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A study to explore relationships between certain personality characteristics and behaviour characteristics… Ng, Betty Shuet-Wah 1962

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A STUDY TO EXPLORE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CERTAIN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS AS DISPLAYED IN THE ART ACTIVITIES OF TEN INDIVIDUALS FROM THE AGES OF SIX TO FIFTEEN YEARS IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH TOPICS FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION by B e t t y Shuet-Wah Ng B. A., U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1955 P.G.C.E., U n i v e r s i t y of Southampton, England, 1956 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1962 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of k r dx^x^y^^^  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date , C i U i ABSTRACT This study of behaviour as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s was carr i e d out i n the Child Art Research and Demonstration Centre, the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, from October, 1961 to March, 1962. The behaviour of ten ind i v i d u a l s ranging i n age from s i x to f i f t e e n was observed and recorded i n the form of time samples, anecdotal records and rating scales. This study consists of: 1. A survey of documents written by authorities i n the f i e l d of art education. 2. A general analysis of the techniques used i n the c o l l e c t i o n and treatment of the data. 3» Reports of i n d i v i d u a l cases i n d i c a t i n g q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative results of the study. The need to substitute facts f o r opinions has prompted the study. In general, t h i s study has disclosed that no s i g n i f i c a n t relationships exist between ce r t a i n personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Although the number of subjects has been l i m i t e d , yet the accurate and det a i l e d conclusions are able to supply topics f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (Chairman) .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The researcher wishes to express her gratitude to: Professor E. G. Ozard under whose d i r e c t i o n and advice t h i s study was ca r r i e d out, Doctor S. R. Laycock whose c r i t i c i s m and suggestions have been most help f u l and the p r i n c i p a l s , teachers and parents of the subjects f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and co-operation i n t h i s research. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I The Problem 1 1. Background of the Problem 1 2. Statement of the Problem 2 3« D e f i n i t i o n of Important Terms . . . . . . 3 4. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 3 II A Survey of the Li t e r a t u r e . 5 1. Studies Having General Relevance to the Problem 5 2. Studies Having Spe c i f i c Relevance to the Problem 8 III Procedure and Exploratory Design 12 IV Treatment of Data 15 1. Data Concerning Personality Character-i s t i c s 15 2. Data Concerning Behaviour Characteristics as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s 15 V Reports on Individual Cases i n the Primary Group, Ages from Six to Eight 1 6 VI Reports on Individual Cases i n the Intermediate Group, Ages from Eight to Nine 6*7 VII Reports on Individual Cases i n the Senior Group Age F i f t e e n 160 VIII Conclusions and Implications of the Study . • . 195 IX Implications f o r Future Study 206 i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS — Continued P A G E Appendix A 203 Appendix B 218 Bibliography 221 i v LIST OF CHARTS* PAGE CASE 1 Carole CHART I II III IV 26 V VI VII VIII 30 IX X XI XII . i i . . 33 CASE 2 Jerry CHART I II III IV 42 • - V VI VII VIII . . . . 46 IX X XI XII 50 CASE 3 Richard CHART I I I III IV 59 V VI VII VIII 64 IX X XI XII 68 CASE 4 Donald CHART I II III IV 76 V VI VII VIII 81 IX X XI XII 85 CASE 5 Betty CHART I II III IV 94 V VI VII VIII 99 IX X XI XII 104 CASE 6 Helen CHART I II III IV 113 V VI VII VIII 117 IX X XI XII 121 CASE 7 B i l l CHART I II I I I IV 130 V VI VII VIII 135 IX X XI XII 140 CASE 8 Nick CHART I II I I I IV 148 ,V VI VII VIII 153 IX X XI XII 158 V L I S T OF CHARTS ~ C o n t i n u e d C A S E 9 P a u l a CHART C A S E 10 C l a i r e CHART P A G E I I I I I I V V I V I I I X X X I . . 177 I I I I I I V V I V I I I X X X I # CHART I W a i t i n g F o r H i s / H e r T u r n I I E a g e r t o C o n t r i b u t e t o G r o u p W o r k o r G r o u p D i s c u s s i o n -, , . , I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s W i t h o u t A p p e a l i n g t o P e e r s o r A d u l t s . ., I V S h o w i n g K e e n O b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e W o r l d A r o u n d H i m / H e r . V A b l e t o T a k e A d v a n t a g e o f S i t u a t i o n s W h i c h D e v e l o p i n t h e C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . V I D e v e l o p i n g O r d e r l y W o r k H a b i t s . V I I R e s t l e s s a n d i n L a c k o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n . . V I I I L a c k o f E f f o r t t o I m p r o v e A r t P r o d u c t s . I X C h a t t y X I m i t a t i n g O t h e r s X I L a c k o f O r i g i n a l I d e a s i n D i s c u s . s i o n o r i n A r t P r o d u c t s , , X I I L a c k o f R e s p e c t f o r P e r s o n s i n A u t h o r i t y v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x i s t e d Between S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c y and S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Ad u l t s i n Ar t A c t i v i t i e s (Chart I I I ) 196 I I No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x i s t e d Between A b i l i t y to Take Advantage of New S i t u a t i o n s and A b i l i t y to Take Advantage of S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n C r e a t i v e Process (Chart V) . . 197 I I I No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between Span of A t t e n t i o n and Lack o f Concentration i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s (Chart VI) 198 IV No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between Standard Set f o r H i m s e l f / H e r s e l f and E f f o r t to Improve A r t Products (Chart V I I) 199 V No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between Leadership and I m i t a t i n g Others i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s (Chart X) 200 VI No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between Ideas f o r Pl a y or Work and Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n or i n A r t Products (Chart XI)201 V I I D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 202 V I I I Undesirable Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 204 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM 1. Background of the Problem The teaching of art to-day i s light-years removed from the formal t r a i n i n g i n drawing s k i l l s . Art i s no longer considered as an extra on the curriculum but as a major area of learning. Herbert Read points out: " I t i s an educational method i n which teacher must r e f r a i n from applying external pressures but must rather act as a h e l p f u l mediator between the student and his environment, helping him to d i s -cover his inborn tendencies and di s p o s i t i o n and encouraging and a s s i s t i n g him i n the d i r e c t i o n of self-expression and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n that are revealed i n his work".l As a r e s u l t of t h i s evolutionary procession, art educators begin to see that the personality of the c h i l d should be understood and developed through sympathetic guidance of the teacher. In t h e i r research, published i n 1947, Rose H. Alschuler and La Berta Weiss Hattwick manifest that person-a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n painting as well as i n the behaviour as displayed i n the creative process. They state: "Although i t may be d i f f i c u l t to r e a l i z e , i t i s none the les s true that almost every drawing and painting made by a young c h i l d i s meaningful and Tl Read, Herbert, Education Through Art, 2nd E d i t i o n (London: Faber & Faber, 1945), PP. 285-286. i n some measure expresses the c h i l d who did i t . " 2 They believe: "A study of the children's choice of materials and t h e i r behaviour during the usage was e s s e n t i a l to any understanding of the significance of the f i n a l products."3 In short, they point up the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between person-a l i t y and f i n a l products as well as the behaviour of creating them. Observations of chi l d r e n i n a r t classes lead to the formulation of the study of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Some children who demonstrate a high degree of o r i g i n a l i t y i n other subjects may not be able to perform at a high l e v e l during a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The study undertaken i s to explore what re l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, there might be between how chi l d r e n behave i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and how they reveal t h e i r personal-i t y i n school and at home. 2. Statement of the Problem It i s generally assumed that the personality charac-t e r i s t i c s of an i n d i v i d u a l are often r e f l e c t e d i n his behaviour i n a l l situations and a c t i v i t i e s . In general terms t h i s study i s to investigate the extent of c o r r e l a t i o n between personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as shown at home and i n 2~, Alschuler, Rose H., and Hattwick, La Berta Weiss, Painting and Personality, Two Volumes ( I l l i n o i s , University of Chicago Press), p. 5. 3. Ibid. 3 school and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s * S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study i s an attempt to discover the e f f e c t s of personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and the contribution of these behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the development of c h i l d personality. Furthermore, t h i s study i s to investigate how art a c t i v i t i e s enable an i n d i v i d u a l to overcome certa i n undesirable personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 3» D e f i n i t i o n s of Important Terms. For the purpose of c l a r i f y i n g the foregoing statement of the problem, the following d e f i n i t i o n s are employed: Behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : This term s h a l l be defined as a d i s t i n c t i v e aspect of the acts and responses of an i n d i v i d u a l . Personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : This term s h a l l be defined as a d i s t i n c t i v e and enduring d i s p o s i t i o n and quality of an i n d i v i d u a l that accounts f o r h i s r e l a t i v e consistency i n emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , physical and temperamental behaviour. Art a c t i v i t i e s : This term s h a l l be used to describe picture-making, modelling, painting , and other a c t i v i t i e s of making any form of art work that requires creative think-ing and manual dexterity. 4. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study. What has been known about relationships between personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s comes from the hypothesis that "to guide, enrich and make f r u i t f u l the spontaneous ideas of i n d i v i d u a l children i s to b u i l d a secure founda-t i o n f o r the f u l l development of t h e i r personality".^ The eff e c t s of art a c t i v i t i e s on personality are often discussed only hypothetically and included only i n c i d e n t a l l y . The inter a c t i o n s between personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and be-haviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as displayed i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s , are seldom reported as occurring i n in d i v i d u a l cases over a period of time. I t i s the purpose of t h i s study to manifest how some desirable behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i n d i v i d u a l , which are not s i g n i f i c a n t at home and i n school, are often displayed and prove important i n art a c t i v i t i e s and how some undesirable behaviour characteris-t i c s which are apparent at home and i n school are kept under control i n the creative process. I f an art programme i s to aim at the development of personality, these variable r e l a -tionships between behaviour shown i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and personality displayed at home and i n school should be taken into consideration. The researcher believes that an accurate, de t a i l e d and purposeful study of these relationships as shown i n i n d i v i d u a l cases adds to the understanding and insight of c h i l d personality and i t s growth through a r t . 4^ Read, Herbert, Education Through Art. 2 n d E d i t i o n , (London: Faber & Faber, 1 9 4 5 ) P- 3 2 . CHAPTER II A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE 1. Studies Having General Relevance to the Problem. Dewey states: Art results from an act of self-expression involv-ing emotion and i n t e l l e c t . Thus, we may say that a r t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t expression giving form and order to human being's reaction to his environment.-* This concept that art bears the imprint of the personality of i t s creator points up the need of studying the relationships between art and personality. A survey of l i t e r a t u r e on art education reveals some attempts on t h i s t o p i c . Rose H. Alschu-l e r and La Berta Weiss Hattwick, on writing "Painting and Personality — A Study of Young Children" record t h e i r findings as follows: Those childre n who consistently favoured warm colours tended, f o r the most part, to manifest the free emotion-a l behaviour, the warm affectionate r e l a t i o n s , and the self-centred orientation natural f o r children o f t h i s age. Line and form tend to give the most i n t e l l i g i b l e clues to the amount of energy the c h i l d i s expending, the degree of control the c h i l d i s exercising, and the d i r e c -t i o n i n which that control i s operating. The use of space seems to express the c h i l d 1 s r e l a t i o n -ship to his environment. Representation of subject matter within enclosures or grouping of subject into t i g h t masses usually indicates repression or a shut-in f e e l i n g . 5. Dewey, John, Art As Experience. (New York: Minton Balch, 1934), pp. 64-olT 6 Children observed to work primarily i n curved continuous strokes tended to stand out as a group f o r t h e i r more dependent, more compliant, more emotionally toned reactions. The outstanding frequency with which children choose blue to make t h e i r f i r s t l e t t e r s underlines the f a c t that the use of blue p a r a l l e l s conscious control and a s p i r a t i o n . The smearing of c i r c l e s has been a consistent painting pattern among children who seemed to be r e s i s t i n g e i t h e r a submissive or a feminine r o l e . Children who preferred crayons were, as a group more concerned with expressing ideas and with the desire to communicate with others than with f i n d i n g a free outlet f o r t h e i r own impulses. Two-, three-, and four-year-old children tend to express the same feel i n g s through creative media that they express i n overt behaviour." Some writers have c l a s s i f i e d children into personality types l a r g e l y according to the subject matter or treatment of the art work they produce. Their writings, e s p e c i a l l y those of Lowenfeld, appear to have exerted influence upon a r t education a l l over the world. In "Creative and Mental Growth" Lowenfeld describes his two types as follows: Type A. Visual — f e e l s l i k e a spectator; sees the general shape of an object, then d e t a i l s , usually begins work with outline of object! then adds d e t a i l s ; 'how a thing looks' i s f i r s t reaction to an encounter with any object, uses correct proportions and measurements of drawn or modeled human figure; likewise, space i s represented by l i n e a r perspective. Type B. Haptic — 'the s e l f i s projected as the true actor of the picture'. 'Sizes and spaces are determined by t h e i r emotional value i n size and appearance 1. 'Human figure i s likewise represented 5^  Alschuler, Rose H., and Hattwick, La Berta Weiss, Painting and Personality — A Study of Young Children, Two Volumes ( I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press). 7 i n proportion only to the significance the paints have f o r the a r t i s t ' ; haptic space i s a perspective of values.7 Many writers claim that art contributes to personal-i t y development. Discussing the role of art i n education Ralph L. Wickiser states: In the process of growing and developing, the young person encounters many f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a -t i o n s . By releasing emotional tensions and fear, the a r t experience tends to encourage free expression, give the c h i l d confidence i n h i s a b i l i t y , and thus aid i n emotional adjustment. When the c h i l d f e e l s free to be expressive, h i s personality i s free to mature. Many schools to-day are concerned with the t o t a l development of personality as evidence of success or f a i l u r e i n educative process. Thus, a c t i v i t y , the process of doing, assumes new importance, and what i t does to the c h i l d ' s personality has become a major concern i n a r t education. 8 Hence, some writers suggest c r i t e r i a f o r evaluating i n d i v i d -ual growth through a r t . Howard Conant and Ann Randell, w r i t i n g on "Art i n Education" point out the evidence of i n d i v i d u a l growth i n t o t a l personality development as follows: Individual uniqueness. A b i l i t y to think f o r oneself, to use i n i t i a t i v e . A b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y or put something of oneself into one's work. A b i l i t y to concentrate upon creative art ex-pression to a point where the i n d i v i d u a l i s not e a s i l y distracted. T* Lowenfeld, Viktor, Creative and Mental Growth, (New York: Macmillan, 1957). p. 233. £• Wickiser, Ralph L. An Introduction to Art Educa-t i o n . (London: George G. Harrap), p. 20. 8 A b i l i t y to express moods and s i n c e r e f e e l i n g through a r t expression. A b i l i t y to work to the c a p a c i t y of one's a b i l i t y . A b i l i t y to evaluate o n e s e l f . A b i l i t y to r e c e i v e and p r o f i t by deserved p r a i s e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . A b i l i t y t o d e r i v e personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and Q j u s t i f i a b l e p r i d e from accomplishments i n art.'* I n the ca t e g o r i e s o f c r i t e r i a used i n a p p r a i s a l of the a r t programme, Charles G a i t s k e l l i n c l u d e s "the q u a l i t y o f each p u p i l ' s behaviour as e x h i b i t e d during h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l types of a r t a c t i v i t i e s " . ^ ^ This has s p e c i a l relevance to the study undertaken. 2. Studies Having S p e c i f i c Relevance to the Problem. Although some statements such as Charles G a i t s k e l l ' s are given regarding c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour as di s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s , very few s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s are made to r e -l a t e them to p e r s o n a l i t y . Rose H. A l s c h u l e r and La Be r t a Weise Hattwick s t u d i e d some behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pre-school c h i l d r e n . They b e l i e v e that these are sugges-t i v e of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . They record the most frequent and r e c u r r e n t behaviour tendencies found a t easel p a i n t i n g as f o l l o w s : 1. Behaviour suggestive of f e l t need f o r , and s a t i s f a c t i o n from p a i n t s , . e . g . , Produced l a r g e 9. Conant, Howard and R a n d a l l . Ann, A r t i n Education. ( I l l i n o i s : Chas. A. Bennett, 1959). 10. G a i t s k e l l , Charles D., C h i l d r e n and Th e i r A r t . (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1958), P« 396. 9 numbers of paintings i n a single painting experience, more outgoing i n speech and i n f r i e n d l y overtures at easel. 2. Behaviour suggestive of s o c i a l desires and needs, e.g., Stood at easel watching others; tendency to avoid or seek attention; voiced desire f o r s o c i a l contacts while painting; more outgoing behaviour at easel than otherwise. 3. Behaviour suggestive of aggressive drives, e.g.. Spit while at easel; smeared at easel; h i t easel hard; teeth clenched; smeared work with intent to destroy and took pleasure i n the process. Attacked others verbally or i n more obvious ways while painting or d i r e c t l y thereafter. F i r s t s e l f -defense at school occurred at easel. 4. Behaviour suggestive of cleanliness concern or s a t i s f a c t i o n with opportunity to smear, e.g., Interest i n wetness of paint; obvious expression of s a t i s f a c t i o n while smearing; took great care to avoid smeared product; expressed concern over need to wash hands or to keep s e l f clean; recurrent tendency to go d i r e c t l y to t o i l e t a f t e r painting experience. 5. Behaviour suggestive of or a l tensions, e.g., Sucked fingers or thumb while painting, sucked l i p , whistled while p a i n t i n g . H The writer supports t h e i r generalized findings with anecdotal records of i n d i v i d u a l cases. Some writers make case studies of emotionally d i s -turbed i n d i v i d u a l s . The purpose of t h e i r studies i s to r e l a t e personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with behaviour charac-t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s and to prove the contribution of a r t towards personality development. Natalie Cole, w r i t i n g on "The Arts i n the Classroom" mentions a case 11. Alschuler, Rose H. and Hattwick, La Berta Weiss, Painting and Personality. A Study of Young Children, Two Volumes, ( I l l i n o i s : University of Chicago Press), p. 127. 10 of a problem c h i l d , Walter, who became so absorbed i n making a plate that he continued even a f t e r the b e l l rang. The w r i t e r reports: He brought the plate to me with a quieter a i r than I had ever seen him have.... It (the plate) was an entering wedge to get inside Walter and a f f e c t h i s f e e l i n g s about himself and consequently the world i n general. The plate was to help put his ego upon firmer ground so that the show-off ishness, bumping, t r i p p i n g and b u l l y i n g would be unnecessary.12 In her book "Art and C h i l d Personality", Ruth Dunnett makes b r i e f case studies of several boys i n an evacuation school. About a boy who painted abstract com-positions she reports: He was a boy who got tremendous s a t i s f a c t i o n from his drawing and painting, not only because of the opportunity to assert himself through the subject-matter of h i s pictures but also because he developed i n a small way an aesthetic i n t e r e s t i n colour and technique. I t gave him pride and self-respect which were gradually more than counteracting the undesirable elements i n his character.13 The writer shows her concern about the contribution of art towards personality development. She states: For the purpose of t h i s book, art i s regarded i n a rather special l i g h t and i t s teaching 12. Cole, Natalie Robinson, The Art i n the Classroom, (New York: John Day, 1940), p. 53. 13* Dunnett, Ruth, Art and C h i l d Personality. (London: Methuen, 1948), p. 29. 11 accordingly i s concerned not so much with teach-ing a r t for art's sake, but i n teaching a r t as something which develops personality and leads to a f u l l e r l i f e . 1 ^ A survey of the l i t e r a t u r e on a r t education reveals that most case studies are a r t therapy reports about in d i v i d u a l s i n an art therapy s i t u a t i o n . There are curiously few case studies of normal children concerning the r e l a t i o n -ships between t h e i r personality and t h e i r behaviour as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s . 14* Dunnett, Ruth, Art and Child Personality. (London: Methuen, 194#), p. 4. CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURE AND EXPLORATORY DESIGN The study was c a r r i e d out f o r a period of s i x months i n the Child Art Research and Demonstration Centre, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The art teaching i n t h i s centre was c a r e f u l l y designed so that children might have a variety of opportunities to become involved i n t h e i r a r t a c t i v i t i e s , to behave f l e x i b l y and to think independently i n making and judging a r t works. The subjects were ten i n d i v i d u a l s ranging i n age from s i x to f i f t e e n , selected from the primary, intermediate and senior classes. These in d i v i d u a l s came a f t e r school and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n extra-c u r r i c u l a r art a c t i v i t i e s once a week. They were taught by the student teachers and occasionally by the i n s t r u c t o r s of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The study was i n the nature of an exploratory study rather than t e s t i n g hypothesis. The data f o r the study was gathered from interviews and observations. The class teacher of each subject was interviewed to obtain data concerning the subject's personality as displayed during routines, use of materials, work habits and r e l a t i o n s h i p with peers and adults i n school. The class teacher was also asked to f i l l i n a questionnaire r a t i n g and describing certain personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subject. 1 3 This questionnaire i s presented i n Appendix A, (Page 208) One of the subject's parents was interviewed at t h e i r home to provide data concerning the c h i l d ' s personality as revealed i n his use of materials, work habits and r e l a t i o n -ship with h i s family at home. Data concerning the subject's childhood t r a i n i n g and relationships between the family and the outside world were also obtained. Both parents were i n v i t e d to f i l l i n the same questionnaire f o r the class teacher so as to give an a l l round picture of the subject's personality. Twelve behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s i x desirable and s i x undesirable, were observed during a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e n s i t y and frequency of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was rated on a twenty-unit chart at the end of each lesson. This chart i s shown i n Appendix B, (Page 2 1 7 ) . The researcher indicated her judgment of each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by placing a check mark on each l i n e according to the caption at the top. Instead of adhering to the d i v i s i o n a l point, she might make her check mark at the approximate point just where she thought i t was most suitable. This permitted her to make f i n e r ratings. An average mean of the scores f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was made at the end of each month. These were put i n a chart as shown i n reports on i n d i v i d u a l cases (Chapters V, VI and VII). Apart from r a t i n g behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the researcher recorded each subject's behaviour and speech i n 14 ar t a c t i v i t i e s i n the form of half-hour time samples and anecdotal records. To a large extent, the procedure and design used i n t h i s study were borrowed from s o c i a l science and adapted to f i t the p a r t i c u l a r need of the study undertaken. Although the number of subjects was small, the findings derived from accurate and detailed study were able to e s t a b l i s h a great number of topics f o r further investigations. CHAPTER IV TREATMENT OF DATA 1. Data Concerning Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Descriptions o f each subject's personality were written according to the data gathered during interviews with his class teacher and a parent. A comparison was made between the teacher's remarks on the subject's personality as shown i n the questionnaire and the parents' so as to produce an a l l round view of the subject's personality. 2. Data Concerning Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . The ratings of each behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was put i n a chart showing the degree of r i s e s and f a l l s i n inten-s i t y and frequency during the period of observation. These r i s e s and f a l l s , as well as the negative r e s u l t s , are explained by excerpts taken from time-samples or anecdotal records and relates to remarks on personality characteris-t i c s made by the class teacher or parents i n the question-naire or during the interview. CHAPTER V REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL CASES IN THE PRIMARY GROUP AGES FROM SIX TO EIGHT CASE 1 Description: Carole, age six, was blonde and straight-haired. She appeared to be a highly marked i n d i v i d u a l i s t who l i k e d to solve her problems i n her own unique way. She was the only left-handed c h i l d i n the Centre but she never f e l t conscious of her handicap. She complained that she could not cut c l o t h l i k e other children. She was quite s a t i s f i e d with drawing with crayons while the whole group were making collage pictures. She was very t a l k a t i v e . Whenever she could f i n d a l i s t e n e r she would keep ta l k i n g about what happened at home and i n school. She mentioned her s i s t e r Vicky sometimes, but more often she talked about he r s e l f . When she was asked to contribute to a group discussion, more than once she monopo-l i z e d the s i t u a t i o n and talked to the children. Her ideas were so o r i g i n a l that she had no d i f f i c u l t y i n holding t h e i r attention. She had not much idea about time. She came to the c l a s s either very early or very l a t e . Like most children of 1 7 her age, her friendship with other children was on a week-by-week basis. She took to Betty-Ann for a short time and came to the Centre with her but soon they l o s t i n t e r e s t i n each other. She was t i d i l y clad i n clothing of good quality and she took reasonably good care of them. However, she was never quite able to dress h e r s e l f with ease and often had trouble putting on her shoes as she was unable to t e l l the l e f t shoe from the right shoe and could not t i e shoe laces properly without help. She seldom appealed to peers and adults f o r help but strove to overcome her d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a clumsy manner. She could not run or jump sporti v e l y l i k e c h i l d r e n of her age. She walked slowly and s t e a d i l y l i k e an e l d e r l y lady. Carole's parents came from England i n 1 9 5 4 * Carole was the younger of the two g i r l s i n the family. The father was an assistant professor i n the School of S o c i a l Work at the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The mother had taken Teacher's Training but had been forced to give i t up be-cause of her housework. She was now teaching part-time at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vicky, the elder s i s t e r , age nine, was i n the intermediate group i n the C h i l d Art Centre and preferred children of her own age to Carole. She was very t a l k a t i v e and rather 'bossy'. The Parent's Description of Carole's Personality. According to her mother, Carole was emotionally 18 immature f o r her age. She was very much i n lack of s e l f -confidence when she was small. Her parents had a hard time helping her to b u i l d up her ego* Drawing was always her f a v o r i t e hobbyj i t was the f i r s t thing she did i n the morn-ing and the l a s t thing she did at night. She preferred crayons, although she had a l l kinds of media. She l i k e d to work on the f l o o r , although she had an easel. Carole was always repressed. She took up the p r i n c i p l e of denial. When she was i n trouble she turned to drawing f o r r e l i e f . Some of her works were drawings of confusion — expressions of her mood. In t h i s way she was unlike her s i s t e r Vicky i n personality, for Vicky was always open-minded. Carole never cared f o r her teacher's a f f e c t i o n as much as other children of her age, yet she l i k e d praises and fl o u r i s h e d i n them. Carole had attended the C h i l d Study Centre f o r pre-school children. The p r i n c i p a l considered her a very highly creative c h i l d . Undoubtedly she had a high I.Q., but she was not giving her best i n school. Her parents never pressed t h e i r children to t r y t h e i r best. When Carole was small she was very interested i n fantasy. She l i k e d to be dressed up and pretended to be other characters than her own. Now she began to see the difference between play time and work, r e a l i t y and fantasy. Apart from attending the C h i l d Art Centre, Carole started b a l l e t t h i s year. She also attended the Creative Drama Class sponsored by the Department of University Extension, The University of 19 B r i t i s h Columbia. She was pleasant a l l day long a f t e r coming home from the drama c l a s s . * Her mother said that she made sure that her children did not f e e l uncomfortable or insecure because she worked. She was always at home when they returned from school. They often painted side by side i n the kitchen and talked to her. Carole was short of f r i e n d s i n the neighbourhood be-cause there were very few children her own age. Her mother did not want her to associate with some whom she considered as delinquents. The Class Teacher's Description of Carole's Personality. According to her class teacher, Carole was a very t a l k a t i v e and excitable c h i l d . She l i k e d to carry out her own ideas rather than the teacher's d i r e c t i o n s . I f the teacher mentioned something that interested Carole i n her talk to the c l a s s , Carole would interrupt her and t a l k on to the children. Carole took a long time to adjust he r s e l f to the school s i t u a t i o n . She was very unco-operative at the beginn-ing but she was making improvement i n her behaviour. She r e a l i z e d that she had to take her turn i n the d a i l y routines. She looked unhappy whenever the teacher had to correct her. Being s e n s i t i v e , she was very much upset by the teacher's remarks. She was well l i k e d by the other children. She managed everything. Most children of that age are submissive and accepted Carole's leadership without hesitation. 