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The Aeneas legend to the end of the Augustan age Barclay, George Chapman 1945

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TELE AENEAS LEGEND TO THE END OE THE AUGUSTAN AGE George Chapman Barclay A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s i n the Department of C l a s s i c s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1945. TABLE Off CONTENTS Introduction . • » 1 Chapter I -O r i g i n and E a r l y L i f e of Aeneas . . . 2 Chapter I I -"': • ,, ,;> H i s Part i n the Trojan War . . . . . . 4 Chapter I I I -His Escape from Troy . . . . . . . . 9 Chapter IV - . Erora Troy to S i c i l y 12 Chapter V -Erom S i c i l y to I t a l y . . . . . . . . . 16 Chapter VI- - , H i s Connection w i t h Rome . . . . . . 17 Chapter V I I -Evidence of the B e l i e f that the Romans were Aeneadae . 21 Chapter V I I I -: Highest Expression of the Legend • # . 24 Bibliography , 25 INTRODUCTION The Aeneas legend, which, reached the pinnacle of i t s glory in: V i r g i l ' s matchless Epic, has always proved, i n succeeding centuries, a romance of absorbing i n t e r e s t to poet, h i s t o r i a n , and archaeologist a l i k e . When Schliemann, as r e c e n t l y as seventy years ago, s t a r t l e d the world by un-covering the a c t u a l r u i n s both of Troy and of the palace of the kings of Mycenae, scholars and h i s t o r i a n s everywhere were faced w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y that the -sequel to the dest r u c t i o n of Troy, the wanderings and achievements of Aeneas, might l i k e w i s e be founded on f a c t . The legend, as developed i n the f o l l o w i n g pages, w i l l show the e a r l y l i f e of Aeneas p r i o r to h i s supposed depar-ture from the Troad.. 'His wanderings w i l l be traced to I t a l y and h i s connection with.Rome w i l l be i n d i c a t e d , from whence sprang the b e l i e f that the Romans were the sons of Aeneas. 1 , Various opinions concerning the founding of Rome w i l l not be mentioned. Only the probable founding - the founding by Romulus and Remus - w i l l be i n d i c a t e d . 1. See Dionysius (60 B.C.? - 7 A.D.?) Ant. Rom.I.7S,73. THE AENEAS LEGEND TO THE END OE THE AUGUSTAN AGE CHAPTER I O r i g i n and E a r l y L i f e of Aeneas. Aeneas, destined to hold such a prominent place i n the minds and thoughts of the Roman people, was the son of the goddess, Aphrodite, and the mortal, Anchises, having been 2 born, according to t r a d i t i o n , on the peaks of wooded Ida* 3 His f a t h e r , who may have possessed the g i f t of prophecy, 4 was the son of Capys, king of Dardania. Thus Aeneas was of r o y a l descent. He also was connected w i t h the r o y a l house of Troy, since h i s f a t h e r was a second cousin of Priam, king of Troy. On h i s mother's side he was of d i v i n e l i n e a g e . Hence h i s descent was p a r t l y human and p a r t l y d i v i n e . Such an o r i g i n was not uncommon i n those days when the gods and goddesses associated w i t h men and women on the earth. The e a r l y l i f e of Aeneas seems to have been uneventful. 6 Homer has mentioned that he was nourished i n the home of h i s brother-in-law when he was young, but nothing outstanding 2. Horn., I I . I I , 819-823; ties. Theog. 1008-1010. 5. Enn.(239-169 B.C.) Ann. (Bae. Erag. Poet. Rom.) Erag. 17. Probus says that Ennius p i c t u r e s to himself Anchises as.having some power of soothsaying and, through t h i s , some>-thi n g of the prophet i n him. 4. Horn. I I . XX, 239. 5* Horn. I I . XX, 231-239. 6. Horn, I I . , X I I I , 465-466. concerning him has "been recorded previous to the Trojan War, 7 at which time he i s s a i d to have been i n the bloom of youth. I t remained f o r Troy, the most famous of a l l the Troad c i t i e s to b r i n g him renown and to send him f o r t h to f u l f i l a destiny more g l o r i o u s than that of the most i l l u s t r i o u s of those who took part i n the famous Siege. 7. Horn. I I . X I I I , 484. 4. CHAPTER I I His Part i n the'Trojan War. The f i r s t connection which Aeneas had wi t h the Trojan . 