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Transportation fo school pupils with special reference to British Columbia James, William 1941

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4 > r<j TRANSPORTATION OP SCHOOL PUPILS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRITISH COLUMBIA by-W i l l i a m James A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1941 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER , - PAGE I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 a. Statement o f the Problem 1 b. Importance and Growth of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2 I I Sources of the Data 6 I I I Types and Trends i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 8 a. Types 8 b. Trends 9 c. Summary 13 IV D i s t r i c t - O w n e d v e r s u s C o n t r a c t Buses 15 a. D i s t r i c t Ownership of Buses 15 F l e x i b i l i t y , C o n t r o l , Economy, S a f e t y b. C o n t r a c t e d Buses 19 c. C o n t r a c t S p e c i f i c a t i o n s 20 d. Types of C o n t r a c t s 22 e. N o t i c e to B i d d e r s and C o n t r a c t Forms S3 f . Summary 28 Y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 30 a. i n t r o d u c t i o n 30 b* Areas H a v i n g T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 30 c. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 51 d. T o t a l Costs 32 e. Ownership o f Buses 34 f . S e a t i n g Arrangement 35 CHAPTER V (Continued) g. S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y h. Route Lengths i . D i s t a n c e P u p i l s T r a n s p o r t e d j . Maximum. Time k. Length of C o n t r a c t 1. P e r - P u p i l Cost m. Reports n. Road C o n d i t i o n s o. Summary p. C h i l l i w a c k q. Armstrong r . Summary VI Cost of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a« S u p e r v i s i o n b. Measuring the Cost , 1. D e p r e c i a t i o n 2. Cost F a c t o r s / e. Methods o f D e t e r m i n i n g C o s t s 1. Methods of P r o v i d i n g Tran p o r t a t i o n 2. Cost R e l a t i o n s h i p s 3. The M i l e as a B a s i s 4. T o t a l Costs 5. D r i v e r ' s Wages 6. Net O p e r a t i n g Costs 7. B u s i n e s s Methods 8. S e l e c t i o n of Buses d. E f f e c t s of Roads on Cost e. Summary CHAPTER PAGE Y I I Suggested Report and Cost A c c o u n t i n g Forms 68 V I I I A. Some Methods of Reducing C o s t s 86 B. Suggestions f o r the Improvement of the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Program 89 IX E s s e n t i a l F e a t u r e s of a S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n U n i t 91 X Summary 95 Appendix 98 B i b l i o g r a p h y 101 Acknowledgments I w i s h t o acknowledge g r a t e f u l l y the a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement r e c e i v e d from I n s p e c t o r C.G.Brown, Burnaby; I n s p e c t o r E.G.Daniels, New Westminster; Dr.H.B.King, C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , V i c t o r i a ; B.C.; Mr.A.R.Lord, P r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver Normal S c h o o l ; Mr. Carson McGuire, Super-v i s i n g P r i n c i p a l , C h l l l i w a c k ; Mr.C.E.Clay, P r i n c i p a l Armstrong C o n s o l i d a t e d Elementary S c h o o l , Armstrong; C o r p o r a l E i n a n d e r , M o t o r - v e h i c l e L i c e n c e Department, P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , Vancouver; Mr. H. C o t t e r e l l , T r a f f i c S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , B . C . E l e c t r i c R a i l -way Company, Vancouver; and Mr. R . D i c k i e , I n s p e c t o r of Buses, B . C . E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y Company, Vancouver. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o the I n s p e c t o r s of S c h o o l s , S e c r e t a r i e s o f S c h o o l Boards and P r i n c i p a l s who so w i l l i n g l y gave o f t h e i r time t o answer my q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Without t h i s v a l u a b l e a i d , i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y on t h i s s t udy. I am f u r t h e r i n d e b t e d to the v a r i o u s Departments of E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s which so k i n d l y forwarded such h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s as was a v a i l a b l e . CHAPTER -I INTRODUCTION Statement o f . t h e Problem T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f s c h o o l p u p i l s as used i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s to the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of p u p i l s t o and from s c h o o l i n motor buses, e i t h e r c o n t r a c t e d f o r o r owned by the d i s t r i c t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on i n a few d i s t r i c t s by h o r s e -drawn v e h i c l e s or by boat but these two types are not d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s work. The problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has a r i s e n as a r e s u l t of an i n c r e a s e d attempt on the p a r t o f the E d u c a t i o n Department to p r o v i d e an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number of c h i l d r e n w i t h g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r secondary e d u c a t i o n . F o r many y e a r s the r u r a l one- and two-roomed s c h o o l s have attempted to p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s - f o r pupils" i n o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s . I t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t t h a t w h i l e these s c h o o l s have s e r v e d a d e f i n i t e need, y e t through them i t was i m p o s s i b l e to g i v e the e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are b e i n g g i v e n i n the l a r g e r urban a r e a s . I n many areas c o n s o l i d a t i o n has been found p r a c t i c a b l e , and c o n s o l i d a -t i o n has meant t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The problem w i t h which t h i s s t u d y d e a l s may be d i v i d e d i n t o a number of p a r t s , (1) O u t l i n i n g the s i t u a t i o n as i t 2 e x i s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , (2) A t t e m p t i n g to d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s and d e m e r i t s o f the d i s t r i c t - o w n e d bus and the c o n t r a c t e d bus, w i t h a view to a s c e r t a i n i n g which i s the more e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l , (3) D i s c u s s i n g , i n not too g r e a t d e t a i l , the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (4) D e t e r -mining the c h i e f f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n and s u g g e s t i n g methods which may be used i n c a l c u l a t i n g c o s t s , (5) S u g g e s t i n g ways and means of r e d u c i n g c o s t s and a l s o of i m p r o v i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e , (6) S u b m i t t i n g a set of c o s t a c c o u n t i n g forms which may be used as a b a s i s or a guide i n the k e e p i n g of a c c u r a t e and d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s of a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t r a n s a c t i o n s and (7) O u t l i n i n g some of the f e a t u r e s o f a s u i t a b l y c o n s t r u c t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n u n i t . Importance and Growth of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n "More than t h r e e ' m i l l i o n American s c h o o l c h i l d r e n go to s c h o o l by bus. They r i d e i n a l l s o r t s o f buses, from homemade c o n t r a p t i o n s w i t h canvas c o v e r s to de l u x e models. N i n e t y thousand buses a t an annual c o s t o f s i x t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , t r a v e l the highways of the c o u n t r y t r a n s p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l . " /• The above q u o t a t i o n m e r e l y i l l u s t r a t e s to what e x t e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has become an i n t e g r a l p a r t of s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n B r i t i s h Columbia i t has a l s o become a p a r t o f our s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n and though the t o t a l c o s t may be o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of t h a t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , . " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Study", The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s t X X I I I , (Feb.1959), p.81. r e l a t i v e l y s p e a king i t i s a f a i r l y l a r g e sum. (See T able V I , page 32.) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of s c h o o l p u p i l s i s d e f i n i t e l y l i n k e d w i t h the d e s i r e not to l i m i t e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to those who l i v e near them but to extend those o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p u p i l s l i v i n g i n more remote a r e a s . The c r e a t i o n of l a r g e a d m i n i s t -r a t i v e u n i t s has made i t p o s s i b l e t o e n r i c h the c u r r i c u l u m , to i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y and to p r o v i d e l a r g e r and b e t t e r equipped s c h o o l s . There a r e , however, d i s t r i c t s where the l a r g e a d m i n s t r a -t i v e u n i t has not been found p r a c t i c a b l e because of the l a r g e a r ea t o be s e r v e d , the poor c o n d i t i o n o f the r o a d s and bad weather c o n d i t i o n s . The Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t i s an example of a d i s t r i c t where c o n s o l i d a t i o n has not been found p r a c t i c a b l e . Table I shows the r a p i d e x t e n s i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n movement f o r the t e n - y e a r p e r i o d 1927 t o 1957 i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The 1937 f i g u r e shows an i n c r e a s e over 1927 o f 47,020 buses and over 1931 o f 31,023, buses. On January 1, 1937 3,145,180 p u p i l s were b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d a t an annual c o s t 1 of |55,280,496. Table I Number of S c h o o l Buses i n U n i t e d S t a t e s 1 Year Number of Buses J a n . 1, 1927 32,778 J a n . 1, 1931 48,775 J a n . 1, 1937 79,798 •Lambert,A.G.,"Trends i n the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l , XCIV, ( A p r i l 1937), p.371 " ~ The number of c h i l d r e n t r a n s p o r t e d and t h e percentage i n c r e a s e , the m i l e s of bus r o u t e s and the percentage o f i n c r e a s e i n these r o u t e s f o r the seven-year p e r i o d from J a n -uary 1, 1930 to January 1, 1937 are shown i n Table I I . Table I I Number of C h i l d r e n T r a n s p o r t e d , M i l e s of Bus Routes and 1 Percentage I n c r e a s e i n U n i t e d S t a t e s _ . . . -^LA? | N o . C h i l d r e n P e rcentage M i l e Boot es Percentage .Date T r a n s p o r t e d I n c r e a s e Bus Routes I n c r e a s e Jan.1,1930 1,276,427 425,000 Jan.1,1937 3,145,180 146 989,004 133 "From 1951 t o 1935 i n c l u s i v e t h e r e were 23,490 new s c h o o l 2 buses put on the market i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . M From the e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d by American e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s phenomenal i n c r e a s e B r i t i s h Columbia can p r o f i t much. The r e a s o n f o r such a growth i s w e l l summed up i n the words, "Changed c o n c e p t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l needs due t o changed c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g , improved highways and improved v e h i c l e s , i n c r e a s e d s t a t e ' a i d to s c h o o l s and changes i n law have d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y been the major causes o f i n c r e a s e i n demand'of s c h o o l p u p i l s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " 3 A n o t h e r . v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t statement d e a l i n g w i t h the f i n a n c i a l a s pect o f the l a r g e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t i s to be found i n the Report of the Governor*s S c h o o l Survey Commis-1 Lambert, A.0., l o c . c i t . , p.37. 2 I b i d . , p.37. 3 P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n R u r a l New York, U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of New York. B u l l e t i n No. 950, June 15, 1930.-s i o n i n New J e r s e y . "The net c o s t per p u p i l of both t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and t u i t i o n i s m a t e r i a l l y l e s s than per p u p i l c o s t 1 would be i f the d i s t r i c t m a i n t a i n e d e q u a l f a c i l i t i e s at home." The f o r e g o i n g pages have d e a l t w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n Canada the s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . From the correspondence r e c e i v e d the w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t c l i m a t e g r e a t l y a f f e c t s the e x p a n sion of the t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n movement i n Canada. Most of the p r o v i n c e s i n Canada rep r e p o r t e d t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on i n the summer -from E a s t e r to November - by motor buses and d u r i n g the w i n t e r months by horse-drawn buses or s l e i g h s . However, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n movement i s growing and t h a t , w h i l e p r o g r e s s i s s l o w e r than i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a more r a p i d growth can be expected i n the near f u t u r e . A l b e r t a r e p o r t e d t w e n t y - t h r e e c o n s o l i d a t e d a r e a s p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n , Saskatchewan r e p o r t e d f o r t y - o n e , O n t a r i o r e p o r t e d t w e n t y - e i g h t and New Brunswick r e p o r t e d e i g h t . • S c h o o l C o s t s and Economies i n tiheL;S;tate o f New J e r s e y , Report of the Governor's S c h o o l Survey Commission, V o l . 1 , p. 51. CHAPTER I I SOURCES OF THE DATA A study such as : t h i s one c a l l s f o r a r a t h e r l a r g e number of f a c t s and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these f a c t s i n the l i g h t of c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . T h e r e were f o u r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and by u s i n g these the w r i t e r has attempted t o o u t l i n e the t r e n d of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and to p o i n t out c e r t a i n f a c t s r e l a t i v e t o B r i t i s h Columbia and a l s o to emphasize m a t t e r s r e l a t e d to c o s t s and a c c o u n t i n g . The f o u r sources were: (1) P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s (2) L i t e r a t u r e (3) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (4) P e r s o n a l l e t t e r s Through p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s a g r e a t number of f a c t s and some v a l u a b l e o p i n i o n s were o b t a i n e d . The l i t e r a t u r e on p u p i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s f a i r l y comprehensive. The movement t h e r e has grown r a p i d l y s i n c e 1903 and thus has passed through many stages which throw some l i g h t on B r i t i s h Columbia c o n d i t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was v a l u a b l e i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to B r i t i s h Columbia. I t had., however, i t s l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h a t there were no s y s t e m a t i c r e c o r d s or r e p o r t s kept by most of the s c h o o l b oards. Under such c i r c u m -7 s t a n c e s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a v e r y d e t a i l e d s t u d y , p a r t i c u l a r -l y i n r e l a t i o n t o c o s t s , was p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . Never-t h e l e s s the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d had a d e c i d e d v a l u e . A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be found i n Chapter V of t h i s t h e s i s . To areas o u t s i d e B r i t i s h Columbia a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r was sent to e d u c a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s . From t h i s source came v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s . CHAPTER I I I TYPES OF AND TRENDS IN TRANSPORTATION / IN THE UNITED STATES Types The type of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n used i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s v a r i e s from s t a t e t o s t a t e depending l a r g e l y on two major f a c t o r s , f i r s t , topography, and second, c l i m a t e . The two most i m p o r t a n t t y p e s are the motor bus and the horse-drawn v e h i c l e . There a r e , however, s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f motor v e h i c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . These may be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to ownership. > (1) D i s t r i c t owned - i n which the d i s t r i c t i t s e l f owns the v e h i c l e s used f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . (2) P r i v a t e l y owned - i n which the d r i v e r , owns the v e h i c l e and c o n t r a c t s w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t t o t r a n s p o r t p u p i l s . There are i n s t a n c e s where the owner does.not d r i v e the bus h i m s e l f but c o n t r a c t s w i t h someone to do the d r i v i n g . (3) D i v i d e d ownership - i n which the d i s t r i c t owns p a r t of the bus, say, the body or the c h a s s i s , a n d the c o n t r a c t o r the o t h e r p a r t . (4) P a r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - i n which a p a r e n t i s com-pensated f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g h i s own and p o s s i b l y one or two o t h e r c h i l d r e n from home to s c h o o l and r e t u r n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p u p i l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s not . 9 r e s t r i c t e d , to r u r a l or c o n s o l i d a t e d areas but a l s o a p p l i e s to a number o f l a r g e c i t i e s i n which s t r e e t e a r s are used as a means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Before d i s c u s s i n g d i B t r i c t - o w n e d and c o n t r a c t e d buses, the w r i t e r wishes t o mention t h a t a u t h o r i t i e s a re of the op i n i o n ' t h a t the p o l i c y o f r e i m b u r s i n g p a r e n t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n i s i n e f f i c i e n t and expensive and s h o u l d be d i s c o n t i n u e d i f at a l l possible.''' Trends Table I I I shows the p r a c t i c e r e l a t i v e t o the use o f d i s t r i c t - o w n e d : a n d c o n t r a c t e d buses. I n the s e t h r e e areas t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on on a r a t h e r l a r g e s c a l e and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the p r e p o n d e r a t i n g p r a c t i c e of employing d i s t r i c t owned buses. ' 'Table I I I Number o f Owned and Contracted.Buses i n Three S t a t e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Date D i s t r i c t No.Owned Buses No.Contracted Buses Other Types 1936-37 May 1,1939 1936- 37) 1937- 38) a C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t s N.l ^ F l o r i d a F l o r i d a c N o r t h ...Carolina 704 « BQfo of s c h o o l buses (866 b o d i e s (574 c h a s s i s 3932: 1 4153 601 (0 0 0 0' '• °. (500 b o d i e s (795 c h a s s i s 146 . 102. 102 * Belknap, B . H . , P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t s , 1936-37. U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of.New York, B u l l e t i n 1149. (October 1, ;1938), p..6. * Hut chins,. C D., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Department of E d u c a t i o n , S t a t e of O h i o , : B u l l e t i n , p.25. 10 E n g l i s h , C o l i n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f P u p i l s , F l o r i d a S c h o o l B u l l e t i n , I , (May 1, 1939),pp.9-10. °* Report of the S t a t e S c h o o l Commission f o r the S c h o l a s t i c Years 1956-57 and 1937-58, The S t a t e S c h o o l Commission, R a l e i g h , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , p.28. From a study of the l i t e r a t u r e the w r i t e r i s of t h e o p i n i o n , t h a t t h e t r e n d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s towards the use of d i s t r i c t - o w n e d buses. Since the above t a b l e i s inadequate as evidence of the p r a c t i c e i n f o r t y - e i g h t s t a t e s , i t seemed a d v i s a b l e t o quote the o p i n i o n s o f some of the a u t h o r i t i e s on t h i s m a t t e r , thus s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e and s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d toward d i s t r i c t ownership. "To o b t a i n f u r t h e r improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y , s a f e t y and economy boards s h o u l d purchase s c h o o l buses and p r o v i d e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e by means of d i s t r i c t -owned equipment." 1 "The most s a t i s f a c t o r y type o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n appears to be the d i s t r i c t - o w n e d motor conveyance." 2 . "The tendency i n s c h o o l bus ownership a t the p r e s e n t time seems to be f o r the d i s t r i c t s t o own the e n t i r e equipment and-operate the same. There were more than t w i c e as many d i s t r i c t s t h ^ s y e a r (1937-58) p u r c h a s i n g complete u n i t s as .compared w i t h 1936-37i"* 5 " I was f o r m e r l y of the o p i n i o n t h a t the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h o u l d not own any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment. Now a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n the S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , I f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h o u l d own the e n t i r e equipment." 4 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t of Educa-t i o n , S t a t e of Ohio, B u l l e t i n No.2, p.59. * P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n R u r a l New Y o r k , N.Y.State Department of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No.950, June 15, 1930, p.13. % S c h o o l Bus Purchases f o r 1957-58, Department of E d u c a t i o n , : M i n n e s o t a , B u l l e t i n , p.2. :-A n a l y s i s of S c h o o l Bus O p e r a t i n g C o s t s i n F l o r i d a -1955-26, -Mimeo.: \ -Dan «1. Gonroy, Dade County, F l o r i d a . ~~~~ ~ 11 Another t r e n d i s towards i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y and s a f e t y . T h i s , of n e c e s s i t y , r e q u i r e s b e t t e r management on the p a r t of the boards o f e d u c a t i o n . D i s t r i c t ownership of buses makes the problem o f management an e a s i e r one. "The p r a c t i c e of p r i v a t e ownership of buses has been shown t o be l e s s e c o n o m i c a l and l e s s e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d than d i s t r i c t ownership o f buses." 