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Some factors that influence poultry farm incomes: a study made on forty-six poultry farms in coastal… Woodward, Eugene Douglas 1945

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SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POULTRY FARM INCOMES A S t u d y Made on F o r t y - S i x P o u l t r y Farms i n C o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - by Eugene D o u g l a s Woodward, B.S.A. A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f The R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE t o f AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS THE UNIVERSITY OF BRI T I S H COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1?45 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Dean F.M. Clement u n d e r whose s u p e r v i s i o n t h i s s u r v e y has been c o n d u c t e d , and t o P r o f e s s o r s E.A. L l o y d and J . B i e l y o f t h e Department o f P o u l t r y H u s b a n d r y f o r c o u n s e l and s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t have been i n v a l u a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s u r v e y . Acknowledgment i s a l s o made t o D r . V.C. B r i n k o f t h e Depa r t m e n t o f Agronomy f o r a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e r e -g a r d i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d o ut w i t h f i n a n c i a l a i d f r o m S a f e w a y ^ S t o r e s L t d . t o whom g r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d * TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2 . E c o n o m i c I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P o u l t r y I n d u s t r y 2 3• Method o f C o n d u c t i n g t h e S u r v e y 4 4. War C o n d i t i o n s 6 j>. D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms u s e d 10 6. D e g r e e o f S p e c i a l i z a t i o n 12 7 . S i z e o f Farms 14 8. S i z e o f F l o c k s 18 ?• L a b o u r 21 10. A S t u d y o f F l o c k s 2? 1 1 . C o m p a r i s o n o f R e t u r n s 50 1 2 . C o s t o f Feed p e r Dozen Eggs 32 13« F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g R e t u r n s 33 14. Government S u b s i d y ' 36 1 5 . C o m p a r i s o n o f R e t u r n s f r o m M a r k e t and H a t c h i n g Egg F l o c k s 37 16 . Summary 39 17• An A p p r e c i a t i o n 41 18. B i b l i o g r a p h y 42 TABLES Page I G r o s s V a l u e o f F i v e L e a d i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1940-1943 3 I I Number o f Farms i n t h e S u r v e y 9 I I I S o u r c e s o f T o t a l Income 12 17 S i z e o f Farms i n A c r e s 15 V S i z e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n A c r e s and Number o f Farms i n e a c h C l a s s 16 V I S i z e o f F l o c k , L a b o u r Income and C o s t per Dozen Eggs 17 ¥11 Summary o f B u s i n e s s on t h e A v e r a g e Farm 23 V I I I C o m p a r i s o n o f A v e r a g e s o f a l l Farms w i t h t h e H i g h Income and Low Income Groups 24 I X C o m p a r i s o n o f I n v e s t m e n t , C o s t s and R e c e i p t s 25 X •  C o m p a r i s o n o f 1944 and 1945 S u r v e y s 26 X I F l o e k s i z e , M o r t a l i t y and C u l l i n g 29 SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POULTRY FARM INCOMES A S t u d y made on F o r t y - S i x P o u l t r y Farms i n C o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l o INTRODUCTION Under d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Dep a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Department o f P o u l t r y H u s b a n d r y a P o u l t r y Farm S u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e Lower E r a s e r V a l l e y and on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , on A p r i l 1, 194-3. A p r e v i o u s s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1921-19 29. A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , "A R e p o r t on S i x t y - F i v e C o m m e r c i a l P o u l t r y Farms i n t h e Lower E r a s e r V a l l e y and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d " by E.A. L l o y d , V.S. Asmundson and R . J , S k e l t o n was p u b l i s h e d i n 1922, an i n t e r i m r e p o r t , "A S u r v e y o f P o u l t r y Farms i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " by W.J. R i l e y , E.A. L l o y d and V.S. Asmundson i n 1927, and a f u r t h e r r e p o r t , "Farm S u r v e y R e c o r d s and F l o c k Management P r o b l e m s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " by E.A. L l o y d ana W.J. R i l e y i n 1930. P o u l t r y Farm s u r v e y s have heen c o n d u c t e d a t many i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , b u t s i n c e i n most c a s e s t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s have d i f f e r e d i n many ways f r o m t h o s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i t h one o r two e x c e p t i o n s t h e y have n o t been r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s r e p o r t . T h i s s u r v e y was made p o s s i b l e by a g i f t o f f u n d s f r o m S a f e w a y S t o r e s Ltd„ The g i f t was made w i t h no r e s e r v a t i o n s as t o t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e s u r v e y o r t h e use o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d . The s u r v e y has been c o n -d u c t e d e n t i r e l y u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y and i n f o r m a t i o n t h e r e b y s e c u r e d i s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s u r v e y may be o f some a s s i s t a n c e t o p r a c t i c a l p o u l t r y m e n i n s t u d y i n g t h e management o f t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r f a r m b u s i n e s s e s , and e s p e c i a l l y t o men r e t u r n i n g f r o m t h e Armed F o r c e s who may c o n s i d e r e n g a g i n g i n t h e P o u l t r y I n d u s t r y i n t h e p o s t war p e r i o d . 2 . ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY P o u l t r y p r o d u c t s r a n k f o u r t h i n o r d e r o f v a l u e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s i n Canada, t h e i r v a l u e f o r t h e y e a r 1943 b e i n g $166,903*000. I t i s now e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e c u r r e n t y e a r w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y |200,000,000. As w i l l be n o t e d f r o m T a b l e I , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s a r e a l s o f o u r t h i n o r d e r o f •value, b e i n g e x c e e d e d o n l y by f i e l d c r o p s , f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s and m i l k p r o d u c t s . The p o u l t r y p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1943 was e s t i m a t e d t o be 3 , 6 2 6,700 and t h e v a l u e o f p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s $11,493,000. I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e v a l u e o f p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e c u r r e n t y e a r w i l l e x c e e d | 1 3,000,000. TABLE I G r o s s V a l u e o f F i v e L e a d i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l , P r o d u c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1940 - 1943 1 1940 1941 1942 1943 F i e l d C r o p s 14,427,000. 14,178,000. 18,244,000. 22,256,000, ' F r u i t s and V e g e t a b l e s 11,226,000. 12,388,000.. 15 , 2 3 0,000. 16,575,000, M i l k P r o d u c t s 6,528,000. 7*173*000* 10,289,000. 11,823,000. P o u l t r y P r o d u c t s 6,201,000. 6 , 5 7 6 , 0 0 0 . 8 ,806,000. 11,493,000. Farm A n i m a l s 5,854,000. 9,401,000. 9,324,000. 1 1,261,000. I t i s w o r t h y o f n o t e t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s i n Canada come f r o m a l a r g e number o f g e n e r a l f a r m s where p o u l t r y i s a s i d e l i n e . The p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t e n d s t o be s p e c i a l i z e d , - m a n y f a r m e r s d e r i v i n g t h e i r e n t i r e incomes f r o m t h e s a l e o f p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s j and some h a v i n g f l o c k s o f s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d b i r d s , E v e n h e r e , however, a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r c e n t a g e o f p r o d u c t i o n i s f r o m u n i t s w h i c h do not oc c u p y t h e f u l l t i m e o f t h e o p e r a t o r , a s u r p r i s i n g l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e f a r m s h a v i n g f l o c k s as l a r g e as 1,000 b i r d s . 