UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Trade routes of the Roman Empire Freed, Dorothea Mary 1941

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TRADE  ROUTES  OF  THE  ROMAN  EMPIRE  by  Dorothea Mary Freed  I°PI°1°  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l  Fulfilment of  The R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f M A S T E R  OF  A R T S  i n t h e Department of  .  C L A S S I C S  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  APRIL  B r i t i s h Columbia  1941.  CONTENTS Chapter  1  Page  INTRODUCTION . . . .  II  .  1  TUB TRADE ROUTES OF GREECE AND OP THE CONTINENTAL TERRITORIES AD J 0 IN IHGr •» * o  Ill  •» o © « • » * » « « » «  TRADE ROUTES OF ASIA MINOR  IV  . . , . .  4. 21  THE S I L K ROADS TO CHINA, . . . . . .  38  TRADE ROUTES OF SYRIA. . . . . . . .  51  VI  THE EGYPTIAN TRADE ROUTES. . . . . .  68  VII  THE SEA ROUTES TO INDIA AND CEYLON .  85  V  VIII  .  CONCLUSION .  L I S T OP ABBREVIATIONS  .  ANCIENT SOURCES . . . . BI ]BXiX0GRA3?IrIY <* © •» « o  . . . . . . .  102  . . . . . . . . . . .  104  . . . « o « o o © * * * * *  „  105 10*7  INTRODUCTION  1 d e s c r i p t i o n o f Roman t r a d e all.  r o u t e s must, above  be c o n c e r n e d with, t h e c e n t u r i e s - o l d t r a d e  passed through t h e Near E a s t , f a r East.-.  the Middle  So much more o u t s t a n d i n g  East  lanes  that  and t h e  are these routes  than  any  l y i n g i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , t h a t i t  has  been d e c i d e d  and  t o t h e c o u n t r i e s t h r o u g h which t h e y r a n , namely, Greece  t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y t o them,  A s i a M i n o r , c e n t r a l A s i a , ' S y r i a , E g y p t and I n d i a , The  importance of a study  of trade  between  c o u n t r i e s and Rome c a n n o t be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d ,  these  yet the reason  f o r t h i s importance i s o f t e n not c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . Becaus o f t h e uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n  of resources  often  influences  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o u n t r i e s , i t i s a r g u e d by some t h a t t h i s same i n f l u e n c e p l a y e d  a great  foreign policies  I t i s c e r t a i n l y true that the  governing  o f Rome.  part i n shaping the  c l a s s o f Rome was, a t t i m e s ,  motivated  a c t i o n s by a g r e e d t h a t may be d e s c r i b e d Generally  speaking,  inits  a s economic<>  h o w e v e r , t h e men who c o n t r o l l e d t h e  f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f Rome h a d t h e i r w e a l t h industry or i n shipping,  invested noti n  but i n t h e I t a l i a n and p r o v i n c i a l  r e a l e s t a t e and m o r t g a g e s ,  Few o f t h e e m p e r o r s c o n c e r n e d  2 themselves  w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n o r with, t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f  trade r o u t e s , w i t h the exception o f those  routes which  b r o u g h t t h e v i t a l g r a i n i n t o Rome. In  what r e s p e c t , t h e n , s h o u l d a s t u d y s u c h a s t h i s  be d e s c r i b e d a s i m p o r t a n t ?  I f i t i s not o f exceeding  i n g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the p o l i t i c a l ,  value  d i p l o m a t i c and  m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y o f Rome, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s e x p l a i n s , a s no o t h e r s t u d y w i l l , t h e g r a d u a l change i n c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Roman p e o p l e  throughout  known how l i t t l e  the Imperial p e r i o d .  I t i s well  c r e a t i v e was t h e a n c i e n t Roman, b u t how  t r u l y i m p r e s s i o n a b l e he was and how q u i c k t o a d o p t t h e i d e a s o f o t h e r men.  The e x t e n t o f t h e change t h a t was w r o u g h t i n  the Roman by h i s i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e c o u n t r i e s t o t h e e a s t may n e v e r be f u l l y assurance  realized,  t h a t no c i t i z e n  b u t i t can be s t a t e d w i t h  o f a v i c t o r i o u s n a t i o n has ever  been so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s c o n q u e r e d The  contemporaries.  highways that c a r r i e d the m a t e r i a l products  c o u n t r i e s were c a r r y i n g a s w e l l t h e s p i r i t  o f other  of those  c o u n t r i e s , a f a c t w h i c h must be b o r n e i n m i n d  throughout  the d i s c u s s i o n o f the t r a d e r o u t e s . B e c a u s e Rome was bound t o t h e E a s t a n d t o a l l i t s i n f l u e n c e s by G r e e c e , t h e r o u t e s o f t h a t c o u n t r y s h a l l be described f i r s t .  Greece, however, a s w i l l  be shown h o l d s  t h e f i r s t p l a c e o n l y b e c a u s e o f i t s p o s i t i o n on t h e Mediterranean,  n o t because o f i t s commercial  importance.  3 The  highways of A s i a Minor  subsequently  the s i l k  w i l l next  be t r a c e d ,  routes to China.  and  I s the s i l k r o u t e s are  more e a s i l y t r a c e d i f t h e i r s t u d y f o l l o w s c l o s e l y t h a t o f routes of A s i a Minor,  so t o o , t h e h i g h w a y s t h r o u g h  n e c e s s a r i l y be d e s c r i b e d a l o n g w i t h t h o s e t h e sea r o u t e t o I n d i a .  the r e l a t i v e  importance  S y r i a nmst  o f E g y p t and  This l o g i c a l order, then, w i l l  f o l l o w e d f o r the s a k e o f c l a r i t y *  I t h a s no  the  connection  of the c o u n t r i e s i n q u e s t i o n .  with be with  . THE  CHAPTER . I I TP.ADE THE  ROUTES  OE  CONTINENTAL  GREECE  AND  OE  TERRITORIES  ADJOINING  The p o s i t i o n o f G r e e c e among t h e t r a d i n g of  countries  t h e Roman E m p i r e was a c o m p a r a t i v e l y humble one.  first  At  g l a n c e , t h i s s t a t e m e n t m i g h t a p p e a r t o be u n r e a s o n a b l e .  Though G r e e c e h a d no g r e a t r e s o u r c e s o f i t s own, y e t , w i t h 1 the w o r l d ' s g r e a t e s t m a r k e t a t i t s back d o o r , and t h e r i c h l a n d o f Asic?, M i n o r l i n k e d t o i t by t i e s t h a t h a d been f o r m e d 2 l o n g y e a r s b e f o r e Rome h a d a c q u i r e d a n e m p i r e , i t w o u l d seem n a t u r a l t o f i n d i t p l a y i n g the r o l e of a prosperous middleman.  T h a t t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e h a s been  e s t a b l i s h e d by s u c h a n c i e n t w r i t e r s a s S t r a b o , Dio  well Pausanias,  C h r y s o s t o m and P l u t a r c h , a l l o f whom f o u n d d e s o l a t i o n and  neglect i n t h e i r t r a v e l s through Greece.  The l o s s o f i t s  t r a d e a n d i n d u s t r y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d a s one o f t h e consequences o f the t e r r i b l e  s u c c e s s i o n o f wars i n w h i c h the  G r e e k c i t i e s h a d been engaged i n t h e f o u r t h a n d t h i r d 3 c e n t u r i e s B.C. I t m i g h t a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e c a y o f 4 a g r i c u l t u r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e country»  A g r i c u l t u r a l d e c a y was  bound t o mean a d e c l i n i n g b i r t h - r a t e a n d a l o s s o f man What e n t e r p r i s i n g c i t i z e n s G r e e c e t h e n h a d l e f t , 4  power*  quitted  5 its  shores  i n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g numbers t o s e l l t h e i r  and wisdom t h r o u g h o u t to  skill  the whole w o r l d i n s t e a d o f a t t e m p t i n g  5 c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e n e r g y on b e h a l f o f t h e i r own p e n i n s u l a .  T h e i r own p e n i n s u l a h a d n o t h i n g t o o f f e r them* of course, t h a t i n making these a p i c t u r e i s being painted*,  broad  I t may be,  statements,  too black  I t i s t r u e t h a t C o r i n t h and  T h e s s a l o n i c a were f l o u r i s h i n g c i t i e s and t h a t t h e r e was g r e a t t r a f f i c upon t h e i m p o r t a n t  Y i a S g n a t i a t o t h e n o r t h , but  these placed could not d i f f u s e l i f e Oh t h e w h o l e  s  throughout  a l l o f Greece.  i t was a s p i r i t l e s s a n d p o o r l a n d t h a t came 6  i n t o t h e h a n d s o f Rome» The  p r o v i n c e o f Achaea, carved  27 B.C., c o m p r i s e d  t h e Peloponnese and s o u t h - c e n t r a l Greece,  l e s s those p a r t s of Acarnania to  out of Greece i n  and A e t o l i a w h i c h d i d n o t h e l p  f o r m t h e t e r r i t o r y o f N i c o p o l i s and P a t r a e .  This  southern  l a n d was f a r l e s s v a l u a b l e t o Rome t h a n were t h e c o u n t r i e s f a r t h e r n o r t h , s u c h a s M a c e d o n i a , and i n d e e d , little and  activity  in it,  except  t h e r e was  a t C o r i n t h , and a t N i c o p o l i s  P a t r a e , t h e two p o r t s j u s t m e n t i o n e d . F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n  o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t no m i l e s t o n e s h a v e been f o u n d 8 400  A.D.  i n Achaea b e l o n g i n g t o a date  A l a r g e p a r t of the roads  mere m u l e - t r a c k s *  earlier  than  i n i t s i n t e r i o r were  Many o f them c o u l d n o t be u s e d by  waggons, a n d o t h e r s , i n t h e i r p a s s a g e o v e r t h e m o u n t a i n s , were e x c e e d i n g l y d a n g e r o u s , a s t h e i r names i m p l y , ( e . g . t h e  "Evil  Staircase"-). S i n c e C o r i n t h was t h e l e a d i n g c i t y on t h e  Peloponnese,  a l l r o a d s i n t h a t t e r r i t o r y may be s a i d t o  o r i g i n a t e from i t ,  or to terminate at i t .  Looking a t the  r o a d s y s t e m f r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , we f i n d t h e h i g h w a y s ; p r o c e e d i n g i n t h i s f a s h i o n ; between C o r i n t h and t h e p o r t o f P a t r a e on t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t , a r o a d r a n a l o n g t h e s h o r e of t h e C o r i n t h i a n G u l f p a s s i n g t h r o u g h S i c y o n , P e l l e n e and Aegae t o Aegium, and t h e n c e t o P a t r a e .  C o n t i n u i n g on t h e  same r o a d p a s t Lyme and C y l l e n e , one c o u l d r e a c h a f l a x 10 growing d i s t r i c t w i t h E l i s as i t s centre. after leaving  A l l other roads,  C o r i n t h , had Argos as t h e i r f i r s t s t o p p i n g  p l a c e o f i m p o r t a n c e , and t h e n b r a n c h e d  f o r t h as f o l l o w s .  One t r a c k e n t e r e d M a n t i n e a , p a s t w h i c h  i t s t r u c k out f o r  Elis  by two r o u t e s , one g o i n g by way o f O l y m p i a and L e t r i n i  t h e o t h e r f a r t h e r n o r t h t h r o u g h Orchomenus and P s o p h i s . A n o t h e r t r a c k l e a v i n g A r g o s , n e x t s t o p p e d a t Tegea a few m i l e s south o f Mantinea, then proceeded points south i n Messenia.  t o M e g a l o p o l i s and  A t h i r d l i n k e d Argos to S p a r t a ,  and a f o u r t h c o n n e c t e d T r o e z e n and E p i d a u r u s w i t h northern  Argolis. T h e r e were a few p r o d u c t s s t i l l  out o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s e  by t h e s e r o a d s .  being transported A large quantity of  m a r b l e came o u t o f Greece„ a n d some o f t h i s was p r o d u c e d by 11 L a c o n i a , whose s t o n e was b e a u t i f u l i n a p p e a r a n c e and much  7 sought a f t e r , Crooeae work.  12 Pausanias  says o f the marble q u a r r i e d a t  t h a t i t was v e i n e d a n d b e a u t i f u l , t h o u g h h a r d t o On Mount T a y g e t u s were new q u a r r i e s o p e r a t e d w i t h 13  money f r o m Rome, w h i c h b r o u g h t t h e i r owners a f i n e Elsewhere i n the Peloponnese  t h e r e was l i t t l e  profit.  stone o f any  v a l u e , a l t h o u g h some m a r b l e was q u a r r i e d n e a r S i c y o n . is  little  to say regarding the export o f food s t u f f s  t h i s r e g i o n , s i n c e , a s i n most o f G r e e c e , t h e g r e a t e r of  t h e l a n d h a d n e v e r been f i t  There from part  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e or else had  by t h i s t i m e l o s t i t s r i c h n e s s . A few d i s t r i c t s , n o t a b l y 14 15 M e s s e n i a and B l i s , d i d n i t s u f f e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and 16 17 S i c y o n a n d P h e l l o e were renowned f o r t h e i r o l i v e s a n d v i n e s . A r c a d i a ' s l a n d was p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t f o r g r a z i n g o f h o r s e s and a s s e s , and i t was w e l l known f o r a f i n e b r e e d o f t h e 18 former. As was t h e c a s e w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , t h e r e 19 are but few m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s w o r t h y o f m e n t i o n . P a t r a e worked up t h e f l a x o f E l i s  f o r e x p o r t , a n d a f i n e dyed c l o t h 20 21 the dye o b t a i n e d f r o m O y t h e r a - was p r o d u c e d a t A m y c l a e 22 and S p a r t a , a s w e l l a s i n o t h e r towns. A survey of the harbours along the c o a s t s o f t h i s region brings to l i g h t  plentiful,  t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were  fairly  t h o u g h t o o s m a l l , on t h e w h o l e , t o accommodate  s h i p s o f any s i z e .  The l a r g e r h a r b o u r s on t h e w o r t h w e s t  c o a s t , C y l l e n e , Dyme, a n d P a t r a e h a d won t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y 23 from t h e i r f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n f a c i n g I t a l y . Once t h e y m i g h t  ij i I H i  have been d e s c r i b e d as l y i n g on t h e p o o r e s t a n d most *\ b a c k w a r d c o a s t o f G r e e c e , but now I t a l y ' s p r o x i m i t y b r o u g h t ' 2 4 b u s i n e s s t o them, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o P a t r a e . On t h e s o u t h e r n  }\  •  "i  •  i  c o a s t , where s t r o n g w i n d s , e s p e c i a l l y o f f Cape M a l e a , were  |  a p t t o p l a y h a v o c w i t h s h i p s , t h e r e were a number o f s m a l l 25 h a v e n s a n d r o a d s t e a d s t o o f f e r p r o t e c t i o n t o s a i l o r s ' . The  ;  ! ! i I j I 1 i  r i s k s i n c u r r e d i n rounding  Cape M a l e a were g r e a t . P l i n y , on  h i s way t o B i t h y n i a , t h o u g h t i t w o r t h w h i l e t o a s s u r e t h e 26 Emperor o f h i s s a f e t y , a f t e r s a i l i n g i n t h e s e w a t e r s . A n o t h e r man, a P h r y g i a n  merchant o f E i e r a p o l i s , s u c c e s s f u l l y  p a s s e d t h e p o i n t 72 t i m e s , a n d f e l t  |  t h i s t o be s u c h a n .27 a c c o m p l i s h m e n t t h a t he h a d i t r e c o r d e d on h i s t o m b s t o n e . On  ;'  the east  coast  o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s e were P r a s i a e , Troezen and  I  Epida\i.rus, p o r t s o f a f a i r "  size.  But a l l these pale  into  '  i n s i g n i f i c a n c e beside  Corinth.  28 I t was n o t l o n g a f t e r J u l i u s C a e s a r made C o r i n t h  |  l i v e a g a i n t h a t t h e c i t y was a s f l o u r i s h i n g a s i t e v e r h a d 29 been b e f o r e i t s r u i n * A t t h e t i m e when S t , P a u l v i s i t e d i t , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t was p r o b a b l y  difficult  t o see any s i g n s 30  o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n w r o u g h t by Mummius i n 146 B.C., s o e a g e r had  men been t o f l o c k b a c k t o t h i s a d v a n t a g e o u s s i t e .  had  been d e s t r o y e d  Of c o u r s e  i n the f i r s t  place i s not absolutely  i t b e n e f i t e d Roman m e r c h a n t s t o h a v e  C o r i n t h i a n r i v a l s uprooted,  Why i t  their  but n o t a l l agree t h a t  j e a l o u s y alone prompted t h e r u i n o f the c i t y .  clear  Two  commercial other  0  9 31 r e a s o n s have been s u g g e s t e d .  In the f i r s t  p l a c e , to leave  w e a l t h y c i t y n e a r s u c h a s t r o n g p o i n t as t h e m i g h t have p r o v e d d a n g e r o u s . G r e e k s were more l i k e l y of t h i s nature up  who  before  Acrocorinthus  In the second p l a c e ,  t o keep t h e p e a c e w i t h an  them.  I n any  a  c a s e t h e new  the example  C o r i n t h , made  i n p a r t o f the descendants o f the o l d C o r i n t h i a n f a m i l i e s 32 had  f l e d t o D e l o s , was  a Peloponnesian  city,  but  a flourishing, i t had  busy p l a c e .  no P e l o p o n n e s i a n  It  was  character-  istics" C o r i n t h ' s two h a r b o u r s ,  33 Lechaeum on t h e w e s t ,  and 34 G e n c h r e a e on t h e e a s t , were c o n t i n u a l l y e x c h a n g i n g g o o d s , and 35 s h i p s a s w e l l , a c r o s s t h e few m i l e s o f c l a y w h i c h s e p a r a t e d t h e C o r i n t h i a n and n e c k o f l a n d and  Saronic G u l f s .  C a r r y i n g goods a c r o s s  r e s h i p p i n g them on t h e o p p o s i t e  this  coast,  i n s t e a d o f t r a n s p o r t i n g them a r o u n d t h e P e l o p o n n e s e , n o t meant a s a v i n g o f 200 m i l e s i n t h e enabled  mariners  sea j o u r n e y ,  t o a v o i d Cape M a l e a on t h e  but  south.  only  also It  was  u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t no c a n a l e x i s t e d i n t h a t age, but t h i s was c e r t a i n l y n o t b e c a u s e men d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f 36 37 38 c u t t i n g one. P e r i a n d e r , Demetrius P o l i o r c e t e s , J u l i u s Caesar, 39 40 41 C a l i g u l a , Nero and H e r o d e s A t t i c u s , amongst o t h e r s , a l l contemplated excavating. a pick-axe  Only Nero, however, a c t u a l l y  i n h i s h a n d s , a l b e i t a g o l d e n one,  the work i n e a r n e s t * s o l d i e r s and  and  took  s e t about  Traces of the d i g g i n g accomplished  p r i s o n e r s working under h i s orders, could  be  by  10 4S s e e n u n t i l t h e c u t t i n g o f t h e modern c a n a l e f f a c e d but  i t must be r e c o r d e d  for  a distance  that t h i s v a l i a n t attempt proceeded  of only 4 furlongs before  However, t h e e x i s t e n c e  them,  i t was a b a n d o n e d .  o f a c a n a l w o u l d have made  little 45  d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f C o r i n t h or o f Greece. Without it,  C o r i n t h was s t i l l  peninsula and  t h e r i c h e s t c o m m e r c i a l c i t y on t h e  because i t l a y upon t h e s e a r o u t e  the Bast.  between  Italy  W i t h i t , Greece would s t i l l have remained o f  minor importance as a t r a d i n g country. I t was on t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e r o a d t h a t j o i n e d C o r i n t h t o A t t i c a t h a t t r a v e l l e r s once u s e d t o e n c o u n t e r 44 Sciron, "thenotorious there got  robber o f a l l p a s s e n g e r s B u t i f  i s any t r u t h i n t h e M e g s r i a n t a l e ,  t h e S c i r o n i a n Way  i t s name f r o m a man who was "no d o e r o f v i o l e n c e , but a  punisher  o f a l l s u c h , and t h e r e l a t i v e a n d f r i e n d 45  j u s t men". passable  o f good and  P a u s a n i a s s a y s t h a t t h e r o a d was f i r s t  f o r foot-passengers  m i n i s t e r , o f Megara.  made  by S c i r o n when he was war  Nevertheless,  i t was s t i l l  than a rough t r a c k u n t i l the r e i g n o f Hadrian.  little  more  Then t h a t  P h i l h e l l e n e c o n s t r u c t e d a wide and c o m f o r t a b l e c a r r i a g e road, so s p a c i o u s t h a t two c a r r i a g e s c o u l d p a s s w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y 46 on i t , When t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r a i l r o a d a n d h i g h w a y were 47 l a i d dowm, H a d r i a n ' s w o r k was n o t y e t o b l i t e r a t e d . still  It is  v i s i b l e i n p a r t s i f we may b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n o l d  substructures  o f masonry, and a n c i e n t w h e e l marks b e l o n g  12 M a c e d o n i a , we  find  t h a t the main highways p r e s e n t e d  appearance of a rough t r i a n g l e . s o u t h , t h e r o a d moved up the f i r s t  two  sides.  One  l e a v i n g A t h e n s on  the the  t o T h e b e s , and h e r e i t s p l i t passed  to form  a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n edge o f  the C o r i n t h i a n G u l f , curved n o r t h e a s t through H i c o p o l i s and  ended a t D y r r h a c h i u m ( E p i d a m n u s ) .  the east coast u n t i l  The  other followed  i t entered the l a n d of Thessaly.  i t moved i n l a n d a few m i l e s t o accommodate i t s e l f t o terrain,  reached  Here the  t h e c o a s t once more by f o 1 1 o w i n g t h e  o f the Peneus B i v e r , and  valley  t h e n , c o n t i n u i n g on i t s n o r t h w a r d  c o u r s e e v e n t u a l l y came i n t o T h e s s a l o n i c a on t h e s h o r e s o f Thermaic G u l f .  The  T h e s s a l o n i c a was first  road l i n k i n g Dyrrhachium  the  and  t h e t h i r d s i d e o f t h e t r i a n g l e , and  the  s t r e t c h of the V i a E g n a t i a . The  western  arm  of t h i s t r i a n g l e passed  through  s e v e r a l c i t i e s - D y r r h a c h i u m , A p o l l o n i a and N i c o p o l i s w h i c h were p o r t s o f r e g u l a r c a l l f o r s h i p s p l y i n g 58 I t a l y and G r e e c e . Brundisium.  The  Strabo  s p e a k s o f two p a s s a g e s e a s t  n o r t h e r n one,  o f t h e two  Via Egnatia. and  The  o t h e r c r o s s e d t o the Ceraunian  t h e c o a s t o f E p i r u s , H i c o p o l i s was of recent  l o n g e r , but t h e more  because i t l e d d i r e c t l y t o the  so t o t h e c o a s t s o f E p i r u s and 59  c i t y was  from  t h a t whose e a s t e r n t e r m i n i  were D y r r h a c h i u m and A p o l l o n i a , was popular  between  o r i g i n having  important Mountains  t h e G u l f o f C o r i n t h . On  the main o b j e c t i v e .  This  been f o u n d e d by A u g u s t u s t o  11 to  h i s r o a d , and t h i s c o n j e c t u r e i s q u i t e  plausible.  H a d r i a n ' s m u n i f i c e n c e brought a l l of Greece 48  to a  s t a t e o f t e m p o r a r y b r i l l i a n c e , A t h e n s as w e l l . But t h e o l d A t h e n s was  t r u l y gone f o r e v e r , and no amount o f f i n e  49 b u i l d i n g o r o t h e r o r n a m e n t a t i o n w o u l d e v e r b r i n g i t back. P h i l i s c u s , t h e comic p o e t , had once c a l l e d i t s h a r b o u r an 50 empty n u t s h e l l , and t h a t was y e a r s b e f o r e S t r a b o v i s i t e d i t a n d n o t i c e d o n l y a few h o u s e s a r o u n d t e m p l e o f Zeus S o t e r .  t h e p o r t s and  the  When t h e t r a d e - c e n t r e o f t h e w o r l d  had s h i f t e d t o I t a l y , t h e P i r a e u s h a d been d e s e r t e d more and more by t h e merchantmen o f S y r i a , E g y p t amd A s i a M i n o r , even 58 as D e l o s had been. . Y e t A t h e n s was to  the outside w o r l d .  not y e t l e f t  s t i 1 1 e x p o r t i n g goods o f a k i n d 53 54 N e a r b y H y m e t t u s and P e n t e l i c u s h a d  o f f y i e l d i n g t h e i r famous m a r b l e , t h o u g h i t was  n o t s e n t out o f the c o u n t r y t o t h e e x t e n t i t had be en o n c e , 55 56 and A t t i c a was y e t p r o d u c i n g o i l and honey o f a q u a l i t y f i n e enough t o f i n d a r e a d y m a r k e t . always f i n d  In a d d i t i o n , A t h e n s  could  b u y e r s f o r c o p i e s o f famous s t a t u e s w h i c h were  s h i p p e d out o f the c o u n t r y as q u i c k l y as t h e y were 57 manufactured.  However, w i t h t h e l i s t i n g  a r t i c l e s , a l l t h a t can be s a i d h a s been  of these  few  of the exports of Athens,  said. D i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n once more t o t h e r o a d - s y s t e m , ,  and h a v i n g r e g a r d now  to a l l t h e l a n d a s f a r n o r t h a s  13 commemorate h i s v i c t o r y  o v e r A n t o n y i n 31 B.C., and i t h a d  gathered i t s c i t i z e n s from r u i n e d c i t i e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y . 60 n o t a b l y from Ambracia.  Though t e r m e d a Roman c o l o n y , i t s  c i t i z e n s w e r e p r e d o m i n a t e l y G r e e k and g r e a t enough i n t h e i r number t o b e a r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s u c h G a l l i c c o m m u n i t i e s a s the  Rem! o r t h e C a r n u t e s .  Evidence of the l i v e l y trade  -  r  between N i c o p o l i s , A p o l l o n i a , D y r r h a c h i u m , and I t a l y , can 61 be f o u n d i n h u n d r e d s by s a i l o r s who s a f e l y two  of inscriptions  to the D i o s c u r i ,  left  w e a t h e r e d t h e s e a s between t h e  peninsulas. As f o r t h e E g n a t i a n H i g h w a y e a s t f r o m  and D y r r h a c h i u m ,  Apollonia  i t was one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t a r t e r i e s o f  i n t e r c o u r s e i n the whole Empire, c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t when t h e w i n t e r s e a s o n made M e d i t e r r a n e a n s a i l i n g 62 difficult. As l o n g ago a s 148 B. 0., 'It h a d been l a i d down as f a r a s T h e s s a l o n i c a , c a r e f u l l y m e a s u r e d a n d f i t t e d w i t h 63 milestones;  i n l a t e r y e a r s i t was e x t e n d e d e a s t t h r o u g h  T h r a c e so t h a t t r a v e l l e r s M i n o r o v e r a good r o a d .  c o u l d r e a c h B y z a n t i u m and A s i a U s u a l l y , h o w e v e r , i f t h e r e was g o o d  s a i l i n g w e a t h e r , a man w o u l d highway  break h i s j o u r n e y a l o n g t h e  a t K e a p o l i s , t h e p o r t o f P h i l i p p i , and from t h e r e  t a k e s h i p t o t h e west recalled Macedonia  coast of Asia Minor.  