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An investigation of the effect of the type of music upon mental test performance of high school students Merrell, Edgar Johnston 1943

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An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the E f f e c t of the Type of Music upon Mental Test performance of High School Students. by Edgar Johnston M e r r e l l A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s i n the Department of Education., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1943. Acknowledgments« The experimenter wishes to express h i s sincere thanks to the Canadian C o u n c i l f o r Educational Research f o r i t s f i n a n c i a l assistance without which t h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e , The w r i t e r ' s g ratitude i s a l s o due the f o l l o w i n g high school p r i n c i p a l s j , Mr* E» Ae Munro, Mageef Mr s C. H. Corkumj, King GeorgeJ Mr, J . H 0 H a l l , B r i t a n n i a ) Mr. H. B. F i t c h , Templetonj and e s p e c i a l l y t o Dr. J . R e Sanderson, King Edward, who put the e n t i r e Grades IX and X I I of h i s school at the experimenter's d i s p o s a l . Thanks a l s o are due the V i s u a l Education Department of the Vancouver School Board f o r the loan of the c l a s s i c a l recordings f o r the study. Table of Contents. Chapter T i t l e £ag£ I. I n t r o d u c t i o n and statement of the problem. 1 I I . Review of the Related Studies. 4 I I I . Organization of Groups and Mate r i a l s Used. 10 IV. A n a l y s i s of Data. 18 V. Summary, Conclusions and Suggestions f o r Further Research. 55 Bibli o g r a p h y 59 Table T i t l e Page I . Matching by mean I.Q. and standard d e v i a t i o n . 12 I I . Matching by G.A. 14 I I I . Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade IX, 18 IV. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade IX students on the Iowa S i l e n t Reading Test. 19 V. Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade IX, 21 VI . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade IX students on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. 21 V I I . Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade XII„ 23 V I I I . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade X I I students on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. 23 IX, Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade X I I 24 X. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of Grade X I I students on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. 25 XI . Meaning of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of a l l Grade IX and X I I groups on both the Iowa and O t i s t e s t s . y- • ' • 26 X I I . Means and standard deviations of g i r l s ' groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade IX. 27 X I I I . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of Grade IX g i r l s on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, 28 XIV. Means and Standard Deviations of boys 1 scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade IX 29 XV. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of Grade IX boys on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. 30 Table T i t l e XVI. Means and Standard Deviations of g i r l s ' scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade IX. 31 XVII« S i g n i f i c a n c e of the di f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of Grade IX g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, 32 X V I I I . Means and Standard Deviations of boys' scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. - Grade IX 33 XIX. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade IX boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y XX. Means and standard deviations of g i r l s ' scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade X I I 35 XXI, S i g n i f i c a n c e ^ of the d i f f e r e n c e between mean scores f o r Grade X I I g i r l s on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, 35 XXII. Means and standard Deviations of a l l boys 1 Grade X I I groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, 37 X X I I I , S i g n i f i c a n c e of the di f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the Grade X I I boys on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, 37 XXIV, Means and Standard Deviations of a l l Grade X I I g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Teste 38 XXV, S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the Grade X I I g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, . 39 XXVI. Means and Standard Deviations o f ' a l l boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade X I I . 40 XXVII, S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of Grade XII boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. 40 XXVIII. Meaning of di f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of a l l separate boys' and g i r l s 1 groups of both on both the Iowa and O t i s Tests. - 42 XXIX. Comparison of boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. 44 XXX. Comparison of boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade IX 45 v Table XXXI. XXXII, XXXIII. XXXIV. •XXXV. XXXVI* XXXVII. XXXVIII. T i t l e Comparison of boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores on tha Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade X I I . Comparison of boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade X I I . Comparison o f boys 1 and g i r l s ' mean scores on the Iowa and O t i s t e s t s - Grades IX and X I I 0 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of a l l Grade IX groups on two successive one«=minute "Rate of Reading" t e s t s . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r a l l Grade X I I groups on two successive one-minute "Rate of Reading" t e s t s . Differences between mean scores of a l l groups of Grade IX and X I I on two one-minute "Rate o f Reading" t e s t s . 45 46 47 48 49 51 Differences between mean scores of Test (1) and Test(2) f o r Grades IX and X I I . 52 Answers by Grade and Sex to the question: "Do you t h i n k t h a t you can work as w e l l at mental tasks w i t h music p l a y i n g as without?" 53 v i Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n and Problem. Since production i n war i n d u s t r i e s has become a matter of utmost urgency, a l l a v a i l a b l e resources, techniques and devices of technology and psychology have been mustered i n an " a l l - o u t " attempt to elevate i n d u s t r i a l output ceilings« One of the devices r e c e n t l y used to increase f a c t o r y production i s the accompaniment of the manual process by music. Various experiments were conducted us i n g d i f f e r e n t types of music w i t h varying degrees of success, thus: " S t i m u l a t i n g music was used during f a t i g u e hours, r e l a x i n g music during r e s t periods." ^ I t was found that p l a n t personnel, sex, age l e v e l and n a t i o n a l i t y > a l l < must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n choosing the type of program to be used. Other f a c t o r s were the type of work to be done, the amount of noise t h a t was t o be cut through, the time of day and the amount of f a t i g u e of the workers. The whole problem so attacked revolved:" almost e x c l u s i v e l y around the f i e l d of i n d u s t r y . With regard to the study at hand, i t was f e l t t h a t music might exert an i n f l u e n c e i n some branches of educational e f f o r t and t h a t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y might w e l l be explored experimentally. (^Antrim, Doron K., "Music Goes to Work i n War F a c t o r i e s , " The Readerte Digest, Septembers 1942, pp. 6 8 - 7 0 . A f t e r much con s i d e r a t i o n one of the problems was enumerated as f o l l o w s : 7?hat are the e f f e c t s of music upon the academic achievement of high school students? The immediate experiment i s an attempt to measure the e f f e c t s of four types of music, — f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music, and f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r popular (dance) music, upon the achievement of hi g h school students of both sexes i n grades nine and twelve* To measure s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the e f f e c t i t was decided t h a t the measuring s t i c k should be two standardized t e s t s . A f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g were chosen: (a) The Iowa (Advanced) S i l e n t Reading Test: Form Am. (b) The O t i s Quick Scoring (Gamma) Mental A b i l i t y Test: Form Am. Both of these t e s t s are designed f o r students of Senior High School and U n i v e r s i t y , and i t was f e l t t h e r e f o r t h a t t h e i r content would be of s u f f i c i e n t d i f f i c u l t y t o assure an adequately wide d i s t r i b u t i o n . Most c e r t a i n l y the t e s t s were not too simple f o r e i t h e r o f the grades i n v o l v e d . The music supplied by phonograph records e l e c t r i c a l l y reproduced was to be played f o r the du r a t i o n of the t e s t s f o r experimental groups• From the general problem as already presented, there arose the f o l l o w -i n g a l l i e d , more s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s 9 a l l of which were considered p e r t i n e n t , and i t was hoped, answerable: (1) Does music i n f l u e n c e the h i g h school studenite a b i l i t y to do mental work? I f so, i n what d i r e c t i o n - n e g a t i v e l y or p o s i t i v e l y ? (2) What i s the e f f e c t of the f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h music upon the mental performance of students of high school l e v e l ? (3) What i s the e f f e c t of the type ( i . e . c l a s s i c a l or popular) upon mental achievement of high school students? (4) Are g i r l s more su s c e p t i b l e to the influen c e of music than are boys? Which of t h e music types seems to be most i n f l u e n t i a l ? (5) Which show the greater amount of s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to the various types of music, — the r e l a t i v e l y young, immature students of grade n i n e , or t h e o l d e r t more mature boys and g i r l s of Junior • m a t r i c u l a t i o n ? (6) How does music i n f l u e n c e the r a t e of reading of the students of these two grades? (7) I s there a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a student's own judgment of h i s a b i l i t y to work i n an environment coloured by music and h i s a c t u a l achievement i n an experimental set-up? To these problems may be added a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s p e c i f i c c r o s s -problems such as "How do grade nine g i r l s compare-with grade twelve boys i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o do a mental a b i l i t y t e s t .in an experimental environment of say, u n f a m i l i a r popular music?" I t w i l l be r e a d i l y r e a l i z e d t h a t a study.such as t h i s can not hope to answer a l l the r e l a t e d questions or solve a l l the a l l i e d problems « Chapter I I Review of the Related Studies. Working a t State College of Washington i n 1937, Paul Fendrick performed an experiment to a s c e r t a i n "The Influence of Music D i s t r a c t i o n Upon Reading Efficiency". ( 1 ) He used two groups of s i x t y sophomores each. One group he l a b e l l e d "non-distracted", the other he c a l l e d " d i s t r a c t e d " . Each was given mimeographed s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l t o read i n a thirty-minute p e r i o d . The d i s t r a c t e d group read while " l i v e l y semi-c l a s s i c a l music" played. The non-distracted group read under normal classroom conditions,, I t was found by g i v i n g a t r u e - f a l s e t e s t under normal conditions i n both cases? t h a t the non-distracted group scored much higher than the d i s t r a c t e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o u r of s i x cases exceeded 1.73. Fendrick a l s o found by d i v i d i n g h i s groups i n t o q u i n t i l e s on the basis of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n as manifest i n t h e i r scores on the American C o u n c i l on Education P s y c h o l o g i c a l Examination a t U n i v e r s i t y Entrance, t h a t the students w i t h higher i n t e l l i g e n c e were more s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by d i s t r a c t i o n than were those w i t h lower i n t e l l i g e n c e . He questions the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s l a t t e r r e s u l t , however t because of the l i m i t e d numbers of students i n the sub-groups. F e n d r i c k 1 