Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The sooty grouse (Dendragapus Fuliginosus Fuliginosus Ridgway) on its summer range Fowle, Charles David 1944

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1944_A8 F6 S6.pdf [ 25.63MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105694.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105694-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105694-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105694-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105694-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105694-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105694-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105694-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105694.ris

Full Text

A S T U D Y OF T H E B L U E G R O U S E (DENDRAGAPUS OBSCURUS (SAY)) ON VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH C O L U M B I A 1 C . DAVID F O W L E 2 Abstract A study was made of the summer haliitat, seasonal movements, fluctuations in populations, population density, breeding cycle, and summer feeding habits of Deniragapus obscurus fuliginosus (Ridgway). During the summer the grouse were found mainly in the early stages of the developing second-growth forests following fire or logging. The birds descended to the lowlands in late March and early April. Most of the adult males returned to the uplands by the end of July. The females and broods left the lowlands by the end of September. There is evidence of several well-marked fluctuations in the numbers of blue grouse in British Columbia since 1904. A density of about .2 adults per acre was recorded in late June and early July. Nesting took place in May and the first young appeared early in June. After the first of July it was not uncommon to see two females with their intermingled broods feeding together. The summer foods of both adults and young were almost entirely vegetable. Grit was the main item in gizzards from birds collected before the middle of July but later it was largely replaced by hard seeds. The grouse were not observed to drink free water except in captivity. There is a rough parallelism between frequency of occur-*- rence.of the main items of food in the environment and the proportion of each occurring in the diet. , This paper reports "on a study of the blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus (Ridgway)), a . Characteristic element in the fauna of young forest following* logging or fire on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. In particular the summer habitat, seasonal movements, population density, reproduction, and summer feeding habits were investigated.. Field work was conducted on Vancouver Island in 1942, 1943, and 1944 "at Oowiehak- Larla^nd:partieularly-at Eife Falls and Qumspm^Lake near the village of Campbell River., Supplementary observations were made on captive -birds,at the Xampbell ..River Forest Nursery of the B. C. Forest Service. Laboratory work was carried out at the Department of Zoology at the Univer-sity of British Columbia, during the sessions 1942-43 and 1943-44 and at Campbell River. . - . — .' Summer Habitat The study area-lies within Halliday's (7) Southern Coast Section of the Coastal Forest Region. Munro and Cowan (11)''classify the area in the Coast Forest Biotic Area.- . . No detailed study was made of the. vegetation at Cowichan'Lake. The serai stages of the,area are described by:,Cowan (5). . The study areas at Quinsam Lake and Elk Falls which originally supported large Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menzi'esii '(Mirb.) Franco) had been logged 'Manuscript received in original form September 25, 1959, and, as revised, March 8, 1960. Contribution from Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. _ This study was undertaken at the Department of Zoology at the University of British Columbia and was financed in part by the British Columbia Forest Service. "Biologist in ..charge of .-.Wildlife Research, Division of Research, "Ontario .Department of Lands and Forests, Maple, Ontario. Can. J . Zool . V o l . 38 (1960) 702 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY. VOL. 33. 2960 over a period of years until it was nearly denuded. The second growth was severely burned in 1938, resulting in a reduction in soil fertility and a retard-ation of regeneration. River bottoms, stream courses, and moister gullies supported a thick growth of alders (Alnus rubra Bong.), willows (Salix sp.), and some western red dogwood (Cornus pubescens Nutt). On higher ground, red-berried eider (Sambucus pubens Michx.) grew in thickets, often in company with ocean spray (Ilolodiscus discolor Pursh); Douglas fir, hemlock (Tsitga keterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) occurred in scattered associations. In general aspect, the area was almost free of trees (Fig. 1). On logged and burned areas there was iri most sections an abundance of trailing blackberry (Rubus viiifalius C. & C ) , cat's ear (Hypockaeris radicala. L.), bracken (Pteridium aqiiilinum (L.) Kuhn), and a number of less-abundant species. A large area of the burn had been'planted to Douglas fir seedlings by the B.C. Forest Service prior to 1943. A plot survey was made at Quinsam Lake in 1943 to provide a rough estimate of the densities of the main items of ground cover on sections where grouse were abundant. Transects were run and at '50-pace intervals square-yard plots were measured off. The area shaded by each plant species or other type of cover was recorded for each plot. Any area less than one-half a square foot was tabulated as a "trace". Two areas (77 and 57 acres) totalling 134 acres were selected as typical of the study area around Quinsam Lake (Fig. 1). In Table I ground cover shading more than 1% of the total area of plots is tabulated by kind and by percentage frequency of occurrence. In all, 34 kinds of cover were recorded. T A B L E I Percentage of area covered and frequency of occurrence of kinds of ground cover at .Quinsam Lake, 1943 % covered Kind of cover Area 1* Area 2* Area 1 Area 2 Barren ground •Litter Logs and stumps Mosses and lichens Bracken fern Horsetails Grasses Willows Oregon grape May leaves Thtmbleberry Trailing blackberry Willow herb Huckleberry Salal 'Pearly everlasting Thistles • Cat's ear Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Sguistiiwi sp. Gramineae Salix sp. Mahoaza nervosa Nutt. and • Makoniaaquifolium Nutt. Achlys triphylla (Smith) D C . Rubus parvifiorus Nutt. Rubus vUifolius C . & S. Upilohium sp. Vaccinium pam/oHum Smith Gaulthtria shatton Pursh Anaphalismargartlacea(L.) B . & H . Carduus sp. . Hypockaeris radicala L . 19.0 26.0 85.0 71.0 9.0 8.5 68.0 71.0 13.S 12.0 20.0 17.0 8.0 4.0 68.0 50.0 2.0 3.0 20.0 17.0 1.0 — 7.5 — .6 7.0 30.0 71.0 1.0 1.0 30.0 19.0 .5 1.0 7.5 17.0 5.6 .4 45.0 17.0 3.5 — 19.0 7.0 4.0 82.5 64.5 1.0 2.0 65.5 52.0 1.0 .2 20.0 10.0 4.5 .4 50.0 10.0 3.0 .6 30.0 14.0 .2 1.0 7.5 17.0 8.0 3.5 95.0 81.0 •Forty square-yard plots ii 1 and 46 plots in area 2. P L A T E I Fowle—Can. J . Zool. FOWLE: BLUE GROUSE 703 In addition to plants listed in the table the following species shaded less than 1% of the plot area: liverworts, ferns other than bracken, sedges (Gyper^ aceae), Douglas fir seedlings, western red cedar seedlings, false Soloman's seal (Smilacina sp.), currant (Ribes sp.), violet {Viola sp.), bunchberry (Comus canadensis L.), star flower (Trientalis latifolia Hook.), waxberry (Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake), red-berried elder, bluebell (Campanula scouleri Hook.), hawkweed (Hieraceum sp.). It is, of course, impossible to say whether or not these samples were typical of the whole study area but they appeared to be representative of the part around Quinsam Lake at least. It is noteworthy that about 45% of the area of the sample, plots supported no vegetation at all, being covered by logs, stumps, and litter or being quite barren. Seasonal Movements On Vancouver Island almost all blue grouse have moved up from the low-lands to the higher forested slopes by the end of September. They return to the lowlands in the latter part of March or the beginning of April. During this study, the young hatched early in June and shortly thereafter there was a noticeable decline in numbers of adult males. By mid-July it was difficult to find a male on the lowlands. On June 26 and 29 and July 2, 1943, males were still common, 30 out of Si birds tallied being cocks, but after the middle-of July few were seen. On August 13 and 14, 1944, 30 adults were tallied but only 1 was a male. The disappearance of males from the lowlands is illustrated in Fig. 2. Nearly all blue grouse had left the study area at Campbell River by September 15, 1943. 100 -J F I G . 2 Effect of emigration of males on percentage of females in total number of adult grouse observed in 1943. 704 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY. VOL, 3S, I960 The birds spend the winter roosting in coniferous trees and feeding upon needles (2, 15, 16). The grouse return to the lowlands in late March and early April. Cowan (personal, communication, 1944) stated that, in 1940, grouse at Cowichan Lake came down between March 20 and 23, and that hooting was heard at Goldstream Lake, Vancouver Island, after April- 2. His notes record the first hooter on Gambier Island in Howe Sound, B. C , on March 28, 1943: On April 11-12, 1943, hooting birds were to be heard almost everywhere on the southern slopes of the Bald Mountain Game Reserve at Cowichan but few females were seen. Population Fluctuations and Density Leopold (8, p. 58), without presenting supporting data, states that "it is quite clear" that blue grouse populations are cyclic. While evidence for cycles is by no means clear, a study of the annual reports of the Provincial Game Warden (12), Game Commissioner (13), and Game Commission (14) reveals that since about 1904 several notable fluctuations in the blue grouse popu-lation in British Columbia have occurred. The trends described arc based on reports of field officers and are not supported by quantitative data. Neverthe-less, the striking contrast between reports covering periods of high and low population, and the general unanimity of the reports of the various officers, strongly suggest the occurrence of marked fluctuations. - In 1906, grouse in the interior declined to a low level (report for year,1917— 1918) from a previous peak of population about 1903. There seems to have been an abundance of grouse in the province about 1912-13, followed by a decline to a low about 1919 and 1920. In 1915, grouse were very scarce in the interior. An "extraordinary disease in grouse of all kinds" reported at this time was said to be difficult to account for but may in some way have been correlated with "a regular plague of ticks". The Chief Game Guardian of Alberta reported that grouse in his province also declined at the same time. The 1916 report states that blue grouse in the interior of British Columbia were almost exterminated and, in spite of the fact that there was no hunting season in 1916 and 1917, the Provincial Game, Warden had to report in 1919 that grouse were still scarce. Munro (10) reported blue grouse in the interior to be dying off owing to adverse weather conditions and to the presence of an "internal parasite". The population gradually built up to a peak in 1924-25 and fell to a low in 1931. A high population was reported in 1935. The inference to be drawn from Game Commission reports is that there was little change in number at the coast between 1935 and 1943. The interior birds seem to have declined somewhat to a low about 1937 and ascended again to a high level in 1941, or thereabouts. There is a suggestion of a general in-crease, over the province to a peak about 1945, followed by a decline in the years following. FOWLE: BLUE GROUSE 70S Population at Campbell River, 1943 Populations of grouse on four sample areas at Campbell River were estimated on June 26, 29, and July 2, 1943, and again on one of the areas on August 17, 1944. A strip-count census method was used in which one or two observers patrolled the areas at 1-ch.ain intervals, A l l birds seen were counted, aged, and in the case of adults, sexed, and their position plotted on a map. The results of these censuses are presented in Table II. T A B L E II Census data, Campbell River, 1943 and 1944 Adults Area Area Acres per Acres per % No. Date (acres) Birds M F Juv. adult bird adults 1 June 26/43 77 25 6 8 11 4.0 2.3 56 2 June 29/43 57 37 6 9 22 3.8 1.6 41 3 July 2/43 83 9 3 1 5 20.7 9,2 44 4 July 2/43 55\ 26 15 3 8 3.0 2.9 69 Totals and means (1943) 272 97 30 21 46 5.3 2.6 53 3 Aug. 17/44 83 62 0 14 48 5.7 1.3 . 23.5 It wi l l be noted that density on area 3 is considerably less than on other areas. No reason for this could be found but it was noted that throughout the summer, birds were somewhat scarcer there than on surrounding areas. If the figure for area 3 is omitted an average density of one adult.per 3.6 acres is obtained. . The figures suggest that at the end of June, 1943, about 50% of the popu-lation was composed of adults, there being about 2.2 young per female. In 1944, 37 females and 116 young were seen between August 13 and. 17; the number of young per female was 3.1. . Reproduction Hooting of males on the lowlands of Vancouver Island in late March and early April signals initiation of breeding. Hooting continues throughout" May, and about the middle of June it may still be heard quite frequently through the day. Shortly after this, however, the number of hooting grouse may diminish/somewhat until by the end of July only a few are heard. An exception was noted when two hooters were observed on August 13 and one was reported to be hooting on the same area on August 19-20. The cessation of hooting was due less to the silence of the birds than to their absence (Fig. 2). Hooting may begin early in the morning and continue throughout the day and into the evening. At Campbell River, during June, hooters were noted to continue their calling until darkness fell about 9.30 p.m. Observations from this study on territorial behavior and other phases of the breeding cycle are fragmentary but they fit. in well, with the pattern described by Bendell (2). r-706 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY. VOL. 38, 1960 On Vancouver Island nest-building and egg-laying probably start during the first and second weeks in May (2). At Campbell River chicks were found for the first time on June 16. These were barely able to fly and were considered to be about 10 to 14 days old (4). Hence, allowing for an 18- to 21-day incu-bation (4) the eggs from which these birds hatched were laid some time during the second week in May. On June 29, a late nest was found containing four newly hatched chicks. It was a slight depression in the ground lined with grass and other dry vegetation placed under a log lying across a deer trail. Gabriel-son and Jewett (6) record the nesting period of blue grouse in Oregon as ex-tending from April 14 to June 4 and Bent (4) calculates the period derived from 60 records from Washington and Oregon as April 16 to July 12. Munro and Cowan (11) report nests of faliginostis with eggs on May 20, May 24, and June .13. Three nests in the British Columbia Provincial Museum in Victoria bear the dates May 24, May 10, and May 7, containing five, six, and seven eggs respectively. The hatch of the sooty grouse at Campbell River extended over several weeks. The first chicks appeared early in June and thereafter on into July. By the end of June, chicks of varying ages, some unable to fly and some strong on the wing, could be found. A late hatch was recorded on July 31 when a downy chick, scarcely able to fly, was found. A count of 16 broods made between June 29 and July 2, 1943, yielded an average brood size of 2.9 with a range from 1 to 5. Wing, Beer, and Tidyman (17), working in Washington in the summer of 1940, record an average brood size of 4.25 for 12 broods at the end of June and beginning of July. From June 19 to August 22 they observed 99 broods for an average brood size of 3.65. While the chicks were still small; broods were seen feeding separately. At. this time it was common to see a female crouched on top of .a stump while . her brood fed on the ground below. If such a group was disturbed, the female often flew directly at the intruder and battered him with her wings. If she did not do this, she assumed an aggressive attitude, dragging her wings, hissing > and cackling, all :the while running from log to log or making short rushes at the intruder. Hens were particularly aggressive while the chicks were flightless or still weak on the wing, but were much less so when the chicks attained stronger powers of flight. At this time they often assumed the defensive attitude and uttered a few cackles before moving, off quickly or flying away in the direction which the chicks had.taken. . After the first week in July at Campbell River, two families were commonly seen feeding together, often with the two hens on adjacent stumps while the chicks fed around them on the ground. Frequently small, weakly flying birds were seen with others of almost twice the size and with greater powers of flight. On one occasion both hens were seen crouched head-to-tail on the same stump. There was no segregation of the chicks. The adults were active in the evening until they went to roost just before dark. Very young chicks were probably brooded by females. Later, however, FOWLE: BLUE GROUSE 707; flying chicks were found roosting in slash. In late August and early September, they were observed roosting in coveys of about a dozen birds. Once, birds were seen at twilight gliding in from all sides and settling down in the cover of a large area of cedar slash. Summer Feeding Habits Data on feeding habits were collected from analyses of crops and gizzards of grouse collected at Campbell River-during the summer while supplementary information was derived from the examination of intestinal tracts, droppings, observations on captive birds, and field observations. Forty-five crops were removed on September 11 and 12, 1943, from grouse shot by hunters at Cowichan Lake. Crops were preserved in a weak solution of formalin and "examined in the laboratory. Volumes of foods were measured by displacement in water. Al l items occupying less than .2 cc in any crop were tallied as "traces". Percentage Volumes of food items are based on data from crop analyses only but percentage occurrence records are based on the combined results of-crop, gizzard, and intestinal examination. The occurrence of an item in more than one organ in any bird was counted as a single occurrence. These data are presented in Tables III and IV. Fleshy Fruits Fleshy fruits, such as those of salal and trailing blackberry, comprised 57% of the volume of the sample, with most of these making their maximum contribution in the latter part of the summer (Table III). Fruits made their maximum contribution in September when 64% of the sample was composed of "berries". . • . . A few differences in the diets of adults and young show up in Table IV. Salal was more highly favored by young than by adults while blackberries contributed a larger proportion to the adults' diet.'During June, July, and August fleshy fruits comprised 32% of the adult diet and 47% of that of the young. Green Foods Green foods composed 41% of the total summer diet in the sample. Cat's ear contributed 25% and occurred in 70% of the birds examined. Buds, flowers, and leaves of this species made their largest contribution in August when they comprised 35% of the diet, with the adults consuming more than the young, f n spring, cat's ear may have been the most abundant green food available on the burns. Stewart (15) reports'that six crops collected in June and July in California, Oregon, and Washington contained 35.7% by volume of this item. Bracken was the second most popular green food con-sumed. In general, adults ate more green foods than the young birds. Animal Foods Animal matter made up about 2 to 3% of the summer food, being most abundant in the diet of young grouse Which feed largely on animal matter. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY. VOL. 38. T A B L E III No. birds 2 10 23 47 6 % total % Item (Jo") (July) (Aug.) -(Sept.) (Oct.) volume occur. ^iVSr™ - 4.0 25.0 58.0 17.0 45.0 61.0 C f ^ : i d A ^ « a t a L . ) - 26.0 34.-0 19.0 3.0 23.0 70.0 B ^ , S S » W 6.0 4.0 7.0 12.0 76.0 12.0 55.0 Blackberry fruit , . , i * , 4 Q _ _ 6.0 32.0 (Rubus vitijohus C . & S.) 5.0 i2 .U 'a.u Willow buds and leaves 2 0 5 _ 0 . (.Salix spp.) w r r . , 77 — 5 ' ° Huckleberry fruit (T(oc«n!«m - _ 2.0 11;0 pamfolium Smith) — 1.0 — Cat's ear leaves 4 0 1 0 _ 2.0 23.0 Oregon grape fruit _ . 1 0 _ 2 . 0 8.0 Clover leaves (Tnjohum sp.) — -" .u ^-u Blue bilberry fruit (Vacci-nium ovalifolium Smith) Waxberry fruit (Symphori- _ _ j 0 carpos albus(L) Blake) — — Q 3 Q 2 _ 0 _ Twenty-seven other plants 12.0 18.0 4.U *.w _•_ . Q Q 2.0 ~ 1.0 -.1.0 16.0 Invertebrates c , for the first 10 days or 2 weeks of life (1,4). Mr. K . Racey of Vancouver reported that on June 18, 1937, he collected a downy young male blue grouse at Alberni, Vancouver Island, and removed from its crop 13 green caterpillars, 3 snaiis in the shell, 1 spider, 1 ant, 1 sowbug, 21 leafhoppers, and 6 aphids. Only four downy young were examined at Campbell River but all contained invertebrates, mostly insects. Invertebrates occurred in only 2 of the 14 adults examined at Campbell river. Grasshoppers (Acridiidae), ants (Formicidae), and sowbugs (Isopoda) were the most abundant items. Grit Grit averaged 3.6 cc and varied between 1 and 5 cc in the 20 gizzards where it composed all, or almost all, of the hard.contents. In any one gizzard the grit was generally remarkably uniform in size, the average diameter being about 4 mm but varying from tiny grains of sand up to pebbles 7 mm in diam-eter. White or pale-colored pebbles predominated. Gizzards collected in June contained grit as the dominant hard constituent but later in July, and until the first weeks in September, it was largely replaced by hard seeds. The. total volume of hard material per gizzard remained at slightly less than 4 cc but in many cases pebbles were entirely lacking. The seeds of blackberry, bunchberry, waxberry, and rose were the ones most frequently used. E.0WLE: BLUE GROUSE 709 CKl vo *C I CO 3 T3 3 •g <* ? d C frj TO U. ^ 5 <" S £ . « » « r -S fc^J3 o 7J0 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY. VOL, 3S. I960 Grit occurred in small quantities in 11% of the crops examined. One or two pebbles sometimes appeared in the intestinal contents or in the droppings. Water Bendire (3) and Marshall (9) say that blue, grouse are often seen near water or that they drink frequently. Beer (1) says that the tracks of dusky grouse are frequently seen near springs and that hens may be seen leading their broods to water. During this study, however, grouse were never seen to drink in the field and captive birds were seen to take water on only three occasions. Free water may not be important during the season when berries and other succulent foods are available. Feeding Behavior Field observations and study of volumes of food in crops showed the grouse fed throughout the day. However, the largest volume of food was consumed in the evening, when feeding began about 6 o'clock. Crops from adults collected during this period contained up to 35 cc of food. •The young fed almost continuously throughout the day, usually confining their activities to a small radius within which they browsed greens and prob-ably ate a few invertebrates. Cocks were frequently observed feeding and hooting alternately but hens, with broods, were never seen to feed during the day. Several females collected during the early afternoon had little or nothing in their crops. However, females were frequently seen foraging in the evening. During the periods of active feeding the birds moved about briskly, pecking at whatever food they could reach. When feeding on soft fruits on or near the ground they took several into the mouth in rapid succession and then raised their heads and swallowed. When feeding on green browse, such as clover or Douglas fir seedlings, the birds tilted their heads so that the longest length of the bill was employed in shearing off raouthfuls of foliage. The volume of food taken at any one time varied considerably. The largest volumes were found in two crops from Cowichan which contained 50 and 57.5 cc respectively. A pair of captive adults on one occasion ate, in one day, 470 cc of soft fruits weighing 281 g. A captive male ate a mixture of 64 blackberries and raspberries in 10 minutes. A hen was observed to eat 20 blackberries in Jess than a minute. Some days later the cock ate 54 huckleberries (about 20 cc) in about 2 minutes. Relation to Vegetation In summer, blue grouse on Vancouver Island occur mainly in second-growth vegetation in areas where, as a result of logging and fire, thousands of acres have been converted from inhospitable habitat into productive areas. The early stages of succession provide important foods such as bracken, cat's ear, and fleshy fruits for the adults, and invertebrates for the chicks. The survey on the two sample areas at Quinsam Lake revealed that although about 45% of the surface of the plots was not covered by plants, there was enough vegetation to support a large population of grouse. The following F 0 W L E : B L U E G R O U S E . 