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The flotation separation of scheelite from calcite in a synthetic ore Smith, William Roy 1944

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'Lit/if- ft -J THE FLOTATION SEPARATION'- OF SCHEELITE FROM OALCITE A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the. Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n the Department of . ' . METALLDRGT. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia IN A SYNTHETIC ORE William Roy Smith A p r i l , 1944. i . T A B L E O F 6 0 N' I E N T S Page ItltrodUCtlOU . . . . . . . a . . . . ® « . e e « . o « X Purpose of the Pro j e c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Approach to the Problem , . . . . . . « . « « > . . . . 3 The Problem of Evaluating Results .6 Test Procedure 7 Reagents Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 .Re s u i t s of the Tests . « . « « . . . . » « « . . . 14 GOnClUSXOtI « . . « . » « . . « » . e « . « » . o « * 13 Test iDetaxls • « • . . . • . . >. * . . • . . . • • • Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . back page. i i . I L L U S T R A T I O N S Page Figure 1 . 6 Figure 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . f a c i n g page 15 Figure 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . f a c i n g page 15 i i i . .A c K O W L E C G M E N T S The author wishes to thank those who so w i l l i n g l y -o f f e r e d suggestions and va l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m to him during t h i s work. He i s e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o Mr. J . M. Gummings f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t , and to Mr. A. G. Lyle f o r h i s sugges-t i o n s on evaluating the r e s u l t s of the t e s t s . W. R. Smith. . Vancouver, B.C., t A p r i l , 1944. : • _ : THE FLOTATION SEPARATION OF SCHEELITE FROM CALCITE IN A SYNTHETIC ORE In t r o d u c t i o n In the summer of 1942 t e s t work on the concentration of the tungsten ores from the Emerald mine, at Salmo, B.C., was undertaken by the B r i t i s h Columbia War Metals Research Board. The t e s t work was done a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and the r e s u l t s have been reported upon by Mr.'J. M. Cummings i n progress reports of the Board and i n a paper read a t the western meeting of the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Mining and Metallurgy 2 i n November, 1942. These r e s u l t s , which were generally i n agreement w i t h s i m i l a r t e s t s made by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, formed the basis f o r the m i l l design at the mine. The arrangement of the flow-sheet was s i m i l a r to t h a t of other tungs-ten producers. That i s , the ore was crushed and ground to the proper s i z e , t r e a t e d by f l o t a t i o n to remove the sul p h i d e s , and fed to a battery of W i l f l e y t a b l e s t o produce a high-grade s c h e e l i t e concentrate and a t a i l i n g which was f u r t h e r t r e a t e d by f l o t a t i o n to boost the o v e r a l l tungs-ten recovery. The t a b l e concentrates had to be run through a magnetic separator t o remove p y r r h o t i t e which passed the sulphide f l o t a t i o n u n i t , and garnets which were of s u f f i c i e n t l y high s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y to separate out w i t h the s c h e e l i t e on the t a b l e s . The s c h e e l i t e f l o t a t i o n concen-t r a t e was not r e t r e a t e d i n the m i l l . The scheme, as a whole, was not too i n t r i c a t e and was s a t i s f a c t o r y 1. Mining Engineer, B.C. Dept. of Mines, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 2. Cummings, J.M., B e n e f i c i a t i o n of Some B r i t i s h Columbia Tungsten Ores,, C.I.M.M. Transactions. V o l . XLVI, 1943, pp. 47-69. except f o r the s c h e e l i t e f l o t a t i o n s e c t i o n i n which i t was not found possible to r a i s e the grade of concentrates above three or four percent WOg when using o l e i c a c i d or Orso as c o l l e c t o r s . The del e t e r i o u s minerals i n t h i s concentrate - mostly c a l c i t e with a small amount of a p a t i t e -could not be depressed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y during f l o t a t i o n . The low-grade m a t e r i a l thus produced was t o be shipped to the United States Vanadium 5 Corporation f o r chemical treatment, and, while i t was considered accept-able under s t r e s s of war, i t was doubtful i f i t would be so considered i n a normal market. Some system of improving the f l o t a t i o n concentrate seemed to be one p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r ensuring the operation of the property i n a competitive market. This problem i s not unique but i s encountered wherever s c h e e l i t e i s found associated w i t h c a l c i t e or a p a t i t e . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y troublesome where the s c h e e l i t e occurs i n a contact metamorphic deposit l i k e the Emerald. At some of these properties t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s taken care of by r e t r e a t i n g the f l o t a t i o n concentrates on slime tables to make a high-grade, slimed, s c h e e l i t e concentrate and a low-grade t a i l i n g which may be e i t h e r chemically t r e a t e d or sent to waste. This method, however, i s none too s a t i s f a c t o r y . In 1942, the problem of improving the Emerald f l o t a t i o n concentrate by improved f l o t a t i o n p r a c t i c e was given considerable thought by the s t a f f of the B r i t i s h Columbia War Metals Research Board but no time was found to do any work on i t . When the author j o i n e d the s t a f f i n 1943 the problem was s t i l l s l a t e d f o r consideration but work on i t was not begun u n t i l j u s t before the Emerald mine closed i n September, 1943. The p r o j e c t was almost dropped a t t h i s time but, because the problem was 3. S a l t Lake C i t y , Utah. fundamentally important, and there was a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of the Emerald mine operating a f t e r the war, i t was decided t h a t the author should continue the work as a t h e s i s problem during the 1945 winter session a t the U n i v e r s i t y . Purpose of >the P r o j e c t The main purpose of the p r o j e c t was, as the i n t r o d u c t i o n i m p l i e s , t o t r y to f i n d some means of grading up the f l o t a t i o n concentrates from the Emerald mine by improved f l o t a t i o n p r a c t i c e . This problem was e s s e n t i a l l y that of separating s c h e e l i t e from c a l c i t e during f l o t a t i o n . A. secondary purpose of the p r o j e c t was th a t of g e t t i n g f u r t h e r information on a number of commercially a v a i l a b l e chemicals, c o l l e c t e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, at V i c t o r i a , which were thought to have p o s s i b i l i t i e s as f l o t a t i o n reagents. Some of these had been test e d already on other minerals but many had not been considered as f l o t a t i o n reagents before. L a s t l y , i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t any s o l u t i o n to the problem of separating s c h e e l i t e and c a l c i t e might give a l e a d t o the s o l u t i o n of many related" problems such as the separating of c a l c i t e and f l u o r s p a r , c a l c i t e and a p a t i t e , e t c . This t e s t work was thus considered to be an i n d i r e c t a t t a c k upon these problems. Approach to the Problem I t was r e a l i z e d that a great d e a l of test'work had been done by widely separated groups on the f l o t a t i o n of s c h e e l i t e from c a l c i t e and that t h i s work had, on the whole, been none too s u c c e s s f u l . Most of t h i s work of which the author could f i n d records, however, had been approached from the same poi n t o f view; that i s , by f l o a t i n g w i t h o l e i c a c i d or sodium oleate i n the presence.of a c t i v a t o r s or depressants, u s u a l l y inorganic acids or s a l t s . I t was therefore thought that angles had not been i n v e s t i g a t e d which should have been. In working on t h i s problem i t was f e l t t h a t , a t f i r s t , the use of a n a t u r a l ore should be avoided because of the i n e v i t a b l e presence of so l u b l e s a l t s which would v e i l the true p i c t u r e of the a c t i o n of the > reagents used i n the t e s t s . A s y n t h e t i c ore was therefore made up from some clean s c h e e l i t e j i g concentrates and a very pure white c r y s t a l l i n e limestone* A very small amount of sulphides, and some s i l i c a and s i l i -c a tes, were the only