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A study to explore relationships between certain personality characteristics and behaviour characteristics… Ng, Betty Shuet-Wah 1962

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A STUDY TO EXPLORE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CERTAIN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS AS DISPLAYED IN THE ART ACTIVITIES OF TEN INDIVIDUALS FROM THE AGES OF SIX TO FIFTEEN YEARS I N ORDER TO ESTABLISH TOPICS FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION  by  B e t t y Shuet-Wah Ng B. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1955 P.G.C.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f Southampton, E n g l a n d , 1956  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1962  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. f o r extensive  I f u r t h e r agree that permission  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s  be  representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  k r dx^x^y^^^  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  ,  CiU  i  ABSTRACT T h i s study o f behaviour as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s was c a r r i e d out i n the C h i l d A r t Research and Demonstration C e n t r e , the U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h Columbia,  o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  Vancouver,  from October, 1961 to March, 1962.  The  behaviour o f t e n i n d i v i d u a l s r a n g i n g i n age from s i x t o f i f t e e n was observed and recorded i n the form o f time samples,  a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d s and r a t i n g  scales.  T h i s study c o n s i s t s o f : 1.  A survey o f documents w r i t t e n by a u t h o r i t i e s  i n the  f i e l d of a r t education. 2.  A general analysis  o f the techniques used i n the  c o l l e c t i o n and treatment o f the data. 3»  Reports o f i n d i v i d u a l cases i n d i c a t i n g and q u a n t i t a t i v e  r e s u l t s o f the study.  The need to s u b s t i t u t e prompted the study. that  f a c t s f o r o p i n i o n s has  I n g e n e r a l , t h i s study has d i s c l o s e d  no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  personality  qualitative  e x i s t between c e r t a i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour  as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  characteristics  Although the number o f  s u b j e c t s has been l i m i t e d , y e t the accurate and d e t a i l e d c o n c l u s i o n s a r e able to supply t o p i c s f o r f u r t h e r investigation. (Chairman)  .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The to:  r e s e a r c h e r wishes t o express h e r g r a t i t u d e  P r o f e s s o r E. G. Ozard under whose d i r e c t i o n and  a d v i c e t h i s study was c a r r i e d out, Doctor  S. R. Laycock  whose c r i t i c i s m and suggestions have been most and  helpful  the p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s and parents o f t h e s u b j e c t s  for their interest  and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  II  PAGE The Problem 1.  Background o f the Problem  1  2.  Statement o f the Problem  2  3«  D e f i n i t i o n o f Important Terms . . . . . .  3  4.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study  3  A Survey o f the L i t e r a t u r e . 1.  2.  12  Treatment o f Data  15  Data Concerning P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r istics  2.  6*7  Reports on I n d i v i d u a l Cases i n the S e n i o r Group Age F i f t e e n  IX  16  Reports on I n d i v i d u a l Cases i n the Intermediate Group, Ages from E i g h t to Nine  VIII  15  R e p o r t s on I n d i v i d u a l Cases i n the Primary Group, Ages from S i x to E i g h t  VII  15  Data Concerning Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s  VI  8  Procedure and E x p l o r a t o r y Design  1.  V  5  S t u d i e s Having S p e c i f i c Relevance to the Problem  IV  5  S t u d i e s Having General Relevance to the Problem  III  1  160  C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study . • .  195  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Future Study  206  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS —  Continued PAGE  Appendix A  203  Appendix B  218  Bibliography  221  iv LIST OF CHARTS* PAGE CASE  CASE  1  2  Carole  Jerry  CHART  I  II  III  IV  26  V  VI  VII  VIII  30  IX  X  XI  I  II  III  • -V  VI  VII  X  XI  XII  50  I  II  III  IV  59  V  VI  VII  VIII  64  IX  X  XI  XII  68  I  II  III  IV  76  V  VI  VII  VIII  81  IX  X  XI  XII  85  I  II  III  IV  94  V  VI  VII  VIII  99  IX  X  XI  XII  104  I  II  III  IV  113  V  VI  VII  IX  X  XI  XII  121  I  II  III  IV  130  V  VI  VII  IX  X  XI  XII  140  I  II  III  IV  148  ,V  VI  VII  VIII  153  X  XI  CHART  IX CASE  CASE  CASE  CASE  CASE  CASE  3  4  5  6  7  8  Richard  Donald  Betty  Helen  Bill  Nick  CHART  CHART  CHART  CHART  CHART  CHART  IX  XII . i  i . . 33  IV VIII . . .  VIII  VIII  XII  42 .  46  117  135  158  V  L I S T OF CHARTS ~  Continued PAGE  CASE  9  C A S E 10  #  CHART  Claire  I II  I  II  III  V  VI  VII  IX  X  XI  I  II  III  V  VI  VII  IX  X  XI  CHART  Paula  CHART  . .  Waiting For His/Her Turn Eager  to  Contribute  to  Group Work  Group D i s c u s s i o n III  Settling to  IV  Showing  -,  Difficulties  Peers  or  Without  ,  .  Appealing  or Adults  .  Keen O b s e r v a t i o n  of  ,  the  .,  World  Around Him/Her. V  Able  to  Take  Advantage  Which Develop VI VII VIII IX X XI  Developing Restless Lack  Orderly  and  Work  i n Lack  Effort  to  Situations  Creative  Process.  Habits.  of  Concentration..  Improve  Art  Products.  Chatty Imitating Lack in  XII  of  i n the  of  Lack  of  Others  Original  Ideas  i n Discus.sion  Art Products of  Respect  for  , Persons  in  or ,  Authority  177  vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  PAGE No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x i s t e d Between S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c y and S e t t l i n g Without Appealing Art A c t i v i t i e s  II  Difficulties  to Peers o r Adults i n 196  (Chart I I I )  No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x i s t e d Between A b i l i t y t o Take Advantage o f New S i t u a t i o n s and A b i l i t y t o Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s (Chart V) . .  III  No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between Span o f A t t e n t i o n and Lack o f in Art Activities  IV  197  Concentration  (Chart V I )  198  No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between S t a n d a r d Set f o r H i m s e l f / H e r s e l f and E f f o r t t o Improve A r t P r o d u c t s (Chart V I I )  V  199  No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between L e a d e r s h i p and I m i t a t i n g O t h e r s i n A r t Activities  VI  (Chart X)  200  No S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p E x i s t e d Between Ideas f o r P l a y o r Work and Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t P r o d u c t s (Chart XI)201  VII VIII  Desirable Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  202  Undesirable  204  Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM 1.  Background o f the Problem  The  t e a c h i n g o f a r t to-day i s l i g h t - y e a r s removed  from the formal t r a i n i n g i n drawing s k i l l s .  A r t i s no  l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d as an e x t r a on the c u r r i c u l u m b u t as a major area o f l e a r n i n g .  Herbert  Read p o i n t s o u t :  " I t i s an e d u c a t i o n a l method i n which teacher must r e f r a i n from a p p l y i n g e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s b u t must r a t h e r a c t as a h e l p f u l mediator between the student and h i s environment, h e l p i n g him t o d i s cover h i s i n b o r n tendencies and d i s p o s i t i o n and encouraging and a s s i s t i n g him i n the d i r e c t i o n o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a r e r e v e a l e d i n h i s work".l As a r e s u l t o f t h i s e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s i o n , a r t educators b e g i n t o see t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the c h i l d should be understood and developed through sympathetic guidance o f the  teacher. I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h , p u b l i s h e d i n 1947, Rose H.  A l s c h u l e r and L a B e r t a Weiss Hattwick manifest  t h a t person-  a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n p a i n t i n g as w e l l as i n the behaviour as d i s p l a y e d i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s .  They s t a t e :  "Although i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o r e a l i z e , i t i s none the l e s s t r u e t h a t almost every drawing and p a i n t i n g made by a young c h i l d i s meaningful and  Tl Read, Herbert, E d u c a t i o n Through A r t , 2nd E d i t i o n (London: Faber & Faber, 1945), PP. 285-286.  i n some measure expresses the c h i l d who  did  2  it."  They b e l i e v e : "A study o f the c h i l d r e n ' s c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r behaviour d u r i n g the usage was e s s e n t i a l to any understanding o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the f i n a l products."3 I n s h o r t , they p o i n t up the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between persona l i t y and  f i n a l products as w e l l as the behaviour o f  c r e a t i n g them. O b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n i n a r t c l a s s e s l e a d to formulation who  o f the s t u d y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  the  Some c h i l d r e n  demonstrate a h i g h degree of o r i g i n a l i t y i n o t h e r  subjects  may  not be able to perform at a h i g h l e v e l  art activities.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any,  study undertaken i s to e x p l o r e what there  might be between how  behave i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and how i t y i n school and 2.  during  children  they r e v e a l t h e i r  personal-  a t home.  Statement of the Problem  I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y charact e r i s t i c s o f an i n d i v i d u a l are o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n h i s behaviour i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s and  activities.  terms t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the  In  general  extent o f c o r r e l a t i o n  between p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as shown at home and  in  2~, A l s c h u l e r , Rose H., and Hattwick, La B e r t a Weiss, P a i n t i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y , Two Volumes ( I l l i n o i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s ) , p. 5. 3.  Ibid.  3 s c h o o l and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t activities* S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study i s an attempt t o d i s c o v e r the  effects of personality  characteristics  characteristics  i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and the c o n t r i b u t i o n  these b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s personality.  on behaviour  to the development  of  of c h i l d  Furthermore, t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e  a r t a c t i v i t i e s enable an i n d i v i d u a l t o overcome undesirable personality  how  certain  characteristics.  3»  Definitions  For  the purpose o f c l a r i f y i n g the f o r e g o i n g statement  o f Important Terms.  o f the problem, the f o l l o w i n g  d e f i n i t i o n s a r e employed:  Behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c :  T h i s term s h a l l be  d e f i n e d as a d i s t i n c t i v e aspect o f t h e a c t s and responses of an i n d i v i d u a l . Personality  characteristic:  T h i s term s h a l l be  d e f i n e d as a d i s t i n c t i v e and enduring d i s p o s i t i o n and q u a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l that  accounts f o r h i s r e l a t i v e  consistency i n emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l ,  physical  and temperamental b e h a v i o u r . Art a c t i v i t i e s :  T h i s term s h a l l be used t o d e s c r i b e  p i c t u r e - m a k i n g , m o d e l l i n g , p a i n t i n g , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f making any form o f a r t work that i n g and manual 4.  requires creative  dexterity.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study.  What has been known about r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  think-  p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d i s p l a y e d that  i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s comes from the h y p o t h e s i s  " t o guide, e n r i c h and make f r u i t f u l the spontaneous  i d e a s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n i s to b u i l d a secure foundat i o n f o r the f u l l development o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y " . ^ e f f e c t s o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s on p e r s o n a l i t y o n l y h y p o t h e t i c a l l y and i n c l u d e d  are o f t e n  The  discussed  only i n c i d e n t a l l y .  The  i n t e r a c t i o n s between p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and beh a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as d i s p l a y e d are seldom r e p o r t e d a p e r i o d o f time.  as o c c u r r i n g  i n art activities,  i n i n d i v i d u a l cases over  I t i s the purpose o f t h i s study to  manifest how some d e s i r a b l e behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an i n d i v i d u a l , which a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t home and i n school, are often displayed  and prove important i n a r t  a c t i v i t i e s and how some u n d e s i r a b l e  behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s which a r e apparent a t home and i n s c h o o l c o n t r o l i n t h e c r e a t i v e process. aim  a r e kept under  I f an a r t programme i s t o  a t t h e development o f p e r s o n a l i t y , these v a r i a b l e  rela-  t i o n s h i p s between behaviour shown i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and personality  displayed  into consideration.  a t home and i n s c h o o l  should be taken  The r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t an a c c u r a t e ,  d e t a i l e d and p u r p o s e f u l study o f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s as shown i n i n d i v i d u a l cases adds to the understanding and i n s i g h t o f c h i l d p e r s o n a l i t y and i t s growth through a r t .  4^ Read, Herbert, E d u c a t i o n Through A r t . 2 n d E d i t i o n , (London: Faber & Faber, 1 9 4 5 ) P- 3 2 .  CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF THE 1.  LITERATURE  S t u d i e s Having General Relevance to the  Problem.  Dewey s t a t e s : A r t r e s u l t s from an a c t o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n v o l v i n g emotion and i n t e l l e c t . Thus, we may say that a r t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p r e s s i o n g i v i n g form and o r d e r to human being's r e a c t i o n to h i s environment.-* T h i s concept t h a t a r t bears the i t s c r e a t o r p o i n t s up between a r t and  o f the p e r s o n a l i t y  the need of studying  personality.  education reveals  imprint  the  relationships  A survey of l i t e r a t u r e on a r t  some attempts on t h i s t o p i c .  Rose H.  l e r and La B e r t a Weiss Hattwick, on w r i t i n g " P a i n t i n g Personality as  —  of  A Study of Young C h i l d r e n " r e c o r d  their  Alschuand findings  follows: Those c h i l d r e n who c o n s i s t e n t l y favoured warm c o l o u r s tended, f o r the most p a r t , to manifest the f r e e emotiona l behaviour, the warm a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s , and the s e l f - c e n t r e d o r i e n t a t i o n n a t u r a l f o r c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age. L i n e and form tend t o g i v e the most i n t e l l i g i b l e c l u e s to the amount of energy the c h i l d i s expending, the degree o f c o n t r o l the c h i l d i s e x e r c i s i n g , and the d i r e c t i o n i n which that c o n t r o l i s o p e r a t i n g . The use o f space seems to express the c h i l d s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s environment. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s u b j e c t matter w i t h i n e n c l o s u r e s or grouping o f s u b j e c t i n t o t i g h t masses u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e s r e p r e s s i o n or a s h u t - i n f e e l i n g . 1  5. Dewey, John, A r t As E x p e r i e n c e . (New B a l c h , 1934), pp. 64-olT  York:  Minton  6  C h i l d r e n observed to work p r i m a r i l y i n curved continuous s t r o k e s tended to s t a n d out as a group f o r t h e i r more dependent, more compliant, more e m o t i o n a l l y toned r e a c t i o n s . The o u t s t a n d i n g frequency w i t h which c h i l d r e n choose b l u e t o make t h e i r f i r s t l e t t e r s u n d e r l i n e s the f a c t t h a t the use o f b l u e p a r a l l e l s c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l and a s p i r a t i o n . The smearing o f c i r c l e s has been a c o n s i s t e n t p a i n t i n g p a t t e r n among c h i l d r e n who seemed to be r e s i s t i n g e i t h e r a submissive or a feminine r o l e . C h i l d r e n who p r e f e r r e d crayons were, as a group more concerned w i t h e x p r e s s i n g ideas and w i t h the d e s i r e to communicate with o t h e r s than w i t h f i n d i n g a f r e e o u t l e t f o r t h e i r own impulses. Two-, t h r e e - , and f o u r - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n tend to express the same f e e l i n g s through c r e a t i v e media that they express i n o v e r t b e h a v i o u r . " Some w r i t e r s have c l a s s i f i e d c h i l d r e n i n t o p e r s o n a l i t y types l a r g e l y a c c o r d i n g t o the s u b j e c t matter o r treatment the a r t work they produce. of  Their writings, especially  of  those  Lowenfeld, appear to have e x e r t e d i n f l u e n c e upon a r t  e d u c a t i o n a l l over the w o r l d .  In " C r e a t i v e and Mental Growth"  Lowenfeld d e s c r i b e s h i s two types as f o l l o w s : Type A. V i s u a l — f e e l s l i k e a s p e c t a t o r ; sees the g e n e r a l shape o f an o b j e c t , then d e t a i l s , u s u a l l y begins work w i t h o u t l i n e of o b j e c t ! t h e n adds d e t a i l s ; 'how a t h i n g l o o k s ' i s f i r s t r e a c t i o n t o an encounter w i t h any o b j e c t , uses c o r r e c t p r o p o r t i o n s and measurements o f drawn o r modeled human f i g u r e ; l i k e w i s e , space i s r e p r e s e n t e d by l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e . Type B. Haptic — 'the s e l f i s p r o j e c t e d as the t r u e a c t o r o f the p i c t u r e ' . ' S i z e s and spaces are determined by t h e i r emotional value i n s i z e and appearance . 'Human f i g u r e i s l i k e w i s e r e p r e s e n t e d 1  5^ A l s c h u l e r , Rose H., and Hattwick, La B e r t a Weiss, P a i n t i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y — A Study o f Young C h i l d r e n , Two Volumes ( I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ) .  7 i n p r o p o r t i o n o n l y to the s i g n i f i c a n c e the p a i n t s have f o r the a r t i s t ' ; h a p t i c space i s a p e r s p e c t i v e o f values.7 Many w r i t e r s c l a i m t h a t a r t c o n t r i b u t e s to i t y development.  D i s c u s s i n g the r o l e o f a r t i n  Ralph L. W i c k i s e r  states:  personal-  education  I n the process o f growing and d e v e l o p i n g , the young person encounters many f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a tions. By r e l e a s i n g emotional t e n s i o n s and f e a r , the a r t experience tends to encourage f r e e e x p r e s s i o n , g i v e the c h i l d confidence i n h i s a b i l i t y , and thus a i d i n emotional adjustment. When the c h i l d f e e l s f r e e to be e x p r e s s i v e , h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s f r e e to mature. Many schools t o day are concerned w i t h the t o t a l development o f p e r s o n a l i t y as evidence o f success or f a i l u r e i n educative process. Thus, a c t i v i t y , the process o f doing, assumes new importance, and what i t does to the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y has become a major concern i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . 8  Hence, some w r i t e r s suggest c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g u a l growth through a r t .  Howard Conant and Ann  w r i t i n g on "Art i n E d u c a t i o n "  individ-  Randell,  p o i n t out the evidence o f  i n d i v i d u a l growth i n t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y development as follows: I n d i v i d u a l uniqueness. A b i l i t y to t h i n k f o r o n e s e l f , to use i n i t i a t i v e . A b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y or put something o f o n e s e l f i n t o one's work. A b i l i t y t o concentrate upon c r e a t i v e a r t exp r e s s i o n t o a p o i n t where the i n d i v i d u a l i s not easily distracted.  T* Lowenfeld, V i k t o r , C r e a t i v e and Mental Growth, York: Macmillan, 1957). p. 233.  (New  £• W i c k i s e r , Ralph L. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to A r t Educat i o n . (London: George G. Harrap), p. 20.  8  A b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s moods and s i n c e r e f e e l i n g through a r t expression. A b i l i t y t o work t o t h e c a p a c i t y o f one's ability. A b i l i t y to evaluate oneself. A b i l i t y t o r e c e i v e and p r o f i t by d e s e r v e d p r a i s e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . A b i l i t y t o derive personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and j u s t i f i a b l e p r i d e f r o m accomplishments i n art.'* Q  I n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f c r i t e r i a used i n a p p r a i s a l o f t h e a r t programme, C h a r l e s G a i t s k e l l i n c l u d e s " t h e q u a l i t y o f each p u p i l ' s behaviour as e x h i b i t e d during h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l types o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s " . ^ ^ to t h e study 2.  T h i s has s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e  undertaken.  S t u d i e s Having S p e c i f i c R e l e v a n c e t o t h e P r o b l e m .  A l t h o u g h some s t a t e m e n t s such a s C h a r l e s G a i t s k e l l ' s are given regarding c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour as d i s p l a y e d i n art  a c t i v i t i e s , very few s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s a r e made t o r e -  l a t e them t o p e r s o n a l i t y . Weise H a t t w i c k pre-school  Rose H. A l s c h u l e r and L a B e r t a  s t u d i e d some b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  children.  They b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e a r e sugges-  t i v e of personality t r a i t s .  They r e c o r d t h e most  and r e c u r r e n t b e h a v i o u r t e n d e n c i e s  frequent  found a t e a s e l p a i n t i n g  as f o l l o w s : 1. B e h a v i o u r s u g g e s t i v e o f f e l t need f o r , and s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m p a i n t s , . e . g . , Produced l a r g e  9. Conant, Howard and R a n d a l l . Ann, A r t i n E d u c a t i o n . ( I l l i n o i s : Chas. A. B e n n e t t , 1959). 10. G a i t s k e l l , C h a r l e s D., C h i l d r e n and T h e i r A r t . (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace & Co., 1958), P« 396.  9  numbers o f p a i n t i n g s i n a s i n g l e p a i n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , more outgoing i n speech and i n f r i e n d l y o v e r t u r e s a t easel. 2. Behaviour s u g g e s t i v e o f s o c i a l d e s i r e s and needs, e.g., Stood a t e a s e l watching o t h e r s ; tendency to a v o i d o r seek a t t e n t i o n ; voiced desire f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s while p a i n t i n g ; more outgoing behaviour a t e a s e l than otherwise. 3. Behaviour s u g g e s t i v e o f a g g r e s s i v e d r i v e s , e.g.. S p i t w h i l e a t e a s e l ; smeared a t e a s e l ; h i t e a s e l hard; t e e t h clenched; smeared work w i t h i n t e n t to d e s t r o y and took p l e a s u r e i n t h e p r o c e s s . A t t a c k e d o t h e r s v e r b a l l y or i n more obvious ways while painting or d i r e c t l y thereafter. F i r s t s e l f defense a t s c h o o l o c c u r r e d a t e a s e l . 4. Behaviour s u g g e s t i v e o f c l e a n l i n e s s concern o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y t o smear, e.g., I n t e r e s t i n wetness o f p a i n t ; obvious e x p r e s s i o n o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i l e smearing; took g r e a t care t o a v o i d smeared product; expressed concern over need to wash hands o r t o keep s e l f c l e a n ; r e c u r r e n t tendency to go d i r e c t l y to t o i l e t a f t e r p a i n t i n g experience. 5. Behaviour s u g g e s t i v e o f o r a l t e n s i o n s , e.g., Sucked f i n g e r s o r thumb w h i l e p a i n t i n g , sucked l i p , whistled while p a i n t i n g . H The w r i t e r supports t h e i r g e n e r a l i z e d f i n d i n g s w i t h anecdotal records of i n d i v i d u a l cases. Some w r i t e r s make case s t u d i e s o f e m o t i o n a l l y d i s turbed i n d i v i d u a l s .  The purpose o f t h e i r s t u d i e s i s t o  r e l a t e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h behaviour  charac-  t e r i s t i c s as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and t o prove the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a r t towards p e r s o n a l i t y development. C o l e , w r i t i n g on "The A r t s i n the Classroom"  Natalie  mentions a case  11. A l s c h u l e r , Rose H. and Hattwick, La B e r t a Weiss, P a i n t i n g and P e r s o n a l i t y . A Study o f Young C h i l d r e n , Two Volumes, ( I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s ) , p. 127.  10 o f a problem c h i l d , W a l t e r , who a p l a t e that he c o n t i n u e d writer  became so absorbed i n making  even a f t e r the b e l l rang.  The  reports:  He brought the p l a t e t o me w i t h a q u i e t e r a i r than I had ever seen him have.... I t (the p l a t e ) was an e n t e r i n g wedge to get i n s i d e W a l t e r and a f f e c t h i s f e e l i n g s about h i m s e l f and consequently the world i n g e n e r a l . The p l a t e was to help put h i s ego upon f i r m e r ground so t h a t the showo f f i s h n e s s , bumping, t r i p p i n g and b u l l y i n g would be unnecessary.12 In her book "Art and C h i l d P e r s o n a l i t y " , Ruth Dunnett makes b r i e f case s t u d i e s of s e v e r a l boys i n an evacuation  school.  p o s i t i o n s she  About a boy  who  painted  a b s t r a c t com-  reports:  He was a boy who got tremendous s a t i s f a c t i o n from h i s drawing and p a i n t i n g , not only because o f the o p p o r t u n i t y to a s s e r t h i m s e l f through the subject-matter o f h i s p i c t u r e s but a l s o because he developed i n a s m a l l way an a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t i n c o l o u r and technique. I t gave him p r i d e and s e l f - r e s p e c t which were g r a d u a l l y more than c o u n t e r a c t i n g the u n d e s i r a b l e elements i n h i s character.13 The  w r i t e r shows her concern about the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f  a r t towards p e r s o n a l i t y development.  She  states:  F o r the purpose o f t h i s book, a r t i s regarded i n a r a t h e r s p e c i a l l i g h t and i t s t e a c h i n g  (New  12. C o l e , N a t a l i e Robinson, The York: John Day, 1940), p. 53.  A r t i n the Classroom,  13* Dunnett, Ruth, A r t and C h i l d P e r s o n a l i t y . Methuen, 1948), p. 29.  (London:  11 a c c o r d i n g l y i s concerned not so much w i t h t e a c h i n g a r t f o r a r t ' s sake, b u t i n t e a c h i n g a r t as something which develops p e r s o n a l i t y and l e a d s to a f u l l e r l i f e . ^ 1  A survey o f the l i t e r a t u r e on a r t e d u c a t i o n  reveals  t h a t most case s t u d i e s are a r t therapy r e p o r t s about i n d i v i d u a l s i n an a r t therapy s i t u a t i o n . few  There are c u r i o u s l y  case s t u d i e s of normal c h i l d r e n concerning  the  relation-  s h i p s between t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e i r behaviour as displayed i n art a c t i v i t i e s .  14* Dunnett, Ruth, A r t and Methuen, 194#), p. 4.  C h i l d P e r s o n a l i t y . (London:  CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURE AND The  study was  EXPLORATORY DESIGN  c a r r i e d out f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x months  i n the C h i l d A r t Research and Demonstration Centre, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. c e n t r e was  c a r e f u l l y designed  The  The  a r t teaching i n t h i s  so t h a t c h i l d r e n might have a  v a r i e t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s to become i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r a r t a c t i v i t i e s , to behave f l e x i b l y and i n making and j u d g i n g a r t works. i n d i v i d u a l s ranging i n age  to t h i n k The  independently  s u b j e c t s were t e n  from s i x to f i f t e e n , s e l e c t e d  from the primary, i n t e r m e d i a t e  and  senior classes.  These  i n d i v i d u a l s came a f t e r s c h o o l and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a r t a c t i v i t i e s once a week. the student  They were taught  by  teachers and o c c a s i o n a l l y by the i n s t r u c t o r s o f  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The  study was  i n the nature  r a t h e r than t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s i s . gathered  from i n t e r v i e w s and  The  o f an e x p l o r a t o r y  The  data f o r the study  was  observations.  c l a s s t e a c h e r of each s u b j e c t was  to o b t a i n data concerning  study  interviewed  the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y as  d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g r o u t i n e s , use o f m a t e r i a l s , work h a b i t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p with peers and a d u l t s i n s c h o o l . t e a c h e r was  a l s o asked to f i l l  The c l a s s  i n a questionnaire r a t i n g  d e s c r i b i n g c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  and  subject.  13  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s presented  i n Appendix A, (Page 208)  One o f the s u b j e c t ' s parents was i n t e r v i e w e d a t t h e i r home t o p r o v i d e data concerning  the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y a s  r e v e a l e d i n h i s use o f m a t e r i a l s , work h a b i t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a m i l y a t home.  Data concerning  the s u b j e c t ' s  c h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the f a m i l y and the o u t s i d e world were a l s o obtained. i n v i t e d to f i l l  Both parents were  i n the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e c l a s s  t e a c h e r so as t o g i v e an a l l round p i c t u r e o f the s u b j e c t ' s personality. Twelve behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s i x d e s i r a b l e and s i x u n d e s i r a b l e , were observed d u r i n g a r t a c t i v i t i e s . i n t e n s i t y and frequency on a twenty-unit  The  o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was r a t e d  c h a r t a t the end o f each l e s s o n .  c h a r t i s shown i n Appendix B, (Page  217).  This  The r e s e a r c h e r  i n d i c a t e d her judgment o f each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by p l a c i n g a check mark on each l i n e a c c o r d i n g t o the c a p t i o n a t the t o p . I n s t e a d o f adhering  t o the d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t , she might make  h e r check mark a t the approximate p o i n t j u s t where she thought i t was most s u i t a b l e . finer ratings.  T h i s permitted her to make  An average mean o f the scores f o r each  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was made a t the end o f each month.  These  were put i n a c h a r t as shown i n r e p o r t s on i n d i v i d u a l cases  (Chapters V, VI and V I I ) . Apart from r a t i n g behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the  researcher recorded  each s u b j e c t ' s behaviour and speech i n  14 a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n the form o f h a l f - h o u r time samples and anecdotal r e c o r d s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , the procedure and d e s i g n used i n t h i s study were borrowed from s o c i a l s c i e n c e and adapted t o f i t the p a r t i c u l a r need o f the study undertaken.  Although  the number o f s u b j e c t s was s m a l l , the f i n d i n g s d e r i v e d from a c c u r a t e and d e t a i l e d study were able t o e s t a b l i s h a great number o f t o p i c s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  CHAPTER IV TREATMENT OF DATA 1.  Data Concerning P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f each s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y were w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g t o the data gathered c l a s s teacher and a parent. the t e a c h e r ' s  during interviews with h i s  A comparison was made between  remarks on the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y as shown  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the p a r e n t s ' all  so as t o produce an  round view o f the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . 2.  Data Concerning Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Displayed i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s .  The  r a t i n g s o f each b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was put  i n a c h a r t showing the degree o f r i s e s and f a l l s s i t y and frequency  i n inten-  d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  r i s e s and f a l l s , as w e l l as the negative  These  r e s u l t s , are  e x p l a i n e d by e x c e r p t s taken from time-samples o r a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d s and r e l a t e s t o remarks on p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made by the c l a s s teacher o r parents i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w .  CHAPTER V REPORTS ON  INDIVIDUAL CASES IN THE  PRIMARY GROUP  AGES FROM SIX TO EIGHT CASE 1 Description: C a r o l e , age  s i x , was  blonde and  straight-haired.  appeared to be a h i g h l y marked i n d i v i d u a l i s t who s o l v e her problems i n her own left-handed  unique way.  c h i l d i n the Centre but  o f her handicap.  She  c l o t h l i k e other  l i k e d to  She was  she never f e l t  the  She was  only  conscious  complained that she c o u l d not  children.  She  cut  quite s a t i s f i e d with  drawing w i t h crayons w h i l e the whole group were making collage pictures. She  was  very t a l k a t i v e .  Whenever she  could f i n d a  l i s t e n e r she would keep t a l k i n g about what happened a t home and  i n school.  She  mentioned her  s i s t e r V i c k y sometimes, but  more o f t e n she t a l k e d about h e r s e l f .  When she was  asked to  c o n t r i b u t e to a group d i s c u s s i o n , more than once she monopol i z e d the  s i t u a t i o n and  t a l k e d to the c h i l d r e n .  were so o r i g i n a l t h a t she had  Her  ideas  no d i f f i c u l t y i n h o l d i n g  their  attention. She  had  not much i d e a about time.  c l a s s e i t h e r very e a r l y or very l a t e .  She came to  the  L i k e most c h i l d r e n o f  17  h e r age, her f r i e n d s h i p w i t h other c h i l d r e n was by-week b a s i s .  on a week-  She took to Betty-Ann f o r a short time  and  came to the Centre w i t h her but soon they l o s t i n t e r e s t i n each o t h e r . She was  t i d i l y c l a d i n c l o t h i n g of good q u a l i t y  she took reasonably good care of them.  However, she  was  never q u i t e a b l e t o d r e s s h e r s e l f w i t h ease and o f t e n t r o u b l e p u t t i n g on her shoes as she was  and  had  unable to t e l l  the  l e f t shoe from the r i g h t shoe and c o u l d not t i e shoe l a c e s p r o p e r l y without h e l p .  She seldom appealed  to peers  and  a d u l t s f o r help but s t r o v e to overcome her d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a clumsy manner.  She  c h i l d r e n o f her age.  c o u l d not run o r jump s p o r t i v e l y l i k e She walked s l o w l y and s t e a d i l y  like  an e l d e r l y l a d y . C a r o l e ' s parents came from England i n 1 9 5 4 * was  the younger o f the two g i r l s i n the f a m i l y .  was  an a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r i n the School o f S o c i a l Work a t  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  Carole  The mother had  Teacher's T r a i n i n g but had been f o r c e d t o g i v e i t up cause o f her housework.  She was  now  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. age n i n e , was  father  taken be-  t e a c h i n g part-time  at  V i c k y , the e l d e r s i s t e r ,  i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e group i n the C h i l d A r t  Centre and p r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n o f her own  age t o C a r o l e .  was  very t a l k a t i v e and r a t h e r 'bossy'.  The  Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n of C a r o l e ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o her mother, C a r o l e was  emotionally  She  18 immature f o r her age.  She was  c o n f i d e n c e when she was  very much i n l a c k o f  small.  Her p a r e n t s had a hard  h e l p i n g her to b u i l d up her ego* f a v o r i t e hobbyj i t was  self-  the f i r s t  Drawing was  time  always her  t h i n g she d i d i n the morn-  i n g and the l a s t t h i n g she d i d a t n i g h t .  She p r e f e r r e d  crayons, a l t h o u g h she had a l l k i n d s o f media.  She  l i k e d to  work on the f l o o r , although she had an e a s e l . C a r o l e was of denial. relief.  always r e p r e s s e d .  When she was  She took up the  i n t r o u b l e she turned to drawing f o r  Some of her works were drawings o f c o n f u s i o n  e x p r e s s i o n s o f her mood.  In t h i s way  she was  s i s t e r V i c k y i n p e r s o n a l i t y , f o r V i c k y was minded.  principle  —  u n l i k e her  always open-  C a r o l e never cared f o r her t e a c h e r ' s a f f e c t i o n as  much as o t h e r c h i l d r e n of her age, yet she l i k e d p r a i s e s and f l o u r i s h e d i n them. C a r o l e had attended the C h i l d Study Centre f o r p r e school c h i l d r e n . creative child. was  The p r i n c i p a l c o n s i d e r e d her a very h i g h l y Undoubtedly she had a h i g h I.Q.,  not g i v i n g her b e s t i n s c h o o l .  but  she  Her parents never pressed  t h e i r c h i l d r e n to t r y t h e i r b e s t . When C a r o l e was fantasy.  s m a l l she was  very i n t e r e s t e d i n  She l i k e d to be dressed up and pretended  c h a r a c t e r s than her own.  Now  to be  she began t o see the d i f f e r e n c e  between p l a y time and work, r e a l i t y and f a n t a s y .  Apart from  a t t e n d i n g the C h i l d A r t Centre, C a r o l e s t a r t e d b a l l e t year.  other  She a l s o attended the C r e a t i v e Drama C l a s s  this  sponsored  by the Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f  19 B r i t i s h Columbia.  She was  p l e a s a n t a l l day l o n g a f t e r coming  home from the drama c l a s s . *  Her mother s a i d that she made sure t h a t her d i d not f e e l uncomfortable She was  children  o r i n s e c u r e because she worked.  always a t home when they r e t u r n e d from s c h o o l .  o f t e n p a i n t e d s i d e by s i d e i n the k i t c h e n and C a r o l e was  They  t a l k e d to her.  short o f f r i e n d s i n the neighbourhood  cause there were very few  c h i l d r e n her own  age.  be-  Her mother  d i d not want her to a s s o c i a t e w i t h some whom she  considered  as d e l i n q u e n t s . The C l a s s Teacher's  Description of Carole's Personality.  A c c o r d i n g to her c l a s s t e a c h e r , C a r o l e was t a l k a t i v e and e x c i t a b l e c h i l d . own  a very  She l i k e d to c a r r y out  i d e a s r a t h e r than the t e a c h e r ' s d i r e c t i o n s .  her  I f the  t e a c h e r mentioned something t h a t i n t e r e s t e d C a r o l e i n her t a l k to the c l a s s , C a r o l e would i n t e r r u p t her and t a l k  on  to the c h i l d r e n . C a r o l e took a l o n g time t o a d j u s t h e r s e l f t o the school s i t u a t i o n . i n g but she was  She was  very unco-operative  a t the  making improvement i n her behaviour.  