s experiment d i f f e r s from the one at hand i n t h a t i t does not measure a student's a b i l i t y to make a d e c i s i o n and to record h i s answer i n w r i t i n g while music i s being played. ^ Fendrick, P a u l , "The Influence of Music D i s t r a c t i o n Upon Reading E f f i c i e n c y " , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research. Volume 31, pp. 264-271, 1937 e I t i s f e l t t h a t the Washington State College experiment measures the infl u e n c e upon rea d i n g , as i n studying, while the present experiment attempts to r e v e a l the student's a b i l i t y not only to read and t o remember, but a l s o t o make a choice and a c t i v e l y t o "do® a t e s t * Fendrick used one type of music o n l y . This experimenter f e e l s t h a t one cannot come t o any d e f i n i t e conclusions about "music" i n general through merely one- type* The present experiment therefore attempts to a s c e r t a i n whether or not the "type" o f music i s a f a c t o r i n d i s t r a c t i o n 0 I t a l s o goes f u r t h e r by attempting t o p o i n t out sex and age comparisons i n r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t s of the various types of music. At the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington i n 1928 H, B, Hovey ascertained the " E f f e c t s of General D i s t r a c t i o n on the Higher Thought Processes"(2) Using w h i s t l e s , l i g h t s , saws ? stunts$ dances e t c . , as d i s t r a c t o r s he pro-duced some reason t o suppose: (1) That higher mental processes are comparatively unimpeded by d i s t r a c t i o n . (2) That i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not r e l a t e d t o s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d i s t r a c t i o n . (3) That there are no i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d i s t r a c t i o n . (4) That t r u e mental a b i l i t y i s more nearly approached under d i s t r a c t i o n than under standard c o n d i t i o n s * I t w i l l be noted t h a t on the subject of d i s t r a c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o i n t e l l i g e n c e ^ the f i n d i n g s of Fendrick and Hovey do not agree, (2) Hovey, H.B., "The E f f e c t s o f General D i s t r a c t i o n o n t h e Higher Thought Processes", American J o u r n a l o f Psychology» Volume 4-0, pp. 583-591,1928. - 6 -(3) G. C o r n e l l ! i n 1935 f o u n d w t h a t each of the three types of sounds and noises usedj namely, (a) muffled sound (b) pure noise (c) b i t s of music, r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r work. Here i t w i l l be observed that C o r n e l l i ' s conclusion regarding " b i t s of music" does not agree w i t h Fendrick's conclusion regarding " l i v e l y s e m i - c l a s s i c a l music". C o r n e l l i ' s experiment, however, since i t involved but f i v e s u b j e c t s , must be considered as g i v i n g only very t e n t a t i v e r e s u l t s . In 1933 L. Poyntz i n a study e n t i t l e d "The E f f i c a c y of V i s u a l and Auditory D i s t r a c t i o n f o r Pre-school C h i l d r e n " ^ reported that auditory d i s t r a c t i o n aids pre-school c h i l d r e n , and t h a t s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to d i s t r a c t i o n i s independent of sex, I.Q., and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age at that l e v e l . K 1 C o r n e l l i G,, "An Experimental Study R e l a t i v e t o the Influence of Sounds and Noises on Human A c t i v i t y " . Organiz. s c i . Lavoro 5 V o l . 10, No. 9, pp. 14 > 1935 (Read i n Abstract o n l y ) . ^ P o y n t z , L. "The E f f i c a c y of V i s u a l and Auditory D i s t r a c t i o n f o r Pre-school c h i l d r e n " , C h i l d Development), Volume 4> pp. 55 - 72, 1933. (Read i n Abstract o n l y ) . H. H. B a k e r y ) at the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota i n 1936 approached the f i e l d of d i s t r a c t i o n from the p o i n t of view of s e t . He used three groupsj one i n which he had es t a b l i s h e d a p o s i t i v e set towards d i s t r a c t i o n ^ one with a negative s e t , and l a s t l y a c o n t r o l group. Baker e s t a b l i s h e d what he c a l l s a " p o s i t i v e s e t " to d i s t r a c t i o n by means of a five-minute pre-t e s t t a l k to the subjects on the b e n e f i t s of working to the accompaniment of various d i s t r a c t i n g agencies© His "negative s e t " was f i x e d by the reverse process. Baker found t h a t those who had had the p o s i t i v e set d i d b e t t e r work than the c o n t r o l group and t h a t those w i t h the negative set,, d i d more po o r l y . I t i s unfortunate t h a t the question of "set" could not have been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the present study,, The number o f student groups a v a i l a b l e a t the time of experimentation, however, was l i m i t e d and of n e c e s s i t y t h i s phase could not be studied., C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t ^ showed by questionnaire i n 1935 t h a t s i x t y -e i g h t percent of students f e e l t h a t t h e i r study i s l e s s e f f e c t i v e w i t h the ra d i o on. They a l s o reported t h a t students p r e f e r r e d music programs t o programs i n v o l v i n g auditory language p a t t e r n s , . The present experiment v e r i f i e s both of these f i n d i n g s by C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t . (5) Baker, H.H., "Pre-estperimental Set i n D i s t r a c t i o n Experiments," J o u r n a l of General Psychology, Volume 16, pp. 471 - 488, 1936, (6) v.. Cantril;.'-H«. and.:Allporbj G^Wai- The- -Psychology of .Radio, New, York, "Harper, atta;Brps ej7l935 # 0, 276. Charles M. D i s e r e n s ^ reports an experimental study i n 1926 by Miss Gatewood of the Carnegie I n s t i t u t e of Technology on the i n f l u e n c e of music upon f i f t y - s i x men employed at d r a f t i n g . The experiment was i n t r o -s pective and non-quantitativej but the f i n d i n g s are i n t e r e s t i n g * The draftsmen's r e p l i e s to a questionnaire revealed: (1) Music i s advantageous to workers i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l d r a f t i n g room, according to the majority,, (2) A m i n o r i t y f i n d music d i s t r a c t i n g , (3) Instrumental i s p r e f e r r e d to v o c a l music, (4) F a m i l i a r music i s more d e s i r a b l e than u n f a m i l i a r * (5) Music seems to accelerate movement, and improve the s p i r i t s o f the workers. These r e s u l t s , which apply to manual t a s k s , seem f a i r l y w e l l substantiated by the present experiment i n r e l a t i o n to mental work. Doron K. A n t r i m . ^ i n a survey of the use to which music was put i n i n d u s t r y i n the war year 1942 revealed an amazingly wide and s u c c e s s f u l use. He found t h a t music was used t o speed up production i n shipyards, a i r c r a f t assembly p l a n t s , m a i l s e r v i c e o f f i c e s , worsted m i l l s , machine t o o l p l a n t s and a host of other e q u a l l y v a r i e d places of employment. (7) Diserens, Charles M.t The Influence of Music on Behavior. P r i n c e t o n . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926, pp. 117 - 118. (8) v 'Antrim, Doron K., "Music Goes to Work i n War F a c t o r i e s " , The Reader's Digest, September, 1942, pp. 68 - 70. - 9 -He suggests t h a t c e r t a i n types of music are b e t t e r than others f o r c e r t a i n kinds of jobs and f o r d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s . He al s o mentions that music f o r " b r a i n work" should be mere background, completely unobtrusive. None of the f i n d i n g s of h i s survey however seems to be the r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . One may ther e f o r e regard h i s re p o r t p r i n c i p a l l y as a source of i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than of wholly r e l i a b l e i nformation. - 10 -Chapter I I I Organization of Groups and M a t e r i a l s Used. Student groups were t e s t e d from the f o l l o w i n g schools i n the secondary system of Vancouver, B e C.: (1) King Edward High - 4 classes (Grade XII) 7 classes (Grade IX) (2) Magee High - 2 c l a s s e s (Grade XII) (3) B r i t a n n i a High - 2 classes (Grade XII) (4) King George High - 2 classes (Grade XII) (5) Templeton Junior High - 3 classes (Grade IX) I t w i l l be noted from the above l i s t t hat there were ten Grade IX and t e n Grade X I I classes„ Since two classes made one group, there were i n a l l t e n groups of approximately s i x t y students each. Of these, ei g h t were experimental and two were c o n t r o l groups,, Matching was done on the basis of mean I,Q.'s these scores being obtained from the records of the high schools involved. The experimenter i s aware of the f a c t that matching using i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores as the basis i s sometimes only moderately s u c c e s s f u l , "Usually scores of previous academic achievement are more h i g h l y p r e d i c t i v e of success, e s p e c i a l l y i n the same f i e l d , than i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores arej hence they make a b e t t e r b asis f o r matching," P e t e r s , Charles C. and Van Voorhis, Walter R., S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases ? New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1940s p. 449. I t should be s t a t e d , though, that while on the s u r f a c e , the matching of the groups on the basis of mean I.Q.'s does not seem wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y , two a d d i t i o n a l conditions e x i s t — one, t h a t there i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between I.Q.'s and s i l e n t reading scores, thus p a r t i a l l y e l i m i n a t i n g the n e c e s s i t y of p r e - t e s t i n g i n s i l e n t reading! the other, t h a t a l l groups were-matched f o r mean C.A. as- w e l l as f o r mean I.Q., so tha t we may conclude t h a t they are matched f o r M.A. as w e l l , which i n i t s e l f i s o f t e n a basis f o r matching,, I n matching, care was taken to have not only the mean i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores approximately the same, but al s o t o have the standard deviations of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s not too widely v a r i a n t . Table I shows the mean I.Q.'s and standard deviations of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the various groups. I t w i l l be noted, from t h i s t a b l e that each group took the two t e s t s while l i s t e n i n g t o d i f f e r e n t types of music. I t was necessary, a l s o , t o break these mixed groups down i n t o separate sex groups. This necessitated making new d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r boys and g i r l s s e parately and of course, the subsequent rematching according to I.Q. and - 12 -TABLE I Matching by mean I.Q. and standard d e v i a t i o n . Grade IS O t i s Iowa M (I.Q.) € 109.5 9.6 FP FC 110.8 11.3 FC FP . 109.1 9.5 DP UC 109.3_ 10.4 . DC UP 111.5 9.9 Grade X I I O t i s Iowa C C . 114.2 11.1 FP FC 10.3 FC . v FP 114.5 9.7 UP UC 113.1 11.7 UP 114.7 11.2 Grade IX G i r l s Grade IX Boys O t i s Iowa M(I.0.) °^ O t i s Iowa M(I.Q.) C C 110.-2 7.04 , C C 111.4 FP FO 111.0 8*80 FP FC 111.5 9.2 FC FP 111.0 8.65 FC FP l l l s l _ 7.1 UP UC lio.o" 7.20 UP UC 111.8 . 12.9 UC UP 111.8 ^8^15 ..._. UC UP 111.2 11.5 Grade X I I G i r l s Grade X I I Boys O t i s Iowa O t i s Iowa or* C C 113.4 G c U 3 , 2 _ 8.9 FP FC FP FC 113.9 9.8 FC FP m . 