i m p u r i t i e s i n the mixture. To f u r t h e r avoid accident-a l a c t i v a t i o n or depression during f l o t a t i o n the charges of s y n t h e t i c ore were ground i n a pebble m i l l , and the t e s t s were c a r r i e d out i n a Fagergren la b o r a t o r y f l o t a t i o n machine made of glass and s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . I t was next thought advisable to do a t e s t , a t the n a t u r a l pH of the ore, wi t h each of the reagents on hand and see whether or not any of them showed a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of s e l e c t i v i t y f o r e i t h e r s c h e e l i t e or c a l c i t e . Any l a r g e groups of reagents, such as the c a t i o n i c amines, were to be f u r t h e r t e s t e d by s e l e c t i n g one of the more promising members of the group and using i t with various conditioners to t r y to improve the s e l e c t i v i t y . I t was hoped .that one of these rea.gents might give a d i r e c t answer to the problem. A f t e r the f i r s t few t e s t s were made and i t was found that the c a t i o n i c reagents showed a d e f i n i t e s e l e c t i v i t y to s c h e e l i t e another approach was considered. The an i o n i c c o l l e c t o r s , such as Orso, c o l l e c t s c h e e l i t e . a n d c a l c i t e n o n - s e l e c t i v e l y but can be made to drop most of the s i l i c e o u s minerals i n an ore. The long-chain c a t i o n i c reagents, on the other hand, c o l l e c t the s i l i c e o u s minerals and s c h e e l i t e i n preference to c a l c i t e . By using a f l o t a t i o n process designed to take advantage of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both types of reagents i t was thought t h a t i t . may be p o s s i b l e to make a clean s c h e e l i t e concentrate. For instance, i f a s c h e e l i t e ore contained a l a r g e percentage of s i l i c e o u s minerals together with some s c h e e l i t e and c a l c i t e , i t may f i r s t be f l o a t e d with Orso to drop the s i l i c e o u s minerals, and then, a f t e r k i l l i n g the Orso c o l l e c t o r f i l m , f l o a t i n g i t with .a c a t i o n i c reagent t o drop the c a l c i t e . I t was decided that t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y should be run dovm a f t e r making the i n i t i a l t e s t s w i t h a l l the new reagents. The s o l u t i o n of t h i s problem would f o l l o w the s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e c a t i o n i c and anionic reagents, and f i n d i n g a method of k i l l i n g the coating formed by whichever reagent was used f i r s t . I f any promising reagent combinations were found during the t e s t s on the s y n t h e t i c ore they would be t r i e d out on n a t u r a l ores t o f i n d t h e i r p r a c t i c a l value. In. o u t l i n e the t e s t s were to be c a r r i e d out thus s A. Synthetic Ore. 1. Tests on each reagent at the n a t u r a l pH of the ore. 2. Tests oh some of the more promising reagents with c o n d i t i o n e r s . 3. Tests on c e r t a i n s u i t a b l e c o l l e c t o r s t o see i f t h e i r c o l l e c t i n g a c t i o n could be k i l l e d by some p r a c t i c a l means., 4. Double f l o t a t i o n t e s t s with a n i o n i c and c a t i o n i c reagents used i n e i t h e r order. B. Natural Ores. 1. Tests d u p l i c a t i n g any of those on the s y n t h e t i c ores which showed promise. 2. M o d i f i c a t i o n s of the above t e s t s to improve r e s u l t s or technique. - 6 -The Problem of Evaluating Results I t was found i n previous t e s t work that most reagents f o r the f l o t a -t i o n of nonmetallics do not p u l l t o an end point i n c o l l e c t i n g c e r t a i n minerals and r e j e c t i n g others as do the sulphide c o l l e c t o r s i n separating sulphides from gangue. A- xanthate, f o r instance, w i l l not, even i f added i n excess, act as a c o l l e c t o r of c a l c i t e . On the other hand, i f l a u r y l amine hydrochloride (see Test 7A) i s used to c o l l e c t s i l i c a i n the presence of c a l c i t e i t w i l l be found to work i n the f o l l o w i n g way even on completely unlocked minerals: f i r s t , i t w i l l c o l l e c t clean s i l i c a j i f more reagent i s added i t w i l l c o l l e c t s i l i c a and c a l c i t e j and f i n a l l y , i f enough reagent i s added, the whole charge w i l l f l o a t . I t w i l l be r e a l i z e d from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i t would be easy, i n talcing a s i n g l e concentrate during a t e s t , t o get a wrong p i c t u r e of the value of a reagent. For i n s t a n c e , i n the accompanying graph, i f a s i n g l e concentrate was taken at the point A the reagent would probably be judged as capable of f l o a t i n g a good grade of product w i t h a s a c r i f i c e of recovery. I f the concentrate was taken at point B i t would be judged as capable of c o l l e c t i n g a lower grade product w i t h a h i g h recovery. A c t u a l l y the t e s t s would, be i d e n t i c a l and only a Figure I s i n g l e concentrate taken at about p o i n t C would show the true p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the s e l e c t i v i t y and c o l l e c t i n g power of the reagent used. This problem i s aggravated i n working with nonmetallics by the d i f f i c u l t y of judging v i s u a l l y the best point at which to stop tak i n g concentrates. To avoid misjudgment of the value of a c o l l e c t o r i n t h i s p r o j e c t i t was decided to add the reagents i n such a way as to recover f o u r concen-t r a t e s and a t a i l i n g from each t e s t , except where such a procedure was e i t h e r unnecessary or impossible (double f l o t a t i o n t e s t s , f o r i n s t a n c e ) . From the data thus gathered recovery and r e j e c t i o n curves were to be p l o t t e d . f o r s c h e e l i t e , c a l c i t e , and i n s o l u b l e . A l s o , i f found s a t i s f a c t o r y , two and three component summation i n d i c e s would be p l o t t e d . I t was f e l t t h a t e r r o r i n judgment would be reduced to a minimum by t h i s method of e v a l u a t i o n . Tests with o l e i c a c i d and Orso (see Tests 1 and 2) were to be used as a basis of comparison f o r judging the s e l e c t i v i t y of the other reagents. Test Procedure The sy n t h e t i c ore was made up of a pure jig-concentrated s c h e e l i t e from the Bralorne mine, and a white c r y s t a l l i n e . l i m e s t o n e containing a small amount of s i l i c e o u s i n s o l u b l e . The s y n t h e t i c mixture was s i z e d to -10 *• 100 mesh. The heads assays were as f o l l o w s : ^ A •k.^^ri^. % W03 % CaO "% I n s o l . J " Heads 7.56 51.8 2.1 «• 'C, »***'*f " Five hundred gram charges were ground f o r twenty minutes i n a pebble-m i l l at 50 percent d i l u t i o n . The charge was washed from the m i l l and screened through 65 mesh. The small amount of m a t e r i a l r e t a i n e d on the 65 mesh screen was ground wet i n an agate mortar u n t i l i t a l l passed through the screen. Screen a n a l y s i s on t h i s pulp showed i t to be 82.6 percent minus 200 mesh. . 4 . G i l l i e s , G.A., L y l e , A.G., Runkle, J.P.; A Graphical Method of Evaluating S e l e c t i v e F l o t a t i o n Tests, T P 1409, A.I.M.E., 1942.' - 8 -I The presence of considerable slimes made i t impossible to use the peb b l e - m i l l discharge i n the t e s t s d i r e c t l y . For t h i s reason the pulp was deslimed as f o l l o w s . I t was put i n a pan with water to a depth of about three inches, then a g i t a t e d with a f i n e j e t of water, and allowed t o s e t t l e f o r 15 seconds. The water and u n s e t t l e d slimes were then decanted.. This process was repeated three times and gave a very s a t i s -f a c t o r y t e s t charge weighing between 250 and 500 grams. Screen a n a l y s i s data of the r e s u l t i n g pulp i s shown below and i n Graph I.. Slimes Size "% wo 5 % I n s o l . -65 4-100 mesh 4.40. 'V, 6.60 -100 * 150 ti '. 