beginnShe  r e a l i z e d t h a t she had to take her t u r n i n the d a i l y r o u t i n e s . She  l o o k e d unhappy whenever the t e a c h e r had to c o r r e c t her.  B e i n g s e n s i t i v e , she was  very much upset by the  teacher's  remarks. She was everything.  w e l l l i k e d by the o t h e r c h i l d r e n .  She managed  Most c h i l d r e n of t h a t age are submissive  a c c e p t e d C a r o l e ' s l e a d e r s h i p without  hesitation.  and  20 C a r o l e never c r i e d a t s c h o o l even when she was upset. When she had d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g h e r s e l f t o the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e term she would c r y h e r h e a r t out a t home. The c l a s s teacher b e l i e v e d t h a t C a r o l e got l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n , but much i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c s t i m u l a t i o n at home.  I n f a c t , C a r o l e gained a good g e n e r a l knowledge  from h e r f a m i l y background.  Her i n t e l l e c t u a l growth was  very much f a s t e r than her p h y s i c a l growth.  C a r o l e was  clumsy i n walking and h a n d l i n g h e r s e l f . A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s  1  and the Teacher's  Answers t o  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on C a r o l e ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . C a r o l e ' s parents and her c l a s s t e a c h e r agreed i n t h e i r answers t o q u e s t i o n s on C a r o l e ' s emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s except t h a t t h e teacher c o n s i d e r e d t h a t C a r o l e f r e q u e n t l y sought a t t e n t i o n .  The reason i s , probably, t h a t  b e i n g q u i t e s e l f - c e n t r e d , C a r o l e f e l t t h a t she d i d not get as much a t t e n t i o n i n s c h o o l as she d i d a t home. she  Accordingly,  sought the a t t e n t i o n o f h e r t e a c h e r and peers.  t e a c h e r s t a t e d above, she o f t e n gained i t .  Regarding  C a r o l e ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h e r parents w i t h the teacher t h a t h e r a b i l i t y was  average.  As the  to l e a r n from  agreed  experience  They p o i n t e d out that f o r c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h i s  a b i l i t y sank below average.  They n o t i c e d t h a t h e r a b i l i t y to  take advantage o f new s i t u a t i o n s was above average at home. T h i s a b i l i t y was c o n s i d e r e d as average i n s c h o o l probably  21 because she was f e l t f r e e r and With r e g a r d  l e s s a t ease i n s c h o o l than a t home where more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n h a n d l i n g  to C a r o l e ' s  n o t i c e d t h a t she was play routines.  Her  new  situations.  s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , her  teacher  q u i t e u n w i l l i n g to co-operate i n work o r parents found t h a t her w i l l i n g n e s s to  co-operate v a r i e d from one b e l i e v e d that she was  extreme to the other.  generous w i t h m a t e r i a l s .  c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i o n f o r those w i t h whom she  They a l s o I t was  the  co-operated  The  C a r o l e always took the l e a d .  parents noticed that  The  sometimes l e d , sometimes f o l l o w e d and The  teacher  and  teacher  and  shared t h a t made the d i f f e r e n c e .  imitated others.  she  found t h a t  at other times  she  she  the p a r e n t s agreed i n  t h e i r answers to questionson C a r o l e ' s  physical characteris-  t i c s except t h a t the p a r e n t s n o t i c e d t h a t a t home C a r o l e ' s span o f a t t e n t i o n was  long.  The  were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s The  teacher's  parents and  the  regarding Carole's  remarks showed that C a r o l e ' s  teacher character.  orderliness  p a t i e n c e were below average r a t h e r than average, as ered by her p a r e n t s .  She  consid-  a l s o found t h a t C a r o l e was  a l l ready to co-operate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y .  and  not  The  at  parents  remarked t h a t she would co-operate i f good r e l a t i o n s h i p s had been e s t a b l i s h e d .  The t e a c h e r  change when i n t e r f e r e d .  The  n o t i c e d that C a r o l e r e s i s t e d  p a r e n t s found t h a t she  accepted  change but o c c a s i o n a l l y she r e v e r t e d t o the o r i g i n a l . t h i s had who  to do w i t h the c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  interfered.  Again, adults  22 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s * D e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart I  Characteristics  W a i t i n g f o r Her Turn  C a r o l e scored between 13 and 15*  There i s a tendency  towards a r i s i n g graph i n the l a s t three months as she g r a d u a l l y l e a r n e d to d i s c i p l i n e Centre.  h e r s e l f i n s c h o o l and i n t h e  Although her impatience was apparent  (as the remark  o f her c l a s s teacher t h a t C a r o l e ' s p a t i e n c e was below a v e r a g e ) , C a r o l e o f t e n waited f o r her t u r n i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpts prove  this.  O c t o b e r 10, 1961. She w a i t e d f o r V a l e r y who worked next to h e r to f i n i s h u s i n g the c o l o u r b e f o r e she dipped her brush i n t o i t . (Anecdotal  Record).  December 12, 1961. She  d i d n o t want to p a i n t the background o f the  mural when the t e a c h e r o f f e r e d h e r t h e chance, but as soon as she f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g a b i g d o l l , she came up and t o l d the t e a c h e r t h a t she wanted to use t h e b i g brush t o p a i n t the background.  No b i g brush was f r e e a t t h a t moment.  She  l o o k e d i m p a t i e n t , y e t she stood and waited u n t i l S t u a r t l e f t so t h a t she c o u l d have h e r t u r n . (Anecdotal  Record).  March 20, 1962. 4:15  The c h i l d r e n stood around the t r e e .  Each waited  f o r h i s t u r n t o put h i s rock i n to keep the t r e e  23 upright.  C a r o l e accepted the l o n g w a i t without  showing any s i g n o f impatience. Chart I I  (Time Sample).  Eager to C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work o r Group Discussion.  C a r o l e scored above 17* 5«  With h e r good g e n e r a l  knowledge and f l u e n c y i n speech, C a r o l e was as eager t o cont r i b u t e i n the C h i l d A r t Centre as i n s c h o o l . e x c e r p t proves her eagerness January  The f o l l o w i n g  to c o n t r i b u t e .  30, 1962. When t h e student-teacher f i n i s h e d t h e s t o r y about  the pink bear, she asked who would t e l l the group a s t o r y . C a r o l e was the f i r s t t o put up her hand.  She was so c o n f i -  dent o f h e r s e l f and so c l e a r i n speech t h a t the c h i l d r e n c o u l d not but admire and l i s t e n to her.  (Anecdotal Record).  S l i g h t drops occur when her eagerness was overpowered by o t h e r d e s i r e s .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt serves as  an example o f t h i s change i n behaviour. March 20, 1962. 3:51  She was s t a n d i n g under the branch and admired the two b i r d s she had c o n t r i b u t e d .  "Can I take them  home to,show Dad and Mom?" she asked.  The student  t e a c h e r t o l d h e r to make a •best* one t o take home. C a r o l e was s a t i s f i e d .... 4:05  She s t a r t e d drawing t h e f i f t h b i r d . take t h i s home", she s a i d to h e r s e l f .  " I am going t o , She put i t  w i t h the two o t h e r s she had made and took them home. (Time Sample).  24 Chart I I I  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults.  C a r o l e scored between 11.5 o c c u r when, handicapped  and 18.7*  Marked  drops  by her clumsiness, she appealed t o  a d u l t s or peers f o r h e l p .  The f i r s t  marked drop can be  e x p l a i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g exemplary e x c e r p t : November 21,  1961.  She asked a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r t o h e l p her take o f f her corduroy o v e r a l l and put on her jeans b e f o r e she c o u l d get i n t o her p a i n t i n g smock.  (Anecdotal Record).  Another e x c e r p t shows her o c c a s i o n a l appeal to a d u l t s o r peers f o r h e l p . March 20,  1962.  4:07  s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r took the c l a s s out to gather  The  r o c k s t o keep the t r e e u p r i g h t . 4:09  C a r o l e was my  clumsy i n c r o s s i n g the d i t c h .  hand', she s a i d to Betty-Ann.  'Hold  As soon as she  was  helped a c r o s s she ran c l u m s i l y back t o the Centre. (Time Sample). C a r o l e u s u a l l y made an attempt  to s e t t l e  t i e s h e r s e l f before appealing f o r help.  difficul-  However, her  independence f o r h e l p , as n o t i c e d by her p a r e n t s a t home, d i d not c l o s e l y correspond w i t h o c c a s i o n a l appeals f o r help as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s where h e l p was eliminate  frustration.  g i v e n to  25 C h a r t IV  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e World Around Her.  C a r o l e scored above 17*6  As the t e a c h e r p o i n t e d  o u t , she had gained a good g e n e r a l knowledge and i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c s t i m u l a t i o n from h e r f a m i l y background.  Her  a b i l i t y to g e n e r a l i z e and deduce a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the f u l l growth o f t h i s behaviour  characteristic.  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t s show her keen o b s e r v a t i o n o f the w o r l d around h e r . October 10, The  1961. i n s t r u c t o r asked  the c h i l d r e n t o p a i n t Dad and  h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f burning,leaves.  Carole f i r s t painted a  f i r e , then she added t o i t l e a v e s r e p r e s e n t e d by dots o f brown and green. February  27,  The made. at  .  (Anecdotal  Record).  1962.  c l a s s was t a l k i n g about long t r i p s which they had  C a r o l e gave a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f what she saw  a c a f e i n Mexico C i t y .  She added:  We j u s t wanted t o see the p l a c e " . March 20,  "We d i d n ' t e a t t h e r e . (Anecdotal  Record).  1962.  I n s t e a d o f p a i n t i n g separate b i r d s l i k e  other  c h i l d r e n , C a r o l e drew a mother b i r d with a baby b i r d and b i r d s e a t i n g worms. Chart V  Able in The  (Anecdotal  Record).  to Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop  the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s .  degree o f g r e a t r i s e s and f a l l s i n frequency and  i n t e n s i t y v a r i e s from s i t u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n .  Being a  h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e c h i l d , C a r o l e should be able t o take  26 CHART I W a i t i n g f o r Her Turn  CHART I I Eager to C o n t r i b u t e  0#t Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties  CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  27 advantage o f any s i t u a t i o n which develops i n the c r e a t i v e process.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  shows how she made use o f  a new s i t u a t i o n , December 5, 1962. 4:25  She headed f o r the ledge to get a b a l l ,  4:26  She examined the b a l l . threaded  Then she stuck two s t i c k s  w i t h beads i n t o i t .  She c a l l e d out:  "A  bunny r a b b i t J " as the i d e a f l a s h e d i n t o h e r mind. (Time Sample). However, C a r o l e was not a b l e to c o n t r o l h e r s e l f physically.  Her left-handedness  was a l s o a handicap to h e r .  Towards the end o f the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , when the c h i l d r e n p a i n t e d a t the e a s e l , C a r o l e was n o t quick enough to take advantage o f t h e d r i p p i n g l i q u i d p a i n t s . February 4:23  27,  1962.  She used black f o r the man's h a i r . d r i p p e d because i t was too wet. sh l  n  Again i t  She s a i d : " s h i  as the p a i n t r a n f a s t downward.  She t r i e d t o  check i t w i t h t h e brush but i t had a l r e a d y on to the e a s e l and the f l o o r .  dripped  (Time Sample).  As t h e t e a c h e r had n o t i c e d , slow movement was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Carole's personality. Chart V I .  Developing  O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s .  C a r o l e scored between 5.5 and 14. apparent i n t h i s behaviour  characteristic.  I n s t a b i l i t y was Regarding h e r  p e r s o n a l i t y h e r parents b e l i e v e d t h a t h e r o r d e r l i n e s s was  average, whereas her t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d i t below average. In a r t a c t i v i t i e s the degree o f o r d e r l i n e s s as shown i n her work h a b i t s v a r i e d from average to below average. r i s e occurs when she was  working on the f l o o r , w h i l e a great  f a l l takes p l a c e when she was f o l l o w i n g excerpt  A great  p a i n t i n g at the e a s e l .  The  shows her work h a b i t a t i t s worst.  March 6 , 1 9 6 2 . She was  p a i n t i n g a t the e a s e l .  her p a i n t i n g as the wet the e a s e l and  floor.  p a i n t d r i p p e d over the p a i n t i n g on..to  Being t o l d to c l e a n the e a s e l and  f l o o r she d i d not do so p r o p e r l y . Undesirable Chart VII  (Anecdotal Record)..  R e s t l e s s and  i n Lack o f  Concentration.  In a r t a c t i v i t i e s she  s i g n o f r e s t l e s s n e s s as n o t i c e d by her teacher.  was  probably  due  the  Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  C a r o l e scored below 5 . no  She made a mess o f  to her i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n a r t .  span of a t t e n t i o n , as n o t i c e d by her mother, was  showed This  A long obvious  i n her behaviour d u r i n g the c r e a t i v e process. March 2 0 , 1 9 6 2 . 3:50  She was  standing as she was  had  drawn.  and  then she a u t o m a t i c a l l y stood up again.  She was  she  O c c a s i o n a l l y she sat down f o r a short w h i l e  time she was 4:00  c o l o u r i n g the b i r d  still  absorbed i n c o l o u r i n g w i t h s t a n d i n g and c o l o u r i n g .  A l l the  crayons. She  d i d not  look up o r t a l k to anyone. 4:05  She  s t a r t e d drawing her f i f t h b i r d .  (Time Sample).  29 A s l i g h t r i s e o c c u r r e d i n February when she gave her a t t e n t i o n to S y l v i e who when she was at  had  r e c e n t l y j o i n e d the c l a s s ,  f r u s t r a t e d by the d r i p o f p a i n t w h i l e  and  painting  the e a s e l *  Chart YIII  Lack o f E f f o r t to Improve A r t P r o d u c t s . s c o r e s f a l l between 2.75  The  and 12.  The marked r i s e s  r e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n s when C a r o l e , as a p r o l i f i c dashed o f f one p a i n t i n g a f t e r another.  producer,  Marked drops  take  p l a c e i n November and February when she made e f f o r t s to b r i n g her a r t products to an 'average'  standard as n o t i c e d i n her  p e r s o n a l i t y by parents and h e r t e a c h e r . November 7, 4:50  1961.  I t was  about time to c l e a n up.  t h a t the t r e e trunk was paper. F e b r u a r y 6, 4:25  She  She t o l d the t e a c h e r  not pasted p r o p e r l y on the  She asked f o r some more paste. 1962.  cut out a hat f o r her bear.  remarked.  ' I t ' s too b i g ' , she  She p a t i e n t l y trimmed i t to the s i z e  wanted. C h a r t IX  (Time Sample).  she  (Time Sample).  Chatty  F o r f o u r months C a r o l e scored below 4*5.  R i s e s are  found i n December and January when C a r o l e was f u l l o f h o l i d a y excitement and d e s i r o u s o f a d u l t s ' a t t e n t i o n . excerpt i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s December 5, 4:00  The f o l l o w i n g  behaviour.  1961.  She was  aware o f the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s s t a n d i n g around  CHART V Able t o Take Advantage of Situations 20 ^ t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  2  CHART VI Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s Q I n t e n s i t y and Frpqnpm^y  30  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  31 her.  She kept t a l k i n g h a l f t o h e r s e l f and h a l f t o the  adults. mellow 4:15  "That i s n ' t too goodi  OhJ  Ohi  The marsh-  broke"....  "Can t h i s bead glue on the marshmellow?" she asked t h e student t e a c h e r s as she began t o f e e l r e a l l y happy about b e i n g watched. t h i s one".  " I don't know what to do w i t h  She kept on t a l k i n g .  (Time Sample)  T h i s behaviour c o i n c i d e d w i t h h e r t e a c h e r ' s remark r e g a r d i n g h e r p e r s o n a l i t y , t h a t she was e x c i t a b l e and a t t e n t i o n seeking. Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others  B e i n g a h i g h l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d , C a r o l e scored very low. The continuous r i s e s occur when she c o u l d not d e c i d e what t o do and f o l l o w e d the o t h e r c h i l d r e n .  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  shows one o f these o c c a s i o n s . November 14, 1961. The  student t e a c h e r asked the c h i l d r e n t o d i g t h e i r  f i n g e r s i n t o the paste j a r to g e t t h e paste out. h e s i t a t e d f o r awhile.  Carole  She watched t h e c h i l d r e n c a r r y o u t  the i n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e she d i d i t h e r s e l f .  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour agreed w i t h h e r parent's remark t h a t she sometimes l e d , sometimes i m i t a t e d others and a t o t h e r times she f o l l o w e d . Chart XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas I n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Products.  C a r o l e scored very low because she never f e l t the l a c k  of o r i g i n a l ideas i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  Her parents and h e r  t e a c h e r n o t i c e d t h a t she had h i g h l y c r e a t i v e i d e a s f o r p l a y and work.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows h e r c r e a t i v e  idea.  February 6, 1962. Being left-handed pieces o f c l o t h . ribbon.  she had t r o u b l e  She c o u l d  i n cutting large  j u s t manage t o c u t l a c e and  She c u t a p i e c e o f r e d l a c e and t i e d i t around the  neck o f h e r s t i c k puppet f o r d e c o r a t i o n .  The c h i l d r e n  could  not but admire her o r i g i n a l i d e a and i m i t a t e d h e r . (Anecdotal Record). Chart X I I  Lack o f Respect f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y .  Carole  scored  below 2 f o r f i v e months.  seemed to have r e s p e c t teachers i n authority. Carole  She always  f o r the i n s t r u c t o r and the student Her c l a s s teacher complained  that  o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d h e r and monopolized the d i s c u s s i o n .  T h i s p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i n h e r behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  Carole  often digressed  from the  t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n , but stopped when the person i n a u t h o r i t y i n t e r r u p t e d her.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t serves as an example  o f t h i s behaviour. O c t o b e r 10, 1961. During the group d i s c u s s i o n Carole was asked t o t e l l about the sound the wind made. she  In. a d d i t i o n t o her answer  r e f e r r e d t o what her t e a c h e r s a i d i n s c h o o l .  She ended  her d i g r e s s i o n when the i n s t r u c t o r drew the c h i l d r e n ' s t i o n back t o the t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n .  atten-  (Anecdotal Record).  CHART IX Chatty  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar . -OH ART XI Lack op O r i g i n a l Ideas  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  CHART X I m i t a t i n g Others  33  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  ° O c t Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  34 C a r o l e ' s behaviour was  more d e s i r a b l e i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s  because her i n d i v i d u a l i t y as shown i n her unique way t h i n g s was cess.  accepted and  o f doing  even a p p r e c i a t e d i n the c r e a t i v e pro-  As her parents p o i n t e d out, she would co-operate  i f a good r e l a t i o n s h i p had been e s t a b l i s h e d . r i s e s occur o n l y when she acted s i l l y ,  well  The o c c a s i o n a l  such as p l a y i n g w i t h water  a t t h e f o u n t a i n w h i l e the person i n a u t h o r i t y was  not  watching.  Summary I n the study o f C a r o l e ' s behaviour, the r e s e a r c h e r n o t i c e d t h a t the most dominant f e a t u r e i s the f l u c t u a t i o n i n i n t e n s i t y and frequency found i n as many as seven o f C a r o l e ' s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . i s probably due  T h i s frequent change i n behaviour  to her emotional immaturity and  instability.  I n some d e s i r a b l e behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r i s e s occur where her i n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i t y p l a y s an important p a r t .  The  drops o f t e n r e p r e s e n t her l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l i n movement. C a r o l e ' s behaviour, as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s , seemed more d e s i r a b l e than her p e r s o n a l i t y as n o t i c e d by her teacher.  B e i n g a h i g h l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d , C a r o l e wanted to  t h i n k and a c t , to experience and explore i n her own way.  She found sympathetic  art activities.  individual  guidance f o r her i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n  Consequently,  she tended to be more co-  o p e r a t i v e i n work and p l a y and i n the r o u t i n e s o f the a r t c l a s s than she was  i n school.  Furthermore,  the value p l a c e d  i n c r e a t i v i t y by her parents emphasized the importance o v e r r o u t i n e s u b j e c t s i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n .  This  of a r t may  e x p l a i n c e r t a i n c o o p e r a t i v e emphases i n the C h i l d A r t C e n t r e .  35 CASE 2 Description: J e r r y , age s i x , was a plump and i n f a n t i l e - a p p e a r i n g boy,  w i t h round eyes l i k e buttons.  l i k e d t o communicate them t o o t h e r s .  With l o t s o f i d e a s ,  Jerry  However, h i s language  a b i l i t y was so l i m i t e d t h a t he was not able t o express himself.  Very o f t e n , he s t r u g g l e d f o r words.  H i s missing  teeth  a l s o gave him t r o u b l e i n pronouncing words w i t h S sounds. On the f i r s t  day i n the C h i l d A r t Centre, J e r r y t a l k e d a  great d e a l but, n e i t h e r t h e i n s t r u c t o r nor the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s could understand a word. eager t o c o n t r i b u t e . q u e s t i o n was asked.  In group d i s c u s s i o n , J e r r y was very  He put h i s hand up every time when a He might n o t understand the q u e s t i o n a t  a l l but he j u s t welcomed any chance t o speak. seem d i s a p p o i n t e d  He d i d not  i f he was not chosen, y e t , o b v i o u s l y , h i s  f a c e b r i g h t e n e d up and h i s eyes danced with j o y when he was i n v i t e d to t a l k . J e r r y sometimes came t o the Centre w i t h h i s s i s t e r , Joan, who had been i n the c l a s s f o r a year.  Very o f t e n , he  came alone o r w i t h S t u a r t , a boy i n h i s c l a s s i n s c h o o l . wards the end o f the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , boys as soon as he e n t e r e d the a r t room. and  told t a l l  stories.  To-  J e r r y j o i n e d the  They played  about  I n a r t a c t i v i t i e s , J e r r y was so en-  grossed i n h i s own work t h a t he seldom showed i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s works. J e r r y ' s f a t h e r was a P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i n a Secondary School as w e l l as a s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t e .  Frequently,  he came to the Centre t o take Joan and J e r r y home. parents were not a r t i s t i c ,  Jerry's  but i t was t h e i r d e s i r e t o g i v e  their children art training. The  Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n o f Jerry's P e r s o n a l i t y . "Very d i f f i c u l t to t r y to be i m p a r t i a l i n e s t i m a t i n g  one's own k i d J boy,"  A l l i n a l l , J e r r y i s a very average  wrote J e r r y ' s mother on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  t h a t although J e r r y had been t o a k i n d e r g a r t e n , q u i t e ready f o r s c h o o l . was very poor indeed. the r e s t o f the c l a s s . assignment every day. The  c l a s s teacher  I n the r e a d i n e s s  little  She s a i d he was not  test, his result  He had a hard time c a t c h i n g up w i t h H i s mother had t o g i v e him a w r i t t e n He was poor i n f i n e body movement.  complained t o h i s mother t h a t he c o u l d not  write neatly with a p e n c i l .  On the other hand, J e r r y was  fond o f l a r g e muscular movement. n a i l s into everything  Very o f t e n , he hammered  i n the backyard and sang gayly a t the  same time. J e r r y was never attached  t o the f a m i l y . ' He was not  i n t e r e s t e d i n p l e a s i n g h i s grandmother and o t h e r a d u l t s . t h i s way, he was very d i f f e r e n t from h i s e l d e r s i s t e r ,  In  Joan  o r h i s younger s i s t e r , J a n i e , who wanted to be h e l p f u l a t home and be l i k e d by a d u l t s .  J e r r y had many f r i e n d s and  o f t e n wandered o f f with h i s gang. J a n i e was i n competition  w i t h J e r r y a t home.  She was  annoyed when her mother f i x e d her a t t e n t i o n on J e r r y as he started school.  Joan, the e l d e r s i s t e r , was e m o t i o n a l l y and  p h y s i c a l l y mature and had been sent shopping f o r years.  Being  37 a dominating g i r l , Joan looked and  a f t e r not o n l y h e r own b r o t h e r  s i s t e r b u t a l s o t h e i r neighbours' c h i l d r e n . I t was the d e s i r e o f both parents t o t r a i n  their  c h i l d r e n i n such a way that they c o u l d stand on t h e i r own f e e t , l o o k a f t e r themselves and s u r v i v e as the f i t t e s t . were g i v e n boxing l e s s o n s  The c h i l d r e n  so that they might not be b u l l i e d by  other c h i l d r e n . The  C l a s s Teacher's D e s c r i p t i o n o f J e r r y ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . J u s t that morning, J e r r y ' s mother telephoned the c l a s s  teacher  s a y i n g that J e r r y was not happy i n s c h o o l .  When t h e  t e a c h e r t a l k e d t o J e r r y , he denied that he was not happy.  He  admitted t h a t he d i d not l i k e t o walk so f a r from home to school.  The teacher e x p l a i n e d  that a student teacher had  taken over h e r c l a s s the week b e f o r e . get as much a t t e n t i o n .  She encouraged J e r r y to t r y hard.  Being asked t o read t h a t a f t e r n o o n ,  J e r r y made a good attempt.  He was so p l e a s e d w i t h the t e a c h e r ' s for  more than t e n minutes.  teacher  interest i n art. standing.  pointed  p r a i s e t h a t he smiled  He was g l a d t o be asked t o s t a y  a f t e r s c h o o l to help the teacher. The  Perhaps, J e r r y d i d not  He worked u n t i l 4 p.m.  out that J e r r y showed l i t t l e  He was an average c h i l d , not a t a l l o u t -  She f e l t d i s t u r b e d that whatever the t o p i c f o r  c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n might be, J e r r y mentioned guns and s o l d i e r s . He stood w e l l w i t h other teachers.  She c o n s i d e r e d  c h i l d r e n and showed r e s p e c t f o r the t h a t he had no problem a t a l l and  would soon get s e t t l e d down. Regarding J e r r y ' s f a m i l y background, the teacher  added  38 t h a t J e r r y * s mother had to d i v i d e her a t t e n t i o n among three children. had  Joan, the e l d e r s i s t e r , was very domineering.  t r i e d hard t o keep J e r r y under c o n t r o l t o prepare him f o r  school.  She was a f r a i d  t h a t he might b r i n g d i s g r a c e to h e r .  A Comparison o f the Parents' Questionnaires  teacher  and Teacher's Answers t o  on J e r r y ' s P e r s o n a l i t y .  Generally  speaking, J e r r y ' s parents and h i s c l a s s  agreed i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s  regarding  Jerry's personality.  As t o J e r r y ' s emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h i s parents out  She  pointed  t h a t he d i s p l a y e d o c c a s i o n a l emotional o u t b u r s t s and  dependence on a f f e c t i o n at home.  I t was probably h i s p r i d e  t h a t prevented him from showing such u n d e s i r a b l e t i c s i n the presence o f h i s p e e r s .  characteris-  Regarding h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h i s parents b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s knowledge o f the w o r l d was accurate  and abundant, h i s  a t t i t u d e towards m a t e r i a l t h i n g s was generous and h i s freedom o f movement expansive, although they admitted they c o u l d be p a r t i a l i n estimating  t h e i r own c h i l d .  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d  i n Art Activities.  D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I  W a i t i n g f o r H i s Turn J e r r y scored above 13*  He r e v e a l e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o  share w e l l and co-operate i n h i s behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The  f o l l o w i n g excerpts  prove t h i s .  39 November 21, 4:35  1962.  L o i s was "Can  using  white.  I use white a f t e r you, L o i s ? " he asked and  waited  patiently. 4:40  As soon as L o i s f i n i s h e d he g r i p p e d the white and s c r i b b l e d with i t .  December 5, He  crayon  (Time Sample).  1961.  s a t by S t u a r t .  s a i d , "I need some". w h i l e he was  "Where's those wooden t h i n g s ? " he  He looked around f o r the t o o t h p i c k s  w a i t i n g t o use the g l u e .  (Anecdotal  Record).  J e r r y ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to w a i t f o r h i s t u r n can be r e l a t e d t o h i s average degree o f p a t i e n c e as shown at home and i n school. Chart I I  Eager to C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work o r Group Discussion. and 19*5*  He  s e i z e d every o p p o r t u n i t y to speak to the c l a s s as he l i k e d  the  J e r r y s c o r e d extremely  h i g h , between IS.5  a t t e n t i o n o f h i s peers and h i s t e a c h e r . shows how  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt  h i s eagerness to c o n t r i b u t e overcame h i s language  difficulty. November 21, 4:30  1962.  In the group d i s c u s s i o n about b u i l d i n g s needed f o r the community, J e r r y s a i d e a g e r l y but "We  fluently,  need s k y - s c r a p e r s " .  "What are they  for?"  " W e l l , f o r people  who  work to l i v e i n them.  going t o make a s k y - s c r a p e r where people in i t . "  do  I  am  science  (Time Sample).  40 H i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , as n o t i c e d by h i s parents h i s t e a c h e r might account f o r t h i s Chart I I I  and  behaviour.  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without A p p e a l i n g t o Peers and A d u l t s .  J e r r y scored between 16 and 17.75* seen appealing f o r h e l p i n t h e a r t c l a s s .  He was This  seldom corresponds  w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , as h i s p a r e n t s and h i s t e a c h e r n o t i c e d that he was  above average  in self-sufficiency.  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t shows h i s independence o f h e l p : November 28,  1961.  A f t e r t a k i n g o f f h i s smock, J e r r y t r i e d t o put on h i s heavy b o o t s .  He had much d i f f i c u l t y , yet he d i d not t u r n t o  the student t e a c h e r s f o r h e l p . trying.  He had them on e v e n t u a l l y . Only once was  March 20, 4:02  He sat on the f l o o r and  kept  (Anecdotal Record).  J e r r y seen a p p e a l i n g f o r a d v i c e .  1962.  He cut one l e g of the b i r d too narrow and i t came off. it  He l o o k e d at i t f o r a w h i l e .  to the student teacher who  Then he showed  gave him some paste  to put i t on a g a i n . He was  (Time Sample).  t r a i n e d to stand on h i s own  f e e t a t home.  might account f o r h i s e f f i c i e n c y i n s e t t l i n g  This  difficulties  himself. C h a r t IV  Showing Keen Observation o f the World Around Him i n H i s A r t Products o r Group Work.  J e r r y s c o r e d between 11.25  and 13«25 i n the f i r s t  four  41 months.  There was a tendency towards a r i s i n g graph e s p e c i a l l y  i n the l a s t two months when he l e a r n e d to examine t h i n g s around him as he grew o l d e r .  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show h i s  growing i n t e r e s t i n the world around him: March 20, 1962. 3:41  The student t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d the group d i s c u s s i o n as the  group s a t around her.  "Spring". the  "What do we see b e s i d e s f l o w e r s ? " asked  teacher.  " B i r d s " , J e r r y answered,  w i l l come out tomorrow. 3:50  The d i s c u s s i o n was on  (The f i r s t day o f S p r i n g ) . "  He f i n i s h e d the o u t l i n e o f a b i r d . g u l l s are white J"  "Many animals  He s a i d :  "Sea-  So he used white on the body. (Time Sample).  As h i s parents had n o t i c e d , h i s knowledge o f the world was q u i t e a c c u r a t e . Chart V  Able t o Take Advantage  o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop  i n the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . J e r r y scored s l i g h t l y above average.  T h i s corresponds  w i t h h i s average degree o f a b i l i t y t o take advantage of new s i t u a t i o n s as n o t i c e d by h i s p a r e n t s and h i s t e a c h e r . O c c a s i o n a l l y , he proved q u i t e able to make use o f a s i t u a t i o n which developed i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt  g i v e s an example. March 6, 1962. 4:11  He used white f o r the chimney. down the e a s e l .  The p a i n t  dripped  He stopped i t w i t h h i s f i n g e r and  changed the r u n n i n g l i n e i n t o a p o l e .  He drew another  42  CHART I W a i t i n g f o r H i s Turn  CHART I I Eager to C o n t r i b u t e  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties o j n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n 2 (  I n t e n s i t v and Frftonpncy  i 16  16  14-  14  12-  12  10"  XOh  /  43 pole a few inches away from the first one to form a balance. Chart VI  (Time Sample).  Developing Orderly Working Habits.  Jerry scored around 10 for five months. His working habits at home and in school were considered fairly orderly. These were reflected in his behaviour in art activities.  Very  often his work habit depended on the situation of classroom arrangement. The following excerpt shows his work habit at its worst: November 14, 1961. (The class was finger-painting on the floor). He enjoyed the experience of playing with the paste. He took a lot from the jar. He knelt on the floor and soon lay flat.  He kneaded the paste with both hands. Soon the  blue paste was a l l over his smock. "It's like magicJ" he said.  (Anecdotal Record). The following excerpt proves that he was developing an  orderly work habit. February 13, 1962. He was modelling a puppet with asbestos. a lump he was not using.  He put aside  The student-teacher asked i f he  needed the extra lump. He said that he might. Later, he used i t for modelling the nose and ears. (Anecdotal Record). Undesirable Behaviour Characteristics Chart VII Restless and in Lack of Concentration. In the f i r s t three months, Jerry scored between 8.5  44 and 7*5.  The f i r s t  in creativity.  drop occured when he began to show i n t e r e s t  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an example o f t h i s  behaviour. January 4:20  23,  1962.  The t e a c h e r thought he was "No",  4:22  he r e p l i e d ,  He was  doing h i s second assignment.  "I am s t i l l on my  birdJ"  r e a l l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g on h i s work.  q u i e t f o r seven minutes.  He  kept  Slowly but c a r e f u l l y he  smoothed the c l a y b i r d w i t h h i s f o r e f i n g e r . (Time Sample). Once or twice h i s l a c k o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n was March 27,  1962.  As he was j o i n e d him.  apparent.  p a i n t i n g w i t h crayons he sang and S t u a r t  Suddenly, he p u l l e d S t u a r t ' s s l e e v e .  "Look,  S t u a r t , l o o k J " he exclaimed and continued p u l l i n g u n t i l received Stuart's attention.  He took h a l f an hour to f i n i s h  h i s crayon p i c t u r e . An average  (Anecdotal Record).  span o f a t t e n t i o n as n o t i c e d by h i s parents  and h i s t e a c h e r was Chart V I I I  he  apparent  i n h i s behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  Lack o f E f f o r t to Improve A r t Products.  J e r r y s c o r e d between 2 and 11.75*  The i n t e n s i t y o f  t h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tended t o d i m i n i s h toward the end o f the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  T h i s was  p r o b a b l y because  he began t o s e t a h i g h e r standard f o r h i m s e l f as he grew older.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show h i s e f f o r t to improve h i s  a r t work:  45 23,  January 4:15  1962.  He was of  attempting t o add a s e p a r a t e p i e c e on the body  h i s b i r d as a wing.  The student-teacher a d v i s e d  him to use the p u l l - o u t method. p i e c e o f f and adopted 4:17  the new  He  took the added  technique.  He p a t i e n t l y smoothed the s u r f a c e o f the b i r d w i t h his  fore-finger.  February 20,  1962.  J e r r y was t e a c h e r was  (Time Sample).  p a i n t i n g the puppet head.  The  student-  t a k i n g the paper tube out o f Glen's puppet.  s h o u l d have done t h a t t o o l i " s a i d J e r r y .  "I  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s c o u l d i n d i c a t e that the r a t h e r average he s e t f o r h i m s e l f a t home and i n s c h o o l d i d not  standard  correspond  with that displayed i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Chart IX  Chatty  J e r r y s c o r e d between 14*75 and 4*5* marked r i s e s .  There are three  The f i r s t r i s e occurs i n November when he  was  g e t t i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h the c h i l d r e n and student-teachers i n the a r t c l a s s and d e s i r o u s o f t h e i r a t t e n t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t shows t h i s c h a t t y behaviour. November 21,  1961.  4:43  a b o t t l e o f paste on the t a b l e .  He saw for,  "What's t h i s  L o i s ? " he s a i d , l o o k i n g i n t o the b o t t l e .  As  L o i s d i d not answer he t a l k e d to h i m s e l f c o n t i n u o u s l y . 4:50  He saw  the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r pass him.  student-teacher. window.  He t a l k e d to the  "This i s a f i r e house.  The f i r e s t a r t e d w i t h a match  This i s a  ...."  CHART V Able to Take Advantage of S i t u a t i o n s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  20  CHART VII R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  CHART VI 46 Developing OrderlyWork H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t ^Intensity  Id  18  16  16  14  14T  12  12  l C f  10-  and F r e q u e n c y  s64"  4-  2G  Oct  JMov Dec J a n F e b Mar  v  0ct  Nov Dec J a n F e b M a r  47 4:52  "I'm going to have more flame.  T h i s i s a fireman"....  He t a l k e d to h i m s e l f as he drew..  (Time Sample).  The second s h i f t took p l a c e i n January and the t h i r d i n March as J e r r y was growing anxious t o communicate h i s ideas to others. this  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an example o f  behaviour.  March 20, 1962. J e r r y was very c h a t t y to-day. about r o b b e r s , s o l d i e r s and guns.  He t o l d t a l l  He was probably  seeking.  stories attention-  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s c h a t t y behaviour i s probably due t o h i s e x c i t a b i l i t y and a t t e n t i o n seeking which o c c u r r e d o c c a s i o n a l l y a t home and s c h o o l , as n o t i c e d by h i s parents and h i s t e a c h e r . Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others. J e r r y scored between 4*5 and 12.25.  The h i g h e s t peak  r e p r e s e n t s occasions when he i m i t a t e d o t h e r s , probably because he was anxious t o be accepted by them.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  shows one o f these o c c a s i o n s . November 7,  1962.  The c h i l d r e n were p a i n t i n g t o music.  He shut h i s eyes  and brandished h i s arms as the r e c o r d was b e i n g p l a y e d .  