UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The role of French Indo-China in the "new order" for Asia Thwaites, John Beckinton 1941

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1941_A8 T4 R6.pdf [ 7.95MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105635.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105635-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105635-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105635-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105635-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105635-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105635-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105635-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105635.ris

Full Text

L t 5 67. /fw ^gTV/?i!  m  TEE ROLE OF FRENCH INDO-CHINA IB" THE "NEW ORDER" FOR A S I A  John B e c k i n t o n Thwaitea  A Thesis of  submitted, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND P O L I T I C A L SCIENCE  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1941 s  TABLE Off CONTENTS  CHAPTER I .  Background  CHAPTER I I . E c o n o m i c  1  Role of Indo-China  15  CHAPTER I I I . I n d o - C h i n a ' s R o l e i n J a p a n e s e Strategy  .  48  CHAPTER I V .  Indo-China i n A s i a t i c P o l i t i c s  CHAPTER V.  Conclusion  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ...  63 87  ' .'  . . .'.  oOo  »  95  TEE ROLE OF FRENCH INDO-CHINA I N THE. " NEW ORDER" FOR A S I A  CHAPTER I Background The  J a p a n e s e move i n t o F r e n c h  Indo-Chlna  marks t h e o p e n i n g o f a new p h a s e i n t h e a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e New O r d e r i n A s i a .  O c c u p a t i o n of the F r e n c h  c o l o n y i s the r e s u l t o f t h e economic,  d i p l o m a t i c and  m i l i t a r y p r o g r e s s of t h i s New O r d e r i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . I t i s a n o t h e r move i n a n o l d game. The  d r i v e f o r p o l i t i c a l d o m i n a t i o n of  c o n t i n e n t a l A s i a "began j u s t t e n y e a r s ago w i t h t h e nowfamous Mukden " i n c i d e n t " . of p o s t - W o r l d - W a r - I history.  Judged  by t h e w h i r l w i n d p a c e  d i p l o m a c y t h a t e v e n t i s now a n c i e n t  I t marked n e v e r t h e l e s s a d e f i n i t e  p o i n t i n Japanese  turning  p o l i t i c s , a n d a new { b u t n o t e n t i r e l y  unpredictable) departure i n that country's f o r e i g n policy. The y e a r 1931 saw t h e c l i m a x i n t h e three-decade s t r u g g l e of extreme  nationalism against  more l i b e r a l a n d d e m o c r a t i c f o r c e s . features peculiar  Constitutional  to Japan p r o v i d e d the e x t r e m i s t s w i t h  strong i n i t i a l  advantages.  World-wide depression  i n an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l s o c i a l and maladjustments. them t o p l a c e political  P o l i t i c a l repercussions  economic  which  enabled  the blame f o r i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s on  o p p o n e n t s gave t h e r e i n s o f government  e x t r e m i s t hands.  For  ten years  t h i s g r o u p has  i t s h o l d , r e i n f o r c i n g i t s p o s i t i o n by p o l i t i c a l and  resulted  personal violence.  S i n c e 1931  o n l y two  their  into  retained intrigue  civilians  h a v e h e l d o f f i c e as P r i m e M i n i s t e r . . A l l i m p o r t a n t c a b i n e t p o s t s h a v e gone t o r a n k i n g  o f f i c e r s of  the  services* I n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d resulted  o f the t w e n t i e s *  t o e s t a b l i s h a "New  p o l i t i c a l and  To-day J a p a n i s  Order" f o r A s i a .  Her  Its political  u n i t s are  own  t o be  i n t o a "Co-Prosperity Sphere"; that i s , coerced "co-operation"  the  e c o n o m i c l e a d e r s h i p i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  on t h a t C o n t i n e n t .  united  into  i n a J a p a n e s e " s p h e r e " of: i n f l u e n c e , f o r  t h e " p r o s p e r i t y " o f J a p a n and President Roosevelt  1.  change  i n t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f power p o l i t i c s f o r  "friendship policy" out  this  Japan alone.  1-  remarked" , " i s n o t  F i r e s i d e S p e e c h of F e b r u a r y 16,  new,  1941.  That, and  as  i t is  - 3 -  n o t order"-. M a o h t p o l i t i k i n A s i a , as i n E u r o p e , i s to  s o l v e , t h e c o m p l i c a t e d economic  problems  w i t h a l l t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  of a n a t i o n ,  ramifications*  f a m i l i a r i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t h e much-discu.9sed  Most  "population  p r o b l e m " , w h i c h many r e g a r d as f u n d a m e n t a l : The p r e s s u r e of a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s (1930) t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m o f modern J a p a n . I t u n d e r l i e s most o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s perplexing d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t e x p l a i n s the e f f o r t s t h a t a r e b e i n g made t o i m p r o v e a g r i c u l t u r e and r e c l a i m w a s t e l a n d , t o d e v e l o p m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and to expand t r a d e . I t i s the b a s i s of Japan's foreign policy. I t has become a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s .»» i n t h e p r e s s and periodicals i t is being discussed more w i d e l y , p r o b a b l y , t h a n any o t h e r s u b j e c t . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r e s e n t - d a y economic c o n d i t i o n of J a p a n , t h e f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r o b l e m must be a p p r e c i a t e d . 2 The  shortage, r e a l or a n t i c i p a t e d ,  f o o d s t u f f s i s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t problem.  a s p e c t of the p o p u l a t i o n  Numbers p r e s s on d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e , - w h i c h  has r e a c h e d t h e e x t e n s i v e and p a s s e d t h e i n t e n s i v e of her  exploitation*  in  2.  Japan cannot produce  t h e home p r o d u c e r .  margins  enough r i c e f o r  own n e e d s , y e t i m p o r t e d r i c e f r o m t h e c o l o n i e s  sells  of  under-  The r i c e q u e s t i o n has i n d e e d  some ways become one o f p r i c e :  how  to r a i s e  J . E . O r c h a r d ; J a p a n ' s E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n ; p.  real  6.  i nc ome» A l t h o u g h t h e end o f J a p a n ' s population  own  i n c r e a s e i s i n s i g h t , her purchases of  c o l o n i a l f o o d s t u f f s a r e b e g i n n i n g to produce  on t h e s e  p e o p l e s t h e same e f f e c t a s d i d w e s t e r n i z a t i o n o f J a p a n . As t h e i r l i v i n g s t a n d a r d and numbers r i s e ,  i t i s not  impossible that colonial  e x p o r t e r s may some day e x p e r i e n c e  a food shortage of t h e i r  own*^  The  r i s i n g Japanese  introduces a further  complication.  standard of l i v i n g This r i s e i s stimulated  b o t h by n a t i o n a l p r i d e , and by a v e r y n a t u r a l d e s i r e t o share i n the world's m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s .  One e f f e c t o f  w e s t e r n example h a s b e e n t o i n c r e a s e t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f "western" foods, which normally form a very minor p a r t of Japanese  diet.  B u t s i n c e l a n d c a n n o t be s p a r e d i n  Japan, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of these "secondary" must be i m p o r t e d . burden  i s borne  The e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e  out by p e r i o d i c  foods  of t h i s  added  exhortations to  3.  C.L. A l s b e r g ; "The F a c t o r s t h a t G o v e r n P o p u l a t i o n G r o w t h " , P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c . 1 9 2 7 , p p . 315-17.  4.  W.R. C r o c k e r ; The J a p a n e s e P o p u l a t i o n P r o b l e m ; p. 1 2 5 . K. M o r i m o t o ; " R i s i n g S t a n d a r d s o f L i v i n g i n J a p a n " ; P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c , 1 9 3 1 ; p p . 44-51*  5.  "patriotic, frugality"  r i c e and are  the  other  issued  i n e v e r y economic emergency.  To pay  f o r her  i m p o r t s of f o o d s t u f f s , both  types,  J a p a n must e x p o r t .  i s l a n d s i n n a t u r a l resources  materials  But  so  poor  t h a t even t h e  f o r the means o f payment must be  raw 7  imported.  F u r t h e r m o r e , equipment w i t h w h i c h t o work them up must come f r o m a b r o a d , e i t h e r as expensive f i n i s h e d form.  raw  The  materials  rigid  " l i n k system"  f o r e i g n t r a d i n g emphasizes the p r e c a r i o u s house-that-jack-built strongly.the power.  One  vital  i n d e e d , i s of the  of  b a l a n c e of  n a t i o n a l economy, and  need f o r m a r k e t s and  observer,  o r i n t h e more  brings  foreign opinion  this  out  purchasing that  raw  m a t e r i a l s a r e more u r g e n t l y needed t h a n f o o d : S u c h a c o n c l u s i o n r u n s c o u n t e r t o what i s p e r h a p s the commonly h e l d v i e w *... I t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c o m p u l s i o n t o e x p o r t i s due to l a c k o f command o v e r raw m a t e r i a l s u p p l i e s r a t h e r than t o l a c k of f o o d . One has t o c o n s i d e r , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e mere f e a r o f f o o d s h o r t a g e — e v e n t h o u g h t h a t f e a r may p r o v e i n t h e end ungrounded — i s f o r Japan a s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e to s e e k t o a t t a i n a p o s i t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade which w i l l give her  6.  M i t s u b i s h i E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h B u r e a u , M o n t h l y Report,, J a n u a r y , 1941*  7.  S i l k i s a notable  exception.  an o p t i o n on t h e s u r p l u s s u p p l i e s o f f o o d s t u f f s e x i s t i n g e l s e w h e r e i n the w o r l d . The  continent of A s i a i s deeply  concerned  i n t h i s s e a r c h f o r f o o d , raw m a t e r i a l s , and m a r k e t s . earliest  times  the a d j o i n i n g m a i n l a n d  c h i e f p r o v i d e r and almost  unbroken.  customer. The  has  m a j o r i t y of Dutch imports origin,  l i k e w i s e b e i n g r e - t r a d e d t o the s o u t h and The  "been J a p a n ' s  T r a d e w i t h C h i n a has  the S e c l u s i o n P e r i o d were o f A s i a t i c  p r e s e n t c e n t u r y has  been  during  exports  west.  not  altered  materially  t h i s c o n d i t i o n , f o r a l t h o u g h Japanese  trade  has  t o e v e r y c o n t i n e n t o f the w o r l d , A s i a  still  spread  takes f i r s t  place.  e a r l y t h i r t i e s , and of the s i l k  World-wide trade r e c e s s i o n of  t r a d e , p r o v i d e d a f u r t h e r i n c e n t i v e f o r the of the a d j a c e n t  Military  mainland.  o p e r a t i o n s b e g u n i n 1931  i n the o c c u p a t i o n o f M a n c h u r i a and  the  up a b a r e y e a r l a t e r o f a n "autonomous" s t a t e . o f Wo.l  V i c t i m of Co-Prosperity followed  quickly setting Development  immediately,  w i t h r e s u l t s w h i c h t o d a t e h a v e i n many r e s p e c t s  8.  the  e s p e c i a l l y the c a t a s t r o p h i c c o l l a p s e  economic e x p l o i t a t i o n  resulted  From  G.E. H u b b a r d ; E a s t e r n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and upon t h e W e s t ; pp. 1 5 1 - 2 .  fallen  i t s Effect  short of expectations. economy, t h e new  P a r from r o u n d i n g out the  s a t e l l i t e has c a u s e d f u r t h e r i m b a l a n c e .  When M a n c h u r i a was  o c c u p i e d many o f h e r  r e s o u r c e s were i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t o "be o f export value. w e a l t h was ment. has  immediate  F o o d s t u f f s were a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n .  Her  therefore l a r g e l y p o t e n t i a l , r e q u i r i n g develop-  U n d e r p r e s s u r e o f m i l i t a r y demands t h i s  emphasized  a c t i v i t y of s t r a t e g i c value.  a r e r o a d and r a i l w a y b u i l d i n g , h e a v y manufacture  Japanese  of c o n s t r u c t i o n g o o d s ,  ment, c h e m i c a l s , and  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Examples  industry,  the  transportation equip-  t h e u n e c o n o m i c a l a t t e m p t s to g e t  f u e l o i l f r o m Manehoukuoan c o a l . b u i l t up b y J a p a n e s e  development  These had a l l  t o be  c a p i t a l , under an e x p e n s i v e m i l i t a r y  system*  Japamese i n v e s t m e n t s d u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f Manchoukuo have b e e n e s t i m a t e d a t a b o u t 1,180,000,000 y e n . D u r i n g t h e same t i m e m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s amounted t o 1,067,528,000 y e n . So e v e r y y e n o f i n v e s t e d c a p i t a l has "been a l m o s t m a t c h e d b y a y e n o f e x t r a m i l i t a r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . e x p e n d i t u r e . The c o n d i t i o n of t h e p e a s a n t c l a s s i n J a p a n , f r o m w h i c h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u n g army o f f i c e r s i s r e c r u i t e d , was  one o f t h e o r i g i n a l  f o r t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n cof M a n c h u r i a .  9.  W.H.  Chamberlin:  motives  I n the f e r t i l e  Japan Over A s i a :  p.  33.  and  8 s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d p l a i n s was s e e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r relief  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  o v e r - c r o w d i n g a t home.  However, .  g r a n d i o s e schemes f o r - s e t t l e m e n t have y i e l d e d d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s , t h e s e t t l e r s soon f i n d i n g l i v i n g even l e s s a t t r a c t i v e t h a n i n Japan.  conditions  I n 1936 a t w e n t y -  y e a r -programme was p l a n n e d t o s e t t l e some f i v e p e r s o n s i n Manchoukuo. had  responded.  million  F i v e y e a r s l a t e r l e s s t h a n 3000  1 0  For  o n l y one c l a s s h a s Manchoukuo p r o v e n  an a t t r a c t i v e f i e l d f o r employment. t e c h n i c i a n s and s k i l l e d  These a r e t h e  a r t i s a n s needed f o r d e v e l o p m e n t  of i n d u s t r i e s and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . c l a s s forms a s m a l l p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l  But this  population.  Twenty-two p e r c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e o f J a p a n a r e t o t h i s day  21 engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e , o v e r h a l f o f t h e w o r k i n g  population gains  i t s living  i n a g r i c u l t u r e and k i n d r e d  12 occupations.  Moreover,  the r u r a l population  supports  d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f u r b a n workers.  The c l a s s most i n need o f a i d h a s t h e r e f o r e  b e n e f i t t e d l e a s t from emigration  t o Manchoukuo.  w o u l d seem t o b e a r o u t t h e o f t - r e p e a t e d argument  10. 11. 12.  • W.H. C h a m b e r l i n : op. c i t . : p p . 4 3 - 4 . J a p a n Y e a r B o o k , 1940-41: p. 4 7 . G.E. H u b b a r d : op. c i t . : p . 1 6 3 .  This that  Japanese improve  will  n o t e m i g r a t e i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers t o  t h e l o t o f t h o s e who In  1932  r e m a i n a t home..  J a p a n s u p p l i e d 58.4%  (by v a l u e )  of  Manchoukuo's i m p o r t s .  to  65.8%  of  e x p a n s i o n seemed t o have b e e n r e a c h e d , f i g u r e s f o r  1936,  and 75.4%  respectively.  1937, a.nd 1938  77.9%.^  Succeeding years raised 13 By 1936  the  this  limit  l e v e l i n g o f f a t 7 7 . 3 % , 7 5 . 1 % , and  Although this proportion w i l l  p r o b a b l y not  increased, there i s every i n d i c a t i o n that i t w i l l  be  be  maintained. But exchange.  t h e s e " e x p o r t s " y i e l d no  foreign  S i n c e t h e o c c u p a t i o n of the m a i n l a n d  Japan  has g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d h e r t r a d e w i t h t h e Y e n B l o c . . I f c o l o n i a l areas a r e i n c l u d e d , t h i s group h o l d s the f o l l o w i n g 15 ' position :  exports imports  13. 14.  15.  1936  1937  1938  43*2% 34.9%  33.1% 29.8%  61.3% 44.7%  W.H. Chamberlin: op. c i t . : p. 30. J a p a n Y e a r B o o k , 1940-41: p. 1019. I t i s further p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e 1938 i n c r e a s e was due t o a r i s e i n p r i c e s . G.C. A l l e n : J a p a n e s e I n d u s t r y , e t c . : p. 57.  - 10 . - , F a r from s u p p l y i n g adequate power, t r a d e w i t h t h e Yen B l o c trade w i t h serious d i s t o r t i o n . restrictions  threatens  purchasing  Japanese f o r e i g n  Hence t h e c u r r e n t  on t r a d e w i t h t h i s a r e a , w h i c h i n many  cases  16  have t h e m s e l v e s - a g g r a v a t e d The unfavourable.  the s i t u a t i o n *  situation  i n China  Imports from China  during the f i r s t  i s especially  o f 1.16 m i l l i o n y e n  s e v e n months o f 1937 r o s e o n l y t o 120  m i l l i o n f o r t h e same p e r i o d i n 1 9 3 9 . E x p o r t s  to t h i s  a r e a t o t a l l e d 144 a n d 233 m i l l i o n y e n f o r t h e same 17 periods.  Efforts  t o s e c u r e f o r e i g n exchange w i t h t h e  p r o c e e d s have y i e l d e d n e g l i g e a b l e amounts.  Manipulation  o f c u r r e n c i e s and e f f o r t s  bullion  to get a t Chinese  stored i n the f o r e i g n concessions  have l i k e w i s e g i v e n  small reward. N e i t h e r t h e market p o t e n t i a l i t i e s r i c h n a t u r a l resources  of China  c a n be  e x p l o i t e d u n t i l peace i s secured.  nor the  adequately  I n a d d i t i o n t o the  disturbed s t a t e of the country, m i l i t a r y  operations  alone  from the Japanese s t a n d p o i n t a r e a severe f i n a n c i a l d r a i n . A way must be f o u n d o u t o f t h e m i l i t a r y m o r a s s , w h i c h t o  16. 17.  M i t s u b i s h i Economic Research Bureau: Monthly Report: J a n . , 1 9 4 1 : p p . 13-14. T.A. B i s s o n : " J a p a n * s P o s i t i o n i n t h e War C r i s i s " , F o r e i g n P o l i c y R e p o r t s , Nov. 1, 1 9 3 9 : p. 197.  - 11 d a t e h a s c o s t some 17,500,000,000 y e n o v e r a n d above 18 o r d i n a r y e x p e n s e s o f t h e armed f o r c e s i n C h i n a ,  The  e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m may i n one r e s p e c t a t l e a s t be s a i d t o h a v e become a m i l i t a r y o n e . Two s o l u t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e . establishment  i n C h i n a o f some a u t h o r i t y c a p a b l e o f  m a i n t a i n i n g order, y e t w i l l i n g t o co-operate The  One i s t h e  w i t h Japan.  p u p p e t g o v e r n m e n t o f Wang C h i n g - w e i i s a s t e p i n  this direction.  So f a r , h o w e v e r , t h i s g o v e r n m e n t h a s  p r o v e n none t o o s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n of the Chinese  people.  I t s p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e depends  on t h e J a p a n e s e army, b u t even so i t does - n o t c o n t r o l a n a r e a l a r g e enough t o be o f o u t s t a n d i n g e c o n o m i c Great  t h i n g s were expected  method o f s o l u t i o n t o t h e C h i n e s e  importance.  o f t h e above  stalemate.  The f o l l o w i n g  p i e c e of w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g g i v e s a h i n t o f the r e a c t i o n of t h e Japanese commercial w o r l d : I n C h i n a , ... w i t h t h e d e s i r e f o r p e a c e g r a d u a l l y s p r e a d i n g among t h e p e o p l e , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new c e n t r a l government u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Wang C h i n g - W e i i s expected i n the near f u t u r e as a f i r s t s t e p t o e s t a b l i s h a new o r d e r i n E a s t A s i a ... With the China i n c i d e n t approaching a successful conclusion... various unfavourable  18.  Statement by Japanese M i n i s t r y of F i n a n c e , D a i l y . P r o v i n c e , J a n . 28, 1941.  Vancouver  - 12  -  f a c t o r s e s p e c i a l l y the irksome o f f i c i a l c o n t r o l of m a t e r i a l s , l a b o u r , s h i p p i n g , and f o r e i g n t r a d e w i l l g r a d u a l l y be eliminated.- 1  9  Military activity  one y e a r l a t e r i n I n d o -  c h i n a , d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e Burma. Road and Y u n n a n t r a d e r o u t e s , shows how has b e e n .  