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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Trade routes of the Roman Empire Freed, Dorothea Mary 1941

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TRADE ROUTES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE by Dorothea Mary Freed I°PI°1° A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree o f M A S T E R O F A R T S i n the Department o f . C L A S S I C S The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia APRIL 1941. CONTENTS Chapter Page 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . 1 I I TUB TRADE ROUTES OF GREECE AND OP THE CONTINENTAL TERRITORIES AD J 0 IN IHGr •» *o •» o © «•» * » « « » « 4. I l l TRADE ROUTES OF ASIA MINOR . . , . . 21 IV THE SILK ROADS TO CHINA, . . . . . . 38 V . TRADE ROUTES OF SYRIA. . . . . . . . 51 VI THE EGYPTIAN TRADE ROUTES. . . . . . 68 V I I THE SEA ROUTES TO INDIA AND CEYLON . 85 V I I I CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . 102 LIST OP ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ANCIENT SOURCES . . . . . . . „ 105 BI ]BXiX0GRA3?IrIY <* © •» « o « o « o o © * * * * * 10*7 INTRODUCTION 1 d e s c r i p t i o n o f Roman t r a d e r o u t e s must, above a l l . be concerned with, the c e n t u r i e s - o l d t r a d e l a n e s t h a t passed through the Near E a s t , the M i d d l e E a s t and the f a r East.-. So much more o u t s t a n d i n g are these r o u t e s than any l y i n g i n the western p a r t of the Roman Empire, t h a t i t has been d e c i d e d to d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y t o them, and t o the c o u n t r i e s through which t h e y r a n , namely, Greece A s i a M inor, c e n t r a l A s i a , ' S y r i a , Egypt and I n d i a , The importance of a study o f t r a d e between these c o u n t r i e s and Rome cannot be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d , yet the reason f o r t h i s importance i s o f t e n not c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . Becaus of the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s o f t e n i n f l u e n c e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o u n t r i e s , i t i s argued by some t h a t t h i s same i n f l u e n c e p l a y e d a g r e a t p a r t i n shaping the f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s of Rome. I t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t the go v e r n i n g c l a s s of Rome was, at t i m e s , m o t i v a t e d i n i t s a c t i o n s by a greed t h a t may be d e s c r i b e d as economic<> G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , however, the men who c o n t r o l l e d the f o r e i g n p o l i c y of Rome had t h e i r w e a l t h i n v e s t e d n o t i n i n d u s t r y or i n s h i p p i n g , but i n the I t a l i a n and p r o v i n c i a l r e a l e s t a t e and mortgages, Few of the emperors concerned 2 themselves w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n or with, the a c q u i s i t i o n o f trade r o u t e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of those r o u t e s which brought the v i t a l g r a i n i n t o Rome. In what r e s p e c t , then, s h o u l d a study such as t h i s be d e s c r i b e d as i m p o r t a n t ? I f i t i s not o f exceeding v a l u e i n g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p o l i t i c a l , d i p l o m a t i c and m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y of Rome, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s e x p l a i n s , as no o t h e r study w i l l , the g r a d u a l change i n c h a r a c t e r o f the Roman people throughout the I m p e r i a l p e r i o d . I t i s w e l l known how l i t t l e c r e a t i v e was the a n c i e n t Roman, but how t r u l y i m p r e s s i o n a b l e he was and how q u i c k t o adopt the i d e a s of o t h e r men. The e x t e n t o f the change t h a t was wrought i n the Roman by h i s i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e c o u n t r i e s t o the east may never be f u l l y r e a l i z e d , but i t can be s t a t e d w i t h assurance t h a t no c i t i z e n o f a v i c t o r i o u s n a t i o n has ever been so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s conquered c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . The highways t h a t c a r r i e d the m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s were c a r r y i n g as w e l l the s p i r i t of those c o u n t r i e s , a f a c t which must be borne i n mind throughout the d i s c u s s i o n o f the t r a d e r o u t e s . Because Rome was bound to the E a s t and to a l l i t s i n f l u e n c e s by Greece, the r o u t e s o f t h a t c o u n t r y s h a l l be d e s c r i b e d f i r s t . Greece, however, as w i l l be shown h o l d s the f i r s t p l a c e only because of i t s p o s i t i o n on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , not because of i t s commercial importance. 3 The highways of A s i a M i n o r w i l l next be t r a c e d , and s u b s e q u e n t l y the s i l k r o u t e s to China. I s the s i l k r o u t e s are more e a s i l y t r a c e d i f t h e i r study f o l l o w s c l o s e l y t h a t o f the r o u t e s o f A s i a M i n o r , so t o o , the highways through S y r i a nmst n e c e s s a r i l y be d e s c r i b e d a l o n g w i t h those of Egypt and w i t h the sea r o u t e t o I n d i a . T h i s l o g i c a l o r d e r , then, w i l l be f o l l o w e d f o r the sake of c l a r i t y * I t has no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the r e l a t i v e importance of the c o u n t r i e s i n q u e s t i o n . . CHAPTER . I I THE TP.ADE ROUTES OE GREECE AND OE THE CONTINENTAL TERRITORIES ADJOINING The p o s i t i o n o f Greece among the t r a d i n g c o u n t r i e s of the Roman Empire was a c o m p a r a t i v e l y humble one. At f i r s t g l a n c e , t h i s statement might appear t o be u n r e a s o n a b l e . Though Greece had no g r e a t r e s o u r c e s of i t s own, y e t , w i t h 1 the w o r l d ' s g r e a t e s t market a t i t s back door, and the r i c h l a n d o f Asic?, M i n o r l i n k e d t o i t by t i e s t h a t had been formed 2 l o n g y e a r s b e f o r e Rome had a c q u i r e d an empire, i t would seem n a t u r a l t o f i n d i t p l a y i n g the r o l e o f a p r o s p e r o u s middleman. That t h i s was not the case has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d by such a n c i e n t w r i t e r s as S t r a b o , P a u s a n i a s , Dio Chrysostom and P l u t a r c h , a l l o f whom found d e s o l a t i o n and n e g l e c t i n t h e i r t r a v e l s through Greece. The l o s s o f i t s t r a d e and i n d u s t r y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as one o f the consequences of the t e r r i b l e s u c c e s s i o n of wars i n w h i c h the Greek c i t i e s had been engaged i n the f o u r t h and t h i r d 3 c e n t u r i e s B.C. I t might a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d to the decay of 4 a g r i c u l t u r e throughout the country» A g r i c u l t u r a l decay was bound to mean a d e c l i n i n g b i r t h - r a t e and a l o s s o f man power* What e n t e r p r i s i n g c i t i z e n s Greece then had l e f t , q u i t t e d 4 5 i t s shores i n ever i n c r e a s i n g numbers to s e l l t h e i r s k i l l and wisdom throughout the whole w o r l d i n s t e a d of a t t e m p t i n g 5 to c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r energy on b e h a l f of t h e i r own p e n i n s u l a . T h e i r own p e n i n s u l a had n o t h i n g to o f f e r them* I t may be, of c o u r s e , t h a t i n making these broad s t a t e m e n t s , too b l a c k a p i c t u r e i s being painted*, I t i s t r u e t h a t C o r i n t h and T h e s s a l o n i c a were f l o u r i s h i n g c i t i e s and t h a t t h e r e was g r e a t t r a f f i c upon the i m p o r t a n t Y i a S g n a t i a t o the n o r t h , but th e s e p l a c e d c o u l d not d i f f u s e l i f e throughout a l l o f Greece. Oh the whole s i t was a s p i r i t l e s s and poor l a n d t h a t came 6 i n t o the hands of Rome» The p r o v i n c e o f Achaea, carved out of Greece i n 27 B.C., comprised the Peloponnese and s o u t h - c e n t r a l Greece, l e s s t h o s e p a r t s of A c a r n a n i a and A e t o l i a which d i d not h e l p t o form the t e r r i t o r y o f N i c o p o l i s and P a t r a e . T h i s southern l a n d was f a r l e s s v a l u a b l e t o Rome than were the c o u n t r i e s f a r t h e r n o r t h , such as Macedonia, and in d e e d , t h e r e was l i t t l e a c t i v i t y i n i t , except a t C o r i n t h , and a t N i c o p o l i s and P a t r a e , the two p o r t s j u s t mentioned. For i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e r e i s the f a c t t h a t no m i l e s t o n e s have been found i n Achaea b e l o n g i n g to a date e a r l i e r than 8 400 A.D. A l a r g e p a r t of the roads i n i t s i n t e r i o r were mere m u l e - t r a c k s * Many o f them c o u l d not be used by waggons, and o t h e r s , i n t h e i r passage over the mountains, were e x c e e d i n g l y dangerous, as t h e i r names i m p l y , ( e . g . the " E v i l S t a i r c a s e " - ) . S i n c e C o r i n t h was the l e a d i n g c i t y on the Peloponnese, a l l roads i n t h a t t e r r i t o r y may be s a i d t o o r i g i n a t e from i t , or to t e r m i n a t e a t i t . L ooking a t the road system from t h i s p o i n t o f view, we f i n d the highways ; p r o c e e d i n g i n t h i s f a s h i o n ; between C o r i n t h and the p o r t of P a t r a e on the northwest c o a s t , a road ran a l o n g the shore of the C o r i n t h i a n G u l f p a s s i n g through S i c y o n , P e l l e n e and Aegae to Aegium, and thence t o P a t r a e . C o n t i n u i n g on the same road p a s t Lyme and C y l l e n e , one c o u l d r e a c h a f l a x 10 growing d i s t r i c t w i t h E l i s as i t s c e n t r e . A l l o t h e r roads, a f t e r l e a v i n g C o r i n t h , had Argos as t h e i r f i r s t s t o p p i n g p l a c e o f importance, and then branched f o r t h as f o l l o w s . One t r a c k e n t e r e d M a n t i n e a , past which i t s t r u c k out f o r E l i s by two r o u t e s , one goi n g by way o f Olympia and L e t r i n i the o t h e r f a r t h e r n o r t h t h r o u g h Orchomenus and P s o p h i s . Another t r a c k l e a v i n g Argos, next stopped a t Tegea a few m i l e s s o u t h o f M a n t i n e a , then proceeded t o M e g a l o p o l i s and p o i n t s s o u t h i n M e s s e n i a . A t h i r d l i n k e d Argos to S p a r t a , and a f o u r t h connected Troezen and E p i d a u r u s w i t h n o r t h e r n A r g o l i s . There were a few p r o d u c t s s t i l l b e ing t r a n s p o r t e d out o f the Peloponnese by these r o a d s . A l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f marble came out o f Greece„ and some o f t h i s was produced by 11 L a c o n i a , whose stone was b e a u t i f u l i n appearance and much 7 12 sought a f t e r , P ausanias says o f the marble q u a r r i e d a t Crooeae t h a t i t was v e i n e d and b e a u t i f u l , though h a r d t o work. On Mount Taygetus were new q u a r r i e s o p e r a t e d w i t h 13 money from Rome, which brought t h e i r owners a f i n e p r o f i t . Elsewhere i n the Peloponnese t h e r e was l i t t l e stone o f any v a l u e , a l t h o u g h some marble was q u a r r i e d near S i c y o n . There i s l i t t l e to say r e g a r d i n g the ex p o r t o f f o o d s t u f f s from t h i s r e g i o n , s i n c e , as i n most o f Greece, the g r e a t e r p a r t of the l a n d had never been f i t f o r a g r i c u l t u r e or e l s e had by t h i s time l o s t i t s r i c h n e s s . A few d i s t r i c t s , n o t a b l y 14 15 Messenia and B l i s , d i d n i t s u f f e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and 16 17 S i c y o n and P h e l l o e were renowned f o r t h e i r o l i v e s and v i n e s . A r c a d i a ' s l a n d was p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t f o r g r a z i n g o f h o r s e s and a s s e s , and i t was w e l l known f o r a f i n e breed o f the 18 former. As was the case w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , t h e r e 19 are but few manufactured p r o d u c t s worthy of mention. P a t r a e worked up the f l a x o f E l i s f o r e x p o r t , and a f i n e dyed c l o t h 20 21 the dye o b t a i n e d from Oythera - was produced a t Amyclae 22 and S p a r t a , as w e l l as i n o t h e r towns. A survey of the ha r b o u r s a l o n g the c o a s t s o f t h i s r e g i o n b r i n g s t o l i g h t the f a c t t h a t t hey were f a i r l y p l e n t i f u l , though too s m a l l , on the whole, t o accommodate s h i p s of any s i z e . The l a r g e r h a r b o u r s on the worthwest c o a s t , C y l l e n e , Dyme, and P a t r a e had won t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y 23 from t h e i r f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n f a c i n g I t a l y . Once they might ij have been d e s c r i b e d as l y i n g on the p o o r e s t and most i * \ I backward c o a s t o f Greece, but now I t a l y ' s p r o x i m i t y brought H ' 2 4 i b u s i n e s s to them, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o P a t r a e . On the southern }\ "i • • i c o a s t , where s t r o n g winds, e s p e c i a l l y o f f Cape Malea, were ; | apt to p l a y havoc w i t h s h i p s , t h e r e were a number o f s m a l l 25 ! havens and roa d s t e a d s t o o f f e r p r o t e c t i o n t o s a i l o r s ' . The ! r i s k s i n c u r r e d i n r o u n d i n g Cape Malea were g r e a t . P l i n y , on i I h i s way t o B i t h y n i a , thought i t worth w h i l e t o assu r e the 26 j Emperor o f h i s s a f e t y , a f t e r s a i l i n g i n thes e w a t e r s . I Another man, a P h r y g i a n merchant o f E i e r a p o l i s , s u c c e s s f u l l y 1 i passed the p o i n t 72 t i m e s , and f e l t t h i s t o be such an .27 | accomplishment t h a t he had i t r e c o r d e d on h i s tombstone. On ;' the east c o a s t o f the Peloponnese were P r a s i a e , Troezen and I Epida\i.rus, p o r t s o f a f a i r s i z e . But a l l these p a l e i n t o " ' i n s i g n i f i c a n c e b e s i d e C o r i n t h . 28 | I t was not l o n g a f t e r J u l i u s Caesar made C o r i n t h l i v e a g a i n t h a t the c i t y was as f l o u r i s h i n g as i t e v e r had 29 been b e f o r e i t s r u i n * At the time when S t , P a u l v i s i t e d i t , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t was p r o b a b l y d i f f i c u l t t o see any s i g n s 30 of the d e s t r u c t i o n wrought by Mummius i n 146 B.C., so eager had men been to f l o c k back t o t h i s advantageous s i t e . Why i t had been d e s t r o y e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e i s not a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r 0 Of course i t b e n e f i t e d Roman merchants t o have t h e i r C o r i n t h i a n r i v a l s u p r o o t e d , but not a l l agree t h a t commercial j e a l o u s y a l o n e prompted the r u i n of the c i t y . Two o t h e r 9 31 reasons have been suggested. In the f i r s t p l a c e , to l e a v e a w e a l t h y c i t y near such a s t r o n g p o i n t as the A c r o c o r i n t h u s might have proved dangerous. In the second p l a c e , the Greeks were more l i k e l y to keep the peace w i t h an example of t h i s n a t u r e b e f o r e them. In any case the new C o r i n t h , made up i n p a r t o f the descendants of the o l d C o r i n t h i a n f a m i l i e s 32 who had f l e d t o D e l o s , was a f l o u r i s h i n g , busy p l a c e . I t was a P e l o p o n n e s i a n c i t y , but i t had no P e l o p o n n e s i a n c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s " 33 C o r i n t h ' s two h a r b o u r s , Lechaeum on the west, and 34 Genchreae on the e a s t , were c o n t i n u a l l y exchanging goods, and 35 s h i p s as w e l l , a c r o s s the few m i l e s o f c l a y which s e p a r a t e d the C o r i n t h i a n and S a r o n i c G u l f s . C a r r y i n g goods a c r o s s t h i s neck of l a n d and r e s h i p p i n g them on t h e o p p o s i t e c o a s t , i n s t e a d of t r a n s p o r t i n g them around th e Peloponnese, not o n l y meant a s a v i n g o f 200 m i l e s i n the sea j o u r n e y , but a l s o enabled m a r i n e r s to a v o i d Cape Malea on t h e south. I t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t no c a n a l e x i s t e d i n t h a t age, but t h i s was c e r t a i n l y not because men d i d not r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of 36 37 38 c u t t i n g one. P e r i a n d e r , Demetrius P o l i o r c e t e s , J u l i u s Caesar, 39 40 41 C a l i g u l a , Nero and Herodes A t t i c u s , amongst o t h e r s , a l l contemplated e x c a v a t i n g . Only Nero, however, a c t u a l l y took a p i c k - a x e i n h i s hands, a l b e i t a g o l d e n one, and s e t about the work i n e a r n e s t * Traces of t h e d i g g i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d by s o l d i e r s and p r i s o n e r s w o r k i n g under h i s o r d e r s , c o u l d be 10 4S seen u n t i l the c u t t i n g of the modern c a n a l e f f a c e d them, but i t must be r e c o r d e d t h a t t h i s v a l i a n t attempt proceeded f o r a d i s t a n c e o f o n l y 4 f u r l o n g s b e f o r e i t was abandoned. However, the e x i s t e n c e o f a c a n a l would have made l i t t l e 45 d i f f e r e n c e t o the p r o s p e r i t y o f C o r i n t h or o f Greece. Without i t , C o r i n t h was s t i l l the r i c h e s t commercial c i t y on the p e n i n s u l a because i t l a y upon the sea ro u t e between I t a l y and the B a s t . W i t h i t , Greece would s t i l l have remained o f minor importance as a t r a d i n g c o u n t r y . I t was on the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the road t h a t j o i n e d C o r i n t h t o A t t i c a t h a t t r a v e l l e r s once used to encounter 44 S c i r o n , "the n o t o r i o u s robber o f a l l p a s s e n g e r s B u t i f th e r e i s any t r u t h i n t h e Me g s r i a n t a l e , the S c i r o n i a n Way got i t s name from a man who was "no doer o f v i o l e n c e , but a p u n i s h e r of a l l such, and the r e l a t i v e and f r i e n d of good and 45 j u s t men". Pa u s a n i a s says t h a t the road was f i r s t made p a s s a b l e f o r f o o t - p a s s e n g e r s by S c i r o n when he was war m i n i s t e r , o f Megara. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was s t i l l l i t t l e more than a rough t r a c k u n t i l the r e i g n of H a d r i a n . Then t h a t P h i l h e l l e n e c o n s t r u c t e d a wide and c o m f o r t a b l e c a r r i a g e r o a d , so s p a c i o u s t h a t two c a r r i a g e s c o u l d pass w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y 46 on i t , When the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r a i l r o a d and highway were 47 l a i d dowm, H a d r i a n ' s work was not y e t o b l i t e r a t e d . I t i s s t i l l v i s i b l e i n p a r t s i f we may b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n o l d s u b s t r u c t u r e s o f masonry, and a n c i e n t wheel marks belong 12 Macedonia, we f i n d t h a t the main highways p r e s e n t e d the appearance o f a rough t r i a n g l e . l e a v i n g Athens on the s o u t h , the road moved up to Thebes, and here i t s p l i t to form the f i r s t two s i d e s . One passed a l o n g the n o r t h e r n edge of the C o r i n t h i a n G u l f , curved n o r t h e a s t through H i c o p o l i s and ended a t Dyrrhachium (Epidamnus). The o t h e r f o l l o w e d the east c o a s t u n t i l i t e n t e r e d the l a n d o f T h e s s a l y . Here i t moved i n l a n d a few m i l e s to accommodate i t s e l f to the t e r r a i n , reached the coast once more by fo11owing the v a l l e y o f the Peneus B i v e r , and then, c o n t i n u i n g on i t s northward course e v e n t u a l l y came i n t o T h e s s a l o n i c a on the shores o f the Thermaic G u l f . The road l i n k i n g Dyrrhachium and T h e s s a l o n i c a was the t h i r d s i d e o f the t r i a n g l e , and the f i r s t s t r e t c h o f the V i a E g n a t i a . The western arm of t h i s t r i a n g l e passed through s e v e r a l c i t i e s - Dyrrhachium, A p o l l o n i a and N i c o p o l i s -which were p o r t s o f r e g u l a r c a l l f o r s h i p s p l y i n g between 58 I t a l y and Greece. Strabo speaks of two passages e a s t from B r u n d i s i u m . The n o r t h e r n one, t h a t whose e a s t e r n t e r m i n i were Dyrrhachium and A p o l l o n i a , was l o n g e r , but the more p o p u l a r o f t h e two because i t l e d d i r e c t l y t o the i m p o r t a n t V i a E g n a t i a . The o t h e r c r o s s e d t o the C e r a u n i a n Mountains and so to t h e c o a s t s of E p i r u s and the G u l f o f C o r i n t h . On 59 the c o a s t o f E p i r u s , H i c o p o l i s was the main o b j e c t i v e . T h i s c i t y was of r e c e n t o r i g i n h a v i n g been founded by Augustus to 11 to h i s road, and t h i s c o n j e c t u r e i s q u i t e p l a u s i b l e . H a d r i a n ' s m u n i f i c e n c e brought a l l of Greece to a 48 s t a t e of temporary b r i l l i a n c e , Athens as w e l l . But the o l d Athens was t r u l y gone f o r e v e r , and no amount of f i n e 49 b u i l d i n g or o t h e r ornamentation would ever b r i n g i t back. P h i l i s c u s , the comic poet, had once c a l l e d i t s harbour an 50 empty nut s h e l l , and t h a t was y e a r s b e f o r e Strabo v i s i t e d i t and n o t i c e d o n l y a few houses around the p o r t s and the temple o f Zeus S o t e r . When the t r a d e - c e n t r e of the w o r l d had s h i f t e d to I t a l y , the P i r a e u s had been d e s e r t e d more and more by the merchantmen of S y r i a , Egypt amd A s i a M i n o r , even 58 as Delos had been. . Yet Athens was s t i 1 1 e x p o r t i n g goods of a k i n d 53 54 to the o u t s i d e w o r l d . Nearby Hymettus and P e n t e l i c u s had not y e t l e f t o f f y i e l d i n g t h e i r famous marble, though i t was not sent out of the c o u n t r y t o the e x t e n t i t had be en once, 55 56 and A t t i c a was y e t p r o d u c i n g o i l and honey of a q u a l i t y f i n e enough to f i n d a ready market. In a d d i t i o n , Athens c o u l d always f i n d buyers f o r c o p i e s o f famous s t a t u e s which were shipped out o f the c ountry as q u i c k l y as they were 57 manufactured. However, w i t h the l i s t i n g of t h e s e few a r t i c l e s , a l l t h a t can be s a i d of t h e e x p o r t s of Athens, has been s a i d . D i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n once more t o the road-system,, and h a v i n g r e g a r d now to a l l the l a n d as f a r n o r t h as 13 commemorate h i s v i c t o r y over Antony i n 31 B.C., and i t had gathered i t s c i t i z e n s from r u i n e d c i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y . 60 n o t a b l y from Ambracia. Though termed a Roman c o l o n y , i t s c i t i z e n s were p r e d o m i n a t e l y Greek and g r e a t enough i n t h e i r number to bear comparison w i t h such G a l l i c communities as the Rem! o r the Carnutes. Evidence o f t h e l i v e l y t r a d e -r between N i c o p o l i s , A p o l l o n i a , Dyrrhachium, and I t a l y , can 61 be found i n hundreds o f i n s c r i p t i o n s t o the D i o s c u r i , l e f t by s a i l o r s who s a f e l y weathered the seas between the two p e n i n s u l a s . As f o r the E g n a t i a n Highway e a s t from A p o l l o n i a and Dyrrhachium, i t was one o f the most i m p o r t a n t a r t e r i e s of i n t e r c o u r s e i n the whole Empire, c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t when the w i n t e r season made M e d i t e r r a n e a n s a i l i n g 62 d i f f i c u l t . As l o n g ago as 148 B. 0., 'It had been l a i d down as f a r as T h e s s a l o n i c a , c a r e f u l l y measured and f i t t e d w i t h 63 m i l e s t o n e s ; i n l a t e r y e a r s i t was extended east through Thrace so t h a t t r a v e l l e r s c o u l d r e a c h Byzantium and A s i a M i n o r over a good r o a d . U s u a l l y , however, i f t h e r e was good s a i l i n g weather, a man would break h i s j o u r n e y a l o n g the highway a t K e a p o l i s , the p o r t o f P h i l i p p i , and from t h e r e take s h i p to the west c o a s t o f A s i a M i n o r . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t S t . P a u l c r o s s e d between A s i a M i n o r and Macedonia by t h i s r o u t e , a f t e r s e e i n g the v i s i o n of the man 64 of Macedonia a t T r o a s . In those p a r t s of Macedonia l y i n g around P h i l i p p i , 14 t h e r e was e x t e n s i v e m i n i n g o f g o l d and s i l v e r . Southwest of P h i l i p p i s t r e t c h e d Mount Pangaeus. c e l e b r a t e d f o r the 65 me t a l s i t y i e l d e d , and sou t h e a s t was s i t u a t e d Datum, a l s o i n 66 a g o l d - b e a r i n g d i s t r i c t . P h i l i p p i , as a matter o f f a c t , might- be w e l l d e s c r i b e d as a m i n i n g town, which owed i t s 67 e x i s t e n c e o n l y to the w e a l t h o f m e t a l s i n the r e g i o n . 68 The g o l d - b e a r i n g l a n d s of D a c i a , t o the n o r t h , 69 were reached by an i m p o r t a n t o f f - s h o o t o f the V i a E g n a t i s , which l e f t the highway a t T h e s s a l o n i c a . The road proceeded northward a l o n g the v a l l e y of the A x i u s R i v e r u n t i l i t reached S c u p i . Here i t c r o s s e d a d i f f i c r a l t pass through the mountains, t h e n g a i n e d the v a l l e y o f the Morava a t Maissus and c o n t i n u e d as f a r as Vircinacium on the Danube. 70 At Maissus i t met a g r e a t m i l i t a r y road whose course l a y i n a n o r t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n from Byzantium, and which was used to p r o v i d e q u i c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r s o l d i e r s moving between the Danube l a n d s and e a s t e r n r e g i o n s . In these n o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s t h e r e were few c i t i e s of any consequence e x c e p t , o f c o u r s e , Byzantium, and those Greek c i t i e s w h i c h l a y on the e a s t coast of Thrace on the shores of the B l a c k Sea. H i s t r i a , Tomi, O a l l a t i s , D i o n y s o p o l i s , Odessus, Messembria and A p o l l o n i a , a l l o f which at one time had known g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y , were w i l l i n g s u b j e c t s o f the Roman Empire, welcoming the l a w - l o v i n g 71 Roman because of the s e c u r i t y he brought them. 15 Byzantium I t s e l f i s something to be d i s c u s s e d a p a r t and i n somewhat g r e a t e r d e t a i l . I t s p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n commanding the B l a c k Sea t r a d e and g u a r d i n g the road between Europe and A s i a , gave i t at once both a 72 commercial and a m i l i t a r y importance. Under the Empire i t appears f i r s t as a f r e e and c o n f e d e r a t e c i t y , w i t h a b s o l u t e freedom t o govern i t s a f f a i r s except i n the m a t t e r o f i t s 73 f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n p r e v a i l e d u n t i l 73 A. D.j when V e s p a s i a n d e p r i v e d i t o f i t s p r i v i l e g e s and 74 made i t a p a r t o f Thrace and an o r d i n a r y p r o v i n c i a l town. Yet t h i s a c t i o n made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o the bu s i n e s s c a r r i e d on by the c i t y . Whatever i t s p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s , i t always took advantage o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a d e g i v e n to i t by n a t u r e , and i t was s u c c e s s f u l enough t o f i g u r e o f t 75 i n the w r i t i n g s o f a n c i e n t a u t h o r s . Because the y e a r s i n which i t en j o y e d i t s g r e a t e s t success f a l l o u t s i d e the p e r i o d o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . i t cannot be shown f o r t h i n i t s f u l l development, but must be l e f t as the h a l f - g r o w n t h r i v i n g town i t was u n t i l the advent o f C o n s t a n t i n e . 16 • -; SUMMARY 1:- Greece p l a y e d a minor p a r t as a t r a d i n g c o u n t r y . I t s importance l a y i n the f a c t t h a t i t was the l i n k between I t a l y and the E a s t . C o r i n t h and t h e V i a Sgnatio-were v i t a l p a r t s o f t h a t l i n k . 2:- The p r o v i n c e o f Achaea was o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o Rome. I t s p r o d u c t s : - o i l , wine, honey, c l o t h , marble, h o r s e s . The roads through the Peloponnesus were poor and o f t e n dangerous. 3: - C o r i n t h was r e s t o r e d by J u l i u s Caesar a c e n t u r y a f t e r i t s d e s t r u c t i o n by Mummius. I t was a t h r i v i n g c i t y , by reason o f i t s p o s i t i o n on a p e n i n s u l a between two sea s . A c a n a l a c r o s s the p e n i n s u l a would have made no d i f f e r e n c e to t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f C o r i n t h or t o the p o v e r t y o f Greece. 4:- Athens, i n s p i t e o f H a d r i a n ' s m u n i f i c e n c e , was by no means the b r i l l i a n t c e n t r e i t once had been. I t s harbour was almost d e s e r t e d , and the goods i t ex p o r t e d were few. 5;- Greece's main r o a d s , o u t s i d e o f t h e Peloponnese, formed a rough t r i a n g l e , w i t h the n o r t h e r n V i a E g n a t i a as one o f t h e t h r e e s i d e s . On the western s i d e o f the t r i a n g l e were N i e o p o l i s , A p o l l o n i a and Dyrrhachium, r e g u l a r p o r t s of c a l l f o r s h i p s from I t a l y , 17 The V i a E g n a t i a ropved from A p o l l o n i a and D y r r h a c h i u s eastward toward Byzantium, T r a v e l l e r s would o f t e n break t h e i r j o u r n e y a l o n g i t a t N e a p o l i s , and t h e r e take s h i p to A s i a M i n o r . P r o f i t a b l e mines e x i s t e d i n Macedonia ( i n the r e g i o n o f P h i l i p p i ) and i n D a c i a . The highway to D a c i a from Greece branched o f f the Y i a E g n a t i a a t T h e s s a l o n i c a . Byzantium was a c i t y o f g r e a t commercial and m i l i t a r y importance* A f r e e and c o n f e d e r a t e c i t y u n t i l 73 A.D., i t was then made a p a r t o f Thrace by V e s p a s i a n . 18 - \ BOTES TO CHAPTER I I 1:~ L o u i s , A n c i e n t Rome a t Work, pp. 152, 153. 2:~ C h a r l e s w o r t h , Trade Routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire, p. 76. 3:- R o s t o v t z e f f , S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y o f the Roman • Empire, p. 1." 4:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 20. 5:- R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t . , p. 235; F i n l a y , Greece Under the Romans, pp. 327, 329. 6:~ Seneca, S p i s t . , 14, 3 ( 9 1 ) , 10; Hon v i d e s , quemadmodum i n A o haia c l a r i s s i m a r u m urbium iam fundamenta consumpta j i i n t neo quicquam e x s t e t , ex 7juo'" ;appareat Ulcus' s a l t i m S u i s s e ? T h i s i s a r h e t o r i c e x a g g e r a t i o n , but r e v e a l s how the Romans f e l t about Greece as a whole. 7:- An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . 17, p. 437. 8:- Mommsen, P r o v i n c e s I , p. 294. 9:- F r a z e r (on Pausanias) V o l . IV, p. 447 - An even worse pass than the l a d d e r of the Bey (which i s one o f the w i l d e s t and most d e s o l a t e t r a c k l T T n Greece"'"^'~§7~4A6T i s t h e E v i l S t a i r c a s T 7 ~ i n t e r m e d i a t e between the Ladder o f the Bey and the Gyros. 10:-* P a u s a n i a s , V, 5, 2; V I , 26, 6. 11:- P l i n y , N.H., XXXVI, 55. 18:~ Paus., I I , 3, 5. 13:- S t r a b o , 8 , 5 , 7 . 14:- Paus., IV, 34. 15:- I b i d . , V, 5, 2. ' 16:- I b i d . , X, 32, 19. V i r g i l , Ge.org., I I , 519 - V e n i t hyems t e r i t u r S i c y o n i a bacca t r a p e t i s . 17:- Paus., V I I , 26, 10. 18:- S t r a b o , 8, 8, 1. 19:- Paus., V I I , 21, 14. Of. P l i n y , I-I.H. , XIX, 20. 20:- Paus., I I I , 21, 6. Cf. Horace, I I , 18, 7-8. E l : - M a r t . V I I I , 28, 9, 22:- J u v e n a l , S a t . , V I I I , 101. 23:- A r n o l d , S t u d i e s of Roman I m p e r i a l i s m , p. 201. 24:- S t r a b o , 8 , 7 , 5 . 25:- A number of s m a l l havens - S t r a b o , 8, 6, 1. Cape Malea a r i s k - S t r a b o , 8, 6, 20 - When you double Malea, f o r g e t y o u r home. 26:- P l i n y , " X , ~ 15, (26) - Quia c o n f i d o , domine. ad curam tuam p e r t i n e r e , n u n t i o t i b i me Ephesum cum omnibus meis 07T£/> M£\eov n a v i g a s s e . 27:- F l a v i u s Z e u x i s , a P h r y g i a n merchant mentioned i n R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t . , p. 536 n. 30. 28:- S t r a b o , By 6, 23» 29:- The A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s , 18, 1 f f . 19 -30:- L a i s t n e r , A Survey o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , p. 420. 31:- Holm, T h e ' H i s t o r y o f Greece, IY, p. 411. 32:- S t r a b o , 8, 6, 20. 33:*- Paus., II, 2, 3. 34:'- I b i d . , I I , 2 , 3 . ' . ' 35:- The D l o l k o s f a c i l i t a t e d movement. S t r a b o , 8, 2, 1; 8, 6, 22: P l i n y , U.H. IV, 10. 36:- Smith, Greek and Roman Bio g r a p h y and Mythology, V o l . I l l , p. 191. 37:- P l i n y , H.H. IV, 10, 38;- S u e t o n i u s , J u l i u s 44, 39:*- I b i d , , C a l i g u l a , 21. 40:- I b i d . , Nero, 19; P l i n y , IKK., IV, 10, 41:- Smith, o p . c i t , , V o l . I , p. 413. • 42:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . o i t . , p. 117. 43:- Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 294. 44:- Henderson:- The L i f e and P r i n c i p a t e of t h e Emperor H a d r i a n , p. 109. 45:- Paus., I, 44, 6. 46:- I b i d . , I , 44, 6. 47:- E r a z e r , o p . o i t . , V o l . II,'p. 547. 48:- Henderson, o p . c i t . , p. 105. 49:- Ferguson, H e l l e n i s t i c - .Athens, p. 458. 50:- Meineke (edT] Fragraelyta Comicorum Graecorum, p a r t I I , p. 794. 51:- S t r a b o , 9, 1, 15. 52:- A r n o l d , o p . c i t . , p. 201. 53:- S t r a b o , 9, 1, 23. •54: - I b i d . , 9 , 1, 23. 55:- Paus., X, 32, 19. 56:- S t r a b o , 9, 1, 23, 57:- An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome,Vol. V, p. 293. 58:- S t r a b o , 6, 3, 8. Of. V i r g i l , A e n e i d , I I I , 506,507 -Provehimur p e l a g o v i c i n a C e r a u n i a j u x t a , unde i t e r I t a l i a m , cursusque b r e v i s s i m u s u n d i s . 59:- A r n o l d , o p . c i t . , p. 198. 60:- S t r a b o , 7, 7, 6. 61:- I n s c r i p t i o n s t o the D i o s c u r i - O I L , I I I , 582-4. There a re many more i n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e i n e x i s t e n c e . 62:- The V i a E g n a t i a i s d e s c r i b e d by S t r a b o , 7, 7, 4 f f . 63:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 115. 64:- The A c t s o f the A p o s t l e s , 16, 8-11. 65:- S t r a b o , f r . 34. 66:- S t r a b o , f r . 33, c f . f r . 36. 67:- P h i l i p p i , a m i n i n g town, Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 501, 68:- Cambridge A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , V o l . X I , p. 232. 69:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , op.cit.7~~P* 119. 70:- I b i d , , pp. 119 - 120. 20 71:- For Greek c i t i e s , see Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 302. 72:~ B y z a n t i n e . E m p i r e , pp. 3, 9, 10, 11. 73:- I b i d . , p. 8." 74;- S u e t o n i u s . Vesp., 8; B j z a n t i n e Empire, p. 8. 75:- A few o f t h e , a n c i e n t a u t h o r s who mention Byzantium:-Herodotus (IV, 144); P o l y b i u s ( I V , 39); T a c i t u s (Ann. I I , 53 and X I I , 6 3 ) . * • 8HAPTER I I I TRADE ROUTES OE ASIA MINOR A c e n t u r y b e f o r e Augustus assumed c o n t r o l o f the Empire, the famous w i l l o f A t t a l u s I I I o f Pergamus brought i n t o Roman hands the t e r r i t o r y which was to be the p r o v i n c e 1 o f A s i a . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s v a l u a b l e c o u n t r y was the s i g n a l f o r a g r e a t i n f l u x o f Roman t r a d e r s and f o r a q u i c k l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the p e n i n s u l a , on the p a r t o f Rome. In the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 129 B.C., the o t h e r r e g i o n s o f A s i a M i n o r were added one a f t e r a n o t h e r t o the t e r r i t o r y c o n t r o l l e d by Rome, some l e g a l l y , o t h e r s through the need f o r s u p p r e s s i n g p i r a c y i n t h i s q u a r t e r , s t i l l o t h e r s through the f o r t u n e s of .8 ' ,• war. By 63 A.D., the whole l a n d was c o m p l e t e l y under Roman r u l e . Rome then had i n i t s hands a v a s t and r i c h p e n i n s u l a , through which t r a d e had passed i n c e r t a i n w e l l -d e f i n e d c h a n n e l s f o r c e n t u r i e s . As i n the case of S y r i a , the 3 p e c u l i a r g e o g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e o f the c o u n t r y had had more t o do w i t h the shaping o f thes e c h a n n e l s than i s u s u a l . In the east,where the p e n i n s u l a i s r o o t e d to Armenia, t h e r e i s a gr e a t rugged mass o f h i g h l a n d s . From t h e s e , two mountain c h a i n s curved westward, e n c l o s i n g A s i a M i n o r on the n o r t h and s o u t h , and l e a v i n g an e x t e n s i v e c e n t r a l p l a t e a u . T h i s 21 #32 p l a t e a u , 200 m i l e s l o n g and 140 m i l e s wide, had s c a t t e r e d over i t morasses, s m a l l r i v e r s which seemed to have no o u t l e t t o the sea, and patc h e s o f c o l d , bare l a n d , u n f i t f o r h a b i t a t i o n . Toward the west, the p l a i n merges a g a i n i n t o mountains t h a t are a spur o f the n o r t h e r n c h a i n , and these extend so f a r as to mingle w i t h the southern range. Two f i n e n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s , the H a l y s and the S a n g a r i u s , f l o w through the n o r t h , and i n the west, s m a l l e r r i v e r s , such as the Hermus and the Maeander, mark out d e f i n i t e c hannels f o r t r a d e . T h i s o u t l i n e of the geography of the co u n t r y has l e d to s e v e r a l obvious c o n c l u s i o n s . The t h r e e main west t o east 4 r o u t e s were those made p o s s i b l e by the S a n g a r i u s , the H a l y s , the Hermus and the Maeander-Lycus v a l l e y s . These the roads f o l l o w e d as f a r as was c o n v e n i e n t , and the n o r t h e r n r o u t e then passed w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y i n t o Armenia. The two o t h e r s , whose r i v e r v a l l e y s were l e s s e x t e n s i v e , would have cut d i r e c t l y through the c e n t r a l p l a t e a u t o reach the e a s t , but because o f i t s b a r r e n n e s s , they were f o r c e d to make wide d e t o u r s . They t h u s moved through the p e n i n s u l a on t h e i r s e p a r a t e ways, w i t h mountains c l o s e p r e s s i n g on one s i d e and s a l t p l a i n s on the o t h e r , f i n a l l y b r e a k i n g t h rough to the sea by the mountain passes about Ta r s u s . The western t e r m i n u s of the south road was Ephesus, 5 the s e l f - s t y l e d , though not o f f i c i a l , c a p i t a l of A s i a * A few y e a r s ago the c i t y was d e s c r i b e d as a p l a c e from which 23 6 m a l a r i a l mosquitoes had d r i v e n every human b e i n g . T h i s unhappy c o n d i t i o n had i t s o r i g i n a t the time when I t t a l u s P h i l a d e l p h u s d e c i d e d to improve the c i t y ' s harbour. H i s i n t e n t i o n was to deepen i t by c o n s t r u c t i n g a mole a c r o s s the mouth of the R i v e r C e y s t e r , but the r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h n a t u r e was the e v e n t u a l r u i n of the c i t y * S i l t was c o l l e c t i n g i n s i d e the mole to an a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t even i n h i s r e i g n . In the Roman p e r i o d , however, Ephesus' commercial supremacy was not y e t j e o p a r d i z e d by the c o n d i t i o n 8 o f the harbour. As Strabo says, "the c i t y , by the advantages which i t a f f o r d s , d a i l y improves, and i s the l a r g e s t mart i n A s i a w i t h i n the Taurus".' The main south road moving east from Ephesus, f i r s t headed south t o the v a l l e y of the Maeander R i v e r , w i t h i t s i n i t i a l stop a t Magnesia. A p p a r e n t l y t h i s c i t y was f a r from e n j o y i n g the p r o s p e r i t y of the o l d f o u n d a t i o n on the s l o p e o f Mount Thorax, and i t i s t h e r e f o r e seldom mentioned by 9 w r i t e r s of the Roman e r a . I n s t e a d the f i r s t p o i n t g e n e r a l l y noted a f t e r the road has l e f t Ephesus, i s T r a l l e s , "a c i t y o f 10 w e a l t h y men", Beyond T r a l l e s the road moved up the Maeander V a l l e y , c r o s s i n g the r i v e r by a b r i d g e a t A n t i o c h . The s i x -11 a r c h e d b r i d g e i s o f t e n found r e p r e s e n t e d on c o i n s o f A n t i o c h , and i t i s supposed t h a t i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n was due t o M 1 A q u i l l i u s . He concerned h i m s e l f w i t h the improvement and r e p a i r s o f roads throughout t h i s r e g i o n j u s t a f t e r Rome 24 came i n t o p o s s e s s i o n o f the p r o v i n c e o f A s i a , Moving a l o n g the r i v e r bank, the road next t u r n e d southeast t o f o l l o w the t r i b u t a r y Lycus, and came i n t o the c i t y o f L a o d i c e a which A n t i o c h u s I I (261-246 B.C.) had founded to strengthen " 12 13 h i s h o l d on the d i s t r i c t , When Strabo saw the p l a c e , i t s p r o s p e r i t y was g r e a t . R i c h g r a z i n g l a n d i n the t e r r i t o r y round about, accounted f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a f i n e q u a l i t y of wool, f o r which L a o d i c e a was famous. Ten m i l e s away, on 14 the••south r o a d , was C o l o s s a e , a l s o famous f o r i t s wool dyed dark p u r p l e , which was o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s v a l u e d than t h a t of L a o d i c e a . However t h e r e was no comparison i n the p r o s p e r i t y of the two towns, s i n c e L a o d i c e a had been p l a n t e d so c l o s e to i t s n e i g h b o r as t o rob i t o f most o f i t s w e a l t h . L e a v i n g these two towns, the road ascended g e n t l y to a p l a t e a u , passed the b i t t e r s a l t l a k e c a l l e d Ana vs., and t u r n i n g n o r t h e a s t , e n t e r e d Apamea, "under Augustus, the most c o n s i d e r a b l e c i t y 15 o f the p r o v i n c e o f A s i a next to Ephesus". P i s i d i a n A n t i o c h , s t r i c t l y a P h r y g i a n c i t y towards P i s i d i a , l a y next on the road, then P h i l o m e l i u m , a f t e r which the road moved south through L y c s o n i a to Iconium. In S t r a b o ' s time Iconium was 16 s t i l l a s m a l l p l a c e , but when P l i n y wrote of i t , i t had 17 assumed c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s . Erom Iconium, s t i l l p u r s u i n g a southward c o u r s e , the road passed Derbe and Laranda, f i n a l l y t u r n i n g n o r t h i n order to r e a c h the e n t r a n c e 18 19 to the C i l i c i a n Gates a t Tyana. B u i l t on the mound of 25 Semiramis, t h i s town was the g u a r d i a n of the n o r t h e r n entrance o f the "Geulek-Boghaz" ( n a t i v e name o f the O i l i c i a n Gates.).,, and as such was s t r o n g l y f o r t i f i e d w i t h s t o u t w a l l s . The pass i t s e l f , j u s t wide enough t o admit a loaded camel, was i n use o n l y between the middle of March and the m i d d l e o f November,, F or t h e r e s t o f the y e a r , g r e a t d r i f t s of snow made passage t h r o u g h the Taurus Mountains i m p o s s i b l e . The southern g u a r d i a n of the pass was Tarsus, 30 m i l e s away on the Cydnus R i v e r , a few m i l e s beyond which the southern road passed i n t o S y r i a . To r e a c h S y r i a through the Amanus Mountains, from 20 Tarsus, i t was p o s s i b l e t o do one o f thr e e t h i n g s . By f o l l o w i n g the Pyramus R i v e r eastward, one e v e n t u a l l y reached the P y l e e Amani (the Bogtche P a s s ) , and, p a s s i n g through i t , c o u l d t u r n south toward the h e a r t o f S y r i a , or make f o r Zeugma, i f d e s i r e d . Secondly, one might pursue the O i l i c i a n and S y r i a n c o a s t s as f a r as Myriandus, then t u r n east i n t o the mountains, and cut through them by the P y l a e S y r i a e . The t h i r d method was to c o n t i n u e on p a s t Myriandus u n t i l S e l e u c i a P i e r i a was reached, from which p o i n t i t was easy enough t o make f o r A n t i o c h a l o n g the v a l l e y o f the Orontes. 21 T a r s u s , as the e a s t e r n t e r m i n u s of the main south road through the p e n i n s u l a , was a h a l f Greek, h a l f A s i a t i c c i t y , a r e s t l e s s spot which had b u s i n e s s r e l a t i o n s w i t h every c i t y i n the w o r l d . The Cydnus R i v e r , on which i t was £6 l o c a t e d , poured i t s waters i n t o an i n l a n d l a k e c a l l e d Rhegma , t o form one o f the famous p o r t s of the a n c i e n t 82 w o r l d . The f o u n d a t i o n s o f i t s warehouses, docks and a r s e n a l s 23 can be seen even now i n the m u d - f i l l e d l a k e . The c i t y o f S t . P a u l was p a r t i c u l a r l y noted f o r i t s 24 weaving o f tough c l o t h made from g o a t s 1 h a i r . T h i s h a i r grew l u x u r i a n t l y t h i c k i n the c o l d atmosphere on the mountain s i d e s . The t e n t - c l o t h the i n h a b i t a n t s made of i t , was c a l l e d c i l i c i u m because of i t s p l a c e o f o r i g i n ( O i i i c i a ) . I t i s proposed now to r e t u r n to the west and f o l l o w the second main highway a c r o s s the c o u n t r v . The o l d 25 R o y a l Road b u i l t by D a r i u s "the o r g a n i z e r " (521-485 B.C.), as p a r t of h i s scheme t o t i e the p a r t s o f h i s Empire t o g e t h e r had had i t s w e s t e r n terminus a t S a r d i s . That p a r t which l a y i n A s i a M i n o r , b e g i n n i n g a t S a r d i s , f i r s t f o l l o w e d the v a l l e y of the Hermus, and then, sweeping northward, touched the 26 H a l y s R i v e r near P t e r i a ( B o g h a z - k e u i ) , and t r a v e l l e d thence 27 to M e l i t e n e . A f t e r l y d i a ' s g l o r y was gone and M i l e t u s and Ephesus had become the prominent c e n t r e s , t r a f f i c d e s e r t e d the v a l l e y of the Hermus, to a l a r g e e x t e n t , f o r t h a t o f the Maeander, coming back onto the o l d r o u t e f a r t h e r e a s t . 