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Edaphic aspects of an ecological classification of the Interior Western Hemlock dry Subzone forests of… Smith, Richard Barrie 1963

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EDAPHIC ASPECTS OF AN ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE INTERIOR WESTERN HEMLOCK DRY SUBZONE FORESTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by RICHARD BAERIE SMITH B.S.F., University of British Colranbia, 1957 M.F., Yale University, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of Biology and Botany We accept this thesis - as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1963 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u lfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of th i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Biology and. Bota-nv The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date M e w 2. ,  GRADUATE STUDIES F i e l d of Study- Botany Taxonomy of Vascular Plants Plant Physiology Forest Autecology Forest Synecology Advanced Forest Pathology S T . ; . M . C . Taylor X D . J . Wort V.J.NKrajina V.J. Krajina J . E.„Bier Other Studiess Forest Tree Seed General Forestry. Seminary Forest Research Methods Geomorphology S o i l Genesis Soil-Plant Relationships G.S„ Allen Staff J . H . G . Smith Wm.H. Mathews C.A. Rowles J.D. Beaton The University of B r i t i s h Columbia FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of RICHARD BARRIE SMITH B.S.F., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 . M.F., Yale University, 1958 IN. ROOM 3332, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BUILDING FRIDAYs APRIL 26, 1963 at 1:30 P.M. COMMITTEE IN CHARGE Chairman:: F.H. Soward 1 J.E. Bier T . M . Lord A.J. Green R . F . Scagel W.S. Hoar w.B. Schofield V.J. Krajina T.M.C,*Taylbr External Examiner: R.F. Daubenmire Washington State University Pullman, Washington EDAPHIC ASPECTS OF AN ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE INTERIOR WESTERN HEMLOCK DRY SUBZONE . FORESTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ABSTRACT Edaphic information from 168 plots in the I n t e r i o r Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) Dry Subzone of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia was used to des-cribe s o i l s and to elucidate some relationships concern-ing s o i l s and soil-forming factors, and s o i l and vegeta-tion. Characteristics described from s o i l p i t s in each plot included thickness, depth and boundary of horizons, s o i l texture, structure, consistence and mottling. Colour and pH. were determined on 1,1,00 s o i l samples. In addi-t i o n , 450 samples from 70 selected p r o f i l e s were chosen for analysis of exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potas-sium, and sodium, adsorbed phosphate, t o t a l nitrogen, cation, exchange capacity, organic carbon and calcium car-bonate equivalence. Rock samples were collected and i d e n t i f i e d to aid i n the determination of the nature of the parent material. Seepage water from 40 plots was analysed for calcium, magnesium and potassium content, Observations on physiography, r e l i e f , exposure, elevation, slope,drainage and erosion were recorded for each plot. Ninety Colman Fiberglas units were established i n 1.5 plots to determine s o i l moisture and temperature trends. An estimation of b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y in 15 plots was made using the loss i n breaking strength of cotton duck as the c r i t e r i o n . Nineteen s o i l monoliths were prepared and over 70 colour photographs taken for i l l u s t r a t i v e and comparative purposes. Soil, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n generally followed current Canadian practices to the sub-group l e v e l . Further d i v i -sions, based mainly on moisture and surface s o i l condi-tions, were formed by prefixing terms to some of the sub-group names (e.g. Dry Orthic Brown Wooded, I Normal Minimal Podzol, Moist Orthic Podzol). Several p r o f i l e s placed in recognized sub-groups possessed characteristics unexpected for these sub-groups, suggesting that additions to the Canadian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be necessary to more accurately describe mountainous f»rest s o i l s . Of the 29 s o i l s distinguished, the Normal Orthic Podzol, Ortstein Podzol, and I Normal Minimal Podzol were considered as zonal s o i l s . These s o i l s were oligotrophic (base satura-tions of B generally less that 20 per cent), and were characterized by a f e l t y mor humus, conspicuous Ae, and a bright yellowish brown B, a l l of which reflected the dominant soil-forming process of.the area which is pod-z o l i z a t i o n . Departures from the zonal pattern, however, were numerous. Dry s o i l s tended to have a thin F-H layer and a t h i n , discontinuous or absent Ae. Seepage influences ranged from an increase of exchangeable bases and humus f r i a b i l i t y i n Moist Orthic and Minimal Podzols, to a build-up (over 30 cm) of organic material i n Shallow and Deep Mucks. So i l s such as the. Dry and Norma]. Orthic Brown Woodeds, characterized by the absence, of Ae and a base sa-turation generally over 50 per cent, were associated with parent materials r i c h i n calcium especially" i n dry topo-climates. Where, both calcareous parent material, and see-page combined, s o i l s most unlike the zonal were produced (e.g. Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol.) . Podzolization appeared to be impeded on steep slopes especially i n warm topoclimatic situat i o n s . I t reached i t s maximum (Ortstein Podzol) on neutral, or s l i g h t l y con-cave r e l i e f of gentle to moderate i n c l i n a t i o n , or on coarse, old, excessively drained alluvium or outwash. Bru n i s o l i c s o i l s seldom occurred on alluvium or outwash, while strongly podzolized s o i l s were, rare in areas under-l a i n by bedrock, of the Lardeau series, Sinemurian beds and Rossland formation, or the eastern portion of the Slocan group. Seepage from p i t s i n the v i c i n i t y of Lardeau and Slocan bedrock was higher i n calcium and magnesium than seepage from other locations. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences occurred between sites in estimated b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y . Moist and extrem-ely dry s i t e s showed high a c t i v i t y compared to intermedi-ate, well-drained sit e s with more, strongly podzolized s o i l s . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s by moisture supply (hygro-tope) and chemical characteristics (trophotope) was suggested, Associations and ecosystem types determined by an inde-pendent investigator from phytocoenotic and general environmental, data' corresponded f a i r l y closely to the na-ture of the s o i l . The correspondence was, however, less apparent i n moist than i n dry and wet s i t e s . i i Abstract Edaphic information from 168 plots in the Interior Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) Dry Subzone of southeastern British Columbia was used to describe soils and to elucidate some relationships con-cerning soils and soil-forming factors, and s o i l and vegetation. Character-i s t i c s described from s o i l pits in each plot included thickness, depth and boundary of horizons, s o i l texture, structure, consistence and mottling. Color and pH were determined on 1,100 s o i l samples. In addition, 450 samples from 70 selected profiles were chosen for analysis of exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, adsorbed phosphate, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and calcium carbonate equivalence. Rock samples were collected and identified to aid in the determination of the nature of the parent material. Seepage water from 40 plots was analysed for calcium, magnesium and potassium content. Observations on physiography, re-l i e f , exposure, elevation, slope, drainage and erosion were recorded for each plot. Ninety Colman Fiberglas units were established in 15 plots to deter-mine s o i l moisture and temperature trends. An estimation of biological activity in 15 plots was made using the loss in breaking strength of cotton duck as the criterion. Nineteen s o i l monoliths were prepared and over 70 color photographs taken for i l l u s t r a t i v e and comparative purposes. Soil classification generally followed current Canadian practices to the sub-group level. Certain profiles were found d i f f i c u l t to classify at the sub-group level. These, however, were placed in sub-groups resembling them most closely. Further subdivisions, based mainly on moisture and surface s o i l conditions and reflecting productivity, were formed by prefixing terms to some of the sub-group names (e.g. Dry Orthic Brown Wooded, I Normal Minimal Podzol, Moist Orthic Podzol). Of the 29 soils dis-tinguished, the Normal Orthic Podzol, Ortstein Podzol, and I Normal Minimal Podzol were considered to represent the zonal soils of the sub-zone. These soils were oligotrophic (base saturations of B generally less than 20 per cent), and were characterized by a felty mor humus, conspicuous Ae, and a bright yellowish brown B, a l l of which reflected the dominant soil-forming process of the area which is podzolization. Departures from the zonal pattern, however, were numerous. Dry soils tended to have a thin F-H layer and a thin, discontinuous or absent Ae, Seepage influences ranged from an increase of exchangeable bases and humus f r i a b i l i t y in Moist Orthic and Minimal Podzols, to a build-up (over 30 cm) of organic material in Shallow and Deep Mucks. Soils such as the Dry and Normal Orthic Brown Woodeds, characterized by the absence of Ae and a base saturation generally over 50 per cent, were associated with parent materials rich in calcium especially in dry topoclimates. Where both calcareous parent material and seepage combined, soils most unlike the zonal were produced (e.g. Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol). Podzolization was less effective on steep slopes especially in warm topoclimatic situations. It reached i t s maximum (Ortstein Podzol) on neutral or slightly concave r e l i e f of gentle to moderate inclination, or on coarse, old, excessively drained alluvium or outwash. Brunisolic soils seldom occurred on alluvium or outwash, while strongly podzolized soils were rare in areas underlain by bedrock of the Lardeau series, Sinemurian beds and Rossland formation, or the eastern portion of the Slocan group. Seepage from pits in the v i c i n i t y of Lardeau and Slocan bedrock was higher in calcium and magnesium than seepage from other locations. iv S t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences occurred between sites in estimated biological activity. Moist and extremely dry sites showed high activity compared to intermediate, well-drained sites with more strongly podzolized s o i l s . A classification of soils by moisture supply (hygrotope) and chemical characteristics (trophotope) was suggested. Associations and ecosytem types determined by an independent investi-gator from phytocoenotic and general environmental data corresponded f a i r l y closely to the nature of the s o i l . The correspondence was, however, less apparent in moist than in dry and wet sites. x i Acknowledgement The writer wishes to express his appreciation of the guidance of Dr. V.J. Krajina of the Department of Biology and Botany, U.B.C., and for his considerable expenditure of time especially during early f i e l d reconnaissance. The assistance and sustained interest of Dr. R.G. McMinn, Canada Department of Forestry, i s also gratefully acknowledged. Many persons gave freely of advice and f a c i l i t i e s , including: Dr. T.M.C. Taylor, Head of the Department of Biology and Botany, U.B.C.; Dr. C.A. Rowles, Head of the Department of S o i l Science, U.B.C.; Messrs. L. Farstad, T.M. Lord, A.J. Green, and Dr. J.S. Clark of the Canada Department of Agriculture; and personnel of the B.C. Forest Service and various companies i n the Nelson and Karaloops forest d i s t r i c t s . Special thanks are extended to Mr. R.W. Haigh for his fine assistance during the f i e l d seasons of 1959 and i960. Appreciation i s expressed for the capable laboratory assistance of Miss I.M. Stainer, Miss R. Shultz, and Mr. M. Davis. The project could not have been initiated without the support, through E.M.R. Grant 98, of the Entomology and Pathology Branch of the Canada Department of Forestry (formerly Agriculture). The writer i s also indebted to the National Research Council of Canada for financial assistance during the years 1958-1961. Finally, the writer expresses his gratitude to Mr. M.A.M. Bell for his valuable cooperation and pleasant association during the entire study, and to Mrs. R.B. Smith for efforts too numerous to mention. V Table of Contents Page Acknowledgement . x i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. BASES OF STUDY 3 Edaphic Factors i n Ecological Classification 3 Edaphic Factors i n Recent North American Forest Classifications . 10 III. AREA OF STUDY 15 Location and Physiography 15 Geology . . . . . . . . . . 17 Tree Species . . . . . . . 19 Climate . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Related Studies 22 I V . METHODS 24 Plot Location 24 S o i l Sampling and Description 25 Physiography, Erosion, Drainage and Ground Water . . . . 26 S o i l Moisture and Temperature 27 Root Distribution 29 Cellulose Decomposition 29 S o i l Monoliths 31 Photographs 31 So i l Sample Analysis 32 Calibration of Colman Moisture-Temperature Units . . . . 35 v i Table of Contents. Continued Page Wilting Percentage 36 Aerial Photographs . 37 Rock Identification . . . . . 37 Explanation of Terms Used i n S o i l Descriptions 37 V. RESULTS 42 S o i l Orders and Great Groups 42 S o i l Sub-groups and their Further Subdivision 44 Podzolic Soils 47 Brunisolic Soils . 51 Gleysolic Soils 57 Organic Soils 59 Regosolic Soils 61 Buried Profiles 62 Topographic Factors and Type of S o i l 63 S o i l Moisture and Temperature and Type of So i l 68 Bedrock, Parent Material and Type of S o i l 78 Organic Material and Type of So i l 83 Cellulose Decomposition . 83 Vegetation and Succession of Vegetation 92 VI. DISCUSSION 97 Application of the Classification of the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada . . . 97 S o i l Relationships with Reference to the Zonal Concept . 98 Factors Influencing Formation of the Soils 105 v i i Table of Contents. Continued Page The Soils i n Relation to Ecosystem Types . 1L4 Edaphic Factors i n the Ecological Classification . . . . 118 VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 122 Literature Cited 128 Appendices 136 A. Plot Information . 136 B. Field Descriptions (A) and Chemical Characteristics (B) of Profiles Chosen for Chemical Analysis . . . . L46 C. Abridged Descriptions of Profiles Not Chosen for Chemical Analysis other than pH 254 D. Synthesis of Colman Moisture-Temperature Data for May 11 to September 29, I960 289 E. A Comparison of Bedrock and Loose Rock from S o i l Pits . 293 F. Cold Mineral Spring near Kaslo (with one Figure) . . 298 G. S o i l Monoliths (with four Figures) 300 v i i i List of Tables Table Page 1. Classification of Soils Examined i n the Study Area 45 2. The Distribution of Soils by Class of Slope 66 3. The Distribution of Some Soils by Topoclimatic Class 67 4. Distribution of Plots by Elevation 69 5. Concentration of Calcium., Magnesium, and Potassium i n Ground Water . . 72 6. Topographic, S o i l Classification, and S o i l Moisture Data for Climatic Stations Listed from Dry to Wet (May 11 - Sept. 29, I960) . . 76 7. S o i l Classification and S o i l Temperature Data for Climatic Stations Listed from Warm to Cold (May 11 - Sept. 29, I960) . . 77 8. Distribution of Calcareous, Neutral, and Strongly Acid Soils on the Various Bedrock Types 80 9. Proportions of Parent Material Types Sampled 82 10. Distribution of Soils among Four Parent Materials 84. 11. Plot Information and Results of Laboratory Cellulose Decomposition Trials . . . . . . 85 12. Additional Cellulose Decomposition Plot Information 87 13. Results of Field Cellulose Decomposition Trials 88 14. A Comparison of Soils, Humus Type, and Cellulose Decomposition 90 15. A Comparison of Humus Chemical Characteristics and Cellulose Decomposition 91 16. Relation of Soils to Ecosystem Types 93 17. A Comparison of Stage, Stand Age and S o i l i n the Slope Normal Moss Ecosystem Type 96 18. Subdivision of Ecosystem Types on the Basis of S o i l Moisture and Nutrient Status 121 ix List of Illustrations Following Plate Figure page I. 1. Map of study area showing glaciers and 4,000-ft contour . . 15 II. 2. Three east-west cross sections of southeastern B.C. showing bioclimatic zones 17 III. 3. Mean monthly temperature, Kaslo, B.C. (Dsb) 18 4. Average monthly precipitation, New Denver, B.C. (Dfb) . . . 18 5. Average monthly precipitation, Kaslo, B.C. (Dsb) . . . . . 18 IV. 6. Glacial moraines and small outwash fans along Trout Lake . 19 7. Agricultural and forest land surrounding Burton on the narrows between Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes 19 V. 8. Map of study area with geological features 20 VI. 9. Recording Colman s o i l moisture-temperature readings . . . . 31 10. Preparing a s o i l monolith for removal from s o i l pit . . . . 31 VII. 11. Ortstein Podzol 47 12. Normal Orthic Podzol (outwash) 47 13. Normal Orthic Podzol (glacial t i l l ) 47 14. Moist Orthic Podzol 47 VIII. 15. Base saturation with depth of several soils 48 16. Diagram showing accumulation of organic matter i n upper B . 48 IX. 17. I Normal Minimal Podzol 50 18. II Normal Minimal Podzol 50 19. Moist Minimal Podzol 50 20. Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 50 X. 21. Base saturation of F-H horizons 52 XI. 22. Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 53 23. Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded 53 24. Normal Orthic Brown Wooded 53 X List of Illustrations. Continued Following Plate Figure page 25. Gleyed Brown Wooded 53 XII. 26. Base saturation of upper B horizons 56 XII(a) 26a. Concentration of exchangeable calcium i n upper B horizons 56 XII(b) 26b. Concentration of exchangeable magnesium in upper B horizons 56 XIl(c) 26c. Concentration of exchangeable potassium i n upper B horizons 56 1 XIIl. 27. Peaty Gleysol . 58 28. Peaty Meadow 58 29. Shallow Muck 58 30. Buried profile - DMR/OBW 58 XIV. 31. Concentration of exchangeable sodium i n F-H horizons . . . 60 XIV(a) 31a. Concentration of exchangeable calcium i n F-H horizons . . 60 XIV(b) 31b. Concentration of exchangeable magnesium in F-H, horizons . 60 XV. 32. Orthic Regosol 61 33. Mor Regosol 61 3U> Duff Mull Regosol 61 35. Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol 61 XVI. 36. Concentration of adsorbed phosphate i n F-H horizons . . . . 62 XVII. 37. Average depth and sequence of horizons of s o i l profiles . . 63 XVIII. 38. A comparison of ground-water levels 70 XLX. 39. Diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g the influence of soil-forming factors in producing the many zonal and non-zonal soils 100 4.0. Types of s o i l arranged by trophotope and hygrotope . . . . 119 XX. 41. A cold mineral spring near Kaslo showing brown limonite i n spillway 299 XXI. 42-45. S o i l monoliths 300 I. INTRODUCTION Studies i n forest pathology$, particularly those concerning pole blight of western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglo) led research officers of the Forest Biology laboratory of the Canada Department of Agriculture^, Victoria, B.C., to request an ecological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of white pine types of the interior of British Columbia. In 1958 such a study was initiated when the Department of Agriculture awarded Extra-Moral Research Grant 98 to Dr. V.J. Krajina of the University of Bri t i s h Columbia. Dr. Krajina i n turn obtained the services of Mr. M.AoM. Bell and the writer to carry out the project. The purpose of the study as a whole was to produce an ecological c l a s s i f i -cation of white pine types i n the Interior Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) Zone of British Columbia (Krajina, 1959)« Mr. Bell was to investigate vegetational and eeoclimatic factors, while the writer was to consider the edaphle aspects. Studies were restricted mainly to those areas i n which western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) occurred. Areas of greater precipitation (general-ly north of the study area) were avoided as these had been examined previously by Krajina (1953, 1954-, 1955). The study included a few stands lacking white pine, provided they were i n the general area of the Interior Western Hemlock Dry Subzone. The writer's problem was to explore the relationships between edaphic factors and forest types. Specifically, i t was to classify and describe the various soils i n the zone, to theorize on the relative influence of s o i l -forming factors on the development of the soi l s , and to relate these edaphic Now the Canada Department of Forestry, Entomology and Pathology Branch. -2-units to the vegetational types described by Mr. Bell. Field studies commenced i n late June, 1958, and continued during the summer months of 1958, 1959 and I960. Laboratory analyses of soils and syntheses of data began i n February, 1961, and were completed by the summer of 1962. -3= IIo BASES OF STUDY Edaphic Factors In Ecological Classification According to Park (1945), as early as 347-334 B.C., Aristotle i n "Historia Animalium" cla s s i f i e d animals i n part on an ecological basis of habitat. Undoubtedly, Aristotle wasn't the f i r s t to recognize such phenomena, but his thoughts were preserved i n his writings. Many persons between Aristotle's and Tansley's (1935) time must have conceived ideas on the intimate association of environmental factors i n the formation of specific habitats. Probably many ideas never were recordedj and many that were must have been destroyed. Those persons apt to observe the organization of nature, as the woodsman, the farmer, the hunter andP more recently, the prospector s would not often have recorded their observations. Thuss not generally u n t i l the advent of the great botanists of the 17xhs 18th and 19th centuries were observations care-f u l l y recorded. CarolusLinnaeus (1707-1778) was impressed with the influence of external environmental factors on size and geographical distribution of plants (Park, 1945)o Other botanists, as Humboldt (1769-1859) and A.P. de Candolle (1778=1841) were similarly interested (Oosting, 1956). H.C. Watson i n 1833 wrote on the relationship of plants to subjacent rocks (Gorham, 1954)° He liste d the main environmental factors i n decreasing order of importance as temperature, moisture, configuration of surface, mechanical and chemical properties of the surface s o i l , and mechanical and chemical properties of sub-jacent rockso More important, he stressed their combined influence. Watson ) differentiated between fl o r a and vegetation. He f e l t that while the flora was influenced by temperature, the vegetation (frequency and production of individual species) was influenced by the remaining factors. This was an early consideration of one of the main differences between the influence of the regional climate and of the edaphic complex — an extremely useful thesis today <> A large proportion of the class i c a l studies of Sendtner i n I854, and Kerner i n 1863 were devoted to plant-environment relationships (Braun-Blanquet, 1932)o The study of the interrelation of plants and their environment was recognized formally with the proposal of the term "oecology" (now "ecology") by E. Haeckel i n 1869» For many years, however, some of the most valuable con-tributions to the science of ecology were made by persons i n related discip-lines o Such were those of Dokuchaev, a Russian s o i l scientist of the late 19th century, who regarded the s o i l as a dynamic entity formed through the action of climate, parent material,, vegetation and r e l i e f (Joffe, 1936). His ideas on the genesis of soils were completely new. He worked on the extensive plains of Russia and thus became especially concerned with the influence of climate on s o i l development. He called soils "normal" i f they were not affected appreciably by other than climatic factors. Sibirtzev expanded the idea of the normal s o i l (which he called "zonal") and created the terms "azonal" for im-mature soils and "intrazonal" for soi l s i n which the climatic influence was dominated by r e l i e f , parent material or vegetation (United States S o i l Survey Staff, I960). This predilection for climatic control continued into the 20th century i n the classification work of Morozov i n Russia, and Cowles and Clements i n North America (Krajina, I960). Clements was especially i n f l u e n t i a l i n North America (Nichols, 1923; Cooper, 1926; Weaver and Clements, 1929; Shelford, 1932). At the same time i n Europe and Russia, increasing attention was paid to f l o r i s t i c and edaphic factors. Rowe (1956) cites the work of Pogrebnjak published i n 1927. Pogrebnjak represented the distribution of certain plants on a graph with s o i l f e r t i l i t y on one axis and moisture on the other. In -5-contrast, Cajander (1949) and his school, as early as 1909, classified forest cypes almost entirely on the basis of minor vegetation, bat major divisions based on moisture classes were made. Thus, Dry and Dryish Land forest classes were separated from the Moist Land forest class. Each of the classes was sub-divided into types. Somewhat of a compromise was provided by Braun-Blanquet (1932) who correctly and successfully employed the definition of association as suggested by Flahault and Schroter at the Third International Botanical Congress i n 1910. Through careful analysis of the vegetation and synthesis of f i e l d data, Braun-,Blanquet developed the idea of a definite f j o r i s t i c composition. While environmental factors were not ignored by him they were not important i n his association descriptions. His work with Jenny (Braun-Blanquet and Jenny, 1926), however, produced valuable information about the influence of vegetation on s o i l development i n the alpine zone. Krajina (1933) recognized the lack of environmental details i n Braun-Blanquet's associations and included such information i n his own descriptions. An opportunity for a unification of the divergent points of view came with the proposal of the holocene concept by Friederichs i n 1927 (Friederichs, 1958), and later the ecosystem concept of Tansley (1935)• Both concepts emphasized the interaction of animate and inanimate factors In the formation of a system that could be studied, described and distinguished from other systems. Since 1935, the term ecosystem has been favored i n the English-speaking world, though ecosystematic classification has been described as holocoenotic, thus combining the two concepts (Krajina, I960). Sukachev, a productive Russian phytosociologist, embraced the ecosystem concept readily. In 1947 he proposed the more definitive term "biogeocoenosis", made up of a biocoenosis composed of a phytocoenosis, a zoocoenosis, and a microbocoenosisj - 6 -and an ecotope composed of an edaphotope and a climatope (Sukachev, 195^, I960). Just as Friederich"s holoeene concept can be useful i n conjunction with the ecosystem concept^, so can the terminology of Sukachev be incorporated usefully-Throughout the history of the cla s s i f i c a t i o n of vegetation, the influence of s o i l scientists has been considerable. Their investigations into the role of organic and inorganic factors i n s o i l formation i s a f r u i t f u l source of information for the plant ecologist. As the writer i s concerned i n this study with edaphic considerations, i t i s appropriate to discuss briefly some studies which consider the parallelism of s o i l and vegetation development. The expression of s o i l as a function of various factors of the environment has aided greatly i n the study of s o i l formation. One of the earliest of such expressions probably was formulated by Dokuchaev (Crccker, 1952) i n the equation: S o i l = f (climate, subsoil, organisms, age) While Dokuchaev considered r e l i e f as a soil-forming factor, he apparently did not include i t i n the above equation. Shaw (1930) added erosion and deposition and expressed the interaction i n the formula 2? S = M (C + V) T + D Jenny (1941) added topography as a separate factor and suggested the following formula: S = f ( c l , p, r, o, t) The formula implied that s o i l was a function of c l (air climate), p (parent material from which the s o i l originated), r (topography or r e l i e f , referring to slope, exposure and certain ground water conditions), o (biota or organisms), and t (duration of s o i l formation or time). Parallelism of s o i l and vegetation development was indicated by Tuxen about 1931 (Major, 1951)- He expressed vegetation as a function of climate, S = So i l ; M = Parent Material; G = Climate; V = Vegetation; T = Time; D = Erosion and Deposition. s o i l and man. Major (1951) f e l t that mathematically Tuxen's formula was not correct, as s o i l was considered an independent factor while i n practice i t i s decidedly a dependent factor. He then suggested that vegetation, as well as s o i l , was a function of the five soil-forming factors; V = f ( c l , p, r, o, t) In this equation, V represented any property of vegetation or of a plant community that could be expressed i n quantitative terms such as weight per unit area„ The biological productivity of any ecosystem was thus considered a function of the well known soil-forming factors, and vegetation and s o i l as dependent factors varying with changes in any one of the five independent factors. Assuming that the three major components of a forest ecosystem are the s o i l (edaphotope), the vegetation (phytocoenosis) and the ecoclimate (climatope), the writer suggests that the ecoclimate (as opposed to regional climate) i s also a dependent factor and a function of climate, parent material, r e l i e f , organisms and time» The properties of s o i l , vegetation, or ecoclimate thus characterize the ecosystem and any one of the three can be used i n ecosystem classification. Unfortunately, because of the d i f f i c u l t y or impossibility of obtaining some information, data pertaining to one component must be supple-mented with data from one or both of the other components. For example, the paucity of literature on the ecoclimate reveals a severe lack of knowledge i n that area. Furthermore, the cla s s i f i c a t i o n of ecosystems i s not an end i n i t s e l f . The ultimate u t i l i z a t i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must be considered at a l l times. The description must be such that the unit may be readily recognized with a minimum of Investigation by workers i n the f i e l d . Considering the three major components, i t i s obvious that the greatest ease of recognition would be provided by a description based on vegetation alone, and the least from one -8-based on ecoclimate alone„ Instruments are definitely required for recognition of ecoclimatic characteristics. Digging is necessary for recognition of even the most rudimentary s o i l features, and laboratory analyses for detailed characteristics. In contrast, i t i s possible that only a knowledge of the identification of plants i s needed to identify ecosystems described by their phytocoenoses. The phytocoenosis i t s e l f , however, i s inadequate i n many situations to f u l l y describe the ecosystem. Two situations important i n British Columbia may be cited. F i r s t l y , as Mueller-Dombois (1959) has shown, the phytocoenosis is a relatively poor indicator under disturbed conditions caused by f i r e and logging because of the introduction of weed vegetation and the suppression of the original vegetation. Secondly, the minor vegetation component of the phytocoenosis i s practically non-existent i n certain immature forest stands (McMinn, 1960s29)° Excessive shading and lack of moisture have been suggested as causes of the latter condition (Craib, 1929; Shirley, 1943)« In both examples the edaphotope must be relied upon to a great extent for recognition of the ecosystems. It i s very important to relate, i n a successional series, ecosystems with disturbed phytocoenoses to other ecosystems of relatively similar edaphotopes but with undisturbed phytocoenoses. Studies must therefore be carried out within forest stands of a l l successional stages (secondary and primary) and conditions i n order to assess the influence of succession on each of the major ecosystem components. Considering the limitations inherent i n using only one component i n the study and description of ecosystems, the scheme of ecosystem cla s s i f i c a t i o n used by Krajina (I960) and his students has been favored. Here, the associa-tion concept of Braun-Blanquet (1932), with some modification, is incorporated as the phytocoenosis into a biogeocoenosis as described by Sukachev. Several guides are proposed to be used i n determining the relative weight given to each component of the ecosystems l o The researcher should consider a l l elements of the ecosystem within his intellectual range° Ideally, a team (of workerss including a botanist, a pedologist, a climatologist, a zoologist and a microbiologist, a l l ecologically inclined, should cooperate i n any study of forest ecosystems» 2. The researcher should emphasize those elements which are important as indicators, relatively simple to measure and describe, and which can be readily applied by those u t i l i z i n g the classification. 3° Where the allotted time, finances and object of the study permit, the researcher should investigate the independent factors of climate, r e l i e f , parent material;, and time to i l l u s t r a t e their interaction and influence i n producing the many s o i l and vegetation complexes. , The d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n the third proposal are many. It i s possible, however, that i n restricted l o c a l i t i e s , as both Jenny (1941) and Major (1951) point out s a change i n one of the independent factors may produce a predictable change i n the vegetation or s o i l . Such may occur when the remaining factors are r e l a t i v e l y constant. This condition might obtain on a plains area where only the a i r climate (macroclimate) changes appreciably as one moves along a north to south transect, and the direct influence of climate on the s o i l and vegeta-tion could be studied. For such an area the various ecosystems might be dis-tinguished on the basis of climate alone. Similar situations would not be expected i n the mountainous study area. Rather, at least two factors would be expected to vary appreciably as one moved from one point to another. The strongest relationships should, however, s t i l l be identifiable, and with the subsequent correlation of types of s o i l with the plant groupings established by Mr. Bell, the writer's colleague, i t should be possible to extend these relationships to vegetation. -10= Edaphic Factors i n Recent North American Forest Classifications Studies i n North American forest cl a s s i f i c a t i o n have bean divergent as widely In object and method as those reviewed previously <> The following examples, separated into s o i l - s i t e studies and general ecological studies, serve to i l l u s t r a t e this, divergency. Soil-Site Studies A study which might be considered the basis of many later s o i l - s i t e studies was carried out by Coile (1935) who combined the amount of the finer fraction of the subsoil and the thickness of the surface s o i l into a texture-depth index. This index was related to the site index of shortleaf pine (Pinus  echinata Mill.) i n soatheastern United States, but was restricted i n use generally to those soils having a light-textured surface and a heavy-textured subsoil. H i l l , Arnst and Bond (1948) were successful i n developing a similar index for the correlation of edaphic factors with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga  menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) site quality i n northwestern United States by incor-porating surface s o i l texture, effective s o i l depth, and type of bedrock into an index. In the same region, a simpler relation was proposed by Tarrant (1950) who classified areas as concave upwards and convex upwards. This division, along with mapped s o i l units, gave a good indication of Douglas-fir site quality. Trimble and Wietzman (195&) found that the productivity of most up-land forest areas of the northern Appalachians could be estimated from information on the aspect of the site, position of site on slope, grade of slope at s i t e , and total s o i l depth to bedrock. The impossibility of using height-age relationships i n dense lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. l a t i f o l i a Engelm.) led Smithers (1956) in cooperation with W.G.E. Brown to describe these stands on the basis of edaphic features. Smithers designated levels of productivity on the basis of s o i l moisture, permeability, origin, -11-depth and stoniness of s o i l s and position on slope. In order to classify burned-over or cut-over western white pine sites by site quality, Copeland (1956, 1958) offered four s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant regressions i l l u s t r a t i n g the correlation of site index with effective s o i l depth, depth to zone of reduced permeability, and available water-holding capacity of the effective depth within the top three feet of s o i l . Regression analysis was also used by Zahner (1958) to relate s o i l and topographic features to site quality. Loblolly (Pinus taeda Lo) and shortleaf pine site index was found to vary significantly with thickness of s o i l , clay content, and degree of slope of up-land s o i l s , and with texture of the surface s o i l of immature s o i l s . A relative-ly simple site-prediction system was devised by Strothmann (I960) for aspen (Populus tremuloides Miehx.) lands i n northern Minnesota, which combined many of the physical properties mentioned above and i n addition included depth to water table ( i f within 60 inches of the surface) and pH. Other than pHs s o i l chemical characteristics are relatively d i f f i c u l t to measure and so have been used sparingly i n most forest s o i l - s i t e studies i n North America. One exception was the study by Voigt, Heinselman, and Zasada (1957) who investigated the supply of exchangeable nutrients and their influence on aspen yields i n Minnesota. Direct estimation of the site index of Douglas-fir, western hemlock and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) from ae r i a l photographs on the basis of topographic features, was reported by Bajak (i960). A correlation between forest growth and type of parent material was noted by Warren and Matheson (194-9) on Graham Island off the coast of British Columbia, They found that iihe boundaries of site-quality classes, as determined independently by foresters, coincided closely with the boundaries of different bedrock types. Correlations between site quality or site index and edaphic factors thus -32-have been made using one or more factors. Generally, the fewer the factors considered, the more the correlation w i l l be limited to the confines of the study area. Studies based on a large number of factoi-s, however, may prove un-wieldy i n application. Soil-site studies serve to indicate site quality where site index can not be estimated by the usual height-age procedure. This i s especially important i n burned-over and cut-over areas, i n greatly overstocked or understocked stands, i n diseased stands, and i n cases of afforestation. They also increase our knowledge of the factors which underlie differences i n site quality. Finally, their use can provide a better estimation of site quality throughout the l i f e of a forest stand. In this regard, Carmean (195°) found that Douglas-f i r i n northwestern United States growing on gravels and sands, and on s o i l s with imperfect internal drainage had a markedly different shape of site curve than the standard. He suggested that the standard curves were based on stands that were growing mainly on soils of intermediate texture and drainage causing these site curves to be shaped differently. Recently, Zahner (1962) derived significantly different loblolly pine site curves for three groups of soils i n southeastern United States. General Ecological Classifications Laying particular stress on minor vegetation were the studies of Heimburger (1934, 1941)° The later study i n eastern Canada incorporated, however, con-siderable data on s o i l physical and chemical characteristics. Spilsbury and Smith (1947) published comparable studies for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Others i n Canada who have used vegetation as a main criterion include Cormack (1953, 1956) i n studies of forest succession i n the eastern Rocky Mountains of Alberta5 Linteau (I960) and Lafond (i960) in the descriptions of forest types of Quebec; and MacLean (I960) i n discussing the development of the -13-Aspen-Birch-Spruee-Fir type i n Ontario. Studies i n which the bases of classification are the more permanent features (physiography and r e l i e f ) rather1 than vegetation, received much stimu-lus from the discussion by Coile (1938). With the recent great interest i n ae r i a l photographs as a source of site formation, the use of physiography as a reference point i n classification has become more common. Early work in Canada included especially the studies by Losee (194-2) who found aerial photographs at a scale of 1,200 feet per inch good for the identification of both topographic and vegetational units. H i l l s (1950) advocated the mapping of sites within areas of uniform regional climate by local landform and by moisture and permea-b i l i t y pattern. His approach later became more h o l i s t i c with the additition of nutrient considerations and greater stress on ground vegetation and vegeta-tional succession ( H i l l s ? 1953). Recently he has described the physiographic site types of Ontario which w i l l serve as the framework for s o i l and productivity classes (Hills,, 1960as b). Techniques for mapping H i l l s " basic units from aer i a l photographs have been developed by Burger (1957). A classification to be used with physiographic site mapping was proposed by Rowe (1956) who combined s o i l moisture and vegetation structure i n a vegetation-moisture index. This resulted i n divisions such as the "dry, low grass and herb type" and the "wet, herb-moss type". A combination of phytosociological and environmental data has been used extensively by Krajina (1953, 1954-, 1955, I960) and his students to classify the forests of B r i t i s h Columbia. The basis of the studies i s the association which i s defined by Krajina (I960) as follows? "A plant (forest) association is a definite uniform (homogeneous) phytocoenosis that is i n dynamic equilibrium with a certain complex of environmental factors (ecotope); i t s f l o r i s t i c structure — i.e., st r a t i f i c a t i o n (layering), species significance (ArtmSchtigkeit, or abundance and dominance), sociability, constancy, f i d e l i t y , and vigor of the component species — l i e s within limits governed not only by the ecotope (climate, s o i l , substratum, topography, and biotic - u -environmental f a c t o r s ) , but also by the h i s t o r i c a l factors of the vegetational development (the fourth dimension or space-time f a c t o r ) . " Studies carried out within the framework of bioclimatic zones (Krajina, 1 9 5 9 ) include: Brayshaw ( 1 9 5 5 ) and Ogilvie ( 1 9 5 3 , 1 9 5 5 ) i n the Pondercsa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) Zone; McMinn ( I 9 6 0 ) i n v i r g i n stands, and Mueller-Donbois ( 1 9 5 9 ) on cut-over lands o f the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone; Orloci ( 1 9 6 1 ) and Lesko ( 1 9 6 1 ) i n the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. The "team" approach as i n the case of Orl o c i and Lesko, concerned with vegetational and s o i l factors respectively, was very successful as each dealt more thoroughly with his p a r t i c u l a r aspect than would have been possible had either developed the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n alone. Other workers who have used a combination of vegetational, edaphic and clim a t i c factors i n t h e i r studies include Daubenmire ( 1 9 5 2 ) i n northern Idaho and northeastern Washington, Tisdale and McLean ( 1 9 5 7 ) i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas-f i r Zone of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Martin ( 1 9 5 6 ) on burned-over land i n south-western Nova Scotia. As indicated by the Symposium on Forest Types and Forest Ecosystems which was held during the Ninth International Botanical Congress, the concept of the ecosystem as a forest c l a s s i f i c a t i o n unit has become generally accepted (Rowe et a l . , I 9 6 0 ) . The methods used to arrive at the u n i t s , however, d i f f e r greatly, and probably w i l l continue to d i f f e r while there i s more than one investigator or more than one study area. Provided the end products are s i m i l a r , such differences of approach should cause no consternation. I t i s only when the differences cause duplication of e f f o r t (more than one inves-t i g a t o r Y i r o r k i n g on c l a s s i f i c p t i o n of the same area) that a systematic order of investigation must be evolved and agreed to by the investigators concerned. - 15 -III. AREA OF STUDY Location and Physiography The study area includes most of the drier subzone of the Interior Western Hemlock Zone of British Columbia (Krajina, 1959). The wetter subzone l i e s generally north of this area and includes Revelstoke and what i s commonly referred to as the Big Bend Region of the Columbia River Valley. The area l i e s i n the southern half of two mountain ranges. The Monashee Range occurs i n the western and the Selkirk Range i n the eastern portion of the area. Farther west,, out of the study area, i s the Interior Plateau, and farther east the Purcell Range (Fig. 8). The western slopes of the Monashee Range included i n the study are drained by the Shuswap River of the Fraser River drainage system. The remainder and major portion of the area i s drained by the Columbia River system. Both the wet and dry subzones of the Western Hemlock Zone were included i n the Interior Wet Belt by Whitford and Craig (1918). The dry subzone (study area) coincides i n part with their Douglas f i r - larch type and i n part with their western red cedar - western hemlock type. Whitford and Craig's designa-tion of a portion of the study area as Douglas f i r - l a r c h i s not surprising as these two species make up a large part of the second-growth stands on low-elevation, burned-over areas. Even i n these areas, however, the climatic-climax tree species remains western hemlock. The study area i s included within Rowe's (1959) Southern Section of the Columbia Forest Region. Several areas encompassed by the Southern Section have not been sampled in this study. These include the Kettle River drainage, an area east of the Rocky Mountain Trench, and a portion south of Quesnel Lake. A reconnaissance of the Kettle River Valley indicates a drier climate than Plate T ^ to follow page 15 Fig . 1. M a p of study a re a showing glaciers and 4000 ft. contour. - 1 6 -that of the major portion of the study area. Douglas-fir and larch predominates in mature stands while western hemlock i s uncommon. This indicates a Douglas-f i r Zone, at least at the lower elevations, which grades almost directly into a Subalpine Zone. The lack of a very extensive or definite Western Hemlock Zone between the Douglas-fir Zone and the Subalpine Zone is characteristic of much of the drier portions of southern British Columbia. The relationship of other bioclimatic zones to the Interior Western Hemlock Zone may become clearer i f reference i s made to three cross sections of southeastern British Columbia (Fig. 2 ) . Plots used i n the study were located within an area of over 5 , 0 0 0 square miles, but as they were located below 4s>000 feet, they represent a much smaller area (Fig. 1 ) . Four thousand feet was used as the approximate altitude dividing the Subalpine Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry) - Subalpine F i r (Abies lasioearpa (Hook.) Nutt.) Zone from the Interior Western Hemlock Zone. While a transition occurs between the two zones, differences i n color and texture of the component species result i n a seemingly sharp boundary when viewed from a distance. The altitude of the boundary varies considerably as a result of differences i n both the regional climate and the ecoclimate as well as i n edaphic factors. There was no attempt i n this study to map the boundary. Large lakes are generally finger-like and oriented i n a north to south direction. Within the Monashee range are Sugar, Mabel, and Shuswap Lakes. The Arrow Lakes and the Columbia River divide the Monashee from the Selkirks, while the Duncan River and Duncan and Kootenay Lakes separate the Selkirks and the Purcells. Slocan Lake is located i n the middle of the Selkirks. Elevations range from about 1,4.00 feet i n the main valleys to approxi-mately 1 0 , 0 0 0 feet on summits of both the Monashee and Selkirk Ranges. The north to south trend of the main valleys i s broken by a deep valley Plate II I Q P O O i 5POO No ZONE " 9 ° 1 PON DEROSA PINE 2 DOUGLAS - FIR 3 WESTERN HEMLOCK 4 SUBALPINE FIR - SUBALPINE 5 ALPINE Horizontal scale 4 16 MILES SPRUCE F i q 2. Three east-west c ross sect ions of southeastern B C showing b i o c l i m a t i c zones O H J O l-J 1—1 O Si V rm CD t—1 ON \l -17= extending from Nakusp to the north end of Slocan Lake, and by one i n which the west arm of Kootenay Lake occurs. Geology Pleistocene glaciation has influenced a l l of the study area. Thickness of the ice sheet probably reached 7,500 to 8,000 feet (Jones, 1959; Fyles and Eastwood, 1962)<. Typical U-shaped valleys are the result, and glac i a l d r i f t of greatly varying texture and thickness i s widespread (Fig. 6). Recent a l l u v i a l and glaeiofluvial fans, plains and terraces provide con-trast to the general cover of gl a c i a l t i l l . These former areas are important, especially at low elevations, for both agriculture and forestry (Fig. 7). Slides and rock-outcrops are non-glacial features which provide unusual sites for vegetation. The more spectacular and commonly-known features of alpine glaciers, such as cirques, aretes and glaciers themselves, are restricted to elevations above the study area. The complexity of the bedrock geology of the study area has compelled the writer to forego attempting a detailed presentation of the hist o r i c a l sequence of events. Instead, the bedrock types which underlie s o i l pits w i l l merely be outlined and grouped by their approximate age. The information has been taken from numerous publications and maps including: Jones (1959); L i t t l e (1957, I960); Fyles and Eastwood (1962); Rice (1941); Reesor (1957); Cairnes (1929, 1932); Bancroft, Walker and Gunning (1929); McConnell and Brock (1904). The oldest rocks i n the area are those of the Precambrian Shuswap terrane (Jones, 1959)• Within this, the Monashee group, made up of granitoid gneiss, mica-sillimanite-garnet schist, quartzite, hornblende gneiss, limestone, marble, dolomite, slate and phyllite, i s most important to this study. Plots associated with the Monashee group include those at Mabel Lake, Sugar Lake, and Malakwa. Two plots near Sicamous l i e on the younger Mara formation made up of a r g i l l i t e , -18-slate, sericite schist, chlorite schist, and limestone. A major, early Paleozoic (pre-Mississippian) representative i s the Lardeau series present mainly in the northeastern portion of the study area. Found within this series are gray and argillaceous quartzite, green and black phyllite, black carbonaceous a r g i l l i t e , quartz-muscovite schist, biotite schist, crystalline limestone, and dolomite. Plots influenced by this series include ones at Trout Lake and along the Gerrard - Kaslo road. Early Mesozoic rocks include the Milford group (slate, limestone, chert and minor volcanic rocks), and the Kaslo series (andesitic volcanic rocks). Both underlie plots near the town of Kaslo. The Slocan series (Triassic), containing slate, a r g i l l i t e , quartzite, limestone, conglomerate and tuff, i s very extensive. It occurs as a large body between Kootenay and Slocan Lakes and between Slocan and Upper Arrow Lakes. Gairnes (1932) states that the trend is from chiefly massive a r g i l l a -ceous and quartzitic beds in the west, to mainly f i s s i l e , slaty beds associated with conspicuous limestone members in the east. Plots overlying the Slocan series include those at Keen Creek, Sandon, Summit Lake, Slewiskin Creek, Wilson Creek, and many i n the v i c i n i t y of Nakusp. Plots i n the Erie Creek Valley rest either on Lower Jurassic Sinemurian beds of a r g i l l i t e , argillaceous quartzite, slate, minor flows, and pyroclastic rocks; or, on the Rossland formation of the same age, composed of andesite, l a t i t e , basalt, flow breccia, augite porphyry, aggolmerate, tuff, and minor shale. Three intrusive (late Mesozoic) bodies upon which plots were located are the Nelson batholoth ( L i t t l e , I960), the Kuskanax batholith (Cairnes, 1932), and the Coast intrusions (Jones, 1959). The Nelson batholith, made up chiefly of porphyritic granite and less of non-porphyritic granite or granodiorite, underlies a large scattering of plots. Included are those at Duhamel Creek, Plate III to follow page 18 J Fig 3 Mean monthly temperature, Kaslo, B. C.(Dsb) F i g 4 Average monthly precipitation Fig 5. Average monthly precipitat ion New Denver, B C (Dfb) Kaslo, B C (Dsb) \ - 1 9 -Burton, Caribou Creek, and Hasty Creek (near Silverton). The Kuskanax batho-l i t h , composed chiefly of an acid granite, affects the soils near Nakusp, Wilson Lake, and between Box and Summit Lakeso The Kuskanax Creek fan deposits are made up of a high proportion of material from this source <> The Coast intrusions (granite, granodiorite and a l l i e d rocks) are important i n the Whatshan Lake area where several plots were established. The influence of many important bedrock groups on which no plots were located can not be considered. Future s o i l studies might be concentrated on some of these, including; the Paleozoic Cache Creek group,' the Mesozoic Hall formation, Ymir group, unnamed gneiss, and Valhalla plutonlcs; and, the Tertiary Coryell plutonics and Kamloops group (Fig.. 8 ) . Tree Species A f u l l description of the vegetation of the study area i s given by Bell (1962); therefore, discussion here i s restricted to a brief outline of the important tree species. The climatic-climax species i s western hemlock. This species and western red cedar, an edaphic-climax species, make up a large proportion of the mature and overmature stands. In southern portions of the zone, grand f i r (Abies  grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.) appears sporadically as an edaphic-climax tree. On extremely dry soils on exposed ridges, Douglas-fir can regenerate under i t s own shade and so might also be considered an edaphic-climax species i n these situations. Even ponderosa pine may be found on extremely dry, south-facing slopes. Douglas-fir, western white pine, and western larch are common on recent-ly burned-over areas. Large areas were burned during the years from about I860 to 1900, and second-growth stands 60 to 110 years old are therefore common. Fires occurred both before and after that period but apparently not to as great an extent. P l a t e I V to follow page 19 F i g . 6. G l a c i a l m o r a i n e s a n d s m a l l o u t w a s h f a n s a l o n g T r o u t L a k e . F i g . 