the T o n k i n -  ineffectual this  policy  O u t r i g h t m i l i t a r y c o n q u e s t o f C h i n a , and i t s  d o m i n a t i o n by f o r c e i s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e , b u t t h i s i s l i k e w i s e f a r from r e a l i z a t i o n . u n i t e d C h i n a as n e v e r b e f o r e . military  skill  grows d a i l y .  operate to advantage  dream  Japanese a t t a c k  has  Chinese o r g a n i z a t i o n  Japanese  i n mountainous  equipment  and  cannot  c o u n t r y , and  her  s o l d i e r s , a l t h o u g h e f f i c i e n t and w e l l - t r a i n e d , a r e a t a decided disadvantage against highly-organized tactics.  S u p p l i e s and money " i n a n  guerrilla  ever-increasing  s t r e a m " p r o m i s e t o b u i l d up C h i n a ' s m i l i t a r y  stores,  and  more i m p o r t a n t , h e r c a p a c i t y t o p r o d u c e them h e r s e l f . J a p a n e s e a c t i v i t y i n I n d o - C h i n a seems t h e r e f o r e t o p r e s a g e a n a t t e m p t b o t h to c u t o f f t h i s e x t e r n a l a i d and to  f i n d a more f a v o u r a b l e a v e n u e f o r a t t a c k on  inland  China.  19. 20.  M i t s u b i s h i Economic Research Bureau: Jan., 1940: p. 17. See b e l o w C h a p t e r I I I .  Monthly Report,  - 13 -  I f economic and m i l i t a r y supplied  the m o t i v e f o r J a p a n ' s  of d i p l o m a t i c  s t a l e m a t e has  l a t e s t moves, h e r p o l i c y  o p p o r t u n i s m has t i m e d i t . E x p a n s i o n t o  t h e w e s t and n o r t h i s f o r t h e moment h a l t e d .  China holds  the w e s t e r n f r o n t ; R u s s i a Japan i s not prepared t o challenge.  But ever s i n c e h e r i n i t i a l  success i n out-  manoeuvring t h e Great Powers over Kanchoukuo, Japan has p r o f i t e d "by e v e r y o c c a s i o n t o r e d u c e  their a b i l i t y to  o b s t r u c t t h e Few O r d e r . The E u r o p e a n w a r w a s , o f c o u r s e , a n unprecedented situation  opportunity.  A d v a n t a g e was t a k e n o f t h e  t o w i n concessions from B r i t a i n over the  c l o s i n g o f t h e Burma R o a d , a n d a t T i e n t s i n a n d S h a n g h a i . The  T i e n t s i n and Shanghai  settlements involved  France and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Moreover,  also  official  Japanese  t  comment on t h e B r i t i s h p a r t o f t h e T i e n t s i n a g r e e m e n t was  significant: The s e t t l e m e n t a t t h i s t i m e o f t h e T i e n t s i n q u e s t i o n may d o no more t h a n c r e a t e a n i m p r e s s i o n t h a t what ought t o h a v e b e e n done has b e e n d o n e . The f a c t c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d , however, t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n has been an impediment t o a s e t t l e m e n t of the q u e s t i o n s of a b r o a d e r and more u r g e n t c h a r a c t e r . There a r e many m a t t e r s i n w h i c h J a p a n w a n t s t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and F r a n c e i n order to f u l f i l her national aspirations r e g a r d i n g E a s t A s i a . We e x p e c t t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d F r a n c e as  - 14  -  m a n i f e s t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s o l u t i o n of the T i e n t s i n q u e s t i o n w i l l he more emphatically reflected i n connection with v a r i o u s other problems.21 P r e m i e r Y o n a i on t a k i n g o f f i c e a formal statement which r e f e r r e d i n c i d e n t a l l y i n c l u s i o n of I n d o - C h i n a and  issued to the  the N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i e s i n 22  t h e "new  order f o r Greater East A s i a " .  station "inspectors"  The  i n I n d o - C h i n a had  right  to  a l r e a d y been  g r a n t e d by F r e n c h a u t h o r i t i e s , h a r a s s e d by t h e p r o g r e s s of  t h e B a t t l e of F r a n c e .  With the f a l l  p r e s s u r e by J a p a n ' s E u r o p e a n a l l y first  its  opened t h e way  s t e p s i n m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n of Thus t h e "New  first  v i c t i m and  b e g u n t o p r e p a r e No.3  of t h a t c o u n t r y , f o r the  Indo-China.  Order", having d i g e s t e d  found the second f o r consumption.  indigestible,  has  W i t h most o f  t h e w o r k c o n v e n / i e n t l y done by Germany ( t o say n o t h i n g of  the I t a l i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n ) J a p a n i s f i n d i n g t h e F r e n c h  c o l o n y an e a s y p r e y .  The  extent to which i t can  h e r a p p e t i t e f o r " C o - P r o s p e r i t y " has y e t t o be  21. 22.  satisfy  determined.  The New Y o r k T i m e s , J u n e 2 4 , 1940: q u o t e d by B i s s o n , *'Indo-China, e t c . " : Foreign Policy Reports: O c t * 1, 1940: p. 168. T.A. B i s s o n : op. c i t . , p. 172.  T.A.  CHAPTER I I ECONOMIC ROLE OP I3TOO-CHI1A  French Indo-China i s a r i c h p r i z e f o r a rice-importing nation.  L y i n g i n t h e monsoon "belt o f  south-east A s i a , the French colony, w i t h the adjacent a r e a s o f Siam and Burma, c o m p r i s e s  the greatest r i c e -  exporting area i n the world. In Indo-China  itself, rice  i s the staple  f o o d , t h e most i m p o r t a n t . a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t , a n d t h e most l u c r a t i v e e x p o r t . all  R i c e makes up t h r e e - f i f t h s o f  a g r i c u l t u r a l produce i n the colony.  fifteen  In Cochin  China  of t h e twenty-tv/o p r o v i n c e s p r o d u c e n o t h i n g e l s e .  H o w e v e r , t h e Mekong d e l t a and t h e C a m b o d i a r i c e  areas  s u p p l y most of t h e e x p o r t s , s i n c e C o c h i n C h i n a ' s p o p u l a t i o n consumes t h e t o t a l  dense  domestic p r o d u c t i o n .  D e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of rice,, since the g r a i n  yields  a l a r g e r e t u r n per a c r e , but a low r e t u r n per worker. This factor i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  1.  V. Thompson:  i n evidence i n Japan.  French Indo-China:  p. 1 2 3 .  But  J a p a n i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n g r o w i n g h e r own f o o d ; C h i n a must a l s o e x p o r t  r i c e f o r the b e n e f i t of her budget.  I n t h e l a t t e r c o u n t r y , as i n t h e f o r m e r , concentrated grown.  i n t h o s e a r e a s where r i c e  Cochin China,  Indo-  population i s  c a n be most  the only p r o v i n c e  easily  t o show a n a c t u a l  i n c r e a s e i n r i c e p r o d u c t i o n , now m e r e l y s u p p l i e s i t s own needs.  I n Tonkin  t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n has  r e s u l t e d i n an a c t u a l d e c l i n e i n e x p o r t s , w h i c h n o t i c e a b l y 2 reduces the purchasing  power o f t h a t  Up u n t i l t h e  area.  l a s t few y e a r s ,  Indo-China  had made t h e l e a s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e t o t a l i n c r e a s e i n the wo r i d ' s r i c e p r o d u c t i o n .  Excluding China,  1  world  r i c e p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d 12% f r o m 1917 t o 1934.  Siam  expanded h e r p r o d u c t i o n 4 5 % , Burma 1 6 % , a n d I n d o - C h i n a 2%. Because of h e r growing p o p u l a t i o n , the l a t t e r country way t o h e r r i v a l s i n t h e e x p o r t millions  1925-9 1930-4 change  2. 3.  Burma 7,277 7,961 + 9%  market:  of p o u n d s  Siam 3,112 3,214 +4%  gave  v ;  Indo-C. 3,508 2,628 - 25%  Total 13,898 13,803 + 1%  V. Thompson: op. c i t . : p. 126. C.J. Robertson: "The R i c e E x p o r t f r o m Burma, S l a m , and F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a " , P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , June 1 9 3 6 , ptu 243-253.  - 17  -  • D e c l i n i n g exports r e s u l t c h i e f l y from failure  o f p r o d u c t i o n t o k e e p ahead o f d o m e s t i c  needs.  These t h r e e c o u n t r i e s a r e a l l i n the monsoon a r e a , a r e . t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e  seasonal  rains.  c a n "be e q u a l l y d i s a s t r o u s .  t r a n s p l a n t i n g s e a s o n s t u n t s or k i l l s i n the f l o w e r i n g season d e s t r o y s  and  Rice  c u l t u r e demands a w e l l - r e g u l a t e d w a t e r - s u p p l y ; or too l i t t l e  the  too much  Drought i n the  young p l a n t s , r a i n  t h e "blossoms.  Moreover, i n the w e s t e r n r e g i o n s  of  Cambodia t h e f o r c e o f the o n - s h o r e monsoon f r e q u e n t l y s e n d s s a l t w a t e r "back i n t o t h e d e l t a a r e a , not  only  d e s t r o y i n g t h e c u r r e n t c r o p , "but r e n d e r i n g t h e  land  unsuitable f o r future p l a n t i n g without  expensive  fertilizing.  M o s t s e r i o u s o f a l l a r e t h e numerous p e s t s , a g a i n s t w h i c h made French and  s c i e n t i s t s have l i t t l e  rodents  scarce^  As  from  i n Japan, fragmentary  large-scale tillage. lives-hock  seasons.  human f a c t o r i s f a m i l i a r  Japanese experience.  because  Insects, crabs,  are e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n dry The  prevent  headway.  land  Natural f e r t i l i z e r s  holdings  are  is s c a r c e ,  Ignorance prevents  e x t e n s i v e use  of  chemicals,  w h i c h i n i n e x p e r i e n c e d hands f r e q u e n t l y do as much harm as good. but  M e t h o d s of t i l l a g e  thanks to the r i c h annual  are e s p e c i a l l y alluvial  primitive,  d e p o s i t s i n the  d e l t a s t h i s f a c t o r i s of minor importance.  P u b l i c works  t o combat f l o o d a n d d r o u g h t h a v e b e e n h i n d e r e d b y f r e q u e n t changes  i n g o v e r n m e n t . p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l . The g r e a t e s t need  co-ordina,ted.scheme  i s f o r a s y s t e m a t i c and  of r i c e c u l t u r e .  Methods o f  p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d be t r e m e n d o u s l y i m p r o v e d . the b e s t growing l a n d s a r e r a p i d l y becoming by a g r i c u l t u r a l " m i n i n g " .  As i n Canada, exhausted  P r o d u c t i o n i s b e i n g pushed  o n t o p o o r e r s o i l s f o r want o f a scheme t o open up a n d d e v e l o p t h e r i c h v i r g i n " r e d l a n d s " o f t h e Mekong V a l l e y . The q u a l i t y o f the. c r o p l i k e w i s e l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d , a n d was i n d e e d t h e m a j o r f a c t o r i n p r e v e n t i n g f u l l development  o f t h e F r e n c h home market... .  A t p r e s e n t o v e r two t h o u s a n d v a r i e t i e s a r e p r o d u c e d , o n l y a f e w of w h i c h command a m a r k e t . o u t s i d e t h e c o l o n y , A few p l a n t e r s have experimented i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f f e w e r good v a r i e t i e s , a n d t h e i r a i m , i f a c h i e v e d , w o u l d d o u b t l e s s go f a r i n s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f d e c l i n i n g exports.  U n t i l 1.935, h o w e v e r , t h e r e had b e e n  l i t t l e , o r no c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , no g o v e r n m e n t a t t e m p t s t o u n i f y t h e e x p e r i m e n t s , a n d above all  no p r o v i s i o n f o r much-needed t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l  aid. I n 1935, as p a r t o f t h e F r e n c h " p r e p a r e d -  n e s s " , t h e s e l o c a l s m a l l - s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s were co-ordinated.  P r o v i s i o n was made f o r t e c h n i c a l a i d and  m a t e r i a l s f o r i r r i g a t i o n works, the n a t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y supplying the labour f r e e .  C o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n "by  s m a l l f a r m e r s h a s "been e n c o u r a g e d "by g r a n t i n g l o a n s a t l o w e r i n t e r e s t f o r communal p r o j e c t s , a n d b y l o w e r t a x a t i o n on l a r g e r l a n d h o l d i n g s . The  r e s u l t has been c o n s i d e r a b l e r e c l a m a t i o n .  I n n o r t h e r n Annam, f o r e x a m p l e , two new dams and two e x t e n s i v e d y k i n g systems r e s u l t e d  i n the reclamation of A  88,920 a c r e s i n l e s s  t h a n e i g h t e e n months.""  The most  i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t has been t h e i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y o f densely-populated areas the r e a l  to feed themselves.  income o f p e a s a n t  b u t more r i c e  farmers  Not only i s  thereby i n c r e a s e d ,  i s released f o r export. Regardless  of her p o l i t i c a l  future,  r e g a r d l e s s o f who t a k e s h e r o u t p u t , I n d o - C h i n a must tinue to export r i c e . and this  con-  The p u r c h a s i n g power o f h e r p e o p l e  t h e r e v e n u e of- h e r government depend on t h e s a l e o f grain. C h i n a was f o r m e r l y t h e l a r g e s t a n d most  F. S m i t h ; "Government Works A i d S m a l l R i c e F a r m e r s i n I n d o - C h i n a " , F a r E a s t e r n S u r v e y , June 5, 1 9 4 0 .  - 20 »  r e l i a b l e ma'rketj t a k i n g n e a r l y h a l f o f h e r f o r m e r satellite's rice  export.  I n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s  were s i g n s t h a t C h i n a ' s own possibly lead negotiated  economic  there  development  might  to a decrease i n t h i s i m p o r t , but a  i n 1935  gave I n d o - C h i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e f e r e n c e .  The S i n o - J a p a n e s e c o n f l i c t a p p l i c a t i o n , and  treaty  unfortunately prevented i t s  caused t h e t r a d e t o s u f f e r i n a d d i t i o n  from w a r f a r e i n the t h i c k l y - p o p u l a t e d c o a s t a l r e g i o n s of China.  B y 1938, h o w e v e r , s t r a t e g i c s t o r a g e o f r i c e  neighbouring countries, plus  the Japanese  by  industrialization  of S h a n g h a i , r e v i v e d t h e e x p o r t market f o r Indo-China. R i c e i s a l s o needed f o r f e e d i n g o c c u p i e d C h i n a , and f o r the Japanese  armed f o r c e s .  The C h i n e s e m a r k e t  s e r i o u s l y hampered by m o n e t a r y  is,  however,  instability.  P r a n c e and h e r N o r t h A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s a r e 5  n o r m a l l y I n d o - C h i n a s second b e s t r i c e o u t l e t .  They  fall  f a r b e h i n d C h i n a , h o w e v e r , t a k i n g an a v e r a g e o f a b o u t one-eighth o f the export t o t a l * e x p o r t e r s t o expand  t h i s market  Efforts  of Indo-Chinese  during the depression  w e r e d e f e a t e d b y o p p o s i t i o n o f F r e n c h g r a i n - g r o w e r s , and by t h e p o o r q u a l i t y o f t h e c o l o n i a l p r o d u c t .  5-.  F.Y.  F i e l d ; Economic  Better  Handbook o f t h e P a c i f i c ; p.  104.  s u c c e s s was- g a i n e d i n t h e A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s , where a c o n s i d e r a b l e m a r k e t f o r f e e d r i c e opened up.  Both these  markets a r e , of c o u r s e , e n t i r e l y a t the mercy o f c o n d i t i o n s , which reduces t h e i r contemporary negligible  wartime  v a l u e to  proportions. The N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i e s , S i n g a p o r e , and  P h i l i p p i n e s are the only o t h e r markets Once a g a i n p o l i t i c s d o m i n a t e  the  of importance.  the scene.  In the Nether-  l a n d s I n d i e s , d o m e s t i c r i c e p r o d u c t i o n i s beings t i m u l a t e d by a s t i f f s u f f i c i e n c y scheme.  tariff,  as p a r t o f a b e l a t e d  The P h i l i p p i n e c r o p h a s  self-  never  e q u a l l e d domestic needs, but a g a i n the d e s i r e f o r s e l f sufficiency  i s the excuse f o r a p r o h i b i t i v e  S i n g a p o r e c a n g e t b e t t e r g r a d e s and l a r g e r f r o m B r i t i s h Burma, whose c r o p has advantages  tariff. quantities  the a d d i t i o n a l  o f c o n v e n i e n c e and a p r e f e r r e d  position.  J a p a n i s t h e r e f o r e i n a good p o s i t i o n as regards Indo-Chinese r i c e , b e i n g d i r e c t l y or the of  only p u r c h a s e r of importance. 1939  indirectly  I n Japan, poor h a r v e s t s  o f f s e t t h e bumper c r o p o f 1940.  Faulty  d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n e f f e c t i v e p r i c e c o n t r o l s c a u s e d h o a r d i n g ,  6.  c f . r e c e n t p r o v i s i o n s s p e c i f y i n g f i n e s up t o 50,000 y e n , t e n y e a r s i m p r i s o n m e n t , o r b o t h , f o r "economic c r i m e s " V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 2 0 , 1941.  - 22 -  aGcen.tua.ted t h e s h o r t a g e , a n d n e c e s s i t a t e d e x t e n s i v e •imports 40%  over t h e p a s t y e a r .  I t i s significant  o f t h e s e i m p o r t s came f r o m  Indo-China,  s m a l l e r amounts f r o m Burma and S i a m .  that  w i t h much  Apart from  crops i n t h e l a t t e r c o u n t r i e s , they a r e l e s s  smaller  accessible,  an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n c o n s e r v i n g s h i p p i n g s p a c e . J a p a n , B a n k o k i s 600 m i l e s f u r t h e r . i s almost  than Saigon;  t o the areas  domination  producer  to Japan  s h e must f e e d ; b e c a u s e of J a p a n ' a  Indo-China i n t h e Hew  i s likely  t o be a n i m p o r t a n t  Order.  The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e c o l o n y itself  to r i c e  foods.  7  o f i t s m a r k e t ; and b e c a u s e o f i t s r i c h  potentialities rice  From Rangoon  e x a c t l y twice the d i s t a n c e of Saigon. Because of i t s p r o x i m i t y both  and  culture limits  devotes  i t s p r o d u c t i o n o f "seconda:  N e v e r t h e l e s s , m o n o c u l t u r e i s t o be  The s t a n d a r d  expected.  o f l i v i n g among n a t i v e p e o p l e s  i s low,  d e s p i t e t h e v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e improvements wrought French  guidance.  cheapest  T h e r e f o r e , as i n Japan,  a n d most p r o d u c t i v e c r o p s  f r e q u e n t l y the best  7.  over  under  only the  c a n be r a i s e d , and  o f t h e s e must be s o l d  K u r t B l o c h ; " R i c e i n t h e 'New O r d e r ' " , Survey. Feb. 26, 1941.  to provide  Far Eastern  purchasing'power f o r cheaper f o o d s .  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  t r u e i n I n d o - C h i n a o f a r t i c l e s l e s s i n demand t h a n A s a r e s u l t , most o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s  food products  rice.  other  than s t a p l e g r a i n s a r e produced only t o s a t i s f y a p a r t i c u l a r demand, o r w h e r e c o n d i t i o n s a r e e s p e c i a l l y favourable.. Corn i l l u s t r a t e s both these  conditions.  T h i s g r a i n ' s c h i e f v i r t u e i s t h a t i t c a n be r a i s e d on dryer land than can r i c e , during a dry season. rice  o r c a n be grown i n r i c e  fields  By u t i l i z i n g l a n d u n s u i t a b l e f o r  the food production  of a given farm can therefore  be i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  T h i s scheme h a s t h e d o u b l e  a d v a n t a g e o f p r o v i d i n g a n a l t e r n a t i v e o r "emergency" c r o p , and o f r e s t i n g t h e s o i l . is  largely theoretical.  However, t h e l a t t e r  result  By c o r r e c t l y managing the  i r r i g a t i o n c y c l e , t h e f a r m e r c a n u s u a l l y manage t o r a i s e two c r o p s  a t once o n t h e same l a n d .  cycle of d e c l i n i n g f e r t i l i t y , increased  double-planting.  The r e s u l t i s a  s m a l l e r y i e l d , and  This v i c i o u s c i r c l e  one o f t h e d e f e c t s i n n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h  i s only intelligent  guidance could c o r r e c t . For  t h e above r e a s o n c o r n does f i n d a  p l a c e i n n a t i v e d i e t , d e s p i t e i t s much l o w e r  per-acre  yield.  The  p r o p o r t i o n consumed i n t h e c o l o n y has  d e c l i n i n g i n f a v o u r of a growing a b s o l u t e amount of t h i s  export t r a d e , hut  export i s s t i l l  as y e t f o r m s a n u n i m p o r t a n t  heen the  s m a l l , and  p a r t of I n d o - C h i n a ' s  corn revenues.  I n t h e h e i g h t of t h e c o l o n y ' s p r o s p e r i t y , b e t w e e n and  1931,  c o r n c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y 2.3%  o f e x p o r t s , e v e n t h o u g h 36.8% Q abroad.  I n 1939  c o r n was  1927  of the t o t a l  o f t h e c r o p was  value  sent  the o n l y e x p o r t to d e c l i n e i n  9 value.  