I t w i l l be  t h a t S t . P a u l c r o s s e d between A s i a M i n o r and  by t h i s r o u t e , a f t e r s e e i n g t h e v i s i o n o f t h e man 64 of Macedonia a t Troas. In t h o s e p a r t s o f M a c e d o n i a l y i n g a r o u n d P h i l i p p i ,  14 t h e r e was e x t e n s i v e m i n i n g  o f g o l d and s i l v e r .  Southwest  of P h i l i p p i  s t r e t c h e d Mount P a n g a e u s . c e l e b r a t e d f o r t h e 65 m e t a l s i t y i e l d e d , a n d s o u t h e a s t was s i t u a t e d Datum, a l s o i n 66 a gold-bearing d i s t r i c t . P h i l i p p i , as a m a t t e r o f f a c t , might- be w e l l d e s c r i b e d a s a m i n i n g  town, w h i c h owed i t s 67 existence only to the wealth of metals i n the region. 68 The g o l d - b e a r i n g l a n d s o f D a c i a , t o t h e n o r t h , 69 were r e a c h e d by an i m p o r t a n t o f f - s h o o t o f t h e V i a E g n a t i s , which l e f t t h e highway a t T h e s s a l o n i c a . northward reached  proceeded  along the v a l l e y of the Axius River u n t i l i t  Scupi.  Here i t c r o s s e d a d i f f i c r a l t pass  the mountains, then gained Maissus  The r o a d  through  the v a l l e y o f t h e Morava a t  a n d c o n t i n u e d a s f a r a s V i r c i n a c i u m on t h e Danube. 70  At Maissus  i t met a g r e a t m i l i t a r y r o a d whose c o u r s e  lay in  a n o r t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n f r o m B y z a n t i u m , a n d w h i c h was u s e d to  p r o v i d e q u i c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r s o l d i e r s m o v i n g between  the Danube l a n d s a n d e a s t e r n r e g i o n s . In  t h e s e n o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s t h e r e were few c i t i e s  of any consequence except,  o f c o u r s e , Byzantium, and those  G r e e k c i t i e s w h i c h l a y on t h e e a s t c o a s t o f T h r a c e on t h e shores  of the Black Sea. H i s t r i a ,  Tomi,  Oallatis,  D i o n y s o p o l i s , Odessus, Messembria and A p o l l o n i a , a l l o f w h i c h a t one t i m e h a d known g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y , were  willing  s u b j e c t s o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , w e l c o m i n g t h e l a w - l o v i n g 71 Roman b e c a u s e o f t h e s e c u r i t y h e b r o u g h t them.  15 B y z a n t i u m I t s e l f i s s o m e t h i n g t o be d i s c u s s e d a p a r t a n d i n somewhat g r e a t e r d e t a i l .  Its peculiar  s i t u a t i o n commanding t h e B l a c k Sea t r a d e a n d g u a r d i n g t h e r o a d between E u r o p e a n d A s i a , gave i t a t once b o t h a 72 commercial and a m i l i t a r y i m p o r t a n c e . Under t h e E m p i r e i t a p p e a r s f i r s t a s a f r e e and c o n f e d e r a t e  c i t y , with absolute  freedom t o govern i t s a f f a i r s except i n t h e m a t t e r o f i t s 73 foreign relations. This condition p r e v a i l e d u n t i l 73 A. D.j when V e s p a s i a n  d e p r i v e d i t o f i t s p r i v i l e g e s and 74 made i t a p a r t o f T h r a c e a n d an o r d i n a r y p r o v i n c i a l town. Yet  t h i s a c t i o n made l i t t l e  c a r r i e d on by t h e c i t y .  d i f f e r e n c e t o the business  Whatever i t s p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s , i t  always took advantage o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r trade  given  to  i t by n a t u r e , a n d i t was s u c c e s s f u l enough t o f i g u r e o f t 75  in  the w r i t i n g s o f ancient authors.  which i t enjoyed  Because t h e y e a r s i n  i t s g r e a t e s t success  fall  outside the  p e r i o d o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . i t c a n n o t be shown f o r t h i n i t s f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t must be l e f t  as the half-grown  t h r i v i n g town i t was u n t i l t h e a d v e n t o f C o n s t a n t i n e .  16 • -  SUMMARY  ;  1:-  Greece p l a y e d a minor p a r t a s a t r a d i n g c o u n t r y . I t s importance  l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t was t h e l i n k  I t a l y and t h e E a s t .  C o r i n t h and t h e V i a Sgnatio-were  v i t a l parts of that 2:-  link.  The p r o v i n c e o f A c h a e a was o f l i t t l e Its products:- o i l , The  roads  through  between  v a l u e t o Rome.  wine, honey, c l o t h , m a r b l e ,  horses.  t h e P e l o p o n n e s u s were p o o r a n d o f t e n  dangerous. 3: -  C o r i n t h was r e s t o r e d by J u l i u s C a e s a r a c e n t u r y its  d e s t r u c t i o n by Mummius.  by r e a s o n seas. no  I t was a t h r i v i n g  after city,  o f i t s p o s i t i o n on a p e n i n s u l a between two  A c a n a l a c r o s s t h e p e n i n s u l a w o u l d h a v e made  difference to the p r o s p e r i t y of Corinth or t o  the p o v e r t y o f Greece. 4:-  Athens,  i n spite o f Hadrian's  means t h e b r i l l i a n t harbour  was a l m o s t  m u n i f i c e n c e , was by no  c e n t r e i t once h a d been. I t s d e s e r t e d , and the goods i t  e x p o r t e d were few. 5;-  Greece's main roads,  o u t s i d e o f t h e Peloponnese, formed  a rough t r i a n g l e , w i t h t h e n o r t h e r n V i a E g n a t i a as one  of t h e three sides.  On t h e w e s t e r n  side o f the  t r i a n g l e were N i e o p o l i s , A p o l l o n i a a n d D y r r h a c h i u m , r e g u l a r p o r t s of c a l l f o r ships from  Italy,  17 The V i a E g n a t i a ropved f r o m A p o l l o n i a and eastward  toward  break t h e i r  Byzantium,  Dyrrhachius  T r a v e l l e r s would o f t e n  j o u r n e y a l o n g i t a t N e a p o l i s , and  there  take s h i p to A s i a Minor. P r o f i t a b l e mines e x i s t e d i n Macedonia ( i n the r e g i o n of P h i l i p p i )  and  Greece branched Byzantium  was  importance* i t was  i n Dacia.  The  highway to D a c i a  from  o f f the Y i a E g n a t i a a t T h e s s a l o n i c a .  a c i t y of g r e a t commercial A f r e e and  and  military  c o n f e d e r a t e c i t y u n t i l 73  t h e n made a p a r t o f T h r a c e by  Vespasian.  A.D.,  18  - \  BOTES  TO  CHAPTER  II  1:~ L o u i s , A n c i e n t Rome a t Work, pp. 152, 153. 2:~ C h a r l e s w o r t h , T r a d e R o u t e s and Commerce o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p. 76. 3:- R o s t o v t z e f f , S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman • E m p i r e , p. 1." 4:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 20. 5:- R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t . , p. 235; F i n l a y , G r e e c e U n d e r t h e Romans, pp. 327, 329. 6:~ S e n e c a , S p i s t . , 14, 3 ( 9 1 ) , 10; Hon v i d e s , quemadmodum i n A o h a i a c l a r i s s i m a r u m u r b i u m iam f u n d a m e n t a consumpta j i i n t neo q u i c q u a m e x s t e t , ex 7juo'" appareat U l c u s ' s a l t i m Suisse? T h i s i s a r h e t o r i c e x a g g e r a t i o n , but r e v e a l s how t h e Romans f e l t a b o u t G r e e c e a s a w h o l e . 7:- An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . 17, p. 4 3 7 . 8:- Mommsen, P r o v i n c e s I , p. 294. 9:- F r a z e r ( o n P a u s a n i a s ) V o l . I V , p. 447 - An e v e n w o r s e p a s s t h a n t h e l a d d e r o f t h e Bey ( w h i c h i s one o f t h e w i l d e s t and most d e s o l a t e t r a c k l T T n Greece"'"^'~§7~4A6T i s t h e E v i l S t a i r c a s T 7 ~ i n t e r m e d i a t e between t h e L a d d e r o f t h e Bey and t h e G y r o s . 10:-* P a u s a n i a s , V, 5, 2; V I , 26, 6. 1 1 : - P l i n y , N.H., X X X V I , 55. 18:~ P a u s . , I I , 3, 5. 13:- S t r a b o , 8 , 5 , 7 . 14:- P a u s . , I V , 34. 15:- I b i d . , V, 5, 2. ' 16:- I b i d . , X, 32, 19. V i r g i l , Ge.org., I I , 519 - V e n i t hyems t e r i t u r S i c y o n i a bacca t r a p e t i s . 17:- P a u s . , V I I , 26, 10. 18:- S t r a b o , 8, 8, 1. 19:- P a u s . , V I I , 2 1 , 14. Of. P l i n y , I-I.H. , X I X , 20. 20:- P a u s . , I I I , 21, 6. C f . H o r a c e , I I , 18, 7-8. E l : - M a r t . V I I I , 28, 9, 22:- J u v e n a l , S a t . , V I I I , 101. 23:- A r n o l d , S t u d i e s o f Roman I m p e r i a l i s m , p. 2 0 1 . 24:- S t r a b o , 8 , 7 , 5 . 25:- A number o f s m a l l h a v e n s - S t r a b o , 8, 6, 1. Cape M a l e a a r i s k - S t r a b o , 8, 6, 20 - When y o u d o u b l e M a l e a , f o r g e t y o u r home. 26:- P l i n y , " X , ~ 15, (26) - Q u i a c o n f i d o , domine. ad curam tuam p e r t i n e r e , n u n t i o t i b i me Ephesum cum omnibus m e i s 07T£/> M£\eov n a v i g a s s e . 27:- F l a v i u s Z e u x i s , a P h r y g i a n m e r c h a n t m e n t i o n e d i n R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t . , p. 536 n. 30. 28:- S t r a b o , By 6, 23» 29:- The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 18, 1 f f . ;  19 -30:31:32:33:*34:'35:36:37:38;39:*40:41:42:43:44:45:46:47:48:49:50:51:52:53:•54: 55:56:57:58:-  59:60:61:-  62:63:64:65:66:67:68:69:70:-  L a i s t n e r , A S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , p. 4 2 0 . Holm, T h e ' H i s t o r y o f G r e e c e , I Y , p . 4 1 1 . S t r a b o , 8, 6, 2 0 . P a u s . , I I , 2, 3. Ibid., I I , 2 , 3 . ' . ' The D l o l k o s f a c i l i t a t e d movement. S t r a b o , 8, 2, 1; 8, 6, 22: P l i n y , U.H. I V , 1 0 . S m i t h , G r e e k a n d Roman B i o g r a p h y a n d M y t h o l o g y , V o l . I l l , p. 191. P l i n y , H.H. I V , 1 0 , Suetonius, J u l i u s 44, I b i d , , C a l i g u l a , 21. I b i d . , Nero, 19; P l i n y , IKK., I V , 10, Smith, o p . c i t , , V o l . I , p. 4 1 3 . • C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . o i t . , p . 117. Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 4 . H e n d e r s o n : - The L i f e a n d P r i n c i p a t e o f t h e Emperor H a d r i a n , p. 109. P a u s . , I, 4 4 , 6. I b i d . , I , 4 4 , 6. E r a z e r , o p . o i t . , V o l . II,'p. 547. H e n d e r s o n , o p . c i t . , p . 105. F e r g u s o n , H e l l e n i s t i c - .Athens, p . 4 5 8 . M e i n e k e (edT] Fragraelyta Comicorum G r a e c o r u m , p a r t I I , p . 794. S t r a b o , 9, 1, 1 5 . A r n o l d , o p . c i t . , p. 201. S t r a b o , 9, 1, 2 3 . I b i d . , 9 , 1, 2 3 . P a u s . , X, 3 2 , 1 9 . S t r a b o , 9, 1, 2 3 , An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome,Vol. V, p . 2 9 3 . S t r a b o , 6, 3, 8. Of. V i r g i l , A e n e i d , I I I , 506,507 P r o v e h i m u r p e l a g o v i c i n a C e r a u n i a j u x t a , unde i t e r I t a l i a m , cursusque b r e v i s s i m u s u n d i s . A r n o l d , o p . c i t . , p. 198. S t r a b o , 7, 7, 6. I n s c r i p t i o n s t o t h e D i o s c u r i - O I L , I I I , 582-4. T h e r e a r e many more i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e in existence. The V i a E g n a t i a i s d e s c r i b e d by S t r a b o , 7, 7, 4 f f . C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 115. The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 16, 8-11. S t r a b o , f r . 34. S t r a b o , f r . 33, c f . f r . 36. P h i l i p p i , a m i n i n g t o w n , Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p . 5 0 1 , Cambridge A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , V o l . X I , p. 232. C h a r l e s w o r t h , op.cit.7~~P* 119. I b i d , , p p . 119 - 1 2 0 .  20 71:72:~ 73:74;75:-  F o r G r e e k c i t i e s , s e e Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 302. B y z a n t i n e . E m p i r e , pp. 3, 9, 10, 11. I b i d . , p. 8." S u e t o n i u s . V e s p . , 8; B j z a n t i n e E m p i r e , p. 8. A few o f t h e , a n c i e n t a u t h o r s who m e n t i o n B y z a n t i u m : Herodotus (IV, 144); Polybius (IV, 39); T a c i t u s (Ann. I I , 53 and X I I , 6 3 ) .  * •  8HAPTER I I I TRADE  ROUTES  OE  ASIA  MINOR  A c e n t u r y b e f o r e A u g u s t u s assumed c o n t r o l o f t h e E m p i r e , t h e famous w i l l  o f A t t a l u s I I I o f Pergamus b r o u g h t  i n t o Roman h a n d s t h e t e r r i t o r y w h i c h was t o be t h e p r o v i n c e 1 of A s i a .  The a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s v a l u a b l e c o u n t r y was t h e  s i g n a l f o r a g r e a t i n f l u x o f Roman t r a d e r s a n d f o r a q u i c k l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e p e n i n s u l a , on t h e p a r t o f Rome. I n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 129 B.C., t h e o t h e r r e g i o n s o f A s i a Minor  were added one a f t e r a n o t h e r  t o the t e r r i t o r y  controlled  by Rome, some l e g a l l y , o t h e r s t h r o u g h t h e n e e d f o r s u p p r e s s i n g p i r a c y i n t h i s q u a r t e r , s t i l l others through the f o r t u n e s of .8 ' ,• war. B y 63 A.D., t h e w h o l e l a n d was c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r Roman rule. Rome t h e n h a d i n i t s h a n d s a v a s t a n d r i c h p e n i n s u l a , through defined channels  which trade had passed  for centuries. 3  i n certain  As i n t h e c a s e  well-  of S y r i a , the  p e c u l i a r geographic  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y h a d h a d more t o  do w i t h t h e s h a p i n g  o f these channels  than  i s usual.  Inthe  east,where the p e n i n s u l a i s rooted to Armenia, there i s a g r e a t r u g g e d mass o f h i g h l a n d s .  From t h e s e , two m o u n t a i n  c h a i n s curved westward, e n c l o s i n g A s i a Minor and  on t h e n o r t h  s o u t h , and l e a v i n g an e x t e n s i v e c e n t r a l p l a t e a u . 21  This  #32 p l a t e a u , 200 m i l e s l o n g a n d 140 m i l e s w i d e , h a d s c a t t e r e d o v e r i t m o r a s s e s , s m a l l r i v e r s w h i c h seemed t o have no o u t l e t t o the  s e a , a n d p a t c h e s o f c o l d , bare l a n d , u n f i t  Toward t h e w e s t , t h e p l a i n merges a g a i n are a spur o f the northern  the H a l y s  range.  and t h e S a n g a r i u s ,  the west, s m a l l e r r i v e r s ,  i n t o mountains t h a t  chain, and these  to mingle w i t h t h e southern  for habitation.  e x t e n d so f a r a s  Two f i n e n a v i g a b l e  rivers,  f l o w t h r o u g h t h e n o r t h , and i n  s u c h a s t h e Hermus and t h e M a e a n d e r ,  mark o u t d e f i n i t e c h a n n e l s f o r t r a d e . T h i s o u t l i n e o f the geography o f the country has l e d to s e v e r a l obvious c o n c l u s i o n s . 4  The t h r e e m a i n w e s t t o e a s t  r o u t e s were t h o s e made p o s s i b l e by t h e S a n g a r i u s , t h e Hermus a n d t h e M a e a n d e r - L y c u s v a l l e y s . f o l l o w e d a s f a r a s was c o n v e n i e n t , then passed without  difficulty  the Halys,  These t h e r o a d s  and t h e n o r t h e r n  i n t o Armenia.  route  The two o t h e r s ,  whose r i v e r v a l l e y s were l e s s e x t e n s i v e , w o u l d h a v e c u t d i r e c t l y through the c e n t r a l p l a t e a u t o reach because o f i t s barrenness, detours. separate  t h e y were f o r c e d t o make w i d e  They t h u s moved t h r o u g h t h e p e n i n s u l a on t h e i r ways, w i t h m o u n t a i n s c l o s e p r e s s i n g on one s i d e and  s a l t p l a i n s on t h e o t h e r , f i n a l l y  breaking  by t h e m o u n t a i n p a s s e s a b o u t T a r s u s . The w e s t e r n t e r m i n u s o f t h e s o u t h 5 the  s e l f - s t y l e d , though n o t o f f i c i a l ,  years  t h e e a s t , but  through t o t h e sea  r o a d was E p h e s u s ,  c a p i t a l o f A s i a * A few  ago t h e c i t y was d e s c r i b e d a s a p l a c e f r o m w h i c h  23 m a l a r i a l m o s q u i t o e s had unhappy c o n d i t i o n had  6 d r i v e n e v e r y human b e i n g .  This  i t s o r i g i n a t t h e t i m e when I t t a l u s  P h i l a d e l p h u s d e c i d e d to improve the c i t y ' s harbour. i n t e n t i o n was  t o deepen i t by c o n s t r u c t i n g a mole  across  t h e mouth o f t h e R i v e r C e y s t e r , but t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h n a t u r e was S i l t was  His  this  the e v e n t u a l r u i n of the  c o l l e c t i n g i n s i d e t h e mole t o an a p p r e c i a b l e  even i n h i s r e i g n .  n o t y e t j e o p a r d i z e d by t h e c o n d i t i o n 8  As S t r a b o  says,  which i t a f f o r d s , d a i l y improves, A s i a w i t h i n the The  extent  I n t h e Roman p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , E p h e s u s '  c o m m e r c i a l s u p r e m a c y was  of the harbour.  city*  "the c i t y , and  by t h e  advantages  i s the l a r g e s t mart i n  Taurus".'  main south road moving east from Ephesus,  f i r s t h e a d e d s o u t h t o t h e v a l l e y o f the M a e a n d e r R i v e r , w i t h its  i n i t i a l stop at Magnesia.  A p p a r e n t l y t h i s c i t y was  from e n j o y i n g the p r o s p e r i t y of the  o l d f o u n d a t i o n on  far the  s l o p e o f Mount T h o r a x , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e s e l d o m m e n t i o n e d by 9 w r i t e r s o f t h e Roman e r a . I n s t e a d t h e f i r s t p o i n t g e n e r a l l y n o t e d a f t e r the r o a d h a s l e f t E p h e s u s , i s T r a l l e s , "a c i t y o f 10 w e a l t h y men", B e y o n d T r a l l e s t h e r o a d moved up t h e Maeander Valley, arched and 1  c r o s s i n g the r i v e r 11  by a b r i d g e a t A n t i o c h .  b r i d g e i s o f t e n found  represented  on c o i n s o f A n t i o c h ,  i t i s s u p p o s e d t h a t i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n was  M Aquillius.  He  r e p a i r s of roads  concerned throughout  The s i x -  due  to  h i m s e l f w i t h the improvement t h i s r e g i o n j u s t a f t e r Rome  and  24 came i n t o p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f A s i a ,  Moving along  t h e r i v e r bank, t h e r o a d n e x t t u r n e d s o u t h e a s t t o t h e t r i b u t a r y L y c u s , and  follow  came i n t o t h e c i t y o f L a o d i c e a  w h i c h A n t i o c h u s I I (261-246 B.C.) had f o u n d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n " 12 13 h i s h o l d on t h e d i s t r i c t , When S t r a b o saw t h e p l a c e , i t s p r o s p e r i t y was round  great.  about, accounted  of wool,  f o r which  the••south r o a d , was  R i c h g r a z i n g land i n the  territory  f o r the production of a f i n e  L a o d i c e a was  famous.  quality  Ten m i l e s away, 14  C o l o s s a e , a l s o famous f o r i t s w o o l d y e d  d a r k p u r p l e , w h i c h was  o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s v a l u e d than t h a t of  Laodicea.  However t h e r e was  o f t h e two  t o w n s , s i n c e L a o d i c e a had  no c o m p a r i s o n  i n the p r o s p e r i t y  been p l a n t e d so c l o s e  t o i t s n e i g h b o r a s t o r o b i t o f most o f i t s w e a l t h . t h e s e two  on  Leaving  towns, the road ascended g e n t l y to a p l a t e a u , passed  the b i t t e r s a l t  l a k e c a l l e d Ana vs., and t u r n i n g n o r t h e a s t ,  e n t e r e d Apamea, " u n d e r A u g u s t u s ,  t h e most c o n s i d e r a b l e c i t y 15  of the p r o v i n c e of A s i a next to Ephesus". s t r i c t l y a Phrygian c i t y towards P i s i d i a , road, then Philomelium, a f t e r which  Pisidian Antioch, l a y n e x t on  t h e r o a d moved  the  south  through L y c s o n i a to Iconium. I n S t r a b o ' s t i m e I c o n i u m was 16 s t i l l a s m a l l p l a c e , but when P l i n y w r o t e o f i t , i t had 17 assumed c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s .  Erom I c o n i u m ,  still  p u r s u i n g a s o u t h w a r d c o u r s e , t h e r o a d p a s s e d Derbe and Laranda, f i n a l l y t u r n i n g n o r t h i n order to reach the entrance 18 19 t o t h e C i l i c i a n G a t e s a t T y a n a . B u i l t on t h e mound o f  25 Semiramis,  t h i s town was t h e g u a r d i a n o f t h e n o r t h e r n  entrance o f t h e "Geulek-Boghaz"  ( n a t i v e name o f t h e  O i l i c i a n Gates.).,, and a s s u c h was s t r o n g l y f o r t i f i e d stout walls.  The p a s s i t s e l f ,  with  j u s t w i d e enough t o a d m i t a  l o a d e d c a m e l , was i n u s e o n l y between t h e m i d d l e o f M a r c h and t h e m i d d l e o f November,, d r i f t s o f snow made p a s s a g e impossible.  F o r t h e rest o f the year, great t h r o u g h the Taurus  Mountains  The s o u t h e r n g u a r d i a n o f t h e p a s s was T a r s u s ,  30 m i l e s away on t h e Cydnus R i v e r , a few m i l e s beyond w h i c h the southern road passed i n t o  Syria.  To r e a c h S y r i a t h r o u g h t h e Amanus M o u n t a i n s , 20 T a r s u s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o do one o f t h r e e t h i n g s .  By  f o l l o w i n g t h e Pyramus R i v e r e a s t w a r d , one e v e n t u a l l y t h e P y l e e Amani ( t h e B o g t c h e  reached  P a s s ) , and, p a s s i n g through  could t u r n south toward the h e a r t o f S y r i a , Zeugma, i f d e s i r e d .  from  it,  o r make f o r  S e c o n d l y , one m i g h t p u r s u e t h e O i l i c i a n  and S y r i a n c o a s t s a s f a r a s M y r i a n d u s , t h e n t u r n e a s t i n t o the mountains,  a n d c u t t h r o u g h them by t h e P y l a e S y r i a e .  t h i r d method was t o c o n t i n u e on p a s t M y r i a n d u s  The  until  S e l e u c i a P i e r i a was r e a c h e d , f r o m w h i c h p o i n t i t was e a s y enough t o make f o r A n t i o c h a l o n g t h e v a l l e y o f t h e O r o n t e s . 21 Tarsus, a s the e a s t e r n terminus o f the main south r o a d t h r o u g h t h e p e n i n s u l a , was a h a l f G r e e k , h a l f  Asiatic  c i t y , a r e s t l e s s spot which had business r e l a t i o n s w i t h every c i t y i n the world.  The Cydnus R i v e r , on w h i c h  i t was  £6 l o c a t e d , p o u r e d i t s w a t e r s i n t o an i n l a n d l a k e  called  Rhegma , t o f o r m one o f t h e famous p o r t s o f t h e a n c i e n t 82 world. The f o u n d a t i o n s o f i t s w a r e h o u s e s , d o c k s and a r s e n a l s 23 can be s e e n even now i n t h e m u d - f i l l e d l a k e . The  weaving  c i t y o f S t . P a u l was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e d f o r i t s 24 o f t o u g h c l o t h made f r o m g o a t s h a i r . T h i s h a i r grew 1  l u x u r i a n t l y t h i c k i n t h e c o l d atmosphere sides.  on t h e m o u n t a i n  The t e n t - c l o t h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s made o f i t , was  called cilicium It  because  of i t s place of origin  (Oiiicia).  i s p r o p o s e d now t o r e t u r n t o t h e w e s t a n d  f o l l o w t h e second main highway 25 R o y a l Road b u i l t  across the countrv.  by D a r i u s " t h e o r g a n i z e r " (521-485  The o l d B.C.),  a s p a r t o f h i s scheme t o t i e t h e p a r t s o f h i s E m p i r e t o g e t h e r had h a d i t s w e s t e r n t e r m i n u s a t S a r d i s . in  Asia Minor, beginning a t Sardis, f i r s t  That p a r t w h i c h l a y followed the valley  of  t h e Hermus, a n d t h e n , s w e e p i n g n o r t h w a r d , t o u c h e d t h e 26 H a l y s R i v e r n e a r P t e r i a ( B o g h a z - k e u i ) , and t r a v e l l e d thence 27 to M e l i t e n e . A f t e r l y d i a ' s g l o r y was gone a n d M i l e t u s a n d E p h e s u s h a d become t h e p r o m i n e n t c e n t r e s , t r a f f i c d e s e r t e d the  v a l l e y o f t h e Hermus, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , f o r t h a t o f  the  M a e a n d e r , coming 28  back o n t o t h e o l d r o u t e f a r t h e r  Herodotus, w r i t i n g i n t h e f i f t h  east.  c e n t u r y , d e s c r i b e s the Royal  Road a s l e a d i n g f r o m E p h e s u s i n s t e a d o f S a r d i s , a n d m o v i n g n o r t h w a r d t h r o u g h Apamea, Synnada a n d P e s s i n u s t o A n c y r a ( A n k a r a ) , a n d t h e n t o t h e E u p h r a t e s a t M e l i t e n e . The  27 R o y a l Road, d e c l i n e d i n i m p o r t a n c e 29 . .  a f t e r the conouests o f  A l e x a n d e r , w i t h , t h e r e s u l t t h a t i n Roman t i m e s i t was much l e s s f r e q u e n t e d than t h e southern road p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . F£om Synnada, a town l y i n g on t h e c e n t r a l 30 came m a r b l e renowned f o r i t s q u a l i t y .  road,  I t h a d been q u a r r i e d  f o r many y e a r s b e f o r e t h e Roman o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , b u t when o p e r a t i o n s were i n Roman h a n d s , f a r l a r g e r b l o c k s ' o f i t were c u t , a n d w h o l e p i l l a r s were s h i p p e d t o Rome by way o f E p h e s u s .  Many t i m e s i t i s m e n t i o n e d by Roman 31  o f t h e age.. I n M a r t i a l ' s e p i g r a m s , found  writers  t h e l u x u r y - l o v i n g Tucca i  b u i l d i n g baths o f marble obtained from Phrygian The  may be t h o u g h t  Synnas.  n o r t h e r n c o u n t r y was s e r v e d by a h i g h w a y o f as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e road  which  running  through Thrace. On t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e B o s p o r u s , t h e r o a d , a f t e r l e a v i n g C h a l c e d o n , made f o r N i c o m e d i a . Under 32 D i o c l e t i a n , N i c o m e d i a was t h e most i m p o r t a n t c i t y i n A s i a Minor, a k i n d o f n o r t h e r n Ephesus, f o r y e a r s g r e a t e r than Byzantium.  From N i c o m e d i a  a branch road turned south t o j o i n  the c e n t r a l r o u t e a t A n c y r a .  