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The history, character, and customs of the Celts prior to the Roman conquest Lobb, Hilda Isabella 1940

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u S'-btS-j. if Y? . • t fc' /V-Dhe History,.Character, and Customs of the Ce l t s P r i o r to the Roman Conquest by H i l d a I s a b e l l a Lobb A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l * F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of CLASSICS „rfO The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1940 Contents Chapter . Page In t r o d u c t i o n i I , The H i s t o r y of the C e l t s as Revealed by ... Ancient A u t h o r i t i e s • 1 I I . The O r i g i n of the Cel t s as Revealed by Studies i n Philoikogy . 12 I I I * C e l t i c Expansion i n the Bronze Age 27 IV. C e l t i c Expansion i n the H a l l s t a t t P eriod 36 V. La Tene - The Golden Age of C e l t i c i s m 49 VI. La Tene - The Great Age of C e l t i c Expansion 60 V I I . She Character of the C e l t s 66 V I I I . • /The Customs of the C e l t s 75 Conclusion 93 Bibliography 96 i The H i s t o r y , Character, and Customs of the Ce l t s P r i o r to the Roman Conquest I n t r o d u c t i o n Mo "History of Europe" could p o s s i b l y be considered complete which does not contain some reference t o the C e l t s , that great people who had t h e i r o r i g i n i n Central Europe, and who, at the height of t h e i r power, inhabited Gaul, Noreia, Spain, the B r i t i s h I s l e s , and seotions of Germany, I t a l y , and A s i a Minor. In the majority of " H i s t o r i e s " , however, the a l l u s i o n s to the Ce l t s are vague and inadequate, and convey to the reader no knowledge of the r e a l importance of these people who made a very d e f i n i t e c o n t r i b u t i o n t'o the customs, a r t , and l i t e r a t u r e of the countries i n which they s e t t l e d , and who are, even to-day, through t h e i r descendants i n I r e l a n d , Scotland, Wales, and the western counties of England, e x e r c i s -ing a tremendous influence i n world a f f a i r s . Undoubtedly, l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n about the C e l t s because, u n t i l about a century ago, very l i t t l e was known of them. The e a r l i e s t references to the C e l t i c peoples were made by s e v e r a l ancient Greek h i s t o r i a n s and geographers, and they are important only because they suggest the boundaries, of the C e l t i c t e r r i t o r y at c e r t a i n dates. The next m a t e r i a l of any i i consequence was J u l i u s Caesar's account of h i s campaign against the Gauls, one of the great branches of the C e l t i c people. In his "De B e l l o G a l l i c o " , Caesar l e f t the world an imperishable mine of knowledge regarding the character, customs, and h i s t o r y of the Gauls of h i s day, but he gave l i t t l e or no information concerning the Gauls of an e a r l i e r p e r i o d . Such was also the case w i t h Tacitus and L i v y . None of these h i s t o r i a n s traced the o r i g i n of the C e l t s , or t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n from t h e i r e a r l i e s t abodes and customs to the environment i n which the w r i t e r s found them. Therefore, while the w r i t i n g s of these ancient authors give us very valuable i n f o r m a t i o n , they are extremely inadequate when considered by themselves, and i t i s only when they are considered i n conjunction w i t h the di s c o v e r i e s of modern research, that a f a i r l y complete h i s t o r y of these people can be obtained. The s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s of the l a s t hundred years i n the f i e l d s of p h y s i c a l anthropology, archaeology, and p h i l o l o g y have brought to l i g h t many new sources of information about the C e l t s . The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , through t h e i r measure-ments of human skeletons and s k u l l s which they have unearthed i n ancient graves and caverns, have been able to group the p r e h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s of c e n t r a l Europe i n t o s e v e r a l types. The a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have studied the weapons, p o t t e r y , and ornaments which were found w i t h the skeletons, and thus have been able to f i x the period of the l a t t e r . For example, skeletons found buried w i t h stone weapons obviously belong to the Stone Age while those buried with bronze or i r o n i i l implements date back to the Bronze or I r o n Ages. From such d i s c o v e r i e s the various types of C e l t i c people have been determined, and t h e i r weapons, dishes, and jewelry described. The p h i l o l o g i s t s , too, who have studied the remaining fragments of the numerous C e l t i c d i a l e c t s , and have revealed r e l a t i o n s both i n t e r n a l l y between the d i a l e c t s and e x t e r n a l l y w i t h other Indo-European languages, have aided i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the C e l t s i n time and place. In t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , an attempt i s made to summarize, through reference to ancient authors and modern researoh, the main f a c t s i n the h i s t o r y and customs of the C e l t i c peoples p r i o r to the Roman Conquest. Several o f the ancient authors whose works have been of s e r v i c e have already been mentioned. Of those who have w r i t t e n accounts of the C e l t s based c h i e f l y on the s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , Hubert was undoubtedly one of the g r e a t e s t , and many a l l u s i o n s to h i s work w i l l be found h e r e i n . Chapter I The H i s t o r y of the C e l t s as Revealed by Ancient A u t h o r ! t i e s Some modern a u t h o r i t i e s , notably M. Salomon Reinach and M. d'Arbois de J u b a i n v i l l e , c l a i m that the f i r s t h i s t o r i -1 eal - a l l u s i o n to anything C e l t i c occurs i n Homer's • " I l i a d " i n - . „ ' . ' - ' 2 • ;•-the use of the word K»t<r<ri,Tfpos. which means " t i n " . They assume that t h i s word i s C e l t i c because the root " c a s s i " i s found i n many C e l t i c names such as "Cassivellaunus" and 3 • "Veliocasses", and that the Phoenicians introduced i t to the Greeks from Cornwall, which was the great source of t i n i n the ancient world. I f these assumptions could be proved, the use of "« <*. <r<ro repo & '±xi the " I l i a d " would i n d i c a t e that p r i o r to 800 B.C. there were S e l t s d w e l l i n g along the southern coast of Cornwall. Unfortunately, however, there i s no evidence to support t h i s theory f o r the most commonly accepted d e r i v a t i o n of the word k o c i s - a - t r ^ o i ' i s from tlie S a n s k r i t " K a s t i r a " , that i n turn being derived from the 1. Rice Holmes, T. - "Ancient B r i t a i n and the Invasions o f J u l i u s Caesar" - P t * I I , p.433. 2. Leaf, W. - "The I l i a d " - Vo^.I, B k . l l : 25,34; Vol.11, Bk.18: 474,565,574,612; Bk.20: 271; Bk.21: 592; Bk.23:503, 561. 3. Rice.Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . - P t . I I , p.453. 2 1 Sumeriaxi or Semitic "kash" or "shiny metal". I t therefore seems much more probable that the Phoenicians f i r s t got the name along w i t h the metal from the East, and that they took the name to Cornwall when they went there to trade f o r the same commodity. In t h i s case, the use of the word by Homer would have no value as a C e l t i c reference. In order to understand the next recorded a l l u s i o n s to the C e l t s , i t i s necessary to know something regarding the si z e and shape of the world as i t then appeared to the ancient Greek h i s t o r i a n s and geographers. They b e l i e v e d that the earth consisted of an oval of land surrounding the Mediter-ranean, Aegean, and Black Seas, t h i s land being wholly surrounded i n t u r n by a great body of water. The c i v i l i z e d p o r t i o n of t h i s t e r r i t o r y was a narrow f r i n g e encompassing the Aegean and the Mediterranean, and between t h i s area and the ocean there l i v e d great b a r b a r i a n peoples. Through a l i n e quoted by Strabo from the work of Hesiod, we know that i n the eighth century B.C., these bar-barians were c l a s s i f i e d by the Greeks i n t o three groups -ALQC o TToc 5 re / I t y a s re c Se Z>Kve<*s Lir-rrny-o/tyons. The second people mentioned were the L i g u r i a n s who e v i d e n t l y had the C e l t s as close neighbours, f o r about 50G B.C. the f i r s t Greek h i s t o r i a n , Hecataeus of M i l e t u s , i n h i s work 1. L i d d e l l and Scott - "Greek-English Lexicon" - p. 648, under ,LK<X <T6-<.-rfpos 2. Jones, H. L. - "The Geography of Strabo" - Y o l . I I I , 7.3.7, pp.196-197. ("I.saw Ethiopians and L i g u r i a n s and mare-m i l k i n g Scythians.,") "Europe", fragments of which have been preserved by other w r i t e r s , r e f e r s to a C e l t i c part of t h i s L i g u r i a n t e r r i t o r y . He t e l l s us that the C e l t s had a c i t y c a l l e d Nyrax^T While p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s impossible, t h i s c i t y i s believed to have been on the s i t e of the l a t e r Noreia i n Noricum, on the headwaters of the Danube. Such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s very probable i n the l i g h t of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which show that at that period t h i s c i t y would not be f a r d i s t a n t from the centre of C e l t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , Hecataeus, i n speaking of M a s s i l i a or M a r s e i l l e s which had been founded at the mouth of the Rhone i n 600 B.C. by Phocaeans described i t as "a c i t y i n the L i g y s t i c country near the 2 C e l t i c country." Ihese two a l l u s i o n s i n d i c a t e that by the beginning of the f i f t h century the C e l t i c domains spread over a considerable p o r t i o n of c e n t r a l Europe. Another reference to the C e l t s of approximately the same date as that of Hecataeus was made i n an o l d " p e r i p l u s " or account of a sea-voyage w r i t t e n by a M a s s i l i a n merchant who t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n order t o o b t a i n commodities f o r h i s business. The o r i g i n a l manuscript was l o s t , but i t s contents were preserved by Rufus Festus Avienus i n a L a t i n verse t r a n s l a t i o n c a l l e d "Ora Maritima". A French t r a n s l a t i o n of part of the "Ora Maritima" contains these l i n e s : " S i au l i e u de se d i r i g e r vers l e s Oestrymnides, on ose s'aventurer dans l a mer vers l e nord, on a r r i v e r a au pays qui fut ocoupe* 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " 0- I n t r o d . p.2. 2* i b i d . par l e s L i g u r e s , aujourd'hui depeupll par 1'invasion c e l t i q u e . " 1 2 Because there are two Les Oestrymnides mentioned i n the poem, one of which can be i d e n t i f i e d with Gape Saint-Vincent on the south-west t i p of Spain, the other with Gape F i n i s t e r e or B r i t t a n y , these l i n e s have l e d to much controversy. As i t 3b s not c e r t a i n which Les Oestrymnides was r e f e r r e d to i n the quotation, two t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s can be placed on the passage. Some a u t h o r i t i e s claim that the reference i s to Les Oestrymnides i n Spain, and that therefore, p r i o r to 500 B.C., the L i g u r i a n s had been d r i v e n back from the west coast of what i s now P o r t u g a l or France towards the 3 mountains. On the other hand, many prominent C e l t i c students think that Cape F i n i s t e r e i s meant, and that p r i o r to the w r i t i n g of the o r i g i n a l p e r i p l u s , the L i g u r i a n s had reached the northern coast of modern France or Belgium, or even, perhaps, the F r i s i a n Coast, but had been dri v e n back to the 4 Alps by the C e l t s . The l a t t e r surmise i s f u r t h e r strengthened by a reference i n the work of Apo l l o n i u s of Rhodes,, who based the geography of h i s epic poem, the "Argonautica", on the work of e a r l i e r geographers. In d e s c r i b i n g the journey of the Argonauts up the Rhone, he t e l l s of t h e i r adventures on the stormy Swiss Lakes under the Hercynian Mountains which, he says, "extend i n t o the midst of the C e l t i c country." 5 1. Bonsor, G. - "Tartesse", c h . l , p.5 - t r a n s l a t i o n of v.113-^ 119 of "Ora Maritima". 2. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - V o l . V I I , c h . I I , p.51. 3. i b i d . , p.5.2. Also , Bonsor, G. - o p . c i t . c h . l , p.5. 4. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . , I n t r o d . , p.2. 5. Mooney, G.W. - "The Argonautiea of Apo l l o n i u s Rhodius" -.Further enlightenment as to the l o c a t i o n of the C e l t s about 450 B.C. i s given to us by the h i s t o r i a n Herodotus. In t r a c i n g the course of the r i v e r I s t e r or Danube, he says " i t flows from the land of the Celtae and the c i t y of Pyrene 1 through the very midst of Europe." This a l l u s i o n to a c i t y of Pyrene has caused much confusion. The C e l t s may have had a c i t y of t h i s name, but i t i s more probable that Herodotus was mistaken over the source of the Danube, and t h i n k i n g that i t rose i n the Pyrenees Mountains, he applied the name of the mountains to the town. He also says, "The C e l t s dwell beyond the p i l l a r s of Heracles, being neighbours of the Cynesii who 2 are the westernmost of a l l nations i n h a b i t i n g Europe." These references show c o n c l u s i v e l y that at t h i s period the C e l t i c people had over-run western Europe from the head-waters of the Danube to the v i c i n i t y of the A t l a n t i c Ocean. One hundred year's l a t e r confirmation of t h i s f a c t was given by the h i s t o r i a n Ephorus, f o r Strabo, quoting the older h i s t o r i a n , says, "Ephorus, i n h i s account, makes C e l t i c a so excessive i n i t s s i z e that he assigns to the regions of C e l t i c a most of the regions as f a r as Gades, of what we now c a l l I b e r i a . " 3 5. (continued from previous page) AVrOU A Y T I K H N A -.pp. 359-540,11.627* 647. Also Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , I n t r o d . p.3. 1. Godley, A.D. - "Herodotus" - VoJ..I, Bk.II,35 - pp.314-515. 2. ibid.» Vol.11, Bk.IV, 49, pp.250-251. 3. Jones, H.L. - o p . c i t . , Vol.11, 4.4.6, pp.250-251. In a passage preserved by P l u t a r c h , Timaeus also about 260 B.C. adequately summarizes the s i t u a t i o n when he informs us that a l l the r i v e r s of Europe flowing i n t o the A t l a n t i c go 1 through C e l t i c country* About 325 B.C., Pytheas, on a voyage of discovery sponsored by a group of M a s s i l i a n merchants, proceeded north to B r i t t a n y where he recorded the presence of the O s i s m i i , one of the C e l t i c t r i b e s , at the t i p of F i n i s t e r e or ' 2 "Aremorica". He a l s o found C e l t s s e t t l e d i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s f o r i n r e f e r r i n g to h i s v i s i t there he d i d not use the old I b e r i a n or L i g u r i a n name of A l b i o n , but the C e l t i c " P r e ttanie I s l e s " which he wrote i n Greek as JfpeTT^vLK^c Vn<roc , whence comes the name B r i t a i n . Up to t h i s p e r i o d , the h i s t o r i c a l information a v a i l a b l e regarding the C e l t s i s c h i e f l y concerned with those d w e l l i n g near the sea-coasts of France, Spain, and B r i t a i n , f o r p r i o r to 325 B.C. very l i t t l e was known of the Ce l t s of c e n t r a l Europe due to the f a c t that they were seldom v i s i t e d by t r a d e r s . Just before the time of Pytheas' voyage -t however, the C e l t s i n the i n t e r i o r began to migrate southwards and eastwards, and accordingly we le a r n a great deal more of t h e i r movements because they now came i n t o d i r e c t contact f o r the f i r s t time w i t h the Romans and the Greeks who have l e f t many accounts of the ensuing c o n f l i c t s . 1. P l u t a r c h i - "M o r a l i a " - Tom.V, De P l a c i t i s Philosophor, B k . I I I , p.281. 2. Hubert, H. - p p . c i t . - I n t r o d . , p.4. 3* The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y " - V o l . V I I , Ch.II, p.53. -About 400. B.C., a s e c t i o n of the C e l t i c people known as the Gauls began to move southward. Although L i v y places the date of t h i s migration as about 600 B.C. when Tarquinius P r i s c u s was k i n g of Rome, a l l other evidence shows that the l a t e r date i s probably more c o r r e c t . In h i s account, however, L i v y t e l l s us that the B i t u r i g e s were the strongest t r i b e among the c e l t s . 1 This t r i b e so increased i n numbers during the r e i g n of t h e i r k i n g , Ambigatus, that h\e decided to take steps to r e l i e v e the burden of over-population. Accordingly, he d i r e c t e d h i s nephews, Segovesus and Bellovesus, to lead two expeditions i n t o new t e r r i t o r y . Auspices were taken to i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n i n which the p a r t i e s should t r a v e l . As a r e s u l t of the d i v i n a t i o n of these auspices, Segovesus was commanded to lead h i s group north towards the Hercynian Forest, while .Bellovesus was to proceed south towards I t a l y . P l u t a r c h , i n h i s ffiLife of Camillus", r e l a t e s the same story i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form. He says that the population of the Gauls, who were of C e l t i c stock, was so great that t h e i r land could not support a l l of them, and so they set out to search f o r other regions i n which to l i v e . Some of them moved towards the northern ocean and s e t t l e d i n the remotest parts of Erarope, while others •invaded the country between the Pyrenees and the Alps where they remained u n t i l someone imported wine to them from I t a l y . They are supposed to have enjoyed t h i s drink so much that they determined to go to the land where i t was 1. L i v i i P a t a v i n i , T. - "Historiarum L i b r i " - Tom.I, Bk.V, 34, p.325. 2. P e r r i n , B. - "Plutarch's f i v e s ' " , Vol.11. - The L i f e of Camillus - pp. 126-127. produced, and so a f t e r much d i f f i c u l t y they crossed the Alps and s e t t l e d i n the northern part of I t a l y , i n the V a l l e y of the Po, which was l a t e r known as C i s a l p i n e Gaul. Successive bands of Gauls crossed the A l p s , however, and as C i s a l p i n e Gaul could not provide land f o r a l l of them, some of the t r i b e s moved f u r t h e r south and conquered Tuscany. A f t e r defeating a Roman army on the banks of the River A l l i a about twenty miles from Rome, they captured the c i t y i t s e l f " 1 " and held i t f o r a short period before they were f i n a l l y expelled... U n t i l the end of the century, however, the C e l t s continued to make sporadic a t t a c k s on various parts of I t a l y . Simultaneously, the C e l t s were moving eastwards. In 355 B.C., when Alexander held a meeting at the mouth of the Danube of deputations from the peoples l i v i n g i n the v a l l e y of that great r i v e r , envoys came to him from the C e l t s who 2 dwelt on the Ionian Gulf, at the head of the A d r i a t i c . Twenty-five years l a t e r there was a great C e l t i c m i g r a t i o n eastward along the v a l l e y of the Danube, and down through Macedonia. In 279 B.C., these C e l t i c bands invaded Greece and l o o t e d the famous shrine at D e l p h i . They crossed the Hellespont i n t o A s i a Minor, and f i n a l l y s e t t l e d i n a d i s t r i c t to which they gave t h e i r name, that i s , " G a l a t i a " . 1. L i v i i P a t a v i n i , T. - o p . c i t . - Tom.I, V, 38-49, pp.329- 340. 2. A r r i a n i - "Anabasis et I n d i c a " - I , 4.6., p.5. 3. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - Introd.,p.6. 'At approximately the same time, another party of C e l t s penetrated the t e r r i t o r y of the L i g u r i a n s , and reached the shores of the Mediterranean. As a consequence, the Gulf 1 of Lions became known as " G a l l i c u s . S i n u s " . In 218 B.C., Hannibal, on h i s way to the A l p s , met C e l t s throughout t h i s • • 2 t e r r i t o r y , and according to a statement w r i t t e n by Polybius about seventy years l a t e r , these people were t h i c k l y s e t t l e d ' '' .3 i n the e n t i r e area between the Pyrenees and Narbo. In 222 B.C., however, C e l t i c power began to decline f o r the Romans, a f t e r d e f e ating the Gauls i n the v a l l e y of the Po, brought that t e r r i t o r y under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . Soon afterwards, they obtained a f i r m f o o t - h o l d i n Spain. Then i n 120 B.C., the are_a of G a l l i c t e r r i t o r y eastrofL, 4.quitania and extending from the Pyrenees north to the Garonne and then eastwards to the Alps and the southern t i p of Lake Geneva was made a Roman province under the name " P r o v i n c i a " . The next major event i n C e l t i c h i s t o r y was the eight years' campaign c a r r i e d on by Caesar which f i n a l l y reduced Gaul to the stat u s of a Roman province. Because the Gelts were being c o n t i n u a l l y pressed westward by northern peoples, Gaul and B r i t a i n were at t h i s time the great strongholds of C e l t i c i s m , and so i n "De B e l l o G a l l i c o " we f i n d information of the greatest value concerning the C e l t s because i t was w r i t t e n 1. L i v i i P a t a v i n i , T. - o p . c i t . - Tom.II - XXVI, 19, p.303. 2. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t y , - P t . I I , ' Ch.V, p.302. 3. Paton, W. _R.- - "Polybius - The H i s t o r i e s " - Vol.VI, BlqpKlV, •9,3 - p.321. 