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John Work: A chronicle of his life and works Dee, Henry Drummond 1943

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JOHN WORK: A CHRONICLE OF HIS LIFE •AND A DIGEST OF HIS JOURNALS •by e  Henry Drummond Dee  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l  Fulfilment  of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of HISTORY  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1943  JOHN WORK  1  1  '  0 0- N T' S W T S  CHAPTER  PACE  I II III IV V  Xn"fcx*ocLucision  • • »«  Transcontinental  •  .  «  «  »  4  »  »  «  «  »  «  *  e  *  «  e  o  «  c  «  «  »  *  «  >  «  Journey, 1823 ............  1 -29  F i r s t Days on the C o l u m b i a , 1825-24 ,.  50  With McMillan t o the Eraser, 1824 .........  65  Spolrane I n t e r l u d e , 1825-1826  . 81  VI  F o r t C o l v i l e , 1826-1850 ....................  112  VII  F i r s t Snake R i v e r E x p e d i t i o n , 1830-31 .....  140  VIII  An E x p e d i t i o n .to t h e F l a t h e a d and B l a c k f o o t C o u n t r y , 1831-32 .......  IX  X XI  174  The Sacramento and TJmpqua E x p e d i t i o n s ,  To t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , 1834-35  232  P o r t Simpson and E o r t V i c t o r i a , . . 183 6-61 . ..  258  13 lE-3Ij «LOG'l-^.i.'iJ-  • •  «  •  a *  * « « « e « « * « « e * 9 < > * «  o o « « 3 « a * » s « » » r  29  MAPS AND I11IBTRAT IONS  John Work  Frontispiece  B r i t i s h .North A m e r i c a  A f t e r page  28  A f t e r page  31  R e p r o d u c t i o n o f a page i n r  Work s j o u r n a l s  ..  F i r s t . Snake R i v e r E x p e d i t i o n ..  A f t e r page 139  F l a t h e a d and. B l a c k f o o t  A f t e r page 173  Country  Sacramento E x p e d i t i o n  A f t e r page 201  Sacramento E x p e d i t i o n  ( c o n t i n u e d ) A f t e r page 204  Northwest  Coast  Home a t H i l l s i d e Victoria  District  A f t e r page 231 9  9  *  * *•  A f t e r page 286 A f t e r ' p a g e 284  CHAPTER I Introduction T h i s i s a chronicle of a man who was a f u r t r a d e r , trapper, administrator and farmer on the P a c i f i c coast.  "To  none of the Hudson's Bay Company's o f f i c e r s , " wrote Bancroft, " i s p o s t e r i t y more indebted than to John Work, whose journals of various expeditions, nowhere else mentioned, f i l l a gap i n 1 history."  For 38 years, from 1825 to 1861, he l i v e d on the  coast, where he was concerned either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y with almost every important development  i n the a c t i v i t i e s of  the Company within the region. Work was an Irishman, born about 1792 i n County Donegal.  He joined the Company as a w r i t e r when he was  twenty-  two years of age, so that he was older than many of h i s associates.  In h i s contract, which i s dated Stromness, June  15, 1814, he i s described as f a i r i n complexion and f i v e feet seven inches t a l l .  He spent the season of 1814-15 at York  Factory as steward, but was then transferred to the neighboring Severn D i s t r i c t , where he became second trader at Severn House.  In 1818-19 he was promoted d i s t r i c t master.  Work was  f i t t i n g into the Company n i c e l y , since Nicholas Garry i n 182-1 described him as a "Most excellent young Man  i n Every Respect".  1 Bancroft, Hubert Howe, H i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast, San Francisco, The H i s t o r y Company, 1886, v o l . 2, p. 464, n. 7. 2. Rich, E.E., ed., The L e t t e r s of John MoLoughlin from Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee, F i r s t S e r i e s 1825-38, Toronto, the Champlain s o c i e t y , 1941. (hereafter referred to as H.B.S., IV) p. 356. Garry was sent out from England by the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company to carry out the 1821 c o a l i t i o n as smoothly as p o s s i b l e .  a T h i s was no mean t r i b u t e to win from so shrewd a judge of men. The c o a l i t i o n o f the Hudson's Bay and the North West companies i n 1821, made l i t t l e  difference at f i r s t to John Work.  He was ranked as a clerk and remained i n the Severn D i s t r i c t during 1821-22.  Then he went to the adjoining Island lake  D i s t r i c t where he remained u n t i l 1823, making h i s headquarters at  Island lake House.  little  i s known as yet of these early  years but i f h i s journals of Severn House and Island Lake House, 3 which are now i n the Hudson's Bay Archives i n London, prove aa illuminating as h i s l a t e r journals on the P a c i f i c Coast have done, much ing  new information may be added to an already f a s c i n a t -  career. Work was transferred from the Island Lake D i s t r i c t to  that of the Columbia and l e f t York Factory on July 18, 1823,, to  take up h i s new duties.  He was to spend the. r e s t of h i a  l i f e west of the Rockies, a l i f e which was to be adventurous but  hard, and at times extremely irksome.  When Work entered  the  Hudson's Bay Company's service i n 1814, the Company was ;  1  engaged i n murderous competition with the North Westers of Montreal.  U n t i l 1821 the servants of the r i v a l companies  engaged i n cutthroat t a c t i c s and i n r a i d s on each others.posts. Furs were trapped i n and out of season, to the depletion of whole areas east of the Rookies.  John Work had l i t t l e  contact  with t h i s s t r i f e i n Severn, but he was now t r a n s f e r r e d to a d i s t r i c t which had been explored and developed i n large part as a r e s u i t of t h i s r u t h l e s s competition. The names of Simon 3  H. B. S., IY, p. 356.  3 4 Fraser, John Stuart, Daniel W. Harmon and David Thompson bulk large i n t h i s development of North West i n t e r e s t s on the P a c i f i c slope.  For a while the Nor'Westers were threat-  ened by American competition, but t h i s ceased when A s t o r i a was  sold to the North West Company i n 1813.  The i n t e r e s t s of  the l a t t e r thereupon became paramount i n Old Oregon.  However,  according to Frederick Merk, " D i s c i p l i n e among employees became lax; extravagance and waste crept into the conduct of the trade, a disease which spread even to the Oregon Country, 5 »..'*  Meanwhile, the internecine s t r i f e between the Companies  had reached i t s peak i n the pitched b a t t l e of Seven Oaks at Red River i n 1816. gation.  This a f f a i r involved both i n c o s t l y l i t i -  Neither could stand the steady f i n a n c i a l d r a i n that  such t a c t i c s involved. F i n a l l y , i n 1821,  the long struggle was  ended by  an  4 Simon Fraser became an a r t i c l e d c l e r k i n the North, West Company at the age of sixteen. In 1802, he became a bourgeois and i n 1808 he. followed the Fraser River to i t s mouth. John Stuart entered the services of the North West Company i n 1799. In 1805 he ^?as sent west of the Rockies, and accompanied Simon Fraser i n h i s descent of the Fraser River. He was placed i n charge of New Caledonia i n 1809 and l e f t i t i n 1824. He entered the Hudson's Bay Company as Chief Factor i n 1821 and r e t i r e d i n 1839. Daniel W. Harmon was an American i n the service of the North West Company. He spent the years from. 1810 to 1819 i n New Caledonia. David Thompson i s inseparably connected with the discovery and the exploration of the Far West. He was the f i r s t trained surveyor and cartographer of that area. 5 Merk, Frederick, Fur Trade and Empire, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1931, p. x i .  agreement r e s u l t i n g i n c o a l i t i o n .  1  In t h i s merger the Hudson s  Bay Company took, over the trading posts and personnel of the North West Company and a new organization was formed by Royal Licence.  T h i s Licence granted the r i g h t s of exclusive trade  to the Company f o r twenty-one years i n B r i t i s h Horth America east of the Rockies, and i n addition, the sole B r i t i s h r i g h t s of trade i n the Oregon Country where equal r i g h t to the nationals of both Great B r i t a i n and the United States had been guaranteed by Treaty i n 1818.  George Simpson, who was of the  same age as Work, was appointed Governor of the enlarged Northern Department i n which the western d i s t r i c t s of New Caledonia and the Columbia were included* Simpson had f i r s t seen service with the Company i n Athabasca i n 1820-21»  He was only twenty-nine but had already 7 •  shown outstanding q u a l i t i e s of leadership.  He was  tireless  i n the execution of h i s duties.  He could exercise tact but i f  necessary was u t t e r l y r u t h l e s s .  He was to reduce the vast  organization to the economical p r e c i s i o n of a machine. When Simpson sent Work to the Columbia, Hudson's Bay p o l i c y west of the Rockies was as yet i n a state of f l u x .  Be-  tween 1821-23, the new Governor had already with the v i g o r of a new broom, swept clean the greater part of the Northern 6 S c h o l e f i e l d , E.O.S., B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present, Vancouver, Chicago, e t c . , The S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1914, v o l . 1, pp. 338-9, 669-671. (hereafter referred to as Howay and Scholefield) See also Morton, Arthur S., A H i s t o r y of the Canadian West to 1870-71, London,Edinburgh, e t c . , Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1939 ( ? ) , pp. 623-709. 7 R i c h , E.E., ed., Journal of Occurrences i n the Athabasca Department by George Simpson, 1820 and 1821, and Report, Toronto, The Champlain Society, 1938, p. x l i .  5 Department,  New  Caledonia and the Columbia had "been l e f t  to the l a s t since the pressing problem had been the elimination of duplicate services i n areas where the Companies had been competitors. The  country to which Work was going had i t s problems  too, even i f they were not of so pressing a nature.  As Merk  suggests, "no s o l i d foundation f o r authority existed there 8 since i t s sovereignty was  s t i l l undetermined".  In 1818  the  United States of America and Great B r i t a i n had concluded a ten-year t r e a t y of joint occupation of both the r i g h t to trade.  which gave the nationals  The Hudson's Bay Company would  need strong leaders and capable subordinates who t h i s trade, who  could control  could maintain the law and order necessary f o r  i t s success and who  could bring about the e f f i c i e n c y which  would be needed to overoome American competition.  Other  problems existed beside these, making the value of future trade i n the Columbia f i e l d h i g h l y questionable.  There had  been jealousy and b i c k e r i n g among the winter partners.  lax  and wasteful methods had crept i n , e s p e c i a l l y when the country was new matter.  and r i c h and when petty economies d i d not seem to R e f e r r i n g to the Columbia, Simpson said, ...I f e e l that a very severe r e f l e c t i o n i s cast on those who had the management of the Business, as on looking at the prodigious expencea that have been incurred and the means at t h e i r command, I cannot help thinking that no economy has been observed, that l i t t l e exertion has been used and that sound judgment has not been exercised but that mismanagement and extravagance has been the order of the day. 9  8  Merk, op. c i t . , p. x x i .  9  Ibid., p. xxv and p.  65.  Moreover, too many men were employed.  No wonder the trade  of the Company had admittedly "been unprofitable and that the Governor and Committee had been prepared to give the area up. However, by 1828, the ten years of joint occupancy would run out  and, presumably, the boundary l i n e would be drawn.  There-  fore , the Company agreed, . . . i f by any improved arrangement the l o s s can be reduced to a small sum, i t i s worth a serious consideration, whether i t may not be good p o l i c y to hold possession of that country, with a view of protecting the more valuable d i s t r i c t s to the Horth of • i t . . . . 10 U n t i l such time as Simpson could v i s i t the Columbia, nothing much could be done except to send out e f f i c i e n t men as new blood into the personnel. 11 •  Among these were Samuel Black  and Peter Skene Ogden, both o l d North Westers. the  In 1825, i n  capacity of clerk assigned to Spokane House, John Work  accompanied Ogden west from York Factory. With Simpson i n 12 • 1824 came Dr. John McLoughlin to take over the Columbia 1  10 Governor and Committee of Hudson s Bay Company to Simpson, London, February 27, 1822, i n Merk, op. c i t . , p. 175. 11 Samuel Black and Peter Skene Ogden were both former Nor'Westers and had been l e f t unprovided f o r at the c o a l i t i o n . Both were f i n a l l y admitted to the Hudson s Bay Company as chief traders and served west of the Rockies. Black was placed i n charge at Walla Walla and was l a t e r murdered by Indians at Kamloops. Ogden was placed f i r s t i n charge of the Snake D i s t r i c t and l a t e r i n charge of coastal trade. 1  12 John MoLoughlin became a physician i n Lower Canada at the age of nineteen. He entered the services of the North 7/est i n 1803 and at the c o a l i t i o n became a chief f a c t o r of the Hudson's Bay Company.  D i s t r i c t where he remained in. control u n t i l h i s resignation, 13 which took e f f e c t i n 1846, l a t e r James Douglas was to follow.  As Dr. Iamb has said, ...Simpson's success i n checking the changes i n personnel which had been the bane of the d i s t r i c t i s indicated by the fact that Ogden, Work, and Douglas a l l spent the rest of t h e i r long l i v e s on the west side of the Rooky Mountains. 14 The f i r s t problem i n which we f i n d Work a c t i v e l y  involved was that of choosing a new s i t e to replace F o r t George ( A s t o r i a ) .  1  It was generally considered by the Hudson s  Bay Company that the boundary l i n e between B r i t i s h and American possessions would be s e t t l e d f i n a l l y as following the Columbia 15 River.  In that event Fort George, then used as Company  headquarters, would be on the American side of the r i v e r . Moreover, the actual post had been returned by t r e a t y to the Americans who might claim i t at any time.  It was c l e a r that  another s i t e would have to be oho sen on the opposite side of the r i v e r .  Orders to this, e f f e c t were issued to the Chief  Factor i n charge at Fort George by the Governor and Committee, who favored a f o r t as close to the sea as p o s s i b l e and mention• • . 16 :  ed Cape Disappointment as a probable s i t e .  While these i n s t r u c -  t i o n s 13 were James t r a v e lDouglas l i n g toentered the coast the West supply ship Wii l iam theby North Company nl 1819, and joined the Hudson's Bay Company at o o a l i t i o n . He served i n New Caledonia between 1825-30 then at Fort Vancouver where he became ohief trader i n 1835. In 1840 he became chief f a c t o r and became governor of Vancouver Island i n 1851. He severed his conneotion with the Company and became Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858 and held t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1864. 14  H.B.S., IV, pp. x x - x i .  15 Governor and Committee to J.D. Cameron, London, July 22, 1824, i n Merk, op. c i t . , pp. 240-242. 16  Merk, l o c . c i t .  8 .and ,Ann, Governor Simpson l e f t York Factory f o r the P a c i f i c 1 ?  Coast,  He directed Chief Factors Alexander Kennedy  Moloughlin to search for a new  and John  s i t e , which they f i n a l l y s e l e c t -  ed on the north bank of the Columbia almost opposite the mouth of the Willamette River.  T h i s was nearly eighty miles from the  sea, put s t i l l i n navigable water.  From March to May,  1825,  John Work was busy superintending the moving of goods and chattels from Fort George to t h i s new 18  s i t e upon which was  built  Fort Vancouver. Simpson intended that Fort Vancouver only tempora r i l y should succeed Fort George as the headquarters of the Columbia Department. around which farming  He planned i t as a secondary post, should spring up i n order to make the 19  posts on the P a c i f i c as self-supporting as p o s s i b l e .  This  would obviate using valuable cargo space on the supply ships for provisions.  The permanent headquarters,  be at or near the mouth of the Fraser River.  he f e l t ,  should  Simpson had been  brooding over t h i s idea on h i s way west from York Factory and SO '>> had broached i t to Chief Trader James McMillan, whom he wished 21 . to lead an exploratory expedition. In h i s journal, the Gov17 Chief Factor Alexander Kennedy was appointed to the Columbia i n 1822 i n charge of Spokane House. He t r a v e l l e d east i n the spring of 1825. 18 Work, John, Journal 5, March 21-May 14, 1825, ( o r i g i n a l i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives i n V i o t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. 19  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 87 supra and n.  145.  20 James McMillan was a Nor'Wester who was appointed Chief Trader at the c o a l i t i o n of 1821. He accompanied Simpson on h i s f i r s t t r i p west i n 1824 and explored the lower reaches of the Fraser. He established Fort Langley i n 1827 and r e t i r e d i n 1839. 21 Merk, op. c i t . , p. 39.  ernor made the following entry: down  "Mr. Work I mean to take  to Fort George f o r the purpose of accompanying Mr. 22 1  McMillan to Pugets Sound and F r a z e r s River"•  Whether h i s  choice of John Work was on the basis of merit or merely to r e l i e v e Spokane of too many clerks has not been ascertained. 2.3 However, Work's methodical  journal,  coupled with that of  McMillan, gives a clear picture of the coast, Puget Sound and the lower reaches of the Fraser.  The expedition was unable to  go much beyond the future s i t e of Fort Langley so that i t s knowledge of the canyon depended on hearsay evidence of the Indians.  Apparently the. experiences of Simon Fraser i n 1808  were not well known. t r i p west i n 1828,  Incidentally, i t was not u n t i l h i s second  that Simpson gave up t h i s idea o f e s t a b l i s h 24  ing the p r i n c i p a l post on the Fraser.  It was then that Fort  Vancouver was moved nearer the r i v e r bank to make i t more s u i t able to be a primary post and the heart of the Columbia. 1  Work s next charge was the task of moving Spokane House to C o l v i l e , at K e t t l e F a l l s , i n an attempt to solve the problem of p r o v i s i o n i n g . This problem of feeding the personnel at the posts worried Simpson considerably, 22  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 47.  23 Work, John, Journal of a Voyage from Fort George to the Northward, Winter 1824. t o r i g i n a l i n B.C. A r c h i v e s ) . " Edited by E l l i o t t , T.C., i n the Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterl y , v o l . 3, pp. 198-228. 24  H.B.S., IV, p. l i x .  10 The good people of Spokane D i s t r i c t and I "believe of the i n t e r i o r of the Columbia gene r a l l y have since i t s f i r s t establishment shewn an extraordinary p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r European Provisions without once looking at or considering the enormous p r i c e i t costs...such fare we cannot a f f o r d i n the present times, i t must therefore "be d i s continued and I do not see why one 02. of European stores or Provisions should be - ... allowed on one side of the Mountain more, than the other.... 25 T h i s opinion resulted i n a p o l i c y that reduced the d i e t of such men as Work and Ogden, while on the t r a i l , to salmon, venison, horse and dog. As a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n to the problem of p r o v i s ioning came Simpson"s d e c i s i o n to move Spokane House to K e t t l e Falls.  Not only was the new s i t e a good one f o r farming but  i t would obviate the expense and inconvenience of transporting  goods s i x t y miles overland from the Columbia. 26  just as easy for Chief Trader John Warren Dease to  I t would be or John Work  supply the Kootenay and Flathead posts from the new s i t e ,  and even easier i f the Pend d" O r e i l l e and Kootenay Rivers should prove navigable.  I t might make p o s s i b l e the abandon-  ment of the post at Okanagan and so f i t i n with the plan of consolidating posts to cut down expenses.  The new f o r t at  K e t t l e F a l l s was named a f t e r Andrew C o l v i l e , then a d i r e c t o r 1  and l a t e r the governor o f the Hudson s Bay Company. Work had 27 o r i g i n a l l y been slated f o r the TJmpsqua expedition but some 25  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 47.  26 Chief Trader John Warren Dease was i n charge of Nez Perce's i n 1824 when Governor Simpson passed. See Merk, op. c i t . , p. 53. From there he was t r a n s f e r r e d to Spokane and then to C o l v i l e . He died on the Columbia i n 1830 en route back to C o l v i l e from Fort Vancouver, where he and McLoughlin had had a quarrel. 27  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 135.  11 doubt had arisen as to h i s a b i l i t y to handle i t , so that he returned from Vancouver to the C o l v i l e Area. About the same time that Work was establishing Fort C o l v i l e , a move had been made to expand the Company's a c t i v i t ies i n the Snake River country.  John l e e Lewes, a chief trader  i n the Columbia D i s t r i c t i n 1822, had already written to Simpson about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of p r o f i t a b l e trade i n that 28 area. An o u t f i t had been sent into the Snake country i n 1823 and i n spite of trouble, with the Blackfeet Indians, had 29 brought back over 4,000 beaver.  In the same year Peter Skene  Ogden was dispatched to Spokane to organize a trapping expedition.  He sent out Alexander Ross i n 1824 who returned with 30  4,900 beaver.  Now with the expectation that the Snake River  region might become American t e r r i t o r y i n 1828, i t was, i n the opinion of the Governor and Committee, "very desirable that the hunters should get as much out of the Snake Country as 31 possible f o r the next few years".  Simpson must have been i n  two minds about t h i s p o l i c y of r u t h l e s s e x p l o i t a t i o n .  He knew  the Hudson's Bay Company would get most of the f u r s , but he may have hadtothe hope that the area A pcould be 1822, used ias 28 also Lewes Simpson, F t . George, r i l 2, n a Merk, op. c i t . , pp. 176-77. 29  H.B.S., IV, p. x x i .  30 Alexander Ross was a clerk at Spokane House, (H.B.S., IV, p. x x i i ) . According to Arthur ,S. Morton, Ross had been on h i s way east but Ogden brought him a l e t t e r from Simpson urging him to accept the leadership of a Snake R i v e r expedition. This induced him to r e t u r n to Spokane. See Morton, Arthur S., op. c i t . , p. 713. 3.1 Governor and Committee to J.D. Cameron, London, July 22, 1824, i n Merk, op. c i t . , pp. 240-242.  12 future source of furs to conserve, recuperate or take the plaoe of trapped-out  areas east of the Rockies.  However,  ruthless e x p l o i t a t i o n would have one advantage by providing a buffer against the penetration of American trappers north of the Columbia.  Be i t as i t may, the Snake River area was  heavily, trapped by Hudson's Bay p a r t i e s down to the end o f 1832.  Between 1824-1830 these expeditions were l e d by Ogden,  who with h i s predecessor, Ross, trapped the country c l o s e l y . It must be borne i n mind, however, that the depletion of the country was not e n t i r e l y due to the Company but was also . 32 caused by very close American competition.  During most of  t h i s period Work was stationed at C o l v i l e and h i s only contact with the Snake expeditions was the task of r e c e i v i n g some of. t h e i r fur returns on h i s regular t r a d i n g expeditions to the Company outpost at Flathead House.  He succeeded Ogden i n 1830,  when the l a t t e r was transferred to the coastal trade, and headed the l a s t f u l l - f l e d g e d trapping expeditions into the Snake River country.  Work came into the p i c t u r e during the t r a n s i -  t i o n period between the change from trapping to trading p a r t i e s . Beaver had become scarce. was keen.  Competition with American traders  "The operations of the Snake Expedition have been  very unprofitable f o r several years past, and attended with a serious l o s s of l i f e , " wrote the Governor and Committee to MoLoughlin i n 1833;  "we therefore, desire i f not abandoned 33  t h i s year i t may be broke up next summer".  IvIcLoughlin shared  t h i s view and ordered Work south to the Sacramento V a l l e y , 32 H.B.S., IV,. p. I x v i i i . 33 Governor and Committee to McLaughlin, December 4, 1853, i n H.B.S., IV, p. xov.  13 34 A colleague of h i s , Michel Laframboise, was sent south from the Umpqua River to hunt along the coast. was a success.  Neither expedition  Work brought back only 1,023  year i n the f i e l d .  furs after a  Not only were beaver scarce but h i s whole  party was overcome by malaria.  laframboise found the going  so rough that he abandoned the coastal area, penetrated i n land and joined Work's party on the lower Sacramento.  These  mark the end of the large o l d - s t y l e trapping expeditions, which 35 were now  changed into smaller trading p a r t i e s .  John Work was  unconcerned with t h i s change, f o r s t i l l following Ogden's footsteps, he was t r a n s f e r r e d to the coastal trade. T h i s was not a new f i e l d f o r the Company. as 1824 Simpson:  As e a r l y  the Governor and Committee had written to George "We  observe your a t t e n t i o n i s devoted to the C©lumbia,  we think the trade should be extended i n the Snake Country, 36 and also along the Coast to the Northward."  In the same year  Simpson himself had written to Andrew C o l v i l e i n a s i m i l a r v e i n . Nor were these, opinions confined to the heads of the Company, but were shared by i t s leaders i n the f i e l d . "Few / t o p i c s , " says Dr. Iamb, "loom l a r g e r i n Mcloughlin's l e t t e r s ' 37 than h i s e f f o r t s to develop the coastal trade." In 1825, to 34 Michel laframboise entered the service of the American Fur Company as voyageur and arrived by the Tonquin at the Columbia i n 1811. A f t e r 1821 he was employed as an i n t e r p r e t e r by the Hudson's Bay Company. He l a t e r acted as post master and l e d expeditions to the Umpqua and to the Sacramento. A post master was a sort of c l e r k who never rose any higher i n the Company's service* 35 See H.B.S., IV, p. x c i v - x c v i i . t h i s change thoroughly. 1824,  Dr. Lamb discusses  36 Governor and Committee to Simpson, London, March 12, i n Merk, op. c i t . , p. 208. 37  H.B.S., IV, p. l x i x  14 i n i t i a t e matters, the annual supply vessel William and was sent north from the Columbia on reconnaissance.  Ann,  Directly,  t h i s voyage was not successful because of the t i m i d i t y of the captain, but i n d i r e c t l y i t seemed to show that s i x American vessels, which were encountered  en route, apparently found  the trade p r o f i t a b l e . For some time after t h i s , nothing was done. v a r i e t y of circumstances Ann  caused the delay.  was l o s t on the Columbia bar i n 1829.  ships on the eoast was were too small.  inadequate  A  The William and The number of  and the available vessels  Intermittent fever so incapacitated the s t a f f  at Fort Vancouver that able-bodied men s u f f i c i e n t numbers.  were not procurable i n  Heavy competition from American ships i n  the Columbia prevented the contemplated  expansion.  Other circumstances made i t necessary to develop the coastal trade as soon as p o s s i b l e . The decline of the sea-otter was leading American maritime traders to deal i n land skins.  Since many of these furs originated i n the i n -  t e r i o r , the Company began to fear f o r i t s inland trade. Moreover, the depot on the Columbia would have to be abandoned i n favor of a post farther north, and since the Fraser River did not provide a navigable route to the i n t e r i o r , Simpson turned h i s attention farther north, where other navigable r i v e r s were believed to e x i s t .  By November 1828,  the .  Nass River had been selected as the l o c a t i o n f o r a post which might serve both as a c o l l e c t i o n point f o r f u r s i n the coastal area and as an outlet f o r New  Caledonia.  The Company r e a l i z e d  that the Russian American Company was i t s competitor i n these northern waters but i t was hoped that an agreement between  15 these powerful organizations might drive out the sporadic competition by American ships.  Overtures to the Russian  Company did not meet with success but the Hudson's Bay decided to proceed with i t s plan.  A Marine Department was created  which was placed under the authority of McLoughlin at Vancouver. , Three vessels were sent out from England. were to form the nucleus of a coastwise f l e e t . was now  Two  of these  An expedition  sent north but i t was unsuccessful. Not u n t i l  1831,  when Peter Skene Ogden s a i l e d i n the Cadboro, was the new post, Fort Simpson, founded on the Nass. During the two years that followed, McLoughlin became increasingly i n favor of more posts and fewer vessels. captains were often drunk and incompetent. cooperate with, or take orders from him.  1  Ship s  Many refused to Moreover, ships were  e a s i l y l o s t i n the foggy waters and rocky shores of t h i s western coast.  Posts, to McLoughlin, were tangible evidences of  permanent control and had a greater e f f e c t on the Indians. Neither did these posts require so many men nor d i d they require men with a specialized t r a i n i n g as ships d i d .  So McLoughlin  began building a series of f o r t s intended to stretch northward to the Russian boundaries.  By 1833 Fort McLoughlin on  Milbanke Sound had been b u i l t , Fort N i s q u a l l y had been constructed on Puget Sound, and a s i t e had been selected f o r a 38 f o r t on the Stikine River..  In the winter of the following year  Work was appointed to succeed Ogden i n t h i s f i e l d . Except f o r routine voyages aboard Company ships, Work was to spend most of h i s time at Fort Simpson. 38  H.B.S., IV, p. xc  T h i s fort i s  16 not to be confused with the one established by Ogden on the Nass R i v e r . The old f o r t had been right on the f i s h i n g grounds of the. Indians but i t was too f a r up winding channels to be e a s i l y accessible by s a i l i n g vessels.  It was abandoned i n the  autumn of 1834. A new post begun that summer, was constructed on the southern side of the entrance to Portland I n l e t . This s i t e s t i l l controlled the Nass River down which f u r s might come from the i n t e r i o r .  Moreover, i t would attract the canoes  of coastal Indians passing ©n t h e i r annual migration to and from the f i s h i n g grounds.  At t h i s f o r t , Work and h i s family  were to spend nearly twenty years. During t h i s period of Work's career the Hudson's Bay Company had a double purpose north.  i n t h e i r coasting trade to the  The f i r s t , was to drive out American competition. The  second, was to open the way to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the furtrade behind the Alaskan panhandle. t i o n that an  It was with t h i s twofold ambi-  agreement was reached with the Russian American '. 39  Company at Hamburg on February 6, 1839. The Russian Company agreed to lease the coast, exclusive of the islands, between Cape Spencer and Mt. Fairweather, to the Hudson's Bay Company for a l l commercial purposes.  The lease was to take e f f e c t on  June 1, 1840, and to l a s t f o r ten years.  Rental was to be  2,000 otter skins delivered at S i t k a on or before June 1 s t . The Russians also agreed to take 2,000 otter from the west of the mountains and 3,000 from the east at agreed p r i c e s .  They  were also to buy wheat and other provisions from the Hudson's 39  Morton, op. c i t . , p. 727.  17 Bay Company and to have the goods which they required at t h e i r posts shipped north i n Hudson's Bay vessels.  The l a s t  part of t h i s agreement would give the Hudson's Bay a market for any excess farm produce raised at Fort Vancouver. It furnished the reason f o r the beginning of the Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company which was to be formed under the aegis of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Nisqually.  The agreement  k i l l e d the t r a f f i c carried on by American ships operating between Boston and the Alaskan coast.  They had brought  supplies to s e l l to the Russians and had t a r r i e d to trade with the  Indians.  Now that that former reason f o r coming had disap-  peared the l a t t e r was no longer p r o f i t a b l e and American compet i t i o n ceased e n t i r e l y . John Work at Fort Simpson, played no part i n carrying out the new agreement.  In May 1840, Chief Factor James  Douglas arrived i n S i t k a to complete arrangements. He took 40 over the Russian post at S t i k i n e , leaving McLoughlin'a son in charge, who was s h o r t l y to be murdered by h i s own men.  Then  Douglas went on to e s t a b l i s h a new p o s t — F o r t Taku—some f i f teen miles soraith of the Taku R"iver, since no suitable spot could be found close to the r i v e r mouth or on the r i v e r i t s e l f . The following year George Simpson came to the coast to make a personal inspection of a l l these northern arrangements.  Of the new posts he d i d not approve. As Simpson saw  i t , a new s i t u a t i o n had been brought about by the agreement 40 John McLoughlin, Junior, went with Douglas i n 1840 to take over Fort S t i k i n e , and was murdered i n 1842 by h i s own men.  18 with the Russians.  Not only could the expensive and danger-  ous l i q u o r trade.with the Indians he stopped, but, with the Americans gone and the Russians confined to t h e i r islands, operating expenses could be cut by scrapping some of the northern posts.  "The trade of the coast,"  wrote Simpson, "cannot  with any hope of making i t a p r o f i t a b l e business afford the maintenance of so many establishments as are now occupied... I am of opinion, that the establishments of Fort Mcloughlin, Stikine and Tacow might be abandoned without any injury to •41 the trade...."  The Governor discussed with Work at Fort  Simpson, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the steamer Beaver taking over t h i s trade, and i f necessary supplementing her with schooners. By t h i s means he believed that furs could be collected as the Indians gathered each year for the f i s h i n g .  In view of the  dangers and the delays of the Columbia Bar these same vessels could, i n the o f f seasons, act as tenders to supply the remaining posts.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the supply ship William  and Ann, and the Isabella, too, had been l o s t on t h i s Bar. The brig Lama, carrying John Work north f o r the f i r s t  time, 43  had been delayed inside the Columbia Bar f o r nearly a month. T h i s obstruction, said Simpson, was responsible f o r "deranging 41 Simpson to Governor and Committee, Fort Vancouver, November £5, 1841, ( p a r t i a l copy i n B.C. Archives i n Annual Despatches to London, to 1849). 42 Work to Mcloughlin, Fort Simpson, May 16, 1842 i n Fort Simpson Correspondence outward Sept, 6, 1841-Oot. 11,1844 ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). ~ 43 Work, John, Journal No. 14. To the Northwest Coast December 11. 1834-June"30 1835, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives) entries from January 2-22, 1834.  19 44 the hest l a i d plans". the Columbia.  The depot would have to "be moved from  On March 1, 1842, Simpson wrote to the Gover1  nor and Committee that "the southern end of Vancouver s i s l a n d ...appears to me the best s i t u a t i o n f o r such an establishment 45 as required". Viewed i n retrospect, t h i s decision i s not s u r p r i s ing.  The Company had long been aware that a "move from the  Columbia must be made sooner or l a t e r .  At f i r s t , hopes had  been entertained that headquarters could be l o cated on the Fraser R i v e r .  This, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , had been the reason  for McMillan's exploration i n the winter of 1824.  Simpson  did not. completely abandon t h i s hope u n t i l , by personal experience i n 1828,  he became convinced  that the Fraser d i d  not f u r n i s h a navigable route to the i n t e r i o r . About 1834, • 46 a move to the north was again mooted. In the following year the Governor and Committee suggested "Whidby*s Island, Puget 47 Sound", f o r i t was already clear that American penetration would almost c e r t a i n l y make such a move necessary. 48  William  A. Slaoum, made h i s glowing report on the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Willamette  V a l l e y , which Work had admired so  44  Morton, op. c i t . , p. 730.  45  loo. c i t .  46  H.B.S., IV, p . cxxiv.  47 Ibid., p. oxxv. l i n , December 8, 1835.  Governor and Committee to McLough-  48 William A. SI a cum v i s i t e d Oregon i n the i n t e r e s t s of the United States government i n 1836-1837, and made a lengthy report on the country and on the Hudson s Bay Company's holdings. This report i s printed i n the Oregon.Historical Society quarterly, v o l . 13, pp. 175-224. 1  so 49 much on h i s expedition to the Umpqua River i n 1834. cans were s e t t l i n g there i n 1838.  Ameri-  This American settlement  would not destroy the fur trade but i t must of necessity revive the boundary question.  To a l l of these reasons f o r  finding new headquarters farther north, was added the f a c t that constant outbreaks of fever convinced the a u t h o r i t i e s 50 that the Fort Vancouver area was unhealthy.  Simpson i n w r i t -  ing to McLoughlin i n June, 1836, proposed that Finlayson, Douglas or Work should accompany the schooner Cadboro on one -'• " 51 of her voyages to the Gulf of Georgia i n search of a new s i t e . In 1837, Captain William H. McNeill explored the southern t i p ; . 52 of Vancouver Island and reported favorably on it» In 1842 :  Douglas himself v i s i t e d the Island and came again i n 1843 choose the s i t e f o r a f o r t .  to  Meanwhile, pursuant to Simpson's  orders, Forts Taku, S t i k i n e and Moloughlin were abandoned, and the property and many of the men were moved to the new F o r t 53 . Victoria. Charles Ross from Fort McLoughlin was placed i n 49  Work, John, Journal, May 22-July 10,  50  H.B.S., IV, p. oxxiv.  1834.  51 Simpson to McLoughlin, Norway House, June 25,1836, quoted from "Fort Langley Correspondence" 1831-1858, i n B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 1, 1937, p. 189. 52 Sage, Walter N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1930,p. 119. Captain William H. M c N e i l l was an Amerioan c i t i z e n who joined the Hudson s Bay Company i n 1832 a f t e r i t purchased h i s b r i g the Lama. His career was associated with the coastal trade. He became a chief trader i n 1840 and chief f a c t o r i n 1856. 1  53 Charles Ross joined the North West Company i n 1818. He entered the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1821 and three years l a t e r was transferred to New Caledonia. In 1831 he became a chief trader•  ai 54 charge, and from Fort Simpson came Roderick Finlayson, Work*s future son-in-law, to a s s i s t  him.  As time went on, Fort V i c t o r i a , which Work was to know so w e l l , developed from a f u r post into the centre of Hudson's Bay and colonial a f f a i r s on the P a c i f i c Coast. i t s establishment i n 1843 to the year 1849 usual one of. a trading post.  i t s story i s the  Trade went on day a f t e r day,  minor skirmishes arose with the Indians and were met fully.  From  success-  Charles Ross, the f i r s t appointed head of the F o r t ,  died i n 1844  and was succeeded by h i s second-in-command,  Roderick Finlayson.  In 1845 Fort V i c t o r i a became a depot f o r  the trade of the Northern Coast and f o r the Company's supply ships from England.  By 1847  oleared land began to appear  around the f o r t stockades; land on which cows grazed or wheat was grown. In the meantime, momentous changes had been taking place on the Columbia. 55 nation.  In 1845, Mcloughlin sent i n h i s r e s i g -  This was prompted p a r t l y by age, p a r t l y by h i s d i s a -  greement with Governor Simpson over the p o l i c y of.conducting coastal trade and p a r t l y by Mclaughlin*s indignation over Simpson* s attitude toward the murder of h i s son, John Mcloughlin,  J r . , at Stikine i n 1842.  Beside the removal of Mcloughlin  from o f f i c e , came the r e v i v a l of the boundary question.  In  54 Roderick Finlayson came to America i n 1837 and entered the Hudson's Bay Company as a c l e r k . He came west i n 1839 and was stationed as assistant at F o r t s Taku, Simpson, and V i c t o r i a . He was promoted to chief trader i n 185G and chief f a c t o r i n 1859. From 1851 to 1863 he was a member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of Vancouver Island. 55  Sage, op. c i t . , p. 131.  22 1846 a t r e a t y was concluded between Great B r i t a i n and the United States by which the boundary was to be the 49th p a r a l l e l of north latitude, west to the sea and thence  south  and west around the southern t i p of Vancouver Island.  With  the increasing American settlement i n the Columbia basin, coupled with the f a c t that the area was now American t e r r i tory, the Company's trade i n Oregon was doomed, so i n 1849, the depot was moved to Fort V i c t o r i a .  John Work does not  seem to have had much to do with e f f e c t i n g the change from the Columbia to Vancouver Island.  He was s t i l l stationed at  Fort Simpson but v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a the year before the depot was moved, and was apparently f u l l y aware of the i n f l u x of 56 Americans into the Columbia. In . 1849,  the colony of Vancouver Island was estab-  l i s h e d and by Royal Grant on January 13, 1849, the Island was leased to the Company at an annual rent of seven  shillings.  In return the Company agreed to e s t a b l i s h a settlement and to s e l l land f o r the purpose of c o l o n i z a t i o n .  A l l revenue from  the land sales or from coal mines l e s s a ten per cent p r o f i t to the Company, was to be applied toward the improvement of the colony.  T h i s grant was to l a s t u n t i l 1859, when the  Company's exclusive licence to trade with the Indians would expire. 57 Richard Blanshard was the f i r s t governor of the 56 Work to Edward Ermatinger, Fort V i c t o r i a , November 9, 1848 ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). 57 Richard Blanshard was a b a r r i s t e r who as a young man had t r a v e l l e d i n the West Indies, i n B r i t i s h Honduras and in India. H i s p o s i t i o n as governor of Vancouver Island was his f i r s t post with the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . He died i n England i n 1894, a comparatively wealthy man.  23 colony.  He arrived i n 1850  and stayed but a year f o r h i s  p o s i t i o n was not an enviable one. 58  Bleu shard f e l t "a sort of  f i f t h wheel to the coach", because r e a l power and authority rested i n the Hudson's Bay Company and i t s Board of Management.  When Bl an shard l e f t , James Douglas was appointed i n  his place, a p o s i t i o n which he held i n combination with h i s post as Chief Factor f o r the Company. his p o s i t i o n was d i f f i c u l t .  In t h i s dual capacity  At one time he was swayed by h i s  o f f i c e as Governor while at another he was i n e v i t a b l y enced by h i s connection with the Company.  influ-  He was faced at  once with the problem of administration. Blanshard's  instruc-  tions required him to set up a l e g i s l a t i v e Council and from time to time c a l l a general assembly. to  But he had done nothing  implement these i n s t r u c t i o n s except to appoint a Council  of three at the time of h i s r e s i g n a t i o n . Douglas was senior member of the council and f e l l h e i r to i t .  a  He, how-  ever, enlarged i t and proceeded to use i t . 1  John Work was Douglas s second appointee to the " . 59 Council.  His duties had been bringing him more and more to  V i c t o r i a and he seems to have spent only the summers 'of 1851 and 1852 at Fort Simpson.  In 1853 he was appointed a member  of the Board of Management of the Hudson's Bay Company and he and h i s family settled permanently on land which he bought 60 at H i l l s i d e and began to farm. 58 Sage, op. c i t . , p. 167 59 ' Appointed i n 1853 and confirmed i n 1854. Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir I I , Minutes of the Council of Vancouver Island 1851-1861, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r s , 1918, p. 20 and p. 24. 60 Fort.  T h i s land was situated about one mile north of the  24 Later when. Douglas was forced! to c a l l a  represen-  tative assembly,' Work agreed that the step was not a desirable one.  It i s to be suspected that a man  of Douglas's a u t o c r a t i c  nature would not welcome democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s .  John Work,  however, believed i n the p r i n c i p l e of representative government but d i d not consider that l o c a l conditions warranted them. Neither of the two men Island was  felt  that the population of Vancouver  s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y the existence of an assembly.  But the orders of Henry Labouohere, then secretary of state, did not admit of any a l t e r n a t i v e . The B r i t i s h government wanted the assembly set up because of the approaching P a r l i a ' 61 , mentary inquiry into the Hudson's Bay Company. Island four e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s were organized. were elected and on August 12, 1856,  On Vancouver Seven members  the f i r s t assembly west  of the Great lakes i n B r i t i s h North America, met  with due  ceremony. By t h i s time the f u r trade i n the North West had passed i t s zenith and the period of gold mining was horizon.  Work was  on the  the f i r s t to discover gold i n B r i t i s h  t e r r i t o r y west of the Rockies.  In 1850,  while stationed at  Fort Simpson, he received reports from the Indians about the 62 presence of t h i s precious metal on the Queen Charlotte The Una,  one of the Company's vessels, v i s i t e d the  Islands.  Islands  and v e r i f i e d the reports, by a c t u a l l y discovering the s i t e of a gold mine.  The news soon leaked out and reached San  Fran-  cisco where i t caused some excitement. No l e s s than six 61 Sage, op. c i t . , p. 189. 62 Record O f f i c e T r a n s c r i p t s H.B.C., C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , v o l . 726, 1852-1856, ( t r a n s c r i p t i n B.C. Archives) p. 142.  25 vessels were o u t f i t t e d and set s a i l f o r M i t c h e l l Harbor where the f i r s t vein had been discovered. ed these attempts and disheartened, almost immediately. Sturgis, was  One  No success attend-  the miners returned  south  of these vessels, the schooner Susan  a l i t t l e more persistent and made another t r i p  in 1852.  This expedition came into c o n f l i c t with the Indians  and was  saved only through the e f f o r t s of Work at Fort Simpson.  Throughout t h i s period of gold fever, Governor Douglas had been anxious to prevent foreign miners from entering B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y over which the Company had an exclusive l i c e n c e to trade.  A f t e r repeated appeals to the home a u t h o r i t i e s ,  Douglas f i n a l l y received a commission as  lieutenant-Governor  of the Queen Charlotte Islands with authority to issue miner's licences and to e n l i s t the support of constituted authority to enforce law and order, but not to exclude anyone. Sometime i n 1853,  the exact date i s not clear, Work  moved to Fort V i c t o r i a , where he was ing  years of h i s l i f e .  