7. A g r i c u l t u r a l a n d f o r e s t l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g B u r t o n o n t h e n a r r o w s b e t w e e n U p p e r a n d L o w e r A r r o w L a k e s . -20-Comparisons between the composition of young and old stands permit one to suggest successional changes in composition. Ker (195V) reported that Douglas-f i r , western white pine, and western larch comprised only 12 per cent of the mature and overmature stand volume, while comprising 64 per cent of stands 60 years old. He showed that i n 140-year-old stands the proportion of these species had decreased to 48 per cento At the same time, the t o t a l for western hemlock and western red cedar increased from 18 per cent i n 60-year-old stands to 39 per cent i n L40-year-old stands. The writer observed these strong successional trends while working i n the area prior to the present study. Analysis of the basal area by species of a large number of plots indicated that the percentage composition of white pine began to decline at a stand age of about 75 years, that of western larch at about 100 years, and that of Douglas-fir at about 110 years. The decline of white pine is obviously hastened by the presence of bl i s t e r rust (Cronartium  rib i c o l a Fischer) and pole blight. Species which occur as minor, though often locally important, constituents i n second-growth stands are lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) western paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), trembling aspen, cottonwood (Populus  trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) and several willows (Salix spp.). Engelmann spruce occurs especially on a l l u v i a l habitats and also at elevations approaching the Subalpine Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zone. Subalpine f i r i t s e l f may be found scattered throughout the area, especially on a l l u v i a l habitats. In a l l cases i t shows relatively poor growth. Climate The regional climate is conveniently described with reference to Koppens system of classification^. Krajina (1959) included the whole study area under 3 D = cold'Snowy forest climates with an average temperature of the coldest month below 26.6° F, and an average temperature of the warmest month above 50° Fj P l a t e V to follow page 20 Monashee group Mara formation Lardeau series Cache Creek group Mllford group Kaslo series Slocan group Unnomed gneiss Ymlr group Coast intrusions 116 i Coryell intrusions 117 i Kamloops group 118 Fig 8 Map of study area with geological features -21-Dfb and the wettest Dsb. Chapman (1952) included both Mabel and Sugar Lakes within the Dfc climate. This may be the result of a lack of climatic informa-tion from these two areas, for the vegetation around the two lakes does not indicate a cooler summer than the remainder of the study area. Chapman des-cribed as Dsb the area surrounding Kootenay Lake, the Lardeau Valley, and the area from a point about ten miles north of Slocan City, south along the Slocan and Columbia Rivers to the International Boundary (Plate III). The high t o t a l precipitation of the Western Hemlock Zone (22-45 inches) compared with areas west (Okanagan Valley) and east (Rocky Mountain Trench), results from a forcing upwards of eastward-moving a i r by the Monashee and Selkirk Mountains. A considerable proportion of the precipitation i s i n the form of snow. Most weather stations i n the dry subzone record an average annual snowfall of from 60 to 100 inches. In comparison, Revelstoke i n the wet sub-zone receives nearly 150 inches of snow annually. Annual average temperatures do not vary greatly throughout the region, the most common being from 44° F to 46° F. Revelstoke, rnorth of the study area, has an annual average of 43° F, while South Slocan, i n the southern portion of the area and at about the same elevation, has an annual average of 46° F. Differences i n temperature, t o t a l precipitation, and snowfall between northeastern and southeastern areas of the Western Hemlock Zone appear s u f f i -cient to j u s t i f y i t s subdivision into wet and dry subzones. f = those areas without any distinct dry season (driest month of the summer more than 1.2 inches),* s = those areas with at least three times as much precipitation i n the wettest winter month as i n the driest summer month. The latter i n addition receives less than 1.2 inches; b = areas with cool summers with the average temperature of the warmest month less than 71.6° F; c = areas where less than four months of the summer have an average tempera-ture over 50° F. -22-Related Studies Ecological studies by Krajina (1953, 1954, 1955), tinder Extra-Mural Research Grant 43 of the Canada Department of Agriculture, i n the Interior Western Hemlock Wet Subzone, include material relevant to the present study. Krajina described six forest associations ranging from a dry rock outcrop type to a very wet depressional type. In addition, one association on recent a l l u v i a l material was described. The climatic-climax s o i l , described as a deep podzol, was found i n the Tsuga heterophylla - Pachistima myrsinites -Calliergonella schreberi association. In drier situations shallow dark gray podzolized soils were found, while i n wetter habitats there were podzolized beta-gley, podzolized rendzina, and alpha-gley s o i l s ^ . An ecological study (McLean and Holland, 1958), and two s o i l surveys (Kelley and Sprout, 1956; Kelley and Holland, 1961) have supplied information on the region to the east of the study area. Generally, the area east i s climatically drier and i s underlain by bedrock much more calcareous than the study area. Both Dark Brown (chernozemic) and Gray Wooded so i l s , not encoun-tered i n the Interior Western Hemlock Dry Subzone, are found commonly i n the Rocky Mountain Trench. Free calcium carbonate close to the surface, while found i n many of the soils of the East Kootenays, i s a rar i t y i n the present study. Only at the northern portion of the East Kootenay study (north of Donald), and only at relatively high elevations were podzols encountered (McLean and Holland, 1958). In comparison, podzols are the most common s o i l group i n the Western Hemlock Dry Subzone. Interestingly, as early as 1914, the differences between the f l o r a of the Selkirks and the Rocky Mountains to the east was attributed mainly to varia-tions i n chemical characteristics of the parent material (Butters, 19L0» For a description of gley s o i l s , see Wilde (1958: 163). -23-Butters showed large differences i n the vegetation of two adjacent moraines. The f i r s t , comparable to Rocky Mountain situations, was composed largely of crystalline limestone and dolomite. The second, comparable to Selkirk moraines, was composed of granite, mica schist, and only small portions of limestone. In addition to minor vegetation differences, western hemlock was extremely rare on the limestone moraine but was plent i f u l and thriving on other less calcareous moraines. A s o i l survey of mainly agricultural lands west of the study area i n the Okanagan Valley (Kelley and Spilsbury, 1949) indicated a preponderance of Brown, Dark Brown and Black (chernozemic) soi l s with free lime; however, where the survey approached the Western Hemlock Zone (Cherryville, Mabel Lake, Trinity Valley and Salmon Arm) Intermountain Podzols were found f a i r l y commonly. Daubenmire (1952) described climax associations of several zones i n north-ern Idaho and northeastern Washington. It is d i f f i c u l t to compare the four associations of DaubenmireJs Western Hemlock - Western Red Cedar Zbne with those i n the study area because of the much greater role of grand f i r i n Idaho and Washington, and i t s generally warmer climate. However, Daubenmire's Thuja  plicata - Tsuga/Pachistima myrsinites association probably resembles the climatic-climax association i n the study area except that western'red cedar is not here a climatic-climax tree. Also, on Duff Mull Regosol soils i n the study area, there occurs an association which undoubtedly i s similar to Daubenmire's Thuja plicata - Tsuga/Oplopanax horridum association. Other than general observations (Rowles, 1949; Farstad, Laird and Rowles, 1956), no detailed s o i l study has been undertaken within the forests of the Interior Western Hemlock Dry Subzone prior to this investigation. -24-IV. METHODS Plot Location Preliminary location of study areas was accomplished with the assistance of Dr. V.J. Krajina and Dr. R.G. McMinn5. Dr. Krajina was familiar with the range of site that might be expected i n the Dry Subzone and thus contributed much to obtaining a balanced selection of study locations. Dr. McMinn's know-ledge of the area, especially his familiarity with the various access roads, enabled a good coverage of the area. The study locations were selected almost s o l e l y on the b a s i s of their phytocoenoses. The object was to obtain study locations representing the complete range of phytocoenoses occurring i n each river valley or other physio-graphic unit v i s i t e d . Two hundred preliminary study locations were established during June and July, 1958, i n the manner stated. Nine additional locations were found i n the subsequent two years. After the preliminary location, plots of a definite size were established. This enabled the expression of f l o r i s t i c and mensurational data on an area basis. The sole object of the f i n a l plot location was to enclose as uniform an association of plants as possible. In general, the plots were rectangular ( 2 x 1 chains). Occasionally the shape was altered to afford a more uniform phytocoenosis. Corners were established with a hand compass and tape. Slope corrections were made when necessary. Two-by-two-inch cedar posts were driven i n at each corner, and boundaries were marked with light string. Research Officer, Canada Department of Forestry, Entomology and Pathology Laboratory, Victoria, B.C. -25-An additional stake was driven into the ground close by the nearest road to each plot to serveasaToad marker. The direction and distance to each plot was scribed on the markers. Soi l Sampling and Description S o i l pits were the main basis of the s o i l sampling and f i e l d description of soilso The pits, one i n each plot, were dug within the plot boundaries or occasionally just outside where disturbance to the plant cover within the plots was to be minimized. This was done only when similar vegetation extended beyond the plot boundaries. Considerable time was spent searching for a pit location of representative f l o r i s t i c composition for the plot. It was found useful to l i s t the minor vegetation i n the v i c i n i t y of a proposed site and to compare this l i s t with the f l o r i s t i c data collected by Mr. Bell, who was usually working i n the same plot. Mounds caused by overturned tree roots and concentrations of rotten wood, truncated profiles, and surface deposits caused by local erosion were avoided. Occasionally one of these conditions was general over the whole plot and the pit was dug and described regardless of the inclusion of such features. After the pit was dug, a check of surface horizons was made to determine whether these horizons had the same characteristics throughout the plot. Notes were made on any differences found. Each pit was dug large enough to f a c i l i t a t e the collection of samples. The depth depended on s o i l conditions. Digging was terminated after reaching bedrock, or soon after reaching relatively unweathered and unconsolidated parent material, the lower limit of rooting, extreme compaction or ortstein, water, or large boulders. Horizons and their subdivisions were marked out on the profile and described mainly according to the United States S o i l Survey Staff (1951). Characteristics described included thickness, depth, boundary, texture (by hand), structures, consistence, and mottles. The horizon nomenclature was revised l a t e r to coincide with that proposed by the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada (I960). Additional descriptions of the organic horizons followed the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n proposed by Hoover and bunt (1952). Notes were made on present moisture conditions, approximate percentage volume of rocks over 2 cm, compaction, angularity of rocks, and o r i g i n of the parent material. Samples, excluding rocks over about 2 cm i n diameter, were collected from most of the horizons and layers described, but not where a horizon was extremely t h i n or diseontinuoas. The l i t t e r (L) layer was seldom collected, but the fermentation (F) and the humified (H) layers of the humus were always collected. Samples were taken from she more central portion of each horizon, thus exclud-ing the tra n s i t i o n s to adjaeem; horizons. Some of-the larg e r ; loose rocks were broken with a sledge hammer and a selection of pieces collected f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Where possible, rock speci-mens were taken from bedrock. Physiography, Erosion. Drainage and Ground Water The physiography of each plot location was described by such landform terminology as a l l u v i a l terrace, outwash fan or p l a i n , rock outcrop slope, and lower t i l l - c o v e r e d slope. R e l i e f was specified i n general terms of convexity and concavity. Micro-r e l i e f (small hummocks and depressions) was also noted. Slope and exposure were measured i n degrees. Elevations were measured i n feet with an aneroid barometer. Erosion, c l o s e l y related to landform and r e l i e f , was rated on a scale from zero (no v i s i b l e erosion) to three ( a l l of the A horizon removed, or a trun-cated B horizon, or both). The surface organic horizons build up so quickly under forest stands that often no evidence of erosion appeared u n t i l the lower - 2 7 -horizons were examined. The surface horizons alone were not good evidence of the intensity of erosion-Drainage was classified according to the United States S o i l Survey Staff ( 1 9 5 1 ) . Seven classes ranged from very poorly drained to excessively drained, referring to the length of time the s o i l was saturated or partially saturated. No attempt was made to differentiate between rates of ground-water movement or oxygen content of the water. Emphasis was placed on the presence of d u l l -colored and mottled layers, and on the actual presence of water i n the p i t s . It i s probable that many so-called imperfectly-drained soils had greater tree-growth potential than the average well-drained s o i l . The depth to the ground-water level was measured i n each pit i n which i t occurred. Where convenient, a day was allowed after the pit was dug for the water to reach a constant level. During the summer of I960, the water level i n 40 pits was measured three times (early i n May, July and September) to gain information on i t s fluctuation. Samples were also taken for electrometric determination of pH ^. Seepage water was collected from 19 pits i n early May, I960, and from 4O pits (including the original 19) i n early July of the same year. A l l samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium, and potassium. The July samples were acidified and kept i n cold storage for two months before analysis. The pH of many lakes and rivers was measured during I960 i n order to detect whether regional differences i n bedrock type might affect the quality of the water draining off them. Soil Moisture and Temperature In addition to observations made on ground-water levels and on moisture status at the time of analysis, data regarding the moisture regime of various A portable Beckman Model N pH meter was used for a l l f i e l d measurements. -28-sites throughout the summer period were acquired by the use of 90 Colman Fiberglas s o i l moisture and temperature units. Fifteen stations were chosen for the study. Ecoclimatic measurements on 13 of these made by Bell (1962), aid i n interpreting moisture and temperature trends. At each station two sets of three units each were buried. Each set was 7 connected to i t s own rotary selector switch . In each set, one unit was buried at 20 cm, one at 50 cm, and the third as deep as possible up to 100 cm below the top of the F horizon. This third unit thus varied In depth depending mainly on the amount of stones or boulders present. To bury the units with as l i t t l e disturbance to the s o i l as possible, a spring-steel bar, 110 cm long, bevelled to a sharp edge at one end, and equipped with a rectangular piece of steel at the other, was hammered into the s o i l to the desired depth. After removal of the bar, the Colman units were inserted into the opening by two rods with slotted ends (McMinn, 1957). To ensure good contact of s o i l and unit, the bar was driven i n a second time close to the unit and pulled back and forth, thus closing the f i r s t s l i t . This second opening was packed with s o i l to prevent the downward draining of water. Measurements were made weekly from May 25 to September 29, 1959, and from May 11 to September 29, I960 (Fig. 9). At the end of the i960 season the units were carefully dug out. Loose samples of s o i l from around each unit were collected for laboratory calibration of the units. It was possible then to observe how well the s o i l was packed around each unit. Of the 90 units installed, only three had poor contact with the surrounding s o i l . The selector switches were removed after the 1959 f i e l d season because of their tendency to rust and cause erratic readings. Alligator c l i p s , used in I960, were found satisfactory. -29-Root Distribution To detect the presence of layers impervious to roots and to assess the growing space used by root systems i n the various s o i l s , the depth of macro-scopic rooting was recorded- The concentration of roots, with respective depths, was described as abundant, ple n t i f u l , or few. Cellulose Decomposition An estimation of biological activity i n a range of sites was undertaken to determine some of the factors associated with different humus types and with va r i a b i l i t y i n the rate and amount of melanization i n surface horizons. Quantitative tests of biological activity have been devised using pure cellulose and protein cords (Wilde and Voigt? 1955)- Strips of cotton duck instead of cords were used i n this study . These strips were suited to testing on a Scott Tensile Tester available to the writer. The duck was coarse enough to allow counting of the individual strands, and by cutting between the strands, so arrive at a uniform width for a l l strips. A pilot study was completed during March, 1959, i n which the biological activity of the top six inches of mineral s o i l of two Coastal Douglas-fir Zone associations was compared, using the loss i n breaking strength of the cotton duck as the criterion. The index of biological activity was thus the a b i l i t y of the s o i l organisms present to decompose cotton cellulose. Ninety-six strips of cotton duck were buried i n s o i l samples collected randomly from the two associations. These were l e f t for nine days i n a room at an average temperature of 79° F. The strips were removed, washed and dried, and broken on the Scott Tensile Tester. The experiment indicated that, on a s t a t i s t i c a l basis, the surface s o i l of the two sites differed significantly i n their a b i l i t y to decompose cotton It was found later that a similar method was employed i n eastern Washington and Idaho (Cooke, 1955)--30= eellttloseo In this case, the Sword Fern (Polystichum muniturn (Kaulf.) Presl.) association (high productivity) exhibited higher a c t i v i t y than the Salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) association (low productivity) s o i l . The pilot study appeared successful enough to warrant a similar study i n the Interior Western Hemlock Dry Subzone. Plots of the following tentatively-named associations were chosen; two Lichen, three Moss, three Degraded Aralia (Aralia nudicaulis L.) - Oakfern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris L„), three Aralia -Oakfern, and three Devil's Club (Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) MIq.)» Eight s o i l samples w e r e collected from random locations within each plot i n September, 1959• ,The 1.12 samples were transported immediately and without drying to the Univer-sity of British Columbia where they were placed, along with three strips of cotton duck, i n 600-ml beakers. The strips ( 1 x 6 inches) were buried i n an upright coiled position one on top of the other, taking care that they touched neither themselves, other strips, nor the glass. The beakers were arranged i n one randomized block i n a room with an average daily maximum temperature of 81° F and an average daily minimum of 76° F. D i s t i l l e d water was added to, the beakers throughout the experiment to maintain approximate f i e l d capacity. After 14 days the strips were removed and along with 16 control strips, were washed in tap water. The strips were air-dried at about 80° F for 24 hours and then were tested for tensile (breaking) strength. A criticism of the laboratory investigation prompted the execution during I960 of a t r i a l i n the f i e l d . It was sttggested that results i n the f i e l d might diff e r greatly from those in the laboratory where temperature and moisture were kept the same for a l l s o i l s . Twelve of the original 14 plots plus an additional Lichen association plot and two new plots were chosen for the f i e l d study. The new plots were substitutes for two plots disturbed by logging during the atitumn of 1959. Early i n June, i960, 16 cotton duck strips were buried randomly in each of the -31-15 plots just under the surface of the F layer. Five weeks later ttey were * removed and a second set of strips replaced i n the same spots. These again were removed i n five weeks and a third set put into place. The last set was removed during the third week of September. As the breaking strength of the strips could not be tested immediately i n the f i e l d , they were removed, washed with tap water, dried, and immersed i n 50 per cent ethyl alcohol for ten minutes to stop further degradation. The series of t r i a l s enabled comparisons between sites and between early, middle and late 3ummer periods. Unfortunately, due to a purchasing error, a lighter weight duck was used i n the second period. However, with breaking strengths expressed as a per cent of control breaking strengths, i t i s f e l t that comparisons between periods remain valid. Soil Monoliths For i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes and to f a c i l i t a t e the comparison of a number of profiles at one time,, 19 s o i l monoliths were prepared from representative pro-f i l e s . The method used followed f a i r l y closely that of Smith and Moodie (1947) with the exception that vinylite resin was used exclusively. A hand sprayer was employed to apply the dilute resin solution to the pit wall. This was l e f t to harden for at least one day before attempting to remove the 6-inch-wide sections from the pit s . After removal, the sections were slipped from the original 6-inch board on to 1 x 8 inch cedar boards covered with a thick resin solution (Fig. 10). The profiles were transported to the University of British Columbia for a f i n a l working out of structure and preservative treatment. Photographs Over 70 color photographs of s o i l profiles were taken. Satisfactory results were obtained using a simple (focus adjustment only) camera, 620 Plate VI to follow page 31 -32-Kodacolor film, a 3-inch-diameter flash holder, and M-2B flashbulbs. F u l l sun-light would have been an advantage but this i s a rare condition i n a forest stand. Soil Sample Analysis^ Nearly 1,100 mineral s o i l and humus samples were collected from the 166 pits described and sampled from 1958 to I960. Considerable laboratory analysis was carried out on a l l or a portion of the samples. Sieving A l l of the samples were sieved using a United States Series Number 10 sieve (1.981 mm). Aggregations and concretions were br i e f l y described and then crushed using a mortar and pestle. The material not passing through the sieve was weighed and expressed as a percentage of the whole sample. The form of the rocks of the larger fraction was described as rounded, sli g h t l y rounded, or angular. Humus and other organic samples were ground before sieving. The fraction over 2 mm was discarded and a l l subsequent analysis was carried out on the fraction less than 2 mm. pH The pH of a l l samples was measured i n a paste state with a Beckman Model N electrometric pH meter (Wilde and Voigt, 1955)• Color The color of a l l samples was determined with reference to a Munsell book 9 Except for the determination of organic carbon, adsorbed phosphate, and total nitrogen i n 100 samples, a l l analysis was performed by the writer or under his direct supervision. The 100 samples referred to were analysed by Miss Ruth Shultz at the Department of S o i l Science, University of British Columbia. Most of the remaining analysis was done at the Forest Entomology and Pathology Laboratory, Victoria, B.C. The writer was assisted by Miss I.M. Stainer ( f u l l time) and Mr. M. Davis (part time) during the period from May 1 to September 15, 1961. 1 - 3 3 -of s o i l colorso Colors were determined on both moist and dry s o i l s . The remainder of the analyses were carried out on selected profiles and samples- Seventy profiles were chosen to achieve a good representation of phytocoenoses, a l l regions of the study area, stand-age classes, parent materi-als, and types cf soil * The 70 profiles included about 450 samples. Except where noted, a l l of the following analyses were carried out on each of the 45O samples. Calcium Carbonate Equivalence (Ca C0^ equiv.) The percentage of calcium carbonate equivalence was determined gasometrical-ly (Jackson, 1958) on 27 samples which effervesced when treated with dilute hydrochloric acid. Moisture Factor (MF) The moisture factor was obtained by oven-drying known weights of air-dry s o i l at 105° C. Calculations were made as follows: weight of air-dry s o i l MF = - -weight of oven-dry s o i l The main purpose of the moisture factor was to transform a l l results to an oven-dry basis. However, the moisture factor i t s e l f reflects certain properties of the s o i l , providing an estimation of the to t a l surface available for water adsorption. Organic Carbon A modified Schollenberger wet oxidation method was used to determine organic carbon percentage (Prince, 1955)• For the Schollenberger method, Metson (195&) suggested a carbon recovery of 87 per cent i n soils with less than 11 per cent organic carbon. Over 10 per cent, the recovery increases with increasing organic carbon content and a sliding correction must be applied. The organic carbon figures given i n this study express the total carbon as corrected i n the manner referred to by Metson. -34-Organie Matter To obtain precentage of organic matter, the total organic carbon figures were multiplied b y 1.724» This is based on the assumption bhat s o i l organic matter i s 58 per cent carbon. Total Nitrogen Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method generally as described by Wilde and Voigt (1955)• The digestion mix and mixed indicator were prepared as proposed by Jackson (1958). Selenium was not used i n a large part of the samples as i t was found that i t s deletion from the digestion mix did not significantly affect the results. Some of the G horizon samples were excluded from nitrogen analysis. Adsorbed Phosphate Generally, there are two forms of phosphate i n s o i l s . The f i r s t i s adsorbed phosphate, the major phosphate of acid soi l s ; the second i s phosphate easily soluble i n acid, the major phosphate of more alkaline soils (Metson, 1956). The method of Bray and Kurtz (1945) using ammonium fluoride was designed to extract both forms, and an adaptation by the Soil Science Department, University of British Columbia, of the Bray and Kurtz I method, was employed in this study. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and Exchangeable Cations Cations were extracted by leaching with ammonium acetate (IN and pH 7.0). A method adapted by the S o i l Science Department, University of British Columbia, from Peech, et a l . (1947) was followed. Calcium, potassium and sodium were determined on a Perkin-Elmer flame photometer, and magnesium plus calcium by an EDTA t i t r a t i o n , using a procedure adapted by the S o i l Science Department, University of British Columbia, from Cheng and Bray (1951). - 3 5 -Gation exchange capacity was determined after leaching and alcohol washing, by d i s t i l l a t i o n of the ammonia directly from the s o i l and allowing the ammonia to react with dilute sulfuric acid (Soil Science Department, University of British Columbia). A few samples with free calcium carbonate were included i n the above analysis, knowing that the amount of exchangeable calcium would be over-estimated. This was so, as the base saturations of some of these samples were over 100 per cent when calculated i n the usual manner. Base Saturation (BS) Base saturation was expressed by summing the cations (Ca + Mg + K + Na) and expressing this total as a percentage of the cation exchange capacity. The base unsaturated portion was considered to be made up mainly of hydrogen and aluminum ions. Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio (C:N) The C:N ratio was obtained by dividing the total nitrogen percentage into the total organic carbon percentage. Calibration of Colman Moisture-Temperature Units Moisture Because e l e c t r i c a l resistance varies with the s o i l and with the individual unit i n addition to moisture content, a regression showing the relation between resistance and actual moisture percentage (weight of water i n a s o i l expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight of the soil) was required for each moisture unit. A general procedure was described by Colman (1950). In addition, e l e c t r i c a l resistance varies with temperature and a l l resistances were corrected to a base of 60° F (Colman, 1950). In the calibration, the writer used cylindrical cans 3 inches high, 3 inches i n circumference, and equipped with t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d s . The cans - 36 -contained from 150 to 520 grams of oven-dry s o i l . Each unit was placed i n the center of a can, and s o i l collected from around the units i n the f i e l d was packed around them. Each lead-wire was led through a hole i n the l i d of the can, wound into a c o i l , and tied with the bared ends showing. Four or five small holes were punched into the bottom of each can to allow saturation with water. At the beginning of each drying cycle, the cans were immersed i n water for at least eight hours and then removed to drain. This was repeated several times. After the last immersion, the cans were l e f t 24. hours before the f i r s t resistance readings were taken. Subsequent readings were taken weekly. Four days of each week were used for drying (45-50° C), and three (under a plastic cover at room temperature) for equilibration of the moisture content. Each s o i l was allowed to dry down only to e point just below the lowest moisture level recorded for that s o i l i n the f i e l d . When this point was reached, a second drying cycle was started. The length of each drying cycle varied greatly among the soils — as short as six weeks to as long as seven months. The writer was able to complete two cycles on a l l of the units except three which took an extremely long time for the completion of their f i r s t drying cycles. Temperature Temperature resistances were provided by a thermistor included i n the Colman unit. Degrees F were obtained by multiplying resistances by a thermis-tor coefficient and referring the corrected resistances to a calibration chart (Colman, 1950). As the units had been used previously, the thermistor co-efficients were recalculated. Wilting Percentage An approximation of the wilting percentage of the 90 s o i l samples -37-collected i n connection with the s o i l moisture study was obtained by means of pressure membrane apparatus (Bayer, 1956). The results were corrected to correspond with standard samples of known wilting percentages. Aerial Photographs Aerial photographs (approximately 4O chains per inch) were obtained ^ cover-ing most of the areas i n which plots were located. These were studied stereo-scopically to pinpoint the plot locations and to improve general physiographic descriptions. Where roads had been built after the date of the photographs, exact plot location was d i f f i c u l t . It i s realized that i f an intensive study of this nature was undertaken, larger scale (20 chains per inch) photos would have to be used. Rock Identification A l l rocks collected were identified or described by Mr. L. H i l l s , a graduate geologist. Alteration of minerals was f a i r l y great In many of the samples and positive identification was often d i f f i c u l t . The difference between plagioclase and orthoclase feldspars was often obscured. Explanation of Terms Used i n S o i l Descriptions The nomenclature i n the sections that follow i s that of the National So i l Survey Committee of Canada (I960). Their definitions are i n some instances supplemented by further explanation by the writer. Organic Horizons (more than 20 per cent organic matter) L - An organic layer characterized by the accumulation of organic matter i n which the original structures are definable. In most cases this was described but not collected for further analysis. F - An organic layer characterized by the accumulation of partly decomposed organic matter. The original structures are discernible with d i f f i c u l t y . -38-Fungal mycelia are often present. H - An organic layer characterized by an accumulation of decomposed organic mattei i n which the o r i g i n a l structures are undefinable. In practice, the H and F layers were only occasionally sampled separately —- the designation F - H being given to the undivided sample. The f r i a b i l i t y of both layers was estimated and the color and abundance of fungal hyphae were described when v i s i b l e to the naked eye. Master Mineral Horizons A - A mineral horizon or horizons formed at or near the surface i n the zone of maximum removal of materials i n solution and suspension, or maximum i n s i t u accumulation of organic matter, or both. It includes: 1 . horizons i n which organic matter has accumulated as a resu l t of b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y (All) | 2. horizons that have been eluviated of clay, i r o n , aluminum, organic matter, or more than one of these (Ae); 3. horizons dominated by the above c r i t e r i a but t r a n s i t i o n a l to under-lyin g B or C (AB for gradual t r a n s i t i o n and A and B for i n t e r -fingering of horizons). B - A mineral horizon or horizons characterized by one or more of the following: 1. an i l l u v i a l enrichment (exclusive of dolomite or salt s more soluble i n water) of s i l i c a t e clay (Bt), i r o n (Bf), aluminum Bal), or organic matter (Bh), or iro n and organic matter (Bfh); 2. a concentration of weathering products believed to have been formed i n s i t u (Bt, Bf); 3. the removal of dolomite and salts more soluble i n water (Bm); U° an oxidation of sesquioxides that gives a 'Conspicuously darker, stronger or redder color than overlying or tmderlying horizons i n - 3 9 -the same sequum (Bmf). C - A mineral horizon or horizons comparatively unaffected by the pedogenic processes operative i n A and B, excepting the processes of gleying (Cg) and accumulation of dolomite and salts more soluble i n water (Ck). A recent United States s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system (United States S o i l Survey Staff, I 9 6 0 ) includes i n addition i n the C, materials modified by reversible cementation, development of brittleness, development of a high bulk density, and other characteristics of fragipans; and cementation by alkali-soluble siliceous material or by iron and s i l i c a . These modifica-tions are considered out of the biological range of weathering, and the materials so modified are not considered as B. Lower Case Suffixes c - A cemented (irreversible) pedogenic horizon. In this study, the suffix c was generally limited to ortstein development i n the B (cementation probably mainly by humus and sesquioxides). cc - Cemented (irreversible) pedogenic concretions. These are found consist-ently i n Concretionary Brown soils i n the coastal regions of British Columbia but rarely i n this study. e - A horizon characterized by the removal of clay, iron, aluminum, or organ-i c matter. It is usually lighter i n color than the layer below. f - A horizon enriched with hydrated iron. It has a chroma of three or more and i s redder than the horizon above or below. g - A horizon characterized by rediiction and gray colors; often mottled. h - A horizon enriched with organic matter. In color i t must show at least one unit of value (on the Munsell scale) darker than the layer immediately below. When used as the only suffix to B (Bh), this horizon must contain 1 0 per cent or more of organic matter. -40» j - A horizon whose characteristics are weakly expressed (juvenile). Where the j applies to only one of more than one lower case suffix, then the j i s linked by a bar to the suffix concerned (Ahej). k - A horizon enriched with carbonate (kalk). m - A horizon characterized by the loss of water soluble materials only. It is usually sl i g h t l y altered by hydrolysis or oxidation or both. p - A r e l i c (not currently dynamic) horizon. It i s used as a prefix as i n an Ah horizon underlying the present solum (pAh). q - A quasi-cemented pedogenic horizon. The writer used q for what was con-sidered fragipans as described by the United States Soil Survey Staff (I960). Whether fragipans are entirely pedogenic i s doubtful. There have been suggestions that the layer represents the original state of the parent material as laid down and compacted by glaciers. As livi n g organisms establish themselves on and within the material, there i s a general loosening o f the surface as a result of their activity, while at lower levels the s o i l remains compact and somewhat impervious. Carlisle (195A) f e l t that any such original compactness would be accentuated by the cementing action of s i l i c a moved down from the biologically-weathered surface material. Thus the pan may be the result of both physical compaction by glaciers and increased cementation through soil-forming processes. Moistening of the compact layers results i n a considerable decrease i n firmness. It i s unlikely that many fragipans i n the study area are compacted to such a degree as to prevent root extension, at least when the s o i l i s i n a moist condition. r - An inherited consolidated layer (rock) always used with C. t - A horizon enriched with s i l i c a t e clay. w - A water-saturated layer; the apparent water table. Included here as well are those soils saturated for the greatest part of the year - 4 l -with laterally moving seepage-Lithologic Changes Roman numeral prefixes were •used to indicate where the material of a layer contrasted greatly (different source) with the material immediately above. The numeral I was assumed, so that the f i r s t contrasting material was designated II. Subsequent deeper contrasting layers were numbered con-secutively. Gravel and Rock G - The weight of material greater than 2 mm expressed as a percentage of the weight of the collected sample. Stones larger than approximately 2 cm were excluded from the samples i n the f i e l d , and G thus represents the fraction between 2 mm and approximately 2 cm. R - The estimated volume of rock greater than 2 cm expressed as a percentage of the whole s o i l body. -42-V. RESULTS Soil Orders and Great Groups Of the seven orders described i n the I960 Canadian s o i l classification, five were encountered i n the study area. Podzolic Order Soils of this order have an Ae horizon and an i l l u v i a l B horizon with accumulations of sesquioxides, organic matter or clay, or any combination of these. About 53 per cent of the soils classified f e l l into the Podzolic Order. 1. Podzol Great Group Several great groups are recognized within the Podzolic Order but only profiles of the Podzol Great Group were studied. It includes soils with organic (L-H) surface accumulations, an Ae, and an i l l u v i a l B i n which organic matter and sesquoxides are the main accumulation products. The B contains less than 10 per cent organic matter except perhaps for a thin (less than 2 inches) layer immediately under the Ae. Brunisolic Order Included here are soils with brownish-colored sola without marked eluvial or i l l u v i a l horizons. About 24 per cent of the profiles studied belonged to the Brunisolic Order. 2. Brown Forest Great Group These soils possess a high base saturation and a distinct Ah horizon. 3. Brown Wooded Great Group Soils of this group have a high base saturation but lack a distinct Ah. -43-4. Acid Brown Wooded Great Group These soils have a low base saturation and no distinct Ah. Gleysolic Order This order includes those soils with organic horizons (less than 12 inches thick) or an Ah horizon, or without these surface horizons but with some organic material dispersed throughout the mineral s o i l . The subsoil usually shows gleying and i s d u l l colored, but may have brighter prominent mottles. The soils are associated with wetness. About 5 per cent of the profiles studied were classified i n the Gleysolic Order. 5. Meadow Great Group These soils have a dark Ah more than 2 inches thick which grades into a du l l colored horizon. The term "Meadow" i s unfortunate as these soils are associated with forests as well as meadows i n the study area. 6. Gleysol Great Group This group includes soils with no Ah but with strongly gleyed mineral horizons. Organic Order Soils i n this order have over 12 Inches of organic horizon (over 20 per cent organic matter), and no horizon development in the mineral s o i l other than gleying. Four» per cent of the profiles were Organic s o i l s . 7. Terrestrial Organosol Great Group This s o i l forms on land (no basal layer of sedimentary peat). Regosolic Order Regosolic soils lack discernible horizons or have horizons limited to a non-chernozemic, organic-mineral surface horizon (Ah), or an organic surface -44-horizon (L-H) less than 12 inches thick. Eleven per cent of the profiles belonged to this order. S o i l Sub-groups and their Further Subdivision After cl a s s i f i c a t i o n of the soils to the sub-group level, i t was realized that several of the sub-groups, especially i n the Podzolic and Brunisolic Orders, represented a wide range of productivity, and that further subdivision would be advantageous (Table 1). Anticipating that the greatest single factor influencing productivity would be water supply, the s o i l profiles of several sub-groups were divided on the basis of moisture conditions. Profiles were designated "moist" i f gLaying, seepage, a water table, or any combination of these was detected within about 1.5 meters of the s o i l surface. "Dry" pro-f i l e s included those with bedrock close to the surface or with extremely coarse material. Profiles without the characteristics of moist or dry soils were called "normal". If one of the three moisture conditions was not represented, then only two subdivisions were made. For example, of the Orthic Podzol Sub-group, only the moist (Moist Orthic Podzol) and the normal (Normal Orthic Podzol) conditions were found. The Normal Minimal Podzols, even within the restricted range of moisture condition, included profiles which exhibited a wide range of chemical and morphological characteristics, especially i n surface horizons. These soils were thus divided into two sections. The f i r s t section, designated "I", generally included profiles with f e l t y mor F-H horizons with a pH usually less than 4-.6. The second section, designated "II", included soils with a general-ly friable, granular or thin mor or even duff mull-like F-H with a pH usually more than 4«°» Soils of the Muck Sub-group were subdivided to differentiate Deep Mucks (L-F-H over 24 inches thick) from Shallow Mucks as suggested i n the Canadian classification, and to separate Calcareous Mucks from those Mucks lacking free calcium carbonate. Table 1. Classification of Soils Examined i n the Study Area Order Great Group Sub-groupa Condition Podzolic Brunisolic Podzol Acid Brown Wooded Ortstein Podzol (Ort. P) Orthic Podzol Minimal Podzol Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded (GABW) Brown Wooded Orthic Brown Wooded Degraded Brown Wooded (DBW) Gleyed Brown Wooded (GBW) Brown Forest Orthic Brown Forest Normal Orthic.Podzol (NOP) Moist Orthic Podzol (MOP) Normal Minimal Podzol I Normal Minimal Podzol (INMP) II Normal Minimal Podzol (IINMP) Moist Minimal Podzol (MM?) Dry Minimal Podzol (DMP) Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded (NOABW) .Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded (DOABW) Normal Orthic Brown Wooded (NOBW) Dry Orthic Brown Wooded (DOBW) Normal Orthic Brown Forest (NOBF) Dry Orthic Brown Forest (DOBF) i i Gleyed Brown Forest (GBF) Table 1. Continued Order Great Group Sub-groupa Condition Gleysolic Organic^ Regosolic Meadow Gleysol Terrestrial Organosol Regosol Orthic Meadow (OM) Peaty Meadow (PM) Orthic Gleysol (OG) Peaty Calcareous Gleysol (PCG) Peaty Gleysol (PG) Muck Duff Mull Regosol (DMR) Mor Regosol (Mor R) Orthic Regosol (OR) Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol (CDMR) Shallow Muck (SMk) Deep Muck (DMk) Calcareous Muck (CMk) i o^  i a Duff Mull Regosol and Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol are not recognized by the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada. See page 9 7 for a discussion of problems involved i n u t i l i z i n g the Canadian clas s i f i c a t i o n . b The cl a s s i f i c a t i o n of Organic soils has not been finalized by the National S o i l Survey Committee ( I 9 6 0 ) . -47-Descriptions of each profile studied have been included i n Appendices B and C The following sections point out some of the outstanding features of the different s o i l s . Podzolic Soils 1. Ortstein Podzol Sub-group (3 profiles with chemical analysis) These extremely podzolized soils developed on coarse-textured g l a c i a l t i l l (Fig. 11)"*"° and outwash material. The F-H was typically a f e l t y mor with bright yellow fungal hyphae. The H was somewhat friable where the r e l i e f was concave. The Ae was conspicuous and thick (5-16 cm). The outstanding morphological feature was the presence of a highly cemented ortstein layer which occurred i n the upper B horizon. This ortstein appeared to be continuous i n two plots, but was sporadic i n the third. A l l Ortstein Podzols were extremely low i n base saturation throughout their sola. Exchangeable calcium was actually not detected i n certain of the horizons. The pH of the F-H and Ae horizons ranged from 3.3 to 4.2. Both exchangeable sodium and potassium were found i n only very small quantities i n the mineral s o i l . Adsorbed phosphate was exceptionally high i n the B immediately under the Ae i n two of the profiles, while the third had a moder-ate amount. 2. Orthic Podzol Sub-group (a) Normal Orthic Podzol (18 profiles, 5 with chemical analysis) These soil s were found mainly on somewhat excessively drained to excess-ively drained coarse alluvium, outwash (Fig. 12), and gla c i a l t i l l (Fig. 13); but also occasionally on well-drained moderately coarse-textured to medium-textured glacial t i l l . ^ A meter pole marked off i n decimeters was included as a scale i n a l l profile photographs. -48-Eight of the profiles had a typical f e l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae or both yellow and white hyphae, and a firm H. Four had felty mors with yellow fungal hyphae but with f a i r l y friable H layers. Four profiles (three of them immature stands on alluvium) had thin mors with white, or yellow and white hyphae. The remaining two had tendencies toward granular mors. An Ae was always conspicuously present (2 to 27 cm). The unusually thick Ae occurred i n a profile formed on extremely coarse outwash. The B horizons were friable or with only a small proportion cemented. Their color was generally yellowish brown or dark yellowish brown. These s o i l s , like the Ortstein Podzols, appeared exceptionally low i n bases and base saturation (Fig. 15). The pH of the F-H averaged 3.9, of the Ae 4-l> and of the B and C approximately 5«4« Base saturation averaged from 5 to 24 per cent throughout the profiles, being lowest i n the B. Exchangeable potas-sium, calcium, sodium and magnesium were, however, a l l i n somewhat greater concentrations than i n the Ortstein Podzols. The Normal Orthic Podzols showed the same tendency as most strongly leached (low base saturation) soils toward a relatively narrow Ca:Mg ratio i n organic and mineral horizons. Ratios narrower than 1:1 i n the B and 2:1 i n the F-H were common. These compare with ratios as wide as 11:1 (generally 3-5si) i n the B and F-H of less leached s o i l s . For example, the average Ca:Mg ratio for the B horizon of six Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded soils was about 4:1 compared with about 1:1 for Ortstein and Normal Orthic Podzols. The macrochemical methods used i n the determination of cation concentration did not prescribe precipitation of manganese and sesquioxides. These elements may have reduced the apparent calcium concentration, as determined by flame photometry, more i n strongly than i n weakly podzolized s o i l s , but probably not to the extent of the differences i n ratios given previously. Plate VIII to follow page 4-8 KEY Ortstein Podzol 2 Normal Orthic Podzol 3 Normal Minimal Podzol 4 Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 5 Gleyed A c i d Brown Wooded 6 Normal Orthic Brown Wooded 7 Gleyed Brown Wooded 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % BASE SATURATION Fig. 15. Base saturation with depth of several soils. F-H H Ae B l B2 Ort. P NOP M O P N MP DMP NOABW "V f 100 - 10 •y.r • -i Fig. 16. Diagram showing accumulation of organic matter in upper B. -49-(b) Moist Orthic Podzol (10 profiles, 3 with chemical analysis) These soil s were found mainly on moderately coarse-textured g l a c i a l t i l l (Fig. 14), and more rarely on coarse-textured or medium-textured gla c i a l t i l l . Outwash or alluvium was rarely the source of parent material. The influence of ground water was not sufficient to allow the c l a s s i f i c a -tion of these soils as Gleyed Podzols, but i t appeared great enough to affect productivity. Only three of the 10 profiles were represented by the typical f e l t y mor with a compact H and yellow fungal hyphae. The remainder had friable H layers and even a tendency toward the duff mull type. The conspicuous Ae varied from 2 to 8 cm i n the profiles studied. The color of the B was generally a yellowish brown or dark yellowish brown. Chemical analysis revealed a better exchangeable magnesium, calcium and potassium status than the Normal Orthic Podzols This was especially evident in the F-H and i n the lower B and C horizons. Exchangeable sodium was higher in the C than i n either the Ortstein or Normal Orthic Podzol s o i l s . This greater concentration of exchangeable sodium was found i n a l l the water-saturated s o i l s . The average organic matter content of the B horizon was the highest recorded for Podzols and Brunisolic s o i l s (Fig. 16). 3. Minimal Podzol Sub-group The Minimal Podzol differs from the Orthic by a weakly developed or thin Ae, or a juvenile, pale B horizon, or both. Thus, profiles with a thick (over one inch) Ae but with a pale B horizon were classified as Minimal Podzols. Generally, a l l profiles with an Ae less than one inch thick were classified as Minimal Podzols. (a) Normal Minimal Podzol (i) I Normal Minimal Podzol (24 profiles, 3 with chemical analysis) -50-Except for a weakly developed, thin, or even discontinuous Ae, or a pale B, these soi l s had characteristics like Normal Orthic Podzols (Fig. 17). Nearly half of the profiles possessed a f a i r l y typical f e l t y mor with yellow or yellow and white fungal hyphae. The remainder had fe l t y mors with friable H layers, thin to fe l t y mors, and thin mors. The latter were found mainly on a l l u v i a l s o i l s . The pH of the F-H ranged from 3»4 to 4.8 with an average of 4-.0. The Ae varied from a trace to 3»5 ™ ° The thicker Ae was associated with juvenile, pale yellow or pale brown B horizons. ( i i ) II Normal Minimal Podzol (13 profiles, 3 with chemical analysis) The F-H was mostly a thin mor or thin to f e l t y mor with a slightly friable to friable H. Two plots situated at a high altitude had F-H horizons approaching duff mulls. White fungal hyphae were generally more abundant than yellow. The thin mor was especially common i n or near stand openings, while pockets of f e l t y mor occurred under denser cover. The pH of the F-H varied from 4.I to 5-8 with an average of 4.8. The Ae ranged i n thickness from only a trace to 3 cm (Fig. 18). Its pH measured from 4.7 to 6.4 and averaged 5-2. Base satura-tion throughout the solum was consistently higher than i n I Normal Minimal Podzols. (b) Moist Minimal Podzol (13 profiles, J+ with chemical analysis) These profiles were found on a wide variety of parent materials. The gleyed soils (Fig. 19) tended to be most common on medium-textured glac i a l t i l l s , and the water-table variety on alluvium. Neutral to slightly concave r e l i e f appeared to be a prerequisite as only one of the 13 profiles was found on convex r e l i e f . The most common humus type was a felty mor with a friable H layer, and to follow page 50 Fig. 19. Moist Minimal Podzol. Fig. 20. Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded. -51-both yellow and white fungal hyphae- More rarely i t was a typical f e l t y mor with a firm H layer, a duff mull, or a thin mor. The Ae ranged from a discontinuous thin layer up to 2-5 cm. When compared with I Normal Minimal Podzols and Normal Orthic Podzols, the Moist Minimal Podzol exhibited a lower adsorbed phosphate and exchange-able potassium concentration, but -higher concentrations of exchangeable calcium, sodium, and magnesium, and a higher base saturation. (c) Dry Minimal Podzol (9 profiles, 2 with chemical analysis) Morphologically, the Dry Minimal Podzol resembled the Normal Minimal Podzol except for the presence of bedrock within 100 cm of the surface, or in lieu of bedrock, extremely coarse-textured, cobbly or bouldery material. The soils developed i n rock-outcrop areas where the parent material was a mixture of colluvium, gla c i a l t i l l , and, near the bedrock, probably some residual material. A profile with coarse glacial outwash appeared s u f f i -ciently droughty i n one case to be included here. The bedrock varied from 30 to 80 cm below the s o i l surface at the point of s o i l sampling, but actual rock outcrops within the plots were common. The r e l i e f was generally convex and often knoll-like. The humus varied mainly from a f e l t y mor with a friable H to a granular mor with both white and yellow mycelium. More rarely i t was a thin mor or a typical f e l t y mor with a firm H and yellow fungal hyphae. The Ae ranged i n thickness from 1 to 1.5 cm. The profiles had conspicuously higher adsorbed phosphate concentrations than the remaining Minimal Podzols, but a lower base saturation. The pH of the F - H was uniformly low (3.9 - 4.4). Brunisolic Soils 4. Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Sub-group These soil s d i f f e r from the Podzolic soils by the absence or very weak -52-development of the Ae. (a) Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded (13 profiles, 6 with chemical analysis) Profiles of this s o i l were found generally on coarse-textured glacial t i l l , outwash, alluvium, g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium (Fig. 20) mixtures, often of a somewhat richer nature (higher base saturation) than the material on which Podzolic soils easily develop. The base saturation was, however, not exceptionally high. Situations with neutral to convex r e l i e f were favored, though a few pro-f i l e s developed on slightly concave r e l i e f . It i s suspected that the latter profiles were provided with a better moisture regime than the former, but the evidence was not strong enough to classify them as Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded. The F-H horizon varied considerably. Of the 13 profiles, 3 had a f a i r l y typical f e l t y mor with a firm H and yellow or yellow and white mycelia, 3 a f e l t y mor with a friable H and white or yellow fungal hyphae, A a granular or f e l t y mor with duff mull tendency, and 3 a thin mor with white fungal hyphae. A trace of Ae was present i n over half of the profiles, but seldom in quantities large enough to enable a sample collection. It was often re-stricted to spots under rotten wood. The F-H averaged over 50 per cent base saturation, and the upper B nearly 35 per cent. This was considerably higher than that found i n Podzolic soils (Fig. 21). Extremely high concentrations of adsorbed phosphate occurred i n the upper B of a few profiles. (b) Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded (5 profiles, 3 with chemical analysis) These dry, shallow soi l s occurred i n areas of rock outcrops, exposed knolls and ridges with definite convex r e l i e f (Fig. 22). The source of parent material was often d i f f i c u l t to establish as i t was usually a mixture of colluvium, gla c i a l t i l l , and often residuum near the bedrock surface. Plate X -i 1 to follow page 52 -4 1 C D M R D M R M o r R O R C M k SMk P M P C G P G O G G B F DOBF N O B F D BW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW M M P D M P I I N M P I N M P M O P N O P Ort . P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 O C D M R D M R Mor R O R CMk SMk P M P C G P G O G G B F D O B F N O B F DBW G B W DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW M M P D M P II NMP I N M P MOP N O P Ort. P 10 80 30 40 50 60 70 % B A S E S A T U R A T I O N F i g . 21. B a s e sa tu ra t i on of F - H h o r i z o n s . 90 100 Exposed bedrock was usual within the plots, but pockets of s o i l up to 75 cm also occurred. Bedrock ranged from 11 to 75 cm below the s o i l surface at the point of sampling. In exposed areas over shallow s o i l , the humus was generally a thin mor with white fungal hyphae, though pockets of thicker f e l t y mor with white or yellow mycelia also occurred. There was a tendency for the H to be granular or even fine and powdery. A trace of Ae was found i n some plots, but was extremely discontinuous and restricted mainly to the pockets of f e l t y mor. The chemical characteristics of Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded soils were f a i r l y similar to the Normal Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds except that the base saturation and pH of the upper B indicated a somewhat poorer base status i n the former. An interesting decrease i n average pH occurred i n the C horizons just above the bedrock, from 5.7 i n the B to 5.4- i n the C. This decrease was also noted i n the Dry Minimal Podzols (5.7 to 5.2). 5. Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded Sub-group (6 profiles, a l l with chemical analy-sis) This sub-group includes the f i r s t soils described that were gleyed so strongly that the B as well as the C was obviously influenced (Fig. 23)-Normal soil-forming processes continued i n the B but were probably modified by the influence of ground water. While the s o i l was found on both coarse-textured and medium-to-fine-textured parent material, the upper B of a l l six profiles was a loam or a texture finer than loam. Windthrows were prevalent i n many of the plots causing some disturbance to s o i l profiles. -54-The dominant humus type was a granular mor with a duff mull tendency. That i s , the H layer was very friable and resembled an Ah i n i t s lower por-tion except that i t s organic matter content was over 20 per cent. The average base saturation of the humus was 60 per cent and the pH 5«5> the highest of any so far described. Traces of Ae were found especially under rotten wood. Average base saturations of 33 per cent (pH 5°6) i n the upper B, 53 per cent (pH 6.0) i n the lower B, and 64 per cent (pH 6.1) i n the C were found i n the profiles. Other chemical characteristics of note include a rela-tively high exchangeable potassium concentration i n the B, a high exchange-able sodium content i n the F-H, and a generally low adsorbed phosphate content. 6. Orthic Brown Wooded Sub-group The distinguishing features of this sub-group are the complete lack of an Ae and the relatively high base saturation of the mineral s o i l horizons. There i s l i t t l e movement of sesquioxides and a minimum of leaching of bases, except those water soluble (mellowing). (a) Normal Orthic Brown Wooded (7 profiles, 3 with chemical analysis) These soils were found on coarse- to medium-textured gl a c i a l t i l l , or mixtures of glac i a l t i l l and colluvium, on moderately steep southwest or, more rarely, southeast slopes (Fig. 24). The F-H was characteristically a fe l t y or granular mor with white mycelia (pale yellow i n one case) and a very friable H layer. The base saturation of the F-H was extremely high, averaging 84 per cent (pH 5.8). The base saturation of the B averaged over 50 per cent and of the G horizon 75 per cent (pH 6.4)* Exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium were high' throughout the profile. Exchangeable sodium was conspicuously low. Adsorbed phosphate was highly concentrated i n the upper B of two of the three -55-profiles selected for chemical analysis. (b) Dry Orthic Brown Wooded (3 profiles, 2 with chemical analysis) Dry Orthic Brown Wooded soils were found i n edaphically dry situations on parent material relatively rich i n calcium. Steep rock outcrop or col-luv i a l slopes were favored. A l l three profiles occurred on southwest-facing slopes. The humus type was a thin mor with white fungal hyphae i n one plot, a duff mull with some yellow fungal hyphae i n the second, and a medium mull i n the third. The average base saturation of the F-H was 56 per cent. The base saturation of the remainder of the profile was uniform and over 50 per cent5 but, as a whole, the base status was somewhat poorer than for the Normal Orthic Brown Wooded soi l s . 