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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Conservation in the schools of British Columbia Turner, David Binnie 1944

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GQISERYATIOI I I SHE SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA "by David Binnie Turner A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t The Requirements f o r the Degree of M A S T E R Off A R T S i n tiie Department of EDUCATION The u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Oolumhia October, 1944. TABLE Off COITEITS CHAPTER PAGE I. The Meaning of Conservation' 1 I I . Conservation i n tlie Present Programme of Studies 52 I I I . Advancement of Education i n Conservation i n the Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. . . . 122 IV. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r Work i n Conservation . . 152 Bibliography. C01SERVATI0H IS THE SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER I. THE MEAEHG Off COESERYATIOI U n i t y i n Hature; Interdependence i n Resources In the l a s t one hundred and f i f t y years t h i s continent has become the r i c h e s t and one of the most populous areas i n the world. Through that time the prosperous lands of l o r t h America y i e l d e d harvests the l i k e of which had never "been seen before. Resources, i t seemed, were u n l i m i t e d . Giant f o r e s t t r e e s , tremendous open areas of r i c h grasses, game animals and b i r d s i n numbers beyond b e l i e f , waters both f r e s h and s a l t that teemed with food f i s h e s , p l a i n s and v a l l e y s of wide a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , h i l l s and mountains containing valuable and v a r i e d mineral wealth, t h i s was a land to s a t i s f y every need of man, p h y s i c a l or c u l t u r a l . And so i t proved. But of l a t e years, and' p a r t i c u l a r l y since the beginning of the present century, there have been transformations. Here and there, areas transformed by wastage and misuse i n t o regions of poverty and scanty population began to appear. I n the past f i f t y years, the signs have been m u l t i p l i e d many times and many an area that was once regarded as prosperous l a n d , shows marked evidence of degradation, may, indeed, .have progressed to what might be termed i t s death. What i s c a l l e d " s i c k l a n d " i s common no?/ on t h i s continent, ranging from the vast areas on the Great P l a i n s to thousands of parcels of farm acreage found from Maine to B r i t i s h Columbia, from Saskatchewan to Texas. These s o i l s - 2 -that supported us can no longer produce even weeds. The l i v i n g resources i n these s o i l s were destroyed f o r immediate gain. The l o s s of f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l was accompanied by lowering of the p u r i t y of many waters, decrease i n the abun-dance of many species of game, dep l e t i o n o f a large part of the magnificent f o r e s t s , denudation of great areas of n u t r i t i o u s grasses, and s c a r r i n g of many s i t e s of r e c r e a t i o n a l and scenic wonder. By v i r t u e o f h i s power to b r i n g about immediate and -v i o l e n t changes i n nature and l i f e , man has g r e a t l y impaired, and often destroyed, some o f the great h e r i t a g e of resources with which t h i s continent was so r i c h l y endowed. In many eases t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n was c a r r i e d out u n t h i n k i n g l y or even through need, as i n the c l e a r i n g of f o r e s t s by f i r e i n pioneer days so tha t crops could be r a i s e d for. food. I n many other cases, however, greed for p r o f i t was the motive that l e d to d e s t r u c t i o n . There was l i t t l e place,- i t seemed, i n ttie e a r l i e r days of plenty, f o r wisdom and u n s e l f i s h n e s s , f o r planning the wise uses of re-sources that i s conservation. This century has brought a growing r e a l i z a t i o n among the people, tha t we are dangerously e x p l o i t i n g our n a t u r a l resources. That r e a l i z a t i o n has l e d to the establishment, both p r i v a t e l y and by government, of agences whose concern i t i s to safeguard our resources by planning c a r e f u l l y the d i s p o s i t i o n of these resources, f o l l o w i n g c a r e f u l study of t h e i r extent, most economic use and t h e i r r e n e w a b i l i t y . The object behind such planning i s that the f u l l e s t b e n e f i t s may derive to the greatest number of people. Outstanding among the .agencies c a r r y i n g on t h i s work are the S o i l Conservation Service of the United States and the Canadian f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f a m i l -i a r l y known as the P.F.R.A. ( P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t ) . Other groups are rendering no l e s s splendid s e r v i c e . On the other hand i t should be noted that some organizations masquerad-ing under the guise, of conservation are pursuing campaigns guided by immediate, s e l f i s h motives. The S.C.S. and the P.F.R.A. have s i m i l a r programmes, though the t i t l e of the former would l e a d to the b e l i e f that i t was concerned only with the physbal and chemical state of the s o i l , the problems of erosion. These two organizations have tremendous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the establishment of s e c u r i t y f o r the land and f o r the people on the land. Thus to the o r i g i n a l idea of conserving the s o i l have been added the grave problems of reclamation and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . To carry out such a complex assignment, to c o r r e l a t e and i n t e g r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y the many interdependent f a c t o r s i n -volved i n man's needs and t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s , demands a thor-ough comprehension of what i s termed "The U n i t y of Nature", that vast i n t e r l o c k i n g interdependence and i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the fa c t o r s i n nature. " A l l things and conditions i n the world about us serve as n a t u r a l resources and c o n s t i t u t e the means by which l i f e i s c o n t r o l l e d . Any other view of nature i s p a r t i a l and 1 imperfect." 1. Ward, Henry B. • Foundations of Conservation Education Hational W i l d l i f e Federation Washington, D.C«, 1941, page 147. The S.C.S. and the P.IVB.A. programmes .are ."built upon the fundamental p r i n c i p l e that Nature operates as a whole, and that adjustments of the intimate connections w i t h i n i t produce unlooked for changes. Trying to estimate the changes that may be brought about i s one of the l a r g e functions of a true conservation agency. The c a l c u l a t i o n s i n v o l v e d demand a thorough knowledge of f a c t s derived from research, an under-standing t h a t , while of n e c e s s i t y p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s of the system of nature must be set aside f o r s p e c i a l study under s p e c i a l names, i t must be kept i n mind that planning can be properly c a r r i e d out only when interdependence and i t s consequences are p i c t u r e d c l e a r l y i n the b l u e p r i n t s of the f u t u r e . - Even then, i t must ever be remembered that the projected p i c t u r e cannot be considered as permanent or f i n a l , f o r nature i s not only u n i f i e d but f u l l of c o n s t a n t l y a l t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s , brought about by the constant s h i f t i n g of minute features. Nature i s never s t a t i c but i s indeed a balance, <a r e l a t i o n not a record, a process rather than a r e s u l t , a never-ending s e r i e s of f l u c t -u a tions brought about by t i n y disturbances i n s i n g l e features., I f l e f t alone, nature w i l l o f f s e t f l u c t u a t i o n s and disturbances through r e p a i r s , w i l l provide new cover f o r denuded areas, w i l l increase the populations of depleted areas, w i l l r e store vigor to exhausted forms. There i s nothing of the supernatural about t h i s , of i n s c r u t a b i l i t y that screens from human eyes wonders that are performed i n mysterious ways. On the contrary, these are normal workings of nature, open to the sight of those who would look. I t i s true that there are many occurrences i n nature that b a f f l e us, but i t i s l i k e w i s e t r u e that there were many more "before the days of such men as Koch, Pasteur, Harvey, and Mendel. The u n i t y of nature i s nothing more or l e s s than the operation of n a t u r a l laws, a tendency towards a balance among l i v i n g organisms on the •earth. The student of conservation recognizes the u n i t y of Nature as the most important p r i n c i p l e upon which human welfare advances. E x p o s i t i o n of t h i s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i s , therefore, the f i r s t teaching i n the study o f conservation. When t h i s has been done, study can be d i r e c t e d towards a broad conception of the basic resources, the m a t e r i a l s of which supply the elements of protoplasm, which provides the earth with continuing l i f e . The basic resources are earth, water and a i r . l i v i n g t h i n g s , both plant and animal, are n a t u r a l resources, and depend f o r • t h e i r existence on the bas i c resources. The b a s i c resources are the foundations o f l i f e . The na t u r a l resources, whioh i n t h i s paper are l i m i t e d to the l i v i n g or renewable resources, are b u i l i upon the basic resources. I f basic resources are not guarded the l i v i n g resources d e c l i n e and u l t i m a t e l y disappear. Tfith then, as part o f them, goes man. li n e v e h and Tyre and Carthage, once f l o u r i s h i n g centres of the world, d e c l i n e d , i n pace with t h e i r n a t u r a l resources, to i n -s i g n i f i c a n c e and obs c u r i t y . Through the c e n t u r i e s , t h i s ex-perience has repeated i t s e l f many times, and must.continue to do so u n t i l man acquires the comprehensive p i c t u r e of the u n i t y i n nature and the interdependence among resources. U n t i l he does so he i s unequipped to plan the use of the heritage he possesses. The l a r g e comprehension of the u n i t y i n nature and the interdependence among resources, i s , though fundamental, not .very d i f f i c u l t . The water tears up the earth and c a r r i e s o f f masses of s o i l i n i t s f l o o d s . The a i r i n i t s clouds d i s -t r i b u t e s water as r a i n over the earth for the use o f l i v i n g t h i ngs. The water and the a i r reduce the broken rock and help to decompose the bodies of l i v i n g forms to b u i l d up s o i l s . The s o i l and the a i r and the water provide raw mater i a l s of proto-plasm. The interdependencies between the s a i l and the a i r and the water are many, int i m a t e , and constant. Nature i s a u n i t y , and must be considered as such, j u s t as, to us, the home i s a u n i t y , also with multitudinous interdependencies. I f nature, f o r the moment, can be conceived of as being r e s t r i c t e d to the bas i c resources, that i s , a i r , s o i l , and water, we can see that that u n i t y i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as the environment. L i f e apart from the environment i s incon-ceivable. This helps to make clear the meaning of i n t e r d e -pendencies. There i s a r i g i d r e l a t i o n between l i f e and a p a r t i c u l a r resource. For example, a i r i s not a t h i n g apart, i t s p r e c i s e makeup i s determined by m a t e r i a l s i t receives from land and water and l i f e and which i n t u r n , i t gives up to them. The same i s true of l a n d and water. U n i t y i d marked by i n t e r -dependence , and interdependencies b r i n g about u n i t y . This thought must be taught emphatically and learned thoroughly f o r the whole conception o f conservation i s founded upon i t . This thought of nature as a u n i t y i s p r e r e q u i s i t e to the study of conservation as a philosophy, or way of l i v i n g . Once i t i s a s s i m i l a t e d , the student i s conservation-minded, and requires l i t t l e f u r t h e r teaching other than e l a b o r a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v i n g from the conception he has gained. One of the great advances i n conservation t h i n k i n g has been growing r e a l i z a t i o n of the interdependence and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a l l outdoor resources. We cannot manage any s i n g l e resource alone. What we do to our woodlands i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s s o i l s and waters.- What we do to s o i l and water i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s our w i l d l i f e , our woodlands, and our f i e l d s . They are a l l . i n e x t r i c a b l y part of each other. Perhaps a few i l l u s t r a t i o n s of interdependence w i l l make i t s meaning c l e a r . W i l l i a m B. Van D e r s a l 2 of the United States S o i l Conservation s e r v i c e , discusses the idea that w i l d l i f e i n general i s of value t o the environment i n which i t l i v e s . I n s e c t - e a t i n g b i r d s , he notes, have considerable and repressive a c t i o n on i n s e c t pest populations. Hawks and owls spend t h e i r l i v e s i n ceaseless p u r s u i t of rodents, carnivorous and i n -sectivorous. Mammals a s s i s t b i r d s i n the redu c t i o n of crop pests. The values of these forms of w i l d l i f e are not i n t a n g i b l e but r e a l . They are interdependent with the farmer, though the l a t t e r o f t e n f a i l s to recognize t h i s , not having given thought to the cooperation he obtains from w i l d l i f e . Yftien more f u l l y aware of w i l d l i f e values and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s welfare, he w i l l accord due c r e d i t to h i s animal neighbours 2. Van D e r s a l , W i l l i a m E. "Environmental Improvement f o r Valuable Hon-Game Animals" Transactions 5th U.A. W i l d l i f e Conference American W i l d l i f e I n s t i t u t e , Washington,D.C.1941,p.200 when c a r r y i n g out such farm-management techniques as: 1. S t r i p - c r o p p i n g , g r a i n . f i e l d s so t r e a t e d harbour n e a r l y three times as many b i r d s as s o l i d f i e l d s . Van Dersal quotes the f i n d i n g s of Dalmaeh and Good of, Ohio to t h i s e f f e c t . 2. f e n c i n g of Woodlands.. Good s o i l cover develops under such conditions. • Here,, lalmach and Good, showed 225 p a i r s of nesting b i r d s i n one hundred-acres of fenced woodland, but only 111 p a i r s i n one hundred acres of unfenced but s i m i l a r woodland. g. . farm Ponds. Although b u i l t as water-*conserving devices f o r the watering of l i v e s t o c k , and the .control of g u l l i e s i n f l o o d s , t h e i r completion brings r a p i d and spectacular .• increase i n w i l d -l i f e , i n and. about the ponds. 4.,,... Hedges. Yan Dersal mentions the f i n d i n g s of Idminster t h a t , while hedges were grown, f o r the prevention of s o i l washing, 60% more pheasants were supported than in. f i e l d s unprotected by hedges. . 5. C o n t o u r - c u l t i v a t i o n and Terr arcing. These are e r o s i o n con-t r o l p r a c t i c e s , but one of the important r e s u l t s i s c l e a r water f o r the streams, and an increased f i s h population. 6. P l a n t i n g and P r o t e c t i o n . Trees t shrubs, v i n e s , and herbs grown on land u n f i t f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , i s s o i l conservation work, but i t i s also an e x c e l l e n t w i l d l i f e management p r a c t i c e . - Recognition of i n t e r a c t i o n of n a t u r a l resources i s fundamental t o sound land use and correct a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e . At the same time, there is. no c o n f l i c t w i t h w i l d l i f e manage-ment. The farmer and the w i l d l i f e t e c h n i c i a n deal w i t h i n t e r -dependent problems, j u s t as much as the farmer and the t e c h n i c -ians of the S o i l Conservation Service do. The farmer knows that the experts of the S.C.S. can help him g r e a t l y i n sound farm management. He i s beginning to see that the w i l d l i f e expert i s a partner too. I f a c t u a l cash values could he apprais-ed, r e c o g n i t i o n would he f a s t e r and more complete, and landovmers would p r a c t i s e w i l d l i f e management as an i n t e g r a l part of the farming programme. In a popular a r t i c l e , L e e s ^ t e l l s the s t o r y of a t y p i c a l place i n Montana. This place was.a sportsman's idea of heaven, f u l l of mountain l i o n s and deer and e l k , with c l e a r streams y i e l d i n g splendid t r o u t . The mountain l i o n s l i v e d on the deer and the e l k , the deer and the e l k l i v e d on the w i l l o w t h i c k e t s along the hanks of the stream, and the trout l i v e d on the f l i e s that hatched along the shady sides of the stream. Soon the sportsmen begrudged the mountain l i o n s t h e i r share of deer and e l k . A bounty was put on, the l i o n s disappeared., and soon the woods were f u l l of deer. The w i l l o w shoots were cleaned off. by the g r e a t l y increased deer and e l k p o p u l a t i o n , and no willows meant no w i l l o w roots.' Since -it was the w i l l o w roots that were hol d i n g up the banks of the stream, the stream began to wash out and get shallow and. muddy. The trout went elsewhere to catch t h e i r f l i e s . The- deer, i n t h e i r turn, with forage gone, died out. The sportsmen, who thought they were being, e f f i c i e n t and h e l p f u l , learned that the interdependent food cycles i n nature are not to be tampered w i t h l i g h t l y , f o r the 3. Lees, Hannah, - "Balancing Act" C o l l i e r s Magazine, August 20, 1938, p.30 - 10 • -"balance i n nature i s so complex and- interwoven that i s requires the best e f f o r t s of a l l our n a t u r a l resource s c i e n t i s t s , working together, to discover and evaluate the i n t r i c a c i e s of i n t e r -dependence, and to make fundamental recommendations as to t r e a t -ment and u t i l i z a t i o n of our resources. She h i s t o r y of the Western p l a i n s reveals the con-sequences of i l l - c o n s i d e r e d planning of short-sightedness that u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n what i s c a l l e d "The Dust Bowl". The Western p l a i n s were s e t t l e d before man came. There were grass-eaters l i k e the gophers and the b u f f a l o , and there were meat-eaters l i k e coyotes and wolves. The b u f f a l o and gophers kept the p r a i r i e s grass down, and the wolves and coyotes kept the b u f f a l o down, and hard winters and l e a n p i c k i n g s kept the wolves and coyotes down. The balance moved up and down but no f a c t o r could get out of c o n t r o l . When man s e t t l e d the p r a i r i e s , the b u f f a l o were exterminated. The wolves, preying on the c a t t l e , were next to go. The gophers, wi/bh" fewer predators, got out of c o n t r o l . But the gophers had played a v i t a l part i n keeping down tough weeds which were a la r g e p a r t of t h e i r d i e t , but which were h i g h l y unpalatable, and some even poisonous, to c a t t l e . With weed c o n t r o l gone, the sweet grasses were crowded out, rangeland d r i e d out from denudation, and capacity was great l y reduced. Dry range lands favoured wind erosion. In this.way f e r t i l i t y gave way to a r i d i t y . The stage was being set, p a r t l y at l e a s t by the f a c t o r s j u s t mentioned, f o r the cataclysmic storms of the 1930 1s that impoverished so much of the Great Central P l a i n and brought so much s u f f e r i n g to hundreds of thousands from Saskatchewan to Texas, This great debacle was a h i s t o r i c a l r e p e t i t i o n o f what happened i n A s i a Minor, the Mediterranean shores of North A f r i c a , and over vast areas of the lands adjacent to the great r i v e r s i n China, m a l l cases, the interdependence between p l a n t s and animals and t h e i r en-vironments was upset, and no p r o v i s i o n was made, beyond the needs and greed of man, for the perpetuation of the l i v i n g re-sources. There, was no broad planning, i n f a c t , l i t t l e planning of any kind. The v i s i o n of immediate gain precluded the fore -sight that can obviate d i s a s t e r . The f i e l d mice and lemmings of Labrador have a three-to-four-year population cy c l e . Lagging one year behind comes the population cycle of the A r c t i c fox. The fox i s not the only animal dependent, upon the mice and lemmings. The year that mice are p l e n t i f u l and easy to catch, the wolves l i v e on mice instead of caribou. The caribou need not f l e e north from the. wolves, and that means that the northern Indians, who depend on the caribou f o r food, have to be s a t i s f i e d that year with ptarmigan. This works out w e l l since the mice are p l e n t i f u l i n the north too, and the foxes do not prey so f i e r c e l y oh ptarmigan. Thus the requirements of the Indians are met. The food chain examples j u s t given are a few o f the many interdependencies worked out by n a t u r a l i s t s . They con-s t i t u t e one kind of interdependence that c o n t r i b u t e s to the u n i t y of nature. There are others, l a r g e r g e n e r a l i t i e s of such great scope that l i t t l e more than mention can be made of them at t h i s time. 12 -Sears^ observes that the i n d i v i d u a l always n o t i c e s f i r s t the changes which a f f e c t him p e r s o n a l l y . He w i l l move to a l t e r conditions to s a t i s f y h i s needs. In other words, man i s n a t u r a l l y s e l f i s h , and t r i e s to protect h i s i n t e r e s t s . The sportsman notices the s c a r c i t y of game. He demands stocking. I f he i s i n t e l l i g e n t , he r e a l i z e s that the shortage i s due to the axe and the plow, perhaps more than to b u l l e t s and nets, and that i t i s not enough to produce game but that a place f i t for the game to l i v e must be furnished. The nature l o v e r i s d i s t r e s s e d at the disappearance of many b e a u t i f u l forms, once common. He has laws passed p r o t e c t i n g the b i r d s , or p r o h i b i t i n g the p i c k i n g o f flowers. I f he i s i n t e l l i g e n t he knows that he i s not correcting;'the r e a l t rouble, which i s the l o s s o f b i r d or plant h a b i t a t . The c i t y dweller i s not l i k e l y to r e a l i z e that f o r e s t r y i s needed not only to supply us w i t h wood, s o i l , and w i l d l i f e , but t o keep our streams c l e a r , s t o r e underground water, and prevent f l o o d s . But an' i n t e l l i g e n t urbanite., i f these things were pointed out to him, would take immediate i n t e r e s t i n f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e s , f o r he needs pure water, and probably dreads f l o o d s . The farmers, w i t h perhaps experience i n the worn-out lands of some of the Great P l a i n , knows.there i s no more "West", knows that i f he i s to farm properly he must know how So a r r e s t s o i l l o s s e s , how to r e b u i l d h i s acres, how to c u l t i v a t e l e s s land w i t h greater s k i l l , how to t u r n marginal 4. Sears, Paul B. Foundations of Conservation Education National W i l d l i f e Federation, Washington, B.C.,1941,p.40. - i s -land i n t o grass and f o r e s t , how to r e c o n s t i t u t e h i s surround-ings so that ample plant growth i s provided for the conservation of water and w i l d l i f e . The s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the sportsman, the nature l o v e r , the c i t y dweller, and the farmer, are, i f i t i s con-sidered, p arts of the same fundamental problem. Thus every s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , working at some phase of the conservation problem, needs the co-operation of every other s p e c i a l group. Interdependence i s so u n i v e r s a l that there i s no such t h i n g as piece-meal conservation. Game, f i s h , other w i l d l i f e , f o r e s t s , water, s o i l , a l l represent d e t a i l s of one c e n t r a l problem, a permanent and s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n between man and nature. The needs of man,.and the balance of l i v i n g nature must be coordinated, and t h i s c a l l s f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and sound planning. The various programmes f o r the conservation of s o i l , water, f o r e s t s , and w i l d l i f e are so c l o s e l y interwoven that each v i t a l l y a f f e c t s one or more of the others. A l l ar-e phases o f a s i n g l e problem, that concerned w i t h the wise use o f our renewable n a t u r a l re-sources. When t h i s i s f u l l y understood by the., everyday c i t i z e n , there are no l i m i t s to the progress that can be made i n safe-guarding our resources and maintaining them i n d e f i n i t e l y as the sources of our well- b e i n g , year by year, and generation by 5 generation. As Gabrielson points out, when o u t l i n g the b a s i s of present w i l d l i f e and f o r e s t conservation programmes, and 5. Gabrielson, I r a I . " W i l d l i f e Conservation", The Macmillan Co. 1941, preface, p . l . - 14 -i n d i r e c t l y of a l l others: "Three concepts are considered to form the bases of the Conservation Movement: 1. S o i l , water, f o r e s t , and w i l d l i f e are only parts of our inseparable program. 2. W i l d l i f e must hav/e an environment s u i t e d to i t s needs i f i t i s going to survive.'' 3. Any use that i s made of any l i v i n g resource must be l i m i t e d to not more than the annual increase i f the e s s e n t i a l seed stock i s to be c o n t i n u a l l y a v a i l a b l e . " Gabrielson b e l i e v e s that no amount of research and study w i l l change these three basic concepts. Although man's r e l a t i o n to man i s outside the scope of t h i s paper, there are s o c i o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f interdependence that cannot be overlooked i f the f u l l meaning of the word i s to be revealed. The philosophy of u n i t y covers a l l l i v i n g resources and so man 6 i s included. Fosdick has shown that the nations are b i o l o g i c a l l y interdependent whether they l i k e i t or not, even i n war time. "There i s not an area of a c t i v i t y i n which t h i s cannot be i l l u s t r a t e d " he s t a t e s . "An American s o l d i e r wounded on a b a t t l e f i e l d i n the Jar East owes h i s l i f e to a Japanese s c i e n t i s t , K i t a s a t o , who i s o l a t e d the b a c i l l u s of tetanus. A Russian s o l d i e r saved by a blood t r a n s f u s i o n i s indebted to i a n d s t e i n e r , an A u s t r i a n . A German s o l d i e r i s shielded from typhoid fever -6. Fosdick, Raymond B. "The Search f o r U n i t y " The R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation Annual Report f o r 1941, New York, 1942, p.9. - 15 -with the help of a Russian, Metohnikoff. A Dutch Marine: i n the East Indies i s protected-from malaria because of the experiments of an I t a l i a n , G r a s s i , while a B r i t i s h navigator i n North A f r i c a escapes death from s u r g i c a l i n f e c t i o n because a Frenchman, Pasteur, and a German, Koch, elaborated a new technique, "Our c h i l d r e n are guarded from d i p h t h e r i a by what a Japanese and a German did; they are protected from smallpox by an Englishman's work; they are saved from r a b i e s because of a Frenchman; they are cured of p e l l a g r a through the researches of an A u s t r i a n . From b i r t h to death they are surrounded by an i n v i s i b l e h o s t — t h e s p i r i t s of men who never thought i n terms of f l a g s or boundary l i n e s and who never served a l e s s e r l o y a l t y than the welfare of mankind." Fosdick sums up by saying t h a t , although wars may i s o l a t e nations and s p l i t them i n t o separate u n i t s , the process i s never complete because/the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . o f the world, as far as science and l e a r n i n g are concerned, i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d and whether we wish i t or not an i n d e l i b l e , p a t t e r n of u n i t y has been woven i n t o the society of mankind.' This i s the greatest example of interdependence i n the world. That thought cannot be n a t i o n a l i z e d , that the fundamental u n i t y of c i v i l i z a t i o n i s the u n i t y of i t s i n -t e l l e c t u a l l i f e and that the things that u n i t e us are the foundations o f a co-operative world, these are the b a s i c con-cepts of the greatest conservation problem i n a l l h i s t o r y , the problem of planning f o r world u n i t y i h the post-war world. - 16 -Connotations of Conservation The necessity f o r the teaching of conservation has been argued by d i s c u s s i o n and example i n the s e c t i o n above. Direct reference was made to the need f o r s t r e s s i n g , i n She teaching of conservation, of the theme "The U n i t y i n Nature". A f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h i s theme demands' a clear conception of the meaning of the word "Conservation". This meaning, there-f o r e , must be c a r e f u l l y taught. The term "conservation" d e f i e s d e f i n i t i o n . That i s not to say that there are no single-sentence explanations of i t s meaning. There are hundreds of such statements, and most of them are sound, working statements when ap p l i e d to p a r t i c u l a r things or p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . As long as such d e f i n i t i o n s are l i m i t e d to s p e c i f i c cases they are c l e a r cut and meaningful, but when the e f f o r t i s made to use them to cover a d i f f e r e n t part .of a f i e l d or a new f i e l d , there i s l i k e l y to be confusion. The reason f o r t h i s i s that attempts to define the word have narrowed i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , and the new s i t u a t i o n cannot be squeezed w i t h i n the border o f the meaning as used. On the r a d i o , i n the press and i n p u b l i c utterance, the term "conservation" has become f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n our vocabulary. So much impetus has been given to the use of the word l a t e l y , since "conservation" and "war" have inseparable a s s o c i a t i o n s , that to s u b s t i t u t e another expression t o mean conservation would only l e a d to f u r t h e r confusion without any appreciable gain. "Conservation" i s much more than a word i n the modern meaning. I t i s a concept i n i t s e l f , a l a r g e thought, an e n t i r e philosophy or way of t h i n k i n g . -,17 -In the beginning conservation meant wise use, and was applied to such resources as timber and s o i l . This was the interpretation i n the days of Theodore Roosevelt. Gradually, the meaning of conservation became widened. A second meaning, that of sustained production, e s p e c i a l l y as a p p l i e d to renew-able or organic resources became associated with the word. This t r a n s l a t i o n , i t could be s a i d , gathered force i n t h i s century, reached the crest of p o p u l a r i t y i n the e a r l y 1930's, and i s s t i l l i n great favor today, being constantly used i n reference to the separate d i v i s i o n s of the renewable resources, such as f o r e s t s and w i l d l i f e . During and since the depression of the l a t e r 1930's the concept of conservation has widened very r a p i d l y , and has come to include, beside the e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n s j u s t mentioned, the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n man's u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. Bo p r e c i s e meaning, then, can be assigned to the word "Conservation" unless the s i t u a t i o n or circumstance to which i t i s being a p p l i e d i s p a r t i c u l a r or circumscribed. Only then can a s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n be given. Otherwise i t i s general i n sense and may represent a great concept, a fundamental thought, a philosophy, or a way of l i v i n g . Statements concerning the meaning of conservations are, as has been s a i d before, l e g i o n . From them can be secured ideas and thoughts that w i l l a i d towards a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f u l l e r meaning of the conservation movement, and so have educational c o n t r i b u t i o n of r e a l value. - 18.-7 In a recent e d i t o r i a l comment, we read:' "Conservation, reduced to elemental s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s a p o l i c y or p r i n c i p l e , of c o n t r o l l e d production designed to benefit the l a r g e s t number of people over the longest p e r i o d of time. This concept has been i n the minds of c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s f o r years. H.L. l a k e s , Secretary of the I n t e r i o r f o r the United States, gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "Conservation means the prudent use of our n a t u r a l r e -sources without waste or needless d e s t r u c t i o n , and having i n mind always, that so f a r as not i n c o n s i s t e n t with our own needs, they should be preserved for the use and enjoyment of future generations." A mere c o n t r o v e r s i a l statement i s the one, "Conser-v a t i o n i s a p o l i c y of governmental r e g u l a t i o n of the use and development of the n a t u r a l resources of the country, so as t o prevent waste, exhaustion, and d e s t r u c t i o n by p r i v a t e ownership." 8 ' ' Sears has many paragraphs that seek to e x p l a i n Conservation. Perhaps the best is-. "In order to l i v e , human beings must obtain many things from l a n d , a i r , and water. These things are c a l l e d n a t u r a l resources. They may be used wisely so that there w i l l be enough fo r a l l , and plenty f o r the f u t u r e . This i s conservation, or ' they may be used s t u p i d l y , which i s waste." 7. "Conservation as a Production p o l i c y " , American Biology Teacher, Yol.5, No. 4, January, 1943, p.84. 8. Sears, Paul B., o p . c i t . , p . l . - 19 -Sears gives many examples of conservation programmes. He. mentions the old E n g l i s h l a w t h a t permits the use of the waters as lon g as the q u a l i t y o f the water, i s unimpaired f o r the next user. The c a r e f u l use of water and sediment from the N i l e , the custom i n China of re t u r n i n g a l l s o r t s of sewage and wastage to the land, and the immediate replacement of the t r e e s of d e f i n i t e s i z e that are out i n Sweden, are a few of the con-serva t i o n precedents e s t a b l i s h e d i n the world. The c a r e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n that must he noted i n the two prominent connections i n which the term i s used i s emphasized 9 by Ward * He p o i n t s out that i n the o r i g i n a l sense, conser-v a t i o n r e f e r r e d only to those n a t u r a l resources man u t i l i z e s f o r h i s advantage. But i n recent extensions of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the term, conservation includes the f i e l d of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s , of h e a l t h and disease, of a l l that concerns human s o c i e t y i n i t s development. I n the narrower o r i g i n a l meaning, conservation i s a p p l i e d ecology. I n the broader sig™ n i f i c a n c e . i t could be r e f e r r e d to as human ecology. P a c k , i n an a r t i c l e on the p i t f a l l s o f conservation, p r o p e r l y points out that: "True conservation seeks to f i n d the proper balance between p r e s e r v a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n without n e g l e c t i n g e i t h e r aspect of the case. I t i s r i g h t l y undertaken only for the permanent 9. Ward, Henry B., o p . c i t . , p.175. • 10. Pack, Arthur 1. Foundations of Conservation Education National W i l d l i f e Federation, Washington,D.C.,1941, p.55. ~ 20 -and l a s t i n g objective of the greatest good to the greatest number of human beings i n the long run. I t s methods are d i s -covered only a f t e r c a r e f u l expert a n a l y s i s of c o n f l i c t i n g f a c t o r s and complicated i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " 11 I n speaking of f i s h e r i e s , Huntsman has t h i s , to say. "The aim i n conservation i s s a i d to be wise use of our resources. He who r e a l l y desires wise use w i l l not b l i n d l y and c o n f i d i n g l y accept the dictum of any enthusiast, but w i l l wish to be im-p a r t i a l and to f i n d out whether wise use means the r e s t r i c t i o n i n use that the word 'conservation' i m p l i e s , an expansion i n present use, or some new use". The most comprehensive and most up-to-date i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of conservation that the w r i t e r has seen i s the 12 sentence used by Gabrielson i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the organic or renewable resources of t h i s continent, " i n i t s broadest s o c i a l aspects", he s t a t e s , "conservation of the organic resources means r e s t o r i n g to the highest p o s s i b l e l e v e l and maintaining i n a st a t e of h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y those resources... that can be used on a crop b a s i s to s u s t a i n human s o c i e t y . " The above sample statements form a c r i t e r i o n of what i s g e n e r a l l y found i n books d e a l i n g with conservation, p a r t i c u -l a r l y those devoted to the f i e l d of renewable resources. S u f f i c i e n t d e f i n i t i o n s have been given, i t i s f e l t , to convey 11. Huntsman, A.G». Transactions Canadian Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n , London, Ontario, 1941, p.106. 12. Gabrielson, I r a U. " W i l d l i f e Conservation" The Maemillan Co., 1941, p.15. -. 