trees  season  T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o f Golden D e l i c i o u s on M V I I s t o c k  57  • • • • • • *  i n their  57  o f Golden  on M V I I s t o c k  season.  on M I X s t o c k  9.  season  i n i t s 6th  hedgerow o r c h a r d  sprinklers  8.  56  t r e e on  growing  Trellised  growing  7.  bush  •  . * . . . . . * . » . . • . . . . .  i n i t s 6th  56  growing  orchard o f Golden D e l i c i o u s  Golden D e l i c i o u s tree,  season  semi-standard  i n i t s 8th  on M V I I r o o t s t o c k  season 5.  growing  tree  • • • • • • • • • • • •  M II rootstock 1}..  i n i t s 10th  Double-xrorked Golden D e l i c i o u s tree  3.  Standard Golden D e l i c i o u s  58  trees  season . , „ ,  58  - IX -  FIGURE 10.  11.  PAGE  Defoliated  Golden D e l i c i o u s i n their  Trellised  hedgerow o f Red D e l i c i o u s i n t h e i r 9th  Red D e l i c i o u s spindle-bush  (Starking) tree  II. 1.  A. Y i e l d s growing  season  growing  59  . . » (Shotwell)  season  59  .  on M IV s t o c k as  i n i t s 6th  PRODUCTION  i n Bu. p e r acre  growing  59  season  CHARTS f o r the f i r s t s i x  s e a s o n s f o r G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s on s e m i -  standard  double-worked  rootstock  bush  tree  - a t 96 t r e e s p e r a c r e ;  spindle-bush planted  ij.th g r o w i n g  on M IV  rootstock  on M IX r o o t 12.  trees  filler  trees  on M I I 2)  on  on M V I I i n t e r -  a t 96 t r e e s p e r a c r e ;  3)  b o t h com-  bined. B. A c c u m u l a t e d end 2.  yields  of the s i x t h  A. Y i e l d s growing  i n Bu. p e r a c r e  growing  s e a s o n f o r 1),  i n Bu. p e r a c r e  hedgerows a t 660  2),  3)  60  f o r the f i r s t s i x  seasons, f o r Golden D e l i c i o u s  trellised  at the  f o r m e d as  trees per acre,  on  M I X , MVVII and MTV R o o t s t o c k s . B. A c c u m u l a t e d sixth  growing  as t r e l l i s e d  yield  i n Bu, p e r a c r e  a f t e r the  season f o r Golden D e l i c i o u s h e d g e r o w a t 660  formed  trees per acre,  M IX, M IV and M V I I r o o t s t o c k s  on 61  - X FIGURE 3.  PAGE  Yields  i n Bu,  per  a c r e up  to the  sixth  growing season from Golden D e l i c i o u s related and  and  2 9 0  Yields  i n Bu,  during  the  trellised  trees per  per  acre  planting  acre)  acre  62  . . , . , *  f o r Golden D e l i c i o u s  at 2 9 0  trees per  acre  acre  at 1 3 4 . trees per  on M  semi-standard II rootstock  bush f i l l e r  trees  semi-standard per  on  on  M  M VTJ VII  acre  on  at 9 6 trees  bush t r e e s  interplanted with  bush trees  spindle-  at 9 6 trees per  M VII  on M  per  acre,  II at 9 6 trees  acre.  standard  tree  on  seedling  root  l\Q  at  acre.  trees  per  . . . . .  Relative  individual  yield  the  for  density  VII.  Combined  5.  VII  spindle-bush  hedgerows a t 6 6 0 t r e e s p e r tree  M  s i x growing seasons f o r :  semi-dwarf bush t r e e M  and  I3I4.  first  spindle-bush  on  (hedgerow,  semi-dwarf bush t r e e )  ( 6 6 0 ,  1L,  to tree-form  on  at  end  and  o f the  Golden D e l i c i o u s  per  acre  with standard  accumulated  s i x t h growing  t r e e s managed  nine d i f f e r e n t p l a n t i n g concepts, tree performance  6 3  season  following compared 61;.  - XI  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The the help Dr,  author wishes  members o f h i s and a d v i c e  t o express h i s  appreciation to  s t u d y 'committee f o r t h e i r  valued  and h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n d e b t e d n e s s t o  G. H o w e l l H a r r i s ,  Professor  Faculty  of Agriculture,  for his  continuous guidance  writing  of the t h e s i s .  of Horticulture,  University  of B r i t i s h  and a s s i s t a n c e  Columbia  during the  INTRODUCTION World p r o d u c t i o n o f a p p l e s has 30 y e a r s ,  the p a s t  It  be  considered  i s noteworthy that the l a r g e s t  I960, six  During  times,  Germany, Sweden and Production Canada) on  on  (1955-1959 It  et  others  the  four times,  in  Euro-  o f c l o s e t o 121}.  mill-  in  Austria, and  England,  three  times  (U.S.A.  (20)•  and  b e e n s l o w l y d e c l i n i n g f r o m llj.1  t h a t the The  competition B.C.  competition.  (20)  who  conducted  f o r the w o r l d  apple producer,  c o n t i n e n t , must b e  the d i f f e r e n t  prepared  bush-  along  t o meet t h e  markwith chall-  T h i s c o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e , amongst techniques.  a Royal  facets of the f r u i t  Commission  inquiry  i n d u s t r y i n the  agan V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e suggested  occured  American Continent  other, t h i n g s , c h a n g e s i n p r o d u c t i o n  into  (20)<»  apples  average).  enge o f E u r o p e a n  MacPhee  which  (1935-1939 a v e r a g e ) t o 12lj..5, , m i l l i o n  increase.  on t h i s  1930  increased i t s production  S w i t z e r l a n d b e t w e e n two the North  i s apparent  i s on  Holland  the o t h e r hand has  m i l l i o n bushels els  of  jumped t o 3&0 m i l l i o n b u s h e l s  t h i s p e r i o d I t a l y has  Denmark and  -  as c i d e r  i n c r e a s e has  p e a n c o u n t r i e s , where, f r o m a p r e w a r l e v e l the p r o d u c t i o n  (1926  i n 1950  m i l l i o n bushels  m i l l i o n b t i s h e l s may  ion bushels  steadily for  f r o m some lj.00 m i l l i o n b u s h e l s  a v e r a g e ) t o a p e a k o f 671). a b o u t 150  been r i s i n g  years  Okan-  1957-58  some i m p r o v e m e n t s w h i c h c o u l d be made i n c o - o r d i n a t -  -  2  -  i o n and s t r e a m l i n i n g of c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s and some p o s s i b l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l phases o f the i n d u s t r y . He a l s o l a i d emphasis on the f a c t that the f i n a l remedy f o r the f r u i t growers i l l s would have to be found i n the o r c h ards themselves.  In many cases besides b e i n g m a r g i n a l as  a r e s u l t of ecological factors,  the land u n i t s were t o o s m a l l  f o r economical and p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n .  In some i n s t a n c e s  the crops were inadequate i n n a t u r e , q u a l i t y and o v e r a l l t o n nage. I n t e n s i v e and h i g h d e n s i t y p l a n t i n g techniques u s i n g c l o n a l P a r a d i s e and Doucin r o o t s t o c k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the dwarfing types as developed  and c l a s s i f i e d by the E a s t - M a i l i n g  Research S t a t i o n I n England, does n o t appear to have been thoroughly e v a l u a t e d i n N o r t h America.  In c o n t r a s t p r a c t i c a l l y  a l l Western European Commercial orchards have now adopted new p l a n t i n g concepts evolved from the use o f such growth r e g ulating rootstocks  a  The o b j e c t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o experiment  with  s i m i l a r methods and to evaluate some of the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , t h e i r advantages and disadvantages, t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s and t h e i r economic s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to comme r c i a l f r u i t growing bia.  i n t h e Okanagan V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Colum-  -  3  -  CHAPTER I REVIEW OF Brase and Way dwarfing  LITERATURE  ( 2 ) mention that i n Europe f r u i t  techniques,  u s i n g growth r e s t r i c t i n g r o o t  go back many c e n t u r i e s .  The  1  stocks,  a n c i e n t Greeks, l i v i n g a t  time o f Theophrastos knew about dwarfing as l a t e r on d i d the Romans.  treer:  apple  the  rootstocks,  The word " p a r a d i s e " ,  according  ( 2 ) comes from the P e r s i a n word " p a i r i d i z e a " ,  to Bunyard  meaning a park o r a garden, the word appears to have been t i o n e d f o r the f i r s t time toward the end o f the XVth The word "doucin" has been t r a c e d as f a r back as 1652  Le Gendre i n France recommended t h a t apple  men  century.  15>19»  trees  In should  be grown on " p a r a d i s e " or "doucin" r o o t s t o c k and pear t r e e s De  l a Quintinye  i n 1 6 9 0 seems t o have been  on quince  root.  the f i r s t  to emphasize the importance of u s i n g the  r o o t s t o c k i n r e l a t i o n to the f o r m and  proper  s i z e of t r e e o n e i n -  tends to grow. Fey and W i r t h  ( 9 ) r e p o r t t h a t the F r e n c h h o r i t c u l t u r i s t  Fanon i n I78O d e s c r i b e d a m o d i f i e d dwarf pyramid tree w i t h "arched  branches", (Pyramid mit  a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , was  the present  Gebogenen Zweigen) which, i n day " s p i n d e l - b u s h "  w i d e l y spread p r e s e n t l y i n Germany and H o l l a n d . the X V I I I t h  t r e e , so  A l l through  and X l X t h century, p a r a d i s e , doucin and  quince  were w i d e l y used over most of Western Europe as growth controlling rootstocks.  Theophrastos: P l a t o and A r i s t o t e l s ' s d i s c i p l e , Greek s c i e n t i s t and p h i l o s o p h e r b o r n on Lesbos around 3 7 2 B.C. Known f o r h i s l e a r n e d w r i t i n g s on p l a n t s .  - k -  N e v e r t h e l e s s , o n l y d u r i n g the l a s t $0  years have new  com-  m e r c i a l p l a n t i n g methods a f f e c t i n g t r e e form, s i z e , p l a n t i n g d i s t a n c e s , p r u n i n g systems, e t c . come to the f o r e .  In the  b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c e n t u r y small p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s where apples, pears  and peaches were grown on dwarfing s t o c k , c l o s e l y p l a n t e d ,  o f t e n t r a i n e d along w a l l s or t r e l l i s e s , neighbourhood of l a r g e European c i t i e s . as they were c a l l e d i n Prance,  were common i n the These " f r u i t - g a r d e n s "  Belgium and S w i t z e r l a n d , were  conceived to supply h i g h l y p a r t i c u l a r markets w i t h l u x u r y  fruit.  They were h i g h l y i n t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the h i g h stem, s t a n d a r d - t r e e orchards, which then produced the bulk o f the t o t a l apple and pear erop.  These e x t e n s i v e , o f t e n not  too  w e l l c a r e d - f o r orchards were a l s o used as p a s t u r e , where g r a z i n g was  o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d o f more v a l u e than the f r u i t crop i t s e l f  The  l a r g e standard  and  the crown was  The r o o t s t o c k was  t r e e s used, were p l a n t e d 35 to l\$  (30),  f e e t apart  u s u a l l y c a r r i e d on a 6 to 7 f o o t h i g h stem. a s e e d l i n g , sometimes a w i l d s e e d l i n g dug  out of the nearby woods.  Sprenger  (30)  s t a t e s t h a t up  1930,  to  most of the apple and pear orchards of H o l l a n d comprised  these  high-headed t r e e s , shading g r a z i n g c a t t l e i n the p a s t u r e s . L a t e r on the p a s t u r e s gave way and  the c a t t l e were excluded  e v i d e n t that there was  t o b e r r y a n d v egetable p r o d u c t i o n ,  from the o r c h a r d s .  I t then became  no n e c e s s i t y f o r such high-headed t r e e s ,  and t h a t low bush t r e e s would s i m p l i f y o p e r a t i o n s .  Seedling  r o o t s t o c k began to be r e p l a c e d by doucin, sometimes p a r a d i s e rootstocks.  G r a d u a l l y , sometime between the o l d time  grazed  -  5  -  orchards o f the country s i d e and the i n t e n s i v e t r a i n e d t r e e s of the suburban commercial  espalier-  f r u i t gardens o f  prewar days, a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t new types o f o r c h a r d s , more or l e s s i n t e n s i v e i n c h a r a c t e r , made t h e i r  appearance.  They were s p i n d l e s o r pyramid pear orchards of dwarf or semidwarf s i z e , grown on quince r o o t s ; open v a s e s , i n f o r m a l p y r amids or simply bush-type doucin or paradise stock,  t r e e s f o r apple t r e e s grown on A most s i g n i f i c a n t  step forward  f o r the f u t u r e of the i n d u s t r y , came about w i t h the r e p l a c e ment o f the v a r i a b l e d o u c i n s , p a r a d i s e s and quinces by the , p r o p e r l y i d e n t i f i e d M a i l i n g type  clonal rootstocks.  Hatton's  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n work (3k-) brought  an end t o the c h r o n i c con-  f u s i o n t h a t had e x i s t e d f o r years i n the d e s i g n a t i o n o f apple and pear c l o n a l r o o t s t o c k s .  The M a i l i n g nomenclature,  with  i t s s p e c i f i c M a i l i n g types, began an e r a o f s c i e n t i f i c experimentation, which r e s u l t e d i n new p l a n t i n g concepts i n the more p r o g r e s s i v e European o r c h a r d s .  Each r o o t s t o c k was  c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d and i d e n t i f i e d by a roman numeral t o which e x a c t l y d e f i n e d m o r p h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l chara c t e r i s t i c s corresponded.  The two elements  of the symbiontic  t r e e b e i n g thus both g e n e t i c a l l y d e f i n e d and s t a b l e , i t formed a u n i f o r m and f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e u n i t . Out o f some seventy l o t s o f apple r o o t s t o c k s gathered f r o m commercial  establishments a l l over Europe were s o r t e d some  s i x t e e n " t y p e s " which were g i v e n the M a i l i n g i n i t i a l and roman numbers I t o XVI.  G r a d u a l l y the s e r i e s was i n c r e a s e d  -  by new  6  -  p r o d u c t i o n s such as M XXV  and M 26pthe l a t e s t  add-  i t i o n b e i n g the w o o l l y aphis r e s i s t a n t c l o n e s of the M a l l i n g Merton s e r i e s b r e d by Tydeman and Crane ( 3 8 )  (35)«  Although  these r o o t s have shown g e n e r a l l y good c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h most of the commercial  apple v a r i e t i e s many have nonetheless been  d i s c a r d e d as u n s u i t a b l e .  Scions grown on these d i f f e r e n t  c l o n e s show l i t t l e v e g e t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n the n u r s e r y , but' b e f o r e l o n g , i n the o r c h a r d they show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e of t r e e they w i l l grow. they can be grouped  For a l l p r a c t i c a l  purpose  i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of i n c r e a s i n g v i g o u r !  1.  The v e r y dwarfing r o o t s t o c k s such as M V I I I , M IX and M 26.  2.  The  3.  The vigorous types p r o d u c i n g semi-standard  4..  semi dwarfing stocks such as MM  106,  M V I I and M IV. sized  trees,  more or l e s s 2 / 3  of a l a r g e standard t r e e , such as MM  M 11,  109  MI  and MM  and MM  10/+.  The v e r y vigorous types such as M XLT, who  111,  M XXV  and M7XVI,  w i l l grow t r e e s a t l e a s t equal to the common standard  orchard  tree.  H i g h l y s k i l l e d and i m a g i n a t i v e h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s i n quest f o r evermore e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n ways - Fey and W i r t h Schmitz-Hubsch, Mac  Leans,  (9),  Seabrook i n England; Sprenger,  van  Oosten and Spoor i n the Netherlands; van Cauwenberghe ( 3 2 ) Belgium,  and many more who  deserve  t r i b u t e f o r the  they rendered, p i o n e e r e d a number o f new  in  services  avenues d u r i n g the  two decades t h a t f o l l o w e d the f i r s t World War.  As a r e s u l t ,  - 7 -  in  Europe,  way of  the  old standard  gradually to  t h e new  tree orchards  highly intensive  dwarf  past  gave  tree  orchards  today. In  did  Holland,  show a n  rootstock ity  of  Sprenger  early  type,  the  pointed  (30)  awareness  variety  capital  out  i n "Het  of  and  investment  and  initial  further  20  years  13th  depending  and  the  stage  whereas,  may on  tree apple  be the  nature  planting  system.  