8 War•Seems t o be that which i s r e l a t e d i n the Cypria. Here, 9 ' ' Aeneas i s . ordered by Aphrc-dite to s a i l w i t h Alexander on an expedition designed to abduct Helen, the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. Here, too, i s r e l a t e d the f i r s t meeting between Aeneas and A c h i l l e s , when the l a t t e r d r i v e s off Aeneas' c a t t l e , plunders Lyrnessus and Pedasus, and many of the neighbouring c i t i e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe that AeneaS r e c a l l s t h i s . f i r s t meeting with. A c h i l l e s , when,. urged on by Apollo, he dares .to challenge A c h i l l e s t o combat, and 11 A c h i l l e s reminds him*of i t , as well,, p r i o r t o t h e i r en-counter. ... I t was but n a t u r a l that Aeneas should o f f e r h i s help i n the Trojan War, owing t o h i s r a c i a l descent and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Priam. Priam, however, f o r some reason or other, d i d not appreciate h i s true worth, because Deiphobus, the son of Priam, was always angry w i t h h i s father f o r hot 12 having honoured Aeneas f o r h i s bravery among the heroes. Perhaps he had some, shrewd suspicion of 'Jupiter's, hatred 8. Stasinus (7th cent. B.C.?) Cyp. 1. 9. I.e. P a r i s . 10. Horn. I I . XX, 89-93. 11. Horn. I I . XX, 187-1?2. 12. Horn. I I . X I I I , 460-461. of h i s own l i n e , and the future e l e v a t i o n of the Dardan race. In the defence of Troy Aeneas was the leader of the Dardanians along w i t h the two sons of Antenor, Archelochus 13 and Acam'as. • Among the defenders he was always held i n the highest regard."both f o r h i s valour and f o r h i s wisdom. Helenus, when seeking to r a l l y the Trojans on one occasion, addressed Hector and Aeneas, a s s e r t i n g that on them e s p e c i a l l y the work weighed, because they were the best f o r every pur-14 15 pose both i n b a t t l e and i n counsel. Four times Aeneas i s addressed as counsellor of the Trojans - by Pandarus, by Deiphobus, by Hector, and by the god Apollo i n the guise of Lycaon, son of Priam. Once Aeneas i s spoken of as one who, . 16 among the 'Trojans, was honoured as a god. When Hector was being defended a f t e r being i n j u r e d by a stone hurled by Telamonian Ajax, Aeneas was c a l l e d one of the bravest of the 17 leaders along w i t h four others. At another time Aeneas 18 and three others :are mentioned as the leaders of the Trojans. On s t i l l another occasion he i s coupled w i t h Hector as the 19 best of the Trojans. 13. Horn. II... I I , 819-823. 14. Horn. I I . VI, 77-79. 15. Horn. I I . V, 180 Horn. I I . X I I I , 463. ••- • Horn. .21 „ XVII, 485. Horn. I I . XX, 83. 16. Horn. I I . XI, 58. 17. Horn. I I . XIV, 424-426. 18. Horn. I I . X I I I , 489-491. 19. Horn. I I . XVII, 513. 6. An examination of the part played by Aeneas i n the actual f i g h t i n g c l e a r l y reveals that he fought under the pro-" 20 t e c t i o n of the gods. Twice he received encouragement from Apollo. , Although he i s c r e d i t e d w i t h the s l a y i n g of a num-• 21 ber of heroes, i t must be observed that he was not always v i c t o r i o u s . In f a c t , i n the two most important combats i n which he took p a r t , he incurred defeat. In the f i r s t of " \ . • 22 these, h i s encounter w i t h Diomedes, he suffered disgrace i n the l o s s of h i s famous steeds. Then, a f t e r being d i s -abled by a stone hurled by Diomedes, he was removed from the c o n f l i c t by Aphrodite. When she, i n turn, was pursued and wounded by Diomedes, he was withdrawn by Apollo i n s p i t e of four attacks byltomedes, to Apollo's temple on the c i t a d e l of Troy. In the second, h i s meeting w i t h A c h i l l e s , a f t e r the f i r s t exchange of spears had deprived Aeneas both of h i s spear and of, the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s s h i e l d , Poseidon observed h i s p l i g h t , and, having mysteriously v e i l e d the eyes of A c h i l l e s w i t h darkness, he removed Aeneas.to the rear of the f i g h t i n g . How Poseidon d i d t h i s , since he f e l t that Aeneas, who was g u i l t l e s s , should not s u f f e r pain oh account of the pain deserved by others,, because he himself had always, given 20. Horn. 11.^ XVII, 322-332. Horn. I I / " XX, 79-80. 21. Horn. I I . V, 541-542. Horn. I I . X I I I , 541-544. Horn. I I . XV, . 332.. 22. Horn. I I . V,'302-446. 