21 -a rough i n d i c a t i o n of the.scope of the f i e l d of conservation. I t w i l l he seen that conservation i s a p r o j e c t ; not on one water, hut of many waters, of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n i t s many forms such as fog, dew, r a i n , snow or h a i l , of "run-off" water, of c a p i l l a r y water, of "ground-water", of the water i n the streams and r i v e r s , of that i n ponds and la k e s , and f i n a l l y of that i n oceans. Conservation i s a p r o j e c t , not of one f i s h e r y , hut o f many f i s h e r i e s . And not only of f i s h e r i e s hut a l so of game, of w i l d -flower, of s o i l , o f f o r e s t s , of mountains, o f people. Conser-v a t i o n i s a project f o r the r e b u i l d i n g of nations based upon the p r i n c i p l e of the greatest good f o r the greatest number of people. This project w i l l be thought out and planned, not by one man, but by hundreds of t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d experts. The implementing of the master plan, and of the many minute plans w i t h i n the plan, w i l l r e s t where i t properly belongs, w i t h the people, who own the resources, and are responsible f o r the p o l i c y i n adm i n i s t e r i n g them. / P r i n c i p l e s of Conservation L i f e i s governed by p r i n c i p l e s , p h y s i c a l , chemical, b i o l o g i c a l . R e l a t i v e l y few people are aware o f them; fewer s t i l l pay any a t t e n t i o n to them. Yet acknowledgment and understanding of t h e i r existence and operation are the measures of progress, of enlightenment, o f education. Conservation, l i k e any other study, i s based upon them,and, l i k e any other study, such as Biology, Chemistry or Physics, i f advance i s to be made, such p r i n c i p l e s must be taught e a r l y and w e l l . P r i n c i p l e s are not - 22 -acquired by i n t u i t i o n , they are a s s i m i l a t e d when i n d u c t i o n or i n j e c t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n are used. This i s teaching. There are many conservation agencies, i n B r i t i s h Columbia,' i n Canada, i n l o r t h America. 'Many are government organizations, some are p r i v a t e . Departments that manage p u b l i c possessions such as lands, f o r e s t s , and water, are i n r e a l i t y conservation agencies, though they may not use the name. P r i v a t e groups that concern themselves with h i s t o r i c monuments and s i t e s , p r o t e c t i o n of w i l d .flowers' or of b i r d s , these a l s o are conser-vat i o n agencies. Organizations such as the Boy Scouts, G i r l Guides, Farmers I n s t i t u t e s , Natural H i s t o r y S o c i e t i e s , and many others, are d i r e c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n safe-guarding n a t u r a l re-sources and so are v i t a l l y concerned with Conservation problems and p r a c t i c e s . A l l of these groups have set up standards and objects, and are busy achieving such standards and ends. Though these ends are g e n e r a l l y laudable i n them-selves, there i s l i t t l e uniformity" i n t h e i r p u r s u i t . There i s a l a c k of coordi n a t i o n that makes progress slow; there are points of disagreement at times that b r i n g the groups into c o n f l i c t w i t h each other; s e l f i s h n e s s very o f t e n crops up, and gains are made at the expense of the worthy objects of others; a common c o n s t i t u t i o n of fundamental conservation purposes i s absent, and t h i s disorganizes e f f o r t . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r guidance i n conservation a c t i v i t i e s that common standards or basic p r i n c i p l e s be e s t a b l i s h e d or set up, p r i n c i p l e s or general t r u t h s by which conservation e f f o r t s o f any k i n d and i n any place, may be pr o p e r l y weighed and valued. • ' - 23 -- What, then,, are the major p r i n c i p l e s t o which a l l conservation agencies must subscribe? While r e a l i z i n g that they are not a l l - i n c l u s i v e , the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s are suggested f o r p r e l i m i n a r y agreement. 1. The Unity of Nature and the Interdependence so interwoven i n i t must be c l e a r l y recognized and understood^ I t i s one of the great t r u t h s , that nature i s a complex t h i n g , and c o n s i s t s of a great many f a c t o r s a c t i n g upon l i f e and being acted upon by l i f e . This fundamental, "The u n i t y of Nature", prevents us from considering a s i n g l e resource, such as game or f i s h , or grass, as a problem that can be i n v e s t i g a t e d and studied apart, but demands that any resource under d i s -cussion or i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be considered i n the l i g h t of the many other resources which influence i t , or which may even cause i t to be. U n t i l t h i s l a r g e thought o f the U n i t y of Nature i s incorporated i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l philosophy i t w i l l be impossible to get the true p i c t u r e of conservation. 2. There must be a deep, complete, and permanent conception of the philosophy, and the true meaning of conservation. In our province, blessed with abundant but q u i c k l y exhaustible resources, there i s s u f f i c i e n t wealth to provide a b o u n t i f u l existence, as f a r as m a t e r i a l r i c h e s can cont r i b u t e . Our f o r e s t s , our s o i l s , our waters, the grass, timber, game, minerals, the scenic beauty and the u n r i v a l l e d r e c r e a t i o n a l resources of parks, l a k e s , flowers, mineral springs, and beaches, a l l these form a heritage probably u n r i v a l l e d and should con-t r i b u t e to the good of everyone o f our c i t i a e n s . Constant care of these resources, i n t e l l i g e n t planning, f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n , and the co-operation that alone brings .conservation, can secure t h i s heritage f o r the present and the future. 5. Conservation of n a t u r a l resources should, be based on a c c u r a t e l y determined knowledge. ~ 15 Dymond has s a i d , "Much harm has been done t o n a t u r a l resources by uninformed or misinformed, bodies who have cleared land,- drained swamps and dammed streams without any thought of the consequences of these actions beyond the immediate object i n view. Examples of the disastrous e f f e c t s of ignorance i n the handling of n a t u r a l resources are too w e l l known to require c i t i n g . " 4. Every c i t i z e n must have as complete a knowledge as i s p o s s i b l e of the resources we possess! I t i s an o l d axiom that no government can be wiser than i t s information. Neither can the i n d i v i d u a l . Since the people are responsible f o r the e l e c t i o n of i t s government, and since the government i s responsible f o r the determination of p o l i c y with regard to the resources under i t s c o n t r o l , i t i s of the utmost n e c e s s i t y that the .research f i n d i n g s w i t h respect to these resources become a v a i l a b l e for the education of the p u b l i c . There can be no doubt that i n recent years our 15. Dymond, J.E. Transactions Canadian Conservation ..Association, London, Ontario, 1941, p.9E. - 25 -c i v i l i z a t i o n has expanded much f a s t e r than our knowledge. On every hand we are faced by problems to which we do not know the answers. There i s never a f i n a l problem whose s o l v i n g w i l l close the chapter d e a l i n g w i t h any s i n g l e resource. There are wide gaps i n our information even about such comparatively thoroughly i n v e s t i g a t e d resources as the h a l i b u t f i s h e r i e s . There are wider gaps i n the knowledge concerning our salmon and h e r r i n g and p i l c h a r d , and p o s s i b l e greater ignorance s t i l l about our f o r e s t s and other resources. Yet, despite a l l that, what information i s known i s not wholly p u b l i c possession. Our . P r o v i n c i a l Departments gave gathered and analyzed much basic data concerning the p h y s i c a l resources o f . B r i t i s h Columbia. But much,- too mush, of the c o l l e c t e d data, has been f i l e d f o r reference i n places where i t never can serve the ordinary person d i r e c t l y . This forgotten information should be e a s i l y a v a i l -able to a l l . He should know the f a c t s about h i s province as he knows the f a c t s about h i s own home. In preparatory reading f o r t h i s paper, there was found to be almost a complete absence of m a t e r i a l about the resources of B r i t i s h Columbia presented i n everyday language so that the n o n - t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d c i t i z e n could appraise the resource values of the Province. How.then, can we expect i n t e l l i g e n t management of the n a t u r a l wealth when four out of f i v e persons know l i t t l e more than that they l i v e i n a region c a l l e d B r i t i s h Columbia, that i t i s a p r e t t y b i g area., and that many people seek t h e i r l i v i n g i n the woods, on the l a n d and on the seal I f ever the economy of an area was founded upon raw m a t e r i a l s , i t i s here i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I f ever an education i n Conservation was required, s u r e l y i t i s i n t h i s . Province and among i t s people. 5. The handling of our renewable resources should he coordinated. Drainage attempts, uncoordinated i n any way, and promoted l a r g e l y or e n t i r e l y by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups of i n -d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o i t i n g d e f i n i t e areas of land, have given r i s e to a v a r i e t y of problems. There are c o s t l y examples i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Among the r e s u l t s are lowered water t a b l e s , . accelerated r u n-off of p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and the speeding up of des t r u c t i v e e r o s i o n which often i n a few years undoes the work Of centuries of s o i l - b u i l d i n g . There are even unhappier re-s u l t s , economic r u i n of farmers being among the saddest. I t must be recognized that a g r i c u l t u r e can no longer be administered without reference to tre e growth; that game, f i s h and fu r are a f f e c t e d by methos of forest'management; that water power development and the use of streams as handy places f o r the d i s p o s a l o f wastes from paper m i l l s , mines, packing p l a n t s , d i s t i l l e r i e s and other chemical works, are l i k e l y to destroy one resource i n order to develop others. In a conser-v a t i o n economy, i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e s cannot be considered i n i s o l a t i o n . There must be co-ordination of a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t i n g n a t u r a l resources, and t h i s c o-ordination i s one of the most important steps towards conservation. We cannot conserve our nat u r a l resources piece-meal. . I t should be i n s i s t e d upon that there ex i s t a c e n t r a l conservation body i n the government. I n many of the States to the south of us, Departments of Conservation have been created, - 27 -and i t i s t h e i r f u n c t i o n to c o l l a t e the f i n d i n g s of a l l other departments, those f i n d i n g s that hear on the n a t u r a l resources. Much of the work of these Conservation Departments i s educa-t i o n a l and planning. Eesearches as widely d i f f e r e n t as oyster i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and geologic surveys are a l s o centred i n such "bodies. As a consequence, i n many of the States such as L o u i s i a n a , the Department o f Conservation i s the l a r g e s t and most important branch of government. While i t does not necess-a r i l y f o l l o w that such a Department must be created i f conser-v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s are to progress, i t does seem apparent that such Departments have won f o r themselves a permanent and h i g h l y regarded p o s i t i o n i n the l o c a l governments of the States of the Union. That we need some such o r g a n i z a t i o n , s i m i l a r t o , these Departments of Conservation, i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . 6. S c i e n t i f i c planning and management are the bases of perpetuation of resources. There i s no general plan of development for the re-sources of B r i t i s h Columbia, and since any expansion i s hap-hazard and precarious, and with l i t t l e regard to i t s permanency, the use that i s made of our resources i s not only p a r t i a l but o f t e n unwise. " I t i s amazing," says O ' N e i l l , "that i n spite of the f a c t that our governmental agencies have been engaged fo r many years i n gathering information about our n a t u r a l resources, Each resource has been considered l a r g e l y by i t s e l f and u s u a l l y with regard only to i t s aggregate p o s s i b i l i t i e s . No agency e x i s t s f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a l l the a v a i l a b l e information - 28 -i n t o oomposite p i c t u r e s of a l l the p o t e n t i a l resources of each part of Canada, and no body i s charged with the duty of t r y i n g to determine how and when any d i s t r i c t can be made s e l f support-ing , and be consolidated i n t o the general economic development of the country. A l l t h i s has so f a r been l e f t to chance, but we have reached a point where i t i s s u i c i d a l to continue such 14' ;> u n s c i e n t i f i c methods." Only through s c i e n t i f i c planning and c a r e f u l f o s t e r -ing of the o r d e r l y expansion, and development of the resources., of a region, can f u l l advantage be taken of a l l n a t u r a l assets. 7/hen men work without a p l a n , there i s chaos and waste. 'Then men work with a plan based' on maximum information, t h r i v i n g and t h r i f t y e x p l o i t a t i o n of the n a t u r a l wealth i s assured. 7. Conservation Means Cooperation. One of man's innate b i o l o g i c a l urges i s the w i l l to s u r v i v e . Hence man i s * s e l f i s h . However, a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s s u r v i v a l urge i s gregariousness, or co-operation, the habit of.banding together f o r mutual p r o t e c t i o n . Under the present economic system i n force "on t h i s continent, great s t r e s s has been l a i d on that "hardy, rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m " which probably k i l l s o f f more people than wars can, and which has r e s u l t e d i n more and more emphasis on the advancement of the few at the expense of the many. But, as a r e s u l t of the u n r e m i t t i n g e f f o r t s of a r e l a t i v e l y few sincere 14. 0 ' H e i l l , J . J . "The Role of Mining" Papers from the Joint Session of Sections of the Royal So c i e t y of Canada, Ottawa, 1941, p.29. - 29 -and ardent c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y since the t u r n of the century, there i s a growing awareness that the poeple of t h i s province, t h i s country, t h i s continent and t h i s world, have not enjoyed the almost inexhaustible b e n e f i t s that nature has conferred upon them, those g i f t s that are known as "natural re-sources" . perhaps t h i s can be put down to the fa c t that, u n t i l very recent years there has been no educational e f f o r t to evoke l o y a l t i e s to the general welfare, except i n times of war. Yet people as such are receptive to such educational e f f o r t , since co-operation and u n s e l f i s h e f f o r t are among the highest sources of human s a t i s f a c t i o n s , as witness the g r a t i f i c a t i o n s that com-munity e n t e r p r i s e s b r i n g . Although these demonstrations of l o y a l t y to the general welfare are very often l o c a l , l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n , and temporary i n t h e i r b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t , there i s no reason, as has been so amply demonstrated i n current war e f f o r t s , why t h i s extension of the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i s h n e s s can not expand u n t i l i t i s p r o v i n c i a l ? n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n i t s scope, Co-operation between a l l the people i n a l l the communities of the land i s e s s e n t i a l to the su c c e s s f u l pro-motion of conservation, f o r conservation i s co-operation and co-operation i s conservation. 8. Conservation must be P r a c t i s e d . Many people i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia are i n t e r e s t e d i n conservation problems. Some, i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n groups, or i n government agencies, are studying the problems; many more are reading about, or l i s t e n i n g to discussions of these problems, by way of newspaper l e c t u r e s , or r a d i o . But - 30 -not many are doing anything about them. C r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s w i t h respect to our n a t u r a l resources are, i t might be s a i d , con-s t a n t l y with us since - s o i l , water, f o r e s t , game, f i s h e r i e s , g r a z i n g and other conditions are dynamic, ever-changing, re-q u i r i n g the utmost a t t e n t i o n and v i g i l a n c e i n t h e i r m i n i s t r a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To be quite f a i r the p u b l i c recognizes the importance of the d i f f i c u l t questions that a r i s e . But i t i s another t h i n g to f i n d time to act. Consequently, c r i s e s come and go w i t h but i s o l a t e d p r o t e s t s , and f u r t h e r i n j u r y to the p u b l i c welfare may be added to an already serious l i s t . There was considerable, but s c a t t e r e d and unorganized, disapproval, even remonstrance, w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government, when the b e a u t i f u l Green Timber drive between New Westminster and Blaine was threatened w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n , despite i t s i n c a l c u l a b l e . value as a scenic asset. But a g i t a t i o n can never take the place of a c t i o n . The t r e e s came down. Lost f o r a l l time was the i n s p i r i n g d r i v e that created such^a favorable impression upon v i s i t o r s e n t e r i n g B r i t i s h Columbia from the South. On the contrary, the timber wonderland that guarded the approaches to B u t t l e Lake i n Strathcona Park on Vancouver I s l a n d , was won f o r the pleasure of future generations, l a r g e l y through the concerted e f f o r t and d i r e c t a c t i o n of the B.C. Natural Resources League, a group of Conservation-minded c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s obvious, i n the l i g h t of past and present experiences that no campaign of mere protest w i l l a v a i l , that mere complaints of misuse have corrected none of these abuses of n a t u r a l resources or, i n most cases, even delayed the pro-- 51 -cesses of d e s t r u c t i o n . Strong a c t i o n , co-operative a c t i o n , a c t i o n "based upon the d e c i s i o n of a well-informed p u b l i c , i s the only method that can he followed i f the values of today are to he passed on i n a healthy state to the c i t i z e n s of tomorrow. life mean w e l l when we say that we must change i n the way we do things. We mean so w e l l sometimes that we pass laws, making people change their'ways. This i s never enough, however, fo r laws without strong p u b l i c support q u i c k l y l o s e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The next thought i s to teach b e t t e r ways i n the schools. Children, however, are l i k e grown-ups; they under-stand what others do b e t t e r than what others are saying, unless the grown-up shows him s e l f w i l l i n g to p r a c t i s e conservation, that p r a c t i c e w i l l be hard f o r the younger generation to adopt. I t must be very c l e a r l y recognized that no amount of l e g i s -l a t i o n or compulsion i s as e f f e c t i v e as enlightened Community a c t i o n . When c o l l e c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of energy or in f l u e n c e f o r the general welfare becomes h a b i t u a l a c t i o n in. the smallest to the l a r g e s t communities i n the land, then the era on conser-v a t i o n w i l l t r u l y have been ushered i n . The heritage of re-newable n a t u r a l resources w i l l have been made secure and per-p e t u a l . This w i l l come about only when men understand the meaning, and p r a c t i s e the p r i n c i p l e s , of conservation. - 32 -CHAPTER I I CONSERVATION IN THE PRESENT PROGRAMME Off STUDIES -(I?or the Junior and Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia) Int r o d u c t i o n Conservation i s not a s i n g l e subject. I t i s an area of l e a r n i n g and a way of l i v i n g . I t i s a general, h a b i t u a l a t t i t u d e towards the use we make of the things we possess, those things we term our resources. Whatever we possess as a h e r i t a g e , whether i t be human, such as our p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h , or part of the n a t u r a l environment, such as f o r e s t s , b i r d s , water, f i s h , grass or flowers, these things are our resources. I f the use that we make of these resources i s wise and ensures t h e i r per-petuation, we have w i t h i n us the philosophy of conservation, f o r we have planned f o r the optimum use of our possessions without impairing them f o r future generations. This i s the idea i n con-s e r v a t i o n , and i t i s l i k e w i s e the i d e a l i n c i t i z e n s h i p . I t f o l l o w s that i n s t r u c t i o n which contributes most to c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l contribute most to conservation. The teaching of conservation i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y a f u n c t i o n of the S o c i a l Studies. But i t i s also part. of every subject taught i n school. Much of the f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l and experimental a c t i v i t i e s belong to the sphere of Science. I t i s from the J science f i e l d that much of the a p p r e c i a t i o n and understand of n a t i o n a l problems i s derived, since i t i s the l o c a l experiences with the salmon i n the r i v e r , the cannery wastes, the water p u r i t y , problems i n the garden and the parks and the boulevards, ^that stimulates the development of the appreciations and understand-- 33 -ings. Teaching of conservation i s also a f u n c t i o n of any subject concerned w i t h the teaching of c i t i z e n s h i p . Conser-va t i o n , i t w i l l be c l e a r , i s an i n t e g r a t i n g thread i n a l l the courses. I t s f a c t s are c h i e f l y i n the realm of the sciences, i n geography, i n biology, i n chemistry. I t s s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are i m p l i c i t i n the S o c i a l Studies. I t s philosophy, that of planned abundance f o r the permanent good of a l l the people, i s contained i n every one of the range of school subjects that concern themselves w i t h the c i t i z e n and -the community. So the sto r y and study of conservation f i n d s a place, of varying scope and i n t e n s i t y , i n the subjects of A r t , and A r i t h m e t i c , and Guidance and L i t e r a t u r e , and Science, and the S o c i a l Studies. The teaching of conservation i s the teaching of a view, the teaching of habi t s of s o c i a l l i v i n g , and so i s com-prehensive. The s p e c i f i c f i e l d s of conservation such as the u t i l i z a t i o n of land , the management of game, and f i s h c u l t u r e , are s p e c i a l subjects beyond the secondary school l e v e l . These s p e c i a l aspects of conservation must be dealt with i n a general way to teach the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of conservation, but the emphasis i n conservation teaching to youth of Junior High and Senior High l e v e l s i s on the philosophy. I f ideas can be stimulated, and i d e a l s be formed, to the end that the student l e a v i n g Senior High School i s aware of h i s r i g h t s , and h i s re-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as a c i t i z e n of h i s community and h i s country, then that student i s t r a i n e d i n the conservation philosophy and outlook. .. By the same token, he i s t r a i n e d as a worthwhile c i t i z e n . 34 -Conservation, then, i n the Course of Studies f o r Junior and Senior High School, should appear as a c o r r e l a t e d and integrated subject. With t h i s i n mind, the Programme of Studies can be examined t o see what p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the teaching of Conservation i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. For c o n t i n u i t y , the a n a l y s i s w i l l be made by subject, with em-phasis on S o c i a l Studies and Science, since these subjects have the greatest scope and a p p l i c a t i o n i n conservation teaching. 1. S o c i a l Studies 15 A. Junior High School In the ob j e c t i v e s f o r S o c i a l Studies i n the j u n i o r High School, the f o l l o w i n g one i s noted; "4. Increasing the a b i l i t y to observe and i n t e r p r e t environ-mental f a c t o r s i n t h e i r geographic, h i s t o r i c a l and c i v i c r e-l a t i o n s ." Under "Bight Ideals and A t t i t u d e s to' be Observed", the f o l l o w i n g are noted: "2. An a p p r e c i a t i o n of the ne c e s s i t y f o r government, the mean-ing of l i b e r t y , of c i t i z e n s h i p , of co-operation." "6. A r e c o g n i t i o n of c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a w i l l i n g n e s s to respond to them w i t h the appropriate a c t i o n . " These quotations might w e l l have been taken from a textbook i n Conservation, so w e l l do they express main thoughts i n the philosophy of Conservation. There are other r e l a t e d 15. Programme of Studies f o r the Junior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Grades V I I , V I I I , IX, B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, 1959, p.201. - 35 -statements under "Objectives", and "Eight Ideals and A t t i t u d e s to be Observed" that are perhaps l e s s d i r e c t i n t h e i r conser-v a t i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s , yet suggest the importance of b u i l d i n g up conservation-mindedness i n the p u p i l s , as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e to good c i t i z e n s h i p . In these l a t t e r statements, the r e a l meaning might r e a d i l y be overlooked unless the teacher d e a l i n g w i t h them was f a m i l i a r w i t h the'"meaning and philosophy of conser-v a t i o n . She d e f i n i t e assignments i n conservation education, as o u t l i n e d i n the Programme of Studies, are l i s t e d as follows-. 1. S o c i a l Studies I Grade VII Unit I . Your Community . . 4 weeks Unit II.'The Geographical S e t t i n g of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 we ek Unit 21. The Geography of Canada . . . . . . . . 5 weeks Unit I deals f i r s t l y w i t h the geographical features of the l o c a l community, i t s extent, p h y s i c a l features, n a t u r a l resources, occupations, and d i s t r i b u t i o n of population. Among the a c t i v i t i e s recommended are: ^ (a) l o c a t e on a map of the Province the l o c a t i o n of your community and the routes (road, r a i l , water, or a i r ) by which i t may be reached. (b) Make a map showing i t s c h i e f p h y s i c a l features; towns and v i l l a g e s ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes; m i n e r a l , f o r e s t , or minting areas. " (c) Make an animated map of the community, or a r e l i e f map. (d) What does your community produce or manufacture f o r i t s own use? Por sale elsewhere?" What sort of things does - 36 -i t buy from outside? Where are they obtained? (e) How do most of the people i n your community earn a l i v i n g ? ( f ) What new i n d u s t r i e s might be developed? Where might the new products be sold? Unit I deals secondly with the h i s t o r y of the community, and the suggested a c t i v i t i e s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are: (a) Fin d out who were the e a r l y explorers and pioneers of your community. (b) Why d i d the e a r l y s e t t l e r s choose your community? (c) Of what races or n a t i o n a l i t i e s were the e a r l y s e t t l e r s composed? What races or n a t i o n a l i t i e s have since come to i t ? (d) What Indian t r i b e or t r i b e s occupied or fought f o r t h i s part of the Province? What,noted Indian c h i e f s were connected with the area? (e) What changes have occurred i n your community since i t s e a r l y s e t t l i n g ? ' ( f ) Construct the model of a pioneer home; model or draw i t s f u r n i s h i n g s . (g) Make c o l l e c t i o n s of p i c t u r e s and newspaper a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b i n g the e a r l y days of your community, leave these c o l l e c t i o n s i n the school f o r the be n e f i t of those who come a f t e r you. S t a r t a school museum of a r t i c l e s o f l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . (h) Graph the growth.of population of your community. ( i ) As a group e n t e r p r i s e , prepare a h i s t o r y of your community. . - 57 -( j ) In what d i f f e r e n t ways could you improve your community? Unit I deals t h i r d l y with the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s oper-a t i n g i n the community. The suggested a c t i v i t i e s and i n v e s t i -gations are: (a) How i s your community provided with: schools, p o l i c e -p r o t e c t i o n (Municipal, P r o v i n c i a l , F e d e r a l ) , f i r e - p r o t e c t i o n , water, parks, roads and sidewalks„ l i g h t , h e a l t h s e r v i c e , m a i l , h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s . (b) How are these s e r v i c e s paid f o r ? (c) I f you l i v e i n a large community make a general plan of the place: i t s main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes; i t s business, i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s ; i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l centres, schools, h o s p i t a l s , and other p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ; i t s power and water supply; i t s sewerage system; i t s town planning scheme, and the l i k e . Make maps and models and c o l l e c t i o n s of p i c t u r e s and booklets. * Conservation begins i n the home. I t i s there that the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s can be learned and, since the home i s the most f a m i l i a r unit,' i t i s there that the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of conservation i n a c t i o n can be seen and p r a c t i s e d . The next l a r g e r u n i t i s the community, and here again the p r i n c i p l e s of u n i t y , interdependence, balance, planning, co-operation and coordination are r e a d i l y i l l u s t r a t e d . Hormal, everyday l i f e i s c a r r i e d on i n the community environment. Here, then, i s the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r the teach-i n g of conservation, and the framework f o r such teaching i s drawn up i n the suggested a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h i s f i r s t u n i t i n - 58 -the Grade Y I I S o c i a l Studies Program. In the p e r i o d of four weeks set aside for t h i s u n i t there i s ample time,to convey a c l e a r conception of the true meaning of conservation. The opportunity i s there, the teaching m a t e r i a l s are there, the a c t i v i t i e s are most s u i t a b l e , a l l conditions are present and the stage i s set f o r the production, so to speak. The play, however, to carry on the s i m i l e , i s not judged, to any large extent, by the s e t t i n g . P r o p e r t i e s are of l e s s e r importance than production. Unless the p l a y e r s , the c i t i z e n s of the community, or the c h i l d r e n of the school, can perform t h e i r p a r ts dynamically, w i t h enthusiasm, coordination, and co-operation, the a c t i n g w i l l be mechanical and unprovoeative. This type of performance i s i n e v i t a b l e i f the d i r e c t o r , or teacher, i s not infused w i t h the ideas, the thoughts, the mean-in g of the philosophy of conservation. Given i n t e r e s t , imagination, and understanding, the teacher can do a most valuable s e r v i c e to the cause of the community and to the cause of conservation at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time i n the education of the c h i l d f o r s o c i a l l i v i n g . At the Junior High School l e v e l , impressions are deeply and permanently made. Here, at the very beginning of Junior High School experience, i s a most s i g n i f i c a n t opportunity to s t r e s s educa-t i o n i n conservation. Unit I I i n the Grade Y I I course provides f o r a one-week's survey of the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia. The theme of interdependence, while not. s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n the course, might very w e l l be woven through the d i s c u s s i o n s . The - 39 -development of the philosophy of conservation requires that studies be extended from the home and community, through l a r g e r and l a r g e r geographical u n i t s u n t i l the thoughts are f u l l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l and cosmopolitan. The study of the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia contributes to the l a r g e r a p p r e c i a t i o n . Unit SI sets out a five-week course i n the geography of Canada. "The study of the geography of Canada should centre upon the great natural regions", i s the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence to t h i s u n i t . The themes of u n i t y and interdependence can again be brought to the f o r e , since s t r e s s I s l a i d upon i n d u s t r i e s , i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and f o r e i g n trade, and the means of t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n and communication. Conservation thoughts enter l a r g e l y i n t o such a study. A l l that i s needed i s the alertness of the teacher to t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y throughout. The Grade Y I I S o c i a l Studies Course provides ample opportunity f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of what i s bas i c i,n the study of conservation, that i s , general ideas, d i s c u s s i o n s , and appreciations of the t r u e meaning of conservation. These l e a r n -i n g s i t u a t i o n s could not have been provided at a more valuable or more c r i t i c a l time i n the education of youth. 8. S o c i a l Studies I I , Grade. ;VIII U n i t X I I . The H i s t o r y and Geography of B r i t i s h Columbia . 5 weeks. The Grade V I I I S o c i a l Studies Course deals p r i m a r i l y with the h i s t o r i c a l aspects of Canadian e v o l u t i o n . The conser-v a t i o n teacher would note the l i b e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s of conser-vation p r i n c i p l e s i n such stud i e s as that of the " I n d u s t r i a l Hevolution", " S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Progress a f t e r the Napoleonic - 40 -Wars", and the l i k e , hut i t i s not to he expected, nor i s i t found, that the teacher without experience i n conservation r e a l i s e s the deeper i m p l i c a t i o n s that changes i n the ways of s o c i a l l i v i n g can b r i n g about between man and h i s environment. Being unaware of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , the teacher does not empha-si z e the importance of resources. Yet i t should be pointed out that t h i s u n i t i n particular-, and others i n c i d e n t a l l y , o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r review and r e i t e r a t i o n of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s i n conservation. 3. S o c i a l Studies I I I , Grade IX • Unit I . The Great War and i t s Aftermath . . . . . . 4 weeks Unit IX. Canadian Development . . . . 4 weeks Unit XI. I n t e l l e c t u a l and S o c i a l Development . . . 1 week Unit I reviews the Great War, and then passes to a d i s c u s s i o n of the league of Nations. Here, apart from the machinery and the h i s t o r y , i s a study i n planning, synonymous wit h conservation. The need f o r planning, the ways of planning, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e s u l t s of a plan, may be s t u d i e d here. That the p l a n was not s u c c e s s f u l l y operated does not make t h i s a poor study i n conservation. On the other hand, i t i s r e p l e t e with examples of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that may be encountered, of the s e l f i s h n e s s found i n i n d i v i d u a l s .and nations, of unworka-b i l i t y of p a r t s of a plan, of unwieldiness, of l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n , and of many .other f a c t o r s that may i n t e r f e r e w i t h the s u c c e s s f u l operation of a p l a n . A study of the league of Nations presents both sides of the p i c t u r e of planning. The high i d e a l s i n the philosophy of conservation, the r e c o g n i t i o n of world u n i t y and world problems, the s t r i v i n g towards a b e t t e r and a, happier world, - 41 -are inherent i n the conception of the plan. A teacher of wide sympathies and i n t e r n a t i o n a l outlook could, i n t h i s study, stimulate worthwhile thoughts as to the n o b i l i t y i n world u n i t y , and at the same time point out the p i t f a l l s that s e l f i s h men prepare i n the path that the world i s t r a v e l l i n g i n the search for c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y and u n i t y . Unit IX i s a four-week study of "Canadian Development", and breaks down i n t o : 1. Growth of National U n i t y i n Canada. 2. The Settlement of the Canadian West and the S o c i a l and Economic Results of Settlement. 5. Post-war Problems i n Canada. 