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Instigation and conditioning of vicarious affective responses Weinstein, Malcolm Samuel 1965

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THE INSTIGATION AND CONDITIONING OP VICARIOUS AFFECTIVE RESPONSES by MALCOLM SAMUEL WEINSTEIN B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology We accept this- thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , , I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date jLfUl/ *t H6< ABSTRACT i The purpose of thia study was to determine whether affec-tive responaea, as meaaured by el e c t r i c a l akin conductance, could be vicarioualy inatigated and clasaically conditioned to a previously neutral atimulus in a two-person social situation. A naive obaerver watched a model (a confederate of the experi-menter) attempt a d i f f i c u l t motor taak. The taak involved l i f t i n g a marble, aupported on the end of a apecially grooved rod, to the top of a three foot vertical channel, and then Into a funnel. It was hypothesized that the model'a failure experiences on the task would increase the frequency of the observer'a affective responaea to a greater extent than would the model'a aucceaa. Thia same relationship waa hypothesized for condi-tioning effecta. The addition of instructions to the observer that the model'a failure on the taak would result in an elec-t r i c shock to the model was expected to enhance both instigation and conditioning effeets. Differences In male and female re-activity, as well as a decline in frequency of responses over time, were expected. Subjects were 50 volunteers from introductory psychology classes, 2£ male and 2£ female. They were randomly assigned to five experimental groups, with the stipulation that each group contain an equal number of malea and females. A four factor analysia of variance design constituted the main st a t i s -t i c a l analysis. Main effecta for Shock, Failure, Sex, and i i Blocks of T r i a l s were analyzed i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o three response c l a s s e s - V i c a r i o u s l y I n s t i g a t e d Responses' (VIR); Conditioned Responses (CR)j and Unconditioned Respon-ses t o the CS (UCR t o CS). The CS was a s m a l l l i g h t warning the observer that the experimenter p r e d i c t e d the performer's f a i l u r e on the t a s k was imminent; the UCS t o the observer was the I n f e r r e d emotional response o f the performer t o h i s suc-ces or f a i l u r e on the task. A secondary a n a l y s i s comprised three o f the f i v e experimental groups In which only the e f -f e c t s of shock, sex and b l o c k s of t r i a l s were examined. I n i -t i a l b a s a l conductance l e v e l s were recorded and analyzed. I n a d d i t i o n , r a t i n g s of the q u a l i t y o f the performance, the d i f -f i c u l t y o f the t a s k , and comments by Observer's about t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s during the experiment were examined. I t was found that the paradigm employed e f f e c t i v e l y i n -s t i g a t e d a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l , and that t h i s a r o u s a l could be conditioned to a warning s i g n a l . Shock contingent upon f a i l -ure was no more e f f e c t i v e than f a i l u r e alone i n producing these i n s t i g a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t s . No sex d i f f e r -ences i n r e s p o n s i v i t y were found. S i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e s i n a r o u s a l over blocks of t r i a l s were observed. Ratings of the q u a l i t y of the performance and the d i f f i c u l t y of the t a s k conformed t o e x p e c t a t i o n s . TABLE OP CONTENTS i i i CHAPTER I Introduction 1 CHAPTER II Review of the Literature k H i s t o r i c a l 5 Relevant Studies . 8 Theoretical Implications 11 CHAPTER III Method 18 Subjects 19 Apparatus 19 Design 26 CHAPTER IV Results 28 Basal Conductance Levels 29 Rating Scales 31 Question Period . 33 Conclusion 33 Analyses of Dependent Variables 33 Vicarious I n s t i g a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Conditioned Responses 38 Unconditioned Responses to the CS... Ij.1 CHAPTER V Discussion kk Basal Conductance kk VIR and CR Classes 45 F a i l u r e and Shock Effects ij.5 Sex Effects 47 E f f e c t s of Blocks of T r i a l s 47 Vicariously Instigated Effect 51 Theoretical Implications 52 CHAPTER VI Summary 5MA) BIBLIOGRAPHY 55 APPENDIX A 60 APPENDIX B 61 APPENDIX C 62 APPENDIX D 63 LIST OP TABLES iv TABLE I - Mean Observers* Ratings of the Quality of Performance-and D i f f i c u l t y of Task 32 TABLE I I - Mean Number of Vic a r i o u s l y Instigated Responses (VIR) and Unconditioned Responses to the Conditioned Stimulus (UCR to CS) 35 TABLE III Summary of Analyses of Variance of Vicariously Instigated Responses (VIR) and Unconditioned Responses to the Conditioned Stimulus (UCR to CS) 35 TABLE IV Mean Number of Conditioned Responses (CR) 39 TABLE V Summary of Main Analysis of Variance for Conditioned Responses (CR) 39 LIST OP FIGURES v FIGURE 1. Schematic diagram of apparatus.... .....20 FIGURE 2. Schematic overhead view of experimental room 20 FIGURE 3. Effect of Blocks on Mean Number of G.S.R.'s on three dependent v a r i a b l e s : UCR's to CS, CR's, and VIR's 37 ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i I would l i k e to thank Dr. Kenneth D. Craig for the time, e f f o r t and i n s p i r a t i o n he has given toward the com-pl e t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I should also l i k e to acknowledge Dr. R.D. Hare f o r his cogent c r i t i c i s m and h i s many h e l p f u l suggestions. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In the f i e l d of i n t e r p e r s o n a l a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l , two phenomena of i n t e r e s t t o ps y c h o l o g i s t s have been ( l ) The i n s t i g a t i o n of a f f e c t i v e responses i n one person (observer) who observes another p erson (Performer or Model) i n an emo-t i o n a l l y provocative s i t u a t i o n 'e.g. Berger, 1962); and (2) The c o n d i t i o n i n g o f the observer's a f f e c t i v e arousal to a p r e v i o u s l y n e u t r a l stimulus (e.g., Haner & Whitney, i 9 6 0 ) , A number of studies have been conducted to examine the f i r s t phenomenon, the extent to which a f f e c t i v e arousal i n one person serves to Induce a f f e c t i n another. Since p e r i -p h e r a l l y a c c e s s i b l e p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures of autonomic n e r -vous system r e a c t i v i t y have been shown to be s e n s i t i v e t o a v a r i e t y of emotional states (Lacey, 1959) > s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have employed such measures as dependent v a r i a b l e s to r e f l e c t s o c i a l - a f f e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s between p a i r s of i n d i v i d u a l s {Dimascio, Boyd & G r e e n b l a t t , 195?; Malmo, Boag & Smith, 1957) . These studi e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n some interview s i t u a t i o n s , p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures of A.N.S. A r o u s a l i n in t e r v i e w e r s and interviewees were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d ; i n others the mea-sures were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . In demonstrations of the c o n d i t i o n i n g o f such autonomic responses, the terms used t o describe the r e s u l t s have v a r i e d . 2. These terms have Included "vicarious conditioning" (Barnett & Benedetti, I960); "empathic conditioning" (Haner & Whitney, I960); and"conditioning through vicarious i n s t i g a t i o n " (Berger, 1962). The common feature i n a l l these studies was the use of e l e c t r i c shock as an unconditioned stimulus to which a model (performer) was (or appeared to be) conditioned. The Galvanie Skin Response (GSR) served as the measure of a f f e c -t i v e arousal i n the observer. It was found that observers acquired conditioned a f f e c t i v e responses to the GS, where the CS served as a warning signal that shock to the performer was imminent. The observers themselves did not receive any s t i -mulation, other than the opportunity to observe the responses of the models. The present study was an attempt to generalize the f i n d -ings of research i n t h i s area of interpersonal a f f e c t i v e arousal to a broader s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . In the above studies shock or apparent shock to the model served as the noxious stimulus used to instigate the emotional responses to be con-ditioned. In the present investigation t h i s general paradigm was expanded to a more fa m i l i a r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n than one i n -volving the observation of a model's apparent pain as a resu l t of e l e c t r i c shock. It was f e l t that the observation of a r e -l a t i v e l y common experience, such as f a i l u r e on a d i f f i c u l t and demanding task might induce a f f e c t i v e responses. Further, i t was hypothesized that greater arousal would occur to a f a i l u r e experience than to a success experience. The addition of instructions indicating that failure on the task would result in shock i n f l i c t e d pain to the performer was hypo-thesized to heighten arousal effects for the observer. It was also hypothesized that the observer's vicarious affective responses could be conditioned to a previously neutral s t i -mulus, and, that males and females would differ in the fre-quency with which they produced these emotional responses. Finally, since research with the GSR in similar studies has indicated a reduction i n affective arousal over time (e.g. Berger, 1962) the responses were hypothesized to decrease in frequency over blocks of t r i a l s . CHAPTER I I Review of the L i t e r a t u r e The a n a l y s i s of a f f e c t i v e arousal i n the present two person s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a number of long-standing issues i n psychology* The nature of "empathy", processes of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g , and the a c q u i s i t i o n of values, a t t i t u d e s , and standards of moral conduct are r e l a t e d t o t h i s invest i g a t i o n . In order to c l a r i f y f u r t h e r the t h e o r e t i c a l and e x p e r i -mental background of the present study, three major areas of the l i t e r a t u r e were examined: (1) H i s t o r i c a l -This s e c t i o n dealt w i t h e a r l y attempts to define and study empathic phenomena, and i l l u s t r a t e s the gradual t r a n s i t i o n from vague, s u b j e c t i v e approaches to more concrete and o p e r a t i o n a l experimentation. (2) Relevant Studies -In t h i s s e c t i o n , more recent work r e l a t e d to I n t e r -organismic a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l was reviewed. The primary aim was t o discover a workable paradigm upon which to b u i l d the present study. (3) T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Present Study -The t h i r d s e e t i o n dealt w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and research i n s o c i a l l e a r n i n g , the a c q u i s i t i o n of values, and the measurement of empathy. 5 . 