20 Carole never c r i e d at school even when she was upset. When she had d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting herself to the school s i t u a t i o n at the beginning of the term she would cry her heart out at home. The c l a s s teacher believed that Carole got l i t t l e a ttention, but much i n t e l l e c t u a l and aesthetic stimulation at home. In f a c t , Carole gained a good general knowledge from her family background. Her i n t e l l e c t u a l growth was very much fa s t e r than her physical growth. Carole was clumsy i n walking and handling h e r s e l f . A Comparison of the Parents 1 and the Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Carole's Personality. Carole's parents and her class teacher agreed i n t h e i r answers to questions on Carole's emotional character-i s t i c s except that the teacher considered that Carole frequently sought attention. The reason i s , probably, that being quite self-centred, Carole f e l t that she did not get as much attention i n school as she did at home. Accordingly, she sought the attention of her teacher and peers. As the teacher stated above, she often gained i t . Regarding Carole's i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , her parents agreed with the teacher that her a b i l i t y to learn from experience was average. They pointed out that for c e r t a i n things t h i s a b i l i t y sank below average. They noticed that her a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was above average at home. This a b i l i t y was considered as average i n school probably 21 because she was l e s s at ease i n school than a t home where she f e l t f r e e r and more self-confident i n handling new s i t u a t i o n s . With regard to Carole's s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , her teacher noticed that she was quite unwilling to co-operate i n work or play routines. Her parents found that her willingness to co-operate varied from one extreme to the other. They also believed that she was generous with materials. I t was the c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i o n f o r those with whom she co-operated and shared that made the difference. The teacher found that Carole always took the lead. The parents noticed that she sometimes l e d , sometimes followed and at other times she imitated others. The teacher and the parents agreed i n t h e i r answers to questionson Carole's physical characteris-t i c s except that the parents noticed that at home Carole's span of attention was long. The parents and the teacher were divided i n t h e i r opinions regarding Carole's character. The teacher's remarks showed that Carole's orderliness and patience were below average rather than average, as consid-ered by her parents. She also found that Carole was not at a l l ready to co-operate with the r i g h t authority. The parents remarked that she would co-operate i f good relationships had been established. The teacher noticed that Carole r e s i s t e d change when i n t e r f e r e d . The parents found that she accepted change but occasionally she reverted to the o r i g i n a l . Again, t h i s had to do with the c h i l d ' s relationship with the adults who i n t e r f e r e d . 22 Relationship Between Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s * Desirable Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I Waiting f o r Her Turn Carole scored between 13 and 15* There i s a tendency towards a r i s i n g graph i n the l a s t three months as she gradually learned to d i s c i p l i n e h e r s e l f i n school and i n the Centre. Although her impatience was apparent (as the remark of her class teacher that Carole's patience was below average), Carole often waited f o r her turn i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The following excerpts prove t h i s . October 10, 1961. She waited f o r Valery who worked next to her to f i n i s h using the colour before she dipped her brush into i t . (Anecdotal Record). December 12, 1961. She did not want to paint the background of the mural when the teacher offered her the chance, but as soon as she f i n i s h e d painting a big d o l l , she came up and t o l d the teacher that she wanted to use the big brush to paint the background. No b i g brush was free at that moment. She looked impatient, yet she stood and waited u n t i l Stuart l e f t so that she could have her turn. (Anecdotal Record). March 20, 1962. 4:15 The children stood around the tree. Each waited for his turn to put his rock i n to keep the tree 23 upright. Carole accepted the long wait without showing any sign of impatience. (Time Sample). Chart II Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion. Carole scored above 17* 5« With her good general knowledge and fluency i n speech, Carole was as eager t o con-tr i b u t e i n the Child Art Centre as i n school. The following excerpt proves her eagerness to contribute. January 30, 1962. When the student-teacher f i n i s h e d the story about the pink bear, she asked who would t e l l the group a story. Carole was the f i r s t to put up her hand. She was so c o n f i -dent of herself and so c l e a r i n speech that the children could not but admire and l i s t e n to her. (Anecdotal Record). Sl i g h t drops occur when her eagerness was over-powered by other desires. The following excerpt serves as an example of t h i s change i n behaviour. March 20, 1962. 3:51 She was standing under the branch and admired the two birds she had contributed. "Can I take them home to,show Dad and Mom?" she asked. The student teacher t o l d her to make a •best* one to take home. Carole was s a t i s f i e d .... 4:05 She started drawing the f i f t h b i r d . "I am going to , take t h i s home", she said to herself. She put i t with the two others she had made and took them home. (Time Sample). 24 Chart III S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. Carole scored between 11.5 and 18.7* Marked drops occur when, handicapped by her clumsiness, she appealed to adults or peers f o r help. The f i r s t marked drop can be explained by the following exemplary excerpt: November 21, 1961. She asked a student-teacher to help her take o f f her corduroy o v e r a l l and put on her jeans before she could get into her painting smock. (Anecdotal Record). Another excerpt shows her occasional appeal to adults or peers f o r help. March 20, 1962. 4:07 The student-teacher took the class out to gather rocks to keep the tree upright. 4:09 Carole was clumsy i n crossing the d i t c h . 'Hold my hand', she said to Betty-Ann. As soon as she was helped across she ran clumsily back to the Centre. (Time Sample). Carole usually made an attempt to s e t t l e d i f f i c u l -t i e s h e r s e l f before appealing f o r help. However, her independence f o r help, as noticed by her parents at home, did not cl o s e l y correspond with occasional appeals f o r help as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s where help was given to eliminate f r u s t r a t i o n . 25 Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Her. Carole scored above 17*6 As the teacher pointed out, she had gained a good general knowledge and i n t e l l e c t u a l and aesthetic stimulation from her family background. Her a b i l i t y to generalize and deduce also contributed to the f u l l growth of t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The following excerpts show her keen observation of the world around her. October 10, 1961. The i n s t r u c t o r asked the children to paint Dad and himself/herself burning,leaves. Carole f i r s t painted a f i r e , then she added to i t leaves represented by dots of brown and green. . (Anecdotal Record). February 27, 1962. The class was talking about long t r i p s which they had made. Carole gave a detailed description of what she saw at a cafe i n Mexico C i t y . She added: "We didn't eat there. We just wanted to see the place". (Anecdotal Record). March 20, 1962. Instead of painting separate birds l i k e other children, Carole drew a mother b i r d with a baby b i r d and bird s eating worms. (Anecdotal Record). Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. The degree of great r i s e s and f a l l s i n frequency and i n t e n s i t y varies from s i t u a t i o n to s i t u a t i o n . Being a highly imaginative c h i l d , Carole should be able to take 26 CHART I Waiting f o r Her Turn 0#t Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART III Se t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Intensity and Frequency CHART II Eager to Contribute Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART IV Showing Keen Observation 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 27 advantage of any s i t u a t i o n which develops i n the creative process. The following excerpt shows how she made use of a new s i t u a t i o n , December 5, 1962. 4:25 She headed f o r the ledge to get a b a l l , 4:26 She examined the b a l l . Then she stuck two s t i c k s threaded with beads into i t . She c a l l e d out: "A bunny r a b b i t J " as the idea flashed into her mind. (Time Sample). However, Carole was not able to control h e r s e l f p h y s i c a l l y . Her left-handedness was also a handicap to her. Towards the end of the period of observation, when the chi l d r e n painted at the easel, Carole was not quick enough to take advantage of the dripping l i q u i d paints. February 27, 1962. 4:23 She used black f o r the man's ha i r . Again i t dripped because i t was too wet. She said: " s h i sh ln as the paint ran fa s t downward. She t r i e d to check i t with the brush but i t had already dripped on to the easel and the f l o o r . (Time Sample). As the teacher had noticed, slow movement was ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of Carole's personality. Chart VI. Developing Orderly Work Habits. Carole scored between 5.5 and 14. I n s t a b i l i t y was apparent i n t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Regarding her personality her parents believed that her orderliness was average, whereas her teacher considered i t below average. In a r t a c t i v i t i e s the degree of orderliness as shown i n her work habits varied from average to below average. A great r i s e occurs when she was working on the f l o o r , while a great f a l l takes place when she was painting at the easel. The following excerpt shows her work habit at i t s worst. March 6 , 1 9 6 2 . She was painting at the easel. She made a mess of her painting as the wet paint dripped over the painting on..to the easel and f l o o r . Being t o l d to clean the easel and the f l o o r she d i d not do so properly. (Anecdotal Record).. Undesirable Behaviour Charac t e r i s t i c s Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration. Carole scored below 5 . In art a c t i v i t i e s she showed no sign of restlessness as noticed by her teacher. This was probably due to her intense i n t e r e s t i n a r t . A long span of attention, as noticed by her mother, was obvious i n her behaviour during the creative process. March 2 0 , 1 9 6 2 . 3:50 She was standing as she was colouring the b i r d she had drawn. Occasionally she sat down f o r a short while and then she automatically stood up again. A l l the time she was absorbed i n colouring with crayons. 4:00 She was s t i l l standing and colouring. She did not look up or talk to anyone. 4:05 She started drawing her f i f t h b i r d . (Time Sample). 29 A s l i g h t r i s e occurred i n February when she gave her attention to Sylvie who had recently joined the c l a s s , and when she was f r u s t r a t e d by the drip of paint while painting at the easel* Chart YIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products. The scores f a l l between 2.75 and 12. The marked r i s e s represent occasions when Carole, as a p r o l i f i c producer, dashed o f f one painting a f t e r another. Marked drops take place i n November and February when she made e f f o r t s to bring her art products to an 'average' standard as noticed i n her personality by parents and her teacher. November 7, 1961. 4:50 I t was about time to clean up. She t o l d the teacher that the t r e e trunk was not pasted properly on the paper. She asked f o r some more paste. (Time Sample). February 6, 1962. 4:25 She cut out a hat f o r her bear. 'It's too b i g ' , she remarked. She pat i e n t l y trimmed i t to the size she wanted. (Time Sample). Chart IX Chatty For four months Carole scored below 4*5. Rises are found i n December and January when Carole was f u l l of holiday excitement and desirous of adults' attention. The following excerpt i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s behaviour. December 5, 1961. 4:00 She was aware of the student-teachers standing around CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations 20 ^ t e n s i t y and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Intensity and Frequency CHART VI Developing Orderly Work Habits 2 Q Intensity and Frpqnpm^y 30 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART VIII Lack of E f f o r t ^ Intensity and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 31 her. She kept t a l k i n g h a l f to hers e l f and ha l f to the adults. "That i s n ' t too goodi OhJ Ohi The marsh-mellow broke".... 4:15 "Can t h i s bead glue on the marshmellow?" she asked the student teachers as she began to f e e l r e a l l y happy about being watched. "I don't know what to do with t h i s one". She kept on t a l k i n g . (Time Sample) This behaviour coincided with her teacher's remark regarding her personality, that she was excitable and attention seeking. Chart X Imitating Others Being a highly creative c h i l d , Carole scored very low. The continuous r i s e s occur when she could not decide what to do and followed the other children. The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. November 14, 1961. The student teacher asked the children to dig t h e i r f i ngers into the paste j a r to get the paste out. Carole hesitated f o r awhile. She watched the children carry out the i n s t r u c t i o n before she did i t herself. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour agreed with her parent's remark that she sometimes l e d , sometimes imitated others and at other times she followed. Chart XI Lack of Or i g i n a l Ideas In Discussion or i n Art Products. Carole scored very low because she never f e l t the lack of o r i g i n a l ideas i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Her parents and her teacher noticed that she had highly creative ideas f o r play and work. The following excerpt shows her creative idea. February 6, 1962. Being left-handed she had trouble i n cutting large pieces of c l o t h . She could just manage to cut lace and ribbon. She cut a piece of red lace and t i e d i t around the neck of her s t i c k puppet f o r decoration. The children could not but admire her o r i g i n a l idea and imitated her. (Anecdotal Record). Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Carole scored below 2 f o r f i v e months. She always seemed to have respect f o r the i n s t r u c t o r and the student teachers i n authority. Her class teacher complained that Carole often interrupted her and monopolized the discussion. This personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was not s i g n i f i c a n t i n her behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Carole often digressed from the topic of discussion, but stopped when the person i n authority interrupted her. The following excerpt serves as an example of t h i s behaviour. October 10, 1961. During the group discussion Carole was asked to t e l l about the sound the wind made. In. addition to her answer she refe r r e d to what her teacher said i n school. She ended her digression when the i n s t r u c t o r drew the children's atten-t i o n back to the topic of discussion. (Anecdotal Record). CHART IX Chatty CHART X Imitating Others 33 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar . -OH ART XI Lack op O r i g i n a l Ideas CHART XII Lack of Respect Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar °Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 34 Carole's behaviour was more desirable i n art a c t i v i t i e s because her i n d i v i d u a l i t y as shown i n her unique way of doing things was accepted and even appreciated i n the creative pro-cess. As her parents pointed out, she would co-operate well i f a good relationship had been established. The occasional r i s e s occur only when she acted s i l l y , such as playing with water at the fountain while the person i n authority was not watching. Summary In the study of Carole's behaviour, the researcher noticed that the most dominant feature i s the f l u c t u a t i o n i n i n t e n s i t y and frequency found i n as many as seven of Carole's behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This frequent change i n behaviour i s probably due to her emotional immaturity and i n s t a b i l i t y . In some desirable behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r i s e s occur where her i n t e l l e c t u a l quality plays an important part. The drops often represent her lack of s e l f - c o n t r o l i n movement. Carole's behaviour, as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s , seemed more desirable than her personality as noticed by her teacher. Being a highly creative c h i l d , Carole wanted to think and act, to experience and explore i n her own i n d i v i d u a l way. She found sympathetic guidance f o r her i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Consequently, she tended to be more co-operative i n work and play and i n the routines of the art class than she was i n school. Furthermore, the value placed i n c r e a t i v i t y by her parents emphasized the importance of a r t over routine subjects i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . This may explain c e r t a i n cooperative emphases i n the C h i l d Art Centre. CASE 2 35 Description: Jerry, age s i x , was a plump and infantile-appearing boy, with round eyes l i k e buttons. With l o t s of ideas, Jerry l i k e d to communicate them to others. However, his language a b i l i t y was so l i m i t e d that he was not able to express him-s e l f . Very often, he struggled f o r words. His missing teeth also gave him trouble i n pronouncing words with S sounds. On the f i r s t day i n the Child Art Centre, Jerry talked a great deal but, neither the in s t r u c t o r nor the student-teachers could understand a word. In group discussion, Jerry was very eager to contribute. He put h i s hand up every time when a question was asked. He might not understand the question at a l l but he just welcomed any chance to speak. He did not seem disappointed i f he was not chosen, yet, obviously, his face brightened up and h i s eyes danced with joy when he was i n v i t e d to t a l k . Jerry sometimes came to the Centre with his s i s t e r , Joan, who had been i n the class f o r a year. Very often, he came alone or with Stuart, a boy i n h i s class i n school. To-wards the end of the period of observation, Jerry joined the boys as soon as he entered the art room. They played about and t o l d t a l l s t o r i e s . In art a c t i v i t i e s , Jerry was so en-grossed i n his own work that he seldom showed i n t e r e s t i n other children's works. Jerry's father was a Physical Education teacher i n a Secondary School as well as a successful athlete. Frequently, he came to the Centre to take Joan and Jerry home. Jerry's parents were not a r t i s t i c , but i t was t h e i r desire to give t h e i r children a r t t r a i n i n g . The Parent's Description of Jerry's Personality. "Very d i f f i c u l t to t r y to be impartial i n estimating one's own k i d J A l l i n a l l , Jerry i s a very average l i t t l e boy," wrote Jerry's mother on the questionnaire. She said that although Jerry had been to a kindergarten, he was not quite ready f o r school. In the readiness test, his r e s u l t was very poor indeed. He had a hard time catching up with the rest of the cl a s s . His mother had to give him a written assignment every day. He was poor i n fi n e body movement. The class teacher complained to h i s mother that he could not write neatly with a p e n c i l . On the other hand, Jerry was fond of large muscular movement. Very often, he hammered n a i l s into everything i n the backyard and sang gayly at the same time. Jerry was never attached to the family.' He was not interested i n pleasing his grandmother and other adults. In t h i s way, he was very d i f f e r e n t from his elder s i s t e r , Joan or his younger s i s t e r , Janie, who wanted to be help f u l at home and be l i k e d by adults. Jerry had many friends and often wandered o f f with h i s gang. Janie was i n competition with Jerry at home. She was annoyed when her mother f i x e d her attention on Jerry as he started school. Joan, the elder s i s t e r , was emotionally and ph y s i c a l l y mature and had been sent shopping f o r years. Being 37 a dominating g i r l , Joan looked a f t e r not only her own brother and s i s t e r but also t h e i r neighbours' children. It was the desire of both parents to t r a i n t h e i r children i n such a way that they could stand on t h e i r own feet, look a f t e r themselves and survive as the f i t t e s t . The children were given boxing lessons so that they might not be b u l l i e d by other children. The Class Teacher's Description of Jerry's Personality. Just that morning, Jerry's mother telephoned the class teacher saying that Jerry was not happy i n school. When the teacher talked to Jerry, he denied that he was not happy. He admitted that he did not l i k e to walk so f a r from home to school. The teacher explained that a student teacher had taken over her class the week before. Perhaps, Jerry d i d not get as much attention. She encouraged Jerry to t r y hard. Being asked to read that afternoon, Jerry made a good attempt. He was so pleased with the teacher's praise that he smiled fo r more than ten minutes. He was glad to be asked to stay a f t e r school to help the teacher. He worked u n t i l 4 p.m. The teacher pointed out that Jerry showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n a r t . He was an average c h i l d , not at a l l out-standing. She f e l t disturbed that whatever the topic f o r class discussion might be, Jerry mentioned guns and s o l d i e r s . He stood well with other children and showed respect f o r the teachers. She considered that he had no problem at a l l and would soon get s e t t l e d down. Regarding Jerry's family background, the teacher added 38 that Jerry*s mother had to divide her attention among three c h i l d r e n . Joan, the elder s i s t e r , was very domineering. She had t r i e d hard to keep Jerry under control to prepare him f o r school. She was a f r a i d that he might bring disgrace to her. A Comparison of the Parents' and Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Jerry's Personality. Generally speaking, Jerry's parents and his class teacher agreed i n t h e i r opinions regarding Jerry's personality. As to Jerry's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , his parents pointed out that he displayed occasional emotional outbursts and dependence on a f f e c t i o n at home. I t was probably h i s pride that prevented him from showing such undesirable characteris-t i c s i n the presence of his peers. Regarding his i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , his parents believed that h i s knowledge of the world was accurate and abundant, his attitude towards material things was generous and his freedom of movement expansive, although they admitted they could be p a r t i a l i n estimating t h e i r own c h i l d . Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . Desirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart I Waiting f o r His Turn Jerry scored above 13* He revealed h i s willingness to share well and co-operate i n his behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . The following excerpts prove t h i s . 39 November 21, 1962. 4:35 Lois was using white. "Can I use white a f t e r you, L o i s ? " he asked and waited p a t i e n t l y . 4:40 As soon as Lois fi n i s h e d he gripped the white crayon and scribbled with i t . (Time Sample). December 5, 1961. He sat by Stuart. "Where's those wooden things?" he sa i d , "I need some". He looked around f o r the toothpicks while he was waiting to use the glue. (Anecdotal Record). Jerry's willingness to wait for his turn can be r e -l a t e d to h i s average degree of patience as shown at home and i n school. Chart I I Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion. Jerry scored extremely high, between IS.5 and 19*5* He seized every opportunity to speak to the class as he l i k e d the attention of his peers and h i s teacher. The following excerpt shows how his eagerness to contribute overcame h i s language d i f f i c u l t y . November 21, 1962. 4:30 In the group discussion about buildings needed fo r the community, Jerry said eagerly but f l u e n t l y , "We need sky-scrapers". "What are they f o r ? " "Well, for people who work to l i v e i n them. I am going to make a sky-scraper where people do science i n i t . " (Time Sample). 40 His self-confidence, as noticed by h i s parents and his teacher might account f o r t h i s behaviour. Chart III S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers and Adults. Jerry scored between 16 and 17.75* He was seldom seen appealing f o r help i n t h e art c l a s s . This corresponds with his personality, as his parents and his teacher noticed that he was above average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . The following excerpt shows his independence of help: November 28, 1961. After taking o f f his smock, Jerry t r i e d to put on his heavy boots. He had much d i f f i c u l t y , yet he did not turn to the student teachers f o r help. He sat on the f l o o r and kept try i n g . He had them on eventually. (Anecdotal Record). Only once was Jerry seen appealing f o r advice. March 20, 1962. 4:02 He cut one l e g of the b i r d too narrow and i t came o f f . He looked at i t f o r a while. Then he showed i t to the student teacher who gave him some paste to put i t on again. (Time Sample). He was trained to stand on h i s own feet at home. This might account f o r h i s e f f i c i e n c y i n s e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s himself. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Him i n His Art Products or Group Work. Jerry scored between 11.25 and 13«25 i n the f i r s t four 41 months. There was a tendency towards a r i s i n g graph e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t two months when he learned to examine things around him as he grew older. The following excerpts show his growing in t e r e s t i n the world around him: March 20, 1962. 3:41 The student teacher directed the group discussion as the group sat around her. The discussion was on "Spring". "What do we see besides flowers?" asked the teacher. "Birds", Jerry answered, "Many animals w i l l come out tomorrow. (The f i r s t day of Spring)." 3:50 He finished the outline of a b i r d . He said: "Sea-g u l l s are white J" So he used white on the body. (Time Sample). As h i s parents had noticed, his knowledge of the world was quite accurate. Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. Jerry scored s l i g h t l y above average. This corresponds with his average degree of a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations as noticed by his parents and his teacher. Occasionally, he proved quite able to make use of a situ a t i o n which developed i n the creative process. The following excerpt gives an example. March 6, 1962. 4:11 He used white f o r the chimney. The paint dripped down the easel. He stopped i t with his finger and changed the running l i n e into a pole. He drew another CHART I Waiting f o r His Turn CHART II Eager to Contribute 42 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART I I I Se t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s o j n t e n s i t y and Frequency 16 14-12-10" CHART IV Showing Keen Observation 2 ( I n t e n s i t v and Frftonpncy i 16 14 12 XOh / 43 pole a few inches away from the first one to form a balance. (Time Sample). Chart VI Developing Orderly Working Habits. Jerry scored around 10 for five months. His working habits at home and in school were considered fairly orderly. These were reflected in his behaviour in art activities. Very often his work habit depended on the situation of classroom arrangement. The following excerpt shows his work habit at its worst: November 14, 1961. (The class was finger-painting on the floor). He enjoyed the experience of playing with the paste. He took a lot from the jar. He knelt on the floor and soon lay flat. He kneaded the paste with both hands. Soon the blue paste was all over his smock. "It's like magicJ" he said. (Anecdotal Record). The following excerpt proves that he was developing an orderly work habit. February 13, 1962. He was modelling a puppet with asbestos. He put aside a lump he was not using. The student-teacher asked i f he needed the extra lump. He said that he might. Later, he used it for modelling the nose and ears. (Anecdotal Record). Undesirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart VII Restless and in Lack of Concentration. In the first three months, Jerry scored between 8.5 44 and 7*5. The f i r s t drop occured when he began to show i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i v i t y . The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s behaviour. January 23, 1962. 4:20 The teacher thought he was doing h i s second assignment. "No", he r e p l i e d , "I am s t i l l on my b i r d J " 4:22 He was r e a l l y concentrating on h i s work. He kept quiet f o r seven minutes. Slowly but c a r e f u l l y he smoothed the c l a y b i r d with his forefinger. (Time Sample). Once or twice his lack of concentration was apparent. March 27, 1962. As he was painting with crayons he sang and Stuart joined him. Suddenly, he pulled Stuart's sleeve. "Look, Stuart, lookJ" he exclaimed and continued p u l l i n g u n t i l he received Stuart's attention. He took h a l f an hour to f i n i s h his crayon picture. (Anecdotal Record). An average span of attention as noticed by his parents and h i s teacher was apparent i n h i s behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products. Jerry scored between 2 and 11.75* The i n t e n s i t y of t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tended to diminish toward the end of the period of observation. This was probably because he began to set a higher standard f o r himself as he grew older. The following excerpts show hi s e f f o r t to improve his a r t work: 45 January 23, 1962. 4:15 He was attempting to add a separate piece on the body of his b i r d as a wing. The student-teacher advised him to use the pull-out method. He took the added piece o f f and adopted the new technique. 4:17 He p a t i e n t l y smoothed the surface of the b i r d with his f o r e - f i n g e r . (Time Sample). February 20, 1962. Jerry was painting the puppet head. The student-teacher was taking the paper tube out of Glen's puppet. "I should have done that t o o l i " said Jerry. (Anecdotal Record). This could indicate that the rather average standard he set for himself at home and i n school did not correspond with that displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Chart IX Chatty Jerry scored between 14*75 and 4*5* There are three marked r i s e s . The f i r s t r i s e occurs i n November when he was getting f a m i l i a r with the children and student-teachers i n the art class and desirous o f t h e i r attention. The following excerpt shows this chatty behaviour. November 21, 1961. 4:43 He saw a bottle of paste on the table. "What's t h i s f o r , Lois?" he said, looking into the b o t t l e . As Lois did not answer he talked to himself continuously. 4:50 He saw the student-teacher pass him. He talked to the student-teacher. "This i s a f i r e house. This i s a window. The f i r e started with a match ...." CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Intensity and Frequency 20 Id 16 14 12 l C f 4" 2-G CHART VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Intensity and Frequency CHART VI 46 Developing Orderly-Work Habits Intensity and Frequency CHART V I I I Lack of E f f o r t ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 18 16 14T 12 10-s-6-4-Oct JMov Dec Jan Feb Mar v 0 c t Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 47 4:52 "I'm going to have more flame. This i s a fireman".... He talked to himself as he drew.. (Time Sample). The second s h i f t took place i n January and the t h i r d i n March as Jerry was growing anxious to communicate his ideas to others. The following excerpt gives an example of th i s behaviour. March 20, 1962. Jerry was very chatty to-day. He t o l d t a l l s t o r i e s about robbers, soldiers and guns. He was probably attention-seeking. (Anecdotal Record). This chatty behaviour i s probably due to h i s e x c i t a b i l -i t y and attention seeking which occurred occasionally at home and school, as noticed by his parents and his teacher. Chart X Imitating Others. Jerry scored between 4*5 and 12.25. The highest peak represents occasions when he imitated others, probably because he was anxious to be accepted by them. The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. November 7, 1962. The childr e n were painting to music. He shut his eyes and brandished h i s arms as the record was being played. When he drew, he did not follow the music, instead, he reproduced the pattern which the student-teacher drew on the board at the beginning of the lesson. (Anecdotal Record). The second marked r i s e might be also due to his anxiety f o r acceptance. The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s behaviour. 43 March 6, 1962 4:16 "Stuart, don't s p o i l your p i c t u r e , " said a student-teacher. Jerry walked over to look at Stuart's paint-ing. The student-teacher praised the lawn i n Stuart's picture while Jerry was looking on. 4:17 Jerry painted a green bottom l i n e i n h i s painting, not unlike the lawn i n Stuart's picture. (Time Sample). This behaviour of imitating others corresponded with h i s parent's remark that Jerry sometimes followed, but contradicted his class teacher's comment that he l e d others. Chart XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas i n Discussion or i n Art Product. Jerry scored below 6.5» The marked drops represent occasions when his ideas proved o r i g i n a l . For example i n the excerpt taken from the Time Sample of November 21, 1962, his idea of a sky-scraper "Where people do science i n i t " was quite o r i g i n a l and d i f f e r e n t from those contributed by other children. This can be re l a t e d to h i s parents* and his teacher's remark that his ideas for work and play are s u f f i c i e n t . Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Jerry scored below 2.25 for f i v e months. He did not treat persons i n authority with disrespect. The following excerpts prove t h i s behaviour. November 7, 1961. 