4. Economic R e l a t i o n s w i t h the United States. "The Growth of National U n i t y i n Canada" i s a conser-v a t i o n problem of f i r s t magnitude. I t i s a problem of high p r i o r i t y on our own doorstep. I t i s a problem of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s that have vast import f o r the welfare of a l l Canadians. I t i s a problem, then, that requires the a t t e n t i o n of every c i t i z e n , and the Grade IX l e v e l i s not too soon for a pres e n t a t i o n of a i l the per t i n e n t f a c t s that have to do with the problem. The h i s t o r i c a l background must be p i c t u r e d , and every aspect, past or present, bearing on the problem, must be o u t l i n e d . U n t i l . such a comprehensive survey has been.made, said observations v e r i f i e d and c o l l a t e d , i t i s impossible, i n s c i e n t i f i c or con-s e r v a t i o n t h i n k i n g to a r r i v e at fundamental conclusions. With-out such conclusions, i t i s impossible to a r r i v e at proposals for s o l u t i o n of the problem. The s o l u t i o n must be found i f - 42 -Canada i s to be u n i t e d , and we are to be able to c l a s s our-selves as co n s e r v a t i o n i s t s i n a c t i o n as w e l l as i n thought. The Grade IX student should l e a r n what i s meant by a problem, what c o n s t i t u t e s a problem, and why problems must be solved i f there i s to be s o c i a l progress. This much, i n a too l i m i t e d .period of time, should be dealt w i t h at t h i s juncture. Sections 2, 5 and 4 of t h i s u n i t provide abundant opportunities f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of conservation thoughts, p a r t i c u l a r l y ideas concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w ith n a t u r a l re-sources such as s o i l and water. The opportunity to give i n -formation about the f a c t o r s that make up our environment does not occur as o f t e n i n S o c i a l Studies courses as i t does, say, i n the Science f i e l d , and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n , when they are provided, should not be overlooked. B. Senior High S c h o o l 1 6 In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the o u t l i n e of S o c i a l Studies courses f o r the Senior High School/ the S o c i a l Studies are defined and t h e i r f u n c t i o n discussed. We read: "The S o c i a l Studies are to be understood as those studies whose subject-matter r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the org a n i z a t i o n and development of human s o c i t y and to man as a member of a s o c i a l group. The S o c i a l Studies are designed to t r a i n the 'pupil as a member of s o c i e t y and to c u l t i v a t e h i s s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y . Through them our youths should be brought to r e a l i z e what i t . means to l i v e i n s o c i e t y , to appreciate how people have l i v e d 16. Programme of Studies f o r Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n I , B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, 1941, p. 127. - 43 -and do l i v e together and to understand the conditions e s s e n t i a l to l i v i n g together w e l l . The S o c i a l Studies should provide the p u p i l w i t h the t o o l s and procedures which may he employed i n the s o l u t i o n of the p r a c t i c a l problems of our e x i s t i n g and developing s o c i e t y . "The S o c i a l Studies embrace bodies of knowledge and thought p e r t a i n i n g to the r e l a t i o n s of human beings, not only to one to another, but also/the p h y s i c a l environment i n which they l i v e and work. Knowledge includes e s s e n t i a l f a c t s and such commonly accepted g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , based on f a c t s , as are capable of v e r i f i c a t i o n by i n q u i r y . T h e nature and influence of environ-ment (both s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l ) , p u b l i c - p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h e i r a c t i o n s , p o l i c i e s and t h e i r r e s u l t s , a l l must become subjects of thought and opinion i n s p i t e of i n e v i t a b l e d i v e r s i t y . . " H i s t o r y , geography, p o l i t i c a l science, economics, sociology, and-psychology, a l l must contribute toward the subject-matter and methods of the S o c i a l Studies courses and toward the aim of developing i n the p u p i l a s o c i a l and c i v i c p e r s o n a l i t y which w i l l be harmoniously adjusted to contemporary s o c i a l l i f e . " I n the d i s c u s s i o n of the importance of the S o c i a l Studies we read: "In general terms the great objective of p u b l i c education i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s to provide f o r our youth such t r a i n i n g as not only w i l l prepare them to play t h e i r part i n a democratic s t a t e , but al s o w i l l develop i n them the a b i l i t y to make new adjustments i n an e v o l v i n g and progressive s o c i a l order so that .44 -s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y may be uni t e d with s o c i a l progress. Because the S o c i a l Studies are p e c u l i a r l y adapted to t h i s end, teachers of the S o c i a l Studies must assume a large share of the re-s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of these e s s e n t i a l s of good c i t i z e n s h i p . On the teacher of no other subject i s a greater demand made for wide knowledge, broad human sympathies, and cl e a r t h i n k i n g amidst everchanging complexities." In the general o b j e c t i v e s f or the S o c i a l Studies, the f o l l o w i n g are noted: "5. To help the p u p i l to acquire a knowledge of the evolving economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the world so that he may understand h i s contacts with h i s environment. 4. To l e a d the p u p i l to r e a l i z e that s o c i a l problems a r i s e c o n t i n u a l l y and to develop i n him the desire and a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n s o l v i n g them. 5. To develop i n the p u p i l a b i l i t y and s k i l l to c o l l e c t , organize, and use data f o r the purpose of forming conclusions and t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y . 6. To l e a d the p u p i l to form the habit of suspending judgment upon any question u n t i l a l l a v a i l a b l e data have been examined s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , to the end that the p u p i l may be able to a r r i v e at v a l i d and independent judgments.... 7. To develop i n the p u p i l a desire to contr i b u t e to the progress of c i v i l i z a t i o n by seeking to make Canada a be t t e r place i n which to l i v e . 10. To help the p u p i l to understand the influence of man and h i s environment upon each other and the degree to which the p h y s i c a l environment has promoted or retarded progress. - 45 -11. To l e a d the p u p i l to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the i n t e r -dependence of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the community and of the nations i n the wider sphere, and to a r e c o g n i t i o n of the value of neighborliness and f r i e n d l y co-operation. 12. To develop i n the p u p i l a b i l i t y to work both independ-e n t l y and i n co-operation with others. 16. To l e a d the p u p i l to see that he has duties and re-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards h i s f a m i l y , h i s community, the Dominion of Canada, and the B r i t i s h Empire, c o r r e l a t i v e with the advan-tages from l i v i n g w i t h i n them." The above excerpts from the programme of Studies f o r the Senior High Schools c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e r p a r t of the f o r e -word to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the S o c i a l Studies Courses IV and V, the courses o b l i g a t o r y f o r j u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n or High School Graduation. These excerpts are f u l l of conservation philosophy. Here i s provided perhaps the f i n e s t opportunity i n general education f o r the i n c u l c a t i o n and development of conservation thought, and way of t h i n k i n g . The presentation of data pertinent to conservation thought must be included i n the courses i f the o b j e c t i v e s as l a i d down are to be achieved. In d e f i n i t i o n , conservat i o n has today an expanded meaning. 'Where i n . the o r i g i n a l sense, It meant "wise use'V and i n a l a t e r , broader sense, "sustained production", i t has come to mean since the l a t e r 1930' s, a l l that i t meant before plus the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n man's u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. In other words, the study of conservation i s g r e a t l y concerned, not only with the f a c t s of such sciences as f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, and f i s h e r i e s , but w i t h man's Interdepend-- 46 -ence wi t h the resources, and h i s proper a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these resources f o r the welfare of a l l . This, i n i t s essence, i s s o c i a l study, and so i t i s apparent that the S o c i a l Studies courses play a paramount part i n conservation education., i t i s to these eouises that we must look l a r g e l y f o r the t r a i n i n g i n conservation a t t i t u d e s , thought s, and philosophy. This t r a i n i n g can he given i f thfe t eachers of the S o c i a l Studies are themselves imbued with conservat i o n philosophy. Otherwise, d i r e c t i o n of thought along conservation l i n e s w i l l be missed e n t i r e l y , and the u n i t s w i l l become u n i t s of work rather than u n i t s of comprehension and understanding of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s environment. 1. S o e i a l Studies IV. Grade X or Grade XI Unit I . The Foundations of Society. The object of the f i r s t problem of t h i s u n i t i s to gain some understanding of the origins and general development of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (socie t y ) . f The d e f i n i t i o n of Society c o n t r i b u t e d at the beginning of t h i s problem by Henry C. Morrison of Chicago u n i v e r s i t y furnishes much thought f o r conservation d i s c u s s i o n . He s a y s ; "Society i s , i n the f i r s t place, one of the three' primary c o n d i t i o n s of human existence. The other two are the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l environments. Society i s , f u r t h e r , sets of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l s which grow up out of the i n e v i t a b l e a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n between many i n d i v i d u a l s . Society i s not the community, the s t a t e , the p u b l i c , or the people. I t i s not s e l f - c o n s c i o u s : i t neither i n v e n t s , p r e s c r i b e s , approves, rewards, or decrees." -,47 -The conservationist recognizes t h i s statement as one of the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s of conservation, the d e c l a r a t i o n of' u n i t y and of interdependence i n the world i n which we l i v e . This statement i s a t o p i c sentence for the d i s c u s s i o n of our measure of enlightenment and progress and education, our under-standing of the p h y s i c a l , chemical, and b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which govern l i f e . I t would be d i f f i c u l t to s e l e c t a problem bet t e r s u i t e d as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the understanding of the meaning of conservation. Problem 2 i n t h i s u n i t seeks to develop the story of how c e r t a i n geographical f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d the trend of c i v i l -i z a t i o n and to show how mankind developed from p r i m i t i v e , wandering t r i b e s i n t o great n a t i o n a l states w i t h a h i g h l y developed and complex c i v i l i z a t i o n . This i s the s t o r y of n a t u r a l resources T f o r the measure of c i v i l i z a t i o n i s as the state of e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources. As development of resources wax, c i t i e s and empires develop; as exhaustion of resources proceeds, c i v i l i z a t i o n s wane. I t i s the s t o r y of Nineveh and Tyre and -Babylon and Carthage, and the s t o r y of the Empires associated with the great c i t i e s of the o l d world.. No area or n a t i o n , h i s t o r y shows, ever a t t a i n e d greatness unless i t contained w i t h i n the borders, or had under i t s c o n t r o l , large areas of f e r t i l e l a n d to support i t s armies and i t s c i v i l population. So long as the v i r g i n f e r t i l i t y l a s t e d or the s o i l s were w i s e l y managed, nations prospered and t h e i r - c i t i e s f l o u r i s h e d . But n a t i o n a f t e r n a t i o n f e l l , due l a r g e l y to unplanned e x p l o i t a t i o n of the i - 48 -s o i l and what grows upon i t . C i v i l i z a t i o n never, yet has saved a n a t i o n from calamity, where the balance of .nature has been disturbed. Babylonia, Chaldea, and P e r s i a , once garden spots, lands f l o w i n g w i t h m i l k and honey and other a g r i c u l t u r a l pro-ducts, are deserts now. The depopulated areas of today were the t h r i v i n g empires, of yesterday. Gibbon, the h i s t o r i a n , states that as many as 500 c i t i e s once f l o u r i s h e d on the present a r i d p l a i n s of A s i a Minor. While i t i s true that Problem 2 i n t h i s .unit deals with the r i s e of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the p i c t u r e i s only h a l f - f i n i s h e d i f the f a l l i n g away from the crests to the troughs of h i s t o r y i s not painted i n . The successive surges i n the h i s t o r y of mankind cannot be stud i e s i n i s o l a t i o n . The causes that promoted the surges often l i e almost wholly i n the dark, s t e r i l e periods between the c r e s t s . These dark periods, which might be c a l l e d times of unproductiveness f o l l o w i n g times of despotic exhaustion of n a t u r a l we a l t h, are the periods when plague and famine i m p e r i l l e d and u l t i m a t e l y destroyed the wealth and g l o r y that marked the nation's greatness. These things must be t o l d i n the S o c i a l Studies, i f the lessons of the past are to serve as guides f o r the f u t u r e . . Unit I I . The Dawn of H i s t o r y The problem i n t h i s unit i s to show how man emerged from a p r i m i t i v e state and acquired c e r t a i n s k i l l s and knowledges; and how through a gradual mastery of n a t u r a l f o r c e s , he began h i s s t a r t toward a higher c i v i l i z a t i o n . \\ - 49 -General Objectives 1 and 3 are noted at t h i s point; 1. To develop i n the p u p i l an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c o n t i n u i t y of human achievement. "The roots of the present l i e deep i n the past." 3. To help the p u p i l to acquire a knowledge of the evo l v i n g economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the world so that he may understand h i s contacts w i t h h i s environment. p r o v i s i o n i s made i n t h i s unit for a study of the e a r l y g e o l o g i c a l periods of the earth. The a c t i o n of a i r , water, and sunshine i n the formation of s o i l s can be taken up at t h i s p o i n t , and the slow process of soil-making stressed. The periods of e v o l u t i o n and development, beginning with the periods of Fundamental Gneiss and Sedimentary Bocks, and c a r r y i n g through the P r o t e r o z o i c , P a l e o z o i c , Hesozoic, and Genozoic Ages should be q u i c k l y o u t l i n e d . Emphasis on d e t a i l s of the period should be avoided. What should be emphasized s t r o n g l y i s the f a c t that i t i s estimated that a space of about a b i l l i o n years was r e -quired to b r i n g the earth from a molten sphere w h i r l i n g i n space, to the form i n which we know i t to day. A b i l l i o n years to b u i l d up tie, s o i l on which we a l l depend J That staggering t o t a l of time should cause anyone to h e s i t a t e before undertaking a venture which i s dependent on t h i s s o i l , and which might, through improper p r a c t i c e or l a c k of con s i d e r a t i o n , r e s u l t i n harm to a medium which took so long i n the making. There are f u r t h e r f a c t s of conservation that can be introduced i n t h i s u n i t , f a c t s r e l a t e d to the beginnings of a g r i c u l t u r e and e a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , but i f the main thought as set out i n the previous paragraph i s w e l l brought 50 -out, a good service w i l l nave been rendered the cause of conservation. Unit I I I . The Cradle of C i v i l i z a t i o n (The Four Great River V a l l e y Civ i l i z a t i o n s of the World) The t o p i c s as l i s t e d i n t h i s u n i t are: 1. The l a n d of the N i l e Egypt. 2. The la n d of the B i b l e and the Hebrews. 3. The V a l l e y s of the Ganges and the Indus. 4. The V a l l e y s of the Hwangho and Yangtse. 5. What these e a r l y peoples contributed to c i v i l i z a t i o n . To the c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , the studies a r i s i n g out of the above t o p i c s make f a s c i n a t i n g h i s t o r y . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , s o i l e rosion has not been considered a f a c t o r i n the making of h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i a n s seldom, i f ever, a t t r i b u t e d the t u r n of h i s t o r i c events to the f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l or the management of a g r i -c u l t u r a l resources. I n the future , however, no complete h i s t o r y of c e r t a i n world events can be writ'ten without t a k i n g i n t o account the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the s o i l and the r e s u l t s which followed. I t i s r e a l i z e d that much of the time to be devoted to t h i s unit must be used f o r study of economic, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l . and other f a c t o r s which contribute to our present c i v i l i z a t i o n , but i t i s argued that the advances which peoples make are founded on man's use of the crust of the earth. This i n i t s e l f merits that c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to the land upon which we l i v e , the s t u f f c a l l e d s o i l i n vhich c i v i l i z a t i o n s germinate, and out of which they grow. Unit IV. The Age of Grecian C i v i l i z a t i o n - 51 -Unit; 7. - The Soman World Unit VI* The B i r t h of European States Unit V I I . The Mediaeval C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe Unit V I I I . The Growth of n a t i o n a l States i n Western Europe Unit IX. The Age of the Renaissance and the Reformation .Unit X. The B u i l d i n g of C o l o n i a l Empires Unit XI. Our S o c i a l Inheritance - Our Debt to the Bast There i s no excuse f o r f o r c i n g conservation thoughts into m a t e r i a l which does not lend i t s e l f to a natural develop-ment of such thoughts. I n a survey of U n i t s IV to XI i n c l u s i v e , i t was found that the t o p i c s were p r o p e r l y l i m i t e d to what might be termed " s t r a i g h t h i s t o r y " , the study of events and peoples, of e v o l v i n g s o c i e t y and the reasons fo.r the e v o l u t i o n . The s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l aspects of a changing world are traced from t h e i r i n c e p t i o n s to t h e i r present s t a t e . There is l i t t l e room In such study f o r i n t r u s i o n of the ideas and p r i n c i p l e s of conservation,except i n the i n c i d e n t a l ways that a teacher versed i n conservation philosophy would au t o m a t i c a l l y introduce because of his p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint of h i s t o r y and i t s making. Such a teacher would not miss the opportunity, provided i n Unit XI, "Our S o c i a l Inheritance - Our Debt to the Past", to review and r e c a l l the conservation aspects dealt w i t h i n U n i t s I , I I , and I I I , and to b r i n g the S o c i a l Studies IV Course to an end on the high note that what we are i s due i n very l a r g e measure to the g i f t s of nature that are around us, and the uses to which we put them. - 52 ~ 2. S o c i a l Studies 7, Grade XI or Grade s i I Unit I . How to Inves t i g a t e Social.Problems - Some Use f u l Tools and Methods General Objectives. To a s s i s t p u p i l s to be self-dependent i n t h e i r own outlook upon modern l i f e and to enable each one to make h i s con-t r i b u t i o n to i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c opinion upon which our democractic government i s based. The t r a i n e d conservationist, reaches the abov e ob j e c t i v e s as l a i d down f o r t h i s u n i t . There are r e l a t i v e l y few such persons on t h i s continent, and as a group they could be regarded as pioneers i n thought and deed i n the recent educational f i e l d of conservation. "Conservation Education" i s an i n f a n t of t h i s century, was born i n the United States, and possesses the nature and i s r e c e i v i n g the nurture that promises a very b r i g h t future indeed f o r t h i s new member of the educational f a m i l y . But, though l u s t y and t h r i v i n g , i t i s s t i l l too young to have t r a v e l l e d very f a r or made i t s mark st r o n g l y i n the educational c i r c l e . The guardians of conservation education, d e a l i n g w i t h the l a r g e conceptions of conservation, have had to be self-dependent i n t h e i r outlook on modern l i f e . They have had to employ the s c i e n t i f i c method w i t h the greatest care, i n v e s t i g a t i n g and observing f a c t s c a r e f u l l y , t a b u l a t i n g them, drawing conclusions, t e s t i n g these conclusions, and applying these conclusions i n f u r t h e r search f o r the t r u t h s of conservation. f o l l o w i n g t h i s s c i e n t i f i c procedure, much or g a n i z a t i o n , c o l l a t i o n , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been required of the leaders - 53 -of conservation thought, so that s p e c i f i c and v a l i d c ontributions might be made to i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c opinion. As w i t h many pioneers, these c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been made, often i n the face of r i d i c u l e , commonly i n the face of concerted opposition of s e l f i s h groups. Yet these courageous pioneers have been, and are being, of immense value, i n the b u i l d i n g of a democratic, co-operative world. Recognition by the teachers of the S o c i a l Studies that the general o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s u n i t are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of the study of conservation w i l l provide the enthus- ' iasm and motives which can make the work i n t h i s u n i t most pleasant and p r o f i t a b l e to the p u p i l s and to themselves. I n the u n i t problems, p r o v i s i o n i s made to develop an understanding of c e r t a i n elementary s t a t i s t i c a l procedures which can be a p p l i e d to s o c i a l data. The technique involved i s oommonly used i n n a t u r a l resources inv e st i gat ions, and i s p r e - r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g f o r a l l who wish to carry on advanced work i n conservation. I t i s also p r e - r e q u i s i t e to the under-standing of conservation problems, and so has the utmost value i n the educational equipment of a l l c i t i z e n s . When one can draw a graph or p r e d i c t the r e s u l t or outcome of a problem, then the c l a i m to some understanding of the problem can be l a i d . I n the problems as o u t l i n e d , some deal d i r e c t l y , others i n d i r e c t l y , with conservation. I n problem I , frequency d i s t r i -b u tion i s dealt w i t h . What could be more f u n c t i o n a l i n the l i f e of a p u p i l than to use the data from a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining, or f i s h e r i e s , the basic i n d u s t r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia? To the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e w i t h s t a t i s t i c s , the added value of - 54 -f a c t s about the economy of the Province are brought to the. a t t e n t i o n of our future c i t i z e n s . I n Problem I I I , the prevalence of propaganda i n a d v e r t i s i n g , i n p o l i t i c s , and i n education i s suggested f o r treatment. I n d i r e c t l y , such matters as d i s f i g u r e -ment of scenic views along.the highways, and misrepresentation i n education that i s conducted by those who would e x p l o i t re-sources to t h e i r own s e l f i s h ends, can be sharply i n d i c a t e d by the c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , a l i v e to these very common p i t f a l l s i n conservation. She f o l l o w i n g , "(b) Conservation of n a t u r a l re-sources (A general d i s c u s s i o n w i t h more d e t a i l e d treatment of some p a r t i c u l a r one)" i s noted i n Problem IV. This question i s a d i r e c t study i n conservation, an Immediate s o c i a l problem, and one which p r e f e r a b l y would be chosen with l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n summary, i t might be s a i d that t h i s unit o f f e r s splendid p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n i n t r o d u c t i n g conservation philosophy and a p p l i c a t i o n s . But again i t must be s a i d that only the teacher w e l l - v e r s e d i n the conservation viewpoint w i l l recognize the tremendous opportunities presented. Unit I I . How Man, as a Result of Invention and the. A p p l i c a t i o n of the S c i e n t i f i c Method, has been R e v o l u t i o n i z i n g h i s Mode of L i f e . S p e c i f i c Objectives. 1. To. show how mediaeval society.has been transformed gradually i n t o modern s o c i e t y , as man has ap p l i e d to h i s ways of making a l i v i n g , new knowledge and new methods of i n v e s t i -g ation that were born o f the Renaissance and of the great geographical d i s c o v e r i e s . 2. To show that one of the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of modern - 55 -s o c i e t y i s that of change r e s u l t i n g from man's i n c r e a s i n g con-t r o l over h i s environment. 3, To develop an understanding of the environmental con-d i t i o n s that have aided or retarded progressive change. 4. To develop an understanding of the o r i g i n , growth and nature of the s o c i a l and economic problems of our own day. The major problem i n t h i s unit i s to examine how man .as a r e s u l t of i n v e n t i o n and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c method has been r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g his way of l i f e . Since the s c i e n t i f i c method has been de a l t with to a c e r t a i n extent i n the d i s c u s s i o n on the s t a t i s t i c a l work i n -volved i n the previous u n i t , only i t s importance w i l l be -acknowledged here. S u f f i c e to say i n t h i s u n i t , as i t was i n Unit I , the nature of .the t o p i c s as o u t l i n e d give p r a c t i c e i n the use of the s c i e n t i f i c method. Such studi e s as those dealing with the I n d u s t r i a l Eevolution,(introdueed by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and methods of. production i n western Eur ope during the f i r s t quarter of the 18th Century, and a contrast to those of to-day), followed by i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f o u r main f i e l d s i n which the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution has proceeded - namely, agriculture,, manufacture, transportation and communication, open up a comprehensive view of world development. E n t a i l e d are larg e conservation thoughts, those of interdependence of resources and n a t i o n a l planning, c o o r d i n a t i o n and co-operation. Considerable use of the s c i e n t i f i c method i s mandatory i f the conception of balance i n nature and among nations i s to be created. This con-ception can be b u i l t up c l e a r l y and l o g i c a l l y by those t r a i n e d to view the world as a whole. The true conservationist i s so t r a i n e d , and has the general p i c t u r e of geography and d i s t r i b u t i o n of peoples and resources quite thoroughly i n mind. One of the admirable features of t h i s u n i t i s the p r o v i s i o n to allow, or rather, encourage and demand, p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n research. Assignments to f e r r e t out information concerning, say, the o p e n - f i e l d system of farming, the meaning of crop r o t a t i o n , the l i v e stock on the E n g l i s h farm at the be-ginning of the 18th Century, the farming implements before and since the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution, the kinds of power i n the modern world, and the inventions i n the modern world, are important i n i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g , and pertinent to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the world i n which we l i v e . • Such student research stimulates the desire to do, and the "doing" i s a conservation tenet of high order. Theory must stimulate p r a c t i c e , as i n any other subject, i f conservation teaching i s to have permanent values. Unit I I I . How the People Overthrew Despotisms i n a Series of P o l i t i c a l Revolutions. Unit IV. How Nationalism has Changed P o l i t i c a l Boundaries and Created independent States -Since the Days of The French Revolution. Unit V. How Democracy Developed and,Spread and HOW i t i s Opposed by Autocracy and Modern D i c t a t o r s h i p s . Unit VI. , How Economic Imperialism and the Lust f o r Power have Bred D i s t r u s t , Suspicion, and Envy among The Governments of the Nations. • Unit V I I . How. C i v i l i z a t i o n was Shaken by the World War of 1914 - 1918. - 57 -Unit Y I I I . How the Troubles A r i s i n g from the World War and from the Peace Settlement have Kept the World i n P o l i t i c a l and Economic: Turmoil i n Spite of Determined E f f o r t s to E s t a b l i s h peace, S e c u r i t y and S o c i a l j u s t i c e . Unit IX. How Our C u l t u r a l Heritage has been enlarged during; the Last Two Hundred Years. The teaching m a t e r i a l i n these.units I I I to ix i n -c l u s i v e i s on the whole s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d information about the e v o l u t i o n of democratic s o c i e t y . The use of t h i s mater i a l i s to provide a t r a i n i n g i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l processes which are i n d i s -pensable to the f u n c t i o n i n g of a democratic s o c i e t y . In the s u c c e s s f u l employment of methods which w i l l give such a t r a i n i n g l i e s the implisat ions i n c onservation with which we are concerned here. I f there i s a thorough study of s o c i a l needs, and i f there i s t r a i n i n g ; i n s e l e c t i n g and checking re-l i a b i l i t y of the material , and time i s spent exploring a l l sides of a question, and i n .weighing the evidence, then the p u p i l has had exercise of h i s a n a l y t i c a l , c r i t i c a l , and -constructive powers, and w i l l l e a r n to formulate his, own g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . The more t h i s p u p i l a b i l i t y i s developed, the more reasoned w i l l be h i s future t h i n k i n g and conduct i n other circumstances, and so i n the problems of conservation which he w i l l meet. He w i l l the better be able t o s e l e c t the e s s e n t i a l from the no n - e s s e n t i a l , s e l e c t and evaluate m a t e r i a l s , judge the v a l i d i t y of information, f i n d s o l u t i o n s to s o c i a l problems. In other words, and depending c r i t i c a l l y on the s k i l l and a t t i t u d e of the teacher, what the p u p i l l e a r n s as U n i t s I I I to IX are taken up, can be most - 58 -important to "aim as a c i t i z e n , and as a person with the con- • s e r v a t i o n outlook. In planning the teaching of u n i t s H I to u i n t u r n , the teacher would he w e l l advised to review the General objec-t i v e s f o r the S o c i a l Studies as stated on page IS9 i n B u l l e t i n i of the Programme of Studies f o r the Senior High Schools. Each Un i t has l i s t e d , i n the S p e c i f i c objectives noted at the be-ginning, one or more of the General Objectives to whcse attainment. the Unit i s to c o n t r i b u t e . Because these General Objectives are, i n general, ends of conservation t r a i n i n g , i t i s worth not i n g them at t h i s time i n t h e i r associations' with the appro-p r i a t e U n i t s . Unit Associated General Objectives I I I 1* To develop i n the p u p i l an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the community of human achievement. "The roots of the present l i e deep i n the past." 2. To develop a sympathetic .understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n s and achievements a l i k e of h i s own country and Empire and of a l l mankind.. 3. To help the p u p i l to acquire a knowledge of evolving economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the world so that he may understand h i s contacts w i t h h i s environment. 9. To show the p u p i l s that i n s t i t u t i o n s are subject to change, inasmuch as they have been developed by man to serve his needs, and that i n seeking to e f f e c t changes one should employ only l a w f u l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l met beds of doing so. I - 59 -IY 2, As above. 3. As above. Y 3. As above. 5. To develop i n the p u p i l a b i l i t y and s k i l l to c o l l e c t , organize, and use data f o r the purpose of forming conclusions and of t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y . 6. To lead the p u p i l to form the habit of suspending judgment u n t i l a l l a v a i l a b l e data have been examined s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , to the end that the p u p i l may be able to a r r i v e at v a l i d and independent judgments not only i n matters of an h i s t o r i c a l nature, but also i n those d e a l i n g with current problems, and thus to prepare him to recognise and properly evaluate the propaganda by which contemporary l i f e i s so c o n s t a n t l y a s s a i l e d , 7. To develop i n the p u p i l a desire to contribute to the progress of c i v i l i z a t i o n by seeking to make Canada a better place i n which to l i v e . , YI 1. As Above. 4. To lead the p u p i l t o r e a l i z e that s o c i a l problems a r i s e c o n t i n u a l l y and to develop i n him the desire and a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n s o l v i n g them. Y I I 11. To l e a d the p u p i l to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the community and of the nations i n the wider sphere, and to a r e c o g n i t i o n of the value of neighbor-. l i n e s s and f r i e n d l y co-operation. 14. To promot e the i d e a l of peace and to l e a d the p u p i l to r e a l i z e that war has proved i t s e l f a barbarous and g e n e r a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e method of s e t t l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l - 60 -d i f f i c u l t i e s . V I I I 11. As above, 14. As above. IS 2. As above. The p u r s u i t of the general objectives o u t l i n e d above fo r U n i t s I I I to IS i n c l u s i v e leads to a thorough conception of the broad understandings i n the study of conservation. I f the thoughts are developed w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of conservation ever borne i n mind, the i n f l u e n c e of the study of these u n i t s i n developing better c i t i z e n s w i l l be g r e a t l y enhanced. Conclusion* l o other subject i n the curriculum o f f e r s a better schooling i n conservation philosophy than does the S o c i a l Studies. U n t i l imbued w i t h the a t t i t u d e s and ways of conservation, the c i t i z e n i s i l l - e q u i p p e d to contribute generously to the advance-ment of the welfare of mankind. U n t i l f a m i l i a r w i t h the patterns of u n i t y and interdependence that are woven into a l l l i f e , whether that of the home, the community, or the nation, the * large problems that must be solved i f the general welfare of man-k i n d i s to be advanced can neither be c l e a r l y v i s i o n e d nor l o g i c a l l y solved. I n the years that l i e immediately ahead, tremendous problems await, and how these problems are handled and solved holds the key to the k i n d of l i f e i n store f o r the generations to come. I f the philosophy i s broad and sound, the world w i l l be happier. A heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : r e s t s on those charged w i t h S o c i a l Studies teaching, since the philosophy they i n c u l c a t e i n the young of to-day, i s going to govern the nature of our c i v i l i z a t i o n of to-morrow. . - 61 -. GENERAL SCIENCE 17 A. Junior High School Introduction. Nature Study as a subject never r e c e i v e d the emphasis i n the schools that Reading, S p e l l i n g , A r i t h m e t i c , Geography and other t r a d i t i o n a l subjects received. I t was more or l e s s neglected f o r two reasons perhaps; i t was a vague subject, and i t never reached examination status on a par with the three R's. Now that i t i s reorganized as Elementary Science f o r the f i r s t s i x grades, and as General Science f o r the next f i v e , i t i s o b l i g a t o r y to teach Science with the same thoroughness as has always been a p p l i e d to the tea c h i n g of the mainstay subjects. General Science, as now o u t l i n e d , i s a more teachable subject than Nature Study was. The f a c t s are quite w e l l -marshalled, and the p r i n c i p l e s or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are l o g i c a l outcomes.- Scope i s also provided for the use of much v i s u a l m a t e r i a l , and the course i s loosely-enough set out to permit of considerable choice of m a t e r i a l and method. There i s , f u r t h e r , an i n s i s t e n c e upon p u p i l experimentation and other p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as science essays and science reading r e p o r t s . Thus i n d i v i d u a l i t y and i n i t i a t i v e are encouraged w i t h i n the large boundaries of t h e - u n i t s . Command of the fundamental, processes i n science work i s noted as a f i r s t aim i n "Objectives of General Science i n the 1 ft Junior High School Grades". . These fundamentals, i f i n s i s t e d 17. Op. c i t . p 0 297. 