When  he drew, he d i d not f o l l o w the music, i n s t e a d , he reproduced the p a t t e r n which t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r drew on the board a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the l e s s o n . The  second marked r i s e might be a l s o due to h i s a n x i e t y  f o r acceptance. this  (Anecdotal Record).  behaviour.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example o f  43 March 6, 4:16  1962  " S t u a r t , don't s p o i l your p i c t u r e , " s a i d a studentteacher.  J e r r y walked over to look a t S t u a r t ' s p a i n t -  ing.  student-teacher p r a i s e d the lawn i n S t u a r t ' s  The  p i c t u r e while J e r r y was 4:17  l o o k i n g on.  J e r r y p a i n t e d a green bottom l i n e i n h i s p a i n t i n g , not u n l i k e the lawn i n S t u a r t ' s p i c t u r e . T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample).  o f i m i t a t i n g o t h e r s corresponded  with  h i s parent's remark t h a t J e r r y sometimes f o l l o w e d , but c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s c l a s s t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t he l e d o t h e r s . Chart XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Product.  J e r r y scored below 6.5»  The  marked drops r e p r e s e n t  o c c a s i o n s when h i s i d e a s proved o r i g i n a l .  F o r example i n  the e x c e r p t taken from the Time Sample o f November 21,  1962,  h i s i d e a o f a s k y - s c r a p e r "Where people do s c i e n c e i n i t " was  q u i t e o r i g i n a l and d i f f e r e n t from those c o n t r i b u t e d by  other c h i l d r e n .  T h i s can be r e l a t e d to h i s parents* and h i s  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t h i s i d e a s f o r work and p l a y a r e sufficient. Chart X I I Lack o f Respect  f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y .  J e r r y s c o r e d below 2.25 t r e a t persons  i n authority with disrespect.  e x c e r p t s prove t h i s November 7, 4:47  The  f o r f i v e months.  He  d i d not  The f o l l o w i n g  behaviour.  1961. s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r t o l d the c l a s s t o c l e a n up.  Jerry  49 looked serious.  He p i c k e d up every scrap and put them  i n the scrap box as he was November 4, The  advised.  (Time Sample).  1961. c h i l d r e n were t o l d on the f i r s t day not to p l a y  on the equipment i n case they broke i t .  When J e r r y saw  c h i l d r e n p l a y on i t , he r a n back and t o l d the  the  instructor.  (Anecdotal  Record).  The h i g h e s t peak r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s when J e r r y seemed to be  i n l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s as he became  excited.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example o f these  occasions. March 20,  tree.  1962.  The  c h i l d r e n were e x c i t e d about hanging b i r d s on a  The  s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r was  too busy a t the t r e e to keep  the c h i l d r e n i n the other end o f the room under c o n t r o l . J e r r y , Dougy and S t u a r t g r i p p e d each o t h e r ' s arm and  played  about u n t i l the student-teacher t o l d them t o s i t down. (Anecdotal T h i s behaviour o f d i s r e s p e c t was  Record).  probably due to h i s  o c c a s i o n a l e x c i t a b i l i t y as n o t i c e d by h i s parents and h i s teacher. Summary In the case o f J e r r y , the r e s e a r c h e r n o t i c e d a marked development i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y during the s i x months o f observation.  I n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l and guidance  i n the A r t  Centre k i n d l e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n the world around him. c o u r s e , h i s mental growth a l s o urged him to observe  Of details  CHART X I m i t a t i n g Others  CHART IX Chatty  50  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  cf—  »  1  1  •  •  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  w  /  CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas  CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  ^.glntensitv and Frequency  18-  18  16-  16  H-  14  12  12  10-  10  8  8  6-  6 4  ri u  I  1  1  1  1  -  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  0  / Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  51 of things.  Works o f h i s peers, very o f t e n s u p e r i o r t o h i s  own, suggested t o him p o s s i b i l i t i e s  and aroused h i s d e s i r e t o  improve h i s work. Generally  speaking, the behaviour which he d i s p l a y e d  i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s corresponded q u i t e c l o s e l y to the p e r s o n a l i t y which h i s parents and h i s teacher  noticed.  I n some  cases,  c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might account f o r c e r t a i n behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shown i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . parents remarked that he made no attempt to please  His adults at  home, y e t i n s c h o o l and i n the C h i l d A r t Centre, h i s attempt to p l e a s e persons i n a u t h o r i t y was obvious.  T h i s was probably  because he f e l t the need o f group r e c o g n i t i o n and so he attempted t o e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a d u l t s . CASE 3 Description Richard, s l e n d e r body. right.  age e i g h t , was a boy o f medium h e i g h t and Being l a z y and l i s t l e s s , he seldom s a t up-  Very o f t e n , he leaned  against  f u r n i t u r e t o support h i m s e l f .  a wall o r a piece o f  He was a day-dreamer.  group d i s c u s s i o n , he put up h i s hand mechanically. he gave an answer a l r e a d y g i v e n . a t t e n t i v e he was very directions.  In Frequently,  However, when R i c h a r d  was  e f f i c i e n t i n c a r r y i n g out orders and  L i k e a l l boys o f h i s age, R i c h a r d  joke, but he never a c t e d s i l l y . always remained self-composed. was q u i t e unusual f o r h i s age.  l i k e d a good  He seldom became e x c i t e d and T h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  52  R i c h a r d came from a f a m i l y of three g i r l s and two He was  one year o l d e r than h i s b r o t h e r , Donald.  a one-year-old baby i n the f a m i l y , maternal among the o l d e r c h i l d r e n was  boys.  As t h e r e  was  help and a t t e n t i o n  rather l i m i t e d .  However, the  parents seemed c o n s c i e n t i o u s i n doing the b e s t they c o u l d f o r each c h i l d .  Richard's f a t h e r was  l y , a l o t o f e n t e r t a i n i n g was  a plastic  Apparent-  done i n t h e i r b e a u t i f u l home.  A l l the c h i l d r e n went t o a s c h o o l nearby. n e a t l y dressed.  surgeon.  They were always  R i c h a r d and Donald each had a watch and  b i c y c l e which were g r e a t l y admired by o t h e r c h i l d r e n . was  a companion to R i c h a r d and  shared a bedroom w i t h  Barbara, one year o l d e r than R i c h a r d , was group i n the C h i l d A r t Centre. worker.  Donald him.  i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e  a q u i e t and  steady  R i c h a r d n e i t h e r l i k e d nor d i s l i k e d h i s b r o t h e r s  sisters. The  She was  a  and  He seldom t a l k e d about them.  Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n o f R i c h a r d ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . R i c h a r d ' s mother gave a r a t h e r b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f  Richard's p e r s o n a l i t y .  She  mentioned t h a t l i k e a l l her  c h i l d r e n , R i c h a r d showed no t a l e n t f o r a r t but he was e n t h u s i a s t i c about i t . Donald, R i c h a r d was ment.  He was  very  Compared w i t h h i s younger b r o t h e r  more mature i n emotional and s o c i a l  develop-  more s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e , but  e x a c t l y l i k e Donald, he day-dreamed f r e q u e n t l y .  Apart  from  these remarks, R i c h a r d ' s mother d i d not s t r e s s much the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e of the two boys.  She t a l k e d about them  i n such a way  twins.  I t was  as i f they were i d e n t i c a l  the parents* d e s i r e to do t h e i r best f o r each  53  of t h e i r five children. s t a r t i n g school* parents  Each was sent t o a k i n d e r g a r t e n  before  No one i n t h e f a m i l y was a r t i s t i c , y e t t h e  d e c i d e d t h a t each s h o u l d have some a r t i s t i c  B a r b a r a had been i n the A r t Centre f o r a y e a r . a t t h e same time as R i c h a r d .  opportunity.  Donald s t a r t e d  A l t h o u g h t h e i r mother was ex-  t r e m e l y busy w i t h housework and c h i l d - c a r e , she drove t h e boys t o t h e a r t c l a s s and sometimes had t o make two t r i p s i f one boy had d e t e n t i o n i n s c h o o l .  The c h i l d r e n were p r o v i d e d  a b i g box o f c r a y o n s a t home. the windows o f t h e k i t c h e n .  with  T h e i r p a i n t i n g s were put a l o n g  They were t r a i n e d from e a r l y  c h i l d h o o d t o d e v e l o p good work h a b i t s s u c h a s p u t t i n g t h i n g s away a f t e r u s i n g them. The  C l a s s Teacher's D e s c r i p t i o n o f R i c h a r d ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . The  c l a s s t e a c h e r found t h a t R i c h a r d was n o t a t a l l  b e t t e r t h a n any o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n .  She was s u r p r i s e d t o  d i s c o v e r t h a t he s c o r e d 122 i n t h e I.Q. t e s t she gave t o t h e class.  B e i n g a good s p e a k e r , R i c h a r d c o u l d g i v e good o r a l  answers, b u t h i s w r i t t e n work was v e r y poor.  H i s dreaminess  o r even h i s l a z i n e s s might account f o r t h i s . The at a l l . routines.  t e a c h e r remarked t h a t she had no t r o u b l e w i t h him  He was v e r y c o - o p e r a t i v e  and even h e l p f u l i n d a i l y  She had t o push h i m o c c a s i o n a l l y so t h a t he would  get down t o work.  No doubt, R i c h a r d was i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l .  He c o n t r i b u t e d t o c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n and brought t h i n g s from home f o r c l a s s r o o m  d i s p l a y s , an Eskimo u n i t f o r example.  R i c h a r d was f r i e n d l y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n . was s h a r e d by Grade I I and Grade I I I .  The  classroom  I t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t  54 R i c h a r d s h o u l d p r e f e r Grade I I I boys. R i c h a r d l i k e d t o t a l k to the teachers when they were alone.  He would t e l l them about h i s f a m i l y .  The t e a c h e r  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s was because he had no chance t o monopolize the c o n v e r s a t i o n a t home.  Donald, h i s younger b r o t h e r , came  i n sometimes to see i f R i c h a r d had f i n i s h e d h i s work, but the two b r o t h e r s seldom played t o g e t h e r .  T h i s was probably because  Donald, b e i n g a year younger, seemed babyish to R i c h a r d . R i c h a r d was not anxious  to go home a f t e r s c h o o l .  the teacher had to ask him t o l e a v e .  R i c h a r d and h i s b r o t h e r  and s i s t e r s were w e l l - l i k e d by the t e a c h e r s . t h a t h i s parents were doing t h e i r b e s t . one  Sometimes,  They b e l i e v e d  H i s mother  telephoned  day, s a y i n g t h a t she f e l t t h a t R i c h a r d was n o t doing h i s  b e s t and c o u l d do b e t t e r . c o u l d help him a t home.  She asked  the teacher i f she h e r s e l f  The t e a c h e r l e a r n e d t h a t Richard's  mother was a very a c t i v e woman s o c i a l l y . A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and Teacher's  Answers t o  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on R i c h a r d ' s P e r s o n a l i t y . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , R i c h a r d ' s parents and h i s t e a c h e r agreed i n t h e i r answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  H i s parents  f e l t t h a t R i c h a r d o c c a s i o n a l l y showed dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n which h i s teacher seldom found.  Regarding  intellectual  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Richard's parents found t h a t h i s i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were i n s u f f i c i e n t and h i s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e and deduce was average. his  H i s teacher, however, remarked t h a t  i d e a s were s u f f i c i e n t and a b i l i t y was above average.  i s probably because to h i s p a r e n t s , Richard's  This  intellectual  development was slow when compared with h i s s i s t e r ,  Barbara,  55  who  was  a rather gifted c h i l d .  the teacher and work. was  found t h a t R i c h a r d The  little.  parents,  As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o n t r i b u t e d much to d i s c u s s i o n  however, f e l t t h a t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n  As the teacher  remarked, R i c h a r d  might not have  much chance to c o n t r i b u t e to d i s c u s s i o n or work a t home because the f a m i l y was and  l a r g e and a t t e n t i o n was  the t e a c h e r  limited.  The  agreed i n e v a l u a t i n g R i c h a r d ' s p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except t h a t the parents c o n s i d e r e d span o f a t t e n t i o n was r e l a t e d to formation R i c h a r d was  quite short.  below average i n o r d e r l i n e s s and  marked t h a t R i c h a r d  that h i s  Regarding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f c h a r a c t e r , the teacher  the p a r e n t s thought that he was  average.  noticed  that  carefulness, while  The  teacher  re-  accepted change but the parents n o t i c e d  t h a t he r e s i s t e d change. h i s teacher  parents  Perhaps, need f o r acceptance by  and h i s peers urged R i c h a r d  to develop a more  desirable personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n school. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d i s p l a y e d i n A r t  Behaviour  Activities.  D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I  Waiting f o r his turn Richard  scored  peaks r e p r e s e n t i n waiting.  The  between 1 3 * 5 and  occasions  when R i c h a r d  f o l l o w i n g excerpts  16.25.  The  high  showed unusual  show these  patience  occasions.  November 2 1 , 1 9 6 1 . The discipline.  student-teacher The  t r i e d to keep the c l a s s i n good  c h i l d r e n were allowed to go to the ledge to  use w a t e r c o l o u r wash when they had f i n i s h e d t h e i r crayon  56 drawings and put up t h e i r hands. waited p a t i e n t l y f o r h i s t u r n .  R i c h a r d r a i s e d h i s hand and He would r a t h e r wait i n a  l o n g queue t o use t u r q u o i s e than use P r u s s i a n b l u e . The c h i l d r e n were t o l d t o s i t up s t r a i g h t t o w a i t f o r t h e i r t u r n t o get t h e i r j a c k e t s .  Richard sat r e a l l y  w i t h h i s hands on the t a b l e . January 4:09  9,  (Anecdotal  straight Record).  1962.  R i c h a r d was p a i n t i n g w i t h orange c o l o u r from a s m a l l d i s c i n the t r a y .  B r i a n , who was p a i n t i n g on the  o t h e r s i d e o f the e a s e l and s h a r i n g the p a i n t t r a y , was u s i n g orange c o l o u r t o o , b u t each of the two boys w a i t e d f o r h i s t u r n and they had no t r o u b l e a t a l l . (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour corresponded  w i t h the teacher's and the  p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t R i c h a r d was seldom a g g r e s s i v e b u t cont r a d i c t e d the p a r e n t s ' comment that h i s p a t i e n c e was below average. Chart I I  Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work o r Group D i s c u s s i o n .  R i c h a r d scored between 11 and 13•  There a r e no marked  r i s e s and f a l l s as he was not very eager to c o n t r i b u t e but he always d i d h i s share. haviour  characteristic.  February 4:35  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show t h i s be-  20,  1962.  Richard'and  Joan were a s s i g n e d the t a s k o f d e c o r a t i n g  the stage.  R i c h a r d m e c h a n i c a l l y c u t squares from the  tape, c o l o u r e d them and pasted them on the stage. d i d n o t t a l k to Joan.  He  57 4:40  He s a t down and continued to c u t shapes and and p a s t e d them on the stage.  March 13,  4:07  designs  (Time Sample).  1962.  The  c l a s s was  making a c u t - o u t  The  s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r asked which scene each o f them  would l i k e to p a i n t .  mural.  R i c h a r d s a i d , "I want to draw  the c a t i n the green house 1"  Eric,  him s a i d , " I s a i d i t f i r s t J "  R i c h a r d d i d not  The  s i t t i n g next to argue.  teacher allowed both o f them t o do i t .  4:10  He f i n i s h e d a green house and c u t i t out.  4:17  He drew p l a n t s and  4:20  He drew more p l a n t s and t r e e s and cut them out.  trees.  (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s  contradicted his  parents* remark t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e remark that he c o n t r i b u t e d much.  and h i s t e a c h e r ' s  Perhaps i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l  t h a t a l a z y and dreamy boy l i k e R i c h a r d would not be too  en-  t h u s i a s t i c about e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Chart I I I  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or A d u l t s .  R i c h a r d scored above 13. falls.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows R i c h a r d ' s behaviour  teristic January 4:21  There are no marked r i s e s or  in settling 9,  charac-  difficulties.  1962.  He was  p a i n t i n g a t the e a s e l .  l i q u i d paint.  He was  u s i n g brown  He d i d not take the t r o u b l e t o wipe h i s  brush dry as he u s u a l l y d i d .  Three d r i p s were running  58 down.  He was not t r o u b l e d .  watched the d r i p s running.  He stopped p a i n t i n g and The i n s t r u c t o r a d v i s e d  the c h i l d r e n to make use o f the d r i p s and change them to something.  "I can't have t h i n g s on a f l a s h l i g h t J "  murmured R i c h a r d . a student-teacher. "I'll  "Make them i n t o r i b b o n s " ,  suggested  He d i d not accept the s u g g e s t i o n s .  get r i d o f t h i s f i r s t " , he s a i d , as he p a i n t e d  r e d over one d r i p so that i t merged i n t o the body o f the f l a s h l i g h t .  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour d i d not q u i t e correspond w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t h i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was average and i t c o - i n c i d e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' comment t h a t he sometimes r e s i s t e d change. Chart IV  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f the World Around Him  R i c h a r d s c o r e d between 11 and 15.5*  There i s a tendency  toward a r i s i n g graph i n the l a s t t h r e e months as R i c h a r d began to show i n t e r e s t i n d e t a i l s o f t h i n g s . e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e t h i s behaviour January  characteristic.  9, 1962. The  4:14  The f o l l o w i n g  c l a s s was asked t o p a i n t a f a v o u r i t e t o y .  He p a i n t e d a locomotive  i n orange.  He stopped and  stood back t o l o o k a t i t . 4:15  He washed the brush c l e a n . p a i n t he drew a d r i v e r . y e l l o w spot f o r the head.  P i c k i n g up some brown  With yellow he p a i n t e d a (Time Sample).  March 20, 1962. He c o n c e n t r a t e d on making f l o w e r s out o f cellophane and  CHART I I Eager to C o n t r i b u t e  CHART I W a i t i n g f o r H i s Turn ^ I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  59  I n t e n s i t y and Frequence  I8h 16 14 12" 10" 8 6  O'llct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties o Q l n t e n s i t v and Frequency  ^plntensity  ial-  18-  16  16"  14'  14  12 I-  12  and F r p m i p n r y  io-  10 8  6"  6 4 2  U  n' u  1  *  L.  1  •  :  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  6Q c o n s t r u c t i o n paper and pasted them on cardboard.  The  picture  showed the minute d e t a i l s o f flowers such as p i s t i l s and stamens.  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour corresponded w i t h h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark that h i s knowledge o f the world was Chart V  sufficient.  Able to Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . The  s c o r e s f a l l between 12 and 14.  to make use of new was  quite capable.  his  ability.  October  31, The  s i t u a t i o n s was  average.  Richard's a b i l i t y O c c a s i o n a l l y he  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example o f  1961. student-teacher s t a r t e d a story.  Each c h i l d  i n v i t e d i n t u r n to c o n t r i b u t e one i d e a u n t i l the s t o r y completed.  R i c h a r d was  s a i d and immediately  was was  quick i n c a t c h i n g up what had been  c o n t i n u e d the s t o r y .  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour can be r e l a t e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark that h i s a b i l i t y to take advantage o f new  s i t u a t i o n s was  Chart VI  average.  Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s  R i c h a r d s c o r e d above 12.  There i s a r i s i n g  towards the end o f the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  tendency  The h i g h e s t  peak r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s when h i s work h a b i t s were more o r d e r l y than h i s peers'.  The  example o f these o c c a s i o n s .  f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an  61 January 9,  4:07  1962.  F o r the f i r s t  time, the c l a s s p a i n t e d a t the e a s e l .  The  t o l d to take the paper o f f the e a s e l ,  c l a s s was  f o l d i t up to form a rug and r e s t the brush on i t * R i c h a r d c a r e f u l l y took the p a i n t i n g o f f and f o l d e d it  up i n h a l v e s n e a t l y .  With c a r e , he p l a c e d i t  a l o n g s i d e the e a s e l and l a i d the brush p a r a l l e l  with  the edge o f the paper. 4:17  He  saw  p a i n t on the f l o o r .  get a sponge and scrubbed  Q u i e t l y , he went o f f to i t off.  (Time Sample).  Another e x c e r p t shows R i c h a r d d e v e l o p i n g an o r d e r l y work h a b i t without March 13, 4:20  being  told.  1962.  He drew more p l a n t s and t r e e s and cut them out. put the paper he was as the t a b l e was  He  not u s i n g underneath h i s c h a i r  too s m a l l f o r f o u r  persons. (Time Sample).  These o r d e r l y work h a b i t s , which he developed  i n art  a c t i v i t i e s , c o n t r a d i c t h i s t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t he was  below  average i n o r d e r l i n e s s and h i s parents' remark t h a t h i s a b i l i t y to p l a n was  below average.  I t i s probably because i n a r t  a c t i v i t i e s , o r d e r l y work h a b i t s are always i n s i s t e d upon and proper guidance i s g i v e n to help the c h i l d r e n to develop  them.  U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart VII  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n  R i c h a r d scored between  4  and  15«5»  There are marked  62 r i s e s and f a l l s . dreamed.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s one of these  F e b r u a r y 20, The  R i s e s r e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n s when R i c h a r d dayoccasions.  1962.  o l d e r c h i l d r e n s a t around the  student-teacher.  They were d i s c u s s i n g scenery f o r t h e i r puppet show. 4:15  Joan was He was  t e l l i n g the s t o r y .  kneeling.  R i c h a r d grew i m p a t i e n t .  H i s smock dropped o f f h i s s h o u l d e r s .  He looked a t Joan and then the student-teacher  un-  easily. 4:27  He was  not l i s t e n i n g .  He l o o k e d across to the group  o f c h i l d r e n a t the o t h e r end o f the room. up a t the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r dreamily.  He  He was  looked  not  a t t e n t i v e to the d i s c u s s i o n . 4:29  The  group d i s c u s s i o n went on but R i c h a r d day-dreamed  away. But he was  (Time Sample).  sometimes R i c h a r d concentrated on h i s work when  interested.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows h i s concen-  tration. January  23,  1962.  He l i k e d the elephant w i t h a b a l l which he made w i t h clay.  He modelled  centration.  i t w i t h great p a t i e n c e and i n t e n s e con-  Donald and J e r r y on both s i d e s o f him t a l k e d a  g r e a t d e a l but he p a i d no a t t e n t i o n to them. (Anecdotal T h i s behaviour  corresponded  dreaming a t home and i n s c h o o l . was  probably due  Record).  to h i s frequent day-  His o c c a s i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n  to h i s growing i n t e r e s t i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  R i c h a r d showed determined always f i n i s h e d h i s work.  w i l l i n the c r e a t i v e process as he T h i s c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s p a r e n t s ' and  h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark that he seldom f i n i s h e d h i s work a t home and i n s c h o o l . Chart VIII  Lack o f E f f o r t t o Improve A r t Products.  R i c h a r d scored below 7« graph i s apparent through  A tendency towards a f a l l i n g  i n the l a s t t h r e e months as he l e a r n e d  experimenting  and s e e i n g h i s peers' products.  The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i n d i c a t e s one o f these o c c a s i o n s on which he made an e f f o r t to improve a r t p r o d u c t s . February 4:35  20, 1962.  R i c h a r d and Joan were assigned the t a s k o f d e c o r a t i n g the s t a g e .  4:45  R i c h a r d p a i n t e d over the designs which he had pasted on t h e stage and used b r i g h t c o l o u r s on them. was  He  not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the d u l l c o l o u r s . (Time Sample).  Another excerpt shows h i s e f f o r t to b r i n g h i s a r t product t o a higher  standard.  March 20, 1962. He c o n c e n t r a t e d on making f l o w e r s o u t o f cellophane and c o n s t r u c t i o n paper and pasted them on a cardboard.... He  spent one whole hour on one s i n g l e  picture. (Anecdotal  Record).  T h i s behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s parents* and h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t he s e t a low standard f o r h i m s e l f . I t i s probably the d e s i r e t o possess an a r t product admired by  CHART V, Able to Take Advantage of Situations I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  n 0  -  i i i 1 1 » Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART VI 64 Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  65 his  peers and p r a i s e d by h i s t e a c h e r t h a t urged R i c h a r d t o  improve h i s a r t products. Chart IX  Chatty  R i c h a r d scored between 6 and 12. one  a t 12 and the other a t 10.5  The two marked r i s e s ,  r e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n s when  R i c h a r d , who was u s u a l l y r a t h e r q u i e t , t a l k e d a g r e a t d e a l . The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows one o f these  November 14, The  occasions.  1961.  c h i l d r e n were f i n g e r - p a i n t i n g on the f l o o r , and  they grew e x c i t e d through p l a y i n g w i t h t h e paste. 4:33  When R i c h a r d gave the student-teacher h i s p a i n t i n g he said:  "It's a carJ"  He t u r n e d to the c h i l d r e n and  t o l d them about h i s c a r . 4:35  When the teacher was busy p u t t i n g the p a i n t i n g s away, he put h i s hands t o g e t h e r and f l a p p e d h i s f i n g e r s . "Quack! Quack 1" he s a i d , "a d u c k J "  Soon t h e c h i l d r e n  around him d i d the same. 4:41  He drew a c i r c l e w i t h s t i c k s on the top and a t the bottom.  "Look a t my g l o b e J " he asked the c h i l d r e n to  look at h i s work.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour might be due t o a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g , a l though h i s parents and h i s teacher remarked that R i c h a r d seldom sought a t t e n t i o n . Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others  R i c h a r d s c o r e d below 5 f o r f i v e months.  The o c c a s i o n a l  r i s e t o 9 i n d i c a t e s t h a t although R i c h a r d seldom i m i t a t e d o t h e r s  66 and o f t e n r e s i s t e d change suggested  by them, he would f o l l o w  a s u g g e s t i o n b l i n d l y when he c o u l d not t h i n k o f a b e t t e r i d e a . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows t h i s 9,  January 4:21  behaviour.  1962.  The  i n s t r u c t o r a d v i s e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o make use o f the  d r i p s and change them t o something.  "I can't have  t h i n g s on a f l a s h l i g h t J " murmured R i c h a r d . them i n t o r i b b o n s " , suggested d i d not accept the 4:25  "Make  a student-teacher.  He  suggestion....  He changed the two o t h e r d r i p s t o r i b b o n s . (Time Sample).  C h a r t XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Product.  R i c h a r d s c o r e d below 4.5« and f a l l s .  There a r e no marked r i s e s  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show R i c h a r d ' s  originality  as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . O c t o b e r 24,  1961.  R i c h a r d mixed p l e n t y o f w a t e r w i t h t h e c o l q u r s .  He  k e p t h i s p a i n t i n g v e r y wet and p u r p o s e l y l e t the c o l o u r s r u n i n t o one  a n o t h e r by h o l d i n g the p a i n t i n g up and t u r n i n g i t  around.  (Anecdotal  November 7, The  Record).  1961. c l a s s was  t o l d t o make a p i c t u r e o f a s t r a n g e  animal. 4:23  R i c h a r d c u t out t h e head o f a  4:25  He c u t t h e body o f an a n i m a l and p a s t e d i t t o t h e head  man.  67  o f the man.  He added i n d e t a i l s such as horns and  whiskers.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour  agreed w i t h h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t  h i s i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work was s u f f i c i e n t and c o n t r a d i c t s h i s p a r e n t s ' t h a t h i s i d e a s were i n s u f f i c i e n t . Chart i l l  Lack o f Respect f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y .  R i c h a r d scored below 3«  The absence o f s h i f t s shows  that R i c h a r d always seemed to have r e s p e c t f o r the i n s t r u c t o r and t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an  example. November 2 8 , 1 9 6 1 . R i c h a r d came to the c l a s s w i t h Mark. running.  They had been  As soon as they saw the student-teacher  they walked q u i e t l y . T h i s behaviour  a t the door,  (Anecdotal  Record).  cannot be r e l a t e d t o h i s parents' and  h i s teacher's remark t h a t h i s r e a d i n e s s t o co-operate  with the  r i g h t a u t h o r i t y was o n l y average. Summary I n s t u d y i n g the case o f R i c h a r d , the r e s e a r c h e r has found t h a t t h e r e are no r e a l l y great s h i f t s showing change i n behaviour  i n the c h a r t s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Chart X I I .  This  shows t h a t b e i n g q u i t e e m o t i o n a l l y mature and s t a b l e , R i c h a r d seldom made sudden change i n h i s behaviour of observation.  d u r i n g the p e r i o d  I n some c h a r t s d e a l i n g w i t h d e s i r a b l e be-  h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r example Chart I I and Chart V I , t h e r e i s a tendency towards a r i s i n g graph i n t h e l a s t  three  CHART IX ChattyI n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART X I m i t a t i n g Others  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct  Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas  Oct  68  Oct  Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  69 months.  I t i s probably  due to the p r o f i c i e n c y he  through d a i l y experience  gained  and mental growth.  As to u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , R i c h a r d seemed to make g r e a t e r e f f o r t and  show more c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a r t  a c t i v i t i e s than i n s c h o o l o r a t home.  His l a z i n e s s and  dreaminess diminished as he s t r o v e to reach an e s t a b l i s h e d goal i n art. CASE 4 Description Donald, age  seven, was  a s m a l l p a l e boy w i t h  tiny  features.  His i n d i v i d u a l i t y was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p l e a s a n t  s m i l e s and  a l i s t l e s s attitude.  In the f i r s t  the A r t Centre, he looked to  t i m i d and almost sad.  B e i n g asked  t a l k to the c l a s s , he murmured a few words and turned to  the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r h i m s e l f to the new  f o r approval.  However, he soon adapted  s i t u a t i o n and began to enjoy the  with other c h i l d r e n . art  few l e s s o n s i n  activities  In the l a s t three months, he r e v e a l e d i n  a c t i v i t i e s the same p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as n o t i c e d  by h i s t e a c h e r i n s c h o o l .  S t a t e d simply, he acted s i l l y  get the a t t e n t i o n o f h i s peers, and t r i e d hard to win a f f e c t i o n of the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s . was  Donald's e l d e r b r o t h e r .  his  b r o t h e r except  that R i c h a r d was  s i s t e r s , not even Barbara who the C h i l d A r t  Centre.  the  R i c h a r d , d e s c r i b e d i n Case 3,  Donald seldom showed i n t e r e s t f o r  once or t w i c e .  his brother.  to  He t o l d the  student-teacher  He never t a l k e d about h i s was  i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e group i n  70 L i k e R i c h a r d , Donald was watch almost  n e a t l y dressed.  too b i g f o r h i s l e a n w r i s t .  He had  a  Often he t a l k e d about  h i s b i c y c l e which he rode to s c h o o l i f the weather p e r m i t t e d . Donald's f a m i l y background has been d e s c r i b e d i n the case  of  Richard. The Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n o f Donald's P e r s o n a l i t y * Donald's mother found that being e m o t i o n a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y immature, Donald depended very much on affection.  maternal  He had o c c a s i o n a l emotional o u t b u r s t and showed  frequent a g g r e s s i o n . o l d baby s i s t e r .  He was  i n competition w i t h h i s one-year-  Apart from t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n , the mother  d i d not p o i n t up other i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Donald. The  G l a s s Teacher's The  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Donald's P e r s o n a l i t y .  c l a s s teacher n o t i c e d t h a t Donald was  very slow.  He never bothered to speed up and f i n i s h h i s work a t the same time as other c h i l d r e n . o f h i s own he was  He would r a t h e r s t a y a f t e r s c h o o l  accord t o do h i s work a t h i s own  seldom anxious to go home.  speed.  In f a c t ,  O f t e n he stayed and t a l k e d  to the t e a c h e r u n t i l 1+ p.m. He was  a day-dreamer.  He was  never keen on t a k i n g  action.  Being c h a t t y , he t o l d e v e r y t h i n g he knew about h i s  family.  When the t e a c h e r ' s back was  turned, he would say  or do something funny to amuse other c h i l d r e n . took i n t e r e s t i n h i s s i l l y a c t i o n and l i k e d him. he d i d not seem to have any s p e c i a l f r i e n d . asked who David.  h i s best f r i e n d was,  The  children  However,  When the  teacher  he h e s i t a t e d , and then named  The teacher b e l i e v e d t h a t he s a i d David because he  71 wanted the t e a c h e r t o t h i n k t h a t he was going w i t h the top boy i n the c l a s s .  Donald was always very c o - o p e r a t i v e i n c l a s s -  room r o u t i n e s .  He o f t e n wanted to p l e a s e the t e a c h e r .  He  made too much e f f o r t and wasted too much time i n c u r r y i n g favour., Donald was a nervous speaker.  He murmured h i s answers  to t h e t e a c h e r i n s t e a d o f t e l l i n g them t o the c l a s s . very tense sometimes.  He was  D e s p i t e a l l h i s s m a l l f a u l t s , Donald  was a l i k e a b l e l i t t l e f e l l o w . A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and the Teacher's  Answers t o  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on Donald's P e r s o n a l i t y . To a great e x t e n t , the parents* answers to the questions on Donald's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t r a d i c t e d the teacher's.  The parents b e l i e v e d t h a t Donald's e x c i t a b i l i t y  was seldom but the teacher remarked t h a t i t was f r e q u e n t .  On  the other hand, the parents found t h a t Donald was f r e q u e n t l y a g g r e s s i v e y e t the teacher c o n s i d e r e d that he was seldom so in school.  The p a r e n t s remarked t h a t h i s o r a l t e n s i o n and  manual t e n s i o n were seldom b u t h i s dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n , a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g and daydreams were f r e q u e n t .  The teacher  found that these f i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were occasional. As to i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents  con-  s i d e r e d that Donald's i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were i n s u f f i c i e n t and h i s a b i l i t y t o p l a n was below average, while t h e t e a c h e r found t h a t h i s i d e a s were s u f f i c i e n t and h i s a b i l i t y t o p l a n was average.  Regarding  s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents  72 found that h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was teacher  considered  t h a t i t was  above average but  average.  The  parents b e l i e v e d  that h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a d u l t s tended to be ing.  The  teacher  The questions  the  attention-seek-  remarked that the r e l a t i o n s h i p was  teacher  friendly.  and the parents agreed i n t h e i r answers to  on p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except t h a t the  n o t i c e d that h i s span o f a t t e n t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to f o r m a t i o n remarked that Donald was ness but the  teacher  short.  In  o f character,  parents  evaluating the  parents  average i n o r d e r l i n e s s and c a r e f u l -  considered  that he was  below average.  As  to r e a c t i o n to i n t e r f e r e n c e , the p a r e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t Donald r e s i s t e d change w h i l e the teacher r e v e r t e d t o the o r i g i n a l .  thought he  Donald's u n d e s i r a b l e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t home, such as h i s frequent attention-seeking  occasionally  were probably due  personality-  aggression  to h i s c o m p e t i t i o n  and  with  h i s baby s i s t e r . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d  i n Art  Behaviour  Activities.  D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I  W a i t i n g f o r His Turn Donald scored between 10.5  s h i f t s shows t h a t Donald was characteristic. his turn. January 30, 4:40  The  The  and  13.25.  The  absence o f  c o n s i s t e n t i n t h i s behaviour  He always put up h i s hand and waited f o r f o l l o w i n g excerpt  i n d i c a t e s t h i s behaviour.  1962. teacher was  approaching.  o f the c h i l d r e n and  She  gave out new  looked  at the work  art materials.  Donald  73 s a t s t i l l and waited f o r h i s t u r n .  (Time Sample).  Only when he found t h a t he d i d not get the t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n would he approach t h e t e a c h e r .  The f o l l o w i n g ex-  c e r p t i s an example. 30, 1962.  January 4:24  He r a i s e d h i s hand t o show the t e a c h e r t h a t he f i n i s h e d but he was h o t n o t i c e d .  He went o f f and showed h i s  work to her. T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample). c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t h i s p a t i e n c e was below average and h i s p a r e n t s ' comment t h a t he was f r e q u e n t l y a g g r e s s i v e . Chart I I  Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work o r Group D i s c u s s i o n  The  scores f a l l between 5*75 t o 11.5*  The low scores  i n the f i r s t two months r e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n s when Donald was too t i m i d t o speak t o the c l a s s .  The h i g h peaks i n January  and March show o c c a s i o n s when he c o n t r i b u t e d e a g e r l y w i t h the purpose o f o b t a i n i n g h i s peer's a t t e n t i o n and the t e a c h e r ' s affection. March 13, The the t r e e s . teacher.