2.5 ' 4.64 3 « 79 -150 + 200 it 26.3 8.29 2.99 -200 4-525 II 56.9 • 9.56 2.07 -325 it S3«S 15.44 2.39 Composite 100.0 11.00 2.51 +325 mesh 1.4 0.21 ' 3.54 -325 mesh 98.6 5.25 1.94 100.0 The deslimed charge was put i n the c e l l w i t h s u f f i c i e n t water t o permit the concentrates to be skimmed r e a d i l y from the top of a good bubble column. The pulp d i l u t i o n under these conditions was about 6:1. The c o l l e c t o r was then added dropwise u n t i l some c o l l e c t i n g a c t i o n was noted, f r o t h e r was added as r e q u i r e d , and the charge conditioned f o r three minutes. The pulp was then frothed and everything that f l o a t e d was skimmed o f f as a concentrate. This process was continued u n t i l the required number of concentrates were taken. A f t e r each t e s t the c e l l was c a r e f u l l y cleaned. At f i r s t a f r o t h i n g , n o n - c o l l e c t i n g detergent (Detergent M) was used as the cleaning agent but l a t e r t h i s was replaced by a small blank charge of c a l c i t e f i n e s with a few drops of methyl a l c o h o l to make a f r o t h . A f t e r a g i t a t i n g the charge f o r f i v e or ten minutes the whole c e l l was cleaned w i t h water s e v e r a l times. The d r i e d products from the t e s t s were weighed, an assay sample of about ten grams was cut from each, and the residues were arranged i n a pan i n the proper order from the f i r s t concentrate t o the t a i l i n g s . The products so arranged were lamped to see i f there was any degree of s e l e c t i v i t y to e i t h e r s c h e e l i t e or c a l c i t e . I f a t e s t was judged to be non-selective i t was u s u a l l y not assayed. The small degree of s e l e c t i v i t y shown by some of the t e s t s which were assayed (Test 57A, f o r instance) i s good evidence to prove t h a t t h i s system of e l i m i n a t i n g non-selective t e s t s was e f f e c t i v e . The need of desliming the ore complicated the problems of assaying and c a l c u l a t i n g reagent a d d i t i o n s . Both the amount of charge and the heads v a r i e d i n each t e s t . Reagents were added assuming the charge to be 250 grams. L a t e r , the f i g u r e s f o r reagent a d d i t i o n s were adjusted i f the t o t a l weight of products d i f f e r e d from 250 grams. The v a r i a b l e heads nec e s s i t a t e d careful, assaying since the only checks on wrong assays were i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the shape of the recovery or r e j e c t i o n curves and v a r i a t i o n s i n the WO? - i n s o l u b l e r a t i o . Unless t e s t conditions became i n t o l e r a b l e reagents were added to 2.0 #/T before judging a reagent as a n o n - c o l l e c t o r . Some of these weak c o l l e c t o r s or n o n - c o l l e c t o r s were e x c e l l e n t f r o t h e r s . - 10 -Reagents Tested -A l i s t of the reagents t e s t e d i s given below with an o u t l i n e of t h e i r compositions and p r o p e r t i e s . These reagents were selected from a much l a r g e r group by eliminating' those that were known to be unpromising. Those l i s t e d are i n the order t e s t e d . • A f t e r each i s given, i n summary form, the f o l l o w i n g data: whether the reagent i s a c a t i o n i c or an a n i o n i c c o l l e c t o r ) i t s composition; i t s strength as a c o l l e c t o r (on the basis of the amount of reagent which c o l l e c t e d 25 grams of the t e s t charge regard-l e s s of s e l e c t i v i t y ) j i t s three-component summation index; i t s two-component summation index; and i t s f r o t h i n g p r o p e r t i e s . For i n s t a j i c e , 6. AM 1120; c, dodecyl amine, .057, — , 17S, non-rfrother, means t h a t : i n Test 6 Armour Amine Ml 1120 was used; i t i s a c a t i o n i c c o l l e c t o r ; i t i s a dodecyl amine; .057 #/T of i t c o l l e c t e d 25 grams of the t e s t charge; no three-component s e l e c t i v i t y index was p o s s i b l e (the reagent c o l l e c t e d r a t h e r than r e j e c t e d s i l i c a ) ; i t was q u i t e s e l e c t i v e to s c h e e l i t e over c a l c i t e (see Graph 13); i t d i d not f r o t h by i t s e l f . • 1. Orso; a, — , 0.05, 221, 106, some f r o t h i n g . 2. O l e i c a c i d ; a, C^y H55 G00H, 0.06, 215, 105, non-frother. 4. AM-118.5 B; c, long chain amines, 0.14,,—, 186, non-frother. 5. TMS; c, t r i - m e t h y l s t e a r y l ammonium bromide, 1.1, — , 161, strong, tough f r o t h * 6. AM 1120; c, dodecyl amine, 0.06, — , 175, non-frother. 7. DP 243; c, l a u r y l amine hydrochloride, 0.12, — , 141; strong, tough f r o t h . 8. 12 NAM-1181.2 C; c, long chain amines, 0.04, — , 172, non-frother. 9. T r i t o n K-60; c, c e t y l di-methyl benzyl ammonium c h l o r i d e , 0.09, — , 174, strong f r o t h e r . - 11 -10. AM-Coco-C; c, long chain amines, 0.06, — , 165, non-frother. 11. AM 118.5 Cj c, long chain amines, 0.09, — , 180, non-frother. 12. 12 NAM-1180 Cj c, long chain amines, 0.05, — , 1 7 9 , non-frother. 15. AM -1180 Cj c, long chain amines, 0.08, — , 174, non-frother. 14. Diaperm Hj c, —•, — , •—, — , strong f r o t h e r . 15. Nopco CVTj c, o l e i c amine, 0.12, — , 172, good f r o t h e r . 16. Nopco DID; c, sulphonated o l e i c amine, 0.14, — , 167, strong tough f r o t h e r . 17. Dupont Q B; c, — , — , — , — , good f r o t h e r . 18. Dupont Retarder L A; c, — , 0.14, — , 100, non-frother. 19. Emulsol 607Cj c, — , — , — , — , strong, tough f r o t h . 20. Catol 3E; c, e s t e r of primary hydroxy amine, 1.1, — , 164, non-frother. 21. Sapamine SM; c, — , — , — , —•, f a i r f r o t h e r . 22. Negamine 142A; c, f a t t y - a c i d amide, — , —-, f a i r f r o t h e r . 25. N i n o i 400; c, f a t t y a c i d a l k y l o l amine condensation product, — , — , — , e x c e l l e n t f r o t h e r . 24. Dupont Q; c, —-, 0.46, — , 152, s l i g h t f r o t h i n g . 25. C e t y l Betaine; — , — , — , — , — , f a i r f r o t h e r . 26. Ahcovels A; — , f a t t y a c i d amino condensation p r o d u c t , — , — , — , poor watery, f r o t h . 27. Ahcovels Ej s i m i l a r to above reagent. 28. Ahcovels F; d i t t o , 29. Ahcovels Gj d i t t o . 30. Resynon S L; d i t t o . 31. I n t r a c o l ; c, f a t t y a c i d b a s i c amide, 0.25, — , —-, poor f r o t h e r . 32. Quaker T.F.1800; a , f a t t y a c i d amide condensation product, — , — , — , non f r o t h e r . - i s -s s . -Syntax M L i q u i d ; a, ^ ^Egg^-O-GHg^HCJ^QSOsMH^ , — , — , — , good f r o t h e r . 54. T e r g i t o l Penetrant 4; a, sodium a l k y l sulphonate, —-, — , — •, good f r o t h e r . 35. T e r g i t o l Penetrant 7; a, sodium a l k y l sulphonate, 0.9, 247, 171, good f r o t h e r . 36. Warcasol 897A; a, sodium a l k y l sulphonate, 0.09, 228, 151, f a i r f r o t h e r . 57. T r i t o n 1-50; a, sodium a r y l a l k y l ether sulphate, — , — , — , weak f r o t h e r . 58. Arylene; a, a l k y l a r y l sulphonate, 0.5, — , — , good f r o t h e r . 39. Solvadine N C; a, a l k y l a r y l sulphonate, 1.4, — , — , good f r o t h e r . 40. Cerfak; a, a l k y l a r y l sulphonate,. — , — , — , good f r o t h e r . 41. Nopco 1067; a, a l k y l a r y l sulphonate, 1.7, — , — , tough f r o t h . 42. NSAE Paste;, a, a l k y l naphthalene sulphonate, 0.5, 243, 173, good f r o t h e r . 45. SP 315; a, sodium a r y l sulphonate, 0.5, — , 100, non-frother. 44. SP 717; a, s i m i l a r to above. 45. Santol S;. a, sodium a r y l sulphonate, — , — , — , f a i r f r o t h e r . 46. Orthocen K; a, higher phenol sulphonated, 0.3, 224, 123, poor f r o t h e r . 47. Oleo G l y c e r o l Sulphate; a, see name, 0.25, — , 100, strong f r o t h e r . 48. A l i p h a t i c e s t e r sulphate; a, see name, 0.15, — , 100,. poor f r o t h e r . 49. Phi-0-Sol; a, ca r b o x y l i c a c i d ester sulphate, 0.13, — , 100, poor f r o t h e r . 50. Nopco 1075B; a, o l e i c amide e s t e r , — , — , — , good f r o t h e r . 51. Penetrol 65; a, sodium s a l t of s u l p h o r i c i n o l e i c a c i d , 0.5, 245, 150, poor f r o t h e r . 52. A r l a c e l C; a, anhydroxyhexitol p a r t i a l o l e a t e , — , — , — , non-frother. ( S i m i l a r to o l e i c a c i d , t e s t discarded.) - 15 -53. Span 85; a, s o r b i t a n t r i o l e a t e , 0.05, 229, 128, non-frother. 54. Quaker 1500; a, a soap, 0.06, 240, 151, non-frother. 55. Aciterge 0 Lj a, n e u t r a l s a l t of oxazoline, 0.6, 224, 146, non-f r o t h e r . 56. Alox 300; a, see note below and.tests 56A, 56A-2, 56A-3.. 57. Tetracene 070; a, — , 0.06, — , 105, non-frother. 58. Orvus WA Powder; — , — , — , — , — , good f r o t h e r . 59. Duponol W.S.; a,, a l k y l sulphate, — , — , — , e x c e l l e n t f r o t h e r . 60. Duponol G; a, " " • , — , — , —> strong, tough f r o t h . 61. Duponol O.S; a, " " , — , — , — , " » »• 62. Alkanol HG; -—, ',—, — , — , — , e x c e l l e n t f r o t h e r . 63. Alkanol «XN; — , — , n « 64. Glyco S - 7 2 6 | — , — , — , — , — , poor f r o t h e r . 65. L i g h t n i n g Penetrant X; a, s a l t of f a t t y a c i d sulphonate, — , --, — , good f r o t h e r . 66. Pentramuls 126; a, pentaerytherol mono-oleate, — , — , -—:, f a i r f r o t h e r . 67.. Leophen B; — , — , — , — , — , f a i r f r o t h e r . 68. Emulsol X-50; a, — , 0.04, — , 100, poor f r o t h e r . 69. Emulsol X-20; a, — , -—, — , — , strong, tough f r o t h , 70. Igepon T; — , — , :—, . — , — , f a i r f r o t h e r . 