18. I b i d , p. 301. ~ 62 -upon, c a l l f o r : r e a l i z a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the problem; c a r e f u l preparation; r e l i a n c e upon experimental f a c t ; c r i t i c a l and honest evaluation; r e c o g n i t i o n of defects and e r r o r s ; a b s t r a c t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e by c a r e f u l , l o g i c a l comparisons. This i s s c i e n t i f i c method, conservation method, to the end that the student w i l l l e a r n to stand on h i s own feet when faced with a problem, and to do the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g that leads to permanen wise s o l u t i o n s . Many teaohers l a c k t r a i n i n g i n the s c i e n t i f i c method, r a r e l y use i t i n t h e i r own l i v e s , at school or elsewhere, and so n a t u r a l l y are quite u n f i t t e d to teach s c i e n t i f i c procedure. There i s an amazing l a c k of understanding of what such a common expression as " s c i e n t i f i c method" means, and i t i s not alone the non-science teachers that d i s p l a y t h i s ignorance. Yet i t must be thoroughly mastered and s t e a d i l y employed by the teacher of a l l subjects i f the youngster i s ever to l e a r n the proper end test e d method of s o l v i n g problems.l/hen a teacher gives c a r e f u l i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c procedure, the r e s u l t s f a r outweigh the e f f o r t and a b i g step towards b u i l d i n g up permanent mental p a t t e r n has been accomplished, a pattern that can be r e a d i l y adjusted to the questions posed d a i l y to the boy or g i r l , at home, at school, at play. General Science I , Grade VII Unit I . We are l i v i n g i n a changing- world and some of , the greatest changes i n c i v i l i z a t i o n have been the d i r e c t r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c research . 2 weeks Unit I I . Water plays an important part i n human welfare 7 weeks - 65 Unit I I I . l i f e i s i n f l u e n c e d by the forces of nature which mould a nd change the surface of the earth . 7 weeks U n i t IV. A i r I s e s s e n t i a l to l i v i n g things 7 weeks U n i t V. l i v i n g things are adapted to t h e i r environment, and by a study of these adaptations man has been able to domesticate c e r t a i n plants and animals. . 7 weeks Unit I . We Are l i v i n g i n a changing world and some of the greatest changes i n c i v i l i z a t i o n have been the d i r e c t r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c research. The p r i n c i p l e of change is. a fundamental law of the universe, and the s t o r y of the changes whether about the crust of our earth, or about the plants a nd animals that l i v e upon t h i s c r u s t , i s known as e v o l u t i o n . This i s a sto ry without an ending, f o r the process of change i s not completed. I t i s going on today as i t was yesterday, and w i l l be tomorrow. Things are not made but are always i n the process of making. This theory i s a dynamic concept, and i f e v o l u t i o n i s accepted as a f a c t , then the c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , who accepts t h i s theory, sees l i f e as a n e v e r - f i n i s h e d succession of problems to solve and new s i t u a t i o n s to face. I n the teaching of such a u n i t as t h i s , he would present the wonder and the beauty of nature from such a viewpoint, and t r y to p i c t u r e f o r the p u p i l s the ever changing aspects that makes nature a l i v e and wonderful. In t h i s way, he would rouse :.appreciation of the changes going on every hour of the day, and stimulate observation of the many evidences of change, i n the s o i l , i n the wind, i n the water, i n - 64 -the p l a n t s , and i n the animals. Observations precede i n t e r e s t , and i f made often enough, and a t t e n t i o n p a i d to them, by p u p i l and teacher, a genuine enthusiasm for nature can be engendered. I f t h i s l a s t can be accomplished, conservation-consciousness r e s u l t s and t h i s i s how the c i t i z e n s of the f u t u r e are t r a i n e d to recognize and prevent d e s p o l i a t i o n of resources. Although but a scant two weeks are suggested f o r the studies involved i n Unit I , and although the above concept i s not given d i r e c t p l a y i n the a c t i v i t i e s and discussions l i s t e d , i f conservation ideas are to be brought into the teaching, the p r i n c i p l e of change as a fundamental law. of the universe should be the thread of the treatment of t h i s u n i t . Once learned, the p u p i l w i l l understand how the s o l v i n g of one problem i n e v i t a b l y provokes others, f o r example, the r e s t o r a t i o n of the h a l i b u t f i s h e r i e s i s not a f i n a l l y concluded problem, although most people, i n c l u d i n g governments, t h i n k so. I t i s true t h a t the e f f o r t s of.the Halibut Commission'have been most s u c c e s s f u l , but the s c i e n t i s t s who have done the work are f a r from s a t i s f i e d that the h a l i b u t f i s h e r i e s are now on a basis of optimum pro-duction. Chat question can only be s e t t l e d by f u r t h e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n , ±B., by s o l v i n g further problems. Nature i s ever-changing. I f the -highest values are to be obtained from the resources of the sea, i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be placed on a per-manent basis to meet the problems which a changing Nature poses. Unit I I . Water plays an important part i n human welfare. "To-day, with the growth of larg e i n d u s t r i a l and manufacturing centres and the consequent trend of population r 6 5 -to large c i t i e s , man must study the problems of water storage, p u r i f i c a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and control.""*"^ • I n t h i s u n i t , the community water supply i s studied, to give p u p i l s a basic, knowledge for judging the best source of water for t h e i r community, the most e f f i c i e n t manner of d i s -t r i b u t i o n , and the methods which a community should use i n en-surin g the p u r i t y of i t s water supply. An ex c e l l e n t o u t l i n e f o r a general, comprehensive, treatment of water i s provided i n t h i s s ection. Water i s d i s -cussed as a chemical substance w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t i e s . The forms o f water, such as r a i n , fog, and dew are studied. The hydrologic c y c l e , man's c o n t r o l of water throughout the c y c l e , and the a p p l i c a t i o n of water to man's welfare, I n v o l v i n g such t o p i c s as r e s e r v o i r s , dams, i r r i g a t i o n and power p r o j e c t s , f l o o d c o n t r o l , water i n the home, water supply systems, and p o l l u t i o n ' prevention., are a l l quite i n t e n s i v e l y dealt with. More important, there i s f u l l p r o v i s i o n made f o r simple but key experiments to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n of water to man. Moreover, the reports and discussions included i n t h i s study of the water of the community are h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Unit I of Grade VII S o c i a l Studies, "Your Community". The m a t e r i a l s of t h i s "Water U n i t " are ready-made f o r conservation teaching. I t i s doubtful, however, i f more than a handful of teachers throughout the Province recognize the tremendous b i o l o g i c a l values of water. That i s a f a i r assumption, since p r o t e s t s of the t o t a l disregard of such values by various 19. I b i d , p. 305, - 66 -bureaus and i n d u s t r i e s , are r a r e l y voiced by teachers, probably because they are r a r e l y noticed or recognized. There i s reason to b e l i e v e that teachers, as a group, are ignorant of conservation, i t s meaning and i m p l i c a t i o n s . I f t h i s i s so they would n a t u r a l l y f a i l to n o t i c e that to date, water has been neglected almost en-t i r e l y i n any r a t i o n a l scheme of management that would protect i t s r e a l p u b l i c values. " I t has been dammed, diver t e d , drained, p o l l u t e d , s t o l e n and wasted f o r p r i v a t e p r o f i t and p o l i t i c a l expediency with u t t e r disregard f o r i t s broad p u b l i c value; yet no n a t u r a l resource i s more t r u l y p u b l i c i n i t s nature than 20 water." Water remains the orphan s t e p - c h i l d i n the n a t u r a l resources p i c t u r e , though i t i s one of the basic three, l a n d , water, and air*, that produce everything we eat and everything we wear. I t would seem that the biology of water as a source of food, and the r i g h t of the p u b l i c to safeguard t h i s enormous food supply and the many other values inherent i n water, have no l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n . > I t i s a l l very w e l l to teach the f a c t s about water, and the important f a c t s are given scope i n t h i s . u n i t , but i t i s of greater importance to community l i v i n g and to human welfare gen e r a l l y , that the p u b l i c values and p u b l i c r i g h t s of t h i s great resource should be presented thoroughly and c l e a r l y . The p r o p e r t i e s of water remain the same, but i t s values to the community may a l t e r v i o l e n t l y , unless r i g i d l y supervised for the welfare of a l l . This i s the a t t i t u d e of•the conservationist and 20. Reid, Kenneth A., Mimeograph, Izaak Walton league of America, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1940. -.67 -the teacher must be aware of i t i f he i s to teach i t . Unit I I I . L i f e i s influenced by the forces of nature which mould and change the surface of the earth, i n Unit I of Grade YII General Science,, the theme was the changing constantly going on i n the world. Discussion, i t might be s a i d , was the method of treatment. In t h i s t h i r d u n i t , a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s change and s p e c i f i c instances of change, are dealt w i t h . The present surface features of the earth as phases i n a great cycle of changes are presented, and so d e f i n i t e s t u d i e s , dealing w i t h such subjects as types of rocks, u s e f u l materials of the e a r t h 1 s c r u s t , the formation of s o i l by such agents as water, g l a c i a l a c t i o n , wind, p l a n t s , animals, chemical a c t i o n , and temperature changes, the deposit i o n of s o i l s , the t e x t u r e , com-p o s i t i o n , and kinds of . s o i l s , and treatment of s o i l s with respect to the problem of f e r t i l i t y , compose the o u t l i n e of the u n i t . The succession of studies i s o r d e r l y and l o g i c a l , and o f f e r s a very f i n e i n t r o d u c t i o n to l a t e r study, i<n A g r i c u l t u r e , of the basic resource, s o i l . . . This u n i t may be tre a t e d mechanically.or dynamically. I f the l a t t e r , the views of conservation are presented. . Man's complete dependence on the s o i l cannot be over-emphasized. I t i s imperative t h a t , i n the close a t t e n t i o n p a i d to o b j e c t i v e t o p i c s such as types of rocks^and the agencies of s o i l formation, the r e l a t i o n of s o i l to world h i s t o r y must never be for g o t t e n . Jfo c h i l d should have completed t h i s u n i t without l e a r n i n g that " S o i l " i s h i s t o r y as w e l l as science. He should hav e learned that the c i v i l i z a t i o n s that preceded ours were founded on e x p l o i t a t i o n of the n a t u r a l f o r c e s , that the f i r s t of these - 68 -forces i n man's progress was the s o i l , and that c i v i l i z a t i o n s prospered or perished according to how he subjugated and managed the s o i l . He should have learned that i n every ease c i v i l i z e d man's occupation end h a b i t a t i o n of the. land has been followed by accelerated erosion, and that there i s no doubt that i t has been i n s t i g a t e d by h i s own unwise use of the s o i l . Serious s o i l erosion has been c l o s e l y t i e d up with the f a t e of nations. She f a t e of north America i s being determined at the present' time, and to date we are f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l course of the older c i v i l i z e d countries i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t lands. She farming l i f e of the "Dust', Bowl" was only about twenty years, m the province of B r i t i s h Columbia we are f e l l i n g trees at more than f i v e times the rate at which we are p l a n t i n g them. The i n e v i t a b l e decline and ultimate, d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the population of north America can already be p r e d i c t e d unless conservation of the remaining n a t u r a l resources i s planned and enforced. That i s the p i c t u r e against which the t o p i c s of study as o u t l i n e d i n t h i s u n i t would be developed. The meanings of S o i l Science can only be apprehended i f the l a r g e conception of s o i l ' s importance to human welfare forms the background for i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s ; The s p e c i f i c studies then take on meaning, f o r t h e i r importance and place i n l i v i n g are recognized. That t h i s must be done i s i m p l i c i t i n the t r a i n i n g of the c h i l d , whether he i s to become s c i e n t i s t or j u s t p l a i n c i t i z e n . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of attending to t h i s t r a i n i n g r e s t s with the teacher. The success of the training- w i l l vary w i t h the - 69 -teacher's understanding of the philosophy of conservation. Unit IV. A i r i s e s s e n t i a l to l i v i n g things. This s e c t i o n deals with one of the basic resources, a i r , .water, and s o i l , and completes the study of t h i s t r i l o g y f o r the Grade VII Course. The l a r g e r part of the work concerns the p h y s i c a l and chemical p r o p e r t i e s of a i r , and a thorough examination i s made of these aspects. Section G deals w i t h the co n t r o l and use of f i r e , and i n the r e p o r t s and discussions l i s t e d under t h i s s e c t i o n , one i s d i r e c t l y concerned with conser-vat i o n . A c t i v i t y 7(b) c a l l s f o r report and di s c u s s i o n on the importance and methods of f i r e - p r o t e c t i o n , and i t i s mentioned that lessons should be drawn from the f o r e s t f i r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the summer of 1938. Forest f i r e .seasons loom as the most menacing occurr-ences i n terms of B r i t i s h Columbia welfare, since the r i s e and f a l l of f o r e s t production i s our economic barometer. The l e s s o n of the d e s t r u c t i o n of f o r e s t s by f i r e , i t f o l l o w s , must be taught and taught w e l l , to every resident i n the province. This l e s s o n cannot be taught w e l l unless the teacher has at-hand, and i n mind, f a c t s and f i g u r e s of fo r e s t d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e . Whether most teachers have the p r o v i n c i a l p i c t u r e i n mind as a general background, and the date of the great Campbell El v e r f i r e i n t h e i r notes to re-create the story of devastation as a v i v i d i l l u s t r a t i o n , i s doubtful indeed. I t i s rare to hear a reference to that Vancouver I s l a n d d i s a s t e r of but a few short years ago. This l a c k of knowledge shows the v i t a l need for conservation education among teachers, f o r , unless they are c a r e f u l l y i n -s t r u c t e d , and supplied w i t h the materials f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , the - 70 -invaluable lessons of conservation w i l l not be embodied i n general education. For our future c i t i z e n s , there must be no t r a g i c gaps In t h e i r knowledge of our most p r i c e l e s s outdoor possession, the f o r e s t s , comparable to the t r a g i c gaps caused by f i r e i n our f o r e s t lands. The f a c t s and.figures of f o r e s t de-s t r u c t i o n by fire-must be presented dynamically to the p u p i l s , and no; b e t t e r opportunity occurs than at t h i s stage i n educational t r a i n i n g . While only one d i r e c t conservation reference i s found i n t h i s u n i t , i t o f f e r s the opportunity to make a dramatic appeal to the conservation impulses and i n t u i t i o n s l a t e n t i n every c h i l d . Unit V. L i v i n g things are adapted to t h e i r environment, and by a study of these adaptat ions man has been able to domesticate c e r t a i n plan t s and animals. The Grade VII Course f i n i s h e s with another u n i t l i t e r -a l l y teeming w i t h conservation t o p i c s . I t might be i n t e r e s t i n g to review the sections one by one, and note the.conservation i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the headings. A. The f a c t o r s of water, temperature changes, l i g h t , s o i l (food s u p p l i e s ) , and a i r (oxygen) i n the environment of l i v i n g things i n f l u e n c e t h e i r development and spread. The' dynamic view of l i v i n g t h ings, and the subject of interdependence, suggest themselves as thoughts that merit development. B. L i f e i s a constant search and struggle for food. Animals are adapted f o r t h i s . The balance i n nature, and the optimum use of resources by animals i s i l l u s t r a t e d here. I - 71 -0, The structure of many animals has changed so that loco-motion has been increased. This has helped them to escape from t h e i r enemies. The conservation lessons that .history and e v o l u t i o n teach may be brought oat by d i s c u s s i o n . I D. Some animals have adaptations f o r seeking food and pro-| t e c t i o n . ! The place of the i n d i v i d u a l animals i n the complex pa t t e r n of nature can be used to teach what happens when man i n t e r -feres w i t h the p a t t e r n . The r e s u l t of the r e l e n t l e s s removal of predators might f u r n i s h a s u i t a b l e example. E. Most plan t s are mixed i n r e l a t i o n to h a b i t a t , so that adaptations i n p l a n t s occur more q u i c k l y than i n most animals. Their great struggle i s f o r water and s u n l i g h t . Many i l l u s t r a t i o n s of conservation stem from t h i s s e c t i o n . R e l a t i o n s between vegetative types may be studied.. The complete dependence of some p l a n t s , and the almost complete independence of others, could be r e a d i l y i l l u s t r a t e d . The devices of p l a n t s to ensure adequate l i g h t and reproduction make i n t e r -e s t i n g s t u d i e s i n conservation, studies i n optimum use and minimum waste. E. l i v i n g things adapt themselves to seasonal changes. In p l a n t s , the seeds of annuals, the food stores i n bulbs, the h a b i t s of deciduous and evergreen trees, combine to t e l l a s t o r y of the wonders i n nature which, i f remarked upon by the teacher, can l e a d to a l a r g e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the world of the outdoors. This i s a prime object i n conservation education, 1 - 72 -f o s t e r i n g a love f o r the outdoors. To many people, t h i s appeal can better be made through animal i l l u s t r a t i o n . The s t o r i e s of migration and hi b e r n a t i o n can-supply that, or the extraordinary color coat changes among the fur-bearers can be discussed. G. Man's study of the above has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to domesticate plants and animals, and by cr e a t i n g an optimum environment for them he has been able to increase the production of plants and animals. Problems i n conservation p r a c t i c e and technique a r i s e i n the l i v e s of a g r i c u l t u r i s t s who deal w i t h i r r i g a t i o n and greenhouses. The i n t e n s i v e farmer i s concerned very p r a c t i c a l l y indeed with wise use of f e r t i l i z e r s . The ranch operator, to operate s u c c e s s f u l l y , must understand the r e l a t i o n s between stock and pasture, and the nice balance that must be maintained between them. H. By a study of the a i r (oxygen) needs of pl a n t s and animals, man has been able to'promote the growth of plants and animals. S o i l conservation p r a c t i c e s have been learned by t h i s study of the a i r . So also have f i s h e r y p r a c t i c e s been developed. " I . Man has been able to protect w i l d l i f e . There i s u n l i m i t e d scope f o r conservation d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Tourist a t t r a c t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n of food supply, preserving the balance of nature, preserving the pleasure we have i n seeing our w i l d p l a n t s and animals, are d i r e c t and important conservation subjects. The methods of p r o t e c t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e such as game and f i s h laws, r e f o r e s t a t i o n , f i s h -h a t cheries, f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s , and the use of fire-wardens, are - 73 -p a r t i c u l a r l y p e rtinent conservation measures employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Conclusion There i s no f i n e r opportunity i n scope and i n d e f i n i t e -ness, anywhere i n the Programme of Study f o r the Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the teaching of conservation than i s to be found i n the Grade YII General Science. The whole course, General Science I , forms a broad, r a t i o n a l presentation of most of the f a c t s of conservation. The basic resources, s o i l , water and a i r , are s u i t a b l y explored f o r t h i s a g e - l e v e l . The l i v i n g resources that spring from them are a l s o presented adequately so t h a t , under proper d i r e c t i o n , a u n i f i e d impression of con-s e r v a t i o n can be made on the minds of the e a r l y teen-age students who are t a k i n g t h i s work. I t i s true that emphasis i n the science i n t h i s grade i s on f a c t s , but the f i r s t c l a s s teacher, i n d e a l i n g w i t h these f a c t s , can b u i l d up s k i l f u l l y and simply at the same time, the basic philosophy that accounts f o r , and e x p l a i n s , the f a c t s . This can be done, p r o v i d i n g the teacher himself, i s conservation-conscious. - 74 -general Science I I , Grade T i l l . -Unit I . The earth i s one of a number of planets, r o t a t i n g about an ordinary s t a r . This s t a r , the sun, i s but one of b i l l i o n s of s t a r s r o t a t i n g i n a grand system of s t a r s , which we c a l l our universe. I t i s also c a l l e d a galaxy. Beyond the confines of our universe there seem to be other universes or e v e n systems of universes. This Unit i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to astronomy, the know-ledge of the nature of the heavenly bodies. The value of t h i s • u n i t i n conservation teaching l i e s c h i e f l y i n the a c q u i s i t i o n by the student of a body of knowledge concerning a science that studies phenomena which a f f e c t man's l i f e . Day and night, the seasons, the equinoxes., the s o l s t i c e s , phases of the moon, t i d e s , and the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the knowledge of astronomy, such as n a v i g a t i o n and surveying, enter i n t o the study of con-s e r v a t i o n and c o n s t i t u t e a body of-*' information which contributes to a rounded conservation education. Unit I I . Man l i v e s i n an ocean of a i r c a l l e d the atmos-phere, which a f f e c t s h i s d a i l y existence and l i m i t s h i s h a b i t a t . As a r e s u l t of years of s c i e n t i f i c research, man today can make f u l l use of the prope r t i e s of a i r . Study of the uses of a i r , and of the devices which permit a p p l i c a t i o n of such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a i r - p r e s s u r e , take up a considerable part of the time a l l o t t e d to t h i s u n i t . Weather and climate are dealt w i t h i n the remainder of the u n i t , and close r e l a t i o n to the conservation a c t i v i t i e s of man i s evident here. Pressure and - 75 -weather, temperature and weather, humidity and weather, and the f a c t o r s involved i n weather f o r e c a s t i n g are themes of considerable l a t i t u d e , e n t a i l i n g connection with operation of resources such as f i s h i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , and mining. Student research can be d i r e c t e d to a c q u i r i n g . u s e f u l conservation s k i l l s such as a b i l i t y to read and understand weather maps. That "man's a c t i v i t i e s are l i m i t e d by weather conditions and c l i m a t e " i s a problem that can be covered by student research and r e p o r t s . This problem may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the S o c i a l Studies. This problem may also be used, to provide t r a i n i n g i n the use of the Science L i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . I Unit I I I . Heat i s a form of energy that man can c o n t r o l to s u i t h i s needs^ There i s l i t t l e scope f o r a s s o c i a t i o n of conservation thoughts i n t h i s u n i t , nor should they be intruded unnecessarily. The u n i t i s a compact study i n physics and should be l e f t so. Unit IV. The b a s i s of l i f e i s c e l l u l a r s t r u c t u r e . The normal l i f e cycles have been upset by outside forces of which man1 s influence -has been a primary f a c t o r . In unemotional, simple, s c i e n t i f i c statements, the study of the c e l l i s l a i d out as the f i r s t problem i n t h i s u n i t . And the study of the c e l l , as d i r e c t e d by the m a j o r i t y of the teachers, w i l l f o l l o w the p r e s c r i p t i o n as d e t a i l e d , step by step, and f a c t by f a c t . The processes of a s s i m i l a t i o n , r e s p i r a t i o n , e l i m i n a t i o n , c i r c u l a t i o n , growth and reproduction, and i r r i t a -b i l i t y , w i l l be calmly discussed as mechanical aspects of a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the c e l l . This i s not to say that o b j e c t i v e , - 76 -detached study i s not important i n Soienoe teaching. Nothing could he fu r t h e r from the t r u t h . The progress of science i s "based upon examinations un-colored by the examiner's f e e l i n g s or opinions. But the co n s e r v a t i o n i s t would recognize a greater duty, the duty of presenting the philosophic side of t h i s study. Here i s a rare occasion, the moment and the opportunity to catch and i n s p i r e the imaginations of impressionable youngsters w i t h the wonder that i s streaming protoplasm: " f o r here i s s t u f f almost as simple i n appearance as the white of an egg, yet e x h i b i t i n g that most mysterious and b a f f l i n g of a l l a t t r i b u t e s -21 l i f e . " Conservation i s a dynamic subject, the study of l i f e , and whoever i s e n t h r a l l e d by the strangeness and wonder of l i f e i s i n f u sed w i t h the s p i r i t of conservation. A d i g r e s s i o n at t h i s time from the c o l d s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s dealing w i t h the nature and workings i n the c e l l may t u r n the young enquiring mind i n t o channels that w i l l make fo r a better c i t i z e n . The conservation p r i n c i p l e of interdependence enters i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n of b a c t e r i a and other fungi o u t l i n e d i n se c t i o n D of t h i s u n i t . The important thought, that s c i e n t i s t s serve no l e s s e r l o y a l t y than the l o y a l t y to mankind, i s made clear when the recommended references to such men as Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, and l i s t e r , are made. At this.same time, a r i s i n g out of the discussions about these outstanding men, the thoiight that knowledge i s not enough, that a c t i o n must f o l l o w , may be 21. Jean, Harrah, Herman, Powers; "Man and the Nature of the B i o l o g i c a l World", New York, Ginn and Co.,1954, 2 Vols., p.24. i ~ 77 -; c a r r i e d beyong the study of b a c t e r i a , to the whole realm of conservation a c t i v i t i e s . L a s t l y the importance of l e a r n i n g the rules of h e a l t h may be stressed, and c o r r e l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d with the subjects of Health and Home Economics. The c o n d i t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m which seems to p r e v a i l i n a very complex manner among a l l l i v i n g things i s known as the balance i n nature. The study of t h i s balance i s termed Ecology, the subject that explores the complicated a s s o c i a t i o n s of plants and animals. The explanation of how nature keeps up t h i s balance, and how man has upset t h i s balance c o n s t i t u t e s the second h a l f of t h i s l a s t unit i n General Science Studies f o r Grade Y I I I • This i s , of course, a conservation study of the f i r s t order, and of unchallenged importance i n the r e l a t i o n between man and h i s environment. The consequences of man's unthinking i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h nature are instanced i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 1. Results of c u t t i n g down of the-'forest. (a) reduction i n the number of w i l d b i r d s which increases the number of i n s e c t s and i n s e c t pests; (b) k i l l i n g of w i l d l i f e , which has lessened the d i s t r i -but i o n of seeds; '(c). increase of f l o o d dangers; (d) decrease i n numbers of f i s h i n streams where the run-o f f i s too r a p i d . 2. By ploughing up grass lands man has increased wind erosion. • There are dozens of dramatic examples i n the short - h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia to b r i n g home to the p u p i l s the t r u t h of the abov e statements. There are l i t e r a l l y hundreds, and - 78 -perhaps thousands, of examples of t h i s i l l - c o n s i d e r e d planning and i t s r e s u l t s , l i b e r a l l y s p r i n k l e d throughout the short h i s t o r y of the white man's occupancy of t h i s continent. Whatever man has turned h i s hand to,' a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , f i s h e r i e s , and the other occupations based on n a t u r a l resources, the r e c o r d i s ' black with conservation misconduct and malpractice, l o t that man didn't plan, but there were f a u l t s i n the planning, and much of the d i s a s t e r that r e s u l t e d can be charged up to planning f o r and by the i n d i v i d u a l rather than for p u b l i c needs or the welfare of soc i e t y . Man i s now t r y i n g to restore t h i s balance so that he may be more i n harmony w i t h nature., He i s t r y i n g to effect. remedies, though, the programs are f a r from adequate as yet, through such practices, as game preserves, f i s h - h a t c h e r i e s , game laws, and spraying. But he has yet to l e a r n that conservation, as a su c c e s s f u l program, must be planned and executed on a large sc a l e . The advancement o f sin g l e conservation programs, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c with us, 'that i s not i n harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p with the masterplan f o r the region, i n d i c a t e s a weakness i n planning, and i n e v i t a b l y brings c o s t l y consequences. The Grade V I I I term can end on a high conservation plane'. The o v e r - a l l importance of r e g i o n a l planning, planning f o r the welfare of a l l can be taught by a teacher, imbued w i t h , i n t e r e s t e d i n , and enthused about the ideas and i d e a l s of conservationi These ideas and i d e a l s can be i n c u l c a t e d i n the minds and hearts of boys and g i r l s to-day, and that i s the best k i n d of insurance f o r tomorrow. - 79 -General Science I I I , Grade I X 2 2 Unit I . Our Mastery off p l a n t s increases with our know-ledge of t h e i r s t r u cture and h a b i t s . In the f i r s t chapter of the prescribed text-book f o r t h i s course, acknowledgment i s made of the e f f o r t s of s c i e n t i s t s and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s i n changing man's a t t i t u d e towards p l a n t s , A p p r e c i a t i o n of the importance of plants, the need for preser-v a t i o n of those that s t i l l s u r vive, and the need f o r renewal of the plant covering where i t has been c a r e l e s s l y or r u t h l e s s l y destroyed, are mentioned i n the f i r s t page of the f i r s t chapter of t h i s t e x t . "Further on, i t i s mentioned that man i s t r y i n g , by more complete u t i l i z a t i o n of crops, to eliminate waste and provide s u f f i c i e n t f o r a l l . The value of roots i n l e s s e n i n g erosion, and the f l o o d conditions that oft en f o l l o w appears i n a paragraph towards the end of the chapter. .These conservation thought s are admirable,. but are quite l i k e l y to be l o s t among the l i s t s of plants and t h e i r uses to man, which forms the bulk of the chapter. The chances to teach conservation are given but i t i s not probable that they are taken, to any degree. The t h i r d s e c t i o n of t h i s unit stresses the need f o r knowledge of the growth h a b i t s of plants, such knowledge to be • used i n the encouragement of growth i n c u l t i v a t e d p l a n t s , provide.. f o r the conservation of valuable native species, or prevent the. development of undesirable species s u c h as weeds. 22. programme of Studies f o r the j u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Supplement General Science I I I , 1942. - 80 -Chapter 5 of the/ t e x t , however, does not enlarge on the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h i r d s e c t i o n , hut confines i t s e l f to a study of the dif f e r e n c e s between p l a n t s , She remainder of the u n i t , with s e c t i o n s on weeds, and vegetables and f r u i t i n the d i e t a r y , does not permit much mention of conservation, since both studies are quite s p e c i f i c and f a c t u a l . However, lessons i n conservation of human h e a l t h might w e l l be drawn when the-vitamins and mineral consent of foods i s under d i s c u s s i o n , and the heed f o r planning the production of e s s e n t i a l foods can b r i n g an important word i n the conservation vocabulary to general n o t i c e . ' Unit I I . Man i s able to u t i l i z e more completely the materials of. the earth's crust when he understands the conditions under which they were formed. There i s a wealth of basic f a c t s included i n the Chapters of the te x t which cover t h i s u n i t , f a c t s needed for the understanding of the earth's c r u s t / i t s formation, i t s composition and the'changes that i t undergoes. The f i n a l quarter, however, Section IV, prepares to go beyond f a c t p r e s e n t a t i o n and deals . wit h a problem, that of s o i l conservation. Chapter 9 of the text i s headed "How Important i s S o i l Conservation?", and i t i s found that the chapter opens with sound reasons, backed up by h i s t o r y , as to why we should study s o i l s . Then an immediate plunge into the study of s o i l s , not s o i l conservation, i s made. The chapter heading i s misleading, f o r nothing i s s a i d about conservation measures and p r a c t i c e s w i t h respect to the s o i l . Instead, the chapter i s concerned n e a r l y throughout with p h y s i c a l geography. - 81 -I t i s unfortunate that the term " S o i l Conservation" i s used at the top of each page i n t h i s chafer, f o r a wrong impression i s conveyed.. Unit I I I . The earth's crust y i e l d s many substances of great importance to man. This u n i t , dealing with b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , common s a l t and coal and petroleum, i s a unit i n chemistry, f a c t u a l , objective,and with l i t t l e reference to conservation education. • Unit IS. The a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s to. housing conditions has r e s u l t e d i n great im-provements i n our methods of planning and b u i l d i n g modern homes. Conservation begins i n the home.. A l l the theory of conservation i s as nothing i f i t i s not p r a c t i s e d , and the home i s where p r a c t i c e i s most a v a i l a b l e . When unnecessary l i g h t s are turned o f f , when woodwork i s paint ed, when f i r e hazards are eliminated, when the p u r i t y and humidity and the temperature of the a i r are regulated, when adequate l i g h t i n g and water supply are maintained f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of he a l t h , and when the grounds are kept i n a state of high p r o d u c t i v i t y and beauty, the owner of such a home i s a p r a c t i s i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t . He i s avoiding waste, and f o l l o w i n g the main aim of conservation, that of securing and maintaining the highest s t a t e of balance between pre s e r v a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n . I n t h i s way, he i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the permanent welfare o f himself, h i s household, and h i s community. There i s no higher conservation than t h i s , f o r out of t h i s grow the habit s and thoughts of conservation which weld - 82 -together community, state and nation. Only when conservation i s p r a c t i s e d i n the home can i t be p r a c t i s e d i n the l a r g e r aggre-gations. This i s fundamental to conservation progress. I f the ideas expressed i n the previous paragraph can be introduced into the d e t a i l e d discussions of the modern home as o f f e r e d i n t h i s U n i t , then t h i s i s an invaluable part of the i n s t r u c t i o n provided f o r the Grade I X p u p i l . A teacher w i t h the conservation outlook would introduce t h i s Unit with a caref u l l y - p r e p a r e d t a l k on "Conservation i n the Home", and so, through t h i s appeal to the higher f e e l i n g s of the p u p i l , make the d e t a i l e d information to f o l l o w seem very necessary and d e s i r -able . Without t h i s i n t e r e s t - p r o v o k i n g opening, many of the p u p i l s would f e e l , as. i s too commonly f e l t , that t h i s i s another s e c t i o n to be learned, and nothing more. Unit V. Knowledge of plant s and animals, gained through s c i e n t i f i c study, enables us to propagate those which are u s e f u l and to c o n t r o l troublesome species. The lessons i n conservation that are fur n i s h e d by the a c t i v i t i e s of pl a n t s should not be overlooked i n t h i s U n i t . Section 1 deals with reproduction, sexual and asexual. The employment of devices by plant s to secure maximum repro-duct i o n can teach man much i n the m/aning of optimum use of r e -sources. That they have taught man a great deal i s evident by the f r u i t s from the p a i n s t a k i n g work of such men as Luther B^rbank and Charles Saunders. Their work, based on years of c a r e f u l observation of p l a n t s , was a f o r e t a s t e of the p r o l i f i c and valuable'work i n the plant breeding of today. The i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of i n s e c t s w i t h p l a n t s and animals - 83 -can be noted i n the se c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h reproduction by i n s e c t s . This same p r i n c i p l e of interdependence also r i s e s i n the f i n a l , t o p i c of t h i s U n i t , the r o l e that f u n g i , i n c l u d i n g b a c t e r i a , play i n the environment. Man as a f a c t o r that i n t e r f e r e s with the balance of nature should also f i n d a place i n such discussions. The Grade IX Course, outside of the u n i t which deals with the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of the home, do es not' of f e r the ©cope conservation teaching found i n the previous two grades. Even i n the u n i t dealing with.the home, i t i s expected that few teachers w i l l have had the t r a i n i n g to permit them to recognize the conservation i m p l i c a t i o n s inherent i n the U n i t , The emphasis i n the Grade IX year i s on accumulation of a fund of knowledge, and the quantity provided, which seems somewhat overwhelming,' would l i m i t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of teaching the p u p i l to appreciate the meaning and philosophy of conser-v a t i o n . • /: 23 General Science I¥, Y, Grades I , X I , X I I . " U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the science program i n the upper grades of the secondary school has consisted of courses i n s p e c i a l i z e d sciences, mainly C h e m i s t r y , physics,and Biology. There i s now, however, a d i s t i n c t trend toward the u n i f a c t i o n of these i n t o general courses designed to give the p u p i l a view of the whole f i e l d of science and an understanding of important p r i n c i p l e s , rather than a somewhat narrow knowledge of one or more of the s p e c i a l i z e d sciences... 