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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of "eidetic imagery" Abbott, Harley Douglas 1942

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(I HI. fig' f\2 If AH IMESTIGA.TIOH Of "ELDETIC IMAGERY" by Harley Douglas Abbott A. t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the degree of; Master of A r t s i n the Department o f Philosophy and Psychology. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1942. CONTENTS CHAPTER. PAGE I In t r o d u c t i o n to the problem... „.. .1 I I H i s t o r y of the problem. .. .3 I I I After-images s e l & e t i c images and. memory image s .» 11 IV P r e l i m i n a r y experiments 19 Y E x p e r i m a n t s ^ i t l r p i c t u r e s , .S6 ¥1 Jixperimental r e s u l t s 0 5 4 Y I l Summary and aoucuLusians. 44 Chapter I Introduction We became i n t e r e s t e d i n the subject of v i s u a l imagery while taking a u n i v e r s i t y course i n Experimental Psychology,, During the term, as part of our work with v i s i o n , we investigated after-images and discussed the top i c of e i d e t i c imagery. We searched f o r more information about the l a t t e r but found that many w r i t e r s of general psychology te x t s had avoided any mention of e i d e t i c imagery. Apparently few psychologists were personally i n t e r e s t e d i n the top i c and those who were i n t e r e s t e d seemed i n c l i n e d to accept the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e i d e t i c phenomena as o u t l i n e d by the German school of Jaensch et• a l . Only Rauth and Kluver had done any extensive experimental work here on t h i s continent. During our research we encountered remarkable reports concerning e i d e t i k e r s of which the f o l l o w i n g are t y p i c a l , A boy looked f o r a few seconds at a postcard showing a s t r e e t scene with many d e t a i l s . Months afterwards he could r e c a l l at w i l l , and wi t h great clearness, an image of the p i c t u r e he had seen. In the image he could read o f f words f o r e i g n to him. Another boy could count the teeth i n the mouth of an a l l i g a t o r . seen as an after-image a year a f t e r seeing the o r i g i n a l p i c t u r e (21). A woman was asked to c a l l up a memory image of red. She d i d so and was then asked to project t h i s image onto a white w a l l . To her sur p r i s e she saw a green after-image. (24 8 p.69) We had gained enough acquaintance with after-images through c l a s s experiments to make these claims seem i n c r e d i b l e . Therefore, i n an attempt to f i n d people w i t h unusual a f t e r -images and seeking a l s o to discover the r e l a t i o n s h i p among memory images, e i d e t i c images and after-images we began the present study. During a period of four years we worked i n s i x schools i n d i f f e r e n t parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. We c a r r i e d on i n d i v i d u a l after-image experiments with over three hundred school c h i l d r e n during that time. Some of our e a r l i e r experiments i n the f i e l d of a f t e r -images made use of the " b l i n k " method adapted f o r the study of c h i l d r e n by J . E. Morsh. This work was reported on by Morsh at a meeting of the Western P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1938, The experiments providing the data f o r t h i s t h e s i s were performed at the White Rock Elementary School and the Semiahraoo Junior and Senior High Schools from October, 1941 to March, 1942; In t h i s l a t e r work the subjects looked at a p i c t u r e f o r 40 seconds and then projected t h e i r after-image onto a grey background. Those with strong powers of a f t e r — imagery were given a second t e s t with a p i c t u r e having greater d e t a i l . In t h i s case there was an exposure of only 10 seconds. I t w i l l be noted that while the experiments deal with a f t e r -images, the phenomena are those which concern i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the f i e l d of e i d e t i c imagery. The term " e i d e t i c images" has been taken i n t h i s study to mean unusually v i v i d and p e r s i s t e n t after—images which are frequently influenced by memory and, imagination. Chapter I I Histo r y of the Problem The f i r s t experiments i n the f i e l d of e i d e t i c imagery i n America were reported i n 1924 at a meeting of Western American Psyc h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n by Kliiver of Minnesota. The to p i c of after-images and memory images, however, has long been of i n t e r e s t to psychologists. Galton i n 1883 wrote, "There e x i s t s a power which i s rare n a t u r a l l y , but c a n t I b e l i e v e , be acquired without much d i f f i c u l t y , of p r o j e c t i n g a mental p i c t u r e upon a piece of paper, and holding i t f a s t there, so that i t can be o u t l i n e d with a p e n c i l . " (3, p.99) Although l i t e r a t u r e on e i d e t i c imagery has appeared i n En g l i s h , French, I t a l i a n and even Japanese i t has been the Germans who have shown the greatest i n t e r e s t . The f i r s t important i n v e s t i g a t o r was Urbantschitsch whose book i n 1907 aroused concern among German psy c h o l o g i s t s . Urbantschitsch spoke of two kinds of v i s u a l memory images which he c a l l e d anschauungsbild (AB,). : He believed' that AB were of a p a t h o l o g i c a l nature, and that only young and very e x c i t a b l e c h i l d r e n experienced these phenomena. Urbantschitsch was e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n what e f f e c t d i s t u r b i n g s t i m u l i might have upon AB. He reported that he could produce d i s t o r t i o n of the AB by producing various tones with tuning f o r k s , by applying c o l d or heat to the forehead, or by focusing l i g h t on the closed eyes of the subject. At Marburg, two years l a t e r , E. R. Jaensch took issue with the view that AB are abnormal. Undoubtedly the phenomenon designated as perceptual memory image or -4-an schauungsbiid (AB) i s equivalent to what l a t e r w r i t e r s have termed e i d e t i c imagery. He stated h i s opinion of the importance to general psychology of what he c a l l e d e i d e t i s c h e anlage t the a b i l i t y of e i d e t i k e r s to produce these s p e c i a l images. At the Marburg I n s t i t u t e Jaensch, h i s a s s i s t a n t s and p u p i l s set out to discover and study persons g i f t e d with e i d e t i c a b i l i t y . Thus 0. Kroh, a Marburg high school teacher, i n 1917 reported that t h i s phenomenon was common and normal at a c e r t a i n age. The Marburg school based t h e i r t h e o r i e s upon several years of elaborate researches. However, as Koffka pointed out i n 1923, they have gone f a r beyond t h e i r data i n t h e o r i z i n g . The four main theories which may be a t t r i b u t e d to Jaensch, the leader of e i d e t i c imagery ;sehobl, are .his genetic theory, i d e n t i t y of o p t i c a l and e i d e t i c phenomena, hierarchy of memory grades, and somatic b a s i s . He assumed that the e i d e t i c stage i s merely a normal phase of c h i l d development. Subjects who do not manifest t h i s a b i l i t y are,, s a i d to be " l a t e n t " e i d e t i k e r s . In support of t h i s theory various German i n v e s t i g a t o r s report frequencies of occurrence: amongccEildren ranging from 17 perccefctt-*of;997;3 per : cent.: Among Jadult si,they f i n d a much smaller percentage, Kroh, r e p o r t i n g only 7 per :cento6f •eidetikers^among a d u l t s . According to Jaensch 1s second hypothesis the same o p t i c a l laws apply to e i d e t i c phenomena as to normal perception. Any d i f f e r e n c e s noted are q u a n t i t a t i v e rather' than q u a l i t a t i v e . We must note, however, that these images do not -5-fol l o w o p t i c a l laws i n many respects such as t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to a l t erat iortsbyy"dist©utidnn^"stMuMj.,-t©^be discussed. T h i r d l y , Jaensch proposed a genetic theory of memory l e v e l s . He suggested a hierarchy of grades of memory going from after—image to e i d e t i c image to memory image. He held that the eye was o r i g i n a l l y a c e r e b r a l organ and s t i l l possesses some of the r e t e n t i v e capacity of the b r a i n * Thus we go from perception to conception i n the s e r i e s after-image, e i d e t i c image, memory image i n the development of i n t e l l e c t . Jaensch i n s i s t e d that e i d e t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s could f u r n i s h the explanation of many problems of general psychology. In f a c t he went beyond psychology and even invaded the f i e l d s of Biology, Sociology, H i s t o r y , Mythology, P h i l o l o g y , Education, A r t and Philosophy. In t h i s respect he may be compared with the psychoanalysts who have entered approximately the same f i e l d s . A f o u r t h major theory of Jaensch was that eidetilcers d i f f e r s o m a t i c a l l y . He found a B type, a T type and, moat f r e q u e n t l y , a mixed type (BT). Persons of the B typ© manifest some of the signs of Basedow's Disease (©raves' Disease or exophthalmic g o i t r e ) . They sweat e a s i l y , have large, bulging, bright eyes, and l i v e l y r e a c t i o n s . Their t h y r o i d glands are often s l i g h t l y enlarged. Calcium treatment w i l l not e f f e c t the nature of t h e i r e i d e t i c images. The T type i s held to be a normal y o u t h f u l type whose p a t h o l o g i c a l form i s the tetanoid c o n d i t i o n . The -6-c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p e r s o n a l i t y and also the attendant e i d e t i c phenomena are susceptible to feeding with calcium (a treatment used i n dealing with tetany). The e i d e t i c images of T type persons instead of being p o s i t i v e become negative. The s k i n of these i n d i v i d u a l s i s hyper-sensitive to e l e c t r i c a l or mechanical s t i m u l a t i o n . Their eyes are i n marked contrast to those of the B type., as they are small, deep-set, d u l l , and l a c k i n g i n c h i l d l i k e appearance. In extreme cases they have the "tetany" face w i t h i t s pinched expression which may i n d i c a t e t h e i r h y p e r s e n s i t i v i t y . The e i d e t i c images of the T type resemble after—images, those of the B type, memory images, The T type of images may-be fu r t h e r characterized as voluntary, f l u c t u a t i n g , spontaneous and r i c h i n d e t a i l * The T type of images are non-voluntary, complementary, no n - f l u c t u a t i n g , non-spontaneous and f i x e d i n form. Since calcium treatment w i l l extinguish the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the T type i t i s p o s s i b l e to change the images of i n d i v i d u a l s from the BT type to the B type by t h i s means. In a d d i t i o n to these somatic types Jaensch d i f f e r e n t i a t e s e i d e t i k e r s as integrates or d i s i n t e g r a t e s according to the degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between sensations and images. The B and T types themselves are examples of integrates and d i s i n t e g r a t e s . The integrates are sometimes spoken of as the un i t y type. The d i s i n t e g r a t e b u i l d s up h i s perception of an object piecemeal, He stands outside of the object. On the other hand the integrate uses the " i n t u i t i v e " method of perception and places himself w i t h i n the object. Jaensch here f e e l s he has a p p l i c a t i o n s important to education ( a c t i v i t y and appreciation schools) and to a r t (empathy)'. During the l a s t twenty years experimenters have interested themselves in many problems a r i s i n g i n the e i d e t i c f i e l d . There i s such a tremendous amount of disagreement i n t h e i r reports that one wonders whether the same methods are being-used 'and i f a l l are'working on the same problem. The frequency of e i d e t i c occurrence v a r i e s according to in v e s t i g a t o r and geographical area from zero to one hundred per cent. A - c a r e f u l study of-..the -Psychological A b s t r a c t s reveals that the best age f o r e i d e t i c imagery i s v a r i o u s l y reported from s i x years to f i f t e e n or l a t e r . Roessler s e l e c t s the s i x t h year,. Mefmann the twelfth,- Bonte the pre-pubertal : stage, and K r a t i n a the fifteenth-., year.••' Jaensch 1' (7 ). asserts that while pre-school c h i l d r e n are at the best age f o r e i d e t i c image t h e i r reports are not s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e . A s l i g h t majority of i n v e s t i g a t o r s f i n d g i r l s more frequently are e i d e t i k e r s * Jaensch believes there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b i l i t i e s of the various "races", but Kluver's r e s u l t s are i n disagreement. Brother Rogatus of C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , (working under Rauth, one of the leading American e i d e t i c i n v e s t i g a t o r s ) has shown as a r e s u l t of h i s studies c e r t a i n r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Jaensch and other German experimenters have prepared scales f o r measuring e i d e t i c a b i l i t y but these are a r b i t r a r y measures subject to a wide .range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , the r e s u l t s obtained depending upon the user. There have been studies of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t and e i d e t i c imagery as i t seems reasonable to suppose that c h i l d r e n who have t h i s a b i l i t y could make use of i t i n a r t work. Here again we f i n d c o n f l i c t i n g r e ports. O ' S e i l l (10, p.23) states that some e i d e t i k e r s are able to trace t h e i r images on the background while Metz and P o l l i t t (32) found t h e i r subjects unable to do so. Apparently the e f f o r t to copy the image i n some cases causes i t to disappear. Many reports show that e i d e t i k e r s do not spontaneously make any use of t h e i r a b i l i t y . Biographies of great men i n music, l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , science and other f i e l d s have been studied i n an attempt to discover whether e i d e t i c a b i l i t y of an o p t i c a l , auditory or other type has been a contributory f a c t o r i n the success of these d i s t i n g u i s h e d men. While these studies are i n t e r e s t i n g the r e s u l t s obtained are of l i t t l e more than mere speculative value. In a recent magazine a r t i c l e / ( 2 3 , p.77) an account was given of a f a v o r i t e " p a r l o r " entertainment of Thomas A, Edison. He would d e l i g h t his guests by looking at a page of a d i c t i o n a r y f o r a minute and then answering any question put to him regarding what he had read. The w r i t e r of the a r t i c l e d i d not mention the word " e i d e t i c " but simply concluded that Edison had a "photographic memory." E f f o r t s have been made to discover any r e l a t i o n which may e x i s t between e i d e t i c imagery and i n t e l l i g e n c e i While most studies r e v e a l that persons of a l l grades of i n t e l l i g e n c e may e x h i b i t e i d e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Kluver (24, p.219) f i n d s that young e i d e t i k e r s are of higher i n t e l l i g e n c e than young non-7 e i d e t i k e r s , vwh'ile^adult e e i d e t i k e r s ' s r e ^ seldom'-of •high intelligence» Some v/riters suggest that c h i l d r e n might be taught to use t h e i r g i f t i n school subjects such as geography and physiology. The s p e l l i n g t e x t book used i n B r i t i s h Columbia suggests, "Let p u p i l s study the word a moment and then close t h e i r eyes and t r y to -visualize i t . P u p i l s w i l l look at the word again to see i f they v i s u a l i z e d i t c o r r e c t l y . " (l6*-p..9) E i d e t i c imagery has been studied also i n connection with some s o c i o l o g i c a l problems. Healy, speaks of " c r i m i n a l i s t i c mental imagery" (6, £.830) as pl a y i n g a part i n the making of delinquents» Sex delinquents are often e i d e t i k e r s accoring to some w r i t e r s . In t h i s connection i t has been pointed out by O'JTeill (lOy p.72) that c h i l d r e n must be protected from v i s u a l s t i m u l i which might have an unwholesome e f f e c t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the young e i d e t i k e r who may experience again at w i l l the o r i g i n a l s i g h t . S i m i l a r l y c h i l d r e n ' s " l i e s " have been explained by some w r i t e r s who say that c h i l d r e n do not sharply d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e i r images and r e a l i t y and hence may often be u n j u s t l y punished., Courtroom testimony t o o , , i t i s -claimed, may be colored by strong e i d e t i c imagery. C a r e f u l experiments have been conducted to determine the v a l i d i t y of eye-witness accounts of events and the r e s u l t s have shown that suggestion, habit, and i n t e r e s t " d 6 influence-testimony.* P o s s i b l y e i d e t i c phenomena also play t h e i r part. In conclusion i t might be remarked that the e i d e t i c -10-imagery school has d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n i t s own ranks j u s t as have the g e s t a l t i s t s , behaviourists and psychoanalysts. The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of Jaensch's book, " E i d e t i c Imagery", i n 1930 may r e s u l t i n a wider American f o l l o w i n g . The German psychologists apparently labored assiduously w i t h t h e i r e i d e t i k e r s but t h i s very z e a l has caused them to branch out into many f i e l d s and to theorize unduly about phenomena concerning which i n v e s t i g a t o r s are i n wide disagreement. Chapter I I I After—-Imagesj E i d e t i c Images and Memory Images Before entering upon a d i s c u s s i o n of these three types of images i t i s w e l l to emphasize the disagreement i n the theories held by various i n v e s t i g a t o r s who assume that they are studying the same phenomena* Jaensch himself has a theory that these three types of images are not q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t but that developmentally they appear on a scale of memory ranging from after-image through e i d e t i c image to memory-image» This genetic theory has been sharply c r i t i c i s e d by Scola and Koffka who say that where the e i d e t i c image i s l i k e the after—image i t i s a c t u a l l y an after-image. The genetic theory i s disclaimed also by A l l p o r t who claims that the true e i d e t i c image i s r e a l l y a s p e c i a l kind of memory image. He points out that the only s i m i l a r i t y between the after-image and the e i d e t i c image i s the tendency to p r o j e c t the image on the screen. Eor him an e i d e t i c image i s a memory image of s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l , concreteness and atrength to permit of p r o j e c t i o n i n such a manner as to simulate perception. In support of h i s theory that the e i d e t i c image i s merely a