UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Depiction of character through style in Joyce Cary's political trilogy Mercer, Jack Ernest 1962

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DEPICTION OF CHARACTER THROUGH STYLE IN JOYCE CARY'S POLITICAL TRILOGY by JACK ERNEST MERCER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1940 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1962 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e xtensive copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l k w e d without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of ENGLISH  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date OCTOBER, 1962. i ABSTRACT This study discusses three of Cary's f i r s t per-son n o v e l s — P r i s o n e r of Grace, Except the Lord, and Not  Honour More published from 1 9 5 2 to 1 9 5 4 and u s u a l l y termed the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y — a n d examines i n p a r t i c u l a r the c r a f t w i t h which he gave depth to h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g each n a r r a t o r w i t h a unique personal s t y l e . The a n a l y s i s of the s t y l e i n each of the three novels f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n . F i r s t the s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , pace and tone, and choice of words are examined as i n d i c a t i v e of the nar-r a t o r ' s character. Next the metaphorical p a t t e r n i s i n -v e s t i g a t e d to assess the n a r r a t o r ' s i n t e r e s t s , motives, de-s i r e s or a n x i e t i e s . The a l l u s i o n s , references and quota-t i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d and analyzed. This r e v e a l s the i n t e l -l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l background of each character, and shows how much each depends upon outside a u t h o r i t y to support h i s judgments. The n a r r a t i v e s t y l e and the use of d e s c r i p t i v e s e t t i n g are then examined to assess the n a r r a t o r ' s dramatic q u a l i t i e s and v i s u a l a c u i t y . The q u a l i t y and use of humour are analyzed to determine the general a t t i t u d e of the char-acter t o the world outside h i m s e l f . And, because each pr o t a g o n i s t gives h i s own view of h i s counterparts through i i h i s s t y l e and develops and r a t i o n a l i z e s t h a t view, these complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s are also i n v e s t i g a t e d . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s method to P r i s o n e r of  Grace r e s u l t s i n b r i n g i n g out the many f a c e t s of character of a n a r r a t o r , Nina L a t t e r . Her i n v o l u t e d s t y l e w i t h i t s c o n t i n u a l use of brackets r e v e a l s a mind i n which there i s c l a s h of ideas and a c o n f l i c t of emotions, the e s s e n t i a l dualism of a p e r s o n a l i t y torn between l o y a l t y to her f i r s t husband, Chester Nimmo the p o l i t i c i a n , and love of James L a t t e r , her l o v e r and second husband. This use of paren-theses a l s o r e v e a l s a mind that q u a l i f i e s judgments and per-ceives d i v e r s e viewpoints. Nina's sources of metaphor--n a t u r a l phenomena, c h i l d r e n ' s entertainments, war and human i l l n e s s — r e v e a l s her feminine q u a l i t i e s as woman and mother, and by a s s o c i a t i o n they expose deep-rooted c o n f l i c t s , c l a u s -trophobic oppressions and i r r a t i o n a l f e a r s . Her a l l u s i o n s and references show a keen a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c u l t u r e , w h i l e her wide range of humour enriches and humanizes her char-a c t e r and shows her strong"capacity f o r happiness. In Except the Lord, Chester Nimmo's memoir of h i s e a r l y l i f e , the n a r r a t o r ' s pomposity of d i c t i o n , h i s use of evocative expressions and r h e t o r i c a l devices show h i s power as a s p e l l b i n d e r , h i s tendencies towards the demagogue. However, Nimmo's frequent use of a simpler s t y l e enriched by i i i r u r a l and b i b l i c a l expressions r e v e a l s s i n c e r i t y and awareness of human s u f f e r i n g . His choice of subjects f o r metaphor—death, b u i l d i n g s , o r i e n t a l splendours, n a t u r e — shows preoccupation w i t h death, search f o r s e c u r i t y and foundations of f a i t h , romantic tendencies and i n t e r e s t i n the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l . His s e l e c t i o n of a l l u s i o n s and quota-t i o n s from the great exponents of nineteenth-century l i b e r -a l i s m r e v e a l s h i s e s s e n t i a l i d e a l i s m and humanitarianism. The i n t e r p o l a t i o n of p h i l o s o p h i c comment i n the n a r r a t i v e expresses NimmoTs deep moral concern and h i s attempt t o a n a l -yze h i s own motives f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n as w e l l as t o ex-pose general e v i l s i n s o c i e t y . In Not Honour More.James L a t t e r ' s apologia f o r h i s "execution" of Nina, the n a r r a t o r ' s e l l i p t i c a l , t e l e g r a p h i c s t y l e , w i t h i t s sardonic i n v e c t i v e and i r o n i c a l hyperbole, expresses the v i o l e n c e and paranoic f a n a t i c i s m of h i s nature. His choice of• a b s t r a c t words r e v e a l s h i s adherence to moral absolutes and t r a d i t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s . His subjects f o r meta-p h o r — a n i m a l s , v i s c e r a l f u n c t i o n s , s p o r t — s u g g e s t a man of a c t i o n . L a t t e r ' s s e l e c t i o n of quotations and a l l u s i o n s shows dependence upon a u t h o r i t y and r e v e a l s p r e j u d i c e of viewpoint. His o c c a s i o n a l use of a simple, even sentimental s t y l e shows a warmth and l o y a l t y towards h i s f r i e n d s , w h i l e h i s aware-ness of humour i n him s e l f as w e l l as i n others a l s o adds to t h i s m i lder s i d e of h i s nature. i v A t r i f o c a l view of the three novels of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y r e v e a l s s i m i l a r i t i e s as w e l l as d i f f e r -ences i n the s t y l e s of the three n a r r a t o r s , suggesting c e r t a i n a f f i n i t i e s between them as w e l l as c o n t r a s t s i n t h e i r natures. The m u l t i - f o c u s on the characters allows each to be seen " i n the round" making p o s s i b l e a more ob-j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . While each n a r r a t o r r e v e a l s s u b j e c t i v e opinion through h i s s t y l e , the t r i f o c a l view d i s t i l l s the o b j e c t i v e t r u t h s r e l a t e d to Cary's own ideas about man and the u n i v e r s e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I P r i s o n e r of Grace 17 I I I Except the Lord 75 IV Not Honour More 125 V Conclusion 178 Footnotes 192 B i b l i o g r a p h y 201 THE DEPICTION OF CHARACTER THROUGH STYLE IN JOYCE CARY'S' POLITICAL TRILOGY Chapter I Introduction Joyce Cary published f i f t e e n novels from Aissa Saved, his f i r s t , i n 1932, to The Captive and the Free, edited post-humously i n 1959; but amongst these, his major work—and that upon which his place i n English Literature w i l l no doubt c h i e f l y depend—was his production of two t r i l o g i e s . The completion of his F i r s t T r i l o g y — H e r s e l f Surprised (1941), To Be a Pilgrim (1942) and The Horse's Mouth (1944)—brought to Cary long delayed popular acclaim and serious c r i t i c a l reviews. In spite of the success of these navels, Cary aban-doned the t r i l o g y form i n order to write two single chronicles: 2 The Moonlight (1946) and A F e a r f u l Joy (1949), both o f which p i c t u r e d a wide h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d through a study of c h a r a c t e r s l i v i n g d u r i n g the e r a . Then Cary r e t u r n e d t o h i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l approach to produce h i s l a s t major work, u s u a l l y c a l l e d the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y , comprising P r i s o n e r o f  Grace (1952), Except the Lord (1953), and Not Honour More (1954). This t r i l o g y i s the s p e c i a l concern of t h i s study. Each o f the novels of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y i s n a r r a t e d i n the f i r s t person by a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r and the t h r e e books are u n i t e d by common c h a r a c t e r s and events. In the f i r s t n o v e l , P r i s o n e r of Grace, Nina L a t t e r views the world o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y B r i t i s h L i b e r a l i s m through the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of her f i r s t husband, Chester Nimmo; i n the second n o v e l , Except the Lord, Nimmo t e l l s the s t o r y of h i s own e a r l y l i f e t o r e v e a l the r e l i g i o u s r o o t s o f h i s p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m ; and i n the t h i r d n o v e l , Not Honour More, James L a t t e r , Nina's l o v e r and second husband, v i o l e n t l y a t t a c k s both Nimmo and p o l i t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n on the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l e v e l s . Cary's own statement as t o why he chose p o l i t i c s f o r the s u b j e c t of h i s second t r i l o g y , i s quoted by Bernard Kalb i n the Saturday Review. Cary p o i n t s out t h a t he had a l r e a d y w r i t t e n about " a r t " ( i n the Horse's Mouth), " b u s i n e s s " ( i n A F e a r f u l Joy) and "the woman's l i f e " ( i n The Mo o n l i g h t ) . A l l these, he e x p l a i n s , had d e a l t w i t h h i s s p e c i a l world, the "world o f the f r e e i m a g i n a t i o n , the peren-3 n i a l c r e a t i o n . " The P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y , he s t a t e s : shows t h i s world i n p o l i t i c s ; a world where the f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s o u l , w i t h h i s s p e c i a l prob-lems h i s s p e c i a l ambitions, i s always i n con-f l i c t ; an e v e r l a s t i n g c o l d war, c i v i l i z e d only by conscience, by s o c i a l taboos, and by the law; a world dominated, l i k e t h a t of a r t and business by the man of i m a g i n a t i o n . ! And f o r h i s "man of imagination" to be placed i n t h i s world of p o l i t i c s , Cary chose the enigmatic, f l e x i b l e Chester Nimmo, who dominates not only h i s own n a r r a t i v e , but a l s o the other two novels of the t r i l o g y . Before examining i n d e t a i l the novels of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y , one must analyze Cary's use of the t r i -logy form i n order to r e v e a l how i t answered h i s s p e c i a l need t o i d i f f e r e n t i a t e c h a r a c t e r — i n which task s t y l e i s an important instrument. Such an examination w i l l a l s o a l l o w an assessment of h i s unique c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s l i t e r a r y technique. Very e a r l y , Cary came to r e a l i z e that h i s primary i n t e r e s t and h i s gr e a t e s t power l a y i n the c r e a t i o n of character. And he a l s o became aware that a character can only be shown i n depth when he i s allowed to play a major r o l e i n the n o v e l . Therefore, i t seemed l o g i c a l that the number of characters i n a novel must be s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d . Cary's i g n o r i n g of t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n h i s c h r o n i c l e , C a s t l e  Corner, and A F e a r f u l Joy, ex p l a i n s t h e i r fundamental weak-4 ness. George Woodcock comments upon t h i s when he says: C a s t l e Corner c o l l a p s e s l i k e the tower of Babel from the weight of the crowd of Heaven d e f i e r s . There are too many p o s i t i v e and clam-ourous c h a r a c t e r s demanding our a t t e n t i o n and what might have been grandeur ends i n c o n f u s i o n . The c h r o n i c l e s were a l s o weakened by the f a c t t h a t they attempted t o cover too many events i n time, too many aspects of too many problems. Cary i n A r t and l e a l i t y s t a t e s the danger of l o s i n g power by having too wide a screen: "...the more comprehensive a n o v e l i n scope, i n w i d t h of scene," he says, "the more i t l o s e s i n power and s i g n i f i c a n c e . " - ^ Therefore Cary succeeded b e t t e r i n the t r i l o g i e s , because the f i r s t person viewpoint l i m i t e d the scope of the n o v e l and presented n a r r a t o r s w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l depth. The t r i -l o g i e s a l s o had dominant themes which meant t h a t they con-c e n t r a t e d upon on l y a few major problems. But Cary c o u l d g a i n the 'harrow s c r e e n " e f f e c t i n s i n g l e n o v e l s having few c h a r a c t e r s and l i m i t e d problems. The q u e s t i o n as t o why he used the t r i l o g y form has t h e r e -f o r e y e t t o be answered. Many contemporary w r i t e r s b e s i d e s Cary have produced novels i n s e r i e s i n an attempt to g a i n c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y e f f e c t s ; a b r i e f a n a l y s i s of a few of t h e i r experiments w i l l h e l p t o e x p l a i n Cary's use of the t r i l o g y form. For example, w r i t e r s l i k e Galsworthy, Hugh Walpole and Mazo de l a Roche e s t a b l i s h e d the form of the 5 "dynastic saga" which allowed f a m i l i e s of characters to con-ti n u e on from generation to generation. When Cary was asked by i n t e r v i e w e r s i f he were w r i t i n g f a m i l y sequels, h i s answer was an indignant d e n i a l : "Oh, no, no, no. Family 4 l i f e , no." The sagas of Galsworthy, f o r example, could go on i n d e f i n i t e l y l i k e a soap opera, but each of Cary's t r i l o g i e s was planned to come to a dramatic c o n c l u s i o n . Also Cary had no i n t e r e s t i n b i r t h , marriage and death, as such. I t was only when these n a t u r a l occurrences i n f l u e n c e d the tense r e l a t i o n s h i p s between pr o t a g o n i s t s that they had s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him. Ford Mad ox Ford's Tietjenssaga re-sembles Cary's t r i l o g i e s i n that h i s f o u r novels do present c o n f l i c t between characters r e p r e s e n t i n g divergent p r i n -c i p l e s and moral standards. Tietjens, the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , w i t h h i s high standard of values ,personif i e s the t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h conservative, while a l l other characters, representing the decadent mores of the times,are f o i l s to him. But Cary was opposed to one character becoming too powerful. A l s o Cary made Nimmo, the c e n t r a l character i n the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y , much more complex than Tietjens, and t h e r e f o r e more i n t e r e s t i n g . When one i s aware of T i e t j e n s - p r i n c i p l e s , one can a n t i c i p a t e h i s actions in-any circumstance, but Nimmo's r e a c t i o n s are f a r more indeterminate. Again, Cary's man of absolute p r i n c i p l e s , James L a t t e r , b r i n g s tragedy upon him-s e l f and o t h e r s , w h i l e Tietjens w i t h h i s " a b s o l u t e s " merely 6 achieves the pathos of self-martyrdom. C P . Snow, another recent w r i t e r of sequence novels, uses Henry James' t e c h -nique of the foreground observer. His novels form a s e r i e s of t r i l o g i e s i n each of which Lewis E l i o t , the observer, f i r s t t e l l s the story of two of h i s f r i e n d s and then h i s own s t o r y of the same per i o d . Cary, although he admired James, never used t h i s observer technique; i n s i s t i n g t h a t i t had a l l the- f a u l t s of the f i r s t and t h i r d person viewpoints w i t h none of t h e i r m erits. The only value he could see i n t h i s method was that i t allowed the w r i t e r to describe the nar-r a t o r . When Cary f i r s t began to w r i t e the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y he d i d experiment w i t h an observer, but as he says i n the preface to the Carfax e d i t i o n of Pr i s o n e r of Grace.- "the na r r a t o r ran away with the book" and "the acuteness of the observer o n l y emphasized h i s lack of r e a l understanding as sharp arrows w i l l go r i g h t through a target and leave no mark."5 Reading Snow's novels one i s a l s o conscious of the co n t i n u a l manoeuvring that i s necessary to get the observer i n t o a p o s i t i o n f o r observation. Lawrence D u r r e l l experiments w i t h new techniques i n h i s "Alexandria Quartet," a sequence of f o u r novels. The n a r r a t o r of the f i r s t two becomes a character i n the t h i r d w h i l e the f o u r t h i s a sequel. D u r r e l l T s method i s what S t e i n e r c a l l s , "the technique of accumulated nuance, the p a i n t e r r e t u r n i n g constantly to the same scene."6 Cary only o c c a s i o n a l l y i n h i s t r i l o g i e s deals with the same 7 event from c o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s of view,. but D u r r e l l goes over the ground time and time a g a i n . He t r i e s t o a v o i d t h e obvious monotony by " i r o n i c r e v i s i o n s " which are new and o f t e n unconvincing r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the t r u t h of the s i t u a t i o n . For example, J u s t i n e ' s a f f a i r w i t h the nar-r a t o r i n J u s t i n e , t h e f i r s t n o v e l , i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n the second, B a l t h a z a r , as merely a b l i n d f o r her r e a l p a s s i o n f o r Pursewarden. "Nowhere i n the quartet are t h i n g s what they seem t o be,"''7 and t h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t i s f a l s i t y . Cer-t a i n l y Cary, w i t h h i s t r i f o c a l approach, i l l u s t r a t e s the com-p l e x i t y o f t r u t h , but he does not r e s o r t t o t r i c k e r y . D u r r e l l , i n c o n t r a s t t o Cary, i s i n t e r e s t e d more i n s t y l e than i n t r u t h or c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ; h i s aim i s t o b u i l d up a mosaic of s e n s u a l i m p r e s s i o n s . And the s t y l e does not vary g r e a t l y from c h a r a c t e r t o c h a r a c t e r . A l s o i n the "Quartet," i n c o n t r a s t to Cary's t r i l o g i e s , the p e r i p h e r a l c h a r a c t e r s and events take on more l i f e than those i n the c e n t r a l f o c u s . The w r i t e r who came c l o s e s t t o Cary's f i r s t person, m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l t r i l o g y was Andre Gide i n h i s L'Ecole des Femmes, a t r i l o g y o f shor t n o v e l l a s which present the r e l a t i o n s h i p i f t h ree members of a f a m i l y . In the f i r s t of these, " L ' E c o l e des Femmes", the mother, E v e l i n e D., t r i e s t o j u s t -i f y her s e p a r a t i o n from her pompous mediocre husband. In "Robert," the second n o v e l , the husband i s allowed t o pre -sent h i s own view of the marriage, and t o j u s t i f y h i s approach to l i f e ; w h i l e i n "Genevieve," the t h i r d j o u r n a l , the daughter c r i t i c a l l y appraises both parents and analyzes her own motives. Although there i s much s i m i l a r i t y between Gide's method and Cary's, Friedson suggests that Cary may not have read t h i s work as he makes no mention of i t i n any of h i s various a r t i c l e s on t e c h n i c a l matters i n which he f r a n k l y acknowledges other i n f l u e n c e s . "With Cary, p o s s i b l y as w i t h Gide," says Friedson, "the second and t h i r d novels i n the t r i l o g y came spontaneously from a l i b e r a l tempera-ment. Having st a t e d a case, he f e l t compelled to consider the other s i d e . " Friedson a l s o p o i n t s out that Cary's novels are l e s s r e s t r i c t e d and more complex; that h i s char-a c t e r s d i d not w r i t e i n r e j o i n d e r but, i n f a c t , "none of them appeared to be aware th a t the others were w r i t i n g . " As a r e s u l t , says F r i e d s o n , "the areas of s i t u a t i o n a l over-l a p i n Cary's novels are l e s s frequent, and p a t , than i n Gide's n o v e l , and the i r o n i e s r e s u l t i n g from the d i f f e r e n t viewpoints are more profound and f a r s u b t l e r . " Also one r e a l i z e s that Gide's characters are more stereotyped than Cary's; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of Robert whose statement of h i s own case does l i t t l e to modify h i s w i f e ' s antagonist-i c judgment. Having assessed b r i e f l y the techniques of other w r i t e r s of sequence novels, one can b e t t e r evaluate the method 9 of Cary's own t r i l o g y . Cary decided to use the f i r s t per-son viewpoint because he knew tha t i t gave s t r e n g t h , l i f e , i ntimacy and s i m p l i c i t y to the n a r r a t i v e . But a t the same time he was aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s technique. D i s -cussing t h i s problem i n "The Way a Novel Gets W r i t t e n , " he says: The f i r s t person imposes not only l i m i t a t i o n s of character, p l a c e and time, but of event. Everything t h a t does not happen to the character must be r e l a t e d by him, and i s t h e r e f o r e f a r t h e r removed from a c t u a l i t y than a s t o r y t o l d i n the t h i r d person. For t h a t story i s r e l a t e d by a r e a l person, the author, and t h i s one i s t o l d by a f i c t i t i o u s person, the character.9 What Cary was l o o k i n g f o r , t h e r e f o r e , was some technique which would r e t a i n the c l o s e i n t i m a t e power of the f i r s t person viewpoint, while g a i n i n g at l e a s t some of the added advantages of breadth and o b j e c t i v i t y of the t h i r d person n a r r a t i o n . The t r i l o g y w i t h i t s three dimensions, showing three ch a r a c t e r s , not only i n themselves, but as seen by each other, proved to be the method th a t Cary was seeking. As Wright says: "...the reader i s c o n s t a n t l y r e q u i r e d to compare and assess the v e r s i o n s of the same world presented by com-petent but i n t e r e s t e d w i t n e s s e s . " 1 0 Each character, i s : ...a k i n d of a c r y s t a l , and the reader's v i s i o n of each i s complicated by the f a c t that he i s i n v i t e d to look through one c r y s t a l i n t o another. I n v a r i a b l y , each c r y s t a l observed r e f l e c t s the c r y s t a l which i s observed. 1! Having worked out* t h i s technique of mult i d i m e n s i o n a l f i r s t 10 person n a r r a t i v e , Cary a p p l i e d i t to h i s F i r s t T r i l o g y . Sara,. Monday, n a r r a t o r of He r s e l f S u r p r i s e d , was to view the world and her two men from the domestic point of view; Thomas Wilc h e r , n a r r a t o r of To Be a P i l g r i m was to present h i s world from the point of view of s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s , w h i l e Gulley Jimson, picaresque a r t i s t - r o g u e n a r r a t o r of The Horse's Mouth was to por t r a y h i s complete world from the point of view of a r t . The l i n k between the two men was to be t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the woman. Cary's plan was s u c c e s s f u l , but he was not completely s a t i s f i e d . The char-a c t e r s , given the freedom to move i n t h e i r own worlds, t o l d s t o r i e s that only touched a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s and the r e s u l t was a group r a t h e r than a sequence. Cary began the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y determined to improve h i s technique. As he s a i d to the i n t e r v i e w e r s of Wr i t e r s at Work, "I've set out t h i s time with the i n t e n t i o n of doing b e t t e r . I th i n k I am doing better."-'- 2 In the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y he emphasized e s p e c i a l l y one thematic area to gain u n i t y ; he created one character strong enough t o hold a dominant p o s i t i o n i n each of the three novels; he l i m i t e d the temporal overlappings to i n -crease depth and complexity, and he brought the two men i n t o tense r e l a t i o n s h i p s to one another as w e l l as to the woman. Also Cary made the woman more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y perceptive than Sara Monday so that she could b e t t e r evaluate the two men. And many c r i t i c s agree t h a t Cary d i d do b e t t e r i n the second 1 1 t r i l o g y . A reviewer writing i n the Christian Century states: Never has he come nearer to greatness than i n the t r i o of novels concluded i n Not Honour  More...the t r i f o c a l device i s risky, but i t comes off b e a u t i f u l l y . Each of his major characters grows and l i v e s . Events are com-pl e t e l y real...The author's imagination, em-pathy, sheer writing a b i l i t y puts the reader where he watches the action and developments from the inside. There i s depth, perception wisdom a l l the way along.^3 A study of Cary's multidimensional technique r a i s e s the question of his choice of the t r i l o g y rather than a quartet or even a quintet—why three novels with three individual narrators? In order to answer t h i s question i t i s necessary to understand Cary's t r i p a r t i t e v i s i o n . Andrew Wright has discovered that throughout a l l Cary's novels the leading ( C h a r a c t e r s tend to f a l l into three main c a t e g o r i e s . As he says: "Cary portrays again and again the same three people because f o r him i t i s the commonness of the human dilemma which i s compelling. The man who must create, the man who would preserve, and the woman who as female resembles both the one and the other but also d i f f e r s from e i t h e r . " 1 ^ Therefore, i t i s l o g i c a l and almost inevitable that Cary with t h i s t r i p a r t i t e v i s i o n would choose to present his world through three f i r s t person narrators corresponding to these three character types. Examining the P o l i t i c a l Trilogy, one 12 f i n d s t h a t the l e a d i n g characters do f i t i n t o these three groups: Nina, as the "female" i s t o r n between her love f o r James L a t t e r , "the man who would preserve" and her l o y a l t y to Chester Nimmo, "the man who would c r e a t e . " In Wright's grouping of characters i n Cary's e a r l i e r novels, c e r t a i n prototypes of Nina, Chester and James L a t t e r are to be found. B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of a few of these w i l l show how these three types grew i n t o the com-pl e x n a r r a t o r s of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y . In Cary's f i r s t published n o v e l , A i s s a Saved, one of h i s A f r i c a n s t o r i e s , A i s s a , as the "female" shows t h i s dual f u n c t i o n , i n that her p h y s i c a l love f o r her pagan husband c o n f l i c t s w i t h her l o y a l t y to Jesus as another de-manding l o v e r . Throughout the novel she runs from one love to the other, even as Nina does, being c o n t i n u a l l y d r i v e n back to Jesus by the d i c t a t e s of conscience which she i n t e r -p r e ts as the Voice of the Holy S p i r i t . . Again i n the F i r s t T r i l o g y , we have the dualism i n Sara, the female, as her l o v e f o r Gulley Jimson clashes, w i t h her l o y a l t y to Thomas Wilcher. As Friedson p o i n t s out, Sara plays a l s o a paradox-i c a l r o l e i n the Blakean sense; "She i s the female w i l l o perating i n o p p o s i t i o n to the masculine w i l l ; but she i s a l s o the female w i l l which keeps the masculine w i l l going. A prototype of Nimmo as " c r e a t i v e man" can be found as f a r 13 back i n Cary's w r i t i n g as a Saturday Evening Post s h o r t s t o r y p u b l i s h e d i n 1920 e n t i t l e d None But the Braye. Merridew, the c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y , i s a b r o a d l y drawn p o r t r a i t o f a p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s t . A young man of humble o r i g i n , he i s d r i v e n by h i s energy and ambition i n t o a p o s i t i o n o f governmental importance. Merridew, however, f a i l s i n h i s attempts t o win the l o c a l r i c h g i r l , but consoles h i m s e l f w i t h dreams of a more wealthy and s o p h i s t i c a t e d match i n the c i t y . Merridew i s merely a c a r i c a t u r e o f Chester Nimmo. A prototype w i t h c l o s e r r e -semblance i s the c h a r a c t e r of P o r f i t i n C a s t l e Corner. Here i s an earnest l a y preacher, who, because he s u p p l i e s the L i b e r a l Party w i t h the e v a n g e l i c a l s p i r i t i t r e q u i r e s at the time, i s c a t a p u l t e d i n t o h i g h p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . P o r f i t endures the h u m i l i a t i o n s o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n order t o court the b e a u t i f u l and wealthy Lucy Chorley. L i k e Chester Nimmo, P o r f i t i s p a c i f i s t i c i n p r i n c i p l e and i s a supporter of the godly Boers i n t h e i r f i g h t a g a i n s t the g o l d -greedy B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s t s d u r i n g the Boer War. James L a t t e r , the c o n s e r v a t i v e man, has a prot o t y p e c a l l e d Cock J a r v i s , who appears f i r s t i n an unpublished n o v e l of the same name. In a 1950 broadcast, Cary d e s c r i b e d t h i s c h a r a c t e r as a man w i t h "a h i g h sense o f honour and duty l i k e K i p l i n g ' s s o l d i e r s " but adds t h a t "he was e s s e n t i a l l y l i b e r a l i n sym-pathy. " 17 Cock J a r v i s i s mentioned agai n i n A f r i c a n Witch 14 and appears as a younger man i n C a s t l e Corner. Here he resembles James L a t t e r . L i k e Jim, he was a n a r c h i s t i c i n h i s d i s r e g a r d of a u t h o r i t y i n A f r i c a and was removed because of i t . L i k e L a t t e r , he had courage and s o l d i e r l y i n t e l l i -gence. Wright t h i n k s of James L a t t e r as an o l d e r , b i t t e r , and d i s i l l u s i o n e d Cock J a r v i s . ° Cary's v i s i o n t h e r e f o r e was t r i p a r t i t e , as shown by the three g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r types i n h i s novels; and, when he came to w r i t e a t r i l o g y h i s plan was t o use three n a r r a t o r s and to g i v e to each a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e . Cary s t a t e s t h i s i n t e n t i o n In the Preface to the Harper e d i t i o n of the F j r s t T r i l o g y : ...each of my three c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s had to w r i t e i n the f i r s t person and r e v e a l h i s own world i n h i s own style.19 In c r e a t i n g f i r s t person n a r r a t o r s , Cary c o u l d make use of h i s great g i f t so u n i v e r s a l l y acclaimed, namely, h i s a b i l i t y to f e e l h i m s e l f i n t o h i s c h a r a c t e r s so t h a t each becomes unique ye t v i t a l l y a l i v e . Walter A l l e n d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r o t e a n q u a l i t y : ...pre-eminently, he i s 'the one Proteus' of the E n g l i s h novel to-day...he appears to have 'oo i d e n t i t y — h e i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n f o r and f i l l i n g some other Body'...He i s , to put i t a t the lowest^ a superb impersonator, a t r u l y protean a c t o r . ^ 0 15 In h i s f i r s t person n a r r a t i v e , House of Children,and i n the two T r i l o g i e s , C a r y developed f o r each n a r r a t o r an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e which depicted a unique character. Speaking of the T r i l o g i e s , Wright says: He can s u i t the words to the character so j u s t l y t h a t i n the novels of the two t r i l o g i e s there are s i x s t y l e s ; s i x metaphorical s t r u c t u r e s , s i x schemes of syntax, s i x kinds of i n t e r i o r monologue—indeed, s i x worlds.21 A b r i e f survey of f i r s t person n a r r a t i v e s preceding the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s emergence of char-a c t e r through s t y l e . In House of C h i l d r e n which i s l a r g e l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , the n a r r a t o r , Evelyn Corner, reminisces on h i s boyhood days i n I r e l a n d . Here the s t y l e i s s u i t e d to t hat of an o l d e r man r e c a l l i n g the boyhood of a s e n s i t i v e impressionable c h i l d . The beauty of the imagery, the vary-ing cadence keyed to the moods of both the calm and the v i g -our of the sea, r e v e a l , as Cary says, "the c l a r i t y , the la r g e s k i e s , and the wide sea views, which belong to the 22 v i s i o n of my childhood." There are echoes of t h i s i n t o n -a t i o n and cadence i n some of Nina's d e s c r i p t i o n s of the sea. In H e r s e l f S u r p r i s e d , the f i r s t novel of the f i r s t t r i l o g y , Sara, as n a r r a t o r , uses a simple and pragmatic syntax and vocabulary which r e v e a l s her p r a c t i c a l domestic nature. Also the managerial side of her p e r s o n a l i t y i s shown, as Friedson says, by the "pert speed and sturdy push which are endemic 16 to the indomitable s p i r i t . " Her s t y l e has v i t a l i t y and humour and a q u a l i t y of radiance which expresses an inner joyousness. In To Be a P i l g r i m , the second novel of the F i r s t ' i T r i l o g y , Thomas Wilcher, as n a r r a t o r , uses the form of a j o u r n a l , with a r i c h , complex, a u t h o r i t a t i v e , , p h i l o s o p h i c s t y l e . The f o r m a l i t y of h i s s t y l e i s modified by a m i l d and s e l f - a n a l y t i c a l humour. At times, Chester Nimmo's s t y l e resembles Wilcher's, but Nimmo's has g r e a t e r v a r i e t y showing h i s nature to be more complex and out-going. In The Horse's Mouth, the t h i r d novel of the F i r s t T r i l o g y , Gulley Jimson, as n a r r a t o r , uses a s t y l e that i s i n t e n s e , extravagant, r h e t o r i c a l , slangy and v i s u a l l y dramatic. I r o n i c understatement pervades the s t y l e , r e v e a l i n g d i s -i l l u s i o n m e n t but undaunted courage. There i s a f r e n z y of i n t o x i c a t i o n i n h i s prose which depicts the r e s t l e s s exub-erance of h i s nature. C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of t h i s s t y l e are observed i n Not Honour More but James L a t t e r expresses more b i t t e r n e s s and defeatism than does the i n c o r r i g i b l e , imagin-a t i v e Jimson.' In the f i r s t person novels which preceded the second t r i l o g y , each n a r r a t o r ' s character i s revealed through h i s unique s t y l e . Any f u r t h e r study of Cary's d e p i c t i o n of character through s t y l e i s best undertaken i n the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y i t s e l f . Chapter I I Pr i s o n e r of Grace Ruth Vgn Horn, w r i t i n g i n the New Republic, quotes from a l e t t e r she r e c e i v e d from Joyce Cary i n which he comments on h i s purpose i n w r i t i n g P r i s o n e r of Grace. According to Cary, the "point of the book" i s to show "the whole p o l i t i c a l world, not only as r e s t r i c t e d to parliaments and congresses, but as i t works i n marriage and i n the nursery, i n a l l human r e l a t i o n s — t h a t i s t o say i t i s a study of another aspect of that world which has been imposed upon us by freedom, i n d i v i d u a l i t y and the necessary i s o l a -t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a f r e e w o r l d . " 1 And P r i s o n e r of  Grace does p o r t r a y the c l a s h of p o l i t i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s on both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l e v e l . I t s p u b l i c p o l i t i c s show the c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d i n government p o l i c y i n grave h i s t o r i c c r i s e s and provides i n s i g h t i n t o p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y and party manoeuvre during the e v e n t f u l days of Boer War con-tr o v e r s y and World War I d e c i s i o n s and i n d e c i s i o n s . And on the personal l e v e l the no v e l exposes the p o l i t i c s of the domestic s i t u a t i o n with i t s demands f o r continuous adjustment 18 by t a c t i c s of concealment, compromise, p a r l e y , resource-f u l n e s s and sudden attack. Nina's s t y l e i n P r i s o n e r of Grace reveals her as a " c r e d i b l e witness," a "soft-shrewd, u l t r a - f e m i n i n e ob-2 s e r v e r " who a c t s as commentator, evaluator, judge and p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s p o l i t i c o - d o m e s t i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a r r a -t i v e . And Nina, i n her r o l e of n a r r a t o r , s t a t e s c l e a r l y her purpose i n p u b l i c a t i o n . The book i s to be an apology 3 f o r Chester Nimmo, "that great man who was once my husband," to precede " r e v e l a t i o n s " which are soon t o appear defaming his name. Throughout the book she attempts to answer charges against Nimmo tha t on both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c l e v e l s he was dishonest, h y p o c r i t i c a l , , a "wangler," and a s e l f - c e n t r e d e g o t i s t . On the p r i v a t e l e v e l , she defends him a g a i n s t the charge t h a t i t was only the hope of her f i v e thousand pounds f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l advancement t h a t induced him to agree to a marriage of convenience when she became pregnant by her s o l d i e r cousin, Jim L a t t e r . She suggests t h a t Nimmo may not have been informed of her c o n d i t i o n by Aunt L a t t e r , who arranged the marriage, and i n s i s t s t h a t Chester married her p r i m a r i l y because he was i n love with her. Nina a l s o defends Chester against the charge t h a t he kept her a pri s o n e r against h e r - w i l l . She i n s i s t s that she f a i l e d to run away to 19 Jim, f o r example, because her own c o n f l i c t between l o y -a l t y and l o v e prevented her f e e t from moving u n t i l the t r a i n p u l l e d out. Nina denies a l s o , t h a t Chester's d i s -couragement of her son Tom's i n t e r e s t i n a r t and the theatre was responsible f o r h i s f a i l u r e and subsequent s u i c i d e . Chester had a great a n x i e t y concerning Tom, she says, and could not be held r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the overpower-i n g i n f l u e n c e he had upon the boy. Nina f i n d s i t more d i f -f i c u l t to defend Chester's a t t a c k s upon former f r i e n d s — h i s ruthless, expose of Goold, an outspoken c r i t i c of Chester's war p o l i c i e s , and h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e with Jim's campaign against the Europeanization of the pagan Lugas i n N i g e r i a — but she suggests that even i n these two cases Nimmo's p o l -i t i c a l sense was sound even though h i s a c t i o n s were suspect. On the p u b l i c l e v e l , Nina f i n d s i t imperative to defend Nimmo against s p e c i f i c charges such as the accusa-t i o n s of crooked dealings i n the infamous "Contract Case" (JPG, 215); the charges of "hypocrisy and chicane" concerning h i s adoption of the vote-catching p a c i f i s t l i n e i n the 1913 e l e c t i o n ; and the accusations that he was a " t r a i t o r to h i s pledged word" i n the "great b e t r a y a l " of 1913 when he accept-ed a p o r t f o l i o i n Asquith's War Cabinet. Nina may b e l i e v e that her c h i e f purpose i n Pr i s o n e r of Grace i s to j u s t i f y Chester Nimmo. But i n a very 20 feminine manner she immediately s e i z e s the opportunity to defend h e r s e l f against a t t a c k s — l a u n c h e d i n most cases by Nimmo's own f r i e n d s and supporters, the e v a n g e l i c a l chapel-goers who form the bulk of h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s . She defends h e r s e l f a g a i n s t the charge t h a t she i s the " s c a r l e t woman" (PG, 350) who "corrupted / her_7 poor husband, not only i n s o u l but body" (PG, 1 1 3 ) — t h e " e v i l i n f l u e n c e " which "so long encompassed our beloved l e a d e r " (PG, 350). She re-fu t e s accusations t h a t she has l e d Chester a s t r a y by teach-i n g him to l o v e l u x u r y and high s o c i e t y ; she launches out at her a t t a c k e r s who blame her f o r the s o - c a l l e d "wives' conspiracy''' i n which she supposedly encouraged Daisy i n her r e b e l l i o n against the tyranny of her husband, Goold, (PG, 118), and denies t h a t she seduced Tom from h i s f i l i a l d u t i e s . F i n a l l y , at "the end of the novel when Nimmo i s attempting a p o l i t i c a l comeback a f t e r two defeats i n the post-war L i b e r a l d i s a s t e r s , Nina t r i e s desperately to ex-p l a i n her complicated motives i n accepting h i s presence a t Palm Cottage and i n submitting to h i s sexual a t t a c k s w h i l e s t i l l c l a i m i n g to be desperately i n l o v e w i t h her new hus-band, James L a t t e r . Is Nina a r e l i a b l e c r i t i c ? I s her judgment to be t r u s t e d concerning Nimmo, L a t t e r , Tom, and h e r s e l f ? Aunt L a t t e r thought not, and sometimes Nina h e r s e l f wondered whether she was merely making excuses simply t o hide from 21 h e r s e l f her "own weakness of character and love of peace" (PG, 3 3 $ ) . One of the major tasks of t h i s study w i l l be to attempt to assess how much of the t r u t h Nina r e a l l y perceives; to determine to what extent she i s the " c r e d i b l e witness" Cary thought her to be. But Prisoner of Grace i s more than an a p o l o g i a — i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a study of character and a prese n t a t i o n of the intense drama th a t r e s u l t s when three p r o t a g o n i s t s clash as they s t r i v e to adjust t o i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s i t -u a t i o n s . Character i s Cary's c h i e f i n t e r e s t — t o him great-ness i n a novel depends upon the depth of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . And the purpose of t h i s study i s to show t h a t i n P r i s o n e r  of Grace there i s t h i s depth, and that i t i s d i r e c t l y r e -l a t e d to Cary's d e p i c t i o n of character through s t y l e . Through Nina's eyes the reader does gain h i s f i r s t view of Nimmo and L a t t e r , but the p r o