1 Many s t a t e departments o f e d u c a t i o n now e x e r c i s e c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n over s c h o o l v e h i c l e s and d r i v e r s . There have been i s s u e d v a r i o u s handbooks of bus s t a n d a r d s , manuals f o r d r i v e r s , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r bus d r i v e r s and s m a l l pamphlets c o n t a i n i n g the laws as: r e l a t e d to t r a f f i c and e s p e c i a l l y t o s c h o o l v e h i c l e s . There a l s o i s now a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l i a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the p a r t of the s t a t e , s c h o o l board and p a r e n t s . A l l these i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e t r e n d toward b e t t e r management of s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , accompanied by i n c r e a s e d s a f e t y and comfort f o r the p u p i l s . "While the study i s by no means completed, D o c t o r s Cyr and Noble have a r r i v e d a t some c o n c l u s i o n s . . . . Among o t h e r t h i n g s , they f e e l t h a t s c h o o l owner-s h i p o f s c h o o l buses i s not only^more e c o n o m i c a l but a l s o p r o v i d e s h i g h e r maintenance s t a n d a r d s than are p r o v i d e d by c o n t r a c t method." 2 The above q u o t a t i o n s evidence the f a c t t h a t the d i s t r i c t -owned bus i s p r e f e r r e d t o the c o n t r a c t e d one, and t h a t a number of d i s t r i c t s are changing from p r i v a t e t o d i s t r i c t o wnership. • A Study of the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of Hig h S c h o o l P u p i l s i n W i s c o n s i n , 1957-58, S t a t e Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Madison, W i s c o n s i n ^ py71. 2. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n S tudy" The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , V o l . 25 (Feb.1939), p.81. 12 The g e n e r a l t r e n d i n the U n i t e d ^ S t a t e s i s toward a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system which i s (1) d i s t r i c t - o w n e d , (2) o f h i g h q u a l i t y and c o m f o r t a b l e , (>3) e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l , (4) w e l l s u p e r v i s e d , (5) a i d e d by the use of a complete system of r e p o r t s and r e c o r d s , and (6) based on an i n t e l l i g e n t -l y f o r m u l a t e d p o l i c y . A. G. Lambert, i n an a r t i c l e "Trends i n the T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n of S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d States,""*" l a y s down s i x s t e p s , which he c o n s i d e r s e s s e n t i a l t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . (!) I n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n o f d i s t r i c t - o w n e d v e h i c l e s . (2) Improve f u r t h e r the q u a l i t y of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t to the use of c r o s s -wise s e a t i n g . I t i s w e l l t o note i n p a s s i n g t h a t i n t h i s r e s p e c t B r i t i s h Columbia s t a n d s w e l l t o the f o r e , as i t now r e q u i r e s new s c h o o l buses to have c r o s s w i s e s e a t i n g , except a s h o r t l o n g i t u d i n a l s e a t a t the back over the r e a r wheel. (3) Impose;- more f r e q u e n t and r i g i d i n s p e c t i o n s of v e h i c l e s . (4) Adopt and use a modern system of r e p o r t s , r e c o r d s and a c c o u n t s . (5) Give g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of l i m i t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e . (6) Improve methods by which s t a t e a i d i s g i v e n f o r s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 1, Lambert, A.G. Trends i n the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l , X G I V , ( A p r i l 1937), p.37. 13 With r e f e r e n c e to Canada, there does not seeiu t o be a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t r e n d . The i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d by the w r i t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t b oth d i s t r i c t - o w n e d and c o n t r a c t e d buses have been found t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . Manitoba r e p o r t e d t h a t h o r s e -drawn, v e h i c l e s , which are used d u r i n g the w i n t e r months, are owned by the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and motor buses are c o n t r a c t e d f o r . O n t a r i o r e p o r t e d the use of b o t h types of buses and suggested t h a t both are working s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . I n Nova S c o t i a most of the d i s t r i c t s employ horse-drawn v e h i c l e s and these are owned by the p a r e n t s of the p u p i l s who are conveyed. There were two areas u s i n g motor buses, one ownscl the buses and the o t h e r c o n t r a c t s f o r them. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d has o n l y t h r e e motor buses i n use, two of these owned by the s c h o o l boards and one c o n t r a c t e d f o r . Summary (1) The two main types o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s are the motor bus and horse-drawn v e h i c l e . (2) Methods of o r g a n i z a t i o n o f motor bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v a r y and may be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to ownership, i . e . (a) d i s t r i c t ownership, (b) p r i v a t e ownership, (c) d i v i d e d ownership, and (d) p a r e n t ownership. (3) American a u t h o r i t i e s are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the p o l i c y of r e i m b u r s i n g p a r e n t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s i n e f f i c i e n t and expensive and they suggest the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e o f such a p o l i c y . (4) Prom a s t u d y o f the l i t e r a t u r e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n the 14 w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e t r e n d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s toward the use of d i s t r i c t - o w n e d buses. A l s o t h a t t h e r e i s a t r e n d towards c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n , b e t t e r manage-ment and g r e a t e r c o m f o r t . (5) From the i n f o r m a t i o n at h i s d i s p o s a l the w r i t e r has not been a b l e t o d i s c e r n a t r e n d toward e i t h e r d i s t r i c t or p r i v a t e ownership i n Canada. CHAPTER IV DISTRICT-OWNED VERSUS .CONTRACT BUSES In t h i s c h a p t e r the w r i t e r attempts t o p o i n t out some of the advantages c l a i m e d f o r b o t h d i s t r i c t - o w n e d and c o n t r a c t e d buses. The most common conveyance used i n the t r a n s p o r t i n g of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i s the motor bus. T h i s may be owned o u t -r i g h t by the d i s t r i c t o r c o n t r a c t e d f o r , dependent t o some e x t e n t on the number o f c h i l d r e n to be t r a n s p o r t e d . I n d i s t r i c t s where t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r o n l y a s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n , the w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g o u t r i g h t would be p r e f e r a b l e t o d i s t r i c t owner-s h i p because the s m a l l number of p u p i l s would n ot j u s t i f y the i n i t i a l o u t l a y r e q u i r e d i n p u r c h a s i n g a bus and the expense of upkeep and maintenance. In areas r e q u i r i n g a number of buses c e r t a i n f a c t s have to be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y can be pursue An attempt has been made to l i s t a number o f advantages o f each i n o r d e r t o make the p i c t u r e as c l e a r as p o s s i b l e . D i s t r i c t Ownership o f Buses A. F l e x i b i l i t y i n o p e r a t i o n . B. B e t t e r c o n t r o l o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. C. Economy of c o s t . G r e a t e r s a f e t y . Each Of these i s now c o n s i d e r e d i n more d e t a i l . A. f l e x i b i l i t y I t i s f r e q u e n t l y n e c e ssary t o t r a n s p o r t p u p i l s o t h e r than to and from s c h o o l . E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o f t e n c a l l f o r teams' to be t r a n s p o r t e d to o t h e r d i s t r i c t s , and s c h o o l c h o i r s t o be taken to music f e s t i v a l c e n t r e s . T h i s i s much more e a s i l y accomplished i f the buses are owned by the d i s t r i c t . No s p e c i a l arrangements have to be made w i t h a c o n t r a c t o r nor w i l l t here be any i n c o n v e n i e n c e as might a r i s e under a c o n t r a c t system. Furthermore, owing to a s h i f t i n p o p u l a t i o n i n c e r t a i n a r e a s i t i s o f t e n found, t h a t whereas a l a r g e bus was r e -q u i r e d i n September, a s m a l l one i s adequate i n F e b r u a r y . Buses may a l s o have to be r e - r o u t e d f o r c e r t a i n reasons d u r i n g the.term. The w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , based on a study o f the l i t e r a t u r e , i s t h a t i t i s much e a s i e r t o make such a d j u s t -ments under a d i s t r i c t - o w n e r s h i p t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. C o n t r a c t s are ve r y s p e c i f i c ; and once l e g a l l y s i g n e d are v e r y hard to change. I t may be found v e r y d i f f i c u l t to c o n v i n c e a c o n t r a c t o r t h a t a d j u s t i a e n t s are. n e c e s s a r y . -B. B e t t e r C o n t r o l As t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i t i s s u b j e c t to c o n t r o l . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t a g r e a t e r degree of c o n t r o l can be e x e r c i s e d by a board when that:body owns i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment. The smooth and e f f i c i e n t r u n n i n g o f any l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n i s due, t o a l a r g e degree, to the e x e r c i s e of s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l . So i t i s w i t h a s c h o o l board i n r e g a r d t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . G. Economy o f Cost I n Chapter I I I , page .10, of t h i s t h e s i s the w r i t e r quoted U n i t e d S t a t e s a u t h o r i t i e s whose o p i n i o n s were t h a t the d i s t r i c t - o w n e d bus was not o n l y more e f f i c i e n t but more economical. I n r e l a t i o n t o the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, not enough d a t a were a v a i l a b l e t o prove c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t owning the buses i s more economical than c o n t r a c t i n g f o r them. C h i l l i w a c k , owning seven buses, m a i n t a i n e d t h a t bus ownership was a more economical system. Armstrong, c o n t r a c t i n g f o r seven buses, w h i l e not c l a i m i n g economy., f e l t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n c o s t , i f any, was o n l y s l i g h t , and t h a t t h i s s l i g h t advantage was overcome by a decrease i n the time and energy r e q u i r e d i n c o s t a c c o u n t i n g , such as i s ne c e s s a r y i n a system of d i s t r i c t ownership. A d e t a i l e d study of the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n system of these two c i t i e s i s to be found on pages 45 and 49• Evans' study o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s i n C a l i f o r n i a i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s t r i c t - o w n e r s h i p system was more econom-i c a l than the c o n t r a c t system, whether judged on the b a s i s of co s t per p u p i l per day or per y e a r , t o t a l c o s t p e r b u s - m i l e , or c o s t p e r p u p i l - m i l e . . He says, • "The-case f o r s c h o o l ownership r a t h e r than the con-t r a c t p l a n seems to be' c l e a r . When l e n g t h o f r o u t e s and average l o a d are ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , buses owned by h i g h s c h o o l s show c o s t s r a n g i n g from 8 to 10 18 percent lower than s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out under c o n t r a c t w i t h p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s f u r t h e r emphasized by a lower average c o s t per m i l e and per p u p i l when equipment i s owned by the s c h o o l . " 1 L i n n i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s more economical f o r • i the d i s t r i c t to own i t s own buses. He says, "... i n g e n e r a l 1 . . j -I i t has been found t h a t the d i s t r i c t - o w n e r s h i p system i s more p economical and s a t i s f a c t o r y than the c o n t r a c t system." i I n the same chapter he mentions a study o f t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n c o s t s i n n i n e t y - t w o s c h o o l s i n t w e n t y - e i g h t c o u n t i e s i n Colorado,'made by Greene. T h i s study showed, "Fort y - s e v e n of the schools had d i s t r i c t - o w n e d buses and 37 c o n t r a c t e d f o r the bus s e r v i c e . The f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d by Greene showed t h a t the median c o s t o f t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n per c h i l d , per day f o r s c h o o l s i n i r r i g a t e d i d i s t r i c t s was 17 c e n t s under the d i s t r i c t - o w n e r s h i p i system and 47 fCents under the c o n t r a c t system. The -j median c o s t per m i l e a l s o showed a lower c o s t f o r the j d i s t r i c t - o w n e r s h i p system. I n the i r r i g a t e d d i s t r i c t s 1 the median c o s t per m i l e was 17 c e n t s where the s c h o o l s I owned IthMraequipment and 25 c e n t s where the t r a n s p o r t a - : J t i o n s e r v i c e had been c o n t r a c t e d f o r . I n the d r y - l a n d \ d i s t r i c t s the c o s t s were 15 c e n t s and 17.5 c e n t s per .1 m i l e , the lower c o s t f a v o r i n g the school-owned j equipment p l a n . " ^ D. G r e a t e r S a f e t y S a f e t y i s the most Important c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. T h i s may be more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d under d i s t r i c t ownership, s i n c e the board employs the d r i v e r . Under c o n t r a c t p l a n s the board must employ the d r i v e r who i s Evans, Frank 0., F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the Cost of S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a , U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 29, 1930, p. 24.-2. Linn,- Henry H.-, P r a c t i c a l S c h o o l Economies, p.. 436. g • . - . . . _ . ' ; I b i d . , p. 436. 19 a b l e to f i n a n c e a bus. 'Further arguments i n f a v o r of d i s t r i c t ownership might be suggested. (1) Equipment such as t h a t found i n gymnasiums and c a f e t e r i a s i s owned, not r e n t e d . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n u n i t s are a l s o a p a r t of a s c h o o l ' s equipment and s h o u l d be owned. (2) S i n c e the p r o f i t motive i s n o n - e x i s t e n t i n a d i s t r i c t - o w n e r s h i p system a b e t t e r type of bus can be p r o -v i d e d . (3) R e p a i r s and maintenance are a l s o c a r e d f o r on a n o n - p r o f i t b a s i s where the d i s t r i c t has i t s own f a c i l i t i e s f o r upkeep. ""•'•••'./. (4) A number of buses can-be o p e r a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d a t a l e s s e r c o s t than can i n d i v i d u a l buses owned by s e v e r a l p a r t i e s . C o n t r a c t e d Buses The arguments i n f a v o r of the c o n t r a c t e d bus are fewer and l e s s e a s i l y t e n a b l e . The advantages u s u a l l y c l a i m e d a r e ; (a.) There i s l e s s c l e r i c a l work because i t does not seem t o be n e c e s s a r y under a c o n t r a c t system t o keep a d e t a i l e d system of r e p o r t s , r e c o r d s and a c c o u n t s . T h i s c l a i m e d advantage i s f a l l a c i o u s because i t i s the duty of a s c h o o l board to spend the; t a x p a y e r s ' money as w i s e l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y as p o s s i b l e . T h i s , i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , can o n l y be donej i n -the case o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , i f t h e ' b o a r d knows f r o m i t s r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s where e v e r y . c e n t goes and, through a study of • 20 of these r e c o r d s , can make i n t e l l i g e n t comparisons o f c o s t s f o r any s p e c i f i c p e r i o d , (b) The. i n i t i a l o u t l a y on the p a r t of the board i s s m a l l * I t i s borne by t h e c o n t r a c t o r i n the f i r s t p l a c e , and r e p a i d t o him, by the board, over the p e r i o d of y e a r s of the c o n t r a c t , (c) The buses w i l l be b e t t e r cared f o r . I t i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a d r i v e r w i l l take b e t t e r c a r e . o f the bus i f he owns i t . The motives b e h i n d t h i s argument would be t w o f o l d , f i r s t , h i s i n t e r e s t i n h i s own p r o p e r t y and second, the. d e s i r e f o r p r o f i t . (d) T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n c o s t s are known a t the o u t s e t and the use o f the bus a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s , which tends t o i n c r e a s e c o s t s , i s h e l d t o a minimum. C o n t r a c t S p e c i f i c a t i o n s Modern b u s i n e s s , due m a i n l y . t o i t s c o m p l e x i t y , demands d e f i n i t e n e s s r e g a r d i n g agreements, p l a n s and c o s t s . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l i f any b u s i n e s s i s t o be kept on a sound f o o t i n g . S c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l s o demands a d e f i n i t e n e s s and c l a r i t y , and w h i l e the exact c o n t r a c t forms t o <be used may v a r y i n d e t a i l from d i s t r i c t to d i s t r i c t , the e s s e n t i a l s remain c o n s t a n t . From a study o f the l i t e r a t u r e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and of a number of c o n t r a c t forms the w r i t e r has made a l i s t o f f e a t u r e s which he b e l i e v e s e s s e n t i a l i n bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n t r a c t s . These may serve as a guide i n drawing up c o n t r a c t s . (1) A l l c o n t r a c t s must be s p e c i f i c so t h a t t h e r e may be no a m b i g u i t i e s over which disagreements may a r i s e l a t e r . 21 (2) The observance of a l l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s as co n t a i n e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t and of a l l r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h might be made by e i t h e r the Department of E d u c a t i o n or the S c h o o l Board r e l a t i n g t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n should be made a c o n d i t i o n of a l l c o n t r a c t s . (3) C o n t r a c t s s h o u l d be s i g n e d i n d u p l i c a t e b oth by the s e c r e t a r y o f the s c h o o l board and the pers o n or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the f i r m w i t h which the c o n t r a c t i s made. (4) P r o v i s i o n should be made f o r the c a r r y i n g o f adequate i n s u r a n c e by the c o n t r a c t o r . The amount of i n s u r a n c e c a r r i e d s h o u l d be s t a t e d and i t should a l s o be s t a t e d c l e a r l y who i s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the payment of the annual premiums. The p o l i c y should i n s u r e j o i n t l y the l i a b i l i t y of the s c h o o l board and the c o n t r a c t o r and must a t l e a s t i n c l u d e p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y and p r o p e r t y damage. (5) Yvhereas i n B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t of the expense of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s borne by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n the c o n t r a c t s should be approved by t h a t Department. (6) P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made i f p o s s i b l e f o r the changing o f the r o u t e s of the buses s h o u l d i t be found nec-e s s a r y d u r i n g the term. (7) P r o v i s i o n should a l s o be made f o r the t e r m i n a t i n g o f the c o n t r a c t should the c o n t r a c t o r f a i l to c a r r y out the terms to the l e t t e r . (8) The commencement date and date of t e r m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be on a l l c o n t r a c t s . (9) The c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r s e r v i c e s t o be r e n d e r e d by the 22 c o n t r a c t o r should be c l e a r l y s t a t e d . I t should be c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h whether such payments are t o be made on the b a s i s of a c t u a l m i l e s t r a v e l l e d , of c a l e n d a r months, of y e a r s o r whatever p l a n i s agreed upon. (10) The c o n t r a c t should c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n f o r the t e r -m i n a t i o n o f such c o n t r a c t by the mutual consent o f the p a r t i e s concerned. C o n t r a c t s should not be l e t b e f o r e f i r s t c a l l i n g f o r b i d s , the lowest or any b i d d e r not n e c e s s a r i l y to be acc e p t e d . Types o f C o n t r a c t s The f o u r main types o f c o n t r a c t s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s c h o o l bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may be c l a s s i f i e d a s : (1) C o n t r a c t e d v e h i c l e . T h i s c o n t r a c t i s made between the s c h o o l board and a c o n t r a c t o r who p r o v i d e s , o p e r a t e s and m a i n t a i n s the s c h o o l bus. (2) C h a s s i s o n l y . T h i s i s between the s c h o o l b oard and the c o n t r a c t o r who p r o v i d e s , o p e r a t e s and m a i n t a i n s the c h a s s i s . (3) D r i v e r C o n t r a c t - D i s t r i c t - o w n e d Bus. T h i s c o n t r a c t i s between the s c h o o l board which owns and m a i n t a i n s the bus and the d r i v e r who o p e r a t e s i t . (4) P a r e n t C o n t r a c t . A c o n t r a c t between a parent who p r o v i d e s , o p e r a t e s and m a i n t a i n s a conveyance f o r the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n of h i s own c h i l d r e n , a n d the s c h o o l board. T h i s , c o n t r a c t may p e r m i t the pa r e n t to t r a n s p o r t o t h e r c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the a r e a . £3 N o t i c e to B i d d e r s and C o n t r a c t Forms As a l r e a d y s t a t e d , the form which a c o n t r a c t or n o t i c e may take might vary s l i g h t l y from one d i s t r i c t to another but i n substance and e s s e n t i a l s i t remains the same. A f t e r making a study of, a number o f c o n t r a c t forms used by v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the w r i t e r has drawn up three examples w h i c h may be of. v a l u e i n drawing up o t h e r c o n t r a c t s . N o t i c e t o B i d d e r s N o t i c e i s hereby g i v e n t h a t s e a l e d b i d s w i l l be r e c e i v e d u n t i l E.M. _________ . , 194_, a t the o f f i c e of the Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , , B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r p u p i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e . Complete d e t a i l s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o u t e s , roads t o be t r a v e l l e d , time s c h e d u l e s , p u p i l s to be t r a n s p o r t e d , days of s e r v i c e , term of c o n t r a c t and s a t i s f a c t o r y equipment are a v a i l a b l e a t the above mentioned o f f i c e . The s u c c e s s f u l b i d d e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e j o i n t p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y and p r o p e r t y damage at h i s own expense to the amount of | .