l i v e l y and accurately projected memory image A l l p o r t suggests the f o l l o w i n g points of s i m i l a r i t y : '(a) both are influenced i n content according to , i n t e r e s t and other a s s o c i a t i v e determinants; (b) a b r i e f exposure of the Voriage serves to arouse both types of image, the s l i g h t l y longer time u s u a l l y required f o r the EI (circa.10 sec.) i s simply because more d e t a i l and greater clearness are expected i n i t ; (c) The frequency of production conditions the clearness and i n t e n s i t y of both; -12-(d) the richness and d e t a i l of both g r e a t l y exceed that of optimum AI; (e) the content of both i s influenced by preceding image s; (f) both a l t e r t h e i r contents w i t h i n the l i m i t s of experience at w i l l ; (g) i f colored at a l l , both tend to r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o l o r ; (h) t h e i r behavior under conditions of d i s t r a c t i o n s t i m u l i i s the same; ( i ) they p e r s i s t as long as desired, and recur a f t e r i n t e r v a l s of time, sometimes bidden, sometimes unbidden; ( j ) they grow i n d i s t i n c t and l e s s accurate with disuse; (k) they may a r i s e spontaneously ( i . e . , w ith Vorlage), which of course i s never the case with AI." Tl73tPi-119) A l l p o r t f e e l s , however, that i t i s p r o f i t a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h between memory image and e i d e t i c image. O ' N e i l l agrees w i t h A l l p o r t and, f u r t h e r , suggests that images are e i t h e r p h y s i c a l (after—images) or mental (memory images)„ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare t h i s view with the f o l l o w i n g statement by a p h y s i o l o g i s t (5, p.850), "By r e t i n a here and elsewhere we mean cerebro-r e t i n a l apparatus. We have no knowledge of the precise share of r e t i n a and b r a i n i n the development of v i s u a l sensations ,and a f t e r -sensations." ' 0'Weill gives the f u r t h e r suggestion that the e i d e t i c image technique i s r e a l l y j u s t a method of arousing v i v i d memory images, and supports^this by p o i n t i n g out that the e i d e t i c image i s not o r d i n a r i l y evoked by the c h i l d . In making t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between mental and p h y s i c a l images t h i s experimenter i s r e v e r t i n g to a t o t a l l y d i s c r e d i t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory, Further, both O ' N e i l l , and Jaensch c o n t r a d i c t themselves when they mention subjects who can get a projected after-image of a. memory image. I t i s d i f f i c u l t 1 * t o r e c o n c i l e the view that ' -13-mental and p h y s i c a l images are d i s t i n c t with the view that a mental image can c a l l up a p h y s i c a l image. A l l p o r t and O'Meill have by no means solved the problem of the nature of the e i d e t i c image by s t a t i n g that the e i d e t i c image i s c l o s e r to the memory image than to the after-image. They are merely recognizing that many of the phenomena reported are of c r e a t i v e as w e l l as reproductive imagination. Kluver and Jaensch have reported many cases where subjects can v o l u n t a r i l y produce movements, d i s t o r t i o n s and rearrangements of the d e t a i l s of t h e i r images.. Sonnetimes these changes appear i n v o l u n t a r i l y according to Jaensch. "In Spain hundreds of sworn statements have been made to the e f f e c t that c e r t a i n p i c t u r e s of saints perform mi r a c l e s , step out of t h e i r panels and carry out act ions, These a s s e r t i o n s are based i n p a r t i c u l a r on testimony of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y educated persons l i k e engineers and doctors who are accustomed to sober t h i n k i n g . " (7, p<>23). But i f sc ient i f i c a l l y educated adults are unable to d i s t i n g u i s h between perception and c r e a t i v e imagination how much more d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r young c h i l d r e n , who provide most of the data f o r e i d e t i c r e ports. To i l l u s t r a t e the kind of data with which the i n v e s t i g a t o r s are working the f o l l o w i n g examples are given of f e a t s produced by Kluver's subjects. ( i ) The subject p r o j e c t s an e i d e t i c image on a screen. The experimenter turns the screen 90 degrees but the subject reports no movement of the image. The experimenter t e l l s the subject to imagine that the objects (watch and s t i c k ) are -14-l y i n g on the screen. Again the screen i s rotated. This time the subject reports with surprise that the image moved with the screen* The subject i s t o l d to bring the s t i c k back to i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n but leave the watch behind. He i s able to do so. (24, p*182). (2) The subject i s shown a p i c t u r e of a boy i n a t r e e . In the same tree i s a snake, while at the foot of the tree i s an a l l i g a t o r . In his e i d e t i c image the subject sees the boy s t r u g g l i n g and moving constantly, (24, p.143) It i s p o s s i b l e that these c h i l d subjects are indulging t h e i r imaginations f o r the b e n e f i t of the experimenters who have suggested f i r s t , that something w i l l be seen, and second, that i t i s possible to produce movement or a l t e r a t i o n i n the image. Since the image can be a l t e r e d by the subject i t seems d i f f i c u l t f o r the experimenter to check on what i s a c t u a l l y being seen as the image can no longer be compared with the o r i g i n a l stimulus object. A l l the inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s found i n other i n t r o s p e c t i v e experiments ar,e present i n e i d e t i c s t u d i e s . Phenomena of t h i s s u b j e c t i v e , u n v e r i f i a b l e nature might w e l l be t r e a t e d with extreme caution i f they are to supply the data upon which f a r - r e a c h i n g theories are to be b u i l t . Movement of the projected image i s not a mere side-issue with the proponents of e i d e t i c imagery. On the contrary, a b i l i t y to see moving images i s held to be one of the most conclusive t e s t s of the true e i d e t i k e r . An a l l i e d phenomenon i s that of d i s t o r t i o n produced i n the e i d e t i c image by the experimenter. Various operations -15-such as: shining a l i g h t on the eyes of the subject, producing a sudden loud noise, s t r e t c h i n g the subject's arms, or squeezing the subject himself are s a i d to bring about d i s t o r t i o n s such as change of c o l o r , p o s i t i o n or size of c e r t a i n elements i n the image„ Morsh,in an unpublished paper, (31), read before the Western P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1939, suggested that many of the d i s t o r t i o n s produced i n the image might p o s s i b l y be caused by the subject's s h i f t of p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the screen as a r e a c t i o n . t o the d i s t o r t i o n s t i m u l i . If the subject moved'we should expect a change i n the s i z e of the image i n accordance with Emraert's law which states that the si z e of the after-image i s to the distance of the after-image as the size of the stimulus i s to the distance of the stimulus. '...'•' In any Cp.se there i s some doubt as to the p o s s i b i l i t y of securing anything approximating exact measurement i n the case of such exceedingly f l e e t i n g and i n t a n g i b l e phenomena. Kluver, (24, p . l O l ) , reports that i n attempting to measure an image of & l i n e he got d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s depending upon whether he approached the ends of the l i n e from the inside or from the outside. S i m i l a r l y the w r i t e r has encountered d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g to get an exact timing of, l a t e n t period, duration, beginning of fad i n g , f i n a l fading, and the fading i n and fading out of elements of the image while other elements remain. There are so many f a c t o r s involved and the changes are often so gradual that i t i s l i t t l e wonder that c h i l d r e n give reports which r e s u l t i n c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s . Often too, i t has appeared that c h i l d r e n are not reporting what they are a c t u a l l y seeing. This may be due to the novelty of the experience and the consequent fe a r of appearing queer. On the other hand c h i l d r e n may report seeing images because they want to be l i k e a f r i e n d who has reported to them his i n t e r e s t i n g images seen during a previous experiment* The w r i t e r has heard c h i l d r e n compare experiences afterward and has even had subjects come back to ask i f t h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d color blindness or poor i n t e l l i g e n c e . A f a c t o r noted by Morsh i n the paper mentioned above i s that subjects are i n s t r u c t e d merely to "look at the p i c t u r e . " Some subjects w i l l f i x a t e a poi n t , while others w i l l l e t t h e i r gaze wander about at w i l l over the p i c t u r e . I t i s understandable that two d i f f e r e n t types of images may r e s u l t . Those who f i x a t e a point w i l l l i k e l y have after-images with a minimum of memory images. Those whose gaze wanders over the p i c t u r e w i l l 1 i k e l y have a large content of memory image supported weakly i f at a l l by after-yimage. Since Jaensch did not c o n t r o l the eye movements, i t i s suggested