f u n d i t y i s c h i e f l y i n the emer-gence of the n a r r a t o r h e r s e l f . Nina r e v e a l s her e s s e n t i a l nature through her s p e c i a l i z e d use of pa r e n t h e s i s , i n her metaphorical p a t t e r n , through a l l u s i o n and quotations and by her s t y l e of humour and n a r r a t i v e power. As Wright says of the t r i l o g i e s i n gener a l : " S t y l e becomes the man or woman na r r a t i n g the s t o r y . " ^ Even a cursory examination of the general s t y l e of P r i s o n e r of Grace t e l l s much about the n a r r a t o r . Nina 2 2 w r i t e s i n f o r m a l l y as i f t o an i n t i m a t e f r i e n d and c o n f i d -ant, expressing her judgments with verve and c o n v i c t i o n but with complete a r t l e s s n e s s . The s t y l e i s l o q u a c i o u s — t h e words and phrases f l o w out unceasingly; the tone i s r e a l i s -t i c and frank--fromt".th'e reader there are no concealments. In general, Nina's s t y l e abounds i n dialogue. She sets i t going and the conversation extends the n a r r a t i v e , reveals the characters, gives contending p o i n t s of view and under-l i n e s her own personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s t y l e i s feminized by her use of i t a l i c s f o r emphasis or i r o n y , and by her con-t i n u a l employment of i n v o l u t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s . Often her re a c t i o n s are emotional r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l and her r e f l e c t i o n s , c h i l d l i k e as w e l l as mature. Nina's s t y l e i s i n t e l l i g e n t and a n a l y t i c a l ; she shows w i l l i n g n e s s to look at a l l sides of a question, t o g i v e the point of view of others even though t h i s may be contrary t o her own. The f e a t u r e of the s t y l e which makes t h i s q u a l i t y most obvious i s Nina's c o n t i n u a l use of brackets. In h i s preface to Prisoner of Grace, Cary r e l a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y he faced i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the point of view and s t y l e of t h i s n o v e l . Apparently he s t a r t e d out using the f i r s t person but found that Nina " t e l l i n g on her husband, analy z i n g h i s motives" appeared mean and small and t h e r e f o r e made her, as he s a i d , "an u n r e l i a b l e witness." The mood of the novel was 23 too c y n i c a l and " t o l d n othing true of the p o l i t i c a l ex-perience." Then Cary t r i e d to use the t h i r d person but the c e n t r a l scene a t the s t a t i o n "did not come through." In despair he devised a " f a l s e f i r s t , " t hat i s he created a new character, a brother to Aunt L a t t e r , a r e t i r e d c i v i l servant who was devoted to Nina and who was t o t e l l the s t o r y . According to Cary t h i s character "ran away with the book" and everything was " f a l s i f i e d and cheapened." When Cary was ready to throw away a year's work i t suddenly occurred to him that Nina had a "brackety mind," was e s s e n t i a l l y a woman who could understand another's p o i n t of view," that a l l her judgments were q u a l i f i e d . "And," s a i d Cary, " q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s go i n t o b r a c k e t s . " Cary i n s i s t e d that the brackets made the book p o s s i b l e , "without the brackets there would have been no book" (PG, Almost a t h i r d of the novel i s enclosed i n these parentheses so a good d e a l of a t t e n t i o n must be given to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s t y l e . P r i m a r i l y , the use of the brackets reveals Nina's probing q u a l i t y of mind, her i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness of the r e a l t r u t h behind the appearance. This i s shown i n her des-c r i p t i o n of a scene w i t h Chester which f o l l o w s Nimmo's den-i a l t h a t he was aware of Nina's pregnancy before t h e i r mar-r i a g e . The suggestion that she had p r a c t i s e d treachery has created an u t t e r l y impossible s i t u a t i o n f o r Nina: 24 And as soon as Chester came to the bedroom (he was very l a t e - - I daresay on purpose, and I was already i n bed)A I s a i d t h a t now we were alone together I hoped he would admit the t r u t h . "Don't you see," I s a i d , "that you are p u t t i n g me i n an impossible p o s i t i o n by making me r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r such a mean act? And how can I ever t r u s t you i f you do such t h i n g s ? " And when he simply made no answer at a l l , I was so enraged by what I thought h i s impudence tha t I threw back the cl o t h e s and was t r y i n g to jump out of bed on the other side to run away from him, when he caught me by the arm and s a i d i n an anxious v o i c e (but I thought i t a l s o sounded cunning)B } " I see now, of course, how you could make such a mistake." (PG, 43). The f i r s t bracket (A) c i t e d above shows t h a t Nina was aware of Chester's f a v o u r i t e technique which she c a l l s the "Time Game"; that i s , t o do nothing u n t i l your opponent i s i n a weakened c o n d i t i o n . Bracket (B) shows that Nina i s w e l l aware of Nimmo's shades of t o n a l q u a l i t y which makes h i s concern very p o s s i b l y a cloak f o r f u r t h e r s t r a t e g y . This use of brackets f o r the a n a l y s i s of Chester's f e e l i n g s and motives i s i l l u s t r a t e d again l a t e r i n t h i s same scene. Chester i s speaking of Nina's goodness and of the n e c e s s i t y of beginning again i n the new l i f e of the s p i r i t : And he was so moved and e x c i t e d (and i t was a true f e e l i n g even i f he had given i t to himself) t h a t , of course I s a i d that I d i d understand. ... (PG, 46). In t h i s bracket c i t e d above, Nina honestly admits th a t Nimmo was not f o o l i n g , t h a t h i s d e s i r e f o r forgiveness 25 was genuine. But she a l s o i n c l u d e s the damning accusation that he had given t h i s emotion to h i m s e l f . Another use of brackets i s to a l l o w Nina to analyze her own f e e l i n g s . For example, a f t e r Chester was el e c t e d to the C o u n c i l , Nina f i n d s the "impossible" s i t u -a t i o n of her marriage much e a s i e r to accept than she had imagined but she i s bewildered by being at the same time emotionally u n s a t i s f i e d : As I say, j u s t then I sometimes thought that I was growing, to love the man, and t h i s pleased me very much because, tho' I had been so r e -l i e v e d to f i n d that marriage was p o s s i b l e with only p o l i t e n e s s , I was now (which was unexpected, but perhaps Chester by s t i r r i n g up a l l my nerves had made me l e s s contentable) much greedier f o r happiness. I thought how ni c e marriage must be f o r people who were " r e a l l y " i n l o v e . (PG, 37). Here, as can be seen, she has used the brackets f o r a psycho-l o g i c a l explanation of t h i s f e e l i n g . This use of brackets f o r i n t r o s p e c t i v e a n a l y s i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d again a t the climax of the romantic seduction scene with Jim i n the gar-den. Both Jim and Nina are i n a state of emotional ecstacy. The brackets are used to comment upon the event i n r e t r o -spect : And so we walked on again, and went on debating f o r a l o n g time; or we thought we were debating, when perhaps we were enjoying happiness which (as I dare say we knew i n our bones)A- could never 26 again be that enchanted joy of our f i r s t communion. I should have l i k e d i t to go on f o r ever, but nothing goes on even f o r a short time.... And at l a s t , Jim, growing more and more i m p a t i -ent (though, of course, nothing on earth could have s a t i s f i e d our f e e l i n g s at that t i m e — I mean no a c t i o n p o s s i b l e to human beings),B s a i d t h a t we could never go back to the o l d miserable f a l s e l i f e , even f o r an hour.(PG, 84). In the bracket (A) c i t e d above, Nina's mature judgment shows that she and Jim, even at t h a t time, were aware of the t r u t h ; and i n bracket (B) she gives a penetrating a n a l y s i s of the general t r u t h of the s i t u a t i o n . The second bracket also i l l u s t r a t e s Nina's f a v o u r i t e h a b i t of making a s t a t e -ment and then r e i n f o r c i n g and c l a r i f y i n g i t f u r t h e r w i t h i n a bracket. Brackets a l l o w Nina to g e n e r a l i z e from a s p e c i f i c event, to advance p h i l o s o p h i c judgments about l i f e and p o l i -t i c s . For example Nina l e a r n s t h a t when Chester bought Cousin Slapton's London house, Slapton wrote o f f Jim's debts, while Aunt L a t t e r , who had suggested the idea, r e c e i v e d a new s i l k umbrella. Concerning a l l t h i s apparent b a r g a i n i n g , Nina says: (people do not make such bargains, they do not need to have anything d e f i n i t e — t h e y j u s t do each other the good turns that are s a t i s f a c t o r y to each other).(PG. 129). A second example of brackets s e t t i n g o f f p h i l o s o p h i c comment 27 occurs when Nina i s d e s c r i b i n g Nimmo's obsession with the problem of whether or. not to lead p a c i f i s t groups i n a Cabinet r e v o l t i n 1913* So much'was t h i s d e c i s i o n weigh-i n g upon Chester's mind that even " ( a t a most unexpected moment when he seemed i n t e n t on anything but p o l i t i c s ) " he suddenly c r i e d out, "What do they take me f o r ? " Commenting upon the a l l pervading i n f l u e n c e of p o l i t i c s , Nina says: (But I had n o t i c e d long since how p o l i t i c s goes on spreading through one's whole l i f e . I t i s l i k e "drains"--you may be i n the garden but they seem to hang on the a i r , to get even i n t o the f l o w e r s . You smell a rose and i t reminds you of the plumber.) (PG, 251). Often such statements as those c i t e d above seem to echo Cary's own opinions presented elsewhere i n h i s n o n - f i c t i o n a l work. This suggests t h a t the brackets are, at l e a s t t o a c e r t a i n extent, a technique f o r i n t e r p o l a t i o n . But Nina echoes Cary so very often o u t s i d e the brackets as w e l l as i n that t h i s theory i s not r e a l l y p l a u s i b l e . A theory more e a s i l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d concerning the use of brackets i s that they help to overcome a major d i f -f i c u l t y i n novel w r i t i n g discussed by Cary i n A r t and R e a l i t y . This i s the problem of keeping the reader aware of the pro-gress of the n a r r a t i v e without breaking the emotional mood of the c o n f l i c t . Nina tosses i n t o b rackets, almost as an 28 afterthought, scraps of e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n to keep the reader up to date. For example, when Nina l i s t e n s to the e x c i t e d d i s c u s s i o n between Chester and Goold f o l l o w i n g the r i o t at the Anti-Boer meeting at Chorlock H a l l , she i s annoyed by the men's b l a t a n t almost s a d i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o -wards supporters of the war e f f o r t , and has to c o n s t r a i n h e r s e l f from openly g i v i n g her views. I was j u s t going to say that i t was n a t u r a l f o r people with r e l a t i v e s a t the f r o n t (one of my cousins was k i l l e d i n the f i r s t month, and we had j u s t heard that week of Jim's being wounded) to f e e l the same i n d i g n a t i o n a t the same remark abus-in g the troops. But I d i d not. ... (PG, 49). Now the f a c t t h a t Jim.was wounded i s most important i n t h i s s t o r y but Nina q u i c k l y throws i t i n without i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the heightened f e e l i n g of the moment. Brackets are also used by Nina i n her d e s c r i p t i o n of characters where apperception accompanies the v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n her f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n of Daisy: She would lean her great cheek against the cow's r i b s ( i t would bulge out sideways and q u i t e shut her eye, already small enough; she had the s m a l l e s t l i t t l e Dresden blue eyes, r e a l "peepers") and present to me her enormous hips i n a spotted blue p r i n t , while her great pink hands and mottled arms pumped up and down. But she had a shy broad g r i n (which caused both her eyes to disappear at once) which made one f e e l suddenly c h e e r f u l and also fond of her. (PG, 99-100) 29 This preoccupation with eyes--why they opened and shut and what t h i s r e v ealed about the c h a r a c t e r — i s shown again i n Nina's d e s c r i p t i o n of Daisy's husband, Goold. Once again the bracket gives the mental r e f l e c t i o n on the p h y s i c a l p e r c e p t i o n : ...Goold, l o o k i n g at me w i t h h i s b i g dog's eyes (hi s eyes protruded, and always had r a t h e r a mad look as i f to say, "You won't l i k e i t , but who c a r e s " ) , . . . (PG, 51). The brackets a l s o serve another purpose i n a l l o w i n g Nina to d e s c r i b e the gestures, stance or expressions of a per-son w h i l e he i s speaking. This technique i s used p a r t i c u l a r -l y i n d e s c r i b i n g Nimmo. E a r l y i n t h e i r married l i f e , Chester seeks Nina's opinion on a c i r c u l a r a t which he has been working f o r several days. Nina, a f r a i d of the storm that would r e s u l t from i t s extreme views on " C l a s s , " ques-t i o n s the wisdom of p u b l i s h i n g i t . Chester, vexed and de-f l a t e d , t e a r s up the c i r c u l a r : You don't know what c l a s s i s , " he s a i d (and I saw him shaking w i t h excitement). "You don't know how d i f f e r e n t you are. Why you would have more i n common with a n e g r o — I mean a negro g e n t l e -man—than wi t h B i l l Code". ( B i l l was our garden-er f o r one day a week). "You t h i n k me a cad" (and he made a face as i f he were going to burst i n t o t e a r s ) . "No, no, that's not f a i r — n o t t r u e " (he put out h i s hand and j u s t touched me on the bre a s t , as i f to say, "Forgive me") "you f e e l me a cad." (PG, 3 3 ) . 30 These v i s u a l p i c t u r e s w i t h i n the brackets' t e l l as much about Chester as h i s a c t u a l words. A second example of t h i s use occurs during the scene i n which Aunt L a t t e r q u a r r e l s w i t h Bootham and thus provides the excuse f o r Chester to get r i d o f her. Chester says nothing t h a t would imply h i s d i s a p p r o v a l o f her but h i s a c t i o n s , as described i n the brackets, give him away. "Excuse me," Chester s a i d (he was standing with h i s hands clasped together, and h i s head a l i t t l e on one s i d e , and h i s eyes turned a l i t t l e upwards and sideways, i n what I used to t h i n k of as h i s shop-walker a t t i t u d e ) . " I am r a t h e r at a l o s s . " (PG, 149) Aunt L a t t e r , who was quite as quick as Chester to sense a shade of meaning, understands t h a t she must leave at once. I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t the brackets are not a l -ways used f o r e x c e p t i o n a l l y important reasons. Often they are included merely f o r a s i d e s ; f o r Nina's l i t t l e womanly remarks about her clothes or appearance; f o r i r o n i c comment or simply f o r adding emphasis. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that on occasion, i n the e f f o r t of w r i t i n g the s t o r y , Cary him-s e l f became a l i t t l e c a r e l e s s of t h e i r use. But without doubt the brackets are of v i t a l importance to the s t y l e and Nina's character emerges through t h e i r use. Her c o n t i n u a l play of mind upon the n a r r a t i v e r e v e a l s the b r i g h t n e s s of h 31 i n t e l l e c t , the quickness of her v i s u a l perception, the p h i l o s o p h i c depths of her nature, the sharpness of her w i t and above a l l her a b i l i t y t o evaluate v a r y i n g p o i n t s of view, i n c l u d i n g her own. Nina's v i s u a l a c u i t y i s shown most c l e a r l y i n the wealth of metaphor i n P r i s o n e r of Grace. "Joyce Cary's char-a c t e r s must see i f they are t o l i v e wholly,"'' says Pamela Johnson, and c e r t a i n l y Nina possesses t h i s g i f t of s i g h t . Her metaphors r e v e a l much of her background and i n t e r e s t s and by " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n " the q u a l i t i e s of her psyche. The metaphors f a l l l o o s e l y i n t o c a tegories; those r e l a t e d t o n a t u r a l phenomena such as a i r and sky, sea storms and darkness; those p e r t a i n i n g t o c h i l d r e n and animals; others a s s o c i a t e d w i t h war and c a p t i v e s , and many r e f e r r i n g t o sickness and the human body. Some of these metaphors des-c r i b e the p e a c e f u l and pleasant, others, the v i o l e n t and grotesque. They vary from short v i v i d p i c t o r i a l f l a s h e s t o long i n v o l v e d analogies. Several times during the n a r r a t i v e of P r i s o n e r of  Grace, Nina escapes t e m p o r a r i l y from her s t a t e of bondage i n t o the e x t r a o r d i n a r y happiness of r e l e a s e . In seeking to describe these occasions, Hina u s u a l l y makes use of meta-phors connected w i t h the sky and a i r . Of the "deep peace f u l 32 complete, j o y " of pleasant days of s a i l i n g on calm seas with Jim, Nina speaks o f : ...the g l i t t e r i n g atmosphere through which we s l i p p e d l i k e dream r o y a l t i e s i n Hans Andersen, among a noise l i k e f o u n t a i n s , of the immense calm sky a l l round us,...that such alarming r e -marks (concerning p r i v a t e passions) came to me without the l e a s t shock. I t was as i f they had been rendered harmless, on the way through t h i s b e a u t i f u l transparent a i r f u l l of contemplation as l u c i d as i t s e l f . ...(PG, 79). A i r and sky are again the metaphorical subject used to d e s c r i b e the "immense calm g a i e t y " that Nina f e e l s at the boat races at Oxford w i t h Tom: There was a t w i t t e r i n g sound of voices a l l round, sounding, as they always seem to sound over water, very l i g h t and as i t were f u l l of a i r , a f e e l i n g of l a r g e s t r e t c h e s of sky and time surrounding us,... (PG, 246). Again i n her escape to B u c k f i e l d i n ho r r o r of Nimmo's back-stage b l o c k i n g of Jim's Luga meeting, Nina again f e e l s t h i s joy of r e l e a s e . Her mind seems to expand to the f a r reaches of the sky: Something tense i n me seemed to d i s s o l v e away i n that sleep, so that my mind,... seemed to have spread i t s e l f abroad a l l through the house and yards; even the gardens and f i e l d s , the l a k e ( f u l l of weeds and mud) and the l o c a l sky. For one thought of B u c k f i e l d as having i t s own sky, enclosed i n an i r r e g u l a r w a l l of low h i l l s and scraggly w o o d s , . (PG, 296). 33 But f o r Nina, sky and a i r do not always have connotations of peace and happiness; s k i e s can be cloudy and a i r can be f o u l and poisonous. She uses gloomier sky and a i r metaphors to d e s c r i b e the world of p o l i t i c s . Nina speaks of the " p a r t y " man l i v i n g a l l h i s l i f e i n t h a t " d i r t y c o l d f o g of propaganda and b i t t e r n e s s " (PG, 160), and complains of t h a t "congested a i r of p o l i t i c s . " (PG, 19). Again, when she i s f o r c e d to meet with p o l i t i c a l people d u r i n g Chester's wave of p o p u l a r i t y a f t e r the Lilmouth r i o t , she d e s c r i b e s her strange u n n a t u r a l h o r r o r by u s i n g a cloud metaphor: ...the strange and h o r r i b l e f e e l i n g which afterwards became so f a m i l i a r to me (but not l e s s h o r r i b l e ) , of l i v i n g i n a world without any s o l i d o b j e c t s a t a l l , of f l o a t i n g day and n i g h t through clouds o f words and schemes and hopes and ambitions and c a l c u l a t i o n s . ... (PG, 59-60). Nina uses storm metaphors to d e s c r i b e Chester's v i t a l ener-gy and the e l e c t r i c atmosphere which he c r e a t e d around him i n h i s p o l i t i c a l l i f e . At the Lilmouth meeting Nina says: you could f e e l a t once what i s c a l l e d " e l e c t r i c i t y " i n the a i r , and i t i s r e a l l y l i k e the f e e l i n g a f t e r a f l a s h of l i g h t n i n g when you are w a i t i n g f o r the thunder c l a p . (PG, 56). On another o c c a s i o n , Nina uses an earthquake analogy to d e s c r i b e her f e e l i n g s of f r e n z y a t what she c a l l s the "mysterious" d i f f i c u l t i e s which o b s t r u c t e d t h e h i r i n g of a h a l l 34 f o r the Luga meeting: B u t now I had the f e e l i n g m y s e l f — t h e y say the most t e r r i b l e e f f e c t of an earthquake i s the sense of immediate d i s t r u s t and f e a r which i t b rings upon people. The w a l l s of t h e i r own homes which had been t h e i r most c e r t a i n pro-t e c t i o n — a s f a m i l i a r as t h e i r husbands and c h i l d r e n — s u d d e n l y become a t h r e a t , a d e c e i t f u l screen behind which f r e s h d i s a s t e r s (floods and l o o t e r s ) may be creeping up; the whole s o l i d world becomes treacherous and d e c e i t f u l . And that i s why people i n earthquakes go mad. C e r t a i n l y I was thrown i n t o a k i n d of f r e n z y . (PG, 29D. But the greatest number of Nina's metaphors r e l a t e to the sea and s a i l i n g . Nina i s obsessed by the sea, hat-i n g the t e r r o r of i t s storms, p r a i s i n g the b l i s s of i t s calms. In one analogy she compares "the l o v e l y touch o f the water" bearing one up with " i t s enormous m i l d s t r e n g t h " (PG, 7 6 ) , with the f e e l i n g of being c a r r i e d by her mother "the s o f t warmness of her body, and the s o f t bouncing move-ment of her walk" (PG, 7 6 ) . B u t , on r e f l e c t i o n , Nina de-cides that the f e e l i n g was only s i m i l a r i n the escape (she had been rescued from h i d i n g i n t e r r o r i n some narrow h a l l of a strange house), and t h a t the "bosom" of the sea was not at a l l l i k e a mother: I t i s too c o l d , too b e a u t i f u l . . . a power, stronger than stone and smoother than snow, the most b e a u t i f u l and strongest t h i n g i n the world,... (PG, 7 7 ) . 3 5 In two other l o n g e r a n a l o g i e s , Nina uses childhood s a i l -i n g experiences to j u s t i f y Chester's p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . In one of these Nina d e s c r i b e s a t e r r i f y i n g es-capade with Jim, when, i n answer to a supposed dare, he s a i l s out to the open sea i n a bad storm. When they have reached "beyond the head" and the seas are b r e a k i n g r i g h t a long the deck (PG, 226), both c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e t h a t they have l i t t l e chance of g e t t i n g back i n t o the e s t u a r y . Jim shouts t h a t he has no i n t e n t i o n o f g o i n g back; t h a t t h i s i s j u s t the o p p o r t u n i t y they have been w a i t i n g f o r to v i s i t a s m a l l f i s h i n g v i l l a g e about ten m i l e s along the c o a s t . Nina, knowing t h a t the s e t t l e m e n t l i e s amongst dangerous rocks and t i d e s c r i e s out i n p r o t e s t , but Jim merely t u r n s down wind. They b a t t e r forward through waves "sending up s p u r t s and f o u n t a i n s twenty f e e t highP and would without doubt have been drowned had they not by a l u c k y chance h i t an o i l patch where the f o l l o w i n g waves l i f t e d them-over the bar i n t o safety.. Now the whole p o i n t i n Nina's t e l l i n g t h i s s t o r y i s to p o i n t out t h a t i t was Jim's pretence of having planned the whole journey, h i s making the whole a f f a i r " r a t h e r g l o r i o u s i n s t e a d of a scapegoat escapade" t h a t had "kept her up and perhaps saved them from being swamped i n the f i r s t f i v e minutes" (PG, 229). And the analogy she draws from t h i s i s t h a t even as no one would a t t a c k Jim f o r t h i s de-c e p t i o n , so no one has a r i g h t to denounce Chester f o r an 3 6 o c c a s i o n a l p r e t e n c e i n h i s p o l i t i c a l s t o r m s : No one w o u l d dream o f c a l l i n g J i m a h y p o c r i t e f o r p r e t e n d i n g t o h i m s e l f a n d me, i n t h e m i d d l e o f a v i o l e n t s t o r m , t h a t we w e r e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g r e a s o n a b l e a n d p o s s i b l e . And no one h a s a n y r i g h t t o c a l l C h e s t e r , who h a d t e n t i m e s more i m a g i n a t i o n t h a n J i m , a h y p o c r i t e f o r p r e t e n d i n g i n t h e m i d d l e o f a p o l i t i c a l s t o r m ( w h i c h went on a l l h i s l i f e ; he. was n e v e r " i n h a r b o u r " — t h e r e i s no s u c h t h i n g i n p o l i t i c s ) t h a t he h a d a l w a y s meant t h i s o r t h a t , when, i n f a c t , he h a d o n l y t a k e n n o t e o f i t a s a "way o u t . " (PG, 2 3 0 ) . A n o t h e r s e a a n a l o g y e x p l a i n s C h e s t e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e c h a n g e d mode o f b e h a v i o u r o f t h e T w e n t i e s . T h i s s t r a n g e e x p e r i e n c e o c c u r s on N i n a ' s f i r s t s a i l i n g e x -p e d i t i o n w i t h M a j o r F r e e r a n d J i m . She w akens i n t h e c a b i n v e r y e a r l y a nd h u r r i e s on d e c k t o v i e w w i t h d e l i g h t t h e b e a u t y o f t h e s e a s c a p e . B u t when s h e h a p p e n s t o l o o k t o -w a r d s t h e s h o r e s u d d e n l y s h e g i v e s a c r y o f h o r r o r : . . . f o r t h e w h o l e s h o r e o f l a s t e v e n i n g h a d d i s a p p e a r e d ; and when I w h i r l e d r o u n d t o l o o k p a s t the s c h o o n e r , t h e v i l l a g e on t h e o t h e r s h o r e h a d t u r n e d i n t o a wood w i t h a g a s w o r k s i n i t . And y e t a l l t h e b o a t s w e r e a r o u n d me e x a c t l y i n t h e same p l a c e s — i t was a s i f some m a l i c i o u s demon h a d p l a y e d a c o m p l i c a t e d t r i c k o r I h a d gone mad a n d s i m p l y c o u l d n o t u n d e r -s t a n d a n y t h i n g a n y m o r e . (PG, 3 3 7 ) . J i m w i t h a f u r i o u s g l a r e s t a l k s p a s t h e r s t a t i n g : "You ass.' We've o n l y swung w i t h t h e t i d e . " 3 7 And even before he had dived down the hatch, the whole scene changed again, l i k e a panto-mime when the gauge i s p u l l e d up, and came out quite s o l i d and ordinary as the Mulhaven es-tuary seen the other way round at about twenty yards downstream. . . . i t looked so s o l i d and ordinary that the whole view had l o s t i t s s p a r k l e . . . (PH* 3 3 7 ) . Nina s t a t e s the analogy here very c o n c i s e l y : I t was r e a l l y I and Tom who had been swung round i n the t i d e of those years a f t e r the war and Chester who had stayed, and i t was only be-cause n e a r l y everyone had turned round with me t h a t I didn't n o t i c e i t ; and when I d i d n o t i c e the " s o l i d ground" of Chester and h i s evangeli-c a l s I was disgusted by i t s d u l l n e s s . ( P G , 3 3 7 - & ) . Not only i s Nina a f r a i d of storms at sea but she i s a l s o t e r r i f i e d of the n i g h t and the dark. As a c h i l d she would come rus h i n g i n t o bed with Jim, pursued by ap-p a r i t i o n s which haunted her. Night t e r r o r s plague her even i n the l a s t scenes as Jim's wife i n Not Honour More. Therefore, i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t these f e a r s should appear i n metaphor. For example, Nimmo's emotional hold upon her i s expressed i n terms of darkness: "His love and anger, both swallowed me down a l i t t l e f a r t h e r i n t o a h o r r i b l e s t u f f y darkness... (PG, 1 7 5 ) . Again when hatred of Nimmo comes to the surface: Hatred kept me awake at n i g h t , and even i f I s l e p t I seemed to be occupied w i t h i t l i k e an i l l n e s s which makes one's sleep i n a h o s p i t a l a ki n d of haunted "possession." (£G, 3 0 7 ) . 33 At times Nina's s t a t e of "possession" borders on mental unbalance. Her nerves play such a prominent part i n her l i f e t h a t they also appear i n metaphor. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s when, unable to l i e to Nimmo that she lov e s him, she s t a t e s t h a t "The nerve which wanted to hate a b s o l u t e l y h e l d down my tongue"(PG, 288). Nina uses a nerve metaphor again to describe her r e a c t i o n s at the n i g h t club where she witnesses Tom's loathsome impersonation of a Nimmo speech: l e t the v o i c e , the gestures, a b s o l u t e l y f i x e d one i n a ki n d of trance and one could not keep out the words, one could not prevent them enter-i n g i n ; i t was as though they simply took hold of some nerve and danced one's soul upon i t l i k e a puppet on a s t r i n g . ( P G , 341). I t i s to be noted that i n the quotation c i t e d above, Nina a l s o uses a puppet metaphor. Puppets frequent-l y appear as a subject f o r comparison as do other forms of c h i l d r e n ' s entertainment, such as zoos, c a r n i v a l s , panto-mimes and p a r t i e s . Quite f r e q u e n t l y she uses these enter-tainment metaphors to describe Nimmo. Sometimes they are employed to lampoon h i s grotesque a n t i c s ; at other times they express Nina's maternal f e e l i n g towards him. Chester i n great excitement i s l i k e "A c h i l d i n a c a r n i v a l of animals" or " l i k e a small boy who has gone a l i t t l e mad at the end of a p a r t y " (PG, 61). Chester, exhausted a f t e r a strenuous day of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , would " c o l l a p s e l i k e a c h i l d who has had too much excitement at a party and does 3 9 not know what to do w i t h i t s e l f " (PG, 2 2 3 ) . Much l a t e r , when Nina had been Jim's w i f e f o r two years, she i s s t a r t l e d by the change she sees i n Nimmo. The c h i l d i s h q u a l i t i e s seem to have become predominant and grotesque. Here Nina uses s e v e r a l of these entertainment metaphors to show t h i s change: His long upper l i p seemed s t i l l longer and h i s nose was t h r u s t out l i k e a crag. But h i s ener-g e t i c " p r o p h e t i c " head, which seemed to have grown bigger t i l l i t v/as out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n , was stuck upon a body so d r i e d and shrunk that i t appeared l i k e a d o l l ' s , made of wood and saw-dust; there was something angular and j e r k y i n a l l h i s gestures which suggested the same i d e a . He was l i k e a marionette i m i t a t i n g himself. (PG, 3 7 0 ) . Nina develops one long entertainment analogy to show that Chester's r a p i d aging has r e s u l t e d c h i e f l y from the s t r a i n of h i s wartime r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Here her general mood i s sympathetic, c o n t r i t e , even p e n i t e n t . For her comparison she uses a childhood r e c o l l e c t i o n of Christmas p a r t i e s at Slapton. The major t r e a t at these gatherings had been a magic l a n t e r n show i n which the l o c a l operator had always added to the t h r i l l of the performance by p u t t i n g i n a new s l i d e before t a k i n g out the o l d one. " T h i s , " says Nina: ...gave us c h i l d r e n a strange and d e l i g h t f u l sense of being f o r the moment suspended between two states of excitement and enjoying at once both the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the past and the a n t i -c i p a t i o n of the f u t u r e , already throwing i t s b r i g h t suggestions on the screen.(PG, 3 1 0 ) . 40 What brings t h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n to her mind i s the sight of an extraordinary shadow thrown on the wall of t h e i r bedroom by Chester i n Baggy pyjamas kneeling on a rug i n front of the newly l i t f i r e . The shadow, says Nina, looked l i k e "a witch with an immense chin and nose and goggles and her thin hair blowing up i n a draught." Suddenly, observing Chester, she seems to see a double v i s i o n , a "kind of transparent scene": ...the Chester I had known f o r more than twenty years grew suddenly dim and melted into the worried haggard f i e r c e old man, who then stood before me l i k e an apparition. (PG, 310) . And i t i s here that Nina r e a l i z e s that Chester has changed and that i n a r e a l sense he i s a victim of the war. As she says, "he, too, was a wounded s o l d i e r " (PG, 311) . Prisoner of Grace deals c h i e f l y with war eras so i t i s quite l o g i c a l that Nina's c o l l e c t i o n of metaphors would include many dealing with m i l i t a r y subjects. When Nimmo deserted his p a c i f i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s to j o i n the War Cabinet, Nina talks of p o l i t i c s as a type of war: P o l i t i c s , a f t e r . a l l , i s a kind of war (and i n many places they s t i l l shoot or even torture the defeated), and the people who are f i g h t i n g f o r th e i r l i v e s (at least t h e i r p o l i t i c a l l i v e s ) have quite a d i f f e r e n t view of things from those who only work and eat for them. (PG, 225). 41 Nina perceives that Chester, l i k e an army commander, g l o r i e s i n c o n f l i c t and secret diplomacy: "He was used (I imagine from childhood) to l i v e i n a world of manoeuvres; he was always t a k i n g up p o s i t i o n s and d i g g i n g entrenchments. He was very good at the a r t " (PG, 174). But as f o r h e r n e l f , she adds: "But I could not bear to be always at war; I could not l e a r n to l i v e w i t h a s e c r e t enemy, even when he loved me" (PG, 174). NimmoTs major defeat at the p o l l s a f t e r the war a f f e c t s him disastrously,, Nina understands that something has broken i n him but at the same time, know-in g him and h i s methods so w e l l , she i s convinced t h a t he i s "already making, out of the d e b r i s , some new p o s i t i o n of defence or attack." Chester's new adjustment i s described i n m i l i t a r y metaphor: "Chester's new trenches, h i s new b a t t e r i e s aimed at the L a t t e r s , made me f e e l as i t I were under a r t i l l e r y o bservation, even when he was not shooting at me" (PG, 334-335). Nina i n c l u d e s i n her m i l i t a r y meta-phors c e r t a i n " c a p t i v e of war" comparisons to describe her p o s i t i o n as Nimmo's p r i s o n e r . One of these occurs when she i s d e s c r i b i n g her complete submission during her "conver-s i o n " a f t e r the second a b o r t i v e s u i c i d e attempt: And he turned round and went back to bed while I f o l l o w e d l i k e a t r o j a n c a p t i v e on a rope, wi t h a f e e l i n g of submission so acute and com-p l e t e and sudden that i t was comical.(PG, 309). 42 Nina makes a very d i f f e r e n t use of the " s l a v e r y " metaphor to d e s c r i b e her regimented l i f e as Jim's w i f e : But one day when I was wondering how I endured such a ' l i f e of s l a v e r y " , i t s t r u c k me t h a t I was amused at these b i g words, and t h a t I d i d not want the l i f e t o s t o p . . . For I saw t h a t so f a r from being Jim's s l a v e , I belonged t o myself more i n t e n s e l y than ever i n my l i f e b e f o r e . (PG, 364). I t would not be r i g h t t o conclude the study of Nina's metaphors without i n c l u d i n g one s p e c i a l b a t t l e f i e l d comparison. She uses t h i s t o d e s c r i b e Nimmo's complete i s o l a t i o n towards the end of t h e i r married l i f e . Again i t i s at the time of h i s p o l i t i c a l d e f e a t . Nina says of him: ...as I r e a l i z e d t h a t evening, he r e a l l y was alone. I t was i m p o s s i b l e any longer t o r e a c h him. He had, so to speak, i n t h i r t y y e a rs of war, made•such d e v a s t a t i o n round h i m s e l f t h a t to t a l k t o him at a l l was l i k e c a l l i n g a c r o s s a waste f u l l o f broken w a l l s and r u s t y wire and swamps of poisoned water, f u l l of dead b o d i e s , . . . (PG, 334). Nina's use of " a l l u s i o n " i n P r i s o n e r of Grace a l s o adds t o the reader's knowledge of her c h a r a c t e r . Without doubt, she i s the most l i b e r a l l y educated of the t h r e e p r o t a g o n i s t s but there are v e r y few 43 clues as to the books she had read, the music she l i k e s or the plays she has seen. Nina makes i t c l e a r t h a t she has always been a p r o l i f i c reader. Both her men are c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g to cut down on •;her habit—Nimmo by i n d i r e c t h i n t s , Jim by p h y s i c a l l y removing her s p e c t a c l e s . Whenever any s u b j e c t r e l a t i n g to books a r i s e s , Nina can always d i s c u s s i t w i t h the casualness of one to whom books are everyday acquaint-ances. Several times Nina r e f e r s to her reading of French novels. For example, i n commenting upon how l i t t l e d i s -comfort she had experienced i n her arranged marriage to Nimmo she s t a t e s : For i n s t a n c e , I had read a great deal i n French novels about the p r i v a t e agonies of g i r l s married o f f without l o v e , and I was a l i t t l e apprehensive, but I c e r t a i n l y f e l t nothing even very uncomfortable. (PG, 25-26). Sometimes she makes use of French words and expressions. Speaking of Chester's h a b i t of sending flowers or choco-l a t e s when he wanted a s p e c i a l favour, she says: what I mean i s t h a t f o r Chester these a t t e n t i -ons not only expressed g r a t i t u d e and a f f e c t i o n — they formed p a r t of a complicated " p o l i t i q u e " . They were meant to s e t up moral o b l i g a t i o n s ; they smoothed the way f o r a d e l i c a t e pour p a r l e r ; they prepared a rapprochement or brought about a detente.(PG, 135) . 44 Nina uses such expressions very seldom and not a f f e c t e d l y . These c i t e d above convey her ideas s u c c i n c t l y . When she quotes Aunt L a t t e r ' s French expressions they are en-closed i n quotation marks to imply i r o n y . For example, Aunt L a t t e r l i k e d to t a l k of Chester's " b e l l e s assembles." Nina has read Moliere but t h i n k s T a r t u f f e a very hollow character because as she says: "People don't need to be h y p o c r i t e s . They can so e a s i l y "make" themselves b e l i e v e anything they fancy" (PG, 2 2 5 ) . She has read B a l z a c and Vauvenargues but can't remember which one c a l l e d matrimony a " p o l i t i c a l education." Her reading i n non-French authors i n c l u d e s Tolstoy and Goethe both of whom she r e f e r s to when attempt-ing t o j u s t i f y Nimmo's " l i c k e r i s h l e c h e r y " i n o l d age. She has heard of other great men, she says; "who i n t h e i r o l d age seemed t o f o r g e t the most elementary conventions, ( f a l l i n g i n love w i t h l i t t l e g i r l s , l i k e Goethe, ceasing to wash themselves, or t a l k i n g , l i k e T o lstoy, so c o a r s e l y t h a t the roughest men blushed f o r them)"(PG, 388). Thinking of her childhood at Palm Cottage, she t a l k s of the moor as a r e a l "Lorna Doone" country (PG, 16). Again, she pokes a l i t t l e fun at Miss Braddon's s t y l e when she parodies i t to express her c o n s t e r n a t i o n at Nimmo's r e f u s a l t o acknowledge Tom's parentage: "...and f o r a moment I f e l t very uneasy— i t was very much as i f i n the words of Miss Braddon, "a g u l f opened beneath me" (PG, 30). Nina reads the London papers, 45 such as the Times, and o c c a s i o n a l l y r e f e r s to Round's a r t i c l e s i n the Tarbiton Courier. She a l s o r e f e r s to the other biographies of Nimmo and c o r r e c t s t h e i r e r r o r s i n s t a t i s t i c s . These l i t e r a r y a l l u s i o n s , although few, show that Nina r e c e i v e d a good education. But c e r t a i n l y the l a s t t h i n g Nina wants to do i s to pose as a pedant. As f o r the drama, Nina l e t s the reader know that she i s almost as shocked as Nimmo by Strindberg's p l a y , that she enjoys Tom's c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s on the weakness of Pinero or B a r r i e (PG, 247),and that i s a l l . Jim p o i n t s out how "mad" Nina i s about music—one of the most important scenes i n Not Honour More deals with her f r u s t r a t i o n at being denied the r i g h t to attend a con-c e r t . Yet there i s hardly a reference to music i n P r i s o n e r  of Grace, except perhaps the metaphor Nina uses to describe her h o r r o r at sneezing i n the prayer scene. Here she says; " I f e l t as i f I had dropped an umbrella during a f u n e r a l sermon, or the Jewel song" (PG, 4 5 ) . A l l u s i o n s to a r t again are few, but Nina appar-e n t l y knows enough about a r t to discuss Ruskin and to ap-p r e c i a t e the beauty of I t a l i a n churches and I t a l y i n general, "so warm and f u l l of c o l o u r " (PG,28). Nina a l s o shows great i n t e r e s t i n Bob's t h e o r i e s of a r t , e s p e c i a l l y h i s b e l i e f s about " n a t i o n a l a r t as a r e v e l a t i o n of n a t i o n a l character," 4 6 h i s theory t h a t the causes of the war could be detected i n German a r t (PG, 2 9 7 ) . Chester and Aunt L a t t e r i n f l u e n c e Nina to r e -a l i z e , whether she l i k e s i t or not, t h a t , "a p e r f e c t storm of h i s t o r y was raging over us a l l the time and i t was r a t h e r weak and small to shut one's eyes to i t " (PG, 1 0 2 ) . She enjoys Bob's " l a r g e view of h i s t o r y . " L i s t e n i n g to him, she says, "one's mind seemed to spread over h i s t o r y j u s t as i t was apt to r e l a x over the countryside"(PG, 2 9 7 ) . I t i s obvious that Nina i s aware of the current issues of the day and even i f she hates p o l i t i c s she understands the i n t r i c -a c i e s of governmental p o l i c y and p r i n c i p l e s . And i t i s i n the f i e l d of p o l i t i c s that she does become v o c a l . Contin-u a l l y , as has been seen, she r e f l e c t s upon the e t h i c s , techniques and v a l i d i t y of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . And, of course, t h i s i s as i t should be. I t i s enough f o r the reader to sense her general i n t e l l e c t u a l tone and her o c c a s i o n a l a l l u s i o n to the l i b e r a l a r t s to know t h a t her educational background i s r i c h and v a r i e d . Quotation marks and i t a l i c s occur i n Nina's s t y l e with unusual frequency. N a t u r a l l y the dialogue i s set o f f with i n v e r t e d commas, but s p e c i a l uses of quotations show unique q u a l i t i e s of Nina's character. For example, quotes are used f o r " i n t e r n a l monologue," sometimes contained w i t h -47 i n the b r a c k e t s . Often t h i s " t a l k i n g to h e r s e l f " occurs when she i s very exasperated or perplexed. Trying to under-stand why i n the world Nimmo would i n v i t e Jim to stay w i t h them at the Orchard, Nina suddenly comprehends: "There," I s a i d to m y s e l f , " i t ' s the o l d confidence t r i c k . We are to stop Jim from doing any more damage by t r u s t i n g him not to."