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A survey of male juvenile delinquency in British Columbia from 1920 to 1941 Wright, Kenneth William Thomas 1941

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A SURW OF MALE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA YRCM 1920 TO 1941 by Kenneth W i l l i a m Thomas Wright A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS t i n the department of A Philosophy and Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia August, 1941 PREFACE Several years ago Mr. F. C. Boyes, who was then superintendent of the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Co-quitlam, '> proposed that a survey should be conducted on male j u v e n i l e delinquency i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As the w r i t e r was extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the psycholog-i c a l problems presented by delinquency, t h i s suggestion seemed to o f f e r opportunity f o r i n t e n s i v e research i n an important f i e l d * I t a l s o presented a means where-by the i n v e s t i g a t o r might c o n t r i b u t e to the happier readjustment of some younger member of s o c i e t y ; Thereafter, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the author's a v a i l -able time was spent at the i n s t i t u t i o n a d m inistering i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , t a k i n g case h i s t o r i e s , super-v i s i n g work groups, coaching various a t h l e t i c games, and g e n e r a l l y "mixing" w i t h the boys. During the f i v e years r e q u i r e d to gather the data presented i n t h i s t h e s i s , the w r i t e r became i n t i m a t e l y acquainted w i t h more than three hundred young delinquents. Such continuous a s s o c i a t i o n revealed only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s between reform-atory school boys and r e g u l a r p u b l i c school p u p i l s . A knowledge of case h i s t o r i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the young offenders were the v i c t i m s of environmental circumstances and, w i t h a r e a l oppor-t u n i t y f o r success, might w e l l have adjusted t h e i r behavior i n a s o c i a l l y - a p p r o v e d manner. During frequent v i s i t s t o the I n d u s t r i a l School the author acquired a first-hand 1' knowledge of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programme and methods; Any opinions expressed or conclusions drawn i n t h i s t h e s i s are based on many hours of o b j e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n and observation and c a r e f u l research. The w r i t e r wishes, t o thank ivir. F. C. Boyes, former superintendent, f o r the i n s p i r a t i o n and m a t e r i a l a i d that made t h i s survey p o s s i b l e ; To Mr. George Ross, present superintendent, f o r h i s co-operation i n p e r m i t t i n g unhampered access to f i l e s and records and f o r freedom i n a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the boys, the author i s deeply indebted. The w r i t e r i s a l s o under o b l i g a t i o n to the members of the i n d u s t r i a l School s t a f f f o r t h e i r generous considerations and a s s i s t a n c e i n c a r r y i n g out p r o j e c t s ; The p a i n s t a k i n g research of Mr. S i d Bass, deputy p o l i c e - c h i e f i n New Westminster, i n the follow-up work has been g r e a t l y appreciated. TABLE Off CONTENTS Index of Tables Chapter .1. Chapter I I . Chapter I I I . A. B. Chapter IV. Chapter V. Chapter V I . Chapter V I I . Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Bibliog r a p h y . H i s t o r i c a l Development. Causes and Prevention of J u v e n i l e Delinquency. I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n of J u v e n i l e Delinquents i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam. "New Haven"—The B r i t i s h C o l -umbia B o r s t a l School. Diagnosis of J u v e n i l e D e l i n -quents Committed to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam. Treatment of loung Delinquents Committed to the Boys* Indus-t r i a l School at Coquitlam. A n a l y s i s of J u v e n i l e D e l i n -quents Committed to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam. Comparison of Methods i n the Li g h t of R e s u l t s and Conclusions. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on J u v e n i l e D e l i n -quency i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Excerpt from a Survey on I n -d u s t r i a l Schools Conducted by Mr. Harry A t k i n s o n , Super-intendent of the Manitoba Home f o r Boys at Rennie, Manitoba. ffollow-up Work w i t h Two Groups of Biscoq Boys. i n Page 1 Page 20 Page 46 Page 46 Page 71 Page 75 Page 102 Page 120 Page 134 Page 145 Page 148 Page 155 Page 160 i i INDEX OF TABLES Table I . Table I I . Table I I I . Table IV. Table V. Table V I . Table V I I . Table V I I I . Table IX. Table X. Table X I . Table X I I . Table X I I I . Table XIV. Table XV. . Table XVI. Convictions of Persons of Si x t e e n Years of Age and Uver f o r I n d i c t a b l e Offences i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Page IS The Number of J u v e n i l e s (Male and Female) Brought before J u v e n i l e Courts i n B. C. from 1933 to 1935. Page 13 The Number of J u v e n i l e s (Male and Female) Brought before the Courts of Vancouver, Greater Vancouver, V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t and the r e s t of B r i t i s h Columbia* Page 14 "Yearly Commitments of Male D e l i n -quents. Page 15 Places of• Apprehension. Page 16 D i s p o s i t i o n of Convicted Cases by S i x t e e n J u v e n i l e Courts i n B. C., Year ended September 30; Page 18 Occupations of Fathers of D e l i n -quents. Page 35 Ages of Boys-r-672 Cases. Page 64 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of 672 Biscoq Boys. Page 65 Re s u l t s o f C l i n i c a l Examinations. Page 93 Re s u l t s of T e s t s — L o r d , L i s t e r J u n i o r High Sohool Boys. Page 107 Results of Tests—-Biscoq, Boys. Page 108 P a r e n t a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s of 543 Biscoq Boys. vPage 120 / Charges R e s u l t i n g i n Commitment to Biscoq. Page 121 Length of Sentences of 673 Bi s c o q Boys. Page 122 I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients—527 Cases. Page 126 i i i i v Table XVII. Table X V I I I . Table XIX. Table XX. Table XXI. Table XXII. Table X X I I I . Table XXIV. Table XXV. Table XXVI. Table XXVII. D i s t r i b u t i o n of I . Q> »s of 527 Biscoq Boys* C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients of 527 B i s c o q Boys; I n t e l l i g e n c e Ratings of Young Delinquents i n various parts of North America and England. N a t i o n a l i t y of r a r e n t s of 250 Biscoq Boys. R e c i d i v i s m i n Canada. R e l i g i o u s S t a t i s t i c s of 875 Biscoq Boys. B i r t h P laces of 673 Biscoq Boys. Follow-up Records of 230 Biscoq Boys. Percentage R e c i d i v i s m of Three Groups of J u v e n i l e Delinquents Follow-up Y«ork w i t h One Hundred Graduates of Brankin Adminis-t r a t i o n . Follow-up Work w i t h One Hundred Graduates o f the Boyes Adminis-t r a t i o n . Page 127 Page 128 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132 Page 134 Page 138 Page 155 Page 157 A SURVEY OF MALE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM 1920 TO 1941 CHAPTER I . HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT A SURVEY OF MALE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM 1920 TO 1941 * 1 CHAPTER I* HISTORICAL, DEVELOEMENT For hundreds of years previous to the great reform period i n the nineteenth century, the r e t r i b u t i v e and pre-ventive t h e o r i e s were almost u n i v e r s a l l y held by those r e -sponsible f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the penal code. The c h i e f ob-j e c t of punishment was to make the law-breaker s u f f e r b o d i l y p a i n and thus i t was hoped that he and every other p o t e n t i a l offender would be f r i g h t e n e d from a l i f e of crime. This a r c h a i c , t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of pun-ishment was based on man's p r i m i t i v e d r i v e s f o r s e l f - p r e s e r -v a t i o n , r e t r i b u t i o n , and revenge* The Mosaic Code of the Jews and the Lex T a l i o n i s of the Romans were e s s e n t i a l l y based on such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The r e t a l i a t i o n theory was handed down from generation t o generation f o r such a long p e r i o d that e v e n t u a l l y t h i s d o c t r i n e was accepted un-qu e s t i o n i n g l y . As a matter of f a c t the B r i t i s h and Canadian codes of today are based on the ancient Lex T a l i o n i s . I t apparently never occurred to those i n a u t h o r i t y that there might be a p o s s i b l e means by which c e r t a i n c r i m i n a l s could be moulded i n t o u s e f u l c i t i z e n s . Once a c r i m i n a l always a c r i m i n a l , was the general a t t i t u d e and the p u b l i c t e n a c i o u s l y clung t o the o l d theory that the only way to save s o c i e t y 1 from the c r i m i n a l was to i n c a r c e r a t e the offender as a f i t punishment f o r him and as a warning to others. In England during the Saxon and iMorman periods common c r i m i n a l s were m u t i l a t e d and d i s f i g u r e d i n various ways; some had t h e i r eyes burnt out, others were branded i n p u b l i c ceremonies and thus became l i t e r a l l y "marked" f o r l i f e , i t was a f a m i l i a r s i g h t to see a delinquent, branded, and w i t h some part of h i s anatomy amputated, craw l i n g about the country as a warning to others. P u b l i c hangings were frequent and often the bodies of the v i c t i m s were l e f t to r o t on conspic-uous s c a f f o l d s as a means of i n s t i l l i n g f ear i n t o the hearts of woald-be offenders* Continuing through the rei g n s of the Angevin, l o r k i s h and L a n c a s t r i a n kings to the Tudor p e r i o d , we f i n d no d e f i n i t e change i n the general a t t i t u d e towards c r i m i n a l s but merely changed methods of ad m i n i s t e r i n g cor-p o r a l punishment. Many pri s o n e r s were b o i l e d a l i v e while t r a i t o r s r a r e l y escaped burning at the stake. Such,inhuman p r a c t i c e s oontinued u n t i l 1790. m the e a r l y Hanoverian r e -gime the p r i m i t i v e s p i r i t of revenge and r e t a l i a t i o n s t i l l h eld. I n t h i s p eriod f o r example a man, who was unable t o pay h i s debts, was t i e d behind a c a r t , was p u b l i c a l l y whipped through the s t r e e t s , h i s tongue was s p l i t , h i s nose cut o f f , hi s eyes put out, h i s property and personal e f f e c t s c o n f i s -cated, and f i n a l l y he was hanged. One might w e l l imagine the number of double-tongued, noseless, and b l i n d people there would be today i f such a law s t i l l e x i s t e d . P u b l i c o p i n i o n remained much the same during the e a r l y nineteenth century. Society s t i l l b e l i e v e d that the only p o s s i b l e way to prevent crime was to force the c r i m i n a l tendencies out of the minds of the p o t e n t i a l law-breakers. 'This e x t r i n s i c method of character motivation was based on fear and p a i n . "Thus we see that under the o l d regime penal servitude became so elaborated that i t became a huge punish-i n g machine without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f e e l i n g , or se n s i t i v e n e s s The m a j o r i t y of c r i m i n a l s , w h i l e such a t t i t u d e s toward crime p e r s i s t e d , d i d not have the semblance of a chance to become u s e f u l c i t i z e n s . Many were l i t e r a l l y "dragged up" through the London slums w i t h l i t t l e or no moral t r a i n i n g . They were encouraged t o s t e a l by the numerous human v u l t u r e s who acted as fences* A l i f e of crime i n e v i t a b l y followed. When f i n a l l y caught and thrown i n t o p r i s o n , they spent t h e i r time brooding, t h i n k i n g , and planning new?crimes. I t i s no wonder that the pris o n s turned out men w i t h d i s t o r t e d minds and a n t i s o c i a l tendencies. Thus the o l d r e t r i b u t i v e penal system d i d not reform the c r i m i n a l s but merely hoarded them up tempor-a r i l y , l a t e r to t u r n them loose on s o c i e t y more w o l f i s h than ever* I n the middle of the nineteenth century we a r r i v e at an epochal p e r i o d i n the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h people* 1. Barman, S. The E n g l i s h B o r s t a l System. London, P. S. King and Son, L t d . 1934. p. 21. A wonderous humanitarian movement had spread over England. Such men as W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , Zachary Macaulay, E a r l Grey, S i r Robert P e e l and a great many others caught the s p i r i t and attempted to b e t t e r t h e i r f e l l o w men by many s o c i a l reforms* Thanks to the e f f o r t s of Mary Carpenter, E l i z a b e t h Fry, John Howard and others we f i n d a new outlook toward c r i m i n a l s . For the f i r s t time we enter a period when the reformation theory of punishment predominated over the h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s of r e t r i b u t i o n and prevention. I t was now thought p o s s i b l e to transform the unfortunate c r i m i n a l i n t o the u s e f u l c i t i z e n . Considering the c e n t u r i e s t h a t the r e t a l i a t i o n and pre-ventive t h e o r i e s of punishment were i n f o r c e , the reformation theory i s a comparatively reeent idea* I n f a c t i t i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . Nobody today can say tha t our penal i n s t i -t u t i o n s are models of p e r f e c t i o n , but, then again, no i n t e l -l i g e n t person can say that we are not reaching i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . I n the modern p e n i t e n t i a r y an attempt i s being made to appeal to the c r i m i n a l so that he w i l l v o l u n t a r i l y forsake h i s a n t i - s o c i a l conduct and w i l l h i mself want to f i l l a worthwhile place i n the community. Many p r i s o n war-dens of the o l d school s c o f f at the procedure followed by Lewis Lawes at Sing Sing i n New York State but they, or t h e i r successors, w i l l e v e n t u a l l y have to f o l l o w h i s method because h i s system i s proving so much more s u c c e s s f u l than any other yet attempted. In the o l d r e t r i b u t i o n system no s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n was made for j u v e n i l e delinquents. They were t r e a t e d i n the same cold-blooded inhuman manner as adult h a b i t u a l crim-i n a l s . The same penal methods were used f o r a l l c r i m i n a l s , young and o l d ; when a c h i l d broke the law he was thrown i n -to p r i s o n w i t h the a d u l t law-breaker. Nobody stopped to consider the demoralizing i n f l u e n c e a hardened confirmed convict could have on a young offender whose only crime may have been p e t t y t h e f t i n order to s a t i s f y the pangs of hunger As f a r back as the Saxon and Norman periods, there was a feeble attempt to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the adult and j u v e n i l e delinquent; A t h e l s t a n e , i n the t e n t h century, enacted that a f i r s t offender under the age of f i f t e e n was not to l o s e h i s l i f e but was t o be turned over to h i s parents I f an orphan he was to be put i n charge of a bishop. I f i n any way he broke the law again however, he was to be t r i e d and convicted as i f he were an a d u l t . In the Middle Ages there i s s u f f i c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l evidence to prove that there was an attempt to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the.adult c r i m i n a l and the j u v e n i l e delinquent f o r i t i s recorded i n the Year Books of Edward I that judgment f o r burglary was spared to an i n d i v i d u a l of twelve years; Apparently i t was thought that reformation f o r the young offender was p o s s i b l e but l i t t l e a c t i o n i s found supporting t h i s i d e a . I n the seven-teenth and eighteenth c e n t u r i e s even these ideas became dor-mant and the young offender was given no s p e c i a l treatment whatsoever. The f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t shows the general a t -t i t u d e towards j u v e n i l e delinquents at the close of t h i s p e r i o d . On January 18, 1801, a t h i r t e e n year o l d s t r e e t u r c h i n of London and some companions broke i n t o a house and s t o l e one spoon. His companions escaped but he was caught and brought to t r i a l * H is f a t e ended i n two words which were short and customary: Guilty—-Death. The u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s to i n s t i l l f e a r i n t o the hearts of p o t e n t i a l offenders and the harshness of the law only l e d to an increased number of young law-breakers. R e l i g i o n and moral improvement were l i t t l e regarded i n p r i s o n s , while i n -d u s t r i a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g were impossible. When a youth served a sentence h i s c h i e f l e s s o n l e a r n t was an i n -timate and contemptuous acquaintance w i t h the demoralizing i n t e r i o r of a gaol and a determination not to be caught the next time. As we enter the great s o c i a l reform p e r i o d of the nineteenth century, however, we f i n d the a t t i t u d e towards the young offender beginning to ehange. I t was now r e a l i z e d that s p e c i a l treatment f o r the j u v e n i l e was e s s e n t i a l ; that c h i l d c r i m i n a l s were too o f t e n the v i c t i m s of circumstances beyond t h e i r own c o n t r o l . They were p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r than a c t u a l c r i m i n a l s j c a l l i n g f o r rescue and regeneration r a t h e r than v i n d i c t i v e r e p r i s a l s . The f i r s t government r e c o g n i t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y treatment f o r young crim-i n a l s was the Parkhurst Act of 1838. As f a r back as 1756 the Marine S o c i e t y and i n 1788 the P h i l a n t h r o p i c S o c i e t y attempted to e s t a b l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the reformation of young offenders but these o r g a n i z a t i o n s were handicapped because they had to r e l y on voluntary con-t r i b u t i o n s , i n the e a r l y nineteenth century, however, many benevolent i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d on s i m i l a r l i n e s w ith .greater success. The "Ragged Schools" founded i n 1818 are examples. Gradually the State began to accept the r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care and p o s s i b l e reformation of young offenders and passed s e v e r a l Reformatory School A c t s . The climax came with the passing of the Prevention of Grime Act i n 1908 which provided f o r the establishment of i n s t i t u t i o n s a l l over England f o r the reformation of adolescent offenders between s i x t e e n and twenty-one years of age. I t marks the f i r s t time that the a u t h o r i t i e s have given the problem of j u v e n i l e delinquency the necessary a t t e n t i o n . The estab-l i s h i n g of these c o r r e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r j u v e n i l e s l e d to the E n g l i s h B o r s t a l system which today places England ahead of the world i n the treatment of wayward youths. 8 THE-.UNITED STATES The reformatory system of the United S t a t e s , as d i s -t inguished from the p e n i t e n t i a r y or p r i s o n system* may he considered under two d i v i s i o n s : (a) reform schools and i n -d u s t r i a l schools f o r youths under s i x t e e n or eighteen com-mitted f o r v i o l a t i o n s of the c r i m i n a l law or f o r the want of proper guardianship, and (b) reformatories f o r d e l i n -quents between the ages of s i x t e e n or eighteen and t h i r t y convicted of c r i m i n a l a c t s ; At the beginning of the nineteenth century the n o t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d treatment f o r young delinquents l e d t o the establishment of separate c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r j u v e n i l e offenders under s i x t e e n years of age. These i n -s t i t u t i o n s were c a l l e d "houses of refuge" and the f i r s t one was opened i n New York C i t y i n 1825. Under the general d e s c r i p t i o n of reform schools, s i m i l a r establishments be-came common i n many areas throughout the United S t a t e s . Some of these i n s t i t u t i o n s were maintained and operated by the government while others were c o n t r o l l e d by p r i v a t e , r e -l i g i o u s , c h a r i t a b l e , or other benevolent o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The "houses of refuge" were very s i m i l a r to the e x i s t i n g p risons and accomplished very l i t t l e i n reforming the young delinquents committed to t h e i r custody. Great change has become apparent, however, i n the l a s t t h i r t y years i n the s p i r i t and methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s . The more recent tendency i s to l o c a t e the schools i n the country and to house the youths i n cottages holding from twenty to t h i r t y boys each, i n charge of each cottage i s a house-father and house-mother. In t h i s new phase of t h e i r development, these i n s t i t u t i o n s are o f t e n c a l l e d s t a t e , c i t y , county homes or i n d u s t r i a l schools. In 1928 there were 145 such i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the United States maintained wholly or p a r t l y endowed w i t h government funds* Commitments are made by the j u v e n i l e courts and u s u a l l y are f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d . This enables the superintendent to re l e a s e a youth whenever he f e e l s that h i s charge i s capable of r e - e n t e r i n g s o c i e t y and becoming a worth-while c i t i z e n . The boys are gene r a l l y r e l e a s e d on parole and a close cheek i s kept on t h e i r conduct by the parole o f f i c e r . Any youths who break the t r u s t and confidence of the superintendent or parole o f f i c e r may be returned f o r a f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . The reformatory f o r older delinquents had i t s b i r t h i n the United States i n 1869 when the government of the State of Hew York enacted l e g i s l a t i o n and appropriated s u f f i c i e n t funds to e s t a b l i s h the State Reformatory at E l m i r a . The system of academic and trade t r a i n i n g as advanced by the E l m i r a Reformatory i s s t i l l regarded as a model f o r s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n almost every reformatory the type of d i s c i p l i n a r y t r a i n i n g and r e l e a s e has also been patterned a f t e r t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d at E l m i r a . The i n d e f i n i t e sentence i s an i n t e g r a l part of the American reformatory system. Since 1925 there has been a deeided trend towards s p e c i a l i z e d 10 v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r both the younger and older j u v e n i l e delinquents. I n the most progressive reformatories the academic and the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g are being c a r e f u l l y guided by experienced p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s . The recommendations of the c l i n i c s of the modern i n s t i t u t i o n s have l e d to a much b e t t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of the young delinquents. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the c l i n -i c a l s t u d i e s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important as a b a s i s f o r determining readiness f o r r e l e a s e ; 11 CANADA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRITISH COLUMBIA Crime i s one of the greatest problems of present day so c i e t y ; not only from an economic outlook, but al s o from the general moral viewpoint of the population at large * The Wickersham Commission on Law Observance, which reported to the President of the United States i n 1931, c o l l e c t e d suf-f i c i e n t evidence to warrant the f o l l o w i n g summary statement: The data which can be a c c u r a t e l y ascertained c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e that the t o l l l e v i e d upon the com-munity by the c r i m i n a l , d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , i s a very l a r g e one, and one which imposes a serious economic burden on the p u b l i c and the i n d i v i d u a l s who make up the p u b l i c . I t i s a matter of common knowledge that the economic l o s s due t o crime i s enormous, that i t i s d e s i r a b l e that i t be reduced, and that i t can be reduced by decreasing crime and by d i v e r t i n g the man power now devoted to c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t o l e g i t i m a t e and productive channels. I t seems to us, t h e r e f o r e , that the d e s i r a b i l i t y of adequate crime c o n t r o l from an economic stand-point i s so obvious that i t should not r e q u i r e the re-enforcement of s p e c i f i c f i g u r e s . 1 This i s as true of Canada as of any other country* Many people, indeed, t h i n k there i s an unwarranted increase i n crime i n Can-ada today. We must agree when we r e a l i z e that the number of pris o n e r s i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , r e f o r m a t o r i e s , and j a i l s i n the Dom-i n i o n of Canada increased almost one hundred per cent from 7,534 at the end of the f i s c a l year 1926 to 13,255 i n 1932. There was a s l i g h t r e d u c t i o n to 11,899 by 1934. Table I . i n d i c a t e s a s i m i l a r upward trend i n B r i t i s h Columbia. No doubt the 1* N a t i o n a l Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. Report on the Cost of Crime. Washington, Government P r i n t i n g o f f i c e . 1931, p. 442. IS TABLE I . CONVICTIONS Off PERSONS OF SIXTEEN YEARS OF AGE AND OYER ' 1 FOR INDICTABLE OFFENCES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1921 1,282 1922 1,004 1923- — 1 , 1 1 6 1924 1,265 1925 1,385 1926- 1,252 1927 1,833 1828-1929-1930-1931-1932-19 33-1934--1,931 -2,425 -2,694 -3,385 -3,072 -3,094 -2,946 economic depression of that period was to a c e r t a i n extent responsible f o r t h i s increase but i t by no means accounts f o r such a marked r i s e i n numbers; This general increase has taxed the accommodation capacity of the prisons and j a i l s to the l i m i t and the cost to the governments i s mount-in g by leaps and bounds. The average age of the inmates of Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r -i e s has dropped considerably i n the post-war period. Nearly ten per cent of a l l c o n v i c t s i n Dominion p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n March 31, 1935, were under twenty y.e.ars of age whi l e more than f i f t y per cent were l e s s than t h i r t y years o l d . Approximately the same r a t i o e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Of 1,887 p r i s o n -ers sent to .Qakalla i n the f i s c a l year ending 1936, 7.74 per cent were under twenty while 43.89 per cent were l e s s than t h i r t y years of age. I t appears to the w r i t e r that inadequate t r a i n i n g of youth i s responsible f o r the large p r o p o r t i o n of young men committed to higher penal i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada 1. Canada Year Book, 19 36. p. 1025. 13 today. •TABLE I I . THE NUMBER OF JUVENILES (MALE AND EEMALE) BROUGHT BEFORE 1 JUVENILE COURTS IN B. C. FROM 1933 TO 1935 1933 1934 1935 T o t a l January - 51 -— 84 — -- 48 — - 183 February - 37 --— 71 54 - 162 March- •-- 71 -- 63 — 58 — - 192 A p r i l - 70 -— 70 — — 61 — - 201 May--- - 62 — — 57 — __ 68 - 187 June - 66 -— 70 62 - 198 J u l y — ~-- 52 — 87 ---- 68 — - 207 Augu s t - • - 91 -— 71 — 54 - 216 September— - 87 — — 91 — -- 96 — - 274 October - 69 — 88 — __ 64 - 221 November - 63 — 72 - -— 64 - 199 December - 47 — — 30 — ~- 51 — - 128 T o t a l 766 .854 748 . 2568 In contrast w i t h the general increase of crime i n Can-ada as a whole, there has been no no t i c e a b l e upward trend i n j u v e n i l e delinquency i n B r i t i s h Columbia since 1922, as may be seen i n t a b l e s I I . , I I I . , and.IV. Tables I I . and I I I . even i n d i c a t e a s l i g h t d e c l i n e i n the number brought before J u v e n i l e Court Judges i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t must be pointed out, however, that these t a b l e s do not incl u d e the numerous cases which were s e t t l e d out of co u r t . A v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s do not subs t a n t i a t e the prevalent theory that j u v e n i l e s are resp o n s i b l e f o r a large m a j o r i t y of the crimes committed i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Unfortunately, such newspaper headlines as, "Crime Wave A t t r i b u t e d to 1. Report of the Advisory Committee on J u v e n i l e Delinquency, 1936. 14 J u v e n i l e s ; P o l i c e W i l l Seek Changes i n System", and "Burg-1 l a r i e s Follow.Escapes of Boys from I n d u s t r i a l School", tBnd to m i s d i r e c t p u b l i c opinion as t o the t r u e s t a t e of a f f a i r s . I n reference to the above headlines i t i s i n t e r -e s t i n g to note newspaper d i s t o r t i o n i n that the escaped boys r e f e r r e d to were two subnormal youths (one i s now i n the feebleminded i n s t i t u t i o n ) who were returned to the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam (Biscoq) a few hours a f t e r t h e i r departure. I t was a p h y s i c a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y f o r them to have committed even a small number of the crimes a t t r i b -uted to "escaped Biscoq boys"* TABLE I I I . "'THE NUMBER OF JUVENILES (MALE AMD FEMALE) BROUGHT BEFORE THE COURTS OF VANCOUVER. GREATER VANCOUVER. VICTORIA DISTRICT AND THE REST OF B. • 2 C. 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 T o t a l Vancouver C i t y — 785 708 562 314 393 401 3,163 Greater Vancouver—238 276 233 229 194 171 1,341 V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t — 1 4 6 107 69 109 89 70 590 Rest of B. C. 32 38 112 86 124 97 489 1,201 1 ,129 976 738 800 739 5,583 *From 16 out of 24 J u v e n i l e Courts i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1. The Vancouver Sun. Monday, December 13, 1937. p. 12. 2. Report of the Advisory Committee on J u v e n i l e Delinquency, 1936. 15 TABLE IT. 1 YEARLY GQMtaiTMENTS Off MALE -DELINQUENTS. B. C. Canada* A p r i l 1 s t , 1922 to March 31st, 1923—-68 3,901 1923 i t Ft t t 1924 58 4,040 1924 t t Tt t t 19 2 5 — 6 2 — 4 , 4 0 9 r t 1925 t t Tt Tt 1 9 2 6 — 5 9 4,715 t f 1926 t t Tt It 1927 — - 5 6 — 4 , 8 0 4 f t 1927 w t t t t 1 9 2 8 — 8 5 — 4 , 9 1 9 tt 1928 t t I t Tt 1929 7 1 — 4 , 7 7 3 f» 1929 t t t» Tt 1930—-59—4,880 f t 1930 t t t t rt 19 3 1 — 7 9 — 5 , 4 1 2 f t 19 31 tt t t t t 19 3 2 — 6 5 — 5 , 0 0 7 f t 19 32 t t t t t t 19 5 3 — 2 9 — 4 , 7 9 7 t f 1933 t t t t t t 1934 51 4,871 tt 1934 « ft tt 1935 50 5,105 t f 1935 t t t t t f 1936 — -69 5,268 rt 1936 t t t t n 1937 66 4,774 t t 19 37 t t t t ft 1938 74 5,043 t t 1958 t t n t f 1959 67 4,872 t t 1939 t t tt t t 1940 67 T o t a l 1,135 81,590 The average y e a r l y commitments i n B. C. i s 63, i n Canada 4,799. 'fThe Canadian Year i s from October 1st to September 30th. As i n d i c a t e d i n t a b l e s I I I . and V., most j u v e n i l e crimes i n B r i t i s h Columbia are committed i n the Vancouver, Greater Vancouver, and V i c t o r i a urban d i s t r i c t s . Vancouver C i t y i n 1951 w i t h 57 per cent of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l population contributed 62.7 per cent of the t o t a l j u v e n i l e court appearances i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the C h i l d Welfare Service and other kindred o r g a n i z a t i o n s has reduced the pr o p o r t i o n consider-ably but more work on the part of i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h i s nature i s 1. Annual Report of J u v e n i l e delinquents f o r Canada, 1956, and Biscoq f i l e s . 16 TABLE V. PLACES OF APPREHENSION Abbotsfdrd 2 Agassiz 4 A l e r t B a y — - 1 A l e x i s Greek 1 Armstrong-- 3 A s h c r o f t - — - — 1 . Burnaby 23 Burns Lake-- 1 G h i l l i w a c k — 9 Clover dale 3 Goal Creek • 1 Gourtenay 2 Granbrook— 19 Greston-- • 4 Cumberland —•• 3 Deroohe -- 1 Duncan 1 Enderby • 1 Esquimalt . 2 F r u i t v a l e - 1 Grand Forks 4 Hazelmere l Hazelton 2 Huntingdon 2 Kaslo 2 Kamloops 7 Eelowna 4 Kimberley — 1 Kitwanga 1 Kootenay • 5 Ladner • — * — 1 L i l l o o e t — 1 Louis Creek 1 L y t t o n • 2 M a i l l a r d v i l l e 12 Maple Ridge 2 Mats qui • 2 M i c h e l 3 M i s s i o n 1 Montenay 1 Moricetown 1 M c B r i d e — 1 Nanaimo 15 Nelson •• 11 New Westminster— 62 N i c o l a 1 North Bend-- 2 O l i v e r - - - 1 P e n t i c t o n 17 P i t t Meadows l Port A l b e r n i 4 Port Coquitlam 6 Port Haney 2 Port Moody 2 Pouoe Coupe 1 P o w e l l R i v e r 3 P r i n c e George 11 P r i n c e Rupert 27 P r i n c e t o n 2 Revelstoke-- 5 Richmond 1 Roberts Creek 3 Rossland -- 4 Uaanich- • 4 S a r d i s 2 Sechelt •- 2 Sloe an C i t y - - 1 Smithers, 3 S t . James Fort 1 S t . John Fort 2 Sumas- • 2 Summer land 7 Surrey 1 Terrace • •— 1 T r a i l 10 Vancouver 185 Vancouver N o r t h— 17 Vancouver South-- 17 Vancouver West 1 Vernon 10 V i c t o r i a 87 T o t a l -674 1. O f f i c i a l B i scoq Records. 17 necessary because Vancouver s t i l l produces almost f i f t y per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l . In Vancouver C i t y there appear to be d e f i n i t e delinquency areas. The " p r o l i f i c " East End zone corresponds w i t h C. R. Shaw Ts "loop" i n Chicago. The Strathcona school d i s t r i c t produces the greatest number of offenders appearing before the Court followed by the Mount Pleasant, ifa i r v i e w , and West End school areas* Once a boy i s apprehended and brought before a J u v e n i l e Judge or P o l i c e M a g i s t r a t e he can expect e i t h e r r e l ease on porbation, a f i n e or some form of r e s t i t u t i o n , sentence to the I n d u s t r i a l School, sentence suspended, c o r p o r a l punish-ment , or some other d i s p o s i t i o n . Table VI. shows the d i s -p o s i t i o n of convicted cases of s i x t e e n J u v e n i l e Courts i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1930 to 1935. In t h i s t a b l e one should note the gradual decrease i n the number of cases appearing before J u v e n i l e Courts, i n 1935 the percentage sent to the I n d u s t r i a l School jumped considerably showing the confidence the judges had i n the new system. P r e v i o u s l y boys were sent to the Boys r I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam ^Biscoq) only as a l a s t r e s o r t when other methods had f a i l e d . I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n mention has been made of the changes i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e towards young c r i m i n a l s . Every year, as a r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c research, and supported by an e n l i g h t -ened p u b l i c new methods of treatment are being t r i e d out a l l over- the world. In many of the modern i n d u s t r i a l schools the 18 TABLE 71. DISPOSITION OF CONVICTED GASES BY SIXTEEN JUVENILE 1 COURTS IN B. C , YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 50 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1955 No. °k No. .