The main stem c o n t i n u e d  from  N i c o m e d i a t h r o u g h C l a u d i o p o l i s , C r a t e s , Amasea. Comana, and N i c o D O l i s t o S a t a l a , w i t h a s p u r j o i n i n g A m i s u s and S i n o p e , 33 f r o m Amasea. The one  southern  branch,  j u s t m e n t i o n e d , was t o become  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r o a d s i n A s i a M i n o r when t h e s e a t o  E m p i r e was s h i f t e d f r o m Rome t o B y z a n t i u m *  Since  pilgrims  £8 r e g u l a r l y made t h e i r way by i t t o t h e H o l y l a n d , i t i s o f t e n * .34 d e s c r i b e d a s t h e P i l g r i m s ' Way* When d e s c r i b e d a s s u c h , i t s h o u l d be v i s u a l i z e d n o t a s a mere b r a n c h  road t o Ancyra,hut  as a g r e a t highway l e a d i n g from Bicomedia  through  Dorylaeum, Ancyra, to  A r c h e l a i s and Tyana t o T a r s u s ,  Nioaea, and  thence  Syria. In  the northern  country through which the t h i r d  m a i n h i g h w a y r a n , g r e w e x t e n s i v e f o r e s t s o f m a p l e , oak, f i r and  l a r c h , t i m b e r f o r b u i l d i n g s h i p s a n d f i n e wood f o r 35  fashioning furniture. t i m b e r c o u l d be f o u n d  Over t h e w h o l e o f A s i a M i n o r , i n q u a n t i t y , except  i n fact,  i n L y c a o n i a and  G a p p a d o c i a . P o n t u s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e p r o v i n c e w i t h i t s f i s h e r i e s , o r c h a r d s , whose f r u i t t o o k t h e eye o f 36 l u c u l l u s , i t s wax, s o f t f l e e c e d s h e e p , and r e s i n o u s p l a n t s ,37 and gums, b e s i d e s g r e a t h e r d s o f c a t t l e . So much c o n c e r n i n g  t h e main east-west  highways  whose many b r a n c h e s must be l e f t u n m e n t i o n e d . T h e r e was 38 a n o t h e r r o u t e o f g r e a t a n t i q u i t y , m o v i n g n o r t h and s o u t h , j o i n i n g Simope and A m i s u s on "the B l a c k Sea c o a s t w i t h The r o a d moved f i r s t  t o Amasea and t h e n f o r k e d , t h e w e s t e r n  s e c t i o n going t o Tavium, t h e e a s t e r n t o t h e r e l i g i o u s o f Comana a n d t h e n c e  Tarsus.  t o Sebastea. 39  The w e s t a n d e a s t  centre branches  c o n v e r g e d a g a i n a t M a s a c a , a few m i l e s s o u t h o f t h e H a l y s E l v e r i n G a p p a d o c i a , whence s i x days' one  to Tarsus.  travelling  brought  29 S i n o p e and A m i s u s , a t t h e n o r t h end o f t h e r o a d • ; 40 were o f M i l e s i a n o r i g i n , a n d t h e y h a d p r o s p e r e d because o f t h e great resources of t h e i r region.  In the Imperial period 41 S i n o p e ' s p r o s p e r i t y was dimmed t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e , b u t i t found a c o m f o r t a b l e e x i s t e n c e p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e revenue o b t a i n e d f r o m t u n n y f i s h e r i e s a n d f r o m maple and m o u n t a i n 42 nut-tree forests. of Oappadocia,  I n e a r l i e r d a y s , when i t h a d been t h e p o r t  i t h a d g i v e n i t s name t o a r e d e a r t h employed  i n making p e n c i l s , brought out o f Gappadocia  f o r export to  Greece and I t a l y . E v e n when G a p p a d o c i a ' s g o o d s were s e n t west t o t h e h a r b o u r o f E p h e s u s , t h e e a r t h c o n t i n u e d t o be known as 43 Sinopic earth, a memorial  o f the o l d importance of t h e p o r t .  The m a i n f e a t u r e s o f A s i a M i n o r ' s r o a d s y s t e m h a v e now been d e s c r i b e d .  D o m i t i a n i s p e r h a p s most o u t s t a n d i n g  among t h e e m p e r o r s who h a d a h a n d i n r e p a i r i n g i t s h i g h w a y s s i n c e he r e o r g a n i z e d a l l 44 • ' peninsula.  the roads, i n every quarter of the  The F l a v i a n d y n a s t y t o o k a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n  k e e p i n g t h e n o r t h e r n r o a d s i n good c o n d i t i o n , and u n d e r  Kerva  and h i s s u c c e s s o r s , t h i s i n t e r e s t c o n t i n u e d , n o t t o a s s i s t t r a d e , but f o r m i l i t a r y reasons.  N e r v a b u i l t a good r o a d  between Amasea a n d T a v i u m a n d l e f t a f i n e b r i d g e o v e r t h e H a l y s a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e renewed i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e n o r t h e r n r o a d s l e a d i n g t o B y z a n t i u m and P a n n o n i a .  Along three  roads c e n t e r i n g i n Ancyra, m i l e s t o n e s of Hadrian are i n e v i d e n c e , two o f t h e s e r o a d s b e i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h e main  30 46 n o r t h e r n r o u t e l y i n g between T a v i u m a n d J u l i o p o l i s . I t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n , h o w e v e r , t h a t much traffic  passed  as t h r o u g h  along the coasts o f the p e n i n s u l a , as w e l l 47  the i n t e r i o r .  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e  w e s t and s o u t h c o a s t s , b u t , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g ,  i t was t h e west  c o a s t where t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i e f h a r b o u r s  lay.  East of  C y z i c u s a l o n g t h e n o r t h c o a s t was A m i s u s ; no o t h e r h a r b o u r i n t h i s r e g i o n was o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . boast o f T a r s u s ,  but Myra, A t t a l i a ,  The s o u t h c o a s t  could  Side, Celenderis,  S e l e u o i a - m i g h t a l l be l e f t un-narned, f o r a 1 t h o u g h t h e y s e r v e d t h e c o a s t t r a d e , t h e y were o t h e r w i s e importance.  The g r e a t h a r b o u r  cities,  o f minor :  C y z i c u s , M y t i l e n e , Z"  C h i o s , Smyrna, E p h e s u s , M i l e t u s a n d Rhodes, l a y on t h e w e s t , alone: a s h o r e w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i t e d c o a s t a l t r a f f i c . 48 M y t i l e n e , L e s b o s ' l a r g e s t c i t y , h a d two h a r b o u r s , t h e s o u t h e r n a c l o s e h a r b o u r where 50 t r i r e m e s c o u l d come t o a n c h o r a t one t i m e , t h e n o r t h e r n l a r g e a n d deep w i t h a mole p r o t e c t i n g i t . 49 At b o t h Rhodes and C h i o s were h a r b o u r s w h i c h m i g h t be c l o s e d , 50 C h i o s p o s s e s s i n g a r o a d s t e a d f o r 80 s h i p s , a n d good anchorages. harbour  E p h e s u s ' c o n s t a n t r i v a l Smyrna, h a d a good 51 t h a t c o u l d be c l o s e d . M i l e t u s , whose v e s s e l s once  sai.1 ed a s f a r a s t h e A t l a n t i c , was n o t t h e g r e a t power i t h a d 52 been 500 y e a r s b e f o r e , b u t i t c o n t i n u e d t o e n j o y a c e r t a i n 53 amount o f p r o s p e r i t y when S t r a b o was w r i t i n g , and was m e n t i o n e d a s a p l a c e o f some i m p o r t a n c e  i n t h e time o f  still  31 Pausanias.  V o y a g i n g i n t h e s e w e s t e r n w a t e r s was c h e a p e r ,  f r e q u e n t l y more c o n v e n i e n t t h a n t r a v e l l i n g  by l a n d , and  a l m o s t a l w a y s p r e f e r r e d by t h e t r a v e l l e r . " From t h e s o u t h w e s t c o a s t a n d f r o m t h e i s l a n d s n e a r b y came many v a r i e t i e s o f w i n e s , w h i c h were j u s t l y i n g r e a t f a v o u r because  of their fine quality.  was p o o r , and Samos p r o d u c e d none a t a l l , Tmolus,  Ephesus'  wine  but M e t r o p o l i s ,  O n i d o s , Smyrna a n d A r i u s a have a l l been  mentioned 54 by one a u t h o r o r a n o t h e r a s p r o d u c e r s o f e x c e l l e n t w i n e s . Commerce i n w i n e p l a y e d a l e a d i n g p a r t i n t h e economic l i f e 55 o f A s i a M i n o r a s i t d i d i n t h a t o f G r e e c e and I t a l y . Both G r e e c e and A s i a M i n o r h e l p e d t o k e e p s u p p l i e d t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s o f Rome, and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e n o r t h e r n s h o r e s o f t h e ~ 56 B l a c k Sea. Beside the w e a l t h d e r i v e d from the growing o f the v i n e , t h e r e was much p r o f i t won f r o m t h e r a i s i n g o f sheep 57 t h r o u g h o u t A s i a M i n o r . Once M i l e s i a n w o o l h a d been much sought a f t e r as t h e f i n e s t t h e w o r l d c o u l d produce, but i n these y e a r s i t had l o s t ground i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the 58 Laodicean p r o d u c t . L a o d i c e a had l a t e r t o v i e w i t h n o r t h G a l l i c t o w n s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w o o l , and a c t u a l l y s e n t o u t 59 "imitation Kervian cloaks". To dye t h e w o o l c e r t a i n 60 v e g e t a b l e d y e s were f r e q u e n t l y employed i n s t e a d o f c o c c u s o r murex, and a f i n e r e s u l t was o b t a i n e d by s o a k i n g t h e w o o l 61 i n the water of H i e r a p o l i s . O t h e r w i s e , dye f r o m t h e  32 p u r p l e - f i s h e r i e s o f f M i l e t u s , o r coccus, S t r i c t l y speaking oak  c o c c u s was n o t t h e b e r r y o f t h e s c a r l e t  a s i t s name w o u l d i n d i c a t e ,  yet undiscovered St.  m i g h t be u s e d .  by i t s u s e r s .  but an i n s e c t , t h i s f a c t as 62 The p u r p l e - s e l l e r L y d i a , whom  P a u l met i n G r e e c e , was f r o m T h y a t e i r a , a town a few m i l e s  n o r t h o f S a r d i s , where t h e r e were famous p u r p l e  dye-works.  • F i n a l l y , a few w o r d s may be s a i d o f t h e v a r i o u s m i n e r a l s t o be f o u n d i n t h e p e n i n s u l a a n d i n t h e i s l a n d o f Cyprus o f f i t s c o a s t . there i s nothing  Quite  contrary to general  t o be s a i d o f g o l d m i n i n g  expectation,  i n Asia Minor  d u r i n g t h e Roman p e r i o d , s i n c e t h e g o l d m i n e s once so 63 p r o d u c t i v e , were now e x h a u s t e d . However, t h e r e was s t i l l i r o n to be h a d i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n a b o u t t h e R i v e r C e r a s u s 64 65 and i n t h e h i l l s above P h a r n a c i a . S u l p h i d e o f l e a d was f o u n d ,66 in  Cilicia,  and r e d s u l p h i d e o f a r s e n i c near  Pompeiopolis.  A t t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t s l a v e s , men and women a l i k e , the r e d s u l p h i d e , a n d r e m a i n e d a t t h e i r t o i l time  before disease o r death  (the  conper i s l a n d ) .  grubbed f o r  only a short  c a r r i e d them o f f . A t E p h e s u s 67 was m i n e d t h e f i n e s t r e d l e a d i n t h e E m p i r e , s u p e r i o r even 68 to t h a t o f S i s a p o i n S p a i n , a n d f r o m C a p p a d o c i a came t a l c , u s e d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e m a k i n g o f w i n d o w s . More i m p o r t a n t t h a n 69 any o f t h e s e , h o w e v e r , was t h e c o p p e r b r o u g h t o u t o f C y p r u s O n l y a few r e g i o n s i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n 70  c o u l d p r o d u c e c o p p e r i n a n y q u a n t i t y , a n d C y p r u s was one o f t h e s e , a n d one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t .  Even a t t h e p r e s e n t day.  33 copper  i s m i n e d on t h e i s l a n d by a n A m e r i c a n  71 company,  w o r k i n g on t h e v e r y s i t e where t h e l a b o u r e r s o f H e r o d t h e . 72 G r e a t once t o i l e d . T h i s f a c t seems t o b e a r o u t t h e t r u t h 73 of the statement had  made by S t r a b o , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t C y p r u s  i n e x h a u s t i b l e mines o f copper w i t h i n i t .  the making o f bronze  Naturally,  o c c u p i e d many o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s on  t h e i s l a n d , a n d t h e r e was a n y number o f w o r k s h o p s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f bronze  a r t i c l e s s c a t t e r e d throughout the 74 l e n g t h and breadth o f the t e r r i t o r y . SUMMARY  1:-  A s i a M i n o r was a c q u i r e d by Rome i n t h e y e a r s between 129 B.C. and 63 A.P.  2:-  Three main w e s t - e a s t highways f o l l o w e d t h e p a t h s laid  down by n a t u r e .  They w e r e :  a)  t h e s o u t h r o a d - E p h e s u s ... M a g n e s i a ... up t h e M a e a n d e r Y a l l e y t o L a o d i c e s on t h e t r i b u t a r y l y c u s ... Apamea ... P i s i d i a n A n t i o c h ... I c o n i u m ... Tyann ... T a r s u s .  b)  t h e c e n t r a l r o a d - S a r d i s ... up t h e v a l l e y o f t h e Hermus ... n o r t h w a r d t o A n c y r a K e l i t e n e on t h e E u p h r a t e s , l a t e r the route had i t s w e s t e r n t e r m i n u s a t E p h e s u s i n s t e a d of a t S a r d i s .  c)  t h e n o r t h e r n r o a d - N i c o m e d i a .... C l a u d i o p o l i s ... C r a t e a ... Amasea ... Comana N i o o p o l i s ... Satal© ... t h e n i n t o A r m e n i a . An i m p o r t a n t b r a n c h , s o u t h w a r d f r o m N i c o m e d i a to Ancyra.  34 The  southern  r o a d was o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e  as a  commercial highway, the n o r t h e r n road as a m i l i t a r y highway.  The c e n t r a l r o a d was l e a s t i m p o r t a n t o f  the  three.  The  o u t s t a n d i n g n o r t h - s o u t h h i g h w a y j o i n e d Siraope  and  Amistis on t h e B l a c k Sea t o T a r s u s .  The  c h i e f c i t i e s of A s i a Minor: Ephesus - "the l a r g e s t mart i n A s i a w i t h i n the Taurus". Tarsus  -  had commercial r e l a t i o n s with every c i t y i n the world* S p l e n d i d harbour i n L a k e Rhegma.  Hicomedia- l e a d i n g c i t y o f Asia Minor Diocletian.  under  L e a d i n g p r o d u c t s : wine, f i s h , f r u i t s , t i m b e r , wool (and the secondary metals,  products  particularly  t h e r e o f ) , m a r b l e , and some copper.  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l the roads Domitian.  The  the n o r t h e r n  took p l a c e under  F l a v i a n e m p e r o r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n  roads  f o r m i l i t a r y reasons,  i n t e r e s t was c o n t i n u e d by B e r v a  and t h e i r  and h i s s u c c e s s o r s .  T h e r e was h e a v y t r a f f i c a l o n g t h e s e a c o a s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e w e s t e r n Mytilene, were  c o a s t , where C y z i c u s ,  C h i o s , Smyrna, E p h e s u s , M i l e t u s a n d Rhodes  situated.  35  NOTES 1:-  TO  CHAPTER I I I  R o s t o v t z e f f , The S o c i a l a n d E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p . 8~» ~~ ; '—2-.. F o r Rome's a s q u i s i t i o n o f A s i a M i n o r s e e Mommsen, V o l . I , p. 3 5 0 . 3:D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e geography o f A s i a Minor i n Z e a n e , A s i n , V o l . I I , p. 3 0 1 . H o g a r t h " I o n i a a n d t h e B a s t , p p . 64, 6 5 , §:• S k e e l , T r a v e l i n t h e F i r s t C e n t u r y , p. 1 1 7 . 6:- M o r t o n , l n _ t h e S t e p s o f S t . P a u l , p. 3 2 7 . S t r a b o , 14, 1, 24. 7:S t r a b o , 14, 1, 24. C f . S e n e c a , Bp_., 1 0 2 , 2 1 . 8:P l i n y , M.H., V . 3 1 .and T a c i t u s , A n n . I V , 5 5 , 9:S t r a b o , 14, 1, 4 2 , 10: C . I . I . I . 557. 11 S k e e l , o p . c i t . , p. 119. 18: S t r a b o , 1 2 , 8, 16. See a l s o R e v e l a t i o n s I I I , 17, 13: I c o u n s e l t h e e t o buy o f me ( n o t t h e g l o s s y b l a c k garments of"Taodicea,but) white garments t h a t thou m a y e s t c l o t h e t h y s e l f . Of. a l s o A r i s t o p h a n e s , Ornithes, I . 493, 14: S t r a b o , 1 2 , 8, 16, 15S t r a b o , 12, 8, 1 5 . 16: I b i d . , 1 2 , 6, 1. 17 P l i n y , BUH. , V. 2 2 . c f . The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 14, 1. .18: Zeane, " o p . c i t . , Vol. , I I , p. 303. 19 S t r a b o , 1 2 , 2, 7, 20: C h a r l e s w o r t h , T r a d e R o u t e s a n d Commerce o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p p . 9 8 , 99", 21: S t r a b o , 14, 5, 1 3 ; The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s 21, 3 9 . O O , S t r a b o , 14, 5, 1 0 , M o r t o n , o p . c i t - , p. 5 8 , 23; F o r s o c k s and l e g g i n g s o f c i l i c i u m see M a r t i a l , XIV, 141, 24: f o r g o a t s ' h ? i r c l o a k s s e e C i c e r o , V e r r . I I , 1, 95. 25:. H u a r t , A n c i e n t P e r s i a a n d I r a n i a n C i v i l i s a t i o n , p . 54 26;. P t e r i e was t h e a n c i e n t H i t t i t e c a p i t a l . laistner, A Survey o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , p. 54. 27' l a i s t n e r . o p , c i t . , -p. 1 8 1 . H e r o d o t , V. 5 2 ; V I I I , 9 5 . 2829 Char lesxv o r t h , op. c i t . , p. 7 9 . 30: H o r a c e , Odes I I I , 1, 4 1 . M a r t i a l . I X , 7 5 . 7. 31: P a u s . V, 12, 7, 32: P l i n y , Ad T r a j . , 4 1 ; C f . . 33: Charlesworth, op.cit.., p 83. 34: S k e e l , o p . c i t , , p. 1 2 6 . See a l s o A r r i a n , P e r i p . , 35; P l i n y , N.E. X I I , 5 6 ; X V I 197. 5, 8 a n d V i t r . I I , 1, 4,  36 36:37:-  38:59:40:41:« 42:43:-44:45:46;47:: 48:49:50:51:52:53:54:65:~ 56:57:• 58:59:60:61:62:63:-  64:65:66:67:-  P l i n y , N.H. XV, 1 0 2 . The p r o d u c t s o f P o n t u s ; F i s h e r i e s - S t r a b o , 7, 6, 2; P l i n y , N.H. I X , 44 f f . B e e s a n d Wax - P l i n y , N.H. X I , 59 and~65; X X I , 7 7 . Sheep - S t r a b o , 1 2 , 3, 1 3 . R e s i n o u s p l a n t s a n d gums - P l i n y , N . H . X I I , 47,49,72. C a t t l e - P l u t a r c h , L u o u l l u s . 14. Herodot% I I , 34. S t r a b o , 1 2 , 2 — 7 , 8, and 9. L a i s t n e r , o p . c i t . , p. 125. Steel,- o p . c i t . , p. 131. S t r a b o , 1 2 , 3, 1 1 . I b i d . , 1 2 , 2, 10. C I I , I I I , 3 1 2 , 3 1 8 , and 14184.48. C I ' l , I I I , 14184.44. 0 I I , I I I , 13625, 14402 a n d 14184.58. 60. 6 1 . See t h e v o y a g e s o f S t . P a u l a l o n g t h e s e c o a s t s , A c t s 20, 1-21, 3. See a l s o P l u t a r c h , Pompey, 76 f o r Pompey's f l i g h t f r o m P h a r s a l u s t o E g y p t , a n d T a c i t u s , Ann. I I , 54-55 f o r t h e s i g h t s e e i n g voyage o f G e r m a n i c u s . S t r a b o , 1 3 , 2, 2. I b i d . , 14, 2, 5. I b i d . , 14, 1, 3 5 . • I b i d . , 14, 1, 3 7 . L a i s t n e r , o p . c i t . , p. 1 2 5 . S t r a b o , 14, 1, 6. F o r w i n e s m e n t i o n e d s e e S t r a b o , 14, 1, 15 and 35; a l s o V i r g i l , Georg., I I , l i n e 98. R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t . , p. 67. I b i d . , p. 67. Sheep r a i s i n g i n A s i a M i n o r - S t r a b o . 12, 6, 1. cf« P l i n y , N.H. X X I X , 3 3 , H e r o d o t . V. 4 9 . H o r a c e , Ep_. I , 17, 3 0 ; V i r g i l , G e o r g . , I I I , 306; C i c e r o , V e r r . , I I , 1, 8 6 ; P l i n y . N.H. V I I I , 190. The E d i c t o f D i o c l e t i a n X I X , 27 i n An Economic S u r v e y o f AnbierTS Rome', Vol.~'V~~p. 374. C o l o s s e n e r e d d y e i n S t r a b o , 1 2 , 8, 16. R o o t d y e s o f H i e r a p o l i s , - 1 3 , 4, 14. S t r a b o , 1 3 , 4, 14. The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 16, 14. The a n c i e n t s o u r c e s o f g o l d i n A s i a M i n o r , e.g., t h e m i n e s o f A s t y r a n e a r A b y d u s ( S t r a b o , 1 3 , 1, 2 3 ) , Lampsacus ( P l i n y , N.H. X X X V I I , 1 9 3 ) , A t a r n e u s ( S t r a b o , 14, 5, 2 8 ) , 'the w a s h i n g s o f t h e P a c t o l u s ( S t r a b o , 1 3 , 4, 5 ) , a n d t h e m i n e s o f Mount Tmolus ( S t r a b o , 14, 5, 2 8 ) , were w o r k e d o u t a n d abandoned. S t r a b o , 12, 3, 1 9 . P l i n y , N.H. X X X I V , 1 7 3 . Strabo, 1 2 , 3, 4 0 . P l i n y , N.H. X X X I I I , 114.  37 68:69 :70;71:72:-  S t r a b o , 1 2 , 2, 1 0 . I b i d . ,-14, 6, 5. C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 8 8 . M o r t o n , o p . c i t . , p . 129. Some C y p r i a n c o p p e r m i n e s were w o r k e d u n d e r A u g u s t u s as a g i f t o r l e a s e t o H e r o d , Josephus, A n t i q u i t a t e s • J u d a i c a e X V I , 4, 5. 73:- S t r a b o , 14, 6, 5. 74:- 'An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , p. 8 2 6 .  CHAPTER THE  SILK  IY  ROADS  TO  CHINA  Two l o n g and c i r c u i t o u s o v e r l a n d r o u t e s b r o u g h t the of  Chinese l u x u r y ,  silk,  i n t o t h e Roman E m p i r e .  The p u r p o s e  t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s t o r e v e a l j u s t where t h e s e  r o u t e s l a y , a n d how t h e y became known t o w e s t e r n  traders  through e x p l o r a t i o n and conquest. The Roman i n t e r e s t i n t h e s i l k reign o f Augustus. known.  r o a d s began a b o u t t h e  B e f o r e t h a t t i m e , s i l k was v e r y  little  O n l y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f i t h a d a s y e t been b r o u g h t  out o f C h i n a t o t h e w e s t , a n d t h a t w h i c h d i d r e a c h t h e E m p i r e 2 was s t i l l in  i n t h e raw s t a t e .  The g r e a t demand f o r s i l k  began  t h e r e i g n o f T i b e r i u s (A.D. 14-37) a n d c o n t i n u e d  unceasing a f t e r that time i n s p i t e o f a l l e d i c t s passed 3 against i t s use. The p e n e t r a t i o n o f Roman t r a d e r s t o t h e E a r E a s t by t h e o v e r l a n d r o u t e s began i n e a r n e s t a f t e r 20 B.C., when P a r t h i a n h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d Rome weakened t e m p o r a r i l y , a n d w e s t e r n p e o p l e s w e r e a l l o w e d t o e n t e r t h e l a n d beyond t h e E u p h r a t e s . G r e e k s were t h e f i r s t e x p l o r e r s who went i n t o 5 t h i s c o u n t r y a t t h e command o f A u g u s t u s .  With  Parthia's  c o n s e n t , t h e s e made t h e i r way f r o m A n t i o c h down t h e E u p h r a t e s R i v e r t o G r e e k S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n , t h e n c e 38  39 through  I r a n , by t h e C a s p i a n G a t e s t o M e r v and A l e x a n d r i a * 6 o f the A r a c h o s i a n s (Kandahar). I s i d o r e o f Charax f o l l o w e d t h i s same r o u t e , c o m p i l i n g a l i s t  of the s t a t i o n s  the s i l k road f o r Augustus, but, l i k e concluded  h i s e x p l o r a t i o n at Kandahar,  along  the Greeks,  he  Whether a t t h i s  time  t h e n a t i v e s o f t h e c o u n t r y beyond made f u r t h e r t r a v e l i m p o s s i b l e , o r w h e t h e r t h e men l i v e s i n the d i f f i c u l t The  were u n w i l l i n g t o r i s k  c o u n t r y t o the e a s t , i s u n c e r t a i n .  f a c t remains however, t h a t f o r the f i r s t  o f t h e E m p i r e , Rome's a c q u a i n t a n c e slowly.  Across  their  the e n t r a n c e  two  centuries  w i t h t h i s l a n d grew  t o the e a s t e r n country l a y the  P a r t h i a n t e r r i t o r y , a f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e , and w i t h i n c e n t r a l A s i a t h e r e were a l w a y s d i s t u r b a n c e s t o hamper t h e a c t i v i t i e s of western  merchants.  A l o g i c a l u o i n t f o r b e g i n n i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of first  the  r o u t e t o t h e E a s t i s a t Zeugma, t h e famous N o r t h  S y r i a n b r i d g e over the Euphrates. Vespasian,  t h i s b r i d g e was  Before  the r e i g n of  g u a r d e d by Rome a s i t s one  o n l y .crossing of the r i v e r .  As  and  l o n g a s Commagene and  8 G a p p a d o c i a were c l i e n t  s t a t e s , the c r o s s i n g s at M e l i t e n e  Samosata were out o f Roman h a n d s , and had  and  t h e b r i d g e a t Zeugma  t o t r a n s p o r t t h e l a r g e r p a r t o f Rome's e a s t e r n  merchandise. Once a c r o s s t h e r i v e r t h e t r a v e l l e r had a of s e v e r a l roads  by w h i c h t o r e a c h S e l e u c i a and  choice  Ctesiphon,  40 where began t h e t r e k t o t h e E a s t .  The f a c t t h a t t h e r e were  s e v e r a l r o u t e s , l e a d s one t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e Euphrates in  V a l l e y was by no means i d e a l a s a h i g h w a y , a n d such 9 • ' f a c t , was t h e c a s e . In a d d i t i o n t o the n a t u r a l  disadvantages  o f u s i n g t h e r i v e r a s men u s e d t h e N i l e ,  were t r o u b l e s o m e to  t r i b e s l i v i n g a l o n g t h e r i v e r banks., w a i t i n g  squeeze t h e l a s t p o s s i b l e d e n a r i u s 10  passing through heat,  there  their territory.  out o f merchants  T h i s f a c t , as w e l l as the  d r o v e men t o make t h e i r t r a c k s f a r t h e r n o r t h .  T h e r e f o r e , a f t e r l e a v i n g Zeugma a n d r e a c h i n g A n t h e m u s i a s , t h e 11 merchant pursued a)  routes:  t o N i s i b i s , v i a Carrhae Edessa,  b)  one o f t h e s e  and R e s a i n a ,  or v i a  t h e n t o N i n e v e h and C t e s i p h o n ;  t o Thergubis  v i a Carrhae  Nicephorium,  then through  o r v i a I c h n a e and the country of the  S c e n i t e A r a b s t o S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n ; c)  t o S e l e u c i a and Ctesiphon  along the v a l l e y o f  the r i v e r i t s e l f , w i t h l e s s c o n v e n i e n c e . A w o r d s h o u l d be s a i d a b o u t t h e n e i g h b o r i n g IS 13 f o u n d a t i o n s o f S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n . B o t h l a y on t h e banks o f t h e T i g r i s , a few m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f t h e d e c a y e d c i t y o f Babylon.  The f i r s t m e n t i o n e d was a c i t y  the o t h e r , the w i n t e r c a p i t a l  of Greek  of the Parthians.  b o t h were t r a d e c e n t r e s o f much i m p o r t a n c e , Strabo  origin, Although  and a l t h o u g h  speaks f a v o r a b l e o f t h e s i z e and m a g n i f i c e n c e  of  41 Gtesiphon, a comparison  o f t h e two r e v e a l s t h a t S e l e u c i a  a l o n e was o f "a s i z e s u f f i c i e n t  t o warrant  a c i t y , and t h a t C t e s i p h o n was m e r e l y 15  i t s being  a thriving  called  town.  