3 . METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE SURVEY I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n as r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e on t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e b u s i n e s s o f p o u l t r y f a r m i n g , t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r s e c u r i n g d a t a was a d o p t e d : A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r an i n -v e n t o r y was t a k e n , p l a c i n g a v a l u e on l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , e q u i p m e n t , s u p p l i e s and s t o c k . The f a r m e r was s u p p l i e d w i t h a book o f r e c o r d f o r m s , one s h e e t f r o m t h e book f o r ea c h month i n t h e y e a r . These f o r m s p r o v i d e d f o r a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d o f t h e b i r d s added t o , and removed f r o m t h e l a y i n g f l o c k , o f p r o d u c t i o n , p o u l t r y i n c o m e , and e x p e n d i t u r e s . These r e c o r d f o r m s were m a i l e d by t h e P o u l t r y m e n t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y e a c h month d u r i n g t h e y e a r . The f i g u r e s were c h e c k e d and e n t e r e d on permanent recor,d--ca"rds in...the o f f i c e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y , so t h a t e a c h c a r d a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r w o u l d c o n t a i n a c o m p l e t e r e c o r d o f a l l t r a n s a c -t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h e y e a r f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f a r m . The o r i g i n a l m o n t h l y r e c o r d s when c h e c k e d were m a i l e d b a c k each month t o t h e p o u l t r y m e n f o r t h e i r own f i l e s * A t t h e end o f t h e y e a r an i n v e n t o r y o f e a c h f a r m was a g a i n t a k e n , so t h a t changes i n i n v e n t o r y c o u l d be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c o m p u t a t i o n o f r e t u r n s . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e m o r t a l i t y p r o b l e m (6) a s p e c i a l e f f o r t was made t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l b i r d s so t h a t an a c c u r a t e r e c o r d o f a d u l t m o r t a l i t y c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . As e x p e c t e d , t h i s p r o v e d t o be a d i f f i c u l t u n d e r t a k i n g . I t was d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f t h e numbers o f b i r d s i n v o l v e d and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g t h e p o u l t r y m a n make an e n t r y f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l b i r d t h a t d i e d o r was c u l l e d . A s t r i c t a c c o u n t was k e p t e a c h month and even t h e n t h e i n v e n t o r y o f b i r d s a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r was f o u n d i n some c a s e s t o be s l i g h t l y s h o r t . E x p e r i e n c e i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r m o r t a l i t y i n t h i s s u r v e y w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a v e r a g e f a r m e r t e n d s t o o v e r l o o k some o f h i s l o s s e s e s p e c i a l l y when c a r e f u l r e c o r d s a r e n o t k e p t . The a c t u a l l o s s e s t h e r e f o r e a r e g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p o u l t r y f a r m e r r e a l i z e s . A t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o v e r n i n e t y f a r m e r s were c o o p e r a t i n g i n t h e s u r v e y and t h i r t y o f t h e s e had c o m p l e t e d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The r e -m a i n d e r had s u b m i t t e d m o n t h l y r e c o r d s f o r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g f r o m one t o e l e v e n months. A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t ( ? ) was c o m p i l e d i n June 1944 g i v i n g a summary o f t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e s e . t h i r t y f a r m s . By t h e end o f June 1944 a t o t a l o f one h u n d r e d and e i g h t p o u l t r y m e n were c o o p e r a t i n g i n t h e s u r v e y . New i n v e n t o r i e s were t a k e n and a new s u r v e y y e a r was begun. The y e a r ' s r e c o r d has now been c o m p l e t e d by f i f t y o f t h e s e f a r m e r s . From t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h e r e c o r d s an a t t e m p t i s made t o show t h e r e t u r n s made f r o m d i f f e r e n t f a r m s , what f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e s e r e t u r n s and a l s o t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g eggs on t h e d i f f e r e n t f a r m s . I n t e r e s t was c h a r g e d a g a i n s t t h e eggs a t t h e r a t e o f 5% p e r annum on t h e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . D e p r e c i a -t i o n on b u i l d i n g s was c h a r g e d a t t h e r a t e o f 3%t and on equipment s u c h as b r o o d e r s and i n c u b a t o r s a t t h e r a t e o f 10% p e r annum. 4• WAR CONDITIONS ' The e f f e c t s o f war and t h e c o n s e q u e n t demand f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f f o o d have r e s u l t e d i n r a i s i n g t h e p r i c e l e v e l o f r e a l e s t a t e i n t h i s a r e a t o a v e r y marked d e g r e e . The i n f l u e n c e o f s p e c u l a t i v e g a i n s i n c h a n g i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s has been a v o i d e d a s much as p o s s i b l e i n c o m p u t a t i o n o f r e t u r n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n l a n d v a l u a t i o n has been h e l d as i t was a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s u r v e y , a l t h o u g h t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f l a n d h a s r i s e n c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . I n any case t h e a v e r a g e i n t e r e s t c h a r g e o f 1.73^ p e r d o z e n eggs i s n o t a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e c o s t , and f l u c t u -a t i o n i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e w o u l d t h e r e f o r e , as f a r as i n t e r e s t on i n v e s t m e n t i s c o n c e r n e d , have a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e f f e c t on t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g eggs. A l o n g w i t h t h e h i g h e r p r i c e s o f f a r m p r o d u c t s and l a n d a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e r a t e o f t u r n o v e r as e v i d e n c e d by t h e change o f o w n e r s h i p o f many o f t h e f a r m s i n t h e s u r v e y . Of t h e one h u n d r e d and e i g h t f a r m e r s c o o p e r a t i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s u r v e y y e a r s i x t e e n w i t h d r e w because, t h e y had s o l d t h e i r f a r m s . The most common r e a s o n g i v e n f o r w i t h d r a w a l was t h a t t h e p o u l t r y m a n c o u l d n o t s p a r e t h e t i m e t o k eep t h e r e c o r d s . N i n e t e e n c o o p e r a t o r s were u n a b l e t o c o n t i n u e o w i n g t o p r e s s u r e o f work and i n s u f f i c i e n t h e l p . I n a number o f c a s e s t h i s - s i t u a t i o n was a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r h i r e d h e l p o r members o f t h e f a m i l y l e a v i n g t o j o i n t h e Armed F o r c e s . T h i s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e amount o f l a b o u r f o r t h e o p e r a t o r h i m s e l f t o t h e p o i n t where he was u n a b l e t o c o n t i n u e t h e e x t r a work o f k e e p i n g r e c o r d s . N i n e o f t h e number f i n i s h e d t h e i r r e c o r d b e f o r e t h e c l o s e o f t h e s u r v e y y e a r and d i d n o t c o n t i n u e , c o n -s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e y "Had done t h e i r s h a r e " . An a d d i t i o n a l n i n e men c o n t i n u e d r e c o r d k e e p i n g f o r t h e f u l l y e a r b u t t h e i r f i g u r e s were i n c o m p l e t e i n some r e s p e c t o r were n o t r e c e i v e d i n t i m e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e p o r t . Of t h e r e m a i n d e r , t h r e e p o u l t r y m e n d r o p p e d out b e c a u s e o f i l l -n e s s , two d i e d , one went out o f t h e p o u l t r y b u s i n e s s and t h r e e d i s c o n t i n u e d f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s * The above w i t h d r a w a l s f r o m t h e one h u n d r e d and e i g h t p o u l t r y m e n c o o p e r a t i n g at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s u r v e y y e a r l e f t f o r t y - s i x f a r m s on w h i c h t h e a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c o m p l e t e . I t i s f r o m t h e f u l l y e a r ' s r e c o r d s o f t h e s e f o r t y - s i x f a r m s t h a t t h i s r e p o r t i s c o m p i l e d . 