23. Horn. I I . . XX, 259-329. g i f t s acceptable to the gods. Thus Aeneas escaped death on two d i f f e r e n t occasions because of the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the •The preservation of the l i f e of Aeneas tends to support the prophecy that he was to be c l o s e l y connected w i t h the future of the survivors of the d e s t r u c t i o n of Troy. This prophecy f o r e t o l d that ,he was destined to escape, that the race of Dardanus was to survive, and that Aeneas and h i s descendants were to r u l e the Trojans.. Another oracle f o r e -t o l d that the stock of Anchises would have the r u l e of the Trojans a f t e r the end of Priam's power. The same oracle also i n d i c a t e d that a f t e r Aphrodite gave b i r t h to Aeneas, she i n s p i r e d love f o r Helen i n Alexander i n order that she might have a pretext f o r overthrowing the power of Priam; and.that, a f t e r the abduction of Helen, she pretended to help the. T'rojahs: i n order to comfort them In t h e i r defeat end to prevent the r e s t o r a t i o n of Helen. Another person who might be ""connected with the fu t u r e of Troy i s Helenus, son of Priam, who managed to survive 26 the f a t e of the c i t y . He was a famous soothsayer. Homer 27 c a l l s him the best of.augurs. Stasinus declares that he f o r e t o l d the future to Alexander before Alexander set out 28 f o r Sparta. V i r g i l a t t r i b u t e s to him remarkable pro-24, . Horn. I I . XX, 302-308. 25. Acusilaus (6th cent. B.C.) f f r a g . 26. gods. 24 25 26. Horn. I I . VI, 76. 27. Stas. C.yp. 1. 28. Aen. I l l , 358-361. 8. 29 .phetic powers. A f t e r h i s capture "by Odysseus he prophesied as to the taking of the c i t y . 30 According to Euripides, Helenus was.to marry Andromache i n the Molbssian land, a f t e r her captor and husband, Neopto-lemus, son of A c h i l l e s , died. The son of. Neoptolemus and Andromache, sole survivor of the l i n e o f Aeacus, was to be-come the progenitor of a succession of kings -of iviolossia, thus preserving not only the r o y a l l i n e of Aeacus but a connection w i t h the Trojan race as w e l l . Here, then, there i s an i n d i c a t i o n of thecontinuance of the Trojan remnant through" Andromache w i t h Aeneas ignored. 29. Lesches or Lescheos (7th cent. B.C.): L i t . I I . 1. 30. Euripides (5th cent. B.C.): Androm. 1243-1252. CHAPTER I I I H i s Escape from Troy« ,- There are many opinions concerning the escape of Aeneas from Troy and the conditions under which he l e f t the Troad. They range from h i s e a r l y withdrawal to Ida before the Sack of the c i t y to h i s dramatic departure from burning Troy w i t h h i s f a t h e r Anchises, h i s son Ascanius, and h i s country's gods. . . . 31 H e l l a n i c u s asserts that Aeneas and h i s f o l l o w e r s at f i r s t f l e d to the c i t a d e l which contained the holy things and wealth of the Trojans. L a t e r , deciding that i t was impossible to save the c i t y , he sent out under escort a l l those unable to defend the c i t a d e l , w i t h orders to proceed to Ida,, while he himself w i t h the r e s t , by guarding the c i t a d e l , occupied the a t t e n t i o n of the Greeks and thereby prevented' the p u r s u i t of those escaping. F i n a l l y , Aeneas abandoned the c i t a d e l and marched away i n o r d e r l y manner wi t h the r e s t of the defenders, taking w i t h him h i s f a t h e r , gods, of h i s country, h i s w i f e , h i s c h i l d r e n , and whatever else was most valuable. Then he sued f o r peace and agreed to terms which compelled him and h i s f o l l o w e r s to leave the Troad w i t h i n a c e r t a i n time w i t h a l l t h e i r valuables, and guaranteed them safe conduct by land and sea wherever the Greeks held sway. 51. Dion. Ant. Rom, I , 46, 47. H e l l a n i c u s (5th cent. B.C.), 10.. 32 Sophocles mentions the withdrawal of Aeneas to Ida hut adds that Aeneas moved there on the orders of Anchises, who, r e c a l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s of Aphrodite and i n t e r p r e t i n g the omens which had l a t e l y occurred concerning Laocoon's fa m i l y , r i g h t l y judged that the destruction of the c i t y was near. 33 Menecrates of Xanthus expresses the opinion that Aeneas betrayed the c i t y to the Greeks out of hatred f o r Alexander and i n re t u r n was granted the r i g h t to save h i s household. Here i t should be observed that Antenor, a l s o , 34 - ' was regarded as the betrayer of the c i t y to the Greeks. 35 L i v y ' s account of Aeneas and Antenor, on the other hand, i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . He declares that they were s p e c i a l l y favoured by the Greeks f o r two reasons: f i r s t , an ancient t i e of h o s p i t a l i t y existed between them and the Greeks; secondly, they had always advised peace and the r e s t o r a t i o n of Helen. He believes that they both eventually came to I t a l y , a s s e r t i n g that Aeneas landed at Laurenturn and Antenor, w i t h a band of the Heneti and Trojans, at a place c a l l e d Troy, on the innermost bay of the A d r i a t i c Sea. 32. Sophocles (5th cent. B.C.). Laocoon: Dion. Ant, Rom. I , 48. 