7. Degraded Brown Wooded Sub-group (2 profiles, 1 with chemical analysis) Where the parent material was very rich, even to the point of free c a l -cium carbonate i n the lower C, a bleaching of the A horizon occasionally occurred. This bleaching extended to 19 cm i n one profile and to 14 cm i n the other. In both cases a trace of the typical Ae occurred immediately under the F-H, suggesting a possible bisequa situation. The two profiles were with reservation classified under Degraded Brown Wooded, even though there was no visual evidence of clay accumulation. Both profiles were found on excessively drained, coarse-textured parent material on convex slopes. The F-H varied greatly within each plot depending on exposure to the sun, but averaged a granular mor with a tendency toward a thin duff mull. Base saturation varied from 70 per cent (pH 6.0) in the humus to 100 per cent (pH 7.2) i n the C. -56-8. Gleyed Brown Wooded Sub-group (1 profile with chemical analysis) The one example of this sub-group occurred i n a depression on imperfectly drained, f ine-textured gla c i a l t i l l (Fig. 25)e The humus was a f e l t y mor with white mycelia and a f a i r l y friable H layer. A trace of Ae occurred i n portions of the plot, suggesting some recent degradation. Free calcium carbonate was found In the G horizon. Generally, the base saturation was high, ranging from 69 per cent (pH 5«8) i n the humus to 100 per cent (pH 7.9) in the C (Fig. 26). Exchangeable calcium and magnesium were i n good supply (Fig. 26a, b). Exchangeable sodium was exceptionally high i n the upper B while adsorbed phosphate was very low. 9. Orthic Brown Forest Sub-group The Orthic Brown Forest Sub-group was recognized by i t s lack of Ae, presence of Ah, and i t s high base saturation throughout the pr o f i l e . (a) Normal Orthic Brown Forest (1 profile with chemical analysis) The one profile encountered was located near Erie Greek i n the Salmo area, i n a saucer-shaped depression on a mixture of medium-textured glacial t i l l and colluvium. The F-H was a thin duff mull which overlay an Ah 5 cm thick (15 per cent organic matter and a C:N ratio of 21:1). The whole profile was well supplied with bases. Base saturations were 51 per cent i n the F-H, 64. per cent i n the Ah, 49 per cent i n the upper B, and 67 per cent i n the C. Adsorbed phosphate was relatively high, especial-ly i n the upper B. (b) Dry Orthic Brown Forest (1 profile with chemical analysis) The one example of a Dry Orthic Brown Forest profile studied was asso-ciated with a rock outcrop slope with pockets of shallow s o i l i n which the occasional tree was rooted. Bedrock was only 35 era below the surface of the Plate XII ^to follow page 56 G B F D O B F N O B F OBW G BW DOBW NOBW G A BW DOABV* NO ABU M MP Ort. P O 0 0 O 0 G B F D O B F N O B F DBW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABVf NOABVT MMP DM P II NMP I NMP M O P NOP Ort. P 10 20 30 40 50 60 % BASE SATURATION 70 80 90 100 Fig. 26. Base saturation of upper B horizons. P l a t e XII (a) to follow Plate XII G B F 1 1 -i 1 O GBF DOBF o DOBF NOBF o NOBF DBW o DBW GBW GBW DOBW DOBW NOBW NOBW GABW GABW DOABW ••••:> DOABW NOABW NOABW MMP MMP DMP • ; • DMP II NMP IINMP 1 NMP < ^ 1 NMP MOP MOP NOP 4 NOP Ort. P $> 1 1 — . . . i , Ort. P 0 5 10 15 2 0 m e / 1 0 0 q E x c h a n g e a b l e Ca lc ium i g . 2 6 a C o n c e n t r a t i o n of e x c h a n g e a b l e c a l c i u m in uppe r B ho r i zons . P l a t e XI Kb) to follow Plate XII(a) GBF DOBF NOBF DBW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW MMP Ort. P o o o G © G B F DOBF NOBF DBW G BW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW MMP DMP II NMP I NMP MOP NOP Ort. P m e / I O O g E x c h a n g e a b l e M a g n e s i u m Fig. 26b. Concentration of exchangeable magnesium in upper B horizons. P l a t e X I I (c) _) 1 1 1_ to follow Plate XII(b) G B F D O B F N O B F D B W G B W D O B W N O B W G A B W O II N M P I N M P M O P N O P Ort. P O 0 O ©Till G B F D O B F N O B F D B W G B W D O B W N O B W G A B W DOABW N O A B W M M P D M P II N M P I N M P M O P N O P Ort. P 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 m e / l O O g Exchangeable Potassium 0.8 Fig. 26 c. Concentrat ion of exchangeable potassium in upper B horizons. -57-s o i l at the s o i l p i t . The F-H was an extremely friable medium earth mull with a pH of 5.8 and a base saturation of 6 1 per cent. The Ah was 8 cm thick, with 8 per cent organic matter and a C;N ratio of 18:1. Exchangeable calcium and magnesium were both high, resulting i n a base saturation throughout the profile of over 6 0 per cent. The highest concentra-tion of exchangeable potassium of any profile was found i n this s o i l (Fig. 2 6 c ) . In contrast, exchangeable sodium was low i n concentration. The con-centration of adsorbed phosphate, both i n the F-H (highest of a l l soils) and i n the upper B, was unusually high. 10. Gleyed Brown Forest Sub-group ( 1 profile with chemical analysis) Again, only one example was studied. This profile occurred on a medium-textured a l l u v i a l terrace immediately below a rock outcrop slope. Strong gleying from 56 to 126 em wa3 observed. The humus was a coarse mull which graded into an Ah (17 per cent organic matter and a G;N ratio of 2 9 " 1 ) . Earthworms, a rarity i n forest soils of the study area, were f a i r l y abundant. The s o i l was well supplied with nearly a l l nutrients investigated (Fig. 2 6 a , b, c). In addition to high exchangeable calcium and magnesium concentrations, potassium and sodium were both above average. Adsorbed phos-phate (as It was i n a l l gleyed soils) was f a i r l y low i n concentration. Gleysolic Soils 1 1 . Orthic Gleysol Sub-group (2 profiles, 1 with chemical analysis) The Orthic Gleysol Sub-group i s distinguished by gleying i n the mineral horizons, intense enough to dominate other soil-forming processes, but which does not cause the profile to be so saturated with water that large accumu-lations of organic matter occur. -58-Both profiles studied occurred on the same a l l u v i a l floodplain on fine-textured material. This parent material was calcareous and exchangeable cal-cium, magnesium, base saturation and pH were a l l high, whereas adsorbed phosphate, exchangeable potassium^ and sodium were relatively low. The F-H was a thick duff mull with white fungal hyphae and a very friable H layer. 12. Peaty Gleysol Sub-group (3 profiles, a l l with chemical analysis) These profiles were similar to the Orthic Gleysols except for an organic accumulation 15 to 30 cm thick. They were found on poorly to imperfectly drained gla c i a l outwash, t i l l and alluvium, generally i n concave basins (Fig. 27). The organic horizons were divided into a surface F-H, which resembled an extremely thick duff mull, and an H layer described as muck. The cation exchange capacity of the F-H was high, ranging from 159 to 195 me/IOOg. Its base saturation was 45 to 71 per cent. The C horizon was not particularly well supplied with bases. 13. Peaty Calcareous Gleysol Sub-group (1 profile with chemical analysis) Morphologically, this profile resembled the Peaty Gleysols very closely. Chemically, however, the s o i l ?as very high i n exchangeable nutrients caused by a calcareous parent material or base-saturated seepage. Free calcium carbonate was found i n the lower H and i n the C horizon. The F-H was a thick duff mull with a very friable H layer. Both the F-H and H layers contained more than 80 me/100 g of exchangeable calcium (65 to 75 per cent base saturation). Exchangeable sodium was also high, while adsorbed phosphate was low compared with that of organic horizons of other s o i l s . The average pH of the C of 8.0 reflected i t s calcareous nature. Plate XIII to follow page 58 Fig. 27. Peaty Gleysol. Fig. 28. Peaty Meadow. Fig. 29. Shallow Muck. Fig. 30. Buried Profile-DMR/OBW. -59-14.. Orthic Meadow Sub-group (1 profile without chemical analysis) The presence of an Ah grading into a G horizon distinguished this s o i l from the Gleysols. The profile occurred i n a saucer-shaped depression on gla c i a l t i l l . The nutrient status of the s o i l , as indicated by pH alone, appeared quite poor. On banks surrounding the depression, a thick Ae was found. This indicated a f a i r l y acid parent material and low-quality seepage. As meadow so i l s generally develop on parent materials rich i n calcium, the class-i f i c a t i o n of this profile as Orthic Meadow i s doubtful^ 15. Peaty Meadow Sub-group (1 profile with chemical analysis) The one profile encountered was found i n a shallow depression on a l l u -vium. A small stream flowed through the plot. The organic horizons were greater than 7.5 cm thick; therefore, the adjective "Peaty" was required. An Ah varied within the plot from absent (Orthic Gleysol) to 40 cm. Its transition to C material was rather abrupt instead of the gradual transition characteristic of Meadow soils (Fig. 28). Exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and sodium were relatively high, while exchangeable potassium and adsorbed phosphate were particularly low. Organic Soils 16. Muck Sub-group In Muck so i l s , the H layer consists of well-decomposed, finely divided organic remains unidentifiable as to origin. The whole organic horizon (L, F, and H) is more than 30 cm thick. (a) Shallow Muck (5 profiles, 2 with chemical analysis) This family included those Muck soils with less than 60 cm of organic horizon. They were found at the bottom of moderately steep or steep slopes with concave r e l i e f (Fig. 29), i n depressional areas, or on relatively f l a t -60-land. In the latter situation, the parent material was usually medium- to fine-textured alluvium or lacustrine deposits, while on slopes i t was g l a c i a l t i l l * Interstratifications of C material and buried organic layers were common-The cation exchange capacity of the organic horizons was very high (200 me/lOOg in one case)- The organic layers were well supplied with exchangeable calcium (Fig. 31a), magnesium (Fig. 31b) and sodium. The latter was especial-ly highly concentrated when compared with the other s o i l s studied (Fig. 31). Adsorbed phosphate was higher than expected from such wet soils. (b) Calcareous Muck (1 profile with chemical analysis) This Muck s o i l with free calcium carbonate i n the organic portion was found i n a shallow, sloping depression dissected by a small stream. Richness i n calcium of parent material and seepage afforded the profile unusual chemi-cal attributes, and i t was therefore separated from other Mucks. The F-H horizon (a thick duff mull with a very friable H) was similar to other Mucks. Below the F-H, the s o i l possessed a high base saturation (82 to 100 per cent), and a neutral to slightly alkaline reaction. Both adsorbed phosphate and exchangeable sodium were lower than recorded for the Shallow Mucks. The presence of a layer resembling an i l l u v i a l B horizon was surprising and could not be rationalized. A similar layer occurred i n SB 149, a Peaty Gleysol (Fig. 27). (c) Deep Muck (1 profile with chemical analysis) A pit was dug to 133 cm i n this s o i l without reaching mineral s o i l . The profile exhibited a high cation exchange capacity of over 200 me/ lOOg, and was well supplied with exchangeable calcium and magnesium. Base saturations ranged from 65 to 80 per cent throughout the profile. As was usual for wet s o i l s , exchangeable potassium and adsorbed phosphate (Fig. 36) Plate XIV 1 1— to follow page 60 — i 1 CDMR DMR Mor R OR CMK SMk PM PC 6 PG OG GBF DOBF NOBF DBW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW MMP DMP II NMP I NMP MOP NOP Ort. P 0 0 © 0 CDMR DMR Mor R OR CMk SMk PM PCG PG OG G B F DOBF NOBF DBW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW MMP DMP II NMP I NMP MOP NOP Ort. P 0 . 0 0 . 8 0 .90 .30 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 me/ lOOg EXCHANGEABLE SODIUM Fig. 31. Concentration of exchangeable sodium in F-H horizons. Plate XIV (a) to follow Plate XIV CDMR DMR Mor R 0 R CMk SMk PM P C G P G OG G B F D O B F N O B F DBW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW M M P DMP II NMP 1 NMP M O P N O P Ort. P 0 0 O 0 O 0 0 O 0 0 0 CDMR DMR Mor R OR CMk SMk P M P C G PG 0 G G B F D O B F N O B F DBW G B W DOBW NOBW G A B W DOABW NOABW M M P DMP II N MP INMP MOP NOP Ort. P 80 90 10 20 30 4 0 50 6 0 70 m e / f O O g Exchangeable Calcium Fig. 31 a. Concentration of exchangeable calcium in F-H hor izons 100 110 120 P l a t e XIV (b) to follow Plate XIV(a) C DMR DMR Mor R OR CMk SMk P M P C G PG O G G B F D O B F N O B F DBW G B W DOBW N O B W G A B W DOABW NOABW M M P DMP II NMP I NMP M O P NOP Ort. P 0 O o o o o o o 0 o o CDMR DMR Mor R 0 R C M k S M k P M P C G P G O G G B F D O B F N O B F D B W G B W D O B W N O B W G A B W DOABW NOABW M M P D M P II N M P 1 N M P M O P N O P Ort. P 0 10 15 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 me 1 0 0 / g Exchangeable M a g n e s i u m F i g . 31 b C o n c e n t r a t i o n of e x c h a n g e a b l e m a g n e s i u m in F - H h o r i z o n s -61-were markedly low, while exchangeable sodium was high. Regosolic Soils 17. Orthic Regosol Sub-group (1 profile with chemical analysis) The profile of this sub-group was found on a l l u v i a l sand. Orthic Rego-sols were undoubtedly f a i r l y common on alluvium but because they generally supported only a light cover of willows, cottonwood, other deciduous trees, and shrubs, they were not sampled seriously. The sub-group could obviously develop on recent deposits of talus or on recently exposed glacial" t i l l , but within the study area, alluvium was the most important parent material. The profile showed a striking interlayering of sand and buried organic matter with a thin, loose L-F (Fig. 32). There was a low concentration of a l l nutrients, but base saturations were moderately high as a result of the extremely low cation exchange capa-cit y of the sand. 18. Mor Regosol Sub-group (4- profiles, 1 with chemical analysis) The F-H horizons, as indicated i n the name of the sub-group, were general-ly f e l t y mors with white or yellow fungal hyphae, and usually with a f a i r l y friable H. A trace of juvenile, discontinuous Ae was common, but i t was f e l t that the soils were better classified as Regosols than Podzols. Three of the profiles studied developed on alluvium or outwash (Fig. 33), and the fourth on colluvium. The latter should be separated at a lower level of classification, for i t s profile characteristics and productivity are very different from the f i r s t three. Chemical analysis was carried out on a s o i l developed on coarse outwash. I n i t i a l stages of leaching were indicated by base-saturation figures. The F-H was 79 per cent while the layer immediately below was only 21 per cent saturated. The lower C horizon was again relatively high i n base saturation Plate XV to follow page 61 Fig. 3 4 - Duff Mull Regosol. Fig. 3 5 - Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol. -62-(61 per cent). The average pH of the F-H horizon of a l l four profiles was 4 o 5 « 19° Duff Mull Regosol Sub-group"^ (10 profiles, 6 with chemical analysis) A thick duff mull humus distinguished these soils from the Mor Regosols. The humus, with a very friable H layer, graded into a thin, often juvenile Ah. No other pedogenic horizons were distinguished,as relatively undifferentiated C material occurred beneath the Ah (Fig. 34). The F-H was well supplied with exchangeable calcium (Fig. 31a). The base saturation ranged from 61 to 75 per cent. The concentration of exchange-able potassium and adsorbed phosphate (Fig. 36) was, however, conspicuously low. The C:N ratio of the humus averaged 17.1 which compares to an average of about 30:1 for f e l t y mors of Podzolic s o i l s . The C was well supplied with exchangeable calcium and magnesium, and there was no evidence of strong leaching of bases out of the solum. 20. Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol Sub-group (3 profiles with partial chemical analysis) The F-H was a duff mull with a very friable H and some white fungal hyphae. In one case, this F-H rested directly on almost pure carbonate material (77 to 90 per cent calcium carbonate equivalence). An Ah layer (Fig. 35), and an Ah plus a l l u v i a l C material, occurred between the F-H and the carbonate material i n the two remaining profiles. The base saturation of the F-H was 74 to 89 per cent. The pH of the C horizons ranged from 7 .6 to 8.2 — the highest recorded for any of the soils studied. 21. Buried Profiles (5 profiles, 3 with chemical analysis) Five examples of profiles buried under a relatively shallow layer of The Mor Regosol Sub-group of the Canadian classification was divided into two — Duff Mull Regosol and Mor Regosol. CDMR DMR Mor R OR CMk SMk PM PCG PG OG G B F DOBF NOBF] DBW GBW DOBW NOBW, GABW DOABW NOABW MMP DMP II NMP I NMP MOP NOP Ort. P Plate XVI —i 1 — to follow page 62 0 O 25 0 0 O O O 0 O 0 Vf5 2^0 225 250 CDMR DMR Mor R OR CMk SMk PM PCG P G OG G B F DOBF NOBF DBW GBW DOBW NOBW GABW DOABW NOABW MMP DMP II NMP I NMP MOP NOP Ort. P 50 7 5 100 125 150 PPM ADSORBED PHOSPHATE Fig. 36. Concentration of adsorbed phosphate in F-H horizons. -63-outwash, sheetwash, or alluvium were studied. These profiles occurred mainly in situations i n which moisture was i n good supply at least at certain times of the yea:'. The kind of the original buried s o i l was d i f f i c u l t to assess, but the following soils were recognized; (i) two Duff Mull Regosols over Orthic Brown Wooded (Fig. 3 0 ) , ( i i ) one Duff Mull Regosol over a Gleyed Brown Wooded, ( i i i ) one Mor Regosol over a Moist Minimal Podzol, and (iv) one Mor Regosol over an Orthic Acid Brown Wooded. Eighteen of the 2 9 soils previously discussed are compared by average depth and sequence of horizons i n Fig. 37. Further comparison i s afforded by 13 monoliths illustrated i n Appendix G. Topographic Factors and Type of S o i l Relief A l l plots were classified i n terms of the shape of their ground surfaces. Eight main divisions were used; (i) strongly convex, ( i i ) convex, ( i i i ) slightly convex, (iv) neutral (sloping, but neither concave nor convex), (v) s l i g h t l y concave, (vi) concave, (vii) strongly concave, and ( v i i i ) f l a t . Transitional situations ?vere also noted, and descriptive terms such as undulation, hummock, and basin were used. Close a f f i n i t i e s of certain of the r e l i e f classes with groups of soils were recognized. Generally the very wet soil s in the Organic and Gleysolic Orders (Peaty Gleysol, Peaty Calcareous Gleysol, Orthic Meadow, Peaty Meadow, Shallow Muck, Deep Muck and Calcareous Muck) were associated with either strongly concave or concave r e l i e f . None occurred on r e l i e f with any tendency toward convexity, though humraocky and basin-like surfaces were encountered. Similarly, the gleyed sub-groups (Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded, Gleyed Brown Wooded, and Gleyed Brown Forest) did not occur on convex r e l i e f , though there was more tendency toward neutral r e l i e f than i n the wet s o i l s . Ort P NOP F H DOABW GABW F H F H Plate XVII MOP F H A e NO~BF F H A h 1 NMP II NMP L i F H - e - A e - > -F H B B B C B C r 1 C 1 PG SMk L L F H F H H C H C MMP DMP NOABW F H B C MR F H B C CDMR F H B C F H A h Ck F H B C I DMR • A e A h FIG. 37 Average depth and sequence of honzpns of soil profiles NOBW Z E F H B C DOBW F H Ahj s O H j O I-1 M Q CD .0s -64-Moist soils (Moist Orthic Podzol and Moist Minimal Podzol) were found mainly on slightly concave slopes, but also, to a lesser extent, on slightly convex and convex r e l i e f . Dry soils (Dry Minimal Podzol, Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded, Dry Orthic Brown Wooded, and Dry Orthic Brown Forest) showed a definite a f f i n i t y for strongly convex and convex slopes — a condition met by upper slopes and rock outcrop areas. The large group of so-called normal soil s (Normal Orthic Podzol, I and II Normal Minimal Podzols, Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded, Normal Orthic Brown Wooded, and Normal Orthic Brown Forest) were found mainly on f l a t , neutral, slightly convex, and convex surfaces, though about 30 per cent were on slight-ly concave and concave slopes. The Regosols of a l l u v i a l origin were mainly associated with neutral, f l a t , or slightly concave r e l i e f . The Calcareous Duff Mull Regosols could be placed i n a class with the wet and very wet soils as their occurrence was on strongly concave or concave r e l i e f . The three Ortstein Podzol profiles occurred on f l a t to concave surfaces. Aerial photographs were studied steroscopically with the object of recognizing r e l i e f features. The scale of the photographs (1/2 mile per inch) proved too small for other than broad generalizations such as position on slope. Degree of Slope The measurement of degree of slope was a relatively simple procedure on uniform single slopes. Often, however, there was more than one slope within a plot and a range had to be given. The latter were referred to as "complex slopes" by the United States S o i l Survey Staff (1951). -65-A l l plots were divided into two groups. The f i r s t included a l l plots on single and complex slopes (the steepest portion) not exceeding 20 degrees. The second included plots on slopes of over 20 degrees (Table 2) Table 2 indicated that generally i n the study area, the properties of steep slopes favored d r i e r and less podzolized s o i l s (Dry Orthic Brown Wooded, Dry Orthic Brown Forest,, Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded, Normal Orthic Brown Wooded, Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded, and Dry Minimal Podzol), while those of gentle slopes and f l a t areas favored more podzolized or moister s o i l s (Normal Orthic Podzol, Ortstein Podzol, gleyed s o i l s , Organic, and Gleysolic s o i l s ) . The Regosols, which were mainly a l l u v i a l , were obviously r e s t r i c t e d to f l a t areas. Exposure Because f l a t s i t e s and gentle slopes are r e l a t i v e l y unaffected by var i a -tions i n exposure, the plots with less than 6 degrees of slope were grouped with those with no s Lope,, with the assumption that t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r exposure was not e f f e c t i v e . The remainder of plots with eff e c t i v e exposures were grouped by t h e i r respective cardinal and mid-cardinal d i r e c t i o n . These groups were then divided into three topoclimatic classes: ( i ) cold slopes (northeast, north, and northwest exposures), ( i i ) warm slopes (southeast, south, and south-west exposures), and ( i i i ) intermediate slopes (east and west exposures). A fourth class with non-effective slopes was also included (Table 3 ) . Several s o i l groups have so few plots that trends could not be observed and were not included i n Table 3 . Considering the remainder, there was some ind i c a t i o n that the formation of Dry Orthic Brown Wooded, Normal Orthic Brown Wooded, Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded, and possibly Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded, was favored on warm slopes. More conclusive was the absence of Normal and Dry Orthic Brown Wooded and Normal and Dry Orthic Brown Forest s o i l s (not shown i n Table 3 ) on cold slopes i n the study area. In addition, s i x out of -66-Table 2. The Distribution of Soils by Class of Slope S o i l a "No. of Under 21° Over 20° Over 20° profiles % Ort. P 3 3 0 0 NOP 18 18 0 0 GABW + GBW + GBF 8 8 0 0 DMR 10 10 0 0 Mor R + OR 5 5 0 0 Buried profiles 5 5 0 0 Organic + Gleysolic 15 13 2 13 MMP 13 11 2 15 MOP 10 8 2 20 I + II NMP 37 26 11 30 CDMR 3 2 1 33 DMP 9 4 5 56 DOABW 5 2 3 60 NOBW + NOBF 8 3 5 62 NOABW 13 4 9 69 DBW 2 0 2 100 DOBW + DOBF 4 0 4 100 Total 168 120 46 28 a Abbreviations are explained i n Table 1. -67-Table 3. The Distribution of Some Soils by Topoclimatic Class S o i l a No. of Warm Cold Intermediate No effective plots slopes slopes slopes exposure % % % % DOBW 3 100 0 0 0 NOBW 7 86 0 U 0 GABW 6 33 0 33 33 NOABW 13 46 24 15 15 DOABW 5 40 20 40 0 IINMP 13 46 31 8 15 INMP 24 33 26 8 33 MOP 10 30 30 0 40 MMP 13 23 38 15 24 NOP 17 35 12 0 53 Gleysolic + Organic 15 7 20 13 60 DMR 10 0 10 0 90 Total b 168 32 20 11 37 Abbreviations are explained i n Table 1. Includes plots not presented i n Table. -68-seven of the Normal Orthic Brown Wooded, and a l l three of the Dry Orthic Brown Wooded profiles studied occurred on warm slopes. None of the six Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded profiles occurred on cold slopes. This grouping by exposures again underlined the tendency for Normal Orthic Podzols to develop on gentle slopes and f l a t areas. Organic and Gley-solic s o i l s showed this same tendency, as did the Duff Mull Regosols which were mainly on a l l u v i a l deposits. Elevation Plots varied from 1,4.10 to 4,210 feet i n elevation. Plots at the higher elevations were relatively few, and influences of elevation on s o i l formation could not be assessed with certainty (Table 4 ) . Four plots (3,800 to 4,200 feet), two of which were classified as II Minimal Podzols and two as Moist Minimal Podzols, a l l showed a greater incorporation of organic matter into the mineral s o i l than similar types of s o i l at lower elevations. The humus of these higher-elevation plots tended to be more friable and duff mull-like than average. There was a lack of wet soils (Organic and Gleysolic) below 2,000 feet, and of Regosols and Normal Orthic Podzols above 3,000 feet. Otherwise, there was a f a i r l y even distribution of s o i l groups over the f u l l range of eleva-tion. S o i l Moisture and Temperature and Type of S o i l S o i l moisture is often included with the factor topography; however, since both quality and quantity of water were considered i n this study, and since s o i l temperature i s dependent on vegetative cover as well as slope and exposure, s o i l moisture and temperature were considered separately from topography. - 69 -Table 4. Distribution of Plots by Elevation Limits - feet % <1,500 7 1,501 - 2,000 10 2,001 - 2,500 34 2,501 - 3,000 30 3,000 - 3,500 17 3,501 - 4,000 2 4,000 - 4,210 1 -70-Ground Water The term ground water included both the laterally moving, generally suspended, or vadose water, and the phreatic or general water table. The f i r s t was common on g l a c i a l - t i l l slopes, and the second was associated with alluvium. In both cases, the measure used was the depth below the s o i l sur-face at which the water level occurred i n s o i l pits. The depths of the pits varied from about 1 to 1.5 meters. Readings taken i n early May, July and September, I960, indicated a con-tinuous occurrence of water i n the pits of a l l of the Gleysolic and Organic so i l s , other than the Orthic Gleysols. The levels i n some of these fluctu-ated only from 0 to 20 cm below the s o i l surface, while others fluctuated up to 60 cm, from 10 to 20 cm below the s o i l surface i n early May to 60 to 80 cm below by early September (Fig. 38). The water level of gleyed soils (Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded, Gleyed Brown Wooded and Gleyed Brown Forest) generally, showed the greatest fluctuation. Other soils which had measurable seepage were the Moist Minimal Podzol and the Moist Orthic Podsol. Seepage was measured i n about 35 per cent of these s o i l s . The water level generally fluctuated from about 60 cm below the surface i n early May to an undetermined depth below the pit bottoms by early September. The classification of many of these soi l s as moist was based on the presence of weakly gleyed horizons. The lateral flow along these gleyed horizons during the measuring period i n many of the pits was too weak to afford a collection of water. The three Calcareous Duff Mull Regosols had measurable water at a l l times during the summer. The water table of the Duff Mull Regosols was often deep and not encoun-tered, but measurements were made on a few. These, the Orthic Gleysols, both situated on an a l l u v i a l floodplain, and other a l l u v i a l soils were grouped Plate XVIII Depth Cm Early May o-SOILS OF ORGANIC A N D GLEYSOLIC [EX- 5 0 CLUDING ORTHIC GLEY-SOL] GROUPS. 75 100 to follow page 70 September SOILS OF GLEYED SUB-GROUPS. 2 5 — ALLUVIAL SOILS-REGOSOL GROUP AND 5 0 _ ORTHIC GLEYSOL SUB-GROUP. 7 5 _ 100— F i g 3 8 A C o m p a r i s o n of g r o u n d - w a t e r leve ls -Al-together (Fig. 38). The water table i n most of these a l l u v i a l sites reached the highest level at the second reading rather than the f i r s t as i n non-a l l u v i a l s o i l s . This peak coincided with that of the flood waters in the main streams. Chemical tests carried out on the seepage of J^O plots have been summarized (Table 5)• Correlations between s o i l and concentration of cations were not evident except for the exceptionally high calcium and magnesium content of the seepage of the Calcareous Duff Mull Regosols, and the low concentration of the same elements i n the seepage of Duff Mull Regosols. Seepage water quality reflected geographical location and parent material to a greater extent than s o i l . Areas with high calcium and magnesium concen-tration were Trout Lake, Kaslo-Gerrard, Keen Creek, Slewiskin Creek, summit of Stevens Pass, and Erie Creek. Areas in which conspicuously low amounts of calcium and magnesium occurred i n the seepage included Mabel Lake, Sugar Lake, Whatshan Lake, Caribou Greek, and Wilson Lake. In the main, the f i r s t group occurs near the eastern boundary of the study area and the second group near the western border. While geological discus-sion i s Included i n the following section, i t should be pointed out that the group high i n calcium and magnesium was mainly associated with sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic bedrock of the Lardeau, Slocan, and Kaslo series i n the north, and the volcanic and sedimentary Rossland formation and Sinemurian beds i n the south. In contrast, the group low i n calcium and magnesium lay mainly above igneous and metamorphic bedrock, including the Shuswap terrane (Monashee group), certain Coast intrusions, the Kuskanax batholith, and the Nelson batholith. Potassium concentration showed no marked association with s o i l or locality, though the Trout Lake seepage was exceptionally low i n potassium in contrast to i t s high calcium content. -72-Table 5. Concentration of Calcium, Magnesium, and Potassium i n Ground Water Plot Location S o i l Ca ( me/1) Mg (: me/l) K (me/1) May July May July May July 138 Kaslo-Lardeau CDMR 4.28 4.4.8 0.67 0.96 0.076 O.O64 128 Slewiskin Cr. CDMR 4.07 0.81 0.030 101 Wilson Gr. CDMR 4..05 1.19 0.023 159 Trout L. GBW 3.09 3.28 0.59 0.88 0.028 0.018 049 Stevens Pass DMk 2.03 3.03 0.08 0.35 O.O4O 0.034 129 Slewiskin Cr. SMk 2.93 0.63 0.035 161 Trout L. CMk 2.29 2.76 1.01 0.91 0.029 0.018 153 Keen Cr. MOP 2.68 0.44 0.066 162 Trout Lo DMR/GBW 2.41 2.52 0.52 0.95 0.030 0.025 139 Lardeau-Gerrard OG 2.52 0.41 0.034 151 Keen Cr. PCG 2 o46 0.34 0.062 14-0 Lardeau-Gerrard OG 2.38 0.42 0.036 O48 Stevens Pass MMP 2.14 2.29 0.12 0.47 0.036 0.027 171 Sandon MMP 2.25 0.37 0.019 I49 Keen Cr. PG 2.18 0.^ 6 0.024 113 Wilson L. SMk 2.12 0.33 0.012 I84 Erie Cr. NOBW 2.00 0.45 0.046 050 Stevens Pass MOP 1.96 0.30 0.033 Oi l Mabel L. SMk 0.34 1.87 0.00 0.13 0.042 0.035 079 Nakusp Hot Sp. PG 1.81 0.22 0.050 003 Mabel L. SMk 0.32 1.68 0.04 0.24 0.033 0.040 052 Stevens Pass GABW 1.24. 1.66 O.I4 0.30 0.059 0.044. 104. Wilson L. PM 1.13 1.51 0.05 O.I4 0.028 0.020 -73-Table 5 . Continued Plot Location S o i l Ca (me/1) Mg ( me/1) K (me/1) May July May July May July 327 Kuskanax Cr. Mor R/MP I .48 0.32 0.022 126 Kuskanax Cr. Mor R/0ABW 1.40 0.26 0.018 119 Hasty Cr. MMP 1.17 0.21 0.0L4 026 Sugar L. SMk 0.83 1.11 0.11 0.39 0.033 0.028 166 Trout L. MOP 1.03 1.00 0.15 0.40 0.027 0.016 039 Fisher Cr. GABW 0 .77 0.16 0.022 114 Wilson L„ PG 0.72 0 .14 0.012 014 Mabel L. 0M 0.69 - 0.11 0.037 093 Wilson L. GABW 0.28 O.64 0.07 0.08 0.033 0.024 O65 Caribou Cr. DMR 0.62 0 .14 0.030 058 Whatshan L. MMP 0.59 0.12 0.022 057 Whatshan L. GABW 0.30 0.52 0.06 0 .14 0.030 0.022 O64 Caribou Cr. DMR 0.49 0.12 0.037 028 .Sugar L. DMR O.48 0 .24 0.023 105 Wilson L. GABW O.46 0.09 0.025 019 Sugar L. DMR 0.44 0.07 0.036 05I Stevens Pass DMR 0.35 0.15 0.038 , - 7 4 -Especially i n the Organic s o i l s , there was an increase i n magnesium and calcium concentration from May to July. The lower concentration i n the early period may have been caused by dilution by rapidly melting snow s t i l l present i n some areas i n early May. S o i l Moisture A synthesis of the results of the s o i l moisture study are presented i n Appendix D. Only the I960 data have been included as the 1959 data were con-sidered unreliable for the following reasons. F i r s t l y , the rotary selector switches used i n 1959 appeared to cause erratic readings, especially during wet weather. Secondly, the recording instrument i t s e l f was adversely affect-ed by rain which f e l l on many of the days when measurements were made. Thirdly, the units placed i n the s o i l i n May, 1959, would have taken a period of time to come into equilibrium with the surrounding s o i l . Fourthly, i f the relationship of s o i l moisture to e l e c t r i c a l resistance of the units changes with time, then the laboratory calibration made after the units were removed would apply more correctly to the I960 readings than to 1959. Finally, because the summer of I960 was considerably drier than 1959, soil-moisture deficiencies would be more clearly indicated from the I960 data. The wide range i n textures and organic matter content of the soils involved resulted i n a corresponding wide range of indirectly-estimated wilt-ing percentages (1.5 - 17.2). A comparison of moisture contents would not aid greatly i n the characterization of s o i l moisture regime. It was believed that a better indication would be whether or not the individual s o i l dried out to a point equal to or below the wilting percentage. Because i t can be assumed that a moisture deficiency occurs somewhat before the calculated wilting point (Baver, 1956: 284-285), those soils reaching a moisture con-tent within 20 percent of the wilting point were also noted. After inspection of the results the stations were arranged i n order, -75-from those which were probably subjected to a moisture deficiency at various depths and over a f a i r l y long period of time, to those i n which there was definitely no moisture deficiency (Table 6). Except for Station 10, a l l sli g h t l y convex, convex, and strongly convex r e l i e f were associated with relatively dry sites, while the wetter sites were associated with slightly concave and concave r e l i e f . Correlation of moisture trends with s o i l was obvious only i n two cases. F i r s t l y , the two wettest stations had Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded soils. Second-ly, three stations with soils classified as dry (one Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and two Dry Minimal Podzols) were shown by the Colman units to be relatively dry even though two (06 and 07) had northwest-facing slopes. In addition, the two Normal Orthic Podzols were both moderately moist. The large differences i n the moisture regimes of both I and II Normal Minimal Podzols Illustrated the d i f f i c u l t y of designating soils as dry, normal, or moist on the basis of s o i l - p i t features alone. As indicated by this moisture study, the soils of Stations 03 and 05 should have been desig-nated as Moist Minimal Podzols. Station 04, and to a lesser extent Station 12, both tentatively c l a s s i -fied as Devil's Club sites, experienced unexpected moisture deficiencies. The coarse-textured surface horizons of these soils were apparently conducive to a rapid drying during the dry I960 summer period. S o i l Temperature Average, maximum, and minimum s o i l temperatures for the f i e l d season of i960 were recorded i n Appendix D. From these data, the stations were list e d i n order of decreasing warmness (Table 7)« The order of stations on the basis of subsoil temperature was f a i r l y similar to that l i s t e d by moisture deficiency (Table 6). Consequently, Stations 02, 11, L4, and 06 had both warm and dry soils; Stations 13, 15, 03 -76-T a b l e 6 . T o p o g r a p h i c , S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a n d S o i l M o i s t u r e D a t a f o r C l i m a t i c S t a t i o n s L i s t e d f r o m D r y t o Wet (May 11 - S e p t . 2 9 , I 9 6 0 ) T o t a l weeks a l l u n i t s i n d i c a t i n g s o i l S t a t i o n S o i l E c o - S l o p e E x p o s u r e R e l i e f m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c y a n d SB n o . s y s t e m ( d e g r e e s ) t y p e * ( d e g r e e s ) 2 0 cm 50 cm > 5 0 cn l c 2 d 1 2 1 2 02 - 0 6 0 IINMP SBM 2 9 S35E S I . c o n v e x 1 4 9 1 0 4 H _ 106 INMP SNM 22 S 6 0 E C o n v e x 9 0 2 0 - -07 - 202 DMP 3NM 7 N50W S t . c o n v e x 3 0 1 2 5 0 06 - 067 DMP SBM 24 N65W C o n v e x 5 1 1 1 5 1 11 085 DOABW L 2 0 - 2 5 S15E G o n v e x 0 0 5 0 5 0 O4 - 065 DMR AD 3 S55W N e u t r a l 2 4 5 0 0 0 0 9 - 107 INMP SBM 4 5 S35E S I . c o n v e x 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 1 - 2 0 1 I N M P SNM 4 S60E N e u t r a l 0 1 0 2 0 0 12 - 150 Mor R AD 0 0 F l a t 0 3 0 0 0 0 05 _ 066 I N M P S A - 0 2 9 N55W S I . c o n c a v e 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 - 2 0 9 NOP SNM 6-12 Due S S t . c o n v e x 0 0 0 0 0 0 08 108 NOP D A - 0 9 S 2 0 E C o n c a v e 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 - 0 6 1 IINMP S A - 0 2 - 3 S15E S I . c o n c a v e 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 - none GABW S A - 0 15 N10E S I . c o n c a v e 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 - 093 GABW A A - 0 4 S40E N e u t r a l t o s i . c o n c a v e 0 0 0 0 0 0 a D a t a f r o m B e l l ( 1 9 6 2 ) . A b b r e v i a t i o n s e x p l a i n e d i n f o o t n o t e t o T a b l e 1, A p p e n d i x A . k S I . = s l i g h t l y ; S t . = s t r o n g l y . c 1 = U n i t s r e c o r d i n g m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t b e l o w w i l t i n g p e r c e n t a g e . d 2 = U n i t s r e c o r d i n g m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t b e t w e e n w i l t i n g p e r c e n t a g e a n d w i l t i n g p e r c e n t a g e + 0 . 2 0 w i l t i n g p e r c e n t a g e . -77-Table 7. S o i l Classification and Soi l Temperature Data for Climatic Station's Listed from Warm to Cold (May 11 - Sept. 29, 1960)a Average Maximum Minimum Station S o i l temperature temperature temperature and (°F) (°F) (°F) SB no. 20 cm 50 cm 20 cm 50 cm 20 cm 50 cm 02 - 060 IINMP 51.0 49 »4 58.O 54-0 40.0 41.0 01 - 201 INMP 50.3 48.3 57.5 54.O 39.5 39.5 14 - 106 INMP 49.4 48.8 57.0 54«5 39.5 38.5 11 - 085 DOABW 50.0 56.O 52.0 42.0 39.5 07 - 202 DMP 49.8 46.8 55-5 52.0 39.5 37.0 06 - 067 DMP 48.8 46.4 55.0 51.0 40.0 37.5 12 - 150 Mor R 48.0 46.2 54-0 50.0 38.0 39.5 05 - 066 INMP 47.3 46.2 54-5 51.0 37.5 38.0 10 - 209 NOP 47.7 46.5 53.5 51-5 39.0 38.5 OA - O65 DMR 47.8 45*9 55-5 51.5 34.5 33.0 09 - 107 INMP 46.6 45-1 54-0 50.0 37.5 38.0 08 - 108 NOP 47.6 45-9 54-0 5O.5 38.5 35-5 03 - 061 IINMP 48.2 45.2 54-0 49.0 38.5 38.5 15 - 093 GABW 46.5 44.6 53-5 49.5 36.5 35-5 13 - none GABW 47.0 45.4 52.0 48.5 39.5 39.0 a Topographic data and ecosystem types may be obtained from Table 6. -78-and 08 had both cold and wet soil s ; and Stations 12, 05, 10 and 09 were inter-mediate i n both respects. Exceptions were the s o i l of Station 04 which was moderately cold and moderately dry, and that of Station 01 which was very warm but only moderately dry. Surface temperature data were collected by Bell (1962) i n 13 of the 15 stations. On the basis of average weekly maximum surface temperatures, the 13 stations i n order of temperature (°F) were: 11 (122.2), 02 (96.5), 01 (92.5), OA (74.4), 07 (74.3), 05 (73.1), 08 (70.8), 09 (68.5), 10 (66.9), 06 (66.8), 03 (66.2), 13 (63.8), and 12 (62.9). Compared with subsoil tem-peratures, the surface temperatures of Station 04 were high, while those of 12 and 06 were low. Otherwise, the surface temperatures corresponded f a i r l y well with subsoil temperatures. Results indicated that the Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded and Normal Orthic Podzol soils were relatively cold, while the dry soils (Dry Minimal Podzol and Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded) were f a i r l y warm. The I and II Normal Minimal Podzols were, as with the moisture study, spread over almost the f u l l range. Bedrock, Parent Material and Type of S o i l A correlation of soils with bedrock would exist only i f the s o i l parent material originated, i n part at least, from the underlying bedrock. Appendix E was included to i l l u s t r a t e the general correspondence of rocks taken from the parent material with the underlying bedrock as delimited on geological maps. Several exceptions existed. The high proportion of granite i n the Mabel Lake pits was not in accordance with the composition of the underlying Monashee group which i s composed chiefly of granitoid and hornblende gneiss, schists and quartzites. Rocks from Cusson Creek resembled those from the neighboring Slocan group. Rocks from the heavily drift-covered Makinson -79-Flats and Fisher Creek area (Arrowpark Creek Valley), though apparently under-l a i n by the Sloean group, resembled more closely the Monashee group. Another heavily drift-covered area, the Kuskanax River fan deposits, had rock general-ly resembling the nearby Kuskanax batholith, while underlying and outcropping a short distance away was the dark-colored argillaceous bedrock of the Slocan group. The soi l s of the whole Nakusp area, including the Nakusp Hot Spring's road and Wilson Lake, were influenced by both the light-colored igneous rocks of the Kuskanax batholith, and the sedimentary and metamorphic types of the Slocan group. Pits along the Kaslo-Gerrard road, an area underlain by Lardeau series bedrock, tended to consist of an unusually high proportion of granite. The above differences between rock types i n parent material and i n under-lying bedrock occur especially i n heavily drift-covered areas and near the boundaries of bedrock types. Similarities such as the following are consider-ably more commons the gneisses from Sugar Lake pits; the schists, slates and argillaceous quartzites of the Stevens Pass, Summit Lake, Sandon, Keen Creek, Slewiskin Creek, Wilson Lake (near Nakusp) pits; the igneous rocks of the Burton, Caribou Creek, Whatshan Lake, Wilson Lake (near Wilson Lake), Box Lake, Hasty Creek, and Duhamel Creek pits; the volcanics of Erie Creek pits; and the argillaceous quartzites, schists and marbles of the Kootenay and Trout Lake pits. A l l these serve to demonstrate that a close relationship between parent material and bedrock type exists even i n transported materials (see Figs. 1 and 8 for place names and bedrock boundaries). General rela-tionship between bedrock and s o i l can thus be discussed. Direction i n this regard i s provided by noting the presence of some soils on certain bedrocks and their absence on others (Table 8). Further to Table 8, no Normal Orthic Podzols or Ortstein Podzols were sampled i n the Duhamel Creek, Erie Creek, Sandon, Keen Creek, Trout Lake, Kaslo-Lardeau, Wilson Creek, Burton and Caribou Creek areas. Thus, the - 8 0 -Table 8. Distribution of Calcareous, Neutral, and Strongly Acid Soils on the Various Bedrock Types S o i l Bedrock No. of profiles Calcareous soils CDMR Slocan group 2 Lardeau series 1 CMk Lardeau series 1 PCG Slocan group 1 Neutral soils NOBW + NOBF Sinemurian beds and Rossland formation 5 Lardeau series 2 Milford group 1 DOBW + DOBF Nelson intrusions 3 Lardeau series 1 GBW + GBF Nelson intrusions 1 Lardeau series 1 DMR/GBW + DMR/OBW Lardeau series 3 Strongly acid soils NOP Monashee group 6 (2 outwash) Slocan group 7 (5 alluvial) Kuskanax batholith 2 Lardeau series 2 (both alluvial) Nelson intrusions 1 Ort. P Kuskanax batholith 2 Monashee group 1 -81-majority of strongly podzolized soils occurred i n the northwestern portion of the study area on glac i a l t i l l as well as on outwash and alluvium, while in the southeastern portion they were rare and restricted generally to alluvium. While other factors such as climate were certainly involved, i t appeared l i k e l y that parent materials derived from the Monashee group, Kuskanax batho-l i t h , and Coast intrusions were not conducive to the formation of calcareous, Brown Wooded, or Brown Forest s o i l s . In contrast, parent materials from the Lardeau series, Milford group, Sinemurian beds, and Rossland formation were often associated with calcareous and neutral s o i l s , but seldom with strongly acid s o i l s . Both calcareous and strongly acid soils were found on Slocan group bedrock. The Nelson intrusions were associated with neutral s o i l s , rarely with strongly acid, and never with calcareous s o i l s . Considerable amounts of plagioclase-bearing igneous rocks (diorite, quartz monzonite, quartz diorite) were found i n the parent materials derived from these intrusions. Parent Material The percentages of soils sampled from each parent material type are given i n Table 9. The percentages of a l l u v i a l , outwash and rock outcrop soils are undoubtedly disproportionate to their actual extent i n the study area. In order to obtain a sufficiently large sample of the less common parent material types, plots were concentrated more heavily on a l l u v i a l , out-wash, and rock outcrop sites than on the more common gl a c i a l t i l l types. The term "rock outcrop" was used to describe the mixture of colluvium, gl a c i a l t i l l and residuum which occurred i n varying and uncertain proportions in those situations where the s o i l was shallow to bedrock, and where bedrock was exposed as outcrops. -82-Table 9» Proportions of Parent Material Types Sampled Parent material No. of profiles " % Glacial t i l l (G) 69 41.1 Alluvium (A) 33 19.6 Outwash (0) U 8.3 Rock outcrop (R) 13 7.7 Colluvium ( G ) 7 4.2 Organic deposits (H) 2 1.2 Tufa (T) 1 0.6 Glacial t i l l - Colluvium mixture (GC) 10 5-9 Outwash - Alluvium mixture (OA) 8 4.8 Glacial t i l l - Colluvium mixture (GA) 5 3.0 Glacial t i l l - Outwash mixture (GO) 2 1.2 Other mixtures u 2.4 -83-Outwash referred generally to bouldery, stony, or cobbly, washed and f a i r l y rounded material. No attempt was made to distinguish between glac i a l outwash and outwash resulting from sudden floods. Alluvium, i n contrast, was generally considered to be washed, well-sorted material, devoid of boulders, cobbles and stones. Of the four most common types, rock outcrop parent material was most specific i n the production of s o i l s . Nearly 85 per cent of the soils studied on rock outcrop parent material were either Dry Minimal Podzol or Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded soils (Table 10). Outwash parent materials were associated mainly with either Regosols (22 per cent) or Podzols (71 per cent). Only i n one case was a Brunisolic s o i l found associated with outwash. In contrast, alluvium was the parent material of several Muck, Gleysol and Meadow soils as well as of Regosols and Podzols. Glacial t i l l was the parent material of the widest variety of soi l s . A noteworthy departure from the distribution i n alluvium "and outwash was that 24 per cent of the profiles involved with gla c i a l t i l l were i n the Brunisolic Order. In addition, Gleysolic and Muck soils were found on glac i a l t i l l , while Regosols were vi r t u a l l y non-existent. Organic Material and Type of S o i l Cellulose Decomposition 1. Laboratory T r i a l As described i n Chapter III, s o i l was collected from L4 plots selected on the basis of their tentatively recognized phytocoenoses (Table 11). Using Just Significant Range (JSR) as the s t a t i s t i c a l measure, s i g n i f i -cant differences (at the five per cent level) i n the a b i l i t y to decompose cotton cellulose were found among the soils of the following plots: -84-Table 10. Distribution of Soils among Four Parent Materials S o i l Glacial t i l l Alluvium Outwash Rock outcrop % % t % Ort. P 2.9 0.0 7.1 0.0 NOP 10.1 12.1 35.8 0.0 MOP 11.7 0.0 7.1 0.0 INMP 18.9 21.2 7.1 0.0 IINMP 11.7 3.0 0.0 0.0 MMP 7.2 6.1 7.1 0.0 DMP 2.9 0.0 7.1 46.2 NOABW 8.7 6.1 7.1 0.0 DOABW 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.4 GABW 5.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 NOBW 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 DOBW 1.4 0.0 0.0 7.7 DBW 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 GBW 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 DOBF 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.7 GBF 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 Gleysols and Meadows 5.8 12.1 0.0 0.0 Mucks 2.9 3.0 0.0 0.0 Regosols 1.4 24.3 21.6 0.0 Buried profiles 1.4 9.1 0.0 0.0 -85-Table l l o Plot Information and Results of Laboratory Cellulose Decomposition Trials Plot Associa-* t i o n a Loss i n breaking strength % S o i l Exposure, r e l i e f and slope 108 . DA-0 10.6 NOP S, concave (hummocks), sloping. 036 M 10.8 INMP N, neut., mod. steep. 091 M 11.9 INMP S, s i . convex and concave depressions, mod. steep. 151 D 13.3 PCG N, concave, steep. 094 DA-0 I 4 . 0 MOP SE, f l a t (hummocks), gent, slop-ing. 132 DA-0 U . 2 Ort. P W, s i . concave, gent, sloping. 085 L I6.4 DOABW S, convex, steep. 045 M 17.8 IINMP NE, convex, mod. steep. 039 A-0 23.4 GABW SE, neut. to s i . concave, mod. steep. 153 A-0 25.2 MOP N, s i . concave, very steep. 093 A-0 26.6 GABW SE, neut. to s i . concave, gent. sloping. 033 D 29.5 NOABW NW, concave, very steep. 121 L 30.4 DMP W, convex, steep. 152 D 40.6 DMR NE, concave, gent, sloping. a L = D = Lichen; M = Moss; DA-0 Devil's Club. = Degraded Aralia-Oakfern; A-0 = Aralia-Oakfern; mod. = moderately; s i . = slightly; gent. = gently; neut. = neutral. -86-No. 152 greater a b i l i t y than 108, 036, 091, 151, 094, 132, 045, 085; 121 greater a b i l i t y than 108, 036, 091; 033 greater a b i l i t y than 108, 036, 091. Significant differences were also found among the following associations: Lichen greater than Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern; Aralia-Oakfern greater than Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern; Devil's Club greater than Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern. It was apparent that the soils of the Degraded Aralia-Oakfern and Moss sites were not as active i n cotton decomposition as were those of the drier Lichen and the moister Aralia-Oakfern and Devil's Club sites. 2. Field Trials For the f i e l d t r i a l s , two plots which had been disturbed by logging i n the year following the laboratory t r i a l were replaced, and an additional Lichen plot was brought into the study (Table 12). Since the cotton strips were placed just under the surface of the F-H layer, the f i e l d t r i a l s were more particularly a test of the activity of the humus layer than of the mineral s o i l . Results for the three successive periods of burial are given i n Table 13. Apparently, conditions influencing microbial decomposition of cellulose were relatively even for a l l associations during the f i r s t period. During that period the soils were s t i l l adequately supplied with moisture from melt-ing snow and spring rains, and daily solar radiation was high. A l l the Devil's Club plots were situated on north slopes. Presumably, s o i l temperatures during the early period were not optimum for high microbial activity. During the middle period the warmth needed was supplied, and with an adequate supply of moisture excellent conditions for decomposition were provided. - 8 7 -Table 12. Additional Cellulose Decomposition Plot Information Association Plot S o i l Exposure, r e l i e f and slope DA-0 112 Ort. P NW, concave, gently sloping. L 122 Mor R a SW, strongly convex, moderately steep. D 129 SMk NE, strongly concave, steep. a Colluvial -88= Table 13. Results of Field Cellulose Decomposition Trials Associa- Plot Loss i n breaking strength - % Summer average tion I a Aver-age I I b Aver-age I I I C Aver-age of individual strips L 121 84.8 76.1 75.1 085 85.3 73.4 63.3 70.8 67.7 72.7 72.5 122 49.9 72.9 75.4 M 045 79 o3 38.8 59.3 036 56.9 63.9 36.1 38.0 49.2 49.1 52.4 091 55-6 39.1 38.6 DA-0 112 76.6 48 »3 39.0 094 56.7 58.1 64.4 56.6 49.2 45-9 53.5 108 41.1 57.1 50.3 A-0 039 85.4 82.5 67.3 093 60.4 64.3 75-4 66.4 66.2 63.5 64.5 153 47.4 41.2 57.0 D 129 68.1 80.3 68.7 152 67.8 65.9 85.5 75.0 71.8 69.7 69.4 151 61.7 59.0 68.5 a June 4 to July 9 - L greater decomposition than DA-0 (JSR at 5%). July 9 to August 13 - L, D, A-0 and DA-0 greater decomposition than M (JSR at 5%); L and D greater decomposition than DA-0 (JSR at 5%)• c August 13 to September 17 - L, D and A-0 greater decomposition than M and DA-0 (JSR at % ) ' , L greater decomposition than A-0 (JSR at 5$). -89-The Moss plots showed a trend opposite that of the Devil's Club as their highest activity was i n the early period* This activity decreased greatly i n the warm, dry middle period but was revived i n the last period. The Aralia-Oakfern association as a whole exhibited a f a i r l y even rate of decomposition throughout the three periods though the trends of the individual plots differed greatly. The Lichen plots exhibited excellent a b i l i t y to decompose cellulose In the f i e l d just as i n the laboratory t r i a l s . Surprisingly, they were not i n -fluenced greatly by the middle dry and warm period. One plot greatly increas-ed i t s activity i n that period while the activity of the remaining two decreased. The t r i a l s showed that the f e l t y mors (usually with a non-friable H layer) represent conditions of low activity of cellulose-decomposing micro-organisms, while duff mulls and granular mors represent greater activity (Table 14). The thick duff mulls were characteristic of Devil's Club plots which receive a heavy f a l l of western red cedar l i t t e r each year. The granular mors generally represented situations of light l i t t e r accumulation and a decomposition rate sufficiently high to prevent any marked surface accumula-tion of organic matter. Chemical data indicated that the rate of cellulose decomposition increased with increasing pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, sodium, and base saturation; and decreased with increasing CsN ratio (Table 15). The humus of the Lichen plots, though high i n cellulose-decomposing activity, was, however, not especially well supplied with nutrients although i t was generally better i n this respect than that of the Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern humus. Chemical analysis revealed both the degraded condition of Aralia--90-Table L£« A Comparison of Soils, Humus Type, and Cellulose Decomposition isocia-tion Plot Loss i n breaking strength % S o i l M 091 45-6 INMP DA-0 108 47.9 NOP A-0 153 49.0 MOP M 036 49.1 INMP DA-0 094 55-9 MOP DA-0 112 56.6 Ort. P H 045 62.5 IINMP L 122 64°4 Mor R D 151 65.9 PCG A-0 093 66.1 GABW D 152 71.1 DMR D 129 71.3 SMk L 085 73.7 DOABW A-0 039 78.4 GABW L 121 79.3 DMP Field description of humus Felty mor but with few apparent fungal hyphae; matting caused mainly by rootlets. Generally a fe l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae; but also with a very friable H layer. Felty mor with mainly white fungal hyphae, some yellow; generally com-pact; H not fri a b l e . Generally a f e l t y mor with yellow mycelia; H layer not friable; more rarely a thin mor. Generally a f e l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae; H layer not friable except somewhat under Hylocomium  splendens« Felty mor with duff mull tendency; yel-low fungal hyphae; H very friable. Thin mor with white fungal hyphae. Thick duff mull to granular mor; H layer very friable and like earth mull. Thick duff mull; very friable H layer grading into Ah; no fungal hyphae apparent. Generally a granular mor with duff mull tendency; H layer very friable (more so i n low spots and less on hummocks). Thick duff mull; very friable H layer grading into an Ah. Thick duff mull with a very friable H grading into an Ah; no fungal hyphae apparent. Felty mor with yellow hyphae under trees; thin to granular mor i n the open. Granular mor with duff mull tendency; mainly white fungal hyphae. Granular mor with some yellow ftingal hyphae to duff mull with very fine, friable H layer. -91-Table 15 . A Comparison of Humus Chemical Characteristics and Cellulose Decomposition Plot Associa- Loss i n pH N Organ- C Exchangeable (me/lOOg) BS tion breaking strength % % ic C % N Ca Mg K Na 091 M 45-6 3.4 1.22 55-1 45.2 4»4 6.2 1.91 0.10 10.3 108 DA-0 47.9 3.6 1.45 53 .5 36.9 9.9 8.9 2.05 0.22 15.1 153 A-0 49.0 3.8 1.20 43.2 36.0 15.1 9.9 1.51 0.09 26.2 036 M 49.1 4 . 