to round out the remain-  U n t i l the l a s t he was  a servant of the  Hudson * s Bay Company and a member of the l e g i s l a t i v e Council. When he took up residence at V i c t o r i a he found l i t t l e change had taken place i n the ten years of i t s existence. been slow.  It must be remembered that the l i t t l e  Growth had settlement  s t i l l l a y on the f r i n g e s of the world and was usually reached by a hazardous voyage around Cape Horn.  There was  comparative-  l y l i t t l e arable land, so that Vancouver Island could not compete with Oregon where a f r e e grant of 640 acres was  avail-  able for each s e t t l e r .  land around Fort V i c t o r i a was not f r e e .  It sold at £l an acre.  These regulations were made not to  86 attract tlie "poor white" s e t t l e r , "but the man who  of substance  could buy not l e s s than twenty acres at t h i s p r i c e .  only people who  could afford to come to Vancouver Island were  not attracted by i t . settler.  The  No adequate market existed f o r the  He could not compete i n the markets of the United  States,since heavy duties were l e v i e d on imports of timber, f i s h and a g r i c u l t u r a l produce.  No  customs duties produced  public revenue for the struggling colony because i t was thought to be desirable to keep provisions and stores at lowest p r i c e s i n order to develop V i c t o r i a as a port of  call.  Her only revenue came from the sale of public land and the r o y a l t i e s from  coal-mining.  When the gold rush to the Fraser mines started i n 1858,  Work saw V i c t o r i a become the chief port of entry.  i s estimated  It  that not l e s s than 30,000 people a r r i v e d during  the f i r s t year.  A c i t y of tents grew up.  land values  Wharves were b u i l t , water pipes were l a i d . The government was  soared.  Banks were s t a r t e d .  expanded to include f i v e members on the  Council and t h i r t e e n i n the Assembly. On the mainland, B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s were wrestling with the problem of governing the mining camps. was decided to create a new  Finally i t  crown colony named B r i t i s h Columbia,  i n which the Queen Charlotte Islands were to be included. August 2, 1858,  the new  colony received i t s name.  Island was to remain a separate e n t i t y . now  On  Vancouver  James Douglas,  who  severed h i s connection with the Hudson's Bay Company, be-  came governor of both the i s l a n d and mainland colonies.  Control  of the Hudson's Bay Company's a f f a i r s passed into the hands of  27 a Board, of Management composed of Douglas's son-in-law, 63 Alexander Grant Dallas, assisted by John Work and Dugald 64 McTavish.  Work held t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l h i s death i n 1861. The days which John Work spent on the P a c i f i c  Coast were i n t e r e s t i n g and momentous ones.  For t h i r t y - e i g h t  years he. watched slow but sure progress and development.  At  the time of h i s a r r i v a l i n 1823, Old Oregon was nothing but a wilderness, inhabited by scattered t r i b e s and dotted with f u r trading posts.  He. watched these f u r trading days r i s e  to t h e i r zenith i n the so-called empire of John McLoughlin, he saw them s h i f t t h e i r centre, from the Columbia to Fort V i c t o r i a and the northern coasts, and begin to wane.- He saw the gradual encroachments of the American trapper and trader in the Columbia, and the onrush of the American s e t t l e r into the f e r t i l e plains of the Willamette. The great gold deposits i n C a l i f o r n i a were found i n an area he had trapped years before. "I know the place well," wrote Work "and was encamped on i t 65 some time...but no gold was thought of then."  The boundary  question which, long before, had delayed h i s construction of 63 Alexander Grant Dallas was sent out from London as the representative of the Hudson's Bay Company on the P a c i f i c Coast with headquarters at V i c t o r i a from 1857-1861. He was not a chief f a c t o r as often stated but a d i r e c t o r of the Company. 64 Dugald McTavish entered the services of the Hudson's Bay Company as a clerk i n 1833. Hot u n t i l 1839 was he transferred to the Columbia. He became a chief trader i n 1851. 65 Work to E. Ermatinger, Fort V i c t o r i a , November 9, 1848, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives).  28 Fort C o l v i l e , was s e t t l e d . 66 some 500,000 people  On the American side i n 1860  l i v e d i n communities on the western  slopes of the Rockies and a c i t y such as San Francisco had been founded.  He t r a v e l l e d aboard the Beaver, the f i r s t  steamer on the coast.  He was the f i r s t to discover gold on  the Queen Charlotte Islands.  He saw V i c t o r i a develop into  a boom-town overnight, when the rush to the Fraser Sold mines started.  A year after h i s death, V i c t o r i a , with a population  of 6,000 people, was incorporated as a c i t y .  Only ten years  l a t e r B r i t i s h Columbia ceased to be a crown colony and became a province of the Dominion of Canada.  66 Pease, Theodore Calvin, The United States, New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company 1927, p. 494.  1  CHAPTER I I Transcontinental Journey, 1825. The great bulk of the information on John Work i s to be found i n h i s f i f t e e n journals.  The o r i g i n a l s of these  are i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia at V i c t o r i a , B.C.  "These journals were kept from day to day i n the f i e l d .  Usually when Work was resident at a post, he kept no personal journal.  Naturally t h i s leaves gaps i n our record of h i s  l i f e — g a p s which can only be completely f i l l e d by access to the post journals, most of which are i n a c c e s s i b l y f i l e d i n the Hudson's Bay Archives i n London, England.  It has therefore  been necessary to t r y to piece i n the gaps between the journals as w e l l as the period a f t e r them, by obtaining information from the few of Work's l e t t e r s which are available and by references to him which are to be found i n the records of h i s contemporaries. The  journals themselves were meticulously kept.  They  t e l l of the day-to-day t r a v e l s , t r i a l s , hopes and disappoint- ments of the f u r traders.  The keeping of them was compulsory  and t h e i r contents were specified by Minutes of Council and were to embrace methods of trade, conduct and character of subordinates;  climate, topography and vegetation of the country 67  through which t h e i r writers passed,  i n reading these accounts  one has the impression that they were written with a view to being used as guides f o r others who might follow the t r a i l s 67 Fleming, R. Harvey, ed., Minutes of Council Northern Department of Ruperts Land, 1821-51, Toronto, The Champ l a i n Society, 1940, Hudson's Bay Company Series I I I (hereafter referred to as H.B.S., III) p. 126.  so blazed by John Work and his companions. and distances  Hot only are places  c a r e f u l l y noted, but at times directions are  plotted i n compass points, as i n a ship's log. keen observing eye of a fur trader.  Work had the  Much that he saw was new  and interesting, i n t h i s new and interesting world.  As a  consequence, h i s journals are veritable mines of information on fur trading practices, on the l i f e and habits-of the Indians and on the country through which he passed. The  f i f t e e n journals i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of  B r i t i s h Columbia are not uniform i n s i z e .  A few are written  i n the standard size of Hudson's Bay journals about !£•§• by 8 inches, and others i n h a l f sheets folded once. these volumes are leather-bound with rough The  A few of  hand-stitching.  ink used was apparently i n powder or tablet form for the.  writing varies considerably  i n color and density.  One of the  volumes, the 12th,must have f a l l e n into a pool of ink when i t was h a l f completed.  E n t r i e s up to the accident  are p a r t i a l l y  obliterated by the inkstain which extends i n an arc across the bottom corner of the page.  Most of t h i s can be read with  some d i f f i c u l t y , but transcribers often gave up the attempt. Curiously enough, the same t r a n s c r i b e r s f a i l e d to notice that; after the accident not  occurred Work wrote around the i n k s t a i n but  through i t . They interpreted the absence of f a i n t l i n e s  through the blot as t o t a l o b l i t e r a t i o n and simply omit ted the bottom quarter of the page. Work has been accused of i l l i t e r a c y i n h i s Quite the opposite of t h i s i s true.  journals.  He had an extensive and  varied vocabulary, ably f i t t e d to express i n interesting s t y l e  31 what he had to say.  The accusation arises for four reasons.  F i r s t , the fact that h i s writing i s undoubtedly crabbed and many of h i s words were d e l i b e r a t e l y telescoped.  It must be  remembered that much of t h i s writing must have been done at night while he was crouched h a l f - f r o z e n over a smoky f i r e clutching a pen i n his s t i f f e n e d fingers, or in the intense summer heat of the a r i d Snake River country, or i n the mosquito-ridden fever camps of the Sacramento R i v e r .  Secondly,  he used words which are obsolete or obsolescent i n use or form.  This troubled the t r a n s c r i b e r .  Time and again he  flavors his descriptions with "thicketty" woods through which he t r a v e l l e d in a "pour" of r a i n ; or gazed upon a "jabble" of sea, l i t by f l a s h e s of " l i g h t e n i n g " .  Moreover, he used trade  expressions current i n those days, which were not f a m i l i a r to or were unrecognized by those who have attempted to make 68 t r a n s c r i p t s of h i s work. The expression "apishamore" has been rendered v a r i o u s l y ; the more common guess being 69  70  "Earrons", " c a b r i e "  "appurtenances"  71 and " p l u i s "  ed editors of the Work Journals.  seem to have u t t e r l y defeatF i n a l l y , Indian names and  expressions proved d i f f i c u l t , hot only because they are hard to trace, but because they were spelled phonetically by the individual.  John Work was no exception to the rule that a l l  68  A saddle blanket made of b u f f a l o c a l f - s k i n .  69  Wild horses.  ly  70 Prong-horned antelope—but not "caribou" as frequentsuggested.  —a  71 An expression of price or value from "peaux", "plus", beaver s k i n .  y  //^ t- ...  ^jL^d&MZyr  -3 «.  s  r  f  -  •  From a J o u r n a l kept by John Work  >- ?  fur traders rendered these names as best they could i n t h e i r journals.  It i s most unfortunate that transcriptions of Work's  journals have been consistently bad. even paragraphs have been omitted. or blanks l e f t  Whole sentences and Mistakes have been made  i n places where even a small amount of knowledge  of the background of the period should have furnished the key to the problem.  As an inevitable consequence, where access  to the o r i g i n a l manuscripts was not possible, the printed versions of these journals suffer badly and are sometimes woef u l l y inaccurate.  Indeed i t would appear that i n no case was  the text as printed, collated with the o r i g i n a l .  Consequently  the preliminary work f o r the following study included an exhaustive check of the entire series of f i f t e e n journals and the correction of a l l the worst errors i n the t r a n s c r i p t s deposited i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives at V i c t o r i a . 72 r  Work a f i r s t  journal  i s divided into two parts.  The f i r s t h a l f deals with h i s i n i t i a l voyage across the oontinent;  the second with h i s journey from Spokane House to Fort  George and thence up the r i v e r again, where he spent a summer 1  superintending a party of Hudsdn s Bay employees f o r whom there was no summer employment and who had been sent up the to l i v e o f f the Indians and the country. knowing just why  Columbia  We have no means of  John Work was transferred to the  By inference, two reasons suggest themselves.  Columbia.  F i r s t , that  72 Work, John, Journals,(a) York Factory to Spokane House. July 18-October 28, 1825. (b] Columbia"Valley Trading Expeditions, A p r i l 15-November 17, 1824. (hereafter r e ferred to as Journals 1 (a) or 1 (b), ed., by Sage, W.N., i n the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, Annual Report 1929. Ottawa, Department of Public Archives, 1930, pp. 21-29.  ss George Simpson had "been carrying out a ruthless p o l i c y of economy i n services elsewhere i n the Northern Department, so 73 that i n 1821 he had come to the conclusion that he could dispense with two hundred and f i f t y men.  Not a l l of these  men could he classed as incompetent and many could he used elsewhere.  Simpson was given very d e f i n i t e instructions on  t h i s score by the Governor and Committee, who wrote, Great care and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n must be used i n making t h i s selection....Our object i s to select the best men f o r the business...it may not be practicable "to reduce the numbers so low at once without discharging deserving young men, and we think t h i s should not be done. 74 John Work enjoyed a good reputation i n the Company and the appointment of steady men to the Columbia was the one thing that Simpson could do u n t i l the status of that area could be 75 settled. On Tuesday July 18, 1823, John Work l e f t York Factory for the Columbia D i s t r i c t , where he was to spend the rest of his  life.  The expedition, the express, was a small one consist76  ing  of "two l i g h t canoes, four men i n each". Peter Skene  Ogden was i n command and with him i n the same canoe was John lee  Lewes, the l a t t e r bound f o r Cumberland House.  The canoes  pushed o f f from the Fort at one o'clock on a fine warm, a f t e r noon.  This fine weather was to hold u n t i l the following 73  H.B.S., IT., p. x i i i .  74 Governor and Committee to Simpson, Hudson* s Bay House, London, March 8, 1822, H.B.S., I I I , p. 313. 75  H.B.S., I¥, p. xx.  76  Work, Journal 1(a), entry f o r July 18, 1823.  34 Monday.  The a i r had been s u l t r y and the t r a v e l l e r s were  plagued with mosquitoes both by day and night.  However,  Monday dawned cloudy and cold bringing welcome but only temporary r e l i e f , for i t became warm and again s u l t r y during the day.  Unsettled weather followed, with thunder, 77  ning, "weighty"  light-  r a i n and head winds which meant long hours  i n the cramped space of the canoes, or tiresome waiting i n camp f o r the weather to c l e a r . By following the usual route v i a the Hayes River they arrived at Oxford House a l i t t l e before sunset on Wednesday July 23rd.  They l e f t again the next day to struggle  forward against head winds and on the 26th were within f i v e miles of Norway House.  Ogden and Lewes took one man  out of  Work's canoe and went on ahead to reach the For* before, dark. Work camped where he was for the night and reached the F o r t 78 "a l i t t l e a f t e r Sun R i s i n g " the next morning, "some hours . 79: before any of the gentlemen got up".  He spent the rest of  the day w r i t i n g l e t t e r s while the men  repaired the canoes.  At noon on the 28th of July they embarked once more, proceeding part of the way under s a i l , but because of the heavily-laden canoes and the rough weather, they ware forced to put ashore.  Here, twenty, miles from Norway House, they were  delayed for a whole day by the rough water and the breaking surf of Lake Winnipeg.  The next morning, preparations had been  made f o r a very early start when i t was discovered that one of the men had deserted.  He had taken h i s blanket, bag and  77 78  Work, Journal 1(a), entry f o r July 20, Ibid., entry f o r July 27, 1823.  79  Loc. c i t .  1823.  some pemmican with the apparent intention of walking the long distance overland to Morway House.  Some time was spent  i n an unsuccessful search f o r him, but i n spite of t h i s delay the expedition got under way at 4 A.M. and by s a i l and paddle 80 "made a p r e t t y good days work".  By noon of July 31st they  had crossed the dangerous waters of lake Winnipeg and had passed up through Grand Rapids into the lake beyond, where they were delayed by high water and heavy wind.  The delay  caused by wind during the day encouraged them to start e a r l i e r i n the morning when the weather was usually calm, so that on the f i r s t of August they were away by 2:30 A.M.  This day they  -  managed to get h a l f way up Cedar lake before the same conditions delayed them. By t h i s time, they had reached the lower waters of the Saskatchewan River where wind and wave would impede them less.  long days (from 2;15 A.M. to 9 P.M.) were spent i n the  canoes.  Even at t h i s , Work seems to have found them l e s s  t r y i n g than the previous days f o r he finds time to paint a v i v i d pen picture of the surrounding country. We proceeded part of'the day up the River through narrow channels formed by Islands where the water was very shallow and nearly choked up with mud. At the lower end of the River the shores and islands are very low, composed of soft mud or clay and covered with reeds & f l a g s , and here and there some willows to the waters edge. A l i t t l e farther up the r i v e r the banks continued s t i l l low and are e n t i r e l y t h i c k l y clothed with willows, poplars, etc., they are sometimes so thick that i t 80.  Work, Journal, 1(a), entry f o r July 30, 1823.  would appear d i f f i c u l t to get through them, Some places there are a few poplar trees but not the appearance of a pine near the edge of the r i v e r , Considerable quantities of d r i f t wood, Some of i t of a large size i n some places deposited along the shore. The banks on both sides of "the river-are very low and appear to have been overflowed i n the spring. Where we encamped i t was so soft & wet that a dry spot could scarcely be found to p i t c h the tent on. 81 They now l e f t the main r i v e r and struck north through narrow channels densely covered with willow and pine and arrived at Cumberland House about 9 o*clock i n the morning o f Tuesday August 5th.  Here Lewes and h i s servant l e f t them.  Ogden and h i s companions spent the day i n overhauling t h e i r o u t f i t s , i n getting i n more provisions and finding man to replace the deserter.  another  It was not a pleasant day f o r i t  was the height of the f l y season.  7/ork complained,  "We are 82  l i k e to be devoured with f l i e s l a s t night and to-day". On Wednesday they did not start u n t i l 10 o'clock i n the morning.  Their next stop would be l i e a-la-Crosse, which  they reached on the afternoon of Saturday, August 16th, by the usual brigade route which followed a chain of lakes, small r i v e r s and portages north-west ,from Cumberland House to the v  C h u r c h i l l River and thence west to Lac l i e a-la-Crosse.  This  section of the expedition was not without i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s — not of winds and waves t h i s time—but  of food.  Out of the  f i v e bags of pemmican (that staple of f a t and dried meat used by f u r traders) two of the bags were found to be mouldy and the contents rotten.  Work's day-by-day account r e f l e c t s h i s  anxiety and fear of a serious food shortage. They saw a deer 81 Work, Journal 1(a) entry f o r August 2, 1823. 82  Ibid., entry f o r August 5, 1823.  "but f a i l e d to k i l l i t .  On another day, they came to an Indian  encampment and traded a l i t t l e h a l f - d r i e d meat. saw two black bears but these got away. was anxiously noted.  Again they  Every sign of game  On Sunday, the 10th, more bad pemmican  had to be discarded and Work at l a s t mentioned the hitherto unexpressed concern over food.  On Monday they t r i e d and  f a i l e d to get food from two bands of Chipewyan Indians.  Two  days l a t e r they overtook the west-bound Caledonia Brigade and got h a l f a bag of pemmican from them.  Work could now  relax and admire the beautiful meadows and woods through which they were passing.  They had enough food, but just  enough, to l a s t u n t i l t h e i r a r r i v a l at l i e a-la-Cross on the 83 16th of August.  "The men's provisions were just f i n i s h e d , "  says Work. So f a r the expedition had not been an easy one.  The  weather was unusually rainy and windy f o r that time of the year and the food problem had caused much anxiety. However, no time was l o s t beyond that required f o r preparation f o r the continuation of the westward journey.  This was "the l a s t - 84  Fort we w i l l see t i l l we come to the Rocky Mountain".  The  canoes were repaired and about four hundred pounds of dried meat taken on board.  This supply would, i t was estimated,  l a s t twelve men twelve days.  We do not know i f Ogden and  Work saw James Douglas at l i e "a-la-Crosse, but i t i s altogeth. 8 5 er probable Douglas was at the Fort at t h i s time. 83  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r August 16,  84  Ibid., entry f o r August 17,  85  Sage, W.N.,  1883.  1823.  Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 26.  38 On Monday, August 18th, the expedition embarked a l i t t l e after sunrise.  They crossed the lake, entered and  proceeded up the Beaver River which flows i n an e a s t e r l y and then northerly d i r e c t i o n and enters lie"a-la-Crosse lake on the eastern s i d e . For a week they proceeded up the  Beaver  River.  The going was hard, and the men  poles.  As they ascended the r i v e r i t became narrower and  shallower.  had to resort to  Meadowy banks gave way to low h i l l s and patches  of wood. The weather,was cloudy and dark with "weighty" r a i n at night.  The men were t i r i n g , not only because of the  long days, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n a narrow, stony r i v e r , but because of the food supply again. was tough and hard as shoe leather, by now  Their meat  the f a t b i t s had  a l l been picked out and only "the worst pieces remained. men  could not eat enough to maintain t h e i r strength.  The  Attempts  had been made without much success, to augment t h e i r food supply on the route.  A l i t t l e venison had been secured from  the Indians but even they complained of the s c a r c i t y of game. On Tuesday, August 26th, they arrived at the Moose Portage to the north branch of'the Saskatchewan.  Here they  expected to f i n d a supply of provisions awaiting them.  But  there was no sign of whites having been at "the Portage that season.  The men's rations were cut to one meal a day.  f e l t that there, was very l i t t l e  Work  chance of meeting with any  Indian bands, and no chance of game since most of the woods had been destroyed by f i r e .  The next cache was Five Islands,  ten days t r a v e l i f the water was favorable. opinion there was  1  In Ogden s  a grave p o s s i b i l i t y that since Moose Portage  39 was without food, f i v e Islands might "be also, since both were supplied from Edmonton*  Therefore, Ogden decided to  send an expedition across Moose Portage on foot to Edmonton for supplies.  John. Work was to head t h i s small party and  detailed to i t as guide was one of the expedition who  had  wintered several years i n Saskatchewan and who was supposed to have some knowledge of the country. Work and h i s party promptly l o s t their way.  On  Wednesday, August 27, they wandered aimlessly about, subsisting o f f a handful of b e r r i e s and two small ducks which they had shot.  On Thursday, they thought they had discovered a  road but gave i t up and floundered through the woods to the Saskatchewan R i v e r .  Here they met two boys who  another track which they had d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g . was getting colder with a sharp morning f r o s t .  t o l d them of The weather The next day  they f e l l i n with a herd of sixteen buffalo and k i l l e d a b u l l , keeping enough meat f o r two days.  On Sunday, they l o s t the  track again and did not f i n d i t u n t i l dusk. ing a l l day and the men were numb with cold. they ate the l a s t of the buffalo meat.  It had been r a i n That evening  For two more days  they stumbled through wet grass and bush, dining o f f two pigeons, f i v e ducks and a muskrat•  F i n a l l y on Wednesday,  September 3rd they arrived at Edmonton l a t e i n the afternoon, ' 86 t i r e d and "wet to the haunches". They had been eight f u l l days on the journey and Ogden had expected them to make the return t r i p i n not more than ten.  Work found that Indian  wars had prevented provisions from being sent out and more86  Work, op. c i t . , entry for September 3,  1823.  40 over, none had been received at Edmonton so that food there was scarce also.  He gathered together a l l available supplies  at the post, three bags of pemmican, three bundles of dried meat.  The provisions were to be sent down the Saskatchewan  River by canoe to Dogrump Greek where they were to be .met by horses.  The horses could not only carry the bundles overland  from there to Moose Portage, but could be k i l l e d , i f necessary, to make up the deficiency i n supplies. It was not u n t i l four o'clock of the afternoon of September 9 that they reached Moose Portage, hacking t h e i r way through dense woods, then through burnt-over country and f i n a l l y plunging into swamp. As i t might be expected, the canoes were gone.  The t r i p had taken fourteen days.  Ogden,  having waited two days over the expected ten, had l e f t a l e t t e r f o r Work, and had moved up the r i v e r one h a l f day's march, to an Indian encampment. with a l l haste.  Work was ordered to follow  •  Work sent Ogden a note by Indian on horseback ing that he had arrived.  say-  Ogden r e p l i e d that he would wait f o r  Work and that the provisions the l a t t e r had secured plus those which the leader had himself got from the Indians would l a s t u n t i l they reached Five Islands, which had been provisioned from Edmonton after a l l , "so that the horses w i l l not be 87 required f o r eating".  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that no hint  of censure of Ogden, no element of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or b i t t e r complaint against conditions, has entered Work's journal up to t h i s point. 87  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r September 10, 1823.  John Work found that Ogden had been sick, and s t i l l very i l l with c h i l l s and fever.  To add to t h e i r  was diffi-  c u l t i e s — t h e . r i v e r was very s h a l l o w — a l l were wading the river-bed stumbling over stones, dragging and tracking the canoes.  On September 14th they arrived at the Portage to Red  Deer lake (lac l a Biohe) from the upper end of the Beaver River.  This was a portage of eight or nine miles i n length.  Everything had to be carried, canoes and a l l . 88 portage they met some, freemen meat i n return f o r tobacco.  Here at the  and Indians who traded a l i t t l e  They were ready to embark on  l a c l a Biche the next day but were held back by wind u n t i l the afternoon.  On the 16th they got across the lake to L i t t l e  Red Deer Lake and River which i n turn l e d them to Great Red Deer, or the Athabasca River, which they reached about noon of the 18th and paddled up i t u n t i l about £ o'clock i n the afternoon.  Here they camped to r e p a i r the canoes which they  had been gumming almost every day because of the damage suffered from, stones and boulders i n the shallow waters of the l i t t l e Red Deer R i v e r . must have been malaria.  Ogden was s t i l l i l l with what  He had been suffering from c h i l l s  and fever since they had l e f t Moose Portage.  Free for a day  he would be attacked by i t again, only to struggle on as best he could.  What a welcome change was the deeper  Athabasca  River from the rocky streams of the past few weeks I  On the  19th another problem resolved i t s e l f , - — a canoe arrived from 88 Freemen were the ex-servants of the fur companies who were no longer under indenture. They formed camps of t h e i r own or worked f o r the companies on a credit basis, paying t h e i r expenses at the end of an expedition.  42 89 McDonald of Mcleod branch with f i v e bags of pemmican and a bundle of dry meat.  "They also brought the carcass of a 90  moose which they k i l l e d a few days ago," says Work.  Their  problems i n provisioning were over. The r i v e r was too swift f o r paddling, but not too deep f o r poling, so that progress was rapid.  Day by day as  they proceeded, the appearance of the country changed. gave way to pines.  Poplars  Rapids were more frequently encountered  and the current was swifter..  It was amazing how much of t h i s  country had been burnt over.  On the 22nd of September they  camped at the mouth of the Pembina River.  About noon, two  days l a t e r , they arrived at Fort Assiniboine which was just i n the process of being b u i l t .  Here was the source of the  food which, had reached them on the 19th and which Work thought had come from Mcleod Branch, which was s t i l l four day's journey up the r i v e r , "so that we were surprised at under.91 • standing that the buildings were here".  Ogden and Work had  thought that the Fort was to have been b u i l t at Mcleod Branch. After spending a day r e p a i r i n g their canoes, they l e f t Fort Assiniboine about four o•clock i n the afternoon of the 25th.  The banks were getting steeper " r i s i n g abruptly 92  from the Waters edge".  Work observed a seam of coal i n the  been possible n d out just On which r i v e r 89 bank It ofhas an not estimated two feet to i nf ithickness. the 27th McDonald t h i s i s . It may be William Mcintosh who was there i n 1825 when Simpson passed on h i s return from the P a c i f i c , c f . Ross, Alexander, The Fur Hunters of the -Far West, London, Smith, Elder and Company, 1855, v o l . 2, p. 205. 90  Work, op. c i t . , entry for September 19, 1825.  91  Ibid., entry f o r September 24, 1823.  92  Ibid., entry f o r September 26, 1823.  they passed Mcleod Branch i n the evening after a long days march. the  More seams of coal had been noted along the banks of  river.  On Wednesday, October the 1st, they caught t h e i r  f i r s t glimpse of the mountains.  The r i v e r was almost a  perpetual rapid now and the men were very t i r e d at night from poling a l l day. edge.  High banks ran perpendicular to the water's  The woods were dense and almost e n t i r e l y of pine.  The  weather was growing colder with f r o s t s almost every night and 93 "snow towards morning".  On Friday, October 3rd, they arrived  at Rocky Mountain or Jasper House at 8 o'clock i n the morning. This house, says Work, "... i s b u i l t on a small Lake very shallow, and embosomed i n the mountains whose peaks are r i s 94 ing  up round about i t on three sides".  day i n preparation, Ogden's party s p l i t  After spending that into two groups.  Work  was to proceed with four men and twenty-two horses, carrying part of the provisions and baggage.  Ogden  canoes with the remainder of the provisions.  embarked i n the The object of  taking the canoes was to a s s i s t the people who might be coming out  i n the spring.  The t r a i l was exceedingly rough f o r the  horses so that i t was not u n t i l the 95 reached House 93 William Work, Henry's op. c i t . ,(old) entry for  6th of October that they •which f i f t y miles Octoberi s2,about 1823.  94 Ibid., entry f o r October 3, 1823. This post was located where the Athabasca opens into Second or Burnt Lake. It was b u i l t by the ISi.W. Co., Merk, op. c i t . , p. 29, n. 66. See also Harvey, A.G-., "The Mystery of Mount Rob son" i n the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, (hereafter called the B.C.H.Q.J v o l . , 1, p. 222. 95 Located where the Miette River enters the Athabasca, Merk, op. c i t . , pp. 31-32, n. 73.  44 96 above Jaspers House and the highest point of navigation f o r canoes on the Athabasca.  Here he found that Ogden had already  arrived with the canoes. Work described t h i s country through which he had passed on the 4th and 5th, The course of the r i v e r [Athabasca] i s nearly from S. to N. winding through the v a l l e y and the mountains r i s i n g abruptly on both sides not i n one continued chain but here and there broken by a small v a l l e y or kind of f i s s u r e , out of which issues a small r i v e r or creek which contributes to increase the size of the main r i v e r The woods climb i n many places a considerable distance up the sides of the mountains, and often to the very summit of some of the lower ones which creates some surprise how they can grow as t h i s appears to be nothing but bare rocks. The summits, of the other peaks appear destitute [?] of wood and vegetables of every kind, the higher ones covered h e r e . t h e r e with snow and some of them appear buried i n the clouds.. 97 c  A1X goods were now transferred to packhorses.  On  October 8th, i n the early afternoon the party reached Moose Encampment.  The next four days they spent crossing the Portage  at Athabasca Pass. cult .  The t r a i l was exceedingly rough and d i f f i -  I t crossed and recrossed the r i v e r seeking out the  easier of the two banks.  It was encumbered by burned and  f a l l e n trees, by steep banks and swamps.  On the afternoon of  October 10 they crossed the height of land penetrating through a narrow v a l l e y enclosed by snow capped peaks.  On the east  96 Merk, op. c i t . , p. 31. T h i s does not agree with the account of Work's E i r s t Journal, by W.N.Sage i n the Can.Hist. Association Annual Report, 1929, p. 26. Dr. Sage states that Ogden and Work l e f t Jasper House a f t e r three day's rest and arrived at Henry House at l i t t l e after sunrise. A c t u a l l y they arrived at Jasper House on October 3rd, and l e f t the next day. On October 6th, they reached the " l i t t l e house" and l e f t the canoes there. Ogden had gone by canoe and Work by pack-train. This " l i t t l e house" i s the William Henry's (old) House which i s cited i n Merk, op. c i t . , p. 32. Both Work and Simpson mention i t s p o s i t i o n at the head of navigation. 97 Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r October 5, 1823.  45 side towered McGillivray's Rock named "in. honor of Mr. 98 M c G i l l i v r a y who ?;as the head man of the N.W.  Co."  W.  In the  v a l l e y l a y three small l a k e s — t h e f i r s t or easterly one emptying into the Athabasca, and the t h i r d into the Columbia.  In  spite of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the route, Work expresses the opinion that the roads were i n "unprecedented good order" and ' 99 the r i v e r conveniently low. F i n a l l y at 10 o'clock on the morning of October 13th they reached the end of the Portage at Boat Encampment on the "Big Bend" of the Columbia River. Here they found that Chief Factor Kennedy and Alexander Ross with fourteen men had been waiting f o r them f o r twenty days. No more time than necessary was spent i n getting the canoes ready, i n sending back the horses and i n preparing f o r the l a s t leg of t h e i r journey.  They were ready by  the 15th and embarked at 9 o'clock i n the morning.  Work  noted with interest that bark canoes were not used on the Columbia by the Hudson's Bay but that there were wooden boats 100 carrying eight men goods.  each and loaded with f i f t y - f i v e pieces  of  The boats, Work claims, could be carried over a por-  tage by twelve men.  They were about t h i r t y feet long, f i v e  and a h a l f foot beam, clinker b u i l t and pointed at both ends. F l a t timbers of oak were bent to the desired shape to form the ribs.  These were bolted to a f l a t keel at i n t e r v a l s of a foot 98 Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r Ootober 10, 1823 a t t r i b u t i n g i t by the p r e v a i l i n g legend to William M c G i l l i v r a y It was named a f t e r Duncan M c G i l l i v r a y (cf., Morton, op. c i t . , pp. 467-8). s  99  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r October 12,  1823.  100 A piece weighs approximately ninety pounds, two of these constitute a normal portaging load (cf., Merk, op. c i t . , p. 11, n. 22)  Blanks of cedar formed the outside skin and ran the f u l l length of the boat.  N a i l s were scarce and not used except  at the ends of the craft to secure the planks to stem and stern pieces.  The overlap-ping seams were well gummed to 101  render the craft water t i g h t .  These boats were then pro-  pelled, by paddles, not by oars.  Kennedy and Ogden were i n  charge of one boat, Ross of the second, and Work the t h i r d . Their journey down the Columbia was rapid and uneventful.  On the 16th they passed the dreaded Dalles des  Morts, which are some distance above the present c i t y of Revelstoke.  Work's fur trader's eye noted recent marks of  beaver at d i f f e r e n t places. That evening they reached Upper Arrow lake and camped for the night. By the next evening they had pushed on to the lower end of the same lake.  Here, Work has h i s f i r s t view, but  c e r t a i n l y not his l a s t , of the E a c i f i c salmon.  Prom the size  he mentions (20-30 pounds each) they were spring salmon on t h e i r way up the r i v e r to spawn and die, their l i f e completed.  cycle  Work did not care for t h e i r appearance f o r they  must have shown the bruised and' battered signs of t h e i r long journey-—now spotted with grey fungus-growth,  their s i l v e r  sides flaming into red, t h e i r jaws hooked and mis-shapen. ""...They are remarkably f i n e , " he said, "when they f i r s t enter the river....The natives are now  s p l i t t i n g and drying these 102 dead and dieing f i s h f o r t h e i r winters provisions." 101 F u l l e r , Geo. W., History of the P a c i f i c New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1931, p. 91. :  102  Work, op. c i t . ,  entry for October 17,  Northwest, ~  1823.  By Saturday, October 18, they had reached the lower end of the lower Arrow l a k e .  Sunday evening found them en-  camped a l i t t l e above Kettle F a l l s .  Work had noticed the  changing appearance of the country, the low or high banks, the presence of woods or barren lands, the kinds of trees, the t y p i c a l fogs of late autumn to be found each morning on the r i v e r .  On Monday they began the Portage.at Kettle F a l l s .  Everything had to be carried, both goods and boats. t r y was of a dry appearance.  The coun-  Trees were fewer, the dense  forests of the Upper Columbia had gone.  For the f i r s t time  he saw the t y p i c a l dugout canoes of the coast Indian. The express arrived at the junction of the Spokane River and the Columbia on Tuesday eveningOctober men  21st.  Five  and some horses were found at the Forks apparently await-  ing t h e i r a r r i v a l .  One of these men was sent posthaste on a  s i x t y mile ride to Spokane House for more men and horses. The next morning Ross set out f o r Spokane. About noon, 103 William K i t t s o n arrived from Spokane with news of Indian troubles. 104 McDonald  Six of the freemen who had accompanied Finan to the Snake country," had been k i l l e d by a war  party of Blackfeet Indians.  Although t h i s was a tragedy,  not to be underestimated, i t must be borne i n mind that t h i s 103" William K i t t s o n served i n the War of 1812 and entered the North West Company as clerk i n 1817. He accompanied Ogden on the Snake expedition 1824-5. In 1826-9 he was i n charge of Kootenay Post and in. 1834 took care of the farming, stock-raising and furtrading at Nisqually. 104 Finan McDonald, clerk, was Simpson passed i n 1824. He was then pedition into the Umpqua V a l l e y . He the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1821 and u n t i l h i s retirement i n 1827•  at Spokane House when sent to command an exhad become a clerk i n remained i n the Columbia  48 expedition i n spite of i t s misfortunes,, brought out over 105 4,000 beaver from the Snake River area.  It was to prove  the great p o s s i b i l i t i e s of that country, p o s s i b i l i t i e s of which Governor Simpson was already convinced and anxious to exploit. It was not u n t i l Friday October 24th that James 106' Birnie  arrived from Spokane with men and horses to handle  the goods.  On Saturday, Kennedy and Birnie l e f t with the  express f o r Fort George (Astoria).  Ogden, who had been sent 107  out with the purpose of replacing Kennedy at Spokane House, started f o r Spokane on horseback, accompanied by William K i t t s o n and John Work.  The l a t t e r two pushed on ahead and  reached the fort at daylight a f t e r a hard ride, through the night.  Ogden arrived the next day with the men. and the horse  Here Work was to remain u n t i l the next spring.. Spokane House was situated on the north bank of the main Spokane River a l i t t l e l i t t l e Spokane.  above i t s junction, with the  The Fort was the o u t f i t t i n g point f o r Snake  River expeditions and had two outposts l y i n g to the e a s t — 108 105 H.B.S., IV, p. x x i . 'It was not a convenient spot, Flathead and Kootenay Houses. 106 James B i r n i e entered the employ of the North West Company i n 1818 and joined the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1821. He kept the Spokane Journal 1822-3 and was stationed at Fort Simpson 1834-37. 107  H.B.S., IV, p. x x i i .  108 Morton, op. c i t . , p. 710. See also Merk, op., c i t . , pp. 43-44 f o r Simpson's d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i t e . The pre sent c i t y of Spokane i s ten miles south-east of the old f o r t .  49 being s i x t y miles by land from the Columbia at i t s junction of the Spokane River, and considerably north of the Snake 109 River.  But i n the opinion of Alexander Ross  at l e a s t , i t  was a l o v e l y congenial spot with handsome buildings, a b a l l room,' a race track, good hunting, and l a s t but not l e a s t , attractive women.  109 Ross, Alexander, Fur Traders of the Far West, v o l . , 1, pp » 138—139.  50 CHAPTER III F i r s t Days on the Columbia, 1825-24, Nothing i s known of the l i f e of John Work during that f i r s t winter of 1823-4 at Spokane House,  No doubt i t  passed pleasantly enough, Morton suggests that he took "en ' ; 110 faoon du nord, a squaw of the same t r i b e " Spokane . His second journal began on Thursday, A p r i l 15, 1824.  He l e f t  Spokane with Ogden and Finan McDonald with the fur brigade. for Spokane Forks by paokhorse, and thence by boat to Fort George. first  K i t t s o n stayed behind i n charge of the F o r t .  This  day was a'short march and they stopped at 11 o'clock  that morning to allow the horses to feed.  On the 17th they  arrived at the Forks at 10 o'clock i n the morning.  Here they  found that seven men had come up from Okanagan to take down the boats so that embarkation proceeded apace.  By one o'clock  they were on t h e i r way down the Columbia. Sunday, A p r i l 18th was Easter.  It seems curious  that Work should have noted t h i s i n h i s journal, u n t i l one r e c a l l s that most of h i s men were half-breeds from Eastern Canada and ardent Roman Catholics.  But, notwithstanding the  day, they embarked early and arrived at Okanagan i n the evening On the way,  one of the many near-accidents occurred which he  describes l a c o n i c a l l y , "At the rapid below the D a l l s , the boat i n which I was was driven ashore, and f i l l e d but she was not broken...,"  His concern was not f o r himself but f o r the furs 111 since he remarks "...the greater part of the packs were wet". 110  Morton, op. c i t . , p. 713.  111  Work, Journal 1 (b),  entry f o r A p r i l 18,  1824.  51 The next day was spent i n drying these wet furs and i n waiting for the boats from. Fort George.  On Tuesday 20th, Work record-  ed that the boats had s t i l l not arrived and then h i s journal broke o f f u n t i l May 1st,  Sometime between A p r i l 20th and  May 1st the boats had arrived and had been packed. On May 1st, 1824, the f u r brigade, consisting of seven boats, and sixty-three men l e f t Okanagan f o r Walla Walla (Kez Perces).  Spring was well advanced and Work had time to  notice that shrubs and plants along the banks were i n f u l l flower.  By s t a r t i n g at midnight on May 3rd, they arrived a t •• 118:  Walla Walla  at 9 o'clock i n the morning.  They were now i n  a l e v e l country with few h i l l s and few trees and of a general sandy appearance.  The 4th of May was spent i n packing the  Walla Walla returns with the rest of the baggage. Warren Dease embarked with them.  John  On the 5th they started f o r Fort George but were held up by heavy wind which roughened the broad Columbia and p a r t i a l l y blinded them with d r i f t i n g sand.  They made camp  e a r l y i n the evening and stayed ashore u n t i l Friday, May 7th. Once more they embarked but were forced ashore by wind at about 10 i n the morning.  A horse was purchased from the  Indians and butchered f o r food.  Even wood f o r t h e i r f i r e s  had to be bought from the natives. On Saturday they reached 113 what Work c a l l e d the Chutes where a Portage had to be made. 112 Walla Walla was situated a few miles below the confluence of the Snake River at the forks of a small stream which flows into the Columbia from the south. 113 The C e l i l o F a l l s , the f i r s t of a series of obstructions i n the Columbia which continue f o r fourteen miles and were known as the "Dalles". This includes C e l i l o F a l l s , the l i t t l e and the Great D a l l e s .  By May  the 10th they had passed the l i t t l e and the Great  Dalles where the r i v e r twists "between huge "basalt blocks. The l a s t was an awe-inspiring sight to the t r a v e l l e r s , here, "the r i v e r i s confined to a narrow span bordered on each side by steep rocks between which the water rushes with great violence and forms numerous whirlpools which would inevitably 114 swallow any boat that would venture among thenfi  Here Work  was pleased to f i n d that the countryside was again growing green and on the h i l l s i d e s appeared oaks, pine and poplars. They secured a number of salmon from the Indians who were peacefully dipping them out of the eddies with scoop nets. After dark, the wind abated and the expedition continued f o r a short time only. camp u n t i l daylight.  Again the wind came up so they landed to At dawn they proceeded once more down 115  the r i v e r and that afternoon reached the Cascades.  Here the  baggage had to be carried but the boats could be lowered by ropes down the current.  Below t h i s obstruction the r i v e r  widened out and the current became less swift. On May 12th they camped just below the junction of the Columbia and the Willamette 'Rivers.  Here Work pro cured  a sturgeon from the Indians and remarked on the a t t r a c t i v e appearance of the surrounding country.  He noticed also the  tides which run up the r i v e r some ninety miles.  To make up  f o r l o s t time, they paddled a l l that night and arrived at 114  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r May 10,  1824.  115 The Cascades of the Columbia where the r i v e r breaks through the Cascade Mountains.  53 116 Fort George at 8 o'clock i n the morning of the 13th. The Establishment of Fort George i s a large p i l e of buildings covering about an acre of ground well stockaded and protected byBastions or Blockhouses, having two Eighteen Pounders mounted i n front and altogether an a i r or appearance of Grandeur & consequence which does not become and i s not at a l l suitable to an Indian Trading Post. 117 T h i s i s Governor Simpson's rather uncomplimentary description. Qn May 14th and 15th they were busy discharging the furs.  