23. Programme of Studies f o r the Senior High Schools, o p . c i t . p.173. - 84 -i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t has been possible f o r a p u p i l who has taken one or two of the s p e c i a l i z e d courses to emerge with l i t t l e knowledge of the other branches of science; to have l i t t l e understanding of the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s underlying such b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s as lumbering, mining, a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h i n g , 24 and manufacturing." "Definable educational values from science teaching w i l l have been a t t a i n e d , i f i n d i v i d u a l s acquire (1) an a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e the f i n d i n g s of science that have a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e i r own experiences, (2) an a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t the n a t u r a l phenomena of t h e i r environment, and (3) an understanding of and a b i l i t y to use some of the methods of study that have been used by c r e a t i v e workers i n the f i e l d s of science." These quotations are used i n t h i s paper to point out that the goal of science education i n the senior high school science i s . not the memorization of i n d i v i d u a l f a c t s , but the a b i l i t y to use these f a c t s i n the appreciation of general-i z a t i o n s , and the enlargement of understandings. They f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e that varying stress w i l l be l a i d upon .the d i f f e r e n t parts of the Science course i n the various parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s underlying the basic i n -d u s t r i e s of the p a r t i c u l a r p a r ts of B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v i n g greatest emphasis. Since the teaching of conservation at t h i s l e v e l , that of the middle teen-age group, i s concerned mostly w i t h the philosophy of conservation, then"the aims of Conservation 24. I b i d , p.174. 25. I b i d , p.174. - 85 -teaching and science teaching are r e a l l y one and the same., i n both, the p u r s u i t of problems i s the thing , the study of f a c t s and the formulation and t e s t i n g of hypotheses, the developing of r e f l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g so that the meanings, of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are gained. The formation of a t t i t u d e s and the habits of t h i n k i n g are the desired goals, achieved through a c q u i r i n g a s u f f i c i e n t body of knowledge that can be a p p l i e d i n the p r a c t i c e s of the -s c i e n t i f i c method. The accumulation of f a c t s , i t i s stressed, should not at any time, be given p r i o r i t y over the objective of l e a d i n g the p u p i l s t o i n t e r p r e t and appreciate t h e i r environ-ment. This i s fundamental i n science, as i t i s i n conservation. A review of General Science TV and General Science V follows,, and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to instruct- i n conservation philosophy noted, . 26 General Science IV, Grades X or SI Unit I . Modern knowledge concerning the composition of matter and the changes which i t undergoes has modified our c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e . . The theme of t h i s u n i t i s discovery o-f some funda-mental p r i n c i p l e s of science thr ough a study of the behaviour of atoms i n the every-day changes which are t a k i n g place about us, i n l i v i n g as w e l l as i n n o n - l i v i n g matter, involved i n t h i s study are such primary chemical topics as the composition of matter, changes i n the composition of matter, the n a t u r a l laws which govern changes i n matter, the t h e o r i e s that e x p l a i n be-haviour of matter, chemical nomenclature that represents d e f i n i t e changes, and the b e n e f i t s that accrue to man from changes that 26. I b i d , p.177. - 86 -take place i n such phenomena as o x i d a t i o n and reduction. There are occasions i n the progress through t h i s u n i t when i n c i d e n t a l conservation reference can. he made, without de-t r a c t i n g from the Immediate ends of the study. The meaning of the word "Conservation" can he brought out when "The law of Conservation of Matter" i s being taught. "Balance" i s an im-portant term used i n connection with equations, and a l i t t l e time should be devoted to f i x i n g i t s meaning. The help of oxygen i n the removal of wastes i s a t h i r d example of occasions when reference oan be made to conservat ion. A good teacher wi11 catch these points and introduce them without s t r a i n or i r r e l e v a n c e , bearing i n mind that t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y a u n i t of pure chemistry, and does not permit more than a mention of items extraneous. Unit I I . C i v i l i z a t i o n has progressed as man has learned to c o n t r o l and to use energy. Conservation concepts are again d e f i n i t e l y I n c i d e n t a l , f o r t h i s u n i t a lso concerns i t s e l f .-with a pure science, physics t h i s time. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between matter and energy i s the subject, and a thorough i n t r o d u c t i o n to the forms of energy, such as mechanical, heat, e l e c t r i c a l , radiant and sound, comprises the work. The fact that man has not yet learned to u t i l i z e many sources of energy should be brought out c l e a r l y through t h i s study, however, and that provides the opportunity to use and i n t e r p r e t the words "waste" and " e x p l o i t a t i o n " , which are basic conservat i o n terms. • Unit I I I . Water plays an e s s e n t i a l part i n many chemical, p h y s i c a l , and b i o l o g i c a l phenomena. Much of the a s s i m i l a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n the present u n i t - 87 -appeared i n Unit I I of General Science I . SOKE of the concepts i n the Junior High School Course w i l l have been gained, and a l l that w i l l be necessary here i s to determine which have been gained, and to review them. Larger concepts of the importance of water can now be taught. We can extend our considerations beyond; the community stud i e s i n General Science I , and t r y to present the importance of the role, played by water i n most of the processes and a c t i v i t i e s of nature and of man. This attempt w i l l be i n accord with the objectives of General Science Courses i n second-ary schools, the developing of l a r g e r thoughts into the major g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of science. • In t h i s unit there i s much a n a l y s i s and d e t a i l e d examination. Intensive study i s made of the hydrosphere, the chemical p r o p e r t i e s of.water that make i t u s e f u l to man, the ph y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s that are of great p r a c t i c a l importance, and the forms of l i f e from the water habitat that y i e l d man a r i c h harvest.. Humidity, elements of water, s t a i n s , c r y s t a l s , soap, s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y , c a p i l l a r i t y , evaporation, p l a n t s and animals of the sea, are some of the studies dealt with experimentally. Water i s given, a wide, comprehensive treatment, and t h i s i s valuable. Yet i f permanent values to the i n t e l l e c t u a l equipment of the p u p i l are to be obtained, and t h i s i s admittedly the general aim of the science s t u d i e s , then a l l the experiences of t h i s Unit must be d i s t i l l e d to provide very c l e a r ideas of the s o c i a l meanings of t h i s great n a t u r a l resource, water. In doing so, we are b u i l d i n g up conservation g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Some of the conservation thoughts about water that are to be a t t a i n e d are as f o l l o w s : .- 88 - ' ' 1. Water i s not a s t a t i c , but a mobile resource that seeks tbe ocean. As such, i t i s a p u b l i c resource. 2. When a stream i s p o l l u t e d , the i l l e f f e c t s are c a r r i e d to r e s i d e n t s below the source of p o l l u t i o n , and they s u f f e r from t h i s s e l f i s h and unsocial p r a c t i c e . 3. When a stream i s dammed or di v e r t e d , water values are impaired f o r those downstream. 4. When an indivia.ual or community drains a piece of land, or changes the channel, the f l o o d and drought conditions are a l t e r e d at lower l e v e l s , and may s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t other c i t i z e n s . 5. Every use or misuse of water should be c a r e f u l l y evaiu-r ated as to i t s e f f e c t on the e n t i r e stream system. 6. I t i s estimated that about 90fo of f l o o d damage i s the ' r e s u l t of man's fo o l i s h n e s s i n b u i l d i n g his roads, r a i l r o a d s , b u i l d i n g s , and highways on land that p l a i n l y belongs to the r i v e r . 7. There i s need for c l e a r t h i n k i n g and broad v i s i o n that sees a l l values i n terms of an e n t i r e watershed, not merely the desires and fancied needs of one small community or area.. 8. Unrestrained grazing by l i v e s t o c k may e a s i l y have an -equal or greater adverse e f f e c t on run-off than does forest d e s t r u c t i o n ; and t i l l e d lands, e s s e n t i a l as they are to the n a t i o n a l economy, accelerate run-off more than the most ruth-l e s s logging of the f o r e s t s . 9. I r r i g a t i o n i s a use of water that may, and often does, adversely a f f e c t p u b l i c r i g h t s i n water. I t may be either a pu b l i c asset or a p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y , depending upon the source of the water and on whether or not consideration i s given to p u b l i c values I n the management of the p r o j e c t . - 89 -10. Many of the fla g r a n t abuses that are made of the great p u b l i c resource c a l l e d water could be eliminated, or at l e a s t g r e a t l y minimized, by the p r a c t i s e of.that simple rul e of good s o c i a l behaviour - consideration f o r the r i g h t s of o t h e r s . 2 7 The w r i t e r f e e l s that thoughts such as l i s t e d above must be incorporated i n t o the General Science Covacses i n High School, f o r conservation of natural' resources i s the most important long-time problem before the n a t i o n today. To the teacher, the d e t a i l s as set down i n the study of water i n t h i s u n i t may seem, and may be, more immediately pressing, but i n a few years hence, they w i l l be h i s t o r y to the p u p i l . But not so the problem of i n t e l l i -gent husbanding o f n a t u r a l resources; that w i l l be a continuing problem throughout the l i f e of the student, becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important as time goes on. The teacher and the school must con-t r i b u t e to t h e i r utmost to the end that the b a t t l e with nature may be won, and n a t u r a l resources put on a permanent b a s i s . Unit IV. A p p r e c i a t i o n of the usefulness of metals lias induced man to make an i n t e n s i v e study of ores and to develop s c i e n t i f i c processes for the e x t r a c t i o n of the metals. The overview of t h i s Unit says i n p a r t : "The use of metals has become so general that very few appreciate the place they occupy i n our l i v e s . S t i l l fewer are f a m i l i a r with the pro-p e r t i e s of metals, cources, or the need for conservation of the world supply. 27. The t e n points l i s t e d are adapted from a paper,- "Water - a Primary Natural Resource" by Kenneth A. Reid, Isaak Walton League of America, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . - 90 -To ensure a more i n t e l l i g e n t use of our mineral re-sources, i t i s necessary that we r e a l i z e our r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as trustees of t h i s wealth. To prepare ourselves for t h i s t r u s t e e -ship we s h a l l now consider the proper t i e s of metals, and our use of these." The l a s t sentence explains the o u t l i n e d work i n the u n i t , The place of metals i n the l i v es of men, the o r i g i n of m e t a l l i c substances, the e x t r a c t i o n of minerals from the earth's c r u s t , and the e x t r a c t i o n of metals from t h e i r ores, are the four sub-j e c t s dealt with i n the body of the Un i t . The other .sentences i n the quotation above, which are taken'from the overview, have no f u r t h e r consideration. I t i s a t h i n wager that any mention-, . of any kind whatsoever, ever reaches the ears of the student, f o r teachers, i n t h e i r hurry to get to the meat and bare hones of a U n i t , pay scant a t t e n t i o n to the overview, the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e t t i n g against which the d e t a i l s of the Unit are arraigned. Some-how a t t e n t i o n must be focussed on the thoughts that u n d e r l i e the teaching of the Un i t items, otherwise the c h i l d receives only m a t e r i a l to be memorized f o r a future examination. The teacher who. i s f a m i l i a r w i t h the meaning of con-s e r v a t i o n would have several remarks to make about the important sentences i n the quotation above. And what was s a i d would open theeyes of the p u p i l to the eminent p o s i t i o n i n the welfare and •economy of the people that the metals occupy. He would point out that i n the extreme southern part of Canada a l l of the p r i n c i p a l resources, such as a g r i c u l t u r a l lands, f o r e s t s , mineral deposits - 91 -and water-powers, are a v a i l a b l e but, as O ' N e i l l 2 8 says : "The p i c t u r e becomes quite different:; as one goes north-ward from t h i s narrow s t r i p adjacent to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary, l a r g e l y because of c l i m a t i c conditions, and because of the . g l a c i a t e d t e r r a i n , a g r i c u l t u r a l lands and f o r e s t s of economic worth become l e s s and l e s s extensive and f i n a l l y disappear, and mineral deposits, p o t e n t i a l water powers, f i s h , f u r s , and game, are the obvious recourses to be considered. Between the extremes of north and south l i e s a broad b e l t which contains s c a t t e r e d areas of go od a g r i c u l t u r a l land, pulpwoo d f o r e s t s , miner a l deposits, and other resources mentioned, i n varying degree of abundance. This i s the t e r r i t o r y which has been opened up by the mining i n d u s t r y w i t h i n the l a s t t h i r t y years and which i s at present almost e n t i r e l y dependent on the mines f o r the maintenance of the population and of a l l the ser-v i c e s which t h e i r operation demands." • With the l a s t sentence i n mind, and w i t h a knowledge of the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia, and of events current and projected for the northern h a l f of t h i s province, the f a s c i n a t i n g r o l e of mining i n the economy of the na t i o n could be presented i n a l i v e l y , stimulating' way t h a t would make the l e a r n i n g i n the body of the Unit both pleasant and f u n c t i o n a l . The s t o r y behind the f a c t s i s j u s t as absorbing to the c h i l d as to the a d u l t . Facts are more r e a d i l y • a s s i m i l a t e d i f they are accompanied by the meaning and the philosophy that explains them. This i s the method of conservation education. • 28. O ' N e i l l , J . J , , "The Bole of Mining", The Wise Use of our Resources, Boyal Society of Canada, pp.29-35, May 21,1941. - 92 -U n i t Y . Through a s c i e n t i f i c study of l i v i n g things man attempts to co n t r o l them to h i s greater advantage. " I t i s the purpose o f t h i s Unit to give to the student those p r i n c i p l e s .and f a c t s most needed.in obtaining the best returns from p l a n t s and animals. Because men, and animals are dependent upon p l a n t s , either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , much of t h i s U nit i s devoted to the development of understanding per- -t a i n i n g to p l a n t s . The people of B r i t i s h Columbia are confronted by a d d i t i o n a l problems that a r i s e from the great i n d u s t r i e s connected with, the fo r s t , and from another maj or in d u s t r y , f r u i t -growing. The concepts d e a l i n g w i t h animals can be emphasized more i n those areas where animals assume an important p o s i t i o n . The r e a l value of the U n i t l i e s , not so much i n the welding of h e l p f u l f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s i n t o a cogent mass of knowledge, as i n the development of c i t i z e n s who (1) take pride i n and endeavour to improve the appearance of the home and the community, (2) are v i g i l a n t i n conserving our resources of land and f o r e s t at that l e v e l which our degree of s c i e n t i f i c research makes p o s s i b l e , and (3) prevent wastage of f o o d s t u f f s f o r e i t h e r man or animal." This lengthy quotation from the overview f o r t h i s unit needs no excuse for i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s paper. This i s a noteworthy statement, the f i r s t paragraph an o u t l i n e of conser-v a t i o n m a t e r i a l , the second an enunciation of conservation i d e a l s . The I n t e n t i o n of the U n i t , as expressed i n the f i r s t paragraph of the above quoted passage, i s c a r r i e d through i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' sections of the U n i t . The r e l a t i v e l y few plants that - 93 -man uses ext e n s i v e l y , and t h e i r c u l t u r e and propagation, are discussed f i r s t . This i s followed by a s e c t i o n on the t r e e s that are indispensable to man's welfare, with s p e c i a l reference to the coniferous t r e e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, and to the s c i e n t i f i c e f f o r t s being a p p l i e d i n order to conserve, perpetuate, and extend the f o r e s t resources. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d , i n t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n , to the immense areas of. l i t t l e or no value f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , but wMoh can be u t i l i z e d as f o r e s t land. The s c i e n t i f i c procedures required i n the production of e s s e n t i a l farm crops i s the subject of s e c t i o n i l l . S o i l s , minerals, and water, are t r e a t e d under t h i s s e c t i o n , as are maize, root-crops, other vegetables, and f r u i t . Fruit-growing, a b i g i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, receives d e t a i l e d consideration. Animals are discussed i n the fourth s e c t i o n , and the t o p i c s include; the dependence of animals upon p l a n t s f o r t h e i r food; the adaptations of animals to obtain food; the f a c t o r s to be considered i n maintaining .the h e a l t h of animals-'the domestication of f a r -bearers. I n the l a s t s e c t i o n , the problem of storage of the temporary excesses of food produced, i s dealt with, and the importance of t h i s question to man i s explained c a r e f u l l y . The meaning of decay i s taken up, and i s followed by study of methods of prevention, such as s a l t i n g or smoking meats, evaporation of f r u i t , f r e e z i n g , and the use of chemical preservatives. The storage of food f o r animal use. i s • br ought up by discussions-concerning the curing of hay, the treatment of ensilage, and the methods, of root-storage. This Unit i s set down i n the heart of the conservation - 94 -f i e l d , so to speak. S o i l , water, erosion, balance ( r o t a t i o n ) , range, optimum production, waste prevention, are some of the conservation aspects touched. Add to that the f a c t s that (1) the t o p i c s are dealt w i t h i n the language of conservation, and (2) the reference m a t e r i a l i s the medium i n which the con s e r v a t i o n i s t works/,; and i t w i l l be recognized that a conser-v a t i o n teaching s i t u a t i o n has been compounded* She atmosphere and tone f o r the s u c c e s s f u l teaching of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s obtained from f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h and understanding of, the t r i p l e o b j e c t i v e wherein, as the second paragraph of the above quotation s t a t e s , the r e a l value of the unit l i e s . With such m a t e r i a l arid philosophy, I t i s probable that t h i s i s the f i n e s t u n i t i n . t h e General Science courses f o r the teaching and promotion of conservation-consciousness. Summary A t . t h i s time, when the review of General Science XY i s concluded, a word of prai s e f o r the part that v i s u a l education plays i s worthy of mention. What i s s a i d can be appli e d to previous General Science courses as w e l l . -I t i s quite g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t impressions taken i n through the eye are' f i x e d more r a p i d l y , and i n greater numbers, than are those where the s t i m u l i come, through other senses*. I r r i t a b i l i t y of'protoplasm, that, l i f e process which governs l e a r n i n g to a hig h degree, i s accomplished almost instantaneously through the o p t i c nerve, and the b r a i n responses are sharp, c l e a r , and g e n e r a l l y more permanent than, when evidence i s gathered by other means. That t h i s i s t r u e seems proved by the wide employ-ment of f i l m s i n the courses and demonstrations given t o s o l d i e r s - 95 -i n t r a i n i n g , and i n the s t a t i s t i c s which', evaluate the success of t h i s method of i n s t r u c t i o n . The urgency demanding the speeding-up of s o l d i e r t r a i n i n g has been met very l a r g e l y by in t e n s i v e use Of v i s u a l education. The t r a i n e e s note, over and over again, that i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which require pages of explanation, or much r e i t e r a t i o n i n l e c t u r e s , may often be understood i n s t a n t l y when p i c t o r i a l means of i n s t r u c t i o n are used. A u t h o r i t i e s foresee, as a r e s u l t of these war experiments of t r a i n i n g b y f i l m , a great shortening of the school years i n a post-war world, as long as the t r a i n i n g remains sound i n scope and procedure. I f the pre-p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e , as f a r as the amount of reading and w r i t i n g plays a part i s concerned, can be c u r t a i l e d , then that i s w e l l -founded educational practi&e, f o r the tragedy of waste i s as evident i n the developing of c h i l d r e n as i t i s i n the ex-p l o i t a t i o n of the other l i v i n g resources. Among the large number of f i l m s l i s t e d f o r science use many are p r i m a r i l y concerned with the state of our resources, i t cannot be too s t r o n g l y urged that l i b e r a l use be made of them. General Science 7, Grades XI or X I I . The methods and aims of t h i s course are'the same- as those p r e s c r i b e d f o r General Science IV. The same philosophy, then, as discussed-in General Science IV, w i l l u n d e r l i e the te a c h e r - e f f o r t here. Since t h i s course w i l l be taken by a higher age group, a d d i t i o n a l ends are sought. These include; 1. Considerable p r a c t i s e i n p r e c i s i o n t h i n k i n g by the use of problems which involve simple mathematical operations. -2. P r a c t i c a l use a p p l i c a t i o n s of tte p r i n c i p l e s that the students w i l l , l e a r n , and to a degree and extent not h i t h e r t o demanded. These additi o n s f i t w e l l i n t o conservation "belief,, since i f the "doing" does not f o l l o w the "knowing", there i s l i t t l e aim to the subject of conservation, or any other form of science work. ' Unit j . L i v i n g things adapt themselves to t h e i r environ-ment by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . "While i t may be supposed that t h i s u n i t repeats those of previous courses, t h i s i s so only i n the nature of the work. I t i s true that p r i n c i p l e s developed i n e a r l i e r grades reappear here, but they are extended f a r beyond the a p p l i c a t i o n s instanced when they were f i r s t o u t l i n e d . The teaching of the p r i n c i p l e s , then, i s but a review, and the time devoted to the. unit should be given l a r g e l y to the a c t i v i t i e s . This idea i s broached i n the "Suggested.Approach" to the u n i t , which s t a t e s : " i t i s suggested that the a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s Unit be/emphasised and that specimens l i v i n g or preserved, be used whenever p o s s i b l e . " A sampling from the a c t i v i t i e s suggested w i l l show the f u n c t i o n a l values contained i n t h i s broad U n i t , and at the same time give the w r i t e r the opportunity of mentioning the conser-v a t i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s inherent i n the subject of. t h i s U n i t . 1. Use a complete n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n f o r one specimen, and d e f i c i e n c y s o l u t i o n s f o r the others to show: a. The small yellow l e a f due to. nitrogen d e f i c i e n c y . b. The pale or c h l o r o t i c l e a f due t o i r o n shortage. c. The purple or reddish- leaves and stems of phosphorus starved p l a n t s . - 97 -d. . The brown s p o t t i n g and scorching of leaves' due to potash shortage. e. The mottling of leaves and d i s c o l o u r a t i o n of roots due to calcium d e f i c i e n c y . In conservation, as i n science, there i s splendi d p r a c t i s e i n s c i e n t i f i c method and procedure afforded i n t h i s e xercise. Extreme care i n measuring chemicals, preparing mold-free containers, s e l e c t i o n and handling of l i v e m a t e r i a l , t a k i n g d a i l y observations and measurements, compiling records, and drawing conclusi6ns, are mana.atory I f the experiment i s to be c a r r i e d to a successful conclusion. Ample p r a c t i s e i n doing, performing the steps i n order, i s t r a i n i n g i n p u t t i n g theory i n t o p r a c t i c e . This i s a fundamental i n conservation, as has been noted so often. The s t i m u l a t i o n of reasoning, the c a r r y i n g through of the r e s u l t s of the experiment to t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the garden, on the farm, and i n the f r u i t orchards, i n c l i n e s to a c t i o n rather than speculation,/and so i s h i g h l y f u n c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and such t r a i n i n g i s synonomous with conservation education. The a p p r e c i a t i o n of the mineral f a c t o r i n optimum production of p l a n t s f o r man's use i s a h i g h l y important, i f i s o l a t e d , perception, c o n t r i b u t i n g to the l a r g e r estimations i n conservation. 2. Compare and contrast the grasshopper and the bee. Ont of the comparison grows r e c o g n i t i o n of the great f i e l d of entomology, w i t h i t s enormous number of species, and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to man's welfare. The contrast introduces man's never-ending war -.against those i n s e c t s which i n t e r f e r e w i t h man's undertakings. The ravages on the range and i n the - 98 -f i e l d s by tbe grasshoppers amply i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point. On the other hand, the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the b e n e f i c i a l i n s e c t s , suoh as the bee, can be discussed, and the r o l e of the i n s e c t s i n re-l a t i o n to man adjudged i n a general way. I t i s recognized, of course, that suchVthoughts are not the subject of the a c t i v i t y , but those which w i l l a r i s e from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , given a competently-trained conservation teacher. 3. Examine and grow some bulbs, corms, tubers, rhizomes, and runner s . . . The v a r i e t y of methods used by plan t s to obtain maxi-mum production can be taken, as a lesson from nature, though the accent i s on l e a r n i n g by i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the meaning and methods of. asexual reproduction. 4. Examine mate r i a l s showing Mendelian c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e.g., corn. While a c q u i r i n g knowledge about Mendelism i s primary, the dynamics of e v o l u t i o n , and the f a c t that we are l i v i n g i n a changing world, a r i s e from the a c t i v i t y . v Throughout the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d f o r t h i s unit, there i s considerable scope f o r the expression of conservation thought, as has been pointed out above. There need be no s t r a i n i n g to force such thoughts; the a c t i v i t i e s i n v i t e them. . A l l that i s needed i s guidance from a teacher s k i l l e d i n conservation, one who can expound and expand the. thoughts that develop as the Unit progresses. U n i t I I . Carbon and nitrogen are e s s e n t i a l elements i n the structure of a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s , and enter i n t o many u s e f u l compounds. This i s another Unit relevent to the stady of. con-s e r v a t i o n , of the. three natural, cycles g r e a t l y conaerned i n the maintenance of a l l forms of l i f e , i . e . , the h y d r o l o g i c , the carbon-dioxide, and the nitrogen cycles , • consi d e r a t i on of the l a t t e r two c o n s t i t u t e the bulk of the-work i n the u n i t . The f i r s t , the h ydrologic, i s involved i n the operation of the other two, which, at various stages, are dependent upon water f o r the continuance of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e cycles. Thus the three of.them receive treatment i n t h i s U n i t , although there i s not a separate s e c t i o n for the hydrologic. • Again i n t h i s . U n i t , a c t i v i t i e s , are noted to i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r making known td the student the conser-v a t i o n i n t e r e s t attached to t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . 1. Examine the underside of a l e a f (e.g. geranium) wi t h the microscope, n o t i n g the stomata and guard c e l l s . This i s a mechanical i n s p e c t i o n ^ but on i t s conclusion there would o r d i n a r i l y be some d i s c u s s i o n on l e a f functions, e.g., t r a n s p i r a t i o n , r e s p i r a t i o n , photosynthesis. The'fundamental importance of three great b a s a l r e s o u r c e s , a i r , sunlight,, and water, f i t s i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n , and i t should be pointed out that these three, and s o i l as the fourth basic resource, are responsible f o r the l i f e on the e a r t h . Together, they create the conditions under which plants f l o u r i s h , and i t i s the p l a n t s that s u s t a i n the animals,. Shis g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , might w e l l be used as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the study of carbon, as an element, and the cycle of •chemical •..changes .It undergoes i n nature. O r i e n t a t i o n of the s p e c i a l ' study of photosynthesis, which f o l l o w s , - 100 -i s also a s s i s t e d . 