28 Herodotus, w r i t i n g i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , d e s c r i b e s the Royal Road as l e a d i n g from Ephesus i n s t e a d o f S a r d i s , and moving northward t h r o u g h Apamea, Synnada and P e s s i n u s to Ancyra ( A n k a r a ) , and then t o the Euphrates a t M e l i t e n e . The 27 Royal Road, d e c l i n e d i n importance a f t e r the conouests o f 29 . . Ale x a n d e r , with, the r e s u l t t h a t i n Roman times i t was much l e s s f r e q u e n t e d than the southern road p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . F£om Synnada, a town l y i n g on the c e n t r a l road, 30 came marble renowned f o r i t s q u a l i t y . I t had been q u a r r i e d f o r many y e a r s b e f o r e the Roman o c c u p a t i o n of the c o u n t r y , but when o p e r a t i o n s were i n Roman hands, f a r l a r g e r b l o c k s ' of i t were c u t , and whole p i l l a r s were shipp e d t o Rome by way o f Ephesus. Many times i t i s mentioned by Roman w r i t e r s 31 of the age.. In M a r t i a l ' s epigrams, the l u x u r y - l o v i n g Tucca i found b u i l d i n g baths o f marble o b t a i n e d from P h r y g i a n Synnas. The n o r t h e r n c o u n t r y was served by a highway which may be thought o f as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e road r u n n i n g through Thrace. On the e a s t e r n s i d e o f the Bosporus, the road, a f t e r l e a v i n g Chalcedon, made f o r Nicomedia. Under 32 D i o c l e t i a n , Nicomedia was the most important c i t y i n A s i a Minor, a k i n d of n o r t h e r n Ephesus, f o r y e a r s g r e a t e r than Byzantium. From Nicomedia a branch road t u r n e d south t o j o i n the c e n t r a l r o u t e a t A n c y r a . The main stem c o n t i n u e d from Nicomedia t h r o u g h C l a u d i o p o l i s , C r a t e s , Amasea. Comana, and N i c o D O l i s t o S a t a l a , w i t h a spur j o i n i n g Amisus and Sinope, 33 from Amasea. The southern branch, j u s t mentioned, was to become one o f the most i m p o r t a n t roads i n A s i a Mi n o r when the seat o Empire was s h i f t e d from Rome t o Byzantium* Since p i l g r i m s £8 r e g u l a r l y made t h e i r way by i t to the H o l y l a n d , i t i s o f t e n * .34 d e s c r i b e d as the P i l g r i m s ' Way* When d e s c r i b e d as such, i t should be v i s u a l i z e d not as a mere branch road to Ancyra,hut as a g r e a t highway l e a d i n g from Bicomedia t h r o u g h Nioaea, Dorylaeum, A n c y r a , A r c h e l a i s and Tyana to Tarsus, and thence to S y r i a . In the n o r t h e r n c o u n t r y through which the t h i r d main highway ran,grew e x t e n s i v e f o r e s t s of maple, oak, f i r and l a r c h , t i m b e r f o r b u i l d i n g s h i p s and f i n e wood f o r 35 f a s h i o n i n g f u r n i t u r e . Over t h e whole of A s i a M i n o r , i n f a c t , t i m b e r c o u l d be found i n q u a n t i t y , except i n L y c a o n i a and Gappadocia. Pontus was a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e p r o v i n c e w i t h i t s f i s h e r i e s , o r c h a r d s , whose f r u i t took the eye of 36 l u c u l l u s , i t s wax, s o f t f l e e c e d sheep, and r e s i n o u s p l a n t s ,37 and gums, b e s i d e s g r e a t herds o f c a t t l e . So much c o n c e r n i n g the main east-west highways whose many branches must be l e f t unmentioned. There was 38 another r o u t e o f g r e a t a n t i q u i t y , moving n o r t h and sout h , j o i n i n g Simope and Amisus on "the B l a c k Sea c o a s t w i t h T a r s u s . The road moved f i r s t t o Amasea and then f o r k e d , the western s e c t i o n g o i n g t o Tavium, the e a s t e r n t o the r e l i g i o u s c e n t r e o f Comana and thence t o Sebastea. The west and east branches 39 converged a g a i n a t Masaca, a few m i l e s s o u t h of the H a l y s E l v e r i n Gappadocia, whence s i x days' t r a v e l l i n g brought one t o T a r s u s . 29 Sinope and Amisus, a t the n o r t h end o f the road • ; 40 were o f M i l e s i a n o r i g i n , and they had pro s p e r e d because o f the great r e s o u r c e s of t h e i r r e g i o n . I n the I m p e r i a l p e r i o d 41 Sinope's p r o s p e r i t y was dimmed to a c e r t a i n degree, but i t found a c o m f o r t a b l e e x i s t e n c e p o s s i b l e t h rough the revenue o b t a i n e d from tunny f i s h e r i e s and from maple and mountain 42 n u t - t r e e f o r e s t s . In e a r l i e r days, when i t had been the p o r t of Oappadocia, i t had g i v e n i t s name to a r e d e a r t h employed i n making p e n c i l s , brought out o f Gappadocia f o r export to Greece and I t a l y . Even when Gappadocia's goods were sent west to the harbour o f Ephesus, the e a r t h c o n t i n u e d to be known as 43 S i n o p i c e a r t h , a memorial o f the o l d importance of t h e p o r t . The main f e a t u r e s o f A s i a M i n o r ' s road system have now been d e s c r i b e d . D o m i t i a n i s perhaps most o u t s t a n d i n g among the emperors who had a hand i n r e p a i r i n g i t s highways s i n c e he r e o r g a n i z e d a l l the roads, i n every q u a r t e r o f the 44 • ' p e n i n s u l a . The F l a v i a n d ynasty took a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n ke e p i n g the n o r t h e r n roads i n good c o n d i t i o n , and under Kerva and h i s s u c c e s s o r s , t h i s i n t e r e s t c o n t i n u e d , not t o a s s i s t t r a d e , but f o r m i l i t a r y r e a sons. Nerva b u i l t a good road between Amasea and Tavium and l e f t a f i n e b r i d g e over the H a l y s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the renewed importance o f the n o r t h e r n roads l e a d i n g t o Byzantium and Pannonia. A l o n g t h r e e roads c e n t e r i n g i n A n c y r a , m i l e s t o n e s of H a d r i a n are i n ev i d e n c e , two o f these roads b e i n g s e c t i o n s o f the main 30 46 n o r t h e r n r o u t e l y i n g between Tavium and J u l i o p o l i s . I t must not be f o r g o t t e n , however, t h a t much t r a f f i c passed a l o n g the c o a s t s o f the p e n i n s u l a , as w e l l 47 as through the i n t e r i o r . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f the west and south c o a s t s , but, s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , i t was the west coast where the m a j o r i t y o f the c h i e f h a r b o u r s l a y . E a s t o f C y z i c u s a l o n g the n o r t h c o a s t was Amisus; no o t h e r harbour i n t h i s r e g i o n was o f g r e a t importance. The south coast c o u l d boast o f T a r s u s , but Myra, A t t a l i a , S i d e , C e l e n d e r i s , S e l e u o i a - might a l l be l e f t un-narned, f o r a 1though they s e r v e d the co a s t t r a d e , t h e y were o t h e r w i s e o f minor importance. The g r e a t harbour c i t i e s , C y z i c u s , M y t i l e n e , Z": Chios, Smyrna, Ephesus, M i l e t u s and Rhodes, l a y on the west, alone: a shore which p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i t e d c o a s t a l t r a f f i c . 48 M y t i l e n e , Lesbos' l a r g e s t c i t y , had two h a r b o u r s , the southern a c l o s e harbour where 50 t r i r e m e s c o u l d come t o anchor a t one time , the n o r t h e r n l a r g e and deep w i t h a mole p r o t e c t i n g i t . 49 At both Rhodes and Chios were har b o u r s w h i c h might be c l o s e d , 50 Chios p o s s e s s i n g a r o a d s t e a d f o r 80 s h i p s , and good anchorages. Ephesus' c o n s t a n t r i v a l Smyrna, had a good 51 harbour t h a t c o u l d be c l o s e d . M i l e t u s , whose v e s s e l s once sai.1 ed as f a r as t h e A t l a n t i c , was not the g r e a t power i t had 52 been 500 y e a r s b e f o r e , but i t c o n t i n u e d t o enjoy a c e r t a i n 53 amount o f p r o s p e r i t y when Strabo was w r i t i n g , and was s t i l l mentioned as a p l a c e o f some importance i n the time o f 31 P a u s a n i a s . Voyaging i n these western waters was cheaper, f r e q u e n t l y more convenient than t r a v e l l i n g by l a n d , and almost always p r e f e r r e d by the t r a v e l l e r . " From the southwest c o a s t and from the i s l a n d s nearby came many v a r i e t i e s of wines, which were j u s t l y i n g r e a t f a v o u r because o f t h e i r f i n e q u a l i t y . Ephesus' wine was poor, and Samos produced none a t a l l , but M e t r o p o l i s , Tmolus, Onidos, Smyrna and A r i u s a have a l l been mentioned 54 by one a u t h o r o r an o t h e r as p r o d u c e r s o f e x c e l l e n t wines. Commerce i n wine p l a y e d a l e a d i n g p a r t i n t h e economic l i f e 55 of A s i a M i n o r as i t d i d i n t h a t o f Greece and I t a l y . Both Greece and A s i a M i n o r h e l p e d to keep s u p p l i e d the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s o f Rome, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the n o r t h e r n shores of the ~ 56 B l a c k Sea. Be s i d e the w e a l t h d e r i v e d from the growing o f the v i n e , t h e r e was much p r o f i t won from the r a i s i n g o f sheep 57 throughout A s i a M i n o r . Once M i l e s i a n wool had been much sought a f t e r as the f i n e s t the w o r l d c o u l d produce, but i n these y e a r s i t had l o s t ground i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the 58 Laodicean p r o d u c t . L a o d i c e a had l a t e r t o v i e w i t h n o r t h G a l l i c towns i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of wool, and a c t u a l l y sent out 59 " i m i t a t i o n K e r v i a n c l o a k s " . To dye the wool c e r t a i n 60 v e g e t a b l e dyes were f r e q u e n t l y employed i n s t e a d o f coccus or murex, and a f i n e r e s u l t was o b t a i n e d by s o a k i n g the wool 61 i n the water o f H i e r a p o l i s . Otherwise, dye from the 32 p u r p l e - f i s h e r i e s o f f M i l e t u s , o r coccus, might be used. S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g coccus was not the b e r r y of the s c a r l e t oak as i t s name would i n d i c a t e , but an i n s e c t , t h i s f a c t as 62 y e t u n d i s c o v e r e d by i t s u s e r s . The p u r p l e - s e l l e r L y d i a , whom St . P a u l met i n Greece, was from T h y a t e i r a , a town a few m i l e s n o r t h o f S a r d i s , where t h e r e were famous p u r p l e dye-works. • F i n a l l y , a few words may be s a i d o f the v a r i o u s m i n e r a l s t o be found i n the p e n i n s u l a and i n the i s l a n d o f Cyprus o f f i t s c o a s t . Q u i t e c o n t r a r y to g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g to be s a i d of g o l d m i n i n g i n A s i a M i n o r d u r i n g the Roman p e r i o d , s i n c e the g o l d mines once so 63 p r o d u c t i v e , were now exhausted. However, th e r e was s t i l l i r o n to be had i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n about the R i v e r Cerasus 64 65 and i n the h i l l s above P h a r n a c i a . S u l p h i d e of l e a d was found ,66 i n C i l i c i a , and r e d s u l p h i d e o f a r s e n i c near P o m p e i o p o l i s . At t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t s l a v e s , men and women a l i k e , grubbed f o r the r e d s u l p h i d e , and remained a t t h e i r t o i l o n l y a s h o r t time b e f o r e d i s e a s e o r death c a r r i e d them o f f . At Ephesus 67 was mined the f i n e s t r e d l e a d i n t h e Empire, s u p e r i o r even 68 to t h a t o f Sisapo i n S p a i n , and from Cappadocia came t a l c , used f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e making o f windows. More important than 69 any of t h e s e , however, was the copper brought out of Cyprus (the conper i s l a n d ) . Only a few r e g i o n s i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n 70 c o u l d produce copper i n any q u a n t i t y , and Cyprus was one o f the s e , and one o f the most i m p o r t a n t . Even a t the p r e s e n t day. 33 71 copper i s mined on the i s l a n d by an American company, working on the v e r y s i t e where the l a b o u r e r s o f Herod the . 72 Great once t o i l e d . T h i s f a c t seems t o bear out the t r u t h 73 of the statement made by S t r a b o , to the e f f e c t t h a t Cyprus had i n e x h a u s t i b l e mines of copper w i t h i n i t . N a t u r a l l y , the making of bronze o c c u p i e d many o f the i n h a b i t a n t s on the i s l a n d , and t h e r e was any number o f workshops f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f bronze a r t i c l e s s c a t t e r e d throughout the 74 l e n g t h and bread t h o f the t e r r i t o r y . SUMMARY 1:- A s i a M i n o r was a c q u i r e d by Rome i n the y e a r s between 129 B.C. and 63 A.P. 2:- Three main west-east highways f o l l o w e d the paths l a i d down by n a t u r e . They were: a) the s o u t h road - Ephesus ... Magnesia ... up the Maeander Y a l l e y t o L a o d i c e s on the t r i b u t a r y l y c u s ... Apamea ... P i s i d i a n A n t i o c h ... Iconium ... Tyann ... T a r s u s . b) the c e n t r a l road - S a r d i s ... up the v a l l e y of the Hermus ... northward t o Ancyra K e l i t e n e on the Eup h r a t e s , l a t e r the r o u t e had i t s western terminus a t Ephesus i n s t e a d of a t S a r d i s . c) the n o r t h e r n road - Nicomedia .... C l a u d i o p o l i s ... C r a t e a ... Amasea ... Comana N i o o p o l i s ... Satal© ... then i n t o Armenia. An i m p o r t a n t branch, southward from Nicomedia to Ancyra. 34 The southern road was of g r e a t e s t importance as a commercial highway, the n o r t h e r n road as a m i l i t a r y highway. The c e n t r a l road was l e a s t i mportant of the t h r e e . The o u t s t a n d i n g n o r t h - s o u t h highway j o i n e d Siraope and Amistis on the B l a c k Sea to Tar s u s . The c h i e f c i t i e s o f A s i a M i n o r : Ephesus - "the l a r g e s t mart i n A s i a w i t h i n the Taurus". Tarsus - had commercial r e l a t i o n s w i t h every c i t y i n the w o r l d * S p l e n d i d harbour i n Lake Rhegma. Hicomedia- l e a d i n g c i t y o f A s i a M i n o r under D i o c l e t i a n . L e a d i n g p r o d u c t s : wine, f i s h , f r u i t s , t i m b e r , wool (and the secondary p r o d u c t s t h e r e o f ) , marble, and some m e t a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y copper. R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a l l the roads took p l a c e under D o m i t i a n . The F l a v i a n emperors were i n t e r e s t e d i n the n o r t h e r n roads f o r m i l i t a r y r e asons, and t h e i r i n t e r e s t was c o n t i n u e d by Berva and h i s s u c c e s s o r s . There was heavy t r a f f i c a l o n g the sea c o a s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the western c o a s t , where C y z i c u s , M y t i l e n e , C h i o s , Smyrna, Ephesus, M i l e t u s and Rhodes were s i t u a t e d . 35 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 1:-2-.. 3:-§:• 6:-7:-8:-9:-10: 11 18: 13: 14: 15-16: 17 .18: 19 20: 21: O O , 23; 24: 25:. 26;. 27' 28-29 30: 31: 32: 33: 34: 35; R o s t o v t z e f f , The S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y o f the Roman Empire, p. 8~» ~~ ; '—-For Rome's a s q u i s i t i o n o f A s i a Min o r see Mommsen, V o l . I , p. 350. D e s c r i p t i o n of the geography o f A s i a Minor i n Zeane, A s i n , V o l . I I , p. 301. Hogarth" I o n i a and the B a s t , pp. 64, 65, S k e e l , T r a v e l i n t h e F i r s t Century, p. 117. Morton, l n _ t h e Steps of S t . P a u l , p. 327. St r a b o , 14, 1, 24. St r a b o , 14, 1, 24. P l i n y , M.H., V.31. Str a b o , 14, 1, 42, C . I . I . I . 557. S k e e l , o p . c i t . , p. St r a b o , 12, 8, 16. Cf. Seneca, Bp_., 102, 21. and T a c i t u s , Ann. IV, 55, 119. See a l s o R e v e l a t i o n s I I I , 17, -I c o u n s e l thee t o buy o f me (not the g l o s s y b l a c k garments o f " T a o d i c e a , b u t ) w h i t e garments t h a t thou mayest c l o t h e t h y s e l f . Of. a l s o A r i s t o p h a n e s , O r n i t h e s , I . 493, Str a b o , 12, 8, 16, St r a b o , 12, 8, 15. I b i d . , 12, 6, 1. P l i n y , BUH. , V. 22. Zeane, " o p . c i t . , Vol. S t r a b o , 12, 2, 7, Ch a r l e s w o r t h , Trade Routes and Commerce o f the Roman Empire, pp. 98, 99", 14, 5, 13; The A c t s o f the A p o s t l e s 14, 5, 10, c f . The A c t s of the A p o s t l e s , , I I , p. 303. 14, 1. 21, 39. 54 A S t r a b o , S t r a b o , Morton, o p . c i t - , p. 58, For s o c k s and l e g g i n g s o f c i l i c i u m see M a r t i a l , XIV, 141, f o r g o a t s ' h ? i r c l o a k s see C i c e r o , V e r r . I I , 1, 95. Hu a r t , A n c i e n t P e r s i a and I r a n i a n C i v i l i s a t i o n , p. P t e r i e was the a n c i e n t H i t t i t e c a p i t a l . l a i s t n e r , Survey o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , p. 54. l a i s t n e r . o p , c i t . , -p. 181. Herodot, V. 52; V I I I , 95. Char lesxv o r t h , op. c i t . , p. 79. Horace, Odes I I I , 1, 41. M a r t i a l . IX, 75. 7. P l i n y , Ad T r a j . , 41; Cf. Ch a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . . , p S k e e l , o p . c i t , , p. 126. P l i n y , N.E. X I I , 56; XVI 5, Paus. . 83. V, 12, 7, 197. See a l s o A r r i a n , P e r i p . , 8 and V i t r . I I , 1, 4, 36 36:- P l i n y , N.H. XV, 102. 37:- The p r o d u c t s of Pontus; F i s h e r i e s - S t r a b o , 7, 6, 2; P l i n y , N.H. IX, 44 f f . Bees and Wax - P l i n y , N.H. X I , 59 and~65; XXI, 77. Sheep - S t r a b o , 12, 3, 13. Resinous p l a n t s and gums - P l i n y , N.H.XII, 47,49,72. C a t t l e - P l u t a r c h , L u o u l l u s . 14. 38:- Herodot% I I , 34. 59:- S t r a b o , 12, 2 — 7 , 8, and 9. 40:- L a i s t n e r , o p . c i t . , p. 125. 41:« S t e e l , - o p . c i t . , p. 131. 42:- S t r a b o , 12, 3, 11. 43:-- I b i d . , 12, 2, 10. 44:- C I I , I I I , 312, 318, and 14184.48. 45:- C I ' l , I I I , 14184.44. 46;- 0 I I , I I I , 13625, 14402 and 14184.58. 60. 61. 47:- See the voyages o f S t . P a u l a l o n g these c o a s t s , : A c t s 20, 1-21, 3. See a l s o P l u t a r c h , Pompey, 76 f o r Pompey's f l i g h t from P h a r s a l u s t o Egypt, and T a c i t u s , Ann. I I , 54-55 f o r the s i g h t s e e i n g voyage o f Germanicus. 48:- S t r a b o , 13, 2, 2. 49:- I b i d . , 14, 2, 5. 50:- I b i d . , 14, 1, 35. • 51:- I b i d . , 14, 1, 37. 52:- L a i s t n e r , o p . c i t . , p. 125. 53:- S t r a b o , 14, 1, 6. 54:- F o r wines mentioned see S t r a b o , 14, 1, 15 and 35; a l s o V i r g i l , Georg., I I , l i n e 98. 65:~ R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t . , p. 67. 56:- I b i d . , p. 67. 57:- Sheep r a i s i n g i n A s i a M i n o r - S t r a b o . 12, 6, 1. cf« P l i n y , • N.H. XXIX, 33, Herodot. V. 49. 58:- Horace, Ep_. I , 17, 30; V i r g i l , Georg., I I I , 306; C i c e r o , V e r r . , I I , 1, 86; P l i n y . N.H. V I I I , 190. 59:- The E d i c t o f D i o c l e t i a n XIX, 27 i n An Economic Survey of AnbierTS Rome', Vol.~'V~~p. 374. 60:- Colossene r e d dye i n S t r a b o , 12, 8, 16. Root dyes o f H i e r a p o l i s , - 13, 4, 14. 61:- S t r a b o , 13, 4, 14. 62:- The A c t s of the A p o s t l e s , 16, 14. 63:- The a n c i e n t s o u r c e s o f g o l d i n A s i a M i n o r , e.g., the mines of A s t y r a near Abydus ( S t r a b o , 13, 1, 23), Lampsacus ( P l i n y , N.H. XXXVII, 193), A t a r n e u s ( S t r a b o , 14, 5, 28), 'the washings o f the P a c t o l u s ( S t r a b o , 13, 4, 5 ) , and the mines o f Mount Tmolus ( S t r a b o , 14, 5, 28), were worked out and abandoned. 64:- S t r a b o , 12, 3, 19. 65:- P l i n y , N.H. XXXIV, 173. 66:- S t r a b o , 12, 3, 40. 67:- P l i n y , N.H. X X X I I I , 114. 37 68:- S t r a b o , 12, 2, 10. 69 :- I b i d . ,-14, 6, 5. 70;- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 88. 71:- Morton, o p . c i t . , p. 129. 72:- Some C y p r i a n copper mines were worked under Augustus as a g i f t or l e a s e t o Herod, Josephus, A n t i q u i t a t e s • Judaicae XVI, 4, 5. 73:- S t r a b o , 14, 6, 5. 74:- 'An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, p. 826. CHAPTER IY THE SILK ROADS TO CHINA Two l o n g and c i r c u i t o u s o v e r l a n d r o u t e s brought the Chinese l u x u r y , s i l k , i n t o the Roman Empire. The purpose of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s to r e v e a l j u s t where these r o u t e s l a y , and how they became known t o western t r a d e r s through e x p l o r a t i o n and conquest. The Roman i n t e r e s t i n the s i l k roads began about the r e i g n o f Augustus. B e f o r e t h a t time, s i l k was v e r y l i t t l e known. Only s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f i t had as y e t been brought out o f China t o the west, and t h a t which d i d re a c h the Empire 2 was s t i l l i n the raw s t a t e . The g r e a t demand f o r s i l k began i n the r e i g n o f T i b e r i u s (A.D. 14-37) and c o n t i n u e d u n c e a s i n g a f t e r t h a t time i n s p i t e o f a l l e d i c t s passed 3 a g a i n s t i t s use. The p e n e t r a t i o n o f Roman t r a d e r s t o the Ear E a s t by the o v e r l a n d r o u t e s began i n e a r n e s t a f t e r 20 B.C., when P a r t h i a n h o s t i l i t y toward Rome weakened t e m p o r a r i l y , and western p e o p l e s were a l l o w e d t o e n t e r the l a n d beyond the Euph r a t e s . Greeks were the f i r s t e x p l o r e r s who went i n t o 5 t h i s c o u n t r y a t the command o f Augustus. W i t h P a r t h i a ' s consent, these made t h e i r way from A n t i o c h down the Euphrates R i v e r t o Greek S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n , thence 38 39 through I r a n , by the Caspian Gates t o Merv and A l e x a n d r i a * - 6 o f the A r a c h o s i a n s (Kandahar). I s i d o r e o f Charax f o l l o w e d t h i s same r o u t e , c o m p i l i n g a l i s t of the s t a t i o n s a l o n g the s i l k road f o r Augustus, but, l i k e the Greeks, he concluded h i s e x p l o r a t i o n a t Kandahar, Whether a t t h i s time the n a t i v e s o f the c o u n t r y beyond made f u r t h e r t r a v e l i m p o s s i b l e , or whether th e men were u n w i l l i n g to r i s k t h e i r l i v e s i n the d i f f i c u l t c o u n t r y t o the e a s t , i s u n c e r t a i n . The f a c t remains however, t h a t f o r the f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s of the Empire, Rome's a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h i s l a n d grew s l o w l y . A c r o s s the e n t r a n c e t o the e a s t e r n c o u n t r y l a y the P a r t h i a n t e r r i t o r y , a f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e , and w i t h i n c e n t r a l A s i a t h e r e were always d i s t u r b a n c e s to hamper the a c t i v i t i e s o f western merchants. A l o g i c a l u o i n t f o r b e g i n n i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of the f i r s t r o u t e t o the E a s t i s a t Zeugma, the famous No r t h S y r i a n b r i d g e over the E u p h r a t e s . B e f o r e the r e i g n of V e s p a s i a n , t h i s b r i d g e was guarded by Rome as i t s one and o n l y .crossing of the r i v e r . As l o n g as Commagene and 8 Gappadocia were c l i e n t s t a t e s , the c r o s s i n g s at M e l i t e n e and Samosata were out of Roman hands, and the b r i d g e a t Zeugma had to t r a n s p o r t the l a r g e r p a r t of Rome's e a s t e r n merchandise. Once a c r o s s the r i v e r the t r a v e l l e r had a c h o i c e o f s e v e r a l roads by which t o r e a c h S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n , 40 where began the t r e k t o the E a s t . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l r o u t e s , l e a d s one t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the Euphrates V a l l e y was by no means i d e a l as a highway, and such 9 • ' i n f a c t , was the case. In a d d i t i o n t o the n a t u r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g the r i v e r as men used the N i l e , t h e r e were troublesome t r i b e s l i v i n g a l o n g the r i v e r banks., w a i t i n g to squeeze the l a s t p o s s i b l e d e n a r i u s out o f merchants 10 p a s s i n g through t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . T h i s f a c t , as w e l l as the heat, drove men t o make t h e i r t r a c k s f a r t h e r n o r t h . T h e r e f o r e , a f t e r l e a v i n g Zeugma and r e a c h i n g Anthemusias, the 11 merchant pursued one of these r o u t e s : a) t o N i s i b i s , v i a Carrhae and R e s a i n a , or v i a Edessa, then t o Nineveh and Ct e s i p h o n ; b) t o Thergubis v i a Carrhae or v i a Ichnae and Nicephorium, then t h r o u g h the c o u n t r y of the S c e n i t e Arabs t o S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n ; c) t o S e l e u c i a and Ctesip h o n a l o n g the v a l l e y of the r i v e r i t s e l f , w i t h l e s s convenience. A word s h o u l d be s a i d about the n e i g h b o r i n g IS 13 f o u n d a t i o n s of S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n . Both l a y on the banks of the T i g r i s , a few m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of the decayed c i t y of Babylon. The f i r s t mentioned was a c i t y of Greek o r i g i n , the o t h e r , the w i n t e r c a p i t a l of the P a r t h i a n s . A l t h o u g h both were t r a d e c e n t r e s of much importance, and a l t h o u g h Strabo speaks f a v o r a b l e of the s i z e and m a g n i f i c e n c e of 41 Gtesiphon, a comparison of the two r e v e a l s t h a t S e l e u c i a alone was of "a s i z e s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant i t s being c a l l e d a c i t y , and t h a t C t e s i p h o n was merely a t h r i v i n g town. 15 I n S e l e u c i a was ga t h e r e d a t h r o n g o f Macedonians, S y r i a n s , Greeks and Jews, and i n the hands o f these men was a l l the power and a l l the w e a l t h t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be.gained from the advantageous p o s i t i o n of the c i t y . I t was no i d l e chance t h a t caused Babylon, S e l e u c i a and Bagdad to grow up i n t h e i r s ucceeding ages almost on top of one another. E a s t of Ct e s i p h o n t r a v e l l e r s f a c e d a steep c l i m b 16 up the Zagros Mountains before r e a c h i n g the I r a n i a n P l a t e a u . T h i s p l a t e a u was, and is . , throughout much of i t s e x t e n t , 17 a dangerous r e g i o n i n which to t r a v e l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was no b o l d t r a c k a c r o s s i t to China. I n s t e a d , the road l e a d i n g toward the E a s t moved n o r t h to s k i r t the d i f f i c u l t t e r r i t o r y , almost b r u s h i n g the Caspian Sea on i t s s o u t h -e a s t e r n shore. To be more e x p l i c i t , the t r a c k cut through 18 the p l a i n s of Media Rhagiana, moving toward the Caspian Gates. P a s t Apamea, i t went on t o the P a r t h i a n c i t y of Hecatornpylos, then c o n t i n u e d to Merv. As t h i s c i t y marked the l i m i t of 19 I s i d o r e o f Charax's t r a v e l s eastward, .one must t u r n to the 20 accounts o f Maes T i t i a n u s f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the e a s t e r n r o a d . The agents sent out by Maes T i t i a n u s to meet Chinese t r a d e r s (c.120 A.D.) p e n e t r a t e d more deeply i n t o 42 the B a s t , s p l i t t i n g i n t o two p a r t i e s a f t e r l e a v i n g Merv. One group pursued the n o r t h e r n road a c r o s s the Oxus R i v e r to Maracanda (Samarcand), ending i t s j o u r n e y a t Kashgar; the o t h e r l a r g e r group made f o r B a c t r a , then f o r the "Stone Tower", and came back t o the n o r t h e r n road a t Kashgar. Maes' agents went v e r y l i t t l e f a r t h e r , but i n l a t e r y e a r s o t h e r men, f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r t r a c k s , reached even 21 l o p Nor and M i r a n . B a c t r a (Balkh) was a t r a d e c e n t r e w i t h a mighty •oast even when A l e x a n d e r used i t as a base from which t o 22 invade I n d i S . At the p r e s e n t t i m e , men c a l l i t the 23 "Mother o f C i t i e s " , and perhaps they are j u s t i f i e d i n t h e i r c l a i m , as w i l l be agreed a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g i t s i n t e r e s t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n . West of i t s t r e t c h e d the road t o P e r t h i a , j u s t d i s c u s s e d . West a l s o l a y the Oxus R i v e r . South and s l i g h t l y e a s t , the v a l l e y of the Indus formed another spoke i n t h i s wheel made o f r o u t e s , and n o r t h e a s t was the highway t o China. T h i s B a c t r a , which was no mere b a r b a r i c t r a d i n g p o s t , p l a y e d a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the t r a d e , of the a n c i e n t E a s t . When the t r a v e l l e r l e f t B a c t r a f o r the "Stone Tower", he f o l l o w e d a road which the B a c t r i a n monarchs 24 Demetrius and Menander, as w e l l as the Kushan k i n g s , had made 25 a v a i l a b l e t o merchants. The "Stone Tower" i t s e l f , overhung the Upper Yarcand R i v e r , and was s i m p l y a f o r t i f i e d town perched on a c r a g , a p l a c e thought t o be Tashkurgan i n 43 S a r i k o l . Here the western people found P a r t h i a n s , I n d i a n s , Kushans and the Chinese w i t h t h e i r b a l e s o f s i l k . How l i t t l e the Greeks and Romans had known of the Chinese can e a s i l y be imagined. By Hero's r e i g n the Romans had not as y e t made d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h them, but they r e a l i z e d t h a t such a r a c e l i v e d n o r t h of I n d i a and t h a t they 26 c a r r i e d on a s i l e n t t r a d e w i t h the West. The Chinese, however, seem to have been a venturesome people a t t h i s stage i n t h e i r h i s t o r y . They knew vaguel y of the e x i s t e n c e o f T a - t s ' i n , which was the Roman Empire, l a r g e l y made up of 27 S y r i a I They knew a l s o of C h i - i h - S a n ( A l e x a n d r i a ) . In order, then, t o s a t i s f y t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about the West, they 28 d i s p a t c h e d an ambassador, Kan Y i n g , t o P a r t h i a and S y r i a i n 97 A.D. T h i s ambassador reached A n t i o c h , would have reached A l e x a n d r i a and even Rome, had'he not been diss u a d e d by s a i l o r s . These s a i l o r s d e s c r i b e d the pangs of sea s i c k n e s s and home s i c k n e s s t o him so v i v i d l y t h a t he would not v e n t u r e on the sea "where s h i p s s a i l e d w i t h t h r e e 29 y e a r s ' p r o v i s i o n s on board". I n s t e a d he turned back a t A n t i o c h , h a v i n g seen enough to convince him t h a t the men of the West were honest. H i s v i s i t t o A n t i o c h i s supposed to have accounted, at l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r Maes T i t i a n u s ' i n t e r e s t i n the s i l k r o u t e , f o r t h i s merchant i s thought to have been one o f the Macedonian Greeks r e s i d i n g i n 30 S y r i a at t h a t time. 44 So .far, the r o u t e through P a r t h i a has dominated t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , and the n o r t h e r n passage has been passed over w i t h o u t comment, f o r no ot h e r reason than t h a t i t s development came a t a l a t e r p e r i o d . I t came i n t o the hands of Rome g r a d u a l l y , as the Romans concerned themselves more and more w i t h the a f f a i r s of Armenia and Ca u c a s i a , and as they t u r n e d t h e i r m i l i t a r y campaigns.to more use than the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e c u r i t y i n t h i s r e g i o n . T h i s other r o u t e to the F a r Bast was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y by Rome because of her 31 c h r o n i c q u a r r e l w i t h P a r t h i a . By Augustus' r e i g n , the Romans were s t i l l l a r g e l y u n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the t e r r i t o r y l y i n g beyond the B l a c k Sea, al o n g the route i n q u e s t i o n . Though Greeks had once e x p l o r e d the h e i g h t s of the Caucasus and the steppes of the 32 Sauromatae, a l l t h e i r f i n d i n g s had now been f o r g o t t e n . The Caspian Sea was regarded as a l a r g e bay r u n n i n g i n t o a no r t h e r n ocean. That t h i s ocean e x i s t e d was "proved" by the f a c t t h a t I n d i a n s had been found l i v i n g among the Suevi 33 i n Germany and a l s o by the f a c t t h a t no l e s s an a u t h o r i t y than P l i n y b e l i e v e d t h a t the voyage from I n d i a t o the Caspian 34 had been made. Thus, the Vo l g a was t o remain an ocean u n t i l Hero's r e i g n , when i t i s known t h a t some r e c o g n i z e d i t s 35 r i g h t f u l p r o p o r t i o n s , though no man had y e t e x p l o r e d i t . 36 H a d r i a n p l a y e d h i s p a r t i n f u r t h e r i n g knowledge of the n o r t h e r n r o u t e by making the B l a c k Sea a,Roman l a k e , by 45 h a v i n g i t s c o a s t s surveyed, and by o r d e r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n to proceed from bases such as P h a s i s , By a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 A.D. the e x p l o r a t i o n was complete, and men were no l o n g e r 37 confused about the n a t u r e o f the Caspian. The l a n d s l y i n g "38 east and n o r t h o f the J a x a r t e s , however, remained unexplored and l a t e r y e a r s saw no f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f these e a s t e r n r e g i o n s owing t o i n c r e a s i n g t r o u b l e s i n the West and t o the a c t i v i t i e s of h o s t i l e t r i b e s i n A s i a . E x p l o r a t i o n ceased then, but exchange over both i n l a n d r o u t e s c o n t i n u e d f o r many y e a r s . In d e t a i l , the n o r t h e r n r o u t e was as f o l l o w s . A f t e r the merchant had l e f t the shores of A s i a M i n o r behind, h i s f i r s t s top was a t P h a s i s , a town i n C o l e h i a n t e r r i t o r y . From P h a s i s , the r i v e r of the same name s t r e t c h e d east t o w i t h i n a few m i l e s of the Cyrus R i v e r , but, as the P h a s i s 39 was n a v i g a b l e o n l y t o the f o r t r e s s c a l l e d Sarapana, t h e r e • 40 was a f o u r day j o u r n e y by l a n d between the two r i v e r s . By V e s p a s i a n ' s time t h e r e was a Roman g a r r i s o n s t a t i o n e d i n 41 t h i s d i s t r i c t a t Harmozica, where the Caucasian Gates (the modern D a r i e l Pass) c o u l d be guarded a g a i n s t r a i d e r s . To r e a c h the Caspian from the r e g i o n about Harmozica, i t • was p o s s i b l e t o choose any of s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l v a l l e y s , which brought the t r a v e l l e r to the sea j u s t n o r t h o f the 48 embouchure of the Araxes. T h i s r i v e r a l s o formed the c o n c l u s i o n of a more s o u t h e r l y road l e a d i n g from Trapesus 4-6 43 and p a s s i n g through Armenia, As t h i s r o u t e , however, ran through more h o s t i l e t e r r i t o r y , Rome was l e s s concerned w i t h i t . W ith the j o u r n e y t o the Caspian completed, the next step was t o reach the mouth of the Oxus, which i n some manner was connected w i t h t h i s sea. The course of the Oxus v a r i e d throughout the c e n t u r i e s , and on maps of the .ancient w o r l d i t i s g e n e r a l l y d e p i c t e d as f l o w i n g northward i n t o the Oxianus Lake. N e v e r t h e l e s s , we have f o r p r o o f of i t s westward course, beside the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the c o u n t r y , the words of Herodotus and S t r a b o , and the f a c t t h a t i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.L., man found i t p o s s i b l e t o t u r n i t 4:4: west a g a i n . By s a i l i n g eastward w i t h the Oxus, Samarkand was reached, or B a c t r a , where the southern P a r t h i a n r o u t e and the n o r t h e r n w a t e r - r o u t e merged. Routes thousands of m i l e s l o n g have been t r a c e d , and a l l f o r the purpose of f o l l o w i n g the t r a v e l s of a m y s t e r i o u s a r t i c l e c a l l e d - s i l k . I t was m y s t e r i o u s , t h a t i s , to the Romans, f o r the Chinese guarded the s e c r e t of i t s source u n t i l the s i x t h c e n t u r y A«D. Europe, u n t i l t h a t time guessed t h a t i t came from the bark of t r e e s , from f l e e c e s combed from l e a v e s , from f l o w e r s , from s p i d e r s , even from 45 b e e t l e s . The s e c r e t f i n a l l y s l i p p e d out when two P e r s i a n 46 m i s s i o n a r i e s , whose thoughts were not e n t i r e l y d i s t r a c t e d from t h i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d , kept t h e i r eyes open w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g i n China. In a second journey made by the two, the a n c e s t o r s of a l l f u t u r e European and w e s t e r n A s i a t i c 47 s i l k worms were brought out o f China i n a h o l l o w cane and d e p o s i t e d a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . The s i x t h c e n t u r y i s beyond the p r o p e r p e r i o d o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n however, and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s i l k and s i l k r o u t e s must be abandoned. SUMMARY 1:- Roman i n t e r e s t i n s i l k and the s i l k roads began about the time o f Augustus. By T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n the use of s i l k was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d among the w e a l t h i e r c l a s s e s . 2:- E x p l o r a t i o n of the f i r s t s i l k road to China began i n e a r n e s t a f t e r 20 B.C. Greek e x p l o r e r s , working f o r Augustus, reached Kandahar, as d i d I s i d o r e of Charax, The agents of Maes T i t i a n u s c o n t i n u e d the e x p l o r a t i o n (c.120 A.D.) and reached some p o i n t a few m i l e s beyond Kashgar. l a t e r y e a r s saw western t r a v e l l e r s even i n Lop Nor and M i r a n . 3:- The f i r s t s i l k road i n d e t a i l : Zeugma S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n ... a c r o s s the Zagros Mountains to the Caspian Gates ... Hecatompylos ... Merv ... (t h e n by e i t h e r o f these roads) -a) .» Samarcand ... Kashgar ... M i r a n ... Lop Nor. b) B a c t r a ... Stone Tower ... Kashgar M i r a n ... Lop Nor. 48 S e l e u c i a and C t e s i p h o n enjoyed g r e a t commercial advantages because of t h e i r f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n on the t r a d e r o u t e s . S e l e u c i a was the g r e a t e r o f the two f o u n d a t i o n s . B a c t r a had been a g r e a t t r a d e c e n t r e f o r c e n t u r i e s before i t had any c o n t a c t w i t h the Roman Empire. To v i s u a l i s e i t s p o s i t i o n i n A s i a , imagine i t as the hub o f a wheel, from which the road to P a r t h i a , the Oxus R i v e r , the V a l l e y o f the Indus, and the highway t o China r a d i a t e d , as the spokes o f the wheel. The Romans never became p r o p e r l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the Chinese. Some e f f o r t was made by the Chinese to g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about th e West i n 97 A.D. , when they d i s p a t c h e d an ambassador to P a r t h i a and S y r i a . The second o v e r l a n d r o u t e to China was developed because o f the need f o r a v o i d i n g the P a r t h i a n s . I t s course l a y from the c o a s t of A s i a M i n o r t o P h a s i s t o the Cyrus (note p a r a l l e l v a l l e y s ) ... the Caspian , the Oxus ... Samarcand or B a c t r a . E x p l o r a t i o n o f the l a n d up t o and s u r r o u n d i n g the Caspian Sea was complete by 150 A.D. The l a n d s e a s t and n o r t h of t h e J a x a r t e s were not e x p l o r e d i n the time of the Roman Empire. S i l k worms were brought from China t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y A.D. A l l f u t u r e European and western A s i a t i c s i l k worms were descended from t h e s e . 49 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV 1:- See Horace, Sa t . , 1, 2, 101- T i b u l l u s , I I , g, 53; 4, 29; Y i r g i l , Georg., I I , 121. 2:- A r i s t o t l e , H i s t . Anim. Y, 19;- C e r t a i n of the women unwind and "r e e l off~~the cocoons of. these c r e a t u r e s and 'then they weave a f a b r i c o f them, a Coan w o i i i 7 P ~ ^ p h i l a . daughter of P l a t e u s , being c r e d i t e d w i t h the f i r s t " ' i n v e n t i o n of the f a b r i c . Cf. P l i n y , JLH. , XI" 76 - 78. 3;- T a c i t u s , Ann. II, 33 and D i o , L V I I , 15. S i l k much sought a f t e r - H a r t . X I , 8, 5; c f . P l i n y , J5NE. , XXI, 8. 4:- Gary and Warmington, The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 159. 5:- I b i d . , p. 159. 6:- I s i d o r e ' s work i s c o n t a i n e d i n Geog. Graec. Min. 7:* P l i n y , N.H. Y, 86 - t r a n s i t u E u p h r a t i s n o b i l e . T a c i t u s , Ann. .XII, 12 - Zeugma, unde maxime p e r v i u s gmnlfl-Zeugma was the most u s u a l p l a c e o f c r o s s i n g , D i o . XLIX, 19, 3. 8;» Suet. V e s p a s i a n , 8. 9:- A l e x a n d e r the Great a v o i d e d the r i v e r v a l l e y as f a r as p o s s i b l e , a f t e r c r o s s i n g the Euphrates a t Thapsacus on h i s way t o the E a s t . F o r h i s r o u t e , see map f a c i n g p. 148 i n The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s . 10:- S t r a b o , 16, 1, 27. 11:- A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s I I I , 7; D i o . L X V I I I , 19. 12:- l a i s t n e r , A Survey of A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , p. 355; Mommsen, P r o v i n c e s I I p. 8. ' I S : - S t r a b o , 16, 1, 16. 14:« I b i d . , 16, 1, 16. 15:- T a c i t u s , Ann. V I , 42; Josephus, A n t i q u i t a t e s J u d i c e a , X V I I I , 372. 16:- I s i d . , 5; H u a r t , A n c i e n t - P e r s i a and I r a n i a n C i v i l i s a t i o n , p. 10. 17:- Huart, o p . c i t . , p. 4. Cf. S t r a b o , 16, 2. 18:- I s i d . , 7. Through these Gates A l e x a n d e r pursued D a r i u s i n 330 B. C. A r r i a n , A n a b a s i s , I I I . 19 - 21. 19:- Merv was the l i m i t o f I s i d o r e ' s t r a v e l s eastward, I s i d . 14. I s i d o r e t r a v e l l e d as f a r as Kandahar, I s i d . 1 9 , but t h i s l a y t o the south, o f f the s i l k r o ad. 20:- For Maes T i t i a n u s see The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 161. The t r a v e l s o f Maes' agents are r e c o r d e d by Ptolemy, Geog. 1, 12, 8. 21:- At Lop Nor and M i r a n . S i r A u r e l S t e i n found E g y p t i a n . Greek, Roman, C h r i s t i a n , B y z a n t i n e and e s p e c i a l l y S y r i a n i n f l u e n c e i n a r t . A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s p. 162. He found a l s o a s m a l l b a l e of s i l k , p e r f e c t l y p r e s e r v e d . C h a r l e s w o r t h , Trade Routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire, p. 111. 50 22:- i r r i a n , A n a b a s i s I I I , 29, 1. 23:- K e a n e A s i a , V o l . I I , p. 34. 24:- R a w l i n s on, I n d i a and the Western World, p. 115. 25:- P t o l . 1, 127~8T~" - — — — 26:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 160. For the s i l e n t t r a d e o f the Chinese, see Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s , X X I I I , 68. 27:- T a - t s ' i n and C h i - i h - S a n a re mentioned i n The A n c i e n t - E x p l o r e r s , p. 83, 28:- Kan Y i n g i n H i r t h , China and the Roman O r i e n t , not a v a i l a b l e t o me. Reference i n C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . p. 109. 29:- H i r t h , 39. 30:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 161. 31:- Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 21. 32:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 136, 33:- I b i d . , p. 160. 34:- P l i n y , 11.II. V I , 58. St r a b o , 11, 11, 6- P a t r o c l e s a s s e r t s t h a t persons have passed round by sea from I n d i a to H y r c a n i a . Strabo h i m s e l f i s d o u b t f u l of the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a voyage. 35:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 163. 36:- I b i d . , p. 163. 37:- I b i d . , p. 163. 38:- I b i d . , p. 163. : 39:— S t r a b o , IX, 2, 17. 40:- Four days t o Cyrus V a l l e y - St r a b o , 11, 2, 17, F i v e days - P l i n y , H.H. V I , 52, 41:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 105./ Cf. St r a b o , 11, 5, 5. 42:- Araxes' erabouchure-Strabo, 11, 4, 2. Note t h a t the Ar a x e s , as shown by K e i p e r t , f l o w s i n t o the Cyrus, as a t r i b u t a r y . 43:« C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 106. 44:- For s h i f t i n g course of the Oxus, see Hu a r t , o p . c i t . , p. 5, The a u t h o r d i s c u s s e s the statements of Herodotus and Strabo and r e f e r s t o the course of the Oxus i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.P. 45:- F o r v a r i o u s b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n of s i l k see S i l k M a n u f a c t u r e , pp. 7, 8. Paus., V I , 26, 4, 6 - 8 c a l l s s i l k a moTh p r o d u c t . V i r g i l , Georg. I I , 121 -V e l l e r a q u e u t f o l i i s depectant t e n u i a S e r e s . A r i s t o t l e knew a g r e a t d e a l more than V i r g i l about the o r i g i n of s i l k as i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s H i s t , An. V, 19. 46:- S i l k Manufaoture, pp. 11, 12. CHAPTER V TRADE ROUTES OF SYRIA S y r i a i s a s m a l l c o u n t r y , l a c k i n g most o f the p r o p e r t i e s which might be expected t o arouse the c u p i d i t y 1 of n e i g h b o r i n g n a t i o n s , Rome's i n t e r e s t i n i t was provoked not because of any p r o f i t a b l e r e s o u r c e s i t c o n t a i n e d , but l a r g e l y because of the f a c t t h a t i t p r o v i d e d a convenient l a n d b r i d g e between Egypt and A s i a M i n o r , and was c o n v e n i e n t l y c l o s e t o the Euphrates R i v e r and t o the Red Sea. Routes f o l l o w e d i n S y r i a were o l d c e n t u r i e s before the coming of the Romans, and, s i n c e they were n a t u r a l l v 2 determined by the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the c o u n t r y , t h i s l a t t e r s u b j e c t deserves some c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a p r e l u d e t o the c h i e f t o p i c , A s e r i e s of l o f t y mountain c h a i n s s t r e t c h down through S y r i a and leave deep v a l l e y s f o r t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n . The l o n g e s t of these d e p r e s s i o n s , caused by f a u l t i n g on a g i g a n t i c s c a l e , forms the Jordan V a l l e y and Dead Sea b a s i n , and f a r t h e r south a v a s t r i f t , which i s one of the h o t t e s t and most d e s o l a t e r e g i o n s i n the w o r l d . In i t s southwest e x t r e m i t y the r i f t i s l a r g e l y submerged by the Red Sea, thus f o r m i n g the G u l f o f Akabah. To the e a s t , the la n d merges i n t o a f l a t s t o n y c o u n t r y and then becomes d e s e r t , but the west c o a s t s t r i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y the r a i n - d r e n c h e d P h o e n i c i a n c o a s t , l e f t n o t h i n g to be d e s i r e d i n f e r t i l i t y , 51 52 The o n l y p r a c t i c a b l e r o u t e northward from Egypt through S y r i a " n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w e d t h i s f e r t i l e passage way. 3 keeping e n t i r e l y t o the coast u n t i l i t reached Gaza. At t h i s p o i n t the road branched, and w h i l e one p a r t of i t co n t i n u e d on up the co a s t p a s t the harbour c i t i e s , another moved eas t and south to reach.the i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s of Jerusalem and P e t r a , as w e l l as the p o r t of Aelana on the G u l f of Akabah, B e s i d e the co a s t road n o r t h from Gaza to A n t i o c h , another r o u t e t o the n o r t h e r n c a p i t a l , used to a 4 g r e a t e r e x t e n t , c ut eastward from Caesarea, and c r o s s i n g the p l a i n o f E s d r a e l o n , pursued a course a l o n g the v a l l e y of the Upper Jordan u n t i l i t reached the R i v e r L i t a s , The l i t a s and Orontes v a l l e y s extend f o r w e l l over a hundred m i l e s i n an unbroken l i n e between the Lebanon and A n t i l e b a n o n ranges, and so t h e y p r o v i d e d an easy means of t r a v e l p a s t C h a l c i s , 5 . H e l i o p o l i s and Emesa t o A n t i o c h . The t h i r d o f the g r e a t n o r t h - s o u t h highways began w i t h the harbour c i t y o f Aelana f A i l a ) and moved up the Araba Y a l l e y (Wadi-el-Araba) to 6 P e t r a . Here the road d i v i d e d s w i n g i n g west t o Gaza, as mentioned b e f o r e , and- n o r t h to Damascus, Palmyra and the Euph r a t e s , Much used t h o r o u g h f a r e s l i k e w i s e c r o s s e d the c o u n t r y a t a l l c o n v e n i e n t p o i n t s t o l i n k prominent c e n t r e s w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o r t s . Such l i n k s j o i n e d Damascus t o Gaesarea and t o S i d on, and gre a t i n l a n d c e n t r e s such as A n t i o c h and Beroea w i t h each o t h e r . ( t; r | 53 Good communication had always e x i s t e d i n S y r i a and highways needed o n l y the veneer o f the Roman r o a d - l a y e r at j c e r t a i n p o i n t s , g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the c i t i e s , and where s w i f t 7 movement o f t r o o p s was r e q u i r e d . Though roads were f r e q u e n t l y impassable f o r wheeled v e h i c l e s , t h e i r q u a l i t y may be judged by the f a c t t h a t S y r i a i s , a t the pr e s e n t day, po o r e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o communication than i n the time of the 8 Roman Empire. F o r example, A u r e l i a n , on h i s way t o Palmyra, used a road t h a t has so d e t e r i o r a t e d t h a t i t c o u l d not be t r a v e r s e d by an army a t the p r e s e n t time. As r o u t e s grew more remote, t h e i r t r a i l was marked o n l y by stones at the 9 s i d e of the road, and f o r c r o s s i n g the d e s e r t , p r e c a u t i o n s 10 much l i k e those taken to-day had t o be observed. In the event of a d e s e r t journey, water was a pri m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n and charges f o r / i t were made 11 a c c o r d i n g l y . Dues f o r the use of w e l l s by merchants w a t e r i n g t h e i r . c a m e l s and f i l l i n g water b o t t l e s , were met by j o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , or sometimes by the S y n o d i a r c h (caravan l e a d e r ) 12 i f he wished to win p o p u l a r i t y . When merchants f a i l e d to pay t h e i r dues, whether f o r water and food, or f o r merely spending a n i g h t i n some s e t t l e m e n t , p l e d g e s might be taken and s o l d a f t e r a c e r t a i n l a n s e o f ti m e , i f such a c t i o n was 13 considered, p r o p e r by the r e s i d e n t Roman J u r i d i c u s . An abundance of n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , 14 b l a c k b a s a l t i n the Hauran, made the l a y i n g of good roads c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy i n the western p a r t s of S y r i a . In the 54 second c e n t u r y A.D. A n t i o c h and O h a l c i s were j o i n e d by a road, s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n many s e c t i o n s , which was l a i d i n 15 s o l i d r ock and paved w i t h g r e a t l i m e s t o n e b l o c k s . 