The following day Work received instructions to take  a party of men  up the r i v e r i n order to feed them by trading  a r t i c l e s with the Indians f o r the necessary provisions which would consist very l a r g e l y of salmon, fresh and dried, and possibly some sturgeon.  The annual supply ship had not yet  arrived from England and supplies were short at the depot,, It must be remembered, also, that the Columbia d i s t r i c t not yet organized by Simpson to supply i t s own in food.  was  requirements  Moreover,•it would be inconvenient and a nuisance  to have so many men 118  i d l e about the post.  With Francis N.  Annanoe, Work l e f t the f o r t at noon on the 17th of May.  They  were to go as f a r as the Cascades i f food could hot be secured at a nearer distance.  They were furnished with a number of  small a r t i c l e s for trade including tobacco, axes, hooks, rings, 116 The present s i t e of the c i t y of A s t o r i a on the south bank, of the Columbia about 14 miles from the r i v e r ' s mouth. 117  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 65.  118 F r a n c i s i\ioel Annance entered the employ of the Worth West Company i n 1820 and became clerk and interpreter f o r the Hudson's Bay after c o a l i t i o n . He was one of McMillan's party to explore the Fraser i n 1824. He was a member of the expedition which established Fort langley i n 1827, and r e t i r e d i n 1834.  f i l e s , knives, beads and l a s t l y a l i t t l e ammunition.  The  l a s t mentioned was.not to be used i n trade unless provisions could not be secured otherwise.  1  The Hudson s Bay Company had  no wish to supply the Indians with the means of violence which might be directed toward themselves or which might s t i r up i n t e r - t r i b a l wars. out to the men  A supply of f l o u r and grease was given  to l a s t for the few days before contact could  be made with the Indians. The next two days they proceeded up the r i v e r c a l l ing  at each v i l l a g e with varying success.  It was the begin-  ning of the season and the salmon had not yet started to run in quantity. Through s u p e r s t i t i o n , some of the Indians cooked a l l t h e i r salmon, so that i n some places a l l Work could buy was roasted f i s h .  In many places, the prices asked were  beyond what Work was prepared to pay, or the Indians demanded rum, ammunition or s h i r t s which Work was not prepared to trade. John Work was extremely interested i n the Indian method of trapping the salmon i n the lower part of the Columbia and wrote as follows: The Indians where we encamped were employed catching salmon with some nets, the time selected i s from h a l f ebb to h a l f flood t i d e , Their nets are made i n the same manner as those used i n Europe with wood f l o a t s and stone sinkers. These Indians manage one of these apparently 60 to 80 fathoms long. They roast a l l the f i s h they catch and what are not required for immediate use, i s broken f i n e and placed i n l i t t l e sacks over the f i r e to dry. It i s afterwards mixed with o i l and preserved for a future occasion. The houses of the Indians are generally well stocked with mats, baskets, some very ingeniously worked, and a v a r i e t y |pf) troughs, p l a t t e r s and other vessels of wood, numbers of them are i n the shape of hogs and other animals, the hog seems to be preferred. 119  55 By the 20th they were i n the neighborhood of the Cowlitz River which flows into the Columbia from the north side.  The surroundings were l o v e l y , "beautiful p l a i n s . . . 120  spotted with clumps of trees l i k e a gentlemans lawn". of  Prices  f i s h were s t i l l exorbitant so that the party decided to  push on to the Cascades where they arrived on the 26th of May.  I t i s t y p i c a l of the methodical and cautious John Work  that on the previous evening he "encamped about 4 o'clock, 121 for  the purpose of arranging our a r t i c l e s of trade and arms".  Here, f i s h were f a i r l y p l e n t i f u l and cheap, but the water was r i s i n g fast and the salmon were more d i f f i c u l t to take in high water.  At the Cascades, the method of f i s h i n g  d i f f e r e d from that used on the lower r i v e r . Wrote Work; The Indians take the salmon i n scoop nets, for t h i s purpose they construct a stage projecting from the shore out over a shoot in the r i v e r , on t h i s stage the Indian seats himself and with the net fixed on a hoop at the end of a long pole keeps continually dragging the r i v e r s t i l l putting the net i n above and sweeping i t down the stream where i t meets the salmon which are strugl i n g up the current. Pishing i n t h i s manner appears to be a laborious exercise. 122 Salmon were now becoming so p l e n t i f u l that Work began to reduce the price paid for them.  C e r t a i n l y h i s party  was fed with l i t t l e cost; an estimated three s h i l l i n g s and two pence per day feeding a t o t a l of t h i r t y - f i v e men, two clerks and twelve women.  One wonders where the women came  119  Work, op. c i t . ,  entry for May 19, 1824.  120  Ibid., entry f o r May 21, 1824.  121  Ibid., entry f o r May 25, 1824.  122  Ibid., entry for May 27, 1824.  56 from, u n t i l , i t i s r e a l i z e d that many of the men had t h e i r wives with them on. most expeditions. Moreover, the Indians were w i l l i n g to loan t h e i r women to the expedition f o r a consideration.  11  As usual," Work says, "some women arrived  i n the evening f o r the purpose of h i r i n g themselves to the 123 people for the night."  The men traded tobacco which was  sold them from the stores, and even t h e i r buttons f o r these women, u n t i l i t was estimated that only two dozen buttons were l e f t i n camp. On June 3rd, news arrived from the Fort that the supply v e s s e l had not yet arrived, so that the men must continue to exist among the Indian v i l l a g e s on t h e i r diet of salmon f o r a while yet.  The steady diet of f i s h was  beginning to p a l l on them so that they refused to eat part of a sturgeon which they had i n camp. Moreover, the waters of the Columbia were r i s i n g r a p i d l y because the snow i n the mountains was melting.  Work was a f r a i d l e s t t h i s should  cut down the salmon supply.  On the 11th of June he gave out  a l i t t l e ammunition to the men to see i f they could f i n d any game as a change to the endless "salmon as well as to ensure them against a possible food shortage. successful.  The hunters were not  On the 14th, seven more men arrived from the Fort  to j o i n the party.  They brought a few trade goods with them  but no tobacco, the commodity which the Indians desired most. No news yet of the ship had been received. The party were encamped near an Indian b u r i a l ground 123  Work, op. c i t . , entry for May 29, 1824.  57 which Work descrihea as follows, The Indians here deposit t h e i r dead i n houses prepared f o r t h i s purpose, p r i n c i p a l characters seem to have houses a l l o t t e d f o r themselves or at least f o r the use of one family ©nly, where the corpse i s l a i d on the ground covered up with hark or mats and the house well closed up. Less pains seem to have been taken with the common people, the body i s wrapt up i n a mat or some a r t i c l e s of o l d clothing and thrown • into a house promiscuously with the p u t r i d bodies of those who have gone before i t , without any covering of earth or boards, and the house so badly closed that i t may be said to be l e f t open, so that there i s nothing to prevent animals from preying on the dead bodies. Children when they die are wrapt up i n a mat or some other covering and l a i d up i n the branches of trees without any covering except perhaps a board over or under them on the branches. The bodies of slaves I understand, are not allowed to be deposited among free people but are thrown i n d i f f e r e n t l y i n the woods. 1S4 The 20th of June marked a minor tragedy i n Work's life.  An Indian had sold them about eight pounds of venison,  a part of which they had had f o r dinner. rest that night.  A dog stole the  "This," Work laments, " i s the only meat we  125 have received since the day after we l e f t the F o r t . "  How-  ever, a few days l a t e r the party enjoyed venison again when an Indian brought i n four deer.' Salmon began to get r e a l l y scarce and a f t e r waiting f o r a while, Work decided to retreat down the r i v e r hoping that the Indians who caught f i s h by seine would have a p l e n t i f u l supply.  Hunting p a r t i e s were  sent out along the r i v e r bank but without success.  On the  29th the party was reduced to purchasing s i x dogs at an 124  Work, op. c i t . , entry for June 19, 1824.  125  Ibid., entry f o r June 20, 1824.  58 Indian T i l l a g e f o r the people's breakfast.  Here t h e i r  d i f f i c u l t i e s were complicated by the a r r i v a l of another eight men  to j o i n the party.  The newcomers reported that salmon  were also scarce i n the lower reaches of the r i v e r . i n a quandary. the v i l l a g e .  Work was  More dogs could, of course, be purchased at  F i n a l l y he decided to make a f l y i n g v i s i t to  the Fort to procure more trade goods and to check on the salmon supply i n the lower r i v e r himself.  He was back again  at 10 o'clock on the morning of July 3rd.  He had  the men's story of the few salmon below.  confirmed  With the water  f a l l i n g again, he decided to push upstream again to the Oascades i n the hope that salmon would be p l e n t i f u l there. His hopes were f o r t u n a t e l y r e a l i z e d so that the next few days proceeded uneventfully. 126 On the 11th of July, Work wrote to Thomas McKay at Walla Walla and to K i t t s o n at Spokane to announce that the ship had as yet not• arrived o f f the Columbia.  It was not  u n t i l the 17th that he received orders from Chief Factor Kennedy at Fort George to have the men back at the Fort by the 24th of July because the Inland Brigade would start by the 1st of August i f the ship did not arrive before that time. On the 24th of July, f u l f i l l i n g orders, he arrived back at the Fort i n order to get ready to proceed to the I n t e r i o r . 126 Thomas McKay was the son of John Mcloughlin* s wife by a previous union with Alexander McKay, a former Nor'Wester who l o s t h i s l i f e i n the massacre of the Tonquin. Thomas entered the North West Company as a clerk i n 1814. After c o a l i t i o n he continued i n the Columbia i n the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company. He went with McMillan to the Fraser i n 1824, he served i n the TJmpqua expedition i n 1828. For a while he s e t t l e d i n the Willamette V a l l e y and then r e j o i n ed the"Company and spent a great deal of time i n the Snake River country. He died i n 1850.  59 These men had been two and a h a l f months l i v i n g on fish.  A l l t h i s time the.y were i d l e .  Here was a practice  which had been f a i r l y common i n p r e - c o a l i t i o n days i n the West.  It was a practice which was to cease with the advent  of Governor Simpson to whom i t was a sample of the flagrant extravagances i n the Columbia Department. do with t h e i r days? nights.  What d i d the men  Work t e l l s us what they did with t h e i r  I t i s a great compliment to the o f f i c e r s and to the  Company that serious trouble was avoided i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s among themselves and with the Indians.  Would i t have been  more p r a c t i c a l i f Work had made some arrangement whereby h i s men could have done the fishing?  This might have annoyed the  Indians but i t would have given the men something to do. I t would have ensured the party a regular supply, and quantities of salmon might have been dried not only f o r themselves but f o r the post at f o r t George. As usual when staying at a post, Work made no more entries i n h i s journal u n t i l h i s departure which took place t h i s time on the End of August.  He stated that he had been  occupied since the 24th of July i n getting the Brigade ready. On the 2nd, the junior gentlemen, Finan . McDonald, F.N. Annance and John Work set out with six loaded boats, with crews of nine men per boat, comprising the Brigade.  As usual they  camped but a few miles from the Fort where the men were given what i s c a l l e d the regale, which i s a pint of rum and some 12?  bread & pork per man".  This was the customary procedure  and, " i n a short time the greater part of the men were drunk and began to quarrel, when several b a t t l e s ensued, & the a f t e r 127  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r August 2, 1824.  60 128 part of the day was spent drinking and fighting"  The nest  morning the senior gentlemen were paddled the few miles to the encampment from the Fort, where they had spent the night i n peace and quiet, these were Dease, Ogden and Mcleod. Factor Kennedy came to see them o f f .  On the 6th, they arrived  at the Cascades and passed them without d i f f i c u l t y . voyage so f a r had been uneventful. minor i n j u r y against a stone. make much use of the s a i l s .  Chief  The  Work's canoe had suffered  The wind had been too l i g h t to On the 11th they arrived at  Walla Walla before breakfast where the Brigade remained f o r the day.  At daylight the boats were under way again but Work  l e f t them to proceed to Spokane by horseback with l e t t e r s . He set out the next morning (August 13th) with two Nez Perces Indians as guides.  Their route l a y i n a north-  westerly d i r e c t i o n across the Snake River and over stony and dusty country.  It was very hot and Work suffered considerably 1  i n the three days s-march through the p l a i n s .  He was glad to  get into the wooded country around Spokane and to arrive at the Fort which he reached at 2 o'clock i n the afternoon of August 16th.  Here occurs Work's f i r s t confession of fatigue 129 i n h i s journals, " I was t i r e d a f t e r my r i d e , " he wrote. He remained at the Fort u n t i l the following week130  end.  "Nothing material occurred."  News arrived i n the person  of Finan McDonald that the Brigade had arrived at Spokane Forks, so that preparations were made immediately to round up 1E8  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r August E, 18E4.  IS9  Ibid., entry for August 16,  1824.  130  Ibid., entry for August 22,  1824.  61 the necessary horses to bring up the supplies from the boats. Work set out on Tuesday, August 24th, with some Indians and one hundred horses.  They arrived at the Forks on Wednesday  and on Thursday started back with the property f o r Spokane House.  It was not u n t i l Sunday, August 29th that the loaded  pack-train arrived at the F o r t .  Ogden, who had ridden ahead,  arrived the day before. On Monday, Finan McDonald and John Work set o f f on a trading expedition to the Flathead Country. f i r s t expedition into that f i e l d .  This was Work'  Their route l e d them by  horseback to the Pend d ' O r e i l l e River which they reached on September 1st.  The horses were sent back to the Fort and the  party proceeded by canoes which had been cached at t h i s point That same day they proceeded up the Pend d'Oreille River and encamped just below Pend d ' O r e i l l e lake.  The next day  them through the lake into the r i v e r beyond.  saw  In the forenoon  of September 4th they arrived at. t h e i r destination, an Indian camp, where the natives had been waiting for them for more than a month. Trading commenced immediately and was the next day at noon.  completed  The party obtained s i x hundred and  f i f t y beaver, t h i r t y bales of dry provisions (mostly buffalo meat), some buffalo robes, dressed skins and  apishamores.  Four t r i b e s were t h e r e — F l a t h e a d s , Eootenais, Pend d ' O r e i l l e s and Piegans, trade was l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to the f i r s t  two  mentioned. That same afternoon they began t h e i r return t r i p and arrived hack at the Portage below Pend d*Oreille Lake on  62 Tuesday, September 7th.  Two men were sent off to Spokane  to procure horses and arrived with them the following Friday. They also brought news that the long-expected supply ship 131 Vigilant  had arrived at Fort George on the 24th of August,  nearly a month a f t e r the Brigade l e f t f o r the Interior.  The  next day, Saturday September 11th, the party started back f o r the Fort about noon and got as f a r as the Coeur d'Alene P l a i n . On the 12th, McDonald and Work came on ahead of the party and arrived at Spokane House i n .the evening. At Spokane i t was decided to proceed without delay 152 to Fort George " f o r supplies of Ammunition, Arms and Tobacco". Ogden and Work set out on the 13th leaving Kittson and McDonald at Spokane.  They arrived at the Forks i n the morning  of Tuesday, September 14th, where boats and men, f o r which Ogden had arranged, awaited them.  As soon, as the pack horses  arrived the boats were loaded (two boats and twenty-nine men) and they started down the Columbia.  They put i n to Okanagan  the next day and arrived at Walla Walla on Friday.  Here a  horse was k i l l e d f o r food and a supply of corn taken aboard. At the Cascades one of the boats and i t s equipment was l o s t as they " l i n e d " i t down the r i v e r , " . . . I t was absolutely smashed to atoms," wrote Work.  "Kettles, axes, poles, etc., 1  together with several of the men s oapots, hats & blankets that remained  i n the boat were t o t a l l y l o s t .  Two men narrow-  l y escaped being drowned by c l i n g i n g to a f i s h i n g stage that 131 Merk, op. c i t . , p. 43, n. 95. 132  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r Sunday, September 13,1824.  63 133 was near the place."  A canoe was hired, from the Indians to  replace the l o s t c r a f t .  Fortunately no furs were l o s t since  they had a l l been carried across the Portage. After paddling a l l Sunday night they arrived at Fort George about 5 o'clock i n the afternoon. fatigued because of t h e i r forced march.  The men were  The l a c o n i c entries  i n his Journal f o r the next two days t e l l t h e i r own story. Tuesday, Sept. E l s t . The men received t h e i r regale and are enjoying themselves. Wednesday, Sept. 22nd. L i t t l e business done as the men are s t i l l enjoying themselves. However, a l l pleasant things must end so on Tuesday . 134 September 28th, Work again proceeded to Tongue Point and camped f o r the f i r s t night on the return journey. he was back at the Cascades.  By F r i d a y  On Thursday, October 7th he  arrived at Walla Walla and delivered the goods intended f o r that place.  Again Work was sent overland to Spokane with  l e t t e r s while Ogden- proceeded up the r i v e r with the brigade. 135 Work arrived a " l i t t l e after sunrising" and on the following day started out with two mensand f o r t y horses to meet the boats at the Forks.  He was waiting there when Ogden arrived  with them on the morning of October 20th, "21 days from Fort George which i s reckoned an expeditious journey with loaded 136 boats".  The reason f o r t h e i r haste i s f a i r l y obvious.  No  sooner had the property been sent on to Spokane when the 133  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r September 19, 1824.  134 Tongue Point was just above Fort George and the usual spot f o r the regale. 135  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r October 14, 1824.  136  Ibid., entry f o r October 20, 1824.  64 Express arrived (Wednesday, October 27th., 1824) bringing Governor Simpson, Dr. John Mcloughlin and James McMillan from York Factory who were accompanied by J.W. Dease and Thomas McKay who presumably had met them at Boat Encampment .  65 CHAPTER IT With McMillan to the f r a s e r River, 1824. Work d i d not return to the f o r t hut stayed at Spokane f o r k s while the Governor, McLoughlin, and McMillan, accompanied by Ggden rode o f f to v i s i t Spokane House. was Simpson's f i r s t western inspection t r i p .  He was  This intent  on reform and was not w i l l i n g to take anybody's word on the state of a f f a i r s i n the west, not even Ogden's. He [Ogden) represents the Country to be i n a state of Peace and quietness and the Comp^ a f f a i r s going on as usual which i s not saying a great deal as if.my information i s correct the Columbia Dep from the Day of i t s Origin to the present hour has been neglected, shamef u l l y mismanaged and a scene of the most wastef u l extravagance and the most unfortunate dissention. It i s high time the system should be changed.... ^ 137 t  s  m t  With t h i s i n view, Simpson made a number of plans while at Spokane House,  f i r s t , - he objected to the Snake  River Expeditions l y i n g i d l e at flathead Post a l l the winter. Simpson f e l t that since t h i s was a trapping and not a trading expedition, that the best season f o r trapping was l o s t when the hunters d i d not venture out-into the f i e l d u n t i l february each year.  Not only did the members of the expedition  quarrel and f i g h t during t h i s i d l e season but they also consumed t h e i r ammunition and t h e i r supplies to such an extent that they had to have "a second o u t f i t which they cannot 138  afford  to pay f o r " . Therefore, the Governor proposed that the Snake River Expedition should proceed to i t s hunting grounds as 137  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 43.  158  Ibid., p. 45.  soon after the f i r s t of November as possible, swing south and west i f necessary through Northern C a l i f o r n i a and out by way of the Umpqua and Willamette to Port George so that their furs could be shipped to London by the annual supply ship.  This plan would have the manifest advantage of avoid-  ind the long haul by Brigade from Spokane down the Columbia to Port George.  "This i s the inception of Ogden's four  h i s t o r i c Snake Country Expeditions which opened up the unexplored wilderness of the northern Great Basin i n the years 139' 1824-9".  The  second plan which the Governor entertained  was  that of making the posts as s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t as possible.  Not  only would t h i s involve subsisting o f f the f i s h of the r i v e r s and the game of the forests but i t would introduce the practice of farming as w e l l . clear.  Simpson makes t h i s l a s t point p e r f e c t l y  " I t has been s a i d , " he states, "that Panning i s no  branch of the Pur Trade but I consider that every pursuit tending to leighten the Expence of the Trade i s a branch 140 thereof." " . . . I mean to send some Garden and F i e l d seed -• 141 across next Season to be t r i e d at Spokane House...." We know that t h i s intention was  carried out, not at Spokane  House, but at C o l v i l e which was  to replace i t .  The t h i r d idea had been simmering i n the Governor's mind for some time.  He had already broached i t to McMillan  on h i s westward journey.  This was the exploration of the  Fraser River mouth with the view to establishing a post there 139  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 46, n.  140 . Ibid., p. 50. 141  I b i d . , p. 49.  102.  67 which should take the place of Fort George as the headquart14S era of the Columbia D i s t r i c t .  Simpson had o r i g i n a l l y intend-  ed to o u t f i t t h i s expedition at Okanagan and send i t i n a c i r c u l a r route from Okanagan to the Thompson, then down the Fraser to i t s mouth and thence by sea to the Columbia.  He  decided that the necessary provisions and equipment were beyond the a b i l i t i e s of Okanagan to supply so that the expedition must o u t f i t at Fort George and reverse i t s route. It seems a p i t y that this o r i g i n a l plan was not followed since i t might have cleared up the uncertainty surrounding  the  n a v i g a b i l i t y of the Fraser Canyon which existed i n Simpson's mind u n t i l h i s second expedition westward.  McMillan,  who  was placed i n charge of the expedition, d i d not complete the l a s t important  leg of t h i s journey, that of exploring the  Fraser Canyon above the Harrison River and e s p e c i a l l y above the present town of Hope.  John Work was  ordered by Simpson  to accompany him south to Fort George to become a member of 143 McMillan's expedition. On Saturday, October 30th, Governor Simpson arrived back at the Forks from Spokane House, ready to continue h i s inspection westward.  Ogden accompanied him from the F o r t .  The next morning at 10 o'clock Simpson and h i s party started f o r Okanagan and Ogden returned to Spokane House. down the Columbia was uneventful.  The voyage  They arrived at Okanagan  on Monday, November 1st, and l e f t again the next day.  On the 144 4th they arrived at Walla Walla "a l i t t l e after Sunrising". 142 See Chapter I, pp. 8-9. 143 Merk, op. c i t . , p. 47 and Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r ^October 28, 1824. 144  Work, op. c i t . , entry for November 4,  1824.  68 Tliree days latex they crossed the Portage at the Cascades and arrived at Fort George i n the evening of the next day, November 8th. The entries i n Work's journal now become irregular for a few days.  But on Wednesday, November 17th, Work writes,  Preparations have been making f o r some days ' past to send o f f an Expedition to the NorthWard f o r the purpose of ascertaining the s i t u a t i o n of the entrance of the Erasers River, & the p o s s i b i l i t y of. navigating the coast i n small boats. Erasers River & about i t s entrance are also to be examined i f i t can be accomplished. It i s understood from report that these are the p r i n c i p l e objects of the undertaking. The party are to consist of Mr.Jas. McMillan who commands the Expedi-» t i o n ; .Mr. Thos. McKay, Mr. P.N. Annance and Myself and 35 men. The Journey i s to be performed i n small boats, 3 i n number. Everything i s now prepared to start to morrow. 145 , 146 The second Journal of John Work states that the expedition l e f t Port George at 1:15  P.M.  on Thursday November 147  18th and reached the Portage i n Baker's Bay  which they used  to avoid doubling Cape Disappointment i n t h e i r boats. accompanied them to t h i s point.  Kennedy  The next day they commenced  in a "weighty r a i n " to carry the canoes and baggage across the Portage. They had about a mile portage to a l i t t l e lake 145 Work, op. c i t . , entry for Nov. 17, 1824. Work's numbers here are at variance with h i s nominal r o l l , of the expedition i n h i s second journal. The l a t e r l i s t includes the name of Michel laframbroise as interpreter and 36 men instead of 35. 146 Work, John, Journal of a Voyage from Fort George to the Northward, Winter 1824, (hereafter referred to as Journal 2, o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives) Edited by E l l i o t t , T.C., i n Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, (hereafter referred to as W.H.Q.) v o l . 3, pp. 198-228. 147 Present town of I l w a c o — i d e n t i f i e d by E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 3, p. 200, n. 1.  6& and thence down a creek too narrow to f l o a t the boats.  By  pushing and p u l l i n g t h e i r boats through willow patches and across swamps on Saturday they f i n a l l y completed the Portage to Shoalwater Bay (Work c a l l s i t Grey's Bay).  Here the  l i t t l e creek became deep enough to launch their craft,, on a flood t i d e .  On the S l s t they crossed to the East side of the  Bay. Work charted h i s progress from point to point and noted directions and distances i n his journal as i n a ship's l o g . When they reached the point at the northern end of the bay they found the sea too rough to permit them rounding i t i n their small boats.' The only alternative was to make a portage of nearly two miles across the point.  Here the labor of carry  ing did not end as the party found that the surf was s t i l l too great to r i s k launching t h e i r small c r a f t .  Monday, 22nd was  spent i n laboriously p u l l i n g the boats along the edge of the woods about one quarter to one h a l f a mile from shore. On Tuesday they decided to adopt the Indian practice of poling and l i n i n g the boats along the shore just inside the surf to avoid the labor of carrying.  Some of the men were  ordered into the boats with pole's and others were set to work p u l l i n g with ropes along the beach.  It was a wet and cold 148  t a s k — t h e men "were wet to the middle".  To make matters worse  one of the men developed blood poisoning from, an infected foot The next day, the party abandoned the route along the outer beaches and pushed through thick woods to Gray's 149 Harbor. The labor involved must have been.strenuous and 148  Work, Journal 2, entry for Tuesday, November 23,1824  149 Galled Ghehalis Bay by Work and i d e n t i f i e d as Gray's Harbor by E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 3, p. 204, n. 10.  70 disagreeable i n the extreme.  They pushed a mile and a h a l f  through t h i c k woods and through a continuation of swamps where the men  carrying t h e i r packs were often over t h e i r knees  in water and mud. ing was  The sick man.was getting worse.  The swell-  extending up h i s l e g and black spots were appearing  on his f o o t .  He had to be carried a l l that day.  By now they had come a distance of 10 miles by laborious portaging.  The usual November weather on the coast  prevailed, day/ after day had brought heavy r a i n and strong westerly winds.  The party had been eking out t h e i r l i m i t e d  provisions by the numerous ducks and geese which inhabit coastal waters during t h i s season. On Thursday, the 25th a l l the boats were got across the Portage and they proceeded into the Bay. windy and wet  It was  so the men were soaked to the skin.  the head of the Bay,  again  Reaching  the next morning they paddled up the  tortuous Ghehalis River i n a general easterly d i r e c t i o n f o r about eighteen miles. was  Navigation was  slack and the r i v e r was deep.  found that the Indians, who to white men,  easy for the current  To t h e i r astonishment they  i n t h i s area were quite accustomed  were decidedly h o s t i l e .  l a t e r investigations 150 show that one of Concomly* s sons Cassiccus, had spread the  rumor that t h i s was a punitive expedition, but as Work writes, some presents of tobacco soon "dismissed a l l appearance of 151 hostility". • 150 Cassicus, eldest son of Concomly, Chief of the Chinooks. This son was known as the Prince of Wales. 151 1824.  Work, Journal No. 2, entry for Friday, November 26, ~  71 This must have "been an easy day since Work's entry i n h i s journal i s so long.  He had been passing Indian  v i l l a g e s f o r two days no?/ and noted the number of houses i n each v i l l a g e .  He apparently r e a l i z e d or was  informed that  these were the t y p i c a l community houses of the coast Indians for  he estimated t h e i r inhabitants at a considerable number.  His d e s c r i p t i o n i s v i v i d , interesting and informative. These peoples houses are constructed of planks set on end. & neatly fastened at the top, those on the ends lengthening towards the middle to form the proper p i t c h , the roofs are covered with planks the seams between which are f i l l e d with moss, a span i s l e f t open a l l the way along the ridge which serves the double purpose of l e t t i n g out the smoak & admitting the l i g h t . About these habitations i s a complete sink of f i l t h and nastiness at t h i s wet season i t i s a complete mire mixed with the o f f a l l of f i s h & d i r t of every kind renders i t surprising that human beings can reside among i t . ' 15£ U n t i l the afternoon, Saturday was another wet  day.  It was even too wet to bother with f i r e s so that the expedit i o n continued upstream without  interruption u n t i l four o'clock  making a distance of between twenty and twenty-four The  current of.the r i v e r was now  men had to resort to poles.  miles.  f a i r l y strong so that the  They passed more Indian v i l l a g e s , 153  even more f i l t h y , so that the "stench was most offensive", but the inhabitants were not unfriendly, as they had been before. On Sunday, November 28th, they had pushed on upstream about ten miles to a l i t t l e r i v e r flowing into the 152  Work, op. c i t . ,  entry f o r November 26,  153  Ibid., entry for November 27,  1824.  1824.  72 Chehalis from the north.  This was then called and  hears the name of the Black River.  still  For f i v e or six miles  t h i s stream was deep and slow and f a i r l y e a s i l y penetrable, l a t e r on however, i t became swift and often very shallow so that the boats were dragged up i t with considerable d i f f i culty. ^ By Monday, they had gone another nine miles up the same r i v e r , paddling through slow deep water and then scramb l i n g through shallows, willows and over obstructions of driftwood.  The woods changed from poplar and oak to pine.  Work's trained eyes saw and noted marks of beaver along the route.  The next day they made arrangements to send back the  man who was i l l with blood poisoning.  His leg and foot had  broken out so badly that a l l hope of h i s recovery on the expedition was abandoned.  Completing these  arrangements,  cost them another day so that i t was Thursday December 2nd before they were on their way again.  As they neared the  headwaters of the Black River the stream became choked with willows and trees.  Time and again they had to oarry the goods  and chop a path through the tangles f o r t h e i r boats.  By night-  f a l l they had gone only f i v e miles but i t was enough to bring them close to the l i t t l e lake out of which the r i v e r flowed. This lake (Black lake) they reached and crossed on Friday. A portage of 8,000 yards l a y between Black lake and Puget's Sound over which the boats and goods had to be carried.  Here,  an Indian t r a i l already existed which was wide enough to transport the goods, but a wider path had to be cut out f o r the boats.  Work had h i s f i r s t  encounter with "an evergreen  shrub c a l l e d by the Chinooks S a l l a l l  [salal], that cutting a  road through them f o r the boats i s a tedious and laborious  73 154 task".  He was struck by b i s f i r s t  sight of Douglas f i r s .  "I measured some of them, one of the largest was upwards of 155 5 fathoms i n circumference another 28 feet round." By Monday December 6th the. l a s t of the boats were 156 over the Portage at E l d Inlet Sound began.  and the voyage down Puget  They embarked at nine o'clock and set out along  the South East shore, c a r e f u l l y charting distances and directions. were t y p i c a l .  Yfork noted the many islands and i n l e t s which He  saw plenty of mussels on the rocks and  although he observed the s h e l l s of oysters and cockles he did  not think of digging f o r them.  A s t a r f i s h was  apparently  new  to him, f o r he wrote, . Another kind of f i s h of a curious shape was also i n plenty. This i s a shapeless animal with 5 long toes joined together i n the middle, i t seems to be i n a torpid state and scarcely to move, i t i s covered with a crust or hard skin of a reddish color. 157  That day they passed the mouth of the Nisqually River. On Tuesday they t r a v e l l e d a t o t a l of t h i r t y - f i v e miles.  En route, they engaged three Indians (two men  and a  woman) of the Snohomish t r i b e to ,-go with them as interpreters. One  of the three claimed to understand "the language of the  Ooweechins which i s the name of the tribe at the entrance 158 what i s supposed to be Erasers River".  of  The following day  they saw the snow-capped peaks of Mt. Baker, Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens'in the distance. 154" Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r December 4,  1824.  155  Loc. c i t .  156  E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . , 3, p. 211, n. 15,  157 158  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r December 6, Ibid., entry for December 7, 1824.  1824.  74 By Friday, December 10th, they were getting near 1  the entrance to Puget s. Sound.  The shores were rockier and  bolder with l e s s earth and with stunted, twisted trees at the water's edge.  For some days they had passed v i l l a g e s  of the Skagit Indians i n every sheltered bay along t h e i r route.  These Indians were f r i e n d l y and brought good reports  of elk and beaver.  On Saturday they saw what Mr. T.C.  Elliott  i d e n t i f i e s as Orcas and San Juan islands i n the distance and what may have been the h i l l s of Vancouver Island bevond them . 159 again. F i n a l l y , they landed i n Semiahmoo Bay which i s e a s i l y recognizable by another of Work's graphic descriptions.  "The  shore s t i l l continues high & steep but instead of rocks are 160 composed of clay & wooded to the water's edge...."  This i s  obviously the shoreline from White Book around to Crescent Beach through Ocean Park. For two days the party waited f o r the weather to abate i n order to cross to Point Roberts, the Indians having t o l d them that t h i s point formed the southern side of the entrance to the Fraser River.  On Monday, December 13th, they  attempted the passage across to Point Roberts and gave i t up. Instead they proceeded along the eastern shore past Crescent Beach to the Nicomekl River up which they ascended some seven miles.  "The reason of proceeding up the l i t t l e River,"  Work states, "was  the Indians representing that by making a  portage there was a road t h i s way into the Coweechin River, but they said i t was very bad and seemed most desirous to go 159 E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 3, p. 216, n. 34. 160  Work, op. c i t . , entry.for December 11,  1824.  75 161 by the point."  It was bad, but Work was  consoled by the  p l e n t i f u l signs of beaver along the r i v e r bank. The next day i t rained heavily a f t e r a. considerable s p e l l of f a i r weather.  The expedition could get no further  up the r i v e r so they commenced portaging and got about h a l f way across.  According to Mr. T.O. 162  langley P r a i r i e  E l l i o t t , they were now  which Work describes as r i c h and f e r t i l e  on with  the remains of a luxurious crop of grass and ferns l y i n g on the ground. On Wednesday they completed the f i v e mile Something new  Portage.  among the Indians caught Work's eye; " t h e i r  blankets are of t h e i r own manufacture & made of h a i r or coarse wool, over which they wear a kind of short cloak made 163 of the bark of the cedar tree.,..." i n poncho s t y l e . expedition was  The  l a t e getting started the next morning after  waiting for three of the party who  had been hunting e l k .  About eleven o'clock they embarked and paddled down the Salmon River to i t s junction with the Eraser, which they reached about one o'clock.  "At t h i s place," writes Work,  " i t i s a f i n e looking River at least 1,000  yards wide, as  wide as the Columbia at Oak Point....From the size and appearance of the River there i s no doubt i n our minds but 164 that i t i s Erazers." On Friday and Saturday, they explored up the r i v e r 161  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r December 13,  1824.  162  E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 218, n. 42.  163 164  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r December 15, Ibid., entry f o r December 16, 1824.  1824.  as f a r as Ha.tz.ie Slough and saw the Cheam Peaks i n the 165 distance..  Here they were v i s i t e d by Indians from, a  v i l l a g e a l i t t l e farther up the r i v e r who gave them unduly optimistic information respecting the Fraser above that point, representing the r i v e r as being navigable through the Ganyon to Kamloops. to  A l e t t e r was given to these Indians  forward to Thompson E i v e r . McMillan decided that i t was not necessary to  proceed any farther upstream.  On Saturday afternoon they  began t h e i r journey to the mouth of the Fraser.  As they  proceeded down the r i v e r they c a r e f u l l y charted and described t h e i r route from point to point and island to i s l a n d . They passed the s i t e of New Westminster down to a point 166 opposite T i l b u r y Island  where they camped.  Work was  still  looking for traces of contacts between the natives and Europeans and c a r e f u l l y estimating opportunities f o r trade. On Monday,- December EOth, they paddled out of the r i v e r mouth and saw Point Grey to the north. turned southward and rounded Point Roberts.  The boats now For f i v e days  they retraced t h e i r steps without incident and reached the Portage to the Black River at 10 o'clock on Christmas  Day.  Work made no mention of t h i s as a s p e c i a l day i n h i s journal which recorded only the t o i l of getting the boats and baggage across the wet and miry t r a i l .  Near noon of the next day they  had embarked on Black lake, a l l crowded into two boats, be165  E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 3, p. 220, n. 51.  166  Ibid., p. 222, n. 56.  77 cause one of them had "been l e f t "behind at a nearby Indian Tillage.  The purpose of leaving the boat, apart from the  p o s s i b i l i t y that future parties would find i t r e a d i l y a v a i l able, becomes clear i n reading the entry i n Work's journal for Monday December 27th.  McMillan,- John Work, laframbrolse.  the interpreter, accompanied by s i x men  planned to t r y to  f i n d a route overland to the Cowlitz River and thence to the Fort by water.  The rest of the p a r t y , now  e a s i l y accommo-  dated i n the two boats, would return by the old route. 167 According to Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t ,  the party divided  near Grand Mound p r a i r i e and for two days proceeded south by horseback.  The route they followed was over a well-marked  Indian t r a i l which followed closely the present l i n e of the Northern P a c i f i c Railroad through Centralia, Chehalis and on to the Cowlitz River near Toledo, where the Cowlitz Farm of 168 the Company was to be located. road was mixed i n q u a l i t y .  Although well-defined, the  Sometimes i t was f i r m and l e v e l ,  then wet, muddy and slippery, often obstructed by branches and f a l l e n trees which the Indians did not bother to remove, or else i t was blocked by swollen r i v e r s or streams.  As usual,  Work made careful comment on the country through which they p a s s e d — i t s trees and bushes, the quality of the s o i l , i t s plains and i t s h i l l s .  This i s the discovery of the Cowlitz  Portage which became an established Hudson's Bay route from the Columbia to Fort Nisqually. 167 E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 3, p. 226, n. 67. 168  Ibid., p. 227, n.  68.  78 They arrived at the Cowlitz River late on the morning of Wednesday the 29th of December.  No time was l o s t  in h i r i n g an Indian canoe to take them to the Fort.  By  7 o'clock that evening they reached the Columbia River.  By  dint of paddling hard a l l that night they reached Fort George at 10 o'clock Thursday morning.  Altogether the expedition  had been away a month and a h a l f .  Most of the time had been  spent on the outward journey since only ten days of the t o t a l time had been used on the return t r i p which had been favored by better weather with l e s s wind and r a i n than the  journey  north. Governor Simpson was pleased and s a t i s f i e d with the expedition which he stated had been accomplished not only 169 to the credit of McMillan but to my utmost s a t i s f a c t i o n " . - 170 ,l  He was undoubtedly impressed with the reports of the Euget Sound afforded a sheltered and safe anchorage.  country. The  Indians were f r i e n d l y and appeared pleased at the thought of the whites s e t t l i n g amongst them. populated  Moreover, the area was  well  and should o f f e r a considerable scope for trade.  Deer, elk and beaver were abundant.  The Fraser River  was  reported to be navigable f o r twenty miles by vessels of one hundred tons, and i n the f i r s t f o r t y miles of i t s course not one shoal or rapid was  encountered.  The mouth of the r i v e r  was reported to be obstructed by sand bars through which 169  Merk, op. c i t . , p.  170  Ibid., pp. 114-118.  115.  79 clear channels existed with depths of three to seven fathoms.  The land on either side of the r i v e r appeared to  he r i c h and f e r t i l e and the r i v e r i t s e l f would provide ample supplies of salmon and sturgeon.  Simpson goes on to state  that the Indians reported that the River as f a r up as the Thompson River was a "fine large bold stream and not barred 171 by dangerous rapids or f a l l s " .  No report could have been  more encouraging t o Simpson's desire to remove headquarters to some spot f a r t h e r n o r t h — a spot which would be i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y , e a s i l y accessible from the sea, capable of a g r i c u l t u r a l development, and with easy contact with the i n t e r i o r posts. Unfortunately many of these items proved to be f a r from the t r u t h .  The hopeful report of the middle r i v e r was  absolutely untrue.  It i s a p i t y that winter conditions made  i t impossible f o r McMillan to carry out h i s orders by exploring these middle reaches.  Simpson apparently l e f t the  Columbia with the hope that the Fraser River wouli. provide a highway from New Caledonia to the Sea.  As the beginning  of t h i s project Fort langley was'built i n 1827-8 and McMillan 172 was placed i n charge. I t became a secondary post. Simpson's l e t t e r to the Foreign Office i n 1826 shows that he had been 172 d i s i l l u s i o n e d regarding the Fraser River. When Simpson 171  Merk,- op. c i t . , p. 117  172 See Reid, Robie I., "Early Days at Old Fort langley" i n B r i t i s h Columbia Historical.Quarterly, v o l . 1, no. 2, pp. 71-85. 173 Merk, op. c i t . , pp. 264-266. Governor Simpson to H.Y. Addington, Hudson's Bay House, London, January 5, 1826.  80 returned to the P a c i f i c i n 1.828-9 he came by way of the Peace and Fraser rivers and saw the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of usinj the Fraser as a convenient outlet f o r New Caledonia. For these reasons the route from the i n t e r i o r posts came to follow the Fraser south to Alexandria, then by pack horse t r a i l by way of Fort Thompson (Kamloops) to Okanagan and thence by boat down the Columbia.  81 ' CHATTER V Spokane Interlude 1825-1826. With the decision to move the main depot of the Columbia Department to the Fraser River came the expected abandonment of Fort George. was  It i s to be remembered that i t  on the south side of the r i v e r .  returned to the Americans i n 1818 them at any time.  It was  The  site had been  and could be occupied  by  therefore decided to e s t a b l i s h a  post farther up the r i v e r on i t s northern bank ( i f the Columbia was  to become the boundary between American and  B r i t i s h property). only.  This new  f o r t was to be a. secondary one  The spot selected, called Belle Vue Point, was  almost  opposite the mouth of the Willamette River and about a mile and a quarter from the water's edge. for c u l t i v a t i o n  The area was suitable  so that i t f i t t e d i n with Simpson's idea of  making the f o r t s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n provisions. Moreover, the s i t e was not too f a r up the r i v e r to be out of navigable water for small vessels.  Work was begun on i t immediately 174  and must have been nearly complete  before Governor Simpson  returned to York Factory i n the spring of 1825.  