2. 33. Menecrates (4th cent. B.C.?), Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 48. 2. 34. Lycophron (330? - ? B.C.). Alex. 340. 35. L i v y (contemporary of Augustus). I . 1. 11. 56 According to Diodorus S i c u l u s , Aeneas with, some c i t i z e n s bravely defended a part of the c i t y a f t e r Troy had been stormed> .The Greeks offered terms i n which they granted to each c i t i z e n the p r i v i l e g e of t a k i n g away as much as each could carry of h i s own property. Each brought out h i s gold and s i l v e r and other things of value but Aeneas c a r r i e d out h i s f a t h e r . The Greeks were so amazed that they granted him another choice and t h i s time he c a r r i e d out h i s household gods. By h i s example Aeneas won f o r himself and f o r the other Trojans the r i g h t to go out of the Troad to whatever place they wished, 57 Xenophon declares that Aeneas alone, of a l l whom the Greeks took prisoners i n Troy, was granted exemption from , being despoiled of h i s property, 38. Lycophron says that Aeneas alone was granted the p r i v i l e g e of t a k i n g away what he wanted. The expression of so many d i f f e r e n t opinions concerning the. f i n a l stage of the capture of Troy i n d i c a t e s that the Imaginations of w r i t e r s have been at work, -36. Diodorus S i c u l u s (contemporary of Caesar and Augustus), V I I , 1, : 37. Xenophon (433? -.357 ? B.C.). Cyn.1, 15. 38. Lyc. Alex. 1268-1269. 12. CHAPTER IT Erom Troy to S i c i l y . The fu t u r e of Aeneas, a f t e r h i s departure from Troy, i s a matter of conjecture. Three legends -have a r i s e n con-cerning i t . He Is regarded as the r u l e r i n Ida of the Tro-39 jans who survived the destruction of Troy. He i s believed /••v. ••• '• 40 ; to have been the founder of c i t i e s i n Greece. -He i s ' '.41 believed to have been the founder of Lavinium In I t a l y . Only a b r i e f reference w i l l be made to the f i r s t two of these legends. Homer represents Aeneas and h i s descend-• • ;42 " ants as the future r u l e r s of the Trojans.- A r c t l n u s and ,43 -Sophocles rather suggest the same idea. At l e a s t they do not mention Aeneas' departure from the. Troad. . 44 Gephalon of Gergis^ and Hegesippus c l a i m that Aeneas 45 died i n Thrace. Ariaethus, among others, declares. that Aeneas l e f t Thrace and came to Arcadia where he l i v e d at Orchomenus, and, along w i t h the Trojans, b u i l t Capyae named 39. Horn. I I . XX, 302-308. , 40. Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 49, 1. 41.. L i v y , I , 1. Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 59. ,42. A r c t i n u s (8th cent. B.C.) Sack of I l i u m , 1. 43. Sop. Laoc: Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 48. 2". 44. Cephalon of Gergis (date unkno?m). Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 49. 1. 45. Ariaethus (date unknown). Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 49. 1. 4 6 a f t e r h i s grandfather. Agathyilus, as w e l l as others, asserts that Aeneas went from Arcadia to I t a l y * " The. t h i r d legend which r e l a t e s that 'Aeneas., a f t e r many wanderings,finally a r r i v e d i n I t a l y i s the one gene r a l l y believed by the Romans. I t . i s remarkable that Dionysius of Hal l e arhassu.s, contrary to h i s usual custom, gives a d e t a i l e d account of t h i s legendiwlthout r e v e a l i n g h i s sources of information. Perhaps he was so thoroughly convinced of i t s t r u t h that he did not f e e l that i t . was necessary to mention a u t h o r i t i e s . A summary of : h i s account f o l l o w s . To t h i s w i l l be added further.evidence which seems to support c e r t a i n parts of t h i s -account. Aeneas and the Trojans f i r s t went, to P a l l e n e , a-penin-s u l a of C h a l c l d i c e , where they b u i l t a temple to Aphrodite : - ; • 48 and a c i t y named Aeneia, A most remarkable c o i n of t h i s c i t y has come down to us. On i t Aeneas i s represented as ca r r y i n g Anchises preceded by hisf'wife Creusa c a r r y i n g Ascanias, I t supplies the oldest representation on a coin of a Trojan legend which has come down to us. I t s date i s un-c e r t a i n but i t i s regarded as previous to 500 B.C. A f t e r l e a v i n g Thrace they came to the i s l a n d of Delos, and thence s a i l e d to Cythera, where they b u i l t another temple to Aphrodite* From Cythera they s a i l e d to Arcadia and thence 46. Agathyilus (date unknown).Dion, Ant, Rom. I , 49. 