• . i n the former and $ - i n the l a t t e r . He must a l s o be l i c e n c e d t o d r i v e a s c h o o l bus a c c o r d i n g to the M o t o r - f e h i c l e A c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. A s u r e t y bond i n the sum o f $ i s n e c e s s a r y , c o n d i t i o n a l upon the f a i t h f u l performance o f a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s s p e c i f i e d i n the c o n t r a c t . A c e r t i f i e d cheque i n the sum o f $ .. must accompany each bid.,. The proceeds o f s a i d cheque t o remain the p r o p e r t y of the above mentioned Board o f School T r u s t e e s , i f the s u c c e s s f u l b i d d e r s h a l l n o t , w i t h i n days a f t e r n o t i c e o f acceptance of h i s b i d , e n t e r i n t o a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t and secure s a i d c o n t r a c t by the r e q u i r e d bond. Sec. of . S c h o o l Board The f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a c t form was drawn up by the w r i t e r a f t e r , a study o f , a number of c o n t r a c t forms which are i n use i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . C o n t r a c t f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n T h i s agreement e n t e r e d i n t o t h i s day o f , 194__, by and between the Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s o f B. C , h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e BOARD, and ________ of , , B.C., h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the CONTRACTOR, . W i t n e s s e t h : 1,The CONTRACTOR, f o r and i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the payments to be made to the s a i d CONTRACTOR by the BOARD as h e r e i n a f t e r s e t f o r t h , does hereby agree to re n d e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s under c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d and p r o v i d e d below: a. To f u r n i s h , operate and m a i n t a i n a t h i s own expense one s c h o o l bus t r a n s p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n to and from the _____ Sc h o o l each day the s c h o o l i s i n s e s s i o n f o r a p e r i o d o f b e g i n n i n g on the ______ day o f , 194_, over a r o u t e b e g i n n i n g a t • and r u n n i n g t r a n s p o r t i n g " a l l c h i l d r e n d e s i g n a t e d by the BOARD at times set by the BOARD. b. ,To change the r o u t e of the bus any time d u r i n g the s c h o o l year i f deemed n e c e s s a r y by the BOARD. c. To observe c a r e f u l l y s t a ndards o f equipment and o p e r a t i o n as r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t e or any r e g u l a t i o n s s e t down by the Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.G, or by the BOARD. d. To i n s u r e j o i n t l y , p r i o r t o the e f f e c t i v e date of t h i s agreement and at h i s own expense, the l i a b i l i t y of the s a i d 'CONTRACTOR., and t h a t of the BOARD f o r i n j u r y t o a person or persons to an amount of f , . , and p r o p e r t y damage to a v a l u e of i | _ , such i n s u r a n c e to be c a r r i e d by a company agr e e a b l e t o the s a i d CONTRACTOR and the BOARD. 2. The BOARD agrees, i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the s e r v i c e s rendered by the CONTRACTOR under t h i s agreement to pay to the s a i d CONTRACTOR: ( s t r o k e out those n o t r e q u i r e d ) a. The sum of ______ c e n t s f o r each m i l e a c t u a l l y t r a v e l l e d by the bus owned by the CONTRACTOR i n c a r r y i n g out the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s agreement. b. The sum of ... per c a l e n d a r month, d u r i n g the l i f e of t h i s agreement, p r o v i d i n g , however, t h a t the CONTRACTOR s h a l l not r e c e i v e any compensation d u r i n g the months of 26 o. The sum of _______ per s c h o o l year d u r i n g the l i f e of t h i s agreement payable i n ,• eq u a l monthly i n s t a l m e n t s of 3.a. I t i s e x p r e s s l y understood t h a t i n case of w i l f u l v i o l a t i o n of any o f the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s agree-ment the BOARD s h a l l t e r m i n a t e t h i s agreement and i t s h a l l be of f i o r f o r c e and e f f e c t whatever. b. Moreover, i t i s a l s o e x p r e s s l y understood t h a t t h i s agreement may be t e r m i n a t e d by the mutual consent of the s a i d BOARD and the CONTRACTOR and s h a l l be of no f o r c e and e f f e c t whatever. T h i s agreement s h a l l be s u b j e c t to the a p p r o v a l o f the Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I t s h a l l t e r m i n a t e on the _____ day of , 194__. Dated a t . B.C. t h i s ______ day o f ______ 194_. Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s Witness per , . f S e c r e t a r y ~~~ C o n t r a c t o r per The f o l l o w i n g d r i v e r - c o n t r a c t form i s suggested f o r the puppose o f a i d i n g o f f i c i a l s i n drawing up such a c o n t r a c t form. I t may be found n e c e s s a r y t o make adjustments or changes i n t h i s form to make i t ad a p t a b l e to any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . C o n t r a c t w i t h S c h o o l Bus D r i v e r T h i s agreement e n t e r e d i n t o t h i s ________ day o f , 194_, by and between the Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia .'hereinafter r e f e r r e d to as the BOARD and .•,'•• o f .. ., •., .. , s B r i t i s h Columbia h e r e i n -( s t r e e t ) ( c i t y ) a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the DRIVER. W i t n e s s e t h : The BOARD agrees to employ the DRIVER as a d r i v e r of a s c h o o l bus f o r the p e r i o d commencing and (day,month, ye a r ) ending ; a t a s a l a r y of $ .. • per hour, (day,month,year) day, month, y e a r . The DRIVER f u r t h e r agrees t o comply w i t h and observe a l l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s l a i d - down by s t a t u t e , by the Depart-ment of E d u c a t i o n and by the BOARD. I t i s e x p r e s s l y understood and agreed t o by both h e r e t o I t h a t upon the w i l f u l v i o l a t i o n of any o f the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s agreement by the DRIVER, theBOARD may an n u l t h i s c o n t r a c t , a n d d i s m i s s the DRIVER. Dated a t / B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s . day of , 1941. Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s Witness per S e c r e t a r y , ____ D r i v e r 28 Summary (1) The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s that i n a d i s t r i c t where o n l y a s m a l l number o f p u p i l s are t r a n s p o r t e d i t i s p r e f e r a b l e to c o n t r a c t f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment. (2) A n y adjustments which may have to be made d u r i n g the s c h o o l year are more e a s i l y made i f the buses are owned by the d i s t r i c t . (3) The w r i t e r i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t a g r e a t e r degree of c o n t r o l can be e x e r c i s e d when the board owns i t s own buses and t h i s tends towards i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y . (4) Though t h e r e was not enough d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia to warrant the drawing o f a c o n c l u s i o n , a study of' the American a u t h o r i t i e s r e v e a l s the f a c t t h a t d i s t r i c t - o w n e d buses are more ec o n o m i c a l t o operate t h a n c o n t r a c t e d buses. (5) I t i s i m p o r t a n t to note t h a t d i s t r i c t - o w n e d buses are o p e r a t e d on a n o n - p r o f i t b a s i s . (6) The arguments i n f a v o r of c o n t r a c t e d buses i s based l a r g e l y on t h r e e p o i n t s , (a) l e s s c l e r i c a l h e l p , (b) no i n i t i a l o u t l a y and (c) b e t t e r bus c a r e . (7) I n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r t h e r e a number of e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n t r a c t s , (a) C o n t r a c t s must be s p e c i f i c , (b) They must p r o v i d e f o r the observance of a l l r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , (c) They must a l s o p r o v i d e f o r the c a r r y i n g of i n s u r a n c e , the p o s s i b l e changing of r o u t e s and the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the c o n t r a c t by the board or by mutual consent. Gd.) They should be approved by the Department of E d u c a t i o n , (e) They should s t a t e be r e c e i v e d and when i t i s t o be c o n t a i n the date o f commencement c o n t r a c t . 29 c l e a r l y the remuneration to p a i d . ( f ) They should a l s o and t e r m i n a t i o n o f the CHAPTER V TRANSPORTATION IE BRITISH COLUMBIA I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s chapter no attempt w i l l he made to p r e s e n t a complete p i c t u r e o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, because of l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t d a t a . However, i t i s hoped t h a t the f a c t s p r e s e n t e d here w i l l prove a v a l u a b l e a i d i n a b e t -t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Had a more complete a n a l y s i s been p o s s i b l e the c o s t s shown here c o u l d have been based on the number and l e n g t h o f the r o u t e s or on the p e r - p u p l l per-day p e r - m i l e b a s i s and thereby have had a g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Areas Having T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n movement has grown r a p i d l y s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1905. Table IV shows t h a t i n 1938-39 there were 734 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f wh i c h 120 t r a n s p o r t e d p u p i l s . to and from s c h o o l . Thus i n 1938-39 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16.3 per cent of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t r a n s p o r t e d s c h o o l p u p i l s , e i t h e r by motor bus, horse-drawn v e h i c l e o r some o t h e r conveyance.. Table I T T o t a l Number Sc h o o l D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1 and Number Having T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . ____ T o t a l Number C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ;No. Areas H a v i n g T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C i t i e s D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a -33 24 9 20 t i v e areas R u r a l D i s t r i c t s 2 675 1 90 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e In o r d e r t o c o l l e c t f a c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was prepar e d and sent o u t . The year 1938-39 was taken because the f i g u r e s f o r t h i s : year would be the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e . . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent t o the c i t i e s was o f a more d e t a i l e d n a t u r e than t h a t sent t o the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . The reason f o r t h i s was t h a t i n the c i t i e s a l a r g e r number of buses was used and more complete i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . I n r u r a l a r e a s where o n l y one bus was r u n n i n g d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n was h a r d l y to be ex p e c t e d . Copies o f these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are to be found i n the appendix. I n a l l , s i x t y - e i g h t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent out and the response was v e r y g r a t i f y i n g . Table V. shows the number sent to c i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a s , d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d - r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , a l s o the number of Taken f r o m : L i s t o f S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h Barnes and Addresses of P r i n c i p a l s and S e c r e t a r i e s , Mimeo. by Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C. r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d from each of these t y p e s of a r e a s . Table V Number o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Sent and Re c e i v e d - By Areas Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : G i t i e s Educ'1 Admin. Areas D i s t . Munic.. R u r a l D i s t r i c t s .Total Number Sent 9 1 a' 19 40 68 Number Received 7 0 13 35 55 One was not sent to Burnaby because t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' i s not a very i m p o r t a n t i t e m - a s m a l l number of p u p i l s r e c e i v e car or bus f a r e . While the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v e a l e d some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g the amount of da t a was inadequate f o r the making of a c c u r a t e comparisons. T o t a l Costs Table V I shows the t o t a l c o s t of e d u c a t i o n , the t o t a l c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the p e r - a r e a average c o s t o f t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , the h i g h e s t , l o w e s t and average p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t were used f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the y e a r 1938-39. Table V I Costs of E d u c a t i o n and C o s t s of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . i n B r i t i s h Cc jl u m b i a f o r 1938-39 Item C i t i e s D i s t r i c t Munic* l i t i e s R u r a l D i s t r i c t s :Number R e p l y i n g ^•Total Cost o f E d u c a t i o n 7 $458,626.02 15 $686,684.96 55 |361,11$.15 * The A n n u a l Report o f the P u b l i c Schools o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958-59, Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Table V I - c o n t i n u e d Item C i t i e s D i s t r i c t M u n i c ' l i t i e s R u r a l D i s t r i c t s T o t a l Cost o f T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n $35,051.50 |54,615.96 $62,362.44 .Average (per area) c o s t of T r a n s p o r t ' n 5,007.36 4,201.23 1,781.78 Highe s t percentage used f o r Transport»n 29.1 35.3 31.4 Lowest percentage , used f o r T r a n s p o r t ' n .5 2.2 2.78 Average percentage • used f o r T r a n s p o r t ' n 13.6 11.9 10.1 As a l r e a d y s t a t e d (see Table IV) t h e r e were n i n e c i t i e s , twenty d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , one e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e a r e a and n i n e t y r u r a l d i s t r i c t s p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o a l l the c i t i e s , t o the e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a , to n i n e t e e n (see f o o t n o t e (Table V) d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and to f o r t y r u r a l a r e a s . The f o r t y r u r a l a r e a s t o which/the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent were p i c k e d a t random. The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t f o r t y would be a s a t i s f a c t o r y numberbbecause he assumed t h a t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , each r u r a l a r e a would use o n l y one or at the most two buses and the r e would ho doubtv.be a - ^ g r e a t . : . s i m i l a r ! t y i t y among them as t o p o l i c y pursued, c o s t s and t y p e s of buses. Moreover, i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t records, kept by r u r a l d i s t r i c t s s c h o o l boards would not be i n any g r e a t d e t a i l . T h i s was found to be t r u e . While the number of p u p i l s t r a n s p o r t e d i n the r u r a l areas from which r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d ranged from two to two hundred per d i s t r i c t , the m a j o r i t y ranged from two to e i g h t . Such a s m a l l number does not c a l l f o r the keeping of d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s . Ownership of Buses In a l l t h r e e types of areas t h e r e was a preponderance of p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d buses. I n o t h e r words most of the areas c o n t r a c t e d f o r t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Table V I I shows the number of d i s t r i c t s r e p l y i n g t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the t o t a l number of buses i n use, the number owned by the d i s t r i c t and the number c o n t r a c t e d f o r . Table, V I I . Types o f Bus Ownership i n B r i t i s h Columbia - By Areas Areas J No.Replying T o t a l No. Buses i n Use No.Owned by D i s t r i c t No.Gontracted f o r C i t i e s 7 26 .0 26 D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l ' s 1 „ 34 7 27 -Rural : D i s t r i c t s 35 44 0 44 T o t a l s 55 104 . 7 97 The r a t i o o f c o n t r a c t e d buses to owned buses as shown i n the above t a b l e i s v e r y h i g h . What j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s back of the p r e f e r e n c e f o r c o n t r a c t e d buses i s not c l e a r . I n some eases of course i t may be a n e c e s s i t y r a t h e r th'an a p r e f e r e n c e . I n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , the c o n t r a c t e d bus i s p r e f e r a b l e i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s where o n l y one bus may be i n use and where o n l y s i x or e i g h t p u p i l s are t r a n s p o r t e d . The i n i t i a l o u t l a y f o r the purchase of a bus and f o r p r o v i d i n g a p l a c e to keep and r e p a i r i t may be too heavy a burden f o r many r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . I t would appear t h a t c o n t r a c t e d buses e n t a i l c o n s i d e r -a b l y l e s s c l e r i c a l work, and t h i s f e a t u r e p o s s i b l y has a s t r o n g a p p e a l f o r s c h o o l boards. I t i s much e a s i e r to c a l l f o r b i d s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and have the problem s e t t l e d f o r the next t h r e e or- f i v e y e a r s , depending on the l e n g t h of the c o n t r a c t . Moreover, i t i s the c o n t r a c t o r who must worry over such m a t t e r s as i n s u r a n c e , d e p r e c i a t i o n , r e p a i r s and maint-enance, and not the s c h o o l board. However, the f a c t must not be o v e r l o o k e d t h a t the board i s the spender of the people's money and s h o u l d v a l u e t h a t a u t h o r i t y as a s a c r e d t r u s t . S e a t i n g Arrangement Table V I I I shows the number of buses w i t h l e n g t h w i s e and c r o s s w i s e s e a t i n g i n the c i t i e s and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n s o f the M o t o r - v e h i c l e Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e , i s s u e d on J u l y 25, 1939, l e n g t h w i s e s e a t i n g i s not p e r m i t t e d , except by s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n , i n new buses c a r r y i n g over twelve p u p i l s . A c c o r d i n g t o a d v i c e from the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e Department the purpose o f t h i s r e g u l a t i o n i s not Only t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r comfort f o r p u p i l s but a l s o t o a v o i d unnecessary t r o u b l e which i s more l i k e l y t o a r i s e i n buses which have l o n g i t u d i n a l s e a t i n g . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n the t r a n s p o r t i n g o f a d o l e s c e n t p u p i l s . Table V I I I s S e a t i n g Arrangements o f Buses i n Seven C i t i e s and T h i r t e e n D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia Area No.Buses L o n g i t u d i n a l S e a t i n g C r o s s w i s e S e a t i n g Combination C i t i e s 26 14 12 0 D i s t r i c t • Muni c i p a l i t i e s 34 11 1 S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y T a b l e I X shows the number o f buses by s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y i n seven c i t i e s and t h i r t e e n d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a t i e l e s i n B r i t i s h . Columbia.. T a b l e I X The Number of Buses by S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y i n Seven C i t i e s and T h i r t e e n D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y No.of Buses T o t a l C i t i e s D i s t r i c t M unic. 10 or l e s s 1 0 1 11 t o 15 0 0 0 16 t o 20 0 0 0 21 to 25 1 0 ' 1 26 t o 30 0 3 3 31 to 35 2 5 7 36 t o 40 3 5 8 41 to 45 4 6 10 46 to 50 13 11 24 Over 50 2 4 6 The l o n g e s t r o u t e t r a v e l l e d by any bus i n the seven c i t i e s was f o u r t e e n m i l e s and the s h o r t e s t , tvo m i l e s . The l o n g e s t r o u t e s ranged from two m i l e s to f o u r t e e n and the s h o r t e s t r o u t e s from two m i l e s t o t h i r t e e n m i l e s . From the r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d from the seven c i t i e s the w r i t e r observed t h a t i n one c i t y the l o n g e s t r o u t e was two m i l e s . One c i t y r e p o r t e d i t s s h o r t e s t r o u t e was two m i l e s w h i l e another r e p o r t e d the s h o r t e s t t o be t h i r t e e n m i l e s . The r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d from the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s showed t h a t the l o n g e s t r o u t e s ranged from e i g h t m i l e s t o t h i r t y - f i v e and the s h o r t e s t r o u t e s ranged from one m i l e to s i x t e e n . D i s t a n c e P u p i l s T r a n s p o r t e d (One way o n l y ) There was v e r y l i t t l e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the d i s t a n c e (one way o n l y ) t h a t p u p i l s were t r a n s p o r t e d . Only one c i t y and e i g h t d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e p o r t e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n . • ' Table X shows the d i s t a n c e s i n m i l e s (one way) and the number of p u p i l s t r a n s p o r t e d i n the e i g h t d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Table X D i s t a n c e s P u p i l s T r a n s p o r t e d (One Way) i n E i g h t D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t a n c e T r a n s p o r t e d ( i n m i l e s ) Number o f P u p i l s L e s s than 1 1 - 2 5 - 4 5 - 6 7 - 8 9 - 10 Over 10 0 58 284 545 91 59 81 T o t a l Median d i s t a n c e 898 5.6 m i l e s Maximum. Time (One Way) P u p i l s were on the Bus Here a g a i n many o f the areas had no a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a -t i o n due m a i n l y to the l a r g e number of buses c o n t r a c t e d f o r . I t was p o s s i b l y f e l t t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n was unnecessary because the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f the p u p i l s was governed by c o n t r a c t and as l o n g as t h a t c o n t r a c t was c a r r i e d out d e t a i l s were u n i m p o r t a n t . However, Table X I shows such i n f o r m a t i o n as was a v a i l a b l e . Here i s shown the maximum time (one way) i n minutes t r a v e l l e d by p u p i l s i n f o u r c i t i e s and ten d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 39 Table X I Maximum. Time P u p i l s were i n T r a n s i t i n Pour C i t i e s and Ten D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia Maximum Time i n M i n u t e s 0 - 1 5 16 - 30 3 1 - 4 5 46 - 50 51 - 60 Over 1 hour No. of C i t i e s R e p o r t i n g No. of D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s R e p o r t i n g 0 3 3 1 2 1 Length o f C o n t r a c t The maximum l e n g t h of c o n t r a c t i s f i v e y e a r s a c c o r d i n g 1 to the S c h o o l Law o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Table X I I shows the l e n g t h of c o n t r a c t s i n seven c i t i e s , t h i r t e e n d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and t h i r t y - t w o r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l s o the modal lengths.. Table- X I I ' Length o f C o n t r a c t s i n Years Length of C o n t r a c t s ( Y r s . ) No.of C i t i e s No.of D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s No. of H R u r a l D i s t . X z 0 0 0 1 1 4 24 2 0 0 0 3 1 6 6 r , ... , .. 0 1 0 5 5 2 2 Modal l e n g t h 5 y r s . 3 y r s . 1 y r . Only t h i r t y - t w o R u r a l D i s t r i c t s r e p l i e d . 1. P u b l i c S c h o o l A c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, S e c t i o n 136, page 72 From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the above t a b l e i t cam be seen t h a t the modal l e n g t h o f c o n t r a c t i s h i g h e s t i n c i t i e s and lowest i n r u r a l a r e a s . Yvhether the c o n t r a c t s are l e t on a b a s i s of convenience, economy or con t i n g e n c y i s not c l e a r . I t would seem t h a t i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s where t h e r e i s o n l y a s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n to be t r a n s p o r t e d , r e q u i r i n g o n l y one bus, and where the r e i s o n l y one person i n t h a t d i s t r i c t owning a conveyance, a p e r i o d o f c o n t r a c t l o n g e r than one year would be unnecessary. One a r e a r e p o r t e d t h a t costs.were p o s s i b l y h i g h e r than they s h o u l d be due to the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was o n l y one bi d d e r f o r the c o n t r a c t and he r e c e i v e d i t year a f t e r y e a r . Though i t would n ot be f a i r t o say t h a t c o s t s are n e c e s s a r i l y h i g h e r when t h e r e i s o n l y one b i d d e r , y e t i t i s - t h e o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r t h a t c o s t s tend t o v a r y i n v e r s e l y as the number of b i d d e r s . An attempt was made t o f i n d out, what r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between l e n g t h of c o n t r a c t and c o s t s . T h i s proved to be u n s u c c e s s f u l because t h e r e were not enough cases to warrant a comparison being, made. However, l e n g t h o f c o n t r a c t i s one of the many f a c t o r s e n t e r i n g i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o s t s . P e r - P u p i l Gost I n c a l c u l a t i n g p e r - p u p i l c o s t the number of s c h o o l days, namely one hundred n i n e t y - o n e was used. I n a few cases, areas r e p o r t e d c o s t s based on two hundred days and i n these cases . c a l c u l a t i o n s were made a c c o r d i n g l y . T'able X I I I shows t h a t c o s t s were based on 1064 p u p i l s i n the c i t i e s , 2396 p u p i l s i n the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and 1022 p u p i l s i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . I t w i l l . b e seen t h a t the range of c o s t s was much g r e a t e r i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s than i n e i t h e r the c i t i e s or d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The average annual c o s t p e r p u p i l i n r u r a l a reas i s n e a r l y double what i t i s i n the c i t i e s . I t s h o u l d be noted, however, t h a t w h i l e t h i s average annual c o s t per p u p i l i n r u r a l a r e a s i s based on a s l i g h t l y lower number of p u p i l s , i t i s based on a much g r e a t e r number.of a r e a s . S a b l e X I I I The Range of C o s t s and the Average Costs P e r P u p i l Per Annum and Per Day i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938-39 I t e m . C i t i e s D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l . R u r a l D i s t r i c t s Number R e p o r t i n g 7 13 35 No. P u p i l s T r a n s p o r t e d 1064 / 2396 1022 Range of P e r - P u p i l Cost P e r Annum |15.56-|48.65 $13.19-150.00 : $6-.54-$l6©.0C Average P e r - p u p i l Cost Per Annum. $32.94 $22.78 $61.02 Range o f Cost P e r P u p i l P e r Day 8.20-25.50 6.8^-26.20 3.40-750 Average Cost Per P u p i l Per Day 17.30 11.90 31.90 Reports One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia was t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y no r e p o r t s of any k i n d were handed i n by d r i v e r s e i t h e r to the p r i n c i p a l s or the s c h o o l boards. I n the c i t i e s d a i l y r e p o r t s were sub-m i t t e d i n o n l y one case where a v e r b a l r e p o r t was g i v e n and i n no case was e i t h e r ,a p ' e r - t r l p r e p o r t or even a weekly r e p o r t handed i n . Two c i t i e s r e p l i e d t h a t they r e c e i v e d monthly r e p o r t s and one r e c e i v e d . r e p o r t s "when needed". Of the t h i r t e e n r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d from d i s t r i c t m unicip-a l i t i e s none r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s of any k i n d . The r u r a l areas;were somewhat b e t t e r . E l e v e n r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g monthly r e p o r t s and,one r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s "when n e c e s s a r y . " The r e m a i n i n g t w e n t y - t h r e e were not i n r e c e i p t o f r e p o r t s of any n a t u r e . The e n q u i r y as to the use o f p o i n t e d forms e l i c i t e d the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t o n l y one c i t y had any such forms. Both the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s were unanimous i n t h e i r ansv^er "No" t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Table XIV .The Number and Types of Reports R e c e i v e d by the Three Types o f Areas Number r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s j No.using Areas D a i l y Per T r i p Weekly Monthly None at A l l P r i n t e d forms C i t i e s ' ( D i s t r i c t Munlc. •• R u r a l D i s t r i c t s 0 one verbg 0 0 0 1) 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 11 23 3(One -hen needed) 13 23 (One-"When needed") 1 0 0 43 Road C o n d i t i o n s Most enc o u r a g i n g r e p o r t s came i n about road c o n d i t i o n s throughout the p r o v i n c e . Table XV shows t h a t of the seven c i t i e s , f i v e r e p o r t e d the roads as good, and two as f a i r . S i g h t d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e p o r t e d the roads as good, f o u r as f a i r and one as poor. The r u r a l a r e a s , i n which one would expect bad roads, r e p o r t e d i n twenty-two cases the roads as good, i n e l e v e n , f a i r , i n one, poor and i n one, very poor. T a b l e XV C o n d i t i o n s of Roads i n B r i t i s h Columbia Over Which Schoo. L Buses T r a v e l - A c c o r d i n g to Are a A r e a No. R e p o r t i n g Road C o n d i t i o n s Good F a i r Poor Very Poor C i t i e s 7 4 3 0 0 D i s t r i c t Munic. 13 8 4 •1 0 R u r a l D i s t r i c t s 35 22 11 1 1 Summary (1) The d a t a from which the a n a l y s i s was b u i l t up were taken from the S i x t y - E i g h t h Annual Report o f the P u b l i c S chools o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938-39," and from r e p l i e s to q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . (2) The t o t a l amount spent by the seven c i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n was $458,626.02, by the t h i r t e e n d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p -a l i t i e s $686,634.96 and by the t h i r t y - f i v e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s $361,117.13. The t o t a l c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n these areas was 135,051.50, $54,615.96 a M $'62,362.44 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The percentage o f the t o t a l s c h o o l e x p e n d i t u r e used f o r t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n ranged i n the c i t i e s from .5 t o 29.1, i n the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s from 2.2 to 35.3 and i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s from 2.78 to .31,4. The average percentage was, c i t i e s 13.6, d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 11.9 and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s 10.1. (3) The combined t o t a l of buses r e p o r t e d was one hundred f o u r , of which n i n e t y - s e v e n were p r i v a t e l y owned and seven d i s t r i c t - o w n e d . I n the c i t i e s 1064 p u p i l s were t r a n s p o r t e d , i n the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 2396 and i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s 1022. (4) The m a j o r i t y of buses i n the c i t i e s and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had l o n g i t u d i n a l s e a t i n g . ;()5) The" l o n g e s t bus r o u t e s were i n the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p -a l i t i e s . (6) C o n t r a c t s r a n f o r the l o n g e s t p e r i o d i n the c i t i e s . The m a j o r i t y of c o n t r a c t s i n the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s were f o r one y e a r . (7) The average annual c o s t per p u p i l f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w a s : : C i t i e s $32.94, d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s $22.78 and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s $61.02. •(B) The average per p u p i l per day c o s t was: C i t i e s 17.3c/. d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 11.9c/ and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s 31.9.0. (9) The m a j o r i t y o f s c h o o l boards r e c e i v e d no r e p o r t s of any k i n d from bus d r i v e r s . (10) Only one o f the combined t o t a l of f i f t y - f i v e a r e a s r e p o r t e d the use of p r i n t e d r e p o r t forms. (11) The m a j o r i t y of the a r e a s r e p o r t e d road c o n d i t i o n s as good. C h i l l i w a c k 1 C h i l l i w a c k i s one of the a r e a s i n B r i t i s h Columbia which has a f a i r l y l a r g e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and the w r i t e r f e l t t h a t a d e t a i l e d study of t h i s system would be v a l u a b l e . I t has had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b oth c o n t r a c t e d and d i s t r i c t - o w n e d buses. However, a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment i s now owned by the d i s t r i c t . The f o l l o w i n g summary shows the p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p u p i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a . a T o t a l Gross c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the year 1939-40 |9,644.82 'Total net c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 6,192.27 Number o f buses owned, by the d i s t r i c t 7 T o t a l number o f p u p i l s c a r r i e d i n 1939-40 61,471 Gross annual c o s t per p u p i l $10.97. Net annual c o s t per p u p i l ' ' $ 7.13 Gross c o s t per p u p i l per day $ .059 Net c o s t per p u p i l per day $ .038 Number of d r i v e r s 7 T o t a l bus m i l e a g e 60,402 m i l e s V The w r i t e r i s i n d e b t e d to Mr. Carson McGuire, S u p e r v i s i n g P r i n c i p a l of C h i l l i w a c k s c h o o l s , f o r the above i n f o r m a t i o n . He w i l l i n g l y gave of h i s t i m e , and h i s a s s i s t a n c e was much a p p r e c i a t e d . Longest r o u t e (one way) any bus t r a v e l s 15.8 m i l e s S h o r t e s t r o u t e (one way) any bus t r a v e l s 8.8 m i l e s Net c o s t per bus m i l e $ .102 I n c l u d e s : Upkeep, S u p p l i e s , J u l y - A u g u s t expense, T i r e s , D e p r e c i a t i o n & I n t e r e s t charges. ^ I n c l u d e s : G e n e r a l upkeep, s u p p l i e s , S a l a r i e s , J u l y - A u g u s t expense & T i r e s . The buses are kept i n a bus depot which has a r e p a i r shop The depot and r e p a i r shop are i n charge of a su p e r i n t e n d e n t who i s p a i d an annual s a l a r y ( t welve months). The s a l a r y o f the d r i v e r s i s based on ten months and i s not dependent on the number of days the buses r u n . T h i s p r e v e n t s any d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g i f an e x t r a t r i p has to be t a k e n . D r i v e r s a re p a i d from f o r t y d o l l a r s t o f i f t y d o l l a r per month and work a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e to f o u r hours per day. Gas, O i l and R e p a i r s Gas and o i l are c o n t r a c t e d f o r from l o c a l d e a l e r s . R e p a i r s are made by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . I f t h e r e are any r e p a i r s he i s unable t o make or any garage s u p p l i e s he r e q u i r e s , he r e c e i v e s an o r d e r f o r such s u p p l i e s o r r e p a i r work. T h i s does n ot g e n e r a l l y r u n over e l e v e n or twelve d o l l a r s p e r month. Bus Routes The bus r o u t e s are l a i d out a t the b e g i n n i n g of the term and i n the case of the s h o r t e r r o u t e s buses may make two or th r e e t r i p s . W a i t i n g p e r i o d s , when p u p i l s must w a i t f o r the bus, are m i n i m i z e d . The average bus t r a v e l s about f o r t y - s i x m i l e s p er day. P u p i l s must a r r i v e a t the s c h o o l f i v e minutes b e f o r e n i n e o ' c l o c k i n the morning. They l e a v e t e n minutes a f t e : s c h o o l c l o s e s i n the a f t e r n o o n . Costs Costs have been d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s : 1. Net O p e r a t i n g Costs a. Cost of g a s o l i n e b. C o s t , o f . o i l 9. Cost o f grease d. Cost of replacements and r e p a i r s e. Shop s u p p l i e s and equipment f . D r i v e r s ' s a l a r i e s g. Cost o f s u p e r v i s i o n h. J u l y - A u g u s t expense 2. F i x e d Costs a. Payments on buses b. I n t e r e s t on bus c o s t s c. Insurance on buses d. D e p r e c i a t i o n on buses and shops, e t c . D e p r e c i a t i o n The l i f e of a bus i s taken as 100,000 m i l e s . On the average each bus r u n s 10,000 m i l e s or one-tenth of i t s l i m i l e a g e every y e a r . T h e r e f o r e on t h i s b a s i s d e p r e c i a t i o n i s c a l c u l a t e d as o n e - t e n t h o r t e n p e r c e n t . The c h i e f c o s t s upon which comparisons or e s t i m a t e s are made are the: 1. Net Cost a. P e r b u s - m i l e . b. Per p u p i l 2. Gross C o s t : (Net + F i x e d C o s t s ) a. P e r b u s - m i l e b. Per p u p i l S u p e r v i s i o n The bus d r i v e r has t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a t e a c h e r i n the matter o f d i s c i p l i n e w h i l e the p u p i l s are passengers o f h i s bus. R e p o r t s Each d r i v e r r e c e i v e s a monthly bus c h a r t . On t h i s he f i l l s i n such t h i n g s a s : a. Number o f m i l e s t r a v e l l e d b. T o t a l number of p u p i l s c a r r i e d c. Number o f g a l l o n s o f g a s o l i n e used d. Number o f q u a r t s o f o i l used e. Other l e s s i m p o r t a n t d e t a i l s These c h a r t s are handed t o the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t who i n t u r n makes out a complete r e p o r t which he sends t o the s c h o o l board. From these c h a r t s are c a l c u l a t e d the c o s t o f g a s o l i n e per m i l e , d r i v e r s ' wages per m i l e and the c o s t p e r p u p i l per m i l e * Owner v e r s u s C o n t r a c t e d Buses The owned buses have been found to be more s a t i s f a c t o r y * This i s a t t r i b u t e d to two f a c t o r s : 1. They a r e l e s s expensive to o p e r a t e . 2. They permit o f a greater, degree of c o n t r o l . 1 Armstrong For purposes o f comparison the w r i t e r submits the f o l -l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Armstrong. Armstrong c o n t r a c t s f o r i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the c o n t r a c t s b e i n g made f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s . The f o l l o w i n g summary shows the p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p u p i l s i n Armstrong. T o t a l c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the y e a r 1939-40 $11,700.31 T o t a l number of buses c o n t r a c t e d f o r 7 T o t a l number of p u p i l s c a r r i e d i n 1939-40 72,198 Number of d r i v e r s 7 T o t a l annual cost per p u p i l $32.00 T o t a l c o s t per p u p i l per day 16 - 170 Longest r o u t e (one way) any bus t r a v e l s 13 m i l e s S h o r t e s t r o u t e (one way) any bus t r a v e l s 7 m i l e s A unique s i t u a t i o n arose a t the end of 1937 when the c o n t r a c t s t h e n i n e x i s t e n c e t e r m i n a t e d . New t e n d e r s were 1. For the above i n f o r m a t i o n the w r i t e r i s i n d e b t e d to Mr. .G.E.Clay, P r i n c i p a l Armstrong C o n s o l i d a t e d Elementary S c h o o l . He w i l l i n g l y gave o f h i s time t o d i s c u s s the p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t as ; he knows them r e l a t i v e to Armstrong. L a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n through correspondence was a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d . c a l l e d f o r ne x t y e a r . The bus d r i v e r s h e l d a meeting and agreed t h a t each one sh o u l d b i d on o n l y one r o u t e , so t h a t f o r each r o u t e t h e r e was o n l y one b i d d e r . These b i d s were con-s i d e r e d a l t o g e t h e r too h i g h . The o f f i c i a l t r u s t e e then c a l l e d a meeting of the bus owners t o f i n d out why the b i d s were so h i g h . The r e a s o n advanced was t h a t t h e r e was no guarantee t h a t a t the end of the f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t p e r i o d the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e Dep-artment would not take t h e bus o f f the r o a d . I n o t h e r words t h e r e was no guarantee t h a t the bus would pass the i n s p e c t i o n r e q u i r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e b e f o r e a new c o n t r a c t was e n t e r e d i n t o . Hence i t was n e c e s s a r y to r e c e i v e , i n a d d i t i o n t o s a l a r y , the f u l l i n v estment on the bus p l u s the f u l l c a r r y i n g charge i n the f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t p e r i o d . Thus the c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b y the owner of any bus might be shown as Cost per year - Investment+Carrying C h a r g e - S a l a r y 5 As a r e s u l t of t h i s meeting new 'contracts were drawn up. The c o n t r a c t o r ' s d a i l y r e muneration i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n two p a r t s , v i z . , a b a s i c sum t o cover the c a p i t a l - i n v e s t m e n t and f i x e d c harges, i n c l u d i n g l i c e n c e s , i n s u r a n c e , r e p a i r s and re p l a c e m e n t s , and a m i l e a g e r a t e to cover the d r i v e r ' s wages, gas, o i l , and chains.- A l s o the amount, of v a r i a t i o n i n re m u n e r a t i o n , o c c a s i o n e d by changes I n the l e n g t h of the r o u t e , i s d e f i n i t e l y p r o v i d e d f o r and does n o t become a matter o f n e g o t i a t i o n each time a change becomes n e c e s s a r y . M i l e a g e r a t e s a p p l y t o the one-way d i s t a n c e from the s c h o o l to the f u r t h e s t , point, on the r o u t e . They v a r y from f o r t y t o f o r t y - s e v e n cents a c c o r d i n g to the d i f f i c u l t y of the r o u t e . Sno?