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpts show two o f these o c c a s i o n s . 1962. c l a s s was making a c o l l a g e mural.  Donald made a l l  H i s e f f o r t was n o t i c e d and p r a i s e d by the s t u d e n t "They a r e easy  to make" he s a i d as h i s eyes danced  with joy.  (Anecdotal  Record).  March 2 0 , 1962. The  student-teacher asked who would v o l u n t e e r to make  the nest f o r the t r e e .  Donald waved h i s hand.  a t b e i n g chosen t o perform  the t a s k .  He was d e l i g h t e d  (Anecdotal  Record).  74 The l a t e r stage o f development o f t h i s behaviour teristic  charac-  c o i n c i d e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t h i s s e l f -  confidence was  above average but c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e i r comment  t h a t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to work o r d i s c u s s i o n was Chart I I I  little.  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or Adults.  Donald scored above 10. the f i r s t to  two  There are s l i g h t r i s e s  after  months d u r i n g which Donald might have l e a r n e d  handle a r t media and h i m s e l f through  trial  and e r r o r .  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show o c c a s i o n s on which he s e t t l e d  The  diffi-  c u l t i e s himself. January  23,  1962.  H i s s l e e v e s were coming o f f and dropping on t o the c l a y . As he saw his  no one  around and he c o u l d not f o l d them up  with  c l a y - s t a i n e d hands, he t r i e d to p u l l h i s s l e e v e s up  by  b i t i n g the m a t e r i a l between h i s t e e t h and dragging i t up. (Anecdotal March 6,  Record).  1962.  He was p a i n t the sea.  p a i n t i n g a t the e a s e l . I t was  not a v a i l a b l e .  He asked f o r b l u e to He used purple which  he got from B r i a n ' s t r a y o f c o l o u r s i n i t s s t e a d . (Anecdotal T h i s behaviour  Record).  can be r e l a t e d to h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t he was  average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y .  75 Chart IV  Showing Keen Observation o f the World Around  Donald scored above 8.  There i s a tendency to a  graph towards the end of the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n . h i g h e s t peak r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s when Donald was  i n g e x c e r p t i n d i c a t e s one of these  3:50  27,  rising  The  able^to  r e l a t e a c c u r a t e l y what he had heard and observed.  February  Him  The f o l l o w -  occasions.  1962.  The c l a s s was  brought by the t e a c h e r to look at a  mosaic w a l l o u t s i d e the C h i l d A r t Centre. d i s c u s s e d what i t was  made of and how  They  i t was  made.  Answering the t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n , Donald s a i d t h a t i t was  the cement that h e l d the t i l e s t o g e t h e r .  He  t o l d the group the great number o f c o l o u r s t h a t made up t h a t mosaic. This behaviour  (Time Sample). can be r e l a t e d to h i s p a r e n t s ' remark  t h a t h i s knowledge of t h e world was  a c c u r a t e and h i s p a r e n t s '  and h i s t e a c h e r ' s comment that h i s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e and deduce was Chart V  average. Able to Take Advantage of S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the C r e a t i v e Process.  Donald scored between 8.75 r i s e s i n the l a s t three months. o c c a s i o n s when Donald was which developed  and 11.25.  There are  These peaks represent  quite able to use new  i n the a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  The  situations  f o l l o w i n g excerpt  g i v e s an example. January 4:30  20, He was  slight  1962. l o s i n g i n t e r e s t i n what he was  doing.  CHART I Waiting f o r H i s Turn Intensity  Oct  i CHART I I 76 Eager to Contribute  and F r e q u e n c y  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b M a r  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties 2Qlntensity  and F r e q u e n c y  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  CHART I V S h o w i n g Keen O b s e r v a t i o n ^Intensity  and F r e q u e n c y  1S16-  16-  14-  IV  12-  12-  ic-  ic-  /  s-  6-  6  4-  4"  20  O c t Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  O u c t Nov Dec J a n Feb M r  77 4:31  He s t r u g g l e d to f i n i s h p r i n t i n g t h r e e rows o f designs on the top and three at the bottom o f the f o l d e r . found a p i e c e of potato w i t h a sharp p o i n t .  Across  the empty space between the designs he p r i n t e d list".  He  "shopping  Thus, he f i n i s h e d the f o l d e r w i t h i n a s h o r t  time,  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c o i n c i d e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t h i s a b i l i t y to take advantage o f s i t u a t i o n s was Chart VI  new  average.  Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s .  Donald  scored below 7*25*  Apparently, he made no  attempt  to develop an o r d e r l y work h a b i t .  January  r e p r e s e n t s occasions when he grew e x c i t e d and a c t e d  s i l l y , and a c c o r d i n g l y , h i s work h a b i t was worse.  The  January 30, 4:32  A marked f a l l  in  going from bad to  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows one o f these o c c a s i o n s . 1962.  He went o f f to the f o u n t a i n to wash the r e d p a i n t which covered h i s hands and w r i s t s . his of  The s l e e v e s o f  smock became d r i p p i n g wet but he was that.  not aware  He continued to p l a y at the f o u n t a i n f o r  more than two  minutes.  (Time Sample),  T h i s behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t his  o r d e r l i n e s s was  comment t h a t i t was  average below  but corresponded w i t h h i s t e a c h e r ' s average.  U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart VII  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of C o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Donald s c o r e d between 6 and 1 5 * f a l l s from October to February. March.  Though Donald was  There are  gradual  A marked r i s e occurs i n  restless, his interest i n art  a c t i v i t i e s urged him t o c o n c e n t r a t e .  The  following excerpt  g i v e s an example. January 2 3 , 1 9 6 2 . Because o f the snow storm the c h i l d r e n ,  especially  Donald, grew e x c i t e d and became t a l k a t i v e to-day.  When he  was  m o d e l l i n g , he a c t e d s i l l y  to draw a t t e n t i o n , but soon he  was  so i n t e r e s t e d i n the b i r d he made t h a t he stopped  his  m i s c h i e f and worked w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r t e n minutes. (Anecdotal  Record).  The h i g h peak at the end o f the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s when Donald l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the a r t a c t i v i t i e s which he could not cope with and r e v e r t e d to h i s o r i g i n a l behaviour ing  o f l e a v i n g h i s work u n f i n i s h e d .  excerpt i n d i c a t e s one  of these  The  follow-  occasions.  March 2 7 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:10  Donald had d i f f i c u l t y i n c u t t i n g a p i e c e of t h i c k m a t e r i a l w i t h a s m a l l p a i r of s c i s s o r s , y e t he t r y i n g with  4:14  kept  patience....  Stuart finished h i s f i r s t show i t to the group.  p i c t u r e and was  Donald stopped  asked to  c u t t i n g and  l o o k e d at i t . 4:20  He was  chatty.  He s a i d to the c h i l d r e n "You  know, we  79 got o n l y f i v e seconds t o g e t out o f the c l a s s " . The  c h i l d r e n j o i n e d him and they t a l k e d about t h e i r  school. 4:24  He was s t i l l  s t r u g g l i n g , with the t h i c k m a t e r i a l .  , saw a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r near.  He put up h i s hand and  s a i d , " I don't know how t o c u t i t J " to  He  b u t he r e f u s e d  t r y another m a t e r i a l .  4:25  He turned around and t a l k e d to a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r .  4:35  He c u t a p i e c e o f white m a t e r i a l l i s t l e s s l y and ,purposelessly.  Other c h i l d r e n had f i n i s h e d  their  p i c t u r e s but he had no i n t e n t i o n o f f i n i s h i n g h i s . (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour, parents his It  1  t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , c o n t r a d i c t e d the  and the t e a c h e r ' s remarks that Donald seldom f i n i s h e d  work as he o f t e n f i n i s h e d h i s a r t products to take home. corresponded  w i t h h i s teacher's comment t h a t h i s span o f  a t t e n t i o n was average and d i s a g r e e d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' remark that h i s span o f a t t e n t i o n was s h o r t . Chart V I I I  Lack o f E f f o r t t o Improve A r t Products  Donald scored below was apparent.  11.75»  In a r t a c t i v i t i e s h i s e f f o r t  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example.  November 2 7 , 1 9 6 1 . 4:36  I n h i s attempt t o put two s t i c k s through t h e body f o r the l e g s , the f i g u r e f e l l together  4:37  apart.  He put the p a r t s  again.  He t w i s t e d a s i l v e r s t i c k on the head o f the snowman t o make a h a l o .  The snowman f e l l a p a r t a g a i n .  The head  30 r o l l e d on the f l o o r . 4:39  He bent and p i c k e d i t up.  He put a p i e c e o f b a l s a wood through the body t o h o l d the arms i n p l a c e .  He f i x e d the head to the body. (Time Sample).  Another excerpt shows one o f the o c c a s i o n s on which he his  improved  product.  February  6,  1962.  He used h i s f i n g e r to rub the white p a i n t i n t o the eye sockets and the mouth o f the puppet's head.  He  said  t h a t he c o u l d not do the job p r o p e r l y i f he used a brush. (Anecdotal T h i s behaviour  Record).  c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  teacher's remark t h a t the standards he s e t f o r h i m s e l f were low. C h a r t IX  Chatty  Donald s c o r e d between 9 and 14.75*  There i s a sudden  r i s e a f t e r the t h i r d month as Donald, having a d j u s t e d h i m s e l f to s i t u a t i o n s i n the C h i l d A r t Centre, r e v e r t e d to h i s o r i g i n a l c h a t t y behaviour. t h i s behaviour January  23,  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e  characteristic.  1962.  Because o f the snow storm the c h i l d r e n ,  especially  Donald grew e x c i t e d and became t a l k a t i v e to-day. was  When he  modelling, he a c t e d s i l l y t o draw a t t e n t i o n . (Anecdotal  Record).  CHART V to Take Advantage of S i t u a t i o n s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency Able  CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART VI 81 Developing O r d e r l y Work Habits I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  j  CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t ^Intensity  and Frequency  18 1614 12  A  10  A  w  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  82 February 6,  1962.  Donald always t r i e d to say something it  funny.  He  enjoyed  h i m s e l f and wanted other c h i l d r e n to enjoy h i s humour.  he was  making an asbestos puppet, he s a i d , "This i s Dr.  He i s a p l a s t i c surgeon and a d e n t i s t . has no t e e t h . . . . "  As  Pow.  He has no bones.  He  (Anecdotal Record).  March 2 0 , 1962. He t o l d anyone who  came c l o s e to him the s t o r y  the canary on the porch o f t h e i r home.  A student-teacher  commented on the f a t n e s s of the b i r d he drew. "Yes, i t i s a f a t b i r d .  about  He  replied:  I t needs a d i e t " . (Anecdotal R e c o r d ) .  T h i s behaviour can be r e l a t e d to h i s p a r e n t s ' remark that he f r e q u e n t l y sought a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y of a d u l t s . T h i s was  probably because  growing up i n a f a m i l y of f i v e  c h i l d r e n , Donald c o u l d not have enough p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n and help. Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others Donald s c o r e d below 5.5.  He showed l i t t l e  interest i n  the work o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n , l e t alone i m i t a t i n g them.  The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows t h i s behaviour. February 2 7 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:05  Mary-Jo l e f t wide spaces between the c u t - o u t squares i n her mosaic p i c t u r e .  Donald was  sharing a table with  Mary-Jo but he d i d not look at her work at a l l .  He  spaced the squares i n the same manner as the mosaic  wall  83  w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r showed them a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the lesson.  (Time Sample).  T h i s b e h a v i o u r d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t he f o l l o w e d o t h e r s . C h a r t XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l I d e a s i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Products  Donald s c o r e d below 1 0 .  This i n d i c a t e s that although  he was not p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i g i n a l i n h i s c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , he d i d e x p l o r e and e x p e r i e n c e .  The marked f a l l s  o c c a s i o n s when Donald showed o r i g i n a l i d e a s .  represent The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e two o f t h e s e o c c a s i o n s . December 5 , 1 9 6 1 . Donald p u t beads on t o l o n g p i n s .  He had a h a r d  time  because t h e p i n s c o u l d n o t go t h r o u g h t h e t i n y h o l e s o f some beads.  He s t u c k these p i n s on t o a b a l l o f candy f o r m i n g a  r i n g a l l around.  The f i n i s h e d C h r i s t m a s d e c o r a t i o n l o o k e d  l i k e Saturn.  (Anecdotal  Record).  February 2 0 , 1 9 6 2 . Donald was p a i n t i n g a stage scene a t t h e e a s e l .  He  u s e d h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l s t r o k e s t o p a i n t a l a r g e a r e a . " I g o t a s e c r e t about p a i n t i n g " , he s a i d , " I d i d t h i s a r e a i n d i f f e r e n t ways. show.  When t h e p a i n t i s d r y the l i n e s do n o t  I t ' s f l a t l i k e a mirror I"  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s b e h a v i o u r c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t h i s i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were i n s u f f i c i e n t b u t corresponded w i t h h i s t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t t h e y were s u f f i c i e n t .  84 C h a r t XII  Lack of Respect  Donald  scored below 8.25  sharp r i s e and two Donald  f o r Persons  appeared  i n Authority.  f o r f i v e months.  slight rises.  These peaks occur when  to be i n l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r persons i n  a u t h o r i t y as he grew e x c i t e d and a c t e d s i l l y . excerpt g i v e s an example o f t h i s November 14,  There i s a  The f o l l o w i n g  behaviour.  1961.  A f t e r f i n g e r - p a i n t i n g f o r h a l f - a n - h o u r , the c h i l d r e n grew e x c i t e d and a c t e d s i l l y .  Donald  ran about i n the a r t  room w i t h both hands covered w i t h c o l o u r e d p a s t e . saw  When he  the i n s t r u c t o r , he showed him h i s hands and waved them  foolishly.  The i n s t r u c t o r stopped him, but Donald kept  •acting s i l l y . T h i s behaviour  on  (Anecdotal Record). can be r e l a t e d t o h i s t e a c h e r ' s remarks  t h a t h i s e x c i t a b i l i t y was  f r e q u e n t and t h a t h i s r e a d i n e s s to  co-operate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y was  only  average.  Summary In  s t u d y i n g the case o f Donald, the r e s e a r c h e r has  n o t i c e d two dominant f e a t u r e s i n h i s behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . One  o f these f e a t u r e s i s h i s change o f behaviour a f t e r  t h i r d month when Donald i n the C h i l d Art Centre.  had adapted h i m s e l f t o the  the  situation  F o r example, he grew more eager t o  c o n t r i b u t e t o group work and d i s c u s s i o n (Chart I I ) and more capable o f t a k i n g advantage of new months.  (Chart V ) .  s i t u a t i o n s i n the l a s t t h r e e  T h i s f e a t u r e corresponded w i t h h i s p a r e n t s '  and h i s teacher's remark t h a t h i s a d a p t a b i l i t y was  average.  CHART IX Chatty  CHART X I m i t a t i n g Others  6*5  I n t e n s i t y and Frequenc;  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas  Nov Dec J a n Feb Mar  CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  , 86 Another dominant f e a t u r e i s the r e v e r s i o n o f h i s beh a v i o u r to the o r i g i n a l . and  For example, he again became r e s t l e s s  l e f t h i s work u n f i n i s h e d a f t e r working w i t h  w i l l f o r f o u r months. e x c i t a b l e every  now  for several lessons  (Chart V I I ) ; and  determined  he grew c h a t t y  and then a f t e r working w i t h (Chart I X ) .  This f e a t u r e was  a t t e n t i o n seeking as n o t i c e d by h i s  parents.  and  concentration due  to  CHAPTER VI REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL CASES IN THE INTERMEDIATE GROUP AGES FROM EIGHT TO NINE CASE 5 Description B e t t y , age n i n e , was a t a l l ,  s l e n d e r g i r l with g l a s s e s .  One c o u l d almost p r e d i c t t h a t B e t t y would grow up t o be a smart and sharp woman.  She was accurate and c l e a r i n speech.  During any a r t a c t i v i t y , she t a l k e d a g r e a t d e a l to V i c k y o r to  the group.  She would r e t a l i a t e when a peer c r i t i c i z e d her  work and would make sharp remarks when a p e e r d i d or s a i d something wrong. Her best f r i e n d was V i c k y , a b r i g h t p u p i l i n s c h o o l and a good drawer i n the C h i l d A r t Centre.  B e t t y p l a y e d and  t a l k e d with Nick t o o . Nick was popular among the c h i l d r e n in  her c l a s s i n school.  slow and clumsy.  B e t t y was n o t fond o f Hazel who was  Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r and  student-teachers was f r i e n d l y . with disrespect. did  She very seldom t r e a t e d them  However, b e i n g a strong-minded g i r l ,  not always accept  change.  Betty  She p r e f e r r e d t o work h e r own  way o u t . B e t t y ' s f a t h e r was an i n s t r u c t o r o f mathematics i n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. low  on the u n i v e r s i t y campus.  f u r n i s h e d i n good t a s t e .  The f a m i l y l i v e d i n a bungaThe bungalow was s m a l l b u t  88 The The  f a m i l y came from the U n i t e d S t a t e s two  ago.  parents wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e m a i n Americans from  head to t o e .  They w o r r i e d t h a t B e t t y would adopt E n g l i s h  s p e l l i n g s and e x p r e s s i o n s The  years  i n school.  Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n of B e t t y ' s P e r s o n a l i t y The  mother s t a t e d t h a t as B e t t y was  t h r e e c h i l d r e n , they expected  the o l d e s t o f t h e i r  much from her.  She was  a gifted  c h i l d and so she had no d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the standard s e t f o r her. The  Compared w i t h B e t t y , her two b r o t h e r s were  boys, age  "babies".  seven and f i v e , admired her and took i n t e r e s t  i n her accomplishments. they c o u l d f o r B e t t y .  The She  parents d e s i r e d to do the best  took v i o l i n l e s s o n s downtown.  Last  year, she had l e s s o n s i n c r e a t i v e dance, but t h i s year she l i m b e r i n g dance i n s t e a d . out how  The  she improved i n the C h i l d A r t The  B e t t y was  two.  the mother was  She was No one  drawing horses.  She  to  find  C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. when  sent to a nursery s c h o o l because the i n the f a m i l y was  very i n t e r e s t e d i n music.  any p a i n t i n g at home.  very anxious  Centre.  f a m i l y l i v e d i n Los Angeles,  mother worked.  able to p a i n t ,  although  B e t t y seldom d i d  O c c a s i o n a l l y , she took i n t e r e s t i n  had her own  w i t h the l e a s t d i s t u r b a n c e . own  mother was  took  room, where she c o u l d work  She was  room but sometimes she had  t r a i n e d to c l e a n up  to be reminded to f i n i s h  her her  task. B e t t y had a wide c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s among her and neighbours.  V i c k y was  always her best f r i e n d .  classmates  89 The C l a s s Teacher's The  Description of Betty's Personality  t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t B e t t y was one o f the b r i g h t e s t  p u p i l s i n the c l a s s .  She was very p o e t i c and a r t i s t i c .  was very mature i n her a t t i t u d e .  She  She expected much o f h e r s e l f  and was never s a t i s f i e d w i t h a n y t h i n g but the very b e s t .  How-  ever, she had l e a r n e d t o be modest.  other  c h i l d r e n ' s work.  She never c r i t i c i z e d  She r e c e i v e d i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c  s t i m u l a t i o n a t home.  A h i g h standard was s e t f o r her.  She  had a good knowledge o f t h i n g s o u t s i d e s c h o o l . She was popular among her classmates, but she was c a r e f u l i n making f r i e n d s .  She l i k e d c h i l d r e n w i t h the same  i n t e r e s t s as hers and went w i t h those w i t h the same standard of work.  F o r t h i s reason, she chose V i c k y as h e r b e s t f r i e n d  and showed no i n t e r e s t i n H a z e l . The  p r i n c i p a l b e l i e v e d t h a t B e t t y was"a good g i r l , a l -  though her mother caused The  him and h i s s t a f f a l o t o f t r o u b l e .  mother q u a r r e l e d w i t h the c l a s s teacher l a s t year.  More  than once, she j u s t walked i n t o the classroom, without the teacher's permission.  Whenever she made an appointment to  see the p r i n c i p a l she purposely changed the time i n o r d e r t o have her way.  She never admitted  always tended  to r u n people down.  that she was wrong and  A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and the Teacher's  Answers t o  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on B e t t y ' s P e r s o n a l i t y The  t e a c h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t B e t t y was e m o t i o n a l l y mature  and seldom showed any o f the emotional questionnaire.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the  The parents found t h a t she o c c a s i o n a l l y had  90  emotional outbursts, aggression, attention-seeking  and  dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n ,  day-dreams and  f r e q u e n t l y showed  excitability. The  teacher  found t h a t B e t t y was  above average i n a l l  the i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , y e t the p a r e n t s remarked t h a t she was  o n l y average i n a b i l i t y t o see r e l a t i o n s h i p to p l a n ,  t o l e a r n from e x p e r i e n c e ,  to g e n e r a l i z e and  deduce and  to  u n d e r s t a n d and c a r r y out d i r e c t i o n . The  p a r e n t s and  the t e a c h e r agreed i n most o f  answers t o the q u e s t i o n s  the  on s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x c e p t t h a t  the p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t B e t t y was  average i n s e l f - c o n t r o l ,  w i l l i n g n e s s to c o - o p e r a t e i n r o u t i n e s and w i l l i n g n e s s t o o p e r a t e i n p l a y o r work.  The  p a r e n t s and the t e a c h e r  co-  agreed  i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to formation the p a r e n t s found t h a t B e t t y was and  o f c h a r a c t e r , except t h a t  o n l y average i n o r d e r l i n e s s  carefulness. The  p a r e n t s d i f f e r e d f r o m the t e a c h e r  i n opinions  p r o b a b l y because they expected too much from B e t t y and t o impose a d u l t s ' s t a n d a r d s on  her.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d  tended  Behaviour  i n Art A c t i v i t i e s .  Desirable Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Chart I  Waiting  f o r Her  Turn  B e t t y s c o r e d between 1 4 r i s e s and f a l l s .  The  and 1 5 » 5 »  f o l l o w i n g excerpts  her t u r n to o b t a i n a r t m a t e r i a l s .  There a r e no marked show B e t t y w a i t e d  for  91 November 16, 4:05  The  1961.  c l a s s was  chalk.  allowed t o choose crayons, p a i n t s or  Betty t a l k e d s o f t l y w i t h V i c k y and agreed  to  have c h a l k . 4:08  She went o f f to get chalk with V i c k y f o l l o w i n g her.  4:09  Other c h i l d r e n crowded around the t a b l e to get materials.  their  B e t t y and V i c k y waited f o r t h e i r t u r n . (Time Sample).  November 30, The  1961.  c h i l d r e n were t o l d t o t h i n k o f a p i c t u r e and were  asked one by one 4:05  to t e l l  the theme.  "What i s your p i c t u r e ? " asked the i n s t r u c t o r . horse i for  A horse J" B e t t y s a i d .  "A  She had been w a i t i n g  her t u r n to say her f a v o u r i t e theme. (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour  can be r e l a t e d to her p a r e n t s ' and  t e a c h e r ' s remarks t h a t her p a t i e n c e was t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t she was Chart I I  her  above average and  the  seldom a g g r e s s i v e .  Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e to Group Work o r Group D i s c u s s i o n .  The  scores f e l l between 13*5  and 16.25.  s l i g h t r i s e s i n i n t e n s i t y and frequency.  The  There are f o l l o w i n g excerpt  g i v e s an example of the o c c a s i o n s t h a t accounted f o r these November 2,  rises.  1961.  I n the group d i s c u s s i o n , B e t t y gave a l o n g and  detailed  d i s c r i p t i o n about the f u n c t i o n o f the canoes i n Eskimo Land. She  d i d more than her share i n p a i n t i n g the mural. (Anecdotal  Record).  92 T h i s behaviour corresponded with h e r p a r e n t s ' teacher's  and h e r  remark t h a t she c o n t r i b u t e d much a t home and i n  school. Chart  III  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing  to Peers  or Adults. B e t t y scored above 11.75* rising.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s  There i s a tendency towards show occasions  on which she  d i d not appeal f o r help although she was i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . February 1, 1962. The board. 4:00  c l a s s were asked to s c r a t c h a p i c t u r e on a s c r a t c h  Knives,  n a i l s and c l i p s were used f o r t h e purpose.  B e t t y s c r a t c h e d a few l i n e s on the board.  She had  d i f f i c u l t y i n carving f l u e n t l i n e s with a k n i f e . " T h i s i s k i n d o f h a r d J " she complained. 4:10  She was s t i l l e x p l o r i n g the technique o f h a n d l i n g the k n i f e without much success. away from h e r s e l f . were made.  She pushed the k n i f e  Thus, many unwanted s i d e l i n e s  However, she d i d not appeal to t h e i n -  s t r u c t o r f o r h e l p , she only s a i d , " V i c k y J to take t h i s home to f i n i s h ! "  We have  (Time Sample).  March 22, 1962. 4:20  She f i n i s h e d making the s t r u c t u r e o f the animal b u t she c o u l d not make i t stand.  She found t h a t the  f r o n t l e g s were longer than the hind l e g s . not t r o u b l e d .  She was  She took a p a i r o f s c i s s o r s and c u t  the l e g s t o the same l e n g t h .  (Time Sample).  93 T h i s behaviour  corresponded  w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and  t e a c h e r ' s remark that her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was C h a r t IV  above  average.  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f the World Around  For f i v e months, B e t t y scored above 17»  her  Her.  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t g i v e s an example o f her keen o b s e r v a t i o n . November 30,  1961.  The c l a s s was was  doing c r e a t i v e drama.  The  instructor  d i r e c t i n g them.  4:06  The  c l a s s was  asked  to a c t walking on the snow.  t i e d her c a r d i g a n around her neck and  Betty  trod with great  care. 4:15  She pretended  t h a t she found a mouse.  she s a i d to h e r s e l f . cardigan.  " I got himJ"  Q u i c k l y she wrapped i t w i t h  Then she pretended  her  that i t s t r u g g l e d f r e e  and  she had to look f o r i t a g a i n .  (Time Sample).  The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show t h a t her o b s e r v a t i o n  was  supported by a good g e n e r a l knowledge. January  18,  1962.  In group d i s c u s s i o n , the c l a s s was a fish.  asked  to d e s c r i b e  B e t t y gave a l o n g and accurate d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  d i f f e r e n c e between a whale and a f i s h i n c l u d i n g t h e i r t e r i s t i c s i n appearance and  the way  of breathing. (Anecdotal  T h i s behaviour  plentiful.  Record).  can be r e l a t e d to her p a r e n t s ' and  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her knowledge o f the world was and  charac-  her  accurate  CHART I W a i t i n g f o r Her Turn  Eager  I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  IMOV Dec  oan  reb  CHART I I 94 to Contribute  Intensity  and F r e q u e n c y  Mar  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties  CHART I V S h o w i n g Keen O b s e r v a t i o n  20 I n t e n s i t y and F r o q n o n p y 18  \  16 14 12 '10 8 6  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  ohe Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  95  C h a r t V.  Able t o Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop in  the Creative Process.  F o r f o u r months, B e t t y s c o r e d between 8.25 and 9«25« There i s a marked drop i n F e b r u a r y and a marked r i s e i n March. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , B e t t y d i d e x p e r i e n c e and e x p l o r e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , y e t she showed no t a l e n t f o r u s i n g new situations. October 4:4-0  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t e x p l a i n s t h i s  behaviour.  26, 1961. She was i n t e r e s t e d i n s p o t s o f w a t e r dropped by a c c i d e n t on h e r p a s t e l p a i n t i n g .  She touched them and examined  them. 4:41  She sucked h e r f o r e f i n g e r , t h i n k i n g and s t i l l l o o k i n g at  4:50  the spots.  She s p r i n k l e d some w a t e r on t h e p a i n t i n g and p a i n t e d over the water spots w i t h p a s t e l s .  4:52  She c a r r i e d on e x p e r i m e n t i n g and asked V i c k y t o t r y the same.  (Time Sample).  There were o c c a s i o n s on w h i c h she was n o t a b l e t o t a k e advantage o f s i t u a t i o n s t h a t developed. shows t h i s  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  behaviour.  February 1, 1962. 4:10  She was s t i l l  e x p l o r i n g the technique o f h a n d l i n g the  k n i f e w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s . from h e r s e l f . made....  She pushed t h e k n i f e away  Thus, many unwanted s i d e l i n e s were  "VickyJ  We have t o take t h i s home t o f i n i s h I "  (She c o u l d make use o f the unwanted l i n e s b u t she d i d not t h i n k o f t h a t ) .  (Time Sample).  96  Of course there were o c c a s i o n s when she was new  situations.  a b l e to use  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows an example.  March 2 9 , 1 9 6 2 . B e t t y c o u l d not make her horse stand although t r i e d i n the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n .  she had •  She made i t s i t up and  p e r s o n i f i e d the animal.  (Anecdotal  On the whole, t h i s behaviour  thus  Record).  d i d not correspond  with  her p a r e n t s ' and her teacher's remark t h a t her a b i l i t y to take advantage o f new  s i t u a t i o n s was  b a b l y because s k i l l was  above average.  necessary  Betty had c u l t i v a t e d the s k i l l  T h i s was  in art activities.  pro-  Unless  o f h a n d l i n g t o o l s , she c o u l d  not e a s i l y take advantage o f new  s i t u a t i o n s developed  in  the c r e a t i v e process. Chart VI  Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s .  B e t t y socred above 1 2 .  The  absence of r i s e s and  i n d i c a t e s t h a t her work h a b i t s were r e g u l a r .  falls  The f o l l o w i n g  excerpt g i v e s an example of her o r d e r l y work h a b i t s . November 9 , 1 9 6 1 . A f t e r f i n i s h i n g t h e i r p a i n t i n g s , B e t t y and V i c k y  tried  very hard to scrub the s t a i n s o f p a i n t o f f the t a b l e w i t h soap and jar.  sponge.  They found  someone had l e f t a crayon i n the water  "What's the i d e a o f l e a v i n g a crayon i n the water I "  exclaimed  Betty.  The  take out the crayon.  teacher t o l d her to empty the water and She d i d t h i s w i l l i n g l y . (Anecdotal  T h i s behaviour  corresponded  that her o r d e r l i n e s s was  above  Record).  w i t h her t e a c h e r ' s remark  average.  97 U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart VII  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n .  B e t t y scored 9*5 obvious tion.  i n f i v e months.  Her c o n c e n t r a t i o n was  i n group d i s c u s s i o n s and the i n s t r u c t o r ' s demonstraThe  following  February 1, The 3:50  Characteristics  e x c e r p t g i v e s an example of t h i s  1962. c l a s s sat around the i n s t r u c t o r .  B e t t y watched a t t e n t i v e l y the i n s t r u c t o r on a p l a s t e r board. o f l i n o - c u t and  The  suggested  a t the examples w i t h  demonstrating  i n s t r u c t o r showed them p r i n t s to them the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f  c a r v i n g a p i c t u r e on a dark background.  3:55  behaviour.  Betty looked  admiration.  Sucking her f o r e f i n g e r , she l i s t e n e d w i t h t i o n to the i n s t r u c t o r .  concentra-  (Time Sample).  However, there were o c c a s i o n s on which B e t t y showed restlessness.  The  following  time sample as the one 4:13  She  o r i g i n a l way  to her two  ways o f h a n d l i n g  t r i e d them but soon she p r e f e r r e d  Dougy t a l k e d about a b i g needle h i s mother had.  to him.  her  o f pushing the k n i f e away from her.  by s c r a t c h i n g  on p l a s t e r board,  half-mindedly.  Bored  the c h i l d r e n l i s t e n e d  Betty asked, "Is i t a darning needle?"  went on w i t h h i s t a l l s t o r y .  4:20  taken from the same  above.  The. s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r suggested the k n i f e .  4:14  excerpt was  Dougy  B e t t y l i s t e n e d and worked  Soon she l e f t t o see Heather's work.  The i n s t r u c t o r s a i d to her, "Come on B e t t y , you must f i n i s h i t to-dayJ"  Betty r e t u r n e d to her p l a c e . (Time Sample).  9* Occasions l i k e the one peak.  T h i s behaviour  above accounted  f o r the h i g h e s t  c o n t r a d i c t e d her p a r e n t s ' and  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her span o f a t t e n t i o n was Chart V I I I  her  long.  Lack o f E f f o r t to Improve A r t Products.  Betty scored below 7*25 i n the f i r s t f o u r months. is  o n l y one  h i g h peak which occurs i n February when B e t t y  c h a t t e d not o n l y w i t h V i c k y but anyone who  shared her  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows an example o f t h i s February  8,  table.  behaviour.  1962.  I n cardboard horse.  There,  p r i n t i n g , B e t t y c u t out her f a v o u r i t e  She wasted much time i n arguing w i t h the o l d e r g i r l s  and c h a t t i n g w i t h V i c k y and Dougy. She was  l a t e i n f i n i s h i n g the p i c t u r e .  A l l the o t h e r  c h i l d r e n had taken p r i n t s o f t h e i r , but she was the l a y e r s together.  s t i l l pasting  When the i n s t r u c t o r asked the c l a s s to  h u r r y , she made no e f f o r t to improve her  picture. (Anecdotal  Record).  However, there were o c c a s i o n s on which B e t t y improved her a r t work.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows an example.  March 29,  1962.  4:36  took the horse-shoes o f f and p a i n t e d the hoofs  She  the horse p u r p l e . she s a i d . 4:47  She was  "We  c o u l d get a l i t t l e  b i t blackJ"  Then she p a i n t e d b l a c k over p u r p l e .  s t i l l working on the horse-shoes.  "It's d i f f i -  c u l t to get the f o u r horse-shoes o f the same s i z e " , complained,  of  but  she kept on t r y i n g .  she  (Time Sample).  Only on o c c a s i o n s l i k e t h i s d i d her behaviour  correspond  CHART V t o Take A d v a n t a g e of S i t u a t i o n s I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y Able  CHART V I 99 Developing Orderly Work H a b i t s 2Q I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  Mar  2  CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of C o n c e n t r a t i o n Q I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t  20 Ilrtfinflitiy and Frequency IB 16 14 12 10 S 6  L  \  2Y n u  j  i  i  —  i i i  —  i  O c t Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  100 w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and her teacher's remark t h a t the standard s e t f o r h e r s e l f was h i g h . Chart IX  Chatty  B e t t y scored above 1 0 . her i n her adjustment, o t h e r than V i c k y .  As her s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e helped  she soon f e l t  f r e e to chat w i t h c h i l d r e n  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show t h i s b e h a v i o u r .  1 2 , 1961.  October  B e t t y never  stopped  t a l k i n g when she was a t work. (Anecdotal  Record).  March 8 , 1 9 6 2 . She was s h a r i n g a t a b l e with Nick and t a l k i n g a l l the time about s c h o o l and home.  She s a i d to Nick, "I am a t y p i c a l  American from head to t o e . Daddy i s a f r a i d t h a t I would become Canadian and s p e l l  ' c o l o r ' w i t h a 'u'." (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s c h a t t y behaviour was probably due t o a g g r e s s i o n and e x c i t a b i l i t y as n o t i c e d by h e r p a r e n t s . Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others. Except i n December and January, B e t t y s c o r e d below 7 . 2 5 .  Being strong-minded, B e t t y would not i m i t a t e those c h i l d r e n who imposed t h e i r i d e a s on her.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows t h i s  behaviour. March 2 2 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:25  The animal s t r u c t u r e she made c o u l d not stand and the pasted paper on i t would not s t a y .  B r i a n advised h e r  to put paste on both s i d e s o f the paper as he d i d .  She  101 d i d not accept the s u g g e s t i o n but kept t r y i n g h e r own o r i g i n a l way.  (Time Sample).  There are o c c a s i o n s on which Betty i m i t a t e d V i c k y o r a t l e a s t was i n f l u e n c e d by her.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show two  o f these o c c a s i o n s . December 7, 1961. Both B e t t y and V i c k y s t a r t e d p a i n t i n g the masks w i t h outlines.  The two p i e c e s o f work were a l i k e . (Anecdotal  Record).  January 4, 1962. Betty sat with Vicky.  Her p o r t r a i t o f an o l d man was  quite s i m i l a r to Vicky's.  (Anecdotal  Record).  T h i s behaviour o f f o l l o w i n g o t h e r s c o n t r a d i c t e d her p a r e n t s ' and h e r t e a c h e r ' s remark on her l e a d e r s h i p .  I t was  p r o b a b l y due to her d e s i r e f o r group r e c o g n i t i o n which was t y p i c a l o f her age. Chart XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Products.  B e t t y s c o r e d between 4 and 10.  A c c o r d i n g t o the  i n s t r u c t o r , h e r a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e d i d not correspond w i t h her intelligence.  Her a r t work was not a t a l l o u t s t a n d i n g , but  she l i k e d what she d i d .  However, t h e r e were o c c a s i o n s on  which she showed o r i g i n a l i t y i n her a r t products.  The f o l l o w -  i n g e x c e r p t i n d i c a t e s one o f these o c c a s i o n s . February  22, 1962.  B e t t y ' p i n - p r i c k e d ' a p i c t u r e o f the w a t e r f r o n t . p i n - p r i c k e d a b i r d from the back o f the s c r e e n .  She  "You are not  102 supposed t o work from the back", s a i d V i c k y .  "I know", she  s a i d , "these f e a t h e r s a r e supposed to s t i c k o u t . " She was so c o n f i d e n t o f h e r s e l f t h a t she was not a f r a i d to be o r i g i n a l . (Anecdotal  Record).  l e t q u i t e o f t e n , she was l a c k i n g i n o r i g i n a l i d e a s . The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows t h i s .  February  1, 1962.  The  design o f the head o f a horse on cement was not  at a l l o u t s t a n d i n g , but B e t t y l i k e d what she d i d . c a r v i n g , she s c r a t c h e d three b i r d s i n one row — o r d i n a r y theme f o r a p i c t u r e . T h i s behaviour  In plaster a rather  (Anecdotal  Record).  