by Morsh that t h i s f a c t o r alone could conceivably account f o r Jaensch's two types: the B type who see whatever they are t h i n k i n g about, whose images are p o s i t i v e , r i c h i n d e t a i l , f l u c t u a t i n g and generally l i k e memory images; and the T type whose images are complementary, no n - f l u c t u a t i n g and f i x e d i n form, and i n general close to the after-image. Our own conclusion i s that these subjects are seeing, broadly, e i t h e r after-images or memory images, although there may be varying degrees of both components present supplemented frequently by c r e a t i v e imagination. I f the concept of e i d e t i c imagery were discarded the e i d e t i c phenomena would s t i l l be e x p l i c a b l e i n terms of a f t e r -images and memory images; Where high frequency of e i d e t i c imagery i s reported the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s l i k e l y d e aling with memory images, where the frequency i s low the reports may concern after-imagery. Thus i t i s not necessary to c a l l upon d i e t , angle of i n c l i n a t i o n of the sun, pedagogical methods, latency, or any of a host of other explanations to account f o r the great range of incidence of e i d e t i k e r s i n various ;' ' geographical areas; If the term e i d e t i c were to be applied merely to strong powers of after-imagery i t might be acceptable. But when proponents become so e n t h u s i a s t i c over t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s as to b u i l d up a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a large part of psychology t h e i r school may w e l l be c a l l e d i n t o question. Jaensch and his f o l l o w e r s are l i k e t h e i r fellow-German psychologists Freud, Jung, Adler and the g e s t a l t i s t s who have been c a r r i e d away by t h e i r own z e a l and have b u i l t up a super-structure of theory f a r too heavy f o r the f r a i l foundations of experimental f a c t ; In conclusion i t might be noted that, as Shaffer (13) points out, psychology i s no'longer g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n typologies,, Thus Galen's 11 humors", Kretschmer*s somatic types, and various other p e r s o n a l i t y typologies are no longer widely accepted. Medical men may t r u l y speak of types of -18- • • • ' disease and blood types, but psychologists today look upon most human responses as more t r u l y represented i n a continuum. When groupings are made' f o r the sake of convenience there i s a tendency to forget the a r t i f i c i a l i t y , to erect high b a r r i e r s between the groups, and to magnify the dif f e r e n c e s among the e n t i t i e s so created. This leads i n e v i t a b l y to f a l s e conclusions. Our general f i n d i n g as a r e s u l t of experiments to be described wasi^thatsubjecta•:icbuId'Ibe=-plttced up.0n>:ahr0ugh0sca 1 e ranging from thbSeohavingino after-images,,to subjec.tsc reporting v i v i d , d e t a i l e d and l a s t i n g after-images. Creative and reproductive memory entered the p i c t u r e as a complicating f a c t o r . Chapter IV PPJ5LDCDJTARY BXPBRIMBETS . Before attempting the " p i c t u r e " experiments, which are described i n the next chapter, we tested c h i l d r e n f o r a f t e r -images i n preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n s using what might be considered simpler s t i m u l i . These s t i m u l i were windows, patterns (holes of various -shapes cut out of black paper which was placed over a window) and the Union Jack* Two methods were employed i n arousing after-images by these s t i m u l i . In one case the " b l i n k " method was used with the dark-adapted eye By t h i s means we performed 300 i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s at the Balfour Quelchena, and Towers Schools using 52 subjects who averaged 11 years of age. The ages ranged from 6 to 19 years; In the second case we had several group t e s t s w i t h e n t i r e classrooms of c h i l d r e n at Surrey High School and Semiahmoo Junior and Senior High Schools, In these group experiments the classes f i x a t e d a window (or the f l a g ) f o r 40 seconds and then projected the image onto the bare, white p l a s t e r w a l l . The b l i n k after-image was obtained with the dark-adapted eye. Light was excluded from the eye i n order to increase v i s u a l s e n s i t i v i t y f o r short i n t e r v a l s of s t i m u l a t i o n . The eye was made to perform i n a manner somewhat s i m i l a r to the a c t i o n of a camera. The subject seated himself f a c i n g a window i n the d a y l i g h t . He closed his eyes and placed a hand over each eye so as to exclude as much l i g h t as p o s s i b l e , but at the same time avoiding the a p p l i c a t i o n of pressure on the e y e b a l l s ; Two minutes dark adaption time was"found to be optimum f o r securing good after-images. The subject was -20-given a forewarning and then at two minutes t o l d to b l i n k his eyes i n the d i r e c t i o n of the window (the eye remained open approximately onetthirdoof ";a.:second), -immediately'-thereafter r e p l a c i n g his hands over the closed eyes and p r o j e c t i n g the after-image of the window on his e y e l i d s . With an ordinary watch the experimenter noted the l a t e n t time, that i s the time between exposure and appearance of an image, or the time between succeeding images and the duration of the images themselves. Spontaneous remarks and r e p l i e s of the subjects were also recorded. A l l subjects required some l a t e n t time before the image appeared. The average l a t e n t time was s i x seconds. There was a range of l a t e n t period from one to t h i r t y - t h r e e seconds although there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that those r e p o r t i n g a long l a t e n t period were f a i l i n g to report a f a i n t after-image which may have appeared during that time. Following t h i s l a t e n t p e r i o d a l l subjects reported seeing an after-image of the window or some .parts of i t . The image was generally p o s i t i v e , that i s , dark bars were seen between the l i g h t panes. No attempt was made to record the i n i t i a l fading time as the precise moment i s not c l e a r l y observed even by a d u l t s . Furthermore there i s a complicating f a c t o r i n the f a c t that the complete image may not, i n i t s e n t i r e t y , appear and disappear. D i f f e r e n t elements of the image gradually appear and disappear, as we are w e l l aware, not only from reports but al s o from observing our own after-images. Elements of the image may b u i l d up from p e r i p h e r a l areas or from some c e n t r a l area of the image. The p o s i t i v e after-images were generally more d i s t i n c t i n o u t l i n e and r i c h e r i n d e t a i l than the negative after—images. Most subjects experienced other l a t e n t periods, or periods of no imagery, which intervened between successive images. These intervening periods were of widely varying lengths, even f o r the same subject ?but averaged approximately f i v e seconds i n length* The range was from one to f i f t y seconds* Most subjects reported negative after-images as w e l l as the p o s i t i v e k i n d . The negative after-images showed a r e v e r s a l of shades of grey, and complementary c o l o r s . These images did not d i f f e r i n length from the p o s i t i v e images. I t must be noted that the duration of images showed the same wide v a r i a b i l i t y as d i d . a l l the other measurable phenomena $ there being, f o r instance, a wide range i n the number of after-images seen by d i f f e r e n t subjects. Various subjects reported durations of from one to 120 seconds'. We considered i t p o s s i b l e that, i n the case of e x c e p t i o n a l l y long durations the subject might have f a i l e d to report a momentary f a d i n g . In many cases images can be so i n d i s t i n c t that even the most observant and highly t r a i n e d adult subject can not be c e r t a i n about the image he i s seeing. Although some subjects experienced a succession of images i n which p o s i t i v e and negative after-images a l t e r n a t e d f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y , t h i s was by no means the general r u l e . One boy aged 8-g- years saw 33 successive images almost a l l of which -22-a l t e r n a t e d between p o s i t i v e and negative and were separated, by l a t e n t periods. There was no constant v a r i a t i o n of durations or l a t e n t periods i n t h i s s e r i e s . This experiment had f i n a l l y to be terminated as i t had taken 20 minutes and the young subject was becoming t i r e d , This c h i l d , l i k e most others, reported the sky as purple i n the p o s i t i v e and black i n the negative after-image. Some subjects gave s u r p r i s i n g reports. One boy,aged 7, immediately a f t e r b l i n k i n g his eyes saw an image of his own face i n s i d e a c i r c l e ; Several subjects reported that they saw two or more images superimposed one upon another. Very l i k e l y these c h i l d r e n were s t i l l seeing the image of a previous exposure along with the l a t e s t image. The experimenter was in t e r e s t e d i n t h i s and had several subjects t r y three b l i n k s i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n , f i r s t with the head leaning to the l e f t , then held erect and f i n a l l y leaning to the r i g h t . The r e s u l t was s i m i l a r to a t r i p l e exposure of a camera f i l m where three images appear, one superimposed upori* another. The