% No. % No. °A No, % No. Released on probation 161 13.6 205 18.4 164 17.4 200 25.6 179 19.6 289 38.3 Pined or made r e s -t i t u t i o n 222 18.8 125 11.2 98 10.4 68 8.0 90 9.8 95 12.5 Detained i n d e f -i n i t e l y . . . —--. — —. 1 .1 Sent t o I n d u s t r i a l Sehool 68 5.8 57 5.1 40 4.3 33 5.9 28 3,1 86 11.4 Sentence suspended 435 36.8 431 38.7 388 41.2 355 41.7 441 48.2 168 S2 * 3 Corporal punish-ment . . . 2 .2 4 .4 11 1.3 5 .5 Other d i s -p o s i t i o n 296 25.0 295 25.5 247 26.2 182 21.5 172 18.8 117 15.5 1182 1115 941 847 915 754 reformatory theory of punishment predominates. Although the B r i t i s h Columbia reform school f o r boys i s by no means a model of p e r f e c t i o n , every attempt i s being made to make i t as e f f i c i e n t as p o s s i b l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the j u v e n i l e 1. Report of the Advisory Committee on J u v e n i l e Delinquency 1956. I 19 delinquent to s o c i e t y . In 1936 an Advisory Committee on Juv e n i l e Delinquency c o n s i s t i n g of Mr. I'. C. Boyes, Dr. H. M. Cassidy, Dr. A. L. Grease, Dr. G. "J?. Davidson, tor. J . D. Hobden, Miss L. Holland, Mr. H. N. MacCorkindale, Judge H. G. Mac G i l l , Mr. H. A, MacKean, Mrs. Paul Smith, Dr. -C. W. Topping, Mr. P. Walker, and Judge H. S. Wood were requested by the Honourable G. M. Weir to prepare a report and submit i t to him on the j u v e n i l e delinquency problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This r e p o r t , i n c l u d i n g f i f t e e n recom-mendations, was drawn up and sent to the P r o v i n c i a l Sec-r e t a r y on October 3, 1936A The main object of these recom-mendations, a summary of which appears i n Appendix A, was to propose changes i n the e x i s t i n g j u v e n i l e court and i n -d u s t r i a l school s e r v i c e s t h a t would i n t e g r a t e and co-ordinate them i n a sound system of o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was hoped that w i t h p r o p e r l y organized machinery the way would be c l e a r f o r the progressive development of more e f f e c t i v e methods to deal with delinquency problems. The recommendations may be c l a s s i f i e d under three headings: j u v e n i l e courts, i n s t i -t u t i o n a l care, and miscellaneous. During the l a s t f i v e years (1936—1941), recommendations 1, 3, 7, 10, 12, and 15 have been c a r r i e d out i n f u l l ; 2, 4, 8, 11, 13, and 14 are i n the process of being adopted; and 5, 6, and 9 have received l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s . CHATTER I I . CAUSES AND PREVENTION Off JUVENILE DELINQUENCY e CHAPTER I I . CAUSES AMD PREVENTION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY CAUSES OF DELINQUENCY Delinquency among j u v e n i l e s i s obviously an i n d i c a -t i o n that the c h i l d i s maladjusted to soc i e t y * The r e l a -t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the s e v e r a l causes i s d i f f i c u l t to deter-mine. A number of e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s of delinquent c h i l d r e n has been made; among the best are those by iie a l y and Bron-ner i n the united States and C y r i l -surt i n England. The former have conducted s e v e r a l surveys compiling data on se v e r a l thousand subj e c t s . Burt based h i s conclusions on two hundred delinquents only, but h i s r e s u l t s are valuable because he took the precaution to make use of c o n t r o l s . Burt attempted through the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l procedures to l i s t the causes of delinquency i n order of importance. The l i s t as he presents i t has been attacked w i t h some j u s t i f i c a t i o n . When one attempts to evaluate the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by the presence or absence of such i n t a n -g i b l e v a r i a b l e s as l i e at the roo t s of j u v e n i l e delinquency, one i s faced w i t h a considerable task. To say, f o r example, that d e f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e i s a more potent cause of d e l i n -quency than d e f e c t i v e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s to assume a degree of refinement i n measurement that does not e x i s t . 1 Burt l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g f i f t e e n f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to 1. Burt, C y r i l . The Young Delinquent. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1925. p* 585. 20 21 j u v e n i l e delinquency i n order of t h e i r importance.. 1; •Defective d i s c i p l i n e . 2. S p e c i f i c i n s t i n c t s . 5. General emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . ,• 4. Morbid emotional c o n d i t i o n s , m i l d r a t h e r grave, generating or generated by s o - c a l l e d complexes. 5. A family h i s t o r y of v i c e or crime.. 6. I n t e l l e c t u a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , such as back-wardness or d u l l n e s s . 7. ' Detrimental i n t e r e s t s , such as a passion f o r adventure, f o r the cinema, or f o r some p a r t i c u l a r person, together w i t h a l a c k of any u p l i f t i n g p u r s u i t s . 8* Developmental c o n d i t i o n s , such as adoles-cence or p r e c o c i t y i n growth. 9. A f a m i l y h i s t o r y of i n t e l l e c t u a l weakness. 10. Defective family r e l a t i o n s h i p s — t h e absence of a f a t h e r , the presence of a stepmother. 11. Influences operating outside the home—as bad s t r e e t companions and l a c k or excess of f a c i l i t i e s f o r amusement. 12. A f a m i l y h i s t o r y of temperamental d i s o r d e r — of i n s a n i t y or the l i k e . 15. A f a m i l y h i s t o r y of p h y s i c a l weakness. 14* Poverty and i t s concomitants. 15. P h y s i c a l i n f i r m i t y or weakness i n the c h i l d h i m s e l f . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note th a t ^defective d i s c i p l i n e i s at the head of the l i s t and poverty second from the end. General emotional i n s t a b i l i t y appears w e l l toward the top. In other words, according to ^ u r t , emotional i n s t a b i l i t y and j u v e n i l e delinquency show a marked tendency to go t o -gether. In h i s group he found eight per cent who were men-t a l l y d e f e c t i v e and t h i r t y - f o u r per cent who were emotionally unstable. He l o g i c a l l y concluded from t h i s that 'among the innate p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the delinquent a marked emo t i o n a l i t y i s one of the most frequent as i t i s 1 one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l " . 1. Burt, l o c . c i t . 22 Healy and Bronner reported that 6.2 per cent of the four thousand eases which they s t u d i e d were tro u b l e d by mental c o n f l i c t s , most of which were centered i n sex. They compiled a l i s t of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to j u v e n i l e d e l i n -1 quency. These are, i n order of importance: • 1. Bad companions. 2* Poor r e c r e a t i o n s . 3. Adolescent i n s t a b i l i t y and impulses. 4. Stre e t l i f e . 5. School d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . 6. Sudden impulses (shop l i f t i n g ) . 7. Mental c o n f l i c t s . 8. E a r l y sex experience (more common i n g i r l s than boys). . 9. Formation of habi t of delinquency. 10. Excessive i d e a t i o n or imagery (necessity to help s i c k mother). 11. . P h y s i c a l conditions* 12. Extreme s o c i a l s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ; 13; V o c a t i o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . 14. Premature puberty; 15. Love of adventure* 16. Motion p i c t u r e s . In a d d i t i o n to these causal f a c t o r s Healy and Bronner drew c e r t a i n conclusions as a r e s u l t of t h e i r study. They main-t a i n t h a t : 1* I t i s hazardous to draw conclusions regarding the f a c t that delinquency i s h e r e d i t a r y . I t i s not i n h e r i t e d . 2* The s i z e of the fami l y has no marked causative s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3. Some races show undue proportions w h i l e others show l e s s than average. There i s , however, no s c i e n t i f i c evidence to uphold the Nordic Hypothesis. The environment causes the d i f f e r e n c e . 4. There are as many delinquents i n the upper s o c i a l bracket as the lower but., they are not caught. 1; Healy, W* and Bronner, A. Delinquents and u r i m i n a l s . T h e i r Making and Unmaking. New York, The Macmillan Go., 1928. Tables 57 and 58. pp. 281—282. 5; Broken homes are more than o f t e n the back-ground f o r delinquency. Lack of parental s u p e r v i s i o n , c o n t r o l and companionship i s an•important causal f a c t o r . 6. No p h y s i c a l f i n d i n g s except over-development of g i r l s appear at a l l c o r r e l a t e d w i t h delinquency. The debate concerning mental d e f i c i e n c y as a c o n t r i -buting f a c t o r to delinquency has been warm ever since i n t e l -1 l i g e n c e t e s t s came i n t o use. G u r t i opposes the theory of innate mental defectiveness as a major cause of delinquency. Her main arguments are inaccuracy of mental t e s t s , a stan-dard of comparison that i s too high, and c a r e l e s s t e s t i n g 2 at the time the e a r l i e r studies were undertaken. Burt found the average i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient ( I i Q.) f o r h i s delinquent group to be eighty-nine. Eighty-two per cent were below aver-age i n t e l l i g e n c e and eighteen per cent above. Eight per cent had I'. Q,.' s below seventy as compared w i t h approximately three per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . •On the other hand, only 2.5 per cent r a t e d above 115 I . Q> whereas the normal expecta-t i o n would be eleven per cent. In the survey oonducted by the w r i t e r at the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School (see t a b l e XVI;) the average I . Q. was 86.55, e i g h t y - f o u r per cent were below average, and s i x t e e n per cent were above average* Approxi-mately t h i r t e e n per cent were d e f i n i t e l y feebleminded and 1.7 per cent had I . Q.'s above 115. Burt concluded t h a t , "mental 1. G u r t i , Margaret. C h i l d Psychology. New'York, Longmans, G-reen, 19 50. pp. 38S--394. 2. Burt, C y r i l , op. c i t . , pp. 285—284. 24 defectiveness, beyond a l l controversy, i s a notable f a c t o r 1 i n the production of crime". • • 2 Healy and Bronner report that 13.5 per cent of t h e i r de-linquents were mentally d e f i c i e n t but q u a l i f i e d t h e i r f i g u r e s by saying that t h i s proportion i s not much greater than any i n v e s t i g a t o r could expect from groups of unselected school c h i l d renw Nevertheless i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d any survey which reports more than f i v e per cent of unselected c h i l d r e n w i t h I* Q.'s below seventy, u s u a l l y the percentage i s smaller. While Healy and Bronner as w e l l as Burt minimize the e f f e c t of poverty as a causal f a c t o r i n delinquency, another approach to the problem has been made i n Chicago by Shaw which would seem to i n d i c a t e that poverty plays an important part as a causative f a c t o r i n crime. The trends toward a n t i - s o c i a l behavior were found to be r a t h e r d e f i n i t e l y concentrated i n c e r t a i n areas over a long period of y e a r s , though the a c t u a l population, and even the n a t i o n a l i t y , had changed i n many i n -stances. In s e c t i o n s w i t h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of dependent f a m i l i e s , as high as t h i r t y - s e v e n per cent of the male popula-t i o n between the ages of ten and s i x t e e n were found to be delinquent, while i n the neighborhoods of f a m i l i e s who owned 1* Burt, C y r i l , op. c i t . , pp. 283--284. 2* Healy, W. and C o nner, A., op. c i t . , p. 151. 3. Shaw, C. E. Delinquency Areas. Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1929.. 25 t h e i r own homes and who were comfortable f i n a n c i a l l y , as low as one par- -cent of the adolescents appeared before the Court* The Shaw study emphasizes the e f f e c t of poverty as a c o n t r i b u t i n g cause, although i n most other respects i t agrees w i t h both the Healy and Bronner and Burt i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s . DELINQUENCY AS A PRODUCT OF ENVIRONMENT In agreement w i t h the statement of Shaw and McKay, "Our d e t a i l e d studies i n d i c a t e that c r i m i n a l patterns of behavior develop as a product of a long process of i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the successive s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which 1 he l i v e s " , the w r i t e r f e e l s that delinquency i s l a r g e l y a matter of environmental circumstances and, that w i t h proper i n c e n t i v e s and surroundings, most j u v e n i l e crime could be e l i m i n a t e d . To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c onclusion, the l i f e h i s -t o r y of one of the I n d u s t r i a l School boys i s reviewed i n an attempt to show how c e r t a i n e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s have been r e -sponsible f o r l e a d i n g the l a d through a l i f e of-crime while changed conditions transformed him i n t o a respeotable member of s o c i e t y . . Jack, the boy i n question, i s one of s e v e r a l hundred s i m i l a r cases* He was born of Scotbh-Indian heritage i n a northern B r i t i s h Columbian town. He entered the world w i t h p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r a good average i n t e l l i g e n c e and a f i n e 1. N a t i o n a l Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. Report on the Causes of Grime. Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1921. p. 393. 26 healthy body. i t i s a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d faot among c h i l d psychol-o g i s t s that the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n a l i t y are determined at a very e a r l y age. Perhaps no i n d i v i d u a l plays a more important r o l e i n determining the s o c i a l and moral a t t i t u d e s of a c h i l d than i t s mother* In t h i s respect Jack came i n t o s o c i e t y at a serious disadvantage f o r h i s mother belonged to one of the lowest s t r a t a of s o c i e t y . According to her ease h i s t o r y she had been a r r e s t e d on a procuring charge i n which her own daughter was i n v o l v e d , unable to get on the r e g u l a r " l i n e " she moved her whole f a m i l y to one of the border houses i n the p r o s t i t u t i o n d i s t r i c t i n order that her c h i l d r e n might increase the. f a m i l y income* using Jack's mother's a n t i - s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s as a basis f o r our . judgment, we can conclude that the e t h i c a l t r a i n i n g which he received from h i s mother during h i s -pre-school age was f a r from an i d e a l standard. j a c k ' s f a t h e r was a frequent occupant of the l o c a l c i t y j a i l , h i s uncle was a confessed murderer, and a second cousin was s e r v i n g a long.term i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y . The degrading i n f l u e n c e of h i s f a t h e r ' s debauchery and of h i s mother's and s i s t e r s ' r e l a t i o n s w i t h the men from the waterfront on Jack's character development was, t r i f l i n g com-pared w i t h the permanent philosophy of l i f e which he received from the lower element which, frequented h i s mother's e s t a b l i s h ' ment. i'rom these people h i s immature mind began to f e e l , 27 rath e r than understand that s o c i e t y had hut two classes of peo p l e — t h o s e who were f o o l i s h enough to work and those who enjoyed the f r u i t s of another's labour. The f i r s t c l a s s were respectable, honest, hardworking, moderate-living, d u l l , ohurch-going, and fundamentally s t u p i d while the members of the second group f a s c i n a t e d and appealed to him wi t h t h e i r gay l i f e , promiscous lo v e , excessive d r i n k i n g , and c o n t i n u a l carousing. At a very e a r l y age Jack experienced the desi r e to be-come a f l e e c e r of those who were s t u p i d enough to work and l o s t very l i t t l e time i n p u t t i n g h i s wishes i n t o p r a c t i c e . When seven years o l d he committed h i s f i r s t t h e f t - - a t h e f t of f i f t y cents from a cash r e g i s t e r when the c l e r k ' s back was turned* He was s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s f i r s t attempt at l a r -ceny and h i s ambition to become a f u l l - f l e d g e d member of the "underworld" grew stronger than ever. Thus at the e a r l y age of seven, Jack had l a i d the foundation f o r h i s c r i m i n a l car-eer* Many non-understanding persons would say that Jack accep-ted the philosophy of a c r i m i n a l because he was n a t u r a l l y bad. Undoubtedly i n t h i s case environment was responsible f o r such an outlook towards s o c i e t y , primary grade c h i l d r e n l i v e i n a world, of fantasy and d e r e i s t i c thought. Hut, no matter how grotesque, t h e i r imaginations can be traced to some i n c i d e n t i n t h e i r past experience. Generally the normal boyish day-dream c o n s i s t s of a f l i g h t from r e a l i t y i n t o a land of make-be l i e v e where f a m i l i a r animals and inanimate objects appear 28 i n s i t u a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those depicted by Walt Disney i n hi s current cinema cartoons. As a r u l e the c h i l d i s h fan-t a s i e s are based on s t o r i e s t o l d by a f f e c t i o n a t e parents* Unfortunately, Jack never received the b e n e f i t s of tru e par-e n t a l l o v e . His mother and fa t h e r d i d not have time to waste on him. Consequently, he accepted the philosophy of h i s parents' gay f r i e n d s because h i s a t t e n t i o n - s t a r v e d , eager young mind.was f a s c i n a t e d by i t and because he knew no other. Having accepted t h i s outlook on l i f e , Jaok, neglected and unloved, spent numerous hours by himself c a r r i e d away to a f a n t a s t i c land where he was the "toughest" of the "tough". When we consider that humans are i n c l i n e d to. act as they t h i n k and t h a t they are.often only prevented from doing so because of a long c o n d i t i o n i n g process, we can r e a d i l y see the l o g i c a l development of Jack's behavior adjustment. As soon as he, a boy w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y no moral t r a i n i n g , began to experience c r i m i n a l thoughts, the t r a n s i t i o n to a c t u a l c r i m i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e . Almost everybody experiences some degree of inner " t h r i l l " when he receives p r a i s e from one of h i s f e l l o w men. C h i l d r e n ge n e r a l l y respond much more r e a d i l y to p r a i s e and encourage-ment than they do to recrimmination or punishment. Desire f o r a t t e n t i o n then i s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c h i l d . Young Jack possessed these normal q u a l i t i e s but they seldom were s a t i s f i e d i n a s u i t a b l e manner. As a r u l e the only time he was the centre of a t t r a c t i o n at home was when he 29 was being reprimanded by M s mother or f a t h e r . Such a means of f u l f i l l i n g h i s desires was not acceptable to Jack so he turned to new f i e l d s where he would have a b e t t e r chance of being " i n the p u b l i c eye". He joined a gang of s t r e e t urchins who came from homes s i m i l a r to h i s own. • As has been stated p r e v i o u s l y the c r i m i n a l philosophy of l i f e was deeply imbedded i n jack's mind, so, l o g i c a l l y enough, he chose companions who held the same outlook towards s o c i e t y . His gang consisted of f i v e boys of approximately h i s own age and these young delinquents l e d the p o l i c e and store-keepers of a northern B r i t i s h Columbia town a merry chase w i t h t h e i r petty t h i e v i n g and s h o p - l i f t i n g ; Although they appeared i n court on s e v e r a l occasions they were s u c c e s s f u l i n producing s a t i s f a c t o r y a l i b i s . 'The treasure-seeking escapades of the young c r i m i n a l s l e d them to the t h e f t of a gold watch and ehain and although they c a r e f u l l y covered t h e i r t r a c k s i n the burglary they were not so t h o u g h t f u l while attempting to dispose of t h e i r l o o t . The f i v e boys were f i n a l l y apprehended and brought to t r i a l * The v e r d i c t was an i n d e f i n i t e sentence to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Jack and two of h i s p a l s while the two youngest members were permitted to remain at home on probation. When Jack a r r i v e d at Biscoq he was not b i t t e r towards the judge and the r e s t of s o c i e t y but he ten a c i o u s l y clung to the philosophy which he had acquired from h i s mother's " s p o r t i n g " f r i e n d s . The f o l l o w i n g example w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s the wrong a t t i t u d e which had been developed i n the boy. One Sunday afternoon when the Protestant boys were at church I he was a Roman C a t h o l i c ) he was caught p i l f e r i n g small a r -t i c l e s from one of the other boy's trousers i n the dormitory* He appeared quite unconcerned when approached and when asked how he would f e e l i f somebody s t o l e some of h i s things he u n h e s i t a t i n g l y r e p l i e d , " I wouldn't care i f he was smart enough to get away w i t h i t . " Was Jack r e a l l y a c r i m i n a l when he a r r i v e d at Biscoq? Society d e f i n i t e l y s a i d yes. However, i n a sense, he was a true custom-abiding person* From an e a r l y age he adapted himself whole-heartedly to the community i n which he l i v e d . He accepted i t s values and obeyed i t s imperatives. He ob-v i o u s l y had acted according to the d i c t a t e s of the d i s t r i c t i n which he l i v e d but un f o r t u n a t e l y f o r him he was r a i s e d i n a crime i n f e s t e d area* The i n f l u e n c e of h i s e a r l y environ-ment on h i s character development made h i s c r i m i n a l career i n e v i t a b l e . I n the f i r s t part of t h i s h i s t o r y we have seen how ex-t e r n a l f a c t o r s were res p o n s i b l e f o r l e a d i n g a youth i n t o de-linquency. Now i t i s proposed to p i c t u r e the transformation which took place In the same boy's character when he was subjected to a more s u i t a b l e environment. As soon as Jack a r r i v e d at the I n d u s t r i a l School he was taken to the o f f i c e and given an interview w i t h the superin-tendent who had the a b i l i t y to gain the confidence of the boy 51 at the f i r s t meeting. 'The impressions made on the boy's mind during t h i s p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p r i n c i p a l were permanent and played a very important part i n the r e - a d j u s t -ment of h i s character. Jack came away from the f i r s t meet-in g f e e l i n g he had met a wonderful f r i e n d i n whom* he oould t r u s t and confide. While some of the boys i n the I n d u s t r i a l School r e t a i n t h e i r delinquent tendencies, many change r a p i d l y i n t o law-r e s p e c t i n g c i t i z e n s . I n some the transformation i s r a p i d , i n others very slow. Jack d i d not change immediately but as he was given more and more responsible p o s i t i o n s he g radually measured up to expectations and eventually became one of the most popular boys i n the school* Although Jack s l i p p e d from grace s e v e r a l times and on two occasions submitted to the t r a v e l urge, he was soon caught and brought back* When s i x months of h i s sentence had expired, i t was thought the time was ready f o r a t r i a l i n a f o s t e r home* Consequently, Jack was sent to West Van-couver * Although the f o s t e r parents are c a r e f u l l y eheeked, a few of them who lead the i n s p e c t o r s to b e l i e v e they are considering the welfare of t h e i r prospective charges, a c t -u a l l y are only l o o k i n g f o r a means of support and a supply of cheap labour. Unfortunately. Jack was sent to one of these homes. In a very short time he was up to h i s o l d t r i c k s and was returned to Biscoq. The next choice of a f o s t e r home was a happy one. Jack 32 i s now l i v i n g on a farm i n the Eraser V a l l e y and has made remarkable progress. The change may not be permanent but at the present time «Jack appears extremely happy and con-tented and seems to be w e l l on h i s way towards becoming an honest, respectable c i t i z e n . On the b a s i s of many s i m i l a r cases the w r i t e r tends to agree w i t h Shaw tha t the ma j o r i t y of young delinquents have been v i c t i m s of environmental circumstances and, w i t h a r e a l opportunity f o r success, might w e l l have adjusted t h e i r be-havior i n a socially-approved manner. Close survey of the l i t e r a t u r e on delinquency, however, i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y that the a n t i - s o c i a l acts of c h i l d r e n r e s u l t , not from one cause, but many. Study of t h i s problem has been handicapped g r e a t l y by p e r s i s t e n t attempts at o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . 53 THE PREVENTION QE DELINQUENCY The school boy of today i s the business man of t o -morrow and l i k e w i s e the j u v e n i l e delinquent of today tends to be the future a d u l t c r i m i n a l . Therefore, the most l o g -i c a l step i n the prevention of a d u l t crime i s t o prevent j u v e n i l e delinquency. In the opinion of the w r i t e r before a prevention cam-paign can enjoy any appreciable and permanent measure of success, extensive research and experimentation must be car-r i e d out w i t h respeet to the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : 1* Environment. 2. Family income. 3. M e d i c a l examination. 4. R e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 5. Grime prevention programmes i n sehools. 6. P u b l i c a t t i t u d e towards law-enforcement o f f i c e r s . 7. P u b l i c a t t i t u d e towards j u v e n i l e delinquency. 8. J u v e n i l e c o u r t s . As has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n a previous case h i s t o r y , a delinquent career, may be a product of a n a t u r a l prooess of development i n an unfavourable environment. Therefore, the question a r i s e s , how may the environment be improved? The f i r s t step l i e s i n improving the s o c i a l environment by making a v a i l a b l e p a r e n t a l education w i t h emphasis upon the values and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of parenthood* I t i s only through the development of the r i g h t a t t i t u d e s and the proper s o c i a l 54 h a b i t s i n parents that such a t t i t u d e s and habits may be formed i n the c h i l d r e n . A course i n preparation for parent-hood should be included i n every s e n i o r high school c u r r i c -ulum. The students of the upper grades, who are r e a l l y young men and women, should be made aware of and prepared for'many of the problems which they must subsequently face i n married l i f e . When they graduate they should be f a m i l i a r w i t h elementary c h i l d psychology and should know the drives and p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes which motivate human behavior. As they are p o t e n t i a l parents they should be made to r e a l i z e the inf l u e n c e of a proper environment upon the c h i l d . As an a i d to those men and women who are beyond high school age, the government should f o s t e r and encourage f r e e adult ed-uc a t i o n . F o rtunately a movement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has taken root and i t i s hoped that development and progress i n t h i s f i e l d w i l l be r a p i d and l a s t i n g . "J-he present p o l i c y of sending w e l l known men who are s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i r chosen vocation on l e c -ture tours throughout .the province i s e x c e l l e n t , i n c r e a s i n g numbers of government s o c i a l workers are doing e x c e l l e n t work i n - o r i t i s h Columbia i n improving f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and home adjustments, i n the year 1959-41 out of seventy-three cases, ten or 15.7 per cent of the .biscoq boys had both parents l i v i n g but separated. Proper adult education might reduce t h i s percentage and consequently reduce j u v e n i l e delinquency. Family l i f e i s never complete unless there i s a s u f f i c -i e n t income to provide p h y s i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s and a few l u x u r i e s . 35 Table V I I . shows that most of the fathers of delinquents are either- unemployed or hold low s a l a r i e d jobs, i f the l i v i n g and working standards could be r a i s e d i t i s very probable that the amount of delinquency would decrease. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that of the 515 cases none i s from p r o f e s s i o n a l homes; i n d i v i d u a l s having desires which can-not be s a t i s f i e d i n a s o c i a l l y approved manner w i l l r e s o r t to some other means of s a t i s f a c t i o n . Thus the desi r e f o r food or conformity may lead to delinquency i n the absence of s u f f i c i e n t economic resources to a l l e v i a t e the desire i n a way acceptable to s o c i e t y . TABLE VII.. OCCUPATIONS.. OF FATHERS OF DELINQUENTS A g r i c u l t u r e 22 4.3% Construction^ 4 2 — - 8.2 Deceased- 38--- 7.4 Domestic Service 12 2.5 F i s h i n g and Trapping 21--— 4*1 Labourers--- 90---17.5 Lumbering • 5 .9 Manufacturing 52--- 6.2 Mining—• •-- --16 3.1 P r o f e s s i o n a l - - •-- 0 0^0 P u b l i c Service 5--- .9 R e t i r e d 10 1.9 Trade 39 7.6 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n — 41 8.2 Unemployed-- 62 12.2 Not given • -78 15.2 T o t a l 513 100. QJo 1. Annual Report of J u v e n i l e Delinquents f o r Canada 19 36 and the S i x t y - t h i r d Annual Report of s t a t i s t i c s of .Criminal and other offences. 36 Every government seems to be confronted w i t h the pro-blem of supplying the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r men to earn a suf-f i c i e n t income w i t h which they can feed, c l o t h e , and pro-vide s h e l t e r f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Many attempts have been made to solve t h i s problem. In England the "dole system", a form of unemployment insurance, has enjoyed some success while i n Canada the p r a c t i c e of a d m i n i s t e r i n g d i r e c t r e l i e f has been t r i e d and found, u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I t appears to the w r i t e r that the most progressive p l a n has been adopted by the Government of the united States w i t h Work P r o j e c t s Admin-i s t r a t i o n IW. P. A*) p r o j e c t s and C i v i l i a n Conservation Corp (G. C. C.) camps. Everyone should have a complete p e r i o d i c medical exam-i n a t i o n by a competent and c a r e f u l p h y s i c i a n . This p h y s i c a l examination should be compulsory, and given at government expense when necessary. P h y s i c a l defects should be cured whenever p o s s i b l e * C r i p p l e s f r e q u e n t l y develop a f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y and a sense of s o c i a l inadequacy because of t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . Deformed boys have been known to t u r n to crime as a compensation and as a means of s o l i c i t i n g the s o c i a l approval of a group. At present the only p h y s i c a l ex-amination many a c h i l d r e c e i v e s i s that conducted by an over-worked school doctor. In the m a j o r i t y of cases the examin-at i o n s are e n t i r e l y inadequate* L e g i s l a t i o n f o r compulsory h e a l t h insurance f o r a l l working men and t h e i r f a m i l i e s would help i n the s o l u t i o n of t h i s problem. 37 Most delinquency i s committed i n l e i s u r e time. Con-sequently i f s u f f i c i e n t good r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are provided f o r young people to use i n t h e i r spare time t h e i r minds w i l l tend to t u r n away from crime. Many s e r v i c e c l u b s , s o c i e t i e s , and ageneies, voluntary as w e l l as p u b l i c , w i t h clubs and playgrounds are doing e x c e l l e n t work i n t h i s d i r e c -t i o n . The c i t y or community, however, should employ t r a i n e d men at a good s a l a r y t o organize the a c t i v i t i e s of both boys and g i r l s during t h e i r l e i s u r e hours. A lar g e proportion of delinquency can be prevented by the elementary, j u n i o r high, and senior high schools. "Tea-chers should be urged to watch, and when necessary to n o t i f y , a l l who show a n t i s o c i a l . i n c l i n a t i o n s ; the reports should be . made i n the i n f a n t s ' department or at the l a t e s t soon a f t e r the c h i l d ' s promotion to the sen i o r school. I n the school i t s e l f , the t r a i n i n g of character as s w e l l as the i n s t r u c t i o n •1, of the i n t e l l e c t should form an i n t e g r a l part of education." There should be more v o c a t i o n a l guidance and p r a o t i o a l edu-c a t i o n i n the school curriculum and an e f f i c i e n t employment s e r v i c e should be i n s t i t u t e d which w i l l provide p o s i t i o n s f o r a l l graduates. Adolescents, e s p e c i a l l y those who l i v e i n d i s t r i c t s s i m i l a r to Shaw's loop areas should be made f a m i l i a r w i t h the undesirable aspects of crime and c r i m i n a l s . The 1. Burt, C y r i l , op. c i t . , p. 585. 