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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of varying fertilizer constituents on the food value of the carrot (Daucus carrota) with special… Anstey, Thomas Herbert 1943

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THE EFFECT OF VARYING FERTILIZER CONSTITUENTS ON THE FOOD VALUE OF THE CARROT (Daucus carrots.)  WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO  NITROGEN, CAROTENE, AND VITAMIN "C".  by T. H. ANSTEY, B.S.A.  • A Thesis S u b m i t t e d t o t h e Department o f H o r t i c u l t u r e , The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, in  . Partial"Fulfilment 1  of the Requirements  f o r t h e Degree o f  MASTER OF SCIENCE I N -AGRICULTURE.'  A p r i l , 19^3.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.  - Acknov/1 edgment s  ...  Introduction.......  . ( i (1.  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e  (v  M a t e r i a l a n d Methods F i e l d Work and G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e . . . 1 L a b o r a t o r y Procedure........  4-  Results19^1 R e s u l t s .  9  194-2 R e s u l t s . Discussion  ..............15"  The 194-1 E x p e r i m e n t The 194-2 E x p e r i m e n t . . . .  .20 .22  The H e l d ; C u r v e - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 The N i t r o g e n  Curve...,  The V i t a m i n ' «C" C u r v e . The C a r o t e n e C u r v e , . \ R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Curves, Co n c l u s l o n s . . . . . . Summary. Literature Cited.  24.25 26 »2J . ...30  ,  . .. .32 33  (i)  ' ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS•  The a u t h o r a c k n o w l e d g e s w i t h many t h a n k s , t h e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by D r . G-.H. H a r r i s ,  Assoc  i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f t h e Department o f H o r t i c u l t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  i n the  p l a n n i n g a n d e x e c u t i o n of., t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l wor and m a n u s c r i p t .  The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s  t o ex-  p r e s s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . A.P. B a r s s , Head of t h e Department o f H o r t i c u l t u r e , of B r i t i s h Columbia,  University  f o r h i s encouragement o f  t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s work,- and t o Mr.'W.H. H i c k s , Superintendent., Dominion E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, A g a s s i z , B.C., f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o c a r r y on t h e f i e l d work a t t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l  Farm.  (ii) THE EFFECT OF VARYING F E R T I L I Z E R CONSTITUENTS ON THE FOOD VALUE OF THE CARROT (Daucus Carrots.) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NITROGEN, CAROTENE, AND- VITAMIN  11  C" .  INTRODUCTION T h e r e a r e a. g r e a t many t y p e s o f p l a n t s u s e d f o r f o o d , and v e r y many v a r i e t i e s I n c l u d e d i n e a c h t y p e .  These  types  o r 'kinds o f f o o d p l a n t s v a r y i n t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e . While  some a r e h i g h i n . . s t a r c h a n d - s u g a r s ,  sources  of p r o t e i n s .  While  -others a r e good  some a r e e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e s o f  p r o - v i t a m i n "A", o t h e r s a r e e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e s  o f v i t a m i n "C".  D u r i n g t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s much work h a s b e e n done a l o n g l i n e s . - S i n c e many o f t h e p l a n t s u s e d as f o o d ( b o t h and v e g e t a b l e s )  these  fruits  a r e s t o r e d f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s of time  before  b e i n g consumed, i t h a s been f e l t by many e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s t h a t v a r i o u s methods o f s t o r a g e - h a v e value of the p l a n t m a t e r i a l .  some e f f e c t on t h e f o o d  Work h a s t h e r e f o r e commenced,  and much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n h a s been b r o u g h t f o r w a r d , t o show t h e b e n e f i t s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s t o r a g e .  Not o n l y  a l o n g s t o r a g e l i n e s h a s t h i s ' w o r k been done, b u t a l s o w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e f r u i t  and v e g e t a b l e  f o r consumption.  I t h a s been shown, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t much o f t h e f o o d  value  i s l o s t by o v e r - c o o k i n g , by d i s c a r d i n g c e r t a i n p a r t s - o f t h e fruit  or vegetable  over-exposure  s u c h a s t h e o u t s i d e g r e e n l e a v e s , a n d by  t o t h e a i r of chopped m a t e r i a l . '  (iii) T h e r e a r e , however, o t h e r f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r t h e k i n d , p a r t o f p l a n t , and i n order  should  and  cooking,  to determine the best e d i b l e p l a n t foods.  i n c l u d e the grown.  method o f s t o r a g e  besides  These  environmental f a c t o r s under which the p l a n t  A l t h o u g h t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e among t h e f i r s t be  s t u d i e d , s i n c e t h e y a r e among t h e f i r s t  a f f e c t t h e p l a n t , i t was work was  done a l o n g  not  u n t i l very  these lines.'  The  that that  r e c e n t l y t h a t any  s o i l and  climatic  condition a f f e c t to a considerable  degree the g e n e r a l  and  been s t u d i e d , but  growth of the p l a n t .  T h i s has  health only  as i t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e g r o w t h o f t h e p l a n t . Why, f o r e , should  i t not a l s o a f f e c t t h e  Climatic conditions a l a r g e s c a l e , but  decade.  food value  soil  conditions The  use  can,  e f f e c t upon t h e  d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n by  r e c e n t l y he has f e r t i l i s e r on  food value  the  shown g r e a t e r  the g e n e r a l  t h e y were a f f e c t e d by A- p r e l i m i n a r y  plant?  and  are being  on con-  of f e r t i l i z e r s - h a s  on v a r i o u s l y t r e a t e d s o i l s , h o w e v e r , has great  of the  e v e r i n c r e a s i n g l y common p r a c t i c e d u r i n g The  there-  c a n n o t be r e a d i l y c o n t r o l l e d by man  t r o l l e d by f e r t i l i z a t i o n . come an  was  of the not  experimental  past  c r o p grovm  received worker.  i n t e r e s t i n the  vigour and.yield  the  be-  a' Until  e f f e c t of  the  of the p l a n t s  as  fertilizers.  study of the  i z e r s of the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e  e f f e c t of v a r i o u s of the  c a r r o t has  fertilbeen under-  t a k e n to f u r t h e r the knowledge a l o n g  these l i n e s .  The  i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , t h e f i r s t  c o n s i s t i n g of a  work general  s u r v e y e x p e r i m e n t where h i g h n i t r o g e n , medium n i t r o g e n ,  high  (iv) p o t a s h , and b o r o n f e r t i l i z e r s were a p p l i e d t o c a r r o t s .  The  c a r r o t s were a n a l y s e d " c h e m i c a l l y and an e s t i m a t e made o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e food values.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s  c e r t a i n t r e n d s were o b s e r v e d  i n the nitrogen p l o t s  were f o l l o w e d up i n a s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t .  which  This c o n s i s t e d of  a p p l y i n g f i v e d i f f e r e n t amounts o f n i t r o g e n o u s to  experiment,  fertilizers  c a r r o t p l o t s and d e t e r m i n i n g the- e f f e c t o f t h i s added  n i t r o g e n upon t h e c a r o t e n e crop.  and v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  of the  (v) REVIEV; OF LITERATURE  D u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s tlic-re h a s b e e n much work done on t h e r e l a t i v e f o o d v a l u e s o f v a r i o u s f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s a s d e t e r m i n e d under d i f f e r e n t methods o f storage, packing, and  cooking.  