8 9.1 FC FP 113.7 -9.5 UP UC 113.1 10.6 UP UC 113.5 10.6 UG UP 113.9 u c „ _ UP , 113,8 10,0 To make c e r t a i n t h a t matching on the b a s i s o f I.Q. was s u c c e s s f u l i t was decided t o f i n d the two most widely v a r i a n t I.Q.'s i n any one matched group as shown i n a s i n g l e t a b l e * I f the standard e r r o r of the di f f e r e n c e of these were not s i g n i f i c a n t , then i t could be assumed th a t no other d i f f e r e n c e between mean I.Q.' s would be s i g n i f i c a n t . I t should a l s o be stat e d that there i s s i m i l a r i t y i n v a r i a b i l i t i e s and numbers of students i n a l l groups. The two mean I.Q.'s compared were 109*1 f o r the Grade I I group which took the O t i s t e s t while f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music was p l a y i n g and 111.5 f o r the .unfamiliar c l a s s i c a l group. I t was found t h a t the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was 1.3, which i s not considered s t a t i s t i c a l l y * s i g n i f i c a n t . I t may therefore be concluded that the matching on the basis of I.Q. was s u c c e s s f u l . I t w i l l be noted on lo o k i n g at the mean I.Q.'s and standard deviations of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the Grade IX boys, that the group which has a mean IQ. of 113.5 a l s o has a standard d e v i a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 7.1, and th a t t h i s l a t t e r f i g u r e i s much lower than the others i n t h a t matched group. I t was impossible, however, t o remedy t h i s c o n d i t i o n due t o the f a c t t h a t the group was already q u i t e s m a l l . A t a b u l a t i o n of the mean ages o f a l l the groups appears i n Table I I . Grade XI means, i t w i l l be seen, are w i t h i n one month o f one another # while f o r grade IX the l a r g e s t spread i s three months. The purpose i n a s c e r t a i n i n g and matching the mean ages of the groups was t w o f o l d . One purpose has already been explained, the other i s the ra t h e r obvious one of making c e r t a i n that the e f f e c t of the music upon the students was not coloured by the age f a c t o r . F o r t u n a t e l y the matching on the b a s i s of mean C. A. was accomplished without having t o g r e a t l y reduce the s i z e o f the groups. - u -TABLE I I Matching by 0.A. Grade I I O t i s Iowa M FC FP UP 15 y r s . Ik mos, 14 y r s . 11 mos, 15 y r s . 2 mos. 15 y r s . -g- mo, 15•-yrs. 2 mos, Grade X I I c FP C 17 y r s . 10 mos FC FP 17 y r s . 10%: mos FC 17 y r s . 11 mos. UP __UG_ UP 17 y r s . 10 mos. UC 17 .yrs'.." 11 mos • Each group was v i s i t e d t w i c e . On the f i r s t v i s i t the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test was administered, the time allowed being e x a c t l y t h i r t y minutes.. On the second v i s i t , p a r t s of the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test were given. I t s d u r a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o twenty-six minutes. The Iowa Test as u s u a l l y administered r e q u i r e s t h a t the subjects h a l t a f t e r c e r t a i n sub-tests and await i n s t r u c t i o n s and s i g n a l s t o proceed. With music p l a y i n g continuously, t h i s stopping and s t a r t i n g could not be done. As a r e s u l t , i t was decided t o t r e a t the two t e s t s on r a t e of comprehension, parts A and G, as separate one-minute t e s t s . I t was a l s o considered d e s i r a b l e to e l i m i n a t e the remainder of Test I and a l l of - 15 -Tests I I and I I I . I n s t r u c t i o n s were then given so t h a t the students could begin w i t h Test IV and from t h e r e 9 c a r r y on to the end without i n t e r r u p -t i o n . An attempt was made i n the case of the c o n t r o l groups, to give the t e s t s under as c l o s e t o normal classroom conditions as was p o s s i b l e . In the case o f the experimental groups, music of the four types was played throughout the t e s t . There were-breaks i n the music only while records were being changed, A decibelmeter was connected to the speaker of the phonograph so that volume could be kept as- nearly constant as p o s s i b l e by watching the meter and keeping the i n d i c a t o r w i t h i n w e l l - d e f i n e d l i m i t s , The purpose was to make c e r t a i n t h a t the e f f e c t o f volume was not being measured along w i t h the e f f e c t of the various music types themselves,. The task of choosing the musical s e l e c t i o n s so t h a t c l a s s i c a l and popular music could both be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups of f a m i l i a r and un-f a m i l i a r was a d i f f i c u l t one. Although the degree of f a m i l i a r i t y o r u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the music v a r i e s from student t o student, i t was f e l t t h a t f o r the average, the musical types as .here c l a s s i f i e d would be s a t i s f a c t o r y . To choose the group of u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l s e l e c t i o n s was an easy t a s k j so a l s o was the p i c k i n g o f the f a m i l i a r popular, music. Here, however, the question of vocals arose. The experimenter decided t h a t t o have modern f a m i l i a r dance recordings without vocals was t o narrow down th a t type of music so t h a t one of i t s most v i t a l and d i s t i n c t i v e features would not be a f a c t o r . I t was t h e r e f o r deemed necessary t o include three or f o u r records w i t h v o c a l choruses. - 16--' The s e l e c t i o n s are of two types. The m a j o r i t y are c u r r e n t l y popular while a few are what may be termed "standards" — numbers that continue t o be popular f o r s e v e r a l years* The choosing of the u n f a m i l i a r popular music was s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t than the f i r s t two mentioned,, f o r the reason t h a t h i g h school students of t h i s day and age seem t o have an almost a l l - i n c l u s i v e knowledge of the f i e l d . I t was f i n a l l y decided t h a t r a t h e r than choose obscure s e l e c t i o n s , i t would be p r e f e r a b l e t o choose numbers so r e c e n t l y published t h a t widespread acquaintance w i t h them was almost an i m p o s s i b i l -i t y . -The greatest d i f f i c u l t y l a y i n s e l e c t i n g the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group. I t would have been a r e l a t i v e l y easy task to have furnished a group of f a m i l i a r nursery tunes, or f o l k melodies, or even concert songs and o p e r e t t a s j but to f i n d o r c h e s t r a l music which might be termed c l a s s i c a l i n t h e - s t r i c t e r sense of the.term presented difficulties« Questioning by the experimenter a f t e r -each t e s t had been completed regarding the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l l four types of music completely j u s t i f i e d the choice i n each case. The f o l l o w i n g are the four musical types and the s e l e c t i o n s chosen i n each groups F a m i l i a r C l a s s i c a l . (1) B a r c a r o l l e (Tales of Hoffman) - Offenbach (2) F i n l a n d i a • . . S i b e l i u s (3) Hungarian Dance (No. 5) - Brahms (4) The Sorcerer's Apprentice - Dukas (5) The Children's Prayer - Humperdinck (6) Blue Danube Waltz - Strauss Unfamiliar C l a s s i c a l . (1) La Mer (2) Patrouchka ( B a l l e t ) (3) Brandenburg Concerto (No a 3) (4) V a r i a t i o n s on a theme by T a l l i s F a m i l i a r Popular (1) Black Magic (2) B r a z i l (3) Daybreak (4) Manhattan Serenade (5) One O'clock Jump (6) Sunrise Serenade (7) S t r i c t l y Instrumental (8) Moonlight Serenade Un f a m i l i a r Popular (1) B i g Tom (2) Ten Days' Furlough (3) Brass Boogie (4) Sorghum Switch (5) Sherman S h u f f l e (6) B i g Time Cripp (7) 47th S t r e e t J i v e (8) Down;••UMet'.i - Debussy - Stravinsky - J . S. Bach - Vaughn Williams - 18 -Chapter IV Ana l y s i s of Data. Table I I I i s a compilation of the numbers of su b j e c t s , the mean scores, the standard deviations of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and the standard e r r o r s of the means of the grade nine c o n t r o l and experimental groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. I t w i l l be noted t h a t the l e f t column i n -d i c a t e s the type of music which was played f o r the various groups. For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y i t was decided to c a l l each group by the name of i t s musical type. Thus i t i s found t h a t , reading from top to bottom, the groups are: c o n t r o l ( C ) , f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l (FC), f a m i l i a r popular (FP), u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l (UC) and u n f a m i l i a r popular (UP). TABLE I I I Means and standard deviations of a l l groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade IX. Group N . M : C 60 80.0 25.0 3.23 FC 64 79.4 19,6 2.45 FP 56 74.1 20.0 2.67 UC 60 83.5 .. 21»4 2.76 UP 50 91.0 22.8 3.22 The data of Table I I I suggest, the p o s s i b i l i t y of some s i g n i f i c a n t ^ d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores. Using these data Table IV was compiled showing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the c o n t r o l group and experimental groups on the one hand, and between the experimental groups themselves on the other. I t w i l l be no t i c e d t h a t there are f i v e columns i n the t a b l e . From l e f t to r i g h t , the f i r s t shows the two groups compared i n each case, the second shows the d i r e c t i o n of the - 19 -d i f f e r e n c e , the t h i r d shows the meaning of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , i . e . , the infl u e n c e of the music l i s t e d i n the second pa r t of column one. "A" means that the music has been an a i d t o higher scores, while "D" i n d i c a t e s a d i s t r a c t i n g tendency. The f o u r t h column i n d i c a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the di f f e r e n c e and the f i f t h gives the chances i n one hundred th a t the di f f e r e n c e i s not due to chance e f f e c t s , or that a d i f f e r e n c e i n the same d i r e c t i o n would be obtained i f the experiment were repeated under s i m i l a r conditions© TABLE IV S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade IX students on the Iowa S i l e n t Reading Teste Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . ' of D i f f , of a S i g . D i f f . C- FC * D .15 56 C- FP • D 1.40 92 C- UC - A .84 80 C-> UP' - A 2.40 99.2 FC- UC - A 1.13 87 FC- UP - A 2.87 100 FP- UG - A 2.45 99 FP- UP - A 4.02 100 FC- FP • D 1.46/ 93 UC- UP - A • 1.79 96: I n Table IV only one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s found according t o the commonly-accepted c r i t e r i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e , namely a d i f f e r e n c e which i s at l e a s t three times i t s standard e r r o r . I n each case i n t h i s r e p o r t the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s the d i f f e r e n c e d i v i d e d by i t s standard error© - 20 -However as pointed out by Peters and Van V o o r h i s ^ t h i s i s an a r b i t r a r y r a t i o . These authors recommend th a t a d i f f e r e n c e which i s 1.73 times i t s standard e r r o r be accepted as the c r i t e r i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e u n t i l more evidence has been gathered. On t h i s b a s i s , i t may be concluded t h a t un-f a m i l i a r popular music i s an a i d to mental work such as i s required by the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, Acceptance of t h i s c r i t e r i o n a l s o suggests t h a t four of the s i x d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the experimental groups are s i g n i f i c a n t , , I t appears t h a t i t i s not so much the type of music t h a t i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n changing scores as i t s f a m i l i a r i t y . Three o f the fou r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s comparing f a m i l i a r w i t h u n f a m i l i a r music are l a r g e r than the r a t i o s comparing c l a s s i c a l w i t h popular music. This i s observed by comparing rows 5 - 8 w i t h rows 9 - 1 0 . I t w i l l be noted a l s o from column 3, t h a t the two di f f e r e n c e s between the scores of the c o n t r o l group and the two f a m i l i a r music groups suggest that f o r the type of work re q u i r e d by the Iowa t e s t , f a m i l i a r music has a d i s t r a c t i n g i n f l u e n c e , while u n f a m i l i a r music appears t o f a c i l i t a t e mental work. Since the d i f f e r e n c e s are not s i g n i f i c a n t , t h i s i s suggested as a hypothesis. . Pe t e r s , Charles C. and Van Voorhis, Walter R., S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases 9 New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc,, 194-0, p. 476 and p. 477. - 21 -Table V gives f o r the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test what Table I I I shows f o r the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. TABLE Y Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade IX. Group N M a~ G 60 39.9 7.5 .97 ;FG . 