I n S e l e u c i a was g a t h e r e d a t h r o n g o f M a c e d o n i a n s , S y r i a n s , G r e e k s a n d J e w s , and i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e s e men was a l l t h e power and a l l t h e w e a l t h t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y from the advantageous p o s i t i o n o f t h e c i t y . i d l e chance t h a t caused  Babylon,  be.gained  I t was no  S e l e u c i a and Bagdad t o  grow up i n t h e i r s u c c e e d i n g a g e s a l m o s t on t o p o f one a n o t h e r . East of Ctesiphon t r a v e l l e r s faced a steep climb 16 up t h e Z a g r o s M o u n t a i n s b e f o r e r e a c h i n g t h e I r a n i a n P l a t e a u . T h i s p l a t e a u was, a n d i s . , t h r o u g h o u t much o f i t s e x t e n t , 17 a dangerous r e g i o n i n which  to t r a v e l .  was no b o l d t r a c k a c r o s s i t t o C h i n a . l e a d i n g toward territory,  there  Instead, the road  t h e E a s t moved n o r t h t o s k i r t t h e d i f f i c u l t  almost  eastern shore.  Therefore,  brushing the Caspian  Sea on i t s s o u t h -  To be more e x p l i c i t , t h e t r a c k c u t t h r o u g h 18  the p l a i n s o f Media Rhagiana,  moving toward  the Caspian  Gates.  P a s t Apamea, i t went on t o t h e P a r t h i a n c i t y o f H e c a t o r n p y l o s , then continued t o Merv.  A s t h i s c i t y marked t h e l i m i t o f 19 I s i d o r e o f C h a r a x ' s t r a v e l s e a s t w a r d , .one must t u r n t o t h e 20  accounts  o f Maes T i t i a n u s f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t  the eastern  road.  The Chinese  agents  s e n t o u t by Maes T i t i a n u s t o meet  t r a d e r s ( c . 1 2 0 A.D.) p e n e t r a t e d more d e e p l y  into  42 the B a s t , s p l i t t i n g One  group pursued  i n t o two p a r t i e s a f t e r l e a v i n g M e r v .  t h e n o r t h e r n r o a d a c r o s s t h e Oxus R i v e r  to Maracanda (Samarcand), ending  i t s journey at Kashgar;  the o t h e r l a r g e r g r o u p made f o r B a c t r a , t h e n f o r t h e "Stone Tower", and Kashgar.  came back t o t h e n o r t h e r n r o a d  Maes' a g e n t s went v e r y l i t t l e  farther,  at but i n l a t e r  y e a r s o t h e r men, l o p Nor  and  f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r t r a c k s , reached 21 Miran.  B a c t r a ( B a l k h ) was  even  a trade centre w i t h a mighty  •oast even when A l e x a n d e r u s e d i t a s a base f r o m w h i c h t o 22 i n v a d e I n d i S . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , men c a l l i t t h e 23 "Mother o f C i t i e s " , and p e r h a p s t h e y a r e j u s t i f i e d i n t h e i r c l a i m , as w i l l  be a g r e e d  geographical position. Perthia,  was  West o f i t s t r e t c h e d t h e r o a d  just discussed.  S o u t h and another  after considering i t s interesting to  West a l s o l a y t h e Oxus R i v e r .  s l i g h t l y e a s t , the v a l l e y of the Indus formed  spoke i n t h i s w h e e l made o f r o u t e s , and  the highway t o China.  northeast  T h i s B a c t r a , w h i c h was  no mere  b a r b a r i c t r a d i n g p o s t , p l a y e d a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the t r a d e , o f the a n c i e n t E a s t . When t h e t r a v e l l e r l e f t B a c t r a f o r t h e  "Stone  Tower", he  f o l l o w e d a r o a d w h i c h the B a c t r i a n monarchs 24 D e m e t r i u s and M e n a n d e r , a s w e l l a s t h e K u s h a n k i n g s , had made 25 a v a i l a b l e to merchants. the Upper Yarcand perched  The  " S t o n e Tower" i t s e l f ,  R i v e r , and was  simply a f o r t i f i e d  on a c r a g , a p l a c e t h o u g h t  overhung town  t o be T a s h k u r g a n i n  43 Sarikol.  Here the western people found P a r t h i a n s ,  K u s h a n s and  the Chinese w i t h t h e i r bales of  How C h i n e s e can had  little  Indians,  silk.  t h e G r e e k s and Romans had known o f  e a s i l y be i m a g i n e d .  By H e r o ' s r e i g n t h e Romans  n o t as y e t made d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h them, but  r e a l i z e d that such a race  l i v e d n o r t h o f I n d i a and 26  c a r r i e d on a s i l e n t t r a d e w i t h t h e West.  The  they that  their history.  They knew v a g u e l y  they  Chinese,  h o w e v e r , seem t o have been a v e n t u r e s o m e p e o p l e a t t h i s in  the  of the e x i s t e n c e  stage  of  T a - t s ' i n , w h i c h was  t h e Roman E m p i r e , l a r g e l y made up o f 27 S y r i a I They knew a l s o o f C h i - i h - S a n ( A l e x a n d r i a ) . I n o r d e r , t h e n , t o s a t i s f y t h e i r c u r i o s i t y a b o u t t h e West, t h e y 28 d i s p a t c h e d an a m b a s s a d o r , Kan Y i n g , t o P a r t h i a and S y r i a i n 97 A.D.  T h i s ambassador reached A n t i o c h , would have  r e a c h e d A l e x a n d r i a and even Rome, had'he n o t by s a i l o r s .  These s a i l o r s d e s c r i b e d t h e p a n g s o f  s i c k n e s s and home s i c k n e s s t o him not v e n t u r e  on t h e  sea  Antioch, having  sea  I n s t e a d he  His v i s i t  turned him  would  three  back a t  t h a t the  men  t o A n t i o c h i s supposed  have a c c o u n t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r Maes T i t i a n u s '  i n t e r e s t i n the to  sailed with  s e e n enough t o c o n v i n c e  o f t h e West were h o n e s t .  dissuaded  so v i v i d l y t h a t he  "where s h i p s 29  y e a r s ' p r o v i s i o n s on b o a r d " .  to  been  have been one  S y r i a at that  silk  r o u t e , f o r t h i s merchant i s thought  o f the Macedonian Greeks r e s i d i n g i n 30 time.  44 So . f a r , t h e r o u t e t h r o u g h P a r t h i a h a s d o m i n a t e d t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , a n d t h e n o r t h e r n p a s s a g e h a s been over w i t h o u t  comment, f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n  d e v e l o p m e n t came a t a l a t e r p e r i o d .  passed  than that i t s  I t came i n t o t h e hands  o f Rome g r a d u a l l y , a s t h e Romans c o n c e r n e d  themselves  more  and more w i t h t h e a f f a i r s o f A r m e n i a and C a u c a s i a , and a s t h e y t u r n e d t h e i r m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s . t o more u s e t h a n t h e acquisition of security i n t h i s region. t h e F a r B a s t was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y 31 chronic quarrel with  This other route to  by Rome because o f h e r  Parthia.  By A u g u s t u s ' r e i g n , t h e Romans were s t i l l unacquainted  w i t h the t e r r i t o r y  along the route i n question.  largely  l y i n g beyond t h e B l a c k S e a ,  Though G r e e k s h a d once e x p l o r e d  the h e i g h t s o f t h e C a u c a s u s a n d t h e s t e p p e s  of the 32  S a u r o m a t a e , a l l t h e i r f i n d i n g s h a d now been f o r g o t t e n . Caspian  Sea was r e g a r d e d  a s a l a r g e bay r u n n i n g  The  into a  n o r t h e r n o c e a n . That t h i s ocean e x i s t e d was " p r o v e d " by t h e f a c t t h a t I n d i a n s h a d been f o u n d l i v i n g among t h e S u e v i 33 i n Germany a n d a l s o by t h e f a c t t h a t no l e s s an a u t h o r i t y t h a n P l i n y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e voyage f r o m I n d i a t o t h e C a s p i a n 34 had been made. Thus, t h e V o l g a was t o r e m a i n an ocean u n t i l H e r o ' s r e i g n , when i t i s known t h a t some r e c o g n i z e d i t s 35 r i g h t f u l p r o p o r t i o n s , t h o u g h no man h a d y e t e x p l o r e d i t . 36 H a d r i a n p l a y e d h i s p a r t i n f u r t h e r i n g knowledge o f t h e northern  r o u t e by m a k i n g t h e B l a c k Sea a,Roman l a k e , by  45 having i t s coasts surveyed, proceed  and  by o r d e r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n t o  from bases such as P h a s i s ,  t h e e x p l o r a t i o n was confused  complete,  about the n a t u r e  By a p p r o x i m a t e l y  l a t e r y e a r s saw  no  A.D.  and men  were no l o n g e r 37 of the Caspian. The l a n d s l y i n g "38  e a s t and n o r t h o f t h e J a x a r t e s , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n e d and  150  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  unexplored  these  e a s t e r n r e g i o n s owing t o i n c r e a s i n g t r o u b l e s i n t h e West and  to the a c t i v i t i e s  ceased  then,  continued  of h o s t i l e t r i b e s i n A s i a . E x p l o r a t i o n  but exchange o v e r b o t h i n l a n d  f o r many y e a r s . In d e t a i l ,  the n o r t h e r n  A f t e r the m e r c h a n t had his f i r s t  routes  s t o p was  left  r o u t e was  the shores  as  follows.  of A s i a Minor  a t P h a s i s , a town i n C o l e h i a n  behind,  territory.  From P h a s i s , t h e r i v e r o f t h e same name s t r e t c h e d e a s t  to  w i t h i n a few m i l e s o f t h e C y r u s R i v e r , b u t , a s t h e P h a s i s 39 was n a v i g a b l e o n l y t o t h e f o r t r e s s c a l l e d S a r a p a n a , t h e r e • 40 was a f o u r day j o u r n e y by l a n d between t h e two r i v e r s . By V e s p a s i a n ' s t i m e t h e r e was a Roman g a r r i s o n s t a t i o n e d i n 41 t h i s d i s t r i c t a t H a r m o z i c a , where t h e C a u c a s i a n  Gates  ( t h e modern D a r i e l P a s s ) c o u l d be g u a r d e d a g a i n s t To r e a c h t h e C a s p i a n  raiders.  from the r e g i o n about Harmozica, i t •  was p o s s i b l e t o c h o o s e any o f s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l v a l l e y s , w h i c h brought the t r a v e l l e r to the sea j u s t n o r t h o f the 48 embouchure o f t h e A r a x e s .  T h i s r i v e r a l s o formed  the  c o n c l u s i o n o f a more s o u t h e r l y r o a d l e a d i n g f r o m T r a p e s u s  4-6 43 and p a s s i n g t h r o u g h A r m e n i a , As t h i s r o u t e , h o w e v e r , r a n t h r o u g h more h o s t i l e t e r r i t o r y , Rome was with i t .  less  concerned  With the j o u r n e y t o the Caspian completed, the  n e x t s t e p was manner was  t o r e a c h t h e mouth o f t h e Oxus, w h i c h i n some  connected w i t h t h i s  sea.  The  c o u r s e o f t h e Oxus  v a r i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r i e s , and on maps o f t h e . a n c i e n t w o r l d i t i s g e n e r a l l y d e p i c t e d as f l o w i n g n o r t h w a r d the Oxianus Lake. westward  into  N e v e r t h e l e s s , we have f o r p r o o f o f i t s  course, beside the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the country,  t h e w o r d s o f H e r o d o t u s and S t r a b o , and t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.L., 4:4: west a g a i n .  man  found i t p o s s i b l e to turn i t  By s a i l i n g e a s t w a r d w i t h t h e Oxus, Samarkand  was  r e a c h e d , o r B a c t r a , where t h e s o u t h e r n P a r t h i a n r o u t e  and  t h e n o r t h e r n w a t e r - r o u t e merged. R o u t e s t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s l o n g have been t r a c e d ,  and a l l  f o r the purpose  mysterious a r t i c l e  of f o l l o w i n g the t r a v e l s of a  called-silk.  I t was m y s t e r i o u s , t h a t i s ,  t o t h e Romans, f o r t h e C h i n e s e g u a r d e d source u n t i l the s i x t h  c e n t u r y A«D.  the s e c r e t of i t s  Europe, u n t i l that  time  g u e s s e d t h a t i t came f r o m t h e b a r k o f t r e e s , f r o m f l e e c e s combed f r o m l e a v e s , f r o m f l o w e r s , f r o m s p i d e r s , e v e n f r o m 45 beetles. The s e c r e t f i n a l l y s l i p p e d out when two P e r s i a n 46 m i s s i o n a r i e s , whose t h o u g h t s were n o t e n t i r e l y  distracted  f r o m t h i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d , k e p t t h e i r e y e s open w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g i n China. the a n c e s t o r s of a l l  I n a s e c o n d j o u r n e y made by t h e f u t u r e European  and w e s t e r n  two,  Asiatic  47 s i l k worms were b r o u g h t out o f C h i n a i n a h o l l o w cane a n d deposited at Constantinople. the p r o p e r p e r i o d  The s i x t h c e n t u r y i s beyond  o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n h o w e v e r , and f u r t h e r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s i l k and s i l k  r o u t e s must be abandoned.  SUMMARY  1:-  Roman i n t e r e s t i n s i l k and t h e s i l k the  time o f Augustus.  r o a d s began about  By T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n t h e u s e o f  s i l k was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d among t h e w e a l t h i e r 2:-  Exploration  o f t h e f i r s t s i l k r o a d t o C h i n a began i n  e a r n e s t a f t e r 20 B.C. Augustus, The  classes.  Greek e x p l o r e r s , w o r k i n g f o r  reached Kandahar,  as d i d I s i d o r e o f Charax,  a g e n t s o f Maes T i t i a n u s c o n t i n u e d t h e e x p l o r a t i o n  ( c . 1 2 0 A.D.) and r e a c h e d some p o i n t Kashgar.  a few m i l e s beyond  l a t e r y e a r s saw w e s t e r n t r a v e l l e r s even i n  Lop N o r a n d M i r a n . 3:-  The f i r s t  silk  road i n d e t a i l :  Zeugma  Seleucia  and C t e s i p h o n ... a c r o s s t h e Z a g r o s M o u n t a i n s t o the  Caspian Gates  ... H e c a t o m p y l o s  ... M e r v ... ( t h e n  by e i t h e r o f t h e s e r o a d s ) a) b)  .» Samarcand ... K a s h g a r  ... M i r a n  ... Lop N o r .  B a c t r a ... S t o n e Tower ... K a s h g a r M i r a n ... Lop N o r .  48 S e l e u c i a and  Ctesiphon enjoyed  great  commercial  advantages because of t h e i r f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n the t r a d e r o u t e s . two  S e l e u c i a was  on  the g r e a t e r of the  foundations.  B a c t r a had  been a g r e a t t r a d e c e n t r e f o r c e n t u r i e s  b e f o r e i t h a d any  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Roman E m p i r e .  v i s u a l i s e i t s p o s i t ion i n A s i a , imagine  To  i t as the  hub  o f a w h e e l , f r o m w h i c h t h e r o a d t o P a r t h i a , t h e Oxus R i v e r , the V a l l e y o f the Indus, China The  and  the highway t o  r a d i a t e d , as the spokes o f the wheel.  Romans n e v e r became p r o p e r l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h  Chinese. gather  Some e f f o r t was  made by t h e C h i n e s e  to  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e West i n 97 A.D. , when  t h e y d i s p a t c h e d an a m b a s s a d o r t o P a r t h i a and The  the  s e c o n d o v e r l a n d r o u t e t o C h i n a was  Syria.  developed  because o f the need f o r a v o i d i n g the P a r t h i a n s . course  l a y from the coast of A s i a Minor  to Phasis  t o t h e C y r u s ( n o t e p a r a l l e l v a l l e y s ) ... t h e Oxus ...  the  Caspian  Samarcand o r B a c t r a .  E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d up t o and Caspian  Its  Sea was  surrounding  c o m p l e t e by 150 A.D.  The  the  lands  east  and n o r t h o f t h e J a x a r t e s were n o t e x p l o r e d i n t h e t i m e o f t h e Roman E m p i r e . S i l k worms were b r o u g h t f r o m C h i n a t o i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y A.D. western  Constantinople  A l l f u t u r e European  and  A s i a t i c s i l k worms were d e s c e n d e d f r o m t h e s e .  ,  49 NOTES 1:2:-  3;4:5:6:7:*  8;» 9:-  10:11:12:IS:14:« 15:16:17:18:19:20:-  21:-  TO  CHAPTER  IV  See H o r a c e , S a t . , 1, 2, 101- T i b u l l u s , I I , g, 53; 4, 29; Y i r g i l , G e o r g . , I I , 121. A r i s t o t l e , H i s t . Anim. Y, 19;- C e r t a i n o f t h e women u n w i n d and " r e e l o f f ~ ~ t h e c o c o o n s of. t h e s e c r e a t u r e s and 'then t h e y weave a f a b r i c o f them, a Coan w o i i i 7 P ~ ^ p h i l a . daughter of P l a t e u s , being c r e d i t e d w i t h the f i r s t " ' i n v e n t i o n of the f a b r i c . C f . P l i n y , J L H . , X I " 76 - 78. T a c i t u s , Ann. I I , 33 and D i o , L V I I , 15. S i l k much s o u g h t a f t e r - H a r t . X I , 8, 5; c f . P l i n y , J5NE. , X X I , 8. Gary and W a r m i n g t o n , The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 159. I b i d . , p. 159. I s i d o r e ' s work i s c o n t a i n e d i n Geog. G r a e c . M i n . P l i n y , N.H. Y, 86 - t r a n s i t u E u p h r a t i s n o b i l e . T a c i t u s , Ann. . X I I , 12 - Zeugma, unde maxime p e r v i u s gmnlflZeugma was the most u s u a l p l a c e o f c r o s s i n g , D i o . X L I X , 19, 3. S u e t . V e s p a s i a n , 8. A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t a v o i d e d t h e r i v e r v a l l e y as f a r a s p o s s i b l e , a f t e r c r o s s i n g t h e E u p h r a t e s a t T h a p s a c u s on h i s way t o t h e E a s t . F o r h i s r o u t e , see map f a c i n g p. 148 i n The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s . S t r a b o , 16, 1, 27. A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s I I I , 7; D i o . L X V I I I , 19. l a i s t n e r , A S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , p. 355; Mommsen, P r o v i n c e s I I p. 8. ' S t r a b o , 16, 1, 16. I b i d . , 16, 1, 16. T a c i t u s , Ann. V I , 42; J o s e p h u s , A n t i q u i t a t e s J u d i c e a , XVIII, 372. I s i d . , 5; H u a r t , A n c i e n t - P e r s i a and I r a n i a n C i v i l i s a t i o n , p. 10. H u a r t , o p . c i t . , p. 4. C f . S t r a b o , 16, 2. I s i d . , 7. T h r o u g h t h e s e G a t e s A l e x a n d e r p u r s u e d D a r i u s i n 330 B. C. A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s , I I I . 19 - 21. M e r v was t h e l i m i t o f I s i d o r e ' s t r a v e l s e a s t w a r d , I s i d . 14. I s i d o r e t r a v e l l e d a s f a r a s K a n d a h a r , I s i d . 1 9 , but t h i s l a y t o t h e s o u t h , o f f the s i l k r o a d . F o r Maes T i t i a n u s see The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 161. The t r a v e l s o f Maes' a g e n t s a r e r e c o r d e d by P t o l e m y , Geog. 1, 12, 8. A t Lop Nor and M i r a n . S i r A u r e l S t e i n f o u n d E g y p t i a n . G r e e k , Roman, C h r i s t i a n , B y z a n t i n e and e s p e c i a l l y S y r i a n i n f l u e n c e i n a r t . A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s p. 162. He f o u n d a l s o a s m a l l b a l e o f s i l k , p e r f e c t l y p r e s e r v e d . C h a r l e s w o r t h , T r a d e R o u t e s and Commerce o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p. 111.  50 22:23:24:25:26:27:28:29:30:31:32:33:34:-  35:36:37:38:39:— 40:41:42:-  43:« 44:-  45:-  46:-  i r r i a n , A n a b a s i s I I I , 2 9 , 1. K e a n e A s i a , V o l . I I , p. 34. R a w l i n s on, I n d i a a n d t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d , p. 1 1 5 . P t o l . 1, 1 2 7 ~ 8 T ~ " - — — — The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p . 1 6 0 . F o r t h e s i l e n t t r a d e o f t h e C h i n e s e , s e e Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s , X X I I I , 6 8 . T a - t s ' i n a n d C h i - i h - S a n a r e m e n t i o n e d i n The A n c i e n t - E x p l o r e r s , p. 8 3 , K a n Y i n g i n H i r t h , C h i n a and t h e Roman O r i e n t , n o t a v a i l a b l e t o me. R e f e r e n c e i n C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . p. 109. H i r t h , 39. The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p . 1 6 1 . Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 2 1 . The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p . 1 3 6 , I b i d . , p. 1 6 0 . P l i n y , 11.II. V I , 5 8 . S t r a b o , 1 1 , 1 1 , 6- P a t r o c l e s a s s e r t s t h a t p e r s o n s have p a s s e d r o u n d by s e a f r o m India to Hyrcania. Strabo h i m s e l f i s d o u b t f u l of the p o s s i b i l i t y o f such a voyage. The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 1 6 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 6 3 . I b i d . , p. 163. I b i d . , p. 1 6 3 . S t r a b o , I X , 2, 1 7 . F o u r d a y s t o C y r u s V a l l e y - S t r a b o , 1 1 , 2, 1 7 , F i v e d a y s - P l i n y , H.H. V I , 5 2 , C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p . 105./ C f . S t r a b o , 1 1 , 5, 5. A r a x e s ' e r a b o u c h u r e - S t r a b o , 1 1 , 4, 2. N o t e t h a t t h e A r a x e s , a s shown by K e i p e r t , f l o w s i n t o t h e C y r u s , a s a tributary. C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 1 0 6 . F o r s h i f t i n g c o u r s e o f t h e Oxus, s e e H u a r t , o p . c i t . , p. 5, The a u t h o r d i s c u s s e s t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f H e r o d o t u s and S t r a b o and r e f e r s t o t h e course o f t h e Oxus i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.P. F o r v a r i o u s b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o r i g i n o f s i l k see S i l k M a n u f a c t u r e , p p . 7, 8. P a u s . , V I , 2 6 , 4, 6 - 8 c a l l s s i l k a moTh p r o d u c t . V i r g i l , G e o r g . I I , 121 V e l l e r a q u e u t f o l i i s depectant t e n u i a Seres. A r i s t o t l e knew a g r e a t d e a l more t h a n V i r g i l a b o u t the o r i g i n o f s i l k a s i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s H i s t , An. V, 19. S i l k M a n u f a o t u r e , p p . 1 1 , 12. :  CHAPTER TRADE  ROUTES  V OF  SYRIA  S y r i a i s a s m a l l c o u n t r y , l a c k i n g most o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o a r o u s e t h e c u p i d i t y 1 o f n e i g h b o r i n g n a t i o n s , Rome's i n t e r e s t i n i t was p r o v o k e d not  because o f any p r o f i t a b l e r e s o u r c e s  i t c o n t a i n e d , but  l a r g e l y because o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t p r o v i d e d a l a n d b r i d g e between E g y p t a n d A s i a M i n o r , conveniently close t o the Euphrates  convenient  and was  R i v e r and t o t h e Red S e a .  R o u t e s f o l l o w e d i n S y r i a were o l d c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Romans, a n d , s i n c e t h e y were n a t u r a l l v 2 determined latter  by t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o u n t r y ,  subject deserves  the c h i e f t o p i c , down t h r o u g h portation. faulting  this  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s a p r e l u d e t o  A s e r i e s o f l o f t y mountain chains  stretch  S y r i a and l e a v e deep v a l l e y s f o r t r a n s The l o n g e s t o f t h e s e d e p r e s s i o n s , caused by  on a g i g a n t i c  s c a l e , f o r m s t h e J o r d a n V a l l e y and  Dead Sea b a s i n , and f a r t h e r s o u t h a v a s t r i f t ,  w h i c h i s one  o f t h e h o t t e s t a n d most d e s o l a t e r e g i o n s i n t h e w o r l d . its  southwest e x t r e m i t y the r i f t  Red  Sea, thus forming  i s l a r g e l y submerged by t h e  t h e G u l f o f Akabah.  l a n d merges i n t o a f l a t  In  To t h e e a s t , t h e  s t o n y c o u n t r y and then  becomes d e s e r t ,  but t h e w e s t c o a s t s t r i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r a i n - d r e n c h e d Phoenician  c o a s t , l e f t n o t h i n g t o be d e s i r e d i n f e r t i l i t y , 51  52 The  o n l y p r a c t i c a b l e route northward  from Egypt  through  S y r i a " n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w e d t h i s f e r t i l e p a s s a g e way. 3  keeping  e n t i r e l y t o the coast u n t i l i t reached  Gaza.  At  t h i s p o i n t t h e r o a d b r a n c h e d , and w h i l e one p a r t o f i t continued  on up t h e c o a s t p a s t t h e h a r b o u r  moved e a s t a n d s o u t h t o r e a c h . t h e Jerusalem  important  cities,  another  centres of  and P e t r a , a s w e l l a s t h e p o r t o f A e l a n a  on t h e  G u l f o f A k a b a h , B e s i d e t h e c o a s t r o a d n o r t h f r o m Gaza t o A n t i o c h , another route t o t h e n o r t h e r n c a p i t a l , used t o a 4 g r e a t e r e x t e n t , c u t eastward plain  o f Esdraelon, pursued  from Caesarea,  a course along the v a l l e y of the  Upper Jordan u n t i l i t reached Orontes v a l l e y s extend unbroken l i n e  and c r o s s i n g t h e  the R i v e r L i t a s ,  The l i t a s and  f o r w e l l o v e r a h u n d r e d m i l e s i n an  between t h e L e b a n o n and A n t i l e b a n o n  ranges,  and  so t h e y p r o v i d e d an e a s y means o f t r a v e l p a s t C h a l c i s , 5 . H e l i o p o l i s a n d Emesa t o A n t i o c h . The t h i r d o f t h e g r e a t n o r t h - s o u t h h i g h w a y s began w i t h t h e h a r b o u r c i t y o f A e l a n a f A i l a ) a n d moved up t h e A r a b a Y a l l e y 6 Petra.  (Wadi-el-Araba)  to  H e r e t h e r o a d d i v i d e d s w i n g i n g west t o Gaza, a s  m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , and- n o r t h t o Damascus, P a l m y r a and t h e Euphrates,  Much u s e d t h o r o u g h f a r e s  country at a l l convenient  l i k e w i s e crossed the  p o i n t s t o l i n k prominent  w i t h e a c h o t h e r and w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o r t s .  centres Such  j o i n e d Damascus t o G a e s a r e a a n d t o S i d on, a n d g r e a t c e n t r e s s u c h a s A n t i o c h and B e r o e a w i t h e a c h o t h e r .  links  inland  ( t; r |  53 Good c o m m u n i c a t i o n h a d a l w a y s e x i s t e d i n S y r i a a n d h i g h w a y s n e e d e d o n l y t h e v e n e e r o f t h e Roman r o a d - l a y e r a t  j  certain points, generally within the c i t i e s , 7 movement o f t r o o p s was r e q u i r e d .  a n d where s w i f t  Though r o a d s were  f r e q u e n t l y i m p a s s a b l e f o r w h e e l e d v e h i c l e s , t h e i r q u a l i t y may be j u d g e d by t h e f a c t t h a t S y r i a i s , a t t h e p r e s e n t d a y , p o o r e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o communication than i n the time o f t h e 8 Roman E m p i r e .  