Some work h a s been done w i t h v a r i o u s v a r -  i e t i e s o f f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s as- i s shot-m i n a r e c e n t c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a (2),  L i t t l e work ha,s b e e n done,  how-  •ever, on t h e v i t a m i n v a l u e s of foods i n r e l a t i o n to the  soil  ontyshich t h e y were grown. There has "been c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e p a r t of* somej, t h a t a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r s do n o t p r o d u c e v e g e t a b l e c r o p s o f a s h i g h a n u t r i t i v e v a l u e as do n a t u r a l m a n u r e s . S i r A l b e r t Howard i s p o s s i b l y t h e b e s t known a d v o c a t e o f t h i s theory * (l4-)  J.A. S c o t t Watson, however, p r e s e n t s  proof  of t h e f a l l a c y o f t h i s t h e o r y b u t d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o  show t h a t a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i s e r s  are always b e t t e r than  n a t u r a l f e r t i l i s e r s , but r a t h e r t h a t f o o d s grown on  soils  f e r t i l i z e d , w i t h a r t i f i c i a l manures a n d n a t u r a l manures a r e of  equal food value. In  r e v i e w i n g t h e work done on t h e f a c t o r s  influencing  t h e n u t r i t i v e v a l u e o f t h e fcoaaJO, Hammer and Maynard ( 5 ) p o i n t out t h a t t h e v i t a m i n "A" v a l u e ( c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t ) o f t o m a t o e s was a f f e c t e d o n l y to a s l i g h t d e g r e e by  fertiliz-  a t i o n e x c e p t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s of e x t r e m e m i n e r a l  deficien-  cies.  P o l l a r d (13)  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a s r e p o r t e d t h a t h i s  work shows t h a t t h e c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t o f c a r r o t r o o t s i s  a p p r e c i a b l y i n c r e a s e d when f e r t i l i z e d w i t h n i t r o g e n and r e d u c e d when t h e c h l o r i n e i s p r e s e n t tentatively  i n the f e r t i l i s e r .  concludes that " the production  He  o f c a r o t e n e by  t h e r o o t seems t o be dependant upon an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f n i t r o g e n as i s f o u n d f o r t h e g r e e n l e a f . " 11  With v i t a m i n  C", Hammer a n d M a y n a r d ( 5 ) p o i n t o u t t h a t  when e i t h e r p o t a s s i u m and manganese f e r t i l i z e r s were a p p l i e d to c e r t a i n ' s o i l s content  i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d  o f t h i s v i t a m i n i n tomatoes.  With apples,  however,  i t h a s been f o u n d t h a t e x c e s s n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n es t h e v i t a m i n  11  C  H  content  while a high nitrogen  decreas-  fertilizer  a p p l i e d t o Swiss chard i n c r e a s e s t h e v i t a m i n " 0 " content. The  importance o f an adequate supply  o f c a r o t e n e (and/Sbr  v i t a m i n "A" t o t h e human d i e t i s w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . c a r r o t s a r e not high i n t h e i r v i t a m i n " 0 " content with citrus f r u i t s  and some o t h e r v e g e t a b l e s ,  While a s compared  there i s en-  ough i n t h e f r e s h c a r r o t t o w a r r a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . means c o u l d be f o u n d whereby t h e v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t c a r r o t c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d w i t h o u t  decreasing  c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e r o o t , .and i m p o r t a n t be made.  Carrots a r e considered  o f v i t a m i n "A" i n a s m u c h .as t h e y  supply  doing night^work without  of the valuable  c o n t r i b u t i o n would  t o be an i m p o r t a n t  w h i c h i s b r o k e n down by t h e l i v e r personnel  other  I fa  t o t h e body  source carotene  t o form the v i t a m i n .  For  l i g h t s the carrot i s  commonly u s e d a s a s o u r c e o f v i t a m i n "A" w h i c h i s needed i n some way t o r e p l e n i s h t h e v i s u a l p u r p l e  o.f t h e r e t i n a .  C a r r o t s a r e an e x c e l l e n t source of t h i s p r o - v i t a m i n  and any.  (vii) method w h i c h c a n be f o u n d  t o Increase the carotene  content  o f c a r r o t s w o u l d be o f g r e a t v a l u e . The method d e v i s e d by B e s s e y a n d K i n g ( l ) f o r d e t e r m i n i n g v i t a m i n "C" was a d a p t e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e q u a n t i t y o f t h i s vitamin i n carrots.  The f i r s t  a d a p t a t i o n o f t h i s method was  made by L e G - a l l i s ( $ ) w h i c h was r e v i s e d by t h e ' a u t h o r .  These  i n c l u d e d s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s t h a t h a d t o be t a k e n 'when u s i n g plant m a t e r i a l of low a c i d content. determining  Many r e v i s e d methods o f  carotene have appeared w i t h i n the l a s t few y e a r s .  T h e s e v a r y b o t h i n t h e method o f e x t r a c t i n g t h e c a r o t e n e  from  t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l and I n t h e method o f s e p a r a t i n g - t h e c a r o t e n e f r o m t h e r e s t , of: the'-pigments.  "The methods u s u a l l y u s e d ' f o r  t h e e x t r a c t i o n a r e t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by G - u i l b e r t {K) who u s e d p o t a s h and e t h y l a l c o h o l , , a s o u t l i n e d by Moore ( 1 0 ) who u s e d p u r e e t h y l a l c o h o l a f t e r g r i n d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l , o r a s u s e d by M a c k i n n e y ( 9 ) who e x t r a c t e d w i t h acetone,. blanched  first  t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h r e e minutes i n b o i i i n g water, and  then e x t r a c t e d w i t h a r e f l u x . s e p a r a t i n g the carotene ial  Mackinney  A new s i m p l i f i e d method o f  f r o m t h e o t h e r p i g m e n t s by d i f f e r e n t -  a d s o r p t i o n h a s b e e n d e v i s e d by Moore ( 1 0 ) a n d was t r i e d  with l i t t l e  success..  The r e a s o n  f o r t h e f a i l u r e was l a t e r  f o u n d t o be t h a t t h e d i c a l s i u m p h o s p h a t e u s e d i n t h e a d s o r p t i o n ' t u b e s h a d n o t been a c t i v a t e d a s was a d v i s e d b y Moore ( l l ) in  a l a t e r paper.  d e t e r m i n i n g - the carotene experiment.  1  M a c k i n n e y s method was u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r  ;• Some s l i g h t  content  of t h e c a r r o t s used i n t h i s  changes were made i n h i s method  w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a. l a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e p a p e r .  Werner ( l 6 ) h a s shown i n a p a p e r on t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the m o r p h o l o g i c a l  p o r t i o n s of c a r r o t s , t h a t t h e x y l e m and  p h l o e m c o n t a i n d i f f e r e n t amounts o f c a r o t e n e and v i t a m i n "C".  I n s e l e c t i n g c a r r o t samples i n t h i s experiment,  f o r e , t h e work o f Werner was t a k e n I n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  t h e p r o p e r p o r t i o n s o f x y l e m a n d phlo'em were t a k e n by longitudinal  there-  cutting  s e c t i o n s from the c a r r o t s f o r the samples.  1 MATERIALS AND METHODS F i e l d Work a n d G e n e r a l The  field  Procedure.  work t o d e t e r m i n e  t h e e f f e c t o f v a r y i n g con-  s t i t u e n t s on" t h e f o o d v a l u e o f t h e c a r r o t was done a t t h e D o m i n i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, A g a s s i z , B.C., w h i l e t h e l a b o r a t o r y work.was done a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y The  s o i l u s e d ijns  b e e n grown on t h i s  all  Columbia  fc  a heavy c l a y loam t h a t had been u n f e r t i l -  ized, f o r at least ten years.  p l o t s were l a i d  of B r i t i s h  V a r i e t i e s of r a s p b e r r i e s had  s o i l up t o two y e a r s , b e f o r e t h e c a r r o t  out.  The s o i l was a p p a r e n t l y homogeneous,  o f w h i c h h a d h a d s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t up t o t h e t i m e o f t h e  experiment. In  194-1 p l o t s were l a i d  o u t on J u n e 1 9 t h .  Each p l o t  c o n s i s t e d o f two 2 5 f o o t rows l o i n c h e s a p a r t and s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e a d j a c e n t p l o t by a s i n g l e b u f f e r row. l a i d out and s o i l fertilizer  samples taken from  The rows were  each p l o t . b e f o r e t h e  was a p p l i e d .  -  t  F i v e d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s were u s e d ,  the f e r t i l i z e r  b e i n g a p p l i e d ' a t t h e r a t e o f 1 0 0 0 pounds p e r a c r e o r 0 . 9 pounds p e r p l o t .  The m i x e s u s e d were as f o l l o w s : 0-12-10 5-10-5 5-10-5JBr 16-20-0  This f e r t i l i z e r the c a r r o t seed  was b r o a d c a s t a n d r a k e d i n , a f t e r  ( C h a n t e n a y ) was sown.  Normal  which  cultivation,  2> weeding,  and  t h i n n i n g was  c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the  growing  p e r i o d , as w e l l as f r e q u e n t d u s t i n g w i t h d - e r r l s powder t o c o n t r o l the c a r r o t r u s t f l y .  The  c a r r o t s were h a r v e s t e d on  O c t o b e r 1 0 t h , t o p p e d i n t h e f i e l d , -both t o p s and r o o t s s a c k e d , and The in  shipped to the  r o o t - t o p r a t i o was  the f i e l d .  