10 by a man who v i s i t e d them and came i n t o personal contact with t h e i r h a b i t s . d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s , B e l g i c a , A q u i t a n i a , and Gaul proper, each of which had i t s own language, customs, and laws. Then 1 he proceeds to delineate the boundaries of each s e c t i o n * Next he informs us that the reason f o r h i s invasion of Gaul was the f a c t that the C e l t i c t r i b e known as the H e l v e t i i were preparing to migrate, and that they intended to cross the 2 Roman P r o v i n c i a . A f t e r he had overcome the H e l v e t i i , he had to q u e l l the Belgae who had entered i n t o a confederacy against the Roman people. By t h i s time, the Gauls r e a l i z e d that Caesar's object was to conquer them, and so during the next s i x years they fomented a succession o f outbreaks i n various parts of Gaul. In the t h i r d year of h i s campaign, Caesar and h i s army were compelled to f i g h t on three f r o n t s — j u s t east of Lake Geneva, i n Aremorica or F i n i s t l r e , and again i n the t e r r i t o r y of the Belgae. In the next two seasons Caesar invaded B r i t a i n because the Celts there were sending help 4 to the C e l t s on the mainland. In the s i x t h and seventh 5 years the Romans had to meet u p r i s i n g s a l l over Gaul, but at the end of the seventh campaign, they i n f l i c t e d a t e r r i b l e • defeat on the Gauls at A l e s i a , and the G a l l i c leader, 6 Verejgagetorix, was surrendered to Caesar. The eighth year 1. Rice Holmes, T. "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l l i c o " - I , 1,pp.1-2, Caesar opens h i s book by t e l l i n g us that Gaul was 2. i b i d I , 7, p.8. 3. i b i d I I I , pp.100-128. 4* i b i d IV and V. i b i d VI and V I I . 6. i b i d . , V I I , 68-90, pp.336-361. saw the end of Gaesar's campaigns and Gaul a Roman province. A f t e r Gaesar's time, the r e s t of the C e l t i c t e r r i t o r y -came under Roman domination, the Cel t s became a subject race, and t h e i r h i s t o r y became entwined w i t h that of Rome. Although with the absorption of the C e l t i c t e r r i t o r y i n t o the Roman Empire a l l u s i o n s to the C e l t s became much more frequent i n Roman l i t e r a t u r e , we s h a l l not concern ourselves with these as we are mainly i n t e r e s t e d i n the C e l t s as an independent people f r e e to f o l l o w t h e i r own methods of government and t h e i r own customs. At t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e f o r e , we s h a l l leave our chapter on t h e h i s t o r y of the C e l t s as revealed by ancient a u t h o r i t i e s and enter the f i e l d of modern research. Chapter I I The O r i g i n of the C e l t s as Revealed by Studies i n P h i l o l o g y One of the most f r u i t f u l l i n e s of research i n the e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y of the C e l t s i s a study of t h e i r languages, and i n t h i s f i e l d there has been much a c t i v i t y i n recent years. Very few sources of information concerning the ancient C e l t i c languages are a v a i l a b l e . On the Continent 1 there are to be found about s i x t y C e l t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , some of which are w r i t t e n i n Greek or Etruscan characters, while others are i n Roman. There are al s o some proper names and a few common nouns. While these fragments are i n seve r a l d i a l e c t s , they are now a l l grouped together as belonging to 1 the ancient Gaulish or G a l l i c language. A small Gaulish vocabulary which was discovered i n Vienna i n a manuscript belonging to the eighth century A.D., but which was probably 2 f i r s t compiled i n the f i f t h century, i s of great value i n a study of t h i s language. More information i s a v a i l a b l e about Old I r i s h and Old B r i t i s h because more i n s c r i p t i o n s and more 3 glosses concerning t h e i r d i a l e c t s have survived. The modern C e l t i c languages are d i v i d e d into two 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.II, p.35. 2. i b i d . , P t . I , Ch.II, p.36. 3. i b i d . , P t . I , C h . I I , p.35. 13 groups which have e x i s t e d from the time of the Bronze Age. These two groups are known as G o i d e l i c and B r y t h o n i c . 1 The G o i d e l i c group includes I r i s h , the G a e l i c of Scotland, and 2 the Manx of the I s l e of Man. In the Brythonic group are 2 Breton, Welsh,and Cornish. The use of Cornish died out i n 1 Cornwall at the end of the eighteenth century, but Gaelic i s yet i n use i n the Highlands of Scotland. Y/elsh i s s t i l l spoken and sung i n the mountain v a l l e y s of Wales, and Erse has undergone a tremendous r e v i v a l with the determination of modern I r e l a n d or E i r e to prove i t s e l f the worthy i n h e r i t o r of a b r i l l i a n t C e l t i c ancestry. A study of the Gaulish, I r i s h , and Welsh fragments reveals a close resemblance between t h e i r vocabularies. In a glossary of approximately one thousand Gaulish words compiled by M. D o t t i n , there are very few which have no 3 equivalent i n I r i s h or Welsh, or i n both. The word "magos^ or " p l a i n " i s found i n the Gaulish "Noviomagus" or "New P l a i n " , i n the I r i s h "magh", i n the Welsh "ma", and i n the Breton 4 . f'maes". Corresponding to the G a l l i c "Vernomagus" or "Alder F i e l d " we f i n d the I r i s h ,rFernmag", and the G a l l i c "Senomagus" . 3 . or "Old P l a i n " i s the same as the I r i s h "Sen Mag". For the Gaulish "Trinanto" or "Three Y a l l e y s " we have the ffielsh 3 "Trineint"'. 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I , Ch.II, p.35. 2. i b i d . t p.34-35. 3. i b i d . , p.37. 4* I b i d . , pp.36-37. 14 S i m i l a r comparisons can be made between G e l t i b e r i a n , Spanish, G a l l i c , and B r i t i s h words. The Spanish "acnuna", a name f o r a land-measure, i s i n r e a l i t y the same as the Gaulish 1 "acina". The Spanish equivalent of the name of the B r i t i s h queen Boadioea, was "Boudica". x C i s a l p i n e Gaulish " ^ V C ^ K ^ ^ n or " c o l l a r " i s j u s t another form of the I r i s h "muince" or of 1 . ^ • • the Old Welsh "minci". The Galatian " H- ^z0 K c L S / " i s un-doubtedly c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the I r i s h "marc" and the Welsh 1 •'march". There were s i m i l a r i t i e s among the C e l t i c languages not only i n vocabulary but also i n grammatical c o n s t r u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs. For example, nouns whose stems ended i n £, a, and i _ . 2 formed t h e i r g e n i t i v e s r e s p e c t i v e l y i n i ^ , as, and os. In Old I r i s h there was a conjugation i n which the f i r s t person s i n g u l a r of the i n d i c a t i v e ended i n u, e.g. " t i a g u " o r " I go." Welsh had the same conjugation but i n that language the u became _i as i n " c a r a s i " meaning " I have loved'?. On a Gaulish i n s c r i p t i o n on the Continent the same conjugation has been 3 found i n the use of the word " k a r n i t u " meaning " I heaped up". Further proof of the k i n s h i p of the C e l t i c languages l i e s i n the f a c t that the various C e l t i c peoples were eviden t l y 4 able to understand one another. In the accounts that have survived of intercourse between them there i s no mention of • i n t e r p r e t e r s being employed. T a c i t u s , i n h i s " A g r i c o l a " , 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I , Ch.II, p.38. 2. i b i d . , p.38,, footnote 7. 3. i b i d . , pp. 38 - 39. 4. i b i d . , p.40. t e l l s us that there was very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between ••* > -1 B r i t i s h and Gaulish, and St. Jerome, i n w r i t i n g a commentary on S t . Paul•s " E p i s t l e to the Galatians" a f t e r v i s i t i n g the Galatians at the end of the f o u r t h century A.D., says that they spoke a C e l t i c d i a l e c t which was very l i k e that of the people of Treves. For approximately seven centuries the Galatians had been l i v i n g i n A s i a Minor surrounded by other peoples who mainly spoke Greek, yet t h e i r language could s t i l l be recognized as C e l t i c . When a f t e r such an i n t e r v a l of time peoples as widely separated as the Galatians on the one hand and the I r i s h and Welsh on the other s t i l l used words as s i m i l a r as . . - / • • " h i° K o i v ", "marc", and "march", i t i s proof of the f a c t , 5 that t h e i r languages had a common source. Once t h i s c onclusion i s reached, i t i s not a very d i f f i c u l t task to trace the o r i g i n of the C e l t i c languages. I t i s now u n i v e r s a l l y accepted that they belong to the Indo-European f a m i l y , the f i r s t home of which i s generally admitted to l i e i n the grassland area j u s t north of the Black and Caspian Seas. Prom t h i s t e r r i t o r y , whikh was the h a b i t a t of a p a s t o r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l people, there was a s e r i e s of migrations eastwards and westwards over a long p e r i o d . As a r e s u l t of contacts with other languages during the course of these migrations, d i f f e r e n c e s developed i n the o r i g i n a l language 1. D e l p h i n i C l a s s i c i - "T a c i t u s " - Vol.VI, A g r i c o l a , Cap.11, : p.3482. 2. Hubert, H. o p . c i t . , P t . I , Oh.II, .p.41. A l s o , The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 11th Ed., Vol.V - p.613,1st c o l . 3. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . ,t P t . I , c h . I I , p.40. 16 and there r e s u l t e d the various branches of the Indo-European language such as S a n s k r i t , I r a n i a n , Greek, I t a l i c , and C e l t i c . I f the grammars of the C e l t i c and Indo-European languages are compared, the k i n s h i p between them i s i l l u s t r a t e d by. t h e i r great number of verb tenses, a feature which i s 1 d i s t i n c t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Indo-European languages. An examination of the vocabularies of the various Indo-European and C e l t i c tongues shows t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p even more c l e a r l y . For example, the word f o r "mother" i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same i n a l l the Indo-European languages, i t being "mathir" i n Old I r i s h , "matres" i n Gaulish, "mader" i n Old I c e l a n d i c , "Mutter" i n modern German, "mater" i n L a t i n , n i^.<x. r-nf> « i n Doric Greek, "matar" i n S a n s k r i t , "mayr" i n . _ z Armenian, and "macar" and "madhar" i n Tokharian. The idea of an "enclosure" i s contained i n almost the same word i n various Indo-European languages, e.g. " f e r t " i n Old I r i s h , " f e a r t " i n modern I r i s h , and " v r t i h " i n S a n s k r i t . Other words c l o s e l y a l l i e d to these i n form and meaning are the Greek » ep v a-6 °L L " F the Gothic "warjan", the modern German "wehren", I r i s h "ferann", and S a n s k r i t "varanah". I t must be admitted, hovjever, that while the vocabu-l a r i e s of the C e l t i c and other Indo-European languages show great resemblances to one another, the C e l t i c vocabularies have c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s . Several words and ro o t s that are found i n most of the other Indo-European languages are missing i n C e l t i c , and t h e i r places taken by other words. As these 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I , c h . I I , p.43~, 2. i b i d . -2p-.4;3._4.4. 3. ibid. - ? 4 4 -innovations pan be e a s i l y explained, however, they by no ' 1 means suggest that the C e l t i c languages are not Indo-European. One reason for- such v a r i a t i o n s i s that c e r t a i n new words were absorbed i n t o C e l t i c from the languages with which the Celt s came i n t o contact. Just what these words were we have no means of knowing as the p r e - C e l t i c western languages, with the exception of Basque, have disappeared. No doubt some Indo-European words were discarded by the Ce l t s because of r e l i g i o u s scruples. Then, too, i n the e a r l y Indo-European language, there were doubtless sev e r a l words i n use f o r the same object. A f t e r i t s separation i n t o d i f f e r e n t branches, however, one group of people would probably use one word, while f o r the same object another group would use a d i f f e r e n t word. The C e l t i c languages are also d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l the other Indo-European languages by c e r t a i n phonetic ' 2 • • fe a t u r e s . Whereas'the other Indo-European languages had vowel-consonants - m, n,r, and 1, i n the C e l t i c languages the r i s always represented by r i before a consonant. Then,too, i n C e l t i c the Indo-European diphthong ejL became i " , and the Indo-European e became i , as witness the L a t i n "rex" and the C e l t i c " r i x " . The most s t r i k i n g change, however, i s the dropping i n the C e l t i c languages^, with s e v e r a l exceptions, of the Indo-European p at the beginning or i n the middle of a word. The name "Aremorici" f o r "the people who l i v e by the sea" i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . "Mor" i s of course the "sea", while "are" means 'by" and i s equivalent to the Greek" ir<xf>« " 1. Hubert, H. o p . c i t . , P t . I , c h . I I , pp.47-50. 2. i b i d . , pp*44-46. and Lati>n "prae". The "ver" part of the name of the famous C e l t i c leader, V e r c i n g e t o r i x •„ who was l i t e r a l l y the "Chief King of those who march against the foe", corresponds to the Greek c <-nvTf * f> ». i n t h i s case the p_ has been dropped from the middle of the p r e f i x . These phonetic changes are a c t u a l l y f u r t h e r evidence' that the C e l t i c languages were Indo-Eurppean, because i n them l i e s the answer to the very important question as to whether-the' C e l t i c languages were Indo-European by o r i g i n , or by adoption as i n the case of Germanic. A people who adopt a language are so very p a r t i c u l a r about the pronunciation of the consonants that they l a y e x t r a s t r e s s on them, and i n the process of exaggeration there i s a change from e a s i l y pro-nounced consonants such as b_, d, and g to consonants l i k e £» JL> k> a r i < i 2l whose a r t i c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e s more e f f o r t . Now the phonetic changes i n the C e l t i c languages were i n just the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Instead of t h e i r consonants becoming more d i f f i c u l t to u t t e r , they were becoming e a s i e r , as witness the examples quoted where the i n i t i a l or middle p_ was dropped al t o g e t h e r , i t s place being taken by a mere breath. This trend i n d i c a t e s that the use of an Indo-European language was so n a t u r a l to the C e l t s that theyiat&ust have been Inde-Europeans 1 by o r i g i n . The people who were to be the ancestors of the C e l t s , however, migrated from the o r i g i n a l home of the Indo-Europeans 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I , oh.II, p.52. probably during the N e o l i t h i c Age. I f we can determine where they f i r s t s e t t l e d , we s h a l l have located the r e a l home, or the cradle as i t i s known, of a l l the C e l t i c peoples. As the only C e l t s i n A s i a were those who migrated there'in the t h i r d century B.C., the cradle of the Celts must have been somewhere i n Europe. A f u r t h e r comparison of the s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t i n g between the Indo-European languages w i l l show that the C e l t i c languages are much more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to I t a l i c and Germanic than to any of the others, and i t i s through the s p e c i a l a f f i n i t i e s e x i s t i n g between these three groups of languages that the o r i g i n a l home of the C e l t s can be d e f i n i t e l y located.. The Indo-European languages have been divided i n t o two groups according to the way i n which the i n i t i a l consonant of the word f o r "hundred" developed. In some of the Indo-European languages such as I r a n i a n and S a n s k r i t , t h i s i n i t i a l consonant became a s i b i l a n t and these languages are c l a s s i f i e d as belonging to the "satem" group, while i n others the i n i t i a l consonant f o r "hundred" remained an o c c l u s i v e , and accordingly 1 they are s a i d to belong to the "centum" group. In the l a t t e r c l a s s f f i c a t i o n belong C e l t i c , I t a l i c , and Germanic. These three languages a l l share a m o d i f i c a t i o n i n rhythm which i s one of the most st a b l e Elements of the Indo-European language. In the l a t t e r , the accent of a word was very weak and f e l l anywhere according to the.sense, but i n C e l t i c , i J B a l i c , and Germanic, the accent became one of strese 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I , c h . i l l , p.55. 20 1 placed u s u a l l y on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of a word. They have s i m i l a r t r a i t s also i n phonetics, while i n grammar they have s p e c i a l forms to express the p r e t e r i t e and the 2 past subjunctive. In t h e i r v ocabularies, too, these three languages show very close r e l a t i o n s h i p s as they alone of the Indo-European languages have c e r t a i n roots or forms of the same root, or c e r t a i n meanings f o r these r o o t s . For example, the root of the L a t i n "hasta" i s purely western, other forms from the same root, being found only i n C e l t i c and Germanic, as witness the I r i s h "gas" or " s t a l k " , Gothic "gazds" or "goad", and Old High German "gert" or "rod". The I r i s h " f a i t h " f o r "bard" or "soothsayer", the L a t i n "va.tes", and the modern German "Wuth" are a l l i e d words found only i n the western branches of the Indo-European speeches. In a d d i t i o n to features shared i n common by the C e l t i c , I t a l i c , and Germanic languages, C e l t i c has c e r t a i n a f f i n i t i e s with each of the other two. As L a t i n i s the only I t a l i c language of which we possess a complete vocabulary, we s h a l l use i t to compare with the C e l t i c languages. L a t i n , of course, was g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d i n i t s development by i t s contact with Greek, which was for a long time the general language spoken i n the Mediterranean Area. Nevertheless, L t a i n contains many elements whihh show that before i t became influenced by Greek, i t had been very 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - F t . I , O h . I l l , p*55. 2, i b i d . , p.56. 5. i b i d . •, pi56. 21 c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to C e l t i c . 'Some of the p r e f i x e s and conjunctions i n L a t i n and C e l t i c are p r a c t i c a l l y the same. For L a t i n "de", I r i s h and 1 Brythonic have " d i n , while f o r L a t i n "cum" they have "com". Both groups have two forms of the same a d j e c t i v e to say "other". From a stem " a l i - " we have the I t a l i c " a l i s " and " a l i d " whence comes the L a t i n " a l t e r " and Welsh " e i l " , a l l of these meaning "the second". Then from a stem " a l i o - " , we 1 f i n d L a t i n " a l i u s " and " a l i u d " and I r i s h " a i l e " . Both groups have many other words formed from common r o o t s . For example, from a s p e c i a l root V g ^ , meaning "do", L a t i n has "gnavus", I r i s h has "gniu" or ( tI do", "gnim"' or "deed", "fogniu" or - •. 2 . . "I serve", "fognom" or " s e r v i c e " , and Welsh has "gweini". I t i s i n grammar, however, that C e l t i c and L a t i n have the c l o s e s t s i m i l a r i t i e s . In both groups, noun stems ending i n o.firm t h e i r g e n i t i v e i n 1, f o r example, L a t i n "dominus-domini", 2 and C e l t i c "Segomaros-Segomari" and• ttaagos-magi". Both .3 • . ' ' languages have verb nouns i n " - t i o n " . The s u p e r l a t i v e of a d j e c t i v e s i n both groups i s formed by adding a form of "-samo-n, i n L a t i n rt-(s)imw", i n C e l t i c "-(s)am-" or "-(s)em-", to the p o s i t i v e . This f a c t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the words f o r "nearest." In L a t i n , the word i s "proximag", i n Oscan "nessimas", i n Umbrian "nesimei", i n Old I r i s h "nessam", and i n Welsh 4 "nesaf In t h e i r verb forms, both C e l t i c and L a t i n have the I* Hubert, H.,op.cit.- P t . I , o h . I l l , p.58. 2. i b i d . p . 5 9 . 3. "The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a " - 11th Ed. -Vol.V,p.612,2na/col. 4. Hubert,H., o p . c i t . - P t . I , c h . I I I , p.60. . 22 the future formed i n "-bo". 1 Both, a l s o , have a deponent to take the place of the Greek middle voice which has a r e f l e x i v e meaning. The forms of the deponent are i d e n t i c a l i n both L a t i n and C e l t i c , f o r example, "loquor " l a b r u r " , " l o q u i t u r <=labrithir" 1 and "loquimur = labrimmir". While L a t i n has the personal passive v o i c e , there are a l s o i n sev e r a l words such as " i t u r " examples of the use of an impersonal passive which i s the 2 only passive voice the C e l t i c languages possess. : A s ' i t s grammatical s t r u c t u r e i s the most permanent thing about any language and the l e a s t l i k e l y to change, the close s i m i l a r i t i e s between the C e l t i c and L a t i n grammars suggest that the C e l t i c and I t a l i c stock f i r s t shared the same h a b i t a t before the I t a l i o i moved south i n t o the peninsula now known as I t a l y . In a comparison of C e l t i c and Germanic, i t becomes evident that the l i k e n e s s e s are not grammatical, as i n the case of C e l t i c and I t a l i c . Indeed, i n the declension of t h e i r 4 nouns and a d j e c t i v e s , there are marked d i f f e r e n c e s . The s i m i l a r i t i e s l i e i n the s t r i k i n g resemblancescf t h e i r v o c abularies. Many names r e l a t i n g to the ground, various m a t e r i a l s , metals, p o l i t i c s , law, and warfare are almost i d e n t i c a l i n both languages. Only one or two examples can be quoted here. The name of the sun i n modern German i s "Sonne", while i n Welsh i t i s "huan". 