4:47 The student-teacher t o l d the class to clean up. Jerry 49 looked serious. He picked up every scrap and put them i n the scrap box as he was advised. (Time Sample). November 4, 1961. The children were t o l d on the f i r s t day not to play on the equipment i n case they broke i t . When Jerry saw the ch i l d r e n play on i t , he ran back and t o l d the i n s t r u c t o r . (Anecdotal Record). The highest peak represents occasions when Jerry seemed to be in lack of respect f o r student-teachers as he became excited. The following excerpt gives an example of these occasions. March 20, 1962. The children were excited about hanging birds on a tree. The student-teacher was too busy at the tree to keep the children i n the other end of the room under contr o l . Jerry, Dougy and Stuart gripped each other's arm and played about u n t i l the student-teacher t o l d them to s i t down. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour of disrespect was probably due to his occasional e x c i t a b i l i t y as noticed by his parents and his teacher. Summary In the case of Jerry, the researcher noticed a marked development i n his personality during the s i x months of observation. Instruction i n school and guidance i n the Art Centre kindled h i s i n t e r e s t i n the world around him. Of course, his mental growth also urged him to observe d e t a i l s CHART IX Chatty cf—1 1 » • • w Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar / CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 18-16-H-12 10-8 6-CHART X 50 Imitating Others Intensity and Frequency 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XII Lack o f Respect ^.glntensitv and Frequency 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 ri I 1 1 1 1 -u Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar / 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 51 of things. Works of his peers, very often superior to his own, suggested to him p o s s i b i l i t i e s and aroused his desire to improve his work. Generally speaking, the behaviour which he displayed i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s corresponded quite c l o s e l y to the personality which his parents and his teacher noticed. In some cases, c e r t a i n personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might account f o r ce r t a i n behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shown i n art a c t i v i t i e s . His parents remarked that he made no attempt to please adults at home, yet i n school and i n the Ch i l d Art Centre, his attempt to please persons i n authority was obvious. This was probably because he f e l t the need of group recognition and so he attempted to e s t a b l i s h good relationship with adults. CASE 3 Description Richard, age eight, was a boy of medium height and slender body. Being lazy and l i s t l e s s , he seldom sat up-r i g h t . Very often, he leaned against a wall or a piece of furniture to support himself. He was a day-dreamer. In group discussion, he put up his hand mechanically. Frequently, he gave an answer already given. However, when Richard was attentive he was very e f f i c i e n t i n carrying out orders and dir e c t i o n s . Like a l l boys of his age, Richard l i k e d a good joke, but he never acted s i l l y . He seldom became excited and always remained self-composed. This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was quite unusual f o r his age. 52 Richard came from a family of three g i r l s and two boys. He was one year older than his brother, Donald. As there was a one-year-old baby i n the family, maternal help and attention among the older children was rather l i m i t e d . However, the parents seemed conscientious i n doing the best they could f o r each c h i l d . Richard's father was a p l a s t i c surgeon. Apparent-l y , a l o t of entertaining was done i n t h e i r b e a u t i f u l home. A l l the children went to a school nearby. They were always neatly dressed. Richard and Donald each had a watch and a b i c y c l e which were greatly admired by other children. Donald was a companion to Richard and shared a bedroom with him. Barbara, one year older than Richard, was i n the intermediate group i n the Child Art Centre. She was a quiet and steady worker. Richard neither l i k e d nor d i s l i k e d h i s brothers and s i s t e r s . He seldom talked about them. The Parent's Description o f Richard's Personality. Richard's mother gave a rather b r i e f description of Richard's personality. She mentioned that l i k e a l l her children, Richard showed no talent f o r a r t but he was very enthusiastic about i t . Compared with his younger brother Donald, Richard was more mature i n emotional and s o c i a l develop-ment. He was more s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and l e s s aggressive, but exactly l i k e Donald, he day-dreamed frequently. Apart from these remarks, Richard's mother did not stress much the i n d i v i d u a l difference of the two boys. She talked about them i n such a way as i f they were i d e n t i c a l twins. It was the parents* desire to do t h e i r best f o r each 53 o f t h e i r f i v e c h i l d r e n . Each was sent to a kind e r g a r t e n before s t a r t i n g school* No one i n the f a m i l y was a r t i s t i c , yet the parents decided that each should have some a r t i s t i c o pportunity. Barbara had been i n the A r t Centre f o r a year. Donald s t a r t e d at the same time as Richard. Although t h e i r mother was ex-tremely busy wi t h housework and c h i l d - c a r e , she drove the boys to the a r t c l a s s and sometimes had to make two t r i p s i f one boy had detention i n sch o o l . The c h i l d r e n were provided w i t h a b i g box of crayons at home. Their p a i n t i n g s were put along the windows of the k i t c h e n . They were t r a i n e d from e a r l y childhood to develop good work h a b i t s such as p u t t i n g t h i n g s away a f t e r using them. The Class Teacher's D e s c r i p t i o n of Richard's P e r s o n a l i t y . The c l a s s teacher found that R i c h a r d was not a t a l l b e t t e r than any of the other c h i l d r e n . She was s u r p r i s e d to dis c o v e r t h a t he scored 122 i n the I.Q. t e s t she gave to the c l a s s . Being a good speaker, Richard could give good o r a l answers, but h i s w r i t t e n work was very poor. His dreaminess o r even h i s l a z i n e s s might account f o r t h i s . The teacher remarked t h a t she had no t r o u b l e w i t h him at a l l . He was very co-operative and even h e l p f u l i n d a i l y r o u t i n e s . She had to push him o c c a s i o n a l l y so that he would get down t o work. No doubt, Richard was i n t e r e s t e d i n school. He c o n t r i b u t e d to c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n and brought t h i n g s from home f o r classroom d i s p l a y s , an Eskimo u n i t f o r example. Ri c h a r d was f r i e n d l y w i t h other c h i l d r e n . The classroom was shared by Grade I I and Grade I I I . I t was only n a t u r a l t h a t 54 Richard should prefer Grade I I I boys. Richard l i k e d to talk to the teachers when they were alone. He would t e l l them about h i s family. The teacher believed that t h i s was because he had no chance to monopolize the conversation at home. Donald, h i s younger brother, came i n sometimes to see i f Richard had f i n i s h e d his work, but the two brothers seldom played together. This was probably because Donald, being a year younger, seemed babyish to Richard. Richard was not anxious to go home a f t e r school. Sometimes, the teacher had to ask him to leave. Richard and his brother and s i s t e r s were w e l l - l i k e d by the teachers. They believed that h i s parents were doing t h e i r best. His mother telephoned one day, saying that she f e l t that Richard was not doing his best and could do better. She asked the teacher i f she hers e l f could help him at home. The teacher learned that Richard's mother was a very active woman s o c i a l l y . A Comparison of the Parents' and Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Richard's Personality. To a large extent, Richard's parents and h i s teacher agreed i n t h e i r answers to the questionnaire. His parents f e l t that Richard occasionally showed dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n which his teacher seldom found. Regarding i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Richard's parents found that his ideas f o r play or work were i n s u f f i c i e n t and his a b i l i t y to generalize and deduce was average. His teacher, however, remarked that hi s ideas were s u f f i c i e n t and a b i l i t y was above average. This i s probably because to h i s parents, Richard's i n t e l l e c t u a l development was slow when compared with h i s s i s t e r , Barbara, 5 5 who was a rather g i f t e d c h i l d . As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the teacher found that Richard contributed much to discussion and work. The parents, however, f e l t that his contribution was l i t t l e . As the teacher remarked, Richard might not have much chance to contribute to discussion or work at home because the family was large and attention was l i m i t e d . The parents and the teacher agreed i n evaluating Richard's physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except that the parents considered that his span of attention was quite short. Regarding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to formation of character, the teacher noticed that Richard was below average i n orderliness and carefulness, while the parents thought that he was average. The teacher re-marked that Richard accepted change but the parents noticed that he r e s i s t e d change. Perhaps, need fo r acceptance by h i s teacher and h i s peers urged Richard to develop a more desirable personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n school. Relationship Between Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . Desirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart I Waiting f o r his turn Richard scored between 1 3 * 5 and 1 6 . 2 5 . The high peaks represent occasions when Richard showed unusual patience i n waiting. The following excerpts show these occasions. November 2 1 , 1 9 6 1 . The student-teacher t r i e d to keep the class i n good d i s c i p l i n e . The children were allowed to go to the ledge to use watercolour wash when they had f i n i s h e d t h e i r crayon 56 drawings and put up t h e i r hands. Richard raised his hand and waited pat i e n t l y f o r h i s turn. He would rather wait i n a long queue to use turquoise than use Prussian blue. The children were t o l d to s i t up straight to wait f o r the i r turn to get t h e i r jackets. Richard sat r e a l l y s traight with his hands on the table. (Anecdotal Record). January 9, 1962. 4:09 Richard was painting with orange colour from a small disc i n the tray. Brian, who was painting on the other side of the easel and sharing the paint tray, was using orange colour too, but each of the two boys waited f o r his turn and they had no trouble at a l l . (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with the teacher's and the parents' remark that Richard was seldom aggressive but con-tr a d i c t e d the parents' comment that h i s patience was below average. Chart II Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion. Richard scored between 11 and 13• There are no marked r i s e s and f a l l s as he was not very eager to contribute but he always did h i s share. The following excerpts show t h i s be-haviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . February 20, 1962. 4:35 Richard'and Joan were assigned the task of decorating the stage. Richard mechanically cut squares from the tape, coloured them and pasted them on the stage. He did not t a l k to Joan. 57 4:40 He sat down and continued to cut shapes and designs and pasted them on the stage. (Time Sample). March 13, 1962. The class was making a cut-out mural. 4:07 The student-teacher asked which scene each of them would l i k e to paint. Richard s a i d , "I want to draw the cat i n the green house 1" E r i c , s i t t i n g next to him said, "I said i t f i r s t J " Richard did not argue. The teacher allowed both of them to do i t . 4:10 He f i n i s h e d a green house and cut i t out. 4:17 He drew plants and trees. 4:20 He drew more plants and trees and cut them out. (Time Sample). This behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s contradicted h i s parents* remark that he contributed l i t t l e and h i s teacher's remark that he contributed much. Perhaps i t i s only natural that a lazy and dreamy boy l i k e Richard would not be too en-t h u s i a s t i c about ex t r a c u r r i c u l a r art a c t i v i t i e s . Chart I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. Richard scored above 13. There are no marked r i s e s or f a l l s . The following excerpt shows Richard's behaviour charac-t e r i s t i c i n s e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . January 9, 1962. 4:21 He was painting at the easel. He was using brown l i q u i d paint. He did not take the trouble to wipe his brush dry as he usually did. Three drips were running 58 down. He was not troubled. He stopped painting and watched the drips running. The i n s t r u c t o r advised the children to make use of the drips and change them to something. "I can't have things on a f l a s h l i g h t J " murmured Richard. "Make them into ribbons", suggested a student-teacher. He did not accept the suggestions. " I ' l l get r i d of t h i s f i r s t " , he said, as he painted red over one drip so that i t merged into the body of the f l a s h l i g h t . (Time Sample). This behaviour did not quite correspond with his parents' and his teacher's remark that h i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was average and i t co-incided with h i s parents' comment that he sometimes r e s i s t e d change. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Him Richard scored between 11 and 15.5* There i s a tendency toward a r i s i n g graph i n the l a s t three months as Richard began to show int e r e s t i n d e t a i l s of things. The following excerpts indicate t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . January 9, 1962. The class was asked to paint a favourite toy. 4:14 He painted a locomotive i n orange. He stopped and stood back to look at i t . 4:15 He washed the brush clean. Picking up some brown paint he drew a driver. With yellow he painted a yellow spot f o r the head. (Time Sample). March 20, 1962. He concentrated on making flowers out of cellophane and CHART I Waiting f o r His Turn ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency I8h 16 14 12" 10" 8 6 O'llct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART III S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s oQlntensitv and Frequency ial-16 14' 12 I-10 8 6 4 2 U CHART II 59 Eager to Contribute Intensity and Frequence Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART IV Showing Keen Observation ^ p l n t e n s i t y and Frpmipnry 18-16" 14 12 i o -6" n' 1 * L. 1 • : u Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 6Q construction paper and pasted them on cardboard. The picture showed the minute d e t a i l s of flowers such as p i s t i l s and stamens. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded with h i s teacher's remark that his knowledge of the world was s u f f i c i e n t . Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. The scores f a l l between 12 and 14. Richard's a b i l i t y to make use of new situations was average. Occasionally he was quite capable. The following excerpt gives an example of h i s a b i l i t y . October 31, 1961. The student-teacher started a story. Each c h i l d was i n v i t e d i n turn to contribute one idea u n t i l the story was completed. Richard was quick i n catching up what had been said and immediately continued the story. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be re l a t e d with h i s parents' and his teacher's remark that h i s a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was average. Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits Richard scored above 12. There i s a r i s i n g tendency towards the end of the period of observation. The highest peak represents occasions when his work habits were more orderly than h i s peers'. The following excerpt gives an example of these occasions. 61 January 9, 1962. For the f i r s t time, the class painted at the easel. 4:07 The class was t o l d to take the paper o f f the easel, f o l d i t up to form a rug and rest the brush on i t * Richard c a r e f u l l y took the painting o f f and folded i t up i n halves neatly. With care, he placed i t alongside the easel and l a i d the brush p a r a l l e l with the edge of the paper. 4:17 He saw paint on the f l o o r . Quietly, he went o f f to get a sponge and scrubbed i t o f f . (Time Sample). Another excerpt shows Richard developing an orderly work habit without being t o l d . March 13, 1962. 4:20 He drew more plants and trees and cut them out. He put the paper he was not using underneath h i s chair as the table was too small for four persons. (Time Sample). These orderly work habits, which he developed i n art a c t i v i t i e s , contradict h i s teacher's comment that he was below average i n orderliness and his parents' remark that his a b i l i t y to plan was below average. I t i s probably because i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s , orderly work habits are always i n s i s t e d upon and proper guidance i s given to help the children to develop them. Undesirable Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Richard scored between 4 and 15«5» There are marked 62 r i s e s and f a l l s . Rises represent occasions when Richard day-dreamed. The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions. February 20, 1962. The older children sat around the student-teacher. They were discussing scenery f o r t h e i r puppet show. 4:15 Joan was t e l l i n g the story. Richard grew impatient. He was kneeling. His smock dropped o f f his shoulders. He looked at Joan and then the student-teacher un-e a s i l y . 4:27 He was not l i s t e n i n g . He looked across to the group of children at the other end of the room. He looked up at the student-teacher dreamily. He was not attentive to the discussion. 4:29 The group discussion went on but Richard day-dreamed away. (Time Sample). But sometimes Richard concentrated on h i s work when he was interested. The following excerpt shows hi s concen-t r a t i o n . January 23, 1962. He l i k e d the elephant with a b a l l which he made with clay. He modelled i t with great patience and intense con-centration. Donald and Jerry on both sides of him talked a great deal but he paid no attention to them. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded to h i s frequent day-dreaming at home and i n school. His occasional concentration was probably due to his growing i n t e r e s t i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Richard showed determined w i l l i n the creative process as he always f i n i s h e d his work. This contradicted his parents' and h i s teacher's remark that he seldom f i n i s h e d his work at home and i n school. Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products. Richard scored below 7« A tendency towards a f a l l i n g graph i s apparent i n the l a s t three months as he learned through experimenting and seeing h i s peers' products. The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions on which he made an e f f o r t to improve a r t products. February 20, 1962. 4:35 Richard and Joan were assigned the task of decorating the stage. 4:45 Richard painted over the designs which he had pasted on the stage and used bright colours on them. He was not s a t i s f i e d with the d u l l colours. (Time Sample). Another excerpt shows h i s e f f o r t to bring his art product to a higher standard. March 20, 1962. He concentrated on making flowers out of cellophane and construction paper and pasted them on a cardboard.... He spent one whole hour on one single picture. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour contradicted his parents* and his teacher's remark that he set a low standard f o r himself. I t i s probably the desire to possess an art product admired by CHART V, Able to Take Advantage of Situations Intensity and Frequency CHART VI 64 Developing Orderly Work Habits Intensity and Frequency n - i i i 1 1 » 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Intensity and Frequency CHART VIII Lack of E f f o r t Intensity and Frequency 65 his peers and praised by his teacher that urged Richard to improve his art products. Chart IX Chatty Richard scored between 6 and 12. The two marked r i s e s , one at 12 and the other at 10.5 represent occasions when Richard, who was usually rather quiet, t a l k e d a great deal. The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. November 14, 1961. The children were finger-painting on the f l o o r , and they grew excited through playing with the paste. 4:33 When Richard gave the student-teacher h i s painting he said: "It's a c a r J " He turned to the children and to l d them about his car. 4:35 When the teacher was busy putting the paintings away, he put his hands together and flapped his fingers. "Quack! Quack 1" he said, "a duckJ" Soon the children around him did the same. 4:41 He drew a c i r c l e with s t i c k s on the top and a t the bottom. "Look at my globeJ " he asked the children to look at his work. (Time Sample). This behaviour might be due to attention-seeking, a l -though his parents and his teacher remarked that Richard seldom sought attention. Chart X Imitating Others Richard scored below 5 for f i v e months. The occasional r i s e to 9 indicates that although Richard seldom imitated others 66 and o f t e n r e s i s t e d change suggested by them, he would f o l l o w a suggestion b l i n d l y when he could not t h i n k o f a b e t t e r i d e a . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows t h i s behaviour. January 9, 1962. 4:21 The i n s t r u c t o r advised the c h i l d r e n to make use o f the d r i p s and change them to something. "I can't have th i n g s on a f l a s h l i g h t J " murmured Richard. "Make them i n t o r i b b o n s " , suggested a student-teacher. He d i d not accept the suggestion.... 4:25 He changed the two other d r i p s to ribbons. (Time Sample). Chart XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n or i n A r t Product. Richard scored below 4.5« There are no marked r i s e s and f a l l s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpts show Richard's o r i g i n a l i t y as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . October 24, 1961. R i c h a r d mixed p l e n t y o f water w i t h the c o l q u r s . He kept h i s p a i n t i n g very wet and purposely l e t the colours run i n t o one another by h o l d i n g the p a i n t i n g up and t u r n i n g i t around. (Anecdotal Record). November 7, 1961. The c l a s s was t o l d to make a p i c t u r e of a strange animal. 4:23 Richard cut out the head of a man. 4:25 He cut the body of an animal and pasted i t to the head 67 of the man. He added i n d e t a i l s such as horns and whiskers. (Time Sample). This behaviour agreed with h i s teacher's remark that his ideas f o r play or work was s u f f i c i e n t and contradicts his parents' that his ideas were i n s u f f i c i e n t . Chart i l l Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Richard scored below 3« The absence of s h i f t s shows that Richard always seemed to have respect f o r the in s t r u c t o r and the student-teachers. The following excerpt gives an example. November 28, 1961. Richard came to the class with Mark. They had been running. As soon as they saw the student-teacher at the door, they walked qu i e t l y . (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour cannot be rela t e d to h i s parents' and h i s teacher's remark that h i s readiness to co-operate with the ri g h t authority was only average. Summary In studying the case of Richard, the researcher has found that there are no r e a l l y great s h i f t s showing change i n behaviour i n the charts with the exception of Chart XII. This shows that being quite emotionally mature and stable, Richard seldom made sudden change i n his behaviour during the period of observation. In some charts dealing with desirable be-haviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r example Chart II and Chart VI, there i s a tendency towards a r i s i n g graph i n the l a s t three CHART IX Chatty-Intensity and Frequency CHART X 68 Imitating Others Intensity and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas CHART XII Lack of Respect Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 69 months. I t i s probably due to the proficiency he gained through d a i l y experience and mental growth. As to undesirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Richard seemed to make greater e f f o r t and show more concentration i n art a c t i v i t i e s than i n school or at home. His laziness and dreaminess diminished as he strove to reach an established goal i n art. CASE 4 Description Donald, age seven, was a small pale boy with t i n y features. His i n d i v i d u a l i t y was characterized by pleasant smiles and a l i s t l e s s a t t i t u d e . In the f i r s t few lessons i n the Art Centre, he looked timid and almost sad. Being asked to t a l k to the c l a s s , he murmured a few words and turned to the student-teacher f o r approval. However, he soon adapted himself to the new s i t u a t i o n and began to enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s with other children. In the l a s t three months, he revealed i n art a c t i v i t i e s the same personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as noticed by his teacher i n school. Stated simply, he acted s i l l y to get the attention of h i s peers, and t r i e d hard to win the a f f e c t i o n of the student-teachers. Richard, described i n Case 3, was Donald's elder brother. Donald seldom showed in t e r e s t f o r his brother except once or twice. He t o l d the student-teacher that Richard was his brother. He never talked about his s i s t e r s , not even Barbara who was i n the intermediate group i n the C h i l d Art Centre. 70 Like Richard, Donald was neatly dressed. He had a watch almost too big for h i s lean wrist. Often he talked about his b i c y c l e which he rode to school i f the weather permitted. Donald's family background has been described i n the case of Richard. The Parent's Description of Donald's Personality* Donald's mother found that being emotionally and physi-c a l l y immature, Donald depended very much on maternal a f f e c t i o n . He had occasional emotional outburst and showed frequent aggression. He was i n competition with h i s one-year-old baby s i s t e r . Apart from the above information, the mother did not point up other i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Donald. The Glass Teacher's Description of Donald's Personality. The class teacher noticed that Donald was very slow. He never bothered to speed up and f i n i s h h i s work at the same time as other children. He would rather stay a f t e r school of his own accord to do h i s work at his own speed. In f a c t , he was seldom anxious to go home. Often he stayed and talked to the teacher u n t i l 1+ p.m. He was a day-dreamer. He was never keen on taking action. Being chatty, he told everything he knew about h i s family. When the teacher's back was turned, he would say or do something funny to amuse other children. The children took inte r e s t i n his s i l l y action and l i k e d him. However, he did not seem to have any special f r i e n d . When the teacher asked who his best f r i e n d was, he hesitated, and then named David. The teacher believed that he said David because he 71 wanted the teacher to think that he was going with the top boy i n the c l a s s . Donald was always very co-operative i n c l a s s -room routines. He often wanted to please the teacher. He made too much e f f o r t and wasted too much time i n currying favour., Donald was a nervous speaker. He murmured his answers to t h e teacher instead of t e l l i n g them to the cla s s . He was very tense sometimes. Despite a l l his small f a u l t s , Donald was a likeable l i t t l e fellow. A Comparison of the Parents' and the Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Donald's Personality. To a great extent, the parents* answers to the questions on Donald's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s contradicted the teacher's. The parents believed that Donald's e x c i t a b i l i t y was seldom but the teacher remarked that i t was frequent. On the other hand, the parents found that Donald was frequently aggressive yet the teacher considered that he was seldom so i n school. The parents remarked that h i s o r a l tension and manual tension were seldom but h i s dependence for a f f e c t i o n , attention-seeking and daydreams were frequent. The teacher found that these f i v e personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were occasional. As to i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents con-sidered that Donald's ideas f o r play or work were i n s u f f i c i e n t and his a b i l i t y to plan was below average, while the teacher found that his ideas were s u f f i c i e n t and his a b i l i t y to plan was average. Regarding s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents 72 found that his self-confidence was above average but the teacher considered that i t was average. The parents believed that his relationship with adults tended to be attention-seek-ing. The teacher remarked that the r e l a t i o n s h i p was f r i e n d l y . The teacher and the parents agreed i n t h e i r answers to questions on physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except that the parents noticed that his span of attention was short. In evaluating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to formation o f character, the parents remarked that Donald was average i n orderliness and c a r e f u l -ness but the teacher considered that he was below average. As to reaction to interference, the parents believed that Donald r e s i s t e d change while the teacher thought he occasionally reverted to the o r i g i n a l . Donald's undesirable personality-c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at home, such as h i s frequent aggression and attention-seeking were probably due to his competition with h i s baby s i s t e r . Relationship Between Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . Desirable Behaviour Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I Waiting f o r His Turn Donald scored between 10.5 and 13.25. The absence of s h i f t s shows that Donald was consistent i n t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . He always put up his hand and waited for h i s turn. The following excerpt indicates t h i s behaviour. January 30, 1962. 4:40 The teacher was approaching. She looked at the work of the children and gave out new art materials. Donald 73 sat s t i l l and waited for h i s turn. (Time Sample). Only when he found that he did not get the teacher's attention would he approach the teacher. The following ex-cerpt i s an example. January 30, 1962. 4:24 He raised his hand to show the teacher that he f i n i s h e d but he was hot noticed. He went o f f and showed his work to her. (Time Sample). This behaviour contradicted his parents' and his teacher's remark that h i s patience was below average and his parents' comment that he was frequently aggressive. Chart II Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion The scores f a l l between 5*75 to 11.5* The low scores i n the f i r s t two months represent occasions when Donald was too timid to speak to the c l a s s . The high peaks i n January and March show occasions when he contributed eagerly with the purpose of obtaining his peer's attention and the teacher's a f f e c t i o n . The following excerpts show two of these occasions. March 13, 1962. The class was making a collage mural. Donald made a l l the trees. His e f f o r t was noticed and praised by the student-teacher. "They are easy to make" he said as his eyes danced with joy. (Anecdotal Record). March 20, 1962. The student-teacher asked who would volunteer to make the nest f o r the tree. Donald waved hi s hand. He was delighted at being chosen to perform the task. (Anecdotal Record). 74 The l a t e r stage of development of t h i s behaviour charac-t e r i s t i c coincided with his parents' remark that his s e l f -confidence was above average but contradicted t h e i r comment that h i s contribution to work or discussion was l i t t l e . Chart I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. Donald scored above 10. There are s l i g h t r i s e s a f t e r the f i r s t two months during which Donald might have learned to handle art media and himself through t r i a l and error. The following excerpts show occasions on which he s e t t l e d d i f f i -c u l t i e s himself. January 23, 1962. His sleeves were coming o f f and dropping on to the clay. As he saw no one around and he could not f o l d them up with his clay-stained hands, he t r i e d to p u l l h i s sleeves up by b i t i n g the material between his teeth and dragging i t up. (Anecdotal Record). March 6, 1962. He was painting at the easel. He asked for blue to paint the sea. It was not available. He used purple which he got from Brian's tray of colours i n i t s stead. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be related to his parents' and h i s teacher's comment that he was average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . 75 Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Him Donald scored above 8. There i s a tendency to a r i s i n g graph towards the end of the period of observation. The highest peak represents occasions when Donald was able^to r e l a t e accurately what he had heard and observed. The follow-ing excerpt indicates one of these occasions. February 27, 1962. 3:50 The class was brought by the teacher to look at a mosaic wall outside the C h i l d Art Centre. They discussed what i t was made of and how i t was made. Answering the teacher's question, Donald said that i t was the cement that held the t i l e s together. He t o l d the group the great number of colours that made up that mosaic. (Time Sample). This behaviour can be related to his parents' remark that h i s knowledge of the world was accurate and his parents' and his teacher's comment that his a b i l i t y to generalize and deduce was average. Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. Donald scored between 8.75 and 11.25. There are s l i g h t r i s e s i n the l a s t three months. These peaks represent occasions when Donald was quite able to use new situations which developed i n the art a c t i v i t i e s . The following excerpt gives an example. January 20, 1962. 