F o r e x a m p l e , A u r e l i a n , on h i s way t o P a l m y r a ,  u s e d a r o a d t h a t h a s so d e t e r i o r a t e d t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be t r a v e r s e d by an army a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . As r o u t e s grew more r e m o t e , t h e i r t r a i l was marked o n l y by s t o n e s a t t h e 9 s i d e o f the road, and f o r c r o s s i n g the d e s e r t , precautions 10 much l i k e t h o s e t a k e n t o - d a y h a d t o be o b s e r v e d . In t h e event o f a d e s e r t primary consideration 11 accordingly. their.camels contribution,  journey,  a n d c h a r g e s f o r / i t were made  Dues f o r t h e u s e o f w e l l s by m e r c h a n t s and f i l l i n g  o r s o m e t i m e s by t h e S y n o d i a r c h ( c a r a v a n 12  i n some s e t t l e m e n t ,  sold a f t e r a c e r t a i n lanse  leader)  When m e r c h a n t s f a i l e d t o p a y  t h e i r dues, whether f o r w a t e r and food, spending a n i g h t  watering  w a t e r b o t t l e s , were met by j o i n t  i f he w i s h e d t o w i n p o p u l a r i t y .  and  w a t e r was a  or f o r merely  p l e d g e s m i g h t be t a k e n  i f s u c h a c t i o n was 13 c o n s i d e r e d , p r o p e r by t h e r e s i d e n t Roman J u r i d i c u s . An abundance o f n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , 14 black  o f time,  b a s a l t i n t h e H a u r a n , made t h e l a y i n g o f good r o a d s  comparatively  easy i n the western p a r t s  of Syria.  In the  54 s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.D.  A n t i o c h and  O h a l c i s were j o i n e d by a  road, s t i l l  e x i s t i n g i n many s e c t i o n s , w h i c h was l a i d 15 s o l i d r o c k and paved w i t h g r e a t l i m e s t o n e b l o c k s . 16 St.  G h r y s o s t o m m e n t i o n s t h i s h i g h w a y and  t e l l s us  in  that  P e r s i a n o r A r m e n i a n m e r c h a n t s were much more wont t o u s e road than the S y r i a n s themselves, c a r r i e d on l a r g e l y by t h e f o r m e r people  i n these years.  He  e x p l a i n i n g that trade  the was  r a t h e r t h a n by t h e n a t i v e  a l s o r e m a r k s on t h e b e n e f i t s o f  Roman o c c u p a t i o n , n o t a v e r y o r d i n a r y t h i n g i n a S y r i a n w r i t e r , d e c l a r i n g t h a t whenever heavy r a i n f a l l t o r e h o l e s i n t h e r o a d , t h e Romans c a r e f u l l y had frequent  i n t e r v a l s had 17  t h e way. at .for  s e t up  i t r e p a i r e d , and  r e s t i n g p l a c e s (khans)  These, k h a n s were n e c e s s a r i l y c r u d e  at  by  b u i l d i n g s , but ,  l e a s t t h e y p r o v i d e d a r o o f f o r t h e t r a v e l l e r and a s t a b l e h i s animals.  -  Many i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e r o a d  s y s t e m were added  18 by T r a j a n , t o whom t h e S y r i a n s owed most o f t h e i r m i l e s t o n e s . T h i s E m p e r o r , much l i k e o r g a n i z a t i o n and almost  A u g u s t u s , had  a genius f o r  l e f t t r a c e s of h i s enthusiasm  e v e r y p r o v i n c e o f the E m p i r e .  In S y r i a ,  and  vigor in  following  a p l a n p r o p o s e d by T i b e r i u s y e a r s b e f o r e , he annexed t e t r a r c h i e s o f t h e E a u r a n and  the Nabataean  territory,  p r e s e n t i n g that r e g i o n with a s p l e n d i d f r o n t i e r road, g a t h e r e d up a l l t h e t r a f f i c o f t h e Red  Sea  the  coming f r o m A e l a n a 19 t o Damascus and t h e n o r t h .  and  which  the p o r t s  55 20 D i o c l e t i a n a l s o a t t a i n e d some fame as a r o a d - b u i l d e r i n S y r i a , where he c o n s t r u c t e d , i n one  i n s t a n c e , a paved  road northward from Palmyra to the Euphrates c r o s s i n g at Sura, to  p r o v i d e a p r o p e r means o f c o n n e c t i o n between Osroene and  A r a b i a and P a l e s t i n e .  In a d d i t i o n , the f r o n t i e r road running  t h r o u g h P e t r a and B o s t r a t o P a l m y r a and G i r c e s i u m were 21 s t r e n g t h e n e d by a number o f f o r t s o f w h i c h t h e most i m p o r t a n t was  c a s t r a p r a e t o r i i Mo ben i ( E a s r B s e r ) , D e i r - e l - E a h f  (some  20 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f B o s t r a ) and G i r c e s i u m i t s e l f - .  A  t y p e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e was  The  used i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n .  new  f o r t s were b u i l t w i t h s q u a r e t o w e r s and s m a l l p o s t e r n s , a s t y l e e c h o e d e l s e w h e r e by a r c h i t e c t s o f t h i s p e r i o d , and t o be f o u n d , i n one i n s t a n c e a t V i t o d u r u m i n S w i t z e r l a n d . Few  a n c i e n t a u t h o r s have l e f t  c l u e s c o n c e r n i n g speed  .on t h e s e r o u t e s and on t h e s e a s a b o u t S y r i a , and when t h e r e are  definite  a c c o u n t s , they ere too o f t e n m e r e l y of r o y a l  t r a v e l l e r s who facilities, be l i m i t e d ,  would  A man  be s u p p l i e d w i t h  travelling  by f o o t on t h e s e r o a d s w o u l d  i n t h e judgment o f S i r W i l l i a m Ramsey, t o a  s p e e d o f 18 m i l e s p e r day, 23 c o v e r 27 m i l e s . in  extraordinary  but w i t h a h o r s e he  could  S t . P a u l reached J e r u s a l e m from  two d a y s , but a p p a r e n t l y had some k i n d o f  Caesarea  conveyance.  To j o u r n e y f r o m J e r u s a l e m down t o A l e x a n d r i a r e q u i r e d . £4 25 s l i g h t l y o v e r two weeks, and t o E d e s s a , a l m o s t f o u r . S e v e n t y days i s t h e t i m e m e n t i o n e d by S t , C h r y s o s t o m as  56 n e c e s s a r y f o r a t r i p t o B a b y l o n f r o m A n t i o c h , whereas B e r o e a c o u l d be r e a c h e d i n two days f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n 27 capital. Another d e f i n i t e time p e r i o d a p p l i e s t o t h e s o u t h e r n J e r i c h o - P e t r a r o u t e and i s s u p p l i e d by S t r a b o , who 28 s a y s "that t h i s d i s t a n c e was c o v e r e d i n t h r e e t o f o u r  days.  N a t u r a l l y s u c h f i g u r e s r e f e r m e r e l y t o o r d i n a r y m e r c h a n t s and travellers.  O n l y a p p r o x i m a t e f i g u r e s f o r speed on t h e s e a 29  r o u t e s can be g i v e n .  In C i c e r o ' s time, s h i p s s a i l i n g  between  S y r i a and Borne m i g h t h a v e t a k e n a n y t h i n g between f i f t y and one hundred  d a y s , and m o r e , p r o b a b l y  the l a t t e r ,  t o r e a c h p o r t , but  w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y u n d e r t h e E m p i r e , a summer 30 voyage c o u l d p r o b a b l y have been made i n l e s s -than a month. The p e r i l s  o f w i n t e r s a i l i n g w o u l d u s u a l l y send  a r o u n d by t h e o v e r l a n d r o u t e t h r o u g h G a p p a d o c i a •and s o t o G r e e c e a n d Rome. to  sail  travellers and'Phrygia  I n any c a s e s h i p s made no a t t e m p t  d i r e c t l y f o r Rome f r o m a S y r i a n  p o r t , b u t chose  e i t h e r t o make f i r s t f o r A l e x a n d r i a a n d t h e n f o r I t a l y , o r e l s e t o s a i l a r o u n d C y p r u s and hug t h e c o a s t o f P a n r p h y l i a 31 and l y c i a u n t i l Rhodes a n d Samos were r e a c h e d . C o a s t a l s h i p p i n g i n S y r i a was b r i s k and was c a r r i e d on f r e q u e n t l y by s h i p s b e l o n g i n g t o A s i a M i n o r and 32 A l e x a n d r i a as w e l l as t o the h a r b o u r s o f S y r i a i t s e l f . One o f S y r i a ' s l e a d i n g h a r b o u r s was T y r e , t h u s d e s c r i b e d 33 by S t r a b o , " T y r e i s w h o l l y , an i s l a n d , same manner a s A r a d u s .  b u i l t n e a r l y i n the  I t i s j o i n e d , t o t h e c o n t i n e n t by a  57 mound, w h i c h A l e x a n d e r has  two h a r b o u r s ,  r a i s e d when he was b e s i e g i n g i t .  It  one c l o s e , t h e o t h e r open, w h i c h i s c a l l e d  the E g y p t i a n h a r b o u r " .  The g e o g r a p h e r a l s o r e m a r k s on t h e  f a c t t h a t dyers, simmering t h e i r purple-producing  shell-fish  (murex and buccinum) d e t r a c t s f r o m t h e p l e a s u r e o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e c i t y , where e v i d e n t l y b u s i n e s s , n o t b e a u t y ,  was t h e  prime i n t e r e s t o f the i n h a b i t a n t s . were famous t h e w o r l d  Both Tyre and Sidon 34 o v e r f o r t h e i r dyed c l o t h s ? c o n s i d e r e d  s u p e r i o r t o any p r o d u c e d by n e i g h b o r i n g M e d i t e r r a n e a n c i t i e s , 35 and f o r t h e i r g l a s s a s w e l l . About t h e time o f t h e Gaesarean c i v i l wars, the  raanufacture  o f g l a s s had i n c r e a s e d 36  e n o r m o u s l y owing t o .the d i s c o v e r y o f g l a s s - b l o w i n g .  This  had made p o s s i b l e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l s o r t s o f g l a s s household  v e s s e l s a t Tyre and Sidon, i n s t e a d of g l a s s 37  l u x u r y a r t i c l e s a l o n e , as f o r m e r l y . Among o t h e r famous S y r i a n h a r b o u r s  was  Caesarea,  w h i c h owed i t s b e g i n n i n g t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r e s t s o f 38 Herod t h e Great. modelled  I t was t w e l v e y e a r s i n t h e m a k i n g , a n d ,  on t h e c o l o n i e s o f A l e x a n d e r ,  city i n Palestine*  was t h e most  To make a b r e a k w a t e r  up-to-date  Herod had great .  s t o n e s sunk i n t w e n t y f a t h o m s o f w a t e r u n t i l a mole 800  f e e t w i d e was f o r m e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a h a r b o u r  to r i v a l t h a t a t Athens. Augustus developed, and  a host  of a size 39  F a r t h e r n o r t h was B e r y t u s ,  as w e l l as Aradus, L a o d i c e a ,  of smaller p o r t s .  S e l e u c i a , whose  which  Seleucia  harbour  58 demanded c o n t i n u a l a t t e n t i o n f r o m e n g i n e e r s ,  was  s a t i s f a c t o r y a s a p a s s e n g e r p o r t f o r C y p r u s and  quite Asia Minor  but d i s a p p o i n t i n g as a c o m m e r c i a l p o r t , s i n c e i t was 40 s u i t a b l e f o r s h i p s o f any s i z e o r number. One  d a y ' s s a i l away f r o m S e l e u c i a was  not  the c i t y  of  41 Antioch,  on t h e e a s t  of which r o u t e s  Apamea, c e n t r a l S y r i a , Euphrates,  came t o g e t h e r  the i n t e r i o r o f A s i a , and  from  the  Though i t d i d n o t  a t t a i n i t s magnificence "by 42 t h e n a t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f commerce", s t i l l i t l i v e d by 43 t r a d e , a n d was f i l l e d w i t h w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s h i p p e r s . l i v i n g i n a p a r a d i s e o f l u x u r y and e a s e , t h e s e more t h a n once p i t t e d t h e i r a r r o g a n c e a g a i n s t Rome's a u t h o r i t y . 44  Hadrian,  particularly,  i n h a b i t a n t s and  l o s t h i s temper w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e  planned such a d i v i s i o n  A n t i o c h w o u l d have been d e p r i v e d He and  of S y r i a t h a t  o f some p a r t o f i t s w e a l t h .  n e v e r c a r r i e d out h i s t h r e a t s a g a i n s t t h e c a p i t a l h o w e v e r , i t d i d not  s u f f e r a t a l l u n t i l the r e i g n of 45  Severus, seventy Although  years  Septimius  later.  Damascus l a c k e d t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f A n t i o c h ,  i t s p o s i t i o n made i t t h e c e n t r e  o f a v a s t t r a d e drawn f r o m . 4 6 47 A r a b i a F e l i x , E g y p t , B a b y l o n and t h e F a r E a s t . E z e k i e l says of i t ,  "Damascus was  t h y m e r c h a n t i n the m u l t i t u d e  wares of t h y making, f o r the m u l t i t u d e w i n e o f H e l b o n , and w h i t e w o o l " . which l o s t  i t s real usefulness  He  of  the  of a l l r i c h e s , i n  i s speaking  o n l y when t h e Suez  of a  the  city  canal  59 was  openedI  I n t h e Roman p e r i o d i t was a t t h e h e i g h t o f " ; 48 i t s p r o s p e r i t y , a n d t h i s was due p a r t l y t o i t s e n v i r o n m e n t .  Orchards,gardens  a n d v i n e y a r d s were s t r e t c h e d o u t a b o u t i t  on e v e r y s i d e , y i e l d i n g q u a n t i t i e s o f f i n e  olives,  f i g s , p e a r s , plums, pomegranates and a p p l e s ,  dates,  Masses o f  t h e s e were d r i e d f o r e x p o r t , a n d even t h e t r e e s  themselves  were sometimes s e n t o u t t o I t a l y and t h e West where t h e v 49 became a c c l i m a t i z e d . A f i n e f l a x was a l s o grown i n t h e vicinity,  a p a r t o f t h e S y r i a n crop which helped t o p r o v i d e 50 t h e w o r l d w i t h i t s f i n e s t l i n e n i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A. P. 51 The r o b b e r s a b o u t Damascus were a p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e o f annoyance t o m e r c h a n t s . l a r g e n a t u r a l eaves,  Around the c i t y ,  there  existed  o f the s o r t found a l l over t h e c o u n t r y .  These p r o v i d e d l o d g i n g f o r l a r g e bands o f r o b b e r s ,  especially  on t h e s i d e n e a r e s t A r a b i a F e l i x . , where one c a v e h a d been 52 found was  capable  o f h o l d i n g 4000 men.  The p r e v a l e n c e  of bandits  due p a r t l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t A r a b i a n nomads depended f o r  t h e i r d a i l y bread  on p l u n d e r .  Beside  this,  neighboring  p r i n c e s , i n many c a s e s , were o n l y t o o g l a d t o e x t e n d a i d t o robbers  i n order t o share  i n the g a i n s .  -pettv p r i n c e was Z e n o d o r u s o f A b i l a ,  covert  One s u c h  t o whom A u g u s t u s h a d 53  generously given t h e j o b of p o l i c i n g the Trachon.  Needless  t o s a y , a n y a c t i o n he t o o k was n o t f o r t h e b e n e f i t of merchants. As Roman r u l e was e l s e w h e r e  responsible f o r  60 strengthening  S y r i a ' s trade routes,  s t r i n g o f f o r t s was P a l m y r a r o a d was  erected  fortified  so i n t h i s q u a r t e r  t o guard the roads.  The  a  Damascus  by a s e r i e s o f g a r r i s o n s u n d e r  the  a c t i v e command, p r i m a r i l y , o f t h e S y r i a n l e g i o n s s t a t i o n e d 54 a t D a n a v a . However, i n v i e w o f P a l m y r a ' s d i s t i n c t i v e character, 55  i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e E m p i r e , as n e u t r a l  middleman between t h e Romans and t h e P a r t h i a n s ,  i t i s quite  reasonable  l a y under i t s  t o suppose  jurisdiction,  The  that a part of t h i s route  f o r t a t Dmer, w h i c h was  the second i n t h i s  s e r i e s , i s t h e b e s t known t o u s , and, t o j u d g e f r o m i t ,  they  were w e l l e q u i p p e d f o r t h e i r p u r p o s e .  the  f o u r s i d e s of a r e c t a n g u l a r size,  b u i l d i n g , 300  i n t o e a c h s i d e o f w h i c h was  breadth,  protected  S i x towers faced  by 350 p a c e s i n  l e t a doorway 15 p a c e s i n  by a r i n g - w a l l 16 f e e t t h i c k .  A l t h o u g h P a l m y r a was  independent i n i t s m i l i t a r y 56 and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i f e u n t i l t h e r e i g n o f T r a j a n , i t was a l w a y s dependent f o r i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e on t h e v e r y 57 p r o s p e r i t y o f Rome, i t s c h i e f b u y e r . For three c e n t u r i e s t h i s caravan c i t y  l y i n g h a l f way  between Damascus and t h e  Euphrates, enjoyed a success unequalled  i n the Near E a s t ,  great  were the economic advantages r e s u l t i n g from i t s 58 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Rome. The o a s i s was famous f o r i t s  f e r t i l i t y and b e a u t y . situ, wealth  divitiis  P l i n y speaks of i t as u r b s n o b i l i s 59  s o l i e t a g r i s amoenis,  was n o t so much r e s p o n s i b l e  but i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l  f o r i t s prominence  as  and  61 was  i t s position.  I t was  a natural halting place f o r  c a r a v a n s , and'many i n s c r i p t i o n s y e t s u r v i v e l e f t who  p a s s e d down t h e E u p h r a t e s f r o m P a l m y r a t o 60  H i s p a s o a n u a t t h e mouth o f t h e After Hadrian's v i s i t  by  merchants  Charax  river. t o the o a s i s ,  merchants  were b e n e f i t e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t o w a r d s B o s t r a and t o t h e . 61 E u p h r a t e s , o f m i l i t a r y r o a d s p r o t e c t e d by f o r t s .  These were  much more l i a b l e t o a f f o r d s a f e t y t h a n t h e c a r a v a n gods A r s u and A z i z u , though h o p e f u l P a l m y r e n e  t r a v e l l e r s no  doubt  c o n t i n u e d t o p e r f o r m r i t e s t o t h e s e gods w i t h u n d i m i n i s h e d sincerity. of  An  i n t e r e s t i n g r e l i e f d e p i c t i n g t h e two  t h e d e s e r t s k y " , was  now  "lights  d i s c o v e r e d by M a u r i t z S o b e r n h e i m 6£  r e s t s i n t h e Damascus museum.  One  and  god w e a r s m i l i t a r y  d r e s s i n w h i c h Roman i n f l u e n c e can be s e e n , t h o u g h he i s s t i l l equipped w i t h b a r b a r i c t r o u s e r s .  I t Is possible that  the  two a r e i d e a l i z e d f o r m s o f t h e s y n o d i a r c h s whose p r o t e c t i o n and a d v i c e were i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o c a r a v a n t r a i n s a n d i n whose honor  c o u n t l e s s s t a t u e s were e r e c t e d a t P a l m y r a . A valuable r e l i c 63  Palmyra i s a t a r i f f - l i s t ,  o f second c e n t u r y l i f e i n  which had  v e r s i o n , and w h i c h came i n t o b i c k e r i n g between m e r c h a n t s y e a r 137 A.D.,  b o t h a G r e e k and a  b e i n g as t h e r e s u l t and c o l l e c t o r s .  of endless  Until  c h a r g e s f o r goods had been f i x e d  Syriac  the  only i n  c e r t a i n c a s e s , but a t t h i s t i m e t h e l o c a l s e n a t e a r r a n g e d a list  containing a l l previously omitted a r t i c l e s ,  to put  an  6£ end t o a r b i t r a r y p r i c e - f i x i n g .  Such h o m e l y i t e m s as  and p i c k l e d f i s h a r e f o u n d m e n t i o n e d  among more r o m a n t i c  g o o d s s u c h a s o i n t m e n t i n a l a b a s t e r c a s e s , on w h i c h c h a r g e was  prunes  the  25 d e n a r i i p e r c a m e l l o a d , s p i c e s , s l a v e s ,  and  purple-dyed wool. C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e f o r t u n e s o f P a l m y r a , were 64 t h o s e o f P e t r a , 300 m i l e s o r more t o t h e s o u t h w e s t . When t h i s t r e a s u r e house l o s t goods,  i t s p o s i t i o n a s emporium f o r E a s t I n d i a n 65 i t s t r a d e was t a k e n o v e r by P a l m y r a . But f o r  c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e t h a t t i m e t h e .Arabians who  d w e l t i n i t were 66 m a s t e r s o f t r a d i n g c a r a v a n s i n t h e i r " n e s t among t h e s t a r s " * Here was  t h e d e p o t f o r i n c e n s e and m y r r h  from A r a b i a ,  f o r spices, ointments, jewels, skins, ivory, and s l a v e s f r o m I n d i a ,  cotton,  and fabrics  T h i s c o m m e r c i a l c i t y drew v a s t  Q u a n t i t i e s o f g o l d f r o m Rome i n exchange f o r i t s g o o d s and c o n t i n u e d i n s p l e n d i d independence  a t t e n t i o n and l o s t  u n t i l i t took Trajan's 67  i t s prosperity i n inglorious annexation.  T h e r e were t h r e e p a s s e s i n t o P e t r a , a l l o f w h i c h c o u l d be e a s i l y e n t r a n c e was a rolling  blocked against invasion,  on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e where t h e r o a d came i n o v e r  d e s e r t , soueezed  deep-troughed  but t h e m a i n  mountain  t h r o u g h t h e Siq. b e s i d e a 68  stream.  The  r o a d , w h i c h t o - d a y shows  s i g n s o f Roman w o r k m a n s h i p , c o u l d accommodate o n l y two horsemen a b r e a s t , once t h e y were w i t h i n t h e t o r t u o u s p a s s a g e . In a southern suburb  o f t h e c i t y were g r o u p e d  warehouses  ( h o r r e a ) w h i c h must have had an immense c a p a c i t y ; i n t h e  63 northern and  d i s t a n c e were t h e k h a n s a n d q u a r r i e s o f A l - B a r i d ,  i n t h e w e s t , t h e m o u n t a i n s o f Idumaea, s e p a r a t e d  P e t r a by t h e f o r m i d a b l e , It itself  h o t depths o f the Arsba V a l l e y .  i s an u n q u e s t i o n e d f a c t t h a t when Rome p o s s e s s e d  o f these Syrian trade 69  immensely.  routes,  commerce was q u i c k e n e d  The b e n e f i t s o f s e c u r i t y a n d o r d e r l i n e s s were  b r o u g h t t o a l a n d t h a t h a d been r a v i s h e d untold generations bought w i t h  from  blood.  by t h i e v e s f o r  a n d where n a t i v e r u l e s were f r e q u e n t l y Whether t h e u n s c r u p u l o u s  quick-witted  t r a d e r s o f S y r i a b r o u g h t a n y b e n e f i t s t o Rome i s a n o t h e r 70 q u e s t i o n , b e s t l e f t t o a Roman s a t i r i s t t o a n s w e r .  SUMMARY 1:-  2;~  S y r i a ' s c o m m e r c i a l i m p o r t a n c e was due t o i t s p o s i t i o n , not  to i t s resources.  the  East".  The c o u n t r y  The r o a d - s y s t e m was c o m p l e t e l o n g occupation.  was t h e "Gateway t o  before  t h e Roman  P e r h a p s more t h a n i n a n y o t h e r  country  e x c e p t A s i a M i n o r , t h e h i g h w a y s were c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e i r d i r e c t i o n by t h e n a t u r e  o f the t e r r a i n .  64  The t h r e e g r e a t n o r t h - s o u t h h i g h w a y s a)  t h e o o a s t r o a d f r o m Gaza t o S e l e u c i a and  b)  were: Pieria  Antioch.  t h e r o a d which l e f t t h e c o a s t a t Oaesarea and p u r s u e d t h e v a l l e y s o f t h e Upper J o r d a n , l i t a s and O r o n t e s .  c) At  the Petra-Damascus-Palmyra-Euphrates  road  P e t r a , P a l m y r a a n d A n t i o c h began r o u t e s c o n n e c t i n g  S y r i a w i t h A r a b i a and t h e P a r E a s t . An a b u n d a n c e o f n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s made r o a d - l a y i n g e a s y . T r a j a n and D i o c l e t i o n a d d e d many i m p r o v e m e n t s  tothe  highways, S y r i a ' s l e a d i n g h a r b o u r s were:  Oaesarea, Tyre, Sidon,  Berytus, Aradus, l a o d i c e a , S e l e u c i a .  T y r e and S i d o n  were renowned f o r t h e i r d y e d s t u f f s and t h e i r Syria's leading c i t i e s P a l m y r a and P e t r a ,  glass.  were - A n t i o c h , Damascus,  The l a s t two were b r o u g h t u n d e r  Roman c o n t r o l i n t h e r e i g n o f T r a j a n .  65  NOTES 1: -  3:~ 4:5:6:7:-  9:~ 10:11:12:13:14: ~ 15:16:17:18:19:20;21:-  24: 85: 26: 28: 29:  30:-  CHAPTER  V  C h a r l e s w o r t h , T r a d e R o u t e s a n d Commerce o f t h e Roman Empire, p. 44. B o u c h i e r , S y r i a a s a Roman P r o v i n c e , pp. 1 - 4 . Charlesworth, op.cit. p. 38< I b i d . , x> • 38 « B o u c h i e r , op. c i t A r e l i e f map o f S y r i a r e v e a l s t h e n a t u r a l r o u t e s v e r y plainly. R o s t o v t z e f f , A S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p. 1 5 0 , S k e e l T r a v e l i n t h e F i r s t C e n t u r y , p. 74; B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 166. B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , i-p. 167. I b i d . , p. 168. I b i d . , pp. 169, 170. I b i d . , p. 170. I b i d . , p. 170. I b i d . , p p . 4 2 , 167. I b i d * , p. 167, Ad S t a g . i i , 6, c i t e d by B o u c h i e r and n o t a v a i l a b l e t o me H e i c h e l h e i m on S y r i a , i n An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l I V , p , 209 O i lI I I I . N o s , 14149 - 19 f f . , and 117, 199, 203, 208, , 6715 6 7 1 5 , 6722, C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 23.1: ' B o u c h i e r , op, c i t . . pp. 166, 167. B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. X5 3 • S t r a t a P i o o l e t i a n a , I . L . 5 . „ 5846; _C I XJ § X I X f 14149 I I I , 14380. F o r t i n S w i t z e r l a n d , l 7 c i t e d by C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t , , p 250 n. The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 2 1 , 15. Gha r 1 esw o r t h , op. c i t , p. 24. S . S i l v i a e A q , P e r e g r . 4 7 . Not a v a i l a b l e t o me. A d , S t a g .r, I I , 6, Not a v a i l a b l e t o me. P r o c o p . , B e l l ., / PP ee rrss.,,, I I , 7, 2. Not a v a i l a b l e t o me. S t r a b o , 16, 4, 2 1 . The amount o f t i m e may be e s t i m a t e d p a r t l y f r o m C i c e r o ' s l e t t e r s t o A t t i c u s , V, 2-13. C i c e r o l e f t Rome a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f May and r e a c h e d E p h e s u s on J u l y 2 2 , w i t h some d e l a y en r o u t e . P l i n y q u o t e s p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s t t i m e s i n N.II. X I X , x  31:32:33:34 :~  TO  9  a•  C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p . 42 I b i d . , p. 4 2 . S t r a b o , 16, 2, 2 3 . S t r a b o , 16, 2, 23; V i r g i l , G e o r g . I I , 1.506: Aeneid IV, C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 51. C f , V i r g i l , 1.262.  66 35:-  P l i n y , . j ^ H . , X X X V I , p . 1 9 1 ; S t r a b o , 16, 2, 2 5 , G l a s s v e s s e l s ' s i g n e d by E n n i o n o f S i d o n , g r e a t e s t g l a s s maker o f t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D., have been f o u n d i n Egypt, Cyprus, I t a l y , South R u s s i a and elsewhere. See t h e E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , p. 189. 36:C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p , c i t . , p. 5 1 . 37:E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , p. 190. 38:- • Mommsen, P r o v i n c e s I I , p . "17 9. 39:I b i d . , p. 1 2 1 . 40:I b i d . , p p . 