Simpson  v i s i t e d the new post on March 18th and 19th of that year and named the place Fort Vancouver with due • 175 of rum. 174  Merk, op. c i t . , p.  ceremony and a bottle  124.  175 When the proposed Fraser River route to New Caledonia was found impracticable, Fort Vancouver had to be continued as a base, so i t was relocated nearer the water's edge, 1828-29.  82 John Work must have been present at the ceremony 176 and  may have been engaged i n building the Fort.  It has not  been possible to obtain any information about Work between the  time of h i s return from the Fraser on December 29, 1824  and  the 21st of March 1825 when h i s next journal begins.  If  we may deduce anything from h i s usual practice of discontinuing h i s journals while resident at a post, i t seems clear that he was either at Fort George or at the site of the new post as suggested. 177 His  t h i r d journal  opens two days after Simpson  l e f t Fort Vancouver on h i s eastward journey.  He was under  orders to make himself useful i n the moving of goods from Fort George to Fort Vancouver, u n t i l the Brigade l e f t f o r the i n t e r i o r when he was to accompany i t to Spokane. Work 178 179 l e f t Fort Yancouver i n the Otter with four Hawaiians f o r Fort George to a s s i s t i n moving equipment to the new s i t e . They reached Fort George at 7 o'clock i n the evening of the 23rd after running aground and having to wait f o r the t i d e . The next day the Otter was loaded and sent up the River, Work remaining behind to check stores and f i n i s h accounts. On Sunday, March 27th he arrived back at Fort 176 Conjecture only; but i t i s apparent Fort Vancouver when Simpson christened i t and up from Fort George with Simpson or have been at Fort Vancouver.  Vancouver with that he was at must have come already present  177 Work, John, Journal, March 21-May 14, 1825 (hereafter referred to as Journal 3 ) . 178 The usual references make no mention of t h i s vessel, which must have been a small s a i l i n g ship. 179 Work c a l l s them Owyhees i n the common spelling of the time. ' The practice of using these islanders was quite common with the Hudson's Bay Company. They were known also as Kanakas.  83 some Indians i n a canoe.  Then, Friday A p r i l 1st, he set out  again and arrived at Fort George at midnight, spending Saturday packing furs and stores. Yancouver u n t i l the 13th of A p r i l .  He was not back at Fort The return t r i p had been  d i f f i c u l t . . The weather was bad with constant r a i n and.wind. Some of the boats were old and rotten. i t was being loaded.  One f e l l to pieces as  As a r e s u l t , Work spent a f u l l three  days drying the furs on his return to Fort Yancouver. It was not u n t i l Wednesday, May 11th, that Work started again f o r Fort George so the usual gap occurs i n h i s journal up to this date.  In the meantime, the annual supply  ship from England, the William and Ann, had arrived with 180 David Douglas, the celebrated botanist and Dr. Scouler, 181 acting surgeon of the vessel, on board. Dr. McLoughlin made a special t r i p to Fort George to take these men to Fort 182 Yancouver.  Douglas and Scouler were to accompany Work back  to Fort George where-the former was to spend the rest of the month c o l l e c t i n g and the l a t t e r was to r e j o i n h i s ship f o r a northward expedition. Work's party arrived at Fort George 180 David Douglas spent the next two years on the Columbia. In 1827 he t r a v e l l e d overland to Hudson Bay and thence to England. He returned to the P a c i f i c i n 1829 and was a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l e d i n the Hawaiian Islands, 1834. 181 Dr. Scouler had been professor of Natural History at Glasgow and was recommended as surgeon to the William and Ann to carry out h i s researches. His journal i s i n the Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Society Quarterly, vol.. 6, pp. 54-76, 159-205, 276-289. ~ 182 Douglas, David, "A Sketch of a Journey to the Northwestern Parts of the Continent of North America" i n Companion to the Botanical Magazine, Nos. 15, 16 and 17, London,  84 on Thursday evening.  The next day was spent i n loading the  Otter and the f i v e boats whioh had come down from Fort Vancouver.  On the 14th (Saturday) they were ready to return  hut heavy r a i n delayed them u n t i l the next morning when they got under way with a load of powder and pigs. Again f o r lack of positive information we must assume that John Work remained at Fort Vancouver u n t i l the l a t t e r part of June.  He was then assigned to the Brigade  for the i n t e r i o r which carried to the various posts. charge.  the f a l l and winter o u t f i t s 183 Chief Trader John Mcleod was In  T h i s appointment checks with the decisions i n 184  George Simpson's journal  i n which the Governor had o r i g i n -  a l l y intended Work and Thomas McKay to take charge of the Umpqua Exp edit ion.  Simpson f e l t that Work did not have the.  experience necessary f o r such an important post so that Finan  McDonald was to replace Work who was to return with  the Brigade to Spokane where he was to remain i n temporary command " u n t i l the a r r i v a l of some Commissioned Gentlemen 185 from the other side". The expedition composed of thirty-two men In f i v e boats embarked In the morning of Tuesday June 21, 1825 i n a drizzling rain.  The brigade was under armed convoy of twelve  additional men u n t i l i t passed the Cascades and the C e l i l o 183 Stationed at Thompson River at Kamloops and given leave of absence for the following season. See H.B.S., I I I , pages 84 and 102. 184  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 135.  185  LOG.  cit.  85 F a l l s of the Columbia.  David Douglas accompanied the ex-  pedition as f a r as.the convoy went.  While there had been no  trouble with the Indians there were p o s s i b i l i t i e s of raids upon the expensive o u t f i t s at the portages where the natives had collected f o r f i s h i n g .  Work indicates a certain wariness  i n h i s Journal by remarking frequently that the Indians although present i n numbers, were peaceable and quiet. By Saturday, June 25th, they had successfully passed the F a l l s and encamped a l i t t l e below John Day's River. they stopped to.gum the boats and here t h e i r escort them.  On the 29th, they arrived at Walla Walla.  Here,  left  The weather  after the f i r s t day had been f a i r and getting h o t t e r — h e r e the heat was oppressive, with occasional storms of thunder and "lightening". The following day was spent i n separating the outf i t s belonging to d i f f e r e n t posts, since now part would be kept at Walla Walla,' part would go on by boat to Spokane Forks and Okanagan and from thence by pack horse to New Caledonia and to Spokane House respectively.  The next task  was to secure pack horses by trade from the Indians.  Since  not enough (150) could be obtained l o c a l l y , a horse trading expedition was organized to procure these up the Snake River. John Warren Dease was i n command, accompanied by Work and 186 another clerk named Thomas Dears.  With them went twenty-  eight men. The two boats they had 186 Thomas Dears entered the service as a clerk i n 1817. After Island lake and other posts he was River. From thence he went to New in 1836.  were very l i g h t l y - l a d e n Hudson's Bay Company serving at York Factory, appointed to the Columbia Caledonia u n t i l he r e t i r e d  86 and the men well-armed.  They embarked on Saturday July 1st  in the early afternoon. By Friday July 15th they had been working t h e i r way slowly up the Snake River stopping at each lodge, smoking and trading for horses, and getting a few each day.  Work  claimed.that the Indians were not too eager to part with them and then would s e l l only young ones which were f i t for food and not for packing.  However, they did succeed i n getting  a number of suitable animals which were reported to be larger and better as they proceeded upstream.  The weather was  exceedingly hot, and the country dry parched and barren. Mosquitoes were troublesome and interfered with t h e i r rest at night.  This day (Friday) they reached the Clearwater 187 River where lewiston, Idaho now stands. Here they were v i s i t e d by upwards of two hundred Indians. 188 very quiet and peaceable  "...They are  so f a r , " comments Work i n an omin-  ous tone. On the next two days,.trading was brisk and more horses were secured so that by now they had traded a t o t a l of one hundred and twelve animals, six of which had been k i l l ed accidently or slaughtered f o r food.  They were s t i l l f o r t y -  four short of the required number but t h e i r trade goods had run out so that on Monday July 18th, trading was wound up. J.W.  Dease and the clerk, Dears, apparently returned  downstream to Walla Walla i n the canoes, since Work mentions 187 I d e n t i f i e d by E l l i o t t , T.C., ed., "Journal of John Work, 1825-1826" i n W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 92, n.-23. 1  188 Work, John, Journal, June 21, 1825-June 12 8g6 (hereafter referred to as Journal 4) entry for July 15, 1825.  87 i n h i s journal that he was l e f t with six men and an Indian guide to take the hundred and six horses overland to Okanagan and Spokane.  Work proceeded north on the regular  Indian t r a i l which follows the present boundary l i n e between 189 Washington and Idaho. Work was bound f o r Spokane to, ...consult with Mr. Birnie as to the p r a c t i c a * ; b i l i t y of getting a l l the property etc. removed at once to the Kettle F a l l s so that the whole may be there by the time the boats arrive, by which means the trading p a r t i e s to the F l a t Heads and Kootanies could be sent o f f immediatel y and meet the Indians at a proper season or at least as e a s i l y as possible, while the remainder of the people, when two establishments are not to be kept up, .could be advantageously employed at the building of the new Establishment. 190 This i s the f i r s t reference to the proposed removal of Spokane House to a new s i t e , Fort C o l v i l e , at Kettle F a l l s . about the change w i l l be said l a t e r .  More  For t h i s purpose Work  had got permission to take eleven pack horses and two saddle horses from those now i n h i s care, a l l Dease would allow him. This i s the f i r s t time that John Work allows himself to grumble i n black and white.  He wanted more horses, having  only eight already at Spokane.  He also wanted the help of  Thomas Dears, but Chief Trader Dease would not allow t h i s since the former was needed to assist with the boats of the Brigade from Walla Walla to Okanagan.  "He [McLeodj  certainly  needed no assistance to conduct three boats well manned when 191 l i t t l e danger i s to be apprehended from the Indians," grumbles Work i n h i s journal. ble  I f h i s plans proved p r a c t i c a -  then Work planned to proceed to Okanagan to receive the 189 E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 95, n. 26. 190 Work, Journal 4, entry f o r July 18, 1825. TQ1 loc. c i t .  88 Spokane and Rocky Mountain o u t f i t s and then to accompany the boats back to Kettle F a l l s . On July 20th they reached the fork i n the t r a i l and Work turned o f f to Spokane while the others proceeded to Okanagan.  He arrived at Spokane House at 7 o'clock i n the  evening^ and found everybody well.  He found also that B i r n i e  had been very active a l l summer i n packing furs, tradinggoods, stores and sundries into "pieoes" for transporting to Kettle F a l l s .  He had also collected more horses than Work  had anticipated, altogether a t o t a l of twenty-four.  Since  each "piece" weighed about ninety pounds a considerable number of t r i p s would be necessary.  Work was s t i l l annoyed  at Dease's r e f u s a l to loan him Thomas Dears.  It was necessary  that Work proceed to Okanagan to superintend the boats proceeding to Kettle F a l l s .  He would l i k e to have had B i r n i e  or Dears start with the horses to transport the goods to Kettle F a l l s overland.  Unfortunately, there was now no one  to leave i n charge of the remaining supplies at Spokane House. Work also received a note from Governor Simpson which was awaiting him at Spokane House. Work with d e f i n i t e duties to perform.,  This l e t t e r l e f t  He was to be i n charge  of abandoning Spokane House , of the removal of a l l goods and supplies to K e t t l e F a l l s where the new post was to be b u i l t under his d i r e c t i o n .  The Kootenay and the Pend d'Oreille,  r i v e r s were to be examined with a view to sending out the Kootenay and Flathead o u t f i t s by water rather than by pack horse. outfit.  Horses were to be gathered f o r the New Caledonia Both Birnie and Dears were to be under h i s command.  89 Governor Simpson had f i r s t thought of K e t t l e F a l l s as a possible, alternative to Spokane House when he 192. passed the F a l l s on October 26th, 1824. The s o i l was reasonably good f o r agriculture. F i s h c o u l d be collected i n any quantity at the rapids.  Moreover, the sixty mile pack horse  t r a i l from Spokane Forks could be avoided and the Kootenay and Flathead posts supplied by r i v e r from Kettle F a l l s i f the r i v e r s flowing past these posts proved to be navigable, or i f not, by horse just as e a s i l y as from Spokane.  On h i s  return eastward the next spring Simpson had a consultation 193 with Kennedy, McMillan, McDonald and Ross on the subject. Only one objection was foreseen, that the Indians at Spokane might be offended  at the l o s s of a post i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t .  This objection was not enough to oversway the advantages gained.  A few days l a t e r Simpson himself made arrangements  with the Indian Chief at K e t t l e F a l l s and personally selected a site: ...a b e a u t i f u l point on the South side about ^•ths of a Mile above the Portage where there i s abundance of f i n e Timber and the s i t u a t i o n elegible i n every point of view. An excellent Farm can be made at t h i s place where as much Grain and potatoes may be raised as could feed a l l the Natives of the Columbia and a s u f f i c i e n t number of Cattle and Hogs to supply h i s Ma'jestys Navy with Beef and Pork....I have taken the l i b e r t y of naming i t Fort Colvile....194 Work delayed leaving Spokane f o r Okanagan u n t i l 192  Merk, op. c i t . , p. 42.  193  Ibid., p. 134.  194 Ibid., p. 139, Andrew C o l v i l e was a d i r e c t o r and l a t e r a governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.  90 Saturday July 23rd, when he set out accompanied by a man 195 and an Indian and "drove on at a round pace a l l day".  They  arrived at the Columbia the next day, gave the horses an opportunity to rest and the day following got a l l of them safely across the r i v e r to Okanagan.  No sooner had Work  arrived at Okanagan than further d i f f i c u l t i e s impeded him. These were contained i n a l e t t e r from Peter Skene Ogden who was i n charge of the Snake Country trappers that season. Ogden reported that twenty-three of h i s freemen, fourteen with t h e i r furs, traps and horses, deserted to an American 196 party of William Ashley's then l e d by a Johnson Gardner. had been o r i g i n a l l y planned by Simpson.that  It  Ogden would  return by way of the Willamette River, but Ogden sent word that he intended coming out by way of Walla Walla.  Therefore  a l l the Snake River o u t f i t had been sent to the l a t t e r place. Now  plans had to be changed because Work discovered by open1  ing Ogden"s despatch'that the remainder of Ogden s party intended coming out by the Flathead post.  In Work's opinion,  a l l of h i s time would therefore be spent i n transporting the Snake o u t f i t from Walla Walla to"Spokane House i f the Snake Country business was to be carried on. the abandoning of Spokane that f a l l .  This might prevent Dears was sent to  Walla Walla post haste with t h i s information and with Ogden*s l e t t e r , from whence i t would be delivered to McLoughlin at 195 Work, op. c i t . , entry for July 23, 1825. 196 H.B.S.,IY, p. I x i . An example of the onset of American competition. William Ashley recruited the f i r s t of his trading p a r t i e s i n 1822. (See H.B.S., IY, p. 34, n. 2, for further d e t a i l s . )  91 Vancouver.  The Indian who brought the l e t t e r was dispatched  to Spokane House requesting Birnie t o send horses to the Forks to take i n the Snake o u t f i t . On Thursday, August 4th, the boats from Okanagan arrived at Spokane Forks. because.the  The journey had been d i f f i c u l t ,  water was high and although the craft were only  two thirds loaded, they were laden down with passengers. boats were discharged immediately, from Spokane House.  The  just as the horses arrived  The rest of the day was spent i n d i v i d i n g  and packing the goods.  On the following day one boat (the  other two were l a i d up at the Forks) set out f o r Kettle F a l l s and the Rocky Mountains.  Instructions were l e f t f o r the  seven men i n the boat to remain at the F a l l s u n t i l the 20th of September and, using the tools with which they were provided, to start, construction on Fort C o l v i l e .  Work went with the  horses to Spokane House where he arrived on Sunday August 7th. The next day, losing no time, Work began to get together the Flathead o u t f i t . from Walla Walla. Flathead post.  In the meantime, Dears arrived  On the 9th, the o u t f i t started f o r the  Work followed them the following day and at  the same time dispatched Dears to superintend the building of Fort C o l v i l e .  The expedition followed the same route as  Work had done the previous summer and arrived at Pend d * O r e i l l e River on the 11th of August where the cached canoes were found. These had to be regummed, paddles and poles had t o be made also since the Indians had stolen a l l ' o f them.  It was not  u n t i l noon of the following day that the expedition was on i t s way.  Winds delayed t h e i r crossing lake Pend d'Oreille  92 197 but by Monday the 15th they arrived at Thompson F a l l s on Clark's Fork where K i t t s o n from Ogden's party awaited Work 198 with t h i r t y - e i g h t paoks of f u r s . On the following day trading commenced and continued u n t i l the 17th when the furs were packed ready f o r transport. The trade was less than the previous year by about one hundred and twenty beaver which Work blamed on the fact that many of the Kootenay Indians had bone back to t h e i r own lands without waiting to trade.  Dressed skins and leather were  p a r t i c u l a r l y scarce, but the quantity of dried meat was just double.  Before he returned, Work made arrangements to forward  l e t t e r s and certain a r t i c l e s to Ogden. Their return journey down the River and across the lake was slow.  The canoes were overloaded.  be run with h a l f cargoes. to cross.  Rapids had to  For awhile the lake was too rough  However, by the 20th they reached the Eortage  and sent three men to the Fort f o r the horses.  The remain-  der of the men were put to drying the bales which were wet from the leaky and overladen canoes.  Some of the a r t i c l e s  l e f t over from trading were cachea i n the woods to save taking them back to the F o r t .  Three days l a t e r the men  arrived back with a l l of the Company's horses and some others which Birnie had secured from the Indians. too  There were s t i l l  few animals u n t i l an Indian arrived i n the evening with  seven more.  On the 24th they loaded the horses and began  197  E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 108, n. 51.  198  H.B.S., IV, p. 27, n. 4.  93 t h e i r way across the Portage to Spokane. weak and the journey slow.  The horses were  On the next day Kittson and Work  l e f t the Brigade and set out ahead f o r the Fort where they arrived at 4 o'clock.  Here they found that two of Dease's  men had arrived with twenty-six horses f o r the use of 13xe Snake country expedition and with dispatches from Fort Vancouver.  These dispatches instructed Work to bring h a l f  of the Snake o u t f i t from Walla Walla to Spokane House.  How-  ever, Work f e l t apprehensive l e s t t h i s should be so much waste effort should Ogden return by Walla Walla and not by Spokane.  He, therefore, decided to delay any action u n t i l  the 1st of October, hoping to have i n the meanwhile more d e f i n i t e information concerning Ogden's movements.  Time was  to prove that Work was right i n h i s decision since Ogden did 199 r e t u r n by way of Walla Walla  and not by Spokane.  Now for a time Work was occupied i n routine operations around Spokane House.  Kittson was sent to the Kootenay  country f o r the furs which he and Work f a i l e d to get from the Indians on the trading expedition which they had just  completed.  Nine men were sent to Kettle F a l l s with tools to help with the building of Fort G o l v i l e . On the l a s t day of August, John Work set out f o r Kettle F a l l s on horseback where he arrived at noon the next day.  To h i s disappointment l i t t l e progress had been made i n  the construction of the Fort.  Seven men had been employed  since August 13th and had only secured and squared t h i r t y 199 Work, Journal 4, entry for September 26, 1825. His route i s the same which Work followed l a t e r ( c f . , Journals 8 and 9 i n B.C. Archives).  seven logs.  Dears, who had "been sent to take charge, excused  himself and the men.on the grounds that "two of them are at present i l l with the venereal and f i t to do very l i t t l e , one 200 of them does nothing".  The only "bright spot i n the whole  picture was that a good stock of provisions, dry f i s h and b e r r i e s ^ had been traded. With the a r r i v a l of Work, matters began to move a l i t t l e more b r i s k l y .  A p i t was dug f o r whip-sawing lumber.  A two-wheeled rack was completed to cart logs and timber wherever they were needed.  But Work found to h i s dismay that  there was not a s u f f i c i e n c y of timber available close at hand to f i n i s h even the store. He describes the s i t e of 201 Colvile  as l y i n g i n a horseshoe-shaped niche or v a l l e y on  the south side of the r i v e r .  This niche, about two miles i n  depth and three miles i n length along the r i v e r bank, was surrounded by steep h i l l s on three sides. The Port  itself  was to be b u i l t on a sandy ridge about six hundred yards from the r i v e r front.  The nearest available wood supply was about  three quarters of a mile away.  The easiest plan he felt', was  to cut timber up the r i v e r and r a f t i t to the Port.  He stayed  at C o l v i l e u n t i l Sunday September 4th and returned to Spokane. Before he l e f t , he reported f i f t e e n of the men f i t for work and engaged on various tasks, some sawing, some preparing a frame for the store and some squaring timber.  He f e l t  reason-  ably sure that the store might be completed so that goods 200  Work, op. c i t . , entry for September 1, 1825.  201 The present site of the town of C o l v i l l e (notice change of spelling) i s about ten miles distant, up the C o l v i l l e River which flows into the Columbia near Kettle P a l l s .  95 could be s a f e l y deposited there that f a l l .  The  potatoes  which Birnie had planted by order of Governor Simpson were coming up well. Just after h i s a r r i v a l back at Spokane three of Ogden's freemen d r i f t e d i n , they had no communication from Ogden except notes specifying the state of their accounts. Work turned the men back without any advances in goods beyond a l i t t l e ammunition i n the hopes that they would r e j o i n Ogden whose party was only f i f t e e n strong and who was dangerous country.  in a  E i t t s o n returned on the 6th of September  from his trading expedition to the Kootenay.  He had been  reasonably successful and reported that the Indians would l i k e a post b u i l t on t h e i r lands. he penetrated into t h e i r  He does not state how f a r  country.  On the 17th of September l e t t e r s arrived from Dr. McLoughlin d i r e c t i n g John Work to stop construction on the buildings at Kettle F a l l s since the site selected was on the £02 south side of the Columbia. had reared i t s head again.  Obviously the boundary question Meanwhile, Work and Kittson set  out for C o l v i l e to meet and to send on the eastbound express. After t h i s task was attended to, Work turned his attention to the buildings, and found again that progress had been exceedingly slow.  Not a s t i c k of the house was up and the timber  not even ready.  Logs had been squared to the wrong s i z e .  Saws had been improperly sharpened.  "Certainly there i s l i t t l e £05 work done for the number of men & time they were employed." £02  Work, op. c i t . ,  entry f o r September 17, 1825..  £03  Ibid., entry f o r September 19,  1825.  96 The order to cease construction was given hut Work l e f t directions with Thomas Dears to keep the men going a few days longer to get the timber f o r the storehouse ready to put up i n the spring i n case another s i t e was not found.  Work,  himself, expressed the opinion that there was no other spot at Kettle f.alls on either side of the Columbia, where a fort could be b u i l t . Dr. Mcloughlin was very concerned with the fact that 1828 was drawing nigh when the ten year i n t e r v a l of the joint occupancy of Oregon would be over and the boundary l i n e between B r i t i s h and American t e r r i t o r y would be f i n a l l y decided upon.  It i s not quite clear exactly when Mcloughlin order-  ed the construction of Fort C o l v i l e to proceed once more.  Mr.  T.C. E l l i o t t states that Mcloughlin v i s i t e d the s i t e i n the 204 summer of 18.26 and the fort was b u i l t as previously arranged. In December 1825, Governor J.H. P e l l y wrote to the Honorable George Canning, Foreign Minister, suggesting that the boundary l i n e be drawn "Southward along the height of land to the Place where lewis and Clarke crossed the Mountains, said to be in l a t . 46°42 thence Westerly alting the lewis's River, u n t i l 205 i t f a l l s into the Columbia..."  Simpson knew of t h i s sugges-  t i o n and f e l t i t was the l i n e which would be accepted.  He  sent a copy of the l e t t e r to Mcloughlin, probably during the 206 year 1826 since the Doctor r e p l i e d i n March, 1827. This 204 E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 165, n. 65. 205 P e l l y to Canning, London, December 9, 1825, Merk, op. c i t . , p. 259. 1827,  206 Mcloughlin to Simpson, Fort Vancouver, March 20, Ibid., p. 287.  97 proposed boundary would run f a r to the south, of C o l v i l e so that i t s p o s i t i o n on the south side of the Columbia would not matter.  When the transfer from Spokane to C o l v i l e did  take place i n 1826 the place was f a r from complete.  In July  1827, Simpson wrote to Chief Trader Dease, who was then In charge, We regret you have not gone on with the B u i l d ings and improvements at Fort C o l v i l e , and beg that they may be continued as i f no such nation as America existed—-there i s no p r o b a b i l i t y of a boundary l i n e being determined f o r many years....207 On October 1st, Dears and h i s men arrived from Kettle Falls.  They brought t h e i r tools and baggage with them.  reported that the potatoes had been dug and stored.  Dears  From the  six kegs which were planted thirteen had been gathered, and as Simpson directed, a l l of these were stored for seed f o r the. next year.  The frames f o r the store were ready to assemble 208  and about one h a l f of the " f i l l i n g up" pieces ready. U n t i l the express arrived the men were b u s i l y employed getting ready for the winter. be collected and sawn.  Logs for boat lumber had to  Firewood had to be collected.  had to be b u i l t f o r the horses.  Corrals  Houses had to be repaired  against the winter cold and neatly whitewashed. 209 -  Charcoal p i t s  were to be dug, f i l l e d with wood and f i r e d . Kittson, Dears 207 Simpson to J.W. Dease, July 9, 1827, quoted i n and a party with f i f t y horses were to be sent to Walla Walla H.B.S., IY., p. I v i . 208 Upright frames were assembled and erected. Transversely between these frames were the f i l l l n g - u p pieces. The photographs of Fort Y i c t o r i a at the Archives i n Y i c t o r i a , B.C. show t h i s method of construction. 209 Charcoal was used i n quantity by the blacksmith i n absence of coal.  98 1  with some of Ogden s supplies which the Brigade had brought up.  Later Kittson was to return to Spokane.. The sending of Dears to meet Ogden interfered with  the Governor's request that the former be sent to examine the n a v i g a b i l i t y of pend d'Oreille River from i t s junction with the Columbia.  Kittson was unable to go because of a  foot i n j u r y which would prevent him walking any distance. Birnie, the only other available man,  pleaded his inexperi-  ence i n a small canoe and demanded at least four men to accompany him.  Since these could not be spared, the  expedition was postponed u n t i l the next season.  Work remarks,  quite l o g i c a l l y , that since the Fort could not be moved to C o l v i l e that winter, the old route overland was preferable.  just as  On the 19th of October K i t t s o n arrived baak at  Walla Walla, bringing l e t t e r s from Mcloughlin and Dease.  The  former indicated h i s intention of v i s i t i n g Spokane to meet the express, but he did not get further than Walla Walla. Four extra men arrived with Kittson and were employed packing saddles cords and apishamores f o r New  Caledonia.  These were  to be shipped from Spokane Forks '"to Okanagan by the express.. On the 31st of October, Chief Trader-Alexander R. Mcleod and 210 Francis Ermatinger arrived from, the Forks with the express. 210 Alexander Roderick Mcleod entered the service of the North West Company in 1802. In 1825 he was moved to Fort Vancouver and took part i n an expedition against the Clallam Indians i n 1828. He was l a t e r stationed at Fort Simpson, and went to Canada on furlough i n 1839 and died i n 1840. Francis Ermatinger joined the Hudson's Bay Company in 1818, with h i s brother Edward. He spent most of his furtrading days on the P a c i f i c coast and was promoted to Chief Trader i n 1841. He r e t i r e d from the Company i n 1853 and died at S t . Thomas i n 1868.  99 Ell Samuel Black and Edward Ermatinger remained "behind with the boats.  Work sent a l e t t e r by Mcleod to Dease at Walla  Walla reminding him that i t would be necessary to come as soon as possible to h i s new command at Spokane i n order to get the Elathead o u t f i t away before the freeze-over. On Tuesday, November 8th, K i t t s o n who had returned from Walla Walla sent o f f nine horses with a small o u t f i t f o r Spokane Forks where he with five men were to embark i n a canoe or small boat (something which they could portage) up the Columbia to the Kootenay River.  They were to proceed up  212 the Kootenay to the F a l l s  where they were to build a post  about twenty-five miles below the old f o r t .  T h i s route was  taken by Simpson's orders to avoid the use of horses. Although i t was l a t e i n the year, i t was hoped that Kittson would arrive before the ice set i n . For some days Work had been getting together the o u t f i t f o r the Flathe ads.  On November 12th he received word  from Dease that the l a t t e r could not leave Walla Walla u n t i l Ogden arrived, and that he (Work) must take i n the Flathead o u t f i t and leave Birnie. i n charge of Spokane.  Two days l a t e r  Work set out with twenty weak and lean horses and eight men over the seventy-five mile portage to the Pend d'Oreille 211 Edward Ermatinger with h i s brother Francis was apprenticed to the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1818. He remained in the service'for only ten years and then r e t i r e d to S t . Thomas, i n Upper Canada. 212 Near Troy, Lincoln County, Montana. referred to stood opposite Jennings, Montana. E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , v o l . 5, p. 178, n. 82.  The old fort Identified by  100 Elver.  They reached the end of the Portage on Thursday,  November 17th. collecting  The. men were set to gumming, the canoes and  or making paddles and poles.  The horses as usual  were sent back with the Indians.- Work decided to take three canoes instead of four.  This change with the help of an  Indian who was going up the r i v e r , would give him three men per. canoe instead of two and so make f o r extra speed.  By  this means they reached the upper end of Pend d'Oreille lake at 4 o'clock the next afternoon.  By Wednesday the 23rd, they  reached Thompson F a l l s where Work had been twice before and where he had met Kittson e a r l i e r that year. F a l l s they dug up a cache of powder and shot.  Just above the The bags  containing the shot and the rings on the powder keg, were a l l rotted away. The methodical Work remarks, Property hidden this way ought to have wood a l l round i t on every side so that the earth could not touch i t , otherwise i t w i l l i n a very'short time be rotten and spoiled. 213 214 On Thursday, November 24th, they reached the Fort at 11 o'clock i n the morning.  It was a scene of desolation.  The houses were a l l standing, but doors and windows were gone. Even the f l o o r s had been torn up by Indians i n search of small treasures.  Some of the broken parts were burned.  However,  by n i g h t f a l l temporary repairs had been effected and the goods stored. 213  Word was sent out to the Indians that they were ready Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r November 23,  1825.  214 Flathead House was situated, near the railway s t a t i o n of Eddy, Montana, on main l i n e of Northern P a c i f i c Railway. E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 183, n. 101.  101 for trade. Trading began on the 26th and went on b r i s k l y Into the 27th.  Work remarks that the Indians complain that hard  bargains are being driven "as i s the case s t i l l when a 215 stranger arrives among them" but as proof that this was a pose, they were r e a l l y well pleased.  Most of these Indians  were Pend d'Oreilles so that word was  sent off to the  Platheads to get them to come i n . On the 29th a small party of the l a t t e r arrived. ..A Kootenay Indian arrived with the information that a band of that t r i b e intended to v i s i t the post.  Although he was not anxious to encourage them to come  to Plathead House because of the fact that K i t t s o n should be establishing a fort i n t h e i r own  country, Work deemed i t  advisable i n view of the lateness of the season, to allow them to come t h i s time. Work had the men  While he was waiting for these Indians,  employed f i t t i n g squares of scraped skin to  form windows, placing mats on the roof to keep out the wet and sorting bales of meat. On the next day Work methodically l i s t e d the skins traded and the a r t i c l e s given'for them.  The goods received  from the Indians consisted of a t o t a l of 312 beaver, a number of otter, and muskrats.  Beside this there was a wide v a r i e t y  of other things, deer skins, parchment, leather cords, saddles and apishamores, dried and fresh meat, roots, buffalo horns, h a i r b r i d l e s and even two dogs. Equally i n t e r e s t i n g are the goods given i n trade 215  Work, op. c i t . , entry for November 26,  1825.  102 for these a r t i c l e s .  More interesting s t i l l are the e f f o r t s 216 of transcribers t o . i d e n t i f y these. Awls, axes, hawk's b e l l s ,  beads of a l l kinds, f i l e s , gun-worms, strouds, thimbles and vermilion, were used i n trade. On December 3rd, Kittson arrived with h i s supplies. He had ,gone up the Columbia to the Kootenay River and found the r i v e r so d i f f i c u l t  that i n his opinion, Governor Simpson's  scheme would have to be abandoned.  He then returned to  Spokane intending to reach the Kootenay by the Portage from 1  Pend d O r e i l l e lake north to Bonner's Ferry on the Kootenay River.  This was called the Au P l a t t e Portage.  At Spokane  he found that he could not obtain horses strong enough to perform the journey, so he set out to follow Work by the usual route.  He had sent a man overland to ask the Kootenay Indians  to come i n to the Flathead Post.  Work regretted that much  of the season's hunt i n beaver would be l o s t since no method of getting into the Kootenay existed now except by pack horse and the horses available were too weak and lean.  "The  Governor was c e r t a i n l y misinformed regarding the navigation when he ordered the Kdotany [sicf] supplies to be sent by 217 water,"  he wrote. On Tuesday December 6th Work dispatched two canoes  to Spokane.  One with furs and one with provisions f o r the  Fort sinoe Spokane had been running short of food when he l e f t . 216 An "eyed dag" or knife was rendered as a "one eyed dog". "Strouds" was given as "strands" , "hawk's bells"' was given up, or given as "hawk b a l l s " . 217  Work, op. c i t . , entry for December 3, 1825.  103 These men were to return before freeze-up  i f possible.  Work  was uneasy about sending out the bulk of the provisions which he had traded l e s t i t leave him short at Flathead House, e s p e c i a l l y i f the Flathead Indians, who were reported on t h e i r way,  were themselves short of dried meat and have none  to trade.  Fortunately, a party of Nez Perces a r r i v e d with  97 buffalo tongues and about 665 pounds of dried meat. From the Indian bands, Work learned a l i t t l e of their love of pomp and ceremony.  A certain chief arrived  with h i s people and f i r e d a salute near the F o r t .  Not know-  ing t h e i r customs, Work omitted to f i r e a salute i n return. The chief was a l i t t l e put out, and Work hastened to placate him with the promise that the Fort would f i r e a salute as he departed.  " I understand," wrote Work, " i t i s pleasing to  the Indians to receive t h i s mark of respeot, As the expense i s but t r i f l i n g we intend returning t h e i r salutes when they 218 arrive i n future."  It was by these small gestures as well  as i n l a r g e r matters of p o l i c y that the Hudson's Bay Company kept the f r i e n d l i n e s s and respect of the On the 13th the long-expected  Indians. Kootenay band, com-  p r i s i n g some eighty Indians, arrived and a b r i s k trade started.  Work was very pleased with the quantity and price  of the goods which were traded.  He secured more beaver than  he had already traded on t h i s expedition, 701 skins. On 219 Wednesday the 14th, C. McKay arrived from Ogden with f u r s . 218 Work, op. c i t . , entry for December 9, 1825. 219 C. McKay i s not i d e n t i f i e d . This i s not Thomas McKay who was with Ogden at t h i s time. It may have been a freeman belonging to Ogden's party.  104 He had only four lean horses so that part of the carrying had to be done by four freemen who were i n disgrace with Ogden and who would have to be punished.  When these packs  were opened and examined they were found to contain 744 large and 298 small beaver and 15 otter.  Work remarked that they  were i n f e r i o r i n quality and s i z e . On Saturday the Flathead band f i n a l l y arrived on horseback, singing, f i r i n g guns and with a f l a g waving. The. men Work had sent to Spokane also returned with the supplies he had requested but, unfortunately brought no tobacco, which was much i n demand f o r trading purposes and as presents to the Indians.  They brought the news that Dease expected them  back at Spokane not l a t e r than the 53th of A p r i l i n order to meet the express at the Forks. "Without  Work remarked succinctly  injuring the trade we cannot reach Spokan  so early 220  as our Indians w i l l not have arrived with t h e i r spring hunts". In spite of the fact that the next day was Sunday, the trading with the Flatheads was carried out. meat than Work had expected.  It was less i n furs and  These Indians had spent the most  of the summer hunting buffalo so •'that they had fewer furs, and since they did not intend buffalo hunting that winter because of the weakness of t h e i r horses, they had kept much of the meat f o r t h e i r own use.  However, Work hoped that t h i s  would mean that they would have more beaver to trade i n the s p r i n g — a n i l l wind that blows nobody any good. 'Preparations were made to send back much of t h i s 220  Work, op. c i t . , entry for December 17, 1825.  105 trade as well as the Snake River returns to Spokane,  letters  were written to Dease, informing him of conditions at the Flatheads and again asking f o r more tobacco for the spring trade.  The expedition, consisting of two canoes manned by-  five men,  started out f o r Spokane House on December 22nd,  three days before Christmas, hoping to get as f a r as the rapids before, ice interfered with t h e i r progress. Christmas Day 1825, was  i t s e l f t y p i c a l at a f u r post.  Trading and the usual routine were carried on.  Work records  "the 2 men here had a dram, and were served out extra each a 221 r a t i o n of fresh meat, a tongue & a quart of Flour". This was t h e i r Christmas feast, on a cloudy raw day while masses' of i c e ran thick down the r i v e r . The days following Christmas were oolder than before so that Work was worried about the return of the men he had sent to Spokane.  Six inches of snow f e l l .  arrived back safely on December 31st.  However, the  men  They brought h a l f a  r o l l of tobacco and a h a l f gross of awls for trading.  It was  an expeditious journey, and made just i n time, since ice conditions on the return journey made them abandon t h e i r canoes at Thompson F a l l s .  The expedition brought a l e t t e r request-  ing that Kittson or Work v i s i t Spokane. January 1st, 1826, New  Year's Day, was celebrated  a l i t t l e more extensively than Christmas had been. ...Each of the men got an extra rations of 6 l b . fresh venison, 2 l b s , baokfat, 1 Buffalo tongue, 1 pint of Flour and 1 pint of Rum. At daylight they ushered i n the new year with a v o l l y of 221  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r December 25,  1825.  106 musketry, when they were treated with 4 glasses each of Rum, cakes & a pipe of Tobacco. With t h i s and the pint given to each of them they soon contrived to get nearly a l l pretty drunk. 222. But to Work's surprise, "they appeared to pass the day ESS f o r t a b l y enjoying themselves, without quarreling".  com-  Work decided that he should be the one to v i s i t Spokane*In accordance with the request of Dease.  leaving  Kittson, i n charge he set out on Wednesday January 4th.  He  had decided, because of r i v e r conditions, to take a few f u r s and eight men.  They reached Thompson F a l l s at 10 o'clock i n  the morning and changed t h e i r canoe f o r a better one from those l e f t by the men on the way up.  Taking the usual route  by r i v e r and portage they reached Spokane House. a hard t r i p .  Rough water held them back f o r a whole day at  lake Pend d ' O r e i l l e . so that the men roots.  It had been  A l l the portages were deep with snow  stumbled and f e l l over concealed rocks and  Through wooded areas the snow was deep and not firm  enough to bear t h e i r weight as they ploughed through i t on foot.  On the 8th, they secured a horse (no saddle), and rode  turn about, but wrote Work "...he [the horsej being very <» ' 2E4 poor was a most fatiguing job to ride any distance...." At Spokane Work found Dease and his people w e l l . He stayed there u n t i l January 14th, when he began h i s return journey.  No hint appears i n Work's journal as to the reason  for the v i s i t , , but future remarks show that Yfork d i d not SEE Work, op. c i t . , entry for January 1, 18E6. New Year's Day was always celebrated more than Christmas. Was t h i s due to the S c o t t i s h influence among the furtraders? EES  loc c i t .  ES4  Work, op. c i t . , entry for January 8,  1826.  107 consider i t to be very important.  He arrived back at the  flatheads on the evening of January 20th after much the same sort of disagreeable t r i p as he had had on the way down.  He  found that nothing of importance had happened during h i s absence and that Kittson and his men  were well.  L i t t l e trad-  ing had,been done except i n fresh venison which was  plentiful  and which would conserve t h e i r supplies of dried meat and f a t . for some time a f t e r his return to Flathead House d a i l y a f f a i r s were of a routine nature.  Some of his men  were employed making pemmican by building a trough i n which lean d r i e d meat was pounded into shreds. fat to mix with t h i s shredded meat. ed getting out wood for canoes. a group of men  Others were melting  S t i l l others were employ-  McKay was  sent up r i v e r with  to l i v e o f f the country but found the r i v e r  too low and the Indians short of provisions so that he forced to return.  At t h i s point i n h i s journal, Work made 225  the f i r s t mention of h i s wife, f o r c i b l y with one of his men This same man  was  when he was obliged to deal  for being too free with her.  deserted a few days l a t e r .  On February 13th an Indian arrived from Spokane with orders from Dease to return there to make out the annual account of that place.  Work f e l t t h i s was not only an Impo-  s i t i o n but also i t was forcing him to carry out a task which others on the spot could do equally w e l l .  He protested b i t t e r -  l y i n h i s Journal, As I had a p a r t i c u l a r wish to see the years 225 Work, op. c i t . , entry for February 4, 1826. This may be Josette Legace, a woman of Spokane, who became h i s wife.  108 transaction of t h i s Post finished so that I might he able to make some observations on I t , that perhaps might have been u s e f u l , I certainl y do not' much l i k e t h i s t r i p , and think Mr. Dease might have made more judicious arrangements, especially when i t i s only to make out the Accounts. 226 However, there was nothing to do except to carry out orders. Work d i d not leave Flathead House u n t i l a f u l l weak l a t e r , the time being occupied by preparations and by the a r r i v a l o f a few Indians who came early f o r the spring trade.  Moreover,  the r i v e r was s t i l l frozen over i n a good many places, and Work was at a l o s s how to obey Dease's orders.  Dease wanted  Work to bring two men who could only be spared i f some of the furs and dried meat were taken with them instead of leaving It a l l u n t i l l a t e r when the whole o u t f i t was brought i n . This might prove to be an impossible task because of i c e conditions.  r  Dease s suggestion of bringing horses was hope-  l e s s because the snow was too deep.  F i n a l l y , Work consider-  ed that a journey by.foot would be too tedious.  McKay was  sent to investigate the r i v e r and on the basis of t h i s investigation, Work decided to start by canoe. on Monday, February 20th.  He l e f t for Spokane  The going was exceedingly bad.  River portages were frequent but the ice was too weak to carry the canoes over, so that the men had to resort to stumbling along the shores.  For a while Work considered sending the  f r a i l craft back and going on by himself on f o o t .  On Tuesday,  226 Work, op. c i t . , entry for February 13, 1826—see H.B.S., IY, p. 30, f o r the substantial p r o f i t s of the Flathead Post under Work's supervision (£2654 12s 7d) (Mcloughlin to Governor and Committee, Fort Vancouver, September 1, 1826, sec. 16)  109 after smashing t h e i r way with great damage to the canoes through two spots which were frozen over, they reached Stony Island Portage.  Here, the snow was three feet deep.  previous night one of the men horn and deserted.  