9. TABLE I I NUMBER OF FARMS I N THE SURVEY No. o f Farms P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l R e c o r d s u s e d i n c o m p i l a t i o n o f r e p o r t 46 42«6 R e c o r d s k e p t b u t i n c o m p l e t e i n some r e s p e c t o r n o t r e c e i v e d i n t i m e • r 8 . 3 F i n i s h e d a y e a r ' s r e c o r d b e f o r e c l o s e o f s u r v e y y e a r and c o n -s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y "Had done t h e i r s h a r e " • •• 9 • ]•• ;;./;8'.3' " U n a b l e t o c o n t i n u e , o w i n g t o p r e s s u r e o f work and h e l p l e a v i n g t o j o i n t h e Armed F o r c e s • ; 19" "'."' •. 17.6 S o l d t h e i r f a r m s 14 » 8 U n a b l e t o c o n t i n u e o w i n g t o i l l n e s s :- > .. 2 08 D i s c o n t i n u e d o w i n g t o d e a t h 2 " -.I..? No l o n g e r i n t h e p o u l t r y b u s i n e s s 1 M i s c e l l a n e o u s ? 2.8 TOTAL 108 100.0 10, 5. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED THE NUMBER OF BIRDS AT THE BEGINNING OF SURVEY i s t h e number o f b i r d s i n t h e l a y i n g house a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e c o r d y e a r . A HEN DAY i s one b i r d i n t h e l a y i n g house f o r one day. THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF BIRDS i s t h e number o f hen days d i v i d e d by t h e number o f days i n t h e y e a r . THE PULLET:HEN RATIO i s t h e a v e r a g e number o f p u l l e t s compared w i t h t h e a v e r a g e number o f h e n s , e a c h e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a v e r a g e number o f b o t h hens and p u l l e t s f o r t h e y e a r * . . . . . PER GENT MORTALITY i s t h e number o f b i r d s t h a t d i e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a v e r a g e number i n t h e f l o c k f o r one year® f PER CENT CULLED AND SOLD i s t h e number o f b i r d s removed f o r c a u s e s o t h e r t h a n d e a t h , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a v e r a g e number i n t h e f l o c k f o r t h e y e a r . TOTAL TURNOVER OF STOCK (PER CENT) i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a v e r a g e number i n t h e f l o c k w h i c h i s removed d u r i n g t h e y e a r b e c a u s e o f m o r t a l i t y and c u l l i n g o RATE OF LAY i s o b t a i n e d b y d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l number o f eggs l a i d by t h e t o t a l number o f hen d a y s • FALL EGG LAY i s t h e r a t e o f l a y f o r O c t o b e r , November and December. EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD i s o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e number o f eggs p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t he y e a r by t h e a v e r a g e number o f b i r d s f o r t h e y e a r . INVESTMENT PER BIRD i s o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e amount o f i n v e s t m e n t by t h e a v e r a g e number o f b i r d s f o r t h e y e a r . 6. DEGREE OF SPECIALIZATION A s t u d y o f t h e r e c o r d s shows t h a t t h e g r o s s p o u l t r y income o f t h e s e f a r m s i s m a i n l y f r o m t h e s a l e o f e g g s . T h i s i s t r u e t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e " p o u l t r y f a r m s " i n t h i s a r e a m i g h t he t e r m e d "egg p r o d u c t i o n p l a n t s " , t h e s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e income w h i c h i s f r o m c o c k e r e l s b e i n g a b y - p r o d u c t o f t h e egg industry» M o r e o v e r , income f r o m t h e s a l e o f c u l l hens i s i n r e a l i t y a s a l v a g e v a l u e r e c e i v e d f o r a b a d l y d e p r e c i a t e d egg p r o d u c i n g m a c h i n e . The p e r c e n t a g e o f income f r o m e a c h s o u r c e on t h e a v e r a g e f a r m i s t a b u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : TABLE I I I SOURCES OF TOTAL INCOME 194? - 1944 1944 1945 E ggs 86.0?£ 81.27 $ C h i c k e n s l i e 8 8 16 . 6 2 S u n d r y 2.09 2.11 13 . The s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was even more p r o n o u n c e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e s u r v e y , when p o u l t r y meats were n o t as r e a d i l y s o l d f r o m t h e farm®, p a r t l y b e c a u s e e x i s t i n g k i l l i n g s t a t i o n s d i d n o t have a d e q u a t e f a c i l i -t i e s and l a b o u r f o r k i l l i n g and d r e s s i n g t h e b i r d s * D u r i n g t h a t y e a r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e c e i p t s f r o m s a l e o f b i r d s was f i v e p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n i t was t h i s y e a r , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e f r o m eggs f i v e p e r c e n t h i g h e r * T h i s was i n p a r t due t o t h e f a c t t h a t p r o d u c e r s r e c e i v e d a h i g h e r a v e r a g e p r i c e f o r t h e i r eggs t h e f i r s t y e a r , 1943 1944, t h a n t h e s e c o n d , 1944 - 1945. (35*8$! as compared w i t h 30.10 i n c l u d i n g eggs s o l d f o r h a t c h i n g ) A n o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r , h o w e v e r 9 was t h a t d u r i m g t h i s y e a r (1944 - 1 9 4 5 ) , p o u l t r y meat moved more r e a d i l y f r o m t h e f a r m s . C u l l hens had a g r e a t e r s a l v a g e v a l u e and what c o c k e r e l s were r a i s e d b r o u g h t ,a b e t t e r r e t u r n t h a n i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . .••<•»• F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p u t i n g t h e c o s t o f t h e eggs p r o d u c e d i t was assumed t h a t t h e b y - p r o d u c t s were s o l d a t c o s t . When computed i n t h i s way t h e c o s t o f eggs i s i n f l u e n c e d t o some e x t e n t by t h e p r i c e and amount o f t h e b y - p r o d u c t . However, s i n c e s u c h a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e income was f r o m t h e b y - p r o d u c t , i t was c o n s i d e r e d j u s t i f i a b l e t o c o n s i d e r eggs as t h e i t e m on w h i c h a l l c o s t s and p r o f i t s were c a l c u l a t e d . 14. R e t u r n s a r e e x p r e s s e d as L a b o u r Income. By t h i s t e r m i s meant t h e amount l e f t a f t e r a l l c o s t s , i n c l u d i n g I n t e r e s t and D e p r e c i a t i o n but n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e l a b o u r o f t h e o p e r a t o r , a r e d e d u c t e d f r o m t h e g r o s s r e c e i p t s * L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d i s t h e L a b o u r Income d i v i d e d by t h e a v e r a g e number of b i r d s i n the l a y i n g f l o c k * 7. SIZE OF FARMS:;: The p o u l t r y f a r m s i n t h e s u r v e y a r e s m a l l i n a c r e a g e . The r a n g e i s f r o m .25 to 13.5 a c r e s used by p o u l t r y and o n l y ..seven,' o f t h e f o r t y - s i x ' f a r m s have f i v e f i v e - a c r e s o r more. - The m o s t - p o p u l a r s i z e i n t h i s s ample i s two acres, ten of the f o r t y - s i x farms being of that s i z e . The average amount of land used i s 2.8 a c r e s . The average t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t per farm e x c l u s i v e of residence i s $ 3 * 3 0 0 . 0 0 , an increase of $400 . 0 0 over l a s t year. The increase i s due to some extent to the cost of new equipment and improvements made during the p e r i o d of high p r i c e s . I t should be r e a l i z e d that the b u i l d i n g s on these farms are old i n many cases and that i n view of present day p r i c e s the v a l u a t i o n , moreover, i s low. I t would not be reasonable t h e r e f o r e to expect to develop a new farm f o r such a l o w f i g u r e at present cost p r i c e s of both land and b u i l d i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , as has already been s t a t e d , t h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e f a r m does n o t i n c l u d e t h e d w e l l i n g h o u s e . T h i s p l a c e s t h e p o u l t r y m e n on a b a s i s more n e a r l y c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n whose l i v i n g q u a r t e r s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f h i s business« However, s i n c e i t i s c u s t o m a r y f o r t h e d w e l l i n g t o be s o l d w i t h t h e f a r m , t h e v a l u e o f t h e house w o u l d have t o be i n c l u d e d i n an e s t i m a t e o f t h e c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d f o r e n t e r i n g t h e p o u l t r y business® TABLE I V S I Z E OF FARMS IN ACRES Number o f Farms P e r Cent o f T o t a l Number S i z e i n A c r e s 1 6 1 4 3 1 10 4 1 6 2 3 1 1 1 1 2.2/. 1-3 •©• 2 .2 8.7 6 .5 2.2-^ 21.7 8.7 2.2 1 3 . 0 4 . 3 6.5 2 .2 2.2 2.2 2 .2 1 0 . 0 0 11 .00 13 .50 . 