127, 128. 41:B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 54-87. 42:Mommsen, o p , c i t . , p. 127. 43:C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . o i t . , p. 4 6 . 44:Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p . 135. 45:B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 6 8 . 46:I b i d . , p p . 120 - 1 2 3 . 47:X X V I I , 18. 48:P l i n y , IKK. , V, 74; X I I I , 5 1 ; E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , p . 138. 49:C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 4 7 . 50:I b i d . , p . 4 8 ; E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , JO © 131« 51:B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p . 120; S t r a b o , 16, 2, 20. 52:S t r a b o , 16, 2, 2 0 . 53:Mommsen, o p . c i t , , p . 147. 54:I b i d . , p. 1 5 1 . 55:J.R.S. , V o l . X X I I ( 1 9 5 2 ) , P a r t I , p . 107. 56:B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 142. , 57:R o s t o v t z e f f , A S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p. 147. 58:I b i d . , p . 147. 59:Pliny, , V, 8 8 . 60:An e c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , p. 199. 61:B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 1 4 2 . 62:J.R.S., V o l . X X I I ( 1 9 3 2 ) , p a r t I , p. 108, f f , 63:An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . I V , pp. 'dSU~, 251 g i v e s a t r a n s l a t i o n o f C. I . S. I I , 5, 1, 3913. 64:R a w l i n s o n , I n d i a a n d t h e Roman E m p i r e , p. 129; S t r a b o , 16, 4, 2 4 . 65:R a w l i n s o n , o p . c i t , , p. 129. 66:O b a d i a h , 1, 4. I n t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t P e t r a i s known as S e l a . 67:C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 53. There a r e v a r y i n g s t a t e m e n t s t o be f o u n d r e s p e c t i n g t h e p r o s p e r i t y of P e t r a a f t e r i t s annexation. Rostovtzeff i n h i s S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c H i s _ t o r y _ q f _ J i o m e , p. 147, h a s P e t r a enjoying i t s mosiT~brilliant p e r i o d a f t e r the annexation. But see a l s o R o s t o v t z e f f ' s O u t o f t h e P a s t o f Greece and Rome, p , 7 3 .  67 68:-  R o s t o v t z e f f , Out  o f t h e P a s t o f G r e e c e and Rome,  69 r 70:-  B o u c h i e r , op. c i t . , Juvenal, Sat. I l l ,  p. ,39 . 1. 62 f f .  T I  CHAPTER TEE  EGYPTIAN  TRADE  ROUTES  A discussion of Egyptian discussion of the river-highway  trade routes i s l a r g e l y a 1 t h a t Horner c a l l e d " E g y p t ' s  h e a v e n d e s c e n d e d s t r e a m " and o f A l e x a n d r i a 2 mart i n t h e h a b i t a b l e w o r l d ,  I t h a s o f t e n been  that t h i s t e r r i t o r y has preserved  intelligent  of i t s past,  and comprehensive r e v i e w  w i t h i n i t i s no e a s y accomplishment„ forward  as a r i v e r ,  that  o f any phase o f l i f e  However, t h o s e who p u t  t h i s o b j e c t i o n have t o d e a l w i t h  •things than t r a d e  objected  f o r u s s u c h an o v e r -  w h e l m i n g amount o f m a t e r i a l a s w i t n e s s an  the greatest  r o u t e s and w i t h n o t h i n g  less material so m a t t e r - o f - f a c t  E g y p t i s b u t a r i v e r , w i t h a few r o a d s and  c a n a l s appended, a n d t h i c k k n o t s o f p e o p l e g a t h e r e d a l o n g i t s banks and a t i t s mouth. Two a p p a r e n t l y  unrelated  sets of circumstances  t h i s r i v e r v a l l e y a Roman p o s s e s s i o n  made  a t much t h e same t i m e 3  t h a t S y r i a was f a l l i n g i n t o Roman h a n d s .  In the f i r s t  place,  a f t e r Rpme'e w a r s w i t h ' C a r t h a g e a n d M a c e d o n i a , I t a l i a n  farms  began- t o p r o d u c e an e v e r d i m i n i s h i n g q u a n t i t y o f g r a i n ,  until 4  t h e r e was t o o l i t t l e  t o s a t i s f y t h e demands o f t h e c a p i t a l ,  Rome, l o o k i n g o v e r s e a s f o r i t s g r a i n s u p p l y , f o u n d i t s 68 i d e a l p r o v i d e r i n E g y p t , where wheat b o r e a h u n d r e d f o l d  ]  i69  I  :  5-  J  ana t h e n a t i v e s reaped  three crops a year.  f  s a y t h a t E g y p t became t h e s o l e s o u r c e  This i s not t o  o f Rome's g r a i n , b u t  I /  I ! j !  t w e n t y m i l l i o n Roman b u s h e l s o f i t were drawn f r o m t h e N i l e . 6 c o u n t r y a n n u a l l y , .a t h i r d p a r t o f Rome's r e q u i r e m e n t . In the s e c o n d p l a c e , E g y p t had been s i n g u l a r l y u n f o r t u n a t e i n t h e 7 c h a r a c t e r o f h e r l a t e r l a g i d r u l e r s , who were l a r g e l y a b i l i t y t o handle being concerned  t h e power i n t h e i r c o n t r o l ,  without  even C l e o p a t r a  more w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f h e r r e v e n u e s t h a n  w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l development o f Egypt's  resources.  • N e g l e c t o f c a n a l s and o f i r r i g a t i o n n a t u r a l l y much, uneasiness:; SBCL a n n o y a n c e .  A c c o r d i n g l y , Augustus i n  30 B.C. assumed e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l the o p p o r t u n i t y a t C l e o p a t r a ' s  c a u s e d Rome  of the country,  finding  death.  S o m e t h i n g o f the. n a t u r e  o f t h e N i l e and the s h i p s  t h a t s a i l e d i t may now be c o n s i d e r e d ?  with the a s s i s t a n c e  o f b o t h a n c i e n t a n d modern s i g h t - s . e e r s a n d e x p l o r e r s who have l e f t accounts  o f t h e i r voyages. The s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r y B o f E g y p t p r o p e r was a t Syene ( A s w a n ) , a l t h o u g h Roman r u l e 9 did extend  over t h e Twelve-mile-land  i n Aethiopia.  At  Syene, however, r a p i d s i n t h e r i v e r r e n d e r e d n a v i g a t i o n so u n c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s e s o u t h e r n r e a c h e s  safely  o f t h e N i l e may-; 10  be e x c l u d e d a s p a r t o f t h e t r a d e r o u t e .  I t i s known  t h a t goods d i d r e a c h Egypt from A e t h i o p i a t h r o u g h t h e inland  r o u t e , but s u c h A e t h i o p i a n g o o d s a s h i p p o p o t a m u s  t u s k s and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s c o u l d be more e a s i l y s e n t n o r t h  70 by way o f t h e Red Sea w a t e r s t o t h e e a s t ,  In Strabo's  t i m e t h r e e Roman c o h o r t s were s t a t i o n e d a t Syene t o c h e c k f o r a y s on t h e p a r t o f s o u t h e r n t r i b e s , who h a d been accustomed the  t o m a k i n g d e s t r u c t i v e r a i d s on t h e T h e b a i d  Romans t o o k d r a s t i c a c t i o n and made t h e s e  unprofitable.  until  raids  E g y p t was n o t an e a s y c o u n t r y t o a p p r o a c h f o r  h o s t i l e purposes, and, having s u f f i c i e n t resources w i t h i n i t s e l f , h a d n o t f o r many y e a r s been r o u s e d t h r o u g h g r e e d o r IS n e c e s s i t y t o engage i n a g g r e s s i o n and so p r o v o k e e n m i t y . Syene, t h e n , m a r k s t h e s o u t h e r n t e r m i n u s o f t h e t r a d e r o u t e . 14 U n t i l t h e R i l e r e a c h e s E d f u , 60 m i l e s n o r t h , a sandstone at  b a r r i e r compresses  Silsileh,  i t i n t o a q u i c k - r u s h i n g stream;  t h e r i v e r i s o n l y 260 f e e t w i d e , a n d t h e r a p i d s  are  so narrow,  t h a t men once b e l i e v e d t h a t a t t h i s  was  the source o f the N i l e ,  widening o f the v a l l e y ,  Beyond S i l s i l e h  the dropping of s i l t  c a r r i e d o v e r 1000 m i l e s , a n d t h e h e a v y  point  begins the t h a t h a s been  labour of the  Eellahin. M o s t f r e q u e n t l y s e e n i n t h e s e w a t e r s were t h e l a r g e b a r i s , used f o r heavy  l o a d s , a n d t h e same h i g h - s t e r n e d , 15  high-prowed,  square-rigged c r a f t that  s a i l the N i l e  to-day,  I t was q u i t e u s u a l a l s o t o f i n d c a n o e s , h o l l o w e d f r o m  single  t r e e t r u n k s , a n d , s i n c e wood was s c a r c e , s h a l l o p s made o f 16 papyrus and p a c t o n s f a s h i o n e d from reeds and r u s h e s . S t r a b o s a i l e d t o P h i l a e i n a b o a t made o f r e e d s a n d s u f f e r e d no  71 l i t t l e a n x i e t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e voyage b e c a u s e o f t h e f l i m s v • i 17 b a s k e t - l i k e q u a l i t y o f h i s conveyance! Even earthenware? 18 19 b o a t s a r e s p o k e n o f by S t r a b o , and J u v e v a l .  The  brilliantly  c o l o u r e d p h a s e l i , i n shape l i k e a bean-pod, b e l o n g e d  to t h i s  c l a s s , a n d c a r r i e d t h e E g y p t i a n s a r o u n d t h e i r f a r m s down on the D e l t a . The  D e l t a c a n a l s f o r m e d a p e r f e c t means o f  c o m m u n i c a t i o n between one mouth o f t h e N i l e and t h e n e x t , in  fact a connection  necessary  between a n y two p o i n t s i t m i g h t be  to link i n this territory  b u s i n e s s man.  To r e a c h t h e s e  i n the i n t e r e s t s of the  c a n a l s i t was n e c e s s a r y 20  to s a i l  o v e r 500 m i l e s f r o m t h e c a t a r a c t s , b u t t h i s was a j o u r n e y upon a r o a d whose e x c e l l e n c e even t h e Romans c o u l d n o t e q u a l , Upon i t t h e r e was s u c h e a s e o f movement t h a t l a n d  In  traffic 21  t h e n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u n u s u a l .  The  Roman p a s s i o n f o r r o a d - b u i l d i n g h a d t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r  o f t h e few c r o s s - c o u n t r y  t h a t were t h e " t r i b u t a r i e s "  routes  of the r i v e r .  S e a - b o r n e commerce between e a s t and w e s t was by no means r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e Red Sea - N i l e c o u l d and d i d t a k e t h e p a t h p r o v i d e d the Euphrates  River.  r o u t e , but  by t h e P e r s i a n G u l f and  For that reason,  the Egyptians, f o r  t h e sake o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e  o f t h e i r own t r a d e  r o u t e , had t o a t t e m p t highway.  t o d i v e r t t r a d e from the other, o l d e r  I t was n e c e s s a r y  t o improve i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e  72 manner the means o f r e a c h i n g t h e K i l e f r o m t h e Red Once upon t h e N i l e , g o o d s were s u r e o f a t l e a s t safety,  but when s t i l l  on t h e Red  Sea.  temporary  Sea, where s t r o n g w i n d s 22  blow f r o m t h e n o r t h f o r n i n e months i n e v e r y t w e l v e where" the w a t e r s out o f d a n g e r .  are studded To m i n i m i z e  and  w i t h r e e f s , a c a r g o was the d a n g e r s o f t h e Red  never  Sea,  were b u i l t as f a r s o u t h as p o s s i b l e on t h e e a s t c o a s t Egypt,  and  r o a d s were l a i d t o c o n n e c t  them t o t h e  ports  of  Nile. 24  Two  o f t h e towns t h u s f o u n d e d were B e r e n i c e and Myos Hormos,  800  m i l e s to the n o r t h .  Founded by P t o l e m y P h i l a d e l p h u s  t h e y were i n t e n d e d t o a t t r a c t 25 went v i a A e l a n a  t o P e t r a , and,  with Arabia Felix, for,  some o f t h e t r a d e t h a t  The  a l t h o u g h i t had  normally  i n a d d i t i o n , t o promote t r a d e  southern  p o r t was  a t some  a f i n e n a t u r a l harbour,  disadvantage  t h e r e were 26  s h o a l s i n the e n t r a n c e M o r e o v e r , i t was t h a n was  five  Myos E o r m o s .  and  v i o l e n t winds i n the  d a y s f a r t h e r f r o m C o p t o s on t h e  "all is  t r a d i n g centre f o r the  Indian trade, although,  t h e I n d i a n , A r a b i a n and  imported  t o Coptos.  i n Strabo's  passed  along  Coptos, t h e r i v e r , was  as  the  P l i n y describes eight  w a t e r i n g - s t a t i o n s (hydreumata) b u i l t a l o n g t h i s road l e s s e n t h e t o r t u r e s o f a 257  time,  such A e t h i o p i a n merchandise  by t h e A r a b i a n G u l f " s t i l l 28 29  road from B e r e n i c e  Nile,  This l a t t e r port gradually eclipsed  t h e o t h e r t o become t h e i m p o r t a n t 27 A r a b i a n and E a s t  neighborhood.  mile desert  to  journey,  once on t h e N i l e ' s edge, but now  t h e town o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e  a m i l e from  i n the C o p t i t e  73 nome i n t h e Upper T h e b a i d , and  r e m a i n e d so t o t h e end  of  the  Soman E m p i r e , i n s p i t e o f i t s n e a r d e s t r u c t i o n a t t h e hands 30 o f D i o c l e t i a n ( 296 A.D.). The c h a r g e s l e v i e d h e r e a g a i n s t c  t r a v e l l e r s and Hormos can  m e r c h a n d i s e coming f r o m B e r e n i c e  still  be  and  seen on a s t e l e f o u n d a t Ooptos w h i c h 31  g i v e s a complete l i s t  of p r i c e s .  s t e e r s m e n f r o m t h e Bed  A few Sea  o f them q u o t e d  - - 10  drachmae;  boatswains - - - - - - - - - - 1 0  drachmae;  seamen - - - - - - - - - - - -  5 drachmae;  camel t i c k e t s  1 obol;  a s h i p ' s mast .At A n t i n o e ,  Myos  20  many m i l e s n o r t h  here:  drachmae.  of Ooptos, a n o t h e r  32 road  left  the r i v e r ,  down t h e e a s t •sea.  T h i s was  coast  and,  a f t e r c r o s s i n g the d e s e r t ,  ran  between t h e Mohs P o r p h y r i t e s and  the  e v i d e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d " t o t a k e t r a d e away f r o m  Ooptos i n f a v o r o f A n t i n o u s '  city,  Hadrian'.s scheme t o p e r p e t u a t e was  not  t h e memory o f h i s  outstandingly successful.  e n t a i l e d a longer  land  b u t , as f a r a s  j o u r n e y may  The  i s known, favorite  fact that t h i s  p o s s i b l y have been  route the  cause. Red  Sea,  P a r t n e r n o r t h , the p r o x i m i t y of the M i l e to the and t h e s p r e a d i n g arms o f t h e D e l t a , made p o s s i b l e 33  the l a y i n g of canals i n l i e u of roads.  These w a t e r h i g h w a y s  came n a t u r a l l y t o f o r m n o t p a r t o f t h e Red  Sea  r o u t e , but a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n t o r o a d s t h a t Arabia Petraea  and P a l e s t i n e ,  - Kile crossed  I t i s true t h a t Ptolemy  74 Philadelphus  c o n s t r u c t e d the p o r t of A r s i n o e  a t t h e end  of  the  R i v e r o f P t o l e m a e u s t o r e c e i v e g o o d s d e p a r t i n g on, o r coming 34 up, t h e H e r o o p o l i t e G u l f , but t r e a c h e r o u s w i n d s and c u r r e n t s dimmed t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f the a n c i e n t S u e z , and made i t s 35 r e a s o n f o r e x i s t e n c e o n l y a m i n o r one. The c a n a l o f w h i c h t h e t e r m i n u s was  A r s i n o e , had. had many h a n d s i n i t s m a k i n g . 36 When r e p a i r e d and m o d e r n i z e d by T r a j a n , i t was a l r e a d y o v e r 1400  years  o l d i f we  c r e d i t t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t i t was 37  i n the r e i g n of S e t i I .  One  begun  m i g h t compare i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n  w i t h the c u t t i n g of the c a n a l at C o r i n t h , which l i k e w i s e s u f f e r e d f r o m t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n s and A t any  r a t e , the  a b s u r d i f we  him,  r e a s o n s , f o r the d e l a y  exclude  from completing  f e a r s of i t s b u i l d e r s . i n i t s completion  that which prevented  the work.  t h e P h a r a o h Hecho  I t i s recorded  that p r i e s t s 38  "Thou a r t c r e a t i n g t h i s work f o r a b a r b a r i a n " ,  b e c a u s e he m i g h t w e l l have been s m o o t h i n g t h e p a t h  Darius  I o f P e r s i a c a r r i e d the  told  and, for  i n v a d e r s f r o m t h e e a s t , h i s d e s e r t i o n o f t h e t a s k can 59 understood.  were  be  c a n a l as f a r as  t h e B i t t e r L a k e s , where he p l a n t e d a s t e l e as p r o o f  of i t s  e x i s t e n c e , and  engineers  had  proceeded to f i l l  unfortunately neglected  south  on t h e K i l e , , and  they  w o u l d f l o o d t h e f i e l d s and  i t up  to begin  again.  the  channel  f e a r e d t h a t Red r u i n them.  The  o t h e r h a n d , were n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o b e i n g  His  Sea  f a r enough waters  Romans, on  bested  the  by man  or 40  nature the  i n any  type  of c o n s t r u c t i o n .  In the r e i g n o f  o p e n i n g o f the c a n a l a t B u b a s t i s was  deserted  Trajan  for a  75 b e t t e r s i t e _ a t B a b y l o n o p p o s i t e Memphis, a n d t h e c h a n n e l , w h i c h now ended a t Glysmon, was w i d e n e d  t o 100 f e e t .  i t was c a p a b l e o f t a k i n g s h i p s o f t h e l a r g e s t s i z e .  Thus At t h i s  p e r i o d t h e c a n a l was known a s T r a j a n ' s R i v e r o r t h e Emperor's R i v e r (Augustus amnis). Roads b r a n c h i n g w e s t w a r d  from the N i l e ventured  a c r o s s t h e d e s e r t o n l y f a r enough t o r e a c h t h e o a s e s ; t h e r e was no s o u t h - w e s t e r n c o n t a c t w i t h A f r i c a .  beyond  Along the  n o r t h c o a s t l a y a r o a d j o i n i n g A l e x a n d r i a t o Gyrene i n L i b y a , t h i s highway  being the only r e a l l y important western  " t r i b u t a r y " of the K i l e . H o r s e s o r d o n k e y s were t h e s o l e t r a n s p o r t a n i m a l s u s e d on E g y p t ' s d e s e r t r o a d s u n t i l some d a t e e a r l y i n t h e 41 r e i g n o f t h e P t o l e m i e s . Camels made t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e a s t h e 42 'most common d r a f t a n i m a l o n l y i n the" Roman p e r i o d , and a p p a r e n t l y p r o v e d o f no g r e a t a d v a n t a g e n e c e s s a r y t o move h e a v y  burdens.  d e s e r t v e g e t a t i o n because  e x c e p t when i t was  A c a m e l can e x i s t on  i t s t e e t h a r e so l o n g t h a t  thistles  w i l l n o t p r i c k i t s mouth, w h i l e a h o r s e must have i t s f o d d e r packed along*  Y e t , as many w r i t e r s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , t h e  v i c i o u s n e s s and s t u p i d i t y o f t h e camel d e t r a c t g r e a t l y i t s usefulness.  from  C o n s e q u e n t l y i t s p r e s e n c e i n Roman E g y p t  d i d n o t mean a n o t a b l e change f o r t h e b e t t e r i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A n o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e f r o m t h e Romen p o i n t  o f v i e w was t h e  I n a b i l i t y o f t h e c a m e l t o r u n on a p a v e d r o a d , a n d t h i s was one  o f t h e reasons f o r the maintenance  of the hard-beaten  76 sand t r a c k i n E g y p t .  The speed o f a c a m e l c a n n o t be f a i r l y  judged i n such a c l i m a t e . £57 m i l e  When i t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e  journey  between C o p t o s and B e r e n i c e r e q u i r e d n o t 45 l e s s t h a n 11 days and u s u a l l y 1£, i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t m e r c h a n t s s o u g h t s t a m i n a r a t h e r t h a n speed i n t h e i r 44 U n l i k e the inexperienced hardships the  animals*  A e l i u s C a l l u s , t h e y knew what  t o e x p e c t f r o m a d e s e r t , a n d how t o u s e i t w i t h  l e a s t disadvantage t o themselves. Thus f a r n o t h i n g  which Alexandrians d'etre  were p l e a s e d  o f a l l roads,  i n Egypt,  h a s been s a i d o f A l e x a n d r i a , to consider  canals, rivers,  the raison  towns and p e o p l e s  I t i s s a i d t h a t when b i r d s p e c k e d up t h e f l o u r  i n w h i c h A l e x a n d e r was t r a c i n g i t s s t r e e t s and s q u a r e s , a 45 w i s e man p r o p h e s i e d  wealth  and g l o r y f o r t h e i n f a n t  K i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e omen p l e a s e d but s e e m i n g l y t h e g o d s a s w e l l ,  not only  city,  Alexander  f o r no p r o p h e c y e v e r p r o v e d  more a m a z i n g l y t r u e . It i s a curious f e c i that previous  of Egyptians  had n o t recognized  particular location.  generations 46  t h e advantages of t h i s  On t h e n o r t h e r n ' s i d e l a y t h e  Mediterranean, g i v i n g access to a l l the western world; the  south  s t r e t c h e d the waters o f lake Mareotis  n a t u r a l highway, t h e K i l e .  on  and E g y p t ' s  I t i s s a i d t h a t A u g u s t u s once  contemplated b u i l d i n g a p o r t as r i v a l t o A l e x a n d r i a , but on r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s u p e r i o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by t h i s  77 site,  gave up h i s i d e a and  Alexandria's The  d i d a l l i n h i s power t o 47 i n s t e a d of harming i t .  trade  position  o f the g r e a t E g y p t i a n  been compared w i t h t h a t o f S y r i a n A n t i o c h , as r e - c e i v i n g - h o u s e s t h e Red  Sea  - Wile  Euphrates River.  f o r eastern  imports,  r o u t e , the, o t h e r  one  "end"  t y p e or s i z e .  of  of  the had  only  w e l l equipped  With the  of a 7 f u r l o n g mole, c a l l e d the H e p t a s t a d i o n , island  acted  i t , whereas A l e x a n d r i a ,  r i g h t a t the M e d i t e r r a n e a n ' s edge, was  t o r e c e i v e v e s s e l s o f any  often  a t t h e end  l a y i n l a n d , and  a poor Mediterranean harbour to serve standing  c i t y has s i n c e both  at the  However, A n t i o c h ,  foster  construction  between  the  t h e , v i l l a g e o f R h a c o t i s , A l e x a n d e r had 48 formed a double harbour s i m i l a r to those at Syracuse, Sinope, and  o f P h a r o s and  Cyzicus.  admitted,  N e i t h e r p a r t o f the d o u b l e h a r b o u r , i t must 49  a f f o r d e d an e a s y e n t r a n c e ,  from the g e n e r a l  excellence  s i d e , where t h e i s l a n d and approached each other was  left  but  o f the p o r t .  t h i s d i d not On  the  detract  eastern  the promontory c a l l e d the  so c l o s e l y t h a t  o n l y a narrow  between them, s a f e t y of n a v i g a t i o n was  Lochias lane  ensured  by a l i g h t h o u s e t h a t " p r o v i d e d a c o n s p i c u o u s mark a g a i n s t low and r o c k y c o a s t . T h i s , t h e famous l i g h t h o u s e o f 50 A l e x a n d r i a , was  400  f e e t h i g h , and  completion. Alexandria's  however, enjoyed the g r e a t e s t o f t h e raw  r e q u i r e d 12 y e a r s f o r  t h i r d h a r b o u r on L a k e 5.1 reputation.  m a t e r i a l imported from the E a s t ,  be  Mareotis, Here the silk,  bulk  cotton,  a  78 i v o r y , h i d e s , drugs, was  s p i c e s , and a h o s t  conveyed t o the c i t y  the Wile to the l a k e .  of other  products  by a number o f c a n a l s t h a t  This wealth  the t h i r d A l e x a n d r i a n harbour  linked  o f i m p o r t e d goods gave t o  a prominence not gained  by t h e  o t h e r two. I n s p i t e o f t h e g r e a t i n f l u x o f goods i n t o • A l e x a n d r i a , t h e e x p o r t s e x c e e d e d i m p o r t s by an a p p r e c i a b l e 52 53 ' margin, A l e t t e r t h a t h a s commonly been a s s i g n e d t o Hadrian,  but whose r e a l o r i g i n i s o b s c u r e ,  describes the c i t y  as a r e g u l a r h i v e o f w o r k e r s who t u r n e d out a stream  continuous  o f p a p e r , g l a s s , l i n e n , w o o l e n g o o d s , o i n t m e n t s , and  l u x u r y goods.  Thus, a s a c i t y  o f f a c t o r i e s A l e x a n d r i a formed  an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t t h e w e a l t h y  o f t h e w o r l d a l l won t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y f r o m t r a n s i t C o r i n t h , E p h e s u s , Rhodes, D e l e s , indeed  C y z i c u s and A n t i o c h h a d  them, b u t n e i t h e r A l e x a n d r i a , T y r e , n o r  Pergamum h a d won i t s w e a l t h s o l e l y o r p a r t i c u l a r l y i t was s i t u a t e d on a t r a f f i c Before  because  stream.  d i s m i s s i n g A l e x a n d r i a from the d i s c u s s i o n ,  i s p r o p o s e d t o make a few s t a t e m e n t s  s a i l e d between i t s h a r b o u r s  size  trade.  r i s e n t o p r o m i n e n c e because o f t h e t r a d e t h a t was  c a r r i e d on t h r o u g h  it  cities 54  and Rome.  P r o o f o f t h e good 55  o f t h e s e m e r c h a n t s h i p s can be found  r e s p e c t i n g the cargo  on t h e s h i p s t h a t  i n a notice  of the t r a n s p o r t v e s s e l which brought  the o b e l i s k of the P o r t a d e l Popolo  t o Rome.  T h i s document  79 lists,  i n a d d i t i o n t o 1200 p a s s e n g e r s a n d 200 s a i l o r s , a  c a r g o o f 400,000 Roman b u s h e l s  (96,475 i m p e r i a l b u s h e l s )  of wheat, g l a s s , pepper, l i n e n and paper.  The c a r e  expended  i n t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e v i t a l wheat t o Rome was s u c h t h a t 56 t h e mad E m p e r o r C a l i g u l a c o n s i d e r e d refuge  even  b u i l d i n g harbours of  by t h e S i c i l i a n S t r a i t s t o s e c u r e s a f e t y f o r g r a i n  s h i p s d u r i n g stormy weather.  These s h i p s h a d t h e f i n e s t  c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e g r e a t e s t p r o t e c t i o n a n d t h e most h i g h l y 57 skilled  s a i l o r s i t was p o s s i b l e t o p r o c u r e ,  and no p o r t s  were l i n k e d a s s e c u r e l y a s were A l e x a n d r i a , p u t e p l i and Ostia. If a ship l e f t Alexandria could  s a i l along  the coast  i n t h e e a r l y summer, i t  o f A f r i c a d i r e c t l y t o Gyrene,  •^hen n o r t h w e s t t o Rome.  