4:30 He was losing i n t e r e s t i n what he was doing. CHART I Waiti n g f o r His Turn I n t e n s i t y and Frequency i CHART I I 76 Eager to C o n t r i b u t e Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s 2 Q l n t e n s i t y and Frequency 1S-16-14-12-i c -s -6-4-2-Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART IV Showing Keen Ob s e r v a t i o n ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 16-IV 12-i c -6 4" 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar / O u c t Nov Dec Jan Feb M r 77 4:31 He struggled to f i n i s h p r i n t i n g three rows of designs on the top and three at the bottom of the f o l d e r . He found a piece of potato with a sharp point. Across the empty space between the designs he printed "shopping l i s t " . Thus, he f i n i s h e d the f o l d e r within a short time, (Time Sample). This behaviour coincided with h i s parents' and his teacher's remark that his a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was average. Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits. Donald scored below 7*25* Apparently, he made no attempt to develop an orderly work habit. A marked f a l l i n January represents occasions when he grew excited and acted s i l l y , and accordingly, his work habit was going from bad to worse. The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. January 30, 1962. 4:32 He went o f f to the fountain to wash the red paint which covered his hands and wrists. The sleeves of his smock became dripping wet but he was not aware of that. He continued to play at the fountain f o r more than two minutes. (Time Sample), This behaviour contradicted his parents' remark that his orderliness was average but corresponded with h i s teacher's comment that i t was below average. Undesirable Behaviour Charac t e r i s t i c s Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration. Donald scored between 6 and 1 5 * There are gradual f a l l s from October to February. A marked r i s e occurs i n March. Though Donald was r e s t l e s s , his inte r e s t i n art a c t i v i t i e s urged him to concentrate. The following excerpt gives an example. January 2 3 , 1 9 6 2 . Because of the snow storm the children, e s p e c i a l l y Donald, grew excited and became talkative to-day. When he was modelling, he acted s i l l y to draw attention, but soon he was so interested i n the b i r d he made that he stopped his mischief and worked with concentration for ten minutes. (Anecdotal Record). The high peak at the end of the period of observation represents occasions when Donald l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the art a c t i v i t i e s which he could not cope with and reverted to his o r i g i n a l behaviour of leaving his work unfinished. The follow-ing excerpt indicates one of these occasions. March 2 7 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 1 0 Donald had d i f f i c u l t y i n cutting a piece of thick material with a small p a i r of s c i s s o r s , yet he kept t r y i n g with patience.... 4 : 1 4 Stuart fi n i s h e d his f i r s t picture and was asked to show i t to the group. Donald stopped cutting and looked at i t . 4 : 2 0 He was chatty. He sa i d to the c h i l d r e n "You know, we 79 got only f i v e seconds to get out of the cl a s s " . The children joined him and they talked about t h e i r school. 4 : 2 4 He was s t i l l struggling, with the thick material. He , saw a student-teacher near. He put up his hand and said, "I don't know how to cut i t J " but he refused to t r y another material. 4 : 2 5 He turned around and talked to a student-teacher. 4 : 3 5 He cut a piece of white material l i s t l e s s l y and ,purposelessly. Other children had f i n i s h e d t h e i r pictures but he had no intention of f i n i s h i n g h i s . (Time Sample). This behaviour, to a certa i n extent, contradicted the parents 1 and the teacher's remarks that Donald seldom f i n i s h e d his work as he often f i n i s h e d h i s art products to take home. It corresponded with his teacher's comment that his span of attention was average and disagreed with h i s parents' remark that h i s span of attention was short. Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products Donald scored below 1 1 . 7 5 » In art a c t i v i t i e s his e f f o r t was apparent. The following excerpt gives an example. November 2 7 , 1 9 6 1 . 4 : 3 6 In his attempt to put two s t i c k s through the body f o r the legs, the figure f e l l apart. He put the parts together again. 4 : 3 7 He twisted a s i l v e r s t i c k on the head of the snowman to make a halo. The snowman f e l l apart again. The head 30 r o l l e d on the f l o o r . He bent and picked i t up. 4:39 He put a piece of balsa wood through the body to hold the arms in place. He f i x e d the head to the body. (Time Sample). Another excerpt shows one of the occasions on which he improved his product. February 6, 1962. He used his finger to rub the white paint into the eye sockets and the mouth of the puppet's head. He said that he could not do the job properly i f he used a brush. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour contradicted his parents' and his teacher's remark that the standards he set f o r himself were low. Chart IX Chatty Donald scored between 9 and 14.75* There i s a sudden r i s e a f t e r the t h i r d month as Donald, having adjusted himself to situations i n the C h i l d Art Centre, reverted to his o r i g i n a l chatty behaviour. The following excerpts indicate this behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . January 23, 1962. Because of the snow storm the children, e s p e c i a l l y Donald grew excited and became ta l k a t i v e to-day. When he was modelling, he acted s i l l y to draw attention. (Anecdotal Record). CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Intensity and Frequency CHART VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Intensity and Frequency CHART VI 81 j Developing Orderly Work Habits Intensity and Frequency CHART VIII Lack of E f f o r t ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 18 16-14 12 10 A A w Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 82 February 6, 1962. Donald always t r i e d to say something funny. He enjoyed i t himself and wanted other children to enjoy his humour. As he was making an asbestos puppet, he s a i d , "This i s Dr. Pow. He i s a p l a s t i c surgeon and a dentist. He has no bones. He has no teeth...." (Anecdotal Record). March 2 0 , 1962. He t o l d anyone who came close to him the story about the canary on the porch of t h e i r home. A student-teacher commented on the fatness of the b i r d he drew. He r e p l i e d : "Yes, i t i s a f a t b i r d . I t needs a d i e t " . (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be related to h i s parents' remark that he frequently sought attention, e s p e c i a l l y of adults. This was probably because growing up i n a family of f i v e children, Donald could not have enough parental attention and help. Chart X Imitating Others Donald scored below 5.5. He showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the work of other c h i l d r e n , l e t alone imitating them. The following excerpt shows t h i s behaviour. February 2 7 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 0 5 Mary-Jo l e f t wide spaces between the cut-out squares i n her mosaic picture. Donald was sharing a table with Mary-Jo but he did not look at her work at a l l . He spaced the squares i n the same manner as the mosaic wall 8 3 which the student-teacher showed them at the beginning of the l e s s o n . (Time Sample). This behaviour d i d not correspond w i t h h i s parents' and h i s teacher's remark that he f o l l o w e d o t h e r s . Chart XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n or i n A r t Products Donald scored below 1 0 . This i n d i c a t e s that although he was not p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i g i n a l i n h i s c r e a t i v e process, he d i d explore and experience. The marked f a l l s represent occasions when Donald showed o r i g i n a l i d e a s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpts i n d i c a t e two of these occasions. December 5 , 1 9 6 1 . Donald put beads on to long p i n s . He had a hard time because the p i n s could not go through the t i n y holes of some beads. He stuck these pins on t o a b a l l of candy forming a r i n g a l l around. The f i n i s h e d Christmas d e c o r a t i o n looked l i k e Saturn. (Anecdotal Record). February 2 0 , 1 9 6 2 . Donald was p a i n t i n g a stage scene a t the e a s e l . He used h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l strokes to pai n t a l a r g e area. " I got a se c r e t about p a i n t i n g " , he s a i d , " I d i d t h i s area i n d i f f e r e n t ways. When the p a i n t i s dry the l i n e s do not show. I t ' s f l a t l i k e a m i r r o r I " (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s parents' remark t h a t h i s ideas f o r p l a y or work were i n s u f f i c i e n t but corresponded w i t h h i s teacher's comment that they were s u f f i c i e n t . 84 Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Donald scored below 8.25 f o r f i v e months. There i s a sharp r i s e and two s l i g h t r i s e s . These peaks occur when Donald appeared to be i n lack of respect f o r persons i n authority as he grew excited and acted s i l l y . The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s behaviour. November 14, 1961. A f t e r finger-painting f o r half-an-hour, the children grew excited and acted s i l l y . Donald ran about i n the art room with both hands covered with coloured paste. When he saw the i n s t r u c t o r , he showed him h i s hands and waved them f o o l i s h l y . The i n s t r u c t o r stopped him, but Donald kept on •acting s i l l y . (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be r e l a t e d to his teacher's remarks that his e x c i t a b i l i t y was frequent and that h i s readiness to co-operate with the r i g h t authority was only average. Summary In studying the case of Donald, the researcher has noticed two dominant features i n his behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . One of these features i s his change of behaviour after the t h i r d month when Donald had adapted himself to the s i t u a t i o n i n the C h i l d Art Centre. For example, he grew more eager to contribute to group work and discussion (Chart II) and more capable of taking advantage of new situations i n the l a s t three months. (Chart V). This feature corresponded with h i s parents' and his teacher's remark that his ada p t a b i l i t y was average. CHART IX Chatty Intensity and Frequency CHART X 6*5 Imitating Others Intensity and Frequenc; Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XI Lack of Or i g i n a l Ideas Intensity and Frequency CHART XII Lack of Respect Intensity and Frequency 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar , 86 Another dominant feature i s the reversion of his be-haviour to the o r i g i n a l . For example, he again became res t l e s s and l e f t his work unfinished after working with determined w i l l for four months. (Chart VII); and he grew chatty and excitable every now and then a f t e r working with concentration fo r several lessons (Chart IX). This feature was due to attention seeking as noticed by his parents. CHAPTER VI REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL CASES IN THE INTERMEDIATE GROUP AGES FROM EIGHT TO NINE CASE 5 Description Betty, age nine, was a t a l l , slender g i r l with glasses. One could almost predict that Betty would grow up to be a smart and sharp woman. She was accurate and clear i n speech. During any art a c t i v i t y , she talked a great deal to Vicky or to the group. She would r e t a l i a t e when a peer c r i t i c i z e d her work and would make sharp remarks when a peer did or said something wrong. Her best f r i e n d was Vicky, a bright pupil i n school and a good drawer i n the Child Art Centre. Betty played and talked with Nick too. Nick was popular among the children i n her class i n school. Betty was not fond of Hazel who was slow and clumsy. Her relationship with the in s t r u c t o r and student-teachers was f r i e n d l y . She very seldom treated them with disrespect. However, being a strong-minded g i r l , Betty did not always accept change. She preferred to work her own way out. Betty's father was an ins t r u c t o r of mathematics i n The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The family l i v e d i n a bunga-low on the university campus. The bungalow was small but furnished i n good taste. 88 The family came from the United States two years ago. The parents wanted t h e i r children to remain Americans from head to toe. They worried that Betty would adopt English spellings and expressions i n school. The Parent's Description of Betty's Personality The mother stated that as Betty was the oldest of t h e i r three children, they expected much from her. She was a g i f t e d c h i l d and so she had no d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the standard set f o r her. Compared with Betty, her two brothers were "babies". The boys, age seven and f i v e , admired her and took i n t e r e s t i n her accomplishments. The parents desired to do the best they could f o r Betty. She took v i o l i n lessons downtown. Last year, she had lessons i n creative dance, but t h i s year she took limbering dance instead. The mother was very anxious to f i n d out how she improved i n the Child Art Centre. The family l i v e d i n Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. when Betty was two. She was sent to a nursery school because the mother worked. No one i n the family was able to paint, although the mother was very interested i n music. Betty seldom did any painting at home. Occasionally, she took in t e r e s t i n drawing horses. She had her own room, where she could work with the least disturbance. She was trained to clean up her own room but sometimes she had to be reminded to f i n i s h her task. Betty had a wide c i r c l e of friends among her classmates and neighbours. Vicky was always her best f r i e n d . 89 The Class Teacher's Description of Betty's Personality The teacher said that Betty was one of the brightest pupils i n the class. She was very poetic and a r t i s t i c . She was very mature i n her attitude. She expected much of h e r s e l f and was never s a t i s f i e d with anything but the very best. How-ever, she had learned to be modest. She never c r i t i c i z e d other children's work. She received i n t e l l e c t u a l and aesthetic stimulation at home. A high standard was set for her. She had a good knowledge of things outside school. She was popular among her classmates, but she was car e f u l i n making friends. She l i k e d children with the same int e r e s t s as hers and went with those with the same standard of work. For t h i s reason, she chose Vicky as her best f r i e n d and showed no in t e r e s t i n Hazel. The p r i n c i p a l believed that Betty was"a good g i r l , a l -though her mother caused him and his s t a f f a l o t of trouble. The mother quarreled with the class teacher l a s t year. More than once, she just walked into the classroom, without the teacher's permission. Whenever she made an appointment to see the p r i n c i p a l she purposely changed the time i n order to have her way. She never admitted that she was wrong and always tended to run people down. A Comparison of the Parents' and the Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Betty's Personality The teacher believed that Betty was emotionally mature and seldom showed any of the emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the questionnaire. The parents found that she occasionally had 90 emotional o u t b u r s t s , aggression, dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n , a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g and day-dreams and f r e q u e n t l y showed e x c i t a b i l i t y . The teacher found that B e t t y was above average i n a l l the i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , yet the parents remarked t h a t she was only average i n a b i l i t y to see r e l a t i o n s h i p to p l a n , to l e a r n from experience, to g e n e r a l i z e and deduce and t o understand and c a r r y out d i r e c t i o n . The parents and the teacher agreed i n most of the answers to the questions on s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s except t h a t the parents f e l t t h a t Betty was average i n s e l f - c o n t r o l , w i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate i n r o u t i n e s and w i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate i n play or work. The parents and the teacher agreed i n t h e i r opinions regarding p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to formation of c h a r a c t e r , except that the parents found that Betty was o n l y average i n o r d e r l i n e s s and c a r e f u l n e s s . The parents d i f f e r e d from the teacher i n opinions probably because they expected too much from B e t t y and tended to impose a d u l t s ' standards on her. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s . D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I Waiting f o r Her Turn B e t t y scored between 1 4 and 1 5 » 5 » There are no marked r i s e s and f a l l s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpts show Be t t y waited f o r her t u r n to o b t a i n a r t m a t e r i a l s . 91 November 16, 1961. 4:05 The class was allowed to choose crayons, paints or chalk. Betty talked s o f t l y with Vicky and agreed to have chalk. 4:08 She went o f f to get chalk with Vicky following her. 4:09 Other children crowded around the table to get t h e i r materials. Betty and Vicky waited f o r t h e i r turn. (Time Sample). November 30, 1961. The children were t o l d to think of a picture and were asked one by one to t e l l the theme. 4:05 "What i s your picture?" asked the i n s t r u c t o r . "A horse i A horse J" Betty said. She had been waiting fo r her turn to say her favourite theme. (Time Sample). This behaviour can be related to her parents' and her teacher's remarks that her patience was above average and the teacher's comment that she was seldom aggressive. Chart I I Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion. The scores f e l l between 13*5 and 16.25. There are s l i g h t r i s e s i n i n t e n s i t y and frequency. The following excerpt gives an example of the occasions that accounted f o r these r i s e s . November 2, 1961. In the group discussion, Betty gave a long and detailed d i s c r i p t i o n about the function o f the canoes i n Eskimo Land. She did more than her share i n painting the mural. (Anecdotal Record). 92 This behaviour corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that she contributed much at home and i n school. Chart III S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. Betty scored above 11.75* There i s a tendency towards r i s i n g . The following excerpts show occasions on which she did not appeal f o r help although she was i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . February 1, 1962. The class were asked to scratch a picture on a scratch board. Knives, n a i l s and c l i p s were used for the purpose. 4:00 Betty scratched a few l i n e s on the board. She had d i f f i c u l t y i n carving fluent l i n e s with a knife. "This i s kind of hardJ" she complained. 4:10 She was s t i l l exploring the technique of handling the knife without much success. She pushed the knife away from herself. Thus, many unwanted side l i n e s were made. However, she did not appeal to the i n -structor for help, she only said, "VickyJ We have to take t h i s home to f i n i s h ! " (Time Sample). March 22, 1962. 4:20 She fi n i s h e d making the structure of the animal but she could not make i t stand. She found that the front legs were longer than the hind legs. She was not troubled. She took a pa i r of scissors and cut the legs to the same length. (Time Sample). 93 This behaviour corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was above average. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Her. For f i v e months, Betty scored above 17» The following excerpt gives an example of her keen observation. November 30, 1961. The class was doing creative drama. The i n s t r u c t o r was d i r e c t i n g them. 4:06 The class was asked to act walking on the snow. Betty t i e d her cardigan around her neck and trod with great care. 4:15 She pretended that she found a mouse. "I got himJ" she said to herself. Quickly she wrapped i t with her cardigan. Then she pretended that i t struggled free and she had to look f o r i t again. (Time Sample). The following excerpts show that her observation was supported by a good general knowledge. January 18, 1962. In group discussion, the class was asked to describe a f i s h . Betty gave a long and accurate description of the difference between a whale and a f i s h including t h e i r charac-t e r i s t i c s i n appearance and the way of breathing. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be related to her parents' and her teacher's remark that her knowledge of the world was accurate and p l e n t i f u l . CHART I Waiti n g f o r Her Turn I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART I I 94 Eager to C o n t r i b u t e I n t e n s i t y and Frequency IMOV Dec oan reb Mar CHART I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s 20 18 16 14 12 '10 8 6 CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n I n t e n s i t y and F r o q n o n p y Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar \ ohe Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 95 Chart V. Able to Take Advantage of S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the Cr e a t i v e Process. For f o u r months, Betty scored between 8.25 and 9«25« There i s a marked drop i n February and a marked r i s e i n March. Generally speaking, B e t t y d i d experience and explore i n the c r e a t i v e process, yet she showed no t a l e n t f o r using new s i t u a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt e x p l a i n s t h i s behaviour. October 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 . 4:4-0 She was i n t e r e s t e d i n spots of water dropped by accident on her p a s t e l p a i n t i n g . She touched them and examined them. 4:41 She sucked her f o r e f i n g e r , t h i n k i n g and s t i l l l o o k i n g at the spots. 4 : 5 0 She s p r i n k l e d some water on the p a i n t i n g and painted over the water spots w i t h p a s t e l s . 4 : 5 2 She c a r r i e d on experimenting and asked Vicky to t r y the same. (Time Sample). There were occasions on which she was not able to take advantage of s i t u a t i o n s t h a t developed. The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows t h i s behaviour. February 1 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 1 0 She was s t i l l e x p l o r i n g the technique of handling the k n i f e without much success. She pushed the k n i f e away from h e r s e l f . Thus, many unwanted s i d e l i n e s were made.... " V i c k y J We have to take t h i s home to f i n i s h I " (She could make use o f the unwanted l i n e s but she d i d not t h i n k o f t h a t ) . (Time Sample). 9 6 Of course there were occasions when she was able to use new s i t u a t i o n s . The following excerpt shows an example. March 2 9 , 1 9 6 2 . Betty could not make her horse stand although she had • t r i e d i n the previous lesson. She made i t s i t up and thus personified the animal. (Anecdotal Record). On the whole, this behaviour did not correspond with her parents' and her teacher's remark that her a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was above average. This was pro-bably because s k i l l was necessary i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Unless Betty had c u l t i v a t e d the s k i l l of handling t o o l s , she could not e a s i l y take advantage of new situations developed i n the creative process. Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits. Betty socred above 1 2 . The absence of r i s e s and f a l l s indicates that her work habits were regular. The following excerpt gives an example of her orderly work habits. November 9 , 1 9 6 1 . A f t e r f i n i s h i n g t h e i r paintings, Betty and Vicky t r i e d very hard to scrub the stains of paint o f f the table with soap and sponge. They found someone had l e f t a crayon i n the water j a r . "What's the idea of leaving a crayon i n the water I " exclaimed Betty. The teacher t o l d her to empty the water and take out the crayon. She did this w i l l i n g l y . (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded with her teacher's remark that her orderliness was above average. Undesirable Behaviour Charac t e r i s t i c s 97 Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration. Betty scored 9*5 i n f i v e months. Her concentration was obvious i n group discussions and the instructor's demonstra-t i o n . The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s behaviour. February 1, 1962. The class sat around the i n s t r u c t o r . 3:50 Betty watched a t t e n t i v e l y the i n s t r u c t o r demonstrating on a plaster board. The i n s t r u c t o r showed them prints of l i n o - c u t and suggested to them the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of carving a picture on a dark background. Betty looked at the examples with admiration. 3:55 Sucking her f o r e f i n g e r , she l i s t e n e d with concentra-t i o n to the i n s t r u c t o r . (Time Sample). However, there were occasions on which Betty showed restlessness. The following excerpt was taken from the same time sample as the one above. 4:13 The. student-teacher suggested to her two ways of handling the knife. She t r i e d them but soon she preferred her o r i g i n a l way of pushing the knife away from her. 4:14 Dougy talked about a b i g needle his mother had. Bored by scratching on p l a s t e r board, the children l i s t e n e d to him. Betty asked, "Is i t a darning needle?" Dougy went on with his t a l l story. Betty l i s t e n e d and worked half-mindedly. Soon she l e f t to see Heather's work. 4:20 The i n s t r u c t o r said to her, "Come on Betty, you must f i n i s h i t to-dayJ" Betty returned to her place. (Time Sample). 9* Occasions l i k e the one above accounted f o r the highest peak. This behaviour contradicted her parents' and her teacher's remark that her span of attention was long. Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products. Betty scored below 7*25 i n the f i r s t four months. There, i s only one high peak which occurs i n February when Betty chatted not only with Vicky but anyone who shared her table. The following excerpt shows an example of t h i s behaviour. February 8, 1962. In cardboard p r i n t i n g , Betty cut out her favourite horse. She wasted much time i n arguing with the older g i r l s and chatting with Vicky and Dougy. She was l a t e i n f i n i s h i n g the picture. A l l the other children had taken pri n t s of t h e i r , but she was s t i l l pasting the layers together. When the i n s t r u c t o r asked the class to hurry, she made no e f f o r t to improve her picture. (Anecdotal Record). However, there were occasions on which Betty improved her art work. The following excerpt shows an example. March 29, 1962. 4:36 She took the horse-shoes o f f and painted the hoofs of the horse purple. "We could get a l i t t l e b i t blackJ" she said. Then she painted black over purple. 4:47 She was s t i l l working on the horse-shoes. "It's d i f f i -c u l t to get the four horse-shoes of the same si z e " , she complained, but she kept on t r y i n g . (Time Sample). Only on occasions l i k e t h i s did her behaviour correspond CHART V Able to Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Mar CHART VII R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of C o n c e n t r a t i o n 2Q I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART VI 99 Developing O r d e r l y Work Habi t s 2Q I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART VIII Lack o f E f f o r t 20 Ilrtfinflitiy and Frequency IB 16 14 12 10 S 6 2Y L \ n j i i — i i i — i u Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 100 with her parents' and her teacher's remark that the standard set for herself was high. Chart IX Chatty Betty scored above 1 0 . As her self-confidence helped her i n her adjustment, she soon f e l t free to chat with childr e n other than Vicky. The following excerpts show t h i s behaviour. October 1 2 , 1 9 6 1 . Betty never stopped talking when she was at work. (Anecdotal Record). March 8 , 1 9 6 2 . She was sharing a table with Nick and talking a l l the time about school and home. She s a i d to Nick, "I am a t y p i c a l American from head to toe. Daddy i s a f r a i d that I would be-come Canadian and s p e l l 'color' with a 'u'." (Anecdotal Record). This chatty behaviour was probably due to aggression and e x c i t a b i l i t y as noticed by her parents. Chart X Imitating Others. Except i n December and January, Betty scored below 7 . 2 5 . Being strong-minded, Betty would not imitate those children who imposed t h e i r ideas on her. The following excerpt shows t h i s behaviour. March 2 2 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 2 5 The animal structure she made could not stand and the pasted paper on i t would not stay. Brian advised her to put paste on both sides of the paper as he did. She 101 did not accept the suggestion but kept t r y i n g her own o r i g i n a l way. (Time Sample). There are occasions on which Betty imitated Vicky or at l e a s t was influenced by her. The following excerpts show two of these occasions. December 7, 1961. Both Betty and Vicky started painting the masks with o u t l i n e s . The two pieces of work were a l i k e . (Anecdotal Record). January 4, 1962. Betty sat with Vicky. Her p o r t r a i t of an old man was quite s i m i l a r to Vicky's. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour of following others contradicted her parents' and her teacher's remark on her leadership. I t was probably due to her desire f o r group recognition which was t y p i c a l of her age. Chart XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas i n Discussion or i n Art Products. Betty scored between 4 and 10. According to the i n s t r u c t o r , her a b i l i t y to create d i d not correspond with her i n t e l l i g e n c e . Her art work was not at a l l outstanding, but she l i k e d what she did. However, there were occasions on which she showed o r i g i n a l i t y i n her art products. The follow-ing excerpt indicates one of these occasions. February 22, 1962. Betty 'pin-pricked' a picture of the waterfront. She pin-pricked a b i r d from the back of the screen. "You are not 102 supposed to work from the back", said Vicky. "I know", she said, "these feathers are supposed to s t i c k out." She was so confident of hers e l f that she was not a f r a i d to be o r i g i n a l . (Anecdotal Record). l e t quite often, she was lacking i n o r i g i n a l ideas. The following excerpt shows t h i s . February 1, 1962. The design of the head of a horse on cement was not at a l l outstanding, but Betty l i k e d what she did. In plaster carving, she scratched three birds i n one row — a rather ordinary theme f o r a picture. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour cannot be related to her parents' and teacher's remark that her ideas f o r play or work were creative. This lack of o r i g i n a l ideas i n a r t product might be pa r t l y due to the f a c t that f o r most of the time she stuck to one single theme — her favourite animal, the horse. Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Except for the s h i f t i n November, Betty scored below 5.25. Although she was fond of chatting, she would stop and l i s t e n when the i n s t r u c t o r or a student-teacher spoke. The following excerpt indicates her respect f o r this authority and her emotional maturity. November 30, 1961. 4:10 The in s t r u c t o r t o l d the children about getting out of h i s bed to investigate a strange noise. He added that he thought i t was a ghost. A l l the children roared with laughter except Betty. She l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y . A 103 f a i n t smile spread over her face to show that she was amused. (Time Sample). Occasionally, Betty would have her own way which seemed lacking i n respect f o r persons i n authority (as Betty was a strong-minded g i r l ) . The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. November 16, 1961. 