weighed,  laboratory. c a l c u l a t e d from t h e w e i g h t s  taken  Dry w e i g h t s of- a l l s a m p l e s were t a k e n and 11  c a r r o t s were t h e n a n a l y s e d f o r v i t a m i n C",  the  :  r e d u c i n g and VV\M<L/V"  s u g a r s , s t a r c h , n i t r o g e n , a s h , p o t a s s i u m , i r o n , and, c h l o r i n e . T r i p l i c a t e 'samples were t a k e n f r o m e a c h t r e a t m e n t , ' e a c h  sample  b e i n g made by s e l e c t i n g s i x u n i f o r m c a r r o t s "-and c u t t i n g  out  a longitudinal  s e c t i o n o f about  one  s i x t h of t h e t o t a l  T h i s gave- a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample' o f x y l e m and p h l o e m . c a r r o t s e c t i o n s were t h e n g r o u n d t u r n e d on end  i n a k i t c h e n meat  so t h a t t h e j u i c e a n d p u l p came o u t t o g e t h e r .  sample.  to  this  * soil  sample t a k e n b e f o r e t h e f e r t i l i z e r was  t h e - p l o t s was  E a c h sample was  a n a l y s e d by a r a p i d  soil  applied  t e s t i n g method.  r u n t h r o u g h o n l y once s i n c e t h e f i v e  showed g r e a t u n i f o r m i t y and a c t e d as t h e i r own In  These  chopper  . A l i q u o t s o f t h e r e q u i r e d w e i g h t were t h e n t a k e n f r o m  The  carrot.  plots  checks.  t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , p l o t s were l a i d out on May  on s o i l a d j a c e n t t o t h a t u s e d f o r t h e 1'9^1 c o n s i s t e d o f ' t w o 15  plots.  6th,  Each p l o t  f o o t rows w i t h l o i n c h e s b e t w e e n t h e rows  g i v i n g an a r e a o f 4-5 s q u a r e f e e t p e r p l o t .  The p l o t s were  3  s e p a r a t e d -from each o t h e r laid  out i n d u p l i c a t e .  by a s i n g l e b u f f e r r o w , a n d were  As b e f o r e ,  the. f e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d  p r & 6 r t o t h e sowing o f t h e seed. Fertilizers  forthis t r i a l  consisted  m i x e s , each v a r y i n g i n i t s n i t r o g e n ceived and  of f i v e  content.  complete  Each p l o t r e -  an a p p l i c a t i o n of- 1,8 pounds o f t r e b l e - s u p e r p h o s p h a t e  1 . 2 5 pounds o f p o t a s s i u m c h l o r i d e .  supplied  The. n i t r o g e n  was  t o . a l l p l o t s h a l f a s a n i t r a t e i n t h e f o r m o f sodium ;  n i t r a t e and h a l f as ammonia i n t h e f o r m o f ammonium in  t h e f o l l o w i n g amounts:N9.NO3  Treatment  (N%) S0i, ( i n pounds p e r p l o t ) 2  o  t  l  m  0  2.  0.25  0.2  0.5  0.4-  ,16  1.0  o.g  32  1T5-  1/2  determinations  o  g  e  n  As i n t h e  work, C h a n t e n a y c a r r o t s were u s e d .  By O c t o b e r  The c o m p l e t e  was l i f t e d , t h e t o p s r e m o v e d , and t h e r o o t - t o p  laboratory.  r  were w e l l m i x e d a n d a p p l i e d by b r o a d c a s t -  t h e c a r r o t s were r e a d y t o h a r v e s t .  the f i e l d .  t  0  and r a k i n g , them i n b e f o r e t h e s e e d was sown.  13th,  a  0  previous/year's  in  T  1.  The f e r t i l i z e r s ing  sulfate  ratio  crop  determined  The c a r r o t s were t h e n s a c k e d a n d s h i p p e d t o t h e Dry weight, n i t r o g e n , v i t a m i n were made on t r i p l i c a t e  "C", a n d c a r o t e n e  samples t a k e n i n a  manner s i m i l a r t o  those-of-the previous year, -Laboratory  The p r o c e d u r e s determinations  Procedure  used I n the l a b o r a t o r y f o r the v a r i o u s  were s t a n d a r d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e  v i t a m i n "C" and t h e c a r o t e n e  determinations.  Triplicate  s a m p l e s were u s e d f o r a l l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .  I n each case  were made i n t r i p l i c a t e .  are-briefly  These p r o c e d u r e s  these out-  l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs: Soil  Analyses. Rapid  soil  methods ( 1 5 ) . ed w i t h 1 3 c c  1  t e s t s w e r e ' a a r r l e d o u t f o l l o w i n g C . H. S p u r way s Soil  samples o f 2 . 5  of a c e t i c  grams were u s e d ' a n d e x t r a c t -  acid  Dry Weight  . '  Samples o f t w e n t y - f i v e grams e a c h were w e i g h e d out i n t o 1 0 0 gram e v a p o r a t i n g dishes..  They w e r e - d r i e d  c o n s t a n t w e i g h t i n a c l o s e d oven." twenty-four  a t 70°C. t o a  I t $ras f o u n d  that  h o u r s o f d r y i n g a. c o n s t a n t w e i g h t was  Sugars.  obtained.  /  -  Portions  after  o f 1 0 0 grams o f t h e f r e s h s a m p l e were w e i g h e d  out and e x t r a c t e d o v e r n i g h t a t room-, t e m p e r a t u r e with" 2 0 0 c c o f ^6% a l c o h o l . saved,  The a l c o h o l e x t r a c t was t h e n poured, o f f ,  and t h e r e s i d u e f u r t h e r e x t r a c t e d w i t h 2 0 0 c c o f ^0%  a l c o h o l i n the soxhlet apparatus e x t r a c t i o n s were t h e n by  until  colourless.  combined, and t h e t o t a l  t h e L a n e and Eynon ( 7 )  method.  sugars  The two determined  5 Nitrogen. S l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e s were u s e d w i t h and 19^-2 d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .  With the  m a t e r i a l , one gram  of t h e d r i e d sample was. u s e d whereas.,, w i t h ial,  f i v e grams"of  the I n l -  t h e 194-2 m a t e r -  t h e f r e s h m a t e r i a l were u s e d , u s i n g t h e  A.O.A.C. method ( 6 ) .  The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p r o c e d u r e i n  b o t h c a s e s was i d e n t i e a l . Phosphorous. S a m p l e s o f 0 . 3 grams o f t h e d r i e d m a t e r i a l  were  digest  ed w i t h h e a t i n 1 0 0 c c K j e l d a h l f l a s k s w i t h p e r c h l o r i c A f t e r c o o l i n g , the digested ized with  s o l u t i o n s were d i l u t e d , n e u t r a l -  sodium h y d r o x i d e , and made up t o - v o l u m e .  phosphorous  acid  The  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s w e r e made on a n a l i q u o t o f t h i s  s o l u t i o n by D e n i g e s ' method (3) a s m o d i f i e d - by t h e B r i t i s h Drug Houses f o r u s e w i t h  the Nessleriser  colorimeter.  Potassium. The method u s e d was t h a t o u t l i n e d by E l m e r - S h e r r i l l i n which 10-cc of the ash s o l u t i o n are c e n t r i f u g e d cobslti nitrite. the  Sherrill  with  The amount o f p r e c i p i t a t e t h r o w n down i n  t u b e was compared w i t h a s i m i l a r p r e c i p i t a t e  f r o m a .standard p o t a s h s o l u t i o n a n d c a l c u l a t e d on a f r e s h weight  basis.  V i t a m i n "C". The method u s e d by B e s s y a n d K i n g ( l ) was a d a p t e d f o r use w i t h  carrots.  rapidly i n a nearly  Because l e v o - a s c o r b i c  acid oxidizes  neutral plant material  very  s u c h as c a r r o t s ,  6 s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s , h a d t o be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h i s i o n as much a s p o s s i b l e . carrot  sections  with  ing the material  T h i s was done by g r i n d i n g t h e  t h e meat c h o p p e r on I t s ' end a n d a l l o w -  to f a l l  directly  Into  a cruicible  i n g 20 c c o f a c i d m i x t u r e made up o f e q u a l p a r t s f u r i c " a c i d a n d H/4- m e t a - p h o s p h o r i c a c i d . p l a c e d , on a b a l a n c e so t h a t w e i g h e d t o 0 . 1 grams. ferred  oxidat-  contain-  o f 2N s u l -  The c r u i c i b l e was  t h e 20 gram sample c o u l d be  The a c i d and sample were t h e n  t o , a m o r t a r , t h e c r u c i b l e washed o u t w i t h  trans-  a little  and  a c i d m i x t u r e , t h e t i s s u e ground f o r t e n minutes with  20 grams  n  of acid-washed sand.  More a c i d m i x t u r e was t h e n u s e d t o  wash t h e g r o u n d m a t e r i a l separating  i n t o two 1 0 0 c c c e n t r i f u g e  i t f r o m t h e sand.  made up t o 7 5  c c  -  After  The q u a n t i t y  centrifuging  tubes,  i n each t u b e was  f o r JO m i n u t e s , t h e  s o l u t i o n was d e c a n t e d from, b o t h t u b e s , m i x e d , and t h r e e 25- c c s a m p l e s t i t r a t e d w i t h  a s o l u t i o n of 2 , 6 ,  dichlorop-  h e n o l i n d o p h e n o l t o a f a i n t p i n k end-*point t h a t  l a s t e d be-  tween 1 0 a n d 1 5 s e c o n d s . ardized  a g a i n s t 'anV a l i q u o t e  ascorbic-acid uot  The dye s o l u t i o n was f i r s t  pill  disolved  of a s o l u t i o n of a Parke-Davis i n the acid mixture.  contained 0.25 milli-grams  amount o f a s c o r b i c was t h e n  of leyo-ascorbie  a c i d i n 1 0 0 grams o f c a r r o t  calculated.  stand-  The a l i q acid.  The  ( f r e s h weight)  7 Carotene. U s i n g t h e method o f M a c k i n n e y e t a l (9)"  for carrots,  f i v e grams o f m a t e r i a l were b l a n c h e d f o r - t h r e e  minutes,  e x t r a c t e d w i t h 50 cc o f a c e t o n e i n a r e f l u x , f o l l o w e d a second  e x t r a c t i o n with-25\'cc of acetone,  e x t r a c t i o n was  The  by  first  f o r 30 minutes;- the s e c o n d , u n t i l t h e mat-  e r i a l was " c o l o r l e s s .  