2 5 .50 •75 1.00 1.50 1.75 2 .00 2.50 2.75 3 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 6 , 0 0 46 1 0 0 . oof. TABLE V S I Z E CLASSIFICATION I N ACRES AMD NUMBER 0? FARMS I K EACH CLASS S I Z E NUMBER OF FARMS PER GENT OF TOTAL LESS THAN 1 ACRE 17 o4 1 ACRE BUT LESS THAN 2 17*4 2 ACRES BUT LESS THAN 3 15 32.6 3 ACRES BUT LESS THAN 5 17*4 5 ACRES BUT LESS THAN 10 4 b .7 10 ACRES BUT LESS THAN 14 6,5 H TABLE Y I 17. SIZE OF FLOCK, LABOUR INCOME AND COST PER DOZEN EGGS A v e r a g e No. F l o c k L a b o u r Co s t p e r Dozen i o f B i r d s L a b o u r Income E g g s , E x c l u s i v e Income p e r B i r d o f L a b o u r 1556.3 838.90 .54 21.99 1243.6 1,877.84 1.51 20.18 1235.1 2,017.86 1.63 22.80 1155 . 2 1,427.89 1.24 23.22 1096.6 2,677.27 2.44 15.92 1049.1 1,793.66 • 1.71 17.35 1013.9 496.41 .49 29.98 988 . 2 2 , 1 0 3.83 2,263.17 2.13 15.51 986.1 2.29 16.57 945 . 4 4 8 9 . 3 1 .52 22.29 936.7 u 934.57 1.00 21.84 884.8 2,493.40 2.82 14 . 5 7 867 . 4 1,740 .77 2.01 14.73 8 0 8 . 3 1,144 . 5 5 1.41 22.73 783.6 2,215 .10 17.80 770 658.15 .85 21.20 746 . 7 818 . 2 9 1.10 19.06 737.2 1,004.93 1.36 16.89 734.5 1,561.97 2.13 16.82 727 1 ,105.21 1.52 19*62 704.8 •» 39*19 — . 08 22.00 692«6 408.57 .59 22.43 6 8 5 . 3 .1,011.63 1 . 4 8 18 . 84 684 1 ,715 .65 2.51 12.80 660.6 1,629.94 2.47 13.89 593 152 . 3 1 .26 24,10 555 998.34 i 1.80 16.68 554 765.22 1.38 19.43 5 4 5 . 3 1,166 . 3 0 2.14 18.65 4 9 7 . 1 1,136 . 1 8 2.28 12.76 4 9 0 . 3 1,128.40 2.30 13.22 469.4 980.20 2.09 14.21 450 . 9 575.94 . 1.28 20.53 427.8 581.78 1.36 24.66 379 . 6 229.22 .60 24.65 376 . 8 988.03 2.62 14.61 348.4 350.97 1.01 2 0 . 3 1 291 . 3 586 . 3 2 2.01 15 . 5 2 254.2 194.49 » 7 6 21.69 249 . 6 219.86 .88 20.80 19 8.5 431.25 2 .17 15.21 194 . 7 461.97 2.37 10.26 194 . 7 155 . 3 3 .80 22.53 188 322.99 1 . 7 2 18.27 139.4 113.01 .81 32.08 105 198.67 1.90 17«xo 1 8 . 8c S I Z E OF FLOCKS A b e t t e r measure o f t h e s i z e o f a p o u l t r y f a r m i s t h e a v e r a g e number o f b i r d s k e p t i n t h e l a y i n g h o u s e s . These f l o c k s r a n g e i n s i z e f r o m 105 b i r d s t o 1,556 b i r d s on a hen day b a s i s , w i t h t h e a v e r a g e s i z e b e i n g 656 b i r d s (t 1 0 3 ) . * I t c an be s t a t e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e f l o c k s i z e o f a l l p o u l t r y f a r m s i n t h e a r e a i s between 553 b i r d s and 759 b i r d s . I n d i s c u s s i n g f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g e g g s , t h e q u e s t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s an "e c o n o m i c u n i t " i s f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d b y some t h a t c o s t s w i l l d e c r e a s e as t h e s i z e o f t h e f l o c k i n c r e a s e s , o r i n o t h e r words t h a t eggs c a n n o t be p r o d u c e d e c o n o m i c a l l y f r o m a s m a l l f l o c k . * S t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e mean has been c a l c u l a t e d , b u t f o r more d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e mean, t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r has been m u l t i p l i e d by t h e v a l u e o f " t " a t t h e 95$ l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y and t h e r e q u i r e d d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m . The r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e i s t h e r a n g e on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e mean. T h a t i s , i n t h e above c a s e t h e r e a r e 95 c h a n c e s out o f 100 t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f a l l f l o c k s i n t h e a r e a sampled i s between 553 b i r d s and 759 b i r d s . The above p r o c e d u r e has been f o l l o w e d i n a l l c a s e s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s paper where r e l i a b i l i t y o f a mean i s s t a t e d . 19. E x a m i n a t i o n o f r e c o r d s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s does n o t seem t o c o n f i r m t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n . , f u r t h e r m o r e t h e r e seems t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n i n t h e minds o f some, as t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between L a b o u r Income per b i r d and t h e t o t a l L a b o u r Income o f t h e f a r m . I t i s t h e L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t when d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g e g g s , b e c a u s e t h e s e two f i g u r e s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . I n a s u r v e y o f 120 p o u l t r y f a r m s i n New Y o r k S t a t e i t was f o u n d t h a t f a r m s w i t h more t h a n 1,299 l a y e r s had a s m a l l e r l a b o u r income p e r b i r d t h a n t h o s e w i t h l e s s t h a n 1,299 l a y e r s (3) » I n a P o u l t r y R e c o r d S t u d y o f 85 W a s h i n g t o n Farms i t was s t a t e d t h a t " S i z e o f t h e f l o c k has v e r y l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e p r o f i t p e r b i r d 1 1 (l)<» I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t© c o n c l u d e ^ h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a l a r g e r t o t a l l a b o u r Income f r o m a l a r g e f l o c k t h a n f r o m a s m a l l f l o c k , and i n a f a r m where p o u l t r y i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f income a s u f f i c i e n t volume o f b u s i n e s s i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e t h e o p e r a t o r w i t h a n e t L a b o u r Income t o c o n s t i t u t e a l i v i n g wage. I n many c a s e s , how-e v e r , t h e p o u l t r y e n t e r p r i s e i s o n l y a p a r t o f t h e owner's o c c u p a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y o n l y a p r o p o r t i o n o f h i s l i v i n g i s c h a r g e a b l e t o p o u l t r y * U n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why eggs c a n n o t be p r o d u c e d f r o m s m a l l f l o c k s by men who d e v o t e o n l y a p a r t o f t h e i r , t i m e t o p o u l t r y , a t a c o s t no h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f a C o m m e r c i a l P o u l t r y Farm There t h e owner d e v o t e s a l l h i s t i m e t o t h e 7 b u s i n e s s o f e g g \ p r o d u c t i o n . / • / T a b l e No. Y I shows t h e v a r i o u s f l o c k s i n d e s c e n -\ • ./ d i n g orders, o f s i z e , t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r b i r d L a b o u r \ / Incomes and e o s t s per dozen eggs E x c l u s i v e o f L a b o u r . These' f i g u r e s o n ^ t h e f a c e o f thJm do n o t s u g g e s t any r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e o f ^ f l o c k and L a b o u r Income \ per b i r d , b u t f o r a mbxe c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a t h e c h i s q u a r e t e s t was V ^ p l i e d o The v a l u e o b t a i n e d was I . O 6 3 , w h i c h f a l l s / e l o V , t h e l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y ; / V i n d i c a t i n g t h a t by t h / s methoa^no r e l a t i o n s h i p c an be / \ -e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n / f l o c k s i z e a ndXLabour Income p e r b i r d . S i n c e ajb/any g i v e n S e l l i n g . p \ i c e t h e L a b o u r e Income p e r b i r d / i s d i r e c t l y d e pendent o n X c o s t p e r do z e n / . • v ••^  • e g g s , i t f o l l d w s t h a t w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f frhese f l o c k / \ ' ' i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e - -/ s i z e s t h e r e / i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e s i z e \ o f t h e f l o c k a n d / t h e c o s t o f eggs p e r d o z e n . I n o t h e r words, t h e eos/fc o f p r o d u c i n g eggs i n f l o c k s o f s i z e s within \ t h e l/mits o f t h o s e i n t h e s u r v e y cannot be l o w e r e d by \ merely e n l a r g i n g t h e s i z e o f the l a y i n g f l o c k s . / / : a c o s t no h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f a C o m m e r c i a l P o u l t r y Farm where t h e owner d e v o t e s a l l h i s t i m e t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f egg p r o d u c t i o n . T a b l e No. V I shows t h e v a r i o u s f l o c k s i n d e s c e n -d i n g o r d e r o f s i z e . , t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r b i r d L a b o u r Incomes and c o s t s p e r -dozen eggs e x c l u s i v e o f L a b o u r . These f i g u r e s on t h e f a c e o f them do not s u g g e s t any r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e o f f l o c k and L a b o u r Income per b i r d , but f o r a more c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a t h e c h i s q u a r e t e s t was a p p l i e d . The v a l u e o f c h i s q u a r e o b t a i n e d was 1.