anent-temporary  (filler)  tree  self-supporting  stage  bush  II years,  s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g stage  the  15th  year,  the  same  environment,  equate  the  on  operation costs  to  ij. t o 5  combination  grown  years on  i f one  the  the  as  the  will  M.  standards reached  between reach  6th  that  and  a  consists i t  8th  between  the  12th  same v a r i e t i e s ,  year  on.  eventually shorten r e s o r t e d to  will  seedling root,  commercial pyramids, their  permthe  II roots on  the  the  reach  orchard  the  type-  rootstock,  i f the or  the  to  t r e e s on  estimates  r o o t s , the  from  would  M.I  as be  quince  P r o f e s s o r Sprenger,  period  will  trained  and  on  trees,  the  while  He  i n 6 years  pear  of  combination  tree planting For  orchard  f o r bush  i s made:  plus  takes  a t t a i n e d between  the  simple  It  He  orchard  expenditures,  Low-Countries  standard  stage,  this  variety  in  for a  root stocks year,  establishment  that  "self-supporting"  adds  i n an  t h e y e a r l y o p e r a t i o n a l l o s s e s , up t o t h e time o r c h a r d o p e r a t i o n becomes s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  the  reiitabil-  orchards.  2)  12  take  the  of  shows  a  Fruitteelt"  tree-form,  system upon  i n commercial  capital  der  incidence of  planting  investment  that t h i s  the  Leerboek  1)  He  of  of the  and in  will Hedgerows,  the  waiting  a permanent-filler  a p p r o p r i a t e rootstock.  New  spindle-  - 8 bush p l a n t i n g , LL to 6 f e e t i n the row w i t h 1 0 to 1 2 f e e t between rows, on M IV r o o t s , c o u l d reduce even f u r t h e r the unbalanced-costs p e r i o d , probably t o 3 t o 1). y e a r s . i n t e r e s t i n g comparison  o f investment  An  costs f o r 3 d i f f e r e n t  apple p l a n t i n g concepts - h i g h headed standard t r e e , permanent temporary  bush t r e e s on M I I or M I r o o t , and a  i s e d hedgerow system w i t h "very c l o s e p l a n t i n g "  trell-  (distances  not g i v e n , but l i k e l y t o be about 5 or 6 f e e t i n the rows and 10  to 1 2 f e e t between the rows, or 8 7 1 to 6o5  trees per  i s c a l c u l a t e d i n Dutch G u i l d e r s , o f prewar v a l u e  aere)j  ( 1 9 3 9 ) ,  at  the time o f the i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o s t and at the stage they become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  This s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g stage  was  reached a t 1 9 years f o r the standards, a t $ years f o r the semi-standard temporary  filler  t r e e s combination.  Pinal  f i g u r e s f o r the dwarf hedgerows were not y e t a v a i l a b l e unfortunately, TABLE I I n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t and f i n a l investment costs f o r one acre o f o r c h a r d (Dutch G u i l d e r s 1 9 3 9 ) I n i t i a l investment:  Final 1,526  Standard t r e e s D.G. Semi-standard t r e e s " Dwarf hedgerows t r e e s ... "  From these f i g u r e s i t appears t r e e orchard was  initially  the time i t s annual r e t u r n s  1,844.  4,, 1 9 0  investment;  D.G. "  8,108  2,5OIL  u n a v a i l a b l e at p r i n t i n g time  t h a t a l t h o u g h the standard  the cheapest  to e s t a b l i s h , by  f i n a l l y equate the y e a r l y  o p e r a t i o n a l expenditures i t may  become the most expensive.  Van  Oosten and Spoor (34.)  are of the o p i n i o n t h a t  too much emphasis has been put on " p r o d u c t i o n p e r acre" while l o s i n g s i g h t of the much more s i g n i f i c a n t element, o f the " l a b o u r - p r o d u c t i v i t y " r e l a t i o n s h i p . i n 1952  They estimate that  the man-hour p r o d u c t i o n i n a good average Dutch bush-  t r e e orchard was  approximately  Kg. per man-year.  T h i s was  20 Kg. of a p p l e s , or 50,000  e q u i v a l e n t to twice the l a b o u r -  p r o d u c t i v i t y o f prewar (1939) y e a r s .  Their b e l i e f i s that  t h i s f i g u r e would reach 25 Kg. per man-hour by 1957 continue to r i s e up  to 30 Kg.  al though mechanisation  and would  They are of the o p i n i o n t h a t  and improved working methods have  p l a y e d an important p a r t i n t h i s i n c r e a s e of man-hour it  i s the t r e e - f o r m and  output,  the p l a n t i n g concept t h a t are o f  major s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the economy of the orchard o p e r a t i o n . They emphasise t h a t p r e s e n t day p l a n t i n g methods with s m a l l and low growing t r e e s t r a i n e d i n hedgerows systems a l l o w f o r maximum u t i l i s a t i o n of o r c h a r d machinery, and hand-Tirork there i s l e f t  that whatever  can be done at a much f a s t e r pace,  thus cheaper than w i t h the former l a r g e and h i g h standard even seni-standard type o f t r e e s .  As mechanisation  and  p r o d u c t i v i t y improve the number o f acres t h a t one man handle  by h i m s e l f w i l l i n c r e a s e , which, i n t u r n w i l l  the s i z e of the "economic u n i t " .  The  i n t e n s i v e orchard i n H o l l a n d , was  from 10  to 12%  (I}.-5 Ha.)  the view t h a t i t i s probable  i n 1957.  labour can  affect  economic s i z e f o r a  two man  acres  or  c o n s i d e r e d to be The w r i t e r s  express  t h a t i n the near f u t u r e the same  - 10 u n i t must be enlarged to 1$ and e v e n t u a l l y t o 20 acres i n order to remain an economic u n i t y i e l d i n g optimum r e t u r n s . R e f e r r i n g t o the e v o l u t i o n o f the commercial t r e e - f o r m i n the Low-Countries, van Oosten and Spoor b e l i e v e t h a t i n the new orchards (MI  the bush t r e e on vigorous type r o o t s t o c k s  - M I I ) i s f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g and i s being r e p l a c e d by  the " f r e e - s p i n d l e " formed t r e e s on M V I I , IV and IX r o o t s . They add t h a t new trends a r e a l s o e v i d e n t , t e n d i n g to modify the round f r e e - s p i n d l e tree to a f l a t t e n e d form, n e a r i n g the B e l g i a n hedge system, which growers t h i n k w i l l a l l o w f o r a maximum o f sun exposed s u r f a c e s b e s i d e s other advantages t h a t  2 can be gained from wire support.  They draw a comparison  between permanent x f i l l e r bush t r e e orchards c a l l a modern s p i n d l e - t r e e o p e r a t i o n . ment, p l u s the f i r s t war  and what  they  The c o s t of e s t a b l i s h -  year o f upkeep was o f D.G.I. 1,280 (post-  v a l u e s ) f o r the bush-tree  semi-standard  orchard a g a i n s t  D.G.I.(880 f o r the s p i n d l e - b u s h p l a n t i n g , a I t 1,47  ratio.  C u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n expenditures were covered by f r u i t r e t u r n s at  t h e end of the l\.th year f o r the s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s , b u t  o n l y a f t e r the 6th year f o r the permanent-temporary  filler-  bush t r e e s , a t which time the s p i n d l e orchard had a l r e a d y accumulated D.G. 480 o f s u r p l u s , above o p e r a t i o n a l expendi t u r e s , per a c r e .  T h i s corresponds  e a r l i e r f i g u r e s o f Sprenger.  q u i t e c l o s e l y with the  Comparing semi-standard  inter-  p l a n t e d with f i l l e r t r e e s and s p i n d l e - b u s h p l a n t i n g s van Oosten and Spoor add t h a t f u r t h e r advantages i n f a v o u r o f the dwarf The B e l g i a n hedge i s a form of dwarf, c l o s e l y p l a n t e d l o o s e l y formed t r e l l i s , e s t a b l i s h e d on 3 or II superposed wires.  - 11 s p i n d l e t r e e s can be  expected a f t e r a s i x or seven year  p e r i o d , because at t h a t time i t w i l l be necessary t o  start  pulling,-out the temporary t r e e s , o p e r a t i o n which w i l l  result  i n a new  years.  production  set-back f o r another two  or t h r e e  The  authors conclude by doubting that there be any  for  non-dwarf t r e e p l a n t i n g s i n the N e t h e r l a n d s . Lysten  Holland,  (18)  commenting on the a p p l e - t r e e  reports  that the standard  r o o t s accounted s t i l l trees during  f o r 22.6  per  population  s i z e d t r e e s on  commercial  t h a t by 1957-58 a survey  dropped t o 2.3  per  cent.  same l a p s e of time the percentage of M IX type r o o t s s l i g h t l y from 16.6  to 13.8  of  seedling  cent of a l l the  the 1950-51 p e r i o d , but  showed t h a t t h i s value had  future  Over the declined  per cent, while apple t r e e s  on  M I I r o o t s remained p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged, showing a p e r centage of 10.5 statistical read,  surveys.  i n the  and  10.1  r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r 1951  and  For pear t r e e s i t i s of i n t e r e s t  per cent o f the t o t a l pear t r e e  to  t h a t by  1958  t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n had  population  dropped to  2l|.9  per  cent, w h i l e t r e e s on quince type r o o t s had  75.1  per  cent.  ard the s m a l l e r years  1958  same r e p o r t , that standards on s e e d l i n g r o o t s  amounted t o 58.6 i n 1951  and  risen  to  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e the obvious trend towt r e e forms i n the Low  Countries  i n recent  0  In Germany i t appears t h a t t h e systems has Lowlands.  e v o l u t i o n of the p l a n t i n g  been f o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to t h a t i n the Schmitz-Hubsch and F u r s t  (29)  s t a t e that  f i r s t attempt t o p l a n t a commercial orchard  the  o f bush-formed,  - 12  low-stem  apple  trees dates  "back t o  inaugurated  i n the  Johannes  on-Oder  at  same  near the  and  Merten.  of  tree.  l e a n i n g toward  improvement better  more  they and  the  utilisation  pruning  and of  first  Pey  in  and  early  as  some  the 160  1950,  they  on  called  later  ards  by  dwarf  to  compete  if  they  the  on  the  the  and  ordinary;  tendency  expectation  of  fruit  as  of  well  resulting  with  as in  and  harvesting of thought  in  spindle-  latest  equipment,  trend of  call a  Christian the  Pey  fruit; van  Oosten  spindle-bush  tree,  a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d and  earlier.  The  t r e e s as  authors well  of  and  f o r the  orchards  to  the  that  as  i f they markets  quickly  the  to  larger  Western  to  they c a n as  intensive  re-discov-  since  Europe, They warn  remain  in a  o n l y hope t o  possible,  from  dwarf-tree  around  semi-standard  commercial  Holland. want  langen  recommended  that,  replaced i n  Prance  fruit  over,  state  trees a l l over  from  growers  as  introduced  "schnurbaum mit  Panon had  forms  change  report that  gradually being  Sweden  tree  a parallel  standard  fruit  the  1920,  about  i n spraying operations,  thinning  what  trees are  German  savings  1916,  years  to  to  grade  mechanical  (9)  bush  Italy  of  Wirth  form  the  refer  orchards,  Holland.  Pruchtholz", ering  world-war, improvements  and  Frankfurt-  Schmitz-Hubsch  hedge-form, w i t h quality  being  near  eventually l e d to  authors  trees,  show h e r e w i t h Spoor  dard  the  orchards,  The  in color,  efficiency  easier  as  after  1900,  year  orchards  i n the  t r e e s were made, w h i c h ,  bush form  a  Soon  Bottner  time  same S c h m i t z - H u b s c h  bush  as  the  the  the  orchfrom the position succeed stan-  operations,,  - 13 They mention that i n many "bleiber-weicher" or "permane n t - f i l l e r tree" combinations, the f i l l e r tree had often been formed as a spindle-bush t r e e and that over the years It became apparent that these were not short l i v e d trees, as i t had often been claimed, and when the time came to uproot them on account of over-crowding, growers often changed their minds and decided instead to remove the permanent bush trees, replacing them eventually by new spindles. Karnatz (16) reports that during the 1930-37 period, 34-'! per cent of the apple production i n Germany was grown on c l o n a l rootstock trees.  Twenty years l a t e r , f o r the period  1954--58, the proportion of clonal trees had risen to 67.9 per cent i n West Germany (Bundesgebiet: no figures available from East Germany).  The break down of the rootstock types  used i n West Germany between 1950 and 1958 shows the f o l l owing trends: M M M M M  IX: IV: II: I: XI:  drops rises drops drops rises  from from from from from  30.1$ 16.3$ 13.6$ 6.0$ 29.7$  to 21.8$ to 22.1$ to 9.5$ to 0.0$ to 37.1$  Commenting about these figures the author interprets them as a tendency f o r M IV to replace M IX on account of i t s better behaviour i n average to poor s o i l s and f o r i t s greater winter hardiness, rather than because of a change In planting concept.  The semi-standard M I trees have prac-  t i c a l l y disappeared while the M II rooted trees are l o s i n g ground i n favour of the A2 and p a r t i c u l a r l y to the M XI which i s i n demand because of i t s s p e c i f i c winter hardiness i n the  - III. -  c o l d e r climates.-^  The  quince r o o t s t o c k f o r pear t r e e s ,  s t a t e s Karnatz, i s u n s u i t a b l e  f o r most of West Germany,  because of i t s l a c k o f c o l d h a r d i n e s s . f i g u r e s are not Holland  e n t i r e l y s i m i l a r 'with the trends  i n regard  i l l u s t r a t e again and  smaller  Although Karnatz's  to r o o t s t o c k t y p e s , the same trends  tree-form  Hilkenbaumer (15)  they  observed i n  nevertheless  toward more i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  plantings. does not  question  the  economical  advantages of dwarf-tree orchards but d i f f e r s merely w i t h Schmitz-Hubsch and  Purst regarding  t r e l l i s e d hedgerows.  t r e e s versus  His o p i n i o n i s t h a t hedges appear to  produce somewhat l e s s per he  spindle-bush  t r e e than the  seems t o think t h a t the  spindles.  Further  c o l o r of the apples was  slightly  b e t t e r on s p i n d l e s but o n l y when these had been t r a i n e d w i t h horizontal rather  than with bent-down, drooping p r i m a r i e s .  Schmitz-Hubsch (29)  disputes  t h i s view c l a i m i n g t h a t  on l a r g e s p i n d l e s i s o f t e n shaded by and  over-hanging branches,  f o r t h i s r e a s o n not so w e l l c o l o r e d than those  trellised  t r e e s where branches are supported by  In England^ r e f e r e n c e has standing  on  wire.  a l r e a d y been made to the  out-  c o n t r i b u t i o n from the East M a i l i n g Research  S t a t i o n , Maidstone, Kent. of work at t h i s s t a t i o n and  Walker (35)  h i s nomenclature has p l a y e d  reviewing  f o r t y years  l o o k i n g back at Hatton's b a s i c  r o o t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , p o i n t s out t h e  important r o l e which  i n the f r u i t i n d u s t r y .  A 2 , a s e l e c t i o n from Alnarp (Sweden), vigorous rootstock p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to cold climates. J  fruit  He  -15 -  reviews of  the development of the more r e c e n t l y c r e a t e d types  c l o n a l r o o t s t o c k s , such as the M a l l i n g - M e r t o n types,  r e s i s t a n t to the Woolly Aphid, and the d i f f e r e n t M IX crosses.  The  importance  o f r o o t s t o c k , t r e e - f o r m and p r u n i n g  systems and t h e i r e f f e c t on e a r l y r e t u r n s i s emphasized and r e l a t e d to economic orchard o p e r a t i o n .  P r e s t o n (25)  i n t o more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the new  MM  enters  (Malling-  Merton) and the other r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d r o o t s t o c k s e l e c t ions and the f r u i t y i e l d s to be expected from them f o l l o w i n g a seven year experiment  w i t h three s c i o n v a r i e t i e s .  