71. Soapatol Gar; a, s a l t of sulphonated f a t t y amide, 0.23, 240, 127, f a i r f r o t h e r . 72. Cominol Gar; — , • — , — , — , — , f a i r f r o t h e r . 75, Gopacol; a, t a l l o i l , 0.03, 252, 153, non-frother. 74, Surfax W.O.; a, sulphated f a t t y e s t e r , •—, — , — , f a i r f r o t h e r , 75,. Quaker T.F.1637; a, — , 0.04, 214, 135, weak f r o t h e r . 76. Santoroerse #3j ••.alkyl a r y l sulphonate, — , — , — , e x c e l l e n t f r o t h e r , 77. T a r o l Pine O i l ; a, impure pine o i l , 0.2, — , —-, good f r o t h e r . 78. T r i - e t h y l benzyl ammonium c h l o r i d e ; c, see name, — , — , — , poor f r o t h e r . 79. L i n o l e i c Acid; a, C 1 7 H 3 1 C00H, 0,015, 221, 106, non-frother. Note; Alox 300: This reagent i s a s o f t , brown waxy substance and'is made by o x i d a t i o n of 124-126 M.P. white p a r a f f i n wax w i t h one t h i r d of the mass to be oxidized c o n s i s t i n g of dark greem petrolatum." I t contains acids from formic and a c e t i c r i g h t up to those having carbon chain lengths of f i f t y or more, the amounts of intermediate a c i d s being s m a l l . The intermediate t o short chain-length acids probably made up the bulk of those soluble i n methyl a l c o h o l • Results of the Tests : A review of any points worth mentioning i n connection with the i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s f o l l o w s i n note form. The number at the head of each note i s the number of the t e s t being d i s c u s s e d . For various reasons, but mainly because of l a c k of time, none of the more promising leads could be followed through to a f i n a l conclusion. The r e s u l t s covered below 1 are, consequently, r a t h e r indefinite''and i n c o n c l u s i v e . 1A. Notice the s l i g h t degree of s e l e c t i v i t y shown towards s c h e e l i t e i n the t e s t s w i t h o l e i c a c i d and Orso. This may be due to a s l i g h t inherent s e l e c t i v i t y of the c o l l e c t o r s or to the s i z e d i s t r u b u t i o n of the s c h e e l i t e i n the f l o t a t i o n heads (see Graph I ) . 4A. This t e s t shows AM-118.5 B to be unusually s e l e c t i v e to s c h e e l i t e over c a l c i t e - even more so than the other c l o s e l y r e l a t e d amines t h a t were t e s t e d (see Tests:11A and 12A). Towards the end of the work on t h i s problem a rerun of Test 4A was made but i t was found that . .' "Sv. Burwellj:,A.l':., t e c h n i c a l d i r e c t o r ^ Alox..- ."Corporation, personal communication. * 1 i . .)-.& (j-. r ^ i ... —— So- i • I _. ^ •• el j ; -w / —1 ! -1 -• —j——-=pr—4ft-1 ~r >" ' as 1 - S" -i & > / ! [ Figure i,2.. Comparison-, 1 I jf; Tests 4;a ———£——2.-0-/ • i I /Biff] PP\ 1 • ' - I0O -' lh-.rL::;:i:_::x:r: 1 I ~ \ {-O 1 / \ j I '-i - i -4- ~, L >"\ ', ': ! 'f- i • . iJ o , - — - \ ' ] i ' 1 1 ,, , 1 n ! $i—4-o _<^Z i _ -L-Figure. 6.. , 1 Comparise n of|Tests a J r 1 and 80l! i i . . :—1=°-"'tI 1 i . . M • • ! : • '' i 1 4 > 1 , 6 7« Wei'^ Vd > ' i s i ! i ' 1 • ! • - 15 -the reagent had d e t e r i o r a t e d and a check on the v a l i d i t y of t h i s t e s t was not p o s s i b l e . The author now b e l i e v e s , however, that Test 4A i s not representative of the a c t i o n of AM-118.5 B, and that the t e s t curves should be. almost i d e n t i c a l with those of AM-118..5C and 12 NAM-1180 C (see Figure 2). This would mean that a c c i d e n t a l a c t i v a t i o n of the s c h e e l i t e , or depression of the c a l c i t e , had occurred i n t h i s t e s t . This was caused, i t i s now b e l i e v e d , by the presence of a small amount of Detergent M (a sulphonated f a t t y a c i d condensate) c a r r i e d over from the 6 cleaning of the c e l l . Q u a l i t a t i v e t e s t s done r e c e n t l y , when there was no time f o r f u r t h e r complete t e s t s , i n d i c a t e d that t h i s b e l i e f was j u s t i f i e d . Test 8G gave a s i m i l a r l y e r r a t i c r e s u l t (see Figure 5),which spurred the author on i n the b e l i e f that h y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c a c i d was an a c t i v a t o r f o r s c h e e l i t e and was the answer to our problem (see Test 8G-5 f o r the best r e s u l t with h y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c a c i d ) . The e r r a t i c nature of t h i s t e s t was, however, probably a l s o due t o the presence of Detergent M. In any case t e s t s with the amines and Detergent M seem j u s t i f i e d . 4B-F. These t e s t s show the r e a c t i o n of t h i s type of reagent to various c o n d i t i o n e r s . I t w i l l be noted that none of these improve the s c h e e l i t e - c a l c i t e s eparation. ^ 8B-2 to 8H-2. E a r l y q u a l i t a t i v e t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h y d r o f l u o r i c a c i d and h y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c a c i d had an e f f e c t on the c o l l e c t i n g a c t i o n of t h i s amine which was s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o warrant f u r t h e r work. This s e r i e s of t e s t s completely covers the p o s s i b i l i t i e s , however, and the r e s u l t s are none t,oo encouraging. H y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c a c i d shows a s l i g h t tendency to improve the separation of s c h e e l i t e and c a l c i t e but i t i s not e f f e c t i v e enough to be of p r a c t i c a l value. The best r e s u l t i s 6. Soon a f t e r these t e s t s were made the use of Detergent M i n cleaning the c e l l was stopped. - 16 -with about 4.0 #/T of acid.added to the gri n d . The value of the summation i n d i c e s i n judging the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s e r i e s of t e s t s i s w e l l shown by these graphs. For ins t a n c e , from a study of the s c h e e l i t e recovery curves i t was found p r a c t i c a l l y impossible t o judge what was happening i n t h i s s e r i e s of t e s t s . Study of the summation i n d i c e s i n d i c a t e s , however, a d e f i n i t e , l o g i c a l sequence of r e s u l t s . I t shows t h a t : 1. Hydrofluoric a c i d s l i g h t l y r e t a rds the separation. 2. A d d i t i o n of h y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c a c i d improves the separation to a maximum point at about 4.0 #/T. 3. The separation improves with c o n d i t i o n i n g time and i s best when the a c i d i s added t o the g r i n d . This may be due to pH (see Test 8G-6). 55A. The reagent used i n t h i s t e s t i s one of a s e r i e s of sodium a l k y l sulphonates of d i f f e r e n t a l k y l chain lengths made by the Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation. The two with the longest chain lengths were t e s t e d i n t h i s work. These are: „ T T T e r g i t o l Penetrant 4. C^HgCHCHgCHgCHCHgCH-CHs •• • ' c 2 i i 5 T e r g i t o l Penetrant 7. G^HgGHGHgCHgCHGKqGHg GH The d i f f e r e n c e i n the str u c t u r e s of these two compounds i s s l i g h t - two methyl groups being exchanged f o r two e t h y l groups on the end of the a l k y l chain - but the second i s a much stronger c o l l e c t o r than the f i r s t . I t may be that f u r t h e r s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e of these compounds would r e s u l t i n a c o l l e c t o r of worthwhile strength showing s e l e c t i v i t y to s c h e e l i t e i n the order of that shown by T e r g i t o l Penetrant - 17 -7. This would, of course, be a d i r e c t answer to the problem at hand. Another point o f i n t e r e s t i s shown by t h i s t e s t . The s c h e e l i t e i n the t a i l i n g s from the t e s t was very h i g h l y f l o c c u l a t e d and tended to separate from the unfl o c c u l a t e d c a l c i t e . This i n d i c a t e s that the s c h e e l i t e was coated with c o l l e c t o r and should have f l o a t e d , and a l s o , t h a t any c a l c i t e i n the concentrate probably got there by being trapped i n the f r o t h . This t e s t i l l u s t r a t e s a t h i r d point of i n t e r e s t . Some of the reagents t e s t e d were not at a l l compatible with the usual f r o t h e r s -pine o i l , c r e s y l i c a c i d j the a l c o h o l f r o t h e r s , e t c . - and seve r a l t e s t s were sometimes necessary before a s u i t a b l e f r o t h e r could be found f o r a c o l l e c t o r . Some of the wetting agents such as Emulsol X - l , N i n o l 400, and Nopco 1075B were qu i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y as a u x i l i a r y f r o t h e r s i n such cases. 55A. The shape of the i n s o l u b l e r e j e c t i o n curve i n t h i s graph i s rat h e r d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n . A l l assays and c a l c u l a t i o n s on t h i s t e s t were checked and found to be c o r r e c t . 