2. 47. Dion. Rom, Ant. I , 49-53. 48. Head: H i s , Num. p, 214. See i l l u s t r a t i o n under Aeneas In Marindin's C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y . to Zacynthus. Here, too, they "built a .temple to Aphrodite. S a i l i n g from Zacynthus they landed at Leucas where s t i l l another temple was b u i l t c a l l e d Aphrodite Aeneias, from Leucas they s a i l e d to Actium and thence a r r i v e d at Ambracia. Here, also, they l e f t evidence of t h e i r v i s i t , a temple of Aphrodite Aeneias and one of the Great Gods at Actium, and a temple of Aphrodite and hero shrine of Aeneas at Ambracia. Prom Ambracia Aeneas proceeded overland to Dodona to consult an o r a c l e , while Anchises. s a i l e d w i t h the f l e e t to Buthrotum. At Dodona Aeneas found Trojans brought there by Helenus. Pour days l a t e r he reached Buthrotum. A f t e r l e a v -i n g Buthrotum they s a i l e d to the Harbour of Anchises where they erected a temple to Aphrodite. Thence they crossed the Ionian Gulf.and some landed at Iapygia i n I t a l y while others, i n c l u d i n g Aeneas went ashore at Castrum Minervae, S a i l i n g along the south coast of I t a l y , they came to the s t r a i t between I t a l y and S i c i l y . \Landing at one place, presumably on the coast of I t a l y , Aeneas l e f t a bronze patera i n the temple of Juno w i t h h i s own name i n s c r i b e d as the one who had dedicated i t to the goddess. This i s most remarkable inasmuch as Juno was always most h o s t i l e to the cause of the Trojans. I t seems to be the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of an attempt on the part of Aeneas to appease Juno. They f i r s t landed on S i c i l y at Drepana. Here they found some Trojans with Elymus and Aegestus who had,taken part i n the Trojan War, and who, l e a v i n g Troy p r i o r to I t s i a l l . , ' had come d i r e c t to S i c i l y . Aegestus was a descendant of Trojans who had l e f t Troy i n the time of Laomedon, father of Priam. He had gone to. Troy to a s s i s t h i s f a t h e r l a n d . On h i s r e t u r n to S i c i l y he had been accompanied by Elymus. Aeneas b u i l t two c i t i e s , named a f t e r these men, Aegesta and Elyma, and l e f t some of h i s followers here. Dionysius asserts that the most notable proof of the presence of Aeneas and o f the Trojans i n S i c i l y was the a l t a r of Aphrodite.. Aeneias erected by Aeneas on the summit of Elymus, and a temple to Aeneas erected In h i s memory by the c i t i z e n s i n Aegesta, a . c i t y which the Romans c a l l e d Segesta. In our day the most notable evidence i s the famous I l i a c 49 Tablet i n the: G a p i t o l i n e Museum i n Rome. This Tablet has.a representation of Aeneas w i t h Ascanius, Anchises*and Misenus, trumpeter of Hector, w i t h an accompanying I n s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a -t i n g Aeneas s e t t i n g out f o r I t a l y . The poem, to which t h i s representation i s a t t r i b u t e d , i s the Sack of I l i u m of Stesichorus, a S i c i l i a n poet,,who l i v e d i n the e a r l y half, of the s i x t h century B. G,, not f a r from the Trojan settlement of Aegesta. 49. Baumeister: Denk. des. K l a s . A l t . , f i g . 775. 16. CHAPTER V, Erom S i c i l y to I t a l y . Erom S i c i l y , Dionysius.continues, the Trojans came to the harbour of P a l i n u r u s , named a f t e r a p i l o t of Aeneas- who had died there. Thence they made f o r an i s l a n d named Leucosia In memory of a kinswoman of Aeneas, S e t t i n g out from Leucosia, they reached a harbour of the Oplcans which they named Misenum a f t e r Misenus.who had died there. This reference to Misenus i s most s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s viewed i n the l i g h t of the I l i a c Tablet. A f t e r l e a v i n g fflisenum they went to the i s l a n d of Prochyta and thence :t6..the. promon-tory of Caieta. Both of these places were named i n memory of women who had died there and who were c l o s e l y connected w i t h Aeneas, one being a cousin and the other having been h i s nurse. E i n a l l y the Trojans came to Laurentum where t h e i r encampment was c a l l e d Troy. Thus Dionysius