0 1.63 56.2 34-5 8.8 8.1 1.99 0.09 15.4 094 DA-0 55«9 3.8 1.51 46.4 30.7 7.7 8 .5 2.58 0.16 13.5 112 DA-0 56.6 3.7 .1-39 47.3 34.0 15.7 5*3 1.52 0.17 14.1 045 M 62.5 5.8 1.14 38.9 34.1 49-0 16.3 2.42 0.20 63.2 122 L 64.4 5 .1 1.47 49.7 33.8 47.4 14.3 1.43 0.20 50.6 151 D 65 »9 6 .0 1.54 38.5 25.O 81.9 13 o3 1.08 O.45 64.7 093 A-0 66.1 5-4 1.36 32.4 23.8 45.2 12.0 1.59 0.36 47.0 152 D 71.1 5.6 2.56 41.6 16.2 109.8 11.6 0.83 0.54 69.2 129 D 71.3 6.0 1.77 40.4 22.8 99.0 20.6 2.03 0.81 75.0 O85 L 73.7 4.0 1.36 48.4 35.6 12.5 7.0 1.25 0.07 21.4 039 A-0 78.4 5.4 1.29 42 .7 33.1 49.6 12.9 1.07 0.21 51.9 121 L 79.3 4.3 1.42 37.0 26.1 26.4 12.2 1.24 0 .15 33.6 -92-Oakfern plot 153, and the relatively high base status of Moss plot 0^5• The forest stand on the latter plot was considerably younger than those on a l l other plots i n the decomposition t r i a l s . Vegetation and the Succession of Vegetation Bell (1962) described the vegetation of the study area i n terms of asso-ciations, ecosystem types, variants and stages. The association was based completely on the phytocoenosis, whereas the ecosystem type or subassociation was defined with reference to both biotic and edaphic factors. Two variant classes based on climatic differences applied to a number of plots. The f i r s t was a southern variant with Abies grandis present. The second was a northern variant (high altitude and steep north slopes, or both). In addition, nine plots were considered to be more representative of the Douglas-fir Zone than the Western Hemlock Zone (Appendix A). Bell suggested four possible stages of each ecosystem type; stage U represented recently logged areas; stage 3 was characterized by pioneer conifers, often hardwoods, and several shrubs and herbs favored by the open character of the stand; stage 2 was dominated by pioneer conifers, though both hemlock and cedar could be abundant; and stage 1 was the climax forest stand for the ecosystem type. A primary division used by Bell was between mountain slope (slope) eco-system types and a l l u v i a l and outwash terrace and floodplain units (alluvial). A summary of the s o i l s encountered i n each ecosystem type i s presented i n Table 16. It was evident that some of the moderately moist and moist ecosystem types (e.g. Slope Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.) Moss, Slope Aralia-Oakfern, Alluvial Aralia-Oakfern, and Slope Devil's Club) were associ-ated with a f a i r l y wide range of s o i l s . Even for these types, however, certain so i l s were f a i r l y characteristic. For example, there, was a greater proportioncof .Podzolic soils in".the Slope Bunchberry Moss (23 out of 28 plots) Table 16. Relation of -93-Soils to Ecosystem Types Associa-tion 5 1 Ecosystem type*3 No. of plots Kind and frequency of soils i n each ecosystem type c L Lichen 5 D0ABW-3; DMF-1? Mor R-l M Slope Dry Moss 4 DMP-3; DOABW-1 Alluvial Dry Moss 3 NOP-2; DMP-1 Slope Normal Moss 24 INMP-10; IINMP-5; NOP-4; NOABW-4; DMP-1 Alluvial Normal Moss 12 INMP-6; N0P-3; NOABW-2; IINMP-1 Slope Bunchberry Moss 28 MfflP-7; M0P-5; IINMP-3; INMP-3; DMP-3; NOABW-2; NOBW-2; NOP-2; D0BW-1 A-0 All u v i a l Bunchberry Aralia-Oakfern 6 NOP-4; Ort P - l j INMP-1 Slope Aralia-Oakfern 24 GABW-4; MOP-4; NOABW-3; MMP-3; NOBW-3; IINMP-2; Buried-2; INMP-1; PG-1; GBW-1 All u v i a l Aralia-Oakfern 10 Mor R-2; OG-2; GABW-2; Buried-2; GBF-1; DMR-1 Degraded Aralia-Oakfern 11 NOP-3; INMP-3; Ort. P-2; MMP-lj IINMP-1; MOP-1 D Slope Devil's Club 7 NOABW-2; SMk-1; PG-1; MMP-lj NOBF-1; IINMP-1 Tufa Devil's Club 5 CDMR-3; CMk-1; PCG-1 Alluvial Devil's Club 8 DMR-5; Mor R-l; DMR/OBW-1; MMP-1 SC Creek Skunk Cabbage 7 SMk-4; DMk-1; PM-1; PG-1 Depression Skunk Cabbage 1 OM-1 AC Wet Alluvial Complex 3 DMR-2; OR-1 Dry Al l u v i a l Complex 1 DMR-1 Douglas-fir Zone 9 DOBW-2; NOBW-2; DBW-2; DOBF-1; DOABW-1; DMR-1 a L = Lichen; M = Moss; A-0 = Aralia-Oakfern; D = Devil's Club; SC = Skunk Cabbage; AC = Al l u v i a l Complex. b Data from Bell (1962). c Abbreviations are explained i n Table 1, Chapter V. -94-than in the Slope Aralia-Oakfern (10 out of 24), Slope Devil's Club (2, both high altitude, out of 7) or Alluvial Aralia-Oakfern (0 out of 11) ecosystem types. Some soils which appeared f a i r l y characteristic of ecosystem types were the following: Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded of the Lichen type; Dry Minimal Podzol of the Slope Dry Moss type; I Normal Minimal Podzol and Normal Orthic Podzol of the Slope Normal Moss, A l l u v i a l Normal Moss, and Alluvial Bunch-berry Aralia-Oakfern types; Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol of the Tufa Devil's Club type; and Shallow Muck of the Skunk Cabbage type. The separation of plots 171 (Moist Minimal Podzol) and 193 (II Normal Minimal Podzol) as high-altitude or northern variants eliminated a l l Podzolic soil s from Devil's Club ecosystem types below 3,800 feet. The other two high-altitude plots, 171 (Moist Minimal Podzol) and 193 (II Normal Minimal Podzol) were both Degraded Aralia-Oakfern. Chemically, the two soils f i t t e d this ecosystem type very well, but v i s i b l y they appeared less podzolized than the other soils i n the same ecosystem type. Eight plots, a l l located i n the Erie Creek Valley near Salmo, were placed i n the Abies grand!s or southern variant on the basis of vegetation. The soi l s were not typical of the study area. They featured a high base saturation and a high concentration of exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium. While showing l i t t l e or no evidence of seepage water, six of the soil s supported the southern-variant equivalents of the Aralia-Oakfern and Devil's Club types. Seven out of the eight soils were Brunisolic, of which four were Normal Orthic Brown Wooded, one was Normal Orthic Brown Forest and two were Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded. This compares with an average of only 24 per cent Brunisolic soils i n the whole study. While the influence of forest succession on the s o i l may be considerable in a l l ecosystem types i t was illustrated most convincingly by the Slope -95-Normal Moss type. Data on the stage of vegetation supplied by Bell (1962) aided i n relating plant succession to s o i l (Table 17). Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and II Normal Minimal Podzols as well as I Normal Minimal Pod-zols and Normal Orthic Podzols were present i n stage 2 and 3 plots. In con-i trast, only the strongly podzolized I Normal Minimal Podzols and Normal Orthic Podzols were associated with stage 1 plots. Average pH figures for F-H, Ae (where present) and upper B horizons were, respectively, 4«8, 4*9 and 5.9 for stage 3; 4.2, 4«4- and 5>9 for stage 2; and 3.6, 4«0 and 5«4 for stage 1. This suggested that, at least i n the F-H and Ae horizons, an increase i n acidity actually occurs as the Slope Normal Moss ecosystem type passes from stage 3 to stage 2 and f i n a l l y to stage 1. -96-Table 17. A Comparison of Stage, Stand Age and S o i l i n the Slope Normal Moss Ecosystem Type SB no. Stagec Average age of dominant trees*3 S o i l 0 F-H pH - s o i l horizons cT Ae Upper B 009 3 48 NOABW 5.4 - 5-9 054 3 52 NOABW 5.8 - 6.2 187 3 (55) NOABW 5-7 - 6.7 062 3 62 IINMP 5.3 6.4 5-7 018 3 63 IINMP 4«4 4-8 6.4 137 3 63 INMP 4.4 5.2 6.6 106 3 63 INMP 4.4 U-5 6.0 201 3 67 INMP U. 7 5.1 5.8 109 3 78 NOP 5.2 4.8 5.3 L47 3 85 IINMP 5.8 6.1 5-9 202 2 60 DMP 4-0 5.3 6.0 115 2 (70) NOP 4.2 4.2 5.6 045 2 78 IINMP 5.8 5-6 5-9 046 2 78 INMP 3.8 4.4 5-9 097 2 (85) INMP 4.2 4.5 5.8 148 2 86 IINMP .5-8 6.4 6.4 025 2 101 NOABW 4*8 - 6.0 131 1 123 NOP 3.6 4.6 5.6 012 1 200+ INMP 3.6 4.0 5.8 209 1 200+ NOP 3.4 3.6 4.9 177 1 250+ INMP 3.6 4.2 5.6 091 1 310+ INMP 3.4 4.2 5.8 I65 1 400+ INMP 3.7 4-2 5.2 163 1 460 INMP 4«4 - 6.0 a Data from Bell (1962). Ages enclosed i n parentheses are based on nearby stands. c S o i l abbreviations are explained i n Table 1, Chapter V. d Dashes indicate Ae lacking or not sampled. -97-VI. DISCUSSION Application of the Classification of the National S o l i Survey Committee of  Canada Several problems are encountered i n attempting to accommodate a l l profiles of the mountainous study area within the existing National S o i l Survey Classification. While two new sub-groups are employed (Duff Mull Regosol and Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol), most of the profiles have been placed i n recognized sub-groups even though several inconsistencies are apparent. For example, several seepage-provided profiles with surface hori-zons like Orthic Podzols have chemical characteristics of lower horizons which resemble much less podzolized conditions (e.g. Moist Orthic Podzols 166, 153 and 081). In addition, some Podzolic and Brunisolic soils with relatively fine-textured horizons designated "Cg" may be pedogenic Bt hori-zons, and the profiles concerned cases of "bisequa" s o i l development (e.g. Moist Minimal and Moist Orthic Podzols 110, 111, and 090). It would be d i f f i -cult, however, to determine to what extent fine material i s moved late r a l l y by seepage water as opposed to that moved downward by pedogenic processes. Erosion i s possibly an even greater obstacle than seepage to a sound cla s s i f i c a t i o n of mountainous soi l s . Phenomena of sheetwash and s o i l creep may explain the very shallow B horizons of many profiles, and the tendency for surface horizons to be much finer-textured and less stony than expected from i n situ weathering alone. Al l u v i a l and outwash materials i n mountainous areas may cause d i f f i c u l t y i n interpretation of soil-forming processes. Because of rapid changes i n rates of stream flow and formation of temporary ponds, two materials deposited close together may d i f f e r greatly i n texture. The recognition of actual pedogenic processes is confounded. Differential compaction by glaciers has the same effect. Generally, the Canadian classification i s effective. Greater stress on - 9 8 -such features as seepage and erosion i n future revisions w i l l , however, increase i t s usefulness i n studies of mountainous forest s o i l s . S o i l Relationships with Reference to the Zonal Concept In order to relate and discuss the many soils found in the study area, reference w i l l be made to the zonal concept of soils. Baldwin, Kellogg and Thorp (1938) stated their concept of a zonal s o i l as follows: "Except where the continuity of the landscape is interrupted by mountains or large bodies of water, zonal soils occur over large areas, or zones, limited by geographical characteristics. Thus the zonal soils include those great groups having well-developed s o i l characteristics that reflect the influence of the active factors of s o i l genesis — climate and living organisms. These characteristics are best developed on the gently undulating (but not perfectly level) upland, with good drainage, from parent material not of extreme texture or chemical composition that has been i n place long enough for the biological forces to have expressed their f u l l influence." The concept as stated above suggests that a l l of the Podzol or Acid Brown Wooded soils are zonal s o i l s . Certain exceptions, however, are made by the writer. The zonal soils i n this study are regarded as those reflecting the dominating Influence of the regional climate and the climatic-climax community of livi n g organisms, and which are i n dynamic equilibrium with the particular climate and group of organisms. Soils influenced by other than the two factors to such a degree that the added influence i s recognizable i n the physical and chemical characteristics of those s o i l s , are not considered zonal soils. In this manner, gleyed, moist and dry Podzolic and Brunisolic profiles are not considered as zonal s o i l s . Otherwise, the topographic and geologic specifications included i n the 1938 definition are generally accepted. Soils influenced markedly by topography, parent material or ground-water supply, are called intrazonal or edaphic-climax s o i l s . Unless a drastic change occurs i n the influencing edaphic factor, such soils are relatively stable. -99-A third group of soils are those influenced by the time factor. Extreme-ly young soils (Regosols or azonal soils) show l i t t l e or no profile develop-ment. One complication is that often profiles are developed, but i t i s uncertain whether these profiles would develop further i f given more time. Using the principles outlined above,, a l l Normal Orthic Podzols, I Normal Minimal Podzols and Ortstein Podzols are zonal s o i l s . Of the 168 profiles studied, 45 are zonal. This proportion of zonal soils may appear small; however, plots were originally selected to obtain a wide range of site condi-tions. In doing this, the extreme sites influenced conspicuously by edaphic considerations, and the azonal so i l s , were sampled more heavily than the more extensive zonal s o i l s . Consequently, a zonal profile from one area might represent hundreds of acres of the same s o i l , while an edaphic-climax profile may represent only a few acres on a ridge or a narrow strip along a stream. In addition to the p a r t i a l i t y i n sampling, the study area is mountainous, and conditions of well-drained gentle or moderate slopes, or r o l l i n g topography are relatively infrequent. The principle of zonality becomes especially useful i n endeavoring to identify the main and compensatory influences operative i n s o i l development, for i t implies that within an area of uniform macroclimate (the Dry Subzone of the Interior Western Hemlock Zone), any non-zonal s o i l i s , or was, i n f l u -enced considerably by topographic, geologic, organic or time factors. If none of these factors can be identified, then one must suspect he i s dealing with a sufficiently different macroclimate to warrant the description of a separate zonal s o i l . Even within the zonal soils there are outward signs of influences other than climatic or those from the climatic-climax community. Thus, while only three Ortstein Podzols were examined, they showed a tendency to form on acid parent material with concave r e l i e f . The ortstein appears similar to that -100-described by Tarmn (1950) as allochtonous ortstein formation. Similarly, the more weakly expressed podzol profile of the I Normal Minimal Podzols may be attributed to a parent material relatively rich i n calcium or finer than aver-age, to a ground-water influence not apparent within three or four feet of the surface, or to other undetermined influences. Of the three zonal types of s o i l , the Normal Orthic Podzols show least evidence of important influences other than climate and liv i n g organisms. In fact, where these other i n f l u -ences are important, Normal Orthic Podzols are not formed. The absence of any examples of dry, gleyed or wet Orthic Podzols i n the study area supports this contention. Some I Normal Minimal Podzols and Normal Orthic Podzols are associated with forests i n stages of secondary succession. These soils are s t i l l con-sidered zonal and w i l l probably remain zonal as the forest matures. The non-zonal soils can be discussed most conveniently when grouped by nature of the parent material and by probable moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y (Fig. 39). The influence on soils of edaphically wetter than normal situations depends on the quality and quantity of the ground water. In the least influenced (Moist Minimal and Moist Orthic Podzols) there i s a change in humus type from the normal f e l t y mors with firm H horizons to more friable varieties. Associated with this i s an increase i n cations and base satura-tion, especially i n the lower horizons, and an increase i n organic matter content i n the B. A greater' supply of moisture, as i n the Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded so i l s , results i n an almost complete disappearance of visible evidence of podzolization. Cations and base saturation of a l l horizons increase, and adsorbed phosphate decreases i n comparison with the Moist Minimal and Moist Orthic Podzols. The humus becomes very friable, often resembling a duff mull. Either through intense in situ weathering, or a transportation of fine particles by the seepage water, the B horizon i s much finer-textured than Plate XIX to follow page 100 PARENT MATERIAL POOR NORMAL ORTHIC ACID BROWN WOODED, H NORMAL MINIMAL PODZOL, PARENT MATERIAL RICH NORMAL ORTHIC BROWN WOODED, NORMAL ORTHIC BROWN FORE D E E P M U C K , SHALLOW MUCK , ORTHIC MEADOW, PEATY MEADOW, PEATY G L E Y S O L , ORTHIC G L E Y S O L , G L E Y E D ACID BROWN W O O D E D , MOIST MINIMAL PODZOL, MOIST ORTHIC PODZOL NORMAL ORTHIC ACID BROWN W O O D E D , H NORMAL MINIMAL PODZOL .Vortous Rea sans CALCAREOUS DUFF MULL REGOSOL, CALCAREOUS MUCK, PEATY CALCAREOUS G L E Y S O L , GLEYED BROWN WOODED, GLEYED BROWN FOREST. ZONAL SOILS ORTSTEIN P O D Z O L , NORMAL ORTHIC PODZOL, I NORMAL MINIMAL PODZOL ORTHIC R E G O S O L , MOR R E G O S O L , DUFF MULL R E G O S O L Parent Material Richer DEGRADED BROWN WOODED DRY MINIMAL PODZOL, DRY ORTHIC ACID BROWN WOODED DRY ORTHIC BROWN WOODED, DRY ORTHIC BROWN F O R E S T Fig 39 Diagram illustrating the influence of soil-forming factors in producing the many zonal and non-zonal soils -101-the underlying C. The seepage i n the Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded soils i s sufficiently intense to cause mottling of the B. As the influence of ground water becomes more intense, normal s o i l processes are obscured and the B horizon i s generally absent. F-H/C profiles are the result. In the least waterlogged of these situations (Orthic Gleysols) the F-H is a f a i r l y normal, thick duff mull which occurs over a mottled C, while i n wetter sites the F-H may accumulate to a depth of 30 cm i n Peaty Meadows and Peaty Gleysols, or up to 60 cm i n the case of Shallow Mucks. The extremely slow decomposition of organic matter and lack of mixing with the mineral s o i l results i n a muck overlain by a more typical duff mull. Such organic accumulations over a long period of time can result i n very deep organic deposits such as the one Deep Muck sampled. These Peaty Meadow, Peaty Gleysol and Muck soils are well supplied with cations, though apparently low in adsorbed phosphate, and should not be confused with the acid peat-bog soils which occasionally occur i n the study area but which were not sampled. Profiles which are edaphically wetter than normal and derived from parent material unusually rich i n calcium, or the seepage involved i s un-usually rich i n calcium, depart even further from the zonal s o i l than the solely edaphically wet so i l s . Gleyed Brown Wooded and Gleyed Brown Forest soils possess, as well as mottled B horizons, extremely high concentrations of exchangeable calcium, magnesium and sodium. The dependence of the one Gleyed Brown Wooded s o i l sampled on the special edaphic conditions i s shown by a trace of Ae i n the pro f i l e . The seepage does not increase the surface accumulation of organic matter i n the gleyed so i l s , but where base-saturated seepage i s more intense, Peaty Calcareous Gleysols and Calcareous Mucks are the result. These correspond to Gleysols and Mucks except for the presence of free calcium carbonate i n their profiles. The most calcareous, wet s o i l i s the Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol. As no classification i n the Canadian system seemed to apply, considerable deliberation was required before a name -102-was selected. The United States S o i l Survey Staff ( I 9 6 0 ) described a Calcaquoll Great Group which included soils with accumulations of over 4O per cent of calcium carbonate, possibly precipitated from ground water, but this great group belonged to their Mollisol Order, and the characteristics of the surface horizons of the three profiles studied do not conform with those of the Mollisol Order. Tufa, which refers to deposits formed by the precipita-tion of carbonates from streams, might be appropriate. Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol, a relatively noncommital term, i s favored. The varve-like structure of the tufa from one profile indicates a building up from below. Almost pure calcium carbonate alternating with alluvium, suggests a relationship between the deposits and small intermittent streams. The action of the regional climate and organisms on coarse parent material rich i n calcium i n normal (not edaphically wet or dry) situations, causes a general bleaching of surface layers not unlike that occurring i n Gray Wooded so i l s . However, the coarse-textured material provides so l i t t l e fine material for downward movement that clay accumulation i s not noticeable. The presence of a thin layer of typical Ae indicates that surface podzoliza-tion i s f a i r l y intense. Edaphically dry soils are now considered. Where these dry soils occur on moderately acid parent material, especially i n cold or intermediate topo-climates, podzolization i s evident i n i t s usual form. Such soils are the Dry Minimal Podzol and to a lesser degree the Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded so i l s . While the vis i b l e evidence of podzolization i s less i n these dry soi l s , chemical data reveal as much leaching as i n deeper soils of the equiva-lent classification. In addition to a downward leaching there may also be lateral leaching along the bedrock surface. This i s indicated by pH though not by base saturation figures. The combination of parent material rich i n calcium and edaphically dry -103-situations results i n Brunisolic soils with unusually high exchangeable potassium and adsorbed phosphate concentrations, and moderately high base saturation. The surface accumulations of organic matter are thin and extreme-ly friable (mull-like), a result of apparently very favorably conditions for biological activity and a sparse cover of vegetation. Podzolization i n these soils is retarded both by the dryness and shallowness of the soils, and by the abundant supply of calcium i n the parent material. Such i s the case i n Dry Orthic Brown Wooded and Dry Orthic Brown Forest s o i l s . Of considerable importance are those soils which have been exposed to the soil-forming factors a relatively short time and which have not developed diagnostic horizons other than L-F-H or Ah. In the study area these Regosols are found mainly on alluvium and outwash. At the relatively low elevation of the study area, well-drained and moderately well-drained glacial t i l l has been exposed for a sufficiently long period to allow other horizons to differen-ti a t e . Talus slopes with regosolic profiles are present, but only one was included i n this study. The a l l u v i a l Regosols must a l l begin as Orthic Regosols with only a thin L or L-F layer over undifferentiated C. If moisture remains in good supply the F-H builds up and there may be incorporation of organic matter with the surface mineral s o i l . The humus type involved at this point i s often a duff mull as i n the Duff Mull Regosols. This sub-group was added to the Canadian s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to bridge the gap between the Mor Regosols and the Mull Regosols. The average organic matter content of the humus of the Duff Mull Regosols i s only U0 per cent, which indicates a high rate of mineralization of organic matter and the tendency for melanization. In cases of water deficiency due to a lowering of the water table, the F-H becomes less friable, more felt y , and more acid. Leaching i n the surface mineral horizons, as i n the Mor Regosols, may be detected through chemical analyses. With greater -104 moisture deficiency, more time, or both, these soils probably develop into Minimal and Orthic Podzols. Some a l l u v i a l deposits may pass through a l l three stages i f the reduction i n moisture supply i s gradual. Two soils, the II Normal Minimal Podzol and the Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded, are chemically and physically unlike the zonal soils though the reasons for the differences are not specifically known. The soils may be young (not f u l l y developed), or there may be an undetected influence of ground water. They may occur where the macroclimate i s slightly drier or warmer than average, or on parent material that i s relatively rich i n calcium or i s resistant to weathering. The fact that the distinctions from zonal soils occur mainly i n the surface horizons, suggests that the vegetative cover may be the influencing factor. The amount of exchangeable elements i n soils supporting young stands that have established after a f i r e would tend to adjust to the nutrient requirements of Douglas-fir, white pine, and larch. The former two, as indicated by chemical foliage analyses (Daubenmire, 1953), require a greater amount of nutrients than western hemlock. It i s suspected that as the stand matures and the proportion of western hemlock increases, there i s a trend from Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded or II Normal Minimal Podzol to I Normal Minimal Podzol. At the early stages, however, these soi l s are sufficiently different from zonal soils for a separation to be made. There are some soils which are unaccountably distinct from the zonal s o i l s . These include some of the Normal Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds and II Normal Minimal Podzols i n addition to the Normal Orthic Brown Forest and Normal Orthic Brown Wooded s o i l s . The f i r s t two are found especially i n the Caribou Creek, Whatshan Lake, Mabel Lake, Erie Creek, and Trout Lake areas on various parent materials. The latter two are found on relatively calcareous parent material i n the Kaslo and Erie Creek areas. In both cases, more podzolized soils are expected. Even on calcareous parent material, somewhat -105-podzolized surface horizons (Degraded Brown Wooded or even Gray Wooded soils) are anticipated. The fact that Normal Orthic Brown Wooded and Brown Forest soils are formed may be an indication that the macroclimate i n the areas mentioned represents a transition between the Western Hemlock Zone and the drier Douglas-fir Zone. The Kaslo area may be influenced by a local rain shadow, while the Erie Creek area i s probably influenced by the generally warmer and drier climate prevalent i n the southern portion of the study area. These four soils are shown separated from the remainder by a dashed line (Fig. 39) to suggest that they not be considered representative of the study area. It i s reiterated, however, that under certain conditions II Normal Minimal Podzols and Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded soils can be formed under the influence of Western Hemlock Zone climate; thus, i n Fig. 39, these two soils are placed both within and without the dashed lines. Factors Influencing the Formation of the Soils Some influencing factors have already been referred to i n the discussion of the soils themselves. Two, ground water and the chemical nature of the parent material, form the bases for the separation of zonal and non-zonal so i l s , and climate was referred to i n the discussion of the normal Brunisolic s o i l s . Avoiding repetition as much as possible, however, the factors w i l l be discussed i n the order of climate, landform and topography, nature of parent material, s o i l moisture and temperature, and organic material. The restriction of the study generally within the confines of one bio-climatic zone reduces the range of climate encountered. However, transition areas were not avoided. In addition, precipitation generally grades from a high amount at the center of the study area (e.g. Nakusp) to lower amounts near the western, southern and eastern borders. In contrast, north of Nakusp and north of the study area the annual precipitation i s higher. One might visualize a greater proportion of II Normal Minimal Podzol and Normal Orthic -106-Acid Brown Wooded soils i n the southern, eastern and western peripheral areas, and a greater proportion of Orthic, Ortstein and I Normal Minimal Podzols i n the center and northern portions of the study area. In addition to climate, however, such factors as texture and chemical composition of the parent material and exposure must also be considered. For example, the Normal Orthic Podzols develop much more quickly on excessively drained and coarse-textured outwash or alluvium than on medium-textured glacial t i l l . Thus a trend out-ward from the center of the zone to the drier periphery from Ortstein to Normal Orthic to I Normal Minimal to II Normal Minimal Podzol may be general-ly true but i n practice i s d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate. Extrapolating somewhat, i t can be surmised that west of the study area (toward the Okanagan Valley) at the same elevations and on the relatively acid parent material common i n that area, the most common and possibly zonal soils, should be similar to the II Normal Minimal Podzol and Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded soils found only under special conditions within the study area. Similarly, east of the study area i n the East Kootenays (Rocky Mountain Trench area) on calcareous parent material which i s common i n that area, Normal Brown Wooded and Brown Forest so i l s , which are found only i n very special situations within the study area, should be very common. S o i l profile descriptions from the Okanagan and East Kootenay areas (Kelley and Spilsbury, 1949; Kelley and Sprout, 1956; Kelley and Holland, 1961) substantiate these suggestions. In wetter areas north of the study area a greater proportion of Orthic Podzols and less of normal Brunisolic soils than i n the study area would be expected. Krajina's (1953, 195A, 1955) studies confirm this as even the seepage-provided soils of the Oakfern sites he described were definite podzols, while the soils of Devil's Club sites were generally slightly podzolized. In the Dry Subzone, seepage i n Aralia-Oakfern sites impedes podzolization so much that visible signs of i t are often lacking. -107-While descriptions of landform are useful as a basis for further sub-division of ecological units, they are seldom of a sufficiently particular nature for practical use. Such landforms as a l l u v i a l fans, terraces, rock outcrop areas, and glacial moraines, include within them a wide range of site conditions depending on such factors as physical and chemical s o i l character-i s t i c s , microrelief, ecoclimate, and moisture regime. In contrast, a class-i f i c a t i o n of plots by r e l i e f features aids greatly i n the characterization of soils by mirroring gross differences i n moisture regime. To a certain degree, r e l i e f features are recognizable from aerial photographs. Observations on the position on slope alone do not appear particularly useful in the area. Within certain alt i t u d i n a l limits, many variations i n r e l i e f and thus i n moisture regime occur at every level of a single slope. While It i s acknowledged that a greater percentage of the area of a lower slope would have concave r e l i e f than of the area of the upper portion of the same slope, the smaller variations i n r e l i e f across one slope must be recog-nized both for research and management purposes. The effect of steepness of slope appears to l i e i n the realm of both moisture regime and degree of podzolization. The absence of Ortstein Podzols and especially of Normal Orthic Podzols on steep or very steep slopes sug-gests a restriction on the podzolization process i n these sites. Such restriction might be caused by a gradual surface erosion or creep which dis-rupts the surface layers, masks the Ae, and discolors the B. The loosening of the surface horizons might also cause a greater rate of decomposition of organic matter than i s expected i n a Normal Orthic Podzol, and consequently a better base status. Where steep slopes are associated with a southern exposure the resulting very dry ecoclimate would definitely retard podzoliza-tion. The relative infrequency of wet, gleyed, and moist soils on steep and -108-very steep slopes must be associated with the relative infrequency on them of areas of concave r e l i e f - This appears to be an important difference between the Wet and Dry Subzones of the Interior Western Hemlock Zone. Gleyed soils are f a i r l y common on very steep slopes i n the Wet Subzone as attested by the large areas of devil's club i n stich locations. The occurrence of Brown Wooded and Brown Forest soi l s mainly in warm topoclimates, less In intermediate, and their complete absence i n cold topo-climates, indicates that these soils do not properly belong to the study area. They occur within i t only where the ecoclimate i s warmer than average and where other factors such as macroclimate and nature of parent material are favorable. In a warmer zone, the two soils would be expected to increase i n importance and would be found as often on cold slopes as on warm. Of six Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded profiles studied, none occurred on cold slopes. Although the number studied i s small, a general tendency for stronger podzolization i n cold topoclimates i s indicated. Seepage sites on north slopes, other than those with Gleysolic or Organic soils, have either Moist Orthic Podzol or Moist Minimal Podzol s o i l s . The latter two, while showing a greater a f f i n i t y than average for cold slopes, occurred on warm ones as well. Only four profiles are available from over 3,800 feet elevation, but there i s a good indication that the heavier snowfall and shorter growing season of the higher altitudes produces soils unlike those at lower eleva-tions. At the lower elevations a very friable H layer and especially a duff mull humus i s associated with a good base status. At high elevations i t associates with a relatively high incorporation of organic matter into the mineral s o i l , but also an extremely low base status below the F-H. In two high-elevation soi l s from widely separated l o c a l i t i e s (Duhamel Creek and Sandon), both exchangeable calcium and magnesium were undetected i n portions of the profiles. Possibly the incorporation of organic matter i s mainly a -109-mechanical process and the matter so incorporated remains relatively undecom-posed. Tamm (1950) called such organic matter "inactive raw humus". Extremely high C:N ratios i n the subsoil of one plot and moderately high ratios for the other support this contention. Further studies at higher elevations are needed for a f u l l characterization of these subalpine s o i l s . It i s apparent from the results that even with similar topographic and climatic conditions, newly deposited or exposed soils w i l l have considerably different courses and rates of s o i l formation depending on the nature of the parent material. Strongly podzolized soils occur most readily on coarse, acid parent material similar to that derived from the Kuskanax batholith or the Monashee group (other than from i t s occasional limestone members). In con-trast, podzolization i s greatly retarded on medium-textured or finer g l a c i a l t i l l derived from the Lardeau series, Sinemurian beds or Rossland formation. A normal rate of podzolization i s expected i n parent material from the Slocan group (except i n eastern portions where limestone i s more common) and Nelson intrusions. The mode of deposition of parent material also affects the formation of so i l s . Outwash and alluvium seldom f u l l y reflect the nature of the under-lying bedrock because of the losses i n soluble material during their trans-portation. Possibly this explains the absence of Normal Brown Wooded and Brown Forest soi l s on alluvium or outwash. The generally coarser nature of alluvium and outwash would also favor podzolization. Rock outcrop areas, i n contrast, tend to retard podzolization possibly through their warmer soils and relatively high microbiological activity. Examples of this are the Dry Orthic Brown Wooded soils on a southwest-facing rock outcrop slope above Burton. These occur on parent material derived from the Nelson intrusions which are only moderately supplied with calcium and magnesium. It i s clear that normal g l a c i a l - t i l l soils reflect the nature of the underlying bedrock -110-best, i f any correspondence occurred originally. Such original correspondence between glac i a l d r i f t and the underlying bedrock i s apparently common i n the study area. The supply of moisture i s undoubtedly a most important factor influencing s o i l development, not only because i t determines whether a s o i l i s as dry as a Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded or as wet as a Shallow Muck, but also because nutrients are carried with ground water replenishing those leached from the s o i l - The outward expression of moisture supply i s , of course, an integration of several other factors already considered, but i t i s nevertheless discussed independently. The nutrient content of ground water varies depending on the chemical composition of the material through which the seepage passes. In addition, the type of ground water i s important. Generally, the concentration of bases i n phreatic water i s less than i n vadose water. The former, which travels a relatively short distance from rivers and lakes through pre-washed material to reach the affected s o i l , has less opportunity to pick up cations than the vadose or seepage water of slopes. The latter pass generally through un-washed glacial t i l l of a finer and higher cation exchange capacity than the a l l u v i a l and outwash s o i l s . Seasonal differences i n quality also occur. Seepage, especially i n Organic and Gleysolic s o i l s , i s probably lowest i n concentrations of cations during the spring run-off, and increases as the flow of water decreases later i n the summer. The moisture studies with Colman units underlined the great problem of va r i a b i l i t y i n moisture content encountered i n moisture sampling. Units placed i n the same site and at the same depth often showed differences i n moisture supply when comparisons of moisture contents and wilting percentages were made. Such differences result from variations i n s o i l , especially s o i l texture, a nd variations i n tree erown and root densities. However, the - I l l -study shows that moisture deficiencies do occur, and that they occur most readily i n normal soils on steep, warm slopes, and i n shallow soils with either cold or warm topoclimates. Moisture deficiencies are least l i k e l y to occur i n gleyed or moist so i l s , or i n normal soils on gently sloping or sloping land of any exposure, or i n normal soil s on steep slopes with cold topoclimates. Organic and Gleysolic soils were not included i n the study but undoubtedly do not experience any moisture deficiency. Relatively coarse-textured a l l u v i a l soils, even i f supplied with phreatic water at depth (Duff Mull Regosol soils) may suffer moisture deficiencies i n the surface layers. The warmest soils i n the moisture-temperature study are, as expected, those normal and shallow soils on gently to steeply sloping warm slopes. Less expected i s the relative warmth of shallow soils on slopes with north-west (cold) exposures. The large heat-storing capacity of bedrock compared with s o i l (Geiger, 1957) might explain the warmth of the shallow s o i l s . The coolest soils are gleyed soils, and those normal, gently sloping or sloping soils at the bottom of steeper slopes (Stations 08 and 03). One extremely steep southeast slope i s also f a i r l y cool. The slope of this plot of 4-5 de-grees i s much greater than that required for maximum radiation i n the summer. S t i l l , the station seems an exception to the rule of warm soils on warm slopes. The results of the laboratory cellulose decomposition study indicate that because a l l soils were supplied with adequate moisture and similar temperatures, the original populations of cellulose-decomposing microorgan-isms must have been different, for the activity i n cellulose decomposition varied considerably among s o i l s . The question remained whether the eco-climatic, edaphic, and vegetational differences of the various sites would accentuate or obscure these differences. It was believed, for instance, that the activity i n the dry Lichen sites would be considerably reduced due -112-to their adverse temperature and moisture conditions and relatively low nutrient status. Results, however, showed i t was not. Evidently the south-ern aspects and open nature of the Lichen sites, which result in high temperatures and a high percentage of r a i n f a l l reaching the surface s o i l , pro-vide conditions for high activity of microorganisms quite independent of nutrient status. In the denser stands common in Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern sites, much of the moisture from light showers i s intercepted by foliage and lost through evaporation. The rate of cellulose decomposition i n Devil's Club sites i s enhanced by the considerable amount of westem red cedar foliage which contains a very high calcium concentration (Daubenmire, 1953). A good supply of calcium increases biological activity (Lutz and Chandler, 19/+6: I85). Assuming that, apart from the Lichen sites, the rate of cellulose decomposition increases with increasing nutrient concentration i n the humus or mineral s o i l , the de-graded condition of Aralia-Oakfern plot 153 reduces the rate of cellulose decomposition i n that plot, while the relatively high nutrient status of Moss plot 045 probably induces i t s high ac t i v i t y relative to other Moss plots. The mineral s o i l and organic horizons tested i n the laboratory and f i e l d indicate generally that regarding cellulose-decomposing a b i l i t y , three groups of sites can be distinguished. The f i r s t group includes those soils with a high amount of nutrients i n circulation among the mineral s o i l and organic material, which are associated with a high rate of decomposition. Generally included i n this group are the Aralia-Oakfern and especially the Devil's Club sites. The second group includes those soils with a relatively small circu-lating fund of nutrients but a high rate of decomposition due to favorable ecoclimatic conditions — the Lichen plots. The third group includes those soil s which represent a low level of circulating nutrients and a low rate of cellulose decomposition. The Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern plots with -113-mattire stands are representative of this last group. Mature stands must be stipulated assuming that s o i l tends to reach a dynamic equilibrium with i t s environment including vegetation (Nikiforoff, 1959), and that the pioneer species i n the study area have a greater demand for nutrients than the climax western hemlock. With such assumptions, the surface s o i l of immature stands has a greater decomposing activity than that of mature stands on similar sites. Siu (1951) stated that whereas fungi were primarily responsible for wood cellulose decay, bacteria were probably more important i n the early stages at least, of cotton degradation. Therefore, the t r i a l s using cotton duck may be more a measure of the activity of cellulose-decomposing bacteria than total microbial decomposition of cellulose. Nevertheless, the high rate of decom-position shown by the Lichen sites with surface s o i l pH much below the optima for most cellulose-destroying bacteria indicates that fungi were also i n -volved to a considerable extent. The influence on the s o i l of the successional development of vegetation from young pole-size stands to climax stands i s illustrated especially well in the Slope Normal Moss ecosystem type, and to a lesser extent i n the Allu-v i a l Normal Moss type. Apparently other factors such as moisture and parent material outweigh the effects of plant succession i n most of the other eco-system types. It is evident that i n the Normal Moss type the increased acid-i t y and podzolization of the F-H and Ae horizons, and the actual i n i t i a t i o n of an Ae i n some cases, i s brought about by a succession from vegetation with a relatively high nutrient requirement (deciduous trees and shrubs and pion-eer conifers) to vegetation with a low nutrient requirement (mosses and western hemlock). That the proportion of western hemlock increases with stand age has already been discussed i n Chapter III. - 1 U -The Soils i n Relation to Ecosystem Types The kind of both vegetation and s o i l i s dependent on the same factors — climate, parent material, topography ( r e l i e f ) , organic material, and time (Major, 1 9 5 1 ) . Thus one should be able to predict s o i l from vegetation and vegetation from s o i l . In this study, however, since many factors could not be considered i n the classifications of both soils and vegetation, and since the classes had to be made sufficiently broad for practical use, correlations between vegetation and kind of s o i l are somewhat obscured. In the following discussion the general trends are emphasized. The ecosystem types refer to those of B e l l ( 1 9 6 2 ) . The slope ecosystem types are presented as they might occur from the top to the bottom of a representative slope. The slope i s regarded as one occur-ring near the center of the study area on non-calcareous parent material of average chemical composition. Where departures from these conditions are important, they are also cited. On the wind-exposed top of the slope on Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded s o i l (rock outcrop) occurs the Lichen ecosystem type. The activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms i s high here and there is a definite retardation of podzolization. In somewhat drier areas on more calcareous parent material and on steep south-facing slopes, Orthic Brown Wooded or Brown Forest soi l s may be formed. These are able to support grasses and other plants indicative of the drier Douglas-fir Zone. Lower on the slope but s t i l l on shallow soils appears the Dry Moss eco-system type. Fewer actual rock outcrops are found here than i n the Lichen type. The forest stand i s denser than i n the Lichen type and podzolization i s greater. The characteristic s o i l i s thus the Dry Minimal Podzol. Below the Dry Moss type on deeper s o i l i s the well-stocked Normal Moss type. The s o i l may be I Normal Minimal Podzol, Normal Orthic Podzol, II -115-Normal Minimal Podzol or Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded. The former two occur especially under climatic-climax vegetation, while the latter two may be expected under stands i n stages of secondary succession. The Bunchberry Moss type typically occurs below the Normal Moss type, often on neutral or concave r e l i e f . Such r e l i e f i s frequently associated with an increase i n seepage moisture as expressed i n Moist Minimal and Moist Orthic Podzols. Often the influence of seepage i s indicated by the vegetation but i s not apparent i n the relatively shallow s o i l pits used for examination. The Bunchberry Moss type, therefore, i s also found on soil s classified as I and II Normal Minimal Podzols. On more calcareous parent material, especially on steep, south-facing slopes, the Bunchberry Moss type may occur on Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and Normal Orthic Brown Wooded so i l s . A decrease i n slope and a greater tendency to concave r e l i e f provides locations for the Aralia-Oakfern type. This type may be found on a f a i r l y wide variety of moist and wet soi l s . Most common are Moist Minimal Podzol, Moist Orthic Podzol, and Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded so i l s . Less common are Peaty Gleysols, some buried s o i l s , and, on calcareous parent material, Gleyed Brown Wooded so i l s . This ecosystem type may also be found occasionally on normal soils such as Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and II Normal Minimal Podzol, and, on calcareous parent material, Normal Orthic Brown Wooded soils. While seepage moisture i s not apparent i n these normal soils, there i s probably an undetected seepage influence. In such cases, f l o r i s t i c , geologic, and topographic features must be studied carefully for a proper identifica-tion of the ecosystem type. The Degraded Aralia-Oakfern type i s generally associated with a high proportion of mature and overmature hemlock i n neutral or slightly concave situations on acid parent material. The s o i l i s invariably a Podzol. Five of the 11 plots are classed as northern variants which indicates that the -116 -type develops readily i n the wettest and coldest portions of the study area. The Devil's Club ecosystem type i s found on the steep lower portion of the slope on Shallow Mucks, Peaty Gleysols, and also normal Brunisolic soils — Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded in the northern portion, and Normal Orthic Brown Wooded i n the southern portion of the study area. The Devil's Club type i s not a common feature of the study area, and, i n fact, i s generally restricted to north-facing slopes. Where seepage water has drained off calcareous bedrock or through cal-careous parent material, deposits of tufa may form. These Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol s o i l s , i f s t i l l supplied with seepage, support a Tufa Devil's Club ecosystem type. Less obvious Tufa Devil's Club soils are Calcareous Mucks and Calcareous Peaty Gleysols. Finally, at the bottom of the slope i n extremely wet situations with con-cave r e l i e f , the Skunk Cabbage type i s present, mainly on Muck soils but also on Peaty Gleysols and Peaty Meadows. Time since deposition of parent material i s a much greater factor deter-mining ecosystem type on a l l u v i a l and outwash soils than on the gla c i a l t i l l s o i l s of the study area. A representative sequence of ecosystem types on f a i r l y f l a t alluvium ranges from old, dry deposits to recent floodplains with high water tables. The driest a l l u v i a l site i s the Al l u v i a l Dry Moss found on extremely coarse outwash high above the present water table. The s o i l may be Normal Orthic Podzol or Dry Minimal Podzol depending on stand and parent material characteristics. Deposits less elevated or finer than described above support the A l l u v i a l Normal Moss type. Again, the s o i l i s generally a Podzol except under stage 3 vegetation where Brunisolic soils may be encountered. Normal Orthic Podzols and I Normal Minimal Podzols are most common. Coarse a l l u v i a l deposits influenced to some extent by a deep water - 1 1 7 -table, as reflected i n the occurrence of plants common in better sites, and by a higher site index than found i n the Al l u v i a l Normal Moss, provide condi-tions conducive to strong podzolization. The Alluvial Bunchberry Aralia-Oakfern type occurs i n these situations. The s o i l most common on these deposits i s the Normal Orthic Podzol. Less common Is I Normal Minimal Pod-zol and Ortstein Podzol. The soils resemble those associated with the Degraded Aralia-Oakfern type. The tendency for a l l coarse alluvium to podzolize readily i s illustrated by plots 142 and 143 i n the Lardeau Valley. Though both plots are on calcareous parent material, each exhibits strongly podzolized surface horizons. Alluvial Aralia-Oakfern ecosystem types are found on low-lying a l l u v i a l deposits influenced markedly by ground water. Soils include Mor Regosols or Mor Regosols burying other profiles, and Gleyed Acid Brown Woodeds i n apparently older deposits. Fine-textured Orthic Gleysols and Gleyed Brown Forest soi l s support the same ecosystem type. The Al l u v i a l Devil's Club type i s found on alluvium deposited i n s u f f i -ciently recent times that leaching Is not intense. The most usual s o i l i s the Duff Mull Regosol. Under very old stands, however, leaching may be strong enough to form a Mor Regosol (SB 150), or even a Moist Minimal Podzol (SB L44). The youngest deposits of alluvium support, on Orthic and Duff Mull Regosol s o i l s , a complex of vegetation — the Wet and Dry Alluvial Complex types. In the Dry type, the lowering of the water table has been very rapid, or i t has a great seasonal fluctuation such as may be found on sand bars. In both the Wet and Dry types the tree cover often consists of a large propor-tion of deciduous species. Seasonal flooding i s common. Bell (1962) considered the vegetation of several plots more represent-ative of the Douglas-fir Zone than the Western Hemlock Zone. The soils of eight of these plots are Brunisolic, including Orthic Brown Wooded, Orthic -118-Brown Forest, Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and Degraded Brown Wooded. One is a Duff Mull Regosol. The vegetation of the Douglas-fir Zone definitely associates with soils of a higher base saturation than that of the climax vegetation of the Western Hemlock Zone. Edaphic Factors i n the Ecological Classification Edaphic data are used most advantageously at several levels i n the f i n a l ecological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the forests of the study area. The f i r s t use i s i n a major division of the plant associations into two — those occurring on mountain slopes (slope) and those occurring on a l l u v i a l or outwash terraces and floodplains ( a l l u v i a l ) . Some ambiguities arise i n this division, for several plots though located on slopes have a l l u v i a l parent material. For convenience these have generally been placed i n the mountain-slope group. As most of the slope and a l l u v i a l associations cover a f a i r l y wide pro-ductivity range and a diversity of edaphic situations, Bell (1962) has found i t useful to divide the associations into ecosystem types based generally on edaphic data. In this manner, the Moss association on mountain slopes i s made up of a dry type (Dry Moss), a normal type (Normal Moss) and a moister or edaphically richer type (Bunchberry Moss). Edaphic data such as depth of s o i l to bedrock and presence of seepage are used In the division. In some cases, phytocoenotic data may override the edaphic information. Thus some plots with soils shallow to bedrock (Dry Minimal Podzols) would, on the basis of s o i l depth, be placed into the Dry Moss ecosystem type, but are classified as Bunchberry Moss by B e l l . Possibly seepage running along the surface of the bedrock i n these plots, though not detected i n the s o i l sampling, i s strong enough to influence the vegetation. It i s important to realize that s o i l differences occur within many of the ecosystem types. Some of the more obvious differences, as between certain Organic and Brunisolic soils which may support the same ecosystem -119-type (e.g. Slope Devil's Club), are important i n questions of planting, brush control, and slash burning. Other s o i l differences are important to workers concerned with problems such as tree nutrition and forest f e r t i l i z a -tion (e.g. Gessel and Walker, 1956; Stoate, 1955), physiological diseases (e.g. F e r r e l l , 1955; Heiberg and White, 1951), root and mycorrhizal studies (e.g. Copeland and Leaphart, 1955), and s o i l moisture and tree growth rela-tions (e.g. G r i f f i t h , I960). Two Important s o i l characteristics are i l l u s -trated by using a modification of Pogrebnjak1s (1930) scheme of trophotopes and hygrotopes (Fig. 4 O ) . The trophotopes, ranging from oligotrophic (low i n nutrients) to subeutrophic (high i n nutrients), are based i n this study on ex-changeable calcium, magnesium, potassium, pH and base saturation especially of A and B horizons. The hygrotopes (dry to wet) are based on f i e l d observa-tions. The wide range of nutrient and moisture supply illustrated i n Fig. 4O indicates a need for the subdivision of ecosystem types on these two bases. Generally, such a subdivision can be performed after an examination of the sequence and kind of horizons In the s o i l profile, and measurement of pH. In some cases, data on base saturation and exchangeable cations might also be required. The ecosystem types and subdivisions encountered i n this study are listed i n Table 18. The Importance of the subdivision i n each ecosystem type can be inferred from the percentages provided. Some of the subdivisions i n Fig. 4-0 group together several types of s o i l . Normal Orthic Podzols, I Normal Minimal Podzols and Ortstein Podzols are thus included i n the Normal:Oligotrophic subdivision. If more exact s o i l informa-tion i s required, the kind of s o i l i t s e l f can be determined and used i n descriptions such as Slope Aralia-Oakfern/Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded (SA-0/ GABW), or Alluvial Normal Moss/INormal Minimal Podzol (ANM/INMP). Either i combination provides a concise, accurate description of forest habitats of the study area. - 1 2 0 -Dry Normal Moist Gleyed Wet Oligotrophic Submesotrophic Mesotrophic Permesotrophic Subeutrophic > DOABW ; DOBW ; DOBF DMP ; INMP ! DBW NOP IINMP ; NOBW Ort.P ; NOABW NOBF MMP MOP ; OR Mor R ; I DMR • GBF • GABW ! GBW • • I OG '; > PM 1 CDMR 1 PG ' SMk ; PCG DMk CMk Fig. 4 0 . Types of s o i l arranged by trophotope and hygrotope. -121-Table 18. Subdivision of Ecosystem Types on the Basis of S o i l Moisture and Nutrient Status Lichen - 5 plots Dry: Submesotrophic - 100$ Slope Dry Moss - 4 plots Dry: Submesotrophic - 100$ Slope Normal Moss - 24. plots a) Normal: Oligotrophia - 58$ b) Normals Submesotrophic - 21 c) Normal: Mesotrophic - 17 d) Dry: Submesotrophic - 4 Slope Bunchberry Moss - 28 plots a) Moist: Submesotrophic - 43$ b) Normal: Oligotrophia - 18 c) Normal: Mesotrophic - 14 d) Normal: Submesotrophic - 11 e) Dry: Submesotrophic - 11 f) Dry: Mesotrophic - 3 Slope Aralia-Oakfern - 24 plots a) Moist: Submesotrophic - 29$ b) Normal: Mesotrophic - 25 c) Gleyed: Mesotrophic - 17 d) Gleyed: Permesotrophic - 13 e) Normal: Submesotrophic - 8 f) l e t : Mesotrophic - 4 g) Normals Oligotrophic - 4 Degraded Aralia-Oakfern - 11 plots a) Normal: Oligotrophic - 73$ b) Moist: Submesotrophic - 18 c) Normal: Submesotrophic - 9 Slope Devil's Club - 7 plots a) Normal: Mesotrophic - 44$ b) Wet: Mesotrophic - 14 c) Wet: Permesotrophic - 14 d) Moist: Submesotrophic - 14 e) Normal: Submesotrophic - 14 Tufa Devil's Club - 5 plots Wet: Subeutrophic - 100$ Creek Skunk Cabbage - 7 plots a) Wet: Permesotrophic - 86$ b) Wet: Mesotrophic - L4 Depression Skunk Cabbage - 1 plot Gleyed: Mesotrophic - 100$ Alluvial Dry Moss - 3 plots a) Normal: Oligotrophic - 67$ b) Dry: Submesotrophic - 33 Alluvial Normal Moss - 12 plots a) Normal: Oligotrophic - 75$ b) Normal: Mesotrophic - 17 c) Normal: Submesotrophic - 8 Alluvial Bunchberry Aralia-Oakfern -6 plots Normal: Oligotrophic - 100$ Al l u v i a l Aralia-Oakfern - 10 plots a) Moist: Submesotrophic - 40$ b) Gleyed: Permesotrophic - 30 c) Gleyed: Mesotrophic - 20 d) Moist: Permesotrophic - 10 All u v i a l Devil's Club - 8 plots a) Moist: Permesotrophic - 75$ b) Moist: Submesotrophic - 25 Wet Alluvial Complex - 3 plots a) Moist: Permesotrophic - 67$ b) Moist: Mesotrophic - 33 Dry A l l u v i a l Complex - 1 plot Moist: Permesotrophic - 100$ Douglas-fir Zone - 9 plots a) Normal: Mesotrophic - 45$ b) Dry: Mesotrophic - 22 c) Dry: Submesotrophic - 11 d) Dry: Permesotrophic - 11 e) Moist: Permesotrophic - 11 -122-VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS From 1958 to 1962 an investigation was carried out under the auspices of the Canada Department of Forestry to consider the edaphic aspects of an eco-logical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Interior Western Hemlock Dry Subzone of British Columbia. Data on aspects such as s o i l morphology (through profile descriptions), topography, parent material, s o i l moisture and temperature, cellulose-decomposing activity, root distribution, and the chemical and physical nature of s o i l samples, were collected from a l l or a portion of 168 plots d i s t r i -buted widely over the study area. With a few modifications, current prac-tices of the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada of horizon nomenclature and cl a s s i f i c a t i o n were followed. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: 1. The mountainous terrain of the study area provides conditions favor-able for the formation of a large number of different s o i l s . Of the seven orders described i n the Canadian s o i l classification, five are encountered i n the study area. After modification of some of the sub-groups of the Canadian classification and further subdivision of several of them into more uniform productivity units, at least 29 kinds of s o i l can be readily dis-tinguished. Some of these are sub-groups (e.g. Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded) while others are subdivisions of sub-groups (e.g. Dry Minimal Podzol, I Nor-mal Minimal Podzol and Moist Orthic Podzol) based mainly on moisture and surface s o i l conditions. The d i f f i c u l t y of accommodating a l l profiles with-i n the Canadian classification indicates that mountainous forest soils of British Columbia are not represented adequately i n the classification. 