The  stole Work's gun and powder-  Fear over t h e i r p e r i l s at the Flathead  had completely unnerved him.  On Wednesday they got safely  across lake Pend d'Oreille and fortunately met no more ice obstructions, although the ice showed signs of having just broken up.  On Thursday, February 23rd, Work sent four men  back with the canoe, leaving one man to guard the goods which would be taken across the portage by pack-horse as usual. He started out on foot for Spokane House i n company with the other man  and an Indian.  Nearly a l l day they stumbled  through snow which was three to four feet deep, u n t i l at an Indian camp they were able to secure three pairs of small and i n f e r i o r snow-shoes.  They had no water except melted snow and  only one- small axe with which to cut firewood.  On Work's mind  l a y the problem of transporting the o u t f i t across to Spokane when the snow l a y so deep.  On Saturday, February 25th they  reached the p l a i n s where there was less snow.  At the south  end of these plains i t became shallow enough to permit them to discard t h e i r snow-shoes.  On Sunday at eleven o'clock In  the morning the three men arrived at Spokane House. From Saturday, February 27th to the 6th of March, the entries i n Work's journal are very short.  They consist  mainly of weather reports and show the snow was melting away very slowly before the impatient eyes of the men Work himself was busy with the accounts.  at the Fort.  The others were  110 helping with the furs f o r the brigade to Yancouver.  On  Tuesday, March 7th,, Birnie set out for Spokane Forks with a pack t r a i n of eighty horses laden with f u r s .  There he was  to remain i n charge of them and send the horses back f o r a second load.  The t r a i n arrived back on the 12th and set out  again on the,19th with the rest of the property and the women and children. Spokane House was f i n a l l y being abandoned.  "This  marks the end of Spokane House as a trading post," writes 227 Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t . On Sunday March 19th, John Work observed that "There i s very l i t t l e property of any kind now 228 ing".  remain-  A few days l a t e r the blacksmith was busy stripping  a l l hinges and iron work from the f o r t , i n f i n a l preparations f o r abandonment. House,.  Reports began coming i n now from Flathead  Kittson's l e t t e r s dated March 9th reported the spring  trading completed and excellent i n provisions traded but lower returns than expected i n furs.  McKay had  succeeded  i n making a t r i p down to the Portage with the h o r s e s — a n appalling journey i n three feet of snow. For f i v e days he was without fodder f o r the animals.  Kittson planned to  follow by canoe. To c o l l e c t a l l the Flathead o u t f i t , seventy horses were dispatched across the Portage on the 28th of March. arrived back on the 5th of A p r i l . dried and repacked.  Two  These  Goods were opened, examined,  days l a t e r under Work's leadership  227  E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , W.H.Q., v o l . 5, p. 279, n. 145.  228  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r March 19,  1826.  Ill the l a s t pack t r a i n set out f o r Spokane Forks.  Dease and  Kittson caught up with him a day l a t e r and a l l three arrived at the Forks that same evening, Saturday, A p r i l 8th. T  There i s no regret hinted i n Work s Journal at leaving Spokane.  The dominant note i n i t during these days  is the impatience  at the long winter.  the f i r s t day of spring said Work.  The 16th of March was  How anxiously had he  awaited i t as he recorded protest after protest against the wintry days!  He was not too busy with moving, to record  on the l a s t day of March, "The ground about the fort i s getting quite green, and the bushes are putting f o r t h t h e i r ££9 leaves and some small plants flowering".  £29  Work, op. c i t . , entry for March 31, 1826.  IIS CHAPTER 71 Eort C o l v i l e 1826-1830. Erom 1826 to 1830 John Work's l i f e centred around the new f o r t at C o l v i l e .  I t i s not to he Inferred that he was  there a l l or even most of the time, f o r he was constantly on the move i n the d i s t r i c t of which C o l v i l e was the centre. Seasonally, he had t r i p s to make to Elathead House, to the Snake River for horses for the New Caledonia Brigade, or south to Eort Yancouver with the Spring brigade to meet the annual supply boat. We l e f t John Work at Spokane Forks helping to load the Spokane o u t f i t for Yancouver.  He was there when the  eastbound express arrived with Chief Trader John Mcleod, Francis Ermatinger  and David Douglas the botanist.  with them the nucleus of C o l v i l e ' s stock farm—three  They had pigs  and three young cows—animals to which Work was to become closely but not fondly attached.  Douglas and Work had  already met the previous year when the former arrived from 230 England.  Douglas recorded i n h i s diary, " I met here Mr.  John Work, with whom I was acquainted l a s t year, and who sent me a few seeds from the i n t e r i o r l a s t November, and furnished me with some valuable information about the plants 231 and mountain sheep i n the neighborhood". From-Spokane Forks, horses were sent to Kamiaops 230  See Chapter Y, page 83, n. 180.  231 Journal kept by David Douglas during h i s t r a v e l s in North America 1823-1827, London, William Wesley & Son, 1914, p. 161, entry for A p r i l 15, 1826.  113 to meet the Caledonia o u t f i t , and a number of people were dispatched to Colvile with tools and seed potatoes to commence farming.  On Tuesday A p r i l 18th, Work, accompanied "by Francis  Ermatinger set out f o r Okanagan and arrived there on the next day with a boatload of furs, apishamores and other supplies. Chief Trader Annance l e f t f o r Vancouver. On A p r i l 20th Work was l e f t i n charge at Okanagan u n t i l the main brigade went down to the coast.  There are no  more entries i n h i s journal u n t i l Thursday, June 1st, 1826. No doubt he kept the journals of the post during that period. It was then that he -endeared himself to David Douglas by catching and preserving "a large female grouse and a male 232 black rock-grouse". On June 2, 1826, Chief Factor William 233 Connolly arrived from. New Caledonia to be followed the day after, by the New Caledonia Brigade consisting of sixty 234 loaded horses.  Pierre Pambrun  charge of the pack t r a i n . set  and James Douglas were i n  On Wednesday June 7th the Brigade  out f o r Vancouver under the command of Connolly.  Dease,  D. Douglas, and Kittson were among the passengers, having arrived from C o l v i l e i n the interim.. Pambrun, James Douglas and John Work.  The rest consisted of Altogether six boats  started from Okanagan, leaving Francis Ermatinger i n charge 232 p. 180.  Douglas, D., op. cit.., entry f o r June 6, 1832,  233 Chief Factor Connolly was i n charge of New Caledonia from 1824 to 1831 and father-in-law to S i r James Douglas. 234 Pierre Pambrun entered the services of the Hudson's Bay Company as a clerk i n 1815. He was transferred to New Caledonia i n 1825 and came to the Columbia D i s t r i c t i n 1831. He became Chief Trader i n 1839.  114 of that place.  They arrived at Walla Walla without incident,  i n the evening of June 8th, where they stopped overnight. David Douglas and Jiittson remained there.  Three days l a t e r  on June 12th, the Brigade arrived at f o r t Yancouver, to f i n d 235 that the supply ship had "been there f o r nearly two weeks. They were at Port Yancouver for approximately three weeks, sorting and preparing furs f o r the outbound ship and receiving supplies f o r the i n t e r i o r brigade. This eastbound Brigade l e f t the Port at 1 o'clock on the afternoon of July 4, 236 1826.  It consisted of nine boats manned by s i x men  Chief Factor Connolly was  i n command.  each.  With him were A.  Mc-  Donald , J. Douglas, I , Annance, J . Cortin, and John Work as 237 passengers, besides some women and children.  The brigade,  carried cargoes for the newly erected post at C o l v i l e , f o r Kamloops, f o r Walla Walla, and f o r New  Caledonia.  By July 9th, following the usual route up the Columbia, they had reached and p a r t l y portaged the D a l l e s . A l l the way/the water had been high and the going hard.  An  abundance of salmon was obtainable, but the presence of salmon implied the presence of many Indians so that a careful watch was kept and a square was formed at night.  On the way  they  encountered P. McDonald, T. McKay and T. Dears i n company 235 Work, Journal 4, breaks o f f on July 12th, just before reaching Port Yancouver. See Sage, Douglas, p. 39 for date of a r r i v a l . 236 Work, John, Journal, July 5-September 15, 1826 (hereafter referred to as Journal 5) gives the date as July 5, 1826. But he corrects t h i s himself by l a t e r putting two entries i n his journal for July 12th. 237 Sage, Douglas, p. 40, i d e n t i f i e s some of these people. A complete biographical sketch of Archibald McDonald i s given as a footnote to the same page.  115 with David Douglas, oil t h e i r way south from Walla  Walla  with a part of the .furs of the Snake Expedition.  Finan  McDonald and Douglas joined the party which arrived at Walla Walla about noon on Friday, July 14th. been e n t i r e l y without  The journey had not  incident since Archibald McDonald's  boat was damaged twice and one of h i s men so lamed that he had returned to Vancouver with the party conveying River returns.  the Snake  The r i v e r had been high and the current swift  but that d i f f i c u l t y had been offset by strong westerly winds which provided a good s a i l i n g wind up the broader reaches of the r i v e r . On July 15th and 16th, the usual task went forward of c o l l e c t i n g horses from the Indians to be sent to Okanagan to carry the o u t f i t from that place to New Caledonia.  Due  to some d i f f i c u l t i e s with the natives only seven or eight were secured.  This meant that a horse trading expedition  would have to be sent up the Snake River.. Archibald McDonald was placed i n command, with John Work who had been on a similar expedition the previous year, as h i s second-in238 command.  The f l o t i l l a were to push on up the Columbia.  Work  after securing the horses was to proceed overland with them. James Douglas was to branch o f f with those required at Okanagan and Work to proceed with the rest to C o l v i l e f o r the Flathead expedition. 238 D. Douglas i n his journal (p.64) states that the. party was commanded by Archibald McDonald.and John Work. Connolly states that the party was headed by A. McDonald, Work, Douglas and Annance. This would seem to indicate that Archibald McDonald was i n command (cf., l e t t e r by W. Connolly to Gov., C.F's. and C.T's., Walla Walla, July 18, 1826 i n Mcleod, John, Correspondence inward, July 1826-February 1837.) (original i n Dominion Archives, t r a n s c r i p t i n B.C. Archives)  116 The party was a considerable one.  It consisted of  A. McDonald, J. Douglas, F. Annance, an interpreter and Indian Chief Charlie and twenty-eight men.  "Mr. D. Douglas 239  accompanied us to make collections of plants," wrote Work. The expedition l e f t Walla Walla on July 17th.  No trading was  done u n t i l the 22nd when they secured eight horses. The Indians were unwilling to part with the animals so their prices were f a r too high. gruntled.  The whole party was generally d i s -  The weather was hot (94° to 95° i n the shade).  Salmon were so scarce that Work wrote, "Since we l e f t the f o r t we have not got i n one day a sufficiency f o r a days 240 rations for the people".  The next day was even hotter but  now horses were being secured so the discomforts of the weather became of secondary importance.  Each day saw a few  added, now four, then s i x , then down to two, but an ever growing band was watched each night near t h e i r camp. On Thursday July 27th, they arrived at Chief C h a r l i e  1  lodge near the junction of the Snake and the Clearwater and proceeded on to the forks where some two hundred encamped.  Indians were  The usual exchange of'presents ensued—-two horses 241  for tobacco and "mixed l i q u o r " .  But, observed Work with  chagrin, "We are under the necessity of accepting t h e i r present i n order to please the chiefs though we have to give a present in return which makes the horses much dearer i n general than 242 were we to trade them." By the next day they traded t h i r t y 239 Work, Journal 5, entry f o r July 17, 1826. 240 Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r July 20, 1826. 241 "Mixed" or "Indian" liquor was a mixture of rum with water, not-diluted to.decrease i t s strength but to increase i t s quantity and the giver's apparent generosity.  117 seven horses from, t h i s same hand and were running out of trade goads, e s p e c i a l l y the ever-popular blankets and beads. On Sunday, July 30th, occurred one of those quarrels which might have brought disaster on the whole party, or at least the loss of a l l t h e i r horses.  Apparently one of the men had  a sore finger and was attended by an Indian woman who passed ' » 243 for a "medical character"„ The treatment brought no r e l i e f but the woman applied to the interpreter for payment and was refused..  Charlie, the chief, took up the cudgels f o r the  woman and a s c u f f l e ensued. summarily by Work.  This scramble was broken up  Charlie now took t h i s opportunity to  demand tobacco, which he got.  Becoming bolder, he demanded  s t i l l more tobacco and some ammunition.  The second demand  was refused and Work sent for a council of the chiefs.  One  of the chiefs came alone, but Charlie arrived with h i s whole party and surrounded the Hudson's Bay camp with guns. The moment was tense but.Work was equal to the occasion by outfacing the Indian with the threat that i f he wanted a fight he could have i t .  The threat worked and Charlie agreed to  accept some tobacco as a present!  Trading continued and  the necessary horses, seventy-seven i n a l l , were secured. On Monday, July 31st, the party divided. Archibald McDonald with most o f the men, took the two boats back to Walla Walla.  Work, Finan McDonald (who had come with two  horses from Walla Walla a few days before), James Douglas, 242  Work, op. c i t . , entry for July 27, 1826.  243  Ibid., entry f o r July 30, 1826.  118 David Douglas and s i x men set out with the horses.  On  Thursday, August 3rd, they passed the abandoned site of Spokane House on the opposite side of the Spokane River. They were- too f a r to the east but Work observed that James Douglas who was to take f i f t y - n i n e of the horses to Okanagan would have l e s s chance of losing the t r a i l from Spokane House to the Columbia opposite Okanagan.  Here, Work with  twenty horses crossed the Spokane River and proceeded on to Colvile.  David Douglas went with him.  For the l a t t e r i t had  been an Interesting but rough adventure; he was not yet inured to water "from stagnant pools f u l l of l i z a r d s , frogs, water 244 snakes...." They arrived at C o l v i l e on Friday, August 4th where they were met by Dease. While he was waiting f o r Kittson to arrive by boat from Walla Walla with the o u t f i t , Work had a few days to observe a f f a i r s around the post.  With the exception of the  potatoes, the crops were not doing w e l l . too dry.  The s o i l  appeared  The horses, cattle and pigs were t h r i v i n g but the  prospects of dried-out pastures faced them too.  On Sunday  he v i s i t e d the Kettle F a l l s and described the scene: ...where the Indians are f i s h i n g , they are now taking about 1000 salmon d a i l y . They have a Kind of basket about 10 feet long 3 wide and 4 deep of a square form suspended at a cascade i n the f a l l where the water rushes over a rock, the salmon i n attempting to ascend the f a l l leap into the basket, they appear to leap 10 or 12 feet high. When the basket i s f u l l the f i s h are taken out. A few are also taken with scoop nets & speared. 245 244  Douglas, D., Journal, p. 65.  245  Work, op. c i t . ,  entry for August 6, 1826.  119 The following day K i t t s o n arrived at the lower end of the Kettle F a l l s .Portage,  The horses which Work had brought  were sent to bring the property to the Fort where i t was examined and found correct.  Between the 9th and 12th of  August there are no entries i n Work's journals, but i t i s to be supposed that the newly arrived goods were being sorted and.stored and that preparations were being made f o r the annual summer expedition to the Flathead Indians which Work and Kittson were to undertake.  Meanwhile, disquieting rumors had  come through from the Pend d ' O r e i l l e country that American competition had pushed westward thus far and that the Flathead Indians did not care whether or not the Hudson's Bay expedition was sent that year.  Work stated that he did  not place much credence on the report. The expedition to the Flathead Indians set out on Wednesday August 16th.  Since C o l v i l e had now become the  d i s t r i b u t i n g point f o r the Flatheads the old route by way of the Skeetsho Portage from. Spokane was abandoned,  Simpson's  plans of using the Pend d ' O r e i l l e River as a water route were not used because the lower reaches of that r i v e r had not yet been explored.  A temporary route had to be found.  This l a y  roughly south and east by pack horse to the Pend d'Oreille River some distance below the lake, and thence by canoe: to the old route.  Work and K i t t s o n had' seven men with them and  planned to pick up s i x more who had been hacking a h o r s e t r a i l through the woods.  A l l but one man was going to the Flatheads.  This one person was dispatched to the Kootenais  to t e l l them  to come to trade at lake Pend d ' O r e i l l e on Work's return to  120 that point. After a three day's march they arrived at the Pend d'Oreille River.  The route over the Portage had been easy  the f i r s t day through an open and l i g h t l y wooded country. Excerpts from Work's journal show how later.  d i f f i c u l t i t became  "The woods very thicketty....'J he wrote, "the  very rugged, a continual succession of h i l l s . . . . "  country  l a t e r on  he spoke of the road as "...intersected by a number of small brooks and deep g u l l i e s . . . .  It would be needless, to attempt  t h i s portage i n the spring when the. snow i s on the ground as 247 i t would be impracticable with horses",  f i n d i n g only one  canoe at the Indian encampment on the r i v e r , Work sent  men  ahead to the end of the Skeetsho Portage for those cached there.  On Saturday, August 19th, these people arrived at  th© Skeetsho- Portage.  The  canoes were there but in such  bad shape that i t took most of Sunday effecting repairs even of a temporary nature. On Monday Work learned that a party of American 248 traders  had f o r e s t a l l e d them but that they had only tobacco  with which to trade.  Some of Ogden's deserters of 1825 were  reported with them.  Near Elathead House were f i f t y lodges of  Indians under four chiefs, including l a Bruche, an old f r i e n d of previous years.  Much smoking and talking went on, e s p e c i a l -  l y discussion of the American party.  On Friday, August 24th,  the chiefs issued orders to t h e i r followers to proceed at once to the Hudson's Bay Camp to trade. Bartering went on 246 Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r August 17, 1826. 247 Loc. c i t .  121 b r i s k l y that day and the next morning.  Then the goods were  collected and Work.embarked again down r i v e r , after making arrangements f o r the trade that f a l l and after quashing a rumour that t h i s was the l a s t trading expedition of the Hudson's Bay Company since the Americans were to get the country.  News o f the boundary question had spread even to  the t r i b e s . deserters.  Work also applied to the natives to bring i n any Trade was l i g h t that summer.  On Sunday, August 27th, they found the Eootenay • .249 Indians awaiting them at Eootenay Portage. Once more they "  talked and smoked.  v  The Indians frankly admitted that they  did not care to make this journey and would prefer as promised, to have,a f o r t on t h e i r lands.  Trade.was good.  Four hundred  beaver were taken and a considerable number of smaller furs and dressed skins.  Work returned with these to C o l v i l e ,  having sent Kittson to the Kootenay lodges to c o l l e c t other furs which they reported having l e f t behind because of the leanness of t h e i r horses.  Besides t h i s errand, Kittson was  to send these furs back by his men to the Pend d'Oreille River, and to proceed down the Eootenay to re-examine i t to i t s junction with the Columbia. on August 29th.  Work arrived back at C o l v i l e  Kittson's men arrived four days l a t e r from  the Kootenay Portage.  He had made a p r o f i t a b l e trade i n  leather and had gone on as ordered to examine the Kootenay 248 Party of Gen. William H. Ashley—see Chittenden, H.M., The American Fur Trade of the Far West, New lork, Press of the Pioneers, 1935, v o l . 1, pp. 247-249. 249  Kootenay landing on lake Pend d ' O r e i l l e .  122 River.  Kittson arrived, at the f o r t on September 9th.  Although Work's journal does not record his opinion of the Kootenay, i t would he safe to assume that h i s report t o l d of the impossibility of using i t as a route to the Kootenay country. During t h i s time Work had "been "busy, hurrying on the building which was not yet complete, getting out the inventory and preparing f o r the east-bound Express which was due to arrive any day.  The Express arrived and l e f t Sunday,  September 10th with Finan McDonald and family, Dr. McLoughlin 250 family and Dease and his family.  On Wednesday the 13th,  Dease came back with h i s family. He reported that the boat was overloaded and that he had l e f t behind some important papers.  Leaving h i s family at C o l v i l e , he hurried after the  Express. 251 That winter John Work was i n charge of Fort C o l v i l e After the Express had gone he prepared an expedition to examine the lower reaches of the Pend d'Oreille River.  He  planned to conduct t h i s personally and to start on the 17th of September.  However, the Journal breaks o f f on the 15th  two days before h i s scheduled departure.  At least  something  was successful at C o l v i l e for he records as the l a s t entry, 250 According to Dr. Sage, these f a m i l i e s had come up from Yancouver with the annual brigade, (of., Sage, op. c i t . p. 40) This being the case they had been at Colvile a l l summer, McLoughlin's family turned back at Athabasca. (H.B.S IY, p. x c v i i i ) 251 H.B.S., IY, p. 357 and J.W. Dease to John Mcleod, C o l v i l e , A p r i l 14, 1827 i n Mcleod, Correspondence inward, p. 95.  183 n  258 One of the sows had f i v e young pigs l a s t night' . 1  If Work did make t h i s expedition to examine the n a v i g a b i l i t y of the Pend d'Oreille E l v e r no mention has been found of i t i n h i s journals or h i s l e t t e r s . Not a great deal i s known of Work's a c t i v i t i e s from 253 September 15, 1826 to May 20, 1828, when h i s next journal starts. Colvile.  I t i s known that he spent most of h i s time at Fort He was there when David Douglas, the botanist  passed on his journey east with the annual express i n A p r i l , 1827. Here, Douglas reports.that "We were most c o r d i a l l y ' 254 welcomed by my old and kind friends, Messrs. Dease and Work". Work's simple generosity earned thanks f o r another kindness which he d i d for Douglas by procuring f o r him a "nightcap of hair and wool of that animal  [the antelope] netted by an  Indian g i r l , and a pair of i n f e r i o r snowshoes called bear's 255 paws," — s o u v e n i r s of the country. started i n earnest at C o l v i l e .  That year farming was  Twenty acres of ground were  under c u l t i v a t i o n and yielded w e l l .  Two hundred bushels of  barley and two thousand bushels of potatoes were produced. Simpson's ambition that the forts' should, be independent i n food was nearly r e a l i z e d , since Work wrote, "In another year i f things go well C o l v i l l e 252  jsicj w i l l be independant of  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r September 15, 182 6.  253 Work, John, Journal, May 20-August 15, 1828 (hereafter referred to as Journal 6) ' . ' 254 Douglas, David, Journal, p. 246. Dease had just come i n from the Flathead Post where he was making h i s headquarters. Work had been l e f t i n charge of Fort C o l v i l e . 255  Ibid., p. 249.  124 256  the Indians for provisions". He spent the winter of 1827-8 • 257 at Colvile and wrote his old f r i e n d Edward Ermatinger i n 258 January. The livestock was doing well, he reported, especially the pigs, hut h i s own health had been troubling him.  "I have  been for a month past tormented with sore eyes which rendered me nearly, blind" he went on "I am getting better but my sight s t i l l so weak that i t i s a great e f f o r t for me to write t h i s . " This weakness was to increase with the years rather than to diminish.  During that same year, .1828, he suffered from  quinsy from which he had scarcely recovered when he was attacked by a b u l l .  "The effect of whose blows," wrote John Tod, 259, "he i s never l i k e l y to get the better...." However, Work did recover and carry on with h i s tasks. He was s t i l l at C o l v i l e 260 when the eastbound Express passed on A p r i l 11, 1828.  The  next month he prepared for a t r i p to the coast with the Eur Brigade. He l e f t C o l v i l e i n the afternoon of Tuesday, May 20th, 1828 with s i x boats f o r Okanagan, carrying furs and leather f o r Yancouver and three- l i v e pigs f o r New  Caledonia.  The  256 Work to Mcleod, C o l v i l e , March 25, 1828 i n Mcleod, Correspondence inward, p. 110. 257  Loc. c i t .  258 Yfork to Ermatinger, C o l v i l e , January 2, 1828, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives) 259 Tod to E. Ermatinger, Mcleod's lake, Eeb. 14, 1829 in Papers of Edward Ermatinger, 1826-1845, p. 9, (transcript in B.C. Archives) 260 "Edward Ermatinger's "York Eactory Express Journal, 1827-1828"., i n Proceedings and Transactions of the Hoyal Society of Canada., Ottawa, James Hope & Son, 1915, v o l . 6, p.117, entry for A p r i l 11, 1828..  125 boats, being undermanned, were damaged on rocks but none of the cargo was injured.  On Thursday they arrived at Okanagan  before breakfast, having resumed their journey at day break. The cargoes were examined and found i n good condition.  It  had been a quicker t r i p than usual with the water i n i d e a l condition f o r t r a v e l l i n g , being neither too high nor too low. Friday, the 23rd, was spent i n gumming extra boats f o r the t r i p to Yancouver.  These were in bad shape having been l e f t  out of the water and having been so long i n the hot sun that the p i t c h had been melted out of the seams completely. Chief Factor Connolly d i d not-arrive from  New  Caledonia u n t i l Monday May 26th and h i s party the next day-two days behind the expected time.  On Tuesday, immediately  after the a r r i v a l of the New Caledonia brigade, cargoes were gathered for nine boats and everything put i n t r a i n f o r an early start the next day.  "Two  horses were k i l l e d " wrote Work, . 261  "and given to the people with some barley f o r a regale." 1  A. start was made between 7 and 8 o clock the next morning.  The Brigade was under the command of Connolly, and  included Thomas Dears, Francis Ermatinger and John Work. carried about 33 pieces of furs and leather per boat.  They  A new  innovation had been introduced into the Brigade, oars were now being used instead of paddles.  In the opinion of Work,  "oars are f a r superior to paddles, the men do more work with 262 . greater ease','. That same day they reached the long and ?  261  Work, Journal 6, entry for May 27,  262  Ibid., entry for May 28,  1828.  1828.  126 dangerous P r i e s t ' s Rapids i n the Columbia above Walla Walla. On the 29th a l l the boats but one reached Walla Walla, where some leather, apishamores,  saddles and gum were l e f t f o r Ogden,  and the Nez Perce furs taken aboard. In the meantime, news was brought that the boat which had been delayed the previous day had met disaster at P r i e s t ' s Rapid.  It had struck a rock, three men were drowned and much  of the cargo probably l o s t .  Ermatinger and Dears were d i s -  patched by water to recover the bodies and as much of the cargo as possible.  Work started the next morning by horseback up  the r i v e r f o r the same purpose, hoping to arrive as soon as the boat.  However, he was forced to turn back since a storm  blew up and i t was impossible to swim the horses to the f a r side of the r i v e r near'where the accident had occurred.  Sunday,  June 1st, Ermatinger and Dears arrived back, having found a l l the f u r s .  Some leather, gum and castoreum were l o s t .  of the bodies was recovered.  None  They decided to give up the  search and leave for Vancouver i n the morning. The f i r s t day past Walla Walla they ran down the Columbia nearly to John Day's River where they were delayed nearly two days by wind.  Consequently they did not reach the  Dalles u n t i l Thursday, June 5th and f i n a l l y arrived at Vancouver on the following Saturday evening. Work was employed at Fort Vancouver, drying the bales of f u r s .  U n t i l June 11th,  opening,examining and  Then his journal breaks o f f u n t i l  July 23rd, a lapse of over a month. He was at Fort Vancouver when a punitive expedition was undertaken against the Clallams to avenge the murder of  Alexander McKenzie clerk, and three men on lummi Island where they were encamped.while returning from Fort langley to Fort 263 Vancouver  "During a l l this time," wrote Work, "I kept pretty  well aloof, except volunteering to he of the war party and my services were not accepted, hut I was employed with Mr. £64..  G.  (Connolly] packing the furs." On Wednesday, July £3, 1828, the Inland Brigade l e f t Fort Vancouver. men.  It consisted of nine boats, and f i f t y - f o u r £65  In command was Connolly assisted by Ermatinger, Yale,  Dears and John. Work. The boats were heavily laden.  On.  Thursday, the following day, they reached the Cascades.  The  r i v e r was very low and the l i n i n g of the boats up the rapids very dangerous and d i f f i c u l t . boat was,nearly l o s t .  One of the ropes broke and a  Plenty of salmon were being taken at.  the Cascades but the Indians were not w i l l i n g to trade with the whites.  The expedition against the Clallams placed the  Hudson's.Bay men under'the ban of a superstition that those who had been at-war, would on eating the salmon, stop the salmon'supply.  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Connolly with  Hudson's Bay Company tact, respected t h i s superstition, and passed on up the r i v e r without t r y i n g to force a sale from the natives. On Friday, July 25th, they reached the second 263 See Morton, op. c i t . , p. 720, f f . , f o r account. 264 Work ,to E. 'Ermatinger, C o l v i l e , March-28 , 1829, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C.. Archives). r  265 James Murray Yale was then a clerk. He was appointed to the command of Fort langley i n 1833. He became Chief Trader i n 1844.  128 great series of obstructions i n the Columbia,  the Dalles,  where they secured plenty of salmon and spent the day portaging the goods across the F a l l s * way to '.Vancouver.  Here they met Ogden on h i s  The Brigade arrived at Walla Walla on the  l a s t day of July, the men exhausted with poling and i l l with severe colds.  From Walla Walla six sickles were sent over-  land to Kittson at C o l v i l e to harvest the grain i n the f i e l d s around the f o r t .  The crops t h i s year must have prospered  since Kittson reported that they bore a f i n e appearance.  Yale  and. Ermatinger.'left • the boats to undertake the task Work had done so often—-herding horses overland to Okanagan f o r the New Caledonia o u t f i t . • On"Friday, August 1, 1828, a f t e r discarding one boat, the Brigade l e f t ' W a l l a Walla for Okanagan.  Two of the  men were sick and the boats as deeply laden as when they had l e f t Vancouver.  The r i v e r was low and the men resorted to  poling-^against the current. The next day, as they neared 1  P r i e s t s Rap i d , they learned that the remains of one of the. men drowned l a s t spring had been found and buried by the Indians.  Another had been buried at Walla Walla.  A l l day  Sunday, the Brigade endured the back-breaking work of poling against these Rapids. above them.  In the evening they encamped a few miles  Work spoke of seeing with astonishment  Ermatinger  and Yale camping just across the' r i v e r with t h e i r horses.  No  explanation is. given for t h i s i n h i s Journal, but i t i s apparent that he had expected the two would be nearly to Okanagan by t h i s time.  For another four days they struggled on up the  Columbia poling every foot of their way.  The men's hands were  129 b l i s t e r e d and raw, some were even u n f i t to work.  Friday,  August 8th., brought a wind, not a cool breeze, but a good s a i l wind to relieve them from the endless task of poling.  "The  Wind though warm was a great r e l i e f from the scorching heat 266 we experienced these days past," wrote the patient Yfork. The next morning Connolly and Work l e f t the Brigade, by means of two horses which had met the Brigade the previous evening. They arrived at Okanagan that same morning.  By Sunday August  10th, a l l of the boats had arrived. At  Okanagan, Work separated the pieces for C o l v i l e  from the rest of the o u t f i t , and with a dozen passengers, including the women and children of some of the freemen, started on Monday f o r C o l v i l e . their destination.  Friday they camped close to  At" t h i s point, the sixth of Work's journals  breaks o f f . However, i t may be safely presumed that they reached C o l v i l e the next day, Thursday, August 15, 1828. That winter Work was again stationed at C o l v i l e . Bancroft states that Work made a t r i p to New Caledonia i n 267 1828 but no v e r i f i c a t i o n has been found f o r t h i s statement. It i s to be assumed that since Dease was at the Flathead that John Work carried on the usual routine at C o l v i l e ; preparing f o r the eastbound express, packing the Flathead 266 Work, op. c i t . , entry for August 8, 1828. 267 Bancroft states that he made a t r i p to New Caledoni a i n 1828 cites Allans Rem., MS., 19, as h i s source; but no v e r i f i c a t i o n has been found f o r t h i s statement. See Bancroft, H.Hi, History of the Northwest• Coast, San Francisco, A.I. Bancroft and Company 1884, p. 498.  ISO o u t f i t and making preparations f o r the long winter months. 268 He was there i n Maroh 1829 when Governor Simpson passed on his way  east.  It i s to he assumed also, although no journal  has been found to oover the expedition, that he accompanied the fur-brigade to Fort Vancouver the next summer (1829). That he met  the New  from John Tod who year.  Caledonia fur-brigade at Okanagan we know  accompanied Connolly from New  Caledonia that  "The l a t t e r [Work! received me on my. a r r i v a l at Okanogan,"  wrote Tod, "with as much benevolence i n his countenance, as he would have shown to a messanger from the regions of the blessed 269 with glad tidings of great joy."  Two more clues supporting  t h i s contention are contained i n a l e t t e r he wrote to h i s old friend Edward Ermatinger i n the spring of 1830.  "Our  last  summers excursion against the Clatsops," wrote Work, "terminated better than the Clallam one of the year before,  Mr.  Connolly was General, Mr. Black 2nd, beside a number of us 270 subalterns, rank not determined."  This statement refers to  an expedition undertaken against the Clatsop Indians near Cape Adams, the southern promontory at the mouth of the Columbia.  The annual vessel the William and Ann had been wrecked  on the treacherous bar of the Columbia and the crew drowned. Word got to Dr. Mcloughlin at Fort Vancouver that the surviv'" 268 Work to E. Ermatinger, C o l v i l e , March"28, 1829 and postscript dated A p r i l 10, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). "269 John Tod to Edward Ermatinger, New Caledonia, February 18 , 1830 i n Ermatinger Bapers, (transcript i n B.C. Archives) pp. 11-12. 1830,  270 Work to Edward Ermatinger, F l a t Heads, March 19, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives).  151 ors had. been murdered and the vessel's goods looted. When the fur brigade arrived at Vancouver that, summer, Chief Factor Connolly was appointed to head an expedition to punish these 271. Indians., In h i s l e t t e r to Ermatinger, Work went on to describe what followed: I need not trouble you with the d e t a i l s , i t * .could be of l i t t l e interest, s u f f i c e i t to say, that the savages, (probably made braver by rum of which they had plenty) though perhaps not over h a l f our numbers opened a b r i s k f i r e upon us as we approached the shore, but on our landing their courage forsook them and they f l e d , eventually three o f t h e i r chiefs were k i l l e d and l o s t t h e i r heads, t h e i r v i l l a g e was burnt, down and t h e i r canoes and everything else that could be found destroyed. 272 It was rough j u s t i c e , but i t had i t s r e s u l t s .  The Indians came  to know that the Hudson's Bay came amongst them peacefully f o r t h e i r furs, and that the l i v e s and property of Company servants must be respected.  Work d i d not care f o r h i s baptism of f i r e  " . . . I t i s very well," he wrote "to sing '0 f o r the l i f e of a soldier', and laugh and t a l k about these a f f a i r s , but trust me 275 my f r i e n d i t i s no jest being engaged i n them...." Work returned to C o l v i l e with the Brigade to f i n d that Dease had been taken i l l , so/ i l l that he had to go to 274 Vancouver where he arrived September 5, 1829. Work was given command of the Colvile D i s t r i c t and took up h i s headquarters 271 Morton, op. c i t . , p. 722. 1850,  272 Work.to Edward Ermatinger, F l a t Heads, March 19, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). 275  loc. c i t .  274  H.B.S., I I I , p. 434.  152 275 at the flatheads where he was stationed when he wrote -. 276 Edward Ermatinger i n March, 1830.  Work stated i n the same  l e t t e r that i t had been intended by the Council that he  was  to go below (Vancouver) but that he had started for the f l a t heads before the Express arrived with these orders.  He, there277  fore, had wintered at the l a t t e r place leaving f r a n c i s Heron i n charge at G o l v i l e .  It was not an unwelcome change.  "...  I am r i d of the farm and pigs a circumstance I by no means 278 regret I assure you...." he wrote. He must have l e f t flathead House immediately a f t e r the l e t t e r to Ermatinger was w r i t t e n — i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y to bring out the winter and spring trade, of furs from the p o s t — since he was at Colvile during the l a s t days of A p r i l ,  On  f r i d a y , A p r i l 30th, 1830 he l e f t C o l v i l e with f i v e men  and  t h i r t y - f i v e horses f o r Walla Walla and Port Vancouver.  The  party followed the v a l l e y of the Colvile and across to the source of Chimakine which flows into the Spokane River.  They  reached the Spokane River i n the afternoon of May 2nd, and spent the rest of the day crossing the stream.  Three days  l a t e r they reached the. Snake River at the mouth of the Palouse. On the .way they had been delayed by l o s t horses and by the fact that the animals i n such poor condition that seven 275 H.B.S., IV, were p. 357. 276 Work,to E.-Ermatinger., f l a t Heads, March 19, (original i n B.C. Archives).  1830,  277 f r a n c i s Heron was a native of county Donegal,Ireland. He entered the services of the Hudson's Bay-Company i n 1812. Not u n t i l 1829 d i d he come to the Columbia D i s t r i c t where he. was stationed at C o l v i l e u n t i l 1855. He received his commission as chief trader i n 1828 and r e t i r e d i n 1859. 278  Work, l o c . c i t .  133 or eight hours march was a l l that they could do i n a day. On the 7th and 8th of May they swam the horses over the Snake River and brought the goods over by Indian canoe.  Sunday,  May 9th, they arrived at Walla Walla with but one horse missing from the t r a i n .  According to. Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t the  route 'which they followed became the regular wagon route •* , 279 between C o l v i l e and Walla Walla. It i s suggested In the biographical sketch of John 280 Work i n McLoughlin's Fort Vancouver Letters that i n t h i s expedition he took out the returns of trade to Fort Vancouver 281 i n the -spring of 1830. In his journal or l e t t e r s there i s no.evidence to prove that t h i s expedition was any more than an expedition to bring horses to Fort Vancouver and possibly to explore a land route from Walla Walla down the Columbia. Certainly from Work's d e s c r i p t i o n , no expedition had forced i t s way through that wilderness before.  I f the expedition  had been part of the annual brigade i t was a small one consisting of only f i f t y horses.  Some seventy horses were 282  required f o r the spring returns from Flathead alone, and these returns which Work would carry were presumably, those of the whole C o l v i l e D i s t r i c t which included Flathead House.  Secondly,  279 E l l i o t t , T.G., ed., "Journal of John Work, A p r i l 30May 31, 1830", i n the Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 10, p. 297. 280  H.B.S., TV, p. 357.  281 Work, John, Journal, A p r i l 30-May 51, 1850 (hereafter referred to as Journal 7). .282 1826.  Work, John, Journal 4, entry f o r Tuesday, March 28, ' ~  134 neitlier.an leaving C o l v i l e , nor on leaving Walla Walla, nor on a r r i v a l at Sort Vancouver, does Work give an inventory of the f u r , leather and accessories carried. In a l l preceding and following journals.  This had been done This omission  could  mean that t h i s expedition was not bringing out the returns. Two  p o s s i b i l i t i e s remain.  One,  that the horses were being  brought to Fort Vancouver for a s p e c i f i c purpose, perhaps f o r use i n the Umpqua expedition, or to augment a pack t r a i n across the Cowlitz Portage to Puget Sound now completed.  that Fort langley was  F i n a l l y , there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that a land  route along the Columbia was  being mooted as an alternative  to the easier but- somewhat hazardous r i v e r route. At Walla Walla, the party was delayed three days u n t i l May 12th.  Here, .Work Intended to swim his t h i r t y - f o u r  horses and another sixteen which he had secured from Samuel Black, across the Columbia to the north bank.  Due to wind  and waves i n the r i v e r t h i s could not be attempted u n t i l the 12th when the hazardous passage was made. From May  12th u n t i l the 27th, Work's days are dated 283  correctly but are i n c o r r e c t l y named. May  On Tuesday [Thursday]  15th, the men were on the r i v e r at daylight and  collected  the horses except one which had been borrowed temporarily by 284 an Indian "who prefers r i d i n g to walking". For a day or two 283 May 12, 1830 was a Wednesday. In Work's Journal 7, the next day, May'13th, i s called Tuesday* May 14th, i s Wednesday and so 'on u n t i l Thursday May 27th, when he corrects himself. Any day given alone i n this period w i l l be stated as given, plus the bracketed correction. 13,  284 Work, Journal 7, entry for Tuesday frhursdayl May 1830.  125 tlie road was good.  The weather was rainy "but cool and there-  fore easier f o r travelling..  By the 15th, they had got down  as f a r as John Day's River.  How the road began to get rougher.  In places i t was rocky and hard on the unshod horses. spots they ploughed through sand.  In other  Work found i t necessary to  halt f o r three hours i n the middle of the< day i n order to rest h i s jaded and i l l - c o n d i t i o n e d beasts.  The next day they  turned inland "to avoid the dalles and chutes where numbers of Indians are collected  at t h i s season, and likewise f o r a 285  better road as that along the r i v e r i s very h i l l y and stoney". Avoid the Indians they d i d , but not the h i l l s and stones which were just as bad u n t i l they reached a l e v e l p l a i n where the going was easier.  However, with the increasing heat the horses  were jaded and worn.  Below the Dalles they again came down  to the r i v e r hoping to follow along i t s banks.  The high water  made t h i s impracticable so that the party turned back to the benches high above the r i v e r .  Here they stopped to engage a  guide who gave them to understand that the i n t e r i o r road would take them to Fort Vancouver i n four days.  Another report  came i n that some freemen had come up from Vancouver by horse in three days to t h i s point,  l i t t l e did Work r e a l i z e that h i s  own conservative estimate of six days would be stretched to more than twice that number. On the 18th of May, they secured t h e i r guide and 286 made a long days march to the foot of Mount St. Helens. Here, 285  Work, Journal 7, entry for May 16, 1830.  286 Identified as Mt. Adams ( c f . , E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , O.H.Q., v o l . 10, p. 306, n. 2.)  136 Work was given to understand he was on the Great Cayuse war road.  But sometimes he had an Indian road and sometimes none.  His d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was. great. distance they had come was  The way was d i f f i c u l t and the  short, i n spite of great e f f o r t .  H i l l s , g u l l i e s and small r i v e r s abounded. "thicketty" and there was  The woods were very  considerable snow on the ground.  The fine p l a i n which the road was supposed to l i e through, had not yet appeared.  Moreover, the Indian guide who  spoke  of three days to the Fort, now babbled of eight or ten.  Work  planned to regain the Columbia i f conditions did not soon improve. The next day the road appeared  somewhat better. It  lay through open woods and l e v e l country patterned with grass and flowers. 287 River  In the morning they crossed the White Salmon  which empties into the Columbia between the Dalles  and the Cascades. trail.  That night they encamped at a fork i n the  Their guide, .with one of Work's men,  went some d i s -  tance along the l e f t branch, which was represented as not the best t r a i l , but the one more free from snow, i n the mountains through which they must pass. May 20th they spent i n camp to allow the horses to feed, since grass might be scarce or absent on the higher l e v e l s and no fodder was  carried f o r the animals.  They made  an early start on the 21st and were over the dreaded mountains by midday, the crossing having not been nearly so bad as anticipated.  They camped just past the height of land i n the  early afternoon i n order to search f o r a horse which had  vol.  287 Identified by Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , O.H.Q., 10, p. 306, n. 1.  137 strayed from the path.- Work viewed the magnificent panorama 288 spread out at h i s f e e t . Mountains and v a l l e y s could he seen as f a r as the eye could reach.  To mar the prospect, he  could also see the country through which they must pass on the morrow, a barren desolation of burnt woods. As they proceeded, Work found that t h i s time his fears had not been unfounded: The country we passed through t h i s forenoon i s dreadfully bad a considerable portion of i t burnt woods immense trees f a l l e n i n every d i r e c t i o n , and several deep ravines to cross very steep both f o r the horses to ascead and descend, besides the wood are thicketty & large f a l l e n trees so numerous that we could . scarcely get our way found through i t , there i s no road through t h i s space, the road by which we crossed the mountain went i n another d i r e c t i o n and was l o s t . 