However, t h i s d i r e c t r o u t e was 58 possible only u n t i l mid-July. At t h i s time the E t e s i a n winds blowing from t h e northwest n e c e s s i t a t e d e i t h e r slow 59 s a i l i n g by n i g h t o r an e a s t e r l y c o u r s e . T h i s c o u r s e was 60 f o l l o w e d by t h e i l l - f a t e d  s h i p o f A d r a m y t t i u m t h a t was  c a r r y i n g S t . P a u l and Josephus toward I t a l y , and w h i c h sailed first n a t u r a l route  t o Myra i n l y c i a , t o Rome.  apparently  far off the  With the approach of w i n t e r ,  w o u l d l i e a t a n c h o r i n t h e most c o n v e n i e n t p o r t , i n Crete  or Malta  and t h e r e  await 61  a ship  probably  s p r i n g , with the r e s u l t that  it  w o u l d t a k e p e r h a p s f i v e months t o r e a c h  To  sail  i t s destination.  between November 10 and M a r c h 10 was r e g a r d e d as  80 foolish.  There were no compasses, few l i g h t h o u s e s , and an  abundance o f u n c h a r t e d r e e f s .  The s h i p o f A d r a m y t t i u m  struck  s u c h a r e e f i n b r o a d d a y l i g h t , when t h e s a i l o r s a t t e m p t e d t o 62 b r i n g t h e i r v e s s e l i n t o s h o r e . The m i d - w i n t e r s a i ] i n g o f 63 P h i l o and h i s c o m p a n i o n s f r o m A l e x a n d r i a t o I t a l y , a t t h e time o f C a l i g u l a ' s t h r e a t e n e d e r e c t i o n  of h i s statue i n the  t e m p l e a t J e r u s a l e m , t o o k p l a c e o n l y because h o r r o r a t t h e outrage caused the f r a n t i c  Jews t o d i s r e g a r d t h e h a r d s h i p s  of the s e a . The  s w i f t e s t known v o y a g e between Rome and 64 A l e x a n d r i a r e q u i r e d n i n e d a y s , but s u c h speed was e x c e p t i o n a l and d o u b t l e s s made p o s s i b l e by t h e t e m p o r a r y b l o w i n g o f t h e 65" Etesians, C B s l b i l l u s ' s i x day voyage f r o m t h e s t r a i t s o f S i c i l y t o A l e x a n d r i a was most u n u s u a l . 66 t t o t w e n t y d a y s was t h e n o r m a l if  As a r u l e ,  eighteen  t i m e , and f o r t y d a y s i n w i n t e r ,  t h e s h i p d i d n o t l i e i n h a r b o u r a t some i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t .  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n  o f t h e t i m e t a k e n t o r e a c h t h e Eayum f r o m  Rome, t h e m u r d e r o f P e r t i n s x  on M a r c h 28, ( 1 9 3 A.D.) was n o t 67  known i n t h e Eayum u n t i l a f t e r May 19, s i n c e an o f f i c i a l document drawn up on t h e l a t t e r d a t e i n c l u d e d h i s name. A n o t h e r document o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d r e v e a l s t h a t Nerva's  years  earlier  d e a t h on J a n u a r y 27, (98 A.D.) d i d n o t  become known i n t h e Eayum f o r a l m o s t t h r e e months, f o r t h i s r e c e i p t i s dated the t h i r t i e t h 68 second y e a r o f Nervs.  of Pharmouthi,in the  81 SUMMARY I;-  The g r e a t e s t t r a f f i c  l a n e i n E g y p t was t h e N i l e .  A l e x a n d r i a , Egypt's f i r s t  c i t y , was a l s o t h e f o r e m o s t  market o f the w o r l d . 2:-  'The q u a n t i t y o f g r a i n E g y p t c o u l d p r o d u c e , a s w e l l a s the incompetence o f i t s l a t e r r u l e r s , country  3:-  brought the  i n t o Roman h a n d s .  T r a f f i c along  t h e N i l e h a l t e d on t h e s o u t h a t Syene.  A e t h i o p i a n goods c o u l d be c a r r i e d  overland,  b u t were  b r o u g h t n o r t h more e a s i l y by t h e Red S e a . 4;-  Nile  b o a t s were o f v a r i e d and u n u s u a l  types.  F o r heavy  l o a d s t h e b a r i s was u s e d , 5:~  Cane I s t o o k  6:^  The E g y p t i a n s connections to induce  the place  i m p r o v e d i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e manner t h e  between t h e N i l e a n d t h e Red S e a , i n o r d e r  traffic  route f o r t h e i r 7:-  o f r o a d s on t h e D e l t a .  to leave the P e r s i a n  own Red Sea - N i l e  Gulf-Euphrates  route.  The R i v e r o f P t o l e m a e u s ( T r a j a n ' s R i v e r ) was o f m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t s e a s t e r n was  8:-  a t t h e head o f t h e t r e a c h e r o u s  terminus  Red Sea w a t e r s ,  Camels were common a s t r a n s p o r t a n i m a l s  only i n the  Roman p e r i o d a n d were o f no g r e a t a d v a n t a g e t o m e r c h a n t s . 9;-  A l e x a n d r i a ' s s i t e was u n p a r a l l e l e d i n i t s a d v a n t a g e s . Of t h e c i t y ' s t h r e e f i n e h a r b o u r s , was  t h e most  thriving.  t h a t on l a k e M s r e o t i s  62 A r t i c l e s manufactured i n A l e x a n d r i a f o r export i n c l u d e d p a p e r , g l a s s , w o o l e n goods, ointments.  The E g y p t i a n c i t y was  linen  and  an e x c e p t i o n t o  the  rule  t h a t a l l t h e w e a l t h y c i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d had  won  t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y from t r a n s p o r t  trade.  V e s s e l s s a i l i n g between A l e x a n d r i a and Rome were extremely large f o r t h e i r time.  Grain  p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - b u i l t , well-manned, The  s h i p s were and w e l l - g u a r d e  s e a s o n f o r s a i l i n g t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n was  March  10 t o November 10.  might s a i l westward  U n t i l mid-July, ships  t o I t a l y from A l e x a n d r i a ;  that time they f o l l o w e d a course which them f i r s t  from  brought  t o A s i a M i n o r , and t h e n t o I t a l y .  n o r m a l t i m e f o r a summer voyage was f o r a w i n t e r v o y a g e , 40 d a y s were  after  18 - 20  required.  The days;  83 NOTES 1:~ 2:~ 3;4:-  TO  CHAPTER  VI  Od., 4,581. S t r a b o , 17, 1, 1 3 . Mommsen, P r o v . I I , p, £32. l a i s t n e r , A S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , pp. 429, 4 3 0 . l.toramsec, o p . c i t . , p. 2 5 2 . 5:Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 2 5 2 . 6:- I b i d . , p . 239. 7 C h a r l e s w o r t h . , T r a d e R o u t e s and Commerce o f t h e Roman Empire, p. 17. 8:~ Tao., Ann. I I , 5 9 . 9:- Gary a n d W a r m i n g t o n , The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 174 10:- I b i d . , p . 165. 1 1 : - J o u r n a l o f Roman S t u d i e s , V o l . V I I , p a r t I , (1917) p . 5 3 . 12:- S t r a b o , 17, 1, 12. 13:- I b i d . , 17, 1, 5 3 . 14:-- L u d w i g , The N i l e , p. 3 2 3 . 15:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p . 165 ff» 16:- S k e e l , T r a v e l i n t h e F i r s t C e n t u r y , p. 106. 17:- S t r a b o , 17, 1, 50. , 18:- I b i d . , 17, 1, 4; c f . V i r g i l , G e o r g . , 4, 287-9. 19:- S a t . , 15,126. 20:- L u d w i g , o p . c i t . , p. 4 3 9 . 2 1 : - C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p . 18. 22:- R a p p o p o r t , H i s t o r y o f E g y p t , V o l . X, p. 112. 23:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 6 8 . .'' 24:- R a p p o p o r t , o p , c i t . , V o l , X, p. 112. 25:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 6 8 . 26:- S t r a b o , 16, 4, 5. 27:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 2 1 . 88:- S t r a b o , 17, 1, 4 5 , 29:- P l i n y , NVH., V I , 2 6 , 30:- Mommsen, o p , c i t , , p , 2 5 1 . 3 1 : - R a p p o p o r t , o p . c i t . , V o l . X , p. 123. 32:- M i l n e , H i s t o r y o f E g y p t u n d e r Roman R u l e , p. 6 6 . 33:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t , , p . 2 0 , 34:- R a p p o p o r t , o p . c i t . , V o l . X, p. 113. 35:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p , c i t . , p. 2 1 , 36:- I b i d . , p. 20. 57:- M a r t i n , E g y p t O l d a n d New, p. 4 7 ; c f . R a w l i n s o n , H i s t o r y o f A n c i e n t E g y p t , V o l . I I , p,£S7. 38:- l u d w i g , o p . c i t . , p . 4 4 4 . 39:- I b i d . , p . 2 7 9 . 4 0 : - l u d w i g , o p . c i t . , p p . 168, 169. 4 1 : ~ T a r n , H e l l e n i s t i c C i v i l i z a t i o n , p. 159. 4 2 : - R o s t o v t T g f f T ^ S o ^ l a r i d Bconomic__Ei£^y__pJ_the Roman E m p i r e , p. 2 6 0 .  84 43:C h s r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 2 1 . 4?4«*•** R e a c h , Handbook o f P a l e s t i n e , p. 4 4 8 . 4 5 : - l u d w i g , o p . c i t . , p. 4 5 1 . 46:S t r a b o , 17, 1, 7. 4 7 ; - D i o , I I , 18, 1, 48: - R a p p o p o r t , o p . c i t . , V o l . X, p . 2 3 ; S t r a b o , 17, 1, 6. 4 9 : ~ S t r a b o , 17, 1, 6. 50:- T a r n , o p . c i t . , p . 2 7 9 . 51:-- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. £7. 5 ^ *™ S t r a b o , 17, 1, 7. 531 H e n d e r s o n , The l i f e and P r i n c i r a t e o f t h e Emperor H a d r i a n , p. 228. 54:- T a r n , o p . c i t . , p. 2 2 0 . 55:~ Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 2 5 7 . 56:» C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 3 1 . 57:- R a p p o p o r t , o p . c i t . . V o l . X I , p. 55; c f . An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l , I I , p. 4 0 1 . C h a r l e s w o r t h , d p . c i t . , p. 2 3 . 58:^ 59:- R a p p o p o r t , o p . c i t . , V o l . X I , p. 5 5 . 60:- A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 27, 2 f f . 6 1 : - R a p p o p o r t , o p , c i t , , V o l . X I , p. 5 5 . 62:- A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 27, 4 1 . 63:.- Mommsen, op. c i t . , p. 171 f f . 64:- P l i n y , N.H. , X I X , 3. 65:- R a p p o p o r t , o p . c i t , , V o l . X I , p. 55. C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p» 2 3 . 66:67:- M i l n e , op. c i t . , P. 6 7 . 68;- Rrp.nfRl 1 . Hunt a n d H o g a r t h . Pa yum Towns a n d T h e i r P a p y r i , p. 173. i s  * • THE  CHAPTER SEA  I n d i a , and  ROUTES  TO  VII INDIA  AND  CEYLON  the Par East g e n e r a l l y , drained  enormous  q u a n t i t i e s o f g o l d out o f t h e E m p i r e i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r 1 £ g o o d s . T h e r e f o r e , i t w i l l n o t be a m i s s , as P l i n y s u g g e s t s , to  i n v e s t i g a t e the t r a d e  r o u t e s i n t h i s q u a r t e r o f the  with p a r t i c u l a r reference,  f i r s t of a l l , t o the  In the e a r l y y e a r s I n d i a and  t h e West was  A r a b i a and  Persia.  To  of the Empire. t r a f f i c  still  d i r e c t e d along  had  A r a b i a was  routes. between  the shores of  s a i l a s h i p a c r o s s the  between t h e I n d i a n p e n i n s u l a and men  sea  worlds  open s e a s  impossible, for  n o t y e t come t o know t h e w i n d s on t h o s e w a t e r s ,  .that m i g h t w e l l take  t h e i r s h i p s i n t o the vast I n d i a n  r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e h a r b o u r s o f I n d i a and c o n d i t i o n s , the p e t t y p o t e n t a t e s  living  A r a b i a and P e r s i a , c o u l d t a x t o t h e t h e i r t e r r i t o r y and escape t h e i r It  t h e r e was  on t h e  limit  nothing  Ocean  Under  coasts  these  of  ships passing  along  a n a v i g a t o r m i g h t do  to  g demands. was  by l e v y i n g t o l l s  A r a b emporium o f Adana won s e a l t h y was  Arabia.  winds  on p a s s i n g  ships, that 4 a g r e a t p a r t of i t s w e a l t h .  t h e a n c i e n t Aden, i n f a c t ,  t h a t the term  the So  Arabia  F e l i x as o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o i t , as t o t h e w h o l e s o u t h w e s t 5 Arabian country. Goods f r o m i t were s e n t n o r t h r e g u l a r l y over the incense  r o u t e by I a t h r i b  ( M e d i n a ) and  85  Dedan  (Al-Ula)  86 6 t o P e t r a , t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h i r d and s e c o n d c e n t u r i e s B.C., and  t o t h e end o f t h e r u l e o f t h e P t o l e m i e s ,  d i r e c t m e r c h a n d i s e was u n q u e s t i o n e d . t h e Roman t r a d e r , s u c h a c e n t r e  i t s r i g h t to  From t h e s t a n d p o i n t  ' of  c o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o  r e m a i n , a n d i n d e e d , i t was c a p t u r e d and s a c k e d e a r l y i n t h e Empire.  I t c a n n o t be s a i d w i t h  absolute  c e r t a i n t y under  what G a e s a r i t s o v e r t h r o w was a c c o m p l i s h e d , o r w h e t h e r t h e sacking  o f t h e c i t y was due t o t h e command o f a G a e s a r , a s 7 8 t h e a u t h o r o f t h e P e r i p l u s s t a t e s . Some suppose t h e word " G a e s a r " t o be a m i s r e a d i n g f o r E l e a z a r ( H i A z z u ) o r 9 C h a r i b a e l , both neighboring k i n g s . O t h e r s d e f e n d t h e M. S. reading.  Accordingly,  no d e f i n i t e  s t a t e m e n t can be made  concerning the time or the o r i g i n a t o r o f i t s f a l l . 10 An /taken p l a c e  e a r l y a t t e m p t t o r e a c h Adana by t h e Romans h a d 1  i n the r e i g n o f Augustus ; but i t had f a i l e d  p a r t i c u l a r l y h u m i l i a t i n g f a s h i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . 11  ina  The l e a d e r  o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n , A e l i u s G e l l u s , went i n t o t h e c o u n t r y no  i d e a how t o f a c e  no  idea that  such h a r d s h i p s  11,000 men s u r v i v e d second p l a c e ,  i t s hardships,  existed.  was n o t h i n g  but,  apparently  with  That any o f h i s  l e s s than a m i r a c l e ,  In the  t h e c h i e f m i n i s t e r o f Obodas I I I o f P e t r a , was IS  chosen t o guide t h e e x p e d i t i o n . treachery  i n fact,  with  was i n t e n d e d  I t h a s been i n s i s t e d t h a t no  on t h e p a r t  of the m i n i s t e r  Syaellus,  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n o t h a r d t o see d e l i b e r a t e  bungling  i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Romans w a s t e d months w a n d e r i n g  87 i n t h e d e s e r t w i t h an e x p e r i e n c e d head,  and w i l y K a b a t a e a n a t t h e i r  E v e n l e s s s u c c e s s f u l was t h e e f f o r t o f t h e young  p r i n c e Gaius  t o e m u l a t e B e a r c h u s and e x p l o r e s o u t h w a r d f r o m 13  the Euphrates venture  to Arabia F e l i x .  b e f o r e he e v e r r e a c h e d  these attempts  D e a t h p u t an end t o h i s southern A r a b i a .  However,  r e v e a l e d the i n t e r e s t Augustus f e l t  i n winning  c o n t r o l o f t h e e a s t e r n t r a d e r o u t e s , i f n o t f o r h i s own t i m e , . at l e a s t f o r a p e r i o d i n t h e not d i s t a n t f u t u r e . Succeeding  e m p e r o r s were u n f o r t u n a t e l y l e s s  ed w i t h p r o t e c t i n g t h e Roman r o u t e t o I n d i a .  concern-  I f the sack o f  Adana i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e r e i g n o f C l a u d i u s , a n d t h e occupation  o f S y a g r u s t o - t h a t o f H e r o , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g much  t o be s a i d o f any f u r t h e r s t e p s t a k e n on b e h a l f o f Roman 14 i n t e r e s t s i n eastern waters. No move was made t o subdue A r a b i a a n d t o p u t an end t o t h e c o n t i n u e d r i v a l r y o f Muza, o r even t o c h e c k t h e i n c r e a s i n g power o f t h e A x o m i t e s { (Aethiopians).  Any p r o g r e s s made i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o r  p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e t r a d e r o u t e s i n t h i s q u a r t e r was due l a r g e l y 16 t o t h e e n t e r p r i s e o f G r e e k s a i l o r s , a n d . a s one a u t h o r i t y p o i n t s o u t , t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t was bound t o f o l l o w i n t h e train  o f t h e P a x Romana, e v e n w i t h o u t  the personal  concern  of the emperors. The  g r e a t e s t i m p e t u s t o e a s t e r n t r a d e was g i v e n by  t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h e monsoons w o u l d t a k e a s h i p a c r o s s t o I n d i a from t h e Arabian  coast.  Some t i m e  directly i n the  88 17 reign of T i b e r i u s or Claudius,  a c a p t a i n named H i p p a l u s ,  Columbus, grew w e a r y o f s a i l i n g to sea w i t h a prayer With. 1335 m i l e s the  i n t h e u s u a l w a t e r s and p u t  i n h i s mouth and t h e w i n d b e h i n d h i m .  between h i m and Cape S y a g r u s , h i s f a i t h i n  s t e a d y s o u t h w e s t w i n d s was j u s t i f i e d and he b r o u g h t h i s  s h i p t o h a r b o u r a t t h e mouth o f t h e I n d u s .  T h i s was a  s p l e n d i d a c h i e v e m e n t but t r a d e r s were n o t y e t satisfied.  S h i p s had s t i l l  leading ports  o f I n d i a , where t h e c o v e t e d e a s t e r n found. could,  T r a d e r s who  followed  danger i n v o l v e d  port,  of India  i n the south  l u x u r i e s were t o be  t h e p a t h t a k e n by  i t i s true, conclude t h e i r  important northern  completely  t o s a i l down t h e c o a s t  t o r e a c h M u z i r i s , and t h e o t h e r  Hippalus,  voyage a t B a r y g a z a , an  but t h e r e was a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f  i n doing so,  Not o n l y was t h e Nerbudda  River,  on w h i c h B a r y g a z a was l o c a t e d -  enter,  but t h e Rann and t h e G u J f o f C u t c h were 18  spots  like  near which to n a v i g a t e ,  difficult  to f i n d  and  formidable  A s a f e r and more a d v a n t a g e o u s  c r o s s i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n C l a u d i u s '  r e i g n by  first  c o a s t i n g t o Cape S y a g r u s and t h e n c r o s s i n g t h e ocean t o r e a c h h a r b o u r s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e modern J a i g a r h o r 19 Rajapur.  From h e r e t h e t r a d e r c o u l d  turn north  or south  as he w i s h e d , c o m p l e t e h i s t r a d i n g , and r e t u r n t o t h e same point  f o r h i s homeward  Claudius,  journey,"  Later i n the r e i g n of  an u n i d e n t i f i e d f r e e d m a n s a i l i n g  around  Arabia,in  a r e v e n u e s h i p , was s u r p r i s e d by a monsoon and made a  89 r e c o r d s a i l t o Taprobane ( G e y i o n ) , a c c o m p l i s h i n g i n o n l y 20 f i f t e e n days an u n e x p e c t e d and p r o f i t a b l e v o y a g e . This v o y a g e gave new c o u r a g e t o t h e t r a d e r s o f l a t e r y e a r s , as i s evidenced  by t h e new method o f a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d by a m e r c h a n t 21  who p i o n e e r e d  t h e d i r e c t voyage t o M u z i r i s *  H i s p l a n was  t o have h i s helmsman p u l l c o n s t a n t l y on t h e r u d d e r s a i l o r s make a s h i f t  o f the y a r d .  and h i s  As a r e s u l t , and i n  accordance w i t h h i s design, the s h i p ' f o l l o w e d a course the a r c o f a c i r c l e , at Muziris• traders,  like  b e g i n n i n g a t t h e G u l f o f Aden and e n d i n g  T h i s course  c o n t i n u e d t o be u s e d by s u c c e e d i n g  but, as t h e harbour  o f M u z i r i s was f a r f r o m  being  s a t s i f a c t o r y owing t o t h e swarms o f p i r a t e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y 22 and  t o t h e p o o r a n c h o r a g e p r o v i d e d , more c o n v e n i e n t p o i n t s o f  disembarkation  were c h o s e n , s u c h a s N e l c y n d a ,  •Cochin l a g o o n ,  o r B a r a k e on i t s o u t e r edge.  Although  i n s i d e the  t r a d e r s c o u l d now f o l l o w a d i r e c t r o u t e t o  I n d i a , t h i s d i d not destroy the c o a s t i n g trade along the 23 s h o r e s o f A r a b i a and i n t h e P e r s i a n G u l f . The a u t h o r o f t h e 24 P e r i p l u s - M a r i s S r y t h r a e i d e s c r i b e s a voyage t o I n d i a by such a r o u t e .  B e c a u s e he does s o f r o m h i s own e x p e r i e n c e ,  u n l i k e many o t h e r a n c i e n t g e o g r a p h e r s , importance.  h i s account  T h i s work, w h i c h c a n n o t be d a t e d  to the r e i g n o f Domitian  i s o f much  exactly, 25  belongs  c l o s e t o t h e y e a r 80 A.I)., end may  be c o n s i d e r e d a companion p i e c e t o P l i n y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e eastern trade routes.  90 26 Muza was t h e f i r s t p o r t c o m m u n i c a t i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h I n d i a , which'the  a u t h o r ©f  s o i i t h i n t h e Bed S e a , fleet  fferiplus  The A r a b i a n n a t i v e s k e p t up t h e i r  o f s h i p s and m a i n t a i n e d  craftsmen  v i s i t e d - i o>p h i s way  a busy m a r t .  t u r n e d out k n i v e s , daggers,  Within the c i t y  h a t c h e t s , and t o o l s  of v a r i o u s s o r t s , f o r shipment t o t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n Africa.  coast of  From t h e l a n d came w i n e a n d wheat, a n d f r o m t h e  n e i g h b o r i n g Sabaean t e r r i t o r y , The  own  t h e famed i n c e n s e and s p i c e s ?  name Muza, s l i g h t l y  t r a n s f o r m e d , i s s t i 1 1 u s e d by a 27 v i l l a g e b o r d e r i n g on t h e modern Mocha, A few m i l e s s o u t h 28 was O k e l i s , w h i c h P l i n y s a i d was t h e b e s t p l a c e t o embark f o r I n d i a , t h e n Adana, w h i c h by D o m i t i a n ' s t i m e was o c c u p i e d by Romans and s e r v e d o n l y a s a w a t e r i n g s t a t i o n and a r e f u g e 29 for sailors, Oxit on t h e s o u t h P e r i p l u s next  touched  coast of A r a b i a , the author o f the 30  a t Kane, from w h i c h . s h i p s  frequently  made t h e voyage d i r e c t t o I n d i a , t a k i n g on h e r e t h e i r supply o f food and water. the shore  The c o a s t i n g v e s s e l s went on a l o n g  of the frankincense country.  a t m o s p h e r e made l i v i n g  last  H e r e an u n h e a l t h y  i m p o s s i b l e f o r Europeans, c o n v i c t s  b e i n g b r o u g h t t o c o l l e c t t h e i n c e n s e t h a t gave t h e c o u n t r y its  fabulous wealth.  A f t e r K a n e , t h e s h i p came t o Gape  S y a g r u s (Has F a r t a k ) and M o s c h a , a p o r t f o r t h e i n c e n s e Touching next  a t a few towns o f m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e ,  turned i n t o the P e r s i a n G u l f t o enter harbour  trade  i t then  a t Gerrha and  91 Ommana, b o t h o f w h i c h were t h r i v i n g towns, p e o p l e d by 51 of g r e a t w e a l t h and e n t e r p r i s e ,  of  A t t h e n o r t h end o f t h e P e r s i a n G u l f on t h e month 32 t h e E u p h r a t e s was A p o l o g u s , w h i c h by D o m i t i a n ' s t i m e had  assumed c o n t r o l o f t h e t r a d i n g c a r r i e d on e a r l i e r by 53 and in  men  by C h a r a x H y s p a o s i n u .  The  l a t t e r was  Teredon  an i m p o r t a n t s t a t i o n  S t r a b o ' s t i m e , b u t , a t t h e c l o s e o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y ,  d e p o s i t s o f mud  l a i d down by t h e r i v e r , h a d s e p a r a t e d i t by 54  twelve m i l e s from the water. visited  When t h e a u t h o r o f t h e P e r i p l u s  A p o l o g u s he n o t e d t h e l a r g e amounts o f t i m b e r - ebony,  t e a k , b l a c k w o o d and s a n d a l w o o d - s h i p p e d i n f r o m I n d i a . These woods, i n c i d e n t a l l y , had f o u n d a m a r k e t i n t h i s c o u n t r y f o r 35 h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s . I m p o r t e d t i m b e r was n e e d e d because t h e c y p r e s s was  t h e o n l y t r e e t h a t c o u l d be made t o grow w e l l i n  • t h e bogs a b o u t t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r .  In r e t u r n f o r the  timber from Barygaza, P e r s i a n p e a r l s , of a q u a l i t y i n f e r i o r 36 t o t h e I n d i a n p r o d u c t , p u r p l e dyes f r o m t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n , -wine, d a t e s , and s l a v e s were s e n t back r e g u l a r l y i n t h e l a r g e 37 Indian vessels. W i t h the P e r s i a n G u l f l e f t  behind, the author  next  came i n t o a p o r t on t h e m i d d l e mouth o f t h e I n d u s , whose name 38 had  been c o r r u p t e d by t h e G r e e k s  to B a r b a r i k o n .  As G r e e k  s a i l o r s always' changed the names o f I n d i a n p o r t s t o t h e i r own  suit  t o n g u e , t h e y h a v e p r e v e n t e d modern r e a d e r s f r o m  i d e n t i f y i n g t h e town d e f i n i t e l y w i t h l a u s t a t h m o s o r  93 Alexander's  Haven.  I t seems l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , t h a t 59 N a u s t a t h m o s and B a r b a r i k o n a r e one and t h e same. H e r e d r o p p e d t h e goods meant f o r l l i n n a g a r a , t h e c a p i t a l  of  ships Sind,  w h i c h l a y a few m i l e s i n l a n d , t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o B a r y g a z a . A t B a r y g a z a a r e g u l a r p i l o t s e r v i c e was necessary The  by t h e p e c u l i a r n a t u r e  t i d e i n t h i s p a r t was  made  of the harbour  a p t t o r u s h out and  entrance.  leave  ships  stranded  h e l p l e s s l y on t h e many s h o a l s , t h e n s u d d e n l y sweep 40  back and  c a p s i z e them.  h e i g h t , the  treacherous  o f t h e p o r t , but B a r y g a z a was  Tamil  liquified  tide detracted l i t t l e  at i t s  from the  l a s t h a l f of the f i r s t  u n t i l i t s fame was  gone.  q u a n t i t i e s of i v o r y , s i l k ,  butter (ghee),  century  A.D.,  and p e p p e r had  In i t s b r i l l i a n t cotton,  rice,  been s e n t  out t o  w e s t i n r e t u r n f o r t i n and l e a d , unknown i n I n d i a , as as g l a s s , A s i a t i c and I t a l i a n w i n e , s l a v e s , and g o l d 48 s i l v e r c o i n . Soman money was a l w a y s welcome i n I n d i a 43 n a t i v e s p e c i e was s c a r c e and o f a p o o r q u a l i t y . 44 S o u t h o f B a r y g a z a was M u z i r i s a n o t h e r g r e a t 45 city. As w e l l as p e a r l s o f e x q u i s i t e q u a l i t y , i t had 46 s h i p m e n t b e r y l s , s a p p h i r e s , and d i a m o n d s , s i l k c l o t h , 47 s p i k e n a r d , and m a l a b a t h r u m . M a l a b a t h r u m c o n s i s t e d o f l e a v e s o f a p l a n t err own i n t h e H i m a l a y a M o u n t a i n s and used i n the  use  d e s e r t e d more and more f o r the p o r t s i n the 41  country,  period great  i n the  When t h e c o a s t i n g t r a d e was  the  well amd where  Indian for ivory,  the i t was 48 compounding o f an u n g u e n t m e n t i o n e d by H o r a c e .  