established the connection of Aeneas wi t h I t a l y . I t i s important to observe that Aeneas i s c r e d i t e d w i t h e r e c t i n g so many temples to Aphrodite during h i s wanderings, Dionysius seems to regard them as the c h i e f proof of Aeneas' presence In so many places along the way. They may have been mentioned to emphasize the f i l i a l devotion of Aeneas but they have cast doubt on the t r u t h of Dionysius' account, f o r i t i s obvious that no such b u i l d i n g programme could have been com-50 pl e t e d i n the two years which Dionysius allowsjfrom the time of the destruction of Troy u n t i l the time of the founding of Lavinium. . ; §0, Dion. Ant. Rom. I« 65. 1. 17. CHATTER 71 - 51 His Connection with Home. The a r r i v a l at Laurentum, according to Dionysius, marked the end of the wanderings of Aeneas. Here were f u l -f i l l e d c e r t a i n oracles that could not be mistaken. There was the i n c i d e n t of the springs of f r e s h w a t e r so welcome to the Trojans that Aeneas gave thanks to the gods. There was the: 52 f u l f i l m e n t of the prophecy of "eating t h e i r t a b l e s . " Opin-53 ions d i f f e r as to where Aeneas received t h i s o r a c l e . ^.Iib may have been received when he went to Dodona, but i t i s more 54 l i k e l y that he received i t from a S i b y l at Ida. T i b u l l u s i n d i c a t e s that Aeneas was t o l d h i s destiny by a S i b y l , when he was about to leave Troy, Immediately a f t e r the Trojans had "eaten t h e i r t a b l e s , " Aeneas prepared to o f f e r a s a c r i f i c e . Then the prophecy of the white sow- - c a l l e d a dark sow by Lycophron - was f u l -f i l l e d . This sow was said to have been brought from Troy by 57 Aeneas i n h i s ship. When the sow was going to be s a c r i f i c e d , 51. Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 55-60; 63-67; 70-71. 52. Lyc. Alex. 1250-1252. 53. Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 55.4. 54. T i b u l l u s (55-19 B.C.) I I , v. 19-22. 55. Yarro (contemporary of Cicero) De. L i n . L a t . V, 144. 56. Lyc. Alex.. 1256. : 57. Lyc. Alex. 1256-1257. Yar. De L i n . L at. V, 144. i t escaped but i t was recaptured on the top of a h i l l , i n a state of exhaustion. Aeneas, through d i v i n e guidance, b u i l t a c i t y on the spot, although he f e l t that the place was not at a l l s u i t a b l e . Thus was founded the c i t y , afterwards 58 c a l l e d Lavinium. This was generally regarded as the f i r s t settlement of the Trojans i n I t a l y . The sow revealed the s i t e of Lavinium and in d i c a t e d , by i t s l i t t e r of t h i r t y p i g s , the time of the b u i l d i n g of Alba Longa - t h i r t y years a f t e r the founding of Lavinium. The f i r s t part of the name of the new c i t y was derived from the colour of the sow; the other part of the name was derived 59 from the nature of the l o c a l i t y . 60 Varro, who p a r t i c u l a r l y mentions the sow, says that, even i n h i s time, bronze images of i t were to be seen. A f t e r s a c r i f i c i n g the sow and her young, Aeneas set himself to work w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c energy and he soon b u i l t a town w i t h materials taken from the surrounding d i s -t r i c t s . Thus the presence of the-newcomers became known, to Latinus, king of the country i n which they had s e t t l e d . A. meeting between Aeneas and Latinus was i n e v i t a b l e . Naevius 61 has l e f t a fragment In which Latinus asks Aeneas why he forsook Troy. 58. Dion. Ant. Rom. 1, 59. 3. 59. Var. De L i n g . L a t . V, 144. 60. Var. De Re Rus* IT, i v , 18. 61. Haevius (270-199? B.C.). B e l l . Pun. f r a g . 24. 19. Latlnus made an a l l i a n c e w i t h Aeneas under terms agree-able to both. Aeneas' marriage to L a v i n i a , the daughter of Latl n u s , along w i t h intermarriage between the two peoples, united the races so c l o s e l y that now Trojan i d e n t i t y i s l o s t , and the''two races are c a l l e d L a t i n s a f t e r L a tinus, On the death of L a t i n u s , Aeneas became king, but he 62 rul e d only three years before he l o s t h i s l i f e f i g h t i n g the Rutulians, • who were being aided by Mezentius, king of the Tyrrhenians. The death of Aeneas, which, according to Dionysius, . 6 3 took place seven years a f t e r the capture of Troy, i s shrouded\ In mystery. As h i s body was not found, i t was thought that he was drowned i n the r i v e r Numicius near which the b a t t l e had taken place. Hence arose the idea of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n to the gods, h i s d e i f i c a t i o n , and the worship of 64 him as: a Deus Indiges. 