I n p l a c e o f a. w a t e r - c o o l e d  condenser  o r a l o n g r e f l u x t u b e , w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n n e c e s s a r y f o r ' a highly volatile l i q u i d  s u c h a s a c e t o n e , i t was  found  that  a s h o r t r e f l u x t u b e o f 4-5 c e n t i m e t r e s c o u l d b e ' u s e d i f c o n d e n s a t i o n was  h a s t e n e d w i t h t h e use of i c e .  m e t a l , s p o u t l e s s f u n n e l was  A  small,  attached to the r e f l u x  tube  ten c e n t i m e t r e s from-the top w i t h a s h o r t p i e c e of rubber tubing.  T h i s h e l d two  the acetone.  cubes o f i c e w h i c h r a p i d l y  condensed  The w h o l e a p p a r a t u s w a s - p l a c e d - i n a t i n can  w h i c h p r e v e n t e d t h e i c e water from r u n n i n g onto the h e a t i n g unit.  /  The. c a r o t e n e and x a n t h o p h y l l w e r e t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d "  t o p e t r o l e u m e t h e r , t h e a c e t o n e was eum  e t h e r w i t h t h r e e 20 cc p o r t i o n s o f w a t e r , and t h e x a n t -  h o p h y l l was The  washed f r o m t h e p e t r o l -  removed, w i t h s e v e r a l w a s h i n g s o f m e t h y l  c a r o t e n e s o l u t i o n was  t h e n d r i e d o v e r two  alcohol.  grams o f  a n h y d r o u s sodium s u l f a t e - a n d t h e c a r o t e n e r e - d i s o l v e d - i n ether, f i l t e r e d ,  and made up t o 1 0 0  cc.  c e n t r a t i o n o f c a r o t e n e was  t h e n d e t e r m i n e d by  comparison  petroleum  w i t h 0.1%  chromate s o l u t i o n i n a c o l o r i m e t e r .  A  The  con-  dichromate  g s o l u t i o n was c o n v e r t e d t o t h e c h r o m a t e w i t h a l i t t l e sodium h y d r o x i d e as s u g g e s t e d  by Munsey.  This procedure  brings  t h e shade o f t h e s o l u t i o n n e a r e r t o t h a t o f t h e c a r o t e n e solution.  The s t a n d a r d s o l u t i o n s h o u l d n o r m a l l y h a v e been  standardized against pure B-carotene  for positive, quantit-  a t i v e work; b u t s i n c e t h i s work was p r i m a r i l y c o m p a r i t i v e , t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f one l i t r e  o f 0 .V/o d i c h r o m a t e  solution  e q u a l l i n g 0 . 0 0 1 7 5 grams o f c a r o t e n e was u s e d .  RESULTS The r e s u l t s o f t h i s -experiment by f i r s t 19^-2.  can b e s t be p r e s e n t e d  g i v i n g t h o s e o f t h e 19^-1 p a r t and t h e n t h o s e o f t h e  To show t h e t r e n d s b o t h y e a r s r e s u l t s h a v e been  arranged  i n t h e o r d e r of- t h e amount o f n i t r o g e n a p p l i e d t o  the s o i l ,  although t h i s ,  o f c o u r s e , was n o t t h e way i n w h i c h  t h e p l o t s were a r r a n g e d i n t h e  field,  -The f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s care t h e means o f t h e t r i p l i c a t e a n a l y s e s . done on t h e 19^1  No, s t a t i s t i c a l work was'  r e s u l t s , b u t t h e 19^-2 r e s u l t s were a n a l y s e d .  These a n a l y s e s showed t h a t o n l y t h e d r y - m a t t e r r e s u l t s were definitely  significant.  The r o o t - t o p r a t i o ,  V i t a m i n "C", and c a r o t e n e r e s u l t s f a l l  total nitrogen,  s h o r t of being  sign-  i f i c a n t b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e a r e d e f i n i t e t r e n d s t h a t can be p o i n t e d " o u t .  9 194-1  Results.  S o i l Analyses. The s o i l  a n a l y s e s were made by t h e Spurway method, w i t h  one s e t r u n on a sample f r o m each p l o t .  Only very  slight  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between t h e v a r i o u s p l o t s and t h e a.s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 ,  results,  g i v e t h e average of t h e  five analyses. T a b l e 1. - A v a i l a b l e N u t r i e n t s i n t h e S o i l S o l u t i o n b e f o r e F e r i t l i z e r s were Added. (Spurway T e s t s )  Analysis for:  Parts per Million  - Pounds p e r Acre  5  4-0  Medium t o Low  5  4-o  Medium t o H i g h  10  80  Medium  Ca  150  1200  Mg  0  ,0  Mn  0~.  0  SOk  0  0  N  K 0 2  Low  Na .  Medium  Al  High  Fe  Low  -  It  will  be seen  from the  above t a b l e t h a t t h e s o i l  s u p p l y o f n i t r o g e n i n t h e s o i l . was medium t o was  Relative Content  low.  The  soil  f a i r l y w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h p h o s p h a t e s a nd p o t a s h , a n d  10  t h e amount o f e a l c i u m p r e s e n t was l o w , as i s u s u a l i n an acid s o i l .  As m i g h t be e x p e c t e d  was  infairly  present  of a c l a y s o i l ,  large quantities.  The  aluminium -  remaining  m i n o r elements' were i n l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r n o t p r e s e n t i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s t o be d e t e c t e d - b y  t h e method u s e d .  Root-Top R a t i o . The  r o o t - t o p r a t i o , d e t e r m i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e f r e s h -  w e i g h t o f t h e r o o t s by t h e f r e s h - w e i g h t  o f the' t o p s ,  gives  a f i g u r e which i n d i c a t e s the g e n e r a l vigour of the p l a n t . As t h e w e i g h t o f t h e r o o t s i n c r e a s e s o v e r t h e w e i g h t o f t h e t o p s , so does t h e r o o t - t o p - r a t i o i n c r e s . s e .  The w e i g h t o f  the r o o t s , t o p s , a n d t o t a l a r e g i v e n a.s w e l l as t h e r a t i o between t h e r o o t s a n d t o p s . The  treatments  ities  are arranged  These a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n Table 2.  i n order o f the r e l a t i v e  of nitrogen i n the s o i l .  quant-  T h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y more  n i t r o g e n i n t h e check p l o t s than  i n the 0-12-10  plots.  T a b l e 2 . ' - T o t a l W e i g h t and-Root-Top R a t i o o f O a r r o t s Grown on D i f f e r e n t l y F e r t i l i z e d Soils.  Treatment  Weight of Roots  0-12-10  Check 5-10-5 5-10-5-  5 Br  lb-20-0  \  Weight o f ' T o t a l RootTops. Weight ' Top R a t i o  lbs.  lbs.  22 15 22  11  lbs 2.00  l.gg 3S  1.57  22  36  1.57  17  30  1.31  1*  11  I t i s seen f r o m t h e a b o v e t a b l e t h a t t h e maximum t o t a l i s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a. 5 - 1 0 - 5  yield  mix,  With  t h e employment o f t h e 1 6 - 2 0 - 0 m i x , t h e - r o o t - t o p r a t i o i s depressed', -that i s , t h e t o p g r o w t h i s g r e a t e r i n p r o p o r t ion  than the root  Sugars_janc\ V i t a m i n  growth. " C" . .  Both t o t a l and r e d u c i n g presented All  s u g a r s were d e t e r m i n e d and a r e  i n T a b l e 3> t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v i t a m i n "C" v a l u e s .  t h e w e i g h t s a r e b a s e d on 1 0 0 grams o f t h e f r e s h sample. T a b l e 3 - - T o t a l S u g a r s , R e d u c i n g S u g a r s , and V i t a m i n  Treatment  T o t a l Sugars Reducing Sugars V i t a m i n " 0 " ( i n grams rjer 1 0 0 grams F.W.) (mgm./ l O O g r . )  0-12-10  5.19-  3.O3  11.90  Check  5.5$  3.67  g.05  5-10-5  5.3^  3.74-  7.35  5-io-5fBr  5.4-g  3. %  6.32  16-20-0  K.&K  3.3 !-  9.4-6  1  From t h e a b o v e t a b l e i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t when t h e total  sugars f a l l  o f f , t h e v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  increases.  When t h e n i t r o g e n i s d e c r e a s e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e o t h e r n u t r i e n t s (from  check t o 0 - 1 2 - 1 0 ) ,  t h e v i t a m i n "0" d e c r e a s e s  Then a s t h e n i t r o g e n a p p l i c a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  o f t h e c a r r o t s i s d e c r e a s e d t o t h e p o i n t where  12  n i t r o g e n ( 1 6 - 1 2 - 0 ) i n c r e a s e s t h e v i t a m i n "C"  an e x c e s s content  of the c a r r o t .  roots i s positively ation.  The t o t a l  sugar  content  correlated with the nitrogen a p p l i c -  *  MiJiIL°£§:^^ho^phorojus _Petas^ujn __and_Dry jl  - - ' Although  i  determinations  samples, and t h e p o t a s s i u m  were made on t h e a s h s o l u t i o n ,  determinations  the r e s u l t s are presented  4- on a f r e s h - w e i g h t b a s i s t o make them c o m p a r a b l e  i n Table  with other determinations. sented.  The d r y w e i g h t s  are also pre-  These f i g u r e s ' were u s e d i n d e t e r m i n j ^ t h e r e s u l t s  terms o f f r e s h  Table  weight.  - E f f e c t o f F e r t i l i z e r T r e a t m e n t on t h e  N i t r o g e n , P h o s p h o r o u s , Potassium.,  Treatment  a n d D r y Weight, o f C a r r o t s .  