66. The a b i l i t y of Alox 300 to c o l l e c t s c h e e l i t e s e l e c t i v e l y i s very marked. This reagent i s a mixture and i t i s probable that only one compound (or a t most only a few of the compounds) i n i t i s causing i t to c o l l e c t s e l e c t i v e l y . The improved r e s u l t w i t h the methyl-alcohol s o l u t i o n of the reagent points to the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the working-compounds i n t h i s reagent are i n the intermediate to short-chain groups. I t i s impossible t o say d e f i n i t e l y , however, what i s doing the work i n Alox 300 because i t s exact composition i s not known. This i s the most promising reagent t e s t e d since i t tends to f l o a t only s c h e e l i t e and drops both c a l c i t e and the s i l i c e o u s minerals q u i t e r e a d i l y . I t warrants f u r t h e r work being done on i t to f i n d put the reason f o r i t s s e l e c t i v e - 18 -c o l l e c t i n g a c t i o n . 75A. Copacol i s a t a l l o i l , a mixture of o l e i c , l i n o l e i c , and l i n o -l e n i c a c i d s , together with a small percentage of organic compounds of unknown composition. I t shows a much more marked degree of s e l e c t i v i t y toward s c h e e l i t e than e i t h e r o l e i c or l i n o l e i c acids (see Tests 2 and 79). I t i s a much stronger c o l l e c t o r than o l e i c a c i d but i s weaker than l i n o -l e i c a c i d . 79A. This t e s t shows l i n o l e i c a c i d to be a much more e f f e c t i v e non-s e l e c t i v e c o l l e c t o r than o l e i c a c i d . This i s undoubtedly due to the greater i n s o l u b i l i t y of i t s s a l t s . Double F l o t a t i o n Tests. A number of chemical t e s t s were made with Orso i n t r y i n g to f i n d a reagent t h a t would k i l l i t i f i t were used as the f i r s t reagent i n a double f l o t a t i o n process. H y d r o f l u o r i c a c i d was the only chemical found to be e f f e c t i v e . No t e s t s of t h i s type, however, were c a r r i e d to completion and no i n t e l l i g e n t judgment of the p o s s i b i l i -t i e s of t h i s method can thus be given. Conclusion The author was handicapped, i n doing t h i s work, by l a c k of informa-t i o n on the exact compositions of the reagents used, and by l a c k of data on the chemical p r o p e r t i e s of these reagents and t h e i r s a l t s . Further information of t h i s nature would probably throw considerable l i g h t on some of the points which are not now wholly understandable. For instance, i t i s reasonable to expect t h a t there would be a d i f f e r e n c e i n c o l l e c t -i n g a c t i o n shown by the c a t i o n i c c o l l e c t o r s to s c h e e l i t e and c a l c i t e because of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n nature of the cations of these minerals, but i t i s not so c l e a r why some of the a n i o n i c reagents should be so markedly s e l e c t i v e to s c h e e l i t e . - 19 -Although very incomplete the work done i n this project shows that the separation of' scheelite from c a l c i t e by f l o t a t i o n i s riot impossible-and that further work along a few of the more promising l i n e s i s j u s t i f i e d . This work would include: 1. Obtaining, i f possible, more exact infor-mation on the compositions of some of the more interes-. ting reagents tested,'particularly the a l k y l sulphonates* From th i s information i t may be possible to predict, and have made up, a l k y l sulphonates which would be strong, and also selective, scheelite c o l l e c t o r s . (See tests 54A to 36A.) 2. Tests made with the Armour: Amines to try to - f i n d the exact reason for the unusually high degree of s e l e c t i v i t y obtained i n Tests 4A and 8G. This would f i r s t involve tests with the amines and Detergent M, and then with the amines and any other feasible conditioners. The author f e e l s , however, that Detergent M may be the answer to- t h i s problem when added i n only very small amounts. (See tests 4 to 12.) 3. Tests with the family of reagents of which Alox 300 i s one, to try to f i n d out what compound or compounds are responsible for the s e l e c t i v i t y of Alox 300. I f this i s not successful i t may be possible to f i n d the answer by working with fractions of Alox 300 • which are soluble i n certain organic solvents---for instance, from tests already done: i t appears that the effective compounds are present i n the methyl-alcohol soluble fracti o n of Alox 300. This work may be followed up by chemical analysis o f the most selective fractions and i s o l a t i o n of the effective compounds. By recombination of these compounds i n the most effec-tive propertions, highly selective f l o t a t i o n of scheelite may be obtained. USE OF THE . GRAPHS The graphs are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . The red curve shows the WOg recovery, the blue curve the Insoluble r e j e c t i o n , and the orange curve the c a l c i t e r e j e c t i o n . The lower summation curve i s the p l o t of the two-component i n d i c e s f o r c a l c i t e and s c h e e l i t e . The upper summation curve i s the p l o t of the three-component i n d i c e s f o r c a l c i t e , s c h e e l i t e and i n s o l u b l e . TEST •Product Cone. 1 Cone. 2 Cone. 3 Cone. 4 T a i l s • Reagent #/I % Wt 0.055 " 12.7 0.07 53.0 0.14 . 18.5 0.28 13.8 2.2 Beagent: Orso Made by Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Composition: se c r e t . Cono. 1 0.034 30.6 11.4 0.9 Cone. 2 0.068 43.8 8.8 '>;:.-o;.-?5' Oono. 3 . 0.136 14.5 - 9.6 - 2.19 Bono. 0.872 10.1 : • 8.75 ..•>.:.A;6'9. T a i l s — ' ",Z.l "3.28 : "•' 33.37 Reagent: See Test 1A. M O a o Graph 3: Teat IB Synthetic Ore 250t Reagents: Orso (5% solution) Cresylic acid to froth as required. Charge conditioned 5 minutes with | l . 5 # / * pH 10.0. ' 2C°3 OO -4 » >— • o f\ J <j 1 e ij J ,n M v o o t> ft v a> ? < y. Y o I 7~ — .. J. ft «c \> 1 t • • 4 ZO 4a 60 7« 80 100 EES f 2A Product Reagent #/T $ 7ft; Cone. 1 0.057 9.7 Cone. 2 0.114 . 38.2 Oono. 3 0.228 40.4 Uono. 4 0.456 10.4 S a i l s — .1.0 Reagent: Oleio aoia Made by:-Composition: Hgg COOK fc W03. • # I n s o l . 15.3 .0.61 9.5, 0.56 10.5 1.14 10.3 ; 7.25 1.6 ,65,4 TEST 2B Product Oohc. 1 Cone;. 2 Cone. 3 Cone. 4 T a i l s Reagent #/l Wt. 0.062 18.0 0.124 36.6 0.248 32.0, 6.596 ' , 12.6 .0.8' f° W ° 3 •fi I n s o l . 16.4 - • 0.63 9.6 0.58 8.0 -1.00" 7.4 • '' 'r':8.47v;:' 2.0 82.50 Reagent: see Test 2A. Graph 5: Test 2B Synthetic ure reagents: Oleie acid. Uresylie acid to froth as required. charge conditioned 5 minutes with 1.5 f/H EapCO* pH 10.0 2.0 4-0 Co 8o too JEST 4 A AaaitioiiE of ' . Proauct ' Amine f/T JS Wt. y> W0g ' ft Ir.ool. Colic. 1 0.078 3.3 28.8 17.8 Oonoi 2 0.156 22.1 . 45.2 ; 6.6 Cone. 3 - 0-313 ' 72.5 0.46 0.3 T a i l s 2.1 1.01 1.2 Reagent: A lit 118.5 ;B; ' y Maae by Armour & Co. l t d . ;;> Composition: 25/», mono-n-ootaaeoyl-amine,25js mono-n-hexaaeoy amine, ana 50^ mono-n-6otaaeoenyl amine, \99il ; P r i c e qiiotea::'37jS/#. ; ,f' » Graph. 6: Test 4A byntnetic ore i • • 1 , — Reagents: Armour Amin e A M 11 8 • 5 B T Emulsion ) • rme o i l to froth as re qui red • 3 I-I L Kemarks: Froth ondition Ea e s v e r y goou • 1 1 TVi • ' 1 • i' L 50 • M 6) •> _ i o o / C 1 \-o - ~|™ -K 1 JO . s / (y? / » j /<> 100 b : i t t t t i r 'i rtttTTT-nr ' ; -^ "f"-r-"f—!~T" +—j—|—| t x i—h"t--' V • : • ft*. .2 / -r o A \ a) \ •o a Od \ 1 o w \ T I i T / V J 1 / 1 g.\ ! • 1 1 • 1 . 1 / ^ / «jj 1 V \ ft « A 1 / n / 1/ ! —• / \ rf V — H 4 — t o <V0 < 1 ie ,L1 go > m TEST- 4B. Additions o f Product Amine #/T. $ wt. 1° w 3 fo I n s o l . Conb. 1 0.060 3.9 23.0 20.6 'Jonc. 2 . 0.12 ,26.3 24.2 . . . . . . . 3 » 5 Ooric. 3 0.24 68.3 E.8 T a i l s 1.6 3.3 2.4 H e a g e n t S e e -seat ,.4A L Teal I *f i ;re. icea^en-cs i trmoui i Amine A 1 IE m 5 ( 5% Emulsior t) i ?in« ) i l j (. as required • Charge 5 minutes /ith 1 5 1 IB a9CC • 3 [ r. c 1 temarks s • J i • j; e uauxuxuna very ooa • 0 * t r 5, o •7 * j3 O 1 f 1 A \ 1 #v 4 D (« v r t T i 0 < 0> 6o 2.0 TEST 40 Additions of Product Amine #/T. % Wt. °/° W03 '/« I n s o l . Cono. 1 0.088 5.2 23.2 17.0 Cone. 2 0.176 24.0 38.6 5.7 T a i l s 0.352 70.8 1.9 0.3 Reagent: See Test "4A-. G r a p h 8: T e s t 4C c3 S y n t h e t i c O r e . 260 Zoo \ so loo 80 to 2o (55 E m u l s i o n ) r a; L3 i a I i 3 o i : i • :< "\ Crot] 1 ?equire< L j J. 1 • e 4 ; o n d i ' b Lonec 1 5 I a m u t e : 3 wit. a L ( •> on" r. CO. L goo 1 — i *1> *) i > If > TEST 4P Additions of iTOfiilot Amine f/f< $ VJ,t. V ^Cg ' .> Iri'sol. Cone. 1 0.6 2.6 19.7 . '.. 9.1 Cone. 2 •0.8 11.1 40.5 14.6 -Cone. 3 -0.8 12.4 19.0 •I '"8'.'9-... Cone. 4 0.8 . 