65 Aeneas was succeeded by h i s son, Euryleon, whose •"'66 name had been changed to Ascanius during the f l i g h t from 67 Troy. L i v y i s uncertain whether t h i s Ascanius was the 62. Dion. Ant. Rom. I , 64. 3, 63. In 1176 B.C. since Dionysius' date f o r the f a l l of Troy i s 1183 .B.C> (Ant. Rom, I , 74.). 64. T i b , I I , v. 43-44. L i v y 1,2. 65. Dionysius'.name f o r Ascanius Ant. Rom. I , 6.5, Cephalon of G-ergis (Dion. Ant. Rom. I,.72. l ) saya that Aeneas had four sons, Ascanius, Euryleon, Romulus and Remus. 66.. i.e., l u l u s according to V i r g i l Aen. I , 267. l u l u s Was the son.of Ascanius (acc.to Dion.Ant.Rom, I, 70) and the founder of the J u l i a n family. 67. L i v y I , 3. 20. son of L a v i n i a or of Creusa but he i s , at l e a s t , sure that Aeneas was h i s f a t h e r . Ascanius, t h i r t y , years a f t e r the founding of Lavinium, t r a n s f e r r e d the people, who are now c a l l e d the L a t i n s , to Alba Longa. This t r a n s f e r took place 68 In 1151 B.C. Ascanius was succeeded, i n Alba Longa, by h i s brother S i l v i u s Aeneas, who. was .-a^son. of Aeneas and L a v i n i a . A f t e r h i s death a long succession of kings r u l e d , u n t i l Romulus and Remus restored t h e i r grandfather, Numitor, to the throne 69 and founded Rome i n 751 B.C. The reigns of Ascanius and h i s successors bridged the gap from the death of Aeneas i n 1176 B.C., u n t i l the founding of Rome. Thus was established the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t o r y regarding the connection of Aeneas w i t h Rome. • 68. According to Dionysius Ant. Rom. I , 63,66,74. 69. So says Dionysius Ant. Rom. I , 71.5. Varro*s date 753 B.C. has been generally accepted f o r the founding of Rome. 21. CHAPTER V I I Evidence of the B e l i e f that, the Romans were Aeneadae. The b e l i e f that the Romans were Aeneadae can be traced 70 as e a r l y as the time of Haevius, who claims that Romulus, the founder of Rome, was Aeneas' grandson through Aeneas' daughter. 71 P l u t a r c h has ind i c a t e d that Titus Quinctius Elamin-inus, who valued himself most because of the l i b e r t y which . 72 he had bestowed on Greece, mentioned h i s own descent from Aeneas i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s which he composed when he was dedicating some s i l v e r bucklers together w i t h h i s own s h i e l d at Delphi and when he was o f f e r i n g a golden crown to Ap o l l o . The b e l i e f may have been accepted o f f i c i a l l y i n the 73 second century B.C.- f o r Suetonius has recorded that Claudius allowed the people of I l i u m perpetual exemption from t r i b u t e on the ground that they were the founders of f "74 the Roman race. I n proof of t h i s he c i t e d an ancient l e t t e r of the senate and the Roman people w r i t t e n in. the Greek 70. Maev. B e l l . Pun. f r a g . 26.-71. P l u t a r c h (1st cent. A.D.). V i t a Elam. X I I . 72. Elamininus freed Greece from c o n t r o l by Macedonia by defeating P h i l i p V. of Macedonia at'Cynoscephalae i n 197 B.C. 73. Suetonius (1st cent.. A.D.). Claud. 25, 74. Probably sent during 187-175 B.C. 75 language to King Seleucus of S y r i a , i n which they promised him t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and a l l i a n c e , only i f he should keep t h e i r k i n s f o l k of I l i u m free from every burden. 76 I t i s the b e l i e f of Accius, too, when he names h i s 77 tragedy Aeneadae or Decius and Luc r e t i u s reveals h i s own opinion when he begins h i s famous poem, De Rerum Natura, w i t h 78 the words, "Aeneadum g e h e t r i z " - "ancestress of the men sprung from Aeneas." -79 Cicero r e f e r s to the same b e l i e f , when he says that the people of Segesta, a very o l d town i n S i c i l y , asserted that t h e i r town was founded by Aeneas when he was f l y i n g 80 from Troy and coming to I t a l y , and that, therefore, they f e l t that they were connected w i t h the Roman people by some r e l a t i o n s h i p . Nor was the b e l i e f confined to the Roman people. 81. . Pausanias r e l a t e s that Pyrrhus, w h i l e h i s help was being sought against the. Romans, r e c o l l e c t e d the capture of Troy 75. Probably Seleucus IV of S y r i a . See Seleucus i n Smith's Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, page 775, "But he was .... f i d e l i t y . " 76. Accius (170-86 B.C.). 