E v e n t h i s s m a l l e x p o r t depended a l m o s t  on F r a n c e  and  h e r c o l o n i e s , w h e r e i t was  entirely  used m o s t l y f o r  feed. Under  present c o n d i t i o n s , this  c o u l d make a modest b u t u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Japanese d i e t .  C o r n i s n o t so h a r d  more q u i c k l y  the  t o s t a n d a r d i z e as i s  r i c e , t h e r e b e i n g much f e w e r v a r i e t i e s responds  product  of c o r n .  I t also  to improvements i n q u a l i t y .  More-  over, the Japanese are f a m i l i a r w i t h the g r a i n i n t h e i r own  c o u n t r y , where i t has p l a y e d much t h e same r o l e i n  supplementing  other crops.  I n a d d i t i o n , Japan  possesses  t h e g r e a t a d v a n t a g e of b e i n g i n .a p o s i t i o n t o d i c t a t e  8. 9.  F.V. F i e l d ; op. c i t . , p. 104. V. Thompson; " F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a i n S u s p e n d e d A n i m a t i o n " , F a r . E a s t e r n S u r v e y , Aug. 14, 1940.  the  - 25 -  p r i c e of Indo-Chinese The  corn exports.  third largest  i s animal foods, c h i e f l y f i s h .  i t e m i n Japanese The  i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the Indo-Chinese  diet  l a t t e r a l s o forms  an  food supply, e s p e c i a l l y  i n t h e more d e n s e l y - p o p u l a t e d c o a s t a l a r e a s .  Unfortunately,  p r o d u c t i o n d a t a i s e x t r e m e l y v a g u e , s i n c e i n most  cases  t h e c a t c h m e r e l y augments o t h e r f o r m s  The  of i n c o m e .  g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d e s t i m a t e , h o w e v e r , seems t o be i n t h e neighbourhood  o f 260,000 t o n s p e r There  annum.  10  i s no d o u b t t h a t I n d o - C h i n a c o u l d  make a l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f i s h d i e t o f h e r neighbours.  The b a n k s o f t h e C o c h i n - C h i n a c o a s t a r e  b e i n g b a r e l y sampled  by the p r e s e n t c a t c h .  Shellfish  a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a b u n d a n t and a l r e a d y command a good p r i c e i n Hongkong and S i n g a p o r e . are a l s o coming i n t o prominence, T o u l e Sap.  The  Cambodian l a k e s  e s p e c i a l l y the  A l t h o u g h the F r e n c h have l a t e l y  e x p l o r i n g the commercial p o s s i b i l i t i e s  i s t o be e x p e c t e d  t h a t the Japanese would  i n t e r e s t i n Indo-Chinese  10.  -footfs"  undertaken. take  f i s h e r i e s , w i t h a view to  V. Thompson; F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a ; p. " animal  been  of t h i s h a r v e s t ,  no l a r g e - s c a l e e x p l o i t a t i o n has as y e t b e e n It  unique  112.  an  - 26  supplementing and M a l a y a n  »  their precarious p r i v i l e g e s i n Russian waters* D a t a on I n d o - C h i n e s e l i v e s t o c k i s e v e n  less accurate.  The  natives are extremely  the s i z e of t h e i r h e r d s ,  long experience  reticent having  about  taught  them t h e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n l i v e s t o c k and t a x a t i o n . Even making t h i s allowance, the smallness  h o w e v e r , one  of t h e c o l o n y ' s  can  only i n d i c a t e  animal p o p u l a t i o n .  It is animals  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t I n d o - C h i n a a p p a r e n t l y has  more.  1  t h a n has  Japan: Japan  cattle horses swine goats sheep buffaloes elephants  1,771 1,432 1,110 292 61  ) )  7 5  2,250 2  I n d o - C h i n a * s l a r g e r numbers must of the  animals.  swine i n p a r t i c u l a r are s m a l l , l e a n ,  frequently diseased.  Production  i n this field  e n t i r e l y f o r n a t i v e c o n s u m p t i o n , and  11.  ..  set the d e c i d e d l y i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y  C a t t l e and  2,300 100 4,200  '  Against be  Indo-China  and i s almost  therefore severely  U.S. D e p t . of Commerce; F o r e i g n Commerce Y e a r b o o k , 1938, pp. 322, 327. Meat a n i m a l s o n l y s h o u l d be compared. F i g u r e s i n thousands; f i g u r e s f o r I n d o - C h i n a es t i m a t e d .  - 27  -  l i m i t e d by c l i m a t e , s o c i a l c u s t o m , and  religion.  p i g s and p o u l t r y h a v e s o m e t i m e s "been e x p o r t e d  A  few  to  neighbouring p a r t s of China. If  a market were a v a i l a b l e ,  n o w - u n o c c u p i e d p a s t u r e s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d . is and  The  so p o o r , h o w e v e r , t h a t y e a r s o f s c i e n t i f i c t h e e x t e n s i v e i m p o r t a t i o n o f new  necessary.  breeding  Labour c o n s t i t u t e s another problem,  t h e l o n e l i n e s s and  and  for  a f i x e d home life.  s p i c e s , tobacco, t e a , c o f f e e ,  and v e g e t a b l e s a r e p r o d u c e d  i n negligible  quantities,  some n o t e v e n s u f f i c i e n t f o r home c o n s u m p t i o n . has any  be  u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f a herdsman's  P e p p e r and  tea  stock  blood would  A n n a m i t e s and Khmers p r e f e r g r o u p l i f e to  Indo-China*s  Only  c o n s i d e r a b l e f u t u r e , but a g a i n t h e r e a r e  many v a r i e t i e s , w i t h t h e p o o r e s t p r e d o m i n a t i n g .  too  The  excellent quality  o f Annam t e a i s w e l l known, n e v e r t h e l e s s  and  i d e a l growing  conditions indicate  for  development.  possibilities  oOo T u r n i n g t o i n d u s t r i a l raw m a t e r i a l s , we f i n d r u b b e r has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n I n d o Chinese  economy.  The  i n d u s t r y i s of q u i t e r e c e n t  t h e s u c c e s s o f M a l a y a n and  Javan p l a n t a t i o n s a f t e r  origin, the  - 28  -  t u r n of the c e n t u r y having aroused i n t e r e s t i n Indochina's production potential* e x p e r i m e n t s p a v e d t h e way private capital.  Sporadic  official  f o r a s m a l l investment  I n t h e r u b b e r boom o f 1910,  of  however,  French c a p i t a l p r e f e r r e d the b e t t e r - e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n t a t i o n s i n M a l a y a , and I n d o - C h i n e s e e  rubber  c o n t i n u e d t o d e p e n d c h i e f l y on l o c a l f u n d s . a i d kept these s m a l l producers going u n t i l P l a n caused  enterprise  Government the  Stevenson  an i n r u s h o f c a p i t a l i n t h e m i d d l e t w e n t i e s .  S i n c e t h i s c o u l d not a l l be s a c r i f i c e d when t h e m a r k e t c o l l a p s e d , s t a t e a i d was been  c o n t i n u e d , and has  i n d e e d never-  withdrawn. The  a mixed b l e s s i n g .  c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h i s p o l i c y has  By k e e p i n g t h e i n d u s t r y g o i n g , i t  h a s a t t r a c t e d more c a p i t a l and b u i l t up a good trade.  By 1 9 3 9 ,  been  rubber  f o r e x a m p l e , 151,854,000 pounds were 12  e x p o r t e d , 4 0 % t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and  60% t o F r a n c e .  A l a r g e s h a r e o f c r e d i t f o r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t must be g i v e n the r e c e n t F r e n c h d r i v e f o r s t r a t e g i c s u f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n the  self-  empire.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h i s v e r y p o l i c y  12.  V.  Thompson; c i t e d , F a r E a s t e r n S u r v e y , A u g u s t 1940.  of  14  - 29 -  s t a t e a i d 'has weakened t h e i n d u s t r y , m a i n l y b y c a u s i n g an undue dependence on a s u b s i d i z e d p r i c e and a p r o t e c t e d market.  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y dangerous i n the p r e s e n t  situation,  s i n c e the removal  o f t h a t m a r k e t means t h e  c o l o n y w i l l h a v e t o s e l l where i t c a n and f o r what i t can get. of  The U n i t e d S t a t e s i s u n l i k e l y t o a b s o r b much  the f o r m e r F r e n c h q u o t a , s i n c e any i n c r e a s e i n A m e r i c a n  purchases w i l l  probably take p l a c e i n Malaya  Netherlands Indies.  Moreover,  her these sources would C h i n a as w e l l .  or the  events which would  deny •  almost c e r t a i n l y c u t o f f Indo-  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  not be o v e r l o o k e d of a Japanese  attempt  should  t o use I n d o -  C h i n e s e r u b b e r a s a means o f a c q u i r i n g d o l l a r p u r c h a s i n g power f o r t h e Y e n B l o c . J a p a n c o u l d v e r y p r o f i t a b l y use t h e F r e n c h colony's rubber h e r s e l f .  A l r e a d y i t v i e s w i t h c o a l as 13  Japan's  most v a l u a b l e p u r c h a s e  i n Indo-China.  More-  o v e r , r u b b e r i s a n importa-nt f a c t o r i n t h e modern m a c h i n e 1  industry- -^, s u p p l y i n g washers, i n s u l a t i o n , shock mountings,  13. 14.  g a s k e t s , grommets,  a n d numerous o t h e r s m a l l b u t  o f . R. Le'vy; L a P o l i t i q u e F r a n c a i s e en E x t r e m e - O r i e n t , 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 8 ; p. 64. ™*~ c f . A. B a r b e r ; "Rubber C o n t i n u e s Under C o n t r o l " , Far E a s t e r n S u r v e y , O c t . 1 1 , 1939.  - 30 -  vital  item's,; A i r c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r uses a  s u r p r i s i n g amount o f r u b b e r .  I f , therefore,  Japanese  m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y s h o u l d render B r i t i s h or D u t c h - c o n t r o l l e d s o u r c e s i n a c c e s s i b l e , a r u b b e r p r o d u c e r w o u l d be a d e c i d e d l y u s e f u l member o f t h e "New O r d e r " . considerations are l i k e l y  Political  to i m p e r i l also the supply of  scrap rubber from the United S t a t e s , which normally s e l l s about Japan.  o n e - h a l f h e r e x p o r t o f t h i s commodity t o  The l a t t e r * s  synthetic industry i s of n e g l i g i b l e  v a l u e , p r o d u c i n g i n 1938 o n l y one h u n d r e d Events w h i c h would to Japan  tons.  1 5  increase the importance  of Indo-Chinese r u b b e r would  therefore at the  i  same t i m e make J a p a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e as a c u s t o m e r * f u t u r e of the French colony's rubber industry  The  would  seem t o a g r e a t e x t e n t d e p e n d e n t on i t s p o l i t i c a l  fate.  L a c k o f i r o n a n d c o a l h a s b e e n one o f modern J a p a n ' s most s e r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l p r o b l e m s .  From  the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n domestic s u p p l i e s have been i n a d e q u a t e o r u n s u i t a b l e .  Very few  o f J a p a n * s numerous i r o n o r e d e p o s i t s a r e l a r g e and o f s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i t y and  15.  enough  t o be i n d u s t r i a l l y i m p o r t a n t ,  indeed before t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of Manchuria or China  A. B a r b e r ; l o c . c i t .  1. I  - 31 -  t h e i s l a n d - s .produced by t h e i r  only one-tenth  of t h e o r e consumed  industries. In Korea l a r g e deposits of f a i r l y  good  q u a l i t y c o n t r i b u t e most o f t h e i m p e r i a l s u p p l y . a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d and  t h e r e f o r e economical  They  t o w o r k , and  t h e i r p o s i t i o n on t h e c o a s t makes t r a n s p o r t a t i o n an easy m a t t e r . of  I n p a s t y e a r s , however, o n l y about a  third  t h e i r o u t p u t has been e x p o r t e d , s i n c e i t has g e n e r a l l y  b e e n f o u n d more e c o n o m i c a l  t o e r e c t s m e l t e r s on t h e  spot  F o r the p r e s e n t , t h e r e f o r e , these d e p o s i t s a r e . c h i e f l y of  local  significance. The  a c q u i s i t i o n of other mainland  areas  made a u s e f u l , b u t n o t v e r y l a r g e a d d i t i o n t o t h e Order's"  iron resources.  Regions  now  under Japanese  c o n t r o l have been e s t i m a t e d to c o n t a i n about 75% China's  Survey  i r o n d e p o s i t s , which  i n 1933  of  the N a t i o n a l G e o l o g i c a l 17  e s t i m a t e d a t one b i l l i o n  A l t h o u g h Manchuria's  "New  share i s mostly  tons  total.  of v e r y low  quality  good q u a l i t y i r o n has f o r some t i m e b e e n e x p o r t e d the c o a s t a l area of China.  F o r the p r e s e n t , a t  d e v e l o p m e n t of o t h e r d e p o s i t s i n o c c u p i e d - C h i n a  16. 17.  W.R. F.V.  from  least, seems  C r o c k e r ; The J a p a n e s e P o p u l a t i o n P r o b l e m ; F i e l d ; op", c i t . , p. 504.  p.  149.  - 32  -  t o be a w a i ' t i n g more s e t t l e d c o n d i t i o n s . Rather  t h a n a w a i t t h e s l o w d e v e l o p m e n t of  18 A s i a t i c deposits  , J a p a n has d u r i n g t h e past, d e c a d e  b e e n r e l y i n g t o an i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t on i m p o r t s o f s c r a p metal.  The A s i a t i c s u p p l y i s o f c o u r s e  negligible,  b e c a u s e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l y o u t h o f the r e g i o n . America  North  and E u r o p e h a v e i n c o n s e q u e n c e b e e n t h e m a i n  s o u r c e s of s u p p l y , b u t  t h e l o n g h a u l s i n v o l v e d add  a p p r e c i a b l y to c o s t s . On  the o t h e r h a n d , s c r a p i r o n has  the  immense a d v a n t a g e o v e r o r e o r p i g s t h a t e x t e n s i v e s m e l t i n g i s not r e q u i r e d . has  T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r w h i l e Japan  ample s u p p l i e s o f c a t a l y s t s ,  s u c h as l i m e s t o n e ,  manganese, e t c . , she l a c k s a good c o k i n g c o a l . I r o n ore w i t h o u t coke i s v i r t u a l l y u s e l e s s . A l i m i t e d amount o f i r o n i s s t i l l made by u s i n g c h a r c o a l , b u t , h a v i n g i n mind s p e e d , c a p a c i t y of f u r n a c e and s t a n d a r d t e c h n o l o g y , no l a r g e i r o n i n d u s t r y c a n be e x p e c t e d t o be d e v e l o p e d e x c e p t t h a t b a s e d upon t h e use of c o k e , ^ S i n c e m o s t o f J a p a n * s own  c o a l d e p o s i t s are of  g r a d e o r l o w e r , h a r d c o a l has had  18. 19.  bituminous  t o be i m p o r t e d i n t h e  The i r o n m i n e s o f M a l a y a and New C a l e d o n i a a r e an e x c e p t i o n to t h i s statement. H.JF. B a i n : O r e s and I n d u s t r v i n t h e E a r E a s t : (1933  high ratio' of four use.  Japanese mines a r e a l s o expensive  general.  poorly located with respect  turing centres. position s t i l l , and  ( h a r d ) t o one ( s o f t ) f o r i n d u s t r i a l  The K o r e a n s m e l t e r s having  to import  even f r o m Japan i t s e l f .  t o w o r k , and i n  t o t h e b i g manufaca r e i n a worse  c o a l from China,  F a i r l y good q u a l i t y c o a l i s  f o u n d i n S a k h a l i n and F o r m o s a , b u t a g a i n s m a l l amounts. exports, while its  Manchuria,  i n extremely  M a n c h u r i a has i n t h e p a s t made some c o a l the T i e n t s i n area  excellent anthracite.  of China i s noted f o r  Nevertheless,  these  supplies  a r e f a r f r o m i n e x h a u s t i b l e * and t h e "New O r d e r " i s s t i l l seeking  coal reserves. Indus t r i a l machinery r e q u i r e s not o n l y  c o a l and i r o n f o r i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d u p k e e p , b u t l u b r i c a n t s and f u e l f o r i t s e f f i c i e n t w o r k i n g . w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g use o f automotive equipment, f a c t o r has g i v e n petroleum products i n t h e J a p a n e s e economy.  considerable  •Together this importance  M o d e r n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods  r e l y h e a v i l y on p e t r o l e u m , w h i l e modern m e c h a n i z e d is  impossible without  an adequate supply  warfare  o f f u e l and  lubricants. At  present  experiencing  t h e maximum p e a c e -  time and wartime needs, Japan i s i n a p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n  w i t h respect to petroleum.  Domestic p r o d u c t i o n i s  l i m i t e d f o r g e o l o g i c a l reasons  to a narrow b e l t i n the  w e s t e r n p a r t o f the a r c h i p e l a g o . reached  In t h i s area production  i t s p e a k as e a r l y as 1916.  controlled  Reserves  in  Japanese-  t e r r i t o r y a r e l i k e w i s e s m a l l , K o r e a and  North  C h i n a b e i n g g e o l o g i c a l l y u n s u i t a b l e , and t h e P o r m o s a n f i e l d b o t h s m a l l and concessions political  expensive  to work.  Japanese  i n Russian Sakhalin lead a precarious  existence.  obtained from  F u r t h e r , every b a r r e l of o i l  this f i e l d  must be pumped, s i n c e none o f  the w e l l s are g u s h e r s , w h i l e the s h a l l o w f o r e s h o r e , l a c k i n g i n harbours of  and  swept by g a l e s , makes l o a d i n g  t a n k e r s h a z a r d o u s and The  expensive.  c o a l f i e l d s : o f Manehoukuo c o n t a i n a  c e r t a i n amount o f o i l - b e a r i n g s h a l e , w h i c h exploited f o r military  use.  Because of the  p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t o f e x t r a c t i o n and product, t h i s source  i s being almost  t h e l o w g r a d e of  i s a t most of l o c a l  the  importance.  The  b u l k o f J a p a n e s e p e t r o l e u m c o n s u m p t i o n must t h e r e f o r e be t a k e n c a r e o f f r o m e x t r a - i m p e r i a l s o u r c e s , and  crude  and  largest  r e f i n i n g o i l i s indeed  import.  Attempts  to b u i l d  the c o u n t r y ' s  third  up r e s e r v e s h a v e t a k e n  form of severe r e g u l a t i o n s c o m p e l l i n g i m p o r t e r s to  the  i I •  - 35  -  carry stocks s u f f i c i e n t f o r i n c r e a s i n g l y long I n v i e w , however, of the f a c t originate areas,  periods.  t h a t most of t h e s e  i n B r i t i s h , American, or  these measures a r e at b e s t  stocks  Dutch-controlled of  temporary  significance. The  i m p o r t a n c e o f c o a l , i r o n , and  petroleum  i n t h e J a p a n e s e economy e m p h a s i z e s t h e r e l a t i v e l y r o l e I n d o - C h i n a must p l a y i n s u p p l y i n g J a p a n ' s needs.  Coal  i s the ••only one  produced i n exportable Various  q u a n t i t i e s by  the F r e n c h  estimates*^ place  good h a r b o u r s f a c i l i t a t e  as f i r s t  coal exporter  two-thirds  of her  tons  of e x c e l l e n t  in  Tonkin,  of A l o n g , whose deep w a t e r loading.  of t h e O r i e n t by  output,  colony.  Indo-China's  Most of the mines are  c l o s e t o t h e s h o r e o f t h e Bay and  industrial  o f the above c o m m o d i t i e s  d e p o s i t s at about twenty b i l l i o n m e t r i c quality anthracite.  minor  although  the  Indo-China ranks exporting total  over  production 21  represents  o n l y 2%  o f the a n n u a l t o t a l f o r e a s t A s i a ,  Domestic consumption i s s m a l l . very l i t t l e  21.  climate,  c o a l i s needed f o r h e a t i n g ; i t s u p e r s e d e s  wood as a c o o k i n g 20.  B e c a u s e o f the  f u e l o n l y where r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ;  e.g. H.F. B a i n ; op. c i t . , p. 76; F.V. F i e l d ; op. c i t . , p. 4 8 1 , e t c . No e x a c t s u r v e y has b e e n made. H.F. B a i n ; op. c i t . , p. 29.  - 36  -  i n d u s t r i e s - u s i n g c o a l as a f u e l a r e r e l a t i v e l y More i m p o r t a n t , elementary  the c o a l i n d u s t r y i t s e l f  undeveloped.  i s i n i t s most  stage. Yet  T o n k i n ' s r i c h c o a l d e p o s i t s were  one  o f the c h i e f r e a s o n s f o r e a r l y F r e n c h i n t e r e s t i n I n d o China.  S e v e r a l e x p e d i t i o n s were s e n t  1 8 8 0 * 3 , and m a t i o n was  d e s p i t e many d i f f i c u l t i e s gained  mining wealth. f o l l o w e d was  sufficient  the p r o s p e c t i n g  s t i m u l a t e d c h i e f l y by  r e p o r t s of g o l d d e p o s i t s .  infor-  As  entirely  a result,  of  which  fictitious.  t h e few  hastily-  o p e r a t i o n s w e r e s o o n a b a n d o n e d , and  t h e -turn of t h e c e n t u r y in  i n the  to i n d i c a t e a considerable s t o r e  Unfortunately,  begun c o a l m i n i n g  surveying  by  o n l y t h e Hongay mines r e m a i n e d  operation. Although  the q u a n t i t y and  subsequent surveys  have  q u a l i t y of Tonkinese d e p o s i t s ,  s e r i o u s programme o f d e v e l o p m e n t has  confirmed no  been undertaken.  