3:40 Although the teacher t o l d the class to be seated, Betty was standing and buttoning up Vicky's painting smock. When they were fi n i s h e d , they walked quietly to the seats at the corner. (Anecdotal Record). Generally speaking, t h i s behaviour corresponded with Betty's teacher's and her parents' remark that she was above average i n her readiness to co-operate with the r i g h t authority. Summary In the study of the case of Betty, the researcher has found that there seems to be no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as noticed by her teacher and her parents, and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s . For example, her parents and her teacher f e l t that her ideas f o r play or work were creative yet there were occasions on which her lack of o r i g i n a l ideas i n art products was apparent. A further research into Betty's attitude towards art a c t i v i t i e s and a r t products can be made to inte r p r e t the CHART I X . Chatty CHART X 1 0 4 I m i t a t i n g Others Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART X I Lack o f O r i g i n a l I d e a s v ^ J n t e n s i t v and Frequency 16V 1 6 1 4 1 2 1 0 a o 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART X I I Lack o f Respect Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 105 absence of s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between her personality and her behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . One of the reasons seems to be that Betty's parents, who expected much from Betty, made her pa r t i c i p a t e i n so many ext r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i -t i e s that she found i t hard to cope with them a l l . Loss of in t e r e s t might account for some of her undesirable behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . CASE 6 Description Helen, age eight, was a healthy-looking g i r l with a happy expression on her face. She was the youngest i n the intermediate group. When she f i r s t came to the Child Art Centre, she joined Betty and "Vicky because they were i n her class i n school. Betty and Vicky were very chatty. They never stopped t a l k i n g , although they were busy working at the same time. Helen l i s t e n e d to them but she very seldom entered the conversation. She l i k e d adult's attention. She showed the in s t r u c t o r and the student-teacher i n charge every stage of her work. When she found that Betty and Vicky did not accept her, she t r i e d hard to make friends with the older g i r l s . However, she was not popular i n the art cl a s s . In order to gain group recognition, she was too eager to con-t r i b u t e . Very often, she ca r r i e d out her own ideas against the wish of the other children. Undoubtedly, Helen was interested i n art work and art a c t i v i t i e s . Every now and then she asked permission to take 106 her f o l i o home. She l i k e d to try a l l forms of art such as modelling, l i n o - c u t t i n g , painting, etc. She was happy about what she had made and was confident of her dexterity. Her ideas were not s u f f i c i e n t nor r i c h , yet she was not a f r a i d to be o r i g i n a l . Helen was a conscientious worker. She was always more than w i l l i n g to stay behind to help clean up. I f she found a s t a i n staying on a table she would t r y a l l means to scrub i t o f f . Helen's father was a contract dealer. The family l i v e d i n a b e a u t i f u l home and had four university boys as t h e i r boarders. Helen had two brothers, age ten and eleven, and a s i s t e r , age s i x . The Parent's Description of Helen's Personality. Helen's mother came to the Child Art Centre to be i n t e r -viewed. She apologized f o r not keeping her appointment and not answering the note concerning the interview because she was busy and forgot. She added that she seldom forgot her appoint-ments. As to Helen's personality, she remarked: "Helen i s a happy outgoing c h i l d , who thrives on a f f e c t i o n , but otherwise i s a most s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c h i l d . " She said that Helen never painted pictures at home but she d i d a l o t of crayon work on paper and chalk work on a big blackboard they had i n the kitchen. Helen had a desk i n her own room where she usually worked. She had not yet c u l t i v a t e d the habit of putting things away a f t e r using them. 107 Being an enthusiastic c h i l d , Helen participated i n everything and loved what she d i d . She was a Brownie and also would be taking dancing lessons next year. There were many children of her age i n the neighbourhood. Some were children of family f r i e n d s . Helen v i s i t e d her friends often but she had no spe c i a l friends. The mother believed that Helen had no problem i n making friends i n school. The mother added that Helen never gave her any problem i n her up-bringing. She had not attended kindergarten. When she was small, her two brothers were good companions to her. They were a l i v e l y bunch, although as they grew older the boys preferred the boy's games and seldom accepted Helen. Helen's s i s t e r was advanced fo r her age because she learned a great deal from Helen and her brothers. Helen was a good f r i e n d to her s i s t e r and l i k e d to mother her. The mother concluded that she was not p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n art but loved anything that was b e a u t i f u l . The family seldom went to art exhibitions and made no point of going," but they were interested i n Helen's a r t works, espec-i a l l y the works i n the f o l i o which she took home. The Glass Teacher's Description of Helen's Personality. According to the class teacher, Helen was a slow learner and worker. She always had problems i n mathematics. Her art work at school was not as good as some of the brighter c h i l d r e n , but she was interested i n i t . Her brother, who was i n the teacher's class before and who was quite slow, was good i n art too. 108 Helen was anxious to please adults although she was rather shy and preferred to be i n the background. She chatted with the teacher aft e r school. I t seemed that she wanted to say. something f o r the sake of t a l k i n g to the teacher. She was very co-operative i n daily routines. She was a "sweet and pleasant c h i l d " that every teacher l i k e d . The p r i n c i p a l said that her I.Q. was low, but she was quiet and well-behaved. The teacher believed that Helen was quite popular among the children. She was taken into games. She had steady friends and a secure s o c i a l l i f e . Helen received l i t t l e a ttention at home. The standard set f o r her was quite inconsistent. Her mother apologized to the class teacher f o r putting Helen, who was as d u l l as her brother, i n her c l a s s . The class teacher said that the mother might not have meant what she said, but she seemed troubled. A Comparison of the Parents' and the Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Helen's Personality. Generally speaking, Helen's parents and her class teacher agreed i n t h e i r answers to the questions on emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, the parents pointed out that Helen frequently depended on a f f e c t i o n while the teacher considered that her dependence on a f f e c t i o n and attention-seeking were occasional. The teacher remarked that Helen's i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s were average. The parents found that her a b i l i t y to plan and her a b i l i t y to understand and carry out directions were average. As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the teacher again considered that Helen was average. The parents believed that 109 she was above average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , willingness to co-operate and leadership. This disagreement was probably due to the f a c t that Helen's mother compared Helen with her older brother who was a slow learner, while the teacher compared her with Betty and Vicky who were the brightest i n her c l a s s . The parents and the teacher agreed i n t h e i r opinions about Helen's physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to formation of character, the teacher considered that Helen was above average i n orderliness and carefulness although the parents remarked that she was only average. Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . Desirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart I Waiting f o r Her Turn. Helen scored between 14»5 and 16.5* There are no marked r i s e s and f a l l s . This indicates that Helen constantly waited patiently f o r her turn to obtain art materials, use sinks, ask and answer questions. The following excerpts give examples of this behaviour. November 9, 1 9 6 1 . A l l the children l e f t the table to wash t h e i r hands and get t h e i r coats. Helen waited f o r her turn. Meanwhile, she cleaned the table with a sponge. (Anecdotal Record). February 8, 1 9 6 2 . 4:25 The i n s t r u c t o r was busy. Helen waited f o r almost f i v e minutes to show him her f i n a l product, a cardboard 110 s t e n c i l . He t o l d her that she could make p r i n t s . . . . 4:45 Again, she waited to speak to the in s t r u c t o r , asking i f she could have a second p r i n t made and take her f o l i o home. (Time Sample). This behaviour agreed with her parents' and teacher's remark that her patience was above average. Chart I I Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion. Helen scored between 14 and 15.75* The following excerpt shows her eagerness to contribute, e s p e c i a l l y to the group work of cleaning up. November 23, 1961. Helen was very helpful to-day. She put away the chairs used by her group as w e l l as those used by another group. (Anecdotal Record). Helen was equally eager t o contribute to the group work of giving out art materials and painting. The following excerpt i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s behaviour. January 18, 1962. 4:17 When the teacher asked i f one of the group would go to get water Helen went o f f immediately to get i t . She was anxious to please the teacher. 4:18 The group started painting.... 4:28 Helen kept painting doodles of mauve on the f i s h . Even when Susan s a i d annoyingly, "Nothingi Don't touch anything J " she did not l i s t e n nor stop what she was doing. (Time Sample). I l l In the case of Helen, t h i s behaviour may be related to attention-seeking as noticed by her class teacher. When i t was c a r r i e d to the extreme, as shown i n the l a s t excerpt, i t was no longer a desirable behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Chart III S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. The scores f a l l between 8 and 10 .25. Helen appealed to the i n s t r u c t o r or the student-teacher i n charge when she came to the end of each stage of her work, not because she was unable to s e t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s herself, but because she demanded adults* attention and praise. The following excerpt shows an example of t his behaviour. December 7, 1962. 4:32 She f i n i s h e d colouring the totem pole... She l e f t her seat to show i t to the i n s t r u c t o r . She was advised to cut the pole out. 4:35 She was i n the middle of cutting. Suddenly she gave up what she was doing and began to make the wings f o r the totem pole. 4:39 She l e f t her place to show the wings to the i n s t r u c t o r . She was advised to cut the pole out just before pasting the wings on. (Time Sample) Of course, there were a few occasions when she was not able to solve a problem and appealed f o r help. The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions. January 18, 1962. 4:22 She poured colours into the water. Apparently, she 112 had no knowledge of mixing colours. "We can't make green", she said, as she showed the teacher the green-i s h mixture. She was told to empty the contents and not to have too much water. Again she brought back a plate f u l l of water. 4:24 She used the green colour already mixed by the other g i r l s . (Time Sample). This behaviour contradicted her parents' remark that her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was above average. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Her. Helen scored between 9 and 11. She was never a keen observer probably because she was quite average i n seeing r e l a t i o n s h i p and learning from experience, as her parents and teacher noticed. The following excerpt shows the l i m i t of her observation. January IB, 1962. 4:00 The student-teacher asked, "What has a f i s h got that we don't have?" Helen raised her hand high. In reply, she s a i d that i t was a t a i l . (Time Sample). In giving simple information l i k e t h i s , Helen was always quick. This behaviour can be related to her parents' and her teacher's remark that her knowledge was small although c l e a r . Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. Helen scored quite low. In the f i r s t three and the l a s t 20 181 16 14 12 10-8-6" 4" CHART I Waiting for Her Turn Intensity and Frequency 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART III Settling Difficulties ^Intensity and Frequency i 14-20 18-16-14 12 1C-CHART II 113 Eager to Contribute Intensity and F r p q n e n r J I I I 1 ! 1 u Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART IV Showing Keen Observation •Intensity and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 114 two months, the scores f a l l between 7 and 8.25» A marked r i s e i n January represents occasions on which she made attempts to use new s i t u a t i o n s . The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. January 18, 1962. 4:24 Susan painted an eye on the f i s h which was assigned to Helen's group. "It doesn't look l i k e an eye", Helen c r i t i c i z e d . " I t doesn't matter. This side could be the top. Another eye could be painted here", r e p l i e d Helen. 4:25 Obviously, Helen d i d not l i k e the eye at the bottom. She painted l i n e s over i t t r y i n g to change i t to a design. (Time Sample). This rather average a b i l i t y to take advantage of s i t u a -tions i n the creative process corresponded with the parents' and the teacher's remark that Helen's a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was average. Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits Helen s cored above 11. There are no marked r i s e s and f a l l s . Except that she occasionally l e f t her smock about, Helen was quite orderly i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Her art works were always neat. The following excerpts show her orderliness. October 26, 1961. 4:42 Her hands were stained with black pastel she was using. She c a r e f u l l y picked the picture up with her thumbs and forefingers at the top corners and gave i t to the 115 teacher. Immediately, she went o f f to wash her hands. (Time Sample). December 7 , 1 9 6 1 . 4 : 5 1 She put her sc i s s o r s back i n the box. She picked up scraps l e f t by h e r s e l f and the other g i r l s on the table. She put her smock away although she forgot to f o l d i t up. She stacked up the chairs. (Time Sample). March 1 5 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 2 9 She saw her hands stained with ink. She went o f f to clean them i n the fountain before she worked on her picture again. (Time Sample). This behaviour can be r e l a t e d to her teacher's remark that her orderliness and carefulness were above average. Undersirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration In the f i r s t three months, Helen scored below 4 . A s h i f t occurs i n January. It i s followed by gradual drops. The following excerpt shows Helen's power of concentration during a r t a c t i v i t i e s . October 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 . 4 : 5 4 The student-teacher showed the children pictures and t o l d them.stories about what people did i n olden days on Halloween night. Helen brought her chair c l o s e to the teacher. Her f a c i a l expressions showed that she concentrated on the a c t i v i t y . (Time Sample). The high peak represents occasions on which Helen 116 diverted her attention to the older g i r l s whom she wanted to please. The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s be-haviour. January 18, 1962. 4:05 Helen sat by the door when the group discussion began. Three older g i r l s came i n . Helen waved at Susan to s i t near her. When the student-teacher was asking questions, she talked to Maureen about things outside the window. (Time Sample). Apart from occasions l i k e the above, t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that her span of attention was long. Chart V I I I Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products. Helen scored between 6 and 9»25» She set a rather low standard f o r herself as she always t r i e d to f i n i s h before the others. The following excerpt shows this behaviour. February 22, 1962. Helen f i n i s h e d 'pin-pricking' a vase of flowers long before the other children. The work showed no d e t a i l s . She started making a collage with torn leaves. This again she f i n i s h e d casually. Eventually, she asked the i n s t r u c t o r to allow her to t r y l i n o - p r i n t i n g . (Anecdotal Record) There were some occasions on which Helen improved her work. The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s behaviour. March 15, 1962. 4:23 She was p r i n t i n g the pattern on another corner of the CHART V Able to Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART VII R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART VI 117 Developing O r d e r l y Work Ha b i t s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20 l S -16-14-12-1C-i-6-0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 1 1 8 paper. The ink she used was too wet. She smeared the pattern. "OhI I've ruined i t " , she said. She picked up the paper and threw i t into the garbage can. 4 : 2 0 She started the pattern a l l over again. (Time Sample). On the whole, Helen made comparatively l i t t l e e f f o r t to improve her art work. Her behaviour can be related to her parents' and her teacher's remark that the standard she set f o r herself was only average. Chart IX Chatty Helen scored 'below 4 . As the ins t r u c t o r remarked Helen was always quiet. Her shyness, as noticed by her class teacher, might account f o r her quietness. The following excerpts show her behaviour. November 2 , 1 9 6 1 She was working on a mural with Nick, Dougy and Brian on her l e f t and Vicky and Betty on her r i g h t . She talked very l i t t l e while the others chatted a l l the time. (Anecdotal Record). • January 1 1 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 2 0 Betty and Vicky were chatty as usual. Helen remained s i l e n t . "Who's the loud noise down here?" asked the student-teacher. Helen pointed at Betty. (Time Sample) This behaviour corresponded with her teacher's remark that Helen preferred to remain i n the background. 119 Chart X Imitating Others For f i v e months, Helen scored below 6.25. As she always hurried her work and prided herself on f i n i s h i n g early, she seldom imitated others. There were some occasions on which she adopted other children's technique. The following excerpt gives an example. March 15, 1962. 4:42 The i n s t r u c t o r praised Marilyn f o r her o r i g i n a l idea of beating on the paper a fern covered with ink. Some i n t e r e s t i n g texture was produced i n t h i s manner. Helen at once t r i e d the same technique on her picture. 4:45 She went o f f to show her picture to the i n s t r u c t o r . (Time Sample). Helen's desire to lead, as noticed by her parents, might account f o r her r e f u s a l to imitate others. Chart XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas i n Discussion or i n Art Products. Helen scored below 6 f o r four months. The highest peak represents some rare occasions on which Helen's ideas proved ordinary. The following excerpt gives an example. February 3 , 1962. 4:15 Helen worked f a s t i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Soon she cut out a b i g t u l i p i n the t r a d i t i o n a l shape and pasted i t i n the centre of the paper. She cut out two h a l f t u l i p s and put them along the edges. The composition was poor and ordinary. (Time Sample). 1 2 0 However, there were many occasions on which she was not a f r a i d to be o r i g i n a l because there are no r i g h t or wrong answers i n a r t . The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. March 1 5 , 1 9 6 2 . The class was p r i n t i n g patterns with leaves and ferns. 4 : 2 0 Helen printed on one corner of the paper a clover pattern formed by p r i n t i n g a round l e a f repeatedly. She printed the stem of a fern f o r the stem of the clover. (Time Sample). This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be related to her parent's remark that her ideas f o r play or work were creative. I t did not quite correspond with her teacher's remark that they were only s u f f i c i e n t . Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority Helen scored below 4 * 2 5 . With much anxiety to seek adult's a f f e c t i o n , she was always co-operative and even h e l p f u l . The following excerpt shows her great respect f o r persons i n authority. December 7 , 1 9 6 1 . 4 : 5 2 The i n s t r u c t o r was t a l k i n g to the student-teacher i n charge. Helen waited u n t i l they f i n i s h e d t h e i r con-versation before she approached the i n s t r u c t o r . She apologized f o r not bringing her f o l i o back. (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's comment that she was above average i n readiness to co-operate with the r i g h t authority. CHART IX Chatty I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART X 121 I m i t a t i n g Others Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART XII Lack o f Respect Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 122 Summary In studying the case of Helen, the researcher noticed that the two most dominant personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were attention-seeking and dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n . These two personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s determined some of her behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n art a c t i v i t i e s as shown i n Chart I I , Chart I I I , (Page 113), Chart VII, Chart VIII, (Page 117), Chart X and Chart XII, (Page 121). By comparing i n d i v i d u a l cases, the researcher found that i n the behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c regarding lack of o r i g i n a l ideas, Helen scored a t o t a l of 36.75 i n s i x months while Betty scored 43* 5» Stated simply, a c h i l d , whose ideas fo r work and play i n school were considered just s u f f i c i e n t , might not be more i n lack of o r i g i n a l ideas i n art than a c h i l d whose ideas were considered creative. Case 7 Description B i l l , age nine-and-a-half, was a w e l l - b u i l t boy with handsome features. On the f i r s t day, B i l l came to the C h i l d Art Centre l a t e and alone. He said that he did not have his fee with him. His mother was working and would be able to pay a week l a t e r . In the f i r s t month, B i l l f l i t t e r e d about aimlessly most of the time. He talked aloud a great deal to seek the attention of his peers and he showed no respect f o r persons i n authority. Towards the end of the second month, his i n t e r e s t i n art a c t i v i t i e s was apparent. He wanted to 1 2 3 t r y every art media, and thus he had no time to f o o l about. Moreover, his art products, often praised by the instr u c t o r and student-teachers, helped to put his ego on firmer ground so that he found that show-offishness and b u l l y i n g were unnecessary. B i l l ' s parents were separated. B i l l and his eight-year-old brother l i v e d with t h e i r mother who was a s o c i a l worker i n the east end of Vancouver, B.C. She worked every day u n t i l h alf-past-six. B i l l was quite neatly dressed. He had a new jacket and a new pa i r of boots. Obviously, h i s mother t r i e d to do the best she could f o r him. She said that she f e l t g rateful that B i l l could come to the C h i l d Art Centre, where he could be engaged i n worthwhile a c t i v i t i e s instead of playing with other childre n . The Parent's Description of B i l l ' s Personality. B i l l ' s mother said that B i l l always loved a r t . He and his brother painted at home sometimes i n the l i v i n g room or down the basement. B i l l ' s brother was i n hos p i t a l f o r a year and so he was behind i n his studies. The boys were on t h e i r own most of the time. When they were small they used to work together, but now the younger brother seemed babyish to B i l l . B i l l had to keep an eye on him. The boys were trained at home to put things away afte r using them. They helped with the housework. B i l l made i t his responsibi-l i t y to make the lunch f o r the family. B i l l had many friends i n school and i n the neighbourhood. He took part i n the school play and joined the Junior Boy 1 2 4 Scouts. Both B i l l and his brother were interested i n music, but the younger brother was more musical. B i l l l i k e d c l a s s i c a l music, although he had had no t r a i n i n g so f a r . Accordingly, he was very interested i n the art lesson i n which the children at the Child Art Centre painted to music. He showed his work at home. The mother was interested i n the Christmas cards B i l l made f o r family f r i e n d s . She said that he copied some from printed Christmas cards, but she preferred the designs he created himself. B i l l started i n a private school when he was f i v e and went straight into Grade I. The family was i n V i c t o r i a , B.C. for a time. The father was i l l i n h o s p i t a l . Then they moved to North Vancouver, B.C. This was the fourth school B i l l went to. The mother explained that B i l l was always found to be an average student i n a l l class p a r t i c i p a t i o n because he was s i x months younger than his age group i n school. The Class Teacher's Description of B i l l ' s Personality The class teacher said that B i l l seemed to be a nervous c h i l d . He would cry i f he was given the opportunity, but the c l a s s teacher always stopped him i n time as a l l teachers knew t h i s type of boy. He seemed very immature.. He was a slow learner and a slow worker. A teacher had to pound the knowledge into his head before he could learn. He was always daydreaming. Since l a s t September h i s behaviour had been improving. He was c a l l e d to the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e only once th i s year, the reason being that he had been found kicking the 125 other children's clothes i n the playground instead of a foot-b a l l . He had a mind of his own. I f he had trouble he would not t e l l h i s mother, the class teacher, or the p r i n c i p a l . Psychologically, he b u i l t a fence around himself. The class teacher said that he wanted to help B i l l but he just could not get close to him. B i l l was not l i k e d by the other children because he seemed babyish when compared with boys of his age. The cl a s s teacher understood that B i l l was from a broken home where parental attention was l i m i t e d and the standard set f o r the children was inconsistent. The p r i n c i p a l s a i d that they had d i f f i c u l t y i n handling B i l l i n school. Last year, B i l l and another boy attempted carnal knowledge of a g i r l with the desire to f i n d out sexual difference. B i l l was the older of the two and was the r i n g -leader. Just that morning he had found B i l l kicking t i n plates up and down i n the basement where there was breakable equipment. He strapped him. I t was the f i r s t time he had strapped a c h i l d t h i s year. The p r i n c i p a l added that i t was probably B i l l ' s family background that accounted f o r his misbehaviour. As to B i l l ' s a b i l i t y , he could not say that the boy was creative. He was curious, over-curious perhaps. His I.Q. and work were only average. A Comparison of the Parent's and the Teacher's Answers to the Questionnaires on B i l l ' s Personality. B i l l ' s parent and h i s teacher quite disagreed i n t h e i r 126 answers to the questions on personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The teacher pointed out that B i l l frequently showed emotional outburst, e x c i t a b i l i t y , fear and attention-seeking. The mother found that he seldom did and that only occasionally sought attention. The teacher remarked that his i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s were below average while the mother considered that they were average and his a b i l i t y to see relat i o n s h i p was even above average. As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the mother again con-sidered that B i l l was average i n most of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and pointed out that he l e d at home. The teacher found that he was below average i n adaptability to change, s e l f - s u f f i c -iency, self-confidence and s e l f - c o n t r o l and that he imitated others. Regarding B i l l ' s physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and charac-t e r i s t i c s r elated to formation of character, the mother again found that B i l l was average, but the teacher remarked that he was below average, although he said that only occasionally B i l l l e f t his work unfinished and reverted to the o r i g i n a l a f t e r accepting change. The mother stressed that B i l l was h e l p f u l , obedient and responsible at home. One cannot help defending one's own c h i l d , e specially when the c h i l d i s considered a problem c h i l d i n school. Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Behaviour  Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . Desirable Behaviour Characteristics 127 Chart I Waiting For His Turn B i l l scored below 11. The f i r s t peak occurs when he showed that he made e f f o r t to d i s c i p l i n e himself. .The follow-ing excerpt indicates one of the occasions on which he pati e n t l y waited f o r h i s turn. December 7, 1961. After he made the wings fo r h i s totem pole he asked i f he could use the stapler to put the wings on. He waited p a t i e n t l y f o r the stapler as Helen was using i t and Dougy came a f t e r Helen. When he fi n i s h e d his totem pole, he waited to be d i s -missed from the c l a s s . (Anecdotal Record) However, B i l l often did not wait f o r h i s turn to obtain art materials. The following excerpt gives an example. March 8, 1962. The class was shown how to make torn-paper pictures. 4:02 When the children were allowed to choose t h e i r a r t materials B i l l seized a magazine and returned to his place. (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with his teacher's remark that his patience was below average and his mother's remark that he was occasionally aggressive. Chart I I Eager to Contribute to Group Work and Group Discussion. B i l l scored below 11.5» He daydreamed i n group d i s -cussion and fooled about i n group work. The following excerpt shows him at his best. 128 November 2, 1961. He seemed interested i n the group discussion about Eskimos, although a l l the time he was chewing gum. The i n s t r u c t o r asked: "How can the Eskimos survive i n the cold?" B i l l answered: "They are used to i t . " Soon he l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the discussion and looked around him. He made no more contribution. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded with his parent's and his teacher's remark that his contribution to discussion and work was small. Chart I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. B i l l scored between 11 and 13.75* He usually attempted to s e t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s himself. The following excerpt shows one of h i s attempts. December 7, 1961. He drew the totem pole close to one side of the paper. Marilyn t o l d him that that was not what the teacher wanted. B i l l looked doubtful. However, he remained s i l e n t and kept on drawing. His forefinger was bandaged. He had d i f f i c u l t y i n holding the crayon with h i s thumb and middle fin g e r . (Anecdotal Record). There were occasions on which he appealed f o r help. The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions. March 22, 1962. The class was making the structures of paper sculpture animals. 1 2 9 3 : 5 7 B i l l bent the ends of the r o l l of paper and t i e d the ends together to form the body. He had d i f f i c u l t y i n tying the s t r i n g tight because he had to hold the ends i n place too. He held the bent r o l l between his chin and the table and used both hands to t i e the s t r i n g . However, he s t i l l could not t i e i t t i g h t . He had to ask the student-teacher to put her finger on the s t r i n g and he t i e d i t himself. (Time Sample). This behaviour contradicted h i s teacher's comment that his s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was below average. It can be re l a t e d to his parent's remark that h i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was average. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Him. B i l l scored above 1 1 . Because of his c u r i o s i t y , B i l l made keen observation of things he saw i n everyday l i f e . The following excerpts show his keen observation. November 3 0 , 1 9 6 1 . B i l l was good i n creative drama. He acted well how to make a f i r e , how to look for a needle and how to sew a button. He went into d e t a i l s such as chopping more branches to add to the f i r e and winding the thread under a button to keep i t f a s t . His r e a l i s t i c imagination was' strong. (Anecdotal Record). March 2 9 , 1 9 6 2 . He c a r e f u l l y painted the features on to the monkey's head. He used a very fine brush f o r that purpose. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be related to h i s parent's remark CHART I Waiting f o r His Turn I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART I I 130 Eager to Contribute I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20 IB 16 14 12 10-8-6-4-2-CHART IV Showing Keen Observation I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 'Uct IMO'V Dec J a n Feb M a r °l)ct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 131 t h a t h i s knowledge o f the world, although s m a l l , was c l e a r . C h a r t V Able to Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . B i l l s cored between 8 . 2 5 and 1 3 . 7 5 . There i s a tendency towards r i s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t f o u r months when he became r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and f e l t c o n f i d e n t to experience and e x p l o r e . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s give some examples o f t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . February 1 5 , 1 9 6 2 . The c l a s s was doing p o t a t o - p r i n t i n g . 4 : 4 8 He washed o f f the u l t r a m a r i n e from the p r i n t . He got green from Dougy's t r a y and a p p l i e d i t to the p r i n t . He p r i n t e d a sheet o f de s i g n w i t h green. 4 : 4 9 He washed the green o f f . A p u r p l e i s h green was l e f t on the p r i n t . "LookJ Nick I I've got a peacock c o l o u r J " he s a i d . He used t h i s new c o l o u r to p r i n t another sheet o f de s i g n . (Time Sample) February 2 2 , 1 9 6 2 . B i l l s t a r t e d a dry l e a f c o l l a g e . He used the v e i n s o f a dry l e a f to form the horns o f a s t a g e . He was p r a i s e d by the i n s t r u c t o r f o r h i s t h o u g h t f u l work. (Anecdotal Record). T h i s behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s tea c h e r ' s remark t h a t h i s a b i l i t y to see r e l a t i o n s h i p and h i s a b i l i t y to take advantage o f new s i t u a t i o n s were below average. 132 Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits B i l l scored below 10.25. Although there was a s l i g h t tendency towards r i s i n g , he was never quite orderly. The following excerpt gives an example of h i s behaviour. November 16, 1961. As the class were allowed to work on the table or the f l o o r , B i l l chose an area on the f l o o r and l a i d some news-paper there. He worked there f o r awhile and then he found that the other boys were not using the table. He went back to work on the table leaving the newspaper behind. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be related to his teacher's comment that he was below average i n orderliness. Undesirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration. B i l l scored as high as 18 i n the f i r s t month. There followed two marked f a l l s . In the l a s t three months he scored below 8.25. The highest peak represents occasions l i k e the one indicated i n the following excerpt. October 19, 1961. The class was making torn paper pictures. 4:02 B i l l talked aloud to his group and t r i e d to be funny. 4:05 He worked on his picture f o r a few seconds. He looked up and shouted, "A f i r e - t r u c k J " d i r e c t i n g the attention of his group to what was happening outside. 4:07 He looked at Dougy's picture. "This looks l i k e a 133 captain's cap 1" he s a i d , as he pointed at i t . 4:10 He l e f t his place to go to the scrap box. He picked up a piece of cellophane and looked through i t . He swaggered back to his seat. (Time Sample). October 19, 1961. According to the time sample, B i l l l e f t his place seven times i n t h i r t y minutes. (Anecdotal Record). The f i r s t f a l l occurs when B i l l showed short periods of concentration. The following excerpt gives an example. November 9, 1961. 