It is  apparent t h a t B r i t i s h f r u i t growers seem to have r e a l i z e d a t an e a r l y date the economic advantages t o be gained i n s h i f t ing  from the standard s i z e d t r e e s to the more i n t e n s i v e  semi-standards, which they grew very w i d e l y on M I I r o o t . Fisher  (10),  as a r e s u l t o f a v i s i t to England  r e p o r t s t h a t f o r commercial  in  1955  o p e r a t i o n s p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the  apple t r e e s appear t o be grown on M I I stock, M V I I b e i n g a l s o used but to a more l i m i t e d extent, while Ltrees on M IX are b e i n g s t r i c t l y  c o n s i d e r e d as a home-garden" p r o p o s i t i o n . u  A m o d i f i e d t r a i n i n g and p r u n i n g system f o r semi-standard  and  semi-dwarf bush t r e e s has been suggested by P r e s t o n (2IL) i n 1954  c a l l e d the "Regulated p r u n i n g method".  year l o n g p r o d u c t i o n experiment r o o t s t o c k s he succeeded  From a  seven  with apple t r e e s on c l o n a l  i n o b t a i n i n g f o u r times l a r g e r y i e l d s  by a p p l y i n g the "Regulated method" of t r a i n i n g and p r u n i n g than w i t h the c l a s s i c a l spur-pruning system and twice as much f r u i t  as w i t h the renewal p r u n i n g method.  - 16 G. Mac Lean (19),  an English, commercial f r u i t  grower,  proposed an Imaginative and e n t i r e l y new, unorthodox,  train-  i n g and p r u n i n g i d e a based on c o n t i n u a l renewal o f the primary branches as soon a s they have produced a s e t o f f r u i t , i . e . every t h i r d y e a r .  The t r e e f o l l o w i n g such treatment develops  a r a t h e r columnar form.  He c a l l s h i s method the " P i l l a r  system".  The t r e e s a r e grown p r e f e r a b l y on a r a t h e r v i g o r o u s type o f r o o t s t o c k - M I I or MM iOlj. - and p l a n t e d at a f a i r l y  high  r a t e o f d e n s i t y , up to 605> t r e e s p e r acre when p l a n t e d 6 f e e t apart i n the row and 12 f e e t between the rows.  Mac Lean claims  t h a t h i s system has many advantages such as e a r l y and heavy c r o p p i n g - 600 b u s h e l s p e r acre a t f u l l p r o d u c t i o n age w i t h the Cox's Orange v a r i e t y .  Such t r e e s appear to be q u i t e  s a t i s f a c t o r y under B r i t i s h c o n d i t i o n s and produce h i g h grade f r u i t because o f a maximum o f l i g h t exposure and because they are always obtained on young wood.  They are easy to  prune, spray and h a r v e s t , and have the advantage of n o t r e q u i r i n g any o f t h e expensive p o s t s and wire i n s t a l l a t i o n s of the t r e l l i s e d  systems.  From experience he c o n s i d e r s h i s  system f i n a n c i a l l y sound and remarks that "the grower who s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n the o l d i d e a o f p l a n t i n g the o b s o l e t e l a r g e bush-trees l o s e s time, f i r s t w h i l e he w a i t s f o r h i s busht r e e s t o come i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , and again l a t e r on when they w i l l overcrowd, and must be thinned out. slightly larger i n i t i a l "pillar-tree"  I n h i s o p i n i o n the  c a p i t a l investment r e q u i r e d f o r a  orchard i s f a r outweighed by the subsequent  - 17 savings  i n c u l t u r a l operations,  p l u s t h e added advantages  of e a r l i e r and l a r g e r n e t r e t u r n s p e r a c r e . Marshall  (21)  (22),  who v i s i t e d European orchards i n  195>9> r e p o r t s that he saw i n England a p l a n t i n g o f the Lord Derby apple v a r i e t y t r a i n e d as t r e l l i s e d cordons on M IX rootstock, planted  i n 1908 and c o n t i n u i n g  of 500 bushels p e r acre y e a r l y .  t o average y i e l d s  T h i s l e d him to remark that  s m a l l trees are not n e c e s s a r i l y s h o r t l i v e d t r e e s . and  Quoting  E n g l i s h h o r t i c u l t u r i s t he mentions t h a t there were i n  1959 approximately 5,000 acres o f commercial dwarf pyramid apple and pear trees i n England.  In Bedfordshire  i s h Wholesale S o c i e t y " had a p p a r e n t l y  over 1,000  the " B r i t acres i n  c l o s e p l a n t e d dwarf pyramids, c o n s i s t i n g o f n e a r l y 2 m i l l i o n trees.  Prom t h i s r e p o r t i t would appear t h a t the p l a n t i n g  concepts i n England are a l s o undergoing changes, and that here again trees, higher of  characteristical  the trend i s toward  smaller  d e s n i t y p e r acre and more i n t e n s i v e methods  handling. In Belgium, S w i t z e r l a n d ,  Prance and I t a l y the e v o l u t i o n  i n p l a n t i n g methods appear to f o l l o w the same d i r e c t i o n . Marshall and  (21)  s t a t e s that he found In Belgium, M IX and M IV  quince A were the most commonly used u n d e r s t o c k s i n  apple and pear orchards,  and t h a t , by and l a r g e ,  growers a l l over the Continent t r e e as f a s t as p o s s i b l e " . .  fruit  were " g e t t i n g r i d of the l a r g e  Pisher  (10)  noted t h a t most  of the pear trees i n Belgium and H o l l a n d were grown on quince stock,  and he examined some o f them Jr5 years o l d , which  - 18 appeared  to be i n " e x c e l l e n t h e a l t h  and s t i l l  bearing  fine  crops", Switzerland producing midst  has a highly  district  i n t e n s i v e and s p e c i a l i z e d  s i t u a t e d i n the Upper  o f the Alps,  between  Martigny  features  of this  similar  t o those  o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y ;  shine  compulsory,  during  nights;  apricots  cold  High  are produced  there  Rawitscher  (26) d e s c r i b e s  the  o f the extensive  to  the intensive densely  he  s t i l l  examines  calls  "fruit  production  this  rootstock,  planted  and  pruned,  earlier acre  standard  production.  tree  i n their  that  eighth  and s t a t e s  varieties  will  cool  very prunes  fruit and  and  growers.  discusses i n contrast  plantings,  which He  that p r o v i d i n g the been  established,  on t h e r i g h t  distances,  type  of  wellitrained  undoubtedly  start  much  p o t e n t i a l on a n  are very  trellised  year  and  - "jardins-fruitiers".  at the r i g h t  shows  o f sun-  winters.  concept  dwarf-tree  as the s t a n d a r d - t r e e s He  making  pears,  industry  has p r o p e r l y  the production  scarce  The  very  alternating with  skilled  and o u t y i e l d the standard-tree  basis,  produced  land  by h i g h l y  gardens"  the proper  amount  q u a l i t y apples,  planted  records  subarid,  unpredictable  i t s fruit  "dwarf-fruit-tree-garden" meaning b y  warm d a y s  i n the  (Valais).  i n many ways  considerable  subdivided,  to acquire.  merits  appear  and d a n g e r o u s l y  i s extremely  expensive  a  t h e summertime;  long,  Property  with  Valley,  and S i e r r e  climate  irrigation  valley  Rhone  fruit  slow  cordons  from p l a n t i n g ,  t o come  and s p i n d l e from  into trees.,  30,000 t o  - 19 -  luD,000 Kg. apple  per  boxes p e r  tree orchards du  e q u i v a l e n t t o 826  Ha.,  a c r e , i n the V a l a i s f r u i t  o f the  same v a r i e t y  - yielded  o n l y an  l o o s e b u s h e l boxes p e r the  grown a t t h e  Reinette time  year,  o r lj.56 l o o s e a p p l e b o x e s p e r  p e r Ha.  acre at the  annual  o p e r a t i o n c o s t s o f an i n t e n s i v e d w a r f t r e e  tree  very l i t t l e  orchard.  The  from  the  to read  thirty  I t i s also of i n t e r e s t  e x t r a work e n t a i l e d  and  (23)  safeguard  hope  salable.  ucing  the o t h e r f r u i t trade w i l l  the i n d u s t r y .  grade o f f r u i t  In o r d e r  grower s h o u l d  production  like  that export  to maintain  l o n g , number two  fruit  in Switzerland, especially  Swiss p r o d u c e r s ,  the w o r l d ,  will  orchard standard  task  of  trees.  He  of apples  e v e n t u a l l y a c t as forecasts that  costs, while  a t the  effort  to  day  at  s t a t e s t h a t the  c o n s i d e r e d b a s i c f o r economic s u r v i v a l  un-  lower  same t i m e he must a i m He  a  before  become p r a c t i c a l l y  t h e r e f o r e s p a r e no  and  growers a l l over  to r e m a i n c o m p e t i t i v e , t h e p r e s e n t  only e x t r a - f a n c y grade f r u i t .  requisites  the  s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s p r e s e n t l y over  production of f r u i t that  high standard  eighth  intensive  t h e more d i f f i c u l t  h a r v e s t i n g l a r g e and  Perraudin  i n the  from  that  operational costs of a  o r c h a r d s b e i n g c o m p e n s a t e d by caring  i n h i s study  121  or  17,000  to reach only  year.  differs  i n the  a c r e , f o r the p e r i o d e x t e n d i n g  e i g h t h t o the twenty second  Kgs.  Standard  case  o f lj.,14-00 Kg.  average  loose  belt.  - in this  Canada - t h e main a p p l e v a r i e t y  valley  t o 1,102  are  prodpre-  going  - 20 to be: 1 ) the l o c a l i s a t i o n o f commercial f r u i t  growing  o n l y i n the b e t t e r c l i m a t i c and topographic l o c a t i o n s : 2)  the t e c h n i c a l arrangement and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f orchards  to o b t a i n maximum use o f mechanisation, maximum economy i n spraying operations and  and optimum hand l a b o u r  output when i t comes to pruning,  3) the maximum p o s s i b l e s h o r t e n i n g  efficiency  t h i n n i n g and h a r v e s t i n g :  of the i n i t i a l  p e r i o d of  time d u r i n g which orchards are c o s t i n g more than they r e t u r n • These b a s i c requirements he c l a i m s , depend to a great on the nature of the r o o t s t o c k ,  extent  the v a r i e t y , the nature o f  the ttree form and the p r u n i n g system f o l l o w e d .  Perraudin  s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t f r u i t growing i s becoming a more and more complex e n t e r p r i s e , r e q u i r i n g a h i g h degree of t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c o n s i d e r a b l y more p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l handling  than was p r e v i o u s l y r e q u i r e d f o r the  o f the former extensive  type o f o r c h a r d s .  E x p e r i m e n t a l orchards i n the Swiss Rhone V a l l e y o f the V a l a i s c o u n t r y r e v e a l e d Delicious  trees during t h e i r  that y i e l d s obtained  from Red  e i g h t h year depended on the  adopted tree form, the p e r acre d e n s i t y of t r e e s and the rootstock type.  They v a r i e d a l l the way from 10IL-| l o o s e  b u s h e l boxes f o r bush t r e e s on M IV r o o t s , p l a n t e d d e n s i t y r a t e o f 160 t r e e s p e r acre f e e t on the square),  ( d i s t a n c e : 16§- x 16|-  t o 805 l o o s e bushel boxes p e r a c r e  f o r trees of the s ame v a r i e t y and on the same but  at the  t r a i n e d as s p i n d l e - t r e e s and p l a n t e d  rootstock  at the r a t e of  - 21 435  t r e e s per acre  (10  l e t t t r e e s on quince  x 10 f e e t on the square).  A r o o t s t o c k , t r a i n e d as  pyramids and p l a n t e d at the r a t e of 257 (13  commercial  t r e e s per  x 13 f e e t on the square) produced i n t h e i r  year 358  l o o s e b u s h e l boxes, while  Bart-  acre  eighth  the same v a r i e t y on the .  same r o o t s t o c k but t r a i n e d as P e r r a g u t t i cordons, at the r a t e o f 726  (6  t r e e s p e r acre  produced a t the same age 997  x 10 f e e t i n t r e l l i s e d hedges) bushel boxes per a c r e . ^  The  same author r e p o r t s a l s o t h a t i n s o f a r as the Swiss Rhone V a l l e y i s concerned the d w a r f - i n t e n s i v e  methods o f p l a n t i n g  have r i g h t l y been adopted by the great m a j o r i t y of commercial f r u i t growers and i n i t e l y obsolete.  t h a t the former standard  t r e e i s now  def-  But, he adds, when i t comes to what  type  of dwarf t r e e p l a n t i n g to recommend i t undoubtedly remains very d i f f i c u l t  to d e c i d e .  Much more f a c t u a l  information  i s needed, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y to local conditions. On the American c o n t i n e n t i t appears t h a t p l a n t i n g concepts d i d not f o l l o w the same l i n e of thought as i n Europe.  Brase and Way  of r e l a t i v e l y  (2)  inexpensive  p o i n t out that the  l a n d and labour i n America  tended toward r a t h e r extensive  than i n t e n s i v e type of  "arding, as a r e s u l t most American orchards standard,  availability  s e e d l i n g - r o o t type.  Nevertheless  orch-  are of the they acknowledge  P e r r a g u t t i cordons: I t a l i a n method o f t r a i n i n g t r e l l i s e d hedgerows developed by P r o f e s s o r P e r r a g u t t i i n the e a r l y 30 s. Three to f o u r h o r i z o n t a l wires on which p r i m a r i e s are t i e d by a r c h i n g down. !  - 22 the f a c t t h a t c o n d i t i o n s are now changing r a p i d l y .  They  t h i n k t h a t maintenance c o s t s and mechanisation make i t d e s i r a b l e t o s t r i v e f o r s m a l l e r s i z e d t r e e s which would come i n t o b e a r i n g a t a much e a r l i e r age. Weiss and F i s h e r i n commercial  (36)  s t a t e that apple and pear t r e e s  orchards o f North America have  traditionally  been grown on s e e d l i n g r o o t s as standard t r e e s , o f t e n r e a c h i n g over 20 f e e t h i g h w i t h a 25 to 30 f o o t spread.  Their  management l e a d s to a r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e than i n t e n s i v e  type  of o p e r a t i o n , Z e i g e r and Tukey (37)  i n a h i s t o r i c a l review o f the  M a i l i n g apple r o o t s t o c k i n America, mention P a t r i c k B a r r y , Georges Ellwanger and C.M. Hovey as the e a r l i e s t of dwarf apple t r e e c u l t u r e In the U.S.A.  proponants  In New York s t a t e  B a r r y recommended, as e a r l y as i n the middle o f the X l X t h century, the use o f apple t r e e s on p a r a d i s e or doucin r o o t stock, f o r e a r l y p r o d u c t i o n and as f i l l e r t r e e s .  I t was  r e p o r t e d that t h i r t y year o l d apple t r e e s on F r e n c h p a r a d i s e stock were producing 3 t o LL bushels o f f r u i t p e r t r e e i n the Ellwanger o r c h a r d .  These o b s e r v a t i o n s seem to d i s c a r d the  common n o t i o n t h a t dwarf t r e e s were u n p r o d u c t i v e and s h o r t lived.  Pear t r e e s on quince r o o t s and grown as dwarf t r e e s  comprised  about 50 p e r cent of the pear orchards o f New York  s t a t e up to the end o f the X l X t h c e n t u r y .  Notwithstanding  such an e a r l y s t a r t dwarf apple and pear p l a n t i n g s d i d n o t seem t o f i n d favour i n commercial  orchards.  The r e a s o n f o r  - 23 -  this,  a c c o r d i n g t o Z e i g e r and Tuckey, a r e h a r d  out.  They suggest  reprints mislead  these  t h a t c u l t u r a l recommendations,  from European a r t i c l e s the American f r u i t  understand  around  Station  they  given  to local  practices cannot  to t r a i n i n g  conditions.  1897,  b u t they  i n New Y o r k S t a t e d i d b e g i n e x -  years  later  c l a i m e d , w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s .  five  as  t h e o n l y way t o c o n t r o l  fumigation with  the S a n J o s e  the pest  t o o k p l a c e a b o u t 1906, treatment  at that  cyanide under canvas,  i t w o u l d be e a s i e r  to treat  which kept  with  time was b y  I t appeared  s m a l l t r e e s than  o f the lime  scale f a i r l y  the dwarf t r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t s  of  i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e a n d i t does n o t a p p e a r  considered  o f any f u r t h e r  the w r i t e r s H e d r i c k collections  commercial  large forms  sulphur  w e l l under  control, their  obvious  i n the s m a l l e r t r e e  the event  t h e San J o s e  Pour  s c a l e menace b r o k e o u t , and  s t a n d a r d s , h e n c e a renewed i n t e r e s t  lost  interest.  