cannot be r e l a t e d to her p a r e n t s ' and  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were c r e a t i v e . T h i s l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i d e a s i n a r t product might be p a r t l y due to the f a c t t h a t f o r most o f the time she stuck to one s i n g l e theme —  her f a v o u r i t e animal, the horse.  Chart X I I  Lack o f Respect  Except 5.25.  f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y .  f o r the s h i f t i n November, B e t t y scored below  Although  she was fond o f c h a t t i n g , she would stop and  l i s t e n when the i n s t r u c t o r o r a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r spoke.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s her r e s p e c t f o r t h i s a u t h o r i t y and h e r emotional  maturity.  November 30, 1961. 4:10  The i n s t r u c t o r t o l d t h e c h i l d r e n about g e t t i n g out o f h i s bed t o i n v e s t i g a t e a strange n o i s e . he thought  i t was a ghost.  l a u g h t e r except B e t t y .  He added t h a t  A l l the c h i l d r e n r o a r e d w i t h  She l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y .  A  103 f a i n t smile spread over h e r f a c e to show t h a t she was amused.  (Time Sample).  O c c a s i o n a l l y , B e t t y would have h e r own way which seemed l a c k i n g i n r e s p e c t f o r persons strong-minded g i r l ) . these  i n a u t h o r i t y (as B e t t y was a  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows one o f  occasions.  November 16, 1961. 3:40  Although the teacher t o l d the c l a s s t o be seated, B e t t y was s t a n d i n g and b u t t o n i n g up V i c k y ' s p a i n t i n g smock. to  When they were f i n i s h e d , they walked q u i e t l y  the s e a t s a t t h e c o r n e r .  (Anecdotal  G e n e r a l l y speaking, t h i s behaviour  Record).  corresponded  with  B e t t y ' s t e a c h e r ' s and h e r p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t she was above average i n her r e a d i n e s s t o co-operate w i t h the r i g h t authority. Summary I n t h e study o f t h e case o f B e t t y , the r e s e a r c h e r has found t h a t t h e r e seems t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t  relationship  between p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as n o t i c e d by her teacher and h e r p a r e n t s , and behaviour displayed i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . h e r teacher f e l t yet  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  F o r example, h e r parents and  t h a t her i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were c r e a t i v e  there were o c c a s i o n s on which h e r l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i d e a s  i n a r t products was apparent. A f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o B e t t y ' s a t t i t u d e towards a r t a c t i v i t i e s and a r t products can be made to i n t e r p r e t the  CHART X Imitating Others  CHART I X . Chatty  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  CHART X I Lack o f O r i g i n a l ^Jntensitv  Ideas  104  O c t Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  0  CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  v  and F r e q u e n c y  16V 16 14 12 10  a  o  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  0  O c t Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  105 absence  o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r p e r s o n a l i t y  and h e r behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  One o f the reasons  seems t o be t h a t B e t t y ' s p a r e n t s , who expected much from B e t t y , made h e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n so many e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r t i e s t h a t she found i t hard t o cope w i t h them a l l .  activi-  Loss o f  i n t e r e s t might account f o r some o f her u n d e s i r a b l e behaviour characteristics. CASE 6 Description Helen, age e i g h t , was a h e a l t h y - l o o k i n g g i r l w i t h a happy e x p r e s s i o n on her f a c e . i n t e r m e d i a t e group.  She was the youngest  When she f i r s t  came to the C h i l d A r t  C e n t r e , she j o i n e d B e t t y and "Vicky because class i n school.  i n the  they were i n h e r  B e t t y and V i c k y were very c h a t t y .  They  never stopped t a l k i n g , a l t h o u g h they were busy working a t the same time.  Helen l i s t e n e d t o them but she very  e n t e r e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n .  She l i k e d  seldom  adult's attention.  She  showed the i n s t r u c t o r and the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r i n charge every stage o f h e r work.  When she found t h a t B e t t y and V i c k y d i d  not accept h e r , she t r i e d hard t o make f r i e n d s w i t h the o l d e r girls.  However, she was not p o p u l a r i n the a r t c l a s s .  In  o r d e r to g a i n group r e c o g n i t i o n , she was too eager t o contribute.  Very o f t e n , she c a r r i e d o u t h e r own i d e a s a g a i n s t  the w i s h o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n . Undoubtedly, activities.  Helen was i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t work and a r t  Every now and then she asked p e r m i s s i o n to take  106 her f o l i o home. modelling,  l i k e d to t r y a l l forms o f a r t such as  l i n o - c u t t i n g , painting, etc.  what she had  made and was  i d e a s were not to be  She  She  was  happy about  c o n f i d e n t o f her d e x t e r i t y .  s u f f i c i e n t nor r i c h , y e t she was  not  Her  afraid  original. Helen was  a c o n s c i e n t i o u s worker.  She was  than w i l l i n g to stay behind to h e l p c l e a n up.  always more  I f she  found a  s t a i n s t a y i n g on a t a b l e she would t r y a l l means to scrub i t off. Helen's f a t h e r was i n a b e a u t i f u l home and boarders.  Helen had  s i s t e r , age The  a contract dealer.  had  two  The  family  f o u r u n i v e r s i t y boys as  brothers,  age  ten and  their  eleven,  and  a  six.  P a r e n t ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f Helen's P e r s o n a l i t y . Helen's mother came t o the C h i l d A r t Centre to be  viewed.  She  apologized  forgot.  She  inter-  f o r not keeping her appointment and  answering the note concerning and  lived  the i n t e r v i e w because she was  added that she  seldom f o r g o t her  not busy  appoint-  ments. As to Helen's p e r s o n a l i t y , she happy outgoing c h i l d , who  remarked:  t h r i v e s on a f f e c t i o n , but  i s a most s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c h i l d . " p a i n t e d p i c t u r e s at home but  She  worked.  Helen had She  otherwise  s a i d t h a t Helen never  she d i d a l o t o f crayon work on  paper and c h a l k work on a b i g blackboard they had kitchen.  "Helen i s a  a desk i n her own  i n the  room where she  usually  had not y e t c u l t i v a t e d the h a b i t of p u t t i n g  t h i n g s away a f t e r u s i n g  them.  107 B e i n g an e n t h u s i a s t i c c h i l d , Helen p a r t i c i p a t e d i n everything  and l o v e d what she d i d .  She was a Brownie and  a l s o would be t a k i n g dancing l e s s o n s next year. many c h i l d r e n o f her age i n the neighbourhood. c h i l d r e n of f a m i l y f r i e n d s .  There were Some were  Helen v i s i t e d her f r i e n d s o f t e n  but she had no s p e c i a l f r i e n d s .  The mother b e l i e v e d  that  Helen had no problem i n making f r i e n d s i n s c h o o l . The  mother added that Helen never gave her any problem  i n her up-bringing.  She had n o t attended k i n d e r g a r t e n .  When  she was s m a l l , h e r two b r o t h e r s were good companions to h e r . They were a l i v e l y bunch, although as they grew o l d e r the boys p r e f e r r e d the boy's games and seldom accepted Helen.  Helen's  s i s t e r was advanced f o r h e r age because she l e a r n e d a great d e a l from Helen and h e r b r o t h e r s .  Helen was a good f r i e n d t o  her s i s t e r and l i k e d t o mother her. The  mother concluded that she was not p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t but l o v e d anything  that was b e a u t i f u l .  The  f a m i l y seldom went t o a r t e x h i b i t i o n s and made no p o i n t o f going," b u t they were i n t e r e s t e d i n Helen's a r t works, especi a l l y the works i n the f o l i o which she took home. The  G l a s s Teacher's D e s c r i p t i o n o f Helen's P e r s o n a l i t y . According  t o the c l a s s teacher,  l e a r n e r and worker. Her  Helen was a slow  She always had problems i n mathematics.  a r t work a t s c h o o l was not as good as some o f the b r i g h t e r  c h i l d r e n , but she was i n t e r e s t e d i n i t . i n the teacher's i n art too.  c l a s s before  Her b r o t h e r , who was  and who was q u i t e slow, was good  108 Helen was  anxious  to p l e a s e a d u l t s although  r a t h e r shy and p r e f e r r e d to be i n the background. w i t h the t e a c h e r a f t e r s c h o o l .  she  was  She  chatted  I t seemed t h a t she wanted to  say. something f o r the sake o f t a l k i n g to the teacher. very c o - o p e r a t i v e i n d a i l y r o u t i n e s .  She was  p l e a s a n t c h i l d " t h a t every t e a c h e r l i k e d . t h a t h e r I.Q. The  was  low, but she was  She was  f r i e n d s and a secure s o c i a l Helen r e c e i v e d l i t t l e set  q u i e t and  taken i n t o games.  f o r her was  said  well-behaved.  q u i t e popular among She  had  steady  life. a t t e n t i o n at home.  quite inconsistent.  The  standard  Her mother a p o l o g i z e d to  the c l a s s teacher f o r p u t t i n g Helen, who b r o t h e r , i n her c l a s s .  was  a "sweet and  The p r i n c i p a l  teacher b e l i e v e d t h a t Helen was  the c h i l d r e n .  She  was  as d u l l as  her  The c l a s s teacher s a i d t h a t the mother  might not have meant what she s a i d , but she seemed t r o u b l e d . A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and the Teacher's  Answers to  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on Helen's P e r s o n a l i t y . G e n e r a l l y speaking, Helen's parents and her t e a c h e r agreed i n t h e i r answers to the q u e s t i o n s on characteristics.  class emotional  However, the parents p o i n t e d out t h a t  Helen  f r e q u e n t l y depended on a f f e c t i o n w h i l e the t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t her dependence on a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g were occasional.  The  teacher remarked t h a t Helen's i n t e l l e c t u a l  a b i l i t i e s were average. to  The parents found t h a t her  p l a n and her a b i l i t y to understand  were average.  ability  and c a r r y out d i r e c t i o n s  As to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the t e a c h e r again  c o n s i d e r e d that Helen was  average.  The parents b e l i e v e d t h a t  109 she was  above average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , w i l l i n g n e s s to co-  operate and l e a d e r s h i p . to  T h i s disagreement  was  probably  due  the f a c t t h a t Helen's mother compared Helen with her o l d e r  b r o t h e r who  was  a slow l e a r n e r , w h i l e the teacher compared  her w i t h B e t t y and V i c k y who were the b r i g h t e s t i n her c l a s s . The parents and the t e a c h e r agreed i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s about Helen's p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  As to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  r e l a t e d to formation o f c h a r a c t e r , the t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Helen was  above average  i n o r d e r l i n e s s and c a r e f u l n e s s although  the parents remarked t h a t she was  o n l y average.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s . D e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart I  W a i t i n g f o r Her  Characteristics  Turn.  Helen scored between 1 4 » 5 and 16.5* marked r i s e s and f a l l s .  There are no  T h i s i n d i c a t e s that Helen c o n s t a n t l y  waited p a t i e n t l y f o r her t u r n to o b t a i n a r t m a t e r i a l s , use s i n k s , ask and answer q u e s t i o n s . examples o f t h i s  The f o l l o w i n g excerpts g i v e  behaviour.  November 9, 1 9 6 1 . A l l the c h i l d r e n l e f t get  t h e i r coats.  the t a b l e to wash t h e i r hands and  Helen waited f o r her t u r n .  c l e a n e d the t a b l e w i t h a sponge.  Meanwhile, she  (Anecdotal Record).  February 8, 1 9 6 2 . 4:25  The  i n s t r u c t o r was  busy.  Helen waited f o r almost  minutes t o show him her f i n a l  product, a cardboard  five  110 stencil. 4:45  He t o l d her t h a t she c o u l d make p r i n t s . . . .  Again, she w a i t e d to speak to the i n s t r u c t o r , a s k i n g if  she c o u l d have a second p r i n t made and take her  f o l i o home.  (Time  Sample).  T h i s behaviour agreed w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her p a t i e n c e was above average. Chart I I Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e to Group Work o r Group D i s c u s s i o n . Helen scored between 14 and 15.75*  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  shows h e r eagerness t o c o n t r i b u t e , e s p e c i a l l y to the group work o f c l e a n i n g up. November 23, 1961. Helen was very h e l p f u l to-day.  She put away the c h a i r s  used by her group as w e l l as t h o s e used by another  group.  (Anecdotal Record). Helen was e q u a l l y eager t o c o n t r i b u t e to the group work o f g i v i n g out a r t m a t e r i a l s and p a i n t i n g .  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s behaviour. January 18, 1962. 4:17  When the t e a c h e r asked i f one o f the group would go to get water Helen went o f f immediately to get i t . She was anxious to p l e a s e the t e a c h e r .  4:18  The group s t a r t e d  painting....  4:28  Helen kept p a i n t i n g doodles o f mauve on the f i s h . Even when Susan s a i d annoyingly, " N o t h i n g i  Don't  touch anything J " she d i d not l i s t e n nor stop what she was d o i n g .  (Time  Sample).  Ill I n the case o f Helen,  t h i s behaviour  may  be r e l a t e d to  a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g as n o t i c e d by her c l a s s t e a c h e r .  When i t  was  c a r r i e d to the extreme, as shown i n the l a s t e x c e r p t , i t  was  no l o n g e r a d e s i r a b l e behaviour  Chart I I I  characteristic.  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or A d u l t s . s c o r e s f a l l between 8 and 1 0 . 2 5 .  The to  Helen  appealed  the i n s t r u c t o r or the student-teacher i n charge when she  came to the end was  unable  of each s t a g e of her work, not because she  to s e t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s h e r s e l f , but because  demanded a d u l t s * a t t e n t i o n and p r a i s e .  The  she  f o l l o w i n g excerpt  shows an example o f t h i s behaviour. December 7, 4:32  She  1962. f i n i s h e d c o l o u r i n g the totem pole...  seat t o show i t t o the i n s t r u c t o r . to 4:35  She l e f t  She was  her  advised  cut the pole out.  She was  i n the middle o f c u t t i n g .  up what she was  Suddenly she gave  doing and began to make the wings f o r  the totem p o l e . 4:39  She  l e f t her p l a c e to show the wings t o the  She was  instructor.  a d v i s e d to cut the pole out j u s t b e f o r e p a s t i n g  the wings on.  (Time Sample)  Of course, there were a few o c c a s i o n s when she was a b l e to s o l v e a problem and appealed e x c e r p t i n d i c a t e s one January 18, 4:22  f o r help.  The f o l l o w i n g  of these o c c a s i o n s .  1962.  She poured c o l o u r s i n t o the water.  not  Apparently,  she  112 had no knowledge o f mixing c o l o u r s . green", ish  "We can't make  she s a i d , as she showed the t e a c h e r the green-  mixture.  She was t o l d to empty the contents and  n o t t o have too much water.  Again she brought  back a  p l a t e f u l l o f water. 4:24  She used the green c o l o u r a l r e a d y mixed by the o t h e r girls.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d her p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was above C h a r t IV  average.  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f the World Around Her.  Helen scored between 9 and 11.  She was never a keen  o b s e r v e r probably because she was q u i t e average  i n seeing  r e l a t i o n s h i p and l e a r n i n g from e x p e r i e n c e , as her parents and teacher n o t i c e d .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows the l i m i t o f  her observation. January IB, 4:00  1962.  The student-teacher asked, we don't have?"  "What has a f i s h got t h a t  Helen r a i s e d her hand h i g h .  she s a i d that i t was a t a i l . In  g i v i n g simple i n f o r m a t i o n l i k e  always quick.  In reply,  (Time Sample). t h i s , Helen was  T h i s behaviour can be r e l a t e d t o her p a r e n t s '  and her t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her knowledge was small a l t h o u g h clear. Chart V  Able t o Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop in  the C r e a t i v e Process.  Helen scored q u i t e low.  I n the f i r s t  three and the l a s t  20  CHART I Waiting for Her Turn Intensity and Frequency  CHART II 113 Eager to Contribute Intensity and F r p q n e n r  20  181  18-  16  16-  14  14  12  12  10-  1C-  86" 4"  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART III Settling Difficulties ^Intensity and Frequency  i  J  u  I  I  I  1  !  1  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  CHART IV Showing Keen Observation •Intensity and Frequency  14-  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  0  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  114 two  months, the scores f a l l between 7 and 8.25»  i n January use new  A marked  rise  r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s on which she made attempts to  situations.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows one o f  these  occasions. January 4:24  1962.  18,  Susan p a i n t e d an eye on the f i s h which was Helen's group. criticized. the top.  " I t doesn't  " I t doesn't  a s s i g n e d to  look l i k e an eye",  matter.  Helen  T h i s s i d e c o u l d be  Another eye c o u l d be p a i n t e d here",  replied  Helen. 4:25  O b v i o u s l y , Helen d i d not l i k e the eye a t the bottom. She p a i n t e d l i n e s over i t t r y i n g t o change i t to a design.  (Time Sample).  T h i s r a t h e r average a b i l i t y  to take advantage o f  t i o n s i n the c r e a t i v e process corresponded  w i t h the p a r e n t s '  and the t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t Helen's a b i l i t y to take of new  s i t u a t i o n s was  C h a r t VI  Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s  Except  Helen was  There are no marked r i s e s  quite orderly i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  October 26,  Her a r t works  The f o l l o w i n g excerpts show her o r d e r l i n e s s .  1961.  Her hands were s t a i n e d w i t h b l a c k p a s t e l she was She  and  that she o c c a s i o n a l l y l e f t her smock about,  were always neat.  4:42  advantage  average.  Helen s cored above 11. falls.  situa-  using.  c a r e f u l l y p i c k e d the p i c t u r e up w i t h her thumbs and  f o r e f i n g e r s a t the top c o r n e r s and gave i t to the  115 teacher.  Immediately, she went o f f to wash her hands. (Time Sample).  December 7 , 4:51  1961.  She put her s c i s s o r s back i n the box.  She p i c k e d up  scraps l e f t by h e r s e l f and the other g i r l s on the  table.  She put her smock away although she f o r g o t to f o l d i t up.  She s t a c k e d up the c h a i r s .  March 1 5 ,  1962.  4:29  saw  She  her hands s t a i n e d w i t h i n k .  (Time Sample).  She went o f f to  c l e a n them i n the f o u n t a i n b e f o r e she worked on p i c t u r e again.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour  can be r e l a t e d to her t e a c h e r ' s remark  t h a t her o r d e r l i n e s s and c a r e f u l n e s s were above U n d e r s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r t VII  average.  Characteristics  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n  I n the f i r s t  three months, Helen scored below 4 .  s h i f t o c c u r s i n January. The  her  I t i s f o l l o w e d by g r a d u a l  A  drops.  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows Helen's power o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n  during a r t a c t i v i t i e s . October 2 6 , 4:54  The  1961. s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r showed the c h i l d r e n p i c t u r e s and  t o l d them.stories about what people d i d i n o l d e n days on Halloween n i g h t . the t e a c h e r .  Helen brought her c h a i r c l o s e to  Her f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s showed t h a t  c o n c e n t r a t e d on the a c t i v i t y . The  she  (Time Sample).  high peak r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s on which  Helen  116 d i v e r t e d her a t t e n t i o n to the o l d e r g i r l s whom she wanted to please.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example o f t h i s  be-  haviour. January 4:05  18,  1962.  Helen s a t by the door when the group d i s c u s s i o n began. Three o l d e r g i r l s came i n . s i t near her.  Helen waved a t Susan to  When the student-teacher was  asking  q u e s t i o n s , she t a l k e d to Maureen about t h i n g s o u t s i d e the window.  (Time Sample).  Apart from o c c a s i o n s l i k e the above, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c corresponded  w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and her  remark t h a t her span o f a t t e n t i o n was Chart V I I I  behaviour teacher's  long.  Lack o f E f f o r t t o Improve A r t Products.  Helen s c o r e d between 6 and 9»25»  She  s e t a r a t h e r low  standard f o r h e r s e l f as she always t r i e d to f i n i s h b e f o r e others.  The  February  22,  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows t h i s  the  behaviour.  1962.  Helen f i n i s h e d  ' p i n - p r i c k i n g ' a vase o f f l o w e r s l o n g  b e f o r e the o t h e r c h i l d r e n .  The work showed no d e t a i l s .  s t a r t e d making a c o l l a g e w i t h t o r n l e a v e s . finished casually.  This again  She she  E v e n t u a l l y , she asked the i n s t r u c t o r to  allow her to t r y l i n o - p r i n t i n g .  (Anecdotal Record)  There were some occasions on which Helen improved her work.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example o f t h i s  March 15, 4:23  behaviour.  1962.  She was  p r i n t i n g the p a t t e r n on another c o r n e r o f the  CHART V A b l e t o Take A d v a n t a g e of Situations I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  CHART V I 117 Developing Orderly Work H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  20 lS-  1614121Ci6-  0 Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n L a c k of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  O c t Nov Dec J a n F e b M a r CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t Intensity  and F r e q u e n c y  118  paper.  The i n k she used was  pattern.  "OhI  too wet.  I've r u i n e d i t " ,  She  smeared the  she s a i d .  She  picked  up the paper and threw i t i n t o the garbage can. 4:20  She  s t a r t e d the p a t t e r n a l l over a g a i n . (Time Sample).  On the whole, Helen made comparatively l i t t l e to improve her a r t work.  Her behaviour  effort  can be r e l a t e d to her  p a r e n t s ' and her teacher's remark t h a t the standard she s e t f o r h e r s e l f was Chart IX  only  average.  Chatty  Helen Helen was  scored 'below 4 .  always q u i e t .  t e a c h e r , might account e x c e r p t s show her  As the i n s t r u c t o r remarked  Her shyness,  as n o t i c e d by her  f o r her q u i e t n e s s .  class  The f o l l o w i n g  behaviour.  November 2 , 1 9 6 1 She was  working on a mural with N i c k , Dougy and B r i a n  on her l e f t and V i c k y and B e t t y on her r i g h t . very l i t t l e w h i l e the others c h a t t e d a l l the  She t a l k e d time.  (Anecdotal •  January 4:20  Record).  11, 1962. B e t t y and V i c k y were c h a t t y as u s u a l . silent.  Helen remained  "Who's the l o u d noise down h e r e ? " asked  student-teacher.  the  Helen p o i n t e d at B e t t y . (Time Sample)  T h i s behaviour  corresponded  w i t h her teacher's remark  that Helen p r e f e r r e d to remain i n the background.  119 Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others F o r f i v e months, Helen s c o r e d below 6.25.  As she  always h u r r i e d her work and p r i d e d h e r s e l f on f i n i s h i n g she seldom i m i t a t e d o t h e r s .  early,  There were some o c c a s i o n s on  which she adopted o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s technique.  The f o l l o w i n g  excerpt g i v e s an example. March 15, 4:42  1962.  The i n s t r u c t o r p r a i s e d M a r i l y n f o r her o r i g i n a l i d e a o f b e a t i n g on the paper a f e r n covered w i t h i n k . Some i n t e r e s t i n g t e x t u r e was produced i n t h i s manner. her  4:45  Helen a t once t r i e d the same technique on  picture.  She went o f f to show her p i c t u r e to the i n s t r u c t o r . (Time Sample). Helen's d e s i r e to l e a d , as n o t i c e d by her p a r e n t s ,  might account Chart XI  f o r her r e f u s a l to i m i t a t e o t h e r s .  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n or i n A r t Products.  Helen s c o r e d below 6 f o r f o u r months.  The h i g h e s t  peak r e p r e s e n t s some r a r e occasions on which Helen's i d e a s proved o r d i n a r y . February 4:15  3,  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example.  1962.  Helen worked f a s t i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  Soon she c u t  out a b i g t u l i p i n the t r a d i t i o n a l shape and pasted i t i n the c e n t r e o f the paper.  She c u t o u t two h a l f  t u l i p s and put them along the edges.  The composition  was poor and o r d i n a r y .  (Time Sample).  120  However, t h e r e were many occasions on which she was  not  afraid  to be o r i g i n a l because there are no r i g h t o r wrong answers i n art.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows one o f these o c c a s i o n s .  March 1 5 , 1 9 6 2 . The 4:20  c l a s s was  p r i n t i n g p a t t e r n s w i t h l e a v e s and f e r n s .  Helen p r i n t e d on one  c o r n e r o f the paper a c l o v e r  p a t t e r n formed by p r i n t i n g a round l e a f r e p e a t e d l y . She  p r i n t e d the stem o f a f e r n f o r the stem o f the  clover.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be r e l a t e d to her  parent's remark that her i d e a s f o r p l a y or work were c r e a t i v e . I t d i d not q u i t e correspond w i t h her teacher's remark t h a t they were only Chart X I I  sufficient.  Lack o f Respect  f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y  Helen s c o r e d below 4 * 2 5 . a d u l t ' s a f f e c t i o n , she was The  With much a n x i e t y to seek  always c o - o p e r a t i v e and even h e l p f u l .  f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows her great r e s p e c t f o r persons  in  authority. December 7 , 1 9 6 1 . 4:52  The  i n s t r u c t o r was  charge.  t a l k i n g to t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r i n  Helen waited u n t i l they f i n i s h e d t h e i r con-  v e r s a t i o n b e f o r e she approached the i n s t r u c t o r .  She  a p o l o g i z e d f o r not b r i n g i n g her f o l i o back. (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour corresponded t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t she was  w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and  her  above average i n r e a d i n e s s to  co-operate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y .  CHART IX Chatty Intensity  Oct  Lack  CHART X Imitating Others  and F r e q u e n c y  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar CHART X I of Original  Intensity  121  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar CHART X I I Lack o f R e s p e c t  Ideas  and F r e q u e n c y  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  122 Summary I n s t u d y i n g the case o f Helen,  the r e s e a r c h e r n o t i c e d  that the two most dominant p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g and dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n .  These two  p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s determined some o f h e r behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s as shown i n C h a r t I I , C h a r t I I I , (Page 113), C h a r t V I I , Chart V I I I , (Page 117), Chart X and Chart X I I , (Page 121). By comparing i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s , the r e s e a r c h e r that i n the behaviour  found  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c regarding lack of  o r i g i n a l i d e a s , Helen scored a t o t a l o f 36.75 i n s i x months w h i l e B e t t y scored 43* 5» for  Stated simply, a c h i l d , whose i d e a s  work and p l a y i n s c h o o l were c o n s i d e r e d j u s t  sufficient,  might not be more i n l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i d e a s i n a r t than a c h i l d whose i d e a s were c o n s i d e r e d c r e a t i v e . Case 7 Description Bill,  age nine-and-a-half,  handsome f e a t u r e s .  was a w e l l - b u i l t boy w i t h  On the f i r s t day, B i l l came to the C h i l d  Art  Centre l a t e and alone.  fee  w i t h him.  pay  a week l a t e r .  He s a i d t h a t he d i d not have h i s  H i s mother was working and would be able to I n the f i r s t month, B i l l f l i t t e r e d  a i m l e s s l y most o f the time.  about  He t a l k e d aloud a g r e a t d e a l to  seek the a t t e n t i o n o f h i s peers and he showed no r e s p e c t f o r persons i n a u t h o r i t y . his  Towards the end o f the second month,  i n t e r e s t i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s was apparent.  He wanted t o  123  try  every a r t media, and thus he had no time t o f o o l about.  Moreover, h i s a r t products, and  student-teachers,  o f t e n p r a i s e d by the i n s t r u c t o r  helped to put h i s ego on f i r m e r ground  so t h a t he found t h a t show-offishness and b u l l y i n g were unnecessary. B i l l ' s parents were separated. old  brother  and h i s  eight-year-  l i v e d w i t h t h e i r mother who was a s o c i a l worker  i n the east end o f Vancouver, B.C. until half-past-six. had  Bill  She worked every day  B i l l was q u i t e n e a t l y dressed.  a new j a c k e t and a new p a i r o f boots.  Obviously, h i s  mother t r i e d t o do the b e s t she c o u l d f o r him. t h a t she f e l t g r a t e f u l t h a t B i l l  He  She s a i d  c o u l d come to the C h i l d A r t  C e n t r e , where he c o u l d be engaged i n worthwhile a c t i v i t i e s i n s t e a d o f p l a y i n g w i t h other c h i l d r e n . The  Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n o f B i l l ' s  Personality.  B i l l ' s mother s a i d t h a t B i l l always l o v e d a r t . his  He and  b r o t h e r p a i n t e d a t home sometimes i n the l i v i n g room o r  down the basement.  B i l l ' s b r o t h e r was i n h o s p i t a l f o r a  year and so he was behind i n h i s s t u d i e s . on t h e i r own most o f the time. used t o work t o g e t h e r , b a b y i s h to B i l l .  The boys were  When they were small they  but now the younger b r o t h e r  B i l l had to keep an eye on him.  seemed The boys  were t r a i n e d a t home to put t h i n g s away a f t e r u s i n g them. They h e l p e d w i t h the housework. lity  B i l l made i t h i s r e s p o n s i b i -  to make the l u n c h f o r the f a m i l y . Bill  had many f r i e n d s i n school and i n the neighbourhood.  He took p a r t i n the s c h o o l p l a y and j o i n e d the J u n i o r Boy  124  Scouts.  Both B i l l and h i s b r o t h e r were i n t e r e s t e d i n music,  but the younger b r o t h e r was more m u s i c a l .  Bill  liked  c l a s s i c a l music, although he had had no t r a i n i n g so f a r . A c c o r d i n g l y , he was very i n t e r e s t e d i n the a r t l e s s o n i n which the c h i l d r e n at the C h i l d A r t Centre p a i n t e d t o music. He showed h i s work a t home. the Christmas  The mother was i n t e r e s t e d i n  cards B i l l made f o r f a m i l y f r i e n d s .  t h a t he c o p i e d some from p r i n t e d Christmas  She s a i d  c a r d s , but she  p r e f e r r e d the designs he c r e a t e d h i m s e l f . Bill  s t a r t e d i n a p r i v a t e school when he was f i v e and  went s t r a i g h t i n t o Grade I . for  a time.  The f a m i l y was i n V i c t o r i a , B.C.  The f a t h e r was i l l i n h o s p i t a l .  moved t o North Vancouver, B.C. B i l l went t o .  Then they  T h i s was the f o u r t h s c h o o l  The mother e x p l a i n e d t h a t B i l l was always  found t o be an average student i n a l l c l a s s  participation  because he was s i x months younger than h i s age group i n school. The  C l a s s Teacher's  Description of B i l l ' s Personality  The c l a s s teacher s a i d t h a t B i l l child.  seemed to be a nervous  He would c r y i f he was g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y , but  the c l a s s teacher always stopped him i n time as a l l teachers knew t h i s type o f boy.  He seemed very immature.. He was a  slow l e a r n e r and a slow worker.  A teacher had to pound the  knowledge i n t o h i s head b e f o r e he c o u l d l e a r n . daydreaming. improving.  Since l a s t September h i s behaviour  He was always had been  He was c a l l e d to the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e only once  t h i s year, the reason b e i n g t h a t he had been found k i c k i n g the  125 other c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h e s i n the playground i n s t e a d o f a f o o t ball. He had a mind o f h i s own. not  I f he had t r o u b l e he would  t e l l h i s mother, the c l a s s teacher,  o r the p r i n c i p a l .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , he b u i l t a fence around h i m s e l f . teacher  The c l a s s  s a i d t h a t he wanted to help B i l l b u t he j u s t c o u l d  not g e t c l o s e t o him. B i l l was not l i k e d by the o t h e r c h i l d r e n because he seemed b a b y i s h when compared w i t h boys o f h i s age.  The c l a s s  teacher understood t h a t B i l l was from a broken home where p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n was l i m i t e d and the standard  s e t f o r the  c h i l d r e n was i n c o n s i s t e n t . The Bill  p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t they had d i f f i c u l t y  i n school.  Last year, B i l l  i n handling  and another boy attempted  c a r n a l knowledge o f a g i r l w i t h the d e s i r e to f i n d out sexual difference. leader.  B i l l was the o l d e r o f the two and was the r i n g -  Just t h a t morning he had found B i l l k i c k i n g t i n p l a t e s  up and down i n the basement where there was breakable equipment. He strapped  him.  I t was the f i r s t time he had strapped  a  c h i l d t h i s year. The  p r i n c i p a l added t h a t i t was probably B i l l ' s  background t h a t accounted f o r h i s misbehaviour. ability,  As to B i l l ' s  he c o u l d not say t h a t t h e boy was c r e a t i v e .  curious, over-curious  perhaps.  family  He was  H i s I.Q. and work were only  average. A Comparison o f the Parent's and the Teacher's Answers t o t h e Questionnaires  on B i l l ' s  Personality.  B i l l ' s parent and h i s t e a c h e r  q u i t e disagreed  i n their  126 answers to the questions teacher  on p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The  p o i n t e d out t h a t B i l l f r e q u e n t l y showed emotional  outburst,  e x c i t a b i l i t y , f e a r and a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g .  The  mother found t h a t he seldom d i d and that only o c c a s i o n a l l y sought a t t e n t i o n . The  teacher  remarked t h a t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  were below average while the mother considered  abilities  that they were  average and h i s a b i l i t y to see r e l a t i o n s h i p was even above average.  As t o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the mother again  con-  s i d e r e d t h a t B i l l was average i n most o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o i n t e d  out that he l e d a t home.  The teacher  found t h a t  he was below average i n a d a p t a b i l i t y t o change, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l and t h a t he i m i t a t e d others. Regarding B i l l ' s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and charact e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to f o r m a t i o n  of character,  found that B i l l was average, but the teacher  the mother  again  remarked that he  was below average, although he s a i d t h a t only o c c a s i o n a l l y B i l l l e f t h i s work u n f i n i s h e d and r e v e r t e d to the o r i g i n a l a f t e r accepting The and  change.  mother s t r e s s e d t h a t B i l l was h e l p f u l , obedient  responsible  at home.  One cannot help defending one's own  c h i l d , e s p e c i a l l y when the c h i l d i s c o n s i d e r e d in  a problem c h i l d  school.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d  i n Art  Activities.  D e s i r a b l e Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  127 Chart I  W a i t i n g F o r H i s Turn  Bill  s c o r e d below 11.  The f i r s t peak occurs when he  showed t h a t he made e f f o r t t o d i s c i p l i n e h i m s e l f . .The f o l l o w ing  excerpt i n d i c a t e s one of the o c c a s i o n s on which he  p a t i e n t l y waited f o r h i s turn. December 7, 1961. A f t e r he made the wings f o r h i s totem pole he asked i f he c o u l d use the s t a p l e r t o put the wings on.  He waited  p a t i e n t l y f o r the s t a p l e r as Helen was u s i n g i t and Dougy came a f t e r  Helen.  When he f i n i s h e d h i s totem p o l e , he waited t o be d i s missed  from the c l a s s .  (Anecdotal Record)  However, B i l l o f t e n d i d not wait f o r h i s t u r n t o o b t a i n art  materials.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an example.  March 8, 1962. The 4:02  c l a s s was shown how to make torn-paper  pictures.  When the c h i l d r e n were allowed to choose t h e i r a r t materials B i l l  s e i z e d a magazine and r e t u r n e d t o h i s  place. T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample). corresponded  w i t h h i s teacher's remark  t h a t h i s p a t i e n c e was below average and h i s mother's remark that he was o c c a s i o n a l l y a g g r e s s i v e . Chart I I  Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work and Group Discussion.  Bill  scored below 11.5»  He daydreamed i n group d i s -  c u s s i o n and f o o l e d about i n group work. shows him a t h i s b e s t .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt  128 November 2, He  1961.  seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n the group d i s c u s s i o n about  Eskimos, although a l l the time he was i n s t r u c t o r asked: Bill in  answered:  "How  chewing gum.  can the Eskimos s u r v i v e i n the  "They are used to i t . "  the d i s c u s s i o n and  The  looked  cold?"  Soon he l o s t i n t e r e s t  around him.  He made no more  contribution.  (Anecdotal  Record).  T h i s behaviour corresponded w i t h h i s p a r e n t ' s and teacher's work was  remark t h a t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to d i s c u s s i o n  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or  Bill  Adults.  scored between 11 and  to s e t t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s h i m s e l f .  13.75* The  He u s u a l l y attempted  f o l l o w i n g excerpt  shows  of h i s attempts.  December 7, He  1961.  drew the totem pole c l o s e to one  M a r i l y n t o l d him B i l l looked on drawing. in  and  small.  Chart I I I  one  his  t h a t t h a t was  doubtful.  s i d e of the paper.  not what the  teacher  wanted.  However, he remained s i l e n t and  His f o r e f i n g e r was  bandaged.  He had  kept  difficulty  h o l d i n g the crayon w i t h h i s thumb and middle f i n g e r . (Anecdotal There were occasions  f o l l o w i n g excerpt March 22, The animals.  on which he  i n d i c a t e s one  of these  Record).  appealed f o r h e l p .  The  occasions.  1962. c l a s s was  making the s t r u c t u r e s o f paper s c u l p t u r e  129  3:57  B i l l bent  the ends o f the r o l l  o f paper and  ends t o g e t h e r t o form the body. in  He had  tied  the  difficulty  t y i n g the s t r i n g t i g h t because he had to h o l d the  ends i n p l a c e too.  He h e l d the bent r o l l  between h i s  c h i n and the t a b l e and used both hands to t i e the string.  However, he s t i l l c o u l d not t i e i t t i g h t .  