38 procedure followed i n B u f f a l o , New l o r k State, i s very i n t e r e s t i n g and bears mentioning. The a u t h o r i t i e s there r e c e n t l y have e s t a b l i s h e d an educational crime prevention plan and present the programme i n two ways. F i r s t the c h i l d - , ren are assembled and a l e t t e r from the judge of the c h i l d r e n ' court i s read. The court's message serves to put the c h i l d audience i n an a t t e n t i v e and f r i e n d l y frame of mind. This l e t t e r a l s o makes c l e a r that the programme i s sponsored by the court and that the court i s a preventive as w e l l as a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e agency. Two r e e l s of f i l m are then screened. A week or two l a t e r the second part of the programme i s pre-sented. On t h i s occasion the speaker returns to that school and i n t e r p r e t s the s i t u a t i o n s depicted i n the f i l m s i n e a s i l y understandable language and i n terms of the p a r t i c u l a r school d i s t r i c t and general community. The f i l m and address of the speaker are discussed i n c l a s s and the c h i l d r e n are encour-aged to discuss and comment on what they had seen and heard; One grade seven c l a s s drew up the f o l l o w i n g nine items under "Good Advioe Learned at the Crime Prevention Programme". 1. Never s t e a l anything when you are s m a l l , so, that you w i l l grow up to be an honest Ameri-can c i t i z e n who obeys the law* 2. We should always obey our parents, teachers, policemen, and older people. 3. G i r l s can o f t e n help keep t h e i r brothers out of t r o u b l e . 4. Do not go w i t h bad companions. 5. Grime does not pay. 6. Do not laugh at c h i l d r e n who s t e a l things from f r u i t s t a n d s , s t o r e s , or box c a r s . 7. Don't s t e a l s m a l l things when you are young so that you won't want to s t e a l b i g things when you are o l d e r . 59 8. Be f r i e n d l y w i t h our classmates so that we w i l l l e a r n to get along w i t h people. 9. Learn to obey orders promptly. 1 i'or a long time there appears to have been something r a d i c a l l y wrong i n the Canadian a t t i t u d e towards the p o l i c e . People have emphasized the p u n i t i v e and rep r e s s i v e features of the force r a t h e r than the c o n s t r u c t i v e and preventive s i d e . Such a point of view i n e v i t a b l y denies the p o l i c e adequate support, s e c u r i t y i n tenure, and freedom from p o l i t i c a l pressure, and i t renders them defensive and w i t h -drawn. Where t h e p o l i c e were once passive, they are now waging a more a c t i v e campaign i n the crime prevention f i e l d and they are watching the barometer of p u b l i c opinion. That, the p o l i c e are strengthening t h e i r p u b l i c contacts through the medium of work w i t h c h i l d r e n i s a phenomenon i n t e r e s t i n g and f a m i l i a r t o everyone i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d , f o r j u v e n i l e probation has hewn many of the pathways f o r a d u l t probation. These preventive s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n w i l l undoubtedly b r i n g about b e t t e r p o l i c e r e l a t i o n s and a b e t t e r understanding of the f u n c t i o n of a p o l i c e force by the p u b l i c , i n New Westminster, as i n many other B r i t i s h Columbia c i t i e s , the c h i l d r e n have a f a r d i f f e r e n t regard f o r policeman than c h i l d r e n had of twenty years ago. I t i s a common sight to see f r i e n d l y policemen i n the c i t y schools 1. Dealing w i t h Delinquency. Yearbook. N a t i o n a l Pro-b a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1940. The N. P. A. 1790 Broadway, New York. pp. 20--21. 40 conducting boy t r a f f i c p a t r o l s , . o r g i v i n g t a l k s on safety, or sponsoring f i n g e r - p r i n t i n g c lubs. When w i l l i n g , the pu b l i c can play a very important r o l e i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of wayward youths from f i r s t offenders to those w i t h a long s e r i e s of c o n v i c t i o n s . People could be most h e l p f u l i n a i d i n g those lads who have served a sentence i n the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School. A f r i e n d at the proper time might be a deciding f a c t o r . At l e a s t whole-hearted support can be given to community a c t i v i t i e s f o r boys and g i r l s such as the clubs and organizations l i k e those sponsored by the Rotarians, Jiiwanis, Kinsmen, Gyros, and other kindred assoc-i a t i o n s . I t should be pointed out that current s o c i a l r e a c t i o n s toward adolescent delinquent behavior seem- unusually unfor-tunate. Many boys have committed f u r t h e r crimes and have been re-sentenced to Biscoq because they "have been despised and tr e a t e d w i t h cold i n d i f f e r e n c e and d i s t r u s t by people w i t h whom they have come i n contact a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t r e l e a s e . As has been stated p r e v i o u s l y the most l o g i o a l approach to the prevention of j u v e n i l e delinquency i s to eliminate as many as po s s i b l e of the f a c t o r s which contribute to i t . Pre-v e n t i o n i s by f a r the best cure. But what i f prevention f a i l s ? What about the unfortunate boys who cannot r e s t r a i n t h e i r delinquent tendencies and are apprehended? When such agencies as the f a m i l y , the school, the church, community clubs and other welfare organizations have enjoyed 41 l i t t l e success i n moulding a youth i n t o a law-abiding c i t i z e n and f o r some misdemeanour he i s apprehended and brought to t r i a l s hope f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n should not waver. There i s one f i n a l body that can play a most i n -f l u e n t i a l part i n helping the i n d i c t e d youth adjust h i s be-havior i n a socially-approved manner. This i s the Ju v e n i l e Court. I n North America there are many types of j u v e n i l e c o u r t s . Some are j u v e n i l e courts i n name only while others have only one aim?--the welfare o f the youths appearing before them—and are adopting a l l measures which might help them a t t a i n t h e i r g o a l . These l a t t e r j u v e n i l e courts are s t i l l i n a state of t r a n s i t i o n , equipped w i t h a p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c and i t s s t a f f of probation o f f i c e r s . They are f e e l i n g t h e i r way; they are not c o n t r o l l e d by the p u n i t i v e aims, i n f l e x i b l e procedure, and t r a d i t i o n of f i n a l i t y of crimina/1 law. The only aim i s the p r o t e c t i o n of the boy or g i r l and the progressive courts f o l l o w a procedure that i s not exhausted u n t i l that end has been achieved. I t i s from the j u v e n i l e courts p r i m a r i l y rather than from the i n d u s t r i a l schools, r e f o r m a t o r i e s , houses of refuge and other s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s that a s o l u t i o n of the problem of the j u v e n i l e offender i s to be expected. However, as i n so many s i m i l a r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , the important p o s i t i o n s too of t e n are h e l d by untrained and incompetent men. The success of the new trends i n the treatment of delinquency depends on 42 the i n f l u e n c e of the o f f i c i a l s who have intimate contact w i t h the young delinquents. These men must impress upon the offenders the importance of measuring up to standards as men, and they must s t r i v e to e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s of mutual c o n f i -dence. The maximum e f f i c i e n c y and accomplishment of the new programme never can be r e a l i z e d u n t i l every person who i s to play some part i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plan of a youth i s cho-sen f o r h i s genuine i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y . Although the Advisory Committee on Ju v e n i l e Delinquency which met i n 1936 advocated j u v e n i l e court f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as we have seen t h i s has not as yet been c a r r i e d out. Too fre q u e n t l y magistrates are i n -c l i n e d to t r y c h i l d offenders as adult c r i m i n a l s . Just as i n the case of the j u v e n i l e court judge, e f f i c i e n t magistrates can play a very important r o l e i n the re-adjustment of a youth 1s behavior, i t i s t h e i r duty not only to judge the offence but al s o the offender and thus they should consider the case from every p o s s i b l e angle. A great many do not. The f o l l o w i n g example w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . On one occasion the w r i t e r t a l k e d w i t h a magistrate about what seemed to be an unjust commitment to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. Although he had sentenced the boy only a few weeks p r e v i o u s l y , he d i d not immediately r e c a l l the case* No man who had i n v e s t i g a t e d the charge thoroughly could have f o r g o t t e n so q u i c k l y . Before sentencing a boy to the i n d u s t r i a l school, magis-t r a t e s should c a r e f u l l y consider such fundamental underlying 43 f a c t o r s as have been embodied i n the f o l l o w i n g suggestions which were drawn up by Mr. if* 0. Boyes, former superintendent at Biscoq, :and include some proposals of the w r i t e r . 1 SUGGESTIONS TO MAGISTRATES 1. When a boy or g i r l f i r s t appears i n court a thorough examination of the home should be made. Report can be secured from p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse or from the Wel-far e F i e l d S e r v i c e V i s i t o r , and the progress report from the school. A u t h o r i t i e s of the l o c a l church should be questioned. 2 . I f the home needs a s s i s t a n c e only, volunteer help i n the community under the guidance of these o f f i c i a l s might r e s t o r e i t to i t s proper balance and save f u r t h e r trouble.-3. I f the home appears a b s o l u t e l y hopeless from the point of view of c h i l d - t r a i n i n g — t h e c h i l d or c h i l d r e n should be removed at once to a more favourable environment. 4. I f there i s some doubt as t o the menta l i t y of the c h i l d — the l o c a l school i n s p e c t o r would arrange to give an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . This i s a part of the p i c t u r e only, but w i l l o f t e n give the key to the reason f o r f a i l u r e to progress i n school or i n the community. 5 . Where behavior i s s t r i k i n g l y out.of tune w i t h the com-munity an e f f o r t should be made to have the boy exam-ined by the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . This might be done by d i r e c t contact w i t h the C l i n i c i n the iiower Main-land or Vancouver I s l a n d areas. I n the case of more i s o l a t e d areas the c h i l d could be committed to the care of the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n , who would then arrange f o r the examination* I f t h i s were done i n every case, many c h i l d r e n might be spared un-t o l d g r i e f and the communities would b e n e f i t immensely from the advice which would be given* 6. I n the case o f c h i l d r e n between the ages of twelve and fourteen, commitment to the Superintendent of Neglec-ted C h i l d r e n under the J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act i s an e x c e l l e n t p r a c t i c e f o r unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s . Such a commitment permits t h i s o f f i c i a l to place the c h i l d 1. Report prepared by Mr. If. C. Boyes when Superintendent of Biscoq. 44 under observation f o r a period, to have various t e s t s made and then to place the c h i l d advantageously i n the l i g h t of the f i n d i n g s which have been made, i n organ-i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s where contact w i t h the C l i n i c i s im-possible*, such a procedure could be followed to ad-vantage. 7. Boys and g i r l s between fourteen and s i x t e e n could be sent to the i n d u s t r i a l Schools when other methods have f a i l e d * 8. For those over s i x t e e n care should be exercised, i f the p a t i e n t i s a minor offender i n the sense of the number and nature of offences committed, the schools can do much f o r him or her. i f , however, the p a t i e n t i s a serious offender w i t h a long l i s t of f a i r l y serious offences to h i s or her c r e d i t , a senior i n -s t i t u t i o n should be considered* The w e l f a r e of the younger members of the group may be s e r i o u s l y upset by one or two such cases. Transfer from the schools to senior i n s t i t u t i o n s i s frowned on but d i r e c t com-mitment f o r cause shown i s another matter. Some boys and g i r l s i n the age group are more d i f f i c u l t pro-blems i n an i n s t i t u t i o n than a d u l t s and t h i s should not be l o s t s i g h t of. Admittedly the numbers are s m a l l but t h e i r i n f l uenoe i s great. 9. I f p o s s i b l e hearings of the J u v e n i l e Court should be oonfined to the judge', the p a t i e n t , h i s or her par-ents and the one o f f i c i a l b r i n g i n g the charge. A personal, p r i v a t e chat between judge and boy before the hearing would he most b e n e f i c i a l and should be-. come a part of routine p r a c t i c e . 10. I f p o s s i b l e — d u r i n g t h i s c h a t — t h e judge should give the p a t i e n t an idea as to how long he should remain i n the school. When t h i s i s done much unrest i s avoided and i t might w e l l become accepted p r a c t i c e . 11. Whenever p o s s i b l e , magistrates engaged i n t h i s work should v i s i t the schools and see f o r themselves what i s being attempted. (Several have done t h i s and t h e i r outlook has been changed as a r e s u l t . ) 12. The magistrates should be asked to keep j u v e n i l e a c t -i v i t i e s completely away from the press. A l l p u b l i -c i t y i s harmful* One group loves i t and boy a f t e r boy has come to us w i t h c l i p p i n g s of the various a c t i v i t i e s noted i n the press. Another group withers under i t -f e e l i n g that the o l d environment w i l l never do again. A. few are t o t a l l y unaffected by i t — p r o b a b l y because 45 they have not the mental a b i l i t y t o comprehend the reports. In the Dominion Act s p e c i f i c reference i s made to t h i s in' S e c t i o n 12, Paragraph 3--yet t h i s most important point i s o f t e n overlooked. A decided stand on t h i s point would be of r e a l value to the whole oommunity. 13. The magistrate should do a l l i n h i s power to en-. courage p r i v a t e groups to undertake probation work. A f t e r a l l , prevention i s the f i e l d that needs the greatest amount of work at the moment. 14. I n l a r g e r centres a s p e c i a l j u v e n i l e squad should be developed. C e r t a i n men are able to handle young f o l k e f f e c t i v e l y , others do more harm than good. I f magistrates made t h i s suggestion i t should help-b r i n g about a very u s e f u l branch of p o l i c e a c t i v i t y . When the combined e f f o r t s o f the home, s o c i a l agencies, and the j u v e n i l e court have proven f u t i l e and an adolescent offender continues w i t h h i s delinquent tendencies and makes no r e a l e f f o r t to become a law-abiding c i t i z e n there i s only one a l t e r n a t i v e - — a sentence t o a c o r r e c t i v e educational oentre. Such a sentence, however, should be a l a s t r e s o r t and should be passed only a f t e r a l l other attempts at reformation have f a i l e d . Those who have had experience i n probation work r e a l i z e t h a t , since some boys respond t o no treatment what-ever and w i l l make no honest attempt to readjust t h e i r be-h a v i o r , an i n d u s t r i a l school seems to be a n e c e s s i t y . CHAPTER I I I INSTITUTIONS EOR THE REHABILITATION OE JUVENILE DELINQUENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER I I I . INSTITUTIONS FOR THE REHABILITATION OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA A—THE BOYS'' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT COQUITLAM O r i g i n a l l y an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r j u v e n i l e delinquents was maintained by the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n Point Grey where the School f o r the B l i n d i s now s i t u a t e d . In 1920, however, the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School, as i t was c a l l e d , was moved to a s i t e adjourning the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l at Esson-dale near Port Coquitlam* Three cottages, an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g , and a s p e c i a l d i n i n g r h a l l had been erected as a u n i t of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r feebleminded boys hut these were taken over and became known as B i s c o q . The s u b s t a n t i a l and commodious b u i l d i n g s proved very s a t i s f a c t o r y . Numerous other a d d i t i o n s such as a combined gymnasium-auditorium, p o u l t r y houses, carpenter, shoe, and t a i l o r shops were l a t e r constructed u n t i l the i n s t i t u t i o n was adequately equipped to accommodate from 150 to 200 boys. Mr. D a v i d B r a n k i n was the f i r s t superintendent. In 1934 the Commission of I n q u i r y i n v e s t i g a t e d the con-d i t i o n s of the s c h o o l . Following t h e i r recommendations a new system was inaugurated under the very capable leadership of Mr. F. C. Boyes as P r i n c i p a l and Mrs. G. Moody as f o l l o w -up o f f i c e r . As soon as Mr. Boyes took charge there was a steady d e c l i n e i n the r e s i d e n t population due to h i s new parole p o l i c y by which a l l deserving boys were allowed to r e t u r n home on probation. As a l l the b u i l d i n g s were not being used and as Essondale was r a p i d l y becoming over-crowded, Biscoq was moved to a new c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g near the gymnasium, the o r i g i n a l cottages being taken over as the Home f o r the Aged f o r the s e n i l e dementia p a t i e n t s from the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l . The Advisory Committee on J u v e n i l e Delinquency made an exhaustive study of the present l o c a t i o n i n the f a l l of 1936. In t h e i r report they suggested that a s i t e sandwiched i n be-tween two u n i t s of a mental h o s p i t a l was very detrimental to a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme and s t a r t e d a movement f o r tr a n s -f e r of the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School to a more d e s i r a b l e l o -c a t i o n . Such a move would be very c o s t l y and although many meetings and d i s c u s s i o n s have been held and numerous te n t a -t i v e plans submitted no d e f i n i t e a o t i o n has yet been taken. (Spring 1941). When Mr. Boyes r e t i r e d i n the f a l l of 1939, he was succeeded by Mr, George Ross, former Boys' Work Secretary of the Vancouver Y. M. G. A. 48 ADMINISTRATION Off MB. DAVID BRANKIN Objections might w e l l be r a i s e d w i t h respect to Mr. Brankin's p o l i c y f o r the treatment of Biscoq boys but unquestionably he was motivated by high i d e a l s and bel i e v e d that he was acting i n t h e i r best i n t e r e s t s . His ''Biscoq Code" and the excerpt, taken from one of h i s r e p o r t s , which f o l l o w i n d i c a t e an underlying philO' sophy and e t h i c a l i d e a l s w i t h which few humanitarians would be i n o p p o s i t i o n . MR. BRANKIN'S "BISCOQ, CODE" 1. That Instant obedience to the voice of auth-o r i t y i s necessary at a l l times.-2. That l o y a l t y , respect, and f i d e l i t y towards the f l a g of our, country i s the duty of a l l who c l a i m i t s p r o t e c t i o n . 3. That homage, reverence, and veneration of His name i s the l e a s t t r i b u t e man can pay h i s Creator. 4. That a healthy body i s the best assurance f o r o l d age a boy can have. * 5. That a l l work i s honourable and no one has the r i g h t to sponge upon others f o r a l i v i n g . 6. That other people's property i s sacred and must not i n t e r f e r e d w i t h , except by the owner's consent. V. That honesty i n every form i s a p r i n c i p l e and not a p o l i c y . 8.. That there i s nothing c l e v e r or honourable i n breaking the laws of our country. 9« That Canada has a code of m o r a l i t y and a standard of l i v i n g b e f i t t i n g her c i t i z e n s , and a l l who l i v e w i t h i n her borders should s t r i v e to l i v e up to her i d e a l s and not by any act of t h e i r s lower her standards. 10. That the r e a l l y worth-while o i t i z e n i s the man who plays a clean game, whether on the side that i s winning or the one that i s l o s i n g . 49 11. That a l l improvement of a permanent na-ture takes place w i t h i n and works outward. 12* That we are e i t h e r good f o r something or good f o r nothing. An excerpt from one of Mr. Brankin's reports: In my many years' experience i n handling the de-linquent and misunderstood boy, I have found, apart from those who s u f f e r a serious mental d i s -. a b i l i t y , t hat most of them are i n t e n s e l y human and r e q u i r e t h o u g h t f u l and considerate care. In other words: He i s ju s t a boy and a boy must romp, A boy must run ' t i l l h i s pulses jump, Just swing h i s arms and k i c k h i s heels To give f u l l vent to the joy he f e e l s . Must rush i n the house and b o l t h i s meals And long f o r the things which run on wheels. And whenever you f i n d him s i t t i n g s t i l l , I t i s not t h a t he's t i r e d — i t ' s because he's i l l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o understand how a man w i t h such a p h i l -osophy could be anything but a success i n boys' work* I n prac-t i c e , however, h i s methods were i n d i r e c t contrast w i t h h i s theory. His c h i e f l i m i t a t i o n l a y i n h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach. He believed i n the reformation theory of punishment but t r i e d to d r i v e the c r i m i n a l tendencies out by extreme f o r c e . He' advocated the "spare the rod and s p o i l the c h i l d " plan and resorted to the paddle e x c e s s i v e l y * One case i s reported i n which i t i s a l l e g e d that a boy was strapped more than eighty times aoross the bare buttocks i n front of a l l t h e remaining l a d s . Three or four blows i n one spot were s u f f i c i e n t to draw blood. One can e a s i l y p i c t u r e the b i t t e r n e s s of the thrashed boy and the u t t e r disgust and i n most eases fe a r of the other boys. The case record f i l e s are f u l l of "four strokes across the buttocks" or "severely strapped" f o r even 50 minor infringements of the r u l e s . And yet, Mr. Brankin r e a l l y thought he was moulding the hoys i n t o u s e f u l c i t i z e n s . Numerous other s i m i l a r examples eould be r e l a t e d . 51 ADMINISTRATION OF MB. E. 0. BOYES When Mr. E. G. Boyes assumed c o n t r o l he introduced an e n t i r e l y new general p o l i c y regarding the treatment of the young delinquents at Biscoq. Be r e a l i z e d that he must de-cide whether the school was to be a penal i n s t i t u t i o n as stated i n the P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e , an idea held by many of the l e s s w e l l informed and unsympathetic people of B r i t i s h Columbia, or a c o r r e c t i v e educational centre. With a d i s -t i n c t i v e army record and over twenty years of very success-f u l teaching experience i n the schools of Vancouver behind him, he u n h e s i t a t i n g l y chose the l a t t e r * He brought many of the most modern educational and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s to the i n d u s t r i a l school w i t h him. L i k e h i s predecessor h i s c h i e f aim was to mould the wayward boys i n t o u s e f u l c i t i z e n s but h i s method was a d i r e c t c o n t r a s t , lie t r i e d to i n f l u e n c e the boys so they would, of t h e i r o?m v o l i t i o n , want to become u s e f u l mem-bers of s o c i e t y . Thus he t r i e d to b r i n g about a change w i t h i n the boys themselves* The p o l i c y was based on under-standing, sympathy, encouragement, p r a i s e , and the t r e a t -ment of every boy as a separate i n d i v i d u a l case. The D i s c i p l i n a r y Methods Adopted by Mr. £oy_es. Mr. Boyes, looked upon d i s c i p l i n e p r i m a r i l y as a . means of b u i l d i n g enlightened s e l f - c o n t r o l i n the boys themselves, and only secondarily as a force to secure ex-t e r n a l c o n t r o l of h i s charges. He r e a l i z e d , however, that 52 the l a t t e r was necessary but th a t i t was educative only as i t promoted the development of s e l f - c o n t r o l . The f o l l o w i n g poem, on the other hand, i s t y p i c a l of the old conception of school government. In p r a c t i c e , Mr. Brankin appears to have adhered to a s i m i l a r d o c t r i n e . Students l i k e horses on the road, Must be w e l l - l a s h e d before they take the load; They may be w i l l i n g f o r a time to run, But you must whip them ere the work be done; To t e l l a boy that i f he w i l l improve, His f r i e n d s w i l l p r a i s e him, and h i s parents love, Is doing n o t h i n g — h e has not a doubt But they w i l l love him, nay applaud without; Let no fond s i r e a boy's ambition t r u s t , To make him study, l e t him l e a r n he must. 1 Boys as w e l l as adul t s respond to d i f f e r e n t types of c o n t r o l * Some persons have learned to ignore almost a l l per-suasion except that of f o r c e s , tie who responds only to for c e and he who c o n t r o l s only through force or fear of force both operate on the lowest l e v e l . To c o n t r o l a boy through force i s to admit f a i l u r e to make any other method e f f e c t i v e . Such occasions should be rare indeed. Mr. Boyes used c o r p o r a l punishment as a l a s t r e s o r t and only a f t e r a l l other d i s c i -p l i n a r y measures had proven f u t i l e * Mr. Boyes attempted t o make h i s d i s c i p l i n a r y methods educative by ob t a i n i n g c o n t r o l through s o c i a l approval. He was aware that the boy who worked to deserve the approval of 1. Quoted by Cubberley, i i . P., The H i s t o r y of Education. New York, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1920. p. 456. 55 h i s peers was b u i l d i n g a habit and an a t t i t u d e that would endure long a f t e r the d i r e c t influence of most of h i s ad-v i s o r s was f o r g o t t e n . Mr. Boyes knew that i t was more wholesome, i n the long run, f o r a boy to seek the approval of the group, i n c l u d i n g the o f f i c i a l s , than to s t r i v e merely f o r the commendation of the attendants i n charge* C o n t r o l was not only obtained, however, by means of s o c i a l approval. S o c i a l disapproval was used when necessary. On one occasion when a v i s i t i n g team of boys was p l a y i n g a b a s k e t b a l l game i n the gymnasium, two Biscoq boys climbed through the win-dow i n t o the room i n which the v i s i t o r s had l e f t t h e i r c l o -thes* 1'he c u l p r i t s p i l f e r e d s e v e r a l small a r t i c l e s and sums of money from the pockets. When the burglary was discovered the only clue was some smeared f o o t p r i n t s i n the snow. Mr. Boyes c a l l e d a l l the lads together and q u i e t l y informed them of what had happened* Me s a i d he f e l t sorry f o r the boys who had broken f a i t h but that he was more sorry f o r the mem-bers of the b a s k e t b a l l team because they would not be able to play any more games w i t h outside teams. He d i d not t h i n k i t was f a i r to ask v i s i t i n g teams to play at Biscoq and t r e a t them as had j u s t been done. A f t e r t h i s short speeoh he l e f t them. That evening j u s t before " l i g h t s out" the "grape-vine" s t a r t e d to f u n c t i o n . The next morning the captain of the b a s k e t b a l l team, who happened t o be one of the l a r g e s t and "toughest" boys i n the school, walked i n t o the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e and deposited the l o s t money and other p i l f e r e d a r t i c l e s 54 on the desk. Mr. Boyes s a i d , "Thanks. I guess we w i l l be able to play outside teams a f t e r a l l . " No attempt was made to apprehend and punish the g u i l t y boys because the next day two b e a u t i f u l blaok eyes were grim evidence that s o c i a l disapproval had held sway. Mr. Boyes had very few r u l e s . He used to say that r u l e s were only made to be broken so why make them* He set up stan dards of conduct r a t h e r than r u l e s . He maintained that stan-dards of behavior, formulated i n p o s i t i v e terms by the group, o f f e r a u n i v e r s a l challenge t o worthy conduct. Imposed r u l e s even i f designed f o r the safety and welfare of the group, o f f e r a dare. Standards e n l i s t co-operation; r u l e s provoke o p p o s i t i o n . Mr. Boyes r e a l i z e d that r u l e s to be e f f e c t i v e must be supported by for c e while standards were matters of group and i n d i v i d u a l morale and consequently were very d i f -f e r e n t i n t h e i r educative e f f e c t s . He knew that the t e s t of the value of r u l e s and standards came when outside r e s t r a i n t s were removed. Standards emphasize the p o s i t i v e , d e s i r a b l e t h i n g to be done; r u l e s s t r e s s p r o h i b i t i o n s and i n h i b i t i o n s . I t i s hardly necessary to s t r e s s the point that i n t e r e s t and d i s c i p l i n e are connected not opposed* Mr. Boyes always had a great i n t e r e s t i n young l a d s . Before h i s appointment as Superintendent of Biscoq he was a teacher i n the Vancouver schools f o r twenty-five years. During that period he had personal touch w i t h a great many Vancouver boys and g i r l s . He was more i n t e r e s t e d i n the boys and he spent numerous 55 hours a f t e r school guiding and coaching them i n various a c t i v i t i e s and a t h l e t i c s . He had an a l t r u i s t i c outlook towards h i s fellow-men; His c h i e f aim i n l i f e was t o t r y t o mould h i s p u p i l s i n t o respectable members of s o c i e t y . He was i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s students because he wanted t o do everything i n h i s power to make them c i t i z e n s of whom Vancouver would be j u s t l y proud. Mr. Boyes was always e n t h u s i a s t i c about h i s work. He continuously looked on the b r i g h t s i d e of l i f e and never f a i l e d t o drop a word of encouragement. He never over-looked an opportunity to commend h i s p u p i l s when pr a i s e was due. "Where an a c t i v i t y takes time, where many means and obstacles l i e between i t s i n i t i a t i o n and completion, de-1 l i b e r a t i o n and persist e n c e are r e q u i r e d . " Thus Dewey defines d i s c i p l i n e . According t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Mr. Boyes was a w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d man himself. He was a man of strong w i l l , he always p e r s i s t e n t l y and e n e r g e t i c a l l y t r i e d to r e a l i z e h i s aim i n producing worthy c i t i z e n s . He tre a t e d every boy wi t h whom he came i n t o contact as a separate i n d i v i d u a l case and although he experienced numerous instances where h i s expectations were shattered, even i n the force of almost cer-t a i n defeat, he never once gave up hope that some day a boy would reform. From the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w w i t h the l a d s , Mr. Boyes t r i e d to i n s t i l l i n them h i s outlook towards s o c i e t y . He attempted 1. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. New "York, The Maomillan Company, 1939. p. 150. 56 to get the boys i n t e r e s t e d i n some a c t i v i t y that would take t h e i r minds o f f crime. He stressed motor-mechanics, metal-work, wood-work, shoe-making, gardening, school-work, and other u s e f u l and c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . He hoped that some of these would lead the boys t o a socially«approved course i n l i f e - . He was so i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s vocation that a l l of h i s s t a f f and most of h i s charges caught h i s enthusiasm and s p i r -i t and became eagerly engrossed i n t h e i r work. Mr. Boyes always made h i s d i s c i p l i n e p o s i t i v e . He never t r i e d to break a boy's s p i r i t and never r i g i d l y i n s i s t e d that i n s t a n t obedience t o the voice of a u t h o r i t y was imperative. The boys looked towards him as a f r i e n d and counsellor i n whom they could t r u s t and confide. The type of d i s c i p l i n e which Mr. Boyes advocated was i n many ways s i m i l a r t o the " n a t u r a l consequences" theory of 1 Herbert Spencer. He, however, was w e l l aware of the short-comings of such a theory and thus did not adhere to t h i s d o c t r i n e to the f u l l e s t extent. In the f o l l o w i n g pages the w r i t e r proposes to o u t l i n e some of the -ideas of Spencer, and show the s i m i l a r i t y between h i s theory and the type which Mr. Boyes attempted to put i n t o p r a c t i c e at the same time p o i n t -i n g out how he overcame the obvious l i m i t a t i o n s * Proper conduct i n l i f e i s much better guaranteed when 1* Spencer, Herbert. Essay on Education. London, d. M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1928. pp. 84—115. the good and e v i l consequences of actions are r a t i o n a l l y understood than when they are merely b e l i e v e d on a u t h o r i t y . When a boy a r r i v e d at Biscoq, the f i r s t step i n h i s reformation programme was a p r i v a t e t a l k w i t h Mr. Boyes. At t h i s i n i t i a l meeting the P r i n c i p a l t r i e d to get the new-comer to look upon him as a f r i e n d i n whom he could t r u s t and not as a c r u e l , hard prison-keeper. As soon as he received the confidence and co-operation of the boy, he attempted t o show him how he had broken the laws of s o c i e t y and why i t had been n a t u r a l and necessary that he be sentenced to a reform school where he should pay f o r h i s misdeeds. A f t e r such an i n t e r -view, any b i t t e r n e s s which might have been stored i n the l a d T s mind u s u a l l y disappeared and he s t a r t e d h i s term w i t h the con-v i c t i o n that he owed a debt to s o c i e t y and that the sentence was j u s t ; . Both Herbert Spencer and Mr. Boyes believed that a nat-u r a l system of d i s c i p l i n e was a system of pure j u s t i c e and would be recognized as such. I n p r i v a t e t a l k s w i t h h i s charges, Mr. Boyes would point out to them that any person who broke the e s t a b l i s h e d law of h i s f e l l o w men n a t u r a l l y would have to answer to them. He would t e l l them s t o r i e s of cases s i m i l a r t o t h e i r own and the penalty which the offenders had to pay. He would i l l u s t r a t e to them the chaos that inev-i t a b l y would f o l l o w i f the laws of s o c i e t y were not followed. He t r i e d to have the boys e s t a b l i s h i d e a l s and make an honest attempt to l i v e up to them. 58 On one occasion there was considerable t r o u b l e i n the dining-room over broken dishes and s o i l e d t a b l e - c l o t h s . To solve t h i s d i f f i c u l t y Mr. Boyes suggested two classes of t a b l e s ; one w i t h clean l i n e n and good crockery f o r those who had s u f f i c i e n t manners t o warrant t h e i r attendance at a clean t a b l e ; the other, commonly c a l l e d the p i g - t a b l e , where those who wished to gobble and b o l t t h e i r food could do so without d i s t u r b i n g the boys who wished b e t t e r eating c o n d i t i o n s . Now although both t a b l e s received the same food, the meals served on the orookery p l a t e s on the clean, white t a b l e - c l o t h s were much more appealing than those dished on the aluminum p l a t e s on the dark, u n a t t r a c t i v e p i g - t a b l e s . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the boys who were relegated immediately made an honest e f f o r t to be promoted to the white t a b l e s . Mr. Brankin had e x c e l l e n t order i n h i s dining-rooms. He, however, a t t a i n e d h i s ends by an a r t i f i c i a l means. Any boy who s p i l t food on the t a b l e - c l o t h had the sum required to laun-dry the a r t i c l e deducted from h i s honour money. Any broken dishes were pai d f o r by the same p l a n . In the f i r s t example the lads accepted Mr. Boyes' plan as n a t u r a l while many under Mr. Brankin were b i t t e r and f e l t t h e i r punishment to be unjust. In a system of d i s c i p l i n e based on n a t u r a l consequences, the tempers of the o f f i c i a l s and the boys were seldom aroused and the r e l a t i o n s between the men i n charge and the young de-linquents was f r i e n d l y and i n f l u e n t i a l . Mr. Boyes never once 59 punished a boy u n t i l he had shown that l a d that punishment was deserved and necessary* Of the three or four hundred boys who passed through the school while Mr. Boyes was i n charge, not one can t r u t h f u l l y say that he received undeserved punishment from the P r i n c i p a l . Many boys, however, s e c r e t l y cherished a hatred towards Mr. Brankin and on one occasion a score of h i s graduates were seen to openly denounce him i n p u b l i c . Never once during h i s e n t i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n did Mr. Boyes l o s e h i s temper i n f r o n t of the youths and any o f f i c i a l who d i d so, even on the r a r e s t of occasions, was reprimanded severely. Mr. Boyes r e a l i z e d -that any expression of anger was e s p e c i a l l y detrimental because i t weakened the bond of sym-pathy which was so e s s e n t i a l to a beneficent c o n t r o l . Be a l -ways t r i e d to avoid being the Instrument of punishment and he i n f l i c t e d b o d i l y p a i n only when both he and the boy agreed that such was necessary. Frequently he solved problems of d i s -c i p l i n e i n a manner s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g example* On one occasion some boys•were assigned the task of kalsomining t h e i r dormitory. Instead of applying the kalsomine to the w a l l s and c e i l i n g , they proceeded to enjoy themselves thoroughly by splash-i n g i t on t h e i r f r i e n d s and on any a r t i c l e which happened to be i n t h e i r way. When Mr. Boyes was c a l l e d to the scene he q u i e t l y summoned the c u l p r i t s and t o l d them that i f they wished to sleep i n such a d i s o r d e r l y room i t was e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y 60 to him. A f t e r t h i s short speech he l e f t them standing together. The boys soon decided t h a t perhaps they had not had so much fun a f t e r a l l and when they r e a l i z e d the d i s -advantages of s l e e p i n g i n such a sloppy room, they immed-i a t e l y began a vigorous attempt to clean t h e i r sleeping-quarters. There i s no doubt t h a t Mr. Boyes' d i s c i p l i n e had a great i n f l u e n c e on the l a d s . Once a boy a c t u a l l y t r i e d to commit s u i c i d e because he had broken the t r u s t which Mr. Boyes had placed i n him. Boys have gone to the o f f i c e cry-ing before an interview w i t h the Superintendent because they had broken f a i t h . Mr. Boyes never gave unnecessary commands and the tone of h i s voice was always pleasant and never i r r i t a t i n g and t y r a n n i c a l . He was i n v a r i a b l y consistent and when he g.ave commands he i n s i s t e d t h a t they be obeyed. Mr* Boyes d i d not adhere to the doctr i n e of d i s c i p l i n e by n a t u r a l consequences to the f u l l e s t extent. He always safeguarded h i s charges from severe b o d i l y pain and he never allowed the n a t u r a l punishment to be too severe and out of proportion to the offence. Mr. Boyes' c h i e f aim was to mould the young lads who had been sent to him i n t o respectable c i t i z e n s . He r e a l i z e d that s t r i c t adherence to the d i s c i p l i n e by n a t u r a l conse-quences as advocated by Speneer would t r a i n the young d e l i n -quents to serve themselves and not others. Therefore besides 61 t h i s system of moral t r a i n i n g he t r i e d t o hold before the boys the highest i d e a l s of conduct. He gathered together as h i g h l y competent and e f f i c i e n t a s t a f f as was p o s s i b l e . He chose h i s o f f i c i a l s because of t h e i r good character, a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , genuine i n t e r e s t , and an a l t r u i s t i c out-look- towards t h e i r fellow-men. 62 ADMINISTRATION. OF MR. GEORGE ROSS When the Honourable G. M. Weir, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, s e l e c t e d Mr. George Ross to succeed Mr. F. C. Boyes as Superintendent of the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam i n the f a l l of 1939, h i s choice was a wise one. Previous to h i s appointment Mr. Ross was Boys' Work Secretary at the Vancouver Y. M. C. A. He had been connected w i t h t h i s organ-i z a t i o n f o r twenty-five years. In h i s department at the Gamble S t r e e t "Y" and p a r t i c u l a r l y at Camp Elphinstone on Howe Sound he had had contact w i t h , and a remarkable i n f l u -ence on the l i v e s of approximately t h i r t y thousand boys. His outstanding c o n t r i b u t i o n to the welfare of the youth of Van-couver was o f f i c i a l l y reoognized i n 1927 when he was presented w i t h the Good C i t i z e n s h i p award f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. Once Mi". Ross beoame f a m i l i a r w i t h the system of Mr. Boyes, he reoognized the value of the programme of h i s pre-decessor. I n one o f h i s reports soon a f t e r h i s appointment he s t a t e d , "May I express my a p p r e c i a t i o n of the work done by my predecessor i n l a y i n g the foundation f o r the p o l i c y of 1 our school as i t now e x i s t s " . Mr. Ross has made the most of the strong points of Mr. Boyes' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and has strengthened the weak ones. He has put numerous innovations i n t o p r a c t i c e and these have 1. Report prepared by Mr. Ross and presented t o the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, 1940. 63 been instrumental i n the reformation of many of the youths committed to h i s care. In t r e a t i n g delinquent boys Mr. Ross r e a l i z e s that c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s are fundamental. F i r s t , the s o c i a l l y maladjusted i n d i v i d u a l must be considered a human being d i f f e r i n g only i n degree from h i s f e l l o w s . C e r t a i n f a c t o r s over which he frequently has no c o n t r o l have brought about a c l a s h w i t h s o c i e t y . S o c i e t y should be concerned with t r y -i n g t o readjust r a t h e r than w i t h attempting to punish him. An i n d i v i d u a l may be excluded from s o c i e t y by being placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n or, i n extreme cases, h i s l i f e may be de-manded, but these steps, Mr. Ross holds, should be taken not as punishment but as a ne c e s s i t y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the peoples of a c i v i l i z e d n a t ion* Mr. Ross prescribes a remedy only when he f e e l s that i t i s adapted to the causes of the delinquency* He knows that to attempt to eliminate d e l i n -quency by punishing one f o r the offence i s to court f a i l u r e . Causes, not r e s u l t s , must be t r e a t e d . F i n a l l y , the present superintendent i s : f u l l y aware that i t i s de s i r a b l e to deal w i t h the adolescent offender as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e as i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to reform an i n d i v i d u a l who has b u i l t up a n t i -s o c i a l h a b i t s over a period of years. An examination of t a b l e VIII:. shows that over a period of ten years, from 1931 to 1940 i n c l u s i v e , the average age of 672 Biscoq commitments was 15.08 years and that the range of age was from eight to twenty years. I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e s 64 that a la r g e number of the younger boys served more than one sentence at the i n d u s t r i a l School. Many of these lads might have been reformed quite e a s i l y i f they had not come i n t o contact w i t h the older youths and i f they had been t r e a t e d e a r l y by the proper agencies. In the m a j o r i t y of cases c o r r e c t therapeutic treatment might have rendered a sentence to Biscoq unnecessary. TABLE V I I I . 1 AGES OF BOYS-—672 GASES 8 years • 2 9 years 4 10 years 12 11 years 22 12 years 48 13 years — — - - r 64 14 years ---103 15 years' • 100 16 years 130 17 years — 109 18 years 53 19 years • 19 20 years .,6 T o t a l - — - 6 7 2 Average age 15.08. The o l d e r boys, on the other hand, c o n s t i t u t e a d i f f e r e n t problem. I t i s evident that many of them had been p r a c t i s i n g c r i m i n a l h a b i t s f o r such a long time that the b u i l d i n g of more s o c i a l l y adequate patterns of behavior was v i r t u a l l y an im-p o s s i b i l i t y . I n many, the habits of delinquency, were f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d ; I t often i s very d i f f i c u l t to change the a t t i -tude and behavior of older boys. Furthermore, those lads who 1. O f f i c i a l B i s coq records. N U M B E R 0 1 C 0 M M I T M E E T S 140. 130. 120, 110. 100. 90. 80. 70. 60. 50. 40. 30. 20. 10. 65 TABLE IX. AGE DISTRIBUTION Off 672 BISCOQ,. BOYS .140 ,130 ,120 ,110 100 , 90 . 80 •••••••••••• 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 '35 16 37 18 19 20 YEARS are more advanced i n years have a degrading inf l u e n c e on younger boys, i n adequate treatment o f the cases, segregation i s an e s s e n t i a l . Since i t s establishment the B o r s t a l type school on Marine Drive,has been l a r g e l y instrumental i n help-ing to solve t h i s problem. Because many of the older boys now are sent to that i n s t i t u t i o n , , the average age of the B i s -coq boys i s g r a d u a l l y decreasing. For the year 1939-1940 i t was 14.8..as compared w i t h 15.8 f o r the year 1933^-1934. Mr. Ross maintains that i t i s absurd to t r e a t the 66 adolescent offenders as s i n n e r s , as c r i m i n a l s from choice, or as moral degenerates* That they were "heavily handi-. . 1 capped by both Nature and Nurture i s evident". They should be regarded as the v i c t i m s of an unfortunate parentage, or a combination of s o c i a l circumstances, or both. The present superintendent r e a l i z e s that the person who deals with young delinquents ought to f e e l a basic sympathy f o r t h e i r misfor-tunes* He should a l s o respect them as persons—>as f e l l o w human beings. As w i t h the p h y s i c i a n p r e s c r i b i n g f o r and administering to h i s p a t i e n t s , the most important element i n h i s a t t i t u d e should be the sincere attempt to understand the case and p r e s c r i b e remedies which w i l l produce the de-s i r e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n p e r s o n a l i t y and behavior. D i s c i p l i n a r y Methods Adopted by Mr. Ross. I n a l l i n d u s t r i a l schools good d i s c i p l i n e i s e s s e n t i a l . Mr. Ross t r i e s to secure good d i s c i p l i n e by various methods. He advocates the s u b s t i t u t i o n of "the mass f o r the master". Nobody l i k e s to be d r i v e n . There i s something inherent i n the human make-up that makes one want to p a r t i c i p a t e and share i n those organizations of which he i s a member. People do not l i v e t h e i r l i v e s alone i n a democracy and Mr. Ross i s aware that i f he i s to win the co-operative a t t i t u d e of h i s charges t h a t he must bear i n mind that there must be p a r t i c i -p a t i o n . 1. G-lueck, Sheldon and Eleanor. J u v e n i l e Delinquents Grown Up. New York, The Common Wealth Fund P u b l i s h e r s , 1940. The present superintendent r e a l i z e s that e f f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e should be based on i n t e r e s t , i n an i n d u s t r i a l school t h i s i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o secure. Every method i s t r i e d to make the boys understand t h a t t h e i r commitments are j u s t ; that they have broken the laws of t h e i r country, laws that were made f o r the common welfare of a l l people; and that they owe a debt to s o c i e t y which they must pay. I n p r i v a t e t a l k s w i t h the boys Mr. Ross t r i e s t o p i c t u r e to them the i n e v i t a b l e chaos that would f o l l o w i f s o c i e t y d i d not demand some form of r e t r i b u t i o n from law-breakers. In many cases t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t because fr e q u e n t l y youths are committed to Biscoq f o r s l i g h t misdemeanours, however, no e f f o r t i s spared to' make the boys see the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r sentence and subsequent treatment* When t h i s goal i s achieved,, the i n -t e r e s t of the' lads i n the school programme becomes much keener. Mr. Ross i s o e r t a i n that a knowledge of human drives and d e s i r e s i s a secret i n d i s c i p l i n e . Me r e a l i z e s that the gregarious d r i v e and e s p e c i a l l y the gang s p i r i t can be a po-tent f a c t o r i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme f o r delinquent youths when guided along the proper channels. He does not t r y t o crush the s p i r i t that produces the gang but instead he t r i e s to d i r e c t i t toward the s o c i a l good and thus create the same l o y a l t y to the o f f i c i a l s and school as are mani-fas t e d i n the gang. A s i m i l a r idea i s upheld by Thrasher. 1.. Thrasher, F. M. The Gang. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chioago Press, 1927. p. 284. 68 Mr. Ross and a l l o f f i c i a l s play upon the boys' desire f o r the approval of the group at every opportunity. The lads are pr a i s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and before t h e i r f e l l o w s at every j u s t i f i a b l e occasion. The boys themselves as a group have something to say about what i s d e s i r a b l e and what i s not. Frequently the boys vote on c e r t a i n questions con-cerned w i t h the school programme. A boy generally fears the c r i t i c i s m of h i s peers more than his e l d e r s . When the majorit y of the Biscoq boys place t h e i r disapproval upon a c e r t a i n act the average boy i s r e l u c t a n t to behave con-t r a r y to that c r i t i c i s m . Mr. Ross t r i e s to s a t i s f y the driv e s of c u r i o s i t y , a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s , c o n s t r u c t i o n and manipulation, and the de s i r e f o r l e a d e r s h i p , i n the various trades such as motor-mechanics, machine-shop, cooking, t a i l o r i n g , manual a r t s and s e v e r a l branches of a g r i c u l t u r e and i n the dramatic, aeroplane, b o a t - b u i l d i n g , tumbling, swimming, and stamp-c o l l e c t i n g c l u b s . When a youth behaves contrary to the es t a b l i s h e d reg-u l a t i o n s of the school, Mr. Ross r e a l i z e s that some form of •punishment i s required* The various types of punishment that he has adopted are apology, i s o l a t i o n , the disapproval of the group, l o s s of p r i v i l e g e , and detention. A s i n c e r e , h e a r t f e l t apology i s often s u f f i c i e n t pun-ishment. A period i n the c e l l s u s u a l l y makes a boy t h i n k twice before he breaks the r e g u l a t i o n s a second time. As 69 has been s a i d before boys enjoy the approval o f t h e i r f e l l o w s . The disapproval of the group acts as a strong i n c e n t i v e i n leading boys i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n * The aim i s to c o n t r o l the group's i d e a l s so that they w i l l act as a strong deter-rent i n the v i o l a t i o n of Biscoq standards of conduct* • One of the most s u c c e s s f u l forms of punishment i s the lo s s of c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s which other Biseoq boys i n good standing enjoy. For the more serious school offences l o s s of honour money; the r i g h t to go on p i c n i c s , truck r i d e s , and t h e a t r e - p a r t i e s ; curtailment of the opp o r t u n i t i e s to observe senior a t h l e t i o teams i n a c t i o n ; postponement of v i s i t s home; and the expulsion from clubs and teams gener-a l l y produce a desired change i n conduct. C l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h l o s s of p r i v i l e g e s i s the p o l i c y of p l a c i n g the boys on detention f o r minor infringements of Biscoq r e g u l a t i o n s such as being l a t e f o r eheok-up, not doing work properly, f o r g e t t i n g to comb h a i r , and running i n the dormitory* For such minor v i o l a t i o n s boys have t o perform c e r t a i n assigned work duties at a time when the other lads are swimming, play-i n g games, or are engaged i n some other pleasant a c t i v i t i e s * When administering punishment Mr. Ross keeps i n mind c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s . Be knows that i t i s not so much the i n t e n s i t y o f the punishment as the o e r t a i n t y of i t t h a t w i l l be most l i k e l y to deter i n f r a c t i o n s of r e g u l a t i o n s . He t r i e s to adapt the punishment to the offence. He does not l e t too much time elapse between the offence and the punishment. He 70 does not make r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s too i n c l u s i v e and he s t a t e s them i n such a way and at such a time that they w i l l act as suggestions r a t h e r than i n j u n c t i o n s . 71 B — "NEW HAVEN"—THE BRITISH COLUMBIA BORSTAL SCHOOL In 1936 the Advisory Committee on Juvenile i>elinquency submitted a 'report to Dr. Weir and suggested that "There should be e s t a b l i s h e d an i n s t i t u t i o n of the B o r s t a l type for boys and young men from 16 to E l years of age to which there would be committed the o l d e r and more d i f f i c u l t boys now sent to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School, as w e l l as some of the young men who are now committed to Gakalla p r i s o n Farm 1 or to the Dominion P e n i t e n t i a r y . " The idea of e s t a b l i s h i n g such a school was not new i n B r i t i s h Columbia because such men as Frank A. Coyle, E. W. Johnson, A. P. A l l i s o n , and Tom Howarth had already planned such an i n s t i t u t i o n , i n f a c t they were the o r i g i n a t o r s of the B o r s t a l Society of B r i t i s h Columbia an o r g a n i z a t i o n which has simce been incorporated under the F r i e n d l y S o c i e t i e s Act of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t l e g a l steps to introduce the E n g l i s h r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n programme and adapt i t to l o c a l needs were taken by the Attorney-General, Gordon S. Wismer. He describes the founding of "New Haven" as f o l l o w s ; One day i n December, 19 37, we met one hun-dred young pr i s o n e r s i n the p r i s o n chapel at Oakalla (the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l J a i l ) . We t o l d them of our plan to take a seleoted few to a new sort of i n s t i t u t i o n where there would be no bars or c e l l s , no p r i s o n uniforms, where they would be given an opportunity to l e a r n a trade and to f i t themselves f o r decent manhood i n decent s o c i e t y . 2 1. See Appendix A — c l a u s e ten. 2. Report prepared by Gordon S. Wismer, Attorney-General of B r i t i s h Columbia. 72 Accordingly, twenty-three youths were c a r e f u l l y cho-sen to i n i t i a t e a new c o r r e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n modelled on the E n g l i s h B o r s t a l system. The- young prisoners were members of the "gazoomie g a n g " — f i r s t offenders between the ages of seventeen and twenty-four. A l l a v a i l a b l e information was gathered as to the young men's mental and p h y s i c a l make-up. A c a r e f u l study was also made of t h e i r home and neighborhood environment. Before being chosen each person i n the i n i t i a l group was under observation by a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a p h y s i c i a n , and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s w i t h wide experience as s o c i a l workers. The recommendations of the magistrates and judges were con-sidered a l s o . On the ba s i s of these data that had been c o l l e c t e d and discussed by the s e l e c t i o n committee, a n d , , i f there seemed to be a reasonable chance f o r successful r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n , a young man was chosen. A s i m i l a r procedure i s s t i l l p r a c t i s e d today. As soon as a f i n a l d e c i s i o n was reached, the young p r i -soners were moved to an o l d b u i l d i n g , s i t u a t e d on Marine Drive about four miles from Oakalla. While the house once had been considered somewhat of a fa m i l y mansion i t had been neglected f o r so long that i t was i n considerable d i s r e p a i r . This d i -l a p i d a t e d s t r u c t u r e stood i n larg e overgrown grounds. With the youths went Angus McLeod as warden, an a s s i s t a n t , and a cook. There was no attempt at confinement--no barred doors or windows, and no fence around the grounds. The young men wore no i d e n t i f y i n g p r i s o n uniforms. They wore ordinary 73 c i v i l i a n c l o t h e s . And yet, even w i t h such opportunities f o r escape, not one boy of the f i r s t group made any attempt to break h i s word by running away. Since December 1937, an abundance of excess energy and the w i l l to construct have produced a remarkable change i n the general appearance of the o l d house. Not only have the boys rennovated the c e n t r a l home but they have also com-ple t e d s e v e r a l sleeping-cottages, a barn, a gymnasium, a greenhouse, and other small b u i l d i n g s . The lawns are w e l l kept, the t r e e s pruned, the shrubs sheared, and the farm-land i s producing e x c e l l e n t root-crops. One cannot help but be favourably impressed by the neatness and o r d e r l i n e s s of the b u i l d i n g s and grounds when he v i s i t s the i n s t i t u t i o n . As apparently "New Haven" i s the f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n i n North America patterned a f t e r the E n g l i s h B o r s t a l system, i t s success i s being followed not only by the other provinces i n Canada but also by many d i s t r i c t s of the United States of America, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the States of Washington and Oregon. P u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s i n many other parts of the North American continent are combining to pave the way f o r s i m i l a r experiments i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . In Washington, State Senator Reardon has introduced l e g i s l a t i o n with t h i s end i n view and i n Oregon a d e f i n i t e movement has commenced t o b r i n g i n l e g -i s l a t i o n t h a t w i l l make a s i m i l a r system l e g a l . The r e s u l t s of the experiment * which has been f u n c t i o n -ing f o r almost three years, have been most g r a t i f y i n g . 74 Follow-up work w i t h seventy "graduates'* i n d i c a t e s that p r a c t i c a l l y one hundred per cent of the young men readjust t h e i r behavior i n a s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e manner. Of t h i s number only one found h i s way back i n t o the p o l i c e court. This success i s due to various f a c t o r s . F i r s t of a l l the boys are c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and only those which the s e l e c -t i o n committee t h i n k s w i l l b e n e f i t by the B o r s t a l treatment are chosen. Before e n t e r i n g "New Haven" the young men a l -ready have spent a month or more behind p r i s o n bars and they r e a l i z e what they must r e t u r n to i f they do not l i v e up to the standard which i s expected of them. Most of the success, however, i s due to the f i n e leadership and the l i v i n g example of Superintendent Angus.McLeod, a massive, j o v i a l Scotchman, possessed w i t h u n l i m i t e d f a i t h i n the youths committed to h i s care. T r i b u t e must a l s o be paid t o the afore-mentioned B o r s t a l S o c i e t y . Each member of t h i s s o c i e t y , which has a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g membership, undertakes the a f t e r - c a r e of one or more of the boys released from "New Haven". Thus d i r e c t l y a boy i s r e l e a s e d he has a f r i e n d i n the outside world who w i l l help Mm shake o f f the stigma of imprisonment and who w i l l a i d him i n f i n d i n g employment. When the boys f e e l they have a f r i e n d and a job they f i n d i t so much easier to adjust t h e i r behavior i n a socially-approved manner. CHAPTER 17. DIAGNOSIS Of JUVENILE. DELINQUENTS COMMITTED TO THE BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT COQUITLAM CHAPTER .IV. DIAGNOSIS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS COMMITTED TO THE BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT COQUITLAM When a boy i s sentenced to Biscoq c e r t a i n information i s necessary f o r the diagnosis and treatment of h i s case. D e f i n i t e records are compiled and the procedure followed 1 f o r every commitment i s s i m i l a r to that set down by B i s c h . Information i s secured i n the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s : 1. H i s t o r y of the case, a* Family h i s t o r y b i Environmental h i s t o r y c. Heredity chart 2 i P r i v a t e t a l k s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l . 3. P s y c h o l o g i c a l examination. 4. P h y s i c a l examination. 5. Proposal f o r r e l e a s e . 6. Follow-up records. The h i s t o r y of every boy committed to Biscoq i s obtained from court records or reports by welfare v i s i t o r s or s o o i a l workers. In the m a j o r i t y of cases, however, l i t t l e i s known about a boy's previous conduct when he a r r i v e s at Biscoq. Too frequently the only information i s the Warrant of Commitment which contains a meagre d e s c r i p t i o n of the offence, u s u a l l y i n terms of d o l l a r s and cents. An examination of the f o l l o w i n g t y p i c a l Warrant of Commitment shows that such information throws l i t t l e l i g h t on a boy's background and the underlying f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to h i s delinquency. 1. B i s c h , L. E. C l i n i c a l psychology, Baltimore, Williams and W i l k i n s Company, 1925. p. 10. 75 76 JUVENILE COURT FOR THE CITY Off CEDARVILLE. B. 0. WARRANT Off COMffTTOiWP CANADA (To a l l or any of the Consta-PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (bles and other Peace O f f i c e r s COUNTY OF WESTMINSTER (of the C i t y of C e d a r v i l l e , CITY OF CEDARVILLE (and to the Superintendent of (the I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys ( i n and f o r the Province of ( B r i t i s h Columbia. WHEREAS..A9-9%... .being a boy under the age of eight-een years, was t h i s day charged before me, the undersigned Henry L. Begbie, K. C., Judge of the Ju v e n i l e Court i n and f o r the C i t y of C e d a r v i l l e , f o r that he...Jack,Gray # ..being a boy under the age of eighteen years,. .....on the 12th day of January, A. D. 1940 at the c i t y . . . . . . of C e d a r v i l l e , d i d u n l a w f u l l y s t e a l from the :''S. S* ... ...Saloy" moored at #4 Dock i n the C i t y of C e d a r v i l l e , .....one watch and chain of the value of T h i r t y - f i v e D o l l a r s , ($35), the property of M e l v i n Anderson......... Contrary to the form of the Statute i n such case made and pro-vided, and p l e a d i n g , . . g u i l t y . , . o f the s a i d offence was found g u i l t y , and I did adjudge that the s a i d . . .Jaok.Gray...for h i s s a i d offence should be committed to the i n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys i n and f o r the province of B r i t i s h Columbia at Coquitlam i n the s a i d Province. These are, t h e r e f o r e , to command you^ the said Peaoe Of-f i c e r s , or any of you to take the s a i d . . .<i£c£. . .into your custody and him s a f e l y convey t o the s a i d I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys i n and f o r the Province a f o r e s a i d and there.to d e l i v e r him to the Superintendent thereof together w i t h t h i s precept. And I do hereby command you, the sa i d Superintendent of the s a i d I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys to receive the s a i d . J a ? ^ . ^ r a Y . . i n t o your custody i n the said I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys and there imprison him and keep him. Given under my hand t h i s . i 1 6 ^ . 1 . .day of t .January.. . i n the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and f o r t y -one at the C i t y of C e d a r v i l l e . (Signed) H. L. Begbie Judge of the Juv e n i l e Court i n and f o r the C i t y of C e d a r v i l l e . The time i s long over-due when i t should be made com-pulsory on every court to have a complete h i s t o r y of the case before i t , p r i o r to committal. I t does not seem p o s s i b l e that a judge can enact wise judgment unless he i s f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l the f a c t s about a case. A l l the information about the" boy himself, h i s home, school, and community should be at the d i s p o s a l of every court. Court and s o c i a l service records are considered i n d i s p e n s i b l e by a l l progressive i n -d u s t r i a l school superintendents and such records should accompany the a r r i v a l of every new commitment. E x c e l l e n t r e p o r t s are sent to the i n d u s t r i a l School by d i s t r i c t welfare and s o c i a l workers but o f t e n t h e i r accounts are not received u n t i l weeks a f t e r a boy i s apprehended and committed. The information contained i n the f o l l o w i n g wel-fare v i s i t o r report f o r instance, which should have been compiled before the boy was sentenced, was not a v a i l a b l e un-t i l many weeks a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the boy at Biscoq. VISIT OH—H. SIMMS Re: Gray, Mrs. Margaret South C e d a r v i l l e , M u n i c i p a l i t y of Sweeny, (organized t e r r i t o r y ) A p r i l 5, 1941. Vifoman: Name: B i r t h : Health: N a t i o n a l i t y : Margaret Gray nee Seymour. June 3rd, 1890 I?) i n Winnipeg, Man. Came to B. C. as an i n f a n t and took up residence i n Sweeny twenty-seven years ago, and i s s t i l l l i v i n g i n the same house. French-Canadian (obviously a h a l f -breed Indian) Appears to be quite good. 78 2—cont'd, re Gray family. South C e d a r v i l l e . Man :• Education: R e l i g i o n : Appearance: Name: B i r t h : Employment: States she l e f t school at Grade 8, St. Mary's Convent, at the age of 14 to be married. Roman C a t h o l i c . Thick-set w i t h rather a brigh t face, f r i z z l e l y dark h a i r , black eyes and a s a l l o w i s h half-breed, complexion. Owen Gray. Mrs. Gray t h i n k s he was born i n G e d a r v i l l e and i s aged about s i x t y -t h r e e — i s of iiawaiin parentage. Is a captain on the "Swann" North L i n e , and i s a t present at Waterways, A l t a . , but i s expected home any day now. Marriage: Mrs. Gray s t a t e s she was married i n G e d a r v i l l e In 1918 ( ? ) . Chi l d r e n : Mrs. Bernloe 01ster, aged27, l i v i n g at Eraser Apartments i n G e d a r v i l l e ; two c h i l d r e n ; husband i s a long-shoreman. Mrs. "Red" O'Keefe, aged 25, l i v i n g at Eraser Apartments; two c h i l d r e n . Hugh., aged 23; s i n g l e ; working w i t h h i s father at Waterways. E r r o l , aged 20, l i v e s at home and does part-time work at the Cannery. Jean, born March 1933—Grade 7 St. Joseph College. Ralph, born 1925--Grade 7 same College. Mary, born 1927—Grade 4 " " Jack, born June 1928—Grade 2 same College. This i s the c h i l d who i s at present i n the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. Gerry, born Feb. 4, 1930—Grade 1 St. Mary's Academy. A l l the younger c h i l d r e n were seen and appear to be very b r i g h t and c h e e r f u l , and quite w e l l -dressed and clean. 79 3 — c o n t ' d , re Gray f a m i l y . South. G e d a r v i l l e . R e l a t i v e s : Mrs. Gray's mother i s aged 81 and her father - i i s presumably about the same age. Are l i v i n g i n r r i n c e Robert. There i s also a s i s t e r , Mrs. Baoken i n the Sanitarium at Whitely. Mrs. Gray knows nothing of her husband's r e l a t i o n s except f o r a cousin named Pete Poy l i v i n g i n P r i n c e Robert. Domicile: Have been resident i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Sweeny f o r twenty-seven years. Environment: Are l i v i n g i n a very o l d , somewhat d i l a p i d a t e d farm house s i t u a t e d on the edge of the Indian Reserve by the disused railway t r a c k , east of the Spencer Bridge. Is i n a very i n a c c e s s i b l e spot but the c h i l d r e n make no complaint and go to school r e g u l a r l y . The house was pur-chased by Mr. Gray twenty-seven years ago w i t h f i v e acres of very rough land, and a few f r u i t t r e e s . The house though shabby appeared to be quite clean at the time of c a l l \ t and there did not appear to be any signs of "ne- -g l e e t " as regards the c h i l d r e n . Constable Morrow of Sweeny P o l i c e s t a t e s , how-ever, that i t was j u s t by luok that V i s i t o r a r r i v e d at the home when i t was l o o k i n g f a i r l y r espectable; that Mrs* Gray was notorious, and two years 1 ago she l e f t the c h i l d r e n f o r two months and was f i n a l l y found by her daughter "Blondie" at some r e s o r t i n a house of i l l - r e p u t e . Constable Green also stated that he had time and time again found Jack as w e l l as h i s bro-t h e r s and s i s t e r s unaccompanied on the s t r e e t s at 11:50 at n i g h t , and has had to send them home. A v i s i t was paid to Father Creemer at S t . Joseph College regarding the charge l a i d against Jack Gray. Father Creemer stated that the Gray fam-i l y had always been a problem, i n f a c t so much so that l a s t year they were turned away from school, but Captain Gray, the f a t h e r , had come and asked that they be allowed to r e t u r n * Sta-ted he d i d not know very much about the a c t u a l d e t a i l s of the t h e f t , and r e f e r r e d V i s i t o r to S i s t e r Ann Walker, teacher of Grade 2 at St. Mary's Academy. A v i s i t was paid to the S i s t e r , ' and the family discussed. 