16 S t . Ghrysostom mentions t h i s highway and t e l l s us t h a t P e r s i a n or Armenian merchants were much more wont to use the road than the S y r i a n s themselves, e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t r a d e was c a r r i e d on l a r g e l y by the former r a t h e r than by the n a t i v e people i n these y e a r s . He a l s o remarks on the b e n e f i t s of Roman o c c u p a t i o n , not a v e r y o r d i n a r y t h i n g i n a S y r i a n w r i t e r , d e c l a r i n g t h a t whenever heavy r a i n f a l l t o r e h o l e s i n the road, the Romans c a r e f u l l y had i t r e p a i r e d , and a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s had s e t up r e s t i n g p l a c e s (khans) by 17 the way. These, khans were n e c e s s a r i l y crude b u i l d i n g s , but , at l e a s t they p r o v i d e d a r o o f f o r the t r a v e l l e r and a s t a b l e .f o r h i s a n i m a l s . -Many improvements i n the road system were added 18 by T r a j a n , t o whom the S y r i a n s owed most of t h e i r m i l e s t o n e s . T h i s Emperor, much l i k e Augustus, had a genius f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and l e f t t r a c e s of h i s enthusiasm and v i g o r i n almost every p r o v i n c e of the Empire. In S y r i a , f o l l o w i n g a p l a n proposed by T i b e r i u s y e a r s b e f o r e , he annexed the t e t r a r c h i e s o f the Eauran and the Nabataean t e r r i t o r y , p r e s e n t i n g t h a t r e g i o n w i t h a s p l e n d i d f r o n t i e r road, which g a t h e r e d up a l l the t r a f f i c coming from Aelana and the p o r t s 19 of the Red Sea t o Damascus and the n o r t h . 55 20 D i o c l e t i a n a l s o a t t a i n e d some fame as a r o a d - b u i l d e r i n S y r i a , where he c o n s t r u c t e d , i n one i n s t a n c e , a paved road northward from Palmyra to the Euphrates c r o s s i n g at Sura, to p r o v i d e a p r o p e r means of c o n n e c t i o n between Osroene and A r a b i a and P a l e s t i n e . In a d d i t i o n , the f r o n t i e r road running through P e t r a and B o s t r a to Palmyra and G i r c e s i u m were 21 s t r e n g t h e n e d by a number of f o r t s of which the most important was c a s t r a p r a e t o r i i Mo ben i (Ea s r Bser) , D e i r - e l - E a h f (some 20 m i l e s southeast of B o s t r a ) and G i r c e s i u m i t s e l f - . A new type of a r c h i t e c t u r e was used i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f o r t s were b u i l t w i t h square towers and s m a l l p o s t e r n s , a s t y l e echoed elsewhere by a r c h i t e c t s of t h i s p e r i o d , and to be found, i n one i n s t a n c e a t Vitodurum i n S w i t z e r l a n d . Few a n c i e n t a u t h o r s have l e f t c l u e s c o n c e r n i n g speed .on these r o u t e s and on the seas about S y r i a , and when t h e r e are d e f i n i t e a c c o u n t s , they ere too o f t e n merely of r o y a l t r a v e l l e r s who would be s u p p l i e d w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y f a c i l i t i e s , A man t r a v e l l i n g by f o o t on these roads would be l i m i t e d , i n the judgment of S i r W i l l i a m Ramsey, t o a speed of 18 m i l e s per day, but w i t h a horse he c o u l d 23 cover 27 m i l e s . S t . P a u l reached J e r u s a l e m from Caesarea i n two days, but a p p a r e n t l y had some k i n d of conveyance. To j o u r n e y from Jerusalem down to A l e x a n d r i a r e q u i r e d . £4 25 s l i g h t l y over two weeks, and t o Edessa, almost f o u r . Seventy days i s the time mentioned by S t , Chrysostom as 56 n e c e s s a r y f o r a t r i p t o Babylon from A n t i o c h , whereas Beroea c o u l d be reached i n two days from the n o r t h e r n 27 c a p i t a l . Another d e f i n i t e time p e r i o d a p p l i e s t o the southern J e r i c h o - P e t r a r o u t e and i s s u p p l i e d by Strabo, who 28 says "that t h i s d i s t a n c e was covered i n t h r e e t o f o u r days. N a t u r a l l y such f i g u r e s r e f e r merely to o r d i n a r y merchants and t r a v e l l e r s . Only approximate f i g u r e s f o r speed on the sea 29 r o u t e s can be g i v e n . In C i c e r o ' s time, s h i p s s a i l i n g between S y r i a and Borne might have taken a n y t h i n g between f i f t y and one hundred days, and more,probably the l a t t e r , t o reach p o r t , but w i t h the i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y under the Empire, a summer 30 voyage c o u l d p r o b a b l y have been made i n l e s s -than a month. The p e r i l s o f w i n t e r s a i l i n g would u s u a l l y send t r a v e l l e r s around by the o v e r l a n d r o u t e through Gappadocia and'Phrygia •and so to Greece and Rome. In any case s h i p s made no attempt t o s a i l d i r e c t l y f o r Rome from a S y r i a n p o r t , but chose e i t h e r t o make f i r s t f o r A l e x a n d r i a and then f o r I t a l y , or e l s e t o s a i l around Cyprus and hug the co a s t of Panrphylia 31 and l y c i a u n t i l Rhodes and Samos were reached. C o a s t a l s h i p p i n g i n S y r i a was b r i s k and was c a r r i e d on f r e q u e n t l y by s h i p s b e l o n g i n g t o A s i a M i n o r and 32 A l e x a n d r i a as w e l l as to the harbours of S y r i a i t s e l f . One of S y r i a ' s l e a d i n g h arbours was Tyre, thus d e s c r i b e d 33 by S t r a b o , "Tyre i s wholly, an i s l a n d , b u i l t n e a r l y i n the same manner as Aradus. I t i s joined, to the c o n t i n e n t by a 57 mound, which Alexander r a i s e d when he was b e s i e g i n g i t . I t has two ha r b o u r s , one c l o s e , the other open, which i s c a l l e d the E g y p t i a n harbour". The geographer a l s o remarks on the f a c t t h a t d y e r s , simmering t h e i r p u r p l e - p r o d u c i n g s h e l l - f i s h (murex and buccinum) d e t r a c t s from the p l e a s u r e of r e s i d e n c e i n the c i t y , where e v i d e n t l y b u s i n e s s , not beauty, was the prime i n t e r e s t of the i n h a b i t a n t s . Both Tyre and Sidon 34 were famous the w o r l d over f o r t h e i r dyed c l o t h s ? c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r i o r t o any produced by n e i g h b o r i n g M e d i t e r r a n e a n c i t i e s , 35 and f o r t h e i r g l a s s as w e l l . About the time of the Gaesarean c i v i l wars, the raanufacture of g l a s s had i n c r e a s e d 36 enormously owing t o .the d i s c o v e r y o f g l a s s - b l o w i n g . T h i s had made p o s s i b l e the p r o d u c t i o n of a l l s o r t s of g l a s s household v e s s e l s a t Tyre and Sidon, i n s t e a d of g l a s s 37 l u x u r y a r t i c l e s a l o n e , as f o r m e r l y . Among o t h e r famous S y r i a n harbours was Caesarea, which owed i t s b e g i n n i n g t o the a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of 38 Herod the Gr e a t . I t was twelve y e a r s i n the making, and, modelled on the c o l o n i e s of A l e x a n d e r , was the most up-to-date c i t y i n P a l e s t i n e * To make a breakwater Herod had g r e a t . stones sunk i n twenty fathoms of water u n t i l a mole 800 f e e t wide was formed, r e s u l t i n g i n a harbour of a s i z e 39 to r i v a l t h a t a t Athens. F a r t h e r n o r t h was B e r y t u s , which Augustus developed, as w e l l as Aradus, L a o d i c e a , S e l e u c i a and a h o s t of s m a l l e r p o r t s . S e l e u c i a , whose harbour 58 demanded c o n t i n u a l a t t e n t i o n from e n g i n e e r s , was q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y as a passenger p o r t f o r Cyprus and A s i a M i n o r but d i s a p p o i n t i n g as a commercial p o r t , s i n c e i t was not 40 s u i t a b l e f o r s h i p s of any s i z e or number. One day's s a i l away from S e l e u c i a was the c i t y of 41 A n t i o c h , on the east of which r o u t e s came t o g e t h e r from Apamea, c e n t r a l S y r i a , the i n t e r i o r o f A s i a , and the E u p h r a t e s , Though i t d i d not a t t a i n i t s m a g n i f i c e n c e "by 42 the n a t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f commerce", s t i l l i t l i v e d by 43 t r a d e , and was f i l l e d w i t h w e a l t h y merchant s h i p p e r s . l i v i n g i n a p a r a d i s e of l u x u r y and ease, these more than once p i t t e d t h e i r arrogance a g a i n s t Rome's a u t h o r i t y . 44 H a d r i a n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , l o s t h i s temper w i t h the i r r e s p o n s i b l e i n h a b i t a n t s and planned such a d i v i s i o n of S y r i a t h a t A n t i o c h would have been d e p r i v e d o f some p a r t of i t s w e a l t h . He never c a r r i e d out h i s t h r e a t s a g a i n s t the c a p i t a l however, and i t d i d not s u f f e r a t a l l u n t i l the r e i g n of S e p t i m i u s 45 Severus, seventy y e a r s l a t e r . A l t h o u g h Damascus l a c k e d the b r i l l i a n c e of A n t i o c h , i t s p o s i t i o n made i t the c e n t r e o f a v a s t t r a d e drawn from . 4 6 47 A r a b i a F e l i x , Egypt, Babylon and the Far E a s t . E z e k i e l says of i t , "Damascus was t h y merchant i n the m u l t i t u d e of the wares of t h y making, f o r the m u l t i t u d e of a l l r i c h e s , i n the wine of Helbon, and w h i t e wool". He i s speaking of a c i t y which l o s t i t s r e a l u s e f u l n e s s o n l y when the Suez c a n a l 59 was openedI In the Roman p e r i o d i t was a t the h e i g h t of " ; 48 i t s p r o s p e r i t y , and t h i s was due p a r t l y t o i t s environment. Orchards,gardens and v i n e y a r d s were s t r e t c h e d out about i t on every s i d e , y i e l d i n g q u a n t i t i e s of f i n e o l i v e s , d a t e s , f i g s , p e a r s , plums, pomegranates and a p p l e s , Masses of these were d r i e d f o r e x p o r t , and even the t r e e s themselves were sometimes sent out to I t a l y and the West where thev 49 became a c c l i m a t i z e d . A f i n e f l a x was a l s o grown i n the v i c i n i t y , a p a r t of the S y r i a n crop which h e l p e d to p r o v i d e 50 the w o r l d w i t h i t s f i n e s t l i n e n i n the second c e n t u r y A. P. 51 The r o b b e r s about Damascus were a p a r t i c u l a r source of annoyance t o merchants. Around the c i t y , t h e r e e x i s t e d l a r g e n a t u r a l eaves, of the s o r t found a l l over the c o u n t r y . These p r o v i d e d l o d g i n g f o r l a r g e bands of r o b b e r s , e s p e c i a l l y on the s i d e n e a r e s t A r a b i a F e l i x . , where one cave had been 52 found capable of h o l d i n g 4000 men. The p r e v a l e n c e of b a n d i t s was due p a r t l y t o the f a c t t h a t A r a b i a n nomads depended f o r t h e i r d a i l y bread on p l u n d e r . Beside t h i s , n e i g h b o r i n g p r i n c e s , i n many cas e s , were o n l y too g l a d to extend c o v e r t a i d t o robbers i n order t o share i n the g a i n s . One such -pettv p r i n c e was Zenodorus o f A b i l a , to whom Augustus had 53 g e n e r o u s l y g i v e n the job of p o l i c i n g the Trachon. Needless t o say, any a c t i o n he took was not f o r the b e n e f i t of merchants. As Roman r u l e was elsewhere r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 60 s t r e n g t h e n i n g S y r i a ' s t r a d e r o u t e s , so i n t h i s q u a r t e r a s t r i n g of f o r t s was e r e c t e d t o guard the roads. The Damascus Palmyra road was f o r t i f i e d by a s e r i e s of g a r r i s o n s under the a c t i v e command, p r i m a r i l y , of the S y r i a n l e g i o n s s t a t i o n e d 54 a t Danava. However, i n view of Palmyra's d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r , i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the Empire, as n e u t r a l 55 middleman between the Romans and the P a r t h i a n s , i t i s q u i t e reasonable t o suppose t h a t a p a r t of t h i s r o u t e l a y under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n , The f o r t a t Dmer, which was the second i n t h i s s e r i e s , i s the best known to us, and, t o judge from i t , they were w e l l equipped f o r t h e i r purpose. S i x towers f a c e d the f o u r s i d e s of a r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g , 300 by 350 paces i n s i z e , i n t o each s i d e o f which was l e t a doorway 15 paces i n brea d t h , p r o t e c t e d by a r i n g - w a l l 16 f e e t t h i c k . A l t h o u g h Palmyra was independent i n i t s m i l i t a r y 56 and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i f e u n t i l the r e i g n of T r a j a n , i t was always dependent f o r i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e on the v e r y 57 p r o s p e r i t y o f Rome, i t s c h i e f buyer. For t h r e e c e n t u r i e s t h i s caravan c i t y l y i n g h a l f way between Damascus and the E u p h r a t e s , enjoyed a success u n e q u a l l e d i n the Near E a s t , and g r e a t were the economic advantages r e s u l t i n g from i t s 58 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Rome. The o a s i s was famous f o r i t s f e r t i l i t y and beauty. P l i n y speaks of i t as u r b s n o b i l i s 59 s i t u , d i v i t i i s s o l i e t a g r i s amoenis, but i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l w e a l t h was not so much re s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s prominence as 61 was i t s p o s i t i o n . I t was a n a t u r a l h a l t i n g p l a c e f o r caravans, and'many i n s c r i p t i o n s yet s u r v i v e l e f t by merchants who passed down the Euphrates from Palmyra t o Charax 60 Hispasoanu a t the mouth of the r i v e r . A f t e r H a d r i a n ' s v i s i t t o the o a s i s , merchants were b e n e f i t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n towards B o s t r a and to the . 61 Euphrates, o f m i l i t a r y roads p r o t e c t e d by f o r t s . These were much more l i a b l e t o a f f o r d s a f e t y than the caravan gods A r s u and A z i z u , though h o p e f u l Palmyrene t r a v e l l e r s no doubt c o n t i n u e d t o p e r f o r m r i t e s t o these gods w i t h u n d i m i n i s h e d s i n c e r i t y . An i n t e r e s t i n g r e l i e f d e p i c t i n g the two " l i g h t s of the d e s e r t sky", was d i s c o v e r e d by M a u r i t z Sobernheim and 6£ now r e s t s i n the Damascus museum. One god wears m i l i t a r y d r e s s i n which Roman i n f l u e n c e can be seen, though he i s s t i l l equipped w i t h b a r b a r i c t r o u s e r s . I t I s p o s s i b l e t h a t the two are i d e a l i z e d forms of the s y n o d i a r c h s whose p r o t e c t i o n and a d v i c e were i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o caravan t r a i n s and i n whose honor c o u n t l e s s s t a t u e s were e r e c t e d a t Palmyra. A v a l u a b l e r e l i c o f second c e n t u r y l i f e i n 63 Palmyra i s a t a r i f f - l i s t , which had both a Greek and a S y r i a c v e r s i o n , and which came i n t o being as the r e s u l t of e n d l e s s b i c k e r i n g between merchants and c o l l e c t o r s . U n t i l the y e a r 137 A.D., charges f o r goods had been f i x e d o n l y i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , but a t t h i s time the l o c a l senate arranged a l i s t c o n t a i n i n g a l l p r e v i o u s l y o m i t t e d a r t i c l e s , to put an 6£ end to a r b i t r a r y p r i c e - f i x i n g . Such homely items as prunes and p i c k l e d f i s h a re found mentioned among more romantic goods such as ointment i n a l a b a s t e r cases, on which the charge was 25 d e n a r i i p e r camel l o a d , s p i c e s , s l a v e s , and p u r p l e - d y e d wool. C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the f o r t u n e s of Palmyra, were 64 those of P e t r a , 300 m i l e s or more t o the southwest. When t h i s t r e a s u r e house l o s t i t s p o s i t i o n as emporium f o r E a s t I n d i a n 65 goods, i t s t r a d e was taken over by Palmyra. But f o r c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e t h a t time the .Arabians who dwelt i n i t were 66 masters o f t r a d i n g caravans i n t h e i r "nest among the s t a r s " * Here was the depot f o r i n c e n s e and myrrh from A r a b i a , and f o r s p i c e s , o i n t m e n t s , j e w e l s , s k i n s , i v o r y , c o t t o n , f a b r i c s and s l a v e s from I n d i a , T h i s commercial c i t y drew v a s t Q u a n t i t i e s of g o l d from Rome i n exchange f o r i t s goods and c o n t i n u e d i n s p l e n d i d independence u n t i l i t took T r a j a n ' s 67 a t t e n t i o n and l o s t i t s p r o s p e r i t y i n i n g l o r i o u s a n n e x a t i o n . There were t h r e e passes i n t o P e t r a , a l l o f which c o u l d be e a s i l y b l o c k e d a g a i n s t i n v a s i o n , but the main entrance was on the e a s t e r n s i d e where the road came i n over a r o l l i n g d e s e r t , soueezed through the Siq. beside a 68 deep-troughed mountain stream. The road, which to-day shows s i g n s o f Roman workmanship, c o u l d accommodate only two horsemen a b r e a s t , once they were w i t h i n the t o r t u o u s passage. In a southern suburb o f t h e c i t y were grouped warehouses (hor r e a ) which must have had an immense c a p a c i t y ; i n the 63 n o r t h e r n d i s t a n c e were the khans and q u a r r i e s of A l - B a r i d , and i n the west, the mountains o f Idumaea, s e p a r a t e d from P e t r a by the f o r m i d a b l e , hot depths of the Arsba V a l l e y . I t i s an un q u e s t i o n e d f a c t t h a t when Rome possessed i t s e l f of these S y r i a n t r a d e r o u t e s , commerce was quickened 69 immensely. The b e n e f i t s o f s e c u r i t y and o r d e r l i n e s s were brought t o a l a n d t h a t had been r a v i s h e d by t h i e v e s f o r u n t o l d g e n e r a t i o n s and where n a t i v e r u l e s were f r e q u e n t l y bought w i t h blood. Whether the un s c r u p u l o u s q u i c k - w i t t e d t r a d e r s o f S y r i a brought any b e n e f i t s to Rome i s a n o t h e r 70 q u e s t i o n , best l e f t t o a Roman s a t i r i s t t o answer. SUMMARY 1:- S y r i a ' s commercial importance was due to i t s p o s i t i o n , not to i t s r e s o u r c e s . The c o u n t r y was the "Gateway to the E a s t " . 2;~ The road-system was complete l o n g before the Roman o c c u p a t i o n . Perhaps more than i n any o t h e r c o u n t r y except A s i a M i n o r , the highways were c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e i r d i r e c t i o n by the n a t u r e o f the t e r r a i n . 64 The t h r e e g r e a t n o r t h - s o u t h highways were: a) the ooast road from Gaza t o S e l e u c i a P i e r i a and A n t i o c h . b) the r o a d which l e f t the co a s t a t Oaesarea and pursued the v a l l e y s of the Upper Jordan, l i t a s and Orontes. c) the Petra-Damascus-Palmyra-Euphrates road At P e t r a , Palmyra and A n t i o c h began r o u t e s c o n n e c t i n g S y r i a w i t h A r a b i a and t h e Par E a s t . An abundance o f n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s made r o a d - l a y i n g easy. T r a j a n and D i o c l e t i o n added many improvements to the highways, S y r i a ' s l e a d i n g h a r b o u r s were: Oaesarea, Tyre, Sidon, B e r y t u s , Aradus, l a o d i c e a , S e l e u c i a . Tyre and Sidon were renowned f o r t h e i r dyed s t u f f s and t h e i r g l a s s . S y r i a ' s l e a d i n g c i t i e s were - A n t i o c h , Damascus, Palmyra and P e t r a , The l a s t two were brought under Roman c o n t r o l i n the r e i g n o f T r a j a n . 65 NOTES TO CHAPTER V 1: -3:~ 4:-5:-6:-7:-9:~ 10:-11:-12:-13:-14: ~ 15:-16:-17:-18:-19:-20;-21:-24: 85: 26: 28: 29: 30:-31:-32:-33:-34 :~ Ch a r l e s w o r t h , Trade Routes and Commerce o f the Roman Empire, p. 44. B o u c h i e r , S y r i a as a Roman P r o v i n c e , pp. 1 - 4 . C h a r l e s w o r t h , I b i d . , x> • 38 « B o u c h i e r , op. A r e l i e f map p l a i n l y . R o s t o v t z e f f , Roman Empire o p . c i t . c i t of p. 38< S y r i a r e v e a l s the n a t u r a l r o u t e s v e r y A S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y of the , p. 150, S k e e l T r a v e l i n the F i r s t Century, p. 74; Bouchier, o p . c i t . , p. 166. B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , -p. 167. I b i d . , p. I b i d . , pp. I b i d . , p. I b i d . , p. 170. I b i d . , pp. 42, I b i d * , p. 167, Ad S t a g . i i , 6, H e i c h e l h e i m on Rome, V o l I I I I , 6715 i 168. 169, 170. 170. 167. c i t e d S y r i a , IV, p, 209 O i l . Nos, 14149 208, , 6722, C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . pp. 166, 167. Bo u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. by B o u c h i e r and not a v a i l a b l e t o me i n An Economic Survey of A n c i e n t - 19 f f . , and 117, 199, 203, , p. 23.1: 'Bouchier, op, c i t . . X5 3 • S t r a t a P i o o l e t i a n a , I.L.5. „ 5846; _C I I I , 14380. F o r t i n S w i t z e r l a n d , l 7 c i t e d by C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t , , p The A c t s of the A p o s t l e s , 21, 15. I XJ § X I X f 250 n. 14149 Gha r 1 esw o r t h , op. c i t , S . S i l v i a e Aq, P e r e g r . r, I I , 6, Not B e l l . / P e r s . , - Ad, Stag. p. 24. 47. Not a v a i l a b l e t o me. a v a i l a b l e to me. Procop., , , , I I , 7, 2. Not a v a i l a b l e to me. St r a b o , 16, 4, 21. The amount of time may be e s t i m a t e d p a r t l y from C i c e r o ' s l e t t e r s t o A t t i c u s , V, 2-13. C i c e r o l e f t Rome a t the b e g i n n i n g o f May and reached Ephesus on J u l y 22, w i t h some d e l a y en r o u t e . P l i n y quotes p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s t t i m e s i n N.II. XIX, x 9 a • C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 42 I b i d . , p. 42. St r a b o , 16, 2, 23. St r a b o , 16, 2, 23; V i r g i l , G e o r g . I I , 1.506: C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 51. Cf, V i r g i l , 1.262. Aeneid IV, 66 35:- P l i n y , . j ^ H . , XXXVI, p. 191; Stra b o , 16, 2, 25, Glas s v e s s e l s ' s i g n e d by Ennion of Sidon, g r e a t e s t g l a s s -maker o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D., have been found i n Egypt, Cyprus, I t a l y , South R u s s i a and elsewhere. See the Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, p. 189. 36:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p , c i t . , p. 51. 37:- Economic Survey of A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, p. 190. 