He  had to ask the student-teacher t o put her f i n g e r on the s t r i n g and he t i e d i t h i m s e l f .  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s teacher's comment t h a t his  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was  his  parent's remark t h a t h i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was  Chart IV  below average.  I t can be r e l a t e d to average.  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f the World Around  Bill  scored above 1 1 .  Because o f h i s c u r i o s i t y ,  made keen o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h i n g s he saw  i n everyday  Him. Bill  life.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpts show h i s keen o b s e r v a t i o n . November 3 0 , 1 9 6 1 . B i l l was  good i n c r e a t i v e drama.  make a f i r e , how  He acted w e l l how  to look f o r a needle and how  to sew  to  a button.  He went i n t o d e t a i l s such as chopping more branches to add to  the f i r e and winding the thread under a b u t t o n to keep i t  fast.  His r e a l i s t i c  i m a g i n a t i o n was' s t r o n g . (Anecdotal Record).  March 2 9 , 1 9 6 2 . He c a r e f u l l y p a i n t e d the f e a t u r e s on to the monkey's head.  He used a very f i n e brush f o r that  purpose. (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour can be r e l a t e d to h i s parent's remark  CHART I W a i t i n g f o r H i s Turn  CHART I I 130 Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties  CHART IV Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n  I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  20  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  IB  16 14 12 108-  642'Uct  IMO'V Dec  Jan  Feb  Mar  °l)ct Nov Dec J a n Feb Mar  131 t h a t h i s knowledge o f t h e w o r l d ,  Chart  V  Able in  Bill  s c o r e d b e t w e e n 8 . 2 5 and 1 3 . 7 5 . especially  interested  to  and e x p l o r e .  experience  i n the l a s t  f o u r months when he  The f o l l o w i n g  and f e l t  excerpts give  some  c l a s s was d o i n g p o t a t o - p r i n t i n g .  got green print.  from  Dougy's t r a y  He p r i n t e d  He washed t h e g r e e n the p r i n t .  another  the p r i n t .  and a p p l i e d i t t o t h e  a sheet o f design w i t h off.  He  green.  A p u r p l e i s h g r e e n was  left  " L o o k J Nick I I've g o t a peacock  c o l o u r J " he s a i d .  He u s e d  t h i s new c o l o u r t o p r i n t  sheet o f d e s i g n .  (Time  Sample)  2 2 , 1962.  Bill  started  of  a dry l e a f  by  the i n s t r u c t o r  a dry l e a f  to form  collage.  He u s e d  the horns o f a s t a g e .  the veins  He was p r a i s e d  f o r h i s t h o u g h t f u l work. (Anecdotal  This behaviour his  confident  characteristic.  He washed o f f t h e u l t r a m a r i n e f r o m  February  tendency  15, 1962.  The  on  Develop  There i s a  i n artactivities  examples o f t h i s b e h a v i o u r  4:49  clear.  the C r e a t i v e Process.  became r e a l l y  4:48  s m a l l , was  t o Take A d v a n t a g e o f S i t u a t i o n s W h i c h  towards r i s i n g ,  February  although  ability  c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t  to see r e l a t i o n s h i p  a d v a n t a g e o f new  Record).  and h i s a b i l i t y  s i t u a t i o n s were below  average.  to take  132 Chart VI  Developing  Bill  O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s  scored below  10.25. Although there was a s l i g h t  tendency towards r i s i n g , he was  never q u i t e o r d e r l y .  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an example o f h i s November 16,  The  behaviour.  1961.  As the c l a s s were allowed to work on the t a b l e or the floor, B i l l  chose an area on the f l o o r and  paper t h e r e .  l a i d some news-  He worked there f o r awhile and then he  t h a t the other boys were not u s i n g the t a b l e .  found  He went back  to work on the t a b l e l e a v i n g the newspaper behind. (Anecdotal T h i s behaviour t h a t he was  can be  r e l a t e d to h i s teacher's comment  below average i n o r d e r l i n e s s . U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour  Chart VII  Characteristics  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Bill  scored as h i g h as 18 i n the f i r s t month.  f o l l o w e d two  marked f a l l s .  below 8.25.  The  one  There  I n the l a s t three months he  scored  h i g h e s t peak r e p r e s e n t s occasions l i k e  the  i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t .  October 19, The  1961. c l a s s was  making t o r n paper p i c t u r e s .  4:02  Bill  4:05  He worked on h i s p i c t u r e f o r a few  t a l k e d aloud to h i s group and  up and  shouted, "A f i r e - t r u c k J "  o f h i s group to what was 4:07  Record).  t r i e d to be funny. seconds.  He  looked  d i r e c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n  happening o u t s i d e .  He looked a t Dougy's p i c t u r e .  "This l o o k s l i k e  a  133 c a p t a i n ' s cap 1" he s a i d , as he p o i n t e d a t i t . 4:10  He l e f t h i s p l a c e to go to the scrap box.  He p i c k e d  up a p i e c e o f cellophane and l o o k e d through swaggered back t o h i s s e a t .  it.  He  (Time Sample).  October 19, 1961. A c c o r d i n g to the time  sample, B i l l l e f t h i s p l a c e  seven times i n t h i r t y minutes. The of  (Anecdotal  f i r s t f a l l occurs when B i l l  concentration.  Record).  showed s h o r t p e r i o d s  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example.  November 9 , 1961. 4:22  He worked w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Obviously he was very,  i n t e r e s t e d i n using watercolour pastels —  a new media  to him. 4:25  He put a b l a c k dot on V i c k y ' s p i c t u r e when her back was turned. "Mine i  4:26  He concentrated on h i s work a g a i n .  My paper i s wet J wet 1 wet!" he s a i d .  He almost  completed h i s p a i n t i n g .  He stqod up and  peeped a t B e t t y ' s p a i n t i n g . 4:30  He c o n c e n t r a t e d on h i s work a g a i n . The  (Time Sample).  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i n d i c a t e s one o f the o c c a s i o n s  on which he showed r e a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n . February 4:20  1, 1962.  Bill  concentrated w e l l .  He soon f i n i s h e d c a r v i n g two-  t h i r d s o f the board. 4:25  He had s e v e r a l board areas scraped o f f .  4:30  He wanted to know what Helen and Susan were t a l k i n g about but they p a i d no a t t e n t i o n to him. to h i s work.  He r e t u r n e d  134 4:49  " I am f i n i s h e d . " he t o l d the teacher. T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample).  c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s teacher's, remark t h a t  his  span o f a t t e n t i o n was s h o r t .  art  a c t i v i t i e s because he f e l t  B i l l c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on  a r t was a f i e l d  i n which he  c o u l d be e q u a l , i f n o t s u p e r i o r , to o t h e r c h i l d r e n and i n which he c o u l d anchor h i s ego on f i r m e r ground. Chart V I I I  Lack o f E f f o r t t o Improve A r t Products.  Bill  scored 16 i n the f i r s t month and only 4 i n the  f i f t h month. art  The f i r s t  drop occurs when he made an e f f o r t i n  a c t i v i t i e s and a p p r e c i a t e d h i s own e f f o r t .  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t g i v e s an example. November 16, 1961. At f i r s t , he used the s i d e o f the chalk to draw l i n e s a l l over the paper.  Then he f i l l e d i n b l o c k s o f c o l o u r s and  drew over the c o l o u r s . minutes. his  He continued h i s e f f o r t f o r t h i r t y  He was w e l l p l e a s e d w i t h h i s own e f f o r t and h e l d up  p a i n t i n g to show Nick.  (Anecdotal  Record).  I n t h e l a s t two months he made a g r e a t e f f o r t t o improve his  work.  H i s a r t products were among the b e s t o f the i n t e r -  mediate group.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows t h i s -behaviour  characteristic• March 8, 1962. B i l l came e a r l y . man's head. in  He made a torn-paper p i c t u r e o f a  He showed more p a t i e n c e than the o t h e r c h i l d r e n  t e a r i n g paper and matching c o l o u r s .  c l a s s to f i n i s h i t .  He stayed a f t e r the  The i n s t r u c t o r took a snapshot  of his  CHART V t o Take A d v a n t a g e ' of Situations I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  Able  :  CHART V I 135 Developing Orderly Work H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  Nov Dec J a n -Feb Mar CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t  pnsit.y  anrl  Frpnnpr  136 picture.  T h i s was  a g r e a t urge f o r him to f i n i s h i t w e l l . (Anecdotal  T h i s behaviour  Record).  d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s teacher's  remark t h a t the standard s e t f o r h i m s e l f was  low.  He  always  f i n i s h e d h i s a r t products even i n the f i r s t two months. behaviour  This  again d i d not r e l a t e to h i s teacher's and h i s  p a r e n t ' s remark t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y l e f t h i s work u n f i n i s h e d . Chart IX  Chatty  Bill  scored between 16  towards f a l l i n g .  and 7*25.  There i s a tendency  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows one o f the  o c c a s i o n s represented by ,the h i g h e s t peak. October 19,  1961.  4:21  He worked f o r awhile, t a l k i n g nonsense a l l the  4:25  O f f he went f o r scraps f o r the f i f t h time. string.  4:27  He shouted  to Dougy, "DougyJ DougyJ  He went o f f f o r scraps f o r the s i x t h time.  time.  He got some LookJ" As  he  passed Helen's t a b l e , he p i c k e d up her p i c t u r e and threw i-t down.  He  s a i d , " T e r r i b l e I"  (Time Sample).  B i l l s t i l l t a l k e d a g r e a t d e a l towards the end of the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , although he would not t a l k when he c o n c e n t r a t e d . " The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows an example. March 8, 3:50  He worked w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n and d i d not t a l k to Nick who  4:15  1962.  shared a t a b l e with  him.  Betty and Nick t a l k e d a l l the time. Stop i t J "  B i l l s a i d to them.  "Ohi Come o n i (Time Sample).  137  T h i s behaviour to  shown i n the f i r s t  e x c e r p t can be r e l a t e d  a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g as n o t i c e d by h i s teacher.  shown i n the second excerpt corresponded  The behaviour  w i t h h i s parent's  remark t h a t he was average i n s e l f - c o n t r o l . Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others.  Bill  scored between 1 2 . 7 5 and 8 .  The h i g h peaks r e -  present o c c a s i o n s which the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s  indicate.  October 1 9 , 1 9 6 1 . 4:12  Bill  saw Dougy p a s t i n g sponges on h i s p i c t u r e .  have a l l the sponges I " he s a i d .  "You  He made o f f f o r the  s c r a p box and g r i p p e d three sponges.  (Time Sample).  November 3 0 , 1 9 6 1 . The  c h i l d r e n were a c t i n g c r e a t i v e drama.  t o l d them to keep s t i l l . i m i t a t e d him.  The i n s t r u c t o r  Greg l a y down l i k e a corpse.  Bill  Greg g i g g l e d , so d i d B i l l . (Anecdotal  Record).  The low scores i n the l a s t f o u r months r e p r e s e n t B i l l ' s independence o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n . in  artactivities.  even g i v e a d v i c e .  He found  He f e l t c o n f i d e n t o f h i m s e l f  t h a t he c o u l d a t t a i n success and  H i s behaviour, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f  o c c a s i o n s which o c c u r r e d i n the f i r s t his  two months, c o n t r a d i c t e d  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t he i m i t a t e d o t h e r s .  Chart XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Products.  Bill  scored below 7 . 2 5 .  they were q u i t e o r i g i n a l . example.  H i s ideas might be s i l l y , y e t  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an  138 November 9, 4:36  1961.  He drew a bust o f an o l d man. "See I  the bottom.  He added two wheels a t  T h i s i s my  time machine I" he  said#  (Time Sample). There were o c c a s i o n s on which he showed o r i g i n a l i d e a s in  h i s work.  February 22, Bill  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s g i v e examples. 1962. s t a r t e d a dry l e a f c o l l a g e .  make the h i n d - l e g o f the animal.  He bent a twig to  He p l a c e d i t i n v a r i o u s  p o s i t i o n s u n t i l he got the e f f e c t o f a running animal. s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r , who almost  watching  him work s a i d , " l o u can  see him t h i n k i n g . "  March 22, 4:09  was  A  (Anecdotal Record).  1962.  He s e t the animal s t r u c t u r e u p r i g h t . s m a l l head and a long t a i l . monkey —  a s i t t i n g monkey".  He pasted on a  " I t ' s going to be The  a  s t r u c t u r e caught  the gesture o f a monkey e a t i n g .  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark that his  i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were i n s u f f i c i e n t .  Chart X I I Bill  Lack o f Respect  f o r Persons  scored above 15  i n the f i r s t two  8 i n the l a s t two months.  i n Authority. months and below  There i s a marked tendency  towards  a f a l l i n g graph.  The peaks r e p r e s e n t occasions on which  acted s i l l y .  f o l l o w i n g excerpts give examples o f these  The  Bill  occasions. O c t o b e r 12, Bill  1961. t a l k e d to Nick when the student-teacher was  talking.  139 He was t o l d t o s t o p .  (Anecdotal Record).  November 2,•1961. While the i n s t r u c t o r was s t i l l  d i s c u s s i n g w i t h the group  about the p r o j e c t , B i l l went o f f t o get a l a r g e brush and b l e n d i s h e d i t i n the a i r .  (Anecdotal Record).  The marked drop i n February occurs when B i l l d i s c i p l i n e himself.  l e a r n e d to  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s g i v e examples o f  t h i s change i n behaviour. February 15,  1962.  He came i n very l a t e w i t h Dougy. s t a y away from the c l a s s f o r f i f t e e n  They were made to  minutes. (Anecdotal Record).  February 22, 1962. B i l l came very e a r l y to-day.  He l i k e d a r t .  He was  a f r a i d o f l o s i n g any p r i v i l e g e i n the a r t c l a s s . (Anecdotal Record). With the e x c e p t i o n o f the f i r s t two months, B i l l ' s behaviour corresponded w i t h h i s parent's and h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark that he was average i n r e a d i n e s s to co-operate w i t h the r i g h t  authority.  Summary In  the s t u d y o f B i l l ' s behaviour, the r e s e a r c h e r has  found that t h e r e i s a marked tendency  towards f a l l i n g  graphs r e p r e s e n t i n g u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . two  months, B i l l  children.  i n the  I n the f i r s t  t r i e d t o seek the a t t e n t i o n o f the o t h e r  However, he was not accepted because  they must have  CHART IX Chatty I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART X ' 140 I m i t a t i n g Others i n t e n s i t y and Frequency  °0ct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas 20  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 ° U c t Nov Dec Jan Feb k a r  CHART XII Lack o f Respect and  Frequency  141 l e a r n e d from s c h o o l about h i s u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y .  Mean-  w h i l e , b e i n g c u r i o u s , B i l l showed an immediate i n t e r e s t i n a l l a r t media and a l l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . as many as he c o u l d .  He experimented  The i n s t r u c t o r and  encouraged him i n h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s . i n t e r e s t i n a r t grew. of  with  student-teachers Accordingly, his  I n the l a s t t h r e e months, he was  t h e most p r o f i c i e n t p r o d u c e r s i n the group.  one  As h i s c r e a t i v e  e f f o r t s g a i n e d much a d m i r a t i o n from h i s p e e r s , he no l o n g e r sought a t t e n t i o n through s h o w - o f f i s h n e s s and If Art  bullying.  the i n s t r u c t o r and the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r i n the C h i l d  C e n t r e had n o t been t o l d , t h e y would not have known t h a t  B i l l was a problem c h i l d i n s c h o o l .  Thus, the s t u d y o f  Bill  p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , t h a t i s , to  what e x t e n t b e h a v i o u r a r t t h e r a p y can be extended  to  situations i n school. CASE 8 Description. N i c k , age n i n e , was c o n s p i c u o u s boy who or  was  a r a t h e r p a l e and r e l a t i v e l y i n -  tall  f o r h i s age.  When N i c k was  s a t i s f i e d , he g r i n n e d r a t h e r than s m i l e d .  amused  In his f i r s t  month i n the C h i l d A r t C e n t r e , he seemed t o f e e l i l l a t ease in  the presence o f a d u l t s .  As soon as he e n t e r e d the a r t  room, he l o o k e d s t r a i g h t a t the group o f boys and j o i n e d them immediately. situation.  However, he soon a d j u s t e d h i m s e l f t o the As he l i k e d and was  new  l i k e d by h i s peers and t e a c h e r s ,  he began t o t a k e d e l i g h t i n group d i s c u s s i o n s d i r e c t e d by the i n s t r u c t o r o r the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n c h a r g e .  Generally  142 speaking, Nick was  more i n t e r e s t e d in. people than i n m a t e r i a l s ,  although he never f a i l e d t o get h i m s e l f a share when he o t h e r boys had Nick was  theirs. quick i n movement and response.  Every time  s i n g l e d out h i s p a i n t i n g smock q u i c k l y , s l i p p e d i t on buttoned i t a t the back without h e l p . orderly.  saw  he  and  H i s work h a b i t s were  He put away a r t m a t e r i a l s and even classroom f u r n i -  t u r e a f t e r u s i n g them. Nick was  a steady worker.  H i s whole b e i n g seemed to  be i n the task when he was working.  Of course, t h e r e were  moments o f l i s t l e s s n e s s d u r i n g which he day-dreamed or watched other children.  Nick's f a v o r i t e theme i n a r t was  a cobra.  modelled i t w i t h c l a y and carved i t on a s c r a t c h - b o a r d . the c h i l d r e n i n the Intermediate group,  Nick was  He  Among  the one most  anxious to take h i s a r t products home. N i c k ' s parents came from Germany.  The f a t h e r was  i n s t r u c t o r o f S o c i a l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h The parents spoke German a t home.  Columbia.  The f a t h e r spoke p e r f e c t  E n g l i s h , but the mother had a f o r e i g n accent. seem to have any language  an  Nick d i d not  d i f f i c u l t y at a l l i n the C h i l d A r t  Centre. The Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n o f Nick's P e r s o n a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g to Nick's mother, both h i s p a r e n t s were very interested i n art.  They o f t e n took Nick to a r t e x h i b i t i o n s ,  f o r they b e l i e v e d t h a t by exposing him to a r t , h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r t would grow. Nick was  They had many a r t books a t home.  anxious to take h i s work home because h i s  143 parents were i n t e r e s t e d i n what he d i d i n the C h i l d A r t Centre. Once he took a p i c t u r e o f a b i r d home. p i c t u r e and wanted to frame i t .  The parents l i k e d t h e  Nick s a i d that i t was not  good enough and that the o t h e r c h i l d r e n d i d b e t t e r . p a r e n t s kept a l l o f the a r t work Nick d i d i n s c h o o l .  The Once,  they laughed a t a funny shape Nick made out o f c l a y and coated w i t h p u r p l i s h blue g l a z e .  Nick e x p l a i n e d that i t was made  not t o resemble r e a l i t y but t o appeal to the sense o f touch. Nick had a l l k i n d s o f a r t m a t e r i a l s f o r graphic a r t at home.  He was t r a i n e d t o put away t h i n g s a f t e r u s i n g them.  There were very few c h i l d r e n o f h i s age i n the neighbourhood. Nick l i k e d h i s c l a s s m a t e s , V i c k y and B e t t y , who l i v e d not,,far away.  At home, Nick adored h i s two-and-a-half-year-old  s i s t e r , although he had to put h i s t h i n g s out o f h e r r e a c h a l l the time.  The baby s i s t e r was eager t o c r e a t e .  She drew a  shape l i k e a c h i c k which her parents matted as a p i c t u r e . Nick always had p a t i e n c e w i t h h i s s i s t e r and o f t e n showed h e r h i s a r t work. The mother s a i d t h a t Nick was anxious t o do t h i n g s right.  He d i d not want h i s parents t o come t o the C h i l d A r t  Centre to see him, as he was n o t sure whether p a r e n t s ' v i s i t s were customary.  The mother was g l a d that t h e Intermediate  group would continue t o do picture-making u n t i l the c h i l d r e n had a c q u i r e d s k i l l .  She added t h a t she was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h  the way the people i n North America c o u l d not do one t h i n g w e l l .  t r i e d t o o many t h i n g s and  144  The C l a s s Teacher's D e s c r i p t i o n o f Nick's P e r s o n a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g to Nick's c l a s s t e a c h e r , Nick was a mature and r e l i a b l e boy whom every t e a c h e r l i k e d . f a m i l y background shone i n whatever he d i d . have language  His c u l t u r a l He seemed t o  d i f f i c u l t i e s , but h i s parents s a i d t h a t although  they came from Germany, Nick's e d u c a t i o n had o n l y been i n Canadian s c h o o l s . Being b i g f o r h i s age, Nick was w e l l - l i k e d by o t h e r • children.  They simply stood i n awe o f him.  s c h o o l o n l y l a s t September.  He came to the  So f a r , he had not done too w e l l .  The c l a s s teacher was very sure that the boy would soon over-^ come h i s language  problems and would do w e l l i n c l a s s .  The p r i n c i p a l s a i d t h a t Nick was new i n the s c h o o l .  He  seemed t o be a q u i e t and n i c e boy. A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and the Teacher's Answers to the to the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on Nick's P e r s o n a l i t y . The teacher found that Nick seldom showed the emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s except t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y showed oral, t e n s i o n and dependence f o r a f f e c tion.  The parents n o t i c e d t h a t Nick o c c a s i o n a l l y showed some  o f these emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y e d o r a l t e n s i o n , dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n and e x c i t a b i l i t y . The  teacher c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Nick was average  the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s .  i n most o f  The p a r e n t s gave the same answers  a l t h o u g h they remarked t h a t Nick's a b i l i t y to understand and c a r r y out d i r e c t i o n s was above average and h i s i d e a s f o r p l a y o r work were c r e a t i v e .  145  As t o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r found t h a t Nick was  q u i t e above average.  The  the parents  remarked t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e d much to group work and d i s c u s s i o n , b u t the t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e . and the t e a c h e r f e l t t h a t N i c k was  The  parents  average i n a l l p h y s i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e r e l a t e d t o f o r m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r and t h a t he accepted change and was above average in  r e a d i n e s s t o co-operate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y .  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Behaviour  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s . D e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart I  W a i t i n g F o r H i s Turn N i c k s c o r e d above 12.  was  Characteristics  As h i s p a r e n t s n o t i c e d , N i c k  a n x i o u s t o do t h i n g s r i g h t .  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show  Nick w a i t i n g f o r h i s t u r n . January 4,  1962.  He saw no o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n the a r t room.  He  stayed  o u t s i d e w a i t i n g u n t i l the i n s t r u c t o r beckoned him t o go i n . (Anecdotal Record). March 8, The 4:02  1962. c l a s s was  shown how  to make t o r n - p a p e r  pictures.  When the c h i l d r e n were a l l o w e d t o choose t h e i r a r t m a t e r i a l s , N i c k w a i t e d to get c l o s e t o a p i l e o f magazines.  The l a s t one was  had some newspaper i n s t e a d . T h i s b e h a v i o u r corresponded  s e i z e d by B i l l .  Nick  (Time Sample). w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t N i c k seldom showed a g g r e s s i o n and he  was  146 quite patient. Chart I I  Eager to C o n t r i b u t e to Group Work or Group D i s c u s s i o n  Nick scored between 9 and 11.  He was  c o n t r i b u t e t o work than to d i s c u s s i o n . show t h i s behaviour December 14,  more eager to  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s  characteristic.  1961.  Nick was  very c o - o p e r a t i v e .  c h a i r s and scrub the f l o o r .  He helped to stack up  When we  guessed who  was  repre-  sented i n each p o r t r a i t , he stayed i n the background and never once put up h i s hand. February 1,  1962.  Nick was ren.  He  (Anecdotal Record).  q u i t e a t e ase w i t h a s m a l l group o f f i v e c h i l d -  s a t r i g h t next t o the i n s t r u c t o r i n s t e a d o f s t a y i n g  i n the background as he u s u a l l y d i d .  He suggested  that a  c o i l e d - u p cobra would be a good s u b j e c t to f i t onto a r e c t a n gular scratch-board.  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour d i d not correspond w i t h h i s teacher's remark t h a t he c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e , t i o n to s i t u a t i o n .  as i t changed from  situa-  Since he worked w e l l w i t h a s m a l l group  he might c o n t r i b u t e much a t home as h i s p a r e n t s ' had p o i n t e d out. Chart I I I  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or A d u l t s .  Nick scored above 11.5. boy',  Regarding  Nick d i d not o f t e n appeal f o r h e l p .  c e r p t s g i v e examples o f h i s behaviour.  h i m s e l f as a ' b i g The f o l l o w i n g ex-  147 November 2, 4:31  1961.  He p a i n t e d a very small b l a c k f i g u r e and put an i g l o o i n the background.  Apparently, he was not happy about  h i s e f f o r t , but he d i d n o t h i n g more to them. 4:36  He worked on the foreground and the background o f h i s share o f the mural w i t h a b i g brush.  4:41  He p a i n t e d over the Eskimo and the i g l o o w i t h grey.  4:44  He p a i n t e d two very b i g i g l o o s i n t h a t area. (Time Sample).  March 1, 4:52  1962.  He was  going to p a i n t the b i r d .  "Where's the brown?  Where's the brown?" he s a i d to h i m s e l f as there no brown i n the t r a y .  was  He s o l v e d the problem by add-  i n g r e d to b l a c k .  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour can not be r e l a t e d to h i s p a r e n t s ' r e mark t h a t he was  above average i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y but tends  to c o - i n c i d e w i t h h i s teacher's comment t h a t he was average. Chart IV  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f the World Around  Nick s c o r e d between 11.5  and 13«5«  Him.  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t s give examples o f h i s keen o b s e r v a t i o n . November 2,  1961.  The group was p a i n t i n g a mural d e p i c t i n g Eskimo l a n d . 4:44  He p a i n t e d two very b i g i g l o o s .  4:45  He put i n two small f i g u r e s — i n p r o p o r t i o n to the i g l o o s .  November 2 3,  s m a l l so t h a t they were (Time Sample).  1961.  The group t a l k e d about the wet weather i n Vancouver.  CHART I W a i t i n g f o r H i s Turn Intensity  CHART I I 148 Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e  and Frequency  Uct CHART I I I Settling Difficulties Intensity  20i  iMov u e c d a n a eb Mar  CHART I V Showing K e e n O b s e r v a t i o n  and Frequency  Oct  Nov Dec J a n F e b Mar  149 Nick s a i d that i t was q u i t e dry i n the Okanagan, ( h i s f a m i l y l i v e d there l a s t y e a r ) , b u t they saw two f l o o d s ; one o c c u r r e d on Thanksgiving Day and one on h i s b i r t h d a y . (Anecdotal Record) T h i s behaviour  c o - i n c i d e d with h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t h i s knowledge o f the world was abundant and  clear.  Chart V  Able t o Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the C r e a t i v e Process. Nick s c o r e d around 11.5*  He showed no great a b i l i t y  i n making use o f new s i t u a t i o n s i n a r t .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt  i n d i c a t e s how he used a new s i t u a t i o n . January 4:27  4, 1962. He s t a r t e d w i t h g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e .  With a p e n c i l he drew  the o u t l i n e o f an o l d man's head and shoulders i n a continuous  line.  He stopped  He seemed unhappy about i t .  and looked a t i t c r i t i c a l l y . He asked f o r an e r a s e r .  He was advised to make use o f the l i n e i n s t e a d o f rubbing i t o u t . 4:28  He was r e s t l e s s i n h i s s e a t , b u t he f i n i s h e d the head.  The l i n e became one o f many w r i n k l e s . (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour corresponded  w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  teacher's remark t h a t h i s a b i l i t y t o take advantage o f new s i t u a t i o n s was average.  H i s a n x i e t y to get t h i n g s r i g h t  urged  him t o do t h i n g s a l l over again i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g advantage o f s i t u a t i o n s which developed  i n the p r o c e s s .  150 Chart YI  Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s .  Nick scored between 6 and 13.  There are some marked  r i s e s and f a l l s which are not found i n h i s o t h e r characteristics.  behaviour  Nick's work h a b i t s were u s u a l l y q u i t e  orderly. November 2,  1961.  Every time, Nick washed the b i g brush c l e a n b e f o r e used a new  colour.  the mural neat. smeared my area.  He  took great care to keep h i s share o f  Once he c a l l e d out suddenly,  thingJ"  he  "Dougy, you've  Immediately, he p a i n t e d over t h e  He l o o k e d much concerned.  (Anecdotal  smeared Record).  • However, there were o c c a s i o n s on which Nick d i s p l a y e d u n t i d y work h a b i t s .  The  sharp  drops r e p r e s e n t these o c c a s i o n s .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example. February  15,  1962.  As the student-teacher i n charge d i d not see to i t t h a t the c h i l d r e n put away the a r t m a t e r i a l s , there was  great chaos  i n the a r t room. 'Nick and the o t h e r c h i l d r e n l e f t  their table  i n a mess.  (Anecdotal  Record).  T h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o - i n c i d e d w i t h the p a r e n t s ' and the t e a c h e r ' s remark that Nick was in  orderliness. U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour  Chart VII  Characteristics  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Nick scored between 2.5 and  o n l y average  and 7»  There i s a sharp  rise  a s l i g h t r i s e r e p r e s e n t i n g occasions on which Nick showed  restlessness.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example o f these  151 occasions. January  4, The  1962. c l a s s was  encouraged to add more d e t a i l s on t o  t h e i r p o r t r a i t s of o l d  men.  4:38  He l i s t l e s s l y added a few more l i n e s on the  4:41  He went o f f to change h i s p e n c i l .  He  beard.  stopped  and  looked at Vicky's p i c t u r e with admiration. 4:42  He f e l t t h a t he c o u l d not add any more t o h i s p i c t u r e .  4:44  He looked impatient and grew q u i t e r e s t l e s s . brought  He  h i s c h a i r forward and backward. (Time Sample).  As a r u l e , Nick c o n c e n t r a t e d w e l l on h i s work. f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s t h i s November 2,  4:33  behaviour.  1962.  Nick was were B i l l ,  The  at the very end o f the mural.  Next to him  Dougy, B e t t y and V i c k y .  He worked q u i e t l y by h i m s e l f u n t i l h i s hand was  stained  w i t h grey p a i n t . 4:35  He went to wash the s t a i n o f f .  Immediately he r e t u r n e d  to h i s work. 4:36  He worked on the foreground and the background o f h i s share o f the mural w i t h a b i g brush. enjoyed the a c t i v i t y .  Apparently,  he  "It's just like painting a  house J" he s a i d t o h i m s e l f s m i l i n g l y . T h i s behaviour  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , on the whole, d i d not  agree w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s teacher's remark t h a t h i s span o f a t t e n t i o n was  average.  152  Chart  vTII  Lack o f E f f o r t t o Improve A r t Products  Nick s c o r e d below 4 f o r f i v e months.  There i s o n l y one  s l i g h t r i s e r e p r e s e n t i n g o c c a s i o n s on which Nick showed a d i s l i k e f o r working on one s i n g l e p i e c e o f work f o r too l o n g . The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s one o f these o c c a s i o n s .  March 8 , 1 9 6 2 . Nick s a i d t h a t he f i n i s h e d h i s torn-paper The  s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r suggested  b e s i d e s brown and b l u e . restless.  t h a t he might use another c o l o u r  He d i d n o t want to do so and appeared  The student-teacher a d v i s e d him t o add more d e t a i l s  to h i s s c r a t c h board p i c t u r e . It  picture.  Nick s a i d t h a t i t was f i n i s h e d .  showed n o t h i n g but a t r e e trunk.  (Anecdotal Record).  However, there were many o c c a s i o n s on which Nick made an e f f o r t t o improve h i s a r t p r o d u c t s .  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  g i v e s an example. January 1 1 , 1 9 6 2 . I t needed p a t i e n c e t o c o i l the c l a y , to smoothen. the c o i l and to t w i s t i t t o form a cobra.  Nick t r i e d over and  over a g a i n u n t i l the cobra stood u p r i g h t . (Anecdotal Record). T h i s behaviour  corresponded w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' remark  that the standard he s e t f o r h i m s e l f was h i g h while the few o c c a s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by r i s e s c o - i n c i d e d w i t h h i s t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t the standard was o n l y C h a r t IX  average.  Chatty  Nick scored below 4 . 5 «  He seldom p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e  CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART VI 153 Developing Orderly Work H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  °Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  20i  CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  154 c o n v e r s a t i o n o f h i s group.  The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an  example. January  11,  1962.  Nick was  very i n t e r e s t e d i n m o d e l l i n g w i t h c l a y .  and V i c k y were t a l k i n g a l l the time about t e l e v i s i o n grammes and  school news but Nick was  Betty  pro-  c o n c e n t r a t i n g so  deeply  i n h i s work t h a t he d i d not e n t e r i n t o the c o n v e r s a t i o n . (Anecdotal Of course t h e r e were a few chatted with other c h i l d r e n .  The  Record).  o c c a s i o n s on which Nick f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s  an example. March 1, 4:55  1962.  The boys were c h a t t y .  Perhaps i t was  s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r l e f t them alone'. the spaceman.  "When he was  because the  They t a l k e d about  up, h i s w i f e had  t e l e v i s i o n s e t s i n h e r room", s a i d Nick. one  i n her room and one was  Greg.  "Do  three  "No,  only  i n the basement," s a i d  you want to b e t ? " asked Nick.  Neverthe-  l e s s , they were busy working at the same time. (Time Sample). This behaviour  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , on the whole, c o r r e s -  ponded w i t h the p r i n c i p a l ' s remark t h a t Nick was Chart X  a quiet  boy.  I m i t a t i n g Others. Nick s c o r e d between 4»25 and 7»75»  Nick never c o p i e d  o t h e r s , although very o c c a s i o n a l l y , he f o l l o w e d them. f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e these o c c a s i o n s .  The  155  November 2 3 , 1 9 6 1 . The 4:48  c l a s s was a c t i n g c r e a t i v e  The c h i l d r e n were a s k e d how t o make a f i r e his  eyes.  acting  drama.  to shut  t h e i r eyes and a c t  i n t h e open.  Nick d i d not c l o s e  He d i d n o t s t a r t  until  he saw o t h e r  the action.  (Time  children  Sample).  March 1 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:50  Nick had j u s t  finished  making t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a b i r d  w i t h t h e b o d y made o u t o f a b o x a n d t h e head made out o f a bulb.  The t a i l  model t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r on  was a l m o s t  e x a c t l y l i k e the  showed them a n d h a d l e f t  the t a b l e .  This behaviour that h i s behaviour  (Time co-incided with h i sparents'  Sample). remark  d e p e n d e d on t h e s i t u a t i o n .  His teacher's  comment t h a t he f o l l o w e d o t h e r s was r e f l e c t e d  o n l y on a v e r y  few  occasions.  Chart X I  Lack o f O r i g i n a l  Ideas  i n Discussion or i n A r t  Products. Nick  s c o r e d below 6 . 2 5 .  He c o u l d be v e r y o r i g i n a l i f  he was g i v e n a r t m a t e r i a l s he e n j o y e d . gives'an  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  example.  November 9 , 1 9 6 1 . He e n j o y e d  using water-colour  paper o f f and d i p p e d ways l i k e  a roller  pastels.  the p a s t e l i n t o water.  to f i l l  He p e e l e d t h e He u s e d  i t side-  i n the background o f h i s p a i n t i n g .  When h i s hands were s t a i n e d w i t h b l u e , he p r i n t e d  them o n h i s  156 p a i n t i n g to be the hands o f the s t r a n g e - l o o k i n g man. (Anecdotal  Record).  O c c a s i o n a l l y , Nick had to s t r u g g l e f o r o r i g i n a l i d e a s . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example.. January 4:15  4, 1962.. Nick was t h i n k i n g hard.  He b u r i e d h i s head i n h i s  hands. 4:17  He d i d not seem t o have much i d e a o f the scene he wanted to draw.  He s c r i b b l e d a dark area l i k e a  stream near the c e n t r e o f the paper. 4:18  The i n s t r u c t o r a d v i s e d them t o use heavy and l i g h t lines.  Nick d i d as he was t o l d .  T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample).  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , to a c e r t a i n  extent,  agreed w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t h i s ideas f o r p l a y o r work was c r e a t i v e .  I t c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s t e a c h e r ' s comment  t h a t they were only  sufficient.  Chart X I I  Lack o f Respect  f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y .  Nick scored below 4. almost  Being mature f o r h i s age, he  never t r e a t e d the i n s t r u c t o r o r the student-teachers  with disrespect. h i s own way.  On very r a r e o c c a s i o n s he might t r y t o have  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s one o f these  occasions. March 1, 1962. 5:02  The boys were n o i s y .  They i m i t a t e d a duck.  t e a c h e r t o l d Greg to s i t down. quackJ"  Nick laughed.  The student-  He answered, "Quack,  He was t o l d to s i t down t o o .  157  He made an excuse that t h e r e was  a spot o f p a i n t on  the c h a i r .  (Time Sample).  However, on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , Nick showed great r e s p e c t f o r the i n s t r u c t o r and the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s . excerpt i n d i c a t e d t h i s  The f o l l o w i n g  behaviour.  November 9 , 1 9 6 1 . Greg and Nick were i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n tubes they found i n the a r t room. p l a n e s w i t h them.  They c o n s t r u c t e d aero-  Nick turned around and looked at the  student-teacher i n charge every now  and then as i f he  a f r a i d that she would stop him at any  time. (Anecdotal  T h i s behaviour  corresponded  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t he was co-operate  was  Record).  w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ' and h i s  above average i n r e a d i n e s s to  with the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y .  Summary In the study o f the case o f Nick, the r e s e a r c h e r found  that the most dominant f e a t u r e i s the  c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s behaviour  has  comparatively  displayed i n art  a c t i v i t i e s and h i s p a r e n t s ' and/or h i s t e a c h e r ' s remarks on his personality.  