289 In the afternoon the track improved a. l i t t l e but was barred by d e a d f a l l s .  still  That night they camped where there was  hardly a mouthful of grass f o r the poor jaded animals whose hardships had been increased by an extremely hot day. May 23rd was a similar day of scrambling over burnt and f a l l e n timber.  Work ends t h i s day by the eloquent entry 290  "...No grass f o r the horses."  The next day they spent scram-  bling along the banks of an unknown r i v e r .  That evening, they  had covered only f i v e or six miles but men and horses were exhausted. At night the horses were allowed to roam unguarded 288 These are the. names which Work gives, but Mr. T.O. E l l i o t t (op. c i t . , O.H.Q., v o l . 10, p. 308, n. 1,2 and 3) claims that Work mixed them up by naming, Mt. St.Helens for Mt.Adams; Mt. Rainier f o r Mt. St.Helens- Mt.Baker for Mt .Rainier. 289 Work, Journal 7, entry f o r Thursday [Saturday] May 22, 1830. 290  Ibid., entry f o r Friday  fsundayj May 23,  1830.  138 for  the few leaves and blades of grass that they might pick  up.  Work was desperately a f r a i d that they might get so weak  that they would die on the t r a i l .  A ray of hope appeared  in the person of a new Indian guide who claimed to know the country. Sunday [Tuesday] May 25th, i t rained a l l day.  The  road was s t i l l bad but less d i f f i c u l t than the previous days. One of the horses gave up and rather than delay, Yfork had him k i l l e d for food.  The meat was bad but provisions were running  short.. That night a l l the men were wet to the.skin and once again but l i t t l e grass was to be found f o r the horses.  The  next day was f i n e , but the bushes and trees were s t i l l dripping with moisture through which Work and his party continued t h e i r arduous journey.  Another horse collapsed, but rather  than lose i t , an Indian was l e f t to bring i t along to the camp. to  The following'-day was spent i n camp "to allow the horses 291 feed and repose". On Friday, May 28th, they crossed the Washougal 292  River  and faced a steep h i l l which took them three hours to  ascend.  But i n spite of i t s steepness the road was better.  Saturday, they marched a l l day through open pine woods and camped at night i n a swamp, the only place with grass f o r the horses that they saw a l l day. The horses were getting weaker.  The Indian guide t r i e d to cheer them by t e l l i n g them that  another night would find them at the f o r t and the road would 291  Work, op. c i t . ,  entry f o r May 27, 1830.  292 Identified by E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , p. 311, n. 1.  O.H.Q., v o l . 10,  139 be better.  The weary, disgusted but patient Work r e p l i e d  293 "This we have been frequently t o l d , & found i t not to be so". Sunday, May 30th, found them s t i l l on the way. f a l l e n wood barred t h e i r road.  Burnt  Boggy places were encountered  which made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the weakened horses.  One of the  horses stuck i n one of these swampy spots and had to be dragged out by two of the men.  The poor beast died soon after.  On  Saturday i t had rained incessantly so that the wet woods soaked the men. Monday saw the end of t h e i r journey.  Not without  a l i t t l e , pride Work stated that he ".. .arrived at Port Vancouver at 7 o'clock i n the evening with 48 of our 50 horses ....We are glad our d i f f i c u l t and troublesome 294 finished."  journey i s  293  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r May 29, 1830.  294  Ibid., entry f o r May 31, 1830.  HHHB1HHIMIBHB BIB 44  42*  43*  \4l'  -to  36*  as"  19  P. P P  46*  MI Ml  45'  m m  m 44*  o #1  P m  MARKET  r  m m  -ftps  P l ^ i l  _  43*  43'  SOU ^i---^ I '  m m  1  B" **  s>W,''  P  S a g e  HARNEV  K K B . ^ •3»,.."III.„,,;• V W .  D e si e f t  If^of  I d a h o — -  TerrT -7 .A-rt*  '.f <a  . ;  •;  p^ ^ _r r' u' unns6 ^E..ttooa2 '?"" aiufcE cind"^. t o 4 9 '  "—'^£?fl_  1-  PJ of -OF  41"  THE  I D A H O  MINING  S E C T I O N S OF  &  O R E G O N  — embracing the GOLD and S I IVE R mines of  1  BOISE & OWYHEE BY  Salt L a U e City  & E 0 .WOODMAN—  .compiled chiefly from notes of kis Irirals M \ d dwing tin- last 18 months .  REFERENCE.  Surveys_ Trails.  P 511 M o n t g o m e r y S t : S a n T r a n c i s c o .  6inU "f B * « f f R .  116" 30 fniits to jjieest R. Jfinc* .  JI8* •  £niered  1  i  according to Act of Congress, in. lit* yew 1864- m t/u mo'Uh of I'ebr bu Geo: j^Y/Jodman. m Vu Clerks Office of tht Jtijtnct  1131  U4=^--1 C»url  y  jju JYirthern  Dish-.ci  r  0  Towns forts.  •  SCAti lis-  • M  Calitorn  3HHHHIHH. HM. IM. B. H. H. H. B HJHlBHHHBfHBlHB  U2!  ui  m  Springs.  SO rmtea &  III-J  40  140 CHAPTER VII ... 5;  F i r a t Snake River Expedition, 1880-51. While there i s no data covering the whereabouts of Work from the l a s t day of. May  1830,  to the 22nd of August  i n the same year, i t i s reasonable to suppose that he spent the summer >at Fort Vancouver, checking the returns from the i n t e r i o r and preparing annual o u t f i t s for the inland posts. He was given an added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which must have taken a considerable-time, that summer, i n that he had been appointed to succeed Peter Skene Ogden as leader of the annual Snake River Trapping Expedition*  Ogden himself, was to undertake  the d i f f i c u l t task of founding a -post on the Nass River f a r 295 to the north.  In the opinion of Ogden i n writing to John  Mcleod, f/ork's appointment was a mixed b l e s s i n g . Our friend Work succeeds me in the Snake country I-accompanied him as f a r as Nez Perces and gave him a f a i r s t a r t i n g - Surely this man deserves a more substantial reward than he now enjoys i t i s an unpleasant s i t u a t i o n he f i l l s I wish him every success but i t i s a l l a l o t t e r y . 29 6 The more "substantial reward" was not long i n f o r t h coming, and high time too, i n the opinion of Work and his friends.  On November 5, 1830, while i n the heart of the Snake 297 Country, he was appointed a Chief Trader. For some years now 295  H.B.S., IY, p. lxxxv.  296 Ogden to John Mcleod, Columbia River, Yancouver, March 10, 1851, i n Mcleod, Correspondence inward, p. 141. 297 H.B.S., IY, p. 557 - also l i s t e d as Chief Trader In Oliver, H.W., ed., The Canadian North-West, i t s E a r l y Development and Legislative Records, Ottawa, Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, 1914, v o l . 1, p. 666. See also E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , O.H.Q., v o l . 10, p. 296.  . 141 Work had despaired of promotion.  In March, 1829 he wrote  Edward Ermatinger that he was determined to leave the service, "This determination w i l l surprise you after the 298 advice I have so frequently given you myself," he said. John Tod expressed h i s sympathy concerning h i s old f r i e n d . Poor W o r k — i f he remains much longer i n the • * •. Country neglected I fear h e ' l l die of the spleen—he i s much more d i s s a t i s f i e d with the manner i n which the good things are shared here than myself—He has now, however, an arduous duty to perform, but there i s l i t t l e doubt of his getting through i t with h i s usual success. 299 This l e t t e r not only expresses Tod's sense of the i n j u s t i c e in delaying Work's promotion but i t also expresses the keen appreciation of the l a t t e r ' s a b i l i t y which h i s compatriots had. In the Snake Expedition of 1830-51, Work was 300 accompanied by Josette legace  his " l i t t l e rib",  a Spokane  half-breed woman whom he had d e f i n i t e l y married i n f u r trader fashion.  She and her growing family were to share the dangers  of most of h i s l a t e r expeditions and to share his l a t e r years 298 Work to E. E r m a t i n g e r C o l v i l e , March 28, 1829, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives) 299 Tod to E. Ermatinger, New Caledonia, A p r i l 10, 1831, ( i n Ermatinger Papers) "The arduous task" refers to the Snake River appointment. .. 300 Work to E. Ermatinger, C o l v i l e , Jan. 2, 1828, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). No authority can be found f o r the C h r i s t i a n name "Suzette" which i s often used to r e f e r to her. Work uses the term "Josette" invariably. "Josette" appears on the record of her marriage i n V i c t o r i a . . Mrs. A l i c e B. Maloney of Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , reports that Mrs. Work was perhaps a Nez Perce woman and not from Spokane  142 of peace and quiet i n Y i c t o r i a .  Work was l i k e many of the  fur traders i n t h i s respect. Records show that he l e f t 301 behind two children, both g i r l s , somewhere i n the Red River. He was not above taking and discarding a woman who proved u n f a i t h f u l and beating up the Iroquois who dared to tamper 302 with her, i f we are to believe the words of John Tod. did not view h i s marital r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with  Work  complacency.  "My l i t t l e partner," he said i n writing to Edward Ermatinger, "presented me with another daughter i n the beginning of the "winter, which cannot be considered a fortunate occurrence i n 303 t h i s part of the world".  However, these children, with  others a r r i v i n g ' i n regular succession, followed t h e i r father and mother, year after year through the appalling conditions and dangers- which Work describes i n the pages of h i s journals. 304 These journals  do not describe the journey of the  Snake Expedition from Yancouver to Walla Walla, merely s t a t ing  the. fact that they reached the l a t t e r place on August  16th.  Five days l a t e r they l e f t Walla Walla on a year's  trapping expedition. Work, as t h e i r leader, caught up with them two days l a t e r . • The party''was a considerable one, 301 Work to E. Ermatinger, N.W. Coast America, February 10, 1838, o r i gforty-one i n a l i n B.C. consisting ( of men Archives). and seventy-four women and children, .302 27, 1826,  John Tod to E. Ermatinger, Mcleod lake, February (in.Ermatinger Papers).  303 Work to E* Ermatinger, C o l v i l e , March 28, 1829, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). 304 Work, John, Journal August 22, 1830-April 20,1831 (hereafter referred to as Journal 8) and Journal, A p r i l 2 l ~ July 20, 1831 (hereafter referred to as Journal 9). *  145 a t o t a l of one hundred and f i f t e e n i n a l l .  They had with  them two hundred and seventy-two horses and mules, a considerable amount of provisions and twenty-one lodges or tents i n which to shelter.  leather  Three hundred and  thirty-seven traps were to be the means of making the expedition successful. Their journey l a y south-east over the Blue Mountains, at f i r s t through t y p i c a l bare h i l l s and l a t e r through thick woods.  They passed.the summit on August 24th and were delayed  i n camp the following day because one of the horses was l o s t . Their method of t r a v e l l i n g was t y p i c a l of the whole season. Each day the camp d r i f t e d from ten to twenty-five miles i n a pre-determined d i r e c t i o n where beaver were supposed to be plentiful, out  from the main camp small groups of trappers fanned  and set t h e i r traps i n nearby creeks and l i t t l e lakes.  Sometimes these groups were away for two or three days, sometimes they were merely out overnight. Quite often traps were set near the main camp i t s e l f . S t i l l moving south-east they reached the Powder 305 River  on the 30th of August.  Only a few beaver had been taken  so f a r . In general, each day's maroh at t h i s time was a l i t t l e longer than the average, since as yet they were only on the fringes of the beaver country and i t was not yet p r o f i t a b l e to delay. Their ing  route l a y down the Powder River and thence  305 Powder River--tributary of the Snake River flowinto the l a t t e r from the west side.  144 306 overland to Burnt River. The road l a y through barren, a r i d country, hardly a tree was to be seen even on the h i l l s . Toward Burnt River the road was gravelly and l a y over a succession of broken ridges.  They reached t h i s r i v e r on  September 2nd, and found good feeding and a p l e n t i f u l supply of water for the horses.  The r i v e r at t h i s point Work  described as "a small stream not over 7 to 10 paces wide & 307 not deep". As they marched they saw signs of Indians.,: enough to make them mount guard over t h e i r horses at night,.  Already  the men v;ere e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y setting traps i n l i k e l y places and were taking a few .beaver.  This enthusiasm, i n Work's  opinion, was misdirected since he wrote, I dont l i k e - t o check t h e i r ardour, yet i t would be as well were they to pass on without hunting so' much after the few straggling beaver that are to be had here, as i t fatigues and impoverishes the horses to l i t t l e purpose and reduces them so much that they w i l l be unable f o r very actiye duty when-we come to where beaver are more numerous. 308 Now  following down Burnt River, they found them-  selves s t i l l i n a barren broken h i l l y country where even gras by the r i v e r bank was scarce f o r the horses.  On September  4th they crossed the Burnt River to i t s south bank and marching i n a south-easterly d i r e c t i o n cut across to the Snake River.  Here, the Snake ima two hundred yards wide and dotted  with several islands.  Now  t h e i r route...lay up the West or  306 Burnt River-—tributary of the Snake River flowing into the l a t t e r above the Powder and on the same side. 307  Work, Journal 8, entry for September 2,  308  loc. c i t .  1830.  145 South hank of the Snake River.  On the 7th a party of s i s  men were helped across to the opposite side.  These  men  were to leave the main "body permanently. Their orders were 309 to hunt the Weiser and Payette' s rivers" which flow into the 310 Snake and then across the mountains to the Salmon River. They were to he hack at Walla Walla during the. f i r s t ten days of July, 1831, Yancouver.  so as. not to miss the fur brigade to Fort  This reduced Work's party by s i x men,  and t h i r t y horses,  four women  "fe are s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y strong i t i s  expected to oppose the Blackfeet," Work expressed himself hopefully, "should they be h o s t i l y inclined as there i s reason 311. to expect." On the 8th of September, the main party crossed the. Snake River i n shallows, where the River divided into f i v e channels.  The next day they marched some eighteen miles south-  east along the Snake River to the junction of Payette's r i v e r which they followed .up six miles.  September 10th they con-  tinued i n the same d i r e c t i o n and on the 11th crossed overland 3ia to the south to the Boise River which Work called Read's River. The r i v e r ran through poplar wood along i t s banks, but else309 Weiser and Payette's r i v e r s flow into the Snake from the east, just, north of. the. Boise River* 310 Salmon R i v e r — a t r i b u t a r y of the Snake River from the east side. It i s the f i r s t large r i v e r north of the Weiser on that side. 311  Work, .....Journal 8, entry f o r September 7,  1831.  312 Boise River was also known .as Reed's River after John Reed of the Astor Party who started a trading post at i t s mouth.  146 where except i n patches on the mountains to the north, not a stick of timber was to be seen.  For a while the Boise  River was their route as now they t r a v e l l e d farther to the east and avoided the great loop of the Snake River to the southward.  During the past weeks the men had been trapping a few  beaver.  The hunters shot an occasional deer or antelope.  Wandering parties of f r i e n d l y Snake Indians traded a few f u r s or a number of salmon to the party. On the ISth they l e f t the Boise River to cut across to the Malade or S i c k l y River which they did not reach u n t i l 513. Tuesday, September 28th. difficult and stony,  one.  The f i f t e e n days' journey was a  f o r the f i r s t few days the road was rough  frequently at the end of a hard day's march l i t t l e  or no grass could be found for the horses, the country being parched and barren or having been recently swept by f i r e . When the road improved and .grass became more p l e n t i f u l other d i f f i c u l t i e s beset them,  f o r two days the camp was not moved  because the wife of one of the men was taken i n labor and gave b i r t h to a boy.  Only the two days could be allowed f o r .  the unfortunate woman t o have her child,and then the camp moved on and she with i t .  On another occasion one of the  men delayed progress, f o r one day.  This unfortunate i n d i v i d -  ual had had a sort of abscess or b o i l on h i s stomach for some days and was i n considerable pain. relief,  That day, much to h i s  i t was'lanced. "In our present mode of l i f e , " wrote  313 North Branch of the S i c k l y River i d e n t i f i e d as the l i t t l e Wood. River of to-day, of.,- E l l i o t t , i n O.H.Q. , v o l . 13, p. 367, n. 12.  147 ,T  Work, a s i c k person is wretched indeed as he cannot possibly be properly attended to notwithstanding 314  the trouble and delay  occasioned to the rest of the party." A few days l a t e r a much more serious overtook the party,  occurrence  four of Work's party had been out v i s i t -  ing t h e i r traps i n a mountain stream' when they were ambushed by a band of Blackfeet Indians.  Two  of the men were k i l l e d ,  stripped of t h e i r clothing and one of them scalped.  Another  had been wounded i n the knee but had managed to conceal hims e l f i n a tuft of willows u n t i l rescued.  The fourth man  escaped unscathed and rushed breathlessly, frightened almost out of h i s wits,' to give the alarm,  f o r a while Work was  a f r a i d that t h i s event might-, be a prelude for a general attack on the camp, which he put i n a state of siege.  Horses  were penned,, and sooutlng parties scoured the h i l l s for the enemy.  But no further attack occurred, apparently the  marauders had only been a small r a i d i n g party, out to f a l l upon small groups, k i l l or capture them and steal their clothes, weapons and horses. Wrote Work p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , Thus are people wandering through t h i s country i n quest of beaver continually i n danger of f a l l i n g into the hands of these 'ruthless savages and certain of losing t h e i r l i v e s i n the most barbarous manner, independant of the privations and hardships of every other kind they subject themselves to. 515 f  Poor L Etang was shot i n the head, neck, back, b e l l y and wrist, and had received an arrow i n the thigh. 516 314  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r September 24,  515  Ibid., entry f o r September 25,  1830.  1830.  316 I'Etang was one of the murdered men entry for September 26, 1830).  (of. Ibid.,  148 However,- these days were not e n t i r e l y without compensation.  For most of the time their route p a r a l l e l e d  a branch of the Boise River l y i n g not f a r across the mountains to  the north, and while returns were not profitable enough  to warrant moving the whole camp "there, small parties had 317 ' •~ • made successful catches of beaver. M o r e o v e r t h e y had come out into f l a t t e r country which Work designated as the Camasa 318 Plain. As they continued south on the l i t t l e Wood River the country again became rough and barren i n appearance 319 "'studded with.patches of bleak stoney ground". of  Only the banks  the r i v e r bore trees and these were f o r the most part but  stunted willows.>. However, where any wood was present there r  were beaver, so ; on September 30th, Work stopped to allow the people to trap and explore.  During these days a .careful watch'  was kept both night and day f o r h o s t i l e Indians.  The horses  were t i e d up at n i g h t — a safeguard whieh Work deplored—since, they should be allowed to roam i n order to make the most of the scanty grass. A few beaver were secured but nothing to j u s t i f y remaining longer.  Scouting parties brought news that the  lower reaches of the r i v e r were rockier, less wooded and showed but few signs of beaver.  Work, therefore, determined to return  the way they had come f o r the l a s t two days' march and s t r i k e 317 To Work's r e l i e f these parties returned without encountering any; Blackfeet Indians. 318 Camass P l a i n — B i g and l i t t l e Camass P r a i r i e i n Elmore County, Idaho. 319 , Work, op. c i t . ,  entry f o r September 28, 1830.  straight across to a swampy v a l l e y or p l a i n of considerable 320 size surrounded by steep h i l l s where the Malade River i t s source. dashed.  has  Here, too, t h e i r hopes of obtaining beaver were  Work surmised that the. place had been hunted too  often. On Sunday, October 3rd, they continued t h e i r wanderings about sixteen miles down.the Malade River i n an easterly direction.  On the 5th the party reached the part of the r i v e r  where beaver were supposed to have been p l e n t i f u l .  "A small  party of hunters 11 years ago took 300 beaver i n two short encampments about t h i s place and then not cleanly hunted, and 321 i t i s not known'to have been hunted since," wrote Work.  Their  high hopes were doomed to disappointment since only a few skins were taken.  Many conjectures were raised as to the  present s c a r c i t y of beaver.  Some blamed i t on a f i r e .  on some disease which wiped them out. favor the l a s t opinion. began to appear.  Others  Work was i n c l i n e d t o  Now the reason for the r i v e r ' s name  Several of the people were sick from eating  the f l e s h of beaver, which, o r d i n a r i l y , was a staple food with the trappers of the day. Work gives an interesting account of h i s theories. The r i v e r about here and indeed further up i s burdened with reeds, on the roots of which the beaver feed, but whether i t i s these or other roots that communicates the q u a l i t y of sicken320 Malade River (Work's S i c k l y River) was so named by Donald MacKenzie because h i s men were made sick by eating beaver there. Alexander Ross reports a similar experience, (of. E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , O.H.Q., v o l . 13, p. 368, n. 13) 321  Work, op. c i t . , October 5, 1830.  150  •"  1  lag people to t h e i r f l e s h i t i s not easy to say,—hemlock i s also found along the r i v e r the roots of which they are said to eat indeed they may feed upon different other Soots and plants which may escape the notice of the hunters.-The leaves of the reeds p a r t i c u l a r l y and some other plants are covered with a glutinous saccarine substance sweet to the taste, and which adheres to every thing that touches i t , the clothes of the hunters who pass through the reeds are covered with i t . The leaves are also covered generally on the under side with innumerable swarms of green insects somewhat in shape & size resembling lice.-They are so thick that they are f l o a t ing i n clouds down the r i v e r . 322 Work's party," disappointed again i n t h e i r hopes of  beaver, turned back up the r i v e r .  On October 8th, they did  not move camp i n order to allow the horses a chance to feed. What with the poor dry grass and the necessity of having to picket the animals at night f o r fear of Indian raids, the beasts were getting lean and jaded.  Besides t h i s , Work had  also the theory that the Blackfeet marauders would expect them to continue on to the Snake River farther to the east, consequently the delay would make the camp safer. they continued to retrace t h e i r steps. foresight i n tying up the horses was  On the 9th,  That night Work's  justified.  An unidenti-  f l e d Indian crept i n among them and attempted to stampede them. Only the hobbles saved the expedition i t s means of transportation. From t h i s point t h e i r general d i r e c t i o n was northeast toward the Salmon River, the headwaters of which Work 322 Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r October 6, 1830. The green insects are probably a species of green aphis commonly found on garden plants.  151 intended to trap.  On October 11th, to Work's annoyance they 385  found themselves encamped close to a party of Americans. Few  enough furs had been obtained so f a r and the immediate  presence of competitors worse.  would make the s i t u a t i o n that much  There appeared only one thing to do—by evasive move-  ments and by speed to get as f a r from these Americans as quickly as p o s s i b l e . Work's plan was 584 east to G-oddin's River  to proceed north and  and thence to the Salmon River.  En  route, he hoped to contact the Bannock Indians and to trade some furs and to hunt buffalo f o r present and future food since many of the people were already on short rations.  He  had the hope that t h i s mountainous route might confuse the Americans i f they made any attempt to follow the Hudson's Bay expedition.  After a two days' march through rocky  d e f i l e s they reached a branch of Goddin's River.  The road  was  d i f f i c u l t and the horses and people equally t i r e d but the Americans seemed to have been given the s l i p .  Four buffalo  bulls were k i l l e d — t h e f i r s t by the expedition.  On the 15th  of October they reached the main stream of Goddin's River after having marched through p l a i n , swamp and then over a barren grassless area.  More buffalo were seen and a cow and b u l l  killed. Their route l a y up t h i s main branch i n a northwest 525 This o u t f i t belonged to Crooks & Co., and was l e d by a Mr. Antoine (?) Robbidoux. l u c i e n Fontenelle who managed their a f f a i r s was then at the Snake River. ( c f . , Work, Journal 8_, entry for October 12, 1850) . 524 Goddin's River i s the Big l o s t River which i s l o s t by sinking i n the lava beds of eastern Idaho (of., lewis, William S. and P h i l l i p s , Paul C., eds,, The Journal of John Work, Cleveland, the Arthur H. Clark Company, 1923, pp. 144-5, n. 280)  152 direction.  Buffalo were both seen and k i l l e d .  of these animals was a mixed blessing.  The presence  True, they were v a l -  uable for food, but i n the narrow v a l l e y s through which the expedition was t r a v e l l i n g , they had l e f t but l i t t l e grass f o r the horses.  On the 20th of October the expedition reached a  swamp which was the source of the r i v e r which they had been following.  On the following day they crossed a height of  land to a branch of the Salmon River.  For the past week the  weather had been getting cold and raw.  Snow began to appear  lower and lower on the sides of the mountains around them, but as yet only r a i n f e l l i n the v a l l e y s .  The expedition  was having indifferent success i n finding heaver as i t moved north along t h i s branch of the Salmon to a larger stream. On October 26th, Work started to push westward into the mountains l y i n g between the Snake River and the Salmon to a spot v i s i t e d by some men of Alexander Ross's seven years before where beaver were supposed to be s t i l l p l e n t i f u l .  The  distance was believed to be about six days march, and with winter coming on Work estimated that nearly a month could be spent i n trapping the .area, before the snow became too deep and before the streams froze over. tinued their journey.  The next day they con-  That, evening they reviewed the d i f f i -  c u l t i e s encountered during the day's march.  The. road had been  very steep, and nearly blocked by f a l l e n trees.  From the top  of a mountain over which they passed, nothing but mountains and deep ravines could be seen as f a r as the eye could reach. They had been forced to camp where scarcely any grass could be found f o r the horses.  Beside a l l t h i s , the weather had  155 turned s u f f i c i e n t l y cold to freeze the streams s o l i d l y enough to walk on. Work decided to give up the plan and trap what furs he could on the lower altitudes before winter set i n . The next day, October 28th, they began the return journey and on the 50th were back on lower ground and none too soon, f o r a foot of snow had f a l l e n the previous night. U n t i l November. 11th, they marched north down one of the branches of the Salmon.  Each day small groups of  trappers explored side streams for beaver with varying degrees Of success.  Not once d i d the party f i n d a spot untouched by  other trappers or Indians.  A few beaver were found each day,  sometimes seven; or nine and occasionally an otter or two. During this time they f e l l i n with some Flathead Indians who stayed with them for four days and told them of their camp some s i x days' march away.  Work did not v i s i t t h i s camp but  -sent some tobacco as a present to the chiefs and a l e t t e r to be forwarded to McIo,ughlin at Fort-Vancouver* Now Blackfeet began to prowl around i n the darkness of the night.  They had already surprised one of the men  engaged i n skinning a-mountain sheep a few miles from;the camp.  But he had time to f i r e on them and leaping upon h i s  horse escaped i n a f u s i l l a d e of shots. shadows at night were demoralizing.  However, these stealthy  "Thus i t i s with us i n  this part of the country," wrote poor Work, "when other people's labours cease and are succeeded by sleep and repose, 525 Our troubles and anxiety begins." On the 12th of November, 525  Work, op. c i t . , entry for November 11, 1850.  154 they cut across to the north branch of the r i v e r and "began to follow i t up to,the south-east. were around the camp again.  That night Blackfeet  For two days they did not raise  camp, p a r t l y because the r i v e r looked promising f o r beaver and p a r t l y because s i x inches of, snow had f a l l e n . hopes of beaver were dashed.  Again their  In both days only sixteen had  been taken, a very small number for the traps i n use, and now the r i v e r began to freeze so that traps could no longer be s e t . On the 16th after having pushed eight miles up-stream, they were again bothered by Blackfeet prowlers.  On t h i s occasion  Work sent a punitive expedition after them, but without  success.  About twenty savages were estimated i n the group.  later i n  the day some f r i e n d l y Flatheads v i s i t e d the camp.  "...What  a difference" remarked Work, "between these people and the 326 murderous Blackfeet...."  On the 17th, more Flatheads arrived  at the camp headed by old chief La Buche with whom Work had 'traded quite often at Flathead House.  Out of deference to the  Chief, Work did not raise camp u n t i l the 19th when they were again on t h e i r way south toward the Snake River. The weather 'was getting colder, snow and ice were gradually gathering even i n the more sheltered v a l l e y s . The day's marches were e s p e c i a l l y hard on the women and children. Even some of the more poorly clad men suffered intensely. After camping- i t was often d i f f i c u l t to find enough wood f o r fires. 326  Work, op. c i t . , entry for November 16, 1830.  155 On December 1st, they reached the entrance to a 327 pass leading to Day's D e f i l e .  The follOY^ing  day they reach-  ed the D e f i l e after a march of sixteen miles. road was h i l l y and d i f f i c u l t . lay three feet deep.  On the way the  On the height of land the snow  Fortunately, at the Defile i t s e l f there 8  was but l i t t l e snow and the feed f o r the horses excellent. The hard, day had had it's recompense.  On Friday., December 3rd,  they moved south eight miles to a •small unidentified stream closer to the buffalo, f o r meat was getting scarce.  For  three days they rested and hunted buffalo, cutting and curing 328 the meat for future use, and making cords and apishamores out of the hides-. Twelve buffalo were k i l l e d they again proceeded south down the stream. they  on the 8th as On the. next day  journeyed seventeen miles across country to a .dry branch  of Goddin's River where they found good feed but no water. foot of new-fallen snow l a y on the ground.  A  In the distance,  herds of buffalo and antelope could be seen, but i t was too late i n the day to hunt them. On the 10th, they stayed i n camp to allow the horses to rest after the long march of <the previous day.  Here, s i x  men rejoined Work's party which they had l e f t on December 1st. Against Work's wishes they had l e f t the expedition at Day's D e f i l e , claiming to know a better road through the mountains. Work's Ironic comment was "They l o s t some of t h e i r horses (4) 327 Day's D e f i l e was a pass at the head of the middle fork of the Salmon River north of Goddin's River (The Big l o s t ) . 328  See page 51, n. 68.  which gave up from, fatigue by the way".  Only one of the main  party's horses had foundered during t h i s same period. On the next day, November 11th, they continued their slow progress south-east toward the Snake River.  The  barren stony p l a i n was covered with a foot of loose snow and the weather cold. march.  Two horses gave up on the short ten-mile  Another'ten miles was made on the following day to330  ward Middle Bute  i n s t i l l deeper snow.  As they neared the  Bute, grass for the horses became more abundant and stunted cedars were found to furnish f u e l f o r f i r e s , of which the people stood i n desperate need.  That night about f o r t y of  the horses strayed through the guard back to the previous encampment.  l o r t h i s reason the party spent the 13th of  December i n camp, while the strayed horses were being rounded up. at  Seven of them were found dead and some could not be found all.  On the next day the weather was a l i t t l e milder as  the expedition pursued i t s way s t i l l south-east.  Near the camp  they surprised a herd of a hundred elk and notwithstanding the weakness of the horses pursued, and k i l l e d twenty-five of them.  On the 15th,. the weather became progressively milder  and brought with i t dense fog through which they groped t h e i r way f o r another nine miles.  The snow was s t i l l deep and the  weakened horses found great d i f f i c u l t y pawing t h e i r way through i t to the grass beneath.  It was not u n t i l the 17th, that they 331 arrived at the Snake River at Blackfoot H i l l , another two 329  Work, op. c i t . ,  330 Middle Bute. 139 and 140.  entry for December 10,  1830.  See three Butes, map between pages  331 Blackfoot H i l l and Blackfoot River on the south side of the Snake River.  horses haying collapsed and died on the  way.  Fear where Work camped there were a great many Snake Indians H y i n g ; two large camps, one below him and another above.  The natives complained of the lack of buffalo nearby.  This was disturbing news, since Work's party depended l a r g e l y on what they- could k i l l i n the f i e l d .  Another item of news  was more cheering, there had been l i t t l e or no sign of the dreaded Blackfeet Indians near. , It seems evident that Work crossed the Snake River to camp on the southern bank.  Although  he does not a c t u a l l y mention crossing anywhere i n his journal, he does mention the presence of a good ford at Blackfoot 332 where the r i v e r was  but s i x t y yards wide.  Hill  Moreover, h i s  trapping movements i n the following spring were a l l made to t r i b u t a r i e s along the southern bank. from t h i s date, .until the following A p r i l , t h e y were in winter camp on the Snake River.  Day-by-day entries i n  Work's journal t e l l of much the same thing.. The: weather was a favorite topic, as of course i t would be to a man  camped  on snowy ground i n a leather tent.  He recorded how  the s p e l l s  of•extreme cold came and went.  snow and- ice made l i f e  very d i f f i c u l t and how  How  i n the days before spring,' alternate  promises of mild weather r a i s e d t h e i r hopes, -only to dash them again by a return of winter. his mind, ing  first,  them by night.  there was  His horses, too, were much on the problem, of penning and,guard-  If t h i s was done i t safeguarded them .  against thievery and straying but the unfortunate animals 332  Work, op. c i t . , entry for December 17,  1830.  158 were unable to f i n d enough grass i n the confined area to keep themselves a l i v e .  I f they 'became much weaker they were no  longer able to run buffalo, upon which the camp depended f o r food.  It was a quandary f o r Work to face.  Much of the time  the animals were allowed to go unguarded as winter conditions lessened the, p o s s i b i l i t i e s of attacks by the Blackfeet Indians Inevitably a few horses did stray or were stolen by the dependable  of the Snake Indians.  less  In some cases the horses  were recovered and sometimes not, but always Work succeeded i n keeping not only the friendship, but also the respect of the Indians, from time to time he moved camp a few miles up or down the r i v e r In search of better grazing for the horses. His general p o l i c y was to keep a Snake Indian encampment above him, since i t was from that d i r e c t i o n that any Blackfoot '• attack would come, so that the Snake Indians would receive the brunt of the blow.  When conditions made i t necessary f o r  Work's expedition to- be farthest upstream, he comforted himself by the thought that he was nearest the buffalo. was a matter of regular routine. went.  Hunting  Hunting parties came and  Usually they had s u f f i c i e n t success to keep the camp  well supplied.  Toward spring the buffalo began,to get out of  condition and the meat was coarse, f a t l e s s and stringy, but i t kept them a l i v e .  While hunting, the party kept careful  watch for Blackfeet Indians. false ones.  There were alarms, but mostly  A warhoop i n the night turned out to be a drunken  Snake Indian reeling homeward.  A v i s i t i n g , p a r t y of Snake  Indians made the ceremonial ride three times round the camp f i r i n g t h e i r guns as they rode.  Hudson's Bay hunters,hearing  159 the f i r i n g , thought that the camp had been attacked, and rode h e l l - f o r - l e a t h e r to the rescue. January 1st, 1831, was clear and mild.  That  day  none of the people went hunting, but stayed in camp endeavoring to regale themselves the best they could, on a dram of rum. and a. few cakes.  This was their "New  Year's' celebration.  On this day a party of Nez Perces and Flatheads arrived, i n camp on snowshoes. They had sold their horses to 533 a party of Americans camped on the White River  on the East-  ern side of the mountains about ten days' journey away. These Americans sent word that they intended to cross the mountain in the' spring to' trade with the Flatheads and set up an •.establishment on t h e i r lands. Nez Perce and Flathead chiefs.  They sent presents to the On January 12th, Work sent 334  l e t t e r s to Oolvile and Fort Vancouver' by this same party of Indians who .  were leaving for t h e i r own.lands. On February 14th, a hunting party managed to pursue  a small party of Blackfeet who had stolen some Snake horses. The. f l e e i n g Blackf eet abandoned the horses and taking to the mountains, escaped.  On the 22nd of February, Work record-  ed i n h i s journal the trapping of two beaver-—the f i r s t he 555 White River. Not i d e n t i f i e d , but possibly Jackson' s Hole, a favorite rendezvous f o r furtraders between the Teton and Gros Ventre ranges. 534 The l e t t e r to Mcloughlin contained h i s accounts up to November 18 and reached Fort Vancouver on March 8, 1831,-— see H.B.3., IV, p. 227. Work also wrote Mcloughlin on November 6 t h — t h i s l e t t e r has not been traced. Dr. Iamb i s of the opinion that the l e t t e r acknowledged by Mcloughlin i s that of November 6th as mentioned previously i n Work's journal, in spite of the discrepancy i n dates.  160 had entered since December 23rd.  The weather was s t i l l cold  but here and there the r i v e r had opened up so that a few traps could be set.  After t h i s encouragement, others began  to set traps, so that each day the trapping of one or two beaver was recorded.  Through March the expedition awaited  warm weather impatiently. The snow disappeared so slowly and the ice rotted so gradually on the r i v e r .  Some of the  most optimistic of the camp began to make dugout  canoes-to  trap the r i v e r when the ice f i n a l l y did disappear. On March 18th, Work began moving camp again. 335 1  they journeyed to a fork of Portneuf s River  First,  where there was  plenty of grass f o r the horses-and freedom from snow. Five days before, ducks and geese began to pass, overhead.  On  most days now the people were out i n every d i r e c t i o n setting traps and taking some beaver each day.  On A p r i l 2nd, he  moved camp to. the junction of the Portneuf and the Shake r i v e r Here was. another good pasture and the chance of a few beaver. Moreover, the higher reaches of Portneuf River were frozen. over, so that there was l i t t l e use moving toward the mountains On the 8th they began d r i f t i n g westward crossing Portneuf River to the opposite side. Some, of the people pushed ahead , 356 to trap the Bannock River.  That same day a party of hunters  requested.permission to separate from the camp and proceed along the north side of the Snake River to the Boise. 1  refused to give them permission.  Work  F i r s t , because he did not  355 The Portneuf River f a l l s into the Snake on the south side just below the Blackfoot River. 336 The Bannock River i s the next tributary below the Portneuf on the south side of the Snake.  161 see any opportunities f o r a successful hunt i n that part of the country.  Secondly, hecause•he.felt that t h i s would  weaken the main party and at the same time expose the smaller party to extermination by the marauding Blackfeet.  Word  arrived by Indian that the Americans were headed their way. The party was said to consist of some f i f t y men headed by * ; 337 328 Fontenelle and Drips on t h e i r way eventually to Beaver Head i n the Flathead  country.  On A p r i l 10th, they raised camp and headed across country to the upper waters of the Bortneuf River. found themselves i n a poor s i t u a t i o n .  Here, they  Last year's grass" had  been eaten by buffalo, and t h i s year's had not. yet grown up, so that there, was no fodder f o r the horses.  There were signs  of beaver but many of the small streams were s t i l l frozen oyer.  Only ten heaver were taken.  In spite of the poor  l o c a t i o n they remained there f o r another day i n a f u t i l e attempt to hunt .buffalo.  The huge beasts were present i n numbers but  the horses of the expedition were i n too poor condition to run them down.  On the 12th, they moved down the r i v e r again,  some seven miles to a -better spot f o r grazing. Twenty-one beaver isere trapped..  Work sent two of h i s men to v i s i t a 339  l i t t l e v a l l e y c a l l e d Ogden's Hole  which, according to h i s  information had contained a good, many beaver and had not been trapped f o r three years.  The men found the v a l l e y  still  mantled i n snow and. ice, and impossible to hunt. 337 Andrew Drips was a member of the American Fur Company and one of their leaders i n the, f i e l d west of the Rockies. 338 Beaver Head. See Chapter 8, page 183-4. 339 Ogden's Hole was a small v a l l e y In the Bear River Mountains near Great S a l t Lake.  162 On. Thursday A p r i l 14th, they were v i s i t e d by the American party which camped alongside of them for four days. As he had been informed, Work found Fontenelle and Drips, 340 "gentlemen of respectable appearance" i n charge.  They had  had a hard time p a r t i c u l a r l y i n crossing the mountains, where the snow l a y deep.  They agreed with Work that the winter had  been longer and more severe than usual, and announced that they intended to follow up the Snake E l v e r and cross over to ' the headwaters of the Missouri i n the hope of meeting the Flathead  Indians. It i s to be imagined that Work was apprehensive  l e s t some of his^freemen  attempt to desert to the Americans  as those of Ogden's had done some years before under much the same circumstances.  Two of the freemen did apply to the.  Americans and had offered to s e l l them f u r a .  Fontenelle, the  American leader, refused to accept their services and offer of trade u n t i l they settled their accounts with the Hudson's Bay Company, and warned Work of their actions.  f i n a l l y , only  one of the men i n s i s t e d i n leaving, claiming that some of h i s Iroquois r e l a t i v e s were i n the American party.  He settled h i s  account to within four beaver of the amount of his debt and was allowed to go. to t a k e n o t Company.  In leaving however, the freeman attempted  only h i s own horses, but one belonging to the  This, Work had no intent ion of allowing and seized  the animal.  A " s c u f f l e ensued which seemed to be about to  develop into a pitched battle between the Iroquois r e l a t i v e s 340  Work, op. c i t . , entry for A p r i l 14, 1831.  163 of the freeman and the servants of the Hudson's Bay Company. Guns were loaded hut fortunately were not f i r e d since the troublemakers gave up the struggle. Work kept the horse.  He  observed with regret that only two of his Canadians offered to help him.  The rest a l l stood with folded arms leaving  him to struggle for the horse.  Obviously they  sympathized  with t h e i r compatriot but were not w i l l i n g to jeopardize their p o s i t i o n with the Company.  Fontenelle remained to  express regret at the trouble which had been caused.. "Were people," wrote Work "who have to deal with these scoundrels i n t h i s country to act. mutually i n a similar manner to Mr. r  Idntenelle there would be much less, d i f f i c u l t y with roguish 341 men..,." On the 19th of A p r i l , they again raised camp and proceeded overland to a small r i v e r called the Bannock. It had been Work's o r i g i n a l plan to hunt up to the headwaters of the Snake River and then to cross the mountains south to Salt lake and the Humboldt River. him to abandon t h i s plan.  Three considerations caused  F i r s t , that the Americans had the  same plans as he for the f i r s t phase of the journey.  Secondly,  h i s own party was running short of ammunition and. he feared a possible brush with Blackfeet Indians.  Lastly, that area  had been trapped by Americans during the previous autumn.  Work,  therefore, decided to follow the Bannock River up into the mountains and possibly cross then to the southward.  He had  been told that t h i s country had never been trapped by whites and that nature had helped to disguise i t from prying hunters by laying a huge swamp across the r i v e r and leaving the impression that t h i s swamp was i t s source. 341  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r A p r i l 16, 1831.  164 It was not u n t i l A p r i l 21st that they moved camp, an opportunity having been given to convalesce the h a l f starved horses and to hunt buffalo since food was again short. As they moved ten miles upstream.they which they pursued without' success.  saw a party of Blackfeet Traps were set where  they camped and twenty-five beaver were taken.  Eerhaps t h i s  was the v i r g i n ground they had been searching f o r . Above them the r i v e r forked and men went to explore the eastward branch.  "We  are mortified," wrote Work disconsolately, "to  find that as f a r as the men proceeded up i t , i t i s choked 342 up with snow..." condition.  