80 -cont'd, re G-ray f a m i l y . South C e d a r v i l l e . S i s t e r Ann Walker, teacher of Grade 2 at St. Mary's Academy, sta t e s that these c h i l d r e n have to be sent away from sohool at i n t e r v a l s owing to t h e i r b o d i l y u n c l e a n l i n e s s . When V i s i t o r pointed out that a€ the time of her c a l l the home appeared to be quite clean and the c h i l d r e n comfortably and c l e a n l y dressed, the S i s t e r stated t h i s was the beginning of the season and they have j u s t got t h e i r new uniforms; that Mrs. " Gray makes no attempt to wash them, and by the end of the season the c h i l d r e n are i n an a p p a l l i n g s t a t e ; Stated that Jack has only attended f i v e f u l l days t h i s term, and the attendance of the r e s t of the c h i l d r e n i s very poor. An i n t e r v i e w was then had w i t h Mother Superior of S t . Mary's Academy who gave the f o l l o w i n g information: On the day of the t h e f t , September 20th, Jack a r r i v e d at school about 9:15 c r y i n g b i t t e r l y and holding on to M s side saying he could not walk and the doctor s a i d t h a t i f the pain got any worse he was to go back home. The S i s t e r was at a l o s s to know what to do t h i n k i n g that perhaps the c h i l d had a hernia, and t o l d him he had b e t t e r stay u n t i l he got b e t t e r , but he s t i l l i n s i s t e d he should go home and asked the S i s t e r to give him a note to h i s mother to say why he had been sent home. The S i s t e r then f e l t the c h i l d was " f a k i n g " , and a f t e r much t a l k he admitted he had s t o l e n a d o l l a r from her desk two days before. I t a l s o appeared t h a t t h i s c h i l d had s t o l e n §16.00 from the desk of another teacher, but t h i s d i d not become known u n t i l f©ur o'clock that afternoon. He appar-e n t l y had the money secreted on h i s person and wanted to get away before school opened. In the meantime the p o l i c e came up to the school i n regard to a watch that had been s t o l e n by Jack from h i s brother-in-law at the Fraser Apartments, and i t was a f t e r t h i s that the t h e f t of the $16.00 became known. |7.50 of the money was found buried under a bush at home when the p o l i c e went a f t e r the c h i l d , and the balance was refunded t o the Convent by a Howard Broome, a longshoreman, who i t appears l i v e s I n the Gray home. This young man at the t r i a l apparently stepped forward and o f f e r e d to guar-antee Jack's behavior, but Magistrate Begbie would not consent to t h i s . From the above i t looks as i f Mrs. Gray i s the one at f a u l t , and i f a charge were l a i d against her f o r "con-t r i b u t i n g to delinquency" the Sweeny P o l i c e would be p e r f e c t l y w i l l i n g to give a l l the evidence necessary. However, would i t perhaps not be the best plan to wait 81 §—cont'd, re Gray f a m i l y . South G e d a r v i l l e . u n ^ i l Mr. Gray, the fa t h e r , returns from wherever he i s , and t r y to have some plan made by which these c h i l d r e n can be given the proper control? (Signed) H. Simms WELFARE.VISITOR. S h o r t l y a f t e r a boy's a r r i v a l a comprehensive case h i s t o r y i s prepared by the Biscoq s t a f f s o c i a l worker. The accompanying repr e s e n t a t i v e report was prepared by Mr. Hugh C h r i s t i e and the author. June 10, 1941. S o c i a l H i s t o r y prepared f o r the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c by the Hoys' I n d u s t r i a l School Name of P a t i e n t : Charles L a r r y Barker. Address: B a l l a ' s Corner, M i l l e r v i l l e , B. G. Reason f o r Examination: P a t i e n t has f o r the past two years been very f r i e n d l y w i t h a gang of boys i n M i l l e r v i l l e who have been s t e a l i n g lumber and other small items from the people i n the community. Most of the s t o l e n pro-perty was used i n the b u i l d i n g of f o r t s . Because the p a t i e n t was suspected of tak-i n g part i n t h e i r s t e a l i n g he was sentenced to the B . I . S. on a charge of s t e a l i n g a school l i b r a r y book. The usual c l i n i c i n formation i s desired and advice as to d i s p o s i t i o n , based on the c l i n i c ' s opin-i o n of whether the boy i s a h a b i t u a l t h i e f or a normal youth who has made a few i s o l a t e d mistakes. Commitment: P a t i e n t was committed to the school on March 31, 1941, by Magistrate L. E. Marker, from the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Gruver, on a 82 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -2- June 10. 1941. CHARLES LARRY BARKER charge of r e t a i n i n g s t o l e n property, the sentence being f o r an i n d e f i n i t e terra. Sources of Information: Magistrate L. E. Marker, of the Munici-p a l i t y of Cruver; Constable B. Smith, who arrested the patient_and pressed the charges; Mr. W. H. Main, school p r i n c i p a l ; Miss E. Cook, c l a s s teacher; Mr. Donald, science teacher; Mr. Adams, mathematics, health and gym teacher; Mr. Richard, woodwork teacher; Mr. Barker, the p a t i e n t ' s father; Airs. June Moore, the housekeeper; O l i e Bowell, a member of the gang who i s d e f i n i t e l y a t h i e f ; Don Goodall, a very well-behaved member of the gang. P a t i e n t ' s Understanding of C l i n i c : I t has been explained to the p a t i e n t that h i s c l i n i c t e s t s w i l l i n clude a number of p h y s i c a l and mental ex-aminations which w i l l give him a b e t t e r understanding of h i s r e l a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s and how they can be .used to best advantage both i n the school and when released. Previous Examination: Blood t e s t : Kahn t e s t , dated A p r i l 8, 1941, negative* Chest x-ray, dated May 7, 1941, negative. PERSONAL HISTORY Name: Charles L a r r y Barker* B i r t h p l a c e : Vancouver, B. C. B i r t h d a t e : June 2, 1927. Present Address: Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School, Port Coquitlam, B. C. He has l i v e d i n Vancouver, New West-minster, Coquitlam and M i l l e r v i l l e . Development: No h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e but apparently quite normal. 85 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -5- June 10, 1941. CHARLES LARRY BARKER Health.: E a t i e n t says that he has had measles, mumps and pneumonia. He i s apparently i n good healt h and takes good p h y s i c a l care of himself, t u t i s i n -c l i n e d to worry about epidemics and such diseases as t u b e r c u l o s i s and scabies. P a t i e n t has exper-ienced p e c u l i a r sensations since he has come to the school and has worried about them. Habits: E a t i n g h a b i t s are r e g u l a r . He prefers to go home from school f o r lunch although he often has to make h i s own. He i s a large eater. Sleeping habits are i r r e g u l a r at home. Shows keep him out l a t e three nights a week, ne seldom gets to bed before ten o'clock and r i s e s r e g u l a r l y at s e v e n - t h i r t y . He has a double bed to himself i n an a t t i c room. He sleeps h e a v i l y but dreams and k i c k s a great d e a l . No enuresis. Patient b i t e s h i s n a i l s . He used to smoke but has stopped. School: P a t i e n t s t a r t e d at the age of s i x , has never f a i l e d a grade and i s now i n Grade ei g h t . He used to rank high i n h i s c l a s s but l a t e l y has only.been average. He l i k e s h i s t o r y and science but has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h French and music w r i t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of a conference worker had w i t h the p r i n c i p a l and,four of the teachers of the Cruver J u n i o r High School. Worker v i s i t e d the school p r i n c i p a l , Mr. Main, and requested a report on the p a t i e n t . The p r i n c i p a l s t a r t e d the conversation by saying immediately that the boy was a t e r r i b l e problem and had caused a great deal of t r o u b l e i n the school with h i s s t e a l i n g and general defiance of school r u l e s . Worker stat e d that he was w r i t i n g the case h i s t o r y of the boy and would l i k e some concrete examples of the p a t i e n t ' s s t e a l i n g or breaking of the school r u l e s . P r i n c i p a l seemed rat h e r confused and s a i d t h a t . f o r the moment he could not th i n k of anything but that any misconduct of\the boy was l i s t e d i n a book which he kept f o r t h a t purpose. The book contained a few misbehaviour s l i p s which stated that the pa t i e n t had been i n a t t e n t i v e , had d i s -turbed the c l a s s and had been- a general nuisance. Worker acknowledged these but asked i f - h e could not be given an example of h i s more f l a g r a n t misconduct. 84 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -4- June 10, 1941* CHARLES LARRY BARKER . P r i n c i p a l s a i d that Miss Cook, the boy's c l a s s teacher, had had a l o t of t r o u b l e w i t h the pati e n t and would be able to give the required information. He sent f o r Miss Cook and looked up the boy's I . Q,. while w a i t i n g . P r i n c i p a l stated that the boy's I . Q,. was 95 at the time of the l a s t t e s t but that i t was probably higher than that now as he had had d i f f i c u l t y i n reading at that time. Miss Cook came i n and made the same statement about how delinquent Larry had been while at school b u t i as i n the case of the p r i n c i p a l , when asked f o r an a c t u a l example she could t h i n k of nothing other than general mis-behavior i n c l a s s . A f t e r a great deal of t h i n k i n g she suddenly remembered that he had s t o l e n band-aids from the school's f i r s t a i d k i t . When asked i f the boy had admitted doing t h i s she said that they had not asked the boy but that they knew that he had done i t . Mr. Donald, the science teacher, who had been c a l l e d i n by the p r i n c i p a l , entered the conversa-t i o n at t h i s point by saying that they also were sure that he had s t o l e n t o o l s from the woodwork shop* Worker asked how they were sure of a l l t h i s since they had not asked the boy and no one had seen him do i t . Miss Cook explained how i t had " a l l come out" one day when the housekeeper had been v i s i t i n g the school and had t o l d them that the boy was s t e a l i n g these things from the school. As no one had checked the housekeeper's statement worker d i d and found that the housekeeper had never seen any of the supposedly s t o l e n goods but had been misguided by the boy when she questioned him. Mr. Richard, the woodwork teacher, was c a l l e d i n at t h i s time and when asked h i s opinion stated that he had l o s t a few t o o l s but that he had no reason t o b e l i e v e and d i d not t h i n k that Larry had taken them. Mr. Adams, who had taught the patient mathematics and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , was c a l l e d i n and when asked about the patient s a i d that he had had no t r o u b l e w i t h the boy. The p r i n c i p a l dismissed the teachers and closed the d i s c u s s i o n by saying that a f t e r r e a l i z i n g how few of t h e i r accusations were based on f a c t s he f e l t r a t h e r ashamed of h i s part i n the case. He s a i d that he had always wondered when the boy was 85 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -5- June 10, 1941. CHARLES LARRY BARKER ;Sent i n t o the o f f i c e whether he was being mis-judged but when i t happened so c o n s i s t e n t l y he had come to the conclusion that i t could not be coincidence. Worker stated that since the boy could not be helped to combat h i s problem u n t i l i t was proven that he had one he would v i s i t the housekeeper and see i f any grounds could be found f o r t h e i r conjecture. The boy was committed to the B. I . S. on the charge of r e t a i n i n g i n h i s school locker and p u t t i n g h i s brother's name i n a book which he was borrowing from the l i b r a r y . The loan period i s an indef-i n i t e one and the book had not been asked f o r by the l i b r a r y . Work: P a t i e n t has worked as a helper on a paper route at various times and has done odd jobs around the neighbourhood, such as chopping wood, digging , gardens, and l o o k i n g a f t e r h i s brother's baby and the l i t t l e g i r l at home sever a l nights a week. He has no d e f i n i t e ambitions but enjoys working around machinery; I n t e r e s t s and Recreation: P a t i e n t takes part i n a l l sports but p r e f e r s swimming. In the summer he u t i l i z e s h i s evenings swimming i n the lake nearby and play-ing b a l l i n the park. He,.acts as umpire more often than he plays* In the winter he goes to a great many shows* He used to attend the New Westminster Y. M. C. A., the United Church Sunday School and the League of C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s . Went to a B i b l e Camp f o r two weeks f o r two years. His only hobby i s c o l l e c t i n g funny books; Spending money u s u a l l y amounts to about f i f t y cents per week. Companions: Goes around w i t h a group of delinquent and pre-delinquent boys and, while not t a k i n g any a c t i v e part i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , he knew what was going on and helped i n d i r e c t l y at times; Only one of the group, Don Goodall, i s a s u i t a b l e companion. O l i e Bowell, another member, s t e a l s a great deal. R e l i g i o n : Attended the United Church Sunday School u n t i l about a year ago. Mrs. M i l l , a f r i e n d of h i s mother's, used to help to keep the patient i n -t e r e s t e d i n church a f t e r the mother's death. H i s t o r y of Delinquency: Mr. Bert Smith, the constable at M i l l e r v i l l e , says that he was sure but could not 86 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -6- June 10, 1941. CHARLES LARRY BARKER ,p?ove that the patient had been involved i n the s t e a l i n g of lumber and f u r n i t u r e . Consequently, when he heard of the s t o l e n book, he took the patient i n t o custody f o r questioning, about the lumber, e t c . When questioning and coercion pro-duced no r e s u l t s he put Larr y i n confinement i n the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. Four days l a t e r the boy was brought to M i l l e r v i l l e f o r t r i a l and was sentenced to an i n d e f i n i t e period i n the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School on a charge of r e t a i n i n g a school l i b r a r y book which belonged to Mr. Main, the p r i n c i p a l . The charge was pressed by Mr. Smith, the constable, since Mr. Main di d not v/ish to proceed. P e r s o n a l i t y & Conduct: Lar r y i s r e t i c e n t and qui e t , a l -though he claims he i s rowdy when at home. He th i n k s and worries quite a b i t . He does not mix w i t h the other boys i n the school very w e l l , pro-•t_ bably because of the f e e l i n g that they are not hi s type. He has been a model student i n every phase of the B. I . S. l i f e f o r the two and one-h a l f months he has been here. FAMILY HISTORY Father: Mr. A l b e r t James Barker was born i n Pembroke, Ontario, f i f t y - s e v e n years ago. He s t a r t e d work i n a logging camp, spent the greater part of h i s l i f e as a carpenter and has f o r the l a s t few years been s t e a d i l y employed as a m i l l w r i g h t at the Royal M i l l s . His main i n t e r e s t i s i n h i s work. He i s a rat h e r coarse, f r i e n d l y person and i s deep-l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Larry's welfare. He has f e l t l a t e l y that L a r r y has been unwise i n h i s choice of f r i e n d s and f e l t s t r o n g l y enough on t h i s point ! to admit t o the constable that p o s s i b l y a few weeks i n the B. I . S. would gi v e the boy a shock that would do him good. Mr. Barker, even at the time that he admitted that t h i s might do the boy good, d i d not f e e l that the boy was doing anything wrong and t h e r e f o r e i s very indignant at the length of time the boy has had to stay i n the B. I . S. His only idea i n making the admission that the shock might do the boy good was that he wanted to scare the boy away from h i s bad companions. He f e e l s t h a t h i s purpose has been defeated because the boy 87 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -7- June 10, 1941. CHARLES LARRY BARKER i s now having bad companionship forced on him. Mr. Barker has very l i t t l e f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y of the teachers i n the Cruver Junior High School and wants the boy to go to some other school when re - r leased. He intends to see that the boy stays i n at nights and seems to have a f a i r idea of how the home and garage should be f i x e d up to make a s u i t -able place f o r the boy to b r i n g h i s f r i e n d s * Mr. Barker intends to give the housekeeper more support i n her attempts at d i s c i p l i n e i n the fut u r e , as he f e e l s t h a t p o s s i b l y he has been prejudiced i n favour of the boy i n the past. Mother: Mrs* Barker was born i n 1886 and died f i v e years ago of cancer, a f t e r a period of three years' sickness. The boy's r e c o l l e c t i o n of h i s mother i s that of a k i n d , s i c k , t i r e d woman who had ">. always to work too hard. S i b l i n g s : A r t h u r 'i'errence Barker, aged twenty-six, now work-ing as a patcher at the B. C. Shook f a c t o r y on South L a u r i e r Drive. He i s married and has a small daughter. Ralph Gyri1 Barker, aged twenty-one, now i n Egypt w i t h the Seaforth Highlanders. Ross l a n Barker, aged eighteen, now i n the Snd S c o t t i s h Regiment, s t a t i o n e d i n Y i o t o r i a , B. 0. Bruce David Barker^ aged nine, i s being r a i s e d by Mr. and Mrs. Waltham, uncle and aunt, on t h e i r farm at B o b l i n , Manitoba. C l i v e Barker, died while s t i l l a baby i n the i n f l u -enza epidemic of 1919* Martha Helen Moore, the housekeeper's daughter, i s three years of age. {Ihe parentage of t h i s c h i l d should be checked.) P a t e r n a l R e l a t i v e s : Father's brother, Mr. Andrew Barker, and h i s wife l i v e on a farm at Cleaver, B. C. Housekeeper: Mrs. June ivioore i s a heavy-set, quick-tempered, s t r i c t , but well-meaning S c o t t i s h woman of about forty-seven years of age. She has very l i t t l e 88 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -8- June 10, 1941 CHARLES LARRY BARKER . f a i t h i n Larry and claims that he s t e a l s . When asked f o r an example of t h i s misbehaviour she s a i d that she d i d not want to say anything against the boy but that he had t o l d her of a great many things he had s t o l e n . She d i d , however, mention a pen supposedly s t o l e n from the school p r i n c i p a l . Worker checked and found that the pen had been taken from the l o s t and found by Larry to replace one he himself had l o s t . Housekeeper claims that p a t i e n t i s not co-operative around the house and i s very d i s r e s p e c t f u l to her. Mrs. Moore says that L a r r y has been a changed boy, however, when on h i s v i s i t s home from B. I . S, and f e e l s that i f the fa t h e r could take the place of the school i n making him r e a l i z e that he should show her some respect, they could get along very w e l l . HQMB AND HOME ..CONDITIONS The home i s a five-roomed frame house backed by the bush of the upper o u t s k i r t s of k i l l e r v i l l e . Since the father has a steady job as a m i l l w r i g h t at the Royal M i l l s , the economic conditions of the home are satisfactory„• but the atmosphere of the home i s poor i n that the boy does not give the proper respect to Mrs. Moore, the housekeeper. Mrs. Moore, a r a t h e r d u l l woman, i s a very s t r i c t C a t h o l i c and i s c o n t i n u a l l y c r i t i c i z i n g the boy*s behaviour* He r e t a l i a t e s by "kidding her" w i t h w i l d s t o r i e s about h i s t h i e v i n g . The housekeeper be l i e v e s him. A c t u a l example: (as t o l d by pa t i e n t and confirmed by the housekeeper and sc h o o l ) . Boy comes home w i t h a band-aid taken (as i s allowed) from the school f i r s t a i d k i t to dress a wound. Housekeeper: Where did you get that band-aid? P a t i e n t : From the school; Housekeeper: Who gave i t to y o u — d i d you s t e a l i t ? P a t i e n t ( t i r e d of being c o n t i n u a l l y accused): Sure, 1 s t o l e a whole handful of them. 89 S o c i a l H i s t o r y , -9- June 10, 1941. CHARLES LARRY BARKER The housekeeper, f e e l i n g i t her duty, reports wrongly that the p a t i e n t has s t o l e n a handful of band-aids from the school. TENTATIVE SOCIAL PLAN I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s boy i s a h a b i t u a l t h i e f and should be l e f t i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n where he may receive f u r t h e r guidance and t r a i n i n g . I f , on the other hand, he i s found to have normal c a p a b i l i t i e s and tendencies, i s a s u c c e s s f u l r e -adjustment p o s s i b l e w i t h a father as co-operative as Mr. Barker, a p o s s i b l e change of schools, and a . s t a r t baok i n the New Westminster Y. M. G. A. and the church group w i t h those of h i s f r i e n d s who s t i l l attend? Could t h i s boy e i t h e r as he i s today or w i t h re-d i r e c t e d i n t e r e s t s f i n d a normal adjustment i n h i s home as i t i s ? Would i t be wise f o r him to change from the school he attends at present where he has no i n t e r e s t s t o one i n New Westminster where he would get a new s t a r t , would be close to the Y which he used to attend, and would be able to make new f r i e n d s ? Information concerning the home and neighborhood e n v i r -onment and the heredity chart derives c h i e f l y from the reports of s o c i a l s e r v i c e workers. The number of t r a i n e d and com-petent workers i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g and b e t t e r and much more accurate r e s u l t s are being obtained now than i n the i n i t i a l stages of the welfare move-ment. The p r i v a t e t a l k s which the boy has w i t h various members of the Biscoq s t a f f may be considered as one of the most e s s e n t i a l parts of h i s t r a i n i n g . During the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w 90 the superintendent t r i e s to show the boy that he has broken the law of h i s country and that h i s sentence i s j u s t . Sometimes t h i s i s very d i f f i c u l t because frequently the l a d tends to have a very b i t t e r outlook towards s o c i e t y as very o f t e n , i n h i s estimation, h i s parents, his school, h i s f r i e n d s , and the judge have f a i l e d him. An a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e i s common. Each i n t e r v i e w i n g member of the Biscoq s t a f f has superior a b i l i t y i n gaining the confidence of a boy at the f i r s t meeting. The impressions made on the boy's mind during p r i v a t e interviews w i t h the p r i n c i p a l and other o f f i c i a l s tend to be permanent and to play a very important part i n the readjustment of h i s character. The psychological, examination i s considered a necessary part of the di a g n o s t i c procedure. The r e s u l t s are not used as exact measurements but serve as a general i n d i c a t o r of the e f f i c i e n c y which can be expected. The f o l l o w i n g case gives some i n d i c a t i o n of the uses made of these examinations. S e v e r a l years ago a boy, Laurie Smith, was committed to B i s -coq from a small town i n the northern c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t of the i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia, His f a c i a l expression, long unkempt h a i r , and general appearance and behavior created the impression that he was feebleminded. The standard of h i s work seemed to uphold t h i s conclusion. To substantiate t h i s b e l i e f Laurie was subjected to an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t and, much to the amazement of a l l the o f f i c i a l s , he secured a r e l a t i v e l y high score which placed him i n the normal group. The s t a f f 91 then s t a r t e d to "put on the pressure" and demanded b e t t e r r e -s u l t s from the boy. When he saw that the o f f i c i a l s were "wise" to him and that i t would be t o h i s advantage t o work to the best of h i s a b i l i t y , he r a p i d l y adjusted i n t o a good r e l i a b l e c i t i z e n * . Many cases are sent to the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c i n Van-couver * The members of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n have been doing yeo-man s e r v i c e and t h e i r f i n d i n g s and recommendations have proven valuable i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of many of the boys sent to be interviewed and tes t e d by them. A t y p i c a l C l i n i c report f o l l o w s : CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC 771 HORNBY STREET VANCOUVER, B. 0. CANADA October 20, 1938. Mr. George Ross, Superintendent, Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School, P. 0. Box E, PORT COQUITLAM, B. G. Dear Mr. Ross: Re Jack Gray This small boy was examined at the C l i n i c on Tuesday, October 18, 1938. He i s w e l l developed and w e l l nourished and somewhat a t t r a c t i v e , although swarthy i n appearance. He has been complaining of some earache and h i s l e f t ear shows some evidence of i n f e c t i o n , which i s i n need of t r e a t -ment. He has quite a few c a v i t i e s i n h i s t e e t h , otherwise h i s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . His blood Kahn i s negative. He has a c h r o n o l o g i c a l age of 10 4/12 years and as the r e s u l t of the Psychometrio examination was found to have a mental age of 7 9/12 years, b r i n g i n g him i n the b o r d e r l i n e group of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . He i s left-handed and should be allowed to continue t h i s hand throughout a ^ l h i s work. Mr. George Ross. -2- Re Jack Gray. He presents some f a n t a s t i c and b i z a r r e ideas which are s c h i z o i d i n ; c h a r a c t e r . This boy apparently has an exceedingly poor home s i t u a t i o n and i t i s . d o u b t f u l i f much can be accomplished to improve matters. He w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , continue to present a problem. One does not f e e l that concentrated therapy or preventive work i s j u s t i f i e d under the circum-stances* We would suggest that t h i s boy be turned over to hi s f a t h e r when he returns home and makes a p p l i c a t i o n f o r hi s r e l e a s e . Following t h i s he should be supervised by the s o c i a l worker* He presents many points of i n t e r e s t and we would be glad to have him re t u r n to the C l i n i c f o r f u r t h e r obser-v a t i o n at the end of a period of s i x months. Yours t r u l y , (signed) A. M. Gee, M. D. A c t i n g Medical Superintendent During the year 1939-40 t h i r t y - s i x boys were examined at the c l i n i c * Table X*;, was compiled from the p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t s . 1 The f o l l o w i n g aocount adapted from a report prepared by Mr. W i l l i a m Dixon, former s o c i a l worker at Biscoq, gives a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the value and p o s s i b l e future of the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c as f a r as the f i e l d of delinquency i s concerned. The worth of a c l i n i c a l examination i s sometimes questioned by those who la c k a p p r e c i a t i o n of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t has been found, however, that many b e n e f i t s accrue from such a procedure. In the f i r s t p l ace, unsuspected mental and p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s 1. Prepared and submitted to the Superintendent, 1959. 93 1 TABLE X. I n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s - - Cases Superior i n t e l l i g e n c e — ' • 1 Average i n t e l l i g e n c e 7 D u l l , normal i n t e l l i g e n c e 6 Bord e r - l i n e • . 15 Moron—' • •—. Q Imbecile' 1 36 Mental abnormalities recognized by c l i n i c — Psychopathic pe r s o n a l i t y - . — l Suspected psychopathic 1 I s o l a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y l In t r o v e r t e d p e r s o n a l i t y 1 P h y s i c a l defects recognized by c l i n i c — • T o n s i l s and adenoids needing a t t e n t i o n - 1 2 T o n s i l s r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n - - •—-• 3 Teeth r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n — • 5 Poor v i s i o n • • 1 Poorly d e v e l o p e d — --• 1 Suggested X-ray f o r t u b e r c u l o s i s - - 1 P h y s i c a l p i c t u r e of sub-thyroid • 1 Poor h e a r i n g — - — 1 Nasal i n f e c t i o n 1 Circumcision recommended 1 Recommendations--Extended t r a i n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e I I Country foster-home—•-- — 9 Foster-home placement--; 5 Return home — • —-- 3 Placement on boat 2 nome or foster-home 1 Placement w i t h r e l a t i v e s - - 1 Commitment to mental h o s p i t a l 1 Farm placement •-- 1 Further t r a i n i n g and country placement- 1 36 are o f t e n found which would go undetected by the casual ob server. Furthermore, when the I . Q,. of a pati e n t i s deter mined, i t gives a good i n d i c a t i o n of h i s general a b i l i t y 1. Prepared from o f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 94 and suggests what degree of e f f i c i e n c y might be expected. A perusal of Biscoq. records shows some cases i n which i n -t e l l i g e n t parents have expected backward c h i l d r e n to e x c e l i n school work and have c r i t i c i s e d them when they f a i l e d to l i v e up to desired standards. I n such a s i t u a t i o n the c l i n -i c a l examination would give a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the boy's a b i l i t y and would i n d i c a t e the advantage f o r the l a d of t r a i n -i n g i n some form of manual work instead of t r y i n g to force him i n t o unsuccessful academic study. A complete p s y c h i a t r i c examination includes aptitude t e s t s which suggest the most s u i t a b l e type of employment. 'In order to cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the j u v e n i l e delinquency s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a c e n t r a l observation and ex-amination c l i n i c i s r e q u i r e d . Each j u v e n i l e who becomes i n -volved i n any serious t r o u b l e should be sent t o such a c l i n i c and held f o r the purpose of observa/tion. At the same time a complete s o c i a l h i s t o r y should be compiled and presented to the p s y c h i a t r i s t , who, a f t e r examining the p a t i e n t , would pre-sent h i s recommendations t o the judge who i s handling the case. The c l i n i c a l report would be of great help i n a i d i n g the judge to decide on the plan to be adopted—whether the delinquent should be detained f o r a short time; be placed on probation; be given employment; be committed to one of the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l s , the I n d u s t r i a l School, or Oakalla; be recommended f o r "New Haven" or foster-home place-ment; or any other s u i t a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n . 95 To make the work of such a c l i n i c of value however, a w e l l organized follow-up s e r v i c e would be required. The establishment of a p r o v i n c i a l probation system would be of inestimable value i n s o l v i n g the delinquency problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I f such a system could be Inaugurated there would be l i t t l e prospect of boys being sent t o the I n d u s t r i a l School because there was no other plaoe f o r them to go. The p h y s i c a l examinations are conducted by the medical doctors of the P r o v i n c i a l Mental H o s p i t a l at Essondale. A very thorough medical examination i s given to each boy as soon as he a r r i v e s . In some cases a p h y s i c a l defect or i l l n e s s has been re s p o n s i b l e f o r the delinquency committed by the youth* As soon as these are corrected the o r i m i n a l outlook f r e q u e n t l y disappears. To show the value of a com-petent . p h y s i c a l examination the f o l l o w i n g case i s c i t e d : Peter M. was committed to Biscoq when t h i r t e e n years . o l d . P r i o r to h i s commitment he was i n grade f i v e and stood at the bottom of h i s c l a s s * S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l he was given a medical and p s y c h i a t r i c examination by Dr. Crease. His I . Q> was scored as eighty-three. Mr. Boyes, who was present at the examination, f e l t c e r t a i n that t h i s r e s u l t was too low and asked Dr. Crease i f there might be any phy-s i c a l b a s i s f o r h i s b e l i e f . Upon a close check-up of h i s data, the doctor noticed a s l i g h t tendency towards double-v i s i o n . Peter was sent immediately to an e y e - s p e c i a l i s t who confirmed the report and secured s u i t a b l e glasses f o r the boy. The change i n the boy's a t t i t u d e towards the o f f i c i a l s , h i s day-school work, and l i f e i n general was a r e v e l a t i o n . In f o u r months he was r e - t e s t e d and scored an I . ,Q. of ninety-seven. Today Peter i s a s u c c e s s f u l t y p e - s e t t e r , a p o s i t i o n that r e q u i r e s very good eye-sight. The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e of organs examined by the doctor i n the p h y s i c a l examination gives one some idea of the thor-oughness of t h i s medical check-up. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Name: Age ;• Height : •' Weight: General appearance Eyes: Ears: Nose: * V i s i o n : Hearing: Septum: Hair: Colour: Puplife; Canals: Drums: Turbinates: Discharge: Mouth and th r o a t : Teeth: Decay: Enamel: Gums: Tongue: Pa l a t e: T o n s i l s : Buried: Enlarged: C r y p t i c Neck: Thyroid: Glands: Respiratory system: Inspection: Percussion: P a l p a t i o n : A u s c u l t a t i o n : Cardio-v a s c u l a r : Percussion: Rhythm: A u s c u l t a t i o n : Blood-pressure: Pulse: A r t e r i e s : Abdomen: Masses: Tenderness: R i g i d i t y : Nervous system: Speech: Motor: C r a n i a l nerves: Sensory: Reflexes: S u p e r f i c i a l : B a b i n s k i : Deep: Rhomberg: Gait and pasture: S k i n : E x t r e m i t i e s : Remarks: 97 When, i n the estimation of the superintendent, a boy has shown s u f f i c i e n t progress to warrant an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r parole a proposal f o r release form i s sent to c e r t a i n r e -quired persons and wit h t h e i r approval the boy i s sent to h i s own home or a foster-home on probation. A t y p i o a l pro-posal f o r release f o l l o w s : PROVINCIAL INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS PROPOSAL FOR RELEASE Name i n f u l l J.