The  14$), and Chart VII  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shown i n Chart I I , (page  (page 1 5 3 ) are the o n l y e x c e p t i o n s .  s i m p l y , b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d w i t h new  s i t u a t i o n s i n the C h i l d A r t  C e n t r e , Nick d i d not change h i s u s u a l behaviour. he  showed l i t t l e  observation.  change i n behaviour  T h i s was  Stated  Similarly,  d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f  i n d i c a t e d by the small number of  sharp  CHART IX Chatty I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  CHART X 158 I m i t a t i n g Others I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  Oct CHART XI Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas  Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  I n t e n s i t y and Frequency  0  ' o c t Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar  r i s e s and drops i n the c h a r t s .  Moreover,  i t seems that i n  many c a s e s , i f Nick showed any change i n b e h a v i o u r , i t was due to the s i t u a t i o n ,  such as the l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e i n the  c l a s s , which accounted f o r the drops i n Chart XI (page and r i s e s i n Chart IX (page 158).  158)  CHAPTER VII REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL CASES IN THE AGE  SENIOR GROUP  FIFTEEN CASE 9  Description P a u l a , age for ing.  her age.  f i f t e e n , was  and  tall  Her manners were f r i e n d l y and extremely unassum-  She t r e a t e d the i n s t r u c t o r s and the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s as  i f they were her peers. of  a plain-looking g i r l  Thus, i t seemed t h a t she was  r e s p e c t f o r persons i n a u t h o r i t y .  i n lack  However, she had a good  sense of humour which helped her to overcome many awkward situations. When Paula c o n c e n t r a t e d on her work, she r e a l l y e x p e r i e n c ed and e x p l o r e d .  I n o i l - p a i n t i n g , f o r example, the  she used d i f f e r e d from p a i n t i n g t o p a i n t i n g . try  of  She l i k e d to  a l l a r t media and a l l a r t a c t i v i t i e s , but she had  p a t i e n c e and o f t e n dashed o f f her work. art  techniques  products were, she never l e f t  However crude  them u n f i n i s h e d .  no her  L i k e most  the students i n the group, P a u l a d i d not a t t e n d the a r t  classes regularly.  When she was  o v e r t i r e d , she would take  an  afternoon o f f . Paula had no s p e c i a l f r i e n d s i n the C h i l d A r t Centre, yet  she was  w e l l at ease w i t h f r i e n d s of both sexes.  For  example, s e e i n g A r n o l d or Jim come i n and walk past her,  she  161 would say, "Do  s i t downJ  I hate people walking a b o u t J "  The  boys, being fond o f her company, shared a t a b l e w i t h her  and  t a l k e d t o her. Both Paula's parents were medical d o c t o r s .  The f a m i l y  l i v e d i n a b e a u t i f u l mansion w i t h f u r n i t u r e and p a i n t i n g s o f good t a s t e .  They were devotees  b r o t h e r c a l l e d David. than she  of Judaism.  Paula had a younger  She b e l i e v e d t h a t David was  more a r t i s t i c  was.  The P a r e n t ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f Paula's P e r s o n a l i t y The mother s a i d t h a t Paula enjoyed doing e v e r y t h i n g but she had not the d r i v e t o do anything w e l l . a r t c l a s s i n the C h i l d A r t Centre was  P a u l a thought  the  g r e a t f u n , although  she  f e l t that she d i d not do as w e l l as the o t h e r s . lonely.  She was  She read whatever she c o u l d l a y her hands on.  l o v e d drama. dancing was  She  She s t u d i e d c r e a t i v e drama f o r f i v e y e a r s . a l s o her i n t e r e s t .  and sang w e l l . t h a t she was  She was  Folk  a talented pianist  On the stage, she gave people the i m p r e s s i o n  very c o n f i d e n t o f h e r s e l f .  P a u l a was to experiment  r e a l l y good a t sewing.  The mother allowed her  w i t h a l l k i n d s of m a t e r i a l .  a l l the costumes f o r the s c h o o l p l a y . but she was  never  She  L a s t y e a r , she made impressed a d u l t s ,  not so good a t g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h c h i l d r e n .  went w i t h boys and g i r l s of her own  age group.  f r i e n d s were a c q u i r e d at summer camp. Z i o n i s t group —  She  Most o f her  She belonged  to the  an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which the young people of  Jewish f a i t h h e l d d i s c u s s i o n s and r a i s e d funds.  She took a  group o f e l e v e n - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n the Z i o n i s t movement.  162  As t o P a u l a ' s c h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g , her mother s a i d t h a t she used t o have a p l a y school a t home.  When Paula was o n l y  nine months o l d she j o i n e d the o t h e r c h i l d r e n . sent to the "Jack and J i l l " p l a y s c h o o l . summer camp every year.  Then, she was  Paula went to a  She had been i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t camps  under c r e a t i v e p e r s o n n e l s .  The mother was impressed  by a  camp l e d by a calm and r e l a x e d l a d y who helped the c h i l d r e n to t o l e r a t e a l l k i n d s o f people.  At twelve, Paula went to a  r e l i g i o u s camp i n C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A. a l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g camp. l e a d groups o f c h i l d r e n .  L a s t year, she attended  There she l e a r n e d t o l i v e and  She o b t a i n e d the h i g h e s t recommenda-  t i o n i n a r t , music and s c o u t i n g .  The f a m i l y went t o Hawaii  f o r a month f o r s e v e r a l w i n t e r s .  Paula went alone to M o n t r e a l ,  Quebec, l a s t summer. own.  Her experiences enabled her t o be on h e r  She d i d h e r own shopping.  She had no t r o u b l e i n g e t t i n g  what she wanted. P a u l a was i n Grade X I I .  She hoped to take a p a i n t i n g  course a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia next y e a r .  The  mother wanted h e r to be a d o c t o r l i k e h e r s e l f , but she s a i d t h a t she would l e t Paula make h e r own d e c i s i o n . The Teacher's D e s c r i p t i o n o f Paula's P e r s o n a l i t y A c c o r d i n g to the t e a c h e r who knew and taught Paula f o r f o u r y e a r s , Paula was very e x c i t a b l e a f t e r c l a s s and i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , but d u r i n g c l a s s , her emotions were under c o n t r o l .  Her response  t o t h i n g s and people were v a r i a b l e .  When she was i n t e r e s t e d i n an apparatus ask a great d e a l about i t ,  i n s c i e n c e , she would  but a f t e r t h r e e days, her i n t e r e s t  163 disappeared. P a u l a was o f energy was she was  t y p i c a l o f her age group.  Often  her o u t b u r s t  f o l l o w e d by a p e r i o d of l i s t l e s s n e s s .  very e x p r e s s i v e about t h i n g s .  j u s t f i l l i n g the background.  Sometimes  At o t h e r times, she  was  As she grew o l d e r , she became  more r e l i a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t i n her work h a b i t s .  She  now  f i n i s h e d her work i n s t e a d o f l e a v i n g i t u n f i n i s h e d as she d i d two years ago.  I n d a i l y r o u t i n e , she was  She would do t h i n g s when she was  told.  quite co-operative.  She would r e t u r n t h i n g s  which she borrowed from another room, but on her own, might overlook t h i n g s and c o u l d not be counted She had a few 'pushy  she  on.  c l o s e f r i e n d s , but being a g g r e s s i v e  and  she never f o l l o w e d o t h e r s , and so, o t h e r s would not  f  f o l l o w her.  I n f a c t , she t r i e d hard t o make f r i e n d s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a d u l t s was to teachers was student.  friendly.  mimicking.  She  Her manner o f approach  t h a t o f a contemporary r a t h e r than t h a t o f a  She b e l i e v e d she had  teachers.  Her  the same i n t e r e s t as the  had a good sense o f humour and was  T h i s helped her to get over i n d i s c r e e t  good a t situations,  as the t e a c h e r s would not take o f f e n s e . P a u l a d i d not t a l k a great d e a l about her r e l i g i o n , although she would be absent from s c h o o l on Jewish h o l i d a y s . She was  sincere.  She  accepted her r e l i g i o n as p a r t of her  fate. A Comparison o f the P a r e n t s ' and the Teacher's  Answers to  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on Paula's P e r s o n a l i t y . Regarding  emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the teachers  found  164 that P a u l a f r e q u e n t l y showed e x c i t a b i l i t y , a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g and dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n .  The parents f e l t  o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s p l a y e d these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  t h a t she o n l y The teacher  and the parents c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Paula was average the i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  i n most o f  The parents found t h a t her  knowledge o f the world was p l e n t i f u l and a c c u r a t e and h e r a b i l i t y t o see r e l a t i o n s h i p was above average, but her a b i l i t y to p l a n was below average.  The teacher c o n s i d e r e d t h a t h e r  a b i l i t y t o take advantage o f new s i t u a t i o n s was below  average.  As t o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents found t h a t she was above average thought  i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , while the teacher  she was o n l y average.  The parents found t h a t she was  f r i e n d l y w i t h a d u l t s but the t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t she sought  attention.  The parents p o i n t e d out t h a t she would l o v e  to l e a d but was not a s u c c e s s f u l l e a d e r because she l a c k e d force.  The teacher found t h a t she sometimes i m i t a t e d o t h e r s . As to p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the parents agreed t o  the t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t Paula's span o f a t t e n t i o n was  average.  The parents s a i d t h a t she was "a b i t s c a t t e r - b r a i n e d " when studying.  Regarding  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to formation o f  c h a r a c t e r , on the whole the parents and t h e teacher  agreed.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as D i s p l a y e d i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s . As a r t c l a s s e s f o r the S e n i o r group were c a n c e l l e d i n December, the o b s e r v a t i o n o f behaviour was made f o r f i v e months only.  165 D e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart I  W a i t i n g F o r Her  Characteristics  Turn  Paula scored between 10.5  to 13.75.  As the t e a c h e r  n o t i c e d , P a u l a t r i e d hard t o make f r i e n d s .  had  She had to keep  her a g g r e s s i o n under c o n t r o l and take her t u r n i n a l l a c t i v i ties.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show t h i s  March 1 9 , 4:18  1962.  She l a b o u r e d over her l i n o - b l o c k . Diane was  4:22  behaviour.  When i t was  ready  u s i n g the r o l l e r and the i n k .  She had t o stand by and w a i t f o r her t u r n . (Time Sample).  March 26,  1962.  She wanted to take a p r i n t of her l i n o - b l o c k t o be photographed.  Danny was  u s i n g the r o l l e r .  to make a p r i n t f o r her when he was  She  asked Danny  through. (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour corresponded w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her p a t i e n c e was Chart I I  her  average.  Eager to C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work or Group D i s c u s s i o n  P a u l a scored below 10.  She  c o n t r i b u t e d no more than  her share to group work such as clean-up. i n group d i s c u s s i o n .  She gave even l e s s  O f t e n she stayed i n the background.  The  f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example. November 20, 3:45  1961.  The i n s t r u c t o r asked the c l a s s to come f o r t h and to  them how  magazine.  suggested  to compose a p a i n t i n g from a p i c t u r e i n a Paula l i s t e n e d w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n although  166 she was p l a y i n g w i t h a tube o f o i l p a i n t * tor  The i n s t r u c -  asked i f they had any i d e a s to c o n t r i b u t e , o r any  q u e s t i o n s t o ask. Paula shook her head b u t d i d not even l o o k up.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c o - i n c i d e d with the t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t she c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t e d much.  and c o n t r a d i c t e d her parent's t h a t she  The d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n s was probably  due t o her d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s to parents and t e a c h e r s , as her parents found t h a t her s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was above but the teacher f e l t t h a t i t was below Chart I I I  average  average.  S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing to Peers or A d u l t s .  P a u l a s c o r e d between 14«5 and 8. difficulties  but she seldom appealed  excerpt i n d i c a t e s t h i s  She might v o i c e her  f o r help.  The f o l l o w i n g  behaviour.  November 20, 1961. P a u l a f o r g o t her p a l l e t t e .  She went out and found a  cardboard cake p l a t e to put h e r p a i n t s on. (Anecdotal Record). When technique was i n v o l v e d , Paula o f t e n depended on the i n s t r u c t o r f o r h e l p .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an  example. February  5, 1962.  She was m o d e l l i n g her s e l f - p o r t r a i t .  "SirI  What s h a l l  I do t o the eye?" she asked the i n s t r u c t o r who then showed h e r the technique. any a s s i s t a n c e .  She modelled  the r e s t o f the p o r t r a i t  without  (Anecdotal Record).  167 T h i s behaviour d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h the p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was  above average.  It  corresponded w i t h the teacher's comment t h a t i t was  only  average. Chart IV  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n o f the World Around Her.  Paula scored between 7 and 10.  She d i d not seem to  show any keen o b s e r v a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to her  intelligence,  although o c c a s i o n a l l y her a r t products reminded the observer o f some masterpieces o f a r t .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpts give  examples. January  22,  1962.  Her f i n i s h e d product was jecting ribs.  a l o n g t h i n man  I t reminded the observer of E l Greco's  "Beggar". March 19, 4:50  w i t h pro-  (Anecdotal Record). 1962.  Diane saw her p o r t r a i t of a l a d y w i t h a l o n g neck and s l i g h t l y t i l t e d head. N o f r e t e t e " , she s a i d . headdress  suggests  " I t reminds me o f Queen  "Yes", Paula agreed,  her too".  "the  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can be r e l a t e d to her t e a c h e r ' s remark that her knowledge o f the world was s m a l l , although a c c u r a t e . t h a t her knowledge was Chart V  rather  I t c o n t r a d i c t e d her parent's comment  extensive.  Able to Take Advantage of S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . P a u l a scored above 10.  There were o n l y very few  on which she showed her a b i l i t y to use a s i t u a t i o n which  occasions  CHART I W a i t i n g f o r Her Turn ncy  Oct  CHART I I Eager t o Contribute Intensity  168  and F r e q u e n c y  Nov J a n Feb Mar  CHART I I I Settling Difficulties Intensity  and F r e q u e n c y  CHART I V Showing K e e n O b s e r v a t i o n I n t e n s i t y  201  18  18-  16  16-  14  14  12  12  10  10  3  8  and F r e q u e n c y  169 t u r n e d up i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . shows one February  The  following excerpt  o f these o c c a s i o n s . 5,  1962.  A p p a r e n t l y , P a u l a was as i n p a i n t i n g .  not so i n t e r e s t e d i n m o d e l l i n g  She had not y e t a c q u i r e d the technique  of  handling clay. 4:15  She  found i t hard to b u i l d up the s t r u c t u r e of the head  with c o i l s .  The  s t r u c t u r e simply c o l l a p s e d because  the c o i l s were too wet. instead of c o i l s , 4:17  She had a new  making mud-pies  j u s t f o r fun.  ideai  top o f the o t h e r .  She was  She put t h r e e mud She hollowed  p i e s one  them out.  on  Thus, the  neck and the lower p a r t o f the f a c e were made.  She  added c o i l s on top t o form a complete head. (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour corresponded  w i t h her p a r e n t s ' remark  t h a t her a b i l i t y to take advantage o f new average.  situations  was  I t d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h her t e a c h e r ' s comment t h a t  i t was  below average.  She was  more c o n f i d e n t i n making use  o f new  s i t u a t i o n s i n a r t because t h e r e was  no r i g h t o r wrong  answer. C h a r t VI  Developing O r d e r l y Work Habits-  Paula s c o r e d below 6.25.  Her work h a b i t s were f a r  from b e i n g o r d e r l y , e s p e c i a l l y when compared w i t h the o t h e r g i r l s i n her group. characteristic.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show t h i s  behaviour  170 January  22,  1962  The i n s t r u c t o r a d v i s e d them to get a l l the m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r work. 4:01  Paula got a b a l l o f c l a y . make a man."  She s a i d , " I am going t o  As she found o u t that the c l a y was very  s o f t , she s a i d l a u g h i n g l y , " I am sure he can't  stand."  4:08  She went o f f to l o o k f o r some w i r e .  4:09  She bent the wire to form the s t r u c t u r e o f a human figure.  4:12  She went to get another b a l l o f c l a y .  " I need some-  t h i n g f o r the man to stand on, do I ? " she asked. (Time Sample) March 19,  1962.  P a u l a l e f t h e r l i n o - b l o c k i n the s i n k a f t e r u s i n g i t . She  s t a r t e d a cardboard p r i n t .  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour d i d not correspond w i t h h e r p a r e n t s ' and h e r teacher's remark t h a t she was average  i n orderliness,  but c o i n c i d e d w i t h her p a r e n t s ' comment t h a t she was below average  i n a b i l i t y t o p l a n as she " t r i e d to do too much and  d i d n o t get i t done." U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart V I I  Characteristics  R e s t l e s s and i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n  P a u l a scored between -3»25 and 11.5» r i s e and some s l i g h t drops as t h i s behaviour seemed v a r i a b l e .  There was a sharp characteristic  The h i g h e s t peak r e p r e s e n t s o c c a s i o n s when  Paula grew r e s t l e s s as she l o s t i n t e r e s t i n an a r t a c t i v i t y a f t e r making s e v e r a l attempts.  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows  171 this  behaviour. 22,  January  She  1962. c o u l d not concentrate on her work a t a l l .  d i d not know how  to handle c l a y , and  anything out o f i t .  She  so she c o u l d not c r e a t e  sat w i t h Jim and argued w i t h him a l l  the time.  (Anecdotal Record).  However, when Paula was concentration. March 12, 4:27  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an example.  1962.  to make a cardboard  print.  She remained standing and was head that expressed  4:35  i n t e r e s t e d , she worked w i t h  She watched a t t e n t i v e l y as the i n s t r u c t o r showed her how  4:32  She  They were s t a n d i n g . drawing on paper a  feeling.  She remained s t a n d i n g and drawing.  She sang at the  same time. 4:42  The i n s t r u c t o r i n t e r r u p t e d her, a d v i s i n g her how improve her l i n o - b l o c k .  She  to  l i s t e n e d w i t h concentra-  t i o n and then r e t u r n e d to what she was  doing. (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour, on the whole, corresponded  w i t h her  p a r e n t s ' and her t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her span of a t t e n t i o n was  average.  Chart VIII  Lack o f E f f o r t to Improve A r t Products  Paula s c o r e d between 4»5 and 12.25.  There are marked  r i s e s which r e p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n s on which Paula d i d not seem bothered by the low standard o f her products. excerpt g i v e s an example.  The f o l l o w i n g  172 February 4:08  6,  1962.  She looked around and found the c l a y f i g u r e she made i n the l a s t l e s s o n . She  I t was  d i d not look concerned.  to Jim.  covered w i t h c r a c k s .  I n s t e a d , she  " I s n ' t i t c u t e ? " she  had  showed i t  asked. (Time Sample).  There were some occasions on which she made an The  effort.  f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s one of these o c c a s i o n s .  March 12,  1962.  She was 4:14  composing sketches f o r a mood p i c t u r e .  When she f i n i s h e d the second sketch, she was not happy about i t . t r a c i n g paper.  4:15  She had  She  She  s c r i b b l e d shapes on the  s e t h e r s e l f to t h i n k hard.  drawn a great number o f shapes.  some o f them t o g e t h e r . looked a t i t . howling  dog.  still  She  joined  She h e l d up the paper and  I t turned out t o be a head o f a The i n s t r u c t o r saw  it.  "This i s  e x a c t l y what I want J" he s a i d .  (Time. Sample).  T h i s behaviour, on the whole, c o i n c i d e d w i t h  her  p a r e n t s ' and her t e a c h e r ' s remark that the standard she s e t f o r h e r s e l f was Chart IX  average.  Chatty  Paula scored between 8 and 12. the f i r s t  two  She was  l e s s chatty i n  months when the. c l a s s p a i n t e d a t the e a s e l than  i n the l a s t three months when they d i d c r a f t work i n small groups.  The h i g h peak r e p r e s e n t s occasions on which P a u l a  c h a t t e d w i t h anyone w i t h i n h e a r i n g d i s t a n c e .  The f o l l o w i n g  CHART V Able to Take Advantage of Situations I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20 — '  r  CHART VI 173 Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s n t e n s i t y and Frequency  18 16 14 12 10 8 6  0  Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar  Oct Nov Jan Feb Mar  CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n Lack of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20  CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 20 13 16 14 12 10 8 6 4  bet Nov Jan Feb Mar  174 e x c e r p t g i v e s an example. 22, 1962.  January  As she saw a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s t a n d i n g by and watching her, she s a i d t o Marg and Diane,  "She i s wondering what I am  doing and t r y i n g to p s y c h o a n a l i z e me J " "Don't laugh I " she s a i d .  The two g i r l s  laughed.  Marg t a l k e d about her b r o t h e r s .  "Have you two b r o t h e r s ? " P a u l a asked, as she l i k e d to i n q u i r e i n t o o t h e r people's  affairs.  A r n o l d and Danny walked p a s t her. portrait of herself. she s a i d .  "Isn't that nice?  She p o i n t e d a t t h e Mr. Smith drew me."  Then she c h a t t e d w i t h A r n o l d and Danny. (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour can be r e l a t e d to her t e a c h e r ' s remark that she devoted much time t o a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g . Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others  Paula s c o r e d below 5«75»  As t h e r e a r e no f i x e d  i n a r t , she d i d n o t f e e l the need o f conforming people's i d e a s .  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e  rules  to other this  behaviour. February  5, 1962.  She gave up the method o f b u i l d i n g the head s t r u c t u r e w i t h c o i l s which other students were a d a p t i n g .  She s t a r t e d  the s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h r e e c l a y p i e s , p i l i n g one on top o f the o t h e r and hollowed i t out l a t e r .  The head she made was o n l y  f i s t - s i z e d and was d i f f e r e n t from the other c h i l d r e n ' s , which were l i f e - s i z e d .  (Anecdotal Record).  175  March 1 2 , 1 9 6 2 . Her drawing showed only the head o f a howling dog. was  It  d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' which were based more  o r l e s s on the i n s t r u c t o r ' s example shown on the  board.  (Anecdotal Record). T h i s behaviour  c o n t r a d i c t e d her t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t  she i m i t a t e d o t h e r s . Chart XI  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n or i n A r t Products  P a u l a scored below 6 . 5 * by her parents was  apparent  Her s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , as n o t i c e d  in creativity.  The f o l l o w i n g  e x c e r p t g i v e s an example. November 2 0 , 1 9 6 1 . The  c l a s s was  i n a magazine. 4:20  asked t o compose a p a i n t i n g from a p i c t u r e  Paula's p i c t u r e showed two  l a b o u r e r s a t work.  She p a i n t e d one f i g u r e dark-skinned, although i t was not so i n the p i c t u r e .  4:25  She mixed a f l e s h c o l o u r f o r the second f i g u r e . a white workman was workman.  contrasted with a  What an o r i g i n i a l i d e a !  Thus  dark-skinned (Time Sample)  T h i s behaviour d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h the p a r e n t s ' and her teacher's remark t h a t her i d e a s f o r work were j u s t icient.  suff-  I t displayed creative ideas.  Chart XII  Lack o f Respect  f o r Persons  P a u l a scored between 6 and 1 1 .  i n Authority. As the teacher remarked,  she t r e a t e d the teachers as i f they were her  contemporaries  176 and  thus, she seemed t o be i n l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r them.  The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s g i v e examples. October  30, 1961. A s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r was p o s i n g .  she resumed h e r pose. word suddenly "ThereJ  A f t e r a short r e s t  Paula came up to h e r and without a  p u l l e d a t the f o l d s o f the model's s k i r t .  I t was l i k e  t h i s b e f o r e , " she s a i d . (Anecdotal  January  22, 1962. The  i n s t r u c t o r demonstrated how t o draw a s e l f - p o r t r a i t .  He was drawing P a u l a .  She g i g g l e d every now and then and was  t o l d t o stop h e r nonsense.  When the i n s t r u c t o r f i n i s h e d , she  l o o k e d a t the drawing c r i t i c a l l y . said. it.  Record).  "My nose i s s m a l l e r , " she  The i n s t r u c t o r made some change on the nose. Thank you." she s a i d . As a matter  (Anecdotal  "That's Record).  o f f a c t , Paula admired the t e a c h e r s .  The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t f o l l o w s the one above. January  22, 1962. The  him.  i n s t r u c t o r was m o d e l l i n g a b i r d .  She watched  She t o l d the o t h e r g i r l s a t her t a b l e to look at t h e  bird.  She s a i d how wonderful T h i s behaviour,  i t was.  (Anecdotal Record).  on the whole, corresponded  with h e r  p a r e n t s ' and her teacher's comment t h a t she was average i n r e a d i n e s s to cooperate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y . Summary In the study o f the case o f P a u l a , t h e r e s e a r c h e r has  CHART IX Chatty Intensity  20  "  CHART X I m i t a t i n g Others  and D e n s i t y  O c t Nov J a n F e b Mar CHART X I Lack o f O r i g i n a l Intensity  I n t e n s i t y and D e n s i t y  20i  O c t Nov J a n F e b M a r CHART X I I Lack o f Respect  Ideas  and D e n s i t y  177  Intensity  20 "  and D e n s i t y  173 n o t i c e d that the most dominant f e a t u r e i s the r a t h e r sharp r i s e s and f a l l s i n i n t e n s i t y and frequency i n as many as s i x c h a r t s , namely Chart I I , Chart I I I , {page 168), Chart V I I , C h a r t V I I I , (page 173),  Chart IX and Chart X I I , (page  177).  The f r e q u e n t change i n behaviour i n some cases i s due t o emotional and p h y s i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , which i s t y p i c a l o f adolescence.  F o r example, her i n c o n s i s t e n t treatment o f  persons i n a u t h o r i t y can be accounted f o r by her development of  a sense o f values and her d e s i r e to be independent o f  adult  direction. Another f e a t u r e found i n t h i s study i s Paula's  realization.  She understood h e r s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l b e t t e r  i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s than i n s c h o o l - a c t i v i t i e s . felt  self-  safe to be i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and c r e a t i v e .  I n a r t , she She knew t h a t  she would not l o s e group r e c o g n i t i o n even i f she d i d not conform t o the i d e a s and t a s t e o f the group. CASE 10 Description C l a i r e , age f i f t e e n , was a b r u n e t t e w i t h s e n s i t i v e f e a t u r e s and r e f i n e d manners.  She cared so much about her  appearance that her h a i r was n e a t l y s t y l e d and her n a i l s were n i c e l y trimmed.  She was dressed i n f a s h i o n .  She was c o n s i d -  e r e d as an i d e a l daughter a t home and a model s t u d e n t i n s c h o o l . In notable. month.  a r t a c t i v i t i e s , her p a t i e n c e and perserverance were She worked on one s i n g l e p i e c e o f work f o r over a  Her a r t products were n o t e x c e p t i o n a l l y good, y e t she  179 gave h e r b e s t and l o v e d what she made. She was f r i e n d l y t o h e r p e e r s .  W h i l e she was w o r k i n g ,  she o f t e n c h a t t e d w i t h o t h e r g i r l s from h e r s c h o o l .  She never  sought t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e boys, y e t she always t a l k e d t o them i n a c o r d i a l manner once they s t a r t e d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . She admired  a r t p r o d u c t s o t h e r t h a n h e r own.  Seeing t h a t  Theresa's c l a y s e l f - p o r t r a i t was i n good shape and p r o p o r t i o n , she s a i d :  " I w i s h i t was m i n e J "  She t r e a t e d t h e i n s t r u c t o r s  and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t .  She was always  attentive  to t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n . C l a i r e ' s f a t h e r was t h e p r i n c i p a l o f an elementary s c h o o l i n Vancouver, B.C.lady. The  Her mother was a v e r y d e l i g h t f u l  C h a i r e was t h e i r o n l y c h i l d .  Parent's D e s c r i p t i o n o f C l a i r e ' s P e r s o n a l i t y. C l a i r e ' s mother remarked:  " C l a i r e can't stand d i s o r d e r .  She i s v e r y f a s t i d i o u s about h e r s e l f and, I would say, has v e r y good m o r a l s . " her f a t h e r .  She c o n t i n u e d to say t h a t C l a i r e was l i k e  She had a q u i e t n a t u r e b u t never f e l t  depressed.  C l a i r e took a r t i n s c h o o l and on Saturdays a t t h e Vancouver S c h o o l o f A r t . p a i n t e d p i c t u r e s a t home. study.  O u t s i d e o f s k e t c h i n g , she s e l d o m She had h e r own room and h e r own  B e i n g v e r y c a p a b l e o f c l e a n i n g and t i d y i n g t h i n g s up,  she l o o k e d a f t e r h e r own room and cupboards v e r y w e l l .  If  she was asked t o h e l p w i t h t h e housework she was more than w i l l i n g t o do s o . Every morning she t i d i e d up h e r own room and d r i e d t h e d i s h e s b e f o r e she l e f t f o r s c h o o l .  However,  the mother p r e f e r r e d t o do most o f the housework h e r s e l f .  She  180 f i n i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g on F r i d a y i n o r d e r to keep the weekend  free* C l a i r e was  e m o t i o n a l l y mature because she was  with  a d u l t s f o r a l o n g time when she had had a t u b e r c u l a r kidney removed three years ago. a f f e c t e d her l i f e  T h i s o p e r a t i o n , the mother b e l i e v e d ,  and p e r s o n a l i t y .  She had to be away from  s c h o o l f o r months, yet she managed t o c a t c h up w i t h her studies.  Unable to p a r t i c i p a t e - i n s p o r t s and having t o be  c a r e f u l not to overdo p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , C l a i r e turned to art. to  In f a c t , the f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y the mother, o f t e n went art exhibitions. The mother remarked t h a t C l a i r e d i d not work to her  f u l l c a p a c i t y i n s c h o o l although she seemed t o be a good  "B"  student.  She l o v e d t a l k i n g and working w i t h f r i e n d s o f her  own age.  She was  going w i t h a boy i n her s c h o o l , the son o f  h e r French t e a c h e r .  C l a i r e ' s parents were very fond of the  boy. C l a i r e t o l d her parents t h a t she planned to become a teacher. The  Counsellor's Description of C l a i r e ' s Personality. The  c o u n s e l l o r d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y t h a t C l a i r e was  good "B" student, a steady and p a t i e n t worker.  She was  g i r l ' s e x e c u t i v e and was w i l l i n g to take up l e a d e r s h i p . was  an e x t r o v e r t , but not a g g r e s s i v e .  h e r t e a c h e r s and peers was and s o c i a l l y  good.  a on the She  Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  She was  e m o t i o n a l l y mature  inclined.  She was  a good a l l - r o u n d student as f a r as study  was  181 concerned. She  Her  obtained  interest  l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y was  'B'  was  i n m a t h e m a t i c s and  i n the  art line.  She  good, r i c h and 'C  accurate.  i n science.  helped her  Her  parents  to  r e m o d e l t h e i r home. She was  was  sick  i n Grade V I I  exempted f r o m c e r t a i n  Claire  t r i e d everything  A Comparison o f the Questionnaires The  exercises  as  f a r as  Parents'  on C l a i r e ' s  counsellor  and  and  again  she the  could  remarked that C l a i r e  counsellor's  p a r e n t s a g r e e d t o the  affection the  the and  that  believed  help.  that  she  was  a l l the  ability  best  a l l the  carry in  and  fre-  because  needed  parental  out  and  directions,  The  parents  knowledge.  above a v e r a g e i n a b i l i t y  They  to see  deduce and  re-  ability  a l t h o u g h she  was  C l a i r e was  above  to  not  school. considered  that  social characteristics parents found the  and  average.  accurate  to generalize  counsellor  The  p a r e n t s and in  C l a i r e was  extensive  The  leader.  that  had  g i v i n g her  probably  they  Regarding i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  said  u n d e r s t a n d and  family  the  questionnaire.  remark, a l t h o u g h  T h i s was  c h i l d i n the  she  lationship,  in  affection.  only  counsellor  felt  s e l d o m showed  t h a t C l a i r e o c c a s i o n a l l y showed e x c i t a b i l i t y and  C l a i r e was  to  Personality.  The  d e p e n d e d on  but  go.  T e a c h e r ' s Answers  m e n t i o n e d i n the  quently  She  i n p h y s i c a l education,  emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  felt  i n Grade V I I I .  counsellor  that  and  she  that  she  was  physical characteristics  a good  sometimes f o l l o w e d .  r e m a r k e d t h a t C l a i r e was and  average  The  average  added t h a t b e c a u s e  of  182 her  health,  activities.  she never pushed h e r s e l f  to the l i m i t i n p h y s i c a l  As t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to formation o f  c h a r a c t e r , the parents and the c o u n s e l l o r  remarked t h a t  Claire  was above average. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P e r s o n a l i t y Characteristics  by the r e s e a r c h e r a f t e r two s u b j e c t s  had observed, had l e f t , one a f t e r the other.  reason, the p e r i o d months. two  and Behaviour  as D i s p l a y e d i n A r t A c t i v i t i e s .  C l a i r e was s e l e c t e d she  Characteristics  For this  o f o b s e r v a t i o n was l i m i t e d to o n l y two  To make up f o r t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , one o r sometimes  time samples were taken a t every l e s s o n and an average  mean o f the scores f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was made every h a l f month, i n s t e a d  o f every month.  D e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart I  Characteristics  W a i t i n g F o r Her Turn  C l a i r e scored above 12.75* her  Her c o u r t e s y o f w a i t i n g f o r  t u r n was e s p e c i a l l y notable towards the end o f the p e r i o d  o f o b s e r v a t i o n when C l a i r e was g e t t i n g t o know a l l her peers i n the C h i l d A r t Centre.  The f o l l o w i n g  excerpts give examples  o f t h i s behaviour. March 19, 1962. C l a i r e wanted t o take h e r c l a y s e l f - p o r t r a i t home. 4:40  C l a i r e found the i n s t r u c t o r was t a l k i n g t o P a u l a about her l i n o - b l o c k . speak to him.  She waited p a t i e n t l y f o r h e r t u r n to ^  (Time Sample).  March 26, 1962. She  chose p r i n t i n g as h e r next p r o j e c t .  She asked:  183  "Is anyone u s i n g these c o l o u r s ? " instructor.  "No," s a i d the  She then s a t down and helped  to the c o l o u r s .  herself  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour corresponded w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and her teacher's remark t h a t C l a i r e was above average  i n patience  and t h a t she seldom showed a g g r e s s i o n . Chart I I  Eager t o C o n t r i b u t e t o Group Work o r Group D i s c u s s i o n  C l a i r e scored below 1 0 . when her a d v i c e was sought.  She c o n t r i b u t e d h e r i d e a s o n l y  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an  example. February 1 2 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:05  The t e a c h e r was d i s c u s s i n g A r n o l d ' s s k e t c h book. students stood around him.  Some  C l a i r e j o i n e d them, but  she made no comment. 4:27  Susan asked C l a i r e ' s a d v i c e on the shape o f the head she was m o d e l l i n g .  C l a i r e d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h her and  t o l d her her own o p i n i o n . T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample).  d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h h e r p a r e n t s ' and  her t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t she c o n t r i b u t e d much to d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s was probably because she d i d n o t f e e l she knew enough about a r t . C h a r t I I I S e t t l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing t o Peers or A d u l t s . C l a i r e scored between 8 and 8 . 5 « There i s almost no r i s e or f a l l .  When C l a i r e had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a r t i s t i c  t e c h n i q u e , she always appealed  to the i n s t r u c t o r s f o r a d v i c e .  184 The  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t g i v e s an example o f t h i s  behaviour  characteristic. March 19,  1962.  C l a i r e s a i d t h a t she had no experience i n c l a y ing.  She asked the i n s t r u c t o r  t h a t she might remodel i t .  how  to dampen the c l a y head so  She l i s t e n e d  advice a t t e n t i v e l y .  February 4:40  5,  t o the  instructor's  (Anecdotal Record).  As to d i f f i c u l t i e s s e t t l e d them h e r s e l f .  o u t s i d e the a r t f i e l d ,  Claire  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt g i v e s an example.  1962.  She had d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n smoothing the s u r f a c e o f the  c l a y because her f i n g e r - n a i l s were l o n g .  She  great c a r e so that they might not cut through clay.  modell-  She used o n l y her f i n g e r - t i p s . .  took the  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , on the whole, d i d not correspond w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and her t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was Chart IV  above  Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n of the World Around  C l a i r e scored below 7«5« sensitive topics  Her.  d i d not seem to be The  o f - h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h o t h e r g i r l s were about d r e s s e s , shoes, e t c . —  common t o p i c s  o f her age  showed no keen o b s e r v a t i o n i n her a r t products.  i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s March 12,  this  group. The f o l l o w -  behaviour.  1962.  The c l a s s was 4:00  She  about the beauty o f the world around her.  hair-styles, She  average.  C l a i r e was  asked t o compose a mood  picture.  t a l k i n g w i t h Diana about t h e i r s c h o o l .  