38:- • Mommsen, P r o v i n c e s I I , p. "17 9. 39:- I b i d . , p. 121. 40:- I b i d . , pp. 127, 128. 41:- B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , pp. 54-87. 42:- Mommsen, o p , c i t . , p. 127. 43:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . o i t . , p. 46. 44:- Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 135. 45:- B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 68. 46:- I b i d . , pp. 120 - 123. 47:- X X V I I , 18. 48:- P l i n y , IKK. , V, 74; X I I I , 51; Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, p. 138. 49:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 47. 50:- I b i d . , p. 48; Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, JO © 131« 51:- B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 120; St r a b o , 16, 2, 20. 52:- S t r a b o , 16, 2, 20. 53:- Mommsen, o p . c i t , , p. 147. 54:- I b i d . , p. 151. 55:- J.R.S. , V o l . X X I I (1952), P a r t I , p. 107. 56:- B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 142. , 57:- R o s t o v t z e f f , A S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y of the Roman Empire, p. 147. 58:- I b i d . , p. 147. 59:- P l i n y , , V, 88. 60:- An economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, p. 199. 61:- B o u c h i e r , o p . c i t . , p. 142. 62:- J.R.S., V o l . X X I I (1932), p a r t I , p. 108, f f , 63:- An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l . IV, pp. 'dSU~, 251 g i v e s a t r a n s l a t i o n of C. I . S. I I , 5, 1, 3913. 64:- R a w l i n s o n , I n d i a and the Roman Empire, p. 129; St r a b o , 16, 4, 24. 65:- R a w l i n s o n , o p . c i t , , p. 129. 66:- Obadiah, 1, 4. In the Old Testament P e t r a i s known as S e l a . 67:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 53. There a re v a r y i n g statements t o be found r e s p e c t i n g the p r o s p e r i t y of P e t r a a f t e r i t s a n n e x a t i o n . R o s t o v t z e f f i n h i s S o c i a l and Economic His_tory_qf_Jiome, p. 147, has P e t r a e n j o y i n g i t s m o s i T ~ b r i l l i a n t p e r i o d a f t e r the a n n e x a t i o n . But see a l s o R o s t o v t z e f f ' s O u t o f t h e P a s t of Greece and Rome, p, 73. 67 68:- R o s t o v t z e f f , Out of the Past of Greece and Rome, 69 r- B o u c h i e r , op. c i t . , p. ,39 . 70:- J u v e n a l , Sat. I l l , 1. 62 f f . CHAPTER T I TEE EGYPTIAN TRADE ROUTES A d i s c u s s i o n of E g y p t i a n t r a d e r o u t e s i s l a r g e l y a 1 d i s c u s s i o n o f the r i v e r - h i g h w a y t h a t Horner c a l l e d "Egypt's heaven descended stream" and o f A l e x a n d r i a the g r e a t e s t 2 mart i n the h a b i t a b l e w o r l d , I t has o f t e n been o b j e c t e d t h a t t h i s t e r r i t o r y has p r e s e r v e d f o r us such an over-whelming amount of m a t e r i a l as w i t n e s s o f i t s p a s t , t h a t an i n t e l l i g e n t and comprehensive review o f any phase of l i f e w i t h i n i t i s no easy accomplishment„ However, those who put for w a r d t h i s o b j e c t i o n have t o d e a l w i t h l e s s m a t e r i a l •things than t r a d e r o u t e s and w i t h n o t h i n g so m a t t e r - o f - f a c t as a r i v e r , Egypt i s but a r i v e r , w i t h a few roads and c a n a l s appended, and t h i c k k n o t s of people g a t h e r e d a l o n g i t s banks and a t i t s mouth. Two a p p a r e n t l y u n r e l a t e d s e t s of c i r c u m s t a n c e s made t h i s r i v e r v a l l e y a Roman p o s s e s s i o n a t much the same time 3 t h a t S y r i a was f a l l i n g i n t o Roman hands. In the f i r s t p l a c e , a f t e r Rpme'e wars w i t h ' Carthage and Macedonia, I t a l i a n farms began- t o produce an ever d i m i n i s h i n g q u a n t i t y o f g r a i n , u n t i l 4 t h e r e was too l i t t l e t o s a t i s f y the demands of the c a p i t a l , Rome, l o o k i n g overseas f o r i t s g r a i n s u p p l y , found i t s i d e a l p r o v i d e r i n Egypt, where wheat bore a hundred f o l d 68 ] i-I 69 : 5-J ana the n a t i v e s reaped t h r e e crops a y e a r . T h i s i s not t o f say t h a t Egypt became the s o l e source of Rome's g r a i n , but I / I twenty m i l l i o n Roman bushels o f i t were drawn from the N i l e ! . 6 j c o u n t r y a n n u a l l y , .a t h i r d p a r t of Rome's requirement. In the ! second p l a c e , Egypt had been s i n g u l a r l y u n f o r t u n a t e i n the 7 c h a r a c t e r of h e r l a t e r l a g i d r u l e r s , who were l a r g e l y w i t h o u t a b i l i t y t o handle the power i n t h e i r c o n t r o l , even C l e o p a t r a b e i n g concerned more w i t h the i n c r e a s e of h e r revenues than w i t h the p r a c t i c a l development of Egypt's r e s o u r c e s . • N e g l e c t of c a n a l s and o f i r r i g a t i o n n a t u r a l l y caused Rome much, uneasiness:; SBCL annoyance. A c c o r d i n g l y , Augustus i n 30 B.C. assumed e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l of the co u n t r y , f i n d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y a t C l e o p a t r a ' s death. Something o f the. n a t u r e of the N i l e and the s h i p s t h a t s a i l e d i t may now be considered? w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f both a n c i e n t and modern sight-s.eers and e x p l o r e r s who have l e f t a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r voyages. The southern boundary B of Egypt p r o p e r was a t Syene (Aswan), a l t h o u g h Roman r u l e 9 d i d extend over the T w e l v e - m i l e - l a n d i n A e t h i o p i a . At Syene, however, r a p i d s i n the r i v e r rendered n a v i g a t i o n so u n c e r t a i n t h a t these southern reaches of the N i l e may-; 10 s a f e l y be ex c l u d e d as p a r t of t h e t r a d e r o u t e . I t i s known t h a t goods d i d r e a c h Egypt from A e t h i o p i a through the i n l a n d r o u t e , but such A e t h i o p i a n goods as hippopotamus t u s k s and p r e c i o u s stones c o u l d be more e a s i l y sent n o r t h 70 by way o f the Red Sea waters t o the e a s t , In Str a b o ' s time t h r e e Roman c o h o r t s were s t a t i o n e d a t Syene to check f o r a y s on the p a r t of so u t h e r n t r i b e s , who had been accustomed t o making d e s t r u c t i v e r a i d s on the Thebaid u n t i l the Romans took d r a s t i c a c t i o n and made these r a i d s u n p r o f i t a b l e . Egypt was not an easy c o u n t r y t o approach f o r h o s t i l e purposes, and, h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n i t s e l f , had not f o r many y e a r s been roused through greed or IS n e c e s s i t y t o engage i n a g g r e s s i o n and so provoke enmity. Syene, then, marks the sou t h e r n terminus of the t r a d e r o u t e . 14 U n t i l the R i l e reaches E d f u , 60 m i l e s n o r t h , a sandstone b a r r i e r compresses i t i n t o a q u i c k - r u s h i n g stream; at S i l s i l e h , the r i v e r i s o n l y 260 f e e t wide, and the r a p i d s are so narrow, t h a t men once b e l i e v e d t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t was the source o f the N i l e , Beyond S i l s i l e h begins the wi d e n i n g o f the v a l l e y , the dr o p p i n g of s i l t t h a t has been c a r r i e d over 1000 m i l e s , and the heavy l a b o u r of the E e l l a h i n . Most f r e q u e n t l y seen i n the s e waters were the l a r g e b a r i s , used f o r heavy l o a d s , and the same h i g h - s t e r n e d , 15 high-prowed, s q u a r e - r i g g e d c r a f t t h a t s a i l the N i l e to-day, I t was q u i t e u s u a l a l s o t o f i n d canoes, h o l l o w e d from s i n g l e t r e e t r u n k s , and, s i n c e wood was s c a r c e , s h a l l o p s made of 16 papyrus and pact o n s f a s h i o n e d from reeds and rus h e s . Strabo s a i l e d t o P h i l a e i n a boat made of reeds and s u f f e r e d no 71 l i t t l e a n x i e t y throughout the voyage because of the f l i m s v • i 17 b a s k e t - l i k e q u a l i t y of h i s conveyance! Even earthenware? 18 19 boats are spoken of by S t r a b o , and J u v e v a l . The b r i l l i a n t l y c o l o u r e d p h a s e l i , i n shape l i k e a bean-pod, belonged to t h i s c l a s s , and c a r r i e d the E g y p t i a n s around t h e i r farms down on the D e l t a . The D e l t a c a n a l s formed a p e r f e c t means o f communication between one mouth o f the N i l e and the n e x t , i n f a c t a c o n n e c t i o n between any two p o i n t s i t might be ne c e s s a r y t o l i n k i n t h i s t e r r i t o r y i n the i n t e r e s t s of the b u s i n e s s man. To r e a c h these c a n a l s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s a i l 20 over 500 m i l e s from the c a t a r a c t s , but t h i s was a journey upon a road whose e x c e l l e n c e even the Romans c o u l d not e q u a l , Upon i t t h e r e was such ease of movement t h a t land t r a f f i c 21 I n the n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u n u s u a l . The Roman p a s s i o n f o r r o a d - b u i l d i n g had to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r of the few c r o s s - c o u n t r y r o u t e s t h a t were the " t r i b u t a r i e s " of the r i v e r . Sea-borne commerce between eas t and west was by no means r e s t r i c t e d t o the Red Sea - N i l e r o u t e , but c o u l d and d i d take the p a t h p r o v i d e d by the P e r s i a n G u l f and the Euphrates R i v e r . For t h a t reason, the E g y p t i a n s , f o r the sake of m a i n t a i n i n g the importance of t h e i r own t r a d e r o u t e , had to attempt t o d i v e r t t r a d e from the o t h e r , o l d e r highway. I t was n e c e s s a r y t o improve i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e 72 manner the means of r e a c h i n g the K i l e from the Red Sea. Once upon the N i l e , goods were sure of a t l e a s t temporary s a f e t y , but when s t i l l on the Red Sea, where s t r o n g winds 22 blow from the n o r t h f o r n i n e months i n every twelve and where" the waters are studded w i t h r e e f s , a cargo was never out of danger. To minimize the dangers of the Red Sea, p o r t s were b u i l t as f a r south as p o s s i b l e on the east c o a s t of Egypt, and roads were l a i d to connect them t o the N i l e . 24 Two o f the towns thus founded were B e r e n i c e and Myos Hormos, 800 m i l e s to the n o r t h . Founded by Ptolemy P h i l a d e l p h u s they were i n t e n d e d t o a t t r a c t some of the t r a d e t h a t n o r m a l l y 25 went v i a Aelana to P e t r a , and, i n a d d i t i o n , to promote t r a d e w i t h A r a b i a F e l i x , The southern p o r t was at some disadvantage f o r , a l t h o u g h i t had a f i n e n a t u r a l harbour, t h e r e were 26 s h o a l s i n the e n t r a n c e and v i o l e n t winds i n the neighborhood. Moreover, i t was f i v e days f a r t h e r from Coptos on the N i l e , than was Myos Eormos. T h i s l a t t e r p o r t g r a d u a l l y e c l i p s e d the o t h e r t o become the i m p o r t a n t t r a d i n g c e n t r e f o r the 27 A r a b i a n and E a s t I n d i a n t r a d e , a l t h o u g h , i n S t r a b o ' s time, " a l l the I n d i a n , A r a b i a n and such A e t h i o p i a n merchandise as i s i m p o r t e d by the A r a b i a n G u l f " s t i l l passed a l o n g the 28 29 road from B e r e n i c e t o Coptos. P l i n y d e s c r i b e s e i g h t w a t e r i n g - s t a t i o n s (hydreumata) b u i l t a l o n g t h i s road t o l e s s e n the t o r t u r e s of a 257 m i l e d e s e r t j o u r n e y , Coptos, once on the N i l e ' s edge, but now a m i l e from the r i v e r , was the town of g r e a t e s t importance i n the C o p t i t e 73 nome i n the Upper Thebaid, and remained so t o the end of the Soman Empire, i n s p i t e of i t s near d e s t r u c t i o n at the hands c 30 of D i o c l e t i a n ( 296 A.D.). The charges l e v i e d here a g a i n s t t r a v e l l e r s and merchandise coming from B e r e n i c e and Myos Hormos can s t i l l be seen on a s t e l e found a t Ooptos which 31 g i v e s a complete l i s t of p r i c e s . A few of them quoted here: steersmen from the Bed Sea - - 10 drachmae; boatswains - - - - - - - - - - 1 0 drachmae; seamen - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 drachmae; camel t i c k e t s 1 o b o l ; a s h i p ' s mast 20 drachmae. .At A n t i n o e , many m i l e s n o r t h of Ooptos, a n o t h e r 32 road l e f t the r i v e r , and, a f t e r c r o s s i n g the d e s e r t , ran down the east c o a s t between the Mohs P o r p h y r i t e s and the •sea. T h i s was e v i d e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d " to take t r a d e away from Ooptos i n f a v o r of A n t i n o u s ' c i t y , but, as f a r as i s known, Hadrian'.s scheme t o p e r p e t u a t e the memory of h i s f a v o r i t e was not o u t s t a n d i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l . The f a c t t h a t t h i s r o u t e e n t a i l e d a l o n g e r l a n d journey may p o s s i b l y have been the cause. P a r t n e r n o r t h , the p r o x i m i t y of the M i l e to the Red Sea, and the s p r e a d i n g arms of the D e l t a , made p o s s i b l e 33 the l a y i n g of c a n a l s i n l i e u of roads. These water highways came n a t u r a l l y to form not p a r t of the Red Sea - K i l e r o u t e , but a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n t o roads t h a t c r o s s e d A r a b i a P e t r a e a and P a l e s t i n e , I t i s t r u e t h a t Ptolemy 74 P h i l a d e l p h u s c o n s t r u c t e d the p o r t of A r s i n o e at the end of the R i v e r of Ptolemaeus t o r e c e i v e goods d e p a r t i n g on, or coming 34 up, the H e r o o p o l i t e G u l f , but t r e a c h e r o u s winds and c u r r e n t s dimmed the p r o s p e r i t y of the a n c i e n t Suez, and made i t s 35 reason f o r e x i s t e n c e o n l y a minor one. The c a n a l of which the terminus was A r s i n o e , had. had many hands i n i t s making. 36 When r e p a i r e d and modernized by T r a j a n , i t was a l r e a d y over 1400 y e a r s o l d i f we c r e d i t the statement t h a t i t was begun 37 i n the r e i g n of S e t i I . One might compare i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h the c u t t i n g o f the c a n a l at C o r i n t h , which l i k e w i s e s u f f e r e d from th e s u p e r s t i t i o n s and f e a r s o f i t s b u i l d e r s . At any r a t e , the reasons, f o r the d e l a y i n i t s c o m p l e t i o n were absurd i f we e x c l u d e t h a t which p r e v e n t e d the Pharaoh Hecho from c o m p l e t i n g the work. I t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t p r i e s t s t o l d 38 him, "Thou a r t c r e a t i n g t h i s work f o r a b a r b a r i a n " , and, because he might w e l l have been smoothing the p a t h f o r i n v a d e r s from the e a s t , h i s d e s e r t i o n of the t a s k can be 59 u n d erstood. D a r i u s I o f P e r s i a c a r r i e d the c a n a l as f a r as the B i t t e r Lakes, where he p l a n t e d a s t e l e as p r o o f of i t s e x i s t e n c e , and proceeded t o f i l l i t up a g a i n . H i s e n g i n e e r s had u n f o r t u n a t e l y n e g l e c t e d t o begin the channel f a r enough south on the K i l e , , and they f e a r e d t h a t Red Sea waters would f l o o d the f i e l d s and r u i n them. The Romans, on the o t h e r hand, were not accustomed t o being bested by man or 40 n a t u r e i n any type o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . In the r e i g n o f T r a j a n the opening of the c a n a l a t B u b a s t i s was d e s e r t e d f o r a 75 b e t t e r s i t e _ a t Babylon o p p o s i t e Memphis, and the channel, which now ended a t Glysmon, was widened t o 100 f e e t . Thus i t was capable of t a k i n g s h i p s of the l a r g e s t s i z e . At t h i s p e r i o d the c a n a l was known as T r a j a n ' s R i v e r or the Emperor's R i v e r (Augustus amnis). Roads branching westward from the N i l e ventured a c r o s s the d e s e r t o n l y f a r enough t o r e a c h the oases; beyond t h e r e was no sout h - w e s t e r n c o n t a c t w i t h A f r i c a . Along the n o r t h c o a s t l a y a road j o i n i n g A l e x a n d r i a t o Gyrene i n L i b y a , t h i s highway being the o n l y r e a l l y important western " t r i b u t a r y " of the K i l e . Horses or donkeys were the s o l e t r a n s p o r t animals used on Egypt's d e s e r t roads u n t i l some date e a r l y i n the 41 r e i g n of the P t o l e m i e s . Camels made t h e i r appearance as the 42 'most common d r a f t a n i m a l o n l y i n the" Roman p e r i o d , and a p p a r e n t l y proved of no gre a t advantage except when i t was ne c e s s a r y t o move heavy burdens. A camel can e x i s t on d e s e r t v e g e t a t i o n because i t s t e e t h are so long t h a t t h i s t l e s w i l l not p r i c k i t s mouth, w h i l e a horse must have i t s fodder packed a l o n g * Y e t , as many w r i t e r s have p o i n t e d out, the v i c i o u s n e s s and s t u p i d i t y of the camel d e t r a c t g r e a t l y from i t s u s e f u l n e s s . Consequently i t s presence i n Roman Egypt d i d not mean a n o t a b l e change f o r the b e t t e r i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Another disadvantage from the Romen p o i n t of view was the I n a b i l i t y o f the camel to run on a paved road, and t h i s was one o f the reasons f o r the maintenance of the hard-beaten 76 sand t r a c k i n Egypt. The speed of a camel cannot be f a i r l y judged i n such a c l i m a t e . When i t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t the £57 m i l e journey between Coptos and B e r e n i c e r e q u i r e d not 45 l e s s than 11 days and u s u a l l y 1£, i t may be concluded t h a t merchants sought stamina r a t h e r than speed i n t h e i r animals* 44 U n l i k e the i n e x p e r i e n c e d A e l i u s C a l l u s , they knew what h a r d s h i p s to expect from a d e s e r t , and how t o use i t w i t h the l e a s t d i sadvantage t o themselves. Thus f a r n o t h i n g has been s a i d of A l e x a n d r i a , which A l e x a n d r i a n s were p l e a s e d t o c o n s i d e r the r a i s o n d ' e t r e of a l l roads, c a n a l s , r i v e r s , towns and peoples i n Egypt, I t i s s a i d t h a t when b i r d s pecked up the f l o u r i n which Alexander was t r a c i n g i t s s t r e e t s and squares, a 45 wise man p r o p h e s i e d w e a l t h and g l o r y f o r the i n f a n t c i t y , K i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the omen p l e a s e d not o n l y A l e x a n d e r but seemingly the gods as w e l l , f o r no prophecy ever proved more amazingly t r u e . I t i s a c u r i o u s f e c i t h a t p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s 46 of E g y p t i a n s had not r e c o g n i z e d the advantages of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . On the northern' s i d e l a y the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , g i v i n g access to a l l the western w o r l d ; on the south s t r e t c h e d the waters o f l a k e M a r e o t i s and Egypt's n a t u r a l highway, the K i l e . I t i s s a i d t h a t Augustus once contemplated b u i l d i n g a p o r t as r i v a l t o A l e x a n d r i a , but on r e c o g n i z i n g the s u p e r i o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by t h i s 77 s i t e , gave up h i s i d e a and d i d a l l i n h i s power t o f o s t e r 47 A l e x a n d r i a ' s t r a d e i n s t e a d o f harming i t . The p o s i t i o n of the g r e a t E g y p t i a n c i t y has o f t e n been compared w i t h t h a t of S y r i a n A n t i o c h , s i n c e both a c t e d as re-ceiving-houses f o r e a s t e r n i m p o r t s , one a t the end of the Red Sea - Wile r o u t e , the, other at the "end" of the E uphrates R i v e r . However, A n t i o c h , l a y i n l a n d , and had only a poor M e d i t e r r a n e a n harbour t o serve i t , whereas A l e x a n d r i a , s t a n d i n g r i g h t at the M e d i t e r r a n e a n ' s edge, was w e l l equipped to r e c e i v e v e s s e l s of any type or s i z e . With the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 7 f u r l o n g mole, c a l l e d the H e p t a s t a d i o n , between the i s l a n d of Pharos and t h e , v i l l a g e of R h a c o t i s , A l e x a n d e r had 48 formed a double harbour s i m i l a r to those at Syracuse, Sinope, and C y z i c u s . N e i t h e r p a r t of the double harbour, i t must be 49 a d m i t t e d , a f f o r d e d an easy e n t r a n c e , but t h i s d i d not d e t r a c t from the g e n e r a l e x c e l l e n c e of the p o r t . On the e a s t e r n s i d e , where the i s l a n d and the promontory c a l l e d the L o c h i a s approached each other so c l o s e l y that o n l y a narrow lan e was l e f t between them, s a f e t y of n a v i g a t i o n was ensured by a l i g h t h o u s e that" p r o v i d e d a conspicuous mark a g a i n s t a low and r o c k y c o a s t . T h i s , the famous l i g h t h o u s e of 50 A l e x a n d r i a , was 400 f e e t h i g h , and r e q u i r e d 12 y e a r s f o r c o m p l e t i o n . A l e x a n d r i a ' s t h i r d harbour on Lake M a r e o t i s , 5.1 however, enjoyed the g r e a t e s t r e p u t a t i o n . Here the b u l k of the raw m a t e r i a l imported from the E a s t , s i l k , c o t t o n , 78 i v o r y , h i d e s , drugs, s p i c e s , and a host of other p r o d u c t s was conveyed t o the c i t y by a number of c a n a l s t h a t l i n k e d the W i l e to the l a k e . T h i s w e a l t h of imported goods gave t o the t h i r d A l e x a n d r i a n harbour a prominence not gain e d by the othe r two. In s p i t e of the g r e a t i n f l u x o f goods i n t o • A l e x a n d r i a , the e x p o r t s exceeded i m p o r t s by an a p p r e c i a b l e 52 53 ' margin, A l e t t e r t h a t has commonly been a s s i g n e d t o H a d r i a n , but whose r e a l o r i g i n i s obscure, d e s c r i b e s the c i t y as a r e g u l a r h i v e o f workers who t u r n e d out a continuous stream of paper, g l a s s , l i n e n , woolen goods, ointments, and l u x u r y goods. Thus, as a c i t y of f a c t o r i e s A l e x a n d r i a formed an e x c e p t i o n t o the g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t the wea l t h y c i t i e s 54 of the w o r l d a l l won t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y from t r a n s i t t r a d e . C o r i n t h , Ephesus, Rhodes, D e l e s , C y z i c u s and A n t i o c h had indeed r i s e n t o prominence because o f t h e tr a d e t h a t was c a r r i e d on through them, but n e i t h e r A l e x a n d r i a , Tyre, nor Pergamum had won i t s w e a l t h s o l e l y or p a r t i c u l a r l y because i t was s i t u a t e d on a t r a f f i c stream. B e f o r e d i s m i s s i n g A l e x a n d r i a from the d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s proposed to make a few statements on the s h i p s t h a t s a i l e d between i t s h a r b o u r s and Rome. P r o o f of the good 55 s i z e of these merchant s h i p s can be found i n a n o t i c e r e s p e c t i n g the cargo of the t r a n s p o r t v e s s e l which brought the o b e l i s k of the P o r t a d e l Popolo to Rome. T h i s document 79 l i s t s , i n a d d i t i o n to 1200 passengers and 200 s a i l o r s , a cargo of 400,000 Roman bushels (96,475 i m p e r i a l bushels) of wheat, g l a s s , pepper, l i n e n and paper. The care expended i n t r a n s p o r t i n g the v i t a l wheat to Rome was such t h a t even 56 the mad Emperor C a l i g u l a c o n s i d e r e d b u i l d i n g harbours of ref u g e by the S i c i l i a n S t r a i t s t o secure s a f e t y f o r g r a i n s h i p s d u r i n g stormy weather. These s h i p s had the f i n e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n , the g r e a t e s t p r o t e c t i o n and the most h i g h l y 57 s k i l l e d s a i l o r s i t was p o s s i b l e t o p r o c u r e , and no p o r t s were l i n k e d as s e c u r e l y as were A l e x a n d r i a , p u t e p l i and O s t i a . I f a s h i p l e f t A l e x a n d r i a i n the e a r l y summer, i t c o u l d s a i l a l o n g the coast o f A f r i c a d i r e c t l y to Gyrene, •^hen northwest to Rome. However, t h i s d i r e c t r o u t e was 58 p o s s i b l e o n l y u n t i l m i d - J u l y . At t h i s time the E t e s i a n winds blowing from the northwest n e c e s s i t a t e d e i t h e r slow 59 s a i l i n g by n i g h t or an e a s t e r l y c o u r s e . T h i s course was 60 f o l l o w e d by the i l l - f a t e d s h i p of Adramyttium t h a t was c a r r y i n g S t . P a u l and Josephus toward I t a l y , and which s a i l e d f i r s t t o Myra i n l y c i a , a p p a r e n t l y f a r o f f the n a t u r a l r o u t e t o Rome. With the approach of w i n t e r , a s h i p would l i e at anchor i n t h e most co n v e n i e n t p o r t , p r o b a b l y i n Crete o r M a l t a and t h e r e await s p r i n g , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t 61 i t would take perhaps f i v e months to rea c h i t s d e s t i n a t i o n . To s a i l between November 10 and March 10 was regarded as 80 f o o l i s h . There were no compasses, few l i g h t h o u s e s , and an abundance of u n c h a r t e d r e e f s . The s h i p of Adramyttium s t r u c k such a r e e f i n broad d a y l i g h t , when the s a i l o r s attempted to 62 b r i n g t h e i r v e s s e l i n t o shore. The mi d - w i n t e r s a i ] i n g of 63 P h i l o and h i s companions from A l e x a n d r i a t o I t a l y , at the time of C a l i g u l a ' s t h r e a t e n e d e r e c t i o n of h i s s t a t u e i n the temple a t Jerusalem, took p l a c e o n l y because h o r r o r at the outrage caused the f r a n t i c Jews to d i s r e g a r d the h a r d s h i p s o f the sea. The s w i f t e s t known voyage between Rome and 64 A l e x a n d r i a r e q u i r e d n i n e days, but such speed was e x c e p t i o n a l and d o u b t l e s s made p o s s i b l e by the temporary blowing of the 65" E t e s i a n s , C B s l b i l l u s ' s i x day voyage from the s t r a i t s of S i c i l y t o A l e x a n d r i a was most u n u s u a l . As a r u l e , e i g h t e e n 66 t to twenty days was the normal time, and f o r t y days i n w i n t e r , i f the s h i p d i d not l i e i n harbour at some i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the time taken to re a c h the Eayum from Rome, the murder o f P e r t i n s x on March 28, (193 A.D.) was not 67 known i n the Eayum u n t i l a f t e r May 19, s i n c e an o f f i c i a l document drawn up on the l a t t e r date i n c l u d e d h i s name. Another document o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred y e a r s e a r l i e r r e v e a l s t h a t Nerva's death on January 27, (98 A.D.) d i d not become known i n the Eayum f o r almost t h r e e months, f o r t h i s r e c e i p t i s dat e d the t h i r t i e t h of P h a r m o u t h i , i n the 68 second y e a r of Nervs. 