5 The E n g l i s h " f l o o r " i s the same 1. Hubert, H. o p . c i t . , P t . I , c h . I l l , p.60. 2. i b i d . , p.61. 3. i b i d . , p.62. 4. i b i d . , p.62-63. 5. i b i d . , p. 64. as the modern \German ? F l u r " , the I r i s h " l a r " , and the Welsh 1 " l l a w r " . German "Land" comes from a C e l t i c "landa" from which , 2 were also formed I r i s h "lann" and Welsh " l l a n " . German "Leder" or " l e a t h e r " i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to I r i s h " l e t h e r " and 2 Welsh " l l e d r " . Gothic " r e i k s " or " p r i n c e " and " r e i k i " or 3 "kingdom" come from the Gaulish " r i x " . How d i d the Germans acquire so many C e l t i c words? The answer i s obvious. They borrowed them. Such a general a s s i m i l a t i o n of C e l t i c words i n t o the Germanic language i n d i c a t e s that the two peoples dwelt i n close contact with each other. The close a f f i n i t i e s observed between the C e l t i c and I t a l i c languages on the one hand, and between the C e l t i c and Germanic languages on the other, c l e a r l y suggest that the Celts must have had t h e i r e a r l i e s t home i n close proximity to both of the other races. Such a p o s i t i o n would i n d i c a t e that the cradle of the C e l t s was s i t u a t e d i n the Upper V a l l e y of the 5 Danube between I t a l y and Germany. Such a conclusion, however,' i s contrary to the opinion held by the m a j o r i t y of h i s t o r i a n s of the time of the Soman Umpire. In that p e r i o d , the Gauls, who were then the leading C e l t i c people, were so s t r o n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n what i s now France, that that country was regarded as t h e i r o r i g i n a l home, and the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r t h e i r m i g r a t i o n s . But i n the f o u r t h century A.D., the h i s t o r i a n , 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . , P t . I , c h . I I I , p.64. 2. i b i d . , p.65. 3. ibid.,p.66. 4. i b i d . , p.67. 5. i b i d . , Pt.I.,Ch.IV, p.76. Ammianus Mar.cellinus, records a b e l i e f held by the Druids concerning the entry of the C e l t s i n t o Gaul. In the passage, "Drysidae • .me/norant revera f u i s s e p o p u l i partem indigenam; sed a l i o s quoque ... c o n f l u x i s s e -(ab) t r a c t i b u s transrhenanis, 1 ... sedibus suis expulsos", we l e a r n that the C e l t i c p r i e s t -hood continued to preserve the t r a d i t i o n that part of the population of Gaul was indigenous, but that other people, who were undoubtedly the C e l t s , had entered Gaul from across the Rhine. Many l a t e r a u t h o r i t i e s , however, continued to c l i n g to the b e l i e f that Gaul was the r e a l home of the C e l t s . One of the arguments they advanced as supporting such a conclusion was the s u r v i v a l of so many C e l t i c names f o r French c i t i e s , as, for example, Toulouse, A r r a s , Bourges, Besaneon, Nantes, Rheims, Soissons, Amiens, Tours, and P a r i s . While C e l t i c town-names are undoubtedly proof of the presence of the C e l t s i n a country as some period of i t s h i s t o r y , they do not n e c e s s a r i l y imply that the C e l t s were very e a r l y s e t t l e r s there. The names of the n a t u r a l features of a country, such as i t s mountains and r i v e r s , are the names which suggest the i d e n t i t y of the e a r l i e s t i n h a b i t a n t s , f o r the f i r s t occupants of a land always transmit t h e i r names f o r the r i v e r s and mountains to 2 t h e i r successors, and these are the names which u s u a l l y s u r v i v e . Later s e t t l e r s may give a r i v e r or a mountain another name, but nearly always the o r i g i n a l name continues to be used, and f i n a l l y becomes the predominant one. 1. M a r c e l l i n u s , Ammianus - L i b . XV i n "Gonstantius et J u l i a n u s " - IX, 4, p.59. 2. Hubert, H* - o p . c i t . , P t . I I , c h . l , pp.151-152. A l s o , The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y , V o l . V I I , oh.II, p.54. An examination of the names of the mountain ranges, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the r i v e r s of France, w i l l show that they not C e l t i c , but probably I b e r i a n or L i g u r i a n . 1 This f a c t is proof that the C e l t s were not indigenous to Gaul, and that t h e i r occupation of the country must have been the r e s u l t of migrations. There i s one small s e c t i o n of Europe, however, where the names of the n a t u r a l features of the land are C e l t i c , i n d i c a t i n g that here the C e l t s were almost, i f not q u i t e , the very e a r l i e s t i n h a b i t a n t s . This area corresponds • • •• 2 to the south-west corner of Germany. Just a few of the C e l t i c place-names which mark fthis region as the crad l e of the C e l t s can be quoted here* The 3 name of the "Hercynian F o r e s t " i s C e l t i c . In "Gabreta S i l v a " r 3 we f i n d the Gaulish word "gabros" f o r "goat". The same word appears i n I r i s h as "gathar", i n Welsh as "gafr", and i n Breton as "gabr". Both the words "Rhine" and "Danube" are C e l t i c . I r i s h " r i a n " meaning "sea" corresponds to "Renos",and i n I r i s h "dana" means " s w i f t " . The name of a t r i b u t a r y of the Danube, the "Laber" or "Talking g i v e r " , i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d 3. to the I r i s h " l a b r u r " , Welsh " l l a f a r " , and Breton " l a u a r " . In the same area, there were also many towns with C e l t i c names such as "Carrodunum", "Cambodunum", "Virodunum", "Tarrodunum", and "Vincium". Unfortunately, these names have been changed 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . , P t . I I , ch.I., p.151. 2. i b i d . , p.147. 3. i b i d . , p.148. 4. i b i d . , p.147. 26 and Germanized so that to-day no C e l t i c town-names survive i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . Through a study of the names of the r i v e r s , mountains, and towns, t h e r e f o r e , i t becomes evident that the cradle of the C e l t s " l a y i n a sm a l l , triangular-shaped t e r r i t o r y , bounded on the west by Treves and the Yosges Mountains, on the north by an imaginary l i n e running from Cologne across the Thuringer 1 2 Wald i n t o Bohemia, and on the south by lower Bavaria. I t was i n t h i s region that a l l the C e l t i c languages had t h e i r o r i g i n , and i t was from here that the C e l t s extended t h e i r sphere of i n f l u e n c e . 1. Hubert, H. o p . c i t . , Pt . I I , e'h.I, p. 155. 2. i b i d . , p.160. Chapter I I I C e l t i c Expansion i n the Bronze Age In the h i s t o r y of western Europe there i s one period .which can be p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d with a great f l o w e r i n g of C e l t i c c u l t u r e . This e r a , which l a s t e d from 500 B.C. to the Roman Conquest, i s known as the La Tens Age, and because of i t s decidedly C e l t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some experts claim that • ••.:' 1 i t contains the whole of C e l t i c h i s t o r y . No greater mistake could be made, however, as the La Tene Era was f o r the C e l t s only the b r i l l i a n t culmination of a muchlonger existence. Through a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i t has been ascertained that, during the t h i r d and f o u r t h periods of the Bronze Age, the area r e f e r r e d to as the crad l e of the C e l t s was the home of s p e c i a l types of tum u l i , p o t t e r y , weapons, and ornaments. These p a r t i c u l a r o bjects were the forerunners of those of the f i r s t I ron Age or the H a l l s t a t t Era, while the corresponding objects of the H a l l s t a t t P eriod were the d i r e c t predecessors of those of the La Tene Age. As the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each age develop from previous ones, the cul t u r e of La Tene was the n a t u r a l climax of a C e l t i c h i s t o r y which extended over c e n t u r i e s . 1* Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.83* i b i d . , P t . I I , C h . l , p.167. 28 That the La Tene Period does not contain a l l there i s to know of C e l t i c H i s t o r y i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that s the La Tene c u l t u r e i s the c i v i l i z a t i o n of one branch only of 1 the C e l t i c peoples, namely, the Brythons, Any complete account of the C e l t s , however, must also include the Goidels. I f these people had no part i n the c u l t u r e of the La Tene Era, some other period i n European h i s t o r y must have witnessed t h e i r expansion i n t o t h e i r great strongholds, Ireland and Scotland. Consequently, i t has been assumed by many a u t h o r i -t i e s that they reached B r i t a i n s e v e r a l centuries p r i o r to the v 2 Brythonic migrations of the La Tene Age, The d i f f e r e n c e between the Goidels and the Brythons i s one of language, and i s concerned with the l a b i a l i z a t i o n of the v e l a r sound cu The G o i d e l i c d i a l e c t s p a r t i a l l y l a b i a l i z e d t h i s sound by using au while the Brythonic d i a l e c t s f u l l y 3 l a b i a l i z e d i t by changing i t to p_. As a r e s u l t , these two groups of d i a l e c t s are r e s p e c t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d as Q- and P-languages. The f a c t that e x a c t l y the same d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between L a t i n and the other I t a l i c tongues, and that the I t a l i c and C e l t i c languages o r i g i n a t e d i n a common stock, has l e d to the theory that the o r i g i n a l I t a l o - C e l t i c language was a Q,-language, and th a t , at a period not yet d e f i n i t e l y determined, 1. Hubert, H., op. c i t . - P t . I , Ch.Y, p.83. 2. i b i d . , P t . I I , Gh.I, p.131. 5. Bice Holmes, T. - "Ancient B r i t a i n and the Invasions of J u l i u s Caesar" - P t . I I , p. 410. Also The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 11th Ed., V o l . 16, p.245:, 2nd C o l . A l s o The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y , V o l . I I , C h i l l , p.33. two groups of people who spoke t h i s language, and who were to he l a t e r known as Goidels and L a t i n s , broke o f f from the main body and migrated to t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . A f t e r these two movements had taken place, the £_ of the o r i g i n a l language was completely l a b i a l i z e d and t h i s change was then 1 incorporated i n t o the l a t e r Brythonic and I t a l i c d i a l e c t s . The problem to be solved, then, i s the date of the G o i d e l i c m i g r a t i o n . While most a u t h o r i t i e s believe that the Goidels reached B r i t a i n sometime i n the Bronze Age, opinion i s d i v i d e d as to whether they a r r i v e d at the beginning or the end of t h i s p e r i o d . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s have proved that just before the beginning of the Bronze Age, Great B r i t a i n was inhabited by a people who b u i l t large megaliths i n which p e c u l i a r bell-shaped beakers or ves s e l s have been found. As e x a c t l y the same type of megaliths and beakers have been discovered i n Spain, i t i s conceded that the people who made 2 the bell-shaped beakers i n B r i t a i n o r i g i n a l l y came from Spain, and were probably Iberians or L i g u r i a n s . There i s evidence, however, th a t i n the f i r s t period 3 3 of the Bronze Age, somewhere between 1620 and 140Q B.C*, a new group of people reached the B r i t i s h I s l e s . These people al s o made beakers but of a d i f f e r e n t design from those made by the i n h a b i t a n t s of the N e o l i t h i c Age. The new beakers 1. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , c h . l . , pp.138-139. 2. i b i d . , P t . l i , c h . I I , p.200 3. i b i d . , P t . I I , Oh.I, p.171; P t . I I , c h . I I , p.194-. Also Rice Holmes} T* - op'.cit. , P t . I I , p.430. had horizontal, hands i n c i s e d on them by ropes, and f o r t h i s reason they are known as zoned beakers, and the people who 1 produced them are c a l l e d the Zoned-Beaker Folk. M. Hubert claims that these people were the G o i d e l s , but Professor Rice Holmes disagrees w i t h t h i s theory. . P r o f e s s o r Rice Holmes accepts the f a c t that the Zoned-Beaker F o l k a r r i v e d i n B r i t a i n sometime between the s i x t e e n t h and the fourteenth centuries B.C., but he b e l i e v e s 2 that they were an Alpine people. He argues that i f they were Goidels, G o i d e l i c and L a t i n must have become d i f f e r e n t -i a t e d from the main body of the I t a l o - C e l t i c language long before the end of the N e o l i t h i c Age, a supposition which he ; 3 considers absurd, and so he advances the theory that the Goidels f i r s t reached I r e l a n d about the end of the Bronze Age, and that some of them l a t e r moved i n t o B r i t a i n , but that the second m i g r a t i o n took place not e a r l i e r than the seventh c e n t u r y . 0 M. Hubert, however, i s j u s t as convinced that the Zoned-Beaker F o l k were the G o i d e l s , and he reaches h i s con-clusions by a comlination of methods which includes a study of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains i n B r i t a i n , a study of ancient I r i s h legends, and a process of e l i m i n a t i o n by matching a l l subsequent invasions of B r i t a i n with h i s t o r i c a l migrations or with migra-t i o n s that can be proved a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y . He adequately sums up h i s method of reasoning when he w r i t e s : 1. Hubert, H. o p . c i t . , P t . I I , c h . l , p.172. 2. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , P t . I I , p.428. 3. i b i d . , P t . I I , pp.432-433. , r I f *the archaeology of B r i t a i n r e f l e c t s , as i t i s reasonable to suppose, i t s r a c i a l v i c i s s i t u d e s -- i f , that i s , the a r r i v a l of each of the elements i n i t s C e l t i c p o p u l a t i o n i s to be connected...with a phase of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n , as revealed by the remains l e f t i n i t s s o i l , the Belgae having contributed the c u l t u r e of La Tene I I and I I I , the B r i t o n s that of La Tene I , and the B i c t s that of the end o-f the Bronze Age, — then we have nothing to as c r i b e to the Goidels but the c u l t u r e of the beginning of the Bronze Age, and they must be i d e n t i f i e d with the Gontinental i n v a s i o n which took place i n B r i t a i n a t that t i m e . " l In f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of h i s theory, zoned beakers s i m i l a r to the ones found i n B r i t a i n have been d i s -2 covered i n Bohemia and i n northern Germany. The round barrows which contain the beakers are also i d e n t i c a l . Many of these barrows are erected over cremations, a type of b u r i a l which had p r e v i o u s l y not been common i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s but which was p r a c t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by the C o n t i n e n t a l Zoned-Beaker Fol k . I/hen inhumation was p r a c t i s e d , the bodies were buried i n a contracted p o s i t i o n as was the case i n Ce n t r a l Germany. Then, too, many of the l a t e r zoned vases or urns found i n B r i t a i n are s i m i l a r to p o t t e r y which has been found i n North Germany. F i n a l l y , the arrangement of the land and houses at the mouth of the Rhine where f o r a time some of the Zoned-Beaker Folk l i v e d , seems to provide the culminating 5 evidence that they were Goidels. In the greater part of Germany the houses were grouped together i n a v i l l a g e sur-rounded by t h e i r lands, but at the mouth of the Rhine the houses stood alone, separated from one another by t h e i r f i e l d s . 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I I , c h . I I , p.220. 2. i b i d . , P t . I I , oh.I., p.175. 3. i b i d . , P t . I I , oh.I, p.188. The l a t t e r arrangement i s a feature of C e l t i c l i f e , and i t i s a f a c t worth noting that i t s t i l l e x i s t s i n Western Hanover and Westphalia, I r e l a n d , Scotland, and parts of England and France• From these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , M. Hubert presumes that a body of Goidels had moved north from the eradle of the C e l t s 1 to the mouth of the Rhine and had s e t t l e d there. Then f o r an unknown reason, perhaps because of some i n t r u s i o n of the sea, or of a new invention i n the soience of na v i g a t i o n , a group of them l e f t the Rhine settlement to make new homes f o r themselves i n other regions. This theory i s strengthened by a t r a d i t i o n contained i n the "Leabhar Gabhala" or "Book of Invasions". This book records f i v e invasions of I r e l a n d , the l a s t of which was 3 the i n v a s i o n of the sons of M i l e , or the Goidels* They are recorded as coming from Spain, but Spain was not t h e i r o r i g i n a l home. They only paused there i n the course of a much longer journey from a f a r d i s t a n t country. Notwithstanding t h i s I r i s h legend, Hubert believes that the Goidels crossed d i r e c t l y from the mouth of the Rhine 4 : th±t to B r i t a i n where they f i r s t s e t t l e d , but^they were l a t e r 5 driven i n t o I r e l a n d by the a r r i v a l of other bands of C e l t s . Hubert's hypothesis c l o s e l y corresponds to 1. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , c h . l , p.187, 2. i b i d . , p.188. 3. i b i d . , P t v I I , e h . H i pp. 192-193. 4. i b i d . , P t . I I , c h . l , p.187. 5. ibid.» P t . I I , c h . l , p.176. Rademaoher.1 s theory which- i s o u t l i n e d i n the Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y . According to t h i s theory, the Zoned-Beaker Folk were the p r o t o - C e l t s , but during the Bronze Age they were divided i n t two g r o u p s . — a backward element d w e l l i n g i n the lower Rhine V a l l e y , and a more progressive group i n the south-west corner of Germany. The former were almost c e r t a i n l y the Goidels who were responsible f o r the Zoned-Beaker Invasion of B r i t a i n i n the e a r l y part of the Bronze Age. About the end of the Bronze Age another C e l t i c 2 people, the P i c t s , m i g r a t e d to the B r i t i s h I s l e s , but l i k e the Goi d e l i e m i g r a t i o n , t h i s i n v a s i o n also i s shrouded i n the mists of a n t i q u i t y . Although i t i s not known ju s t where the P i c t s o r i g i n a t e d , the s u r v i v a l of such P i c t i s h names as E p i d i i , Wurgust, C o r n a v i i , Caeraeni, Carnonacae, Venturiones, Argentocoxos, and Togenanus prove beyond a doubt that they were a C e l t i c people. Whether they were G o i d e l i e or Brythonic when they a r r i v e d i n B r i t a i n i s another question which remains unsolvedj but I t i s considered more probable that they were j u s t changing from G o i d e l i e to Brythonic, and that i n t h e i r language they c a l l e d the i s l a n d "Qurteni" or "Qretani 1* whence came the- l a t e r Brythonic form " P r e t t a n i c " meaning "the 5 i s l a n d of the P i c t s ' 1 . I r i s h legends which provide us w i t h most of our information concerning the P i c t s say that they invaded Ireland 1. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - Vol.. V I I > c h . I I , pp.54-55. 2. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.II, p.220. 3. i b i d . , p.206 and p.209. 4. i b i d . , p.211. A2iso, Rice Holmes, o p . c i t . , P t . I I , p.416. 5. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , C h . I I , p.203 and pp.207,208. s h o r t l y a f t e r the coming of the sons of M i l e or the Goidels. Hermion, the; leader of the M i l e s i a n s , drove the new invaders north i n t o Alban or Scotland, but as they had no women i n t h e i r p arty, he gave them f o r wives the widows of those s o l d i e r s who had perished at sea during the G o i d e l i c crossing to the B r i t i s h I s l e s . In making t h i s concession^.however, he imposed the co n d i t i o n that a l l i n h e r i t a n c e among the P i c t s i n future should be through the women and not through the men. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s G o i d e l i c custom of cognate p r e v a i l i n g over the agnate p e r s i s t e d among the P i c t s to the s i x t h century A.D., f o r i n Bede's time the succession i n the P i c t i s h r o y a l f a m i l i e s went i n the female 2 l i n e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y conceded that i t was t h i s custom of matriarchy that Oaesar confused with polyandry when r e f e r r i n g 3 to c e r t a i n ©astoms among the "aborigines" of B r i t a i n . C e l t i c migrations during the Bronze Age were not, however, confined to B r i t a i n f o r on the Continent the c i v i l i -z a t i o n of the southern Zoned-Beaker Polk mentioned by Hadewaacher proceeded normally u n t i l near the end of the Bronze Age when an Al p i n e people appeared i n t h e i r midst and 4 for a time became dominant. F i n a l l y , however, "the proto-Gelts r e - a s s e r t e d themselves and absorbed t h e i r conquerors., I t was fehis group of Zoned-Beaker Polk which formed the 5 Brythonic branch of the C e l t i c f a m i l y . 1. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , c h . I I , p.205. 2. ibid.,p.204. 3. Rice Holmes,!., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , p.414. 4. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y — V o l . V I I j C h . I I , p.55. A l s o , The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 14th Ed., Vol.11, p.103,1st c o l . 5. Hubert, H., o p . c i t y , P t . I I , O h . I l l , p.252, Tumuli and t h e i r contents found i n Switzerland, L o r r a i n e , Burgundy, Franche Comtek and Belgium prove that during the Bronze Age the Brythons extended t h e i r domains 1 .beyond the l e f t bank of the Bhine. This expansion i s believed due to the climate becoming d r i e r , as a r e s u l t of which the 2 f o r e s t s o f . i t h i s area became more a c c e s s i b l e to the C e l t s * I t i s obvious, then, from a study of the Goi d e l i e and P i c t l s h invasions of B r i t a i n , and the Brythonic migration on the Continent, that the Bronze Age witnessed the beginning of that tremendous expansion which at i t s height obtained f o r the Ce l t s almost complete c o n t r o l of western Europe. 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I I , C h . I I I , pp.246-249. 2. i b i d . , P t . I I * Oh.IV, p.261. 36 Chapter IV C e l t i c Expansion i n the H a l l s t a t t Period About 900 B.C., as a r e s u l t of the discovery of large i r o n deposits i n Central Europe, and the i n c r e a s i n g use of the superior metal, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Bronze Age began to change and the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the f i r s t Iron Age slowly emerged. The home of t h i s new development was i n the Cradle of the C e l t s f o r the upper v a l l e y of the Danube was the 1 centre of the great i r o n resources of the Continent and also the p o i n t at which Greek, I t a l i a n , and Danubian in f l u e n c e s 2 penetrated the western h a l f of Europe. The F i r s t Iron Age i s c a l l e d the H a l l s t a t t Period because i t s most C h a r a c t e r i s t i c features have been found i n 3 great numbers at the s i t e of H a l l s t a t t , which i s s i x t y -4 seven mi l e s south-west of modern Linz i n Upper A u s t r i a . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains show that H a l l s t a t t was a t r a d i n g centre buicht i n the shape of an amphitheatre with i t s houses 4 c l i n g i n g to the side of a mountain. The name, of the s e t t l e -5 ment was derived from the great salt-beds nearby to which 9 1. The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 11th Ed. - Vol.12 - p.858, 1st c o l . 2. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - Vol.1, c h . I I - p.106. 3. The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 14th Ed. - Vol.11 - p.103, 1st c o l . 4. i b i d * , 11th Ed, - Vol.12, p.858, 1st c o l . 5. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - Vol.1, Ch.II, p.106. together w i t h , i t s huge i r o n deposits, the post owed i t s enormous wealth. The H a l l s t a t t Period l a s t e d from 900 to 500 B.C., but i n order to trace the e v o l u t i o n of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n , i t i s u s u a l l y subdivided i n t o four phases, A, B, G,,and D. Phase A, which extended from 900 to 800 B.C., witnessed the gradual t r a n s i t i o n from the Bronze to the Iron Age. I t was i n t h i s century that the Alpine.or U r n f i e l d people mentioned at the end of the previous chapter appeared 1 among the P r o t o - G e l t s and gained domination over them. . The newcomers introduced to the C e l t s the r i t e of cremation,and a f t e r t h i s eeremony the dead were buried i n f l a t graves or under very low mounds. 1 Under the new i n f l u e n c e changes also took place i n the p o t t e r y . I t became t h i n - w a l l e d and was • :< • 1 a f f e c t e d i n various ways by the new i n d u s t r y i n metals. The r e l i c s of t h i s period which have been found, i n c l u d i n g such a r t i c l e s as r a z o r s , knives, f i b u l a e , bow brooches, torques, p i n s , cups, and other v e s s e l s , i n d i c a t e the tremendous a c t i v i t y which must have taken place i n metal working. The large bronze sword, however, was by f a r the most important of the metal objects manufactured, f o r due to i t s d i s t i n c t i v e character i t i s possible to trace the expan-2 sion of the C e l t s i n the H a l l s t a t t Age. This sword was leaf-shaped with a long tang running the f u l l length of the broad-flanged handle. 2 The tang and flanges acted l i k e g i r d e r s 1. The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 14th Ed. - Vol.11, p.103, 1st c o l . 2. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - Vol.1, c h . I I , p.106. and. gave the sword much greater s t r u c t u r a l s e c u r i t y than was possessed by e a r l i e r swords. As the h i l t of the most charact-e r i s t i c of these swords branched out into antennae of various shapes, they are c a l l e d "Antennae" swords. Phase B, which succeeded A and l a s t e d u n t i l 700 B.C., saw the r e - a s s e r t i o n of the Proto - C e l t s over the Alpine people. 1 While the U r n f i e l d r i t e of cremation was r e t a i n e d , 1 the d i s t i n c t l y C e l t i c b u r i a l tumulus again became common. This mound u s u a l l y consisted of a v a u l t i n g of l a r g e , undressed stones, covered by a p i l e of smaller stones, erected over the human remains which were l a i d on a f l o o r or i n a p i t . Around t h i s tumulus was placed a c i r c l e of stones* The urns o.f t h i s period were s p h e r i c a l i n form with funnel-shaped necks. The bronze sword continued to be used, but now the bottom of the scabbard ended i n a winged chape l i k e a crescent. The common p i n ended i n a vase-shaped head. Up to t h i s time bronze had been predominant i n the manufacture of metal o b j e c t s , i r o n being used only o c c a s i o n a l l y . During Phase C, which extended from 700 to 600 B.C., however, i r o n came i n t o general use. Long, heavy i r o n swords with b e a u t i f u l l y wrought h i l t s now took the place of the e a r l i e r 4 bronze swords and, became known, as the r e a l H a l l s t a t t swords. 1. The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 14th Ed. - Vol.11, p.103, 1st c o l . '..Hubert , m - u I / i e - % e . I I , Oh.IV, p.253. ' 3. The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a - 14th Ed. - Vol.11, p.103, 1st c o l . 4« 3-hid., p*103, 2nd c o l . 39 In a d d i t i o n to the swords, various types of i r o n and bronze pins were made. The e a r l i e s t c h a r i o t - and horse-harness that has been discovered i n c e n t r a l and western Europe dates 1 back to t h i s period* The pottery of t h i s time was both unpainted and polychrome. 2 The b u r i a l r i t e was e i t h e r cremation or inhumation, both being p r a c t i s e d but i n both cases a tumulus of stones g completed the b u r i a l . Phase D, which ended wi t h the beginning of the La Tene Age i n 500 B.C., was a period of decadence i n C e l t i c h i s t o r y . The l a v i s h decoration of the pottery i l l u s t r a t e s the general degeneration that marked the century. The sword, which was shortened u n t i l i t was the l e n g t h of a dagger, was o r n a t e l y embellished. The simple pins of the previous periods were no longer made, but a l l kinds of brooches and 1 elaborate ear-, neck-, arm-, and f o o t - r i n g s became common. In t h i s f i n a l p e r i o d of the H a l l s t a t t Era inhumation once again became the customary b u r i a l r i t e , but as before, the 3 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tumulus remained. I t must not be concluded that the development of the H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d which has j u s t been o u t l i n e d was confined to the immediate v i c i n i t y of H a l l s t a t t , f o r during t h i s Era, as i n the Bronze Age, the C e l t s were s t e a d i l y extending t h e i r sphere of i n f l u e n c e . 1. The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a -2nd c o l . 2. i b i d . , p.103, 1st. c o l . 3. i b i d . , p.103, 2nd c o l . 14th Ed. - Vol.11 - 'p. 103* I t has already been stated In the previous chapter ..that the Brythons began to migrate across the Shine-in the Bronze Age. This expansion i s believed to have been due to the climate becoming d r i e r and thus rendering more accessible 1 the f o r e s t s on the l e f t bank of the great r i v e r . About the end of the f i r s t H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d , another c l i m a t i c change 2 was again responsible f o r C e l t i c m i g r ation. This time the climate became very wet. As a r e s u l t of the northern c o a s t a l areas being flooded and turned i n t o swamps, the Germans dweHi] around the Ngrth Sea were forced to move westwards and south-wards, and i n the course of t h e i r journeying, they came in t o contact with the.Celts who i n turn began to leave the wet f o r e s t s of Westphalia, Hessen, and Bavaria f o r the other side of the Rhine * That t h i s m i g r a t i o n took place during the H a l l s t a t t Period i s proved by the f a c t that thousands of tumuli con-t a i n i n g the large i r o n H a l l s t a t t swords have been found i n Belgium and i n the eastern French departments near the Rhine, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Cote d'Or and Franche-Comte. The Moidons Forest alone i s the s i t e of approximately f o r t y thousand tumuli, and there are other large groups n o r t h of S a l i n s and 3 Dijon between the upper Seine and the upper Aube. Since the i r o n swords a b s o l u t e l y date these tumuli as belonging to the H a l l s t a t t C e l t s , the other r e l i c s found i n the tombs have been examined with great i n t e r e s t because they r e v e a l much about t h e i r owners. Small, four-wheeled c h a r i o t s have been discovered, proving that these people used 1. H. Hubert, o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.IY, p.251. ~ 2. i b i d . , pp.260-261. 3. i b i d . , pp.254-255. horses e x t e n s i v e l y , and that consequently they must have had 1 f a i r l y w e l l d e l i n e a t e d roads or t r a c k s . The tremendous number of razors that have been recovered i n d i c a t e that the men of that day shaved r e g u l a r l y . The general absence of helmets and breastplates suggests that these were very seldom used, the 1 main defensive armor being a round s h i e l d . R e l i c s that survive outside the tumuli i n these eastern s e c t i o n s of France a l s o y i e l d valuable information regarding the C e l t i c mode of l i f e of that period. Near the tumuli, which are u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d on high ground, there are always to be found the remains of a strong f o r t i f i c a t i o n . In Burgundy, f o r example, there i s a l i n e of such strongholds y\ 2 sunning along the heights overlooking the v a l l e y of the Saone. The C e l t s d i d not l i v e i n these f o r t r e s s e s , however, except i n time of war, f o r dwellings found i n the nearby f i e l d s which were arranged r e g u l a r l y and separated from one another by rows of stones, i n d i c a t e that i n peace-time the C e l t s l i v e d on the land, c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r crops and looking a f t e r t h e i r 3 herds of goats. About the same time that some of the C e l t s were migrating i n t o eastern France, others were moving i n t o the country now known as Switzerland. During the Bronze Age the Swiss Lakes had been the abode of the pile-dwellers> but the 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.IY, p.256. 2. i b i d . , pi,255. 5. i b i d . , p.256. c l i m a t i c change i n the e a r l y H a l l s t a t t Period caused the l e v e l of" the lakes to r i s e , as a r e s u l t of which the homes of the p i l e - d w e l l e r s were submerged, and t h e i r occupants forced to r e t r e a t to higher l e v e l s . The f i r s t bands of C e l t s a r r i v e d d i r e c t l y afterwards and occupied the places which the 1 p a l a f i t t e - b u i l d e r s had l e f t vacant. 1 The C e l t s entered Switzerland by two routes. Some crossed the Rhine near Schaffhausen and moved as f a r as the Reuss. Others crossed near Basle, advanced to the Aar, and ascended i t s v a l l e y and the v a l l e y s of i t s higher t r i b u t a r i e s u n t i l they reached the neighbourhood of Lausanne. They appear mainly, however, to have h a l t e d at the Lakes of Thun, Zug, and 2 Zuri c h . The tumuli which provide the evidence of C e l t i c expansion i n t o S w i t z e r l a n d stand on the medium heights over-looking the SwissValleys, and belong mostly to Phase 0 of the Hallstatt P e r i o d . Their contents and the f a c t that they cover both cremation and inhumation have l e d a u t h o r i t i e s to the opinion that t h e i r b u i l d e r s migrated i n t o Switzerland d i r e c t l y from the Cradle o f the C e l t s , and not by way of eastern France ' ' 3 as might have been supposed. In a d d i t i o n to penetrating i n t o eastern Prance and Switzerland during the l a t t e r part of the H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d , the C e l t s a l s o reached I t a l y . Although L i v y records that a body ' '' ' • • • '4 ' of C e l t s entered I t a l y between 614 and 576 B.C*, i t w i l l be 1. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.IV, p.261. 2. i b i d . , p.261. 3. i b i d . , p.262. 4. L i v i i P a t a v i n i , T, -"Historiarum L i b r i " - Tom-.I, Lib.V. ,34, p.325* r e c a l l e d from,our f i r s t chapter that a l l a u t h o r i t i e s agree that t h i s i n c u r s i o n could not have taken place before 400 B.C. Livy's account of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r migration,.however, i s most import-ant, f o r i t i n d i c a t e s that these invaders were not the f i r s t band of .Celts to enter I t a l y , but the second. According to the h i s t o r i a n , the party l e d by Bellovesus crossed the Alps, probably by the Great St. Bernard f o r they a r r i v e d by way of the v a l l e y of the D^ora Balt e a and the country Of the T a u r i n i . They met and defeated an Etruscan army near the T i c i n o . While there, they heard that the place i n which they were camped was known as the "agrumInsubrium" or " P l a i n of the Insubres". . As the Insubres were .a d i v i s i o n of the C e l t i c t r i b e , the Aedui, i t seemed evident to the invaders that other C e l t s had preceded them i n t o I t a l y , and so, taking i t as a good omen that t h e i r h a l t i n g place bore a C e l t i c 1 name, they founded a c i t y there which was to be c a l l e d M i l a n . L i v y ' s suggestion of an e a r l i e r C e l t i c migration into I t a l y i s f o r t u n a t e l y supported by the discovery of d i s t i n c t i v e " c i p p i " or boundary-posts i n the v a l l e y of the Magra which flows i n t o the.Mediterranean south of the Gulf of Spezia, and i n the v a l l e y of i t s c h i e f t r i b u t a r y , the Vara. One post contains a C e l t i c i n s c r i p t i o n w r i t t e n i n Etruscan characters while some are surmounted by a crudely sculptured 2 head r i s i n g from a body s t i l l incorporated i n the block. The f i g u r e s are naked. In t h e i r r i g h t hand they hold an axe, i n 1« L i v i i Patavina ,'TV - "Historiarum L i b r i " - Tom.I, Lib.V*, 34, p.326. 2. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Oh.IV, p.264. t h e i r l e f t , ^javelins', and they each have a sword on the r i g h t 1 side attached to a w a i s t - b e l t i n the C e l t i c manner* While t h i s equipment proves that the sculptured w a r r i o r s , who prob-2 ably represented the owners of the land, were Gauls, the swords i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d i c a t e the period i n which the posts were erected f o r they are the short H a l l s t a t t daggers with 2 " antennae which were i n use from 600 to 500 B.C. Since the swords used by the members of Bellovesus' party were the much longer La Tene swords, i t i s obvious that these posts were r a i s e d by C e l t s who had entered L i g u r i a long before the fourth 3 century invaders. - Another'type of monument d e p i c t i n g C e l t i c warriors has also been found i n I t a l y . In the second h a l f of the H a l l s t a t t Age, the Etruscans crossed the Apennines and advanced north to Umbr.ian E m i l i a which they conquered. At Bologna there have been discovered Etruscan s t e l a e d e p i c t i n g these invading Etruscan horsemen f.ighting naked f o o t - s o l d i e r s 4 who c a r r i e d long s h i e l d s and who were no doubt Gauls. Cor-roboration of a c o n f l i c t between the Etruscans and the Gauls i s contained i n the works of Polybius who says that these two peoples had met long before the C e l t i c i n c u r s i o n of the 5-fourth century. In a d d i t i o n , the cemeteries of the western Po V a l l e y which date from the l a t e r H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d , and which contain what i s known as the Golasecca c u l t u r e , provide 1. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.IV. p.265. 2. i b i d . , p.266. 3. i b i d . j p. 266. 4. i b i d . , p.270. 5* Paton, W.R. - "Polybius - The H i s t o r i e s ' * - Vol.1, Bk.II,17, pp.282-283. evidence that, they were the b u r i a l s i t e s of C e l t i c invaders. The tumuli are connected with one another by l i n e s of stones as. they are i n Bavaria, Burgundy, and the Forest of Moidons* Moveover, as i n Burgundy and the so;uth-west of France, each mound i s surrounded by a c i r c l e of stones. The p o t t e r y found i n the Golasecca tombs i s very s i m i l a r to that discovered i n the C e l t i c graves i n Bavaria, near- the Lake o f Le Bourget, i n A q u i t a n i a , and i n the 3 H a l l s t a t t s t a t i o n s on the E n g l i s h Coast. Its„abundance suggests that these C e l t i c invaders came from Bavaria and p o s s i b l y L o r r a i n e , f o r i n these regions a great deal of pot t e r y was placed i n the tombs, while i n Franche-Comte and Switz e r l a n d , the C e l t i c t e r r i t o r y nearest I t a l y , the tumuli 4 contain very few pieces of earthenware* From a l l the evidence, therefore, i t i s considered probable that the f i r s t C e l t s reached I t a l y d i r e c t l y from Bavaria during the f i r s t h a l f of the H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d , but that i t was not u n t i l the second h a l f of the Era that the 5 migra t i o n a t t a i n e d any considerable s i z e . In 1912, a valuable deposit, showing that near the end of the H a l l s t a t t Age the C e l t s must also have approached I t a l y by way of the eastern Alpine passes, was unearthed at .Negau i n LowerStyria, 3L short distance north-east of Marburg 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.IV, pp.267-268* 2. i b i d . , p.269 3. i b i d ., p.269. 4. i b i d . , p.271. • 5. i b i d . , p.270. •on.the.Drave.. , The deposit contained twenty bronze helmets of the l a t e H a l l s t a t t type, two of which are i n s c r i b e d with C e l t i c names. Whether or not the C e l t s a c t u a l l y entered eastern I t a l y at t h i s time i s un c e r t a i n , but at l e a s t they were i n the v i c i n i t y * The C e l t s also migrated into south-west France durig t h i s Era f o r the tumuli of two H a l l s t a t t periods have been found i n the area between the Mediterranean and the A t l a n t i c . The e a r l i e r tumuli, which belong to the Middle H a l l s t a t t : Age, are found beyond the c r e s t of the Cen t r a l Plateau as f a r as Cahors, but they do not extend to the Garonne. At the end of the t h i r d H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d , however, there was a f u r t h e r C e l t i c expansion i n t o the r e g i o n between the Central 3 •Plateau and the Pyrenees. Most of tlie tumuli i n t h i s t e r r i t o r y are surrounded by s t o n e . c i r c l e s and contain cremations. They are absolutely . .. • • • - 4 • dated by the types of brooches and swords which they enclose,, The swords are a l l s m a l l , w i t h the i r o n h i l t ending i n antennae, which i n turn have a r i g h t - a n g l e d bend i n them and are H&m&ifc-..ated by large knobs* As the pottery i s s i m i l a r to that discovered i n the Bavarian and Bohemian tombs, i t seems probable that i t was manufactured by.Celts who came d i r e c t l y from those 5 " .countries. At the end of the, H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d many of the C e l t s then i n south-west France crossed the western passes of the 1. Hubert, H. o p . c i t . , P t . I I , Ch.IV, p.272. 2 . i b i d . , p.275* 3. i b i d . , p.276-277. 4. i b i d . t p. 278. 5. i b i d . , p. 279. Pyrenees into, Spain, where they l e f t tumuli containing cremations, swords w i t h antennae, and pottery l i k e that of the region north of the mountains. 