(PG,68) . At other times i t i s only a part of her nature which as-sumes the r o l e of spokesman. Viewing Nimmo wit h d i s t a s t e as he holds her i n h i s arms, Nina says: ...the l i t t l e f r i g h t e n e d soul i n s i d e me would t h i n k , "Look at him now, how r i d i c u l o u s he i s r e a l l y , almost c r y i n g w i t h excitement and greed; here i s your prophet of the l o r d . ... (PG, 62-3). Again, i n t e r n a l monologue occurs when Nina i s under great s t r a i n . F o l l o w i n g the a f f a i r with Jim i n the garden, she i s i n t e r r o r of the very s i l e n c e s which seem to speak f o r Chester too "as i f they were h i s thoughts brooding over my deeds" (PG, 88). Nina s o l i l o q u i z e s : What am I doing w a i t i n g here f o r him to i n -vent some new t r i c k to catch me? Am I going, or am I not going? Somebody must s u f f e r , what-ever I do" (PG, 88) . Sometimes Nina encloses i n quotations what she th i n k s someone else might be saying. This technique i s used during a scene i n London's most expensive h o t e l , Johnson's, where Chester has a r r i v e d to continue h i s campaign of r e -c o n c i l i a t i o n . Nina watches him cross the h o t e l lobby to p u l l the b e l l cord and h i s very "stance, the way he c a r r i e s himself shows h i s d i s d a i h f o r "high s o c i e t y " and seems to say: "They're very sure of themselves, these l a d i e s and t h e i r minions; but I ' l l show 'em— I ' l l change t h e i r tune" (PG, 103). Nina encloses i n quotes countless words and expressions which f o r various reasons she would not u s e — e x c e p t per-haps i r o n i c a l l y . These i n c l u d e t r i t e , c o l l o q u i a l , and sentimental expressions such as "honeymoon t i c k e t " (PG,141), "on the map" (PG, 59), "lone pioneers of the Pax B r i t a n n i a " (PG, 168), and Chester's word, "nest" (PG, 116), f o r the London house which to Nina was "more l i k e a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g " (PG, 116). Nina can be emotionally moved by t r i t e s e n t i -mental words but she laughs at her weakness and scorns to use them. Again, she puts i n t o quotation marks examples of p o l i t i c a l jargon used by Nimmo and the p o l i t i c o s . At a l l these expressions heard i n the " b e l l e s assembles," Nina c r i e s out, "Good Heavens, what cant'.'" (PG, 60). Jargon such as "our great cause" (PG, 263), " r i s i n g man" (PG, 65), "sources of i n f o r m a t i o n " (PG, 118), quotations from news-paper a r t i c l e s condemning Nimmo's "mad extravagance" ( P G , l l 6 ) , 4 9 "going i n t o s o c i e t y " (PG, 198), " d e a l s " (PG, 1 3 0 ) , Nina's c r i t i c a l judgment recognizes as loaded words to be handled w i t h great care and s u s p i c i o n . NimmoTs old-fashioned words such as " r e c i t a t i o n " (PG, 2 4 9 ) f o r Tom's burlesque s k i t and such outworn phrases as "queen of h i s s o u l " (PG, 1 9 ) r e -f e r r i n g to Nina, are q u i c k l y s e t o f f i n quotes. Nina com-ments on these: " I had never dreamed t h a t young men could use such words except i n rather bad novels... But a l s o , of course, I saw th a t Nimmo meant every word of them" (PG, 1 9 - 2 0 ) . An example of the contrast between such t r i t e expression and Nina's own st y l e i s shown i n her a n a l y s i s of Nimmo's power at the Lilmouth meeting: But Chester even then had a power, not, as people say, of " l e t t i n g himself go," but of keeping up with h i s own excitement;, of t h i n k -i n g so f a s t t h a t he went wi t h the c r e s t of the wave and d i d not sink i n t o confusion.(PG,56). Sometimes Nina puts i n t o quotation marks words wi t h s p e c i a l connotations f o r h e r s e l f alone. Such a one i s the term "French p l a n . " This i s Aunt L a t t e r ' s " w i l d " scheme f o r Chester to buy B u c k f i e l d , the L a t t e r e s t a t e , and to place Jim there as h i s agent (PG, 3 1 1 ) . Another example i s the word "im p o s s i b l e " which r e f e r s to a stat e i n Nina's married l i f e when she cannot face existence with Nimmo any longer. The word, "conversion" means that again she has accepted or 50 submitted to her f u n c t i o n as " p r i s o n e r of grace" and that l i f e has become not only bearable but even pleasure-able. These sta t e s re-occur. The term " r e l i g i o u s , " when i n quotation marks, r e f e r s to Chester's s p e c i a l e v a n g e l i c a l manner and pose. The wo r d l " i n v o l v e d " means involvement i n p o l i t i c s — a s t a t e which t e r r i f i e s Nina. Sometimes Nina employs quotation marks f o r emphasis, but more o f t e n gains t h i s e f f e c t by using i t a l i c s . - Some of these i t a l i c i z e d words and phrases are most important to the n a r r a t i v e . In the c e n t r a l r a i l w a y s t a t i o n scene when Nimmo i s working on Nina's g u i l t f e e l i n g s to make her r e t u r n to him, two words have great s i g n i f i c a n c e . " I f you r e a l l y want to go, I shouldn't dream of stopping you" (PG, 90), says Nimmo, and " N a t u r a l l y your ideas are d i f f e r e n t " (PG, 93). These two words, "want" a n d " n a t u r a l l y " keep echoing through-out the whole scene. "But, of course, you w i l l say th a t i t ' s n a t u r a l f o r me to think l i k e t h a t . N a t u r a l l y I'm d i f f e r e n t and I stoop" (PG, 94), answers Nina. Again i n her desperate attempt to defend Nimmo's part i n the "Contract scandal," Nina uses i t a l i c s to d r i v e home her p o i n t s . "Because the t r u t h was (and i s ) that Chester d i d not have i n f o r m a t i o n " (PG, 214) and " i t would have been quite m i s l e a d i n g f o r Chester to have t o l d the whole s t o r y of Banks Ram. I t might have produced a great i n j u s t i c e ..." (PG, 214). This use of i t -51 a l i c s f o r purposes of i n f l e c t i o n gives the s t y l e a fem-i n i n e q u a l i t y . D e l i a , i n House of C h i l d r e n , f o r example, uses i t a l i c s i n a s i m i l a r way. I t i s amusing at times, l i k e a dainty woman swinging a sledge hammer. Nina's s t y l e of humour i n P r i s o n e r of Grace a l s o enriches her character. Her humour i n c l u d e s gentle s a t i r e , searing w i t and broad comedy. From the very beginning of her r e l a t i o n s with Nimmo, Nina f i n d s him a source of humour and o f t e n i t i s by laughing at him t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r her to l i v e w ith him. Even before she married Chester, Nina would t r y to avoid meeting him, f i r s t , because she was " s t a r t l e d by the animation of h i s response" (PG, 19), but c h i e f l y because she could h a r d l y c o n t r o l her amusement: "...When I began to f i n d him gazing at me with what I c a l l e d a l a n g u i s h i n g expression, I was i n an agony to hold my g i g g l e s " (PG, 19). During the "prayer scenes" of the honey-moon when Chester prays t h a t they s h a l l not f o r g e t t h e i r c a l l to h o l i n e s s i n "greed and low ambitions and the l u s t f u l a p p e t i t e s of the f l e s h , . . . " Nina f e e l s uneasy, sometimes angry and disgusted, but more often she i s convulsed w i t h laughter "...which was e q u a l l y unpleasant because the laugh-t e r was, l i k e the d i s g u s t , something which I couldn't help, l i k e a s c h o o l g i r l ' s g i g g l i n g " (PG, 27). But Nina soon r e -a l i z e s t h a t laughter i s dangerous because she and Nimmo 52 laugh at d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . Chester, f o r example, roars w i t h laughter when a "rather important gentleman" has hi s new top hat blown i n t o the canal at Venice. Nina f e e l s only sympathy f o r the man "because he looked so f o o l i s h , " and a f t e r a l l , as she says, "he had dressed up f o r some important occasion, and i t i s r i g h t to dress up f o r them... cm, 2 7 ) . Even i n the b i g emotional scenes with Nimmo, Nina i s often t o r n between laughter and t e a r s . When Nina's hatred leads her to a second attempt at s u i c i d e , Chester grasps her arm to stop her from throwing h e r s e l f down from a balcony. Her b r a i n seems to be f l y i n g to pi e c e s . Sudden-l y Chester has pyjama t r o u b l e : But j u s t then Chester's pyjamas (he had taken to them at l a s t when he had begun to v i s i t general but he d i d not manage them very w e l l ) began to s l i down and he grabbed at them with such an offended look (as i f they had t r i e d to "betray" him) that 1 had a h o r r i b l e impulse to laugh' .(PG, 308-9). L a t e r t h a t same evening a f t e r the "conversion" and r e -c o n c i l i a t i o n she i s " f i l l e d w i t h l a u g h t e r " (PG, 309). Even i n the l a s t d i s t a s t e f u l scenes i n the novel, Nina, " ( w h i l e s t i l l t rembling at the danger j u s t escaped and at what he had done / " t o her_7)" (PG, 389), s t i l l wants to laugh as she watches Chester a f t e r one of h i s s u c c e s s f u l a s s a u l t s : 53 ...he would seem ten years younger, h i s eyes would sparkle, he would t h r u s t out h i s chest and s t r u t about the room with t h a t a i r ( a l l o w i n g f o r h i s shaky legs and shrunken body) which had caused the papers, t h i r t y years before to des-c r i b e him as something of a buccaneer.(PG,3 8 8 - 3 8 9 ) . Nimmo i s a l s o a source of much of Nina's i r o n y . Concerning Chester's prayers again, she says t h a t when Chester prayed "as we f o r g i v e them that trespass a g a i n s t us,/ it_7 n e a r l y always meant me"(PG, 1 3 6 ) . Nina a l s o pokes fun at Nimmo's speechmaking. WhenChester decides to help Jim pay o f f h i s gambling debts she says: "In f a c t , he made a l i t t l e speech, which was, I thought, a good s i g n — h e was f e e l i n g b e t t e r " (PG, 1 8 1 ) . Although Nina c o n s i s t e n t l y t r i e s to defend Nimmo from h i s opponents, she cannot r e s i s t passing on some of the many s t o r i e s and sayings which c i r c u l a t e about him. She i n -cludes a few of Aunt L a t t e r ' s choice epigrams such as the one concerning Chester's entry i n t o the business world: "he thought he was going i n t o business w i t h God" (PG, 1 4 0 ) . She enjoys Chester's nicknames i n h i s e a r l y days, such as " P r e t t y boy" and "The maiden's prayer" (PG, 1 8 ) . Best of a l l i s the o l d joke she r e t e l l s concerning Nimmo's a b i l i t y to p r o f i t by any occasion: . . . i f Chester Nimmo, sta r k naked, were attacked by two desperadoes, armed to the t e e t h , there would be a short sharp s t r u g g l e , and an immense cloud of dust, and then i t would be found t h a t the footpads had murdered each other and that Nimmo was wearing the f u l l evening dress of an a r c h b i s h -op with gold watches i n every pocket.(PG, 1 3 8 ) . 54 Nina loves broad humour as i s shown i n her r e l a t i o n s w i t h Daisy. Once during one of t h e i r shopping t o u r s , both preg-nant women suddenly view themselves together i n a l a r g e l o o k i n g g l a s s . They cannot stop laughing; they are "hyster-i c a l i n the t r u e sense of the word" (PG, 121). Daisy s a i d , "Well, I never.' Look at me--talk of a bluemange!" and g i g g l e d so v i o l e n t l y t h a t we had to s i t on a sofa to l e t her recover her-s e l f . "Oh dear!" she s a i d then, wiping her eyes wi t h the back of her hand. "Now I've give me a p a i n . " And I s a i d , " I hope not." Whereupon Daisy u t t e r e d such a s h r i e k (rocking h e r s e l f to and f r o , and p u t t i n g her face i n her hands) that people i n the shop turned to s t a r e . (PG, 121) Nina a l s o enjoys Daisy's bawdy s t o r i e s about i n t i m a t e r e -l a t i o n s w i t h her f i e r y e v a n g e l i c a l husband, e s p e c i a l l y the s t o r y about how Goold, attempting to escape observation by an e a r l y chambermaid, r i p p e d h i s n i g h t s h i r t . Nina and Daisy are on such laughing terms because, as Nina t r i e s to e x p l a i n : . . . i t was an immense pleasure to f e e l ' so help-l e s s and abandoned, so c a r r i e d away from the proper w o r l d . . . i n t o t h i s f r e e lunacy where there was nothing to do but laugh (PG, 121). Nina i s a t ease w i t h Daisy not only because she provides so much good comedy, but a l s o because Daisy, i n s p i t e of her dairymaid background, completely disregards c l a s s b a r r i e r s . Adventures w i t h her provide Nina w i t h yet another r e l e a s e from her bondage. 55 Nina's humour i n Pr i s o n e r of Grace not only g i v e s charm and humanity to her character, not only r e v e a l s the s u b t l e t y and sharpness of her w i t , but a l s o serves a dram-a t i c purpose of comic r e l i e f . The n a r r a t i v e s t y l e i n P r i s o n e r of Grace f o l l o w s Cary's general p a t t e r n of many episodes each contained i n one short chapter. This chain of sequences f l a s h e s by l i k e the shots i n a movie scenario. There are, however, c e r t a i n unique f e a t u r e s of Nina's n a r r a t i v e s t y l e which r e v e a l q u a l i t i e s of character. There i s great v a r i a t i o n i n pace i n the novel. Long b r e a t h l e s s outpourings of n a r r a t i v e during e x c i t i n g scenes, such as the love-making i n a cab (PG, 396), are con-t r a s t e d w i t h slow, weary d e s c r i p t i o n s of the morning a f t e r . This change of pace c o i n c i d e s with a contrapuntal change i n mood. In t h i s same scene, the "exalted moment" of the night i s balanced against the " f e a r f u l headache" of the day. Dramatic e f f e c t i s strengthened by the r i s i n g c l i -max or sudden a n t i c l i m a x of the chapter endings. Many of these are r a p i d unexpected entrances or e x i t s by Nimmo. When Chester f o r c e s Aunt L a t t e r to leave, Nina f o l l o w s , swearing that nothing can induce her to go back to Chester. She pledges undying love to her Aunt: " I t was i n the middle of 56 t h i s a f f e c t i o n a t e scene t h a t Chester walked i n , w i t h a l a r g e basket of f r u i t , and greeted us i n the most unem-barrassed manner11 (PG, 153). Again at the climax of the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n scene, Nina, worked up to a state of h y s t e r i a about her n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n s , refuses to l e t Chester get a word i n : "Then he jumped up, k i s s e d my cheek and walked out on the p l a t f o r m and out of the s t a t i o n " (PG, 94). Dramatic developments l i k e the d e c l a r a t i o n of war and the expose of the Contract Case, a l l come l i k e cur-t a i n l i n e s at the end of the chapters Nina's h a b i t of going o f f on long tangents i n her n a r r a t i v e i s i n character w i t h her'type of "brackety mind." She s t a r t s out to desc r i b e a new cha r a c t e r , Bootham, some r e l a t i v e of Goold's who "came i n a bargain and stayed as a spy" (PG, 117). But t h i s i s followed immediately by a f i v e -page explanation of how Goold's q u a r r e l w i t h Chester i s d i s -s i p a t e d by t h e i r common jeal o u s y and concern about the ex-p l o i t s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e wives. These e x p l o i t s , which are Daisy and Nina's shopping sprees ,are then described i n some d e t a i l . F i n a l l y a f t e r the long detour, Nina, because she i s i n t e l l i g e n t , a r r i v e s , back at the " p l a n t i n g of Bootham." Nina's use of flashbacks d i f f e r s somewhat from Cary's customary use of them. In W r i t e r s at Work, Cary s t a t e s t h a t "a c h r o n o l o g i c a l run-through by i t s e l f i s no good,"^ 5 7 and adds that the c h i e f purpose of flashbacks i s to show contrast between one- generation and another. In P r i s o n e r  of Grace, however, Nina makes use of f l a s h b a c k s , as has been shown, c h i e f l y f o r purposes of analogy, to i l l u s t r a t e a p r i n c i p l e or t o r e i n f o r c e her judgment of a character. For example, Nina describes how, as a c h i l d , she was ob-sessed by a d e s i r e f o r a toy g l a s s b a l l to the point of s t e a l i n g i t from her Aunt's drawer. The incomprehensible f a c t at t h a t time was t h a t her Aunt d i d not punish her when her crime was exposed. The f u n c t i o n of the flashback i s to i l l u s t r a t e how, i n her new r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her Aunt i n t h e i r l i f e together i n London, she suddenly begins to com-prehend the deep human q u a l i t i e s of her Aunt's nature, and to appreciate the long r o l e she has played as ."unwilling but anxious guardian" (PG, 1 4 6 ) . These flashbacks a l s o add knowledge about Nina and give warmth and richness to her n a r r a t i v e . Nina's use of s e t t i n g to create mood f o r the nar-r a t i v e i l l u s t r a t e s her power of v i s u a l imagery. Her p i c -ture of the bohemian and r e l a x e d atmosphere of the T r i b e s ' home, so d i f f e r e n t from her own Nimmo-pervaded residence, i s v i v i d and mood-provoking: 5 8 I t was the kind of household where everyone seemed to do what she f a n c i e d at the moment, where t o t a l strangers (sometimes renowned w r i t e r s or p a i n t e r s ) would be wandering through the pas-sages l o o k i n g f o r one of the g i r l s who had asked them to come and f o r g o t t e n to r e c e i v e them; where nobody was s u r p r i s e d at any remark or any o p i n i o n , and where a tea-party might t u r n i n t o a dance, a p r i v a t e view i n t o a charade, or a charade i n t o a p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n (going on to three i n the morning) on the nature of God, or the need of a new a r t of the t h e a t r e . (PG, 203)-. Nina's n a r r a t i v e s t y l e i n P r i s o n e r of Grace may be rambling and e p i s o d i c but two f a c t o r s help to t i g h t e n the form. The f i r s t of these i s what Cary c a l l s the " t o t a l symbol". According to him a book as a whole i s greater than the p a r t s ; the separate forms do not possess t h e i r whole content u n t i l the work i s complete. As he says: A l l these separate pages and chapters, l i k e the movements of a symphony, do not have a complete s i g n i f i c a n c e u n t i l the whole work i s known. They are, so to speak, p a r t l y i n suspension, u n t i l at the end of the l a s t movement, the l a s t chapter, they suddenly f a l l i n t o t h e i r p l a c e . . . That's why I c a l l the book a t o t a l symbol. I t i s both r i c h e r than i t s parts and a c t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t from them."7 Discovery and d e s c r i p t i o n of the " t o t a l symbol" of any l i t -erary work may not be p o s s i b l e . But perhaps the clue to the " t o t a l symbol" of Pr i s o n e r of Grace l i e s i n the t i t l e . Cer-t a i n l y everything that happens i n the book i s r e l a t e d to the f a c t that Nina cannot leave Chester. And the reason t h a t she cannot leave him i s her immutable commitment to g r a c e — t h e goodness i n Chester and h i s cause. This symbolic aspect of 59 form helps to give u n i t y to her n a r r a t i v e . The second f a c t o r which helps to u n i f y the novel i s the h i s t o r i c a l f a b r i c on which the n a r r a t i v e i s b u i l t . In "The N o v e l i s t at Work," Lord David C e c i l s t a t e s that Cary "only p i c k s out of h i s t o r y what i s s i g n i f i c a n t " and i n P r i s o n e r  of Grace the events which are chosen are those t h a t Nina would f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t . She claims, as has been s t a t e d , no r e a l i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s and very l i t t l e concern about h i s t o r y as such. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t to her are those h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s which have some important bearing upon her f a m i l y l i f e and her r e l a t i o n s w i t h Nimmo. She des-c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the major c r i s e s of Chester's career; the L i b e r a l anti-Boer War campaign, the P a c i f i s t movement be-f o r e World War I , and the h e c t i c and o f t e n dangerous l i f e i n wartime London. Outside of t h i s there are only occasion-a l references t o such events as Lloyd George's f i g h t a gainst the Lords i n 1909 (PG, 184), the f i r s t Zeppelin r a i d (PG,269), and the Khaki e l e c t i o n (PG, 326). But few as these are, they do help the reader to r e a l i z e the passage of time; they anchor the rat h e r t i m e l e s s domestic drama on the f i r m found-a t i o n of charted decades. Not only does Nina present t h i s h i s t o r y but she a l s o evaluates i t . As Barbara Hardy says i n her a n a l y s i s of Cary's form: "The c o n f l i c t s , l o s s e s and gains of s o c i a l change are c r i t i c i z e d as they are c h r o n i c l e d , and the c r i t i c i s m i s made d i r e c t l y through character and o b l i q u e l y 60 through form. The d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t y l e and c h a r a c t e r i n P r i s o n e r o f Grace has attempted t o em-phasize the f a c t t h a t the s t y l e i s the woman. In the gen-e r a l s t y l e of the n o v e l , Nina emerges as a n a t u r a l , f r i e n d l y , p o l i t e and i n t e l l i g e n t woman, w e l l educated i n the manner of upper middle c l a s s s o c i e t y a t the t u r n o f the century. The l o q u a c i t y and the i n v o l u t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s enhance her f e m i n i n i t y . V a r i a t i o n i n the l e n g t h o f sentences exempli-f i e s the d i v e r s i t y of her emotional r e s p o n s e . 1 0 The abun-dance of di a l o g u e r e v e a l s Nina's i n t e r e s t i n what people say and why and how they say i t . The g e n e r a l s t y l e a l s o r e v e a l s her r e a l i s m and u t t e r frankness, her b a s i c n a t u r a l n e s s and a m o r a l i t y . V a r i a t i o n i n mood ranges from a b j e c t t e r r o r t o supreme b l i s s and from unhealthy m o r b i d i t y t o wholesome g a i e t y . The use of br a c k e t s r e v e a l s the b r i g h t n e s s of Nina's mind and the quickness o f her p e r c e p t i o n , and shows her w i l l -ingness t o judge c h a r a c t e r from many angles and t o study questions from many p o i n t s of view. The metaphoric p a t t e r n shows much more than v i s u a l a c u i t y and c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . By a s s o c i a t i v e imagery, i t exposes Nina's deep-rooted con-f l i c t s , c l a u s t r o p h o b i c oppressions and i r r a t i o n a l f e a r s . The analogous f l a s h b a c k s r e v e a l the r o o t s of her experience and o r i g i n s of her b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l u s i o n s and r e f e r e n c e s i n the s t y l e prove Nina's keen a p p r e c i a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , 61 music and a r t — c u l t u r e which f o r her i s something to be enjoyed r a t h e r than put to use. The unique ha b i t of quo-t a t i o n adds charm to her feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Word s e l e c t i o n shows her c r i t i c a l judgment, her r e s i s t a n c e to cant and propaganda. I n t e r n a l monologue exposes her deep de-s i r e s normally curbed by i n t e l l e c t u a l l y d i s c i p l i n e d r e s t r a i n t s . I t a l i c s produce a change i n i n t o n a t i o n f o r s u b t l e i r o n i c comment and emphasize the importance of her arguments. A v a r i e d humour enriches Nina's character. Sometimes there i s a s t r a i n _ o f c r u e l t y i n her irony,but u s u a l l y t h i s i s tem-pered by a f o l l o w i n g sympathy. Sometimes the humour i s o u t r i g h t l y f a r c i c a l . Nina's ingenuous r e a c t i o n s , her fam-i n i n e i n t u i t i o n s and o c c a s i o n a l s e l f - d e c e p t i o n s e n r i c h character w i t h humour and humanity. The s t y l e of n a r r a t i v e shows Nina's dramatic power. Though she may often ramble, the a c t i o n i s o f t e n r a p i d and d i r e c t ; time i s ignored i n the importance of the event while a sense of foreboding and foreshadowing p o i n t s to the i n e v i t a b l e tragedy. Nina i s , as Wright says, Cary's b r i g h t e s t and most complicated char-a c t e r . 1 1 She i s a l i v e i n depth; and her depth of character emerges from the s t y l e . In Cary's " P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y " the t r i f o c a l t e c h-nique i s used most f u l l y to present the character of Chester Nimmo. In each novel a new view of the man i s revealed. A l -ready through the s t y l e of P r i s o n e r of Grace much has been 62 suggested about h i s character; h i s re l a t i o n s with the world of p o l i t i c s and with the dom e s t i c - p o l i t i c a l scene. A f i n a l evaluation of Nimmofs character cannot be made un-t i l the three views have been surveyed. However,at t h i s time, i t i s necessary to study i n closer d e t a i l the p o r t r a i t of Nimmo drawn by Nina as she views him i n retrospect and sees him i n an immediate, close and dangerous r e l a t i o n . When Cary was asked i f the character of Chester Nimmo was based upon that of Franklin D. Roosevelt, h i s ans-wer was, "No, he belongs to the type of a l l these—Juarez, Lloyd George, Bevan, Sankey and Moody, B i l l y Graham."x'° Nimmo takes his place, therefore, amongst the world's great "spellbinders"; his voice, as Nina says, "made him a power" (PG, 44). As a speaker, he had the a b i l i t y to rouse his audience to a fever of enthusiasm. Even Nina, who was so aware of the tr i t e n e s s of the phrases, the use of the "big" words, the grand gestures, could not r e s i s t i t s s p e l l . His c r i t i c s brought a charge against him that he could even "spellbind himself with his own voice" (PG, 70). His opponents also i n s i s t e d that Nimmo was so wrapped up i n his own ego that he would " s e l l his soul f o r o f f i c e " (PG, 151). Certainly, as Nina says, he "knew a great deal about power" (PG, 141), and she speaks of his "enormous ambition and self-confidence, his contempt f o r "the masses." 63 At times, Nina f e l t t hat Nimmo was p i t i l e s s and completely s e l f s a t i s f i e d . "He has become a god," she says. "He would k i l l me as he n e a r l y k i l l e d h i s o l d e s t f r i e n d , poor Goold, because we have not given ourselves over to him, bodies and s o u l s " (PG, 308). Besides the power of h i s v o i c e and h i s complete egotism, Nimmo had mastery of p o l i t i c a l technique; "he never stopped h i s manoeuvres" (PG, 127). For Chester, the " u l -timate problem of democratic p o l i t i c s " was the " d i f f i c u l t y of 'managing people'"(PG, 148) and he set h i m s e l f to l e a r n how to handle men who were quite as s t r o n g - w i l l e d as himself and more important. He managed them by h i s "courage and good humour, h i s marvellous r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s " (PG, 109). He knew what was going on i n other people's minds and used t h i s knowledge to turn them against themselves. He could t w i s t f a c t s around with great s u b t l e t y , . outwit opponents by " l e a d i n g them r i g h t away from t h e i r own point and answering some question t h a t they had not asked"(PG, 177-8). He could be frank when i t served h i s purpose to be f r a n k ; he could a p o l o g i z e , and then begin again from where he had l e f t o f f . Much of Nimmo's power came from h i s deep-rooted Protestant f a i t h . Nina p o i n t s out that Chester's " p o l i t i c s were mixed up with r e l i g i o n " and t h a t h i s " r e l i g i o n was a l -ways g e t t i n g i n t o h i s p o l i t i c s " ( P G , 231). This " t r u l y Pro-t e s t a n t c a s t of mind," Wright s t a t e s , " i s r e v e a l e d again 6 4 1 3 and again i n the e n t i r e t r i l o g y . " Nimmo possessed a "very d e l i c a t e conscience"(PG, 192). In h i s p r i v a t e l i f e he was always on h i s guard "against a low i d e a of human nature and mean w o r l d l y ambitions" (PG, 6 7 ) * His p o l i t i c a l l i f e was founded upon s t r i c t r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s . Nina i n s i s t s that Chester would never r e v e a l governmental s e c r e t s to h i s bus-in e s s a s s o c i a t e s and points out how he s a c r i f i c e d an income of a thousand pounds a year r a t h e r than take a d i r e c t o r s h i p of a company known to own p u b l i c houses. Protestantism gave Nimmo h i s l o v e of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and freedom; he join e d the L i b e r a l party because he b e l i e v e d i t embodied i n p o l i t i c s the " . . . t r u e s p i r i t u a l roots of the l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n - - t h e v e r i t a b l e p r o t e s t a n t succession of the f r e e soul"(PG, 387). As the du t i e s of high p u b l i c o f f i c e bore more p r e s s i n g l y upon him, Nimmo's formal r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s lessened. His c r i t i c s accused him of being a " t r a i t o r t o h i s r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , " because he no longer preached nor r e g u l a r l y attended chapel, but as Nina contended "as you found i n any c r i s i s , he was s t i l l a r e l i g i o u s man" (PG, 181.-182). The beginnings of h i s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , and i t s powerful i n f l u e n c e upon h i s d i r e c t i o n i n l i f e w i l l be determined b e t t e r from a study o f h i s own w r i t i n g s i n Except the Lord. Nina gives us many examples of Nimmo's deep and complicated emotional nature. She speaks of h i s "spontaneous warm a f f e c t i o n which made him so a t t r a c t i v e a man"(PG, 183). 65 At times he was "naive and c h i l d i s h l y frank"(PG, 112), at others cunning, close and i n s c r u t a b l e . He was s e n s i t i v e and nervous, always s u f f e r i n g from a "nervous d i g e s t i o n " (PG,104). This nervousness and nervous energy showed i t -s e l f i n the speed of a l l h i s movements. F e e l i n g s and en-e r g i e s seemed to run i n t o each other: . . . h i s r e l i g i o n s t i r r e d up h i s p o l i t i c s and h i s p o l i t i c s s t i r r e d up h i s r e l i g i o n , and both of them s t i r r e d up h i s a f f e c t i o n s and h i s im-a g i n a t i o n , and h i s imagination kept everything e l s e i n a perpetual turmoil(PG, 395). Not only d i d Chester convey these nervous excitements to others but he was c o n s t a n t l y b u i l d i n g them up w i t h i n h i m s e l f . Nina's observations of Chester's r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Tom and S a l l y show other sides of h i s c h a r a c t e r . Both c h i l d r e n , when young, adored him and found h i s v i t a l i t y ex-c i t i n g and e x h i l a r a t i n g . Chester's power of mimicry was a v e r i t a b l e d e l i g h t to Tom. Father and son would l i t e r a l l y r o l l on the f l o o r with h e l p l e s s laughter at some of the s t o r i e s he created(PG, 158). Nina a c t u a l l y became worried about the f a t h e r ' s power to e x c i t e the boy f o r , as she s a i d , "Chester was l i k e a drug to him...and too much of i t pro-duced a reaction"(PG, 1&4) . In l a t e r years, Tom was t o r n between admiration and hatred of h i s f a t h e r , and h i s tragedy was that he could never break completely from Chester's i n -f l u e n c e . Nina blamed Chester's jealousy and s p i t e f o r Tom's 66 s u i c i d e , but l a t e r came to the co n c l u s i o n t h a t Chester could not be held r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s intense i n f l u e n c e upon the boy; tha t he had tre a t e d the boy w i t h devotion, patience and "a s p e c i a l anxiety"(PG, 356). Chester's i n f l u e n c e upon S a l l y produced an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t : " t h e same an x i e t y towards S a l l y made the g i r l adore him, and turned rather a f r i v o l o u s and l a z y c h i l d i n t o a very good, serious and responsible young woman"(PG 356). Chester's r e l a t i o n s h i p s to Nina are, of course, of major importance. In the f i r s t p l ace, he married her because she was b e a u t i f u l and because she had " c l a s s " . He was deter-mined to get a l a d y . "None of your backlane g i r l s f o r me" he s a i d ; " I always swore I'd get a lady and I have'^PG, 34) . But Chester married Nina c h i e f l y because he was i n love with her and s i n c e r e l y wanted her to be happy. On.the honeymoon, he expressed joy i n l o o k i n g a f t e r her.—assuming a l l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s and, in- a feminine way, being t h o u g h t f u l and t a c t -f u l . H e loved to dress her up i n b r i g h t colours;(PG, 103)— he enjoyed extravagance i n a woman(PG, 209). Of course, Nina also exasperated him; he was bewildered by her i n -s c r u t a b i l i t y and could seldom decide what was going on i n her mind at any one minute. Quite o f t e n h i s love and hate were i n t e r m i n g l e d . But no matter how he hated her, he knew that he needed her as he needed no one e l s e . Nina was t i e d 67 to Chester by her deep knowledge of t h i s ' need. She knew that she alone r e a l l y understood him and was t r u s t e d by him: For I knew a Chester unknown and unimagined by anyone el s e i n the world, a man f u l l of whims and nerves and f e e l i n g s , who needed from me something that I only could g i v e , not because I was a woman but because I was myself, because I knew him through and through, because our ways had grown to f i t each other, because he could t r u s t me (even though I was d i s l o y a l i n not admiring a l l h i s " p o l i t i c a l acts") to be sympathetic i n a thousand t h i n g s which the most adoring stranger, even S a l l y , would not perceive(PG } 316). Nina was completely i n h i s power. As she says, Chester was " i n f l u e n c i n g me a l l the time"(PG, 96), was a l -ways " p l a y i n g a k i n d of p o l i t i c a l game with me" (PG,47). He used r e l i g i o n , duty and c l a s s to give her a g u i l t complex. And i t was t h i s f e a r of g u i l t t h a t r i g h t u n t i l the end, was, without doubt, the c h i e f reason why she could not leave him. Almost her l a s t words i n the novel emphasize t h i s t e r r o r g u i l t . "For I should know t h a t I was committing a mean crime aga i n s t something bigger than l o v e . I should despise myself, which i s , I suppose, what Chester means when he says that such and such a "poor d e v i l " i s "damned.." And I am t e r r i -f i e d of "damnation"(PG, 402). C e r t a i n c r i t i c s state t h a t Nimmo's character i s s t a t i c ; t h a t there i s no development throughout P r i s o n e r of Grace. Nina claims again and again t h a t he has changed, that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of high o f f i c e , h i s h a b i t of d e a l i n g 6 8 w i t h masses of people had i n f l u e n c e d h i s a t t i t u d e s and h i s techniques and that the s t r a i n of i t a l l had even changed him p h y s i c a l l y . He became l e s s s e n s i t i v e to such matters as " C l a s s " and Nina was very conscious of a general new and broader viewpoint towards h e r s e l f : And I thought that j u s t as he was not so nervous of " c l a s s c o n s p i r a c i e s , " so he was not so touchy with me. That i s , . . . h e d i d not f l a s h out at me about our " d i f f e r e n c e of. standpoint," or say (as once he had always been saying or h i n t i n g ) , "But then, I'm not a gentleman"(PG, 1 7 2 ) . But Nina makes i t c l e a r that t h i s was not r e a l l y a new tolerance but rather a new sense of p r o p o r t i o n . Things which were of importance to him i n the past were now of l i t t l e con-sequence. But f o r matters t h a t had now gained predominance, Chester was more i n f l e x i b l e than before. In h i s growing i s o l a t i o n from i n d i v i d u a l s , he "had long ceased to know what d i d not s u i t him"(PG, 3 6 O ) . He no longer attended to argu-ments: " d i s c u s s i o n of any kind w i t h him was a kind of debate" so that " i n t h i s b a t t l e words l i k e c l a s s , pbt, treachery, even truth,...were simply weapons which he picked out of h i s sto r e because he thought they would do the most damage to the enemy"(PG, 3 3 4 ) . Even i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h Nina, he no longer bothered w i t h concealment: What s u r p r i s e s me s t i l l i s t h a t Chester, at t h i s time, d i d not make any attempt t o hide h i s strategy. There seemed nothing l e f t of the o l d Chester, so s e n s i t i v e and c l e v e r , so s k i l f u l i n making me f e e l the weight of h i s l o v e , except the nervous energy with which he pursued h i s object and h i s f i r m b e l i e f that God was on h i s side.(PG, 305) . 69 There was a new ruthlessness i n h i s a c t i o n s ; anyone who stood i n h i s way was e l i m i n a t e d without scruple. Even h i s subterfuge of sending the "notorious b r u t e , " S i r Connell, to b r i n g Nina back to London, caused Nina to exclaim: "He has changed a great d e a l , " I'thought, " i n these l a s t years, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e he has been what Mr. Goold c a l l s a 'power i n the land'...(PG, 3 0 2 ) . In h i s very o l d age a f t e r i t was suspected t h a t he had s u f f e r e d a s l i g h t stroke, Nina sensed t h a t something b a s i c had changed i n h i s nature. The attacks upon her at Palm Cottage were d i f f e r e n t from any approaches of e a r l i e r times; they l a c k e d the " s p i r i t u a l " q u a l i t y t h a t had tempered h i s passion i n the p a s t . Nina b e l i e v e d that old age had changed the "balance" of h i s "moral ideas"(PG, 3 8 8 ) . The sympathetic side of her nature excused him by suggesting that perhaps the p h y s i c a l actions were to him merely nothing compared wi t h the "tremendous ideas and a n x i e t i e s which f i l l e d h i s mind nigh t and day"(PG, 3 8 7 - 3 8 8 ) . The a n t a g o n i s t i c part of her character, w i t h i t d i s t r u s t of p o l i t i c s , suspected that Chester's d e t e r i o r a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e of h i s p o l i t i c a l experience. But Nina's p i t y was aroused by the awareness of the s t a t e of i s o l a t i o n t h a t Chester had reached: "...he r e a l l y was alone. I t v/as impossible any longer to reach him"(PG, 3 3 4 ) . As she s a i d at the end,"... one might say t h a t , from t h i s time, nothing at a l l from the 70 world reached Chester across the no-man's-land of h i s i s o -l a t i o n " (PG,3S6). But t h i s i s not to say t h a t Chester e n t i r e l y chang-ed w i t h the times. He f i e r c e l y denounced the cynicism, d i s -i l l u s i o n m e n t and decadence of the postwar era, and looked backwards to the days "when even the simplest could f e e l the greatness of a cause; when no one was ashamed to have enthusiasm or to show i t , to confess a r e a l f a i t h , something to l i v e and die for"(PG, 393). Up to t h i s point l i t t l e has been s a i d about James L a t t e r . But Nina a l s o r e v eals much about Jim i n P r i s o n e r of  Grace. He plays much l e s s a part than Chester i n t h i s novel but h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the other two heightens the general t e n s i o n . One q u a l i t y of Jim's character which appealed to Nina was h i s s i m p l i c i t y ; "...he was so simple and complete" says Nina, "that he was l i k e another piece o f nature"(PG, 77)• Jim might be simple but he was also i n t e n s e l y proud. Aunt L a t t e r warned Nina about t h i s when he f i r s t came to stay with them as a boy. "Don't ever f o r g e t , " she s a i d , "that Jimmy i s very proud. He does not l i k e to be under o b l i g a t i o n s " (PG, 10). In f a c t Jim would r a t h e r d i e than admit f a i l u r e , and when on one of h i s v i s i t s from A f r i c a he a c t u a l l y admitted a f a u l t , Nina was " r e a l l y astonished" (PG, 73). This i n n a t e p r i d e l e d him i n t o a great deal of f o o l i s h n e s s and many p i g -71 headed adventures; Jim could never r e s i s t accepting a dare. But he was courageous as w e l l as foolhardy and never l o s t h i s nerve i n a c r i s i s . In most ways, Jim was conservative and even o l d -fashioned. In 1918 he dressed i n the s t y l e s of 1910 and de-pl o r e d the decadent c l o t h e s and manners of the Twenties equally as much as Nimmo. He possessed an old-fashioned prudery i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h young women. Nina's r e -ference to her s i z e i n pregnancy made him, as Nina says, "frown i n h i s mind. He d i d not approve of what he consid-ered a l a c k of refinement i n my remark"(PG,78). Nina s t a t e s that Jim was a t t r a c t e d to a u s t e r i t y i n h i s l i f e ; he l i k e d "a hard mattress and co l d baths, and h i s own bedroom and h i s own luggage a l l to h i m s e l f " (PG, 74). She adds that "Jim could have been a J e s u i t i f he had not been so mad about horses and so fond of domes-t i c i t y — I mean the idea of domesticity"(PG, 74). P o l i t i c a l l y , Jim c a l l e d h i m s e l f a Tory, but Nina knew t h a t he was not very p o l i t i c a l : "(Jim may be thought very Tory, but he was r e a l l y not p o l i t i c a l at a l l — h e simply followed h i s c o n v i c t i o n s and instincts).