a good  deal  that they Following  reported that the rootstocks i n the  l a c k e d u n i f o r m i t y t o t h e p o i n t t h a t many t r e e s  were n o t d w a r f a t a l l , and some n o t e v e n s e m i - d w a r f . had,  The  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h p a r a d i s e and d o u c i n r o o t s t o c k s  or  that  growers, a l t h o u g h  why t h e r e was n o t more t h o u g h t  Geneva E x p e r i m e n t a l  mostly  about s m a l l garden  d w a r f t r e e s i n ways a d a p t e d  tensive  t o make  no d o u b t ,  just  scion rooted,  others  lacked  a n c h o r a g e , and a g r e a t many o f t h e t r e e s a p p e a r e d been v e r y p o o r l y handled  or badly n e g l e c t e d .  Many  proper to have  I t was  also  were  - 21L  said  that  the l o c a t i o n h a d  A m e r i c a as to  an  i n Europe the a r o u n d 1930  end  work a t E a s t planted at  on  one  these  was  the  The  first  experimental  s e m i - d w a r f and  are  were s e t o u t The  State  and  be 1928  in  following  C o l l e g e . Prom  reliable  semi-standard  to  information  t r e e s was  obtained  continent.  Waugh i n 1906, x-jlck (30)  came o n l y  orchards  Station.  systematic  In  classification  a t the P e n n s y l v a n i a  p l a n t i n g s the f i r s t  American  choice.  era of rootstock confusion  s p e c i f i e d M a i l i n g types  planted  on d w a r f and  to  an u n f o r t u n a t e  f o l l o w i n g Hatton's  Mailing,  duly  been  the M a s s a c h u s s e t t ' s E x p e r i m e n t a l  year  on  -  T h o r n t o n i n 1909  amongst t h e few  have devoted s p e c i a l i z e d  and  more r e c e n t l y S o u t h -  American garden  Horticulturists  books t o d w a r f f r u i t  trees.  Their  w r i t i n g s were more d i r e c t e d t o the home g a r d e n a m a t e u r , r e p e a t i n g the the  o l d European Gardeners techniques,  commercial f r u i t  some v a l u a b l e as: to  grower.  advantages i n f a v o r  easier handling, dust,  fruit, As  e a s i e r and  e a r l i n e s s of  tox^ard  Southwick  portends  of dwarf t r e e c u l t u r e , such  more e c o n o m i c a l t o s p r a y  the p r o d u c t i v i t y , h i g h y i e l d s ,  or  quality  ease o f h a r v e s t i n g , e t c . late  as  1956,  published a l e a f l e t s e l e c t i o n and trees  Nevertheless  than  are  care",  t h e U.S. (32)  Department  of A g r i c u l t u r e  a b o u t "Dwarf f r u i t  trees,  their  i n w h i c h i t i s s t a t e d t h a t dwarf  fruit  o n l y d e s i r a b l e when g r o w i n g s p a c e i s l i m i t e d  hand l a b o u r q u i t e i n e x p e n s i v e .  Dealing with  commercial  and fruit  - 25 -  g r o w i n g on d w a r f t r e e s , t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s t a t e s main d i s a d v a n t a g e s least  are: l)the high  twice the cost  of standard  n e e d o f more t r e e s p e r a c r e impossibility ivation,  e t c : 3) "the n e e d  p e r h a p s be j u s t i f i e d dards i n order  and t h a t ,  harvesting writes  down t a l l  ladders",  Childers  under d i f f e r e n t s o i l  Discussing  used  at present show  C a l i f o r n i a and t h a t  these  their  required  climbing  that up and  the cost o f  the cost  of harvesting  t h a t s.ome c o m m e r c i a l on q u i n c e r o o t s  do e x i s t  t r e e s h a v e b e e n known f o r t h e i r  t o come i n t o b e a r i n g , crops,  In  considerable  t h e equipment  i s "almost double states also  -.research  and c l i m a t i c  i t i s of i n t e r e s t to note  dwarf o r semi-dwarf p e a r orchards  their regular  stan-  the r e a c t i o n of the  a n d on a c c o u n t o f t h i s ,  low  trees".  may  during the  considerable  "'too much t i m e a n d e n e r g y i s s p e n t  trees  earliness  that  they n e v e r t h e l e s s  operations,  picking tall  in  t r e e s between  production  although l i t t l e  promise f o r the f u t u r e .  he  the f r u i t  to a s s e s s  type r o o t s  commercial o p e r a t i o n s ,  for  t h a t the use of dwarf t r e e s  (6) i s o f t h e o p i n i o n  Mailing  f o r staking or wire  orchard.  n e e d s t o be done i n o r d e r  conditions  combined w i t h t h e  as t e m p o r a r y f i l l e r  to increase  e a r l y years of the  various  o f dwarf t r e e s , a t  t o g e t y i e l d s t h a t p a y ; 2) t h e  Yet i t i s admitted  Ghilders  trees,  their  o f e m p l o y i n g l a r g e poxirer m a c h i n e r y f o r c u l t -  spraying,  support.  cost  that  their  e a s e o f management,  larger better  s h a p e d and e x c e l l e n t  - 26  quality ages:  fruit,  tendency to  greater he  cost  still  the  but  of  stock  they have the  following  sucker, s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  establishment  considers  quince  that  -  that,  per  acre.  i n s o f a r as  i s t o be  disadvant-  to b l i g h t ,  and  In s p i t e of  California  is  this  concerned,  recommended f o r c o m m e r c i a l  pear  orchards• G o u r l e y and d w a r f and  Howlett  (12)  semi-dwarf apple  express  and  the  opinion  pear trees  that  are e x t e n s i v e l y  u s e d a b r o a d , t h e y have n e v e r appeared, to h a v e b e e n as  commercial orchards  they are  of f r u i t  are  Gardner, Bradford particularly  has  Amongst  and  been  on  and  of  fruit  capacity,  i t can  effect. uce  ible et  Mahaleb r o o t  of  a l t h o u g h more  e f f e c t s of  the  influenced a large  a l m e n t i o n a two  performances,  commercial  influence out  by  fruit  on  tree  that  hard-  hardiness  the  - a dwarfing type  rootstock  t o p s on  year  type  cultural  extent,  s c i o n ' s wood t i s s u e s . the  considerations  fruit bearing  They p o i n t  i n sweet c h e r r y  the  several  water  w h i c h , i n t u r n depends on m a t u r i t y . be  on  that  gardens.  i n d i r e c t relationship to  a l s o depend, to  hardiness  ripening  quantities of  (11),  rootstock  successful  They c o n c l u d e  f o r home  i n t e r e s t to  quality.  w a t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p may but  Hooker  them, t h e  shown t o be  retaining  wanted and  economics or  some p o i n t s  grower.  where s m a l l  interested i n physiological  than i n orchard  iness  this continent.  of i n t e r e s t only  varieties  discuss  on  while  on  the  practices, rootstock  - i s reported  account of Discussing fruit  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by  The  the the  to  ind-  earlier poss-  q u a l i t y , Gardener  R i v i e r e and  Bailhache  - 27 on the sugar content o f pears grown on quince r o o t s i n comparison w i t h the same pear v a r i e t y grown on s e e d l i n g roots.  Doyenne d'Hiver pears showed 11.59 p e r c e n t  sugar  content i n t h e i r j u i c e when obtained from t r e e s on quince r o o t a g a i n s t o n l y 9.OI4. p e r cent i n the j u i c e o f f r u i t grown on t r e e s w i t h s e e d l i n g r o o t s .  No sugar v a l u e s a r e given f o r  apples on dwarfing stock., H a r r i s and Woods (13) at  r e p o r t t h a t from t h e i r  investigations  the Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Experimental Farm  Saanichton, B.C., apple t r e e s on M IX r o o t s t o c k grow w e l l , produce h e a v i l y w i t h h i g h q u a l i t y f r u i t a t an age when standard  t r e e s were f a r from b e i n g i n a s t a t e o f commercial prod-  uction.  They s t a t e t h a t f o r commercial o p e r a t i o n s hedgerows  t r e e s on M IX p l a n t e d between lj. and 7 f e e t i n the row and 10 f e e t between rows, appear to be proper s p a c i n g s .  For small  bush-trees, d i s t a n c e s over 7i f e e t were n o t economical.  The  c l o s e r the t r e e s were p l a n t e d , t h e h i g h e r was the y i e l d on an- acre b a s i s and t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the f i r s t year p e r i o d o f the orchard l i f e .  ten -  The o l d country s p i n d l e - b u s h ,  the hedgerow, the f o r m a l cordon and e s p a l i e r methods were used. On hedgerows p l a n t e d a t ij. x 12 f e e t d i s t a n c e , or 907 t r e e s per a c r e , on M IX r o o t , p r o d u c t i o n o f over 5 T or 300 l o o s e bushel,boxes  f o r the f o u r t h growing season was r e c o r d e d ,  w h i l e on standard t r e e s o f the same v a r i e t y and s t r a i n , i n the same environment, no crop to speak o f was a n t i c i p a t e d  - 28  before  eight  o r more y e a r s .  f o l l o w i n g more o r for  grapes,  tree  The  tree.  systems o f  e s p a l i e r formed  Kniffen two  they suggest  equipment,  purchase of Prom t h e i r a very that was  individual yields  very  g r o w e r has  high  cost  of  task,  a minimum o f uniformly  s i n c e no grading  of h i g h  matter of l o n g e v i t y that  ladder was  work was  g r a d e and  as  quality.  land  t o keep up  the  sidered,  because young t r e e s the  cost  per  acre,  the  the  total  initial  row  and  land being  trees, materials  outlay and  10  irrigat-  the  of dwarf  fruit  of  on  one  produced  .tree,, a  p e r h a p s be  strand  the  o f an  of wire,  authors  con-  best  f e e t b e t w e e n rows, o r 620  rented,  the  authors  the  of establishment  trees  also  Discussing the  the  advisable.  g e n e r a l l y produce the  o f dwarf hedgerows, t r e l l i s e d a t 7 f e e t i n the  and  entailed,  vigor  of p e r i o d i c a l tree renewal should  Estimating  be  orchards,  rotation  of f r u i t .  with  available,  harvesting  required  o f dwarf t r e e  i n order  distances  even i f i t n e c e s s i t a t e s  they found the  up  dwarf  i n accordance  s p e c i a l l y a d a p t e d e q u i p m e n t , may  easy  suggest  the  close planting,  experience  old  that planting  planned  the m e c h a n i c a l equipment which the  ion  years  Commenting on management o f  orchards  considering  at four  tree with  as much as p o s s i b l e , be  although,  trees,  t r a i n i n g method u s e d  wires  l b s . of apples per  l b s . per  should,  l e s s the  trained along  a v e r a g e d 4.0 t o 100  -  estimate  grade  acre planted trees that  w o u l d amount t o some $1,119.00 f o r  labour  included  - but  without  irrigation  -  installations.  $250.00 p e r materials  and in  and  capital the  acre,  and  Weiss  For  Station  of  yearly  covering  the  maintenance  land  Fisher  (36)  costs,  they  rental, fertilizers,  consider  i n v e s t m e n t may  future  at  -  allow  spray  labour. that  rising  costs  i n d u c e g r o w e r s t o be  of  more  cumulative y i e l d s  obtained over  Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,  Summerland, B.C.,  dwarf t r e e  plantings  varieties,  the  of  data also  of p r o d u c t i o n by  the  f o r standard, Red  Delicious  indicates  showing the  the  labour  interested  i n more i n t e n s i v e methods o f o r c h a r d i n g .  show c o m p a r a t i v e period  the  29  a 20  They year  Research  semi-standard and  and  Macintosh  relative  accumulated y i e l d s  earliness every  five  years TABLE  II  C u m u l a t i v e y i e l d s p e r a c r e i n 1+0 l b . b o x e s f o r and M a c i n t o s h , on Ij. r o o t s t o c k s . ( R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n , Summerland, B.C.)  Rootstock  Red  No. per  of trees acre  Delicious  Seedling M XVI M II M IX  1+8 IL8 70 363  Delicious  No. for  o f kO l b . b o x e s p e r the p e r i o d :  1-5  yrs. 0 0 6  210  acre  1-10  1-15  1-20  368 [|56 578 1287  138k 1628 1970 3828  2972 3668 1+293 698I+  2439  1^18  2402  5056 6331 9333  16-20 1588  201+0 2323 3156  Macintosh Seedling M XVI M II M IX  kQ kQ  70 363  20 20 75 423  926 971 1339 167k  3714-1 1+797  2179 265)4. 2990 1+536  - 30  It  appears t h a t i n both v a r i e t i e s  planted  d w a r f t r e e s on M  i n t h e h e d g e r o w s y s t e m , have o u t p r o d u c e d  standards ling  -  on M I I r o o t s , as w e l l as  o r M XVI  type  rootstock.  the  place  for earliness  total productivity.  trees  on c l o n a l r o o t s t o c k o u t p r o d u c e d  the  standard Brase  of  reduced  and  Way  be  add  an  (2)  bearing  as more t r e e s  they  can  larger,  the  (27)  b e a r i n g i n any  take The  they  second standard varieties)  fruit  per  large standard  unit tree,  acre w i t h the dwarfs,  were n o t  as  large.  larger,  "most  the  Further  t h e r e would  s m a l l e r t r e e because of and  but  still  easier  important,  production". w o r k i n g at the the d w a r f i n g  variety,  tendency to e a r l y  Oregon E x p e r i m e n t a l roostock  i t does n o t  induces  does  toward a l t e r n a t e b e a r i n g h a b i t s .  t o t a l production per  acre  earlier  varietal  i t eliminate He  concluded,  production  i s becoming  Station  earlier  e l i m i n a t e the  or l a t e b e a r i n g , nor  h o w e v e r , t h a t the a d v a n t a g e s o f larger  the  harvesting operations  that although  tendencies  seed-  smaller t r e e s , because  or at l e a s t  t h a t even i f y i e l d s  Roberts  still  (with both  t h a t the  be p l a n t e d p e r  because of e a r l i e r  notes  found  that basis with  can be  and  acre  area, w i l l produce l e s s  advantage w i t h  cultural  on  or s e e d l i n g r o o t s .  when compared on  acre y i e l d  semi-  Semi-standards although  trees per  and  the  standards  were p l a n t e d a t o n l y 70  IX  and  the  increasingly  - 31 e v i d e n t and t h a t t h i s , added to the advantages of ease of management and l a b o u r s a v i n g p r a c t i c e s w i l l  undoubtedly  continue to encourage the i n t r o d u c t i o n of dwarf t r e e s i n the "orchards of tomorrow".  He sums up by s t a t i n g t h a t :  " I f the s m a l l e r than standard tree i s to have a p l a c e i n s o l v i n g the problem of r i s i n g c o s t s i n the orchard, i t w i l l be on the b a s i s of e a r l i e r and h e a v i e r p r o d u c t i o n w i t h l e s s labour and expense. I f such an approach i s to be s u c c e s s f u l , orchard management must f i n d the answer to two q u e s t i o n s : (1) What u n i t - s t o c k s c i o n - or what combina t i o n of u n i t s i s most p r o d u c t i v e per u n i t area? (2) How to arrange these u n i t s i n the o r c h ards f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n p r o d u c t i o n and management." R e s u l t s obtained by Roberts  at C o r v a l l i s , Oregon, on  dwarf hedgerows on M IX, semi-dwarf bush t r e e s on M V I I , and from standard t r e e s on M XVI f o r a 12 year p e r i o d are shown below.  The accumulated  p e r i o d s f o r purposes Summerland, B.C.  y i e l d s are added- i n 5 year  of comparison  w i t h data obtained a t  ( c f r . Table I I ) TABLE I I I  , C a l c u l a t e d per acre y i e l d of Golden and Red D e l i c i o u s Apples at suggested p l a n t i n g d i s tances f o r s e v e r a l M a i l i n g r o o t s t o c k s . (Based on average t r e e y i e l d f o r the p a s t 12 y e a r s ) . -GOLDEN DELICTOUSP l a n t i n g systems: Rootstock: PI. d i s t a n c e s : No. t r e e s per acre:  Hedgerow Semi-dwarf bush t r e e M IX M VII 8 x 15 f t . 18 x 2l\. f t .  363  1+th.  5th.  tt tt  Acc. f i r s t 5 years 6tb.  7th. 8th. 9th. 10th.  year  " " " "  Sec, 5 y r . p e r i o d Acc. 1st 10 y r s .  11th.year 12th. " T o t a l Acc. prod, f o r 12 years  ACRE IN liQ LB. BOXES  20 100 254 82  1007 880 1661 790 1906 62I+T+ 6700  3rd.  1+tb.  269 463 501 1+79 376 208T 2279  425 1377  378  10085  5364  3135  lt-78  DELICIOUS-  Hedgerow M IX 8 x 15 f t .  363  Semi-dwarf Standard bush M VII M XVI 18 x 21+ f t . 36 x 36 f t .  100  3)+  ACRE IN 1+0 LB. BOXES  year vear  »  "  5th.  "  6th.  year  Accum. 1st  7th. 8th.  8 77 106 191  808 2577  ANNUAL YIELD PER 1st. 2nd.  12 155 27 191+ 1+92 95 1151; 165 1U62 J365 3562  w  -RED P l a n t i n g system: Rootstock: PI. distance: No. t r e e s per a c r e :  3k  100  ANNUAL YIELD PER  1st. year 2nd. it tt 3rd.  Standard M XVI 36 x 36 f t ,  5 yrs.  " " "  9th. 10th. " Sec. 5 y r . p e r i o d  Acc. 1 s t 10 y r s . 11th.year 12th. "  272 109 38I  617  263 1080 826  IJ4I6 1+202  I+583 871 1697  T o t a l Acc. prod. f o r 12 years  7151  52  #  87 77 577 1+00  -*  9k2  13 28 301 56 296  2172  699  1+60 885  231 355  3517  1285  208T  - 32 I t can be seen from Table I I I that f o r the Red  Delicious  v a r i e t y Roberts r e c o r d e d g r e a t e r and e a r l i e r y i e l d s than were recorded at Summerland, MacPhee (20)  B.C.  r e f e r r i n g to w i n t e r damage and the h i g h  r a t e of m o r t a l i t y o f the f r u i t t r e e s i n the Okanagan, s t r e s s e s the importance  o f the f a c t o r of e a r l i n e s s i n b e a r i n g .  