1 I t was doubtless to these people that Herodotus r e f e r r e d i n h i s passages r e l a t i n g to the presence of Cel t s i n Spain. In the f i f t h century, however, the Iberians con-quered A q u i t a n i a . As the C e l t s of Spain were 'thus cut o f f from the r e s t of t h e i r kindred f o r s e v e r a l hundred years, they developed t h e i r H a l l s t a t t c u l t u r e i n conjunction with the 2 Ibe r i a n s , and f o r t h i s reason t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n i s c a l l e d 3 C e l t i b e r i a n . Traces of the H a l l s t a t t C e l t s have also been d i s -covered as f a r west as B r i t t a n y and England where, at Hengist-bury Head near Southampton and at A l l Cannings Cross Farm i n W i l t s h i r e , p o t t e r y resembling that of the Pyrenean tumuli 4 ' has been found. The extensive migrations of the C e l t s during the H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d were due to various f a c t o r s . One of the chi e f reasons was the c l i m a t i c change which has already been mentioned. A f t e r a period of dryness western Europe now experienced a much colder temperature and an abundance of r a i n f a l l which r e s u l t e d 'in the inundation of much of the northern coast of Germany. Because of the great f l o o d s , the 1. Hubert, H. - o p . c i t . - P t . I I , Ch.V. , pp*282v';"• 2. i b i d . , pp.299-300. 3. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - V o l . V I I , c h . I I . p.60. 4. Hubert, H., o p . c i t . , P t . I I , oh.IV, p.280. Teutonic peoples l i v i n g i n t h i s area began to press southwards, and i n t h e i r advance they pushed the C e l t s out of t h e i r native h a b i t a t i n t o the more southern and western regions of Europe."*" Another reason f o r the tremendous C e l t i c expansion 2 at>this time was the over-population of the C e l t i c t e r r i t o r y . The consequent crowding together no doubt l e d to quarrels which brought about the ..exodus of many C e l t s from the home t e r r i t o r y . I t i s also considered l i k e l y that there was a large warlike element among the C e l t s who preferred a l i f e of adventuring and plundering to a more s e t t l e d form of 2 existence. The f a c t that t h i s c u l t u r e was the f i r s t to use the horse f o r r i d i n g as w e l l as f o r d r i v i n g was another cause ' 3 of i t s r a p i d growth. The most important f a c t o r of a l l , however, i n the increase of C e l t i c power was the use of i r o n . 4 The Celts with t h e i r i r o n t o o l s were able to cut roads through the f o r e s t . Above a l l , they now possessed the f i n e s t weapons of t h e i r day. I t i s a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n that t h e i r i r o n sword, which f o r the f i r s t time combined the advantages of t h r u s t i n g and c u t t i n g , won f o r them t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n western Europe, and was responsible f o r the expansion of t h e i r c u l t u r e which became so widespread that i t i s indeed p o s s i b l e to echo these words, " I t was the f i r s t c u l t u r e so general as to deserve the 5 name of European." 1. Hubert, H.,op.cit., P t . I I , Ch.IV, pp.260-261. Also The Cambridge Ancient' H i s t o r y , V o l . V I I , C h . I I , p.60-. 2. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y , Vol.VII,Ch.II, p.66. 3. i b i d . , V o l . 1 , c h . I I , p.106. . 4. i b i d . , pp.109-110. 5. i b i d . , p.106. , ' Chapter V La Tene - The Golden Age of C e l t i c i s m About 500 B. 0., the H a l l s t a t t c i v i l i z a t i o n was superseded by a c u l t u r e which i s regarded as the great flower-ing of C e l t i c i s m , and which i s known by the name "La Tene". This development was not the r e s u l t of a sudden breaking away from the former mode of l i f e , but was due ra t h e r to the super-1 imposition of f o r e i g n t r a i t s on the H a l l s t a t t c u l t u r e . Greek and I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e s , the former by way of the v a l l e y s of the Rhone and the Danube, the l a t t e r by way of the c e n t r a l and eastern Alpine passes, penetrated the C e l t i c t e r r i t o r y , and, a r r i v i n g at a time when the H a l l s t a t t c i v i l i z a t i o n was i n a state of decadence, i n c i t e d the C e l t s to s t r i v e f o r a s i m i l a r degree of excellence i n the various a r t s . Consequently, a new c u l t u r e , rooted i n the old C e l t i c t r a d i t i o n s but bearing also the imprints of contact with the two other great c i v i l i -zations of the day, became predominant i n C e l t i c a f o r more than four c e n t u r i e s . That the c u l t u r e of Ka.Tene belonged to the Celt s 1. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -} P t . I , Gh..l, p.2; and id>.'- "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I I , C h . l , p.164; and i b i d . , P t . I , Ch.V, pp.128 and 129. admits of no, doubt f o r i t coincided with that range of t e r r i t o r y which was occupied by them between the f i f t h and 1 f i r s t centuries before C h r i s t . Furthermore, the C e l t s who invaded I t a l y and conquered Home i n 590 B.C.. l e f t r e l i c s behind ' . 2 them which are r e p l i c a s of objects found i n C e l t i c domains. The monuments'which ancient s c u l p t o r s made of the Galatians, one of the C e l t i c . p e o p l e s , as they were when they swept down the Danubian V a l l e y i n t o Greece, and f i n a l l y over to A s i a Minor, p o r t r a y t h e i r subjects with ornaments and arms e x a c t l y l i k e 'La Tene specimens which have been unearthed i n C e l t i c Europe. The dying GauL, who i s the theme of what i s probably the most famous G a l a t i a n s c u l p t u r e , i s represented as possess-in g a s h i e l d r e - i n f o r c e d with metal work s i m i l a r to that found -on s h i e l d s of the same date discovered i n cemeteries on the Marne. His horn, too, might have belonged to a C e l t i n Gaul or I r e l a n d . Moreover, the objects c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the La : . v •" : • . • • • 4 •-• Tene period,had evolved from those of the H a l l s t a t t Age. Nineteenth century archaeologists named t h i s period i n C e l t i c h i s t o r y "La Tene" a f t e r one of i t s most important C u l t u r a l centres which was s i t u a t e d at the out-flow point of the Lake of Neuchatel,'by the side of an ancient bed of the 5 6 T h i e l l e , and quite close to the modern Marin. The existence 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.81. 2. i b i d . , p. 83. 3. i b i d . , pp. 81-82. 4. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " , P t . I , Ch.I, p.2, 5. i d . , '"The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, pp.84 & 85. 6. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y — Vol.11, ch.XXI, p.595. of t h i s post was.known f o r several c e n t u r i e s , but as i t was covered by the waters of the lake, i t was assumed to be a lake v i l l a g e . In 1857, however, when the l e v e l of the lake f e l l , i t became obvious that the v i l l a g e had not belonged to the l a k e - d w e l l e r s . Although the f i r s t excavations were not made u n t i l 1874, they.have since been followed by many o t h e r s . 1 T h e s e - i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , which d i s c l o s e d bridges and warehouses erected on p i l e s , brought to l i g h t many fragments of v e h i c l e s , harness, weapons, and t o o l s , and showed that the post had been b u i l t on the edge of the water f o r a two-fold 1 purpose, one of which was to act as a m i l i t a r y s t a t i o n to guard both the lake and the river,, From the p o s i t i o n of the skeletons which were found i t was evident that the inhabitants had o f t e n been engaged i n t h e i r duties as s o l d i e r s . The number and s i z e of the warehouses suggested that the post was also a t o l l - s t a t i o n , f o r i t was i n the i d e a l p o s i t i o n to c o n t r o l one trade route from the Rhone to the Rhine, and another from the Rhone to the Daubs. That it'was the ha b i t of the Gauls to levy customs we know from Caesar's account of Dumnorix' 2 a c t i v i t i e s among the Aedui. Although the whole period from 500 B.C. to the Roman Conquest i s c a l l e d the La Tene Age, i t i s subdivided i n t o various .3 phases i n the same manner as the H a l l s t a t t P e r i o d , each phase 4 being represented by t y p i c a l finds/; i n c e r t a i n regions. As the 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P.I.,Ch.V,pp.84 8c 85,. 2. Rice Holmes, T - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l i l e o " - - I , 18, pp.21-22. 3. Hubert, H, - "The Rise of the G e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.128. 52 f i f t h century B.C. witnessed the t r a n s i t i o n from the H a l l s t a t t to the La Tene c u l t u r e , i t i s known as La Tene A, and i t s ch i e f centre was Bavaria and the middle Rhine. La Tene I l a s t e d from 400 to 285 B.C. with i t s t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appearing i n the remains discovered i n the cemeteries of the Marne. The s t a t i o n o f La Tene i t s e l f was the headquarters of the c u l t u r e of La Tene I I which e x i s t e d from 285 to 100 B.C. La Tane I I I with i t s nucleus at Mont Beuvray covered the years from 100 J o 1 B.C. when the C e l t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n gave way to that of Rome. In the B r i t i s h I s l e s , however, there was a f u r t h e r period of C e l t i c c u l t u r e which was the culmination of a l l that had preceded i t . - This c i v i l i z a t i o n i s often r e f e r r e d to as La Tene IV to show i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the previous 1 ' co n t i n e n t a l s e r i e s . Since the changes which took place i n the weapons and jewelry and i n the b u r i a l customs d i s t i n g u i s h the various phases of the La Tene Age, i t i s necessary to know something of these objects and customs i n order to comprehend the 2 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i f f e r e n t p eriods. The most important offensive weapon possessed by the Cel t s was the sword, f o r t h e i r method of warfare was to prepare fo r an a t t a c k . w i t h v o l l e y s of j a v e l i n s and then to engage the enemy i n close combat wi t h t h e i r swords. That the C e l t s them-selves considered the sword too precious to be s a c r i f i c e d i s 1. Hubert,. H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.126; and : . 'The Cambridge.Ancient H i s t o r y - Vol.11, Ch.XXI, p.593. 2. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.84. 3. i b i d . , p.87. i n d i c a t e d by ,,the f a c t that while some La Tene graves contain swords, many do not. The swords of La Tene I were derived from the l a s t type of H a l l s t a t t sword which was r e a l l y a dagger between s i x -teen and :twenty-four' inches long with a h i l t branching out i n t o antennae of various shapes, and a scabbard ending i n a chape 2 formed e i t h e r l i k e a b a l l or a crescent. The f i r s t La Tene swords were also short, being from twenty-four to twenty-six inches i n length. Some of the h i l t s bore the remains of antennae. The r e a l a f f i n i t y between the swords of H a l l s t a t t D and those of La Tene I , however, lay in,the chape of the scabbards, which at f i r s t were made of bronze but l a t e r of i r o n . The ends of the crescent-shaped chape of the former H a l l s t a t t sheath were now curved round i n the form of a swan's neck terminating i n a swan's head to meet the scabbard of the new La Tene sword. To make the swan a l s o l u t e l y r e a l i s t i c , a piece 2 \ of c o r a l was often i n s e r t e d f o r the eye* The f i r s t La Tene sword was so w e l l forged and so s a t i s f a c t o r y that i t i s 3 thought to be the one on which the Romans modelled t h e i r s . The sword of the second La Tene period was longer.• . The, scabbard was u s u a l l y of i r o n and b e a u t i f u l l y engraved, but . the chape was quite d i f f e r e n t from that of the swords of La Tene I . Now the horns of the crescent were f l a t t e n e d r i g h t 4 down to the sheath, thus e l i m i n a t i n g the open-work. But the swords of the t h i r d century had de f e c t s . P o l y b i u s , indeed, i n 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.87. 2. i b i d . , p. 89. §. i b i d . , p. 87. 4, ibi c U , p.90. h i s account .of the campaign of the consul 0. Flaminius against the Insubres i n 223 B.C., says that the G a l l i c swords'bent at the f i r s t stroke and had to be straightened with the f o o t . 1 The sword of La Tene I I I i n no way resembled that of '• \- ' 2 La Tene I , I t was longer even than the sword of La Tene I I , and instead of ending i n a p o i n t , i t ?;as rounded o f f so that i t could only be used f o r c u t t i n g . The scabbard which was often made of wood had a s t r a i g h t mouth instead of the arch-. shaped mouth which chara c t e r i z e d the scabbards of the preceding periods. Although the sheath was.not engraved, i t was u s u a l l y bound with a* network of wire which was a development of a transverse bar which some of the e a r l i e r scabbards possessed. Since the swords of La Tene I I I were only u s e f u l f o r c u t t i n g , another o f f e n s i v e weapon to be used i n conjunction S. with the sword made i t s appearance i n the f i r s t century B*C * This was a small dagger.with antennae and i t ended i n a point for t h r u s t i n g . This dagger also resembled the swords of. La Tene I I i n the form of the chape and i n the mouth of the sheath. The Gelts d i d not wear the sword from a b a l d r i c on the l e f t s i d e , as was the custom Of other peoples, but on . 3 the r i g h t suspended from a w a i s t - b e l t . Other offensive weapons used by the C e l t s were bows 4 and arrows, and spears and j a v e l i n s . The heads of shears and 1. Paton, W.« R. - "Polybius - The H i s t o r i e s " - Vol.1, Bk.II, 33, pp.322 - 323. 2. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.90. 3. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V. p.90, and ; Jones, H.L. - "The Geographjeof Strabo" - V o l . I I , 4.4.3.-pp.242-243. 4. Hubert, H. -"The Rise of the C e l t s , P t . I , Ch.V, p.91, and Jones, H.L. - "The Geography ..of Strabo» - Vol.II,4.4.3,pp.242 55 j a v e l i n s , which are e i t h e r socketed or tanged, have been found i n great numbers i n the tombs and on the s t a t i o n s i t e s , showing that they must have been very p l e n t i f u l . The oldest spear-heads were very long, aome indeed reaching a length of s i x t e e n to twenty inches. They were made in. the shape of a willow le a f with a s l i g h t suggestion of a mi d - r i b . In La Tene I I , the spear-heads became much broader and were of various shapes with sinuous or crimped, edges. They were oft e n b e a u t i f u l l y decorated. The c h i e f defensive armour-of the C e l t s was the s h i e l d . P r i o r to the La Tene p e r i o d , the C e l t s , l i k e almost a l l the other peoples of northern and c e n t r a l Europe, used round wicker or metal .shields, but i n La Tene I they possessed a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c buckler by which they were recognized i n the f i e l d * Although no a c t u a l specimens have been found i n the tombs of La Tene I , from a La Tene engraving on a sword sheath discovered at H a l l s t a t t - , and from i l l u s t r a t i o n s on Vases found i n I t a l y and a s t e l e uncovered at Bologna, we know that these s h i e l d s were o v a l or oblong i n shape, and sometimes quite 1 narrow. The s h i e l d s of La Tene I I were the same shape as those of the preceding period, but with an oval-shaped piece of metal r i s i n g i n the centre. The f l a t wing on each side of " 2 t h i s " trigger-guard" boss was r i v e t e d to the surface. Another 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V., p.92, and Eorster :, E. My - "The Aeneid of V i r g i l " - Vol.11, Bk.VIII, 1.662, p.102; and Jones, H* L. - "The Geography of Strabo" - V o l . I I , 4.4.5, pp.242-243. 2. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V., p.92. 56. form of the same s h i e l d had a brace running i n a ridge down the a x i s . The s h i e l d of the Dying Gaul i s of t h i s type, and as i t appears on a l l the monuments commemorating the G a l a t i a n 1- • wars, i t was e v i d e n t l y the s h i e l d used by the Galatians. A s t i l l l a t e r s h i e l d had a cone-shaped boss attached to the surface by a c i r c l e of metal which was r i v e t e d on. Representations of t h i s s h i e l d are found ©n an arch at Orange, on an a l t a r at Nimes, and on a statue of a G a l l i c c h i e f t a i n discovered at Vaoheres. S h i e l d s with oval or round bosses have been found i n B r i t a i n but they belong to the f i r s t centuries before and ' 2 a f t e r C h r i s t . As the C e l t s were organized i n c l a n s , t h e i r 2 s h i e l d s f r e q u e n t l y bore emblems and were r i c h l y ornamented. Another piece of defensive armour was the breast-2 p l a t e which was worn only by the l e a d e r s . Fragments of these p r o t e c t i v e coverings have been found at La Tene, and the arch at Orange p i c t u r e s an o f f i c e r wearing a breast-plate of s c a l e s . Because of t h e i r wonderful s k i l l i n metal-work the Gauls are b e l i e v e d to have invented the coat of m a i l , an example of which i s found on the statue of the G a l l i c c h i e f uncovered at Vacheres. As the C e l t s of the La Tene per i o d mostly fought feaare-headed or i n l e a t h e r caps, helmets were scarce, and those that d i d e x i s t were e i t h e r imported from I t a l y or Greece 3 or were copied from the types used, i n those two c o u n t r i e s . Each period of the La Tene Age had i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e s i n ornaments as w e l l as i n weapons. One of the c h i e f 1. Hubert, H - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.92. 2. i b i d . , p.93. 3. i b i d * , p.94. pieces of jewelry was the brooch, which i n La Tene I was made i n a great v a r i e t y of shapes. One of the most popular had a h i g h l y arched bow with a foot s l i g h t l y turned up or tending to c u r l back to the bow* In La Tene I I , the foot came closer to the bow u n t i l at l a s t i t was attached to the bow by a r i n g . At f i r s t t h i s r i n g was near the middle of the bow, 2 but f i n a l l y i t s h i f t e d towards the head. 3 Another common a r t i c l e of jewelry was the torque. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the contents of many graves has revealed that i n the f i r s t La Tene p e r i o d , women alone wore the torque, but monuments of La Tene I I show that men also had adopted t h i s ornament. These torques, which were c o l l a r s made of r i c h l y ornamented s t r i p s of metal, were connected with, r e l i g i o u s r i t e s . A f t e r the Roman Conquest the Gauls offered Augustus, ?;hom they regarded as a God, a.gold torque weighing one hundred pounds. Ornate b r a c e l e t s were also popular amongst C e l t i c women. They were o c c a s i o n a l l y worn by men, e s p e c i a l l y by 5 ehieftains*. P r i o r to La Tene I I , b e l t s made of c l o t h or leather were worn. In La Tene I I , however, b e l t s with i r o n chains 6 were adopted* One prominent feature of La Tene a r t was the 1. Hubert, H. - l?The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.97. 2. i b i d . , p.99. 3. i b i d . , pp* 99,100. 4. B u t l e r , H..E. «• "The I n s t i t u t i o Orator l a of Q u i n t i l i a n " -Bk. VI, i i i , 79, pp.480-481. •5-4- Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t * I , Ch.V, p.103. 6. i b i d . , p.105. 1 • decoration of metal by other m a t e r i a l s . Metal objects belonging to La Tene I were often adorned with c o r a l , 1 but since at the end of the f o u r t h century B.C. almost the whole 2 production of c o r a l was sent to I n d i a , the use of t h i s substance ceased i n C e l t i c a r t . I t s place was [.taken by a 1 red enamel which was a purely C e l t i c i n v e n t i o n . The vases of La Tene I were of several types. Some had s t r a i g h t sides and angular shoulders and are known as 3 "ca r i n a t e d " vases. Beaker-shaped vases which were an out-growth of those of the Bronze and H a l l s t a t t periods s t i l l s e x i s t e d . There were also some c y l i n d r i c a l vases with high 3 or low necks. A l l these' vases were made from a very f i n e paste which was covered with a black-or brown-burnished s l i p . Patterns were engraved on the sides and f i l l e d i n with 3 • , red or white p a i n t . The vases of La Tene I I were of two d i s t i n c t types, some having long and narrow necks, while others had wide 3 mouths* A l l had b e a u t i f u l designs painted on them. The ornamentation of vases i n the La Tens Age was •4 . purely one of l i n e . While s t r a i g h t l i n e s formed a large part of the patterns, curved l i n e s were al s o f r e q u e n tly used. The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symbol of t h i s decoration was which was ofte n extended i n t o a double volute of t h i s type. 1. -Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.123. 2. D e l p h i n i C l a s s i c i - "C. P l i n i i Secundi Natural!s H i s t o r i a e - L i b r i BKVIT"-~ V o l . V I I I , L i b . 23X11* SJL, 'pp. 4226-4228. 3.."Hubert, H - "The Rise of the C e i t s " - P t * I , Ch.V, p. 109. 