56 40,4 7.5 1.00 FP 64 41.2 7.5 ^94 UG 50 43.8 10,1 1.43 UP 60 40.4 8.5 1.13 From the data of Table V i t i s to observed that the mean dif f e r e n c e s i n t h i s case tend to be r a t h e r s m a l l , and t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t i e s are very similar© Table VI presents the d i f f e r e n c e s of the means w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e degrees of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the O t i s Test« TABLE VI S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade IX students on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g . d i f f . c - FC A ... .36 64 c - FP A .96 83 c - UC - A 2.30 98.9 c - UP - A .34 64 • FC-UC - A 1.94 m. FC- UP 0 0 0.00 50^  FP- UC A 1.52 93 : FP- UP D .54 71 FC- EP — • . A . .34 64 uc- UP. D 1.87 97 - 22 -According to the c r i t e r i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e suggested by Peters and Van Voorhis, i t may be concluded from Table VI (row 3) that u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music i s an a i d t o the mental work required i n the Otis Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. A l l types of music used i n t h i s experiment, however, tended to a i d Grade IX students to make b e t t e r scores than the c o n t r o l group. Since only one of these differences i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t one can only say t h a t f o r the Otis t e s t , f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l , f a m i l i a r popular and u n f a m i l i a r popular music types do not appear to be d i s t r a c t o r s , and that i n each case the evidence i s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n favour of the hypothesis that -music i s an a i d . I t may a l s o be noted that there are ninety-seven chances i n one hundred that f o r grade nine students t a k i n g the O t i s t e s t , u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music w i l l be a greater a i d than e i t h e r u n f a m i l i a r popular or f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l (see rows 5 and 10) As a l s o suggested to a greater degree by the Iowa t e s t r e s u l t s , so here on the O t i s t e s t u n f a m i l i a r music helps the Grade IX students more than does f a m i l i a r music. Further experimentation might v e r i f y t h i s conclusion© Table V I I sets f o r t h the grade X I I data r e l a t i v e to the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t l e a d i n g Test. For the purposes of t h i s study the Peters and Van Voorhis c r i t e r i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be accepted throughout. - 23 -TABLE 711 Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade X I I . Group H M M € _ 74. 110.8 21.7 2.52 _JEp _ _ 5 2 117.3 ' 16.6' 2.30 FP 55 108.5. 19.5 2.62 UC _ 5 2 109.6 20.3 2.81 UP 67. 112,4 17.5 2.U There i s considerable spread"in the mean scores, and also i n the ' values of the standard d e v i a t i o n s . Table V I I I shows the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the differences between the mean scores of the various grade X I I groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. TABLES V I I I S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade X I I students on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared o f D i f f , of D i f f . of D i f f , of a S i g n i f . D i f f . c minus FC - A 1.90 97 c - FP D. .63 74 c - UC . D .32 62 c _ -.. UP - A .48 .. :69..: FC - UC 4 D . 2,14_ 98 FC - UP D 1,87 97 FP - UC - A .29 - 62 . FP - UP - A 1.15 87 FC - FP + • ,D 2.53 99 UC - UP - A .79 79 I n Table V I I I consider f i r s t columns two and three. Where the four music groups are compared with the c o n t r o l groups the d i r e c t i o n s are remarkable f o r t h e i r inconsistency. Where the experimental groups are compared w i t h one another, however, one notices t h a t the - 24. -f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group obtained higher scores than d i d e i t h e r the un-f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l or u n f a m i l i a r popular groupsj while f a m i l i a r popular music group had lower scores. Acceptance of 1,73 as the c r i t e r i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e enables us t o conclude, on r e f e r r i n g to column four i n Table V I I I , t h a t f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music, f o r the type of work required on the Iowa t e s t , may be regarded as an a i d to producing higher scores than would be obtained without music. I t may al s o be s a i d t h a t f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music i s more i n f l u e n t i a l towards the production of higher scores on t h i s t e s t than are u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l , u n f a m i l i a r popular and f a m i l i a r popular music. Table IX l i s t s the mean scores made by students of grade X I I on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, Related s t a t i s t i c s are also i n -cluded. TABLE IX Means and Standard Deviations of a l l groups on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade X I I . Group N... M o-* c 74. 52.3 8.0 FC 52 55.4 52,6 9.0 1.10 FP 8.0 UC 67 52.1 8.5 1.P3 UP . 52 „_52.3 J 7.0 wJ27 With the exception of the mean score of the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group, there i s considerable s i m i l a r i t y both i n the means and i n the standard d e v i a t i o n s , - 25 -Table X shows f o r the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, Grade XI I p r e c i s e l y what t a b l e V I I I i n d i c a t e s f o r the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Read-in g Test, TABLE X S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of Grade X I I students on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 of Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . a S i g n i f , D i f f , A ' - : 2,03 98 C - FP ' • - A .21 58 ' c - UC + D . U . 56 c - UP 0 0 0.00 50 FC - UG •+'• D 2.07 98 • FG - UP 4 - D 2,00, 98 FP - UG + D .33 64. FP - UP D .20 58 FC - FP + D 1.71 9 6 ~ ^ UC - UP - A . U 56 From Table X we see t h a t the performance of the. grade X I I students on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h e i r per-formance on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. I t may be concluded here a l s o , that f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music probably w i l l be a greater stimulus t o the Grade X I I students t a k i n g the O t i s Test than w i l l any of the other three -types of music or even the quiet of a normal classroom. I t i s of i n t e r e s t a l s o to note t h a t i n a l l cases f o r the O t i s t e s t , while f a m i l i a r music was p l a y i n g , scores were c o n s i s t e n t l y - h i g h e r than while u n f a m i l i a r music was playing.. Each t e s t ' s scores having been analysed i n r e l a t i o n t o each grade se p a r a t e l y , i t may be w e l l at t h i s p o i n t to i n d i c a t e c o n s i s t e n c i e s which might suggest t r e n d s 9 - 26 -Table 21 presents i n summary the data of column (3) from Tables IV, V I , V I I I and X. TABLE XI Meaning of the dif f e r e n c e s between mean scores of a l l Grade IX and X I I groups on both the Iowa and O t i s t e s t s . Grade IX Grade X I I C - FC Iowa O t i s Iowa Otis D A A * A*" 0 - FP D A D A C - DC A A*" D D C - UP A*' A A 0 FC - UG A A* FC - UP A * 0 D* D* FP - UC A * A A D FP - UP A * D A D FC - FP D ' A D* D* UC - UP D* A A From the data of Table XI the f o l l o w i n g questions may be answered; 1, What i s the e f f e c t of music? (a) Since four of the d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t , these conclusions can be generalized only by considering the consistency of the trends© (b) I n Grade IX, i n s i x of eight cases, music tended to increase the scores, (c) I n Grade X I I , one d i f f e r e n c e was zero, and i n four of the other seven comparisons, music appeared to help students to improve scores» (d) I n general, music seems t o improve mental, performance. Indicates a d i f f e r e n c e between means of groups compared i n excess of 1,73 times i t s standard e r r o r . I n a l l s i m i l a r summarizing ta b l e s the "A" and "D" r e f e r to the inf l u e n c e of the type of music t e s t e d i n the second p a r t of column 1, r 2 7 -2. What i s the e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the music? (a) Ei^kt of the dif f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t but there i s considerable consistency i n the trends. (b) I n Grade IX, one d i f f e r e n c e was zero, and s i x of the other seven comparisons suggested t h a t u n f a m i l i a r music i s a b e t t e r accompaniment than f a m i l i a r music i f a student wishes to improve h i s t e s t score. (c) I n Grade X I I , the data are p r a c t i c a l l y as consistent i n suggest-i n g t h a t f a m i l i a r music a c t s as more of an a i d to mental work than does u n f a m i l i a r music. (d) The e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y of music on mental performance i s suggested as an age d i f f e r e n c e . The next t a b l e s give evidence on the problem of the influence of music on members of each sex, each one presenting data f o r boys or g i r l s s e parately. I n Table X I I the data obtained f o r grade IX g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test are summarized. TABLE X I I Means and Standard Deviations of a l l g i r l s ' groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade IX. Group^ C N P 2 5 M • 20.3 M 4.06 FC 31 70.5 21.4- 3.84 FP 36 76.9 17.8 2.97 4.29. UC UP 28 86.1 22.7 25 16.8 \.3.3.5__ - 28 -Table X I I I i n d i c a t e s the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the differences between the means shown i n Table X I I , TABLE X I I I S i g n i f i c a n c e of the differences between mean scores of Grade IX g i r l s on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i R n i f . D i f f . C - ,FC + D .59 73 c - FP - A .62 73 c - UC - A 2.08 98 c - UP - - A 3.57 100 FC - UC - A 2.70 100 - UP - A A.3A 100 FP - UC - A 1.76 96 FP - UP - - A 3.50 100 FC •- FP - A 1.36 91 UG - UP - A 1.19 88 I t w i l l be perceived on l o o k i n g at the top four comparisons of Table X I I I t h a t i n three out of f o u r cases, music was an a i d to the Grade IX g i r l s t a k i n g the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, Two of these three d i f f e r e n c e s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , one by the c r i t e r i o n as accepted f o r t h i s study, and one by the more commonly accepted c r i t e r i o n . I n other words, students working to the sound of u n f a m i l i a r music may be expected to o b t a i n higher scores than those working under conditions of q u i e t , Reading downward, the next f o u r comparisons i n d i c a t e t h a t Grade IX g i r l s working on the Iowa Test to the s t r a i n s of u n f a m i l i a r music obtained higher mean scores than d i d those i n an environment of f a m i l i a r music. A l l four d i f f e r e n c e s i n rows 5 - 8 are s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s important also to note t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s are a l l i n the same d i r e c t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r Grade LX g i r l s doing the type of mental work required by the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, u n f a m i l i a r music i s a b e t t e r working environment than i s f a m i l i a r music. - 29 * I t should also be pointed out that a l l f our d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r groups are l a r g e r than those between the c l a s s i c a l and popular groups, which would again seem to suggest that i t i s the degree of f a m i l i a r i t y r ather than the f a c t t h a t music i s c l a s s i c a l or popular which i s i n these cases the more important f a c t o r . Looking at the l a s t two comparisons i t may be noted that the g i r l s who l i s t e n e d to popular music scored higher than those who l i s t e n e d to c l a s s i c a l music." To be more s p e c i f i c the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of 1.36 and 1,19 i n d i c a t e that i f the experiment were repeated under l i k e circumstances t there would be ninety-one chances intone hundred that the f a m i l i a r popular group would obt a i n higher average scores than the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group, and eighty-eight chances i n one hundred that the u n f a m i l i a r popular group would score higher than the u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group. The consistency of the d i r e c t i o n s of the dif f e r e n c e s i s a l s o worthy of note. Table XIV contains Grade IX boys* mean scores w i t h r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s f o r the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, TABLE XIV / • ' . ' Means and Standard Deviations of boys' scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, - Grade IX.. Group N M M C 3 1 . _ 2 1 , 1 ! FC 29 83.9 16.46 3.05 _ FP 10 76.0 18.14: 5.74 UG 23 86.3 19.15 4,00 UP J 23 81.0 24.57 5.48 Table XV shov/s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the differences between the mean scores of the various Grade IX boys' groups f o r the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. TABLE XV S i g n i f i c a n c e of the dif f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of Grade IX boys on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f o of D i f f , of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f . C - FC D .16 56 C - FP D 1.26 89 C - UC - A .29 62 C - UP D .55 71 FC - UC . A .AS 7 . 