2. Examine clover roots f o r nodules, containing nitrogen-f i x i n g b a c t e r i a . L i k e the carbon-dioxide and the hydrologic c y c l e , the nitro g e n c y c l e also receives c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n from the conser-v a t i o n i s t . I f , .by f a i l u r e of any of the chemical- changes that comprise i t , t h i s cycle i s i n t e r r u p t e d , then i t i s impossible to s a t i s f y the aim of conservation with regard to the renewable resources, that of sustained production. Many i n t e r r u p t i o n s do occur i n t h i s c y c l e * and the m a j o r i t y of them are man-made. The r e s u l t i s that nitrogen-hunger i s one of our most serious s o i l problems. Knowledge of these I n t e r r u p t i o n s and how they can be of f s e t by the use-of leguminous crops, r o t a t i o n that includes f a l l o w p e r i o d s , r e t u r n of organic m a t e r i a l such as bones, f i s h , manure, and o f f a l , and the use of a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r s , i s important to the farmer, and the concern of the c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t . Unit I I I . The earth's crust contains a number of non-m e t a l l i c substances of great importance to man.. This U n i t deals with carbon and i t s compounds, sulphur and i t s compounds, u s e f u l s a l t s that occur i n the earth's c r u s t , and important b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , both n a t u r a l and processed, such as g r a n i t e , sandstone, limestone, asbestos, gypsum, cement, gl a s s , b r i c k , and t i l e . Recognition of the wide and important uses of these chemical substances, of t h e i r economic importance i n the welfare of the n a t i o n , and of the very s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n they must receive i n conservation planning, since they are, i n many cases, . no n-renewable resources., are valuable thoughts which might w e l l - 101 -give r i c h e r tone and sentiment t o what i s otherwise a s e r i e s of d i r e c t , o b j e c t i v e chemical s t u d i e s . Unit 17. She advance of. science has r e s u l t e d i n great im-provements i n our methods of power development and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . E x t e r n a l combustion engines Such as the steam-engine and the steam-turbine, i n t e r n a l combustion engines such as the gasoline-engine and the D i e s e l engine, the e l e c t r i c motor, the automobile, water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i -f i c p r i n c i p l e s to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by a i r , are the t o p i c s i n Unit 17. Unit 7. She a p p l i c a t i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c discovery have improved v a s t l y our means of communication. The d i s c u s s i o n and a c t i v i t i e s contained i n t h i s Unit deal w i t h modern inve n t i o n s , and the t o p i c s dealt with are the telegraphy the telephone, the generation and re c e p t i o n of electro-magnetic waves as demonstrated i n the radio and the p h o t o - e l e c t r i c c e l l , l i g h t , i t s uses and a p p l i c a t i o n s i n lenses, photography, l a n t e r n s , mot i o n - p i c t u r e machines, and microscopes, and the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l importance of e l e c t r i c a l con-duction i n gases. The comments that f o l l o w apply to U n i t s 17 and 7 above. Both U n i t s are l a r g e l y studies i n the s p e c i a l science of Physics. Science i s such an enormous subject that f o r con-venience of treatment i t must be broken up i n t o departments of knowledge, which, however, more or l e s s i n t e r l o c k . The w r i t e r has always taken time, i n teaching these U n i t s , to e s t a b l i s h i n - 102 -the student mind, the large conception of the whole f i e l d of science. This has.been done by teaching the d e f i n i t i o n of science i n the words of the great n a t u r a l i s t and philosopher of the l a s t century, Thomas Henry Huxley,, who stated, i t as being "organized common sense" or "organized knowledge". The word "organized" i n the d e f i n i t i o n i s important, p a r t i c u l a r l y so to the conservation-i s t , who i s convinced of the n e c e s s i t y f o r l a r g e , master plans, as the key to the wise a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of resources. To know that the t i d e ebbs and flows twice a day i s a u s e f u l piece of know-ledge, so also i s the f a c t that the moon waxes and wanes and t r a v e l s around the earth, as w e l l as the f a c t that the earth rotates on i t s a x i s once i n twenty-four hours; but before we can see the connection between these items of knowledge and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to other items, such as the shapes of continents, the d i r e c t i o n of the p r e v a i l i n g winds, the temperature of the a i r and of the.ocean, and so on, a l l t h i s knowledge must be organ-i z e d , c o r r e l a t e d , or put i n order; /then only i t becomes science. From the conservation viewpoint, the student needs some stLch teaching as i n d i c a t e d i n the paragraph abov/e, not alone to l e a r n the proper d e f i n i t i o n of science, but to b u i l d up i n h i s mind the urgency for o r g a n i z a t i o n and planning i f our resources are to be maintained on a permanent b a s i s . The f a c t that the two U n i t s , 17 and 7, are c o r r e c t l y confined to the f i e l d of P hysics, as f a r as a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s are concerned, only increases the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of teaching that, no matter how narrow the scope of i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems to be, i t i s impossible to sever r e l a t i o n s between the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n question and the problems of human l i v i n g , such as h e a l t h or s o c i a l welfare. As - 103 -a preparation f o r l i f e , the student must l e a r n the value of o r g a n i z a t i o n and planning, must l e a r n that i s o l a t e d h i t s of knowledge are not capable of extension, but that organized know-ledge, which i s science, has made the modern world, and i t s 1 i n v e n t i o n s , p o s s i b l e . . I t has been the p r a c t i c e of the w r i t e r * f u r t h e r , to s t r e s s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the sciences,, the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of separating the advances i n one science from those i n another. Astronomy, f o r instance, has taken advantage of discoveries i n physics to measure the distances of the stars and to analyse t h e i r composition; physics and chemistry have been so i n e x t r i c -a b ly blended that a: new science, that of p h y s i c a l chemistry, has had to be created; g e o l o g i s t s use the knowledge of r a d i o a c t i v i t y to a i d them i n determining the age of the earth; chemistry and b i o l o g y are j o i n t studies i n the f i e l d of bio-chemistry; i n short, the. independence of the sciences i s a t h i n g of the past, as the study of conservation so r e a d i l y i n d i c a t e s . T h e - s c i e n t i s t of to-day adheres to the p r i n c i p l e s of interdependence. The compartments of science are maintained for convenience, as has been mentioned before, but t h i s i s by t a c i t agreement, the while i t i s accepted that d e l i m i t a t i o n i s impossible. The conserva-t i o n i s t consciously subscribes to t h i s b e l i e f , f o r conservation, to c o i n a d e f i n i t i o n , i s "the study of the borderlands where sciences meet." I t i s because conservation i s such a s t u d y i that o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r teaching conservation philosophy are abundant even i n such "Physics" u n i t s as U n i t s IV'and V i n General Science V. - 104 -Other Subjects. In t h i s paper, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s and philosophy of conservation education i n the f i e l d s of the S o c i a l Sciences and i n General Science has been the important consider-a t i o n s i n c e, as was mentioned at the beginning :of the chapter, these subjects have the greatest scope and a p p l i c a t i o n i n con-s e r v a t i o n teaching. I t was f u r t h e r mentioned, however, that the study of conservation involves the teaching of a view, of h a b i t s of s o c i a l l i v i n g , of the philosophy of planned abundance f o r the permanent' good of a l l the people. . I t f o l l o w s , therefore, that . the other subjects of 'the curriculum have c o n t r i b u t i o n s to make to the development of the conservation a t t i t u d e . While these c o n t r i b u t i o n s are l e s s e r than those i n the S o c i a l Studies, and General Science programmes, t h e i r part should be acknowledged. Following i s a b r i e f statement on the part that the other sub- . j e c t s can play i n the development of conservation t h i n k i n g , as determined by a general review of the courses discussed. A. Health ' , Che Health programme framed for the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia places the accent on the h e a l t h of the i n d i v i d u a l . The community aspects are i m p l i e d , on the basis that I f the. i n d i v i d -u a l i s w e l l , the community, w i l l tend to be w e l l . That i s to say, i n other words, t h a t I f the i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i s e s the rftles of health,' he w i l l see to i t that l o c a l conditions are enforced whereby the h e a l t h of the community i s protected. The methods of teaching are p r e s c r i b e d and i n t h i s regard the. accent i s upon teaching by doing and by i n v e s t i g a t i o n - 105 -rattier than by c h i l d r e n c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s from a test-book and pouring them back with considerable inaccuracy to the teacher. As' i t Is put i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Health Education, " i n f o r -mation concerning the number, shape, and structure of the bones .. of the teeth i s p r a c t i c a l l y v alueless i f the possessor neither knows nor does anything to cause them to grow properly and f i r m -l y , or to r e t a i n t h e i r form', strength, and p o s i t i o n . " This emphasis upon h e a l t h behaviour rather than upon h e a l t h knowledge, i s a conservation viewpoint.• "Health i s the f i r s t objective of education." That is-ah excerpt from the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Health i n the Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, ifo one w i l l , deny t h i s , since most people r e a l i z e that true h e a l t h i s that c o n d i t i o n o f the body i n which there i s a joy of l i v i n g , a buoyancy, a robustness, a p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s that makes a person a l e r t . A healthy person has p h y s i c a l endurance and, what i s not u s u a l l y emphasized, a freedom from#worry, and a f a c i l i t y i n meeting the s o c i a l problems of l i f e w i t h common sense and making the necessary s o c i a l adjustments. I t Is these ^ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make good c i t i z e n s out of our c h i l d r e n , and the production of good c i t i z e n s i s the aim of conservation. I f there are enough good c i t i z e n s , t h e r e ' i s sound a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the resources of the community. Thus i t i s that c a r e f u l teaching of the subject of Health promotes the advancement of a conservation program. I t may be remarked that t h i s goal i s not nearly a t t a i n e d as yet, and the reason i s l a c k o f thorough understanding on the part of the teacher,, of the philosophy and the importance of the subject. - 106 -Health, as a subject, i s more bandied-around, and bandied-about, than perhaps any other subject i n the curriculum, i t i s the " f i l l e r " that rounds out the teaching assignment f o r the year.. "Anyone can teach h e a l t h ; no o n e - f a i l s i n i t " i s a f a i r l y general remark i n educational c i r c l e s . Health i s on the same basis as Nature Study was In former years, one of the subjects, but r e q u i r i n g no p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g or concentration on the part of the teacher. This i s a most unfortunate p o s i t i o n f o r the most Important subjected to be reduced to, and one that i n d i c a t e s a serious lack' of emphasis on the state of h e a l t h of our great-est n a t u r a l resource, the c h i l d r e n . There i s great need for teachers who can i n s p i r e the p u p i l s to observe the laws of h e a l t h , f o r knowledge concerning the human body and i t s f u n c t i o n i n g i s not enough. Most of us have knowledge which does not f u n c t i o n i n behaviour, because we l a c k the p r i n c i p l e s and philosophy which pushes knowledge Into a c t i o n . B. ;. E n g l i s h • In both the Junior and Senior High School courses I n E n g l i s h , the 'sections on Reading have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the teach-i n g of conservation philosophy. There i s a connection between the p r i n c i p l e of teaching to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y and r e f l e c t i v e l y , and to develop economical and e f f e c t i v e habits of study that i s not Inconsistent w i t h conservation aims. Both seek to encourage worthy use of l e i s u r e ; both seek the wise use of time i n work as at play; both seek to prepare f o r the a c t i v e productive l i f e as well, as f o r the l i f e of l e i s u r e . The s p e c i f i c attainments aimed at i n the E n g l i s h - 107 -courses includes the development off e f f e c t i v e habits and s k i l l s i n reading and study i n many.subject f i e l d s . The student i s to be t r a i n e d to keep informed concerning current events, as i n reading news items, e d i t o r i a l comments, and book and play re-views i n d a i l y newspapers or p e r i o d i c a l s . The student i s to be urged to l e a r n more about events or questions off s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , and to broaden h i s range of information. By so l e a r n i n g the opinions of others on c i v i c , s o c i a l , economic, and s c i e n t i f i c problems, the student w i l l be guided towards' the discovery of the. p r i n c i p l e s and the philosophy i n the various i n t e l l e c t u a l f i e l d s . To achieve these aims, i n t e n s i v e reading and study i s required, not only i n E n g l i s h , but i n a l l subjects. C o r r e l a t i o n and co-operation between the various subjects i n the curriculum i s thereby set up as a steady aim i n the teaching of E n g l i s h . This i s the p u r s u i t of u n i t y i n i n t e l l e c t u a l thought so stressed i n conservation teaching, so important i n conservation a c t i o n . 0. Mathematics . One.off the p r i n c i p l e s of education i s that the subject matter of i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be r e l a t e d to c h i l d - l i k e experience or i n t e r e s t . With t h i s taken f o r granted, i t occurs that the f i e l d of mathematics i s a s e c t i o n o f general education where the p r i n c i p l e f i n d s great a p p l i c a t i o n . The problems of mathe-matics may r e a d i l y be c o r r e l a t e d with problems of p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s , and some of the m a t e r i a l so used may be drawn from the conservation problems which face most i n d u s t r i e s from .time to time. For example, the salmon f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y on the Fraser River f i n d s many a s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y w i t h regard to boats, gear, men,- number off f i s h , money, storage, canning, • - 108 -and so f o r t h . -Whenever p o s s i b l e , questions so posed should become f a m i l i a r to the boy or g i r l who, some day, i n the f o l l o w -i n g of h i s or her vocation, may face kindred problems. These pertinent experiences are important to the future c i t i z e n s of the community; t h e i r p r a c t i c a l importance can be made known to them, through the realm of mathematics. The development of.an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n of mathematics i n science, commerce, and in d u s t r y , i s made p o s s i b l e by the i n c l u s i o n i n the mathematics courses of apropos m a t e r i a l and suggestions. Conservation studies are fotrtHl i n t h i s m a t e r i a l , more or l e s s scattered through the U n i t s , but , ..given s p e c i a l consideration i n Unit: 7 of General Mathematics I I I of the G r a d e I X year. This U n i t i s concerned with the s o c i a l aspects, of a r i t h m e t i c , and about o n e - t h i r d of the'Unit i s devoted t o developing, the a b i l i t y of the student to s o i v e , p r a c t i c a l problems dealing with the i n d u s t r i e s of a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, f i s h i n g , lumbering, and manufacturing. I t i s suggested t h a t ; graphs, as found i n Mathematics I I , Unit I I , be employed i n the s o l v i n g of the questions* I t w i l l be seen., from the b r i e f , comments: above, that there are s i t u a t i o n s provided, i n the mathematics courses, which are d i r e c t l y concerned ..with, or conducive to, the teaching of . conservation. Problems range from simple, such as f i g u r i n g out the percentage of refuse i n salmon canning t t o involved, such as the planning of budgets or the winter's f u e l supply. I t i s true that mathematical s k i l l I s the primary concern of the teacher, and the conservation i m p l i c a t i o n s merely i n c i d e n t a l , but the knowing teacher can take a few moments or so to mention ~ 109 -the importance of s t a t i s t i c s i n the f i e l d on conservation, g i v i n g some p r a c t i c a l examples. Optional Courses-Students intending to ,go to a U n i v e r s i t y must take the courses required f o r U n i v e r s i t y Entrance. The required courses are E n g l i s h VI, S o c i a l Studies V, General Science V, -Mathematics VI, Foreign language III', Health VI and P h y s i c a l Education. A t o t a l of 97 c r e d i t s i s earned i n t h i s way. A f u r t h e r 15 c r e d i t s are required from rather a wide choice of o p t i o n a l courses, which include c e r t a i n courses to he noted i n t h i s paper, to w i t ; A r t , A g r i c u l t u r e , Geography and Biology. Since these four courses are optional., they have a r e l a t i v e l y small enrollment. \ Hence, even though they play a large part i n the story of conservation, they w i l l - receive ionly b r i e f mention i n t h i s paper, since t h e i r part i n general education as i t e x i s t s i n t h i s province, i s minor. D. Art I f Art i s taught based upon the assumption that the school's task i s to t r a i n a r t i s t s , then there i s no room for. the teaching of conservation at the same time, i f , however, the end i s that each c h i l d i s taught to understand, and recognise beauty, and i s tau.ght how to create i t . i n h i s own home and community, then conservation and a r t are being taught together. Among conservation s t u d i e s , under the major name of Recreation, we note such-topics. as roadside beauty, scenic areas, parks, w i l d f l o w e r s , and many others, that bear upon the wise use of l e i s u r e time. These t o p i c s belong to the- f i e l d of Art i n the sense that the Art i n s t r u c t o r can develop the a e s t h e t i c sense - 110 -to the point where inconsistences, i n c o n g r u i t i e s , and i r r e g u -l a r i t i e s i n a scene are apparent at f i r s t glance. With" t h i s a b i l i t y developed to greater or l e s s e r degree i n the c i t i z e n s of a community, many problems that confront the co n s e r v a t i o n i s t ; today would be non-existent. Such conditions as roadside u g l i -ness the " b i l l b o a r d a l l e y s " through which the t o u r i s t i s welcomed to our c i t i e s , would not be. t o l e r a t e d i f the residents had t h e i r t a l e n t s t r a i n e d i n c r e a t i n g b e a u t i f u l things f o r themselves, t h e i r home, and t h e i r community. Their sense of Art apprec-i a t i o n would demand that the .environment about them conformed to the p r i n c i p l e s of a r t . I n t h i s way, our lands of scenic or r e c r e a t i o n a l value would have t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s protected and preserved. In the Junior-and Senior High School o u t l i n e s f o r Art,, p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r contemplation of nature, and a c t i v i t i e s ' based on outdoor subjects. In the Grade VII course, the s e t t i n g off the home, that i s , the r e l a t i o n 6f the e x t e r i o r of the home to the environment i s one such, a c t i v i t y . This a p p l i c a t i o n of ar t p r i n c i p l e s to the home environment should acquaint the student with the proper treatments of the n a t u r a l features of the landscape i f the beauty and appeal of the environment i s to be r e t a i n e d , lature- drawing, w i t h emphasis on design, c o l o r , contrast, v a r i e t y of shape, e t c . introduces the student to the d e t a i l s i n nature, and t h e i r place i n the general harmony found i n n a t u r a l scenes. Flower drawing with observation of b o t a n i c a l d e t a i l , leads to an a p p r e c i a t i o n off the amazing complexities and wonders of nature, i n the Grade V I I I course, which covers design - I l l -i n a r t ana i n d u s t r y , f u r t h e r opportunities f o r nature-study are o f f e r e a . The p r i n c i p l e s of p i c t o r i a l composition a p p l i e d to nature-study, and studies of flowers, seed-pods, l e a f - s p r a y s , and f r u i t , recording c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form, growth., proportion, l i g h t , shade, t e x t u r e , value, and color-harmony, are examples of re-commended a c t i v i t i e s which contribute to the b u i l d i n g of l i f e -l o n g a p p r e c i a t i o n s of the beauty of the world about us. A l l through the Art, courses i n secondary education, opportunities present themselves, or can be created, f o r teaching the conservation a t t i t u d e . .The art I n s t r u c t o r who i s s e n s i t i v e t o , and can i n t e r p r e t , the loveliness and the moods of nature, teaches the mining of conservation as a c o r o l l a r y to the teaching of A r t . E. A g r i c u l t u r e The decline i n the a t t e n t i o n given to courses i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n the secondary schools has been r a p i d and alarm-in g . That t h i s s t a t e should e x i s t ' i s almost unbelievable, f o r •agriculture stands t h i r d i n the i n d u s t r i e s of the province, the . products of f o r e s t r y and mining exceeding i t in; annual pro-duction of wealth. Added to t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t most of the population of B r i t i s h Columbia resident outside the large centres i s d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y concerned with the a c t i v i t i e s of a g r i c u l t u r e . This, means that a great number of secondary school c h i l d r e n are g e t t i n g most of t h e i r experiences from farm l i f e . ' Yet A g r i c u l t u r e as a s u b j e c t : e n r o l l s ' a mere handful of students, taking-the. province over a l l . . Since i t i s the aim of education to make school experience f u n c t i o n a l , there would seem to be - l i s -considerable' oversight i n educational p o l i c y with respect to the teaching of a g r i c u l t u r e . This i s supported by the f a c t that but a f r a c t i o n of graduates from the Faculty of A g r i c u l t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbia choose the vocation of teach-i n g , and of the few that do , not a l l f i n d i t possible to teach the work I n which they were trained.- Somewhere, there i s a l a c k of the planning that means conservation, the wise p r o v i s i o n to seek optimum use of resources, i n t h i s . case the graduates i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and the students who are not permitted to make use of the experiences and m a t e r i a l that form t h e i r environment. Within the scope o f . t h i s • e s s a y , there i s neither time nor place f o r f o l l o w i n g through t h i s problem i n a g r i c i i l t u r e con-s e r v a t i o n . But at l e a s t i t can be mentioned, f o r the s o l u t i o n must be sought i n the : best i n t e r e s t s of the province.' More' a t t e n t i o n must be given to the teaching of a g r i c u l t u r e i f the common welfare i s t o be advanced on a broad, unbroken f r o n t . The o u t l i n e f o r the courses In a g r i c u l t u r e o f f e r e d i n the secondary schools w i l l now be examined f o r i t s conservation i m p l i c a t i o n s . We w i l l f i n d that the i m p l i c a t i o n s are many, but that I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e that they reach so few students. The Units- can be adapted to meet the needs of com-munities i n any part of the Province. . They a l s o show c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h General Science, Home Economics, and c e r t a i n parts of the Health course. Further, they are. :devised so that emphasis, as i n a l l nature-study and science courses, I s placed on f i r s t hand observational and experimental s t u d i e s . By these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they show themselves s i m i l a r t o Units i n conservation education, that i s , they are broad, capable of . c o r r e l a t i o n , and dynamic i n ,- 113 -t h e i r nature. Organization on a p r o j e c t - b a s i s i s recommended, and the students are to he encouraged t o carry on one or two i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s at home every season. She progress of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s i s to be recorded c a r e f u l l y and ac c u r a t e l y by the student. l o t a l l the se c t i o n s o f f e r equal opportunity f o r the study o f conservation, but over the four years of courses i n a g r i c u l t u r e , there i s more than s u f f i c i e n t : experience a v a i l a b l e to acquire the broad foundations, of conservation education. A few examples from the courses w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how Inherently conservational the subject of, a g r i c u l t u r e r e a l l y i s : 1. Section 7 of A g r i c u l t u r e I (a) (Grade T i l l ) i s set out as f o l l o w s : The Study of Trees .(Evergreens as a Winter/Study) (a) Recognition of species found i n the d i s t r i c t . (b) How trees grow - the work of a year. (c) Reproduction.of evergreens. (d) D i s t r i b u t i o n of most important timber t r e e s . (e) , Chief f o r e s t products of B r i t i s h ^Columbia. ( f ) P r o t e c t i o n and perpetuation of our f o r e s t s . 2. Seetion I of A g r i c u l t u r e I (b) (Grade IX) reads; . S o i l F e r t i l i t y (a) The q u a l i t i e s that make a s o i l f e r t i l e . (b) Chief mineral elements i n s o i l . (c) Importance of organic matter i n s o i l , (a) E s s e n t i a l plant-foods and f e r t i l i z e r s . (e) S o i l water,: drainage, and i r r i g a t i o n . ( f ) S o i l c u l t i v a t i o n . a n d management. - 114 -5. Unit V of A g r i c u l t u r e I (Senior High School) s t a t e s ; " S a t i s f a c t o r y crops of vegetables and flowers may be produced with a minimum of' labor when garden p r a c t i c e s are based ..upon a thorotigh knowledge of the growth requirements of the various p l a n t s , plus f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the l i f e - h i s t o r i e s of p a r a s i t e s - and the c o n t r o l of each." 4. Unit IT of A g r i c u l t u r e I I (Senior High School) states-. permanent siiccess i n any branch o f a g r i c u l t u r e i s dependent upon the s e l e c t i o n of a type of enterprise s u i t e d to the l o c a t i o n , e f f i c i e n t farm management, and the amount- of a c t i v e i n t e r e s t displayed by the members off the family, not alone i n monetary gain but a l s o i n the improvement and b e a u t i -ffication of the farmstead. , Conservation, i s the avoidance of. waste, i n these courses i n a g r i c u l t u r e , we have an example of waste at i t s . w o r s t . The courses are : c a r e f u l l y and l o g i c a l l y o u t l i n e d ; they possess -i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t ; they are f u n c t i o n a l ; they h o l d many lessons i n ; c i v i c s , i n management, i n planning, and i n the philosophy of conservation. Despite a l l . t h i s , and more, t h e i r values are never unfolded to more than a s c a t t e r i n g of the boys a n d . g i r l s who pass through our schools. Their multitude of opportunities to p r a c t i s e the elementary gardening that most adul t s pursue, or develop the a p p r e c i a t i o n s f o r plant and animal l i f e that give f l a v o r to post-school l i f e , are hidden from the students at the period when they are most r i p e to b e n e f i t from them. They are the unthumbed courses of the curriculum, though i f "education i s a preparation for l i f e " i s a true statement, these a g r i c u l -t u r a l courses deserve major rank among school courses. - 115 -" ; f . Geography I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Geography f o r the senior high schools, some of the objectives p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to con-s e r v a t i o n are noted: ,1. So develop i n t e l l i g e n t , a p p r e c i a t i o n and sympathy i n r e l a t i o n to peoples d i f f e r e n t from ourselves. 2. So e s t a b l i s h , towards the people of other 1 countries,, the a t t i t u d e that arises from r e a l i z a t i o n .that , t o a large extent, n a t u r a l resources and other geographic accidents determine the r e l a t i v e standing-, progressiveness, and p r o s p e r i t y of d i f f e r e n t regions. 5. So develop the habit of independence i n habit, and a c t i o n coupled w i t h the habit of service to and co-operation w i t h others i n the promotion of common ends and i n t e r e s t s . - 4.. So gain s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g power to i n t e r p r e t land-. ' scape i n r e l a t i o n to the o r i g i n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features, and to the bearing of such features^on l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y human l i f e . 5. To gain understanding of economic and c u l t u r a l i n t e r -dependence. . 6. To gain and organize knowledge of the main f a c t s of p h y s i c a l geography,.^ i n t h e i r bearing: upon the Earth as the home of mankind. This half-dozen o b j e c t i v e s have been select e d from the twenty-four set f o r t h as being the most appropriate to conser-v a t i o n philosophy. There, are others wb I ch contribute to a le s s e r degree. • The suggested a c t i v i t i e s f o r the attainment of these - 116 -prescr i b e d objectives are l e g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Geography i , and no attempt to c i t e them w i l l be made i n t h i s paper. S u f f i c e to say that most comprehensive o u t l i n e s and suggested procedures are provided to implement the reaching of, o b j e c t i v e s . Whether the goals are reached or not depends upon the i n d i v i d u a l teacher. I f the geographical understandings and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are w e l l -d i v i n e d , and the teacher does not succumb to the admittedly great temptation to dwell overlong on the multitude of f a c t s encom-passed i n t h i s course, then much w i l l be gained by the student • that w i l l , contribute to h i s conservation understanding. To make t h i s c l e a r , some of the t o p i c s taken up might be noted:' Geography I : Bearing of t h e : E a r t h 1 s shape and s i z e upon human l i f e ; surface f e a t u r e s ; l a t i t u d e , longitude; and z;ones:; surface transformation of the Earth; o r i g i n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of plateaus, p l a i n s , and .valleys; uses and a c t i o n of water on and under the land surface; o r i g i n of s o i l ; d i s t r i b u t i o n of various types of s o i l and bearings upon human l i f e ; b a s i c human needs and occupations; the n a t u r a l regions of the world; r e l a t i o n of l i f e to-environment i n the various geographical regions. Geography I I ; This year's work i s confined to the p o l i t i c a l geography of the world, and the t o p i c s , such as d i s t r i b u t i o n of population, d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r i n c i p a l c i t i e s , and the l i k e , have conservation value c h i e f l y i n the f a c t that the teaching off such t o p i c s can help produce, i n students of t h i s age, a world outlook that i s i n t e l l i g e n t and well-informed. The student of conservation i s badly handicapped iff he l a c k s t r a i n i n g i n geography. Conservation philosophy a r i s e s i n part out off comtemplation of the fundamentals of geography; - 117 -conservation a o t i v i t y i s p r e d i c a t e d on the knowledge of r e g i o n a l , p h y s i c a l , and commercial geography. So important i s t h i s that a s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s devoted to a consideration of the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia, as a background '/pre-requisite-f o r a study of the n a t u r a l resources. 29 A s t r i k i n g remark:-by Caldwell i l l u s t r a t e s how im-portant geography i s i n conservation education. He says : "...the best work that we have, seen has. been done not by the b i o l o g y professors but by the geography departments of our teachers' c o l l e g e s , because the b i o l o g y professors have been prone to emphasize w i l d l i f e more than anything else and i n our geography courses we have a good thorough treatment of the whole f i e l d of wise l a n d use." Biology , Conservation i s a . b i o l o g i c a l study or problem prim-a r i l y , and the teaching orE conservation must stem from b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . The teaching of conservation requires an under-standing of the u n i t y of nature, the interdependence of a l l her resources, and the d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t on these resources by human i n t e r f e r e n c e . These are but three of the.fundamental concepts s e r v i n g as foundation f o r conservation education, and they are, or involve,.some of the great p r i n c i p l e s i n biology. Because conservation as a study a r i s e s from b i o l o g i c a l consid-e r a t i o n s a page i s taken here to mention the subject of Biology as i t e x i s t s i n the. secondary school.programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 29. Caldwell, John,. "Conservation 'Education i n Tennessee", -., Conference on Education i n Conservation, The National W i l d l i f e f e d e r a t i o n , Washington, D.C.,1959, 'p.28. - 118 -Since B i o l o g y i s taught as such only i n the Grade 211 or Grade S H I year, i s an elective', and i s taken, by r e l a -t i v e l y few students, i t cannot play a large enough part i n con- ' s e r v a t i o n i n the general program of education to merit discuss-i o n i n t h i s paper. Yet, f o r the reasons advanced i n the previous paragraph, because i t i s the foundation of conservation-teaching, trespass i s p e r m i s s i b l e here. The comments that the writer wishes to make here are b r i e f , dealing with general p o i n t s , and s u i t a b l e f o r summarizing as strengths and weaknesses of the present course i n Biology I i n ' f u r t h e r i n g education i n conservation. I t i s to be understood, of course, t h a t , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , such strengths and weak-nesses are modified by the t r a i n i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y . o f the teacher. 1. Strengths (a) The great, c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the c h i e f workers i n the b i o l o g i c sciences uand the a p p l i c a t i o n s of these d i s c o v e r i e s to our everyday l i v e s forms an outstanding t o p i c , with four weeks allowed f o r treatment. 1 (b) There i s opportunity to continue p r a c t i c e i n using the s c i e n t i f i c methods of t h i n k i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the choice of methods for the various b i o l o g i c a l problems. (c) A t t e n t i o n - i s c a l l e d to the overwhelming array of terms usual i n courses of botany, zoology, and biology. The teacher i s warned to develop t e c h n i c a l vocabulary s l o w l y i n the student, and only those words f o r which there i s no commonplace synonym i s a v a i l a b l e are to.be learned. (d) Many of the b i o l o g i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s that appeared i n General Science H i , IV, and V appear again, and so i n t e - . - 119 -g r a t i o n i s provided with previous experiences. (e) TO the previous f i e l d s of' taxonomy, morphology, and physiology, so emphasized i n former courses, have been added aspects of-ecology, genetics, and behaviour. Thus a d e f i n i t e attempt has been made to infuse i n t o the study of biology, the study of l i f e i t s e l f . ( f ) Unit YII reads: "The s t r u g g l e among organisms f o r food and energy has r e s u l t e d i n various degrees of I n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s from balanced Interdependence to complete depend-ence." Three weeks i s allowed to teach t h i s fundamental p r i n c i p l e , the balance i n nature, and the conservation-conscious teacher f i n d s t h i s a golden opportunity. (g) The l e v e l of behaviour, from amoeba to human, permits a wide use o'f experiment w i t h l i v i n g forms, not books. (h) "Progression" i s the theme stressed i n the two l a r g e s t U n i t s , which require about 18 weeks, and comprise the bulk of the course. In these u n i t s , the plant way of l i v i n g and the animal way of l i v i n g are studied w i t h i n the framework of a systematic i n t r o d u c t i o n to the phyla. ( i ) The complex v a r i e t y i n l i f e , and the complexities i n the various environments, can be w e l l brought out i n the Unit which deals w i t h the plant way and the animal way of l i v i n g w i t h i n the environment. (j ) The p e r m i s s i b l e use of multigraphing o u t l i n e diagrams i s of inestimable value. The student i s thus permitted to use the. major part of the l a b o r a t o r y time to observe and examine c a r e f u l l y many more specimens, l i v i n g or prepared, i n s i d e or - 120 -outside the classroom, than would otherwise he p o s s i b l e . 2. Weaknesses (a) The teacher too often lacks the b i o l o g i c background, and so i s prevented from e s t a b l i s h i n g the,close connection be- • tween the great d i s c o v e r i e s and what they mean i n our d a i l y l i v e s . The r e s u l t i s that t h i s valuable s e c t i o n becomes l a r g e l y biography. (b) The suggestions as to what can be done about p r a c t i s i n g the s c i e n t i f i c method are cle a r and complete, but the d i r e c t i o n s as to how to do i t are sparse, and many teachers have t r a i n i n g i n neither' the content nor the method. (c) Despite warnings as to the teaching of t e c h n i c a l terms, the abundant use off such words on examinations demands '< that a considerable share of the period time be given over to i n t r o d u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g of such terms. (d) The 'course contains too much d e t a i l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n U n i t s I I I and IV, which a r e . a l l o t t e d 8 and 10 weeks re s p e c t i v e -l y . These U n i t s i n v a r i a b l y run over? t h e i r time l i m i t s , , and as a consequence, the important t o p i c of reproduction, perpet-u a t i o n and -maintenance of species, behaviour, and ecology, . s u f f e r . R e v i s i o n of content i s necessary, i n the d i r e c t i o n of a more l i m i t e d survey w i t h i n the . borders of the phyla. (e) Because the course i s weighted down, i n the parts mentioned i n (d) above, w i t h minutiae, there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r outdoor work. I t i s only during out-of-school b i o l o g y hikes and excursions that .the teacher has the opportunity .of c a r r y i n g on d i r e c t e d study of the world as i t r e a l l y e x i s t s . L i t t l e opportunity e x i s t s i n the p r e s c r i b e d class-room schedule. While i t i s true t h a t the hatching of moths, the establishment - 1S1 -of aquaria and t e r r a r i a , plant n u t r i t i o n experiments, and the l i k e can he conducted indoors, there are fundamental experiences such as watching the migration of b i r d s , and censusing the l i f e of an area, that must be denied. In summarizing, i t might be s a i d that the present Biology I course i s a d e f i n i t e improvement over the older courses, and provides scope f o r b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to human welfare. This course was d e f i n i t e l y planned as an i n t e g r a l part of general education, while at the same time i t s content gives i n t r o d u c t i o n to vocational b i o l o g y . Depending on the outlook and t r a i n i n g of the teacher, the i n - . s t r u c t i o n may f o l l o w one of two quite d i f f e r e n t l i n e s , (1) as a dynamic study of the operations involved i n l i f e , or (2) as a weak i m i t a t i o n of college biology, i n which the t e c h n i c a l treatment i s much to the f o r e . . I f taught along the former l i n e s i t becomes a course i n conservation education. - 122 -CHAPTEE I I I . ADVANCEMENT OP EDUCATION I E CONSERVATION I I . THE SCHOOLS OP BRITISH COLUMBIA Foreword One or two remarks are necessary "before the d i s c u s s i o n proper of t h i s s e c t i o n . 