711 important grouse foods together covered about 20% of the area of the plots: bracken, willow, Oregon grape, trailing blackberry, huckleberry, salal, and cat's ear. It is usually held that in the absence of strong preferences the volumes of various foods consumed will be more or less proportional to availability. In the case of the blue grouse, the degree of dispersion or, in other words, the frequency of occurrence of various foods at intervals over the bird's range should influence availability. Table V- shpws that there is a rough parallelism between frequency of occurrence of the six most available food plants on the plots and the proportion of each occurring in the diet. The adult diet seems to be fairly regularly related to the frequency of occurrences, but the high percentage of salal fruits in the diet of the young birds suggests some selection. The smaller volume of blackberry in the diet of the young is probably due to the fact that blackberries were abundant in July when most chicks were still feeding mainly on invertebrates. T A B L E V Relation between availability of food plants and volume occurring in the diet at Campbell River, 1943 % frequency % volume in diet of occurrence Plant on 88 plots Adult Juvenile Cat's ear buds, leaves 87.5 42 35 Blackberry fruit 5 73.0 20 13 Salal fruit 28.S 12.5 25 , Willow leaves and buds 24 10 5 Bracken fronds 18 12 5 Oregon grape fruits 12.5 0 3 The extent of the influence of the birds on the vegetation is not known but in some areas it could be considerable. For example, salal at Campbell River bore only a moderate crop of fruit and was rather sparsely distributed, occurring in small clumps on about 28% of the plots. It is possible that nearly all the fruits produced were eaten by grouse and the seed scattered in the drop-pings of the birds. In the cases of such highly favored foods as cat's ear, the seed production of the species may have been considerably reduced owing to the removal of the fruiting portions by the grouse. In many places virtually all buds and flowers had been browsed. . In 1943 the grouse caused what appeared to be serious damage to Douglas fir seedlings. At Campbell River nearly all seedlings on the deforested area had been planted under the reforestation program of the British Columbia Forest Service but their survival seemed to be jeopardized by grouse browsing both newly planted and established stock. The most serious damage was done in the spring when the birds, having just arrived on the lowlands, removed many terminal and lateral buds as well as some needles from these trees. Recently planted seedlings standing in loose soil were occasionally uprooted. Repeated browsing resulted in greatly reduced annual growth. In the summer 712 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY. VOL. 38, I960 of 1943 5-year-old trees which had been planted out,3 years before were found to be no taller than 2-year-old stock still in the nursey beds. The period of most serious damage lasted from the time the birds arrived in the spring until willow buds and other green browse began to appear in sufficient abund-. ance to supply other food. A recent report from the B. C. Forest Service (Mr. H . G. McWilliams, personal communication) states that although browsing appeared to be severe the seedlings were developing excellent root systems. Those missed by the. grouse put out leaders a foot or more in length. A plantation set out in 1940 which was severely browsed in 1943 recovered a year or two later as more and more of the trees grew out of reach of the birds. Acknowledgments This paper is part of a thesis submitted in .partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts at the University of British Golumbia. I am indebted, to Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan of the Department of Zoology for guidance during the study and for reviewing the final manuscript. Various members of the staff of the B. C. Forest Service gave assistance. In particular, I wish to thank Dr. F. S. McKinnon for his interest and encour-agement and Mr. J. Long, Campbell River Forest Nursery, for help with many phases of. the field work. The co-operation of the B. C. Game Commission and staff of the Provincial Museum is gratefully acknowledged. I am.also indebted to the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia for providing a research grant under which part of this study was carried on. My thanks also to Dr. J . F. S. Bendell, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, and, Mr. R. Y . Edwards, British Columbia Department of Conservation and Recreation for reviewing the final manuscript. 1 am grateful to Dr. Adam Szczawinski, Curator of Botany, B. C. Provincial Museum, for advice on botanical nomenclature. References 1. BEER, J- Food habits of the blue grouse. J. Wildlife Management, 7, 32-44 (1943). 2. BENDELL , J. F . Age, breeding behaviour and migration of sooty grouse. Dendragapiss obscurus Miginosits (Ridgway). Trans. 20th N . Am. Wildlife Conf. 367-380 (1955). 3. BENDIRE, C. Life histories of North American birds. U . S. Natl. Museum, Spec. Bull. I, Vol. 1. 1892. 4. BENT, .A. C . Life histories of North American gallinaceous birds. U . S. Natl. Museum, Bull. 162. 1932. J . COWAN, I. M c T . The ecological relationships of the food of the Columbia bjack-taijed deer {Odoccrilws kemionus columbiams (Richardson) in the Coast Forest Region of Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ecol. Monographs, 15,109-139 (1945). 6. GABRIELSON, I. N . and JEWETT , G. S. Birds of Oregon. Oregon State College, Oregon State Monographs, Studies in Zoology, No. 2. 1940. 1. HALLIDAV, W. E . D. Aforest classification for Canada. Can. Dept. Mines and Resources, Forest Serv. Bull. 89. 1937: 8. LEOPOLD, A . Game management. Chas. Scribners' Sons, N , Y . 1942. 9. MARSHALL, W . . H . Cover preferences, seasonal movements and food habits of Richardson's grouse and ruffed grouse in southern Idaho. Wilson Bull. 58, 42-52 (1946). 10. MUNRO, J. A . Notes on some birds of the Okanagan Valley, B. C . Auk, 36, 64-74 (1919). F 0 W L E : B L U E G R O U S E 713 11. M U N R O , J . A. and C O W A N , I. M c T . A review of the bird fauna of British Columbia. Spec. Publ. No. 2, B. C. Prov. Museum. 1947. 12. P R O V I N C E OF - BRITISH C O L U M B I A . Annual report of the Provincial Game Warden. Sessional Papers,.B. C. Legislature. 1906-1920. 1923-1929. 13. PROVINCE OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A . Annual report of Provincial Game Commissioner. Sessional Papers, B. C. Legislature. 1931-1935. 14. PROVINCE OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A . Annual report of the Provincial Game Commission. Sessional Papers, B. C. Legislature. 1936-1951. 15. STEWART, R. E . Food habits of the blue grouse. Condor, 46, 112-120 (1944). 16. W I N G , L . Seasonal movements of the blue grouse. Trans 12th N . Am. Wildlife Conf. .504-511 (1947). 17. W I N G , L. , B E E R , J., and T I D Y M A N , W. The"-brood habits and growth of "blue grouse". Auk, 61,426^140 (1944), The Sooty Grouse (Dendragapus f u l i g i n o s u s f u l i g i n o s u s Ridgway.) On I t s Summer Range C h a r l e s David,Fowle A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER Of ARTS i n the Department of ZOOLOGY The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l s 1944. CONTENTS. I n t r o d u c t i o n . • «I Sources of Data 1 Cover types 2 B a r r e n ground, L i t t e r , Logs, and Stumps* ..7 Bryophytes .. 7 P t e r i d o p h y t e s ....... .... 8 P t e r i s a q u i l i n a v a r . l a n u g i n o s a . . . . . . . . 8 Other P t e r i d o p h y t e s . . . . . . . 8 Gramineae 9 S a l i x sp.... . 9 B e r b e r i s n e r v o s a 9 A c h y l i s t r i p h y l l a . .9 Rubus macropetalus 10 Vacciniura p a r v i f lorum. . .10 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n . ... . .11 A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a . 11 Hypochaeris r a d i c a t a ....,,11 Seasonal movements .11 C y c l e s and P o p u l a t i o n 14 P r e s e n t P o p u l a t i o n s (Campbell R i v e r ) . . . . . . . .17 The B r e e d i n g C y c l e . . . . 19 Summer Pood h a b i t s 31 Pood m a t e r i a l s 33 B e r r i e s . .33 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ( s a l a l ) 34 Rubus macropetalus ( T r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y ) . . . . . . . 3 5 B e r b e r i s nervosa (Oregon grape) 36 V a c c i n i u m p a r v i f l o r u m (Red h u c k l e b e r r y ) . . . . 3 6 V a c c i n i u m o v a l i f o l i u m (Blue h u c k l e b e r r y ) . 37 Symphoricarpus racemosa (Waxberry) 37 Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry )•*......... . . . 38 Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s ( T h i m b l e b e r r y ) .38 R i b e s s p. ( C u r r a n t s , g-oqaeberries ) 39 Rosa sp. (Rose ) . 39 Amelanchier f l o r i d a (Saskatoon) 39 Rhamnus P e r s h i a n a (Case ara)•«..«..«.«««««...«.... 3.9 L o n i c e r a sp. ( H o n e y s u c k l e ) . « 40 Green browse .... 40 Hypochaeris r a d i c a t a (Cat's ear P t e r i s a q u i l i n a v a r . l a n u g i n o s a (Bracken).........42 S a l i x sp. ( W i l l o w l e a f ) • • ..42 T r i f o l i u m sp. ( c l o v e r l e a f ) 43 U n i d e n t i f i e d compositae 43 P o l y s t i c h u m sp;, and Blechnum s p i c a n t ( F e r n s ) 43 Runaex sp. (Sorrel).»..»».»»*•« 43 C o n i f e r o u s n e e d l e s * . ...44 M i s c e l l a n e o u s green browse i t e m s . . . . . . . . . 44 Animal m a t e r i a l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 A c r i d i l d a e ( s h o r t - h o r n e d g r a s s h o p p e r s ) . 45" F o r m i c i d a e (Ants) 4-6 Isopoda (Sow b u g s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Gri* x "fc • • • • • • »• • • • » • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4-6 v/si 0 X* • • O ^* 7 Feeding h a b i t s .... 47 P a r a s i t e s and D i s e a s e s 51 E c t o p a r a s i t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A c a r i n a ( T i c k s ) . . , . . . . • • • • 52 Mallphaga ( L i c e ) . . . . . . • • 53 D i p t e r a . H i p p o b o s c i d a e ( L o u s e - f l i e s ) 53 Dust baths 5 4 E n d o p a r a s i t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Cestoda (Tapeworms ) 55 Nematoda (Roundworms ) . . . . . 5 8 B l o o d P a r a s i t e s 59 Methods..... 59 Trypanosoma 60 Leucocytozoon &® . Haemoproteus ^1 D i s e a s e s Bronchopneumonia....... °^ M y c o s i s . • • 0 £ L • J o w l pox ( E p i t h e l i o m a contagiosum) &4 A c c i d e n t s . 6 4 P r e d a t o r s • ^5 D i s c u s s i o n and Summary ^ Co n c l u s i o n s 74 The Sooty Grouse (Dendragapus f u l i g i n o s u s f u l i g i n o s u s Ridgway) On I t s Summer Range INTRODUCTION The sooty grouse (Dendragapus f u l i g i n o s u s f u l i g i n o s u s Ridgway) belongs to the a v a i n order G a l l i f o r m e s and may be f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as a t r u e grouse of the f a m i l y T e r a o n i d a e . I n 1864 E l l i o t , u s i n g the dusky grouse (Dendragapus obscurus obscurus ) as the b a s i s f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , a s s i g n e d the genus name Dendragapus to the whole blue grouse group as i t was then known. P r e v i o u s t o t h a t date i t had been v a r i o u s l y known as Canace and T e t r a o . S i n c e E l l i o t ' s time, f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s have been made i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and new r a c e s have been d e s c r i b e d to the end t h a t the genus i s c u r r e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d as i n c l u d i n g two s p e c i e s which occupy complimentary r a n g e s . One s p e c i e s , Dendragapus f u l i g i n o s u s , or so o t y g r o u s e , oc-cu p i e s the humid P a c i f i c c o a s t a l s l o p e and the o t h e r , Dendragapus obs c u r u s , or dusky grouse, the a r e a e a s t of the co a s t r a n g e . The most r e c e n t c h e c k - l i s t , t h a t of Hellmayer and Conover (1942), r e c o g n i z e s f o u r r a c e s of each of the two s p e c i e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these i s shown on the accompanying map. ( P i g . 1.) Throughout t h i s paper the v e r n a c u l a r name, blue g r o u s e , i s used to r e f e r to the e n t i r e genus, w h i l e the more p r e c i s e v e r n a c u l a r s as i n d i c a t e d above and on the map are used to g o f e r to the two component a p e c i e s and t h e i r a u b - s p e c i e s . The s o o t y grouse (ifrendragapua f u l i g i n o a u s f u l i g i n o s u s ) , i s a c o a s t a l f o r m . I t i s found, i n the mountains of n o r t h w e s t e r n C a l i f o r n i a and s o u t h e r n Oregon and northward a l o n g the c o a s t a l a r ea a t l e a s t as f a r as Gardner C a n a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (Hellmayer and Conover, 1942),In B r i t i s h Columbia i t does n o t occur e a s t of the Cascade Mountain Range. There seems to be a l a c k o f agreement as to t h e n o r t h e r n d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l i m i t s of t h i s r a c e .According to Svvarth (1926) Brooks examined f i v e specimens as White Pass n o r t h of Skagway, A l a s k a and found them t o be f u l i g i n o s u s f u l i g i n o s u s and n o t , as might be expected,Dendragapus f . a i t k e n s i s . T h i s he says may i n d i c a t e t h a t a i t k e n s i 3 i s c o n f i n e d to t h e i s l a n d s o f the Panhandle and does not occur on the m a i n l a n d . The more r e c e n t work of H e l l m a y e r and Conover„ oh the o t h e r hand, s t a t e s t h a t a i t k e n s i s o c c u r s i n the c o a s t a l mountains from Skagway s o u t h -ward to Gardner C a n a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia*The same a u t h o r s r e c o r d t h i s r a c e from the i s l a n d s of the A l e x a n d e r xa*chipeligo and f r o m Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . The r a c e , f u l i g i n o s u s , i s abundant on the s o u t h e a s t e r n h a l f o f Vancouver I s l a n d but i s r a r e i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t and on the west c o a s t ( B r o o k s , 1912). Swarth f a i l e d to f i n d the b i r d a t Wootka i n 1912, A c c o r d i n g to Brooks ( o p . c i t . ) the mainland d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s o o t y grouse i n B r i t i s h Columbia extends eastward as f a r as L i l l o a e t and the Upper 3imiikameen V a l l e y . A l t h o u g h the taxonomy and d i s t r i b u t i o n have been c o n s i d e r e d i n some d e t a i l bysuch a u t h o r s as 6 w a r t h A l ? 2 1 F i g . 1. Approximate d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r a c e s <St the B l u e Grouse 3 -Dendragapus f u l i g i n o s u s s i t k e n s i s Swarth. F - " it f u l i g i n o s u s Ridgway. S i - " '* s i e r r a e Chapman. P - " howardi D i c k e y and van Ross em. Fl-Dendragapus obscurus f l e m i n g i T a v e rner. R - 11 r i c h a r d s o n i Douglas. Pa- " " p a l l i d u s Swarth. 0 - !< " obscurus E l l i o t . I l l 1926, 1931), Brooks (1926, 1929) and Hellmayer and Conover (1942) l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the b i o l o g y of the sooty grouse. Summaries of our knowledge of the l i f e h i s t o r y of the blue grouse are to be found i n the works of Bendire (1892) and Bent'. (1932) and i n v a r i o u s g e n e r a l pub-l i c a t i o n s i n wester n American o r n i t h o l o g y ( G a b r i e l s o n and Jewett, 1940; Dawson and Bowles, 1909)* The b e h a v i o r of the male b i r d s d u r i n g the mating c y c l e has a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n and has been d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s (Munro, 1919» B r o o k s , 1926j L a i n g , 1931). The f o o d h a b i t s of the blu e grouse i n Washington have been d i s c u s s e d by Beer (1943) and th e r e i s supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s t o p i c a v a i l a b l e i n s e v e r a l l o c a l f a u n a l s t u d i e s and i n papers d e a l i n g w i t h more g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s (Judd, 1905). Beer (1944) has p u b l i s h e d a s h o r t paper on the p a r a s i t e s of the blu e grouse i n Washington and' Cowan (1940, 1942) d i s c u s s e s some d i s e a s e s i n the sooty grouse i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . T h i s appears to c o n s t i t u t e a l l the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r a s i t i s m and d i s e a s e i n the s p e c i e s . I n the p r e s e n t paper an e f f o r t i s made t o l a y .the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a f u r t h e r study of the l i f e h i s t o r y o f the sooty grouse. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h f o o d h a b i t s , p a r a s i t e s , and d i s e a s e s , but such obser-v a t i o n s on g e n e r a l h a b i t s and b e h a v i o r t h a t seem p e r t i n e n t to these main t o p i c s have a l s o been r e c o r d e d . I am v e r y much in d e b t e d to Dr. Ian MoTaggart Cowan, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g the p r e p e r a t i o n o f t h i s paper and t o Dr. W*A.i Clemens,Head of the Department o f Zoology, f o r h i s c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g of the t e x t and f o r the l o a n o f l i t e r a t u r e * . I i v i s h a l s o to acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of a number of p e r s o n n e l o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f ••Mr. J.R.Long *Foreman o f the Campbell R i v e r F o r e s t N u r s e r y f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the f i e l d work. The c o o p e r a t i o n throughout t h i s stu&y o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Game Commission i s acknowledged w i t h thanks as w e l l as t h a t o f D r . G . C . C a r l ^ D i r e c t o r , and Mr* George H a r d y ^ B o t a n i s t , o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum a t V i c t o r i a . I am i n d e b t e d a l s o -to the Board o f Govenors o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia who p r o v i d e d a r e s e a r c h g r a n t un&ier which p a r t o f t h i s study-was c a r r i e d o u t . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to Mi'ss Ann Clemens who a s s i s t e d i n the t a b u l a t i o n s and i n the p r e p e r a t i o n o f the t e x t . 1. SOURCES OP DATA A l l f i e l d work was conducted on Vancouver I s l a n d where, i n the course of s e v e r a l v i s i t s d u r i n g the autumn of 1942 and the s p r i n g of 1943» p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s of sooty grouse range and c o u r t i n g b e h a v i o r were made on B a l d Mountain Game Reserve a t Cowichan Lake. However,,the main p o r t i o n of the f i e l d work was c o n c e n t r a t e d a t Campbell R i v e r between June 15 and September 1, d u r i n g which time the author was employed by the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . • Data on f o o d h a b i t s were o b t a i n e d from f o r t y - f i v e crops removed from b i r d s shot by h u n t e r s a t Cowichan Lake on September 12-13» 19^3 and from 37 crops removed from b i r d s of v a r i o u B ages taken a t Campbell R i v e r d u r i n g the summer months. F i f t y - t h r e e b i r d s examined a t Campbell R i v e r c o n s t i t u t e d the p r i m a r y source of i n f o r m a t i o n on the n a t u r e and i n c i d e n c e of p a r a s i t i s m i n the s p e c i e s though ' s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n was acc o r d e d about s i x t e e n hundred b i r d s d u r i n g a check o f h u n t e r s ' bags a t Cowichan i n September 1943 • I n the course o f f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r and f o o d h a b i t s , some s i x hundred b i r d s were t a l l i e d . A l a r g e p e r c e n -tage o f these were hens w i t h c h i c k s . Supplementing the f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l e u s e f u l d a t a were o b t a i n e d from o b s e r v a t i o n s on a number of c a p t i v e b i r d s h e l d f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l purposes a t the Campbell R i v e r F o r e s t N u r s e r y . W i t h t h e s e , experiments on f o o d c h o i c e s and the b i r d s ' r e a c t i o n s to v a r i o u s f o o d types were made. L a b o r a t o r y work was c a r r i e d on a t the Department of Zoology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the s e s s i o n s of 1942-3 and 1943-4 and a t Campbell R i v e r d u r i n g the p e r i o d of f i e l d work t h e r e . COVER TYPES The areas under c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s s tudy l i e on the southeast c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d and thus f a l l w i t h i n what H a l l i d a y (1937) d e s i g n a t e s as the Southern Coast S e c t i o n of the C o a s t a l F o r e s t R e g i o n . Here the main t r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s are composed of the Coast F o r e s t dominants, the we s t e r n r e d cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) and w e s t e r n hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a ) and a s m a l l percentage o f whi t e pine ( P i n u s m o n t i c o l a ) . I n the more f e r t i l e lower l a n d s t h e r e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the grand f i r (Abies g r a n d i s ) and such d e c i d i o u s , b r o a d - l e a v e s s p e c i e s as. the b l a c k cottonwood (Populus t r i c h o c a r p a ) , r e d a l d e r (Alnus r u b r a ) , and the broad-l e a v e d maple (Acer macrophyllum). The s o i l i s a p o d s o l t y p e . D u r i n g the p a s t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s or more p o r t i o n s of the study a r e a a t Campbell R i v e r have been lo g g e d a t v a r i o u s times u n t i l the whole a r e a has by now been denuded. N e a r l y a l l of i t was s e v e r e l y burned i n 1938* The l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n removed the f o r e s t cover to a v e r y l a r g e degree and by the time the f i r e s t r u c k the a r e a the second growth had not become w e l l enough e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e much p r o t e c t i o n f o r the s o i l . Thus i t was t h a t the s o i l became r o a s t e d and was, i n l a r g e measure, d e p r i v e d of i t s s u r f a c e o r g a n i c content and such l i t t e r as would have p r o v i d e d humus. R e v e g e t a t i o n has t h e r e f o r e been slow. S t u d i e s were made a t Campbell R i v e r i n order to d e t e r -mine the nature of the f l o r a of the a r e a , and the r e l a t i v e d e n s i t i e s of the p r i n c i p a l forms of ground cover on the s e c t i o n s where grouse were abundant. R e l a t i v e d e n s i t i e s were determined by the m u l t i p l e sample p l o t method. L i n e s were l a i d out and a l o n g these a t f i f t y pace i n t e r v a l s square y a r d p l o t s were measured o f f . Each cover type was a s s i g n e d a r a t i n g c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the number of square f e e t i t covered but any a r e a l e s s than one h a l f a square f o o t was t a b u l a t e d as a " t r a c e " . The p l a n t s were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as to h e i g h t and c o n d i t i o n of f l o w e r i n g or f r u i t i n g . A l l evidence of grouse browsing was n o t e d . Along the r i v e r bottom and i n the more mo i s t g u l l i e s and stream c o u r s e s t h e r e i s a t p r e s e n t a t h i c k growth of a l d e r s , w i l l o w , and a c e r t a i n amount/of r e d o s i e r dogwood, (Cornus pubescens). On the h i g h e r ground, and p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g the r i v e r banks, the e l d e r b e r r y (Sambucus racemosa) i s to be found i n t h i c k e t s o f t e n i n company w i t h ocean spray ( H o l o d i s c u s d i s c o l o r ) . Douglas f i r , hemlock, and c e d a r , occur i n s c a t t e r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the b e t t e r i n s o l a t e d a r e a s . On the l o g g e d and burned a r e a s t h e r e i s i n most s e c t i o n s an abundance of t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y , c a t ' s e a r , and b r a c k e n , as w e l l as a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r r a y of l e s s i m p o r t a n t s p e c i e s . Such shrub growth as t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s of w i l l o w but may be supplemented by ocean s p r a y , dogwood, and s c a t t e r e d 4. t h i c k e t s of a l d e r s a p l i n g s or t h i m b l e b e r r y (Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s ) . The a r e a a t Cowichan Lake was logged and burned i n 1915 and a p o r t i o n burned a g a i n i n 1925« On those a r e a s untouched by .the 1925 f i r e second growth f i r s have become w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d but t r e e and shrub growth on the reburned p o r t i o n i s sparse.. A l t h o u g h a c o n s i d e r a b l e percentage of the s u r f a c e c o n s i s t s of b a r e , r o c k y o u t c r o p s , v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r , where i t o c c u r s , i s more dense here than a t Campbell R i v e r . S a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) i s to be found i n c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y and there i s a good p r o p o r t i o n o f herbaceous cover of which c a t ' s ear (Hypocfaaeris r a d i c a t a ) i s an important c o n s t i t u e n t . The h i g h e r r i d g e s of the Reserve a re timbered and i t i s here t h a t many of the grouse on the a r e a o v e r w i n t e r . As a r e s u l t of l o g g i n g and f i r e , thousands of a c r e s on Vancouver I s l a n d have been c o n v e r t e d from i n h o s p i t a b l e grouse range to what appears to be almost optimun summer range. I n summer, s o o t y grouse on Vancouver I s l a n d are found most abundantly where second growth i s s p r i n g i n g up a f t e r l o g g i n g , f i r e , or b o t h . Subsequent to d e n u d a t i o n -there i s an i n f l u x of b i r d s which g i v e s r i s e to a l a r g e b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the range r e q u i r e m e n t s of blue grouse are not w e l l understood i t i s p r o b a b l y t h a t f a c t o r s of f o o d and cover type are the f a v o r a b l e ones on these denuded a r e a s . The second growth type p r o v i d e s such i m p o r t a n t f o o d s p e c i e s as bracken ( P t e r i s a q u i I i n a v a r . lanuginosa)« c a t ' s e a r , and b e r r i e s f o r t h e a d u l t s and an abundance of i n s e c t s f o r the c h i c k s , whereas these are found o n l y l o c a l l y and to 5. l i m i t e d degree i n the mature c o n i f e r o u s or decidous f o r e s t . The two study areas r e f e r r e d to l a t e r are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of such second growth h a b i t a t . Subsequent to the l o g g i n g and b u r n i n g of an a r e a , a complete f l o r i s t i c change o c c u r s . P l a n t s u c c e s s i o n may s t a r t w i t h the encroachment of such forms as l i v e r w o r t s and mosses and c o n t i n u e s u n t i l a complex herbaceous and shrub f l o r a i s e v o l v e d . T h i s u s u a l l y g i v e s way i n time t o a sub-climax type and l a t e r to a c l i m a x type w h i c h g e n e r a l l y f e a t u r e s one or two dominant forms. B u c k l a n d (1941) i n h i s study of s e r a i s u c c e s s i o n a t Cowichan Lake found t h a t 4-6%-57% of the ground became covered w i t h i n a year a f t e r the f i r e and t h a t the cover i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y f o r the f i r s t f o u r y e a r s t o 70^-74$. A f t e r t h i s time i n c r e a s e was s l o w e r . He found t h a t " i n g e n e r a l ' , f o r the f i r s t e i g h t or ten y e a r s of the s u c c e s s i o n the major p a r t of the ground cover i s composed of herbaceous p l a n t s . " These are l a t e r r e p l a c e d by t r e e s and shrubs and s t i l l l a t e r by c o n i f e r s . Throughout the e n t i r e s u c c e s s i o n moss remains as an impo r t a n t cover c o n s t i t u e n t . B uckland found f u r t h e r t h a t on a l l s i t e s mosses and l i v e r w o r t s i n i t i a t e d the s u c c e s s i o n and were f o l l o w e d on severe burns by B p i l o b i u m , P t e r i s , Cornus c a n a d e n s i s , g r a s s e s , and Rubus macropetalus and on moderate burns by A c h l y a , G a u l t h e r i a , and B e r b e r i s . On m o i s t , s e v e r e l y burned s i t e s E p i l o b i u m dominates w h i l e on a d r y s i t e P t e r i s i s dominant. Bracken i s dominant and f i r e weed i s of minor importance a t Campbell R i v e r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the a r e a i s a "dry, severe burn t y p e . " F l o r i s t i c cover on such a s i t e r eaches a maximum 6. of 75^ i n f i v e to seven y e a r s and t h e r e a f t e r d e c l i n e s to ^0% a t twenty-one y e a r s . During t h i s p e r i o d P t e r i s i n c r e a s e s a p p r e c i a b l y but Rubus macropetalus i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . A c h l y s and G a u l t h e r i a i n c r e a s e . Shrub growth on a dry s i t e i n c r e a s e s f o r f o u r or f i v e y e a r s . S a l i x i s the o n l y important p i o n e e r genus but i s f o l l o w e d by Rubus . p a r v i f l o r u s i n from f o u r t o f i v e y e a r s . V a c c i n i u m i n c r e a s e s s l o w l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout the s u c c e s s i o n . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the ground s u r f a c e a t Campbell R i v e r s u p p o r t s no v e g e t a t i v e cover whatever, i t b e i n g covered by l o g s , stumps, l i t t e r and patches of b a r r e n s o i l . F or purposes of more i n t e n s i v e s t u d y , two s m a l l a r e a s were s e l e c t e d a t Campbell R i v e r . These were chosen to r e p r e s e n t the two major cover types p r e s e n t . The 77 a c r e s of Area I were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an absence of a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e e or shrub growth and by the presence of s e v e r a l somewhat m o i s t a r e a s . Her! the v e g e t a t i v e cover c o n s i s t e d of herbaceous growth supplemented by an e x t e n s i v e c a r p e t of moss. ( F i g . i . ) Area I I d i f f e r s from Area I i n t h a t i t supported a c o n s i d e r a b l e t r e e and shrub a s s o c i a t i o n . I t w i l l be seen from the map t h a t the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the a r e a c o n s i s t e d of a s m a l l Carex meadow and an a l d e r t h i c k e t . These were not i n c l u d e d i n the cover survey s i n c e they were found to support no grouse. The h i g h e r ground around t h i s s e c t i o n was found to be d r y and more b a r r e n than Area I . Over the whole a r e a of 57 a c r e s g r a s s was prominent and seemed to -P £3 <D O CD PH o CD CD o EJ' <D u o O o O £3 ID o O o CD r-i O • (D cd M |3 CD 03 U U ^ cd © CD > > «3 oi -p CD o O H £3 ft CD \. ctf CD O o <3 ' o •p £3 CD • O CD 'f-J . -.60 CD cd P4 • u CD > o o o co *b 11 •I-H H • H 05 cd CD CD r« M Cd CO £3 a •rt 0} to -P o o l-i p^ M O O o O UN O O O O O o o o O H e 9 • e e « o © » © ft r-i r-i CM ON cs CM o CO CM ON CS ES H r-i CM •H O O o •o o o o UN O » « • * • 0 ft • e H co o co o is o o o-o co CM CM no CM no H CO H ON CO CM CM r-i •<* "ITS H ON H • no no •H no ON H : • o-CO O--.00 no CM CO no CM no CM CM r-i rH CM ITS H vO H r-i no CO O O •\r\ CM O O o O O r-i r-i • ft • ft a • 0 ft © 0 ft H CM H CM : IS CO O CM r-i O H H ft. • • . • ft H ft «. e rH r-i - © M • * o O O o o CM o ON •r-i CM H o-H • • * e ft « • « © » « ft ft ft no H CM H H •H-H no o o O O O UN CM r-i H H . « • * » « « ft e ft CM H CM r-i H H CD ft >». -P f-J CD > O O o XTN O CM o O r-i o- o H H • • « • • ft • • • « ft ft NO 00 CM no £ • CM H ITN O o UN o O O ' OJ r-i » » « » 'ft ft ft ON ON CO CO CM r-i r-i 1—I CM O o H O ft r-i O a CD u u CD +» -P •H CO -p ra •n a ct3 CQ o h3 ai o5 •H S3 a u cd o co aJ •H H o «H •H a ft £3 •« 1. £3 ft aS cd cd •H 02 o • cd o •-! •r4 A •H CO cd cd CO 3 CQ fctO o o CD cd « cd a gj 3 cd CO H £3 . ft •r-5 -p CD -p Oi •r-i CO CO -P £3 CD - £3 o O •H CO J3 CO « •ri cd cd !H >* o •H CD £3 H •H CD H CD r4 cd CD •H H +s O r-i CS *i 01 a cd FM Pi o P4 . EH co CO O o o o 1f\ o o O o o o o O O o •<&•• : H • • • • • « • « • a © « * * « « « • O H o-OJ ON NO ON CM CO o o NO CM CM -P : S3 i—i H H NO H H H CM CM C a? • a> - ft-• O -3 ' H o o o o O o o UN O CD O • • « « « ' « © a P4 ; o H r^-CM ITS CM IfN CM o o UN CM UN CO CM NO CM H <N •' © o o H CC-CO H ON H. PO ON irs 1^-m CO CM HI S3 on CM ?•» © © U X> 3 g o - 1 3 o Jz; . o M * ro CO on CM ON ITN co o NO ir\ CM H -CM CM ,<E> • . ••• r-t -H CM H H CM H O-O Hi -. • H O O ATN O O CM o O o O o CD .x|. • « « « « * • * -e » Ct5 <E M U » CD CD 03 CM H ON CM r-i O NO O o H O o O o , o» . : • © • « © © © « -P gj xrs o o H • IN-ITS ON t—l no rH CM NO H CM ' ITT; ' • -S3 • H • • « « ® 9 • « « « « ® « e .-'(^.. © H - - !'ft aj :s5 CD a . lev ITN s^j o o ITS 00 NO CM CM ITN co CM CM M • • H • © « 6 « « « « « ® r-i ITN CM CM CD H o. O O l-i ITN O CM H IN-O O " +> • :E»0 H ; « « • 0 9 « « * « « e S3 a3 H '. no CM CD U O CD . ?-f > O CD O' , T-fN O CM UN O CM o CVI CM P-l O 1-1 » * « « » • © •* P-l O lr\ H H , 03 CD •H O CD ft to 03 H-. S3 o «i 3 cd a. f4 •H CD. 03 CD Q £3 H O •H m •3 > HI " H O O 05 05 IH a? H CD •H «H H <H 03 CD © 03 f4 cd OT CD •H H •H O H ' ft O •H O -p S3 !> •P 03 ns >S > r-i r—1 CD # CD S-d XI 05 =5 CD o +> U O <H ft ft 05 03 H ft O o CD <fH •H o 03 05 ft f4 05 ra £3 •H S> 14 S3 cd 03 05 CD J-fl • f-4 o o5 •H •H o cS i> 01 -P ft ctj OS « ft O '-•SJ. H •H 03 H O •H ta ft ft 07 •H •H CD crt a O u 03 to X! CO S3 XI p O O S3 CD t>> CD m CO c8 o •H p S3 xl 05 X> H a$ rH H S3 O H CD & x» ft H x! x> X* x> 0} O •H !4 > O •H a Q CD o •H o •H ft o 05 a5 f-t >> co Co m < PES pi !> P3 o EH CQ CO o o o o o CD H « • • « O M. ts rH -p fl rH CO a CD CD U O 3 ."• u o o O Irs CD o • 0 » M-o . (H. , o CS CM m -ON rf • 05 CD hi" o-CO ON CM o O m £3 : CD CD •9 3 O O CM CO co lr\ o rH H co (D H Vcs CO O H O O co .' CD M H • • • • u :u cS CD CD CD \0 CM rl H o ';.«? q t~S e « « CM -M O O -•H: « « « « d ft CD \ cS 3 CD o \TN 00 rH O ' t hi • ' • • * r-<• > O CD M • NO o ITN o O : H • 9 © c--p' .'. £3 H CO CD ' CD M o 3 o CD o o CM o CM PH • O M « * 9 m 00 o3 CD O a cS • -P +3 cd •H o fH •r-i OJ 03 CD to. cd ft U u « >> ft -P » 01 CQ Pi •H U CQ 03 ri £i CD •r-i CD 3 > rH -CO cd •••'«-»' • • O td 3 o o « 3 o cd ft -cS o cd q fH ft CD cd q CtJ >> •H 3 O K P4 7-occupy the p l a c e of the moss found on Area I . ( ( F i g . 4.) The i m p o r t a n t d a t a assembled i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the cover surveys made a t Campbell R i v e r are p r e s e n t e d i n Table I . Trees and shrubs over three f e e t i n h e i g h t were not i n c l u d e d . B a r r e n Ground, L i t t e r , Logs and Stumps. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the ground cover of these areas i s not v e g e t a t i v e . Between 1$% and 2$% of the s o i l i s b a r r e n , almost 13% c o n s i s t s of l o g s and stumps, w h i l e a l i t t e r composed of bark, decaying wood, and dry v e g e t a t i o n makes up a f u r t h e r Thus about 48%, and p r o b a b l y more i n soma r e g i o n s , may be d e s e r t as f a r as p l a n t growth i s concerned. The g r a d u a l decay of the bark and wood p r o b a b l y adds humus to the s o i l and thereby not o n l y reduces the p e r -centage of l i t t e r but a l s o the areas of b a r r e n s o i l . The a d d i t i o n of humus to these r o a s t e d p o r t i o n s w i l l promote p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t t h e r e and implement t h i s s u c c e s s i o n a l p r o c e s s . v T h i s cover type p r o v i d e s no grouse f o o d but does p r o v i d e n e s t i n g c o v e r , o b s e r v a t i o n p o s t s f o r the females, h o o t i n g grounds f o r the males and d u s t i n g s i t e s . Bryophytes ( S p e c i e s unknown)? Mosses were d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to the m o i s t u r e con-d i t i o n s of the s o i l . They were most abundant on Area I where t h e y covered about 8% of the s u r f a c e , but were l e s s so on the d r i e r p o r t i o n s of Area I I where they c o v e r e d o n l y A% of the s u r f a c e . B u c k l a n d (1941) noted the genera F u n a r i a , Bryum, P t i l i u m , and P o l y t r i c h u m a t Cowichan and found t h a t 8. .these remained as important cover c o n s t i t u e n t s f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s or more a f t e r d e n u dation. M a r c h a n t i a o c c u r r e d on the sample p l o t s of Area I I a t the p e r i p h e r y of the Garex meadow. I t was p r o b a b l y a new e s t a b l i s h m e n t on•the r e c e n t l y exposed s o i l l e f t by the r e c e d i n g waters of the sedge meadow. I t o c c u r r e d a l s o on Area I but was so r a r e t h a t i t d i d not appear on any of the sample p l o t s . The sporophytes of c e r t a i n of the mosses are eaten by sooty grouse . P t e r i d o p h y t e s : P t e r i s a q u i l i n a v a r . l a n u g i n o s a . P t e r i s was d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y over Area I I i n s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r d e n s i t y than on Area I where i t was f o r the most p a r t c o n c e n t r a t e d a t one end of the a r e a . T h i s p l a n t i n some p l a c e s p r o v i d e d a f a i r l y dense o v e r s t o r y and p r o b a b l y s e r v e d to p r e v e n t the l o s s of a c e r t a i n amount of s o i l m o i s t u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were more p l a n t s on Aa/ea I I , growth was more l u x u r i a n t on the m o i s t e r s i t e of Area I . Other P t e r i d o p h y t e s : Among the o t h e r f e r n s on these a r e a s were noted the genera Adiantum, P o l y s t i c h i u m , and Blechnum. These were noted p a r t i c u l a r l y on Area I I where they o c c u r r e d i n the shaded m o i s t e r s e c t i o n near the a l d e r t h i c k e t . T h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l i m i t e d . P t e r i s on most areas w i l l p r o v i d e an important cover f o r b o t h a d u l t s and c h i c k s as w e l l as b e i n g an important f o o d . Other f e r n s are eaten i n f r e q u e n t l y . Gramineae; Grass, a l t h o u g h sparse on Area I , was found to be r e l a t i v e l y abundant on the d r i e r s i t e of Area I I . The s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d are not known but most of them were not more than s i x or e i g h t i n c h e s i n h e i g h t and were g e n e r a l l y i n somewhat poor c o n d i t i o n . Grass i s h e l i o p h i l o u s and w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the o v e r s t o r y becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s u p r e s s e d . S a l i x sp.: Such w i l l o w s as o c c u r r e d on Area I were s m a l l , few of them b e i n g more than twelve inches i n h e i g h t . On Area I I , however, w i l l o w s were l a r g e r and were o f t e n to be found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a l d e r s w h i c h were b e g i n n i n g to extend out from the c e n t r a l t h i c k e t . W i l l o w buds and l e a v e s a p p a r e n t l y form an im p o r t a n t i t e m of grouse d i e t a t c e r t a i n times of the y e a r . B e r b e r i s n e r v o s a : T h i s s p e c i e s , a l t h o u g h not common on e i t h e r a r e a , o c c u r r e d most f r e q u e n t l y on Area II.'.. I n t e r s p e r s i o n was good on both a r e q s . There i s a tendency f o r t h i s type to form a dense growth on a d r y s i t e but on moist s i t e s a h i g h f r e q u e n c y of s i n g l e p l a n t s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Owing to the s u r v i v a l o f a few p l a n t s on f a v o r a b l e s i t e s and to t h e i r subsequent r e p r o d u c t i o n , dense patches of Oregon grape d e v e l o p . The f r u i t s of t h i s s p e c i e s are taken by grouse. In c e r t a i n areas where growth i s good i t may a l s o p r o v i d e n e s t -i n g c o v e r . • , A c h l y s t r i p h y l l a t May l e a v e s covered a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5*5% of Area I but 10. ware not a t a l l common on Area I I , where they covered o n l y .4%. Owing to the broad f o l i a g e of t h i s s p e c i e s a few p l a n t s can cover a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a . T h i s s p e c i e s bears no apparent r e l a t i o n to the grouse p o p u l a t i o n . Rubus macropetalus > 7% of the s u r f a c e of Area I and 4% of Area I I supported t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y . On open dry s i t e s the s p e c i e s tends to produce numerous f r u i t s and s m a l l l e a v e s . On moist s i t e s on the o t h e r hand, where there i s some o v e r s t o r y of shade, f r u i t i n g i s reduced and b r o a d e r , more s u c c u l e n t f o l i a g e i s produced. T h i s w i l l e x p l a i n i n p a r t the d i s c r e p a n c y i n percentage cover on the two study a r e a s . I n t e r s p e r s i o n of t h i s type was good on b o t h areas as w e l l as on most of the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s . B l a c k b e r r i e s form an i m p o r t a n t i t e m of grouse d i e t . V a c c i n i u m p a r v i f l o r u m ; A l t h o u g h not a t a l l i m p o r t a n t on the sample p l o t s , h u c k l e b e r r y o c c u r r e d i n q u a n t i t y a t c e r t a i n o t h e r p o i n t s around Campbell R i v e r . I t was p a r t i c u l a r l y dense on those areas w h i c h were missed by the 1938 f i r e . I t was found p r i n c i p a l l y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h second growth f i r and o f t e n i n a ground cover of s a l a l . On such areas the f r u i t s c o n s t i t u t e an important grouse f o o d . I n a few cases the t a l l b l ue b l u e b e r r y (Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m ) was n o t e d . 11. G a u l t h e r i a a h a l l o n ; The p r o p o r t i o n of s a l a l on a r e a s burned i n 1938 was low as compared to the percentage cover on unburned a r e a s . In cases of severe burns, the r o o t s t o c k s of t h i s s p e c i e s may have become f a t a l l y damaged to the e x t e n t t h a t they w i l l not produce new s h o o t s . (Bucklandj, 1941) T h i s would account i n some measure f o r the poor growth of s a l a l on s e v e r e l y burned s e c t i o n s a t Campbell R i v e r . 4.5% of Area I supported s a l a l w h i l e o n l y about .5% of Area I I was covered by i t . A n a p h a l i s m a r g a r i t a c e a : In some cases t h i s form was p r o b a b l y confused w i t h the genus A n t e n n a r i a . On both study a r e a s the p l a n t s were s m a l l e r than those on many of the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s , and showed f a r l e s s tendency towards b u s h i n e s s . The l a r g e s t and most r o b u s t p l a n t s were found on the unshaded s l o p e s , Hypochaeris r a d i c a t a ; Buckland's s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s main-t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of cover as l o n g as c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l i g h t was not too g r e a t and s o i l m o i s t u r e was m a i n t a i n e d . The s u p e r i o r m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s on Area I d o u b t l e s s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i g h e r degree of cover (8% as a g a i n s t 3.5%)» and the more v i g o r o u s nature of the p l a n t s on t h i s a r s a . T h i s p l a n t i s i m p o r t a n t as a grouse f o o d . SEASONAL MOVEMENTS , One of the o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the grouse of the genus Dendragapus i s t h e i r tendency to e x h i b i t a 12. s e a s o n a l a l t i t u d i n a l m i g r a t i o n . On Vancouver I s l a n d the sooty grouse have a l l moved up from the lowlands to the higher t imbered s l o p e s by the end of September. They r e t u r n d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of March and b e g i n n i n g of A p r i l . The c h i c k s h a t c h d u r i n g the f i r s t weeks of June and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r n e a r l y a l l the cocks l e a v e f o r the upper s l o p e s , u n t i l , by the middle of J u l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a male b i r d i n the l o w l a n d s . On June 26, 29 and J u l y 2, f o u r s m a l l a r e a s a t Campbell R i v e r were censused and i t was found t h a t males were s t i l l common, t h i r t y out of f i f t y -one b i r d s counted be i n g males. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s time the males began t o l e a v e , so t h a t by m i d - J u l y o n l y an o c c a s i o n a l one was to be seen. G r i n n e l l and S t o r e r (1924) say t h a t the males of Dendragapus f . s i e r r a e - - - a C a l i f o r n i a n race l e a v e the females about the time the c h i c k s are hatched and move up the s l o p e s i n f l o c k s of from s i x to e i g h t b i r d s . The l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of males seen d u r i n g the census here noted may have been due to the p r e l i m i n a r y f l o c k i n g of the cocks p r i o r f o r t h e i r l e a v i n g f o r the h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s . On one census p l o t i t was found t h a t a l l the males were c o n c e n t r a t e d a t one end of the a r e a . I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the b i r d s were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d and the tendency towards t e r r i t o r i a l -i t y e x h i b i t e d e a r l i e r i n the year seemed to have d i s a p p e a r e d many of the b i r d s were h o o t i n g and thus i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were s t i l l s e x u a l l y a c t i v e . T h i s was the o n l y o c c a s i o n when f l o c k i n g among the cocks was noted. In October, 1942, B. B a i l e y of Duncan, B. C. t o l d the 13-author t h a t the m i g r a t i o n a t Cowichan t h a t year s t a r t e d t e n days bef o r e the h u n t i n g season opened, which would p l a c e the date a t about September 5* F o r e s t r y workers r e p o r t e d t h a t the vanguard o f the m i g r a t i o n had reached the two thousand f o o t l e v e l by t h i s t i m e . I n 1943, n e a r l y a l l grouse a t Camp-b e l l R i v e r had l e f t f o r the timber by September 15. The b i r d s are s a i d to spend the w i n t e r r o o s t i n g h i g h i n c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s and f e e d i n g upon the n e e d l e s . The r e t u r n to the lowlan d s i n the s p r i n g i s h e r a l d e d by the h o o t i n g of the males.. G a b r i e l s o n and Jewett (1940) s t a t e t h a t i n Oregon the h o o t i n g begins i n Feb r u a r y and B u r l e i g h (1929) says t h a t he has heard h o o t i n g as e a r l y as March 21, i n Washington. O b s e r v a t i o n s on Vancouver I s l a n d , however, show t h a t i t b e g i n s t h e r e around the end of March or be g i n -n i n g o f A p r i l . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n the r e g i o n s south of B r i t i s h Columbia the b i r d s g e n e r a l l y do not come down to such low l e v e l s as they do on Vancouver I s l a n d . G a b r i e l s o n and Jewett (1940) speak of the b i r d s i n Oregon as coming down i n the S p r i n g t o " t h e lower edges of the timber or to openings about meadows to n e s t . " Johnson (1929) says t h a t b i r d s on Mount R a i n i e r spend the summer a t f i v e thousand t o s i x t y - f i v e hundred f e e t . Rathburn (1916) r e c o r d s an unus u a l b e h a v i o r a t Lake Cresc e n t i n Washington where sooty grouse were seemingly r e s t r i c t e d t o the h i g h e r b a r r e n s l o p e s i n A p r i l and May and i n October were found much lower and not f a r above the l a k e F i g . 2 . '>Blue grouse c y c l e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Amplitude shown here does not r e p r e s e n t t r u e abundance. 14. which has an e l e v a t i o n of 550 f e e t and i s o n l y f i v e m i l e s from the sea. A s i m i l a r b e h a v i o r i s r e p o r t e d f o r the S i t k a n grouse. B a i l e y (1927) s t a t e s t h a t members of t h i s race move up t o the h i g h e r l e v e l s i n the autumn but r e t u r n almost to sea l e v e l d u r i n g the c o l d w i n t e r months. I t may be t h a t i n t h i s r e g i o n a v a i l a b l e c o n i f e r o u s food extends down to the shore l i n e and thus the b i r d s , w o u l d not s u f f e r from a l a c k i f they moved to: the more h o s p i t a b l e c l i m a t e of the lower l e v e l s CYCLES' AND POPULATION Le o p o l d (1933)* w i t h o u t p r e s e n t i n g any s u p p o r t i n g d a t a , s t a t e s t h a t " i t i s q u i t e c l e a r " t h a t blue grouse are c y c l i c i n abundance. I n the course o f t h i s study, however, there has been accumulated a c e r t a i n amount of evidence to support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . A study of the Annual Reports of the B r i t i s h Columbia Game Commission r e v e a l s t h a t s i n c e about 1904 t h e r e has o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e s e v e r a l r a t h e r notable f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the grouse p o p u l a t i o n . ( P i g . 2) A c c o r d i n g t o Bryan W i l l i a m s (1916) the r a b b i t s (Lepus americanus subsp.) were d y i n g o f f i n 1904 and i n 1905 the i n t e r i o r grouse became i n f e s t e d w i t h t i c k s and l a t e r by tape-worms. W i l l i a m s suggests t h a t t h e r e i s some s o r t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the p a s s i n g of the r a b b i t s and the i n f e s t a t i o n o f the grouse. The grouse i n f e c t i o n s , he c l a i m s , accompanied the d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n t o a low somewhere about 1906. T h i s would p l a c e the p r e v i o u s peak of p o p u l a t i o n somewhere about 1903* There seems to have been an abundance of grouse i n the •15. p r o v i n c e about 1912-13, f o l l o w e d by a d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n which reached a low about 1919 or 1920. The 1913 r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t the i n t e r i o r b i r d s were i n f e s t e d w i t h t i c k s . T h is i s f o l l o w e d i n 1914 by the r e p o r t t h a t r a b b i t s were a g a i n on the d e c l i n e . I n 1915 grouse were v e r y s c a r c e i n the i n t e r i o r . An " e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s e a s e i n grouse of a l l k i n d s " r e p o r t e d a t t h i s time i s s a i d to be d i f f i c u l t to account f o r but may i n some way have been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h "a r e g u l a r plague of t i c k s " . Grouse and p r a i r i e c h i c k e n i n A l b e r t a a l s o d e c l i n e d a t t h i s t i m e . There i s r e c e n t evidence i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the d e c l i n e may have been due to the presence of a blo o d p a r a s i t e . ( C l a r k e , 1934-35"3o) The 1916 r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t b l u e grouse i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia were a t t h i s time almost e x t e r m i n a t e d and i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t there was no h u n t i n g season d u r i n g the y e a r s 1916-17, the P r o v i n c i a l Game Warden had to r e p o r t i n 1918 t h a t grouse were s t i l l s c a r c e . I n 1919 Munro r e p o r t e d dusky grouse i n the i n t e r i o r " t o be d y i n g o f f owing to adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s and to the presence of an " i n t e r n a l p a r a s i t e . " The Game Commission r e p o r t e d " b l u e s " to be sc a r c e i n the E r a s e r D e l t a a r e a f o r t h a t y e a r . The p o p u l a t i o n g r a d u a l l y b u i l t up to a peak i n 1925*26. In 1927 the r a b b i t s were s a i d t o have dec r e a s e d , l e a v i n g a r e s i d u a l p o p u l a t i o n of p r e d a t o r s which are s a i d to have t u r n e d to the grouse as a new source of f o o d . I n 1931 i t seems t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d had reached a low but r e t u r n e d to a peak a g a i n about 1935* 16. The i n f e r e n c e t o be drawn from the Game Reports of l a t e r y e a r s i s t h a t there has been l i t t l e d e c l i n e i n the p o p u l a t i o n a t the coast s i n c e 1935« In 1938, however, i t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t e x t e n s i v e f o r e s t f i r e s reduced t h e i r numbers somewhat. The i n t e r i o r b i r d s seem to have d e c l i n e d to a low about 1937 and ascended a g a i n t o what appears to be a peak i n 194-1., or t h e r e a b o u t s . Prom a l l accounts 1941 must have been a peak year a t Campbell R i v e r . I n 1943, the b i r d s were numerous but a c c o r d i n g to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s not as common as they had been i n y e a r s b e f o r e . Reports from Cowichan are s i m i l a r . I f , as the Game Commission Reports i n f e r , the numbers on Vancouver I s l a n d d i d not d e c l i n e t o p r e v i o u s low l e v e l s around 1937? as might have been ex p e c t e d , the e x p l a n a t i o n may be i n the expansion of the grouse range a t t h i s p e r i o d as a r e s u l t of the more e x t e n s i v e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s and the ravages of f o r e s t f i r e . As has been p o i n t e d o u t , the sooty grouse on Vancouver I s l a n d i s a b i r d of the second growth r e g i o n s and i f i t s optimum range type had been extended as i t was by f i r e and l o g g i n g --, i t i s a l t o g e t h e r p o s s i b l e t h a t many of the f a c t o r s accompanying a p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e had no o p p o r t u n i t y to o p e r a t e . The a c t i o n of f a c t o r s i n v o l -v i n g p a r a s i t e s and d i s e a s e would have been redused owing t o the g r e a t e r spread of the b i r d s and a consequent r e d u c t i o n i n c o n t a c t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n f e c t i o n . Furthermore, the g r e a t e r d i s p e r s a l of the b i r d s would>have rendered the p r e d a t o r ' s work more d i f f i c u l t , The r e d u c t i o n of the popula-t i o n by f i r e may have been another f a c t o r which a i d e d i n the 17. stamping out of i n f e c t i o n s by k i l l i n g the weaker b i r d s and r e d u c i n g the chances of c o n t a c t and r e i n f e c t i o n s , P r esent P o p u l a t i o n s (Campbell R i v e r ) ; The p o p u l a t i o n of s o o t y grouse on f o u r sample area s at Campbell R i v e r was determined on June 26, 29 and J u l y 2. The s t r i p count census method was used. Owing to the f a c t t h a t the b i r d s were not e a s i l y f l u s h e d , i t was decided t h a t the o b s e r v e r s s h o u l d be not more than two c h a i n s a p a r t . This meant t h a t each observer would cover s i x t y - s i x f e e t on each s i d e of h i s l i n e of advance. I t had been found t h a t c h i c k s and hens c o u l d e a s i l y be l o c a t e d , owing to the behavior of the f e m a l e s . While the c h i c k s were f e e d i n g , the female p a r e n t s were almost i n v a r i a b l y found crouched on the top of a stump or l o g i n a w e l l exposed l o c a t i o n and were co n s e q u e n t l y e a s i l y seen. The cocks f r e q u e n t l y gave t h e i r p o s i t i o n s away by h o o t i n g . A l l b i r d s seen were counted, aged, and i n the case of the a d u l t s , sexed, and t h e i r p o s i t i o n p l o t t e d on a map. The a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g each b i r d t a l l i e d was then searched f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s . Data as to the cover type i n which each b i r d was found and i t s a c t i v i t y a t the time of o b s e r v a t i o n were a l s o r e c o r d e d . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e summarizes the data c o l l e c t e d : 18. TABLE I I . " ' " ~ " ~~ ~ ' ••.. . ' • .Acres Acres P l o t No. Sex Re per' per No. Area B i r d s Males Pern. Juv. M.P. a d u l t b i r d 1 77 25 6 8 11 3:4 4.07 2.28 2 57 37 6 9 22 .A2:3 • 3.80' 1.64 3 83 9 3 1 5 3:1 ' 20.70 9.20 _ J _ 55 26 15 3 8 5:1- 3.05 2.11 T o t a l - 282 97 30 21 46 -Areas I and 2 are the same areas over which cover surveys were made. The l a r g e r number of c h i c k s seen on Area 2, may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the more adequate n e s t i n g ' cover a v a i l a b l e t h e r e f o r t h i s s e c t i o n supported, a c o n s i d e r a b l e growth of a l d e r s and w i l l o w s , (see map."Pig. 4) I t w i l l be noted t h a t Areas 1, 2 and 4 are f a i r l y c o n s t a n t as f a r as c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a d u l t s i s concerned. The data f o r Area 3» however, r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e was o n l y one b i r d on every 20.7 a c r e s of ground examined. There i s con-s i d e r a b l e evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t Area 3 i n c l u d e d a l a r g e s e c t i o n of i n h o s p i t a b l e grouse range. Throughout the course of the f i e l d work i t was noted t h a t grouse p o p u l a t i o n s on t h i s a r e a were low d u r i n g the summer. "Hooters'* were not heard as f r e q u e n t l y here as they were on o t h e r areas and evidences t h a t f o o d p l a n t s were b e i n g browsed were few. A p r e l i m i n a r y study f a i l e d to r e v e a l the nature of any adverse f a c t o r s of range t h a t might have been p r e s e n t . On Area 4, a f a i r l y l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of male b i r d s was r e c o r d e d . (See under "Seasonal Movements"). As a l r e a d y 19. noted, t h i s may have been a f l o c k c o n g r e g a t i n g p r i o r to departure f o r the h i g h e r l e v e l s . ) I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the number of a d u l t b i r d s a t t h i s time i s somewhat i n excess of one h a l f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Thus, almost one h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n must be l o s t i n the i n t e r v a l between the b r e e d i n g seasons.. The s m a l l c l u t c h e s of h a l f grown; b i r d s noted would i n d i c a t e t h a f l o s s e s are h i g h among the v e r y young c h i c k s . This f a c t i s c o l l a b o r a t e d by Munro (1919) who says t h a t m o r t a l i t y among dusky grouse c h i c k s i s h i g h . The h u n t i n g l o s s i s unknown but i t i s improbable t h a t i t i s h i g h enough to f u r t h e r reduce the p o p u l a t i o n t o the b r e e d i n g s t r e n g t h r e c o r d e d h e r e . .' THE BREEDING 'CYCLE! The b r e e d i n g c y c l e of the so o t y grouse begins w i t h the h o o t i n g of the males. These appear i n numbers on the low-l a n d s of Vancouver I s l a n d i n l a t e March and e a r l y A p r i l and beg i n h o o t i n g almost a t once. Cowan ( p e r s o n a l communication) s t a t e s t h a t i n 194-0 the b i r d s a t Cowichan Lake came down between March 20 and 23, and t h a t h o o t i n g was heard a t Goldstream Lake a f t e r A p r i l 2. His notes f o r 1943 r e c o r d the f i r s t h o o t e r on Gambier I s l a n d i n Howe Sound on March 28. On A p r i l 11-12, 1943 h o o t i n g b i r d s were to be heard almost everywhere on the sou t h e r n s l o p e s of the B a l d Mountain Game Reserve a t Cowichan. Eew females were seen on these d a t e s , p o s s i b l y due to a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shyness a t t h i s time of the year and to the d e n s i t y of the ground cover. I n the middle of June a t Campbell R i v e r , h o o t i n g was to be heard q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y throughout the day. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , however, 20. the number of h o o t i n g b i r d s dimished somewhat u n t i l by the end o f J u l y o n l y a v e r y few c o u l d be h e a r d . An e x c e p t i o n was noted, however, when two h o o t e r s were observed on August 13 and one was r e p o r t e d to be pres e n t on the same ar e a and hoot-i n g on August 19-20. T h i s sudden c e s s a t i o n of h o o t i n g was due not so much to the s i l e n c e of the b i r d s as to t h e i r absence from the b r e e d i n g range.. I t i s a t t h i s time t h a t the cocks l e a v e f o r the h i g h e r l e v e l s . H o o t i n g may begin e a r l y i n the morning and co n t i n u e throughout the day and i n t o the ev e n i n g . Bdson (1925) says t h a t i n n o r t h e r n Washington h o o t i n g may begin about f o u r a.m. and c o n t i n u e u n t i l n i n e p.m. At Campbell R i v e r d u r i n g the month of June, h o o t e r s were heard i n the evening on a number of o c c a s i o n s . S e v e r a l of these b i r d s were noted to continue t h e i r c a l l i n g u n t i l darkness f e l l about n i n e - t h i r t y . I t i s probable t h a t weather has an important i n f l u e n c e on the time and f r e q u e n c y o f h o o t i n g . On d u l l , c l o u d y days the numbers of h o o t e r s i s n o t i c e a b l y l e s s than on b r i g h t , c l e a r days. R a i n may a l s o have a d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t . I n one case, however, a h o o t i n g male was c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g a shower. The b i r d was i n the open and when examined was found to be q u i t e wet. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t upon a r r i v a l on the lower l e v e l s each male s e t s up a t e r r i t o r y and sends out h i s c a l l from e i t h e r a f i x e d p o s i t i o n or a number o f p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n a s m a l l t e r r i t o r y ( L a i n g , 193l)» No c o n c l u s i v e evidence upon t h i s p o i n t at p r e s e n t i s a v a i l a b l e , but a p r e l i m i n a r y study a t Cowichan Lake i n e a r l y A p r i l showed the b i r d s to be more 21. or l e s s s e p a r a t e d one from a n o t h e r . At t h i s tirae i t was noted t h a t h o o t i n g c o u l d he heard from a number of f i x e d p o i n t s over the a r e a throughout the day but i t i s not known whether the same b i r d s o c c u p i e d the same h o o t i n g grounds day a f t e r day. G r i n n e l l and S t o r e r (1924) s t a t e t h a t a male S i e r r a grouse (Dendragapus f . s i e r r a e ) was-observed h o o t i n g from the same t r e e over a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l days. At Campbell R i v e r i n June and J u l y , males were noted r e p e a t e d l y near the same p o i n t on s e v e r a l a r e a s . On e area i n p a r t i c u l a r was kept under o b s e r v a t i o n . Here a male was seen on June 17 and t h e r e a f t e r almost every day u n t i l June 23. I t had p r o b a b l y been there f o r l o n g e r than the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i n c e another o b s e r v e r had noted the presence of a b i r d s e v e r a l days b e f o r e . I t was always seen i n a l i m i t e d a r e a of not more than two hundred and f i f t y square y a r d s , e i t h e r i n the cover of a t h i c k growth of t h i m b l e b e r r y and o t h e r shrubby growth or on an open a r e a a d j a c e n t . I t was observed to hoot from the " t e r r i t o r y " s e v e r a l times and to f e e d on the c a t ' s ear growing t h e r e . A female was noted on the a r e a i n company w i t h a h o o t i n g male on June 18. A female and t h r e e f l y i n g c h i c k s were seen very c l o s e to the " t e r r i t o r y " on J u l y 14. , The l o c a t i o n of a l l b i r d s noted on a census taken on June 26 and 29 and J u l y 2 was p l o t t e d on a map. From two to three days a f t e r the census was t a k e n , p o r t i o n s of the sample areas were r e v i s i t e d and i t was found t h a t some of the " t e r r i t o r i e s " o c c u p i e d a t the time of the census s t i l l s u pported males. 22. The p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n of the h o o t i n g of the male grouse to the remainder of the b r e e d i n g c y c l e i s not a t a l l w e l l understood. I t almost c e r t a i n l y s e r v e s i n some way to b r i n g the males and females t o g e t h e r . The exact mechanism of the a t t r a c t i o n between the sexes i s not c l e a r but i t i s thought t h a t the h o o t i n g a t t r a c t s the females to the males and t h a t c o p u l a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e on t h e - " t e r r i t o r y . " Only s l i g h t evidence t o support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . There are no r e f e r e n c e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e which r e c o r d o b s e r v a t i o n s of the a r r i v a l of the female or the c o p u l a t i o n . There are a few, however, which note the presence of the male and female i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n . Oowan ( p e r s o n a l communication) r e c o r d s the f i n a l s t eps i n the c o u r t i n g b e h a v i o r i n the male and notes h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s on the c o p u l a t i o n . His notes d e s c r i b i n g the male r u n n i n g f o r w a r d a s h o r t d i s t a n c e w i t h the head down and u t t e r i n g a deep "Whoot" a t the end of the r u s h , c o l l a b o r -ate Brooks' (1926) d e s c r i p t i o n o f the same b e h a v i o r i n R i c h a r d s o n ' s grouse (Dendragapus obscurus r i c h a r d s o n i ) . Cowan, however, r e c o r d s t h a t c o p u l a t i o n o c c u r r e d immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s b e h a v i o r w h i l e Brooks makes no mention of i t . During t h i s s t u d y , o b s e r v a t i o n s were made d u r i n g the e a r l y summer on a number of h o o t i n g males, but t h i s s t e p i n the c o u r t i n g b e h a v i o r was not n o t e d . I t would seem t h a t t h i s phase takes p l a c e o n l y i n the presence of the female and i s c o n f i n e d to the p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h c o p u l a t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t n e a r l y a l l the b i r d s observed f o r t h i s study had a l r e a d y been mated. 23. On Vancouver I s l a n d most of the mating occurs d u r i n g the e a r l y weeks of A p r i l . Cowan's o b s e r v a t i o n s were made a t Goldstream Lake on A p r i l 12, 194-1. R e f e r r i n g to the dusky grouse i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , Munro (1919) says t h a t they "begin to mate about the end of March." I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether sooty grouse are monogamous or polygamous. L e o p o l d (1933) assumes t h a t the dusky grouse i s polygamous, and L a i n g (1931) suggests t h a t the sooty grouse i s promiscuous. Elsewhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i t i s s a i d t h a t the cocks r e t u r n to the tens and c h i c k s when the l a t t e r a r e capable of moving about f r e e l y . ( B e n d i r e , 1892; Bro o k s , 1926) T h i s , i f t r u e , might i n d i c a t e t h a t the s p e c i e s i s monogamous. Evi d e n c e s from f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h i s study a l s o suggest t h a t the sooty grouse i s monogamous. Ho d e f i n i t e p r o o f can be p r e s e n t e d , however, u n t i l work w i t h marked b i r d s has been c a r r i e d out. I n support of t h i s i d e a , there were noted f o u r o c c a s i o n s when hens and cocks were seen t o g e t h e r subsequent to the main b r e e d i n g season. The p r i n c i p a l evidence s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s o o t y grouse are monogamous was c o l l e c t e d w h i l e g a t h e r i n g data on p o p u l a t i o n . While c e n s u s i n g the f o u r sample a r e a s , the p o s i t i o n , sex and age of a l l a d u l t s were p l o t t e d on a map ( F i g s . 3 and 4). I n a l a r g e number of cases i t can be seen t h a t a c l o s e a s s o c i a -t i o n e x i s t e d between males and females w i t h c h i c k s . On one ar e a e i g h t females and s i x males were seen. I n the case of every male, i t was noted t h a t a female and brood were always w i t h i n two hundred f e e t or l e s s . On another a r e a s i x males F i g . 4 . Area. 2 . Dotted l i n e 3 i n d i c a t e r o u t e s taken by o b s e r v e r s d u r i n g a t r i p count census. 24. and nine females were counted. In t h i s case a l s o r e f e r e n c e to the map w i l l show the c l o s e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n between the males and females w i t h broods. The same phenomenon was noted f o r t hree other males on another a r e a . P a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v i n c i n g evidence was o b t a i n e d when upon one o c c a s i o n the o b s e r v e r f l u s h e d a c h i c k and was a t once a t t a c k e d by a female and almost immediately a f t e r by another female which had a p p a r e n t l y been a t t r a c t e d by the c o n f u s i o n . As soon as the hens came to the defence of the c h i c k , a cock appeared about f o r t y f e e t away and began to s t r u t a l o n g a l o g d i s p l a y i n g v i g o r o u s l y and e m i t t i n g low h o o t s . A second o b s e r v e r a t t h i s moment noted another cock a s h o r t d i s t a n c e away behaving s i m i l a r l y and o b v i o u s l y a t t r a c t e d by the con-f u s i o n . On another o c c a s i o n a h o o t e r was heard c a l l i n g from the cover of a s m a l l Douglas f i r . While s t a l k i n g t h i s b i r d , the o b s e r v e r f l u s h e d a hen and t h r e e c h i c k s which-were f e e d -i n g about f i f t y f e e t from the hooter.; The hen f l e w on to the l o g and gave her c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n x i o u s c a c k l e . Immediately the h o o t e r emerged from the cover and began to d i s p l a y and to hoot s o f t l y as i t r a n a l o n g a l o g . A c l o s e r approach to the c h i c k s caused the hen to become v e r y e x c i t e d and the male to d i s p l a y even more v i g o r o u s l y . S i m i l a r b e h a v i o r has been r e c o r d e d by De Groot (1934) who, w h i l e working i n C a l i f o r n i a , found a brood o f seven c h i c k s i n company w i t h a hen and cock. The hen f l e w to the defence of the c h i c k s but the male remaine a p a r t and hooted i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . D u r i n g the second week i n J u l y a number of coveys were seen which c o n s i s t e d of two broods a s s o c i a t e d . Both hens were p r e s e n t and the c h i c k s were u s u a l l y seen f e e d i n g as a group. On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s males were found i n the v i c i n i t y of some of these coveys. At about t h i s time the a s s o c i a t i o n of the males w i t h the females and c h i c k s became i n c r e a s i n g l y l o o s e r u n t i l n e a r l y a l l the males had l e f t the lowlands a l -t o g e t h e r . I t w i l l be noted i n some cases the females outnumber the males. I n these cases the male b i r d s may have been i n the v i c i n i t y of the females but owing to t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o f l u s h and to t h e i r s i l e n c e they may have been missed i n patches of dense c o v e r . On Vancouver I s l a n d i t i s probable t h a t nest b u i l d i n g and egg l a y i n g s t a r t d u r i n g the f i r s t and second weeks i n May. At Campbell R i v e r the f i r s t c h i c k s were found on June l 6 . These were b a r e l y a b l e to f l y and were c o n s i d e r e d to be about t e n to f o u r t e e n days o l d . On t h i s b a s i s , i t i s prob-a b l e t h a t the nest from which these b i r d s came was c o n s t r u c t e d some time d u r i n g the second week i n May. On June 29, a nest was found c o n t a i n i n g f o u r newly hatched c h i c k s . The nest i t s e l f , a s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n i n the ground, l i n e d w i t h g r a s s and o t h e r d r y v e g e t a t i o n , was p l a c e d d i r e c t l y on a deer t r a i l under the s h e l t e r of a l o g whi c h l a y a c r o s s the p a t h . The ne s t was d i s c o v e r e d when the o b s e r v e r , coming a l o n g the t r a i l , stepped on the l o g i n order to pass on and found h i m s e l f s t a n d i n g d i r e c t l y over the hen bro o d i n g her c h i c k s . The n e s t was f a i r l y t y p i c a l as to s i t e and s h e l t e r . G e n e r a l l y the sooty grouse n e s t s more or l e s s i n the open, but u s u a l l y t a k e s advantage of some form of shade such as 26. might be p r o v i d e d by a stump, l o g , s m a l l t r e e or bush. I t i s t y p i c a l t h a t the n e s t be l i n e d w i t h dry gr a s s and f i n e r d r y veg e t a b l e m a t t e r . Bent (1932) r e c o r d s a n e s t which c o n t a i n e d green f e r n s and moss as w e l l as grouse f e a t h e r s . Bowles ( i n Bent) a l s o d e s c r i b e s a nest c o n t a i n i n g f e a t h e r s . The June 29 r e c o r d was p r o b a b l y t h a t of a l a t e n e s t . G a b r i e l s o n and Jewett (1940) r e c o r d the n e s t i n g p e r i o d i n Oregon as e x t e n d i n g from A p r i l 14 to June 4 and Bent (1932) c a l c u l a t e s the p e r i o d d e r i v e d from s i x t y r e c o r d s from Washing-t o n and Oregon as A p r i l 16 to J u l y 12. Three r e c o r d s f o r n e s t s c o l l e c t e d around V i c t o r i a , B. c. i n 1900, 1912 and 1915 bear the dates May 24, May 10, and May 7* (Prov. Museum, V i c t o r i a , B .C.) O r d i n a r i l y the egg complement v a r i e s from seven t o t e n and averages about e i g h t . B e n d i r e (1892) q u o t i n g 0. B. Johnson t e l l s of f i n d i n g a nest w i t h s i x t e e n eggs i n i t . I t i s p r o b a b l e , however, t h a t t h i s n e s t c o n t a i n e d eggs d e p o s i t e d by two hens. The egg complements noted f o r the three r e c o r d s a t the B. C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum are f i v e , s i x , and seven. C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h f o r e s t r y workers a t Campbell R i v e r i n d i c a t e t h a t the c l u t c h e s f o r 1943 may have been somewhat s m a l l e r than the average. N e a r l y a l l those persons q u e s t i o n e d were of the o p i n i o n t h a t the n e s t s they had found c o n t a i n e d fewer eggs than those: of p r e v i o u s y e a r s . The on l y nest found by the author c o n t a i n e d but f o u r c h i c k s and the s h e l l s of the eggs from which they had h a t c h e d . I f egg complements are s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r than on some o t h e r y e a r s , the phenomenon might be due to s e v e r a l causes. K i n g (1943) suggests t h a t i n 27. the case of r u f f e d grouse, s m a l l c l u t c h e s and s i c k l y c h i c k s may he produced by hens s u f f e r i n g from n u t r i t i o n a l d e f i c i e n -c i e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d p r i o r to the egg l a y i n g . This c o u l d be t r u e a t Campbell R i v e r . The f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d where there i s a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n competing on a range whose s p r i n g food p o t e n t i a l i s low might produce a lowered c a p a c i t y f o r egg p r o d u c t i o n . Such eggs as may be l a i d under these con d i t i o n s ' would be d e f i c i e n t i n many of the important embryonic foo d m a t e r i a l s . I n c u b a t i o n by the female begins a f t e r the l a s t egg i s l a i d and proceeds f o r about 21 days. The h a t c h of sooty grouse on Vancouver I s l a n d i s i r -r e g u l a r , the f i r s t c h i c k s a p p e a r i n g e a r l y i n June and t h e r e -a f t e r on i n t o J u l y . A f t e r June 15 i t i s p o s s i b l e to see c h i c k s of v a r y i n g ages, some unable to f l y w h i l e many are s t r o n g on the wing. A l a t e h a t c h was r e c o r d e d on J u l y 31 when a downy c h i c k , s c a r c e l y a b l e to . f l y , was noted. A l l o t h e r j u v e n i l e s were s t r o n g f l i e r s by t h i s t i m e . The young b i r d s become a c t i v e s h o r t l y a f t e r h a t c h i n g . A nest c o n t a i n i n g f o u r newly hatched c h i c k s was d i s t u r b e d on June 29 and i t was noted t h a t the young were capable of r u n n i n g r a p i d l y and t a k i n g cover a t a d i s t a n c e of s e v e r a l f e e t from the n e s t . B e n d i r e (1892) s t a t e s t h a t the c h i c k s do not.wander f a r d u r i n g the: f i r s t two weeks of l i f e but does not make any statement of the supposed range of b i r d s of t h i s age.. A l t h o u g h the u s u a l egg complement runs from s i x to e i g h t , i t i s p r o b a b l y t h a t a one hundred percent s u r v i v a l i n 28. ' a c l u t c h i s r a r e . A count of s i x t e e n c l u t c h e s made a t the end of June r e v e a l e d t h a t the numbers ranged from one to f i v e b i r d s per brood w i t h an average of 2.9 b i r d s . F a c t o r s a c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g the numbers of c h i c k s are not a l l known. I n some cases p a r a s i t i s m may take a heavy t o l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s of a p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e a f t e r a c y c l e has been completed. ( C l a r k e , 1934-34-36) P r e d a t o r y mammals and b i r d s may account f o r some i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s p r o b a b l e , however, t h a t i n p e r i o d s when p a r a s i t i s m i s l i g h t , weather and heavy ground cover account f o r most of the l o s s i n young grouse. I n a r e a s of heavy cover, some of the c h i c k s may be l o s t owing to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to pass through a dense mass of p l a n t c o v e r . I t i s thought t h a t the p r i c k l e s on the t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y wound or entangle some young b i r d s to the end t h a t they do not s u r v i v e . A sudden onset of severe weather d u r i n g the h a t c h would a l s o reduce the numbers. Growth and development are r a p i d . I n about ten days or two weeks the c h i c k s can f l y ( B e n d i r e , 1892). As soon as the powers of f l i g h t are a t t a i n e d , the c r u i s i n g range may be somewhat i n c r e a s e d but p r o b a b l y not as much as would be expected. A brood of c h i c k s was seen on an a r e a of approx-i m a t e l y two a c r e s f o r a week or more a f t e r they had gained the power of f l i g h t . C h i c k s w h i c h have j u s t g a i n e d the use of t h e i r wings w i l l f l u s h o n l y when d i s t u r b e d and even then w i l l f l y o n l y a few y a r d s , but l a t e r i n August they w i l l r i s e and f l y f o r a hundred y a r d s or more. While the c h i c k s are s t i l l s m a l l the broods f e e d s e p a r a t e -l y . At t h i s