1. H i s t o r i c a l P e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i s t s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have n o t e d t h a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s i n one p e r s o n can i n d uce a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s i n a n o t h e r . A n a l y s i s o f t h e l i t e r a -t u r e a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s c r i b e , measure, and i n t e r p r e t t h i s phe-nomenon l e a d s one t o a p l e t h o r a o f c o ncepts - sympathy, empa-t h y , I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p r o j e c t i o n , i n s i g h t , s a d i s m , v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e - t o name j u s t a few. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s e have been, f o r t h e most p a r t , n o n - o p e r a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , v a g u e l y f o r m u l a t e d , and have o v e r l a p p e d i n a c t u a l usage. More p r e c i s e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s are r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e terms i f t h e y are t o become amenable t o r e s e a r c h . Some o f t h e e a r l y c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s are now examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . The word empathy, as B o r i n g p o i n t s out (1929, p» I4.3I) was t h e r e s u l t o f a m i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f a t e r m f i r s t u s ed by t h e Swiss p s y c h o l o g i s t , G.F. L i p p s , i n 1903, t o r e f e r t o t h e man-ner i n w h i c h an o r g a n i s m p e r c e i v e s o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n s . L i p p s a l l e g e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l somehow p r o j e c t e d h i m s e l f i n t o t h e v i s u a l p a t t e r n , and termed t h i s motor m i m i c r y , E i n f u h l u n g . The p r o c e s s was assumed by o t h e r s t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e sympa-t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r p e r s o n s , and was t r a n s l a t e d , somewhat l o o s e l y , as empathy. D u r i n g t h e next few decades t h i s t e r m became i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t i v e , as i l l u s t r a t e d by some examples of d e f i n i t i o n s o f empathy: A mental at ate In which one i d e n t i f i e s or f e e l s h i m s e l f Into the same st a t e of mind as another person or group (Warren, 193k-i p. 9 2 ) . ....the i m i t a t i v e muscular e f f e c t of one person on another (T r e s i d d e r , 1 9 ^ 0 , p. 1 7 5 ) . ....the imaginative transposing of one-s e l f Into the t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and a c t -i n g o f another (Dymond, 1 9 5 0 , p. k-2>k-) D i r e c t apprehension of the s t a t e of mind of another person without, as i n sympathy, f e e l i n g as he does (Murphy, 19k-9» P» 5 7 0 ; I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see that these e a r l y d e f i n i t i o n s l e d to some confusion. One source of confusion was the over-l a p w i t h e x i s t i n g terms, such as sympathy. The s o c i o l o g i s t George Herbert Mead f e l t t hat empathy was a necessary pre-decesor of sympathy, and wrote: The a t t i t u d e that we c h a r a c t e r i z e as that of sympathy springs from t h i s same capa-c i t y to take the r o l e of another person w i t h whom one i s s o c i a l l y I m p l i c a t e d . Sym-pathy always i m p l i e s that one s t i m u l a t e s h i m s e l f t o h i s a s s i s t a n c e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the other person whom one i s a s s i s t i n g . The common term f o r t h i s i s p u t t i n g your-s e l f i n h i s p l a c e . (Mead, 19$k» P« lj-8) However, Mead and h i s contemporaries f a i l e d to e x p l a i n what was meant by the erapathic process (Henderhan, 1 9 6 2 ) . More r e -cent w r i t e r s (Dymond, 1 9 5 0 , K e r r , 19V?) r e f e r r e d t o empathy i n i d e n t i c a l terms t o those used here to describe sympathy, i n c l u d i n g the n o t i o n that a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l was necessary i n order t o a i d o t h e r s . However, the many attempts to c l a r i f y and e x p l a i n the nature of empathic r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not appear t o 7. have succeeded to any great extent. In fact, Allport's early (l92lj.) discussions were probably just as valuable for the pre-sent study as the writings of more contemporary writers. A l l -port (I924.) suggested that the phenomena whieh have been l a -belled, in the present paper, empathy and vicariously experi-enced emotion, could be explained in terms of the observer's expectation of pleasurable or aversive stimuli should he act in a way similar to the person observed. Allport also intro-duced the notion of the conditioned emotional response to account for such phenomena, and rejected the idea of "instinc-tive instigation of emotion". His theory was that, In a s i t u -ation which had proven frightening in the past, i t was not only the expression of fear in others which excited sympathe-tic fear responses in usj i t was also "our own fear of danger-ous situations which have been conditioned by social stimuli" (Allport, 192i|., p. 235) • That i s , the process of empathy could be described in terms of a conditioned emotional re-sponse on the part of the observer which could be aroused in the presence of certain conditioned stimuli. It was this translation of early subjective terms into the terminology of learning theory which made more limited and precise experi-mentation feasible. In a more recent attempt to c l a r i f y the concept of empa-thy, Berger (1962) pointed out that we may distinguish be-tween two kinds of emotional responses to others. An empathetic response occurs when the observer reacts concordantly with the performer's response to the