N i t r o g e n Phosphorous Potash Dry Weight ( i n g r s / 1 0 0 g r s F r e s h Weight)  0-12-10  .117  .035  Check  .117  .03^  5-10-5  .lii-i  5-10-5fBr  .125  .032  16-20-0  .17%  .0 r2  From t h e a b o v e content  Weight.  t h e n i t r o g e n and Phosphorous  xirere made on d r i e d  in  of the ' '  •  .4-03  10.0  .353  "9.7  .365  h  table i t  3.5  g.9 .323  9.0  c a n be seen t h a t t h e - n i t r o g e n  of the c a r r o t s increases with a d d i t i o n s of nitrogenous .  fertilizers,  b u t d o e s n o t seem t o be a f f e c t e d i n any p a r t i c u l a r  !3 way by e i t h e r phosphorous"" o r p o t a s h v a r i a t i o n s i n f e r t i l izer. In  o r d e r t o b r i n g t h e r e s u l t s t o g e t h e r i n a gommon-  t a b l e , t h e y have been worked o u t on a p e r c e n t a g e The  basis.  r e s u l t s o f t h e check p l o t h a s been t a k e n as 100 p e r c e n t  and t h e o t h e r p l o t s h a v e been, c a l c u l a t e d i n t e r m s o f I t . To - s i m p l i f y such a t a b l e o n l y t h e t o t a l y i e l d ,  total  sugars,  t o t a l n i t r o g e n , a n d v i t a m i n "C" r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n ' Table  5.  T a b l e 5« - R e l a t i v e V a l u e s o f Y i e l d , S u g a r s , N i t r o g e n , , and V i t a m i n 0" a s P r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 2,3 & 4-. 11  Treatment  Yield  0-12-10  Sugar  Kitrogen  10g  100  V i t a m i n "C"  Check  100  100  100  100  5-10-5  157.  io4-  121  91  5-10-5fBr  157  102  1D7  79  16-20-0  130  115  14-9  lig  15 T a b l e 5 i s g r a p h i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1.  This  figure  shows t h a t t o t a l y i e l d s , n i t r o g e n , and t o t a l s u g a r s a r e i n 11  c r e a s e d on a d d i t i o n s o f n i t r o g e n o u s f e r t i l i z e r s . on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s d e c r e a s e d .  T h i s g r a p h a l s o shows t h a t  t o t a l y i e l d , " t o t a l s u g a r s , and v i t a m i n "C" the a d d i t i o n of a f e r t i l i z e r a s h . . The  are increased  c o n t a i n i n g p h o s p h o r o u s and  19^2  was  Results.  P o l l a r d (13)  i n 19^1  author's a t t e n t i o n . was  root-top  and  carotene  As p o i n t e d out. p r e v i o u s l y , work done by on t h e e f f e c t on t h e c a r o t e n e  e a r r o t s w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s o f n i t r o g e n was  experiment  nitrogenous  e s t i m a t e d by m a k i n g t o t a l y i e l d ,  r a t i o , d r y m a t t e r , t o t a l n i t r o g e n , v i t a m i n "C" determina.tiohs.  the  fertilizer.  e f f e c t on c a r r o t s o f t h e f i v e l e v e l s o f  fertilizers  of  pot-  n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t , h o w e v e r , i s n o t a f f e c t e d by  a d d i t i o n of a phosphorous-potash  The  V i t a m i n C','  content  brought  I n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t the  to the 19^-2  l a i d out i n a s u i t a b l e manner t o r e p e a t  work o f P o l l a r d , i t as d e c i d e d t o make c a r o t e n e  the  determinat-  i o n s , as w e l l . as. o b t a i n t h e o t h e r r e s u l t s as p l a n n e d . r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6 and g r a p h i c a l l y  The  shown i n  F i g u r e s I I and I I I . In  o r d e r t o p r e p a r e a g r a p h s h o w i n g the r e s u l t s i n T a b l e  6,  t h e v a l u e s h a v e been c a l c u l a t e d as p r o p o r t i o n s o f  of  the. c h e c k p l o t s , a s shown i n T a b l e 7.  In this  those  manner,  s e v e r a l c u r v e s can r e a d i l y be shown on a s i n g l e c h a r t i n  •  16 t h e i r p r o p e r r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r . Table 6. - E f f e c t o f V a r y i n g N i t r o g e n A p p l i c a t i o n s on t h e C o m p o s i t i o n o f C a r r o t s .  Pounds o f N i t r o g e n Added p e r P l o t  0.0  o.og  0.16  0.32  oM  Total Y i e l d (in.pounds)  9.0  14-. 7  10.7  12.3  10. g  Hoot-Top R a t i o  3^  4-.2  3.&  3-3  3.1  Dry  10.29  12.4-2  11.19  12.02  11.00  Hatter  (grs/100 g r s . ) Total  Nitrogen  0.0922  0.092^  9.0971  3.4-5  3*05  3.15  7«99  g.39  (gr/100 g r s F.W.) V i t a m i n "C" (mgm)lOO grn F.W,)  3.57  0,0990 0.1031  Carotene  (mgm/100 gin F.W.)  •6.79  T a b l e J. - R e l a t i v e V a l u e s  Pounds of N i t r o g e n  0.0  o f Data i n Table  0.0S  0.l6  7»59  6  e  O.32  0.4-g  fotal Yield  100  163.3  136.6  120.0  Root-Top R a t i o  100  123.5  91.2  Dry  100  114-.6  11,1 <*"J 111.7 102.7 110.4-  101.0  100  100.6  105.3  107A  m.g  V i t a m i n "C"  100  255*2  gg.3  Carotene  100  92.7 127.2  Matter  Total  Nitrogen  117.7  123.6  lii.g  17  19 A  An  examination  o f 0.03  of F i g u r e I I shows t h a t w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n  pounds o f n i t r o g e n p e r p l o t t h e t o t a l y i e l d ,  t o p r a t i o , and  dry weight are i n c r e a s e d .  root-  With f u r t h e r a d d i t -  i o n s o f n i t r o g e n , h o w e v e r , t h e g r o w t h . o f t h e c a r r o t , as measured, f a l l s ion  o f 0.4-g  o f f dropping  below the  check w i t h the a d d i t -  pounds o f n i t r o g e n p e r p l o t i n t h e c a s e of  the  r o o t - t o p r a t i o n and.' e q u a l l i n g I t i n t h e  c a s e of t h e  weight.  pound p l o t s was  The  y i e l d obtained  that obtained had  on t h e 0.4-g  on t h e p l o t s t o w h i c h .0$ pounds o f  of  nitrogen  e f f e c t of a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n  t h e t o t a l n i t r o g e n , v i t a m i n "0", and carrot roots. p e r 100  As  .would be  carotene  expected,  content  the n i t r o g e n  of  t h e 19^1  fertilizer.  the  content  experiment.  The  T h i s b e a r s out the r e s u l t s v i t a m i n "0"  content  of the  seen to d e c r e a s e w i t h a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n o u s  In the  of  carrots  fertilizer.  c a s e o f c a r o t e n e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e  of  w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f 0.02$ pounds o f n i t r o g e n p e r  With g r e a t e r a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n the o n l y 11%  g r e a t e r than t h a t of the  s u l t s confirm those crease  on  grams o f f r e s h w e i g h t i n c r e a s e s w i t h e a c h a d d i t i o n  of nitrogenous  2jfo  68$  been added. F i g u r e I I I shows t h e  is  dry  check p l o t s .  shown by P o l l a r d who  o f b e t w e e n 2.-$% and  2S%  carotene  content  plot. is  These r e -  obtained an i n -  w i t h a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n .  20 DISCUSSION The e x p e r i m e n t s - p r e s e n t e d h e r e were d e s i g n e d t o show t h e . e f f e c t of v a r i o u s f e r t i l i z e r of  the carrot.  c o n s t i t u e n t s on t h e f o o d v a l u e  S u c h a p i e c e o f work c o v e r s a l a r g e  field  and t h e r e f o r e o n l y a p o r t i o n c o u l d be c o m p l e t e d a t one t i m e . In  order to.determine the f e r t i l i z e r s  t o be used, a p r e l i m -  i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t was c o n d u c t e d , a n d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t s u i t a b l e v a r i a n t s were c h o s e n .  T h i s was n e c e s s a r y ,  as was shown i n t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , s i n c e v e r y  little  work o f t h i s n a t u r e h a s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n . The 19.4-1 E x p e r i m e n t The •194-1- e x p e r i m e n t , i n w h i c h f i v e d i f f e r e n t  fertilizers  were u s e d , i n d i c a t e d t h e p r o c e d u r e t o b e f o l l o w e d i n t h e experiment.  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t i n t h e 194-1  t h e r e were t h r e e d i f f e r e n t amounts o f n i t r o g e n ,  194-2  experiment phosphorous,  and p o t a s h a p p l i e d and a l s o one a p p l i c a t i o n o f b o r o n . A l though t h i s  e x p e r i m e n t was o n l y l a i d  but i n a s i n g l e  replic-  a t i o n , i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d were s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o p o i n t t h e way t o a more d e t a i l e d e x periment.  I n t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t , on t h e s o i l u s e d ,  nit-  r o g e n a p p e a r e d t o h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t upon t h o s e f o o d v a l u e s o f t h e c a r r o t t h a t were d e t e r m i n e d .  This undoubtedly  was due t o t h e s m a l l amounts o f n i t r o g e n i n t h e t e s t as was shown by t h e s o i l a n a l y s i s *  plots  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t must  21 n o t be assumed t h a t b e c a u s e n i t r o g e n h a d  the g r e a t e s t  effect,  t h e o t h e r f e r t i l i z e r s u s e d were n o t e f f e c t i v e a t a l l . e x p e r i m e n t was  n o t l a i d out  to detect  small differences i n  the response;of c a r r o t s to a l l f e r t i l i z e r s . i n s t a n c e , had  had  The  I f potash,  for  the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t upon the c a r r o t s , the  e f f e c t s o f t h e n i t r o g e n a p p l i c a t i o n m i g h t h a v e been masked, and y e t t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n Nitrogen yield,  present.  