The other branch proved to be i n similar  Work 'decided to give up the attempt of trapping  these l i t t l e streams and also to abandon the r i s k of crossing the mountains southward f o r fear of losing t h e i r weak and jaded horses and f o r want of food for themselves.  Work began  to despair of his ambition to take six or seven hundred beaver i n that quarter...."The oldest hands," he  lamented,  "even i n the severest winters never witnessed the season so - 343 late." On A p r i l 25th they returned down the Bannock to near the encampment of the 20th.  The next day they marched  ten miles southwest to the Snake River where the grass f o r the horses was excellent and where they succeeded i n taking twenty-one beaver i n two days they were there. they were again on their way,  On the 28th,  t h i s time down the Snake River  342  Work, Journal 9, entry f o r A p r i l 23,  345  loc. c i t .  1851.  165 344 to near the American Falls, where heavy r a i n and sleet held them i n camp for two days.  During t h i s time the trappers  managed to take f i f t y beaver from a small creek called by 345 Work "The big stone r i v e r " * season but not exhausted.  It had been hunted the previous The horses again began to worry  Work. They were so lean and miserable and occasionally had to be abandoned.  A few weeks rest and good grass would do  wonders for them but because of the lateness of the season Work f e l t that he could not spare the time. On May 1st, they moved camp to t h i s "Rock Greek', where they stayed the following day. ing  Work speaks of obtain-  seventy-five; beaver but apparently some of these were  taken on the 50th of A p r i l .  At any rate his entry i n his  journal for the 1st of May,  states "...the traps t h i s morning -346 did not y i e l d according to expectation". On the 3rd and 4th, they moved s t i l l farther down the Snake River and thence t o 347 the Raft River with the Snake.  some, ten or f i f t e e n miles above i t s junction Only eleven beaver were taken there, presum-  ably because of the height of the water and because the Americans had trapped there the previous f a l l .  Since t h i s  might be the l a s t place as they moved westward where buffalo were p l e n t i f u l , Work planned, to l a y i n a stock of meat.  He  344 American F a l l s on the Snake River (cf., Fisher, Yardis, director, a Guide i n Word and Picture, Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton P r i n t e r s , 1937, p. 405. rt  345 Not i d e n t i f i e d . It i s not "Rock Creek of the present maps which i s below the confluence of the Raft River. 346  Work, Journal 9, entry for May  1, 1831..  34.7 The Raft RiVer was another t r i b u t a r y of the Snake, flowing into the l a t t e r from the south..  166 reported that the "buffalo were of better quality and the  horses  i n better condition to run them down (one can almost hear his  sigh of r e l i e f ) .  S t i l l , in his opinion three buffalo  were needed to produce dry meat equivalent to the. amount produced by one animal i n the autumn. They remained at t h i s encampment u n t i l May they pushed on up the Raft River.  7 th when  As they went they were  fortunate i n securing some more buffalo unexpectedly but were worried because Blackfeet were following the camp. 12th, they were over the mountains to the south. s p l i t his party.  Eight men  By  May  Work now  were to hunt to the westward  through the headwaters of small r i v e r s running north to the Snake River,  They were also to trap the east fork of the  Sandwich Island River (Owyhee River) . his  The main party under  control was to push south to Ogden's River (the Humboldt)  and thence west to the head of the Owyhee River. U n t i l the 16th of May  the main party marched south  and a l i t t l e east to the p l a i n l y i n g west of Salt lake.  In  general their route followed that of Ogden's.  little  water or grass.  There was  When .they came put on the p l a i n Work was  rather appalled by i t s appearance. " . . . I t appears to the Eastward," he wrote, " l i k e an immense lake with black rocky h i l l s here and there l i k e islands, large t r a c t s of the p l a i n appears p e r f e c t l y white and destitute of any kind of vegetables, i t 348 is said to be composed of white clay."  On the ,23rd of May  after t r a v e l l i n g west and south they reached the east fork of 348  Work, op. c i t . , entry for May  16,  1831.  167 the Humboldt h i t t i n g the r i v e r farther up than by Ogden'a trail.  They had been t r a v e l l i n g through a desolate  country,  barren and arid with but meagre supplies of brackish water for horses and men.  The only inhabitants seemed to be a few  naked and timid savages.  At the Humboldt the water was high  and the banks overflowing and" no signs of beaver to be seen. On Tuesday May 24th, they marched some f i f t e e n miles to the middle fork of the r i v e r , where only three beaver were found i n t h e i r traps.  T h i s branch too, was overflowing i t s banks.  The next day Work did not raise camp. For sixteen days they had been marching steadily and not only the horses but the men as well, were t i r e d and d i s p i r i t e d . Some Snake Indians v i s i t e d the camp and told them that the small streams i n the mountains might be more productive.  Work and h i s party turned north and west to trap these 349  creeks.  U n t i l the 31st of May  rocky d e f i l e s .  they wandered through steep  Only a few beaver were taken and scouting  parties brought no better news of adjacent streams.  In general,  the streams look promising enough and poplar and willow were p l e n t i f u l , but few beaver.were tp be found.  On. the 1st of  June they reached a narrow v a l l e y containing small streams which united to form the east branch of the Owyhee River. Here was a favorable spot for.beaver, but again few signs were to be seen and the water u n t i l recently had been very high.349 Here, Work has d i f f i c u l t y with his calendar, as i n his seventh journal. His dates are correct to the end of the journal but the day following Monday May 30th i s -marked Thursday, May 31st, followed by Friday June 1st and so on u n t i l the end of the ninth journal. Checked from the B r i t i s h Almanac, London, Charles Knight, 1831, pp. 18 and 20.  168 In order to f i n d out i f the v a l l e y did contain fur they did not raise camp the next day..  Out of one hundred and f i f t y  traps set only twelve contained heaver.  Once more Work was  very disappointed and more so when his men they had hopes of very few more.  suggested that  To make things more . d i f f i -  cult, food was getting scarce. No animals had been seen except an occasional antelope.  Tracks of mountain sheep were observed,  but not the animals themselves.  Even the Indians who frequent-  ed the mountains f o r roots, had not yet appeared because of the l i n g e r i n g cold weather. On June 3rd, they continued their journey over a low height of land-south and west back to a. branch of the Humboldt.  This looked l i k e excellent beaver country, but only  a s o l i t a r y lodge was seen and scarcely the mark of a beaver old  or new.  In this v a l l e y only nineteen beaver were trapped.  Here the expedition divided again.  Seven of the men and t h e i r  families l e f t to go down the Owyhee to the Snake and thence to Walla Walla.  This new separation was occasioned p a r t l y  by the desire f o r better trapping, but mainly because these men had not stocked up. with buffalo meat as the opportunity afforded. get  They had depended on t h e i r a b i l i t y as hunters to  along with what they could f i n d .  Now  they were destitute  of provisions and i t was f e l t that a small group such as t h e i r s could l i v e better by chance animals as they marched by themselves than by'staying with.the whole camp. By June 5th, Work's party was back again to the Owyhee River, t h i s time to the main branch. a few roots from the Indians who  For food they got  stole two of t h e i r traps. -  169 Here, they stayed u n t i l the 7th "but took but few beayer, even though they explored streams untouched by Ogden i n 1829. On the 8th of June they moved a few miles down- the r i v e r where they remained for four days. trapping was successful.  Neither hunting nor  Work decided then to move up to the  headwaters of the main branch of the Owyhee and thence cross over the mountains back to t r y the Humboldt once more.  This  phase of the expedition occupied him from June 12th to June 24th.  In general, trapping was worse than usual.  In many  places high water made i t almost Impossible even to f i n d the banks of the r i v e r s l e t alone place traps on them.  With the  entire disappearance of beaver went t h e i r l a s t source of food. Only one thing remained to be done, to k i l l t h e i r horses.  On  June 20th, two were slaughtered for food, and on the 25th another one. was-killed*  "Thus are the people i n t h i s miserably  poor country .obliged to k i l l and feed upon those useful animals 350 the companions of t h e i r labors," write Work. .. Even the best hunters could not find game.  On June 27th, Work noted i n h i s  Journal, "Two Antelopes were seen yesterday, which was a SSInovelty". As they went on crossing swollen streams, the weather began to get warmer and clouds of mosquitoes plagued them.  x., In the l a s t days of June, the expedition headed  north and west toward home, hunting and trapping;'as they went. On June 28th, they crossed a small stream which Work thought might be a fork of the Owyhee River..".-Here, they were fortunate 350  Work, op., c i t . ,  entry for June. 25, 1831.  351  Ibid., entry for June "27, 1831,..  170 •in k i l l i n g an antelope.  The next day was a long one of  twenty-eight miles, across a p l a i n and then over a salt swamp. June 30th, saw them, passing along the foot of a mountain 35E i d e n t i f i e d by Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t as Stein's Mountain. Here another horse was slaughtered f o r food and s t i l l another on 353 July 1st. On the 2nd they reached S y l v a i l l e s Lake. The lake was high and the water brackish "and so very bad that 354 i t i s l i k e a vomit to drink i t " . Irom Malheur or S y l v a i l l e s Lake they marched twenty miles i n a general northwesterly . 355 d i r e c t i o n to S y l v a i l l e ' s River.  On the 4th of • July they  continued up. the, r i v e r and camped f o r a day to allow the horses to r e s t . -They had been on the march f o r nineteen days without rest and often making as much as twenty, miles a day. At t h i s encampment they managed to trap seventeen beaver and to k i l l two antelope. On July 6th, they, proceeded on up the r i v e r getting a few beaver each day and finding more game. were now getting p l e n t i f u l . 1  E l k and deer  On the 10th they crossed the  mountains to John Day s River *  The weather was warm and  sultry  and what with the h i l l y stony country, the horses were very fatigued.  After a short, march the next day, they, camped  352 Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t ( c f . , O.H.Q., v o l f 14, p. 508, n.l.) Listed as Steens Mountain and also called Snow Mountain i n MgA^thur, Lewis A.., Oregon Geographic Names, Portland, Oregon,. Koke-Chapman Co., 1928, p. V6ll ; ~~~ 355 Malheur Lake ( E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , O.H.Q., v o l . 14, p. 309, n. 1). 354  Work, op. c i t . , entry for July 2, 1831.  355 Sylvies River, E l l i o t t , op. c i t . , O.H.Q., v o l . 14, •p. 309, n. 2.  171 farther down the same r i v e r .  The worn hooves of the horses  were sore from the. rooky t r a i l .  Here, they remained f o r a  day and traded some salmon and two dogs for food from an encampment of Snake Indians. ' They recovered two horses from these Indians which had been stolen the previous September. July 14th was a cooler day, but an exhausting one for the people and horses, for they t r a v e l l e d twenty-five miles down the r i v e r . falling  The following day they came to a fork  i n from the north and east, up which they journeyed  seven miles, enjoying as they went, quantities of currants, the f i r s t f r u i t of the year, which were growing along the r i v e r bank.  About noon on the 16th they l e f t t h i s branch of  John Day's River and proceeded north over wooded mountains. The road was stony, h i l l y and f a t i g u i n g .  Work was not sparing  the party now since they were near home.  The 17th was another  long day, twenty-five miles through woods and then over naked stony h i l l s .  No game had been k i l l e d  except one deer.  f o r the past two days  The next day, as customary on nearing a  post, Work rode ahead of the party and arrived at Walla'Walla In the afternoon, journeying thromgh soft burning sand i n midday heat.  On the 20th h i s party arrived.  parties had also arrived safely.  The three smaller  The group which l e f t him i n  September l o s t a l l of t h e i r horses and from a pack to a pack and one h a l f of beaver.  A l l of these smaller bands had trapped  but few f u r s . The Snake River expedition of 1830-31 had been completed.  Work and h i s party t r a v e l l e d upwards of two thousand  miles i n t h e i r pursuit of f u r . Work himself was disappointed in his returns.  They were not good.  This however, was not  17 £ Work's f a u l t .  The whole a r e a had been p r e t t y  e x p l o i t e d by Ogden's e x p e d i t i o n s . a good c a t c h more d i f f i c u l t .  thoroughly  American c o m p e t i t i o n made  To cap these  difficulties,  Work had r u n i n t o a v e r y severe and l e n g t h y w i n t e r .  However,  the a u t h o r i t i e s knew t h a t the Snake country was exhausted. " . . . I t i s c e r t a i n the Snake C o u n t r y i s g e t t i n g n e a r l y e x h a u s t e d . . . " , wrote M c L o u g h l i n t o Simpson i n March 1831^ even before Work's e x p e d i t i o n a r r i v e d back f r o m t h e i r year i n t h e field.  I n 1832, he, I n r e f e r r i n g t o Work's e x p e d i t i o n o f  1830-1, wrote t o the Governor and Committee, "The Snake 357 c o u n t r y i s exhausted....." I t had -been a h a r r o w i n g year f o r Work. his  T h i s was  f i r s t r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e j o b by h i m s e l f and he had  c a r r i e d i t out r e a s o n a b l y  well*  H i s p a r t y had been on t h e  whole kept q u i e t and i n hand i n s p i t e o f d i s c o n t e n t engendered by a poor season.  One o r two m i n o r squabbles o c c u r r e d , but  i n t h e o n l y one of r e a l consequence, t h a t o f t h e freeman who j o i n e d F o n t e n e l l e , d i s a s t e r had been a v e r t e d by a narrow margin but w i t h a f i r m hand.  Work had kept on good, terms  w i t h f r i e n d l y t r i b e s whose t r a i t s - o f t h i e v e r y and h o r s e s t e a l ing were e x t r e m e l y p r o v o c a t i v e .  He guarded s u c c e s s f u l l y  a g a i n s t a t t a c k by t h e b l o o d t h i r s t y and watchf u l B l a c k f e e t . Two men were k i l l e d but two b a b i e s were b o r n d u r i n g the expedition.  " I n compliance w i t h your I n s t r u c t i o n s , " wrote  556 M c L o u g h l i n t o Simpson, F o r t Yancouver, March 16, 1831, i n H.B.S., I Y , p . 2S8. 357 M c L o u g h l i n t o the Governor and Committee, F o r t Yancouver, October 28, 183E, i b i d . , p. 104.  173 Mcloughlin to'the Governor and Committee i n October 1831,"I have had the pleasure to deliver Mr. Works commission to 358 him.... This was John Work's appointment as Chief Trader. 11  358 Mcloughlin to the Governor and Committee, Fort Vancouver, October 20, 1831, i n • & . B . S . p . 230.  it 4  iy.t i  174  / •  •  /  CHAPTER VIII An Expedition .to the Flathead and Blackfoot Country, 1831-32. It may he surmised that John Tfork accompanied the  returns from Walla Walla to Vancouver after he came' hack from the 'Snake Country, since he was at the l a t t e r fort i n August, 1831, preparing his expedition to the Arrow Stone. * 359 River,  Mcloughlin did not want Work to proceed on t h i s  expedition, believing that the area was  exhausted and that,  the party was not strong enough to make the attempt into. such a h o s t i l e country.  However, Work pressed his request  and Mcloughlin f i n a l l y agreed, but with the proviso that t h i s year the expedition should hunt the branches of Clark's Fork and give the d i s t r i c t which they had trapped the previous 360 season a'rest.  To make things more d i f f i c u l t for the  proposed expedition, malaria had  settled i n epidemic pro-  portions i n the lower Columbia.  Among the Indians i t was  often f a t a l , but while i t was not so deadly among the whites . or half-breeds, i t incapacitated the men. This was the reason why Work's party, i n both the opinion of himself and :  Mcloughlin, was not strong enough f o r the even more dangerous 361 expedition which he planned. To augment t h e i r small, force. 359 The name applied by Work and his contemporaries to Clark's Fork. 36Q) Mcloughlin to Governor and Committee, Fort Vancouver, October 28, 1832 ( c f . , H.B.S., IV, pp. 103-4). 361 Work to John Mcleod—Nez Perces, September 6, (Photostat copy i n B.C. Archives)  1831,  175 they took a cannon along with them as protection against hostile t r i b e s . The party l e f t Port Yancouver about August 16 or 17, 1831 and camped a few miles away to enjoy their usual •• • -. 36E regale.  Here, Work joined them on the 18th and planned to  start with the f o r t y people i n four boats f o r Walla Walla. They were delayed f o r one day i n getting away because a few of the men were too drunk, but of f a r more serious consequences, four were down with fever. Cascades.  On the 21st they reached the  Eight of the men were now i l l , but fortunately some  of the e a r l i e r cases were recovering. Pour days l a t e r they had passed the Chutes and the C e l i l o P a l l s . August they reached Walla Walla.  On the 30th of  On the way from the Cascades  another man was stricken, and some of those already 111 were so sick that Work would g l a d l y have sent them back i f he could have spared healthy.men to go with them "...Every boat 363 was like, a h o s p i t a l . , . , " he wrote. At Walla Walla they were delayed by an i n s u f f i ciency of horses, some' 120 being required and only 80 were available.  It-was not. u n t i l Thursday, September 8, 1831, that  additional animals were received from Port C o l v i l e and d i s t r i buted to the people.  Some of the party was able to start and  the rest followed the next day. Work, himself, d i d not leave Walla Walla u n t i l September 11th, spending the intervening 362 Work, John, Journal August 18, 1831-July 27, 1832, (hereafter referred to as Journal 10) entry f o r August 18, 1831. Work states that they were sent out f o r t h e i r regale "a few days ago". 363 Work to E. Ermatinger—Eort Yancouver, August 5, 1852, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives).  176 time i n writing l e t t e r s and carrying out l a s t minute preparations. One of the l e t t e r s written at Walla Walla was to John Mcleod, i n which Work dwells b r i e f l y on the dangers he faced.  " I escaped with my scalp l a s t year," he wrote, " I 564 much doubt whether I s h a l l be so fortunate t h i s t r i p . " In spite of the dangers his wife and three small daughters 365 accompanied him. Erom September 11th to the 26th, they  journeyed  eastward to near the present town of Welppe i n Idaho. lewis 366 . .. and P h i l l i p s claim that the t r a i l was up the Walla Walla River and eastward across the northern edge of the Blue Mountains to bring them out on the Snake River near the mouth 367 of the Salmon and thence up that r i v e r .  Mr. T . C . . E l l i o t t  states that Work followed the regular Indian t r a i l to the Snake River a few miles below the Olearwater (which Work mistook for the Salmon) and up t h i s r i v e r , crossing the Horth Pork and over the h i l l s to Welppe p r a i r i e . states that, they crossed'the  Work himself  bulge of the Snake River east-  ward from. Walla'Walla-and rejoined i t a l i t t l e below the mouth of the Salmon River, arriving, there on September 16th. They crossed the Snake with the a i d of two Indian canoes and moved up stream to the junction of the Salmon, and. on the 564 Work to John'Mcleod, Nez Perces, September 6,- 1851, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives). •:'..'• 365 Work to E. Ermat inger, Eort Vancouver, August 5, 1832,, ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives) 566  lewis and P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , pp. 78-79, n, 167.  3 67  loc. c i t .  177 17th followed up this l a t t e r stream, ahout eight miles.  Here,  they stayed during the next day while they traded a few horses and watohed the Indians perform a r e l i g i o u s dance.  On  the 19th and 20th they continued up the Salmon River about twenty-two miles.  1  In Work s opinion the road was-fairly,  good with the exception of some stony.parts. As they continued, their route became progressively h i l l y and rough. The h i l l s closed i n on. "the r i v e r on both sides.  On Sunday,  September 25th, they l e f t the r i v e r to strike westward to 368 what Work calls,Camass P l a i n . Here, the Indians . were gather--• ing the roots of the camass f o r food. 369 the famous lolo--Trail  The. party were now  to the Bitterroot Mountains.  Two  on stops  were made, one on the 27th to allow the horses to rest before getting Into r e a l l y mountainous t r a i l s , and another on the 29th when the c h i l d of one of the party died. now,  For some days  the nights were f r o s t y but the days fine and. bright.  For  the most part the t r a i l l a y through thick woods and over 370 steep h i l l s where l i t t l e grass was to be found for the horses. In these mountains the weather began to become more ______ . _ _ _ . . __ . . . . _ -368 Near Welppe, Idaho. Careful study of Idaho maps seem to. indicate that the contentions of Mr. T.C. E l l i o t t are correct and throughout t h i s period the Salmon River i s r e a l l y the Clearwater. See de lacey's map of Montana between pages 173-174. 369 See map i n Bancroft, H.H,, History of Washington, Idaho and. Montana, 1845-1889, San Francisco, The History Company, 1890,^ p. 506. ~ 370 Corresponds to the description of the Nez Perces t r a i l through Weippe to Pierce C i t y i n the Clearwater Forest, (of., Idaho, a Guide i n Word and Picture, p., 320).  178 371 severe.  On October 1, 1831,  the camp awoke to f i n d snow on  the ground and i t c o n t i n u e d t o snow bard a l l day.d i d not break camp t h a t day.  The p a r t y  The next day t h e y c o n t i n u e d  t h e i r eastward j o u r n e y through t h i c k woods and deep v a l l e y s . 1  Here, Work s I n d i a n g u i d e l e f t him s i n c e t h e y were now on the main l a l o T r a i l .  well  D u r i n g the day the deep snow began  t o melt so t h a t b e f o r e the march was ended t h e people were not o n l y t i r e d but drenohed w i t h the m o i s t u r e f r o m the ground from overhanging  and  trees.  On October 4 t h , another day was spent i n camp i n . o r d e r t o s e a r c h f o r some of t h e i r h o r s e s which had s t r a y e d the p r e v i o u s n i g h t .  At the end o f the day's s e a r c h t h e r e  were s t i l l seven m i s s i n g .  Each morning the h o r s e s had to be  rounded up b e f o r e the e x p e d i t i o n c o u l d proceed. f o r t h i s delay i s f a i r l y obvious. l i t t l e t h e r e was, was  The  reason  G r a s s was s c a r c e and what  covered w i t h snow.  H o b b l i n g or c o r r a l -  l i n g the a n i m a l s at n i g h t would s t a r v e them to d e a t h .  Quite  o f t e n the e x p e d i t i o n moved f o r w a r d t o i t s next encampment l e a v i n g some o f i t s complement behind i n s e a r c h of m i s s i n g stock. .  / 372 On October 8 t h , t h e y a g a i n s t r u c k the C l e a r w a t e r  which t h e y had l e f t on the 25th o f September* The next day 371 Work's d a t e s go awry h e r e . He has two e n t r i e s f o r September .30th. i n h i s j o u r n a l . From the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the weather i n each, t h e y do> not a p p l y t o the same day. From t h i s p o i n t t h e r e f o r e , eaoh date s h o u l d be moved forward, one. For the sake o f convenience Work's e n t r i e s are f o l l o w e d , l e a v i n g the r e a d e r to make t h e c o r r e c t i o n . 372 M i d d l e F o r k , i d e n t i f i e d by Lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 86, n. 188.  179 373 they marched eight miles up a long steep h i l l -to a small creek where there was good grass i n the swampy clear ground along i t s hanks.  Snow and sleet kept them, there for three days.  Work was not sorry since grass, had been scarce i n the forests through which'he had come. Moreover, t h i s delay would give the stragglers who had stayed'behind a chance to catch up.  looking for stray horses,  On the 13th they marched eleven miles 374  to the l o l o Hot Springs on l o l o River.  Their road was impeded  by f a l l e n timber and the horses were so fatigued that three foundered on the way. Fourteen beaver were taken by members of the camp who pushed.on ahead.  T h i s i s the f i r s t mention  of successful trapping i n t h i s journal. On the 14th they moved down lolo. Greek about f i f t e e n miles.  The road was h i l l y and s l i p p e r y with mud.  the horses foundered.  More of  For two days after t h i s , the expedition  did not raise camp. • Grass was p l e n t i f u l and the horses needed a r e s t . . Their goods.needed drying after pushing through so much snow. Moreover, they were now entering dangerous country and Work planned to pen the horses at night so that some, time for  them to feed during the day f a s imperative.  '  After twenty-one miles t r a v e l down l o l o Creek on October 17th and 18th, they reached the Bitterroot River. From t h i s point Work followed the t r a i l of lewis on h i s return down the B i t t e r r o o t , up Clark's Fork, and the Blackfoot 373 Back Creek across the Bitterroot Divide, lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. cit.:, p. 86, n. 189. 374 Spelled by Work as "loloo's" River. Work, op. c i t . , entry for October 13, 1831. Work had-marohed about a hundred miles to l o l o Pass crossing the headwaters of the Clearwater River. -  180 575 River.  On the 20th of October the expedition crossed to  Eellgate (called Hell's Sates by Work) i h i c h they entered from, the v a l l e y of the Bitterroot•' The former i s a canyon f o r t y miles i n length lying between the ridges of the mountains.  This pass was the great war road which Piegans  and Blackfeet travelled and over which the Flatheads crossed •* '• ' 576 to the Missouri side of the Rockies to hunt buffalo. Work proceeded up the H e l l gate River flowing out of t h i s defile., to the mouth of the Big Blackfoot River which they reached on October  21st.  The following day they proceeded up the  l a t t e r r i v e r f i f t e e n miles i n a northeasterly d i r e c t i o n .  The ,  road was h i l l y : and' stony with very l i t t l e grass for thehorses.  Then, they l e f t the r i v e r and t r a v e l l e d east to a  small- camass p l a i n .  While they were here Work received d i s -  couraging information that during the summer a large party of Americans had hunted the same branches of: the Missouri which he had. planned to trap and that, another party intended wintering on the Salmon River.  v.  It was disappointing news,  but Work makes no entry i n .his journal.to express,his f e e l i n g s . The t e r r i t o r y which Work intended, to trap was s t i l l i n the RoGky Mountains but on the eastern side, i n land belonging to the United States.. 375  This was forbidden t e r r i t o r y and i t  Lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p... 89, n. t  194.  376 Ibid.,.p. 90, n. 195. See also Bancroft, (History of Washington, Idaho. and. Montana, p. 591) who gives a, good, description of t h i s country. From i t , i t seems that Lewis &. P h i l l i p s confuse the grassy and well-timbered E e l l g a t e ' Yalley l y i n g on Clark's Fork just north of the confluence of Hellgate River with the d e f i l e through which the l a t t e r r i v e r flows; or else they apply the name of Clark's Fork to the Hellgate River.  181 i s more than surprising that he planned to hunt there, i n view of the s t r i c t orders which had been issued from, head377 quarters i n London.  As they moved eastward the nest day  four of his freemen l e f t his party to return with those who had brought the news of the Americans.  Work deplored t h i s  desertion from his already small party In the heart of a hostile  country. The weather was turning cold, with occasional  f l u r r i e s of snow or s l e e t .  Each day the men were out among  the small r i v e r s and creeks after beaver.  Only a few were . 3 7 8 caught each day. "The Indians had hunted the l i t t l e forks up t h i s f a r , " wrote Work, "& probably a l l above t h i s i s hunted 379 by the Americans so that nothing i s l e f t f o r us."  Every-  where there were signs of beaver but also signs of recent hunting by the American trappers. to worry about proceeding  On October 30th Work began  any farther up the r i v e r which  they had been following since the 28th.  The country beyond  was said to be r i c h i n beaver but i n Work's opinion the season was too f a r advanced and the small creeks would be frozen over.  Ear more serious than these problems was that of danger  from the Blackfeet Indians. • His fears were not ill-founded. The very next day an ambush occurred which was similar to the one his party had suffered i n the previous year. 377  A small party of Blackfeet  H.B.S., IV, p. I x i v .  378 Monteur C r e e k — I d e n t i f i e d by lewis & E h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 95, n. 205. 379  Work, Journal 10, entry f o r October 29, 1831.  182 surprised two of the men k i l l i n g one.  at their traps and f i r e d on them,  The other escaped unwounded;  out by himself, was  surprised and k i l l e d .  Another trapper, The bodies of both  men were l e f t unmangled and unscalped, which s i g n i f i e d to Work that the r a i d had been staged by a small band which made a p r e c i p i t a t e r e t r e a t . They stole three horses, three guns and the ammunition and traps of the men  they attacked.  On  November 1st"'Work's party stayed i n camp to bury their dead and to observe A l l Saints  Day.  On November 2nd, Work began to direct his expedition southward, trapping the streams as he went. Two  days l a t e r  they arrived at the l i t t l e Blackfoot River which l i e s farther up Hellg'ate River.  They were s t i l l i n the north-western  basin of Montana, an area of 250 miles i n length and 25 miles in width.  This i s the most wooded and the mildest part of  the country,, but already creeks were freezing, over, thus preventing, the trappers from obtaining f u r s . beaver were being taken each day.  However,, a few  Here on the l i t t l e  Black-  foot they k i l l e d two. buffalo b u l l s , the f i r s t which Work mentioned so f a r i n his journal./ On November 5th, they proceeded-...-down the River to one of i t s t r i b u t a r i e s f a l l i n g i n from 580 the south side.  They began to follow t h i s tributary up but  found no beaver and but l i t t l e game.  The next day they con-  tinued t h e i r journey southward s t i l l up t h i s small branch. Provisions were becoming scarce and only a buffalo b u l l , a mountain sheep and one beaver were taken.  As t h i s spot con-'  380 Identified as Deer lodge Greek by lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 99, n. 211.  183 tallied good grazing for the horses Work did not move camp. On November 9th, they moved south to a hot spring where Warm Springs, Montana, i s now  situated. Prom t h i s  point they crossed over,the Deer lodge Pass to the headwaters of the Missouri River.  They had. come, by way of one of the  t r i b u t a r i e s of the Big Hole River which flows into the Jefferson,Fork of the Missouri.  The Big. Hole and the Beaver-  head rivers drain a basin of land i n Montana about 100 miles by 150 miles i n extent, where Work intended to hunt buffalo i n order to keep the expedition in food. 381  On November 12th,  they reached the "Grand Troux River" as Work called i t .  The  only buffalo seen during the past week had been herds of buffalo b u l l s .  Their f l e s h was  coarse and rank and the party  l e f t them undisturbed, hoping by doing so, to avoid disturbing herds lying ahead which might contain the more eatable buffalo cows and yearlings.  As they continued down the Big  Hole River they managed to k i l l a f a i r number of buffalo. The weather was becoming increasingly colder. were frozen and ice was  The  running in the main r i v e r .  small creeks Signs of  beaver were seen but these conditions made i t impossible to trap any.  November 15th was  spent i n camp i n order to allow  the horses to feed, since the practice of confining them at night was beginning to t e l l on t h e i r strength. 382 they marched southeast to a t r i b u t a r y t h e i r way  The next day  of the Big Hole on  south to the Beaverhead River, where, they arrived  on the 17th of November. Here they saw the peculiar landmark 381 The Big H o l e — c a l l e d l e Grand Trou by French Canadian trappers. 382 Identified as Birch Greek by lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 102, n. 220.  184 which g i v e s the r i v e r i t s n a m e — a c l i f f r i s i n g out o f sandy h i l l s which has t h e shape o f the head o f a swimming h e a v e r . About the Beaver Head t h e e x p e d i t i o n found e x t e n s i v e herds. of b u f f a l o i n prime c o n d i t i o n and Work allowed, t h e p a r t y t o remain f o r two days t o secure b u f f a l o meat and t o d r y i t f o r f u t u r e u s e . , They saw s i g n s o f beaver b u t the i c e i n the. r i v e r s p r e v e n t e d the' men f r o m t a k i n g any. On November 1 9 t h t h e y proceeded t e n m i l e s up t h e Beaverhead R i v e r a n d ' c r o s s e d t o the. o t h e r s i d e .  Work was  v e r y uneasy. - T h i s was the dreaded B l a c k f e e t c o u n t r y and s i g n s o f them were everywhere. s t a y e d i n camp f o r f i v e days.  In spite of t h i s f a c t , they F o r , wrote Work i n a f a t a l i s t i c  manner,"...There i s l i t t l e ' n e c e s s i t y f o r us h u r r y i n g on as 383 the  danger f r o m B l a c k f e e t i s t h e same wherever we go".  the  f o u r t h day o f t h e i r s t a y in. camp t h e B l a c k f e e t a t t a c k e d  j u s t a t dusk.  On  The camp was n o t caught napping,. . The camp  cannon was l o a d e d and f i r e d and t h e s u r p r i s e d I n d i a n s m e l t e d away I n t o the d a r k n e s s . horses f a i l e d .  Even t h e i r attempt to: stampede t h e  One o f Work's men was shot, t h r o u g h the chest  and b a d l y wounded.  A f t e r a n o t h e r day i n camp, t h e y c o n s t r u c t -  ed a bed o f p o l e s f o r t h e wounded man, and c a r r y i n g h i m on the  s h o u l d e r s o f some o f h i s comrades, marched t e n . m i l e s up-  stream.. , On the S 6 t h t h e y moved west upstream a g a i n , t o a spot which c o u l d be defended i n case o f a t t a c k and stopped f o r a n o t h e r day. .  Work was concerned over t h e wounded t r a p p e r  - 38.3 Work, J o u r n a l 10, e n t r y f o r November 2 1 , 1831.  185 584 and wrote, "...He r e q u i r e s a l i t t l e r e p o s e " .  On November  2 9 t h , they proceeded up the Beaverhead R i v e r to two  forks  which u n i t e t o form the main stream, Red Rock Creek and Horse P r a i r i e Creek,  l a r g e herds of b u f f a l o were about and the  p a r t y managed t o k i l l about twenty of them..  The next day  spent i n camp, p a r t l y t o f a v o r the wounded man,  was  p a r t l y to  f e e d the h o r s e s and p a r t l y i n o r d e r t o d r y the meat t h e y had p r o c u r e d the p r e v i o u s : day. December 1 s t was a c o l d and stormy day.  In s p i t e  o f t h i s the camp was moved t e n m i l e s up Horse P r a i r i e 585 t o a spot i d e n t i f i e d as Shoshone Cove.  Creek  B u f f a l o were h e r e i n  c o n s i d e r a b l e nunibers and the p e o p l e were out a f t e r them.  But,  as i n the p r e v i o u s w i n t e r , the h o r s e s were too l e a n and poor to run down many o f the huge a n i m a l s .  U n t i l December 8 t h ,  t h e e x p e d i t i o n huddled i n camp a t t h i s s p o t . the weather was b i t t e r l y c o l d w i t h o c c a s i o n a l and snow. plain.  A l l of the time windstorms  Y e r y few ..buffalo were k i l l e d on the c o l d s l i p p e r y  On the 8 t h the e x p e d i t i o n moved another nine, m i l e s  upstream..  The wounded man was s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o v e r e d t o r i d e  by h i m s e l f and t o curse the p e o p l e who  a t t e n d e d him.  Satur-  day December 1 0 t h , saw them another 9 m i l e s c l o s e r to the. mountains which Work p l a n n e d t o r e c r o s s to the  westward.  E a r l y the f o l l o w i n g morning a p a r t y o f B l a c k f e e t were observed near t h e camp. They were pursued i m m e d i a t e l y 584 Work, op. c i t . , e n t r y f o r November 28, "1851.. 585 I d e n t i f i e d as Shoshone Cove by l e w i s & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 109, n. 225. A c c o r d i n g to B a n c r o f t the whole o f the v a l l e y c o n t a i n i n g Horse P r a i r i e Creek was c a l l e d t h e Shoshone Cove ( c f . , B a n c r o f t , H i s t o r y of Washington, Idaho and Montana, p. 5 9 5 ) .  186 and surrounded in a dense patch, of willows.  Three horses  belonging to these. Indians were k i l l e d and some of the Indians themselves were supposedly wounded.  1  However, Work s  people did not care to r i s k entering the hush after the Blackfeet or to carry on the siege through the winter night so that the Blackfeet escaped after dark.  Blood spots i n  the willows seemed to indicate that at least two of these people were k i l l e d or wounded. During that week they moved steadily but slowly toward the westward mountains and on December 15th crossed 3.86 the steep Lemhi Pass  i n two feet of snow.  out of United States t e r r i t o r y .  Here Work passed  The winter t r a i l was hard  on the horses and the people, but, not only d i d they cross the pass successfully but reached and followed down a small 387 tributary of the Lemhi River,  Gn Friday, December 16th, they  continued down t h i s small creek to the Lemhi River.  Here,  they found a camp of thirty-eight lodges of Flathead Indians who were headed up the r i v e r i n search of food. did not bring very encouraging news.  These Indians  Accroding to them,  there were no buffalo to be found on the lower Lemhi and they themselves were near starvation.  Moreover, a large party of  Americans were encamped below at the junction of the Salmon and Lemhi r i v e r s .  It was apparently no use proceeding down  the Lemhi River so that Work joined the Indian camp on i t s 386 Identified by Lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 113, n. £31, and picture p, 115 f  387 Probably Agency Creek on the Lemhi River. The l a t t e r i s the east fork of the Salmon. Work speaks of the Lemhi as the Salmon River.  187 way up the lemhi.  For some days the combined' camps d r i f t e d  south, sometimes remaining i n camp and sometimes moving • ahead.  On the 21st of December seven of the American trappers  from the junction of the lemhi and the Salmon r i v e r s v i s i t e d them.  From them Work secured f i f t e e n beaverskina. On Christmas'.Day 1831, they stayed i n camp.  this occasion there was no mention of a regale.  On  "Owing to  our not having f a l l e n i n with buffaloe l a t e l y many of the people, fared but i n d i f f e r e n t l y , " wrote Work, "having only '''' . - s. , 388- • dry meat & several of them hot much of that." However, %  December 26th brought some buffalo meat to the larders of • both the Indian.;and the white camp as they moved up the lemhi River, along the foot of the mountains.  The cold weather  which had dogged t h e i r t r a i l f o r so long was replaced by mild soft 'days which lasted on into the new year. of Americans passed them on December 30th.  Another party  Not u n t i l after  they had gone did Work r e a l i z e how short of food these trappers were and although they were h i s competitors h i s generosity rebelled at not having offered them something to stay t h e i r hunger.  /  On January 1st Work served the people and some of the Indian chiefs with a few cakes and a dram each of rum which had been saved f o r the occasion.  The nest day, Work  moved the camp again to f i n d better fodder for the horses which were becoming very lean. 388  He would have preferred to  Work, op. c i t . , entry for December 25, 1831.  188 camp out i n the open v a l l e y where the grass was longer and more p l e n t i f u l , "but was afraid l e s t the smoke of h i s camp f i r e s scare away the buffalo.  Work f e l t that he must decide  between grass for the horses or food for the people and the food came f i r s t . In spite of h i s precautions, buffalo remained scarce so that Work again faced the march eastward over the mountains into the Blackfeet country and back into United States t e r r i t o r y . . This time he went by way of the Bannack 389 . •' Bass and on January 5th, came out on the headwaters of Horse P r a i r i e Creek.  Here,.they delayed for two days to allow"'the  horses to feed o f f the excellent grass to be found there. During the following days they proceeded down the r i v e r hunting for buffalo without success.  On January 10th, they  reached Shoshone Cove again where they had camped on December 2nd to 7th. . Their advance-party met a band of twenty to tirenty-five Blackfeet and both sides opened f i r e . Flathead Indians were wounded.  Two of the  When Work's main party arrived,  the Blackfeet took cover i n a large thicket of willows as they had done previously.  As before, they escaped at night,  much to. Work's chagrin, who regretted that a better watch had not been kept. On January 12th, s t i l l hunting for buffalo, they reached the junction of Horse P r a i r i e and Red Rock Greeks up the l a t t e r eight miles. , Here, a few tough buffalo b u l l s were killed.. 389 n. 241.  On January 16th, i n spite of the onset of  Identified by lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 121,  .189 another c o l d s p e l l , t h e y r e t u r n e d to the j u n c t i o n a g a i n and proceeded  down the.Beaverhead  November 26th„  t o t h e i r encampment of  S t i l l no b u f f a l o were t o be seen.  Not u n t i l  two days l a t e r , when camping s t i l l f a r t h e r downstream, d i d t h e y make a r e a l k i l l , t h i r t y - s e v e n a n i m a l s .  The b u f f a l o  were moving toward the e x p e d i t i o n now, not away f r o m them as before.  Work surmised t h a t e i t h e r a band o f Pend d ' O r e i l l e  I n d i a n s o r B l a c k f e e t were h u n t i n g them from the e a s t . next two days enough b u f f a l o  In the  ( s i x t y ) were k i l l e d t o l a s t  t h e p a r t y for- some t i m e . 390 Qn January 2 0 t h , l e t t e r s a r r i v e d f r o m h e a d q u a r t e r s , e i t h e r by way of .Walla Y/alla o r f r o m F l a t h e a d House.  They  were brought by one o f Work's p a r t y who had been l e f t  behind  at  Walla Walla i l l with m a l a r i a .  The next day t h e y were  v i s i t e d by f i v e o f the American p a r t y f r o m the j u n c t i o n o f the Salmon and t h e Lemhi r i v e r s .  Most o f these u n f o r t u n a t e s  were t r a v e l l i n g on f o o d t h r o u g h the snow, s i n c e t h e B l a c k f e e t had s t o l e n t h e i r h o r s e s .  On Monday, January 23rd, t h e y  proceeded n o r t h to t h e i r camping p l a c e o f November 1 6 t h . Work was r e t r a c i n g h i s s t e p s toward t h e B i g Hole E l v e r . t h e y s t a y e d u n t i l January 2 8 t h .  Here  Twice d u r i n g t h e s e f i v e days  t h e y were r a i d e d by B l a c k f e e t who s t o l e h o r s e s b e l o n g i n g t o the F l a t h e a d encampment, t o Work's own p a r t y , and some f r o m t h e Americans  who were s t i l l w i t h them.  On t h e 2 8 t h , t h e y  moved a g a i n .  By now most o f the F l a t h e a d I n d i a n s had l e f t  590 Work mentions them as coming from " t h e F o r t " , which Lewis & P h i l l i p s I d e n t i f y as W a l l a W a l l a o r F l a t h e a d House. Lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 125, n. 255.  190 1  them and had gone to join a large camp of the Pend d O r e i l l e Indians encamped not far, away.  At daybreak, on the 30th,  they were attacked by a band of three hundred Blackfeet who kept up the attack u n t i l noon. ed, and two of his Indians.  Two of Work's men were wound-  One of his natives was k i l l e d .  The camp returned the volleys of the Blackfeet and forced them to r e t i r e into the h i l l s overlooking the camp.  Again  the cannon was called into use, but burst on the t h i r d d i s charge.  Five or six, of the Blackfeet were k i l l e d , one of  them was the chief of the attacking party.  It had been t h i s  individual's purpose to "...wholly destroy the Whites & F. Heads If lathe ads] ...he has been disappointed and h i s own 391 carcass remains on the ground," wrote Work.  Work, himself,  had had a narrow escape from a similar death, since during the action, he was wounded i n the arm. On the l a s t day of January they remained i n camp to take care of t h e i r wounded. That night the Blackfeet stole six of t h e i r horses and the only r e t a l i a t i o n was the capture of some of the Indian beasts-of-burden—a  number of  dogs loaded with bundles of shoes* and other a r t i c l e s t i e d upon their backs.  One of Work's Indians died from wounds  received i n the fight of January 30th.  The expedition did  not move camp u n t i l February 3rd, when they moved out of the h i l l s down to the Beaverhead River again.  Work now  planned to retreat up the Beaverhead by the route by which 391 . Work, op. c i t . , entry for January 31, 1832.  191 the expedition had just come.  ; On February 9th, they reach-  ed the junction of Horse P r a i r i e Creek and Red Rock Fork. As they went, they followed their usual practice of hunting -  buffalo and. stopping to r e s t , as the o-ccasion demanded.  At  their next encampment ten miles up Horse P r a i r i e Creek, they were overtaken by severe cold. in camp.  For seven days they huddled  Their horses sought shelter i n the bushes where four  of them perished.  It was too cold for the unfortunate animals  even to venture out to feed.  On the 19th of February, 1832,  they again moved toward the mountains another day's journey, but only because the Indian camp, by pushing on ahead, was frightening away the buffalo..  Again cold weather kept them  in. camp, but on Wednesday, February 22nd, they pushed on to ,392 Shoshone Cove', where they had camped on December 1st. A l l about the encampment were considerable numbers of buffalo, but the weakness of the horses prevented many from being k i l l e d . However, a few were being taken each day so that Work remain593 ed here u n t i l February 29th. By March 7th, they reached the entrance to Bannack Pass where Work stopped f o r a day to rest the horses before crossing the d i v i d e .  Snow was s t i l l deep i n the pass but he  had hopes that well-beaten buffalo t r a i l s would be found. the 9th of March they crossed the pass.  