unconditioned 8, stimulus (UCS) i n the same way that he (the observer) would have reacted i f he had been d i r e c t l y Instigated; a sympathe-t i c response occurs when the observer reacts concordantly with the performer's response to the UCS, but i n a manner, that i s discordant with the way the observer would react i f he were d i r e c t l y i n s t i g a t e d . In formulating researchable hypotheses, d i f f i c u l t i e s seem to have arisen over at least two issues: (1) the source of the observer's a f f e c t i v e arousal, and (2) the nature of t h i s arousal, i n terms of how the observer perceives the s i t u a t i o n . Aronfreed (1961fb) attempted to delineate the sources of the observer's a f f e c t i v e arousal and indicated two p o s s i b i l i -t i e s . The f i r s t , which he l a b e l l e d empathy, originated i n an observation of behavioral acts performed by a model, and the second, l a b e l l e d vicarious experience, was a results of obser-ving the stimulus events acting upon the model. Though these processes are usually simultaneous, they do not have to be, and thus the d i s t i n c t i o n has been useful for research purposes. At t h i s time It must be emphasized that the major concern of the present study was the f i r s t problem. That i s , the writer was primarily i n t e r e s t e d i i n examining the sources of interper-sonal a f f e c t i v e arousal; the nature of the arousal was of only secondary concern. 2. Relevant Studies Studies dealing with the issues described here may be classed within the framework of interorganismic a f f e c t i v e 9. a r o u s a l . This f i e l d of res e a r c h , i n other words, i s concerned w i t h studying the a f f e c t which i s i n s t i g a t e d i n an organism through that organism's observation of another. The general term " o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g " has also been a p p l i e d to such s t u d i e s , where the general aim i s to determine how t h i s ob-s e r v a t i o n enhances or det r a c t s from e f f e c t i v e l y l e a r n i n g a response. I n s t u d i e s w i t h r a t a (Church, 1959; M i l l e r , 1961) con-d i t i o n s under which p a i n r e a c t i o n s of one animal came t o e l i c i t a nxiety i n a second observing animal (as i n f e r r e d from an instrumental avoidance response) have been demonstrated. This phenomenon haa alao been demonstrated In rhesus monkeys: who were (a) t r a i n e d i n an o b j e c t - q u a l i t y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k (Darby & R i o p e l l e , 1959); (b) i n the l e a r n i n g of an avoidance response (Pre s l e y & R i o p e l l e , 1959); and (e) i n the l e a r n i n g of a p o s i t i o n a l h a b i t , as i n the s p a t i a l delayed response ( R i o p e l l e , I960). In a d d i t i o n , studies have been conducted w i t h chimpanzees (Crawford & Spence, 1939); cats ( A d l e r , 1955; Herbert & Hersh, 1944); and dogs (Brogden, I94.2). In another group of studies w i t h r a t s (Church, 194.7a, 1957b) the l a b e l " i m i t a t i v e behavior" has been used. In t h i s r e s e a r c h , the' a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n h a b i t i n an i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n -i n g s i t u a t i o n was examined. As i n " o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g " r e s e a r c h , the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e was that the behavior of the observing organism was modified by observing the behavior of another. 10 In s t u d i e s w i t h human s u b j e c t s , s i m i l a r paradigms t o those i n animal studies have been employed. Emphasis has been placed on the a c q u i s i t i o n of instrumental responses, o f t e n v e r b a l i n nature, w h i l e the measurement of a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l has not, at l e a s t so f a r , been emphasized. The assump-t i o n that emotional s t a t e s were v i c a r i o u s l y i n s t i g a t e d i n these c o n d i t i o n s , as concomitants of the l e a r n i n g process, appear I m p l i c i t i n the research (e.g. Berger, 1961). These studi e s g e n e r a l l y have i n v o l v e d an i n i t i a l obser-v a t i o n a l phase, during which observers viewed (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1963); Lewis & Duncan, 1958? McBrearty, Marston & Kanfer, 1961) or heard (Kanfer & Marston, 1963; Marston, I96I4.) the responses of a model and the consequences of those responses f o r the model. Though observers d i d not r e c e i v e any rewards themselves during these p e r i o d s , nor perform any overt responses, t h e i r subsequent behavior on i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n i n g tasks conformed t o that of the model. Since the model's reinforcement seemed t o i n f l u e n c e the observer's performance, the term " v i c a r i o u s reinforcement" was used as a generic l a b e l f o r these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . However, as Aron-f r e e d (1962ib) has pointed out, t h i s term may have been mis-l e a d i n g and an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of acomplex process, f o r i t may have d i s g u i s e d the mechanisms which mediate the pro-cess. The f a c t that 0, i n these s t u d i e s , has no i n t e n t i o n t o change or manipulate h i s environment i n order to o b t a i n reinforcement sheds doubt upon the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of an " i n -strumental c o n d i t i o n i n g " l a b e l . 