(PG, 2j0l. When Jim had a r e a l experience with p o l i t i c s i n regard to h i s 72 p r i m i t i v e Lugas, he was bewildered and embittered. As Nina says: I t was h i s f i r s t experience of " r e a l " p o l i t i c s — of the confusion and i n j u s t i c e and s p i t e and t r i c k -ery which make p o l i t i c a l l i f e h o r r i b l e to those who are not brought up to i t . ( P G , 361). I t i s no wonder that L a t t e r developed such a contempt and antagonism towards governments i n general. Jim was an i n d i v i d u a l i s t , i n many ways an a n a r c h i s t . He l i v e d by a very s t r i c t code, had a very c l e a r idea of what was r i g h t and was "very c r i t i c a l of laws t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h a t idea"(PG, 354). Most of L a t t e r ' s ideas were as outdated as h i s f a s h i o n s , and although Nina supported h i s Luga campaigns, she a l s o knew t h a t h i s p o l i c i e s were wrong. With c o n s i s t e n t f a i l u r e s , Jim became more and more d i s i l l u s i o n e d , h i d i n g h i s hurt behind a c y n i c a l b l u s t e r i n g e x t e r i o r . Nina sensed t h i s when o c c a s i o n a l l y she would catch him o f f guard: ...he had the a i r of a disappointed man...that expression which you see i n such men when they think no one i s l o o k i n g at them: of anxious en-qu i r y , as i f something had j u s t happened to them which i t i s important f o r them to understand.. (PG, 72). But Jim's bewilderment of t e n would change to anger; he could hold h i s temper only f o r so long. When i t became too strong f o r him " i t would explode w i t h a v i o l e n c e u n j u s t i f i e d by the 73 a c t u a l o c c a s i o n " ( P G , 321). In these " c o l d rages" he was, as Nina s a i d , "capable of anything" ( P G , 322). Jim was very e a s i l y moved by h i s f e e l i n g s ; beneath the s t o i c a l e x t e r i o r was a true s e n t i m e n t a l i s t . This p a r t of h i s nature came to the surface when Nina was a young mother. But Nina p o i n t s out that most young men of those days were s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s . "They would cry l i k e fountains at a play c a l l e d East Lynn..." And i t was r i g h t , she s a i d , f o r Jim i n 1902 to be sentimental about young mothers; i t was "a true manly f e e l i n g " ( P G , 74). L a t t e r ' s usual r e l a t i o n s w i t h Nina were f a r from sentimental. During most of t h e i r l i v e s , he and Nina "were always at war" ( P G 12), or as Jim expressed i t " l i k e two cats i n a sack ' . ' f PG , 79). His l e t t e r s to her were u s u a l l y f u l l of abuse, accusing her of treachery, s w i n d l i n g and d e c e i t . When the two fought, i t i n e v i t a b l y ended w i t h Nina's going "limp" and t h i s always put Jim i n t o a st a t e bordering on jaadness. Jim always t r i e d to dominate her and as Nina says, "he would throw away h i s l i f e to get a cry of f r i g h t out of me" ( P G , 13). Yet Jim a l l h i s l i f e loved her f a i t h f u l l y and needed her to b u i l d h i s inner strength and s e l f r espect. Honour was basic to Jim's code of behaviour. When Nina f e l l i n the "new l o v e " with the "new Jim" at the Orchard, 74 Jim i n s i s t e d that they t e l l Chester, t h a t d e c e i v i n g him would "be a most dishonourable t h i n g " (PG, 82). Also he warned Nina t h a t she must not r e t u r n t o Chester and l i v e the l i e , "...'not i f you have a g r a i n of honourable f e e l i n g ' " (PG, 86). Again i t was Jim's'honour" that kept him from r e -t u r n i n g to England u n t i l he had pa i d o f f h i s gambling debts. His s t r i c t "code of honour" a l s o a p p l i e d to c h i l d r e n . Words l i k e "gentleman" and "gentlemanly" meant so much to Jim, says Nina "that he put the most t e r r i f i c force of meaning i n t o them..." (PG, 197). This a l l encompassing obsession with " s o l d i e r honour" i s what b u i l d s the c r i s e s and causes the tragedy i n Jim's own n a r r a t i v e , Not Honour More. L a t t e r ' s s t y l e i n the dialogue of P r i s o n e r of  Grace i s racy, c o l l o q u i a l and angry even as a boy. I t be-comes s e r i o u s , r a t h e r t a c i t u r n , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and s e n t i -mental w i t h Nina as a young mother. I t i s u s u a l l y abusive towards Nimmo. In Chapter IV a comparison w i l l be made be-tween t h i s s t y l e i n Prisoner of Grace and h i s own s t y l e i n Not Honour More. In Prisoner of Grace, Nina r e v e a l s the characters of the two men who predominantly i n f l u e n c e her l i f e . But i n greater measure through her s t y l e she de p i c t s the many f a c e t s of her own nature. Chapter I I I Except The Lord A f t e r reading the l a s t scenes o f Prisoner of  Grace with t h e i r almost unbearable tensions and forebodings of tragedy, one expects t h a t the second novel of the t r i l o g y w i l l continue the n a r r a t i v e and produce a denouement. In-stead, the reader i s given an account of Nimmds boyhood and youth i n a "Victorian memoir" which stops even before Tthe beginning of h i s p o l i t i c a l career. To the i n t e r v i e w e r s of W r i t e r s at Work, Cary gave h i s explanation f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s f i e l d f o r h i s novel. "When I'd f i n i s h e d P r i s o n e r of Grace," he s a i d , " I planned a second book on p o l i t i c a l r e -l i g i o n , but contemporary r e l i g i o n . And I found myself bored with the prospect. I n e a r l y threw i n the whole p l a n . " Then he says t h a t one of h i s c h i l d r e n urged him to go on and he 76 had the idea of w r i t i n g Nimmo's r e l i g i o n as a young man. This gave him the challenge t h a t he wanted; i t opened "a new world of e x p l a n a t i o n " as w e l l as presenting a strong c o n t r a s t to the l a s t book. "So I got to work," he s a i d , "and t r i e d to get at the r o o t s of l e f t - w i n g E n g l i s h p o l -i t i c s i n e v a n g e l i c a l r e l i g i o n . " - ^ This memoir of Nimmo's ea r l y l i f e a l s o allowed Cary to focus a new l i g h t on Nimmo's character; to r e v e a l evidence unknown by Nina which increases the reader's sympathy. The p o r t r a i t of Nimmo at the end of P r i s o n e r of Grace as a c r a f t y , grotesque, power-seeker i n complete i s o l a t i o n ,is g r e a t l y softened by the s i n c e r i t y and self-effacement revealed i n t h i s simple and r a t h e r t r a g i c t a l e . But Nimmo i s not a simple character and r i g h t a t the beginning of h i s n a r r a t i v e he expresses v a r i e d and complicated motives f o r w r i t i n g these memoirs. His f i r s t pur-pose, he says, i s to "draw back now the c u r t a i n " from h i s fa m i l y l i f e "to honour the dead." His c r i t i c s disregarded t h i s motive, s t a t i n g that Nimmo used the memory of h i s s i s t e r merely to arouse emotional support f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l aims. They pointed out tha t the v i s i t t o h i s s i s t e r ' s grave, which opens the n a r r a t i v e , i s h i s f i r s t v i s i t i n f o r t y years. But the reader of Except the Lord comes to r e a l i z e t h a t the book does honour the dead; that Nimmo portrays the members 77 of h i s f a m i l y with sympathy and a p p r e c i a t i o n , abnegating himself i n order to h i g h l i g h t t h e i r worth and importance. Nimmo's second purpose, he s t a t e s , i s to present a s t o r y that w i l l "throw l i g h t upon the c r i s i s t h a t so f e a r f u l l y shakes our whole c i v i l i z a t i o n " ( E L , 5). I t i s to be remem-bered from P r i s o n e r of Grace th a t t h i s c r i s i s , according to Nimmo, i s the m a t e r i a l i s m and cynicism of the f a i t h l e s s generation of the 1920's. C e r t a i n l y h i s book i l l u s t r a t e s the p e r i l i n h i s own l i f e t h a t r e s u l t e d from r e j e c t i o n of f a i t h , and i t exposes the general danger of m a t e r i a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h i e s that lead men "to do e v i l i n the name of good" (EL, 252). Nimmo also has hidden motives f o r w r i t i n g h i s memoirs. At t h i s time he i s an o l d man who has s u f f e r e d defeat i n two major e l e c t i o n s , and who has seen h i s party, which embodied h i s l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , d i v i d e d and cast out. In h i s bewilderment, he i s anxious to take stock of h i s l i f e , to t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e s i n the l i g h t of defeat. And i n h i s book he r e d i s c o v e r s , as Wright says, "the source and cast of h i s l i f e . . . i n the e v a n g e l i c a l background of h i s p o v e r t y - s t r i k e n f a m i l y . " ^ He becomes convinced t h a t he has not gone a s t r a y , t h a t he has not only fought the good f i g h t and kept the f a i t h , but t h a t h i s work i s s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d . Nimmo's other hidden motive f o r w r i t i n g i s very subtly to 78 present and u n d e r l i n e the t h e s i s that "pure i n t e g r i t y does not work," i n order t o answer h i s c r i t i c s who have accused him of "double d e a l i n g s . " His story i l l u s t r a t e s v i v i d l y that the r u i n of h i s whole f a m i l y was brought about by the i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y and devotion to b e l i e f s of h i s g a l l a n t but uncompromising f a t h e r . In other words, Chester i s saying that p o l i t i c s ahd domestic l i f e are not so simple that they can be run by absolute t r u t h , absolute honesty and complete submission to conscience. Having s t a t e d and i m p l i e d h i s purposes f o r w r i t -i n g , Nimmo draws back the c u r t a i n and begins h i s s t o r y by r e v e a l i n g e a r l y memories of a childhood where poverty was never a b s e n t — p o v e r t y that c a l l e d f o r a great deal of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . As Chester w r i t e s , he senses again the ex-citement of the Great F a i r a t Lilmouth where, as a young boy he witnesses the V i c t o r i a n melodrama, Maria M a r t i n . The i n f l u e n c e of t h i s play upon the boy's development i s s t r i k i n g ; he awakes to an awareness of s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e ; he d i s c o v e r s the power of the word f o r good or f o r e v i l . P o l i t i c a l experiences come to the young Chester a f t e r h i s l o s s of f a i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l teachings of h i s f a t h e r . In searching f o r a new i d e a l , he i s i n f l u e n c e d , by the reading of a pamphlet, to accept Proudhon's theories' of 79 i d e a l i s t i c anarchism. But when theory does not remedy immediate i n j u s t i c e s , he j o i n s the u n i o n i s t s i n search of a more pragmatic philosophy. Through the i n f l u e n c e of a top union executive, P r i n g , Chester beoomes an ardent M a r x i s t and i s commissioned to lead the Lilmouth s t r i k e . In t h i s p o s i t i o n he shares r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n s t i t u t i n g the technique of " p r i v a t e persuasion"--a euphemism f o r v i o l e n c e against non-co-operators i n s t r i k e a c t i o n . This experience of despotic a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m r e v e a l s to him the ruthlessness of the Marxist philosophy which subordinates the i n d i v i d u a l to the cause. H e r e s i g n s from the union committee. At the age of twenty, Chester r e t u r n s to Shagbrook i n hopeless-despair, but h i s f a t h e r ' s reading of a f a v o u r i t e psalm and the sympathy of h i s s i s t e r , Georgina, b r i n g s him to a mature acceptance of e v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y and pro-vide him with i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a new beginning. Much can be learned about Nimmo from the n a r r a t i v e of Except the Lord, but the purpose of t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the dramatic change i n s t y l e i n t h i s novel from th a t of P r i s o n e r of Grace, and to a s c e r t a i n how t h i s s t y l e r e v e a l s the character of the n a r r a t o r . The s t y l e i n Except the Lord : v a r i e s from formal to l y r i c a l to simple. The formal s t y l e again can be l o o s e l y d i v i d e d i n t o the expository, the e v a n g e l i c a l and the r h e t o r i c a l . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the formal expository s t y l e occurs q u i t e e a r l y i n the s t o r y when Nimmo e x p l a i n s how the dangers of strong d r i n k made h i s f a t h e r object to h i s s i s t e r Georgina's l e a v i n g G.'s shop to work i n a p u b l i c house: But d r i n k , i n those days, was an e v i l i ncon-c e i v a b l e i n ours. The f e a r f u l u n c e r t a i n t y of l i f e , unemployment, the a p p a l l i n g squalor of slums, drove m i l l i o n s of the weaker nerve to d r i n k . Wesley has described the s t a t e of our mining v i l l a g e s before t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n — t h e r e were s t i l l towns a l l over England where great regions c o n t a i n i n g m i l l i o n s of souls v/ere n i g h t l y given over to scenes whose b e s t i a l i t y could only be surpassed by t h e i r hideous rage against everything that d i g n i f i e s humanity--v i c e d e l i g h t i n g i n foulness only to express the s p i t e engendered by i t s own despair(EL, 57). The long sentences heavily, weighted with p o l y s y l l a b i c words create a sense of g r a v i t y and p r o f u n d i t y . The w r i t e r as-sumes a d i g n i f i e d a t t i t u d e towards the subject and also t o -wards the reader. E v a n g e l i c a l phrases abound: "the f e a r -f u l u n c e r t a i n t y of l i f e , " " m i l l i o n s of s o u l s , " "hideous rage against e v e r y t h i n g that d i g n i f i e s humanity." The quotation concludes with an epigrammatic maxim to r e i t e r a t e 81 and u n d e r l i n e the evidence. The words themselves have an arch a i c r i n g : "the weaker nerve," "engendered by i t s d e s p a i r . " The c o n t i n u a l use of the dash, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Nimmo's s t y l e , provides the required pause f o r the point to sink i n or the onrush of the new ideas. An example of Nimmo's formal e v a n g e l i c a l s t y l e with i t s B i b l i c a l rhythms and cadence, occurs l a t e r during h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the e r r o r s of h i s biographers. To t h e i r charge that he learned r a b b l e - r o u s i n g from h i s f a t h e r , Nimmo answers: He took no party s i d e s , and tha t was h i s crime, he spoke the t r u t h as he saw i t , and t h a t was h i s danger. Angry men do not l i k e the t r u t h , they want to be f l a t t e r e d . H e t r i e d to save others from i n j u r y , and that was h i s own, because the others were not a f r a i d of i n j u r y so long as they could i n j u r e each other(EL, 105). Note the strong echo here of such B i b l e passages as John's d e s c r i p t i o n of Jesus: H e was i n the world and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto h i s own, and h i s own r e c e i v e d him not. 4 Examples of Nimmo's formal r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e occur u s u a l l y during the d e s c r i p t i o n of some very emotional event. A f t e r the moving experience of the melodrama, young Chester 82 hardly hears Georgina's p r o t e s t against the e v i l of the r i c h . Nimmo orates upon t h i s f a c t : What are the best arguments i n the world i f they do not s t r i k e the time and the heart? I had not come to my moment of i l l u m i n a t i o n . I had l i v e d w i t h i n e q u a l i t y a l l my l i f e - - f o r me s t i l l the c r u e l t y of s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e was swallowed up i n a v a s t e r , more dramatic, more immediate f a t e f u l n e s s of l i f e i t s e l f , of a r -b i t r a r y death. One c h i l d was born crooked, another s t r a i g h t ; one to bad parents, another to good; one man was s t r i c k e n , another l e f t ( E L , 1 0 0 ) . This passage opens w i t h the o r a t o r ' s technique of the r h e t o r i c a l question followed by the answer couched i n the form of exaggerated metaphor. Here a l s o i s general-i z a t i o n a r i s i n g from s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e . Here are r o l l i n g phrases f o l l o w e d by staccato clauses i n p a r a l l e l sequence f o r emphasis. Often at a high p i t c h of emotion, Nimmo i n h i s r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e makes use of r e p e t i t i o n ; clause i s p i l e d upon clause each p i c k i n g up a dominant word from the one preceding u n t i l a crescendo i s reached. R e c o l l e c t i n g , f o r example how Georgina sympathizes w i t h him a f t e r h i s f a i l u r e at the Lilmouth s t r i k e , he w r i t e s : She was co n s o l i n g me and i t broke my h e a r t - - I f e l t then an i n d e s c r i b a b l e shock of anguish and e x u l t a t i o n . And i n s t a n t l y among the t u r m o i l of my senses a darkness f e l l away, great presences were revealed, things a b s o l u t e l y known and never again to be obscured, g r i e f that I knew f o r l o v e , love t h a t I knew f o r l i f e , Joy that I knew f o r the joy of the Lord(EL, 286). 33 In c o n t r a s t to h i s formal s t y l e , Nimmo adopts a l y r i c a l s t y l e f o r n o s t a l g i c reminiscences of h i s e a r l y childhood. H ere he f r e q u e n t l y makes use of the h i s t o r i c present tense to convey, as Wright says, "a sense of the 5 immediacy of these events" and also to express Chester's own in t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p to them. The scenes of Chester's l i f e at Highfallow provide examples of t h i s l y r i c a l sim-p l i c i t y w i t h i t s sense of joyousness and complete abandon-ment : I am paddling i n the l i t t l e shallow stream t h a t runs through the orchard to the cow-pool. I t i s s p r i n g , the blossom i s f a l l i n g round me l i k e snow, the sun i s throwing down i t s broad y e l l o w bars between enormous clouds, but the water i s so cold t h a t I jump i n and out q u i c k l y w i t h c r i e s of mock pa i n . My s i s t e r Georgina, one year older but at l e a s t a head t a l l e r , i s beside me—she i s perform-i n g what she c a l l s a water-dance, a k i n d of slow minuet i n a pool, to the accompaniment of her own song which i n va r i o u s keys and tones c o n s i s t s of the one word 'water-ee—wateree—wateree.' Suddenly she laughs i n s a n e l y , l i f t s up her s k i r t , gives a high k i c k and staggers against me. I push her over i n t o the pool, and f l y f o r my l i'ie.(EL, 8 ) . O c c a s i o n a l l y the h i s t o r i c present f l a s h e s momentarily i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n to give a sudden v i v i d n e s s , an eyewitness r e -a c t i o n at the very moment of pe r c e p t i o n . This j u x t a p o s i t i o n of tenses occurs i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of Chester as s t a b l e boy at Shagbrook d r i v i n g h i s c a r t on a cold morning of a long 8 4 cold winter: I had been perhaps an hour upon the road w i t h sacks wrapped round my legs and a sack f o r hood to catch the nigh t f r o s t , when upon the high moor the f i r s t greenish l i g h t , i t s e l f as green as i c e , defined the eastern horizon. A l l round me t h a t •broken landscape has taken form i n black and white l i k e a landscape.of the moon, and t h i c k f r o s t l y -in g i n the furrows of l a s t year's t i l t h has made as strange a p i c t u r e on some h i l l s i d e as the canals of Mars, l i t t l e more remote from man's handiwork.(EL, 1 1 0 ) . I n c o n t r a s t to the o r a t o r i c a l s t y l e and the l y r i c a l h i s t o r i c present i s Nimmo's very simple s t y l e which he uses f o r much of the n a r r a t i v e . Most e v a n g e l i c a l s are unable to escape from t h e i r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l phraseology, and most p o l i t i c i a n s cannot disentangle themselves from t h e i r p o l i t i c a l jargon, but Nimmo can use the simple phrase and n a t u r a l dialogue with dramatic e f f e c t . One example s e l e c t e d from a great many i s the scene when the union bosses are considering the use of " p r i v a t e persuasion" a g a i n s t d e f i a n t s t r i k e b r e a k e r s : ."We're done i f t h i s breakaway gets hold.'' 'Ah,' s a i d Banner, 'three-quarters of them are ready to chuck i t up t h i s minute.' P r i n g s a i d then that we needed a more a c t i v e approach, more a c t i v i t y i n the p i c k e t s , es-p e c i a l l y at warehouses. The wives, too, were a weak spot, they might l o s e everything f o r us. 'In S h e f f i e l d , ' he s a i d , 'the gr i n d e r s broke some windows and smashed a few p a r l o u r c h a i r s , and that had a very good e f f e c t . ' 85 'That game wouldn't do round here,' Brodribb s a i d . 'Our chaps i n Tarbiton wouldn't stand f o r i t . ' But the r e s t of us were s i l e n t i n our mood of anxiety,(EL, 250). I t i s to be noted i n the example c i t e d above that there was no use made of d i a l e c t . Most of these l o c a l people used a very broad Devon accent as d i d Chester himself i n h i s v i l -lage conversations. Nimmo explains t h a t he has avoided d i a l e c t because i t would tend to emphasize c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s and would also i n t e r f e r e with a tru e communication of per-sonal f e e l i n g s . As hie says: I have not chosen anywhere i n t h i s record to set people apart by t h e i r speech, f o r that speech was the expression of t h e i r f e e l i n g s , t h e i r a n x i e t i e s , which would only be hidden from you i n d i a l e c t , and I do not deal with a world d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s — o f gentry and y o k e l s — b u t one of human creatures under the same sentence of l i f e , t h e i r doom and t h e i r d e l i g h t „(EL,28).. F r i e d s o n i n h i s The Novels of Joyce Cary suggests another reason f o r t h i s avoidance of d i a l e c t : " D i a l e c t can e a s i l y become comical," he says, "and Cary was not t r y i n g to des-c r i b e yokels i n a parody of west country peasant l i f e . He was t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h h i s characters as people of d i g -n i t y r e a c t i n g to serious problems."^ Nimmo gains the im-pr e s s i o n of roughness of speech by h i s choice of words and c o l l o q u i a l expressions. Even i n moments of heightened ex-citement, the s i m p l i c i t y of s t y l e i s often r e t a i n e d . 86 The breaking of the dammed bridge at Shagbrook with i t s danger to the workers below i s described d r a m a t i c a l l y but with no trace of the melodramatic: Meanwhile I continued to gaze at the s t i c k . A voice had c r i e d out, ' I t m o v e d — i t ' s moving,' but I could see no movement. Georgina turned to me and s a i d u r g e n t l y , 'Get f a t h e r to c a l l them back. They r e a l l y w i l l be k i l l e d . I know t h e y ' l l be k i l l e d . ' And at that moment the beam slowly leant'towards us. There was a sound as of heavy waggons rumbling over a hollow road, and two or three splashes; then with a roar the whole d e b r i s of the bridge c o l l a p s e d i n t o i t -s e l f and the r i v e r poured over i t i n a foaming broken wave .(EL, 183). Nimmo's choice of words i s , of course, c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to h i s v a r i e t i e s of s t y l e . His work, i s h e a v i l y loaded with a b s t r a c t words; "noble," "sacred," " s o u l , " "honour," and with p r e t e n t i o u s phrases such as h i s des-c r i p t i o n of f u n e r a l s as: "...a vul g a r t r a v e s t y of those pompous obsequies where no g r i e f i s " (EL, 42). R e l i g i o u s words and expressions abound, such as "sure foundation," " j u s t punishment," " f l o c k , " " r e s t o r e r of the s o u l , " and resounding e v a n g e l i c a l phrases l i k e "Rhadamanthine judg-ment of H eaven" (EL, 95). There are the old-fashioned sentimental expressions such as " f a s t p l i n n i n g bosom" (EL, 164), "the manners of her caste" (EL,117), " i n my nonage" (EL, 140). V i c t o r i a n d e l i c a c y i s revealed by the avoidance of c e r t a i n v u l g a r expressions. Nimmo t a l k s of "scratched 8 7 l i m b s " ( E L , 22), and when v e r a c i t y r e q u i r e s the use of pro-f a n i t y , he gives only the f i r s t and l a s t l e t t e r s of the word. Nimmo defends the old-fashioned words: "Do not be deceived by these old-fashioned words, s o u l 1 and f l e s h , a p p e t i t e and brethr e n . . . " he says, "only f o o l s can t r i f l e with the things they mean..." ( E L , 58). O c c a s i o n a l l y , as was noted i n P r i s o n e r of Grace,he uses a slang expression which sounds rather out of place. For example, when t a l k -i n g about h i s brother Richard's advancement at U n i v e r s i t y , he says: Richard had bridged t h a t a b y s s — h i s f e e t were set upon the path of power, he would become great among the r u l e r s of the n a t i o n , those who knew how. as they say, the s t r i n g s were p u l l e d . ( E L , 168). As would be expected, Nimmo uses l o c a l words and c o l l o -q u i a l i s m s f o r h i s country scenes: " l a i r a g e and shippon" (f o r s h e l t e r of the animals), "farmsteads," "Hampshire crook," "mouth of the combe." For h i s waterfront scenes, he uses terms such as " b o l l a r d , " "neap t i d e , " and " t i d a l creek." His union terminology i n c l u d e s euphemisms such as " d i s -c i p l i n e , " "pressure," " p r i v a t e persuasion." In h i s v a r i e t y of s t y l e and h i s choice of words, Nimmo r e v e a l s much about h i s own character. His formal ex-p o s i t i o n shows h i s e s s s n t i a l d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , con-88 veys h i s sense of the deep importance of l i f e and h i s awareness of the grandeur of existence. NimmoTs formal e v a n g e l i c a l s t y l e r e v e a l s h i s r i c h s p i r i t u a l background and expresses h i s close personal r e l a t i o n s h i p to-the God-head. The formal r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e presents Nimmo the s p e l l b i n d e r ; h i s love of the dramatic, h i s c l e v e r sense of t i m i n g , h i s s k i l f u l use of the loaded word, and h i s a b i l i t y to i n f u s e the t r i t e expression w i t h s i n c e r e emotional power. Nimmo's l y r i c a l s t y l e w i t h i t s c a r e f u l use of the h i s t o r i c present shows another side of h i s nature, a b r i g h t joyous-ness, a romantic exuberance u n d e r l y i n g the conventional and grave. Nimmo's simple s t y l e with i t s abbreviated dialogue r e v e a l s the " r e a l Chester" shorn of h i s a f f e c t a t i o n . Here the r u r a l r i c h n e s s of h i s character i s a p p a r e n t — h i s a f f i n -i t y w i t h the s o i l and landscape. And i n t h i s simple s t y l e Nimmo.also r e v e a l s h i s g r e a t e s t dramatic s t r e n g t h . Nimmo in c l u d e s a v a r i e t y of metaphors i n h i s s t y l e . Some are very simple country comparisons w h i l e others are pr e t e n t i o u s , e x o t i c and romantic. Although he does use t r i t e and commonplace imagery at times i n h i s formal s t y l e , most of h i s comparisons are s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l and v i v i d . Once again, as i n P r i s o n e r of Grace,the metaphors r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n a r r a t o r . So much of the a c t i o n of Except the Lord takes 89 place i n r u r a l Shagbrook that i t i s n a t u r a l that country metaphors should appear. Many of these are very simple. The sun i s "almost as y e l l o w as the b u t t e r which Georgina was beating w i t h such v i o l e n c e " ( E L , 129); a speech i s "as f a m i l i a r to me as bread" ( E L , I36); the faces of the barkers at the f a i r " s t i l l had the l e a t h e r look as i f tanned i n p e r s p i r a t i o n " ( E L , 79)• Country sounds appear i n meta-phor. The h a l f - a s l e e p farm boy hears h i s f a t h e r ' s reading of a psalm "as the Shag pouring away through the combe" ( E L , 110). The overshadowing i n f l u e n c e of the moor upon the simple people of the v i l l a g e becomes a subject f o r metaphor. Nimmo's needing a leader i n l i f e i s l i k e a t r a v e l l e r "benighted on the moor" desperately searching f o r a guide "before he walks over some p r e c i p i c e , or sinks drowning i n t o some bog" ( E L , 237). The mists disappearing i n the morning sun on Back Man Tor on the day of the Second Coming are compared to s p i r i t s of the night "drawing down t h e i r heads among the combes... descending s u l l e n l y i n t o t h e i r narrow graves" ( E L , 1 1 8 ) , and the small clouds above are l i k e the " f r o s t y breathing of some genius of the moors" ( E L , 119). Nimmo makes use of a great number of metaphors connected w i t h death. This i s n a t u r a l f o r a man at the end of h i s l i f e , o l d and broken, who, as he says, i s thrown i n the g u t t e r to " s i t and wait f o r the n i g h t , the l a s t darkness" (EL, 274).' Also, there i s the i n f l u e n c e of h i s recent grave-side v i s i t i n Shagbrook, s e t t i n g h i s mind on the theme of death and upon those who have gone beyond the shadow. Nimmo, as a l a y preacher of the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h with i t s c e n t r a l death symbol, would also be i n the h a b i t of u s i n g these images. An example of a death metaphor occurs when Nimmo e x p l a i n s h i s l o s s of f a i t h a f t e r the f a i l u r e of the Second Coming: "My f a i t h , " he says,"--the unquestioning f a i t h of the c h i l d i n what he has been t o l d by h i s p a r e n t s — had r e c e i v e d a mortal wound. I t was already bleeding to death" (EL, 125). S i l e n c e and darkness at NimmoTs defeat are l i k e a "vast dark mind...gradually t h i n k i n g i t s e l f to the p o i n t of crushing me out, a bug, a nothing, a creature r e j e c t e d " (EL, 273). Diseases t h a t eat away at l i f e appear i n metaphor. A s i g h t of London would show "a spreading l i t t l e n e s s , of a creeping disease b l i n d l y e a t i n g i t s way i n t o the f l e s h of a s t r i c k e n l a n d " (EL, 231). Fear i s " l i k e a man with a cancer" (EL, 248). To describe s i l e n c e and l a c k of motion at the dockside during the s t r i k e , Nimmo again uses death metaphors. Cranes are "motionless as gibbets already struck w i t h rottenness from which the very bones have f a l l e n ; " mist hanging over the sea i s " l i k e a winding sheet, cold w i t h the death sweat;" the pale sun 9 1 gleaming low through the fog i s " l i k e the glazed eye of death i t s e l f " (EL, 2 4 3 ) . Nimmo's d e s c r i p t i o n of Georgina i n her l a s t stages of consumption contains a s t r i k i n g death metaphor: As she looked about, the white beam from over-head shockingly revealed her emaciation, the deep hollows of her cheeks, the eyes grown too prominent i n the s h r i n k i n g of her face. The r i c h and s h i n i n g abundance of her black h a i r s p r i n g i n g from t h a t pale forehead brought back moor t a l e s of the dead whose h a i r l i v e s a f t e r them, and who walk from tombs to enchant and twine the l i v i n g i n i t s c o i l s . Georgina then seemed i n -deed a revenant--her face as she searched, frown-i n g , had the impatient f e v e r i s h expression of one released only a l i t t l e w h i l e from the grave to do her work on earth .(EL, 2 8 5 ) . Nimmo's concern with death i s without doubt r e l a t e d to h i s l a t e stage of l i f e , but i t may a l s o come from h i s pre-occupation at t h i s time w i t h the decadence of the age i t s e l f , a dying c i v i l i z a t i o n l e d by a l o s t generation. He speaks of the mechanical world "that devoured man as a thrasher swallows corn" (EL ) 2 3 5 ) . Nimmo makes use of a great number of b u i l d i n g metaphors. His f a v o u r i t e psalm, from which the t i t l e of the book i s taken, Psalm 1 2 7 , s t a t e s : "Except the Lord b u i l d the house they labour i n v a i n that b u i l d i t . " Nimmo compares f a i t h gained i n childhood to a b u i l d i n g made of s t e e l : " i t i s l i k e the e l a s t i c s t e e l of those t a l l houses which i n an e a r t h -92 quake sway each way but w i l l not f a l l " (EL, 1 2 9 ) . But thi n k -i n g of h i s own l o s s of f a i t h d uring adolescence he adds: "But i f t h i s s t e e l be flawed and the frame of that house break, i t cannot be mended, the sharp ends t e a r a t the fab-r i c t i l l the whole i s one wound" (EL, 1 2 9 ) . Nimmo again uses a b u i l d i n g metaphor to desc r i b e h i s r e d i s c o v e r y of f a i t h i n humahity through Lanza's speech: I saw r i s e before me an e d i f i c e i n which every p a r t was secured by the weight and te n s i o n of f a c t , and every p r o p o r t i o n c a r r i e d the assurance of beauty, a vast and l o f t y c a t h e d r a l of the s p i r i t , which u n i t e d under one m a j e s t i c dome both my r e l i g i o u s i n t u i t i o n and those vague p o l i t i c a l n otions derived from so many sources.(EL, 1 4 1 ) . A s t r i k i n g b u i l d i n g analogy i s given by Nimmo to express how h i s l i f e was exposed i n a l l i t s e v i l a f t e r h i s h u m i l i a t i o n of f a i l u r e i n unionism. H e describes i n h i s analogy the co l l a p s e of a house of i l l repute i n Tarbiton, many years before. The townspeople had pronounced t h i s d i s a s t e r a judgment upon the e v i l of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . When Chester as a young boy had a r r i v e d to view the i n s i d e of a "house of p l e asure thus exposed to the a i r " what he viewed was d i r t y squalor "even more p i t i f u l than i t was contemptible" (EL, 2 7 9 ) . He points out i n comparison, the squalor of h i s own exposed l i f e : "...a r u i n w i t h a l l my s e c r e t places l a i d open,...My g l o r y had ended i n t h i s p i t i f u l r u b b ish heap" (EL 93 279). Now Nimmo's r e a l reason f o r going to view the coll a p s e d b r o t h e l was h i s expectations "of magnificence... [_ of_7 wicked g l o r y " (EL, 279). This i n s a t i a b l e d e s i r e f o r splendour i n the midst of drabness i s an important aspect of Nimmo's p e r s o n a l i t y . He i s e s s e n t i a l l y a Romantic, ex-e r c i s i n g h i s imagination to add colour to the mundane. This romanticism shows i t s e l f i n r a t h e r unexpected e x o t i c meta-phors. Nimmo's i n t e r e s t i n the fabulous East may have been stimulated by the p i c t u r e s i n h i s mother's B i b l e . He r e f e r s to these when d e s c r i b i n g the Lilmouth f a i r : ...the sun blazed down on us through s p a r k l i n g l a y e r s of bronze as i n the missionary p i c t u r e s i n my mother's B i b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g the c h i l d r e n of I s r a e l i n the desert.(EL, 80). An Eastern metaphor compares the V i c t o r i a n f a t h e r ' s pro-t e c t i o n of h i s w i f e and daughter i n a world " i n c o n c e i v a b l y b r u t a l " to "Eastern potentates, whose women are guarded f o r t h e i r whole l i v e s i n a f o r t r e s s of a s e r a g l i o " (EL, 56). Mrs. Coyte's appearance as she i s c a r r i e d i n the p o r t e r ' s c h a i r to d i r e c t the a c t i o n during the f l o o d evokes another eastern metaphor: Here she appeared only l i k e a dark bundle sunk down i n something between a ra j a h ' s howdah and those strange conveyances f o r o r i e n t a l women seen i n o l d p i c t u r e s of the f l i g h t i n t o Egypt(EL, 174). 94 Nimmo describes the great h i l l s of the moors wi t h e x o t i c imagery: " S p h i n x - l i k e t o r s . . . l i k e a guard of monsters ex-t i n c t i n a l l the world J/~drowsing_7 l i k e the beasts of an ol d e r r e v e l a t i o n upon the bed of w i n t e r " (EL, 7).. Giants and s o r c e r e r s and other f a i r y t a l e characters appear i n meta-phor. The closed wicket a t the London wholesale f i r m where Richard worked looks l i k e "the drooping e y e l i d of some gian t f o r whom my entry meant l e s s than the buzzing of a f l y " (EL, 233), the f a i r i s "a sor c e r e r ' s world...where anything was p o s s i b l e and everything was strange, e x c i t i n g , v i o l e n t . . . " (EL, 80). Nimmo's romanticism i s shown again i n h i s use of war metaphors. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g how few of these appear i n Except the Lord when i t i s remembered how major a part war played i n Nimmo's career. The explanation i s probably that Nimmo, emersed i n o f f i c e r o u t i n e and p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y , had no conception of modern war and the b a t t l e f i e l d . His war metaphors use merely conventional f i g u r e s from ancient and her o i c b a t t l e s . The reading of the psalm which b r i n g s about Nimmo's conversion i s compared to a trumpet c a l l s t i r r i n g up the f e e l i n g s of a s o l d i e r : ...As the trumpet brings w i t h i t to the s o l d i e r more than he can speak or even analyse, vast regions of h i s t o r y , of h i s nation's g l o r y , so I f e l t the release of a man who becomes f o r that moment greater than himself.(EL, 284). 95 Not machine-guns and mortars, but swords are used by Nimmo f o r comparisons. His Father's r i g i d i t y of f a i t h i s described as "the somewhat heavy and wooden scabbard of a precious s t e e l which was f o r us a l l the very m i r r o r of t r u t h , the b r i g h t s t a r of our f a i t h " (EL, 196). One of the most i n s p i r i n g , b e a u t i f u l and dramatic events of the book i s the sudden appearance during the Second Coming of the "great sword of f i e r y l i g h t /~piercing_7 through the hollow a i r " (EL, 119), wi t h i t s almost i n c r e d i b l e e f f e c t upon the congregated f a i t h -f u l . Outside of these examples there are few other war meta-phors. The v i o l e n c e t h a t Nimmo hated was not the v i o l e n c e of war, which he d i d not comprehend, but the f i g h t i n g which he himself had witnessed i n v i l l a g e brawls and union clashes. Nimmo's choice of metaphors, t h e r e f o r e , has r e -vealed q u a l i t i e s of h i s character. Country metaphors i l l u s -t r a t e the i n f l u e n c e of f i e l d and moor upon him i n h i s im-pressionable boyhood. Death metaphors expose h i s pre-occupation w i t h h i s imminent decease and h i s awareness of decay i n a m a t e r i a l i s t i c , mechanized s o c i e t y . B u i l d i n g meta-phors suggest h i s searching f o r s e c u r i t y i n a t o p p l i n g c i v i l -i z a t i o n and exemplify h i s b e l i e f i n C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s as the only sure foundation f o r p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a c t i o n s . E x o t i c imagery exposes h i s inner d e s i r e s f o r the sensuous and romantic. And h i s conventional war metaphors show h i s i n a b i l -96 i t y to avoid the t r i t e and formal image when he moves out-side of h i s d i r e c t experience. Nimmo s e l e c t s h i s a l l u s i o n s w i t h s t u d i e d care and presents them f o r m a l l y to r e i n f o r c e arguments and to i l l u s -t r a t e p r i n c i p l e s . These deal almost e n t i r e l y with the sub-j e c t s of r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s . Nimmo uses the great heroes of the Old Testament f o r comparison. In d e s c r i b i n g a c e r t a i n Sam Weaver, a t r u e p i l l a r of the chapel, he r e f e r s to him as "a Samson who could indeed l i f t up the gates of the P h i l i s t i n e s and l e t i n the army of the Lord" (EL, 100). The march of l a n t e r n s at the Second Coming i s "as of a new army of Gideon, conveying to the a s s a u l t " (EL, 116). Nimmo makes reference a l s o to the great heroes of the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h such as M i l t o n , Bunyan and Wesley. He speaks of M i l t o n ' s message of l i b e r a l i s m i n Paradise L o s t , e x p l a i n i n g how h i s f a t h e r had pointed out the c o n f l i c t i n tha t great poem as between a r e a l good and an e v i l "so t e r r i b l e that i t could s c a r c e l y be c o n c e i v e d — t h e absolute government of c r u e l and l u s t f u l e g o t i s m — t h e u t t e r d e s t r u c t i o n of the very ideas of l i b e r t y , of love and t r u t h " (EL, 94). He t h i n k s t h a t Bunyan might have used o l d L i l -mouth f o r the model of h i s f a i r w i t h i t s ' " J u g l e r s , Cheats, Games, P l a y s , Fools, Apes and-Rogues,'..." (EL, 80). R ever-9 7 e n t l y , he r e f e r s to the g r e a t a u t h o r i t y of Wesley and quotes f a v o u r i t e Wesleyan hymns. Ruskin i s another w e l l - l o v e d author o f the Nimmo household. When Chester's mother reads Ruskin i n the open a i r she i s accused of w i t c h c r a f t by the p r i m i t i v e v i l l a g e r s . His f a v o u r i t e passages i n Ruskin, quoted by Nimmo, do not dea l w i t h a r t but with the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e of n a t u r e . For example, the e f f e c t of view i n g mountains i s to " ' f i l l the t h i r s t of the human he a r t f o r God's w o r k i n g — t o s t a r t l e i t s l e t h a r g y with the deep and pure a g i t a t i o n of a s t o n i s h -ment'..." ( E L , 1 1 0 ) . Nimmo a l l u d e s to authors who had such powerful i n f l u e n c e upon him as a young a g i t a t o r . Proudhon's name became f o r Nimmo a name of power; Ma z z i n i was to remain a permanent i n s p i r a t i o n . Concerning the e f f e c t of l i b e r a l w r i t i n g upon h i s development, Nimmo exclaims: "Can I des-c r i b e the e f f e c t of some of the most m a g n i f i c e n t w r i t i n g i n the world, the masterpieces of l i t e r a t u r e , on a boy i n my s i t u a t i o n ? . . .What i n t o x i c a t i o n i n such works from Mazzini*!;' ( E L , 1 5 6 ) . The i t i n e r a n t t a i l o r , Gomme, who r a i s e s doubts concerning the D o l l i n g s i s "a gre a t r a d i c a l , a r e p u b l i c a n , a s i n g l e t a x er, a d i s c i p l e of Henry George..." ( E L , 1 8 8 ) . Gomme's hard-headed r e a l i s m i n f l u e n c e s Nimmo to t u r n to prac-t i c a l men of a c t i o n and to accept u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y the d i a -98 l e c t i c materialism of Marx. In his old age, Nimmo decries the propounders of m a t e r i a l i s t i c philosophies; he l i s t s amongst these dangerous users of words,"Rousseau, Proudhon, OwBn, Marx..." He damns t h e i r power as the power of sor-cerers: "...the s p e l l they cast i s abracadabra. And the f r u i t of t h e i r sorcery i s egotism and madness, war and death" (EL, 2 7 4 ) . Nimmo makes p r a c t i c a l l y no a l l u s i o n to painting or music. H e does emphasizfe the grave r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a r t i s t to influence men for good or i l l , but he does not i l l u s t r a t e t h i s with s p e c i f i c examples. The "songs i n his memory" are the sound of nature; his only reference to f o r -mal music i s the " l i v e l y a i r of V i l l i k i n s " played by Maria before the performance of the melodrama. It i s strange that the a t t r a c t i o n of the play at the f a i r did not lead him to a love of the drama, but his statement i s that he did not enter another theater f o r t h i r t y years. It i s to be remem-bered how c r i t i c a l he was of a performance of Strindberg i n Prisoner of Grace, and how he apparently disapproved of Tom's career i n the theater. Nimmo's formal education was sporadic and l i m i t e d . His learning was ,based c h i e f l y upon the Scriptures and the writings of p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m . This narrowness of back-ground may explain much of his i n a b i l i t y to comprehend the 9 9 breadth, t o l e r a n c e and f l e x i b i l i t y o f Nina's nature. Nimmo's r i g i d i t y , h i s g r a v i t y and h i s narrow-mindedness are a l s o more understandable. So much has been noted a l r e a d y of Nimmp's use of q u o t a t i o n s - - h i s i n c l u s i o n of s c r i p t u r a l passages, p r a y e r s , hymns and p h i l o s o p h i c e x c e r p t s - - t h a t l i t t l e more remains to be s a i d . However, h i s i n c l u s i o n of two important l e t t e r s should r e c e i v e some comment. His f i r s t i s a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by him to Nina a t the time of the L l o y d George Budget debate of 1 9 0 9 , which he now p u b l i s h e s to r e f u t e a c c u s a t i o n s by a b i o g r a p h e r . This c r i t i c claims t h a t Nimmo was one of the f i r s t " t o dangle before the mob the o f f e r of something f o r nothing, pensions and dole s , buying t h e i r v o t e s with s u b s i d i e s which must i n the end r u i n the n a t i o n a l economy and confound poor and r i c h , i n d u s t r i o u s and l a z y , the para-s i t e and the worker, i n one common d i s a s t e r " (EL, 1 0 4 ) . Nimmo claims t h a t the l e t t e r to Nina proves h i s p o s i t i o n then was t h a t o f a C h r i s t i a n and P r o t e s t a n t r a t h e r than a dema-gogue : 'True r e l i g i o n (I wrote) c e n t r e s i n the f a m i l y — f o r the P r o t e s t a n t p r i e s t h o o d r e s i d e s i n every parent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h i l d ' s u b r i n g i n g . That i s why we are bound t o stand f o r any s t a t e p o l i c y t h a t can secure the f a m i l y u n i t as a u n i t . For i t i s only i n f a m i l y l i f e t h a t the freedom and d i g n i t y o f a r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n accords with h i s r e l i g i o u s duty, and who s h a l l say t h a t one, who knows the burden of a u t h o r i t y over h e l p l e s s de-100 pendents, i s thereby weakened i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the state t h a t i s a f a t h e r to i t s people.' (EL, 104). Nimmo's quoting of the second l e t t e r i s f o r a very d i f f e r e n t reason, namely to expose the depth of degradation he had reached as a M a r x i s t during the Lilmouth s t r i k e . This l e t t e r , w r i t t e n by him as a report to the union committee on the success of the " a c t i v e p o l i c y , " was seized i n a p o l i c e r a i d and published i n the Lilmouth A d v e r t i s e r . The l e t t e r not only exposed Nimmo as a co-planner of the v i o l e n c e but a l s o revealed h i s p r i d e i n i t s achievement. Nimmo's authorship could not be proved i n court so he was a c q u i t t e d , but h i s sense of g u i l t i s s t i l l s trong f i f t y years l a t e r . There i s an echo of the old-fashioned e v a n g e l i c a l t e s t i m o n i a l i n t h i s personal confession of g u i l t . Chester's emphasis upon, the "seriousness of the crime" which brought him "so close to p e r d i t i o n " has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h i s t r i o n i c q u a l i t y . An examination of Nimmo's n a r r a t i v e s t y l e w i l l r e v e a l more of h i s powers of the dramatist. A l l e n speaks of Except the Lord as "a very packed 7 n o v e l . . . r i c h i n the q u a l i t y of f e l t l i f e . " ' This r i c h n e s s i s shown i n the streng t h of i t s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i n the wealth of anecdote, i n i t s r e a l i s t i c and mood -provoking des-c r i p t i o n and i n i t s deep p h i l o s o p h i c and r e l i g i o u s message. 