time i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to see a female crouched 29. on top of a stump w h i l e her brood f e e d s on the ground below. I f such a group i s d i s t u r b e d , the female may f l y d i r e c t l y a t the i n t r u d e r and b a t t e r him w i t h her wings. I f she does not do t h i s , she w i l l assume an a g g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e , dragging her wings, h i s s i n g and c a c k l i n g , and a l l the w h i l e r u n n i n g from l o g t o l o g or making s h o r t rushes a t her enemy. Hens are p a r t i c u l a r l y a g g r e s s i v e w h i l e the c h i c k s are f l i g h t l e s s or s t i l l weak on the wing, but are much l e s s so when the c h i c k s a t t a i n s t r o n g e r powers of f l i g h t . At t h i s time they may assume the d e f e n s i v e a t t i t u d e and u t t e r a few anxious c a c k l e s b e f o r e moving o f f q u i c k l y or f l y i n g away i n the d i r e c t i o n i n which the c h i c k s have gone. At Campbell R i v e r d u r i n g the f i r s t week i n J u l y , and t h e r e a f t e r throughout the summer, i t was u s u a l to see two f a m i l i e s f e e d i n g t o g e t h e r . G e n e r a l l y the two hens were to be seen on a d j a c e n t stumps around which the young would be f e e d i n g , but on one o c c a s i o n b o t h hens were seen crouched head to t a i l on the same stump. There i s no s e g r e g a t i o n of the c h i c k s . I t was common to see s m a l l , weakly f l y i n g b i r d s perched on a l o g among b i r d s of almost twice the s i z e and powers of f l i g h t . The o n l y obvious advantage to an a s s o c i a -t i o n such as t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t there are now two hens presumably w a t c h i n g f o r any approaching danger, whereas there was o n l y one b e f o r e . The few i n s t a n c e s when males were seen w i t h f e e d i n g broods have been n o t e d elsewhere. (See under Breeding C y c l e ) I f t h e r e i s a p e r i o d d u r i n g which the males are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the hens and c h i c k s i t must be a v e r y s h o r t one s i n c e 30. p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the males were absent from the lower l e v e l s a t Campbell R i v e r a f t e r J u l y 15. A few males were seen or heard a f t e r J u l y 2 but none of them was w i t h a brood. The most im p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y of j u v e n i l e s on summer range i s f e e d i n g . They were a l s o noted to sun themselves f r e q u e n t l y and to dust upon o c c a s i o n . The a d u l t females were never seen to f e e d d u r i n g the day but were found to have f u l l crops i n the e a r l y morning and i n the e v e n i n g . The b i r d s are a c t i v e i n the evening u n t i l j u s t b e f o r e darkness f a l l s when they go to r o o s t . V e ry young c h i c k s are p r o b a b l y brooded by the fema l e . L a t e r , however, f l y i n g c h i c k s are found r o o s t i n g i n s l a s h and on the ground. In l a t e August and e a r l y September, they were observed r o o s t i n g i n coveys of about t e n or twelve b i r d s . On one o c c a s i o n when o b s e r v a t i o n s were made a t t w i l i g h t , b i r d s c o u l d be seen g l i d -i n g i n from a l l s i d e s and s e t t l i n g down i n the cover of a l a r g e a r e a of cedar s l a s h . The j u v e n i l e s remain w i t h the hens u n t i l they move up i n t o the t i m b e r . I t i s pr o b a b l e t h a t i n many cases the f a m i l y group remains i n t a c t throughout the w i n t e r . Cowan ( p e r s o n a l communication) r e p o r t s t h a t i n September, 1931* w h i l e on vd.nter range, he c o l l e c t e d what appeared t o be two e n t i r e f a m i l i e s w h i c h comprised a covey of seven immature b i r d s , two males and two females. Others have commented upon the f a c t t h a t s m a l l coveys remain a l l w i n t e r i n one s m a l l stand of c o n i f e r s . These may i n some cases r e p r e s e n t one f a m i l y group or two f a m i l i e s r e t a i n i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n formed d u r i n g the l a t e summer months. r ^ P i g . 5 . Sooty grouse range a t Campbell R i v e r . T h i s a r e a was burned i n 1938. 31. The presence of the cocks w i t h these coveys i s d i f -f i c u l t to e x p l a i n . I n some cases the males may remain w i t h or near the brood a l l summer and move up w i t h i t i n the f a l l . T h i s i s probable where the b i r d s spend the summer a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s . On the other hand the males may s t a r t to move up i n J u l y and r e j o i n the young b i r d s and the hens when they a r r i v e i n September. .SUMMER FOOD HABITS: • The f o o d h a b i t s of the sooty grouse were determined by crop and g i z z a r d a n a l y s i s , supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g d e r i v e d from the e x a m i n a t i o n of i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t s , dropping a n a l y s i s , o b s e r v a t i o n s on c a p t i v e b i r d s , and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n . The sources and numbers of crops and g i z z a r d s examined and the p e r i o d s r e p r e s e n t e d are as f o l l o w s : Table I I I . Source Date Months Crops G i z . Represented Cowichan Cowichan Cowichan Campbell R i v e r 1942 1943 1943 1943 TOTAL '6 l 45 1Z 6 October 1 J u l y - ' September 44 June-July-Aug. 51 N e a r l y a l l the crops c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan were taken from b i r d s shot near the l a k e . The forty°five crops c o l -l e c t e d from t h i s r e g i o n i n September, 1943 were removed from b i r d s . k i l l e d by h u n t e r s d u r i n g the opening days of the h u n t i n g season. The m a t e r i a l from Campbell R i v e r was c o l l e c -t e d around Lower Quinsam Lake and i n the v i c i n i t y of S l k F a l l s . « o OcO • o • o e o • o • « o « o »• O • • « o e » o • o O « o r-i O ITS CM tr\ CO CO r-i vO CO CO CM \o o-co CM H r-i r-i CO CM « r-i O o O o O o CM r-i o CO CM CM CM CM o • * « . « « « « « • e e It * e » » cry CM CM CM CM CM r-i r-i H OJ • -p CO O o • • « • « o CM CO r-i • O-CO M -p CM CO oo CO H CO vO CO OJ ft • • « « « « • • e « CD eo CO CM r-i CM H H CO r-i r-i H •p CQ EH EH 3 o VO o CO CO O r-i CO EH M « e « • • • • » 9 e 3 •=3-NO CO CM CM CO r-i <t (CM m r-i CO >> r-i co o o O O O O O 3 « . « • » 9 * » h) CO sO CM r-i CO CM CM CM CM CM CD a o O ITS •3 © . • ' • vO UN vO ,—^ CQ -—^ ' -ri *—^ *—«. ^—~. <- -P-ft CO -P -P •H CD '—~° *— CD •H •H J3 u • »—» . to *—*> CO > 3 3 •fi o . +». XS XS cd r4 !H . •rl 3 •H 3 CD F*f f » pq -P -P ,—„ 3 pq CQ 3 43 rl *—' •P cd CD •H rH 03 in * M • <* •rl *— CQ «j 3 3 Fq 03 a •cs a. 3 CO a O •P rl rl a ' 03 o —* cd 3 M CD 3 a •H FR 5." o -p rl cd u F=( > •H CD CO 5." ' M a3 FR CO cd o s -cd H O o ,—.a FH o o 3 CO o H CD o cd ft CO CO •'in rrl •rl H CD •H cd rl CH a •rl CD -P 3 r-i TJ cd cd f> TJ •rl ro —" •rl o CQ > •rl rl a <a 03 a -p cd cd > o r-i CO o a cd 3 O ft a 43 r« •rl CD CD u rl > cd 3 CD CD M H CO a m H ft rl cd ft t> ft TJ TJ rl FR CfH CD CQ •rl o ***** CQ ft CD CO o r< a) at •H a -P cd •rl 3 u •rl a cd •H a > H •H rl & o tt rl a a o <H 03 « e !H 43 S-1 CD & cd ft CD 3 CO 3 3 •H •rl o ft ft cd o CD cd CQ cd •rl •H •rl •H rl +3 CQ CQ ft •rl 43 43 CO 43 a u H a o a CO ft +> -P o •H CO M O •H CD O •rt 43 CD 3 CO CO 03 H o rl 3 •H o O 42 CM O & Xi a CD CD 3 >» 3 ft CD 43 H ft O rl •H O a •H rl a 43 4= H cd £? -P 3 cd k> & CD (4 >> a O 3 •H 3 o O M Pw CO W i> pq EH > CO t3 O « FcS o o o oo oo CM o o o O o O O O O o O O O O • 9 • * e 0 • e H H CM rH H rH H no H H CM CM m o > EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH -P o o +» ft CD CO EH EH EH EH • EH 3 EH EH EH EH EH O EH EH rH O CM CM « CM CD a 3 CM H a CD -P M +3 •ri fH PR ft CD CO CD O •iH r-i O <H •ri K co -p cd W 3 ro -p o 3 CD 0} PM CO ri CD o rH FR a o H rH cd 03 cd •H fH CD X! -P r-i 3 cd 03 CD •P >> XI ft o JH o ft CO a cd cd CD 1-3 •ri O 03 .3 •P a cd o •H ft 03 a £5 Xj o CD rH m -—» 03 03 -p -—-CD cd CD •H 03 s> <D > 3 •P . cd hi — 1 cd H •H CD 03 CD FR 3 H cd P HJ, jH a •r-i •H HJ, PR Xi 3 cd ri 3 cd a rH cd cd rH 03 Tj cd O H o JJR 3 . "H . cd cd H H •H - H rH a p <H 'b 03 cd O CO •H •ri xi u • ' -p H •H 3 t> ft cd CD ft CD tH *-— XI rH M o p 03 ft O' 03 FR cd « u cd o ri *—" M ft ft CD o 03 M CD CD ft 02 "<b -P •iH 3 o •ri « P4 « a cd CD H •H H cd Xj ft ft 3 O CD Xi ft id 3 a o 03 03 03 •H w CJ O O . a 3 a cd •H cd cd SO-G 03 CO cd a cd •ri -p ElO '•rs >> 3 3 H •H a H O a CO 3 3 rH a. X< CD O cd o O cd M 03 Xj O cd 3 i •rt . Xj •H cd r-i C*3 EH •EH 3 i> « > PH o o o rH O P O o p ft CD 03 «J0 3 (D d o O O O O O O O O O o o O O « • * « • • • e O « • • e « rH rH r-i r-i no H CM CM sr rH CM <H-H H CM CM EH EH EH EH EH EH EH CM EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH CO -P a 'ri CD 3 -P H H • FR • ft 03 Cfl ri CD O •ri o rl M CD & O r-i FR EH EH EH EH EH rH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH • EH EH EH EH EH *— CD cd •r-i i> H H CD cd 9 cd rH CD H rH 3 rH cd o • •ri 03 o ft -C! H CD 3 CQ 03 CD 0) Cd O a •ri -P cd CD CD xi cd H CD CO a <H cd cd CD cd •ri w CD CD cd rH 3 •ri a cd •H XS cd cd xi a CD cd -P xi 3 •H -P a cd xi tiO •ri xi H •ri o -P xi P( •ri d O d r-i •H d •r-i •ri CD ft -p ft •ri O O CO cd CD cd o CD cd Xi rH P O cd o H Xi •ri M a ft d H •ri H ft o p CD 3 •ri a a CD •rH •ri o cd cd H >> O H d rH ft ft H cd •ri d d 03 H XI O ri 03 CD CD O •ri CD O o M . <5 H < FR rH O Pw O EH tri" FR • o O o O o « * e o CM o o ,H H « H •• O EH EH EH t> EH * -P o O * -p ft EH EH CD « EH • NO <! i O • >> •• -. r-i EH -EH • 3 hj CD c! '• 3 hj CD •P •H >—^ CO CO rH M a cd o ft 03 or ft a 3 03 O a o HP M CD H M o +5 CD cd H •P ft £J ft HI o -p * a o CD CD a 03 •iH St H H Ci3 32. Crops, were p r e s e r v e d i n a weak s o l u t i o n of f o r m a l i n and examined i n the l a b o r a t o r y . In a number of cases the e n t i r e d i g e s t i v e t r a c t was wrapped i n c h e e s e c l o t h , l a b e l l e d , and p r e s e r v e d . I n the l a b o r a t o r y the crops were opened, the contents s o r t e d , and the items measured v o l u m e t r i c a l l y by immersing them i n water and n o t i n g the d i s p l a c e m e n t . S u r p l u s water was removed from f o o d items by b l o t t i n g w i t h a paper t o w e l b e f o r e submersion. A l l items occupying l e s s than .2 c c s . were t a l l i e d as "Traces" (T) Percentage volumes of f o o d items are based on data from crop a n a l y s i s o n l y but percentage occurrence r e c o r d s are based on the combined r e s u l t s of crop, g i z z a r d , and i n t e s t i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n . The occurrence i n a b i r d of an i t e m i n any of these t h r e e organs was counted as one o c c u r r e n c e . These da t a are r e p r e s e n t e d i n Tables IV. and V. Table V. shows the p r o p o r t i o n of food items consumed by a d u l t s and c h i c k s d u r i n g the months of June, J u l y , and if August. B i r d s c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan Lake were not aged and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b u l a t i o n . F i g . 6 . Crop c o n t e n t s . B racken, s a l a l b e r r y , c a t ' s ear buds, Oat*3 ear l e a f , h u c k l e b e r r y , s a l a l f l o w e r s , f e r n , t e r m i t e s hymenopterous p a r a s i t e s , sow bugs. 33. gQOP MATERIALS B e r r i e s ; B e r r i e s comprise 57% of the summer d i e t of sooty grouse. The percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n of each of the most important s p e c i e s i s as f o l l o w s : s a l a l 4-5%; t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y , 4*7%', r e d h u c k l e b e r r y 2%; Oregon grape 2%; t a l l b l ue h u c k l e b e r r y (Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m ) , 1%; waxberry, 1%; bunchberry, .3%; c u r r a n t s , .2%; t h i m b l e b e r r y , .2%', w i l d r o s e , . 1%; saskatoon, t r a c e ; c a s c a r a , t r a c e ; honeysuckle ( L o n i c e r a sp_.) •, t r a c e . Most of these f r u i t s make t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d i e t i n the l a t e summer and e a r l y autumn. B l a c k b e r r y , o c c u r r i n g i n crops taken i n June, i s the f i r s t of t h i s group to be u t i l i z e d . The ot h e r s appear i n t h e i r order of r i p e n i n g l a t e r i n the year.- They make t h e i r maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n i n September when 65% of the d i e t i s b e r r y but f a l l o f f s h a r p l y i n October when they compose o n l y 17% of the f o o d b u l k . A number of o t h e r b e r r i e s have cbeen r e c o r d e d as blue grouse foods i n o t h e r p a r t s of the s p e c i e s range. Among these are the f o l l o w i n g : -Salmonberry (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) , c h e r r y (Prunus s p . ) , s t r a w b e r r y ( E r a g a r i a s p . ) , mountain a s h (Pyrus o c c i d e n t a l i s ) , w i l d c rabapple (Pyrus d i v e r s i f o l i a ) , b u f f a l o b e r r y (Shepherdia s p . ) , manzaneta ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s tomentosa), b e a r b e r r y ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a u r s i ) , r e d e l d e r b e r r y (Sambucus racemosa). (Judd, 1905» Dawson and Bowles, 1909? Bowles and Hooper 1925; B a i l e y , 1928; Bent, 1932; P h i l l i p s , 1937; Beer, 1943; Racey, (Pe r . com. 1944). 34. G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ( S a l a l ) S a l a l composed 45% of the e n t i r e summer d i e t and occu r r e d i n 6 l % of the b i r d s examined. I t i s d o u b t l e s s an important l a t e summer and e a r l y autumn f o o d c o n s t i t u e n t a t Cov/ichan where the sup p l y i s b e t t e r than a t Campbell R i v e r . On burned areas a t Campbell R i v e r , s a l a l covered between .4% and 5% of the s u r f a c e but' the p l a n t s were u s u a l l y s m a l l and produced few f r u i t s . The areas missed by the f i r e i n 1938 supported denser cover and a b e t t e r crop o f b e r r i e s . G a u l t h e r i a f i r s t o c c u r r e d i n a crop c o l l e c t e d on J u l y 28. T h e r e a f t e r i t i n c r e a s e d i n importance u n t i l a t Cowichan Lake i t made up 58% of the September d i e t . The f r u i t s were abundant a t Cowichan and were a v a i l a b l e almost everywhere. Forty-two of the f o r t y - f i v e crops c o l l e c t e d here c o n t a i n e d t h i s i t e m . There i s a tendency f o r s a l a l b e r r i e s to drop when they are r i p e and f o r those t h a t do s t a y on the p l a n t to l o s e much of t h e i r s u cculence and thus be ren d e r e d w o r t h l e s s as grouse f o o d . Only 17% of the October d i e t c o n s i s t e d of s a l a l . Table "V, shows t h a t the j u v e n i l e d i e t c o n s i s t s of 25% s a l a l b e r r y , w h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n f o r a d u l t s i s on l y 12%. I t would appear t h a t the c h i c k s p r e f e r the s a l a l over b l a c k -b e r r i e s s i n c e i n August t h e i r consumption of b l a c k b e r r y was s h a r p l y reduced but was made up i n an i n c r e a s e d consumption of s a l a l . The a d u l t s , on the o t h e r hand, i n c r e a s e d t h e i r con-sumption of b l a c k b e r r y as w e l l as s a l a l . There was a compensating r e d u c t i o n i n the amount of green browse t a k e n . 35. Beer (1943» Washington and Idaho) notes t h a t he found no s a l a l b e r r i e s i n one hundred and twenty-two dusky grouse erops and i n f e r s t h a t a l t h o u g h s a l a l was a v a i l a b l e , h u c k l e -b e r r y and b l a c k b e r r y were so abundant t h a t the grouse main-t a i n e d themselves on these w i t h o u t t u r n i n g to s a l a l . Rubus macropetalus ( T r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y ) This f r u i t made up 4.7% of the d i e t and o c c u r r e d i n 32% of the d i g e s t i v e t r a c t s examined. This i t e m o c c u r r e d f o r the f i r s t time i n June but d i d not become prominent i n the d i e t u n t i l r i p e f r u i t s were abundant i n J u l y . At Campbell R i v e r i t was t a l l i e d f i r s t on June 22 and f o r the l a s t time on August 27, A f t e r t h i s i t was l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d by s a l a l . Consumption of b l a c k b e r r i e s by a d u l t s reaches i t s maxi-mum i n August when i t makes up 24% of the d i e t . C h i c k s , as a l r e a d y mentioned, take more b l a c k b e r r i e s i n J u l y and r e p l a c e them w i t h s a l a l f r u i t s i n August. As has been noted, b l a c k b e r r y on dry s i t e s produces abundant f r u i t s , w h i l e on moist s i t e s f r u i t i n g i s p o o r e r . However, crops c o l l e c t e d on or hear such a r e a s u s u a l l y con-t a i n e d a h i g h e r percentage of b l a c k b e r r y then those from m o i s t s i t e s . Ho r e s u l t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of b i r d s were noted on dry s i t e s and i t i s deemed improbable t h a t b l a c k b e r r y e x e r t s much i n f l u e n c e on the l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of grouse i n t h i s a r e a . On the o t h e r hand, Beer (1943)> working p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h dusky grouse, found t h a t the f r u i t s of the genus Rubus are g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e over " n e a r l y every other f o o d . " On the 36. burned and logged areas of western Washington and Oregon, Rubus macropetalus p r o v i d e s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the summer fo o d and r e p l a c e s b oth R i b e s and Amelanchier, the important c o n s t i t u e n t s i n e a s t e r n Washington, Oregon and n o r t h e r n Idaho. The same author s t a t e s t h a t sooty grouse f o l l o w the r i p e n i n g of the b l a c k b e r r i e s up to the h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s . Evidence o b t a i n e d on Vancouver I s l a n d would suggest t h a t the c o i n c i d e n c e of the a l t i t u d i n a l movement and b e r r y r i p e n i n g may w e l l have been a c c i d e n t a l . B e r b e r i s nervosa (Oregon grape) Oregon grape composed 2% of the grouse d i e t and o c c u r r e d i n 8% of the b i r d s examined. Observations on c a p t i v e b i r d s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f r u i t s of t h i s s p e c i e s are not g r e a t l y f a v o r e d . When t h i s i t e m was i n c l u d e d i n m i x t u r e s of b e r r i e s f e d t o t h e - b i r d s , i t was u s u a l l y l e f t u n t i l n e a r l y a l l o t h e r s were t a k e n . Oregon grape was removed from f i v e j u v e n i l e crops c o l -l e c t e d i n August. There was no evidence t h a t the a d u l t s were e a t i n g B e r b e r i s . Beer (1943) noted o n l y one occurrence of B e r b e r i s i n dusky grouse d i e t s i n Washington and Oregon. V a c c i n i u m p a r v i f l o r u m (Red h u c k l e b e r r y ) H u c k l e b e r r y was a v a i l a b l e i n v e r y s m a l l q u a n t i t y on most of the r e g i o n under study a t Campbell R i v e r . Here i t o c c u r r e d t w i c e i n crops and composed o n l y .05% of the d i e t . At Cowichan Lake, however, where the i n t e r s p e r s i o n of Va c c i n i u m i s b e t t e r i t was found to be more important as a f o o d . Here 19.8 c c s . of the b e r r i e s were removed from nine 37. c r o p s . H u c k l e b e r r y composed two per c e n t of the t o t a l d i e t . That grouse w i l l take h u c k l e b e r r y i n q u a n t i t y was demonstrated by the c a p t i v e b i r d s which were f e d , and t h r i v e d w e l l on a s t a p l e d i e t of t h i s f r u i t supplemented w i t h s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of o t h e r important i t e m s . I t would seem t h e r e f o r e t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y i s a governing f a c t o r i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s i t e m . Bent (1932) and Bowles and Hooper (1925). r e p o r t h u c k l e -b e r r i e s as an it e m of sooty grouse d i e t . Beer (1943) says t h a t a l l s p e c i e s of V a c c i n i u m are important as dusky grouse f o o d s . Vaccinum o v a l i f o l i u m (Blue h u c k l e b e r r y ) The a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s s p e c i e s p r o b a b l y governs i t s occurrence i n grouse c r o p s . I t was taken but once from a crop c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan d u r i n g September. Buckland (1941) found t h a t t h i s shrub was more or l e s s c o n f i n e d to mo i s t s i t e s . I t was r a r e a t Campbell R i v e r but was noted where c o n d i t i o n s of shade and moistu r e p e r s i s t e d . I t i s pro b a b l e t h a t owing to i t s l i m i t e d e c o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u -t i o n , more or l e s s o u t s i d e t h a t of the grouse, i t does not occur more f r e q u e n t l y as a grouse f o o d . Symphoricarpus racemosa (Waxberry) Waxberries o c c u r r e d i n 16% of the b i r d s examined and composed 1% of the b u l k of the d i e t . At Campbell R i v e r they o c c u r r e d i n August i n j u v e n i l e crops o n l y and comprised 4% of the August d i e t . Here a g a i n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i t e m would have been pre sent i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n i f the i n t e r s p e r s i o n of 38. the type had been b e t t e r . I n scmie areas the shrub was present but f r u i t i n g was poor. However, even i n p l a c e s where there was a good crop of w a x b e r r i e s they were not taken v e r y e x t e n s i v e l y by grouse and are e v i d e n t l y of low p a l a t a b i l i t y . C a p t i v e b i r d s l e f t them as l o n g as other f a v o r a b l e foods were a v a i l a b l e . T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by Beer (1943) who found t h a t Symphoricarpus was low on the p a l a t a b i l i t y l i s t of grouse foods and t h a t i t was never taken in. q u a n t i t y even when i t was a v a i l a b l e . Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry) Cornus o c c u r r e d o n l y i n crops c o l l e c t e d a t Campbell R i v e r . B e r r i e s of t h i s s p e c i e s composed o n l y .3% of the t o t a l d i e t s t u d i e d but was important i n August when i t made up 1.3% of the j u v e n i l e d i e t . I n t e r s p e r s i o n of t h i s type a t Campbell R i v e r was poor. However, wherever the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c patches of Cornus were found i t was noted t h a t n e a r l y a l l the f r u i t s had been removed. Grouse may not have accounted f o r a l l o f them s i n c e t h e r e i s some evidence the b a n d - t a i l e d pigeons (Columba f a s c i a t a ) were f e e d i n g on t h i s s p e c i e s i n some a r e a s . Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s ( T h i m b l e b e r r y ) I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t a l t h o u g h c a p t i v e b i r d s showed a s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i m b l e b e r r y , i t composed o n l y .2% of the d i e t of b i r d s c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d . I t o c c u r r e d but once i n a j u v e n i l e crop taken i n J u l y a t Campbell R i v e r . In b e r r y m i x t u r e s f e d to two c a p t i v e a d u l t grouse, t h i m b l e b e r r i e s were f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d . These would almost immediately be s e l e c t e d f rom among the o t h e r items and eaten 39-before almost a n y t h i n g e l s e was touched. I t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o say why t h i m b l e b e r r y was not taken i n q u a n t i t y i n the f i e l d . I t may be noted, however, t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of the shrub i t s e l f may be an important l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Since the f r u i t s are g e n e r a l l y out of r e a c h from the ground and the f r u i t i n g p o r t i o n s of the shrubs not strong enough to support the weight of a p e r c h i n g b i r d , i t i s p r o b a b l y v i r -t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r the b i r d s to o b t a i n t h i m b l e b e r r i e s except where they occur low down or have dropped to the ground. R i b e s s p . ( C u r r a n t s , g o o s e b e r r i e s ) C u r r a n t s o c c u r r e d i n two crops c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan. Beer (194-3) s t a t e s t h a t i n e a s t e r n Washington and Western Idaho c u r r a n t s form an important d i e t a r y c o n s t i t u e n t e s p e c i a l l y f o r young dusky grouse. The abundance of c u r r a n t at Cowichan i s not known but i s pr o b a b l y uncommon. There was no f r u i t on the few bushes seen a t Campbell R i v e r . Rosa sp. (Rose) Rose h i p s o c c u r r e d i n t h r e e crops and i n f i v e g i z z a r d s c o l l e c t e d a t Campbell R i v e r . Rose was a v a i l a b l e o n l y on a few are a s here and even t h e n i n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y . Amelanchier f l o r i d a (Saskatoon) Saskatoon bushes were r a r e a t Campbell R i v e r . The o n l y o ccurrence of the b e r r i e s as a grouse f o o d was noted i n a j u v e n i l e . Beer (1943) notes t h a t Amelanchier i s an impor-t a n t dusky grouse food i n the e a s t e r n Washington r e g i o n . Rhamnus P u r s h i a n a (Cascara) The occurence of the seeds of t h i s s p e c i e s i n two g i z z a r d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s of l i t t l e importance. 