1 .69. FC - UP * D .4-6 67 FP - UC - A _. 1.47 93 FP - UF - A .63 74. FC - FP D 1.22 UC - UP • + D .78 , 79 From t a b l e XV i t may be pointed out that the grade IX boys' groups l a c k the consistency shown by the g i r l s . Here, s i x of the t e n comparisons i n d i c a t e d i s t r a c t i o n while f o u r suggest f a c i l i t a t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o be observed that i n general the r a t i o s of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores are much smaller f o r the boys than they were f o r the g i r l s . This r e s u l t suggests that Grade IX boys doing the ..-type of mental work required by the Iowa t e s t are l e s s subject to the in f l u e n c e of music than are Grade IX - g i r l s e From the f i r s t f o u r rows i t may be concluded t e n t a t i v e l y that while none o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the f a c t t h a t three of the four experimental groups made lower scores than the c o n t r o l group would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r Grade IX boys doing the Iowa t e s t type of work, music i s a d i s t r a c t o r . - 31 -In three o f the next four comparisons between f a m i l i a r and u n f a m i l i a r music, the l a t t e r r e s u l t e d i n higher scores than the former. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the dif f e r e n c e s i s such, however, th a t l i t t l e emphasis may be placed upon the trend. I t i s worth noting that Grade IX g i r l s a l s o made b e t t e r scores w i t h u n f a m i l i a r music than w i t h f a m i l i a r music. The l a s t two di f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t boys of Grade IX may score higher on the type of work found i n the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading t e s t w h i l e - c l a s s i c a l music i s p l a y i n g than while popular music p l a y s . Table XVI l i s t s the mean row scores of Grade IX g i r l s f o r the Otis Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. Related s t a t i s t i c s are also tabulated. TABLE XVI Means and Standard Deviations of g i r l s ' scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade LX. Group N M I C 25 38.6 7.05 FC 36 43.25 7.75 1.29 FP 31 7.60 1.36 UC 25 7..55_ 1.51 UP 28 42.89 7.80 1.47 The d i f f e r e n c e s between the means appear t o be very s m a l l , while there i s a high degree o f consistency i n the v a r i a b i l i t i e s . Table XVII l i s t s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the Grade IX g i r l s ' groups f o r the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. I - 32 -TABLE XVII S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of Grade IX g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f . Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f . c - FC A 2.43 99 c - FP A .^74.... 77 c - UC A 1.36 91 G - UP - A 2.11 98 FC -- UC + D .93 _. 83 I£_ - UP D .18 58 FP - UC - A .65 74 FP - UP - A 1,41 92 FC - FP D 1.70 96 UG - UP - A .71 76 From Table XVII i t i s c l e a r t h a t oh the Otis Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, Grade IX g i r l s again demonstrated t h e i r a b i l i t y to score higher i n an environment where music i s a f a c t o r than i n a classroom where standard conditions p r e v a i l . A l l four experimental groups outscored the c o n t r o l group, Two of the top four c r i t i c a l r a t i o s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l and u n f a m i l i a r popular music may be r e l i e d upon to a i d Grade IX g i r l s to make higher scores on the type of work found i n the O t i s t e s t than would r e s u l t from normal classroom c o n d i t i o n s . The t h i r d c r i t i c a l r a t i o , 1.36 i n d i c a t e s thatj, i n the event of r e p e t i t i o n of the experimental s i t u a t i o n , there would be ninety-one chances i n one hundred that the u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group would o b t a i n higher scores than would the c o n t r o l group. The next four comparisons which show the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the experimental groups themselves are i n t e r e s t i n g . Two of the di f f e r e n c e s are p o s i t i v e i n d i r e c t i o n while two are negative, From t h i s i t i s suggested t h a t f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music i s more i n f l u e n t i a l i n I j - 33 -producing high scores on the O t i s t e s t f o r Grade IX g i r l s than i s e i t h e r u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l or u n f a m i l i a r popular music,, and t h a t f a m i l i a r popular music exerts l e s s influence than e i t h e r -type of u n f a m i l i a r music. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to f o l l o w the course of f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music through the t a b l e . Note f i r s t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the c o n t r o l and f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l groups i s the greatest of a l l the d i f f e r e n c e s . I t f o l l o w s then that i t s i n f l u e n c e i s more powerful on g i r l s doing.the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test than t h a t of any of the other three types of music. I t s s u p e r i o r i t y over f a m i l i a r popular music as an inf l u e n c e towards higher scores i s suggested by the c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 1,70. Table XVIII i s a compilation of the mean scores o f the Grade IX boys f o r the O t i s Quick S c o r i n g Mental A b i l i t y Test, Related s t a t i s t i c s are al s o i n c l u d e d , TABLE XVIII Means and Standard Deviations of boys' scores on the Otis Quick S c o r i n g Mental A b i l i t y Test. - Grade IX. Group N M M . C ..3X. 41.68 7.20 •3U29__ FC 10 46.50 7,45 F2.35 , FP 29 7.90" 1.46 UC 23 44.18. 11.25 2.34 . UP 23 40.05 9.05 1.88 The data of Table XVIII suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y of some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores. I t w i l l be noted that there i s considerable v a r i a b i l i t y among the standard d e v i a t i o n s . - 34 -Table XIX presents the di f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the Grade IX boys on the O t i s Test» TABLE XIX S i g n i f i c a n c e of the dif f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r Grade IX boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. Groups . D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f . Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . o f D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f p c - FC A .1.80 96 c - FP * - D .27 6o c - UC •A .93 • 83 c - UP D ' - .58. .. FC - UC D .70 76 FC - UP D 3.00 100 FP - UC - A 1.10 86 FP UP, D 1.30 ._ 90 FC - FP D 1.90 97 UC - UP + D 1.40 92 In Table XIX consider f i r s t the top four comparisons which involve the c o n t r o l group. I t w i l l be seen t h a t two of the d i f f e r e n c e s favour the p l a y i n g of music and two do not. Only one of the di f f e r e n c e s i s worthy of mention. I t may be concluded from the s i z e of i t s c r i t i c a l r a t i o , 1.80, that f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music probably improves the work of Grade IX boys i n the type of work r e q u i r e d by the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. Coming to the next four comparisons i n the table., one notices that i n three out of four casea, f a m i l i a r music r e s u l t e d i n higher mean scores than did. u n f a m i l i a r music. I t should a l s o be noted that the comparison of the mean scores of the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l and u n f a m i l i a r popular groups r e s u l t e d i n a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 3.00 which i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t by a l l accepted c r i t e r i a . ' The l a s t two comparisons on the t a b l e suggest t h a t c l a s s i c a l music i s be t t e r s u i t e d to grade LX boys working a t the O t i s Test or anything s i m i l a r i n nature£ than i s popular music. The two c r i t i c a l r a t i o s 1.90.and 1.40 are of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e trend i n th a t d i r e c t i o n s Table XX enumerates the mean scores and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s f o r Grade X I I g i r l s t a k i n g the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. TABLE XX Means and Standard Deviations of g i r l s ' scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade X I I . Group N • M C7X M G 46 105.7 19.7 2.93 PC 117.8 2.90 FP ... .25 108.2 . 15,3 3.06 UC _..._._.4<r 108.6 17.3 2.3Jt UP 28 112.i^ 18.5 3.56 From the data of Table XX, i t may be seen th a t the dif f e r e n c e s between the means are i n some cases rather l a r g e r . There i s a l s o considerable range i n the values of the Standard Deviations, Table XXI presents the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s f o r the Grade X I I girl s ' g r o u p s who took the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading,Test, TABLE XXI S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between mean scores f o r Grade X I I g i r l s on the Iowa Test, Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f / Chances i n 100 c FC A 2.93 .. 100 c — FP - A , .59 73 c — UC A .76 77 G - UP A 1.45 _ . _ °93„,..__. -FC - UC • D 2.49 99 FC UP D 1.17 87 FP UC A .10 54 FP - UP ; - A 1 .89 82 FC - FP D 2.28 99 UC - UP - A . .89 __ . 82 = 36 -I n Table XXI, on comparing the mean score of the c o n t r o l group with mean scores of each of the fou r experimental groups, i t w i l l be seen t h a t each of the l a t t e r four groups had higher scores than the c o n t r o l group. From t h i s r e s u l t one may assume t h a t Grade X I I g i r l s doing the type of work found i n the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test w i l l u s u a l l y score higher while music i s p l a y i n g than when i t i s not. A t t e n t i o n must again be d i r e c t e d to the f a c t t h a t the highest c r i t i c a l r a t i o i n the t a b l e , 2^93, r e s u l t s from a comparison of the mean scores of the c o n t r o l and f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l groups. One could go f u r t h e r and p o i n t out th a t the o n l y three s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r a t i o s i n the t a b l e i n v o l v e f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music.. Coming t o a-comparison of the f a m i l i a r music w i t h the u n f a m i l i a r , i t may be noted t h a t f o r Grade H I g i r l s doing the type of work involved i n the Iowa Test, f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music i s a greater stimulus than e i t h e r u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l or u n f a m i l i a r popular. On the other hand the f a m i l i a r popular group d i d not do as w e l l as e i t h e r of the u n f a m i l i a r groups* This s i t u a t i o n h e l d a l s o f o r the Grade IX g i r l s t a k i n g the O t i s t e s t and the Grade X I I boys talcing the Iowa. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 2.28 obtained by comparing the mean scores of the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l and f a m i l i a r popular groups of Grade X I I - g i r l s shows th a t i f the experiment were repeated under s i m i l a r circumstances, there are ninety-nine chances i n one hundred, that the d i f f e r e n c e between the means would be significant© - 3 7 ~ Table XXII i s a r e p l i c a of Table XX except that i t applies t o boys instead o f to g i r l s , TABLE XXII • Means and Standard Deviations of a l l boys' Grade X I I groups on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test,. Group II '6 G 24 118,3 22 ,7 4 . 9 0 FC 28 118.2 18.3 FP 27 109 .1 18 .7 3 . 6 0 UC 13 111 .2 19.8 3 . 