1 0 1 The r e s u l t of these v a r i e d components i s not confusion but l o g i c a l p r o gression and c l o s e l y - p a t t e r n e d mosaic. Not only does the n a r r a t o r ' s own character develop throughout the n a r r a t i v e , but also other s t r o n g l y drawn p e r s o n a l i t i e s emerge: Nimmo's f a t h e r , o l d s o l d i e r turned farmer, strong i n f a i t h and s a i n t l y i n duty to f a m i l y and to God;Georgina powerfully a f f e c t i o n a t e yet s t r a n g e l y a l o o f , tormented by r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and w i l d i n her p r i d e ; Richard, b r i l l i a n t , detached, a dreamer, w i l l i n g to accept f a i l u r e to a t t a i n what he knows he wants from l i f e ; Ruth, s o f t , p l i a n t , r e t i r -i n g , q u i e t l y e f f i c i e n t — y e t a mimic and a tease. Outside the f a m i l y there i s Mrs. Coyte, M a s s i v e , powerful, a u t h o r i -t a t i v e s e l f - a p p o i n t e d squire o f the v i l l a g e , abusive yet p r o t e c t i v e towards the Nimmos, and her son Fred, mother-dominated, a child-man, cunning, b e l i t t l e d , i n s e c u r e . The n a r r a t i v e s t y l e i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l but not con-tinuous. There are great gaps i n time which are not account-ed f o r . Nimmo, i n h i s urgency to t e l l h i s s t o r y before i t i s too l a t e , i s " i m p a t i e n t l y p a t i e n t , " s e i z i n g on the years of v i v i d memory, l o s i n g himself i n the n a r r a t i v e , o c c a s i o n a l l y groping f o r time checks to give events a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n . Although the n a r r a t i v e i s g e n e r a l l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l , there rare again, as i n Pr i s o n e r of Grace, .contrapuntal ef-f e c t s , when events of past and present are put i n t o j u x t a -102 p o s i t i o n f o r comparison and c o n t r a s t . An example of t h i s " i n t e r m i n g l i n g of recent and o l d memories" occurs when Nimmo, watching Nina w r i t i n g beside h i s bed, t h i n k s of Georgina's and Ruth's n o n - p o l i t i c a l w o rld: Through her I look back f i f t y years to t h a t time when Ruth laughed a t her lo v e , but wept be-cause she could not have him, and Georgina wondered and raged at me and s a i d , 'Everything i s n ' t p o l i t i c s . ' And I understand how l i t t l e I knew of the r e a l world i n which people a c t u a l l y l i v e and make t h e i r l i v e s . ( E L , 215). This movement to and f r o i n time i s i l l u s t r a t e d again by Nimmo's h a b i t of adding i n f o r m a t i o n to a scene by reference to a l a t e r c onversation. An example o f t h i s occurs when Chester i s d e s c r i b i n g how he and Richard came to apologize to Georgina i n a " c r i s i s of conscience" before the f a i r . Georgina's r e a c t i o n t o t h i s apology was an i n e x p l i c a b l e s i l e n c e . Nimmo now br i n g s i n a l a t e r conversation w i t h Georgina to ex p l a i n her a t t i t u d e a t tha t e a r l i e r time: I t was not f o r many years t h a t Georgina t o l d me how, that evening, she had thought of k i l l i n g h e r s e l f . She had had i n her pocket, as she s a t i n the corner, a b o t t l e of s p i r i t s of s a l t which she had taken from the i n n — M r s . G. was accustomed to use i t f o r cl e a n i n g the s i n k s . . . Georgina sai d t h a t when we had spoken to her th a t evening, she was only the more f u r i o u s w i t h us because she saw then that she could not k i l l her-s e l f . 'You would simply have s a i d that I was as s p i t e f u l as you thought, and good riddance.'(EL, 74r 75). 103 This technique of u s i n g l a t e r conversations i s , of course, a s u b t l e method f o r overcoming the l i m i t a t i o n s of the f i r s t person point of view. At the same time, Cary handles t h i s time change so s k i l f u l l y t h a t the n a r r a t i v e i s enriched r a t h e r than i n t e r r u p t e d . Nimmo, as n a r r a t o r , does i n t e r r u p t the f l o w of the n a r r a t i v e much more openly than by a sudden s w i t c h i n time. Constantly he assumes the r o l e of omniscient author i n t e r -p o l a t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c comment, apt maxims and a s s o c i a t i v e e x p o s i t i o n . Nimmo's excuse f o r t h i s procedure i s that h i s c h i e f i n t e r e s t i s not the a c t i o n but r a t h e r the " s t r u g g l e i n a young boy's s o u l . " Therefore i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e are e s s e n t i a l to h i s pur-pose. An example of t h i s i n t e r p o l a t i o n by the n a r r a -t o r i s Nimmo's assessment of Mrs. Coyte's repentance a f t e r her s e i z u r e . Formerly a woman of a c t i o n , c y n i c a l towards chapel-goers, Mrs. Coyte had now become almost a r e c l u s e , spending hours i n her c h a i r reading the B i b l e or a book of sermons. On S undays, she a c t u a l l y attended Nimmo's f a t h e r ' s meetings where her "amens a t s e r v i c e were even louder than those of Edward G." (EL, 153) . Nimmo, as a young man, agreed wi t h those i n the v i l l a g e who s t a t e d that Mrs. Coyte, "having had a sharp eye f o r the main chance a l l her l i f e , was now anxious 104 to secure her place i n Heaven" (EL, 154). But Nimmo as an ol d man who has "looked h i s own death i n the f a c e , " now supports Mrs. Coyte Ts s i n c e r i t y of repentance. He exp l a i n s how l a t e i t was i n h i s own l i f e that the r e a l i z a t i o n of i m o r t a l i t y struck him "with the stunning f o r c e of a b o l t from heaven, showing me at long l a s t the p i t s at my f e e t " (EL 155). Having i n t e r r u p t e d the n a r r a t i v e at t h i s p o i n t , Nimmo goes on to a f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n . U n l i k e Mrs. Coyte's withdrawal from l i f e , he says, h i s own r e a c t i o n to an awareness of the imminence of death has been a renewed energy which has l e d to the w r i t i n g of t h i s memoir. Now, a f t e r t h i s major " d i g r e s s i o n , " Nimmo r e t u r n s to the n a r r a t i v e to r e v e a l the e f f e c t of Mrs. Coyte's repentance upon h i s own f a m i l y ' s f o r t u n e s . Nimmo i n t e r p o l a t e s not only r e l i g i o u s comment but frequent e x p o s i t i o n r e l a t e d to the a c t i o n . The r e b e l l i o u s a t t i t u d e of the women at the t i n miners' s t r i k e meeting gi v e s Nimmo the opportunity to d i s c u s s the s o c i a l and economic r e s u l t s of the e a r l y I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . He de s c r i b e s the s h i f t i n p o p u l a t i o n , which l e f t i n i t s wake "broken homes and deserted v i l l a g e s . " He p o i n t s out t h a t even those who su f f e r e d b e l i e v e d i n the p r i n c i p l e s of " l a i s s e z - f a i r e , " that t h e i r misery r e s u l t e d from economic laws as absolute as the laws of nature, and t h a t both types of law were God-made. 105 But the poor a l s o b e l i e v e d , i l l o g i c a l l y , says Nimmo, tha t • Bod a l s o commanded c h a r i t y towards those who of n e c e s s i t y must s u f f e r . These explanations are ob v i o u s l y d i g r e s s i o n s from the a c t i o n but serve the purpose of anchoring the nar-r a t i v e i n i t s h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . A knowledge of the r e l a t i o n -ship between r e l i g i o n and unionism i s a l s o v i t a l l y necessary to understand the a t t i t u d e s of v a r y i n g groups during the l a t e r Lilmouth s t r i k e . Nimmo may i n t e r f e r e w i t h the progress of the a c t i o n but he i s a t the same time a master of dramatic technique, with an inna t e sense of communication, and a p e r f e c t i o n of t i m i n g . I t has already been noted i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h Tom i n P r i s o n e r of Grace that he could e n t h r a l l small c h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s . An example of h i s dramatic s i m p l i c i t y i n Except the Lord i s Nimmo's i n t r o d u c t i o n of Nina i n t o the s t o r y . The scene occurs when Chester as a young c l e r k i n B a t J t w e l l , a r r i v e s at Palm Cottage t o i n t e r v i e w Aunt L a t t e r concerning a r e p o r t of a c h a r i t a b l e committee. Nimmo's c l a s s consciousness i s aroused by the term "cottage" being a p p l i e d to a ten-roomed house s t a f f e d by s i x ser-vants, and more so by the f a c t that he i s ignored by being l e f t to wait i n a small back p a r l o u r while maids t i t t e r i n the a d j o i n i n g room. Suddenly he hears a new sound: 1 0 6 At this moment I heard a peculiar sound outside as of something falling on the floor, and a mur-mur as of conversation. The door-handle rattled and I quickly took my seat again upon the nearest chair. The door-handle, after further rattling in both directions, was finally turned, the door opened, and after a pause a small g i r l entered the room carrying a large book clasped in both arms. The sound I had heard first was the placing of this book on the floor while the owner struggled with the door-handle. She entered without observing me in my place behind the door. She was talking to herself, as children do, with great animation and rapid changes of tone. But turning to shut the door behind her with a jerk of her elbow, she perceived me in my corner and fixed her eyes upon me with a wide, unwinking stare. (EL, 138). Nimmo's anger increases when he sees the child. He knows, by experience, that the children of the rich are even more detestable than their parents because their arrogance is more openly expressed. He expects the l i t t l e g i r l to command him to hold the book for her and to proffer even further humili-ations. Nina's attitude is, however, astonishingly differ-ent. She did indeed hand rne the book--but then, s t i l l gazing at me with the same splendid and curious glance, climbed upon my knee and said, "Please will you read to me?'(EL, 138). Nina's entrance is dramatic in its simplicity, first by the curiosity aroused by the sounds preceding her entrance, and secondly by the contrast between Nimmo's expectations of re-buff and Nina's frankness and confidence. 107 Nimmo's a b i l i t y to handle the spec t a c u l a r dram-a t i c scene i s apparent i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of such events as the Second Coming and the Lilmouth melodrama. But even i n these, Nimmo uses h i s simple r a t h e r than formal s t y l e w i t h r e s u l t i n g strength of r e a l i s m . An example of t h i s i s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the e f f e c t upon the young boy o f the dream r e v e l a t i o n i n the p l a y : Pure awe, indeed, f e l l upon him at s i g h t of Maria as she appeared i n her mother's dream to r e v e a l the p l a c e of her g r a v e — p u r e t e r r o r when she rose through the very stones of the con-demned c e l l , a ghost w i t h snow-white gleaming face and s h i f t a l l dabbled w i t h great gouts of blood, to stand i n s i l e n c e before her murderer. (EL, 9 4 ) . And then f o l l o w s the execution of the v i l l a i n : How the boy's very bowels shrank w i t h i n him at the s i g h t of Corder on the drop, between chap-l a i n and hangman—with bound hands and noose about h i s neck. I remember how he t r i e d to t u r n away h i s head when the hangman drew the white cap over those s t a r i n g eyes, t h a t pale haggard f a c e — a n d f a i l e d . His eager glance devoured to the l a s t moment of h i s existence the v i l l a i n , the d e v i l - - a n d the hero.(EL ? 9 5 ) . Chapter beginnings and endings i n Except the Lord d i f f e r from those i n Pr i s o n e r of Grace. Nimmo l i k e s to be-g i n h i s chapters w i t h a p h i l o s o p h i c statement which he can elaborate, and t o end chapters with a concluding argu-ment or a s t u d i e d maxim. For example, a f t e r the scene be-108 ween Georgina and Chester on top of the haystack, Nimmo begins h i s new chapter with the statement: "The young, they say, are absorbed i n themselves..." (EL, 162). This comment a r i s e s because Chester has j u s t shown l i t t l e sympathy f o r Georgina's d e c i s i o n temarry Fred Coyte as a s a c r i f i c e to the f a m i l y . Having made t h i s statement, Nimmo proceeds to r e f u t e i t by claiming that i t was not absorption i n him-s e l f that made him c a l l o u s towards h i s s i s t e r ' s s u f f e r i n g , but r a t h e r a preoccupation w i t h h i s mind's extraordinary ad-ventures. An example of a p h i l o s o p h i c chapter ending oc-curs during the f a i r , a f t e r Nimmo has st a t e d that the o l d -fashioned l i g h t i n g , l a n t e r n s and naphtha f l a r e s , have greater dramatic e f f e c t than s t r i n g s of e l e c t r i c bulbs. His c o n c l u s i o n to h i s chapter i s a p a r a l l e l i s m and gener-a l i z a t i o n t o r e i n f o r c e h i s argument against mechanization: " I t i s , I b e l i e v e , no sentimental i l l u s i o n that mechanism i s everywhere the enemy of joy:^ no l e s s than the mechanical c e n t r a l i s m of bu r e a u c r a t i c Utopias• • i s the enemy of true c i t i z e n s h i p " ( E L , 81). Many of these chapters are organized l i k e a sermon wi t h the opening t e x t and the strong "thumping" co n c l u s i o n . Another dramatic technique used by Nimmo i s f o r e -shadowing. For example, Chester i s s t a r t l e d by Georgina's 109 sudden look at Wilson during the f l o o d , her " i n t e n t , curious, a p p r i s i n g gaze, her smile that seemed to a n t i c i -pate the word before i t was said..."(EL, 182). By t h i s look, the reader, as w e l l as Chester, i s warned of danger to f o l l o w . Later, when Georgina f i n a l l y breaks w i t h Fred Coyte, her t r a g i c martydom i s foreshadowed by her f a t h e r ' s foreboding statement, "How w i l l she f o r g i v e h e r s e l f a t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? " (EL, 195). Dramatic c o n v i c t i o n , i n the n a r r a t i v e , i s s t r e n g -thened by Nimmo's c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l . V e r i s i m i l i -tude i s gained by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of accurate h i s t o r i c a l f a c t and reference to l i v i n g personnages. The l i t t l e de-v i c e of d i s g u i s i n g a person's name because important r e -l a t i v e s are s t i l l a l i v e , a lso gives a u t h e n t i c i t y . Nimmo presents almost photographic d e t a i l t o set the stage f o r h i s n a r r a t i v e . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Coyte's k i t c h e n : To reach the house from the yards i t was nec-essary to pass through the k i t c h e n , a room which seemed smaller than i t was because of i t s great height and the amount of l a r g e f u r n i t u r e i n i t — two immense presses over nine f e e t t a l l , the great t a b l e at which, i n harvest time, twenty persons could sup, a s e t t l e s i x f e e t high and eight f e e t l o n g , a huge dresser w i t h i t s rows of crockery, and numberless small cupboards, s t o o l s , c h a i r s of a l l s i z e s , b i n s and boxes, b a r r e l s and peat baskets. The corners were f i l l e d w i t h whips and p o l e s , spudded s t i c k s , rake-handles w a i t i n g f o r new heads, and heads of a l l kinds w a i t i n g f o r 110 handles. The w a l l s were hung w i t h bags, twine axes and c l i p p e r s , Fred's gun, never used, muzzles, s t r a p s , some o l d calendars from seeds-men, a l a r g e s a l t - b o x and two p a i r s of f i s h e r -men's lo n g boots. Hams, and often whole sides of bacon, dangled from the blackened c e i l i n g beside a huge rack f o r c l o t h e s - d r y i n g , the whole moved by complicated ropes and p u l l e y s , secured to c l e a t s by the f i r e p l a c e . (EL, 150). On the surface t h i s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n seems to have been i n c l u d e d merely as a v i v i d memory of a farmhouse k i t c h e n ; v i v i d because the young Chester had to pass through t h i s room every n i g h t f o r years. But a more important reason f o r the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s that i t e x p l a i n s why Chester was unable to see Mrs. Coyte when he f i r s t entered the k i t c h e n on the-night of her s e i z u r e , and allows the more dramatic discovery of her on the f l o o r behind the s e t t l e l a t e r on. In other words the d e s c r i p t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the n a r r a t i v e . At other times Nimmo act s as a camera eye r e c o r d i n g a momentary f l a s h of v i s i o n . He watches h i s f a t h e r smoking i n bed i n the dark: "...by the glow of the bowl we would see upon h i s eyes, at the bottom of those dark p i t s of t h e i r o r b i t s , two steady gleams of r e f l e c t e d l i g h t , f i x e d i n contemplation..." (EL, 280). Sometimes the camera eye records a changing scene . Chester i s t r y i n g to see through the crowd at the f a i r : I l l When suddenly I found myself at gaze, between a woman's fa s h i o n a b l e head, a tower of h a i r and f e a t h e r s , and a labourer's v a s t pink ear, a t two men, a young and an o l d , who stood upon a stag-ing w i t h crossed arms, my f i r s t w i l d n o t i o n , those are a c t o r s , gave me a sense as i f the blood had run out of my heart... But the crowd was moving again, a surge turned me h a l f r o u n d — t h e fashionable hat and i t s c u r l e d f e a t h e r s was c a r r i e d some yards away, the great r e d ear was re p l a c e d by a baby i n arms. I t was sucking calmly while i t s mother, a red-faced woman streaming w i t h sweat, f i e r c e l y elbowed her neighbours back, and I caught my f i r s t glimpse of s t r i p e d canvas, l i g h t s b r i g h t e r than a l l the r e s t , and a man i n a s h i n i n g t a l l hat, a dress s u i t and white waistcoat...(EL, 82-83). A reviewer i n the New Yorker suggests t h a t Except  the Lord,although a " r i c h and s p i r i t e d p iece of work," l a c k s "the excitement of a n a t u r a l rise., or climax, and of a n a t u r a l ending."^ This introduces the p o i n t of "form" i n the n a r r a t i v e . Nimmo has defined h i s purpose i n w r i t i n g as a study of a young boy's "development of s o u l " and he has presented the stages of development as a s e r i e s of con-v e r s i o n s , a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h periods of agnosticism. The young boywho has accepted h i s e a r l y f a i t h by a u t h o r i t y be-comes an agnostic at the f a i l u r e of the Second Coming, but by Lanza's speech he i s converted to a new f a i t h i n Humanity. Gomme's c r i t i c i s m of the B o i l i n g s and h i s own d e s i r e f o r ac-t i o n leads him t o r e j e e t i d e a l i s t i c anarchism, and through Bring's i n f l u e n c e he adopts Marxist d i a l e c t i c i s m . Defeat and disgrace i n the Lilmouth Strike awake him t o r e a l i s a t i o n of the e v i l and f a l l a c i e s of Marxism, and through the in f l u e n c e 112 of h i s f a m i l y he i s reconverted to C h r i s t i a n i t y . Even as Nimmo completes the c y c l e from e v a n g e l i c a l r e l i g i o n to a new evangelism, so also does the book end where i t began at the graveside i n Shagbrook. I t should be noted t h a t the second book of a t r i l o g y even i t i t stands on i t s own as a separate work, cannot of n e c e s s i t y b r i n g the story to a c o n c l u s i o n . Except the Lord completes Nimmo's c y c l e of e a r l y develop-ment but at the same time p o i n t s forward t o continued a c t i o n : young Chester to the work of a l a y preacher; o l d Chester to the attempt at a p o l i t i c a l comeback. As i n P r i s o n e r of Grace the c h i e f aspect of form i s the " t o t a l symbol, the complete s i g n i f i c a n c e of the book as a whole. A l l e n claims t h a t everything i n the novel i s "subordinated t o the theme of the r e l i g i o u s nature of man as manifest i n the d i r e c t i n t e r c o u r s e of man with God" and elaborates t h i s a s s e r t i o n by s t a t i n g that Except the Lord i s "Cary's most e x p l i c i t rendering of the Nonconformist, P r o t e s t a n t s p i r i t . . . . " 1 0 The i n c i d e n t s i n t h i s book when gathered together do seem to symbolize the P r o t e s t a n t s p i r i t d r i v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l to come to terms with a s e n s i t i v e con-s c i e n c e . I t i s Nimmo's f a t h e r ' s conscience which w i l l not a l l o w him to f i r e Wilson even when i t might save Georgina's r e p u t a t i o n , h i s conscience t h a t causes him to l o s e h i s oc-cupation a f t e r Mrs. Coyte's death b r i n g i n g poverty upon h i s f a m i l y , h i s conscience that i n f l u e n c e s him to remain i n 113 Shagbrook even when i t means Georgina's l o s s of a husband and her e a r l y death. Georgina's conscience d r i v e s her t o self-imposed martyrdom. Although Chester l o s e s h i s e a r l y f a i t h , he does not l o s e h i s sense of moral values. His changes of philosophy during adolescence are part of the search f o r a working weapon a g a i n s t the i n j u s t i c e s he sees around him. W^en i n j u s t i c e r e s u l t s from the p o l i c i e s of Marxism, h i s conscience d r i v e s him back to h i s t r a d i t i o n a l f a i t h . The whole p o i n t of Except the Lord i s t o show that Nimmo's l a t e r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n was guided by the d i c t a t e s of C h r i s t i a n conscience nurtured i n h i s youth--but a con-science f l e x i b l e enough to adjust to a p o l i t i c a l pragmatisism a l s o imposed upon him i n h i s e a r l y years. Although Nimmo's development i s c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d by the d i c t a t e s of conscience, i t owes much a l s o to chance occurrences. Nimmo, l i k e Cary, i s a great b e l i e v e r i n the importance of chance i n l i f e and when these s t r o k e s of luck appear i n the s t o r y they are l a b e l l e d as such. Nimmo's a t -tendance at the melodrama came about, he says, because a chance acquaintance of h i s f a t h e r happened to be standing be-side Richard i n the crowd and to be drunk enough to gi v e away the half-crown f o r Chester's entry fee (Georgina u n l i k e Chester d i d not wait f o r chance, but pushed under the can-v a s ) . Nimmo's conversion by Lanza occurred because by chance 114 he saw t h e n o t i c e o f m e e t i n g when i t was r a i n i n g and he needed s h e l t e r . Nimmo u s e s t h e word " a c c i d e n t " when he e x p l a i n s how he was s a v e d f r o m p e r d i t i o n as a M a r x i s t : " . . . m y h e a r t m i g h t have d i e d , my whole l i f e have been t w i s t e d , i f i t had n o t been f o r an a c c i d e n t " (EL 2 6 9 ) . Whether i n t h i s c a s e P r i n g ' s d e c i s i o n t o a s k Nimmo t o r e -s i g n can be te rmed an a c c i d e n t i s d o u b t f u l , b u t a t l e a s t chance does p l a y i t s p a r t . A l l e r i s t a t e s , t h a t "comedy i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a b s e n t " H i n E x c e p t the L o r d . W i t h o u t d o u b t , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e humour i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e w e a l t h o f comedy i n P r i s o n e r o f G r a c e , a n d t h i s i s s u r p r i s i n g when one remembers Nimmo T s g a l e s o f m i r t h a t b r o a d f a r c e , and h i s h i l a r i t y o c -c a s i o n e d by h i s own s t o r i e s . B u t t h i s r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l r e s p o n s e t o s t o c k s i t u a t i o n s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a r e a l sense of humour s u c h as w o u l d a p p e a r i n l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i o n . A l s o , Nimmo i s w r i t i n g a s an o l d man who h a s r e -c e n t l y s u f f e r e d m a j o r d e f e a t s and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . A g a i n , h i s p u r p o s e , i s a sombre one , d e e p l y r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l . B u t t h e r e a r e e l e m e n t s o f humour i n t h e n o v e l as i t s t a n d s on i t s own a p a r t f r o m t h e t r i l o g y , and t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e comic i r o n y f o r t h e r e a d e r o f P r i s o n e r o f Grace and Not Honour M o r e . Nimmo's o n l y m e n t i o n o f humour i n t h e n o v e l i s h i s 115 reference to h i s f a t h e r ' s unexpected w i t concerning human f r a i l t i e s . An example quoted by Nimmo concerns v i l l a g e r s going t o the harvest f a i r : ' I f the labourer i s worthy of h i s h i r e , ' says h i s f a t h e r , 'I suppose the c i r c u s i s worthy of the l a b o u r e r ' s h i r e ' (EL, 78). On a l a t e r occasion when Georgina i s r e s i g n i n g h e r s e l f to accepting Fred Coyte as a s u i t o r , h i s f a t h e r comments tha t women are l i k e horses, "over the hedge at a b i t of paper, and rock to a thunder storm when 'they've made up t h e i r minds to i t ' " (EL, 167). Nimmo points out how he had n o t i c e d a s i m i l a r v e i n of humour " i n other e v a n g e l i c a l s deeply convinced of the human f a l l i b i l i t y " (EL, 78). Nimmo's d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s f a t h e r ' s t r i a l con-t a i n s elements of humour. Major U d a l l while i n the witness box takes the opportunity to announce the date of the Second Coming and to warn the j u r y t h a t they w i l l be damned i f they harm the man who prophesied the event. Mrs. Coyte's spectacular entrance i n t o the courtroom and her attack on the magistrates i s amusing. Even when her s t a t e -ment that she saw the whole event i s proved to be p e r j u r y , she s t i l l not only makes an a l l - o u t a t t a c k upon T a r b i t o n , but also succeeds i n g a i n i n g Nimmo's f a t h e r ' s r e l e a s e . Occasion-a l l y Nimmo snipes at h i s p o l i t i c a l opponents with an i r o n i c aside. R e f l e c t i n g upon the maturing e f f e c t on Georgina of 116 her l i e to her f a t h e r (concerning her r e l a t i o n s h i p to G.), Nimmo makes the general comment tha t no one grows up i n a moment under s t r e s s . This leads to h i s i r o n i c j i b e : " I have thought even to see the t r a c e s of the c h i l d i n one of Her Majesty's Cabinet M i n i s t e r s not f a r short of seventy years of age" (EL, 52). There i s double i r o n y here f o r the reader of P r i s o n e r of Grace who remembers Nina's frequent references to Nimmo as a c h i l d . The reader of the f i r s t novel of the t r i l o g y i s a l s o somewhat amused to hear Nimmo l a s h out at s p e l l b i n d e r s and demagogues. In co n t r a s t to these s p e l l b i n d e r s , Nimmo p o i n t s to the " f i f t y - t h o u s a n d " servants of the Lord who u n o b t r u s i v e l y teach the p r i n c i p l e s of t r u t h and mercy towards a l l men. Here Nimmo amuses the reader by i n c l u d i n g amongst the host of s a i n t l y d i s s e n t i n g pastors a few poor and f o r g o t t e n Anglican v i c a r s . I t i s Nimmo's eulogy to Nina t h a t provides the strongest i r o n y i n Except the Lord. He has had a heart a t t a c k a t Palm Cottage and Nina i s beside h i s bed a s s i s t i n g him to w r i t e h i s book, anxious, as he says,"to d i s p e l through these memoirs a cloud of misunderstanding which has thrown so black a shade upon my l a s t hours" (EL, 214). He speaks of her s a c r i f i c e and t r u t h f u l n e s s and makes the s t a r t l i n g c laim that Nina and he are "one f l e s h " : 1 1 7 One f l e s h , how magic and how t e r r i b l e i s t h i s phrase to those who l o v e — o n e f l e s h f o r good and f o r e v i l - - o n e f l e s h and one soul i n which the nerves, the sympathies, speak as across a common heart, with meanings not to be expressed i n words. She i s part of me as I of her--she i s my woman's p a r t , and through her i n a l l those years of our j o i n i n g I came to know the other h a l f of the world where women l i v e and f e e l — n o , i t i s not a h a l f world but the whole world seen through a woman's soul (EL, 2 1 4 - 2 1 5 ) . Now i t seems obvious from i n f o r m a t i o n given i n the t h i r d book of the t r i l o g y , Not Honour More.that t h i s scene at Palm Cottage occurs more than two years a f t e r Nimmo's divorce and a f t e r Nina and Jim have been married f o r some considerable time. A l s o , t h i s i s the time when Nimmo i s making h i s sexual a t t a c k s upon Nina. Nimmo's statement i s , th e r e f o r e , amazingly i r o n i c . I t i s true t h a t Nina wants to d i s p e l the "clouds of misunderstanding" concerning Nimmo and i t i s obvious t h a t t h i s i s an a c t of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . But Nina i s here at the bedside as " p r i s o n e r of grace," t o r t u r e d with the danger of her p o s i t i o n and t o r n asunder by the dilemma that has no s o l u t i o n . Nimmo's claim of p h y s i c a l union w i t h Nina i s not as i t sounds a mere confession of the depth of t h e i r mutual l o v e — b u t i t i s a d e c l a r a t i o n of h i s c l a i m upon her-, h i s r e f u s a l to acknowledge the d i s s o l u t i o m o f t h e i r marriage. Nimmo's almost u n b e l i e v a b l e presumption i s humorous, but the i r o n y i s so grim t h a t i t becomes f r i g h t e n i n g l y sar-donic. This claim upon Nina may a l s o be Nimmo's r a t i o n a l i z -118 a t i o n f o r h i s sexual a t t a c k s . Wright, d i s c u s s i n g t h i s sec-t i o n on Nina and the nature of woman that follows, s t a t e s that Nimmo's r e f l e c t i o n here "has a pious r i n g , " but w i t h know-ledge of Pr i s o n e r of Grace "the r e f l e c t i o n i s not only pious, i t i s a l s o , and e q u a l l y , l a s c i v i o u s . " In summary, Nimmo's v a r i a t i o n of s t y l e r e v e a l s a many-sided nature. ' His formal s t y l e expresses h i s e s s e n t i a l d i g n i t y , h i s i n g r a i n e d r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , h i s l i k i n g f o r o l d -fashioned ideas and e s t a b l i s h e d p o i n t s of view. There i s pomposity i n the way he speaks of himself i n the t h i r d person; there i s p r i d e i n h i s choice of the "nice word" and the studied expression. Nimmo's r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e presents the s p e l l b i n d e r , the maker of set speeches; and yet i t reveals also, that Chester i s one of the few orators who can use the b i g words and t r i t e expressions with convincing s i n c e r i t y . The strong blending of the e v a n g e l i c a l w i t h p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c shows th a t Nimmo's nature i s rooted i n the tenets of the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h . His simple n a r r a t i v e and n a t u r a l d i a -logue r e v e a l what Nina probably meant by the " r e a l Chester," s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n people and v i s u a l l y a l e r t to the dramatic p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of everyday experience. His occas-i o n a l use of a l y r i c a l and romantic s t y l e f o r childhood r e -miniscence expresses brightness and exuberance. Nimmo's extensive vocabulary shows h i s f a m i l i a r i t y 119 w i t h both the r u r a l and the urban community,his a s s o c i a t i o n with people of high and lowly s t a t e . His choice of quo-t a t i o n s and a l l u s i o n s r e v e a l s h i s q u a l i t i e s of preacher and teacher, exposes h i s l i b e r a l and r e v o l u t i o n a r y tendencies, and shows the importance i n h i s l i f e of personal i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n with an i d e a l . His references a l s o e x p l a i n the o r i g i n of h i s antagonism towards the use of v i o l e n c e as a p o l i t i c a l or economic weapon. Many of Nimmo's metaphors are c l i c h e s of the s p e l l b i n d e r and the e v a n g e l i s t , but most are o r i g i n a l and v i v i d , r e v e a l i n g h i s v i s u a l a c u i t y and imaginative power. His death metaphors show h i s preoccupation w i t h h i s own demise and the i n f l u e n c e of approaching death upon present a c t i o n . Metaphors a r i s i n g from the mystery and e v i l i n -fluences of the moor e x h i b i t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the t r a n s -cendental. His b u i l d i n g metaphors i l l u s t r a t e h i s search f o r s e c u r i t y and foundations of f a i t h ; while unexpected e x o t i c imagery exposes h i s romantic a f f i n i t i e s , h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to accept the drabness and mundaneness of everyday existence. Nimmo's n a r r a t i v e s t y l e i s much more r a p i d and d i r e c t than Nina's. Episodes are grouped around eras with i n t e r v e n i n g lapses of time, showing Nimmo's patience i n a t t e n -ding to e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l , yet h i s r e s t l e s s impatience to 120 f i n i s h the work. The anecdotal q u a l i t y of the n a r r a t i v e em-phasizes again h i s i n t e r e s t i n people, at l e a s t i n remi-niscence. NimmoTs i n t e r p o l a t i o n of p h i l o s o p h i c a l comment, and h i s m o r a l i z i n g upon each event, express more than preten-tiousness; they r e v e a l h i s i n t e n s e a n x i e t y to determine the p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasons f o r personal a c t i o n . His w i l l i n g n e s s to modify e a r l y judgments by mature r e f l e c t i o n s shows h i s f l e x i b i l i t y , h i s r e a l i z a t i o n of the need f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n and compromise. O nce again i n Except the Lord the character i s d e p i c t e d through the s t y l e . Richard Hughes, w r i t i n g i n the Spectator, ad-vances the theory t h a t Chester Nimmo i n Except the Lord i s not the same r u t h l e s s , t r i c k y demagogue of Pr i s o n e r of  Grace., He i n s i s t s that Nimmo was "too f a r gone i n d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n to have assumed the b e n i g n i t y that we f e e l i n the present n a r r a t i v e , t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c detachment and t o l -13 erance." I t i s true that a person who begins to read the second novel might have a s i m i l a r doubt, but g r a d u a l l y , as he reads on, i t should become apparent t h a t the change i s merely a change i n focus on the same character. There i s bound to be a d i s p a r i t y i n Nina's view of Chester at the end of P r i s o n e r of Grace, where her opinions are i n f l u e n c e d by personal antagonism towards him and by the p a r t i c u l a r c i r -cumstances of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Looking back to Pr i s o n e r 121 of Grace,one i s immediately aware of s i m i l a r i t i e s between Nimmo's s t y l e i n the quoted dialogue of t h a t book and h i s s t y l e i n h i s own memoir. There are abundant examples i n Nina's account, of h i s simple, c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e , and much evidence of a formal s t y l e i d e n t i c a l to t h a t i n Except the  Lord. A n example from P r i s o n e r of Grace of t h i s formal s t y l e w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s resemblance. I t i s taken from one of the l a s t scenes i n the novel where Nimmo, the so-c a l l e d decadent "demagogue," i s speaking to S a l l y , h i s daughter, at the time when she i s attempting to dissuade him from s t a y i n g at Palm Cottage: "...We have been t a l k i n g about the o l d s p i r i t which we must recapture, but we have f o r g o t t e n what i t i s ; we have l o s t a l l knowledge of the s p i r i t and our words are wind. They are worse than w i n d — t h e y are a smoke screen to hide the vacancy of our h e a r t s , the emptiness of our f a i t h . The cold t r u t h i s t h a t we have s u f f e r e d the f a t e of every i n s t i t u t i o n , of every party, i n l o s i n g our way among the dust of our own achievement. We have come down from Pisgah, and f o r g o t t e n the great v i s i o n that l e d us down. ..." (PG, 381). Here we have the r h e t o r i c a l devices: the p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e , the a b s t r a c t words, loaded terms, the metaphors heaped upon metaphors. I t i s the same Chester of Except the Lord, i d e a l i s t and opportunist. Nimmo owes some of h i s id e a l i s m to the i n f l u e n c e of h i s f a t h e r . He respects h i s f a t h e r as a s a i n t even though 122 he r e j e c t s h i s b l i n d obedience to the d i c t a t e s of con-science. Nimmo's hatred of vi o l e n c e i s c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s teachings, but a r i s e s c h i e f l y through h i s own personal experience i n union a c t i v i t y . His f a t h e r ' s f a m i l y worship has a s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t upon Nimmo's way-wardness as a boy but f a i t h merely accepted from h i s f a t h e r cannot stand up to the arguments of reason. Nimmo's c h i e f " i l l u m i n a t i o n s " i n the novel are brought about by outside i n f l u e n c e s such as the Lilmouth play and l i b e r a l speeches, and h i s f i n