£9£.£?aY. Age l a s t b i rthday........I?.?????. Committed from ? ? ^ Y H l e Charge* Convicting Judge or M a g i s t r a t e . . L . Date of commitment. January # 16^1940 Date to be released or paroled.... .4"??."."..^A^r P r i n c i p a l ' s recommendation. As t h i s boy has been c o n f i n e d to the Boys*. I n d u s t r i a l School sinoe January 16, 1940,... ......and since h i s behavior has been e x c e l l e n t , . . ......we recommend that he be allowed to r e t u r n . . . ...... home on parole as from A p r i l 1, 1941 (signed) G-eorge Ross P r i n c i p a l Date.... S i g n e d . . . . ? ? ? * } ? . Date. . ±9.Q Judge of the Juv e n i l e Court -, * v, 4 • * A p r i l 2, 1941 Approval of re l e a s e by me signed on*.. *-s.. *.. 2 E l i z a b e t h Harrison Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n 98 There has been one follow-up o f f i c e r f o r both the Boys' and G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School f o r s e v e r a l years. The o f f i c e r , a Mrs. Moody, i s a very capable person but her case load i s f a r too heavy and she i s not able to give proper a t t e n t i o n to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia as most of her time i s spent i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and the lower coast d i s t r i c t . Even though the follow-up o f f i c e r has secured e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s i n many cases, there i s some o b j e c t i o n to a woman being placed i n charge of probation work wi t h delinquent boys. A woman, no matter how e f f i c i e n t , cannot be as v a l -uable as a competent man i n boys' probation work. Most boys of the age of i n d u s t r i a l school lads tend to be hero wor-shippers and t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the opposite sex, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n middle-aged women, i s u s u a l l y passive. To get the c o n f i -dence and co-operation of any boy i t i s frequently necessary to arouse some bond of mutual i n t e r e s t * When attempting to stimulate t h i s common bond, a woman i s at a considerable d i s -advantage because, i n most cases, i t i s a p h y s i c a l impossi-b i l i t y f o r her to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the games, a c t i v i t i e s , and general p u r s u i t s of teen age boys* On the other hand there i s no doubt that a woman tends to be much superior i n pro-b a t i o n work w i t h delinquent g i r l s . To i l l u s t r a t e the type of work being performed by the follow-up o f f i c e r an adaptation of one s f Mrs. Moody's 1 reports i s included* 1. Prepared and submitted to the Superintendent, 1940. 99 The success of the past year i n the work assigned to me has been p r o g r e s s i v e l y g r a t i f y i n g i n many ways. My personal a c t i v i t y i n the many cases coming w i t h i n my j u r i s d i c t i o n has apprec-i a t e d measurably, as w i l l be seen from the f o l -lowing i t e m i z a t i o n : V i s i t s to homes 1,187 V i s i t s to o f f i c e .....948 Business c a l l s and interviews...863 Telephone c a l l s . . . . . . . . . .,986 I t w i l l be noted that a greater number of home v i s i t s were undertaken. Thi s , 1 t h i n k , has r e s u l t e d from a greater sense of harmonious r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y assumed by parents, who, i n a great many cases, are eager and anxious to give more spontaneous and d e s i r a b l e co-operation, i n a l l eases t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n the achievement of b e t t e r r e s u l t s throughout the whole chain of e f f o r t . In my work t h i s past year, as a r e s u l t of a more understanding sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a greater d e s i r e to a s s i s t i n t h i s invaluable work, a greater degree of e f f o r t was required w i t h reference to contacts w i t h business-men* I have found that business-men generally have demonstrated a r e a l and a serious desire to oo-operate to the end that the work i n question, i n so f a r as t h e i r part i s concerned, i s f a c i l -i t a t e d . The evident desire to co-operate should be h i g h l y commended, because i n the r e - e s t a b l i s h -ment of these young men the f a c i l i t y and r a p i d i t y wherewith they can be f i t t e d i n t o s u i t a b l e , jobs i s of paramount importance. I f i n d i t equitable, t h e r e f o r e , to pay t h i s h i g h l y merited t r i b u t e to the business-men. I n almost a l l cases the boys themselves have responded generously i n becoming good, e f f i c i e n t employees and have merited the t r u s t placed i n them, which ge n e r a l l y presents a happy p i c t u r e . As a r e s u l t of greater f a c i l i t i e s afforded to place the boys i n t o p o s i t i o n s i n the i n d u s t r i a l arena, there has not been required that degree of co-operation formerly afforded by the f o r e s t r y camp a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n the department of the Honourable the M i n i s t e r of Labour, which i n past years has been of great assistance. 100 In matters appertaining to r e l i e f , assistance on my part has not been required to the extent i t was e s s e n t i a l i n previous years i n so f a r as the boys'and parents themselves are concerned and i n the major number of i n c i d e n t s i t was f o r and on behalf of indigent parents. I t was thought wiser to give assistance i n such cases i n order t o i n -v i t e greater co-operation on the part of the par-ents involved i n such cases* A greater degree of e f f o r t was expended i n endeavouring to supervise b e t t e r companionship. In some cases, i n order to insure non-oontact w i t h former undesirable a s s o c i a t e s , assistance was given i n moving family residences, i n f o s t e r -i n g a c l o s e r contact w i t h the parents and g i v i n g constant v i g i l a n e e and advice to the boys i n question* I have been very happy to note the anxious and intense i n t e r e s t apparent i n the boys t o -wards entering i n the m i l i t i a to do t h e i r part as s o l d i e r s of our country. There are many i n -stances of boys below age misrepresenting t h e i r age i n order to e n l i s t f o r a c t i v e duty. The general i n t e r e s t evinced speaks w e l l f o r the l o y a l and p a t r i o t i c q u a l i t i e s of these boys. The work becomes i n volume p r o g r e s s i v e l y greater and i n t h i s way somewhat d i f f i c u l t to pursue to the meticulous degree required i n order to a t t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s * However, having regard t o the time and e f f o r t expended, the r e s u l t a n t good i s i n c a l c u l a b l e , inasmuch as the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a boy i n t o s o c i e t y as a good c i t i z e n i n the community whereof he forms a part i s a work whioh cannot be gauged i n f i n a n c i a l equations. I have also given a great deal of time, a t t e n t i o n , and e f f o r t to preventive work, which i s a branch of s e r v i c e of extreme importance. This work can only be done e f f e c t i v e l y by win-n i n g the confidence of those boys needing such a s s i s t a n c e , by c r e a t i n g i n t h e i r yet p l a s t i c minds a desi r e to do good, and by close and con-stant contact w i t h the boy, the f a m i l y , and the home. The importance of t h i s work cannot be overestimated or overstressed. The invaluable oo-operation of Mr. Ross and 101 h i s s t a f f of the Boys* I n d u s t r i a l School, and of Mrs. Westman and her associate attendants, t o -gether w i t h other agencies such as the S o c i a l Service Exchange, S o c i a l Agencies, the Depart-ment of Neglected C h i l d r e n , C h i l d Guidance C l i n -i c , the J u v e n i l e Court, the Chief Probation O f f i -cer, the P r o v i n c i a l and C i t y P o l i c e Departments, the P r o v i n c i a l and C i t y R e l i e f Departments, the Pu b l i c and High School P r i n c i p a l s , and the De-partment of the M i n i s t e r of Labour have a l l con-t r i b u t e d immeasurably i n making my year of work one abundant i n success and i n pleasure of ser-v i c e f o r me. To these agencies I express my sincere thanks f o r such co-operation and a s s i s -tance as may have been given to me. The year has been one of great s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t s success, and whi l e 1 f e e l that a l l t hings which might have been accomplished have not been done, yet i t augurs w e l l f o r a happier and more su c c e s s f u l f u t u r e i n t h i s h i g h l y important branch of s o o i a l s e r v i c e * "K. A. Moody, Eollow-up O f f i c e r , Boys* and G i r l s * I n d u s t r i a l Schools." CHAPTER 7. TREATMENT OE YOUNG DELINQUENTS COMMITTED TO THE BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SGHOOL AT COQUITLAM CHAPTER 7. TREATMENT OE YOUNG DELINQUENTS COMMITTED TO.THE BOYS* INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT COQUITLAM While attempting to mould the youths i n t o u s e f u l c i t -i z e n s , an e f f o r t i s made to equip them w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience that w i l l enable them to earn a l i v i n g when they re-enter s o c i e t y * E i r s t of a l l every boy i s kept i n the best p o s s i b l e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and enjoys e x c e l l e n t dental and medical care. In the year ending March 31, 1940, the mouths of seventy-two boys were c a r e f u l l y examined and record charts made. Thirtyr-nine hopelessly diseased t e e t h were extracted w i t h the use of a l o c a l anaesthetic and a t o t a l of 229 carious t e e t h were f i l l e d . Twenty-two boys were tr e a t e d f o r g i n g i v i t i s , twenty received minor treatment f o r r e l i e f of pa i n , and three had t e e t h d e v i t a l i z e d and the roots f i l l e d . A f u l l - t i m e t r a i n e d nurse i s a valuable member of the Biscoq s t a f f . A f t e r the boys have been examined by a medical doctor, i t i s her duty to be the c h i e f f i r s t - a i d dispenser and to attend t o and keep a record of the minor accidents and sicknesses. Every boy has an i n d i v i d u a l medical report which shows h i s height and weight upon admission and subse-quent gains or l o s s e s , the r e s u l t s of the iiahn t e s t , and the chest X-ray. Space i s also provided f o r a record of any i l l -nesses, operations* s p e c i a l t e s t s r e q u i r e d , contagious d i s -eases, and dent a l work. Boys are also given eye t e s t s and 102 103 glasses are provided f o r those who require them. The boys s u f f e r i n g from more serious accidents and sicknesses are sent to the h o s p i t a l . In one recent year nine boys had t h e i r t o n s i l s removed, two were circumcised, one treated f o r an i n f e c t e d hand, one treated f o r gonorrhoea, and three had' broken limbs set and placed i n casts* C e r t a i n departments are maintained to prepare boys to earn a l i v i n g a f t e r t h e i r r e l e a s e . Because of the frequent short-term i n d e f i n i t e sentence, a boy can never receive suf-f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g to enable him to compete w i t h experienced workers as soon as he re-enters s o c i e t y ; I t i s hoped^ how-ever, that the graduate w i l l continue h i s education and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and, that the ground work received at Biscoq w i l l prove most b e n e f i c i a l . EDUCATION DEPARTMENT A l l boys of school age must attend school when the i n s t r u c t o r at the school f e e l s , that such t r a i n i n g w i l l prove b e n e f i c i a l . Boys of senior high school standing and a b i l i t y are encouraged to continue w i t h correspondence courses. Recently, a boy completed h i s Junior M a t r i c u l a t i o n by t h i s method. An examination of table XVI. shows that many of the boys are subnormal and 13.28 per cent are d e f i n i t e l y feebleminded. I t fo l l o w s that academic t r a i n i n g would be of l i t t l e value. Boys of such low i n t e l l i g e n c e require s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g case i l l u s t r a t e s • 104 the manner i n which many of the amentia pat i e n t s are tr e a t e d . Henry was the i l l e g i t i m a t e o f f s p r i n g of the wayward son of a respectable f a m i l y and a common p r o s t i t u t e . A short time before h i s b i r t h , h i s mother became the common-law' w i f e of h i s f a t h e r . She was probably a high grade moron and Henry was destined to a s i m i l a r fate.- His I . G. was s i x t y - n i n e on the Stanford r e v i s i o n of the Hinet t e s t . Henry showed no abnormal p h y s i c a l t r a i t s except rather poor eyesight. He s t a r t e d school at the age of s i x and immediately experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n h i s s c h o l a s t i c car-eer. At the age of twelve he had been pushed forward to grade four. Up to t h i s ' p e r i o d h i s home l i f e had been f a r from i d e a l . His mother and f a t h e r fought c o n t i n u a l l y . He l i v e d i n a ramshackle house and h i s s h i f t l e s s father was a poor provider and often l e f t h i s family f o r months at a time; Henry sought escape from the numerous home quarrels and spent much of h i s time running the s t r e e t s . F i n a l l y he was caught f o r a s l i g h t misdemeanour charge and committed to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Port Coquitlam as being i n c o r r i g -i b l e . When the w r i t e r f i r s t met Henry he had completed an eight year term. He had received an i n d e f i n i t e sentence but as h i s mother had died and h i s f a t h e r did not want him he was kept i n the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r that long period. When k r . I p. C. Boyes became p r i n c i a p l he pers o n a l l y took an i n t e r e s t i n the boy 105 and made a great improvement i n him. He assigned him rout i n e jobs w i t h s l i g h t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He was put i n charge of a'gang which scrubbed the shower-rooms and p o l -ished the f l o o r s . Henry made an exc e l l e n t straw-boss i n charge of a group c o n s i s t i n g of s e v e r a l l i k e himself and two younger boys. During the trades period from two t i l l four o'clock each week day, Henry a l t e r n a t e d between the green-house and shoe-shop. During various months he was put on the k i t c h e n crew p e e l i n g potatoes and performing other sim-i l a r jobs* He seemed quite proud when t o l d that he held an important p o s i t i o n , because, i f he didn't peel the vegetables, the other boys would not be able to eat. On one occasion an attempt was made to place Henry on a small farm i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. He was gone f o r three days* I t took him one day to get there, he remained one, and returned the t h i r d . When asked f o r an explanation he s a i d he became homesick. When he had reached the age of twenty-one he could no longer be kept at Biscoq so was t r a n s f e r r e d to the Mental Hos-p i t a l i n New Westminster. Now he i s working i n the shoe-shop and i s qu i t e contented. I f Henry i s present when the w r i t e r walks by the grounds, he always shouts a loud welcome and rushes over to t e l l how w e l l he i s progressing. In the spri n g of t h i s year (1941J, a survey was conducted i n which an attempt was made to f i n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the achievement of Biscoq boys i n c e r t a i n school subjects as 106 compared with that of boys In the regular p u b l i c school. Accordingly, with the co-operation of the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , twenty Biscoq. boys were selected, who would, i t was hoped, represent a cross s e c t i o n of the school population. The av-erage age of t h i s group was 15.05 years which compares very c l o s e l y w i t h the 15.08 year average of 672 Biscoq l a d s . (See t a b l e VIII.) The average I . Q,. was 83.5 which i s a few points l e s s than the mean I . Q,. of 86.5 which had been c a l c u l a t e d p r e v i o u s l y from 527 scores. (See t a b l e XVI.•) For comparison the boys of D i v i s i o n ten, the bottom grade eight c l a s s of the Lord L i s t e r J unior High School, were chosen. This group was s e l e c t e d f o r s e v e r a l reasons: f i r s t , the average age and age-grade achievement was as near to the Biscoq boys as could be secured; second, the w r i t e r wanted to see how a group of backward boys compared w i t h i n d u s t r i a l school youths; and t h i r d , since there were s e v e r a l problem cases, a few of whom showed p o t e n t i a l delinquency c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s , i n t h i s D i v i s i o n ten, the author wanted to f i n d out, i f by the administering of various t e s t s , he could diagnose and perhaps remedy some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which were confronting the lads and t h e i r :teachers. The r e s u l t s were h i g h l y e n l i g h t -ening. As i t was impossible to secure a s u f f i c i e n t number of a p a r t i c u l a r t e s t because of Canadian custom laws, two d i f f e r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were given. The I . Q.*s of the biscoq boys were c a l c u l a t e d from the Stanford R e v i s i o n of the Binet t e s t and.the I . Q.'s of the j u n i o r high school boys were 107 computed from the Otis Self-Adminstering t e s t of Mental A b i l i t y . Achievement i n school subjects was measured by the B r i t i s h Columbia Achievement t e s t of 1933 and fundamentals of a r i t h m e t i c by the B r i t i s h Columbia School Survey t e s t . Information on s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y was secured from scores ob-tained on word l i s t N of the Buckingham Extension of the Ayres S p e l l i n g L i s t s and data on comprehension i n s i l e n t reading was obtained from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Munroe's Revised Stan-dardized S i l e n t Reading t e s t , form one. School rank was de-termined on the b a s i s of achievement t e s t s prepared by teachers f o r the 1940 Christmas examinations!. TABLE XI. RESULTS OF TESTS—LORD LISTER JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL BOYS I n i ^ Achi evement Ari t h m e t i c Spel- S i l e n t School t i a l s DO q uestions 300 a uestions l i n g Reading Rank T.*l R. W. T. R. W. To t a l 18 iMO. = l l l R. P. 13-7 117 94 60 54 70 55 15 91 14 50 E. D. 14-9 116 100 82 18 76 68 8 99 14 34 G. W. 13-1 113 100 56 44 79 66 13 99 14 92 A. K i 12-10 112 98 65 33 68 50 18 99 16 99 T* M. 14-4 110 97 64 33 82 75 7 98 15 61 L. G. 13-10 107 82 58 24 80 66 14 99 16 68 T. 1, 13^6 99 83 49 54 78 62 16 87 15 88 C • !R« 13-11 99 90 51 59 54 39 15 80 13 88 G. A. 14-7 99 79 40 59 68 47 21 78 15 95 M. M 15-10 99 93 50 45 59 46 13 94 15 95 A.l/W. 14-4 98 95 54 39 44 38 6 90 12 88 D, R. 15-11 97 96 52 44 92 77 15 83 12 83 J . P. 13-0 94 85 54 •31 74 63 11 93 14 38 E. B. 13-10 9 3 95 54 39 58 45 13 97 14 109 K. B. 14-0 92 92 48 44 62 45 17 88 15 72 D. G. 14-2 90 99 49 50 79 60 19 85 13 97 F* M. 15-5 89 99 55 44 71 51 20 37 9 108 G. S. 14-10 86 92 41 51 63 59 24 82 9 111 I . R. 15-5 70 98 45 53 75 63 12 72 6 99 .L. B. 15-10 64 96 51 45 65 50 15 99 10 103 Average age « 14.14 years. Average I , Q. = 97.20 * T — T r i e d , R — R i g h t , W—Wrong 108 TABLE X I I . RESULTS OF TESTS—BISCOQ, BOYS I n i t i a l s Age I.Q,. Achl evement Arit h m e t i c T r i e d Right Wrong T r i e d Right Wrong P. 0. 12-11 103 48 24 24 55 44 11 N. K. 13-11 100 66 35 31 90 82 8 A. K. 16-1 99 63 48 15 54 49 5 S * La 15-7 95 99 58 41 82 71 11 G. H. 15-6 95 99 62 37 86 .78 8 0. E. 14-3 90 49 28 21 53 48 •5 K* 0 17-0 88 57 47 10 77 70 7 G. H.' 14-8 85 98 44 54 91 76 15 L. iSf. 12-0 85 16 8 8 45 53 12 . R. B. 16-5 85 86 38 48 79 66 13 B. E. 14-1 81 75 34 41 61 36 25 T. K. 15-0 81 30 17 15 49 39 10 A. C. 13-4 80 94 30 64 71 40 31 H-. <H. 15-11 75 66 34 32 67 55 12 W. B.- 12-9 .75 20 6 14 36 38 8 H» Be 15-9 73 51 27 24 65 48 17 R. G • 17-1 72 99 40 50 44 27 17 A. M. 16-10 71 98 '48 50 68 45 25 W. D» . 15-11 70 '87 55 32 73 58 15 J. W. 16-0 69 17 4 13 29 19 10 Average age = 15.05 years. Average-.I. Q. = 85.50 The r e s u l t s show that i n comparison with t h i s academically retarded j u n i o r high school group of boys the isiscoq lads were d e f i n i t e l y i n f e r i o r i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . A d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean of 13.7 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t since a c r i t i c a l r a t i o , of 3.6 was found. E i g h t y - f i v e per cent of the i n d u s t r i a l school boys had scores l e s s than the average of the j u n i o r high school students The j u n i o r high school boys were decidedly superior on the achievement t e s t ; They averaged 53.9, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence of 19.55 points higher than the biscoq average of 34.35. The p u b l i c school lads t r i e d 1,859 questions, 550 more than the 109 Biscoq boys, and obtained 57 .9 per cent correct of a l l quest-ions attempted. The i n d u s t r i a l school youths t r i e d 1,309 questions and answered 5 2 . 5 per cent c o r r e c t l y . The rank d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between the i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement t e s t scores of ju n i o r high school boys was found to be .65 - . 0 9 . Changing rho into a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n , r becomes .67 w i t h a probable e r r o r of i 0 7 . The rank d i f f e r e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n between the i n t e l l i -gence and achievement t e s t scores of .biscoq boys was computed as .17 - .15 which i s equal to a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n of .18 - . 1 5 . In the preceding c a l c u l a t i o n s a l l measures of r e l i a b i l i t y are i n terms of probable e r r o r . G-arrett and 2 Schneck, when reviewing various s t u d i e s showing the c o r r e l a -t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s and standardized school achievement t e s t scores report a range from .30 to .60 i n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h a mean c o r r e l a t i o n of about . 4 5 . I t has been i l l u s t r a t e d that a group of Lord L i s t e r Jun-i o r High School boys shows a c o r r e l a t i o n of .67 * .07 between, i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement scores. On the other hand, the Biscoq boys for the same two sets of measures show a cor-r e l a t i o n of only . 18 - .15 which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . Every-t h i n g being equal t h i s large discrepancy between these two 1. G a r r e t t , H. E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, Longmans, Green, & Company, 1940. . p. 3 6 2 . 2 . G a r r e t t , H. E. and Schneck, M. R. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Tests, Methods, and R e s u i t s . New York, Harper & Brothers, 1 9 3 3 . Chapter 2 , p. 5 1 . 110 measures of c o r r e l a t i o n should not appear. The f a c t that d i f f e r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were used f o r the two groups might account f o r some small d i s p a r i t y but would hardly e x p l a i n such an enormous gap. This lack of close r e l a t i o n -ship between i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement t e s t scores on the part of the Biscoq boys may i n d i c a t e emotional i n s t a b i l i t y . Then again, as seventy per cent of the Biscoq. boys were sub-normal (had I . Q.'s below n i n e t y ) , they might w e l l have de-veloped a negative a t t i t u d e toward achievement t e s t s and consequently not produced t h e i r best e f f o r t s . Since the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s presented novel s i t u a t i o n s i t i s probable that the Biscoq boys worked close to maximum e f f i c i e n c y . The apparent i n c o n g r u i t y also might have been due to the greater s i m i l a r i t y between the group t e s t and the achievement t e s t than between the Stanford-Binet t e s t and the achievement t e s t I n the a r i t h m e t i c fundamentals/ t e s t the j u n i o r high school boys averaged 55.75, the Biscoq boys 50.6, and w i t h a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 1.07 the d i f f e r e n c e between these r e s u l t s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . Out of 1,397. questions attempted the day school boys missed only 292 and thus had 79.1 per cent accur-acy. The Biscoq boys answered fewer questions but showed approximately an equal degree of accuracy w i t h 79.3 per cent cor r e c t of a l l questions attempted. Between j u n i o r high school boys' i n t e l l i g e n c e and a r i t h -metic scores computed by the rank d i f f e r e n c e method and then t r a n s f e r r e d to the product-moment method, r equals .34 - .13. I l l Between Biscoq boys' i n t e l l i g e n c e and arithmetic scores, r equals .58 - .09. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the L i s t e r boys' i n t e l l i g e n c e and arithmetic scores i s not s i g n i f i c a n t because i t i s not four times the probable e r r o r . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the scores of .biscoq boys on a s i m i l a r set of t e s t s , however, i s s i g n i f i c a n t . These r e s u l t s tend to contradict the cor-r e l a t i o n s obtained between i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement t e s t scores. This d i s p a r i t y i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n on the basis of f a t i g u e as w i t h both groups the i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were ad-min i s t e r e d f i r s t and the ari t h m e t i c l a s t . The L i s t e r boys, however, wrote t h e i r a r i t h m e t i c t e s t when they should have been at a popular a r t c l a s s so perhaps d i d not put f o r t h t h e i r best e f f o r t s . Each Biscoq boy, on the other hand, was promised a chocolate bar when he completed h i s f i n a l t e s t and t h i s a n t i c -i p a t e d reward might have produced the r e s u l t s obtained. Only three sets of scores on .biscoq boys could be ob-tai n e d because of the time element and the changing population. These t e s t s were given on Sunday as t h i s was the only a v a i l a b l e time the author could v i s i t the school. Since the t e s t s were administered to almost h a l f the school enrolment and neces-s i t a t e d t h e i r absence from work du t i e s , the whole work pro-gramme of the school was disru p t e d . Even though the o f f i c i a l s i n charge were most co-operative, i t was possible t o give only three t e s t s on the one a v a i l a b l e day. When an attempt was made to administer t e s t s at a l a t e r date, i t was found that s e v e r a l of the group had been released and that two had 112 taken "French leave". To use another group f o r t h i s ex-periment would obviously have been v a l u e l e s s . A f t e r ' a n a l y s i n g the r e s u l t s , i t can be seen that the boys of the bottom grade eight c l a s s of a c i t y junior high school are superior to a group of .biscoq boys i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , general achievement, and i n speed of performance i n a r i t h -metic. These r e s u l t s are upheld by the f a c t t h a t , even though younger on the average, the day school boys a l l had reached grade eight while the average grade attainment of the i n d u s t r i a l school lads was between s i x and seven. Although, f o r reasons stated p r e v i o u s l y , no more t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d on wi t h the biscoq group, the author was able to administer other t e s t s to the j u n i o r high school boys. To give a wider p i c t u r e of the L i s t e r school group, c o r r e l a t i o n s between the r e s u l t s of these t e s t s and i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s f o l l o w : / -I n t e l l i g e n c e and s p e l l i n g r - .52 - .11 i n t e l l i g e n c e and s i l e n t r e a d i n g — r = .69 - .08 I n t e l l i g e n c e and school rank r = .63. - .09 In a l l the c o r r e l a t i o n s except those between the Biscoq boys 1 i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement scores and between the i n -t e l l i g e n c e and a r i t h m e t i c scores of the juni o r high school boys, r is-more than four time the probable e r r o r . There-fore the c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t . One must be s k e p t i c a l when accepting c o r r e l a t i o n s ob-tained from an experimental group of only twenty students, i t i s f e l t , however, that t h i s p r o j e c t has been a success 113 f o r two reasons: f i r s t , the r e s u l t s seem to coincide with the f i n d i n g s of many w e l l known psychologists; and second, the author ;has achieved a c l o s e r understanding of the r e - ' l a t i o n s h i p between h i s p u p i l s and the Biscoq boys and him-s e l f . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t s of t h i s experiment played an important part i n helping some of the j u n i o r high school "problem oases" adjust t h e i r behavior i n a more soc-i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e manner. I t i s not maintained that these t e s t s were s o l e l y responsible f o r any marked changes but there i s no doubt that they d i d have some bearing. While watching the boys work at the t e s t s and while c o r r e c t i n g the papers valuable information was gathered f o r l a t e r p r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s . Some of the other teachers caught the s p i r i t of the t e s t i n g movement and began to discuss some of the boys and the very f a c t that these men and women took a new i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p u p i l s proved b e n e f i c i a l to the p u p i l s a f f e c t e d . The new i n t e r e s t seemed to spread to the boys themselves. One p u p i l , G. W., was so impressed by t h i s new bond with h i s t e a -chers that he skyrocketed from o b s c u r i t y i n the student body to one of the l e a d i n g p u p i l s i n a competition i n which every g i r l and boy i n the school p a r t i c i p a t e d * TAILORING DEPARTMENT I n a t y p i c a l year t h i r t y boys of the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School received i n s t r u c t i o n i n sewing and general r e p a i r i n g of c l o t h i n g . The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s were made by the boys 114 under s u p e r v i s i o n of an i n s t r u c t o r : 95 p a i r s of denim pants, 62 p a i r s of tweed pants, 187 p a i r s of shorts, 24 khaki apron's, 2 c u r t a i n s , 48 tea-towels, 111 pillow-cases, 150 hand-towels, 144 sheets, 12 t a b l e - c l o t h s , and 45 p i l l o w -t i c k s . In a d d i t i o n 28 s u i t s and 59 p a i r s of pants were pres-sed and such v a r i e d jobs as r e p a i r i n g tumbling mats, mat-t r e s s e s , and a t t a c h i n g number tags to purchased garments were completed. MOTOR MECHANICS DEPARTMENT This department has grown i n p o p u l a r i t y w i t h the boys u n t i l now i t has one of the l a r g e s t enrolments. Various p r o j e c t s are studied and completed by members of t h i s c l a s s . One p r o j e c t which the boys f i n i s h e d gave them experience i n the f i t t i n g of r i n g s , honing out of c y l i n d e r s , f i t t i n g of w r i s t - p i n s , t a k i n g up main and- connecting-rod bearings, grind-i n g v a l v e s , r e p l a c i n g a broken s p r i n g , i n s t a l l i n g shock ab-sorbers, and a d j u s t i n g brakes. On another occasion a gen-erator problem came, up f o r a t t e n t i o n . The ammeter showed a heavy charging r a t e and apparently no previous work had been done on i t . The boys discovered a very d i r t y set of brushes and that the commutator-bars needed a t t e n t i o n . As soon as they had remedied these conditions the generator was as good as new. -The motor mechanics department i s l a y i n g the foundation f o r future employment fo r those boys that have the a b i l i t y i n D i e s e l engineering, aeronautics, and e l e c t r i c a l engineering 115 MANUAL ART DEPARTMENT I n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s department i s given i n wood-working, draughting, f o r g i n g , e l e c t r i c i t y and sheet-metal work and p r a c t i c a l l y every boy at some time during the year takes advantage of the t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s o f fered. To show the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e r e s t during a two month period, 29 boys e n r o l l e d f o r wood-working, 14 f o r e l e c t r i c i t y , 8 f o r f o r g i n g , 5 f o r draughting and 4 f o r sheet-metal work. Many maintainence pro j e c t s are assigned to t h i s de-partment and i n one year three ta b l e s and a magazine end-t a b l e were constructed f o r the o f f i c e of the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n , i'or the I n d u s t r i a l School i t s e l f 3 novelty t a b l e s were made, a c h e s t e r f i e l d repaired, window-screens b u i l t , the i n t e r i o r of the sewing-room was equipped w i t h cup-boards and racks f o r c l o t h i n g , 175 seed-boxes were b u i l t f o r the green-house, a vaulting-box f o r the gymnasium was constructed, and many small models and other p r o j e c t s were completed by the boys. AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT Boys who intend to become farmers receive an e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g i n t h i s department. A l l boys at some time or other must work on an a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t . In one year 5,046 l b s . of potatoes; 25 l b s . onions (Dutch s e t s ) ; 440 l b s . onions (green); 593 l b s . (seed); 4& l b s . radishes; 275 l b s . beans (green); 264 l b s . beets (tops); 2,260 l b s . beets ( r o o t s ) ; 2,735 l b s ; c a r r o t s ; 1,206 l b s * parsnips; 1,976 l b s * cabbage; 116 207 l b s . cabbage ^green); 169 l b s . leeks; 170 l b s . c a u l i -flower; 23 l b s . peas; 1,194 l b s . tomatoes; 124 dozen corn (cob); 308 bead l e t t u c e ; 285 stocks c e l e r y ; 270 l b s . r a s p b e r r i e s ; and 252 l b s . of rhubarb were produced and used by the c u l i n a r y department. B e a u t i f u l chrysanthemums, geraniums, and other flowers and potted-plants are grown i n the gardens and green-house* KITCHEN AND CULINARY DEPARTMENT I n t h i s department a l l the boys (a r o t a t i o n system i s used) get p r a c t i c e i n dishwashing. A few are given d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s i n cooking and i n the preparation of meals by an experienced chef. The s t a f f dining-room boys receive t r a i n -i n g which might help them obtain p o s i t i o n s as stewards or waiters* The menus f o r the Biscoq boys are prepared by a d i e t i t i a n . The f o l l o w i n g menu represents a t y p i c a l day: Breakfast--Cream of wheat porridge, buttered t o a s t , . coffee and milk. Dinner Roast beef, gravy, potatoes, cabbage, c a r r o t s , bread, r i c e pudding, milk. Supper-—--Cold meat, vegetable salad, bread and b u t t e r , stewed rhubarb, cookies, tea and milk. RECREATION DEPARTMENT P r a c t i c a l l y a l l indoor and outdoor sports engaged i n the lower coast d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia are played i n season. The school has an ex c e l l e n t gymnasium and one of the 117 l a r g e s t indoor swimming pools i n the province and every hoy spends a great deal of h i s time i n the water e i t h e r l e a r n i n g to swim or p r a c t i s i n g the various branches of l i f e - s a v i n g . The a t h l e t i c d i v i s i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n department i s undoubtedly one of tim most potent c o n t r i b u t o r s i n the r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. During the past few years the Boys r I n d u s t r i a l School has been fortunate i n having some of the f i n e s t a t h l e t e s and coaches i n Canada as p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t o r s . A l l boys are encouraged to play games and they are taught sportsmanship, co-operation, how to win or lose g r a c e f u l l y , and are shown the b e n e f i t s of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Many boys have never r e a l l y had an opportunity to play before t h e i r commitments. The case of one boy i s r e c a l l e d who had the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary to develop i n t o a reasonably good a t h l e t e . When asked i f he had played many games before, he answered i n the negative. Yifhen,.