11. Aronfreed argued that the response of the model was c o v e r t l y experienced by the observer, and that the subsequent congruency between the model's and the observer's responses may have i n v o l v e d the mediation of a "covert I m i t a t i v e r e -sponse or of some form of c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of one's own i m p l i c i t responses". I n a study w i t h c h i l d r e n , i t was suggested (Walters, Leat, and Mezei, 1963) that v i c a r i o u s l y c onditioned avoidance responses mediated "response i n h i b i t i o n " i f the c h i l d was given an opportunity t o v i o l a t e a s o c i a l p r o h i b i t i o n . I n an extension of t h i s work (Bandura, Ross & Ross, 1963) i t was found that c h i l d r e n i n h i b i t e d aggressive behavior subsequent t o the severe punishment o f aggressive adult models. However, though there d i d appear t o be some kin d of mediating process i n v o l v e d , the mechanisms were not c l e a r . The w r i t e r s used a number of h y p o t h e t i c a l processes which r e q u i r e more p r e c i s e o p e r a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n , e.g. "covert i m i t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t o r y responses" (^owrer, i960, p. 115)t or "response I n h i b i t i o n " (Walters, 196£. However, the c r i t i c a l process i n these s t u d i e s , both c l a s s i c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l , seems to be the c o n d i t i o n i n g of emotional a r o u s a l , and i t was w i t h i n such a framework that the present research evolved. 3« T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The major t h e o r e t i c a l areas upon which the present r e -search bears are: (1) S o c i a l l e a r n i n g i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p s ; (2) Learning theory analyses of the a c q u i s i t i o n of 12. social values and attitudes; and, (3) An understanding of applied fields where knowledge of personality characteristics of others is said to be important. The term "social learning" Is a hroad one and includes the myriad feelings, responses, and modes of behaviour in-volved in interpersonal relationships. These behaviours are, presumably, learned by the individual throughout his l i f e , through interaction with other people. An example of the kind of research to which the present study was relat ed was that on the establishment and maintenance of appropriate and deviant social conduct, and concomitant social behaviours such as conscience and self-criticism. Walters and Parke (I96I4.) have pointed out the importance of this research for fields such as law enforcement, stating that "social control is to a large extent maintained through vicariously experi-enced reward and punishment". A thorough and systematic analysis of the major theoretical issues in this field has been undertaken by Aronfreed (196lfb). Using a developmental framework he has traced, in research and theory, the possible connections between early childhood learning experienced and the development of Internal standards for moral behavior. These standards come, in time, to be functional even in the absence of apparent external reinforcement, and thus were l a -belled "internalized". Second, the acquisition of values and attitudes have been analyzed in terms of learning theory, with a framework 13. similar to that employed here. H i l l (i960) has attempted to show how terms l i k e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n t r o j e c t i o n and int e r n -a l i z a t i o n may be replaced by detailed analyses of such phe-nomena i n S-R terminology. His approach was r e d u c t i o n i s t i c i n nature and treated these somewhat vague concepts as learned behavior. The reinforcement process, basic to learning theory, was developed and elaborated i n terms of primary, secondary, and vicarious sources. It was t h i s t h i r d source of rei n f o r c e -ment, vicarious i n nature, which bridged the gap between H i l l ' s paper and the present study. Objections to his approach as oversimplified In view of the complexities of the subject "may", he wrote, "retard rather than advance our understanding" ( H i l l , i960, p. 329). Third, studies of processes and personality factors involved i n applied areas where "understanding others" Is important were related to the present investigation. The general l a b e l used to describe such factors has been "empathy" and t h i s capacity has been said to be c r i t i c a l i n serveral areas. For example, i n c l i n i c a l psychology, the a b i l i t y of the therapist to "empathize" has been stressed (Truax, 1961) and shown to be p o s i t i v e l y relafc ed to progress i n psycho-therapy (Truax, 1963). In addition, the importance of the capacity to empathize has been emphasized i n industry (Van Zeis, 19^2) and i n communication (Gompertz, I960). A number of attempts to quantify and measure empathic a b i l i t y by the use of tests have been undertaken (Bender & 111-. Mast or f, 1953 j Dymond, 194-9; Hastorf & Bender, 1952; Keff & Speroff, 1 9 5 1 ) . The operational d e f i n i t i o n of empathy, i n v i r t u a l l y a l l cases, has been "accuracy of prediction" That i s , i f a person was able to predict with reasonable accuracy the behavior of another, that predictor was highly "empathic". However, such measures have received a great deal of c r i t i -cism. F i r s t , mass empathy tests involving accuracy i n pre-d i c t i n g responses of a well-defined group of society (e.g. Kerr & Speroff, 1951) have been attacked for t h e i r question-able v a l i d i t y . Thorndike, i n a review of mass empathy t e s t s , (1959, p. 4-8) c r i t i c i z e d the content v a l i d i t y of such mea-sures f o r t h e i r narrow and inadequate sampling of the universe of items involved i n such predictions. He also questioned the u t i l i t y of such measures as predictors of c r i t i c a l per-sonality a t t r i b u t e s . In the l