a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e a marked e f f e c t on t h e  t o t a l sugars:, n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t ,  t e n t of the c a r r o t s .  and  v i t a m i n "0"  t r u e h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e i s an I n c r e a s e p l o t on t h e a d d i t i o n o f a 0-12-10 mix T h i s i n c r e a s e must be due  phosphorous or-potash, s i m i l a r way,  con-  As p o i n t e d o u t , F i g u r e I i n d i c a t e s t h a t  the t o t a l y i e l d i n c r e a s e s w i t h a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n .  nitrogen.  total  It is  o f t w e l v e pounds p e r  which contains t o t h e use  no  of e i t h e r  or b o t h , i n the f e r t i l i z e r . . In-a  t h e t o t a l s u g a r s a r e i n c r e a s e d by t h e a d d i t i o n  o f a 0-12-10 m i x .  The  n i t r o g e n content  of the c a r r o t s i s not  c h a n g e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f 0-12-10 f e r t i l i z e r b u t I s i n c r e a s ed when n i t r o g e n i s a d d e d t o t h e "The  a p p l i c a t i o n of nitrogenous  r e d u c e t h e v i t a m i n "C"  content  0-12-10 p l o t t h e v i t a m i n "C" other p l o t . than the  mix.  The  fertilizers  of the  content  carrots.  added to the l a t t e r .  The  Thus on  i s h i g h e r t h a n on  0-12-10 p l o t i s r e l a t i v e l y  check p l o t , s i n c e t h e r e was  appears t o  lower  the any  i n nitrogen  no p h o s p h o r o u s o r p o t a s h  a b s e n c e o f p h o s p h o r o u s and  potash  r e s u l t s i n a d e c r e a s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e amount o f n i t r o g e n i n  22 the  The i n c r e a s e o f v i t a m i n "C" i n t h e 16-20-0 p l o t  soil.  is difficult  t o e x p l a i n , taut t h i s f a c t does n o t c o n t r a d i c t  the f o r e g o i n g statements.  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n i n  t h i s ease m i g h t h a v e b e e n t o o g r e a t a n d t h u s i t w o u l d . n o t h a v e been a s e f f e c t i v e .  T h i s a p p e a r s t o be t h e c a s e ,  since  t o t a l y i e l d i s d e c r e a s e d on t h e 16-20-0 p l o t s .  the  .It will  be n o t e d t h a t t h e 5-10-5 f e r t i l i z e r  gives the  greatest y i e l d with a high nitrogen (therefore protein) content amin  11  a n d a f a i r amount o f a u g a r a n d v i t a m i n "C".  0" c o n t e n t  Although  i s o n l y 9^ l o w e r  than t h a t o f the check p l o t .  g r e a t e r a d d i t i o n s o f n i t r o g e n i n c r e a s e t h e sugar,  n i t r o g e n , a n d v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t is  The v i t -  o n l y Jjfo  of the c a r r o t s , the y i e l d  o f t h a t o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e 5-10-5 f e r t i l i z e r ,  which  gave t h e maximum y i e l d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t show how the  s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t was s e t u p .  I n spite of the fact  the n i t r o g e n a p p l i c a t i o n appeared t o have a d e f i n i t e  that  effect  on t h e y i e l d , n i t r o g e n , v i t a m i n "C", a n d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t the t o t a l  sugar content  o f t h e c a r r o t s , t h e 194-1  results  c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s c o n c l u s i v e s i n c e t h e amount o f p h o s phorous and p o t a s h i n t h e f e r t i l i z e r s ure,  also varied.  A  proced-  t h e r e f o r e , h a d t o be d e v i s e d t o show t h e e f f e c t on t h e  content  of the carrots of nitrogen f e r t i l i z e r s  without the  i n t e r f e r i n g e f f e c t s o f v a r y i n g amounts o f p h o s p h o r o u s o r potash i n the f e r t i l i z e r s .  23; The 194-2 The 194-2  experiment  Experiment  was l a i d o u t i n o r d e r t o  determine  i f t h e r e were any d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e amount of n i t r o g e n a p p l i e d - i n the f e r t i l i z e r and t h e t o t a l  yield,  t o t a l n i t r o g e n , a n d v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r r o t s . o r d e r t o do t h i s , f i v e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f n i t r o g e n o u s i l i z e r s were u s e d .  fert-  A l l p l o t s h a d e q u a l p h o s p h o r o u s and p o t -  ash a p p l i c a t i o n s , the only v a r i a n t b e i n g n i t r o g e n . r o g e n was a p p l i e d i n i n c r e m e n t s Thus t h e f i v e t r e a t m e n t s one i n c r e m e n t ,  In  The  nit-  o f 0.03 pounds per- p l o t .  c o n s i s t e d o f no n i t r o g e n a t a l l , and-  two i n c r e m e n t s , f o u r i n c r e m e n t s , a n d s i x i n -  crements, o f n i t r o g e n . The p l a n o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , that of P o l l a r d  although not i d e n t i c a l w i t h  (13), who u s e d manure a s w e l l a s  was b a s i c a l l y o f t h e same n a t u r e .  fertilizer,  I t was d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e ,  t o make c a r o t e n e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h e o t h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n s on t h e c a r r o t s ,  ,„  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t  show v e r y - d e f i n i t e  trends  o f t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f c a r r o t s grown- on p l o t s s u p p l i e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g amounts o f n i t r o g e n . III,  As shown i n F i g u r e s I I . and  t h e y i e l d , n i t r o g e n , and c a r o t e n e  contents of the carrots  i n c r e a s e on t h e a d d i t i o n o f one i n c r e m e n t nitrogen per p l o t . decreases  (0.03 pounds) o f  The v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r r o t s  on t h e s e p l o t s .  With the a d d i t i o n of f u r t h e r i n -  c r e m e n t s o f n i t r o g e n t h e - y i e l d and c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t a r e l e s s t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n e d when no n i t r o g e n was u s e d .  The  decrease  2h  i s v e r y n o t i e a b l e w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f two i n c r e m e n t s , l e s s masked i n t h e c a s e o f f o u r a n d s i x i n c r e m e n t s . t o t a l n i t r o g e n content continues the p l o t s .  but i s The  o f t h e c a r r o t s , on.the o t h e r hand,  to i n c r e a s e w i t h f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n to The v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t d e c r e a s e s w i t h e a c h a d d -  i t i o n a l increment of n i t r o g e n . y i e l d and c a r o t e n e  content  Thus t h e c u r v e s  are similar,  obtained f o r  r i s i n g w i t h the f i r s t  increment.-and f a l l i n g o f f w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n c r e m e n t s .  The  c u r v e f o r n i t r o g e n r i s e s w i t h each I n c r e m e n t , a n d t h e v i t a m i n "C" c u r v e  f a l l s w i t h each a d d i t i o n a l increment, o f n i t -  rogen. The Y i e l d  Curve.  The y i e l d  curves  o f b o t h e x p e r i m e n t s compare w i t h  other very favourably.  I n t h e 19^-2  each  experiment t h e y i e l d  was  i n c r e a s e d by So.% w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f one i n c r e m e n t of " n i t rogen.  I n t h e 194-1  e x p e r i m e n t , t h e y i e l d was 55/*> g r e a t e r  w i t h t h e 5-IO-5 m i x t h a n ' t h a t all.  o b t a i n t e d w i t h no f e r t i l i z e r a t  As t h e n i t r o g e n ' w a s i n c r e a s e d t h e y i e l d  decreased.  Thus w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f two i n c r e m e n t s o f n i t r o g e n t h e yield  o b t a i n e d was '40% of  t h e check p l o t y i e l d .  On a f u r t h e r  a d d i t i o n o f n i t r o g e n , t h e d e c r e a s e i n y i e l d was s i m i l a r t o that obtained  i n t h e 194-1  experiment.  On t h e a d d i t i o n o f "more  n i t r o g e n ( f o u r and s i x i n c r e m e n t s ) t h e y i e l d i s l e s s than t h e maximum o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n ,of one i n c r e m e n t o f nitrogen.  The y i e l d  curve  levels off, rising slightly  with  25 the aa.dition o f four'increments" o f n i t r o g e n and f a l l i n g o f f a g a i n on t h e a d d i t i o n o f s i x i n c r e m e n t s . The N i t r o g e n  •  Carve.  The n i t r o g e n c u r v e s , o f t h e 194-1  a n d 194-2 e x p e r i m e n t s a r e  very  s i m i l a r a s c a n be s e e n f r o m F i g u r e s I - a n d I I I .  