-asked why, he r e p l i e d , " I never had much time. My father made me work everyday before going to school and as soon as I a r r i v e d home.". Once t h i s boy s t a r t e d to play and became reasonably e f f i c i e n t at games h i s whole a t t i t u d e seemed to change. To improve the standard of t h e i r a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y and to show them how other boys play, the Biscoq boys i n good standing have the p r i v i l e g e of competing against outside teams Various clubs such as dramatic, aeroplane, boat, stamp, and photographic, clubs make up another important d i v i s i o n of n a the r e c r e a t i o n department. Membership to these s e l f -governed groups i s by vote only and vacancies are eagerly sought a f t e r by the new boys. In an attempt to l e t every boy see h i s progress, a conduct rating-sheet has been prepared. Each boy receives a subjective r a t i n g of h i s successes i n the various a c t i v -i t i e s * The boys are encouraged to discuss t h e i r records whenever they so d e s i r e . A sample conduct sheet follows: .CONDUCT. SHEET NAME. . .'i vH^?.??Y? AGE.. . I 6 . .RATING GRADE DATE OE ADMISSI ON.. ? ? T PLACE.. . AH ?? TYPE OE OFEENGE. *.T??n,**....'NO. OE COMMITMENTS..*.!.. ' HABITS On entry Improvement Made On Leaving P u n c t u a l i t y C C C B B B A A A Cl e a n l i n e s s C B C B B B B A A Carefulness C C C - B B B A A A Speeoh B B B B B B B B B Honesty B B C C B B B B B Smoking Yes Table Manners C C C B C C C C B WORK PROGRAM On entry Improvement Made On Leaving School Dormitory B B B C B Kitchen Garden Shoe Shop T a i l o r Shop Farm Blaoksmith Cottage A A A B A 119 PLAY PROGRAM On entry improvement Made- On Leaving 5 P. s. B B •B B B B _ B B+ Swimming B B B B B B B B B B Lacrosse - - — — B-t- A A *<• A Baseball - - — - B B B B B V o l l e y B a l l - - — ~. _ „ G+ Ping Pong - - _ _ Ct — — a 0+ F o o t b a l l B+- B+- B + B + B+ A A A B-t-B a s k e t b a l l B B+ Bt- B+ Bi- B A A A SHOP WORK On entry lmprovement Made On Leaving 5 Metal Wood G B B B A B B D r a f t i n g '" E l e c t r i c i t y Motor Mechanics T a i l o r Shop Shoe Shop Kit c h e n MISDEMEANOURS (record on back of sheet) None CHAPTER VI. ANALYSIS OE JUVENILE DELINQUENTS COMMITTED TO THE BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT COQUITLAM CHAPTER VI. ANALYSIS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS, COMMITTED • TO THE BOYS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT COQUITLAM Some'of the general f i n d i n g s which have been presented i n d i c a t e the need f o r a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of some of these data, i n the f o l l o w i n g pages, therefore, an attempt has. been made to include information which might s u b s t a n t i -ate or c l a r i f y any suggestions put forward i n the preceding chapters. TABLE X I I I . 1 PARENTAL RELATIONSHIPS OF 545 BISCOQ, BOYS Cases Per cent Both parents l i v i n g 356 61 Both parents dead ~ • 25--- ' 5 Mother l i v i n g and father dead 66 "\ 2 3 Father l i v i n g and mother dead 58 > Stepfathers > 33 ") 1 1 Stepmothers 2 5 - — * , T o t a l 545 100 Sixty-one per cent of the boys came from f a m i l i e s i n which both parents were l i v i n g ; twenty-three per cent where there was only one parent l i v i n g ; eleven per cent from homes i n which there was e i t h e r a stepmother or stepfather; and f i v e per cent of the lads were orphans. In approximately t w o - f i f t h s of the cases committed to .biscoq., broken homes probably play a part i n producing delinquent behavior. There seems- l i t t l e doubt that lack of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and improper home r e l a t i o n s h i p s are important c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n the a n t i - s o c i a l conduct of many of the youths. 1. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 120 121 Adequate p a r e n t a l education might prevent many of the con-v i c t i o n s . Mention might be made of an attempt to solve t h i s problem of incompetent p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l . In England a move-ment has been s t a r t e d whereby mothercraft w i l l be taught to g i r l s of j u n i o r and senior high school age. A report issued from London corroborates t h i s statement. "Doctors, teachers, probation o f f i c e r s , and s o c i a l workers agreed at a meeting here that the only way to wipe out j u v e n i l e delinquency i s to teach mothercraft i n the schools to every g i r l between 12 and 16 1 years of age." ' TABLE XIV. CHARGES RESULTING IN COIMITMBNT TO BISCOQ, •626 Theft Breaking, entering and s t e a l i n g --255 Inc. o r r i g i b l e —144 Sex offences 32 Receiving s t o l e n p r o p e r t y — • A s s a u l t Vagrancy Damage to p r o p e r t y — False pretences Arson •• 6 Murder-- 1 —— — 1 24 22 12 15 Q Forgery — 4 Unlawful possession of fire-arms --4 Returned wards 5 Horse-stealing- —.-—4 V i o l a t i o n of Railway Act- — - — 3 H o l d - u p — — — 3 Drunkeness— :3 Escaping from custody----- 1 Neglected c h i l d — — . — 1 Attempt s u i c i d e —1 T o t a l —1,173 From t a b l e XIV. i t appears that the majority of boys are sent to the I n d u s t r i a l School f o r some form of crime against pro-perty. Theft charges are the most frequent. With sex charges predominating, only f i v e per cent of the commitments are f o r offences against persons. Approximately twelve per cent of the boys are committed as being i n c o r r i g i b l e which may be another way 1. Vancouver Sun. Tuesday, J u l y 29, 1941. p. 6. 2. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 122 of s t a t i n g that at l e a s t one boy i n ten comes from a fa m i l y governed by incompetent parents. TABLE XV. 1 LENGTH OF SENTENCES 03? 673 BISCOQ, BOYS Si x months . 7 Nine months . — — 1 • One year-- 5 Two years 188 Two and one-half years : 1 Three years 31 Four years -• • 20 Five years ; 7 i n d e f i n i t e and undefined 178 Sec t i o n 16, "Juvenile Delinquents Act 1908"—122 Sec t i o n 20, "Juvenile Delinquents Act 1929"—112 T o t a l - - — —-673 During the past few years there has been a gradual change i n the general p o l i c y regarding the length of sentences. Form-e r l y , regardless of offence, most boys were committed f o r a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d , u s u a l l y f o r two years. During the Brankin ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n a boy had to earn a d e f i n i t e number of c r e d i t s be-fore being released. In many cases, however, where a s u f f i c i e n t sum had not been accumulated, i t was necessary to serve addition-a l time i n order to secure the desired t o t a l . Now, on the other hand, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the sentences are based on the J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act of 1929. The J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act was o r i g i n a l l y passed by the Dominion Government i n 1908. I t has been amended s e v e r a l times w i t h the amendment of 1929 being the most notable. I t was drawn 1. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 123 up w i t h great care by l e g a l and s o c i a l welfare a u t h o r i t i e s and i s a most enlightened and progressive piece of l e g i s l a -t i o n . I t provides that charges against j u v e n i l e offenders must be dealt with by j u v e n i l e co.urts wherever these are es- . t a b l i s h e d by order of a P r o v i n c i a l Government. I t gives broad powers to the judge to deal w i t h the j u v e n i l e i n the manner which appears to be best for h i s welfare, and i t pro-vides that "the j u v e n i l e delinquent s h a l l be treated not as an offender, but as one i n a c o n d i t i o n of delinquency, and therefore r e q u i r i n g help and guidance and proper supervision". C h i l d r e n under twelve years of age, the Act expressly s t a t e s , are not to be committed to an i n d u s t r i a l school, except as a l a s t r e s o r t , a f t e r other methods of reformation have f a i l e d . The c h i l d r e n committed to i n d u s t r i a l schools under t h i s Act are given an indeterminate sentence and may-be released at any time on the order of the judge o'f the j u v e n i l e court and the P r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n . Since the recommendations of an i n d u s t r i a l school superintendent are c a r e f u l l y considered, there i s created, i n e f f e c t , a committee of three people to pass upon the question of relea s e . Commitments based on the J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act of 1929 give the Superintendent of the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School a much f r e e r hand because he i s able to suggest that boys be sent home whenever he thinks they have earned such an opportunity. In t a b l e XV., the l a s t three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are quite s i m i l a r . From the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the I n d u s t r i a l School u n t i l 124 the present time some country magistrates have never a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d to a d e f i n i t e Federal Act when meting out an indeter-minate sentence. As a r e s u l t there appears a s p e c i a l "indef-i n i t e and undefined" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t a b l e XV. Previous to the 1929 amendment to the Ju v e n i l e Delinquents Act, the i n d e f i n i t e Biscoq commitments, not included above, were based on the J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act of 1908. In the majority of i n d e f i n i t e sentences today, however, the amended Juvenile Delinquents Act of 1929 i s used. A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the ©imon-Binet t e s t s t o the United S t a t e s 1 o f America, i n v e s t i g a t o r s attempted to determine the mental status of young delinquents " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y " . As might be expected many workers announced the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e l l i g e n c e as a causal f a c t o r i n a n t i - s o c i a l behavior. Thus 1- ' Goddard proclaimed, i n 1914, that at l e a s t f i f t y per cent of 2 a l l c r i m i n a l s were mentally d e f e c t i v e . Pintner stated that at l e a s t f o r t y - s i x per cent of a l l delinquents were feeble-minded. Others, agreed w i t h Terman, "That a l l feebleminded 3 c h i l d r e n are p o t e n t i a l c r i m i n a l s or delinquents." Because the f i r s t t e s t s were not properly standardized, d i r e c t i o n s f o r administering and scorin g were too su b j e c t i v e , 1. Goddard, H. H. Peeble-Mindedness. I t s Causes and Conse-quences* New York, The Macmillan Co., 1920 (r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ) , p. 9. 2. P i n t n e r , Rudolf, i n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g . New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1923. p. 285. 3. Terman, L. M. The Measurement of I n t e l l i g e n c e . New York, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1916. p. 11. 125 and various methods were used f o r computing i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients, e r r o r s and discrepancies i n r e s u l t s were inev-i t a b l e . These e a r l y r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , cannot be accepted as altogether authentic. Today i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s are prepared, administered, and standardized i n a more s c i e n t i f i c manner. Consequently the r e s u l t s are much more accurate than those of the e a r l y stages of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g . Instead of the large percentage of delinquency a t t r i b u t e d to feeblemindedness by the e a r l i e r i n -v e s t i g a t o r s , the r e l a t i v e l y reeent work c a r r i e d on by Healy and Bronner, the Gluecks, and others i n d i c a t e s that only about t h i r t e e n per cent of young delinquents are feebleminded. With . 1 4,000 cases Healy and Bronner report 13.5 per cent, and w i t h . 2 979 cases the Gluecks report 13.1 per cent as being feeble-minded. The w r i t e r has made two surveys w i t h Biscoq boys. In the f i r s t of 300 cases t h i r t y - n i n e hpys or t h i r t e e n per cent were found to have I . Q>'s below seventy. On the second w i t h 527 subjects (see t a b l e XVI.) seventy boys or 13.28 per cent were d e f i n i t e l y feebleminded and many of them should have been sent to a proper mental i n s t i t u t i o n rather than to an indus-t r i a l s chool. The i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients i n t a b l e XVI. were computed from t e s t s administered by -K. S t r a i g h t , D i r e c t o r , Bureau of Measurements, Vancouver School -Board, by Dr. P i l c h e r of the 1. Healy, .W. and Bronner, A. op. c i t . , p. 151. 2. Glueeic, 3. and Glueck, E. One Thousand J u v e n i l e D e l i n -quents. Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19 34. p. 102. 126 Psychology Department o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, by E. Blagburn, -biscoq school teacher, and by the w r i t e r . Tb 1916 Eevis.ion of the Stanford-Binet and the N a t i o n a l Scale A Eorm 5 i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were used. TABLE XVI. 1 INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS—527 CASES I . Q,» Cases I . Q,. Cases 1. Q,. Cases I . Q,. Cases 128 1 104 13 80 9 56 3 127 0 1 0 3 — 4 79 5 55 2 126 1 102 13 78 18 54 0 125- 0 101 5 - 7 7 — — 9 53_____3 124 — 1 100 14 76 5 52 2 1 2 3 — 0 99 19 75 7 51 2 122--—0 9 8 - — 1 4 7 4 — 2 50 4 121- 1 97 11 73 11 49 2 120- =£k 96—--13 72 11 48 --0 119 — — 0 95 20 71 4 47 1 118 -1 9 4 - 14 70-; 10 46 — 0 117___>0 93 11 69--— 2 45 2 U S 3 92 18 68 9 44 0 115 —--0 9 1 - — 7 6 7 - — 2 43 0 114—--1 90 10 66 2 42- 0 113 -1 89 16 6 5 - — 5 41 5 1 1 2 — — 7 8 8 — - 1 4 64 2 : 4 0 — — 2 111 3 87 17 63 2 39- 2 H0----1 86 18 62 3 38 1 109 — 1 8 5 — 2 2 6 1 — 2 37 0 1 0 8 — — 6 8 4 - — 1 4 6 0 — - - 2 3 6 — — 0 107—-^7 ' 83 7 59 3 55-- — -2 106 6 82 10 58 4 T o t a l 527 105 7 • 81 12.. 5 7 — — , 0 Mean i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient 86.55 Median i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient 85.72 g Mode of the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients 95.00 Standard d e v i a t i o n of. the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t - - - • — •-- '16.90 Feebleminded (Below I..Q,. 70) 70 cases or 15.28^ Table XVII. shows that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients of 527 Biscoq boys ranges from 35 to 128 and f a l l s 1. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 2. See t a b l e XVII. 137 TABLE XVII. ] DISTRIBUTION OE I . Q.'S OE 527 BISCOQ, BOYS 140 130 120 •N 110 U. M 100 B TP Jh 90 R 80 0 F 70 e A 60 A s 50 TV s 40 30 ' 20 10 31-401 41-50 51-; 60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100 101-110 111-12a .140 .130 .120 .110 ,100 . 90 , 80 , 70 , 60 . 50 , 40 • 50 , 20 . 10 121-isq I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients I an approximate normal curve. A predominance of scores below ninety produce a s l i g h t l y n e g a t i v e l y skewed curve. From tables XVI. and X V I I I . i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that only 4.5 per cent of the boys committed to Biscoq have 1. Q.Ts above the normal maximum of 109 while a f r a c t i o n more than t h i r t e e n per cent are d e f i n i t e l y feebleminded. 1. From t a b l e XVI. 128 TABLE XVIII. CLASSIFICATION Off INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS . 1 OF 527 BISCOQ, BOYS Class Number Per cent Above 140 G i f t e d 0 Q.O 1 2 0 — 1 3 9 — - V e r y superior 6—-- 1.1 1 1 0 — 1 1 9 Superior-- 1 7 — 3.2 90- —109 N o r m a l — 215' 40.4 8 0 - — 89 D u l l normal 139 26.4 7 0 — 79 B o r d e r l i n e 82 15.6 5 0 - — 69 Moron- ' — 5 5 — — 1 0 . 4 20 49 Imbecile 15 2.9 Below 2 0 - — I d i o t 0- 0.0 T o t a l — — - — — 5 2 7 — - 1 0 0 . 0 In so f a r as I . Q> r a t i n g i s concerned the Biscoq subjects were s i m i l a r to' other groups of young delinquents which have been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n various parts of North America and England. In t a b l e XIX. i s given a summary of these f i n d i n g s . TABLE XIX. I n v e s t i - Year Number Place Average gator I n v e s t i - I . Q.. gated Burt 1925 19 7 London 89 Healy and Bronner 1926 4000 Chicago 90 M e r r i l l 1926 236 3. D. Court cases 82 Armstrong 19 27 553 New York House of Refuge 78 Fenton 19 55 .'~ 400 W h i t t i e r State School 92 L i v i n g s t o n 1935 407 Indianna-Boys* School 89 Lane and W i t t y 19 55 700 St. Charles (111.) Boys* School 87.96 Wright 1941 527 Biscoq 86.5 T o t a l c ases 7020 88.4 1. From table XVI. 129 TABLE XX. HATIQUALITY OE PARENTS Off 250 BISCOQ, BOYS American (both) 19 American-Indian l A u s t r i a n (both) l Canadian (both) — 44 Canadian-American 5 Canadian-Austrian 1 Canadian-English • 8 Canadian-French 11 Canadian-German- 1 Canadian-Indian 2 Canadian-Irish 7 Canadian-Norwegian 1 Canadian-Scotch 5 Canadian-South American- 1 Canadian-Swede •—- 1 Canadian-Welsh- 1 Chinese (both) • 1 Dutch (both) - — 1 Dutch-Scotch 1 E n g l i s h (both) :- — 41 English-American 2 E n g l i s h - I r i s h ; — " ;9 English-Welsh 1 French (both) 2 French-Belgian 1 Irench-Scotch 1 Greek (both) l Hiwaiian-English 1 Icelander (both) 1 Indian (both) 9 I r i s h (both) 3 Irish-Swede 1 I t a l i a n (both) 5 Japanese ( b o t h ) - - — 3 Jewish (both) 1 Luthanian (both) 1 Norwegian (both) 2 P o l i s h (both) 3 Polish-Rumanian 3 Roumanina (both) 2 Russian (both) 7 Scotch (both) — 1 8 Scotch-American 2 Scotch-English 2 S c o t c h - I r i s h 5 Serbian (both)---——• 5 Swede-Norwegian-'—- 1 Welsh ( b o t h ) — - 3 Ukrainian (both) 2 T o t a l 250 B r i t i s h subjects 175 or 70%. Foreigners 75 or 30fo Of 250 cases committed to Biscoq between the years 1935 to 1938 i n c l u s i v e , c h i l d r e n of B r i t i s h subjects contributed seventy per cent while those of f o r e i g n parentage were r e -sponsible f o r t h i r t y per cent of the j u v e n i l e crimes. The infrequent commitment of O r i e n t a l s bears mentioning. A l -though Japanese and Chinese make up about eight per cent of the t o t a l p opulation of B r i t i s h Columbia, they contribute 1. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 130 only a f r a c t i o n over one per cent of the youths sentenced •to the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School. TABLE XXI. 1 RECIDIVISM IK CANADA Tear T o t a l F i r s t Second Thi r d Fourth F i f t h T o t a l Per cent XCumber Offen- Offen- Offen- Offen- or More Repeat- of T o t a l of D e l i n -ders ders ders ders ers D e l i n -quents quents 1927 5,156 3,829 648 29 5 167 219 1,327 25.74 1928 5,063 3,955 501 238 135 256 1,150 22.32 1929 .5,106 5,918 425 287 165 511 1,188 23.27 1930 5,653 4,554 527 296 169 507 1,299 22.98 1931 5,311 4,013 540 508 158 292 1,298 24.48 19 32 5,096 5,660 597 325 • 199 317 1,436 28.18 1933 5,144 3,787 586 559 145 287 1,557 26.38 1934 5,355 5,907 617 557 177 295 1,446 27,01 1955 5,514 4,053 674 597 185 205 1,461 26.50 19 56 4,970 3,446 721 355 203 247 1,524 30.66 In t a b l e XXI. the f i g u r e s show that i n Canada the pro-p o r t i o n of repeaters was greater i n 1936 than f o r any other year given. In 1936 approximately one i n every three j u v e n i l e delinquents had been i n court before, one of every seven had had one previous c o n v i c t i o n , and one of every s i x more than one previous c o n v i c t i o n . The average year shows one i n four, one i n nine, and one i n s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the preceding groups. 2 From these 1936 data i t appears that 1,524 repeaters were arrest e d and convicted i n Canada on an average of 2.9 times each. 3 The Gluecks found that each r e c i d i v i s t included i n t h e i r Boston 1. 2. 3. Annual Report of j u v e n i l e Delinquents f o r Canada 19 36. Later data not a v a i l a b l e . Glueck, S. and Glueck, E. op. Git., p. 233. 131 survey was i n d i c t e d an average of 3.6 times. In a survey conducted by the w r i t e r i n 1938 one i n every f i v e of the Biscoq commitments had been sentenced before. TABLE XXII. 1 RELIGIOUS STATISTICS OE 875 BISCOQ, BOYS A p o s t o l i c F a i t h 1 B a p t i s t • 56 B i b l e Student l Brethren 2 Buddhist 2 Chinese Mission-- l C h r i s t i a n Science 5 Church of England 150 Congregational l Doukhobor • 2 Pour Square 5 Gospel H a l l l Greek C a t h o l i c — 12 Greek Orthodox-- —-•— 2 Inter-denominational l Jewish : : l L a t t e r Day Sa i n t s 2 Lutheran-- 15 Methodist • •-- — 56 M i s s i o n • 2 New Thought • ,-• 1 Non-denominational-- 10 Pentec o s t a l 12 P r e s b y t e r i a n— 162 Protestant (Unclassified.;- 10 Pyramid Temple 2 Roman C a t h o l i c • 225 Russian Ghurch 2 S a l v a t i o n Army 50 Seventh Day Adventist 8 United -115 To t a l -875 In t a b l e XXII. the f i g u r e s are somewhat misleading. The data tend to give the impression that an unwarranted pro-p o r t i o n of the young delinquents are -ttoman C a t h o l i c s , i t must 1. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 132 be r e a l i z e d , however, that while many branches of the pro-t e s t a n t f a i t h are l i s t e d , the Roman Ca t h o l i c s are c l a s s i f i e d under one heading only* The r e l i g i o u s s t a t i s t i c s are included, not to suggest that any one denomination produces more j u v e n i l e delinquents than any other but, to point out that no one r e -l i g i o n has a monopoly* The boys when entering Biscoq i n d i c a t e on t h e i r admission report-sheets the r e l i g i o u s f a i t h to which they belong. Close a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the youths, however, leaves l i t t l e doubt as to the lack of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l t r a i n i n g before t h e i r commitment to the I n d u s t r i a l School. Church s e r v i c e s are held every Sunday f o r a l l the boys at Biscoq. In the morning the Roman C a t h o l i c s attend church at Port Coquitlam w h i l e , i n the afternoon, s e r v i c e s are oonduoted f o r the balance of the school population i n the Biscoq audi-torium by various protestant organizations.. Both groups have B i b l e study periods once a week. / TABLE XXIII. 1 BIRTH PLACES OF 673 BISCOQ, BOYS B r i t i s h Columbia 388 A l b e r t a — 78 Saskatchewan 52 Manitoba 18 Ontario • • 20 Quebec .11 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d - - - 1 Nova S c o t i a •- 4 A u s t r a l i a •-• 2 Scotland 14 South A f r i c a 1 Czecho-Slovakia 3 Switzerland---- 1 England 32 I r e l a n d 3 Wales----- 5 China 2 F i n l a n d 1 G a l i c i a 1 Holland 1 I t a l y 4 Norway 3 Poland 2 Russia 5 Sweden 3 U. S. A.--28 T o t a l 675 1. O f f i c i a l Biscoq records. 153 Table X X I I I . shows that 388 boys or f i f t y - e i g h t per cent were born i n B r i t i s h Columbia; 562 or eighty-three per cent i n Canada; 619 or ninety-two per cent i n the B r i t i s h Impire; and f i f t y - t h r e e or eight per cent i n parts of the world f o r e i g n to the B r i t i s h Empire. CHAPTER V I I . COMPARISON OP METHODS IN THE LIGHT OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER 711. COMPARISON 01 METHODS IN THE LIGHT OE RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS How s u c c e s s f u l i s the present method of dealing with j u v e n i l e delinquents i n B r i t i s h Columbia? How do the r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n programme and follow-up records compare w i t h tho.se i n other s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n North America? How do the graduates of the new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n compare wi t h those of the Brankin regime? These and numerous other questions of the same type have been asked by many people i n B r i t i s h C o l -umbia. The w r i t e r conducted a survey i n 1938 (see t a b l e XXIV.) on 230 c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y consecutive cases and found that a re-markably small number (20.42 per cent) of boys were r e c i d i v i s t s to Biscoq or received sentence by a higher court a f t e r being r e -leased from the I n d u s t r i a l School. I t must be pointed out, how-ever, that i n t h i s survey, a s u f f i c i e n t time had not elapsed be-tween the i n i t i a l commitments and the follow-up work to make the percentage of apparently s u c c e s s f u l adjustments r e l i a b l e . TABLE XXIV. EOLLOW-UP RECORDS OE 250 BISCOQ, BOYS 5 or 66.52% 0 3 V or 11.73%"} ) or 8.69% j Home 153 Oakalla ' 17" P e n i t e n t i a r y . — 8' P. Saskatchewan J a i l 2) ^ 20.42% Repeaters < . 20 Transferred to Mental H o s p i t a l — 5 Poster Home- . 12 or 5.21% Working away from home • 11 or 4.78% Deported • 1 Dead-- • —-• — — 1_ T o t a l 230 134 135 In order to secure r e s u l t s over a longer period, data were gathered on the behavior of two-,hundred Biscoq boys sub-sequent to t h e i r release from the c o r r e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n . I n-formation was secured on two groups* The f i r s t consisted of one hundred of the same boys who were used i n the 1938 survey who. were committed to the I n d u s t r i a l School from duly 1, 1954 to February 18, 1956 and who came under the influence of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Mr. F. 0. Boyes. The second group consisted of one hundred boys who had entered the school i n the January 1, 1930, to A p r i l 3, 1931 i n t e r v a l during the p r i n c i p a l s h i p of Mr* David Brankin. The complete f i n d i n g s w i t h respect to these two groups appear i n Appendix G and a summary i s presented i n t a b l e XXV * Before conclusions can be drawn as to the number of B i s -coq graduates who had e i t h e r succeeded or f a i l e d i n r e a d j u s t i n g t h e i r behavior i n a socially-approved manner, i t i s necessary to set some a r b i t r a r y standard of s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e conduct. I n t a b l e s XXVI. and XXVII, a l l boys who had no record i n a higher court were considered as having made s a t i s f a c t o r y ad-justments w h i l e those who were sentenced i n an adult c r i m i n a l court i n B r i t i s h Columbia or any other part of Canada were, r e -garded as f a i l u r e s . Recommitments to Biscoq were not included i n t h i s f a i l u r e group because data on these were not a v a i l a b l e . From t a b l e XXV* i t can be seen that s i x t y - t h r e e per cent of the Brankin and s i x t y per cent of the Boyes graduates were not arrested a f t e r being released from the I n d u s t r i a l School. I t must be pointed out, however, that although approximately 136 the same number of boys from both groups did not appear i n higher court a f t e r completing a sentence to Biscoq., one must be c a r e f u l when i n t e r p r e t i n g these r e s u l t s . In the Brankin a d m i n i s t r a t i o n when a seventeen, eighteen, or nineteen year o l d boy became involved i n f u r t h e r t r o u b l e he u s u a l l y was r e -committed t o the I n d u s t r i a l School and thus does not appear as a f a i l u r e i n t a b l e XXV. During the Boyes p r i n c i p a l s h i p released youths of a s i m i l a r age, when apprehended and sen-tenced f o r behavior contrary to s o c i a l s t a t u t e s , were f r e -quently t r i e d i n a higher p o l i c e court and sentenced to an adult penal i n s t i t u t i o n . A p e r u s a l of Biscoq commitment records and a study of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s computed on the follow-up groups substantiates t h i s statement. Commitments to Biscoq Brankin Boyes Adnii n i s t r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 19 31--53 .. 1955—57 Average age of commitments'—15.8 years --15 years Eighteen years and ov e r — - — 1 3 . 9 % - 6.2% Seventeen years and over—•—32.8% —• 26.2% In a system s i m i l a r to that i n force during the Boyes p r i n c i p a l s h i p many of the seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen year o l d Brankin r e c i d i v i s t s would have been sentenced to Oak-a l l a and, according to the standards accepted i n t h i s survey, would have been regarded as f a i l u r e s . In the Boyes group twenty-three per cent received only one sentence a f t e r com-p l e t i n g t h e i r Biscoq term and had no f u r t h e r p o l i c e record. Under the Brankin a d m i n i s t r a t i o n many of t h i s number would have been classed as successes because they would have been 137 returned to Biscoq and thus would show no adult c r i m i n a l record. As a r e s u l t of the p o l i c y adopted by the p o l i c e judges and magistrates these older delinquents were senten-ced to Oakalla and thus appear i n t a b l e XXVII. as f a i l u r e s . Consequently, i t f o l l o w s that the percentage of apparently s u c c e s s f u l adjustments of Brankin graduates would be some-what reduced i f the same sentencing p o l i c y had been i n force then as was p r a c t i s e d during the -tfoyes regime. The longer sentences and more frequent r e c i d i v i s m as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s compiled from information o u t l i n e d i n Appendix G i n d i c a t e that delinquent habits of behavior were more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Brankin graduates than i n the boys released during the Boyes a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Brankin Boyes Average time served i n Oakalla and equivalent Canadian penal i n s t i t u t i o n s . 15.1 months 13.4 months Average time served i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . 4.3 years 2.6 years Number of repeaters to Oakalla and equivalent Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . 15 8 Number of r e c i d i v i s t s to Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . 5 1 Both groups used i n t h i s survey compare favourably w i t h 1 other follow-up i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d out by the Gluecks and 2 Healy and Bronner i n the United St a t e s . While delinquent 1. Glueck, S. and Glueck, E. One Thousand Juvenile Delinquents. Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1934. p. 102. 2. Healy, W. and Bronner, A. New Ligh t on Delinquency and I t s Treatment. New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1936. p. 171. 138 behavior was no longer a problem i n approximately s i x t y per cent of both Biscoq groups and f i f t y per cent of the boys studied by Healy and Bronner had no fu r t h e r records, only nineteen per cent of the youths i n v e s t i g a t e d by the Gluecks showed s u c c e s s f u l adjustment a f t e r a f i v e year span f o l l o w i n g treatment by the Boston j u v e n i l e court. A tabular comparison of follow-up work wi t h the Glueck, Brankin, and Boyes groups follows i n t a b l e XXV. TABLE XXV. PERCENTAGE Off RECIDIVISM OF THREE GROUPS Off JUVENILE DELINQUENTS Times A r r e s t e d Gluecks 1000 cases Number % Brankin 100 cases Number % Boyes 100 cases Number % 0 190 19 63 65 60 60 1 154 15 14 14 23 23 2 167 17 7 7 11 11 3 126 13 7 7 2 2 4 96 10 3 3 2 2 5 78 8 4 4 1 1 6 41 4 0 0 0 0 7 31 3 1 1 1 1 8 and over 56 6 1 1 0 0 unknown 61 6 0 0 0 0 more than 1 595 60 23 23 17 17 Any person f a m i l i a r with the j u v e n i l e delinquency problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia tends to be i n t e r e s t e d i n a comparison and contrast of the p o s i t i o n s held by t h a t province and other i n -d u s t r i a l schools on c e r t a i n p e r t i n e n t questions important i n the modern treatment f o r y o u t h f u l offenders of the penal code. I n order to present a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t views h e l d by superintendents of i n d u s t r i a l schools i n various parts of North America, t y p i c a l r e p l i e s to a questionnaire, conducted 139 1 by H. Atkinson, Superintendent of the Manitoba Home f o r Boys, and sent to f o r t y - t h r e e heads of reform schools i n Canada and the United States, are included i n Appendix B. As to the value of the.indeterminate sentence Atkinson reported that p r a c t i c a l l y , one hundred percent of the reform school superintendents were i n favor of such a commitment and supported the B r i t i s h Columbia view that " i t encourages a boy to do h i s best so that he might be considered f o r an early 2 r e l e a s e " . Although many of the r e p l i e s stated that there was no apparent weaknesses i n the indeterminate sentenoe a few drew a t t e n t i o n to c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s . Both the B r i t i s h C o l -umbia and Rhode I s l a n d reports i n d i c a t e d a b e l i e f that "the 3 system w i l l be as weak or as strong as the administrator i s " . The Superintendent of the Quebec Reformatory at Shawbri.dge suggested that the greatest d i f f i c u l t y was that an i n d e f i n i t e sentence frequently ereated problems i n dealing w i t h parents. Although, as has been stated p r e v i o u s l y , the r e p l i e s i n -di c a t e d that the m a j o r i t y of the heads of i n d u s t r i a l schools accepted the value of an indeterminate sentence, a few wire c a r e f u l to suggest a maximum period to be served by a youth on any one oharge. B r i t i s h Columbia approved an age l i m i t of 1. The author i s indebted to Mr. Atkinson f o r permission to use the r e s u l t s of h i s as yet u n f i n i s h e d survey, ( e a r l y 1941). 