4. i b i d . , p.116. Each La Tene period was also d i s t i n g u i s h e d by-p e c u l i a r b u r i a l r i t e s . In La Tene A both cremation and inhuma-t i o n were.practised and b u r i a l was made under tumuli of the 1 same type as those of-the H a l l s t a t t Age. In La Tene I , however, cremation was almost t o t a l l y abandoned and inhumations were no longer made under tumuli. The t y p i c a l tomb of the period was- a f l a t , oblong grave i n which the body was l a i d east and west with';the head' towards • V 2 the west. The use of a c o f f i n appears to have been o p t i o n a l . In La Tene I I , tumuli were s t i l l r a r e while f l a t 1 graves were common, but cremation was again p r a c t i s e d . By La Tene I I I , cremation had once more become the- customary 3 b u r i a l r i t e . . ' A d e t a i l e d study of the four c o n t i n e n t a l La Tene periods shows that La Tene I and La Tene I I were the most important. Since La Tene A was a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase, and La Tene I I I an age of decadence, the cu l t u r e of La Tene I and I I , and of La Tene IV i n B r i t a i n , undoubtedly expressed the very highest forms of C e l t i c l i f e . 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.126, and TKest& - Oh. IV, pr.38;" 2. Hul>ertH"The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.l.,. '" * pp. 2 - 4. 3. I d . , "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, p.126. Chapter VI La Tene - The Great Age of C e l t i c Expansion In a d d i t i o n to being the most important period i n the development of C e l t i c c u l t u r e , the La Tene Era was also the age of the, greatest C e l t i c i n f l u e n c e and expansion. Though the La Tene migrations were dealt with quite f u l l y i n the f i r s t chapter, the main f a c t s w i l l be b r i e f l y reviewed i n order to place them i n t h e i r proper perspective, From the time of the Bronze Age the C e l t s had c o n t i n u a l l y advanced i n t o eastern and south-western France, During the f i f t h century they f i r m l y entrenched themselves i n northern and c e n t r a l France r i g h t to the A t l a n t i c sea-board, a f a c t which i s proved by the La Tone A po t t e r y , weapons, jewelry, and graves which have been found a l l over t h i s 1 area* In the t h i r d century, the C e l t s conquered the L i g u r i a n s e c t i o n of southern France and extended t h e i r sphere of . • .. 2 • influence to the shores of the Mediterranean, thereby making Gaul completely C e l t i c . B r i t a i n , too, was the object of f u r t h e r C e l t i c migrations during the La Tene Age. One of these great move-ments, which began about 5.00 B.C. with the a r r i v a l of Brythons 1. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I , Ch.I,. p.9, 2. L i v i i P a t a V i n i , T* - "Historiarum L i b r i " - Tom.II - XXVI, 19, p.303. versed i n the La Tene c u l t u r e , continued u n t i l j u s t before Pytheas' v i s i t to the Island i n 325 B.C. Since these C e l t s brought with them the names of the c o n t i n e n t a l t r i b e s to which they belonged, f o r example, the P a r i s i i , Brigantes, and Cassi, . - . 2 we know that the new inhabitants of B r i t a i n came from Gaul. Between 200 and 150 B.C., objects belonging to the La Tene I I c i v i l i z a t i o n made t h e i r appearance i n B r i t a i n and \ 3 were followed l a t e r by a r t i c l e s of the La Tene I I I c u l t u r e . At the same time, although inhumation continued to be prac-t i s e d by the La Tene I B r i t o n s , cremation tombs or small p i t s , two or three f e e t deep, were dug i n c e r t a i n places i n the 3 south of the I s l a n d , notably at A y l e s f o r d i n Kent. The appearance of new f u n e r a l r i t e s , along w i t h the a r r i v a l of a r t i c l e s of the l a t e r La Tene c u l t u r e s , seems to i n d i c a t e the coming of a new race who e v i d e n t l y were not a s s i m i l a t e d by the r e s t of the population since the p r a c t i c e of cremation did not become general, and silnce the La Tene I cult u r e continued to e x i s t side by side w i t h the l a t e r La Tene c i v i l i z a t i o n s . Undoubtedly the new invaders were the Belgae, f o r on the ouoasion of h i s second v i s i t to the Island Caesar s a i d that according to t r a d i t i o n the i n t e r i o r was inhabited by those who had been born on. the i s l a n d while the c o a s t a l region was the home of those who had crossed over from the country of the 4 Belgae f o r the-purpo.se of plundering and making war* 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I I , Ch.II, p.213. 2. i b i d . , p.215. 3, i b i d . , pp.216-217. 4. Rice Holmes, T. - "Caesar ~ De- B e l l o G a l l i c o " - V, 12, p.185. Both the B r i t o n s of La Tene I and. the l a t e r Belgae invaders t r a v e l l e d westward into Cornwall and Wales, and 1 f i n a l l y crossed the I r i s h Sea i n t o I r e l a n d . A group of Brigantes s e t t l e d i n the south of I r e l a n d at a place now c a l l e d Waterford, while nearby at Wexford there was a Belgic colony of Menapii. Spain also had a large C e l t i c element w i t h i n i t s borders during the La Tene Age. In the l a t e H a l l s t a t t Period the C e l t s had crossed the Pyrenees i n t o Spain and i n the f i f t h century had been cut o f f from contact with t h e i r kindred i n Gaul when A q u i t a n i a was conquered by the I b e r i a n s . As the Iberians had a l s o conquered p a r t s of Spain, the C e l t i c and I b e r i a n c u l t u r e s there became so amalgamated that they were designated by the s i n g l e name " C e l t i b e r i a n " . In the century between 350 and S50 B.C., however, there was a f u r t h e r C e l t i c m i g r a t i o n i n t o Spain, t h i s time by the Belgae. In the s i x t h century the C e l t s had invaded the Po V a l l e y i n northern I t a l y , but many La Tene r e l i c s , as w e l l as L i v y ' s story of Bellovesus, t e s t i f y to a l a t e r i n v a s i o n at the beginning of the La Tene period.. In the f i r s t ' y e a r s of the f o u r t h century, a f i e r c e , war-like party swept across the Alps and the Apennines to Rome, which they conquered and burned i n 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I I , Ch.II, p.221. 2* i b i d . , p.222. 3. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I , C h . I I I , p.78. 4. Eyre, E. - "European Civilization.'? - V o l . 1 , p t . by J . L. Myres, p.223. 390 B.C. Flushed with v i c t o r y , they pressed on, only to be defeated i n the highlands and the south. Indeed, they were reduced to such s t r a i t s that many of them became mercenaries 2 f o r the Greek c i t i e s of Tarentum and Syracuse. A f t e r t h i s d i s a s t e r , with the exception of sporadic a t t a c k s , the C e l t s i n I t a l y remained i n the area known as C i s a l p i n e Gaul. In the Bronze and H a l l s t a t t Ages the migrations which took place from the o r i g i n a l home or cradle of the C e l t s had "been towards the west and the south and down the v a l l e y of the Rhine but not north-east\vards into Germany proper. From the beginning of the La Tene p e r i o d , however, C e l t i c occupation spread f u r t h e r eastwards i n t o Bohemia and Germany. About 400 B.C., the e x p e d i t i o n l e d by Segovesus t r a v e l l e d north-east 3 to the Hercynian F o r e s t , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s north of the Thuringer Wald prove that the C e l t s l a t e r moved into the t e r r i t o r y between the upper reaches of the Saale and the 3(1) Elbe Rivers*. That the C e l t s were i n close contact with the Germans i s proved also by the number of C e l t i c words appearing i n the 4 German language. Even the eastern German d i a l e c t s and the Slav and F i n n tongues bear evidence of the great influence exercised by the C e l t s on the northern European peoples, an infl u e n c e that probably reached i t s maximum i n La Tene I or 1. Eyre, E. - "European C i v i l i z a t i o n " - Vol.1, p t . by J.L.Myres p. 223. 2. i b i d . 3.. Hubert, H* - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " - P t . I Ch.IV, p.92; and L i v i i :.Patavini, T. - "Historiarum, L i ' b r i " - Tom.I, ,Bk.V. 34, p.325. 4. Hubert, H* - "The Greatness and Decline of the Gelts»-Pt.I, Ch.IV, p.93. La Tene I I . -The La Tene Age also witnessed the expansion .of the C e l t s i n an e n t i r e l y new d i r e c t i o n . , About 400 B.C., there was a great migration of men, women, and c h i l d r e n eastwards along the v a l l e y of the Danube. T r a d i t i o n says that these people were o r i g i n a l l y members of the expedition l e d by Segovesus, but that "duclbus avibus" they turned aside from t h e i r goal of the Hercynian Forest and set out f o r I l l y r i a . Whether or not t h i s theory i s t r u e , during the great movement that took p l a c e , Rhaetia, Norioum, and Pannonia became C e l t i c domains. F i n a l l y , a band of the more adventurous invaded Macedonia and k i l l e d the k i n g , Keraunos, and overthrew h i s 3 army. Then, as other C e l t s i n I t a l y had done, they pressed south only to be defeated by an army of Athenians, Boeotians, and A e t o l i a n s at Thermopylae. With t h e i r s p i r i t s uncrushed, the C e l t s turned to the western passes and, i n 279 B.C., p i l l a g e d the famous shrine at Delphi. Once more they were defeated by the Greeks and forced to r e t r e a t north to Macedonia where they again met d i s a s t e r . From Macedonia they made, t h e i r way across the Hellespont i n t o A s i a Minor where the famous G a l a t i a n wars took p l a c e . F i n a l l y they were allowed to s e t t l e 3 i n the t e r r i t o r y which became known as- G a l a t i a . There i s proof that a par„ty of C e l t s l a t e r reached the 1. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I , Ch.IV, p.94. 2. i b i d . , Pt* I , Ch.I, pp.53-34; and D e l p h i n i C l a s s i c i - " J u s t i n i H i s t o r i a e P h i l i p p i c a e " - Lib.EXIV, 4, pp.360-561. 3. Eyre, E. - "European C i v i l i z a t i o n " - Vol.1, P t . by A.W.Gomme, p.1216. 65 Sea of Azov .but there i s no evidence that they ever advanced 1 to a more e a s t e r l y p o i n t * No doubt the causes of the La f/ene migrations were much the same as those of the H a l l s t a t t expansion. At f i r s t the adventurous, w a r - l i k e , and over-crowded C e l t s , with t h e i r wonderful weapons and t o o l s , f e l t that they ceould conquer the world. As time went on, however, the movement of C e l t i c peoples was more and more due to the pressure of other peoples against the boundaries of t h e i r t e r r i t o r y , a pressure which they were unable to r e s i s t because of t h e i r l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n into, strong p o l i t i c a l u n i t s . Consequently, the great migrations which had once been a s i g n of the numerical strength and m i l i t a r y prowess of the C e l t s f i n a l l y became a symbol of t h e i r weakness, and a prelude to t h e i r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n which, begin-' ning i n 2.22- B.C. with the l o s s of C i s a l p i n e Gaul-to Home, continued u n t i l 43 A.D. vrtien B r i t a i n , the l a s t part of C e l t i e a to f a l l to the conqueror, was. o f f i c i a l l y made a Roman province. 1. Hubert, H. - *'The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t i I j . G h . l I j P . 4 5 . Chapter V I I The Character of the C e l t s The Romans, who were the f i r s t to w r i t e e x t e n s i v e l y on the subject, d i d not have a very high opinion of C e l t i c character. They charged the Celts with being f i c k l e , impetuou treacherous, and possessed of other undesirable t r a i t s . An observant reader to-day, however, r e a l i z e s that the judgment of the Romans i s not to be t r u s t e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y , f o r since Rome and C e l t i c a were i n continual c o n f l i c t , the Romans were biased by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and therefore unable to view the a c t i o n s of the C e l t s i m p a r t i a l l y . Not-withstanding t h i s f a c t , as there i s no b e t t e r primary source of m a t e r i a l , we s h a l l use the evidence gathered by Caesar during h2is eight years' contact with the Gauls, but instead of accepting a l l h i s e v a l u a t i o n s , prejudiced as they are by h i s own i n t e r e s t s and those of Rome, we s h a l l endeavour to a r r i v e at a f a i r e r estimate of C e l t i c character. One of the most outstanding t r a i t s of the C e l t s was t h e i r love o f ' f i g h t i n g , and the accounts that have survived of t h e i r invasions of I t a l y , Greece,and A s i a Minor r e v e a l the zest and enthusiasm withT/tiich they engaged i n b a t t l e . Caesar, i n h i s dealings w i t h them, was under no delusion as to t h e i r a t t i t u d e to c o n f l i c t . In summing up h i s reasons f o r i n t e r -67 vention i n ,the projected movement of the H e l v e t i i , one of the strongest G a l l i c t r i b e s , he emphasizes t h e i r fondness of war, and h i s fear of the consequences i f they should come into 1 contact w i t h the Roman Province* In h i s t h i r d campaign, indeed, the r e f l e c t i o n that almost a l l the Gauls enjoyed r e v o l u t i o n and were e a s i l y i n c i t e d to wage war, induced him to sub-d i v i d e h i s army and send the d i f f e r e n t u n i t s to various parts 2 of Gaul. He says also that i t was a common thing f o r men, at'the mere rumor of an, engagement, to leave t h e i r d a i l y tasks i n order to s a t i s f y t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n f o r f i g h t i n g and 3 plundering. Along w i t h t h i s enthusiasm f o r the m i l i t a r y a r t , the C e l t s displayed personal bravery of such a high order that i t has become legendary. Indeed, the magnificent valour exhibited by i n d i v i d u a l C e l t s i n encounters with t h e i r enemies i s the one good t r a i t which was never minimized by t h e i r foes. The "De B e l l o C a l l i c o " contains many examples of the great courage manifested by the C e l t s , and i n every case Caesar recounts them with the greatest respect. He t e l l s us that i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h the H e l v e t i i , although the f i g h t l a s t e d from the seventh hour to eventide, no enemy could be seen with h i s back turned. I n the struggle at the f o r d on the River-Aisne, a f t e r the f i r s t ranks o f the Belgae had been k i l l e d , the r e s t 1. Rice Holmes, T. - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l l i c o " - I , 2, p.3; & 10, p.11. 2. i b i d . , I I I j 10,-p.109. 3. i b i d . , I I I , 17, p.117. 4. ib i d . - . I , 26, p.30. 68 t r i e d i n a .most courageous manner to pass over t h e i r bodies 1 i n order to come face to face with the foe. Almost the same 2 thing happened l a t e r i n the engagement with the N e r v i i . When the foremost had been k i l l e d , those behind stood on t h e i r bodies and continued to f i g h t v i g o r o u s l y J, Several years l a t e r , at the siege of Avarioum, Caesar again witnessed a splendid example of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . A Gaul who was throwing b a l l s of t a l l o w and f i r e which were passed along to him was pierced on the r i g h t side with a dart and f e l l dead.. The man next to him stepped over h i s body and met a s i m i l a r f a t e . A t h i r d and a f o u r t h died i n the same manner, but the p o s i t i o n continued to be f i l l e d u n t i l the Romans gained c o n t r o l and 3 put the Gauls to f l i g h t . The Gauls themselves Were quite aware of t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n f o r bravery, and the various t r i b e s v i e d with one another f o r the honour of being accounted the bravest. Although Orgetorix claimed that h i s people, the H e l v e t i i , e x c e l l e d i n 4 valour, the Gauls g e n e r a l l y conceded that the Belgic t r i b e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the B e l l o v a c i and the N e r v i i , were the most 5 courageous. Although t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of.bravery was n a t u r a l to the C e l t s , i t was a l s o c a r e f u l l y f o stered by C e l t i c p o l i c y . 1. Rice Holmes, T. - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l l i c o " --'II:t10 sp.,7.,8* 2. i b i d . , I I , 23, p. 93. 3. i b i d . , V I I , 25, p.295. 4. i b i d . , I , 2, p.3. 5. i b i d . , I , 1, p.2; I I , 15, p.83; V I I I , 6, p.367; VIII,54,p.401; and •• Jones, H. L. - "The Geography of Strabo" - Vol.11, 4.4.3, pp. 238.-241. When the H e l v e t i i were ready to migrate, i n order that they should not be able to evade any danger by r e t u r n i n g home, they destroyed t h e i r twelve towns, four hundred v i l l a g e s , and a l l surplus food s u p p l i e s . A f t e r s u s t a i n i n g a .series of losses at Yellaunodunum, Genabum, and Noviodunum, the great C e l t i c leader, Y e r c i n g e t o r i x , urged the burning of G a l l i c towns so that they could not become places of r e t r e a t for Gauls who 2 d i d not wish to render m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . The s p i r i t of the Gauls was again evident when, i n the great c o u n c i l of war c a l l e d by Y e r c i n g e t o r i x j u s t before the march to A l e s i a , the cavalry shouted that they ought to bind, themselves by a sacred oath that any of t h e i r number who d i d not r i d e twice through the enemy's army should be denied access to h i s home and the p r i v i l e g e of seeing h i s c h i l d r e n , w i f e , and p a r e n t s . 3 In view of the remarkable bravery of the C e l t s which was admitted and lauded even by t h e i r enemies, some explanation must be found f o r the f a c t that the C e l t s could not a t t a i n success against the Romans. Caesar thought that the Gauls f a i l e d because they were too impetuous i n undertaking wars and 4 then lacked the strength of mind to endure reverses. Such a judgment i s very s u p e r f i c i a l and does not recognize the fundamental cause. The r e a l trouble, was not that the Gauls were weak and i r r e s o l u t e , but that they were e s s e n t i a l l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t s and lacked o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l by a powerful c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . Consequently, over and over again when a strong leader and u n i t y would have meant v i c t o r y f o r them, the day was l o s t f o r want of the two things that might 1. Rice Holmes, T..op.cit. , I , 5, p.6. 2. i b i d . , VII,14,p.283. 3. ibid,VII,66,p.335. 4.ibid.,IV, 70 have ensured success* An in c i d e n t r e l a t e d by Caesar i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point p e r f e c t l y . Upon hearing that the Aedui were approaching the t e r r i t o r y of.the B e l l o v a c i , the Belgae, who had come south to wage war on the Romans, decided to re t u r n home. TJiey l e f t t h e i r camp with great, noise and confusion, i n no f i x e d order and with no one i n command. On being pursued by the Roman l e g i o n s , the van broke t h e i r ranks and f l e d , simply because there was no one to take charge and urge them to resist*''" Lack of leadership and o f co-operation towards a common end l e d to many c a r e l e s s mistakes which were f a t a l to the C e l t i c cause. In the t h i r d campaign, the A u l e r c i and Sex o v i i fomented r e b e l l i o n without taking necessary precautions f o r a supply of p r o v i s i o n s , with the r e s u l t that owing to t h e i r need f o r food they f e l l into, the trap set f o r them by 2 Sabinus, one of Caesar's l i e u t e n a n t s . In at l e a s t three cases carelessness i n the f o r t i f i c a t i o n of G a l l i c towns or camps was a large f a c t o r i n t h e i r seizure by the enemy. In the t h i r d campaign, the camp of- the Yoc.ates and Tarusates was not f o r t i f i e d w ith care- on the side of the Decuman gate, and as there was an easy approach there, Grassus managed to have four cohorts enter the C e l t i c stronghold. Because Caesar noticed that the guards were arranged too n e g l i g e n t l y on the wa l l s of Avaricum i n the seventh campaign, he had h i s men suddenly scale 1. Rice Holmes, o p . c i t . , I I , 11, p.79. 2. i b i d . , I I I , 18, p.118. 3. i b i d . , I I I , 25, p.126. 71 the w a l l s o f t t h e towh and thus g a i n c o n t r o l of ' i f * 1 In the '.struggle f o r possession of Gergovia,' there was a h i l l opposite the town which was of the utmost s t r a t e g i c importance. .This' h i l l , held as i t was .by a weak ga r r i s o n , was conquered by Saesar, who was then able to cut the Sauls o f f from a great 2 part of t h e i r water supply and from free f o r a g i n g . What the Ce l t s might have accomplished with u n i t y and strong leadership i s demonstrated by the preparations of _ the H e l v e t i i , under the d i r e c t i o n .of G r g e t o r i z , f o r t h e i r m i g r ation. These people bought as many beasts of burden and wagons as p o s s i b l e . They sowed as much g r a i n as they could i n order to have s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e i r journey. They adopted the p o l i c y of e s t a b l i s h i n g peaceful and f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s with neighbouring s t a t e s so that t h e i r plans would receive no set-back from those t r i b e s near at hand. Then, deciding that two years would be s u f f i c i e n t i n which to accomplish t h e i r designs, they set the t h i r d year f o r t h e i r departure. F i n a l l y , they discussed the pros and cons of the pos s i b l e routes to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , and chose the best way when they decided S to go through the Roman Province. Likewise, when i n the seventh campaign V e r c i n g e t o r i x took command of the G a l l i c f o r c e s , he had a r e a l programme worked out, though unhappily for the C e l t s i t came too l a t e . He demanded hostages from the states that had promised to help him, he ordered a c e r t a i n 1 Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , V I I , 27, pp.296-297. 