L o c a l c o n d i t i o n s h a v e l i k e w i s e c o n t r i b u t e d t o the backwardness of the i n d u s t r y . exaraple, i s s t i l l  done i n open p i t s , w i t h  e x p l o i t a t i o n of deeper v e i n s . export  character  particularly  Most o f t h e m i n i n g ,  The  general for  little  almost e x c l u s i v e l y  of t h e i n d u s t r y r e n d e r s  i t in addition  s u s c e p t i b l e t o exchange f l u c t u a t i o n s ,  and  - 37 -  in  t h i s r e s p e c t r e c e n t monetary  i n s t a b i l i t y of the  b e s t c u s t o m e r s , C h i n a and J a p a n , has p r o v e n  two  particularly  harmful. It  i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t J a p a n w i l l make  every e f f o r t to e x p l o i t In  ores.  exploited  to t h e l i m i t  conditions.  with  I n J a p a n p r o p e r e v e r y mine has b e e n under a l l manner o f a d v e r s e  The r i c h , e a s i l y • a c c e s s i b l e  surface  I n d o - C h i n a s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t no  difficulties. for  deposits.  Manchoukuo h e r t e c h n i c i a n s have w o r k e d m i r a c l e s  low-grade  of  the I n d o - C h i n e s e c o a l  deposits  technical  Abundant l a b o u r s u p p l y i s a l s o a t hand,  t h e m i n e s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e most d e n s e l y - p o p u l a t e d pp  part of Tonkin. J a p a n has l o n g b e e n a n i m p o r t a n t b u y e r of  Indo-Chinese c o a l .  has been r i v a l e d  F o r t h e p a s t d e c a d e t h i s commodity  i n v a l u e o n l y b y r u b b e r among 23  purchases from the F r e n c h c o l o n y . l a r g e r customer  O n l y C h i n a was  of 22. 23.  a  i n t h i s p e r i o d , b u t s i n c e most o f t h e  a r e a s t o w h i c h t h e s e p u r c h a s e s went a r e now hands,  Japanese  the l a t t e r  i s i n effect  Indo-Chinese c o a l .  i n Japanese  the o n l y i m p o r t a n t b u y e r  I f t h e above a r e a s o f C h i n a c a n  B u t s e e V. Thompson] c i t e d , F a r E a s t e r n S u r v e y , A u g . l 1 9 4 0 , f o r the e f f e c t o f r e c r u i t i n g on t h e m i n i n g industry. R. L e v y ; l o c . c i t . '  -  be d e v e l o p e d  38  a c c o r d i n g to p l a n they w i l l  increasing coal supplies. industry w i l l expand.  i n any c a s e  Most i m p o r t a n t  The  require  demands of J a p a n e s e h e a v y  i n c r e a s e as m i l i t a r y  factor  o f a l l may  operations  w e l l be  the  s t r a t e g i c advantages Japanese s h i p s c o u l d g a i n by r e - f u e l l i n g i n Indo-Chinese As  ports.  i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , one  China' s s m a l l domestic  c o a l c o n s u m p t i o n i s the  d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e i r o n and The  chief reason  small domestic  reason f o r  Indo-  under-  s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s i n the  f o r the l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n i s a g a i n  demand f o r t h e p r o d u c t s  i s used o n l y i n the w e s t e r n i z e d  and  factories.  Railways  the  of heavy i n d u s t r y .  Structural steel i n m i n e s and  colony.  cities,  are few, w i t h a  OA  t o t a l mileage trial  i n 1937  processes  are f a i r l y  m a t e r i a l s ) i t has to  import  of o n l y 2088. " li^ht  S i n c e most  indus-  ( i . e . p r o c e s s i n g of  u s u a l l y been found  e a s i e r and  raw  cheaper  completed machinery. In  from Indo-China  1938  was  t h e e x p o r t o f i r o n and  p r o h i b i t e d , the F r e n c h  manganese  government  w i s h i n g t o r e s e r v e these m i n e r a l s f o r the c r e a t i o n of munitions  industries.  continued  to f i n d  24.  A c e r t a i n amount has  i t s way  nevertheless  i n t o the Japanese market, w h i c h  F o r e i g n Commerce Y e a r b o o k , p.  323.  w o u l d no d o u b t be  g l a d t o a b s o r b any  further contributions  I n v i e w o f t h e v e r y m u c h - g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e of J a p a n e s e operated  concessions  i n M a l a y a , i t w o u l d seem t h a t  i n a n emergency i s I n d o - C h i n a l i k e l y important  source  t o become  i m p o r t a n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  small scattered deposits.  a c t u a l output i s extremely  best deposits are  Sphere".  of l e s s e r  I n d o - C h i n a r a n k s among the m a j o r t i n - p r o d u c e r s w o r l d , but her  an  o f i r o n f o r the " C o - P r o s p e r i t y  A wide v a r i e t y of m i n e r a l s  only  of  the  small.  The  i n t h e n o r t h , where t h e i m p o r t a n t  China f i e l d  extends i n t o Tonkin.  a l s o occurs  i n Laos.  s u f f e r s f r o m i t s own  The  An  s m a l l and  independent irregular  south  field  export  i n s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the w o r l d  market,  w h i l e remoteness of the m i n e s , and-poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , put  them a t t h e m e r c y o f t h e i r Burmese  Siamese c o m p e t i t o r s .  Under t h e s t i m u l u s  P l a n I n d o - C h i n a i s ( o r was)  producing  and  of t h e M a n d e l  annually  two  to  ?5 three  thousand tons  of t i n . "  F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a was Bast A s i a t i c  the  only  p r o d u c e r of z i n c , w h i c h i s l i k e w i s e  d e p e n d e n t on a w o r l d m a r k e t . customer u n t i l  25.  formerly  1914,  Germany was  her  principal  b e i n g r e p l a c e d d u r i n g t h e war  F o r e i g n Commerce Y e a r b o o k ; p.  322.  by  = 40 -  Japan.  A f t e r t h e p e a c e , J a p a n t u r n e d t o the c h e a p e r  B o l i v i a n . m a r k e t , a n d t h e one and o n l y p r o d u c e r went i n t o l i q u i d a t i o n .  Indo-Chinese  L a t e l y , h o w e v e r , the  c o l o n y h a s b e n e f i t t e d f r o m h e r own  and F r e n c h re-armament,  and f r o m a g e n e r a l improvement i n t h e w o r l d z i n c F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  market, Indo-  C h i n a has a l m o s t no p e t r o l e u m r e s o u r c e s . —  oOo • —  Under n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s , J a p a n i s a r e l a t i v e l y unimportant c o m p e t i t o r i n the Indc-Chinese market.  D u r i n g the l a s t decade,  o n l y Germany s o l d  t o t h e F r e n c h c o l o n y , and o n l y Germany and I n d i e s bought  l e s s of i t s goods.  less  the N e t h e r l a n d s  E x c l u d i n g t h e German  c o n t r i b u t i o n , Indo-China n o r m a l l y buys l e a s t from  Japan  PA  and most f r o m F r a n c e . J a p a n e s e goods f i n d  s m a l l market  because  t h e y compete w i t h t h e same t y p e o f F r e n c h g o o d s , for a very limited exclusively and  trade.  and  Both c ountries cater  almost  to the r i c h e r n a t i v e s , the o f f i c i a l  class,  the s m a l l A c c i d e n t a l c o l o n y .  F o r example,  typical  imports from France are wines, fancy f o o d s t u f f s , cosmetics,  26.  F o r e i g n Commerce Y e a r b o o k ;  p.  325.  - 41 -  perfumes  and t o i l e t r i e s ,  Japan s e l l s  l u x u r y t e x t i l e s , and m e d i c i n e s .  t h e same t y p e o f t e x t i l e s , c h i e f l y s i l k  silk  t i s s u e s , and s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s  andA  o r n a m e n 4.t s . 27  of p o t t e r y , g l a s s w a r e ,  I n competing f o r t h i s l i m i t e d Japanese  and  market,  goods h a v e "been a t a "big d i s a d v a n t a g e s , t h a n k s t o  the c o l o n y ' s bomb-proof s h e l t e r of t a r i f f s . the l a t e s t r e v i s i o n s  this  tariff  seriously  Even  under  distorts  the c o l o n y ' s n a t u r a l t r a d e c h a n n e l s : I n d o - C h i n a ' s economy i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h t h e E a r E a s t , and i t s r i g i d t a r i f f t i e s w i t h France are thoroughly a r t i f i c i a l and u n r e l a t e d t o h e r v i t a l n e e d s . 2 8 Indo-Chinese t r a d e w i t h the mother-country i n 1937 (2,039 m i l l i o n s ) f r a n c s i s s t i l l greater t h a n t h a t of Indo-China w i t h the c o u n t r i e s of t h e F a r E a s t (1,320 m i l l i o n s ) . 2 9  Working has  under  such d isadvantages,  Japan  every i n c e n t i v e to t r y to s u p p l a n t France i n the  c o l o n i a l market.  F r o m "bfo t o 5 3 % i s a n a t t r a c t i v e  even i f t h e a b s o l u t e amount be n o t l a r g e .  jump,  Moreover,  w i t h the v i r t u a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e of the a l l - e s s e n t i a l support, the colony's trade i s l a i d  27. 28. 29.  open to t h e  French  political  Japan-Manehoukuo Y e a r B o o k , 1938; pp. 456-90. V. Thompson; F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a ; p. 204. R. L e v y ; op. c i t . , pp. 33-4.  I  - 42  -  and e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e w h i c h J a p a n to  i s now  i n a position  apply. The  long-neglected native trade i s probably  t h e most a t t r a c t i v e f i e l d  f o r immediate  profit.  b a c k as t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e J a p a n e s e f i r e a r m s i n Cambodia. beads,  have s o l d  Today a s m a l l b u s i n e s s i n g l a s s  o r n a m e n t s , and c h e a p s i l k p r i n t s i s c a r r i e d  i n most o f C a m b o d i a , T o n k i n , and L a o s . n a t i v e requirements i s narrow, of  As f a r  Japanese  the a b i l i t y  of  and a t p r e s e n t t h e amount  goods s o l d i s s m a l l . she has  The r a n g e  on  However, i n v i e w  of  shown t o c a t e r t o l o w - s t a n d a r d  markets,  J a p a n c o u l d p r o b a b l y expand t h i s volume c o n s i d e r a b l y . Her  cheap t e x t i l e s f i n d a r e a d y m a r k e t among n a t i v e  p e o p l e s o f A s i a , where t h e y a l r e a d y s e l l i n c o n s i d e r a b l e v o l u m e i n Burma, S i a m , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i e s , and  especially India.  The  Malaya,  t a r i f f barrier i s apparently  the o n l y o b s t a c l e to s i m i l a r s a l e s i n Indo-China. In  g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of Indo-Chinese  markets,  J a p a n w i l l be a i d e d by i n t e r n a l w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e c o l o n y , political  and e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e , and t h e s e v e r a n c e  Indo-China's  economic r e l a t i o n s w i t h F r a n c e .  of  In dealing  w i t h the n a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s , however, the problem i s n o t so e a s i l y s o l v e d .  The  n a t i v e t r a d e of  Indo-China,  - 43 -  and  to a l e s s e r extent  i s almost e n t i r e l y  t h a t of the Netherlands  i n t h e hands o f C h i n e s e .  Indies, The f o r m e r  c o u n t r y may t h e r e f o r e s e r v e a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f what J a p a n may e x p e c t t o e n c o u n t e r i n t h e r i c h e r m a r k e t . Prospects one  of Prance's f i r s t  Indo-China.  o f r i c h t r a d e w i t h T o n k i n was  i n c e n t i v e s i n the p e n e t r a t i o n of  When economic p e n e t r a t i o n "became m i l i t a r y  conquest, t h e u b i q u i t o u s Chinese merchant proved i n v a l u a b l e as p r o v i s i o n e r of the i n v a d i n g armies. unsettled years which followed French occupation, vanished  I n the he  to safer regions, but w i t h the cessation of  hostilities  he r e t u r n e d  to b l i g h t  t h e hopes o f h i s f o r m e r  ally. French traders found competition the Chinese i m p o s s i b l e . of t h e c o u n t r y  with  The O r i e n t a l knew e v e r y  and t h e needs o f e v e r y  individual.  inch He  s o l d j o s s - s t i c k s , n a t i v e c h a r m s , C h i n e s e d r u g s and p o t i o n s and  numberless other a r t i c l e s  l i f e but quite impossible The  i n d i s p e n s i b l e to native  of r e p r o d u c t i o n i n the Occident.  n a t i v e s c o u l d use h i s s i m p l e b a r t e r system,, w h i l e  w e s t e r n b a n k i n g methods m e r e l y f r i g h t e n e d them. m e r c h a n t s c o u l d l i v e a n d make a p r o f i t no w h i t e man c o u l d s t a n d .  Chinese  under c o n d i t i o n s  Most i m p o r t a n t ,  the r a c i a l  solidarity'of  the C h i n e s e was  in itself  t h e s e l f i s h and d i s u n i t e d F r e n c h  enough t o d e f e a t  traders.  T h i s i s the s i t u a t i o n a p r o s p e c t i v e s e l l e r must f a c e .  Chinese t r a d e r s , f i r m l y r o o t e d i n Indo-China's  economy, a r e t h e i n d i s p e n s i b l e m i d d l e m e n i n any t r a d e w i t h the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . c o u r s e , t h a t Japanese  I t i s not suggested, of  t r a d e r s would  attempt  to replace  30 their rivals  directly.  up w i t h t h e l i f e  They w o u l d  the Chinese t r a d e r l e a d s .  p r o b a b l e t h a t any d i r e c t J a p a n e s e Chinese trade would and  c e r t a i n l y not put I t i s more  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Indo-  t a k e t h e f o r m of w h o l e s a l i n g , i m p o r t i n g  e x p o r t i n g , and f i n a n c i n g .  of the Chinese would  But the s t r a t e g i c  position  s t i l l be m a i n t a i n e d , and i t s  i m p o r t a n c e s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d .  When t h e F r e n c h  w e r e o c c u p y i n g I n d o - C h i n a t h e C h i n e s e gave them e v e r y a i d , h o p i n g thereby to i n c r e a s e China's i n f l u e n c e i n her former s a t e l l i t e .  T h i s t i m e t h e newcomer i s a n enemy  of C h i n a , i n v a d i n g the s o u t h e r n c o u n t r y t o t h r e a t e n C h i n a itself.  Chinese i n Indo-China seldom l o s e t h e i r  n o r t h e i r s e n t i m e n t a l t i e s w i t h home, and fosters this  30.  their  identity, government  attitude.  B u t t h e y h a v e p a r t i a l l y done so i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i e s , under s-omewhat s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . c f . R. E m e r s o n ; "The O u t l o o k i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a " , F o r e i g n P o l i c y R e p o r t s , Nov. 1 5 , 1939.  By means of t h i s r a c i a l s o l i d a r i t y , t r e m e n d o u s l y augmented by C h i n a ' s new  s e n s e of n a t i o n a l i s m ,  c o n s c i o u s l y d i r e c t e d by an a b l e government, Chinese t r a d e r s may  be e x p e c t e d t o h i n d e r t h e i r 3.1  way  p o s s i b l e . ••'  not  o n l y by  controlling  enemy i n  I n I n d o - C h i n a t h i s c a n be  a m o n o p o l y on t r a d e c h a n n e l s , the p u r c h a s i n g  native's buying  power o f  every  accomplished but  by  the m a r k e t .  The  power depends on a g r i c u l t u r e . R i c e  and  o t h e r g r a i n s a r e grown f o r f o o d , but w i t h m i n o r e x c e p t i o n s only r i c e produces a s u r p l u s f o r s a l e . importance of Chinese d e a l e r s o n l y e x c e e d e d by its  i n marketing  The  this rice i s  t h e s t r a n g l e h o l d o f d e b t t h e y have  growers. L o w - g r a d e goods must go  t o t h e mass of  p e a s a n t f a r m e r s , whose i n c o m e , f o r p r a c t i c a l seldom exceeds l i v i n g c o s t s . t r o p i c a l nature cultivation.  The  lavish fertility  e n c o u r a g e s c a r e l e s s and  The  Khmer has  purposes,  a rooted  activity  of  extravagant  o b j e c t i o n to  i n n o v a t i o n or e n t e r p r i s e , w h i l e the Annamite's  greater  i s o f f s e t by an i n b o r n l o v e o f g a m b l i n g t h a t  can d i s p o s e  31.  on  i n a n i g h t o f t h e meagre s a v i n g s  F o r ways i n w h i c h t h i s has b e e n done o f . R. E m e r s o n ; op. c i t .  of a whole  elsewhere,  year.  I t Is important  a l s o that throughout  payment f o r l a b o u r i s n o r m a l l y i n k i n d . f o r e v e r y l i t t l e p u r c h a s i n g power as s u c h  the country  There i s t h e r e i n t h e hands  of t h e n a t i v e . C a s h income f r o m t h e s a l e o f r i c e i s therefore important. credit  B u t n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e depends on  -- e a s y c r e d i t and p l e n t y o f i t .  A low r a t e , to  the u n b u s i n e s s l i k e n a t i v e m i n d , i s n o t n e a r l y so i m p o r t a n t as g e t t i n g what w a n t s on p o s t p o n e d payment. s e q u e n c e he w i l l his  c h e e r f u l l y mortgage t o t h e r i c e  l a n d s , h i s c r o p , and even h i s p e r s o n  advance.  As a c o n -  f o r years i n  T h i s overhead of debt i s t h e r e f o r e an e f f e c t i v e  means o f a b s o r b i n g any s u r p l u s t h e p e a s a n t may make, w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e Chinese  dealer  accidentally  the b a r t e r trade of the  merchant i s not a f f e c t e d . —  As  0O0  a m a r k e t f o r J a p a n e s e goods  p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t i e s . power t o a b s o r b  —  t h e type  Indo-China  Nevertheless, i t s potential  of merchandise Japan can best  e x p o r t makes a n e f f o r t t o s e c u r e  t h i s m a r k e t seem w e l l  worth while. Besides  a b s o r b i n g Japanese goods, the  - 47 -  French colony  can supply  r i c e i n a b u n d a n c e , and c e r t a i n  o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s i n s m a l l e r amounts.  The r u b b e r  industry  i s a l r e a d y f a i r l y w e l l , d e v e l o p e d , a n d w i t h c o a l and perhaps t i n c a n c o n t r i b u t e m a t e r i a l l y t o Japan's i n d u s t r i a l needs. .there  D e p e n d i n g on p o l i t i c a l  i s also a p o s s i b i l i t y  m i g h t be e x p o r t e d  conditions,  t h a t some o f t h e s e goods  t o f u r n i s h a l i m i t e d amount o f f o r e i g n  exchange. These t h i n g s the  "New O r d e r " .  plays  Indo-China could f u r n i s h to  B u t she has no p e t r o l e u m , a n d p e t r o l e u m  an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  "Few Order"»  of that  CHAPTER I I I . IjpO-CHINA'S ROLE I I JAPANESE STRATEGY.  The  p a s t t h r e e y e a r s have seen a s t e a d y  a d v a n c e to t h e s o u t h w a r d  "by J a p a n e s e armed f o r c e s .  " N o r t h C h i n a I n c i d e n t " soon spread southward route.  t o the s e a i n a  d i r e c t i o n , e n v e l o p i n g P e k i n and T i e n t s i n  Capture  N a n k i n g was  of S h a n g h a i  and  f o l l o w e d by the f a l l  of the c o a s t a l  r e a c h e d and B r i t i s h Hongkong t h r e a t e n e d .  o f H a i n a n and preceded  towns itself  The  seizure  J a p a n ' s open e x p r e s s i o n s o f c o n c e r n o v e r  d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y against China.  I t was  a c c o m p a n i e d by v a r i o u s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s  Eastern possessions.  But  the r e a l  A s i a i s the Chinese war, which  Tonkin.  of c o u r s e , nevertheless  designed  weaken t h e h o l d o f t h e W e s t e r n Powers on t h e i r  1.  of  the S p r a t l y and P a r a c e l I s l a n d s b a r e l y  T h i s m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y was,  serious  en  the s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l  Wenchow, Eoochow, Araoy, and Swatow, u n t i l C a n t o n was  The  to  Ear  i s s u e f o r Japan i n  i s having  increasingly  s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t s a t home.  1  c f . t h e s p e e c h o f P r e m i e r Konoye t o t h e D i e t i n J a n u a r y 1941: V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , J a n . 28, 1941.  - 49 -  D u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r i t h a s "become more and more u r g e n t t o f i n d a way o u t o f t h e d e a d l o c k on t h e m a i n l a n d . T h i s m i g h t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by a m i l i t a r y •victory might  o r by d i p l o m a t i c means. " A l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  Japan  go on t o new c o n q u e s t s , i n t h e hope o f r e c o u p i n g  h e r m i l i t a r y , d i p l o m a t i c , and economic l o s s e s o f t h e past three years. might  To some e x t e n t t h e s e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n  even be combined.  I n any event, French  Indo-China  can serve as a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r Japanese  military activity  in south—eastern Asia —  conditions.  Despite  under c e r t a i n  the very c o n s i d e r a b l e progress  made i n t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l economy the c o u n t r y i s o b v i o u s l y not i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o s e c u t e unaided  i t s war w i t h Japan.  