He  s t a t e s t h a t growers should be able to have t r e e s i n t o p r o d u c t i o n as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r they have been p l a n t e d . They should endeavour to o b t a i n maximum p r o d u c t i o n i n the e a r l y years because s t a t i s t i c a l evidence shows that once t r e e s are over 20 years o f age they have l e s s than £0$ of s u r v i v a l .  chance  Every p r a c t i c e that would b r i n g f r u i t t r e e s  e a r l i e r i n t o p r o d u c t i o n should be c o n s i d e r e d as of g r e a t importance  i n the economies o f the Okanagan orchards.  t r e e s c o u l d be  If  induced to s t a r t t o y i e l d a t 3 years of age  and continue t o bear f o r 20 y e a r s , then they c o u l d be  profit-  a b l e ; however, i f one has to wait 8 to 10 years f o r t r e e s to come i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , and the chances are that 50$  will  only s u r v i v e beyond the 20 year age, then the p r o b a b i l i t y f o r p r o f i t a b l e p r o d u c t i o n becomes v e r y low  indeed.  The t r e e census, taken by the B.C. Department o f Agriculture  (3),  shows the t r e n d i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i s  towards p l a n t i n g more apple t r e e s on dwarfing r o o t s t o c k s . In 1951  there were no more than a few hundred t r e e s on  - 33 -  Mailing  type rootstocks  census r e c o r d e d By  i960,  entire The on per  out  of a t o t a l  Okanagan,  109,  cent  roots)  MM of  for  37,000  some  semi-standard MM  i n the whole V a l l e y .  231,576 trees  I I I , MM  per  (mostly  3.57  per  cent  and  for  2.57  per  cent  of  trees on  on  semi-dwarfs  the the  c l o n a l type  the  (on M V I I I ,  true  dwarfs  Okanagan f r o m t h e  planting  standard  l i n g roots  p l a n t i n g of  stock,  the  f r u i t growers are  trees  i n preference  dwarf  trees.  to  still  large  smaller  very  tree  IV,  and  MM  106  IX  and  M  VIII)  and  trees on  M  population.  been a s h i f t  trees  few 70.16  (on M XVI  p l a n t i n g more  e i t h e r the  M  the  roots.  for  (on M  c l o n a l apple has  to  type  accounted  I t would appear t h a t a l t h o u g h there of  for  M I I , M I , and  c l o n a l standards total  rootstocks.  recorded  Mailing  type roots)  cent,  for  on  li79,65l  were now  IO4.  them, t h e  23.77  of  trees  1955  The  in  the  on  seed-  clonal  root-  semi-standard  semi-dwarf or  the  true  XXV)  - 3k ~  CHAPTER I I  MATERIALS AND METHODS  The  experiments  Orchards", Centre,  some twenty m i l e s N o r t h  Clay-loam the  of»the C i t y  o f Kelowna,  p a r t o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y , being 1,310  above s e a l e v e l soil  o f Okanagan  above t h e 5 0 d e g r e e p a r a l l e l N . ,  four miles  the Northern  The  o u t at "Doornberg  w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d one m i l e N o r t h  approximately in  were c a r r i e d  o f t h e lower  formation;  feet. p a r t slope belongs  the s o i l  by K e l l e y  t o the Glenmore  of t h e upper p a r t belongs t o  Oyama l o a m y - s a n d f o r m a t i o n .  d a r k brown s o i l s  The a l t i t u d e  B o t h a r e c l a s s i f i e d as (17).  and S p i l l s b u r y  The  e x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t s were s i t u a t e d  on t h e Oyama l o a m y - s a n d  series.  t h e Oyama l o a m y - s a n d  In this p a r t i c u l a r  a t i o n were l i g h t , ing  on i r r e g u l a r  case  coarse and v e r y g r a v e l l y strata  of gravel,  silt  i n places,  or clay  formrest-  i n the sub-  soil. The  l o c a l micro-climate  i s c o n s i d e r e d as v e r y  in  t h e Okanagan V a l l e y , w h i c h i t s e l f  In  Canada  (17).  temperatures of  skies  i s one o f t h e m i l d e s t sunny and warm.  r e a c h i n g o f t e n 100 degrees  103 degrees  by t h e i r  Summers a r e b r i g h t ,  P.,  coolness.  while  and o c c a s i o n a l c o l d  P.  n i g h t temperatures  Winters  favourable  w i t h a maximum usually contrast  are r e l a t i v e l y mild with  spells, lasting  Day  overcast  f r o m a f e w days t o  - 35 a few weeks, when t e m p e r a t u r e s On  one  act of  degrees  P. was  to 2 miles distance as t e m p e r a t u r e i c e , which  i s by  0 degree  around  o c c a s i o n , however, an e x c e p t i o n a l l y l o w  o f minus 22 lj?  hover  reached  i s generally  temperature  i n J a n u a r y 1950.  t h e deep w a t e r s  regulators  as l o n g as  the case.  Within  o f the Okanagan Lake they remain  of the  d u r i n g t h e c o l d e s t p e r i o d o f t h e w i n t e r , i t happens that  cover r i g h t for  front  o r c h a r d s r e m a i n b a r e and w i t h o u t any through  the c o l d  The  occurs mostly d u r i n g Winter  attaining  a y e a r l y average  semi-arid  conditions  most o f t h e a c t i v e  o f 13.35  requiring  pensate f o r the n a t u r a l  The  season.  soil  growing  protective  l8ii  period days.  time and S p r i n g ,  inches, corresponding to  irrigation  and  Valley  occas-  frost-free  l a k e b e n c h e s a t Okanagan C e n t r e i s o f  Precipitation  free  Although snow-protection  and l a r g e p r e v a l e n t i n t h e N o r t h e r n h a l f  ionally  P.  practices  atmospheric  t o com-  aridity  during  season.  o r c h a r d s h a v e a N.W.  exposure  t o t h e E a s t e r n s h o r e o f Okanagan  and  s l o p e down  close  Lake.  EXPERIMENTAL OUTLAY In order to e v a l u a t e the r e l a t i v e o f a p p l e o r c h a r d s managed u n d e r training  systems  and  different  grown on d i f f e r e n t  f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was  carried  economic  out:  potentials  planting  rootstocks,  and the  - 36 -  1.  Semi-standard bush, t r e e s ; In the s p r i n g of 1953  one  year whips of Spartan  and  J u b i l e e v a r i e t i e s on M a i l i n g I I r o o t s t o c k were p l a n t e d between 50 year o l d Macintosh t r e e s spaced 30 x 30 f e e t . The  t r e e s were i n t e r p l a n t e d between the o l d t r e e s i n  both d i r e c t i o n s , g i v i n g a t o t a l of 96 acre, p l a n t e d  on the square 21%  feet  Once the s t r u c t u r a l p r i m a r i e s had  trees to  the  apart. been obtained  in  to form a II to 5 l e a d e r delayed-open-centre t r e e ,  order  the f u t u r e l e a d e r s were budded over i n the Summer of 1955 old 2.  and  1956  w i t h the Golden D e l i c i o u s v a r i e t y .  The  t r e e s were removed d u r i n g the Winter of 1955-56,  Spindle-bush t r e e s ; o f 1956  In the Spring  one  t r e e s on M VII r o o t s t o c k  year o l d Golden D e l i c i o u s  were p l a n t e d  as f i l l e r  trees  between the serai-standard bush t r e e s mentioned above, in  the p l a c e where the o l d t r e e s had been removed.  These were staked The  area now  and  t r a i n e d as s p i n d l e - b u s h  contained  permanent bush type t r e e s  M II rootstock with a l t e r n a t i n g f i l l e r bush t r e e s on M V I I  trees.  t r e e s as  spindle-  rootstock.  The p l a n t i n g p a t t e r n remained on the square but w i t h t r e e s 15 f e e t apart t r e e s p e r a c r e , w i t h 96  i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s , or t r e e s of each  type.  on  192  - 37 Semi-dwarf bush t r e e s ; One  year  o l d Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s on M VII r o o t s  were p l a n t e d i n the S p r i n g of 1956, the t r i a n g l e system, g i v i n g 134  18 f e e t a p a r t  t r e e s per a c r e .  on The  area had p r e v i o u s l y been p l a n t e d to peach and a p r i c o t trees. T r e l l i s e d hedgerow t r e e s ; In the S p r i n g of 1956 M IX, M VII and  Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s  M IV r o o t s were p l a n t e d i n rows  f e e t l o n g i n a N.S.  on 430  They were p l a n t e d 6  direction.  f e e t a p a r t i n the rows w i t h 11 f e e t between the rows, g i v i n g a p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y of 660 End  and  intermediate posts  t r e e s per acre,,  30 f e e t apart and  f e e t h i g h above the ground l e v e l supported trellis.  The  f i r s t wire was  8^  a iL-wire  30 inches above the  ground, the o t h e r three wires were spaced 2IL inches apart. An overhead s p r i n k l e r system was  installed.  Standard t r e e s : A b l o c k o f Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s worked hardy L o d i frame and  on Macintosh s e e d l i n g r o o t s t o c k ,  p l a n t e d i n the 30 f e e t square p a t t e r n i n the of 1952  was  selected.  48 t r e e s per a c r e .  over  Spring  The p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y was  of  The b l o c k had never been p l a n t e d  with trees p r e v i o u s l y .  -  38  -  CULTURAL MANAGEMENT  Soli  management:  For I,  2,  the f i r s t 3,  During  four  year period,  in  blocks  l\. a n d f? were k e p t u n d e r c l e a n - c u l t i v a t i o n .  thef i f t h  and s i x t h y e a r b l o c k  s e m i - s t a n d a r d s and b l o c k  1+ p l a n t e d  r o w s , were m a i n t a i n e d u n d e r c l e a n 3,  trees  5j  t h e s e m i - d w a r f s and b l o c k  brought under grass times d u r i n g  I, with the  w i t h the hedgecultivation,  the standards  c o v e r , mown down t h r e e  block being  or four  the season.  Fertilization: Right litter  manure d r e s s i n g  covering this  after planting,  the root-zone.  dressing  All  rate,  33-0-0,  scattered  over the  root  Fall  s e m i - s t a n d a r d s and  one  l b . per tree  and t h e hedgerow t r e e s  lb.  per tree.  The s t a n d a r d  a supplementary l a t e  nit-  zone, a t t h e  the spindle  bone m e a l 7-11-0 a t  block  i n t h e f o r m o f Ammonium  semi-dwarfs,  and  chicken-  thick  tree  a yearly  the  eived  a  cow manure.  o f 2 l b s . p e r tree f o r the  rate  inches  In the standard  trees received  of nitrogen  received  two o r t h r e e  was o f o r d i n a r y  clonal-root  application  a l l trees  bush t r e e s  received  seedling root  only  one-half  trees  rec-  F a l l a p p l i c a t i o n of blood  the r a t e  o f two l b s . p e r t r e e .  - 39 Every  o t h e r s e a s o n b o r o n , magnesium and z i n c  supplied mineral  a t t h e recommended r a t e  were  i n order to prevent  deficiencies.  Irrigation: I r r i g a t i o n w a t e r was s u p p l i e d to  t h e end o f A u g u s t  the  hedgerow b l o c k ,  during the f i r s t  b y way o f a s p r i n k l e  in  the Spring of The  1952 there  i960  was d e v i s e d  and s e t up  1959.  when s p r i n k l e r  irrigated  irrigation  was  from  installed  trees  as d e l a y e d o p e n - c e n t r e t r e e s w i t h LL t o 5  started  about  30 t o LuO i n c h e s above  S e c o n d a r y g r o w t h was l e f t  unpruned  ground  when p o s s -  b u t i t was s h o r t e n e d o r removed where i n t h e  presence o f competing The  semi-permanent  s t a n d a r d , s e m i - s t a n d a r d and s e m i - d w a r f  leaders,  ible,  sprinkles  a  methods:  were f o r m e d  level.  o f the s o i l ,  also.  Pruning The  on a c c o u n t o f t h e  s t a n d a r d t r e e b l o c k was d i t c h  till  For  s e a s o n s b u t as t h i s was f o u n d t o  and i r r e g u l a r ,  excessive permeability system o f over-head  system.  d i t c h i r r i g a t i o n was t r i e d o u t  three  be v e r y i m p r a c t i c a l  f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f May  branches.  s p i n d l e b u s h t r e e s were t r a i n e d  f o l l o w i n g 'the  c l a s s i c a l methods i n g e n e r a l u s e i n C o n t i n e n t a l  Europe.  - ho The  one y e a r w h i p s were h e a d e d b a c k a b o u t 30  above s o i l  level.  Pour o r f i v e p r i m a r i e s with  angled  crotches  forced  t o grow t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l w i t h  strings  tied  the  central  were s e l e c t e d a l l a r o u n d  t o t h e base o f the stake  Once t h e f i r s t  tier  3  o  l e a d e r was a l l o w e d  h' p r i m a r i e s .  r  or three f e e t  long  t o grow a n o t h e r  or c l i p p i n g  the t r e e reaches  spindle  becoming t o o h i g h ,  finally  rootstock planting  type time  t o the lower  were e n t i r e l y  axial  continued  t o 6 o r 8 buds;  upward  removed.  hedgerow t r e e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e  they  were o n , were h e a d e d b a c k a t  a b o u t 28 i n c h e s  laterals,  w i l l be  branches  l a d d e r work n o t b e i n g d e s i r e d .  above g r o u n d l e v e l ,  was a b o u t 2 i n c h e s b e l o w t h e f i r s t primary  down t o t h e  be h e a d e d b a c k t o a v o i d t h e  S e c o n d a r y g r o w t h was s h o r t e n e d  trellised  tier  10 t o 12 f e e t h i g h , when t h e  leader w i l l  The  2LL t o 30  t o f o r c e a new  This process  central  growing shoots  f o r a f e w weeks.  As s o o n as t h e s e h a d grown two  two o r t h r e e w e e k s .  until  t h e t r e e and  the help of  t h e y were a g a i n b e n t  h o r i z o n t a l by t i e i n g for  wide  o f branches appeared w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  i n c h e s where i t was t i p p e d i n o r d e r of  inches  which  horizontal wire.  as much a s p o s s i b l e o r i e n t e d i n t h e  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e row, one on e a c h s i d e ,  alloitfed t o grow, p l u s a c e n t r a l l e a d e r .  were  When t h e  Two  - JLI -  lateral  l e a d e r s were c o n s i d e r e d l o n g enough. - two o r  three f e e t -  t h e y were b e n t  down and t i e d  h o r i z o n t a l wire w i t h the help tic  ties.  the  central  at  Once t h e f i r s t  a l o n g t h e second  and a g a i n t r a i n e d  wire,  horizontal  the next  than  Two  i n both  the  primdirections  down t o t h e  i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e hedge  desired.  Secondary  o f t h e l e a d e r s was s h o r t e n e d  g r o w t h on b o t h  t o 8 - 10 b u d s ; a l l  s h o o t s were c o m p l e t e l y removed.  the h e d g e s v a r i e d between 3& and Jj.0 I n c h e s trees  wire,  p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the wire  t o 8 t o 10 buds o r b e n t  and s h o r t e n e d  becoming wider  vertical  established  the p r o c e s s b e i n g r e p e a t e d f o r  P r i m a r i e s growing  were s h o r t e n e d  sides  t i e r was w e l l  i t was a g a i n h e a d e d b a c k .  a r i e s were s e l e c t e d  each w i r e .  of c l o t h e s pins or p l a s -  l e a d e r was a l l o w e d t o r e a c h  which l e v e l  to the  The w i d t h o f f o r the  grown on M I V and M VII!, and somewhat l e s s f o r  t r e e s on M I X . No summer p r u n i n g h a s b e e n e x p e r i m e n t e d  far, wires  only occasionally or bent  was t i m e  some b r a n c h e s  w i t h so  were t i e d  to the  t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l when i t was f e l t i t  t o do s o .  Thinning? Excess  o f f r u i t was r e m o v e d e v e r y y e a r b y h a n d  thinning. June  15-30.  The o p e r a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y done b e t w e e n The amount o f f r u i t removed d e p e n d e d on  - Lj.2  the I)  fruit  set.  The g e n e r a l  elimination of f r u i t  such  as  scab,  -  rules  showing  mechanical  e t c . 2) b r e a k i n g  leaving  one  set  s t i l l  fruit  appeared  was  between  apple  taken  the  any k i n d  bruising,  deformities, only  followed  up  of defect  excessive  russetting,  of a l l clusters,  per fruit  t o be  were:  a n d 3)  spur  too heavy,  when t h e  the smaller  o f f leaving at least  5  to 6  sized  inches  apples•  Spraying: All  semi-standard,  submitted were  semi-dwarf  and dwarf  t o t h e same p r o t e c t i v e s p r a y s .  