c h i l d r e n were most amused at t h i s phenomenon. Some subjects reported that they could make the image more d i s t i n c t by pressing the eyes s l i g h t l y with the hands. Very often the image would show not only the o u t l i n e of a window but a l s o d e t a i l s of the landscape such as a telephone pole, wires, trees, mountains, and clouds * One boy astonished the experimenter when he reported that he saw not only the o u t l i n e of a s a i l i n g v e s s e l (which had been placed on the window s i l l previous to the experiment) but a l s o the blue waves of the ocean. The l a s t d e t a i l was- ;evidently supplied by the boy's imagination as there was no ocean v i s i b l e from that window; As a general conclusion regarding the r e s u l t s of these "blink" after-images we must stress the wide v a r i a t i o n i n the rep o r t s . This i s i n some disagreement with the asse r t i o n s of c e r t a i n w r i t e r s of general psychology t e x t s who suggest that subjects e x h i b i t very s i m i l a r after-image phenomena* The next group of preliminary experiments also made use of the " b l i n k " method. A piece of heavy, black paper w i t h holes of various shapes: c i r c l e s , squares and t r i a n g l e s , was placed i n the window. D i f f e r e n t numbers and s i z e s of holes and various patterns were t r i e d but f o r the most part the f i n d i n g s of t h i s experiment proved to be negative. The best r e s u l t s were obtained with a pattern of 12 round holes, each two inches i n diameter. , The subject was seated at a distance of eight f e e t from the covered window. Of twenty-five c h i l d r e n (aged 6 to 14 years) tested i n t h i s way s i x saw the correct number of holes. Generally the image became i n d i s t i n c t before the subject could complete the count* Two s i x year old c h i l d r e n who could count gave reports of 20 and 46 holes. Apparently they were competing f o r number. In some l a t e r experiments two d i f f e r e n t v i s u a l s t i m u l i were used, the row of windows at the side of the classroom, and the r e p l i c a i n color of the Union Jack on the f r o n t w a l l . The purpose of these experiments was to determine the value of t h i s method of di s c o v e r i n g subjects of unusual a f t e r -image a b i l i t y . < The method used was to have the class face the window (or f l a g ) and stare at i t f o r 40 seconds, f i x a t i n g some point. When the experimenter c a l l e d , "Time", the subjects looked q u i c k l y at the blank, white w a l l . The experimenter c a l l e d the elapsed time every 10 seconds th e r e a f t e r and the subjects wrote down the l a s t time announced a f t e r they could no longer an image on the w a l l . The experimenter l a t e r c a l l e d the names of the cl a s s and they responded with the time which they had recorded. The method has weaknesses inasmuch as there are a great many d i s t r a c t i n g f a c t o r s i n the classroom. Some c h i l d r e n who might prolong t h e i r images do not do so when they r e a l i z e that others about them have f i n i s h e d and are s t a r i n g at the few s t i l l looking at the w a l l . On the other hand the competitive s p i r i t may become aroused and some c h i l d r e n may keep on s t a r i n g at the blank w a l l long a f t e r t h e i r image has gone. Of course a great deal depends upon what degree of rapport e x i s t s between subject and experimenter. The c h i l d r e n were e s p e c i a l l y amazed at seeing t h e i r f l a g i n complementary c o l o r s , as they almost i n v a r i a b l y d i d . They described what they had seen with great eagerness and the amazement and d e l i g h t which they expressed was very e v i d e n t l y s i n c e r e . Our conclusion was that t h i s method would serve as a quick way of f i n d i n g a few of those with strong powers of a f t e r — imagery, that'-it would; not serve to detect a l l of these subjects. A f t e r considering the r e s u l t s obtained from these experiments we decided that p i c t u r e s might o f f e r a greater -25-scope f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g after-images. Further, we hoped that by conducting experiments s i m i l a r to those reported by Jaensch and Kluver some i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons could be made. Chapter V Bxperiraenta with P i c t u r e s In our l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s we used 256 public school c h i l d r e n of both sexes from grades f i v e to twelve and ranging i n age from 10 to 19. The average age of the group was s l i g h t l y over 13 years. The subjects were a l l l i v i n g i n or around White Rock, a sea-side v i l l a g e near Vancouver. The experimenter knows most of them quite w e l l . There was no s e l e c t i o n of subjects on mental, p h y s i o l o g i c a l or achievement r a t i n g s . The experiments were conducted i n the school i n a pleasant room where d i s t r a c t i n g f a c t o r s were reduced i n number. The subjects were tested one at a time, no other persons being present i n the room besides the experimenter and the subject. A l l experiments were c a r r i e d on i n d a y l i g h t , Strong sunlight was excluded. The subject on entering the room had had no previous i n t i m a t i o n of what was to f o l l o w other than what he may have been t o l d by c h i l d r e n who had. pre v i o u s l y been te s t e d . The c l a s s teacher simply i n s t r u c t e d her p u p i l s to go to the experimental room one at a tirae to look at some p i c t u r e s . The experimenter seated the subject at a desk near the windows so that the l i g h t f e l l upon the p i c t u r e which the subject held i n his hands at approximately arm's length. The experimenter s a i d , " I want you to hold t h i s p i c t u r e i n your two hands and look at i t without looking away u n t i l I t e l l you to stop. Soon I s h a l l take the p i c t u r e away and you w i l l be holding the blank piece of cardboard." (The p i c t u r e had been l y i n g on a l i g h t gray cardboard 12 by 17 inches. Both p i c t u r e and card--28-cardboard had been handed to the subject.) A large school clock which i n d i c a t e d seconds was used i n the timing. At the end of the exposure period (40 seconds f o r the duck p i c t u r e ) the experimenter took the p i c t u r e from i n front of the cardboard which then served as a p r o j e c t i o n screen. The experimenter s a i d , "Now, look c l o s e l y at the cardboard and t r y to seer again the p i c t u r e you have been looking a t . T e l l about anything you can see." I t was sometimes necessary to repeat the experiment as the c h i l d r e n i n a few cases looked away from the p i c t u r e ; This happened i n not over a dozen cases however. The c h i l d r e n seemed to enjoy the experiment and co-operated very w e l l . The experimenter was c a r e f u l to guard against any suggestion that i t was "good" to be able to get images on the screen and "bad" not to be able to. do so. The p i c t u r e used i n the f i r s t instance with each subject ; was a colored drawing of a duck. (Figil'j,. p»27'.) This p i c t u r e was selected a f t e r many others had been t r i e d as i t brought out most r e a d i l y , the a b i l i t y of the subject to see after-images on the screen. Henceforth, we s h a l l speak of these images seen on the screen by the subject a f t e r the ....,;:> removal of the p i c t u r e as after-images (or simply A I ) . ,» We c a l l them "after-images" because they are images seen " a f t e r " the stimulus object has been removed. I f the subject was able to get a f a i r l y c l e a r a f t e r -image l a s t i n g f o r at l e a s t 40 seconds and quite r i c h i n -29--30-content he was given the p o l i c e p i c t u r e ( J i g . 2 ^ ,p«,29) , with a-10 second exposure. The i n s t r u c t i o n s and general method were the same as before« As the subject reported the experimenter wrote^so f a r as poss i b l e , the exact words he used. The experimenter also made note of the behaviour of the subject i n r e l a t i o n to the image on the screen. Such behaviour included: eye-movements, po i n t i n g , looking away from the screen, f a c i a l expressions, tone of voice, muscular tension, movement of body. The experimenter questioned the subject regarding exact d e t a i l s of the image on the screen while the experimenter checked by looking at the o r i g i n a l p i c t u r e . The experimenter watched f o r eye-movements as a further check on what the subject was a c t u a l l y seeing. Often the subject spontaneously pointed or hunched forward t o get,a c l o s e r look. If the subject b l i n k e d his eyes and gazed aimlessly about the room while he spoke about his "image" the experimenter took t h i s to be a sign that the subject was remembering r a t her .