E n f o r c e d c o n c e s s i o n of t h e  c o a s t a l a r e a s h a s g i v e n C h i n a t i m e t o o r g a n i s e a more effective  resistance.  B u t r e s i s t a n c e a l o n e , however  s u c c e s s f u l , c a n n o t b r i n g about  a military decision.  C h i n a i s t o f r e e h e r s e l f b y m i l i t a r y means f r o m  If  Japanese  d o m i n a t i o n t h e l a t t e r ' s armed f o r c e s must be d e f e a t e d i n China. F o r t u n a t e l y , the areas s t i l l  h e l d by  t h e C h i n e s e N a t i o n a l Government a r e c a p a b l e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the support of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s .  A  more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e d military  equipment.  Facilities  i n C h i n a f o r t h e manufa  t u r e o f arms a r e a s y e t i n a d e q u a t e needs.  f o r the country's  Arms, and e q u i p m e n t t o s e r v i c e a n d r e p l a c e them  must be i m p o r t e d , arid a r e i n d e e d b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g volume b y t h o s e occupied.  interested  supplied i n i n keeping  These arms must b e p a i d f o r  ultimately*  Japan  now, o r  E v e n s h i p m e n t s on c r e d i t r e q u i r e a t l e a s t  a t o k e n payment a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c o l l a t e r a l f o r t h e l o a n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y a r e made. Thus, not o n l y China, but a l s o h e r creditors are interested  in. m a i n t a i n i n g communication  b e t w e e n f r e e C h i n a and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . is  i t v e r y much i n J a p a n ' s i n t e r e s t s  Thus a l s o  to close  these  a v e n u e s as s o o n and a s c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e . From I n d o - C h i n a  t h e two most  routes a r e a c c e s s i b l e to m i l i t a r y action.  important The f i r s t t c  r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n was t h e Y u n n a n - T o n k i n r o u t e , w h i c h p r o v i d e s Yunnan's o n l y o u t l e t and  t o t h e s e a . T h r o u g h 1959  t h e S p r i n g o f 1940 c o n s i d e r a b l e s h i p m e n t s o f a r m s ,  a m m u n i t i o n , and m a c h i n e r y were made o v e r t h i s balanced tungsten,  by outward shipments o f Chinese The I n d o - C h i n a - Y u n n a n R a i l w a y  route,  goods, n o t a b l y i s t h e most  i m p o r t a n t ' l i n k j and a f t e r share  the f a l l  of Canton took a l a r g e  of t r a f f i c f o r m e r l y r o u t e d v i a Hongkong.  Road  t r a f f i c h a s b e e n a u s e f u l s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e r a i l w a y , and e v e n t h e r i v e r s have b e e n p r e s s e d  i n t o s e r v i c e on  2 occasions The Burma Road has l i k e w i s e b e e n a n important  s u p p l y l i n e , a l t h o u g h o p i n i o n on i t s v a l u e i s  divided.  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t  i s n o t one-Burma R o a d , b u t two.  there  C h i n a has a l s o begun  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l r o a d , a l t h o u g h t h e Burmese a r e n o t anxious  to f a c i l i t a t e  t h e i r country.  the m i g r a t i o n of Chinese  I n January  into  o f 1939 a i r s e r v i c e was  l i s h e d b e t w e e n C h u n k i n g , K u n m i n g , and Rangoon, up w i t h the. B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l A i r w a y s  estab-  linking  routes at the l a t t e r  city.'"' The o c c u p a t i o n o f T o n k i n by J a p a n e s e troops presaged China.  more a c t i v e m e a s u r e s t o be t a k e n a g a i n s t  The arms t r a d e o v e r t h e b o r d e r  K w a n g s i was o f c o u r s e acquired a i r f i e l d s  2. 3.  stopped  i n t o Y u n n a n and  immediately.  From n e w l y -  i n Tonkin Japanese a i r c r a f t are w i t h i n  K u r t B l o c h ; " C h i n a ' s L i f e l i n e s and t h e I n d o - C h i n a F r o n t i e r " ; F a r E a s t e r n Survey,, F e b . 1 4 , 1940. J . L . C h r i s t i a n ; "Trans-Burma Trade Routes to C h i n a " ; P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , J u n e , 1940.  — 52 -  b o m b i n g d i s t a n c e o f t h e Burma Road t h r o u g h o u t length.  i t s entire  Both t e r m i n i a r e v u l n e r a b l e , as i s Chungking,  whence C h i n a ' s w a r e f f o r t  i s directed.  p r o v i d e s a base f o r widespread  air activity  southern provinces of China generally. m i g h t w e l l be s u p p l e m e n t e d opportunity present  Tonkin  likewise  i n the  This a i r attack  by a l a n d d r i v e , s h o u l d t h e  itself.  An a l t e r n a t i v e  (and c o r o l l a r y ) t o a f r o n t a l  a t t a c k on C h i n a i s t h e f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f  Japanese  c o n t r o l aver other c o u n t r i e s of south-eastern A s i a . Japanese would  d o m i n a t i o n o f I n d o - C h i n a , S i a m , Burma., and M a l a y a  a t one, and t h e same t i m e p r e v e n t a c c e s s t o C h i n a  f r o m t h e s o u t h , and p r e v e n t t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h o s e b e i n g used f o r C h i n a ' s b e n e f i t .  countries  So f a r J a p a n e s e p e n e t r a t i o n  o f t h i s a r e a h a s b e e n more o r l e s s p e a c e f u l .  I t i s not  i n c o n c e i v a b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n f a c e o f a n "emergency" s u c h a c t i v i t y w e s t o f I n d o - C h i n a m i g h t be speeded direct-military action.  Indo-China  up b y  c o u l d be a u s e f u l  j u m p i n g - o f f p l a c e f o r such an a t t a c k . Geography p r e v e n t s e x t e n s i v e l a n d operations i n this region. southward  F i v e mountain  ranges  extending  from China d i v i d e the Indonesian p e n i n s u l a i n t o  a s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l v a l l e y s .  The e x i s t e n c e o f s e p a r a t e  - 55 and d i s t i n c t c i v i l i z a t i o n s  i n these v a l l e y s  emphasizes  t h e l a c k of l a t e r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n "between them.~  Even  t o - d a y e a s t - w e s t movement a c r o s s  t h e i n t e r i o r of t h e  p e n i n s u l a i s almost impossible.  The s o u t h e r n Cambodian-  Siamese  Movement i s s i m i l a r l y  b o r d e r i s an e x c e p t i o n .  easy from Siam i n t o Malaya, but almost i m p o s s i b l e  from  S i a m i n t o Burma. M a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by s e a , w i t h  naval  p r o t e c t i o n , w o u l d be i n e v i t a b l e i n t h e c a s e o f a l a r g e s c a l e m i l i t a r y movement w e s t w a r d  from Indo-China.  Even  t h e s o u t h e r n l a n d r o u t e s , l y i n g c l o s e t o the c o a s t , a r e vulnerable  to a t t a c k from the sea. The  s t r a t e g i c adva.nte.ges t o be g a i n e d i n  S i a m a r e a y e t more a d v a n c e d fields  sea base at Bangkok,  air-  i n t h e s o u t h t h a t c o u l d be used a g a i n s t t h e S t r a i t s  Settlements,  and a i r f i e l d s  the Burma Road.  i n t h e n o r t h f o r use  A t t h e same t i m e , Siam's huge  against shipments  o f r i c e , l i v e s t o c k , and t i n t o S i n g a p o r e c o u l d be d i v e r t e d f o r Japanese  use. L a c k of a n a t u r a l f r o n t i e r  movement from. S i a m t o M a l a y a .  favours  M o r e o v e r , a good r a i l w a y  runs t h e l e n g t h of the p e n i n s u l a f r o m Bangkok to S i n g a p o r e .  4.  bee  below, Chapter IV.  I f p r o t e c t e d by a i r bases i n southern  Siani or n o r t h e r n  M a l a y a t h i s l i n e w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e a t t a c k on S i n g a p o r e ' s only vulnerable side. The a military secret.  d e f e n c e s of. S i n g a p o r e a r e . o f c o u r s e , I t s l a n d w a r d s i d e may be g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  v u l n e r a b l e , b u t i t c e r t a i n l y i s not neglected. movement o f s e v e r a l l a r g e c o n t i n g e n t s i n t o Malaya during the past year  of A l l i e d  troops  i n d i c a t e s a defence  system of considerable depth, probably on t h e p e n i n s u l a .  The  sited w e l l north  M o r e o v e r , t h e l e n g t h of t h e r a i l w a y ,  p l u s i t s p r o x i m i t y t o t h e c o a s t , detract.! m a t e r i a l l y f r o m i t s m i l i t a r y value, unless protected simultaneously  by  l a n d , s e a j and" a i r * The  seaward, a p p r o a c h e s t o S i n g a p o r e a r e  r e p u t e d l y w e l l p r o t e c t e d by land b a t t e r i e s , m i n e - f i e l d s , and  n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s o f r e e f s and i s l e t s .  offers excellent f a c i l i t i e s  The h a r b o u r  f o r a i r c r a f t , and t h e s e  b e e n augmented by s e v e r a l n e w l y - c o n s t r u c t e d  land  The w a r i n E u r o p e h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e d e a d l y  have  fields.  powers o f  modern b o m b i n g and t o r p e d o - c a r r y i n g a i r c r a f t when used a g a i n s t s h i p s i n narrow waters.  On t h e p u r e l y  defensive  s i d e , a i r a t t a c k on t h e p o r t c a n be h a n d l e d b o t h by a n t i - a i r c r a f t guns a n d b y r e c e n t l y - i n c r e a s e d numbers o f  fighting  aircraft. S i n g a p o r e i s n o t o n l y a n a v a l "base, "but  a l s o the c h i e f  e n t r e p o t of i t s a r e a .  Goods c o l l e c t e d  f r o m Burma, M a l a y a , and S i a m meet i n S i n g a p o r e t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e E a s t I n d i e s and southern P a c i f i c .  Indies,  The  city  t h e i s l a n d s of the  Prom S i n g a p o r e t h e p r o d u c e  A s i a , and A m e r i c a i s d i s t r i b u t e d itself  the c o n -  of  Europe,  t o I n d o n e s i a and  the  i s the export p o i n t f o r the  r u b b e r and t i n on w h i c h t h e economy of t h e M a l a y a n i s based.  Moreover,  of  food supply.  i t s own  S i n g a p o r e must i m p o r t a g r e a t p a r t L i v e s t o c k and r i c e come f r o m  S i a m and Burma; " w e s t e r n " f o o d s f r o m E u r o p e , the A n t i p o d e s .  states  India,  and  T h r o u g h t h e S t r a i t s must p a s s a l l s h i p s  t r a v e l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e I n d i a n and P a c i f i c  Oceans.  w i t h o u t t h e r e d u c t i o n of the n a v a l base i t s e l f ,  Even  con-  s i d e r a b l e damage c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be done t o m e r c h a n t s h i p p i n g by a i r c r a f t b a s e d The  i n Indo-China or Siam.  t h i r d p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n of a  t h r u s t i s a g a i n s t t h e N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i e s and possessions i n Borneo. n a t u r e has  grouped  From t h e J a p a n e s e  the  Japanese British  viewpoint,  these i s l a n d s i n a convenient  semi-  c i r c l e a r o u n d F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a , w i t h t h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t w i t h i n b o m b i n g d i s t a n c e o f Cambodia.  Directly  a c r o s s f r o m S i n g a p o r e l i e s Sumatra, second l a r g e s t of D u t c h i s l a n d s i n a r e a , h u t w i t h one populations.  Java  to the  North  m i l e s by  contains  s e a and  smallest  the most  of J a v a l i e s B o r n e o , a b a r e  important  five-hundred  a i r f r o m the Indo-Chinese c o a s t ,  the S p r a t l y I s l a n d s h a l f - w a y The  a c k n o w l edged w e a l t h  combat t h e r e c e n t  of the I n d i e s  o f f i c i a l measures  depression.  S u m a t r a and  largest fields,  c a s e on the n o r t h  military first  importance.  Among m i n e r a l s  become i m p o r t a n t ,  t u r a l products  s u c h as  t h e most i m p o r t a n t The  and  J.S.  the  coast,  produced, t i n ranks  S i n c e 1936  and nickel  considerable  t i n , together w i t h  t e a , c o f f e e , sugar,  agricul-  tobacco,  etc.,  exports*""  w i d e l y - s c a t t e r e d i s l a n d s present  easy t a r g e t f o r "piecemeal"  5.  the  R u b b e r i s a l s o of  the Japanese e v i n c i n g  O i l , rubber,  designed  B o r n e o have  v a l u e , w i t h manganese  coming r a p i d l y t o the f o r e .  interest.  are  c l o s e to Indo-China.  i n b o t h q u a n t i t y and  bauxite has  i n the l a t t e r  has  O i l i s , of course,  c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n i n wartime.  significantly  with  across.  b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l y d e v e l o p e d by to  the  e a s t w a r d i s t h e c e n t r e of D u t c h  a c t i v i t y i n t h e I n d i e s , and towns.  of  the  a t t a c k s f r o m the n o r t h .  F u r n i v a l l ; Netherlands  I n d i a , ; c h . X,  XII.  an From  I n d o - C h i n a a e r i a l a t t a c k s c o u l d be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t a l l the i m p o r t a n t  c i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the o n l y l a r g e n a v a l b a s e  at Soerabaya. aerial  From I n d o - C h i n a o r t h e S p r a t l y I s l a n d s  c o n v o y s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d  to northern Borneo,  J a p a n e s e mandated C a r o l i n a s , M a r i a n a s , and b a s e s f o r a t t a c k on  the o u t e r  f o r a number o f y e a r s The  latter  Islands are  to A u s t r a l i a . I n d i e s are based  L a c k of money has  w i t h a s m a l l but  m o b i l e f o r c e o f d e s t r o y e r s , s u b m a r i n e s , and t o d e l a y and  augmented by  recent  an a i r f o r c e  the  highly  other  h a r r a s s an a t t a c k e r .  t a s k t h e n a v y w o u l d be a i d e d by  on  been.the c h i e f  the s i z e o f n a v a l f o r c e s , and  therefore provided  c r a f t designed  has  been t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h a f o o t h o l d .  B u t c h d e f e n c e s i n the  factor i n restricting  provide  i s l a n d s , i n which Japan  r o u t e i s a l s o an e a s y r o a d  three considerations.  Yap  The  light In  this  considerably  p u r c h a s e s of n e w e s t - t y p e A m e r i c a n  equipment. .  A d e c i s i v e b l o w c o u l d not be  struck  without  t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f c a p i t a l s h i p s w h i c h the I n d i e s do possess.  The  second p r i n c i p l e . o f Netherlands  Indian  d e f e n c e i s t h e r e f o r e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Countries  Before  t h i s co-operation  the i n v a s i o n of the was  not.  perhaps  Low  c o n s i d e r a b l y hampered  by  - 58 s t r i c t Dutch n e u t r a l i t y . lands its  To-day, o f c o u r s e ,  Government i n E x i l e i s w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y  f o r c e s w i t h those of Great B r i t a i n .  the Netherco-ordinating  Presumably such  B r i t i s h s h i p s as a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s o u t h e r n P a c i f i c w o u l d b e used a g a i n s t a h enemy w h e r e v e r he m i g h t Reciprocal co-operation  o f D u t c h s m a l l c r a f t might be  expected i n such operations  as h u n t i n g  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s v e r y capital and  strike.  commerce-raiders.  u n l i k e l y t h a t any B r i t i s h  s h i p s c a n be s p a r e d i n t h e O r i e n t f o r some  indeed  time,  t h e d e s p a t c h of s u c h u n i t s a t t h e p r e s e n t  m i g h t w e l l be p r o v o c a t i v e Japanese a c t i o n . • •  .  time  r a t h e r than p r e v e n t i v e of  •  Land defences of the I n d i e s i n c l u d e a s m a l l b u t w e l l - t r a i n e d a n d e q u i p p e d army, and e x t e n s i v e f o r t i f i c a t i o n s around p o s s i b l e p o i n t s of a t t a c k . O i l fields  i n p a r t i c u l a r , a l o n g w i t h , o t h e r a r e a s o f economic  o r m i l i t a r y v a l u e , a r e p o p u l a r l y s u p p o s e d t o be m i n e d and otherwise  prepared f o r d e s t r u c t i o n , should  they f a l l  into  enemy h a n d s . The the p o s s i b i l i t y  most s e r i o u s menace i n t h i s a r e a i s  of commerce-raiding.  J a p a n c o u l d do much i n t h i s l i n e southern P a c i f i c . fit  Even "short  to a i d the A x i s  o f war" i n the  E a s t , armed merchantmen, a l l o w e d t o  o u t a n d p r o v i s i o n i n I n d o - C h i n e s e p o r t s , c o u l d work  - 59 havoc i n t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g between the P a c i f i c  shipping lanes.  and I n d i a n Oceans c o u l d be r e a c h e d , a s  w e l l as t h e r o u t e s b e t w e e n t h e A n t i p o d e s and E u r o p e .  A l l traffic  and A s i a ,  Africa,  The J a p a n e s e mandates p r o v i d e b a s e s f o r  s i m i l a r a c t i o n against Antipodean South America,  t r a d e w i t h N o r t h and -  a n d t h r o u g h t h e Panama C a n a l .  Tracking  down t h e s e r a i d e r s and l o c a t i n g their b a s e s w o u l d be a p r o d i g i o u s t a s k among t h e a r c h i p e l a g o e s o f t h e s o u t h e r n Pacific. The  obvious weakness o f Japanese o f f e n s i v e  a c t i o n i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n A s i a i s , of course, of communications.  The above c o u r s e s  s u p p o s e a f o r c e b a s e d on F r e n c h country i s not i t s e l f  capable  i n d u s t r i e s were t o t a l l y  of such  inadequate  produce newly-created to supply  T h i s does n o t t a k e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p o s s i b i l i t y  into  of a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e  r e s i s t a n c e , s h o u l d Japan attempt Indo-Chinese  or confiscated  Moreover, the country's  even h e r own r e q u i r e m e n t s .  But that  of s u p p o r t i n g such a f o r c e .  i n the c o a s t a l areas, but the q u a l i t y  munitions  of a c t i o n pre-  Indo-China.  P o o d s u p p l i e s m i g h t i n d e e d be p u r c h a s e d  w o u l d n o t be h i g h .  the problem  f o r c i b l e d i r e c t i o n of  economy. J a p a n must b r i n g a l l t h e men and m u n i t i o n s  she r e q u i r e s i n I n d o - C h i n a  from the north.  These must  60 come b y s e a , s i n c e t h e J a p a n e s e have n o t l i n k e d  their  f o o t h o l d s on t h e A s i a t i c  routes.  c o a s t by adequate l a n d  S h i p m e n t s must be c o n v o y e d , w h i c h r e d u c e s t h e e f f e c t i v e naval strength a v a i l a b l e f o r o f f e n s i v e a c t i o n elsewhere. If  t r o o p l a n d i n g s were a t t e m p t e d anywhere  beyond  Indo-  C h i n a s t i l l more c o n v o y i n g w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y , a l t h o u g h land-based a i r c r a f t could give considerable  assistance.  M o r e o v e r , s u p p l i e s bound f o r I n d o - C h i n a must p a s s t h r o u g h c e r t a i n well-defined channels.  West o f Formosa  l e a d s p a s t Hongkong; e a s t o f F o r m o s a have t o p a s s M a n i l a *  the route  t r a n s p o r t s would  F i n a l l y , J a p a n would, have t h e  p r o b l e m o f f i n d i n g enough e x t r a s h i p p i n g f o r t r a n s p o r t and s u p p l y p u r p o s e s . The unknown q u a n t i t y i n t h e P a c i f i c situation is,  of course, the United S t a t e s .  f o r c e s b a s e d on t h e P h i l i p p i n e s c o u l d h a r r y s u p p l y l i n e s f r o m Formosa  to Saigon.  naval,  American Japanese  The w h o l e  route  c o u l d be c o v e r e d f r o m M a n i l a o n , o v e r , and under t h e s e a . The J a p a n e s e n a v a l and a i r b a s e s i n s o u t h e r n Formosa a r e w i t h i n bombing  range o f a i r c r a f t based i n Luzon.  From t h e P h i l i p p i n e s  t o Guam i t i s •  p o s s i b l e t o throw a s c r e e n a c r o s s t h e o u t e r i s l a n d s o f t h e N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i e s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b l o c k i n g t h e way to the A n t i p o d e s .  Wake a n d Midway I s l a n d s c o m p l e t e  this  . screen across  * 61 -  to P e a r l Harbour.  6  I t s h o u l d be  noted,  however, t h a t such a l i n e i s i t s e l f v u l n e r a b l e from the Japanese mandates. The from Singapore  possibility  of American ships  operating  has been d i s c u s s e d ever s i n c e t h e attendance  i n 1938 o f A m e r i c a n n a v a l u n i t s a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Singapore  g r a v i n g dock.  I t i s significant  that the  U n i t e d S t a t e s navy h a s no r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s w e s t o f P e a r l Harbour comparable t o those of t h e Singapore  of Singapore.  