1. The Elementary Programme i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia has not come under review i n t h i s study. However, the pres e n t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of Conservation i s needed by every teacher, f o r the subject i s not a f u n c t i o n of c e r t a i n grades alone, but of a l l age-levels from pre-school to post-school, and so includes the Elementary groups. That w i l l e x p l a i n why the t i t l e of t h i s s e c t i o n i s phrased to include every school i n the educational o r b i t . 2. I n t h i s s e c t i o n , the author has drawn h e a v i l y on the f i n d i n g s of the Conservation Education Committee of The National W i l d l i f e Federation of Washington, D.C., U.S.A. This committee was appointed i n November, 1938 to inaugurate the Number One Pro j e c t of the National W i l d l i f e Federation, a survey of Educa-• t i o n i n Conservation as i t then e x i s t e d . The subject was so broad and fundamental that i t was recognised that no e a r l y report could be expected. Reports of progress were published i n 1959, 50 1940, and 1941, i n a s e r i e s of three pamphlets. 50. Committee on Education "Education i n Conservation", pamphlet Number 1, The National W i l d l i f e Federation, Wash.,D.0.,1939. Committee on E d u c a t i o n "Education i n Conservation", pamphlet Number 2, The National W i l d l i f e Federation, Wash.,D.C.,1940. • Committee on Education "The Foundations of Conservation Education", pamphlet Number.3, v'The National W i l d l i f e Federation, ¥ash.,D.0.,1941. . - 123 - . •It i s these pamphlets that c o n t a i n many of the jreoom-mendations advanced i n t h i s s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . Suggestions f o r general c o n s i d e r a t i o n rather than f i n a l . c o n c l u s i o n s were submitted i n the pamphlet reports. Conclusions reached i n t h i s paper, have been inf l u e n c e d by the suggestions of t h i s Committee on Education, and the w r i t e r wishes t o acknowledge a general In-debtedness here rather .than by a considerable number of r e f e r -ences throughout the program of d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s . I n t r o d u c t i o n There i s no need to emphasize the place onmpnservation i n education, even i f conservation off natural, resources i s a very modern theme i n our l i f e . The need f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of e x i s t i n g values, the r e s t o r a t i o n of depleted n a t i o n a l assets, and the adequate u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l these resources f o r the common good, has developed today into the cause of conservation, pro-bably the most s i g n i f i c a n t cause i n the promotion of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding. This cause has won widespread support, and the demand fo r i t s : c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p u b l i c school curriculum has won general approval. . How t h i s approval i s to be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n , and how education i n conservation i s to be developed i n t o a coordinated, and permanent educational movement i n the p u b l i c school system w i l l now be considered. A broad, compre-hensive plan : must f i r s t be agreed upon; the d e t a i l s , that i s , the m a t e r i a l s and methods of teaching conservation and reforms or suggested changes i n the present curriculum, w i l l a r i s e from considerations of the master plan. - 124 -General Plan; Foundations of Conservation Education. Viewed i n a broad, general way, there are two main methods of organizing a campaign of education, i t may be handled independently by a system s p e c i a l l y devised to promote i t , or i t may be incorporated Into the n a t i o n a l system of p u b l i c education. The p u b l i c schools obviously provide a most e f f e c t i v e means f o r b r i n g i n g conservation information to a great p r o p o r t i o n of our c i t i z e n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to those who i n years to come w i l l have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r administering the nation's n a t u r a l re-sources, the basis of i t s p r o s p e r i t y . Only t h i s aspect of con-s e r v a t i o n education, the teaching of i t i n the p u b l i c schools, w i l l be discussed i n t h i s report. How then, can the course be charted, to achieve the goal of conservation education? What are the foundations of conservation education?. What are the p r i n c i p l e s to be followed i f sound, or d e r l y progress i s to be secured? I . The fundamental character 0!f conservation education must be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Unless the meaning of conservation i s -thoroughly under-stood, there i s no way of p r e c i s e l y i n d i c a t i n g i t s place i n the general program of p u b l i c education. I f there i s a l a c k of understanding of the true r e l a t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n the meaning of conservation, then there i s no r e c o g n i t i o n of the p u b l i c values inherent i n conservation. Without t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of p u b l i c values, no high purpose i s achieved i n weaving the p a t t e r n of conservation into the p u b l i c school curriculum. In other words, the f i r s t duty of the educational a u t h o r i t i e s i n b r i n g i n g con-s e r v a t i o n education i n t o the p u b l i c education i s to know why - 125 -they are doing i t . This i s accomplished net sooner than the meaning of conservation has been a s s i m i l a t e d . I I . The main p r i n c i p l e s of conservation must he l a i d down. These p r i n c i p l e s must he such as w i l l command the approval and a c t i v e support of the m a j o r i t y of the c i t i z e n s i n the province or i n the nation. Inasmuch as the p r i n c i p l e s have also been considered i n some d e t a i l i n the opening chapter of t h i s essay, they w i l l not be repeated here. He who would advo-cate that conservation, or wise u t i l i z a t i o n of our resources, be the p h i l o s o p h i c keynote of our l i v i n g , must be aware of c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s . They are the f i r s t requirements he must s a t i s f y i f conservation education i s to have permanent values, and a c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s are to be brought i n t o being. The question as to how the p r i n c i p l e s are to be a r r i v e d at should be mentioned. I t i s taken for granted that the educa-t i o n a l program must be based on demonstrable f a c t s , and that the sources of these f a c t s are the agencies of p u b l i c i n f o r -mation which deal w i t h the resources. That means that b i o l o g i s t s , w i l d l i f e managers, f o r e s t e r s , a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , i c h t h y o l o g i s t s , m i n e r a l o g i s t s , economists, s o c i o l o g i s t s , s p e c i a l i s t s i n other forms of land use, and representatives of other i n t e r e s t s , such as t o u r i s t bureaus, whose experience could be used, must be- , brought together to supply the f a c t s from which a r e l a t i v e l y few broad p r i n c i p l e s , whose a p p l i c a t i o n may lead to r e s t o r a t i o n and wise management, could be e s t a b l i s h e d . The r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the program;, are many, but we must attempt to comprehend them i f the educational' scheme i s to be coherent and e f f e c t i v e . This i s a complex job but f a r from impossible. Many educational - 126 -agencies have already commenced to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h i s province, and enough i s already known to permit the formulation of basic p r i n c i p l e s to be used as an educational platform. A l l that i s needed i s to b r i n g the proper; a u t h o r i t i e s together f o r the conference from which usable major p r i n c i p l e s , broad enough and sound enough to f i t the many i n t e r e s t s , w i l l a r i s e . With-out t h i s framework of p r i n c i p l e s , we s h a l l continue to work, as at present, at cross purposes, each educational agency pursuing i t s own l i n e of a t t a c k without regard f o r the others. She water-r i g h t s o f f i c i a l s w i l l make recommendations, i n the i n t e r e s t s of conservation, that w i l l s e r i o u s l y c o n f l i c t w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s , of the f o r e s t e r s , , game groups, or f i s h e r i e s men. The conser-v a t i o n that i s co-operation must be p r a c t i s e d . When that i s done common aims, a r r i v e d at by conference, concession, d i s c u s s i o n , are not too d i f f i c u l t to s e t t l e , u n t i l they are, the ©onfusion i n the minds of the p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g school c h i l d r e n , w i l l p e r s i s t . f ; I I I . Conservation should permeate a l l of the work of the school and f i n d expression on the part of the p u p i l s j n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e i r d a i l y a c t i o n s . This g e n e r a l i z a t i o n disposes of the question, " i s . c o n -s e r v a t i o n to be taught as a separate subject, or. should I t be incorporated i n every appropriate subject now taught i n the school?" The t r e n d i s decidedly away from m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of subjects i n the school and i n the d i r e c t i o n of c l o s e r c o r r e l a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of subjects. For example, the programmes of study for the p u b l i c schools of B r i t i s h Columbia contain.many statements at the beginning of courses urging that the c l o s e s t - 127 -c o r r e l a t i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d between subject and subject. The c o r r e l a t i o n s that do e x i s t , i n the course o u t l i n e s are drawn methodically to the a t t e n t i o n of the teachers. Again, the e f f e c t s of a continuously-planning s o c i a l order upon our l i v i n g i s a theme stressed by our educational a u t h o r i t i e s i n the o u r r i c u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s . That, i n other words, i s i n s t r u c t i o n to the teacher to give the closest a t t e n t i o n t o the i n t e g r a t i o n of. the subject matter of the various courses. I t appears, then, that the aim of education i n t h i s province i s to promote a program which means i n t e g r a t i o n as opposed t o the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n which comes from the continuous adding of new subjects and t h e t r e a t -i n g of each one as i f i t were sharply separate and d i s t i n c t from a l l others, - an end i n i t s e l f . I f the above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s accepted, and the weight of evidence c o l l e c t e d i n the l a s t chapter to the e f f e c t that conservation problems can be stud i e d i n any subject does make i t acceptable, then a c o r o l l a r y , must be noted. I t i s to the e f f e c t t h a t , since the study.of conservation w i l l cut across a l l subjects, the aims of conservation education i n the p u b l i c schools w i l l be to e s t a b l i s h i n the mind of the p u p i l the b a s i c philosophy of conservation, and stimulate the d e s i r e to p r a c t i s e conservation, rather than t o I n s i s t upon the a c q u i r i n g of f a c t s r e l a t i v e to the conservation of s p e c i f i c resources. A broad understanding i s much more desi r a b l e f o r the young c i t i z e n than i s the t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g s u i t a b l e to a s p e c i a l i s t . IV.' There must.be co-operation between conservation agencies and educational a u t h o r i t i e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how a program of t h i s nature - 128 -could be successful unless the agencies that possess the f a c t s and can assess the p r i n c i p l e s worked i n conjunction w i t h the people who are responsible f o r the teaching of the f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s . The e f f o r t s of the two groups must be thoroughly-coordinated. Departments such as a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining, f i s h e r i e s , and so f o r t h , are handicapped i n that they are remote from c h i l d r e n , from teachers, from schools; they are g e n e r a l l y . u n f a m i l i a r with the trends i n the schools, with the character-i s t i c s and c a p a c i t i e s of the several a g e - l e v e l s . However, t h e i r a c t i v e co-operation and assistance i s of primary importance to the teacher. The teacher i s t r a i n e d to- the job of g e t t i n g something done i n school, but he i s r a r e l y t r a i n e d to take the f i n d i n g s of a t e c h n i c a l paper and reduce i t to every-day language s u i t a b l e f o r student consumption. The t r a n s l a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l m a t e r i a l i s a s p e c i a l i z e d kind of c r e a t i v e work, and i s beyond the a b i l i t y of the ordinary type of teacher. Each group has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s ; each needs the other. One group knows more about teaching than the other; the other knows a l o t more about conservation. There would seem to be a place f o r a l i a i s o n department, whose o f f i c e r s would be trained to. take the m a t e r i a l supplied by the conservation groups, prepare i t f o r school use, and, i n a d d i t i o n , guide and stimulate the teachers by means of suggestions and help when i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . Y. The a i d of teacher-training- i n s t i t u t i o n s i s v i t a l to the success of a conservation program. Conservation education properly belongs to the sphere of those who are responsible f o r the general, fundamental education of the people. The school teachers are the people - 129 -properly equipped to i n s t r u c t i n conservation. They have been t r a i n e d to teach and, what i s e q u a l l y important, they have the f a c i l i t i e s and equipment, and the knowledge of the character-i s t i c s -and c a p a c i t i e s of the several age-levels and other e s s e n t i a l information without which the proper .experience with the environment and environmental f a c t o r s could not be supplied. I t might be asked what other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would a i d the teacher In r e a l i z i n g the ends of conservation education. A u t h o r i t i e s are i n general agreement that the f o l l o w i n g r e -quirements play a large part i n the most successful teaching o f conservation: 1. a r i c h background of science; 2. ' an understanding of conservation philosophy; 3. f a m i l i a r i t y with the fundamental conservation p r i n c i p l e s ; to 4. information as/the teaching approaches p o s s i b l e i n at l e a s t the immediate environment; 5. mastery of s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l ; to . teaching success i n the science f i e l d ; 6. a desire to do something f o r conservation. These statements form an i d e a l , but they can be q u a l i -f i e d considerably, and e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s s t i l l be obtained. How e x c e l l e n t these r e s u l t s are t o be can be decided l a r g e l y by the i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n the t e a c h e r - i n - t r a i n i n g obtains. Much of what the prospective t eacher uses through h i s teaching career as h i s basic philosophy i s received from those who pre-pare him f o r h i s vocation. This thought should c o n s t i t u t e both a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a challenge to the s t a f f s of teacher-t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . A comment or two abou.t the statements - 130 -1 to 6, l i s t e d above; w i l l i n d i c a t e the part that can be played by those charged w i t h preparing the teacher. 1. A r i c h background of science. R e l a t i v e l y few teachers possess such a r i c h background. Language teachers generally have only t h e i r high school exper-ience and perhaps one. or two courses i n university science, i n t h e i r language t r a i n i n g , however, an a p p r e c i a t i o n of nature has been b u i l t up through t h e i r experience with l i t e r a t u r e , and there i s much i n poetry and i n supplementary reading that can c o n t r i -bute to conservation education. As i n language, so to a much greater extent i n geography or s o c i a l s t u d i e s , i f the r i c h background of science i t s e l f cannot be supplied, at l e a s t a deeper a p p r e c i a t i o n of science can be e s t a b l i s h e d by generous use of the m a t e r i a l i n these subjects, and by p o i n t i n g out the s i g n i f i c a n t conservation fundamentals that often present them-selves throughout the non-science courses. By introducing such method, the t e a c h e r - i n s t r u c t o r s ' can p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t the l a c k of s p e c i a l 1 s t - t r a i n i n g i n science. 2. An understanding of conservation philosophy. "'Attitudes towards l i f e " , and "ways of l i v i n g " are considerations of importance i n the philosophy of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. • I t i s the aim of education to develop c i t i z e n s able to pl a y t h e i r part i n a democratic s t a t e , but able also t o make new adjustments i n an evolving and progressive s o c i a l order, so that s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y be un i t e d w i t h s o c i a l progress. For these purposes, schools have been e s t a b l i s h e d , and i n s t i t u t i o n s for t r a i n i n g personnel to achieve these purposes. Since conser-v a t i o n . i s an a t t i t u d e towards l i f e and a way of l i v i n g consonant - 151 -with the general aim of.-education, " i t f o l l o w s that the teaching of conservation philosophy i s not Inconsistent w i t h the teacher-t r a i n i n g program. Rather, i t i s part of I t . When conservation a u t h o r i t i e s recognize t h i s truth,.: and r e a l i z e the tremendous . i n f l u e n c e that t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s can exercise to multiphy the spread of conservation philosophy, then one of the permanent objects of these a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l be to e n l i s t the a i d of those who are t r a i n i n g the teachers. I t i s through coiirses given i n the lormal Schools and in:the Schools of Education I n the U n i v e r s i t i e s that the teachers-can be educated t o an under-standing of conservation, and i t i s through the teachers that t h i s education can be c a r r i e d , by way of the classroom, to the homes of the nation. 5. E a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the fundamental conservation p r i n c i p l e s . When fundamentals of conservation have been formulated and agreed upon by those d i r e c t l y concerned with conservation, ways and* means of s t i m u l a t i n g the development and teaching of conservation by the s t a f f s . o f t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s would be well-advised. The teacher of geography or h e a l t h may not be t h i n k i n g at a l l of the part which geography or h e a l t h can p l a y i n the teaching;of conservation,, yet he i s going to convey to the prospective teacher most of the ideas that the teacher w i l l s t a r t w i t h when he takes s e r v i c e . To the i n s t r u c t o r , then, s y l l a b i , statements of philosophy and p r i n c i p l e s , suggested m a t e r i a l f o r i n c l u s i o n In courses, sample u n i t s , and the l i k e , could be sent., i n t h i s way, an ap p r e c i a t i o n of conservation p r i n c i p l e s could be .added t o the teaching- equip-- 132 -ment of the young teacher. 4. Information as to the teaching approaches-.possible i n at l e a s t the immediate environment. I t i s an. axiom i n teaching that, we must f i r s t know our subject. A wealth o f information.must be s u p p l i e d the teacher so that he can f a m i l i a r i z e himself thoroughly w i t h what he i s , going to teach. Obviously no s i n g l e agency can-supply t h i s information. The information from a l l agencies, of t h e i r f i e l d s and objectives', must be brought together and c o r r e l a t e d . The l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s attend to t h i s work since they l i n k the research s c i e n t i s t and the teachers. The l i n k can most r e a d i l y be fashioned while teachers are preparing themselves f o r t h e i r "v oeation, t h a t . i s , , while they are i n t r a i n i n g . The co-operation of those respon-s i b l e f o r the t r a i n i n g would determine how w e l l the gap between the t e c h n i c a l and the teachable can be bridged, how w e l l the teaching approaches of the problems .'of resources can be o u t l i n e d , 5. Mastery of teaching s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l to teaching success i n the science f i e l d . Since Elementary Science, and General Science, have supplanted the; former Nature Study, and the s p e c i a l courses i n Botany and Zoology, and since most of the p u p i l s are r e q u i r e d to take a l l the courses up to General Science 7, i t f o l l o w s that, the science enrollment I s nearly equal to the t o t a l population off the school, whereas before, the number was much l e s s . I t f u r t h e r f o l l o w s that more teachers are t e a c h i n g science today than ever before. Yet the number of teachers who have a r i c h background i n science s t i l l remains r e l a t i v e l y few. For these . • . - - 155 -reasons, the importance of teaching s k i l l s e s s e n t i a l to teach-i n g success i n the science f i e l d i s greater than i t once was. This f a c t i s recognized by educational a u t h o r i t i e s , and s t r e s s i s accorded to t h i s part of t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g . Since conservation problems are, i n large p a r t , science problems, the importance of t h i s t r a i n i n g i n conservation education i s recognized. Since conservation problems at times cut across a l l subjects, however, the mastery of general teaching s k i l l s i s more important s t i l l . Both s k i l l s are e s s e n t i a l , w i t h the former having s p e c i a l a p p l i -c a t i o n to the teaching of conservation. I f the teacher i s a master of science teaching s k i l l s , and he can be so taught during the t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , then, whether he i s experienced i n science or not, he w i l l be able t o c a r r y out the dissemin-a t i o n of Ideas, p r i n c i p l e s , and information of conservation quite thoroughly. 6. A desire to do something for conservation. Upon t h i s hinges any success attendant upon teaching. The greatest resource any teacher has i s h i s enthusiasm, the steady d r i v e on o b j e c t i v e s , the readiness to get behind and push. Lacking t h i s , conservation education, l i k e any other, w i l l b r i n g no p r a c t i c a l values to- the p u p i l or to the community. Conservation, a f t e r a l l , should begin at home, and should be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r a c t i s e , not preaching. I t i s the f u n c t i o n of the teacher to so stimulate the desire to put philosophy Into p r a c t i s e that there i s purposefulness on the part of the c h i l d i n the study of conservation. I f the teacher i s not g r e a t l y concerned w i t h both h i s Immediate and remote environment, and ' ' does not apply the p r i n c i p l e s of conservation In h i s own d a i l y - 134 -l i v i n g , then there w i l l be l i t t l e or no e f f o r t on the part of the p u p i l to use h i s knowledge of conservation, or influence others by i t . The i n c e n t i v e to work hard, so that his own w e l l -being and that of h i s f e l l o w s i n the community i s assured must be stimulated by example, and the example can best be set by the teacher. This view, to teach ways i n man's r e l a t i o n to man and to h i s environment, i s easy to teach only i f the teacher recog-n i z e s that c h i l d r e n are l i k e grown-ups - they understand what others do better than what others are saying. Unless the teacher i s w i l l i n g to p r a c t i s e conservation, that p r a c t i c e w i l l be hard fo r the younger generation to adopt. The establishment of t h i s view i n the-mind of teachers can best be accomplished when they are f r e s h and eager, attending school f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g . The Sbrmal School i n s t r u c t o r s can e s t a b l i s h t h i s view. M a t e r i a l s of Conservation and Methods of Teaching I n t r o d u c t i o n Conservation i s not, i n the.writer's opinion, a t e c h n i -c a l subject. I t i s j u s t the everyday business, - l i k e e a t i n g or sleeping, of everyone from the elementary youngster, to the post-graduate a d u l t . I t i s conservation when the c h i l d drinks h i s m i l k "to keep h i s t e e t h white", or t i d i e s up the room i n which he sleeps, or adjusts h i s time so that he can have play as w e l l as homework. I t i s conservation when the adult turns out unnecessary l i g h t s , or plans the use of h i s butter r a t i o n , or keeps h i s garden weed-free and b e a u t i f u l . Conservation i s j u s t such common-sense, down-to-facts, waste-avoiding behaviour that gives best returns i n use of the hours and i n the develop-t • - 135 -ment of worthy c i t i z e n s . Because conservation i s so p r a c t i c a l , , then the m a t e r i a l s and the methods i n teaching conservation must he p r a c t i c a l . In s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s , we must take i n t o c onsideration the known f a c t s regarding a c h i l d and.his nature and h i s needs. We must recognize, that a f i r s t - g r a d e c h i l d , f o r example, i s i n t e r e s t e d only i n h i s home and immediate surround-ings; that as he grows up he gets a broader viewpoint which embraces, i n 'turn, h i s community, h i s province, h i s nation, and then the f o r e i g n world. I t i s imperative, then, that we grade the content of conservation education and present i t i n language that the c h i l d can understand at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , and we must show the c h i l d , by example whenever p o s s i b l e , how conservation can be p r a c t i s e d . Unless.we do these t h i n g s , he i s not going to do anything about' conservation. Unless those charged w i t h assembling the m a t e r i a l s and o u t l i n i n g the methods f o r teaching conservation can keep the viewpoint as discussed above, t h e i r work w i l l be l a r g e l y f u t i l e . M a t e r i a l s I t i s not the purpose of t h i s essay to prescribe the m a t e r i a l s of conservation. That i s the work of curriculum committees. However, a few general remarks about the t o p i c may provide some assistance i n the choosing.of m a t e r i a l . 1. The m a t e r i a l must be appropriate to the age-level and environment of the c h i l d , and must be i n language understandable to him. Too often, the conservation lessons i n text-books, pamphlets, and other reading m a t e r i a l , are w r i t t e n i n such a way that the c h i l d i s unable to grasp the meaning, or the f l a t statements of f a c t provides no hint as to t h e i r importance In - 136 -l i v i n g . The m a t e r i a l must be p o s i t i v e , provocative, and on the l e v e l of the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t i f a background of understanding regarding conservation Is to be b u i l t up. S. The vast m a j o r i t y of our c h i l d r e n are no more i n t e r -ested i n t e c h n i c a l conservation, for example, the oil- c o n t e n t of sockeye salmon at the mouth of the Eraser River, than we were at the e a r l y formation stages of our careers. I f t h i s f a c t can be kept i n mind when w r i t i n g and producing m a t e r i a l , i t w i l l go a long way toward h e l p i n g produce the r i g h t k i n d . 3. The supply of m a t e r i a l must be p l e n t i f u l and v a r i e d , Ho s i n g l e set of d e t a i l e d c l a s s m a t e r i a l can p o s s i b l y be used for such a va-ried area as B r i t i s h Columbia. This point i s r e -cognized i n the present programme, and a wealth of content i s noted i n the science courses p a r t i c u l a r l y . -4. I t has been noted i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n that conservation, aside from i t s t e c h n i c a l aspects, i s concerned with quite simple i d e a s , i f the w r i t e r s would j u s t leave them that way. I t i s not often that they do, however. When a new study, such as ecology, i s s t r u g g l i n g to attain a p o s i t i o n among the sciences, n o t h i n g - w i l l do but that a terminology, elaborate and confusing and unnecessary, must be evolved to provide a d i g n i f i e d entrance f o r the new a r r i v a l . S c i e n t i s t s themselves shudder as they bore through e c o l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , t r y i n g to catch a glimpse of t h i s new science through the swaddling of verbiage, i n an educational program f o r the p u b l i c schools, the treatment of conservation m a t e r i a l s must be the a n t i t h e s i s of t h i s , that i s , a great deal can be done i n conservation by just s i m p l i f y i n g . - 137 -When we are t a l k i n g about w i l d l i f e conservation, for example, we are r e a l l y t a l k i n g about something w i t h two basic requirements. One. of them i s a place where the w i l d l i f e can l i v e , and the other i s t hat we have to have w i l d l i f e to l i v e on that p l a c e ! The m a t e r i a l used i n the study of w i l d l i f e conservation should be so sele c t e d that i t w i l l emphasize these, two problems, and teach the simple idea that we have to see that we don't take so many of the w i l d creatures that there are not enough breeding b i r d s and animals l e f t to occupy the place. The simpler the m a t e r i a l the easier i t i s to teach, the less, time i t takes to teach, the more .time to d r i l l i n the basic f a c t s at fevery opportunity, the easier i t i s to l e a r n , and the sooner the permanent awareness of the meaning of conservation can be es t a b l i s h e d . 5. Teachers can. help themselves to a great deal of m a t e r i a l . The Dominion, and P r o v i n c i a l governments support many p u b l i c agencies c a r r y i n g on conservation work. These bureaus, except r a r e l y , are not geared f o r p u b l i c i t y work, but they do main-t a i n information s t a f f s , who can supply i n t e r e s t i n g information about the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d . The Dominion government Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , f o r twenty-five cents, o f f e r s the Canada Yearbook, the o f f i c i a l handbook of present conditions and recent progress i n -Canada and i t s provinces. They a l s o o f f e r "A Pact a Day About Canada", a monthly or bi-monthly presentation of the f a c t s , t o l d i n an infor m a l manner, d e a l i n g w i t h the use of our resources. This s p r i g h t l y p u b l i c a t i o n takes the reader i n t o the outdoors, takes him to the earth where things a c t u a l l y are done, and i n -fuses him w i t h some emotion as w e l l as f a c t s . These are hut two examples of sources, of authentic information open to the teacher • - 138 -. or the curriculum maker. 6. There are competent agencies, such as the Dominion Park's Branch, or the Er.pi Films Corporation, that prepare educa-t i o n a l f i l m s r e l a t e d to conservation. These f i l m s are invaluable as teaching m a t e r i a l . I t I s noted that excellent l i s t i n g s of fiJbme are provided throughout the General Science courses, and pr o v i s i o n s made, through the Vancouver School Board and the U n i v e r s i t y Extension Service for.example, f o r t h e i r economical use. More m a t e r i a l of t h i s s o r t , supplemented w i t h w r i t t e n t a l k s or o u t l i n e s of suggestions for t a l k s , and made a v a i l a b l e fair general c i r c u l a t i o n through the province, would do much to stimulate an educational program of conservation, both with c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . 7. There i s considerable precedent, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Vancouver area, f o r the production off slid e s ' and p i c t u r e s worked up by the c h i l d r e n . This has shown enough p o s s i b i l i t i e s to warrant feature s t o r i e s i n the l o c a l newspapers. Preparation of such m a t e r i a l has p a r t i c u l a r vaLtte inasmuch as i t i s content that the c h i l d r e n have produced themselves, under d i r e c t i o n . In conservation education, p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p u p i l s i s a keynote of success, and there i s no reason why t h i s idea cannot be a p p l i e d . On f i e l d t r i p s , h i k e s , and so f o r t h , photographs of things r e l a t i n g to conservation, such as an eroded h i l l s i d e , or spawning salmon, or burned-over forest l a n d , can be taken. Organized, these photographs can' be worked up i n t o i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e s f o r the use of themselves and other c l a s s e s . No c l a i m can probably be made as to the production of superior conser-v a t i o n m a t e r i a l , but what i s produced i s v i t a l to the c h i l d r e n - 139 -and the community producing i t . This i s conservation i n a c t i o n . 8. One problem that has not been very w e l l met as yet i s the production of suggestions and materials f o r teachers to f o l l o w when t a k i n g the youngsters on a f i e l d t r i p . Yet I n educa-t i o n today, i t i s coming to be more and more recognized how important i t i s to get some time out. off the r e s t r i c t i n g w a l l s off the classroom and i n t o the a c t u a l f i e l d s off teaching endeavor. With the help of conservation groups, t h i s movement to the out-doors can be given impetus iff suggestions, materials and con-s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e can be provided toward making school and youth a c t i v i t i e s more b e n e f i c i a l and l e s s s u p e r f i c i a l . Experience i n out-of-door s i t u a t i o n s breathes l i f e i n t o the book-learning acquired indoors. 9. A conservation l i b r a r y , or at l e a s t b i b l i o g r a p h i e s of m a t e r i a l , should be maintained by the educational a u t h o r i t i e s , much as a v i s u a l education bureau i s maintained. M a t e r i a l s such as f i l m s , supplementary reading, conservation e x h i b i t s , and i n s t r u c t i o n s concerning a c t i v i t i e s , can be c i r c u l a t e d from such a centre so that even the remote areas w i l l not s u f f e r from l a c k of a i d and i n s p i r a t i o n i n teaching conservation. The curriculum workers can al s o make f r e e use off t h i s m a t e r i a l when they are developing new u n i t s off i n s t r u c t i o n i n the f i e l d of conservation i n whatever area may be appropriate, — geography, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , science and others. Methods: The methods of teaching conservation are predicated on a statement that was made e a r l i e r , namely, that conservation should permeate a l l of the work of the school and f i n d expression - 140 -on the part of the p u p i l s i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e i r d a i l y a c tions. I t i s only out of the experiences of youth, and these mostly of a p r a c t i c a l nature, that the fundamental and p i v o t a l concepts, that are known as the p r i n c i p l e s of conservation, come. Conservation education i s l a r g e l y a program of a c t i o n , and the methods to he used i n teaching must demand and i n i t i a t e a c t i v e responses from the c h i l d . "Classroom i n s t r u c t i o n , reading and d i s c u s s i o n are necessary to the success of the program, hut t h e i r time should he d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d to permit the maximum time f o r student a c t i v i t y . For many years most of the bio l o g y l a b o r a t o r y time was devoted to drawing, i n meticulous d e t a i l , the external features of plant and animal specimens. What moments were l e f t were given over to examination. As consequences of t h i s method of teaching b i o l o g y , the few who were g i f t e d a r t i s t i c a l l y derived considerable pleasure from t h e i r work and obtained b e n e f i c i a l p r a c t i c e i n drawing; the m a j o r i t y were given a wholly wrong; impression of the science of biology, and o f t e n developed a d e f i n i t e d i s l i k e , f o r i t , s i n c e , because they couldn't draw very w e l l , they found the lab orat ory wo rk d i s t r e s s i n g and tedious. This example shows t h a t , while a c t i v i t i e s are fundamental i n conservation, work, care must be exercised to see that they are meaningful to the c h i l d , and appropriate to the subject. With the above notes i n mind, the question of methods can now be examined i n more d e t a i l . The s t r a t e g y f o r t h i s educational campaign was l a i d down at the beginning of the chapter as the general plan, or foundations of conservation education. The forces to be used i n the campaign were reviewed - 141 -under the heading of "materials". We are now concerned w i t h the procedures to he used so that c a l c u l a t e d ends may he gained. This involves the use of s k i l f u l devices whereby the best p o s s i b l e use of our forces, or m a t e r i a l s , can be made. To the m i l i t a r i s t , t h i s p l a n n i n g - i n - a c t i o n i s known as t a c t i c s . The teacher c a l l s i t procedure or method. To both, i t means the a r t of disposing forces when a c t i o n i s about to commence. In the case of the teacher, i t means how best to press home the l e s s o n that he wishes.to teach. How i s conservation to be best taught? There are many methods, and they w i l l vary with the age-level of the p u p i l s , w i t h t h e i r immediate i n t e r e s t , with the nature of the subject, with the nature of environment, and the l i k e . As i n b a t t l e , the t a c t i c s must be f l u i d , and h i g h l y adaptable to changing condi t i o n s . (This means that the teacher, i f he i s to be s u c c e s s f u l , must become more eonservation-minded, and l e s s conservative-minded.) S p e c i a l t a c t i c s are needed f o r s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , and t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l innovation depends upon the inventiveness and i n g e n u i t y of the teacher. However, general methods, a p p l i c a b l e to most sets of circumstances, can be asserted as suggestions for the teaching of conservation education.. 