81 SUMMARY I ; - The g r e a t e s t t r a f f i c l a n e i n Egypt was the N i l e . A l e x a n d r i a , Egypt's f i r s t c i t y , was a l s o the foremost market o f the w o r l d . 2:- 'The q u a n t i t y of g r a i n Egypt c o u l d produce, as w e l l as the incompetence of i t s l a t e r r u l e r s , brought the co u n t r y i n t o Roman hands. 3:- T r a f f i c a l o n g the N i l e h a l t e d on the south a t Syene. A e t h i o p i a n goods c o u l d be c a r r i e d o v e r l a n d , but were brought n o r t h more e a s i l y by the Red Sea. 4;- N i l e boats were of v a r i e d and un u s u a l t y p e s . For heavy l o a d s the b a r i s was used, 5:~ Cane I s took the p l a c e of roads on t h e D e l t a . 6:^ The E g y p t i a n s improved i n every p o s s i b l e manner the c o n n e c t i o n s between the N i l e and the Red Sea, i n order t o induce t r a f f i c to l e a v e the P e r s i a n G u l f - E u p h r a t e s r o u t e f o r t h e i r own Red Sea - N i l e r o u t e . 7:- The R i v e r of Ptolemaeus ( T r a j a n ' s R i v e r ) was o f minor importance due to the f a c t t h a t i t s e a s t e r n terminus was a t the head of the t r e a c h e r o u s Red Sea wa t e r s , 8:- Camels were common as t r a n s p o r t a n i m a l s o n l y i n the Roman p e r i o d and were of no g r e a t advantage t o merchants. 9;- A l e x a n d r i a ' s s i t e was u n p a r a l l e l e d i n i t s advantages. Of the c i t y ' s t h r e e f i n e h a r bours, t h a t on l a k e M s r e o t i s was the most t h r i v i n g . 62 A r t i c l e s manufactured i n A l e x a n d r i a f o r export i n c l u d e d paper, g l a s s , woolen goods, l i n e n and ointments. The E g y p t i a n c i t y was an e x c e p t i o n t o the r u l e t h a t a l l the w e a l t h y c i t i e s of the w o r l d had won t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y from t r a n s p o r t t r a d e . V e s s e l s s a i l i n g between A l e x a n d r i a and Rome were ex t r e m e l y l a r g e f o r t h e i r t ime. G r a i n s h i p s were p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - b u i l t , well-manned, and w e l l - g u a r d e The season f o r s a i l i n g the M e d i t e r r a n e a n was from March 10 to November 10. U n t i l m i d - J u l y , s h i p s might s a i l westward t o I t a l y from A l e x a n d r i a ; a f t e r t h a t time they f o l l o w e d a course which brought them f i r s t to A s i a M i n o r , and then to I t a l y . The normal time f o r a summer voyage was 18 - 20 days; f o r a w i n t e r voyage, 40 days were r e q u i r e d . 83 NOTES TO CHAPTER VI 1:~ Od., 4,581. 2:~ S t r a b o , 17, 1, 13. 3;- Mommsen, Prov . I I , p, £32. 4:- l a i s t n e r , A Survey of A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , pp. 429, 430. l.toramsec, o p . c i t . , p. 252. 5:- Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 252. 6:- I b i d . , p. 239. 7 C h a r l e s w o r t h . , Trade Routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire, p. 17. 8:~ Tao., Ann. I I , 59. 9:- Gary and Warmington, The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 174 10:- I b i d . , p. 165. 11:- J o u r n a l o f Roman S t u d i e s , V o l . V I I , p a r t I , (1917) p.53. 12:- S t r a b o , 17, 1, 12. 13:- I b i d . , 17, 1, 53. 14:-- Ludwig, The N i l e , p. 323. 15:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 165 ff» 16:- S k e e l , T r a v e l i n the F i r s t Century, p. 106. 17:- S t r a b o , 17, 1, 50. , 18:- I b i d . , 17, 1, 4; c f . V i r g i l , Georg., 4, 287-9. 19:- S a t . , 15,126. 20:- Ludwig, o p . c i t . , p. 439. 21:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 18. 22:- Rappoport, H i s t o r y of Egypt, V o l . X, p. 112. 23:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 68. .'' 24:- Rappoport, o p , c i t . , V o l , X, p. 112. 25:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 68. 26:- S t r a b o , 16, 4, 5. 27:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 21. 88:- S t r a b o , 17, 1, 45, 29:- P l i n y , NVH., V I , 26, 30:- Mommsen, o p , c i t , , p, 251. 31:- Rappoport, o p . c i t . , V o l . X , p. 123. 32:- M i l n e , H i s t o r y o f Egypt under Roman Rule, p. 66. 33:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t , , p. 20, 34:- Rappoport, o p . c i t . , V o l . X, p. 113. 35:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p , c i t . , p. 21, 36:- I b i d . , p. 20. 57:- M a r t i n , Egypt Old and New, p. 47; c f . R a w l i n s o n , H i s t o r y o f A n c i e n t Egypt, V o l . I I , p,£S7. 38:- l u d w i g , o p . c i t . , p. 444. 39:- I b i d . , p. 279. 40:- l u d w i g , o p . c i t . , pp. 168, 169. 41:~ Tarn, H e l l e n i s t i c C i v i l i z a t i o n , p. 159. 42:- R o s t o v t T g f f T ^ S o ^ l a r i d Bconomic__Ei£^y__pJ_the Roman Empire, p. 260. 84 43:- C h s r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 21. 4?4«*•** Reach, Handbook o f P a l e s t i n e , p. 448. 45:- l u d w i g , o p . c i t . , p. 451. 46:- St r a b o , 17, 1, 7. 47;- Dio, I I , 18, 1, 48: - Rappoport, o p . c i t . , V o l . X, p.23; St r a b o , 17, 1, 6. 49:~ S t r a b o , 17, 1, 6. 50:- Tarn, o p . c i t . , p . 279. 51:-- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. £7. 5 ^  * i™s S t r a b o , 17, 1, 7. 531 Henderson, The l i f e and P r i n c i r a t e of the Emperor H a d r i a n , p. 228. 54:- Tarn, o p . c i t . , p. 220. 55:~ Mommsen, o p . c i t . , p. 257. 56:» C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p. 31. 57:- Rappoport, o p . c i t . . V o l . X I , p. 55; c f . An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l , I I , p. 401. 58:^ C h a r l e s w o r t h , d p . c i t . , p. 23. 59:- Rappoport, o p . c i t . , V o l . X I , p. 55. 60:- A c t s o f the A p o s t l e s , 27, 2 f f . 61:- Rappoport, o p , c i t , , V o l . X I , p. 55. 62:- A c t s of the A p o s t l e s , 27, 41. 63:.- Mommsen, op. c i t . , p. 171 f f . 64:- P l i n y , N.H. , XIX, 3. 65:- Rappoport, o p . c i t , , V o l . X I , p. 55. 66:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p . c i t . , p» 23. 67:- M i l n e , op. c i t . , P. 67. 68;- Rrp.nfRl 1 . Hunt and Hogarth. Pa yum Towns and T h e i r P a p y r i , p. 173. * • CHAPTER V I I THE SEA ROUTES TO INDIA AND CEYLON I n d i a , and the P a r E a s t g e n e r a l l y , d r a i n e d enormous q u a n t i t i e s o f g o l d out o f the Empire i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r 1 £ goods. T h e r e f o r e , i t w i l l not be amiss, as P l i n y suggests, to i n v e s t i g a t e the t r a d e r o u t e s i n t h i s q u a r t e r o f the worlds w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e , f i r s t o f a l l , t o the sea r o u t e s . In the e a r l y y e a r s of the Empire. t r a f f i c between I n d i a and the West was s t i l l d i r e c t e d a l o n g the shores of A r a b i a and P e r s i a . To s a i l a s h i p a c r o s s the open seas between the I n d i a n p e n i n s u l a and A r a b i a was i m p o s s i b l e , f o r men had not y e t come to know the winds on those w a t e r s , winds .that might w e l l take t h e i r s h i p s i n t o the v a s t I n d i a n Ocean r a t h e r than t o the h a r b o u r s of I n d i a and A r a b i a . Under these c o n d i t i o n s , the p e t t y p o t e n t a t e s l i v i n g on the c o a s t s of A r a b i a and P e r s i a , c o u l d t a x to the l i m i t s h i p s p a s s i n g a l o n g t h e i r t e r r i t o r y and t h e r e was n o t h i n g a n a v i g a t o r might do t o g escape t h e i r demands. I t was by l e v y i n g t o l l s on p a s s i n g s h i p s , t h a t the 4 Arab emporium of Adana won a g r e a t p a r t of i t s w e a l t h . So s e a l t h y was the a n c i e n t Aden, i n f a c t , t h a t the term A r a b i a F e l i x as o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i t , as to the whole southwest 5 A r a b i a n c o u n t r y . Goods from i t were sent n o r t h r e g u l a r l y over the i n c e n s e r o u t e by I a t h r i b (Medina) and Dedan ( A l - U l a ) 85 86 6 to P e t r a , throughout the t h i r d and second c e n t u r i e s B.C., and t o the end o f the r u l e o f the P t o l e m i e s , i t s r i g h t to ' d i r e c t merchandise was un q u e s t i o n e d . From the s t a n d p o i n t of the Roman t r a d e r , such a c e n t r e c o u l d not be a l l o w e d to remain, and indeed, i t was ca p t u r e d and sacked e a r l y i n the Empire. I t cannot be s a i d w i t h a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y under what Gaesar i t s overthrow was accomplished, or whether the s a c k i n g o f the c i t y was due to the command of a Gaesar, as 7 8 the author of the P e r i p l u s s t a t e s . Some suppose the word "Gaesar" t o be a m i s r e a d i n g f o r E l e a z a r ( H i Azzu) or 9 C h a r i b a e l , both n e i g h b o r i n g k i n g s . Others defend the M. S. r e a d i n g . A c c o r d i n g l y , no d e f i n i t e statement can be made co n c e r n i n g the time or the o r i g i n a t o r of i t s f a l l . 10 An e a r l y attempt to rea c h Adana by the Romans had /taken p l a c e i n the r e i g n o f Augustus 1; but i t had f a i l e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y h u m i l i a t i n g f a s h i o n f o r two reasons. The l e a d e r 11 of the e x p e d i t i o n , A e l i u s G e l l u s , went i n t o the cou n t r y w i t h no i d e a how to fa c e i t s h a r d s h i p s , i n f a c t , a p p a r e n t l y w i t h no i d e a t h a t such h a r d s h i p s e x i s t e d . That any o f h i s 11,000 men s u r v i v e d was n o t h i n g l e s s than a m i r a c l e , In the second p l a c e , the c h i e f m i n i s t e r of Obodas I I I of P e t r a , was IS chosen to guide the e x p e d i t i o n . I t has been i n s i s t e d t h a t no t r e a c h e r y was i n t e n d e d on the p a r t of the m i n i s t e r S y a e l l u s , but, on the o t h e r hand, i t i s not hard t o see d e l i b e r a t e b u n g l i n g i n the f a c t t h a t the Romans wasted months wandering 87 i n the d e s e r t w i t h an e x p e r i e n c e d and w i l y Kabataean a t t h e i r head, Even l e s s s u c c e s s f u l was the e f f o r t of the young p r i n c e Gaius t o emulate Bearchus and e x p l o r e southward from 13 the Euphrates t o A r a b i a F e l i x . Death put an end to h i s ven t u r e before he ever reached southern A r a b i a . However, these attempts r e v e a l e d the i n t e r e s t Augustus f e l t i n w i n n i n g c o n t r o l o f the e a s t e r n t r a d e r o u t e s , i f not f o r h i s own time,. at l e a s t f o r a p e r i o d i n the not d i s t a n t f u t u r e . Succeeding emperors were u n f o r t u n a t e l y l e s s concern-ed w i t h p r o t e c t i n g the Roman r o u t e t o I n d i a . I f the sack of Adana i s a s s i g n e d t o the r e i g n of C l a u d i u s , and the oc c u p a t i o n of Syagrus t o - t h a t of Hero, t h e r e i s n o t h i n g much to be s a i d of any f u r t h e r s t e p s taken on b e h a l f of Roman 14 i n t e r e s t s i n e a s t e r n w a t e r s . No move was made t o subdue A r a b i a and t o put an end t o the c o n t i n u e d r i v a l r y of Muza, or even t o check the i n c r e a s i n g power of the Axomites { ( A e t h i o p i a n s ) . Any p r o g r e s s made i n the development or p r o t e c t i o n o f the t r a d e r o u t e s i n t h i s q u a r t e r was due l a r g e l y 16 t o the e n t e r p r i s e o f Greek s a i l o r s , and. as one a u t h o r i t y p o i n t s out, t h i s development was bound t o f o l l o w i n the t r a i n of the Pax Romana, even w i t h o u t the p e r s o n a l concern of the emperors. The g r e a t e s t impetus to e a s t e r n t r a d e was g i v e n by the d i s c o v e r y t h a t the monsoons would take a s h i p d i r e c t l y a c r o s s t o I n d i a from the Ara b i a n c o a s t . Some time i n the 88 17 r e i g n of T i b e r i u s or C l a u d i u s , a c a p t a i n named H i p p a l u s , l i k e Columbus, grew weary o f s a i l i n g i n the u s u a l waters and put to sea w i t h a p r a y e r i n h i s mouth and the wind behind him. With. 1335 m i l e s between him and Cape Syagrus, h i s f a i t h i n the steady southwest winds was j u s t i f i e d and he brought h i s s h i p to harbour a t the mouth of the Indus. T h i s was a s p l e n d i d achievement but t r a d e r s were not y e t c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f i e d . S h i p s had s t i l l to s a i l down the coast o f I n d i a to r e a c h M u z i r i s , and the o t h e r l e a d i n g p o r t s i n the south of I n d i a , where the coveted e a s t e r n l u x u r i e s were to be found. T r a d e r s who f o l l o w e d the path taken by H i p p a l u s , c o u l d , i t i s t r u e , conclude t h e i r voyage a t Barygaza, an i m p o r t a n t n o r t h e r n p o r t , but th e r e was a c e r t a i n degree o f danger i n v o l v e d i n doing so, Not o n l y was the Nerbudda R i v e r , on which Barygaza was l o c a t e d - d i f f i c u l t to f i n d and e n t e r , but the Rann and the GuJf of Cutch were f o r m i d a b l e 18 spo t s near which to n a v i g a t e , A s a f e r and more advantageous c r o s s i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n C l a u d i u s ' r e i g n by f i r s t c o a s t i n g to Cape Syagrus and then c r o s s i n g the ocean to rea c h h a r b o u r s i n the v i c i n i t y of the modern J a i g a r h or 19 R a j a p u r . From here the t r a d e r c o u l d t u r n n o r t h or south as he wished, complete h i s t r a d i n g , and r e t u r n to the same p o i n t f o r h i s homeward journey," L a t e r i n the r e i g n of C l a u d i u s , an u n i d e n t i f i e d freedman s a i l i n g around A r a b i a , i n a revenue s h i p , was s u r p r i s e d by a monsoon and made a 89 r e c o r d s a i l to Taprobane ( G e y i o n ) , a c c o m p l i s h i n g i n o n l y 20 f i f t e e n days an unexpected and p r o f i t a b l e voyage. T h i s voyage gave new courage to the t r a d e r s o f l a t e r y e a r s , as i s evidenced by the new method o f approach adopted by a merchant 21 who p i o n e e r e d the d i r e c t voyage t o M u z i r i s * H i s p l a n was to have h i s helmsman p u l l c o n s t a n t l y on the rudder and h i s s a i l o r s make a s h i f t of the y a r d . As a r e s u l t , and i n accordance w i t h h i s d e s i g n , the s h i p ' f o l l o w e d a course l i k e the a r c of a c i r c l e , b e g i n n i n g a t the G u l f of Aden and ending a t M u z i r i s • T h i s course c o n t i n u e d to be used by succe e d i n g t r a d e r s , but, as the harbour o f M u z i r i s was f a r from being s a t s i f a c t o r y owing to the swarms of p i r a t e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y 22 and t o the poor anchorage p r o v i d e d , more convenient p o i n t s o f d i s e m b a r k a t i o n were chosen, such as Nelcynda, i n s i d e the •Cochin l a g o o n , o r Barake on i t s o u t e r edge. Alt h o u g h t r a d e r s c o u l d now f o l l o w a d i r e c t r o u t e t o I n d i a , t h i s d i d not d e s t r o y the c o a s t i n g t r a d e a l o n g the 23 shores of A r a b i a and i n the P e r s i a n G u l f . The auth o r o f the 24 P e r i p l u s - M a r i s S r y t h r a e i d e s c r i b e s a voyage t o I n d i a by such a r o u t e . Because he does so from h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , u n l i k e many oth e r a n c i e n t geographers, h i s account i s of much importance. T h i s work, which cannot be dated e x a c t l y , belongs 25 to the r e i g n o f Do m i t i a n c l o s e t o the ye a r 80 A.I)., end may be c o n s i d e r e d a companion p i e c e to P l i n y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a s t e r n t r a d e r o u t e s . 90 26 Muza was the f i r s t p o r t communicating d i r e c t l y w i t h I n d i a , which'the a u t h o r ©f fferiplus v i s i t e d - i o>p h i s way so i i t h i n the Bed Sea, The A r a b i a n n a t i v e s kept up t h e i r own f l e e t of s h i p s and m a i n t a i n e d a busy mart. W i t h i n the c i t y craftsmen t u r n e d out k n i v e s , daggers, h a t c h e t s , and t o o l s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s , f o r shipment to the s o u t h e a s t e r n c o a s t of A f r i c a . From the l a n d came wine and wheat, and from the n e i g h b o r i n g Sabaean t e r r i t o r y , t he famed i n c e n s e and s p i c e s ? The name Muza, s l i g h t l y t r a n s f o r m e d , i s s t i 1 1 used by a 27 v i l l a g e b o r d e r i n g on the modern Mocha, A few m i l e s south 28 was O k e l i s , w h i c h P l i n y s a i d was the best p l a c e t o embark f o r I n d i a , then Adana, which by Do m i t i a n ' s time was occu p i e d by Romans and s e r v e d o n l y as a w a t e r i n g s t a t i o n and a refuge 29 f o r s a i l o r s , Oxit on the south c o a s t of A r a b i a , the author of the 30 P e r i p l u s next touched at Kane, from w h i c h . s h i p s f r e q u e n t l y made the voyage d i r e c t t o I n d i a , t a k i n g on here t h e i r l a s t s u p p ly of food and water. The c o a s t i n g v e s s e l s went on a l o n g the shore of the f r a n k i n c e n s e c o u n t r y . Here an u n h e a l t h y atmosphere made l i v i n g i m p o s s i b l e f o r Europeans, c o n v i c t s being brought to c o l l e c t the i n c e n s e t h a t gave the c o u n t r y i t s f a b u l o u s w e a l t h . A f t e r Kane, the s h i p came t o Gape Syagrus (Has F a r t a k ) and Moscha, a p o r t f o r the incense t r a d e Touching n e x t a t a few towns of minor importance, i t then t u r n e d i n t o the P e r s i a n G u l f t o e n t e r harbour a t Gerrha and 91 Ommana, both of which were t h r i v i n g towns, peopled by men 51 of g r e a t w e a l t h and e n t e r p r i s e , At the n o r t h end of the P e r s i a n G u l f on the month 32 of the Euphrates was Apologus, which by Domitian's time had assumed c o n t r o l o f the t r a d i n g c a r r i e d on e a r l i e r by Teredon 53 and by Charax Hyspaosinu. The l a t t e r was an important s t a t i o n i n S t rabo's t i m e , but, at the c l o s e of the f i r s t c e n t u r y , d e p o s i t s o f mud l a i d down by the r i v e r , had s e p a r a t e d i t by 54 twelve m i l e s from the water. When the a u t h o r of the P e r i p l u s v i s i t e d Apologus he noted the l a r g e amounts of timber - ebony, teak, blackwood and sandalwood - shipped i n from I n d i a . These woods, i n c i d e n t a l l y , had found a market i n t h i s c o u n t r y f o r 35 hundreds o f y e a r s . Imported t i m b e r was needed because the c y p r e s s was the o n l y t r e e t h a t c o u l d be made to grow w e l l i n • the bogs about the mouth o f the r i v e r . In r e t u r n f o r the t i m b e r from Barygaza, P e r s i a n p e a r l s , o f a q u a l i t y i n f e r i o r 36 t o the I n d i a n p r o d u c t , p u r p l e dyes from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , -wine, d a t e s , and s l a v e s were sent back r e g u l a r l y i n the l a r g e 37 I n d i a n v e s s e l s . W i th the P e r s i a n G u l f l e f t behind, the author next came i n t o a p o r t on the middle mouth of the Indus, whose name 38 had been c o r r u p t e d by the Greeks to B a r b a r i k o n . As Greek s a i l o r s always' changed the names of I n d i a n p o r t s to s u i t t h e i r own tongue, they have prevented modern r e a d e r s from i d e n t i f y i n g the town d e f i n i t e l y w i t h l a u s tathmos or 93 A l e x a n d e r ' s Haven. I t seems l i k e l y , however, t h a t 59 Naustathmos and B a r b a r i k o n are one and the same. Here s h i p s dropped the goods meant f o r l l i n n a g a r a , the c a p i t a l of S i n d , which l a y a few m i l e s i n l a n d , t h e n proceeded to Barygaza. At Barygaza a r e g u l a r p i l o t s e r v i c e was made ne c e s s a r y by the p e c u l i a r n a t u r e of the harbour e n t r a n c e . The t i d e i n t h i s p a r t was apt to r u s h out and l e a v e s h i p s s t r a n d e d h e l p l e s s l y on the many s h o a l s , then suddenly sweep 40 back and c a p s i z e them. When the c o a s t i n g t r a d e was at i t s h e i g h t , the t r e a c h e r o u s t i d e d e t r a c t e d l i t t l e from the use o f the p o r t , but i n the l a s t h a l f of the f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D., Barygaza was d e s e r t e d more and more f o r the p o r t s i n the 41 T a m i l c o u n t r y , u n t i l i t s fame was gone. In i t s b r i l l i a n t p e r i o d g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f i v o r y , s i l k , c o t t o n , r i c e , l i q u i f i e d b u t t e r ( g h e e ) , and pepper had been sent out to the west i n r e t u r n f o r t i n and l e a d , unknown i n I n d i a , as w e l l as g l a s s , A s i a t i c and I t a l i a n wine, s l a v e s , and g o l d amd 48 s i l v e r c o i n . Soman money was always welcome i n I n d i a where 43 n a t i v e s p e c i e was s c a r c e and o f a poor q u a l i t y . 44 South of Barygaza was M u z i r i s another g r e a t I n d i a n 45 c i t y . As w e l l as p e a r l s of e x q u i s i t e q u a l i t y , i t had f o r 46 shipment b e r y l s , s a p p h i r e s , and diamonds, s i l k c l o t h , i v o r y , 47 s p i k e n a r d , and malabathrum. Malabathrum c o n s i s t e d o f the l e a v e s of a p l a n t err own i n the Himalaya Mountains and i t was 48 used i n the compounding of an unguent mentioned by Horace. 