-than seeing. Often the subject would look puzzled to see a green t i e when he remembered that the t i e was red. One boy stated that his2duck was " l i k e " the one i n the p i c t u r e but faced i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . A f t e r the subject i n d i c a t e d that he could no longer see the image, the experimenter placed the o r i g i n a l p i c t u r e beside the screen and asked the subject to t e l l how his " p i c t u r e " had d i f f e r e d from the r e a l p i c t u r e ; Since some subjects could apparently see the image i n d e f i n i t e l y the experimenter d i d not always wait f o r subject to report that -31-the image had faded completely. The subject was t o l d to point out any d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o s i t i o n , s i z e , shape, objects present-, and c o l o r . The " p o l i c e " p i c t u r e i s i n s i l h o u e t t e and o u t l i n e , done i n black and white. I t has as s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s a small "5" on the policeman's hat, s t r i p e s on the arms and l e g s , the word "POLICE" on the c a r t , the words under the p i c t u r e , and windows on a b u i l d i n g at the l e f t . Since the p i c t u r e , was exposed f o r only 10 seconds, the experimenter f e l t quite sure he could t e l l when the subject was a c t u a l l y seeing an image. This p i c t u r e was shown to some subjects who had done poorly with the duck p i c t u r e . The subjects were i n v a r i a b l y poor w i t h both p i c t u r e s . On the other hand no subject who had good imagery With the duck p i c t u r e f a i l e d to get some after-image of the p o l i c e picture,, In dealing with the r e s u l t s of the experiments i t was found des i r a b l e to group the subjects according to t h e i r a b i l i t y to get after-images. Accordingly the experimenter decided on the f a c t o r s to be used i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . These were: number of d e t a i l s or elements of the image, viv i d n e s s or d i s t i n c t n e s s of form, and duration, A grading scale as i l l u s t r a t e d (Table I, p,38) was devised and each subject placed i n one of the f i v e groups A,B,C,D or B, The assigning of a given i n d i v i d u a l to any p a r t i c u l a r group i s admittedly a r b i t r a r y and there might be room f o r disagreement wi t h respect to the intermediate groups as to whether a subject should not be moved from the group i n which he has been placed to the next group. But there i s l i t t l e doubt as to -32-Table I ;AI Group 1 lumber of { l Details' Time j D i s t i n c t n e s s ! Exposure~| j ffew (1-2) I G-40 sec. , • ^ ^,' _„ f No time i Nothing | 40 sec, G I B j Good I 2 rain. if | (6 or more) 1 died out A | E x c e l l e n t j S t i l l going j(most d e t a i l s ) j • . o u t l i n e s f . 1© sec* I As a check, those subjects f a l l i n g w i t h i n groups A and B were tes t e d with the more d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e shown i n (Fig". 2) with an exposure of 10 seconds; accuracy of placements at the extremes. Some subjects report, seeing nothing, while others report seeing almost a l l the d e t a i l s c l e a r l y , v i v i d l y , and f o r lengthy durations,, There are a l l shades of a b i l i t y apparently. While long duration u s u a l l y goes wi t h c l e a r outlines; and r i c h content, o c c a s i o n a l l y a s i n g l e d e t a i l such as the bow t i e on the duck may be the only content, yet i t may be seen c l e a r l y and l a s t f o r as long as four minutes; On the other hand the content may be r i c h . y e t extremely f l e e t i n g i n character l a s t i n g only a few seconds. This i n d i c a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y of applying the grading scale. However, by using the scale only as a rough guide, and more by comparing the overt behavioral data of one subject with those of another, the experimenter was able to place each subject i n a group with others approximating his own imagery a b i l i t y , , —33«" A f t e r sealing,the data were studied i n an e f f o r t to detect some f a c t o r s p o s s i b l y involved such as age, sex or i n t e l l i g e n c e . L a s t l y , a study was made of the c o r r e l a t i o n between a b i l i t y to obtain after-images and a b i l i t y i n some school subjects which might involve imagery such as Eng l i s h composition, s p e l l i n g , and a r t . •Chapter VI Experimental Results Of the 25fr boys, and g i r l s tested f o r after-imagery, by means of the. p i c t u r e s of the duck and the policeman* there were 77 subjects or 30.1 per cent of the whole group who reported seeing^ ho after-image at. a l l * . There were 179 subjects or 69.9 per cent of' the t o t a l number who experienced some after-image, Twenty~two subjects o r 8,6. per cent saw greys; only^ that i s * no colors&appeared i n t h e i r .after-images, For 3.4 subjects or 13i5 p e r cent the af t e r - s e n s a t i o n s appeared e i t h e r e n t i r e l y or p a r t i a l l y i n complementary c o l o r s . In some cases a l l the v Table. 2 Reports of 256 School C h i l d r e n on After-image of the Duck. ( F i g . • 1 ) . • I J¥,YVe °t- •Sm^es^ObserTed._: | • ^Nxmber-_ |_ ^ B e r ,oeirt| |^,»M£_S£i?S~J;SaS9 , t ; ^ w I • 77- ! 30.1 1 • ' ' ' t I " " ' " \y S.ome- a f t e r - i m a ^ e _ | 179 f L - S S ^ ^ Q S f e ^ : ^ [ :38 1 8,6 j [•. Some .aomplementarias I ^34 [ 1 3 * 3 f I Only p o s i t i v e after-image. J 123 j 4 3 , 0 j c o l o r s of the. after-image- were com.plementari.es of the colo r s seen i n the o r i g i n a l p i c t u r e . I n other cases some of the colors" were complementary while others.were l i k e the o r i g i n a l c o l o r s . O c c a s i o n a l l y a co l o r which covered a. large area of the p i c t u r e (such as., the yellow, of the duck i n F i g * 1) would be extended i n the after-image t o cover adjacent areas not so colored i n the stimulus p i c t u r e ; One hundred twenty-three -35-subjects or 4.8 per cent of the t o t a l saw only p o s i t i v e - a f t e r -images,, That i s , t h e i r images appeared i n hues simmilar to those i n the p i c t u r e * Those, who could get a c l e a r after-image of the policeman (Jig..;2) almost i n v a r i a b l y obtained a. p o s i t i v e after-image. The 22 subjects who saw grey after-images, were given the Ishihara Test of Color Blindness.. A l l but three of. these showed d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n s of weakness i n color d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . With the grading scale shown, i n Table'1 as a guide ..we .were able to c l a s s i f y the subjects i n t o f i v e groups according to t h e i r r e l a t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n the f i e l d of after-imagery* We designated the groups A, B, C, D and E: i n order from strongest to weakest a b i l i t y * A l l but one of the subjects placed i n the superior group (A) of after-image a b i l i t y saw p o s i t i v e a f t e r -images* The exception was a. ten-year old. g i r l who reported greys only* She was shown to be weak i n c o l o r d i s c r i r a i n a t i o n by the I s h i h a r a Test*. Groups A and B each contained about one tenth (.24 and 25} of the t o t a l number of subjects, group C contained about one f i f t h (4-9)and groups D and E each contained approximately three tenths (81 and 77) of the t o t a l * . Thus as after-imagery grew l e s s the frequency of subjects increased* (See Table 3*) Tables 3 to 8 showing d i s t r i b u t i o n s of after-image groups are based, on the duck t e s t shown i n F i g * 1.* In order to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p of age and after-imagery the subjects were placed i n three age groups, ages.10 to 12 years, 13 and 14 years, and. 15 to 19 years* . These data are -36-summarized i n Table 3. . ...Table 3 Dis-cribu-cion by M£ter-ImageryuancLJtgeocif ; 256 S chool.oChildr.e-iL • • I ' A g e " " "~" " " 1 imagery! No* % off No i 56 of I No 4 % c4 No| % of I Group | I 86 L „ ' 7 6 L i 9 4 j j 256 { j&. _ I _16 118.6 ' 7 " 9.2 l j ^ l . J L j 2 4 J J 3 . 3 j _ J L _ j J I 0 - 4 I J>j 7*9 tjLO }10*6 1^25^ 9 .8 j C | 15 117*4 115 fl . 9 . 7 119 120,2 I 49 119*111 D • J32J25.6 j 18 ,23*7 s 41J43. 6 j 81 ;31*7^  ( t 24J28.0 ;30 ,39.5 1 23 J24.5 1 77 ^ O . l E J ^ 1 . . J 8 6 I 100, i?& I 100 I 94 1 100 1256 ! 100 1 Table 3 shows that 23 out of the 24 subjects i n A group were, between 10 and 1.4 years old*. Sixteen of these 23 subjects were 10 to 12 years of age*. Thus i n the highest grade of after-image a b i l i t y the youngest subjects were most numberous* I n the A group only one. 15 to 19 year o l d subject was found. Nearly 40 per cent: of the 13 and 14 year o l d subjects were i n the E group« Over, 43. per cent of" the subjects aged 15 to 19 years were in. the D group*. No such, concentration of subjects was discovered, i n the youngest group* The chi-square t e s t of p r o b a b i l i t y of a s s o c i a t i o n , and the contingency c o e f f i c i e n t , measure of degree of a s s o c i a t i o n , were worked out for- the- data shown i n Table 3* The formulae employed, were those described i n G a r r e t t . (.10, p*377 f f . ) -37-For these data chi-square was 25,5, while P, the p r o b a b i l i t y of a chance chi-square of such a value, was l e s s than .01. Garrett says, "A. P of *02 or l e s s may be taken as i n d i c a t i v e of a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n from expectancy." (10, p.580) In t h i s case there are more than 99 chances out of 100 that a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s between age; and after-image a b i l i t y . The c o e f f i c i e n t of contingency (C) was- ,301., Thus while there i s strong s t a t i s t i c a l evidence of a s s o c i a t i o n between age and after-image, a b i l i t y , the degree of c o r r e l a t i o n i s not great. There i s , however, a d e f i n i t e tendency f o r after-imagery to be of a superior type in. younger children*. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of boys 1 and g i r l s T after-image r a t i n g s were studied i n order to discover any sex d i f f e r e n c e s which might e x i s t . Of the .256 subjects, 105 were boys and 151 were g i r l s * Table 4. shows what percentage of the t o t a l f o r each sex were found, i n each after-image, groupv Table 4 A f t e r Image-Ability of 105 Boys and 151 G i r l s , Boys G i r l s f A I Group fNb. ! j <11 J 10*5 j "•»« 1 » .....