2. i b i d . , V I I , 36, pp.305-306. 3.. i b i d . , I , 3, p*3; 6, p.7. number of s o l d i e r s to be sent to him at once, he determined what quantity of arms each stat e should prepare and the time by which t h i s work should be completed, and he paid p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the c a v a l r y . What i s more important, he saw to I i t that h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s were c a r r i e d out. These instances show that w i t h consistent leadership and organization the h i s t o r y of the Gauls might have been very d i f f e r e n t , but with-out them t h e i r personal bravery and m i l i t a r y prowess were not s u f f i c i e n t to overcome the strategy of the Romans. The worst t r a i t s with which Caesar charged the Gauls were f i c k l e n e s s and treachery, and to give a u t h o r i t y f o r h i s judgment he f i l l e d h i s accounts of the G a l l i c wars with instances of what he termed perfidy.. In r e a l i t y , only three or four of the many cases c i t e d by Caesar were a c t u a l treachery. One such instance was that of Orgetorix who was commissioned by the H e l v e t i i to make arrangements f o r t h e i r migration, but who Planned i n s t e a d , w i t h the help of Casticus and Dumnorix, 2 to seize c o n t r o l of the whole of Gaul. In connection with the same i n c i d e n t , the H e l v e t i i , through the good o f f i c e s of Dumnorix, the Aeduan, obtained permission to go through the t e r r i t o r y of the Sequani on c o n d i t i o n that they would do no damage. They passed through the land of the Sequani, 3 but on reaching the t e r r i t o r y of the Aedui, they l a i d i t waste, y e r c i n g e t o r i x , too, was g u i l t y of treachery when, a f t e r 1. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , V I I , 4, pp.274-275. 2. i b i d . , I , 3, pp. 4-5. 3. i b i d . , I , 11, p.13. t o r t u r i n g by s t a r v a t i o n and confinement some prisoners that he had taken from the opposing army, he forced- them to d e l i b e r a t e l y mislead the c o u n c i l of Gauls by t e l l i n g them that the Roman ' • 1 army was s t a r v i n g and could no longer bear arms. The numerous other charges of treachery c i t e d i n "De B e l l o G a l l i c o " would not be considered as such by an i m p a r t i a l observer. They were r a t h e r the actions of a people d r i v e n to use cunning f o r t h e i r own preservation when faced by the superior f o r c e s of org a n i z a t i o n and capable leadership. ..When, f o r instance, c e r t a i n t r i b e s sued f o r peace, and then suddenly commenced to again wage war, or when others, pretending to surrender,' h i d part of t h e i r weapons i n order to 3 launch a f u r t h e r attack on the Romans, they were not r e a l l y g u i l t y of treachery but were employing the only means i n t h e i r power to defend t h e i r l i b e r t y . Caesar himself would have had no respect f o r Romans who, f i n d i n g themselves i n the same p o s i t i o n as the Gauls, would not have fought f o r t h e i r freedom with every weapon they could command, even i n c l u d i n g c r a f t i -ness, or what i n the Gauls he condemned as treachery. A conquered people are never f a i r l y •judged by t h e i r conquerors, as the l o y a l t y of the vanquished to t h e i r own cause i s termed d i s l o y a l t y by the v i c t o r s . Caesar's own observations of C e l t i c character, when viewed without b i a s , e s t a b l i s h the.Celts as an in t e n s e l y 1. Rice Holmes, T. o p . c i t . - V I I , 20, p.290. 2. i b i d . , I I I , 2, p.101; I I I , 9 & 10, pp.107-109; I I I , 22, p.123; IV, 27, p.161, and 30, p.164. 3. i b i d . , I I , 32, p.97. brave people;, l o y a l to t h e i r own cause, but whose strong ' i n d i v i d u a l i s m contributed much towards t h e i r downfall', pre-c l u d i n g as i t d i d any idea of the u n i t y or leadership which, combined with t h e i r bravery and m i l i t a r y prowess, might have saved them from th.e power of Rome* Chapter VIII. The Customs of the C e l t s While the C e l t s l e f t . l i t t l e impression on the p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of the world, they contributed much to i t s c u l t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d s of music and l i t e r a t u r e . We, therefore, should not f a i l to consider the q u a l i t i e s and customs of t h e i r e a r l y l i f e which so powerfully influenced the l a t e r development of these high forms of a r t . As, however, the customs of the Ce l t s were numerous and interwoven with one another, i t seems expedient f o r the purpose of t h i s chapter to d i v i d e them i n t o three c l a s s e s , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and m i l i t a r y , and i t i s i n t h i s order that we s h a l l d i s c u s s them. The p o l i t i c a l Customs and the Various Classes of Society The u n i t of government among the C e l t s was the t r i b e , which possessed absolute c o n t r o l w i t h i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y . Although the various t r i b e s o c c a s i o n a l l y united t h e i r resources for a common purpose, no c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y e x i s t e d to d i r e c t t h e i r p o l i c y as a whole, or to co-ordinate t h e i r e f f o r t s toward the attainment of a desired end. The loose p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which r e s u l t e d must consequently be considered an important f a c t o r i n estimating the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the C e l t s to the w o r l d , f o r while i t . accounted i n large measure f o r the f i n a l downfall of the C e l t s as a n a t i o n , i t was a l s o responsible f o r the development of a strong i n d i v i d u a l i s m which influenced many generations. At the head of each t r i b e there was a man with supreme, a u t h o r i t y who was given the. t i t l e "Icing", a f a c t which i s i n d i c a t e d by the s u f f i x " r i x " attached to many of the names of leading men, such.as Orgetorix, C i n g e t o r i x , Ambiorix, and V e r c i n g e t o r i x . In the e a r l i e r days of C e l t i c h i s t o r y , t h i s kingship may have been h e r e d i t a r y , but by the time of the Roman Conquest i t had become merely a p r i z e f o r the most powerful man i n the t r i b e . Dumnorix, f o r example, t r i e d to '1 take the sovereignty of the Aedui from h i s brother, D i v i t i a c u s , and when Caesar a r r i v e d i n the t e r r i t o r y of the T r e v e r i i n the f i f t h campaign, he found C i n g e t o r i x and Indutiomarus contending with each other f o r supremacy over the people there. Next i n importance to the king or c h i e f were the 3 members of the n o b i l i t y , who met at times i n s p e c i a l councils to hear the d e c i s i o n s of t h e i r leader or to take part i n a d i s c u s s i o n of future p o l i c i e s . Prom t h e i r ranks were elected the magistrates and a l s o a body of men known as the senate ' 4 to a s s i s t i n the a c t u a l governing of the t r i b e . The nobles seem to have employed a form of feudal s e r v i c e f o r the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d and w e a l t h i e s t of them had 3 many vassals and dependents who accompanied them i n t o b a t t l e . 1. Rice Holmes, T. - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l l i c o " , I,5,pp.4*5. '2- i*bid», ¥,-3, pp.172-173. . 3. i b i d . , VI, 13, pp.238-239; and VI, 15, p.244. 4. i b i d . , V I I , 33, p.301. Caesar, i n speaking of the common people, said that they were held almost i n the c o n d i t i o n of s l a v e s , that they dared do nothing on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , and that they we're not 1 admitted to any d e l i b e r a t i o n * lie also observed that when ' these people were pressed by debt or by the t r i b u t e s they were forced to pay to the knights, they gave themselves up 1 i n vassalage to those to whom they were indebted. As Orgetorix alone had ten thousand vassals and a large number . } . 2 •. ' - . of dependents, i t can r e a d i l y be preceived that t h i s system had a great e f f e c t on C e l t i c l i f e . Another curious form of C e l t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p was that e x i s t i n g between the " s o l d u r i i " and t h e i r noble patrons. •The s o l d u r i i were devoted f o l l o w e r s of some noble of t h e i r choice, and i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and s e r v i c e , they ,enjoyed a l l the conveniences and comforts of the l i f e of t h e i r benefactors* I f t h e i r patrons d i e d , however, or were k i l l e d , the s o l d u r i i were bound to endure, the same destiny or commit s u i c i d e . At the very bottom of the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l scale i n C e l t i c l i f e were those men who f o r some misdeed had been outlawed from t h e i r t r i b e s and thus forced i n t o a l i f e of wandering. Together with robher bands who sometimes joined them, these desperate characters were o c c a s i o n a l l y taken '1. Rice Holmes, T*, - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l i l e o " , VI, 13, pp.238-239. 2. i b i d . , I , 4, pp.5-6. 3. i b i d . , I l l , 22, pp.122-123. 78 i n t o the G a l l i c army. In the year 54 B.C., f o r instance, Indutiomarus of the Tr e v e r i offered great rewards to the outlaw© and con v i c t s throughout Gaul to come and j o i n - h i s • . . " . 1 army m preparation f o r a r e v o l t against the Romans. Ver-c i n g e t o r i x , i n h i s t u r n , also held a levy'of the needy and 2 desperate. One more group of people remains to be mentioned, namely*'-.-the Druids who were on an equal f o o t i n g with the ". ' 3 knights and who consequently wielded a tremendous influence i n C e l t i c a f f a i r s . Their order, which was a form of p r i e s t -hood, has been compared to that of the College of P o n t i f i c e s 4 . at Rome. ; S i m i l a r i t i e s have also been found between the 4 Druids and the Magi of Iran-and the Brahmins of I n d i a . According to Caesar, the c u l t of Druidism o r i g i n a t e d i n B r i t a i n , and the schools and sanctuaries of the B r i t i s h Druids.were of t e n v i s i t e d by the Druids of the Continent. In t r a c i n g the d e r i v a t i o n of the word "Druid", two p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been suggested. The f i r s t i s that the word comes from' " &f> ~6 5'" or "oaky and that the Druids were r e a l l y the p r i e s t s of the Oak. Other a u t h o r i t i e s claim'that " d r u i " i s connected, with Msui*» or "Wise", and that therefore the Druids were the wisemen or soothsayers* I t i s c e r t a i n , however, that t r a d i t i o n 1. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , V, 55, p.225. 2. i b i d . , V I I , 4, p.274. 5. i b i d . , VI, 13, pp.238-239. 4. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I l l , Gh.I, p.190. 5. Rice Holmes, T. - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l i l e o " - V I , i 3 , pp.241-242. 6. Hubert, H* - "The Greatness.and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I I , C h . I I I , p.228. . -79 connects t h e . B r i t i s h Druids with the oak tr e e and that the Gaulish Druids picked the mistletoe and ate the acornsof the 1 oak i n order to acquire prophetic powers. Mo doubt the Druids l i v e d together i n groups i n the same manner as the monks of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. One Druid presided over a l l and pessessed supreme a u t h o r i t y i n everything. Upon the death of t h i s Arch Druid, h i s place was taken by the one considered next i n importance. I f there were sev e r a l of equal a b i l i t y , one was electe d by vote. Occ a s i o n a l l y , however, the various f a c t i o n s of the Druids resorted to arms i n an attempt to ensure the e l e c t i o n of 2 t h e i r candidate. The Druids were exempt from rendering m i l i t a r y 3 ser v i c e of any d e s c r i p t i o n to t h e i r country, and when any of t h e i r number p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f i g h t i n g , he did so of h i s own choice. As the Druids were also exempt from paying 3 taxes, t h e i r order a t t r a c t e d many young men e i t h e r because of t h e i r own desires or those of t h e i r parents or f r i e n d s . Many phases of t r a i n i n g were necessary i n order to become a Druid, and the amount of work to be covered was so great that candidates were sometimes twenty years i n completing. 3 i t . One of the c h i e f pieces of work was the memorizing of great numbers of verses which had to be learned o r a l l y as they were never committed t o w r i t i n g . 1. Hubert, H, - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " - P t . I I I , Ch.I$I,p.228. 2. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , VI, 13, pp.240-241. 3 . i b i d . , VI, 14, p. 242. When w r i t i n g was necessary f o r p u b l i c or p r i v a t e t r a n s a c t i o n s , the Druids wrote i n Greek characters so that the mass of the people would not understand them, and also because they d i d not want the ease of w r i t i n g to eliminate the habit of memorizing. The Druids had various duties which could be c l a s s i -f i e d as r e l i g i o u s , l e g a l , and educational. P r i m a r i l y , o f course they were p r i e s t s and t h e i r c h i e f f u n c t i o n was to i n s t r u c t the people i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n and to carry out the r i t e s and s a c r i f i c e s connected with i t . They taught the C e l t s to worship the counterpart of the L a t i n god Mercur.y a s the inventor of the a r t s , the guide of t h e i r journeys, and t h e i r benefactor i n business a f f a i r s . They bel i e v e d i n a god l i k e A p ollo who averted diseases, and i n a goddess l i k e Minerva who i n s p i r e d the people i n t h e i r c r a f t s . ^ They thought that one god l i k e J u p i t e r possessed the sovereignty of the gods and goddesses, and they had a god of war. A f t e r a v i c t o r y i n battle-they s a c r i f i c e d the animals that had been captured and consecrated 2 other booty to t h i s deity of warfare* Many of the' ceremonies performed by the Druids were connected w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e which was the p r i n c i p a l occupa-3 • t i o n of the C e l t s . They blessed the p l a n t i n g of the seed, made s a c r i f i c e s f o r the p r o p i t i a t i o n of the gods to deal k i n d l y with the crops, and of f e r e d the f i r s t f r u i t s of the harvest i n thanksgiving. Many of these ceremonies were, no 1. Rice Holmes, T.,op.cit.- Y I , 14, pp.242-243. 2. i b i d * , Y I , 17, pp.245-247. . 3. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " - . P t . I l l , Ch.- I l l , p.235* - \ doubt, conducted i n the Druid temples, of which the ruins at Stonehenge are an i l l u s t r i o u s example. In t h e i r performance, human l i v e s were oft e n taken, since the C e l t s believed that the only way to ensure a hearing from the gods was to o f f e r 1 a l i v i n g s a c r i f i c e . In some cases, huge f i g u r e s were made out of o s i e r twigs, then f i l l e d with l i v i n g men, and the whole st r u c t u r e set on f i r e . Men who had been convicted of robbery or other crimes were often the v i c t i m s of these s a c r i f i c i a l o r g i e s . Another' task of great importance f o r the Druids was '2 , ' that o f d i v i n a t i o n . In the c a r r y i n g out of t h i s duty they made use of omens and auguries i n much the same manner as the Romans. ' In connection with t h e i r l e g a l d u t i e s the Druids were. o f t e n c a l l e d upon to s e t t l e c o n t r o v e r s i e s , or to decide the innocence or g u i l t of people accused of t h e f t , murder, or other crimes. For t h i s purpose i t was t h e i r custom to assemble at a f i x e d period of the year i n a holy place, i n the t e r r i t o r y of the Garnutes, which was considered to be the centre of Gaul. To t h i s spot came people who had quarrels to be s e t t l e d . They l a i d t h e i r cases before the Druids and afiided by the decisions . . . . 3: .... • of the p r i e s t s . ' 1. Rice Holmes,T. - o p . c i t . , VI, 16, p.245; 2. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I l l , O h . I l l , p.229; and D e l p h i n i C l a s s i c i - "0. C o r n e l i i T a e i t i Opera Omnia" -Li b . I V , 54, p.3099; arid . "M. T u l l i i G iceronis Operum" - Tom.Ill, "De Di v i n a t i o n e " . -I , 41, p.34. .53.0-RioeLHolme s- o p . c i t . , I I , 13, p.24Q;-241; and' Jones, H. L. - "The Geography of Strabo" - yol.11,4.4.4 -pp. 244-2.45. Those who refused to obey or accept the judgment of the Druids were cut o f f from taking part i n the s a c r i f i c e s , and when thus i n t e r d i c t e d , they were shunned by a l l the members of t h e i r t r i b e . ' Educating the -youths of noble f a m i l i e s was another duty undertaken by the Druids. Their teaching was purely o r a l and consisted mainly of. presenting poems which were memorized 2 by t h e i r students. They a l s o taught a few s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s such as the motion of the s t a r s , the s i z e of the world, and the'properties of c e r t a i n p l a n t s . They had evolved some kind of calendar, and i n t h i s connection i t • i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that since the C e l t s claimed descent from D i s , t h e i r god of the night, they observed s p e c i a l occasions and the f i r s t days of months '.. and years i n such a way that the day followed the. night. The Druids were re s p o n s i b l e , too, f o r teaching morals to the noble youth of C e l t i e a , and one of the maxims which they presented to t h e i r p u p i l s has come down to modern times -"To worship the gods, to do nothing base, and to p r a c t i s e 1. Rice Holmes. ,-$«•«op.oi.t-»t ¥1, 13, p.240-241? and Jones, H. L. - *The Geography of Strabo" - Vol.II,4.4.4. . pp.244-245. 2. Hubert, H., "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I I , O h . I l l , p.231. 3. I b i d . , p.232; and Rice Holmes, T., o p . c i t * , VI, 14, p.243; and • Jones, H.L. - "The Geography of Strabo" - Vol.11 -4.4.4., - ' pp.244-245; and . ' 1 D e l p h l n i C l a s s i c ! - " C . P I i n f t i f e c u n d i N a t u r a l i s H i s t o r i a e M b r i XISVII", Vol.V,Lib.XVI,95,.pp.2623-25. 4. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . VI, 18, pp.245-248. manhood." , In a d d i t i o n , the Druids taught a philosophy of the 2 • immortality of the soul and of metempsychosis. Due i n large measure to the many tasks they performed, the Druids were the most i n f l u e n t i a l people i n C e l t i c a u n t i l they aroused the jealousy and opposition of the knights, and 3 then t h e i r power gradually d e c l i n e d . S o c i a l Customs The ancient Greek and L a t i n w r i t e r s , when desc r i b i n g the C e l t s , emphasized t h e i r height"and f a i r n e s s . "Aurea caesaries o l l i s , atque aurea" v e s t i s ; V i r g a t i s lucent s a g u l i s ; turn l a c t e a c o l l a Auro innectantur." -4 . -. wrote V i r g i l . Since, however, dark h a i r was just as common among the C e l t s as f a i r h a i r , many C e l t s bleached t h e i r long t r e s s e s i n order to appear blonde* D i f f e r e n t types of clothes were worn i n the various p a r t s of C e l t i c a . The Goidels wore a s k i r t - l i k e a f f a i r which, 6 was the forerunner'of the Highland k i l t , but the B r i t o n s were 7 • u s u a l l y clothed i n s k i n s . The i n h a b i t a n t s of Gaul proper wore a short, c l o s e - f i t t i n g garment which was adopted by the 1. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " , I n t r o d u c t i o n , pp,13-M; and ' Hicks,-R.D. - "Diogenes L a e r t i u s " - P r o l o g u e 6 to "Lives of the Philosophers* - p P i 6 - 7. 2. Rice Holmes, T.- "Caesar <- De B e l l o G a l l i c o " - VI, 14, p. 243; and ^ Jones., H.L. - o p . c i t . , Vol.11, 4.4.4. - pp.244-245. 5. Hubert, H.,"The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " - P t . I l l , : C h . I I I , p.235. 4. .Popster, E.M. - "The Aeneid of V i r g i l " -.Vol.11, Bk.VIII, 3il.659-661, ;p.l02. 5. Hubert, H., "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I T , 'CiuV* p.270. 6. i d . , "The Rise Of the C e l t s " - Pt.«, IT, Ch.II•, p.227. 7. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , V, 14, p.188. 1 Roman army,;, while the Belgae owed t h e i r name to t h e i r large, baggy trousers or "buigae" ('leather bags") which were much l i k e 'those s t i l l worn i n Holland and the-northern part of Belgium. Smocks or t u n i c s , cloaks, and o c c a s i o n a l l y hose completed the 2 Cl o t h i n g of the C e l t s . L i t t l e i s -known about the clothes of the women except that they wore trousers. C e l t i c homes were merely rough huts thatched with 3 straw. The cooking was done over a f i r e l a i d ' on the earthen f l o o r . The f u r n i t u r e was very meagre and u s u a l l y consisted of lew wooden t a b l e s and seats made out of bundles of reeds* A few pots and pans completed the f u r n i s h i n g s . - / 2c<) The main item i n the d i e t of the C e l t s was meat. They also ate venison and f i s h but t h e i r r e l i g i o u s scruples ' . 4 prevented them from e a t i n g the hare, the cock, and the goose. From t h e i r corn they made a kind of porridge and they also 6 used a great deal of milk. Family l i f e among the C e l t s was very happy. In Gaul, monogamy was the r u l e although i n B r i t a i n , according to Caesar's 6 statementjWhich i s now questioned, polyandry was p r a c t i s e d . l^uHufeert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " - P t . I I , Ch.II, p.227. 