a p p l i e d f o l l o w i n g a medium volume  1958,  and  then  at a  on.  the  same  per  acre)  The  (50  low volume standard  tree  materials but by method  trees The  sprays  technique  gallons per acre)  block  the high  was  were  treated  from  with  (300  volume  until  gallons  throughout.  Harvesting: All  apples  were p i c k e d diameter there the  the trees under  simultaneously.  was  were  from  considered  very  records  few  p r o v i d i n g they  and w i t h i n  taken  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  bushel  The apple  as n o n  o f them.  decay  random.  the size  apples boxes.  Fruit  were  investigation below 2  commercial  inches and  W i n d f a l l s were  were  without  limit.  collected  eliminated; included i n  l a r g e marks  Recording  tree b a s i s , from  i n  entries  rows  i n standard  chosen  of were at  wooden  -  43 -  CHAPTER I I I RESULTS Semi-standard The  bush t r e e s :  i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n p e r t r e e , the t o t a l  yield  per acre f o r each y e a r , i n l o o s e b u s h e l boxes t o g e t h e r w i t h the accumulated y i e l d s are shown i n Table IV. TABLE IV Y i e l d s f o r 9 consecutive- years of Golden D e l i c i o u s apples from t r e e s grown on M I I r o o t s t o c k and w i t h hardy i n t e r m e d i a t e frame, pruned t o a delayed open-centre form. Growing Season F i r s t to Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth It  No. of trees rec,  Yield bu.  15 15 15 15 10 10  Prod. per t r e e  0 6.00  29.00 27.00 63.50 •42.00  0 0.40 1.93  1.60  6.35  li.20  0  0  38.40 185.60 1714-.60 609.60  38.40 224.00 398.60 1,008.20 1,411,4-0  403.20  would appear t h a t the semi-standard  worked, came i n t o b e a r i n g on the f i f t h  Acc. p r o d . per acre  Prod. per acre  tree,  double  year but d i d n o t  approach a commercial crop u n t i l the e i g h t h y e a r p l a n t i n g , from then on the y i e l d appears to be  after  satisfact-  ory. S p i n d l e - b u s h as f i l l e r  trees:  I n d i v i d u a l y i e l d s p e r t r e e , t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n p e r acre and accumulated y i e l d s Table V.  In l o o s e b u s h e l boxes are g i v e n i n  - kk  -  TABLE V Y i e l d s f o r 6 c o n s e c u t i v e years of Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s , d i r e c t l y on M V I I r o o t s t o c k , t r a i n e d as s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s and used as f i l l e r t r e e s i n the semi-standard b l o c k . Groxtfing Season  No. of trees r e c .  Yield i n Bu. 0  Prod. per t r e e 0  Prod. per acre  Acc. prod. per acre 0  0  First & Sec. i n c •  23  Third  23  3.00  0.13  12.52-  12.52  Fourth  20  11.25  0,56  53.95  6 6 . kl  Fifth  20  22.00  1.10  105.60  172.07  Sixth  20  £l.£0  2.57  21*2.20  IH9.27  These t r e e s s t a r t e d b e a r i n g i n t h e i r t h i r d season but  growing  t h e i r crop d i d not become of commercial  ance b e f o r e the s i x t h y e a r . the p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y was  import-  I t should be remembered t h a t  of o n l y 9 6 t r e e s per a c r e , as  they were used as f i l l e r s between the  semi-standards.  Semi-standards as permanent t r e e s combined w i t h s p i n d l e bush t r e e s as f i l l e r  trees.  Aggregate y i e l d s p e r acre o f the combined p r o d u c t i o n of  semi-standard  and  s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s , p r o j e c t e d as f o r  t r e e s p l a n t e d d u r i n g the same season. the p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l over the f i r s t  In order to show s i x growing  seasons from a permanent f i l l e r type of o r c h a r d .  .  - 1+5 -  TABLE V I Y i e l d s i n b u s h e l b o x e s p e r a c r e and accumu l a t e d f r o m a p e r m a n e n t t e m p o r a r y t r e e combination. The p e r m a n e n t s b e i n g s e m i - s t a n d a r d s on M I I r o o t s t o c k s d o u b l e - T ^ o r k e d , t h e f i l l e r s being spindle-bush trees d i r e c t l y on M V I I r o o t . Record f o r the f i r s t s i x growing seasons. Semi-standard on M I I bu. p e r acre  Growing Season  First & Sec, i n c l .  Permanent f i l l e r com. bu. p e r a c r e  Spindle-bush on M V I I bu. p e r a c r e  Acc. aggreg. bu.-acre  • 0  0  0  0  Third  0  12.52  12.52  12.52  Fourth  0  53.95  53.95  66.1+7  Fifth  38-U-O  105.60  11+4.00  210.1+7  Sixth  185.60  21+7.20  I+32.80  643.27  T o t a l s Bu,  221+.00  i|J.9.27  61+3.27  Commercial growing produced of  production started  season; the l a r g e s t p a r t  production trees  of  against  - 105.6  643.27  Bu. - b e i n g  trees.  A t t h e end  season out o f the accumulated b u s h e l boxes,  224.00 b u s h e l  the additional  1+19.27 came  combined  from  filler  boxes from t h e s e m i - s t a n d a r d s .  The p a r t p l a y e d b y t h e t e m p o r a r y justify  a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t h  from the spindle-bush f i l l e r  the s i x t h growing  -  expenses  spindles they  appears t o  caused.  - LL6  -  Semi-dwarf bush trees Yields i n bushel boxes per tree per acre and accumulated  up to the sixth growing season i n c l u s i v e , are  shown i n Table VII. TABLE VII Y i e l d i n bushel boxes f o r the f i r s t 6 growing seasons of Golden Delicious trees trained as delayed open-centre bush-trees and grox-m on M VII rootstock. Planting density: 1 3 4 trees per acre. Growing Season  No. of trees rec.  Yield Bu.  Prod. Prod. per tree ,per acre  Acc. prod, per acre  First & Sec. i n c .  46  Third  46  2,50  0.05  7.28  7.28  Fourth  I4.6  32.00  0.70  93.22  100.50  Fifth  26  53.00  2.Oil  273.15  373.65  Sixth  26  88.50  3.41  456.15  829.80  Production In this block started the t h i r d  season  and reached a commercial l e v e l the f i f t h year. The hedgerows Average yields f o r i n d i v i d u a l trees, their projected y i e l d per acre and the accumulated  yields are shown i n  -  hi  -  b u s h e l boxes f o r Golden D e l i c i o u s A) on M IX, B) on M V I I , C) on M IV r o o t s t o c k f o r the f i r s t 6 growing seasons, i n Table VIII-A, VIII-B and V I I I - C . TABLE VIII-A Y i e l d s i n b u s h e l boxes p e r t r e e , p e r ' a c r e , and accumulated over the f i r s t s i x growing seasons f o r Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s on M IX r o o t s t o c k , p l a n t e d at the d e n s i t y o f 660 t r e e s p e r acre and formed as t r e l l i s e d hedgerow. Growing Season  or trees r e c .  NO.  Prod. > per t r e e  Yield Bu. b x s .  rroa., p e r acre  Acc. p r o a . per acre  0  0  First & Sec. i n c .  11+3  0  Third  l>J-3  26  0.18  120.00  120.00  13.50  0.31+  222.75  342.75  ,0  .,Fourth  1+0  Fifth  10  7.50  0.75  1+95.00  837.75  Sixth  10  9.00  0.90  591+. 00  1,1+31.75  TABLE VIII-B Same as f o r Table VII-A which was M V I I . Growing Season  No. o f trees r e c .  First & Sec. i n c .  except f o r t h e r o o t s t o c k  Yield Bu. bxs.  Prod. per t r e 3  Prod. p e r acre  Acc. prod. per acre  li+5  0  0  0  0  11+5  19.00  0.13  86.51  86.51  . Fourth  70  1+7.25  0.67  i+i+5.70  532.21  Fifth  70  8l.5o  1.16  768 J+3  1,300.61+  107.00  1.53  1,008.86  2,309.50  ' Third  •  Sixth >  To "  .  TABLE  VIII-C  C f r . the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Table VII-A, except f o r t h e r o o t s t o c k t y p e w h i c h i s M IV i n t h i s case.  Growing Season  Yield Bu. b x s .  No. o f trees rec.  Prod. per tree  Prod. p e r acre  Acc. prod. per acre  F i r s t Zc Sec. i n c ,  0  Third  71  2.00  0.03  18.59  18.59  Fourth  71  22.75  0.32  2 1 1 . IL8  230.07  Fifth  70  89*00  1.29  839.  1,069.00  Sixth  68  89.50  1.32  868.68  1,937.89  Tables  0  VII-A  0  and. V I I - C  0  show t h a t p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e  three d i f f e r e n t rootstocks started during ing  season.  three, by the  The t r e e s on M IX, t h e l e s s  showed t h e e a r l i e s t  vigorous  p r o d u c t i o n b u t were  t r e e s on M IV d u r i n g t h e f i f t h  adopted  rootstock.  accumulated  directly The  the t h i r d  i n verse r a t i o  growing year,  related with  passed  Earliness  to the vigour o f the  show w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h the nature  o f the  and b y  A t t h e end o f t h e s i x t h g r o w i n g  yields  grow-  type  soon  the M V I I t r e e s - i n the f o u r t h growing season  o f p r o d u c t i o n was  the  0  season appear  o f the r o o t s t o c k type.  t r e e s on M V I I a r e l e a d i n g t o d a t e b u t t h e y a r e c l o s e l y  f o l l o w e d b y t h e t r e e s on M I V ,  -  Y i e l d s of  49  -  or even of  1,008.86  868.68  Bu. boxes p e r  acre o b t a i n e d r e s p e c t i v e l y by t r e e s on M VII and M IV which have h a r d l y a t t a i n e d h a l f t h e i r expected ment, are v e r y p r o m i s i n g .  develop-  Ofr. Pig. 2  Standard t r e e s Y i e l d s i n Bu. boxes, p e r acre and accumulated the t e n t h growing season  up to  are recorded i n Table IX.  TABLE IX Y i e l d s from double-worked Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s grown on s e e d l i n g r o o t s t o c k s d u r i n g the f i r s t t e n year p e r i o d - t r a i n e d as delayed open c e n t r e t r e e s and p l a n t e d a t the r a t e o f 4 8 t r e e s p e r a c r e . Season  No. o f trees r e c .  First F i f t h i r1C .  0  Yield Bu. b x s . 0  Prod. per t r e e  Prod. per a c r e  Acc. p r o d . per acre  0  0  0  1.85  88.88  88.88  Sixth  27  50  Seventh  27  121  II.ILS  215.11  303.99  Eighth  27  171  6.33  30ii.00  607.99  Ninth  27  314  11.63  558.22  1,166.21  Tenth  27  136  5.01+  2iil.77  1,407.98  Although i n t h i s study the crop f i g u r e s are o n l y compared up t o the s i x t h y e a r i n c l u s i v e , which i n the case of the standard t r e e s corresponds w i t h t h e i r f i r s t  fruit  - 5o r e t u r n s , r e c o r d s are n e v e r t h e l e s s g i v e n up to the t e n t h growing season as a matter o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n comparison w i t h the y i e l d s shown f o r the semi-standards on M I I which are g i v e n up to the n i n t h growing season i n Table IV. The r e l a t i v e l y low crop o f the tenth-growing season suggests an a l t e r n a t e - b e a r i n g e f f e c t .  The semi-standards on M I I  appear to have been a f f e c t i n g a l s o but to a much l e s s e r degree.  The trees on l e s s v i g o r o u s r o o t s t o c k s , those on  M IX and M V I I do n o t i n d i c a t e any a l t e r n a t e b e a r i n g e f f e c t , but those on M IV may have been somewhat a f f e c t e d i n the s i x t h year as the i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n was  lower than  anticipated. C f r . P i g . 1+ Spindle-bush t r e e s as a permanent p l a n t i n g . Although widespread i n European p l a n t i n g s ,  Doornberg  Orchards has a t p r e s e n t no b l o c k made up e n t i r e l y o f spindle-bush trees.  However, p o t e n t i a l y i e l d s of such a  p l a n t i n g can be p r o j e c t e d , based on the r e c o r d s of the s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s used as f i l l e r b l o c k , as shown i n Table IV.  t r e e s i n the semi-standard  Under p r e v a i l i n g  conditions  and f o r the Golden D e l i c i o u s v a r i e t y on M VII r o o t , the p l a n t i n g d i s t a n c e s would have t o be ten f e e t by f e e t , g i v i n g a d e n s i t y of 290  trees per acre.  fifteen  -  51  -  TABLE X Y i e l d s i n Bu. boxes per t r e e , and p r o j e c t e d y i e l d s per acre and accumulated per a c r e , up to the s i x t h year f o r a Golden D e l i c i o u s s p i n d l e - b u s h p l a n t i n g on M VII r o o t s t o c k a t a d e n s i t y of 290 t r e e s per a c r e .  Season  No. of trees r e c .  First & Sec. i n c ,  0  Third  23  Fourth  20  Fifth Sixth  The  Yield ' Bu. bxs. 0  Prod. per t r e e  Acc. prod, per acre  Prod, per acre  0  0  0  0.13  37.82  37.82  11.25  0.56  163.12  200.9*+  20  22.00  1.10  319.00  5 1 9 . 9ij-  20  5i.5o  2.57  71+6.75  1,266.69  importance o f the optimum p l a n t i n g d i s t a n c e  the p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y i s apparent. the accumulative y i e l d  At 96 t r e e s per  of 1+19.27 boxes was  s i x years, whereas, i f a d e n s i t y of 290  acre,  obtained  t r e e s per  and  in  acre  had  been used the y i e l d would have been 1,266.99 boxes. , A s o l i d p l a n t i n g of s p i n d l e - b u s h  t r e e s on M VII  r o o t s t o c k would have been more advantageous than u s i n g them merely as f i l l e r The up  t r e e s between the  a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n per  to the end  Table XI, and  of the  semi-standards.  tree i n loose b u s h e l  boxes  s i x t h growing season, i s shown i n  the t o t a l y i e l d f o r the p e r i o d compared as  - 52 a r a t i o with The  that  data i n t h i s  planting a very  of the  t a b l e does n o t  density per  important  standard  acre,  trees  take  w h i c h , as  on  seedling  i n t o account  roots.  the  seen i n Table  IX  is  factor. TABLE  XI  Y i e l d i n l o o s e Bu. b o x e s p e r t r e e up t o t h e end of the s i x t h growing season i n r e l a t i o n to r o o t s t o c k t y p e and t r e e f o r m . Semi Bush S t a n d a r d Semi-dwarf M VII M II  Standard Seedling  Season  Spindie M  VII  Hedgerows M IX  MVII M  0  IV  0  0  0  0  0  Third  0  0  o.o5  0.13  0.18 0.13 0.03  Fourth  0  0  0.70  0.56  Fifth  0  O.4O  2.04  1.10  0.75 1.16  Sixth  1.85  1.93  3.1A  2.57  0.90  1.85  2.33  6.20  4.36  2.17 3.49 2.96  1:1  1.25  3.35  2.35  1.17  First & Sec. Yr.  Total  Bu.  Ratio  Tree3 planted highest  as h e d g e r o w s on  early production  advantage  because o f  per  M  tree but  their relatively  IX  0.67 0.32  0 . 3 4  1.29  1.53 1.32  1.83  ( d w a r f s ) gave  soon l o s t  0  1.60  the  their  small bearing  surface*.  - 53  Trees training  until  M VII  f o u r t h y e a r t h e y took the  the  end  of the  Trees planted not  bear  as w e l l  little  a  slight  on  M IV  as  per  during  little  in yield the  per  acre  Of  on  M IV  M V I I up  the  fifth  and  production.  maintained  (semi-dwarf) d i d  to  and  yield.  difference at  t r e e b e t w e e n the  standard  the p i c t u r e .  density  lead  the  end  of  the  s i x t h season T h e r e was,  tendency toward a l t e r n a t e b e a r i n g  trees  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ,  into  the  there  however,  w i t h the  trees  rootstock.  M I I and as  t h o s e on  difference i n their  T h e r e was year  of  experiment.  as hedgerows  f o u r t h season, but was  (semi-dwarf), regardless  s y s t e m u s e d , were s e c o n d i n e a r l i n e s s o f  D u r i n g the it  on  -  on  the  Standard  the  trees  three  per  t r e e forms  and  pruned  (bush) p r o d u c e d  e r a t e l y pruned and  the  the  lowest  hedgerow -  trees  the  seedling roots.  trees  trees  be  trees  on  comes  a t 4.8  planted can  sixth  However,  of p l a n t i n g  are  on  planted  trees at  a  it  M VIi: rootstock-bush, would  the  appear that the  highest  (spindle-bush)  most s e v e r e l y p r u n e d ' t r e e s yield.  of  acre.  spindle-bush trees  end  semi-standard  density  whereas s e m i - s t a n d a r d o f 96  the  yield,  produced  the  least mod-  a medium  (trellised)  yield  produced  - 5!+ RECAPITULATION  In order t a b l e s more per  acre  to bring  closely  a l l the data from the preceding  into  focus,  of Golden D e l i c i o u s  the accumulated  a p p l e s up t o t h e end o f t h e  s i x t h g r o w i n g s e a s o n a r e shown i n T a b l e X X I . take  into  stocks cepts  consideration  used  the f i v e  i n connection  Involved,  The  yields  ratio  the  standard  different  These  types  a r e arranged  shown i s o b t a i n e d as u n i t y ,  data  of root-  with the several planting  The y i e l d s  trees  yields  con-  i n ascending  order.  by t a k i n g the y i e l d of  Cfr,Pig, 5  TABLE X I I Accum, P r o d . p e r  P l a n t i n g Concept  1. S t a n d a r d t r e e s , h a r d y seedling root,  intermediate, 1+8 t r e e s p e r a c r e . . .  