i t e r a t u r e concerning i n d i v i -dual empathy t e s t s , i . e . those involving the prediction of i n d i v i d u a l responses, (e.g. Dymond, 194-9) a number of c r i t i c a l comments have been made. Such t e s t s , i t has been pointed out, have not retained the emotional overtones which one would hope to include i n a test of empathy, for they are almost en-t i r e l y concerned with I n t e l l e c t u a l l i z e d ratings of the s e l f as seen by others, and vice versa. There are too many other personality factors to confound the results on such t e s t s , such as projection, r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , and d e n i a l . As Henderhan (1962, p. 18) has pointed out, t h i s method i s often "unwieldy 15. and questionable as a way of o b t a i n i n g meaningful empathic responses". Because of the many d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h paper and p e n c i l t e s t s of empathy, i t was f e l t that a v a l i d measure would have to be more p r e c i s e , r e l i a b l e , and amenable t o q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . The G.S.R. might be a s u i t a b l e t o o l f o r t h i s purpose; the reasons f o r t h i s choice are o u t l i n e d below. The assumption was made that the increase i n a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l an observer would experience when watching a model f a i l on a d i f f i c u l t motor t a s k , would be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n -creased number o f G.S.R.'s. I n i t i a l p i l o t s t u d i e s showed that t h i s assumption was v a l i d . The G-,S.R. was used as the measure of a c t i v a t i o n on the b a s i s of t h e o r e t i c a l and e x p e r i -mental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Though the question of whether or not t h i s t o o l a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s "emotion" has been debated at great l e n g t h f o r many ye a r s , t h i s question has been shown t o be m i s l e a d i n g . Perhaps the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e at present Can be expressed as f o l l o w s : We should stop t h i n k i n g of Emotion w i t h a c a p i t a l E, as a s p e c i a l mental or behavior-a l s t a t e ; t h i s type of t h i n k i n g i s a h e r i -tage from the p r e s c i e n t i f i c t r i l o g y of Cogn i t i o n , V o l i t i o n , and A f f e c t i o n . I n -stead, we should use emotion to describe the i n d i v i d u a l who i s h i g h l y energized, a c t i v e , tense, or a c t i v a t e d . For emotion i n t h i s sense, both b a s i c l e v e l of con-ductance and the G.S.R. become p r e t t y good measures....(Woodworth & Schlosberg, 1958, p. l i p . ) . 16. The G.S.R. mechanism i t s e l f i s not yet f u l l y understood. It does not measure increased amounts of sweat produced during "emotion"; nor do increases i n conductance result from i n -creased s a l i n i t y of the skin during perspiration. As Woodworth & Schlosberg (193>8) point out, the response might be related to the e l e c t r i c a l a c t i v i t y which occurs in gland c e l l s just before and after the active phase of secretion. The s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n employed i n the present study was found, i n p i l o t work, to provide the stimulus for the occurr-ence of a G.S.R. response. The use of the G.S.R. was further j u s t i f i e d i n terms of previous experimentation, f o r , i n simi-l a r research, other writers (Haner et a l , I96O: Berger, 1962) have successfully employed th i s measure as an e f f e c t i v e and convenient indicator of a f f e c t i v e arousal. A more extensive discussion of the use of the G.S.R. and other ph y s i o l o g i c a l measures o f a f f e c t i v e arousal may be found i n Lacey (19f?9). The relevance of studies attempting to measure empathic a b i l i t y i s c l e a r : i f the physiological measures and i n t e r -personal relationships employed i n the present study were found to r e f l e c t the empathic phenomena discussed above, some useful clues might be discovered enabling more accurate,empirically determined " t e s t s " of empathy to be developed. Before proceeding with a description of the method and design of the study, some general hypotheses are outlined: (1) It was hypothesized that a performer's f a i l u r e on an ego-involving task would in s t i g a t e a f f e c t i v e arousal i n an 17. observer t o a gr e a t e r extent than would s u c c e s s . (2) It was hypothesized t h a t shock i n s t r u c t i o n s would i n s t i g a t e a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l , whether the performer f a i l e d or succeeded on the t a s k , t o a g r e a t e r extent than would no shock i n s t r u c t i o n s . (3) Shock i n s t r u c t i o n s , when accompanied by f a i l u r e by the performer, were h y p o t h e s i z e d t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n s t i g a t i o n o f observer's a f f e c t i v e responses t o a g r e a t e r extent than f a i l u r e a l o n e . (ij.) Shock i n s t r u c t i o n s , when accompanied by success on the part of the performer, were expected t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n s t i g a t i o n o f an observer's a f f e c t i v e responses t o a g r e a t e r extent than success a l o n e . (5>) It was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t emotional responses so i n -s t i g a t e d c o u l d be c o n d i t i o n e d t o a p r e v i o u s l y n e u t r a l s t i m u l u s . (6) Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n bot h i n s t i g a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n i n g o f a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l were expected. (7) Emotional a r o u s a l on the p a r t o f the observer was ex-pected t o d i m i n i s h as a consequence of repeated exposure. 