93 Great sacks of pepper were a l s o e x p o r t e d , but the main p o r t s f o r the s h i p p i n g o f pepper were Barake and Nelcynda some 49 m i l e s to the s o u t h . P e o p l e s o f the West v a l u e d pepper so h i g h l y t h a t i t was s e l l i n g f o r 15 d e n a r i i a pound i n 50 51 P l i n y ' s t i m e , and l a t e r formed a t r e a s u r e d p a r t of A l a r i c ' s p l u n d e r when he and h i s West Goths a t t a c k e d Rome. The c e n t r e of the pepper d i s t r i c t was K o t t o n a r a ( E o l a t t a n a d u ) known i n modern t i m e s as Te H i c h e r r y , from which, the n a t i v e s brought 52 down the pepper i n dugouts. To b r i n g a cargo to Rome from the T a m i l coast r e q u i r e d about s i x t e e n weeks, i f a s h i p s a i l e d i n December or January w i t h the n o r t h e a s t monsoon t o b r i n g i t up to the 53 54 G u l f of Aden. P l i n y would have t h i s the Y o l t u r n u s , or 8«,S,E» wind, but t h i s i s o b v i o u s l y an e r r o r on h i s p a r t . Going out to I n d i a , s a i l o r s shipped'""from p o r t s e i t h e r on the Kabataean s i d e or the E g y p t i a n s i d e o f the Red Sea about 55 mid-summer, before or j u s t a f t e r the r i s i n g of the Dog S t a r , I t then took them a month to get to O k e l i s , and, i f the H i p p a l u s wind was b l o w i n g , f o r t y more days to reach M u z i r i s 56 or o t h e r p o i n t s on the s o uth c o a s t . . E o r t y days, i t s h o u l d be n oted, i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e , as i t has been r e c o r d e d by 57 P l i n y t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e to r e a c h Ceylon from the c o a s t o f 58 c A r a b i a i n o n l y f i f t e e n days. L u c i a n ( 150 A.D.) s t a t e s t h a t a man might t r a v e l from the P i l l a r s o f H e r c u l e s to I n d i a and back, t h r e e t i m e s w i t h i n two Olympiads, s i g h t s e e i n g at a l l the i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e s on the way. He a l s o t h i n k s t h a t the time 94 might come when a man would f l y from Greece to I n d i a i n a day. While t r a d e w i t h the west c o a s t o f I n d i a was advancing r a p i d l y i n the f i r s t c e n t u r y , l i t t l e was a c t u a l l y 59 known o f Ceylon. For a l o n g time the Tamils h e l d a monopoly of the t r a d e w i t h t h a t i s l a n d , thus p r e v e n t i n g western s a i l o r s from c a r r y i n g back t h e i r u s u a l and o f t e n g a r b l e d r e p o r t s t o 60 the geographers, Even Ptolemy had o n l y a rough i d e a of the s i z e o f the l a n d of the l i o n P e o p l e , because he had no other account upon which to base h i s i d e a s except t h a t o f 61 O n e s i c r i t u s , A l e x a n d e r ' s p i l o t , who was a d d i c t e d to romancing. 68 The most i n t e r e s t i n g t a l e c o n c e r n i n g Ceylon i s t o l d by P l i n y 63 and l a t e r r e p e a t e d by Cosmas I n d i c o p l e u s t e s . I t seems t h a t when Annius Plocamus 1 freedman was blown t o Ceylon by an unexpected wind, he a r r i v e d by a c o i n c i d e n c e at the same time as a g a r r u l o u s P e r s i a n , The l a t t e r was a t t e m p t i n g to c o n v i n c e the S i n h a l e s e monarch of the vast s u p e r i o r i t y o f P e r s i a , when the Roman s i l e n c e d him e f f e c t i v e l y by p r o d u c i n g a Roman aureus, The f i n e golden c o i n of the Roman, l a i d b eside the rough s i l v e r one o f the P e r s i a n , r e v e a l e d b e t t e r than any words Rome's p o s i t i o n i n the w o r l d o f t r a d e , P l i n y ' s v e r s i o n l a c k s the P e r s i a n who appears i n Cosmas' t a l e , but the s t o r y i s a good one, no matter what the form. At the time of Cosmas' v i s i t t o Ceylon i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y A,D., i t was a g r e a t c e n t r e of t r a d e , but i n the Roman p e r i o d , western p e o p l e s seem t o have had l i t t l e i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . 95 Along the east coast of I n d i a , n o r t h of Gape Comorin (Kumari) was the Chola Kingdom i n the t e r r i t o r y now c a l l e d Coromandel. I t s main harbours were Camara, Pcduca 66 ( P o n d i c h e r r y ) , and Scpatme. Here s h i p s from the T a m i l c o u n t r y , from the c o u n t r y about the Ganges, and even from 67 the Malay P e n i n s u l a were f r e q u e n t l y to be found. A number 68 of Greeks, c a l l e d Yavana by the n a t i v e s , l i v e d a l o n g t h i s c o a s t , some o f them as a r t i s a n s , o t h e r s as merchants i n the bazaars where a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the Roman e x p o r t s to I n d i a was f o r s a l e . Few western s h i p s , however, p e n e t r a t e d beyond the 69 Chola c o u n t r y . Most of the e x p l o r a t i o n f a r t h e r e a s t was 70 c a r r i e d on i n the second c e n t u r y A.D., as can r e a d i l y be seen from comparing the work of Ptolemy w i t h the P e r i p l u s . T h i s - e x p l o r a t i o n was c a r r i e d on by trader's who were more concerned w i t h f i n d i n g new markets than w i t h c o m p i l i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . A c u r i o u s f e a t u r e of Ptolemy's c o n c e p t i o n o f I n d i a , r e s u l t i n g from t h i s f a c t , i s t h a t he imagines t h a t the c o a s t s , f orming two s i d e s o f the I n d i a n t r i a n g l e , c o n t i n u e 71 r a t h e r as one c o a s t , r u n n i n g from west to e a s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he has the d i s t i n c t i o n o f being the f i r s t western w r i t e r c VE ( 150 A.D.) to mention the Ganges D e l t a , of which the a u t h o r of the P e r i p l u s knew n o t h i n g . 3ven more i n t e r e s t i n g i s the f a c t t h a t he knew o f the e x i s t e n c e of Java ( l a b a d i u s ) a l t h o u g h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i s l a n d i s r e a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n o f 75 Sumatra. Ptolemy c o n c l u d e s h i s remarks on I n d i a when he 96 reaches K a t t i g a r a . I t s l o c a t i o n i s not known e x a c t l y , but i t was p r o b a b l y on the G u l f of Tongking i n Cochin Chins, -nerha-os 74 at H a n o i , where at l e a s t one Roman c o i n has been found. Chinese r e c o r d s t e l l of Roman merchants i n Siam, Annam and Tongking, but the sea t r a d e w i t h Chine was o n l y j u s t under way when i t was ended, the r e s u l t of c i v i l wars and d i s a s t e r s 75 i n the Roman w o r l d . Trade w i t h I n d i a l i k e w i s e s u f f e r e d i n the t h i r d c e n t u r y as can be seen from the l a c k of Roman c o i n s of t h a t 76 p e r i o d i n t h i s c o u n t r y . They were p l e n t i f u l enough i n the f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s t o judge from hoards found i n the southern 77 p e a r l and s p i c e r e g i o n s , . and i n the n o r t h e r n c o t t o n c o u n t r y , where more t r a d e was d i r e c t e d a f t e r Nero's ti m e , l u x u r y t r a d e reached i t s h e i g h t when Nero and h i s emulators were l i v i n g i n a g r a n d i o s e f a s h i o n and were demanding the p r o d u c t s of • 78 sou t h e r n I n d i a and A r a b i a a t a t e r r i f y i n g r a t e . T h e r e f o r e , many Roman c o i n s of t h i s p e r i o d have been found b u r i e d i n 79 the s o u t h . When Vespasian d e c i d e d to c u r t a i l extravagance, t r a d e moved t o n o r t h e r n I n d i a , There i t c o n t i n u e d s t e a d i l y f o r a c e n t u r y , then g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d u n t i l new l i f e was 80 i n j e c t e d i n t o i t i n the B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d . 97 SUMMARY 1:- Ships p l y i n g between I n d i a and the West were r e s t r i c t e d , i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the Empire, t o f o l l o w i n g the 'shores of A r a b i a and P e r s i a . T h e r e f o r e middlemen waxed prosperous at the expense of both e a s t e r n and western t r a d e r s p a s s i n g a l o n g t h e i r shores. 2:- Steps taken i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a Roman t r a d e route to the e a s t ; a) under Augustus - attempts made to a t t a c k Aden, ( A e l i u s G a l l u s and p r i n c e .Gaius) . b) under C l a u d i u s - sack o f Aden, c) under Nero - o c c u p a t i o n of Gape Syagrus. • 3: - Development of rou t e d i r e c t l y a c r o s s the seas between the G u l f of Aden and I n d i a . a) H i p p a l u s ' voyage from Aden - Indus. b) under C l a u d i u s , voyage from Cape Syagrus-J a i g a r h , c) l a t e r , voyage from Aden - M u z i r i s . (Eeloynda or Barake b e t t e r p o i n t s a t which to disembark). 4:- Continuance of c o a s t a l t r a f f i c between I n d i a and the West. Best d e s c r i p t i o n of a c o a s t a l voyage to I n d i a found i n the P e r i p l u s M a r i S r y t h r a e i . 98 5:- I n d i a n p r o d u c t s : t i m b e r , c o t t o n , s i l k , i v o r y , p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , r i c e , ghee, pepper, s p i c e s . 6:- Time r e q u i r e d f o r voyage between T a m i l coast and Rome - - - - - - 16 weeks, (Rome to A l e x a n d r i a - - - - - - 3 weeks ( A l e x a n d r i a to Red Sea P o r t s - 3 weeks ( E g y p t i a n or Habataean P o r t s -to O k e l i s - - - - - - 4 weeks ( G u l f of Aden t o Muz i r i s - - - 6 weeks 7:- L i t t l e was known of Ceylon i n the Roman p e r i o d , s i n c e Tamils h e l d a monopoly o f t r a d e w i t h the i s l a n d f o r many y e a r s , 8:- E x p l o r a t i o n of the e a s t e r n coast o f I n d i a was c a r r i e d on mainly, i n the second c e n t u r y A.I), Some western s h i p s reached China, but sea t r a d e w i t h t h a t c o u n t r y d i d not develop. 9:- D e c l i n e of t r a d e w i t h I n d i a i n the t h i r d c e n t u r y i s m i r r o r e d by l a c k of t h i r d c e n t u r y Roman c o i n s i n the c o u n t r y . F i r s t and Second c e n t u r y Roman c o i n s r e v e a l t h a t t r a d e was d i r e c t e d f i r s t to southern I n d i a , the p e a r l and s p i c e r e g i o n , then t o n o r t h e r n I n d i a , the c o t t o n r e g i o n . 99 NOTES TO CHAPTER V I I 1:- 100,000,000 s e s t e r c e s p e r ye a r . T h i s sum i s c a l c u l a t e d by Mommsen, Prov. I I , p. 300, to re p r e s e n t £1,000,000. See a l s o M a t t i n g l y , Roman Coins, p. 182. 2:-. P l i n y , N^B, X I I , 18. ( 4 1 ) . ~ * ' 3:~ Gary and Wsrmington, The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 74. 4:- Mommsen, o p , c i t , , pp. 293, 294, 5:- I b i d , , p. 289, 6:- Tarn, H e l l e n i s t i c C i v i l i s a t i o n , p. 213. 7: - . P e r i p l u s M a r i s E r y t h r a e i , 26, Not a v a i l a b l e t o me. 8;~ Raw l i n s o n , I n t e r c o u r s e between I n d i a and the Western World, p. 112, 9:- Mommsen, op. c i t . , p. 294 n . l . 10:- Dio L I I I , 29. 11:- Mommsen, op. c i t , , p, 290, p. 291 n. 12:- S t r a b o , 16, 4, 23. 13:- P l i n y , N.H. X I I , 56. 14:- R o s t o v t z e f f , A S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y of the Roman Empire, p. 513. 15:- I b i d . , p, 513. 16:- I b i d , , p. 513. 17:- R a wlinson, op, c i t , , p. 109, R o s t o v t z e f f , o p . c i t , , p. 93 c a l l s the c a p t a i n 'Hipparohus', N e i t h e r Juba nor Strabo mentions H i p p a l u s , 18;- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 75. 19:- I b i d , , p. 76. '' 20:- P l i n y , 1KB. , V I , 24. 21:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 76. 22:- P l i n y , N.K., V I , 26. 23:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , Trade Routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire, p., 67. 24:- The auth o r of the P e r i p l u s was a Greek t r a d e r l i v i n g i n Egypt i n the F l a v i a n period., See S k e e l , T r a v e l i n the F i r s t Century, p. 33. 25:- R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t , , p. 93 26:- P e r i p l u s , 21. Trade w i t h A f r i c a , P e r i p . , 17, 27:- R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 94. 28;- P l i n y , N»E., V I , 104. 29;- R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t . , p. 93. 3 0 : P e r i p . , 36, 31:- S t r a b o , 16, 3, 3. 32;- P e r i p . , 3 5 , 33:- P l i n y , N.H. V I , 139, 34;- I b i d . , VI, 139. 35:- R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 3. 36;- See c h a p t e r V, p. 62, where goods p a s s i n g through Palmyra are mentioned. 100 37;- C h a r l e s w o r t h , op, c i t . , p, 68. 38;- Rawlins on, op. c i t . , p. 114. 39;- I b i d . , p. 35 40:- P s r i p . , 45. 41:- R a w l i n s o n , o p . c i t . , p. 120. 42:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , o p , c i t . , p. 68, 43:- R a w l i n s o n , o p . o i t . , pp. 166, 167. 44;- P e r i p . , 44, 45:-" c f , P l i n y , N.E. IX, 106; 113-114; c f . 117. 46:- For I n d i a n diamonds and o t h e r -precious stones see P l i n y , N^E., XXXYII, 55-56; ofl Mart., 5, 11, 1; Juv., 6, 156, For i v o r y , c f , V i r g i l , Georr., I , 57. 47:- T h i s s p i k e n a r d , used i n making the famous ointment of s p i k e n a r d , i s mentioned i n S t . Mark, 14, 3. 48:- Odes I I , 7, 89. ... cum quo" morantern saepe diem mero jZgo 1.. ooronatus n i t e n t i a malobathro S.yrio c a p i l l o s ? S y r i o - i . e . - brought from the p o r t s of S y r i a . 49:- Rawlinson, o p , c i t . , p. 12 0. 50:- P l i n y , |LH. , X I I , 28. 51:- Gibbon, I I I , p. 272. 52:- R a w l i n s o n , o p , c i t . , p. 112. 53:- I b i d , , p. 112. 54:- I b i d , , .p. 112 n. 2, 55:- P l i n y , N.E. V I , 26. 56:- I b i d , , V I , 26* 57;- I b i d . , V I , 24, 58:- l u c i a n , Hermotim,, 4. 59;- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79. 60:- Ptolemy l i v e d about 150 A,P. H i s Guide to Geography i s m a t h e m a t i c a l r a t h e r than d e s c r i p t i v e , 61:- S t r a b o , 15, 1, 28, T h i s w r i t e r may as w e l l be c a l l e d the master f a b u l i s t as the master p i l o t o f A l e x a n d e r , 62:- P l i n y , N.H,, V I , 22. 63:- C h r i s t i a n Topography, Bk X I , not a v a i l a b l e to me. 64:- R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t , , p. 149. 65:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79. 66:- Camera and o t h e r market-towns i n P e r i p . , 60. 67:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79, 68;- c f T ~ E i e k i e l XXVII, 19 and I s a i a h 1X1, 19 where the Greeks a r e c a l l e d Yavana. 69:- The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 79, 70:- R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t . , p. 531, 71:- See E e i p e r t , A t l a s A n t i q u u s , Tab. I f o r Ptolemy's map of the a n c i e n t world™ 72:- R a w l i n s o n , op. c i t . , pp. 132-133. V i r g i l ' s r e f e r e n c e t o the seven calm streams of the r i v e r may or may not r e f e r to the Ganges D e l t a . Aen, IX, 1 1 — 30 t o 31. 73:- R a w l i n s o n , o p . c i t . , p. 134-135. 74:- f o r Roman c o i n s see The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , p. 83. 101 75:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , op, c i t . , p. 72 76:- J . f f . A . 3 . (1903) p. 591. N o t s v a i l a b l e to me. See a l s o R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t . , p. 421, 77:- C h a r l e s w o r t h , op. c i t , , p. 61. 78:- P l i n y , M,H,, X I I , 83-84. c f . Juv,, 4, 108; 8, 159. 79:- An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, V o l , V, pp. 232, 283, 80:- R o s t o v t z e f f , op. c i t , , p, 421, CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSION An account o f the g r e a t l i n e s o f communication between I t a l y and the l a n d s l y i n g t o the east has now be completed. Since the account has been r e s t r i c t e d t o e s s e n t i a l s , i t s h o u l d have l e f t w i t h the reader c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e i m p r e s s i o n s r e s p e c t i n g each o f the c o u n t r i e s t h a t has been s t u d i e d . He should r e c a l l : 1:- t h a t Greece was a poor c o u n t r y , but t h a t i t p l a y e d i t s p a r t as a c o n n e c t i n g l i n k between I t a l y and the E a s t ; 2:- t h a t A s i a M i n o r had a f i n e system of roads, and t h a t i t was a f l o u r i s h i n g and p r o d u c t i v e l a n d ; -3:- t h a t two s i l k roads developed a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s j o i n e d Chine t o Rome, and t h a t the Romans were n e v e r i n t r o d u c e d t o the c u l t u r e o f the Chinese; 4 : - t h a t a l l the most i m p o r t a n t roads o f the east ended i n or passed through S y r i a ; 5 : - t hat i n Egypt the K i l e was the g r e a t highway and man-made roads were mere appendages of i t ; 6:-that the r o u t e s which brought the I n d i a n l u x u r i e s t o the West were developed g r a d u a l l y , 102 103 as w e s t e r n peoples l e a r n e d about the winds on the southern w a t e r s . The roads and r o u t e s c o n s t r u c t e d and developed by the Soman thus bound a l l manner of peoples t o g e t h e r , made p o s s i b l e the i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f the most v a r i e d . c u l t u r e s , and r a i s e d the st a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r every race through whose c o u n t r y they passed. Though perhaps too much c r e d i t i s g i v e n t o the Soman as a road-maker, i t i s y e t t r u e t h a t w i t h o u t h i s ge n i u s to p e r f e c t and u n i f y the road-system as a whole., communication between n a t i o n s would have been much, s l o w e r , much more l a b o r o u s . The Roman, w i t h h i s z e s t f o r r o a d - b u i l d i n g , brought i n t o the w o r l d such f a r r e a c h i n g changes f o r the b e t t e r , t h a t modern man i s y e t b e n e f i t i n g from them. i ( i I 1.1„3. i ' N. H. Aen. E p i s t , Georg. H i s t . A n i m , -M a r t . o a , Paus. P e r i p , Prooop. Pt 01• — Sat. Suet. l a c , 104 ABBREVIATIONS Corpus I n s c r i p t i onurn Let i n a rum. I n s c r i p t i o n e s L a t i n a e S e l e c t a e . J o u r n a l of Roman S t u d i e s . H a t u r a l i s E i s t o r i a . A eneid, E p i s t l e s , G e o r g i e s , E i s t o r i a Animalium. M a r t i a l . , Odyssey, Pausanias» P e r i p l u s . p r o c o p i u s . Ptolemy, S a t i r e , S u e t o n i u s , T a c i t u s . 105 ANCIENT SOURCES INSCRIPTIONS Corpus I n s c r i p t i o n s l a t i n a r u m 1 5 55V« I I I 5 3 X£ ? 318 9 13625, 14149 - 19, 117, 199. 205. 208,6715,6722. 14184. 44. 48, 58. 60. 61. 14580, 14402. I n s c r i p t i o n e s L a t i n a e S e l e c t a e , Dessau, 628, 5846. 2:- AUTHORS Ammianus I v l a r c e l l i n u s , Res Gestae. A r i s t o p h a n e s , O r n i t h e s . A r i s t o t l e , E i s t o r i a Animalium. A r r i a n ; A n a b a s i s , P e r i p l u s . B i b l e , The H o l y . C i c e r o , l e t t e r s , Y e r r i n e O r a t i o n s . D i o , H i s t o r i e s . H erodotus, H i s t o r i e s . Homer, Odyssey. Josephus, A n t i o u i t a t e s J u d i c a e . J u v e n a l , S a t i r e s . l u c i a n , Hermotimus ( t r . H.W.Fowler and F.G.Fowler) M a r t i a l , Epigrams. 106 P a u s a n i a s , D e s c r i p t i o n o f Greece. P h i l i s o u s , fragments o f the Comic works o f . P l i n y the E l d e r , U a t u r a l i e H i s t o r i a . P l i n y the Younger, L e t t e r s . P l u t a r c h , The L i v e s o f the Noble G r e c i a n s and Romans. P o l y b i u s , H i s t o r i e s . Seneca, E p i s t l e s . S t r a b o , Geography of , ( t r . H a milton and F a l c o n e r ) . S u e t o n i u s , L i v e s n f t h e Caesars. T a c i t u s , A n n a l s . T i b u l l u s , E l e g i e s . V i r g i l , Aeneid, G e o r g i c s , V i t r u v i u s , de A r c h l t e c t u r a . 107 - , BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS:-A r n o l d , W, T., S t u d i e s o f Roman I m p e r i a l i s m . "l^rn^'^sTeT"/ l"906T ~ *~" B o u c h i e r , E. S. S y r i a as a Roman P r o v i n c e , Oxford ( B l a c k w e i l ) , 1916. Cambridge A n c i e n t H i s t o r y , t h r e e volumes: V o l . X The Augustan _Bmpi_re (44 B. C. -A.D. 70), Cambridge, 1934. V o l . X I The I m p e r i a l Peace (A.D. 70-192), Cambridge, 1936. V o l . X I I The I m p e r i a l C r i s i s and Recover; (A.D. 193-324), Cambridge 1939. Gary, M« and E.H. Warmington, The A n c i e n t E x p l o r e r s , London (Methuen), 1929. C h a r l e s w o r t h , M. P. Trade-Routes and Commerce o f the Roman Empire, Cambridge a t the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1924, Dyer, T> H. A n c i e n t Athens, London ( B e l l and D a l d y ) , 1873. Ferguson, W. S. H e l l e n i s t i c Athens, London ( M a c m i l l a n ) , 19.11; F i n l a y , G. Greeoe under the Romans, Edinburgh and London, 1844. 2 Frank, Tenney, "An Economic H i s t o r y o f Rome , B a l t i m o r e 1927. Frank, Tenney ( e d i t o r ) , An Economic Survey o f A n c i e n t Rome, B a l t i m o r e , 1933-40. V o l s , I I , IV, V. V o l . I I , Johnson, A,C., Roman Egypt to the Reign of D i o c l e t i a n . V o l . IV, H e i c h e l h e i m , F.M. Roman S y r i a , L a r s e n , J.A.0., Roman' SreeoeT Broughton, T.R.S., Roman.Asia. 108 V o l . V, Frank, Tenney, Rome and I t a l y o f the Empire. F r a z e r , 3". G, Paus an i as' D e s c r i p t i o n o f Greece, ( t r . , w i t h a commentary), London and New York, (Macmillan) 1898. Gibbon, E., The H i s t o r y o f the D e c l i n e and F a l l of the Roman ; SmpTrirr~L"ondon, f G e o r g l T B e l ] end Sons) 18857" G r e n f e l l , B. P. ( e d i t o r ) , Fayum Towns and t h e i r P a p y r i . London ( o f f i c e s o f the Egypt E x p l o r a t i o n Funa) 1900, Henderson, B. W. The L i f e and P r i n c i p a t e of the Emperor Hal!riair7~London (Methuen) , T$JZ3T~^ ~~ Hogarth, D. G., I o n i a and the E a s t , Oxford a t the Clarendon p r e s s , 1909. Holm, A,, The H i s t o r y of Greece, London, 1898. Hua r t , C. I . , A n c i e n t P e r s i a and I r a n i a n C i v i l i z a t i o n , London (Kegan P a u l ) and New York (A.A,Knopf), 1927. Keane, A. H,, A s i a , London, 1896, K e i t h - R o a c h , E., j o i n t e d i t o r S i r H a r r y Luke, The Handbook o f P a l e s t i n e and Trans-Jordan, London, (Macmillan) , 1934, L a i s t n e r , M.L.W., A Survey of. _A_noi_ent_ H i s t o r y , New York (Heath), 1929. Ludwig, E., The N i l e , t r . by Mary H. L i n d s a y , New York 7 V i k i n g P r e s s ) , 1937. M a r t i n . P. F. Egypt - Old and New, London ( A l l e n and Unwin), 1923, M a t t i n g l y , E» Roman Coi n s , London (Methuen), 1928. M i l n e , J . G. A H i s t o r y of Egypt under Roman Ru l e , Lon'd^n^TM^Woenr, 1898. Mommsen, T. The P r o v i n c e s of the Roman Empire, t r . by W. P. P i c l c s o n , London TMacmillan)~, 1909, 109 Morton, H. V. Oman, c. w.0., P a u l - L o u i s , P o r t e r , G. E. Rappoport, 3., Raw l i n s o n , G,, In the Steps of S t . P e u l , London, 1936 The B y z e n t i n e Empire, t h i r d ed., London (Unwin), 1892. V o l , 30 of The S t o r y of the n a t i o n s s e r i e s . A n c i e n t Rome a t work, London (Zegan P a u l ) , 1927. S i l k M anufacture, ( L a r d n e r 1 s C y c l o p e d i a ) London, 1831. H i s t o r y of J2gy_p_t, London (The G r o l i e r SocietyT7~1904. V o l s , X, X I . H i s t o r y of A n c i e n t Egypt, London, 1Longmans', GreenT, 1881. Ra w l i n s o n , H. G., I n t e r c o u r s e between I n d i a and the Western "World, second ed., Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926,. R o s t o v t z e f f , M< Tarn, w. W., Out o f the Pa s t o f G r e e c e and Rome, Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952, The S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y o f the Roman Empire, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1926, ' ' 2 H e l l e n i s t i c C i v i l i s a t i o n , London, (Edward A r n o l d and Company), 1930, PERIODICALS:-J o u r n a l o f Roman S t u d i e s . R o s t o v t z e f f , M«, "The Caravan-gods o f Palmyra", J.R.S. V o l . X X I I (1932) p a r t I , pp. 107-116, West, L o u i s , "Phases of Commercial L i f e i n Roman Egypt", J.R.S. V o l . V I I (1937) p a r t I , pp. 45-58. 

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