2. Only the Normal Orthic Podzol, Ortstein Podzol, and I Normal Minimal Podzol are considered as zonal s o i l s . Reflecting the climate of the area, -123-they are strongly podzolized (definite Ae and bright yellowish brown B), strongly leached (oligotrophic), and are generally characterized by low pH, low exchangeable cations, low Ca: Mg ratio, and a felty mor humus. 3. The remaining soils d i f f e r from the zonal mainly because of edaphic and time factors. Only i n a portion of the area i s the macroclimate alone considered sufficiently different from the average macroclimate to produce soils unlike the zonal soils. The major departures from the zonal pattern are as follows: a) Soils moister or moister and richer (in exchangeable calcium and magnesium) The effect of moisture l i e s both i n the direct influence of water and in the increased supply of nutrients supplied by the seepage water. The i n -creasing influence of seepage i s noted from moist Podzols, to gleyed Bruni-solics, to Gleysolics, and f i n a l l y to Mucks. Coincident with the increasing moisture i s a general decrease i n adsorbed phosphate and an increase i n exchangeable sodium. Where seepage i s combined with calcareous parent material, differences from the zonal types are even more pronounced as illustrated by Gleyed Brown Wooded and the unique Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol s o i l s . b) Soils drier or drier and richer (in exchangeable calcium and magnesium) Soils extremely coarse or shallow to bedrock provide conditions for Dry Minimal Podzols, Dry Orthic Acid Brown Woodedsj and, on parent material rich i n calcium, Dry Orthic Brown Wooded and Brown Forest s o i l s . These diff e r from the zonal soils by a generally thin and granular F-H horizon, and a tendency for a higher adsorbed phosphate and exchangeable potassium concen-tration. c) Soils normal but calcareous -124-Some soils under these conditions have developed a thick, bleached Ae-like surface horizon with, however, a high base saturation. With reservation, they are called Degraded Brown Wooded. d) Young soils These soils have not been forming for a sufficiently long time for any differentiation of diagnostic horizons. The extreme case i s the periodically flooded Orthic Regosol. The Mor Regosol, by humus characteristics and base saturation, appears to be transitional to one of the Podzolic Order soils, v while the Duff Mull Regosol i s supplied with adequate ground water to resist podzolization for a longer period. e) Soils different for various reasons For various reasons pertaining to topography, parent material, and vegetation, two so i l s , the Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and II Normal Minimal Podzol, have less podzolized characteristics (absent or ill-defined Ae, pale B, relatively high base saturation of surface horizons) than the zonal s o i l s . Young stands with a high proportion of deciduous species and pioneer conifers very often are associated with these s o i l s , and by compari-son with similar sites with older stands, the writer feels that i n many cases only a few hundred years of undisturbed forest growth are needed to change these soils into one of the three specified zonal s o i l s . f) Soils i n areas macrocllmatically drier and warmer A few soils occur i n areas deemed somewhat drier and warmer than average. In these areas Normal Orthic Brown Wooded soils (resembling soils east of the study area) are found on parent material rich i n calcium, and Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded and II Normal Minimal Podzols (resembling soils west of the study area) are found on poorer parent material. 4. .Some of the variations i n soils can be related to general topograph-i c and geologic differences. -125 a) Podzolization i s retarded on steep slopes. This may be due to surface erosion which disrupts the organic layer, masks the Ae, discolors the B, and increases the rate of decomposition. b) The most extreme podzolization i s found with slightly concave or neutral r e l i e f on gentle to moderate slopes, or on f l a t well-drained a l l u -vium or gla c i a l outwash. c) Generally, concave r e l i e f indicates moist soils while dry soils are associated with convex r e l i e f . Relief features are thus valuable i n broad site classification. d) Brown Wooded and Brown Forest soils are only rarely found on alluvium and never on outwash. e) The properties of warm slopes tend to retard podzolization. Where warm, steep slopes are combined with f a i r l y calcareous parent material, Brunisolic soils are common. f) Soils formed at elevations over about 3,800 feet have a greater incorporation of organic matter than soils at lower elevations. This appears to be a very raw type of organic matter with a high C:N ratio. Further studies above 3,800 feet would undoubtedly result i n the description of a different zonal (subalpine) s o i l . g) Moisture deficiencies are most l i k e l y to occur i n deep soils on steep, warm slopes or i n shallow soils on either warm or cold slopes. h) Soils formed on parent material derived from the Igneous and metamorphic bedrock of the Kuskanax batholith and Monashee group, respect-ively, are generally more podzolized than soils derived from the Lardeau series, Sinemurian beds, Rossland formation, and the eastern portion of the Slocan group. The correspondence of loose rock from s o i l pits to underly-ing bedrock is f a i r l y high except i n heavily drift-covered areas and near bedrock boundaries. - 1 2 6 -i ) The concentration of calcium and magnesium in seepage water depends greatly on the type of parent material through which the water passes. Highest concentrations are found i n the v i c i n i t y of Lardeau series and Slocan group bedrock. Lowest concentrations are found i n association with the Kuskanax and Nelson batholiths, Coast intrusions and Monashee group. The concentration i s generally higher i n slope seepage water than i n the f l a t water-table variety. 5. The activity of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms i s significantly lower i n Moss and Degraded Aralia-Oakfern sites than i n Aralia-Oakfern and Devil's Club (large circulation of nutrients), or i n the Lichen association (small circulation of nutrients). The most important factors are s o i l mois-ture, temperature and chemical properties. Cellulose-decomposing activity in F-H horizons increases with Increasing calcium, magnesium, base saturation, and pH, and v/ith decreasing C:N ratio. 6 . The influence of vegetational succession on soils i s best illustrated i n the Slope Normal Moss type. An increase i n podzolization as forest vege-tation develops toward the climax i s indicated. In moister types the trend is not so evident due to the overriding influence of seepage and to the increased proportion of western red cedar i n the climax stages. 7. Specific ecosystem types, even though based on both biotic and edaphic data, generally may be associated with several kinds of s o i l s . Most ecosystem types, however, are related primarily to one or two s o i l s . From top to bottom of a hypothetical slope, the ecosystem type and underlying s o i l are most characteristically as follows: Lichen/Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded: Dry Moss/Dry Minimal Podzol; Normal Moss/I Normal Minimal Podzol; Bunchberry Moss/Moist Minimal Podzol; Aralia-Oakfern/Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded; Degraded Aralia-Oakfern/Ortstein Podzol; Devil's Club/Peaty Gleysol; Tufa Devil's Club/Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol; and Creek Skunk Cabbage/Shallow Muck. - 1 2 7 -From dry to wet a l l u v i a l and outwash ecosystem types the chara c t e r i s t i c s o i l associates arez Dry Moss/Normal Orthic Podzol; Normal Moss/I Normal Minimal Podzol; Bunchberry Aralia-Oakfern/Normal Orthic Podzol; Aralia-Oakfern/Mor Regosol; and Devil's Club and A l l u v i a l Complex/Duff Mull Regosol. 8. The ecosystem type i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to recognize and i s an extremely useful unit for many purposes. In some cases, however, the kind of s o i l should be determined as accurately as possible. 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Ecosystem type and stage a S o i l c Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) Relief Slope (degrees) Average Exposure ^ dominant trees, 1960e Chemical analysis Mabel Lake 001 SDM(l) DMP R 003 CSC SMk LA 004 SA-0 MOP G 005 DA-0 (2) NOP G 006 SBM(2) NOP G 007 ABA-0 Ort. P 0 008 ABA-0 NOP 0 009 SNM(3) NOABW G 010 SBM(l) INMP G 011 CSC SMk H 012 SNM(l) INMP G 014 DSC OM G 015 SA-0 MMP G 016 SA-0 GABW G 017 SBM(3) MMP GA 018 SNM(3) IINMP G Sugar Lake 019 AD DMR 0 020 ABA-0 NOP 0 021 ABA-0 INMP OA 022 AA-0 Mor R OA 023 AA-0 Mor R 0 024 AD DMR OA 025 SNM(2) NOABW G 026 CSC SMk G 028 WAC DMR A 2,735 St. convex 26 2,025 Concave 0-4 2,025 SI. concave 10 2,040 Neut.-concave 4-6 2 ,090 St. convex 0-9 2,025 Flat 0 2,075 Flat 0 2,295 Neut.-si. convex 22 2,495 Convex 20 2,415 Flat 0-4 2,790 Convex 10-15 2,570 St. concave 0 2,575 2,585 Neut.-concave 0-3 Concave 6 1,750 S i . concave 12 1,770 SI. convex 2-6 2,210 Neut. (hummocks) 3-4 2,210 F l a t - s l . convex 3 2,210 Flat 2-3 2,160 Convex-concave 0-2 2,160 Neut. (hummocks) 3 2,160 Neut. 4 2,020 Neut. (undulating) 11 2,010 Concave 12 1,975 Neut. 0 S75E 175+ S10W 200+ S50E-S10W 250+ S20W-S45E 90 X Several 86 0 250+ X 0 200+ S40E 48 S50E 190 S20W 230 S15E 200+ 0 250+ S70E 200+ S80E 200+ X N85E 61 X S75E 63 S30E 250+ S35E 250+ S60E 275+ X N20E-Due E 200+ Due E 170+ X Due E 300+ X S55E 101 Due E 108 X 0 130 Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type and stage a S o i l c Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) Relief c Slope (degrees) Average age of Exposure dominant trees, 1960e Chemical analysis Makinson Flats 029 ANM(3) NOP A 1,850 Flat 2 S30E 58 030 SA-0 NOABW A 1,875 SI. convex 33 N85W 69 X 040 ANM(3) INMP A 2,250 Flat 0 0 67 041 ANM(3) IINMP A 2,250 F l a t - s l . convex 0 0 68 X 042 AKM(3) NOP A 2,250 Neut. 5 N80E 74 043 ANM(l) INMP A 2,300 Flat 0 0 250+ 044 ANM(l) INMP A 2,300 Flat 1-2 S65W 250+ Cusson Creek 0 3 1 g DA-0(1) INMP G 3,100 SI. concave 28 N10W 300 032S DA-0(2) INMP G 3,170 SI. concave 27 N15W 105 033 SD NOABW G 3,110 Concave 36 N30W 250+ X 034 DA-0 (2) NOP G 3,000 Neut.-si. concave 10 S10W 82 X 035 SD NOABW G 3,025 Neut.-si. concave 8 S30E 80 X 036 g DA-0(1) INMP G 2,900 Neut. 19 N10W 270 Fisher Creek 037 ANM(3) INMP A 1,990 Flat 3 S60E 63 038 SBM(2) MOP GA 1,960 SI. concave 3 N60E 83 039 SA-0 GABW G 2,050 Neut.-si. concave 15 S60E 67 X Stevens Pass Road 045 SNM(2) IINMP G 2,050 Convex 15 N45E (80) 046 SNM(2) INMP G 1,975 SI. convex 12 N35E 78 047 SBM(4) NOP G 2,950 SI. convex-sl.concave 0-5 N45E 10 048 SA-0 MMP G 2,975 SI. convex A N20E 200+ 049 CSC DMk H 2,975 Concave 1-2 N30E 79 X 050 SA-0 MOP G 2,975 Convex 2-3 N55E 70 Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type and stage a Soil c Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) Relier Slope (degrees) Average age of Chemical Exposure d J r a i m n t a n a l y s i s f trees, I960 6 Stevens Pass Road (Continued) 051 AA-0 DMR A 2,925 Neut. 2-5 N80W 10 052 SA-0 GABW G 3,300 Neut.-si. concave 10 S60E 80 X 053 SBM(3) IINMP G 3,025 SI. convex 23 S40E 59 054 SNM(3) NOABW G 3,010 SI. convex 24 S30E 52 Whatshan Lake 055 ADM(2) DMP 0 2,500 Neut. 0 0 60 056 SDM(l) DMP R 2,300 Neut. 18 N70W 170+ X 057 SA-0 GABW G 2,600 Concave 16 S70W (101) X 058 SBM(2) MMP 0 2,575 Neut.-concave 2-7 S25W 108 Caribou Creek 060 SBM(3) IINMP GA 2,725 SI. convex 29 S35E 63 X 061 SA-0 IINMP GO 2,600 SI. concave(hummocks)2-3 S15E 64 062 SNM(3) IINMP G 2,685 SI. convex 16 S45E 62 063 SA-0 IINMP G 2,670 SI. concave 12 S40E 60 064 WAC DMR A 2,485 SI. concave 3 S60W 50+ X 065 AD DMR A 2,490 Neut. (hummocks) 3 S55W 60 066 SA-0 INMP GO 2,650 SI. concave 29 N55W 62 067 SBM(3) DMP R 2,725 Convex 24 N65W 59 201 SNM(3) INMP 0 2,760 Neut. 4 S60E 67 202 SNM(3) DMP R 2,830 St. convex 7 N40-60W (67) Arrovrpark Ferry 068 DAC DMR A 1,410 SI. convex 2 S30U 41 X 077 ANM(3) INMP A 1,460 Flat 3 Due W 42 078 AHM(3) NOABW A 1,450 Flat 0-4 0-N45W 47 X Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type and S o i l 1 a Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) R e l l e r Average Slope Exposure dSinfnt Chenleal (degrees) aomxnanx analysis 1 trees, I960 Burton 071 D-fir DOBW G 2,150 St. convex 28 S55tf 270+ 072 D-fir DOBF R 2,020 Convex 33 S75W 140+ X 073 D-fir DOABW R 2,100 St. convex 39 S75W 52 X 074 D-fir DBW G 2,075 SI. convex 30 S70W 54 075 D-fir DOBW R 1,875 SI. concave 33 S45tf 279+ X 076 AA-0 GBF A 1,600 Flat 0 0 46 X Nakusp Hot Springs Road 079 SA-0 PG G 2,280 Concave basin 5 N75W 250+ X 080 ANM(2) INMP A 2,300 Convex 0-4 S35W 82 081 SBM(2) MOP G 2,285 SI. convex-neut. 8 N35W 84 X 083 SBM(3) MOP G 2,370 SI. convex 25 S65W 70 084 SDM(2) DOABW R 2,300 Convex 12 S70W 89 Wilson Lake (new and old roads) 085 L DOABW R 3,065 Convex 20-25 S15E 220+ 086 SDM(l) DMP R 3,025 Convex 20-30 S30E 280+ 087 SBM(3) MMP G 2,300 SI. concave M-16 S55W 52 (undulating) 088 SBM(3) MMP G 2,275 SI. concave 19 S50W 52 089 SBM(3) DMP G 2,960 Neut. 10 S15E 25 090 SBM(l) MMP G 2,955 SI. concave 9 S30W 200+ 091 SNM(l) INMP G 2,920 SI. convex 15 S10E 310+ X 092 SBM(2) MOP G 2,910 SI. concave 10-12 Due S 96 093 AA-0 GABW OA 3,125 Neut.-si. concave 4 S40E 250+ X 094 DA-0(1) MOP 0 3,140 Flat (hummocks) 2-3 S45E 300+ 104 " CSC PM A 2,640 St. concave 1-2 S65E 59 X Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type.and stage a S o i l b Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) Relief" Slope (degrees) Average « age o f Exposure d o m i n a n t trees, I960 6 Chemical^ analysis Wilson Lake (Continued) 105 AA-0 GABW GOA 2,630 Flat (concave 3 - 4 S45E 62 X depressions) 106 SNM(3) INMP A 2,800 Convex 22 S60E 63 107 SBM(l) INMP G 2,800 SI. concave 45 S35E 250+ 108 DA-0 NOP 0 2,750 Concave (hummocks) 9 S20E 300+ X 1 0 9 SNM(3) NOP GC 2,905 SI. convex 16 N75W 78 110 SBM(2) MOP C 2,810 Neut. 17 N80W 81 111 SBM(2) MMP GC 2,800 Neut. 14 N60W 85 X 112 DA-0(1) Ort. P G 3,215 Concave 5 N25W 300+ X 1 1 3 CSC SMk A 3,260 St. concave 3-6 N10E 250+ 114 CSC PG A 3,200 St. concave 4 S65W 300+ X 203 AD DMR 0 3,000 Concave (hummocks) 3 N10W 300+ X 209 SNM(l) NOP G 2,900 St. convex 6-12 S10E-S10W Wilson Creek 097 SNM(2) INMP G 2,530 SI. concave 15 S85E (90) 101 TD CDMR A 2,350 St. concave 18 S75E 98 X 102 SBM(2) IINMP G 2,420 Neut.-sl. concave 13 S65E (100) Hasty Creek (Silverton) 115 SNM(2) NOP G 3,000 Neut. 12 N80E (75) 117 L DOABW R 3,350 St. convex 28-33 S35W 72 X 119 SA-0 MMP A 3,050 SI. concave 8-12 N50W 6 4 Kuskanax River 121 L DMP R 1,500 Convex 25 S80W 120 X 122 L Mor R CR 1,480 St. convex 20 S50W 87 Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type and S o i l c Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) Relief Slope (degrees) Exposure Average age of dominant trees, I9606 Chemical, analysis Kuskanax River (Continued) 123 ADM(l) NOP 0 1,440 Neut. 2-3 N25W 190 124 ADM(2) NOP 0 1,470 Plat 0-2 S40W 113 X 125 WAC OR A 1,430 Flat 0 0 80+ X 126 AA-0 Mor R/OABW A 1,450 Flat 2-3 S15E 56 X 127 AA-0 Mor R/MP A 1,450 Flat (hummocks) 2-4 S50W 53 X Slewiskin Creek 128 TD CDMR G 2,525 Concave 15 S85W 270 X 129 SD SJflE GC 2 ,500 St. concave 21 N35E 209 X Summit and Box Lakes 131 SNM(l) NOP G 2,340 Convex 7 S25W 123 132 DA-0(1) Ort. P G 2,330 SI. concaye 4 Due W 132 X 133 SA-0 NOABW C 2,530 SI. convex 23 N45E 28 Kaslo-Lardeau Road 137 SNM(3) INMP G 2 ,060 Neut. 7 S80E 63 138 TD CDMR T 2,000 Concave 32 Due S 141 X 154 D - f i r NOBW GC 2,150 Convex 36 S75E 50 X 155 D - f i r NOBW C 2,160 Convex 40 S55E 50 156 D-fir DBW G 1,905 Convex 21 N70E 200+ X Lardeau-Gerrard Road 139 AA-0 OG A 1,790 Flat 0 0 76 140 AA-0 OG A 1,790 Flat 0 0 63 X 142 ABA-0 NOP A 2,080 Neut.-si. convex 12 S35W 49 Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type and stage 8 . S o i l b Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) R e l i e f 4 Slope (degrees) Exposure Average age of dominant trees, i960 6 Chemical analysis Lardeau-Gerrard Road (Continued) U3 ABA-0 ,'NOP A 2,100 Flat 0 0 50 X 144 AD 'MMP A 2,220 Flat 0 0 300+ X Trout Lake > 145 SA-0 DMR/OBW OA 2,500 SI. concave 9 N65W 85 I46 AD DMR/OBW A 2,500 Concave 5 S70W 93 157 SBM(3) DOBW C 2,620 Neut.-si. convex 31 S35W 86 X 158 SBM(3) NOABW G 2,775 Neut.-si. concave 23 S45W 82 X 159 SA-0 GBW G 3,000 St. concave 5 Due S 82 X 160 SBM(3) INMP G 3,030 SI. convex (hummocks) 18 S05W 83 161 TD CMk G 3,045 Concave 19 S20W 80 X 162 SA-0 DMR/GBW G 3,060 Concave 19 S25W 80 X 163 SNM(l) INMP G 3,310 Neut.-si. convex 28 S40W 460 I64 SBM(l) DMP G 3,320 Si. convex 34 S40W 250+ 165 SNM(l) INMP G 3,250 St. convex 14 S50W 400 166 SA-0 MOP G 3,200 SI. concave 3-5 S10W 250+ X Keen Creek 147 SNM(3) IINMP G 2,580 SI. convex 33 N85E 85 I48 SNM(2) IINMP G 2,575 St. convex 16 S10E 86 149 SD PG G 2,875 Concave 12 S75W - X 150 AD Mor R OA 2,580 F l a t - s i . concave 0 0 250+ 151 TD PCG G 2,925 Concave 21 N10E 290 X 152 AD DMR GA 2,845 Concave 5 N25E 300+ X 153 SA-0 MOP G 3,065 SI. concave 37 N10E 250+ X 168 SBM(3) NOBW GC 2,520 Neut. 26 S35W 68 Appendix A. Table 1. Continued SB no. Ecosystem type and stage a S o i l c Parent material 0 Eleva-tion (ft) Relief 0 Slope (degrees) Exposure Average age of dominant trees, 1960e Chemical analysis'* Sandon 170S DA-0(1) 171S SD Erie Creek 173. 175* 176 177 178 178 MC1 183 h 186 h 187 h Sicamous 204. 206 Malakwa 207 208 MMP MMP C 3,925 Neut.-concave C 3,850 Concave 30 30 N25¥ N25W 300+ 200+ D-fir DMR A 2 ,325 Flat 0 0 75 X SA-0 NOABW GC 3 , U 0 Neut. 21 S70W 180+ X SBM(l) NOABW OA 2 ,935 SI. convex 23 N45E 250+ SNM(l) INMP GC 2,885 Convex 29 N65E 250+ X SD NOBF GC 3,180 Concave 14 S65W (180+) X SA-0 NOBW GC 3,120 Neut.-sl. concave 26 S55W 180+ SA-0 NOBW G 2,780 Concave 15 S40W 110 X SA-0 NOBW G 2,800 SI. convex 20 S40W 73 X SBM(3) NOBW GC 3,130 SI. convex 30 S45W 54 SNM(3) NOABW C 3,100 Convex 26 S40W (55) L Creek SD IINMP OC 3,870 Concave 15 N60E 250+ DA-0(1) IINMP OA 4,210 Convex and concave 25 N30E 200+ X 18L DOABW R 1,650 St. convex 3-7 Due N-N20E 98 X SBM(3) MMP G 1,600 Neut. 18 N20W 98 1 ANM(2) NOP AO 1,500 Undulating 0-4 0-S75W 76 ANM(3) NOABW 0 1 , 5 0 0 Flat 0 0 42 Appendix A. Table 1 . Continued a Ecosystem types (data from Bell, 1 9 6 2 ) : L = Lichen SDM = Slope Dry Moss SNM = Slope Normal Moss SBM = Slope Bunchberry Moss SA-0 = Slope Aralia - Oakfern SD = Slope Devil's Club DA-0 = Degraded Aralia - Oakfern TD = Tufa Devil's Club D-fir = Douglas-fir Zone ADM = Alluvial Dry Moss ANM = Alluvial Normal Moss ABA-0 = Alluvial Bunchberry AA-0 = Alluvial Aralia - Oakfern AD = Alluvial Devil's Club MAC = Wet Alluvial Complex DAC = Dry Alluvial Complex CSC = Creek Skunk Cabbage DSC = Depression Skunk Cabbage Aralia - Oakfern Numbers in parentheses after the ecosystem names refer to stages 1 to 4 . b Soil abbreviations are explained in Table 1 , Chapter V. c G = glacial t i l l ; A - alluvium; 0 = outwash; R = rock outcrop; C = colluvium; H = organic accumulations; L = lacustrine; T = tufa. Mixtures .are expressed by more than one letter. ^ St. = strongly; S i . = slightly; Neut. = neutral. 8 Data from Bell ( 1 9 6 2 ) . Ages in parentheses are from nearby stands. ^ X = profiles on which chemical analysis over and above pH was performed. S Northern variant (high altitudes, steep north slopes, or both). k Southern variant (with Abies grandis). - M o -Appendix B Descriptions (A) and Chemical Characteristics (B) of Profiles Chosen for Chemical Analysis Table Contents Page 1 Ortstein Podzols (A) 149 2 Ortstein Podzols (B) 152 3 Normal Orthic Podzols (A) 153 4 Normal Orthic Podzols (B) 158 5 Moist Orthic Podzols (A) 160 6 Moist Orthic Podzols (B) 163 7 I Normal Minimal Podzols (A) 164 8 I Normal Minimal Podzols (B) 167 9 II Normal Minimal Podzols (A) 168 10 II Normal Minimal Podzols (B) 171 11 Moist Minimal Podzols (A) 172 12 Moist Minimal Podzols (B) 176 13 Dry Minimal Podzols (A) 178 14 Dry Minimal Podzols (B) 180 15 Normal Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds (A) 181 16 Normal Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds (B) 187 17 Dry Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds (A) 189 18 Dry Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds (B) 191 19 Gleyed Acid Brown Woodeds (A) 192 20 Gleyed Acid Brown Woodeds (B) 198 21 Normal Orthic Brown Woodeds (A) 200 22 Normal Orthic Brown Woodeds (B) 203 -147-Appendix B. Continued Table Contents Page 23 Dry Orthic Brown Woodeds (A) 204 24 Dry Orthic Brown Woodeds (B) 206 25 Gleyed Brown Wooded (A) 207 26 Gleyed Brown Wooded (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 27 Degraded Brown Wooded (A) 209 28 Degraded Brown Wooded (B) 210 29 Normal Orthic Brown Forest (A) 211 30 Normal Orthic Brown Forest (B) 212 31 Dry Orthic Brown Forest (A) 213 32 Dry Orthic Brown Forest (B) 214 33 Gleyed Brown Forest (A) 215 34 Gleyed Brown Forest (B) 216 35 Orthic Gleysol (A) . 217 36 Orthic Gleysol (B) 218 37 Peaty Gleysols (A) 219 38 Peaty Gleysols (B) 221 39 Peaty Calcareous Gleysol (A) 222 40 Peaty Calcareous Gleysol ( B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 41 Peaty Meadow (A) 224 42 Peaty Meadow (B) 226 43 Shallow Mucks (A) 227 44 Shallow Mucks (B) 229 45 Calcareous Muck (A) 230 46 Calcareous Muck (B) 231 47 Deep Muck (A) 232 -148-Appendlx B. Continued Table Contents Page 48 Deep Muck (B) . . . . . . . . . « ' . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 49 Orthic Regosol (A) 234 50 Orthic Regosol (B) 235 51 Mor Regosol (A) 236 52 Mor Regosol (B) 237 53 Duff Mull Regosols (A) 238 54 Duff Mull Regosols (B) 244 55 Calcareous Duff Mull Regosols (A) 246 56 Calcareous Duff Mull Regosols (B) 249 57 Buried Soils (A) 250 58 Buried Soils (B) 253 - 1 4 9 -Appendix B Table 1. Descriptions of Ortstein Podzol Profiles , — — Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 112 SB 1 3 2 L 12-9em; dead moss, hemlock, white pine, cedar needles, hemlock cones, twigs. F-H 9-3cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2, dry and moist) top portion of a f e l t y mor with duff mull tendency; yellow fungal hyphae; not friable; some charcoal; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 3-5-H 3-Ocm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) c to black (10YR 2/1, moist) bottom layer of humus; no visible fungal hyphae; very friable; charcoal common; pH 4»0. Ae 0-l6cm; white (5YR 8/1) to grayish brown (10YR 3 8 3 5 5 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 4.-2. Bfhc l6-39cm; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4 / 4 ) to 41 65 dark brown (7.5YR 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand; strongly cemented (ortstein); mottles distinct, common, medium, brown/reddish brown; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5 . 3 . Bf 39-61+cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 4 9 85 yellowish brown (10YR 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; pH 5.6. L 7 - 4 c m ; nearly 100$ dead moss and hemlock needles. F-H 4-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2 / 2 ) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) typical f e l t y mor with bright yel-low fungal hyphae and some white; H layer not very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 3 . 4 -Ae 0-7cm; white (10YR 8/1) to dark gray (10YR 3 10 4 . 5 / 1 * moist) sand; weak, medium to fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; some charcoal; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 4 « 2 . Bfhc 7 - l 6 c m ; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4 / 4 ) to 13 1 5 dark brown (10YR 3/3, moist) sandy loam; strongly cemented (ortstein); very friable when crushed; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4 « 8 . -150-Appendlx B. Table 1. Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB 132 (Continued) 4 BC l6-33cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 17 20 (2.5Y 4/4> moisb) sandy loam; weak to moder-ate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5.8. Ga Rb SB 007 C 3 3 - 5 5 c m j pale yellow ( 5 Y 7/3) to olive ( 5 1 5 AO 5/3.5? moist) cobbly, loamy, very fine sand; weak, medium granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5 « 6 ' IIC 55-100+cm; light gray (5Y 7 / 2 ) to olive ( 5 Y 2 5 70 5/3, moist) gravelly sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; pH 5.7. L 9-6cm; conifer needles and cones. F-H 6-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae; H layer not friable; pH 3 . 3 . Ae 0-5cm; light gray (5YR 7 /1) to grayish brown 21 (10YR 5/2, moist) gravelly sand; weak, very fine granular structure; very friable to loose; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 4»0. Bf 5-14cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 30 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4? moist) gravelly loamy fine sand; weak, medium to fine granu-lar structure; very friable; many fine roots; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 4.8. Bfhc 14-37cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 25 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4> moist) gravelly loamy coarse sand; strongly cemented (ortstein); does not occur i n whole profile; abrupt, broken boundary; pH 5-6. Bf 23-37cm; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) to brown 14 to dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; part of profile only; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5.5. BC 37-55cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to light yellow- 42 ish brown (2.5Y 6/4, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5.7. -151-Appendix B„ Table 1. Continued Sample Horizon Description G a R b no. SB 007 (Continued) 7 C 55-65cmj pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4 t o 2.5T 7A, moist) sand5 single grain structiire; loose; clearj wavy boundary; pH 5»7. 8 IIBf 65-80cm; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6)to yellow- 59 0 ish red (5YR 4/8, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; rusty appear-ance; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5.8. 9 IIIC 80-117cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to light 4 0 olive brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5.9. 10 IVC 117-123+cm; pale yellow (2.51 8/4 to 2 .5Y 43 0 7/4}, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.0. G = The weight of material between 2mm and approximately 2cm expressed as a percentage of the weight of the collected sample. R = The estimated volume of rock greater than 2cm expressed as a percent-age of the whole s o i l body. Refers to dry s o i l colors unless otherwise indicated. Appendix B Table 2. Chemical Characteristics of Ortstein Podzol Profiles Sample Hori- ^ Mois- t % % PPM " Exchangeable cations Total 1 TT CaCO^ ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of no. zon pH .•> &, °, - , , L £ <f equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ B S lOOg SB 112 1 F-H 3.5 0 113.38 43.4 74.5 1.42 2 H 4.0 0 115.04 55.0 94.8 1.33 3 Ae 4.2 0 100.28 0.54 0.93 O.04 4 Bfhc 5.3 0 102.06 1.75 3.02 0.10 5 Bf 5.6 0 101.21 0.93 1.60 0.04 SB 132 1 F-H 3-4 0 112.14 49-1 84.6 1.97 2 Ae 4.2 0 100.33 0.76 1.31 0.04 3 Bfhc 4-8 0 102.70 2.22 3.83 0.09 4 BC 5-8 0 101.68 0.78 1.34 0.04 5 C 5-6 0 100.62 0.24 0.41 0.02 6 IIC 5-7 0 100.24 0.09 0.16 0.02 SB 007 1 F-H 3-3 0 112.56 48.9 84.3 1.37 2 Ae 4.0 0 IOO.58 0.99 1.71 0.06 3 Bf 4.8 0 101.06 0.84 1.45 0.07 4 Bfhc 5.6 0 101.77 1.31 2.26 0.06 5 Bf 5-5 0 101.16 0.83 1.43 0.05 6 BC 5-7 0 100.29 0.I4 0.24 0.02 7 C 5-7 0 100.23 0.12 0.21 8 IIBf 5.8 0 100.45 0.24 0.41 9 IIIC 5-9 0 100.61 0.28 O.48 10 IVG 6.0 0 100.27 0.09 0.16 30.6 31.2 153.0 9.2 5.7 1,66 0.14 16.7 10.9 41.4 26.5 167.6 28.6 4.5 1.27 0.23 34-6 20.6 13-5 0.5 3.2 0.6 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.6 18.8 17.5 I4.I 13.3 0.0 0.9 0.03 0.03 1.0 7.5 23.2 6.3 8.9 0.1 0.0 T T 0.1 1.1 24.9 119.8 129.4 7.3 5.7 2.53 0.06 15.6 12.1 19.0 9.8 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.02 0.0 1.4 24.7 460.6 22.7 0.5 0.2 0.04 0.02 0.8 3.5 19.5 350.8 10.4 0.5 0.4 0.03 0.03 1.0 9.6 12.0 263.7 4.0 0.2 0.4 0.02 0.01 0.6 15.0 4.5 51.1 1.6 0.4 0.3 0.02 0.01 0.7 43.8 35-7 118.9 I6O.5 5.1 8.9 1.84 0.11 16.0 10.0 16.5 4.0 6.4 0.1 0.3 0.04 0.05 0.5 7.8 12.0 225.3 10.9 0.0 0.4 0.02 0.02 0.4 3.7 21.8 65.8 I4.I 0.5 0.9 0.02 0.02 1.4 9.9 16.6 31.6 8.5 0.5 0.2 0.00 0.02 0.7 8.2 7.0 11.8 1.8 0.0 0.1 0.00 T 0.1 5.6 8.5 1.3 0.0 0.2 0.00 0.01 0.2 15.4 6.7 3.9 0.0 0.4 0.01 T 0.4 10.3 24.5 4.1 0.5 0.4 0.01 0.01 0.9 22.0 2.4 2.2 0.5 0.0 0.00 0.01 0.5 22.7 -153-Appendix B Table 3. Descriptions of Normal Orthic Podzol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 005 L 8-4.cm; a thick mat of conifer needles. F-H 4-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with both white and yellow fungal hyphae (low amounts of both): H layer f a i r l y friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4.0. Ae 0-2cm; light gray (10YR 7/1) to gray to dark 6 15 gray (10YR 4 - 5 / 1 , moist) sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; some organic leaching; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4«6. Bfh 2-17cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 26 15 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4 , moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 6 . B3 17-47cm; pale yellow (2.5* 7/4) to olive brown 57 75 (2«5 T 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5 ' 4 ' BCq 47-66cm; pale yellow (2 .5Y 7-5/4) to light olive 30 35 brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; friable when broken; diffuse boun-dary; pH 5.0. Cq 66-83cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 34 60 (2.5Y 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; friable when broken; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 4-9. C 83-106cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 39 60 (2.5Y 4/4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; pH 5»0. Cc 106-117+cm; light gray to pale yellow (2.5Y 7/3) 56 65 to olive brown (2.5Y 4/4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; has appearance of ortstein (strongly cemented); pH 5 . 3 . -154-Appendlx B. Table 3« Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 034 L 9 - 6 c m ; mainly dead moss and conifer needles. F-H 6 - 0 c m ; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3 / 3 ) to black (10YR 2 / 1 , moist) mainly a f e l t y mor with many yellow fungal hyphae; some granular mor especially toward area of devil's club; varies due to hummocky surface; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4 ' 0 . Ae 0 - 2 c m ; light gray to gray (10YR 6/1) to dark 4 15 gray (10YR 4/1, moist) loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, very fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 4 ' 2 . Bfh 2 - 1 3 c m ; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) to brown to 8 15 dark brown ( 7 . 5 Y R 4/4? moist) loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 6 . Bj 1 3 - 2 4 c m ; pale olive (5Y 6 / 3 ) to dark grayish 3 9 15 brown to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 6 . Cq 2 4 - 4 7 c m ; pale olive (5Y 6 / 3 ) to dark grayish 3 7 60 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, very fine granular structure; very friable when broken; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5 - 6 . C l 47-62cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4/3, 64 moist) gravelly slightly loamy sand; weak, very fine granular to single grain struc-ture; very friable to loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5-6. 60 7 C2 62-82+cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4/3 , moist) gravelly slightly loamy sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 5 . 7 . 68 60 -155-Appendix B. Table 3« Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. S B 108 L 9 - 6 c m ; mainly dead moss, hemlock needles and cones. F-H 6 -0cmj very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) generally a f e l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae; H layer very friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 3.6. Ae 0-6cm; light gray (N7/) to dark gray (10YR 10 5 4/1, moist) loamy sand; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 3 . 8 . Bfhl 6 - 2 1 c m ; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) to dark 15 15 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5 * 6 . Bfh2 2 1 - 3 9 c m ; light yellowish brown (10YR 6.5/4) 27 40 to dark yellowish bro?m (10YR 4/4> moist) gravelly loam to s i l t loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; very friable to friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5 . 9 . IIC1 3 9 - 6 6 c m ; light yellowish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 6 / 4 ) to 56 75 dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 4.8. IIC2 27-49cm; light gray (5Y 7/2) to olive gray 53 60 (5Y 5 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; on top of large boulders only; clear, broken boundary; pH 5.4. I I C 3 66-91+cm; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/4) to light 6 4 85 olive brown ( 2 . 5Y 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 5-2. -156-Appendlx B. Table 3- Continued Sample Horizon Description G R n o . SB 124. L 8~6cm; conifer needles, twigs, dead moss. F-H 6-0cmj very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) felty mor with bright yellow fungal hyphae; H layer f a i r l y friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4.0. Ae 0-9cm; white (10YR 8/1) to gray to dark gray 12 20 (10IR 4.5/I, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4«2. Bfj 9-17cm; pale yellow (2.51 7.5/3) to dark gray- 28 30 ish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, irregular boundary; pH A.8. BC 17-42cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7.5/4) to olive 42 35 brown (2.5Y 4-/4, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; loose to very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5.0. C l 42-59ora; pale yellow (2.5Y 7.5/4) to light 37 55 olive brown to olive brown (2 .5Y 4.5/4.* moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; diffuse boundary; pH 5.0. C2 59-84+cm; pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to pale olive to 61 65 olive (5Y 5-5/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 5»4-. \ -157-Appendix B. Table 3. Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB L43 L 7-3cm; white pine and spruce needles, twigs, Aralia and Fteridiom leaves. F-H 3-Ocm5 very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to very dark brown (10YR 2/2, moist) thin mor with white fungal hyphae (sometimes very few); H layer slightly friable; charcoal present; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 4-.8. Ae 0-4cm; light gray (10YR 6.5/1) to dark gray 0 0 (10YR 4/lj moist) loamy sand; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 4«8. Bf 4-l6cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 1 0 yellowish brown (10YR 3.5/4, moist) sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5»8. BO l6-30cm; pale olive (5Y 6/4) to olive (5Y 4/3, 0 0 moist) sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.2. IIC 30-51cm; pale olive to olive (5Y 5.5/3) to 0 0 olive gray (5Y 4/2, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, smooth bound-ary; pH 6.2. IIIC 5l-64cm; pale olive to olive (5Y 5-5/3) to 0 0 very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) loamy fine sand; weak, fine granular struc-ture; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5.8. IVCq 64-82cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4/3, 0 0 moist) loam to clay loam; strong, medium granular to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. VC 82-91cn; pale olive (5Y 6/4) to olive (5Y 4/3, 2 0 moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.2. VIC 91-127+cm; olive brown (2.5Y U/U) to very dark 64 50 grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 7.1. Appendix B Table 4. Chemical Characteristics of Normal Orthic Podzol Profiles Sample Hori- of Mois- a n of 1 PPM Exchangeable cations Total no. zon pH CaCC3 ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of " gf 1 equiv. factor carbon matter nitro-- N phos- ne/ bases gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ BS lOOg SB 005 1 F-H 4.0 0 112.65 48.9 84.3 3.84 26.6 79.8 334.8 18.0 7.9 2.01 0.12 28.0 20.8 2 Ae 4.6 0 101.30 I.65 2.84 0.11 15.0 6.3 12.4 1.9 1.0 0.12 0.14 3.2 25.8 3 Bfh 5-6 0 IO4.54 2.61 4.50 0.11 23.7 4.6 25.9 0.9 0.6 0.14 0.04 1.7 6.6 4 BC 5-4 0 101.00 0.48 0.83 0.02 24.0 40.7 6.5 0.2 0.2 0.11 0.02 0.5 7.7 5 BCq 5.0 0 101.27 0.72 1.24 0.02 36.0 8.6 7.5 0.9 0.6 0.10 0.04 1.6 21.3 6 Cq 4.9 0 100.94 0.38 0.66 11.4 5.7 1.0 0.0 0.10 0.02 1.1 19.3 7 C" 5.0 0 101.05 O.46 0.79 11.8 5.7 1.0 0.6 0.07 0.00 1.7 29.8 8 Cc 5.3 0 100.98 0.32 O.55 10.8 6.6 1.9 0.9 0.10 0.04 2.9 43.9 SB 034 1 F-H 4.0 0 111.96 48.9 84.3 2.31 21.2 135-7 112.0 15.7 10.5 2.22 0.13 28.6 25.5 2 Ae 4.2 0 101.08 1.98 3.41 0.15 13.2 13.8 12.4 1.2 0.6 0.24 0.21 2.2 17.7 3 Bfh 5.6 0 110.39 5.08 8.76 0.24 21.2 10.7 49.2 0.1 0.9 0.13 0.10 1.2 2.4 4 Bj 5.6 0 101.73 O.84 1.45 63.2 12.7 0.2 0.2 0.03 0.03 0.5 3.9 5 Cq 5.6 0 101.73 0.76 1.31 0.05 15.2 98.3 11.2 0.4 0.0 0.02 0.01 0.4 3.6 6 Cl 5.6 0 101.23 0.61 1.05 50.9 8.7 0.1 0.2 0.03 0.01 0.3 3.4 7 C2 5-7 0 100.79 0.41 0.71 65.4 5.6 0.0 O.4 0.02 T 0.4 7.1 SB 108 1 F-H 3.6 0 112.67 53-5 92.2 1.45 36.9 88.4 139.5 9.9 8.9 2.05 0.22 21.1 15.1 2 Ae " 3.8 0 100.43 0.53 0.91 0.09 5.9 10.5 4.7 0.2 0.2 0.07 0.04 0.5 10.6 3 Bfhl 5.6 0 107.80 2.63 4.53 0.15 17.5 29-9 36.4 0.9 1.3 0.14 0.06 2.4 6.6 4 Bfh2 5-9 0 104.38 1.14 1.97 0.08 14.2 21.5 20.0 0.5 0.7 0.06 0.06 1.3 6.5 5 IIC1 4.8 0 100.76 0.71 1.22 0.05 14.2 6.8 0.1 0.0 0.02 0.01 0.1 1.5 6 IIC2 5.4 0 100.17 0.12 0.21 0.01 12.0 16.0 1.8 0.2 0.5 T 0.01 0.7 38.9 7 IIC3 5.2 0 100.32 0.28 O.48 0.05 5.6 37.1 2.6 0.4 0.2 0.02 0.02 0.6 23.1 Appendix B; Table 4« Continued Sample no. Hori- £ zon pH C a C 0 3 equiv. Mois-ture % $ organic organic % total C PPM adsorbed CEC Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Total factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ Ca Mg K Na bases B S me/ lOOg gen phate lOOg SB 124 1 F-H 4.0 0 107.04 32.5 56.O I.56 20.8 110.1 109.4 8.0 12.0 1.87 0.10 22.0 20.1 2 Ae 4.2 0 100.28 0.66 1.14 0.03 22.0 6.2 2.8 0.2 0.3 0.08 0.00 0.6 21.4 3 Bfj 4.8 0 100.44 O.52 0.90 0.02 26.0 83.2 2.5 0.8 0.0 0.06 0.03 0.9 36.0 4 BC 5.0 0 100.41 0.20 0 .34 0.02 10.0 87.5 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.01 0.02 0.1 11.1 5 Cl 5.0 0 100.34 0.28 O.48 0.02 14.0 33.2 3.3 0.2 0.3 0.01 0.02 0.5 15.2 6 C2 5-4 0 100.17 0.15 0.26 11.5 1.8 0.8 0.0 0.03 0.02 0.8 3 U 3 1 F-H 4.8 0 111.66 39.5 68.1 1.12 35-3 214.1 134.3 31.8 19.6 2.86 0.06 54.3 40.4 2 Ae. 4.8 0 101.74 1.07 I.84 0.06 17.8 32.0 17.2 2.8 1.4 0.17 0.04 25.6 3 Bf 5.8 0 101.90 0.96 1.66 "0.06 16.0 62.6 11.5 0.1 0 .4 0.05 0.01 0.6 5.2 BC 6.2 0 101.34 O.48 0.83 0.06 8.0 54-2 6.7 0.1 0.3 0 .05 0.01 0.5 7.5 5 IIC 6.2 0 100.44 0.31 0.53 0.03 10.3 50.0 3 .4 0.1 0.3 0.00 T 0.4 11.8 6 IIIC 5.8 0 100.62 0.38 0.66 0.03 12.7 42.3 4.1 0.5 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.6 14.6 7 IVCq 6.0 0 101.11 0.45 0.78 0.04 11.2 33.9 7.3 1 .4 1.1 0.04 0 .04 2.6 35.6 8 VC1 6.2 0 100.44 0.25 0 .43 0.03 8.3 21.1 4.7 0.9 0.7 T 0.03 1.6 34.0 9 VC2 7.1 0 100.45 0.32 0.55 0.02 16.0 4.0 3.7 5.5 0.7 0.01 0.03 6.2 100.0 -160-Appendix B Table 5. Descriptions of Moist Orthic Podzol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 153 L 7-4cm; cedar and hemlock needles and cones, dead moss, twigs. F-H 4-0em; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with mainly white ftangal hyphae but some yellow; general-ly compact; no visible charcoal; H layer not generally friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 3.8. Ae 0-3em; light gray to gray (10YR 6/1) to dark 15 15 gray to very dark gray (10YR 3.5/1* moist) loamy fine sand to sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; s o i l creep has caused some mixing; clear, Irregular boundary; pH 4 . 0 . Bfj 3-24cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5 /4) to very 31 15 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak;, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5-3. Bj 24-52cm; olive (5Y 5/3) to dark olive gray (51 28 15 3/2, moist) fine gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very friable? gradual, wavy boundary; pH 7.3. Cg 52-81cm; olive gray (51 4/2) to dark olive 30 10 gray (5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable to friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.7. Cgkw 8l-106cm; olive gray (5Y 5/2) to very dark 33 15 gray (5Y 3/1, moist) gravelly loam to sandy loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 8.0. IlCkgw 106-130+cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to 22 35 olive gray (5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly loamy fine sand; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; pH 8.1. -161-Appendix B. Table 5« Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 166 L 9-6cm; dead moss., cedar, hemlock needles, twigs. F-H 6-0cmj very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) compact felty mor; a few yellow and white fungal hyphae; H layer f a i r l y friable; no charcoal; more fungal hyphae on raised portion of plot; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5.4. Ae 0-3cm; light gray (10YR 7/1) to dark grayish 22 20 brown (10YR 4.5/2, moist) loams'" fine sand to sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; thicker i n raised portions of plot; clear, smooth boundary; pH 4.2. Bfh 3-19cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 21 25 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. Bf 19~42cm; yellow (10YR 7/6) to dark yellowish 22 25 brown (10YR 4/4, moist) gravelly loam; moderate to strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; very friable to friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7.0. Cgl 42-59cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7.5/4) "to olive 52 55 brown (2.5Y 4.5/47 moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. Cg2 59-76+cm; pale yellow (5Y 8/4) to pale olive 72 80 (5Y 5.5/At moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure; very friable; pH 6 .9. -162-A p p e n d i x B . T a b l e 5. C o n t i n u e d S a m p l e H o r i z o n D e s c r i p t i o n G R n o . S B 081 L 7-5cm; c o n i f e r n e e d l e s , t w i g s , b a r k . F - H 5-0cm; v e r y d a r k b r o w n (10YR 2/2) t o b l a c k (10YR 2/1 j, m o i s t ) f e l t y m o r t o d u f f m u l l ; v e r y f r i a b l e H l a y e r ; w h i t e f u n g a l h y p h a e m o s t a b u n d a n t b u t y e l l o w c o m m o n a r o u n d r o t t e n w o o d ; a b r u p t , w a v y b o u n d a r y ; p H 4 . 8 . A e 0-4cm; w h i t e (N8/) t o g r a y i s h b r o w n (2.5T 5/2, 3 10 m o i s t ) f i n e s a n d y l o a m ; w e a k , m e d i u m t c f i n e g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; a b r u p t , w a v y b o u n d a r y ; p H 5»1« B f h 4-25cm; y e l l o w i s h b r o w n (10YR 5/6) t o d a r k 1 15 y e l l o w i s h b r o w n (10YR 4 / 4 , m o i s t ) l o a m ; m o d e r a t o r , m e d i u m g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e ; a b r u p t , s m o o t h b o u n d a r y ; p H 6 .3 . C 25-50cm; p a l e y e l l o w (2.5Y 7 .5/4) t o l i g h t 7 20 o l i v e b r o w n {2.5Y 5/4, m o i s t ) g r a v e l l y s a n d y l o a m ; w e a k , m e d i u m g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; c l e a r s i r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r y ; p H 6 .0 . I I B C q g 50-69cm; p a l e y e l l o w (5Y 8/2.5) t o o l i v e (5Y 26 15 5/3, m o i s t ) g r a v e l l y s i l t y c l a y l o a m ; m o d e r a t e , f i n e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; f i r m t o v e r y f i r m ; m o t t l e s d i s t i n c t , m a n y , m e d i u m ; c l e a r , i r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r y ; p H 6 . 1 . I H C g 69-94cm; p a l e y e l l o w (5Y 8/3) t o o l i v e (5Y 4 / 3 , 30 15 m o i s t ) g r a v e l l y s a n d y l o a m ; m o d e r a t e , m e d i u m g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; m o t t l e s f a i n t , c o m m o n , m e d i u m ; c l e a r , w a v y b o u n d a r y ; p H 6 .4 . I V C 94 -126+cm; o l i v e g r a y t o o l i v e (5Y 4.5/2.5) t o 44 40 v e r y d a r k g r a y i s h b r o w n (2.5Y 3 /2 , m o i s t ) g r a v e l l y l o a m w h e n r u b b e d v i g o r o u s l y ; m o d e r a t e , m e d i u m g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e ; m u c h d e c o m p o s e d r o c k m a t e r i a l ; p H 6 .6 . Appendix B Table 6. Chemical Characteristics of Moist Orthic Podzol Profiles S 1 Hori- ^ Mois- % % % PPM Exchangeable cations Total no zon pH CaC°3 " t u r e organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of . equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- II phos- me/ bases ^ gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ 0 b lOOg SB 153 " 1 F-H 3-8 0 111.23 43.2 74.5 1.20 36.0 38.9 101.7 15.1 9.9 1.51 0.09 26.6 26.2 2 Ae' 4.0 0 101. u 3.90 6.72 0.18 21.7 10.7 13.6 1.5 0.6 0.13 0.07 2.3 16.9 3 Bfj 5.3 0 102.74 3.15 5-A3 0.11 28.6 17.5 23.6 2.2 0.6 0.03 0.05 2.9 12.3 4 Bj 7.3 0 102.58 1.82 3.U 0.09 20.2 20.4 20.0 11.1 1.5 0.16 0.07 12.8 64.O 5 Cg 7.7 0 101.34 0.86 I.48 0.03 28.7 0.0 12.4 8.1 0.9 0.05 0.04 9.1 73-4 6 Cgkw 8.0 2.A 100.55 0.77 1.33 0.01 77.0 0.0 4.1 8.1 0.7 0.02 0.04 8.9 100.0 7 IlCkgw 8.1 4.1 100.43 0.34 0.59 0.07 4.9 2.9 11.5 0.7 0.02 0.03 12.2 100.0 SB 166 1 F-H 5.4 0 116.15 48.4 83.4 1.75 27.7 130.7 149.6 53.4 24.4 3.08 0.20 81.1 54.2 2 Ae 4.2 0 101.37 0.93 1.60 0.07 13.7 4-5 12.4 1.0 0.3 0.08 0.06 1.4 11.3 3 Bfh 6.7 0 109.29 4.44 7.65 0.24 18.5 6.4 49.0 17.6 2.0 0.17 0.12 18.9 38.6 4 Bf 7.0 0 106.80 2.52 4.34 0.16 15.8 7.2 32.4 10.3 2.2 0.17 0.10 12.8 39.5 5 Cgl 6.7 0 100.57 0.23 O.40 0.02 11.5 2.5 3.4 1.9 0.5 0.02 0.04 2.5 73.5 6 Cg2 6.9 0 100.61 0.32 0.55 0.03 10.7 3.8 2.3 2.5 0.6 0.02 0.06 3.2 100.0 SB 081 1 F-H 4.8 0 113.09 45-5 78.4 1^30 35.0 125.5 128.9 36.2 24.7 2.75 0.14 63.8 49.5 2 Ae 5.1 0 100.93 1.06 1.83 0.06 17.7 12.8 5.6 1.0 0.6 0.32 0.05 2.0 35.7 3 Bfh 6.3 0 106.27 2.38 4.10 0.09 26.4 8.0 30.4 3.4 0.6 0.28 0.05 4.3 14.1 4 C 6.0 0 101.21 0.07 0.12 0.02 3.5 1.1 7.8 4.0 1.3 0.14 0.07 5-5 70.5 5 IIBCqg 6.1 0 100.48 0.08 0.14 0.5 2.7 0.9 1.4 0.04 0.04 2.4 88.9 6 meg 6.4 0 100.29 0.18 0.31 0.7 3.7 1.6 0.4 0.03 0.02 2.0 54-1 7 IVC 6.6 0 101.74 0.24 0.41 0.5 10.1 6.1 0.9 0.04 0.04 7.1 70.3 -164-Appendix B Table 7. Descriptions of I Normal Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 091 L 9-6cm; conifer needles, hemlock cones, twigs, branches. F-H 6-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (5YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor but with few fungal hyphaej matting is caused i n a large part by rootlets; clear, smooth boundary; pH 3«4« Ae 0-4cm; light gray (10YR 7/1) to gray (10YR 27 10 5/1, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 4 . 2 . Bfj 4-25om; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 I 8 /4 ) to brown to 35 10 dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5»8. BC 25-32cm; light gray (5Y V 2 ) t o grayish brown 4 5 10 (2.5Y 5/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, medium granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. IIBCq 32-57cm; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) to light olive 29 15 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5/4, moist) gravelly very fine sandy loam to s i l t loam; weak, fine sub-angular blocky to moderate, medium granular structure; fragments firm to friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5 . 3 . IIC 5 7 - 1 0 1 c m ; pale yellow ( 5 Y 7/3) to light olive 16 15 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5 / 4 , moist) s i l t loam; weak, very fine subangular blocky to moderate, medium granular structure; friable; f a i r l y compact; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5»3. UCq 101-114+cm; pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to olive brown 35 2 0 (2 .5Y 4/4 , moist) gravelly s i l t loam; moder-ate, fine subangular blocky to moderate, medium granular structure; firm (fragments) to friable; pH 5'4« -165-Appendix B. Table 7. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 177 L 7-5cm; hemlock needles and cones, dead moss, Chimaphila leaves, cedar leaves, twigs. 1 F-H 5-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2 / 2 ) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) typical f e l t y mor with yellow mycelium: compact H layer not friable; bottom of horizon shows organic bleaching; clear, wavy boundary; pH 3 . 6 . 2 Aeh 0-2cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to dark gray 9 20 (10YR 4/1, moist) sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; mixed with roots and organic material; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4-2. 3 Bfh 2-17cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/5) to dark 42 25 yellowish brown (10IR 4/4? moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundaryj pH 5 « 6 . 4 H3 17-41cm; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) to dark 49 30 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4? moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granu-lar structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 4 . 5 C l 41-72cm;pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to light olive 52 30 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain struc-ture; very friable to loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 6 . 6 C2 72-97cm; light yellowish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 6 / 4 ) to 54 45 light olive brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4.5/4, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 6 . 7 C3 97-107+cm; light yellowish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 6 / 4 ) to 3 0 65 olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/4? moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; pH 6.2. -166-Appendix B . Table 7 . Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 0 2 1 L 7 - 5 c m ; hemlock needles, cedar needles, hemlock and Douglas-fir cones, cone scales, twigs, Chimaphila and Linnaea leaves. 1 F-H 5 - 0 c m ; very dark gray (10YR 3 / 1 ) to black (10YR 2 / 1 , moist) f e l t y mor with white fungal hyphae (in places highly concentrated); H layer f a i r l y friable except under Calliergonella moss where i t i s firm; charcoal i n pockets; some fine sand deposits mixed in; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 4.6. 2 Ae 0 - 2 (trace) cm; light gray (10YR 6 .5/I) to dark 5 0 gray (10YR 4/1, moist) sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; loose; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 4.6. 3 Bf 2 (trace)- 12cm; strong brown ( 7 . 5 Y R 5/6) to 1 0 dark brown ( 7 . 5 Y R 3 / 2 , moist) loamy fine sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 4 . 4 BC 1 2 - 4 9 c m ; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) to dark 0 0 - 3 0 grayish brown (10YR 4 / 2 , moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; mottles distinct, common, medium reddish brown (not gleyed); clear, irregular boundary; pH 5'6. 5 IIBfh 4 9 - 7 6 c m ; brownish yellow (10YR 6 / 6 ) to brown 3 1 4 0 to dark brown (7.5YR 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 0 . 6 IIIC 7 6 - 1 0 4 c m ; pale yellow (2 . 5Y 7/4) to light 50 4 5 olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 1 . 7 IVC 104-120+cm; pale yellow (2.51 7 / 4 ) to dark 2 4 45 yellowish brown (10YR 4 / 4j moist) gravelly sand to fine sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6 . 0 . Appendix B Table 8. Chemical Characteristics of I Normal Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample Hori- % Hols- % t % no. zon pH CaCO-j ture organic organic total equiv. factor carbon matter nitro-gen PPM Exchangeable cations Total C adsorbed CEC rae/lOOg of" N phos- me/ bases phate lOOg C a Mg K N a me/ lOOg SB 091 1 F-H 3-A 0 112.36 55-1 95-0 1.22 45-2 77.5 122.6 4.4 6.2 1.91 0.10 12.6 10.3 2 Ae A .2 0 100.63 0.90 1.55 0.04 22.5 4-3 5.1 0.0 0.3 0.03 0.07 0.4 7.8 3 Bfj 5.8 0 103.02 1.00 1.72 0.06 16.7 15.6 13.2 0.5 0.2 0.09 0.04 0.8 6.1 4 BC 6.0 0 100.73 0.29 0.50 0.02 14.5 31.0 4.9 0.8 0.4 0.08 0.04 1.3 26.5 5 IIBCq 5-3 0 101.15 0.20 0.34 0.03 6.7 3.4 8.2 3.4 1.7 0.08 0.06 5-2 63.4 6 IIC 5.3 0 101.43 0.20 0.34 0.02 10.0 9.8 10.2 4-3 0.9 0.09 0.06 5.4 52.9 7 HCq 5.4 0 101.65 0.18 0.31 0.03 6.0 13.5 12.0 5.6 1.9 0.11 0.07 7.7 57.0 SB 177 1 F-H 3.6 0 111.06 44.5 76.7 1.17 38.0 131.9 109.6 7.8 2.3 1.54 0.23 11.9 10.9 2 Aeh 4.2 0 103.39 0.41 5^.8 35-3 0.0 1.1 0.54 0.08 1.7 4.8 3 Bfh 5-6 0 104.99 2.23 3.84 0.09 24.8 15.3 24.7 0.0 0.4 0.05 0.06 0.5 2.0 4 BC 6.4 0 102.99 0.58 1.00 0.04 14.5 3.1 11.4 0.2 0.0 0.04 0.06 0.3 2.6 5 Cl 6.6 0 101.24 0.27 0.47 0.01 27.0 34.8 6.3 0.2 0.2 0.04 0.04 0.5 7.9 6 C2 6.6 0 101.28 0.24 0.41 41.6 7.2 0.1 0.5 0.03 0.01 0.6 8.3 7 C3 6.2 0 101.15 0.22 0.38 78.1 6.1 0.2 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.3 4.9 SB 021 1 F-H 4.6 0 109.09 20.7 35-7 1.47 14.1 67.7 103.5 15.3 14.1 1.40 0.L4 30.9 29.9 2 Ae 4.6 0 100.94 1.45 2.50 0.08 18.1 6.1 6.6 1.4 0.4 0.05 0.04 1.9 28.8 3 Bf 5.4 0 101.53 1.17 2.02 0.06 19.5 25.5 13.4 1.8 0.7 0.09 0.06 2.6 19.4 4 BC 5.6 0 101.66 0.63 1.09 0.05 12.2 52.8 8.9 1.1 0.4 0.09 0.03 1.6 18.0 5 II Bfh 6.0 0 104.59 1.92 3.31 0.08 24.0 6.7 20.2 1.2 0.4 0.09 0.05 1.7 8.4 6 IIIC 6.1 0 100.61 0.13 0.22 0.02 6.5 14.9 2.0 0.4 0.0 0.01 0.01 0.4 20.0 7 IVC 6.0 0 100.69 0.16 0.28 23.7 3.6 0.5 0.2 0.02 0.03 0.8 22.2 Table 9< -168-Appendlx B Descriptions of II Normal Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample Horizon no. Description R SB 060 L 7-4cm; conifer, aspen and alder leaves, twigs, shrub leaves. F-H 4-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) mostly a thin mor with white mycelial f e l t s , but i n small depressions a f e l t y raor with a few yellow and white fungal hyphae; some charcoal; H layer f a i r l y friable in thin mor; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 4«8. Aej 0-2 (trace) cm; light gray (10YR 7/1) to light 12 10 gray to gray (10YR 6/1, moist) very fine sandy loam; moderate, medium granular struc-ture; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5-6. Bfj 2 (trace) - 11cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark 32 15 grayish brown (10YR 4/2, moist) gravelly coarse sandy loam to loamy sand; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6.8. BC ll-20cm; pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to dark grayish 33 ' 15 brown (2.5Y l*/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, medium granular to single grain struc-ture; very friable to loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 6 . Cl 20-30cmj pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to olive (5Y 5/3, 38 20 moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 8 . C2 80-lO4cm; light gray to pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/3) 43 25 to olive (5Y 5 / 3 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; mottles faint, few, medium to fine reddish brown; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . 7 C3 104-137+cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structu re; loose; pH 6.8. 27 15 -169-Appendlx B. Table 9. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB O4I L 7-4cm; white pine needles, aspen leaves, cedar and hemlock needles; some white fungal hyphae. F-H 4.-Ocm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) generally a thin mor with white fungal hyphae; H layer slightly friable; very l i t t l e charcoal; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5»2. Aej 0-2cm; light gray (10YR 7/2) to dark gray (10YR 4/I, moist) loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5.2. Bfh 2-19cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradtial, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. Bf 19-39cm; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.5. C l 39-72cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to light yellow-ish brown to light olive brown (2.5Y 5 - 5 / A , moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; diffuse boundary; pH 6.2. C2 72-139+cm; white to pale yellow (2.5Y 8/3) to pale yellow (2.51 7/4, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.7. -170-Appendix B. Table 9* Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 196 L 4—2cm; hemlock needles and cones, dead ferns, dead moss, cedar needles, twigs, branches. F-H 2-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thin f e l t y mor with white fungal hyphae but a very friable though thin H layer (earthy to somewhat f e l t y ) ; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4.1. Ae Trace; present more under Flagjothecium than 10 Rhytidiopsis; clear, wavy boundary. Bfhj 0-30cm; brownish yellow to yellowish brown 27 12 (10YR 5.5/6) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5-3. Cl 30-74cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to olive brown 37 15 (2.5Y 4/4, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; washed; diffuse boundary; pH 5.4. 02 74-108cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to light olive 35 15 brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4-5/4-> moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; washed; diffuse boundary; pH 5*3. C3 108-I52cm; pale yellow (2.51 7/4) to olive > 38 20 brown (2.5Y 4/4> moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 5»8. HCr 152+cm; bedrock. Appendix B Table 10. Chemical Characteristics of II Normal Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample no. Hori-zon PH CaC03 equiv. Mois-ture factor organic carbon /O organic matter tot a l nitro-gen C PPM adsorbed phos-phate CEC me/ lOOg Exchangeable cations me/iOOg Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ _100i__. % BS SB 060 1 F-H 4.8 0 108.40 23.3 40.2 1.06 2 Aej 5-6 0 100.76 1.45 2.50 0.05 3 Bfj 6.8 0 101.57 0.73 1.26 0.04 4 BO 6.6 0 100.77 0.36 0.62 0.02 5 C l 6.8 0 IOO.56 0.28 O.48 0.01 6 C2 6.6 0 100.80 0.31 0.53 0.01 7 C3 6.8 0 100.65 0.17 0.29 0.01 3 0^ 1 1 F-H 5.2 0 112.00 48.9 84.3 1.13 2 Aej 5.2 0 100.48 0.89 1.53 0.04 3 Bfh 6.0 0 102.51 1.12 1.93 0.05 4 Bf 6.5 0 102.02 0.60 1.03 0.03 5 Cl 6.2 0 100.32 0.09 0.16 0.01 6 C2 6.7 0 100.30 0.07 0.12 SB 196 (Northern variant) 1 F-H 4-1 0 110.08 32.7 56.4 1.32 2 Bfhj 5.3 0 103.76 1.44 2.48 0.06 3 Cl 5.4 0 100.39 O.46 0.79 0.01 4 C2 5-3 0 100.20 0.25 0.43 0.01 5 C3 5.8 0 100.24 0.18 0.31 T 22.0 146.7 110.1 33.6 13.3 1.79 0.17 48.9 29.0 37.9 9.4 2.2 0.8 0.28 0.05 3.3 35.I 18.2 59.0 11.6 3.6 0.8 0.41 0.05 4.9 18.0 17.3 6.2 2.0 0.7 O.43 0.02 3.2 51.6 28.0 1.3 5.9 1.8 0.8 0.26 0.02 2.9 49.2 31.0 6.0 7.6 3.6 1.3 0.03 0.02 5.0 65.8 17.0 1.1 5.0 3.1 0.6 0.02 0.02 3.7 74-0 0 43.3 109-2 116.7 42.6 17.2 2.10 0.07 62.0 53.1 22.2 19.4 5.6 1.8 0.0 0.08 0.00 1.9 33.9 22.4 35.1 11.4 1.2 0.0 0.15 0.02 1.4 12.3 20.0 11.8 8.0 0.6 0.6 0.07 0.02 1.3 16.2 9.0 45.2 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.01 0.01 0.5 100.0 25.3 0.7 0.5 0.0 0.02 0.01 0.5 71.4 24.8 107.0 84.4 13.2 10.2 1.75 0.06 25.2 29.9 41.3 22.8 18.6 0.5 0.2 0.05 0.02 0.8 4.3 79.0 98.2 0.1 0.0 0.04 0.02 0.2 8.3 43.0 94.6 1.3 0.2 0.0 0.05 0.01 0.3 23.1 31.0 102.0 1.3 0.0 0.4 0.00 0.01 0.4 30.8 -172-Appendlx B Table 11. Descriptions of Moist Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 170 L 8-5cm; hemlock needles and cones, twigs, cedar needles, dead moss, branches. F-H 5-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with some yellow and some white fungal hyphae; a very friable H layer Ah-like; clear, smooth boundary; pH 3.6. Aej 0-2cm; white (N 8/) to grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2, 1 20 moist) loamy sand to fine sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 4.0 pAh 2-11cmj dark grayish black (N 4/) to black (5Y 49 25 2/1, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 3 . 