40. L o n i c e r a sp. (Honeysuckle) Honeysuckle seed o c c u r r e d i n one g i z z a r d c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan i n October. Green browse: Green f o o d composed 42% of the summer d i e t . The f o l l o w -i n g s p e c i e s made the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s : Cat's e a r , 25%; b r a c k e n , 12.4%; w i l l o w , 2%; c l o v e r l e a f ( T r i f o l i u m sp.) 1.2%; u n i d e n t i f i e d Compositae (Ore p i s sp_. ? ), .4%; f e r n , .2%; s o r r e l (Rumex s p . ) , .2%; Douglas f i r , .1%; s a l a l f l o w e r s , .1%. Although greens c o n s t i t u t e almost the e n t i r e d i e t b e f o r e and a f t e r the b e r r y season, they m a i n t a i n a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n throughout the whole summer. The p r o p o r t i o n s of c a t ' s ear and bracken a re so l a r g e t h a t the oth e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s by greens appear unimportant beside them. Hypochaeris r a d i c a t a (Cat's e a r ) Thi s i s undoubtedly the most imp o r t a n t grouse food noted. I t composed 25% of the summer f o o d and o c c u r r e d i n over 70% of the b i r d s examined. I t appeared i n q u a n t i t y i n crops c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g J u l y , August and September and undoubtedly would have done so d u r i n g June and October i f l a r g e r samples had been c o l l e c t e d . S e v e r a l b i r d s were observed f e e d i n g on Hypochaeris i n June. Cat's ear made up 42% of the a d u l t d i e t and 35% ° f t h a t of the young. For the purposes of t h i s study t h i s f o o d was d i v i d e d i n t o two t y p e s , f i r s t , buds and f l o w e r heads and, second, l e a f . The former make the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the d i e t i n composing 23% by the b u l k and 70% by o c c u r r e n c e , w h i l e 41. the l a t t e r c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y 2% by b u l k and was eaten by 2yf0 of the b i r d s . Hypochaeris made i t s maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n i n August when i t composed 37.5^ of the d i e t f o r t h a t month. I t i s a t t h i s time t h a t f l o w e r heads and buds are most abundant. Leaves were not u t i l i z e d u n t i l August when they were taken by the young b i r d s o n l y . The percentage of l e a v e s f a l l s o f f d u r i n g the next two months. Capti v e b i r d s f e d on l e a f m a t e r i a l whenever i t was o f f e r e d to them d u r i n g the summer. Cat's ear i s l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d by b e r r i e s i n September and by bracken i n October, when i t makes i t s s m a l l e s t con-t r i b u t i o n . On burned r s g i o n s such as those a t Campbell R i v e r , c a t ' s " e a r may-well be a most imp o r t a n t s p r i n g f o o d . N e a r l y a l l the grouse f o o d s p e c i e s , such as bra c k e n , d i e down d u r i n g the w i n t e r and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , not a v a i l a b l e when the b i r d s a r r i v e i n the s p r i n g . At t h i s time c a t ' s ear. l e a f , c o n i f e r n e e d l e s , and moss sporophytes, are the on l y a v a i l a b l e foods p r i o r t o the s w e l l i n g and b r e a k i n g of the w i l l o w buds. Thus i t can be s a i d t h a t on s e v e r e l y burned areas of f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t a t Campbell R i v e r , the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d as f a r as f o o d i s concerned occurs i n the s p r i n g when the grouse are r e t u r n i n g to the l o w l a n d s . The p r e l i m i n a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n of b i r d s upon t h e i r a r r i v a l on the lowlands i s almost undoubtedly governed by the presence of a p p r o p r i a t e and s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s of f o o d . Cat's ear p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e s the most important i t e m . 42. P t e r i s a q u i l i n a v a r . l a n u g i n o s a (Bracken) Bracken t i p s were the second most p o p u l a r green food taken by sooty grouse. They s u p p l i e d 12% of the b u l k of the summer d i e t and o c c u r r e d i n 55% of the d i g e s t i v e t r a c t s examined. Bracken made i t s major c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the autumn month of September and October but averaged about 5% of the • monthly d i e t d u r i n g June, J u l y and August. During these months the j u v e n i l e s ate s l i g h t l y l e s s than one h a l f as much as the a d u l t s . I t i s p r o b a b l y t h a t l a t e r i n the year the percentage consumption by young b i r d s i n c r e a s e s . Green bracken i s p r e s e n t on sooty grouse range from e a r l y summer u n t i l l a t e f a l l and throughout t h a t p e r i o d i s browsed almost c o n t i n u o u s l y . I t p r o b a b l y serves as a s t a p l e item of d i e t i n the f a l l a f t e r the b e r r i e s are gone and d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d d u r i n g which the b i r d s are changing from herbaceous browse to the w i n t e r d i e t of c o n i f e r -ous n e e d l e s . S a l i x sp. ( W i l l o w l e a f ) W i l l o w , w h i l e i t does not c o n t r i b u t e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n to the summer d i e t , i s p r o b a b l y i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the s p r i n g when food i s s c a r c e . F o r e s t r y workers a t Campbell R i v e r r e p o r t e d s e e i n g e a r l y s p r i n g a r r i v a l s s e a r c h i n g f o r and e a t i n g what w i l l o w buds they c o u l d f i n d . A crop c o l l e c t e d i n June c o n t a i n e d w i l l o w buds and l e a f almost to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l other i t e m s . L a t e r i n the summer, the occurrence of w i l l o w may be c o n s i d e r e d more or l e s s i n c i d e n t a l . 43. T r i f o l i u m ap. ( C l o v e r l e a f ) C l o v e r grows o n l y on a few r e s t r i c t e d areas a t Campbell R i v e r , p r i n c i p a l l y a l o n g the roads and r a i l r o a d . I t was found to c o n s t i t u t e an important i t e m of the J u l y d i e t (31^) of those c h i c k s c o l l e c t e d i n areas where i t grew. None was found i n a d u l t c r o p s . The s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d here are not known but pro b a b l y the b u l k of the c l o v e r eaten was T r i f o l i u m repens and, perhaps, a few c l o s e l y r e l a t e d s p e c i e s . In one case a few s m a l l l e a v e s of T. pratense were found. U n i d e n t i f i e d Compositae The buds of a p l a n t thought to be a s p e c i e s of C r e p i s were t a k e n t o some e x t e n t i n September by b i r d s a t Cowichan. I t o c c u r r e d i n 1^»5% of the crops c o l l e c t e d here and composed ,4% of the summer d i e t . I t i s p r o b a b l y not important as a grouse f o o d . P o l y s t i c h u m sp. and B_iechnum s p i c a n t (Perns) Perns o t h e r than bracken assumed some importance i n the a d u l t f o o d i n J u l y when they comprise 1^% of the d i e t f o r t h a t month. These were not eaten by young grouse. P o l y s t i c h u m and Blechnum are the p r i n c i p a l genera i n -v o l v e d but t h e r e are p r o b a b l y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of othe r s which were m i s i d e n t i f i e d as one or oth e r of these genera. P o l y s t i c h u m o c c u r r e d f i v e times and Blechnum o n l y once. Rumex sp. ( S o r r e l ) At Campbell R i v e r and a t Cowichan, s o r r e l was found p r i n c i p a l l y a l o n g the roads and r a i l w a y s and around l o g g i n g 44. camps. E x a m i n a t i o n of mora b i r d s from these p l a c e s might have r e v e a l e d t h a t Rumex was a more important f o o d than i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table IV. (.2%) C a p t i v e b i r d s q u i c k l y a t e any s o r r e l p l a c e d i n the pen and thereby demonstrated the h i g h p a l a t a b i l i t y of t h i s i t e m . C o n i f e r o u s needles C o n i f e r o u s needles comprise the major p o r t i o n of the w i n t e r d i e t of s o o t y grouse but t h e i r occurrence i n the summer d i e t i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e . 14.5% of the crops examined c o n t a i n e d c o n i f e r n e e d l e s . Twelve crops c o n t a i n e d s m a l l volumes of Douglas f i r , and cedar and hemlock t i p s o c c u r r e d i n each of two o t h e r s . In a l l , c o n i f e r needles composed between .1% and .2% of the summer d i e t . M i s c e l l a n e o u s g reen browse items A number of green items appeared as t r a c e c o n s t i t u e n t s and can be c o n s i d e r e d as more or l e s s chance occurrences of no p a r t i c u l a r importance i n the diet,. These i n c l u d e : Moss ("Leaf" and s p o r o p h y t e s ) , g r a s s (Gramineae), l a d y ' s thumb (Polygonium P e r s i c a r i a ) , b u t t e r c u p (Ranunculus sp.) b l a c k -b e r r y l e a f , v e t c h (?) ( V i c i a s p . ) , v i o l e t l e a f and f r u i t s ( V i o l a s p . ) , r e d h u c k l e b e r r y l e a f , s a l a l f l o w e r s , p l a n t a i n heads ( P l a n t a g o sp.) campanula f l o w e r (Campanula S c o u l e r i ) , hawkwged ( H e i r a c i u m sp.) , and a s m a l l q u a n t i t y of u n i d e n t i -f i e d l e a v e s . Animal M a t e r i a l s Animal m a t e r i a l s made up o n l y 1.2% of the summer f o o d , but they are i m p o r t a n t i n the d i e t of the c h i c k s . Up u n t i l they are about ten days o l d , the young f e e d v e r y l a r g e l y on 45. animal m a t t e r . ( B e n d i r e , 1892; Bent, 1932; Beer, 1943). M o f f i t (1938) c o l l e c t e d a two-day o l d dusky grouse c h i c k and removed nine b e e t l e s from the c r o p . Racey ( P e r . com, 1944) r e p o r t s t h a t on June 18, 1937, he c o l l e c t e d a downy male sooty grouse a t A l b e r n i , Vancouver I s l a n d , and removed t h i r t e e n green c a t e r p i l l a r s , 3 s n a i l s i n the s h e l l , 1 s p i d e r , 1 a n t , 1 sow bug, 21 l e a f hoppers, and 6 r e d a p h i d s . Only f o u r downy young were examined a t Campbell R i v e r but a l l of these gave evidence of ha v i n g been f e e d i n g on i n s e c t s . A l l r e c o r d s of a n i m a l matter i n the foods a t Campbell R i v e r were r e c o r d e d f o r c h i c k s . Only t w i c e were i n s e c t s removed from the crops of a d u l t s . On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , however, i n s e c t p a r t s were noted i n i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t s . The f o l l o w i n g i n v e r t e b r a t e forms are r e p r e s e n t e d : I s o p t e r a , A r a n e i d a , P h a l a n g i d a , I n s e c t a : O r t h o p t e r a , ( A c r i d i i d a e and G r y l l i d a e ) ; Homoptera ( C e r c o p i d a e ) : Hemiptera, (Pentatomidae ).; C o l e o p t e r a , (Cerambycidae , Chrysomelidae, C u r c u l i o n i d a e and a few l a r v a e thought to be S y l p h i d s ) ; D i p t e r a ( T i p u l i d a e ) ; L e p i d o p t e r o u s l a r v a e 5 Hymenoptera, ( F o r m i c i d a e , and two u n i d e n t i f i e d hymenopterous p a r a s i t e s ) . Of these forms the most important foods are the g r a s s -hoppers, a n t s and sow bugs. A c r i d i i d a e ( S hort-horned grasshoppers) Grasshoppers formed the g r e a t e s t b u l k o f any i n s e c t e a t e n . They make up 1*2%'bf- the summer d i e t and were found i n 13•5% of the b i r d s . D u r i n g J u l y and August they o c c u r r e d o n l y once i n an a d u l t crop but were found i n e i g h t F i g . 7 . Crop c o n t e n t s . Grasshoppers, a n t s , s t i n k hug, s p i d e r , s a l a l b e r r i e s , b r a c k e n , c a t ' s ear buds. j u v e n i l e s . A c r i d i i d a e formed 1.6% of the d i e t of the b i r d s a t Cowichan i n September. Formicidae (Ants) Ants o c c u r r e d i n 24% of the grouse examined. Most of them were the l a r g e form commonly r e f e r r e d to as "carp e n t e r a n t s " . Ants do not c o n t r i b u t e much to the d i e t i n the way of b u l k but t h e i r h i g h percentage occurrence i n d i c a t e s t h a t they are w e l l up on the p a l a t a b i l i t y l i s t . X3Qpoda (Sow bugs) Sow bugs were removed from crops c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g J u l y , August and September. I n some cases t h e r e were as many as s i x or e i g h t but u s u a l l y t h e r e were o n l y one or two i n each c r o p . GRIT In twenty g i z z a r d s where i t composed a l l , or almost a l l , the hard c o n t e n t s g r i t averaged a volume of 3«6 c c s . but v a r i e d between one and f i v e c c s . I t was g e n e r a l l y remarkably u n i f o r m i n s i z e , the average diameter b e i n g about 4 mm. I t v a r i e d a l l the way from t i n y g r a i n s of sand to pebbles 7 mm. i n d i a m e t e r . White q u a r t z and p a l e c o l o r e d pebbles were predominant. Two g i z z a r d s c o n t a i n i n g n o t h i n g but white pebbles were noted. G i z z a r d s c o l l e c t e d i n June c o n t a i n e d g r i t as the dominant c o n s t i t u e n t but l a t e r i n J u l y , and throughout the summer u n t i l the f i r s t weeks i n September, g r i t was l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d by h a r d seeds. The t o t a l volume of hard m a t e r i a l s per g i z z a r d remained a t about 4 c c s . but i n many cases g r i t was e l i m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y . The seeds of b l a c k b e r r y , bunchberry, CO o •rl 43 O o VL 3 < rH CD S3 3 1-3 CM vO CM CO no CM CO o CM o o no ON CM vO CM • 0 « » « * no no no no r-i o rH no ITS rH * no CM H "UN CM VO UN O « CM p. CO CO • 9 • • • no no no H O e r-i no O e CA H 03 -P r-i. 3 SI CD •P H H O tiO 3 rH 3 1-3 CD S3 3 1-3 o O o O O EH • e • # « CM CM CM O o rH rH CM r-i o VO O © • • * ITS no <* rH rH CM o O CM • • • • "ITS vO rH no UN r-i O O ITS • ® » vO UN VO vO • -vo <H cd CD J3 o rH H cd 43 CO cd •H H CD Si -P H 3 cd cis cd •p cd o •rl cd fH CQ •rl in CD cd 43 o o Pi rt rH a. osa cd 3 a •p rl CD CO a! o o 3 o H cd CO CO ' H •rl <H cd rl •rl 3 cd cd •H CO CO M S3 •p cd > o CO S3 o •H CD rl rl > • 3 CD H H Pi cd rl Of Pi X) •rl o CO Pi CD CO U cd <H 3 rl •rl S3 cd £3 > o rl a a o cd o fH cd $ Pi CD 3 CO 3 •rl o Pi cd CO cd •rl •rl •H rl CO Pi CO 43 S3 rl rH o CQ Pi •rl CO K o •rl CD O 43 3 M CO rl 3 •H o O 43 CM 2« S3 CD 3 CD 43 rH Pi O rl •H a rl a 43 -P 3 cd £? cd CD rl >> o 3 3 FH CQ w i> pq EH CO o PS Pi CO a 3 43 o •H -P CO >> rH O PI to cd CO o tn M o •H si o rH O S> 3 H ' 3 0) 3 EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH H ro EH , * CD S> 3: ••. •:•-;£!•;• •8 "rt-" HP -ffl ' <; o HO to •P H a CD -P H O 60 3 >> H CD a EH vo vo EH EH EH NO NO NO CM H M CD O H cd FR •H rH O CfH o •H rH -p M H S3 cd cd cd p i3 o 03 •rH cd. ft 50 cd 03 •H 02 M a -P CD O S3 T) P 43 H o CD CD 03 cd H FH ci> pq CD cd CD S3 •rH a cd H cd •H M cd o •H 03 M CD F4 •H S3 o fctO t>» H O FH cd CD rH ft 03 03 3 rH O S3 3 S3 cd rt Cd CD •3 3 •H rH m cd o -p •H CD <H ft o H H CD O •rH • crt 43 ft o 03 3 03 cd cd 3 rH •H 4= CD O 3 a •H « 3 S> cd CD M o H •H > M cd ft •H 3 •H O O cd . iH JH CD cd H CD 3 H O ® * o ft ft CQ 03 CD 03 •H cd i «H O H 3 •H ElO 3 •H P cd 3 O 3 •p cd cd CD 3 fH TJ cd a CD •H rH cd •H 3 P* o w iH O > EHEHVOEHEHEHEHEHEHEHEHEH EH to M o •rl 43 O 60 H EH EH O-EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH EH CD H O VL • CD a. flfl' <q Or HO CO -p H -d «5 <j • >> 1-3 EH OO • CD a a CD •P H H 03 •rl M CD -P «5 a H 03 a •rl 3 CD 05 CD CD X) 03 03 CD 03 O rl CD 03 X) 03 T3 a CD fl3 cci TJ •rl •d •rl o -p T3 t3 •rl •rl •rl Pi -p Pi •rl o CD T5 H O 03 o r-i Pi a •rl H O +3 CD 3 o 03 H >> M E3 r-i Pi CO rl CJ H CD CD O •H H < <J Cl3 O PH o EH CD ctf > rl 03 r-i CO 3 o •P rl CD Pi O Tj •rl Pi CD Hi CD 03 T3 •rl O •H a rl O PR CD -P •rl CO 03 U cS Pi CO 3 o rl CD -p Pi O a CD a CO -p (H ce Pi -P G CD CQ a H •P •rl rl O 47. waxberry and rose were the ones most f r e q u e n t l y used as g r i t s u b s t i t u t e s . G r i t o c c u r r e d i n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s i n 11% of the crops examined. One or two pebbles from the g i z z a r d sometimes appeared i n the i n t e s t i n a l content or i n the d r o p p i n g s . Under c o n d i t i o n s of s t a r v a t i o n , however, l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of g r i t may pass i n t o the g u t . WATER There are s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e s t a t i n g t h a t blue grouse are u s u a l l y seen near water or t h a t they d r i n k f r e q u e n t l y (Bendire 1892; Beer 1943). Beer says t h a t i t i s the u s u a l t h i n g t o see dusky grouse t r a c k s around s p r i n g s and to see hens l e a d i n g t h e i r broods to water. Dur-i n g t h i s s t u d y , however, grouse were never seen t o d r i n k i n the f i e l d nor was there, any evidence i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they d i d so. On t h r e e o c c a s i o n s o n l y were c a p t i v e b i r d s seen to d r i n k . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t water i s not i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g the season when b e r r i e s or other s u c c u l e n t foods are a v a i l a b l e . FEEDING HABITS F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s a t Campbell R i v e r r e v e a l e d t h a t s o o t y grouse have two w e l l d e f i n e d f e e d i n g p e r i o d s and one d u r i n g which f e e d i n g a c t i v i t y i s reduced. The f i r s t f o o d of the day i s taken e a r l y i n the morning and f e e d i n g c o n t i n u e s u n t i l about nine o ' c l o c k . C o n c e n t r a t e d f e e d i n g was noted d u r i n g the l a t e morning or e a r l y a f t e r n o o n but b i r d s were f r e q u e n t l y seen to f e e d l a t e r from t w o - t h i r t y 48. u n t i l f o u r o ' c l o c k . The l a r g e s t b u l k of the day's foo d i s eaten i n the evening when the b i r d s b e g i n to f e e d about s i x o ' c l o c k and continue to forage v i g o r o u s l y u n t i l about seven-t h i r t y or e i g h t o ' c l o c k . Crops c o l l e c t e d a t Campbell R i v e r d u r i n g the evening f e e d i n g p e r i o d c o n t a i n e d up to 45 c c s . of f o o d . The c h i c k s f e e d almost c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout the day. They do n o t , however, f e e d v i g o r o u s l y but c o n f i n e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to a s m a l l r a d i u s w i t h i n which they browse a s m a l l amount of greens and p r o b a b l y eat a few i n s e c t s . Most of the f o o d i s taken d u r i n g the three main f e e d i n g p e r i o d s . A d u l t s f e e d p r i n c i p a l l y d u r i n g the f e e d i n g p e r i o d s but may browse enough i n between times to keep a l i t t l e f o o d i n the c r o p . Cocks were f r e q u e n t l y observed f e e d i n g and h o o t i n g a l t e r n a t e l y . Hens, on the oth e r hand, w h i l e w i t h t h e i r broods, were never seen to f e e d d u r i n g the day. S e v e r a l females shot d u r i n g the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n had l i t t l e or n o t h i n g i n t h e i r c r o p s . They were seen to be f o r a g i n g v i g o r o u s l y d u r i n g the e v e n i n g . When a covey of b i r d s are f e e d i n g over an area there seems to be l i t t l e , i f any, c o m p e t i t i o n f o r f o o d . The b i r d s spread out and each b i r d feeds more or l e s s by i t s e l f . Young b i r d s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l e n c l o s u r e , however, were seen on s e v e s a l o c c a s i o n s to chase each other away from the f e e d i n g t r a y . In t h e i r f e e d i n g b e h a v i o r , s o o t y grouse resemble domestic f o w l . When not a c t i v e l y t a k i n g f o o d d u r i n g one of the f e e d i n g p e r i o d s , they may wander about somewhat a i m l e s s l y a f t e r t h e manner of the domestic hen, p e c k i n g at b i t s of 49. green browse here and there or suddenly r u n n i n g f o r w a r d t o s e i z e an i n s e c t . Chicks were f r e q u e n t l y seen to move about i n t h i s manner and then suddenly t o " s i t down", s t r e t c h t h e i r wings once or t w i c e , and then p i c k l a z i l y a t any green browse which might be w i t h i n r e a c h . They f r e q u e n t l y d i d t h i s dur-i n g the heat of the day. During the main f e e d i n g p e r i o d s the b i r d s move about a c t i v e l y , p e c k i n g v i g o r o u s l y a t whatever foods they may be t a k i n g . When f e e d i n g on b e r r i e s on or near the ground, they w i l l take s e v e r a l i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n and then r a i s e the head while, s w a l l o w i n g . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t they can r e t a i n s e v e r a l b e r r i e s i n the t h r o a t and mouth but cannot swallow them w i t h o u t s t r a i g h t e n i n g the oesophagus. When f e e d i n g on green browse, such as c l o v e r or f i r s e e d l i n g s , the b i r d s t i l t t h e i r heads i n order t h a t the g r e a t e s t l e n g t h of the b i l l may be employed i n s h e a r i n g o f f l a r g e mouthfuls of browse. z The volume of food eaten a t any one time may v a r y . The l a r g e s t amounts found were removed from two crops c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan. These c o n t a i n e d 50 and 57*5 c c s . Crops c o l -l e c t e d i n mid-morning averaged about 10 to 12 c c s . , those taken i n l a t e a f t e r n o o n about 15 c c s . , and those taken dur-i n g the evening p e r i o d a n y t h i n g up to 45 c c s . A p a i r of c a p t i v e a d u l t s on one o c c a s i o n a t e , i n one day, 470 c c s . of b e r r i e s , w e i g h i n g 28l grams. The r a t e a t which a hungry b i r d may consume b e r r i e s i s s u r p r i s i n g . On one o c c a s i o n a c a p t i v e a d u l t cock was seen to eat a m i x t u r e of s i x t y - f o u r b l a c k b e r r i e s and r a s p b e r r i e s 50. i n t an minutes. A hen was observed to eat twenty b l a c k b e r -r i e s i n l e s s than a minute. Some days l a t e r the cock ate f i f t y - f o u r h u c k l e b e r r i e s (about 20 c c s . ) i n about two minutes D i g e s t i o n i s r a p i d . S e v e r a l b i r d s w i t h f u l l crops were captu r e d d u r i n g the evening and r e t a i n e d i n c r a t e s over n i g h t . By the next morning t h e i r crops were empty. A l a r g e b u l k of droppings amounting to what appeared to be the whole i n t e s t i n a l volume were passed d u r i n g the n i g h t w h i l e the b i r d was r o o s t i n g . The food taken i n the evening p r o b a b l y r e p l a c e s the f o o d passed i n t o the i n t e s t i n e d u r i n g the a f t e r n o o n . I n the course of the work a t Campbell R i v e r , an e f f o r t was made to d e v i s e a r e p e l l e n t which would d e t e r the grouse from browsing Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s . A number of what were presumed to be e v i l - t a s t i n g substances were sprayed or s c a t t e r e d on the t r e e s and b e r r y f o o d . Among the m a t e r i a l s t e s t e d were c r e s o l , whale o i l soap, eaqueous s o l u t i o n of p i c r i c a c i d , l i n s e e d o i l and t a r , t u r p e n t i n e , l i m e , naphthalene f l a k e s , and gum a s a p h o e t i d a . Hone of these ex-h i b i t e d any r e p e l l e n t e f f e c t whatever. Substances s e l e c t e d to a c t through any o l f a c t o r y sense the b i r d might have a l s o f a i l e d as r e p e l l e n t s . The v i s u a l appearance of the foods was thought to be i 'an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the government of f o o d s e l e c t i o n . V a r i o u s c o l o r e d dyes were a p p l i e d to the s e e d l i n g s and other . foods and i t was found t h a t y e l l o w t r e e s were l e s s f r e q u e n t l y browsed than those dyed r e d , orange, or w h i t e . V i s u a l s e l e c t i o n of b e r r i e s from a m i x t u r e was a l s o n o t e d . For 51. example, r i p e b l a c k b e r r i e s would be q u i c k l y separated from a m i x t u r e of r i p e and p a r t i a l l y r i p e f r u i t s . A l l the b l a c k -b e r r i e s were g e n e r a l l y q u i c k l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d and eaten i n a m i x t u r e of b l a c k b e r r y a n i b l a c k r a s p b e r r y (Rubus l e u c o d e r m i s ) . Numerous o t h e r examples c o u l d be g i v e n . I t s h o u l d be s t a t e d , however, t h a t on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s a b i r d was seen to p i c k up one of the l e s s f a v o r e d f r u i t s and then drop i t and t r y something e l s e . T h i s happened r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y , however. PARASITES AND DISEASES. At Campbell R i v e r f i f t y - t h r e e grouse were c o l l e c t e d and a u t o p s i e d , and from t w e n t y - s i x of these b l o o d smears were c o l l e c t e d . S i x t e e n hundred h u n t e r - k i l l e d b i r d s were accorded s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n a t Cowichan Lake i n September, 194-3. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a s i t e s were f o u n d : E c t o p a r a s i t e s : Mallophaga on two b i r d s . D i p t e r a Hippoboscidae on f o u r b i r d s . E n d o p a r a s i t e s : I n t e s t i n a l Cestodes i n twenty-three b i r d s Nematodes i n e i g h t b i r d s . B l o o d p a r a s i t e s Haemoproteus i n n i n e t e e n b i r d s Trypanosoma i n one b i r d L eucocytozoon i n one b i r d . Owing to the p a u c i t y of a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the v a r i o u s forms i n v o l v e d l i t t l e more can be r e c o r d e d 52. •• here than the degree of i n f e c t i o n and some g e n e r a l notes on occurence. BGTOPARASITJSS. Arachnoidea A c a r i n a ( T i c k s ) No t i c k s were c o l l e c t e d from grouse d u r i n g t h i s study but a number of s p e c i e s have been r e c o r d e d as o c c u r i n g on blue grouse. Hearle (1938) r e c o r d s the f o l l o w i n g forms c o l -l e c t e d from both R i c h a r d s o n ' s and sooty grouse. Ixodes a u r i t u l u s Neumann T h i s , a c c o r d i n g t o H e a r l e , i s a w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d s p e c i e s and the commonest t i c k found on grouse, b o t h sooty and r u f f e d . He s t a t e s t h a t i t seems t o be r e s t r i c t e d to the wet c o a s t a l a r e a . Ixodes 6 a l i f o r n i c u s Banks T h i s i s the common dog t i c k . Haemaphysalis c i n n a b a r i n a Koch T h i s s p e c i e s i s a common b i r d t i c k i n Canada. Hearle notes t h a t " i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y troublesome on grouse." H a e m a p h y s a i l s ~ l e p o r i s - p a l u s t r u s Packard The r a b b i t i s the p r i n c i p a l h o s t f o r t h i s form but i t sometimes i n h a b i t s ground l i v i n g b i r d s such as grouse. These l a s t two s p e c i e s may be important i n the t r a n s -m i s s i o n of d i s e a s e . Hearle s t a t e s t h a t b oth of them are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o s s e s among b i r d s . W i l l i a m s ( P r o v i n c i a l Game Commission R e p o r t , 1916) r e p o r t e d t h a t the presence of t i c k s on grouse was p r o b a b l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the c y c l i c d e c l i n e of the b i r d s . I t may w e l l be t h a t w i t h a d e c l i n e i n r a b b i t s p o p u l a t i o n , t i c k s i n f e c t e d w i t h t u l a r e m i a may 53. pass from the r a b b i t s to the grouse and i n f e c t them. Green and S h i l l i n g e r (1932) say t h a t P a r k e r and Spencer (1925-6) succeeded i n e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n f e c t i n g a blue grouse w i t h t u l a r e m i a but n a t u r a l l y a c q u i r e d i n f e c t i o n s have not been r e c o r d e d . The presence of any other t i c k - t r a n s m i t t e d i n f e c -t i o n has hot been noted f o r blue grouse. Hearle a l s o notes t h a t t i c k - i n f e s t e d grouse have been found dead i n ar e a s where the p o p u l a t i o n i s d e c r e a s i n g . T h i s would i n d i c a t e the presence of some t i c k - t r a n s m i t t e d d i s e a s e . I n cases o f l i g h t i n f e c t i o n the presence of t i c k s on the b i r d s may have some "worry v a l u e " and may thus reduce the b i r d ' s c a p a c i t y to s u r v i v e . I n s e c t a . M a l l o p h a g a . ( L i c e ) The s p e c i e s of l i c e i n v o l v e d here have not been d e t e r -mined. Only two i n f e s t a t i o n s were found and i n both of these a l l the p a r a s i t e s were c o n f i n e d to the crown, s i d e s of the head, and upper p o r t i o n of the nape. The i n f e s t a t i o n s were not heavy and d i d not appear to be c a u s i n g any i r r i t a t i o n . B oth b i r d s were males, an a d u l t and a j u v e n i l e . \ Beer (194-4) removed a heavy i n f e s t a t i o n of the lou s e D e g e e r i e l l a p e r p l e x a ( K e l l . and Chap.) from a sooty grouse as w e l l as Lagopoecus l y u r u r s C l a y from a Ri c h a r d s o n ' s grouse c o l l e c t e d i n Okanogan County i n Y/ashington. On the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the s i x t e e n hundred b i r d s examined a t Cowichan no s i g n s of lo u s e i n f e s t a t i o n s were not e d . D i p t e r a - H i p p o b o s c i d a e . ( L o u s e - f l i e s ) 54. Four b i r d s , two j u v e n i l e s and two a d u l t s , c a r r y i n g f l i e s of t h i s f a m i l y were c o l l e c t e d between August the 15th and 2 4 t h , 1943. The s p e c i e s has as y e t not been determined but i t i s probable t h a t i t i s Ornithomyia f r i n g i l l i n a C u r t i s s i n c e Spencer (1937) r e c o r d s t h i s s p e c i e s from two dusky grouse c o l l e c t e d i n October. A l t h o u g h a l l the b i r d s c o l l e c t e d a t Campbell R i v e r , as w e l l as many of the l a r g e sample examined a t Cowichan, were checked f o r evi d e n c e s of t h i s f l y no pupae were found. Only one f l y was noted a t Cowichan but i t escaped b e f o r e i t c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d . However, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether many f l i e s would be l e f t on b i r d s t aken a t Cowichan s i n c e a l l of them had been shot by h u n t e r s and had been c a r r i e d around f o r some time b e f o r e they were examined. Beer (1944) removed a specimen of Ornithomyia a n c h i n e u r a S p e i s i r from a R i c h a r d s o n ' s grouse but says t h a t i t i s not a r e g u l a r p a r a s i t e of grouse but i s o f t e n found on P a s s e r i n e s . Dust B a t h s . The d u s t i n g h a b i t of v a r i o u s b i r d s i s f r e q u e n t l y assoc-i a t e d w i t h the presence of e c t o p a r a s i t e s . The low degree of i n f e s t a t i o n by e x t e r n a l p a r a s i t e s determined f o r grouse a t Campbell R i v e r would i n d i c a t e , however, t h a t there are o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h tend to s t i m u l a t e d u s t i n g b e h a v i o r . One of these may be the presence i n the plumage d u r i n g the molt of l o o s e or d e v e l o p i n g f e a t h e r s and d e t r i t u s from f e a t h e r s h e a t h es. D u s t i n g by a d u l t s seemed t o be most f r e q u e n t d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of J u l y . At t h i s time what was deemed to be a 55. c e r t a i n amount of f e a t h e r replacement was noted on a number of a d u l t b i r d s . Bare patches on the t h r o a t , head, and l e g s were f r e q u e n t l y noted. No e c t o p a r a s i t e s were found a t t h i s t ime. J u v e n i l e s were not seen to dust e a r l y i n the summer but many were seen to do so i n l a t e August. Young b i r d s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l e n c l o s u r e dusted a t almost every o p p o r t u n i t i n the heat of the day d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of August. The d u s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s of c a p t i v e j u v e n i l e s were noted on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , but f r e q u e n t e x a m i n a t i o n of the b i r d s f a i l e d t o r e v e a l any e x t e r n a l p a r a s i t e s which might be the cause of such b e h a v i o r . Sometimes s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of broke f e a t h e r sheathes were found i n the plumage. I t i s thought t h a t some c o o l i n g e f f e c t may be o b t a i n e d by b i r d s d u s t i n g d u r i n g the heat of the day. D u s t i n g b i r d s are f r e q u e n t l y found around the bases of stumps or upturned r o o t s , where the s o i l i s l o o s e and p l a n t cover s p a r s e . SNDOPARASITES. Cestoda (Tapeworms) U n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y a few r e f e r e n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s group were a v a i l a b l e and consequently l i t t l e b e s i d e s notes o occurrence can be g i v e n h e r e . Two s p e c i e s were taken from the i n t e s t i n e of the grouse examined. One of these was d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d as Rhabdometra n u l l i c o l l i a and another t e n t a t i v e l y as L i g a b r a s i l i e n s i s . 3. W. P r i c e , of the U.S.D.A. Bureau of Animal I n d u s t r y , i d e n t i f i e d the specimens and s t a t e s t h a t there i s 56. soma doubt as to the c o r r e c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the l a t t e r s p e c i e s . A l t h o u g h the specimens examined are m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r to L. b r a s i l i e n s i s they d i f f e r from i t i n t h a t the g e n i t a l pores are i r r e g u l a r l y a l t e r n a t e r a t h e r than r e g u l a r l y so. Since no d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s s p e c i e s has as y e t been l o c a t e d the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y of occurrence of the two s p e c i e s found has not been determined. I t i s p r o b a b l e , however, t h a t Rhabdometra n u l l i c o l l i s i s the more common form s i n c e t h i s i s the one c o l l e c t e d from Washington blue grouse by Beer (194-4). I n a d d i t i o n to the tapeworm Rhabdometra, he found specimens of the genus R a i l i e n t i n a i n the duodenum of t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t of the b i r d s he examined. Most of the tapeworms were found i n the s m a l l i n t e s t i n e below the duodenum. Once a p o r t i o n of a worm was removed from^ceacum b u t ^ p r o b a b l y had not developed t h e r e . I n f e s t a -t i o n s of the duodenum were rare» F o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of a l l b i r d s examined were i n f e c t e d . Only 10% of the a d u l t s c o n t a i n e d tapeworms but they were found i n 62% of the c h i c k s . The degree of i n f e c t i o n v a r i e d from an i n c i d e n c e of one worm up to about t w e n t y - f i v e . In s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t Beer (1944) -says t h a t tape-worm i n f e c t i o n s may be l e t h a l i n c h i c k s and t h a t there are r e c o r d s of cases where m i l d e n t e r i t i s developed from worm i n f e c t i o n s , no such m a n i f e s t a t i o n s were noted d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . In the case o f many of the a v i a n cestodes the i n t e r -mediate h o s t i s not known but i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t i s an i n s e c t . S h i p l e y (1909), i n d i s c u s s i n g the 57. e n d o p a r a s i t e s of the r e d grouse, says t h a t n e a r l y a l l i n s e c t s found e i t h e r i n grouse foods or on the moors have been examined f o r tapeworm c y s t s but none have been found. V a r i o u s f l i e s , i n c l u d i n g the house f l y , have been suggested as the h o s t s of the i n t e r m e d i a t e stages but the presence of c y s t s i n i n s e c t s has not been demonstrated. Since i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o l l e c t v e r y young c h i c k s , o n l y two to t h r e e weeks o l d , w i t h w e l l developed worms i n t h e i r i n t e s t i n e s the c y s t s must be i n g e s t e d a t a v e r y e a r l y age. In view of the f a c t t h a t 62% of the young b i r d s were i n f e c t e d w i t h cestodes there may be some c o r r e l a t i o n between the h i g h i n c i d e n c e and the f a c t t h a t most of the animal f o o d eaten by grouse i s taken by the c h i c k s . Forms l i k e l y to be c a r r y i n g the p a r a s i t e s are ants and grasshoppers and sow bugs. These occur more f r e q u e n t l y than most o t h e r a n i m a l foods and are the most l i k e l y to come i n c o n t a c t w i t h r i p e p r o g l o t t i d e s passed i n grouse f e a c e s . Dropping c o n t a i n i n g p r o g l o t t i d e s were found t h r e e times on l o g s and stumps i n which c a r p e n t e r ants were l i v i n g . None of these i n s e c t s were examined f o r tapeworm cysts.. Ripe p r o g l o t t i d e s r e c e n t l y passed i n the f e a c e s are e x c e e d i n g l y m o t i l e . On one o c c a s i o n a f r e s h dropping was examined on a s i t e where a covey o f c h i c k s had been f e e d i n g . The segments, e x h i b i t i n g a s o r t of amoeboid movement, were seen to be m i g r a t i n g a l o n g the l o g upon which the dropping l a y . By the time they were examined they had moved two or thr e e i n c h e s from the d r o p p i n g . On another o c c a s i o n , a b i r d was seen to pas^. a dropping j u s t b e f o r e i t was c o l l e c t e d . 58. The dropping was at once examined and i t was found t h a t even i n the s h o r t p e r i o d between the passage of the dropping and the c o l l e c t i o n o f the b i r d some of the worm segments had a l r e a d y begun to work themselves onto the su r r o u n d i n g g r a s s stems and l e a v e s . Nematoda (Roundworms) Worms of the genus A s c a r i d i a were the o n l y nematodes found. Twenty-one p e r c e n t of the a d u l t s and twelve percent of the c h i c k s were i n f e c t e d . One a d u l t and th r e e c h i c k s were i n f e c t e d w i t h both cestodes and roundworms. The h i g h e r i n f e c t i o n i n the a d u l t s may i n d i c a t e t h a t the nematodes r e q u i r e a l o n g e r p e r i o d t o develop than do tapeworms; there not b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the nematodes t o develop i n v e r y young c h i c k s . T h i s i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t 1 t h a t the f i r s t i n f e c t e d j u v e n i l e t a k e n was a w e l l grown b i r d c o l l e c t e d on August 11.. I t was f i f t e e n and one h a l f i n c h e s l o n g and weighed s l i g h t l y over a pound. A l l nematodes found were s i t u a t e d about midway down the i n t e s t i n e . I n w i l d b i r d s never more than t h r e e worms were taken a t one time and more g e n e r a l l y o n l y one would be p r e s -e n t . However, a b i r d t h a t d i e d i n c a p t i v i t y was examined and found to be h e a v i l y i n f e c t e d w i t h about ten l a r g e nema-to d e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the b i r d d i e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n f e c t i o n . Beer (194-4) c o l l e c t e d the c e a c a l worm, E e t e r a k i s g a l l i n a e (Gmelin) 3 T r e e b o r n s and the g i z z a r d worm, C h e i l o s p i r u r a 8 from R i c h a r d s o n ' s grouse. E x t e n s i v e s e a r c h d u r i n g t h i s study f a i l e d to r e v e a l the presence.of these p a r a s i t e s i n sooty 59. grouse. Twenty-five p e r c e n t of the a d u l t s and the s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the c h i c k s examined were i n f e c t e d w i t h i n t e s t i n a l worms. Beer ( o p . c i t ) found about the same degree of i n f e c -t i o n i n c h i c k s {61%) but a h i g h e r degree i n a d u l t s ( 4 3 % ) . TABLE V I . I n f e c t i o n s by Worms A d u l t s Ces. Nam. Both C h i c k s Ge s. Nam. Both Males 1 2 1 Males 6 3 2 Females 1 2 - Females 15 1 1 T o t a l 2 4 1 T o t a l 21 4 3 P e r c e n t I n f e c t i o n 10% • 21% 5% P e r c e n t I n f e c t i o n 62% 12% 9% BLOOD PARASITES. Methods: : D u r i n g the course of t h i s study s i x t y - f i v e b l o o d smears were c o l l e c t e d a t Campbell R i v e r from t w e n t y - s i x b i r d s of a l l ages. A l l smears were a i r d r i e d and l a t e r f i x e d i n a b s o l u t e methyl a l c o h o l and s t a i n e d w i t h d i l u t e Giemsa' s t a i n . S t a i n i n g p e r i o d s were v a r i e d from t h r e e to twelve hours depending upon the i n t e n s i t y of s t a i n i n g r e q u i r e d . The s l i d e s were d r i e d and s t u d i e d as d r y smears or under o i l immersion. U s u a l l y the m a t e r i a l was examined u n t i l the presence of the p a r a s i t e s was determined and some i d e a of the degree of i n f e c t i o n o b t a i n e d . S l i d e s showing n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s were more c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e d f o r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g up to f i f t e e n minutes per s l i d e i n order t o make c e r t a i n 6o. t h a t there were no p a r a s i t e s p r e s e n t . P r o t o z o a (Mastigophora) Trypanosoma Only one trypanosome was l o c a t e d d u r i n g t h i s study. I t was found i n the b l o o d of a j u v e n i l e male c o l l e c t e d i n August. C l a r k e (1935~6) r e p o r t s a v e r y l i g h t i n f e c t i o n of t h i s organism i n r u f f e d grouse (Bonasa umbellus ( L i n n e ) ) , and t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d the organism as Trypanosoma g a l l i n a r u m Bruce e t a l . I n s u f f i c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e and m a t e r i a l s are a t hand to i d e n t i f y the pre s e n t specimen. Trypanosomes are thought to be t r a n s m i t t e d i n most cases by i n s e c t s . S s s i g ( 1 9 4 2 ) says t h a t the sheep t i c k may 'transmit the harmless form Trypanosoma melophagium. I t i s probable t h a t such low degree i n f e c t i o n s as may e x i s t among so o t y grouse a re t r a n s m i t t e d by h i p p o b o s c i d p a r a s i t e s . Sporozoa. Order: Haemosporidea Leucocytozoon. Only one i n f e c t i o n by t h i s form was found. I t was taken i n b l o o d from an a d u l t female c o l l e c t e d on August 1. A l -though i n f e c t i o n was moderately heavy, the b i r d was i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n when a u t o p s i e d . C l a r k e (1934-5-6) has p o i n t e d out t h a t h i s s p e c i e s , Leucocytozoon bonasae C l a r k e , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the dea t h of young r u f f e d grouse a t the time of p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e s . The low i n c i d e n c e of the p a r a s i t e noted here i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s a t p r e s e n t of no p a t h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n sooty 6 l . grouse i n the study a r e a s . Haemoproteus The most common b l o o d p a r a s i t e noted was Haemoproteus. 73% of a l l b i r d s examined be i n g i n f e c t e d . I n f e c t i o n was s l i g h t i n every case and d i d not seem to have any p a t h o l -o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . N i n e t y - p a r c e n t of the a d u l t s and 62% of the c h i c k s showed the p a r a s i t e s i n t h e i r b l o o d . •O.'Roke (1930) ka-3 demonstrated t h a t the q u a i l p a r a s i t e , Haemoproteus l o p h o r t y x G'Roke, i s t r a n s m i t t e d by the l o u s e -f l y L y n c h i a maura F e r r i s . I n the case of sooty grouse i t i s probable t h a t the l o u s e - f l y i s one of the agents t r a n s m i t t i n g Haemoproteus, but the low i n c i d e n c e of l o u s e - f l i e s compared to t h a t of the b l o o d p a r a s i t e i n d i c a t e s t h a t other agencies are a l s o i m p o r t a n t . As f a r as i s known the p a r a s i t e s of t h i s genus pass the a s e x u a l p o r t i o n of t h e i r l i f e - c y c l e i n the e n d o t h e l i a l c e l l s of the b l o o d v e s s e l s of the lungs of the host and then m i g r a t e i n t o the b l o o d stream as gametocytes. These a t t a c k the r e d b l o o d c e l l s and, on the s l i d e s , can be seen w i t h i n the c e l l s . The i n f e c t e d c e l l s are taken up by the t r a n s -m i t t i n g agent, supposedly a l o u s e - f l y , and i n the stomach of the new h o s t pass the s e x u a l p a r t of t h e i r l i f e - c y c l e . I n f e c t i o n occurs when the f l y i n j e c t s the s p o r o z o i t e s from i t s s a l i v a r y g l a n d s i n t o an u n i n f e c t e d b i r d . The numbers of i n f e c t i o n s by the v a r i o u s b l o o d p a r a s i t e s i s shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . 62. TABLE V I I . I n f e c t i o n s by B l o o d P a r a s i t e s . A d u l t s Haeia. Leuc. Tryp. Heg. C h i c k s Haem. Leuc . Tryp.Heg. Males 3 - Males 1 - 1 2 Females 6 1 - 1 Females 9 - - 4 T o t a l 9 1 0 / 1 T o t a l 10 0 1 6 P e r c e n t I n f e c t i o n 35% 4% 0 Percent 4 % i n f a c t i o n 38% 0 4% 23% DISEASES Bronchopneumonia Ho evidences of t h i s i n f e c t i o n were noted but Cowan (1942.) r e p o r t s a case from L u x t o n , Vancouver I s l a n d , I n t h i s b i r d there was i n evidence a n a s a l d i s c h a r g e and a severe c o n g e s t i o n of the l u n g s . The f a c t t h a t the b i r d was i n good c o n d i t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i l l n e s s had run but a s h o r t time. / Mycosis C l a r k e (1936) r e p o r t s the occurrence of myc o t i c pneu-monia i n s h a r p - t a i l e d ( P e d i o e c e t e s p h a s a i n e l l u s c a m p e s t r i s ) and r u f f e d grouse. One severe i n f e c t i o n of the m y c o t i c type was found i n a c a p t i v e male s o o t y grouse d u r i n g t h i s study. The b i r d was trapped on J u l y 16 and r e t a i n e d u n t i l l a t e August, when i t was noted t o be e x c e e d i n g l y weak. The b i r d became i n -c r e a s i n g l y l e s s a c t i v e , b e i n g s a t i s f i e d most of the time to sta n d i n the corner of the e x p e r i m e n t a l pen i n a "hunched-up" op-p o s i t i o n w i t h f e a t h e r s r u f f l e d . S h o r t l y before i t d i e d i t was noted to d r i n k f r e q u e n t l y . T his unusual b e h a v i o r i s s t a t e d to be a symptom of m y c o t i c i n f e c t i o n s of the r e s p i r a -t o r y t r a c t (Barger and Card, 1938). The i n f e c t e d b i r d d i e d on August 22 and was a u t o p s i e d immediately. The f o l l o w i n g e v idences of m y c o t i c i n f e c t i o n were noted: S k i n : Dry. O r a l c a v i t y : C o n s i d e r a b l e mucous i n the back of t h r o a t . • Under p o r t i o n o f the b i l l , s c a l y . A n a l opening: F e a t h e r s around the opening matted w i t h s o f t , w h i t i s h e x c r e t a . Oesophagus: Gray mucous p r e s e n t , the c o l o r p r o b a b l y b e i n g imparted by suspended spores from the fungus. I n t e s t i n e : Unusual q u a n t i t y of f l u i d p r e s e n t . Pancreas: P a l e and reduced i n s i z e . R e s p i r a t o r y system: A mass of hyphae covered the i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e s near the b i f r u c a t i o n of the t r a c h e a and down i n t o the p r i m a r y and secondary b r o n c h i . The lungs were much invaded by the mold and the b r o n c h i p a r t i a l l y plugged w i t h y e l l o w cheesy mass, a l s o hard masses of s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l i n c a u d o - v e n t r a l p o r t i o n s of the l u n g s . H i s t o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n showed t h a t many of the s m a l l b r o n c h i o l e s were clogged w i t h a mass of hyphae. M e s e n t e r i e s : A few patches of mold on the membranes around the lungs and h e a r t . Large p a t c h 2.5 x 3-5 cms. on the mesentery s u p p o r t i n g the g i z z a r d . T h i s i n f e c t i o n spread back a l o n g the i n t e s t i n a l mesentery and a l o n g F i g . 11. Leg of female soot y grouse showing k n i t t i n g of t i b i o - t a r s u s a f t e r f r a c t u r e . t h a t of the rectum. The s p e c i e s of mold i n v o l v e d c o u l d not be determined but i s p r o b a b l y A s p e r g i l l i s . This i n f e c t i o n occurs not i n f r e q u e n t l y i n domestic f o w l and has been r e p o r t e d from owls (Meade and S t o n e r , 1942) and other w i l d b i r d s . Fowl pox ( E p i t h e l i o m a contagiosum) Ho cases of f o w l pox were found d u r i n g t h i s study. Cowan (l94l) r e p o r t s t h a t s e v e r a l sooty grouse w i t h t h i s i n f e c t i o n ware c o l l e c t e d a t Cowichan Lake i n 1938. K i t c h e n (1924) d e s c r i b e s what he c o n s i d e r s to be a case of s c a b i e s but h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s d i a g n o s i s was i n -c o r r e c t and t h a t the i n f e c t i o n was a c t u a l l y f o w l pox. ACCIDENTS I n j u r i e s w hich might have l e a d to s e r i o u s i n f e c t i o n s , were noted on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . The r i g h t l e g of a c h i c k c o l l e c t e d i n August was found to be s e v e r e l y i n f e c t e d . A t h i c k , y e l l o w , subcutaneous mass was removed from over the muscles of the upper l e g . I n a d d i t i o n the b i r d had a broken wing and i t may w e l l have been t h a t the c o n d i t i o n i n the l e g arose as a secondary i n f e c t i o n from the wing wound. Th i s c h i c k was almost h e l p l e s s and undoubtedly would have d i e d d u r i n g the course of the next few days. A number of b i r d s were found w i t h thorns i n t h e i r f e e t . Others had s m a l l p u s - f i l l e d nodules on the s o l e s of the f e e t and between the t o e s . These may have a r i s e n as i n -f e c t i o n s i n wounds caused by t h o r n s . Hone of the l e s i o n s were s e r i o u s or seemed troublesome to the b i r d s . 65. Cowan (per.com.1944) r e p o r t e d a grouse w i t h a broken t i b i o - t a r s u s i n which the bones had become k n i t a g a i n i n such a, manner t h a t the b i r d c o u l d s t i l l walk. ( F i g . 11 ). Abbott (1943) r e p o r t s a somewhat s i m i l a r type of bone r e -p a i r i n the wings of c e r t a i n ducks. PREDATORS There have been a number of p r e d a t o r s r e c o r d e d as p r e y i n g upon b l u e grouse. Bent (1932) q u o t i n g A. A. Saunders, says t h a t w o l v e s , c o y o t e s , mink, weasel,.duck hawk, Cooper's hawk, and horned owls a l l p r e y on Ri c h a r d s o n ' s grouse. Munro (1919) says t h a t " h o o t e r s " may f a l l prey to coyotes and Brooks (1926) r e p o r t s t h a t he saw a skunk s t a l k i n g a h o o t i n g male. On two o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h i s study racoons (Procyon psora vane ouverens i s ) were seen s t a l k i n g " h o o t e r s . " One a n i m a l had approached w i t h i n a few f e e t of the b i r d before i t was d i s t u r b e d by the approaching o b s e r v e r . I n areas where cover i s dense i t i s probable t h a t racoons take a number of " h o o t e r s . " Other p r e d a t o r y s p e c i e s seen on the grouse range are the r e d - t a i l e d hawk (Buteo b o r e a l i s subsp.), Cooper's Hawk ( A c c i p i t e r c o o p e r i ) and the Raven (Corvus corax subsp.). I t i s thought t h a t the l a t t e r were f e e d i n g to some e x t a n t on c h i c k s s i n c e they were seen i n numbers f l y i n g a few f e e t above the ground as i f s e a r c h i n g f o r young grouse. 