4:22 He worked with concentration. Obviously he was very, interested i n using watercolour pastels — a new media to him. 4:25 He put a black dot on Vicky's picture when her back was turned. He concentrated on hi s work again. "Mine i My paper i s wet J wet 1 wet!" he said. 4:26 He almost completed h i s painting. He stqod up and peeped at Betty's painting. 4:30 He concentrated on his work again. (Time Sample). The following excerpt indicates one of the occasions on which he showed r e a l concentration. February 1, 1962. 4:20 B i l l concentrated w e l l . He soon f i n i s h e d carving two-thirds of the board. 4:25 He had several board areas scraped o f f . 4:30 He wanted to know what Helen and Susan were t a l k i n g about but they paid no attention to him. He returned to his work. 134 4:49 "I am f i n i s h e d . " he to l d the teacher. (Time Sample). This behaviour contradicted his teacher's, remark that hi s span of attention was short. B i l l could concentrate on art a c t i v i t i e s because he f e l t art was a f i e l d i n which he could be equal, i f not superior, to other children and i n which he could anchor his ego on firmer ground. Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products. B i l l scored 16 i n the f i r s t month and only 4 i n the f i f t h month. The f i r s t drop occurs when he made an e f f o r t i n art a c t i v i t i e s and appreciated his own e f f o r t . The following excerpt gives an example. November 16, 1961. At f i r s t , he used the side of the chalk to draw l i n e s a l l over the paper. Then he f i l l e d i n blocks of colours and drew over the colours. He continued h i s e f f o r t f o r t h i r t y minutes. He was well pleased with h i s own e f f o r t and held up his painting to show Nick. (Anecdotal Record). In the l a s t two months he made a great e f f o r t to improve his work. His art products were among the best of the i n t e r -mediate group. The following excerpt shows t h i s -behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c • March 8, 1962. B i l l came early. He made a torn-paper picture of a man's head. He showed more patience than the other children i n tearing paper and matching colours. He stayed a f t e r the c l a s s to f i n i s h i t . The i n s t r u c t o r took a snapshot of his CHART V Able to Take Advantage :' o f S i t u a t i o n s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART VI 1 3 5 Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan -Feb Mar CHART VII R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t p n s i t . y a n r l F r p n n p r 136 picture. This was a great urge f o r him to f i n i s h i t well. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour did not coincide with his teacher's remark that the standard set f o r himself was low. He always fi n i s h e d his a r t products even i n the f i r s t two months. This behaviour again did not r e l a t e to his teacher's and his parent's remark that he occasionally l e f t h i s work unfinished. Chart IX Chatty B i l l scored between 16 and 7*25. There i s a tendency towards f a l l i n g . The following excerpt shows one of the occasions represented by ,the highest peak. October 19, 1961. 4:21 He worked f o r awhile, t a l k i n g nonsense a l l the time. 4:25 Off he went fo r scraps for the f i f t h time. He got some s t r i n g . He shouted to Dougy, "DougyJ DougyJ LookJ" 4 : 2 7 He went o f f f o r scraps f o r the s i x t h time. As he passed Helen's table, he picked up her picture and threw i-t down. He said, "Terrible I" (Time Sample). B i l l s t i l l talked a great deal towards the end of the period of observation, although he would not talk when he concentrated. " The following excerpt shows an example. March 8 , 1962. 3:50 He worked with concentration and did not t a l k to Nick who shared a table with him. 4:15 Betty and Nick talked a l l the time. "Ohi Come oni Stop i t J " B i l l said to them. (Time Sample). 1 3 7 This behaviour shown i n the f i r s t excerpt can be related to attention-seeking as noticed by hi s teacher. The behaviour shown i n the second excerpt corresponded with h i s parent's remark that he was average i n s e l f - c o n t r o l . Chart X Imitating Others. B i l l scored between 1 2 . 7 5 and 8 . The high peaks re-present occasions which the following excerpts indicate. October 1 9 , 1 9 6 1 . 4 : 1 2 B i l l saw Dougy pasting sponges on hi s picture. "You have a l l the sponges I " he said. He made o f f f o r the scrap box and gripped three sponges. (Time Sample). November 3 0 , 1 9 6 1 . The children were acting creative drama. The ins t r u c t o r t o l d them to keep s t i l l . Greg lay down l i k e a corpse. B i l l imitated him. Greg giggled, so did B i l l . (Anecdotal Record). The low scores i n the l a s t four months represent B i l l ' s independence of other children. He f e l t confident of himself i n art a c t i v i t i e s . He found that he could a t t a i n success and even give advice. His behaviour, with the exception of occasions which occurred i n the f i r s t two months, contradicted h i s teacher's remark that he imitated others. Chart XI Lack of Or i g i n a l Ideas i n Discussion or i n Art Products. B i l l scored below 7 . 2 5 . His ideas might be s i l l y , yet they were quite o r i g i n a l . The following excerpt gives an example. 138 November 9, 1961. 4:36 He drew a bust of an old man. He added two wheels at the bottom. "See I This i s my time machine I" he said# (Time Sample). There were occasions on which he showed o r i g i n a l ideas i n his work. The following excerpts give examples. February 22, 1962. B i l l started a dry l e a f collage. He bent a twig to make the hind-leg of the animal. He placed i t i n various positions u n t i l he got the e f f e c t of a running animal. A student-teacher, who was watching him work said, "lou can almost see him thinking." (Anecdotal Record). March 22, 1962. 4:09 He set the animal structure upright. He pasted on a small head and a long t a i l . " It's going to be a monkey — a s i t t i n g monkey". The structure caught the gesture of a monkey eating. (Time Sample). This behaviour contradicted his teacher's remark that his ideas f o r play or work were i n s u f f i c i e n t . Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. B i l l scored above 15 i n the f i r s t two months and below 8 i n the l a s t two months. There i s a marked tendency towards a f a l l i n g graph. The peaks represent occasions on which B i l l acted s i l l y . The following excerpts give examples of these occasions. October 12, 1961. B i l l talked to Nick when the student-teacher was t a l k i n g . 139 He was to l d to stop. (Anecdotal Record). November 2,•1961. While the ins t r u c t o r was s t i l l discussing with the group about the project, B i l l went o f f to get a large brush and blendished i t i n the a i r . (Anecdotal Record). The marked drop i n February occurs when B i l l learned to d i s c i p l i n e himself. The following excerpts give examples of th i s change i n behaviour. February 15, 1962. He came i n very l a t e with Dougy. They were made to stay away from the class f o r f i f t e e n minutes. (Anecdotal Record). February 22, 1962. B i l l came very early to-day. He l i k e d a r t . He was af r a i d of los i n g any p r i v i l e g e i n the art c l a s s . (Anecdotal Record). With the exception of the f i r s t two months, B i l l ' s behaviour corresponded with h i s parent's and his teacher's remark that he was average i n readiness to co-operate with the r i g h t authority. Summary In the study of B i l l ' s behaviour, the researcher has found that there i s a marked tendency towards f a l l i n g i n the graphs representing undesirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In the f i r s t two months, B i l l t r i e d to seek the attention of the other c h i l d r e n . However, he was not accepted because they must have CHART IX Chatty Intensity and Frequency 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 CHART XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas Intensity and Frequency CHART X ' 140 Imitating Others intensity and Frequency °0ct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XII Lack of Respect and F r e q u e n c y °Uct Nov Dec Jan Feb kar 141 l e a r n e d from school about h i s undesirable p e r s o n a l i t y . Mean-w h i l e , being c u r i o u s , B i l l showed an immediate i n t e r e s t i n a l l a r t media and a l l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . He experimented w i t h as many as he could. The i n s t r u c t o r and student-teachers encouraged him i n h i s experimentations. A c c o r d i n g l y , h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r t grew. In the l a s t three months, he was one of the most p r o f i c i e n t producers i n the group. As h i s c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s gained much admiration from h i s peers, he no longer sought a t t e n t i o n through show-offishness and b u l l y i n g . I f the i n s t r u c t o r and the student-teacher i n the C h i l d Ar t Centre had not been t o l d , they would not have known that B i l l was a problem c h i l d i n school. Thus, the study of B i l l presents an important question f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , that i s , to what extent behaviour a r t therapy can be extended to s i t u a t i o n s i n school. CASE 8 D e s c r i p t i o n . Nick, age n i n e , was a r a t h e r pale and r e l a t i v e l y i n -conspicuous boy who was t a l l f o r h i s age. When Nick was amused or s a t i s f i e d , he grinned r a t h e r than smiled. I n h i s f i r s t month i n the C h i l d A r t Centre, he seemed to f e e l i l l at ease i n the presence of a d u l t s . As soon as he entered the a r t room, he looked s t r a i g h t a t the group of boys and j o i n e d them immediately. However, he soon adjusted h i m s e l f to the new s i t u a t i o n . As he l i k e d and was l i k e d by h i s peers and teachers, he began t o take d e l i g h t i n group d i s c u s s i o n s d i r e c t e d by the i n s t r u c t o r or the student-teachers i n charge. Generally 142 speaking, Nick was more interested in. people than i n materials, although he never f a i l e d to get himself a share when he saw other boys had t h e i r s . Nick was quick i n movement and response. Every time he singled out his painting smock quickly, slipped i t on and buttoned i t at the back without help. His work habits were orderly. He put away art materials and even classroom f u r n i -ture a f t e r using them. Nick was a steady worker. His whole being seemed to be i n the task when he was working. Of course, there were moments of l i s t l e s s n e s s during which he day-dreamed or watched other children. Nick's favorite theme i n art was a cobra. He modelled i t with clay and carved i t on a scratch-board. Among the c h i l d r e n i n the Intermediate group, Nick was the one most anxious to take his art products home. Nick's parents came from Germany. The father was an i n s t r u c t o r of Socialogy at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The parents spoke German at home. The father spoke perfect English, but the mother had a foreign accent. Nick did not seem to have any language d i f f i c u l t y at a l l i n the Child Art Centre. The Parent's Description of Nick's Personality. According to Nick's mother, both his parents were very interested i n a r t . They often took Nick to art exhibitions, f o r they believed that by exposing him to a r t , his i n t e r e s t i n a r t would grow. They had many art books at home. Nick was anxious to take his work home because h i s 143 parents were interested i n what he did i n the Child Art Centre. Once he took a picture of a b i r d home. The parents l i k e d the picture and wanted to frame i t . Nick said that i t was not good enough and that the other children did better. The parents kept a l l of the art work Nick did i n school. Once, they laughed at a funny shape Nick made out of clay and coated with p u r p l i s h blue glaze. Nick explained that i t was made not to resemble r e a l i t y but to appeal to the sense of touch. Nick had a l l kinds of art materials for graphic a r t at home. He was trained to put away things a f t e r using them. There were very few children of his age i n the neighbourhood. Nick l i k e d his classmates, Vicky and Betty, who l i v e d not,,far away. At home, Nick adored his two-and-a-half-year-old s i s t e r , although he had to put his things out of her reach a l l the time. The baby s i s t e r was eager to create. She drew a shape l i k e a chick which her parents matted as a picture. Nick always had patience with his s i s t e r and often showed her his art work. The mother said that Nick was anxious to do things r i g h t . He d i d not want hi s parents to come to the Chi l d Art Centre to see him, as he was not sure whether parents' v i s i t s were customary. The mother was glad that the Intermediate group would continue to do picture-making u n t i l the children had acquired s k i l l . She added that she was not s a t i s f i e d with the way the people i n North America t r i e d too many things and could not do one thing well. 1 4 4 The Class Teacher's Description of Nick's Personality. According to Nick's class teacher, Nick was a mature and r e l i a b l e boy whom every teacher l i k e d . His c u l t u r a l family background shone i n whatever he did. He seemed to have language d i f f i c u l t i e s , but his parents said that although they came from Germany, Nick's education had only been i n Canadian schools. Being b i g for h i s age, Nick was w e l l - l i k e d by other • children. They simply stood i n awe of him. He came to the school only l a s t September. So f a r , he had not done too well. The class teacher was very sure that the boy would soon over-^ come h i s language problems and would do well i n class. The p r i n c i p a l said that Nick was new i n the school. He seemed to be a quiet and nice boy. A Comparison of the Parents' and the Teacher's Answers to the to the Questionnaires on Nick's Personality. The teacher found that Nick seldom showed the emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned i n the questionnaires except that he occasionally showed oral, tension and dependence f o r af f e c -t i o n . The parents noticed that Nick occasionally showed some of these emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and frequently displayed o r a l t ension, dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n and e x c i t a b i l i t y . The teacher considered that Nick was average i n most of the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s . The parents gave the same answers although they remarked that Nick's a b i l i t y to understand and carry out directions was above average and h i s ideas f o r play or work were creative. 145 As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents and the teacher found that Nick was q u i t e above average. The parents remarked t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e d much to group work and d i s c u s s i o n , but the teacher s a i d that he c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e . The parents and the teacher f e l t t hat Nick was average i n a l l p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e r e l a t e d to formation o f c h a r a c t e r and t h a t he accepted change and was above average i n readiness to co-operate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s . D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I Waiting For His Turn Nick scored above 12. As h i s parents n o t i c e d , Nick was anxious to do t h i n g s r i g h t . The f o l l o w i n g excerpts show Nick w a i t i n g f o r h i s t u r n . January 4, 1962. He saw no other c h i l d r e n i n the a r t room. He stayed o u t s i d e w a i t i n g u n t i l the i n s t r u c t o r beckoned him to go i n . (Anecdotal Record). March 8, 1962. The c l a s s was shown how to make torn-paper p i c t u r e s . 4:02 When the c h i l d r e n were allowed to choose t h e i r a r t m a t e r i a l s , Nick waited to get c l o s e to a p i l e of magazines. The l a s t one was s e i z e d by B i l l . Nick had some newspaper i n s t e a d . (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded w i t h h i s parents' and h i s teacher's remark that Nick seldom showed aggression and he was 146 quite patient. Chart I I Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion Nick scored between 9 and 11. He was more eager to contribute to work than to discussion. The following excerpts show t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . December 14, 1961. Nick was very co-operative. He helped to stack up chairs and scrub the f l o o r . When we guessed who was repre-sented i n each p o r t r a i t , he stayed i n the background and never once put up his hand. (Anecdotal Record). February 1, 1962. Nick was quite at e ase with a small group of f i v e c h i l d -ren. He sat right next to the i n s t r u c t o r instead of staying i n the background as he usually did. He suggested that a coiled-up cobra would be a good subject to f i t onto a rectan-gular scratch-board. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour did not correspond with his teacher's remark that he contributed l i t t l e , as i t changed from s i t u a -t i o n to s i t u a t i o n . Since he worked well with a small group he might contribute much at home as his parents' had pointed out. Chart I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. Nick scored above 11.5. Regarding himself as a 'big boy', Nick did not often appeal f o r help. The following ex-cerpts give examples of his behaviour. 147 November 2, 1961. 4:31 He painted a very small black figure and put an i g l o o i n the background. Apparently, he was not happy about his e f f o r t , but he did nothing more to them. 4:36 He worked on the foreground and the background of h i s share of the mural with a big brush. 4:41 He painted over the Eskimo and the i g l o o with grey. 4:44 He painted two very b i g igloos i n that area. (Time Sample). March 1, 1962. 4:52 He was going to paint the b i r d . "Where's the brown? Where's the brown?" he said to himself as there was no brown i n the tray. He solved the problem by add-ing red to black. (Time Sample). This behaviour can not be related to his parents' re-mark that he was above average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y but tends to co-incide with his teacher's comment that he was average. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Him. Nick scored between 11.5 and 13«5« The following excerpts give examples of his keen observation. November 2, 1961. The group was painting a mural depicting Eskimo land. 4:44 He painted two very big igloos. 4:45 He put i n two small figures — small so that they were i n proportion to the igl o o s . (Time Sample). November 2 3, 1961. The group talked about the wet weather i n Vancouver. CHART I Wai t i n g f o r His Turn I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART I I 148 Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e U c t iMov u e c dan a eb Mar 20i CHART I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 149 Nick said that i t was quite dry i n the Okanagan, (his family l i v e d there l a s t year), but they saw two floods; one occurred on Thanksgiving Day and one on h i s birthday. (Anecdotal Record) This behaviour co-incided with h i s parents' and h i s teacher's remark that his knowledge of the world was abundant and clear. Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. Nick scored around 11.5* He showed no great a b i l i t y i n making use of new situations i n ar t . The following excerpt indicates how he used a new s i t u a t i o n . January 4, 1962. 4 : 2 7 He started with great confidence. With a p e n c i l he drew the outline of an old man's head and shoulders i n a continuous l i n e . He stopped and looked at i t c r i t i c a l l y . He seemed unhappy about i t . He asked for an eraser. He was advised to make use of the l i n e instead of rubbing i t out. 4:28 He was r e s t l e s s i n hi s seat, but he f i n i s h e d the head. The l i n e became one of many wrinkles. (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with his parents' and his teacher's remark that h i s a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was average. His anxiety to get things r i g h t urged him to do things a l l over again instead of taking advantage of situations which developed i n the process. 150 Chart YI Developing Orderly Work Habits. Nick scored between 6 and 13. There are some marked r i s e s and f a l l s which are not found i n his other behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Nick's work habits were usually quite orderly. November 2 , 1961. Every time, Nick washed the b i g brush clean before he used a new colour. He took great care to keep his share of the mural neat. Once he c a l l e d out suddenly, "Dougy, you've smeared my thingJ" Immediately, he painted over the smeared area. He looked much concerned. (Anecdotal Record). • However, there were occasions on which Nick displayed untidy work habits. The sharp drops represent these occasions. The following excerpt gives an example. February 15, 1962. As the student-teacher i n charge did not see to i t that the children put away the art materials, there was great chaos i n the art room. 'Nick and the other children l e f t t h e i r table i n a mess. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c co-incided with the parents' and the teacher's remark that Nick was only average i n orderliness. Undesirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration. Nick scored between 2.5 and 7» There i s a sharp r i s e and a s l i g h t r i s e representing occasions on which Nick showed restlessness. The following excerpt gives an example of these 151 occasions. January 4, 1962. The class was encouraged to add more d e t a i l s on to t h e i r p o r t r a i t s of old men. 4:38 He l i s t l e s s l y added a few more l i n e s on the beard. 4:41 He went of f to change his p e n c i l . He stopped and looked at Vicky's picture with admiration. 4:42 He f e l t that he could not add any more to his picture. 4:44 He looked impatient and grew quite r e s t l e s s . He brought his chair forward and backward. (Time Sample). As a r u l e , Nick concentrated well on his work. The following excerpt indicates t h i s behaviour. November 2, 1962. Nick was at the very end of the mural. Next to him were B i l l , Dougy, Betty and Vicky. 4:33 He worked qui e t l y by himself u n t i l his hand was stained with grey paint. 4:35 He went to wash the s t a i n o f f . Immediately he returned to h i s work. 4:36 He worked on the foreground and the background of h i s share of the mural with a b i g brush. Apparently, he enjoyed the a c t i v i t y . "It's just l i k e painting a house J" he said to himself smilingly. This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , on the whole, did not agree with his parents' and h i s teacher's remark that his span of attention was average. 1 5 2 Chart vTII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products Nick scored below 4 f o r f i v e months. There i s only one s l i g h t r i s e representing occasions on which Nick showed a d i s l i k e f o r working on one single piece of work fo r too long. The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions. March 8 , 1 9 6 2 . Nick said that he fi n i s h e d h i s torn-paper picture. The student-teacher suggested that he might use another colour besides brown and blue. He did not want to do so and appeared r e s t l e s s . The student-teacher advised him to add more d e t a i l s to h i s scratch board picture. Nick said that i t was fin i s h e d . I t showed nothing but a tree trunk. (Anecdotal Record). However, there were many occasions on which Nick made an e f f o r t to improve his art products. The following excerpt gives an example. January 1 1 , 1 9 6 2 . It needed patience to c o i l the clay, to smoothen. the c o i l and to twist i t to form a cobra. Nick t r i e d over and over again u n t i l the cobra stood upright. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded with h i s parents' remark that the standard he set for himself was high while the few occasions represented by r i s e s co-incided with his teacher's remark that the standard was only average. Chart IX Chatty Nick scored below 4 . 5 « He seldom participated i n the CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Intensity and Frequency CHART VI 153 Developing Orderly Work Habits Intensity and Frequency °Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 2 0 i CHART VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Intensity and Frequency CHART VIII Lack of E f f o r t Intensity and Frequency 154 conversation of his group. The following excerpt gives an example. January 11, 1962. Nick was very interested i n modelling with clay. Betty and Vicky were tal k i n g a l l the time about t e l e v i s i o n pro-grammes and school news but Nick was concentrating so deeply i n h i s work that he did not enter into the conversation. (Anecdotal Record). Of course there were a few occasions on which Nick chatted with other children. The following excerpt gives an example. March 1, 1962. 4:55 The boys were chatty. Perhaps i t was because the student-teacher l e f t them alone'. They talked about the spaceman. "When he was up, his wife had three t e l e v i s i o n sets i n her room", said Nick. "No, only one i n her room and one was i n the basement," said Greg. "Do you want to bet?" asked Nick. Neverthe-l e s s , they were busy working at the same time. (Time Sample). This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , on the whole, corres-ponded with the p r i n c i p a l ' s remark that Nick was a quiet boy. Chart X Imitating Others. Nick scored between 4»25 and 7»75» Nick never copied others, although very occasionally, he followed them. The following excerpts indicate these occasions. 1 5 5 November 2 3 , 1 9 6 1 . The c l a s s was a c t i n g c r e a t i v e drama. 4 : 4 8 The c h i l d r e n were asked to shut t h e i r eyes and a c t how to make a f i r e i n the open. Nick d i d not c l o s e h i s eyes. He d i d not s t a r t u n t i l he saw oth e r c h i l d r e n a c t i n g the a c t i o n . (Time Sample). March 1 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 5 0 Nick had j u s t f i n i s h e d making the s t r u c t u r e o f a b i r d w i t h the body made out o f a box and the head made out o f a b u l b . The t a i l was almost e x a c t l y l i k e the model the stude n t - t e a c h e r showed them and had l e f t on the t a b l e . (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour c o - i n c i d e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t h i s behaviour depended on the s i t u a t i o n . H is tea c h e r ' s comment t h a t he f o l l o w e d others was r e f l e c t e d only on a very few o c c a s i o n s . Chart X I Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n or i n A r t Products. Nick s c o r e d below 6 . 2 5 . He c o u l d be very o r i g i n a l i f he was g i v e n a r t m a t e r i a l s he enjoyed. The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s ' a n example. November 9 , 1 9 6 1 . He enjoyed u s i n g w a t e r - c o l o u r p a s t e l s . He peeled the paper o f f and dipped the p a s t e l i n t o water. He used i t s i d e -ways l i k e a r o l l e r to f i l l i n the background of h i s p a i n t i n g . When h i s hands were s t a i n e d w i t h b l u e , he p r i n t e d them on h i s 156 painting to be the hands of the strange-looking man. (Anecdotal Record). Occasionally, Nick had to struggle f o r o r i g i n a l ideas. The following excerpt gives an example.. January 4, 1962.. 4:15 Nick was thinking hard. He buried his head i n h i s hands. 4:17 He did not seem to have much idea of the scene he wanted to draw. He scribbled a dark area l i k e a stream near the centre of the paper. 4:18 The ins t r u c t o r advised them to use heavy and l i g h t l i n e s . Nick did as he was t o l d . (Time Sample). This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , to a certa i n extent, agreed with his parents' remark that his ideas f o r play or work was creative. I t contradicted his teacher's comment that they were only s u f f i c i e n t . Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Nick scored below 4. Being mature f o r his age, he almost never treated the i n s t r u c t o r or the student-teachers with disrespect. On very rare occasions he might t r y to have h i s own way. The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions. March 1, 1962. 5:02 The boys were noisy. They imitated a duck. The student-teacher told Greg to s i t down. He answered, "Quack, quackJ" Nick laughed. He was t o l d to s i t down too. 1 5 7 He made an excuse that there was a spot of paint on the chair. (Time Sample). However, on other occasions, Nick showed great respect for the i n s t r u c t o r and the student-teachers. The following excerpt indicated t h i s behaviour. November 9 , 1 9 6 1 . Greg and Nick were interested i n the construction tubes they found i n the art room. They constructed aero-planes with them. Nick turned around and looked at the student-teacher i n charge every now and then as i f he was a f r a i d that she would stop him at any time. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded with h i s parents' and his teacher's remark that he was above average i n readiness to co-operate with the right authority. Summary In the study of the case of Nick, the researcher has found that the most dominant feature i s the comparatively close relationship between his behaviour displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s and his parents' and/or his teacher's remarks on h i s personality. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shown i n Chart I I , (page 14$), and Chart VII (page 1 5 3 ) are the only exceptions. Stated simply, being confronted with new situations i n the C h i l d Art Centre, Nick did not change his usual behaviour. S i m i l a r l y , he showed l i t t l e change i n behaviour during the period of observation. This was indicated by the small number of sharp CHART IX Chatty Intensity and Frequency CHART X 158 Imitating Others Intensity and Frequency Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas Intensity and Frequency CHART XII Lack o f Respect 0'oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar r i s e s and drops i n the charts. Moreover, i t seems that i n many cases, i f Nick showed any change i n behaviour, i t was due to the s i t u a t i o n , such as the lack of d i s c i p l i n e i n the clas s , which accounted f o r the drops i n Chart XI (page 158) and r i s e s i n Chart IX (page 158). CHAPTER VII REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL CASES IN THE SENIOR GROUP AGE FIFTEEN CASE 9 Description Paula, age f i f t e e n , was a plain-looking g i r l and t a l l f o r her age. Her manners were f r i e n d l y and extremely unassum-ing. She treated the instructors and the student-teachers as i f they were her peers. Thus, i t seemed that she was i n lack of respect f o r persons i n authority. However, she had a good sense of humour which helped her to overcome many awkward situ a t i o n s . When Paula concentrated on her work, she r e a l l y experienc-ed and explored. In o i l - p a i n t i n g , f o r example, the techniques she used d i f f e r e d from painting to painting. She l i k e d to try a l l art media and a l l art a c t i v i t i e s , but she had no patience and often dashed o f f her work. However crude her art products were, she never l e f t them unfinished. Like most of the students i n the group, Paula did not attend the art classes regularly. When she was overtired, she would take an afternoon o f f . Paula had no special friends i n the C h i l d Art Centre, yet she was well at ease with friends of both sexes. For example, seeing Arnold or Jim come i n and walk past her, she 161 would say, "Do s i t downJ I hate people walking aboutJ" The boys, being fond of her company, shared a table with her and talked to her. Both Paula's parents were medical doctors. The family l i v e d i n a b e a u t i f u l mansion with furniture and paintings of good taste. They were devotees of Judaism. Paula had a younger brother c a l l e d David. She believed that David was more a r t i s t i c than she was. The Parent's Description of Paula's Personality The mother said that Paula enjoyed doing everything but she had not the drive to do anything wel l . Paula thought the art class i n the Child Art Centre was great fun, although she f e l t that she d i d not do as well as the others. She was never lonely. She read whatever she could lay her hands on. She loved drama. She studied creative drama fo r f i v e years. Folk dancing was also her i n t e r e s t . She was a talented p i a n i s t and sang well . On the stage, she gave people the impression that she was very confident of herself. Paula was r e a l l y good at sewing. The mother allowed her to experiment with a l l kinds of material. Last year, she made a l l the costumes f o r the school play. She impressed adults, but she was not so good at getting along with children. She went with boys and g i r l s of her own age group. Most of her friends were acquired at summer camp. She belonged to the Z i o n i s t group — an organization i n which the young people of Jewish f a i t h held discussions and raised funds. She took a group of eleven-year-old children i n the Zi o n i s t movement. 