|_.,_, i ! .10 1 9*5 I Totals fo of 1 Wo* j ' fa of j Hoi j - fo of I 1 F PS I t i PIT s I o R « i. 256 -3S~ As shown i n Table 4 there was again a tendency- f o r the frequencies of subjects to. increase as. the after-image a b i l i t y decreased. The boys, however*, appeared to he s l i g h t l y more frequent than, the g i r l s at both ends of the s c a l e . I n the A group- the. boys, c o n s t i t u t e d 10*5.per cent and the g i r l s 8,6 per cerrt,a.ricEn tire H group the hoys made- up 3.4*3 per cent while the g i r l s numbered 27,2. per cent #. '.The. chi-square equalled 2,79. w i t h P approximately »60.* This value being greater than ,02. is. not s i g n i f i c a n t . The contingency c o e f f i c i e n t was V10.4* Thus there, was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of any a s s o c i a t i o n and the c o r r e l a t i o n was very low. Since our r e s u l t s had- i n d i c a t e d that the c h i l d r e n aged 15 to 19 were r a r e l y found i n the & group of after-imagery we s t u d i e d the r e s u l t s of o n l y the younger subjects f o r the r e l a t i o n s of t h i s a b i l i t y with i n t e l l i g e n c e and with c e r t a i n achievement r a t i n g s . Unfortunately'lire had no data on i n t e l l i g e n c e for., c h i l d r e n below grade seven. Consequently we i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of after-imagery and i n t e l l i g e n c e on only 95 c h i l d r e n of grades, seven and eight whose average age was 13 years* ~ ;;: .Table 5 shows that when the subjects, were d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o the f i v e groups according to after-image a b i l i t y each group- contained a. wide range of i n t e l l i g e n c e * The smallest range occurred i n the. A group and the greatest i n the D group* There was no. subject of i n t e l l l g t h o e r a t i n g higher than 109 i n the. A.group. The highest median 1*,% was found i n the G group* In the d i r e c t i o n of both-extremes the median dropped. The highest percentage of each after-image group was found t6 have average, i n t e l l i g e n c e except, i n case of group C. Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n by A f t e r -Imagery and. I n t e l l i g e n c e of 95 Subjects of Average Age 13 years i n Grades 7 and 8 T,^^. ^ .... ,™ „ ^ ^ |AIG-roup| Low Average,] High kedian |. L i m i t s I Ranges I r .1 J . • k " r. I; i . ' I , - I - •• i . i A I 3 j 50 1 3 1.50 j 0 I 0 • G l i 6VEI--615.7;^ 9 50 10 9 128.51 26 |65 I.. 5 E 38.5 D ! 3 11.5 13 90 |80-109 j 29 i ' " 59 ' I 101 |60-143 [ 83 1 112 j 80-139 , w -94 70-129 59 Chi-square for- t h i s t a b l e was .18.5 and. P was .02, a s i g n i f i c a n t , value. Hence there i s strong s t a t i s t i c a l .support of a s s o c i a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and after-image a b i l i t y . The c o e f f i c i e n t of contingency, was. *404. Thus a f a i r degree, of c o r r e l a t i o n was shown. In the studies of s p e l l i n g , ar,t and E n g l i s h composition i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to after-imagery the r e s u l t s of 156 c h i l d r e n were considered* The subjects were i n grades f i v e to e i g h t * Their ages ranged from 10 to 15 years with an average age of 13 years; Teachers were asked "to r a t e the subjects as. below average^ average or above average i n these three school courses* The r a t i n g s were based upon, t e s t r e s u l t s covering a period of s i x months* The c h i l d r e n of eaoh grade of a b i l i t y i n s p e l l i n g , E n g l i s h composition and a r t were then d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o t h e i r groups according to after-image a b i l i t y , as. shown i n Tables 6, 7 and 8 , Table 6 i n d i c a t e s the number and per cent of p u p i l s of each grade of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y i n the after-image groups. The percentages here and i n tables 8 and 8 are based upon the f i g u r e s given i n the t o t a l s appearing at the bottom of t h i s t a b l e . Table 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n by .After-Imagery and S p e l l i n g A b i l i t y of .. .156 /Subjects...Ranging!in^Age...;'fr.o.m;:l.Q.!-rl5.. Years, and . . Having an Average Age of 13 Years. . S p e l l i n g J U ^ l i t y ^ ,.1'AlrGrpup A J ^ ® ^ S e _ i _ . i . L 43 I 61 43 I 16J 62117 | 46 1 • 7 I 12 36 15 21}., .41. 15:{12 ;|- 32 I totals ..._J^|l00l^l4[l00 J 26j 100 j 37 J100 | 58 100 62 26 Totals I No J35; 84 22 1 37 156 54 i 24 | 100 I In Table 6 the greatest percentages occur f o r a l l a f t e r --'image 'groups • at the l e v e l of average s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y * . Although the t o t a l frequencies of the high and the low s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y groups are: approximately equal, these two groups e x h i b i t opposite trends, *Bar those students of high s p e l l i n g v-'::: \-r. :x performance; from groups A t o jfi.,. the percentages decrease, while those of lowest a b i l i t y show a trend toward an increase i n the same d i r e c t i o n * Thus, s p e l l e r s of high a b i l i t y appear to represent a gradually decreasing percentage of'.'the after-image groups i n the d i r e c t i o n of A- to E, while s p e l l e r s of low a b i l i t y seem to show, to some extent, an opposite tendency* Chi-square f o r the data set f o r t h i n t h i s t a b l e was 13.3 and P was »1Q, a value too great to be s i g n i f i c a n t but i n d i c a t i n g a strong trend of a s s o c i a t i o n . The c o e f f i c i e n t of contingency was »28. Thus there was. a small c o r r e l a t i o n between after-image, and a r t a b i l i t i e s . The study of a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h composition i n r e l a t i o n to after—imagery'i& shown i n Table 7* Tables 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n by AfterfImagery and E n g l i s h Composition A b i l i t y of 156 Subjects Banging i n Age from 10-15. years and Having an Average Age. of 13 Years* A I Group D I No. Jo, •I HI eh i 6 29 | Average \ 12 57 Low i 3 14 Totals \ 21 100 ^ |_ y_,r„..|, i . S „ ...p:?^^1-?^ I 6 43 !l7 66 1 19 52 14 100 {26 100 { 37 100 20 34. d_ 59_ 25 f , 58 100 \ 156 100 | In Table 7 the r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r to those of Table 6* The subjects of average a b i l i t y i n English, composition are •most frequent i n a l l imagery groups* Percentages of subjects of superior a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h composition decrease toward the E. or d e f i c i e n t 5 imagery ..end .of .the s c a l e , - whereas percentages of subjects of low E n g l i s h a b i l i t y show some tendency to increase i n the same d i r e c t i o n . Subjects of high a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h composition represent 29 per cent of the A group but only 15,5 per cent of. the & group,, while subjects of low a b i l i t y c o n s t i t u t e only 14 per. cent of the A group and 54,5 per cent of the B.. group* Eor t h i s t a b l e chi-square equalled 6,88 and P was: approximately ••.60.$. not a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n . The' • c o e f f i c i e n t of contingency was ,.18. Thus there was. no strong p r o b a b i l i t y of more than chance r e l a t i o n s h i p and the c o r r e l a t i o n was very low. Comparison of a b i l i t i e s , i n after-imagery and a r t i s seen in. Table 8* Table 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n , by After-Imagery and Art. A b i l i t y of 156 Subjects .Ranging i n Age from 10-15 Years and Having .... an Average Age of 13 Years*. The r e s u l t s shown i n Table 8 d i f f e r i n many respects from those of the two preceding t a b l e s . The subjects of average a r t . a b i l i t y do. not, i n a l l imagery groups, represent the highest percentages* In the B and D groups,, the highest percentages are -43-'found', i n the high; a r t a b i l i t y group. Nor does t h i s group e x h i b i t any.tendency to decrease i n the d i r e c t i o n of the E or d e f i c i e n t imagery end of the s c a l e * For the data of Table 8 the chi-square was 37,45 with P so s m a l l that i t went f a r beyond the. tables i n G a r r e t t , (105 p,379*) This i s p r a c t i c a l l y conclusive evidence of a s s o c i a t i o n as. there are over 99 chances i n 100 that a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t of contingency was ,44, i n d i c a t i n g a f a i r degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between a r t a b i l i t y and after-imagery* Chapter VII .! - .: Summary and- Gonclusions Since reports of e i d e t i c phenomena appeared, to involve after-images we took, t h i s as a. s t a r t i n g point i n our research, We began w i t h studies of after-images, aroused hy r e l a t i v e l y simple v i s u a l s t i m u l i i n order t o l e a r n something of t h e i r nature as- a basi s f o r an. i n v e s t i g a t i o n of e i d e t i c images* In much of the e a r l y experimental work.--the- " b l i n k " method with the dark-adapted eye was: used. The l i g h t from., a window served as a stimulus. Later:j,- group experiments were conducted, both by t h i s method and by means of an exposure, of 4.0 seconds to a window or the Union Jack, Next we conducted i n d i v i d u a l experiments using p i c t u r e s as the s t i m u l i , adopting here the technique, of Kluver (.16), A f t e r t e s t i n g , with s e v e r a l other pictures, we found that the dvtck. ( F i g , 1) served best to i n d i c a t e the. subjects' degree of after-image a b i l i t y . As a. f u r t h e r t e s t however, the p o l i c e p i c t u r e ( F i g . 