a l conversion comes not from h i s f a t h e r ' s teach-i n g but from the emotional sound of a Psalm and from Georgina's sympathy. Chester's opportunism causes tension i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f a t h e r and son, because h i s f a t h e r ' s v o i c e i s the voice of conscience and h i s f a t h e r ' s l i f e the absolute of C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g which Chester cannot reach. Nimmo's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s s i s t e r , Georgina, strengthens h i s p o l i t i c a l pragmatism yet a l s o increases h i s i d e a l i s m . Chester depends on her strength and aggressiveness; she i s the f o r c e t h a t arranges the p r a c t i c a l means f o r h i s advancement. Yet having set Nimmo on h i s u n i o n i s t career, Georgina i s forced t o pay the p r i c e of estrangement from him. Georgina's p r i d e amazes and f r i g h t e n s Chester; to him she i s "our proud queen and our dangerous enemy..." (EL, 180). Though she abuses Chester and disapproves of h i s aims, she 1 2 3 f i e r c e l y defends him because, as Nimmo says, " I was pa r t of her s o u l " (EL, 2 6 8 ) . Again and again as c h i l d r e n and then as a d u l t s , Chester and Georgina t r y to break through the w a l l of each other's i s o l a t i o n , but t h e i r natures are both too impetuous to r e t a i n more than f l e e t i n g contact. In h i s l a t e r years Nimmo comes to r e a l i z e the extent of Georgina's s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , and i s i n s p i r e d anew by "a heart that could not know despair because i t f o r g o t i t s e l f i n the duty of i t s l o v e " (EL 2 8 7 ) . Nimmo makes only two references to Nina i n Ex-cept the Lord, h i s f i r s t meeting with her as a c h i l d and h i s reference to her presence at h i s bedside. He claims t h a t her i n f l u e n c e has been the motivation f o r h i s continuing i d e a l -ism, and he gives her the c r e d i t f o r h i s successes i n l i f e : " I might say," he i n s i s t s , " t h a t to the chance entry of that c h i l d I owe a l l the achievement i n the world f o r which, r i g h t l y or wrongly, I have r e c e i v e d honour" (EL j 1 3 9 ) . I t was "the cast of her s o u l " (EX 1 3 - 9 ) , her " q u a l i t i e s of thoughtfulness and s i n c e r i t y , " her sense of "inborn t r u t h , " and "genierosity of a f f e c t i o n , " he cl a i m s , t h a t shaped the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s f o r h i s l a t e r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . He po i n t s out that Nina taught him "during more than t h i r t y years of happy marriage" to know "those bonds of g r a t i t u d e and l o y a l t y " which "transcend a l l d i v i s i o n s of c l a s s and give 124 the best, indeed the only, promise of l a s t i n g achievement to any p o l i t i c a l e n t e r p r i s e " (EL, 140). Nimmo, i n h i s " s i n -c e r i t y of the moment" i s d e s c r i b i n g Nina as the romantic i d e a l of a V i c t o r i a n woman. A l l these sentiments expressed here w i l l . r e a p p e a r i n Not Honour More. Chapter IV Not Honour More Many readers, unaware that Not Honour More i s part of a t r i l o g y , read i t as a separate novel and are shocked and perplexed. Here i s a book with a l l the ingred-i e n t s and f l a v o u r of a murder t h r i l l e r : melodramatic v i o -lence, sexual motives and overtones, attempted s u i c i d e , b r i b e d witnesses, - "planted" informers, and a f i n a l Mickey S p i l l a n e ending where j u s t i c e i s not l e f t f o r the court, but i s c a r r i e d out by the avenger hims e l f . I t i s under-standable t h a t German p u b l i s h i n g houses h e s i t a t e d to p r i n t the novel u n t i l they gained assurance t h a t Cary was not him-s e l f the n a r r a t o r . Even the reader of P r i s o n e r of Grace and Except the Lprd i s shocked by the v i r u l e n c e of tone and by the discovery t h a t the t r a g i c forebodings at the end of 126 P r i s o n e r of Grace have already been r e a l i z e d ; that apparently Jim has k i l l e d Nina and i s here w r i t i n g h i s l a s t testament. Cary has never sidestepped v i o l e n c e i n h i s novels; i n f a c t he i s often at h i s best when d e s c r i b i n g "pande-monium l e t l o o s e , " whether i t be slave t r a d e r s massacring v i l l a g e r s , or r i o t e r s breaking up a p o l i t i c a l meeting. Cary introduces v i o l e n c e i n t o Not Honour More f o r a very d e f i n i t e purpose: namely, to t e s t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c a c y of v i o l e n c e and persuasion i n s o l v i n g problems of p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e . Cary takes f o r the s e t t i n g of t h i s novel the 1926 General S t r i k e i n B r i t a i n . ' His reason f o r choosing t h i s ev-ent can be surmised from a statement i n B r i t a i n and West  A f r i c a i n which Cary contends t h a t "Deadlock i s the c h i e f danger of the f r e e s t a t e s . I t may destroy them."''" His argument here i s that during such a deadlock as a general s t r i k e , democratic leaders are tempted to r e s o r t to author-i t a r i a n techniques and thus to become themselves a u t h o r i -t a r i a n . The 1926 s t r i k e t h e r e f o r e provides an e x c e l l e n t case f o r t e s t i n g the r e l a t i v e merits of v i o l e n c e and persu-a s i o n . Chester Nimmo remembers that the Lilmouth S t r i k e f a i l e d because of v i o l e n c e , and the London dock s t r i k e of 1889 succeeded because i t "bred no t a l e of revenge, r e p r i s a l , 127 and r e a c t i o n , but rather a new understanding, a new draw-2 i n g together of c l a s s e s , a new peace." Therefore Nimmo i n h i s p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s s t r i k e of 1926 "... w i l l make d e a l s , " or, as Jim s t a t e s i t , w i l l "wangle"." B u t Jim, who has no conception of compromise, w i l l shoot to "assert honour and r e s t o r e order." On the p r i v a t e l e v e l , Cary has already created h i s deadlock; namely,Nina's dilemma t h a t her love f o r Jim t i e s her to him, and her acceptance of the r o l e of "prisoner of grace" f o r b i d s her to turn Nimmo away. Here on the personal l e v e l , Jim w i l l again r e s o r t to v i o -lence to break Nimmo's hold on Nina, while Nimmo w i l l attempt persuasion to keep a g r i p on Nina, and to prevent Jim from d e s t r o y i n g them both. Concerning t h i s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e focus, Wright says: " . . . i n the course of the book the two focuses become one. Not Honour More e s t a b l i s h e s , t h i s time c a t a s t r o p h i c a l l y t h e connection between p u b l i c and p r i -vate p o l i t i c s . " ^ Jim L a t t e r , as n a r r a t o r of the n o v e l , i s w r i t i n g h i s testament to r e l a t e the circumstances which l e d to what he terms the "execution" of Nina, and to e x p l a i n why t h i s a c t i o n was, as he expresses i t , "necessary". He s t a t e s t h a t the s p e c i f i c reason f o r h i s a c t i o n was b e t r a y a l by Nimmo and Nina; the purpos:eful w i t h h o l d i n g of evidence which l e d to the unjust and c r u e l c o n v i c t i o n of an innocent man. The 128 "execution"was made necessary by Jim's awareness of the f u l l extent of general c o r r u p t i o n on the p r i v a t e and the p u b l i c l e v e l . L a t t e r i s , therefore, not preparing a defence i n order t o gain a r e p r i e v e - - h i s own l i f e i s of no concern to him--but r a t h e r i t i s to remedy p u b l i c misunderstanding which has a r i s e n through misrepresentation by the press. Jim's s t o r y opens with immediate v i o l e n c e on the p r i v a t e l e v e l because not only has he re c e i v e d anonymous warnings that Nimmo has had sexual r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s w i f e , but he has a c t u a l l y caught him i n the act. What f o l l o w s i s almost a burlesque; an i n v e r s i o n of the theme of "the avenging husband" i n which the l o v e r , " t h i s o l d swine over seventy years' o l d " ^ back-somersaults through the window as he i s shot by the young husband, while the wife s t r u g g l e s with the r i f l e b a r r e l . Nimmo's bodyguard a r r i v e s but Nimmo i s not dead and, wanting to avoid a scandal, he encourages Nina to a s s i s t Jim to escape so tha t the i n c i d e n t can be announced as an a c c i d e n t . On the f o l l o w i n g morning, Jim, l e a r n i n g that Nimmo i s a l i v e , r e t urns to Palm Cottage to " f i n i s h him o f f . " Nimmo courageously arranges a p r i v a t e conference and uses a l l h i s powers of persuasion i n an attempt to keep Jim from u s i n g v i o l e n c e . Jim, i n a temper shoots at Nina, but f i n d -i n g the p i s t o l empty he s t r i k e s her with i t , gashing her head. 1 2 9 A f t e r r e l o a d i n g , he shoots i n di s g u s t at the f l o o r at Nimmo's f e e t . The crowd surges i n ; Nimmo, t a k i n g Nina with him, i s whisked away and Jim i s l e f t alone. When the General S t r i k e i s c a l l e d on May f o u r t h , the n a r r a t i v e focusses on the p u b l i c l e v e l . Jim, r e l u c t a n t , but f e e l i n g i t h i s duty, becomes the lea d e r of the S p e c i a l constables under orders of Nimmo who heads the Emergency Committee. L a t t e r suspects that Nimmo i s making deals with Pincomb, the communist leader i n Tarb i t o n , and that i n some way or other Nina i s i n v o l v e d . He also b e l i e v e s that Nina's attempts at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n are part of Nimmo's strateg y . Chester c o n s t a n t l y warns Jim ag a i n s t using v i o -lence i n handling s t r i k e i n c i d e n t s , but the warnings are not heeded. Both at the Bus Incident and the mass meeting of s t r i k e r s at P o t t e r ' s independent shipyard, Jim takes f o r c e f u l a c t i o n . The r e s u l t i s mob v i o l e n c e i n which a S p e c i a l , Maufe, i s ar r e s t e d f o r s t r i k i n g Pincomb. The n a r r a t i v e refocusses on the p r i v a t e l e v e l as Jim r e t u r n s to Palm Cottage, disgusted at Maufe's a r r e s t . Here he discovers Nimmo h i d i n g i n Nina's bed. When the three p r o t a g o n i s t s r e t u r n to Tarbiton to check Nimmo's s t o r y , Nina, who according to Jim "cannot stand any more l i e s , " attempts s u i c i d e by throwing h e r s e l f i n f r o n t of a passing army l o r r y . 130 The p u b l i c and p r i v a t e focusses now become one as the n a r r a t i v e centres on Maufe's t r i a l . Nina t e s t i f i e s conc-erning her meeting with Maufe, but Jim b e l i e v e s t h a t she omits evidence and that the missing f a c t s are recorded i n c e r t a i n l e t t e r s she sent to Nimmo during the s t r i k e . When Maufe i s convicted, Jim i s angered to the point of reading the l e t t e r s , i n which he f i n d s proof of c o l l u s i o n between Nimmo and Nina. Chester a r r i v e s and confronts Jim, but persuasion again y i e l d s to v i o l e n c e . Nimmo takes f l i g h t to a W.C. where, a f t e r c r y i n g a warning to Nina, he dies of a heart a t t a c k . Nina r e t u r n s , and Jim, never having loved her more, but having no other choice, c a r r i e s out the "execution." The n a r r a t i v e of Not Honour More,violent and ex-c i t i n g , reads l i k e a Jacobean melodrama. But there i s more to the novel than p l o t . Once again the character of the na r r a t o r i s of primary s i g n i f i c a n c e and the study of r e -l a t i o n s h i p between s t y l e and character i s o f paramount im-portance. A major d i f f e r e n c e i n the s t y l e s of the three novels of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y i s the change i n pace. P r i s o n e r of Grace i s r e l a t i v e l y unhurried; Nina's i n v o l -uted c o n s t r u c t i o n s make f o r c o n t i n u a l r e f l e c t i o n , and her 1 3 1 r a t h e r l e i s u r e l y reminiscences range over about f o r t y years. Except the Lord i s more a g i t a t e d because of Nimmo's urgency to f i n i s h h i s s t o r y ; but i t i s s t i l l a f a r - o f f remembrance of twenty years of e a r l y l i f e . In Not Honour More the n a r r a t i v e pace i s f u r i o u s l y a c c e l e r a t e d . Here the whole story i s condensed i n t o a few weeks of time; and three-quarters of the book deals with the events from May f i r s t , when Nimmo' makes h i s speech at Shagbrook, to May eleventh, when Jim r e s i g n s from the S p e c i a l s . Moreover, the events are recent and t h e r e f o r e more dramatic. There i s a l s o s p a t i a l concentra-t i o n i n the narrow-screen drama focussed on the "microcosm of Tarbiton." And Cary heightens t h i s " s h u t - i n " f e e l i n g by the use of a t e l e g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e s t y l e . James L a t t e r , as n a r r a t o r , uses t h i s contracted s t y l e i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of an e x c i t e d g a t h e r i n g of "Big Brass" i n the Town H a l l to deal with a mass demonstration of the unemployed. This i s at the time when Nimmo by s t r a t e g y gets h i m s e l f e l e c t e d chairman of the Emergency Com-mittee. Here i s how Jim describes i t : What a f e a r f u l s i t u a t i o n ! Unemployed won't swallow any more wind. Want bread. C o u n c i l l o r s running about l i k e hens i n a thunderstorm. With face s spreading alarm and despondency. T e l l i n g each other, 'I t o l d you so. I t ' s a l l so-and-so's f a u l t , f o r not t a l k i n g the r i g h t s l u s h . ' Lady s e c r e t a r i e s making t e a l i k e mad.. Four members of Watch Committee arguing with Chief Constable. Time f o r truncheons, or too l a t e ? About f o u r , mob gets on move. Sends i n demands—special r e l i e f — 132 new works to be s t a r t e d — r e s i g n a t i o n three c o u n c i l l o r s who'd opposed works and s a i d something rude about Mr. Pincomb. De-p u t a t i o n to be r e c e i v e d at once. Mayor says no. C o u n c i l l o r X says, yes. C o u n c i l l o r Y says, l e t 'em i n and the mob w i l l storm the H a l l . Chief Constable says f a t a l .to give way to f o r c e . C o u n c i l l o r Y says f a t a l not to (NHM, 1 5 ) . 'This s t y l e which James Stern c a l l s "the ugly e l l i p t i c a l language of the paranoic,"^ creates the impression of a g i -t a t i o n and f a n a t i c i s m . The s y n t a c t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s c h a o t i c . A r t i c l e s , verbs, sometimes pronouns and even phrases are omitted. Whole sentences are i m p l i e d by a dash or suggested by a fragment. D i r e c t quotations run i n t o one another. Well known persons i n the town are merely c a r i -catured by g e n e r a l i z e d symbols. L a t t e r uses t h i s s t y l e f o r d e f i n i t e reasons. His own excuse i s t h a t he i s d i c t a t i n g the whole statement at h i g h speed f o r shorthand. As he says: I wish t h e r e f o r e t o put on record any e r r o r s or omissions are not by my w i l l but due s o l e l y to pressure of time. Nor any f a u l t of policewoman Ma r t i n t a k i n g d i c t a t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l n i g h t . (NHM, 28). Jim's other excuse i s t h a t he i s not adept i n the use of words. He t e l l s Drew to be p a t i e n t when the r e p o r t e r t r i e s to hurry him f o r a statement: " I s a i d we had plenty of time as l a n d l o r d would hold s t a i r s . Also I was not l i k e him used to quick composition, and needed time to pick my words" 133 (NHM, 2 6 ) . But there seems to be a b e t t e r reason f o r h i s use of t h i s extreme c o n t r a c t i o n : namely, th a t i t becomes a v e h i c l e f o r i r o n y . He only adopts t h i s s t y l e when he i s not too emotionally i n v o l v e d ; when he can make use of the scene f o r h i s own type of s a t i r i c lampooning. Most of the e x c i t i n g events i n the book are described i n a much f u l l e r s t y l e . Wright says t h a t as the book draws to a close "Jim's s t y l e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a g i t a t e d , i n c r e a s i n g l y mad."''7 but i t c e r t a i n l y does not become more e l l i p t i c a l . Extreme uses of the t e l e g r a p h i c s t y l e occur only i n the f i r s t p a r t of the novel. An example of Jim's f u l l e r s t y l e being used to describe an e x c i t i n g event, i s h i s account of the f i g h t which takes place a f t e r h i s Press Conference at the Water Boy. He does not f i n d t h i s scene amusing because people are t a u n t i n g him as an e x - s o l d i e r : A l o t of young people came pushing through to the f r o n t and took up a threatening a t t i t u d e . Also a l o t more of them were laughing. Wot c a r i n g about the t r u t h or country but only making game of e v e r y t h i n g . I s a i d I wasn't accusing them of being Communists but they were being misled by Communists. Some of them now began to j o s t l e up, someone s t a r t e d a shout, 'The army against the people' and 'Put him i n the r i v e r , ' I shouted I had l e f t the army twenty-five years but they shouted me down. However, j u s t then a young man I knew, and a g i r l a l s o known to me, took me by the arms and pushed me towards the side of the s t r e e t (NHM, 3 5 ) . 134 There i s very l i t t l e c o n t r a c t i o n i n the above* c i t a t i o n and there i s no i r o n y . Jim sometimes uses a formal s t y l e , f o r documents and a r t i c l e s . This s t y l e i s often r a t h e r pseudo-formal as c o l l o q u i a l i n v e c t i v e s are dropped i n modifying the g r a v i t y of tone. I t i s a c t u a l l y a parody of a d i g n i f i e d s t y l e . But Jim i s t a k i n g great pride i n h i s c a r e f u l arrangement and i n the q u a l i t y of h i s " f i n e " w r i t i n g . His statement to Drew i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s : The reason of my a c t i o n against Lord Nimmo was because I caught him i n t e r f e r i n g with my w i f e . Repugnant as i t i s to any decent man to make such .facts p u b l i c i n the Press, I hereby give them as a p u b l i c duty. For many years I have considered Nimmo and h i s gang of a char-ac t e r without the f i r s t idea of honourable con-duct, p u b l i c or p r i v a t e , and t h i s proves i t . They have been the r u i n of our beloved country--have always supported our enemies everywhere and once more i n the present t e r r i b l e danger are only seeking t h e i r own advantage to worm t h e i r way back i n t o power.(NHM, 2 6 ) . Jim shows here h i s l i k i n g f o r the a b s t r a c t word: "honour-a b l e , " "duty," "danger," "power," and f o r such loaded ex-pressions as "beloved country." When Jim i s with Nina, he sometimes uses a very emotional s t y l e which reminds the reader of the "new Jim" i n P r i s o n e r of Grace, so romantic with Nina as "young mother." He uses t h i s s t y l e to describe h i s t e a r f u l i n t e r -135 view with her at Palm Cottage a f t e r he has shot Nimmo: But now at t h i s t e r r i b l e time, seeing her i n such great agony of mind, I took my w i f e ' s hand and s a i d to her we must not q u a r r e l any more. I s a i d f o r a l l - t h e e v i l I had ever done to her I begged f o r her f o r g i v e n e s s . 'Perhaps,' I s a i d , 'I s h a l l never be able to speak to you again without witnesses, before they hang me, and so I want to thank you f o r your great true f a i t h -f u l l o v e , as I saw i t proved t h i s afternoon'. ... (NHM, 1 2 ) . L a t t e r makes use of some unusual techniques of s t y l e f o r s p e c i a l reasons. For example, he uses dramatic format to set o f f conversations of extreme importance. When Brlghtman f i r s t warns Jim of the f o o l i s h n e s s of v i o -lence and the advantages of a scandal (during the entr'acte of h i s duel of w i t s with Nimmo), the f o l l o w i n g p l a y l e t ensues: BRIGHTMAN: ' I t ' s j u s t as I feared, and worse, Nimmo's r i g h t back on the map.' LATTER: 'In the paper.' BRIGHTMAN?. 'Any v i o l e n t attempt against Nimmo now would be enormously to the advantage of h i s p a r t y . ' LATTER; 'He might get a bigger tomb.' BRIGHTMAN: 'But h i s party would come in--have you r e f l e c t e d on Nimmo's r e a l s t r ength?' LATTER:: 'Yes, he's as c l e v e r as a monkey.' 136 BRIGHTMAN: 'The chapels. That i s h i s strong s u i t . The r e l i g i o u s l i n e . Hence these ad-dresses at Shagbrook. Yes, but the chapel side's h i s weak side too,' and he pointed out t h a t a scandal, a r e a l scandal where Nimmo came out i n a bad l i g h t , as a g u i l t y party would r u i n him. For instance, i f I sued f o r d i v o r c e . (NHM, $3). A f t e r making use of t h i s technique, Jim d i s c a r d s i t , as can be seen, without warning. This playwright s t y l e i s used d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the cross-examination of witnesses i n Maufe's court t r i a l . Another s p e c i a l technique of s t y l e i s Jim's docu-mentation of events i n organized sequence to b r i n g informa-t i o n up-to-date before continuing the n a r r a t i v e . These l i s t s sound l i k e a c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s summarized r e p o r t s . Jim uses t h i s technique c h i e f l y i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the r a p i d events of the s t r i k e . He o u t l i n e s , f o r example, the general s i t u a t i o n on the morning of May t e n t h , when the communists have planned a mass meeting of s t r i k e r s to:intim-i d a t e P o t t e r ' s workers. Here i s L a t t e r ' s report: P o s i t i o n , t herefore, on morning 10th May was as f o l l o w s : 1. V i g i l a n t s s t i l l withdrawn from p a t r o l on P o t t e r ' s quay and main gates owing to Coston-L a t t e r correspondence as per schedule. This correspondence now continued by l e t t e r from S t r i k e Committee quoting Lady Bootham's l e t t e r i n Brightman's paper New Worlds f o r Old and accusing Watch Committee breaking pact to keep 1 3 7 volunteers c l e a r of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . L e t t e r received. 1 0 . 3 0 hours. Answered by-express on b i c y c l e . Lady Bootham removed from duty. No acknowledgement S t r i k e Committee. 2 . Meeting summoned by s t r i k e r s and commies at Chapel Road w i t h i n f i f t y yards of P o t t e r ' s main gates. Report t h i s meeting to be adressed by Pincomb i n person.(NHM, 1 5 4 ) . This condensed st j r l e packs i n a great deal of in f o r m a t i o n and impresses with i t s brusk o f f i c i a l tone. L a t t e r seems to w r i t e t h i s s t y l e with ease from long c o l o n i a l experience. F i n a l l y , a s p e c i a l technique of s t y l e used by Jim with dramatic success i s h i s i n c l u s i o n of excerpts from Nina's and Nimmo's l e t t e r s i n sequence, to r e v e a l evidence of t h e i r b e t r a y a l of Maufe. This technique i s necessary to overcome a l i m i t a t i o n of a n a r r a t i v e w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t person. The problem i n t h i s novel i s to r e v e a l the t r u t h of c o l l u s i o n between Nimmo and Nina during the s t r i k e . The l e t t e r s pro-vide t h i s i n d i s p u t a b l e evidence. These a l l o w the reader to ' " s l i p i n t o the domestic p r i v a c y of the c h a r a c t e r s , ' " and to r e c e i v e the "unreserved expression of the w r i t e r ' s own p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s , " ^ not only about the Maufe case but al s o about Jim himself. Reading the l e t t e r s that passed between London and Tarbiton during the c r i s i s , one f e e l s the heighten-i n g of suspense as f a c t f o l l o w i n g f a c t r e v e a l s the extent of the b e t r a y a l . 138 L a t t e r ' s use of v a r i e d s t y l e s emphasizes q u a l i t i e s of h i s c h a r a c t e r . His verve and v i t a l i t y are obvious from the very f i r s t statement of h i s n a r r a t i v e . Although he i s apparently sane, several aspects of h i s s t y l e suggest t h a t he i s under great s t r a i n . F i r s t , h i s flow of i n v e c t i v e a g a i n s t h i s enemies exposes a one-track mind moving round and round the point of h i s contention. Secondly, the b i t t e r i r o n y of h i s language seems a defensive technique f o r a hurt and d i s i l l u s i o n e d man on the b r i n k of breakdown. E i t h e r he becomes a "comic c u t " (NHM, 32) or he b u r s t s i n t o t e a r s . And Jim both clowns and c r i e s i n h i s s t a t e of emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . There i s a resemblance between Jim i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n and Hamlet i n the guise of madman spewing out i n -v e c t i v e s , o b s c e n i t i e s and sardonic humour. Both men are seeking f o r p e r f e c t i o n i n a world of i m p e r f e c t i o n . L a t t e r ' s general s t y l e a l s o shows that he has d i f f i c u l t y with expres-s i o n — o n e has the f e e l i n g that o f t e n he uses the earthy c o l -l o q u i a l i s m s because they come more r e a d i l y than words which he must " p i c k " i n slower composition. Jim r e v e a l s h i s pom-p o s i t y i n h i s formal s t y l e — h e takes pride i n h i s w r i t i n g and i s e s p e c i a l l y anxious f o r the reader t o know th a t he has already published a book. His emotional s t y l e exposes the romantic i d e a l i s t beneath the hard e x t e r i o r core. He can only express these s o f t e r f e e l i n g s by u s i n g t r i t e words and phrases, but the f e e l i n g s themselves come through as genuine. 139 L a t t e r ' s s p e c i a l techniques of l i s t i n g r e v e a l an adminis-t r a t i v e mind. L a t t e r ' s choice, of words reveals, s o l d i e r , p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , sportsman, I m p e r i a l i s t and w i t . Army ex-pre s s i o n s abound, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s dealings with the m i l -i t a r y a c t i o n s of h i s S p e c i a l s ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e jargon has a l -ready been i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s o f f i c i a l communiques. He proves himself a j i n g o i s t i n t h i s love of the a b s t r a c t words of p a t r i o t i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m . Jim's racy c o l l o q u i a l i s m s suggest the man's man of the barroom or barracks and the sportsman of the race track or yacht c l u b . L a t t e r uses metaphorical devices f o r sardonic a t t a c k s upon people or i n s t i t u t i o n s . His f i g u r e s are pre-dominantly p h y s i c a l ; r e l a t i n g to animals, the human body, or debased aspects of sex. A few metaphors deal with sport or with war. Most of these comparisons are very s h o r t — t h e r e are no long a n a l o g i e s . L a t t e r resembles other s a t i r i s t s who r e l e g a t e man to the animal l e v e l . L i k e Aldous Huxley, Jim makes frequent use of monkey comparisons. Nimmo, f o r example,"was g i b b e r i n g l i k e a monkey" (NHM, 60), the world described by the papers i s "monkey-hill at s c r a t c h time" (NHM, 8 4 ) , the p o l i t i c a l grabbers are " f i r s t monkey on the cork." Nimmo's handing;. 140 out jobs to h i s p o l i t i c a l supporters when he seized c o n t r o l of the Unemployed Workers' Centres i s h i s "usual game," says Jim, using an animal metaphor, "to hang a nosebag on everyone, keep 'em q u i e t " (NHM, 82). Jim has two connota-t i o n s f o r the term " r a b b i t " ; when he uses i t f o r Frant, the b i g business s h i p b u i l d i n g r i v a l to o l d P o t t e r , i t means f r i g h t e n e d — F r a n t i s "born r a b b i t and m i l l i o n a i r e " (NHM, 153); when Jim uses the term " r a b b i t " f o r Nina, i t i s h i s favour-i t e term of endearment. Another s i g n i f i c a n t animal meta-phor used i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Nina i s the expression "gone mule' ." .This, i t i s to be remembered, r e f e r s to Nina's i n f u r i a t i n g h a b i t of r e a c t i n g to h i s a t t a c k s by going limp. The r e a l reason why Jim t r i e s to shoot her i n the garden at the beginning of t h i s s t o r y i s because she suddenly has "gone mule." Insects a l s o appear i n metaphor. When Jim and Nina have escaped to a hideaway a f t e r she i s r e l e a s e d from h o s p i t a l , they f e e l that they are at l e a s t f r e e from what Jim c a l l s the "gimme game, the grab boys, the bunkum and •spoof" (NHM, 189). But they f i n d t h a t i n England i t i s im-p o s s i b l e to evade t h i s ; i t i s soaked i n t o • e v e r y t h i n g : " I t ' s a bug that f l o a t s about i n the a i r . I t ' s a web th a t ' s t i e d up people's l i v e s t i l l even t h e i r p r i v a t e thoughts are stuck up ready to be eaten by the s p i d e r " (NHM, 189). Jim's human body metaphors are as gross and excre-H I t o r y as those used by S w i f t and Huxley. Jim describes the " p o l i t i c o c k s " who c l u s t e r around Nimmo at Palm Cottage hop-i n g f o r Cabinet posts, as those "who would s e l l your mother's s k i n f o r the m i n i s t r y of p i s s - p o t s " (NHM, 43). Another example i s i n Jim's answer to V i c a r Sherman i n t h e i r d i s -cussion of communism. The V i c a r , t r y i n g to be t o l e r a n t , has s a i d , "'We have to remember tha t Communism has a strong moral appeal. Indeed, the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s p r a c t i s e d com-munity of goods. C h r i s t even l a i d i t down f o r the a p o s t l e s ' " (NHM, 148). Jim s c a t h i n g l y r e p l i e s : 'He d i d n ' t say the s t a t e should own the l o t i n c l u d i n g apostles and give i t leave to crush a man's b a l l s to teach him not to b e l i e v e i n God.' (NHM, 143). The V i c a r i s somewhat shocked but admits the p o i n t . P r o s t i t u t i o n , the debasing of love, i s a subject f o r Jim's i r o n i c metaphors. An example of t h i s - o c c u r s i n h i s conversation w i t h Nimmo on the day a f t e r Chester has been shot. Nimmo t r i e s to poi n t out how a scandal w i l l pre-vent him from answering h i s country's c a l l to l e a d e r s h i p i n the c r i s i s . He s t a t e s that Jim does not r e a l i z e the s i t u a t i -on. Jim f l a r e s i n anger: 'God damn i t , 1 I s a i d , 'I t h i n k of nothing e l s e . F i f t y years of i t . Since you and your gang set out to pimp f o r every gimme i n the game. And bought your f i r s t ponce's pants with Nina's money—and 142 Nina's s o u l . The s i t u a t i o n . A whoreshop f o r • s y p h i l i t e s — e v e r y t h i n g goes because y o u ' l l a l l get it...You've poisoned e v e r y t h i n g you touched and i t ' s s t i l l working. ...' (NHM, 6 7 ) . Jim o f t e n mixes h i s metaphors and gets l o s t i n h i s an a l o g i e s . A f t e r the s t r i k e i s s e t t l e d , P o t t e r i n h i s despair at not understanding why the banks refu s e him money to reopen h i s shipyards,comes to Jim f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . Speaking of the connection between business and the banks, Jim says : Don't be rude about the money game, Tom. Money i s power. And power i s a damn nasty customer. Frant and the banks. W i n f i e l d and the blanks. The unions and the banks. A l l hooked up at the back l i k e a whoreshop madam on the warpath,to keep the t a r t s i n order.and put up the p r i c e to the customer. (NHM, 205). Jim i n b i t t e r anger cannot f i n d words low enough to ex-press h i s l o a t h i n g . The only time he expurgates h i s speech i s i n the presence of women—usually nice young women. In c o n t r a s t to crude p h y s i c a l metaphors, Jim uses a few s o c i e t y - t e a comparisons. He probably chooses these f o r s a t i r i c reasons r a t h e r than f o r any personal s i g n i f i c a n c e . Jim has a tendency towards a u s t e r i t y r a t h e r than l u x u r y , a l -though Nina does p o i n t out that Jim spent most of h i s leaves i n "good l i v i n g " on the R i v i e r a . An example of the " t e a -p a r t y " metaphor i s one that adds yet another grotesque nose to Cary's great c o l l e c t i o n . According to L a t t e r , M i s s W i l l i s , 143 Nimmo's imperious s e c r e t a r y , has a nose that resembles a sugar-plum. Miss W i l l i s i s summoned to re p o r t to Nimmo i n t? the middle of the n i g h t , a f t e r N i n a ' s " s u i c i d e ; but she r e -fuses to hurry even though she has i n her possession an important telegram. She waits to dress i n f u l l uniform "complete with pince-nez and powdered nose, puce on purple, l i k e a sloe dipped i n sugar" (NHM, 178). Jim uses a re -o c c u r r i n g "sports t e a " analogy to describe the i n f l u e n c e of the s t r i k e i n so f t e n i n g up people's o p i n i o n s . According to him, t h e . L e f t s were v e e r i n g towards the Rig h t ; and the Ri g h t s were s l i d i n g towards the L e f t : A l o t of minds were melting l i k e n e a politan i c e s at a gymkhana when thunder's coming on, going s o f t at the edges and the colours running a b i t . The white g e t t i n g i n the red, the red i n t o the white, and the green a l l over the p l a t e . (NHM, 146). Jim sneers at these weaknesses of democratic compromise i n time of c r i s i s . When the s t r i k e i s over and the t r i a l i s i n progress, Jim concludes h i s analogy to show how people, f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r f e a r s during the c r i s i s , have now regained f i r m or even f i r m e r opinions: And a l l the people who had been m e l t i n g and s l i d i n g about between May 4th and 12th were now on the 20th quite f i r m again, and even a l i t t l e s t i f f e r than before. (NHM, 194). I t would be expected t h a t Jim's passion f o r s a i l i n g 144 would be r e f l e c t e d i n metaphor. But there are very few sea comparisons. Probably s a i l i n g i s too clean a s u b j e c t to be used f o r the exposure of c o r r u p t i o n . The only r e a l y a c h t i n g metaphor i s a p p l i e d to the V i c a r a f t e r Jim assures him t h a t the churches should be safe during the s t r i k e : nHe cheered up at once," says Jim, "His wais t c o a t bulged out l i k e a spinnaker on the home l e g " (NHM, 148). Jim does f i n d one sea metaphor to describe Nimmo, when he discovers him i n Nina's bed at h i s re t u r n to Palm Cottage: " I saw the r e a l Nimmo," Jim says, "a miserable o l d wreck f a i r l y coming to b i t s w i t h i t s own putrescence" (NHM, I 6 4 ) . Jim uses one other sea metaphor to describe Nimmo's c l u t c h i n g at him f o r support a f t e r the attempted s u i c i d e : "He hung on to me," says Jim, " l i k e a l i f e - b u o y i n a short sea" (NHM, 178). A s p o r t i n g metaphor connected w i t h boxing occurs when Jim describes how the Depression of the Twenties h i t the poor. He makes s p e c i f i c r e ference to i t s e f f e c t on h i s a s s i s t a n t i n the S p e c i a l s , Varney, and h i s impoverished f a m i l y : When the slump h i t s the poor, i t h i t s them hard. Gets them on the ropes and gives them one, two, three, l i k e l i g h t n i n g . K nocks 'em s i l l y . They don't know where the next r e a l smasher i s coming from. The next one came from the M i n i s t r y when i t refused Fred's pension.(NHM, 81). The Government's treatment of o l d s o l d i e r s , i s one of L a t t e r ' s frequent complaints. 145 For an o l d s o l d i e r , Jim uses s u r p r i s i n g l y few war metaphors. When he does use the subject of war, h i s comparisons are not romantic f i g u r e s , l i k e Nimmo's, but r e a l i s t i c down to the mud. Jim i s e x p l a i n i n g to Varney how s u p e r i o r s often give only v e r b a l orders to the ranker so as to be a b l e to use him f o r a scapegoat i f the plan f a i l s . The common s o l d i e r gets the d i r t y end of the d e a l : '...One hand d i r t i e s another and both of 'em to push the man i n the ranks i n t o the mud. Let him choke, the s i l l y bugger. He's only a bloody f o o l who doesn't know how to dodge out of keeping h i s word.' (NHM. 8 6 ) . To describe Nimmo's game of confusing everything, Jim uses mixed metaphors connected with London a i r r a i d s : Wherever you went near Nimmo, you got i n a b l i n d s p i n , a mass of d i r t y fog f u l l of wreckage l i k e London i n a November bomb r a i d . You could o i i l y bash y o u r s e l f against the w a l l s and break your nose i f i t wasn't your neck. (NHM. 70-71). L a t t e r , as man of a c t i o n r a t h e r than of contempla-t i o n , tends to see i n simple and c h i e f l y p h y s i c a l images. His use of c a r n a l sexual comparisons shows h i s awareness of the d i s t o r t i o n of the b e a u t i f u l and the p r o s t i t u t i o n of the good. Many metaphors, however, show h i s h i g h l y developed sense of humour, where keen w i t modifies the v i t u p e r a t i o n ; and earthy c o l l o q u i a l i s m s exemplify h i s r e a l i s m , h i s blunt straightforwardness and h i s e s s e n t i a l good nature. 