77. L u c r e t i u s (95-54 B.C.). 78. BUG. De~Re. Nat I , 1. 79. Cicero (102-43 B.C.). In Ver. I I , i v , 72. 80. Cicero uses "haec l o c a " , 81. Pausanias (2nd cent.. A.D.) I , z i i , 1. . 23. and entertained hopes i n regard to the same r e s u l t s , namely, that the enemy would give way to him, since he, a descendant of A c h i l l e s , was making war against the c o l o n i s t s of the Trojans. The evidence of coins i n connection w i t h the "belief i n the Aeneas legend i s of extreme importance because i t shows how deeply rooted b e l i e f i n the legend had become. Mention has already been made of the famous coin of Aeneia. Other 82 ' coins of t h i s c i t y have been found. They belong to a l a t e r period. One of these coins, assigned to the period B.C. 500-424, has a head of bearded Aeneas, helmeted, of archaic s t y l e . Other coins of Aeneia, assigned to the period B.C. 424-550, have a head of Aeneas of recent s t y l e w i t h the i n s c r i p t i o n Aineas or a head of Athena i n Athen-ian helmet bound w i t h o l i v e and w i t h the same i n s c r i p t i o n Aineas or a head of Ascanius i n Phrygian Cap w i t h the 85 84 i n s c r i p t i o n Aineaton. Coins of New I l i u m have a l i k e -ness of Aeneas c a r r y i n g Anchises from the burning c i t y . The i n c i d e n t of the legend which seems to be most frequently represented on the coins i s thatr of Aeneas ca r r y i n g Anchises. 82* Bead: H i s . Num. p. .214. 83, This i n s c r i p t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t l y s p e l l e d on other coins of t h i s type, 84. H i l l : Hand, of C-r, and Rom, Coins, p. 176. CHAPTER T i l l Highest Expression, of the Legend. I t i s i n the Augustan Age that the legend reaches the climax of i t s expression both i n Art and i n L i t e r a t u r e . 85 Coins, now minted, bear an image of the head of Augustus on the obverse and on the reverse an image of Aeneas ca r r y -ing Anchises. Each, image i s surrounded by the same i n s c r i p -t i o n . 'What., representation of the legend can be more s i g -n i f i c a n t than t h i s ? 86 87 'How, too, h i s t o r i a n s and poets e s t a b l i s h and exalt the legend. Dionysius sets i t on an h i s t o r i c a l and a chro n o l o g i c a l b a s i s and by so doing he r e j e c t s the imaginary 88 episodes found i n the Aeneid, " V i r g i l , however, gives the legend i t s l o f t i e s t expression when he lauds. Aeneas f o r the f u l f i l m e n t of h i s mission, and when he permits him a view of h i s descendants and of the future g l o r y of the Roman race. 85. H i l l : H i s * Rom. Coins, p. 118 and p i . A l l , 73. 86* L i v y , Dionysius* 87. T i b u l l u s , Ovid, V i r g i l . 88. ' e.g. Aeneas' v i s i t to Carthage i n Aen, IV, Aeneas' v i s i t to the Underworld i n Aen, VI. 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ancient Authors Accius: Aeneadae sive Decius (Ribbeck: Tragieorum Romanorum Fragmenta). Acusilaus: ( M i l l e r : Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum). Arctlnus: .Sack of I l i u m ("Evelyn-White: Homerica, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) . Cicero: In Verrem. Diodorus S i c u l u s : The H i s t o r i c a l L i b r a r y . Dionysius of Halicarnassus: A n t i q u i t a t e s Romanae, Ennius: Annales (Baehrens: Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum). Euripides:, Andromache, Hesiod: Thepgony.* Homer: I l i a d , Lesches or Lescheos: L i t t l e I l i a d (Evelyn-White: Homerica, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) . L i v y : Ab Urbe Condita, Lu c r e t i u s : De Rerum Natura, Lycophron: Alexandra. Naeyius: Bellum Punicum, (Baehrens: Poetae L a t i n i iviinores), Ovid: F a s t i . ivietamorphoses. Pausanias: P e r i e g e s i s of Greece. P l u t a r c h : "Vitae. Stasinus: Cypria (Evelyn-White: Homerica, Loeb, C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y ) . Stesichorus: Tabula I l i a c a (Baumeister: Denkmaler des Klassischen Altertums). i 2 8 . Suetonius: H i s t o r i a e Caesarum. T i b u l l u s : E l e g i e s . V i r g i l : Aeneid. Varro: De Lingua L a t i n a . De Re Rusti c a . Xenophon: Cynegeticus. Modern Authors Head, B.V. H i l l , G-.E. H i l l , G-.E. H i s t o r i a Numorum. Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins, H i s t o r i c a l Roman Coins. 

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