2) was. h e l p f u l , as only subjects of the highest a b i l i t y were su c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g c l e a r after-images i n t h i s case. A l l v e r b a l r e p o r t s were w r i t t e n down as fuMy^as: p o s s i b l e , together w i t h our observations of the sub j e c t s ! r e a c t i o n s . Next, a grading scale was devised i n order to c l a s s i f y the subjects according J o t h e i r after-image a b i l i t y . I t should be noted that we assumed that those subjects who were rated highest on the scale could be c a l l e d " e i d e t i k e r s " i f one chose to make use of the term* However, f o r the reasons discussed i n Chapter I I I we have used the. term, "after-image" throughout, -45-and. avoided, the more, ambiguous " e i d e t i c image" phraseology. A£tar^image a b i l i t y of a marked degree might be termed " i C s t i c -" e i d e t i c " but t h i s should not. be taken to imply that, any sharp d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between e i d e t i k e r s and non-eldetikers. A f t e r - i m a g e ' a b i l i t i e s , of a random group of subjects, appear i n a continuum, of a b i l i t i e s v The. c h i l d r e n were g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n after-images. This, accounts:, to a l a r g e extent, f o r the success, of the group experiments* The young subjects e n j o y e d the experiment where they experienced, three, after-images superimposed upon one anotheri. They were delighted\ too, a t seeing the Union Jack, i n complementary colors*. : The a c t u a l duration of the after-^sensations was d i f f i c u l t t o check.. Some subjects, reported after-imagee l a s t i n g as; long as 20 minutes when they were v o l u n t a r i l y terminated. At j u s t what point these, images become memory i t i s hard f o r the experimenter to determine * There, are many complicating f a c t o r s besides memory: age of subjects*, suggestion, imagination,, vagueness If. phenomena, and d e s i r e of the subjects to please the experimenter* I t is. almost, impossible t o check, on images the. subjects report., e x p e c i a l l y i n cases when the images f a i l to correspond with the stimulus, picture.. The inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t r o s p e c t i v e experiments are i l l u s t r a t e d In studies of after-imagery.. .The r e s u l t s ' of. the I n d i v i d u a l experiments with the p i c t u r e s shown i h Figures. 1. and. 2 are summarized below. 1. By means of the r a t i n g scale shown i n Table 1 the -46-incidence of varying grades of after-image a b i l i t y was shown to be; A. (highest a b i l i t y ) , 9*.3$j B, 9.8%; C, 19.1%; D, 31.*7$; H, 30*1$. 2* Of 256- c h i l d subjects 69*9% saw an after-image,- The a f t e r -sensations were reported as: greys only (8.6$), a l l or i n part complementary colors (13*3%), or p o s i t i v e only (48$). 3* Of '22 subjects who. reported grey after-images 18 were weak i n c o l o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as shown by the I s h i h a r a Test of Color Blindness* 4*. In the A group 23 out of 24 subjects were between 10 and 14 years of age, while 16 of these were of l e s s than 13 years* For the age and. after-imagery r e l a t i o n s h i p P was *01 and C equalled *301* 5; Boys d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from g i r l s i n t h e i r a f t e r -image, a b i l i t i e s * For the data concerning sex and. after-imagery P was *.60 and C, *104» 6. From the present data after-image a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e appear to be associated but the c o r r e l a t i o n was not high }• had. a value of *.02 and C was 0,404* 7. Studies of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between after-imagery and s p e l l i n g , English composition and a r t a b i l i t i e s revealed that a s s o c i a t i o n i s greatest i n the case of English composition. P equalled .10 and C, *28 f o r s p e l l i n g and after-imagery, P, 160 and C, *18 f o r E n g l i s h composition, and P l e s s than *01 and C, ..44 f o r a r t * During the course of the experiments many problems arose, "based upon observations and reports of our own. subjects and upon, l i t e r a t u r e concerning the phenomena, being- studied. Since our i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r i l y narrow i n scope we could not attempt to find, an answer to more than a. very few of these questions. Kluver gives an i n t e r e s t i n g l i s t of suggestions f o r needed researches at the. conclusion of h i s 1926 Monograph (16) » In addition, to these problems, mentioned by Kluver the f o l l o w i n g problems are suggested f o r f u r t h e r study* 1. Can c h i l d r e n who have great after—image a b i l i t y be t r a i n e d to make more use of i t i n school work? Does p r a c t i c e improve performance? I t i s p o s s i b l e to make a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d s c a l e f o r r a t i n g these images? 2. To what extent, do after-images p l a y a. part i n f a l s e reports j e s p e c i a l l y those given by c h i l d r e n ? Does hypnosis e x p l a i n any of the unusual phenomena reported? . 3. What i s the p h y s i o l o g i c a l explanation of after-images? In what respects do they not f o l l o w the u s u a l laws of v i s i o n ? 4. What produces the d i s t o r t i o n s amd movements sometimes x reported i n after-images? What, i s the explanation of the way ; i n which images may , r b u i l d up" from some point? • Why i s a succession of images obtained by the "blink." method? BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) . A l l p o r t , G. W., E i d e t i c Imagery, Br, J , Psychol., 15 (1924), 119-120. (2) A l l p o r t , G. W., The e i d e t i c image and the after-image. Amer. J t , Psychol.. 40 (1928), 418-420. (3) Berry, W., Color sequence i n the after-image of white l i g h t , Amer. J . Psychol.. 1927, 38, 584-596. (4) B i l l s , A. G., General experimental psychology 9 Hew York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1937, (5) Downey, J . E., On g e t t i n g an after-image 'from a.mental image. Psychol. Rev., 1901,8, 42-55 (6) Downey, J . E., Creative imagination. New York, Harcourt, . .Brace and Co., 1929. (7) Eerree, C. E., and Rand, G., Perception of depth i n the after-image. \Amer..TJ."-Psychol., i 193.4, -46 9 ?.g39a§52, (8) Eranz, S. I,, After-images. PBsychoiriJonog,, 11899. 3, 59. (9) Galton, E., I n q u i r i e s into human f a c u l t y and i t s development. London, Macmillan Co., 1883. (10) G a r r e t t , H. E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1938. (11) H a l l i b u r t o n , W. D. and McDowall, R. J . S., Handbook of physiology. P h i l a d e l p h i a , P. Bla k i s t o n ' s Sons and Co., 1934. (12} Healy, W., The i n d i v i d u a l delinquent: a text-book of diagnosis and prognosis f o r a l l concerned i n under- -standing offenders. Boston, L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1915, -*4:9>~ (13) Hibbard, A., extract from Hello-Goodbye (A. C. McClurg) i n Reader * a Mgest, March, 1942, 77. (14) Jaensch, E. R., E i d e t i c imagery.. Translated by Oscar Oeser. Hew York, Hare our t Brace and Co., 1930, (15) James, W., The P r i n c i p l e s of psychology. New York, Holt and Go., V o l s . I and I I , 1890. (16) Kluver, H., An experimental study of the e i d e t i c type. GeneticcP"aychbl6gy:yMonogra:pjiJg^71926,: 1,., 70*230q , (17) Kluver, H., E i d e t i c phenomena. Psychol. B u l l , 1932, 29, 181-203. (18) Kluver, H., Studies on the e i d e t i c type and on e i d e t i c imagery. Psychol. B u l l . , 1928, 25, 69-104. (19) McDougall, , The sensations.:.excited by a s i n g l e momentary s t i m u l a t i o n of the eye. Br• J . , Psychol,' 1904, 1, 78-113. (20) Meta, P. and P o l l i t t , L., quoted i n (10, p.23). (21) Morsh, J . E., P o s i t i v e after-images. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938. (Unpublished) (22) Morsh, J . E., Are there any e i d e t i c images? The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939. (Unpublished) (23) Murphy, G., and Murphy, L. B., Experimental s o c i a l psychology. Hew York, Harper and Brothers, 1931. (24) O ' H e i l l , H. E., E i d e t i c a b i l i t y . A d e t a i l e d study of twenty-three e i d e t i k e r s . Washington, C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America, 1933. (25) O ' H e i l l , H. E. and Rauth, J. E., E i d e t i c imagery. Washington, C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1934. -sew (26) Seashore, C. E. and Seashore, R. H., Elementary experiments i n psychology* Hew York, Henry Holt and Co., 1935. (27) Shaffer, L. E., The psychology of adjustment. An objective approach to mental hygiene. Hew York, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1936. (28) Spearman, C. .,, The a b i l i t i e s of man* Hew York, Macmillan Ooi, 1927. (29) — S p e l l i n g f o r the grades. Part I I Rev.^ V i c t o r i a , B. C., Department of Education, 1938. (30) Teasdale, H. H., A q u a n t i t a t i v e study of e i d e t i c imagery. PsychoI> Rev., 1901, 8, 42-55. (31) Warren, H. C., and Garmichael, L., Elements of psychology. Hew York, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1930. (32) Warren, H. E., Some unusual v i s u a l a f t e r - e f f e c t s , Psychol. Rev., 1921, 28. 453. 

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