-063, and t h e t a b l e d v a l u e at t h e 99 f l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y (and 8 -d.f>) was 1,646 i n d i c a t -i n g t h a t - by t h i s method no r e l a t i o h s h i p . c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d b etween f l o s t s i z e and L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d . S i n c e a t any g i v e n S e l l i n g P r i c e t h e L a b o u r . Income pe r b i r d i s d i r e c t l y dependent on c o s t per dozen e g g s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e s e f l o c k s i z e s t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i z e o f t h e f l o c k and t h e . c o s t o f eggs, per d o z e n . . I n o t h e r words,'., th e c o s t of p r o d u c i n g eggs i n f l o c k s o f s i z e s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h o s e i n .the s u r v e y c a n n o t be l o w e r e d by m e r e l y e n l a r g i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e l a y i n g f l o c k s . 2 1 . 9. LABOUR Y e r y l i t t l e h i r e d l a b o u r was employed f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e f l o c k s i n t h e s u r v e y , b u t t h e h o u r s o f l a b o u r s p e n t by t h e f l o c k owners and t h e i r f a m i l i e s were l o n g . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n d a t a on t h e amount o f l a b o u r r e q u i r e d t o c a r e f o r f l o c k s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s , e s t i m a t e s o f t h e h o u r s o f work a c t u a l l y done d u r i n g t h e y e a r were o b t a i n e d f r o m p o u l t r y m e n i n t h e s u r v e y . A c c o r d i n g t o f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e s e p o u l t r y m e n a f l o c k o f a v e r a g e s i z e (656 b i r d s ) r e q u i r e d 2,309 h o u r s o f work d u r i n g t h e y e a r , o r 44.4 h o u r s p e r week. S i n c e t h e . L a b o u r Income o f t h e a v e r a g e poultry™ man was $1,000.70 f o r t h e y e a r , and he worked 2,309 h o u r s , h i s h o u r l y wage was 43^* A c c o r d i n g t o t h e same e s t i m a t e s , a f l o c k a v e r a g i n g one t h o u s a n d b i r d s w o u l d r e q u i r e 9*8 h o u r s o f l a b o u r p e r day, t h r e e h u n d r e d and s i x t y - f i v e days i n t h e y e a r , o r s e v e n t y - w o r k h o u r s p e r week. I f t h e w o r k i n g week o f t h e p o u l t r y m a n were f o r t y - f o u r h o u r s as i t , i s i n many o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , a f l o c k a v e r a g i n g one t h o u s a n d b i r d s w o u l d r e q u i r e e i g h t y man weeks o f work d u r i n g t h e y e a r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w o u l d be t h e work o f 1.6 men t o t a k e c a r e o f a f l o c k t h a t s i z e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t s h o u l d be 22. remembered t h a t a f l o c k a v e r a g i n g one t h o u s a n d b i r d s w o u l d i n t o t a l numbers be c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r t h a n one t h o u s a n d b i r d s * I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t on t h i s same b a s i s a f l o c k r e q u i r i n g t h e l a b o u r o f one man w o u l d have an a v e r a g e number o f 625 b i r d s , a f i g u r e c l o s e l y a p p r o a c h i n g t h e 656 shown as t h e a v e r a g e number on t h e f a r m s o f t h e s u r v e y * F o r t h o s e who c o n s i d e r t h i s a h i g h e s t i m a t e o f l a b o u r , i t - s h o u l d a g a i n be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t a f l o c k a v e r a g i n g 625 l a y i n g b i r d s w o u l d have c o n -s i d e r a b l y more a t some t i m e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r , and w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y have more t h a n one t h o u s a n d b i r d s g o i n g t h r o u g h i t d u r i n g t h e y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n , i f t h e f l o c k i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d , young b i r d s must be r e a r e d , a l l o f w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e h o u r s o f l a b o u r quoted® As shown i n T a b l e 711 t h e L a b o u r Income o f t h e a v e r a g e p o u l t r y f a r m e r was $1,000 . 7© f o r t h e y e a r , o r $83.39 p e r month. T h i s was h i s r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r t h e work and m a n a g e r i a l a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d t o l o o k a f t e r an a v e r a g e number o f 656 l a y i n g b i r d s , o r a t o t a l number o f 1,094 l a y i n g b i r d s , and t o r e a r t h e young s t o c k n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p h i s f l o c k up t o s t r e n g t h . TABLE V I I 23, SUMMARY OF BUSINESS ON'TEE AVERAGE TARM S a l e s f o r Y e a r E g g s . . | 2,866.30 C h i c k e n s 586 .29 S u n d r y . . 74.34 $ 3 ,526.93 I n v e n t o r y 1944 F e e d . . . . . . . . . . $22.8l L i t t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . « 7.25 $ 30 .06 Feed P u r c h a s e d 1,773.12 $ 1,803.18 I n v e n t o r y 1945 F e e d #25 .07 L i t t e r ............ . 6.66 31.73 1,771.45 ; _ v ;•' ' ; - $ 1,7:55*48-O p e r a t i n g E x p e n s e s H i r e d L a b o u r ... '. .$ 77 .2? E l e c t r i c i t y 24 .23 F u e l 8.57 L i t t e r 56.70 M e d i c i n e and D i s i n f e c t a n t * •.. < 23.91 Small T o o l s - - - . . 5.76 I n s u r a n c e and T a x e s ......... 31.00 Car o r T r u c k ................ 38.08 O t h e r 26.32 291 .80 $ 1,463.68 I n v e n t o r y L i v e s t o c k A d j u s t m e n t B i r d s on hand a t b e g i n n i n g . o f y e a r .. .$ Ijl04 . 7 8 B i r d s P u r c h a s e d . 194.03 I 1,298 .81 : B i r d s on hand a t end o f y e a r ... 1,086.52 212.29 .FARM INCOME 4 1,251.39 D e p r e c i a t i o n on B u i l d i n g s . . . . $ 66.87 D e p r e c i a t i o n on E q u i p t m e n t ... . 18.80 I n t e r e s t on I n v e s t m e n t 165.02 250.69 LABOUR INCOME 4 1,000.70 ( A v e r a g e No. o f B i r d s 656) TABLE 7 1 I I 24. COMPARISON OF ATERAGES OF A L L FARMS WITH THE HIGH INCOME AND LOW.INCOME GROUPS I t e m s A v e r a g e o f a l l r e c o r d s summarized H i g h income f l o c k s Low-income f l o c k s No. b i r d s a t , b e g i n n i n g o f s u r v e y Hens P u l l e t s F l o c k .276 • 307 583 211 - 341 552 475 209 684 A v e r a g e n o . o f b i r d s d u r i n g t h e y e a r ++ Hens P u l l e t s F l o c k 257 39? 6~56" 193 491 6UT 377 273 T o t a l n o . o f b i r d s i n -c l u d i n g r e p l a c e m e n t s 1,094 ; '•• 1,188 - 962 P u l l e t ; H e n R a t i o • P u l l e t s ""Hens..', 60.9£ • 39.1% 7 1.71 2 8 . 3 $ 42.0/. 5 8 . 0 % M o r t a l i t y ( p e r c e n t ) * Hens P u l l e t s • F l o c k 27.57 23.06 : M i l l 23.55 20.11 21.18 39.98 41,20 3 9 . 8 3 T u r n o v e r due t o c u l l i n g ( p e r c e n t ) + Hens P u l l e t s F l o c k 105.34 69,88 183.72 4 6 . 4 4 8 5 . 2 6 55.05 36 . 3 0 . 59.4? T o t a l t u r n o v e r o f s t o c k ( p e r c e n t ) * 94*65 106.44 99 . 3 0 R a t e o f L a y ( p e r c e n t ) + ••• Hens • ' . - P u l l e t s , F l o c k ; ' 41.92 53.04 4.8.85 44 . 8 2 57.11 53.64 41 . 3 9 48.58 38.77 F a l l Egg L a y ( O c t o b e r , November, D e c e m b e r ) + + Hens -P u l l e t s F l o c k • 25 . 54/. 48 .03> 40 . 2 7 / . 23.00/. 5 3 . 5 6 $ 45.76/. 26.78/= 42.14/. 33 . 3 5 / . E g g P r o d u c t i o n p e r b i r d + + Hens (11,819) -P u l l e t s ( 18,377) F l o c k (30,196) 153 I g g s 193.58 » 178 .30 " 163.61 208.45 195 . 7 7 151.06 177.33 141 . 5 3 + B a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e n o . o f b i r d s . ++ Hen day b a s i s . TABLE I X COMPARISON Off INVESTMENT, COSTS AND RECEIPTS A v e r a g e of H i g h Low I t e m s a l l r e c o r d s Income Income summarized | F l o c k s F l o c k s I n v e s t m e n t per b i r d L a n d . 92 .70 1.34 • B u i l d i n g s 2.05 1. 46 2.55 E q u i p m e n t .28 .16 .19 B i r d s 1.70 1. 61 1 .51 T o t a l • 4 .95 3.93 5.59 C o s t s and R e c e i p t s p e r b i r d G r o s s Income 5.38 5.92 4. 54 T o t a l E x p e n s e s 3 .44 3.17 3-. 42 C o s t of f e e d f o r .-l a y e r s 2 .21 2,2 9 2.28 T o t a l f e e d f o r l a y e r s and y o u n g s t o c k 2.70 2.5 9 2. 61 R e c e i p t s "above f e e d 2.68 3.33 1.93 F a r m Income 1.91 2.83 1.00 L a b o u r Income 1*52 2.53 .57 F e e d C o s t p e r Dozen E g g s F e e d f o r l a y e r s o n l y 14.870 14.0 40 19.340 T o t a l f e e d used on. .. t h e f a r m 18.17 15.88 22.14 S e l l i n g p r i c e p e r d o z e n 30.760 3 0 . 940 eggs 30.140 O p e r a t o r t s l a b o u r income •* p e r d o z e n e ggs 10 .52 15* 67 4.35 C o s t w i t h o u t o p e r a t o r »s 26.59 l a b o u r 19. 62 15.09 C o s t of h i r e d l a b o u r .81 • .0 9 1. 41 C o s t w i t h no l a b o u r 18.81 1 5 . 