2. I d . , "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " , P t . I I I , Ch*V, p.270; and . Jones, H.L. - o p . c i t . , Vol.IT, 4.4,3.-pp.240-241. 5. Rice Holmes, T., o p . c i t . , V, 43, pp.213-214. 4. i b i d . , V, 12, p.187. 5* Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I I , Ch.V, p.270. 6. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , V, 14, p.188. 0ne of the most i n t e r e s t i n g features of the C e l t i c marriage customs was the use of the dowry, whatever wealth a wife brought to her marriage was matched with an equal amount by the husband. This estate was kept separate from a l l other possessions } the p r o f i t s were added to i t r e g u l a r l y , and upon the death of the husband or w i f e , i t became the property of the s u r v i v o r . Among the occupations i n which the C e l t s engaged, f i r s t place must n e c e s s a r i l y be given to a g r i c u l t u r e f o r the C e l t i c people were p r i m a r i l y farmers, and some of t h e i r most valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the progress of the world were connected with the s o i l . Of t h e i r system o f land measurement the "league" and 2 the "arpent" s t i l l s u r v i v e . Two d i s t i n c t i v e types of f i e l d were used aift d i f f e r e n t parts of C e l t i c a - the long, open f i e l d i n the s e c t i o n north of the Seine to the Rhine, and the closed 3 f i e l d of the Goidels. The open f i e l d was best s u i t e d to v i l l a g e communities working common property under common r u l e ? , while the closed f i e l d was used by f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n i s o l a t i o n . In t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l , the C e l t s r e a l i z e d the ne c e s s i t y of f a l l o w , and allowed the land to l i e i d l e p e r i o d i - . 4 c a l l y . They invented a l a r g e , two-wheeled plough drawn by 4 s e v e r a l span of oxen which enabled them to work heavy land, 1. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , VI, 19, p.248. 2. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I I , Ch.IV, p.248. 3. i b i d . , P t . I I I , Ch.IV, pp.248-249; and P t . I I I , , O h . I I , p.216. 4. i b i d . , P t * I I I , Ch.V, p.256. and they also introduced to the a g r i c u l t u r a l world a large hay-1 s i d l e , a reaper, and s e v e r a l types of harrows. The C e l t s were also i n t e r e s t e d i n the r a i s i n g of c a t t l e and horses. Caesar often mentions the great number of c a t t l e they possessed, and says that they would pay almost 2 any p r i c e f o r working animals. The horses which they r a i s e d were c h i e f l y used f o r m i l i t a r y purposes. Not a l l C e l t s , however, were engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s * Many of them were employed i n weaving wool or. l i n e n , and t h e i r l i n e n t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y was considered the f i n e s t i n 3 Europe, and was no doubt the forerunner of the famous I r i s h l i n e n of to-day* Owing, a l s o , t o t h e i r p l e n t i f u l supply of hides, the C e l t s became very p r o f i c i e n t i n a l l kinds of 4 l e a t h e r work. The i n h a b i t a n t s of the c o a s t a l regions were s k i l l e d 5 - ' n a v i g a t o r s , and were mainly engaged i n t r a d i n g . In previous chapters we have emphasized the wonder-f u l s k i l l of the C e l t s i n metal work. They had great deposits of metal i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . Caesar t e l l s us, f o r example, that the Gauls around Av&rieum had extensive i r o n deposits i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s and that they p r a c t i s e d every type of 6 mining operation known at that time. From the legends which 1. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the- C e l t s " -P t . I I I , Ch.V, pp.260-261. 2. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , IV, 2, p.130. 3. T i l l i n g h a s t , W.B. - "Ploetz* Manual of U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y " - pp.38 - 42, Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I l l , Ch.V, p.260. 4. i b i d . , p.258. 5. Rice Holmes,T* - o p . c i t . , I I I , 8, pp.105-106. 6. i b i d . , V I I , 22, p.291. have survived of the v i s i t s of the Phoenicians to the S c i l l y I s l e s and the coast of Cornwall, we know that the inhabitants 1 of those places mined t i n at some inl a n d p o i n t , and' brought i t by wagons to the coast where they traded i t to the seafar-ers from other countries i n exchange f o r the things they desired. I t was only n a t u r a l that, the C e l t s should use some of t h e i r metal f o r money. They had various kinds of currency before using coins which were not minted i n C e l t i c a u n t i l the .2 • t h i r d century. B.C., when samples of Greek coins were sent back to Gaul by the C e l t s who made t h e i r way down the Val l e y of the Danube, and by those who came into, contact with the Greek c i t i e s i n southern I t a l y . Even by Caesar's day, however, the use of coins had not reached B r i t a i n f o r there the people 3~ . were . s t i l l employing brass or i r o n r i n g s f o r currency. M i l i t a r y Customs Since the C e l t s spent much of t h e i r time i n warfare, t h e i r m i l i t a r y customs were of great importance. There was no standing army i n C e l t i c a , but each t r i b e had census l i s t s of the men able to bear arms, those who were too o l d , the boys* and the women. When an army was needed, a levy was made from the f i r s t . g r o u p , service i n • the cavalry being reserved f o r the kn i g h t s . 1. Rice Holmes,T. - o p . c i t . , V, 12, p. 1.86. 2. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I l l , Ch.V, pp.253-254. 3. Rice ; Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , V, 12, pp.185-186. 4. i b i d . , I , 29, p.33. .Before the C e l t s a c t u a l l y engaged i n f i g h t i n g many preparations had to be made. The f a c t that the t r i b e was at war was announced by the- holding of an armed c o u n c i l to which 1 a l l the young men came bearing arms. A f t e r the l a s t youth to a r r i v e had been t o r t u r e d to death i n the sight of the whole gathering, plans were made f o r the c a r r y i n g on of the war. When i t was considered necessary to ask neighbouring states f o r help, such requests were c a r r i e d by o f f i c i a l "ambassadors" or "messengers" who were so important i n the ancient world that there was a reg u l a r code of etiquet t e f o r t h e i r r e c e p t i o n . Frequently i t was e s s e n t i a l that news should be transmitted much more q u i c k l y than could be accomplished by messengers, and i n such cases the information was passed on by shouts between men posted at regular i n t e r v a l s on the heights. In d e s c r i b i n g t h i s extraordinary method of conveying news, Caesar t e l l s us that the f a c t that the Carnutes had s l a i n the Roman c i t i z e n s i n Genabum. at sunrise was known i n the t e r r i t o r i e s of the A r v e r n i , a distance of more than one hundred 2 and s i x t y m i les, before the end of the f i r s t watch* Another task i n preparation f o r war was the conveying of corn from the farms i n t o the towns, f o r the Celts gathered 5 i n the towns f o r defense. The m a j o r i t y of the G a l l i c towns 4 . were b u i l t on heights eminently w e l l f o r t i f i e d by nature. 1. Rice Holmes, T. - Op.cit., V, 56, p*225. 2. i b i d * , V I I , 3, pp.275-274, 3. ib i d . . , I l l , 9, p. 108. 4. See Oh.' IV, p. 4-1. , •To the n a t u r a l f o r t i f i c a t i o n s were u s u a l l y added a strong w a l l f r e q u e n t l y topped with heavy stones and sharpened stakes. The maritime towns were l i k e w i s e protected by nature, but by the sea rather than by h i l l s or mountains* As they were b u i l t on the extreme points of promontories, they were thus rendered reasonably safe from a land attack by the rushing i n of the t i d e over the lower parts of the s p i t s , and from a sea attack by the danger of the ships being dashed t o pieces on the 2 shoals. On the b a t t l e f i e l d the Ce l t s haj. some i n t e r e s t i n g customs. Caesar r e i t e r a t e s many times the f a c t that when the C e l t s became exhausted with f i g h t i n g , they r e t i r e d for a • 3 r e s t and others with unimpaired strength took t h e i r places. On c e r t a i n occasions, too, the Celts used a wedge-shaped 4 phalanx so that they could not be surpri s e d i n the r e a r . The various C e l t i c t r i b e s were masters at turning to t h e i r own advantage the t e r r a i n which they occupied. The N e r v i i , f o r example, had p r a c t i c a l l y no cav a l r y of t h e i r own but they were, nevertheless, i n constant danger from the mounted forces of t h e i r neighbours. As t h e i r t e r r i t o r y was f b r e s t . they f e l l e d young trees and made hedge-like f o r t i f i c a -t i o n s which prevented the entrance of horses. 1. Rice Holmes, T..opwclt., V I I , 23, pp.292-293; and I I , 29, pp.93r*9a. 2. i b i d . , I I I , 12, p . l l l . 3. ibid. ' j I I I , 4, p.103. 4. i b i d . , V I I , 28, p.298. 5. i b i d . ,, I I , 17, p*84.. •: The M o r i n i and the Menapi.i, when t h e i r t e r r i t o r y -was i n danger of i n v a s i o n , betook themselves to t h e i r f o r e s t s and morasses where they were .inaccessible, but whence they 1 could make f i e r c e attacks on t h e i r foes. The maritime C e l t s , too, made the most of t h e i r environment i n providing p r o t e c t i o n f o r themselves. Their ships were eminently s u i t e d f o r the coasts they encountered. The k e e l s were quite f l a t so that they would not be damaged i f they touched a shoal at the ebbing of the t i d e . The whole ship was adapted to.meet storms and violence since oak was the only timber used,' w i t h i r o n , f o r the necessary 2 spikes and chains. The B r i t o n s were very s k i l l e d i n f o r t i f y i n g t h e i r r i v e r s . When Caesar and h i s men wished to cross the Thames during t h e i r second v i s i t to the I s l a n d , they found the banks f o r t i f i e d with sharp stakes and s i m i l a r stakes had been f i x e d 3 • • under the water. The B r i t o n s a l s o e x c e l l e d i n f i g h t i n g with c h a r i o t s . In Caesar's time, the B r i t o n s were the only Celts, who s t i l l used ch&riots i n warfare although the Gauls had employed them e a r l i e r i n the La Tene E r a . The c h a r i o t was a s m a l l , two-wheeled car with a long pole and a'yoke to which the horse was harnessed. Eaeh 1. Rice Holmes,'Tw - o p . c i t . , I l l , 2B, p.127, gnd VI, 5, p.231. 2. i b i d . , I I I , 13, pp.112-113. 3. i b i d . , ...Vj. .18, pp.191-192. 91 c h a r i o t c a r r i e d two men, a charioteer and a s o l d i e r . The cha r i o t e e r drove h i s v e h i c l e f u r i o u s l y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , • t e r r i f y i n g the enemy with the rushing of the horses and the creaking of- the wheels. At the same time, the s o l d i e r hurled weapons at the foe. When the c h a r i o t had worked i t s e l f i n t o the ranks of the opposing army, the warrior leaped down, and engaged i n hand-to-hand combat while the charioteer drove h i s car to such a p o s i t i o n that i f h i s master were hard-pressed by the enemy, he could r e t r e a t to the chariot and be driven o f f to s a f e t y . Caesar himself said that t h i s type of' f i g h t i n g was very e f f e c t i v e , d i s p l a y i n g as i t d i d the m o b i l i t y of 1 ^ a v a l r y and the firmness, of i n f a n t r y . Towns played a large part i n C e l t i c wars, and the Gauls adopted the f o l l o w i n g procedure i n besieging these f o r t i f i c a t i o n s . F i r s t of a l l , they e n c i r c l e d the town with men who hurled stones and darts at the defenders on the w a l l s . Once the w a l l s were cl e a r e d , those a t t a c k i n g formed a "testudo" which consisted of a block of men holding t h e i r s h i e l d s above t h e i r heads i n such a way that,they were completely protected from m i s s i l e s hurled from above. This- testudo then threw i t s whole weight against the gates of the town and e f f e c t -. 2 ed an entrance. L a t e r , through contac-t with the Romans, the Gauls became f a m i l i a r with the use of towers, hurdles, s c a l i n g 3 ladders, and i r o n hooks. 1. Rice Holmes, T. - "Caesar - De B e l l o G a l l i c o " , IV, 33, pp. 1&IS-166. 2. i b i d . , I I , 6, p.72, 3* i b i d . , V, 42, pp.212-213; and V I I , .81, p.353. ..When the Gauls were themselves besieged, they employed many devices to keep t h e i r enemy away from the w a l l s of the tov-m* They hurled huge stones, poured hot p i t c h from above., f l u n g burning torches, and discharged hot b a l l s of. • 1 . c l a y or p i t c h from t h e i r s l i n g s into the ranks of the foe. At the conclusion of a war, i t was the custom f o r the vanquished to beg f o r peace by s t r e t c h i n g out t h e i r hands 2 to the v i c t o r s . Hostages, who o f t e n included very important people i n the t r i b e such, as the king's sons, were given to 6t the: pca.ce 3 the conquerors as pledges that the. terras^would be f u l f i l l e d . Through the w r i t i n g s of the Romans, a great deal i s known about the m i l i t a r y h a b i t s of the C e l t s although there i s comparatively l i t t l e information about t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and domestic l i f e . However, the short summary of t h e i r customs which has been presented i n t h i s chapter reveals the i n t e r e s t i n g character of these people, who played such an important part i n the b u i l d i n g of our own h e r i t a g e . 1. Rice Holmes, T. - o p . c i t . , ¥11, 22, pp.291-292; and V I I , 24, p.294. 2. I b i d . , I I , 13, pp.81-82; V I I , 40, p.309. 3. i b i d . , I I , 5, p.70; IT, 13, p.81; ¥,4,p.173. Conclusion I t has been said that the Gauls lacked the f a i t h which makes nations, but that they possessed a steadfast 1 f a i t h i n c i v i l i z a t i o n . This statement would apply to a l l the C e l t s as w e l l as to the Gauls f o r although, as a people, they were not s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c a l power to become one of the great empires of the world, yet they were fa s c i n a t e d by l e a r n i n g and c u l t u r e . - This a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the higher things of l i f e on the part of the C e l t s was probably the most potent f a c t o r i n the Roman conquest of C e l t i c a , f o r the C e l t s recognized the s u p e r i o r i t y of the Roman mode of l i f e . The.Gauls, f o r example, considered the L a t i n language preferable to t h e i r own, and so they adopted i t , at the same time making s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s to s u i t t h e i r d i f f e r e n t outlook upon l i f e , and to conform to t h e i r p e c u l i a r usages i n pronunciation* The 2 r e s u l t was the b i r t h of the French language. The Gauls a l s o admired the b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g s of the Roman world, and • when t h e i r t e r r i t o r y became incorporated as a.Roman province, 5 they hastened to eopy Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e . Most of a l l , 1. Hubert, H., S'The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I , C h . l , p.148. . ' , 2, iMilc*, "The Rise of the C e l t s " - I n t r o d u c t i o n , p.14. •3. id.-, "The Greatness .and De-pline of the C e l t s " - P t . I , Ch.V, ". p. 140. however, .the C e l t s desired the organization and the s t a b i l i t y which they had never been able to achieve f o r themselves but which were such inherent t r a i t s of Roman l i f e . The Romans, too, a f t e r the establishment of the Roman Empire, treated the C e l t i c provinces with great i n s i g h t and wisdom. They gave the C e l t s the order and the m a t e r i a l advantages they craved, at the same time allowing them to r e t a i n many of t h e i r l e g a l , s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s customs. Yv'ith p r o t e c t i o n assured by the Roman armies, with a w e l l -organized Roman government, with f i n e roads and b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g s planned by Roman engineers, and with the many other - 1 advantages of being part of the Roman Empire, the C e l t s were able to enjoy a l l the comforts of l i f e at no p a r t i c u l a r cost to themselves except the l o s s of t h e i r independence, and t h i s they considered a small p r i c e to pay fo r the f a c i l i t i e s they gained of a c q u i r i n g and disseminating the c i v i l i z i n g forces of l i f e which meant so much to them. While most of the important c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the C e l t s i n the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r e were made before the Roman 2 Conquest, t h e i r most valuable g i f t s to c i v i l i z a t i o n were made long a f t e r the Roman Empire had ceased to e x i s t . Much French l i t e r a t u r e bears the mark of C e l t i c i n f l u e n c e , but i t i s i n the great wealth of I r i s h and Welsh l i t e r a t u r e and music that C e l t i c i s m comes in t o i t s own* The I r i s h legends incorporated i n the Qssianic works and i n such s t o r i e s as the 1. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " - P t . I I , Ch.Ij pp.154-155. 2. See.Chapter f i l l , p p . 8 5 - 8 6 . • 95 "Feast of B r i c r i u ) and the t a l e s contained i n the Welsh 1 "Mabinogion" form the basis f o r a l l the E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with King Arthur of the Round Table and the knights and l a d i e s of l o n e l y Cornish T i n t a g e l . Surely, too, the l o v e l i e s t of the I r i s h and Welsh songs re-create an awareness of the beauty of C e l t i c a r t every time they are sung. C e l t i c a d i d not die at the Roman Conquest, but s t i l l l i v e s on, and i t may be that she w i l l yet enjoy a greater c u l t u r a l g l o r y than i n the past as a r e s u l t of the great C e l t i c r e v i v a l now t a k i n g place i n E i r e . . 1. Hubert, H. - "The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -P t . I I I , Ch.V, pp.262-269. 96 Bibliography Primary Sources A r r i a n i - "Anabasis I t I n d i c a " - [ P a r i s i i s , Editore Ambrosio Firmin-Didot, 1846 ) - 1, 4, 6* B u t l e r , H. E. - "The I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a of Q u i n t i l i a n " -[London, W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1921] - Bk. V i , i i i , 7 9 . "M. T u l l i i Giceronis Operum" - [ Oxonii, D. Typographeo Glarendoniano - 1783]— Tom.Ill ('©e Div i n a t i o n e " -I, 41) D e l p h i n i C l a s s i c ! - " J u s t l n i H i s t o r i a e P h i l i p p i c a e " -["Londini: Curante et Imprimente A.J.Valpy,A.M., 1822.] V o l . I , Lib.XXIV, 4. 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P e r r i n , B. - "Plutarch's ' L i v e s ' " - [London, W i l l i a m Heinemann 1914 ] - Vol.11, "The L i f e of Camillus", pp.l26-S07. P l u t a r c h i - "Moralia" - [ L i p s i a e , Sumptibus Ottonis' Holtze, 1873 ]-Tom.V, "De P l a c i t i s Philosopher". L i b . I l l , p.281. Rice Holmes, T. - "C. J u l i Caesaris Commentarii" - [Oxford, a.t th.e Clarendon Press, 1914.} Secondary Sources Bonsor, G. v- "Tartesse" - [The Hispanic Society of America, De Vinne Press, Hew York,, 1922. T- Gh.I. The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y - [Cambridgev U n i v e r s i t y Press,. s 1924 - VOl.I & I I ; 1928,-V=lV//]-Vol.I, Ch.II; Vol.II.ChJI, Oh. XXI; V o l . V I I , Ch.II. Dent, J.M. & Sons, L t d . - " A t l a s of Ancient and C l a s s i c a l Geography" - [ J.M.Dent & Sons,LS&«, London & Toronto, 1928.] E l t o n , C.I. - "Origins of E n g l i s h H i s t o r y " - [London, Bernard Quaritch, 1890 } - Gh.I. Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a , 11th Ed. -T Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1910. J - V o l . V, pp.612-613; Vol.11, p.l03{M*fcfiOj Vol.12, p.858.; Vol.16, p.245. Eyre, E. - "European C i v i l i z a t i o n . " - [Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. London. - Humphrey Mi I f ord - 1954. J Section by J . L. Myres and Section by A. W. Gomme. Hubert, H. - "The Rise of the C e l t s " -[London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., L t d . , 1934.] Hubert, H. - •"The Greatness and Decline of the C e l t s " -[_ London, Kegan P a u l , Trench, Trubner & Co.,-Ltd., 1934 98 L i d d e l l and Sco t t - "Greek-English Lexicon", 4th E d i t . -[Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1855 ] - p.648 under " K " < « ~ 6 " t T (: p O S " • Rice Holmes, T. - "C. J u l i Caesaris Commentarii" - [Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1914. ] - Intro d u c t i o n . Rice. Holmes, T. - "Ancient B r i t a i n and the Invasions of J u l i u s Caesar" - [ Oxford - Clarendon Press, 1907 ] - P t . I I . Robertson, J.C. & Robertson, l i . G . - "The Story of Greece and Rome" - [ j . M. Dent & Sons, L t d . , London & Toronto, 1928.J T i l l i n g h a s t , W. H. - "Ploetz' Manual of U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y " -[Houghton M i f f l i n Go., Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1925. ] - pp. 38-42.. f e l l s , J . & Barrow, R. H. - "A Short H i s t o r y of the Roman. Empire" - [ Methuen & Co., L t d . , London, 1931.] 

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