/ c o n d i t i o n s , r o a d s u r f a c e s and g r a d i e n t s are con-s i d e r e d when mileage r a t e s are b e i n g determined. The b a s i c sum, i s p a i d f o r every, p r e s c r i b e d s c h o o l day r e g a r d l e s s o f whether or not s c h o o l i s i n s e s s i o n . M i l e a g e r a t e s , however, are p a i d o n l y f o r a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n of the bus. The purpose of the b a s i c sum i s t o safeguard the c o n t r a c t o r ' s investment i n case the s c h o o l s are c l o s e d f o r one o r more of the p r e s c r i b e d s c h o o l days. T h i s i s important where the s c h o o l i s c l o s e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d due t o an epidemic. The c o n t r a c t s ' do not p r o v i d e f o r cash p r o f i t s on the c a p i t a l investment d u r i n g the f i r s t f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d of the l i f e o f the v e h i c l e . D u r i n g t h a t time, the v e h i c l e i s p a i d f o r and the p r o f i t a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t the bus has been both p a i d f o r and m a i n t a i n e d i n good c o n d i t i o n and i s s u i t a b l e f o r , a second f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t or f o r some o t h e r use. The s e c u r i t y o f the b a s i c sum c l a u s e and the knowledge t h a t , p r o v i d e d the c o n t r a c t o r has^proved t r u s t w o r t h y , h i s c o n t r a c t w i l l be renewed, has made c o n t r a c t o r s w i l l i n g to o p e r a t e at f i g u r e s lower t h a n they o t h e r w i s e would c o n s i d e r s a t i s f a c t o r y . The b a s i c sum was a r r i v e d a t as f o l l o w s : The cash p r i c e o f a new bus (1938), f u l l y equipped, was $2775.00'. The c o n t r a c t o r made a cash payment of $800 and the balance was f i n a n c e d over a p e r i o d of 3|- y e a r s a t bank i n t e r e s t . . 52 The b a s i c d a i l y sum was computed f o r . a f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t p e r i o d as f o l l o w s : C o n t r a c t o r ' s o r i g i n a l investment $800.00 I n t e r e s t on $800 f o r 5 y e a r s a t 5% 240.00 Amount.involved i n f i n a n c i n g and r e t i r i n g ' u n p a i d balance on bus 2221.20 C o n t r a c t o r ' s p o r t i o n of i n s u r a n c e (5x$50) 150.00 L i c e n c e of ees c ;' ' ' .-,, ('5x$90) 450.00 Upkeep and replacements (5 y e a r s ) 400.00 $4261.20 A p p r o x i m a t e l y 950 s c h o o l days i n f i v e y e a r s . 1/950 o f $4261.20 i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4.50 I n computing m i l e a g e c o s t s drum p r i c e s f o r gas and o i l were used. The d r i v e r s ' wages were based on.the m i l e a g e of the > r o u t e . Wages ranged from f o r t y t o f o r t y - t h r e e c e n t s p e r m i l e depending on road c o n d i t i o n s . I n drawing up the c o n t r a c t s each y e a r , no comparisons are made w i t h c o s t s of o t h e r y e a r s . However, a l l c o n t r a c t s are approved by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n b e f o r e b e i n g s i g n e d . C o n t r a c t v e r s u s D i s t r i c t Ownership The c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s t o be encountered when a d i s t r i c t owns i t s own buses were suggested as f o l l o w s : (1) F i n a n c i n g the i n i t i a l o u t l a y . Mr. C l a y b e l i e v e d t h a t the e x t r a t a x a t i o n r e q u i r e d to pay f o r buses would be too heavy a burden o n the r a t e p a y e r s . 53 (2) O b t a i n i n g d r i v e r s . He f e l t t h a t i t would be d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n d r i v e r s because o f the odd hours. (3) No s a v i n g . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t a f t e r t a l c i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n such items as s t o r a g e c o s t s , r e p a i r s and super-v i s i o n t h e r e would be no s a v i n g . S i z e of Buses I t was found t h a t the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n decreased as the s i z e o f t h e bus i n c r e a s e d . T h i s a p p l i e s o n l y where a l a r g e bus i s p r a c t i c a b l e . S u p e r v i s i o n The bus d r i v e r has f u l l a u t h o r i t y over the p u p i l s w h i l e they are passengers of h i s bus. The m o n i t o r system was.• t r i e d and found not t o be s u c c e s s f u l . R e p o r t s No r e p o r t s were handed i n by the d r i v e r s to the p r i n c i p a l or s c h o o l b o a r d . Summary • I n comparing the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems of two c i t i e s such as C h i l l i w a c k and Armstrong i t i s n e c e s s a r y to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n weather c o n d i t i o n s and t e r r a i n . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems of these two c i t i e s b e a r s out the o p i n i o n <bf the w r i t e r t h a t where c o n d i t i o n s are f a v o r a b l e , owning i s cheaper than c o n t r a c t i n g , but i t n e c e s s i t a t e s a g r e a t e r amount of work on the. p a r t of the s c h o o l b o a r d s . The ownership of buses r e q u i r e s the keeping o f d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s . 54 I n an e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t most of the American a u t h o r i t i e s , w i t h whom the w r i t e r had c o n t a c t , were o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s cheaper to own the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment. 55 CHAPTER 71 COST QE TRANSPORTATION S u p e r v i s i o n I n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of any problem r e l a t i v e to c o s t s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e r e are f o u r important f a c t o r s which must be kept i n mind. Any s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t system must: (1) Be adequate. (2) Be s a f e . (.3) Be c o m f o r t a b l e . (4) Be e c o n o m i c a l . The f i r s t t h r e e are v e r y important and should not be s a c r i f i c e d i n the i n t e r e s t s of number f o u r . To ensure p r o v i s i o n of the above f o u r f a c t o r s adequate and i n t e l l i g e n t s u p e r v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . S c h o o l boards r e q u i r e c o u n s e l and s p e c i f i c guidance a l o n g these l i n e s . Here i s a case f o r the Department of E d u c a t i o n h a v i n g i n i t s employ s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h i s f i e l d to whom s c h o o l boards might t u r n f o r a d v i c e . These s p e c i a l i s t s must be e d u c a t i o n i s t s as w e l l as t r a n s p o r t managers. Thus a l l d i s t r i c t s c o u l d be c e r t a i n o f h a v i n g an- adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i f the a d v i c e g i v e n was c a r r i e d o u t . I n the matter of s a f e t y , s c h o o l buses must meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t . However, s a f e t y of p u p i l s can b e s t be guarded by c o o p e r a t i o n o f 56 s c h o o l board, bus d r i v e r , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l and the p u p i l s themselves. Much v a l u a b l e work can be done by the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l and h i s t e a c h e r s t hrough the i n s t r u c t i o n of the p u p i l s a l o n g s a f e t y l i n e s and the a l l o c a t i n g to a few chosen p u p i l s s ome.authority over o t h e r p u p i l s w h i l e i n the bus. The comfort o f t h e p u p i l s i s a l s o l o o k e d a f t e r by the r e g u l a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h Columbia M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t and o t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e a g e n c i e s . There are many agenc i e s con-t r i b u t i n g t o the s a f e t y or comfort of the p u p i l s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y . S u p e r v i s o r s s h o u l d p r o v i d e r e p o r t forms and see t h a t these are c o n s t a n t l y i n use. F e a t u r e s of a s c h o o l bus which c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y to the s a f e t y o f i t s occupants w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . M e a suring the Cost A u t h o r i t i e s d i f f e r as t o the methods t o be used i n measuring the c o s t of an adequate, e f f i c i e n t and economical system of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . F r i s w o l d , i n s p e a k i n g o f adequacy s a y s , "Adequate p u p i l - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e r e q u i r e s t h a t p r o v i s i o n s h a l l be made t o t r a n s p o r t at p u b l i c expense a l l c h i l d r e n whose e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s are ad-v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the d i s t a n c e they r e s i d e from s c h o o l . . . i Bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n a g i v e n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s adequate o n l y when i t i s made a v a i l a b l e to every p u p i l whose need f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e to and f r om s c h o o l can best be met by motor buses." i 1 ' -Betiermining the Cost of an Adequate and E f f i c i e n t Bus T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System, P r o c e e d i n g s o f the T w e n t y - f i f t h Annual M e e t i n g of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s of P u b l i c S c h o o l B u s i n e s s O f f i c i a l s - 1936, pp.117-118. The same a u t h o r i t y d e f i n e d e f f i c i e n c y a s , "Bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s e f f i c i e n t when e v e r y p u p i l t o be t r a n s p o r t e d i s conveyed to and from s c h o o l w i t h s a f e t y , c o m f o r t , d i s p a t c h and economy 1 at a l l t i m e s . " Such e f f i c i e n c y i s o n l y a t t a i n e d when the f a c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l , equipment, o p e r a t i o n and maintenance and management are g i v e n s u s t a i n e d and competent a t t e n t i o n . I n measuring c o s t s of a bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system there are two s e t s of f a c t o r s to c o n s i d e r , namely (1) b u s i n e s s f a c t o r s and (:2) n a t u r a l f a c t o r s . By b u s i n e s s f a c t o r s are meant such items as the k i n d of equipment used, the methods of p u r c h a s i n g the equipment and of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e and r e p a i r s , p r o v i s i o n f o r s u p e r v i s i o n and the system o f a c c o u n t i n g which i s used. These l i e w i t h i n the c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l b o a r d . The second c l a s s of f a c t o r s , those termed " n a t u r a l " , r e f e r to such items as the number o f c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the d i s t a n c e t hey must t r a v e l , the t e r r a i n over which they must be t r a n s p o r t e d , the s i z e of the s c h o o l a r ea i n which they r e s i d e and the type of roads and weather c o n d i t i o n s w i t h which they must contend. These do not come w i t h i n the c o n t r o l o f the s c h o o l b o a r d . Other f a c t o r s not coming under the c o n t r o l of the board might be the c u r r e n t p r i c e s o f new buses, p a r t s , g a s o l i n e , o i l and t i r e s . These charges may be c l a s s e d as v a r i a b l e . Thus we have two types of c o s t s which do not come under the c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l board, v i z . , f i x e d and v a r i a b l e . Under the f i r s t c l a s s may D e t e r m i n i n g the P o s t of an Adequate and E f f i c i e n t Bus Trans-p o r t a t i o n System 9 l o o . c i t . , p.119. i n c l u d e d such items as i n s u r a n c e , l i c e n c e f e e s , number of c h i l d r e n to be t r a n s p o r t e d , d i s t a n c e to be t r a v e l l e d , road and weather c o n d i t i o n s , d e p r e c i a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s and garage, r e n t s . The l a s t two may w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d as f i x e d when c o n s i d e r e d over a p e r i o d o f at l e a s t one y e a r . I n c l u d e d i n the second c l a s s are the c o s t o f g a s o l i n e , o i l , l u b r i c a n t s , t i r e s , r e p a i r s and s u p p l i e s . Whatever f a c t o r s are i n o p e r a t i o n i t must be noted t h a t they a l l work c o n c u r r e n t l y . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to s i n g l e them out and s t a t e d e f i n i t e l y the e f f e c t o f each on the sum t o t a l of expense. D e p r e c i a t i o n There i s a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n among a u t h o r i t i e s as to how d e p r e c i a t i o n s h o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d . To quote W i n f r e y , "There seems to be no w i d e l y used method of c a l c u l a t i n g &%$>re©lstion charges f o r motor t r u c k s , but perhaps the f a i r e s t way would i n v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n of time and m i l e a g e . " "The U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f I n t e r n a l Revenue a l l o w s t r u c k s to be d e p r e c i a t e d a t 25$ a y e a r . . . . Such a b a s i s does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the m ileage d r i v e n , which i s an i m p o r t a n t i t e m t o t h e owner, even though i t i s not g i v e n 2 much weight i n the f i n a l s a l e or trade i n . " Another a u t h o r i t y , s p e a k i n g of the c a l c u l a t i o n o f d e p r e c i a t i o n s a y s , 1. • S t a t i s t i c s of Motor Truck O p e r a t i o n i n Iowa, Iowa E n g i n e e r -i n g Experiment S t a t i o n , Iowa S t a t e College,Ames, Iowa, 2 B u l l e t i n 114, p.30. I b i d . , p.30. 59 • "Whereas, 20 to 25% i s commonly recommended as a s u i t a b l e d e p r e c i a t i o n r a t e on automotive equipment such r a t e s a r e , o f c o u r s e , u s u a l l y a r b i t r a r y and s u b j e c t i v e . As I see i t , the most d e s i r a b l e b a s i s f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n i s m i l e a g e . . * ; t h a t m i l e a g e , which i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o wear and t e a r , i s more s i g n i f i c a n t than weeks, months, y e a r s or o t h e r u n i t s of time which cannot i n c l u d e con-s i d e r a t i o n o f the e x t e n t t o which equipment i s used w i t h i n a g i v e n p e r i o d of t i m e . " 1 The o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r , based on the study of a number of a u t h o r i t i e s , i s t h a t c a l c u l a t i o n of d e p r e c i a t i o n must be based on two f a c t o r s , namely time and m i l e a g e . Cost F a c t o r s An attempt has here been made t o l a y down i n somewhat summary f a s h i o n , f a c t o r s which have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the measurement of c o s t s . No s p e c i a l o r d e r of importance i s c l a i m e d . 1. The l e n g t h o f the r o u t e . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , depends on: a. The number of buses i n o p e r a t i o n . b. The s i z e o f the s c h o o l a r e a . The s i z e of t h i s a r e a w i l l be dependent on: (1) The s i z e of the s c h o o l . (2) The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the maximum w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f the p u p i l s . (3) The p a t t e r n of the r o u t e - r e c t a n g u l a r or c i r c u l a r . (4) The d i s t a n c e i t i s p r a c t i c a b l e t o t r a n s -p o r t p u p i l s of a g i v e n age. 2. The number of p u p i l s to be t r a n s p o r t e d . T h i s a l s o depends on: 60 a. The s i z e of the s c h o o l a r e a . b. The s i z e o f the s c h o o l . c. The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the ,homes over the a r e a . d. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a maximum w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e . 3. The.road c o n d i t i o n s . Routes c o u l d be longer i n an area o f good roads w i t h few h i l l s and mountains. 4. The type o f equipment i n use. As i n a l l t h i n g s , good q u a l i t y pays good d i v i d e n d s i n the end. 5. Weather c o n d i t i o n s . 6. L o c a t i o n of the bus d r i v e r s ' homes. Bus d r i v e r s should l i v e near the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e i r r o u t e . 7. P r e v a l e n t l e v e l o f bus d r i v e r s ' wages and of c o s t of l i v i n g . O f t e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o pay h i g h e r wages than the s t a n d a r d l e v e l because i t i s o n l y a p a r t time j o b . 8. The c u r r e n t p r i c e l e v e l of s u p p l i e s , e.g., g a s o l i n e , o i l and l u b r i c a n t s . 9. The use of a good c o s t a c c o u n t i n g system. 10. The c u r r e n t p r i c e l e v e l of new equipment. 11. D e p r e c i a t i o n . 12. The c u r r e n t r a t e s o f i n s u r a n c e . 13. The number of b i d d e r s - i n the case of c o n t r a c t e d buses. 14. The l e n g t h of the c o n t r a c t . 15. Bus ownership. The w r i t e r has t r i e d t o p o i n t out i n an e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h i s work t h a t the p o l i c y of c o n t r a c t i n g f o r buses tends to i n c r e a s e c o s t s . 16. The methods employed when l a y i n g out r o u t e s . 17. A knowledge o f fundamental p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the problem o f c o s t s . Methods, of D e t e r m i n i n g C o s t s Each of the f o r e g o i n g f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g c o s t s , some t o a g r e a t e r degree, o t h e r s to a l e s s e r degree. But whatever the method used, an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e i s o b j e c t i v i t y , thus a l l o w i n g f o r im p o r t a n t com-p a r i s o n s t o be made. I n a m a t t e r o f such g r e a t importance i t i s necessary to have adequate i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s has been v e r y d i f f i c u l t to get i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n many cases no a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s are k e p t . Not o n l y are c o n c i s e r e c o r d s e s s e n t i a l , but b e f o r e t r u e comparisons can be made, t h e r e must be u n i f o r m i t y i n the r e c o r d s and i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p l a c e d on them. A l t h o u g h p e r t i n e n t f a c t s , such as have been c o l l e c t e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia a r e o f v a l u e , they do not alone f u r n i s h a b a s i s f o r the e s t i m a t i n g of c o s t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n new areas t o be formed, nor do they n e c e s s a r i l y t e l l us much of the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e e x i s t i n g systems. I n such items as average c o s t s and range o f c o s t s there are so many v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s and too many v a r i a b l e causes to p r e d i c t w i t h any degree of a c c u r a c y the c o s t of any new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. . While t h e r e are s e v e r a l methods of t r a n s p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n to and from s c h o o l by f a r the most i m p o r t a n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s by motor bus and t h i s i s the one the w r i t e r i s c h i e f l y i n t e r e s t e d i n . Other methods used are horse-drawn v e h i c l e s , b o a t s , t a x i s and p r i v a t e c a r s owned by p a r e n t s . Some of these are o n l y a u x i l i a r y to the motor bus. Cost R e l a t i o n s h i p s There are bound to be c e r t a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n c o s t due to the s i z e o f t h e bus, the p u r c h a s i n g p o l i c y of the board and the system o f c o s t a c c o u n t i n g i n use. These v a r i a t i o n s , however, may be g r e a t l y a c c e n t u a t e d , depending on the u n i t s by which comparisons are to be made. R e d u c t i o n of . d i s s i m i l a r u n i t s t o some form o f u n i f o r m i t y i s n e c e s s a r y . The. M i l e as .a B a s i s The use of the m i l e as'a u n i t upon which t o base c o s t s i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y . A m i l e i s not c o n s t a n t , t h a t i s , every m i l e does not r e p r e s e n t , an e q u a l amount of d i f f i c u l t y . -Topography i s one f e a t u r e which o f n e c e s s i t y must be con-s i d e r e d . A l s o , the second m i l e does n o t i n v o l v e the same amount of expense as the f i r s t . Each a d d i t i o n a l m i l e reduces the p e r - m i l e c o s t because much of the expense remains the same whether the bus t r a v e l s one m i l e or seven m i l e s . The per-m i l e c o s t v a r i e s with- the number of m i l e s t r a v e l l e d per day* The c o s t per m i l e c o u l d o n l y be used as a b a s i s f o r comparisons o f e f f i c i e n c y when buses r u n over r o u t e s of the 63 same l e n g t h . Evans, i n h i s study " F a c t o r s ' A f f e c t i n g the Cost of 1 S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a " s uggests the c o s t per s e a t - m i l e as a more s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s . He f i n d s the number o f seat-miles' J by m u l t i p l y i n g the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d by the conveyance each day by the s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f the bus. Such a u n i t , he m a i n t a i n s , takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s two major f a c t o r s i n expense of f u r n i s h i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , namely, the s i z e of the conveyance which must be p r o v i d e d and the d i s t a n c e i t t r a v e l s each day. I t i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l expense than c o s t per p u p i l - m i l e which i s based on the a c t u a l d i s t a n c e each c h i l d r i d e s . The expense o f a bus i s a p p r o x i -mately the same whether a l l the c h i l d r e n r i d e t o the end o f the r o u t e o r get o f f a l l a l o n g the way. I n f a c t i t might be cheaper to c a r r y a l l the p u p i l s the whole d i s t a n c e because s t o p s would be e l i m i n a t e d . .However, the o b j e c t i o n s to the use of the m i l e as a u n i t also, h o l d t r u e f o r the s e a t - m i l e . One must be v e r y c a r e f u l i n b a s i n g c o s t s on the s e a t - m i l e . Such a b a s i s c o u l d o n l y be 2 used where the buses were of e q u a l s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y . Evans found t h a t the s e a t - m i l e b a s i s had l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h a t i t f a v o r e d the l a r g e r buses. I t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e to determine average c o s t s on a 1* Evans, Frank 0., " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the Cost o f S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a " , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1930, No.29, p.16. 