2. Atkinson, H. Survey on J u v e n i l e Delinquency. 1941. See Appendix B, p. 148 3. Loc. c i t . 140 1 twenty-one years while W h i t t i e r State School i n C a l i f o r n i a reported that a maximum sentence of two years was d e s i r a b l e . A m a j o r i t y of the school o f f i c i a l s f e l t that p r o v i s i o n should be made f o r the detention of a boy u n t i l he had reached h i s t w e n t y - f i r s t birthday when such a c t i o n seemed advisable. While p r a o t i c a l l y every school appeared to appreciate the v i t a l importance of preparing the home to receive the boy upon r e l e a s e , many of the superintendents agreed w i t h the 2 B r i t i s h Columbia report that t h i s phase of work was unfortun-3 a t e l y neglected. I n a few schools, such as W h i t t i e r S t a t e , there was a placement department the o f f i c i a l s of which de-voted t h e i r e n t i r e time to t h i s problem. As to the type of a f t e r - c a r e provided by the sohools most seemed to depend on the government s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies. Some o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s had t h e i r own parole o f f i o e r s w h i l e others p r e v a i l e d upon the probation o f f i c e r s of l a r g e r centres to check the behavior of released boys. One school required a monthly r e p o r t , w r i t t e n by the boy and approved by the l o c a l court o f f i c e r . In one st a t e f i v e s o c i a l workers attempted to look a f t e r the conduct of approximately s i x hundred boys. The i n s t i t u t i o n r e p o r t i n g from New York seemed to be the best equip-ped i n t h i s respect w i t h i t s s t a f f of s o c i a l workers providing continuous s u p e r v i s i o n of the youths a f t e r release* 1. Appendix B. p. 150 2. Loc. c i t . 3. Loc c i t . 141 From the Atkinson survey i t appears that follow-up work w i t h j u v e n i l e delinquents has not yet been given the proper a t t e n t i o n by the a u t h o r i t i e s . While p r a c t i c a l l y a l l superintendents recognized the value of probation work, a large percentage of them were handicapped by i n s u f f i c i e n t funds and an apathetic a t t i t u d e on the part of c e r t a i n gov-ernment o f f i c i a l s . As has been stated p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s t h e s i s , the standard of follow-up work w i t h graduates of the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School a t Coquitlam i s f a r from i d e a l . 1 t The m a j o r i t y of superintendents, i n c l u d i n g Mr. Ross at Biscoq, favor separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r delinquent and neglected c h i l d r e n . They recognize that a boy, when committed to a r e -form s c h o o l , tends to lose some i n d e f i n a b l e character s t r e n g t h which he f i n d s d i f f i c u l t to regain upon re l e a s e . Although the r e p l i e s to Atkinson's questionnaire i n d i c a t e d that many modern i n d u s t r i a l sohools are .constructive ..and h e l p f u l i n t h e i r work, the o l d t r a d i t i o n s and prejudices s t i l l are common i n the minds of the general population; Consequently, the boy often has to contend with an a t t i t u d e of s u s p i c i o n on the part of h i s assoc-i a t e s and prospective employers a f t e r h i s release from a reform-a t o r y . He must oft e n f i g h t f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y which h i s experiences i n an i n d u s t r i a l school have produced. A few of the superintendents, strangely enough, advooated one i n s t i t u t i o n f o r both delinquent and neglected c h i l d r e n . One 1. Appendix B. p. 150 142 o f f i c i a l made the unsubstantiated r e p l y that "neglected 1 c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y become delinquent". The o f f i c i a l s at the V i r g i n i a reformatory apparently a l s o hold the b e l i e f that the same problem i s encountered i n the case of both delinquent c h i l d r e n and neglected c h i l d r e n . The superintendents questioned were almost unanimous i n the opinion that a record of a boy's previous conduct should aocompany h i s a r r i v a l at an i n d u s t r i a l school. They seemed to f e e l that the time i s long overdue when i t should be made com-pulsory f o r a l l courts to have access to oomplete records p r i o r to committal. Many of the o f f i c i a l s i n d i c a t e d that i t was im-po s s i b l e f o r wise judgment to be enacted unless a l l the f a c t s about the boy himself, h i s home, school, and community were considered by the court. Although many reform school heads appreciate the value of previous conduct records, some, as i s the case of B r i t i s h 2 Columbia, seldom get any information except the warrant of com-mitment when a boy f i r s t i s admitted to the I n d u s t r i a l School. In a large p r o p o r t i o n of the reform i n s t i t u t i o n s the boys were given t r a i n i n g i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B r i t i s h Columbia, Man-i t o b a , Mew York, and Rhode Island encouraged c o n t r o l l e d s e l f -government, while V i r g i n i a suggested that the school should be run by the s t a f f alone. The systems of rewards and punishments range between two 1; Appendix B. p. 151 2. Loc. c i t . 143 extremes. While most of the progressive schools use a p o s i -t i v e appeal and grant c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s f o r good behavior, 1 others, such as the i n s t i t u t i o n at West V i r g i n i a , o f f e r no p a r t i c u l a r awards whatever. At the B r i t i s h Columbia reform school f o r boys, punishment u s u a l l y takes the form of loss of p r i v i l e g e s , at West V i r g i n i a a d d i t i o n a l time i s added to a boy's sentence f o r misconduct. When v i s i t i n g Biscoq i n 1939, Florence Mateer, eminent c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t , stated that the B r i t i s h Columbia i n s t i -t u t i o n compared favorably w i t h the m a j o r i t y of the progressive reformatories w i t h which she was f a m i l i a r i n the United States. In f a c t , she remarked that the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y at Biscoq was considerably more advanced than many of the sohools which she had v i s i t e d i n America. Although she appeared to t h i n k the programme on the whole was e x c e l l e n t , she agreed that the school was handicapped by lack of adequate equipment and an unfortunate l o c a t i o n near a mental h o s p i t a l . In 1938 a com-mittee sponsored by the Dominion Government to Investigate conditions i n penal i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada placed B r i t i s h C o l -umbia i n the top group i n the treatment of young delinquents. From the data presented i n the preceding pages, i t i s c l e a r that the B r i t i s h Columbia Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School at Coquitlam rates high among s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada and the United States. 1. Appendix B. p. 154 144 As an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the p r i s o n an i n d u s t r i a l school i s an advancement but i t i s questionable whether fundamentally a reform school i s anything b e t t e r than a makeshift—which r a i s e s the issue of the balance of the b e n e f i t s and the det- . rim e n t a l e f f e c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment i n general, The suggestion has been made that foster-homes should supplant the i n d u s t r i a l school. This seems an i d e a l to which we might aspi r e but f o r the present i t o f f e r s p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which are unsurmountable. Although reformatories are apparently necessary f o r some yo u t h f u l offenders, there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t adequate pro-b a t i o n work, sympathetic j u v e n i l e courts, c o n t r o l l e d r e c r e -a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , c a r e f u l foster-home placement, and par-e n t a l education w i l l prove a more promising means of dea l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the problem of j u v e n i l e delinquency. APPENDIX A RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA APPENDIX A REO OMMENDATIONS OE THE ADVISORY G OMMTTTEE ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH,.'COLUMBIA 1* The commitment p r o v i s i o n s of the p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r i a l school acts should be amended, to b r i n g them i n t o l i n e w i t h those of the Dominion Ju v e n i l e Delinquents Act. 2. The j u v e n i l e courts should be empowered to make an order upon the responsible parent or guardian of a c h i l d committed, by order of the court, to an i n -d u s t r i a l school or to a foster-home, to contribute towards the costs of maintenance of the c h i l d i n such school or foster-home at a r a t e not greater than one d o l l a r per day. 5. Arrangements should be made through the j u v e n i l e .courts and i n d u s t r i a l schools f o r funds to meet the costs of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n foster-homes, so that i n oases where i t seems d e s i r a b l e the courts or the schools can provide foster-home care f o r c h i l d r e n without undue d i f f i c u l t y ; 4. A c t i v e j u v e n i l e courts should be extended to cover the whole provinoe so that the J u v e n i l e Delinquents Act can be used i n connection with every court appearance of a j u v e n i l e . 5. There should be appointed one senior j u v e n i l e court judge f o r the province w i t h a number of deputy judges to serve under him and to preside over oourts i n the d i f f e r e n t s e ctions of the province* 6. The P r o v i n c i a l Government should assume complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the f i n a n c i a l support of j u v e n i l e courts, thus pro-v i d i n g a s e r v i c e which i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the small municipal u n i t s to oonduet e f f e c t i v e l y . 7. I f recommendation s i x i s accepted, c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given to the a b o l i t i o n of the present charge on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s under the P u b l i c I n -s t i t u t i o n s I n demnification ( M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) Act f o r maintenance of c h i l d r e n sent to the i n d u s t r i a l schools. 8* The committee of three persons provided f o r under the J u v e n i l e Delinquents A c t — t h e j u v e n i l e court judge, the superintendent of the i n d u s t r i a l schools and the Superintendent of Neglected C h i l d r e n — 145 146 should meet form a l l y , exoept when t h i s i s o l e a r l y impossible or unnecessary, t o consider the release of every boy or g i r l from an i n d u s t r i a l school. 9* The Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School should be removed from the present quarters at Coquitlam, which are un-s a t i s f a c t o r y , to more s u i t a b l e quarters p r o v i d i n g f o r : a. Some measure of segregation f o r d i f f e r e n t types; b* The more e f f e c t i v e detention of d i f f i c u l t boys; and c. Adequate f a c i l i t i e s i n the way of shop and academic equipment, gym-nasium, playground, etc* 10* There should be e s t a b l i s h e d an i n s t i t u t i o n of the B o r s t a l type f o r boys and young men from s i x t e e n to twenty-one years o f age to which there would be committed the older and more d i f f i c u l t boys now sent t o the Boys' I n d u s t r i a l School, as w e l l as some of the young men who are now committed to Oakalla P r i s o n larm or to the Dominion P e n i t e n t i a r y . 11. Those boys and g i r l s now i n the I n d u s t r i a l Schools who are d e f i n i t e l y subnormal or mentally unbalanced should be t r a n s f e r r e d to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hos-p i t a l s f o r maintenance and t r a i n i n g , and i n future the courts should seek through the appropriate channels, to have c h i l d r e n o f ' t h i s type placed i n the mental h s o p i t a l s * 12. Both j u v e n i l e courts and i n d u s t r i a l schools should employ the methods of parole and probation as f u l l y as possible,, and the extension and strengthening of the e x i s t i n g probation and follow-up s e r v i c e s i s necessary t o achieve t h i s r e s u l t . 13. The j u v e n i l e courts and 'the i n d u s t r i a l schools should a v a i l themselves f r e e l y of the ass i s t a n c e and advice that can be obtained from expert psychologists and p s y c h i a t r i s t s , and the p u b l i c school p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e and the p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s e r v i c e of the mental h o s p i t a l s should be extended so that they can serve the courts and the I n d u s t r i a l sohools adequately* 14. C o l l a t e r a l s e r v i c e s should be strengthened and de-veloped that w i l l prevent delinquency or w i l l a s s i s t i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of delinquents. Such s e r v i c e s 14? include truant o f f i c e r s and s p e c i a l classes f o r backward and d i f f i c u l t c h i l d r e n under the pu b l i c school system; v o c a t i o n a l guidance, apprenticeship and placement s e r v i c e s under the Department of Labour; supervised playground and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s under the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; and boys* and g i r l s * clubs, s e t t l e ' ment houses, B i g Brother a s s o c i a t i o n s , etc., under p r i v a t e agencies. 14. There should be continued study of the delinquency problem to explore i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l aspects of the problem which have been recognized by the Committee, but which have not been considered adequately. •f > i APPENDIX B j i EXCERPT FROM A SURVEY ON INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS ' CONDUCTED BY MR. HARRY ATKINSON, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE MANITOBA HOME FOR BOYS AT RENNIE, MANITOBA APPENDIX B EXCERPT FROM A SURVEY ON INDUSTRIAL SOHOOLS CONDUCTED BY MR. HARRY ATKINSON. SUPERINTENDENT Off THE MANITOBA HOME FOR BOYS AT RENNIE. MANITOBA question: What i s the value of an indeterminate sentence? B r i t i s h "The value of an indeterminate sentence i s that Columbia i t encourages a boy t o do h i s best so that he might be considered f o r an e a r l y release* The Attorney General has ordered a l l Juvenile Courts to f o l l o w t h i s p r a c t i c e . I n B. G* the warrant of commitment states "and there to him p r i s o n and keep him u n t i l he s h a l l be discharged and released under the p r o v i s i o n s of s a i d Section 20 or u n t i l otherwise he s h a l l be discharged i n due course of Law". This clause seems to pro-vide a loop-hole should a d e f i n i t e term be stated i n the commitment papers." New "We look upon the treatment program of a t r a i n -York i n g school i n the same l i g h t that we regard the sanitorium f o r tubuoular. No one can p r e d i c t how long i t w i l l take to cure a patient suf-f e r i n g from t u b e r c u l o s i s nor can any one t e l l how long i t w i l l take t o cure a case of d e l i n -quent behavior* There are so many f a c t o r s i n -volved and the s t a f f of a t r a i n i n g school who l i v e w i t h the c h i l d are i n a much bet t e r p o s i -t i o n to evaluate t h i s than the Judge can before treatment begins. Treatment then becomes not a matter of time, but a matter of s e l f improve-ment. We do not b e l i e v e that any time l i m i t should be set except perhaps the age of 21 years f o r treatment." Rhode " I consider a boy should enter the I n s t i t u t i o n I s l a n d i n much the same manner as an i n d i v i d u a l enters a hospital--remain u n t i l cured. No one can t e l l how long i t would r e q u i r e at the time a boy appears i n Court, The indeterminate sentence allows f o r t h i s . D e f i n i t e commitments are i n -c l i n e d to make the I n s t i t u t i o n a J u n i o r J a i l where punishment i s the reward," Wis- " A l l boys are committed to t h i s I n s t i t u t i o n un-consin t i l they reach the age of 21 years. Boys may, however, on good behavior be paroled i n from 14 to 18 months. At the time of parole*-, they are placed under s u p e r v i s i o n and probation of 148 149 the Parole Department. This department looks a f t e r these hoys u n t i l they reach the age of •21. I have had no experience w i t h short term „or determinate sentence." Question; What are the weaknesses of the indeterminate sentence? B r i t i s h "The weakness of the indeterminate sentence Columbia as I see i t , i s the d i f f i c u l t y we run i n t o sometimes i n g e t t i n g the Judge to consent to release or parole when we recommend i t . I t may be that the boy has been a general n u i s -ance around h i s community and there i s a desire to r i d the community of the i n d i v i d u a l and pass the buck along to someone e l s e . There appears to be a weakness i n the g i v i n g a l a d a s t a t e d term and t h a t i s the lack of uniform-i t y or i n e q u a l i t y i n j u s t i c e . One boy may be given s i x months f o r t h e f t of an automobile i n one Court, while i n another a l a d i s given two years. We have many examples on f i l e that t h i s i n e q u a l i t y breeds discontent among inmates." Rhode "The system w i l l be as weak or strong as the I s l a n d administrator i s . I f he i s weak and e a s i l y t a l k e d i n t o schemes then p o s s i b l e p a r t i a l i t y and p o l i t i c s may enter the system." Question: Should there be a d e f i n i t e end s t a t e d to an indeterminate sentence? B r i t i s h "An age l i m i t of twenty-one years i s a d e s i r a b l e Golumbia end." Manitoba "No one r a i s e d the point that an indeterminate sentence without a time l i m i t placed too much power i n the hands of the Superintendent. I f e e l t h a t t h i s point i s important." V i r g i n i a "Yes. I t h i n k so, but the end should be r a t h e r an age l i m i t f o r a boy than a d e f i n i t e number of years. We automatically release a boy e n t i r e l y when he becomes 19-§- years o l d and has been away from the School as much as one year, knowing then i f he gets i n t o f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y he w i l l go on to the P e n i t e n t i a r y or serve a j a i l sen-tence." Rhode "No, I b e l i e v e i t should depend wholly upon the I s l a n d boy's conduct and a t t i t u d e towards s o c i e t y as 150 w e l l as tiie community i n t o which he has to re t u r n being ready to r e c e i v e him. M W h i t t i e r " I t h i n k a period of approximately 20 to 24 "months i s a de s i r a b l e time." Question:, What help i s given by your school or i t s agencies to prepare the home to receive the boys upon release? B r i t i s h " I t i s of v i t a l importance. I f e e l that i n Columbia most cases and mostly everywhere t h i s important phase i s sadly neglected. ?fhy send a p a t i e n t to a h o s p i t a l i f , when he has recovered, he i s to be returned t o the same environment where the disease has been acquired?" W h i t t i e r "We have a placement department doing t h i s work only. The members devote t h e i r e n t i r e time to t h i s work." V i r g i n i a "A very f i n e question. Therein l i e s the cause of much r e c i d i v i s m . We make an e f f o r t through the l o c a l departments of p u b l i c welfare to pre-pare the home and the neighborhood f o r the boy's r e t u r n . We also allow v i s i t s home at three per-iods during the year of four days each to help prepare the community and the home f o r the boy's r e c e p t i o n . The l o c a l departments of P u b l i c Wel-far e t r y to strengthen weak f a m i l i e s i n every way p o s s i b l e . " New "Our School has a s t a f f of s o c i a l workers--10 York i n number—who make and maintain contact w i t h the home from the time the boy i s committed u n t i l he i s discharged from parole. These workers work w i t h the home." Question: Do you t h i n k delinquent and neglected c h i l d -ren should be sent to the same i n s t i t u t i o n ? B r i t i s h " D e f i n i t e l y not, unless you have a plant large Columbia enough to provide complete segregation and separate s t a f f . " Rhode "No. One i s the act of the i n d i v i d u a l and the Island other the act of someone e l s e . Treatment should be e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t , which i s hard t o admin-i s t e r without having the delinquent t h i n k there i s u n f a i r p l a y . The neglected c h i l d should be 151 allowed the freedom of going and coming to school or attending normal functions o f f the grounds." New r "This would depend upon the number and pro-York p o r t i o n of delinquent and neglected c h i l d r e n i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n . We probably a l l get neglected c h i l d r e n who come i n adjudged as delinquent." W h i t t i e r "The b e t t e r the segregation, the b e t t e r the programs." V i r g i n i a "Yes, the one merges i n t o the other." Concord "Neglected c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y become delinquents." Question: B r i t i s h Columbia West V i r g i n i a V i r g i n i a New York Rhode I s l a n d What records of the boy's previous conduct do you get when the boy comes to you? Do you consider these records of any value? "We seldom get any' information along w i t h the Warrant of Commitment and depend on the D i s t r i o t Welfare V i s i t o r s t o secure t h i s f o r us. Some times i t i s weeks before we get a true p i c t u r e of the home and surrounding i n f l u e n c e s . " "Case summary i s prepared by Department of P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e . Very v a l u a b l e . " "Yes, we have a rather complete case f o l d e r of students, made up of t h e " j u v e n i l e courts, the s o c i a l workers, and the Mental Hygiene c l i n i c s records of the boy, g i v i n g h i s f a m i l y h i s t o r y , h i s t o r y of former delinquencies mental and p h y s i c a l r a t i n g e t c . " " "We get a probation o f f i c e r ' s r e p o r t . In some instances, these are decidedly v a l u a b l e . I t depends upon the standards of case work o b t a i n -i n g i n the c o u r t . " "School record, home record and any other data that our s o c i a l worker can c o l l e c t * This i n -formation i s very h e l p f u l to the psychometrist and a l l who are d e a l i n g w i t h the youngster* I t shows what has been done and the success, and i s of tremendous ass i s t a n c e i n t r e a t i n g the case." Wls-o.onsin "From some o f our l a r g e r c i t i e s , l i k e Milwaukee, Kenosha and Racine, we have very complete records 152 concerning the boys previous conduct. From some of the smaller c i t i e s we receive none. I wish we could receive a complete record of ,the boys previous conduct on a l l our admissions as I consider t h i s very valuable." Question: Do the s t a f f run the school e n t i r e l y or are the students given any t r a i n i n g i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? B r I t i s h "We do have self-government groups and ample Columbia- opportunity i s given to the inmates to take part i n planning programs and c a r r y i n g out a c t i v i t i e s . " Manitoba "The c a p t a i n of each cottage u n i t confers w i t h Superintendent weekly f o r suggestions re-pro-grams on r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and they assume c e r t a i n duties i n r o u t i n e work and a s s i s t i n l o c a t i n g escapees e t c . They are given a l i m i t a u t h o r i t y over work groups as f a r as they show a b i l i t y to exercise i t p r o p e r l y . The value of t h i s phase of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e l i e s i n the growth of confidence and co-operation between s t a f f and boys. Care must be exercised at a l l times f o r proper c o n t r o l . A very f i n e camar-adie has developed between the s t a f f and the boys through the years. This has enabled us, I f e e l , to get c l o s e r to the boys and b u i l d up leadership and a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t has a l s o done much to remove that i n d e f i n a b l e b a r r i e r between s t a f f and boys which often pre-vents the best work being done i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e . " New "A Student C o u n c i l , composed of two members York from each cottage meeting twice a month and b r i n g i n g to the s t a f f problems i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d and the s t a f f suggests t o them matters i n which they can be h e l p f u l . Most cottages have clubs which take some part i n the management of the cottage. Boys do plan programs of a l l sorts under the d i r e c t i o n of the S t a f f . " Rhode "No. Boys are given r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; f o r i n -Xsland stance, the power pla n t which i s one of the-most res p o n s i b l e parts which we have i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s l e f t e n t i r e l y under the charge of a boy who has been t r a i n e d to f i r e , run pumps, e t c . " 153 V i r g i n i a "The S t a f f run the school. The only t r a i n i n g i n l eadership given the boys i s i n f o o t - b a l l , boy-scout work, school entertainment, the f o r -mal school and a modified monitor system i n the cottages. I pe r s o n a l l y , b e l i e v e that the type of boy we get can be taught to lead i n a b e t t e r way by teaching him to f o l l o w good leadership." Question: What i s your system of rewards and punishments? B r i t i s h "Good behavior i s recognized by the granting Columbia of p r i v i l e g e s ; entertainments such as going out to movies, b a s k e t b a l l games, hockey games, etc; tr u c k t r i p s and p i c n i c s ; v i s i t s home; weekly spending allowance and so on* Punishments are i n the form of l o s s of p r i v i l e g e s , e xtra work, and f i n e s . In s e v e r a l eases i t i s necessary to confine lads to detention quarters f o r a time;" "Awards take the form of e x t r a t r i p s , s p e c i a l movies, banquets, s p e c i a l v i s i t s home, banners, et c . Punishment take the form of d e p r i v a t i o n of movies, week-end v i s i t s home, week-end work groups, e t c . " "Out i n s t i t u t i o n i s on the Cottage Plan.. The cottage showing the best a l l - r o u n d achievement, month by month throughout the year, received as a reward i n January an achievement cup. Boys who have had e x c e l l e n t conduct during the month, a f t e r being here s i x months, are allowed a week-end at home* Such boys are c a l l e d Cadets. At Thanks-g i v i n g , Christmas and Easter such boys have a longer time at home. Punishment i s the removal of p r i v i l e g e s , such as bowling, swimming, moving p i c t u r e s , or the p r i v i l e g e — i f they have i t — of smoking." Hew "We have no set scheme of awards and punish-Brunswick ments; What w i l l s u i t one. ciroumstance or boy w i l l not s u i t another and any set scheme has too many dangers. I t i s the broad, general p r i n c i p l e s that count most i n moral education and they cover what the boys w i l l have' to r e -member and use l a t e r i n l i f e . Too much c l u t -t e r i n g the mind with awards and punishments lead to "Nice Evasions" and leave too l i t t l e time f o r the normal development of a "common sense" programme of education. Experience based on normal l i v i n g i s more valuable than " r u l e on thumb" or "co-ersion" provided there i s New York Rhode Is l a n d 154 consistent and repeated emphasis on moral be-havior. I f p e r s i s t e n t mis-behaviour continues a boy should know there i s a sure day of reck-oning. Punishments should be ingenious and always tempered w i t h j u s t i c e . 1 ' Y f h i t t i e r "We work somewhat a merit system, and use denied p r i v i l e g e s f o r c o r r e c t i o n . " Manitoba "Graduated merit system which i s checked up every two weeks. As a boy goes on a higher group he gains more p r i v i l e g e s such as attend-i n g shows, smoking, 5 or 10 day v i s i t home. Bad conduct brings l o s s of p r i v i l e g e s and extra work. Corporal punishment i s used i n extreme cases, but i s gradually f a d i n g out of the p i c t u r e . " " V i r g i n i a "Our present system i s a p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g chart or r e p o r t . E x c e l l e n t conduct i s rewarded w i t h an A, good conduct w i t h a B, f a i r with a C, and poor conduct w i t h a D — o r f a i l u r e . We have the q u a l i t y c r e d i t system, and when a boy has earned 192 q u a l i t y c r e d i t s , he i s considered ready f o r t r i a l on placement. We have a cor-p o r a l punishment administered by one person. I might add that i t i s not f r e e l y used." West V i r g i n i a "Boys are given a d d i t i o n a l time as punish-ment. No p a r t i c u l a r awards o f f e r e d . " APPENDIX C FOLLOW-UP WORK WITH TWO GROUPS OE BISCOQ, BOYS APPENDIX G FOLLOW-UP WORK WITH TWO GROUPS, OF BISCOQ, BOYS TABLE XXVI. FOLLOW-UP WORK WITH ONE HUNDRED GRADUATES OF BRANKIN ADMINISTRATION I n i - Biscoq Oakalla P e n i t e n t i a r y Commitments No Fur-t i a l s Number Commitments Commitments Outside B.C. ther Numb er T o t a l Numb er T o t a l Number T o t a l Commit-Time Time Time ment s Served Served Served R. A. 1191 X V. B. 1180 X R. B. 1164 ' X R. B. 1139 X R.: B. 1129 X Y. B. 1153 X F'e B « 114? X T. B. 1096 X L • G. 1166 4 31 Mo. V* C. 1114 1 6 Mo. 1 2 Y r . 3 •» G. 1148 X A« G. 1117 X He G « 1136 X Ge G » 1095 4 14 Mo, 1 3 Yr. 3*» Go 1183 X L« G • 113? X G. C. 1175 3 6 Mo. cl . C * 3*. D. 1115 1189 X X T . D. 1112 X B. D. 1130 1 1 Mo. 3". D. 1161 2 30 Mo. 1 10 Y r . G. D. 1127 X C . D. 1103 X T . E . F.. E>-1186 1128 X X G « B <> R • Ji> • 1134 1100 X X B« F . 1184 1 3 Mo. G» G. 1158 1 12 Mo. 1 2 Yr. Fe ' G. 1113 X S • H . 1159 X T . H . 1174 1 6 Mo, R. H-. 109? X B. H . 1176 X D. H . 1170 X W. H . 1118 1 12 Mo. 2., 4 Y r . 3". H . 1102 X 155 156 I n i - Biscoq Oakalla P e n i t e n t i a r y Commitments fNo Fur-t i a l s Number Commitments Commitments Outside B.C. ther - , Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Commit-Time Time Time ments Served Served Served K* I . 1124 X J.. I . 1163 X R. J . 1171 X W. 3", 1155 4 13 MO:. G . tTi. 1119 X L.. J* 1094 1 2 Y r . B . K. 1178 5 52 Mo. S • K. 1187 X E • L* 1109 1 3 Mo. 1 6 Mo. W. L. 1138 1 9 Mo. S. L. 1185 1 6 Mo. He Ii • 1141 X D . M. 1132 X J". M. 1182 z 3". M. 1190 3 3 Mo. • i i M. 1121 3 : 18 Mo* M* M. 1111 X R. M. 1167 1 12 Mov L. M. 1143 2 14 Mo. 1 2 Y r. M. M. 1092 1 1 Mo. L. M* 1165 3 15 Y r . E. M. 1151 X G . M. 1145 1 1 Mo. «T. M. 1135 2 6 Y r . 3 13 Mo. H . 0, 1105 1 18 Mo* G . 0 k 1107 X M. 0. 1106 1 ' 3 Yr* E» 0. 1150 X R. P. 1172 5 -.' 27 Mo. •2 4 Y r . E. P. 1110 X G . P. 1177 X S. P. 1120 1 6 Mow A* R. 1152 1 2 Xr. E* R. 1101 X J . •R'. 1142 1 6 Mo* 1 2 Y r. W. B. 1154 X •3". S. 1146 X A. S. 1160 X P. S. 1108 X P. s . 1168 X L. S. 1126 X A. S. 1149 2 14 Mo* ' J . s . 1093 X N* S* 1181 X 3". S. 1116 X V. s . 1140 X 157 I n i - Biscoq Oakalla P e n i t e n t i a r y Commitment s No Fur-t i a l s Number Commitments Commitments Outside B.C. ther Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Commit-Time Time Time ments Served Served Served 3" • S • 1099 X G;. S. 1157 X 0. S. 1098 2 10 Yr. 3". T. 1156 4 59 Mo. 1 2 Y r . Hi T. 1175 2 15 Mo.. M.- T. 1188 X S« T« 1131 X I. T. 1169 X E« T« 1104 X I . w. 1144 X A. W. 1179 X R. W. 1133 1 2 Yr. H. W. 1125 X B. Wi 1123 8 54 Mow M ; Y. 1122 4 . 14 Mo. M . Z. 1162 X T o t a l 50 456 Mo. 16 69 Y r v 2 19 Mo. 65 TABLE, XXVII. FOLLOW-UP WORK WITH ONE HUNDRED GRADUATES OF THE BOYES ADMINISTRATION I n i - Biscoq Oakalla P e n i t e n t i a r y Commitments No Fur-t i a l s Number Commitments Commitment s Outside B.C. ther Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Commit-Time Time Time ments Served Served Served E. A. 1450 X E. A. 1415 1 4 Mo. G. A. 1572 X W. A. 1405 X L. A. 1376 1 1 Mo, N. A. 1575 2 18 Mo. 1 2 Y r , W. A. 1554 2 16 Mo. 1 2 Yr. 1 1 Mo. 3"; B. 1389 1 5 Y r . A. B. 1397 3 36 MO. W. B, 1595 3"". 0» 1415 2 18 Mo, G. C. 1424 1 5 Mo* 3". C. 1455 2 25 Mo. 3". C. 1465 1 16 Mo. 158 I n i - Biscoq Oakalla P e n i t e n t i a r y Commitments No Fur-t i a l s Number Commitments Commitments Outside B.C. ther Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Number T o t a l Commit-Time Time Time ments Served Served Served 3» C • 1363 1 5 M o . L . C. 1432 X R . C. 1447 4 17 Mo. 1 2 Y r. G. 0 • 1403 X C • C • 1457 X A . - C . 1461 X K. D. 1383 X J . D. 1399 X G. D. 1442 X V/. E. 1449 X I . E* 1373 X M.. E« 1344 1 12 Mo. J . E. 1427 X Jw P. 1358 1 5 Mo. W. E. 1463 X E • .b" . 1408 X Hi G. 1374 X E* G. 1437 X J . G. 1411 1 12 Mo, 1 2 Yr. B. G. 1462 X E . H . 1459 X S. H.. 1353 1 6 Mo. As He 1448 6 27 Mo. 1 6 Mo. S:. H. 1407 X R» He 1364 X J". H'» 1445 1 9 Mo . 1 9 Mo. ll. H . 1401 X E . He 1371 1 2 Y r , A . Hv 1390 X 3":. He 1430 1 6 Mo. Hi J . 1352 X Be J". 1377 X M. K. 1438 X D. K. 1392 1 6 Mo. 1 2 Y r . N. K. 1593 X W. K. 1345 X Hi E. 1429 X J . K. 1414 X G. K. 1349 X A . K. 1560 X Ge lie 1362 1 3 Mo. tT« I i . 1440 X 0. L . 1425 X E. L . 1570 1 24 Mo. 1 6 Mo. J . M. 1555 1 12 Mo. J . M. 1569 X 159 I n i - Biscoq Oakalla P e n i t e n t i a r y Commitments No Fur-t i a l s Number Commitments Commitments Outside B.C. ther Number T o t a l Numb er •Total Number T o t a l Commit-Time Time Time ments Served Served Served D. M'. 1433 X D. M. 1406 X R. M. 1359 1 18 Mo. G. M. 1441 X V. M. 1365 X S..M. 1418 1 9 Mo. M. M. 1439 1 6 Mo. 1 J". M. 1426 X S. M-.- 1452 2 8 Yr. J . M-. 1434 1 6 Mo. R. M. 1421 1 1 Mo. J . H. 1398 X P. 0:. 1454 X C. N. 1436 1 9 MO. P. 0. 1412 X A. N. 1550 X E. P. 1458 1'' 6 Mo. E. P. 1443 X L. P. 1351 1 6 Mb. 1 2 Y r. C. P. 1368 X B. Q,, 1391 1 1. Mo. P. R. 1388 X V. R. 1366 1 15 Mo. A. R. 1444 1 6 Mo. B* S. 1420 1 6 Mo. 1 2 Y r . E« S i 1361 X R« S • 1402 X B« So 1348 X L» S • 1446 X A. S. 1396 X E • S. 1419 1 2 Y r. J . S. 1345 X W. S. 1400 X B« T. 1404 1 12 Mo. 1 2 Yr. S. U. 1556 X T. W. 1587 X T. W. 1386 X J . W. 1409 X P. w. 1464 5 16 Mo. 1 6 Mo. w. w. 1431 • . 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