1 6 2 As to Paula's childhood t r a i n i n g , her mother said that she used to have a play school at home. When Paula was only nine months old she joined the other children. Then, she was sent to the "Jack and J i l l " play school. Paula went to a summer camp every year. She had been i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t camps under creative personnels. The mother was impressed by a camp l e d by a calm and relaxed lady who helped the children to tolerate a l l kinds of people. At twelve, Paula went to a r e l i g i o u s camp i n C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. Last year, she attended a leadership t r a i n i n g camp. There she learned to l i v e and lead groups of children. She obtained the highest recommenda-ti o n i n a r t , music and scouting. The family went to Hawaii f o r a month for several winters. Paula went alone to Montreal, Quebec, l a s t summer. Her experiences enabled her to be on her own. She did her own shopping. She had no trouble i n getting what she wanted. Paula was i n Grade XII. She hoped to take a painting course at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia next year. The mother wanted her to be a doctor l i k e herself, but she said that she would l e t Paula make her own decision. The Teacher's Description of Paula's Personality According to the teacher who knew and taught Paula f o r four years, Paula was very excitable a f t e r class and i n extra-c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , but during class, her emotions were under control. Her response to things and people were variable. When she was interested i n an apparatus i n science, she would ask a great deal about i t , but af t e r three days, her i n t e r e s t 163 disappeared. Paula was t y p i c a l of her age group. Often her outburst of energy was followed by a period of l i s t l e s s n e s s . Sometimes she was very expressive about things. At other times, she was just f i l l i n g the background. As she grew older, she became more r e l i a b l e and consistent i n her work habits. She now f i n i s h e d her work instead of leaving i t unfinished as she d i d two years ago. In d a i l y routine, she was quite co-operative. She would do things when she was t o l d . She would return things which she borrowed from another room, but on her own, she might overlook things and could not be counted on. She had a few close fri e n d s , but being aggressive and 'pushyf she never followed others, and so, others would not follow her. In f a c t , she t r i e d hard to make friends. Her rela t i o n s h i p with adults was f r i e n d l y . Her manner of approach to teachers was that of a contemporary rather than that of a student. She believed she had the same intere s t as the teachers. She had a good sense of humour and was good at mimicking. This helped her to get over i n d i s c r e e t situations, as the teachers would not take offense. Paula d i d not t a l k a great deal about her r e l i g i o n , although she would be absent from school on Jewish holidays. She was sincere. She accepted her r e l i g i o n as part of her f a t e . A Comparison of the Parents' and the Teacher's Answers to  Questionnaires on Paula's Personality. Regarding emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the teachers found 164 that Paula frequently showed e x c i t a b i l i t y , attention-seeking and dependence for a f f e c t i o n . The parents f e l t that she only occasionally displayed these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The teacher and the parents considered that Paula was average i n most of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The parents found that her knowledge of the world was p l e n t i f u l and accurate and her a b i l i t y to see relationship was above average, but her a b i l i t y to plan was below average. The teacher considered that her a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was below average. As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents found that she was above average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , while the teacher thought she was only average. The parents found that she was f r i e n d l y with adults but the teachers considered that she sought attention. The parents pointed out that she would love to lead but was not a successful leader because she lacked force. The teacher found that she sometimes imitated others. As to physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents agreed to the teacher's remark that Paula's span of attention was average. The parents said that she was "a b i t scatter-brained" when studying. Regarding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to formation of character, on the whole the parents and the teacher agreed. Relationship Between Personality Charac t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . As art classes f o r the Senior group were cancelled i n December, the observation of behaviour was made for f i v e months only. 165 Desirable Behaviour Charac t e r i s t i c s Chart I Waiting For Her Turn Paula scored between 10.5 to 13.75. As the teacher had noticed, Paula t r i e d hard to make friends. She had to keep her aggression under control and take her turn i n a l l a c t i v i -t i e s . The following excerpts show thi s behaviour. March 1 9 , 1962. 4:18 She laboured over her lino-block. When i t was ready Diane was using the r o l l e r and the ink. 4:22 She had to stand by and wait f o r her turn. (Time Sample). March 26, 1962. She wanted to take a p r i n t of her lino-block to be photographed. Danny was using the r o l l e r . She asked Danny to make a p r i n t f o r her when he was through. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that her patience was average. Chart II Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion Paula scored below 10. She contributed no more than her share to group work such as clean-up. She gave even l e s s i n group discussion. Often she stayed i n the background. The following excerpt gives an example. November 20, 1961. 3:45 The i n s t r u c t o r asked the class to come f o r t h and suggested to them how to compose a painting from a picture i n a magazine. Paula l i s t e n e d with concentration although 166 she was playing with a tube of o i l paint* The i n s t r u c -tor asked i f they had any ideas to contribute, or any questions to ask. Paula shook her head but d i d not even look up. (Time Sample). This behaviour co-incided with the teacher's remark that she contributed l i t t l e and contradicted her parent's that she contributed much. The difference of opinions was probably due to her d i f f e r e n t reactions to parents and teachers, as her parents found that her self-confidence was above average but the teacher f e l t that i t was below average. Chart III S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. Paula scored between 14«5 and 8. She might voice her d i f f i c u l t i e s but she seldom appealed f o r help. The following excerpt indicates t h i s behaviour. November 20, 1961. Paula forgot her p a l l e t t e . She went out and found a cardboard cake plate to put her paints on. (Anecdotal Record). When technique was involved, Paula often depended on the i n s t r u c t o r f o r help. The following excerpt gives an example. February 5, 1962. She was modelling her s e l f - p o r t r a i t . " S i r I What s h a l l I do to the eye?" she asked the i n s t r u c t o r who then showed her the technique. She modelled the rest of the p o r t r a i t without any assistance. (Anecdotal Record). 167 This behaviour did not coincide with the parents' remark that her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was above average. It corresponded with the teacher's comment that i t was only average. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Her. Paula scored between 7 and 10. She did not seem to show any keen observation i n r e l a t i o n to her i n t e l l i g e n c e , although occasionally her art products reminded the observer of some masterpieces of a r t . The following excerpts give examples. January 22, 1962. Her fi n i s h e d product was a long t h i n man with pro-j e c t i n g r i b s . I t reminded the observer of E l Greco's "Beggar". (Anecdotal Record). March 19, 1962. 4:50 Diane saw her p o r t r a i t of a lady with a long neck and s l i g h t l y t i l t e d head. " I t reminds me of Queen Nofretete", she s a i d . "Yes", Paula agreed, "the headdress suggests her too". (Time Sample). This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be r e l a t e d to her teacher's remark that her knowledge of the world was rather small, although accurate. It contradicted her parent's comment that her knowledge was extensive. Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. Paula scored above 10. There were only very few occasions on which she showed her a b i l i t y to use a s i t u a t i o n which CHART I Waiting f o r Her Turn ncy CHART I I 168 Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e Intensity and Frequency Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar CHART I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 18 16 14 12 10 3 CHART I V Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 201 18-16-14 12 10 8 169 turned up i n the creative process. The following excerpt shows one of these occasions. February 5, 1962. Apparently, Paula was not so interested i n modelling as i n painting. She had not yet acquired the technique of handling clay. 4:15 She found i t hard to b u i l d up the structure of the head with c o i l s . The structure simply collapsed because the c o i l s were too wet. She was making mud-pies instead of c o i l s , just for fun. 4:17 She had a new i d e a i She put three mud pies one on top of the other. She hollowed them out. Thus, the neck and the lower part of the face were made. She added c o i l s on top to form a complete head. (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with her parents' remark that her a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was average. I t did not coincide with her teacher's comment that i t was below average. She was more confident i n making use of new situations i n art because there was no r i g h t or wrong answer. Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits-Paula scored below 6.25. Her work habits were f a r from being orderly, e s p e c i a l l y when compared with the other g i r l s i n her group. The following excerpts show t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 170 January 22, 1962 The i n s t r u c t o r advised them to get a l l the materials required f o r t h e i r work. 4:01 Paula got a b a l l of clay. She said, "I am going to make a man." As she found out that the c l a y was very s o f t , she said laughingly, "I am sure he can't stand." 4:08 She went o f f to look f o r some wire. 4:09 She bent the wire to form the structure of a human fig u r e . 4:12 She went to get another b a l l of clay. "I need some-thing for the man to stand on, do I?" she asked. (Time Sample) March 19, 1962. Paula l e f t her lino-block i n the sink a f t e r using i t . She started a cardboard p r i n t . (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour did not correspond with her parents' and her teacher's remark that she was average i n orderliness, but coincided with her parents' comment that she was below average i n a b i l i t y to plan as she " t r i e d to do too much and did not get i t done." Undesirable Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Paula scored between -3»25 and 11.5» There was a sharp r i s e and some s l i g h t drops as t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seemed variable. The highest peak represents occasions when Paula grew r e s t l e s s as she l o s t i n t e r e s t i n an art a c t i v i t y a f t e r making several attempts. The following excerpt shows 171 t h i s behaviour. January 22, 1962. She could not concentrate on her work at a l l . She did not know how to handle clay, and so she could not create anything out of i t . She sat with Jim and argued with him a l l the time. (Anecdotal Record). However, when Paula was interested, she worked with concentration. The following excerpt gives an example. March 12, 1962. 4:27 She watched a t t e n t i v e l y as the i n s t r u c t o r showed her how to make a cardboard p r i n t . They were standing. 4:32 She remained standing and was drawing on paper a head that expressed f e e l i n g . 4:35 She remained standing and drawing. She sang at the same time. 4:42 The i n s t r u c t o r interrupted her, advising her how to improve her lino-block. She l i s t e n e d with concentra-t i o n and then returned to what she was doing. (Time Sample). This behaviour, on the whole, corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that her span of attention was average. Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products Paula scored between 4»5 and 12.25. There are marked r i s e s which represent occasions on which Paula did not seem bothered by the low standard of her products. The following excerpt gives an example. 172 February 6, 1962. 4:08 She looked around and found the clay figure she had made i n the l a s t lesson. I t was covered with cracks. She did not look concerned. Instead, she showed i t to Jim. "Isn't i t cute?" she asked. (Time Sample). There were some occasions on which she made an e f f o r t . The following excerpt indicates one of these occasions. March 12, 1962. She was composing sketches f o r a mood picture. 4:14 When she f i n i s h e d the second sketch, she was s t i l l not happy about i t . She scribbled shapes on the tracing paper. She set h e r s e l f to think hard. 4:15 She had drawn a great number of shapes. She joined some of them together. She held up the paper and looked at i t . I t turned out to be a head of a howling dog. The i n s t r u c t o r saw i t . "This i s exactly what I want J" he said. (Time. Sample). This behaviour, on the whole, coincided with her parents' and her teacher's remark that the standard she set f o r herself was average. Chart IX Chatty Paula scored between 8 and 12. She was l e s s chatty i n the f i r s t two months when the. class painted at the easel than i n the l a s t three months when they did c r a f t work i n small groups. The high peak represents occasions on which Paula chatted with anyone within hearing distance. The following CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Intensity and Frequency 20 — ' 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar CHART VII Restless and i n Lack of Concentration Intensity and Frequency 20 CHART VI 173 Developing Orderly Work Habits r n t e n s i t y and Frequency Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar CHART VIII Lack of E f f o r t Intensity and Frequency 20 13 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 bet Nov Jan Feb Mar 174 excerpt gives an example. January 22, 1962. As she saw a student-teacher standing by and watching her, she said to Marg and Diane, "She i s wondering what I am doing and t r y i n g to psychoanalize me J " The two g i r l s laughed. "Don't laugh I " she said. Marg talked about her brothers. "Have you two brothers?" Paula asked, as she l i k e d to inquire into other people's a f f a i r s . Arnold and Danny walked past her. She pointed at the p o r t r a i t of herself. "Isn't that nice? Mr. Smith drew me." she said. Then she chatted with Arnold and Danny. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be rela t e d to her teacher's remark that she devoted much time to attention-seeking. Chart X Imitating Others Paula scored below 5«75» As there are no f i x e d rules i n a r t , she did not f e e l the need of conforming to other people's ideas. The following excerpts indicate t h i s behaviour. February 5, 1962. She gave up the method of building the head structure with c o i l s which other students were adapting. She started the structure with three clay pies, p i l i n g one on top of the other and hollowed i t out l a t e r . The head she made was only f i s t - s i z e d and was d i f f e r e n t from the other children's, which were l i f e - s i z e d . (Anecdotal Record). 1 7 5 March 1 2 , 1 9 6 2 . Her drawing showed only the head of a howling dog. I t was d i f f e r e n t from the other students' which were based more or l e s s on the i n s t r u c t o r ' s example shown on the board. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour contradicted her teacher's remark that she imitated others. Chart XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas i n Discussion or i n Art Products Paula scored below 6 . 5 * Her self-confidence, as noticed by her parents was apparent i n c r e a t i v i t y . The following excerpt gives an example. November 2 0 , 1 9 6 1 . The class was asked to compose a painting from a picture i n a magazine. Paula's picture showed two labourers at work. 4 : 2 0 She painted one figure dark-skinned, although i t was not so i n the picture. 4 : 2 5 She mixed a f l e s h colour f o r the second f i g u r e . Thus a white workman was contrasted with a dark-skinned workman. What an o r i g i n i a l i d e a ! (Time Sample) This behaviour did not coincide with the parents' and her teacher's remark that her ideas f o r work were just suff-i c i e n t . I t displayed creative ideas. Chart XII Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority. Paula scored between 6 and 1 1 . As the teacher remarked, she treated the teachers as i f they were her contemporaries 176 and thus, she seemed to be i n lack of respect f o r them. The following excerpts give examples. October 30, 1961. A student-teacher was posing. Afte r a short rest she resumed her pose. Paula came up to her and without a word suddenly pulled at the folds of the model's s k i r t . "ThereJ I t was l i k e t h i s before," she said. (Anecdotal Record). January 22, 1962. The i n s t r u c t o r demonstrated how to draw a s e l f - p o r t r a i t . He was drawing Paula. She giggled every now and then and was to l d to stop her nonsense. When the i n s t r u c t o r f i n i s h e d , she looked at the drawing c r i t i c a l l y . "My nose i s smaller," she said. The i n s t r u c t o r made some change on the nose. "That's i t . Thank you." she said. (Anecdotal Record). As a matter of f a c t , Paula admired the teachers. The following excerpt follows the one above. January 22, 1962. The i n s t r u c t o r was modelling a bir d . She watched him. She t o l d the other g i r l s at her table to look at the b i r d . She said how wonderful i t was. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour, on the whole, corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's comment that she was average i n readiness to cooperate with the right authority. Summary In the study of the case of Paula, the researcher has CHART IX Chatty I n t e n s i t y and D e n s i t y 20 " CHART X 177 I m i t a t i n g Others I n t e n s i t y and De n s i t y 20i Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas I n t e n s i t y and D e n s i t y Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar CHART XII Lack o f Respect I n t e n s i t y and D e n s i t y 20 " 173 noticed that the most dominant feature i s the rather sharp r i s e s and f a l l s i n i n t e n s i t y and frequency i n as many as s i x charts, namely Chart I I , Chart I I I , {page 168), Chart VII, Chart VIII, (page 173), Chart IX and Chart XII, (page 177). The frequent change i n behaviour i n some cases i s due to emotional and physical i n s t a b i l i t y , which i s t y p i c a l of adolescence. For example, her inconsistent treatment of persons i n authority can be accounted f o r by her development of a sense of values and her desire to be independent of adult d i r e c t i o n . Another feature found i n t h i s study i s Paula's s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n . She understood herself as an i n d i v i d u a l better i n art a c t i v i t i e s than i n school - a c t i v i t i e s . In a r t , she f e l t safe to be i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and creative. She knew that she would not lose group recognition even i f she did not con-form to the ideas and taste of the group. CASE 10 Description C l a i r e , age f i f t e e n , was a brunette with sensitive features and refined manners. She cared so much about her appearance that her hair was neatly styled and her n a i l s were n i c e l y trimmed. She was dressed i n fashion. She was consid-ered as an i d e a l daughter at home and a model student i n school. In art a c t i v i t i e s , her patience and perserverance were notable. She worked on one single piece of work for over a month. Her art products were not exceptionally good, yet she 179 gave her best and l o v e d what she made. She was f r i e n d l y to her peers. While she was working, she o f t e n chatted w i t h other g i r l s from her school. She never sought the a t t e n t i o n o f the boys, y e t she always t a l k e d to them i n a c o r d i a l manner once they s t a r t e d the conversation. She admired a r t products other than her own. Seeing t h a t Theresa's c l a y s e l f - p o r t r a i t was i n good shape and p r o p o r t i o n , she s a i d : " I wish i t was mineJ" She t r e a t e d the i n s t r u c t o r s and student-teachers w i t h respect. She was always a t t e n t i v e to t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n . C l a i r e ' s f a t h e r was the p r i n c i p a l of an elementary school i n Vancouver, B.C.- Her mother was a very d e l i g h t f u l l a d y . Chaire was t h e i r only c h i l d . The Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n of C l a i r e ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . C l a i r e ' s mother remarked: " C l a i r e can't stand d i s o r d e r . She i s very f a s t i d i o u s about h e r s e l f and, I would say, has very good morals." She continued to say that C l a i r e was l i k e her f a t h e r . She had a quiet nature but never f e l t depressed. C l a i r e took a r t i n school and on Saturdays at the Vancouver School of A r t . Outside o f ske t c h i n g , she seldom p a i n t e d p i c t u r e s at home. She had her own room and her own study. Being very capable of cl e a n i n g and t i d y i n g t h i n g s up, she looked a f t e r her own room and cupboards very w e l l . I f she was asked to help w i t h the housework she was more than w i l l i n g to do so. Every morning she t i d i e d up her own room and d r i e d the dishes before she l e f t f o r school. However, the mother p r e f e r r e d to do most o f the housework h e r s e l f . She 180 f i n i s h e d everything on Friday i n order to keep the week-end free* C l a i r e was emotionally mature because she was with adults f o r a long time when she had had a tubercular kidney removed three years ago. This operation, the mother believed, affected her l i f e and personality. She had to be away from school f o r months, yet she managed to catch up with her studies. Unable to participate- i n sports and having to be ca r e f u l not to overdo physical exercise, C l a i r e turned to ar t . In f a c t , the family, e s p e c i a l l y the mother, often went to art exhibitions. The mother remarked that C l a i r e did not work to her f u l l capacity i n school although she seemed to be a good "B" student. She loved talking and working with friends of her own age. She was going with a boy i n her school, the son of her French teacher. C l a i r e ' s parents were very fond of the boy. C l a i r e t o l d her parents that she planned to become a teacher. The Counsellor's Description of C l a i r e ' s Personality. The counsellor described b r i e f l y that C l a i r e was a good "B" student, a steady and patient worker. She was on the g i r l ' s executive and was w i l l i n g to take up leadership. She was an extrovert, but not aggressive. Her rel a t i o n s h i p with her teachers and peers was good. She was emotionally mature and s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d . She was a good all-round student as f a r as study was 181 concerned. Her language a b i l i t y was good, r i c h and a c c u r a t e . She o b t a i n e d 'B' i n mathematics and 'C i n s c i e n c e . Her i n t e r e s t was i n the a r t l i n e . She helped her parents to remodel t h e i r home. She was s i c k i n Grade VII and a g a i n i n Grade V I I I . She was exempted from c e r t a i n e x e r c i s e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , but C l a i r e t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g as f a r as she c o u l d go. A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and the Teacher's Answers to  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on C l a i r e ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . The c o u n s e l l o r remarked that C l a i r e seldom showed the emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The p a r e n t s agreed to the c o u n s e l l o r ' s remark, although they f e l t t h a t C l a i r e o c c a s i o n a l l y showed e x c i t a b i l i t y and f r e -q u e n t l y depended on a f f e c t i o n . T h i s was probably because C l a i r e was the o n l y c h i l d i n the f a m i l y and needed p a r e n t a l a f f e c t i o n and h e l p . Regarding i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the c o u n s e l l o r s a i d that C l a i r e was average. The parents f e l t t h a t she had e x t e n s i v e and a c c u r a t e knowledge. They b e l i e v e d t h a t she was above average i n a b i l i t y to see r e -l a t i o n s h i p , a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e and deduce and a b i l i t y to understand and c a r r y out d i r e c t i o n s , although she was not g i v i n g her b e s t i n s c h o o l . The c o u n s e l l o r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t C l a i r e was above average i n a l l the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h a t she was a good l e a d e r . The p arents found t h a t she sometimes f o l l o w e d . The p a r e n t s and the c o u n s e l l o r remarked that C l a i r e was average i n a l l the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and added t h a t because o f 182 her health, she never pushed her s e l f to the l i m i t i n physical a c t i v i t i e s . As to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to formation of character, the parents and the counsellor remarked that C l a i r e was above average. Relationship Between Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour  Characte r i s t i c s as Displayed i n Art A c t i v i t i e s . C l a i r e was selected by the researcher a f t e r two subjects she had observed, had l e f t , one a f t e r the other. For t h i s reason, the period of observation was l i m i t e d to only two months. To make up f o r t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , one or sometimes two time samples were taken at every lesson and an average mean of the scores f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was made every h a l f month, instead of every month. Desirable Behaviour Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I Waiting For Her Turn C l a i r e scored above 12.75* Her courtesy of waiting f o r her turn was es p e c i a l l y notable towards the end of the period of observation when C l a i r e was getting to know a l l her peers i n the Child Art Centre. The following excerpts give examples of t h i s behaviour. March 19, 1962. C l a i r e wanted to take her clay s e l f - p o r t r a i t home. 4:40 C l a i r e found the ins t r u c t o r was tal k i n g to Paula about her lino-block. She waited p a t i e n t l y f o r her turn to speak to him. ^ (Time Sample). March 26, 1962. She chose p r i n t i n g as her next project. She asked: 1 8 3 "Is anyone using these colours?" "No," said the in s t r u c t o r . She then sat down and helped he r s e l f to the colours. (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that C l a i r e was above average i n patience and that she seldom showed aggression. Chart II Eager to Contribute to Group Work or Group Discussion C l a i r e scored below 1 0 . She contributed her ideas only when her advice was sought. The following excerpt gives an example. February 1 2 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 0 5 The teacher was discussing Arnold's sketch book. Some students stood around him. C l a i r e joined them, but she made no comment. 4 : 2 7 Susan asked C l a i r e ' s advice on the shape of the head she was modelling. C l a i r e discussed i t with her and t o l d her her own opinion. (Time Sample). This behaviour did not coincide with her parents' and her teacher's remark that she contributed much to discussion. This was probably because she did not f e e l she knew enough about art. Chart I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults. C l a i r e scored between 8 and 8 . 5 « There i s almost no r i s e or f a l l . When C l a i r e had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a r t i s t i c technique, she always appealed to the instructors f o r advice. 184 The following excerpt gives an example of t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . March 19, 1962. C l a i r e said that she had no experience i n clay modell-ing. She asked the i n s t r u c t o r how to dampen the clay head so that she might remodel i t . She l i s t e n e d to the inst r u c t o r ' s advice a t t e n t i v e l y . (Anecdotal Record). As to d i f f i c u l t i e s outside the art f i e l d , C l a i r e s e t t l e d them her s e l f . The following excerpt gives an example. February 5, 1962. 4:40 She had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n smoothing the surface of the clay because her f i n g e r - n a i l s were long. She took great care so that they might not cut through the clay. She used only her f i n g e r - t i p s . . (Time Sample). This behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , on the whole, did not correspond with her parents' and her teacher's remark that her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was above average. Chart IV Showing Keen Observation of the World Around Her. C l a i r e scored below 7«5« She did not seem to be sensitive about the beauty of the world around her. The topics of-her conversation with other g i r l s were about dresses, h a i r - s t y l e s , shoes, etc. — common topics of her age group. She showed no keen observation i n her art products. The follow-ing excerpt indicates t h i s behaviour. March 12, 1962. The class was asked to compose a mood picture. 4:00 C l a i r e was t a l k i n g with Diana about t h e i r school. She CHART I Wai t i n g f o r Her Turn I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s IntP.ns-i+.v anri E V p q n e n r y 18 16 -14 ' 12 • 10 CHART I I I85 Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e ncy Feb Feb Mar Mar CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n Igjyyifii ty and Frequency 18 16 14 12 10 186 was sketching i n her book the silhouettes of two dogs, quite s i m i l a r to those shown i n advertisements. (Time Sample). This behaviour showed no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship with her parents' remark that she had extensive knowledge of the world, and that i t was accurate. Chart V Able to Take Advantage of Situations Which Develop i n the Creative Process. C l a i r e scored below 7*5* In the creative process, she did not seem to be able to use new situations. The following excerpt gives an example. March 12, 1962. As soon as she came i n , she took hold of the clay head she f i n i s h e d l a s t time. She was surprised to f i n d that i t was covered with cracks and loose lumps. She looked at them f o r awhile and did not seem to be able to do anything about i t . She started a new project. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour did not coincide with her parents and her counsellor's remark that her a b i l i t y to take advantage of new situations was average. C l a i r e seemed to have l i t t l e self-confidence i n c r e a t i v i t y . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c again con-t r a d i c t e d her parents' and her counsellor's comment that her self-confidence was above average. Chart VI Developing Orderly Work Habits. C l a i r e scored above 15• Her orderliness was remarkable i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The following excerpts indicate t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 167 February 12, 1962. 4:00 C l a i r e wet and kneaded the clay before she used i t for modelling. (Time Sample). February 19, 1962. C l a i r e put on her smock before she worked with the clay. (Anecdotal Record). March 5, 1962. The class was making cut-paper p r i n t s . As soon as she came i n , she looked for the pottery she l e f t unfinished l a s t time. She pa t i e n t l y finished what she had started. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour can be related to her parents' and her counsellor's remark that she was above average i n orderliness. Undesirable Behaviour Charac t e r i s t i c s Chart VII Restless and in Lack of Concentration. C l a i r e scored below 3* When she was working her whole being seemed to be i n the task. The following excerpts show th i s behaviour. February 5, 1962. C l a i r e worked continuously f o r one and a half hours. About 5 p.m. she asked the i n s t r u c t o r , "Do we stop now? I'm beginning to see s t a r s . " (Anecdotal Record). March 26, 1962. 4:45 She engaged herself i n scraping and shaping the clay p o r t r a i t . She did not talk to anybody. 4:59 She was s t i l l working with concentration. iaa 5:40 She stopped f o r a moment to look at Danny's lino-block. She immediately returned to her work. (Time Sample). This behaviour did not correspond to her parents' and her teacher's remark that her span of attention was only average. Chart VIII Lack of E f f o r t to Improve Art Products C l a i r e scored below 2.25. She worked to her f u l l capa-c i t y i n art a c t i v i t i e s . The following excerpts indicate her e f f o r t . February 5, 1962. 4:20 C l a i r e patiently c o i l e d the clay and pressed the c o i l s together to form the structure of the head. 4:26 She smoothed the c o i l s to make an even surface. (Time Sample). March 19, 1962. 4:48 The i n s t r u c t o r advised C l a i r e to take o f f the loose lumps on the clay head and work on i t again. C l a i r e was more than w i l l i n g to take i t home to improve i t . (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with her parents' and her teacher's remark that the standard she set f o r h e r s e l f was high. Chart IX Chatty C l a i r e scored between 5»5 and 8. There was a s l i g h t r i s e i n the second h a l f of February when she grew t i r e d of modelling with clay. The following excerpts show occasions CHART V Able to Take Advantage o f Situation's I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Feb Feb Mar Mar CHART VII R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 2 Q CHART VI 189 Developing O r d e r l y Work Habi t s I n t e n s i t y and Frsqnanr.y Feb Feb -Mar Mar CHART VII I Lack o f E f f o r t I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Feb Feb Mar Mar Feb Feb Mar Mar 1 9 0 on which C l a i r e talked with g i r l s from her school. February 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 1 5 C l a i r e shared a table with Sandra and Diane. She was modelling the clay head. The g i r l s talked about shoes. C l a i r e said, "I can't wear too high heels." 4 : 2 2 She continued chatting with the g i r l s and working at the same time. (Time Sample). March 1 2 , 1 9 6 2 . The c l a s s was asked to compose a mood picture. 4 : 0 0 C l a i r e was sharing a table with Diane and talking with her. "We are going to give our art teacher a present — a bottle of turps," she said. "I'm dying to know what he w i l l say J " 4 : 0 6 They were s t i l l t a l k i n g . (Time Sample). This behaviour corresponded with her parents' remark that she l i k e d t alking and working with people. Chart X Imitating Others C l a i r e scored below 5* Although she sought the i n s t r u c -tor's advice and admired her peer's work, she did not want to follow others r i g i d l y . The following excerpt shows t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . February 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . 4 : 3 0 She asked the ins t r u c t o r ' s advice regarding the modelling of the eyes. The i n s t r u c t o r helped her. 4 : 3 2 The i n s t r u c t o r drew a diagram of the basic shape of the head on the board, but she was not watching. She 191 murmured to herself, "I can't do t h i s . " She started modelling the chin i n her own way. (Time Sample). This behaviour can be related to the counsellor's re-mark that she l i k e d to lead. Chart XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas i n Discussion or i n Art Products. C l a i r e scored between 13 and 14.25. She t r i e d hard to a t t a i n realism and often followed the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e . The following excerpt indicates t h i s behaviour. March 5, 1962. She took pains to follow the s e l f - p o r t r a i t she did i n her sketch book. She modelled the eyes over and over again. The clay s e l f - p o r t r a i t turned out to be a true likeness of her s e l f . (Anecdotal Record). March 12, 1962. 4:10 She scribbled several f l o a t i n g clouds i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e . As the instr u c t o r came near, she said, "I am at a loss what to drawJ" (Time Sample). This behaviour did not coincide with the parents' and her counsellor's remark that her idea f o r play or work was s u f f i c i e n t . Chart XII Lack of Respect for Persons i n Authority. C l a i r e scored below 3*25* C l a i r e never t r i e d to please persons i n authority, but she always showed them respect. The following excerpts indicate this behaviour. February 5, 1962. 4:27 The in s t r u c t o r gave her advice regarding the shape of CHART IX Chatty-I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 2 Q J _ 3 _ Feb Feb Mar Mar CHART XI Lack of O r i g i n a l Ideas I n t e n s i t y and Frequency CHART X 192 I m i t a t i n g Others I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20, 1 ~ Feb Feb Mar Mar CHART XII Lack o f Respect I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20; 13 16 U P 12 10 8 6 f 4 21-0 beb Feb Mar Mar 1 9 3 the head structure. "I see what you mean," she said p o l i t e l y . She sat down and made the change. (Time Sample). March 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . C l a i r e waited u n t i l the ins t r u c t o r f i n i s h e d speaking to Paula. She asked f o r his permission to take the clay s e l f -p o r t r a i t home. (Anecdotal Record). This behaviour coincided with her parents' and her counsellor's remark that she was above average i n readiness to co-operate with the ri g h t authority. Summary. In studying the case of C l a i r e , the researcher discovered that the most dominant feature i s the absence of sharp r i s e s and f a l l s i n the charts showing her behaviour i n art a c t i v i -t i e s . This agreed with her parents' remark: "C l a i r e does not have extreme highs and lows. She goes along on a very even ke e l . " C l a i r e was matched with Paula i n sex, age, i n t e l l i g e n c e , (both were good 'B' students i n school), family background, (both came from well-to-do and w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d f a m i l i e s ) , and i n t e r e s t , (the in t e r e s t of both g i r l s was on the art l i n e ) . The difference i n personality accounted f o r the difference i n behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Stated simply and b r i e f l y , being an excitable character, Paula changed her behaviour from day-to-day, or rather from hour to hour. Being a quiet character, C l a i r e seldom changed her behaviour pattern. Another feature found i n thi s study i s C l a i r e ' s sur-p r i s i n g lack of self-conficence i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Her struggle f o r realism might account f o r t h i s . She strove to make an art product look r e a l . When i t departed from realism, her confidence i n her own s k i l l was l o s t . CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY As was stated before, the primary purpose of t h i s study i s to explore the relationships between personality as d i s -played at home and i n school and behaviour as shown i n the art room. The data, shown i n Tables I, (page 196), I I , (page 197), I I I , (page 198), IV, (page 199), V, (page 200), and VI, (page 201), c l e a r l y indicate no s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between certa i n personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and certain be-haviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s . For example, students l i k e Betty (Case 5), and C l a i r e (Case 10), who proved to have many good ideas f o r work or play at home and i n school, seemed to be i n lack of o r i g i n a l ideas i n a r t . The data, shown i n Table VII, (page 202), c l e a r l y indicate that i n most of the desirable behaviour character-i s t i c s , the primary group (age six to eight) as w e l l as the intermediate group (age eight and one-half to nine and one-h a l f ) , scored higher i n March 1962 than i n October 1961. This implies a tendency to better behaviour towards the end of the period of observation when the children grew accustomed to routines and the standards set f o r them by the i n s t r u c t o r and the student-teachers. However, i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , " S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers and Adults", the primary group scored lower i n March, 1962, than i n October, 1961. As more a r t i s t i c s k i l l s were required i n art a c t i v i t i e s , such as 196 TABLE I NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS EXISTED BETWEEN SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND SETTLING DIFFICULTIES WITHOUT APPEALING TO PEERS OR ADULTS IN ART ACTIVITIES (CHART III) Cases Parents' Rank i n Teacher's Rank i n Score Rank i n Remark Rating Remark Rating i n Art Rating A c t i -v i t i e s 1. Carole above A (high) average (medium) 14.99 (high) 2. Jerry* above A (high) above A (high) 17.1 (high) 3. Richard average (medium) average (medium) 13.75 (high) 4. Donald* average (medium) average (medium) 11.21 (medium) 5. Betty* above A (high) above A (high) 13.54 (high) 6. Helen average (medium) above A (high) 9.21 (medium) 7. B i l l average (medium) below A (low) 12.21 (medium) 8. Nick average (medium) above A (high) 12.66 (medium) 9. Paula above A (high) average (medium) 11.8 (medium) 10. C l a i r e above A (high) above A (high) 8.15 (medium) * Only 3 out of the 10 cases showed relationships. 197 TABLE II NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS EXISTED BETWEEN ABILITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NEW SITUATIONS AND ABILITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF SITUATIONS WHICH DEVELOP IN CREATIVE PROCESS (CHART V) Cases Parents' Remark Rank i n Rating Teacher's Remark• Rank i n Rating Score Rank i n i n Art Rating A c t i -v i t i e s 1. Carole above A (high) average (medium) 11.04 (medium) 2. Jerry* average (medium) average (medium) 11.76 (medium) 3. Richard* average (medium) average (medium) 12.83 (medium) 4. Donald* average (medium) average (medium) 8.18 (medium) 5. Betty above A (high) above A (high) 11. (medium) 6. Helen* average (medium) average (medium) 7.71 (medium) 7. B i l l average (medium) below A (low) 10.75 (medium) 8. Nick above A (high) average (medium) 11.21 (medium) 9. Paula average (medium) below A (low) 10.8 (medium) 10. C l a i r e average (medium) average (medium) 6.31 (low) * Only 4 out of the 10 cases showed relati o n s h i p s . 198 TABLE I I I NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN SPAN OF ATTENTION AND LACK OF CONCENTRATION IN ART ACTIVITIES (CHART VI) Cases Parents' Remark• Rank i n Rating Teacher's Remark Rank i n Rating Score Rank i n i n Art Rating A c t i -v i t i e s 1. Carole long (high) average (medium) 2.17 (high) 2. Jerry- average (medium) average (medium) 6.46 (high) 3, Richard short (low) average (medium) 7.58 (medium) 4. Donald short (low) average (medium) 11. (medium) 5. Betty long (high) long (high) 8.41 (medium) 6, Helen average (medium) average (medium) 4.91 (high) 7. B i l l average (medium) short (low) 10.29 (medium) 8. Nick average (medium) average (medium) 3.58 (high) 9, Paula* average (medium) average (medium) 6.55 (medium) 10. C l a i r e average (medium) average (medium) 2.31 (high) * The only case out of the 10 cases that indicated relationships. 199 TABLE IV NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN STANDARD SET FOR HIMSELF/HERSELF AND EFFORT TO IMPROVE ART PRODUCTS (CHART VII) Cases Parents' Rank i n Teacher's Rank i n Score Rank i n Remark Rating Remark Rating i n Art Rating A c t i -v i t i e s 1. Carole* average (medium) average (medium) 7.41 (medium) 2. Jerry- average (medium) average (medium) 5.96 (high) 3. Richard low (low) low (low) 5.71 (high) 4. Donald low (low) low (low) 6.87 (medium) 5. Betty high (high) high (high) 7.21 (medium) 6. Helen* average (medium) average (medium) 7.67 (medium) 7. B i l l average (medium) low (low) 8.09 (medium) 8. Nick high (high) average (medium) 3.41 (high) 9. Paula* average (medium) average (medium) 8.1 (medium) 10. C l a i r e * high (high) high (high) 1.75 (high) * Only 3 out of the 10 cases that showed relationships. 2 0 0 TABLE V NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND IMITATING OTHERS IN ART ACTIVITIES (CHART X) Cases Parents' Remark • Rank i n Rating Teacher's Remark . Rank i n Rating Score Rank i n i n Art Rating A c t i -v i t i e s 1. Carole* Depends on si t u a t i o n leads (high) 4 . (high) 2 . Jerry follows (medium) leads (high) 7.38 (medium) 3. Richard follows (medium) follows (medium) 4.66 (high) 4 . Donald follows (medium) follows (medium) 4 . 2 7 (high) 5. Betty leads (high) leads (high) 8.78 (medium) 6. Helen leads (high) follows (medium) 5.87 (high) 7. B i l l leads (high) imitates (low) 9.5 (medium) 8. Nick depends on si t u a t i o n follows (medium) 5.96 (high) 9. Paula loves to lead but f a i l s imitate (low) 4.7 (high) 10. C l a i r e follows (medium) leads (high) 4.18 (high) * The only case out of the 1 0 cases that implied relationships 2 0 1 TABLE VI NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN IDEAS FOR PLAY OR WORK AND LACK OF ORIGINAL IDEAS IN DISCUSSION OR IN ART PRODUGTS (CHART XI) Cases Parents' Remark • Rank i n Rating Teacher's Remark Rank i n Rating Score Rank i n i n Art Rating A c t i -v i t i e s 1 . Carole* creative (high) creative (high) 1 . 0 4 (high) 2 . Jerry- s u f f i c -ient (medium) s u f f i c -ient (medium) 4 . 6 2 (high) 3 . Richard i n s u f f i c -i e nt (low) s u f f i c -ient (medium) 3 . 8 (high) 4 . Donald in s u f f i c -ient (low) s u f f i c -ient (medium) 7 , 4 2 (medium) 5 . Betty creative (high) creative (high) 7 . 2 5 (medium) 6 . Helen creative (high) s u f f i c -ient (medium) 6 . 1 2 (high) 7 . B i l l s u f f i c -i e n t (medium) i n s u f f i c -i e n t (low) 4 . 9 1 (high) 8 . Nick creative (high) s u f f i c -i e nt (medium) 3 . 5 4 (high) 9 . Paula s u f f i c -i e nt (medium) s u f f i c -ient (medium) 4 . (high) 1 0 . C l a i r e s u f f i c -i e n t (medium) s u f f i c -ient (medium) 1 3 . 6 (low) * The only case out of the 1 0 cases that indicated relationships. Score i n art a c t i v i t y i s the mean of scores obtained through the period of observation. 202 TABLE VII DESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE Oct. Mar. D i f f . Oct. Mar. D i f f . Waiting f o r his turn 4 8 . 7 5 Eager to contribute 53*75 S e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s 5 8 . 5 Showing keen observation 5 1 . 2 5 Able to take advantage 4 6 . Developing orderly habits 3 8 . 5 4 . 2 5 5 . 5 4 6 . 4 9 . 7 5 3 . 7 5 60 . 75 7 . 4 7 . 4 7 . 7 5 . 7 5 5 3 . 5 - 5 4 5 . 2 5 4 8 . 2 . 7 5 5 9 . 5 8 . 2 5 4 5 . 5 1 . 6 . 5 4 . 5 8 . 5 3 7 . 2 5 4 5 . 2 5 8 . 3 9 . 1 . 4 5 . 2 5 4 3 . 5 - 1 . 7 5 203 painting at the easel and making clo t h collage, the children were more l i k e l y to turn to the i n s t r u c t o r of the student-teachers f o r guidance and advice. In the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , "Developing Orderly Work Habits", the intermediate group scored higher i n March, 1962 than October, 1961, but the d i f f -erence of the two scores i s as i n s i g n i f i c a n t as 1.75* I t can also be noted i n Table VII, (page 202), that the primary group scored higher than the intermediate group i n a l l the desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except the one regarding work habits. This implies a tendency towards better behaviour than the intermediate group. Generally speaking, younger children are l e s s bothered by "doing things r i g h t " , than older children, and thus they f e e l more self-confident i n contribut-ing, s e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and taking advantage of new situations. However, the primary group scored very much lower than the intermediate group i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , "Developing Orderly Work Habits". Most children of that group, e s p e c i a l l y the six-year-olds, were not ready f o r orderliness. The data, shown i n Table VIII, (page 204), c l e a r l y i n -dicate that i n a l l the undesirable behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the intermediate group scored lower i n March, 1962, than i n October, 1961. This implies a tendency to better behaviour towards the end of the period of observation. In characteris-t i c s regarding lack of concentration, lack of e f f o r t and lack o f o r i g i n a l ideas, the primary group scored lower i n March, 1962, than i n October, 1961. The creative and mental growth of the children accounts f o r t h i s tendency toward better 204 TABLE VIII UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE Oct. Mar. D i f f . Oct. Mar. D i f f . Restless Lack of e f f o r t Chatty Imitating others Lack of o r i g i n a l ideas Lack of respect 43. 31.75 11.25 30.75 23. 7.75 36.75 26.75 10. 32.75 23.25 9.5 22. 42. -20 31.5 26.25 6.25 14.25 20. - 5.75 27.75 24.5 3.25 22.25 15.25 7. 21. 15.5 5.5 13.5 15. -1.5 26.75 19.25 7.5 205 behaviour i n art a c t i v i t i e s . However, t h i s group scored higher at the end than i n the beginning i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , "Chatty", "Imitating Others", and "Lack of Respect f o r Persons i n Authority", although the difference i n scores i n the l a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s as i n s i g n i f i c a n t as 1.5- As these children got to know t h e i r peers better, they tended to seek attention through chatting a great deal and gain s o c i a l recognition through imitating others. This study i s an attempt to i l l u s t r a t e quantitative r e s u l t s with q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . Although the number of subjects had to be l i m i t e d to ten, yet the conclusions thus obtained are purposeful topics f o r further research among la r g e r groups of children i n primary, intermediate and secondary grades. They also warn researchers of the useless-ness of p a r t i c u l i z a t i o n from the general when applied to behaviour of in d i v i d u a l s . CHAPTER IX IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY Apart from being purposeful topics f o r further i n v e s t i -gations, the conclusions of the study suggest several other p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r research which are not within the scope of the present study and which have emerged during the study. These p o s s i b i l i t i e s can be discussed only b r i e f l y i n t h i s thesis. An important problem concerns transfer of q u a l i t i e s of learning and t h e i r resultant behaviour from art a c t i v i t i e s to a c t i v i t i e s and situations at home and i n school. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the questions i s — to what extent t h i s transfer occurs? Dr. Viktor Lowenfeld states: "What makes a professional man successful i s his inventive power, a power that makes him look at his profession as a never-ending source f o r new discoveries and changes. Whatever profession your c h i l d chooses, he w i l l need the creative attitude which he has achieved through his art. " 1 4 I f no s i g n i f i c a n t transfer of learning takes place, art education w i l l be l i m i t e d to p a r t i c u l a r situations and cannot be extended to a major role i n the f u l l development of a c h i l d ' s personality. 14. Lowenfeld, Viktor, "Your Child and His Art", (New York: Maemillan), 1954. 207 Another important question which was not within the scope of the study concerns the planning of a c t i v i t i e s i n which children of d i f f e r e n t age groups learn to take advantage of situations which develop i n the creative process. As was shown i n Table I, (page 196), t h i s a b i l i t y of using new situations diminished as children grew older. The question concerns how t h i s a b i l i t y can be preserved i n maturity. An important problem which emerged during the study concerns imitation. As was indicated i n Table VII, (page 202), the intermediate group scored higher than the primary group i n imitating others. This conclusion implies that imitation i s more notable i n the a r t a c t i v i t i e s of the intermediate grades than the primary grades. The questions arise as to what and why they imitate and what situations allow them the chance to do so. A study such as t h i s would involve i n v e s t i -gation of patterns of behaviour of a large number of children i n intermediate grades over a period of time. Such knowledge would further understanding of the methods of teaching and the process of learning i n art a c t i v i t i e s . APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL APPENDIX A 209 PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Emotional Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s Degrees Remarks 1. Emotional outburst 2. E x c i t a b i l i t y 3* Fear 4* Repression 5. Aggression 6. Manual Tension 7» Oral Tension 8. Dependence f o r af f e c t i o n 9» Attention seeking 10. Daydreams Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent Seldom Occasional Frequent High Medium Low Rank i n Rating 210 A P P E N D I X A P E R S O N A L I T Y C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S TO B E OBSERVED AT HOME AND I N SCHOOL I n t e l l e c t u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s D e g r e e s R e m a r k s 1. I d e a s f o r p l a y o r w o r k 2". U s e o f l a n g u a g e ( i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s a g e ) V o c a b u l a r y S e n t e n c e S t r u c t u r e 3. K n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r l d C r e a t i v e R i c h A c c u r a t e M u c h A c c u r a t e 4. A b i l i t y t o r e -l a t e c o m p r e h e n - L o g i c a l s i b l e s t o r y S e q u e n c e 5. A b i l i t y t o s e e A b o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p A v e r a g e 6'. A b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e a n d A b o v e d e d u c e A v e r a g e 7. A b i l i t y t o p l a n A b o v e A v e r a g e 8. A b i l i t y t o u n d e r -s t a n d a n d c a r r y A b o v e o u t d i r e c t i o n s A v e r a g e 9. A b i l i t y t o l e a r n A b o v e f r o m e x p e r i e n c e A v e r a g e 10. A b i l i t y t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f A b o v e new s i t u a t i o n s A v e r a g e S u f f i c i e n t I n s u f f i c i e n t A d e q u a t e M e a g e r C l e a r I n a c c u r a t e L i t t l e N o n e C l e a r C o n f u s e d C o n s i s t e n t U n r e l a t e d I d e a s I d e a s B e l o w A v e r a g e A v e r a g e B e l o w A v e r a g e A v e r a g e B e l o w A v e r a g e A v e r a g e B e l o w A v e r a g e A v e r a g e B e l o w A v e r a g e A v e r a g e B e l o w A v e r a g e A v e r a g e H i g h M e d i u m Low R a n k i n R a t i n g 211 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Social C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Degrees Remarks 1. Adaptability to change Quick Average 2. S e l f - s u f f i c -iency Above average Average Below 3. Self-confidence Above average Average Below 4. S e l f - c o n t r o l Above average Average Below 5. Willingness to cooperate i n play or work Above average Average Below 6. Willingness to cooperate i n routines Above average Average Below 7. Relationships with Children Friends Special Friends Many More than 1 Few One 8. Relationship with adults Seeks Avoids 9. Leadership Leads Follows 10. Awareness of people Too much Much 11. Contribution to group discuss-ion or work Much L i t t l e 12. Attitude toward materials Generous Shares well High Medium Low Rank i n r a t i n g 212 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Physical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Degrees Remarks 1. Absence from class because of i l l n e s s 2. Freedom of movement 3. Physical qu a l i t y 4. Span of attention 5« Dependence of help 6. Grace and co-ordination i n r e l a t i o n to emotional function 7. Use of body i n r e l a t i o n to large muscular movement (e.g. climbing) 8. Use of body i n r e l a t i o n to fine body movement (e.g. sewing) Frequent Seldom Expansive Adequate Self-con-Poised t r o l l e d Long Above average Above average Above average Average L i t t l e Much Average Average Average Never once Inadequate Restless Short Too much Below average Below average Below average High Medium Low Rank i n rat i n g 213 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Character i s t i c s related to formation of character Degrees Remarks !• Orderliness 2. Carefulness 3 . Patience 4» Readiness to co-operate with the r i g h t authority 5, A b i l i t y to d i s -tinguish between con-struc t i v e be-haviour and destructive 6. Determined --w i l l show i n work habits 7» Standards set fo r himself/ her s e l f 8. Reaction to interference Above average Above average Above average Average Average Average Below average Below average Below average Above Below average Average average Above Below average Average average Work Work occa-Work always s i o n a l l y seldom fini s h e d l e f t un- f i n i s h e d f i n i s h e d High Average Low Accepts Occasion- Resists change a l l y re- change verts to . o r i g i n a l High Medium Low Rank i n rati n g 214 APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AS USED IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE Emotional C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Emotional outburst. An uncontrollable explosive response following often minor incidents. E x c i t a b i l i t y . Pertaining to an e a s i l y aroused and/or exaggerated emotional reaction. Fear. An emotion of v i o l e n t a g i t a t i o n or f r i g h t i n the presence (actual or anticipated) of danger or pain. I t i s marked by extensive organic changes and be-haviours of f l i g h t and concealment. Repression. The exclusion of s p e c i f i c psychological a c t i v i t i e s or contents from conscious awareness by a process of which the i n d i v i d u a l i s not d i r e c t l y aware. Aggression. Hostile a c t i o n such as an attempt to destroy or appropriate possessions of another. Manual Tension. Muscular s t r a i n of hands. Oral Tension. Muscular s t r a i n of speech organs r e s u l t i n g i n stammering or broken speech.' Dependence fo r a f f e c t i o n . Habitual reliance upon another person f o r emotional comfort, guidance and help. Attention-seeking. Attempt to gain attention when one f e e l s neglected. Daydreams. Reveries while awake, neglecting what i s going on around oneself. I n t e l l e c t u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Ideas f o r play or work. Mental content such as imagining and thinking which enables the c h i l d to know what to do i n play or at work. Use of language. Words and expressions that the c h i l d uses i n hi s speech. 21$ D e f i n i t i o n s of Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Used i n the Questionnaire — Continued. Knowledge of the world. General notion of the world i n which the c h i l d l i v e s . A b i l i t y to see rel a t i o n s h i p . A b i l i t y to see the s i m i l a r i t y and difference of two or more things. A b i l i t y to generalize and deduce. A b i l i t y to make a general rule a f t e r seeing a few spe c i a l cases and arrive at a conclusion by reasoning. A b i l i t y to plan. Having some foresight of the s t a r t , the procedure and the f i n i s h of what one i s working or going to work on. A b i l i t y to understand and carry out dire c t i o n s . A b i l i t y to do as one i s instructed to do. A b i l i t y to learn from experience. A b i l i t y to avoid i n a new attempt what proved a f a i l u r e and adopt what proved a success i n a past experience. A b i l i t y to take advantage of new si t u a t i o n s . A b i l i t y to make use of something that turns up unexpectedly. S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Adaptability to change. A b i l i t y to make appropriate responses to changed or changing circumstances. S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . A b i l i t y to do things without asking f o r help from others. S e l f - c o n t r o l . A b i l i t y to i n h i b i t impulsive or goal-seeking behaviour for the sake of a more i n c l u s i v e goal. Self-confidence. The f e e l i n g that one i s able.to do what i s required. Willingness to co-operate i n play or work. Readiness to help a s o c i a l group to produce some common or j o i n t e f f o r t i n play or work. Willingness to co-operate i n routines. Readiness to do what i s required i n d a i l y or classroom routines, taking others into account. Relationships with children. The manner i n which the c h i l d accepts h i s friends and they accept him. 2 1 6 D e f i n i t i o n s of Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as used i n the Questionnaire — Continued. Relationships with adults. The manner i n which the c h i l d treats parents, teachers and other adults. Leadership. S k i l l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of leaders, such as the i n i t i a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n or control of the actions and attitudes of another person or of a group, with more or less w i l l i n g acquiescence of the followers. Awareness of people. Being conscious or 'taking account' of other children and adults. Contribution to group discussion or work. Willingness to put f o r t h ideas i n group discussion and give help i n group work. Attitude towards materials. A persistent mental and/or neutral state of readiness to react to materials e s p e c i a l l y those di s t r i b u t e d among the children. Physical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Absence from class because of i l l n e s s . Number of times the c h i l d i s away from class because of f a i l u r e i n health. Freedom of movement. Adequacy of energy as displayed i n use of limbs and the body. Physical quality. Control as displayed i n movement of head, body and limbs. Span of attention. The length of time the child, can attend to one thing. The average span of attention i n children from s i x to eight i s one-quarter hour; from nine to eleven, one-half hour; from twelve to f i f t e e n , three-quarters of an hour. Dependence of help. The extent to which the c h i l d r e l i e s on other children and adults i n forming ideas and carry-ing the ideas out. Grace and co-ordination i n r e l a t i o n to emotional function. Harmonious combination of muscular movements and fe e l i n g s , as usually expressed i n dramatic play. Use of body i n r e l a t i o n to large muscular movement. A b i l i t y to manipulate one's limbs and body i n energetic actions, such as climbing. 217 D e f i n i t i o n s of Personality Characteristics as Used i n the Questionnaire — Continued. Use of body i n r e l a t i o n to f i n e body movement. A b i l i t y to manipulate one's fingers i n work that requires nimble movement. Char a c t e r i s t i c s Related to Formation of Character. Orderliness. The habit of arranging things w e l l and solving problems step by step without confusion. Carefulness. Being watchful and taking trouble over what one does. Patience. A b i l i t y to endure a l l kinds of hardship without complaint. Readiness to co-operate with the right authority. Willingness to accept i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n given by teachers and parents. A b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between constructive behaviour and  destructive behaviour^ Readiness to dir e c t one's energy to making or building something instead of destroying something already made. Determined w i l l shown i n work habits. S t r i v i n g f o r the goal of completing something one has started. Standard set f o r himself/herself. A l e v e l or a desirable ~ qu a l i t y of performance the c h i l d expects himself/ h e r s e l f to reach. Reaction to interference. Response, verbal or physical, to d i f f i c u l t i e s put by others i n the way of one's a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y when the other person regards t h i s as unwarranted. APPENDIX B BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED DURINff ART ACTIVITIES 219 APPENDIX B BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED DURING ART ACTIVITIES-Desirable Behaviour Charact e r i s t i c s To a consider-able Degree or Frequently To a Moderate Extent or Occasionally To a Very Slight Degree or Seldom Never Waiting f o r his/her turn Eager to contribute to group work or group discussion. S e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s without appealing to peers or adults. Showing keen observation of the world i n art products or group discussion. Able to take advantage of situations de-veloping i n the creative process. Developing orderly working habits. / Rank i n r a t i n g * high medium low * Rank i n ra t i n g : high 20. -to-l-3-.'6 medium 1.35 to 6.6 low 6.5 to* 0. 2 2 0 APPENDIX B BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED DURING ART ACTIVITIES U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s To a consider-able Degree or Frequently To a Moderate Extent or Occationally To a Very Slight Degree or Seldom Never R e s t l e s s and i n l a c k o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n . • i Lack o f e f f o r t to improve a r t products. C h a t t y . I m i t a t i n g o t h e r s . Lack o f o r i g i n a l ideas i n d i s c u s s i o n o r i n a r t products Lack o f r e s p e c t f o r persons i n a u t h o r i t y Rank i n r a t i n g * low medium high * Rank i n r a t i n g : h i g h 2 0 . to 1 3 . 6 medium 1 . 3 5 to 6 . 6 low 6 * 5 to 0 . 221 BIBLIOGRAPHY I General Research Studies Almy, M i l l i e s , Ways of Studying Children, New York: Bureau of Publication, Columbia University, 1 9 5 9 * Best, John W., Research i n Education, Englewood, C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e ntice-Hall, 1 9 5 9 . Cohen, Dorothy H & Stern, V i r g i n i a , Observing and Recording  the Behaviour of Young Children, New York: Bureau of Publications, Columbia University, 1958. F r o e l i c h , C l i f f o r d P. & Darley, John G., Studying Students, Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1952* Good, Carter V. & Scates, Douglas E., Method of Research  Educational, Pschological, S o c i a l o g i c a l , New York: Appleton-Century-Croft's, 1954. Langton, Grace & Stout, Irving W.. Teacher-Parent Interviews, New York: Prentice-Hall, 1954. P i e r s , Maria, How to Work with Parents, Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1 9 5 5 * S e l l t i z , C l a i r e , Johoda, Male, Deutch, Morton, Cook, W. Research Method i n S o c i a l Relations, Holt, I960. Strang, Ruth May, An Introduction to Chi l d Study, 3 r d e d i t i o n , New York: Maemillan, 1 9 5 1 . Strang, Ruth May, Group Work i n Education, New York, Harper, 1§58~I Strang, Ruth May, The Role of'the Teacher i n Personnel Work, New York: Columbia-University Bureau of Publications, 1946. II Art Education Attebury, Fred G., " C r e a t i v i t y and Family Background," Art Education,. Vol XIII, No, 2.(February, I960) 6 - 7. Barkan, Manual, Through Art to C r e a t i v i t y , Boston: A l l y n & Bacon, I960. Cole, Natalie Robinson, The Art i n the Classroom, New York: John Day, 1940. 2 2 2 Bibliography — Continued. II Art Education — Continued Conant & Randall, Art i n Education. I l l i n o i s : Chas. A. Bennett, 1 9 5 9 . Dunnettj Ruth, Art and C h i l d Personality.' London: Methuen, Eisher, E l l i o t , " I n i t i a t i n g Art Experiences f o r Delinquent Students", Art Education, Vol. XIII, No. 2 , (February, I 9 6 0 ) , S - 9. Eng, Helga, The Psychology of Children's Drawing From F i r s t  Stroke to Coloured Drawing, London: Routledge, 1 9 5 4 . Eng, Helga, The Pschology of Child and Youth Drawing. London: Routledge, 1 9 5 7 . • ~~~ -G a i t s k e l l , Charles & Margaret, Art Education During Adolescence. Toronto, Ryerson, 1 9 5 4 . G a i t s k e l l , Charles & Margaret, Art Education f o r Slow Learners. Toronto, Ryerson, 1 9 5 3 . G a i t s k e l l , Charles D., Children and Their Art. New York: Har-court, Brace, 1 9 5 8 . Gonzalez, Xaxier, "The Mental Process i n Painting", College  Art Journal. Vol. XIII, No: 1 ( F a l l , 1 9 5 2 ) , 16 - 1 7 . Jager, Harry A., & Froehlich, C l i f f o r d P., "Guidance Tools f o r Vocational Shop Instructors", Vocational Instruc-tors Shop Handbook. VIII, ( F a l l , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 2 - 1 4 . Jefferson, Blanche, Teaching Art to Children. Boston: A l l y n , Bacon, 1 9 5 9 . Kramer, Edith & Hellmuth, Jerome, "Art and Troubled C h i l d " , Art Education. Vol XIII, No. 4 , ( A p r i l , 196©) 6 - 9 . Lowenfeld, Viktor, Creative and Mental Growth. New York: Macmillan, 1 9 5 7 . • Lowenfeld, Viktor, The Nature of Creative A c t i v i t y . London: Routledge, 1 9 5 2 . Lowenfeld, Viktor, Your Child and His Art, New York: Macmillian, 1 9 5 4 . 2 2 3 Bibliography — Continued I I Art Education — Continued Mearns, Hughes, Creative Power. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1 9 3 0 . M i t c h e l l , John B. "Art as the Revolution of the World and the S e l f " , Art and Human Values. Fourth Yearbook of National Art Education Association, Kutztown, Penn-sylvania, 1953, 2 7 - 42. Mock, Ruth, P r i n c i p l e s of Art Teaching. London, University of London Press, 1955. Read, Herbert, Education Through Art. 2nd ed i t i o n . London. Faber, 1945. Richardson, Marion, Art and the C h i l d . London: University of London Press, 1948. Tomlinson, R.R.-, Picture-making by Children. London: Studio, 1934. V i o l a , W., Child Art. 2nd ed i t i o n , London: University of London Press, 1944. Wiskiser, Ralph L., An Introduction to Art Education. London: University of London Press, 1948. • " _ I I I Psycology. A l l p o r t , G.W., Personality. New York: Holt, 1 9 3 7 . Dalton, Robert H., Personality and Social Interaction. Boston: D.C. Heath, 1961. - '- ~~~ Freud, S., The Ego and the Id. London: Hogarth Press, 1 9 2 7 . Freud, S. , An Outline of Psychoanalysis, New York: Norton, 1 9 4 9 . Harsh, Charles M., Personality Development and Assessment. 2 n d e d i t i o n , New York, Ronald Press, 1 9 5 9 . Jung, G.G.., The Integration of Personality. New York, Farrar & Rinehart, 1 9 3 9 . MacClelland, D.C, Personality, New York: Dryden, 1 9 5 4 . 224 Bibliography — Continued I I I Psycology, Continued May, Rollo, The Meaning of Anxiety, New York: Ronald, 1 9 5 0 . Stephenson, W., The Study of Behaviour, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1 9 5 3 * Thorndike, E.L., Man and His Works , Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 9 4 3 * 

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