She  CHART I Waiting f o r Her Turn Intensity  CHART I I I85 Eager t o Contribute  and Frequency  ncy  Feb CHART I I I Settling Difficulties IntP.ns-i+.v  anri  EVpqnenry  Feb Mar Mar  CHART I V Showing Keen O b s e r v a t i o n  Igjyyifii t y and Frequency  18  18  16 -  16  14 '  14  12 •  12  10  10  186 was  s k e t c h i n g i n her book the s i l h o u e t t e s o f two  dogs,  q u i t e s i m i l a r to those shown i n advertisements. (Time Sample). T h i s behaviour  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  her p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t she had e x t e n s i v e knowledge o f the world, and t h a t i t was Chart V  accurate.  Able to Take Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s Which Develop i n the C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . C l a i r e scored below 7*5* I n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s ,  d i d not seem to be able t o use new  situations.  she  The f o l l o w i n g  excerpt g i v e s an example. March 12,  1962.  As soon as she came i n , she took h o l d o f the c l a y head she f i n i s h e d l a s t time.  She was  s u r p r i s e d to f i n d t h a t i t was  covered w i t h c r a c k s and l o o s e lumps.  She l o o k e d a t them f o r  awhile and d i d not seem to be able to do a n y t h i n g about i t . She  s t a r t e d a new  project.  (Anecdotal Record).  T h i s behaviour d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h her parents  and  her c o u n s e l l o r ' s remark t h a t her a b i l i t y to take advantage o f new  s i t u a t i o n s was  average.  self-confidence i n creativity.  C l a i r e seemed t o have  little  T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c again  con-  t r a d i c t e d her p a r e n t s ' and her c o u n s e l l o r ' s comment t h a t her s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was C h a r t VI  above  average.  Developing O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s .  C l a i r e scored above 15• in art activities. behaviour  The  Her o r d e r l i n e s s was  following excerpts indicate  characteristic.  remarkable this  167 February 4:00  12,  1962.  C l a i r e wet  and kneaded the c l a y b e f o r e she used i t  f o r modelling. February  19,  (Time Sample).  1962.  C l a i r e put on her smock b e f o r e she worked w i t h the clay.  (Anecdotal  March 5,  Record).  1962.  The  c l a s s was  making cut-paper  prints.  As soon as  she  came i n , she looked f o r the p o t t e r y she l e f t u n f i n i s h e d l a s t time.  She p a t i e n t l y f i n i s h e d what she had  started.  (Anecdotal T h i s behaviour  can be r e l a t e d to her p a r e n t s ' and  c o u n s e l l o r ' s remark t h a t she was U n d e s i r a b l e Behaviour Chart V I I  R e s t l e s s and  being seemed to be i n the t a s k .  above average i n o r d e r l i n e s s . Characteristics  When she was working her whole The  f o l l o w i n g excerpts show  behaviour.  February  5,  1962.  C l a i r e worked c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r one and a h a l f About 5 p.m.  she asked the i n s t r u c t o r , "Do we  beginning to see s t a r s . " 1962.  4:45  engaged h e r s e l f i n s c r a p i n g and  She  portrait. She was  hours.  stop now?  (Anecdotal  March 26,  4:59  her  i n Lack o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n .  C l a i r e scored below 3*  this  Record).  Record).  shaping the  She d i d not t a l k to anybody.  s t i l l working w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  I'm  clay  iaa 5:40  She  stopped f o r a moment to look at Danny's l i n o - b l o c k .  She immediately T h i s behaviour  r e t u r n e d to her work. d i d not correspond  (Time Sample).  to her p a r e n t s '  h e r t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t her span o f a t t e n t i o n was  and  only  average. Chart VIII  Lack o f E f f o r t to Improve A r t  C l a i r e scored below 2.25. city i n art activities.  Products  She worked to her f u l l  capa-  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s i n d i c a t e  her  effort. February 4:20  5,  1962.  C l a i r e p a t i e n t l y c o i l e d the c l a y and p r e s s e d the  coils  t o g e t h e r to form the s t r u c t u r e o f the head. 4:26  She  smoothed the c o i l s to make an even s u r f a c e . (Time Sample).  March 19,  1962.  4:48  i n s t r u c t o r advised C l a i r e to t a k e o f f the l o o s e  The  lumps on the c l a y head and work on i t again. was  Claire  more than w i l l i n g to take i t home to improve i t . (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour  corresponded  w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and  t e a c h e r ' s remark t h a t the standard she set f o r h e r s e l f  her  was  high. C h a r t IX  Chatty  C l a i r e s c o r e d between 5»5 and 8.  There was  a slight  r i s e i n the second h a l f o f February when she grew t i r e d o f modelling with clay.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s show o c c a s i o n s  CHART V t o Take A d v a n t a g e of Situation's I n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y  Able  Feb F e b M a r Mar CHART V I I R e s t l e s s and i n L a c k of Concentration I n t e n s i t y and Frequency 2  Q  Feb F e b Mar Mar  CHART V I 189 Developing Orderly Work H a b i t s I n t e n s i t y and F r s q n a n r . y  Feb  F e b -Mar Mar  CHART V I I I Lack o f E f f o r t Intensity  and F r e q u e n c y  Feb F e b Mar M a r  190  on which C l a i r e t a l k e d w i t h g i r l s from h e r s c h o o l . February 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:15  C l a i r e shared a t a b l e w i t h Sandra and Diane. m o d e l l i n g the c l a y head.  She was  The g i r l s t a l k e d about  shoes.  C l a i r e s a i d , " I can't wear t o o h i g h h e e l s . " 4:22  She continued c h a t t i n g w i t h the g i r l s and working a t the same time.  (Time Sample).  March 1 2 , 1 9 6 2 . The c l a s s was asked 4:00  to compose a mood p i c t u r e .  C l a i r e was s h a r i n g a t a b l e w i t h Diane and t a l k i n g w i t h her.  "We are going to give our a r t t e a c h e r a present  a b o t t l e o f t u r p s , " she s a i d . he w i l l 4:06  —  "I'm dying t o know what  say J "  They were s t i l l  talking.  (Time Sample).  T h i s behaviour corresponded w i t h her p a r e n t s ' remark t h a t she l i k e d t a l k i n g and working w i t h people. Chart X  I m i t a t i n g Others C l a i r e scored below 5 *  Although  she sought the i n s t r u c -  t o r ' s a d v i c e and admired her peer's work, she d i d not want to follow others r i g i d l y . behaviour  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt shows t h i s  characteristic.  February 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . 4:30  She asked the i n s t r u c t o r ' s a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g the m o d e l l i n g of  4:32  the eyes.  The i n s t r u c t o r helped her.  The i n s t r u c t o r drew a diagram o f the b a s i c shape o f the head on the board, but she was not watching.  She  191 murmured to h e r s e l f , " I can't do t h i s . " m o d e l l i n g t h e c h i n i n h e r own way. T h i s behaviour  She s t a r t e d (Time Sample).  can be r e l a t e d t o the c o u n s e l l o r ' s r e -  mark t h a t she l i k e d to l e a d . Chart X I  Lack o f O r i g i n a l Ideas i n D i s c u s s i o n o r i n A r t Products.  C l a i r e s c o r e d between 13 and 14.25.  She t r i e d hard to  a t t a i n r e a l i s m and o f t e n f o l l o w e d the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l l o w i n g excerpt i n d i c a t e s t h i s  style.  The  behaviour.  March 5, 1962. She  took p a i n s to f o l l o w the s e l f - p o r t r a i t she d i d i n  her s k e t c h book. The  She modelled  the eyes over and over again.  c l a y s e l f - p o r t r a i t turned out to be a t r u e l i k e n e s s o f  herself.  (Anecdotal  Record).  March 12, 1962. 4:10  She s c r i b b l e d s e v e r a l f l o a t i n g clouds i n the t r a d i t i o n a l style.  As the i n s t r u c t o r came near, she s a i d , " I am  a t a l o s s what to drawJ" T h i s behaviour  (Time Sample).  d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h the p a r e n t s ' and  her c o u n s e l l o r ' s remark t h a t her i d e a f o r p l a y or work was sufficient. Chart X I I  Lack o f Respect  f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y .  C l a i r e s c o r e d below 3*25* persons  i n a u t h o r i t y , but she always showed them r e s p e c t .  f o l l o w i n g excerpts i n d i c a t e t h i s February 4:27  C l a i r e never t r i e d t o p l e a s e The  behaviour.  5, 1962.  The i n s t r u c t o r gave her a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g the shape o f  CHART I X ChattyI n t e n s i t y and F r e q u e n c y 2  Q  3_  J _  CHART X 192 Imitating Others Intensity 20, 1  Feb F e b Mar Mar CHART X I Lack o f O r i g i n a l Intensity  Feb F e b Mar Mar CHART X I I Lack o f R e s p e c t  Ideas  and Frequency  and F r e q u e n c y ~  Intensity 20;  and F r e q u e n c y  13 16 U P 12 10 8 6f  4  210 beb F e b Mar M a r  193  the head s t r u c t u r e . politely.  " I see what you mean," she s a i d  She s a t down and made the change. (Time Sample).  March 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . C l a i r e w a i t e d u n t i l the i n s t r u c t o r f i n i s h e d to P a u l a .  speaking  She asked f o r h i s p e r m i s s i o n t o take the c l a y  p o r t r a i t home. T h i s behaviour  self-  (Anecdotal Record). c o i n c i d e d w i t h her p a r e n t s ' and h e r  c o u n s e l l o r ' s remark t h a t she was above average  i n readiness  to co-operate w i t h the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y . Summary. I n s t u d y i n g the case o f C l a i r e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the most dominant f e a t u r e i s the absence o f sharp and  rises  f a l l s i n the c h a r t s showing h e r behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i -  ties.  T h i s agreed w i t h h e r p a r e n t s ' remark:  have extreme highs and lows.  " C l a i r e does not  She goes a l o n g on a very even  keel." C l a i r e was matched w i t h P a u l a i n sex, age, i n t e l l i g e n c e , (both were good 'B' students i n s c h o o l ) , f a m i l y background, (both came from w e l l - t o - d o and w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d f a m i l i e s ) , and interest, The  (the i n t e r e s t o f both g i r l s was on the a r t l i n e ) .  d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n a l i t y accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n  behaviour  i n art activities.  S t a t e d simply and b r i e f l y , b e i n g  an e x c i t a b l e c h a r a c t e r , Paula changed her behaviour from dayto-day, o r r a t h e r from hour to hour.  Being a q u i e t c h a r a c t e r ,  C l a i r e seldom changed h e r behaviour p a t t e r n .  Another f e a t u r e found i n t h i s study i s C l a i r e ' s prising  lack of self-conficence i n art a c t i v i t i e s .  f o r r e a l i s m might account f o r t h i s . a r t product look r e a l . confidence  sur-  Her s t r u g g l e  She strove t o make an  When i t departed from r e a l i s m , her  i n h e r own s k i l l was l o s t .  CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS AND As was  IMPLICATIONS OF THE  STUDY  s t a t e d b e f o r e , the primary purpose of t h i s  i s to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l i t y as p l a y e d at home and i n s c h o o l and behaviour art  room.  197), VI,  The  (page 201),  IV,  (page 199), V,  dis-  as shown i n the  data, shown i n Tables I , (page 196),  I I I , (page 198),  study  I I , (page  (page 200),  and  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  certain  be-  h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d i s p l a y e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . example, students l i k e B e t t y who  (Case 5), and C l a i r e  For  (Case 10),  proved to have many good i d e a s f o r work o r p l a y at home  and i n s c h o o l , seemed to be i n l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i d e a s i n a r t . The  data, shown i n Table V I I , (page 202),  i n d i c a t e t h a t i n most o f the d e s i r a b l e behaviour i s t i c s , the primary  clearly character-  group (age s i x to e i g h t ) as w e l l as the  i n t e r m e d i a t e group (age e i g h t and o n e - h a l f to nine and h a l f ) , scored h i g h e r i n March 1962  one-  than i n October 1961.  i m p l i e s a tendency to b e t t e r behaviour  This  towards the end o f the  p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n when the c h i l d r e n grew accustomed to r o u t i n e s and  the standards  the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s .  s e t f o r them by the i n s t r u c t o r  However, i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  D i f f i c u l t i e s Without Appealing primary  and  "Settling  to Peers and A d u l t s " , the  group scored lower i n March, 1962,  than i n October,  As more a r t i s t i c s k i l l s were r e q u i r e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s ,  1961.  such as  196  TABLE I NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS EXISTED BETWEEN SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND SETTLING DIFFICULTIES WITHOUT APPEALING TO PEERS OR ADULTS IN ART ACTIVITIES (CHART I I I )  Cases  P a r e n t s ' Rank i n Remark R a t i n g  Teacher's Rank i n Remark Rating  Score Rank i n i n A r t Rating Activities  1. C a r o l e  above A  (high)  average  (medium) 14.99  2. J e r r y *  above A  (high)  above A  (high)  3. R i c h a r d  average  (medium) average  (medium) 13.75  (high)  4. Donald*  average  (medium) average  (medium) 11.21  (medium)  5. B e t t y *  above A  (high)  above A  (high)  13.54  6. Helen  average  (medium) above A  (high)  9.21  (medium)  7. B i l l  average  (medium) below A  (low)  12.21  (medium)  8. Nick  average  (medium) above A  (high)  12.66  (medium)  9. P a u l a  above A  (high)  average  (medium) 11.8  10. C l a i r e  above A  (high)  above A  (high)  *  17.1  Only 3 out o f the 10 cases showed r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  8.15  (high) (high)  (high)  (medium) (medium)  197  TABLE I I NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS EXISTED BETWEEN ABILITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NEW SITUATIONS AND ABILITY TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF SITUATIONS WHICH DEVELOP IN CREATIVE PROCESS (CHART V)  Cases  P a r e n t s ' Rank i n Remark R a t i n g  Teacher's Rank i n Remark• R a t i n g  1. C a r o l e  above A  (high)  average  (medium) 11.04  (medium)  2. J e r r y *  average  (medium) average  (medium) 11.76  (medium)  3. R i c h a r d * average  (medium) average  (medium) 12.83  (medium)  4. Donald*  average  (medium) average  (medium)  8.18  (medium)  5. B e t t y  above A  (high)  (high)  6. Helen*  average  (medium) average  (medium)  7. B i l l  average  (medium) below A  (low)  8. Nick  above A  (high)  9. P a u l a  average  (medium) below A  (low)  10. C l a i r e  average  (medium) average  (medium)  *  above A  average  Score Rank i n i n A r t Rating Activities  11.  (medium)  7.71  (medium)  10.75  (medium)  (medium) 11.21  (medium)  10.8 6.31  Only 4 out o f the 10 cases showed r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  (medium) (low)  198  TABLE I I I NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN SPAN OF ATTENTION AND LACK OF CONCENTRATION IN ART ACTIVITIES (CHART VI)  Cases  P a r e n t s ' Rank i n Remark• R a t i n g  Teacher's Rank i n Remark Rating  1. C a r o l e  long  (high)  average  (medium)  2.17  (high)  2. Jerry-  average  (medium) average  (medium)  6.46  (high)  3, R i c h a r d  short  (low)  average  (medium)  7.58  (medium)  4. Donald  short  (low)  average  (medium) 11.  5. B e t t y  long  (high)  long  (high)  8.41  (medium)  6, Helen  average  (medium) average  (medium)  4.91  (high)  7. B i l l  average  (medium) short  (low)  8. N i c k  average  (medium) average  (medium)  3.58  (high)  9, P a u l a *  average  (medium) average  (medium)  6.55  (medium)  10. C l a i r e  average  (medium) average  (medium)  2.31  (high)  *  Score Rank i n i n A r t Rating Activities  10.29  The o n l y case out o f the 10 cases t h a t i n d i c a t e d  (medium)  (medium)  relationships.  199 TABLE IV NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN STANDARD SET FOR HIMSELF/HERSELF AND EFFORT TO IMPROVE ART PRODUCTS (CHART V I I )  Cases  P a r e n t s ' Rank i n Teacher's Rank i n Remark R a t i n g Remark Rating  1.  Carole*  average  (medium) average  (medium)  7.41  (medium)  2.  Jerry-  average  (medium) average  (medium)  5.96  (high)  3.  Richard  low  (low)  low  (low)  5.71  (high)  4.  Donald  low  (low)  low  (low)  6.87  (medium)  5. B e t t y  high  (high)  high  (high)  7.21  (medium)  6.  Helen*  average  (medium) average  (medium)  7.67  (medium)  7.  Bill  average  (medium) low  (low)  8.09  (medium)  8.  Nick  high  (high)  average  (medium)  3.41  (high)  average  (medium) average  (medium)  8.1  (medium)  high  (high)  (high)  1.75  (high)  9. P a u l a * 10.  *  Claire*  high  Score Rank i n i n A r t Rating Activities  Only 3 o u t o f the 10 cases that showed r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  200  TABLE V NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND IMITATING OTHERS IN ART ACTIVITIES (CHART X)  P a r e n t s ' Rank i n Remark • R a t i n g  Teacher's Rank i n Remark . R a t i n g  1.  Carole*  Depends on situation  leads  (high)  4.  (high)  2.  Jerry  follows  (medium) l e a d s  (high)  7.38  (medium)  3.  Richard  follows  (medium) f o l l o w s  (medium)  4.66  (high)  4.  Donald  follows  (medium) f o l l o w s  (medium)  4.27  (high)  5.  Betty  leads  (high)  leads  (high)  8.78 (medium)  6.  Helen  leads  (high)  follows  (medium)  5.87  (high)  7.  Bill  leads  (high)  imitates  (low)  9.5  (medium)  8. Nick  depends on situation  follows  (medium)  5.96  (high)  9. P a u l a  l o v e s to l e a d but f a i l s  imitate  (low)  4.7  (high)  (high)  4.18  (high)  10. *  Score Rank i n i n A r t Rating Activities  Cases  Claire  follows  (medium) l e a d s  The only case out o f the 1 0 cases t h a t i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s  201  TABLE VI NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN IDEAS FOR PLAY OR WORK AND LACK OF ORIGINAL IDEAS IN DISCUSSION OR IN ART PRODUGTS (CHART XI)  Cases  P a r e n t s ' Rank i n Remark • R a t i n g  1.  Carole*  creative  (high)  creative  (high)  1.04  (high)  2.  Jerry-  sufficient  (medium)  sufficient  (medium)  4.62  (high)  3.  Richard  insuffic(low) ient  sufficient  (medium)  3.8  (high)  4.  Donald  insuffic(low) ient  sufficient  (medium)  7,42  (medium)  5.  Betty  creative  (high)  creative  (high)  7.25  (medium)  6.  Helen  creative  (high)  sufficient  (medium)  6.12  (high)  7.  Bill  sufficient  (medium)  insufficient  (low)  4.91  (high)  8.  Nick  creative  (high)  sufficient  (medium)  3.54  (high)  9.  Paula  sufficient  (medium)  sufficient  (medium)  4.  (high)  Claire  sufficient  (medium)  sufficient  (medium) 1 3 . 6  10.  *  Teacher's Rank i n Rating Remark  Score Rank i n i n A r t Rating Activities  (low)  The o n l y case out o f the 1 0 cases that i n d i c a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Score i n a r t a c t i v i t y i s the mean o f s c o r e s o b t a i n e d through the p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  202  TABLE V I I DESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS  CHARACTERISTICS  PRIMARY Oct.  Mar.  INTERMEDIATE D i f f . Oct.  Mar.  Diff.  48.75 54.25  5.5  46.  49.75  3.75  Eager to c o n t r i b u t e  53*75 6 0 . 7 5  7.  47.  47.75  .75  Settling difficulties  58.5  Showing keen o b s e r v a t i o n  51.25 59.5  Waiting  f o r h i s turn  53.5  -5  45.25 48.  8.25 45.  51.  2.75 6.  Able to take advantage  46.  54.5  8.5  37.25 45.25  8.  Developing o r d e r l y h a b i t s  38.  39.  1.  45.25 43.5  -1.75  203 p a i n t i n g at the e a s e l and making c l o t h c o l l a g e , the c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y to t u r n to the i n s t r u c t o r o f the t e a c h e r s f o r guidance and "Developing  advice.  characteristic,  O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s " , the i n t e r m e d i a t e group  scored h i g h e r i n March, 1962 erence o f the two  than October, 1961,  but the  scores i s as i n s i g n i f i c a n t as  I t can a l s o be noted primary  I n the  student-  diff-  1.75*  i n Table V I I , (page 202),  t h a t the  group s c o r e d h i g h e r than the i n t e r m e d i a t e group i n  a l l the d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , except work h a b i t s .  the one  regarding  T h i s i m p l i e s a tendency towards b e t t e r  behaviour  than the i n t e r m e d i a t e group.  G e n e r a l l y speaking,  c h i l d r e n are l e s s bothered  "doing t h i n g s r i g h t " , than o l d e r  c h i l d r e n , and ing,  by  younger  thus they f e e l more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n c o n t r i b u t -  s e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and t a k i n g advantage o f  situations.  However, the primary  new  group scored very much lower  than the i n t e r m e d i a t e group i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , O r d e r l y Work H a b i t s " .  Most c h i l d r e n o f t h a t group, e s p e c i a l l y  the s i x - y e a r - o l d s , were not ready The  "Developing  for orderliness.  d a t a , shown i n Table V I I I , (page 204),  d i c a t e t h a t i n a l l the u n d e s i r a b l e behaviour  clearly i n -  characteristics,  the i n t e r m e d i a t e group scored lower i n March, 1962, October, 1961.  T h i s i m p l i e s a tendency to b e t t e r  towards the end o f t h e p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  than i n behaviour  In c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s r e g a r d i n g l a c k o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , l a c k of e f f o r t and l a c k of  o r i g i n a l i d e a s , the primary  1962, of  than i n October, 1961.  the c h i l d r e n accounts  group scored lower i n March, The  c r e a t i v e and mental growth  f o r t h i s tendency toward b e t t e r  204  TABLE V I I I UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR  CHARACTERISTICS  CHARACTERISTICS  INTERMEDIATE  PRIMARY Oct.  Mar.  Restless  43.  31.75 11.25  Lack o f e f f o r t Chatty Imitating  others  Lack o f o r i g i n a l Lack o f r e s p e c t  Mar.  Diff.  30.75 23.  7.75  36.75 26.75 10.  32.75 23.25  9.5  22.  31.5  6.25  42.  14.25 20. ideas  D i f f . Oct.  22.25 15.25 13.5  15.  -20  26.25  - 5.75 27.75 24.5 7. -1.5  21.  15.5  26.75 19.25  3.25 5.5 7.5  205 behaviour i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  However, t h i s group  scored higher  at the end than i n the b e g i n n i n g i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , "Chatty", " I m i t a t i n g Others", and "Lack o f Respect f o r Persons i n A u t h o r i t y " , although t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s i n the l a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s as i n s i g n i f i c a n t as 1.5-  As these c h i l d r e n  got to know t h e i r peers b e t t e r , they tended t o seek through c h a t t i n g a great d e a l and g a i n s o c i a l  attention  recognition  through i m i t a t i n g o t h e r s . T h i s study i s an attempt t o i l l u s t r a t e r e s u l t s with q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s .  quantitative  Although the number o f  s u b j e c t s had to be l i m i t e d to t e n , y e t the c o n c l u s i o n s thus o b t a i n e d are p u r p o s e f u l t o p i c s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h among l a r g e r groups o f c h i l d r e n i n primary, i n t e r m e d i a t e and secondary grades.  They a l s o warn r e s e a r c h e r s o f the u s e l e s s -  ness o f p a r t i c u l i z a t i o n from the g e n e r a l when a p p l i e d to behaviour o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  CHAPTER IX IMPLICATIONS FOR  FURTHER STUDY  Apart from being p u r p o s e f u l g a t i o n s , the c o n c l u s i o n s  o f the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r research  topics f o r further  investi-  study suggest s e v e r a l o t h e r  which are not w i t h i n the scope of  the present study and which have emerged during These p o s s i b i l i t i e s can be d i s c u s s e d  the study.  only b r i e f l y i n t h i s  thesis. An important problem concerns t r a n s f e r o f q u a l i t i e s o f l e a r n i n g and  t h e i r r e s u l t a n t behaviour from a r t a c t i v i t i e s  a c t i v i t i e s and  s i t u a t i o n s a t home and i n s c h o o l .  the questions i s —  to  Specifically,  to what extent t h i s t r a n s f e r occurs?  Dr.  V i k t o r Lowenfeld s t a t e s : "What makes a p r o f e s s i o n a l man s u c c e s s f u l i n v e n t i v e power, a power that makes him look p r o f e s s i o n as a never-ending source f o r new and changes. Whatever p r o f e s s i o n your c h i l d he w i l l need the c r e a t i v e a t t i t u d e which he achieved through h i s a r t . " 1 4  i s his at his discoveries chooses, has  I f no s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e , a r t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d to p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s and  cannot  be extended to a major r o l e i n the f u l l development o f a c h i l d ' s personality.  14. Lowenfeld, V i k t o r , "Your C h i l d and H i s A r t " , M a e m i l l a n ) , 1954.  (New  York:  207 Another important  q u e s t i o n which was  scope o f the study concerns  the p l a n n i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s i n  which c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t age o f s i t u a t i o n s which develop shown i n Table I , (page 196),  not w i t h i n the  groups l e a r n to take  i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . t h i s a b i l i t y of using  s i t u a t i o n s d i m i n i s h e d as c h i l d r e n grew o l d e r . concerns  how  The  As  was  new question  t h i s a b i l i t y can be preserved i n m a t u r i t y .  An important concerns  advantage  imitation.  problem which emerged d u r i n g the As was  study  i n d i c a t e d i n Table V I I , (page 2 0 2 ) ,  the i n t e r m e d i a t e group scored higher than the primary group i n imitating others.  This conclusion implies that i m i t a t i o n  i s more notable i n the a r t a c t i v i t i e s of the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades than the primary grades.  The  questions a r i s e as to  what and why  they i m i t a t e and what s i t u a t i o n s a l l o w them the  chance to do  so.  A study such as t h i s would i n v o l v e i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f behaviour o f a l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n i n i n t e r m e d i a t e grades over a p e r i o d of time. would f u r t h e r understanding the p r o c e s s  Such knowledge  o f the methods o f t e a c h i n g  of learning i n art a c t i v i t i e s .  and  APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL  209 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL  Emotional Characteristics  Degrees  Remarks  1. E m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  2. E x c i t a b i l i t y  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  3* F e a r  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  4* R e p r e s s i o n  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  5. Aggression  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  6. Manual Tension  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  7» O r a l T e n s i o n  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  8. Dependence f o r affection  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  9» A t t e n t i o n seeking  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  10. Daydreams  Seldom O c c a s i o n a l Frequent  High  Medium  Low  Rank i n R a t i n g  210 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY  C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S TO B E OBSERVED  AT HOME AND I N SCHOOL  Intellectual Characteristics  1.  Ideas for play or work  2". U s e o f l a n g u a g e (in r e l a t i o n to h i s age) Vocabulary Sentence Structure  Creative  Sufficient  Insufficient  Rich  Adequate  Meager  Accurate  Clear  Inaccurate  Little Much Accurate Clear  3.  Knowledge o f the w o r l d  4.  A b i l i t y to r e l a t e comprehensible story  None Confused  Consistent Unrelated Logical Sequence Ideas Ideas  5. A b i l i t y t o s e e relationship  Above Average  6'. A b i l i t y t o generalize deduce  Above Average  and  Remarks  Degrees  Average  Below Average  Average  Below Average  7.  Ability plan  Above Average  Average  Below Average  8.  A b i l i t y to unders t a n d and c a r r y Above out d i r e c t i o n s Average  Average  Below Average  A b i l i t y to learn from experience  Above Average  Average  Below Average  A b i l i t y to take advantage o f new s i t u a t i o n s  Above Average  Average  Below Average  High  Medium  Low  9. 10.  to  Rank i n Rating  211 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Social Characteristics  1. A d a p t a b i l i t y to change  Degrees  Quick  Average  2. S e l f - s u f f i c -  Above average  Average  3. S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  Above average  Average  4. S e l f - c o n t r o l  Above average  Average  Above average  Average  Above average  Average  iency  5. W i l l i n g n e s s to cooperate i n p l a y o r work  6. W i l l i n g n e s s to cooperate i n routines  Remarks  Below Below Below  Below  Below  7. R e l a t i o n s h i p s  with Children Friends Special Friends  Many More than 1  8. R e l a t i o n s h i p  10. Awareness o f people  One Seeks  with adults  9. Leadership  Few  Leads  Avoids  Follows  Too much Much  11. C o n t r i b u t i o n t o  group d i s c u s s i o n o r work  12. A t t i t u d e toward materials  Much  Little  Shares Generous w e l l High  Medium  Low  Rank i n r a t i n g  212 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Degrees  Physical Characteristics  Remarks  1. Absence from c l a s s because of i l l n e s s  Frequent  2. Freedom o f movement  Expansive Adequate  3. P h y s i c a l quality  Poised  Self-controlled  Restless  4. Span o f attention  Long  Average  Short  5« Dependence o f help  Little  Much  Too much  6. Grace and coordination i n r e l a t i o n to emotional function  Above average  Average  Below average  Use o f body i n r e l a t i o n to l a r g e muscular movement (e.g. climbing)  Above average  Average  Below average  8. Use o f body i n r e l a t i o n to f i n e body movement (e.g. sewing)  Above average  Average  Below average  High  Medium  Low  7.  Seldom  Never once Inadequate  Rank i n rating  213 APPENDIX A PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL Characteristics r e l a t e d to formation o f character  Degrees  Remarks  !• O r d e r l i n e s s  Above average  Average  Below average  2. C a r e f u l n e s s  Above average  Average  Below average  3 . Patience  Above average  Average  Below average  4» Readiness to cooperate w i t h Above the r i g h t authority average  Average  Below average  5, A b i l i t y t o d i s tinguish between cons t r u c t i v e beh a v i o u r and destructive  Above average  Average  Below average  6. Determined -w i l l show i n work h a b i t s  Work always finished  Work occa-Work sionally seldom l e f t un- f i n i s h e d finished  7» Standards s e t for himself/ herself  High  Average  8.  R e a c t i o n to interference  Accepts change  High  Low  Occasion- R e s i s t s a l l y r e - change v e r t s to . original  Medium  Low  Rank i n rating  214 APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AS USED IN THE Emotional  QUESTIONNAIRE  Characteristics  E m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t . An u n c o n t r o l l a b l e e x p l o s i v e f o l l o w i n g o f t e n minor i n c i d e n t s .  response  Excitability. P e r t a i n i n g to an e a s i l y aroused and/or exaggerated emotional r e a c t i o n . Fear.  An emotion o f v i o l e n t a g i t a t i o n or f r i g h t i n the presence ( a c t u a l o r a n t i c i p a t e d ) of danger or p a i n . I t i s marked by extensive o r g a n i c changes and beh a v i o u r s o f f l i g h t and concealment.  Repression. The e x c l u s i o n of s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o r contents from conscious awareness by a process o f which the i n d i v i d u a l i s not d i r e c t l y aware. A g g r e s s i o n . H o s t i l e a c t i o n such as an attempt a p p r o p r i a t e possessions of another. Manual Tension.  Muscular  to d e s t r o y o r  s t r a i n o f hands.  O r a l T e n s i o n . Muscular s t r a i n o f speech organs r e s u l t i n g i n stammering or broken speech.' Dependence f o r a f f e c t i o n . H a b i t u a l r e l i a n c e upon another person f o r emotional comfort, guidance and h e l p . Attention-seeking. neglected.  Attempt to g a i n a t t e n t i o n when one  feels  Daydreams. R e v e r i e s while awake, n e g l e c t i n g what i s g o i n g on around o n e s e l f . Intellectual Characteristics Ideas f o r p l a y or work. Mental content such as imagining and t h i n k i n g which enables the c h i l d to know what to do i n p l a y or a t work. Use  o f language. Words and e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t the c h i l d uses i n h i s speech.  21$  D e f i n i t i o n s o f P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Used i n the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e — Continued. Knowledge o f the w o r l d . the c h i l d l i v e s . Ability  General n o t i o n o f the world i n which  to see r e l a t i o n s h i p . A b i l i t y to see the s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e o f two o r more t h i n g s .  A b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e and deduce. A b i l i t y t o make a general r u l e a f t e r s e e i n g a few s p e c i a l cases and a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i o n by reasoning. Ability  to p l a n . Having some f o r e s i g h t o f the s t a r t , the procedure and the f i n i s h o f what one i s working o r going t o work on.  Ability  t o understand and c a r r y out d i r e c t i o n s . do as one i s i n s t r u c t e d t o do.  Ability  to l e a r n from experience. A b i l i t y t o a v o i d i n a new attempt what proved a f a i l u r e and adopt what proved a success i n a past experience.  Ability  t o take advantage o f new s i t u a t i o n s . A b i l i t y t o make use o f something t h a t t u r n s up unexpectedly.  A b i l i t y to  Social Characteristics A d a p t a b i l i t y t o change. A b i l i t y t o make a p p r o p r i a t e to changed o r changing circumstances. Self-sufficiency. Ability h e l p from o t h e r s .  responses  to do t h i n g s without a s k i n g f o r  Self-control. A b i l i t y to i n h i b i t i m p u l s i v e o r g o a l - s e e k i n g behaviour f o r the sake o f a more i n c l u s i v e g o a l . Self-confidence. required.  The f e e l i n g t h a t one i s a b l e . t o do what i s  W i l l i n g n e s s to c o - o p e r a t e i n p l a y o r work. Readiness to h e l p a s o c i a l group t o produce some common o r j o i n t e f f o r t i n p l a y o r work. W i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate i n r o u t i n e s . Readiness to do what i s r e q u i r e d i n d a i l y o r classroom r o u t i n e s , t a k i n g o t h e r s i n t o account. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c h i l d r e n . The manner i n which the c h i l d accepts h i s f r i e n d s and they accept him.  216  D e f i n i t i o n s o f P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as used i n the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e — Continued. Relationships with adults. The manner i n which the c h i l d t r e a t s p a r e n t s , teachers and o t h e r a d u l t s . L e a d e r s h i p . S k i l l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l e a d e r s , such as the i n i t i a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n o r c o n t r o l o f the a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o f another person o r o f a group, w i t h more or l e s s w i l l i n g acquiescence o f t h e f o l l o w e r s . Awareness o f people. Being conscious o r 'taking account' o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . C o n t r i b u t i o n t o group d i s c u s s i o n o r work. W i l l i n g n e s s to put f o r t h i d e a s i n group d i s c u s s i o n and g i v e help i n group work. A t t i t u d e towards m a t e r i a l s . A p e r s i s t e n t mental and/or n e u t r a l s t a t e o f readiness to r e a c t to m a t e r i a l s e s p e c i a l l y those d i s t r i b u t e d among the c h i l d r e n . Physical Characteristics. Absence from c l a s s because o f i l l n e s s . Number o f times the c h i l d i s away from c l a s s because o f f a i l u r e i n h e a l t h . Freedom o f movement. Adequacy o f energy as d i s p l a y e d i n use o f limbs and the body. P h y s i c a l q u a l i t y . C o n t r o l as d i s p l a y e d i n movement o f head, body and l i m b s . Span o f a t t e n t i o n . The l e n g t h o f time the child, c a n attend to one t h i n g . The average span o f a t t e n t i o n i n c h i l d r e n from s i x to e i g h t i s one-quarter hour; from nine to eleven, o n e - h a l f hour; from twelve t o f i f t e e n , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f an hour. Dependence o f h e l p . The e x t e n t to which t h e c h i l d r e l i e s on o t h e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i n forming i d e a s and c a r r y i n g the i d e a s o u t . Grace and c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to emotional f u n c t i o n . Harmonious combination o f muscular movements and f e e l i n g s , as u s u a l l y expressed i n dramatic p l a y . Use  o f body i n r e l a t i o n to l a r g e muscular movement. Ability to manipulate one's limbs and body i n e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n s , such as c l i m b i n g .  217 D e f i n i t i o n s o f P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as Used i n the Questionnaire — Continued. Use  o f body i n r e l a t i o n to f i n e body movement. A b i l i t y to manipulate one's f i n g e r s i n work that r e q u i r e s nimble movement.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e l a t e d to Formation  o f Character.  O r d e r l i n e s s . The h a b i t of a r r a n g i n g t h i n g s w e l l and problems step by step without c o n f u s i o n . Carefulness. does.  solving  Being w a t c h f u l and t a k i n g t r o u b l e over what  Patience. A b i l i t y complaint.  to endure a l l k i n d s o f hardship  one  without  Readiness t o co-operate with the r i g h t a u t h o r i t y . W i l l i n g n e s s to accept i n s t r u c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n g i v e n by teachers and p a r e n t s . A b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c o n s t r u c t i v e behaviour and d e s t r u c t i v e behaviour^ Readiness to d i r e c t one's energy to making or b u i l d i n g something i n s t e a d o f d e s t r o y i n g something a l r e a d y made. Determined w i l l shown i n work h a b i t s . S t r i v i n g f o r the g o a l o f completing something one has s t a r t e d . Standard s e t f o r h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f . A l e v e l or a desirable ~ q u a l i t y o f performance the c h i l d expects h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f to reach. R e a c t i o n to i n t e r f e r e n c e . Response, v e r b a l o r p h y s i c a l , to d i f f i c u l t i e s put by o t h e r s i n the way of one's a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y when the o t h e r person regards t h i s as unwarranted.  APPENDIX B BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED DURINff ART ACTIVITIES  219 APPENDIX B BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED  Waiting f o r his/her  high  medium  Never  Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  To a Moderate Extent or Occasionally To a Very Slight Degree or Seldom  Desirable  To a considerable Degree or Frequently  DURING ART ACTIVITIES-  turn  Eager t o c o n t r i b u t e to group work o r group d i s c u s s i o n . S e t t l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s without a p p e a l i n g to peers o r a d u l t s . Showing keen o b s e r v a t i o n o f the world i n a r t products o r group d i s c u s s i o n . Able to take advantage o f s i t u a t i o n s dev e l o p i n g i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . D e v e l o p i n g o r d e r l y working h a b i t s . /  Rank i n r a t i n g * *  Rank i n r a t i n g :  high  20.  -to-l-3-.'6  medium  1.35 to  low  6.5  6.6  to* 0.  low  220  APPENDIX B CHARACTERISTICS TO BE OBSERVED  Behaviour C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Never  Undesirable  ACTIVITIES  To a Very Slight Degree or Seldom  DURING ART  To a considerable Degree or Frequently To a Moderate Extent or Occationally  BEHAVIOUR  •  i  R e s t l e s s and i n l a c k o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Lack o f e f f o r t  t o improve  a r t products.  Chatty. Imitating  others.  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