2 > I b i d . , p. 17. b a s i s o f per p u p i l - m i l e o r even on a per s e a t - m i l e because of t h e i r v a r i a b i l i t y . T o t a l C o s t s T u r n i n g now to t o t a l c o s t s as a b a s i s o f comparison, we see t h a t t o t a l c o s t s may be taken as the t o t a l f o r a year or f o r a day. S i n c e t h e r e might be a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n the number of s c h o o l days i n v a r i o u s a r e a s , t o t a l c o s t s per day are p r e f e r a b l e . The c h i e f items i n c l u d e d i n t o t a l d a i l y c o s t would be such f i x e d c o s t s as i n s u r a n c e , l i c e n c e , d e p r e c i a t i o n , admini-s t r a t i v e c o s t s and garage r e n t s p l u s such v a r i a b l e c o s t s as g a s o l i n e , o i l , l u b r i c a n t s , r e p a i r s and s u p p l i e s . The use of t o t a l c o s t s as a b a s i s f o r comparisons n e c e s s i t a t e s the k e e p i n g o f a c c u r a t e and d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s . D r i v e r s ' Wages There does not seem t o be any r e l a t i o n between the wage p a i d to a d r i v e r and the c a p a c i t y of the bus which he d r i v e s . Wages based on time appear t o be a l o g i c a l b a s i s . However, t h e r e i s the d i f f i c u l t y of p a r t - t i m e d r i v e r s . The d r i v e r i s somewhat r e s t r i c t e d i n o b t a i n i n g o t h e r work and t h u s i t becomes an i n d i v i d u a l m a t t e r * I n the o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r , the b e s t method f o r com-p a r i s o n i s t h a t based on t h e number o f m i l e s t r a v e l l e d , the u n i t f o r such comparison b e i n g the average wage p a i d per m i l e t r a v e l l e d . Net O p e r a t i n g Costs I t has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out t h a t comparisons o f c o s t s based on;mileage are u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . ' However, m h l s p l t e of t h a t i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t net c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n are dependent on m i l e a g e . -That i s , f u e l consumption, l u b r i c a t i o n and t i r e wear are d e f i n i t e l y , though not w h o l l y , dependent on the number;of m i l e s the bus t r a v e l s . Because of the g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o reduce some of these c o s t s to the b a s i s of a m i l e f o r the purpose of comparison. B u s i n e s s Methods T u r n i n g now from comparisons based on such items as d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d and number o f p u p i l s c a r r i e d l e t us l o o k a t the e f f e c t o f b u s i n e s s methods on c o s t s . I t i s almost a p l a t i t u d e t o say t h a t the p o l i c y of an e x e c u t i v e l a r g e l y d etermines the success o r f a i l u r e of a p r o j e c t . So i t i s w i t h s c h o o l boards i n r e l a t i o n to t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n . There are two types of p o l i c i e s which may be pursued: f i r s t , the p o l i c y of spending money f r e e l y , p r o v i d i n g h i g h grade equipment and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s l i v i n g near the s c h o o l ; second, the p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the l e a s t p o s s i b l e number o f p u p i l s at the l e a s t p o s s i b l e c o s t . The f i r s t p o l i c y i s o n l y p o s s i b l e , however, i n areas where t h e r e i s l i t t l e or no d i f f i c u l t y i n c o l l e c t i n g t a x e s . As has been p r e v i o u s l y shown c e r t a i n c o s t s can be c o n t r o l l e d by the s c h o o l board. B u s i n e s s methods are c o n t r o l -l a b l e and i t behooves s c h o o l boards t o make use of up-to-date b u s i n e s s methods. S e l e c t i o n of Buses The c h o i c e o f buses seems to be a f a i r l y r e l a i b l e i n d e x of the b u s i n e s s p o l i c y t o be pursued. Such a c h o i c e must be based on t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and a board con-t e m p l a t i n g the purchase o f equipment s h o u l d seek the a d v i c e of a competent e n g i n e e r or t e c h n i c i a n and from him r e c e i v e a complete a n a l y s i s of the types of buses under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Purchases must be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of u s e f u l n e s s and s e r v i c e . E f f e c t s o f Roads on C o s t s I t would be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to measure the effect;-:of c o s t s because o f road c o n d i t i o n s . The e f f e c t would not be v e r y n o t i c e a b l e where the buses are s m a l l and the r o u t e s s h o r t . Large buses t r a v e l l i n g l o n g d i s t a n c e s over poor roads and steep grades would show an i n c r e a s e i n the per-annum c o s t of o p e r a t i o n due to such f a c t o r s as slower speed, i n c r e a s e d f u e l consumption and g e n e r a l waar and t e a r on the buses, over buses of s i m i l a r s i z e s and t r a v e l l i n g s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e s but over good r o a d s . The Iowa E n g i n e e r i n g Experiment S t a t i o n i n s e v e r a l of i t s r e c e n t b u l l e t i n s p o i n t s out t h a t road c o n d i t i o n s g r e a t l y a f f e c t bus c o s t s but such d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i n a study of t h i s n ature t h a t i t has not been p o s s i b l e to date to c a l c u l a t e the exact e f f e c t o f roads on the wear and t e a r of buses. Summary (1) Adequacy, s a f e t y , comfort and economy are f a c t o r s which must he c o n s i d e r e d i n any s t u d y of s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n c o s t s . ('2) Adequate and i n t e l l i g e n t s u p e r v i s i o n are e s s e n t i a l to any s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. (3) Two methods of c a l c u l a t i n g d e p r e c i a t i o n are suggested, the one i s based on a c o m b i n a t i o n of time and m i l e a g e , the o t h e r i s based on mileage o n l y . (4) C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o the l a r g e degree of v a r i a t i o n i n the many d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s . (5) The motor bus i s the c h i e f method of p u p i l con-veyance i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (6) Because every m i l e does not r e p r e s e n t an equal amount of d i f f i c u l t y and because the second m i l e does not i n v o l v e the same amount o f expense as the f i r s t , the use of the m i l e - u n i t as a b a s i s of c o s t s i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y . (7) I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o determine the exact e f f e c t which each of the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s has on the t o t a l c o s t s , (8) B u s i n e s s methods are an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o s t s and are c o n t r o l l a b l e . (9) The type of bus purchased i s a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e i n d e x of the b u s i n e s s p o l i c y b e i n g pursued. (10) Inadequate r e c o r d s are kept by the m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l boards i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 68 • CHAPTER V I I SUGGESTED REPORT. AND COST ACCOUNTING FORMS Modern b u s i n e s s r e q u i r e s the c o n t i n u a l use of w r i t t e n r e c o r d s . Without the d e f i n i t e n e s s r e g a r d i n g agreements, p l a n s , c o s t s and other b u s i n e s s phenomena made p o s s i b l e by r e c o r d s , b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e on a l a r g e s c a l e would be i m p o s s i b l e * S i m i l a r l y , an adequate c o n t r o l of the b u s i n e s s o f t r a n s p o r t -i n g p u p i l s n e c e s s i t a t e s the p r e p a r a t i o n and use o f r e c o r d s . Complete and a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c o s t s w i l l not be a v a i l a b l e u n l e s s a system of r e c o r d k e e p i n g i s developed. Without such r e c o r d e d d a t a s c h o o l boards can o n l y guess when f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r p o l i c i e s . The r e p o r t s and a c c o u n t i n g forms hereunder suggested are those which the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a complete c o s t a c c o u n t i n g system. A l l a r g e system of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s . According-' to the i n d i v i d u a l needs of the v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s , the r e p o r t s and forms which appear most e s s e n t i a l s hould be s e l e c t e d . I n drawing up these forms, cognizance has been taken o f the f a c t t h a t t h e l a c k of c l e r i c a l h e l p g r e a t l y h i n d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n of a system of r e c o r d k e e p i n g . A d e f i n i t e attempt has been made to s i m p l i f y these forms i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r use and yet r e t a i n t h e i r v alue as an ao-..:^ui;-a c e o u n t i n g system. The name of the c i t y shown on these forms i s f i c t i t i o u s . 69 R e p o r t s (.1) D a i l y bus i n s p e c t i o n c a r d (2) D a i l y bus attendance r e p o r t (5) D a i l y b e h a v i o u r r e p o r t (4) A c c i d e n t r e p o r t A c c o u n t i n g forms A. Owned buses (1) Bus d r i v e r ' s d a i l y r e p o r t (2) Purchase and r e p a i r o r d e r (3) Monthly bus r e p o r t - O p e r a t i o n and Maintenance. (4) I n d i v i d u a l bus d a t a (5) Expense .ledger (6) M o n thly t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expense and o p e r a t i o n r e p o r t (7) Y e a r l y summary - expense and o p e r a t i o n (8) Record o f i n s u r a n c e - buses (9) Request f o r s p e c i a l use of s c h o o l buses (10) T i r e r e c o r d . B. C o n t r a c t e d Buses (1) M o n t h l y c o n t r a c t r e p o r t (2) Y e a r l y c o n t r a c t r e c o t d The w r i t e r wishes.;to acknowledge g r a t e f u l l y the: v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o him by the Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r the S t a t e s o f M a r y l a n d , L o u i s i a n a , Utah, C a l i f o r n i a , Ohio, M a s s a c h u s e t t s and by the R u r a l E d u c a t i o n Department of the U n i v e r s i t y o f the S t a t e o f Hew Y o r k s i n the drawing up of the f o l l o w i n g f orms. C e r t a i n suggested forms were r e c e i v e d accompanied by encouraging l e t t e r s . The w r i t e r i s d e e p l y i n d e b t e d to the a b o v e r f o r t h e i r k i n d l y o f f e r s and a s s i s t a n c e . 70 D a i l y Bus I n s p e c t i o n Card T h i s c a r d i s to he f i l l e d i n by the mechanic or super-v i s o r o r , i n the case of a d r i v e r - m e c h a n i c , fef the d r i v e r . The mechanic do i n g the ne c e s s a r y r e p a i r s must i n i t i a l i n the column ^Repaired by.." The s u p e r v i s o r o r d r i v e r must make sure t h a t any r e p a i r s n e c e s s a r y have been done b e f o r e t a k i n g the bus out on the road,.and s i g n the c a r d . T h i s card i s to be g i v e n to the s u p e r v i s o r o r man i n charge who w i l l hand i t i n to the s c h o o l board o f f i c e . The main purpose of t h i s r e p o r t i s to ensure the s a f e t y of the p u p i l s as f a r as i t i s p o s s i b l e . Should the s c h o o l board be sued a f t e r an a c c i d e n t p r o o f o f the r e g u l a r i n s p e c -t i o n and r e p a i r of a bus i s v e r y v a l u a b l e . Date. BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - 0AKER,B*C. F o r m A DAILY BUS INSPECTION CARD ' ....... Speed Reading ............. Bus No Items I n s p e c t e d jCheck i f OK R e p a i r s Needed Repaired 1. S i g n a l s 2. L i g h t s £:. T i r e s 4. O i l 5. S t e e r i n g 6. 77 Horn S p r i n g s 8. R a d i a t o r 9. Breaks 10. W i n d s h i e l d Wipe cs 11. Bus C l e a n l i n e s s 12. Remarks I n s p e c t e d by 71 D a i l y Bus Attendance Report The d r i v e r must check the p u p i l s who t r a v e l on h i s bus and r e p o r t those m i s s i n g t o the p r i n c i p a l of the s c h o o l . T h i s s e r v e s as a check f o r absentees. The case of a p u p i l who comes to s c h o o l on the bus and does not appear i n the c l a s s -room can be i n v e s t i g a t e d almost immediately a f t e r s c h o o l opens. I t a l s o i s . an a i d i n c a l c u l a t i n g the exact number o f p u p i l s c a r r i e d d a i l y . Form B., BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES OAKER,B.C. BUS ATTENDANCE REPORT The f o l l o w i n g p u p i l s were absent from bus No ...... on ......... 194.. Bus D r i v e r .«••«•«•«•«••«•••«««•» To B e Handed to P r i n c i p a l Each"Day 72 Bus Behavior Report Each day the p r i n c i p a l o f the s c h o o l r e c e i v e s from the bus d r i v e r a r e p o r t an any p u p i l or p u p i l s who misbehave w h i l e passengers on the bus. Such a r e p o r t g r e a t l y a i d s the p r i n c i p a l i n p r e v e n t i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y problems from a r i s i n g . The Attendance and B e h a v i o r Reports might be combined i f d e s i r e d . , Eorm G. BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C.. ' BUS BEHAVIOR REPORT Route No.....'. Name o f P u p i l Date Remarks on Misdemeanor -< • Bus d r i v e r .., ( S i g n a t u r e ) S c h o o l B u s . A c c i d e n t Report L e g a l cases a r i s i n g out of an a c c i d e n t o f t e n do not m a t e r i a l i z e f o r some time subsequent to .the a c c i d e n t . I n such cases i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o have a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t o f the a c c i d e n t on f i l e . T h i s r e p o r t s h o u l d be f i l l e d i n by the d r i v e r of the bus immediately a f t e r the a c c i d e n t or as soon a f t e r as i t i s p o s s i b l e . The suggested form a l s o a c t s as a r e c o r d of the s e t t l e -ment of a c l a i m r e s u l t i n g from an a c c i d e n t i n which the s c h o o l bus i s i n v o l v e d . Form D. BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKSR, B.C. SCHOOL BUS ACCIDENT REPORT Route No..*....... Bus No D e s c r i p t i o n o f A c c i d e n t ^ Date of Ac c i d e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sour;,»;;;. .p%/Speed of Bus..M.P.H, > -L • hi e 31iOCci" b l . o n oji* A.G o xcl.@n*t> • * • « • • * * « • • • * • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • « « « « •« I f c o l l i s i o n , e s t i m a t e d speed o f o t h e r v e h i c l e .........M.P.H. Name & Address of D r i v e r o f o t h e r v e h i c l e » " " Owner " " ... Wlxs.i3 s i g x i o . l s w@x*s ^JLvsn? • • • • • • • » • • • • • • • • • • • » « • • • • • « . • « « » Were any laws v i o l a t e d ? I f so, i n what way?..... C o n d i t i o n of road . . . . . . . . . . . C o n d i t i o n of weather L i c e n c e NO. o f oth e r v e h i c l e ( i f any) ...........-....,. .'....... "Whom do you t h i n k was t o blame? Why? No.students i n bus when a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e d . Name and add r e s s e s o f ' o t h e r w i t n e s s e s , i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • s i i i « 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * d • • • • « « « 0 * « « « > » « « « e * « « » « « « « « 0 « « * e S t a t e ' i n d e t a i l how a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e d .. i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ P e r s o n a l I n j u r i e s ITSUHQ 0_T I I I J \XV © Cl • • « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * , A , d c L l * © S S « » « « « • • « » e * a * . e « « e « e i^Q.'blZX*© G _T -^Xl J • « ' « • • • • • » » « • • • » * • • • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 e « • • • • • • • • •Name of I n j u r e d Address Was; F i r s t A i d N e c e s s a r y ? . . . . Was F i r s t A i d fiendered?.......... / B y Wlioifl.*? • •«• «..».• 6 • • • • # • * f P r o p e r t y Damage Damage; to p r o p e r t y of. o t h e r s ................................ 9 0 0 * 0 • * « • « « « « « • a « « 0 0 « « « e « « « « 0 f t 0 9 « « c * « « « » « c * 0 « « « 0 « * « e e « a e e * « « « DcUHQ.§© "tO S C l l O O l B U S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 * 0 * 0 0 * 0 0 * * « * « « 0 * « « « < » » e * 0 * e « « • * a • -0 • • • • * * * e • » « 0 • * © 0 o • * • • « * * * ® ® • D r i v e r ' s S i g n a t u r e ................ D e t a i l s o f S e t t l e m e n t : T h i s r e p o r t i s to be f i l l e d i n by the d r i v e r a t the end of each day. From t h i s r e p o r t , kept on ' f i l e by the s c h o o l board, can be a s c e r t a i n e d the number o f s t u d e n t s c a r r i e d each day, and the ^ number pf m i l e s t r a v e l l e d by the bus on each t r i p . T h i s r e p o r t i s e s s e n t i a l i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e . t o t a l and average number of s t u d e n t s c a r r i e d and the t o t a l and average mileage the bus t r a v e l s i n any s t a t e d p e r i o d whether i t be a week, month or y e a r . Furthermore the number of g a l l o n s of g a s o l i n e and the. number of q u a r t s o f o i l used are a l s o g i v e n . From these d a t a can be found the average q u a n t i t y o f g a s o l i n e and o i l used p e r m i l e . . ' • < • The c o s t of any emergency r e p a i r s i s a l s o r e c o r d e d on t h i s form. T h i s a i d s i n the .makingsof an a c c u r a t e c a l c u l a t i o n of t o t a l c o s t s . -• '•'.•'.-• Form l a . , BOffiD Of SCHOOL' TRUSTEES — - OAKER, B.C. . Bus D r i v e r ' s D a i l y Report Route No:". ..... Bus No......... S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y . . . . . Date.... T r i p s No. '. s t u d e n t s • M i l e a g e , Remarks 1st morning t r i p 2nd morning t r i p 1 s t a f t e r n o o n t r i p 2nd a f t e r n o o n t r i p E x t r a t r i p From.: To: No. g a l l o n s put / No. o f q u a r t s o f o i l i n t o tank ' put i n c&ankcase •. Give r e a s o n i f l a t e Emergency r e p a i r s : Nature Cost I s bus O.K.? S i g n a t u r e of d r i v e r 75 Purchase and R e p a i r Order I n a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i t i s e s s e n t i a l to know how each d o l l a r i s spent. Two l a r g e items o f e x p e n d i t u r e are those f o r f u e l and l u b r i c a n t s and f o r r e p a i r s . I n or d e r t o budget f o r - t h e next year or to make a c c u r a t e cost comparisons a d e t a i l e d account must be kept of p r i c e s p a i d f o r f u e l , l u b r i c a n t s , r e p a i r s and m a t e r i a l s . From the r e p o r t hereunder suggested can be o b t a i n e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g n o t o n l y the amount spent but a l s o each i t e m of expense. Form l b - BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - - OAKER, B. CV PURCHASE AND REPAIR ORDER : JBus No. L i c e n c e NO. - • Date: To p l e a s e d e l i v e r goods or s e r v i c e s as i n d i c a t e d : ' Items. Q u a n t i t y P r i c e Amount I.' G a s o l i n e ( k i n d ) O i l 1 ' ', Grease ,. . I. .. V A n t i - F r e e z e - . R e p a i r s '•• Body . ' C h a s s i s jj -T o t a l f o r t h i s o r d e r Cost of m a t e r i a l used f P a r t s or m a t e r i a l used: No. Used " D e s c r i p t i o n of Par&s Price- I Each ^ o t a l Cost' Cost of Labor hours a t per h r . $ T o t a l amount S i g n a t u r e Monthly Bus Report r> Operation and Maintenance This r e p o r t i s a consolidated r e c o r d of the operation and maintenance costs of the buses and i s of value i n making monthly comparisons of costs of operation and maintenance. The information recorded herein oan be obtained from the Bus D r i v e r ' s D a i l y Report - form l a , the Purchase and Repair Order - form l b , and i n the case of garage and shop supplies and expense, from the bus superintendent* i Form lo School BOARD OF SOH00|. ;TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. MONTHEY BUS REPORT > - OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Weeks Totals! Bus -No* Month Ending Bus Mileage No. Students Gal. OPERATION Gas Post O i l Q.ts. Oil, % . jiraase 1 Grease Post | lba. 1 cost Battery Expense TiresaNew or Repalr-Oostir Garage & Shop Supplies & Expense^ MAINTENANCE Description f. Body Labor Ma t e r i a l -Chassis M a t e r i a l Painting Labor Material •iiRemarks: I n d i v i d u a l Bus Data A complete r e c o r d o f each bus i s n e c e s s a r y f o r i n v e n t o r y purposes. Such d e t a i l s are a l s o r e q u i r e d when i n s u r i n g a bus. U s i n g I n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d on Form I f and on the I n d i v -i d u a l Bus Data form the average c o s t per m i l e t r a v e l l e d can be c a l c u l a t e d , over the p e r i o d of the l i f e of the bus, f o r each conveyance. T h i s r e p o r t should be f i l l e d i n and f i l e d as soon as a new bus has been purchased. Form I d BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. .INDIVIDUALqBUS DATA . ' Bus Number D r i v e r S c h o o l Date o f Report,. CHASSIS Make Tear •Model and Tonnage : -Motor No.__ S e r i a l No._ Wheel Base ( i n inehes)_ T i r e S i z e t: F r o n t ________ Rear C a p a c i t y of Gas Tank Type o f Brakes • BODY iMake (name) Ye ar__ U n d e r l i n e -Wood,Steel, Wood & S t e e l O v e r a l l l e n g t h ___________ O v e r a l l w i d t h Type S e a t i n g Arrangement_ K i n d o f U p h o l s t e r i n g P o s i t i o n Emergency E x i t _ S e a t i n g C a p a c i t y -Gross V e h i c l e Weight (Weight of c h a s s i s p l u s w e i ght of body p l u s weight 'of d r i v e r a t 175 l b s . p l u s weight o f p u p i l s at 100 l b s . each) . " PURCHASE DATA Date Purchased From Cost of C h a s s i s $_ Cost of Equipment Cost of Body $_ T o t a l Cost # 78 The Expense Ledger The expense l e d g e r r e c o r d s the t r a n s a c t i o n s r e l a t e d to the s c h o o l bus f o r the complete y e a r . I t i s a summary of a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s . Form l e BOARD OF- SCHOOL TRUSTEES ~ OAKER, B.C.. EXPENSE LEDGER Name of Account . Tear Ending S c h o o l . .: ;• ' Bus Number Date Reference Amount Date Reference Amount M o n t h l y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Expense and O p e r a t i o n Report T h i s r e p o r t i s a c o n s o l i d a t e d r e c o r d of the t o t a l expense and o p e r a t i o n c o s t s f o r . each bus per month. • A-t- - g l a n c e i t can be seen which buses are most c o s t l y to operate and where the e x t r a c o s t o c c u r s . T h i s r e c o r d . w i l l be o f g r e a t v a l u e to a s c h o o l board when i t i s c o n s i d e r i n g the purchase of new buses. BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. MONTHLY TRANSPORTATION EXPENSE & OPERATION REPORT . . For the Month Ending Name of Account Bus Numbers G a s o l i n e Cost O i l Cost •'•.