41.0 5.3 • . ''0".5:;',--' Cone. 5 0.8 15.7' 0.4 T a i l s • 17.2 M i l '; 0.4 Reagent:; See Test 4A Graph 9: Test 4D. Synthetic Ore. JSeagents: Armour Amine A M 118.5 a \b°/o emulsion]. Pine O i l to froth as required, uharge conditioned 5 minutes with 4 f/T ivaoUO* and 6 f/T iMA 2Si0 3. pH 10.5 Remarks: ifroth conditions f a i r . 4-0 (>© )6C IEST_4E. Product Additions of Amine #/T. f> lit. % I n s o l . Oor.o. 1 0.075 6.1 32.3 16.8 Cone. 2 0.075 10.2 37.4 ' 8.3 Cone. 3 . ' • 0.15 61.6 8.1 ' 1.24 T a i l s — 22.8 •-•race 0.4 Reagent: See "'est 4A. ' • Graph 10: Test 4is. Synthetic Ore. L_ 0> ISO 100 100 4o l o o Reagents: Armour Amine A M 118.5 a {5fo Emulsion). .Fine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned 5 minutes with 1 f/T j?t>a03. Remarks: Froth conditions very good. L i r 1 !• T l i / XO 4-o 6b 8o loo TEST 4ff. • ' Additions of Product Amine jf/T. $ Wt. $,W03 $ I n s o l . Cone. 1 0.36 8.1 17.3 6.1 * Cone. 2 0.18 18.3 14.0 3.3 Cone. 3 0.18 42.3 1 0 . l v 2.3 Cone. 4 ••"*" 0.18 27.-6 3.8 1.4, S a i l s ' — 3.6 ' 1.0 2.7 Reagent: See Test 4A. uraph 11: Test 4F. Synthetic ure. 3 u © rE i •3 100 Reagents: Armour Amine A M 118.5 3 (5/o emulsion; .fine O i l to froth as required, oharge condition 5 minutes with 3 f 7 T of ualgon {Sodium hexametaphosphate} pH 7.1 Remarks: Froth conditions good. -4-1 J* o \ \ - J 3 1-5 J | 1> -O t >> al V j "T 0 »< ) \ \ V ~T > 0 J) y < t\ O • y i< > 4jo 6o 8o too .TEST 5A. Additions of ;: ', ' P r o d u o ' t Reagent f/T 70 Wt. - 7» WO„ : 70 I n s o l . Cone. 1 0.75 6.5 17 . 6 . 3C.4 Done. 2 '3.75 38.2 9.8 ' 0.0 Cono. 3. .'.1.9 34.5 2.3 ": 0.3 Cpno. 4 3.75 1416. 1.0 - • 0.2 T a i l s — 6.0 ' .0.6 .. 0.4 tceagent: Tri-methyl s t e a r y l ammonium bromide. Made by: E. A. Dupont de Hen lours Corp. Composition: as above. Graph 12: Test 5A. •A * O o c O £ 7 ct u 9 d a) a Synthetic ure. reagents: Tri-methyl stearyl ammonium bromide ^5^ solution! Pine O i l to modify froth as required. pH 9.3. ttemarks: iroth conditions poor. Reagent i s a f a i r c o l l e c t o r of siliceous minerals but i s | only a weak collector of scheelite and c a l c i t e . rest conditions unsatisfactory. 4o &o XSSI 6A. irddno't Reagent Add. $ Wt. • ,jt WO^  #^Inaol. Cone. 1 6.03 4.6 35.7 23.7 Cone. 3 0.03 6.2 40.1 :10.i Cone. 3 0.06 29.8 16.2 2.2 Cone. 4 0.06 23.2 4.0 ' 'f ° - 7 T a i l s — 36.2 . 1.2 '•• 0.2 Reagent: A M 1120. Made by: Armour & Co. L t d . Composition: C P . mono-n^dodecyl amine. ; P r i c e quoted 65^/#. uraph 13: Test 6A. Synthetic Ure. Reagents: Armour Amine A M 1120 [5fo emulsion j . Pine O i l to modify froth as required pH 9.3. remarks: Froth conditions very good. > o C o ZOO I5G \00 0 I >' hi a) i» o 0 t) 20 4o So : 7» So TEST ,7A. Proauot Reagent Aaa. fo Wt. ft WOg ft I i i s b l . Cone. 1 0.05 1.3: "' . 6.1 15.8 Opno. 2 0.05 : 3.7 7.8 19,6, Opnc. 3 0.10 18.6 19.7 7.6 Cone. 4 .' 0.80• ... 23.9 • 16.0 1.7 r. Tai l s . . ' . . . — SB.5 ; 3.6 i).4 Reagent: B.P. 243. Made by: E. 1. Diipont ae fiemours Corp. Composition: l a u r y l amine hydrochloride. TEST 8A. Produot Keagent Ada. ft Wt. ft W03: ' ft I r i s o l . Cone. 1 0.033 7.4 ;32.4 ' " 1B«9; Cono. 2 0.033 17.0 30.1 ' =5.5 Cone. 3 0.033 26.6: 12.0 1.6 Cone* 4 0.033 : . - "42.3 0.6 0.2 T a i l s y-:-~-~ \ 6.C 0.3 ,0.7 Reagent: 12 SAM-1181.2C. Made by Armour & Co. Hta» V' Composition: 7ft mono-n-ootadeoyl amine; 10.5ft mono-n hexadeoyl amine; 52.5ft mono-n-6otaaeonyl amine; 3Dft n i t r i l e s o f corresponding composition to the= amines abOTe. Pr i c e guotea: 32o/#. Graph 15: Test 8A. j Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Armour Amine 12 ^AM-1181.2C (5$ Emulsion). Pine O i l to froth as required. pH 9.3 Remarks: Froth conditions very goai. TEST S3-2. Keagents added Products i n ,#/T. $ W*. f» f0 . IJS I n s o l . Oono. 1 0.041 13.4 27.67 : 12.96 Cono. 2 0.025 26.2 22.38 ; 2.51 Cone. 0.041 .28.1 • 3 .56 0.86 Cone. 4 6.033 26.4 H i l , 0.21 T a i l s 5.9 M l i;' 0.44 Heagent: See Test 8A. Graph 16: Test 8B-2. Synthetic Ore. Reagents; Armour Amine 12HAM-1181.2C (5$ SnulsionJ-. Pine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned with 1.0 #/T of Hydrofluoric acid added to the charge i n the pebble m i l l . TEST 80-2. Additions of Prodiiot Reagent #/T. ftWt. ft WOg ft'Insol. C o n o i 1 0.049 9 . 9 30.04 • •'' 17.69 C o n o . 2 0.019 '. 18.6 21.83 f .8.32 C o n o . 3 0.019 ;•' 11.7 ! 14.37 1.77 C o n o . 4. 0.038 2 3.1 2.70 0.7.2 T a i l s 36 «.7. 0.57 : 0.44 Reagent: See Test 8A. Graph 17: Test 8C-2. 0 •> 4-u a a* i \ — t r -« of u 0 >^  w ; o 3 Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Armour Amine 12 NAM-1181.2u. ($fo Emulsionj. Pine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned with 2.5 #/T of Hydrofluoric acid added to the charge i n the pebble m i l l . I S * Remarks: pH 9.2. Froth conditions very good. 100 i ro >oo TEST 8P-2 Additions of . Product Reagent #/t. f° Wt. $ W03 > I n s o l . Cone. 1 0.066 14.4 ,29^47 }\ •;11.77.-Cone 2 0.045 20.3 19.8 , 12.00 Cone. 3 0.045 27.0 7.7 ; :; 1.12 Cono. 4 0.045 31*5 1.46 - 0.26 T a i l s — . •' 6.8 0.43; i .0.48 Reagent: See Test 8A. 1 H its • uesz s • F" < Synthet ure V • 1 4-s J XI X • r Am i n lib. I S a n u l s i o n I T . o i : i b frot] a required. V- L S l C h a r s ' e 3 f i n d i t i n r i f i d i mi t l D i 11 ivdrofluoric aci I aaae 1 •on e sharer 8 i n t h e n e h h l e m i l I . if D x i 9 1 FrotJ 3 o n d i t i o n j - 0 • 1 3- vex. g -1 — ( J 1 0 • <t J> i o j J 0 r r 1 r- r\ 1 -* 1/3 \ ts L —,— 1 >* r V o >-> *. a> •> XI 0 a \ a 1 _ J 1 & „ — — - -\ O 2.0 A o 4& St> »»» */ 9 nJti^K-V TEST 8E-3. Addition of . . Product Reagents f / T . ,.' J». % WOg , %'.ilnapl. Cone • 1 0.066 26.3" 27.5 12.0 Cone. 2 0.019 11.4 9.1 • 2.3 Cone. 0 0.028 18.2 1.36' 0.33 Cone. 4 0;038 33.6 0.71 ' : 0.37 T a i l s — 10.6 n i l ; 0.49 Reagent: See Test 8A. Graph 19: Test 8Jsl-3. Synthetic Ure. Reagents: Armour Amine 12HAM-1181.2C [5fo Emulsion). Pine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned with 1.0#/T of hy d r o f l u o s i l i e i i acid added to the charge in the pebble m i l l . pH 9.2 Xf0 Remarks: Froth conditions very good. Siliceous minerals i n f i r s t concentrate were coloured a d i r t y gray - this was found to happen whenever Hy d r o f l u o s i l i c i c acid was used as a conn, itioner. 10 A-o 6o 8o too IBS? Ql'-S. iroduets Addition of Reagent: #f.!E fa Wt. ft I n s o l . Cono. 1 0.05 11.3 24.7 •R/16.5-\ Cono. 2 0.03 'If'" 6'- 9 34.2 ' 6.5 Oono. 3 0.03 ,-' 34.8 : . 9.3' - 3.4 Oono. 4 - 6.04. 32.8 2.1 ..." ° > 3 ' T a i l s — 14.2 0.1 ' [ 0.3 Reagent: See 'rest 8A. G rap h 20 : Tes t BP 2 « vntheti Q * L rteagen t s armou r nam 3 IZEAM LIB r -2 15% Sm ill s Lon j Pin Oi! t t fro-a _ ^» e i "X a 3 * Char & g nnnfl i t i r>n p a (Bit a r 5 • a e i Q aaaed. t< ;he char e m th e pebbl 8 -ni n 9. i 0 Remark s • Froth _ sonditions very goo a. TEST 8S-2 ' Heagent I Proauot aaaea #/T ft wt. . ft wo3 jnsbi'i Oono. 1 0.07 13.0- 7.82. 15.93 Oono. 2 0.07 26.8 17.10 ' ; 0 •87. Oono. 0.05 42.7 10.15 0.63 T a i l s — 17.5 4.55 * • 0.89 Heagent: See l'est 84. liraph 21: Test 8G-2. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Armour Amine 12HAM - 1181.2 Q [5% Emulsion;. Pine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned 1 minute with 4.0 f/T of hydrofluosilieie acid. pH 7.0 Remarks: Froth conditions good, T i l l T i I I T «7o W ^ V t TEST 8S-4. Product He agent Additions •<f> wt." # wo3 •' $ t n s o l . \ Cone. 1 0.07 6.2 15.4 , 33.8;: Cone. 2 0.07 20.0 24.1 ... *;l0.6O Cone. .3 p.05. 22.0 0.9 Cone. 4, 0.05 , . 23.2, 2.4, .' • i. 1.2/V: la i ' l s ' 28.6 , 0.4 . j 1.7 Reagent: See Test 8A. 22: Test 8G-4. Synthetic Ore. . Reagents: Armour Amine 121AM 1181.2 u (5/o Emalsion; rine o i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned 5 minutes with 4 tf/T of i i y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c acid. I so \C>0 to 4* 2o pH 7.5 Remarks: Froth conditions very good. \ 1 \ \ \ \ \ _ '•• 'f' l \ I _ \ V I \ X o If \ \ / \ \ 7 i \ \ \ —. HZ 1—-TEST eg-5. Reagent ' • •Prpduot Added #/T f Wt. WOg ;3 In s o l . Cone. 1 0.076 14;3 37.01 13.14 Conp. 2 • 0.056 41 $5 16.07 1.65 •'. Cpr.o. 3 0.056 37.5 0.52 6.34 T a i l s — . • 6.7 0.09 0.84 -Reagent: See Test 8A. f t V o I 10 Graph 23: Test 8G--5. Synthetic ore. Reagents: Armour Amine 1SNAM-1181.2C [bfo Emulsion)\ Pine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned with 4.0 #/T of Hydrofluo-s i l i c i c acid added to the charge i n the pebble m i l l . pH 9.2 Remarks: Froth conditions very good. 150 loo ) Jo I 90 - — c s 0 V — — — \ -^4 - -— 8 J • I T s| ft — U> >r 0) 1 1 > 1 u J —1_ V Cd 0 T -— 4o 60 100 .TEST 8S-6 Pro duet Cone. 1 Cone. 2 Gone. 3 Oono. 4 T a i l s Reagent Added #/T Wt. 0.06 3.9 0.04 „ -• 3.3. 0.04' 37.6 0.035 31.0 24.2 fo W03 p I n s o l . 17.36 34.68 37.54 14.12 21.29 ' 1.31 4.93 0.12 1.36, 0.17 Reagent; See Test 8A. Graph 24: Test 8G-6. 