194-2  experiment t h e n i t r o g e n content  I n the  of carrots Increases i n  d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e amount o f n i t r o g e n added t o t h e s o i l I n t h e 194-1  i n w h i c h t h e y were grown.  e x p e r i m e n t , t h e same  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n i t r o g e n In t h e c a r r o t s a n d t h e nitrogen I n thef e r t i l i z e r that thenitrogen  content  i s also found.  I twill  be n o t i c e d  o f c a r r o t s grown on t h e 0-12-10  p l o t a n d t h o s e grown.on the. c h e c k p l o t i s t h e same.  i s i n c r e a s e d , t h a t i s t o a 5-10-5  nitrogen of the f e r t i l i z e r mix,  t h e n i t r o g e n content  of the carrots i s also  C a r r o t s grown w i t h t h e 5 - l ° - 5 f B r m i x c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n t h o s e grown w i t h a s t r a i g h t 5-IO-5 m i x . nitrogen f e r t i l i z e r  When t h e  increased. nitrogen  With the high  (16-20-0) t h e n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t  of the -  c a r r o t s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n t h e 5-10-5 p l o t . there  Thus  i s a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e of n i t r o g e n I n t h e c a r r o t s as t h e  nitrogen  content  of the f e r t i l i z e r  i s increased.  The Vitamin " 0 " C u r v e . The amount o f n i t r o g e n a d d e d t o t h e s o i l a n d t h e v i t a m in  "0" content  correlated.  o f t h e c a r r o t s grown t h e r e o n i s - n e g a t i v e l y  F i g u r e I I I shows t h a t a s t h e n i t r o g e n  of t h e f e r t i l i z e r  increases  content  t h e amount o f v i t a m i n "C" i n t h e  26 carrots.  The c u r v e  obtained, f a l l s  o f f r a p i d l y w i t h one a n d  two i n c r e m e n t s o f n i t r o g e n a n d l e v e l s o f f on t h e a d d i t i o n o f f o u r and s i x increments.  The c u r v e  experiment" does n o t c o r r e s p o n d t h e 194-1  content  exactly to that obtained i n  As a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , i n 194-1  experiment.  vitamin;"G"  194-2  obtained i n the  the  o f t h e c a r r o t s became p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s  on t h e a d d i t i o n o f i n c r e m e n t s o f n i t r o g e n t o t h e f e r t i l i z e r . However, t h e i n c r e a s e i n v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  of c a r r o t s  grown on t h e p l o t s t o w h i c h a 16-20-0 m i x was added does n o t fall  i n l i n e w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e p l o t s  i z e d with mixes lower o f v i t a m i n "C  11  i n nitrogen.  fertil-  The t r e n d o f a d e c r e a s e  w i t h i n c r e a s e d amounts o f n i t r o g e n i s n e v e r -  theless present,  and the 194-2  experiment confirms  g i v e s a d e f i n i t e d e c r e a s e i n v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  t h i s , as i t with increas-  ed amou.nts o f n i t r o g e n added t o t h e s o i l .  The C a r o t e n e C u r v e . The c a r o t e n e ,  or pro-vitamin  "A", c o n t e n t  of c a r r o t s i n -  c r e a s e s u p . t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t when t h e s o i l n i t r o g e n i s I n creased.  T h i s i s shown i n F i g u r e I I I .  o f c a r r o t s grown on t h e A g a s s i z  The c a r o t e n e  content  s o i l w i t h one i n c r e m e n t  (O.Og p o u n d s ) o f n i t r o g e n a d d e d was 27$  g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of  c a r r o t s grown on s o i l ' w i t h no a d d i t i o n a l n i t r o g e n . grown on s o i l  Carrots  t o w h i c h d o u b l e t h e amount o f n i t r o g e n  p o u n d p e r p l o t ) h a d been a d d e d h a d a c o n t e n t  still  t h a n t h a t 6 f 'those grwon i n t h e c h e c k p l o t s b u t 10$  (0.16  greater l e s s than  27 was t h e ' e a s e o f t h o s e grown I n t h e p l o t s w i t h O.QB pounds o f . n i t r o g e n added.  A s f u r t h e r i n c r e m e n t s o f n i t r o g e n a r e added  to  the s o i l , t h e carotene decreases u n t i l w i t h the a d d i t i o n  of  s i x i n c r e m e n t s -(0..4& pounds p e r p l o t ) i t i s l^fo l e s s  than  t h a t o b t a i n e d when o n l y one i n c r e m e n t o f n i t r o g e n was a d d e d to  the s o i l .  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d , t h o u g h ,  that there i s s t i l l  more c a r o t e n e i n t h e c a r r o t s grown on t h e s e p l o t s t h a n t h e r e i s i n t h o s e grown on t h e c h e c k p l o t s .  These r e s u l t s  p o n d c l o s e l y t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d by P o l l a r d (13) there, appeared  corres-  who found, t h a t  t o b e a c e r t a i n d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on t h e c a r o -  t e n e c o n t e n t o f c a r r o t s grown on s o i l t o w h i c h c h l o r i n e h a d b e e n added I n t h e f o r m o f p o t a s s i u m c h l o r i d e .  I n t h e 194-2  e x p e r i m e n t , p o t a s s i u m c h l o r i d e was u s e d t o s u p p l y t h e p o t a s h in  the f e r t i l i z e r  and would  t h e r e f o r e have a d e p r e s s i n g  e f f e c t on t h e c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t i f P o l l a r d ' s a s s u m p t i o n be correct. all  S i n c e , however, i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t h e r e p r e s e n t e d ,  t h e p l o t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e check p l o t s , r e c e i v e d the.same  amount'of p o t a s s i u m c h l o r i d e , t h e c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t o f a l l c a r r o t s a m p l e s w i l l h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y a f f e c t e d . ^.Nitrogenous fertilizers  increa.se t h e c a r o t e n e content of; c a r r o t s .  The  g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e , h o w e v e r , i s w i t h m o d e r a t e amounts o f n i t rogen.  ...  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between The s a m e . n e g a t i v e  Curves. a  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v i t a m i n C " and  n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t s o f t h e c a r r o t s i s f o u n d i n t h e 194-2 iment  as was t h e c a s e i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r .  exper-  I t w i l l be s e e n  26" f r o m F i g u r e I I I t h a t as t h e n i t r o g e n ( a n d t h e r e f o r e p r o t e i n ) content  o f the c a r r o t s i n c r e a s e s w i t h I n c r e a s e d  nitrogenous  11  fertilizers,  carrots declines.  t h e v i t a m i n C"  The  content  The  curve  total yield  curve  similar.  c a s e o f one  w i t h two,  s l i g h t l y with four, then f a l l  ( t h o s e r e c e i v i n g o n l y 0.03  T  he  sented in. Figure I I .  total  than those  carotene  those ions.:  The  carrots contain  grown on prod-uc-ed  p r o d u c e d on  plots i s therefore  great-  plots.  T h e r e I s no t r e n d shown by t h e fall  fairly  dry-  closely  r o o t - t o p - r a t i o curve, however, I s s i m i l a r  s h o w i n g t h e t o t a l y i e l d s and t h e c a r o t e n e  toto  determinat-  Thus, a s t h e t o t a l y i e l d i n c r e a s e s , the r o o t - t o p - r a t i o  i n c r e a s e s ; w h i c h means t h a t t h e w e i g h t o f t h e r o o t s a t a g r e a t e r r a t e than does t h a t of the t o p s . the  these  r o o t - t o p - r a t i o curves are a l s o p r e -  weight curve, as a l l determinations gether.  off  o f f a g a i n , o n the  pounds o f n i t r o g e n )  e r t h a n t h a t p r o d u c e d on t h e o t h e r d r y - w e i g h t and  rise  Thus, on t h e h i g h - y i e l d p l o t s  h i g h - y i e l d a,nd h i g h - c a r o t e n e - c o n t e n t  The  curves  i n c r e m e n t of n i t r o g e n , f a l l  a. g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c a r o t e n e on t h c c c h i g h yl-efbd-.  carotene  Both these  s h a r p l y i n the  a d d i t i o n of s i x increments.  far better  present.  ( i n F i g . II).,and-the  ( i n F i g . I l l ) .are v e r y  rise  these  explanation of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  c a n n o t be o f f e r e d , but i t i s d e f i n i t e l y .  of  e x p e r i m e n t shows t h i s  t h a n d i d t h a t o f 1.94-1, An ;  amounts o f  spread  b e t w e e n t h e two  curves,  The  increases greater  the g r e a t e r t h e w e i g h t o f  r o o t s produced i n comparisn to the weight of tops.  With  one  29 increment of n i t r o g e n , f o r Instance, y i e l d t h a n w i t h two i n c r e m e n t s , the  there i s a greater  a n d , what i s more  total  important,  spread between the r o o t - t o p - r a t i o curve and t o t a l - y i e l d  curve  i s g r e a t e r w i t h one i n c r e m e n t t h a n w i t h t w o .  