0 0 25.18 c h a r g e 26. TABLE X COMPARISON OF 1944 AND 1945 SURVEYS ( A l l C o m p u t a t i o n s on a Hen Day B a s i s ) A v e r a g e o f A v e r a g e o f 1 I t e m s - a l l r e c o r d s a l l r e c o r d s summarized summerized No. b i r d s a t 1944 1945 b e g i n n i n g o f s u r v e y Hens 248 276 P u l l e t s 380 567 F l o c k 628 583 A v e r a g e no. o f b i r d s d u r i n g t h e y e a r + + Hens 251 257 P u l l e t s 472 111 F l o c k 723 656 T o t a l no. o f b i r d s i n -c l u d i n g r e p l a c e m e n t s : 1*291' : 1,094 P u l l e t : H e n R a t i o P u l l e t s 65.3/. 60.9/. Hens 34 . 7/ . 39 . 1 / . M o r t a l i t y ( p e r c e n t ) + Hens 24.99 27.57 P u l l e t s 23.92 23.06 F l o c k 24 . 3 0 24.77 T u r n o v e r due t o c u l l i n g ( p e r c e n t ) * * Hens 80 . 8 4 105.34 P u l l e t s 31 . 4 9 <-4Q'£46 F l o c k 4 9 . 0 1 69.88 T o t a l t u r n o v e r o f s t o c k ( p e r c e n t ) + 7 3 . 3 1 9 4 . 6 5 R a t e o f L a y ( p e r cent)" 1' Hens 41.74 41,92 P u l l e t s 53.99 53.04 F l o c k 49.41 48,85 F a l l Egg L a y ( O c t o b e r , November 9 D e c e m b e r ) + + • Hens • • * 25.54/. P u l l e t s * • * 4 8 . 0 3 F l o c k 4 3 * 2 2 / 40.27/= Egg P r o d u c t i o n p e r b i r d + + Hens . 153.9 153 P u l l e t s 195.1 193.58 F l o c k 180.83 178 .30 + B a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e n o . o f b i r d s ++ Hen day b a s i s 27. 1 0 . A STUDY OF FLOCKS The a v e r a g e s i z e o f t h e f o r t y - s i x f l o c k s was 656 b i r d s ' ( t 10?) o f w h i c h 60.9$ were p u l l e t s and 3 9 . l / . were h e n s . The a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i o n on a hen day b a s i s was 178 e g g s . The p u l l e t s a v e r a g e d 40 eggs more t h a n t h e l i e n s , l a y i n g 193 eggs w h i l e t h e hens a v e r a g e d 153• The a v e r a g e m o r t a l i t y f o r t h e y e a r was 24.77/» ( 1 4 . 6 ) , 27 .57 7° f o r hens and 23 .067'. f o r p u l l e t s . The a v e r a g e number o f b i r d s c u l l e d was 6 ? . 8 8 $ ( t 1 1 . 9 ) , o f t h e a v e r a g e number i n t h e f l o c k . As a r e s u l t o f m o r t a l i t y and c u l l i n g 94*6/. o f t h e a v e r a g e number o f b i r d s i n t h e f l o c k were removed d u r i n g t h e y e a r . I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h i s i s an i n c r e a s e o f 2l/« o v e r l a s t y e a r ' s f i g u r e o f 73/0 removed due t o m o r t a l i t y and c u l l i n g . S i n c e t h e m o r t a l i t y f i g u r e i s t h e same, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s due en-t i r e l y t o a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l i n g . T h i s f i g u r e i s b a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e number o f b i r d s f o r t h e y e a r , a n d b e c a u s e t h e a v e r a g e f l o c k s i z e d e c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r t h e p e r c e n t a g e c u l l e d a p p e a r s l a r g e r . The l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l i n g i s a l s o due i n p a r t t o t h e f a c t t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s u r v e y y e a r t h e f l o c k s s t i l l c o n t a i n e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f b i r d s w h i c h w o u l d have I f t h e a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i o n were computed on t h e b a s i s o f t h e t o t a l number o f b i r d s i n t h e pen d u r i n g t h e y e a r i t w o u l d be one h u n d r e d and s e v e n eggs. T h i s f i g u r e , however, i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as a measure o f p r o d u c t i o n b e c a u s e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a b i r d i s i n t h e pen i s v a r i a b l e . The hen day b a s i s p r o v i d e s a f i x e d y a r d s t i c k by w h i c h . c o m p a r i s o n s may be made. been removed e a r l i e r i f t h e p o u l t r y m e n had been a b l e t o d i s p o s e o f them. I t m i g h t be p o i n t e d o ut t h a t b i r d s a r e c u l l e d f o r t h r e e m a i n r e a s o n s . Some a r e removed b e c a u s e t h e y a r e p o o r p r o d u c e r s and a c o n s i d e r a b l e number s i m p l y t o make room f o r p u l l e t s : b e g i n n i n g t o l a y . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e i n t h e above two g r o u p s many a r e c u l l e d b e c a u s e t h e y have become d i s e a s e d and would i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y d i e w i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e . Thus, a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e b i r d s l i s t e d as c u l l s i n many f l o c k s w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be i n c l u d e d i n m o r t a l i t y , a l a r g e number on t h e o t h e r hand have f u l l y c o m p l e t e d t h e i r l a y i n g y e a r . TABLE X I FLOCK S I Z E , MORTALITY AND CULLING-Number . M o r t a l i t y B i r d s s o l d T o t a l No« A v e r a g e No 1, t h a t p e r c e n t o f Number p e r c e n t o f o f B i r d s o f B i r d s d i e d a v e r a g e No. s o l d a v e r a g e No. 1 , 8 7 2 1 , 5 5 6 . 3 560 35.98 188 12 . 0 8 1,441 1,243.6 119 9.57 73 5 . 8 7 2,510 1 , 2 3 5 . 1 299 24.21 1 , 3 6 1 I I O . 1 9 1,54? 1,155 . 2 297 25 . 7 1 242 20.95 1 ,737 : 1,0?6.6 177 16.14 722 65 .84 1 , 8 4 3 •1,049.1 162 15.44 1 ,649 157.19 1 , 726 1 ,013.9 13.02 1 , 138 112.24 1,881 988.2 342 34 . 6 1 531 53.73 2,0 23 9 8 6 . 1 177 17.95 1 , 0 0 7 102.12 1 , 5 0 2 945.4 177 1 8 . 7 2 436 46.12 1,151 '• 1 ,619 936.7 228 24 . 3 4 172 I 8 . 3 6 884 . 8 45 5.08 881 99.57 1 , 5 6 2 8 6 7 . 4 210 24.21 844 97.31 1,131 8 0 8 . 3 17 0 21.03 376 46.51 94? 783*6 147 . ^ 8 . 7 6 180 22.97 1,689 770.0 809 105.06 318 41 . 3 0 1,354 746.7 57 7.63 754 100.98 1,185 737 .2 264 35 . 8 1 467 63.35 : 1,566 7 3 4 . 5 140 19.06 889 121.03 1,236 727.0 208 28.61 631 86.80 1,348 704,8 57 8.0? 427 60.59 1,045 692.6 180 25.99 220 31,76 1 ,037 6 8 5 . 3 90 13.13 2?7 43 . 3 3 1 , 3 6 3 6 8 4 . 0 111 16 .23 1,252 183»05 1 , 126 66©.6 256 38.75 396 59.94 1, 210 892 593.0 142 23.94 655 110.45 5 5 5 . 0 148 26.67 270 4 8 . 6 5 1,200 554.0 173 30.. 23 475 85.74 900 5 4 5 . 3 137 25 .12 349 64.01 718 497.1 76 15 . 2 ? 178 35.80 961 4 9 0 , 3 86 17.54 436 88.92 7 24 469.4 130 27.69 -150 31.95 787 450.9 124 27.50 347 76.96 777 427.8 5? 13.79 309 7 2 . 2 3 823 379.6 60 15 . 8 0 485 127.76 569 376.8 134 35.56 244 64.75 693 348.4 170 48,79- 260 7 4 . 6 3 707 291 . 3 41 14 . 0 7 381 130,79 428 254.2 102 . 40.12 141 55 . 4 7 590 249.6 24 9 .61 284 114 . 2 0 351 198.5 47 23.68 112 5 6 , 4 3 351 L 9 4 . 7 29 14.89 132 67.79 253 194 . 7 48 24 . 6 5 32 16,44 462 188.0 47 25.00 254 135.11 285 139.4 27 19 . 3 6 84 60.24 202 105.0 38 3 6 . 3 0 71 67 .82 50 , 3 2 6 30,19 6.0 7,256 "21 i 100 \— • 30. 11. COMPARISON OF RETURNS By c o m p a r i n g t h e two g r o u p s made up o f t h e h i g h income and l o w income 2 0 / * o f t h e f a r m s i n o r d e r o f L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d , t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d : The h i g h income group had an a v e r a g e o f 34 more eggs p e r b i r d , 12/. h i g h e r f a l l egg l a y , 18.6/ l o w e r m o r t a l i t y and 23.8/ h i g h e r c u l l i n g t h a n t h e l o w income g r o u p . I t was f o u n d t o o t h a t t h e h i g h income g r o u p had a 29*1% h i g h e r p u l l e t : h e n r a t i o , h a v i n g 71 * 7 2 / p u l l e t s t o a 2 8 . 2 8 / hens w h i l e t h e l o w income g r o u p had 4 1 . 9 8 / o n l y o f p u l l e t s t o 3 8.02/ h e n s . The a v e r a g e p r i c e r e c e i v e d by t h e f o r t y - s i x f a r m s f o r a l l eggs, i n c l u d i n g h a t c h i n g e g g s , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d was 30.140 (- «9l). .The l o w e s t a v e r a g e p r i c e was 26.720 and t h e h i g h e s t 38.490. The a v e r a g e c o s t per dozen w i t h -o u t c h a r g e f o r l a b o u r was 18.80 ( i 1 . 3 2) l e a v i n g an a v e r a g e L a b o u r Income p e r d o z e n eggs o f 10..520. One f a r m was o m i t t e d , b e c a u s e t h e r e a s o n f o r p o o r r e t u r n s was t h e f t o f s e v e r a l h u n d r e d l a y i n g b i r d s . FIGURE I CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF COST OF PRODUCING EGGS SHOYHENG PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PRODUCED AT LESS THAN STATED COST PER- DOZEN PER CENT OF TOTAL 10 l i 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 2? 31 33 COST PER DOZEN 12. COST OF FEED PER DOZEN EGGS 32 The c o s t o f f e e d f o r l a y e r s i n t h e a v e r a g e f l o c k was 14.870 p e r dozen eggs p r o d u c e d . The t o t a l f e e d c o s t p e r d o z e n eggs however, was 18.170 i n t h e a v e r a g e f l o c k as compared w i t h 15.880 i n t h e h i g h income g r o u p and 22.140 i n t h e l o w income g r o u p . A l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l f e e d c o s t s per b i r d were a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i n t h e h i g h and l o w income g r o u p s ($2 . 