66. DISCUSSION AID SUMMARY. Th i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n constitutes a p r e l i m i n a r y study of the l i f e h i s t o r y and b i o l o g y of the sooty grouse. During the course of the work a number of aspects of the l i f e h i s t o r y have been s t u d i e d but the main emphasis has been p l a c e d on summer food h a b i t s and the p a r a s i t e and d i s e a s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s of the s p e c i e s . A l l f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out on Vancouver I s l a n d and a l t h o u g h a c e r t a i n amount of time was spent on the B a l d Mountain Game Reserve a t Cowichan Lake, most of the i n v e s t -i g a t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d a t Campbell R i v e r between June f i f t e e n t h and September f i r s t , 194-3. A study of grouse range showed t h a t the sooty grouse occurs m a i n l y on second growth and logged or burned a r e a s . A more i n t e n s i v e survey of the f l o r i s t i c cover on two sample areaa a t C a m p b e l l R i v e r r e v e a l e d t h a t there e x i s t s an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e , b i r d s and the ground c o v e r . The main c o n t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t cover to the economy of. the grouse i s by way of p r o v i d i n g f o o d and s h e l t e r . A l t h o u g h up to 5°% 'of the s u r f a c e a t Campbell R i v e r may support no p l a n t cover a t a l l t h e r e i s enough v e g e t a t i o n on the r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n to m a i n t a i n a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n o f grouse. The e x t e n t of the i n f l u e n c e of sooty grouse on p l a n t cover i s not known but i n view of the f a c t t h a t the b i r d s are m a i n l y v e g e t a r i a n i n d i e t i t i s probable t h a t i n some ar e a s i t i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . For example, a study of food h a b i t s shows t h a t s a l a l b e r r i e s s t a n d h i g h on the p a l a t a b i l -i t y l i s t of grouse f o o d s . On a r e a s , such as those a t 6y. Campbell R i v e r , s a l a l i s sparse i n most s e c t i o n s and pr o b a b l y n e a r l y a l l the b e r r i e s produced each season are taken by grouse. Thus i t i s t h a t the spread of s a l a l may be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d by the b i r d s . A g a i n , i n the cases of such h i g h l y f a v o r e d foods as c a t ' s e a r , there may be a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n i n the r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of the s p e c i e s owing to the removal of the f r u i t i n g p o r t i o n s of the p l a n t by grouse. I n many of the areas v i s i t e d a t Campbell R i v e r , v i r t u a l l y a l l the c a t ' s ear buds and f l o w e r s had been browsed. The most e c o n o m i c a l l y important i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d by the grouse^ i s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s . At Campbell R i v e r v i r t u a l l y a l l the f i r s e e d l i n g s on the s e v e r e l y denuded p o r t i o n have been p l a n t e d under the r e f o r e s t a t i o n program of the B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . The s u r v i v a l of these t r e e s i s t h e r e f o r e a matter of utmost importance. Since the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the r e f o r e s t a t i o n program a t Campbell R i v e r the sooty grouse have c o n s t i t u t e d a s e r i o u s menace to the s u r v i v a l of the t r e e s by browsing both the newly p l a n t e d and e s t a b l i s h e d s t o c k . The most s e r i o u s damage i s done i n the s p r i n g when the b i r d s f i r s t a r r i v e on the l o w l a n d s . At t h i s time they remove many of the t e r m i n a l and l a t e r a l buds as w e l l as some of the needles from the t r e e s . Owing to t h e i r p o o r l y e s t a b l i s h e d r o o t systems r e c e n t l y p l a n t e d s e e d l i n g s s t a n d i n g i n l o o s e s o i l may be uprooted e n t i r e l y by f e e d i n g grouse. In a few ca s e s , i f any, does browsing k i l l the tr e e but i t does reduce i t to the p o i n t where i t may f a l l v i c t i m to drought or other severe c o n d i t i o n s . I n any case, r e p e a t e d 68. browsing on s u c c e s s i v e years w i l l g r e a t l y reduce the annual growth. In the summer of 1943 f i v e - y e a r - o l d t r e e s which had been p l a n t e d out f o r t h r e e y e a r s were found to be no t a l l e r than t w o - y e a r - o l d s t o c k b e i n g c u l t i v a t e d i n the n u r s e r y p r i o r to p l a n t i n g o u t . The p e r i o d of most s e r i o u s grouse d e p r e d a t i o n l a s t from the time the b i r d s a r r i v e i n the s p r i n g u n t i l w i l l o w buds and other green browse b e g i n to appear i n s u f f i c i e n t abun-dance to support the s p r i n g p o p u l a t i o n . S t u d i e s made by the author d u r i n g the summer of 1943 r e v e a l e d t h a t two f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the severe damage. 1. The b i r d s l i v e on c o n i f e r o u s needles throughout the w i n t e r and i n the s p r i n g when they a r r i v e on the lowlands i t i s probable t h a t they n o r m a l l y continue to eat a c e r t a i n amount of c o n i f e r o u s food d u r i n g the p e r i o d of change when w i n t e r d i e t g i v e s way to t h a t of summer. 2. The v a r i e t y and q u a n t i t y of f o o d a v a i l a b l e on the severe burn type a t the time of the b i r d s a r r i v a l i n the s p r i n g i s e x c e e d i n g l y l i m i t e d . Only c a t ' s e a r , moss, and c o n i f e r s are a v a i l a b l e i n any q u a n t i t y . Thus i t can be seen t h a t on s i t e s where n a t u r a l r e p r o -d u c t i o n i s normal the grouse may eat needles i n s p r i n g w i t h o u t c a u s i n g s i g n i f i c a n t damage. At Oampbell R i v e r , however, i n the e a r l y s p r i n g o t h e r green browse i s scarce and the b i r d s are f o r c e d to browse the c o n i f e r s . W i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the n a t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n of c o n i f e r s and important browse s p e c i e s such as c a t ' s ear and F i g . 12. Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s browsed by sooty grouse. F i g . 13. Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s showing poor growth as a r e s u l t o f grouse damage.These t r e e s have been p l a n t e d out f o r t h r e e y e a r s . 6 9. w i l l o w i t i s to ba hoped t h a t damage to f i r s e e d l i n g s w i l l become much reduced. Increase i n the d e n s i t y of p l a n t cover, and e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of such evergreen s p e c i e s as s a l a l and Oregon grape, to the end t h a t s e e d l i n g t r e e s become more s h e l t e r e d w i l l undoubtedly i n c r e a s e the s u r v i v a l by p r o t e c t -i n g the sto c k from grouse d e p r e d a t i o n s . The v a r i o u s cover types are a l s o important i n t h a t they p r o v i d e s h e l t e r , and s i t e s f o r such a c t i v i t i e s as n e s t i n g and d u s t i n g . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , the sooty grouse e x h i b i t s a s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n from the lowlands to the h i g h e r timbered s l o p e s . On Vancouver I s l a n d the b i r d s come down from the timber i n l a t e March and e a r l y A p r i l and spend the b r e e d i n g p e r i o d on the l o w l a n d s . The males r e t u r n to the h i g h e r l e v e l s i n J u l y and are f o l l o w e d by the females and c h i c k s i n e a r l y September. The causes of t h i s m i g r a t i o n are not known but i t i s thought t h a t food i s a pri m a r y f a c t o r . I t has been suggested by Beer (194-3) and ot h e r s t h a t the b i r d s f o l l o w the r i p e n i n g of the b e r r i e s up to the upper s l o p e s . This i s not so on Vancouver I s l a n d s i n c e the males leave b e f o r e many of the b e r r y foods a r e r i p e and the females and c h i c k s f o l l o w when the b e r r y season i s p r a c t i c a l l y over. Undoubtedly th e r e i s a s c a r c i t y of grouse foo d on the low l a n d s by the time the broods move up and t h i s i s p r o b a b l y one of the p r i m a r y s t i m u l a n t s t o m i g r a t i o n i n the f a l l . T h i s , however, does not e x p l a i n the be h a v i o r of the males. A study of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the numbers of grouse i n B r i t i s h Columbia over the pa s t f o r t y 70. years shows t h a t d u r i n g t h a t time t h e r e have been a number of r a t h e r n o t a b l e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s here suggested t h a t . s o o t y grouse are c y c l i c and t h a t the p e r i o d of the f l u c t u a t i o n s i s about ten years but v a r i e s from e i g h t to f o u r t e e n . C y c l e s have been demonstrated i n many s p e c i e s of the grouse f a m i l y but p r o b a b l y the most n o t a b l e of these i s t h a t of the r u f f e d g rouse. C l a r k e (193&) has shown t h a t i n O n t a r i o t h i s s p e c i e s reaches i t s maximum numbers once i n every nine or ten y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s author an import-ant f a c t o r i n the p o p u l a t i o n d i e - o f f i s an i n f e c t i o n by the sporozoan Leucocytozoon bonasae C l a r k e . T h i s he notes a t t a c k s the c h i c k s m a i n l y and reduces the broods to about one h a l f the u s u a l s i z e . I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t o t h e r p a r a s i t e s , d i s e a s e s , and p r e d a t o r s may a i d i n r e d u c i n g the numbers of grouse. There are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t sooty grouse on Vancouver I s l a n d are a t t h i s time s t a r t i n g on a p e r i o d of p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e . A l t h o u g h i t i s known t h a t the b i r d s g e n e r a l l y l a y s i x to e i g h t eggs, i n the summer of 194-3 i t was noted a t Campbell R i v e r t h a t the s i z e of grouse c l u t c h e s averaged o n l y 2.9 b i r d s . Furthermore, s e v e n t y - t h r e e percent of a l l b i r d s examined had the p a r a s i t e , Haemoproteus, i n t h e i r b l o o d . The i n f e c t i o n was s l i g h t i n a l l cases but may become more sever i n 1944 or 1945. I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t a l t h o u g h C l a r k e (1936) says t h a t d i e - o f f occurs m a i n l y i n the c h i c k s and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the presence of b l o o d p a r a s i t e s , the s o o t y grouse examined show a h i g h e r percentage of i n f e c t i o n i n a d u l t s , 90% of these b e i n g i n f e c t e d , w h i l e o n l y '62% of 71. the c h i c k s c a r r i e d the organism. This may i n d i c a t e t h a t i n cases of severe i n f e c t i o n s c h i c k s d i e o f f r a p i d l y . Only one i n f e c t i o n by Leucocytozoon was noted. Another p o s s i b l e f a c t o r i n p o p u l a t i o n decrease i s the presence, of l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of i n t e r n a l p a r a s i t e s . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the a d u l t s and s i x t y - f i v e percent of the c h i c k s were found to be i n f e s t e d w i t h i n t e s t i n a l worms but t h e r e was no evidence t h a t these i n f e s t a t i o n s were s e r i o u s or troublesome to the b i r d s d u r i n g the summer. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t the i n c i d e n c e of these p a r a -s i t e s i s not known f o r o t h e r years so t h a t a b a s i s f o r comparison might be drawn up. F u r t h e r p a r a s i t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of sooty grouse may g r e a t l y a i d i n the demonstration of c y c l e s i n t h i s s p e c i e s . P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s c o l l e c t e d around the end of June show t h a t the s p r i n g b r e e d i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s about one h a l f the t o t a l summer p o p u l a t i o n . Thus, i f the numbers remain more or l e s s s t a b l e , one h a l f the b i r d s must be l o s t between b r e e d i n g seasons. D u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e the l o s s i s p r o b a b l y g r e a t e r . A study of the b r e e d i n g c y c l e r e v e a l e d t h a t male b i r d s p r o b a b l y e x h i b i t some s o r t of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y a l t h o u g h the e x a c t n a t u r e of t h i s was not determined. S t u d i e s of the sex r a t i o , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c h i c k s , show t h a t the females may outnumber the males. T h i s might i n d i c a t e polygamous b r e e d i n g . O b s e r v a t i o n s on the b r e e d i n g b e h a v i o r , and the l o c a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n of b i r d s d u r i n g the b r e e d i n g season, however, i n d i c a t e more s t r o n g l y t h a t sooty grouse are monogamous. 72. M a t e r i a l s f o r the study of the summer food h a b i t s were c o l l e c t e d b o t h a t Campbell R i v e r and Cowichan Lake. I t was found t h a t b e r r i e s c o n s t i t u t e 57% of the d i e t w h i l e green browse makes up 42%, and animal f o o d o n l y 1.2%. Green foods are i m p o r t a n t b e f o r e and a f t e r the b e r r y season but are l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d by the f r u i t s of such s p e c i e s as s a l a l and b l a c k b e r r y d u r i n g J u l y ' a n d August. Most of the i n s e c t s were t a k e n by the c h i c k s . The presence of most of the foods i n the d i e t i s governed by t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y . However, c e r t a i n i t e m s , such as waxberry, occur o n l y i n a l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y even when they are avail a b l e < , Moreover, p a l a t a b i l i t y i n the true sense of the word i s not a f a c t o r i n food s e l e c t i o n . Since f o o d t r e a t e d w i t h a number of e x c e e d i n g l y e v i l - t a s t i n g substances were eaten by c a p t i v e b i r d s i t i s supposed t h a t they possess no sense of o r a l t a s t e . I f t h e r e i s a sense of t a s t e i n the c r o p or i n some p a r t of the t h r o a t the b i r d s gave no evidence of i t . I t i s thought t h a t the v i s u a l appearance of foods i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n or r e j e c t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to understand, however, how such a s t i m u l u s -response mechanism i n a b i r d c o u l d develop e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the a v a i l a b l e and f a v o r e d foods v a r y markedly from r e g i o n to r e g i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the grouse and t h e i r p a r a s i t e s has been o u t l i n e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of c y c l e s . No d i s e a s e s of an epidemic nature were encountered and i t i s d o u b t f u l whether, the o c c a s i o n a l o ccurrences of such 73-i n f e c t i o n s as bronchpneumonia, mycosis, and f o w l pox, con-s t i t u t e an important f a c t o r i n the b i o l o g y of the b i r d s . I n f e c t i o n s a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t of a c c i d e n t a l wounds may remove a few b i r d s or lea v e them more or l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o p r e d a t o r s . The f a c t t h a t there i s a l a r g e and c o n c e n t r a t e d pop-u l a t i o n of sooty grouse a t Campbell R i v e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of p r e d a t o r s i s s l i g h t . S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e preda-t o r y forms are l i s t e d . 74. CONCLUSIONS. Owing l a r g e l y t o t h e i r v e g e t a r i a n d i e t , there i s an i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n between sooty grouse and the f l o r i s -t i c cover on t h e i r range. I n some cases the b i r d s c o n s t i t u t e an important f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g the abundance and spread of c e r t a i n p l a n t s p e c i e s . A l t h o u g h the s c a r c i t y of food on the lowlands may be the s t i m u l u s to the September m i g r a t i o n of the hens and c h i c k s i t does not e x p l a i n the movements of the males i n J u l y . I t i s suggested t h a t s o o t y grouse are c y c l i c and t h a t the p e r i o d of f l u c t u a t i o n i s about nine to ten y e a r s . P o p u l a t i o n peaks occured on Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1$>03» 1913, 1927» 1937? and p o s s i b l y i n 1941 or 1942. The h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f i n f e c t i o n by b l o o d p a r a s i t e s and i n t e s t i n a l p a r a s i t e s i n 1943 as w e l l as the apparent r e d u c t i o n i n the s i z e of the egg complements i n d i c a t e t h a t grouse on Vancouver I s l a n d ' a r e e n t e r i n g a p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e . The l o s s between b r e e d i n g seasons was found to be approx-i m a t e l y e q u a l to one h a l f the e a r l y summer p o p u l a t i o n . The b r e e d i n g c y c l e s t a r t s i n l a t e March or e a r l y A p r i l . The c h i c k s h a t c h i n June and are f u l l grown by the end of August. - ":;i=-; I t i s suggested t h a t males e x h i b i t some form of ' -t e r r i t o r i a l i t y d u r i n g the br e e d i n g season. The s p e c i e s i s thought to be monogamous. The d i e t of sooty grouse on Vancouver I s l a n d i s m a i n l y 75-vegetable i n n a t u r e . I t c o n s i s t s of 57% b e r r i e s , 42% green browse, and 1.2% animal m a t e r i a l s . The most f a v o r e d food items are c a t ' s e a r , s a l a l b e r r i e s , bracken, and b l a c k b e r r i e s . Hard seeds may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r g r i t . Water, as such i s not important i n the d i e t . There are three main f e e d i n g p e r i o d s each day. i . I n the morning up u n t i l about 9 a.m. i i . In the a f t e r n o o n from t w o - t h i r t y to f o u r - t h i r t y . i i i . I n the evening from s i x t o e i g h t o ' c l o c k . The presence of most foods i n the d i e t i s governed by a v a i l a b i l i t y but i n some cases p a l a t a b i l i t y of a s o r t may be i m p o r t a n t . I t i s thought t h a t v i s u a l s t i m u l u s i s i m p o r t a n t i n food s e l e c t i o n . E c t o p a r a s i t e s r e c o r d e d f o r sooty grouse a re t i c k s , l i c e , and l o u s e - f l i e s . E n d o p a r a s i t e s i n c l u d e both Cestodes and Nematodes ( c e a c a l worms and g i z z a r d worms as w e l l as those i n the i n t e s t i n e ) . E c t o p a r a s i t e s p l a y an important p a r t i n the spread of i n t e r n a l p a r a s i t e s and a l s o o f c e r t a i n epidemic diseases.. Severe i n f e s t a t i o n of e n d o p a r a s i t e s may be a f a c t o r i n sooty grouse l o s s . A l t h o u g h c e r t a i n d i s e a s e s such as bronchopneumonia, f o w l pox and mycosis occur i n sooty grouse, they do not seem to c o n s t i t u t e an important f a c t o r i n p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e . At Campbell R i v e r p r e d a t o r s e x e r t l i t t l e e f f e c t on grouse p o p u l a t i o n s . REFERENCES Abbot* 1 ? 4 3 . Bone r e p a i r i n ducks. The Auk. Vol .60,Wo-. 1 9 4 3 . B a i l e y , A.M. 1 9 2 7 . Notes on the b i r d s , of s o u t h e a s t e r n Alaska."" The Auk. Vol.44 , N o . 2 , 1 9 2 7 . B a i l e y * P.M. I928.< B i r d s o f New Mexico. • New. Mexf JJept., of Game and P i s h . B a r g e r , B.H, and L.E, Card. 1 9 3 8. D i s e a s e s and p a r a s i t e s of p o u l t r y . L e a and. P e b i g e r . P h i l a d e l p h i a . Sec rEd. Beer, J . 1 9 4 3 . Pood h a b i t s of the bl u e grouse. ''-\-J.ow.»Wiiaiife. Maii :. V o l . " l , N o . l , 1 9 4 3 , Beer, J . 1 9 4 4 . . P a r a s i t e s of the blue grouse. . '; . J o u r i f i l d l i f e Man, Vol.8 , No . 1, 1944. '< Bendire.C.B., l 8 ; ? 2 . , l i f e h i s t o r i e s of N o r t h American Game, •' ' '.> : : b i r d s , .' •U. S.:',Nat. Musw Spec. B u i . NO.1, V o l . 1 . Bent, A.0 . 1 9 3 2 . L i f e h i s t o r i e s of N o r t h American g a l l i n a c e o u s b i r d s . - Smith* I n s t . UvS> Nat. -Mug, Btal. 1 6 2 , Bowies,J.H. I 9 2 5 . A study of b i r d stomachs and t h e i r c o n t e n t s . The M u r r e l e t . Vol. , 6 , No. 2 , 1 9 2 5 . Brooks,A.C. 1 9 1 2 . Some B r i t i s h Columbia r e c o r d s . • Hie Auk.. V o l ; 2 9 , No,- 2 , 1 9 1 2 . . Brooks, A.G. 1 9 2 6 . The d i p l a y of .Richardson's grouse ; w i t h some no t e s on the s p e c i e s and su b - s p e c i e s of the genus Dendragapus. - The Auk. / V O J U 43 , # 0 . 3 , l f 2 6 , Brooks, A.C. 1 9 2 9 . On Dendragapus obsourus obscurus. The Auk. V o l . 4> , Wo. 1 , 1 9 2 9 . Buckland,D.C. 1941* P l a n t s u c c e s s i o n on logged areas i n the : Cowichan and A l o u e t t e d i s t r i c t s . U n published t h e s i s i n the Department of B i o l o g y a n d ' B o t a n y , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. B u r l e i g h , T . D . 1 9 2 9• Notes on the b i r d l i f e i n n o r t h w e s t e r n •. - Washington. The Auk.,Vol:. 46 No. 4 , . 1 9 2 9 » 77. C l a r k e , C.H.D. 1934. "Causes'of-mortality, of. young grouse. .Science., N.S„ Vol.86.1934. C l a r k e , C.H.D. 1935. Blood p a r a s i t e s o f grouse. Can.Jour.Res. 12 : 646-50 1935-C l a r k e , C.H.D. 1936. F l u c t u a t i o n s i n numbers of r u f f e d grouse,' Bonasa umbellus ( L i n n e ) , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to O n t a r i o . U n i v . T o r . S t u d i e s . B i o l . S e r . Ho. 41, 1936. Cowan, I . MoT. 1940. Two "apparently f a t a l grouse diseases,. J o u r . W i l d l i f e M a n . V o l . 4 No. 3, 1940. .Cowan, I.MoT. 1942. Report upon some d i s e a s e s and p a r a s i t e s o f game b i r d s and game and f u r - b e a r i n g mammals i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Game Commission ( B r i t i s h Columbia,1941.) Cowan, I.MoT. 1944. P e r s o n a l communication. Dawson, ¥/.L. and J.H. Bowles. 1909« The b i r d s of Washington. . S e a t t l e , The O c c i d e n t a l Pub.Co. '1909. DeGroot,D . 5 . 1934. F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s from Echo Lake, •:'-' " ""' C a l i f o r n i a . • Condor,Vol. 36, Ho. 1, 1934. Edson, J.M. 1925. The h o o t e r s o f S k y l i n e Ridge. Condor, V o l . 27, No.6, 1925. 'Es'si'g, E.O. 1942. C o l l e g e Entomol'ogy., N.Y., The M a c M i l l a h Go. 1942. G a b r i e l s o n . I . N . and. S.G. Jewet t . 1940. B i r d s o f Oregon. Oregon Sta.Col.Oregon S t a . Monographs , S t u d i e s i n Zoo.. No. 2, March, 1940; ' "•Green,R. J / and-J.E* S h i l l i h g e r . 1932. A n a t u r a l i n f e c t i o n of the s h a p p - t a i l e d grouse and the r u f f e d grouse • by P a s t e u r e l l a t u l a r e n s i s P r o c . S o c . E x p . B i o l . and Med. V o l . 30 ,1932. G r i n n e l l , J . and T.I. S t o r e r . 1924. Animal l i f e i n Y o s i m i t e . U n i v . C a l i f . P u b . i n Zoo. B e r k e l e y , 1924. H a l l i d a y , V/.E.D. 1937. A f o r e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. Ganada.Dept. Mines and Resources. : F o r . S e r . B u i . 89. H e a r l e ,E. 1938.. The ' t i c k s of B r i t i s h ' Columbia, S c i . A g r i . Vol . 1 8 , No.7. 1938. 78. Hellmayer , 0.E„ and B. Conover. 1942. Catalogue o f the "birds of the A m e r i c a s . P t . l . N o . l . Z o o l . S e r . F i e l d Mus.Nat.Hist. V o l . 13, P t i 1. Ho.1. P u b l i c a t i o n '314. - : Johnson,R.A. 192?. Summer notes on the sooty grouse of Mount R a i n i e r . She Auk. V o l . 46. No.3. 192?. Judd.,S.B. 1,905. The grouse and w i l d t u r k e y s o f the Un i t e d S t a t e s and t h e i r economic v a l u e . U.S.DtfA:.- B i o l . Sur. B u i . 24. 1905. King.R.T. 1937. R u f f e d grouse management. Jour.Forestry.Vol . 3 5,No. 6. 1937. E i t c h i n , E . A . 1924. An i n f e c t e d grouse. The', M u r r e l e t , V o l . 5, No. 1*1924. L a i n g , H.M. 1931 . ;Hooting o f the bl u e grouse. American F o r e s t r y , Vol . 3 7 . 1931. Leopold,A. 1933. Oame management. C h a s . S c r i b n e r T s Sons,New York and London. 1933. Meade,G.M. and D.Stoner, 1 9 4 2 . " A s p e r g i l l o s i s i n a snowy owl. The. Auk. Vol . 5 9 . No. 4. 1942. M o f f i t t . J . 1938. The downy youri.gr of Dendragapus The Auk. Vol . ~ 5 5 . W6. 4. 1938. Munro.J.A. 1919» Notes on some b i y d s o f the Okanagan V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia. The Auk. Vol . 3 6 . No. 1. 1919. 0'Roke,E.C. 1930. The morphology, t r a n s m i s s i o n , and l i f e h i s t o r y of Haemoproteus l o p h o r t y x 0 TRoke, a b l o o d p a r a s i t e o f C a l i f o r n i a v a l l e y q u a i l . U n i v . C a l i f . Pub. i n Zoo. Vol.26.No.1. 1930. Parker,R.R. and R.R.Spencer, 1925-6. In the S i x t h B i e n n i a l , Report of the Montana S t a t e Board of Entomology, 1925-6. P h i l l i p s , P. 1937. Dusky grouse i n the Chuskai Mountains of n o r t h e a s t e r n A r i z o n a and n o r t h w e s t e r n New Mexico. The Auk. V o l . 54. No. 2. 1937. Price,E.W. 1944. U.S.DA.Bur. o f Animal Ind. P e r s o n a l Communication. 79. Racey, K. 1944. Vancouver.B.C. P e r s o n a l communication. Rathburn, 3.F. 1916. The Lake C r e s c e n t Region.Olympic Mountains.Washington, w i t h notes r e g a r d i n g i t s / - a v i f a u n a . The Auk. Vol.. 2 J . No. 4, 1916. R e p a r t o f the P r o v i n c i a l Game C o m m i s s i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia, 1907-1942, S h i p l e y , A.E. 1909. The e c t o p a r a s i t e s of the r e d grouse (Lagopus s c o t i c u s ) P r oc. Z b o l . boo. London. 1^ 09 Pp.309. Spencer, G.J. 1938. E c t o p a r a s i t e s o f b i r d s and mammals o f B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o c . E n t . 3oc. o f B r . C o l . Ho.34, Feb.1938, Swarth, H.S. 1921. The Sitkan. Sa-ce of the Dusky Grouse, The Condor, Vol,23 . No. 2. 1921. Swarth, H. 3. 1926. Report on a c o l l e c t i o n of b i r d s and mammals from the A t l i n R e g i o n , n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v . C a l i f . Pub,In Zoo. Vol.30 No,4. 1926. Swarth, H. S. 1931. Geographic v a r i a t i o n i n R i c h a r d s o n ' s Grouse, P r o c . C a l i f . A c a d . S c i . 4th,Series.Vol. 2 0. N o . l . 1931. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105694/manifest

Comment

Related Items