root:  9b  intertrees p.a...  3. S p i n d l e - b u s h on M V I I r o o t , as  h.  C o m b i n a t i o n o f s e m i - s t a n d a r d perma n e n t t r e e s on M I I and s p i n d l e b , f i l l e r s on M V I I T o t a l t r e e s c o m b i n e d - 192 p e r a c r e  Ratio  Bu.  88.88  I  t  Bu,  221+. 00  I  : 2.52  Bu.  1+19.27  I  : 1L.76  Bu.  61(3.27  I : 7.28  Bu.  829.80  I : 9.33  2. S e m i - s t a n d a r d t r e e s , h a r d y mediate, M I I  acre  5 . S e m i - d w a r f t r e e s on M V I I r o o t ,  I  6. S p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s on M V I I r o o t , Bu. 1,266.69 7. Hedgerow t r e e s on M I X Bu.  1,431.75  I  : I1+.25  I :I6. 33  8, Hedgerow t r e e s on M I V r o o t , Bu. 1,937.89  I  : 21.75  Bu. 2,309.50  I  : 25.59  9 . Hedgerow t r e e s on M V I I r o o t ,  - 55 -  At the end of the s i x t h growing season, on an acre b a s i s , there was a wide v a r i a t i o n i n y i e l d s from each o f the d i f f e r e n t p l a n t i n g c o n c e p t s . hedgerows on M V I I r o o t s t o c k  The t r e e s p l a n t e d  at the d e n s i t y used had  produced 25.9 times more f r u i t than the standard The  as  trees.  y i e l d was r e l a t e d to t h e p l a n t i n g concept, the number  of t r e e s p e r acre, followed The  the system of p r u n i n g and t r a i n i n g  and the type o f r o o t s t o c k  used.  data i n the t a b l e i n d i c a t e that s i x years a f t e r  p l a n t i n g one can expect a h e a l t h y r e t u r n from e i t h e r dwarf o r semi-dwarf t r e e s , whereas, l i t t l e  o r no r e t u r n can be  expected from standard or semi-standard t r e e s .  Furthermore,  the  should  s o l i d p l a n t i n g o f dwarf or semi-dwarf t r e e s  produce a more s u b s t a n t i a l r e t u r n than a, combination i n g o f standard or semi-standard t r e e s as permanent and  dwarf or semi-dwarf t r e e s as f i l l e r  trees.  To Follow? 1,  P h o t o g r a p h i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t r e e forms and p l a n t i n g systems: F i g s . I t o 12  2.  P r o d u c t i o n c h a r t s : F i g s , I to 5  planttrees  - 56 -  Fig. 1 Double worked Golden D e l i c i o u s s t a n d a r d t r e e on s e e d l i n g s t o c k i n i t s 10th g r o w i n g season. Crop: 7 bu. loose P e r a c r e y i e l d t h e 6th growi n g s e a s o n ; 89 b u . P e r a c r e y i e l d t h e 8th growi n g s e a s o n ; 301L b u . A c c u m u l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n end o f 8th g r o w i n g y e a r ; 608 b u . P l a n t i n g d e n s i t y - IL8 t r e e s per acre. 1  Fig.  2  Double worked Golden D e l i c i o u s s e m i - s t a n d a r d on M I I s t o c k i n i t s 8th g r o w i n g s e a s o n . Crop: loir bu. l o o s e . P e r a c r e y i e l d t h e 6th growi n g s e a s o n ; 22li b u . P e r a c r e y i e l d t h e 8th growi n g s e a s o n ; 609i' b u . A c c u m u l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n end  o f 8th g r o w i n g y e a r ^ ; bu. Planting density; per a c r e .  96  1,008-| trees  Fio> 3 Semi-dwarf Golden D e l i c i o u s b u s h - f o r m e d t r e e on M V I I r o o t s t o c k i n i t s 6th g r o w i n g season. C r o p 6-§- b u . l o o s e . P e r a c r e y i e l d t h e 6th growi n g s e a s o n ; ii56|- b u . A c c u m u l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n end o f 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n ; R29.3/LL bu. No. o f t r e e s p e r a c r e : I 3 I 1 .  "''Acre y i e l d a n d p e r a c r e a c c u m u l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e 8th ^ r o w i n g s e a s o n a r e g i v e n f o r t h e D o u b l e worked t r e e s as t h e y s h o u l d be compared w i t h t h e 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n f o r o r d i n a r y grown trees.  gig*  h  Semi-dwarf Golden D e l i c i o u s b u s h - t r e e o r c h a r d on M V I I r o o t s t o c k i n i t s 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n ; 13)4. b u . p e r a c r e Cfr.  Fig. 3 for yields  Fig* * G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s on M V I I as staked spindle-bush tree i n i t s 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n . C r o p : 1| b u . l o o s e . 96 t r e e s p e r a c r e , as f i l l e r t r e e s between semi-standards on M I I . Y i e l d p e r acre of the f i l l e r s , the 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n ; 2\\?v b u . A c c u m u l a t e d p r o d u c t i o n end o f the 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n ; hl9% b u . 290 t r e e s p e r a c r e , as permanents i n f u l l s p i n d l e - b u s h orch C a l c u l a t e d y i e l d t h e 6th groxtfi n g s e a s o n ; 7l|-6. 3/k» A c c . p r o d , end o f 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n ; 1,266. 3/k- b u . D  U  T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o r c h a r d o f G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s t r e e s on M V I I s t o c k i n i t s 3rd growing season. I r r i g a t i o n by overhead s p r i n k l e r s . Crop - t h e 3rd g r o w i n g s e a s o n ; 86|- b u . P l a n t i n g d i s t a n c e s : 11 b y 6 f t . No. o f t r e e s p e r a c r e ; 6 6 0  Fig. 7 T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o f G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s on M IX i n t h e i r 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n . Crop p e r a c r e ; 594- b u . Accumulated p r o d u c t i o n a t the end o f 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n ;  1,1+31. 3 A b u .  No.  of trees per acre;  660  Fig. 8 T r e l l i s e d hedgerow Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s on M V I I r o o t i n I t s 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n . Crop; 3 bu. l o o s e . Y i e l d p e r a c r e i n i t s 6th y e a r ;  1,008. 3/1+ b u .  Accumulated p r o d u c t i o n p e r a c r e - end o f 6th g r o w i n g  s e a s o n ; 2,309:i- b u .  No. o f t r e e s p e r a c r e ;  660  T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o f Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s on M IV s t o c k i n t h e i r 6th g r o w i n g s e a s o n . Y i e l d p e r a c r e i n t h e 6th grovring y e a r ; 868. 3/1+ b u . Accumulated p r o d u c t i o n p e r a c r e - end o f 6th y e a r ; 1,938 bu. No. o f t r e e s p e r a c r e ;  660  F i g . 10  D e f o l i a t e d Golden D e l i c i o u s t r e e s on M IV s t o c k i n t h e i r 4th g r o w i n g s e a s o n . Crop; r e s p e c t i v e l y 1^ and 3 b u . f o r 1st and 2nd t r e e s i n t h e row, c o u n t e d f r o m t h e right.  Fig.  11  T r e l l i s e d hedgerow o f Red D e l i c i o u s ( S h o t w e l l ) on M IX r o o t i n t h e i r 9th growing season. C a l c u l t e d y i e l d f o r 9th year; 8l6 bu, p e r a c r e . F o u r f e e t i n t h e rows; 12 f e e t b e t w e e n t h e rows. 907 t r e e s p e r a c r e .  Red D e l i c i o u s ( S t a r k i n g ) on M IV s t o c k as a s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e i n i t s 6th growing season. Crop 3. 3/4. b u . l o o s e . Average i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n t h i s 6th y e a r x-xas 2 . 3/4 bu. P l a n t e d a t 290 t r e e s p e r a c r e ; 797i=r b u . d u r i n g t h e 6th growing season.  -  OiNOuoi  ' a a i m i i  AOIS  QNYUO  60 -  MONI  B H I OX  s a a v n b a  *  D/oei  i l 11.  Si ml • j i  '9a  c  i *  n. —» JO  L) S<mil -a ;an da)•da  c ft  Pi O]  ,4 _  l M.i:  •Id 8  :  : :  r— if  m ta  L I IX. tor  Ci tab in< >d  >  11  nil  Ja.  4 1 ' AW  rxfl  nuod  i  rTT  1  rxi •  4  Aoo  3  ff*  2  90  T  < >  1  ;  •,  ,r  , 3i 1  \  Ul  n MO  III  J  i  u if  f  i  7  (D  ?  B  —i  I  —  — ^  —  IS  SOJ ISO RS  J  81 (8  -  3  —id  X  > 1  —  li  R  7  ft?  1  ir,, ,  :i«  ~ *  J J  IH rxv •  ;re •  8 OE  pe; fe.  Idi 1 i n ] en M  0< vein  91I N .v:[I, Ini .  r e i "ix S t a. -»  •301 11 • SCI IBS lu'i t ) •ee S ]>er  si • <-J  pro X 1 ©TT )XS ™w  a<>rs •  Pl< mt ed ft 96 t r eei i  2)  _w  •>rkon ou S B >in d l US  p •r ae ro  ^  »d.  j  gr owj ng  1  >©t st< »ok @ 96  cu HUB  Ac etc ml fttt  r «OJM » f or  XX<ilo u s ou  u<>r tr< >es 3)  1  ir.  r*  1  •J  84 las on  rid a—:tn Ba .por—i tcr • — i tt- tht -  fo r '.  2]  a nd 3) •  na-  A.. <  to-  Eta  I  -  61  -  - 62 -  - 61+ -  - 65 CHAPTER  IV  DISCUSSION It  c o u l d be  as w e l l as  inferred  the r e l a t i v e l y  t h a t the  e a r l i n e s s of  high yields,  obtained  e x p e r i m e n t s were u n d u l y i n f l u e n c e d b e c a u s e o f used.  variety.  a consequence  natural  istics  However^shy and  effect  of the  does n o t  epibiote.  Doornberg orchards a late  and  on  observed  variety  all  other  end  o f the The acre  and  varieties,  show t h e  same  root-type.  genotypical  observations  characterin  the  Delicious (Starking)  variety,  the  bearing a  little  same r e l a t i v e  IX,  later  than  d i f f e r e n c e s were  root-type.  M IV  and  M VII  rootstock;  acre:  trellised  regardless  per  these  t r e e , have shown c o n s i s t e n t l y s i m -  h e d g e r o w s on M  trees per  the  Parallel  b e t w e e n t r e e f o r m and  Trellised  The  alter  They came i n t o  Golden D e l i c i o u s but  660  the  bearing  of t r e e f o r m or  t h e Red  shy b e a r i n g  trends.  late  of v a r i e t a l behavior,  tendency r e g a r d l e s s  Rootstock  ilar  in  Golden D e l i c i o u s i s a n a t u r a l l y e a r l y b e a r i n g  fertile as  production,  hedgerow t r e e s p l a n t e d  of r o o t s t o c k type, t r e e f o r m s and sixth  an  acre b a s i s  density,  outyielded  combinations of p l a n t i n g at  the  g r o w i n g season.,  hedges on M IX had in spite  on  at high  o f the  low  accumulated per  1,431.75  t r e e average  bushels  accumulated  - 66 -  o f o n l y 2.17  yield  bushels.  third position for yield yield  than the  the  earliest  per  acre by It  to  It  on M  i s not  the  that this  lighter  specific  this rootstock  type  with  root lacked  sufficient same t i m e . and  on  and  outperformed  sixth  the  Under  conditions  the n e c e s s a r y  conditions  IX r o o t s t o c k , the  suitable for  the  not  value  reflect  Red  soils. of the  It merely i n d i c a t e s  i n the  Doornberg  e p i b i o t e the  fruit  due  (25)  strength to allow  g r o w t h and  similar  maintained  IX  for  production  i n these  M  at  the  orchards  D e l i c i o u s grew l a r g e r  Golden D e l i c i o u s , by  the  end  of  the  year. It  the  same M  boxes  'stronger*  type.  G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s as  vegetative  greater  Preston  are not  e x p e r i m e n t s do  t h a t u n d e r the p r e v a i l i n g and  them.  to discount  these  orchards  not  They need the  M IX h e d g e r o w s as of  120  yielding  l e a d was  soils  i n t e n t i o n here  value  (16.33  year.  IX r o o t s t o c k . the  the  These t r e e s were a l s o  inadequacy to support  that  them i n  experiment  trees).  third  is believed  suggested  i n the  t o come i n t o b e a r i n g , their  the s o i l  trees  standard  This placed  i s p e r t i n e n t , at t h i s p o i n t ,  irrigated  Washington, planted  -loams o f  the  to mention that  Columbia Basin  G o l d e n D e l i c i o u s h e d g e s on M  a t a d e n s i t y o f 605  trees per  in  a t Ciuincy, IX  acre,  rootstock, and  following  - "67 -  t h e same d i r e c t i v e o f 907  yields  as  i n the Doornberg orchards,  bushels per  acre i n t h e i r  bushels per acre i n t h e i r f o u r t h year per  acre i n t h e i r f i f t h At  the  end  and  in yield,  the  1,343  took  remained  ahead o f a l l o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s  2,309.5 times  bushels  that  i n the  experiment  a t t h e end  f o r another  year,  up,  highest y i e l d  accumulated that  a t t h e end  yield  i n the of  o f the s t a n d a r d To  experiment  1,937.8  the  trellis.  second  third wire.  three wires  the  size  reaching a  and  convenient  wires  While  total  19  times  o f the s i x t h  established  those  on M IV h a d  trellised  e c o n o m i c a l w i t h two  row  of along  towards  covered  the f o u r t h  these year,  h o r i z o n t a l wire  and were p r o c e e d i n g  were a p p r o a c h i n g  and  sec-  o f t h e t r e e s on  t h e end first  T e c h n i c a l h a n d l i n g of the both  y e a r , w i t h the  Those on M V I I were w e l l  and  25.59  performance,  b u s h e l s p e r a c r e or  r o o t s t o c k s , by  t r e e s on M IX c o v e r e d  the f i r s t  of  trees.  the  the  o f the s i x t h  i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i v e  three d i f f e r e n t  or  per  trees.  Hedgerows on M IV r o o t s t o c k g a v e a good finishing  year.  yield  with a t o t a l  of the s i x t h  o f the s t a n d a r d  hedgerows  a l t h o u g h t h e M IV h e d g e s  M V I I h e d g e s showed t h e h i g h e s t a c c u m u l a t e d  a c r e o f a l l groups  ond  bushels  trellised  on M V I I  The  665  t h i r d year,  (11+)  year.  o f the f o u r t h y e a r  the l e a d  produced  the  first  wire. blocks  proved  reservations:  - 68 -  1)  the  hand h o e i n g  of the  standard  spacing orchard  proved  t o be  weeding w i l l  w i d t h between the half  f e e t or  overcome. standard  part  eleven  foot  narrow f o r  the  sprayers,  and  bulk  On  the  other hand,  orchards  w i t h which  i s not  spacing  a p p e a r e d t o be rootstock.  By  c o u l d have b e e n p l a n t e d increase foot  in yield.  spacing  On  appeared  the  on M  Pruning the  IV  t o d a t e has  step  years.  at  this  a  and  adviseable. trees  i n the  row  f o r t r e e s on  the  s p a c e more with  a  just r i g h t one  for  dwarf  smaller  trees  corresponding  o t h e r hand, the  least  be  same s i x  f o r the  foot too  trees  close f o r  rootstock.  t r e e s on  of a short future  operation,  acre  t o be  M VII r o o t s t o c k but  trees  per  a  orchards  for handling  than necessary reducing  t o t w e l v e and  the D o o r n b e r g  s u c h an  the  l a r g e equipment  of s i x f e e t between wider  necessity  second p r o b l e m c o u l d  the  necessary  For  the  hox\rever,  i n c r e a s i n g somewhat  c h e a p e r equipment w o u l d be  The  M IX  by  roi^s, from eleven  enterprise.  probably  and  soon obviate  t h i r t e e n f e e t , the  equipped,  tree  but  too  the  equipment; t r a c t o r ,  of t h i s hand hoeing  on  2)  first  i s a n t i c i p a t e d that mechanical hoeing  chemical  are  costly.  the  for harvesting. It  or  rows d u r i n g  g r o w i n g p e r i o d was  inter-row  bins  i n the  M VII ladder,  b e e n done f r o m the and or  M  I V may  require  a m o b i l e low  ground the  platform  level,  use in  the  i&9 -  -  Hand  thinning of f r u i t  was  done e a s i l y  on t h e  s e m i - d w a r f and d w a r f t r e e s as compared w i t h trees  and s p o t p i c k i n g ,  trees, presented  difficult  and c o s t l y w i t h l a r g e  no p r o b l e m .  S p r a y i n g was p e r f o r m e d efficiency  the standard  w i t h a maximum o f t e c h n i c a l  and w i t h a minimum o f p h y s i c a l  strain  or  waste o f m a t e r i a l s . Because o f the t r e l l i s  wire  s u p p o r t , p r o p p i n g was n o t  required  d u r i n g t h e summer a n d w i n d f a l l s  were r e d u c e d .  the  case  of a salvage  o p e r a t i o n t h e r e i s a minimum o f  bruising  on w i n d f a l l s  due t o o n l y a s h o r t d r o p  In  to the  ground. On one o c c a s i o n t h e l o w e r b r a n c h e s at  a lower  by  frost  edge o f t h e o r c h a r d were  damage  the blossoms,  (1959),  t h e more t h e y  radiation frosts of  Dwarf  The c l o s e r  slightly  affected  t o the ground  are exposed  i n the S p r i n g ,  o f t h e hedgerows  t o damage  Therefore  t r e e s s h o u l d o n l y be recommended  level from  the p l a n t i n g In f r o s t  free  locations, The c o s t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g hedgerows may the p r e s e n t  such  appear p r o h i b i t i v e  case,  the i n i t i a l  l a b o u r , e x c l u d i n g t h e owner's  the  operational deficits In round  figures,  at f i r s t  investment  and  arrived  an a c r e  of  trellised  glance.  