8 . B 11-24cm; dark grayish brown to olive brown 58 20 (2.5Y 4/3) to very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, broken boundary; pH 5 .0. pAhBf 24-36cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 20 15 yellowish brown (10YR 3.5/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; moderate, fine granular structure; very friable; i n 4 of pit only; clear, broken boundary; pH 5-2. IIBC 36-46cm; olive (5Y 4.5/3) to dark olive gray 55 25 (5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine to very fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5'2. IIC1 46-6lcm; olive (5Y 5/3) to dark olive gray (5Y 62 40 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, very fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5«3. UCg 6l-89cm; olive gray (5Y 5/2) to very dark olive 15 60 gray (5Y 3/1, moist) sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium granular structure; friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5.4. IIC2 89-109+cm; very bouldery, probably old talus. 85 -173-Appendix B. Table 11. Continued Sample Horizon , Description G R no. SB 111 L 10-7cm; conifer needles, cone scales, dead moss, twigs. F-H 7-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae; but ranging to a thin mor with yellow fungal hyphae to a granular mor with a very friable H layer and no visible hyphae (in depressions); abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5.1. Ae 0-2cm; white (N 8/) to dark gray (10YR 4/1, IB 20 moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium granular structure; friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4 . 6 . Bfh 2-21cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark brown 13 25 (10YR 3.5/3, moist) s i l t loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure; friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5«7. C 21-35cm; light gray (51 7/2) to olive (5Y 4/3, 31 45 moist) gravelly clay loam; strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5 . 8 . Cgl 35-56cm; pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to olive (5Y 4/3, 31 55 moist) gravelly sandy clay loam; moderate to strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; mottles distinct, common, medium to fine reddish brown/gray; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5 . 8 . Cg2 56-75+cm; pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to olive (5Y 48 75 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure; friable; mottles faint, few, medium to fine reddish brown/gray; pH 5.8. -174-Appendix B. Table 11. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 144 L 10<=6cm; predominantly cedar needles, some hemlock needles, cedar cones, twigs, dead moss. 1 F-H 6 - 0 c m ; very dark brown (10YR 2 / 2 ) to black (10YR 2 / 1 , moist) typical duff mull with a friable H layer; no fungal hyphae apparent; no charcoal; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 4 " 8 . 2 - Ae 0 - 2 c m ; light brownish gray to grayish brown 0 0 ( 2 . 5 Y 5 . 5 / 2 ) to very dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 , moist) loamy fine sand; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5 « 8 . 3 B j l 2-Hem; light olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5/4) to very 1 0 dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 , moist) loamy fine sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 0 . 4 B j 2 l 4 - 2 5 c m ; light olive brown ( 2 . 5 - 5/4) to very 0 0 dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 , moist) sandy loam to loamy sand; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 8 . 5 C l 2 5 - 3 4 c m ; pale olive (5Y 6 / 3 ) to olive ( 5 1 0 0 4/3> moist) loamy fine sand; moderate to weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5«9. 6 C 2 3 4 - 6 9 c m ; pale olive (5Y 6 / 3 ) to olive gray to 0 0 olive (5Y 4 / 2 . 5 , moist) loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 .1 . 7 IIC 6 9 - 1 0 4 c m ; pale olive (5Y 6 / 3 ) to very dark 0 0 grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 , moist) loam to clay loam; strong, medium granular to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5 » 8 . 8 IIIC 104-129+cm; light olive gray (5T 6 / 2 ) to olive 73 6 5 gray (5Y 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 7 . 0 . -175-Appendix Bo Table 11» Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB 017 L 4-2cm| a mat of birch and conifer leaves. 1 F-H 2-Ocm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) very variable but the most part a thin mor; some pockets of f e l t y mor with white fungal hyphae; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 4 . 6 . 2 Ae 0-3cm; light gray (10YR 7/1) to gray (10YR 7 10 5 / I 5 moist) loamy sand; single grain struc-ture; loose; thickest i n pockets under thickest F-H; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 4 ° 6 . 3 B f j l 3-19cm; very pale brown (10YR 7/A) to dark 9 10 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) loamy sand; weak; very fine granular structure; very friable; clear., irregular boundary; pH 5«2. 4 Bf J2 19-34cm; very pale brown (10YR 7/4.) to dark 15 10 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4.? moist) loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 0 . 5 BC1 34-49em; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to olive brown 11 10 (2«5Y 4/4? moist) loamy sand to sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 4 . 6 BC2 49-65cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to light olive 3 10 brown (2»5Y 5/4, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 5 . 7 HCql 65-85cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to light olive 32 10, brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure when broken; very friable when broken; mottles distinct, many, fine reddish brown; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 6 . 8 IICq2 85-103cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 24 10 (2 .5Y 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure when broken; loose when crushed; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6 , 3 . 9 IIC 103-120+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 17 20 (2o5Y 4/4, moist) gravelly sand; considerable decomposed rock; pH 6.4.. . Appendix B Table 12. Chemical Characteristics of Moist Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample Hori- % Mois- % % no. zon pH CaCO-j ture organic organic equiv. factor carbon matter SB 170 (Northern variant) % •Dotal C n i t r o - N gen PPM adsorbed phos-phate CEC me/ lOOg Exchangeable cations me/lOOg  Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg BS 1 ^F-H 3 . 6 0 113.09 4 8 . 3 83.3 I .65 2 9 . 3 98.7 136.0 11.9 6 .0 1.85 0.31 20.1 14.8 2 Aej 4 . 0 0 101.17 2 o24- 3.86 0.13 17.2 8 .0 6 . 4 0.8 0.1 2.14 0 . 0 9 3.1 48 «4 3 pAh 3 . 8 0 102.63 2 . 3 0 3c97 0.11 2 0 . 9 18.6 18.9 0 . 0 0 .33 0 . 0 1 1.5 7 .9 4 B 5 . 0 0 103-43 2 .45 4 .22 0 . L 4 17.5 17.4 20.1 0.8 0.1 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 5 1.0 5 .0 5 pAhBf 5.2 0 112.32 5.93 10.2 0.31 19.1 14.2 55.9 0 . 4 1.6 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 9 2.2 3 . 9 6 IIBC 5.2 0 102.38 1.44 2.48 0.07 20.6 54-6 14.9 0 . 4 0.3 0 . 0 9 0.02 0.8 5.4 7 I I G 1 5-3 0 101.93 1.27 2.19 0 .06 21.2 2 3 . 3 9.6 0 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 5 5.2 8 IIGg 5-4 0 101.52 0.86 1.48 3 0 . 4 6 .2 0 . 2 0.3 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0.6 9.7 SB 111 1 F-H 5 . 1 0 111.97 3 3 . 4 57.6 0.98 3 4 . 1 119.6 131.4 3 3 . 6 15.6 1.90 0.23 51.3 3 9 . 0 2 Ae 4 . 6 0 100.61 1.13 1.95 0.07 16.1 11.3 6 .2 1.2 0 . 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 1.7 3 Bfh 5-7 0 103.14 1.72 2.97 0.12 L 4 . 3 14.3 25.O 7 . 0 2.2 0.27 0.14 9 . 6 4 C 5 . 8 0 100.69 0.69 1.19 0.06 11.5 6 . 0 7 . 0 2 . 5 1.0 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 3 . 6 51.4 5 Cgl 5 . 8 0 100.84 0.23 0 .40 0.03 7 .7 6 . 1 7 . 4 3 . 0 1.3 0 . 0 4 0.04 59.5 6 Cg2 5 . 8 0 100.45 0 .40 O.69 0.03 13.3 5 .2 3 . 7 1.4 0 . 7 0 .02 0 .03 2 .2 59 .5 SB 144 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F-H Ae B j l Bj2 C l C2 no IIIC 4 . 8 5 . 8 5 . 0 5 . 8 5 .9 6.1 5 . 8 7 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 114.36 100.72 IOO.85 100.68 100.57 100.59 101.00 100.26 4 2 . 7 1.53 0.92 0 .48 0.43 0 .40 0.57 0.22 7 3 . 6 2.64 1.59 0.83 0.74 0 .69 0 . 9 8 0 . 3 8 1.80 0.11 0.07 0 .05 0 .05 0 .04 0.07 0.06 23.7 13.9 13.1 9.6 8.6 10.0 8.1 3-7 99.2 16.6 7.9 7.9 6.5 6.0 27.3 21.1 I 4 4 . 4 53.2 18.7 1 .84 0.15 7 3 . 9 51.2 8.1 7 .6 5 . 6 4-3 4 . 5 7 .5 2 .3 2.8 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 0 .4 0.6 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.2 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 6 3.8 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.5 1.3 0.9 46.9 9.2 10.7 18.6 11.1 17.3 39.1 Appendix B. Table 1 2 . Continued Sample Hori- - t Mois- % % % PPM Exchangeable cations Total no. zon pH CaC03 ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg -of % - equiv. factor carbon matter nitro-- N phos- me/ Ca Mg K Na bases BS gen phate 100g me/ lOOg SB 017 1 F-H 4 . 6 0 110.16 37.3 64.3 1 .62 23.0 1 6 2 . 6 1 0 6 . 5 2 0 . 9 13c6 3 . 1 0 0.13 3 7 . 7 3 5 . 4 2 Ae 4 . 6 0 100 .56 0 . 6 6 1.14 0 . 0 3 2 2 . 0 7 . 3 4 - 3 0 . 5 0 . 4 0.08 0 . 0 4 1 . 0 2 3 . 3 3 B f j l 5 . 2 0 101.02 0.53 0 . 9 1 O.O4 13.2 1 5 . 9 8 . 0 0 . 5 0 . 7 0 . 2 5 0 . 0 5 1-5 18.8 4 BfJ2 6 . 0 0 102.13 0 . 6 0 1 . 0 3 0 . 0 5 15 .0 2 4 . 9 1 2 . 0 2 . 2 1 .5 0 . 5 9 0 . 0 9 4 . 4 3 6 . 7 5 BC1 6 . 4 0 100 .45 O.U 0 . 2 4 0 . 0 2 7 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 1 1 . 2 0 . 7 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 4 2 . 0 6 4 . 5 6 BC2 6.5 0 1 0 0 . 2 2 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 4 0 . 0 2 4 . 0 1 . 6 2 . 3 0 . 8 0 . 7 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 1 . 6 6 9 . 6 7 HCql 6.6 0 1 0 0 . 5 2 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 9 0 . 4 2 . 7 1 .5 0 . 5 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 . 0 74=1 8 I I C q 2 6.3 0 1 0 0 . 7 7 0.14 0 .24 1 . 0 5 . 8 2 . 8 0 . 4 0 . 0 6 0.07 3.3 5 6 . 9 9 IIC 6 . 4 0 100.70 0 . 1 5 0 .26 0 . 9 -178-Appendix B Table 13« Descriptions of Dry Minimal Podzol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 121 L 9-7cm; conifer and birch leaves, dead moss and lichens, twigs, branches. F-H 7-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) granular mor with some yellow fungal hyphae to a duff mull with a very fine friable H layer; pH 4 . 3 . Aehj 0-24cm; grayish brown (2 .51 5/2) to dark to 78 75 very dark grayish brown (2 .5Y 3 . 5 / 2 , moist) channery loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; melanized and bleached; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5«°« Bfh 24-42cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 64 70 yellowish brown (10IR 3*5/4, moist) channery loam to s i l t loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable to friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 8 . C Cr 42-54cm; mainly partly decomposed rock. 54+cm; bedrock. 80 -179-Appendix B. Table 13. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 056 L 9~6em$ conifer needles and dead moss-F-H 6-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thin to f e l t y mors yellow fungal hyphae especially under mosses; also white fungal hyphae; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH U-2. Aej O-lcm; light gray (10YR 7/1) to dark gray 6 45 (10YR 4/1, moist) loamy sand to sandy loam; single grain to weak, very fine granular structure; loose to very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 4-3• Bfj l-19cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark brown 27 45 (10YR 3/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; single grain to weak, fine granular struc-ture; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.1. BC1 19-32cm; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) to 36 45 dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5I 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; single grain to weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.2. BC2 32-60cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 33 45 (2.5Y 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; single grain to weak, fine granular structure; loose to very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6.3. C 60-70cm; pale yellow to light yellowish brown 34 45 (£.5Y 6.5/4) to dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. HCr 70+cm; bedrock. Appendix B Table I4. Chemical Characteristics of Dry Minimal Podzol Profiles PPM Exchangeable cations Total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg _ of N phos- me/ bases phate lOOg Ca Ig K Na me/ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lOOg SB 121 1 F-H 4 .3 0 111.88 37.0 6 3 . 8 1.42 26 .1 5 0 . 5 119.0 26 .4 12.2 1.24 0.15 4 0 . 0 3 3 . 6 2 Aehj 5 . 0 0 101.78 2.22 3.83 0.11 20.2 10.3 13.6 1.3 0 . 5 0.13 0 . 0 4 2 . 0 14.7 3 Bfh 5 . 8 0 108.35 3.54 6.10 0.18 19.7 7 .3 38.8 3 . 6 1.8 0.23 0.06 5.7 14.7 Sample Hori- ~ * M o l s " % t $ no zon pH C a G 0 3 t u r e organic organic total equiv. factor carbon matter nitro-gen SB 056 1 F-H 4.2 0 110.95 46.7 8O.5 1.20 38.9 167.1 123.6 18.3 9.8 2.00 0.13 30.2 2-4-* 4. 2 Aej 4.3 0 100.91 2.31 3-98 0.07 33.0 26.1 9.3 0.8 0 . 5 0 .13 0.06 1.5 16.1 3 Bfj 6.1 0 102.50 1.31 2.26 0.06 21.8 59.2 U.2 1.2 0.8 0.12 0.02 2.1 14.8 4 BC1 6.2 0 101.78 0.69 1.19 0 .04 17.2 68.2 10.0 1.0 0.0 0.12 0.02 i . l 11.0 5 BC2 6.3 0 101.86 0 .45 0.78 0.03 15.0 10.6 8 .3 0.6 0.1 0 .09 0.02 0.8 9.6 6 C 6.0 0 101.61 0 .52 0.90 0.03 17.3 32.8 9.0 0 . 5 0 .6 0.24 0 .03 1 .4 15.6 -181-Appendix B Table 15. Descriptions of Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 175 L 8-5em; white pine, yew, cedar, hemlock needles, Paehistima leaves, cone scales. F-H 5-Ocm| dark brown (10YR 3/3) to very dark brown (10YR 2/2, moist) f e l t y mor with white fungal hyphae; friable H layer especially when moist (dries f a i r l y firm); no charcoal; some organic bleaching; some slight melani-zation below; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5-2. Bm 0-13cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 39 15 yellowish brovm (10YR 3/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. Bmfl 13-35cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 34 2 5 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5.8. Bmf2 35-56cm; light yellowish brown to yellowish 4 3 2 5 brown (10YR 5.5/4) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4? moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6.0. Gl 56-69cm; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/4) to brown to 4 5 30 dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5.9. C2 69-84cm; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) to 5 6 30 olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/4, moist) gravelly loamy sands weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 . C3 84-117+cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark 60 30-55 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6 . 6 . -182-Appendix B. Table 15« Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB I58 L 6-4cm; white pine and Douglas-fir needles, birch leaves, Chimaphila and Gaultheria leaves, twigs. F-H 4-0cm; very dark brown (iOYR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thin mor with white fungal hyphae or rarely none; H layer thin and not friable; very l i t t l e charcoal; some pockets of thicker f e l t y mor; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5.3. Ae Trace; found i n about 1/4 of plot only; abrupt, 30 broken boundary. Bmfl 0-19cm; reddish yellow (7.5YE 6/6) to brown to 34 30 dark brown (7.5YR 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. Bmf2 19~40cm; reddish yellow (7.5TR 6/6) to reddish 25 35 brown (5YR 4/'4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 4 . BC 40-53cm; light yellowish brown (IOYR 6/4) to 24 20 brown to dark brown (7.5YR 4/4, moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable to friable; f a i r l y compact; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.2. Cq 53-74.cm; very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) to dark 28 25 yellowish brown (IOYR 4/4, moist) gravelly loam; moderate to strong, medium to fine granular structure when broken; very friable to friable when broken; slightly sticky when wet; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5.9. C 74-120+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to yellowish 62 40 brown (IOYR 5/4, moist) gravelly loamy coarse sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; loose to very friable; pH 6.5. -183-Appendix B. Table 15o Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 035 L 9-8cm; thin layer of conifer needles, dead moss. F-H 8-0cm; very dark brown (10IR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) granular mor: H layer breaks up easily into crumbs; both white and yellow fungal hyphae present but neither i n great quantity; definite charcoal layer beneath; clear, smooth boundary; pH 4«5-C 0-9cra; olive gray (51 5/2) to dark olive gray 72 10 (5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly slightly loamy sand; single grain structure; loose; surface wash; missing i n portions of plot; clear, broken boundary; pH 6.2. CA 1-L4cm; olive gray (51 5/2) to very dark gray- 7 10 ish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) loamy sand; very weak, very fine granular to single grain structure; loose to very friable; part of pit only; clear, broken boundary. IIBmf ll-29cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4.) to dark 23 10 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable to friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6 .6 . IIBC 29-60cm; pale olive (5Y 6/4) to olive (5Y 4/3, 21 35 moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 5 . IIC 60 - 72cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) to olive 40 brown (2.5Y 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6,8. LIIpB 72-88cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to yellowish 1 5 brown (10YR 5/6, moist) fine sandy loam; weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine root channels; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6.7. IVC1 88-108cm; grayish brown to light olive brown 12 40 (2.5Y 5/3) to dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) loamy sand; single grain structure; loose; much decomposed rock; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.8. -18 V-Appendix B. Table 15. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 035 (Continued) SB 033a IVC2 108-133+cm; olive (5Y 5/3) to olive gray (5Y 59 55 4/2, moist) gravelly sand; pH 6.8. L 10-6cm; thick mat of cedar twigs and leaves and other conifer needles. F-H 6-0cm; dark brown (10YR 3/3) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) granular mor with duff mull tendency (no Ah); white fungal hyphae only; pH 5 . 6 . Bhj 0-18cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to dark gray- 29 30 ish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5 ' 9 . BC 18-38cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to olive 47 30 (5Y 4/3, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, very fine granular structure; very friable to loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5.6. C 38-117em; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to olive 42 40 gray (5Y 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, very fine granular structure; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. IIC 117-145+cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to 63 5 olive gray (5Y 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 7.0. -185-Appendix B. Table 15° Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB 30 L 6»4x5m; white pine, hemlock, cedar needles, birch leaves, twigs. F-H 4-Ocm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) generally a thin mor with white fungal hyphae and a very friable H layer (duff mull tendency); a small amount of charcoal; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5°0. Bmfl 0- l6cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 2 0 brown (7.5YR 3 / 2 , moist) loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 . Bmf2 l6-39cm; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) to 0 0 dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) sand; weakP fine granular to single grain struc-ture; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 . C l 39-46cm; pale yellow (2.51 7/4) to olive brown 0 0 (2.5Y U/U, moist) sand; single grain struc-ture; loose; clear, smooth boundary^ pH 6 .2. C2 46-94cm; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) to 0 0 dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5.9. C3 9-4-239+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to light 0 0 olive brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6 . 3 . -186-Appendix B. Table I5. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 78 L 7-5cm; mainly larch needles and twigs, dead moss. 1^  F-H 5-Ocm; very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) generally a f e l t y mor with both yellow and white fungal hyphae; Hlayer slightly friable; thin charcoal layer between H and mineral s o i l ; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 4.2. 2 Bmq 0-13cm; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) to grayish brown 5 0 (2.5Y 5/2, moist) clay loam; moderate, medium subangular blocky structure; firm; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.2. 3 IIBC 13-27cm; light gray (5Y 7/2) to grayish brown to 8 0 light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) loamy sand; weak, fine to medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.2. 4 HCI 27-5lcm; light gray (5Y 7/2) to olive (5Y 5/3, 0 0 moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. 5 IIC2 5l-69cm; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) to light olive 55 0 brown (2»5Y 5/4, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; a 1-cm compact layer occurs i n middle of layer; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6 .4. 6 IIIC 69-96cm; pale brown (IOYR 6/3) to very dark 8 0 grayish brown (IOYR 3/2, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6.8. 7 IVC1 96-115cm; light yellowish brown (IOYR 6/4) to 34 0 yellowish brown (IOYR 5/4, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6.4. 8 IVC2 115-Ulcm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to light 17 0 olive brown (2.5Y 5/4., moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.8. 9 VC 141-148+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to dark gray- 1 0 ish brown to olive brown (2.5I 4/3, moist) very fine sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; mottles distinct, common, medium reddish-brown/gray; pH 6.3. Appendix B Table 16. Chemical Characteristics of Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Sample no. Hori-zon pH % CaC03 equiv. Mois-ture factor % organic carbon % organic matter % total nitro-gen C - N PPM adsorbed phos-phate CEC me/ lOOg Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg % BS SB 175 1 F-H 5.2 0 112.34 45-2 77.9 1.31 34-5 85.9 121.7 51.7 10.8 1.43 0.12 64.O 52.6 2 Bm 6.0 0 102.81 2.29 3.95 0 .14 I6.4 582.9 20.4 3.5 0.8 0.32 0 .04 4.7 23.0 3 Bmfl 5.8 0 103.32 1.50 2.59 0.11 13.6 12.8 18.1 0.8 0.9 0.25 0 .04 2.0 11.0 4 Bmf2 6.0 0 102.73 0.88 1.52 0.06 14.7 15.2 14.9 0.6 0.3 0.17 0.06 1.1 7.4 5 Cl 5-9 0 101.19 O.36 0.62 0.03 12.0 45.7 9.1 2.9 0.8 0.11 0.08 3.9 42.9 6 C2 6.4. 0 101.08 0.23 0.40 7.1 8.4 4.0 1.2 0 .04 0^05 5.3 63.1 7 C3 6.6 0 101.57 0.30 0.52 2.9 10.8 6.0 1.8 0.05 0.06 7.9 73.1 SB 158 1 F-H 5.3 0 112.89 43.3 74.6 1.24 34.9 130.7 115.0 40.6 17.6 2.51 0.17 60.9 53.0 2 Bmfl 6.0 0 103.61 1.75 3-02 0.08 21.9 39.7 18.8 1.6 0.8 0.28 0.04 2.7 14 .4 3 Bmf2 6 .4 0 105.16 0.86 I.48 0.07 12.3 8.9 20.4 1.1 0.9 0.23 0.06 2.3 11.3 4 BC 6.2 0 100.97 0.20 0.34 0 .04 5.0 18.6 6.9 2.0 1.1 0.09 0.05 3.2 46.4 5 Cq 5.9 0 100.98 0.23 O.40 0.03 7.7 5-7 6.3 2.5 1.0 0.07 0 .04 3.6 57.1 6 C 6.5 0 100.70 0.24 0.41 9.2 5.4 2.8 0.3 0.02 0.03 3.2 59.3 SB 035 1 F-H 4.5 0 112.61 46.3 79.8 2.07 22.4 134.5 H l.O 34.3 H-4 2.58 0.20 5I.5 36.5 2 C 6.2 0 100.83 0.67 1.16 0.03 22.3 33.2 6.5 3.6 0.7 0.08 0.01 4.4 67.7 3 CA 0 102.30 1.96 3.38 0.12 16.3 51.9 20.9 11.2 0.8 0.10 0.06 12.2 58.4 4 IIBmf 6.6 0 103.00 1.49 2.57 0.09 16.6 22.0 21.1 6.3 1.2 0.22 0.04 7.8 37.0 5 IIBC 6.5 0 101.67 0.62 1.07 0.03 20.7 35«9 10.3 2.1 0.1 0.11 0.02 2.3 22.3 6 IIC 6.8 0 101.74 O.56 0.97 0.03 18.7 28.2 10.5 3.9 0.0 0.18 0.06 4.1 39.0 7 IIIpB 6.7 0 105.27 1.54 2.65 0.09 17.1 3.5 23.3 4.7 0.5 0.13 0.10 5.4 23.2 8 IVG1 6.8 0 101.71 0.63 1.09 0.03 21.0 31.6 13.6 6.9 0.8 0.07 0.04 7.8 57.4 9 IVC2 6.8 0 100.74 0.25 O.43 6.7 7.1 3.8 0.6 0.06 0.02 4.5 63.4 Appendix B. Table 16. Continued Sample Hori- * M o i s - * % A , , , „ zon pH CsCC^ ture organic organic total C equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N gen no. PPI adsorbed CEC phos- me/ phate lOOg Exchangeable cations me/lOOg  Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg SB 033a BS 1 F-H 5.6 0 1 1 4 . 5 6 37.7 65.O 1.75 21.5 5 8 . I 169.9 79.0 I 6 . 4 1.51 0.18 97.1 57.2 2 Bhj 5-9 0 102.21 1.61 2.73 0.12 13.4 90.1 15.4 4.3 1.0 0.15 0.03 5.5 35.7 3 BC 5-6 0 100.92 0.38 0.66 0.02 19.0 11.6 7.4 2.8 0.8 0.03 0.02 3.6 48.6 4 C 6.6 0 100.86 0.61 1.05 0.01 61.0 2.2 6.5 4«4 0.9 0.06 0.03 5»4 83.1 5 IIC 7.0 0 100.66 0.18 0.31 1.0 5-1 3.0 0.7 0.03 0.01 3.7 72.5 SB 030 1 F-H 5.0 0 106.00 20.1 34-7 0.80 25.1 89.7 64.O 32.4 22.8 0.91 0.04 56.2 87.8 2 Bmfl 6.4 0 101.55 0.88 1.52 0.05 17.6 755.5 8.5 2 . 0 1.6 0.19 0.01 3 . 8 44.7 3 Bmf2 6.4 0 101.37 0.49 O.84 0.04 12.2 46.6 7.3 0.9 0.5 0.10 0.02 1.5 20.5 4 C l 6.2 0 100.44 0.14 0.24 0.02 7.0 64.6 2.4 T 0 . 0 0.06 0.01 0.1 5 C2 5 . 9 0 100.86 0.25 0 . 4 3 29.0 5.0 0.1 0.2 0.09 0.02 0.4 8.0 6 C3 6.3 0 100.30 0.10 0.17 7.5 1.7 0.6 0.4 0.02 0.03 0.2 11.8 3 078 1 F-H 4.2 0 109.81 33.5 57.3 1.26 26.6 128.1 100.9 19.8 10.9 1.66 0.09 3 2 . 4 32.1 2 Bmq 6.2 0 101.55 0.79 1.36 0.04 19.8 8.3 10.1 4.3 0.8 0.14 0.06 5.3 52.5 3 IIBC 6.2 0 100.67 0.25 0.43 0.02 12.5 38.9 5.0 1.2 0.6 0.07 0.02 1.9 38.0 4 IIC1 6.6 0 100.37 0.13 0.22 0.01 13.0 25.5 2.2 0.5 0.4 0.03 0.01 0 . 9 40.9 5 IIC2 6.4 0 100.37 0.05 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 1 5.0 3.7 1.9 1.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 1.8 94.7 6 IIIC 6.8 0 100.53 0.08 0.14 0.01 8.0 4.3 2.7 0 . 8 1.0 0,05 0.02 1.9 70.4 7 IVC1 6.4 0 100.32 0.05 0.09 0.01 5.0 4.6 1.7 0 . 8 0.2 0.02 0.02 1.0 58.8 8 IVC2 6 . 8 0 100.32 0.06 0.10 0.01 6.0 3.7 1.7 0 . 9 0.3 0.02 0.02 1.2 70.6 9 VC 6.3 0 101.06 0.23 0.40 0.01 23.0 3.7 7.0 3 . 8 1.3 0.08 0.04 5.2 74.3 -189-Appendix B Table 17. Descriptions of Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Horizon ^ Description G R no. SB 204 L 4--2cm; dead moss, Douglas-fir and cedar needles, dead lichens, considerable Arctostaphylos leaves. 1 F-H 2-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) thin mor with bright yellow fungal hyphae abundant,* some white fungal hyphae; H layer f a i r l y friable; many roots; charcoal; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 4.3. 2 Bmf 0-23cm; light yellowish brown (IOYR 6/4) to 9 5 brown to dark brown (7«5^R 4 / 4 , moist) sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; diffuse boundary; pH 6.2. 3 Bm 23-37cm; light yellowish brown (IOYR 6 / 4 ) to 17 15 dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/3«5, moist) sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 5 . 8 . IlCr 37+cm; bedrock. SB 117 L 6-3cra; white pine needles, dead moss, cedar needles, Arctostaphylos leaves, twigs. 1 F-H 3-Ocm; very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) thin mor with a very friable H layer and white fungal hyphae, but i n pockets a f e l t y mor with white fungal hyphae also with a friable H layer; i n very exposed spots almost a thin earth mull; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 6 . Aej 0-trace (0)cm; loamy sand to fine sand; weak, fine granular structure; loose to very fria b l e ; lacking i n much of plot; clear, broken boundary. 2 Bm 0 (trace)-15cm; yellowish brown to dark yellow- 46 4O ish brown (IOYR 4 .5/4) to dark brown (IOYR 3/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5 . 8 . -190-Appendix B. Table 17. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 117 (Continued) 3 Bmf l5-30em; light yellowish brown to brownish 36 50 yellow (10YR 6/5) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 3.5/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam: weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5«9« 4 C 30-46cm; pale olive (51 6/3) to olive brown 48 65 (2.5Y 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 5-5-Cr 46+cm; bedrock; much shattered and 46cm only an average. SB 073 " L 7-4cm; ponderosa pine needles, birch and cherry leaves, Douglas-fir needles, Pachistima leaves. 1 H 4-0cm; dark gray (5Y 4/D to black (10YR 2/1, moist) very friable duff mull type with white fungal hyphae; the H layer i s very fine and is almost an Ah; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5.7. 2 Bm 0-19cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to brown to dark 50 15 brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5.9. 3 BrnfJ 19-35cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to brown to 62 15 dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5.8. 4- C 3 5 - 4 0 c m ; light gray ( 2 . 5 Y 7/2) to light olive 5 1 25 brown (2.5Y 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, medium granular structure; very friable; appears i n pockets; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5 « 8 . Cr 40+cm; bedrock. Appendix B Table 18. Chemical Characteristics of Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Hori- Mois- % $ % PPM Exchangeable cations Total no. zon pH C a G 0 3 "^re organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 204 1 F-H 4.3 0 112.44 36.5 62.9 1.28 28.5 191.9 129.6 18.0 17.7 2.19 0.16 38.0 29.3 2 Bmf 6.2 0 105.86 1.25 2.16 0.08 15.6 20.0 26.2 4.2 1.2 0.09 0.07 5.6 21.4 3 Bm 5-3 0 105.86 2 .05 3.53 0.10 2 0 . 5 15.3 2 5 . 7 1.9 1.1 0.14 0.09 3.2 12.6 3 117 1 F-H 5-6 0 113.00 33 .4 57.6 1.45 23.0 72.9 138.6 74.0 6.3 1.37 0.23 81.9 59.1 2 Bm 5-8 0 104.67 3.16 5.45 0.15 21.1 65.I 27 .9 2.9 0.5 0.22 0.12 3.7 13.3 3 Bmf 5-9 0 106.46 2 .50 4.31 0 . L 4 17.9 28.7 29.5 1.9 1.0 0.13 0.08 3-1 10.5 4 C 5.5 0 101.38 0.93 1.60 0.05 18.6 72.8 11.5 2.1 1.0 0.09 0.08 3.3 28.7 3 073 1 H 5.7 0 106.49 11.4 19.7 0 .84 13.6 171.9 64.I 18.6 11.0 0.93 0.13 30.7 47.9 2 Bm 5-9 0 102.22 1.49 2.57 0.07 21.3 99.9 16.3 4.9 1.2 0.35 0 .04 6 .5 39.9 3 Bmfj 5.8 0 102.12 1.16 2.00 0.07 16.6 72.4 16.3 5.0 2.0 0.30 0.10 7.4 45.4 4 C 5-8 0 101.03 O.48 0.83 0 .05 9.6 27.3 8.6 3.5 1.2 0 .25 0.08 5-0 58.1 -192-Appendix B Table 19 •> Descriptions of Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 016 SB 039 L 10-9cm; thin layer dead moss and conifer needles. F-H 9-5cmj very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) tipper portion of a duff mullj pH 5°4« HA 5-0cmj dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) to very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2, moist) earth mull-like material; f a i r l y firm granular aggregates (some clay); hard when dry; pH 5«6. Bml 0-13cm; pale brown (IOYR 6/3) to dark brown 34 a 3 (IOYR 3«5/3j> moist) loam; r o l l s between fingers when moist; pH 5«8. Bm2 13-28cm; pale brown (IOYR 6/3) to dark brown 37 a 5 (IOYR 3.5/3? moist) gravelly sandy loam; charcoal present; pH 5.4. Bmf 28-38cm; light brown to brown (7.5YR 5.5/4) to 5 10 reddish brown to dark reddish brown (5YR 3.5/4* moist) loam; pH 5.7. Cg 38-6lcm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 59 50-60 (2.5Y U/U> moist) gravelly loamy sand; pH 5.7. Cgw 6l-76+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to dark 55 50-80 grayish brown to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/3, moist) gravelly loamy sand; considerable amount of rotten rock; pH 6.0. a includes concretions not broken. L 13-7cm; cedar twigs, white pine and cedar needles plus a mat of deciduous leaves; very thick i n low spots. F-H 7-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) granular mor with duff mull tendency; mainly white fungal hyphae; yellow hyphae restricted to very thick mor which apparently was not touched by f i r e ; tends to thin out near a road where exposure greater; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5'4« -193-Appendix B. Table 19 • Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 0 3 9 (Continued) 2 ^ Aej 0-lero; light gray (IOYR 7/1) to dark gray (IOYR 10 15 4/1, moist) sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; weakly developed and missing i n some of plot; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5 . 2 . 3 Bgjcc l - 2 0 c m ; light yellowish brown ( 2 . 5 * 6/4) to 25 15 olive brown (2.5Y 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium granular structure; friable; mottled lightly; occurs i n about 3 / 4 of p i t ; clear, broken boundary; pH 6 . 5 . 4 Bm l - 1 0 c m ; yellowish brown (IOYR 5/4) to dark 13 15 yellowish brown (IOYR 3 / 4 , moist) loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, fine sub-angular blocky structure; fri a b l e ; occurs i n about 1/4 of p i t ; clear, broken boundary; pH 6 . 8 . 5 Bmfq 1 0 - 3 0 c m ; yellowish brown (IOYR 5/4) to dark 3 1 15 brown (7.5YR 3 / 2 , moist) gravelly loam to s i l t loam; weak, fine subangular blocky structure; occurs under Bm; clear, broken boundary; pH 7 . 0 . 6 Bmf 2 0 - 4 5 c m ; brownish yellow to yellowish brown 22 15 (IOYR 5.5/6) to dark yellowish brown (IOYR 3 . 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly s i l t loam; occurs mainly under Bgjcc; gradual, broken boundary; pH 6 . 9 . 7 BCgq 3 0(45 ) - 6 6 c m ; pale yellow (5Y 8 / 3 ) to olive (5Y 24 2 0 4 . 5 / 3 , moist) gravelly very fine sandy loam; mottled; pH 6 . 9 . 8 Cgl 6 6 - 8 6 c m ; pale yellow (5Y 8/3) to olive brown 24 2 0 ( 2 . 5 Y 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; mottled; pH 7 . 0 . 9 Cg2 8 6 - 1 0 1 c m ; pale yellow to light yellowish brown 35 2 0 ( 2 . 5 Y 6 . 5 / 4 ) to olive brown ( 2 . 5 I 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; f a i n t l y mottled; pH 7 . 0 . 10 Cw 101-124+cm; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/4) to light 2 5 < 5 olive brown to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 » 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; pH 7 . 0 . -194-Appendix B. Table 19° Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 052 L 10°7cm; white pine, cedar and Douglas-fir needles. 1 F-H 7 -0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) granular varying to f e l t y mor; with white fungal hyphae; underlain by a charcoal layer; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5'7. 2 Aej 0-lem; light gray (10YR 6.5/I) to dark to very 12 5 dark gray (10YR 3 - 5 / 1 , moist) sandy loam to fine sandy loam; moderate to weak granular structure; very friable; missing i n portions of plot; abrupt, broken boundary; pH 5 - 3 . 3 Bm l-8cmj pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark grayish 16 5 brown (10YR 4/2, moist) loam; moderate to strong, medium granular to weak, fine sub-angular blocky structure; friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH $.0. 4 Bmfq 8 - 2 6 e m ; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 2 0 10 brown (10YR 3/3, moist) gravelly clay loam; strong, medium granular to weak to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.3. 5 IIBmq 26-40cm; light brownish gray to light yellowish 2 1 10 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 6/3) to dark grayish brown to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. 6 HCgl 40-64cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to olive 27 10 gray to olive (5Y 4/2.5, moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate, medium granular struc-ture; very friable; mottles faint, few, fine reddish brown/gray; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. 7 I I C g 2 64-89cm; light gray to light olive gray (5Y 24 10 6.5/2) to olive gray to olive (51 4/2.5, moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; mottles distinct, common, fine, reddish brown/gray; gradual, smooth'boundary; pH 6,6. 8 IICg3 89-104+cm; light gray to light olive gray (51 31 10 6.5/2) to olive gray (5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam; pH 6.6. -195-Appendix B. Table 19° Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 057 L 9~5cm; aspen, cedar leaves, twigs, cone scales, other conifer needles. F-H 5-0cmj very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3 / 2 ) to black (IOYR 2 / 1 , moist) granular mor; H layer very friable and crumby - almost a duff mull but no definite Ah; some white or light yellow fungal hyphae; some charcoal; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5»6. Bmf 0 - 2 3 c m ; brownish yellow to yellowish brown 12 10 (IOYR 5-5/6) to dark yellowish brown (IOYR 3.5/4? moist) very fine sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, fine sub-angular blocky structure; friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 * 0 . Bm 2 3 - 4 7 c m ; light yellowish brown to yellowish 9 2 5 brown (IOYR 5 .5/4) to dark yellowish brown (IOYR 3 . 5 / 4 ? moist) very fine sandy loam to loam; moderate to strong, medium granular to weak., fine subangular blocky structure; friable; gradual v smooth boundary; pH 6 . 0 . I I C 1 4 7 - 6 4 e m ; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7 . 5 / 4 ) to dark grayish 19 35 brown to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 2 . I I C 2 6 4 - 7 4 c m ; light gray to pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/3) 13 35 to dark grayish brown to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 / 3 , moist) loamy fine sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 . 6 IIICw 74-78+cm; light brownish gray to light yellowish 59 35 brown (2.5Y 6/3) to dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4/3, moist) gravelly, very coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; washed; pH 6.3. -196-Appendix B. Table 19- Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB 105 L 10-5cm; white pine needles, cone scales, birch leaves, other conifer needles. F-H 5-0cmj very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) granular mor with duff mull tendency; H layer very friable but thin, tending to look like a very thin Ah; abrupt, smooth boundary: pH 5«6. Aej Trace; part of pi t only; clear, broken boundary. Bmf 0-l6cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 7 5 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, moist) loam; moderate, medium crumb to weak, fine subangu-lar blocky structure; very friable to friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6.0. Bq l6-35cm; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) to dark grayish 5 5 brown to olive brown (2-5Y 4/3» moist) loam to clay loam; strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6.0. IIC1 35-44-cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4/3, 0 0 moist) loamy fine sand; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6.2. IIC2 44-6lcm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4-/3, 1 10 moist) sandy loam; moderate to strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.2. IUCgw 61-104+cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to dark grayish 50 60 brown to very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3.5/2, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.2. -197-Appendix Bo Table 19« Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 093 L l l - 8 e m ; dead moss, cedar and hemlock needles, twigs o F 8 - 4 c m ; very dark brown (IOYR 2 / 2 ) to black (IOYR 2 / 1 , moist) upper portion of a granu-lar mor with duff mull tendency; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5-4» H 4 - 0 c m ; dark gray to very dark gray (IOYR 3 . 5 / 1 ) to black (IOYR 2 / 1 , moist) lower very friable portion; this layer i s thicker and more friable under Mnium and Viola i n low spots, while the F layer predominates on hummocks; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5 - 6 . Aej 0-trace (0)cm; ill-defined and mainly missing; some bleaching on hummocks and under rotten wood; gradual, broken boundary. Bfh 0 - 1 2 c m ; yellowish brown (IOYR 5/6) to dark brown (7.5YR 3 / 2 , moist) loam to s i l t loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure; friable; abrupt, Irregular boundary; pH 5 . 9 . Bg 1 2 - 3 3 c m ; pale yellow (2»5Y 7 . 5 / 4 ) to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/4? moist) loam to fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; friable; mottles faint, common, medium reddish brown/gray; gradual smooth boundary; pH 6 . 0 . I I B 3 3 3 - 5 8 c m ; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/4) to yellowish brown to dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4»5/4> moist) sand to loamy sand; weak, medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 0 . IICw 58-83+cm; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/4) to olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/4 > moist) sand; single grain struc-ture; loose; pH 6 . 0 . Appendix B Table 20. Chemical Characteristics of Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Hori- $ Mois- % % % PPM Exchangeable cations Total no. zon pH t-axe organic organic t o t a l C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg BS SB 016 1 F-H 5-4 0 113.91 48.9 85-9 1.13 2 HA 5.6 0 108.38 11.8 20.3 0-45 3 Bml 5-8 0 102.90 1.82 3.14 O.li 4 Bm2 5-4 0 101.58 0.83 1.43 0.05 5 Bmf 5.7 0 102.80 0.8G 1.38 0.07 6 Cg 5-7 0 101.02 0.38 0.66 0.04 7 Ggw 6.0 0 102.26 0.47 0.81 SB 039 1 F-H 5.4 0 111.81 42.7 73-6 1.29 2 Aej 5.2 0 100.92 2.04 3.52 0.06 3 Bgjce 6.5 0 101.33 0.64 1.10 0.04 4 Bm 6.8 0 105.05 3.21 5-53 0.19 5 Bmfq 7.0 0 103.50 1.88 3.24 0.13 6 Bmf 6.9 0 102.12 1.08 1.86 0.08 7 BCgq 6.9 0 100.90 O.48 0.83 0.02 8 Ggl 7.0 0 IOO.48 0.30 O.52 9 Cg2 7.0 0 100.43 0.25 0.43 10 Gw 7.0 0 100.31 0.15 0.26 SB 052 1 F-H 5.7 0 114.49 45.0 77.6 1.51 2 Aej Bm 5.3 0 101.02 1.87 3.22 0.11 3 5.0 0 101.77 1.19 2.05 0.07 4 Bmfq 6.3 0 102.97 1.13 1.95 0.08 5 IIBmq 6.6 0 101.17 0.57 0.98 0.03 43.3 1«8.2 144.7 49.0 20.5 2.71 0.13 72.3 50.0 26.2 22.7 74.8 20.6 5.4 1.22 0.24 27.5 36.8 16.5 24.0 26.6 7.0 0.4 O.36 0.09 7.8 29.3 16.6 12 »2 13.4 3.9 1.2 0.22 0.02 5.3 39.6 12.9 21.5 17.9 4.9 1.6 0.41 0.09 7.0 39.1 9.5 13.0 8.5 2.2 0.8 0.11 0.02 3.1 36.5 7.9 17.0 9.2 1.9 0.14 0.06 11.3 66.5 33.1 33.0 123.0 49.6 12.9 1.07 0.21 63.8 51.9 34-0 12.8 9.8 3.2 0.5 0.09 0.05 3.8 38.8 16.0 15.9 10.3 4.3 0.7 0.14 0.06 5.2 50.5 16.9 4.9 36.3 15.5 2.5 0.16 0.32 18.3 50.4 14.5 6.4 23.2 9.8 1.8 0.18 0.10 11.9 51.3 13.5 10.6 17.0 6.6 1.1 0.22 0.09 8.0 47.1 24.. 0 0.4 7.5 5.0 1.1 0.04 0.06 6.2 82.7 0.4 4.0 2.8 0.2 0.01 0.01 3.0 75.0 0.1 3.4 3.0 0.1 T 0.03 3.1 91.2 0.3 2.1 1.8 0.3 0.00 0.03 2.1 100.0 29.8 117.5 I66.4 79.0 16.3 1.83 0.23 97.4 58.5 17.0 15.7 12.2 5.1 0.9 0.08 0.03 6.1 50.0 17.0 14.9 17.1 6.4 1.3 0.22 0.08 8.0 46.8 14.1 7.7 25.2 13.8 3.8 O.42 0.15 18.2 72.2 19.0 5.7 9.9 6.0 1.5 0.12 0.08 7.7 77.8 Appendix B. Table 20. Continued Sample Hcri-no. zon pH % Mois- % % % CaGO^ ture organic organic t o t a l equiv. factor carbon matter nitro PPM Exchangeable cations C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg N phos- me/ ' phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na T o t a l of base^ me/ lOOg BS gen SB 052 (Continued) 6 IlCgl 7 IICg2 8 IIGg3 SB 057 -1 F-H 2 Bmf 3 Bm 4 IIC1 5 IIC2 6 IIICw SB 105 1 F-H 2 Bmf 3 Bq 4 HCI 5 IIC2 6 IIIGgw SB 093 1 F 2 H 3 Bfh 4 Bg 5 II BC 6 IICw 6.7 0 100.67 0.22 0.38 0.01 22.0 3.3 5.7 3 .9 0 .9 0.07 0.06 4-9 86.0 6.6 0 100.91 0.24. 0 .41 0.02 12.0 3.1 7.7 4 .3 0.6 0.12 0 .04 5.6 72.7 6.6 0 100.68 0.14 0.24 0.02 7 .0 1.5 5.2 3 .8 0 .4 0.09 0 .05 4.3 82.7 5.6 0 114.09 35 .3 61.7 1.62 22.1 98.6 101.3 61.6 25.2 1.61 0.25 88.7 87.6 6.0 0 104.96 1.88 3 .24 0.11 17.1 6.2 26.0 3 .3 1.4 0.72 0.15 5.6 21.5 6.0 0 104.01 1.13 1.95 0.08 14.1 7.6 25.6 8.2 2 .7 0.70 0.19 11.8 6.2 0 100.68 0.23 0.40 0.03 7.7 5.7 3.3 2.2 0.2 0.08 0.03 2 .5 75 .8 6 .4 0 100.38 0.22 0.38 4.5 2 .0 2 .5 0.6 0.02 0.07 3.2 71.1 6.3 0 100.94 0.28 O.48 6.1 4-7 3 .4 1.5 0 .05 0.06 5.0 82.0 5.6 0 109.67 16.6 28.6 1.13 14.7 97.1 100.7 37.3 17.8 0 .39 0.13 55.6 55.2 6.0 0 105.39 2 .99 5.15 0.28 10.7 93.3 36.8 5.3 2.0 0 .31 0.13 7.7 20 .9 6.0 0 101.29 0.36 0.62 0.06 6.0 6.5 9 .8 4 .9 1.4 0.07 0.05 6 .4 65.3 6.2 0 100.40 0.12 0.21 0.04 3.0 10.2 3 .2 0 .5 1.6 0.01 0.02 2.1 65.6 6.2 0 100.68 0.12 0.21 0.03 4 .0 12.8 5-2 2 .8 0 .9 0.02 0.04 3 .8 73.1 6.2 0 100.66 0.14 0.24 0.03 4.7 8.6 5.0 2 .5 1.1 0 .04 0.04 3.7 74.0 5-4 0 114.93 50.3 86.7 I . 64 30.7 55.7 I46.3 59.1 14.8 2.52 0.39 76.8 52.5 5.6 0 111.07 14.4 24.3 1.07 13.5 10.0 100.1 31.3 9.3 0.66 0.32 41.6 4 I .6 5.9 0 107.13 4 . 59 7.91 0.26 17.7 7.0 43.1 8.8 2.2 0 .24 0 .14 11.4 26.5 6 .0 0 100.83 0.49 O.84 0.04 12.2 4 .5 4 .8 1.0 1.0 0.06 0.03 2.1 43 .8 6.0 0 100.61 0.23 0.40 0.02 11.5 4.1 3.8 1 © 2 0.6 0.06 0.02 1.9 50.0 6.0 0 100.39 0.21 0.36 0.03 7.0 3.7 3.1 X • 1^ 0.0 0.02 0.02 1.4 45.2 -200-Appendix B Table 21. Descriptions of Normal Orthic Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 183 L 8-5cm; white pine, cedar, Douglas-fir needles, birch leaves, hemlock needles, Douglas-fir cones, twigs. F-H 5-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) felty mor with only a few white fungal hyphae; H layer friable (almost a granular mor); abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5.7. Bm 0-l6cm; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) to 39 15 dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very frdable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.0. Bmj l6-32cm; light yellowish brown (2.51 6/4) to 53 20 brown to dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7.2. IIBCq 32-60cm; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) to 43 20 light olive brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4 . 5 / 4 , moist) gravelly loam; moderate, fine granular structure; very friable when crushed; sl i g h t l y sticky when wet; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.2. HCgq 60-76+cm; pale yellow (5Y 8/3) to olive (5Y 46 35 5/3, moist) gravelly loam to clay loam; moderate, fine granular structure; very friable to friable when crushed; slightly sticky when wet; pH 7.3. ( -201-Appendix B. Table 21. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 184 L 8-5cm; birch leaves, white pine, Douglas-fir and grand f i r needles, cedar leaves, twigs. F-H 5-0em; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) felty mor with few pale yellow to white fungal hyphae; very friable H layer (whole horizon friable); charcoal present; duff mull tendency; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.3• Bml 0-8cm; brown to dark brown (10YR 4/3) to very 40 15 dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. Bmf 8-23cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to brown to 49 15 dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. Bm2 23-41cm; pale yellow (2.51 7/4) to olive brown 45 20 (2.5Y 4/4s moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. Cql 41-63cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive brown 43 35 (2.5Y 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very friable when crushed; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. Cq2 63-100cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) to very 53 40 dark grayish brown (2.5Y3/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, fine to very fine granular structure; very friable when crushed; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.9. C 100-116+cm; light yellowish brown to light 41 55 olive brown (2.5Y 5-5/4) to olive (5Y 4/3, moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; pH 6.7. -202-Appendix B« Table 21. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 154 L 4"3cms aspen leaves, maple leaves, Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine needles, birch leaves, twigs, catkins, Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine cones. F-H 3-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thin mor; f e l t y with white "cobwebby" fungal hyphae; charcoal present; whole horizon f a i r l y f r i a b l e ; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. Bml 0-18cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 30 8 yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate,"fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. Bm2 18-45cm; brown to dark brown (10YR 4/3) to 40 10 dark brown (10YR 3/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. Bm3 45-78cm; brown (10YR 5/3) to dark brown (10YR 33 15 3/3? moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. C l 78-109cm; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) to very 45 15 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. C2 109-127+cm; pale olive to olive (51 5-5/3) to 45 15 olive (5Y 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; pH 6.2. Appendix B Table 22. Chemical Characteristics of Normal Orthic Brown Wooded Profiles no. SB 183 % Mols- % % ture organic organic Sample Hori- „ -on H C a C 0 3 " p equiv. factor carbon matter t o t a l nitro-= gen 0 5 PPM adsorbed CEC phos- me/ phate lOOg Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg BS 1 F-H 5-7 0 112.93 41.4 71.4 1.54 ?6.9 80.6 114.7 64.4 19.5 1.22 0.13 85.2 74.3 2 Bm 7.0 0 102.62 1.74 3.00 0.09 19.3 24.6 19.1 9.7 0.7 0.27 0.06 10.7 56.O 3 Bmj 7.2 0 101.56 0.54 0.93 0.06 9.0 7.5 13.0 8.3 1.0 0.08 0.06 9.4 72.3 4 IIBCq 7.2 0 101.21 O.24 0.41 0.04 6.0 3.7 9.9 7.0 1.1 0.04 0.04 8.2 82.8 5 IIGgq 7.3 0 101.23 0.14 0.24 3.4 11.3 7.0 0.9 0.02 0.05 8.0 70.8 SB 184 1 F-H 6.3 0 113.14 38.0 65.5 1.43 26.6 131.4 123.8 73.0 28.6 1.76 0.11 103.5 83.6 2 Bml 6.6 0 103.77 2.74 4.72 0.18 15.2 1272.6 26.2 9.3 2.4 0.76 0.06 12.5 47.7 3 Bmf 6.6 0 103.49 1.77 3.05 0.10 17.7 21.8 20.9 4.1 1.9 0.53 0.05 6.6 31.6 4 Bm2 6.7 0 102.70 0.92 1.59 0.06 15.3 24.3 16.0 4.1 1.4 0.59 0.07 6.2 38.8 5 Cql 6.7 0 101.37 0.38 0.66 0.04 9.5 8.3 11.3 7.5 0.8 0.06 0.05 8.4 74.3 6 Cq2 6.9 0 101.28 0.41 0.71 4.6 10.9 7.1 0.8 0.03 0.04 8.0 73.4 7 C 6.7 0 101.47 0.31 0.53 4.3 10.1 7.3 0.6 0.03 0.03 8.0 79.2 SB 154 1 F-H 6.6 0 109.01 28.3 48.8 1.09 26.0 124.6 91.4 66.5 19.6 1.35 0.06 87.5 95.7 2 Bml 6.6 0 100.94 0.62 1.07 0.05 12.4 225.5 8.9 2.9 0.9 0.36 0.04 i{ c 2 4.7 o2 3 Bm2 6.7 0 101.07 0.53 0.91 0.04 13.2 110.7 8.5 3.5 1.0 0.31 0.02 4.8 56.5 4 Bm3 6.7 0 101.13 0.41 0.71 0.03 13.7 154.6 8.3 2.8 0.8 0.47 0.03 4.1 49.4 5 Cl 6.0 0 100.58 0.30 0.52 0.01 30.0 18.3 4-9 1.8 1.2 0.11 0.02 3.1 63.3 6 C2 6.2 0 100.49 0.33 O.57 0.02 16.5 19.6 4.2 2.1 1.2 0.07 0.02 -3.4 81.0 -204-Appendix B Table 23. Descriptions of Dry Orthic Brown T/ooded Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 075 L 4-2cm; ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir needles and cones, dead grass; sometimes lacking due to erosion. F 2-0cm; very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2) to black (IOYR 2 / 1 , moist) medium mull; generally no H layer; often lacking or very thin; no visible fungal hyphae; clear, broken boundary; pH 5>A-Ahj 0- l6cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to very dark 32 brown (IOYR 2 / 2 , moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium crumb to weak subangular blocky structure; very friable to friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 .8 . Bmf 16-35cm; pale brown (IOYR 6/3) to brown to 38 dark brown (IOYR 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly fine sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very fria b l e ; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 .4 . Bm 35-47cm; pale brown (IOYR 6/3) to brown to dark 37 brown (IOYR 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly loam; strong, medium to fine granular structure; friab l e ; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6 .4 . BCq 47-56cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to olive brown 48 (2.5Y 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable when crushed; possibly some moisture movement; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 3 . IlCr 56+cm; bedrock. - 2 0 5 -Appendix B. Table 23» Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 157 L 5-3cm; Douglas-fir needles, birch leaves, Chimaphila leaves, twigs. F-H 3-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thin mor with white or no fungal hyphae; H layer somewhat friable as i s whole horizon; charcoal i n pockets; erosion may reduce thickness; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6.0. Bml 0-30(9)cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4.) to dark 67 35 brown (7.5YR 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine granular structure; very fria b l e ; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 3 . C l 9-28cm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark yellowish 59 35 brown (10YR 4/4., moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; occurs i n about 1/5 of pi t ; clear, broken boundary; pH 6.0. Bmf 30-62cm; brown (7.5YR 5/4) to dark reddish 61 40 brown (5YR 3/4, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; occurs in about 1/4 of pi t ; clear, broken boundary; pH 7.0. Bm2 30-62cm; yellow (10YR 7/6) to brown to dark brown 57 40 (7.5YR 4/4 , moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; occurs i n about 3/4 of pit; clear, broken boundary; pH 7.0. C2 62-117+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to light olive 62 60 brown to olive brown (2.5Y U-5/U> moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain struture; very friable to loose; pH 7.0. Appendix B Table 24* Chemical Characteristics of Dry Orthic Brown Wooded Profiles Sample Hori- " $ Mois- % % % PPM Exchangeable cations Total no. zon pH CaCO^ ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 075 BS 1 F 5-4 0 106.16 17.4 30.0 1.05 16.6 222.6 63.0 19.1 12.8 1.15 0.08 33.1 52.5 2 Ahj Bmf 6.8 0 102.02 2.37 4.09 0.13 18.2 97.8 20.2 10.1 1.9 O.56 0.04 12.6 62.4 3 6.4 0 101.73 0.81 1.40 0.05 16.2 50.7 13.5 5.9 1.7 0.34 0.06 8.0 59.3 4 Bra 6.4 0 101.68 0.64 1.10 0.05 12.8 29.3 12.8 5.1 2.2 0.42 0.06 7.8 60.9 5 BCq 6.3 0 100.86 0.22 0.38 0.02 11.0 9.4 6.3 3.0 1.2 0.15 0.06 69.8 SB 157 1 F-H 6.0 0 113.18 40.1 69.1 1.17 34.3 102.9 132.1 64.5 L4.5 1.53 0.18 80.7 61.1 2 Bml 6.3 0 103.18 2.36 4-07 0.10 23.6 72.0 23.3 6.8 0.8 0.17 0.05 7.8 33.5 3 C l 6.0 0 101.14 0.83 1.43 0.05 16.6 43-2 9.1 3.0 0.9 0.07 0.02 4.0 44-0 4 , Bmf 7.0 0 104.31 1.49 2.57 0.08 18.6 35-2 20.8 7.3 0.9 0.17 0.05 8.4 40.4 5 Bm2 7.0 0 105.99 11.2 32.6 8.5 2.0 0.17 0.12 10.8 33.1 6 02 7.0 0 101.01 0.24 0.41 " 0.04 6.0 6.8 6.8 3.5 1.4 0.02 0.04 5.0 73.5 -207-Appendix B Table 2 5 . Description of a Gleyed Brown Wooded Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 159 L 9-6cm; birch, aspen leaves, white pine, Douglas-fir, cedar and hemlock needles, cone scales, twigs; f a i r l y compact; with white fe l t y fungal hyphae. F-H 6-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) felty mor with a high amount of white fungal hyphae and few yellow; H layer f a i r l y friable; charcoal common especially below H layer; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5.8. Aej Trace; occurs i n possibly 1/5 of plot; abrupt, 5 broken boundary. Bmfj 0-25cm; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) to dark 3 5 yellowish brown (10YR 4/4., moist) very fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 7 .3-I I B t j l 25-41cm; pale olive (5Y- 6/4) to olive (5Y 4 / 3 , 30 15 moist) gravelly loam to clay loam; strong, medium to fine granular to weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky when wet; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7.6. IIBtj2 41-74cm; pale olive (51 6/3) to olive (5Y 4 / 3 , 29 20 moist) gravelly clay loam to clay; strong, medium granular to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; sticky when wet; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 8 . IlCgk 74-lllcm; pale olive (51 6/3) to olive (51 29 25 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly clay loam; moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; f a i r l y sticky when wet; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 8 . 0 . IlCgkw 111-128+cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 38 30 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly clay loam; strong, medium granular to moderate, very fine sub-angular blocky structure; friable; pH 8.0. Appendix B Table 26. Chemical Characteristics of a Gleyed Brown Wooded Profile Sample no. Hori- % zon pH CaCO^ Mois-ture % organic % organic % total C PPM adsorbed CEC Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Total ° f « equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases * me/ lOOg gen phate lOOg Ca Mg" K Na SB 159 1 F-H 5.8 0 113.42 4 2 . 4 73.1 1.59 26.7 173.2 138.6 62.9 29.2 2.84 0.27 95.2 68.7 2 Bmfj 7.3 0 108.94 3.79 6.53 0.25 15.2 13.9 60.2 31.6 3.9 0.26 0.98 36.7 61.0 3 I I B t j l 7.6 0 100.61 0.37 O.64 0.06 6.2 0.0 5.8 3.8 0.7 0.01 0.06 4.6 79.3 U IIBtj2 7.8 0 100.61 0.20 0.34 0.06 3.3 0.0 5.0 3.8 0.9 0 .04 0.06 4.8 96.0 5 HCgk 8.0 2 .4 100.75 0.21 0.36 0.07 3.0 0.5 4.6 14.6 1.2 0 .05 0 .04 15.9 100.0 6 IlCgkw 8.0 4-9 IOO.65 0.16 0.28 0 .06 2.7 0.8 4.3 11.2 1.1 0 .04 0.06 13.4 100.0 -209-Appendix B Table 27, Description of1 a Degraded Brown Wooded Profile Sample Horizon Description C no. SB I56 L 7-4cm; Douglas-fir needles, dead moss, hemlock and cedar needles, Douglas-fir cones, twigs, birch leaves. F-H 4-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10TR 3/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) f e l t y to granular mor with white fungal hyphae; H layer very friable to firm (under moss); charcoal present; is a thin mor where there i s no cover or moss; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.2. Aej Trace; found especially under thick moss mats; 4O none in about 2/3 of plot. AeB 0-19cm; light olive brown (2.51 5/4) to very 55 40 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy coarse sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; diffuse boundary; pH 6.0. Bj 19-44cm; light olive brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5/4) to dark 6 0 4 5 grayish brown to very dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 . 5 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain to weak, very fine granular structure; loose to very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7 . 0 . C 4 4 - 6 3 c m ; olive (5Y 5/3 to 51 4 / 3 , moist) 4 1 4 0 gravelly loamy fine sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7 . 