e s t spread between t h e t o t a l y i e l d ratio  curve  A s more n i t r o g e n i s added, t h e r o o t - t o p -  decreases. p l o t s t o w h i c h a 5-10-5 m i x was added a t t h e r a t e o f  The 1000  c u r v e and t h e r o o t - t o p -  i s o b t a i n e d w i t h one i n c r e m e n t o f n i t r o g e n a s  shown i n F i g u r e I I . ratio  The g r e a t -  pounds p e r a c r e and' t h e p l o t s t o w h i c h was a d d e d a f e r t -  ilizer  c o n t a i n i n g O.Og pounds o f n i t r o g e n ( s u p p l i e d by  p o u n d s o f s o d i u m n i t r a t e a n d 0.20  0.25  pounds o f ammonium s u l f a t e )  p l u s l.£> pounds o f t r e b l e s u p e r p h o s p h a t e and 1.25  pounds o f  potassium c h l o r i d e produced the greatest y i e l d of c a r r o t s w i t h the highest had  carotene  content.  a l o w e r v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  plots.  These c a r r o t s , however,  than those  grown on t h e c h e c k  I t m i g h t be m e n t i o n e d t h a t . t h e f e r t i l i z e r u s e d on the  p l o t s t o w h i ch h a d been a d d e d 0.0S  pounds o f n i t r o g e n was  e q u i v a l e n t t o a 5-12-5 m i x a p p l i e d a t t h e r a t e o f 1000 pounds per  acre.  apply  T h i s mix, then, would appear'to be the best t o  on t h e s o i l u s e d when i t i s d e s i r e d t o o b t a i n t h e  greatest y i e l d  o f c a r r o t s and c a r o t e n e  content.  30 CONCLUSIONS As  a r e s u l t of the p r e l i m i n a r y experiments,  t h a t oh A g a s s i z  s o i l s , w h i c h were know t o b e  i t was  found  low i n n i t r o g e n ,  f e r t i l i z e r m i x e s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s e l e m e n t a p p e a r e d t o have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t h e v i t a m i n "C" c a r r o t s than d i d those  results.  content  of  potash.  and l e a v i n g t h e p h o s p h o r o u s  o f the m i x e s c o n s t a n t g a v e v e r y  and  interesting  N i t r o g e n added t o t h e s o i l a f f e c t s c a r r o t s i n f o u r  w a y s , as shown by t h e s e  experiments.  the y i e l d , the n i t r o g e n content, the  carotene  c o n t a i n i n g p h o s p h o r o u s OK  V a r y i n g the n i t r o g e n content potash content  and  Added n i t r o g e n  and  the  carotene  c a r r o t s , b u t r e d u c e s t h e v i t a m i n "C"  content.  h o w e v e r , t h e i n c r e a s e s o f y i e l d and  carotene  increases  content  of  Since,  content  of  the  c a r r o t s i s g r e a t e s t when o n l y moderate amounts o f  nitrogen  a r e a.dded t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r  be  concluded  not  give  s o i l u s e d , i t may  t h a t s o i l s amply s u p p l i e d w i t h . n i t r o g e n ' w o u l d s i m i l a r response.  The  n i t r o g e n content  a  of t h e c a r r o t r o o t s ,  however, i s i n c r e a s e d w i t h each a d d i t i o n a l increment of rogen. by  How  f a r t h i s c o u l d be  c a r r i e d c a n n o t be  the l i m i t e d scope of t h e s e The  v i t a m i n "C"  content  determined  experiments.. o f t h e c a r r o t r o o t s d e c l i n e s as  n i t r o g e n i s added t o the s o i l . n i t r o g e n content,  As  i n the case of the  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t how  decrease would continue  nit-  far  total this  w i t h f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s of n i t r o g e n .  For p r a c t i c a l purposes, however, i t i s important  to note that  31 t h e r e i s a d e c r e a s e i n t h e v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t o f c a r r o t s when m o d e r a t e amounts o f n i t r o g e n o u s f e r t i l i z e r s to  a r e added  t h e s o i l i n w h i c h t h e y a r e grown. The f e r t i l i z e r w h i c h gave t h e b e s t r e s u l t s was a 5-12-5  m i x a p p l i e d a t t h e r a t e o f 1000 pounds p e r a c r e . s o i l s would g i v e d i f f e r e n t responses  tothis  of. c o u r s e , b u t i t i s n o t e d t h a t a 5-10~5  m 3  -  xi  Other  fertilization, s  more commonly recommended f o r v e g e t a b l e c r o p s .  "the °ne T h i s mix,  a p p l i e d a t t h e r a t e o f 1000 pounds p e r a c r e t o s o i l s  similar  t o t h o s e a t A g a s s i z , p r o v i d e s t h e optimum f e r t i l i z a t i o n f o r c a r r o t s when t h e y i e l d ,  c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t , and v i t a m i n "C"  c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r r o t s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  Fertilizers  c o n t a i n i n g l e s s n i t r o g e n t h a n a 5-10-5 m i x p r o d u c e carrots.  These h a v e a h i g h e r v i t a m i n "G" c o n t e n t b u t c o n -  t a i n less carotene. ing  fewer  On t h e o t h e r h a d d , f e r t i l i z e r s c o n t a i n -  more n i t r o g e n t h a n t h i s m i x p r o d u c e f e w e r c a r r o t s , and  t h e s e have l e s s c a r o t e n e and v i t a m i n "G". The 5-10-5 m i x , therefore,- produces  t h e optimum c o n d i t i o n s on t h e s o i l  used.  32  SUMMARY  E x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f varying f e r t i l i z e r  c o n s t i t u e n t s on t h e c a r o t e n e  v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t ,  content,  and o t h e r f a c t o r s o f c a r r o t s .  I t was  f o u n d t h a t n i t r o g e n was t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and t h a t i n c r e a s e d n i t r o g e n h a d t h e f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s upon t h e c a r r o t  crop:-  (1)  i n c r e a s e d carotene  content  of the c a r r o t s ,  (2)  d e c r e a s e d v i t a m i n "C" c o n t e n t  (3)  i n c r e a s e d n i t r o g e n content  (4-)  Increased  of the c a r r o t s ,  of the carrots and.. }  y i e l d of c a r r o t s .  The f e r t i l i z e r m i x w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e optimum  conditions  on t h e s o i l u s e d was f o u n d t o be a 5-10-5 m i x a p p l i e d a t t h e r a t e o f 1000 pounds p e r a c r e .  33 Literature Cited. ( 1 ) Bessey,.O.A., A method f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f a s c o r b i c a c i d and d i h y d r o - a s c o r b i e a c i d i n t u r b i d and c o l o u r e d s o l u t i o n s i n t h e p r e sence of o t h e r r e d u c i n g substances. Chem. 126:  (2) S o o t h e r , L . E . ,  771  --J&k;  Jour.  Biol.  193g.  H a r t z l e r , E.R., and. Hewston, E.M.  A comp-  i l a t i o n of t h e v i t a m i n values of foods i n r e l a t i o n to p r o c e s s i n g and o t h e r v a r i a n t s .  U.S.D.A.,  cir-  c u l a r 63^, 194-2.  (3) D e n i g e , Compt. Rend. 171:802, 193s. (4-) G-uilbert,-H.R-.  Determination  o f c a r o t e n e a s a means o f  e s t i m a t i n g t h e v i t a m i n "A" v a l u e o f s t o r a g e . I n d . E n g . Chem., A n a l . E d . 6:4-52-4-, 193^. ( 5 ) Hammer, K . C , a n d M a y n a r d , L.A.  Factors i n f l u e n c i n g the  n u t r i t i v e v a l u e o f t h e t o m a t o . U.S.D.A., M i s c .  'Pub. 502:9, 194-2. . . (6)  K j e l d a h l , . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t o t a l n i t r o g e n .  Methods  o f A n a l y s i s , ;A.O.A.C. I I , 27:25, 1935. 4-th E d . (7)  L a n e E. E y n o n , ations.  A v o l u m e t r i c method f o r s u g a r  determin-  M e t h o d s o f A n a l y s i s , A.O.A.C. ,XXXiY~' 31::.  4-77, .1935. 4-th E d .  (3) L e G - a l i l s , R.,  U n p u b l i s h e d work.  (9) MacKinney, C-., A r o n o f f , S., a n d ' B o r n s t e i n , . B.T., some a s s a y s o f p r o v i t a m i n "A" c a r o t e n b i d s . Ind.  E n g . Chem., A n a l . E d . 14-:5:391, 194-2.  ••(10) M o o r e , L.A.,  Determination o f carotene i n p l a n t mater-  ial.  I n d . Eng. Chem.,, A n a l . E d . 12:727, 194-0.  (11) _  .  ; — —  A c t i v a t i o n of d i c a l c i u m phosphate f o r  the chromatographic Ind. (12)  E n g . Chem., A n a l . E d . 14-:9:707, 194-2.  Muns'.ey,V.E., • R e p o r t on c a r o t e n e . Methods o f A n a l y s i s ,  A.O.A.C.XX, 3:4-66, (13)  determin t i o n of carotene.  P o l l a r d , A.,  1937.  N o t e on t h e e f f e c t o f m a n u r i a l  on t h e c a r o t e n e c o n t e n t o f c a r r o t  treatments  roots.  Annual Report of t h e A g r i c u l t u r e and,Horticu l t u r e Research  32, 194-1. (14-) S c o t t Watson, J . , -  S t a t i o n , Long A s h t o n ,  Bristol.  . ,/ E f f e c t o f a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r s on  the n u t r i t i v e value" o f t h e p l a n t .  Rhodesia  A g . j . , 33:171, 194-I. (15)  S p u r w a y , C.H.,  Soil  t e s t i n g , Michigan. State C o l l e g e ,  T e c h . B u l l . No 135, (16)  W e r n e r , H.O.  1935.  D r y m a t t e r , s u g a r , and c a r o t e n e  content  o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l p o r t i o n s o f c a r r o t s ; A.S.H.S.  33:267-272, 194-1.  

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