In  cost - materials  s u p e r v i s i o n but  o f the three f i r s t  including  growing  c l o s e t o three thousand  seasons,  dollars.  - 70 -  Such h i g h this  initial  capital  i n v e s t m e n t may  i n t e n s i v e p l a n t i n g method.  Nevertheless  considered  that p o t e n t i a l y i e l d s ,  quality  the  the  of  other  would  justify the  i t could  w i l l prove of the  the  the  initial  first  t o be  that  one  of  134  trees per  829.8  the  the  tree  i n the  The  high  plus a l l form  experience is  gained  encouraging  hedgeroitfs  more e c o n o m i c a l and  system  rewarding  trial.  M VII  acre  as  rootstock;  on  M VII  rootstock  2,309.5  against  t h e y were t h e  t h a t by  f e e t i n the  remaining  the  increased  t o a 201  row,  highest  for  i n the  n a r r o w i n g the  the w i d t h o f  same, t h e number o f tree density,  yield  to  the  o f 6 3/4, distance  the working  trees and,  experiment.  121+6  bushels. from row  c o u l d have been  when f u l l  p l a n t i n g w o u l d become a c l o s e hedgerow o r c h a r d . would have r a i s e d the  yielded  although f o r i n d i v i d u a l  s i x t h year produced a crop  is possible  t o 12  f r o m the  trellised  same r o o t s t o c k ,  tree performance  18  on  was  acre:  bushels to  It  the  semi-dwarf bush t r e e s  h e d g e r o w s on  One  expenses.  concepts under  semi-dwarf bush t r e e s  it  e a r l i n e s s of r e t u r n s ,  the  The  many f r o m  anticipated  s i x growing seasons  w e l l be  planting  The  the  t e c h n i c a l advantages d e r i v e d  following and  fruit,  deter  bushels per  grown, This acre,  the  - ?i -  without  any  major  The  Spindle-bush  290  trees per The  inconvenience. t r e e on M V I I  rootstock;  acre;  projected yield o f 10  of the  x 15  at  a distance  On  the b a s i s o f these  spindle-bush  f e e t was  yields,  came s e c o n d t o t h a t o f t h e  1,267  trees  bushels  It  at l e a s t  c o u l d be  during  considered  the t r e l l i s e d  The 96  trees per  hardy intermediate, favour w i t h the  The  t o t h e end  per  n i n t h year.  Here,  operations,  fruit. II rootstock:  those  t h i s was  This y i e l d  these  only t h e i r  a t the  d w a r f h e d g e r o w s , and  plantings.  second b e a r i n g  e i g h t h y e a r was  falls  finding  trees only bore  l , i | l l , 4 bushels by  still  with  w h i c h a p p e a r t o be  s i x t h year,  acre, reaching  s e m i - d w a r f s and  II rootstock,  Okanagan g r o w e r s f o r t h e i r new  o f the  but  t r e e s on M  are  accumulated y i e l d  bushels  a hedgerow.  acre;  semi-standard  22i+ b u s h e l s  than  i n i n t e n s i t y between  f o r mechanical  S e m i - s t a n d a r d t r e e s on M  The  Up  of  to  the b u s h t r e e hedgerows.  adequate s p a c i n g i s p r o v i d e d including bulk-handling  and  e a r l i e r years,  intermediate  h e d g e r o w and  acre.  hedgerows.  the  as  per  t h i s p l a n t i n g arrangement  Such a p l a n t i n g i s cheaper t o e s t a b l i s h maintain,  planted  year.  1,008.20 the  end  below t h a t o f  the  only  approximates  of  - 72 -  that  o f t h e s p i n d l e - b u s h t r e e s on M V I I , a t t h e  their  The  sixth  t r e e s on  1+8 t r e e s p e r  bear  seedling rootstocks;  acre;  standard  in their  t r e e s on  produced  bushels per reached  a yield  even i n the  The  the  end  unquestionably  twelve  It  will  to  be  and  607»99  of  they  by  the  had tenth  year  But  standard  years  readily  sixth  standard  t r e e s per i f the  Spenger  (31),  t r e e o r c h a r d can  t h a t the  considerably diminished.  apple  initial  tree  acre p a t t e r n are  operational losses  initial this last  added, capital  deficit  from  i n the- Okanagan, d e p e n d i n g on appear  semiyear.  y e a r s h a v e t o be  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the  as m e n t i o n e d b y  yield,  that of the  of t h e i r  costs of c l a s s i c a l  the lowest.  an  Here a g a i n t h e  equal  end  d u r i n g the d e f i c i t  being actually  to  a yield  bushels.  f o l l o w i n g t h e u s u a l 1+8  for a  of  of the e i g h t h year,  1,166.21 b u s h e l s  dwarf t r e e s at the  investment  a yield  of n i n t h year  tenth year did not  accumulated  end  accumulated  1,1+07.98  planting  orchards  period  of  o n l y produced  to  the y i e l d , o f t h e M I I t r e e s i n the n i n t h  year, namely -  d w a r f and  and  At  acre; at the  approximated  seedling roots started  s i x t h year but  88.88 b u s h e l s p e r a c r e . they had  of  year.  standard  The  end  eight  the  variety.  advantage  i s going  - 73! -  The  permanent s e m i - s t a n d a r d b u s h t r e e s  combined w i t h t e m p o r a r y  At  the  end  the  yields  of  trees,  combined was  total,  only  standard  the  of  s i x t h growing  semi-standard  as  against  J u d g i n g by  trees  1+19  b u s h e l s by  permanent  trees.  indicate  that  of  The  semi-dwarf  spindle  this semi-  the  semi-dwarf  the  trees  I n any  case,  on have  eventually  d e c i s i o n as  data obtained  a s o l i d p l a n t i n g of s p i n d l e s concept  rootstock.  accumulated  they might b e t t e r  with a d i f f i c u l t  s t o c k w o u l d have b e e n a b e t t e r planting.  the  the  b e e n u s e d as  t o remove.  and  been p r o d u c e d by  that  which trees  season the  the p e r f o r m a n c e  faced  M VII  Of  i t Is f e l t  a g r o w e r w o u l d be  on  rootstock  acre.  M'VII r o o t s t o c k , the  trees  bushels per  61+3.27  221+ b u s h e l s had  trees  spindles.  spindle-bush  M II  on  in this on  experiment  M VII  than the  to  root-  combination  - 71+ CHAPTER  V  CONCLUSION  The  B.C.  Department  o f A g r i c u l t u r e ' s most  s u r v e y o f the  Okanagan o r c h a r d s  semi-standard  trees  rapidly and  to  not  views are  as  expressed.  used  trees;  to large  disturbing  and  gradually,  from the  required  The  'too  very  becoming  at  present,  to  any  i n the  differs orchard  serious  in  great  place,  following there  little  big a  change t o d w a r f jump'.  I t may  standard  trees  T e c h n i c a l l y , the  are trees  over,  t h e y were  shape o f  f r o m what t h e y were u s e d  alterations.  much l e s s e r b u r d e n t h a n w i t h t h e  orchards rather  Semi-standards  somewhat the to  and  throughout,  F i n a n c i a l l y , the  their  a  seem l e s s  t o them t o change  equipment remains u s a b l e  plantings.  is  t r a d i t i o n a l manner, t o t h e  for rejuvenating  high-density  the  Okanagan f r u i t g r o w e r s  large  semi-standards.  large  without  the  although increasing  i s so,  first  more r e a s o n a b l e  to handling  II trees  this  to suddenly  a p p e a r t o them as  their  plantings  types,  In the  reason.  M  are  to have been a c c e p t e d  t o why  psychological  smaller  new  that  i t is  date.  Speculating  used  i n the  appear  shows t h a t  II rootstock  t h e more i n t e n s i v e  numbers, do  may  M  t h e most p o u l a r  that  extent  on  (3)  recent  advances  a p p e a r s as  a  costly intensive on  M I I are  known  -  as  reliable  a sound  trees  15  seedling  are  acres,  In i t s e l f ,  stock  the  may  be  smaller  and  as  semi-dwarf s h a p e the  e v i d e n c e , as  If, the as  on  that  the use  to  interest, acreages  the  Phee  his  clonal  a  trend  dwarf  root-  toward the  tree  future.  and  within  dwarf or  flexibility  i n the  or M  ten years,  experiments  trees.  be  concepts, of  major  Okanagan where the To  for  of e f f e c t i n g t h i s  they o f f e r , could  1  above  production  the  intensive planting  majority .  and  IV.  into f u l l  semi-dwarf type  that  the  i t is desirable  t h e most f e a s i b l e method of  Orchards',  semi-dwarf  spindle-bush, M VII  carried  'Doornberg  i . e . the  (20),  forms  experiments  i n the  on  t o w a r d s more  the  the  orchard  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the are  of  concepts,  Mac  get  Hence i t a p p e a r s w i t h a l l the  orchards  tree  continue t o  even t h e  h e d g e r o w on  e a r l y as p o s s i b l e  i s by  of  a r e s u l t of  s t a t e d by  fruitgrower  show a l s o  on  beginning  M VII,  trellised  as  standard  step  or  at  conjuncture.  a first  could  this -  optimum r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d f r o m  hedgerow p l a n t i n g the  large  twelve year p e r i o d  shown t h a t  by  as  the  more i n t e n s i v e p l a n t i n g  all  s i z e , m e a n i n g by  t r e e , which trend  last  p a r t i c u l a r l y where  a semi-standard tree  interpreted  eventually  over the  of f a i r  to  where t h e  The  has  w e l l r e m a i n f o r some t i m e  change f r o m the  roots  can  point  may  under p r e s e n t p r o d u c t i o n  intensification the  -  economical p r o p o s i t i o n ,  orchard units least  and  75  manage s m a l l  smaller  orchard  I t i s s t a t e d i n the R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission on the F r u i t I n d u s t r y i n B.C. (20) t h a t 70% o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y o r c h a r d s a r e 10 a c r e s o r l e s s i n a r e a .  - 76 units  - ten acres  practices  cultural  t h i s means o n l y p a r t c a p a c i t y  as a r e s u l t  only incomplete  and a l l i t s o c i a l l y standard  - by extensive  does n o t a l l o w f o r maximum l a b o u r  Economically with  or l e s s  earnings  productivity. efficiency,  f o r the  i m p l i e s , not o n l y f o r the  operator  living  o f t h e f r u i t g r o w e r and h i s f a m i l y b u t t o t h e  w h o l e economy o f t h e  valley.  - 77 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. •  ABRAHAMSE, S. E n k e l e p u n t e n waarmee men i n de f r u i t teeLt r e k e n i n g moet h o u d e n . De P r u i t t e e l t N.F.O. 'S Gravenhage lj.7: 120k-1206, 1959  2.  BRASE, K.D. and WAY, R.D. R o o t s t o c k s and Methods used f o r dwarfing f r u i t t r e e s . New Y o r k S t a t e Ag. Exp. S t n . , 783: 1 - 50, 1959.  3.  CARTER, A.C., D w a r f t r e e s i n t h e B.C. I n t e r i o r , B.C.P.G.A., q u a r t e r l y R e p o r t , V o l . 5:2, 8 - 10,  Ij..  CARLSON, R.P., S e m i - d w a r f s . W. e d . , A p r i l 4 O - 4 2 , I 9 6 0 .  5.  CARLSON, R.F., P r e s e n t and F u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i t h c l a s s i f i e d rootstocks. Northwest dwarf t r e e A s s o c . A p r i l n e w s l e t t e r , [j. - 8, 1961.  6.  CHILDERS, N.F., F r u i t New Y o r k , 1949.  7.  De B Y L D. and GERRITSEN, J.D., Waarom i n West Betuwme m i d d e l z w a k k e onderstammen? De Fruitte«Lt, N.F.O. »S G r a v e n h a g e  41;  1172  American  Science,  - 1174,  I960  Fruitgrower  J.B. L i p p i n c o t t  Co.,  I960.  8.  De KERS D., De «S G r a v e n h a g e ,  9.  FEY W. And WIRTH A.G., D e r S p i n d e l b u s c h , 8th E.Ulmer S t u t t g a r t , 1954  Moderne p e r e t e e l t , De P r u i t t e e l t N.P.O.  10: 300-302, i960.  ed.  10. FISHER, D.V., R e p o r t on a t r i p t o E n g l a n d and E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s , Can. D e p t . o f A g r . R e s . S t n . Summerland, Unpubl. 1955. 11.  GARDNER, V.R.,  BRADFORD, F. and HOOKER,  H.D.  The f u n d a m e n t a l s o f f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n . 2nd McGraw - H i l l Book Co., New Y o r k , 1939.  edition,  12.  GOURLEY, J.H. and HOWLETT, F.S., Modern f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n , 8th e d . , M a c M i l l a n Co., New Y o r k ,  13.  HARRIS, J.H. and WOODS, J . J . , Dwarf a p p l e t r e e s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , E x p . Farm R e s . B r a n c h S a a n i c h t o n ,  1958.  1953. B.C.  - 78 -  ll+. HESS, W.,  P r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s a t Q u i n c y , Wash, f o r and 1961 o n f u l l d w a r f , s e m i - d w a r f and standard trees. Northwest dwarf-tree a s s o c i a t i o n n e w s l e t t e r , V o l , I I I , 3 - 1+, Y a k i m a , I96I,  1959,1960  15.  HILKENBAUMER, P., E i n f l u s z d e r K r o n e r z i e h u n g b e i Appelbaumen D e r E r w e r b s O b s t b a n . , E d , P. P a r e y Jan. 3 - 7 , B e r l i n , i960.  16.  KARNATZ, H. Zum g e g e u w a r t i z e n S t a n d d e r U n t e r l u g e n i n Deutschland. D e r E r w e r b s O b s t b a n . E d . P. P a r e y , May 28 - 32, B e r l i n , 1959.  17.  KELLEY, C.C. and SPILSBURY, R.H., S o i l S u r v e y o f t h e Okanagan and S i m i l k a m e e n V a l l e y s o f B.C. The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , O t t a w a , 191+9•  18.  LYSTEN, R., Wat g e p l a n t werd i n 1957 - 1958. De Pruitteelt. N.P.O. 'S G r a v e n h a g e , 6: 132-133,1959.  19.  MAC LEAN, G.A., O u t l i n e U n p u b l i s h e d , 1958.  20.  MAC PHEE, E.D., The r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on the t r e e - f r u i t i n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , V i c t o r i a  o f the P i l l a r  System,  1958.  21.  MARSHALL, J . , R e p o r t o f a v i s i t t o some o r c h a r d a r e a s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and E u r o p e . R e g i o n a l Res. Stn.  C a n . D e p t . o f A g r i c . Summerland, B.C. TJnpubl.  1959.  22.  MARSHALL, J . , D w a r f t r e e s o v e r s e a s . Impressions o f an e n t o m o l o g i s t . P r o c , o f t h e 56th Ann. M t g . Wash. S t a t e H o r t i c . A s s o c . 21 - 25., Y a k i m a , i960,  23.  PERRAUDIN, G., L e s C u l t u r e s f r u i t i e r e s . La c o n c e p t i o n de p l a n t a t i o n . Revue Romande d ' A g r i c u l t u r e de V i t i c u l t u r e e t d ' A r b o r i c u l t u r e , 15 annee, No. 7; 57 - 58.,  Lausarme,  1959,  21+. PRESTON, A.P., A p p l e p r u n i n g t r i a l s . a p p l e t r e e s b y t h e r e g u l a t e d method.  Res. S t n . f o r 1953 - (1951+)  25.  P r u n i n g young Rep. E . M a i l i n g  PRESTON, A.P., A p p l e r o o t s t o c k s t u d i e s ; M a i l i n g Merton r o o t s t o c k s . The J o u r n a l o f H o r t i c . S c i e n c e ,  V o l . XXX, J a n . 1955, 25-33, 1955.  -  79  -  2 6 . RAWITSCHER, G., Les Sources de reudement des f r u i t i e r e s . Rouge e t Co. Lausanne, 191+5.  cultures  27.  ROBERTS, A.N., Tree s i z e , number and b e a r i n g habit determine p e r acre y i e l d s w i t h g r o w t h - c o n t r o l l i n g r o o t s t o c k s . P r o c . Wash. S t a t e H o r t . A s s o c , 55: 1+8-51, Yakima, 1959.  28.  ROGERS, W.S., Advances i n r o o t s t o c k r e s e a r c h . R e p r i n t from The J o u r n a l of the R o y a l A g r i c . Soc. of E n g l a n d . V o l . 118: 63 - 75, London, 1957.  2 9 . SCHMITZ-HUBSCH, H. and PURST, L., I n t e n s i v Obstban i n Heckenform., W. Ulmer, S t u t t g a r t , 1955. 30.  SOUTHWICK, L., Dwarf f r u i t t r e e s . Y o r k , 191+8.  31.  SPRENGER, A.M., Het l e e r b o c k der f r u i t t e e l t , V o l . & I I . T j e e n - W i l l i n k L w o l l e , 191+8.  32.  U.S.D.A., Dwarf f r u i t t r e e s , L e a f l e t no. 1+07., U.S.A. Gov. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington D.C, 195°.  33.  VAN CANWENBERGHE, E., S u j e t s p o r t e - g u f f e s pour a r b r e s f r u i t i e r e s , 2nd ed. Imp. Leens, V e r v i e r s , 191+6.  34.  VAN  35.  00STEN,A and SPOOR, P.A.,  MacMillan  Co.,  New I  De Moderne boomgaard  2nd ed. N.F.O. 'S Gravenhage, Van Lonkhuyzen, Z e i s t , WEISS, G.M. and FISHER, D.V., Growing apples on d w a r f i n g r o o t s t o c k s . Pub. SP. 15 (6M) Can. Dept. of A g r i c . Res. B r a n c h Res. S t n . Summerland, B.C. The Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , Ottawa, I960.  1957.  36.  WALKER, J.H., F o r t y y e a r s x*ork at E a s t M a i l i n g . Rep. E. M a i l i n g Res. S t n . , 1953, 223:227 (1954-).  37.  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