0 . Ckl 6 3 - 9 3 c m ; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4 / 3 , 57 35 moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, wavy boundary; pH. 7 . 5 . C k 2 93-118+cm; pale olive (5Y 6 / 3 ) to dark grayish 50 50 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; pH 7.8. Appendix B Table 28. Ghemical Characteristics of a Degraded Brown Wooded Profile Sample no. H o r i " w GaCOo 2 0 n P H equiv. Mois- % % '$ PPM Exchangeable cations Total ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of t factor carbon matter nitro-gen N phos-phate me/ lOOg Ca Mg K Na bases B g me/ lOOg SB 156 1 F-H 6.2 0 110.78 25.7 44 «3 1.30 19.8 111.0 124.2 63.1 22.3 1.95 0.09 87.4 70.4 2 AeB 6.0 0 100.89 1.25 2 16 0.04 31.2 223.2 9.0 4.4 0.4 0.06 0.02 4.9 54.4 3 Bj. 7.0 0 100.73 0.86 1.48 0.04 21.5 65.I 7.2 5.4" 1.0 0.03 0.01 6.4 88.9 4 C 7.0 0 100.50 0.69 1.19 0.03 23.0 65.2 5.5 3.5 0.9 0.01 0.01 4.4 80.0 5 Ckl 7.5 6.5 100.31 0.23 0.40 0.04 5-8 9.8 2.8 6.6 0.8 0.00 0.01 7.4 100.0 6 Ck2 7.8 8.9 100.69 0.62 1.07 0.05 12.4 0.5 6.9 I4.0 0.6 0.01 0.02 14.6 100.0 -211-Appendix B Table 29. Description of a Normal Orthic Brown Forest Profile Sample Horizon Description G no. SB T78 V K L 7-4cm; hemlock, yew, grand f i r and cedar needles, dead moss. F-H 4 - 0 c m ; very dark brown (10YR 2 / 2 ) to black (10YR 2 / 1 , moist) thin duff mull generally; a very friable H layer; some white fungal hyphae i n the F layer; no charcoal; many roots; pH 5 - 8 . Ah 0-5cm; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) to very 0 15 dark brown (10YR 2 / 2 , moist) loam; strong to medium, fine crumb structure; fria b l e ; some charcoal; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 3 . Bm 5 - 2 1 c m ; pale brown (10YR 6 / 3 ) to dark grayish 4 9 15 brown (10YR 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . Bmfl 2 1 - 3 3 c m ; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to dark 3 8 15 brown (10YR 3 / 3 , moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable to friable; gradual, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 6 . Bmf2 3 3 - 5 9 c m ; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark brown 47 15 (10YR 3 / 3 , moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very fria b l e ; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . C l 59-106cm; pale brown (10YR 6 / 3 ) to brown to 49 2 0 dark brown (10YR 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium granular structure; friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 7 . C 2 106-117+cm; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) 50 25 to brown to dark brown (10YR 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly sandy clay loam; weak, fine sub-angular blocky to moderate to strong, medium granular structure; friable; pH 6 . 6 . Appendix B Table 30. Chemical Characteristics of a Normal Orthic Brown Forest Profile Sample Hori- < Mois- % '5 d r> PPM Exchangeable cations Total no. zon PH CaC03 ture organic organic total c adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of" f equiv. factor carbon matter nitro-- N phos- me/ Ca Mg K Na bases BS gen phate 100g me/ 100g SB 178 V K 1 F-H •5.8 0 115.4l 37.4 64.5 1.21 30.9 96.6 166.2 48.5 33.1 2.16 0 . 4 1 84.2 50.7 2 Ah 6.3 0 106.57 8.63 14.9 0 . 4 I 21.0 16.7 54-4 3 0 . 4 3.7 0.72 0 . 1 4 35.0 64.3 3 Bm 6.6 0 101.69 1.08 1.S6 0.07 15.4 101.8 13-5 5.9 0.5 0.23 0.02 6.6 48.9 4 Bmfl 6.6 0 103.01 1.51 2.60 0.10 15.1 36.5 20.0 7.0 0.8 0.35 0.06 8.2 41.0 5 Bmf2 6.6 0 102.09 0.78 1.34 0.06 13.0 55.5 13.0 4.6 1.4 0.26 0.03 6.3 4 8 . 4 6 C l 6.7 0 101.13 0.28 O.48 " 0.03 9.3 10.5 8.8 4 . 0 1 .4 0.13 0.03 5.6 63.6 7 C2 6.6 0 101.22 0.31 0.53 6.7 9.6 5.2 1 .4 0.11 0.06 6.8 70.8 -213-Appendix B Table 31» Description of a Dry Orthic Brown Forest Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 072 L 4-2cm; Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine needles and cones, dead grass, dead moss (on rocks). F-H 2-0cm; dark gray to very dark gray (IOYR 3.5/1) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) extremely friable earth mull (medium mull); some charcoal below; pH 5»8. Ah 0-8cm; grayish brown to dark grayish brown 22 10 (IOYR 4.5/2) to very dark grayish brown to very dark brown (IOYR 2 .5/2, moist) gravelly loam; moderate, medium crumb structure; friable to very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . Bm 8-23cm; light yellowish brown (IOYR 6/4) to 43 30 brown to dark brown (IOYR 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; diffuse boundary; pH 7.1. BO 23-35cm; very pale brown to light yellowish 48 40 brown (IOYR 6.5/4) to brown to dark brown (IOYR 4/3, moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 8 . IlCr 35+cm; bedrock; somewhat fissured. / Appendix B Table 32. Chemical Characteristics of a Dry Orthic Brown Forest Profile Sample no. Hori- „ * zon PH C a G 0 3 Mois-ture factor $ organic carbon f ' organic matter total nitro-C N PPM adsorbed phos-CEC me/ Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Total of bases equiv. BS gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 072 1 F-H 5.8 0 108.91 24.4 42.I 1.21 20.2 373.1 97.5 38.7 18.6 2.48 0.08 59.9 61.4 2 Ah 6.6 0 104.11 4.72 8.14 0.27 17.5 634-7 37.2 18.8 7.0 2.98 0.09 28.9 77.7 3 Bm 7.1 0 103.41 1.73 2.98 0.12 14.4 65.O 26.0 12.2 2.9 2.19 0.07 17.4 66.9 U BC 6.8 0 103.64 1.26 2.17 0.11 11.4 45-9 21.5 8.8 1.9 2.30 0.11 13.1 60.9 -215-Appendix B Table 33» Description of a Gleyed Brown Forest Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 076 L 7-4cra: mainly larch needles, birch and alder leaves, twigs. 1 F 4-0cm; dark brown (10YR 3/3) to very dark brown (10YR 2/2, moist) coarse mull: F layer only (not very decomposed): abrupt transition to Ah; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5'7. 2 Ah 0-4cm; gray to dark gray (10YR 4.5/1) to very 0 0 dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2, moist) loam; strong, medium crumb structure; friable; earth-worms present; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6.2. 3 Bml 4-17em; very pale brown to pale brown (10YR 1 0 6.5/3) to brown to dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.4« 4 Bm2 17-37cm; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) to brown to 0 0 dark brown (10YR 4/3, moist) very fine sandy loam; strong, medium granular to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; mottles faint, common, medium brown/gray; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.3. 5 C 37-56cm; light gray ( 2 . 5 Y 7/2) to dark grayish 0 0 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/2, moist) fine sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium granular structure; very friable; diffuse boundary; pH 6.8. 6 HCgql 56-91cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive brown 0 0 ( 2 . 5 Y 4/4 , moist) s i l t loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; mottles faint, common, medium reddish brown/ gray; diffuse boundary; pH 6 . 4 . 7 IICgq2 91-126cm; light yellowish brown (2 .5Y 6/4) to 0 0 dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 4 / 3 , moist) s i l t y clay loam; moderate, fine sub-angular blocky structure; firm; mottles distinct, common, medium reddish brown/bluish gray; diffuse boundary; pH 6 . 6 . 8 IIIC 126-143+cm; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) to 0 0 dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4/2, moist) fine sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; pH 6 . 6 . Appendix B Table 34 • Chemical Characteristics of a Gleyed Brown Forest Profile Sample no. Hori-zon pH % CaCC-3 equiv. Mois- 3 t, ture organic organic factor carbon matter tot a l nitro-gen C N PPM adsorbed phos-phate CEC me/ lOOg Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg BS SB 076 1 F 5.7 0 114.36 29.7 51.2 1.13 26.3 116.3 155.0 57.8 20.9 I.46 0.41 80.6 52.0 2 Ah 6.2 0 107.33 9.84 17.0 0.34 28.9 25.5 63.0 24.7 8.8 0.94 0.30 34.7 55.1 3 Bml 6.4 0 104.12 1.37 2.36 0.09 15.2 11.3 27.7 12.3 4.5 0.78 0.26 17.8 64.3 A Bm2 6.3 0 105.51 1.08 1.86 0.11 9.8 7.8 35-9 14.2 4.0 1.11 0.36 19*7 54.9 5 C 6.8 0 101.27 0.23 0.40 0.03 7.7 3.4 9.4 5-9 1.4 0.06 0.08 7.4 78.7 6 HCgql 6.4 0 101.94 0.21 0.36 • 0.02 10.5 1.1 14.1 9.4 2.4 0.09 0.12 12.0 85.I 7 HCgq2 6.6 0 102.17 0.31 0.53 1.1 16.9 10.6 3.0 0.08 0.14 13.8 81.7 8 IIIC 6.6 0 101.64 0.17 0.29 2.2 11.8 7.5 1.8 0.06 0.10 9.5 80.5 -217-Appendlx B Table 3 5 . Description of an Orthic Gleysol Profile  Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 140 L 9 - 6 c m ; cottonwood leaves, cedar needles, twigs, cottonwood catkins and bud scales. 1 F-H 6 - 0 e m ; very dark brown (IOYR 2 / 2 ) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) duff mull but with a f a i r l y f e l t y F layer; some white fungal hyphae; H layer friable; possibly f e l t y mor with duff mull tendency; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . 2 C l 0 - 6 and l l - 3 0 c m ; pale olive to olive (5Y 5 . 5 / 3 ) 0' 0 to olive (5Y 4/3, moist) s i l t loam to clay loam; strong, medium granular to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.4.. 3 pAh 6-llcm; very dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 ) to 0 0 black (N 2 / , moist) loam to s i l t loam; moder-ate, medium granular structure; very friable to friable; formerly an H layer; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 5 . 4 Cgl 3 0 - 5 7 c m ; light olive gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) to olive gray 1 0 to dark olive gray (5Y 3 . 5 / 2 , moist) clay loam; strong, medium granular, to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; mottles distinct, common, medium reddish brown/gray; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 3 . 5 C2 5 7 - 8 9 c m ; light olive gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) to olive 1 0 (5Y 4 / 3 , moist) clay loam to clay; moderate to strong, fine subangular blocky structure; firm; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 6 . 6 Cg2 8 9 - 1 2 2 c m ; light olive gray (51 6 / 2 ) to olive 1 0 (5Y 4/3 , moist) clay loam to clay; moderate to strong, fine subangular blocky structure; firm; mottles distinct, common, fine to medium reddish brown; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 7.4.* 7 IIC 1 2 2 - 1 4 2 c m ; light olive gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) to olive 3 0 5 gray (5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; rusty especially on surface; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 0 , 8 IUCgw U2-l50+cm; light olive gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) to olive 1 0 (5Y 4 / 3 , moist) fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; mottles distinct, common, medium reddish brown/ gray; pH 7 . 2 . Appendix B Table 36. Chemical Characteristics of an Orthic Gleysol Profile Sample Hori- ^ Mois- 3 % PPM Exchangeable cations no. ^on pH G aC°3 ^ure organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na cf gen Total of bases me/ lOOg BS SB HO 1 P-H 6.6 0 118.14 49-6 85.5 2.48 20.0 75.8 161.4 96.3 41.3 3.00 0.27 HO.9 87.3 2 C l 7.4 0 101.12 O.65 1.12 0.04 16.2 2.1 8.6 8.1 1.6 0.07 0.04 9.8 100.0 3 pAh 7.5 0 107.73 11.3 19.5 0.98 11.5 18 .7 84.5 86.2 23.4 0.32 0.14 110.1 100.0 4 Cgl 7.3 0 101.41 0.68 1.17 0.04 17.0 0.7 12.0 8.5 1.5 0.02 0.08 10.1 84.2 5 C2 7.6 0 101.74 O.65 1.12 1.9 13.4 9.4 2.0 0.02 0.07 11.5 85.8 6 Cg2 7.4 0 101.68 0.50 0.86 1.0 15.4 7.9 1.7 0.03 0.09 9.7 63.0 7 IIC 7.0 0 100.38 0.15 0.26 1.0 3.2 1.2 0.2 0.01 0.02 1.4 43.8 8 IUCgw 7.2 0 100.93 0.31 0.53 0.7 7.9 4*6 1.2 0.00 0.05 5.8 73.4 -219-Appendix B Table 37. Descriptions of Peaty Gleysol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 079 SB II4 L 29-24cmj cedar branchlets and needles, twigs, cottonwood leaves, cone scales. F-H 24-L4em; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thick dttff mull with some white fungal hyphae; very friable H and F layers; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. H U-Ocm; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) to black (10YR 4 0 2/1, moist) loam; moderate, medium crumb structure; friable; high i n charcoal; almost an Ah layer; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.8. C 0-llcm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7 /4) to brown (10YR 2 ^5 5/3, moist) sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.8. Cgwl ll-34cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7 /4) to light olive 19 <5 brown (2.5Y 5 /4 , moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; mottles distinct, common, medium; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7.0. Cgw2 34-57+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7 /4) to light olive 1 5 brown (2.5Y 5 /4 , moist) loamy sand to sand; weak, medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; pH 7.0. L 23-20cm; cedar needles and twigs, fern stalks and leaves, hemlock needles, dead Mnium. F-H 20-13cm; dark brown (10YR 3/3) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull; H layer very friable; very matted with roots; no fungal hyphae; no charcoal; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5'2. H 13-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) muck; moderate to strong, medium crumb to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5 .4° -220-Appendlx B. Table 37. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 1L4 (Continued) 3 Cg 0~21cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to very dark 0 0 grayish brown (IOYR 3/2, moist) loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, medium granular structure; very friable; mottles distinct, common, medium reddish brown/gray; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5*6-4 Cw 21-34cm; gray (5Y 5*5/1) to dark gray to very 1 0 dark gray (5Y 3*5/1, moist) loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5*6. 5 Cw+pAw 34-4-9cm; gray (5Y 5*5/1) to very dark gray to 3 < 1 black (5Y 2 . 5 / 1 , moist) sandy to fine sandy loam; strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5*3. 6 IICw 49-71+cm; gray (51 5.5/1) to olive gray to dark 54 20 olive gray (5Y 3*5/2, moist) gravelly loamy coarse sand; single grain to weak, fine granular structure; loose to very friable; pH 4«8. SB U 9 L 24--19cm; white pine needles, birch and aspen leaves, hemlock needles, twigs, branches. F-H 19-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) extremely thick duff mull with a very friable, thick H layer; some yellow fungal hyphae near rotten wood; considerable charcoal; clear, wavy boundary; pH 4*8. Aej 0-0(3)cm; mixed in with organic horizon and very 15 ill-defined; clear, broken boundary. Bgh? 0-23cm; light yellowish brown to yellowish brown 32 20 (10YR 5.5/4) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, moist) gravelly loam; moderate, very fine sub-angular blocky structure; friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6.1. Cgw 23-90+cm; pale olive (5Y 6/4) to olive (5T 4/3, 57 28 moist) gravelly loamy sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 5*8. Appendix B Table 38. Chemical Characteristics of Peaty Gleysol Profiles % Mois- t $ t PPM Exchangeable cations Total Sample Hori- C a C 0 _ ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of no. zon pH equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases * gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg BS SB 079 1 F-H 6.0 0 117.62 42.5 73.3 1.86 22.8 110.1 178.2 78.2 45.9 2.20 0.25 126.6 71.0 2 H 6.8 0 111.13 I4.8 25.5 0.74 20.0 10.3 111.1 50.9 31.0 0.38 0.21 82.5 74.3 3 C 6.8 0 100.94 0.52 0.90 0.05 10.4 4.8 6.9 3.5 1.0 0.13 0.02 4.6 66.7 4 Cgwl 7.0 0 100.51 0.21 0.36 0.01 21.0 2.5 2.7 1.6 0.4 0.03 0.02 2.0 74.1 5 Cgw2 7.0 0 IOO.55 0.32 0.55 2.2 4.8 2.2 0.5 0.11 0.03 2.8 58.3 SB 1 U 1 F-H 5-2 0 117.62 49.9 86.0 1.72 29.0 39.2 194.8 46.5 39.8 1.97 0.44 88.3 45.6 2 H 5-4 0 115.21 34.2 59.0 1.82 18.8 27.3 I64.I 38.6 19.9 0.92 O.56 60.0 36.6 3 Cg 5-6 0 101.32 1.10 1.90 0.08 13.8 5-0 10.6 2.5 0.7 0.03 0.04 3.3 31.1 4 Cw 5.6 0 100.39 0.45 0.78 0.03 15.0 3-1 4-5 0.9 0.5 0.03 0.02 1.4 31.1 5 Cw+pAw 5-3 0 101.71 1.59 2.74 11.6 12.4 2.5 0.6 0.01 0.05 3.2 38.8 6 IICw 4.8 0 100.55 0.31 0.53 0.02 15.5 0.9 1.2 0.9 0.00 0.03 2.1 47.7 3 149 1 F-H 4-8 0 117.04 48.2 83.I 1.43 33.7 66.0 158.7 59.1 11.2 1.15 0.14 71.6 45.1 2 Bgh? 6.1 0 106.39 2.61 4.5 0.13 20.1 11.6 30.6 4.3 0.9 0.07 0.09 5.4 17.6 3 Cgw 5.8 0 100.79 0.33 0.57 0.02 I6.5 14.9 4.8 1.5 0.1 0.03 0.02 1.6 33.3 -222-Appendlx B Table 39. Description of a Peaty Calcareous Gleysol Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 151 24-22cm; cedar leaves, hemlock needles, twigs, dead mosses. F-H 22-l6cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull; very friable H layer; no charcoal; no fungal hyphae apparent; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. H 16-Ocm; very dark gray to very dark grayish 19 a 5 brown (10YR 3/1 .5 ) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) loam; moderate, medium to fine crumb structure; very friable to friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 7.2. Ck 0-36cm; olive gray (5Y 5/2) to black (5Y 2/2, 4O 10 moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 8.0. pAhgw 36-70cm; dark gray (5Y 4/1) to black (5Y 2/1, 39 15 moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine crumb structure; very friable; mottles faint, few, fine bluish gray/brown; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. Ckw 70-106+cm; olive gray (5Y 5/2) to very dark 50 15 gray (5Y 3/1, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; pH 8.0. a partly unbroken concretions. Appendix B Table 4 0 . Chemical Characteristics of a Peaty Calcareous Gleysol % Mois- % % % P P M Exchangeable cations Total Sample Hori- CaCO- ture organic organic t o t a l C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of g no. zon pH equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- U phos- me/ bases 33 gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 151 1 F-H 6 . 0 0 . 0 114.84 3 8 . 5 6 6 . 4 1.54 25.0 21.8 149 .4 8 I . 9 13.3 1.08 0 . 4 5 9 6 . 7 6 4 . 7 2 H 7 . 2 1.6 110.30 22.3 3 8 . 4 1 .20 18.6 15 .7 125.4 8 8 . 2 5.6 0 . 1 2 0 . 3 8 94-3 7 5 . 2 3 Ck 8 . 0 4.9 101.02 1 .22 2.10 0 . 0 6 20.3 3 . 5 8 . 9 12 .6 1.3 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 2 1 4 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 4 pAhgw 6.6 0 . 0 102.10 4 . 2 2 7.28 0.18 23.4 2 0 . 4 23.7 18.8 3 . 6 0 . 1 2 0 .11 22.6 9 5 . 4 5 Ckw 8 . 0 9 . 3 100.75 0 .77 1.33 0 .03 25.7 3 . 5 6 .6 13.9 1.6 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 15.6 100.0 - 2 2 4 -Appendix B Table 41° Description of a Peaty Meadow Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 10A L 13-8cm: mainly birch leaves, white pine and cedar needles, twigs and cones. F-H 8 - 0 c m ; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2 / 1 , moist) generally a thick duff mull; no fungal hyphae visible; H layer very friable and grading into muck in lower regions of plot and more abruptly into Cg i n higher areas; gradual (abrupt), wavy boundary; pH 6 . 0 . Ah O-AOcm; dark gray (10YR 4*5/1) to black ( 1 0 I R 3 0 2 / 1 , moist) s i l t loam muck; moderate to strong crumb to weak massive structure; friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5 - 0 . Cgwl 0 - 2 2 c m ; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6 / 2 ) to dark 9 0 grayish brown to very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3 - 5 / 2 , moist) sandy loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure (tends to massive); friable to firm; mottles distinct, many, medium reddish brown/gray; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 1 . Cgw2 2 2 - 4 0 c m ; light brownish gray ( 2 . 5 Y 6 / 2 ) to very 7 0 dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 , moist) loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure (tends to massive); friable to firm; mottles prominent, common, medium reddish brown/ bluish gray; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5.6. IICw \ 4 0 - 4 3 and 5 2 - 5 5 c m ; light gray (5Y 6.5/I) to dark 0 0 gray to very dark gray (5Y 3 .5/ 1 , moist) fine sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 3 . 2 . IIIpAhw 4 3 - 4 8 and 5 5 - 6 0 c m ; dark gray (5Y 4 / 1 ) to black 4 0 (5Y 2 / 1 , moist) s i l t loam; strong, medium crumb to weak, medium subangular blocky struc-ture; friable to firm; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 3 . 6 . -225-Appendix B. Table A l . Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB IO4 (Continued) 7 IVCw 60-90+cm; gray (5Y 5/1) to very dark gray 65 0 (5Y 3/1, moist) gravel; single grain struc-ture; loose; mottled bluish gray/reddish brown; pH 2 . 9 . 9 Cgw 26-39+cm; light gray (5Y 7/2) to olive gray (5Y 4.5/2, moist) loamy sand; weak, medium granular structure; very friable; mottles prominent, coarse, common reddish brown/ bluish gray; from shallow p i t dug i n higher ground; pH 6 . 4 . Appendix B Table 42. Chemical Characteristics of a Peaty Meadow Profile % Mois- % % Exchangeable cations Total Sample Hori- C a G 0 t u r e organic organic ^ £ adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of % no. zon pH ^ 3 f a c t o r c a * b o n J ^ t e r nitro- N phos- me/ b a s e s B S * gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 104 1 F-H 6.0 0 110.46 20.0 34.5 0.67 29.9 18.9 109.1 46.9 16.2 0.86 0.32 6Z..3 58.9 2 Ah 5.0 0 103.04 5.53 9.53 0.31 17.8 5.2 25.8 13.4 2.8 0.08 0.25 16 .5 64.O 3 Cgwl 6.1 0 101.07 1.07 I.84 0.07 15.3 1.0 9.7 4.9 0.8 O.O4 0.06 5.8 59.8 4 Cgw2 5 . 6 0 100.93 0.91 1.57 0.06 15.1 2.1 8.7 3.0 0.9 0.03 0.08 4.0 46.O 5 IICw 3.2 0 100.30 O.4O 0.69 0.02 20.0 1.9 3.1 1.0 0.8 0.02 0.06 1.9 61.3 6 IHpAhw 3 . 6 0 103.16 8.92 15.4 0.27 33.0 1.5 28.9 11.3 7.6 0.01 O.I4 19.0 65.7 7 IVCw 2.9 0 100.33 0.62 1.07 1.7 3 . 6 1.4 1.0 T 0.02 2.4 66.7 9 Cgw 6.4 0 IOO.64 0.21 0.36 0.9 5 .3 2.9 0.8 O.O4 O.O4 3.8 71.7 -227-Appendix B Table 4 3 . Descriptions of Shallow Muck Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 129 L ll-8cm; cedar and hemlock needles, old fern stalks, twigs. F-H 8-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull with a very friaeble H layer; no fungal hyphae; no charcoal; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. H 0-10cm; very dark gray (IOYR 3/1) to black 0 (IOYR 2/1, moist) s i l t loam muck; moderate to strong, medium crumb structure; fri a b l e ; rotten wood conspicuous; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. ? 10-llcm; white (IOYR 8/1) to grayish brown to 1 0 dark grayish brown (IOYR 4.5/2, moist) very fine sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine sub-angular blocky structure; friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 7.0. pH ll-40cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black 0 (IOYR 2/1, moist) woody muck; moderate to strong, medium crumb structure; friable; con-siderable rotten wood; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5.5. Ggwl 40-66cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to olive 46 25 gray (5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; diffuse boundary; pH 7.0. Cgw2 66-103+cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to olive 4-6 30 (5Y 4 / 3 , moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; pH 7.0. -228-Appendix B. Table 43 •> Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 026 L l6-13cm; cedar, hemlock, yew, white pine needles, hemlock cones, twigs, dead moss, some white fungal hyphae. F-H 13-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (10 YR 2/1, moist) typical thick duff mull with a very friable H horizon; a few fungal hyphae in upper portion; fine roots very abundant; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. H 0-37cm; very dark grayish brown to very dark brown (IOYR 2.5/2) to black (5YR 2/1, moist) loam to s i l t loam muck; weak to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5.8. Cw 37-47cm; gray (IOYR 5*5/1) to very dark gray 16 (IOYR 3/1, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6.1. pHw 47-58cm; very dark gray (IOYR 3/1) to black (N2/, moist) loam to s i l t loam black muck; moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; considerable rotten wood; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5*7. 5 pAhw 58-77+cm; light brownish gray to grayish brown 3 10 (IOYR 5.5/2) to very dark grayish brown to very dark brown (IOYR 2.5/2, moist) loam; moderate to strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; pH 6.6. Appendix B Table 4 4 . Chemical Characteristics of Shallow Muck Profiles % Mois- % % ture organic organic factor carbon matter % PPM CEC me/ lOOg Exchangeable cations Total Sample H o r i " CaC03 zon pH e q u i £ . tot a l C adsorbed me/lOOg of % BS no. nitro-gen N phos-phate Ca Mg K Na bases me/ lOOg SB 129 1 F-H 6.0 0 117.95 40.4 69.6 1.77 2 H 6.6 0 118.49 40.8 70.3 2.24 3 9 7.0 0 101.43 1.97 3 .40 0.12 4 pH 5.5 0 115.57 44.0 75.9 0.89 5 Cgwl 7.0 0 100.71 0.54 0 .93 0 .04 6 Cgw2 7.0 0 100.79 0.59 1.02 l 026 1 F-H 6.0 0 118.66 48.4 83.4 2.11 2 H 5.8 0 115.87 36.3 62.6 1 .96 3 Cw 6.1 0 101.11 1 .40 2 .41 0.08 4 pHw 5.7 0 111.80 25.5 44.0 1.15 5 pAhw 6.6 0 105.36 6.93 11.9 0.21 22.8 69.0 163.2 99.0 20.6 2.03 0.81 X22e l± 75.0 18.2 19.6 183.5 111.9 22.5 0.59 1.01 136.0 74.1 16.4 57.9 15.5 10.7 1.6 0.10 0.14 12.5 80.6 16.0 12.1 173.5 94.2 50.3 0.24 0.82 145.6 83.9 13.5 11.0 5.1 4.5 0.8 0.03 0.09 5.4 100.0 10.3 5.5 3.5 0.7 0.03 0.08 4.3 78.2 22.9 78.7 200.1 84.8 20.1 1.96 0.55 107.4 53.7 18.5 34.8 185.3 68.4 30.2 1.00 0.79 100.4 54.2 17.5 49.7 12.0 4.9 1.4 0.15 0.09 6.5 54.2 22.2 25.2 135.6 58.1 17.0 0.45 0.31 75.9 56.0 33.0 8.1 42.3 14.2 3.6 0.26 0.18 18.5 43.7 -230-Appendix B Table 45• Description of a Calcareous Muck Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 161 L 10-7cm; birch, aspen, cedar, bunchberry and Douglas-fir leaves, twigs. F-H 7-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull with a very friable H layer; a few white fungal hyphae i n part of plot; no charcoal apparent; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5.7. Hkl 0-22cm; dark gray (IOYR 4/1) to black (IOYR 2/1, 0 moist) muck loam; strong, medium crumb structure; friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.2. Hk2 22-36cm; dark gray to dark grayish brown (IOYR 34 4/1.5) to very dark brown to black (IOYR 2/1.5, moist) muck sandy loam; moderate, medium crumb structure; very friable; nearly an Ah; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7.8. 4. Bmfw? , 36-55cm; very pale brown to light yellowish 45 5 brown (IOYR 6.5/4.) to dark yellowish brown (IOYR 4/4» moist) gravelly loam to sandy loam; moderate to strong, medium granular structure; very friable to friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7 . 8 . 5 Cgw 55-69+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7 .5/4) to olive 49 15 brown (2.5Y 4/4« moist) gravelly sandy loam; moderate to weak, fine granular structure; very friable; pH 7 . 2 . Appendix B Table 4 6 . Chemical Characteristics of a Calcareous Muck Profile % Mois- & % ^ Exchangeable cations Total SamnlP Hori- CaCOo x • * t o t a l n adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of ^ sample non oaou 3 ture organic organic ., £ _ h o q_ / me/iuug 0 1 $ no. zon pH equiv. f a c t o r carbon matter M - t r o _ N Pf°f- me/ bases Z. factor carbon matter p h a t e 1 0 Q g Ca Mg K Ka me/ B S lOOg SB 161 1 F-H 5.7 0 115.55 45.5 78.4 2.06 22.1 86.7 158.0 80.9 23.8 2.17 0.35 107.2 67.7 2 Hkl 7.2 4.1 109.40 16.7 28.8 0.98 17.0 4.8 98.4 70.0 16.5 0.49 0.53 87.5 88.9 3 Hk2 7.8 2.4 105.59 15.1 26.0 0.43 35.1 8.0 59.5 42.2 10.9 0.06 0.20 53.4 89.7 4 Bmfw? 7.8 0 102.62 1.11 1.91 0.10 11.1 9.1 15.1 9.6 2.6 0.09 0.06 12.4 82.1 5 Cgw 7.2 0 100.88 O.46 0.79 0.06 7.7 9.0 3.7 3.5 1.0 0.20 0.07 4.8 100.0 - 2 3 2 -Appendix B Table 47. Description of a Deep Muck'Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 049 L 2-Ocm; thin layer cedar and hemlock needles and birch leaves. H 0-20cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) muck; diffuse boundary; pH 6 . 8 . Hwl 20-65cm; very dark gray to black (IOYR 2.5/1) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) muck; diffuse boundary; pH 5 . 8 . Hw2 65-lOOcm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) muck; diffuse boundary; pH 6 . 4 . Hw3 100-133+cm; very dark brown to black (IOYR 2/1.5) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) muck; more rotten wood than above; a f a i r l y sound log occurs at bottom of this layer; pH 5 ' 2 . Appendix B Table 48. Chemical Characteristics of a Deep Muck Profile £ Mois- £ £ ? , „ / ? M ^ ^ mrr Exchangeable cations Total Sample Hon- t m > e organic organic t o t a l £ adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of £ no. zon PH ^ c a g o n n i t r o _ N phos- me/ b a s e g gg ge n phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 049 1 H 6.8 0 120.41 45.3 2 Hwl 5.8 0 119.00 4 7 . 4 3 Hw2 6 . 4 0 118.32 45.2 4 Hw3 5.2 0 117.65 4 3 . 9 78.1 2.36 19.2 21.7 235.0 81.7 2.42 19.6 14.3 194.2 77.9 1.95 23.2 9.6 216.1 75.7 2.08 21.1 18.4 118.0 49.2 0.36 0.50 168.1 71.5 94.0 60.8 0.05 0.51 155.4 80.0 98.2 40.8 0.07 0.45 139.5 6 4 . 6 -234-Appendix B Table 49. Description of an Orthic Regosol Profile Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 125 1 L-F 3-Ocm; birch and maple leaves, cedar, yew and spruce needles, cone scales, twigs, catkins; pH 5.6. 2 C l 0-3cm; white (2.5Y 8/2) to grayish brown to 1 0 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4-5/2, moist) fine sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. pAh + C 3-4cm; mixture of C l and organic matter; abrupt, 0 smooth boundary. 2 C l 4-37cm; white (2.51 8/2) to grayish brown to 1 0 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4«5/2, moist) fine sand; single grain structure; loose; included are some streaks of pAh; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. 3 C2 37-49cm; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) to grayish brown 1 0 to dark grayish brown (2.5Y A-5/2, moist) fine sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6.0. 4 C + pAh 49-60cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to dark 2 0 grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5.8. 5 C3 60-70cm; white (2.51 8/2) to grayish brown 14 0 (2.5Y 5/2, moist) fine sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5.8. 6 IICl 70-101cm; light gray (2.5Y 6.5/2) to dark 1 40 grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) cobbly loamy sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; some buried Ah; gradixal, wavy boundary; pH 5'7. 7 IIC2 101-121+cm; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) to olive gray 0 85 to olive (5Y *5, moist) cobbly sand; single grain structure; loose; many large boulders; pH 5-7. Appendix B Table 50. Chemical Characteristics of an Orthic Regosol Profile Sample Hori-no. zon pH phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na Exchangeable cations Total of bases me/ lOOg BS SB 125 1 Ir-F 5 .6 0 111.09 37.1 64.O 1.28 29.0 139.6 94 .7 28.9 19.5 2.37 0.08 50.8 53.6 2 Cl 6 .0 0 100.24 0.29 0.50 0.02 14.5 5.5 1.9 0 .8 0 . 0 0.01 0.02 0.8 42.1 3 C2 6 . 0 0 100.28 0.25 0.43 0.02 12.5 3.5 2.3 0.5 0 . 4 T 0 . 0 2 0 . 9 39.1 4 C+pAH 5.8 0 100.99 1.18 2.03 0.09 13.1 7.9 8.9 3 .2 1.0 0 . 0 4 0.06 4 . 3 48.3 5 C3 5.8 0 100.24 0.20 0.34 0.01 20.0 4 .7 1.8 0 .8 0 .2 0.03 0.02 1.0 55.6 6 IIC1 5 .7 0 100.77 0.60 1.03 0.06 10.0 3 .0 6 . 5 1.8 1 .0 0.05 0.02 2.9 44.6 7 IIC2 5.7 0 100.46 0.25 0.43 0.03 8.3 0.5 4.3 1.6 0 . 5 0.02 0.02 2.1 48.8 -236-Appendlx B Table 51. Description of a Mor Regosol Profile Sample Horizon Description a G R no. SB 023 L 9-7cm; cedar needles mainly, hemlock needles, hemlock cones, dead moss, twigs. F-H 7-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with white fungal hyphae and a friable H layer; or, i n moister depressions, a duff mull with few or no fungal hyphae and a very friable H layer; averages a fe l t y mor with duff mull tendency; charcoal i n pockets; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5'2. C l 0-53cm; pale yellow (2.5Y l/U) to brown (IOYR 52 5/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5 - 5 . C2 53-84+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) to grayish 54 85 brown (2.5Y 5/2, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.1. 80 5 IIC Surface deposit from one end of plot; pale brown (IOYR 6/3) to very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 5.8. A trace of Ae occurred where surface deposits were very coarse. Appendix B Table 52. Chemical Characteristics of a Mor Regosol Profile % Mois- % % ture organic organic factor carbon matter % PPM CEC me/ lOOg Exchangeable cations Total Sample Hori— „ " u CaCOo zon pH .J * equiv. t o t a l C adsorbed me/lOOe Of no. nitro-gen N phos-phate Ca Mg K Na bases ^ me/ lOOg SB 023 1 F-H 5.2 0 111.54 40.5 69.8 2.15 18.8 58.6 127.4" 78.6 19.3 1.32 0.16 99.4 78.0 2 C l 5.5 0 100.44 0.45 0.78 0.02 22.5 7.0 4.3 0.4 0.5 0.00 0.02 0.9 20.9 3 C2 6.1 rQ 100.68 0.22 0.38 0.04 5-5 2.6 3.1 1.5 0.4 T 0.03 1.9 61.3 5 HO 5.8 0 101.12 0.79 1.36 2.7 9.1 5.0 0.8 0.03 0.03 5.9 64.8 -238-Appendix B Table 53. Descriptions of Duff Mull Regosol Profiles Sample Horizon Description a G R no. SB 152 L ll-8cm; cedar and hemlock needles, hemlock and cedar cones, twigs, devil's club leaves, fern stalks. F-H 8-0cmj very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) typical thick duff mull with a very friable H layer which grades into the Ah; no charcoal; considerable well-decomposed wood; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5 . 6 . Ah O-llcm; very dark gray (IOYR 3/1) to black (IOYR 0 0 2/1, moist) loam; moderate, fine to medium subangular blocky structure; friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.8. IIC ll-18cm; olive gray (5Y 5/2) to very dark gray 6 0 (5Y 3/1, moist) clay loam; strong, medium granular to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7.4« IlICq l8-33cm; olive gray to olive (5Y 5/2.5) to black 21 0 (5Y 2/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; strong, medium to fine granular to weak, very fine subangular blocky structure; fria b l e ; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7.3. IIIC1 33-77cm; olive gray (5Y 4/2) to black (5Y 2/1, 55 20 moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 7.4« IIIC2 77-109cm; olive gray (5Y 4-5/2) to very dark 4-9 25 gray (5Y 3/1, moist) gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.4.. IIIC3 109-120+cm; olive gray (5? 5/2) to dark olive 53 4-0 gray (5Y 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; pH 7.3. A trace of Ae occurred i n portions of plot. -239-Appendix B. Table 5 3 . Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 203 L 19-14cm; cedar leaves and twigs, cones. H 14-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2 / 2 ) to black (IOYR 2 / 1 , moist) extremely thick duff mull; very thick and friable H layer - no F could be separated; bottom of H i s very Ah-like; no fungal hyphae; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5 . 5 . (C+Ah)l 0 - 7 c m ; grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5/2) to very dark 4 5 grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 3 / 2 , moist) sand; single grain to weak, fine granular structure; loose; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 0 . (C+Ah)2 7-20cra ; grayish brown to dark grayish brown 87 50 (2.5Y 4 .5/2) to very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3 / 2 , moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, irregular boundary; pH 6 . 1 . C l 2 0 - 6 0 c m ; grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 . 5 / 2 ) to dark 70 70 grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; some organic layers included; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 4 . C2 6 0 - 1 0 0 c m ; light yellowish brown to light olive 46 70 brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5«5/4) to dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4 / 2 , moist) -gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; some organic layers included; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 3 . IIC 1 0 0 - 1 0 9 c m ; light olive gray (5Y 6 / 2 ) to very 1 < 2 dark gray (5Y 3 / 1 , moist) loamy fine sand; moderate, fine granular to weak, fine sub-angular blocky structure; very f r i a b l e ; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 . IIIC 109-132+em; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark 55 65 yellowish brown (10YR 3 / 4 , moist) gravelly loamy coarse sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; pH 6.8. -240-Appendix B. Table 53. Continued Sample Horizon Description G K no. SB 024 L 9-6cm; almost entirely cedar needles, cones and twigs, some white fungal hyphae. F-H 6-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thick to thin duff mull with a very fr i a b l e H layer: some charcoal beneathj often interspersed with sand deposits which bury portions of the F-H; no fungal hyphae of note; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 5*7. C+Ah 0-l6cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to very dark 1 0 gray (10YR 3/1, moist) sand; single grain struc-ture; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.6. C 16-3lcm; pale brown (10YR 6/3) to dark gray (10YR 1 0 4/1, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.8. IIC 31-43cm; pale yellow (2.51 7/4) to dark grayish 32 2 brown (10YR 4/2, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 7.0. pAh 43-49cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to very dark 2 0 grayish brown (10YR 3/2, moist) loamy fine sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6.6. IIIC 49-74cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to grayish brown 1 0 to dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4«5/2, moist) sandj single grain structure; loose; pH 6.8. IVC1 74-121cm; pale yellow (2.51 7/4) to light olive 54 55 brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.9. IVC2 121-137+cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to dark gray- 22 40 ish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.9--24.1-Appendlx B. Table 53. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 064 L 3-0 or 9-6em; mainly cottonwood leaves and twigs and some cedar leaves and twigs; often sand mixed i n . F-H 6(0)-0cm; very dark grayish brown (IOYR 3/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull where present but with tendency to f e l t y mor with a few white fungail hyphae mixed i n with woody material; no charcoal; abrupt, broken boundary; pH 6.0. Ah 0-8(0)cm; light olive gray to olive gray (5Y 1 <1 5.5/2) to dark olive gray (5Y 3/2, moist) very fine sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, broken boundary; pH 6 .4. IIC1 8(0)-29cra; olive gray (5Y 5/2) to very dark 63 50 grayish brown (2 .5Y 3 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; single grain to weak, fine granular structure; loose to very friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . IIC2 29-52cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to 47 3 0 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.1. IIC3 52-70cm5 light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to dark 2 10 grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7.0. I I C 4 70-92om; grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 5/2) to dark 2 4 0 grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) cobbly sand; single grain structure; loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7.2. IIICw 92-102+cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to 74 75 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 7.0. - 2 4 2 -Appendix B. Table 53. Continued Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 173 L 9-5cm; cedar, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, cottonwood and spruce leaves, twigs; thicker under pine. F-H 5-0cm; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull with a friable H layer; but also with a f a i r l y thick F layer which sometimes has white fungal hyphae; charcoal present; clear, wavy boundary; pH 5-2. Ahl 0-12cm; dark grayish brown (2.51 A/2) to very 1 0 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine crumb structure; very friable; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 6.0. Ah2 12-A3cm; light brownish gray (2 .51 6/2) to dark 1 0 grayish brown (2.5Y A/2, moist) loam; weak to moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable Lo friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.3. CB A3-8lcm; grayish brown to light olive brown (2.5Y 0 0 5/3) to dark grayish brown (2.5Y A/2, moist) sandy loam to loamy fine sand; weak, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 2 . C 81-93cm; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/A) to A l 0 yellowish brown (10YR 5/A, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 -IIC 93-Hlcm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to 18 0 dark grayish brown (2.5Y A / 2 , moist) sand; single grain to weak, fine granular structure; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.8. IIIC 111-13Acm; light brownish gray ( 2 . 5 Y 6/2) to 23 0 very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3 / 2 , moist) gravelly loamy sand; weak, medium to fine granu-lar to single grain structure; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . IVC 134-lA2+cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to 77 65 dark grayish brown (2.5Y A / 2 , moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.8. / -243-Appendix B. Table 53. Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB 068 L 9-6cm; lodgepole pine needles, birch and cotton-wood leaves, dead grass stalks, dead moss. F-H 6-0cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) thick duff mull (sod-like) with a very friable H layer which grades into an Ah layer; no fungal hyphae; no charcoal; many roots; sand flood deposits are mixed in; clear, smooth boundary; pH 5 . 6 . Ah 0-10cm; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) to very dark 1 <1 brown (IOYR 2/2, moist) fine sandy loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; clear to abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6.1. Cl 10-20cm; light gray (IOYR 7/1) to olive (5T 5/3, 0 <1 moist) fine sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.7. C2 20-49cm; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) to olive 0 <1 (5Y 4/3, moist) loamy fine sand; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 4 . IIC 49-78cm; light gray (5Y 7/2) to light olive 3 <1 gray (5Y 6/2, moist) sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; loose to very friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7.0. IIIC1 78-108cm; pale yellow (5Y 7/3) to pale olive 57 20 (5Y 6/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.9. IIIC2 108-138+cm; pale yellow (51 7/3) to pale olive 65 20 (5Y 6/3, moist) gravelly sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 7.1. Appendix B Table 54. Chemical Characteristics of Duff Mull Regosol Profiles Sample Hori-no. zon pH % CaCC-3 equiv. Mois- % % ture organic organic factor carbon matter % total nitro-gen C " N PPM adsorbed CEC phos- me/ phate lOOg Exchangeable cations me/lOOg Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg % BS SB 152 1 F-H 5 .6 0 117 .60 41 .6 71.7 2.56 1 6 . 2 22.9 177.5 109-8 11.6 0 . 8 3 0 . 5 4 122.8 69.2 2 Ah 6.8 0 1 0 6 . 9 6 6 . 0 2 10.4 0 .79 7.6 10.5 84.2 6 0 . 4 5.0 T 0 . 13 65.5 77.8 3 IIC 7.4 0 101.07 0.80 1 . 3 8 0 . 0 5 16.0 7.6 1 0 . 4 7.5 1.1 0.03 0 .03 8.7 83.7 4 IlICq 7 .3 0 1 0 1 . 5 6 1 .24 2.14 0.08 15.5 10.0 1 3 . 6 8.1 0.9 0.18 0 . 0 3 9.2 6 7 . 6 5 I I I C 1 7 .4 0 1 0 1 . 3 8 1.70 2.93 0 . 1 0 17.0 68.8 11.3 6.6 1.2 0 .09 0.03 7.9 6 9 . 9 6 I I I C 2 7 .4 0 1 0 0 . 9 4 0.78 1 .34 0.08 9.8 31.8 6 .6 4.6 0.1 0.11 0 . 0 2 4.8 72.7 7 IIIC3 7 .3 0 1 0 1 . 0 6 0 . 8 5 I . 4 6 0 . 0 5 17.0 28.8 7.0 4.0 0.8 0.18 0 .04 5.0 71.4 SB 203 - -1 H 5.5 0 116.20 30.0 51.7 2 .30 13.0 32.1 148.7 86.0 27.3 0.36 0 . 1 2 113.8 76.5 2 (C+Ali)l 6.0 0 101.25 1.00 1.72 0.07 14*3 2 .5 9 .3 5.9 1.0 0.02 0 . 0 2 6.9 74-2 3 (C+Ah) 2 6.1 0 1 0 1 . 5 8 1.11 1 .91 0 . 0 9 1 2 . 3 3.1 11.7 6.9 0.6 0 .03 0 . 0 3 7 .6 65.0 4 Cl 6 .4 0 100.92 0 . 4 1 0.71 3.1 6.5 3.2 0.2 0.02 0 .04 3.5 53.8 5 C 2 6 .3 0 1 0 0 . 9 4 0 .45 0 . 7 8 7.7 6.0 2.6 0.7 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 3.4 56.7 6 IIC 6 . 4 0 1 0 1 . 5 3 0.77 1.33 15.1 9 .6 5.2 0 .6 0 . 0 5 0 .05 5.9 61.5 7 IIIC 6.8 0 1 0 1 . 4 5 0 . 6 5 1 . 12 5.0 8.9 4.2 0 . 4 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 4 . 6 51.7 SB 024 1 F-H 5.7 0 1 0 9 . 7 4 22.5 38.8 1 .05 21.4 14.8 100.0 6 0 . 9 10.1 0 . 3 1 0 . 0 6 71.4 71.4 2 C+Ah 6.6 0 101.32 1 . 0 1 1 . 7 4 0.07 14.4 2 .5 10.2 6.2 0.7 0 . 0 4 0.03 7.0 6 8 . 6 3 C 6.8 0 101.08 O .48 0 .83 0 . 0 3 16.0 0 .9 7.1 4.9 0.2 0 . 0 2 0 .04 5.2 73.2 4 IIC 7.0 0 1 0 0 . 4 7 0.18 0 . 3 1 0 . 0 2 9.0 0.6 2.7 1.6 0.7 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 2.3 85.2 5 pAh 6 .6 0 1 0 2 . 6 3 1 . 6 7 2.88 0.13 12.8 3 . 4 17.8 8.1 1.2 0.08 0.08 9.5 5 3 . 4 6 IIIC 6.8 0 1 0 0 . 6 7 0 . 2 0 0 .34 1.8 3 .6 2.9 0.2 0 . 0 1 0.03 3.1 86.1 7 I V C 1 6.9 0 1 0 0 . 4 6 0 . 10 0.17 1.5 2.1 1.6 1.2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 2.8 100.0 8 I V C 2 6 .9 0 1 0 0 . 9 0 0.16 0.28 0 .3 5.2 4.2 0 .3 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 4 .5 8 6 . 5 Appendix B. Table 54. Continued eg ppj^ Exchangeable cations Total Sample Hori- _ % 1 J o i s - * . * . tot a l „ adsorbed CEC me/lOOg, of , no. son PH ^ 3 ture organic organic £ / bases ^ equiv. factor carbon matter N p h a t e 1 0 0 g Ca Mg K Na me/ lOOg SB 064 1 F-H 6 . 0 0 112.19 25.5 44.0 1 .51 16.9 40.1 128.9 72.9 22.6 1.11 0.11 96.7 75.0 2 Ah 6 . 4 0 101.09 1.02 1.76 0.08 12.8 24.3 8.7 5.1 0 .9 0.10 0.02 6.1 70.1 3 IIC1 6 . 6 0 100.48 0 .53 0 .91 0.06 8.8 7.0 5.0 2.2 0.9 0.06 T 3.2 64.O 4 IIC2 7.1 0 100.29 0.15 0 .26 0.02 7.5 3 . 0 3.8 1 .4 0.2 0.02 0.01 1 .6 42.1 5 I I C 3 7.0 0 100.42 0.17 0.29 0.03 5.7 2.0 3 . 9 1.8 0 . 4 0.02 T 2.2 5 6 . 4 6 IIC4 7.2 0 100.59 0.37 O.64 0.03 12.3 7.0 5.2 3.0 0.7 0.03 0.02 3.8 73.1 7 IIICw 7.0 0 100.29 0.25 0.43 0.01 25.0 4.7 3.7 1.9 0 .5 0.02 0.02 2 .4 6 4 . 9 3 173 1 F-H 5.2 0 109.46 19.6 33.8 1 .43 13.7 119.5 90.6 3 9 . 4 14.9 0.89 0.06 55.2 6 0 . 9 2 Ahl 6.0 0 102.14 3.11 5.36 0.21 14.8 36.2 21.4 10.6 1 .4 0 .14 0.03 12.2 57.0 3 Ah2 6 . 3 0 101.80 1.54 2.65 0.12 12.8 25.8 14.6 6.9 0.7 0.07 0 .04 7.7 52.7 4 CB 6.2 0 101.88 1 .40 2.41 0.09 15.6 13.2 13.9 5.3 0.2 0.07 0.06 5.6 40.3 5 C 6 . 4 0 100.61 0.53 0 .91 3 . 9 3 . 5 1.5 0.0 0.01 0.01 1.5 4 2 . 9 6 IIC 6.8 0 100.93 0.79 1.36 5 .3 7.9 3 . 9 0 . 6 0.02 0 .04 4 . 6 58.2 7 IIIC 6 .6 0 101.03 0 .96 1.66 6 . 0 9 .4 4.2 0 .5 0 .04 0.06 4.8 51.1 8 170 6.8 0 100.83 O.84 1.45 3 . 4 . 7.3 2.8 0.2 0.02 0 .03 3.0 41.1 3 068 1 F-H 5 . 6 0 103.64 5.72 9.86 0 .33 17.3 1 4 . 0 33.1 15.5 5 .3 0.27 0.10 21.2 64.O 2 Ah 6.1 0 101.77 2.71 4.67 0.20 13.6 3 . 6 19.9 11.0 2.2 0.07 0.03 13.3 66.8 3 C l 6.7 0 100.53 O.29 0.50 0 .04 7.2 1.1 3.8 3.1 0 . 3 0.02 0 .03 3 . 4 89.5 4 C2 6 . 4 0 101.25 0.47 0.81 0.04 11.8 0.9 7.8 6 . 5 0 .5 0.03 0.07 7.1 91.0 5 IIC 7.0 0 100.44 0.21 0 .36 0.01 21.0 1.2 2.8 2.6 0 .3 T 0.03 2.9 100.0 6 IIIC1 6 .9 0 100.34 0 .14 0.24 0.02 7.0 1.2 1 .3 1.1 0 .3 T 0.02 1.4 100.0 7 IIIC2 7.1 0 100.38 0.10 0.17 0.01 10.0 1 .5 2 .4 1.5 0 . 4 0.00 0.03 1 .9 79.2 -24.6-Appendix B Table 55. Descriptions of Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 138 SB 128 L 9 - 6 c m ; birch leaves, cedar, white pine, Douglas-f i r , larch and hemlock needles, dead moss. F-H 6 - 0 c m ; very dark brown (IOYR 2 / 2 ) to black (IOYR 2 / 1 , moist) thick duff mull; H layer very friable; F layer sometimes with white fungal hyphae (felty); some charcoal; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 6 . Ckl 0 - 3 1 c m ; white (IOYR 8/1) to light gray (IOYR 7 / 1 , moist) loam; moderate, fine granular structure; very friable to friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 6 . C k 2 31-65cm; white (IOYR 8/1) to light gray (IOYR 7 / 2 , moist) loam; moderate, fine granular structure; fri a b l e ; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 8 . 0 . Ck3 6 5 - 9 8 c m ; white (IOYR 8/1) to light gray (IOYR 7 / 1 , moist) loam; moderate, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 7 . Ckqw 98-116+cm; white (IOYR 8/1 to IOYR 8 / 2 , moist) almost pure CaCO^; massive; very firm; pH 8 . 2 . L 13-9cm; hemlock and cedar needles, twigs and cones, dead moss. F 9-6cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) top root matted portion of a duff mull; no fungal hyphae; would be friable but for roots; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6.3. H 6-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) bottom friable portion of a duff mull; less roots than F; crumb structure; no charcoal or fungal hyphae; clear, smooth boundary; pH 7.1. Ahk 0-9cm; dark gray (IOYR 4/1) t o b l a c k (10*R 2/1, 22 a moist) s i l t loam; moderate, medium crumb struc-ture; very friable; rarely some H beneath; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 7.6. -247-Appendlx B. Table 55• Continued Sample Horizon Description no. R SB 128 (Continued) 4 Ck 9-34cm; white (10YR 8/1) to gray (10YR 5/1, moist) loamj moderate, medium granular structure; very friable; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 7.7. 5 IIpH 34-43cm; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) muck; high i n rotten wood content; streaks of this appear through-out profile; abrupt, wavy boundary; pH 6.8. 6 IUCkwl 43-55em; white (10YR 8/1) to light gray (2.51 7/2, moist) sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium granular structure; very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 7.8. 7 IIICkw2 55-86cm; white (10YR 8/1) to light gray to light brownish gray (2.5Y 6.5/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam; weak, medium granular structure; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 7.8. IVCr 86(46)+cm; bedrock. a = mostly unbroken organic concretions, b = partly unbroken concretions. <1 <1 ^1 <1 SB 101 L 9-6cm; birch and aspen leaves, cedar and white pine needles, twigs, branches. F-H 6-0cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) duff mull with a few white fungal hyphae; H layer friable and grades into the Ahk layer; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 6 . 1 . Ahk 0-19cm; dark gray (10YR A/1) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) loam; moderate, fine crumb structure; friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7 . 4 -AC 19-45cm; olive gray to olive (5Y 5/2.5) to very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) sandy clay loam; moderate, very fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; sl i g h t l y sticky when wet; gradual, irregular boundary; pH 7 .6. -2A8-Appendix B. Table 55« Continued Sample Horizon no. Description SB 101 (Continued) A IIC 4 5 - 6 2 c m ; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6 / 2 ) to dark grayish brown ( 2 . 5 Y 4 / 2 , moist) gravelly sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure: loose to very friab l e ; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 7 . 6 . 5 IIBC 62-IO4C111; brownish yellow to yellowish brown (10YR 5 . 5 / 6 ) to brown to dark brown (10YR 4 / 3 , moist) loamy sand; weak, fine granular to single grain structure; loose to very friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7 . 8 . 6 IICw 104-112cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6 / 2 ) to dark gray to very dark gray (5Y 3.5/lj moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 9 . 7 IUCkwl 112-115cm; light gray (5Y 7/1) to olive gray (5Y 5 / 2 , moist) s i l t y clay; massive structure; very firm; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 7 . 9 . 8 I I I C k w 2 115-131+cm; white (5Y 8/1) to light olive gray to olive gray (5Y 5 . 5 / 2 , moist) s i l t to cobbly s i l t ; moderate, medium to coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; pH 8 . 2 . 16 15 0-60 a = partly unbroken concretions. Appendix B Table. 56. Chemical Characteristics of Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol Profiles Sample Hori-no. zon pH % Mois- % % % PPM Exchangeable cations CaCO^ ture organic organic total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg  equiv. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na Total of bases me/ lOOg BS SB 138 1 F-H 6.6 0.0 117.30 2 Ckl 7.6 77.5 102.88 3 Ck2 8.0 87.7 101.A1 4 Ck3 7.7 84.4 101.50 5 Ckqw 8.2 90.9 100.32 44.3 76.4 1.34 33.1 46.8 173.4 122.0 30.5 1.92 0.23 154.6 89.2 SB 128 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 F H Ahk Ck UpH IUCkwl 6.3 7.1 7.6 7.7 6.8 7.8 0.0 7.0 24.0 69.0 0.0 84.0 117.16 118.32 113.03 103.26 117.60 101.23 47.9 42.5 82.6 73.3 1.70 1.72 1.44 1.34 28.2 82.9 182.5 90.8 42.0 1.93 0.53 135.3 74.1 24.7 28.0 192.6 139.6 34.8 0.90 0.56 175.9 91.3 7 IIICkv2 7.8 78.0 100.70 SB 101 1 F-H 6.1 1.2 113.51 34.6 59.7 1.32 2 Ahk 7.4 22.7 108.71 0.84 3 AC 7.6 0.0 103.07 0.23 4 IIC 7.6 0.0 100.64 0.04 5 IIBC 7.8 0.0 100.55 0.03 6 IICw 7.9 0.0 100.38 7 IUCkwl 7.9 22.7 100.95 8 IIICkw2 8.2 42.2 100.70 26.2 65.0 117.0 74.9 27.5 1.43 0.22 104.0 88.9 -250-Appendix B Table 57. Descriptions of Buried Profiles Sample Horizon Description G R no. SB 127 - Mor R/MP? 1 L 10-6 cm; cottonwood and birch leaves, catkins, conifer needles, twigs, bark. 1 F-H 6-0cra; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) granular mor to duff mull; very f r i a b l e H l a y e r ; yellow fungal hyphae restricted generally to rotten wood and bark; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5-9. 2 C l 0-20cm; white (2.5Y 8/2) to dark grayish brown 1 <5 (2.5Y 4/2, moist) sand to loamy sand (in pockets); single grain to weak, medium granular structure; loose to very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5 .8 . 3 C2 20-32cm; white ( 2 . 5 Y 8/2) to light brownish gray 1 < 5 (2.5Y 6/2, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; abrupt, irregular boundary; pH 6.1. pH 32-39cm; layer of charcoal; abrupt, irregular 0 boundary. 4 IIpAeh 39-48cm; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) to dark 1 <5 grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) very fine sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium granular structure; friable; gradual, irregular boundary; pH 5-6. 5 UpBj 48-80cm; pale yellow ( 2 . 5 Y 7/4) to olive brown 1 20 (2 . 5 Y 4 /4 , moist) cobbly loamy sand; weak, medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; clear, broken boundary; pH 5.6. 6 IIpBf 80-112cm; reddish yellow to strong brown (7.5YR 6 6 75 5.5/6) to brown to dark brown (7.5YR 4 / 4 , moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; especially around large rocks; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5-9. 7 IICw 112-133+cm; very pale brown (IOYR 7 / 4 ) -to brown 50 80 to dark brown (IOYR 4/3, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; pH 6.5. -251-Appendix B. Table 57. Continued Sample Horizon Description no. SB 126 - Mor R/OABW L 10-6cm; cottonwood and birch leaves, bracken fern leaves, conifer needles. 1 F-H 6-0cm; dark gray to very dark gray (10YR 3-5/1) to black (10YR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with yellow fungal hyphae; H layer very friable; pH 5.2. 2 C 0-5cm; white (10YR 8/1) to dark gray (10YR 0 <5 4 .5/I) sand; single grain structure; loose; gradual, wavy boundary; pH 5-2. 3 pBj 5-19cm; light gray ( 2 . 5 1 7/2) to grayish brown 0 ^ 5 to dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4.5/2, moist) sand to loamy sand; single grain to weak, medium granular structure; loose to very friable; clear, irregular boundary; pH 5-0. pAh 12-17cm; a layer of charcoal and roots buried <;5 under recent flood deposit; occurs i n about 1/3 of p i t ; abrupt, broken boundary. 4 pBmh 17-37cm; very pale brown (10YR 7 /4 ) to dark 0 <5 grayish brown (10YR 4/2.5, moist) loam to s i l t loam; weak to moderate, medium granular structure; friable; high amount dead roots; clear,, wavy boundary; pH 5.8. 5 IIC 37-49cm; white to light gray (2.5I 7.5/2) to 0 <5 grayish brown to dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4.5/2, moist) sand to loamy sand; weak, medium granular to single grain structure; very friable to loose; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 5.8. 6 IIIC 49-72cm; very pale brown (10YR 8 /4) to grayish 1 <5 brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 4.5/2, moist) sand; single grain structure; loose; distinct, many, medium reddish brown mottles; clear, smooth boundary; pH 6.0. 7 IVCw 72-132+cm; very pale brown (10YR 7 /4) to brown 37 65 (10YR 5/3, moist) gravelly coarse sand; single grain structure; loose; rusty color throughout; pH 5.9. - 2 5 2 -Appendix B« Table 57. Continued Sample Horizon no. Description R SB 162 - DMR/GBW L 7-4cm; birch leaves, cedar, white pine and Douglas-fir needles, twigs, birch catkins. F-H 4-0cm; very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) to black (IOYR 2/1, moist) f e l t y mor with a friable H layer to duff mull; some white fungal hyphae i n f e l t y mor; some charcoal; abrupt, smooth boundary; pH 5.2. H+C 0-l6cm; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) to very dark gray- 19 5 ish brown (IOYR 3/2, moist) gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam; weak, fine granular structure; very friable; a buried F-H occurs beneath with charcoal; clear, wavy boundary; pH 6 . 6 . pBmf l6-37(29)cm; yellowish brown (IOYR 5/4) to dark 25 5 yellowish brown (IOYR 3/4* moist) gravelly sandy loam to loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; buried F-H and charcoal layer under this i n part of pit; clear, wavy boundary; pH 7.8. pBk 29-40cm; white to light gray (2.5Y 7.5/2) to 16 5 light brownish gray to grayish brown (2.5Y 5«5/2, moist) sandy loam; moderate, medium to fine granular structure; very friable; occurs i n 1/6 of pit only; clear, broken boundary; pH 7.8. IIpBmq 40(37)-48cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) to brown to 41 7 dark brown (IOYR 4/3, moist) gravelly clay loam; strong, medium granular to weak, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; clear, wavy boundary; pH 8.0. HCkq 48-66cm; pale olive (51 6/3) to olive (51 4/3, 42 10 moist) gravelly clay loam; strong, medium to fine granular structure; friable; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 8.2. IlCgkq 66-91cm; pale olive (5Y 6/3) to olive (5Y 4/3, 32 20 moist) gravelly clay loam; moderate, fine sub-angular blocky structure; friable to firm; mottles faint, common, fine gray/brown; gradual, smooth boundary; pH 8.0. IIICw 91-117+cm; light olive gray (51 6/2) to olive 72 4O-65 gray (5Y 4/2, moist) gravelly loamy coarse sand to coarse sandy loam; moderate, fine granular structure; very friable; pH 7.6. Appendix B Table 58. Chemical Characteristics of Buried Profiles . % Mois- % % % PPM Exchangeable cations Total bample florz- C & C Q t u r e o r g a n i c o r g a n i c total C adsorbed CEC me/lOOg of no. zon p Qqpxfr. factor carbon matter nitro- N phos- me/ bases % gen phate lOOg Ca Mg K Na me/ BS lOOg SB 127 - MorR/MP? 1 F-H 5.9 0 114.98 43.3 74.6 I . 8 4 23.5 114.2 151.5 75.9 43.2 1.94 0 .15 121.2 80.0 2 Cl 5.8 0 100.32 O.46 0.79 0.03 15.3 8.6 2.8 0.8 0.5 0 .05 0.01 1 .4 50.0 3 C2 6.1 0 100.08 0.12 0.21 0.01 12.0 11.0 1.6 0.5 0.0 0.01 0.01 0.5 31.2 4 IIpAeh 5.6 0 100.55 0.79 1.36 0.09 8.6 96.2 5.5 1.4 0.4 0 .05 0.02 1.9 34.5 5 IIpBj 5.6 0 100.60 0.54 0.93 0 .04 13.5 21.6 4.9 1.2 0.5 0.07 0 .04 1.8 36.7 6 IIpBf 5.9 0 100.69 0.43 0.74 0 .05 8.6 3.5 5.1 2.1 0.3 0.03 0 .04 2.5 49.0 7 IICw 6.5 0 100.16 0.18 0 .31 0.02 9.0 3.5 1.6 0.5 0.6 0.00 0.06 1.2 75.0 SB 126-MorR/OABW 1 F-H 5.2 0 106.25 14.8 25.5 0.76 19.5 55.1 6 I .4 26.0 11.6 0 .79 0.05 3 8 . 