5 9 as compared w i t h $ 2 . 6 1 ) 9 t h e l o w income g r o u p w i t h an a v e r a g e egg p r o d u c t i o n o f 141.5 eggs p e r b i r d had a 6.260 g r e a t e r f e e d c o s t p e r dozen eggs o r 3 9 / more t h a n t h e h i g h income g r o u p w i t h an a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i o n o f 195.8 eggs p e r b i r d . A l t h o u g h . e g g and f e e d p r i c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e a v e r a g e p r o f i t , v a r i a t i o n i n r e t u r n s i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a f f e c t e d by i n d i v i d u a l management. T h i s may be i l l u s t r a t e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e 20 / o f t h e f a r m s s h o w i n g h i g h e s t L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d w i t h t h e 2 0 / s h o w i n g t h e l o w e s t i n t h e s u r v e y . The p o u l t r y m e n - o p e r a t i n g t h e s e f a r m s were s u b j e c t t o t h e same f e e d p r i c e s and had t h e same m a r k e t s f o r t h e i r e g g s , I n f a c t t h e f e e d c o s t p e r b i r d i n one g r o u p as compared w i t h t h e o t h e r was a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . T h i s was a l s o t r u e o f t h e p r i c e r e c e i v e d f o r e g g s , y e t t h e one g r o u p made a L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d o f $2.53 w h i l e t h e o t h e r made o n l y 570. The a v e r a g e per b i r d L a b o u r Income f o r t h e e n t i r e g r o u p o f f o r t y - s i x f a r m s was $1 . 5 2 (+ . 2 2 ) . 13. FACTORS INFLUENCING- RETURNS I n a s t u d y o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n L a b o u r Income f o r t h e f o r t y - s i x f a r m s , some o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h seemed most i n f l u e n t i a l i n m a k i n g f o r c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h r e t u r n s weres 1. H i g h p r o d u c t i o n p e r b i r d (Range 2 2 8 - 1 3 9 eggs) 2 . H i g h p u l l e t 5 hen r a t i o (Range 100$ p u l l e t s t o 100$ hens) 3 . Low m o r t a l i t y (Range 5 $ t o 1 0 5 $ o f a v e r a g e number) 4. H i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l i n g (Range 1 8 3 $ t o 5 . 9 $ o f a v e r a g e number) 5* Low c o s t per d o z e n eggs (Range e x c l u s i v e o f l a b o u r 10 .26c" t o 32.08c/) 6. H i g h a v e r a g e p r i c e r e c e i v e d p e r dozen eggs (Range 38.5c/ t o 26.7c/) 7 o H i g h s a l v a g e v a l u e r e c e i v e d f o r c u l l c h i c k e n s (Range $1.14 t o I69O A l l o f t h e above s e v e n f a c t o r s seem t o be im-p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f L a b o u r Income a p o u l t r y m a n w i l l s e c u r e . A p o u l t r y m a n who a t t a i n s b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e r e s u l t s i n a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e seven f a c t o r s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o have a l a r g e r L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d t h a n a p o u l t r y m a n who i s b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e i n o n l y a few o f them. S t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s have been a p p l i e d t o t h e s e d a t a t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e above f a c t o r s and l a b o u r income p e r b i r d , and t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d d i d n o t i n d i c a t e any g r e a t ' d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p does e x i s t s , T h i s however does n o t d i s p r o v e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f a c t o r s , and i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y a r e t o some e x t e n t i n f l u e n t i a l i n r a i s i n g o r l o w e r i n g l a b o u r income on t h e p o u l t r y f a r m * The t e c h n i q u e s used assume a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and t h e p e r b i r d l a b o u r income f i g u r e s f o r t h e s e f a r m s do not f o l l o w a n o r -m a l c u r v e , b u t r a t h e r , a s t r a i g h t l i n e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above a f u r t h e r r e a s o n f o r f a i l u r e t o e s t a b l i s h a h i g h d e g r e e o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h a t t h e f a c t o r s t h e m s e l v e s i n some c a s e s show i n t e r a c t i o n * A s t u d y o f t h e f a r m s i n d i v i d u a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t g r e a t e x c e l l e n c e i n one f a c t o r , f o r example, h i g h p r o d u c -t i o n p e r b i r d , can have su c h an e f f e c t as t o p l a c e t h e f a r m e r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n l a b o u r income even t h o u g h r e -s u l t s i n most f a c t o r s a r e p o o r . C o n v e r s e l y , a man may a t t a i n b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e r e s u l t s i n most f a c t o r s , b u t f a l l s u f f i c i e n t l y l o w i n one t o show a v e r y l o w r e t u r n f o r h i s l a b o u r . T h i s was t h e c a s e on one f a r m where s e v e r a l h u n d r e d c u l l c h i c k e n s were s o l d f o r an a v e r a g e p r i c e o f 28</» 3 5 . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n o f f i g u r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a r m w i t h t h e a v e r a g e s g i v e n i n T a b l e s V I I I and I X may i n d i c a t e t o t h e p o u l t r y m a n w h i c h p h a s e s o f h i s b u s i n e s s a r e i n g r e a t e s t need o f a t t e n t i o n , as w e l l as t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y good o n e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e x t r e m e s o f each f a c t o r l i s t e d show what ca n be done by men who a r e e s p e c i a l l y good w i t h r e g a r d t o some one f a c t o r . I t seems t o f o l l o w t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i n d u s t r y as a whole c o u l d be b r o u g h t a b o u t i f p o u l t r y m e n i n g e n e r a l were t o c o n c e n t r a t e on an e f f o r t t o a p p r o a c h t h e s e f i g u r e s t h r o u g h g i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n t o management© 14. GOVERNMENT SUBSIDY D u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s t h e D o m i n i o n Government has g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e p o u l t r y m e n by p a y i n g t h e f r e i g h t on f e e d g r a i n s and by an a d d i t i o n a l , s u b s i d y on wheat s h i p p e d f r o m t h e p r a i r i e s . S i n c e o v e r 8 0 $ o f t h e p o u l t r y r a t i o n i s made up o f g r a i n s , t h i s a s s i s t a n c e has an im-p o r t a n t e f f e c t on t h e c o s t o f f e e d t o t h e farmer® As f a r a s t h e Lower E r a s e r V a l l e y i s c o n c e r n e d , t h i s a s s i s t a n c e now amounts t o $ 1 4 . 3 3 p e r t o n on wheat and $.6.00 per t o n on o t h e r g r a i n s . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h i s l o w e r s t h e p o u l t r y m a n • s f e e d b i l l by o v e r 24$ o f t h e p r e s e n t f i g u r e , o r $ 4 3 5 . 0 0 f o r a f l o c k t h e s i z e o f t h e a v e r a g e i n t h e s u r v e y . I n t e r m s o f c o s t per dozen eggs t h i s amounts t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 . 5 # . W i t h o u t s u c h a s s i s t a n c e , t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g e g g s , t o t h e a v e r a g e p o u l t r y m a n , w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g l a b o u r , would be i n c r e a s e d f r o m 18.8$f, t h e f i g u r e shown i n t h e s u r v e y , t o o v e r 23c/ p e r d o z e n . 15o COMPARISON OF RETURNS FROM MARKET AND HATCHING EGG FLOCKS 37* Of t h e f a r m s i n t h e s u r v e y 72/1 p r o d u c e d no h a t c h i n g e g g s , b u t s o l d t h e i r p r o d u c t e n t i r e l y i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l egg m a r k e t . The o t h e r 2 8 $ p r o d u c e d h a t c h i n g eggs f o r p e r i o d s v a r y i n g f r o m t h r e e t o s e v e n months. A m a j o r i t y (75$) o f t h i s g r o u p s o l d h a t c h i n g eggs f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e months o r more. The c o s t p e r dozen eggs ( w i t h no c h a r g e f o r l a b o u r ) i n t h e f l o c k s p r o d u c i n g o n l y m a r k e t eggs a v e r a g e d 18.1c/ ( i 1 . 2 5 ) as compared w i t h 21.54c/ ( t 3*30) i n t h e f l o c k s w h i c h s o l d h a t c h i n g e g g s . The a v e r a g e s e l l i n g p r i c e o f t h e m a r k e t egg f l o c k s was 28.55c/ ( 1 . 