*•>• Grease Cost T i r e s and Tubes R e p a i r s t o Buses D r i v e r ' s S a l a r y R e p a i r s to B l d g s , M a c h i n e r y , etc.-Shop Expense - s u p p l i e s , e t c * D e p r e c i a t i o n Buses D e p r e c i a t i o n B u i l d i n g s D e p r e c i a t i o n Shop Equip't. Insurance Buses, B l d g . , Machy. L i a b i l i t y I n t e r e s t on Investment G e n e r a l Overhead T o t a l .Expense S t a t i s t i c a l Bi ata Bus M i l e a g e Number p u p i l s c a r r i e d G a l l o n s G a s o l i n e Used __. Quarts O i l Used ; M i l e s p e r G a l l o n Gas T i r e s - Cost per Bus M i l e D e p r e c i a t i o n of Bus per Bus M i l e T o t a l Average Cost per P u p i l ,. T o t a l Average Cost per Bus M i l e _ 80 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Expenses T h i s i s a c o n s o l i d a t e d monthly account of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses f o r each s c h o o l f o r the year.• . A r e c o r d such as t h i s would be o f value i n comparing the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s of v a r i o u s s c h o o l a r e a s . I t would a l s o be n e c e s s a r y to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the number of p u p i l s t r a n s p o r t e d and road c o n d i t i o n s . Form I g BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Sc h o o l __________ For the F i s c a l Year Ending_ Accounts Jan 'Feb Mar Apr [flay < June J u l Aug k 3ept Oct Nov G a s o l i n e O i l Grease T i r e s and Tubes BUB R e p a i r s Shop Mchy. Eqj i p t . R e p a i r s Dr i v e r ' s S a l a r y Storage Expse. Shop S u p p l i e s , D e p r e c i a t i o n Bus V B l d g . E q u i p t . I n surance I n t e r e s t on Inve st.» G e n e r a l Over-head T o t a l Expense 81 Record of Insurance - Buses In c a l c u l a t i n g the t o t a l c o s t of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system the c o s t of i n s u r a n c e i s a f a c t o r . , Furthermore t h i s suggested form shows the company w r i t i n g the in s u r a n c e and i t s premiums.. Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e to compare r a t e s o f v a r i o u s companies. Form l h BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. RECORD.OF INSURANCE - BUSES TEAR S c h o o l ' Amt ,_5f Insurance C a r r i e d Ann. Cost Insurance Comp* W r i t . Insur:. Bus No. L i m i t s of P.L. L» U. P.D..; F i r e J? * Hi e P.D. F i r e -Tot a I s A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Use of S c h o o l Bus I n o r d e r to make c e r t a i n t h a t the t o t a l c o s t s f o r the ye a r are f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of p u p i l s t o and from s c h o o l a suggested form i s - h e r e g i v e n . T h i s form i s a l s o necessary i n c a l c u l a t i n g the p e r - p u p i l p e r - m i l e c o s t . The e x t r a c o s t and m i l e a g e as shown must be deducted from the t o t a l c o s t f o r the. y e a r b e f o r e the co s t p e r - p u p i l per m i l e can be c a l c u l a t e d . Form l i BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Use of S c h o o l Bus Date. -I hereby make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the use of one (or s t a t e number) S c h o o l B u s i e s ) a c c o r d i n g t o the terms hereunder set f o r t h . O r g a n i z a t i o n a p p l y i n g . ' "•' A.M. ' A.M. Date r e q u i r e d Leave P.M. R e t u r n P.M. Purpose o f T r i p . -To be t r a n s p o r t e d to ' and r e t u r n S i g n a t u r e of A p p l i c a n t TO BE FILLED IN BY DRIVER ... Speedometer a t s t a r t A t f i n i s h _ T o t a l M i l e s _ T o t a l hours on t r i p • T o t a l d r i v i n g time Bus Number Number passengers c a r r i e d (each way) No. G a l l o n s Gas Used D r i v e r TO BE FILLED IN BY BOARD T o t a l Cost _ _ _ _ _ m i l e s a t c e n t s per m i l e $ _ p l u s e x t r a expense. T o t a l $ Amount R e c e i v e d f Amount P a i d t o D r i v e r $_ Date _____ Date 85 T i r e Record To know which make o f t i r e g i v e s the be s t s e r v i c e and i s t h e r e f o r e the most economical a r e c o r d such as suggested here i s n e c e s s a r y . From t h i s r e c o r d can be o b t a i n e d the t o t a l c o s t of^ each t i r e , i n c l u d i n g r e p a i r s , and the c o s t p e r m i l e . Assuming t h a t the same make of t i r e i s used, an i d e a of the e f f e c t o f road c o n d i t i o n s on t i r e s c a n be o b t a i n e d . One r e c o r d form should be used f o r each bus. Some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n mark should be p l a c e d on the i n s i d e of the t i r e so t h a t i t w i l l be an easy matter t o loo k up the date o f purchase. The spare t i r e c o u l d be kept as a spare and marked w i t h the same i d e n t i f i c a t i o n marks p l u s " s p a r e " . Form l j BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. '.• TIRE RECORD Make , S i z e , : Date, Purchased Date Put On Bus NO.'; Speedometer On Removed, T o t a l M i l e a g e K i n d R e p a i r s O r i g i n a l Cost Cost of R e p a i r s Cost per M i l e Monthly Report - C o n t r a c t Buses B e f o r e l e t t i n g a c o n t r a c t f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have some d e t a i l e d knowledge of c o s t s . From t h i s r e p o r t c a n be o b t a i n e d the net c o s t p e r month f o r each bus, the c o s t , p e r p u p i l per day and the average c o s t p e r m i l e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be of ve r y g r e a t v a l u e t o a s c h o o l board which c o n t r a c t s f o r some buses and owns the o t h e r s . To s c h o o l boards which c o n t r a c t f o r a l l the buses such a r e p o r t forms the b a s i s o f an i n t e l l i g e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of b i d s . Form 2a BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. MONTHLY BEPORT - CONTRACT BUSES S c h o o l Bus No. D r i v e r _ C o n t r a c t o r Month Ending 194 Weeks N o . P u p i l s A.M. P.M. Bus M i l e a g e No.Trips .A.M. P.M. Remarks 1. 3 -4. .5* . Totals! Amount p a i d t o C o n t r a c t o r %. ,., Amount P a i d by-'Dept. E d u c a t i o n $ Net Cost % - Cost per p u p i l per day $. Cost per M i l e j Y e a r l y Report - C o n t r a c t Buses T h i s r e p o r t g i v e s the net c o s t , cost per m i l e per day and the c o s t per p u p i l per day over a p e r i o d o f one y e a r . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l i n making up the e s t i m a t e s a t the b e g i n -n i n g of each.year. I t a l s o s e r v e s as a b a s i s f o r c o s t comparisons. Form 2b BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES - OAKER, B.C. YEARLY REPORT - CONTRACT BUSES Sc h o o l C o n t r a c t o r _____ - F i s c a l Year Month No. of P u p i l s Bus M i l e a g e , Amt.Pd. Gon t r a c . Amt.Red. D.of Ed. Net Cost Cost P .Mi. P.Da. Cost P.Pu. P.Day, J a n . Feb. Mar. Apr. May June J u l y Aus a Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. .. T o t a l s Average C o s t per Bus M i l e $_ Average Cost per P u p i l $ CHAPTER V I I I A. SOME METHODS. OP REDUCING COSTS As has a l r e a d y been shown the p o l i c y of management g r e a t l y a f f e c t s c o s t s * S c h o o l boards, i n g e n e r a l , are g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e d u c i n g c o s t s . However, i t must be borne i n mind t h a t any p o l i c y which f a v o r s r e d u c i n g c o s t s must make sure t h a t the r e s u l t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l not s u f f e r i n r e g a r d t o (1) e f f i c i e n c y and (2) s a f e t y . T h i s does n ot n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the more money expended the more e f f i c i e n t and safe i s the program. Costs may r i s e not because of an i n c r e a s e i n e f f i c i e n c y but because a s c h o o l board f a i l s to pursue a d e f i n i t e and w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y i n the ma t t e r of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Some of the s u g g e s t i o n s g i v e n below do not v i t a l l y a f f e c t the many d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia which operate o n l y one or two buses but do a f f e c t .areas which operate s e v e r a l buses. I t would be w e l l to p o i n t out here t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a p r e v e n t me from p r o v i n g my statements from programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but evidence g i v e n i n the l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t , much o f which i s l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y , and based on programs i n the United ? S t a t e s , should be s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant the making of such s t a t e m e n t s . 87 1. Routes The r o u t e s s h o u l d be so arranged t h a t the bus w i l l serve as many p u p i l s as p o s s i b l e . Less buses w i l l be r e -q u i r e d and c o s t s w i l l thus be reduced. 2. T r i p s Have buses make more t h a n one t r i p i f p o s s i b l e , thusa s p r e a d i n g the overhead c o s t over two or more l o a d s of c h i l d r e n . 3. Bus C a p a c i t y I f p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e the s i z e of the bus. I f the s e t t l e -ment of the. a r e a p e r m i t s the use of a l a r g e bus i t w i l l be found more economical- t o use one l a r g e bus than two s m a l l ones. 4. Empty M i l e a g e Costs i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y w i t h empty m i l e s . I t w i l l be found tore e c o n o m i c a l t o have c i r c u l a r r o u t e s where p r a c t i c a b l e i n s t e a d o f s t r a i g h t l i n e ' r o u t e s . A l s o buses should be kept near the s t a r t o f the r o u t e . 5. Empty Space Buses should be so r o u t e d t h a t they have c a p a c i t y l o a d s . I n c o n t r a c t i n g f o r buses make c e r t a i n t h a t the bus i n not l a r g e r than n e c e s s a r y . This- i s one advantage of d i s t r i c t -owned buses. I f number of p u p i l s , change d u r i n g the year on c e r t a i n routes,, the buses can be s w i t c h e d t o s u i t . I n ... c o n t r a c t i n g f o r buses i t i s w e l l to stagger the c o n t r a c t s , t h a t i s have one c o n t r a c t e x p i r i n g each y e a r . T h i s a l l o w s f o r n e c e s s a r y adjustments to be made. 6. Few Buses .It may be found more econo m i c a l t o t r a d e i n the bus on 88 a new one r a t h e r than c o n t i n u e to make e x t e n s i v e r e p a i r s . 7. P e r - P u p i l Investment The amount o f investment p e r p u p i l should be reduced i f p o s s i b l e . 8. Owned Buses For improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y , s a f e t y and economy, t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n should be p r o v i d e d by buses owned by the district„ 9. B i d s I n awarding c o n t r a c t s , as many b i d s as p o s s i b l e should be o b t a i n e d . C a r e f u l l y s p e c i f i e d d e t a i l s i n the c a l l f o r b i d s w i l l ensure more e a s i l y comparable b i d s . 10. D r i v e r s I t w i l l be more econo m i c a l to employ d r i v e r s , where p o s s i b l e , whose o t h e r work w i l l not be g r e a t l y d i s t u r b e d by the hours r e q u i r e d f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g p u p i l s . C h i l l i w a c k employs d r i v e r s who work i n garages. 11. Length of C o n t r a c t s C o n t r a c t s s h o u l d be awarded f o r a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d i n p r e f e r e n c e to a one- o r two-year p e r i o d . Costs tend t o i n c r e a s e as the l e n g t h of c o n t r a c t decreases because the bus owner i s more c e r t a i n of g e t t i n g h i s investment -back i f he has a f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t than he would i f he had to r e l y on y e a r l y c o n t r a c t s . 12. P o l i c y A change i n p o l i c y of the s c h o o l board may reduce c o s t s . A board which uses a d e f i n i t e c o s t a c c o u n t i n g system w i l l have a lower p e r - p u p i l c o s t than a board - o t h e r f a c t o r s b e i n g e q u a l - which has no system of r e c o r d k e e p i n g . F u r t h e r -89-more, c o s t s tend to decrease i f the hoard p l a n s i t s t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n program i n t e l l i g e n t l y . T h i s may r e q u i r e the o b t a i n i n g of a d v i c e from an a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s f i e l d . B. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM However s c h o o l boards may f e e l toward r e d u c i n g c o s t s , they a r e , the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s , unanimously i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o v i d i n g a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e of the b e s t p o s s i b l e t y p e . .The r e a d e r may f i n d t h a t some of the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s somewhat o v e r l a p what has been s t a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s but the i n t e r e s t shown by s c h o o l boards a l o n g t h i s l i n e w a r r a n t s the g r o u p i n g of these s u g g e s t i o n s under a separate h e a d i n g . I n the f o l l o w i n g sugge s t i o n s ..an attempt has been made to pay due r e g a r d to s a f e t y and e f f i c i e n c y as w e l l as economy. 1. The bus must be of adequate s i z e , safe and c o m f o r t a b l e . 2. The d r i v e r s h o u l d be a person capable of c a r r y i n g a heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He must be t r u s t w o r t h y , c a r e f u l and f a i t h f u l . 5. P u p i l m o n i t o r s , who w i l l a i d the d r i v e r i n m a i n t a i n -i n g o r d e r i n the bus, should be a p p o i n t e d . Other d u t i e s may a l s o be a s s i g n e d t o them such as ta) the r e p o r t i n g to the d r i v e r any b i c y c l e r i d e r s , r o l l e r s k a t e r s o r o t h e r s who hang on to the bus and (b) the ke e p i n g of the a i s l e s f r e e from books and s u i t c a s e s . 4. D e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n r e g a r d i n g s a f e t y , c o o p e r a t i o n and b e h a v i o r s h o u l d be g i v e n to the p u p i l s by the p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r s . 90 5. Bus r o u t e s s h o u l d he so planned as t o minimize the time spent by any p u p i l i n t r a v e l l i n g . 6. Improve s t i l l f u r t h e r the q u a l i t y of the equipment used, t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y , s a f e t y and economy. 7. Make c e r t a i n o f h a v i n g f r e q u e n t i n s p e c t i o n o f buses. 8. Adopt, and use a modern system of r e p o r t s , r e c o r d s and accounts» 9. Give g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to the a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i m i t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e . CHAPTER I S ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION UNIT The main purpose of l a y i n g down what i s termed e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s i s s a f e t y . C h i l d r e n must be c a r r i e d t o and from s c h o o l i n a bus f u l l y equipped t o ensure the utmost s a f e t y . By " f e a t u r e s " i s meant not o n l y the bus but a l s o the d r i v e r who i s charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of g e t t i n g the p u p i l s t o and from s c h o o l s a f e l y . The l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n p r a c t i c a l l y every c a s e , i s r e p l e t e w i t h d r i v e r - recommendations and emphasizes t o a v e r y h i g h degree the importance of f i r s t , c h o o s i n g a s u i t a b l e d r i v e r , second,, making c e r t a i n , t h a t he knows c l e a r l y the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s as l a i d down i n the " M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t " , and by the Depart-ment of E d u c a t i o n and s c h o o l b o a rd, and t h i r d , d e l e g a t i n g t o him d i s c i p l i n a r y powers w h i l e t h e p u p i l s are i n h i s c a r e . No attempt has been made here to l i s t the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r bus c o n s t r u c t i o n as g i v e n i n the " M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t " . C e r t a i n minimum e s s e n t i a l s have, however, been l a i d down W3-;th the view of guidance. A f u r t h e r study of the A c t w i l l r e v e a l the d e t a i l s c a l l e d f o r by s t a t u t e . A few of the f e a t u r e s here l i s t e d are not c o n t a i n e d i n the A c t but are c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l by the w r i t e r . A study of the l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l bus s t a n d a r d s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s has co n v i n c e d the w r i t e r of the v a l u e of the s u g g e s t i o n s which f o l l o w . 92 The S c h o o l Bus (1) Body: The body of any s c h o o l bus should be of s u b s t a n t i a l wooden or metal frames and s i d e , a l l permanently and securely-f a s t e n e d t o the c h a s s i s . ( I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s most of the S t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s c a l l f o r an a l l s t e e l c o n s t r u c t i o n . L o c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e v e n t such r e g u l a t i o n s b e i n g a p p l i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.) (2) Length o f Body: The body l e n g t h must be, i n p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n to the l e n g t h of the wheel base.and c h a s s i s as l a i d down by the e n g i n e e r i n g department of the m a n u f a c t u r e r . (5) S c h o o l Bus: A s i g n c o n s i s t i n g o f the words "School Bus" i n b l a c k l e t t e r s not l e s s than f i v e i n c h e s h i g h on a y e l l o w background should be c a r r i e d i n a conspicuous p l a c e on the o u t s i d e of the f r o n t and r e a r o f the bus. (4) B r a k e s : E v e r y bus s h o u l d have f o u r wheel b r a k e s * (5) Stop L i g h t : Every bus s h o u l d be equipped w i t h a stop s i g n a l l i g h t , , (6) W i n d s h i e l d Wipers: There s h o u l d be two w i n d s h i e l d w i p e r s worked independent-l y o f each o t h e r . (V) L i g h t i n g : There s h o u l d be adequate l i g h t i n g i n s i d e and o u t . 93 (8) Exhaust: The exhaust p i p e s h o u l d be so p l a c e d t h a t there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of fumes e n t e r i n g the bus body. (9) F i r e - e x t i n g u i s h e r : At l e a s t one f i r e - e x t i n g u i s h e r should be c a r r i e d on each bus. (10) Emergency E x i t Door: There s h o u l d be a t l e a s t one emergency e x i t door marked c o n s p i c u o u s l y . (11) E x i t Doors: E x i t doors o t h e r than the emergency door should be con-t r o l l e d f r o m the d r i v e r ' s s e a t . (12) G l a s s : A l l g l a s s i n the bus s h o u l d be s a f e t y g l a s s and a l l windows s h o u l d be so c o n s t r u c t e d as to p r e v e n t c h i l d r e n from p u t t i n g t h e i r arms or- head o u t . (13) C o l o r : S c h o o l buses s h o u l d be p a i n t e d a d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o r , p r e f e r a b l y " s c h o o l - b u s " y e l l o w . (14) C h a i n s : Chains s h o u l d be s t a n d a r d equipment. (15) F i r s t - A i d : A f i r s t - a i d k i t should be c a r r i e d by every bus. (16) S e a t s : S e a t s s h o u l d be f o r w a r d f a c i n g . (17) V e n t i l a t i o n : There s h o u l d be p r o v i s i o n f o r adequate v e n t i l a t i o n . 94 The D r i v e r (1) P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s : He s h o u l d be a b l e - b o d i e d , a l e r t , i n t e l l i g e n t and capable o f making o r d i n a r y r e p a i r s * (2) Conduct: He should be one who w i l l be r e s p e c t e d by the p u p i l s and who w i l l conduct h i m s e l f i n such a manner as t o e x e r c i s e a good i n f l u e n c e over the p u p i l s . (3) E x p e r i e n c e : He s h o u l d have had ex p e r i e n c e i n h a n d l i n g l a r g e motor v e h i c l e s . (4) Bonded: He s h o u l d be bonded t o ensure f u l f i l m e n t o f h i s c o n t r a c t . (5} Knowledge o f R e g u l a t i o n s ; He s h o u l d be w e l l - v e r s e d i n the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s as l a i d down by the " M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t , " the Department of E d u c a t i o n and the s c h o o l board. (6) H a b i t s : He s h o u l d be c l e a n and neat i n appearance and t a c t f u l i n h i s d e a l i n g s . He s h o u l d n o t be a h a b i t u a l a d d i c t o f a l c o h o l nor s h o u l d he use tobacco w h i l e i n charge o f the bus. (7) F i r s t - A i d : He s h o u l d have some knowledge o f F i r s t - A i d . CHAPTER X SUMMARY The f o l l o w i n g are a number of important o b s e r v a t i o n s to be gleaned from the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s of t h i s study. 1. I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n movement i s making r a p i d s t r i d e s f o r w a r d and even today over t h r e e m i l l i o n American c h i l d r e n go t o and from s c h o o l by bus a t an a n n u a l c o s t of over s i x t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 2. The two most i m p o r t a n t types of s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s are motor buses and horse-drawn v e h i c l e s . 3. The consensus o f U n i t e d S t a t e s a u t h o r i t i e s from which the w r i t e r has been a b l e t o c o l l e c t d a t a i s that d i s t r i c t - o w n e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems are more eco n o m i c a l , s a f e r and more e f f i c i e n t than c o n t r a c t systems. 4. A u t h o r i t i e s a d v i s e s t r o n g l y .the use by s c h o o l boards of adequate r e p o r t and r e c o r d c a r d s . 5. The f o u r main f a c t o r s f a v o r i n g d i s t r i c t ownership of buses are f l e x i b i l i t y , c o n t r o l , economy and s a f e t y . 