1 7 UP 3 1 112 .1 17 ,7 From Table XXII, i t may be observed t h a t the di f f e r e n c e s between means i s sm a l l and th a t there i s quite a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y between Standard Deviations, Table X X I I I shows the d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s , between the mean scores of a l l Grade X I I boys' groups t a k i n g the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Testa TABLE XXIII S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the Grade X I I boys on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test, Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning of S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . D i f f . of D i f f e of a S i g n i f , D i f f C - FC D . 02 51 • C ~ FP «• D 1 .51 93 C - UC 4 - D .96" 83 C - UP + D 1.06 85 FC - UC D 1.08 86 FG - UP + D 1 ,30 90 FP - UC - A . 3 2 62 FP - UP - A .63 74 FC - FP + D 1.82.. 96 UC - UP - A • H ;. „ 56 From Table XXIII one sees that i n contrast w i t h the g i r l s of Grade X I I , the boys who made up the experimental groups, i n no case scored as high on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test as d i d the c o n t r o l group. - 3d -While none o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the f a c t that the d i r e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s i s s i m i l a r i n each case tends to suggest that music has a d i s t r a c t i n g i n f l u e n c e upon Grade X I I boys engaged i n the type of work found i n the Iowa Test. As might be expected a f t e r n o t i n g the scores of previous t a b l e s , the l e a s t amount o f d i s t r a c t i o n r e s u l t e d from f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music. Boys i n the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l : group obtained higher scores than d i d those i n the UC or UP groups, while those i n the FP group scored higher than d i d those i n e i t h e r UC or UP groups, ' • The f a c t t h a t the c r i t i c a l r a t i o of the di f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l and f a m i l i a r popular groups i s 1.82 and accepted t h e r e f o r as s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n the l i g h t of preceding data. I t w i l l be found i n almost a l l the t a b l e s t h a t the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s where these two types are compared are quite c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t . What i s j u s t as important i s the consistency o f the d i r e c t i o n . F a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music p i t may be concluded, w i l l u s u a l l y produce higher scores than f a m i l i a r popular music where mental, work of the type found i n the O t i s and Iowa t e s t s here used, i s involved. Table XXI? l i s t s the mean scores, w i t h r e l a t e d data f o r Grade X I I g i r l s t a k i n g the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, TABLE XXI? Means and Standard Deviations of a l l Grade X I I g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. Group M M C 51.35 7.4- 1.09 FC 25 53.40 7.0 1.4-0 FP 24. 52.27 8,1 1.33 UC 28 52.90 7.1 1.34. UP 37 52.21 6.7 1.3.7. - 39 -The data of Table XXIV i n d i c a t e a remarkable degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n means and i n standard deviations,, Table XXV presents the d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h r e l a t e d data, between the mean scores of a l l Grade X I I g i r l s ' groups t a k i n g the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, TABLE XXV S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the Grade XII g i r l s on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chance i n 100 c - FC A 1.15 87 c - FP - A .53 71 c - UG A .89 82 c - UP - * A .A9 69 FC - UC D .26 60 FG - UP D .61 73 FP UC - A .33 U FP - UP + D .03 52 FC - FP + D .58 73 UC - UP D ,36 6A Table XXV shows again t h a t the subjects of a l l f our g i r l s ' experiment-a l groups had higher average scores than d i d the members of the c o n t r o l group. For the f i r s t time^ however, there are as many " d i s t r a c t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s " as there are " a i d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s " i n the table.. I t w i l l be noted t h a t once again the greatest amount of a i d r e s u l t e d from f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music. I n no s i n g l e case, i s the evidence s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r i k i n g to warrant the conclusion t h a t f o r Grade X I I g i r l s working at the type of task found i n the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test, music i s a d e f i n i t e a i d . However i n view of the consistency of the trend and of the performance of Grade X I I g i r l s on the Iowa t e s t , and a l s o of Grade IX g i r l s on both t e s t s , i t i s almost safe to suggest that f u r t h e r experimentation would probably serve to v e r i f y the c o n c l u s i o n . - AO -Two f u r t h e r trends demand our a t t e n t i o n . F i r s t , f a m i l i a r music f o r Grade X I I g i r l s performing the O t i s t e s t seems to r e s u l t i n higher scores than u n f a m i l i a r music; and second, c l a s s i c a l music produces bett e r r e s u l t s than popular. Table XXVI i s a compilation of the mean row scores w i t h r e l a t e d data, made by Grade X I I boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test. TABLE XXVI Means and Standard Deviations of a l l boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade X I I . Group N M M c -2A 53.67 8.25 1.68 FC 27 28 „J5»51 9.10 1.75 FP 51.68 8.85 2.45 DC 31 9.90 1.77 DP 13 52.35 7.75 1.46 The data of Table XXVI suggests the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores. Table XXVII i s s i m i l a r to Table XXV except t h a t a l l data apply to Grade X I I boys i n s t e a d of g i r l s . TABLE XXVII S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of Grade X I I boys on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Teste Groups D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f . C - FC A .76 77 C - FP D .04 52 C - UC *• D .81 C - UP D .59 73 FC - UG D 1.53 93 FC - UP +• b 1.38 ., ., 92. . ; FP - UC D .62 73 FP .- UP *• D .41 65 FC - FP D .65 74 UC - UP A .29 62 - 41 -I n Table XXVII, i t may be seen that Grade H I boys working at the Otis Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test were not influenced s u b s t a n t i a l l y by any of the types of music. One must poi n t out however, that except f o r the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group, the boys' experimental groups were outscored by the c o n t r o l group. I n other words music was a f a c t o r towards m i l d d i s -t r a c t i o n f o r Grade X I I boys doing the type of work found i n t h i s t e s t . I t should be noted, however, that very c o n s i s t e n t l y , f a m i l i a r music r e s u l t e d i n higher mean scores than u n f a m i l i a r music. A t t e n t i o n may als o be d i r e c t e d to the only r a t i o s which approach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , namely, those i n v o l v i n g a comparison of the mean scores of the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l group f i r s t w i t h the u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l and second w i t h the u n f a m i l i a r popular. In ninety-three and ninety-two chances r e s p e c t i v e l y i n one hundred, the di f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of the f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l groups and the two types of u n f a m i l i a r groups would be i n the same d i r e c t i o n . Before proceeding to a c t u a l sex comparison i n r e l a t i o n t o the experiment, i t may be w e l l t o look at a l l the Grade X I I t a b l e s • Table XXVIII, presents i n summary the data found i n column (3) of Tables X I I I , XV, XVII, XIX, XXI, X X I I I , XXV and XXVII, or i n other words the meaning of the d i r e c t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r a l l g i r l s ' and boys' groups of both Grade IX and Grade X I I on both t e s t s . - 42 -TABLE. XS7III Meaning of d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores of a l l separate boys' and g i r l s ' groups of both grades on both the Iowa and Otis Tests. Grade IX Grade X I I Iowa Ot i s Iowa Otis Groups Compared M F M F M F M F C - FC ' D D A* A* D A* A A-C - FP D A D A D A D A c •- UC A A* A A D „ A D A C - UP D A* D A* D . A D A FC - UC A A* D A D D D FC - UP D A* D* D D D D D FP - UC A A* A A A A D A FP .- UP A A* D A A A D £ FC - FP D A D* D D UC - UP D A D A A A A D From the data of Table XXVTII the f o l l o w i n g conclusions are suggested! (1) What i s the e f f e c t of music upon the mental performance of g i r l s ? (a) In Grade IX i n seven of eight cases music tended to a i d g i r l s of the experimental groups i n the production of l a r g e r scores than the c o n t r o l group« (b) In Grade X I I i n a l l of eig h t cases the experimental groups out-scored the c o n t r o l group. (2) How does music a f f e c t the mental performance of boys? (a) In Grade IX, i n f i v e of eight cases, the musical groups scored lower than the c o n t r o l group. (b) In Grade X I I , i n seven of eig h t cases, the experimental groups were again outscored by the c o n t r o l group 0 The suggestion from the f i r s t two questions i s that g i r l s performed mental tasks w i t h more f a c i l i t y i n the presence of music while boys seem to s u f f e r from d i s t r a c t i o n . This sex d i f f e r e n c e may e x p l a i n the l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s when boys and g i r l s were considered as a s i n g l e group. - 43 - • The tendency towards increased scores f o r the g i r l s would o f f s e t the tendency toward decreased scores f o r the boys, (3) What i s the e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h music upon the mental performance of g i r l s ? (a) I n Grade IX i n s i x of eight cases, u n f a m i l i a r music proved to be a b e t t e r accompaniment t o mental e f f o r t than f a m i l i a r music, (b) In Grade X I I i n f i v e of eight cases f a m i l i a r music aided g i r l s to make higher scores to a greater extent than d i d u n f a m i l i a r music, (4-) What i s the e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h music upon the mental performance of boys? (a) I n Grade IX i n four of eight cases, f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the music proved an a i d , while i n the remaining four cases, i t proved d i s t r a c t i n g , (b) I n Grade X I I , i n s i x of eight cases, f a m i l i a r music was a b e t t e r accompaniment to mental e f f o r t than was u n f a m i l i a r music, (5) What i s the e f f e c t of the type ( i . e . c l a s s i c a l or popular) of music upon the mental performance of g i r l s ? (a) I n Grade IX i n three of fou r cases, popular music r e s u l t e d i n greater scores f o r g i r l s than d i d c l a s s i c a l . (b) I n Grade X I I i n three of fou r cases, c l a s s i c a l music aided g i r l s i n the production of higher scores more than d i d popular music. A t t e n t i o n may be drawn to these r e s u l t s as evidence of an age d i f f e r e n c e , (6) What i s the e f f e c t of the type of music upon the mental performance of boys? (a) In Grade IX i n a l l of fo u r cases, c l a s s i c a l music proved b e t t e r than popular. - 44. -(6) Continued (b) I n Grade X I I , four cases were evenly d i v i d e d . To t h i s p o i n t i n the study, the separate sex experimental groups have been compared w i t h the c o n t r o l group or with each other, w i t h a view to a s c e r t a i n i n g the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of music, of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h music, and of the type of music upon the mental performance of each group. Table XXIX presents the comparison of the mean scores of Grade IX boys w i t h those of Grade IX g i r l s f o r given types of music. This t a b l e , then, i s an attempt to a s c e r t a i n c e r t a i n sex dif f e r e n c e s r e l a t i v e to music and mental performance on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. The s i g n " " i s here taken to mean "scored higher than", while " "*C " w i l l be regarded as "scored l e s s than"'. TABLE X X H Comparison of mean boys' and g i r l s 1 scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade IX Groups , Basis of D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Comparison of D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f C . F - M M s» F 1.95 98 FC F - M - M > F. 2.73 100 FP F - M * M •< F .14- 56 UG •JP - M - M :> F .03 52 UP F •-' M + M <• F •, 1.80 96 From Table XXIX i t may be seen, quite contrary to expectation, t h a t Grade IX boys of the c o n t r o l group scored higher on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test than d i d the g i r l s of the same group. I t i s unusual at t h i s age l e v e l to f i n d boys exceeding g i r l s i n reading a b i l i t y . These groups were o r i g i n a l l y equated f o r average I.Q. and average C.A. I t w i l l be noted too, t h a t boys outscored the g i r l s on the Iowa t e s t while f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music was p l a y i n g , the c r i t i c a l r a t i o being 2.73> i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t there i s a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between these groups. - 45 -On the other hand, the g i r l s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the boys on the Iowa Test while u n f a m i l i a r popular music was p l a y i n g . Table XXX i s an exact reproduction of the l a s t t a b l e except t h a t the data apply t o the O t i s Test instead of to the Iowa. TABLE XXX Comparison of mean boys' and g i r l s ' scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade IX. Groups Basis of D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Comparison of Diff.