18. CHAPTER I I I Method. It was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r that the purpose o f t h i s study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the i n s t i g a t i o n of emotional responses i n an observer (0) as a response t o a performer's (P) repeated f a i l u r e experiences and, f u r t h e r , t o see whether such r e -sponses could be conditioned t o a warning s i g n a l t o 0 which i n d i c a t e d that f a i l u r e f o r P was imminent. Shock contingent upon f a i l u r e was expected t o f a c i l i t a t e both v i c a r i o u s a f f e c -t i v e i n s t i g a t i o n , and c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t s . A c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g paradigm was employed, i n which the CS was the warning s i g n a l t o 0 ( s m a l l l i g h t ) and the UCS was the emotional experience o f P which 0 was expected to i n f e r from P's success or f a i l u r e on the t a s k . To e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y that responses scored as condi t i o n e d responses were not merely r e s e n s i t i z e d responses to the CS, a r e l a t i v e l y long CS-UCS i n t e r v a l (6.5 seconds) was employed, p e r m i t t i n g the use o f a reduced latency c r i -t e r i o n f o r s c o r i n g c o n d i t i o n e d G.S.R.»s. This measure, used by Berger (1962) i n a s i m i l a r study, i s based upon resear c h by Stewart, S t e r n , Wj.nokur, and Predman (1961). In t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f G.S.R. c o n d i t i o n i n g , these w r i t e r s suggested that previous work i n the area had dealt w i t h "the adaptation and recovery of unconditioned responses r a t h e r than c o n d i t i o n i n g of responses" (Stewart, et_, a l , 1961, p. 66). By making use of p h y s i o l o g i c a l l a t e n c i e s f o r the G.S.R. these authors were 19. able t o develop a means by which " t r u e " c o n d i t i o n e d responses could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from responses which were merely s e n s i t i z e d responses t o a CS, UCR's could occur both t o the warning s i g n a l i t s e l f , and t o the a c t u a l success or f a i l u r e on the t a s k . CR's were responses which occurred a f t e r a UCR to the warning s i g n a l , but p r i o r to TJCR's to the a c t u a l performance. The method o f sc o r i n g responses, and t h e i r r e -spe c t i v e temporal i n t e r v a l s , are described below. Subjects Subjects were f i f t y volunteer students, 25 male and 25 female, from i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology c l a s s e s . Each was ran-domly assigned (with the r e s t r i c t i o n of maintaining equal num-bers o f males and females) t o one of the f i v e treatment groups. One male undergraduate served as E'a confederate, and performed the task f o r the e n t i r e experiment. Method (a) Apparatus: (1) A simple motor t a s k was constructed (see Figure 1) which r e q u i r e d the performer to l i f t a marble l " i n diameter, supported on the grooved end of a I4.1 r o d , to the top of a narrow v e r t i c a l channel, 3' h i g h . The marble was then dropped i n t o a f u n n e l , a u t o m a t i c a l l y returned by means of another channel, and reloaded f o r the next t r i a l . ( i i ) A S t o e l t i n g G.S.R. A m p l i f i e r and Recorder provided a continuous record o f O's G.S.R.'s. Zinc electrodes 3/8" i n diameter were taped t o the f i n g e r p r i n t area of the f i r s t and 20. -Funnel (Behind) Channel Return Tube Return Opening Marble FIGURE 1: Schematic diagram of apparatus BACK GSR Recorder Experimenter Performer Observer Light Motor task FRONT FIGURE 2: Schematic overhead view of experimental room. 21. t h i r d fingers of O's hand. ( i i i ) To simulate the actual use of e l e c t r i c shock i n conditions where shock instructions were read, two insulated wires were attached to the base of the task apparatus, and lead to the Recorder. Dummy electrodes were also placed on P's f i n g e r s . No shock was ever delivered to P. Neither 0 nor P was allowed to verbalize during the experiment. (iv) A t a l l wooden screen separated 0 from P (see Figure 2.). The observer was seated on the l e f t i n an arm-rest chair with h i s l e f t arm on the r e s t . 0 could not see E or recording dials and instruments during the experiment. A stimulus con-t r o l l e r on the G.S.R. recorder enabled E to regularize the temporal i n t e r v a l s . When E pushed a button, the l i g h t (CS) went on for exactly 6 seconds; the quiet but audible cue of the l i g h t signalled to P that he should begin counting to s i x , at which time he Intentionally dropped the marble, or succeeded i n putting It i n t o the funnel, depending on the experimental condition. In p i l o t work, P beeame s u f f i c i e n t l y adept at the task that his f a i l u r e or success invariably occurred .5 seconds after the offset of the CS, thus allowing a t o t a l CS-UCS i n -t e r v a l of 6.5 seconds. Sixteen t r i a l s were run fo r subjects randomly assigned to the following f i v e experimental conditions: (1) Shock-Failure (S-F): The observer was t o l d that the performer would be shocked i f he f a i l e d , and the performer f a i l e d on a l l but four of the 16 t r i a l s . 