Another  q u e s t i o n i s the aforementioned  shortage  These may h o t be n e c e s s a r y  f o r defensive  of c a p i t a l s h i p s . action, but without  them e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r i n g o f a  J a p a n e s e move a g a i n s t t h e N e t h e r l a n d s  Indies is" impossible.  L i g h t e r c r a f t , e s p e c i a l l y c r u i s e r s and a i r c r a f t w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r h u n t i n g commerce-raiders. unlikely  6.  I t i s not  a f f e c t also the  Pacific. But  in  carriers,  that the current Anglo-American "deals" i n  m i l i t a r y and n a v a l equipment w i l l southern  aspect  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n do a g r e a t  t h e P a c i f i c wi thout r e s o r t i n g to war.  deal  A i d to China  The U n i t e d S t a t e s House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e c e n t l y v o t e d |242,000.000 f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a v a l a v i a t i o n b a s e s a t Guam, Samoa, a n d o t h e r u n s p e c i f i e d p o i n t s i n the P a c i f i c . Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e . Feb. 19, 1941.  - 62  -  h e l p s keep J a p a n e s e t r o o p s o c c u p i e d , and  prevents  b e i n g used f u r t h e r s o u t h .  o f the  I s l a n d s by  Strengthening  i n c r e a s e s i n a i r and  their Hawaiian  naval personnel  and  e q u i p m e n t complements t h e announcement of i n t e n t i o n t o c r e a t e a "two-ocean" navy.  Canadian-American  schemes p r o v i d e s t e p p i n g - s t o n e s n a v a l and  t o A l a s k a , where A m e r i c a n  a i r bases are c r e e p i n g westward a l o n g  Aleutian Islands.  on a " t r a i n i n g The  the  " A l l - o u t a i d to the democracies"  b e e n c e l e b r a t e d by v i s i t s Antipodes  defence  of A m e r i c a n w a r s h i p s  to  has the  cruise".  severance  o f economic r e l a t i o n s  with  J a p a n i s , of c o u r s e , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' b e s t weapon i n any  c o n f l i c t between these  a l o n e a r e n o t enough.  countries.  But  "sanctions"  B a c k e d by A m e r i c a n armed f o r c e s  s u c h a b l o c k a d e w o u l d be i t would merely  two  extremely  effective.  Used  g i v e J a p a n a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e (and  excuse) f o r h a s t e n i n g the southward e x t e n s i o n of "New  Order".  the  alone,  CHAPTER I V I N D O - C H i m I N A S I A T I C POLITICS.  The most c o n f u s e d mixture  I n d o n e s i a n p e n i n s u l a i s one  e t h n i c r e g i o n s of A s i a .  of many r a c e s , a n d  impassable areas.  divide  southern C h i n a , these v a l l e y s w h e r e e a c h ends i n a r i c h  i t into  these v a l l e y s  migration into  l a t e r a l communication,  sea,  have  Indonesia.  r i d g e s have  each v a l l e y  independently, a  r i v e r -valley  distinct  delta.  S i n c e t h e i m p a s s a b l y wooded d i v i d i n g  d e v e l o p e d , more o r l e s s  five  widen out towards the  "been t h e p a t h w a y s f o r s o u t h w a r d  characteristic,  the  f r o m a "base i n  P r o m t i m e immemorial'  g e n e r a l resemblance  a  i n p e o p l i n g t h i s p e n i n s u l a , whose  mountain ranges  agricultural  I t s people are  Geography has p l a y e d  Running fan-wise southward  prevented  the  t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n s a r e drawn  f r o m e q u a l l y d i v e r s e sources.. most i m p o r t a n t r o l e  of  civilization.  area  has  typical This  broad  i s , h o w e v e r , t h e i r o n l y common  except  i n the few  cases where l o c a l  g e o g r a p h i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s have p e r m i t t e d l a t e r a l c o n t a c t . I n t o these cul-de-sac v a l l e y s  h a v e come  s u c c e s s i v e m i g r a t i o n s , e a c h wave d r i v i n g "before i t t h e indigenous i n h a b i t a n t s .  A l t h o u g h many g r o u p s  preserved t h e i r  t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t "by r e t r e a t i n g  into  identity  have  i s o l a t e d r e g i o n s , m i x t u r e and m o d i f i c a t i o n of  p e o p l e s and c u l t u r e s a l i k e has "been the g e n e r a l r u l e . The  Indo-China  of t o - d a y c o n t a i n s two  t h e s e v a l l e y h i g h w a y s , w i t h b o t h t h e f l a n k i n g and i n t e r v e n i n g mountains. Tonkin into  the  I n t h e n o r t h , the Red R i v e r c u t s  two p l a t e a u r e g i o n s , w i t h a  d e l t a between.  of  thickly-populated  The Mekong R i v e r , r i s i n g f a r t h e r  west,  f l o w s s o u t h a l o n g t h e S i a m e s e b o r d e r f o r some d i s t a n c e , t h e n t u r n s s o u t h - e a s t i n t o Cambodia and C o c h i n C h i n a . B e t w e e n t h e s e two  streams  o f L a o s a n d Annam.  t h e d i v i d i n g r i d g e c o v e r s most  L a t e r a l spurs from t h i s range  t h e c o a s t of Annam i n t o a s e r i e s o f i s o l a t e d  break  valleys  f r o n t i n g on t h e s e a . The p e o p l e known t o t h e A n n a m i t e s as "Moi" are descendants o f Indo-China..  o f t h e e a r l i e s t known i n h a b i t a n t s  T h i s name c o v e r s a number of w i d e l y  d i f f e r i n g and v e r y p r i m i t i v e groups  scattered  through  t h e m o u n t a i n o u s b a c k c o u n t r y o f L a o s , Annam, and F r e n c h s c i e n t i s t s have t e n t a t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d  Tonkin.  them i n t o  - 65 -  Negritos,'Malayans, and T i b e t a n s , a c c o r d i n g to o r i g i n . D i v e r s e a n d vague t r a d i t i o n s make t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a t best l i t t l e  more t h a n s u r m i s e .  of t h e s e n a t i v e s o f f e r l i t t l e  Physical  characteristics  assistance;  religious  t h e o r i e s a r e i n most c a s e s a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f b r o a d precepts found i n nearly every O r i e n t a l f a i t h ; p r a c t i c e i s often extremely s u p e r f i c i a l .  religious  Unlike other  peoples o f Indo-China, the Moi are f a s t l o s i n g both t h e i r original sequent  characteristics overlords..  and those a c q u i r e d from  sub-  A l o w standard of culture-, w i t h a  t o t a l l a c k o f l i t e r a r y o r d r a m a t i c a r t have b e e n m a j o r causes  o f t h e s c a n t i n e s s and c o n f u s i o n e v e n o f l e g e n d a r y  history.  G e o g r a p h i c a l i s o l a t i o n a n d a nomadic l i f e a r e  important c o n t r i b u t o r y  causes.  L a c k of a d e f i n i t e b a c k g r o u n d , w i t h undeveloped  together  i n s t i t u t i o n s , made t h e s e p e o p l e  prey f o r the next i n v a d e r s .  Two r a c e s o f H i n d u  easy origin,  Khmers a n d Chams, w e r e t h e f i r s t m i g r a n t s o f whom we have d e f i n i t e knowledge * River valley  and e s t a b l i s h e d  what i s now Annam.  1.  The l a t t e r g r o u p  descended  themselves  t h e Red  on t h e c o a s t o f  Here t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n  H. R u s s i e r a n d H. B r e n i e r ; L ' I n d o c h i n e p. 1 1 6 .  underwent  franchise;  rapid disintegration.  Exposed  t o a t t a c k "by A n n a m i t e s . t o  t h e n o r t h , Khmers to t h e south,., and C h i n e s e p i r a t e s sea, or  by  t h e K i n g d o m of Champa had no l e i s u r e f o r c u l t u r a l , spiritual  development. L a c k i n g a c o h e s i v e i n f l u e n c e the  s o o n b r o k e up, s e c t i o n s f a l l i n g  t o i t s n o r t h e r n and  s o u t h e r n n e i g h b o u r s , and t h e r e m a i n d e r mountains little  of the i n t e r i o r .  r e t r e a t i n g t o the  The Chams t h e r e f o r e had  i n f l u e n c e on I n d o - C h i n e s e  transitory reign l e f t  group  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  only material r e l i c s *  their  '  More i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t i s t h e l e g a c y of t h e Kingdom of Founan, founded  on the l o w e r  Mekong by  invasion.  the o t h e r s e c t i o n o f the Hindu  d e v e l o p i n g t o a p o s i t i o n o f tremendous p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r a l importance  throughout  After  and  the west t h i s kingdom  s u d d e n l y d e c l i n e d i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h centuries*  A s u b o r d i n a t e Khmer s t a t e i n what i s  C a m b o d i a t o o k o v e r i t s p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l The  now  heritage.  renaissance t h a t subsequently took p l a c e i n every  b r a n c h o f Khmer c u l t u r e s u r p a s s e d even t h e g l o r y F o u n a n , and made i t s e l f f e l t Indo-China.  T h i s new  of  over the whole of w e s t e r n  v i g o u r found e x p r e s s i o n c h i e f l y  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , of which  t h e most famous s u r v i v a l i s  the c o l o s s a l Angkor The  ruin. H i n d u p e o p l e s were i n t u r n overwhelmed  "by a wave o f i m m i g r a n t s f r o m s o u t h e r n  Tibet.  E n t e r i n g by  the_ f a m i l i a r T o n k i n r o u t e s , t h i s wave a l s o s p l i t The  T h a i s moved s l o w l y s o u t h and w e s t , l e a v i n g a s t r o n g  impression By  i n two.  on t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e w e s t e r n m o u n t a i n s .  the t w e l f t h century  t h e Mekong v a l l e y h a d l e d t h e  invaders  t o C a m b o d i a , where t h e y ' s h o r t l y  acquired  sufficient  s t r e n g t h to overrun  afterward t h e Khmer Kingdom.  A f t e r p i l l a g i n g t h e c o u n t r y , and i n c i d e n t a l l y  absorbing  much Khmer c u l t u r e , t h e T h a i i n v a d e r s moved w e s t w a r d t o t h e i r present only  headquarters i n southern  Siam.  Since  then  t h e s t r e n g t h o f F r e n c h r u l e i n I n d o - C h i n a has  restrained  their efforts  to r e - a s s e r t Thai  suzerainty  over the western p r o v i n c e s . The  second d i v i s i o n  of t h i s T i b e t a n  p u s h e d e a s t w a r d down t h e Red R i v e r , m i n g l i n g indigenous  p e o p l e s en r o u t e *  Pressed  horde  with  t h e m s e l v e s by t h e  Chinese to the n o r t h , the invaders q u i c k l y overthrew t h e K i n g d o m of Champa and e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t s p l a c e t h e Annamite Empire.  This  e m p i r e was i n t u r n s u b j e c t e d t o  ten c e n t u r i e s of Chinese domination, a c q u i r e d much o f i t s p r e s e n t  d u r i n g w h i c h Annam  p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ,  - 68 -  •  and adopted whole s e c t i o n s o f Chinese  culture.  E m a n c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e C h i n e s e y o k e was e v e n t u a l l y secured during a period of h i t t e r warfare i n the Annamite Empire.  internal  From t h e s e s t r u g g l e s  .  t h e Nguyen d y n a s t y emerged as champion o f Annam, s u p p r e s s i n g i t s T r i n h r i v a l a n d a t t h e same t i m e p u s h i n g v i g o u r o u s l y southward.  When t h e F r e n c h a r r i v e d Annam h a d b o t h  Tonkin  and C o c h i n C h i n a as v a s s a l s a n d was commencing t h e p e n e t r a t i o n o f Cambodia* 5  T h i s was t h e o r i g i n o f I n d o - C h i n a s present native population.  On a v a r i e d b a c k g r o u n d  i n d e t e r m i n a t e o r i g i n b o t h I n d i a n and C h i n e s e h a v e made a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n . civilizations and c u l t u r e s .  predominate  of  peoples  To-day Khmer a n d A n n a m i t e  i n a medley o f r a c e s , c r e e d s ,  An O c c i d e n t a l c u l t u r e has begun t h e  metamorphosis o f t h i s O r i e n t a l conglomerate, but a l t h o u g h t h e s h o r t O c c i d e n t a l r u l e has c o n s i d e r a b l y m o d i f i e d n a t i v e institutions  these a r e s t i l l  of fundamental  importance  i n the p r a c t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y . T h i s c h a o t i c background for  i s responsible  t h e course o f F r e n c h conquest, and f o r the i l l o g i c a l  g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h has r e s u l t e d . departement,  Cochin China i s a French  and l i k e A l g e r i a i s (?) d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d  in its  t h e Chamber of D e p u t i e s .  Annam, b e i n g a k i n g d o m i n  own r i g h t , i s a p r o t e c t o r a t e o f F r a n c e , as a r e L a o s  and C a m b o d i a .  T o n k i n , n o m i n a l l y under  E m p e r o r o f Annam, i s g o v e r n e d Resident Superior.  the r u l e of the  i n f a c t by the F r e n c h  Cambodia has a n a t i v e k i n g a n d L a o s  a s o r t . o f s e m i - r o y a l r u l e r whose i n d e f i n i t e  political  a u t h o r i t y - o v e r t h e i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s i s g i v i n g way t o i n c r e a s i n g de f a c t o economic  c o n t r o l by the French.  The  Governor-General of the•Indo-Chinese Union i s r e s p o n s i b l e to  the M i n i s t e r  of C o l o n i e s i n ( s i n c e 1940) V i c h y . S u c h a n " o r g a n i z a t i o n " seems s t r a n g e l y  out o f k e e p i n g w i t h t h e u s u a l c o n c e p t i o n o f F r e n c h policy.  I t i s a t once t h e r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l  and a mark o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y conquest  events  o f ^French r u l e *  o f I n d o - C h i n a was t y p i c a l  colonial  The  of nineteenth century  2 tropical imperialism. of  E x p l o r a t i o n of Tonkin i n search  c o m m e r c i a l a n d economic  missionary a c t i v i t y  a d v a n t a g e s was f o l l o w e d b y  i n b o t h I n d o - C h i n a and C h i n a .  French  m i s s i o n a r i e s were t h e means, b o t h w i l l i n g l y and u n w i l l i n g l y , of  furthering material  ends i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s ; b u t as a  g e n e r a l r u l e f e w h a v e b e e n so s i n c e r e a n d d e v o t e d as  2.  Morse and MacNair; F a r E a s t e r n I n t e r n a t i o n a l e s p e c i a l l y ch. XVIII.  Relations;  - 70  -  t h e s e e a r l y F r e n c h m i s s i o n a r i e s , and a c c o m p l i s h e d so much. jealousy  t h e i r own  of the  f o r e c o n o m i c and  S t a r t i n g wi t h  or a n o t h e r a b s o r b e d  Orders" are being diplomatic  i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r and  banditry,  former i s confined  a semi-feudal  problems a r i s i n g  of E u r o p e a n s , Khmer,  s o u t h and  slaves, reflect  s e r v i c e was  influence  of  t h e w e s t , where The  three  the c o n d i t i o n s  strata, under  administrative  the  o r i g i n of  c l a s s , w h i c h owed a t h e o r e t i c a l and  t e n u o u s a l l e g i a n c e t o the ( K i n g . order  the  but  therefrom.  Military first  of  t h e method.  To-day the  t h e i r o r i g i n , and  need.to  suppression  s o c i a l . s true ture p r e v a i l s .  f r e e m e n , s e r f s , and w h i c h t h e y had  to the  the  the  and A n n a m i t e c i v i l i z a t i o n imposed a p r e c a r i o u s e f f e c t i v e u n i t y on I n d o - C h i n a .  fashion,  gain provided  e x c u s e ; and  B e f o r e the a r r i v a l  the  the  created.  i n c e n t i v e ; p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s , and f o r e s t a l l o t h e r p o w e r s , the  and  the l e a s t  present Union, i n piecemeal  v e r y much as modern "New Desire  s h e l t e r e d , not  countrymen.  T o n k i n , F r a n c e on.one p r e t e x t f i v e countries  indeed hare  B e h i n d t h e i r work the g r e e d  o f o t h e r E u r o p e a n s has  blameworthy being  few  W i t h the  the  frequently stability  r e s u l t i n g f r o m F r e n c h r u l e the m i l i t a r y b a s i s  and of  - 71 -  Khmer f e u d a l i s m h a s "been d e s t r o y e d , b u t so f a r t h i s  upper  c l a s s h a s n o t become b l u r r e d w i t h i t s i n f e r i o r s . Serfdom arose for  o u t o f the. need f o r l a b o u r  t h e c o l o s s a l b u i l d i n g schemes w h i c h marked the z e n i t h  o f Khmer c u l t u r e *  S u c h w o r k s w e r e a means o f e x p r e s s i n g  a h i g h degree o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . French  P u b l i c works under the  a r e a n u n r o m a n t i c modern n e c e s s i t y .  have c o n t i n u e d  to.use  the n a t i v e corvee  B u t the. F r e n c h  system f o r  r e c r u i t i n g l a b o u r , a p r a c t i c e w h i c h has f r e q u e n t l y l e d to grave abuse.  Thus, a l t h o u g h serfdom has i n theory been  r e p l a c e d by -wage-labour, i t i n f a c t c o n t i n u e s  i n existence  u n d e r much t h e same c o n d i t i o n s as b e f o r e . , As i s f r e q u e n t l y the e a s e . i n the O r i e n t , d e b t was t h e raison__d^_gtre o f s l a v e r y among t h e Khmers. Under the i n f l u e n c e of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y European political  i d e a l s and h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m  a b o l i shed when t h e F r e n c h Cambodia.  took over  s l a v e r y was o f f i c i a l l y the p r o t e c t orate of  I n f a c t , h o w e v e r , t h e change i s l e g a l r a t h e r  than a c t u a l .  Economic s l a v e r y s t i l l  f l o u r i s h e s among the  a g r i c u l t u r a l peasantry, w i t h improvident hopelessly indebted  to C h i n e s e and I n d i a n m o n e y - l e n d e r s .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n has i n d e e d  3.  n a t i v e landowners  c f . a n t e . Chap. I I .  been a g g r a v a t e d  by t h e F r e n c h -  - 72  inspired  trend  towards p r o d u c t i o n The  was,  e a r l y a target f o r French  weakened by  precept supplied  Brahman and  p r i n c i p l e s have through c e n t u r i e s  of such law  but  legislation  become l o s t I n a mass o f  l o c a l custom f i l l e d  the b u l k  of  by  Buddhist  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s o f l a w ,  royal proclamation  Varied  "reform".  r e l i g i o u s c u s t o m and  l a x e x e r c i s e of r o y a l a u t h o r i t y .  by  export.  of c o u r s e , t h e c o h e s i v e i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s  f e u d a l s o c i e t y , hut  general  for  l e g a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h hound Khmer  s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r , was Heredity  -  detail/  the gaps i n t h i s -system.  r e l a t e d t o t h e economic and  Since  social  s t r u c t u r e s , m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i t h an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t and f o r e i g n b a s i s h a v e had  far-reaching effects.  Nevertheless, more f a v o u r a b l y  t h e Khmers have  reacted  t o F r e n c h r u l e t h a n have the A n n a m i t e s .  When t h e F r e n c h a r r i v e d i n Cambodia t h e c o u n t r y d a n g e r f r o m b o t h T h a i s and A n n a m i t e s . taneously  since.  i t s Occidental  culture. legal  has  maintained  overlord  ever  U n d e r t h e F r e n c h Cambodians have e n j o y e d  p r o s p e r i t y , b e t t e r h e a l t h , and  a revival  of  increased  native  A l t h o u g h some i n s t i t u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  s y s t e m and  in  Cambodia s p o n -  s o u g h t F r e n c h p r o t e c t i o n , and  excellent relations with  was  the  the p o s i t i o n o f the ( p i n g , h a v e sometimes  - 73 -  "been n e e d l e s s l y and t a c t l e s s l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h , F r e n c h r u l e has i n g e n e r a l p r e v e n t e d of  an a l r e a d y d e c l i n i n g  too r a p i d  disintegration  civilization.  Such e x c e l l e n t r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d e b a s i s f o r a n t i - F r e n c h propaganda.  little  N a t i o n a l i s m among  the Khmers p r e f e r s t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f p a s t g l o r i e s t o the b u s t l e o f contemporary  politics.  As the p a s t few  months have i n d i c a t e d , t h e n a t i o n a l i s m t o be e x p l o i t e d i n Cambodia i s n o t t h a t o f t h e Khmers, b u t t h a t o f t h e i r neighbours. Annamite c i v i l i z a t i o n importance Indo-China. and  i n the contemporary Annam s t i l l  c u l t u r a l scene  eastern seaboard.  