^ of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f . c F - M - - M >I'- J ^ - i — i . J . « 1.61 . _. 94 .. .. . FC F. - M - l l ==*F 1.21 88 FP F - M M =»F ,54 71 UC F - M . - M =^F 1.00 84 UP F - M 4 M < F 1.19 88 The outstanding feature of Table XXX i s the magnitude of the c r i t i c a l r a t i o , 1.61, which r e s u l t s from a comparison of the mean raw scores f o r the O t i s t e s t of the Grade IX boys and g i r l s c o n t r o l groups, The presence of music i n the environment, however does not a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n . I n three of the f o u r comparisons of mean scores made by the experimental groups, the boys outscore the g i r l s . The only type of music which l e d to higher mean scores f o r g i r l s than f o r boys on the O t i s t e s t was u n f a m i l i a r popular.. Table XXXI l i s t s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Grade XII boys' and g i r l s ' scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. TABLE XXXI Comparison of mean boys 1 and g i r l s ' scores on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test - Grade X I I . Groups Basis of D i r e c t i o n Meaning of S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Comparison of D i f f . D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f . C F - M M > F 2.21 99 FC F - M = M =» F • 58 FP F - M — M =» F .. .. *19._ - _ . 58 UC F - M M =» F .. . _«4a 67 UP F - M * M F .06 52 » 4-6 ** From Table XXXI i t w i l l noted that again under normal classroom conditions the boys outscored the g i r l s on the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Teste I t may al s o be pointed out th a t the dif f e r e n c e s between the boys' and g i r l s 8 experimental groups are extremely s m a l l . I n three out of four cases the boys' scores were higher than the g i r l s ' . Although the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s only .06, i t i s worth noting that again the only type of music which was more favorable t o the g i r l s than boys was u n f a m i l i a r popular music„ Table XXXII presents the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Grade X I I boys' and g i r l s ' scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Teste TABLE XXXII Comparison of mean boys' and g i r l s ' scores on the O t i s Quick Scoring Mental A b i l i t y Test - Grade X I I . Groups Basis of D i r e c t i o n Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Comparison of D i f f . of D i f f , of D i f f . of a S i g n i f . D i f f , c F - M est M > F 1,16 87 FC F - M - M > F .94 83 FP F - 1 , - M > F .46 67 UC F - M 1 < F 71 UP F - M - M F .07 52 The r e s u l t s as tabulated i n Table XXXII do not warrant any s p e c i f i c c onclusions. I t w i l l be n o t i c e d , however, there here f o r the f i r s t time, g i r l s were outscored by the boys while u n f a m i l i a r popular music was p l a y i n g . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o of .07 between t h e i r mean scores i s so s m a l l , though, t h a t f u r t h e r experimentation might reverse the d i r e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e . In three out of fou r cases the boys scored higher than the g i r l s on the O t i s t e s t o - 4-7 -Table XXXIII presents i n summary the data of Tables XXIX, XXX, XXXI and XXXII. The fo u r columns give the di f f e r e n c e between the boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores f o r both Grades and f o r both t e s t s . TABLE XXXIII Comparison of boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores f o r the Iowa and O t i s t e s t s - Grades IX and X I I . Grade IX Grade X I I Iowa Ot i s Iowa I t i s F - M . F - M F - H F - M c - - - ~ FG - - -FP + - -UC - - -UP 4, -From the data of Table XXXIII the f o l l o w i n g question may be answered: How do boys and g i r l s compare i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to perform mental tasks i n a musical environment? (a) I n Grades IX and X I I , boys of the c o n t r o l group outscored g i r l s of the c o n t r o l group i n a l l of four cases 0 * (b) I n Grade IX, i n f i v e of eig h t cases, the boys scored higher than the g i r l s while l i s t e n i n g to music. (c) I n Grade X I I , i n s i x o f e i g h t cases, the boys outscored the g i r l s i n a musical environment© / (d) I n both grades 9 i n three of f o u r cases, the g x r l s outscored the boys t o the accompaniment of u n f a m i l i a r popular music. (e) I n both grades, i n a l l of fo u r cases, boys outscored g i r l s while f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music played. This may be due to the f a c t t h a t the slower-learning boys are dropping out of school to take war work more than i s true of the slower l e a r n i n g g i r l s so t h a t the boys c o n s t i t u t e a more s e l e c t group. The i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s used i n the matching were administered from 1 to 3 years before the experiment. - m -Table XXXIV l i s t s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores made by the various groups on two, one-minute r a t e of reading t e s t s found i n the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test. I t w i l l be noticed that each column i s divid e d i n t o two, so th a t the scores on the two t e s t s appear side by side and may be e a s i l y compared. Each separate column i s headed by e i t h e r (1) or (2), the numbers being s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the Iowa Test names "A" and «C". The t e s t Involved r a t e as recorded by the number of words read per minute, TABLE XXXIV S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r a l l Grade IX groups on two successive one-minute "Rate of Reading" t e s t s . Groups D i r e c t i o r Meaning S i g n i f i c a n c e Chances i n 100 Compared of ] D i f f . of D i f f . of D i f f . of a S i g n i f , Diff,. m (1) (2) (1) (2) C - PC 4 D A *A5 1.31 67 90 C - FP * D D 1,90 1,42 97 92 C - UC * D A .36 1.01 64 84 C - UP - D A .76 2.20 77 . 9 9 FC - UC - A D .31 52 62 FC - UP + D A ,38 .90 65 82 FFP - UC - A A : i t 6 i .28 94 _._. 62 FP - UP A A 1.18 4.50 88 100 PC - FP + • D D .1.68 3.23 9*6' 100 UC - UP * D A .42 1,21 65 88 Table XXXIV r e v e a l s t h a t on the f i r s t one-minute "Rate" t e s t , none of the Grade LT experimental groups made as high mean scores as the c o n t r o l group. Although only one of the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s between the mean scores i s s i g n i f i c a n t , the consistency of the r e s u l t s suggests that f o r the f i r s t one-minute t e s t 9 music acted as a d i s t r a c t o r 0 On the second one«*minute t e s t however, the only experimental group which d i d not exceed the c o n t r o l group was the f a m i l i a r popular group. - 4-9 -The greatest amount of a i d on the second t e s t was derived from un-f a m i l i a r popular music. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o of the d i f f e r e n c e s of the mean scores of the c o n t r o l end u n f a m i l i a r popular group i s 2.20 which means t h a t i f the experiment were repeated the d i f f e r e n c e between the means would i n ninety-nine cases out of one hundred be s i g n i f i c a n t . This t a b l e a l s o points out t h a t i n three of the four cases i n v o l v e d , u n f a m i l i a r music produced higher reading scores than f a m i l i a r music. This, r e s u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the data of Tables I I I and V. One should a l s o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s of 4..50 and 3.23 which i n d i c a t e t h a t for the type of m a t e r i a l contained i n the Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading "Rate" Tests, Grade IX students w i l l c o n s i s t e n t l y read more words per minute w i t h u n f a m i l i a r popular or f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music p l a y i n g than w i t h f a m i l i a r popular m u s i c Table XXXV l i s t s f o r Grade X I I what Table XXXIV presents f o r Grade IX. TABLE XXXV S i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between mean scores f o r a l l Grade X I I groups on two successive one-minute "Rate of Reading" t e s t s . D i r e c t i o n of D i f f . Meai of.] l i n g D i f f . S i g n i f i c a n c e of D i f f e r e n c e . Chances i n 100 of a S i g n i f . D i f f . Groups Compared (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) C - FG *• + D D 3,72 100 99 C - FP + 4 D D 4.73 2.76 100 100 C - UC 4 4 D D 2.65 1.31 99 90 C - UP 4 4 D D 4-.31 2.78 100 100 FC - UC - - A . A 1.05 1.05 85 85 FC - UP • * D D .30 t.44- 62 67 FP - UC — A A r 1.88 1.58 97 94. WP - UP - - "A- A .53 .03 _ i 9 _ _ 52. FC - FP _ _ 4 4 D D .77 .4-6 77 67 UC - UP 4 *• D D 1.41 .1.58 92 F i r s t i t w i l l be seen i n Table XXXV that f o r each t e s t , none of the Grade XII experimental groups measured up to the standard of the c o n t r o l group. - 50 -I n other words, music was a d i s t r a c t o r , and quite s i g n i f i c a n t l y so i n every case,. Comparing the f a m i l i a r w i t h the u n f a m i l i a r music group, i t may bs pointed out th a t f o r both one-minute t e s t s i n s i s of the eight cases, u n f a m i l i a r music produced higher mean scores than f a m i l i a r music. This p a r a l l e l s the r e s u l t f o r Grade IX on the "Rate" of reading t e s t . Comparing c l a s s i c a l w i t h popular music i t may be pointed out that both types of c l a s s i c a l music r e s u l t e d i n higher mean scores than d i d popular music on both t e s t s . One of the i n t e r e s t i n g features of t h i s t e s t was the remarkable degree of consistency shown both i n the d i r e c t i o n of differences and i n the s i z e of the c r i t i c a l r a t i o s . In every case the r e s u l t s f o r the f i r s t one« minute t e s t were v e r i f i e d i n the second. I t must not be thought hov/ever that because the experimental groups d i d not make as high scores as the c o n t r o l group on the second test y t h a t they d i d not improve t h e i r own t e s t scores on the f i r s t one-minute t e s t 0 Table XXXVI presents i n summarized form the meaning of the di f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores of a l l grade IX and .XII groups on the two one-minute "Rate of Reading" tests© - 51 TABLE XXXVI Differences between mean scores of a l l groups of Grade IX and X I I on two one-minute "Rate of Reading" t e s t s . Grade IX Grade X I I Groups Compared Test (1) Test (2) Test (1) Test (2) 'C - FC D A D "* D * C - FP D * D D * D *' C - UC D A A * D * D G - UP D D * D * PC - UC A D . D . A A D FC - UP A D FP - UC A • . A A * A A FP - UP A A * A FC - FP D D * D D UC - UP D A D D From the data of Table XXXVI, answers to the f o l l o w i n g questions may be suggested: (1) What i s the e f f e c t of music upon "Rate of Reading"? (a) I n Grade IX on both t e s t s i n f i v e of eigh t cases students of the music groups d i d not make as high scores as d i d members of the c o n t r o l group« (b) I n Grade X I I on both t e s t s i n a l l of eig h t cases, the experimental groups d i d not measure up to the c o n t r o l group«, (2) What i s the e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h music upon "Rate of Reading"? (a) In Grade IX, on both t e s t s i n s i x of eight cases u n f a m i l i a r music proved a more s a t i s f a c t o r y accompaniment•to reading f o r speed than d i d f a m i l i a r music» (b) I n Grade X I I , on both t e s t s i n s i x of eigh t cases u n f a m i l i a r music again seemed to a i d students i n ""Rate of Reading"tests t o a greater extent than d i d f a m i l i a r music• - 52 -(3) What i s the e f f e c t of the type of music upon the "Rate of Reading"? (a) In Grade IX on both t e s t s i n three o f four cases, c l a s s i c a l music helped students produce higher scores than d i d popular m u s i c (b) I n Grade X I I , on both t e s t s i n a l l o f four cases, c l a s s i c a l music again seemed to a i d students to read more q u i c k l y than d i d popular m u s i c Table XXXVII presents a comparison of the mean scores made by the various groups on the two one-minute "Rate" t e s t s . The column - M(2)) shows the dif f e r e n c e s i n mean scores between the f i r s t and second one-minute t e s t s . TABLE XXXVII Differences between mean scores of Test ( l ) and Test (2) f o r Grades LX and X I I . Grade IX Grade XII Group M(l ) - M (2 ) "1272*™ D i r e c t i o n of D i f f . Meaning of D i f f . 