146 L a t t e r as soldier-sportsman makes very few c u l -t u r a l or h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s . His only reference to a r t i s to a "dark I t a l i a n p i c t u r e of T i v o l i " (NHM, $6) hanging i n the downstairs room which Nimmo occupies at Palm Cottage. Jim says t h a t t h i s p i c t u r e came from h i s f a t h e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n , ( I t i s remembered that Jim's f a t h e r spent most of h i s time on the Continent as connoisseur of a r t and women). Jim men-t i o n s t h i s p i c t u r e not f o r any c u l t u r a l reference but be-cause he n o t i c e s that the g l a s s of the p i c t u r e r e f l e c t s the window. His s u s p i c i o u s mind s e i z e s upon the f a c t t h a t Nina could have seen him l o o k i n g i n the window at the time he caught Nimmo i n t e r f e r i n g with her, and that therefore she might not have been s t r u g g l i n g because of Nimmo's a c t i o n but r a t h e r because of Jim's approach. L a t t e r ' s h i s t o r i c a l references i n c l u d e s e v e r a l comparisons of Brightman with Napoleon. When Jim and S a l l y v i s i t the f a s c i s t l e a d er at the time of the t r i a l , Jim says: I found the hero i n the h a l l standing among h i s generals l i k e Napoleon at A u s t e r l i t z . And he'd got to look a good dea l bigger i n the l a s t few days. Due to s t i c k i n g h i s chest out and throwing up h i s jaw. And probably cork l i f t s i n h i s shoes. (NHM, 185). L a t t e r compares him s e l f with G a l i l e o i n that they both s u f f e r p e r s e c u t i o n f o r expounding the t r u t h . He presents t h i s a n a l -ogy i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n t e r v i e w with a c e r t a i n Lawyer 147 C l i n t . The advocate sees no p o s s i b i l i t y of a l i b e l s u i t against the communists f o r l i n k i n g Jim with the f a s c i s t s . Jim comes to the co n c l u s i o n that " j u s t i c e i s a l l f o r the crooks and l i a r s " (NHM, 152). Speaking then of G a l i l e o ' s judges, he says: They s a i d he was an ignorant f o o l and also a goddam nuisance. They were i n the job of t e l l i n g people the truth--they were t r a i n e d i n i t and no one e l s e was supposed to open h i s mouth. (NHM, 153). L a t t e r quotes two f a v o u r i t e s o l d i e r poets; K i p l i n g and Lovelace. H e uses K i p l i n g to back up h i s complaint that governments mi s t r e a t e x - s o l d i e r s : A making mock of uniforms t h a t guard you while you sleep. Is cheaper than them uniforms, and they're s t a r v a t i o n cheap. (NHM, 81): As a s o l d i e r and p a t r i o t , L a t t e r f e e l s a k i n s h i p to K i p l i n g ; but would probably challenge K i p l i n g ' s theory of the "White Man's Burden." According to L a t t e r , the white man should drop h i s burden and leave the blacks i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e of b l i s s . Lovelace i s not quoted by Jim but i s misquoted by Nina as a " j i b e " a t h i s attachment to duty. Her v e r s i o n of the l i n e from "To Lucasta on Going to the Wars," i s : "'You could not love me dear, so much, loved you not duty 148 more'" (NHM, 126). She r e c i t e s t h i s i n the garden of the Water Boy where she has sent f o r Jim i n an attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Nina had a ha b i t of b a i t i n g him with t h i s l i n e and i t always made him f u r i o u s . At the age of fourteen, he had t o l d her i n a l e t t e r of h i s discovery of t h i s great poem. As he says p e t u l a n t l y , "At ten years she didn't laugh at an ide a because i t was true and f i n e . I t was only a f t e r t h i r t y years of Nimmo and London s o c i e t y , she found anything comic i n a word l i k e duty and could use i t to make a f o o l of her husband" (NHM, 126). The co r r e c t quotation: I could not love thee, dear, so much, Loved I not honour more. has a grim s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the s t o r y , foreshadowing as i t does the t r a g i c . e n d i n g . The l i n e s , of course, a l s o pro-vide the t i t l e f o r the no v e l . Jim's lack of a l l u s i o n s suggests that he has no i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r e except f o r a few n o s t a l g i c memories of the classroom. C e r t a i n l y the mutual a t t r a c t i o n of Nina and Jim i s not on the i n t e l l e c t u a l or c u l t u r a l l e v e l . Jim's apparent lack of i n t e r e s t i n reading helps to e x p l a i n the narrowness of h i s v i s i o n and, a l s o , h i s i n a b i l i t y t o under-stand the complexity of words and id e a s . L a t t e r i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y of quotations as evidence to 149 support h i s case. Newspaper headlines and a r t i c l e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p o r t s and communications, verbatum t e s t i -mony of witnesses, excerpts from pamphlets and l e t t e r s are a l l c a r e f u l l y i t e m i z e d and commented upon. Examining these r e f e r e n c e s , one can e a s i l y see that they have been s e l e c t e d to support a slanted p o i n t of view. An example of t h i s p r e j u d i c e d viewpoint i s Jim's s e l e c t i o n of two quotations concerning Nimmo. The f i r s t of these i s taken from a com-munist l e a f l e t which Nina b r i n g s to Jim at h i s headquarters at Town H a l l . I t p i c t u r e s Nimmo as a " c a p i t a l i s t stooge" and i n s i n u a t e s that h i s investments i n Frant's b i g shipyards make him welcome the s t r i k e . Jim quotes only the l a s t s e c t i o n of the l e a f l e t : ''Nimmo belongs to the c l a s s of c a p i t a l i s t stooge who buys and s e l l s everything and everybody. E v e r y t h i n g has i t p r i c e f o r a Nimmo, workers, women, c h i l d r e n . He buys them body and soul and when he has p a i d , he wonders why anybody should shoot." (NHM, 100). Jim does not seem to worry, as Nina does, about the im-p l i c a t i o n , here, t h a t he i s a kept man. Rather, he seems to welcome the p u b l i c a t i o n of a well-worded indictment of Nimmo. The s e c t i o n of Nimmo's address at Shagbrook which Jim i n -cludes, suggests, when taken out of context, that Chester, the s o - c a l l e d ' c a p i t a l i s t stooge,' i s a communist advocating v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n : 150 '...Be i n no doubt--you are the m a s t e r s — power has passed to your hands. And your wrongs are deep and perpetual, you would be p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d i f you used t h a t power to t e a r the,present scheme of things apart, to destroy f o r ever a s o c i e t y which has turned a deaf ear to your l e g i t i m a t e complaint, and a b l i n d eye from your gross and p a t i e n t s u f f e r -i n g s . ' (NHM, 107). Jim does not bother to read any f u r t h e r but states t h a t t h i s i s proof that Nimmo i s hand i n glove with the commun-i s t s . H e intends to report the speech as s e d i t i o u s . Jim's quoted evidence i s m e t i c u l o u s l y accurate, but h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are b i a s e d . Constantly Jim r a i l s against p r e j u d i c e but cannot, or w i l l not, r e a l i z e how s l a n t e d i s h i s own viewpoint. L a t t e r ' s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e i s intense, dramatic, action-packed. The element of suspense i s strong i n s p i t e of the reader's awareness of the culmination of the a c t i o n . Suspensefully, the evidence of b e t r a y a l i s withheld u n t i l the end as the p r o t a g o n i s t s are manoeuvred l i k e pawns i n t o the p o s i t i o n of checkmate. Suspense i s also heightened by Jim's h a b i t of l e a v i n g escape hatches f o r Nina and Nimmo. Jim makes Nina decide whether he s h a l l accompany her and Nimmo to the Town H a l l to v e r i f y Chester's s t o r y — h e r de-c i s i o n t h a t he must come, r e s u l t s i n the attempted s u i c i d e . Jim gives Nina every opportunity to destroy the i n c r i m i n a t i n g 151 l e t t e r s from Nimmo, but she keeps p l a c i n g them w i t h i n h i s reach. Even while Jim i s reading these l e t t e r s there i s s t i l l p l e n t y of opportunity f o r her to escape with Nimmo. And Jim hopes to God that she w i l l take the opportunity. But she r e t u r n s . Nimmo, too, can s t i l l escape but because of h i s courage or, as Jim suggests, h i s presumption, h i s b e l i e f that "there was no one he couldn't t a l k round--nothing he couldn't e x p l a i n away" (NHM, 218), he a l s o r e -mains. I t i s because the characters have t h i s freedom of choice that the suspense holds u n t i l the end of the no v e l . Jim's use of d e s c r i p t i o n i n the n a r r a t i v e d i f f e r s g r e a t l y from Nina's or Chester's. In f a c t he very seldom sketches i n the background at a l l . His only i n t e r i o r s e t t -i n g f o r the n a r r a t i v e i s h i s s a t i r i c p i c t u r e of Brightman's "Olde E n g l i s h farmhouse": ...ye olde tyme lounge h a l l , panelled i n Elizabethan l i n e n - f o l d oak made out of chewed paper painted olde s h i t t e c o l o u r . F u l l - l e n g t h p o r t r a i t of Brightman at east end, about eight f o o t high, as olde Englishe goodchappe, with s h o r t s , open s h i r t and pipe. Slap-up bar under-neath with olde chromium f i t t i n g s . ( N H M , 73). Here, the ersatz q u a l i t y of the house matches the f a l s e pose of the owner. Jim's d e s c r i p t i o n s of people are thumb-n a i l c a r i c a t u r e s . Frant and W i n f i e l d , two c a p i t a l i s t s who a r r i v e at Varney's to t r y to persuade L a t t e r to head the 152 S p e c i a l s , are designated thus: F r a n t — " a b i g man, who looks sm a l l , with a round baby face and l i t t l e s i l l y f e a t u r e s " ; W i n f i e l d - - " a sharp l i t t l e man l i k e something•you see i n a race t r a c k crowd, p i c k i n g pockets or s e l l i n g winners" (NHM, 89). Pincomb, the communist, could be e a s i l y recog-n i z e d i n the crowd at the bus i n c i d e n t "being very t a l l and t h i n with a red face and a scar on h i s nose" (NHM, 114). Qiuite often these c a r i c a t u r e s are concentrated i n t o one nickname. At the Press Conference at the Water Boy, the r e p o r t e r s r e c e i v e the names of "Red-Face," "Cheese-Scoop," "Cock-Nose"; and at the gathering of p o l i t i c o s at Palm Cottage the next day, the s o c i a l i t e s are r e f e r r e d to as "Lady Doll-Face/_ who_7 sent her eyebrows i n t o her h a i r " (NHM, 41), 'Moustache, "about eight f e e t high,"(NHM, 41), "Fat Boy," Nimmo's aide and now h i s son-in-law, Bootham. Friedson p o i n t s out how Jimson i n The Horse's Mouth uses t h i s same i r o n i c nomenclature.^ When Jim comes to describe a f r i e n d such as Varney, h i s sergeant, i t takes about f o u r pages. Here he does not give a v i s u a l p o r t r a i t but r a t h e r a e u l o g i s t i c biography. L a t t e r seems to lack the v i s u a l perception of Nina or Chester. H e i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n what people say and do than i n the d e t a i l s of t h e i r appearance. L a t t e r ' s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e f o l l o w s Cary's usual p a t t e r n of short l i n k e d episodes. These are more continuous 1 5 3 than those of Except the Lord because of the time-space l i m i t . Because the novel emphasizes a c t i o n r a t h e r than r e f l e c t i o n , the episodes resemble the scenes of a play. For example, many chapters end w i t h the c l o s i n g of a door while the next chapter w i l l begin with the opening of a d o o r — i t i s l i k e watching a r e v o l v i n g stage. The Palm Cottage p u r s u i t s are handled i n t h i s way. Sometimes the chapters resemble sessions of a court, opening with the Prosecutor's-accusations and co n t a i n i n g the r e b u t t a l by Jim, a c t i n g as i f he were Defense Counsel. "Flashbacks" are used f a r l e s s i n Not Honour More than i n P r i s o n e r of Grace and Except the Lord,but two im-portant reminiscences occur concerning Jim's e a r l y c h i l d -hood with Nina. The f i r s t of these comes to, h i s mind while Nina i s h o l d i n g and s c o l d i n g him a f t e r he has shot Nimmo (NHM, 12). He t h i n k s of h i s childhood love f o r her, and he remembers the unhappiness of t h e i r f i r s t lovemaking a t the Blue L i o n Hotel at Lilmouth. The second flashback comes a f t e r he has struck Nina with the p i s t o l , and she has l e f t Palm Cottage (NHM, 71). Here he again dreams of h i s c h i l d -hood, remembering how Nina would c l i n g to him a t n i g h t f o r f e a r of demons; and how, at that time, she would promise that she would not l i e or s t e a l again. These l i n k s w ith the past r e v e a l a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Jim and Nina very d i f f e r e n t 154 from the b i t t e r t e n sion of the moment. L a t t e r does not use the h i s t o r i c present i n any of these flashbacks; he l a c k s the imagination to recapture the immediacy of the past experience. Friedson has pointed out how the novel Not Honour  More f a l l s i n t o three s e c t i o n s t h e " p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s " which end with the h u r r i e d e x i t of Nimmo and h i s f o l l o w e r s from Palm Cottage a f t e r Jim shoots i n t o the f l o o r ; the " p u b l i c p o l i t i c a l focus" which deals with the s t r i k e and ends wit h Maufe's a r r e s t of Pincomb; and the "personal and p r i v a t e f o c u s " which i n c l u d e s Nina's attempt at s u i c i d e , the expose of the b e t r a y a l and the f i n a l judgment. Between s e c t i o n s one and two, Jim t r a v e l s by t a x i from Palm Cottage i n t o the bigger world of the s t r i k e at Tarbiton; between sec t i o n s two and three Jim r e t u r n s to Palm Cottage where the personal c l a s h of the three p r o t a g o n i s t s i s continued. The form of the n a r r a t i v e i s a l s o tightened by Jim's f a i r l y de-t a i l e d time-scheme f o r the events as they occur. Not only are dates recorded, but hours and even minutes. His technique of summarizing the events a l s o t i e s the a c t i o n t o -gether and strengthens the s t r u c t u r e . Also the reader i s never allowed to f o r g e t that the n a r r a t i v e i s a b r i e f to be presented to the court. Jim uses such phrases as " I beg to b r i n g t h i s p o i n t to n o t i c e of c o u r t " (NHM, 150); " I want 155 to remind court" (NHM, 138); "...whom I propose to c a l l as a witness" (NHM, 121). The c h i e f feature of form i s again the " t o t a l symbol," the complete s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the book as a whole. In t h i s book the " t o t a l symbol" seems to be the gradual increment of i n c i d e n t s which tend to symbolize the f a i l u r e of v i o l e n c e to root out c o r r u p t i o n . In s e c t i o n one, Jim s t r i k e s out b l i n d l y at c o r r u p t i o n on the personal l e v e l and the r e s u l t i s greater p r e s t i g e f o r Nimmo and h i s "gang"; i n s e c t i o n two, because he i s more a l o o f from the p u b l i c e v i l , Jim s t r i k e s at i t more d e l i b e r a t e l y and imp a s s i v e l y , but the r e s u l t again i s f a i l u r e ; i n s e c t i o n three the strength of h i s emotion makes Jim attempt an almost omniscient v i o l e n c e against p r i v a t e and p u b l i c c o r r u p t i o n , but here the r e s u l t i s not only f a i l u r e but a l s o tragedy. This symbolic aspect of form u n i f i e s the n a r r a t i v e . The s t r u c t u r e of Not  Honour More i s t i g h t e r than t h a t of e i t h e r of the other two novels. In s p i t e of the v i o l e n c e and tragedy i n the novel, Jim's n a r r a t i v e i s h i l a r i o u s l y amusing. The humour of h i s i r o n i c i n v e c t i v e s , h i s grotesque c a r i c a t u r e s and h i s hyper-boles, has al r e a d y been e x e m p l i f i e d . Jim a l s o sees comedy i n normal human r e l a t i o n s and ofte n i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s without b i t t e r n e s s . His d e s c r i p t i o n of the women at the road-block a t t a c k i n g him f o r f a i l u r e to get the buses running, shows 156 that he can take a joke on h i m s e l f : Some of the women were screaming at me t o know how they were going to get t h e i r men's dinners i f I couldn't keep the buses running. I asked them, had they heard there was a s t r i k e on, and one old woman screamed back at me, 'What's that got to do with me and my shopping? S t r i k e , s t r i k e , s t r i k e — i t ' s a l l you men can say.' Several other women c a l l e d out, 'That's i t , ' and 'You t e l l him, Mrs. Biggs.' Most of them, even the quiet o l d gramdmamas, seemed to agree with her, and about eight of them began at me a l l together about the p r i c e s i n the market, the r e n t s , the s t a t e of the main Lilmouth road, and about h a l f -time at some l o c a l works. ...(NHM, 1 1 6 - 1 1 7 ) . Jim s l i p s i n l i t t l e a d d i t i o n s to h i s s t o r y merely f o r t h e i r humour. These occur i n h i s paraphrase of Colonel Kilmain's speech which precedes Pincomb' s at the r a l l y i n front' of P o t t e r ' s : "He made an appeal f o r peace, brotherhood, a b o l i -t i o n of armed f o r c e s , C h r i s t i a n s haring, and a l s o spoke of nat u r a l manures and wholemeal bread" (NHM, 1 5 6 ) . The novel contains some e x c e l l e n t burlesque, opfra bouffe. Nimmo provides- a good deal of t h i s comedy by h i s grotesque a n t i c s and h i s t r i o n i c s during the duels w i t h Jim at Palm Cottage; by h i s mock f a i n t i n Nina's bed; and by the brow-beating he r e c e i v e s from the agressive "boot-faced'!' nurse at the Town H a l l , whom Nimmo curses f o r "a j a c k - i n - o f f i c e , a s p o i l t s p i n -s t e r " (NHM, 1 7 5 ) . The scenes between Jim and B r i g h t m a n — i n which they exchange personal i n s u l t s and where everything ends i n a f r e e - f o r - a l l - - a d d to the general fun. There i s al s o 157 a good deal of unconscious i r o n y i n the n a r r a t i v e . L a t t e r not only quotes with pride from h i s book on the Lugas, which the reader of P r i s o n e r of Grace knows to be a f a i l u r e , but he a l s o i n c l u d e s p u b l i s h e r and p r i c e . He a f f i x e s h i s signature w i t h f u l l m i l i t a r y rank to even minor informal r e p o r t s and he r e f e r s to the communists as "The l u n a t i c f r i n g e . The m i n o r i t y that makes a l l the t r o u b l e i n the world..."(NHM, 112). There i s , perhaps, dramatic i r o n y i n L a t t e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of S a l l y as "always l i k e a daughter to m (NHM, 143). Whether Jim i s not aware th a t she i s h i s daughter, or whether he i s p r o t e c t i n g her from scandal i s not revealed. Above a l l , there i s the complete i r o n y of L a t t e r ' s crusade f o r the t r u t h with the weapon of p r e j u d i c e . S 0metimes L a t t e r ' s conscious i r o n y d r i f t s i n t o pathos. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s h i s r e a c t i o n to the news that Maufe has been a r r e s t e d . He i r o n i c a l l y quotes what he t h i n k s the magistrates are saying: That nasty e x - s o l d i e r , making a r i d i c u l o u s fuss about some f e l l o w c a l l e d Maufe. Just one f e l l o w , mark you. What's more, a poor f e l l o w . And what's s t i l l more, an absolute nobody— a greengrocer's roundsman or something l i k e t h a t . Not even i n a union. The lowest form of animal l i f e — a n honest freeman. (NHM, 205-206). Friedson p o i n t s out the value of humour to L a t t e r ' s character Without i t , he says, " L a t t e r ' s n a r r a t i v e would degenerate to the monotonous outpourings of a man whose naivete l a y s him 158 open to constant disappointment. ..." This w i t " r e l i e v e s the i n d i g n a t i o n [_ and_7 c o n s t i t u t e s a comic r e l i e f which does not v i o l a t e the u n i t y of tone."-*! An examination of the s t y l e of Not Honour More has revealed much about the character of the n a r r a t o r , James L a t t e r . His t e l e g r a p h i c s t y l e with i t s abuse of syntax expresses Jim's i r o n i c b i t t e r n e s s w h i l e at the same time i t proves h i s astuteness and w i t . In t h i s contracted s t y l e one senses f a n a t i c i s m — p a r a n o i a and p e r s e c u t i o n com-plex. Even i n h i s f u l l e r s t y l e the pace suggests a s t a t e of extreme a g i t a t i o n . Latter's formal s t y l e f o r press r e l e a s e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u l l e t i n s r e v e a l s a c l a r i t y of mind f o r routine d u t i e s . His choice of w o r d s — h i s abusive i n v e c t i v e s and racy c o l l o q u i a l i s m s — s u g g e s t a p h y s i c a l nature. His v i t u p e r a t i o n against people of importance r e v e a l s cour-age, but a l s o f o o l h a r d i n e s s . Jim's use of a b s t r a c t words; " l o v e , " "beauty," "honour," "duty," expose an absolutism which often achieves tenderness but which at other times de-generates i n t o sentimental i d e a l i s m . He emerges as a simple p a t r i o t , a l o y a l f r i e n d and a gentle l o v e r . His sudden switches i n s t y l e from the hard s a t i r i c to the sentimental again suggest emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . L a t t e r ' s use of meta-phors reveals more c l e a r l y h i s p h y s i c a l i n t e r e s t s . His com-parisons show tha t he views l i f e i n simple images represent-159 i n g simple i d e a s . His choice of ugl y , sexual, animal comparisons, expresses the v i r u l e n c e of h i s anger and the depth of h i s d i s g u s t at c o r r u p t i o n i n men and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Jim's s e l e c t i o n of a l l u s i o n s shows how very l i m i t e d are hi s i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . His a n a r c h i s t i c tendencies make him despise the Napoleons and admire the G a l i l e o s . Jim's i n c l u s i o n of so many documents and quotations i s understandable as he i s preparing a court case, but i t suggests a l s o h i s i n s e c u r i t y — i t i s as i f he were seeking to j u s t i f y h i s case to himself as w e l l as to others. His h a b i t of p u l l i n g excerpts out of t h e i r context emphasizes h i s biased viewpoint. The n a r r a t i v e s t y l e of Not Honour More shows him to be an able s t o r y - t e l l e r w i t h a keen sense of the dramatic; one who i s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n a c t i o n not d e s c r i p t i v e s e t t i n g . The t i d y s t r u c t u r e of the st o r y r e v e a l s the organized mind at work. L a t t e r ' s keen sense of humour makes him a l i k e a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y not only to h i s a s s o c i a t e s but a l s o to the reader. He i s n e i t h e r a bore nor a hated psychopath. H e i s conscious of the a f f e c t i o n -ate way i n which he i s regarded as a "comic cut" and, t o a c e r t a i n degree, he i s w i l l i n g t o e x p l o i t t h i s r i d i c u l o u s side of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . But h i s i r o n i c and sardonic w i t i n t e n s i f i e s the ma l i c i o u s s c u r r i l i t y of h i s v i o l e n c e — m a k i n g him a man serious enough and strong enough to b r i n g about tragedy. Once again, a complex character i s depicted through 160 the s t y l e of h i s n a r r a t i v e . C e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s of character r e v e a l e d through L a t t e r ' s s t y l e r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n b e f o r e one can assess h i s r e l a t i o n s to Nina and to Jim, and before one can understand h i s motives f o r the v i o l e n c e a t the end of the n o v e l . The absolutism i n h i s nature, suggested by h i s l o v e o f a b s t r a c t words such as "honour" and "honesty" i s confirmed by h i s d i v i s i o n of people i n t o the good and the bad, the honest and the d i s h o n e s t . Although he tends to concentrate on the e v i l , he acknowledges t h a t the good does e x i s t . T h i n k i n g of how V a r n e y T s f a m i l y has made a second home f o r him, Jim says: And I s a i d to myself, 'This i s the b e s t of England,'and I was f o r g e t t i n g i t . I was f o r -g e t t i n g i t had any b e s t a t a l l . I was l o o k i n g at the o u t s i d e , the t h i n g you see i n the papers, a l l l i e s and d i r t and grab and the gimmes ready to s e l l t h e i r mothers f o r l o o t . ...(NHM, 84). Jim's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Varneys shows the deep humanity i n h i s nature; a much more per s o n a l f e e l i n g than Nimmo's hurn-a n i t a r i a n i s m . Jim had procured the Varneys a home and had made a s p e c i a l t r i p to London to f i g h t f o r Varney's pension. Jim s e l e c t s S a l l y as an example of the honest m i n o r i t y . T hinking of her he says: "But what I say i s , the good s t u f f i s there, everywhere, i f we g i v e i t a chance" (NHM, 105). 161 Although during the s t r i k e S a l l y s l i p s a l i t t l e towards Brightman's fascism, Jim s t i l l i n s i s t s t h a t "She was i n f a c t about the s t r a i g h t e s t g i r l I've ever known" (NHM, 146). In Jim's d i v i s i o n of the people i n t o good and bad, Kil m a i n , head of the Unemployment Center Committee before Nimmo seized c o n t r o l , manages to q u a l i f y as an honest man. Ki l m a i n , says Jim "was a crank and a Plymouth Brother as w e l l as a sapper, but he was also an honest man. He b e l i e v e d i n a jealous god but n o t j i b b e r c a t s " (NHM, 82). In these judg-ments of men's honesty, Jim ofte n changes h i s mind. Bootham, S a l l y ' s husband and Nimmo's a i d e , has always been considered by Jim as "a sound man who d i d h i s best by Nimmo" (NHM, 40). But S i r Henry i s q u i c k l y crossed o f f Jim's l i s t when, during the Shagbrook speech, he suggests t h a t Nimmo has c e r t a i n weaknesses of character which make i t p o s s i b l e f o r him t o be handled. This treachery towards a s u p e r i o r d i s g u s t s Jim: " I saw the chap was as r o t t e n as the r e s t , I s a i d , 'Hallo, h a l l o , I thought you were Nimmo's man'" (NHM, 109). I t i s the ordinary commoners of England; the n o n - p o l i t i c a l , the sup-pressed, who give L a t t e r hope: " I can't speak too h i g h l y of the poor d e v i l s , what they c a l l the common B r i t i s h people" (NHM, 122), he says, a f t e r reading the paper's account of the steadiness of the p u b l i c during the general s t r i k e . I t i s these ordinary people who turn out to P o t t e r ' s f u n e r a l , stand-in g about f i f t y f e e t o f f not to see the o l d widow cry . "They 162 had manners, those poor gentlemen on the dole" (NM, 205), he says. And i t i s because Nina betrays Maufe, one of these "honest freemen," not L a t t e r h i m s e l f , t h a t Jim f e e l s he must judge and execute her. L a t t e r ' s anarchism has been re v e a l e d through h i s s t y l e , i n the v i t u p e r a t i v e a t t a c k s against a u t h o r i t y . There are personal reasons f o r h i s b i t t e r n e s s against gov-ernments. As a s o l d i e r , he had seen regiments weakened by the r e f u s a l of governments to adopt c o n s c r i p t i o n . As an ex-s o l d i e r i n peacetime he had sensed the government's general a t t i t u d e to veterans as " b l o o d - t h i r s t y blackguards"; and he had seen the government's f a i l u r e t o give h i s men employment and pensions. As a c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , Jim had s u f f e r e d a personal blow when the government disregarded h i s p o l i c i e s a gainst the Europeanization and e x p l o i t a t i o n of h i s pagan Lugas. He had even been removed from the Luga area. As he says, "the government was t r y i n g to break my heart and k i l l me i n a death s t a t i o n " (NHM, 97). This personal antagonism to government i n f l u e n c e d L a t t e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t the work of i n d i v i d u a l honest men was a l l that was necessary. As he said to Bootham duri n g the Shagbrook meeting, "/~Get_7 honest people to do an honest job / and_7 leave 'em to i t " (NHM, 108). Cary p o i n t s out i n B r i t a i n and West A f r i c a that much of the work i n A f r i c a was done by strong i n d i v i d u a l i s t s who became 12> - v i r t u a l " d i c t a t o r s " i n t h e i r o u t l y i n g s t a t e s . Sometimes, i f 163 they were lucky, they got away wi t h i t , but quite o f t e n they would be removed as p o l i t i c a l l y dangerous. Jim's personal attachment to the p r i m i t i v e innocence of h i s pagans l e d him not only to spurn governments but a c t u a l l y to advocate t r i b a l i s m . In a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to Nina i n the h o s p i t a l waiting-room a f t e r the s u i c i d e , Jim says: I s a i d the o l d e r I got the more I was sure my Luga pagans, so despised by the smart f e l l o w s i n p i n - s t r i p e s , were the happiest people i n the world and l i v e d the best and t r u e s t l i v e s . At l e a s t before we brought our disease to them and taught them the grab and bunco game. And even now they were a few thousand years b e t t e r stuff.(NHM, 180). Cary, w r i t i n g i n Vogue explains how i n the l a t e V i c t o r i a n age, L i b e r a l s were tempted towards t h i s anarchism and t r i b a l i s m : The l a t e V i c t o r i a n s despised the r e l i g i o s i t y of the e a r l y V i c t o r i a n s and decided that nothing mattered i n l i f e but personal r e l a t i o n s , com-p l e t e honesty between man and man, and e s p e c i a l l y men and women...For l i b e r a l f a i t h , when i t cor-rupts t o a sentiment, i s the emptiest of a l l . I t la y s down only one duty f o r man; to be ki n d to h i s f r i e n d s . That i s to r e t u r n c i v i l i z a t i o n at f u l l c i r c l e , to the t r i b a l hut, or r a t h e r to the Pygmy f a m i l y , which does not b u i l d huts, but l i v e s they say, i n a p r e - t r i b a l but a f f e c t i o n a t e f a m i l y r e -l a t i o n s h i p . Anarchy i s the temptation of every l i b e r a l ; he b e l i e v e s i n the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of mankind. His i n s t i n c t i s against a l l government. . ..13-Brightman, the f a s c i s t , t r i e s to make out th a t Jim's ideas are i d e n t i c a l to h i s ; that they both are working t o " c l e a r out 164 the gang of p a r a s i t e s that have fastened on the country" (NHM, 1 8 5 ) — i n f a c t , that they need each other. But Jim i s astute enough to r e a l i z e t h a t he i s no f a s c i s t ; that "the group, the union, the p a r t y " (NHM, 135) are a n t i t h e t i c a l to h i s own b e l i e f s i n honest i n d i v i d u a l i s m . Jim lumps together a l l "plans": communism with i t s v e e r i n g party l i n e , i t s "grab a l l " p o l i c i e s , g u i l d s o c i a l i s m , " M u s s o l i n i with a coat of p a i n t " (NHM, 147), and n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , " l o t s more o f f i c i a l s t o push more people about" (NHM, 147). But Jim i s s t i l l the " p o l i t i c a l f o o l " that Nimmo and Nina c a l l him because he has nothing to o f f e r except a slogan of "honest p o l i t i c s " and a method of v i o l e n c e to achieve i t . I t i s to be remembered that Nimmo had r e j e c t e d a s i m i l a r anarchism at the age of twenty. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t Jim, who makes p r i m i t i v e t r i b a l i s m h i s model f o r government, should support f e u d a l paternalism i n business. He champions P o t t e r ' s , an a s s o c i -a t i o n of honest freemen i n personal r e l a t i o n s h i p with a sym-p a t h e t i c employer. Jim cannot r e a l i z e the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of progress, that o l d ways must change to newer methods of com-p e t i t i v e production. To him, the take-over of small p l a n t s by l a r g e concerns i s yet another sign of c o r r u p t i o n and i n -j u s t i c e . Nimmo, who a l s o laments the growth of mechanization, i n v e s t s i n Fr a n t ' s , the modern shipyard. 165 Jim's antagonism towards lawyers and the .law i s yet another s i g n of h i s anarchism. Edward G., an a n a r c h i s t i n Except the Lord,had a s i m i l a r honest d i s r e g a r d f o r the law when he perjured himself i n order to save Nimmo. Jim had already i n P r i s o n e r of Grace demonstrated t h a t laws should be s e t aside i f they v i o l a t e one's p r i n c i p l e s — i n h i s l e g a l manipulations to gain Tom's re l e a s e . ' l e t during Maufe's t r i a l , L a t t e r denies the Prosecution's r i g h t to present opposing or slanted evidence. To him Counsel and h i s witnesses are a l l crooks using p r e j u d i c e to k i l l the t r u t h . Jim never doubts B e l l ' s s t o r y ; he s t a t e s t h a t t h i r d degree methods made B e l l admit the d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i c e court evidence w i t h the S p e c i a l s . In f a c t , the court would probably not have changed i t s judgment had Nina spoken openly i n court concerning her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B e l l . Jim's "honesty" i n l e g a l matters was c e r t a i n l y not synonymous wi t h "open-minded honesty." The anarchism, depicted through jim's s t y l e , appears a l s o i n h i s a t t i t u d e to r e l i g i o n and the church. Jim as a "Gentleman" and an "Anglican" i s r e t i c e n t about h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . He does t e l l how he "had" r e l i g i o n f o r a time as a schoolboy under the i n f l u e n c e of a one-eyed mis-s i o n a r y - I m p e r i a l i s t . And, at the time of the s t r i k e , he i s s t i l l a t t e n d i n g the Anglic a n s e r v i c e s but only f o r matins, i n p r o t e s t against the V i c a r ' s r e f u s a l to grant communion to 166 Nina as a divorcee. Jim's hatred of Nimmo's p r i n c i p l e s makes him attack the l o v e - c u l t of Nimmo's r e l i g i o n . He expresses t h i s b i t t e r condemnation a f t e r the l a n d l o r d at the hideaway, who needs money to help h i s t u b e r c u l a r daughter, accepts b r i b e s from a newspaper r e p o r t e r . Jim says, "He sold the woman I loved f o r the g i r l he l o v e d , " and then, almost i n de s p a i r , he c r i e s out: And Nimmo t e l l s you God i s lov e . Nimmo's God. A god t h a t doesn't need any p r i n c i p l e s , that doesrit need to keep h i s word. A god i n the l o v e racket, t u r n i n g out hot s t u f f f o r the papers. (NHM. 189). Jim's anarchism i n r e l i g i o n i s shown most s t r o n g l y at the end of the novel by the way i n which he puts God aside and c a r r i e s out judgment h i m s e l f . The v i o l e n c e i n Jim's nature, as suggested by the v i r u l e n c e of h i s s t y l e , r e s u l t s from h i s anarchism. L a t t e r versus the world can use only b l i n d v i o l e n c e as a weapon. He i s obviously " t r i g g e r happy" i n the f i r s t scenes where he determines to k i l l Nimmo and where i n temper he i s w i l l i n g to shoot Nina. H e does, however, deny the charge that he i s a m i l i t a r i s t , by p o i n t i n g out that he opposed the b r i n g i n g i n of troops during the s t r i k e ; that he condemned the "shoot-em-down brigade" amongst,the c o u n s e l l o r s who even wanted to send f o r tanks. Quoting from h i s Luga book, he st a t e s t h a t a major 167 l e s s o n he l e a r n t as a c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r was that "The c a l l i n g i n of troops destroys a l l confidence between a p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r and h i s people and sets back h i s work f o r years" (NHM, 150). But L a t t e r cannot r e a l i z e t h a t Tarbiton i s not A f r i c a . As a n a r c h i s t , he i s q u i t e w i l l i n g t o take personal aggressive a c t i o n d u r i n g the s t r i k e and thereby s t i r up v i o l e n c e , when non-interference would probably have saved bloodshed. And i t i s only when the troops are f i n a l l y brought i n that v i o l e n c e ends and the s t r i k e i s s e t t l e d . As the n a r r a t i v e continues, L a t t e r g r a d u a l l y begins to l e a r n t h a t v i o l e n c e does not always work. When he attempts t o use strong measures a g a i n s t Brightman i n order to curb' scandal-ous p u b l i c i t y against Nina, he succeeds only i n i n c r e a s i n g the p u b l i c i t y . He admits that he had been "A f o o l , a f o o l and a f o o l " (NHM, 188). And to S a l l y he confesses t h a t : "strong measures were no good i n p o l i t i c s . What you wanted was a whopping popular l i e . . . " (NHM, 187). But Jim has no weapon but v i o l e n c e . When he uses i t i n k i l l i n g Nina, he again has to admit t h a t i t has not worked; that, as he says, " I t has been a b i t t e r thought to me i n these weeks I'm going through h e l l f o r nothing" (NHM, 222). The only excuse he can o f f e r at the end i s , " I d i d i t because, I myself, had to do i t . There was no other choice f o r a man who wasn't prepared to l i v e l i k e a r a t " (NHM, 223). 168 The word " t r u t h " i s perhaps the most commonly used term i n Jim's l i s t of a b s o l u t e s . His s i m p l i c i t y of viewpoint and h i s s c o r n f u l i n d i f f e r e n c e to semantics, allows him to s t a t e without h e s i t a t i o n what t r u t h i s . I t i s simply not t e l l i n g a l i e ; admitting the f a c t s ; not "wangling." And to him, r e a l i z i n g the t r u t h and l i v i n g by i t i s so easy that anyone who refuses to do so i s corrupt. Nimmo, i n Except the  Lord, has shown by the example of h i s f a t h e r , that t r y i n g to l i v e by absolute honesty r e s u l t s only i n tragedy. Friedson p o i n t s out t h a t Nimmo's p o l i t i c a l experiences have shown him "how the end and the means of any b e l i e f are so complicatedly i n t e r t w i n e d that a man can do e v i l under the impression t h a t he i s doing good."!^ Both Nimmo and Nina attempt to r e -v e a l the complications of the t r u t h to L a t t e r . Nina says time and time again: "He cannot understand." Nimmo says: "He could understand i f he t r i e d . " A f t e r Jim has struck Nina with the p i s t o l , he says to her: " I t ' s a l l these l i e s , I don't know where I am." And Nina answers: "You couldn't understand, i t ' s no good" (NHM, 62). Later i n the scene, Nimmo i m p l i e s that Jim i s a h y p o c r i t e ; Jim answers i n rage: I s a i d , ' C h r i s t , are you c a l l i n g me a h y p o c r i t e ? ' 'Yes,' he s a i d , 'and you know i t . A l l t h i s exalted sentiment i s j u s t that--no doubt you are t r y i n g to deceive y o u r s e l f as w e l l as me. But i t doesn't work and Nina could not bear i t . She says you can't understand. But I am not s o ' c h a r i t a b l e . I say you can i f you t r y — i f you dare.' 169 'My wife seems to have her own ideas of the t r u t h . ' 'Nina i s one of the t r u t h f u l l e s t women I have ever known--the most f e a r l e s s of t r u t h , the l i v i n g t r u t h . ' 'She was a t r u t h f u l g i r l before she met you.'(NHM, 65). Nimmo f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s that Jim w i l l never l e a r n and w i l l t h e r e f o r e never compromise—that shooting i s i n e v i t a b l e . When he i s caught by Jim h i d i n g i n Nina's bed at Palm Cottage, he completely loses h i s temper, c a l l s Jim a f o o l and says: '...Of course we d i d n ' t t e l l you anything. Because we knew you'd get i t a l l wrong, because you are our biggest headache. Because you are a kept man. Because you have to be kept by people w i t h some glimmer of common s a p i e n c e -kept or you'd s t a r v e . Now shoot, you kept ass, you hanger-on. Shoot—shoot—shoot...Go on, get i t over and give me a l i t t l e peace. ' (NHM, 164). F i n a l l y Jim does use v i o l e n c e to destroy them and t h e i r ideas of the t r u t h , but he remains i n a h e l l of i s o l a t i o n w i t h h i s l i f e chained to absolutes i n a world where men are f a l l i b l e . L a t t e r ' s s t r i c t adherence to absolute p r i n c i p l e s and b e l i e f i n h i s own i n f a l l i b i l i t y , e x p l a i n h i s antagonism t o -wards Nimmo. He attacks Nimmo's co r r u p t i o n on the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c l e v e l s : " I say he spent h i s l i f e d e s t r o y i n g the country and s e l l i n g the people. I say he corrupted every-thing and everybody who came near him..." (NHM, 8). And Jim's 170 c r i t i c i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n t because he b e l i e v e s that Nimmo married Nina f o r her money and then set to work "to d e s t r o y her body and s o u l " (NM, 8 ) . Jim i s b i t t e r be-cause Nimmo has "worked the r e l i g i o u s game on her, prayed over her f r i v o l i t y and f r i g h t e n e d her w i t h the idea that she was no b e t t e r than a s o c i a l p a r a s i t e " (NHM, 14). No doubt jealousy i s at the base of much of t h i s antagonism. I t i s i r o n i c to hear Jim branding Nimmo as destroyer of the " s a n c t i t y of home and marriage" (NHM, 9) when Jim has f a t h e r -ed Nina's c h i l d r e n and broken up Chester's union. At the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , Jim accuses Chester of being "crook and wangler"; he claims t h a t Nimmo's promises were never f u l -f i l l e d , t h a t he would do anything f o r p u b l i c i t y : "Truth i s he doesn't care what happens country so lo n g as he gets limelight"(NHM, 16). Jim charges t h a t Nimmo puts honest men out of o f f i c e , mentioning a c e r t a i n P i c k e t t , who, L a t t e r c l a i m s , was put o f f the Unemployment Committee because he was a Tory (NHM, 19). Jim a t t a c k s Nimmo as champion " t a l k y boy" a " f i r s t c l a s s gas s q u i r t and c l a c k merchant" (NHM, 108), one who can t i e everything up i n the b i g words. L a t t e r cannot stand Chester's h i s t r i o n i c s , h i s "famous gestures." At the same time, Jim cannot help admiring Nimmo and h i s cleverness. He al s o gives Chester c r e d i t f o r courage, although he suspects that i t i s arrogance r a t h e r than bravery. At times he al s o p i t i e s Nimmo. As he views h i s grotesqueness during the scene 171 where Chester i s discovered i n bed, Jim's anger burns out to sympathy: "And from that moment I began to be sor r y f o r the o l d crook, thrown out on h i s neck" (NHM, I64) . While the two men are w a i t i n g f o r news of Nina's c o n d i t i o n a f t e r the "suicide," Jim supports Chester and even t r i e s to get him medicine. Nimmo has always been an enigma to L a t t e r . In s p i t e of h i s hatred of what Chester stands f o r , Jim f i n d s him amusing, e x c i t i n g and sometimes almost appealing. Nimmo's r e l a t i o n s to L a t t e r are i n d i r e c t l y r e -vealed i n the n a r r a t i v e . Chester knows that Jim i s a " p o l i t i c a l f o o l " and a dangerous f a n a t i c , but at the same time he admires L a t t e r ' s honesty and f o r t h r i g h t n e s s . He chooses Jim to head the S p e c i a l s not only to keep him from shooting, but a l s o because he can t r u s t him. He knows that Jim i s strong and can handle people i f given d i r e c t i o n . Nimmo has a personal a f f e c t i o n f o r Jim; he has always r e a l i z e d that they share Nina. As Jim says: "...he l i k e d nothing b e t t e r than to get me i n a corner and t a l k Nina to me..."(NHM, 174). Nimmo's s t y l e i n Jim's quoted dialogue shows Chester's same v a r i a t i o n s from formal to simple as occur i n the other two novels. But because i n most of t h i s dialogue i n Not  Honour More Chester i s angry or f r i g h t e n e d , h i s speech tends to become more abusive. I t i s as i f Nimmo, the a c t o r , i s ta k i n g on Jim's tones of i n v e c t i v e and even Jim's a c t u a l 1 7 2 terms. Jim's view of Nina i n Not Honour More emphasizes many f a c e t s of her nature seen i n P r i s o n e r of Grace,show-ing them i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t , and a l s o reveals the strength of her i n f l u e n c e on L a t t e r h i m s e l f . Nina, more than anyone e l s e , has the power to rouse Jim to b l i n d anger; i t i s her t r i c k of "going mule" th a t almost ends her l i f e a t the be-ginning of the n o v e l . Jim i s a l s o i n t e n s e l y j e a l o u s of her because ever s i n c e a c h i l d , as he says, she would f l i r t with anyone. He knows that she can change i n a moment from "London charmer to f u r i o u s b i t c h " (NHM, 1 0 2 ) . He admires her f o r her generous nature but i t angers him that t h i s q u a l i t y has l e d her i n t o Nimmo's t r a p . Jim recognizes Nina's i n t e l l i g e n c e but i t angers and amazes him t h a t she i s not c l e v e r enough to see through Nimmo. He i s bewilder-ed by Nina's d e c e p t i o n s — " S h e was as t r i c k y as a set of Japanese boxes" (NHM, $7)--and yet he c o n t i n u a l l y grasps a t a f e e l i n g t h a t somehow she i s e s s e n t i a l l y honest. Jim i s th f i r s t to acknowledge t h a t he has always l o v e d Nina; that she has been the only l a s t i n g i n s p i r a t i o n of h i s l i f e , "the nob-l e s t deepest i n f l u e n c e . " He t r i e s to understand her and gets as f a r as to suggest that "she i s more weak than wicked (NHM, 1 3 9 ) ; that i t i s her "love of happiness" (NHM, 1 7 9 ) that makes her do the easy t h i n g . Although he would never 173 admit i t to her, Jim admires Nina's courage; h i s only-moment of extreme happiness i n the novel i s when he r e a l -i z e s that her "suicide'"is not a b e t r a y a l of duty but a courageous r e f u s a l t o take part i n a l i e . Nina's deep need f o r h i s p r o t e c t i o n b u i l d s up h i s s t r e n g t h . And Jim p i t i e s h e r — p i t i e s her even when he catches her w i t h Nimmo at Palm Cottage, and p i t i e s her desperate p o s i t i o n at the end. H e never l o v e s her more than when he has to k i l l her. This destroying of the loved o b j e c t i s not a new idea i n Cary's novels. Cary, being interviewed by Lord C e c i l , speaks of t h i s " d e s i r e to destroy some symbol which i s charged w i t h imagination, which /""prosaic people_7 haven't been given the means to understand...a s o r t of desperate attempt to get hold of the t h i n g by d e s t r o y i n g i t . "^ 5-Whether or not t h i s theory a p p l i e s d i r e c t l y to Jim's reasons f o r d e s t r o y i n g what he loved, the a c t i o n leads to recon-c i l i a t i o n i f not to understanding. Nina's r e l a t i o n s h i p with Jim i s -a m p l i f i e d i n Not Honour More. She i s i n t e l l i g e n t enough to r e a l i z e why he i s i n t o l e r a n t and v i o l e n t , but these q u a l i t i e s annoy her as w e l l as f r i g h t e n her. She does her best to make him under-stand that there are more important t h i n g s than h i s concept of t r u t h . A f t e r he has shot Nimmo, she t r i e s to reason with him to support the "accident" angle. Jim gives h i s answer: 174 I asked her i f she wanted me to commit per-j u r y . 