4 _ _ _ - _ _ _ ^ ure. a) > 1 Reagents: Armour Amine 12NAM-1181.2C (5% Emulsion). Pine O i l to froth as: r e qui re d. Charge condition for 20 minutes with 4.0 t/T of H y d r o f l u o s i l i c i c acid. pH 8.1 Remarks: Froth conditions good..pH readings taken| during conditioning period: Before acid addition After ff f After 5 minutes n TEST 8ff-2 Product Cono. 1 Cono. 2 Cono. 3 Cono. 4 T a i l s Heagent #/T $ Wt. 0.10 . ,15.4 0.035 12.4 0.035' 13.4 6.035 '- 31.0. • 2Y.8 f W03 * fo I n s o l . 21.12 12.31 17.18 18.69 0.51 6.38 ; 0.16 1.32 <0.16.' Reagent: See Test 8A. Graph 25: Test 8H-2. Synthetic ore. Reagents: Armour Amine 12NAM-1181.2C {5% Emulsion) Pine O i l to froth as required. Charge conditioned 20 minutes with 8.0 #/T of Hydrofluosilicie acid. pH 8.0 2-50| Remarks: Froth conditions f a i r l y good. 40 60 TEST 9A. Reagent Product Additions $ Wt. /ji>,Insol. Cone. 1 0.16 17.1. 26.1 , : ' . 1 8 -° Cone. 2 0.16 12.5 30.2 • • •• 3 ..o-Cone. 3 0.32 28.8 .• 2.2 0.1 Cone. 4 0.15 29.2 'Trace • ; Trace • T a i l s — 12.5 Trace . 0.3 .: Reagent: T r i t o n E - 60. Made by: Ebhm jb.-'-Haas Corp. Composition: C e t y l d i - m e t h y l b e n z y l ammonium c h l o r l d P r i c e quoted: 29o/#. Graph 26: Test 9A. Synthetic; Ore. Reagents: Triton K-60 {5% solution). Pine O i l to froth as required pH 9.3 Remarks: Froth rather tough and voluminous, K-60 i s i t s e l f a frother. 4 o 60 TEST" 10A. Product Oono. 1 Cono. 2 Cono. 3 Cono. 4 T a i l s Additions o f Amine #/T. 0.05 0.05 o.oe 0.05 Jo Wt. "6,9 21.7 33.0 31,6 6.9 Jo TO„ 3 34.1 .19,2 3,9 • 1.4. 1.2 fo I n s o l . 17.8 8.0 • -6 0.3 . 0.4 Reagent: AK-Cooo-C, Made by Armour & Co. L t d . Composition: pure mixture o f primary amines correspondin£ i n a l k y l chain length to f a t t y acids obtainable 'from oooonut o i l . ) •* U c i 3 'a v 6 Remarks: Ifo 2oo 100 —. UTi i -» -* Imi » r-r occ — cr. •„ •„, • Pine 4m. i "roth > j a. a u • 1 pH 9. 5. Frotl-1 c tor id [j . tions i a I T _ r I • 1 \ i ; • - • • 11 [ • I f J _ / I i \ 1 \ 10 40 s o 6c \oo <7o WticjhT iffiSg ilA. Aaaitions of Eroauot Heagent if'!.. ft Wt. ft WOg ..ft I n s o l . Oono. 1 0.08 7.2 89 .EE 19.75 Cono. 2 0.03 - 10.8 31.94 8.24 Cono. 3 0.C6 21.2 12.36 2,85 Cono, 4 0.05 30.4 1.65 0.33 l a i l s . — 40.4 C.13 . T.:'"''0,28; v Heagent: AM 118.5 C Maae by Armour & Co.. I t a . Composition: tCompare AM 118.5B) 25ft morio-n-oetaaecyl amine, 25ft mono-n-hexaaeoyl.amine; 50ft laono-h-oetaaenyl amine.f 91ft pure. P r i c e quotea 32c/#. uraph 28: Test 11A. Synthetic Ore. 3 O •>i o 0 a Se-rine o i l to froth as required. pH 9.3. i t e m a r K s 3: u a « -4 ^ /vf j « 5 S r P in -i t o J< > o ri IS / - / W 4-p 6o TEST ISA. Additions of Produot Reagents #/T. fo Wt. ;i '.'.'03 ; i I c a o l . Cono. 1 0.093 18.0 38.65 11.89 Cono. 3 0.093 21.8 13.17 3.44 Cono. 3 0.046; ; 8.8 4.00 0,59 T a i l s — 51.4 0.96 0.30 Reagent: 12 BAM-11800. Hade by Armour & Co. L t d . Composition: a mixture of mono-n-hexadedyl aminej. morio-n-ootadeoyl amine, and mono-n-octadeoenyl amine. (Compare AM 118,5 B and AM 118.5 0 ) . Graph 29: Test 12-A. i o E 0? ef or •> Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Armour Amine 12 JNAM-1180 G {5fo Emulsion; S. l e i Remarks: Pine O i l to froth as required. pH 9.3. Froth conditions very good. 2o 40 SO 8t> 100 IBS g 13 A. Heagent Added Produot i n #fT. ft Wt. ft W03 ft Inool. Oono. I 0.074 8.0 --• 37.2 .! 18.8.= Oono. 2 . 0.033 __• '9.3 17,0 ' 3.37 Cone. 3 , 0.043 9.7 24.06 1.70V Cono. 4 0.084 10.5 15.55 , 0.83 •rails . -J,,- —'•. 62.5 l.OE : ' , 0.20 Reagents: AM-1180 C. •• . .. •. V Made by Armour and Co, l t d . '/,.. Composition: a mlxtnre'of. mono-n-hexadeoyl amine, and mono-n-ootadeeyi amine. Graph 30: Test 13A. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Armour Amine AM-1180C (5% Emulsionj Pine O i l to froth as required. PH 9.3. Remarks: Froth conditions very good. % To l o 4* 6o e 0 )0-0 fflBSI 15A. Product Beagent Added #/I ?•> vrt. $ W ° 3 P Ir.aol Cone. 1 0.08 3.9 • 22.99 37.37 Cone. 2 0.08 "• 14.7 35.04 3.24 Gone. 3 0.03 11.6 24.78, 0.98 Cone. 4 0.08 15.8 9.68 • 0.13 T a i l s - — 54.0 0.96 \ ; 0.07 Eeagent: Hopoo . CVT. 'Made. by' n a t i o n a l O i l Product. 3 Co. Coapo s i t l o n : A type of. o l e i c amine. '•.  P r i c e quoted': 76c/#. Graph 31: Test 15A. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Nopco QVT (5% Emulsion). Pine O i l to froth as required. pH 9.3 Remarks: Froth conditions f a i r l y good. TEST 16A, Heagent Produot Additions #/T ft Wt.. ft WOg js> I n s o l . Cono. 1 0.092 4.4 15.43 .25.51 Cono. 2 0.092 10.7 38.65 4.93 Cono. 3 0.092 13.6 21.79 0.46 Cono. 4 ,-'0.092 19.9 8,78: 0.16 T a i l s — ; 51.4 • 0.79; •0.06 Keagent: Hopoo DID. ' Made "by: Hational Oil Produots Co. Composition: Sulphor.atcd o i o i o amine. P r i c e quoted: 75o/#;. -• Graph 32: Test 16A. Synthetic ore. Keagents: Eopco DID {5fo Emulsion). jfine O i l to froth as required. y 9 \Jn'qUt TEST 20A-2. ' Reagent Product Added f/T # Wt. - # w o 3 f".'insol. C a t o l Minol Oono. 1 1.0 0.2 7.9 29.57 '13.27 Cons, a 0.6 0.2 13.2 32.97 1.15 T a i l s __ -_ 78.9 6.16 ' 1.42 Reagent: C a t o l 33. Made by: finulsol Corp. Composition: ester, of a primary hydroxy amine. P r i c e quoted: 42o/#. Graph 33 :\ Test 2QA-g. 150 Synthetic| u r e .Reagents :i Remarks; amulsol Catol 315.(5$. aplutipjnj... Hinol 400 to frot h as required. pH 9.3. Froth conditions f a i r l y good.! compatible with i'his reagent i s not pine o i l , ; eresylie aeld, nor jthe-alcohol frothers. TEST 24A, Reagent ' Cone • 1 . • 0.6 13.8 . 25.29 12.52 Cone. 2 0.3 17.5 15.81 2.71 Cone. 3 0.3 42.3 , 10.78 10.31 T a i l s 26.4 1.24 0.06 Reagent: Dupont Q.. /' Made by: JS. I. Dupont de Heraouis Corp. TEST 35A. -Reagent • > Products Added #/T $ Wt. £ '.TO % -Insol. Cono. 1 0.75 Cone. 2 0.93 17.2 32.62 -1*18 Cono. 3 0.93 Cone. 4 1.12 4.5 27.15 3 *;43 Oono. 5 • 1.86 3.7 . 14.19 , 2*52 T a i l s . — ' • 74.6 2.77 3*06 Reagent: 'i'ergitol Penetrant 7. Made "by: Carbide a Carbon Chemicals Corp Composition: A l k y l sodium'.sulphohate. c rrapn > r e s t 0 ynznet 10 ur e • I ea c exits S 1 t n 1 t 7 1 0 / • i l i l U O l S O l L 1 t o x r o t a as r e a a i r e a # n i l 9 .3 * TT j J r o x h. s o n a i T i o n s i a i r •. i ' h i s r e a e e n t — 250 a i v e s b r i t t l e f r o t h an a Eiinnl s n j 4/1 mass TOO a •ho t o u g h e n i h a o h e e l i t •V -j * 3 V i n t a i 1 S l l o e e u l a t e f l i n t T QO +, th< c a l c i t w b e « 0 V S» c £ c fc jC 1 w / A—1— too r 0 -fin 1— 0 80 1 flfl 1 f 1 0 j %> O >-4 9 A V til Q> C c 40 —1 1 j 20 — _ — — — — — — - _ \ — O 2 0 4 0 60 8 0 tOO TEST asA.-Product Reagents Added $ Wt. ' j& Wo3 I n s o l . Cono. ,1 c.oa Cono. 2 0.05 14.2 ... 23.57 0.51 Cohd. 3 0.17 Cono. 4 C 1 7 28.5 14.02 0.30 Oono. 5 0.17 .;' 16.9 • 10.70 0.60 T a i l s — 40.4 - -4.79 ' 4.46 Reagent: Waroasol 897A. • Made by: Warwick Chemical Co. • Composition 1: long chain a l k y l sodiiim sulphbnate. P r i c e : 15o/#. ' -at > H u Graph 36: Test 36A. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: wareasol 897A \5"/o Solution;. pH 9.3. Remarks: 100 \ SO Froth conditions f a i r , reagent s e l f -frother. Scheelite i n t a i l s highly flocculated, but not c a l c i t e . 0 0 -— — > _ N \ N r . L i. I 0 8 i 9' : *-« JL s © — * y> > \ \ \ > \ & \ 0 \ Hi —• 9 a — \ b v 1 *> N z 5 \ \ \ t sin 4* ftwt.- ft wog 19.5 " 22.97 80,5 5.80 Reagent: Arylene. Made by: Hart Products Corporation Composition: A l k y l A r y l sulphonate • P r i c e : 33e/#. TEST 38A. Reagent Product Added #/T Cono. 0,9 •rails Graph 37: Test 38A. Synthetic^ Ore. Reagent: : Arylene \,5f> solution) J pH 9.3. Remarks: i>ood froth conditions is 4-6 6o 160 TEST 39A. Reagent Proanot Aaaea f / r ft Wt. ft H0 3 ft, I h s o l . Oono; 1 0.86 5.5 52.78 : 1.94 Oono. 2 0.86 6.5 25.95 2.17 T a i l s — 88.0 : 5.69 ' '2.63 ; Reagent:: Solvadine B.C. Made by: The Cib'a Co. Composition: A l k y l a r y l sulphonate. P r i c e : 17o/#. Graph 38: Test 391. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Solvadine II.C. {5p Solution] I pH 9.3. 4 - l - i - f xJJZIn r r n j i : . j l jXj TTrTTTn~n~tTT1*T^ Remarks: Reagent i s a strong frother. Froth tough. — > at ( J i t •A • -4-\ ISO 100 SO So 40 4o 10 10 — H > ! 1 _ / / 1 [ . 1 0/ 1 / / / 4o 4o 80 TEST 41 A.-Reagent Proa not Added #/T % Wt. % Wog Cone. 2.0 , 11.6 : 24.39 T a i l s .0 88.4 8.38 Reagent: ITopoo 1067. • '-Maae by: n a t i o n a l O i l Products Co. Composition: A l k y l a r y l sulphonate,. P r i c e : 18o/#. • Graplr 39 i Test 411 Syntheti • e c re m J — — 1 .e a ej it s « Hopco 1067 pH 9.3. -i 5fo s olutionj I temarks » i 'roth t iond itions f a i r 3 teas en t i s i x a tron O frother. • ISO f -M a \ ~* u N •» |L- l o o V o 9 \ \ •j *» [ < 4 I So L < > X N > y N > \ i i f\e% ftft -— _ O f • S — *. > <* 4 0 / to IN -- — T - — lb 4 0 6o go »°o TEST 42 A. Additions of Prodiiot Reagent #/T foUt. f° W0„ £ Ir.sol. Cono. 1 0.322 3.9 47.53 0.88 Gone. 2 0.322 8.9 30.00 , i . i 7 Cono., 3 0.322 5.5 . 