6. Those f a v o r i n g a c o n t r a c t system g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s such advantages as l e s s c l e r i c a l h e l p r e q u i r e d , no i n i t i a l o u t l a y and b e t t e r bus c a r e . They amphasize a l s o t h a t the y e a r l y c o s t f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s known as soon as the c o n t r a c t has been awarded. 7. A I L c o n t r a c t s must be c l e a r and s p e c i f i c thus a v o i d -i n g any m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 8. I n B r i t i s h Columbia (1958-39) p u p i l s were t r a n s p o r t e d i n n i n e c i t i e s , twenty d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , one e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a and n i n e t y r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . 9. The g r e a t m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l buses i n the seven c i t i e s , t h i r t e e n d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h i r t y - f i v e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s from which r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d were c o n t r a c t e d f o r . : 10. Though the m a j o r i t y o f buses i n 1938-39 had l o n g i t u -d i n a l s e a t i n g the " M o t o r - v e h i c l e A c t " now c a l l s f o r c r o s s -wise s e a t i n g f o r a l l new buses. 11. Inadequate r e p o r t s and r e c o r d s were, kept by the m a j o r i t y o f . t h e s c h o o l boards i n 1938-59. 12. G e n e r a l l y speaking road c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were r e p o r t e d as good. 15. I n t e l l i g e n t s u p e r v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y to ensure an adequate, s a f e , c o m f o r t a b l e and economical t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. 14. There appears t o be no u n i v e r s a l l y accepted method of c a l c u l a t i n g d e p r e c i a t i o n . The two most common ways of c a l c u l a t i o n a r e : (a) based on m i l e a g e and time and (b) based on m i l e a g e o n l y . 15. There are a l a r g e number of c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n any c o s t study.. F a c t o r s such as the f o l l o w i n g are c o n t r i b u t -i n g f a c t o r s : l e n g t h of r o u t e , number of p u p i l s t o be t r a n s -p o r t e d , r o a d c o n d i t i o n s , type of equipment, weather c o n d i t i o n s , l o c a t i o n of bus d r i v e r s ' homes, p r e v a l e n t l e v e l of wages and c o s t of l i v i n g , c u r r e n t p r i c e l e v e l o f s u p p l i e s and new equipment, d e p r e c i a t i o n , c u r r e n t r a t e s o f i n s u r a n c e , number of b i d d e r s , l e n g t h of c o n t r a c t , bus ownership, l a y i n g out of r o u t e s and a knowledge of fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n . 16. Methods o f d e t e r m i n i n g c o s t s v a r y . Some a u t h o r i t i e s e x p r e s s c o s t s i n terms of p u p i l - m i l e , some i n terms o f seat-m i l e and o t h e r s base them on t o t a l c o s t s . 17. Cost comparisons based on t o t a l c o s t s seem to be f a i r -l y r e l i a b l e . ' 18. B u s i n e s s methods a f f e c t c o s t s c o n s i d e r a b l y . 19. Cost a c c o u n t i n g forms must be simple but adequate i f complete r e c o r d s are t o be kept* 20. C o s t s may be reduced i n a number o f ways such as, employing l a r g e r buses where p r a c t i c a b l e , p r e v e n t i n g empty m i l e a g e , i n t e l l i g e n t r o u t i n g of buses, c a r e f u l and i n t e l l i g e n t p l a n n i n g o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n program and u s i n g d i s t r i c t -owned buses. 21. The s e l e c t i o n of the bus d r i v e r s i s a ve r y important f e a t u r e o f any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n program. 98 APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE ( O i t y and D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) NOTE: The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f e r s to the s c h o o l year 1958-59, I f there are any q u e s t i o n s which do not a f f e c t your d i s t r i c t p l e a s e l e a v e them b l a n k . 1. What was the t o t a l . c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g p u p i l s t o and from s c h o o l i n the s c h o o l y e a r 1958-59? $ 2. What amount ( i f any) of t h i s d i d the government pay? $ 5. How many v e h i c l e s (of a l l t y p e s ) were used f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g p u p i l s ? 4. Motor buses: a. How many were owned by the d i s t r i c t ? b. How many were owned by the c o n t r a c t o r ? _____ 5. Horse-drawn v e h i c l e s used the year round: a. How many were owned by the d i s t r i c t ? b, How many were owned by the c o n t r a c t o r ? 6. How many c a r s ( o f p a r e n t s or o t h e r s ) were i n use? T h i s r e f e r s o n l y to those which the d i s t r i c t h e l p e d t o pay f o r o p e r a t i o n . 7. How many p u p i l s (High and Elementary) were t r a n s -p o r t e d to and from s c h o o l ? 8. What was the t o t a l mileage per day (one way o n l y ) t r a v e l l e d by a l l the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s ? 9. What was the t o t a l number of p u p i l s c a r r i e d by: a. D i s t r i c t - o w n e d v e h i c l e s ? b. C o n t r a c t e d v e h i c l e s ? 10. A p p r o x i m a t e l y what a r e a i n your d i s t r i c t i s s e r v e d by your t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system? sq.mi . 11. What a r e a i s not so served? ' sq.mi. 12. How many o f the buses you own have c h a s s i s which were b u i l t i n t h e y e a r : 1958 , 1957 , 1936 1955 , 1934 , 1953 , 1932 _, 1931 , 1950 , 1929 - , o l d e r than 1929 . 99 QUESTIONNAIRE (co n t i n u e d ) 13. How many of the s c h o o l buses i n your d i s t r i c t (owned and c o n t r a c t e d ) have: a. l o n g i t u d i n a l s e a t i n g ? b. c r o s s w i s e s e a t i n g ? c. combination of both? 14. What i s the l o n g e s t r o u t e (one way o n l y ) t h a t any s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e t r a v e l s ? m l . 15.,What i s the s h o r t e s t r o u t e (one way o n l y ) t h a t any s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e t r a v e l s ? m i. 16. How many p u p i l s are t r a n s p o r t e d (one way o n l y ) from l e s s than one m i l e 1-2 m i l e s , 3-4 m i l e s , 5-6 m i l e s __, 7-8 m i l e s ______ 9*10 m i l e s , over 10 m i l e s ? ? 17. How many s c h o o l buses have you i n your d i s t r i c t ( both owned and c o n t r a c t e d ) w i t h a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f : 10 or l e s s ______ 11-15 , 16-20 , 21-25 _, 26-30 ., 31-35 , 36-40 , ••v 41-45 ; 46-50 _ __, over 50 ? 18. What i s the maximum time (one way o n l y ) any c h i l d i s t r a n s p o r t e d ? 0-15 min. , 16-30 mln. , 31-45 min._ 46-50 min.j _, 51-60 min._ , over one hour ? 19. I f you c o n t r a c t f o r s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f o r how l o n g do your c o n t r a c t s run? _____ y r s . 20. Do you pay the d r i v e r of a d i s t r i c t - o w n e d bus by the: ( p l e a s e p l a c e a c r o s s i n the c o r r e c t space) Hour? , day? _, t r i p S __, week? month? , s c h o o l year? . 21. How much do you pay your d r i v e r s ? (answer o n l y one) per hour? , per day? , per t r i p ? ______ per week? per month? , per s c h o o l y e a r ? . 22* I f you osmed some or a l l o f the s c h o o l buses used i n 1938-39, p l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g : a. Number of buses owned? ______ b. T o t a l c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g these buses ( i f not the same as i n it e m ONE) | _____ c. T o t a l s a l a r i e s p a i d to d r i v e r s ? $. d. T o t a l c o s t o f gas and o i l ? $ -e. T o t a l cost of r e p a i r s ? f f . T o t a l c o s t of maintenance? $__ g. T o t a l c o s t of s t o r a g e ( i f any)? | 100 QUESTIONNAIRE ( R u r a l Areas) NOTE:The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f e r s t o the s c h o o l year 1938-59. 1. What was t h e t o t a l c o s t of t r a n s p o r t i n g p u p i l s to and from s c h o o l i n 1958-59? ' « 2. What amount ( i f any) of t h i s d i d the government pay? | 5. How many v e h i c l e s (of a l l t y p e s ) were used i n t r a n s p o r t i n g p u p i l s ? 4. Motor Buses: • a. How,many were owned by the d i s t r i c t ? , b. How many were owned by the c o n t r a c t o r ? 5. Horse-drawn v e h i c l e s used the y e a r round: a. How many were owned by the d i s t r i c t ? b. How many were owned by the c o n t r a c t o r ? 6. How many p u p i l s (High and Elementary) were t r a n s -p o r t e d t o and from s c h o o l ? 7. What was the t o t a l number of p u p i l s c a r r i e d by: a. D i s t r i c t - o w n e d v e h i c l e s ? b. C o n t r a c t e d v e h i c l e s ? 8. I f you c o n t r a c t f o r s c h o o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r how l o n g do your c o n t r a c t s run? 9. Are a l l the buses (owned and c o n t r a c t e d ) i n s u r e d ? yes no. 10. Do you employ a: 1. f u l l time mechanic? (ONLY owned 2. p a r t time mechanic? : buses) 5. d r i v e r mechanic? 11. Do you employ ( o n l y owned b u s e s ) : 1. f u l l time d r i v e r s ? 2. p a r t time d r i v e r s ? 5. s t u d e n t d r i v e r s ? 12. Do your d r i v e r s , e i t h e r employed lay you o r on c o n t r a c t e d buses, make a: 1. D a i l y r e p o r t s ________ 2. Report on each t r i p ? 3, Weekly r e p o r t ? . . 4 . Monthly r e p o r t ? 5. No r e p o r t a t a l l ? _____ 13. Have you p r i n t e d forms f o r the d r i v e r s t o f i l l i n ? 14. Do you c o n s i d e r on the average, the roads used by the buses i n your a r e a were: good? f a i r ? , poor? 101 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Lambert, A.G. S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938. Pp. L i n n , Henry H. P r a c t i c a l S c h o o l Economies. New York: Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1934. Pp. 434-439, Reeder, Ward G. The B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a S c h o o l System. New York: Ginn and Company, 1929. Pp.421-446. Smith, H a r r y P. B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l s . Yonkers-on-Hudson: World Book Company, 19 29. Pp. 131-159. 102 B e l k n a p , B.H. " P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the S t a t e of New York". S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . XLVI, (Sept. 11, 1957), p. 332. Booker, I v a n A. "Good S t a r t on S a f e t y " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XX, (November 1937), pp. 55-56. B u r n e t t , Hugh. " S a f e t y Measures f o r the S c h o o l Bus". The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XV,. (May 1935), pp. 49-50. " C a l l a h a n , John. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : General P l a n as Used i n W i s c o n s i n " . N.E.A. Pro c e e d i n g s 1959, pp. 586-587. C l i f t o n , A.R. " P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a " . N.E.A. P r o c e e d i n g s , 1939, pp. 585-584. C o l l i n s , M.D. " S c h o o l Bus T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Georgia".. N.E.A. P r o c e e d i n g s , 1959, pp. 581-585. Duncan, N e a l . " C o n t r a c t u a l R e l a t i o n s f o r the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of P u p i l s " . The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l . LXXIX, (Sept. 1929), pp. 45, 44, 114. EngUm, T.C. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Advance". The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XXI, (June 1S38) p. 71. '. ~ ~~ F a r l e y , Belmont. "To S c h o o l i n S a f e t y " . The N a t i o n ' s S o h o o l s , XIX, ( A p r i l 1957) pp. 25-27. ' ~~ F r i s w o l d , 1.0. "Determining the Cost of an Adequate and E f f i c i e n t Bus T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System". P r o c e e d i n g s of the T w e n t y - F i f t h Annual M e e t i n g ( S i l v e r A n n i v e r s a r y ) of the "~ N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of P u b l i c School B u s i n e s s O f f i c i a l s , 1936, pp. 117-125. Howard, George J r . "Ai'SlmpleuSyM S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l , LXX, (June 1925), pp. 54, 144, 146, 149. H u t c h i n s , 0. D. " P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment", Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, V I I I , (October 1938), Pp.426-431. H u t c h i n s o n , E l d o n . "The P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem". The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l , LXX, (March 1925), pp. 72. Lambert, A.C. " G e t t i n g t o S c h o o l " . The Nation's S c h o o l s , XVI, ( J u l y 19315T, pp. 47-48. Lambert,A.C. "Trends i n the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s " . The American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l , I X , ( A p r i l 1937), pp. 37-40. Maaske, Roben J . " S a f e t y R u l e s f o r S c h o o l Bus R i d e r s and D r i v e r s " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s . X V I I , ( A p r i l 1956), p. 54. Maim, George C. "Measure the Cost of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XXI, (May 1938), p. 52. Meadows, A. R. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - General P l a n as Used i n Alabama". N.E.A»Prooeedings•. 1939, pp. 584-6. Moore, C O . "System i n Bus S e r v i c e " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XIX, (January 1937), p. 51. Morphet, Edgar L. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - G e n e r a l P l a n of Opera-t i o n i n the S t a t e of F l o r i d a " . N.E.A.Proceedings, 1939, pp.578-814. Murray, L.C. "Prom 50 to 1000 Square M i l e s " . The Nat ion*s S c h o o l s , X X I I I , (March 1939), p.68. Reeder, Ward G. and Holmstedt, R.W. " F i n a n c i a l Economies i n B u s i n e s s Management o f S c h o o l s " . Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, I I , ( A p r i l 1932), p. 144. R o b e r t s , Roy W. " P r e d i c t i n g P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Costs". .The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XV, ( A p r i l 1955) p. 64. Towns, O.A. "Free S i d e s Pay W e l l " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XX, ( J u l y 1937) -t p.,49.'.: Walton, G • " B e t t e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n at Lower C o s t " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XVI, (November 1935), p. 62. "Bus Economy, Comfort and S a f e t y " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XX, ( J u l y 1937), p. 55. "Bus T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . American A s s o c i a t i o n o f School A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , Seventeenth Yearbook, 1939, pp.235-261. " S a f e t y to the S c h o o l Door". The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , XIX, (March 1937), p.54. " S a f e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , X X I I I , ( A p r i l 1939), p„76. " -• "The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n Texas". School and S o c i e t y , XXXVII, (May 27, 1933), p. 678. "Tremendous Gains i n S c h o o l Bus S e r v i c e " . The N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , X V I I , (May 1936), p. 54. A b e l , James F. Recent Data on C o n s o l i d a t i o n of Schools and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of P u p i l s . U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No.22, 1925. Belknap, B.H. P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C e n t r a l D i s t r i c t s ( S c h o o l Year 1956-37). U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of New Y o rk, B u l l e t i n No. 1149, Oct. 1, 1938. The U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e o f New York P r e s s , Albany, N.Y.,Pp. 12. •'. : P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n R u r a l New York. R u r a l E d u c a t i o n Bureau., New York S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Department, B u l l e t i n No. 950, -June 15, 1930. The U n i v e r s i t y o f the S t a t e of New York P r e s s , A lbany, N.Y. Pp. 26 C a l l a h a n , John. A Study of the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of High S c h o o l • P u p i l s i n W i s c o n s i n . 1937.T38> S t a t e Department P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n . S e p t . 1938. Madison, W i s c o n s i n . Pp.84. C o v e r t , Timon. F i n a n c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of the C o n s o l i d a t i o n of S c h o o l s and the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of P u p i l s . Mimeo., U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n . C i r c u l a r No. 117, March 1934. Pp. 14. • .. R u r a l S c h o o l C o n s o l i d a t i o n . U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n . Pamphlet .No. 6, June 1930. Pp. 34. D e x t e r , W a l t e r F. The R e g u l a t i o n of P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Department o f E d u c a t i o n . S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . B u l l e t i n No. 22, Nov. 15, 19,37. Pp. 32. " E n g l i s h , C o l i n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . of P u p i l s . . S t a t e Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , T a l l a h a s s e e , F l o r i d a - . B u l l e t i n No. 14, May 1, 1939. Pp.16. . • ". Standards and R e g u l a t i o n s R e l a t i n g to the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of P u p i l s to the P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f F l o r i d a . S t a t e Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , T a l l a h a s s e e , F l o r i d a . June 1938. Pp. 26. Engum, T.C. Hne-Q,uarter M i l l i o n D o l l a r s Expended by School Boards and Bus D r i v e r s of C o n s o l i d a t e d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s o f M i n n e s o t a f o r .New Equipment I n 1936^ Mimeo. Depart-ment of E d u c a t i o n , S t a t e of M i n n e s o t a . Code v i i - B - 3 9 . Pp.4. . Handbook f o r S c h o o l Bus D r i v e r s and S c h o o l O f f i c i a l s . Mimeo. S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , Code v i i - B - 7 6 , S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a . S c h o o l Bus P u r c h ases f o r 1957-58. B u l l e t i n . Department of E d u c a t i o n , M i n n e s o t a . 105 Evans, Frank 0. F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the Cost of School Trans-p o r t a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a . U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 29. 1930. Hood, George A. P a r t i c u l a r s and Dimensions of S c h o o l Buses (Maximum S i z e ) f o r the Guidance of M e c h a n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r s and Body B u i l d e r s , , i n C onnection w i t h the B u i l d i n g of S c h o o l Buses. Mimeo. M o t o r - v e h i c l e Branch, B.C. P o l i c e , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. J u l y 25, 1939. Pp.5. H u t c h i n s , C D . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Department of E d u c a t i o n , S t a t e of Ohio. B u l l e t i n No. 2, R e v i s e d 1938. Pp. 99. K i n g , L l o y d W. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Department of E d u c a t i o n , S t a t e of M i s s o u r i . B u l l e t i n . Pp. 29. W i e l a n d , John A. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of S c h o o l P u p i l s . T e n t a t i v e B u l l e t i n , S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , I l l i n o i s . J u l y 1939. Pp. 7. W i l l i a m s , R.C. Cost of P u p i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C o n s o l i d a t e d S c h o o l s i n Iowa. Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , . Des M o i n e s , Iowa. Research B u l l e t i n No. 22,'Feb.- 1938. Pp. 31. A Study of S c h o o l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Idaho - 1937-38 and 1958-59. Mimeo. Work P r o j e c t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S t a t e Depart-ment o f E d u c a t i o n , Idaho. O f f i c i a l P r o j e c t 665-92-5-5. Pp.46. I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t i n g t o High S c h o o l Areas and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Board of H i g h S c h o o l P u p i l s . S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , M i n n e s o t a . Code v i i - B - 4 7 b , August 1959. Pp.4. Manual of Minimum Standards Governing tfoe T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of. P u b l i c S c h o o l P u p i l s . Mimeo. Department of E d u c a t i o n , M i n n e s o t a . Code v i i - B - 4 2 , Aug. 1939. Pp. 19. Manual o f Standards R e l a t i n g t o (1) H i g h S c h o o l A r e a s (2) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f Non-Resident P u p i l s (3) Reimbursement A i d t o D i s t r i c t s Not M a i n t a i n i n g H i g h S c h o o l s f o r the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n off Board of H i g h S c h o o l P u p i l s . S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , M i n n e s o t a . Code v i i - C - 4 1 , August 1939. Pp. 9.. R e g u l a t i o n s Pursuant t o t h e " M o t o r ~ v e h i c I e A c t . " The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , , V i c t o r i a , B.C. R eport on F i n a n c i a l C o n d i t i o n s o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l System. 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D i v i s i o n of School A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e s , New York S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Depart-ment, The F n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of New York, The U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of New York P r e s s , Albany, N.Y. B u l l e t i n No. 1122, Aug. 16, 1937. Pp.11. S i x t y - S i x t h and S i x t y - S e v e n t h Annual Reports of the S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n t o the Geor g i a General Assembly. Department o f E d u c a t i o n , S t a t e of G e o r g i a , Biennium Ending June 30, 1938. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of P u p i l s - Rules and R e g u l a t i o n s . Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Dover, Delaware. L e a f l e t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n 67 Large C i t y School Systems. E d u c a t i o n a l Research S e r v i c e , Department o f Superintendence and Research D i v i s i o n , N.E.A. C i r c u l a r No. 4, March 1931. Pp. 12. 

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