93 G r e a t s a c k s o f p e p p e r were a l s o e x p o r t e d , but f o r the miles  t h e main  ports  shipping  o f p e p p e r were B a r a k e and N e l c y n d a some 49 south. P e o p l e s o f t h e West v a l u e d p e p p e r  to the  so h i g h l y t h a t i t was s e l l i n g f o r 15 d e n a r i i a pound i n 50 51 P l i n y ' s t i m e , and l a t e r f o r m e d a t r e a s u r e d p a r t o f A l a r i c ' s p l u n d e r when he  and  h i s West G o t h s a t t a c k e d  o f t h e p e p p e r d i s t r i c t was  Rome.  The  Kottonara (Eolattanadu)  modern t i m e s as Te H i c h e r r y , 52  centre  known i n  f r o m which, t h e n a t i v e s  brought  down t h e p e p p e r i n d u g o u t s . To  b r i n g a c a r g o to Rome f r o m t h e  Tamil  coast  r e q u i r e d a b o u t s i x t e e n w e e k s , i f a s h i p s a i l e d i n December o r J a n u a r y w i t h t h e n o r t h e a s t monsoon t o b r i n g i t up t o t h e 53 54 G u l f o f Aden.  P l i n y w o u l d have t h i s t h e Y o l t u r n u s ,  8«,S,E» w i n d , but t h i s i s o b v i o u s l y G o i n g out  an  or  e r r o r on h i s p a r t .  t o I n d i a , s a i l o r s shipped'""from p o r t s e i t h e r on  Kabataean s i d e or the  Egyptian  s i d e o f t h e Red  Sea  the  about 55  mid-summer, b e f o r e  o r j u s t a f t e r the  I t t h e n t o o k them a month t o get  rising  o f t h e Dog  t o O k e l i s , and,  Star,  i f the  H i p p a l u s w i n d was  b l o w i n g , f o r t y more d a y s t o r e a c h M u z i r i s 56 o r o t h e r p o i n t s on the s o u t h c o a s t . . E o r t y d a y s , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e , as i t has been r e c o r d e d by 57 P l i n y t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h C e y l o n f r o m the c o a s t o f 58 c  Arabia man  i n only f i f t e e n days.  Lucian  ( 150  A.D.)  states that  m i g h t t r a v e l f r o m the P i l l a r s o f H e r c u l e s t o I n d i a  back, t h r e e  t i m e s w i t h i n two  interesting places  on t h e way.  a  and  Olympiads, s i g h t s e e i n g at a l l the He  a l s o t h i n k s t h a t the  time  94 might  come when a man  would  f l y from Greece  to I n d i a i n a  W h i l e t r a d e w i t h t h e west c o a s t o f I n d i a advancing r a p i d l y i n the f i r s t  known o f C e y l o n . of  c e n t u r y , l i t t l e was  was actually 59  F o r a l o n g t i m e t h e T a m i l s h e l d a monopoly  the t r a d e w i t h that i s l a n d , thus p r e v e n t i n g western  f r o m c a r r y i n g back t h e i r u s u a l and 60 the geographers,  day.  sailors  often garbled reports to  Even P t o l e m y had o n l y a r o u g h i d e a o f t h e  s i z e o f t h e l a n d o f t h e l i o n P e o p l e , because he had no a c c o u n t upon w h i c h t o base h i s i d e a s e x c e p t t h a t  other  of  61 romancing. 68 The most i n t e r e s t i n g t a l e c o n c e r n i n g C e y l o n i s t o l d by P l i n y 63  Onesicritus,  and l a t e r  A l e x a n d e r ' s p i l o t , who  addicted to  r e p e a t e d by Cosmas I n d i c o p l e u s t e s .  when A n n i u s P l o c a m u s unexpected  was  1  f r e e d m a n was  w i n d , he a r r i v e d  as a g a r r u l o u s P e r s i a n ,  I t seems t h a t  blown t o C e y l o n by  an  by a c o i n c i d e n c e a t t h e same t i m e  The  l a t t e r was  attempting to  c o n v i n c e t h e S i n h a l e s e monarch o f t h e v a s t s u p e r i o r i t y  of  P e r s i a , when t h e Roman s i l e n c e d h i m e f f e c t i v e l y by p r o d u c i n g a Roman a u r e u s ,  The  f i n e g o l d e n c o i n o f the Roman, l a i d  beside the rough  silver  one  o f the P e r s i a n , r e v e a l e d b e t t e r  t h a n any w o r d s Rome's p o s i t i o n i n t h e w o r l d o f t r a d e ,  Pliny's  v e r s i o n l a c k s t h e P e r s i a n who  but  appears  i n Cosmas' t a l e ,  t h e s t o r y i s a good one, no m a t t e r what t h e f o r m . of  Cosmas' v i s i t  t o C e y l o n i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y A,D.,  a g r e a t c e n t r e o f t r a d e , but i n t h e Roman p e r i o d , p e o p l e s seem t o h a v e h a d inhabitants.  At the  little  i t was  western  intercourse with i t s  time  95 Along  the e a s t c o a s t o f I n d i a , n o r t h o f Gape  Comorin ( K u m a r i ) was called  Coromandel.  ( P o n d i c h e r r y ) , and  t h e C h o l a Kingdom i n t h e t e r r i t o r y  now  I t s main h a r b o u r s were Camara, P c d u c a 66 Scpatme. H e r e s h i p s f r o m t h e T a m i l  c o u n t r y , f r o m t h e c o u n t r y a b o u t the Ganges, and even f r o m 67 t h e M a l a y P e n i n s u l a were f r e q u e n t l y t o be f o u n d . A number 68 of Greeks,  c a l l e d Y a v a n a by t h e n a t i v e s , l i v e d a l o n g  c o a s t , some o f them a s a r t i s a n s ,  this  o t h e r s as m e r c h a n t s i n t h e  b a z a a r s where a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e Roman e x p o r t s  to  I n d i a was  for sale. Few w e s t e r n s h i p s , h o w e v e r , p e n e t r a t e d beyond t h e 69 C h o l a c o u n t r y . Most o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n f a r t h e r e a s t was 70 c a r r i e d on i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.D., as can r e a d i l y be s e e n f r o m c o m p a r i n g t h e work o f P t o l e m y w i t h t h e P e r i p l u s . - e x p l o r a t i o n was w i t h f i n d i n g new information.  carried  on by t r a d e r ' s who  markets than w i t h c o m p i l i n g  concerned  scientific  A c u r i o u s f e a t u r e of Ptolemy's conception  I n d i a , r e s u l t i n g from t h i s f a c t , coasts, forming r a t h e r a s one  w e r e more  This  i s t h a t he  imagines  of  t h a t the  two  s i d e s of the Indian t r i a n g l e , continue 71 c o a s t , r u n n i n g from west to e a s t . Nevertheless,  he h a s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g t h e f i r s t w e s t e r n w r i t e r c VE ( 150 A.D.) t o m e n t i o n t h e Ganges D e l t a , o f w h i c h t h e a u t h o r o f t h e P e r i p l u s knew n o t h i n g .  3ven more i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e  f a c t t h a t he knew o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f J a v a  (labadius) although  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i s l a n d i s r e a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of 75 S u m a t r a . P t o l e m y c o n c l u d e s h i s r e m a r k s on I n d i a when he  96 reaches K a t t i g a r a . was at  I t s l o c a t i o n i s n o t known e x a c t l y , but i t  p r o b a b l y on t h e G u l f o f T o n g k i n g i n C o c h i n  C h i n s , -nerha-os 74 H a n o i , where a t l e a s t one Roman c o i n h a s been f o u n d .  Chinese  records t e l l  o f Roman m e r c h a n t s i n Siam, Annam a n d  T o n g k i n g , but t h e s e a t r a d e w i t h C h i n e was o n l y j u s t u n d e r way when i t was ended, t h e r e s u l t o f c i v i l w a r s and d i s a s t e r s 75 in  t h e Roman w o r l d . Trade w i t h I n d i a l i k e w i s e s u f f e r e d i n t h e t h i r d  c e n t u r y a s c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e l a c k o f Roman c o i n s o f t h a t 76 period i n t h i s country. They were p l e n t i f u l enough i n t h e f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s t o judge f r o m h o a r d s f o u n d i n t h e s o u t h e r n 77 p e a r l and s p i c e r e g i o n s , . and i n t h e n o r t h e r n c o t t o n c o u n t r y , where more t r a d e was d i r e c t e d a f t e r N e r o ' s t i m e , reached in  i t s h e i g h t when Nero and h i s e m u l a t o r s  luxury trade  were  living  a grandiose  southern  f a s h i o n and were demanding t h e p r o d u c t s o f • 78 I n d i a and A r a b i a a t a t e r r i f y i n g r a t e . Therefore,  many Roman c o i n s o f t h i s p e r i o d have been f o u n d b u r i e d i n 79 the s o u t h . When V e s p a s i a n d e c i d e d t o c u r t a i l e x t r a v a g a n c e , t r a d e moved t o n o r t h e r n for  India,  There i t c o n t i n u e d  steadily  a c e n t u r y , t h e n g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d u n t i l new l i f e was 80 i n j e c t e d into i t i n the Byzantine period.  97 SUMMARY 1:-  Ships p l y i n g  between I n d i a and t h e West were  restricted,  i n the e a r l y years o f the Empire, t o f o l l o w i n g the ' s h o r e s o f A r a b i a and P e r s i a . p r o s p e r o u s a t t h e expense  T h e r e f o r e middlemen waxed  o f b o t h e a s t e r n and  western t r a d e r s p a s s i n g along t h e i r shores. 2:-  Steps taken i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  o f a Roman t r a d e r o u t e  to t h e east; a)  under Augustus  - a t t e m p t s made t o  a t t a c k Aden, ( A e l i u s G a l l u s a n d p r i n c e .Gaius) .  • 3: -  b)  under  C l a u d i u s - s a c k o f Aden,  c)  u n d e r Nero - o c c u p a t i o n o f Gape S y a g r u s .  D e v e l o p m e n t o f r o u t e d i r e c t l y a c r o s s t h e s e a s between t h e G u l f o f Aden and I n d i a . a)  H i p p a l u s ' voyage f r o m Aden - I n d u s .  b)  under  C l a u d i u s , voyage f r o m Cape S y a g r u s -  Jaigarh, c)  later,  voyage f r o m Aden - M u z i r i s .  (Eeloynda o r Barake  better points at  which to disembark). 4:-  Continuance t h e West.  of c o a s t a l t r a f f i c  between I n d i a a n d  B e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c o a s t a l voyage t o  I n d i a found i n the P e r i p l u s M a r i S r y t h r a e i .  98 5:-  Indian products: stones, r i c e ,  6:-  timber, cotton, s i l k ,  ivory,  ghee, p e p p e r , s p i c e s .  Time r e q u i r e d f o r voyage between T a m i l c o a s t and Rome - - - - - (Rome t o A l e x a n d r i a - ( A l e x a n d r i a t o Red Sea ( E g y p t i a n o r Habataean to O k e l i s - -  - - - Ports Ports - - - -  ( G u l f o f Aden t o Muz i r i s 7:-  precious  - - -  16 w e e k s , 3 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 6 weeks  L i t t l e was known o f C e y l o n i n t h e Roman p e r i o d , s i n c e T a m i l s h e l d a monopoly o f t r a d e w i t h t h e i s l a n d f o r many y e a r s ,  8:-  E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e e a s t e r n c o a s t o f I n d i a was carried  on m a i n l y , i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.I),  western s h i p s reached China,  Some  but s e a t r a d e w i t h  that country d i dnot develop. 9:-  Decline of trade w i t h India i n the t h i r d m i r r o r e d by l a c k o f t h i r d the c o u n t r y .  First  century i s  c e n t u r y Roman c o i n s i n  and Second c e n t u r y Roman c o i n s  r e v e a l t h a t t r a d e was d i r e c t e d f i r s t t o s o u t h e r n I n d i a , t h e p e a r l and s p i c e r e g i o n , t h e n t o n o r t h e r n India, the cotton region.  99 NOTES 1:-  TO  CHAPTER V I I  100,000,000 s e s t e r c e s p e r y e a r . T h i s sum i s c a l c u l a t e d by Mommsen, P r o v . I I , p. 300, t o r e p r e s e n t £1,000,000. See a l s o M a t t i n g l y , Roman C o i n s , p. 182. 2:-. P l i n y , N^B, X I I , 18. ( 4 1 ) . ~ * ' 3:~ Gary and W s r m i n g t o n , The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 74. 4:Mommsen, o p , c i t , , p p . 2 9 3 , 294, 5:I b i d , , p. 2 8 9 , 6:Tarn, H e l l e n i s t i c C i v i l i s a t i o n , p. 213. 7: . P e r i p l u s M a r i s E r y t h r a e i , 26, Not a v a i l a b l e t o me. 8;~ R a w l i n s o n , I n t e r c o u r s e between I n d i a and t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d , p. 112, 9:Mommsen, op. c i t . , p. 294 n . l . 10:D i o L I I I , 29. 11:Mommsen, op. c i t , , p , 290, p. 291 n. 12:S t r a b o , 16, 4, 2 3 . 13:P l i n y , N.H. X I I , 56. 14:R o s t o v t z e f f , A S o c i a l a n d Economic H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p. 5 1 3 . 15:I b i d . , p, 5 1 3 . 16:I b i d , , p. 5 1 3 . 17:R a w l i n s o n , op, c i t , , p. 109, R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t , , p. 93 c a l l s t h e c a p t a i n ' H i p p a r o h u s ' , Neither Juba n o r S t r a b o m e n t i o n s H i p p a l u s , 18;The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 7 5 . 19:I b i d , , p. 76. '' 20:P l i n y , 1KB. , V I , 24. 21:The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 76. 22:P l i n y , N.K., V I , 26. 23:C h a r l e s w o r t h , T r a d e R o u t e s a n d Commerce o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , p., 67. 24:The a u t h o r o f t h e P e r i p l u s was a G r e e k t r a d e r l i v i n g i n Egypt i n t h e F l a v i a n period., See S k e e l , T r a v e l i n t h e F i r s t C e n t u r y , p. 3 3 . 25:R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t , , p. 93 26:P e r i p l u s , 2 1 . Trade w i t h A f r i c a , P e r i p . , 17, 27:R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 9 4 . 28;P l i n y , N»E., V I , 104. 29;R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t . , p. 9 3 . 3 0 : P e r i p . , 36, 31:S t r a b o , 16, 3, 3. 32;Perip.,35, 33:P l i n y , N.H. V I , 1 3 9 , 34;I b i d . , V I , 139. 35:R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 3. 36;See c h a p t e r V, p. 6 2 , where goods p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Palmyra are mentioned.  100 37;38;39;40:41:42:43:44;45:-" 46:-  C h a r l e s w o r t h , op, c i t . , p, 68. R a w l i n s on, op. c i t . , p. 114. I b i d . , p. 35 P s r i p . , 45. R a w l i n s o n , o p . c i t . , p. 120. C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p , c i t . , p. 68, R a w l i n s o n , o p . o i t . , pp. 166, 167. P e r i p . , 44, c f , P l i n y , N.E. I X , 106; 113-114; c f . 117. F o r I n d i a n diamonds and o t h e r -precious s t o n e s see P l i n y , N^E., X X X Y I I , 55-56; ofl M a r t . , 5, 11, 1; J u v . , 6, 156, F o r i v o r y , c f , V i r g i l , G e o r r . , I , 57. 47:T h i s s p i k e n a r d , u s e d i n m a k i n g t h e famous o i n t m e n t o f s p i k e n a r d , i s m e n t i o n e d i n S t . Mark, 14, 3. 48:Odes I I , 7, 89. ... cum quo" morantern saepe diem mero j Z g o . . o o r o n a t u s n i t e n t i a m a l o b a t h r o S.yrio c a p i l l o s ? S y r i o - i . e . - brought from the p o r t s of S y r i a . 49:R a w l i n s o n , o p , c i t . , p. 12 0. 50:P l i n y , |LH. , X I I , 28. 51:G i b b o n , I I I , p. 272. 52:R a w l i n s o n , o p , c i t . , p. 112. 53:I b i d , , p. 112. 54:I b i d , , .p. 112 n. 2, 55:P l i n y , N.E. V I , 26. 56:I b i d , , V I , 26* 57;I b i d . , V I , 24, 58:l u c i a n , H e r m o t i m , , 4. 59;The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79. 60:P t o l e m y l i v e d a b o u t 150 A,P. H i s G u i d e t o Geography i s mathematical r a t h e r than d e s c r i p t i v e , 61:S t r a b o , 15, 1, 28, T h i s w r i t e r may as w e l l be c a l l e d t h e m a s t e r f a b u l i s t as t h e m a s t e r p i l o t o f A l e x a n d e r , 62:P l i n y , N.H,, V I , 22. 63:C h r i s t i a n T o p o g r a p h y , Bk X I , n o t a v a i l a b l e t o me. 64:R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t , , p. 149. 65:The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79. 66:Camera and o t h e r m a r k e t - t o w n s i n P e r i p . , 60. 67:The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79, 68;c f T ~ E i e k i e l X X V I I , 19 and I s a i a h 1X1, 19 where t h e Greeks a r e c a l l e d Yavana. 69:The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79, 70:R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t . , p. 531, 71:See E e i p e r t , A t l a s A n t i q u u s , Tab. I f o r P t o l e m y ' s map of the a n c i e n t world™ 72:R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t . , pp. 132-133. V i r g i l ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e v e n c a l m s t r e a m s o f t h e r i v e r may o r may n o t r e f e r t o t h e Ganges D e l t a . Aen, I X , 1 1 — 30 t o 31. 7 3 : - R a w l i n s o n , o p . c i t . , p. 134-135. 74:- f o r Roman c o i n s see The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 83. 1  101 75:76:77:78:79:80:-  C h a r l e s w o r t h , op, c i t . , p. 72 J . f f . A . 3 . (1903) p. 5 9 1 . N o t s v a i l a b l e t o me. See a l s o R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t . , p. 4 2 1 , C h a r l e s w o r t h , op. c i t , , p. 6 1 . P l i n y , M,H,, X I I , 83-84. c f . J u v , , 4, 108; 8, 159. An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l , V, pp. 232, 2 8 3 , R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t , , p, 4 2 1 ,  CHAPTER  VIII  CONCLUSION An  account  o f the g r e a t l i n e s o f communication  between I t a l y and t h e l a n d s l y i n g t o t h e e a s t h a s now be completed.  Since the account  essentials,  i t s h o u l d have l e f t w i t h t h e r e a d e r  definite  certain  i m p r e s s i o n s r e s p e c t i n g each o f t h e c o u n t r i e s  t h a t h a s been s t u d i e d . 1:-  h a s been r e s t r i c t e d t o  He s h o u l d  recall:  t h a t G r e e c e was a p o o r c o u n t r y , b u t t h a t i t p l a y e d i t s p a r t a s a c o n n e c t i n g l i n k between I t a l y and t h e E a s t ;  2:-  that A s i a Minor had a f i n e and  t h a t i t was a f l o u r i s h i n g  land; 3:-  system o f roads, and p r o d u c t i v e  -  t h a t two s i l k  roads developed  at different  p e r i o d s j o i n e d C h i n e t o Rome, a n d t h a t t h e Romans were n e v e r i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c u l t u r e of the Chinese; 4:-that  a l l t h e most i m p o r t a n t  ended i n o r p a s s e d 5:-that  through  roads  o f the east  Syria;  i n E g y p t t h e K i l e was t h e g r e a t h i g h w a y  and man-made r o a d s were mere appendages o f i t ; 6:-that  the r o u t e s which brought the I n d i a n  l u x u r i e s t o t h e West were d e v e l o p e d  102  gradually,  103 as w e s t e r n p e o p l e s l e a r n e d about  the winds  on t h e s o u t h e r n w a t e r s .  The  r o a d s and r o u t e s c o n s t r u c t e d and d e v e l o p e d  by t h e Soman t h u s bound a l l manner o f p e o p l e s t o g e t h e r , made p o s s i b l e t h e i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f t h e most v a r i e d . c u l t u r e s , and r a i s e d t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r e v e r y r a c e whose c o u n t r y t h e y p a s s e d .  Though p e r h a p s  through  t o o much c r e d i t  i s g i v e n t o t h e Soman a s a r o a d - m a k e r , i t i s y e t t r u e  that  w i t h o u t h i s g e n i u s t o p e r f e c t and u n i f y t h e r o a d - s y s t e m a s a whole.,  communication  between n a t i o n s w o u l d  been much, s l o w e r , much more l a b o r o u s . his  z e s t f o r r o a d - b u i l d i n g , brought  have  The Roman, w i t h  into the world  such  f a r r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s f o r t h e b e t t e r , t h a t modern man i s y e t b e n e f i t i n g f r o m them.  104 i (  ABBREVIATIONS C o r p u s I n s c r i p t i onurn L e t i n a rum.  i I i'  Inscriptiones Latinae  1.1„3.  J o u r n a l o f Roman  Studies.  N. H.  Haturalis  Aen.  Aeneid,  Epist,  Epistles,  Georg.  Georgies,  Hist.Anim,-  E i s t o r i a Animalium.  Mart.  Martial.  oa,  Odyssey,  Paus.  Pausanias»  Perip,  Periplus.  Prooop.  procopius.  P t 01•  —  Eistoria.  ,  Ptolemy,  Sat.  Satire,  Suet.  Suetonius,  lac,  Tacitus.  Selectae.  105 ANCIENT  SOURCES  INSCRIPTIONS Corpus I n s c r i p t i o n s l a t i n a r u m 15  55V«  III5  3 X£ 318 13625, 14149 - 19, 117, 199. 205. 208,6715,6722. 14184. 4 4 . 4 8 , 58. 6 0 . 6 1 . 14580, 14402. ?  9  I n s c r i p t i o n e s L a t i n a e S e l e c t a e , Dessau, 628, 5846.  2:-  AUTHORS Ammianus I v l a r c e l l i n u s , Aristophanes,  Res G e s t a e .  Ornithes.  A r i s t o t l e , E i s t o r i a Animalium. Arrian; Anabasis, P e r i p l u s . Bible,  The H o l y .  Cicero, l e t t e r s , Yerrine Dio,  Orations.  Histories.  Herodotus,  Histories.  Homer, O d y s s e y . Josephus, A n t i o u i t a t e s J u d i c a e . Juvenal,  Satires.  l u c i a n , H e r m o t i m u s ( t r . H.W.Fowler and F . G . F o w l e r ) M a r t i a l , Epigrams.  106  Pausanias, Description Philisous,  of Greece.  f r a g m e n t s o f t h e Comic w o r k s o f .  P l i n y the E l d e r , U a t u r a l i e  Historia.  P l i n y the Younger, L e t t e r s . P l u t a r c h , The and Polybius, Seneca,  L i v e s of the Noble G r e c i a n s Romans.  Histories.  Epistles.  S t r a b o , Geography o f ,  ( t r . H a m i l t o n and  Suetonius, Lives n f t h e Tacitus,  Annals.  Tibullus, Virgil,  Caesars.  Elegies.  Aeneid,  Vitruvius,  de  Georgics,  Archltectura.  Falconer).  107 - ,  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS:A r n o l d , W, T.,  S t u d i e s o f Roman I m p e r i a l i s m .  "l^rn^'^sTeT"/ l"906T B o u c h i e r , E. S.  ~  *~"  S y r i a a s a Roman P r o v i n c e , O x f o r d ( B l a c k w e i l ) , 1916.  Cambridge A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , t h r e e v o l u m e s : Vol. X  The A u g u s t a n _Bmpi_re (44 B. C. A.D. 7 0 ) , Cambridge, 1934.  V o l . X I The I m p e r i a l P e a c e (A.D. 7 0 - 1 9 2 ) , C a m b r i d g e , 1936. V o l . X I I The I m p e r i a l C r i s i s a n d R e c o v e r ; (A.D. 1 9 3 - 3 2 4 ) , Cambridge 1939. G a r y , M« a n d E.H. W a r m i n g t o n , The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , London ( M e t h u e n ) , 1929. C h a r l e s w o r t h , M. P. T r a d e - R o u t e s and Commerce o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , Cambridge a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1924, D y e r , T> H.  A n c i e n t A t h e n s , London ( B e l l a n d D a l d y ) , 1873.  F e r g u s o n , W. S.  H e l l e n i s t i c A t h e n s , London ( M a c m i l l a n ) , 19.11;  F i n l a y , G. F r a n k , Tenney, F r a n k , Tenney  Greeoe u n d e r t h e Romans, E d i n b u r g h a n d London, 1844. 2 "An E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y o f Rome , B a l t i m o r e 1927. ( e d i t o r ) , An E c o n o m i c S u r v e y o f A n c i e n t Rome, B a l t i m o r e , 1933-40. V o l s , I I , I V , V. V o l . I I , J o h n s o n , A,C., Roman E g y p t to the Reign of D i o c l e t i a n . V o l . I V , H e i c h e l h e i m , F.M. Roman S y r i a , L a r s e n , J.A.0., Roman' SreeoeT B r o u g h t o n , T.R.S., Roman.Asia.  108 Vol. Frazer,  3". G,  G i b b o n , E.,  V, F r a n k , Tenney, Rome and I t a l y o f the Empire.  Paus an i a s ' D e s c r i p t i o n o f G r e e c e , ( t r . , w i t h a c o m m e n t a r y ) , London and New Y o r k , ( M a c m i l l a n ) 1898. The H i s t o r y o f t h e D e c l i n e and F a l l o f t h e Roman SmpTrirr~L"ondon, f G e o r g l T B e l ] end Sons) 1 8 8 5 7 " ;  Grenfell,  B. P. ( e d i t o r ) , Fayum Towns and t h e i r P a p y r i . London ( o f f i c e s o f t h e E g y p t E x p l o r a t i o n  Funa) 1900, H e n d e r s o n , B. W.  The L i f e a n d P r i n c i p a t e o f t h e Emperor Hal!riair7~London (Methuen) , T$JZ3T~^ ~~  H o g a r t h , D. G.,  I o n i a and t h e E a s t , O x f o r d a t t h e Clarendon p r e s s , 1909.  Holm, A,,  The H i s t o r y o f G r e e c e , London, 1898.  H u a r t , C. I . , A n c i e n t P e r s i a a n d I r a n i a n C i v i l i z a t i o n , London (Kegan P a u l ) and New Y o r k ( A . A , K n o p f ) , 1927. K e a n e , A. H,,  A s i a , London, 1896,  K e i t h - R o a c h , E., j o i n t e d i t o r S i r H a r r y L u k e , The Handbook o f P a l e s t i n e a n d T r a n s - J o r d a n , London, ( M a c m i l l a n ) , 1934, L a i s t n e r , M.L.W.,  A S u r v e y of. _A_noi_ent_ H i s t o r y , New Y o r k ( H e a t h ) , 1929.  L u d w i g , E.,  The N i l e , t r . by M a r y H. L i n d s a y , New Y o r k 7 V i k i n g P r e s s ) , 1937.  Martin.  E g y p t - O l d and New, London ( A l l e n and  P. F.  Unwin), 1923, M a t t i n g l y , E»  Roman C o i n s , London ( M e t h u e n ) , 1928.  Milne,  A H i s t o r y o f E g y p t u n d e r Roman R u l e ,  J . G.  Mommsen, T.  Lon'd^n^TM^Woenr, 1898. The P r o v i n c e s o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , t r . by W. P. P i c l c s o n , London T M a c m i l l a n ) ~ , 1909,  109 M o r t o n , H. V.  In  Oman, c. w.0.,  The B y z e n t i n e E m p i r e , t h i r d ed., London ( U n w i n ) , 1892. V o l , 30 o f The S t o r y o f the n a t i o n s s e r i e s .  Paul-Louis,  A n c i e n t Rome a t work, London (Zegan P a u l ) , 1927.  P o r t e r , G. E.  S i l k Manufacture, (Lardner s London, 1831.  R a p p o p o r t , 3.,  H i s t o r y o f J2gy_p_t, London (The G r o l i e r SocietyT7~1904. V o l s , X, X I .  R a w l i n s o n , G,,  H i s t o r y o f A n c i e n t E g y p t , London, 1Longmans', GreenT, 1 8 8 1 .  R a w l i n s o n , H. G.,  I n t e r c o u r s e between I n d i a and t h e W e s t e r n "World, s e c o n d e d . , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926,.  R o s t o v t z e f f , M<  Out o f t h e P a s t o f G r e e c e and Rome, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952,  t h e S t e p s o f S t . P e u l , London, 1936  1  Cyclopedia)  The S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y o f t h e Roman E m p i r e ,  T a r n , w.  W.,  O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1926, ' ' 2 H e l l e n i s t i c C i v i l i s a t i o n , London, (Edward A r n o l d and Company), 1930,  PERIODICALS:J o u r n a l o f Roman S t u d i e s . R o s t o v t z e f f , M « , "The C a r a v a n - g o d s o f P a l m y r a " , J.R.S. V o l . X X I I (1932) p a r t I , pp. 107-116, West, L o u i s ,  "Phases o f C o m m e r c i a l L i f e i n Roman E g y p t " , J.R.S. V o l . V I I (1937) p a r t I , p p . 45-58.  

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