1. "The love of nature i s a matter of a f f e c t i o n and a e s t h e t i c s . " Love of nature i s n a t u r a l to the c h i l d , and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e , because unmasked, i n the school be-ginner, i n the e a r l y formative years. At t h i s age, pets play an important part i n the l i v e s of c h i l d r e n ^ and t h i s d e f i n i t e • - 142 -i n t e r e s t should he c a p i t a l i z e d , and extended to appreciation of the "beautiful, which i s the matter of a e s t h e t i c s . Nature as a whole can he given sympathetic treatment; the b i r d s , the bees, the f l o w e r s , and the t r e e s o f f e r many approaches which are e s s e n t i a l to the development of such desired r e s u l t s as a high regard f o r nature, and an understanding of the large part i t plays i n the l i f e of everyone. The subjects of health, a r t , " geography, reading, and others, have the m a t e r i a l and opportun-i t i e s f o r presenting the wonderful world of nature. The c h i l d i s at the most impressionable age f o r f i x i n g hah i t s and a t t i t u d e s that w i l l g r a d u a l l y b u i l d up into a philosophy of conservation. He can r e a d i l y be taught the proper a t t i t u d e s towards w i l d flowers, weeds, lowly animals such as the earth?©rm, and higher animals such as the i n s e c t s and the b i r d s . I t goes without saying, of course, that much of t h i s teaching should be done by stepping outdoors. 2. "The understanding of nature i s science." The approach which recognizes t h i s r o l e of science can lead to the maximum r e s u l t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of conservation. This i s the f i e l d where problem-solving i s pursued, and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are concluded, that i s , p r i n c i p l e s are es t a b l i s h e d . Since s t a t i s t i c s and d e f i n i t e data are indispensable to the const r u c t i o n of conservation p r i n c i p l e s , then the p r a c t i c e i n so b u i l d i n g these guiding p r i n c i p l e s i s to be found i n many areas of school l e a r n i n g , from the spe c i a l s t u d i e s i n mathematics and geography to the general work i n general science and s o c i a l studies. Methods which w i l l contribute to the understanding of nature are s c i e n t i f i c . They must involve accurate observations, - 145 -which are the h u l l ding-stones of science, and reasoned con-c l u s i o n s , which form the framework of science. This i s , i n essence, a s t r i c t adherence to s c i e n t i f i c method. There i s no need to elaborate on the well-known r u l e s of the s c i e n t i f i c method, hut i t should he noted that observations, whenever p o s s i b l e , should be f i r s t - h a n d and direct,, I f a study of salmon spawning conditions i s projected, the experience gained through a f i e l d t r i p to watch the progress of spawning has much more permanent values than d e a l i n g w i t h symbols i n a class-room, i f the adaptations of a w i l l o w t r e e to i t s environment i s the pro-blem, a t r u e r conception o f the u n i t y i n nature i s gained by observations of the h a b i t a t s than by considering p i c t u r e s i n a book. Direct contact with the environment has no s u b s t i t u t e i n the growth of conservation-mindedness. Actual experience w i t h l i f e as i t i s being l i v e d i n the world has no r i v a l i n methods of teaching conservation. 3. Employment of a multitude .of f a c t s i s i n i m i c a l to the advancement of the c o n s e r v a t i o n program. The method of cover-i n g a conservation t o p i c by inundating the student with a welter of information defeats the ends sought. This p r a c t i c e i s a r e g r e t t a b l y common one, since i t i s the easiest way of d i s p o s i n g of a problem, and since i t seems the way to teach-conservation, by teachers who know l i t t l e about the subject or how to teach i t . This s i t u a t i o n i s often aggravated by the text-book w r i t e r s who cram i n every known fact to give body and bulk to t o p i c s . The conscientious, but misguided teacher, takes t h i s powerful array of f a c t s , one by one, and packs them Into the mind of the c h i l d . I t i s no wonder that the c h i l d soon - 144 -su f f e r s from a mental i n d i g e s t i o n , to be followed by an ever-i n c r e a s i n g r e s i s t a n c e to more of the same d i e t , and f i n a l l y to a marked repugnance to the teacher and the subject responsible fo r h i s upset. . Only such f a c t s as are necessary to e l i c i t the r e -quired understandings, appreciations, and a t t i t u d e s , should be taught i n the sciences, such as geography and general science. This method i s fundamental i n general education. As the study of protoplasm must precede the studies of anatomy, h i s t o l o g y , and embryology, which are s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s , so also must the appreciations of the p r i n c i p l e s and philosophy of conservation precede the i n t e n s i v e study of such departments of conservation as f o r e s t r y , f i s h e r i e s , or a g r i c u l t u r e . Any method that i s contrary to the pu r s u i t of such a course has no place i n a con-s e r v a t i o n program of education. 4. Methods that are p r a c t i c a l l e a d to something being done about conservation. I f the te -acher can say: " l e t T s get out and see what l i v i n g things are to be found on the t r a i l to the r i v e r , " or " W i l l you b u i l d bird-houses f o r a wren, a r o b i n , and a woodpecker, i f I buy the plans?"; or " I wonder how many of you are fsee on Saturdays to go h i k i n g w i t h me", then not only i s p r o v i s i o n being made f o r d i r e c t e d use of c h i l d energy, but thoughts and experiences that promote the cause of conservation are being stimulated, The c h i l d r e n are brought into contact w i t h nature as i t r e a l l y i s , with i t s u n i t y , with i t s i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s , and wit h i t s problems. This i s of supreme importance, f o r the study of l i f e , and the r e l a t i o n s of n a t u r a l resources to l i f e , are fundamental to human welfare. - 145 -5. That i n s t r u c t i o n which contributes most to goal c i t i z e n -ship w i l l contribute most to conservation. Methods of presenting the work, then, that w i l l make the p u p i l s see i n t h e i r communities and t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g the f a c t s that can be synthesized i n t o the p r i n c i p l e s of conservation, are to. be approved. Whatever method i s employed, - for example, i n the study of stream p o l l u t i o n , whether by t e a c h e r - r e c i t a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , or d i r e c t observation, -provided the c h i l d i s not only i n t e r e s t e d but becomes aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of such a problem, that method i s to be endorsed. There i s degree i n the value of methods,' of course, that of d i r e c t contact with the problem ranking f i r s t , but the best method i s not always permitted. I n that case, the best a l t e r n a t i v e method i s to be followed. The teacher very often has l i t t l e to guide himself i n the s e l e c t i o n of the method, but he can appraise h i s methods by appraising the amount and kind of i n t e r e s t awakened i n the c h i l d . I n t h i s way, he can soon a r r i v e at the best methods for the phases of the subject being'presented. By wise choice of the best methods, the teacher c a p i t a l i z e s on the opportunity to develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n and an understanding of n a t i o n a l problems from the l o c a l experiences of the p u p i l s . 6. In the elementary years, the "p o i n t i n g t o " and " c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o " methods of the pre-school years should be con-tinued. Observation t r i p s , nearby excursions, and use off such m a t e r i a l as aquaria, sand t a b l e s , gardens and flower boxes can f u r n i s h the more formal experiences for these years. L i t t l e by l i t t l e , with each adding i t s b i t , the study of b i r d s , fflowers, i n s e c t s , minerals, s o i l , water, and scenery, taught p r a c t i c a l l y through the use of the m a t e r i a l just suggested, helps to - 146 -strengthen and- extend conservation a t t i t u d e s and appreciations. I n t e g r a t i o n features t h i s method of i n s t r u c t i o n , since the i n -formation and ideas used are contributed by many subjects, such as geography, h i s t o r y , a r t , music, science, language and reading* The method of formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p r i n c i p l e s of conser-v a t i o n Is not recommended before the j u n i o r high years, and only i n an elementary form there, for the students are not yet mature enough to appreciate the formal p r i n c i p l e s of conservation. 7. The Junior High School student, with' keen i n t e r e s t s i n nature and e x p l o r a t i o n s , and of years i n which deep and l i f e l o n g impressions are made, i s mature enough to develop proper a t t i -tudes, form concepts, and hav©' an understanding of the n e c e s s i t y of conservation. The student i n the p u b l i c school system i s o r d i n a r i l y at the peak.of h i s energies and enthusiasms during these years. He i s r i p e f o r more than i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm i n causes of various s o r t s ; he becomes r e a d i l y inflamed with them, as witness h i s z e a l In such current war d r i v e s as "savings" and "waste paper". I t i s the.junior high group that p i l e s up the l a r g e s t t o t a l sales of war savings stamps, or the mountains of o l d newspapers and, magazines salvaged i n the d i s t r i c t . Though i t seems l i k e an anachronism, the b u i l d i n g up of a t t i t u d e s and a c t i v i t i e s of conservation varies d i r e c t l y with the amount of d e s t r u c t i o n caused by the war. There has never been a time i n our h i s t o r y when the philosophy and p r a c t i c e of conservation has been more popular than during the present years. This i s because warfare demands the a p p l i c a t i o n of conservation p r i n c i p l e s to a degree never exacted i n peace times. A p p l i c a t i o n means doing, and that i s why, at the moment, because the Junior - 147 -High School student i s a person of a c t i o n rather than mature thought, we must not neglect these years when promoting the cause of conservation. A l s o , we must see to i t that the method of a c t i v i t y i s employed to a much greater degree than the method of formal i n s t r u c t i o n . I f t h i s i s done, the impressions of conser-v a t i o n w i l l have hecome so impressed on the minds of the students, that i t w i l l became d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to erase them i n the years that f o l l o w . The seeds of good c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l have been c a r e f u l l y sown, and the w i l l i n g n e s s to do something to prevent waste and misuse, to r e s t o r e , and to preserve our n a t u r a l resources for the sate of our n a t i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y , and for the welfare and happiness of future generations, w i l l become a f i r m l y f i x e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i n d i v i d u a l . , 8. Methods that w i l l continue and expand r e c o g n i t i o n of conservation p r i n c i p l e s should be employed i n the Senior High School. Biology, geography, a g r i c u l t u r e , general science and s o c i a l studies are subjects that o f f e r much opportunity i n guiding the t h i n k i n g of youth on conservation problems, and to show t h e i r r e l a t i o n to human conservation. The- other subjects can add t h e i r quota too, of course, since the aims of conser-v a t i o n are the same as those of a l l general education. Expressed i n other words, we are i n t e r e s t e d i n conservation of n a t u r a l resources, with the sciences l a r g e l y f u r n i s h i n g the experiences, because that i s a means of p r o v i d i n g for human conservation, which i s the common aim of a l l the subjects i n the curriculum. Thus the a r t teacher who shows the p u p i l s how to arrange a vase of flowers a r t i s t i c a l l y , and the mathematics teacher who uses - 148 -the data of conservation problems, make t h e i r contributions too, to the great s o c i a l study which i s c a l l e d conservation. 9. In the f i n a l year of high school, i t might be p r o f i t a b l e to point up a l l the previous conservation f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s and precepts i n t o an e l e c t i v e course. Here a t t i t u d e s and apprec-i a t i o n s can be f u r t h e r developed, and s p e c i a l s t r e s s l a i d on the p r i n c i p l e s of conservation. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s that form the u n i t y i n nature would form a large part of t h i s course, from the standpoint of consideration of how the various s u b d i v i s i o n s , such as s o i l , water, w i l d l i f e , scenic and h i s t o r i c spots, f o r e s t s and minerals, a f f e c t human v/elfare and how they can be preserved, u t i l i z e d , renewed or restored to the end that they maintain t h e i r r espective c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the p r o s p e r i t y of the nation. There i s no doubt as to the importance of such a . course. Among i t s fundamental values could be l i s t e d the com-p o s i t i o n of the conservation teachings throughout a l l the pre-ceding years i n t o a connected whole, i n t o a philosophy that was permanent, i n t o a behaviour that i s the mark of a good c i t i z e n . The s p e c i a l course, besides assembling the framework of the study of conservation, gives opportunity to the student , to cover t h i s framework and produce, i n h i s own mind, the com-ple t e d p i c t u r e that reveals the s i g n i f i c a n c e of conservation. This p i c t u r e he can show and e x p l a i n to others, and i n so doing, spread the gospel of conservation. Conclusions: The methods i n teaching conservation are f l e x i b l e and varied. They are governed by such f a c t o r s as the nature of the m a t e r i a l , the age-level of the p u p i l , the amount and kind of - 149 -of i n t e r e s t that can he developed, and p a r t i c u l a r l y by the a b i l i t y , s k i l l , knowledge, and philosophy of the teacher. Since i t has been stressed that conservation i s a way of good c i t i z e n s h i p , i t f o l l o w s that every teacher i s , or should be, a teacher of i t . And since the aims of conservation are the same as a l l general education, then the methodology of the p a r t i c u l a r subjects i s adaptable to the teaching of conservation. Perhaps one or two i l l u s t r a t i o n s may i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . (a) The objective of l i t e r a c y i s one of the objectives of the school. The learning, of language symbols and usages i s a sure way to ready l e a r n i n g . In conservation, the story of the way i n which nature makes co n t r i b u t i o n s to our food, c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r Is a means of securing t h i s want to l e a r n to read. The s p e c i a l vocabulary, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of every subject, supplies words that, e n r i c h the a b i l i t y to t a l k , write,and read. Conser-v a t i o n has such a f r u i t f u l fund of concepts that many words are needed to communicate them. Thus,'the objective of l i t e r a c y i s aided by the method of i n q u i r i n g i n t o the meaning of conser-v a t i o n terms such as mammals, covey, f o r e s t s , b a c t e r i a , n a t u r a l resources, h a b i t a t , u t i l i z a t i o n , zoning f l o r a , , predation. (b) The objective of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n is"important i n our programme of studies. I n conservation we f i n d many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r enabling the i n d i v i d u a l student to develop h i s own a b i l i t i e s and to c u l t i v a t e his i n t e r e s t s i n u s e f u l and s a t i s f y i n g a c t i v -i t i e s of s o c i a l worth. The methods to be ap p l i e d for r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s o b j e c t i v e are such that minimum t e a c h e r - i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n are associated with maximum studentyperformance. Among - 150 -the many ways that the student can exercise h i s own i n t e r e s t s , and c a r r y through and he responsible f o r on h i s own recognizance are the p l a n t i n g of t r e e s , the planning, p l a n t i n g and care of a v i c t o r y garden, the growing of school f o r e s t s , the care of w i l d -l i f e refugees, roadside b e a u t i f i c a t i o n , the making of signs and other d i r e c t i o n s for t o u r i s t s , the salvaging of necessary m a t e r i a l s , the serving as f o r e s t p a t r o l s , the s e l l i n g of l i v i n g Christmas t r e e s , and many others. Use of methods, that permit such student p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l of a c t i v i t i e s , are worthy of commendation. The w r i t e r has used such methods w i t h marked success -in h i s l o c a l community., As one student remarked when he l e f t high school, commenting on a project our Conservation Club had c a r r i e d , through at the Green Timbers Fo r e s t r y S t a t i o n , "Whatever I f o r -get i n the years to come, I ' l l always remember Pinus resinosa, the red pine, what i t i s , where i t comes from, and how to plant i t . " /, (c) The o b j e c t i v e of s c i e n t i f i c method i s a major pur suit-i n p u b l i c education. In t h i s objective there i s not i n t e n t i o n to t r a i n s c i e n t i s t s , but there i s a steady p u r s u i t , i n a l l the grades, of the object of l e a d i n g the p u p i l s to understand and to use the methods of s c i e n t i s t s i n making t h e i r decisions i n the conduct of t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g . Teaching methods that con-form to t h i s object, the t r a i n i n g of youth to accept, appreciate and use the f i n d i n g s of sound s c i e n t i f i c research, should be kept to the forefront, and i n the p r a c t i c e of teaching as much as p o s s i b l e . - 151 -These three i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l serve to suggest that there are many ways for the i n t e r e s t e d teaeher to teach conser-va t i o n . The worth of the method employed can be c a l c u l a t e d by an a p p r a i s a l of the r e s u l t s , i n i n t e r e s t • e v o l v e d , i n work accomplished. The presentation of the subject, the soundness of the method, w i l l , I n any ease, be a r e f l e c t i o n of the teaeher, how w e l l he knows h i s c l a s s , and how w e l l he understands conser-vati o n . CHAPTER IV. - 152 -EXTRA-CURRICULAR C QHSERVATI OH ACTIVITIES I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I f conservation education Is to nave s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the student i n conservation a c t i v i t i e s must be extended beyond the schoolroom to the home and to the commun-i t y . Education must not be too academic, the i n t e l l e c t u a l must not be stressed to the neglect of the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l l y u s e f u l work must be provided as laboratory experience f o r education through doing. . Conservation education, l i k e character education, i m p l i e s e f f o r t towards a purpose, and t h i s i n turn implies har-mony of emphasis on the mental and p h y s i c a l . I t i s the purpose of t h i s b r i e f chapter to o u t l i n e instances of work.that can be done outside formal teaching, work which exemplifies the philosophy of conservation i n a c t i o n . This work w i l l - b r i n g the student to r e a l i z e that he has a pert to play i n the l i f e about him, and teach him that l i f e i s not fragmentary, l i k e the b r i e f periods and short u n i t s he experiences i n school, but i s continuous, with purposes that often carry through long periods of time. This work i n the community i s a complementary program of education which contributes to the conservation of a i l human valu.es by c r e a t i n g co-operative co'mmunities f u n c t i o n i n g through conservation. Examples of such s o c i a l l y u s e f u l work here l i s t e d have .been, c o l l e c t e d from various sources. I t i s hoped that t h i s l i s t w i l l be h e l p f u l i n suggesting s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s ana perbaps even more, In i l l u s t r a t i n g how the teachers can, through the students, - ,153 -lead the community to. e s t a b l i s h i t s own conservation p o l i c i e s with regard to health, wealth, and u t i l i z a t i o n of n a t u r a l re-sources. In t h i s way, a high l e v e l of community cultu r e can be maintained i n the country, and the undertakings that go on with-i n 'the community w i l l always be viewed from t h e i r educational point of view. Education w i l l take i t s place much cl o s e r to the i n d u s t r i a l l i f e and the s o i l than i s true at the present time. The inherent values of conservation that can only come through community l i f e w i l l be r e a l i z e d . I t may be questioned whether many of these examples are s u i t e d to c h i l d r e n ; whether there is not undue i n t e r f e r e n c e with the work of others i n the community; whether students are not being overburdened w i t h work beyond t h e i r capacity. The r e p l y to these questions i s that, provided reasonable judgment i s shown i n choosing p r o j e c t s , and proper s u p e r v i s i o n supplied i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s , these d i f f i c u l t i e s may be escaped. I t should be remembered that c h i l d r e n l i k e doing hard things i f they can r e a l l y do them w e l l , and that young c i t i z e n s have suffered more from the f r u s t r a t i o n of not being i n v i t e d to share i n s o l v i n g r e a l problems than from being overtaxed i n working at them. I f the p r o j e c t s are adjusted to meet the strengths and knowledge of the group t a k i n g p a r t , the education and s o c i a l values gained stimulates the conservation viewpoint, since the workers come to i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h purposes f a r greater than themselves. Eor convenience, the a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be grouped rough-l y i n t o elementary, j u n i o r , and senior, corresponding w i t h these - 154 -same d i v i s i o n s i n the educational system of B r i t i s h Columbia. Some of the a c t i v i t i e s may be pursued by a l l three groups and by adults as w e l l . Though the l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s i s b r i e f , undoubtedly they m i l suggest many others to the reader. ACTIVITIES ' Elementary 1. BIRDS' CAFETERIA. The f i r s t graders can make a feeding board, from odds and ends of lumber. The t r a y can be placed outside the window where the c h i l d r e n can observe the b i r d s feeding. The idea can be extended to the homes. The community may become a b i r d sanctuary. 2. HOME BEAUTIFICATION. Students from about the f o u r t h grade can carry on i n t e n s i v e campaigns for improvement of the home l o t . Flowers and vegetables can be grown. 5. COMMUNITY MAP. Elementary school c h i l d r e n can. f o l l o w the compass, count t h e i r paces, and keep notes to guide them i n drawing a map of. t h e i r immediate l o c a l i t y . By using segments, the map may be increased t o the desired s i z e . A f i n a l map i n color may be compiled. 4. SHRUBBERY EXCHANGE. Shrubs at home can be l i s t e d and com-pared. Cuttings and rooted shrubs can be exchanged. Ch i l d r e n who have no p l a n t s may be given c u t t i n g s . •5. CLEAN-UP CAMPAIGN. Maps of community areas that need improve-ment can be drawn. The co-operation of o f f i c i a l s , such as the h e a l t h o f f i c e r and the p o l i c e c h i e f , can be sought i n remedying unsanitary or otherwise u n s a t i s f a c t o r y conditions. The students can do some of the -work, such as destroying - 155 -mosquito breeding places, t i d y i n g up paper l i t t e r , and the l i k e , BETTER-GARDEN CAMPAIGN. Planting,, .growing, and supplying f r u i t , vegetables, and flowers, i n t h e i r e a r l y stages, can be handled e a s i l y by elementary p u p i l s . . The money earned can be put to community use, hot lunches at school, buying garden implements, or some such s i m i l a r group purpose. REFORESTATION. Prom the f i f t h grade up, r e f o r e s t a t i o n pro-j e c t s are popular. Trees may be secured from the Forest S e r v i c e , and areas i n need of r e f o r e s t i n g are common. Trans-p o r t a t i o n to the scene of a c t i v i t i e s can be furnished by parents or organized groups i n the community, such as service clubs. The goal of the "project may be'the establishment of a school f o r e s t or. of a community f o r e s t , or i t may be the establishment of wood-lots f o r farmers. This type of a c t i v i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to B r i t i s h Columbia,' as well, as-being tremendously appearling to students. The town of Squarnish has been c a r r y i n g on such a project for some years.. A day each year i s set aside for the excursion and most of the c i t i z e n s and a l l of the school c h i l d r e n make the t r i p by t r a i n to the f o r e s t s i t e . About f i v e acres are planted during the e a r l i e r part of-the day, and the r e s t of the day i s given over to p i c n i c k i n g and sports. There i s much i n t e r e s t i n the examination of previous plantings and i n watching the communit: fo r e s t increase i n size from year to year. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to se l e c t a more s o c i a l l y - u s e f u l a c t i v i t y to weld the community i n t o a co-operative u n i t . SCHOOL GARDEN. Children s i x to fourteen years of age can be - 156 -shown how to analyze the s o i l , add minerals, plant and c u l t i v a t e . The produce can he used f o r school lunches, taken home, or s o l d f o r school purposes. 9. SCHOOL BOY PATBOl. The value of t h i s t r a i n i n g i n safety and c i t i z e n s h i p i s well-known. 10. SCHOOL PLAYGROUND. S i x t h grade hoys and g i r l s can develop a model miniature playground, showing better l o c a t i o n of equip-ment, courts and f i e l d s , walks and b i c y c l e paths, t r e e s , hedges, and foot paths. They can then contribute much of the labor to carry out the suggested improvements. Junior 1. ELECTRICITY. Boys t e n to fourteen would enjoy b u i l d i n g a dam over a small r i v e r , i n s t a l l i n g a water wheel, and cr e a t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y . . The studies of water, f i s h and other resources suggest themselves when such a project i s under consideration. 2. BEAUTIFYING THE COMMUNITY. The approaches to a community may be g r e a t l y improved by s u i t a b l e p l a n t i n g s and removal of ugly signs and debris. 3. SERVICE KITS. One j u n i o r high school group; has made' up k i t s which' are used by the boys and g i r l s f o r rewa she r i n g faucets i n t h e i r own homes and the homes of f r i e n d s . Use of the k i t s conserved the l o c a l water supply. Each k i t contains two wrenches, one p a i r of p l i e r s , a seven Inch screw d r i v e r , a h a l f round f i l e , two boxes of assorted washers, screws, two wiping c l o t h s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . The t o o l s must be returned i n good con d i t i o n . 4. -SCHOOL NURSERY. In a r u r a l North C a r o l i n a school, a school nursery has produced i n twenty years one-half m i l l i o n trees and - 157 -shrubs, without cost to anyone. Three propagating houses have been b u i l t , the l a s t r e q u i r i n g the f e l l i n g , and sawing by the c h i l d r e n of f o r t y trees. Schools, churches, roadsides . a f a c t o r y and hundreds of homes have been landscaped, and the t o t a l appearance of the l i t t l e community transformed. 5. BETTER SEEDS CAMPAIGN. In Erasnoplovka, U.S.S.E., c h i l d r e n co-operated with the Central Bur'eau of Young Pioneers (equivalent to our Boy Scouts) i n s o r t i n g seeds, organizing groups and staging demonstrations to teach t h e i r parents how to sow clean seeds. 6. PEST-DESTRUCTION CAMPAIGNS. Posters showing damage caused • can be made and displayed i n stor e s . Surveys of i n f e s t e d areas, the c i r c u l a t i o n of d i r e c t i o n s f o r g e t t i n g r i d of pests and a c t u a l k i l l i n g of pests are labor c o n t r i b u t i o n s that the students can make. 7.. SERVICE UNITS. Groups can be organized to help around the homes of men overseas. They can p r a c t i s e conservation by l o o k i n g a f t e r the garden, making small r e p a i r s and by keeping up the general appearance of the grounds and b u i l d i n g s . 8. GREEN-TIMBER PRESERVATION. G i r l s can make " f o r e s t f i r e pre-. vent i o n " bags i n which hunters can Seep t h e i r tobacco and matches. These pouches could be presented to the sportsman when he buys h i s l i c e n s e , as a reminder about the danger of for e s t f i r e s . 9. CEDAR SACHETS AND WREATHS. The buskings l e f t when cedar seed i s being cleaned can be put i n t o l i t t l e sacks and s o l d as a moth-deterrent i n the home. Cedar wreaths are r e a d i l y s o l d - 158 -at Christmas time, and the money obtained can he devoted to conservation work. 10. CLUB-BOOMS. The j u n i o r high school students can p l a n and pre-pare a club-room, c a r r y i n g out the r u s t i c , outdoor e f f e c t . They can make the f u r n i t u r e and the w a l l decorations out of the n a t u r a l objects of the f o r e s t s . By the use of photography, taxidermy, wood-carving, and the l i k e , a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g can be provided f o r club meetings. Senior 1. IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATIONS. High school organizations can per-form such tasks of community and home b e a u t i f i c a t i o n as the f o l l o w i n g : cleaning snow from sidewalks, t a k i n g a tree census, p u b l i c playground work i n the summer, p l a n t i n g trees f o r shade, f i l l i n g washouts i n roads and g u l l i e s , c l e a r i n g up empty l o t s and c u t t i n g down brush, b u i l d i n g b i r d houses, destroying moth eggs and cocoons, removing r o t t e n limbs from t r e e s , destroying wee5.s. 2. TRUCK-TREKS. Using a s p e c i a l l y constructed t r a c k complete w i t h l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s , a group of boys or g i r l s can t r a v e l and study t h e i r country inexpensively during the summer. The resources of a more s p e c i f i c area can be s t u d i e d by c y c l i n g •or r i d i n g group. 3. FAIR EXHIBITS.' At f a i r s and e x h i b i t i o n s a r t i s t i c e x h i b i t s u s i n g p l a n t s and animals can be d i s p l a y e d by senior boys and g i r l s . The Boys Game Club of Kamioops presented a most , e f f e c t i v e showing of the game resources of the Kamloops area at the "Vancouver E x h i b i t i o n . This a c t i v e boys' cltib from Kamloops has erected guide - 159 -posts throughout t h e i r d i s t r i c t as an a i d to the v i s i t i n g anglers and hunters. 4. SCHOOL FARMS. Many Mexican schools have attached to them farms where s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e , 'animal husbandry, and marketing are taught. The farms produce f o r the school lunch-rooms, and surplus products are marketed. 5. FIRE PATROL. A f t e r observation of s o i l - e r o s i o n on burned-over lands, students can be t r a i n e d i n f i r e c o n t r o l . T r a i n i n g can be given i n back f i r i n g , proper use of hoes, rakes and . shovels, and-In b u i l d i n g f i r e lanes. In the summer, groups of high school boys can be used i n f i r e prevention work by the Forest Service. This i s being' done, and very s u c c e s s f u l l y i n most cases, i n the lower mainland area of B r i t i s h Columbia. 6. RANGE CONTROL. Students can be given f i e l d i n s t r u c t i o n during t h e i r h o l i d a y seasons on the problems of range a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Their l a b o r can be used i n opening t r a i l s , p r o t e c t i n g water-holes, seeding, and s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . 7. LAND RECLAMATION. Acreage can be acquired where students p r a c t i s e correct methods of c u t t i n g t r e e s , p l a n t i n g crops, r e c l a i m i n g worn-out farms, constructing l a k e s , erosion pre-vention, and r e l a t e d conservation a c t i v i t i e s . 8. SCHOOL SEWAGE. Because the o l d sewage system was dangerous to h e a l t h , a student body undertook to replace i t . A l l labor was performed and a l l materials were f i g u r e d and bought by the students. Under s u p e r v i s i o n , work of the highest q u a l i t y . was performed. The students wrote a movie scenario as they worked and made a movie of the e n t i r e p r o j e c t . This was a student c o n t r i b u t i o n to health conservation. - 160 -9. CULTURAL RESOURCES. Among the v a r i e t y of n a t i o n a l i t i e s and races, there are many c u l t u r a l resources that should not he l o s t . Groups can be organized to put on c u l t u r a l e x h i b i t s and programs f o r the community, hel p i n g adults to a b e t t e r understanding of one another's a r t s , music, dancing, handi-c r a f t s and l i t e r a t u r e . This i s a conservation a c t i v i t y of great value. 10. ARBORETUM. The students of the New Westminster high schools surveyed an area s u i t a b l e as an arboretum where specimens of the trees and shrubs native to B r i t i s h Columbia could be . e s t a b l i s h e d . This l i v i n g educational e x h i b i t would serve adults and v i s i t o r s as w e l l as the l o c a l school population. 11. LIVING 2MAS TREES. In many places, students can d i g , pot* and s e l l l i v i n g evergreen t r e e s for use at Zmas. The New Westminster students Introduced t h i s idea i n t h e i r community. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r care of the t r e e s was given to the buyer and the students replanted the .-trees i n the yard of the owner when the season was over. The same tree was thus preserved f o r use during the succeeding years. 12. EISH BARRIERS. Students can remove debris that impede the movements of m i g r a t i n g f i s h . BIBLIOGRAPHY Galdwell, J . "Conservation Education i n Tennessee", Conference on Education i n Conservation, The National W i l d l i f e Feder-a t i o n , Washington, D.C., 1939, p.28. "Conservation as a production p o l i c y " , American Biology Teacher, V o l . 5, No. 4, January, 1943, p.84. Dymond, J.R., Transactions Canadian Conservation Association,. London, Ontario, 1941, p.92. Fosdick, R.B., "The search f o r u n i t y " , The Rock e f e l l e r Foundation Annual Report f o r 1941, New York, 1942, p.9. Gabrielson, T.N., W i l d l i f e Conservation, The Macmillan Company,. Toronto, 1941, preface, p.15. Huntsman, A.G., Transactions Canadian Conservation A s s o c i a t i o n , London, Ontario, 1941, p.106. Jean, Harrah, Herman, Powers, Kan and the nature of the b i o l o g i c a l world, Ginn and Co., New York, 1934, 2 v o l s . , p.24. Lees, H. , "Balancing act'"-, C o l l i e r s Magazine; August 20, 1938, p.30. O ' N e i l l , J . J . , "The r o l e of mining", Papers from the j o i n t session of sections of the Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa, 1941, pp.29, 29-33.. Pack, A.N., "The p i t f a l l s of conservation", Foundations of Conservation education, National W i l d l i f e Federation, Washington, D.C., 1941, p.55. Programme of studies, f o r the ju n i o r high schools of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Grades, V I I , V I I I , IX, B r i t i s h Columbia, Depart-ment of Education, 1939, pp.201, 297, 301, 305. B i b l i o g r a p h y - continued Programme of studies f o r the j u n i o r high schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, supplement general science III", 194S. Programme of studies f o r the senior high schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n I , B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Educa-t i o n , 1941, p.127, 173, 174, 174, 177. Reid, K.A., "Water - a primary n a t u r a l resource", Mimeograph, Izaak Walton league of America, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , September 16, 1940, p . l . . Sears, P.B. "The ABC of conservation", Foundations of conservation education, National W i l d l i f e Federation, Washington, D. C., 1941, pp. 1, 40. Van Dersal, W.R., "Environmental improvement f o r valuable non-game animals", Transactions 5th North American W i l d l i f e Conference, American: W i l d l i f e I n s t i t u t e , Washington, D.C , 1941, p.200. Ward, H.B., "Biology as the foundation of conservation education", Foundations of conservation education, National W i l d l i f e Federation, Washington, D.C., 1941, pp.147, 175. 

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