3 i g n i f o f D i f f . 1(1)-M ( 2) D i r e c t i o r of Diff„ Meaning of D i f f . 3 i g n i f . of D i f f P r a c t i c e E f f e c t 2.33 51.0 a. P r a c t i c e E f f e c t FC 55.0 — — - — — -P.E. + Ad.1. 4.99 1729~~ '4.20 " 58.8 "l»o3~~" — P.E. * Ad.1. 4.29 FP 35.2 F >E e P .E. * Adj. x ' P.E. + A d j . 4.60 UG 50.5 — P.E. + Adj.. . "61.9 5.22 UP 69.0 — P .E. * Ad.1. 6.51 55.3 — P.E. + Adj... 4.37 The data of Table XXXVII suggest that a l l experimental groups made greater absolute gains i n words read per minute i n the second t e s t over the f i r s t t e s t than d i d the c o n t r o l group. This would suggest t h a t there i s a r a p i d adjustment to the musical f a c t o r i n the environment when the task i s merely to see how r a p i d i s the rat e of reading,. The increase on the second t e s t made by the c o n t r o l group i s probably due t o p r a c t i c e e f f e c t , as also w i l l be p a r t of the gain f o r the experimental groups. There was not one group which d i d not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the second t e s t than on the f i r s t . With such r a p i d adjustment to music, i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see what would r e s u l t from three or fou r successive one-minute t e s t s . The very f a c t that the "Rate" t e s t s were one minute only i n duration makes i t necessary to put l i t t l e f a i t h i n t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y . As a matter of i n t e r e s t , the experimenter asked each of the groups before beginning the t e s t to answer "Yes" or "No" t o the question "Do you th i n k that you can work as w e l l at mental t a s k s , or accomplish as much when music i s p l a y i n g as when i t i s not?" Table XXXIV i s a t a b u l a t i o n o f the answers by grade and sex. Do you t h i n k t h a t you can work as w e l l at mental tasks w i t h music p l a y i n g as without? TABLE XXXVIII Grade LX Yes ®% No BOYS GIRLS 51% 56% Grade X I I BOYS GIRLS 38% U3% 62% 57% - 54 -Two points warrant our a t t e n t i o n . One i s the f a c t that more boys and g i r l s of both grades answered "no" than answered "yes". This r e s u l t came as a m i l d s u r p r i s e to the experimenter who had p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d that most high school students f e l t that they could do as w e l l w i t h music p l a y i n g as without. I t tends, however to v e r i f y the f i n d i n g s of G a n t r i l and A l l p o r t i n 1935.^ The second p o i n t i s the s i m i l a r i t y between the percentage f i g u r e s f o r boys and g i r l s , The only very s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from the general p a t t e r n i s the 38% "yes" — 62% "no" d i v i s i o n of opinion of the Grade XII boys, who i t would seem are a l i t t l e , more modest about t h e i r a b i l i t y to work w i t h music p l a y i n g than are the r e s t . U nfortunately, to compare a student's own judgment of h i s a b i l i t y to work i n a musical environment w i t h h i s a c t u a l accomplishment t h e r e i n , was i n t h i s study, an i m p o s s i b i l i t y due t o the f a c t that no method was devised of a s c e r t a i n i n g a student's p o t e n t i a l score i n order to compare i t w i t h h i s a c t u a l score. ^ G a n t r i l ! , H. and A l l p o r t , G.W., I b i d , p. 276, - 55 -Chapter V Sj^mary, Conclusions and Suggestions f o r Further Research, Summary This study IS an attempt t o a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t of c e r t a i n types of music upon the mental performance of high school students. The music was of f o u r types, f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l , f a m i l i a r popular, u n f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l and u n f a m i l i a r popular. The Iowa Advanced S i l e n t Reading Test and the O t i s Quick S c o r i n g Mental A b i l i t y Test c o n s t i t u t e d the t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l , and the students were of two grade l e v e l s . Grades IX and X I I • Ten groups chosen-from Vancouver secondary schools, each averaged about s i x t y students i n number. Of these, e i g h t groups were experimental and two were c o n t r o l . The experimental groups performed the t e s t s while music was played by means of e l e c t r i c reproduction. The c o n t r o l groups worked under standard classroom c o n d i t i o n s 0 Conclusions From the treatment of the data the f o l l o w i n g conclusions appear to be warranted: (1) I n general, music seems to improve the mental performance of high school students. (2) The data on f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h music give evidence of an age d i f f e r e n c e . Grade IX students tend to do b e t t e r work while u n f a m i l i a r music i s p l a y i n g : the opposite c o n d i t i o n holds f o r Grade X I I . (3) Music i n general appears to a i d the mental performance of g i r l s , but seems to be a d i s t r a c t i n g agency f o r boys. Yet boys are b e t t e r able to perform mental tasks i n a musical environment than are g i r l s . This seeming c o n t r a d i c t i o n may be e a s i l y explained. G i r l s l i s t e n i n g t o music perform mental tasks b e t t e r than g i r l s not l i s t e n i n g to music j - 56 -boys do not do as w e l l with.music p l a y i n g as other boys do without| but boys i n t u r n out-perform g i r l s while music i s p l a y i n g . (A) With regard to the i n f l u e n c e of the musical types there i s also soma evidence to suggest a f u r t h e r age d i f f e r e n c e . Grade IX g i r l s seem to perform mental tasks w i t h greater f a c i l i t y to the accompaniment of popular music, while Grade XII g i r l s p r e f e r c l a s s i c a l m u s i c (5) Boys tend to do t h e i r best work while c l a s s i c a l music i s p l a y i n g , (6) To come to more s p e c i f i c music types, the best boys' work was done to the s t r a i n s of f a m i l i a r c l a s s i c a l music; the best g i r l s ' work to u n f a m i l i a r popular ,k (7) I n considering the e f f e c t of music upon the r a t e of reading., i t may be concluded that music a t f i r s t does hinder reading progress; but that there i s r a p i d adjustment to the musical f a c t o r , (8) U n f a m i l i a r music tends to be a b e t t e r accompaniment to reading f o r speed than does f a m i l i a r m u s i c (9) C l a s s i c a l music i s b e t t e r than popular music as an environmental f a c t o r i n a i d i n g students to read r a p i d l y , (10) Boys are s l i g h t l y more conservative than g i r l s i n judging t h e i r own a b i l i t y to perform mental tasks to the accompaniment of music. Both boys and g i r l s i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, f e e l t h a t they cannot do as w e l l with music p l a y i n g as without. - 57 -Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r research on the subject; (1) The same problems should be studied, using l a r g e r groups. Such a study i s d e s i r a b l e t o confirm the trends observed i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , (2) The influen c e of music on r a t e of reading should be r e - i n v e s t i g a t e d using t e s t s of longer d u r a t i o n to assure a greater degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . (3) Several successive r a t e t e s t s could be administered to measure the amount of adjustment t o music as compared w i t h the p r a c t i c e e f f e c t manifest i n the c o n t r o l group, (4-) There i s room f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n regarding the e f f e c t of music upon the l i s t e n e r a f t e r longer periods of l i s t e n i n g and a f t e r s e v e r a l t e s t s have been given i n a musical environment. Does the eff e c t i v e n e s s of music tend t o wear o f f ? (5) I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to measure the influence of music upon reading m a t e r i a l of various degrees of d i f f i c u l t y . I t i s f e l t t hat d i s t r a c t i o n would increase w i t h work of greater d i f f i c u l t y , (6) One might compare the in f l u e n c e of annoying music ( i f such type could be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h r e l i a b i l i t y ) , w i t h that of p l e a s i n g music, (7) I t might be w e l l to measure the e f f e c t of music upon students of music as compared w i t h non-students, (8) I t would be worth-while to measure the e f f e c t of volume or t o n a l i n t e n s i t y upon mental performance. I t might be p o s s i b l e to discover an optimum amplitude, - 58 -(9) The problem of the p r e - t e s t mental set bears i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n f l u e n c e of music upon mental achievement, (10) A study might be made of the e f f e c t of v o c a l music as compared w i t h instrumental music upon t e s t achievement. Related t o t h i s i s the question of the e f f e c t of p i t c h and d i s t r a c t i o n . Are high voices more d i s t r a c t i n g than low ones? Another r e l a t e d issue might be a comparison of the e f f e c t of f o r e i g n and E n g l i s h v o c a l music upon mental work. These are only a few of the problems which seemed to grow out of t h i s study. Their s o l u t i o n might throw f u r t h e r l i g h t upon an i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d of research. 1. Antrim, Doron K., "Music Goes to Work i n War F a c t o r i e s , " The Reader's Digest, pp. 68 - 70, September, 1942. 2« Baker, H, H,, "Pre-experimental Set i n D i s t r a c t i o n Experiments", Journa l of General Psychology, Volume 16, pp. 471 - 488,1936. 3. C a n t r i l , H. and A l l p o r t , G.W., The Psychology of Radio. New York, Harper and Bros,, 1935, 4. C l a r k e , Eric.* !£usic i n Everyday L i f e . New York, W.W. Norton and Company Inc., 1935, 5. C o r n e l l ! , G., "An Experimental Study R e l a t i v e to the Influence of Sounds and Noises on Human A c t i v i t y " . Organiz_._sci. Lavoro. V o l . 10, No. 9, pp. 14, 1935, 6. Diserens, Chatles M., "The Influence of Music on Behaviour, P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1926. 7. Diserens, Charles M., and F i n e , H., A Psychology of Music, C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio, By the Authors, 1939. 8. Fendrick, P a u l , "The Influence of Music D i s t r a c t i o n Upon Reading E f f i c i e n c y " , J o u r n a l of Educational Research, Volume 31, pp. 264 - 271, 1937. 9. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, New York p London, Toronto, Longmans, Green and Co., 1940. 10. H i r a t s u k a , S. "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research on the E f f e c t s of Unpleasant Noise upon Mental Work", Ps y c h o l o g i c a l and Neuro l o g i c a l J o u r n a l of Japan. V o l . 41? PP. 283 - 304, 1937, 11. Hobson, W., American Jazz Music„ New York, W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1939, 12. Hovey, H. B., "The E f f e c t s of General D i s t r a c t i o n on the Higher Thought Processes", American J o u r n a l of Psychology. Volume 40, pp. 583 - 591, 1928. 23. M u r s e l l , James L., The Psychology of Music» New York, W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1937. 14, P e t e r s , Charles C. and Van V o o r h i s , Walter R., " S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases", New York and London, McGraw-H i l l Book Company, Inc., 1940. 15. Poyntz, L. "The E f f i c a c y of V i s u a l and Auditory D i s t r a c t i o n f o r Pre-school c h i l d r e n " , C h i l d Development,. Volume 4» PP« 55 - 72, 1933. - 60 -16. Seashore, C a r l , E«, Psychology of Music 9 New York and London, McGraw-H i l l Book Company, Inc.-, 1938. 17, Van de W a l l , W., Music i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1936. 

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