i s of greater  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of French  dominates the p o l i t i c a l s  social,  i n t h r e e i m p o r t a n t p r o v i n c e s on the Two o f t h e s e , T o n k i n and C o c h i n C h i n a ,  c o n t a i n t h e most d e n s e l y - p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s o f t h e U n i o n . The  i n f l u e n c e o f Annam hag m o r e o v e r b e e n f e l t  r e g i o n s f a r beyond the b o u n d a r i e s The F r e n c h f o u n d a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  i n interior  o f the o l d E m p i r e .  i n the Annamite c o u n t r i e s  s t r u c t u r e s t r o n g l y marked-by t h e  c e n t u r i e s of Chinese domination.  The a b s o l u t e  of  on t h e " h e a v e n l y mandate"  t h e E m p e r o r of Annam was b a s e d  f a m i l i a r i n Chinese h i s t o r y .  despotism  A quasi-divine figure,  - 74 -  a l o o f i n h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - i s o l a t e d c a p i t a l a t Hue, approachable  o n l y by e l a b o r a t e c e r e m o n i a l ,  t h e Emperor  o f Annam was t h e o b j e c t o f awe and r e v e r e n c e . in  their efforts to deal w i t h  difficulties  experienced  China i n the n i n e t e e n t h But  The F r e n c h  t h i s c o u r t had a l l t h e  by Westerners i n d e a l i n g w i t h century.  a l t h o u g h much o f t h i s m y s t i c i s m h a s  b e e n d i s p e l l e d b y t h e c o n q u e r o r , t h e p r e s e n t E m p e r o r of Annam r e t a i n s tremendous i n f l u e n c e i n t h e e v e r y - d a y of  h i s people.  W i t h a European education  b a c k g r o u n d , 3ao-Dai has turned h i s d u a l i t y The  r o y a l p e r s o n now p r o v i d e s  civilizations, the  life  and a n A n n a m i t e t o good a c c o u n t .  a b u f f e r b e t w e e n t h e two  g u i d i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f  o l d , a n d s o f t e n i n g t h e h a r s h m a t e r i a l i s m o f t h e new. I n o l d Annam t h e E m p e r o r r u l e d by means  of e x t r e m e l y  democratic  institutions.  Annamite  r a c y , f o r example, c o n s i s t e d of f i v e ranks, hereditary  aristoc-  with 1  t i t l e s w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y "demoted * . one g r a d e  per generation.  S i n c e a p p o i n t m e n t was t h e o r e t i c a l l y made  as a r e w a r d f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e , s u c h a d e v i c e was ostensibly a stimulus  to p a t r i o t i s m .  I n true O r i e n t a l  f a s h i o n i t was a c t u a l l y used f o r t h e much more p r a c t i c a l purpose o f preventing the formation  of f e u d a l c l i q u e s  - 75 -  and  court  parties, The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  under t h e i n f l u e n c e the  of China.  s y s t e m was l i k e w i s e  M a n d a r i n s were c h o s e n by  same p e d a n t i c methods a s i n C h i n a , a n d were  expected to govern t h e i r personal according  similarly  and o f f i c i a l conduct  t o C o n f u c i a n p r e c e p t . - Thus t h e i r a u t h o r i t y  was l a r g e l y m o r a l , r e i n f o r c e d by t h e shadow o f t h e Emperor's p r e s t i g e * when  This  f a c t had i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s  t h e F r e n c h came t o i n t e r f e r e i n t h e n a t i v e  administration. The u n i t o f A n n a m i t e s o c i e t y i s t o t h i s day  t h e commune, a c o m p l e t e l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  social,  r e l i g i o u s , economic, p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y . It  o r i g i n a t e d as a s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e c l a n , w h i c h i n  I n d o - C h i n a appears t o have preceded even t h e f a m i l y as a social unit.  W i t h t h e end of m i g r a t i o n  of t h e i n v a d i n g  clans  these  t o o k r o o t as communes, and b e c a u s e  of t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y , d e v e l o p e d i n t o societies.  sections  The C h i n e s e - i n f l u e n c e d  a. c o l o n i z i n g u n i t f u r t h e r p r o m o t e d The l o c a l e q u i v a l e n t were the v i l l a g e N o t a b l e s . experience and a b i l i t y ,  self-contained  use o f t h e commune a s individuality. of t h e Mandarins  I n theory selected f o r  these o f f i c i a l s  e a r l y came t o  - 76 -  represent  the s m a l l peasant landowning  c l a s s from  which  t h e y were r e c r u i t e d .  They were t h e r e f o r e i n t i m a t e l y  personally interested  i n every a s p e c t of l i f e  r e s p e c t i v e v i l l a g e s , and  and  i n their  s i n c e t h e communal "boundaries  e v e n t o - d a y mark t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l h o r i z o n of  their  i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e N o t a b l e s became much more i m p o r t a n t as l e a d e r s o f l o c a l s o c i e t y t h a n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the d i s t a n t I m p e r i a l government.  The F r e n c h u t i l i z e d  c o n d i t i o n t o s e p a r a t e l o c a l and  central  this  authorities,  c h a n g i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e f o r m e r , and r e d u c i n g t h e latter to negligible  importance.  D e s p i t e t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e of  transition  and c o n f u s i o n t h e n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e m a i n t h e a u t h o r i t y i n government.  French r u l e ,  e f f e c t i v e , does, n o t t o u c h t h e m o r a l and basis  of n a t i v e l i f e .  c a n an o u t s i d e r g o v e r n  though  traditional  superficially  psychological  Only through n a t i v e  institutions  the m a s s e s , and h i s p o l i t i c a l  r e l a t i o n s w i t h them a r e most s u c c e s s f u l when  indirect.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e a t t i t u d e of A n n a m i t e s toward  t h e i r immediate  F r e n c h r u l e r s has a n  b e a r i n g on t h e e x t e n t and  s t r e n g t h of French  important control  o v e r I n d o - C h i n a , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e b a c k i n g o f the Metropole  i s now  ineffective.  Annam made i t s f i r s t  - 77  -  c o n t a e t s w i t h t h e F r e n c h on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e O r i e n t a l o v e r the  T h i s was  feeling The  The  the  materialism  of t h e f i r s t F r e n c h t r a d e r s s t r e n g t h e n e d i n the minds o f the more i d e a l i s t i c  l a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y resented  despised  Annamites.  t h e i r w a r l i k e Tonkinese v a s s a l s , no  J a p a n e s e War  o p i n i o n "by c r e a t i n g  confirmed  this  recommendation.  t h a t an O r i e n t a l could  O c c i d e n t a l and  p e r s i s t e n t r e f u s a l of F r e n c h o f f i c i a l s them f r o m t h e o u t s e t  u n s c r u p u l o u s n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t e r s , and t h e W e s t e r n e r as a n e a s y dupe. This f e e l i n g n o t "been overcome.  Russo-  the  Moreover,  an the  to l e a r n n a t i v e a t t h e mercy of helped  to show up  '  of i n h e r e n t  R a t h e r has  The  e a s i l y l e a r n from  "beat h i m - a t h i s own ..game.  languages placed  of  s c h o l a r l y Annamites,  F r e n c h m i l i t a r y p r o w e s s was  impression  this  Europeans.  I n t h e eyes o f t h e already  and  t h e "bru.sq.ue t r e a t m e n t  t h e i r I m p e r i a l C o u r t "by i m p a t i e n t  who  Occidental.  shown i n the u s u a l w a y s , f o r example "by  w o r d i n g of d i p l o m a t i c documents. venality  assumption  s u p e r i o r i t y has  i t been strengthened  by  the way  i n w h i c h F r e n c h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have  age-old  n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s p u r e l y f o r the s a k e o f m a t e r i a l  expediency.  To  a people steeped  overridden  i n t r a d i t i o n , whose  - 73 -  l i v e s a r e r u l e d by t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l C o n f u c i a n , B u d d h i s t , and T a o i s t p r i n c i p l e s ,  t h e r e i s no p o i n t i n . m o d e r n i z a t i o n  and i n n o v a t i o n a s s u c h .  The  customary  e a s i l y becomes  t h e r i g h t , and f r o m t h i s i t i s an easy s t e p t o r e g a r d d e l i b e r a t e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l as approaching s a c r i l e g e .  something  To t h e p e a s a n t masses i n  p a r t i c u l a r , out o f t o u c h w i t h t h e f i n e r p o i n t s o f  Gallic  c u l t u r e , but v e r y i n t i m a t e l y concerned w i t h . t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e , a l t e r a t i o n of time-honoured a l o t of  institutions  needs  justification. The  native, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system  was  f o u n d i n d i s p e n s i b l e w h i l e t h e F r e n c h were s t r u g g l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h themselves also  i n Indo-China.  the e r a i n F r a n c e o f a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t  c o l o n i a l government. was  But t h i s p e r i o d  As  soon t h e r e f o r e as  theories  was  of  Indo-China  s u f f i c i e n t l y s u b j u g a t e d i t s new m a s t e r s b e g a n t r y i n g  to b r i n g the indigenous.government 4 French p o l i t i c a l  into line with  current  theory.  Mandarins most f r o m t h i s p o l i c y .  and  communal o f f i c i a l s  suffered  French i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s  to u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t i v e v i e w p o i n t r e s u l t e d i n n e e d l e s s  4.  o f . S .11. R o b e r t s ; H i s t o r y o f F r e n c h C o l o n i a l v o l . I , Chap. 1.  Policy,  - 79  c h a n g e s and  personal i n d i g n i t i e s .  machinery created p a r a l l e l the r e a l power and l o c a l revenues. and  -  French a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  to t h e n a t i v e s y s t e m w i e l d e d  a b s o r b e d an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of  Native o f f i c i a l s lost t h e i r  t h e i r income s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  usefulness  T h e i r attempts  to  r e c o v e r the l a t t e r by i n c r e a s e d l e v i e s h e l p e d  to l e s s e n  t h e i r m o r a l a u t h o r i t y , and' t o b r a n d them, not  the  as  superfluous.  The  Annam! t e o f f i c i a l fonctionnaire.  r e s u l t was  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  i n t o a c h e a p and  The  French  very  o f f i c i a l who  r o t a t i o n of p e r s o n n e l  personal  prevented  the  subordinate r e p l a c e d him  n o t an i m p r o v e m e n t , s i n c e l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i e s rapid  French,  was  and  the a l l - i m p o r t a n t  contact. S t a b i l i t y and  i s l i k e w i s e regarded  c o n s i s t e n c y i n government  a s a v i r t u e by C h i n e s e  peoples.  Change of p o l i c y by an o f f i c i a l  i s as o b j e c t i o n a b l e as  c h a n g i n g the o f f i c i a l h i m s e l f .  In Indo-China,  tunately, •n  Hie  t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l has  cjovrijrrjeijj'  o-f  *r)*r-K  imfrer'taiit  eo  o f t e n been  unforappointed  to n i «»  b e c a u s e h i s v i e w s a r e unwelcome a t home.  French  i n t r i g u e s , , h a v e f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n the s u d d e n o f c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s and unexpected s u c c e s s o r s . has  caused  political recall  the a p p o i n t m e n t o f q u i t e  A p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s p o i l s  thorough a d m i n i s t r a t i v e shake-ups every  system, few  - 80  years*  The  -  c o n s e q u e n c e has  vacillation,  been g e n e r a l  disturbance,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n , disappointments  p r o m i s e s i n a c o u n t r y w h i c h demands o r d e r , and  broken  stability,  e t h i c s i n government. In  has  and  a few  gone v e r y deep.  The  cases  civilizations  a p p l i c a t i o n of F r e n c h  t h e o r i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , has  judicial  s t r u c k a t t h e r o o t s of  Annamite s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . n a t i v e law  the c o n t a c t of  the  Native l e g a l machinery,  i t s e l f were e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y grew  of the e c o n o m i c and  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s themselves.  and out It is  i m p r a c t i c a l t h e r e f o r e t o t r y t o make them c o n f o r m t o p r i n c i p l e s and yet  t h i s was  "reforms".  theories suitable  t o the T h i r d R e p u b l i c ,  o f t e n j u s t the r e s u l t of o v e r - e n t h u s i a s t i c Clumsy j u d i c i a l  r e v i e w , f o r example,  t h e d i g n i t y and a u t h o r i t y .of n a t i v e j u d g e s . and  personal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s envisaged  do n o t s u i t A n n a m i t e s o c i e t y . to  spread  to F r e n c h  French  Property  the Code, N a p o l e o n  F o r i n s t a n c e , i n the d e s i r e  l a w n a t i v e s were e n c o u r a g e d to  c o u r t s o v e r t h e h e a d s o f communal and  parental authority. legislation will destroyed  by  destroyed  L i k e w i s e , t h e most a d v a n c e d  appeal even labour  not r e s t o r e s e m i - f e u d a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  by w a g e - l a b o u r and  the m i g r a t i o n of w o r k e r s  - 81  t o town and  -  mines. On  t h e o t h e r hand, many s u b s t a n t i a l b e n e f i t s  have r e s u l t e d f r o m the F r e n c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  Indo-China.  Outstanding  i n t h i s . r e s p e c t a r e the s u p p r e s s i o n o f n a t i v e  w a r f a r e and  b a n d i t r y ; economic d e v e l o p m e n t , a i d e d  p u b l i c w o r k s ; improvement i n n a t i v e h e a l t h s a n i t a t i o n , medical  c a r e , and  work of French m i s s i o n a r i e s . d'Extreme-Orient,  through  e d u c a t i o n ; and  the s p l e n d i d  The E c o l e f r a n c a i s e  f o u n d e d i n 1898,  p r o m o t e i n t e r e s t and  by  has  done much to  research i n Far-Eastern  culture:  I t i s a t once a g r a v i t a t i o n a l c e n t r e f o r thos e who, i n I n d o - C h i n a o r n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s , are i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems p r e s e n t e d by t h e o r i g i n and e v o l u t i o n o f F a r - E a s t e r n s o c i e t i e s ; and a c e n t r e f o r the d i f f u s i o n of the r e s u l t s obtained. It is d e s t i n e d t o become a s o r t o f o u t p o s t o f the H S t r o p o l e i n r e g a r d to s t u d i e s i n the P a c i f i c a r e a , and i s a l r e a d y a f o c a l p o i n t i n the g wo r i d - w i d e n e t w o r k o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . W e s t e r n e d u c a t i o n o f A n n a m i t e s has one  unfortunate r e s u l t .  of Hanoi,  5.  6.  the I n d o - C h i n e s e  C e n t e r i n g around  the  had  University  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m has  laid  For a French v i e w of c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c f . G. P e l l e t i e r and L. Roubaud; Images e t r g a l i t e s coloniales. The v i e w s of one of the most s u c c e s s f u l G o v e r n o r s o f I n d o - C h i n a a r e to be f o u n d i n A l b e r t S a r r a u t ' s L a l i s e en v a l e u r des c o l o n i e s f r a n c a i s e s . R. L e v y ; L a P o l i t i q u e f r a n c a i s e en E x t r g m e - O r i e n t . ; p. 26.  - 82  too  great s t r e s s  e f f e c t has  on a c a d e m i c c u l t u r e and  "been t o c r e a t e  a small  natives, eager, impatient, impractical.  -  theory.  c l a s s of  idealistic,  The  highly-educated  hut  frequently  They w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o seek a w e s t e r n  education i n order to q u a l i f y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hut by  the h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s  remained f i r m l y c l o s e d  a t a c i t a s s u m p t i o n of s u p e r i o r i t y on  posts, to them  the p a r t  of  the  French.^ T h i s g r o u p has r e a c t i o n to  T h i s s e n t i m e n t has  transformed i n t o a mild  by  an  only  the s h o r t c o m i n g s of F r e n c h r u l e i n  Annamite s t a t e s .  doubtful  p r o d u c e d the  t o become the  The  itself  too  and  action.  discrimination  seldom expressed i n s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s  or  attacked.  s m a l l , and  t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e  toward p o l i t i c a l problems i s unimportant.  7.  are  legislation  M o r e o v e r , the number o f p e r s o n s is relatively  i t is  intangible  of a g g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c a l  Broken tradi t i o n s , hurt,pride,  w h i c h c a n be  but  to e x p l o i t a t i o n  r e a l grievance^ are  objects  the  gradually  s o r t of n a t i o n a l i s m ,  whether i t would lend  outsider.  been  positive  affected  masses  Centuries  of  e.g. The s h o r t - l i v e d a t t e m p t to make a c q u i s i t i o n of F r e n c h n a t i o n a l i t y a p r e r e q u i s i t e to government employment.  - 83 -  i s o l a t e d , ' s e l f - c e n t e r e d g r o u p l i f e have l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l horizon. have l i t t l e  The f o r t u n e s  of p o l i t i c a l  theories  e f f e c t on a h a n d - t o - m o u t h e x i s t e n c e , and a  change i n t h e c h a r a c t e r  of t h e u l t i m a t e  a u t h o r i t y would t h e r e f o r e e x c i t e l i t t l e subordinate  their  political interest i f  i n s t i t u t i o n s were l e f t a l o n e .  " h e a v e n l y mandate" change i t s own  theory  A l s o , the  o f government makes  political  justification. 0O0 - —  The c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn i s t h a t C h i n a c a n n o t p l a y more t h a n a p a s s i v e politics.  role i n Asiatic  I n d e e d , t h r o u g h t h e course of h i s t o r y the  Indo-Chinese have p l a y e d politics,  Indo-  f o r diversity  a passive  role i n their  own  o f r a c e , c r e e d , and c u l t u r e has  c o n t i n u a l l y p u t them a t t h e mercy of v i g o u r o u s  neighbours.  The i n f l u e n c e o f g e o g r a p h y i s l a r g e l y responsible f o rd i r e c t i n g individual loyalties  toward  g r o u p s t o o s e l f - c e n t e r e d t o u n i t e , y e t t o o s m a l l t o be of independent p o l i t i c a l  importance.  What i s t r u e of  I n d o - C h i n a i s i n a measure t r u e o f t h e w h o l e I n d o n e s i a n peninsula.  Nationalism  S i a m , and g i v e s  little  i s i n t r o s p e c t i v e , f o r example i n encouragement t o a p a n - A s i a t i c  - 84 -  movement. Khmera and A n n a m i t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y a d e g r e e of u n i t y  impose  on two s e c t i o n s o f I n d o - C h i n a .  r u l e has u n i t e d f i v e d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l  French  entities into a  s u p e r f i c i a l u n i o n h e l d t o g e t h e r "by a cumbersome and illogical  administrative structure.  Apparently  this  s t r u c t u r e w o u l d be e a s i l y d i ^ i n t e g r a t e d by d i r e c t  pressure  i n A s i a and i n d i r e c t p r e s s u r e i n E u r o p e . The s p r e a d  of western  e d u c a t i o n i n Annamite  c o u n t r i e s h a s c r e a t e d a s m a l l c l a s s whose p e r s o n a l v a n i t y and  a m b i t i o n and memories o f p a s t i n d i g n i t i e s m i g h t be  exploited at  least  of  this  i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a puppet r u l e i n p a r t of Indo-China.  On t h e o t h e r hand , t h e a m b i t i o n s  group a r e p e r s o n a l r a t h e r t h a n n a t i o n a l , w h i l e  t h e m a s s e s , ut t e r l y l a c k i n g i n p o l i t i c a l seem t o f u r n i s h l i t t l e In  peacefully  movement. have  r a t h e r t h a n weakened, and t h e p l a c i d ,  d e c l i n i n g Khmer c i v i l i z a t i o n  p r o v i d e s no b a s i s  active nationalism. It  8.  support f o r a forward  Cambodia a m i c a b l e F r a n c o - K h m e r r e l a t i o n s  strengthened  for  sense, would  seems t h a t i f i n d i r e c t  Japanese  rule  o f . "V. Thompson; "The Landward S i d e o f S i n g a p o r e " ; P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , March, 1941.  - 85  -  i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r I n d o - C h i n a i t s b a s i s w i l l n o t be I n d o - C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m b u t the a s p i r a t i o n s of h e r neighbours.  