2 6 . 5 3 1.14 Cono. 4 6.644 4.9 18.01 1.96 T a i l s — 76^8 • 3.44 2.05 Reagent: BSAE Paste. : Made by: Ony£ O i l .& Chemical Co. i Composition: A l k y l naphthalene sniphonate. Graph at V * o f. 5 m o "7 a> o XOO SO too 80 60 4o io f < Pest 42A. I f )Ti Pi 1 /,y IX wilt? u X (. leagents: > V * « r >. c J L. I 'aste { s i S olution ) • L. i < « I Remarks Froti I € •onditions ood • scheelite i s V ilghly flocculated Oaleite l/UJ . J . a 1 L • — i — j - — — •— — — -0 / — <y 0\ \ / 1 _ / / I O 4 o 60 100 TEST 46A. Proaact Oono. 1 Cono. 2 Cono. 3 T a i l s Additions o f Reagent #/T 0.30 0.60 0.45 f> Wt. i° wo3 7» I h s o l . 11.2 20.93 : : 0 i 6 7 V 14.9 13.57 0.60 13.6 11.01 0.49. 60.3 7,46 2.78 Reagent: Orthocen K. Mafle i y s Canadian A n i l i n e Co. Composition: higher phenol sulphohated. P r i c e : 25c/#. • ' Graph 41: Test 46A. Synthetic Ure. Reagent: Orthocen & (5fo Solution). pH 9.3. Remarks: Reagent strong frother. rroth weak and watery by the time enough reagent had £5^- been added to get any collecting action, IEST51A.' -Reagent Product Added #/T $ -Wt. # W0„'" • j T l n s o l . Cono. 1.'. 0.5 9.9 . B1.88 0.43 Cono. S 0.3 19.7 13.63 0.56 Cono. 3 . 1.0 36.6 v 8.34 0.45 '-•ails - 33.8 3.34 4.5V Reagent: Penetrol 65. Made ^ by: Beacon Co. Composition: Sodium.and potassium s a l t s of : ' s u l f o r i c i n o l e i c aeids. . .; P r i c e 14c//. " '•. ~ 42: Test 51A. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Pentrol 65 \5fo solution). Kopco 1073B to modify fr o t h . ; pH 9.3. Remarks: Penetrol strong frother, but gave a watery froth by the time i t showed any col l e c t i n g power. Frothing conditions not good. 4-0 <7o lOai^WTj Heagent '• Produot Additions ifl % Wt. % WO. .-f, I n s b l . 3 Cono. 1 0.23 60.1 . 16.41 0.46 Cono..- 2 0.23 32.8 6.73 0.90 T a i l s — 7.1 5.16 20.16 Heagent: Span 85. Made by: A t l a s Powder Co. Composition: Sorbitan t r i o l e a t e . 43: Test 53A, Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Span 85. Emulsol X-l to froth as required. pH 9.3. j Remarks: Span 85 acts l i k e oleic acid. Froth iyoi conditions good. 2o* 6o 4o ^o .... .... _ / • 4o 6o 80 100 TEST 54A. Proauet Aaditlons of Heagent #/T § Wt. $ I n s o l . Oono. 1 0.08 13.4 1 26.52 0.73 Oono. 2 0.08 9.6 24.54 0;58 Cono. 3 0.12 26.1 8.74 0.98 Cono, 4 0.25 8.3 6.93 0.70 T a i l s ' 42.6 3.96 4.03 Heagent: Quaker 1500. Made by.: Quaker Chemical' Proauets Co. Composition: a soap. P r i c e : 5 1/2 o/#. " — — — r (Jrapl l 44: 1 U .1 4A. Jynthe tie ure < t igents: -iuaice Pine r li>00 O i l and I 5 1 fo SO muls lut O l ion JL-1 T . 1 bo froth as i *e q uire< i . PE [ c 3 I cemarks: Frc 1 ;h ._ eoj i d i t i c n S . M 00 j * Hi 3 5 s. 0 4— r o B V £ l5o 3 I 100 1 i j — - ft* — J — —- L i | t 1 7) o -4— 6» — + 0 »• 2. > u» EX \ R 1 1 40 \ \ -r H — f - - --— — - - J— a ( 5 2. <* Vv> L So 86 A i 0 — TEST 55A. Product Cohc. 1 Cono. 2 Cone. 3 S a i l s Reagent Additions #/T 0.625 0.625 0.625 $ Wt. $ WO 11.4 9.3 24.0 55.3 29.45 17.84 14.03. 3.46 7> I n s o l . 0.6 ' 2.80 ^ , 3.22 1.88 Reagent: Aoiterge 0 I . Made by: Commercial Solvents Corp. ' Composition: .Sieutral s a l t of substituted oxazoline. P r i o e : 20 aft. " Graph 45: Test 55A. Synthetic Ore > U o I o % 8 I i 4) tj J. Reagents: Aoiterge 0 I [5% solution), Jfine O i l and iimulsol £-1 to froth | as required. pH 9.3. Remarks: Froth conditions good. 2d •40 iO 7. vJe.i"<nVt do 100 .TEST 56A. Prod no t Reagent Added #/T ft ,Wt. ft Inaol. Oono. 1 5 drops* 7.6 •" 49.41 0.36 Oono. 2 5 u 19.7. 24.34 0.41 Oono. 3 5' ti 14.4 IS. 61 0.72 Oono. 4 5 19.1 3.40 1.40 T a i l s 39,3 0.76 .' v.4;90 x Apprex. • 0.8jf/'T-;»'f Heagent. : Heagent: Alox 300. / ' -' Hade by: The Alox Corp. .' Composition: Made by o x i d i z i n g a type, of p a r a f f i n wax. P r i c e : 26 c/#.''" ( Irap] a U _ s-*. i a . • 3 s )f« *• 6 — ... I ^ c i 1 i •* « @ *. Of > o & & t 1 0 c Teat 56A. Alox 300 ;Solution in methyl alcohol] Pine O i l to modify froth as required. Remarks: TEST 56A^-2. Product; Reagent #/T ^ ft Wt. . ft WOg ft. insol., Oono. 1 0.12 20.6 . 13.91 0.15 Gone. 2 0.06 . B.C " 10.62 0.24 Cone. 3 ' 0.12 . ; 42.2 8.99 '.' C.2S Cono. 4 0.06 7.3 • 7.59 0.43 T a i l s — 20.6 17.60 : 10.39 Heagent: See Test 56A., Graph 47: Test 56A-2. byxtihetiq Ore. | Reagents: Alox 300 {5fo emulsion i n a 0.25/0 KOH solution; Pine O i l to froth as required. pH 9.3. TEST 56A-3. Eroduo'-fc ' Reagent: #/T - ft-Wt.-Alo±:,:SyntezM: P.O Oono. 1 0.175 : 0.18: 0.18 9.1 Oofae. 2 0.175 : 0.06 11,6 -Cono. 3 0.18 : 0.06 38.8 T a i l s — — ; 47 .1 ft WO S I n s o l . 50.70 ;' . 0..J0 83.24 0.44 6.64 : r0.56 14.96 4.17 Reagent: See l e s t 56A. Graph 48: Test 56A-3. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Alox 300 \&0% solution i n kerosene). Pine O i l and Syntex M Liquid to froth. PH 9.3. remarks: Froth conditions f a i r only, kerosene a) C j < 3 i I/O *> 9 J J a 0 (X X90 IS"0 )0O 80 60 40 30 makes fro thing d i f f i c u l t . o — UI I i. 10 4o 60 8o too TEST 57A. , Heagent Product Added */T • ft Wt. Cone. 1 0.20 31.7, Cone. 2 0.065 IE.4 Cono. 3 0.13 19.0 Cono. 4 0.27 i 11.6 T a i l s • ; " — E5.3 Heagent: 'fetraeehe C-70. Made by: Canadian A n i l i n e So P r i c e : 18 o/#. ft WO ft I n s o l . IS.30 0.EC 10.32 0,27 10.17 0.32 7.17 0.80 11.49 : 7.43 Graph 49: Test 571. Synthetic ure. pH 9.3. \ tn r ecaired. QU • uxiec^oi e i l . U a _ .. . i • ... e \ \ EEST 68A, Reagents - • Product Added #/l $ Wt. "56 WO % I n s o l . ' ^ : • ; ' • 3 , ; \. '. Cono. 1 0.07 18.4 23*36 0*20 Cono. 2 0.07 10.5 13.58 0.28 Cono. 3 0.14 28.7 9.34 0.59 ; Cono. 4 0.14 18.9 : 9.75 0*84 S a i l s — 23.5 8.38 7.78 Reagent: Emulsol £-30* Made -by: Emulaol Corp. Test 68A. Synthetic Ore. neagents: Emulsol i-30 \5% solution). Pine O i l to modify froth. \ pH 9.3. Remarks: Froth conditions good. TEStV 71 A. Product Oono. 1 Gone. 2 Oono. 3 Cone. 4 •'; 2 a i l s Heagent Aflaea #/l 0.3 0.2 0.2 0,2 -ft Wt. 14.4 23. S 8.8 7.1 ~ 46.1 ft WOg 28.85 9.73 10,21 7,33 7.57 ft I n s c l . 0.88 1.26 .. 0.85 : 1.35 ' 5.20 : Reagent: Soapatcl Car. ; •••Made by: Commonwealth Chemical Co. Composition: S a l t of sulphonatea higher / f a t t y ainiae; \ P r i c e : 35 o/#. ' Graph 51: Test 71A. Synthetic lore;." ' : 1 ' reagents: Soapatol Gar. \5fo solution). Pine G i l to modify froth. Remarks: Froth conditions good. TEST 73A. • Reagent • Product . Added f/T ft Wt. f>:MO , ft I n s o l . Oono. 1 0.05 16.1 23,64 1.17 Oono. 2 0.05 26.6 16.67 0,80 Cone. 3 ' 0.05 22.5 6.16 1,21 Cone. *• 0.10 : . 20.0 '" 3.79 1.68 T a i l s — 14.8 1.38 l l i O O Reagent: copaool ( T a l l o i l ) . .. ' Hade by: Harrisons & 'Grosfield, Car.. Z t i . Composition: l i n o l e i e acid 79-I5ft; o l e i c aoi'd l5-22ftj l i n o l e n i c acid ;4^6ft. Graph 52: Test 73A. Synthetic lore. Reagents: Copaeol ^50% solution i n Frother 60j. .fine O i l to modify froth. pH 9.3. Kemarks: Froth conditions good. TEST 75A. tteagent Product Added f/T $ Wt.. $,W0. =s l ; ; s o l . Cone. 1 0.054. 14.1 26.28 - 0.54 Oono. 2 0.054 25.6 12.36 0.36 Oono. 3 ... 0.10 ' • .. 28.1 .9.60 1.15 ,Cono. 4;. o.io 13.2 5.63 2.12 T a i l s — ',.19.0 •'3..41 6.79 Keagent: Quaker r l ' 1637. jMade by: Quaker Chemical Products Corp. P f i e e : 50 o/#. , " u-raph 53: Teat 75A. Synthetic Ore. Reagents: Quaker TF 1637 {5fo solution). Pine O i l to modify fr o t h . pH 9.3. Remarks: Froth conditions f a i r . E E S T 79A, Proauot Reagent #/.T -' ftWt, ...ft WO* \ft I n s o l . Cono. 1 0.065 35.4 13.92 0.82 Cono. 2 0.055 28.6 10,20 ,0.60 Cono. 3 0.055 13.3 10.21 0.71 T a i l s 22.7 . 7.59 7.39 Reagent,: l i n o l e i o a o i a . Compositions;: C 1 7 Hg-j, COOH. I c rrapl 1 f 1 ?es1 '9A. Synthetic c )T>f _ T acid. J J I t n t Vnt.'n a s 'AD * ] 9 K e m a r l a i : 3 T O t i l c o n a i t i o n s rert a >'C OQ. l... I J --- f --j- •-_ t >-\ \ \ e I I I _ \ \ — \ | \ I -- — -— I -— B I B L I O G R A' P H I Clemmer, J.B., and Q'Meara, R.G., F l o t a t i o n and Depression of N o n s u l p h i d e s U n i t e d States Bureau of Mines, R.I, 5259. R a l s t o n , O l i v e r C., Flotation.and Agglomerate Tabling of Nonmetallic Minerals, United States Bureau, of Mines, R.I. 3397.> May,' 1958. Curamings, J.M., B e n e f i c i a t i o n of Some B r i t i s h Columbia Tungsten Ores, Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Mining and Metallurgy Transactions, V o l . XLVI, 1945, pp. 47-69. ., . G i l l i e s , G.A., I y l e , A.G., and Runkle, J.D., A Graphical Method of Evaluating S e l e c t i v e F l o t a t i o n Tests, American I n s t i t u t e of Mining and M e t a l l u r g i c a l Engineers, T P 1409, 1942. 

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