On  Work remarked that  i t was extremely hard on the horses i n spite of being able to 392 Lewis & P h i l l i p s (op. c i t . , p.. 131, n. 262} state that Work reached,this place on February l l t h . A check of Work's mileage, as well as the cross reference to December 1 s t , . i d e n t i f i e s t h i s campsite as Shoshone Cove. 593 Work apparently forgot that 1852 was a leap-year so that he had to radate most of h i s journal after this date.  192 a v a i l themselves of w e l l - b e a t e n men  buffalo t r a i l s .  The  s u f f e r e d a great d e a l f r o m the e x t r a e x e r t i o n .  wounded That  day  t h e y reached the s i t e of t h e i r encampment of January 4 t h , f i n d i n g l i t t l e snow and v e r y good f o d d e r f o r the The  horses.  e x p e d i t i o n began a slow descent of the Lemhi  R i v e r , moving and  camping i n the u s u a l way.  On March 2 0 t h ,  t h e y encamped j u s t below the entrance to Lemhi P a s s t h r o u g h which they had  c r o s s e d from the east s i d e on December 1 5 t h .  D u r i n g the p a s t two weeks, one  of the men  wounded i n the b r u s h  w i t h the B l a c k f e e t d i e d , h a v i n g wasted away to a s k e l e t o n . J u s t a f t e r h i s d e a t h a p a r t y of B l a c k f e e t horse t h i e v e s came b o l d l y i n t o the 'camp and  s t o l e four horses.  were pursued, t h i s time w i t h b e t t e r s u c c e s s , does not  say how  The  f o r some (Work  many) were caught, k i l l e d and  s t o l e n h o r s e s were r e c o v e r e d but  thieves  scalped.  The  c o u l d not be brought back  to camp i n t h e i r jaded c o n d i t i o n , moreover, the war of more. B l a c k f e e t were heard i n the h i l l s .  cries  Not many b u f f a l o  were k i l l e d d u r i n g t h e s e days, s i n c e the h o r s e s were too weak t o pursue them s u c c e s s f u l l y . They c o n t i n u e d the Nez  down the r i v e r to a l a r g e camp of  P e r c e s and F l a t h e a d  Indians.  Two  c h i l d r e n died  the w a y — o n e f r o m e a t i n g p o i s o n o u s hemlock r o o t — t h e a babe o f s i x weeks, b o r n d u r i n g the e x p e d i t i o n . stayed on at the  camp u n t i l the 2 4 t h of March t o  i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the I n d i a n s  other  Work obtain  concerning p o s s i b l e routes  be f o l l o w e d , then he moved down the r i v e r to the of the Lemhi w i t h the main Salmon R i v e r , and  on  to  junction  camped at  the  193 394 commencement of the deep Salmon R i v e r Gorge. On the 2 6th  of March, f o u r men l e f t the main body  to hunt down the Salmon R i v e r t o the Snake and thence t o Walla Walla. the  Work had g r e a t hopes o f t h e i r success s i n c e  l o w e r reaches o f the Salmon were not known to have been  t r a p p e d by w h i t e s .  Moreover, the r i v e r was n a v i g a b l e , s i n c e  Lewis and C l a r k had passed down i t i n 1805. The main p a r t y , l e d by Work, ascended the Salmon R i v e r w i t h the o b j e c t o f h u n t i n g the c o u n t r y between i t and the  Snake R i v e r t o the s o u t h .  By March 3 1 s t , t h e y had  moved an e s t i m a t e d f o r t y - t h r e e m i l e s up the Salmon to the Pahsimaroi R i v e r .  No b u f f a l o had been seen but a number of  mountain sheep were k i l l e d . the  I n s p i t e o f the c o l d raw weather  i c e and snow were m e l t i n g and t h e water i n the r i v e r  rising  rapidly. As the days wore on i n t o e a r l y A p r i l , the weather  became f i n e and m i l d .  The l o w e r ground soon c l e a r e d o f  snow and v e g e t a t i o n was c o n s i d e r a b l y advanced.  The p e o p l e  had  t h e i r t r a p s out f o r b e a v e r .  Work's own c o n t e n t i o n , borne  out  by t h e e n t r i e s i n - h i s e i g h t h * j o u r n a l , i s t h a t the s p r i n g  of 1832 came sooner t h a n t h a t o f 1831.  However, i t was not  u n t i l t h e 4 t h o f A p r i l t h a t t h e i r f i r s t beaver o f t h e y e a r was t a k e n , whereas b e a v e r were t r a p p e d i n the p r e v i o u s year as e a r l y as M a r c h .  A s t h e y ascended t h e Salmon R i v e r t h e y got  i n t o the a r e a w h i c h Work had h u n t e d w i t h o u t success i n t h e 394 Work had been t o l d on March 1 4 t h , t h a t the Americans had l e f t t h i s p a r t o f the r i v e r , ( o f . Work, op. c i t . , e n t r y f o r M a r c h 14, 1 8 3 2 ) .  194 f a l l and -winter o f 1830.  On A p r i l 7 t h , Work l e f t the Salmon 395  R i v e r , where no heaver were f o u n d , to c r o s s to Goddins R i v e r , which he reached  on A p r i l 9 t h .  Prom the depth o f snow i n  t h e mountains, he gave up h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n  of s t r i k i n g  straight  a c r o s s t o the Malade R i v e r .  t i v e was  to c o n t i n u e down Goddin's R i v e r and swing west t o  a v o i d the mountains. setting  His only other  The p a r t y continued down the  alterna-  river  t h e i r t r a p s each n i g h t and t a k i n g up to f i f t e e n  heaver per s e t t i n g . . As t h e y went, Work kept examining the mountains to the west i n the hopes of being a b l e t o c r o s s to the Malade but each time found the snow too deep i n the  passes.  Not u n t i l May 1 s t d i d t h e y manage to r e a c h Work's S i c k l y 39 6 ... River. Here, t h e y camped f o r a week w h i l e the men hunted and t r a p p e d t a k i n g j u s t over one hundred beaver. f i r s t profitable  h u n t i n g the p a r t y had had.  I t was  On May  the  7 t h , he  moved two m i l e s up the r i v e r to f i n d b e t t e r f e e d f o r the  horses.  1  .Work s• p l a n s were t-o go to the sources o f the Wood R i v e r and then c r o s s the mountains n o r t h , to the e a s t f o r k o f the Salmon River.  However, the snow i n t h e h i l l s made him d e c i d e t o  d e l a y t h i s p l a n f o r the time being and be content w i t h t r a p p i n g the 7/ood R i v e r and perhaps c r o s s i n g over t o the f o r k o f the B o i s e .  T h i s b r a n c h was  south  r e p o r t e d to be r i c h i n  beaver and might p r o v i d e a r o a d a c r o s s the mountains to the 395  The B i g l o s t R i v e r as p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d .  396 E a s t E o r k o f l i t t l e Wood R i v e r which runs i n t o the Malade ( S i c k l y ) R i v e r . See map i n B a n c r o f t , H i s t o r y o f Oregon, Idaho and Montana, p. 402.  195 Salmon.  U n t i l t h e 1 7 t h o f May t h e y c o n t i n u e d t r a p p i n g i n t h e  t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Wood R i v e r .  Then on the 1 8 t h t h e p a r t y  s t a r t e d f o r the Boise R i v e r , t r a v e l l i n g fourteen m i l e s across the mountains to the northwest. another seven m i l e s .  The next day they t r a v e l l e d  Some o f t h e men pushed on ahead t o  t r a p and t o o k t h i r t y - s i x heaver and n i n e t e e n o t t e r , h u t i n s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e y were not. s a t i s f i e d by these, r e t u r n s from what t h e y supposed t o be v i r g i n c o u n t r y .  On the 2End of  May, t h e y reached the south f o r k o f the B o i s e R i v e r which t h e y i n t e n d e d - f o l l o w i n g t o t h e mountains. spent i n r e c o n n o i t e r i n g .  The next day was  Work climbed one mountain t o  . a s c e r t a i n the appearance o f .the c o u n t r y beyond.  Nothing  c o u l d be seen b u t a s u c c e s s i o n o f snow-covered peaks to the north.  Two o f h i s men ascended  purpose.  G u i d e s were d i f f i c u l t  a n o t h e r h i l l f o r t h e same to o b t a i n .  Two I n d i a n s had  been coaxed- i n t o t h e eamp who t o l d a s t o r y o f a pass t h e mountains and p l e n t y o f b e a v e r . g u i d e s and p r o m p t l y disappeared..  through  They were engaged a s  Work began t o s u s p e c t t h a t  t h e y had m e r e l y t o l d h i m what t h e y thought he wanted t o b e told.  On e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e f o r k w h i c h t h e y i n t e n d e d t o ascend,  seemed v e r y s w i f t and g r a v e l l y and n o t at a l l s u i t a b l e f o r beaver.  Wrote Work, Some o f those t a k e n had t h e s k i n n e a r l y worn o f f t h e i r f e e t , & the f u r p a r t l y worn o f [ s i c ] t h e i r b a c k s , & were so l e a n from t h e i r want & m i s e r y they had undergone, t h a t t h e r e was s c a r c e l y a p a r t i c l e o f f l e s h on t h e i r bones. P r o b a b l y , i n Severe Seasons t h e most o f them d i e from want, hence beaver never have been numerous here., n o r a r e t h e y l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e .  397  Work, op. c i t . , e n t r y f o r May 23, 1832.  397  196 l o u r o f t h e men were sent ahead t o seek a p a s s i n t h e mount a i n s t o t h e Salmon R i v e r and t o r e p o r t on the c o u n t r y beyond. The next day t h e s e man r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had found a p a s s a b l e r o a d b u t i t was s t i l l , d e e p i n snow. Beyond t h i s l a y numerous 398 streams which u n i t e d to form a r i v e r .  -Work d e c i d e d t o  f o l l o w t h i s r o u t e and on S a t u r d a y May 26th moved up the B o i s e R i v e r toward the p a s s .  The road was h i l l y and rough, and  l a y t h r o u g h dense woods.  The r i v e r was too h i g h to a l l o w  them t o c r o s s from bank t o bank i n o r d e r t o seek the e a s i e s t route.  On the. 2 7 t h they c r o s s e d t h e d i v i d e i n snow, over  f a l l e n wood and through mud.  Work did, n o t t h i n k much o f t h e .  v a l l e y when t h e y d i d a r r i v e .  The w i l l o w s were t o o s t u n t e d  to produce many b e a v e r .  Moreover,  t h e r e were s i g n s t h a t t h e  Americans had been t h e r e t h e p r e v i o u s summer. , "Thus," lamented Work, "we f i n d t h e c o u n t r y which we expected t o f i n d new and r i c h i s . n e i t h e r and does not answer the account 399 given o f I t by the Indians.  tt  A f t e r t h i s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , t h e e x p e d i t i o n began t o wend i t s way down the Salmon R i v e r , t a k i n g a few beaver day.  On June 1 s t , Work r e c o g n i z e d h i s whereabouts on t h e 400  headwaters  o f t h e Salmon.  Alexander Ross  some y e a r s b e f o r e and had descended doing.  each  had been t h e r e  the r i v e r as t h e y were  On the 2nd, Work sent a s c o u t i n g e x p e d i t i o n ahead, t o  r e p o r t on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f beaver. T h e i r r e p o r t was t h a t - 398 I d e n t i f i e d as Salmon R i v e r ( o f . l e w i s & P h i l l i p s , p. 158, n. 3 0 2 ) . 599 Work, op. c i t . , e n t r y f o r May 27, 1832. 400 A l e x a n d e r R o s s came from the B i g Wood. R i v e r t o t h e Salmon and descended i t on h i s way home ( c f . Lewis & P h i l l i p s , p. 16Q, n. 3 0 6 ) . . .  197 Americans  had t r a p p e d the c o u n t r y t h e year b e f o r e .  Work  d e c i d e d t o t u r n westward over the mountains t o t h e headwaters o f the Payette R i v e r .  T h i s , they reached on June 5 t h  a f t e r a f i f t e e n m i l e journey a l o n g a narrow d e f i l e and over a d i v i d e t o t h e s o u t h f o r k o f P a y e t t e River.. On t h e p r e v i o u s 401 day Work s t a t e s t h a t t h e y k i l l e d some " c a b r i e " o r a n t e l o p e . Through f i n e s p r i n g days and new v e g e t a t i o n t h e y c o n t i n u e d down P a y e t t e R i v e r .  On June 7 t h and 8 t h t h e i r p a t h t o o k  them through t h i c k woods and over f a l l e n t i m b e r .  Only here  and t h e r e were l i t t l e f o r e s t meadows found which bore g r a s s for  the h o r s e s .  V e r y few beaver were t r a p p e d each day.  On  June 9 t h , another r e c o n n a i s s a n c e p a r t y was sent out t o d i s cover a road and r e p o r t e d a p a s s a b l e way a l o n g t h e v a l l e y o f a r i v e r beyond the mountains. Work s t a t e s t h a t t h i s was Read's R i v e r and t h a t one o f the men r e c o g n i z e d i t h a v i n g 402 been t h e r e b e f o r e .  F o r some days t h e y were h a r a s s e d by bad  weather- which brought heavy r a i n s o a k i n g t h e woods and making the t r a i l i m p a s s a b l e .  F o r two days t h e y d i d not r a i s e camp.  Then, on June 1 5 t h , t h e y d e c i d e d t o t r y the r o u t e on the newly-discovered r i v e r -  A f t e r two more days o f very, bad  g o i n g over h i l l s and down i n t o steep g u l l i e s , Work decided, t h a t they would have to b a c k - t r a c k the way they had come. From the 1 7 t h o f June to t h e 2 3 r d , t h e y b l u n d e r e d  through  401. T h i s term'" c a b r i e " i s r e n d e r e d i n vari©us forms, "•cabri" , c a b r i t " , " c a b r a " and r e f e r s not t o " c a r i b o u " as t r a n s c r i b e r s have r e n d e r e d i t , but t o a n t e l o p e s , cf.,•Coues, E l l i o t t , H i s t o r y o f the E x p e d i t i o n under the Command o f Lewis and C l a r k , London, Henry Stevens & Son", New York, F r a n c i s P. Harper, 1893, p. 35, n. 73. T1  402 I n s p i t e o f t h i s , Lewis &• P h i l l i p s i d e n t i f y i t as the m i d d l e f o r k o f P a y e t t e R i v e r much f a r t h e r t o t h e n o r t h . Lewis & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 162, n. 315.  198 the mountains f o l l o w i n g creek beds, l o s i n g t h e i r way i n t h i c k woods and t w i s t i n g v a l l e y s , and h a v i n g to c o n s t r u c t r a f t s t o c r o s s s w o l l e n streams.  As I n the s p r i n g of the  p r e v i o u s y e a r , f o o d began to r u n s h o r t w i t h the s c a r c i t y o f game and beaver.  Two o f t h e men k i l l e d h o r s e s f o r f o o d .  On June 23, 1832, they reached a branch of the ." > 403 ;  Weiser R i v e r  and c o n t i n u e d down t h i s branch e i g h t m i l e s .  Here t h e y were met by I n d i a n s wh© induced them t o stop f o r a day t o t r a d e . Most o f June 2 5 t h was passed w i t h these p e o p l e , who t r a d e d f o r t y beaver and some d r y salmon.-  The ex-  p e d i t i o n marched another twenty m i l e s down the Weiser and t h e n cut a c r o s s t o t h e Snake R i v e r , s t r i k i n g i t h a l f way between t h e Weiser and Payette. R i v e r .  These were l o n g marches,  but f o r weeks t h e y had been d e l a y e d i n t h e mountains and t i m e and f o o d were g e t t i n g s c a r c e .  On t h e banks of t h e Snake some  of t h e men s e t t o work t o f a s h i o n a s k i n canoe t o portage the. baggage•across  the r i v e r .  W h i l e t h e y were d o i n g t h i s , o t h e r s  t r a d e d a few v e r y a c c e p t a b l e salmon from t h e I n d i a n s . June 2 8 t h t h e canoe was d r y and r e a d y f o r s e r v i c e .  By  The ex-  p e d i t i o n worked h a r d t o g e t t h e baggage and h o r s e s a c r o s s . However, t h e c r o s s i n g was n o t completed u n t i l t h e 5 0 t h .  There  were no c a s u a l t i e s except the l o s s o f a Company mule w h i c h was drowned i n t h e r i v e r .  S i x o f the people o v e r t u r n e d them-  s e l v e s on the l a s t t r i p b u t w i t h o u t l o s s o f l i f e .  Once a c r o s s ,  Work sent out a s m a l l p a r t y o f e i g h t men to t h e S i l v i e s R i v e r 403 I d e n t i f i e d as Cave Creek by l e w i s & P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 166, n. 323.  199 404 and the Deschutes i n t o which t h e former f l o w s .  These  people would r e a c h t h i s d i s t r i c t by way o f the M a l h e u r R i v e r which f l o w e d i n t o the Snake o p p o s i t e P a y e t t e R i v e r .  They were  g i v e n 24 days t o r e a c h W a l l a W a l l a . Work and the main p a r t y proceeded  down the west  bank of the Snake R i v e r t o the Burnt R i v e r .  U n t i l July 4th,  Work c o n t i n u e d up the B u r n t R i v e r to the p o i n t where the t r a i l t o W a l l a W a l l a t u r n s a s i d e t o the Powder R i v e r . another s m a l l p a r t y of e i g h t men  Here,  and t h e i r f a m i l i e s were sent  by the u s u a l t r a i l to the f o r t , h u n t i n g as they went. main e x p e d i t i o n c o n t i n u e d up the Burnt R i v e r i n the  The  attempt,  to. c r o s s to John Day's R i v e r and make a c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e t o Walla Walla.  One  of the men  over t h e mountains. t h i s man  was  sent ahead to f i n d a  trail  A f t e r d e l a y i n g one day i n o r d e r to l e t  make.his s u r v e y , t h e y began t h e i r  journey westward.  The guide was not sure o f the way but t h e y pushed f o r w a r d down a s m a l l r i v e r which t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be an e a s t e r n branch of  John Day's R i v e r , On the 1 1 t h o f J u l y , t h e y became alarmed a t the d i s -  appearance of one of t h e i r men days.  who  had been m i s s i n g f o r t h r e e  He, l i k e the o t h e r s , had gone out to tend h i s t r a p s  but had not r e t u r n e d .  S e a r c h p a r t i e s were sent out and f o r  two days Work h a l t e d t h e i r journey i n o r d e r t o s e a r c h f o r the m i s s i n g man. way.  Then t h e y r e l u c t a n t l y proceeded  No t r a c e of the man  had been found.  on t h e i r  Another p a r t y was  g i v e n the best h o r s e s the e x p e d i t i o n had t o r e t u r n to the 404 G a l l e d by Work the S y l v a i l l e s . and Chutes r i v e r s . Work, op, c i t . , e n t r y f o r June 30, 1832.  200 p l a c e where he was l o s t .  Even t h i s group r e t u r n e d hare  handed. I n d i a n s which t h e y met were q u e s t i o n e d hut w i t h o u t 405 success. On J u l y 1 5 t h , t h e y reached t h e p o i n t where t h e i r t r a i l o f t h e p r e v i o u s year l e f t John Day's R i v e r f o r W a l l a Walla.  Here, they stopped  f o r a day t o send men t o e n q u i r e  f r o m nearby I n d i a n s f o r news o f t h e i r m i s s i n g t r a p p e r but without a v a i l .  Then on t h e 1 7 t h they r a i s e d camp and marched  a c r o s s t h e stony mountain t r a i l toward the P o r t .  This  i n c i d e n t serves t o show t h e care which John Work e x e r c i s e d over h i s men i n t h e i r dangerous and l o n e l y t a s k s .  As t h e y .  n e a r e d W a l l a W a l l a , Work rode ahead of, the p a r t y and a r r i v e d at t h e P o r t on J u l y 19, 1832. The two s m a l l e r p a r t i e s which l e f t them on t h e Snake and Burnt r i v e r s a l s o a r r i v e d safely.  N e i t h e r p a r t y had secured any b e a v e r .  The group o f  f o u r men w h i c h had l e f t them to go down t h e Salmon R i v e r b y canoe had met w i t h d i s a s t e r .  Two o f t h e p a r t y were drowned,  the o t h e r two l o s t e v e r y t h i n g t h e y had, but a f t e r t h i r t y days reached t h e P o r t A f t e r spending  even t h e i r c l o t h e s , safely.  some time* s e t t l i n g t h e men's  accounts  f o r h o r s e s and t r a p s , Work l e f t f o r P o r t Yancouver w i t h t h e returns..  H i s p a r t y c o n s i s t e d o f t h i r t y men and t h r e e b o a t s .  They passed the Chutes and D a l l e s on J u l y 2 6 t h , and the Cascades on J u l y 2 7 t h i n t h e e a r l y morning, and reached Yancouver w i t h o u t  Port  i n c i d e n t t h a t same a f t e r n o o n .  405 T h i s m i s s i n g man was k i l l e d by I n d i a n s ( o f . f o r k , John, J o u r n a l , August 17, 1 8 3 2 - A p r i l 2, 1833, e n t r y f o r August 26, 18"32).  SOI "Mr. Work's R e t u r n s are v e r y poor,"  wrote  M c l o u g h l i n to the Governor and Committee, " y e t I owe him to s t a t e t h a t though such i s the case, I am  i t to  satisfied  t h a t he d i d the utmost t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be done i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , as a l s o , I b e l i e v e , i n e v e r y other i n s t a n c e i n 406 which he had any d u t y to p e r f o r m . " faithfulness,  may  This tribute  to h i s  have h e l p e d Work to f o r g e t t h e d i f f i c u l -  t i e s o f a dangerous journey.  He had l e f t W a l l a W a l l a w i t h  a t o t a l of 329 h o r s e s and r e t u r n e d w i t h 215, h a v i n g 114 on t h e way. he. turned.. Two  American c o m p e t i t i o n met  lost  him whichever  of h i s - p a r t y had been drowned, one was  i n g and never found.  H i s men  had been s e t upon time  a g a i n by B l a c k f e e t and t h r e e o f them were k i l l e d .  way miss-  and  Work him-  s e l f .was wounded i n the arm. - He wrote as f o l l o w s to h i s f r i e n d Edward E r m a t i n g e r , I-am happy i n b e i n g a b l e t o i n f o r m you t h a t I e n j o y good h e a l t h , a n d am y e t b l e s s e d w i t h the p o s s e s s i o n of my s c a l p w h i c h i s r a t h e r more than 1 had r e a s o n t o e x p e c t . T h i s l a s t My f r i e n d has been a severe y e a r s d u t y on me, a l l my p e r s e v e r a n c e & f o r t i t u d e were s c a r c e l y . s u f f i c i e n t t o bear up a g a i n s t the danger, m i s e r y , and consequent a n x i e t y t o w h i c h I was exposed. 407 ' • '  406 M c l o u g h l i n to the Governor and Committee, F o r t Yancouver, October 28, 1852, H.B.S., IY., pp. 103-4. 407 5, 1832,  Work to Edward E r m a t i n g e r , E o r t Yancouver, August ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. A r c h i v e s ) .  a i l  ,  Rossland \ * Q " >'- Pl*"j>nd f*"7V//m> re(l*?ries netdcr^ " " \ / +  MtBaker I n g h a m  i  M.Shuksan *  u  r  ,  A  ,  ^  v  L  Orient 'Id mine-  -  Fall* 'Bossburg  l/jfronas/rer  W*  f  EVans oold mines  '."'"»••'' and pulp.  Port  Wh,dbe . Island  &  1  • tS&£>  y  c  >  rr  V * 'rtgttm  ".lot-  J  m ,\  n  9  t  o  C^ ? >  " -  s  L  ^  Z  HOH INDIANS RESERVATION^*" Island*  ^  r,t,sR  M M R  O LYMPIC l  J J I V , D S UAR  ' '  7^j l' O ' / m p u s  Ijyjilt a post I ' \jlpnans  ^ E v e r e t t j ^\f~~  ;  p„.  iWale'rvild  r*no/a  X  | r  ':  1  Snoqualmie •pass  |K.- .. n  lX  S  -  h  A1  — , A  , L "  '  Rock tfand,  Wrfnatchee  Chamokane( Mission |lS£S__-^  tKelleri  i°eac^  9  r  D r v Falls  %  />a/td(Thoi»ipson bui .(cullWAfll House. ISt ldaHp.'« r irsi hjilding  [ler Spirit  k SPOKANE WALKER* \ I N D . RES, / PRAIRIE  Pi  3  ^ ^ A Oral  ,VUUF  Uespe/a^  GRAND COULEd I greatest > . concrele <y jCj' ^Steam^oaTR '/76i/  QUINAULT?  PKAUSFIL 4 ".INDIAN; J RESERVATION  RESERVATION .Mason  VSnohomish f A/on  « Hi" M  ^largest magnealti < J \ \ deposits in Western jsphere Wford ^/^\chewelah •  COLVILLE  w  n  x \" INDIAN .—aMLj£SERVATlON -  ' ' ^ J *  o  ne H o u S g B " ^uilt l . \ Pavld Thompson 1810.^  I.ake\  ^Metropolis of th* Inla • frnpM  beneral Sherman lor 1 a tort. 1878.  .Cocurd'Alene  • a waterfall / ^ v e / ^ / M e d i c a l L a k < mles wide. and 4 0 0 feet deep  3|U  'Cat  Ephrata  5  Gra, <H><Y\ l  'irti Columbia r!w'B>£ ''Vdroelevtnc pro/el''•> .  d f t f n ^ f ^ C o M ^ ^  us Rilzville.  RVASJON  )  ^/££o'iNAT / ARK  dj-fieJd\  IT  x  !  [Ejidico  Lflovy/y  Tie, He.tt'i  PeElj  p w i s and Clark bO(li tanoes for trip dc  Connell, P  dair> product-  W a year  C a p e  C\  ^ ^ p w ' " ' ^ / ^ ^ ^ ^  *i/,/ -rf  ^  Y A K I M A  0/  ^RECLAMATION""  \  ^tlark./goS-OS.  oue of Fort c/ .'. JF  Astoria  d!s  , H ,  >  X  ^**»^ ^  'vunded by  NEZ  PROJECT  M>  Mount St. Helens _ , »s?/ I liberies  Kelso •""her. smelt  INDIAN  .yton/  Mt A d a m s '  RESERVATION  rrosser  ' ^-^'^V-T /fenne '" Site o f Old Fort Walla W a l l a ,  c  ^ c  ape  Voodland 1 fea//e/rf  'ernonia  Falco  F  •t  o  , / WHITMAY)  . " Vancouver, ISJ? , I umber, pape,. , j p u l P )  r u | [  Gpidendalei ^Wheeler *<if>cheloePoin c  • a p e Meares* n  C a  >v  \BayCity  T./lan^boi ' * ' y center  P e Lookout  tWhitesklmon  c e  i,l\  _ Hi.* forest Crov Q  Hubert H o o v e r - , t e n d e d school  M^rfjand  1  f i W ' " " " K \ ^ " U 'resh- water port/ • ^ « ^ « « ^ M ^ s t point  Carl tor Nut center D u \ • Minnvill, M c  flic's « i s J'/ci.,rk 'out'd a/Indian  TMoro  l e  ^  Y  f  ^  - V ^ ' V «'--affBarlow Pass ^ fi,„ N X I^tlse^y " " « I W u l i p . f| Vwtigrants to avoid ^ A H ^ / ^ V . \ 'XU'ipttewt.u,  Cascade Heady  Condon y  l a  S  ^onde  Ocean/akeiy  Ivertc^^ alem ^foundedl840by Y ^ f ^ C C — T * * ^ " ^ Jason le< ~'Sytpn  Da II  N  ax  J  ;  W  a  ^  r  (  fossi s. inciud  ,  s  •  fon moltA  «-ape Fou/weather E q u i n a He*3$-L-  E STERN  . !  <  Mt J e V f y s o n ' i ebanon >  ,  r  a  W  b  e  r  H  -  *  DESCHUTES  \'«48«  Jupction Cii  (Cascara trees.  ^  A  CANADIAN  Iknap T C ra' rater* -r — -' /J < 5« e " e a s s -_.. ^ _'edmc entero« tavj tu-uia ? 7 10094 - M P  Wendliny  I  . 0JS4, p n r third bill  ' a m spun here frc QesweJ/k  vICES  Card in  , , n  of  o  -oft.uK-Cro.  Bcndj  R  Prairie". Reservoir^?  Oregon/  Lava Rj\ -aves D Lava - Cast Forest  Lake *5^|esjeAdp •iptain o f ^ c o w C. one o^itrs, , .  Em  P-rw  q Oai-is  4 o f f  Broccoli  W d g o n  ^orth'Bend  ,n  Obsidian outcropp fl^ Glass Buttes + r  r  # c  raphic  "»ivatidn  Society  jiff  tumb  "'^'vebent^aW  0  Band ;"  T X ^ v , ^  w  300-foot depression Holeinth* Ground  -aphic M a g a z i n e  C a  r  n  • .y ? berries  1  \Myrtle  • diamond "idLakeVjLake  Point j Myrtle  Uanglois  ofPacifi,  E d i t o r  r-n  ^Coquille Coquille Po/ntr'  or.  s l o c k  Ante/ope  ?  Shell- rtsHl T^Toledc I Spruce mill  w i n t e r e r  Section  Shaniko) tieat.wool dnd  ' SPRINGS / INDIAN /-RESERVATIO  Person  Newpor |*y^V  STATES  graphic  ,' j I  8  f  D  CrJerA  Port Or ford"V Vancouver. ( 7 9 3 T \  ogue" tream  II  . .House ile Rock  -'t'sn.ii,,- tarm". Andcrsor  l s w o r |  ^""fl easier/edge d - f a m o u s faul*<V, n r  >  / a/aSy C^  brought M r e f'^~ I  i  A b e r  ^  stock-raising headquarter^  s  (  :,tl.'  "peareat  fiehHX  M  t  ?s 30 * Ashland \  I?  / ^ K L A M A T H R  <**e Bark 0''nt Saint George-,  '•&^^^>*K ECLAMATION  Kb*  CfscentCity*  r Site j f „ nbug Citv °  ttes  Id)! 1 ^ «rf woodwork ing^ •  eservoir  l  lation Pro|ects  .  ,cLo  ''-landlurnbeA ^fookin  p  V  X  t  1 9  0  • Miles  nts f~  T  ^SIL  e  , .5J ^ uglill(j' j ,  T i*'-  RESERVATION/; -O0.()0tfrcat|| I  Chi  s n i n g s ( r ( > a  R  / f c ^ P i f v e r e d bv rre'mon tl«43.  Hi" LakeX \  I Klamathl  Railways  E  Lake  5  '••11 — r * * P T N  GJendale*  s  S  ^/KLAMATH^  NATIONAyPARKl  Fam^ „  E  aky*-**\Silver  ,i°Ot  P e Blanco<  Crook P  Fort Rock  IK  Creek  J  r  W rt  LAVA BEDS f* NATIONAL , MONUMENT!.  /Montague  Yreka  R  1 ' J  »i»  weH  -  v)P? -  6 0 Modoc warriors held off U o O s o l d . e r tor 5 months,M2-73.  S  RV.HOOPA  V A I E Y  A  J  W  Mount Trinidad Head! Trinidad\  logrspher  c  e  l  j  V  + M  jp ' s h  n  (  I Q^° '  JOaqu  ^  MM  a . , J SUMMIT L A K E A i , ' ^ ^ < 5 / f " a t e s of 5>J INDIAN RESERVAT/On ; travelers over Applejjale Cut-off.  "  1  Shaath  j RESERVATION  1 by Wellman Chamberlw Brthm  River nameoVfor Pits dug by Indians to trap game i g 1 1  "in bold , t  Redwood m l ^  P Ifeavez-i  Ferndie'  Burriey,. Butte %  MitlfdIf  na  Alkali.  : .' i o * e  s  d d  \  \  '  Walk Walla  UNI  J "o<tumt)er a 1I4  ( (Mission 1836 @  PERC:  tCuJdesac  ly capacity 'T  'Prescott  1  «nnonBeac  ofi  Pieasaru 'Viev  PRorlTrT  YAK f M A S  D'AL  , lt.Marie„. 18*2 y O W L I A N - f ' - J b r  ,  Highe  SHOAtVVAT  ^ f e d S -  Wardm  ^_CQEUR  Spjbgue/^  nurrjclaw^  ouver.  Bonne, Ferry^  nkColvillc  •Hudson'* Ba\ Comp^ trading p.  PROJECT^..  k  ,  I * (If''  r  Lake  Nordmanw  Republjc  OKANOGAN )fc AMATION^S  Oesre —— Strawberri*  ,<fnatonel  ~  WincAesrer*\^  "RESERVATION St Cottonwood]  CHAPTER IK The S a or ame ato and Ump qua Expeditions, 1832-54. " I am. going to start with my ragamuffin freemen to the Southward towards the Spanish settlements," wrote Work i n 408. August 1832, "with what success I cannot say."  He had been  at Port Vancouver since the 27th of July after h i s return from the Blackfoot Country, and now on August 17th, he again set out into the wilds.  His"party consisted of twenty-six men,  many of whom had been with him on previous expeditions. True to custom, the men l e f t Vancouver on the 16th and.enjoyed their regale a few miles from the Port, Work joined them the next day. On the 26th of August, the boats reached Walla Walla. There had been no unusual incidents en route up the Columbia River.  The wind had been unfavorable most of the way so that  the men had been kept busy at the paddles.  Malaria s t i l l  hung about and some of the men were affected but none as badly as i n the previous, year u n t i l they reached Walla Walla. Here, the number of fever cases increased sharply. delayed for some time a f t e r f i n a l preparations were hoping that h i s men would recover.  Work was completed,  With the thought that the  Port was the source of infection, he moved h i s camp a few miles down the Columbia to the .Umatilla River.  Work joined  them there on September 6th, but i t was not u n t i l the 8th  1832,  408 Work to E. Ermatinger, Port Vancouver, August 5 ( o r i g i n a l i n B.C. Archives).  203 t h a t the e x p e d i t i o n was f i n a l l y under way.  To make m a t t e r s  worse, he was f o r c e d t o l e a v e h i s a s s i s t a n t , F r a n c o i s 409 P a y e t t e , b e h i n d . He was t o o i l l t o proceed. " T h i s I much r e g r e t , " wrote Work, "as i n the event o f a n y t h i n g happening 410 t o me he was t h e o n l y person to take charge o f t h e p a r t y . " F o r t u n a t e l y , Work c o u l d n o t know how n e a r l y p r o p h e t i c t h e s e words were. U n t i l September 1 5 t h , they moved s t e a d i l y  south  t h r o u g h t h e B l u e M o u n t a i n s when t h e y reached t h e n o r t h b r a n c h o f John Day's R i v e r .  Work mentions t h a t he f o l l o w e d t h e 411  .  same r o u t e as on t h e i r r e t u r n journey i n the s p r i n g o f 1831. On the way he met a Cayuse I n d i a n who t o l d him. o f two major b a t t l e s on the Salmon R i v e r between the B l a c k f e e t and t h e Nez P e r c e s I n d i a n s who were supported by t h e F l a t h e a d s .  Since  these b a t t l e s t o o k place, j u s t a f t e r he had l e f t t h a t c o u n t r y i n t h e p r e v i o u s s p r i n g , Work had r e a s o n t o f e e l t h a t h i s t r i a l s might have been h e a v i e r . The p a r t y now c r o s s e d the mountains t o the s o u t h branch o f the same r i v e r which i t reached S i n c e t h e r e was f e v e r s t i l l  on September 1 8 t h .  i n f h e camp and s i n c e the h o r s e s  were jaded from the rough march through rugged c o u n t r y , t h e y 409 F r a n c o i s P a y e t t e was an employee o f the N o r t h West Company u n t i l c o a l i t i o n , when he e n t e r e d the employ o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company. U n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1844 P a y e t t e was s t a t i o n e d i n t h e Columbia D i s t r i c t . He had been a s u c c e s s f u l t r a p p e r and was r a i s e d t o t h e r a n k o f c l e r k . The town of P a y e t t e , P a y e t t e R i v e r and Payette, l a k e i n Idaho, were named a f t e r him. ( c f . , H.B.S. I Y , pp. 352-3). 410 Work, John, J o u r n a l , August 17, 1 8 5 2 - A p r i I 2 1833, ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d ! t o as J o u r n a l 11) , e n t r y f o r September 6, 1832. 4.11  I b i d . , e n t r y f o r September 15, 1832.  2-04 spent t h e next day i n camp. ten beaver and o n e . o t t e r .  The h u n t e r s were out and t r a p p e d  On t h e 2 1 s t the e x p e d i t i o n con-  t i n u e d upstream f o r f i f t e e n m i l e s and t r a v e l l e d a s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e the next day t o t h e mountains over w h i c h t h e y c r o s s ed t o the S i l v i e s R i v e r .  Prom September 23rd to t h e 2 9 t h  t h e y c o n t i n u e d down t h e S i l v i e s i n t o t h e a r i d Harney B a s i n . Little  game was t o be f o u n d , o n l y a few deer were k i l l e d and  these were not enough f o r t h e camp.  However, about a dozen  beaver were t r a p p e d each day, and not' o n l y was Work g l a d t o have t h e i r f u r but t h e i r f l e s h was a welcome a d d i t i o n t o t h e larder.  ' Fever s t i l l  s t a l k e d among t h e members o f the camp.  Many o f t h e company seemed t o r e c o v e r and t h e n w i t h t h e e x e r t i o n of t h e march would s u f f e r a relapse..  To add t o t h e i r  t r o u b l e s , the people found t r a c e s o f h o r s e t h i e v e s around the. camp, w h i l e about t h r o u g h t h e h i l l s , the smoke o f s i g n a l f i r e s spread the news o f t h e p a r t y ' s passage. On the l a s t day o f September, the e x p e d i t i o n c u t a c r o s s t h r o u g h rugged h i l l s  t o a v o i d a bend i n t h e r i v e r .  From October 1 s t t o t h e 3 r d t h e y ' s t a y e d i n camp t o nurse t h e people who were s i c k from f e v e r and t h e n . c o n t i n u e d on t h e i r way downstream on t h e 4 t h .  Work had p l a n n e d to. t r a p the  c o u n t r y eastward t o t h e Humboldt R i v e r , b u t nam, i n view o f the  l a t e n e s s o f the season, he d e c i d e d t o push s o u t h to t h e  Sacramento. They had passed n o r t h w e s t o f Harney and M a l h e u r 412 l a k e s . F o r some days t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r j o u r n e y l a y t h r o u g h 412 These and subsequent p l a c e s i n Work's J o u r n a l s 11 and 12 were i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r o s i t y of M r s . A l i c e . B. Maloney o f B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . M r s . Maloney's book, t h e t i t l e s t i l l undecided a t t h i s t i m e , i s a p p e a r i n g a s a p u b l i c a t i o n o f the C a l i f o r n i a H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y .  Irs  j )\ DUCK  VAL  SOSd e s e r t c o u n t r y and a l o n g t h e edge o f almost d r y s a l t o r a l k a l i l a k e s where . f r e s h water was scarce..  They t r a v e l l e d •  a l o n g t h e west s i d e o f A b e r t l a k e and on October 1 1 t h marched t h i r t y - t w o m i l e s , a two days' journey, because no water was found a t t h e f i r s t w a t e r - h o l e . -The people were d i s - ' couraged and t a l k e d o f t u r n i n g back. the  F o r t u n a t e l y f o r them,  weather was not h o t b u t r a t h e r c o l d .  On t h e 1 2 t h t h e y  found water w h i c h w a s ' b r a c k i s h b u t d r i n k a b l e . " I was r e a l l y . 413 .-.••' ' „. ,' g l a d t o f i n d i t , " wrote Work. The n e x t two days t h e y s t a y e d In camp while-Work and some o f h i s men went s o u t h t o e x p l o r e . They saw a. c h a i n o f l a k e s s t r e t c h i n g s o u t h as f a r as t h e eye 414 could reach  but- c o u l d n o t f i n d any streams or r i v e r s f l o w i n g  i n o r out o f the l a k e s which might i n d i c a t e f r e s h water and . the  presence o f beaver.  Work d e c i d e d t o f o l l o w t h e o l d r o u t e  to t h e Sacramento so as to be sure o f water and some f u r . I t was n o t . u n t i l October 2 1 s t t h a t t h e p a r t y reached t h e n o r t h end of Goose l a k e , , which Work - c a l l e d P i t l a k e .  The r o a d had  been rough and s t o n y and v e r y h a r d on t h e h o r s e s f o r whom l i t t l e f o d d e r was t o be f o u n d .  The men t o o , were r u n n i n g  s h o r t o f p r o v i s i o n s and Work grew angry a t t h e i m p r o v i d e n c e of  some of them who were f o r c e d to k i l l , f o u r h o r s e s f o r f o o d  t h i s e a r l y i n the journey.  They proceeded down t h e west s i d e  of Goose l a k e , s t o p p i n g on t h e S 4 t h t o r e f r e s h t h e h o r s e s and t o hunt. 413  No game was t o be found except some ducks, b u t  Work, J o u r n a l 1 1 , e n t r y f o r October 12, 1832.  414 Work may have seen t h e c h a i n o f l a k e s which s t r e t c h n o r t h and s o u t h j u s t e a s t o f t h e Warner Range w h i c h l a y on h i s l e f t hand, as he journeyed s o u t h .  206 w i l d plums were g a t h e r e d i n abundance a l o n g the way.  This  was not s u f f i c i e n t provender and on the 2 5 t h another h o r s e -was k i l l e d . the  The n e x t day's j o u r n e y brought them n e a r l y t o  s o u t h e r n end of the l a k e and on the 2 7 t h o f September  t h e y came t o a s m a l l creek which formed one of the"" head415 waters o f P i t R i v e r . The next day t h e y came t o the P i t R i v e r p r o p e r , "which w i t h the a d d i t i o n of s e v e r a l s m a l l brooks 416 f r o m the mountains , i s here a handsome stream". On the 2 9 t h 417 t h e y reached the s o u t h f o r k o f the P i t where t h e y camped f o r t h r e e days w h i l e Work and t h r e e men  e x p l o r e d i t s upper r e a c h e s .  The stream Seemed t o be w e l l - a d a p t e d f o r beaver w i t h i t s • w i l l o w - l i n e d banks and swampy f o r k s but none was found i n i t . F i f t e e n were taken meanwhile downstream a t the camp. .. Work and h i s p a r t y now  t u r n e d southward a g a i n and  c r o s s e d the r i v e r to the .east s i d e e x p l o r i n g each stream as t h e y went.  little  No beaver and no game were f o u n d .  As  t h e y c o n t i n u e d southward the c o u n t r y became wooded and a few oak t r e e s began t o appear.  On November 1 1 t h t h e y l e f t  the  P i t R i v e r which swings westward and r e a c h e d a s m a l l r i v e r 418 f l o w i n g out o f the mountains. The next day t h e y c r o s s e d t h e 415 I n wet weather the y^aters of Goose Lake o v e r f l o w i n t o the P i t - R i v e r , o f . , D a l l e n b o u g h , F.S., Fremont and '49, New Y o r k and London, G.P. Putnam'-a Sons, 1914, p. 314. T h i s r i v e r i s supposed t o d e r i v e i t s name f r o m the p i t f a l l s w h i c h the I n d i a n s dug f o r game. 416  Work, op. c i t . , e n t r y f o r October 28,  1832.  417 C a l l e d the E a s t F o r k by Work and i d e n t i f i e d as the South F o r k ' b y M r s . Maloney.. 418 I d e n t i f i e d by M r s . Maloney. as Hat and t h e r C a s c a d e M o u n t a i n s .  (Canoe) Creek  207 T  mountains to the s o u t h , a f t e r a hard d a y s march through  a  country wooded w i t h p i n e t r e e s which were i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h oaks and c e d a r s .  Here t h e y came on another s m a l l creek which  t h e y f o l l o w e d as i t wound i t s way a l o n g the f o o t of the mountains.  Pew  were k i l l e d . the men  beaver s i g n s were seen and o n l y f o u r d e e r  They met  I n d i a n s who  seemed v e r y t i m i d not o f  o f t h e camp, but of the h o r s e s and dogs. 419  of November they reached  a larger fork.  On the  16th  Here f i f t e e n deer  and one e l k were k i l l e d , the f i r s t good day*s h u n t i n g s i n c e they l e f t Walla Walla.  The next day was  spent i n camp and  more deer and e l k were k i l l e d , but o n l y f o u r beaver were trapped. Its  On the 1 8 t h , t h e y f o l l o w e d the r i v e r down to near  j u n c t i o n w i t h the Sacramento River.. Work now  Sacramento.  d e c i d e d to make dugout canoes t o hunt the  He had o r i g i n a l l y planned  t o w a i t u n t i l he got  f a r t h e r downstream b e f o r e he t r i e d t h i s scheme o f t r a p p i n g , but the h i g h water .would not p e r m i t of any o t h e r method. Prom November 1 9 t h t o t h e 25th most of Work's p a r t y remained. i n camp b u s i l y h a c k i n g out dugout canoes.  Others were out 420  h u n t i n g , k i l l i n g a f a i r number 'of deer and t h r e e " g r i z z l e " bears.  While a t t h i s p l a c e , Work heard l a m e n t a t i o n s f r o m a  nearby I n d i a n camp and on I n v e s t i g a t i o n found the c r e m a t i n g f o u r of t h e i r number who  Indians  had been k i l l e d i n an  a t t a c k on t h e i r v i l l a g e . To Work, who had seen and remarked 419 Not p o s i t i v e l y I d e n t i f i e d but thought by Mrs. Maloney to be a b r a n c h of Cow Creek. Work c a l l s i t Caraj?]Creek. 420  Work, op. c i t . , e n t r y f o r November 22,  1832.  208 on I n d i a n methods of " b u r i a l on the Columbia, t h i s p r a c t i c e was new and s t r a n g e .  He made two v i s i t s t o t h e i r camp t o  see e x a c t l y what had t a k e n p l a c e . By November 2 5 t h , t h e . canoes were r e a d y and t h e i r crews were d i r e c t e d t o paddle upstream f o r a two-day r e c o n n a i s s a n c e t r i p and i f t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n was the  camp would f o l l o w .  the  next day w i t h an a d v e r s e report..  satisfactory  To Work's c h a g r i n , t h e canoes r e t u r n e d Work wrote t h a t he  suspected t h a t the h a r d work of p a d d l i n g the heavy was the cause of t h e i r coming back.  canoes  A f t e r spending a day  l i g h t e n i n g t h e i r c r a f t by c h i p p i n g away more wood f r o m t h e i r s i d e s and bottom,: the men to remain out two n i g h t s .  s t a r t e d out a g a i n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s At the same t i m e , the main camp  moved down the Sacramento t o i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h the Sycamore 421 River. T h i s R i v e r was examined f o r beaver without, s u c c e s s so once a g a i n t h e y proceeded downstream to the Q u e s n e l l e 422 R i v e r where t h e y remained i n camp u n t i l December 2nd because of bad weather.  Only n i n e beaver and two o t t e r were t a k e n .  That same day t h e y pushed s o u t h a l o n g the Sacramento t o Bear ~ 423 Creek  and i n the d a y s ' f o l l o w i n g ' journeyed on s t i l l  further.  On December 8 t h t h e y reached. B u t t e Greek which Work c a l l e d D e c e p t i o n Creek.  T h i s seems a f i t t i n g name f o r t h i s s t r e a m  because i t f l o w s toward, but does not r e a c h the Sacramento, but spreads out i n t o the low f l o o d e d a r e a o f B u t t e S i n k . 421  I d e n t i f i e d by F i r s . Maloney as p o s s i b l y B a t t l e Creek.  422 I d e n t i f i e d by M r s . Maloney as M i l l Creek on cond i t i o n t h a t the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned stream i s B a t t l e Creek. 423  B i n e Creek a c c o r d i n g to M r s . Maloney.  209 On December 7th. two messengers f r o m M i c h e l 424 Laframboise  a r r i v e d at the camp.  w i t h l e t t e r s t o F o r t Vancouver. those o f anger.  They were on t h e i r  way  Work's f i r s t f e e l i n g s were  Laframboise had been sent s o u t h to hunt  the coast and had a p p a r e n t l y d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d h i s I n s t r u c t i o n s and come I n l a n d to hunt-the Sacramento which had been a s s i g n e d t o Work.  The  former had b u i l t  canoes  j u s t a c r o s s the r i v e r f r o m Work's p r e s e n t camp and s i n c e the. s p r i n g had hunted the r i v e r t o i t s mouth. Work's annoyance a p a r t y of Americans t r a p p i n g these lower reaches.  To add t o  were r e p o r t e d t o be  Work d e t a i n e d t h e s e messengers  and sent one back the next day t o L a f r a m b r o i s e w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s to meet h i m to d i s c u s s f u t u r e p l a n s .  In the meantime,  Work moved downstream t o the B u t t e s which r i s e d i r e c t l y out o f the v a l l e y f l o o r i n the a r e a between the Sacramento and 425 the F e a t h e r r i v e r s . December.  R a i n s had* s e t i n so t h a t the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y  was n e a r l y i n u n d a t e d . who,  Here t h e y camped u n t i l the SOth o f  As y e t Work had not met  Laframboise,  i n answer t o Work's r e q u e s t , had sent word t h a t he.  Intended moving downstream and had g i v e n up any i d e a o f ' a s c e n d i n g the r i v e r .  I n h i s j o u r n a l Work makes no comment  on t h i s d e c i s i o n . On the l a s t day of t h e year the e x p e d i t i o n marched eastward from t h e B u t t e s to the F e a t h e r R i v e r . 424 See Chapter I , p. 13, n. 34.  The  following  425 A major t r i b u t a r y of the Sacramento w h i c h f l o w s i n t o i t f r o m the e a s t s i d e . A l l o f t h i s a r e a was the g o l d c o u n t r y a f t e r 1849.  210 day they celebrated New Year's in. the usual fashion with cakes and rum., and on January 2, .1833, inarched down the Feather River about nine miles.  In that short distance they  passed s i x Indian v i l l a g e s which had an estimated of some hundreds each.  population  The diet of these natives seemed to  be mostly acorns, augmented by a few large white salmon from the r i v e r .  The next day Work moved camp down the feather  River again and then went on to examine i t s junction with the Sacramento.  The l e v e l of the water was f a l l i n g but i t was  s t i l l too high to r i s k camping there, so he now planned to move upstream, cross to the east bank, and hunt toward the mountains.  On January 4th, they camped higher up the feather  beside an Indian v i l l a g e where r a f t s were borrowed and preparations were made to cross to the other side.  These natives  l i v e d i n houses "sunk a considerable distance i n the earth 426 and covered with clay & resemble a round h i l l o c k " .  Qn the  5th they got safely .across the r i v e r with only the minor mishap of having drowned a horse*  The next day they pushed  upstream to the confluence of the feather and the Bear River, from t h i s point, Work wrote laframboise again, asking him to join the former's party i f he could not cross the flooded Sacramento with safety at h i s present camp downstream.  Then  both parties could move north and cross the Sacramento higher up where the r i v e r was smaller and i t s flood waters l e s s dangerous,  from t h i s point they could move westward to the  coast and trap the country laframboise had missed. 426  Work, op. c i t . , entry f o r January 4, 1833.  211 On the 9th of January, Vifork's expedition moved s t i l l 427 further upstream to a small stream  near the mountains,  in  spite of the short distance which they covered, the whole camp was exhausted. i n mud and water. small fork.  A l l day the horses had waded b e l l y deep On the 10th they.moved again to another  But few beaver were being taken, and what worried  Work more, no e l k were to be found, and the camp depended upon these animals i n t h i s l o c a l i t y as much as they depended upon buffalo i n the Snake country.  News reached him that,  as he suspected, Laframboise had l e t h i s camp become trapped by flood water on a point near the r i v e r and they were nearly starving.  This time Laframboise was w i l l i n g to accept Work's  suggestion that the camps join, forces, cross the Sacramento, and proceed to the coast as soon as the season permitted. To solve the food s i t u a t i o n Work planned to return to the Buttes where elk were p l e n t i f u l . On January 12th the expedition began to retrace i t s steps.  On the next day they reached t h e i r camping ground  of January 8th, about ten miles up the Bear E i v e r .  A l l the  way they were impeded by soft grbund, since heavy r a i n had set i n again. Not u n t i l the 16th did the party move again and on t h i s day met Laframboise and h i s men, who arrived very short of food.  Two days.'.later the augmented party recrossed  the Feather River whose waters were now low enough to enable them to ford the stream.  Two men were sent ahead to the  Buttes to scout for signs of elk. 427  On the 20th they arrived  Identified by Mrs. Maloney