C h i n a ' s g r i p on h e r f o r m e r v a s s a l i s c o n -  s i d e r a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e economic is  too b u s y  sphere, but China  t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e r r i t o r i a l  N e i t h e r i s t h e N a t i o n a l Government l i k e l y Japanese  expansion.  to f u r t h e r  p l a n s by h e l p i n g t o p a r t i t i o n b u f f e r  states.  The r e s u r g e n c e o f S i a m e s e n a t i o n a l v i g o u r has  f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n i r r e d e n t i s t c l a i m s on p a r t s o f  L a o s and C a m b o d i a .  These w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s a r e i n c i d e n -  t a l l y much more v a l u a b l e e c o n o m i c a l l y t o S i a m t h a n t o I n d o - C h i n a , and  an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f S i a m e s e n a t i o n a l i s m  d u r i n g the p a s t decade-has been the attempt to develop a n a t i o n a l aconomy. redoubled her e f f o r t s Trade  agreements,  D u r i n g the p a s t y e a r Japan to improve r e l a t i o n s w i t h  a " T r e a t y o f A m i t y " , and  i n a u g u r a t e d Tokyo-Bangkok a i r s e r v i c e a r e examples»^ the  German p r o p a g a n d a  Siam.  the r e c e n t l y typical  i s active i n furthering  A x i s c a u s e , and S i a m i s d a i l y r e p o r t e d t o be "on  point  of f o r m a l e n t r y i n t o On  9.  has  the A x i s  the  Alliance".  the o t h e r hand, such d i p l o m a t i c  M i t s u b i s h i Economic Research Bureau; Monthly Report; Jan.« 1 9 4 1 .  - 86 -  l e a n i n g s do n o t e n t i r e l y c o i n c i d e w i t h Siam's interests.  Most of h e r r i c e and t i n , and a l l h e r  exportable livestock ments.  are marketed i n the S t r a i t s  Her i n d u s t r i e s  and p u b l i c  also  Settle-  works a r e l a r g e l y  d e p e n d e n t on B r i t i s h c a p i t a l , a n d t h e e n t i r e national  economic  debt i s held i n Great B r i t a i n .  Siamese  Chinese are  p r o m i n e n t i n S i a m e s e i n t e r n a l economy, and have,  a l r e a d y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e power o f a n t i - J a p a n e s e b o y c o t t . J a p a n ' s " m e d i a t i o n " award i n t h e I n d o C h i n a - S i a m e s e c o n f l i c t i s a t once a b i d f o r S i a m e s e c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e "New I n d o - C h i n a may  O r d e r " and an i n d i c a t i o n  expect to share i n "Co-Prosperity".  o f how  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION.  It  i s e v i d e n t that s h o u l d Japan succeed  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e "New O r d e r " i n E a s t A s i a t h e political  u n i t now known a s F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a w o u l d as  s u c h he a v e r y u n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h a t o r d e r . event o f Japan's  I n the  a c h i e v i n g h e r a i m , not only would  C h i n a become p o l i t i c a l l y  Indo-  i n s i g n i f i c a n t , but would  p r o b a b l y c e a s e t o e x i s t as a s e p a r a t e u n i t . The r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s no i n t e r n a l f o r c e , such as n a t i o n a l i s m , t o hold the French colony t o g e t h e r i n i t s p r e s e n t form. an a r t i f i c i a l p o l i t i c a l  The•Indo-Chinese  Union i s  s t r u c t u r e , whose component u n i t s  show a n a s t o n i s h i n g g e o g r a p h i c , r a c i a l , 'and c u l t u r a l diversity. systems  A t l e a s t two d i s t i n c t n a t i v e  political  e x i s t , together w i t h large areas which  neither  t h e s e n o r t h e F r e n c h have b r o u g h t under e f f e c t i v e  control.  One o f t h e n a t i v e g r o u p s , t h e A n n a m i t e s , m i g l i t s u p p l y J a p a n w i t h t h e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a puppet r u l e  over t h e east coast p r o v i n c e s , a l t h o u g h  F r e n c h r u l e has s e r i o u s l y  i m p a i r e d t h e v i t a l i t y of  - 88 -  Annamite i n s t i t u t i o n s .  P o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r s u c h a move  i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l , w h i l e t h o s e who m i g h t  lead  i t a r e i n s p i r e d more b y s e l f i s h m o t i v e s and a m i l d F r e n c h f e e l i n g than by p o s i t i v e n a t i o n a l i s m .  anti-  I n any  c a s e , a n A n n a m i t e s t a t e w o u l d be a s a t e l l i t e e i t h e r of Japan i t s e l f  o r o f a Japanese-dominated  China.  The Khmer s t a t e , d e c l i n i n g , p r e s s e d by i t s enemies,  d e p r i v e d of e f f e c t i v e French support,  stand alone.  cannot  I t s u s e f u l n e s s t o J a p a n i s n o t as t h e  n u c l e u s o f a puppet s t a t e , but as a b r i b e i n b r i n g i n g Siam i n t o the Japanese  orbit.  French Indo-China's  r e s o u r c e s c a n make a  u s e f u l but s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n b o t h t o Japan, w h i l e c r e a t i n g t h e "New O r d e r " , a n d t o t h a t o r d e r s h o u l d i t become a n e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t .  itself,  Japan's  normal  economic r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e f o o d , raw m a t e r i a l s , and m a r k e t B e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e of h e r economy, w a r m e r e l y a c c e n t u a t e s t h e s e same needs. Japan's similar.  With minor  exceptions  economic r e q u i r e m e n t s i n p e a c e and i n w a r a r e Most noteworthy  extreme importance g r e a t e r consumption  of these exceptions are the  o f p e t r o l e u m i n w a r t i m e , and t h e of "secondary"  foods d u r i n g peace-  time expansion o f the l i v i n g s t a n d a r d .  Significantly  - 89 -  enough, t h e s e two Items a r e t h e most deficiencies  i n Indo-China's  conspicuous  economy.  I n other r e s p e c t s , Indo-China, important  s  though  i s on t h e w h o l e l e s s r i c h t h a n h e r n e i g h b o u r s .  R i c e i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e i t e m i n t h e F r e n c h c o l o n y ' s economy, b u t h e r e x p o r t a b l e r i c e s u r p l u s , b e s i d e s b e i n g a t t h e mercy of u n p r e d i c t a b l e c l i m a t i c  and human  f a c t o r s , i s b o t h s m a l l e r and o f l o w e r q u a l i t y t h a n o f S i a m o r Burma.  that  Rubber i s of i n c r e a s i n g importance i n  median i sed w a r f a r e , a n d Japan's  present sources of supply  a r e open t o h o s t i l e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  The r u b b e r  industry  of I n d o - C h i n a i s s t e a d i l y g r o w i n g , but i n volume of production s t i l l  l a g s b e h i n d t h a t o f M a l a y a and t h e  Netherlands Indies. Japan's  C o a l f o r s m e l t i n g p u r p o s e s , one o f  g r e a t e s t needs,  i s a l s o one o f t h e few i t e m s i n  t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w h i c h I n d o - C h i n a has no r i v a l s . Tonkinese  The  a n t h r a c i t e supply i s l a r g e , e a s i l y worked,  c o n v e n i e n t l y s i t u a t e d , and o f e x c e l l e n t I n some c a s e s I n d o - C h i n a ' s of r e s o u r c e s i s n e a r l y a b s o l u t e .  quality. inferiority  Z i n c , t i n , and t u n g s t e n  are important t o the colony but Indo-China*s i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n a w o r l d market. and no n i c k e l ,  output i s  She h a s l i t t l e  iron,  c h r o m i t e , b a u x i t e , manganese, o r p e t r o l e u m ,  -  all  90  of w h i c h a r e f o u n d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s i n one o r more  neighbouring  countries. These c o u n t r i e s  are also superior  to Indo-  C h i n a b o t h a c t u a l l y and p o t e n t i a l l y , as m a r k e t s f o r Japanese goods.  On  the o t h e r hand, a l t h o u g h Chinese  c o n t r o l o f p e a s a n t economy i s t h e c h i e f b a r t o d e v e l o p ment by J a p a n o f t h e I n d o - C h i n e s e m a r k e t ,  Chinese  n a t i o n a l s h a v e a n e v e n s t r o n g e r g r i p on t h e i n t e r n a l economy o f S i a m , M a l a y a , and the o u t e r , i s l a n d s o f t h e Netherlands  Indies, )pflu.encina  Two  Jaf>*he$e  points  interest'  s t r o n g l y ^ i n Indo-China'$  a r e h e r c o m p a r a t i v e c l o s e n e s s t o J a p a n , and dominant  infant  the l a t t e r ' s  p o s i t i o n , d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , i n t h e c o l o n y ' s  markets. I n d o - C h i n a ' s most a p p a r e n t v a l u e t o J a p a n is,  of c o u r s e , i n the f i e l d  of s t r a t e g y .  E a s t A s i a , t h e whole f u t u r e of the "New  The f a t e of O r d e r " , depends  on t h e outcome o f t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e s t r u g g l e . c a n go on i n d e f i n i t e l y and e c o n o m i c the  Japan  extending her m i l i t a r y , p o l i t i c a l ,  hegemony o v e r t h e c o n t i n e n t o f A s i a  and  i s l a n d s o f t h e s o u t h e r n P a c i f i c , b u t the C h i n e s e  remains  the v i t a l  remains u n s e t t l e d ,  issue.  As l o n g as t h i s  war  "incident"  i t w i l l p r e - o c c u p y and e m b a r r a s s  Japan  - 91  i n any and  -  e v e r y move she makes.  A Sino-Japanese  ment w h i c h a t l e a s t does n o t d i m i n i s h J a p a n ' s  settle-  present  p r e s t i g e and power i s i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o t h e f i n a l complete establishment  of "Greater E a s t  French Indo-China  and  Asia".  p r o v i d e s a means b o t h  of h e l p i n g t o b r i n g about s u c h a s e t t l e m e n t , and promoting Asia.  f u r t h e r Japanese expansion  Occupation  of T o n k i n  c u t s one  i n south-eastern of the most  s u p p l y r o u t e s i n t o s o u t h e r n C h i n a , menaces t h e and  of  other,  p r o v i d e s a p o s s i b l e b a s e f o r d i r e c t a t t a c k on  southern provinces.  Should  p r e s s u r e f a . i l to achieve J a p a n e s e m i l i t a r y and  d i p l o m a t i c and  possibilities  the  economic  the r e q u i r e d r e s u l t s i n Siam,  naval operations across  the  Cambodian f r o n t i e r w o u l d be c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a s y .  The  o f a f l a n k i n g o p e r a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e Burma  Road a r e r a t h e r r e m o t e , b u t southern neighbours  The  J a p a n e s e c o n t r o l of  would at l e a s t prevent  g o i n g t o a i d C h i n a and  her  resources  allies.  Indonesian  S u c h a movement i s a l m o s t  China's  their  c o u n t r i e s are moreover  e x c e l l e n t s p r i n g b o a r d f o r a J a p a n e s e a t t a c k on a p r e r e q u i s i t e to  operations a g a i n s t the Netherlands to  important  Singapore.  effective  I n d i e s , and  u n d i s t u r b e d Japanese e x p l o i t a t i o n of  an  a necessity  south-eastern  - 92 -  Asia.  Moreover, Indo-China i t s e l f  i s a particularly  good b a s e f o r a n a t t a c k b y J a p a n on t h e o i l f i e l d s north coast has  of the i s l a n d  of Borneo.  The F r e n c h  on t h e colony  a s i m i l a r l y h i g h value as a base f o r commerce-raiding  i n the C h i n a Sea and, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Japan's P a c i f i c mandates, i n the N e t h e r l a n d s  Indies.  I t appears t h e r e f o r e t h a t F r e n c h Indo-China is  of greater value  t o Japan i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  "New O r d e r " t h a n i t w o u l d be i f and when becomes a n a c c o m p l i s h e d f a c t . in  the d i p l o m a t i c  of her  "Co-Prosperity"  T h i s i s e v e n more a p p a r e n t  sphere.  Japanese l e a d e r s h i p , economic, m i l i t a r y , p o l i t i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l i s the c a r d i n a l p o i n t i n the Japanese c o n c e p t i o n of t h i s i d e a l  o f t h e "New O r d e r " .  involves the d e f i n i t e  or p o s s i b l e r i v a l s .  realization  e l i m i n a t i o n of a c t u a l  E x c l u d i n g C h i n a and R u s s i a ,  d o u b t f u l a t the present, France, tbe United  The  both  t h e W e s t e r n Powers B r i t a i n ,  S t a t e s , and H o l l a n d , a r e d e f i n i t e l y  Japan's opponents. greatest competitors  T h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s i n C h i n a were h e r i n the markets of the E a s t .  influence d i v e r t e d the small A s i a t i c  Their  c o u n t r i e s from the  Japanese o r b i t .  T h e i r j e a l o u s monopoly of t h e development  of t h e i r A s i a t i c  and P a c i f i c  c o l o n i e s excluded  Japan  93  -  from this highly desirable f i e l d .  I n s h o r t , i t i s the  W e s t e r n Powers w h i c h compete w i t h J a p a n f o r the p r i v i l e g e of developing the O r i e n t . I n Manchoukuo the O c c i d e n t a l h o l d soon b r o k e n , A m e r i c a n eliminated.  i n t e r e s t s b e i n g t h e l a s t t o be  I n the Concessions, e s p e c i a l l y at  and T i e n t s i n , W e s t e r n e r s have had p o i n t to Japanese  demands.  Shanghai  to y i e l d p o i n t  These d i p l o m a t i c  small i n themselves, point a s i g n i f i c a n t steady e l i m i n a t i o n of the Westerner  trend:,  the  i n the O r i e n t . Indo-China  the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e s s .  i t was  n o t a J a p a n e s e , b u t a German v i c t o r y , w i t h  p l a y i n g the i g n o m i n i o u s r o l e o f an A s i a t i c T r u e , t h e scope was  by  incidents,  Thus f a r the d o w n f a l l o f F r e n c h is  was  True, Japan  Mussolini.  of J a p a n e s e m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y i n T o n k i n  a f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t , and a n  of the v a l u e of Japanese p r o m i s e s . t h e tremendous c o n c r e t e a d v a n t a g e broken the European  indication  But a g a i n s t t h i s i s to Japan of h a v i n g  c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  O c c i d e n t a l c o l o n y on t h e P a c i f i c  coast of A s i a .  The b l o w i s a l l t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t I n d o - C h i n a was  not j u s t a sphere of i n f l u e n c e , but  a F r e n c h c o l o n y , an Integra,! p a r t of the F r e n c h Empire.  - 94  I t was the  t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f F r a n c e ' s P a c i f i c  heart of French diplomatic a c t i v i t y  colonies;  i n the F a r E a s t .  F r o m I n d o - C h i n a e v e r y f o r m o f F r e n c h c u l t u r e and i n f l u e n c e was r a d i a t e d t o C h i n a , I n d o n e s i a , and t h e i s l a n d s of t h e Pacific.  By the d o w n f a l l of F r e n c h Indo-China  has a c h i e v e d h e r f i r s t  Japan  d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y over the  W e s t e r n Powers i n t h e O r i e n t . S i aril's r e a c t i o n shows t h a t t h e f a l l o f I n d o - C h i n a i s a l r e a d y a f f e c t i n g t h e p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e of  o t h e r O c c i d e n t a l s i n t h e c o u n t r i e s earmarked f o r  "Co-Prosperity".  C o n t r o l of F r e n c h Indo-China i s an  i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e "New for  Asia.  Order"  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books. B y w a t e r , K.C.; S e a Power i n the P a c i f i c : C o n s t a b l e and Co., L t d . ; 1934.  London;  C r o c k e r , W . R . j The J a p a n e s e P o p u l a t i o n P r o b l e m ; George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . ; 1931. E m e r s o n , R.; 1937.  M a l a y s i a ; New  London;  Y o r k ; The M a c i n i l l a n Company;  F u r n i v a l l , J.S,; N e t h e r l a n d s I n d i a ; Cambridge; and B r o t h e r s ; 19 39. G u n t h e r , J . ; I n s i d e A s i a ; New Y o r k and H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s ; 1939.  Harper  London;  H u d s o n , G.E.; The E a r E a s t i n W o r l d P o l i t i c s : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s ; 1937.  Oxford; '  L e v y , R.; B x t r g m e - O r i e n t e t P a c i f i q u e : P a r i s , Armand C o l i n ; . 1 9 3 5 .  Librairie  M a l c o l m , G.A.; The Commonwealth of t h e P h i l i p p i n e s ; New Y o r k and L o n d o n ; L. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co., I n c . ; 1936. M o r s e , H.B. and M a c N a i r , H.E.; E a r E a s t e r n I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ; B o s t o n , e t c . ; The H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company; 1931. O r c h a r d , J . E . ; J a p a n ' s E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n ; New M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . ; 1930. Price, C h i l d r e n o f t h e R i s i n g Sun; New . R e y n a l l and H i t c h c o c k ; 1938.  York;  Yorkj  R o b e r t s , S.H.; H i s t o r y of F r e n c h C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , 1870-1925.; L o n d o n ; P.S. K i n g and Son L t d . ; 1929. R u s s i e r , H. and B r e n i e r , H.; . L ' I n d o c h i n e f r a n c h i s e ; P a r i s ; L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n ; 1911.  - 96 S t e i n , , G.; E a r E a s t i n F e r m e n t ; Co. , L t d . ; 1936. • • • •  L o n d o n , Methuen and  S u m n e r s , H.B. ( e d . ) ; A n g l o - A m e r i c a n A g r e e m e n t ; Y o r k ; The H.W. W i l s o n Co.; 1938.  New  V a n d e n b o s c h , A.; .-The D u t c h B a s t I n d i e s : Grand R a p i d s , M i c h . ; V/m. B. Eerdmans P u b l i s h i n g Co.; 1933. II.  Spe c i a l  Studies.  C e n t r e d ' E t u d e s de P o l i t i q u e E t r a n g e r e : L e v y , R. ; L a P o l i t i q u e f r a n c a i s e ^ n _ E x t r erne - O r i e n t . 1956-1938; P a r i s : P a u T ^ a T t i i L n T ^ T Q ^ C o u n c i l on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s ; B a i n , H.F*; Ores, and I n d u s t r y i n t h e F a r E a s t ; Y o r k ; C o u n c i l on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s ; 1933.  New  I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s : A l l e n , G.C.; J a p a n e s e I n d u s t r y : I t s Recent Developments and P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n ; New York;. I.P.R. P u b l i c a t i o n s O f f i c e ; 1939. A n g u s , H.F.; The Problem' o f P e a c e f u l _ Change i n t h e P a c i f i c A r e a ; L o n d o n and New Y o r k ; O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1937. (' ,. . B i s s o n , T.A. ; A m e r i c a n . P o l i c . y i n t h e F a r E a s t : 1931° 1940; New Y o r k ; I.P.R. P u b l i c a t i o n s O f f i c e ; 1939. C o n d l i f f e , J.B. (ed . ) ; P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c ; C h i c a g o ; The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s ; (irregular) F a r l e y , M.S.; The P r o b l e m o f J a p a n e s e T r a d e E x p a n s i o n i n t h e P o s t - W a r S i t u a t i o n ; New Y o r k ; I.P.R. P u b l i c a t i o n s O f f i c e ; 1939. F i e l d , F.V. ( e d . ) ; Economic Handbook o f t h e P a c i f i c A r e a ; , New Y o r k ; D o u b l e d a y , D o r a n and Company, I n c . ; 1934. Thompson. V.; F r e n c h I n d o - C h i n a ; New M a c m i l l a n Company; 1937.  York;  The  M i n i s t r y of Commerce and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , S i a m : S i a m ; B a n g k o k ; The B a n g k o k Times P r e s s , L t d . ; 1930.  - 97 M i t s u b i s h i Economic R e s e a r c h Bureau: M o n t h l y R e p o r t , Tokyo. R o y a l I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s : B r i t i s h Ear E a s t e r n P o l i c y ; Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1939. B u l l e t i n of International  News; London  (fortnightly)  H u b b a r d , C-.E. ; E a s t e r n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t on t h e W e s t : L o n d o n ; O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1935. III.  Periodicals. Ear E a s t e r n Survey. Foreign A f f a i r s . Foreign Policy Reports. Pacific Affairs. Survey of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s .  IV.  Newspapers. C h r i s t i a n Science Monitor. Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e . Vancouver Sun.  V.  Yearbooks• C h i n e s e Y e a r b o o k ( 3 r d e d . ) ; S h a n g h a i ; The Commercial P r e s s , L t d . F o r e i g n Commerce Y e a r b o o k ; W a s h i n g t o n ; U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . Japan-Manchoukuo Y e a r b o o k ; Tokyo; Manchoukuo Y e a r b o o k Co. J a p a n Y e a r b o o k ; Tokyo; J a p a n Times  Japan• Press.  S t a t e s m a n * s Y e a r b o o k ; London; M a c m i l l a n and Co., Ltd.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105635/manifest

Comment

Related Items