3 6 ) and t h a t o f t h e h a t c h i n g egg f l o c k s 33.79?/ ( * 1 . 9 4 ) . M a r k e t Egg F l o c k s H a t c h i n g Egg F l o c k s S e l l i n g p r i c e 28.55c/ 33 .79c/ C o s t p r i c e 18.10 2 1 . 5 4 L a b o u r Income p e r d o z e n 10.45c/ 12.25c/ These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e L a b o u r Income p e r dozen eggs was 1 .8c/ l a r g e r i n t h e c a s e o f t h e f l o c k s p r o -d u c i n g h a t c h i n g eggs t h a n i n t h e f l o c k s p r o d u c i n g c o m m e r c i a l eggs o n l y . I t s h o u l d h o t be e x p e c t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t a f l o c k p r o d u c i n g h a t c h i n g eggs w o u l d show a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y 38. l a r g e r L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d * I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t i f t h e c o c k e r e l s i n t h e h a t c h i n g egg f l o c k s were r e p l a c e d by p u l l e t s , t h e eggs p r o d u c e d by t h e s e p u l l e t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s s u c h as b l o o d - t e s t i n g , w o u l d more t h a n o f f s e t t he 1.80 p e r d ozen l a r g e r r e v e n u e r e c e i v e d by t h e p r o d u c e r s o f h a t c h i n g eggs.®. . . • • • An i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s p r o f i t a b l e t© p r o d u c e h a t c h i n g eggs i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h can be d i s p o s e d o f i n t h i s way. I t i s o f c o u r s e more l i k e l y t o be p r o f i t a b l e i n t h e case o f a f a r m s e l l i n g h a t c h i n g eggs o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x o r seven months t h a n i n t h e c a s e o f one s e l l i n g them f o r a p e r i o d o f two o r t h r e e months o n l y . I n t h e g r o u p s t u d i e d .-there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a v e r a g e L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d o f t h e f l o c k s p r o d u c i n g m a r k e t eggs o n l y and t h a t o f t h e f l o c k s p r o d u c i n g h a t c h i n g eggs * I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p r i ce r e c e i v e d f o r h a t c h i n g eggs does n o t compensate f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n s e and l a b o u r e n t a i l e d i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . 39. 16 . SUMMARY A s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o d e t e r m i n e c o s t s o f egg p r o d u c t i o n and f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i n comes f r o m p o u l t r y f a r m s i n th e F r a s e r V a l l e y and on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . I n t h e i n -v e s t i g a t i o n d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s were o b t a i n e d o f t h e p r o -d u c t i o n and r e t u r n s o f f o r t y - s i x farms f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g June 30, 1945» The f l o c k s r a n g e d i n s i z e f r o m an a v e r a g e number o f 1,556 b i r d s t o an a v e r a g e number o f 105 b i r d s on a hen day b a s i s , t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f t h e f l o c k s b e i n g 656 b i r d s . The a v e r a g e i n v e s t m e n t p e r b i r d was $4.88 and t h e a v e r a g e L a b o u r Income p e r b i r d $ 1 . 5 2 . The L a b o u r Income o f t h e a v e r a g e p o u l t r y f a r m e r was $1,000.70 f o r t h e y e a r , o r $ 8 3 . 3 9 per month on t h e a v e r a g e . The b i r d s i n a l l f l o c k s on t h e a v e r a g e were made up o f 6 0 . 9 $ p u l l e t s and 39.1$ h e n s . The a v e r a g e m o r t a l i t y on a hen day b a s i s was 24.77$ o f t h e f i o c k , r a n g i n g f r o m 5$ t o 105$, and t h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e c u l l e d was 69.9$. The egg p r o d u c t i o n p e r b i r d , on a hen day b a s i s , was 178.3, t h e a v e r a g e f o r hens b e i n g 153 e g g s , and f o r p u l l e t s 1 9 3 . 6 . The a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f hens housed w o u l d be v e r y much l o w e r . The a v e r a g e p r i c e p e r dozen eggs s o l d was 30*140 f o r a l l eggs p r o d u c e d i n c l u d i n g h a t c h i n g eggs* The a v e r a g e c o s t e x c l u s i v e o f l a b o u r was 18.810. No r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between f l o c k s i z e and c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g eggs, o r L a b o u r Income per b i r d . The b e n e f i t e n j o y e d by t h e p o u l t r y m e n t h r o u g h Government f r e i g h t a s s i s t a n c e and s u b s i d y on p r a i r i e g r a i n amounted t o $14.33 p e r t o n on wheat and $ 6 , 0 0 p e r t o n on o t h e r g r a i n s * Such a s s i s t a n c e w o u l d be t h e a p p r o x i m a t e e q u i v a l e n t o f a bonus o f 4.30 per dozen on a l l eggs p r o d u c e d . Out o f a l l t h e p o u l t r y f a r m e r s i n t h e group 7 2 / p r o d u c e d m a r k e t eggs o n l y , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g 2 8 / p r o d u c e d h a t c h i n g eggs as w e l l , i n p e r i o d s r a n g i n g f r o m two t o s e v e n months o f t h e y e a r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d between t h e a v e r a g e p e r b i r d L a b o u r Incomes o f t h e g r o u p w h i c h p r o d u c e d h a t c h i n g eggs and t h e g r o u p w h i c h p r o d u c e d m a r k e t eggs o n l y . 17. AN APPRECIATION The P o u l t r y F a r m e r s who p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a f o r t h i s r e p o r t have been v e r y g e n e r o u s i n t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . They have t a k e n e x t r a c a r e and t r o u b l e i n s u b m i t t i n g a c c u r a t e s t a t e m e n t s and a c c o u n t s o f t h e r e g u l a r f a r m b u s i n e s s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l d a t a on s u c h t o p i c s as m o r t a l i t y and h o u r s o f l a b o u r . The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e c o u r t e s y and h e l p f u l n e s s e x t e n d e d t o h i m by t h e s e o p e r a t o r s and t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t w i t h o u t s u c h c o o p e r a t i o n t h e s t u d y c o u l d not have been c a r r i e d o u t . 4 2 . BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) C a g l e , A . J . arid I r a s i e r , F.W. P o u l t r y R e c o r d S t u d y o f E i g h t y - F i v e W a s h i n g t o n Farms 1943. A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , S t a t e C o l l e g e o f W a s h i n g t o n , P u l l m a n , W a s h i n g t o n . (2) Canada Y e a r Book 1943-1944 D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , O t t a w a , O n t a r i o . (3) D a r r a h , L.B. F a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t Incomes on C o m m e r c i a l P o u l t r y Farms 1940-1941 B u l l e t i n 8 0 3 , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , I t h a c a , New Y o r k . (4) L l o y d , E.A., Asmundson, V.S. and S k e l t o n , R . J . 19 22 A r e p o r t on S i x t y - F i v e C o m m e r c i a l P o u l t r y Farms i n t h e Lower E r a s e r V a l l e y and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . A g r i c u l t u r a l D epartment C i r c u l a r No. 4 1 , V i c t o r i a , B. C » (3) L l o y d , E.A. and R i l e y , W.J. 1930 -Farm S u r v e y R e c o r d s and F l o c k Management P r o b l e m s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o u r t h W o r l d s P o u l t r y C o n g r e s s 19 3 0. B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e & F i s h e r i e s , London. C o n f e r e n c e P a p e r s S e c t i o n D. (6) L l o y d , E.A. and B i e l y , J:» •_1'944 • P o u l t r y M o r t a l i t y - Number One P r o f i t K i l l e r U«S. Egg and P o u l t r y M a g a z i n e , Volume 50 No. 5 . (7) Q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , Volume 37, No. 1 - A p r i l - June 1944. D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , O t t a w a , O n t a r i o . (8) R i l e y , W.J., L l o y d , E.A. and Asmundson, V.S. 1927 A S u r v e y o f P o u l t r y Farms i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B u l l e t i n No. 102, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , V i c t o r i a , B.C. (9) Woodward, E.D. A Summary o f P r o d u c t i o n and R e t u r n s o f T h i r t y P o u l t r y Farms i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y 1943-1944. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s , • . U n i v e r s i t y o f J B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. 

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