'I don't want you to do a r e a l l y wicked t h i n g — c r u e l and s p i t e f u l . ' (NHM, 1 3 ) . The f a c t that Jim's idea of the t r u t h i s the f a c t o r t h a t stands between them makes Nina anxious to s a t i s f y him by a c h i e v i n g t h i s " t r u t h f u l n e s s . " But by the time of t h e " s u i -cide "she has become so i n v o l v e d i n Nimmo's "wangles" t h a t there i s not a p o s s i b i l i t y of her succeeding. Her love f o r Jim i s a powerful sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p — h i s v i o l e n t nature seems to s a t i s f y some deep need i n h e r — a n d t h i s r e l a t i o n -ship becomes stronger a f t e r her attempted s u i c i d e at the Town H a l l . The v i t a l i t y of h i s presence conveys to her a f e e l i n g of hereness and nowness. ^'You're so t e r r i f i c a l l y present when you're with me" (NHM, 1 9 2 ) , she w r i t e s from the hideaway. When he i s absent from her she f e a r s t h a t h i s lov e i s not strong enough to survive r e v e l a t i o n of her d e a l i n g s w i t h Nimmo; and f e a r s t h a t Jim l i e s to her when he says that she i s the most precious t h i n g he has. ' A f t e r a l l , ' she says, 'you can never t r u s t a c h r i s t i a n being c h r i s t i a n to be quite honest and what I'm l o n g i n g f o r i s the t r u e t r u t h — I mean the r e a l true e v e r l a s t i n g cross-my-heart rock-bottom t r u t h t h a t you can go to sleep on even a l l alone a t three i n the morning with the wind making a noise outside l i k e a very small and d i s -couraged damned soul j u s t managing not to scream under the red-hot pokers i n case of annoying the d e v i l i n charge ' (NHM, 1 9 1 ) . When Nina i s subpoened f o r the t r i a l , her commitments to Nimmo 175 prevent her from r e v e a l i n g the t r u t h ; but she i s determined that Jim must know everything before t h e i r happiness can be-come complete. And the i r o n y of the whole r e l a t i o n s h i p i s that when Nina f i n a l l y meets Jim's requirements of absolute honesty, when she achieves h i s standard of t r u t h , Jim k i l l s her and thus p a r a d o x i c a l l y destroys the t r u t h t h a t was i n her. Meanwhile Jim has l i e d , because as Nina feared, h i s honour was more precious to him than h i s l o v e f o r her. Nina does not evade her punishment; she even welcomes i t . A l l her l i f e , although her p r i d e would not a l l o w her to f o r g e t Jim's blows, she has had almost a p h y s i c a l t h i r s t f o r h i s punishment, as i f such acts would pay the p r i c e f o r the union which they have wrought out of i s o l a t i o n . Nina and Nimmo's mutual r e l a t i o n s are i n t e n s i f i e d i n Not Honour More. When Nimmo t h i n k s she i s dying a f t e r the attempted s u i c i d e , he r e i t e r a t e s h i s former statements con-cerning Nina's l o y a l t y , her " i n c a p a b i l i t y of hatred," the f a c t that i t was Nina "who gave us l i f e i t s e l f " (NHM, 175). Nimmo a l s o admits f o r the f i r s t time i n Not Honour More t h a t he and Nina are not r e a l l y compatible and that he understands why she had to marry Jim. Talking to L a t t e r , he says: 'Yet I must urge you to remember t h a t I d i v o r c e d her, as I thought then, as I t h i n k s t i l l , f o r her own happiness. So that at l a s t she could be w i t h the man she had always l o v e d . The one man on earth who could make her completely happy. For 176 I know, J i m — I have known a l l my l i f e t h a t she d i d not, could not love me. I was too d i f f e r e n t i n a l l w a y s — i n mind, i n preoccupation, i n my very c l a s s . Yes, and tha t goes deep, to the very roots of our g r i e f . I am a cruder, rougher c l a y . ...T(NHM, 6 l ) . Nina's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Nimmo changes i n Not Honour More. Because of h i s age and of the f a c t that Jim i s persecuting him, she becomes more p r o t e c t i v e . She throws h e r s e l f i n f r o n t of Chester when Jim t r i e s to shoot him at Palm Cottage. She fusses over him, g e t t i n g him medicine, worrying about h i s throat and chest during h i s speeches. Her request at the end i s f o r Jim to remove h i s body from the W.C. because he was "so great a man" (NHM, 221). The reason t h a t she betrays Jim i s that she b e l i e v e s t h a t Nimmo i s a good man and that he i s the only l e a d e r who can save the country d u r i n g the s t r i k e . And, therefore,Nina f o l l o w s Nimmo's orders because as Wright says, "Fundamentally she t r u s t s Chester's judg-ment .'r Nina's s t y l e i n the dialogue of Not Honour More shows more self-consciousness than i n her own n a r r a t i v e ; her tone i s more accusatory and more a g i t a t e d ; there are f a r more short sentences. In her l e t t e r s to Jim, however, the f a m i l i a r s t y l e of P r i s o n e r of Grace i s e a s i l y recognisable w i t h i t s b r a c k e t s , quotation marks, i t a l i c s — i t s i n v o l u t i o n s , r e f l e c t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 177 The characters of Nina, the female, Chester, the man of imagination, and Jim, the conservative man have emerged through t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s . A t r i f o c a l view of' the novels of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y gives a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the p r o t a g o n i s t s and i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t , i n s p i t e of t h e i r d i v e r s i t y , they are a l l a part of one r e a l i t y , Cary's world which i s i t s e l f c haracter. This t r i f o c a l view r e q u i r e s a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n i n an ensuing chapter. Chapter V Conclusion From the t r i f o c a l view of the P o l i t i c a l Trilogy-one i s able to p e r c e i v e c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the s t y l e s of the three n a r r a t o r s as w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s , which sug-gest emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f i n i t i e s . For example, the three s t y l e s have a general tone of a g i t a t i o n , not only because the characters are a l l " i n a jam," but a l s o because t h e i r natures are emotionally high strung; charged with v i t a l i t y . This a l i v e n e s s separates them from "the mob, the crowd, or the loomp"; they have what Aunt L a t t e r c a l l s "character.. .rare but immensely precious." 1 At times, both Chester and Jim use s i m i l a r sentimental s t y l e s w i t h ab-s t r a c t words and t r i t e old-fashioned expressions. Nina laughs at these s t y l e s but the s i n c e r i t y behind them also 179 a f f e c t s her emotionally: Jim's s e n t i m e n t a l i t y makes her moodily i n l o v e ; Nimmo's—although she f i g h t s against i t — o ften b r i n g s t e a r s to her eyes. Again both Nina and Jim use i r o n i c s t y l e s w h i l e Chester does not. To be i r o n i c one needs the detachment, self-awareness, " d e v i l may care" a t t i t u d e s of one who "belongs"; and these a t t i t u d e s are more l i k e l y t o be assumed by persons i n an upper c l a s s of s o c i e t y . For Chester, who had to b a t t l e to reach the top, l i f e was too serious f o r w i t or b i t t e r j e s t ; and i f i r o n y appears i n h i s s t y l e , he i s not aware of i t . Jim and Nina a l s o show t h a t they belong to the same c l a s s i n i t h e i r frankness of expression i n d e a l i n g w i t h matters of sex. Nimmo shows the prudery of the lower c l a s s chapel-goer i n h i s extremely d e l i c a t e hand-l i n g of t h i s s u b j e c t . Each n a r r a t o r ' s choice of words i s e s p e c i a l l y apt, as has been shown, but because the characters are a l l i n such proximity to one another, they o c c a s i o n a l l y p i c k up each other's expressions. Nina u s u a l l y puts Jim's and Chester's words i n quotations, but sometimes one of t h e i r c o l l o q u i a l i s m s w i l l appear unconsciously but n a t u r a l l y i n her s t y l e . During the "seduction" scene w i t h Jim i n P r i s o n e r of Grace, Nina sud-denly r e a l i z e s that they are both using Chester's words: "lo v e , honour, t r u t h , f e e l i n g , i n h i s 'noble' sense." And when Jim s t a t e s , '...we have got to get f r e e , ' the word 'free' 180 by i t s e l f , says Nina, "seemed t o t h r i l l i n my nerves. And i t was Chester's word..." (PG, $3). In the duel of wits i n Not Honour More, as has been noted, Chester r i c o c h e t s Jim's i n v e c t i v e s . This interchange o f words makes character and s i t u a t i o n more convincing. Although each n a r r a t o r has an i n d i v i d u a l meta-p h o r i c a l p a t t e r n , again one f i n d s c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s . The f a c t t h a t each of them uses so many comparisons shows that they are a l l characters "who can see" and who can describe what they see i n c l e a r and v i v i d images. Nimmo and Nina show through t h e i r metaphors how deeply each i s i n f l u e n c e d by nature--Nimmo, by the grandeur of the moors; Nina, by the calm and t e r r o r of the s e a — a n d thus r e v e a l imagination and mystery w i t h i n themselves. Jim, on the other hand, views nature w i t h the eye of a sportsman. Nina and Jim by the infrequency of t h e i r use of a l l u s i o n s e x h i b i t a very casual a t t i t u d e towards c u l t u r e ; be-cause they "belong," they do not have to t r y so hard to prove that they are educated i n d i v i d u a l s . Nimmo who i s s e l f -taught wears h i s l e a r n i n g "on h i s sleeve" and uses every opportunity to in c l u d e choice excerpts from h i s very l i m i t e d f i e l d . But Chester's r e l i g i o u s background shows n a t u r a l l y through h i s s t y l e , g i v i n g i t a r i c h n e s s e n t i r e l y missing i n the other two novels. 181 The three characters adopt n a r r a t i v e s t y l e s which prove them to be able s t o r y t e l l e r s . Each uses an ep i s o d i c technique which shows that the inte n s e moment i s more v a l u -able than the tedious hour. Nina and Nimmo make the great-est use of flashbacks because they are both r e f l e c t i v e i n temperament, more n o s t a l g i c f o r the past, more conscious of the f l u x of time. The multidimensional approach makes p o s s i b l e a viewing of the characters " i n the round." This t r i f o c a l view al l o w s a more-studied judgment and e v a l u a t i o n of the nature and f u n c t i o n of each p r o t a g o n i s t i n the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y . In P r i s o n e r of Grace Nina attempts to be a " c r e d i b l e witness" but she succeeds only i n p a r t . As witness, she does her best to weigh the good and e v i l f e atures of Chester Nimmo's character and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s ; but the d i f f e r e n c e s of c l a s s make i t impossible f o r her to appreciate the e f f e c t of poverty upon NimmoTs nature, while her purely formal r e l i g i o n makes h i s evangelism incomprehensible to her. Nina as witness a l s o views James L a t t e r as "man of a u t h o r i t y " and attempts to show h i s p o l i t i c a l weakness and personal strengths; but she cannot f u l l y understand how v i o l e n t l y he w i l l adhere to h i s r i g i d moral code. In Prisoner of Grace, Nina a l s o r e v e a l s the d u a l i t y of her nature; on one plane 182 the p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n towards L a t t e r contends with her l o y a l t y towards Nimmo; on another plane her tense o p p o s i t i o n to both men c o n f l i c t s w i t h a d e s i r e to give them comfort. The power of these c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s so t e a r s her apart at times that she struggles to f r e e h e r s e l f by f l i g h t or even by s u i c i d e . But these c r i s e s always end i n "conversions" and resumption of submissiveness. In Except the Lord and Not Honour More both views of Nina are out of focus, yet each shows f a c e t s of her nature not revealed i n her own statement. Nimmo, i t i s to be remembered, presents Nina as the V i c t o r i a n i d e a l of beauty, goodness, t r u t h and i n s p i r a -t i o n — a romantic fantasy,but one which performs two f u n c t i o n s : f i r s t , i t r e - e s t a b l i s h e d a balanced p i c t u r e of Nina a f t e r the l a s t s i g h t of her i n the d i s t a s t e f u l s i t u a t i o n of Pr i s o n e r  of Grace;secondly, i t symbolizes her pre-eminent p o s i t i o n as "•queen of / the_7 s o u l " and "source of l i f e and power" i n each man's l i f e . In Not Honour More,the focus again s h i f t s as we look a t Nina through the b l u r r e d eyes of jealousy and paranoic omniscience. H ere Nina's f a u l t s are revealed and exaggerated. Although the reader knows t h a t Nina i s not the t r i c k y l i a r t hat Jim makes her out to be, yet one senses d e c e i t and a c e r t a i n devilment i n her nature; and although one knows tha t she i s not the " f u r i o u s b i t c h " that L a t t e r sometime accuses her of being, yet one i s aware of a shade o f " b i t c h -i n e s s " i n her make-up;, a w i l l i n g n e s s to use sex as a weapon. 183 From the t r i f o c a l view, Nina takes shape as a rounded character, v i t a l l y a l i v e , a t t r a c t i v e and e s s e n t i a l l y .fem-i n i n e ; as one who has a dual r o l e to p l a y and plays i t w e l l ; and as one who i n s p i t e of being a p r i s o n e r of grace continu-a l l y makes her own d e c i s i o n s i n an attempt to do r i g h t by both men. Nina r e v e a l s a love of l i f e and a knowledge of happiness which helps to compensate f o r her i n e v i t a b l e tragedy. Only a b i f o c a l view of James L a t t e r i s presented i n the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y as Nimmo does not mention him i n h i s n a r r a t i v e . I n Pris o n e r of Grace Nina presents three main p i c tures of Jim: f i r s t , through flashbacks she shows him as a boy; l o n e l y , proud, i m p e t u o u s — i n need of her a f f e c t i o n yet i n tense c o n f l i c t w i t h her; second, she shows Jim as a young man on leave from h i s c o l o n i a l d u t i e s ; mature, success-f u l , q u i e t l y sentimental towards her and i n almost a blood-brother r e l a t i o n s h i p with Nimmo--at l e a s t u n t i l the "seductio t h i r d , she gives a view of Jim a f t e r h i s re t u r n to England, d i s i l l u s i o n e d , b i t t e r , f r u s t r a t e d and bewildered. F rom these three views one gains i n t i m a t i o n s of the anarchy i n Jim's nature, the r i g i d i t y of h i s s o l d i e r honour and h i s love of t r a d i t i o n a l standards. Nina's understanding p o r t r a y -a l shows the s o f t e r s i d e of Jim's .nature necessary to mod-i f y the f a n a t i c a l v i o l e n c e of h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t i n h i s own 184 testament. Not Honour More without P r i s o n e r of Grace would give a d i s t o r t e d view of L a t t e r as a madman and thus throw out the d e l i c a t e balance of " t r i p l e t e n s i o n of viewpoints which Cary v/as aiming f o r i n h i s trilogies.''"' Although L a t t e r f i t s g e n e r a l l y i n t o Wright's category of "conservative man," he i s much too complex to be so e a s i l y typed. He does l i v e by t r a d i t i o n a l standards of duty and j u s t i c e and yet h i s anarchy shows a c r e a t i v e d e s i r e to break down the e s t a b l i s h e d order. Within him there i s th e r e f o r e a struggle between freedom and a u t h o r i t y . As the c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t of the t r i l o g y i s p o l i t i c s , the t r i f o c a l view of Nimmo, the p o l i t i c i a n , i s of gr e a t e s t importance. Was he, as the man i n the s t r e e t thought, a great man, working f o r the good of h i s country; or was he, as h i s c r i t i c a l biographers contended, a corrupt demagogue? Nina i n P r i s o n e r of Grace, as has been shown, sets out to defend Nimmo, but her d u a l i t y causes her a l s o to become h i s judge. In h i s favour, she p r a i s e s h i s p o l i t i c a l t a l e n t s and h i s o r a t o r i c a l prowess, h i s v i t a l i t y and the warmth of h i s a f f e c t i o n , and p o r t r a y s the power of h i s c r e a t i v e imagina-t i o n to do things on a grand s c a l e . In c r i t i c i s m of him, Nina, i n f l u e n c e d by personal d i s l i k e of Nimmo and p o l i t i c s i n gener-a l and f r u s t r a t e d at her r o l e o f " p r i s o n e r , " accuses Chester of "wangling," of being one who could belie.ve i n any t r u t h 185 of the moment, of r u t h l e s s n e s s and i n s e n s i t i v i t y and d i s -l o y a l t y to f r i e n d s . But Nina i n s i s t s t h a t i n s p i t e of every-t h i n g Chester i s a good man who d i d the best he could i n a very d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . In Except the Lord,Nimmo mi r r o r s h i s e a r l y l i f e to show h i s roots i n e v a n g e l i c a l r e l i g i o n and to e x p l a i n how h i s ambition and i d e a l i s m drove him through stages of adolescent experimental development to a f i r m r e -l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l m a t u r i t y . His answer to the age-old controver-sy concerning "end and means" i s that only means based upon C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s can produce the d e s i r e d ends of j u s t i c e . I f the p o r t r a i t of Nimmo i n Except the Lord i s out of focus i n h i s favour, t h i s view i s most necessary to counteract the c a r i c a t u r e of Chester as a decadent demagogue i n Not Honour  More. I f Jim's view i s out of focus to NimmoTs disadvantage, i t does show evidence of Nimmo's "wangling" and shady deals and h i s o c c a s i o n a l r u t h l e s s d i s r e g a r d of the i n d i v i d u a l . From the three views, the reader must make h i s own judgment of Chester Nimmo. Cary probably d i d not want the reader to hate him, although such""an able c r i t i c as Andrew Wright says that "Cary makes us despise him."-^ Nimmo1 s cleverness, h i s e s s e n t i a l f r i e n d l i n e s s , h i s courageous r e f u s a l to give i n to l i f e r a t h e r makes one admire or even l i k e him. E s s e n t i a l l y one must judge Chester Nimmo as a p o l i t i c i a n . The question as to whether Nimmo was honest i n p o l i t i c s i s l i n k e d to the general question of p u b l i c m o r a l i t y — w h e t h e r there are d i f -186 f e r e n t standards f o r the statesman and the p r i v a t e i n -d i v i d u a l . Nina argues that there i s a necessary d i s -honesty i n p r i v a t e as w e l l as p u b l i c l i f e : B u t I'd l i k e to know what would happen i f no-body t r i e d to manage people, i f mothers always t o l d the f a c t s to c h i l d r e n (saying to the s t u p i d ones th a t they were stupid) and never took any c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r nerves and t h e i r f i t s of temper and f r i g h t s and s i l l i n e s s . (PG, 215). Then ap p l y i n g her argument to defend Nimmo on the p u b l i c l e v e l , she continues: And what I'm t r y i n g to do i n t h i s book i s not to make out t h a t Chester was a s a i n t (which would be s t u p i d , a f t e r a l l the books and a r t i c l e s about him) but to show that he was, i n s p i t e of the books, a "good man"--I mean (and i t i s saying more than could be s a i d of most people) as good as he could be i n h i s s p e c i a l circumstances and b e t t e r than many were i n much e a s i e r ones. (PG, 215-216). That Nina i s echoing Cary's own o p i n i o n s of Nimmo i s shown i n the preface to P r i s o n e r of Grace where Cary says: Nimmo has been c a l l e d a crook. He i s not meant f o r a crook. A crook i s e s s e n t i a l l y a man who i s out f o r h i m s e l f , who has no p r i n c i p l e s . . . I am not pretending t h a t Nimmo was a completely ad-mirable character. There are few such anywhere i n the world. He i s an e g o t i s t l i k e most success-f u l politicians...Nimmo was a man, too, not very scrupulous i n h i s eloquence. But the modern lead-er of the people needs to be a s p e l l - b i n d e r , and poets have never been very scrupulous i n g e t t i n g t h e i r e f f e c t . . . C h e s t e r was an adventurer not only f o r h i s own career but f o r a cause t h a t he thought good. (PG, 5-7). 187 Cary v/as concerned w i t h the magnitude of the task of the statesman i n h i s unique world of h a l f - t r u t h s and complex-i t i e s . His job was, to " s e i z e these shadows, cut through to e s s e n t i a l s , and come up w i t h the best and s i m p l e s t — i f not the i d e a l — d e c i s i o n s . " ^ " Cary r e a l i z e d a l s o t h a t the leader "cannot a l l o w p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s or d i s l i k e or g r a t -i t u d e " to a f f e c t h i s p o l i t i e s , ' h i s duty to h i s people i s to be "cold-blooded, hard-headed, u t t e r l y devoted to i t s advantage." y In answer to accusations that he was recom-mending u n i v e r s a l dishonesty, Cary r e p l i e d t h a t governments cannot be run by wanglers u n l e s s , l i k e Nimmo, t h e i r l i v e s are founded upon b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of honesty, t h a t there i s th e r e f o r e no double standard, " L i e s are always l i e s , e v i l i s always e v i l , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e morals are governed by p r e c i s e l y the same l a w . " 0 But Cary knew, a l s o , t h a t s t a t e s -:m.a?n l i k e Nimmo could not come out of p o l i t i c s e n t i r e l y un-scathed, m o r a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y ; t h a t governments do dehumanize men. I f the reader agrees with Nina and w i t h Cary, he w i l l think of Nimmo then not as a crook, but as a man dehumanized and to a degree corrupted by p o l i t i c s , but 'one who i n the main d i d the best he could i n a d i f f i c u l t job. Nimmo i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c r e a t i v e mind"in the world of perpet-u a l c r e a t i o n " ( P G } 6 ) , but h i s tendencies towards despotism and h i s defence of c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n s show tha t w i t h i n him a l s o was c o n f l i c t of freedom a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y . 188 Cay's p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s p o l i t i c a l ideas i n h i s novels b r i n g s up the question of propaganda and a r t . W r i t i n g i n A r t and R e a l i t y , Cary s t a t e s that every w r i t e r i s a propagandist: He wants not only to express h i s unique idea of t h i n g s , but to communicate i t . He i s i n f a c t , almost i n v a r i a b l y a propagandist; he i s convinced that h i s idea of t h i n g s i s true and important and he wants to convert others, he wants to change the w o r l d . 7 The author, t h e r e f o r e , i s a man of a c t i o n who cannot d r i f t with the stream. But at the same time Cary was most aware of the danger of propagandizing i n a novel. "For the moment a w r i t e r begins o b v i o u s l y to i n s t r u c t , " he says, "he ceases to move."^ According to him " A novel should be an experience 9 and convey an emotional t r u t h r a t h e r than argument." Cary's own propaganda technique was to convey h i s message through h i s characters as they l i v e d out t h e i r f r e e l i v e s i n a s e l -ected world. Friedson says t h a t Cary has a "preference f o r conveying meaning through character r a t h e r than imposing meaning on c h a r a c t e r s . " 1 0 Watching the p r o t a g o n i s t s of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y l i v i n g out t h e i r l i v e s , one r e a l i z e s t h a t they are i l l u s t r a t -i n g more of Car}>-'s ideas than the problem of the p o l i t i c i a n . For example, Cary's antagonism towards absolute i d e o l o g i e s such as communism and fascism i s c l e a r l y revealed. Although the communists, P r i n g i n Except the Lord and Pincomb i n Mot 189 Honour More,and the f a s c i s t , Brightman, are not pre-sented as h a t e f u l i n d i v i d u a l s , the- p r i n c i p l e s f o r which they stand are exposed as dangerous and r u t h l e s s . This viewpoint agrees w i t h Cary's own statement about communism: . . . i t brought i n new oppression, new i n s e c u r -i t y new d e p r i v a t i o n s f o r the workers, and had f a i t h or a cynicism never known before. I t appears simply l i k e a v a s t new misfortune f o r the whole earth, a f u r t h e r plunge i n t o confusion and a n x i e t y . H The technique Cary uses i n the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y to advance h i s ideas on c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s to a l l o w a character to present ideas contrary to h i s own. Then, when the char-a c t e r i s shorn to be a " p o l i t i c a l f o o l , " as i s James L a t t e r , h i s i d e a s , such as Jim's " t r i b a l i s m , " a l s o appear f o o l i s h . Cary's own t h e o r i e s concerning c o l o n i a l i s m are stated i n two books: = The Case f o r A f r i c a n Freedom and B r i t a i n and West  A f r i c a . In the l a t t e r , he says: "...(the A f r i c a n ) cannot go back, so he must go forward. The only way to deal with the modern world i s to have modern knowledge, and modern apparatus of l i v i n g . " 1 2 Cary a l s o presents through the characters of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y h i s t h e o r i e s concerning freedom. To Cary ^ a l l men "are born to freedom i n a world condemned to be free."-'' But Cary makes i t c l e a r that freedom does not mean absence of r e s t r a i n t . W r i t i n g i n Vogue, he says; "...freedom i s power, 190 power to do, to know, to see, to comprehend." And be-cause man i s "condemned to be f r e e , " says Cary, the r e s u l t i s always tragedy. To the f r e e personal Soul "we owe a l l l o v e , beauty, everything t h a t makes l i f e worth l i v i n g ; and a l s o the e v e r l a s t i n g c o n f l i c t and i n s e c u r i t y t h a t makes i t 15 t r a g i c . Freedom i s a l l our joy and a l l our p a i n . " The l i v e s of Nina, James L a t t e r , and Chester Nimmo i l l u s t r a t e the tragedy t h a t comes from t h i s c o n f l i c t of freedom and a u t h o r i t y . And man's freedom, says Cary, leads not only to tragedy but a l s o to i n e v i t a b l e isolation--the"dilemma of the f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s o u l , separated by the very nature of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y from the r e a l of which he i s nevertheless a p a r t . " " ^ Nimmo as " f r e e man" separated by the no-man's land of h i s i s o l a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e so c l e a r l y . As Cary says "We are not alone i n f e e l i n g , i n sympathy, but we are alone i n mind. ... «1 7 The three p r o t a g o n i s t s of the P o l i t i c a l T r i l o g y c o n t i n u a l l y meet on the l e v e l of f e e l i n g but l i v e out t h e i r l i v e s of the mind i n s o l i t u d e . I t has not been the purpose of t h i s work to stud3^ Cary's philosophy, but rat h e r h i s l i t e r a r y craftsmanship and e s p e c i a l l y h i s a b i l i t y to create character through s t y l e . Cary's work f o l l o w s i n the t r a d i t i o n of such w r i t e r s as Sterne, Trollope and Dickens who, l i k e himself, placed character f i r s t . The people Cary l i k e d 11© create were unique i n d i v i d u a l s , o f t e n e c c e n t r i c s u t t e r i n g the ''common spectacle of t r u t h " through "a 191 grotesque mask"; but, whether they be grotesque l i k e Nimmo or b e a u t i f u l l i k e Nina or v i o l e n t l i k e L a t t e r , they are i n t e n s e -l y a l i v e ; and, i n s p i t e of a l l t h e i r c o n f l i c t and tragedy, . they exemplify Gary's indomitable s p i r i t and h i s r e l i s h f o r e x i s t e n c e . 192 Footnotes Chapter I 1. Bernard Kalb, Saturday Review XXXVIII (^ay 28, 1955), 12. 2. George Woodcock, " C i t i z e n s of Babel: A Study of Jovce Cary," Queens Qua r t e r l y , L X I I I (Summer 1956), 238. 3. Joyce Cary, A r t and R e a l i t y (Cambridge, 1958), p. 115. 4 . Joyce Cary, "The Way a Novel Gets W r i t t e n , " Adam I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Review, XVIII (Nov.-Dec, 1950), 7—here-a f t e r c i t e d as "The Way a Novel Gets W r i t t e n . " 5. Joyce Cary, P r i s o n e r of Grace(London, 1952), p. 8--here-a f t e r c i t e d as FG, and i d e n t i f i e d by page number as the quotation occurs i n the t e x t . 6. George S t e i n e r , "Lawrence D u r r e l l , The Baroque Novel," Yale Review XLIX (June,1960), 4 9 2 . 7. I b i d . , 4 9 2 . 8. Anthony Friedson, The Novels of Joyce Cary,(Unpublished D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, (1961), p. 187. 9. "The Way a Novel Gets W r i t t e n , " 10. 10. Andrew Wright, Joyce Cary: A Preface to His Novels (London, 1958), p. 110. 11. Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review, X V I I I (Nov.-Dec, 1950), 114. 12. "Joyce Cary," W r i t e r s at Work, ed. Malcolm Cowley (New York, 1958), p. 65. 193 13. Anon, r e v . , i n C h r i s t i a n Century LXXII (Aug. 24,1955), 973. 14. Wright, p. 72. 15. F r i e d s o n , p. 14. 16. Joyce Cary (pseud. Thomas Joyce), "None But the Brave," Saturday Evening Post, CXCII (Sept. 2, 1920), 18, 19, 100, 104, 107, 110. 17. Wright, p. 50. 18. I b i d . , p. 94. 19. Joyce Cary, F i r s t T r i l o g y (Hew York, 1958), p. x. 20. Walter A l l e n , Joyce Cary (London, 1954), pp. 5, 6. 21. Wright, p. 109. 22. Joyce Cary, A House of C h i l d r e n (London, 1951), pp. 7, 8. 23. Friedson, pp. 215-216. 194 Footnotes Chapter I I 1. Ruth Van Horn, "The Novels of Joyce Cary," New Republic, CXXVIII (Jan. 12, 1953), 2. 2. James Sterne, " P o r t r a i t of a Corrupted I d e a l i s t , " New York Times Book Review, (May 29, 1955), p. 33. 3. Joyce Cary, P r i s o n e r of Grace (London, I960), p. 9— h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as PG, and i d e n t i f i e d by page number as the quotation occurs i n the t e x t . 4. Andrew Wright, Joyce Cary: A Preface to h i s Novels, (London, 1958), p. 107--hereafter c i t e d as Wright. 5. Pamela Hansford Johnson, "Three N o v e l i s t s and the drawing of Character; C P . Snow, Joyce Cary, and Tvy Compton-Burnett, "E ssays and Studies by Members of the E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , N . S . I l l (London: John Murray, 1950), 90. 6 . "Joyce Cary," W r i t e r s at Work, ed. Malcolm Cowley, (New York 1958), p. 59. 7. Joyce Cary, Art and Reality,(Cambridge, 1958), p. 103. 8. "The N o v e l i s t at Work: A Conversation between Joyce Cary and Lord David C e c i l , " Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review, XVIII (Nov.-Dec. 1950), 15. 9. Barbara Hardy, "Form i n Joyce Cary's Novels," Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , IV, (October 1954), 182. 10. Compare the breathless u n c e r t a i n t y expressed by the short sentences i n Nina's attempt to j u s t i f y her avoidance of the Lilmouth meeting—(PC-, 55), with the d i s t r a c t e d rage shown by a one page long sentence--in her d e s c r i p t i o n of her assault at the meeting--(PG, 57-58). 195 11. Wright, p. 76. 12. W r i t e r s a t Work, p. 57. 13. Wright, p. 145. 196 F o o t n o t e s C h a p t e r I I I 1 . " J o y c e C a r y , " W r i t e r s a t Work, e d . M a l c o l m Cowley (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 6 5 . 2 . J o y c e C a r y , E x c e p t t h e L o r d ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 5 — h e r e -a f t e r c i t e d as E L , and i d e n t i f i e d by page number as t h e q u o t a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e t e x t . 3 . Andrew W r i g h t , J o y c e C a r y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 3 8 — h e r e -a f t e r c i t e d as W r i g h t . 4 . John I , ^Xj xi. 5 . W r i g h t , p . 1 4 3 . 6 . A n t h o n y F r i e d s o n , The N o v e l s o f J o y c e C a r y , U n p u b l i s h e d D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , 1961 , p . 4 3 3 . 7 . W a l t e r A l l e n , J o y c e C a r y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 4 ) , p p . 28-29 . -here -* c i t © d. ss AlXsn 8. Q u o t e d i n " B r i e f l y N o t e d , " New Y o r k e r , X X I X (Dec . 5 , 1 9 5 3 ) , 213 . 9 . See d i s c u s s i o n o f t e r m " t o t a l s y m b o l , " C h a p t e r I I , p . 7 . 1 0 . A l l e n , p . 29. 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 8 . 1 2 . W r i g h t , p . 1 4 5 . 13. R i c h a r d Hughes , " J o y c e C a r y , " S p e c t a t o r CXCI (Dec . 18 , 1 9 5 3 ) , 7 3 9 . 1 4 . J o y c e C a r y , P r i s o n e r o f Grace ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 38I. 197 F o o t n o t e s C h a p t e r IV 1 . J o y c e C a r y , B r i t a i n and West A f r i c a ( L o n d o n , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 3 4 - - h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B r i t a i n and West A f r i c a . 2 . J o y c e C a r y , E x c e p t t h e L o r d ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 275. 3 . Andrew W r i g h t , J o y c e C a r y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 5 2 . 4 . I b i d . , p . 1 5 1 . 5 . J o y c e C a r y , Mot Honour More ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 7 - - h e r e -a f t e r c i t e d a s NHM, and i d e n t i f i e d by page number as t h e q u o t a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e t e x t . 6 . James S t e r n , New Y o r k Times Book R e v i e w , (May 25 , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 . 7 . W r i g h t , p . 1 5 3 . 8 . I a n W a t t , The R i s e o f t h e N o v e l , (Los A n g e l e s , 1959) p p . 175,176. 9 . A n t h o n y F r i e d s o n , The N o v e l s o f J o y c e C a r y , U n p u b l i s h e d D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , 1961 , p . 4 7 5 . 1 0 . I b i d . , p . 4 6 5 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 475 1 2 . B r i t a i n and l e s t A f r i c a , p . 2 8 . 13. Quoted i n " J o y c e C a r y ' s L a s t Look a t H i s - ¥ o r l d s , n Vogue CXXX ( A u g . 1% 1957) , 1 5 0 . 1 4 . F r i e d s o n , p . 4 8 0 . 1 5 . "The N o v e l i s t a t Work : A C o n v e r s a t i o n between J o y c e C a r y and L o r d D a v i d C e c i l , "Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e v i e w , X V I I I (November-December 1 9 5 0 ) , 2 1 . Wright, p. 153. 199 Footnotes Chapter V 1. Joyce Cary, P r i s o n e r of Grace (London, I960), p.]/©. 2. Anthony Friedson, The Novels of Joyce Cary, Unpublished D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, (1961), p. 497. 3. Andrew Wright, Joyce Cary: A Preface to His Novels London, 1958), p. 7 4--hereafter c i t e d as W right. 4. E d i t o r s Note to Joyce Cary, " P o l i t i c a l and Personal M o r a l i t y , " Saturday Review XXXVIII (Dec. 31, 1955)--h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as " P o l i t i c a l and Personal M o r a l i t y . , ¥ 5. Joyce Cary, Process of Real Freedom (London, 1943), P« 11. 6. " P o l i t i c a l and Personal M o r a l i t y , " 6. 7. Joyce Cary, A r t and R e a l i t y (New York, 1958), p. 9 1 — h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as A r t and R e a l i t y . 8. Joyce Cary, "The Way a Novel Gets W r i t t e n , " Adam I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Review, XVIII (Nove.-Dec, 1950), 7. 9. "Joyce Cary," W r i t e r s at Work, ed. Malcolm Cowley (New York, 1958), p. 55. 10. Friedson, p. 274. 11. Joyce Cary, " I s the World Getting Anywhere," Vogue, (U.S.A.), CXXIII (March 15, 1954), 69. 12. Joyce Cary, B r i t a i n and "West A f r i c a , (London, 1947), p. 70. 13. See Wright, p. 108. 14. Joyce Cary, "Joyce Cary's Last Look at His Worlds," Vogue (U.S.A.), CXXX(Aug. 15, 1957), 151. 200 1 5 . Quoted by Bernard Kalb, Saturday Review XXXVIII (May 2 8 , 1 9 5 5 ) - , 1 2 . 1 6 . Art and R e a l i t y , p. 2 8 . 1 7 . I b i d . , p. 9 « 18. See Lord C e c i l , The Captive and the Free, (London, 19591, p. 6 . 2 0 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY I . Primary M a t e r i a l A. Novels: Ajssa Saved. London: Michael J 0 s e p h , 1959. An American V i s i t o r . New York: Harper & Brothers, 1961. The A f r i c a n Witch* London: Michael Joseph, 1959. Cas t l e Corner. London: M i c h a e l Joseph, i 9 6 0 . M i s t e r Johnson.London: Michael Joseph, 1952. Charley i s My D a r l i n g . London: Michael Joseph, 1959. A House of C h i l d r e n . London: Michael Joseph, 1959. H e r s e l f S u r p r i s e d . London: Michael Joseph, 1951. To be a P i l g r i m . London: Michael Joseph, 1951. The Horse's Mouth. London: Michael Joseph, 1951. F i r s t T r i l o g y . New York: Harper and Brothers, 1 9 5 8 . The Moonlight. London: Michael Joseph, 1959. A F e a r f u l Joy. London: Michael Joseph, 1952. Pris o n e r o f Grace. London: Michael Joseph, I960. Except the Lord. London: Michael Joseph, 1953. Not Honour More. London: Michael J 0 s e p h , 1955. The Captive and the Free. London: Michael Joseph, 1959. B. Other W r i t i n g by Cary: A r t and R e a l i t y . New York: Harper, 1958. B r i t a i n and West A f r i c a . London: Longmans, Green, 1947. 202 "Character on the Manhattan Boat," New York Times Book  Review, June 6, 1954, p. 2. "A Conversation with Joyce Cary," (an i n t e r v i e w with Nathan Cohen), Tamarack Review, I I I (Spring 1957), 5-15. The Drunken S a i l o r : A B a l l a d - E p i c . London, Michael Joseph, 1947* "Important Authors of the F a l l , Speaking f o r Themselves," New York Herald Tribune Book Review, Oct. 8, 1950, p. 10. " I s the World G e t t i n g Anywhere," Vogue (U.S.A.), CXXIII (March 15, 1954), 68-71. "Joyce Cary," (an i n t e r v i e w w i t h John Burrows and A l e x Hamilton), W r i t e r s at Work, ed. Malcolm Cowley, New York: V i k i n g Press, 1958, pp.51-67; "Joyce Cary's Last Look at His Worlds," Vogue (U.S.A.), CXXX(Aug. 15, 1957), 96,97,150-153. "None but the Brave," (pseud. Thomas Joyce), Saturday Evening Post, CXCII(Sept. 11, 1920), 18, 19, 100, 104, 107, 110. "A Novel i s a Novel i s a Novel," Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Re-view, XVIII (Nov.-Dec. 1 9 5 0 ) , " T ^ "The N o v e l i s t at Work: A Conversation between Joyce Cary and Lord David C e c i l , " Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review, XVIII (Nov.-Dec. 1950), 15-25. " P o l i t i c a l and Personal M o r a l i t y , " Saturday Review, XXXVIII(Dec. 31, 1955), 5, 6, 31, 32. Power In Men. London: Nicholson and Watson, 1939. Process of Real Freedom. London: Michael Joseph, 1943. "The Way a Novel Gets W r i t t e n , " Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Re-view, XVIII (Nov.-Dec. 1950), 3-11. 2 0 3 I I . Secondary M a t e r i a l A. Books and A r t i c l e s on Cary: Adam I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review, XVIII(Nov.-Dec. 1950). Issue devoted to Cary. (Reviewed i n Times L i t e r a r y Supple-ment, Aug. 31, 1951, p. 5 3 3 ) . L "Joyce Cary's Three Speakers," Modern F i c t i o n Studies,V (Summer 1959), 108-120. A l l e n , Walter, Joyce Cary. London: Longmans, Green, 1954. Friedson, Anthony M. The Novels of Joyce Cary, Unpub-l i s h e d D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, l§6l. Hardy, Barbara. "Form i n Joyce Cary's Novels," Essays  i n C r i t i c i s m , I V (Oct. 1954), 180-190. Johnson, Pamela Hansford. "Three N o v e l i s t s and the Drawing of Character: CiP. Snow, Joyce Cary, and Ivy Compton-Burnett, "''Essays and Studies by Members of the E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , N . S . I l l ( L o n d o n : John Murray, 1950), 82-91. Van Horn, Ruth. "Freedom and Imagination i n the Novels Of Joyce Cary," Midwest J o u r n a l , V (Winter 1952-53), 1 9 - 3 0 . . "The Novels of Joyce C ary, "New Re-p u b l i e , CXXVIII (Jan. 12, 1953), 2 (A r e p l y to Isaac Rosen-f e l d ' s review of P r i s o n e r of Grace—see IB,below). Woodcock, George. " C i t i z e n s of Babel: A Study of Joyce Cary," Queens Q u a r t e r l y , LXIII(Summer 1956), 2 3 6 - 2 4 6 . Wright, Andrew. Joyce Cary: A Preface to h i s Novels, London: Chatto and Windus, 1958. ' B. Reviews of Cary's Novels : P r i s o n e r of Grace. Reviewed by Edward Weeks, i n A t l a n t i c , CXC(Nov. 1952), 100; by E l i z a b e t h Stevenson, i n Nation,CLXXXV(Oct. 25, 1952), 387; by Isaac Rosenfeld, i n New Republic, CXXXVII (Oct. 20, 1952), 27 (see r e p l y by Ruth Van Horn, i n New Republic CXXVIII(Jan. 12, 1953), 2)1 by James H i l t o n , 204 i n Mew York Herald Book Review, Oct. 26, 1952, p. 6; by James Gray, i n Saturday Review, XXXV ( 0 c t.ll, 1952), 16; by L.A.G. Strong, i n Spectator, CLXXXIX (Sept. 19, 1952), 374; i n Time, LX (Oct. 20, 1952) 118-130. Except the Lord. Reviewed by Saul Belbw, i n Mew Republic, CXXX(Feb. 22, 1954), 20; by G i l e s R o m i i l y , i n Mew Statesman and Nation, XLVI (Nov. 28, 1953), 694; by James Stern, i n N£w York Times  Book Review,Nov. 15, 1953, p. 5; by H a r r i s o n Smith, i n Saturday Review, XXXVI(Nov. 14, 1953), 28; by Richard Hughes i n Spectator, CXCI (Dec. 18, 1953), 738-739; i n Times  L i t e r a r y Supplement, Dec. 4 , 1953. p. 773. Not Honour More. Reviewed i n C h r i s t i a n Century,LXXII(Aug. 24, 1955), 973; by Norman Shrapnel, i n Manchester Guardian, A p r i l 5, 1955, P«4; i n New Statesman and Nation, XLIX ( A p r i l 23, 1955) , 586; by James Ster n , i n New York Times Book Review, May 29, 1955, p. 1; by Harr i s o n Smith, i n Saturday Review, XXXVTII (May 28, 1955), 12, 13; i n Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, A p r i l 29, 1955, p. 198. C. General References: A l l e n , Walter. The Novel To-day, London: Longmans, Green, I960. A l d r i d g e , J . C r i t i q u e s and Essays on Modern F i c t i o n : 1920-1951. New York: Ronald, 1952. Gide, Andre. The School For Wives, London: C a s s e l l , 1953. (Trans. Dorothy Bussy). G o l d r i n g , Douglas. Trained For Genius,New York: E.P. Dutton, 1949. H a r r o l d , D.F. and W.D. Templeman. E n g l i s h Prose of the V i c - t o r i a n Era,New York: Oxford, 1954. Legouis, E. And L. Cazamian. A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , London: J.M. Detft, 1937. S t e i n e r , George. "Lawrence D u r r e l l , The Baroque Novel," Yale Review XLIX (June, I960), 492. T i n s d a l l , W i l l i a m York. Forces i n Modern B r i t i s h L i t e r a t u r e , New York: Vintage Books, I960. Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel, Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1959. 

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