4 62.5 2 C 5.2 0 100.16 0.18 0.31 O.04 4.5 2 .0 3.3 0.6 0 .3 0 .02 T 0.9 27.3 3 pBj 5.0 0 100.31 0.41 0.71 0.03 13.7 3 .5 3.3 0.8 0.1 0 .03 0.01 0 .9 27.3 4 pBmh 5.8 0 101.33 1.54 2.65 0.08 19.2 10.6 10.7 3.5 1.2 0.08 0 .04 4 .8 44.9 5 IIC 5.8 0 100.29 0.23 0.40 0.03 7.7 3 .0 2.4 0.8 0.3 0 .01 0 .02 1.1 46.2 6 IIIC 6.0 0 100.17 0.25 0.43 0 .02 12.5 2.0 2.0 0.8 0.0 0 .02 0 .02 0.8 40.0 7 ITCw 5.9 0 100.19 0.17 0.29 0.01 17.0 3 .0 1.6 0 .6 0 .1 T 0 .02 0 .7 43.8 SB I62-DMR/GBW 1 F-H 5.2 0 113.61 45.1 77.8 I . 8 4 24.5 94.5 I46.8 65.9 20.2 1.90 0.22 88 .2 60.1 2 H+C 6.6 0 102.84 2.53 4.36 0.15 16.9 11.6 22.3 11.8 2 .2 0 .15 0.07 14.2 63 .7 3 pBmf 7.8 0 102.78 1.32 2.28 0.13 10.2 4 .5 19.8 11.5 2.8 0 .14 0.08 14.5 73.2 4 pBk 7.8 52.8 101.48 1.65 2.84 0.17 9.7 4.3 14.1 I6 .4 4*4 0 .03 0.09 20.9 100.0 5 IIpBmq 8.0 0 101.03 O.64 1.10 0.08 8.0 2.4 6 .2 6 .7 0 .8 0 .06 0 .02 7.6 100.0 6 HCkq 8 .2 2.8 100.75 0.28 O.48 0.05 5.6 0.8 3 .1 17.3 2 .7 0.08 0.06 20.1 100.0 7 IlCgkq 8.0 3 .7 100.82 0.26 0.45 0 .7 3 .7 14.9 2.1 0 . 1 2 0.05 17 .2 100.0 8 IIICw 7.6 0 101.06 0.39 0.67 3 . 2 4 .2 3 .5 1.3 0 .03 0.05 4 .9 100.0 -254-Appendix C Abridged Descriptions of Profiles Not Chosen for Chemical Analysis Other than pH Table Contents Page 1 Normal Orthic Podzols 255 2 Moist Orthic Podzols 260 3 I Normal Minimal Podzols 262 4 II Normal Minimal Podzols 270 5 Dry Minimal Podzols 273 6 Moist Minimal Podzols 275 7 Normal Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds 279 8 Dry Orthic Acid Brown Woodeds 281 9 Normal Orthic Brown Woodeds 282 10 Dry Orthic Brown Wooded 283 11 Degraded Brown Wooded 283 12 Orthic Gleysol 284 13 Orthic Meadow 284 14 Shallow Mucks 285 15 Mor Regosols 286 16 Duff Mull Regosols 287 17 Buried S o i l 288 Appendix C Table 1. Abridged Descriptions of Normal Orthic Podzol Profiles Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist Texture a G R Remarks SB 006 L 8-6 White pine and cedar needles. F-H 6-0 4.9 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty morj firm H. Ae 0-3 4.6 IOYR 6/1 IOYR 4/1 Is 9 60 Many fine roots. Bfh 3-30 5.4 IOYR 5.5/4 IOYR 3.5/3 g l s - s l 40 60 Be 30-55 5.2 2.5Y 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 gls 62 70 Cq 55-63 5.1 2 .5* 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 gls 59 80 Compact around rocks. Cr? 63+ May be very stony moraine. SB 008 L 11-7 Dead moss, conifer needles. F-H 7-0 3.9 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty mor; friable H. Ae 0-6 4.0 IOYR 6/2 IOYR 4/1 gls 35 50 Many fine roots. Bfh 6-30 4.8 IOYR 4/4 7.5YR 3/2 gls 35 50 BC 30-47 5.0 IOYR 6/6 IOYR 4/3 gcos 56 50 C l 47-72 5.3 2.51 6/4 2.51 4/4 gs 56 60 C2 72-98 5.6 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 5/4 gcos 53 60 Some compaction. 03 98-111+ 6.0 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 5/4 gcos 65 60 SB 020 L 6-4 Hemlock needles, cones, dead F-H 4-0 3 . 4 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty mor; firm H. Ae 0-3 4-5 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 5/2 Is 6 5 Bfh 3-12 6.1 IOYR 5/6 7.5YR 4/4 l f s - s l 14 5 B 12-28 6.8 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 4/4 gls 32 15 IIC1 28-49 5.8 2.5Y 7/4 IOYR 5/4 gcos 48 50 Between boulders. IIC 2 49-86 5.6 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 4/4 gcos 54 55 Between boulders. IIC3 86-100+ 6.0 2.5Y 7/4 IOYR 6/3 gs 34 45 Between boulders. Appendix Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist SB 029 L 6-4 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/2 F-H 4-0 4.2 Ae 0-6 4.2 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 4/1 Bfc 8-39 5.6 iOYR 5/6 IOYR 3.5/4 Bf 6-26 - 5.8 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 4/3.5 BC 26(39)-4l 6.1 IOYR 7/6 IOYR 4/4 C l 41-120 6.2 2.5Y 8/4 2.5Y 4/4 Bf? 120-123 5.9 7.5YR 6/8 7.5YR 4/4 C2 123-154 6.6 5Y 7/2 5Y 5/2 IIC 154-169+ 6.2 5Y 7/2 5Y 5/3 SB 042 L 7-4 IOYR 2/2 F-H 4-0 4.3 IOYR 2/1 Ae 0-2 4.3 IOYR" 5.5/1 IOYR 3/1 Bfh 2-21 5.9 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 B 21-39 6.0 2.5Y 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 C l 39-56 6.0 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 4/4 C2 56-85 6.0 2.5Y 8/4 2.5Y 5/4 C3 85-146+ 6.2 2.5Y 8/2 2.5Y 4.5/2 SB 04.7 L 4-3 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 F-H 3-0 4.4 Ae 0-2 4.5 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 4/1 Bf 2-21 6.2 IOYR 5/6 IOYR 3/4 Bfh 21-34 6.2 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 BC 34-42 6.3 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 4/3 C l 42-80 6.3 5Y 6/3 2.5* 4/3 C2 80-103 6.4 5Y 6/3 5Y 4/3 C3 103-115+ 6.4 5Y 6/3 5Y 4/3 Table 1. Continued Texture 8 , G R Remarks s 2 1 s 0 1 s 1 1 s 0 1 s 0 1 s 0 1 s 0 1 cob.si 17 70 Is 1 0 Is 1 0 Is 1 0 s 0 0 s 0 0 s 0 0 f s l 7 70 gl 34 70 gl 58 70 gsl-gls 65 70 gs 47 70 gs 57 70 gcos 66 70 Needles, moss, twigs. Thin mor to f e l t y mor. Only i n 1/6 of p i t . Rusty. Needles, cones, twigs. Felty mor, firm H. Thickness varies. Sli g h t l y compact. Herb and shrub leaves. Felty mor to thin duff mull. Thicker under Polytrichum sp. Appendix G. Table 1. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist Texture8, G R Remarks SB 109 L 9-6 Dead moss, conifer needles. F-H 6-0 5.2 10IR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty mor to thin mor. Ae 0-7(1) 4.8 . IOYR 7/1 IOYR 5/1 gs 39 25 Occurs i n 1/2 of p i t . Bfh 7(D-21(4) 5.3 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 gsl 38 40 B 2l(4)-40 5.8 IOYR 6.5/3 IOYR 4/3 gls 46 50 Directly under Ae i n 1/2 of pit C l 40-77 5.9 5Y 7/3 2.5Y 4.5/4 gls 38 60 C2 77-94+ 5.7 5Y 7/3 2.5Y 5/4 gls-gs 45 65 Bleached near rocks. SB 115 L 8-5 White pine and cedar needles. F-H 5-0 4.2 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty mor; f a i r l y firm H. Ae 0-2 4.2 IOYR 8/1 IOYR 5/1 Is 3 10 F a i r l y continuous. Bfh 2-13 5.6 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 gsl 35 10 -BC 13-26 5.6 2.5Y 5.5/4 2.5Y 4/4 gsl-gls 36 10 C l 26-48 5.8 2.5Y 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 gsl-gl 36 15 02 48-68 5.8 2.5Y 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 gl 31 20 C3 68-100+ 5.8 2.5Y 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 gsl-gl 35 SB 123 L 11-8 IOYR 2/1 Needles, cones, moss, twigs. F-H 8-0 3.6 IOYR 3/2 Granular mor. Ae 0-27 3.5 H 7/ 5Y 4/1, gs 40 90 With white mycelial f e l t s . B 27-68 4.6 51 5.5/3 2.5Y 4/2 gsl-gls 51 90 C l 68-80 5.2 2.5Y 8/4 5Y 5/2 gs 47 30 C2 80-95 5.4 2.5Y 8/4 5Y 5/3 gs 24 20 Mottles many, distinct, medium. IIC 95-122 5.8 2.5Y 8/1 5Y 6/2 s 2 10 Mottles common, faint, fine. IIIC 122-127+ 6.0 5Y 7/2 5Y 5/2 gs 63 15 Appendix C. Table 1. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) PH Dry Color Moist Texture a G R Remarks SB 131 L 11-8 i Dead moss, conifer needles F-H 8-0 3 . 6 10YR 2/2 10YR 2/1 Thick f e l t y mor. Ae 0-6 4 . 6 N 7 .5/ 10YR 4 .5/1 s 7 25 Tongues as thick as 20 cm. Bfh 6-15 5 .6 10 YU 6/4 10 YR 4/3 gls 26 25 Only i n 1/6 of p i t . Bfhc 31-47 5 . 2 10YR 5/4 7.5YR 3/2 gls-s 64 25 C 15(A7)-3K65) 5 . 2 2.51 8/2 2.51 6/2 gs 59 55 IIC 31(65)-82 5.8 5 * 7/2 51 5/3 l f s 7 10 Mottles faint, few, fine. IIIC 82-95 5 . 6 2.51 7/2 2.51 4.5/2 cos 25 10 IVC 95-102+ 5.6 51 7/3 2.51 5/4 gs 43 55 SB 142 L 6-3 10 YR 2/1 White pine needles, other : F-H 3 - 0 5 . 2 10YR 2/2 Thin to f e l t y mor. Ae " 0-3 4 . 2 10YR 6/1 10YR 4/1 l f s 6 25 Bfh 3-23 6 . 9 10YR 5/4 10YR 3/4 gsl 32 25 BC 23-35 5 . 6 10YR 6/3 10YR 4/2 f s l 16 35 Only i n 2^3 of p i t . IIC 35-57 6 . 2 5Y 6/3 2.51 4/2 f s l - l f s 1 0 IIIC1 57(35)-62 5 . 4 5Y 6/3 2.5Y 4/2 gsl 55 40 Thicker i n 1/3 of p i t . IIIC2 62-84. 6 . 9 2.51 5/4 2.51 4/2 glcos 61 60 IlICk 84-115+ 7 .3 51 5/3 51 4/2 gcbs 57 50 Reacts with HCI. SB 207 - -L 7-4 10YR 3/2 10 YR 2/1 Needles, cones, twigs. F-H 4 - 0 3.8 Felty mor: firm to friable Ae 0-2(1) 4 . 0 10 YR 7/1 10YR 4/1 Is 0 0 Thickness varies. Bfh 2 ( l ) - 2 4 5.7 10YR 5/4 10YR 4/4 f l s - f s l 1 0 B 24-35^ 5 . 4 10YR 7/4 10YR 4/3 l f s 0 0 BC 35-47 5 . 4 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 4 . 5 / 4 l f s - l s 0 0 C l 47-96 6 . 2 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 4/4 s 0 0 C2 96-136 6 . 4 2.51 7/4 2.51 4/4 s 0 0 IIC 136-153+ 6 . 1 2.51 7/4 2.5Y 4/4 gs 58 35 Appendix C. Table 1. Continued Eov±zon B*it) P H — Texture a G R Remarks Dry Moist SB 209 L 7-4 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 F-H 4 - 0 3 . 4 Ae 0-3 3 . 6 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 4/1 Bfh 3-8 4.9 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 4/3 C l 8-42 4.8 5Y 6/3 5Y "4/3 C2 42-83 5.2 5Y 6/2 5Y 4/2 03 83-95+ 5.6 5Y 6/3 5Y 4/3 s i 4 10 gsl 20 15 gfsl 5 15 gls 36 20 gs-gfs 18 30 Dead moss, hemlock needles. Felty mor; firm H. Irregular i n color. g = gravel or gravelly 1 = loam or loamy s = sand or sandy c = clay or clayey s i = s i l t or s i l t y f = fine co = coarse cob. = cobbly v = very ch. = channery st. = stony Appendix C Table 2. Abridged Descriptions of Moist Orthic Podzol Profiles Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 004 L 9-8 F-H 8-3 4.6 H 3-0 4.9 Ae 0-2 4.1 Bf 2-16 5.6 B 16-29 5.1 Gqg 29-47 5.4 Cq 47-76+ 5.0 Color Texture G R Remarks SB 038 L F-H Ae Bfhcc BC Cg HCq IIIC IVC 11-7 7-0 0-4(10) 4(10)-19 19-35 35-66 66-98 98-113 113-130+ 3 . 6 4 . 2 5 . 7 5 U 6 . 2 6 . 2 5 .9 5 .8 Dry_ 10YR 2/2 10YR 2/2 10YR 6/1 10YR 6/6 10IR 6/3 51 7/3 2.51 6/4 10YR 3/2 10YR 7/1 10IR 6/3 2 .5Y 7/2 5 ? 6/3 51 6/3 5Y 6/3 51 6/4 Moist 10YR 2/1 10IR 2/1 10YR 4/1 7.5IR 4/4 10YR 4/3 2 .51 4.5/4 2.51 4/4 2/1 5/1 10IR 10IR 10TR 3/2 2.51 4/2 2.5Y- 4/2 51 4/3 51 4/3 51 4/3 SB 050 L 1 1 - 7 F-H 7 - 0 3 . 6 1 0 Y R 2/2 5YR 7/1 1 0 I R 2/1 Ae 0 - 4 3 . 8 1 0 I R 4/1 B f l 4 - 1 9 5-5 1 0 I R 5/5 7 . 5 Y R 4/4 Bfh 1 9 - 4 0 6 . 8 7.5IR 5/4 7 . 5 I R 3 / 2 B f 2 40-60 7 . 2 1 0 I R 6/6 10 YR 4/4 Cgl 60-75 7.0 2 . 5 1 6/4 2 . 5 Y 4/4 C g 2 75-91+ 7 . 4 5? 6/3 2 . 5 1 4/4 Cedar needles and cones. Granular mor. Very fr i a b l e . l s - l f s 3 5 Thicker under rotten wood. s i 7 5 gsl-gl 33 5 F a i r l y compact. Is 15 5 gls 45 15 D i s t i n c t l y mottled; oxidation. Needles, cones, dead moss. Thick f e l t y mor; f a i r l y friable s-ls 4 5 1 8 5 Some shotty concretions. s i 19 5 gls 24 10 Mottles faint, few, medium. l f s 5 5 gcos 40 20 lcos 12 15 White pine needles. Thick f e l t y mor. f s l 3 65 1 14 65 g s i l 35 65 gsl 30 75 gsl 29 75 Mottles distinct, few, fine. gsl 23 75 Appendix C. Table 2. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist Texture G R Remarks SB 083 L 7-4 IOYR 2/1 Bracken, deciduous leaves. F-H 4-0 4.8 10IR 3/2 Thin mor. Ae 0-3 5.2 N 7.5/ 51 4-5/1 Is 8 10 Bfh 3-21 6.2 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 4/3 1 18 10 Bq 21-50 6.1 5* 7/2 51 5/3 v f s l 3 10 F a i r l y compact. Cl 50-78 5 .9 51 8/3 51 5/3 gls 27 10 Mottles distinct, common, coarse. Cqg 78-94 5.6 2 . 5* 7/4 2 .51 4/4 s i 16 10 Mottles distinct, common, coarse. Cq 94-114 5.7 51 7/3 51 4/3 l f s 9 15 C2 114-135+ 5.9 51 7/2 51 5/3 gls 23 15 SB 092 L 11-8 Conifer needles, cones, twigs. F-H 8-0 3.8 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty mor; many roots. Ae 0-3 4.1 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 4/1 f s l 4 5 F a i r l y continuous. Bfh 3-20 5.6 IOYR 6/3 IOYR 4/3 gfsl 48 10 BC 20-34 5.2 5Y 7/2 5Y 4/2 gsl 35 20 C 34-58 5.2 51 7/2 51 4/2 gs 43 65 Mottles faint. HCgq 58-84 5.5 51 6/2 51 4/3 v f s l 10 5 IIIC 84-110+ 5.6 5 * 6/2 51 4/2 gcos 59 60 SB 094 L 7-4 Hemlock needles, moss. F-H 4-0 3.8 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty mor. Ae 0-8 4 .4 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 4/1 s-ls 1 0 Tongues up to 20 cm. Bfhl 8-19 5.2 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 4/4 s i 1 0 Bfh2 19-30 5 .4 IOYR 5/6 7.5IR 3/2 sl-1 10 0 Mottles distinct, many, medium. BC 30-67 5.6 IOYR 8/6 IOYR 5/6 Is 10 50 C 67-101+ 5.5 2.51 7/4 2.51 7/6 gs 42 80 Appendix C. Table 2 . Continued Dry Moist SB 110 L 8-5 White pine needles, moss. F-H 5-0 4.2 10IR 2/2 10IR 2/l Felty mor mainly. Ae 0-3 4.0 N 7/ IOYR 4.5/1 gsl 21 15 Bfh 3-17 5 .6 IOYR 5/4 10TR 3 A gl 39 15 B 17-31 5.8 IOYR 7/4 IOYR 4/4 gl 35 20 B g j 31-50 5.2 2.5* 8/4 2 .51 4/4 gscl 43 45 No seepage when pit dug. C 50-90+ 5.0 5Y 7/2 51 5/2 gls 62 60-85 Table 3 . Abridged Descriptions of I Normal Minimal Podzol Profiles SB 010 L 8 - 6 Conifer needles, cones, moss. F-H 6 - 2 4 . 6 IOYR 3/1 IOYR 2 / l Felty upper portion. H 2 - 0 5 . 7 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2 / l Fine, black material. Aej 0 - 1 4 . 4 IOYR 6/2 IOYR 3/1 .5 Is 17 25 Weakly developed. Bfh 1-16 6 . 2 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 gls-gsl 3 9 25 BC 1 6 - 4 8 6 . 4 2.5Y 7/4 1 0 I R 5/4 gs 46 25 S l i g h t l y loamy. Cl 4 8 - 6 8 6 . 2 2 . 5 ? 7/5 2 . 5 Y 4 . 5 / 4 gcos 58 35 C 2 6 8 - 1 3 2 6 . 8 2 . 5 Y 7/4 2 . 5 Y 5/4 gcos- 5 1 35 C3 132-136+ 7 . 0 2 . 5 Y 7/4 2 . 5 1 5/4 gcos 4 7 35 Appendix C. Table 3. Continued Horizon Depth p H G o l o r Texture G R Remarks (cm) Dry Moist SB 012 L 8-5 F-H 5-0 3 . 6 10YR 2/2 Aej 0-1 4.0 10YR 6/1 Bfh 1-17 5.8 10IR 5/6 Bf 17-43 5.9 10YR 6/4 Cl 43-68 5.5 2.51 7/4 C2 68-89+ 5.6 51 7/3 SB 0 3 1 (Northern variant) L 1 0 - 7 10TR 2/2 F-H 7 - 0 4 . 7 Aej 0 - 2 4 . 6 10 YR 6 / 2 Bfh 2 - 2 0 5 . 2 10YR 4 / 4 BC 2 0 - 3 3 5 . 8 2 . 5 Y 5/4 Cl 3 3 - 7 7 6 . 0 5Y 6/3 C 2 77-100+ 6 . 1 51 6/3 SB 0 3 2 (Northern variant) L 9-6 F-H 6 - 0 3 . 8 10YR 2/2 Ae 0 - 1 ( 0 ) 10YR 5 / 4 Bfhl l ( 0 ) - 2 0 5 . 4 B f h 2 2 0 - 4 0 5 . 9 10YR 5/4 Cl 4 0 - 5 6 6 . 4 2 . 5 Y 6 / 4 C 2 5 6 - 1 0 4 7 . 0 2 . 5 1 6/4 C3 1 0 4 - 1 2 5 + 7 . 0 2 . 5 1 5/4 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/1 Is 12 10YR 3.5/3 gsl 26 10YR 4/4 gsl 50 2.5Y4/4 gs 50 2.51 4 . 5 / 4 gs 49 10YR 2/1 7.5YR 4/1 f s l 7 10YR 3/4 gsl 44 2 .51 3/3 gls 58 2 .51 4/3 gls 64 5Y 4/3 gls 59 10 YR 2/1 10YR 3/4 gsl 39 10YR 3/4 gsl 40 2.51 4/3 gs 52 2.5Y 4/2 gs 51 2.51 4/4 gls 58 Rotten wood, conifer needles. Felty to granular mor. 10 Weakly developed. 10 Granular concretions. 10 80 S l i g h t l y compacted. 80 S l i g h t l y loamy. Conifer needles, moss. Felty mor: friable H. 40 40 45 55 70 Hemlock needles, cones, moss. Felty mor: f a i r l y firm H. Missing from much of plot. 50 55 55 S l i g h t l y loamy. 40 60 Appendix C. Table 3« Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 036 (Northern variant) L 7-5 F-H 5-0 4 . 0 Aej 0-2 4 . 4 Bfh 2-21 6 .4 B 21-37 5 .8 C 37-54 6.2 IIC 54-75 5 .9 IIIC 75-106+ 6.0 SB 037 L 4-2 F-H 2-0 4 . 7 Aej 0-1 5.0 Bfhj 1-19 6.0 B 19-34 6.2 BC 34-48 5 . 9 C 4 8 - 8 8 6 . 6 IIC1 88-105 6.2 IIC2 105-131 6.2 IIIC 131-173+ 6 . 5 SB 040 L 7-4 F 4-1 4 . 6 F-H+Ae 1-0 4 . 8 Aej 0-2 4 . 9 Bfh 2-22 5 .6 B 22-41 6.2 C l 4 1 - 6 0 6 . 4 C2 6 0 - 9 8 6 . 4 C3 9 8 - 1 4 4 + 6 . 4 Color Texture G R Remarks Dry IOYR 2/2 IOYR 6/1 IOYR 6/6 IOYR 5/6 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 7/4 5Y 6/3 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 6/1 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 7/4 2.5Y 6/4 5Y 7/3 5Y 7/3 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 8/4 IOYR 3 / 2 IOYR 4 / 1 IOYR 6 / 1 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 5/6 IOYR 7/4 IOYR 8 / 3 2 . 5 Y 7/2 Moist IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 4/4 IOYR 4/3 2.5Y 4/4 2.5Y 4/4 5Y 4/4 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4 / 1 IOYR 4 / 3 IOYR 4 / 3 2 . 5 Y 4 / 4 2 . 5 1 4 / 3 2 . 5 Y 4 / 4 2 . 5 1 4 / 4 2 . 5 Y 5 / 4 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 3.5/3 IOYR 4/4 IOYR 5/4 2.5Y 4/4 2.5Y 4/2 Hemlock needles, cones, moss. Felty to thin mor. f s l 9 15 Missing i n part of plot. glfs 43 15 gls 50 20 gs 5 7 10 Washed appearance. gfs 25 45 gs 55 65 Conifer and deciduous leaves. Thin mor. s 1 0 Missing i n exposed areas. Is 3 1 fs 1 0 s 2 0 s-fs 0 0 s-ls 0 0 f s - l f s 0 0 s 0 0 Cedar and white pine needles, Felty mor. 2 0 Considerable charcoal. s 0 0 S l i g h t l y loamy. Is 1 0 Is 1 0 s 1 0 s 0 0 s 0 0 I Appendix C. Table 3 . Continued Horizon SB 043 L F-H Ae Bfh Bf BC C l C2 IIC SB 044 L F-H Ae Bfh Bf Cl C2 C3 Depth (cm) 7-5 5-0 0 - 2 ( 0 ) 2 ( 0 ) - 1 3 13-24 24-34 3 4 - 5 7 57-90 90-132+ 7-5 5-0 0-1(2) l ( 2 ) - 2 4 24-39 3 9 - 6 0 60-95 95-151+ pH Color Texture R Remarks Dry Moist 3 . 9 4 . 2 5 .6 6.1 6.1 6 . 2 5 .8 6 . 4 3 . 8 4 . 0 5 . 2 5 . 6 5 . 8 5 .8 6 . 0 10IR 2/2 10YR 6.5/1 10YR 5/4 10YR 6/4 10YR 6/3 2 . 5 ? 7/4 2 .5? 7/4 2 .5? 8/4 10YR 2/2 10YR 6/1 10YR 5/4 10YR 5.5/6 10YR 7/4 10YR 6/6 10YR 6/6 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/1 10YR 3/4 10YR 4/4 10YR 4 .5/3 2 .5? 4/4 2.51 4 . 5 / 4 2 . 5 * 7/4 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/1 7.5YR 3/4 10YR 4/4 10YR 4/4 10YR 5/6 10YR 4/4 SB 046 L 10-7 2/1 F-H 7-0 3.8 10YR 3/2 10YR Aej 0-1 4-4 10YR 6.5/1 10 YR 4/1 Bfh 1-15 5.9 10YR 5A 10 YR 3/4 BC 15-33 6.2 2 .51 7/4 10YR 4/3 C 33-46 6 . 4 2.51 7/4 2.5Y 4/4 IIC 46-59 6.2 2 .51 7/4 2 .5? 4/4 I U C q l 59-84 6.2 5? 7/3 2.51 4/3 IIICq2 84-102+ 6.1 5Y 6/3 2.5? 4/4 Hemlock needles, cones, moss. Felty to thin mor. Is 5 1 Is 5 1 Is 8 1 s 5 1 s 3 1 s 7 1 gvcos 57 75 Hemlock and cedar needles, cones. Felty mor; firm H. Is 2 1 s i 4 1 Is 4 1 s 10 1 s 0 1 s 0 0 Prominent, common, coarse mottles Conifer needles, moss. Felty mor. f s l 10 5 Continuous. 1 26 5 s i 24 5 F a i r l y compact. fs 23 5 Slightly compact. gs 63 5 A l l u v i a l gravel. gl 44 55 g s i l 59 55 Appendix C. Table 3 . Continued Horizon D®P*k PH G_°}° r Texture G R Remarks c^m; Dry Moist SB 066 L 8-4 F-H 4-0 4 .3 Aej 0-1 4.8 Bfh 1-11 5.6 IIBf 11-25 6 . 3 IIIBC 25-31 6.0 IIIC 31-44 6.2 IYC 44-68 6.6 VC 68-118+ 6.1 SB 077 L 6 - 4 F-H 4-0 4.0 Ae 0-2 4.7 Bfhj 2-20 6.0 C 20-37 6.5 IIC1 37-74 6.8 IIC2 74-87 6.7 IIIC 87-103 7.2 IVC 103-158+ 6.8 SB 080 L 9 - 4 F-H 4-0 4.0 Ael 0-4 5.1 Bfj 4-19 6.0 Ae2? 19-34 5 .6 Cl 34-60 6.0 C2 60-91 6.2 10IR 2/2 IOYR 8/1 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 6/4 2.5Y 5/4 5Y 6/4 5Y 5/3 5Y 5/3 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 7/1 IOYR 7/3 2.5Y 7/2 5Y 6/3 2.5Y 5/4 2.5Y 6.5/2 2.5Y 7/4 IOYR 3/2 N 8/ IOYR 6/3 2.5Y 7/2 5Y 7/3 5Y 7/3 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 5/1 IOYR 3/4 IOYR 4/4 2.5Y 3/2 5Y 4/3 5Y 4/2 5Y 3/2 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 4/3 5Y 5/3 2.5Y 4/2 2.5Y 3.5/2 2.5Y 4.5/2 2 .51 5/4 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 5/1 IOYR 4/2.5 2.5Y 4.5/2 5Y 5/4 2.5Y 5/4 f s l - v f s l 20 gl 28 25 v f s l - s i l 8 25 gsl- 44 30 gls-gs 50 40 gcos 60 30 gcos-glcos 63 65-80 fs 1 0 Is 2 1 f s l 0 0 s I 0 s i 10 0 gcos 22 0 cos 0 0 s i 0 0 s i 7 0 s l - l s 2 0 f s l - v f s l 1 0 f s l 0 0 Conifer needles, cone scales. Thin to f e l t y mor; friable H. Missing i n part of plot. Missing i n part of p i t . Washed appearance. Hemlock and larch needles, moss. Thin mor. Continuous. Slight l y compact. Slightl y compact. Varve-like structure. Conifer needles, cones, bark. Thin mor. Appendix C. Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 080 (Continued) IIC 91-117 6.1 IIIC 117-143 6.0 IVC 143-168+ 6.2 SB 097 L 10-5 F-H 5-0 4.2 Ae 0-2 4 . 5 Bfhj 2-20 5.8 Cl 20-38 5.6 C2 38-61 5.5 C3 61-93+ 5.6 SB 106 L 7-3 F-H 3-0 4-4 Ae 0-3 4 . 5 Bfhj 3-19 6.0 BC 19-42 6.2 Bf 40-49 6.2 C 42-72 6.0 IIC 72-91 6.2 IIIC1 91-127 6 .3 IIIC2 127-161 6 . 3 I I I C 3 161-180+ 6 .3 Color Dry 2.51 8/4 51 8/2 2.5? 8/2 10YR 2/2 10IR 7/1 10YR 6/4 51 7/3 5? 7/3 51 6/3 10YR 3/2 10YR 6/1 10YR 6/3 10YR 6/3 2.51 7/6 5Y 7/3 5Y 8/4 2.5Y 8/4 2.51 8/4 2.51 8/4 Moist 2.5Y 5/4 51 4/3 2.5Y 6/2 10 YR 2/1 10YR 5/1 10YR 3/4 5Y 5/3 51 5/3 51 4/3 10 YR 2/2 10YR 4/1 10YR 4/2 10YR 4/3 2.5Y 4/4 51 4/3 51 4/3 5Y 5/3 2 .5? 5/4 2.5Y 5/4 Table 3 . Continued Texture G R Remarks s 1 0 Common, faint, medium mottles. fs 0 0 varve-like structure. s 0 1 Slightl y compact. Conifer needles, cones, bark. Felty mor; firm H. s l - l f s 6 15 P a r t i a l l y mixed with B. gsl 38 15 gls 49 25 gl 31 30 Slightl y sticky when wet. gls 51 35 Conifer needles, moss. Thin mor; friable H. s-ls 9 1 Tongues up to 5 cm thick. s-ls 16 1 s 8 1 lvf s 2 1 Mottles many, distinct, medium. Is 0 1 Ivfs-vfs 1 2 Mottles common, faint, fine. s 12 2 s 4 3 Bands of dark and light minerals. s 16 5 Appendix G. Table 3. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 107 L 10-7 F-H 7-0 3 .6 Ae 0-4 3.8 Bfhj 4-18 5.0 Cl 18-48 5.2 C2 48-84 5.0 C3 84-112+ 5.2 SB 137 L 6-4 F-H 4-0 4 . 4 Aej 0-1 5.2 Bfh 1-16 6.6 B 16-33 6.6 C l 33-46 6 . 6 C2 46-69 6 .6 C3 69-115+ 6 . 6 SB 160 L 7-5 F-H 5-0 4 . 8 Ae 0-2(T) '5.1 B j l 2(T)-16 5.8 Bj2 16-36 6.0 BCq 36-65 6.2 C l 65-99 5.6 C2 99-114+ 6.2 Color Texture Dry IOYR 2/2 N 7/ IOYR 6/3 5Y 6/3 51 6/2 5Y 6/2 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 7/1 IOYR 5/4 2.5Y 5/4 2.5Y 5/4 5Y 5/3 5Y 5/3 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 7/2 IOYR 6/3 IOYR 6/3 2.5Y 8/4 5Y 7/3 5Y 7/3 Moist IOYR 2/1 N 4 . 5 / IOYR 3 / 4 5Y 4/3 5Y 4 / 2 5Y 3 . 5 / 2 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 7.5YR 3/2 IOYR 4/2 2.5Y 4/3 2.5Y 3/2 2.5Y 3/2 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 4/2 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/3 2.5Y 4/4 2.5Y 4/3 2.5Y 4/3 R Remarks Hemlock needles, cones, twigs. Felty morj friable H. Is 13 10 gl 44 15 gsl-gl 44 25 Few, faint, medium mottles. gls 55 60 gs 70 80 (leaves. Conifer needles, scales, birch Thin morj friable H. s i 4 20 Missing i n l/5 of plot. gsl-gl 27 20 gls-gsl 35 25 gls-gsl 54 30 gls 61 25 gs 65 25 (leaves Conifer needles, moss, aspen Felty mor. s i 13 15 gsl 41 15 gsl 40 20 gls 50 20 gls 46 20 F a i r l y compact. gls 46 35 Appendix G. Table 3. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist SB 163 L 8-5 10YR 2/2 10YR 2/1 F-H 5-0 4.4 Aej 0-1(0) 10IR 5/4 10YR 3.5/3 Bfh l(0)-23 6.0 BC 23-36 5.2 51 6/3 2.5Y 4.5/2 Cl 36-75 5.4 51 6.5/2 5Y 5/2.5 C2 75-90 5.6 5 1 6/2 5Y 4/2 C3 90-133+ 5.3 51 6/2 5Y-4/2 SB 165 L 5-3 10YR 2/2 10 YR 2/1 F-H 3-0 3.7 Ae 0-2 4.2 10YR 6/1 10YR 4/1 Bfhl 2-14 5.2 10YR 5/4 10YR 4/4 Bfhj 14.-35 6.4 10YR 6/4 10YR 4/4 Bfh2 35-47(35) 5.0 7 . 5 Y R 5.5/4 7.5*R 4/4 C l 47(35)-67 5.0 2.5Y 7/4 2.51 4/4 C2 67-110+ 5.2 2.5Y 6/4 2.51 4/3 Texture G R Remarks SB 201 L 6-3 10YR 3/1 10YR 2/1 F-H 3-0 4.7 Aej 0 - 1 5.1 10YR 6 . 5 / 1 10YR 4/1 Bfh 1-40 5 . 8 10YR 5/4 10YR 3/4 B 40-55 5.8 2.51 5/4 2.51 4/3 C 5 5 - 7 7 5.9 5 1 6/3 5Y 4/3 IIC 7 7 - 1 0 0 6 . 6 51 6/2 5 1 5/2 IIIC 100-119+ 5.8 51 6/3 5Y 4/3 10 gsl-gls 42 10 gls 37 10 gls 34 10 gls 37 10 gls 40 10 s i 14 15 gsl-ls 50 15 gsl-gl 50 15 gls 59 20 glcos 60 30 gs 49 45 f s l 0 5 f s l 6 5 Is 14 10 gls-gs 67 15 g-gs 73 25 gs 55 35 Conifer needles, cones, twigs. Thin to f e l t y mor. Missing i n portions of plot. Hemlock needles, moss, twigs. Thin mor; firm H. Many fine roots. Only i n l/3 of p i t . Conifer needles, twigs. Thin to f e l t y mor. Thicker under Cornus canadensis. Washed appearance. Appendix C Table 4 . Abridged Descriptions of II Normal Minimal Podzol Profiles Horizon Depth p H Texture G R Remarks (cm) Dry Moist SB 018 L 6-2 F-H 2-0 4 . 4 Ae 0-2 4.8 Bfhj 2-19 6 .4 BG1 19-45 6 .2 BC2 45-61 6 .2 Cq 61-75 6.3 IIC 75-113 6.6 IIIC 113-131 6 .4 IlICq 131-136+ 6.3 SB 045 L F-H Aej Bj Bfhj Cl C2 Cq SB 053 L F-H Aej Bfhj B Cq C 8-4 4-0 0- 1 1- 11 11-22 22-50 50-61 61-89+ 9-6 6 - 0 0 - 1 1- 14 14-32 32-60 60-90+ 5.8 5.5 6 .6 6 . 0 6 . 4 6 . 0 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 6/4 2.5Y 8/4 IOYR 7/4 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 8/2 5Y 7/3 2.5Y 8/4 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 6/1 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 6/3 5Y 6/3 51 6/3 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 4/4 2.5Y 4/4 IOYR 4/4 2.5Y 4/4 2.5Y 6/2 2.5Y 4/4 2.5Y 4/4 5.8 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 5.6 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 4/1 5.9 5Y 7/3 2.5Y 4/3 5.6 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 4/3 6.2 5Y 7/3 5Y 4/3 6.1 5Y 7/3 5Y 4/3 6.2 5Y 6/3 2.51 4/4 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/2 51 4/3 2.5Y 4/2 Is 8 25 gsl 21 25 Is - 25 gls 13 25 gs 21 25 gcos 37 25 fs 1 0 fs 20 0 l s - s l 17 20 gsl 41 20 gsl 39 20 gsl 36 25 gsl 32 25 gfsl 39 30-40 s i 12 10 gl 34 10 gls-gsl 29 10 gls 30 15 gls-gsl 39 15 Conifer and Pteridium sp. leaves. Thin morj absent i n parts. Missing i n part of plot. Missing part of pit, Sl i g h t l y mottled. Conifer and deciduous leaves. Thin mor. Ifeakly developed; partly absent. Sli g h t l y compacted. White pine and other conifer needle Felty mor. Missing i n openings. Red-colored oxidation. Appendix C. Table 4. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) PH Color Dry Moist Texture G R SB 061 L 10-6 F-H 6-0 4.4 10YR 3/2 10YR 2/1 Ae 0-2 4.7 10 YR 7/1 10YR 4/1 v f s l 0 2 Bhfj 2-19 5.5 10YR 5/4 10YR 3/4 s i 2 2 BC 19-40 5.6 2.5Y 5.5/4 2.51 4/3 l f s 2 5 C 40-76 5.7 2.51 5.5/4 2.5Y 4/2 Is 4 25 IIC 76-104+ 6.2 2.51 5/4 2.51 4/2 gs 48 50-70 SB 062 L 7-4 10YR 2/1 F-H 4-0 5.3 10YR 2/2 Aej 0-3(0) 6.4 10YR 8/1 10YR 4.5/2 f s l 3 35 Bm 3(0)-23 5.7 2.5Y 5/4 2.51 4/4 gls 36 35 C l 23-43 5.8 5Y 6/3 2.5Y 4/3 gs 55 35 C2 43-91 5.8 5Y 6/3 51 4'3 gs 67 40 C3 91-116+ 6.0 51 6/3 51 4/3 gs 56 45 SB 063 L 7-4 10YR 2/1 F-H 4-0 5.0 10YR 3/2 Aej 0-2 5.4 10 YR 7/1 10YR 4/1 f s l 7 45 Bfh 2-16 6.4 10YR 5/6 10YR 4/4 gl 15 55 Bm 16-36 6.4 2.5Y 6/4 2.5Y 4/4 gls 44 60 Cl 36-58 6.3 2.51 7/4 2.5Y 4/4 gls 55 65 C2 58-89 6.3 5Y 6/3 5Y 4/3 gls 49 55 C3 89-106+ 6.4 51 6/3 51 4/3 gls 68 70 Remarks Conifer needles, cone scales, twigs. Granular to f e l t y mor. One tongue 11 cm deep. Conifer and shrub leaves, twigs. Thin mor. Missing i n much of plot. Sli g h t l y washed appearance. Conifer, fern and aspen leaves. Thin morj friable H. Mixed with Bfh. 1 ro Least loamy of horizons. Appendix C. Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 1 0 2 L 7-4 F-H A - 0 5.4 Aej 0 - 2 5 . 0 Bfh 2-14 6 . 1 BC 1A-3A 5 . A C 34-50 5 . 8 IIC 5 0 - 1 0 0 6 .A IHCr 100+ SB 147 L 7-A F-H A -0 5 . 8 Aej 0 - 2 6 . 1 Cl 2-1A 5.9 C 2 1A-37 5 . 6 C3 37 -52 6 . 0 H C q l 5 2 - 8 6 6 . 1 I I C q 2 86-113+ 6 . 1 Color Dry 10IR 3/2 IOYR 7/1 IOYR 6 /A 2 . 5 * 6/2 51 6/3 51 6 /A IOYR 3/2 2.5Y 6/2 51 6/2 5* 6/2 5Y 7/2 51 6/2 51 6/2 Moist IOYR 2/1 IOYR A/1 IOYR A/3 2.5* A/A 5Y A/3 5Y A/3 IOYR 2/2 2.51 3/2 51 A/2 51 A/2 51 A/2 51 A/2 51 A/2 SB 148 L F-H Ae Bfh Bm Cl C2 Cq 6-A A-0 0 - 2 2-15 15-33 33-65 65-87 87-103+ 5.8 6.A 6.A 6.A 5.8 5.8 5.6 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 6 . 5 / 2 IOYR 5/A 2.5Y 6/2 51 6/2 5Y 6/2 51 6/2 IOYR 2/1 IOYR A/1 IOYR 3/A 2.5Y A/2 5Y A/2 5Y A/2 5Y A/2 Table 4 . Continued Texture G R Remarks I f s - s l 7 10 gsl-gl 25 25 gl 35 25 g l 53 35 s i l 20 45 Conifer, aspen and shrub leaves. Thin to f e l t y mor. F a i r l y continuous. Slight l y sticky when wet. Bedrock. Conifer needles, birch leaves. Thin to f e l t y mor. s i 25 5 Missing i n part of plot. gsl 3 2 8 B eroded away. gsl 26 10 F a i r l y compact. gls 38 20 S l i g h t l y compact. gls-gsl 29 20 gsl 39 25 Conifer needles, bark, twigs. Felty mor. l f s - s l 8 5 Missing i n small part of plot s i 15 5 gsl 48 10 gls 52 15 S l i g h t l y compact. gsl 36 20 F a i r l y compact. gls-gsl 42 20 Appendix C. Table 4« Continued Depth Color Horizon pH Texture G R Remarks Dry Moist SB 193 (Northern variant) L F-H Aej Bfh Bf B+pAh C IIC IIIC 10-7 7-0 4.6 10IR 2/2 10IR 2/1 0-2(0) 4.7 10IR 6/1 10YR 3/1 2(0)-23 5.2 10IR 4/3 10YR 2/2 2 3 - 3 8 5.4 10IR 5/6 10 YR 3/4 3 8 - 5 4 5.4 10YR 4/3 10YR 3/2 5 4 - 8 8 5.4 2.5Y 7/4 2.51 4/4 88-107" 5.5 2.51 7/4 2.5* 4/4 107-126+ 5.6 5Y 6/3 5Y 4/3 gsl 6 25 s i 18 25 s i 6 35 gsl 15 35 gs 57 40 s 13 2 gs 48 45 Conifer needles, cones, twigs. Thick duff mull. Missing i n some of plot. Tendency to Ah. Sli g h t l y loamy. Sli g h t l y compact. Table 5. Abridged Descriptions of Dry Minimal Podzol Profiles SB 001 L 8-5 F-H 5-0 3.9 10YR 2/2 Aej 0-1 4.1 5YR 7/l Bfh 1-22 5.7 10YR 5/4 Bf 22-36 6.3 10YR 6/4 BC 36-53 5.6 10YR 5/4 HCr 53+ SB 055 L 7-4 F-H 4-0 4*4 10 YR Aej 0-2 4.7 10 YR Bfhj 2-23 6.3 10YR BC 23-34 5.8 10YR Cl 34-72 6.0 2.51 C2 72-95+ 6.1 2.5Y 10YR 2/1 7.5IR 4/2 7.5IR 3/2 10YR 4/4 7.5YR 4/4 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/1 10YR 4/4 10YR 4/3 2.51 4/4 2.5Y 4/4 s l - l s 18 40 gsl 43 40 gsl 48 40 gcosl 44 40 s i 11 65 gsl 39 65 gsl 57 65 gs 58 65 gs 58 65 Conifer needles, cones, moss. Felty mor. Weakly developed. Bedrock. Hemlock and other conifer needles. Thin mor. Sli g h t l y loamy. Sli g h t l y loamy. Appendix C. Table 5 . Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 067 L 9-6 F-H 6-0 4 .4 Aej 0 - 2 4«4 Bfh 2-19 5.6 B 19-30 5 .4 Cl 30-46 4 . 6 C2 46-78 4 . 7 H C r 78+ Color Texture Dry IOYR 3/1 IOYR 8/1 IOYR 5/6 IOYR 6/3 2.51 6/4 5Y 6/3 SB 086 L 6-4 F-H 4-0 4.2 IOYR 2/2 Ae_ 0-2 4.0 IOYR 6/1 Bhfj 2-17 5 .4 IOYR 5/4 BC 17-30(37) 5.6 IOYR 6/3 C 30(37)-30(62) 5.0 5Y 6/2 U C r 30(62)+ Moist IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 7.5YR 3/2 IOYR 4/3 2.5Y 4/4 5Y 4/3 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/2 51 4/2 R Remarks Conifer and herb leaves, moss. Felty mor. v f s l 11 15 D i f f i c u l t to separate. gfsl 45 25 gsl 60 30 Missing i n part of p i t . gls 50 45 glcos 62 65 Bedrock. Conifer needles, twigs, moss. Felty to granular mor. Is 18 5 Missing i n parts of plot. gfsl 42 5 gsl 53 10 gs 38 20 Bedrock. SB 089 L 6-4 F-H 4-0 4.2 Aej 0-2 4.7 Bfh 2-14 5 .4 Bf 14-38 6.0 Cl 38-55 5.2 C2 55-75 5.0 C3 75-80 5.3 IIC 32-60 5.3 I H C r 80+ IOYR 2/2 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 6.5/4 2.5Y 6/2 5Y 7/2 5Y 6/2 5Y 7/2 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 3.5/4 IOYR 4/4 2.51 4/2 5Y 3.5/1 5Y 4/2 5Y 5/2 Conifer needles. Felty to granular morj friable. gls 19 5 Missing i n open areas. gsl 21 10 gfsl-gl 28 10 Tongue extends to 50 cm. gls 40 20 Heavy root concentration. gls 38 20 gs 46 20 s 33 25 Only i n v i c i n i t y of large Bedrock. Appendix C. Table 5. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist Texture R Remarks SB 164 L F-H Aej Bfhl Bfh2 C I l C r SB 202 L F-H Aej Bfh B C IlCr 7-5 5-0 0-2 2-16 16-31 31-43 43+ 9-5 5-0 0-2 2-20 20-33 33-57 57+ 4.3 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 5.2 IOYR 6/3 IOYR 4/2 5.4 IOYR 5/6 IOYR 4/3 5.4 IOYR 5/6 IOYR 4/3 5.3 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 5/4 4.0 5.3 6.0 6.0 5.6 10YR 2/2 IOYR 8/1 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 5/4 5Y 6/3 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 5/2 IOYR 3/4 IOYR 4/3 2.5Y 4/2 gls gls-gsl gls-gsl gsl f s l gl gsl gls 37 38 41 34 2 26 40 41 10 10 10 10 15 15 20 35 Conifer needles, moss. Felty mor; friable H. D i f f i c u l t to separate. Slight l y sticky when wet. Bedrock. Conifer needles, twigs, moss. Thin to f e l t y mor; firm H. Missing i n exposed areas. Some decomposing rock. Slight l y compact; decomposing rock. Bedrock. 1 1 Table 6. Abridged Descriptions of Moist Minimal Podzol Profiles SB 015 L 9-8 F-H 8-3 3.8 H 3-0 3.8 Aej 0-1 4.2 Bfh 1-18 5.6 Bml 18-34 5.6 Bm2 34-49 5.6 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 6.5/1 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 7/4 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1. IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/3 Is gls-gsl gls gls-gsl 17 50 38 30 5 5 5 5 Conifer needles, moss. Felty mor. Duff mull tendency. Missing i n part of plot. Moderately compact. Appendix C. Horizon D?P t^ 1 PH (cm) Color Dry Moist SB 015 (Continued) Cg 49-65 5.7 2.5* 8/4 2.5* 5/6 Cqg 65-90 5.7 2.5* 8/3 2.5* 4-5/4 Cq 90-95+ 5.5 2.5* 7/4 2.5* 4/4 SB 048 L 10-7 10*R 2/1 F-H 7-0 3.9 10*R 3/3 Aej 0-2 4.3 10*R 6/1 10*R 4/1 Bfh 2-10 7.0 10*R 6/4 10*R 4/4 Bmfl 10-31 7.5 10*R 6/3 10*R 5/4 Bmf2 31-48 7.2 10*R 5/4 10*R 4/4 Cl 48-71 7.2 10*R 6/6 10*R 4/3 C2 71-92 7.4 2 .5* 7/4 2.5* 4/4 Cg 92-109+ 7.2 5* 7/3 5* 5/3 SB 058 L 11-5 F-H 5-0 5.6 10*R 2/2 10*R 2/1 Aej 0-2(0) 5.7 10*R 7/1 10*R tf\ Bm 2(0)-13 6.1 10*R 5/4 10*R 3/4 B f l 13-32 6.2 10*R 6/4 10*R 473 Bf2 32-47 6.2 10*R 6/4 10*R 4/4 Cl 47-58 6.2 2.5* 7/4 2.5* 5/4 C2 58-91 6.1 2.5* 7/4 2.5* 5/4 C3 91-106+ 6.1 2.5* 6/6 2.5* 4/4 Table 6. Continued Texture G R Remarks gs 35 10 Moderately compact, gls 37 10 Mottled, glcos 40 40-50 Conifer needles, moss. Felty morj firm H. s i 4 20 D i f f i c u l t to separate. 1 12 25 v f s l 8 25 Slight l y compact. gl 30 25 Some decomposing rock. gls 45 45 Much decomposing rock. glcos 55 45 glcos 24 45 Mottled. Deciduous and conifer leaves, Felty to granular mor. s i 3 15 Discontinuous. gsl 22 15 Somewhat melanized. sl-1 15 15 Is 11 30 gs 52 30 gcos 69 35 Pebbles rounded. gcos 59 60 I Appendix C. Table 6. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 087 L F-H 7-0 5.4 Aej 0-2(0) 5.4 Bfhj 2(0)-22 6.6 B 22-40 6.6 Cl 40-63 6.6 Cg 63-74 6.6 C2 74-86+ 6.7 SB 088 L 5-4 F-H 4-0 4 . 8 Ae 0-2 5.1 Bfhj 2-19 6.0 BC 19-40 5.5 Cgl 40-64 5.8 Cg2 64-84+ 5.6 SB 090 L 10-7 F-H 7-0 3.5 Ae 0-2 4.5 Bfhj 2-23 5.5 IIBC 23-34 5.5 IlICq 34-50 5.6 IHCg 50-86+ 5.4 Color Texture R Dry Moist 10YR 3/2 N 7/ 10YR 6/3 51 6/3 5 * 6/3 5Y 5/3 5? 6/2 10YR 3/1 10YR 7/1 10YR 7/4 51 7/2 5Y 7.5/2 5Y 6.5/2 10YR 2/2 10YR 6.5/1 2.51 5/4 5Y 6/2 51 7/2 5Y 6/2 10YR 2/1 51 4/1 10YR 3.5/2 51 4/3 51 4/3 51 4/2 5Y 4/2 10YR 2/1 N 5/ 10YR 4/3 5Y 4/3 5Y 4/2 51 4/2 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/1 2.5Y 3/2 51 4/3 51 4/3 51 4/2 Is 18 10 s i 18 15 gls 37 20 gls-gs 34 35 gls-gs 49 30 gs 60 30 fs 7 0 s i 14 10 Is 17 10 gs 23 20 gs 33 30 l s - s 17 5 g s i l 31 5 gls 47 20 s i l - c l 11 10 gsl-gl 40 40-70 Remarks Conifer and birch leaves, twigs. Felty mor. Missing i n much of plot. (leaves. Conifer needles, moss, bracken Thin mor. Thicker under Calliergonella moss. Common, faint, medium mottles. Common, faint, medium mottles. Few, faint, medium mottles. (cones. Conifer needles, moss, twigs, Felty mor; friable H. Stronger under rotten wood. Appendix C. Table 6 . Continued TT • Denth Color Horizon » ^ pH Texture G R Remarks Dry Moist SB 119 L 8 - 5 F-H 5-0 4 . 0 Ae 0-1 4 . 7 Bfh 1-21 5 . 4 BC 21-51 5.2 IIC1 51-74 6 . 2 IIC2 74-100 6 . 4 IIC3 100-114 6 . 4 IIIC 114-119 5.8 lYCw 119-129+ SB 171 (Northern variant) L 5-3 F-H 3 - 0 5 .0 Ae 0-2(0) 4 . 6 Bfhl 2(0)-12 4 . 8 Bfh2" 12-22(12) 5.2 B 22(12)-26 5.2 Cl 26-59 5 .3 C2 59-125+ 5.5 SB 206 L 5-3 F-H 3 - 0 4 .8 Ae 0 - 2 4 . 4 Bfhj 2-26(2) 6.2 Bm 2(19)-26 6.1 IlCq 26-39 5.8 IIIC 39-69 6.1 IUCqg 69-71+ 5.5 IOYR 2/2 N 8 / IOYR 4/4 IOYR 6/3 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 5/6 2 . 5 * 5/2 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 7/1 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 7/4 2.51 6/4 51 5/2 5 * 4/3 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 6/1 IOYR 7/4 IOYR 7/3 2.51 7/2 2.51 7/2 51 7/3 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 5/1 7 .5* 4/4 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 3 .5/3 IOYR 4/3 51 3/2 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 5/1 IOYR 3/3 IOYR 4/4 2.51 4/3 5* "3/2 5Y 2/2 IOYR 2/1 IOYR 4/1 IOYR 4/4 IOYR 4/3 2 . 5 * 4 . 5 / 4 2 .5* 5/4 2.51 5/4 Conifer needles, birch leaves, cones. Felty morj friable H. l f s - s l 1 0 F a i r l y continuous. sl-1 8 1 gcos 59 10 Sli g h t l y loamy. gcos 70 10 gcos-gs 30 2 gls 46 2 Common, distinct, medium mottles. s i l 8 0 gcos 30 No sample. Moss and ferns, conifer needles. Thin duff mull. l f s 0 15 Missing i n much of plot. gsl 38 15 1 9 15 Present only i n 1/10 of p i t . gl 49 40 gl 62 80 gsl 76 80 (leaves. White pine needles, cones, aspen Felty mor; friable H. Is 2 5 Only i n 1/3 of p i t . I s - s i 5 5 s i 16 5 Replaced i n part by Bfhj. gel 23 10 Sticky when wet. gls 32 30 Weakly cemented. gels 30 60 Common, faint, medium mottles. Appendix C. Table 7. Abridged Descriptions of Normal Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Profiles Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist Texture R Remarks SB 009 L 8 -4 10 YR 2/1 F-H 4-0 5 . 4 10YR 2/2 Aej T 10YR 5/4 7 .5IR 3/2 Bmf 0-17 5 .9 Bm 17-40 6.0 10YR 6 / 4 10YR 3 . 5 / 4 Cl 4 0 - 6 3 5.7 10YR 7/4 10YR 5/4 C2 63-91 5 . 8 2 .5Y 7/4 10YR 5 / 4 C3 9 1 - 1 1 4 6.1 2 . 5 * 8 / 4 2 .51 4 / 4 IIC 114-127+ 6 . 0 2 .51 8 / 4 2 . 5 1 4 / 4 SB 025 L 7-4 10YR 2/1 F-H 4-0 4 . 8 10YR 2/2 Aej T 10YR 5 / 4 10YR 4 / 4 Bmf 0-15 6 . 0 Bm 15-32 6.2 10YR 6/4 10YR 4 / 4 Cl 32-52 6 .3 2.5Y 7/4 2.5Y 4 / 4 C2 52-73 6.0 5 1 7/3 5 ? 6/3 C3 73-119+ 6 . 4 2.5Y 8/4 2 .5Y 6 / 4 SB 0 5 4 L 11-7 10YR 2/1 F-H 7-0 5 . 8 10YR 2/2 Aej T 10YR 3 / 4 Bml 0-21 6.2 10YR 5/4 Bmf 21-53 6.0 10YR 5 . 5 / 4 10YR 4 / 4 Bm2 53-67 5.7 10YR 6/3 10YR 4 / 3 Cl 67-108 6 . 4 2 . 5 1 5 . 5 / 4 2 . 5 ? 4 / 4 C2 108-150+ 6.7 5Y "6/3 2 .51 4 / 3 White pine and other conifer needles. Compressed f e l t y mor. Only under rotten wood. gsl 44 45 gls 48 45 gls 59 65 gs 64 65 gcos 64 65 Slightly loamy. gcos 60 80 Slightl y loamy. I ro Co3 I Conifer needles, cones, twigs, moss. Felty mor; friable H. Missing i n much of plot. gls-gsl 39 5 gls 27 5 gs 22 15 Washed appearance. gs 47 15 Washed appearance. gs 35 40 Very washed. Aspen and conifer leaves, twigs. Felty mor with duff mull tendency. Only under rotten wood. gl 34 15 gsl 35 15 gls 53 20 gs 54 35 S l i g h t l y loamy. gs 48 20 Washed appearance. Appendix C. Horizon Depth H C o l o r (cm) Dry Moist SB 133 L 8-A F-H 4-0 5.2 Aej 0-1 5.3 Bm 1-21 6.2 Bmfll 21-36 6 .5 Bmfj2 36-45 6.6 IIC 45-84+ 6 .5 SB 176 L 6 - 4 F-H 4-0 4.2 Ae 0-1(0) Bmf l(0)-37 5.6 CB 37-53 6.0 C l 53-81 6 .4 C2 81-114 6.2 IIC 114-138+ 6.6 SB 187 L 5-3 F-H 3-0 5.7 Bmfl 0-12 6.7 Bmf2 12-30 5 . 8 B 30-41 5.9 IIC1 41-73 6.0 IIC 2 73-89+ 6.0 10 YR 2/2 10 YR 2/1 10 YR 6/1 10 YR 3/1 10 YR 4/2 10YR 3/2 10 YR 6/4 10 YR 3/4 10 YR 5/4 10YR 3/3 N 2/ N 2/ 10 YR 3/2 10 YR 2/1 10YR 5/6 10YR 3/4 2.5? 7/4 2.51 4/4 5Y 6/3 5Y 5/3 5Y 7/4 5Y 4/3 5Y 7/4 51 5/3 10YR 3/1 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/4 10YR 3/4 10YR 5/4 10YR 3/3 10YR 6/4 10YR 4/3 2.51 5.5/4 2.5Y 4/4 5Y 6/3 2 .5? 4/4 Table 7. Continued Texture G R Remarks f s l 10 25 gsl 54 30 gsl 47 30 gsl-gl 42 35 glvfs 40 40 gsl 37 25 gls 37 40 gs 47 30 gs 69 60 s 8 40 gsl 42 30 gsl 40 35 gl 40 40 gl-gcl 47 70 gcl-gc 43 85 Deciduous and fern leaves, moss. Thin to f e l t y mor. Some organic bleaching. Much decomposing rock. i Conifer needles, moss, twigs. Thin to f e l t y mor. Missing i n much of plot. Slig h t l y loamy. Between large boulders. Conifer needles, cone scales, twigs. Thin mor; f a i r l y friable H. Slightl y sticky when wet. Sticky when wet. Appendix C. Table 7 . Continued TT • Depth T T Golor Horxzon ^ pH Texture G R Remarks Dry Moist SB 208 L 4 - 2 Moss, conifer and shrub leaves. F-H 2 - 0 5 . 2 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 2/1 Thin duff mull. Ah T Very thin layer. Ae T Only under rotten xrood. Bmf 0 - 3 8 6 . 2 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 s i 5 20 C l 3 8 - 6 8 5 . 8 IOYR 8 / 6 IOYR 4/4 gs 6 5 4 5 C 2 6 8 - 8 3 + 5.6 2 . 5 Y 8/4 2.51 5/4 gs 6 7 4 5 > Table 8 . Abridged Descriptions of Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Profiles SB 084 - - -L 9-5 Cedar leaves, twigs, cones, moss F-H 5-0 5.9 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Granular to thin mor. Aej 0 - 1 ( 0 ) IOYR 4/3 IOYR 3/4 Ill-definedj organic bleaching. Bmf 1 ( 0 ) - 1 1 ( 2 9 ) 5 . 7 gl 6 2 55 Cr 1 1 ( 2 9 ) + Bedrock. SB 0 8 5 L 6-4 Conifer needles, twigs. F-H 4-0 4.0 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/1 Felty to thin and granular mor. Aej 0 - 1 ( 0 ) 4.4 IOYR 6/1 IOYR 3 .5/1 f s l 16 5 Missing i n much of plot. Bmf l ( 0 ) - 2 2 5 . 2 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 3/4 gl 30 5 B 22-32 5 . 5 2 . 5 1 5.5/4 2.51 4/4 gl 3 9 10 Cl 32-58 5 . 2 51 6/2 51 4/2 gvfsl 3 9 15 C 2 5 8 - 7 3 5 . 1 5Y 5 . 5 / 2 5Y 4/2 gsl 53 25 IlCr 73+ Appendix G Table 9. Abridged Descriptions of Normal Orthic Brown Wooded Profiles Horizon ^ P 1 * pH (cm) Color Texture R SB 155 L 4-3 F-H 3-0 6 . 4 Bmf 0-26 6.3 Bm 26-48 6.7 Cl 4 8 - 8 4 6.2 C2 84-122+ 5.8 SB 168 L 3-2 F-H 2-0 5.6 Bml 0-19 6.2 Bm2 19-36 6.7 IIC1 36-55 6.6 IIC2 55-86 6.6 IIC3 86-118+ 7.4 SB ITS 1 4 0 L 7-A F-H A-0 5.5 Bm 0-18 6.2 Bmfl 18-42 6.3 Bmf2 42-66 6.8 BC 66-107 6.7 C 107-123+ 6.7 Dry IOYR 3/2 7.5YR 5/4 IOYR 5/6 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 6/4 IOYR 3/2 2.51 4/3 2.5* 4.5/4 5* 5/2 5* 5/2 5* 5/2 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 5/4 IOYR 6/4 2.51 6/5 2.51 5/4 Moist IOYR 2/1 7.5IR 3/2 IOYR 4/4 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 4/3 IOYR 2/1 2.5* 3/2 2.5* 3/2 5* 3/1 5* 3/1 5* 2/2 10*R 2/1 10*R 3/4 10*R 4/3 10*R 4/3 2.5* 4/4 2.5* 4/3 gsl-gls 37 30 gsl 30 20 gsl-gls 47 30 gls-gsl 50 50 gls-gsl 32 15 gls 31 20 glcos 56 30 glcos 54 35 gsl-gl 60 45 gsl gsl gsl gsl-gls gls 50 46 41 42 72 Remarks (leaves. Conifer needles, grass, shrub Friable thin mor. Some melanization. Conifer and shrub leaves, moss. Thin mor with duff mull tendency. Decomposing black shale present. Slight reaction with HCI. 1 15 15 25 25-40 20 Conifer needles, twigs. Felty mor; friable H. ! Appendix C. Table 9. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) PH Dry Color Moist Texture G R Remarks SB 186 (scales. L 7-4 10*R 2/1 Birch and conifer leaves, cone F-H 4-0 5 . 6 IOYR 3 / 2 Granular mor; friable H. Bml 0 - 8 6 . 4 IOYR 4/3 10*R 3 / 3 gsl — 10 Bmf 8-33 6 . 6 IOYR 5/4 10*R 4/4 gsl 46 10 Bm2 33-66 6 .6 2 . 5 * 6 / 4 2 . 5 * 4 / 4 gsl 52 15 BC 66-87 6 . 6 2 . 5 * 6/4 2 . 5 * 4/4 gsl 50 25 C l 8 7 - 1 0 4 6 . 6 2 . 5 * 6 / 4 2 . 5 * 4/3 gls 58 3 5 C 2 104-119+ 6 . 5 5 * 6/3 2 . 5 * 4/3 glcos 6 7 4 0 Table 1 0 . Abridged Description of a Dry Orthic Brown Wooded Profile SB 071 (cones. L 7-3 Conifer and shrub leaves, F-H 3 - 0 4 . 5 IOYR 3/2 10*R 2/1 Duff mull. Bml 0 - 1 2 6 . 4 2 . 5 * 6 / 2 2 . 5 * 4/2 gls-gsl 28 5 Incipient Ah. Bm2 1 2 - 3 0 6 . 6 2 . 5 * 7/2 2 . 5 * 4.5/4 gls 3 0 10 BC 3 0 - 4 6 6 . 7 5 * 7 / 2 5 * 5/3 gls 3 9 10 Cl 46-99 6 . 8 5 * 7 / 2 5 * 5 / 2 gls-gs 4 0 15 C 2 99-143 6 .6 5* 7/3 5 * 4/3 gls-gs u 35 IlCr 143+ Bedrock. Table 1 1 . Abridged Description of a Degraded Brown Wooded Profile SB 074 Birch and conifer leaves, twig! L 8 -3 F-H 3 - 0 5 . 8 10*R 3 / 1 IOYR 2/1 Thin duff mull to thin mor. Appendix C. Table 11. Continued Horizon Depth (cm) pH SB 074 (Continued) Aej 0-1(0) 6.0 Aeh 0-14 6.2 Bmf H - 3 6 6.6 Cl 36-55 6.4 C2 55-90 6.6 C3 90-114+ 6.8 Color Dry 10YR 7/1 10YR 6.5/2 2.5? 7/4 2.5? 7/2 2.5? 7/2 5? 8/2 Moist 10YR 4/1 10IR 3/2 10 YR 4/4. 2.5Y 4.5/2 2 .5Y 5/2 5? 6/2 Texture G R f s l 6 35 gsl 42 3 4 35 gl 40 gls 5 2 40 gs 52 35 gcos 74 55 Remarks Only i n pockets. May be gray-wooded Ae. Washed appearance. Table 12. Abridged Description of an Orthic Gleysol Profile SB 139 L 9-6 F-H 6-0 6.4 Aej T 6.0 Cl 0-7 pH 7-9 pAe 9-10 C2 10-50 7.4 Cg 50-77 7.4 IIC 77-96 7.3 IIICw 96-129+ 7.4 10YR 2/2 5? 6/2 5? 6/4 5? 6/3 5 ? 5 / 2 5 ? 5 / 2 10?R 2/1 5? 4/2 5? 3/3 5? U/3 5? 3 / 1 5? 3 / 2 c l 1 0 c l 0 0 cl-c 0 0 gcos 41 2 s 3 1 Deciduous and conifer leaves. Thick duff mull. Slightly whiter than Cl. F a i r l y sticky when wet. D i f f i c u l t to separate. Whiter than C2. F a i r l y sticky when wet. Mottled; sticky when wet. Rusty color on top. Table 13. Abridged Description of an Orthic Meadow Profile SB 014 L F-H Ahl 4-3 3-0 0-15 4.6 5 . 8 10YR 3/3 10YR 4/2 10 YR 2/1 10YR 2/2 muck Moss, conifer needles. Friable black crumbly muck. Considerable rotten wood. Appendix C. Table 13. Continued Horizon ^ P 1 * (cm) SB 01A (Continued) Ah2 15-34 pHw Cgw 34-54 54-67+ PH 5.4 4.8 5.6 Color Dry 10YR 3/1 10YR 3/3 10YR 6.5/2 Moist 10IR 2/1 10IR 2/1 10YR 4/2 Texture G R muck 18 5 muck 29 5 gsl 22 20 Remarks Mottled reddish brown and blue. Table 14. Abridged Descriptions of Shallow Muck Profiles SB 003 L F-H H Cl C2 pH+C IICw IUCgw SB O i l F-H H Hwl Hw2 HCgw SB 113 L F-H HI H2 C pAhw Cgw 13-12 12-0 0-23 29- 42 30- 38 38-48 48-61 61-73+ 6-0 0-20 20-38 38-57 57-68+ 11-8 8-0 0-28 28-40 40-53 53-68 68-74+ 6.0 5.8 6.0 5.7 4.6 4.5 5.4 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.4 5.8 5.8 6.2 6.1 6.2 10YR 3/4 10YR 2/2 10YR 4/2 51 5/1 5Y 4/1 5Y 5/1 51 6/2 10YR 2/2 10YR 3/2 10YR 2/2 10YR if2 2.51 5 .5/4 10YR 2/2 10YR 2/2 10YR 3/2 10YR 7/4 2.51 4/2 5? "6/2 10YR 2/1 10YR 2/1 10YR 2/2 51 3/1 5? 2/1 51 3/1 5Y 4/2 10YR 2/1 10YR 2/1 10 YR 2/1 10YR 2/1 2.5Y 4/3 10YR 2/1 10YR 2/1 10YR 2/1 10YR 4/3 10YR 2/1 2.5? 3/2 muck 2 glcos 77 2 gls 53 2 s i 15 2 gcos 56 2 sic 8 2 muck 15 muck 15 muck 20 gs 30 20 muck 0 1 muck 9 1 v f s l 0 1 1 7 1 gls 21 2 Conifer needles. Black crumbly muck. Much rotten wood. Only i n 1/3 of p i t . In most of p i t . High amount of mica. Stratifications v i s i b l e . Root-matted muck. Mottled brown and blue. Conifer and fern leaves, moss. Thick duff mull. Much rotten wood. Appendix C Table 15. Abridged Descriptions of Mor Regosol Profiles Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Texture G R Dry Moist SB 022 L 6-4 IOYR 2/2 IOYR 2/2 F-H 4 - 0 4 . 2 C 0-19 5 .4 10YR 6 /3 IOYR 4/2 s 2 0 IIC 19-28 5.8 IOYR 7/4 IOYR 6/3 gvcos 55 5 IIIC 28-76 6 . 0 IOYR 6/3 IOYR 3 . 5 / 2 s 1 0-30 p(H+Ae) 76-83 IOYR 7/4 0 rvc i 83-117 5.9 IOYR 5/4 gs 43 50 IVC2 117-131+ 6 . 0 IOYR 7/6 IOYR 5/4 gs 62 50 Remarks Conifer needles, cones, moss. Felty morj friable to firm H. Washed. ( s o i l . Mixed organic matter and mineral SB 150 L 7-5 Conifer needles, cones, twigs. Felty morj f a i r l y f r i a ble H. F-H 5-0 4.2 IOYR 3/2 IOYR 2/1 C 0-14 5.0 2 .51 6/2 5Y 3 .5/1 s 1 0 Flood deposit. IIC 14-25 5.2 2.51 4.5/2 2.5Y 3/2 l f s - s l 1 0 Some rotten wood below. IIIC 25-40 5.8 2 .51 6/2 2.5Y 3/2 1 1 50 Bouldery. IVC1 40-49 6.1 51 6/2 2.5Y 3/2 l f s - s l 0 60 Bouldery. IVC2 49-62 5.8 2.5* 6/2 2.5Y 3/2 1 1 60 Bouldery. VC 62-70 6.2 5Y 5/1 5Y 3/1 s 5 60 Bouldery. VIC 70-78 6.0 5Y 5/2 51 3/2 1 - s i l 2 70 Bouldery. VlICk 78-118+ 7.2 5Y 4/1 5Y 2/1 gcos 62 75 Reacts with HCI. SB 122 (Colluvial) L 11-8 F-H 8 - 0 Ah+C 0-20(40) Cr 20(40)+ 5.1 4 . 7 IOYR 3/2 2.5Y 5/2 IOYR 2/1 2.5Y 3/2 ch.l 74 90 Conifer and birch leaves, moss. Duff mull to granular mor. B e d r o c k . Appendix C Table 16. Abridged Descriptions of Duff Mull Regosol Profiles Horizon Depth (cm) pH Color Dry Moist Texture G R Remarks SB 019 L 9-6 F-H 6-0 5.6 10IR 2/2 10YR 2/1 Cl 0-17 6.0 2.5? 7/2 2.5? 4 / 2 pH 17-21 10YR 5/3 10YR 3/2 C2 21-52 6.0 IIC 52-82 6.6 10YR 5.5/4 10YR 3 / 4 IIIC 82-94 6.6 2.5? 5/2 2.5? 4/2 SB 028 L F-H C IIC IIIC IVC VCgw SB 051 L F-H Cl IIAh IIIC IIIBC IVC1 IVC 2 IVC3 4(8)-l(6) l(6)-0 0-22 22-40 40-50 50-80 80-101+ 8-7 7-0 0-17 17-35 20-35 35-61 61-92 92-106 106-127+ 6 . 0 6.2 6.4 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.2 6.1 5.6 6.3 6 . 2 6.4 6.4 6.6 10?R 3/3 5? 6/3 5? 6/3 5? 5/2 5? 6/3 10YR 6/4 7.5?R 3/2 5? 6/3 10?R 4/3 2.5? 6/4 2.5? 5.5/4 2.5? 5/4 5? 5.5/3 2.5? 5/3 10?R 2/1 2.5? 4/2 2.5? 3/2 5? 4/2 5? 3/2 10YR 4/3 10YR 2/1 2.5? 3/2 10YR 3/3 2.5? 4/4 2.5? 4/4 2.5? 4/2 2.5? 3/2 2.5? 4/2 gs 38 45 gs 61 55 l f s 2 30 gs 73 50 s i l 0 0 l s - s l 1 0 gs 62 0 Is 1 0 s i 9 2 gs 77 30 1 1 0 s 3 25 s l - l s 5 0 gls 50 25 Is 5 25 gs 64 25 (leaves. Conifer needles, Cottonwood Thick to thin duff mull. Considerable rotten wood. Shrub and conifer leaves. Felty mor with duff mull tendency. Washed. Fireweed and other herb leaves. Thick duff mull. Recent deposit. In 3/4 of pit only. In 1/4 of pit only. Appendix C. Table 16. Continued Depth Color Horizon ^ _ m j pH , Texture G R Remarks Dry Moist SB 065 L F-H C IIC IIIC+pAh 1TC 11-7 7-0 0-15 15-71 71-85 85-122+ 5.5 5 . 4 6 . 0 5 . 8 6 . 4 IOYR 2/2 2.51 5/2 2.5* 6/2 2.5* 4-5/2 5* 6/3 IOYR 2/1 51 4/2 51 4/2 2.51 3/2 51 4/2 fs 1 25 gcos 67 55 v f s l 6 5 cog 89 55 Cottonwood and cedar leaves. Thick duff mull. Streak of organic material. SB U6(DMR/0B¥) Table 17. Abridged Description of a Buried Profile L 10-6 F-H 6-0 5.8 IOYR 3/3 IOYR 2/1 C 0-11 6 . 4 5Y 5/1 5Y 3/1 IIC 11-28 6 . 3 5 * 4.5/1 51 3/1 IIIC 28-38 6.8 2.51 5/4 2 .51 3/2 IVC1 38-67 6.3 5Y 5/3 5* 4/2 IVC2 67-90 7.0 51 5/2 51 3/2 pBm 90-98 6.8 IOYR 6/3.5 IOYR 3/4 VC 98-121+ 7.0 2.51 5/4 2 .51 3/2 glcos 70 10 s 11 5 glvfs 72 1 gls 67 35 gls 55 45 1 6 5 glcos 57 50 Conifer needles, twigs. Thick duff mull. Distinct, common, medium mottles. -289-Appendix D Svntheeis of Colman Moisture-Temperature Data for May 11 to September 29, i960 -290-Appendix D Table 1. Synthesis of Colman Moisture-Temperature Data for May 11 to September 29, i960 Sta-tion Depth (cm) Temperature Aver-age °F Max. op Min. op Wilting percent-(WP) Moisture Max. Min. MC MC % % Weeks Weeks at or within below 20$ of WP WP Caribou Creek 1 A 20 50.4 58 40 6.6 46.O 7.5 0 1 B 20 50.2 57 39 4.6 46.O 7.5 0 0 A 50 47.8 52 39 2.6 26.5 3.0 0 1 B 50 4 8 . 8 54 40 2.6 22.5 3.0 0 1 A 58 49.9 54 40 2.6 — - - -B 78 49.2 53 40 2.3 33.5 6.0 0 0 2 A 20 50.6 57 40 3.0 24.0 3.0 1 4 B 20 51.5 59 40 5.3 36.5 6.5 0 0 A 50 49.2 54 41 2.0 18.0 1.0 4 0 B 50 49.6 54 a 2.2 14.5 2.0 5 1 A 82 47.9 53 40 2.5 19.0 3.0 0 4 B 96 49.2 53 42 2.2 - - - -3 A 20 47.8 54 38 17.2 91.0 53.0 0 0 B 20 48.7 54 39 9.8 52.0 19.0 0 0 A 50 44.8 49 38 2.7 29.5 12.0 0 0 B 50 45.5 49 39 3.7 36.0 14.5 0 0 B 81 44-9 48 39 2.6 19-5 9.5 0 0 A 92 45.4 49 41 2.7 31.5 28.5 0 0 4 A 20 47.8 56 36 2.2 16.0 2.5 0 2 B 20 47.9 55 33 3.3 31.0 3.0 2 2 A 50 4 6 . 6 53 34 2.3 21.5 11.5 0 0 B 50 45.2 50 32 1.8 9.0 1.0 5 0 A 60 48.1 55 39 3.0 24.0 4.5 0 0 B 77 46.1 50 34 2.2 23.0 8.5 0 0 5 A 20 48.2 56 38 7.7 55.5 12.5 0 0 B 20 4 6 . 4 53 37 6.2 19.0 8.5 0 0 A 50 46.3 51 38 5.3 46.5 10.5 0 0 B 50 46.1 51 38 3.8 11.5 6.5 0 0 A 67 46.2 50 38 1.8 68.0 21.0 0 0 B 69 46.3 54 38 3.2 13.5 6.5 0 0 6 A 20 48.4 54 41 5.4 43.5 9.5 0 0 B 20 49.1 56 39 4.6 17.0 2.0 5 1 A 50 4 6 . 5 51 38 3.0 24.5 4.0 0 0 B 50 46.3 51 37 3.2 15.5 3.0 1 1 A 55 46.O 51 37 3.4 18.5 2.5 5 0 B 65 47.5 52 38 3.3 18.0 3.5 0 1 - 2 9 1 -Appendix D. Table 1 . Continued Temperature Moisture Sta- Depth tion (cm) Aver- Max. Min. Wilting Max. Min. Weeks Weeks age °F °F °F percent- MC MC at or within age (WP) % % below 20% of WP WP 7 A 20 4 9 . 3 55 40 B 20 5 0 . 2 56 39 A 50 4 6 . 3 52 3 6 B 50 4 7 . 3 52 38 A 51 4 8 . 6 53 38 B 6 1 4 9 . 8 55 4 1 Wilson Lake 8 A 20 4 8 . 6 55 3 9 B 20 4 6 . 5 53 3 8 A 50 4 6 . 3 51 36 B 50 4 5 . 5 50 35 B 60 4 6 . 2 51 37 A 67 4 6 . 0 51 37 9 A 20 4 5 . 9 53 37 B 20 4 7 . 4 55 38 B 50 4 7 . 2 53 38 B 71 4 5 . 6 51 37 A 76 4 4 . 5 48 36 no A 20 4 6 . 8 52 38 B 20 4 8 . 6 55 40 A 50 4 5 . 2 50 37 B 50 4 7 . 8 53 40 A 61 4 5 . 8 50 38 B 70 4 7 . 8 52 40 1 1 A 20 50.9 58 42 B 20 4 9 . 4 54 42 A 50 4 8 . 1 53 40 B 50 4 6 . 6 51 39 B 60 4 6 . 4 50 39 A 77 4 7 . 3 51 40 7 . 7 57 . 5 1 4 . 5 0 0 4 . 5 3 5 . 0 4 . 0 3 0 2 . 6 2 1 . 5 4 . 0 0 0 4 . 0 2 7 . 0 4 . 0 1 2 3 . 5 2 5 . 0 6 . 5 0 0 4 . 2 1 4 . 5 2 . 0 5 0 6 . 4 4 2 . 0 1 2 . 0 0 0 4 . 5 2 6 . 5 1 3 . 5 0 0 4 . 1 3 5 . 0 9 . 5 0 0 7 . 7 6 3 . 5 2 4 . 5 0 0 1 3 . 5 9 0 . 0 4 4 - 5 0 0 6 . 7 6 3 . 5 1 5 . 0 0 0 5 . 3 15 . 5 8 . 5 0 0 2 . 8 2 7 . 5 5 . 5 0 0 1 . 8 1 4 . 0 4 . 0 0 0 3 . 5 1 7 . 0 3 . 5 5 0 2 . 8 1 5 . 0 3 . 0 0 5 5 . 2 2 0 . 5 1 1 . 5 0 0 5 . 4 4 8 . 0 1 4 . 5 0 0 2 . 7 1 9 . 0 1 0 . 5 0 0 5 . 4 4 8 . 0 1 4 . 5 0 0 2 . 3 1 7 . 0 1 1 . 5 0 0 2 . 2 2 9 . 5 1 7 . 5 0 0 8 . 8 5 6 . 0 1 4 . 5 0 0 4 . 7 2 9 . 5 9 . 0 0 0 2 . 5 2 2 . 0 1 . 5 5 0 3 . 0 2 5 . 5 5 . 0 0 0 2 . 2 1 5 . 0 1 . 0 5 0 2 . 8 2 5 . 0 4 . 5 0 0 -292-Appendix D. Table 1. Continued Sta-tion Depth (cm) Temperature Moisture Aver-age °F Max. op Min. op Wilting percent-age (WP) Max. Min. MC MC % % Weeks Weeks at or within below 20% of WP WP Keen Creek 12 A 20 47.8 54 41 B 20 A 8 . 1 54 35 A 50 46.O 49 43 B 50 4 6 . 4 51 36 A 53 42.8 45 39 B 70 48.O 52 39 13 A 20 4 6 . 6 50 40 B 20 47.5 54 39 A 50 44.9 47 39 B 50 45.9 50 39 A 65 4 4 . 0 47 38 B 95 4 4 . 7 48 39 Wilson Lake 14 A 20 51.0 59 41 B 20 4 7 . 7 55 38 A 50 49.2 55 39 B 50 48.3 54 38 A 93 47.6 53 37 B 96 4 7 . 7 55 38 15 A 20 46.3 53 37 B 20 4 6 . 7 54 36 A 50 44.7 49 36 B 50 44.5 50 35 B 73 43.6 48 35 A 85 43.5 48 38 13.0 76.5 62.0 0 0 5.2 13.0 6 . 0 0 2 2.6 28.0 12.5 0 0 3 . 0 29.0+ 29.0 0 0 3.8 32.5 20.0 0 0 2.3 8.5 4 . 0 0 0 10.6 34.0 26.5 0 0 1 0 . 2 62.5 3 2 . 0 0 0 3.7 37.0 19.0 0 0 2 .2 25.0 9.5 0 0 2.7 13.5 11.0 0 0 3 . 2 39.0 25.0 0 0 2.0 30.5 2.0 3 0 2 .2 18.0 2.0 6 0 1.6 20.0 1.5 2 0 1.5 22.0 16.0 0 0 13.2 123.0 106.0 0 0 16.2 127.0 64.O 0 0 2.5 28.5 15.5 0 0 2.5 32.0 22.0 0 0 3 . 3 35.0 24.0 0 0 1.9 23.0 8.5 0 0 -293-Appendix E A Comparison of Bedrock and Loose Rock from S o i l Pits Appendix E Table 1. A Comparison of Bedrock and Loose Rock from S o i l Pits Locality and plots Bedrock Rocks taken from pits Major types Minor types Sicamous SB 204; 206 Malakwa SB 207; 208 Mabel Lake SB 001-018 Sugar Lake SB 019-028 Cusson Creek SB 031-036 Mara formation Muscovite-biotite schist Monashee group Monashee group Monashee group Monashee group Makinson Flats Slocan group SB 029; 030; O4O-O44 Fisher Creek SB 037-039 Stevens Pass SB O45-O54 Slocan group Slocan group Granite; quartzite Granite Granite; foliated granite; gneiss; biotite granite Schist (chlorite, biotite, musco-vite); micaceous quartzite; dlorite Granite; foliated granite; gneiss Gneissic granite; biotite gneiss; biotite granite; granite; aplite Schist (feldspar, biotite, musco-vite, chlorite); argillaceous and micaceous quartzite Granite; micaceous quartzite Micaceous quartzite; granite porphyry; granite gneiss Rhyolite porphyry; schist (biotite, quartz, feldspar, and garnets); gneiss; granite gneiss; foliated granite Diorite; quartz diorite; quartz monzonite; biotite-feldspar schist Quartzite; granite; hornblende granite Quartz monzonite; s i l i c i f i e d granite; a p l i t i c granite Quartzite; siliceous granite Granite; biotite granite; quartz diorite; diorite Whatshan Lake SB 055-058 Coast intrusions Hornblende and biotite granite Granite; quartz monzonite; quartzite Appendix E. Table 1. Continued Locality and plots Bedrock* Rocks taken from pits Major types Minor types Arrowpark SB 0 6 8 j 077j 078 Burton SB 071-076 Caribou Creek SB 0 6 0 - 0 6 7 ; 2 0 1 ; 2 0 2 Slewiskin Creek SB 128; 129 Kuskanax outwash SB 123-127 Kuskanax outcrop SB 121; 122 Nakusp Hot Springs SB 079-084 Wilson Lake SB 085-092; 1 0 4 -108; 209 Nelson intrusions Quartzite; granite; a p l i t i c granite; gneiss Nelson intrusions Biotite; porphyritic granite Nelson intrusions Quartz monzonitej granite (bio-t i t e and hornblende); quartz diorite; diorite; chloritized volcanics; andesite porphyry; biotite lamprophyre Slocan group Slocan group Slocan group Slocan group Slocan group Granite; chloritized lava; chlor-i t e schist; hornblende granite; argillaceous quartzite Hornblende granite Cordierite hornfels; micaceous quartzite Hornblende granite; granite; chlorite schist; spotted slate Schist (chlorite, chlorite seri-cite, muscovite, some garnets Hornblende granite; quartzite; gneiss; granite Gneiss; mafic rock; biotite and chlorite schist Granite; quartz monzonite Quartzite; metamorphosed shale A r g i l l i t e ; a r g i l l i t e to slate; granite; quartzite (with pyrite); chloritized lava; chlorite-rich gneiss; cordierite hornfels; hornblende granite Appendix E. Table 1. Continued Locality and plots Bedrock8-Rocks taken from pits Major types Minor types Wilson Lake SB 093j 094; 109-114.; 203 Box Lake SB 131; 132 Summit Lake SB 133 Wilson Creek SB 97; 101; 102 Hasty Creek (Silverton) SB 115; 117; 119 Sandon SB 170; 171 Keen Creek (a) SB 150-153 (b) SB 168 (c) SB M7-149 Kuskanax batholith Hornblende granite Kuskanax batholith Hornblende granite Slocan group Slocan group Nelson intru-sions Slocan group Slocan group Milford group Kaslo series Slate (a r g i l l i t e ) Granite; olivene basalt; o l i -ve ne sandstone; shale Hornblende granite; granite Argillaceous (or s i l i c i f i e d ) quartzite; fine-grained phyllite Chlorite schist; granite to diorite Argillaceous quartzite Quartz diorite; quartz monzo-nite; s i l i c i f i e d a r g i l l i t e ; quartzite; chlorite schist Granite; chlorite schist; quartz monzonite Chlorite schist; chlorite-muscovite schist Argillaceous quartzite S i l i c i f i e d granite; bio t i t e granite; quartz diorite; a r g i l l a -ceous quartzite; diorite A r g i l l i t e Slate; siliceous a r g i l l i t e ; marble; quartzite Carbonaceous siltstone; chlorite schist, micaceous quartzite; marble Appendix E„ Table 1. Continued Rocks taken from pits Locality and plots Bedrock* Major types Minor types Kaslo-Lardeau SB 15A-156; 137; 138 Lardeau series Graphic granite; biotite or chlorite schist; chlorite-muscovite schist; marble; micaceous quartzite Argillaceous quartzite; quartzite; mylonitic quartz; vein quartz Lardeau-Gerrard Lardeau series Granite; quartzite (micaceous, impure, and argillaceous); crystallized limestone Muscovite schist; chloritized lava Trout Lake SB I45; I46; 157-166 Lardeau series Schist (muscovite-chlorite-feldspar, chlorite, chlorite-quartz, muscovite-quartz); quartzite (impure, argillaceous, and micaceous) A r g i l l i t e ; chloritized lava Duhamel Creek SB 193; 196 Nelson intru-sions Biotite granite Granite; micaceous quartzite; hornfels Erie Creek SB 173; 175-178; 183-187 Sinemurian beds Rossland forma-tion Hornblende and biotite granite; chloritized lava; diorite; quartz diorite; non-calcareous a r g i l l i t e Porphyritic granite; basalt; hornfels; gabbro; anorthosite; unknown dark-colored rock. a Bedrock types are discussed i n the section on geology i n Chapter III. -298-Appendix F Cold Mineral Spring near Kaslx) (with one Figure) - 2 9 9 -Appendlx F Cold Mineral Spring near Kaslo The seepage from a cold mineral spring breaking the surface near Kaslo, on the old Kaslo - New Denver road, was tested for calcium, magnesium, potassium, and pH (Appendix F, Fig. 41). The spring appeared very similar to others described from the Kootenay Lake area by Rice (1941) as follows: "On issuing from the ground the water i s clear and sparkling and tastes rather lik e soda-water. On standing for a while, however, considerable quantities of flocculent, brown limonite precipitates. This limonite builds up around the vent and i n the spillway from i t and by i t the springs are easily detected." The 21.0 me/l of calcium and 4 . 3 me/l of magnesium i n the Kaslo spring compare with 12 .8 me/l and 3 . 0 me/l of calcium and magnesium, respectively, found i n seepage from a mineral spring analysed by F.J. Fraser of the Geological Survey of Canada. The l a t t e r spring i s located on the Rose Pass t r a i l east of Kootenay Lake (Rice, 1941) . Potassium amounts to only 0 . 0 6 me/l i n the Kaslo spring. I t Is interesting that while the calcium of the spring water i s about four times as concentrated as i n the most calcareous seepage water, the pH (5 .2) i s more acid than that encountered i n any of the s o i l pits. Apparently, the recharging of the spring with carbonic acid allows a high concentration of calcium carbonate i n solution, and also, because of the continuous release of carbon dioxide, a high hydrogen-ion concentration. Plate XX t o f o l l o w p a g e 2 9 9 F i g . A l . A c o l d m i n e r a l s p r i n g n e a r K a s l o s h o w i n g b r o w n l i m o n i t e i n s p i l l w a y . -300-Appendix G S o i l Monoliths (photographs courtesy of Dr. V. J. Krajina) Fig. 42 1x2 - Ortstein Podzol 166 - Moist Orthic Podzol 56 - Dry Minimal Podzol 9 1 - 1 Normal Minimal Podzol Fig. 43 93 - Gleyed Acid Brown Wooded 117 - Dry Orthic Acxd Brown Wooded 73 - Dry Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 162 - Duff Mull Regosol/Gleyed Brown Wooded Fig. 44 129 - Shallow Muck 26 - Shallow Muck Fig. 45 122 (mislabelled 121) - Mor Regosol (Colluvial) 126 - Mor Regosol/Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 128 - Calcareous Duff Mull Regosol 

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