22, (2) Shock-Success (S-S): The observer was t o l d that the performer would be shocked i f he f a i l e d ; however, the p e r f o r -mer was s u c c e s s f u l on a l l t r i a l s . (3) No-3hock-Pailure (NS-F): No i n s t r u c t i o n s about shock were given and the performer c o n s i s t e n t l y f a i l e d on a l l but four t r i a l s . No-shock-Success (NS-S)j Nothing was mentioned about shock, and the performer was s u c c e s s f u l on a l l t r i a l s . (£) Sh o c k - F a i l u r e - V a r i a b l e (S-P-V): This s i t u a t i o n was i d e n t i c a l to the S-P c o n d i t i o n , except that the warning s i g n a l preceded the a c t u a l f a i l u r e at var y i n g i n t e r v a l 3 ( w i t h a mean of 9.0 seeonds)between 6 and 12 seconds. This group was i n -troduced as a check on some r e s u l t s from p r e l i m i n a r y p i l o t work, which I n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n S-P groups, observer's may have been responding t o an extraneous cue. That i s , the height of the rod before the marble was dropped may have e l i -c i t e d a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l . The v a r i a b l e CS-UCS i n t e r v a l In the S-P-V group allowed more v a r i a b i l i t y I n the height o f the marble before f a i l u r e , thus minimizing t h i s p o s s i b l y e x t r a n -eous cue. (No such group was needed i n co n d i t i o n s where P c o n s i s t e n t l y succeeded, because the height of the marble at the i n s t a n t o f success was constant f o r a l l t r i a l s , (b) Procedure: P waited i n the lounge of the psychology b u i l d i n g f o r each 0. E waited u n t i l both were present, introduced h i m s e l f t o both, and then escorted them t o a point just outside the room 23. c o n t a i n i n g the apparatus. Care was taken to e l i m i n a t e any i n t e r a c t i o n between the confederate and the naive subject that might arouse the s u s p i c i o n that P was c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h E. Outside the door of the experimental room, 0 and P were asked t o s e l e c t one o f two s i m i l a r s m a l l c a r d s , t o determine who would take the r o l e of observer and who would be the performer. On the reverse s i d e both cards had the word "ob-se r v e r " w r i t t e n on them, so E's confederate was always P. In c o n d i t i o n s where shock i n s t r u c t i o n s were to be read, P's permission to use e l e c t r i c shock i n the experiment was ob-t a i n e d at t h i s p o i n t . Otherwise, both p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e d d i r e c t l y i n t o the room, seated i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s , and i n s t r u c t i o n s read as f o l l o w s : (To b o t h ) : We are conducting a study based upon e x p e r i -mental evidence from research i n problem-solving s i t u a t i o n s . These studies have shown that u s i n g apparatus such as you aee here we can determine q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y a person's a d a p t a b i l i t y i n a problem-solving t a s k by whether or not he i s able t o discover an u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e . (To performer): Your task i s t o grasp t h i s rod at the end l i k e t h i s (E s l o w l y demonstrates procedure h e r e ) , c a t c h the marble i n the t i n y groove at the end, l i f t i t up through the channel, and then i n t o the f u n n e l at the t o p . Before you be-g i n each t r i a l , r a i s e the marble up t o the s t a r t i n g l i n e here and wait my s i g n a l to begin. (At t h i s p o i n t In "No Shock" c o n d i t i o n s , nothing more i s s a i d , but i f "Shock" c o n d i t i o n , 24. the f o l l o w i n g sentences are added.) When you f a i l , that i s when you drop the marble, i t f a l l s to the bottom and completes an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t . You w i l l be wearing these e l e c t r o d e s , and w i l l r e c e i v e a shock every time you f a i l . (At t h i s point the P was asked to leave the room while E explained something f u r t h e r t o 0. P was t o l d t o go f a r enough up the h a l l so that he would be unable t o hear, and t o wait f o r E t o s i g n a l him back i n t o the room). (To o b s e r v e r ) : "We are a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g peoples' r e a c t i o n s to t h i s kind of s i t u a t i o n , and i n order t o measure t h i s I s h a l l place these d i s c s on your f i n g e r s (E cleaned h i s f i n g e r s w i t h a l c o h o l , a p p l i e d e l e c t r o d e j e l l y and plaoed the electrodes on 0's f i n g e r s . Be sure to keep your hand as s t i l l as p o s s i b l e so that we do not record f a l s e responses. You have nothing at a l l to worry about, since i t i s only a p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure of your r e a c t i o n s we are i n t e r e s t e d i n . At no time w i l l you r e c e i v e any e x t e r n a l stimulus such as shock, nor w i l l you be r e q u i r e d to sw i t c h places w i t h the performer l a t e r . " (E then moved behind 0 t o the G.S.R. r e -corder and allowed the b a s a l l e v e l t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f , w h i l e he read f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . At l e a s t f i v e minutes elapsed before 0's b a s a l l e v e l was recorded. "Exploratory s t u d i e s on t h i s kind of ta s k and on others l i k e I t have enabled p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o come up w i t h a method of observing motor c o o r d i n a t i o n i n such a way that they can 25. p r e d i c t w i t h great accuracy just when a person, i n t h i s case your p a r t n e r , w i l l f a i l on the t a s k . That i s , j u s t when he w i l l drop the marble. You w i l l n o t i c e that there i s a t i n y l i g h t b u l b t o your r i g h t . Every time I p r e d i c t the performer, w i l l f a i l on the t a s k , that l i g h t w i l l go on some time p r e -vious to the f a i l u r e . You have t h i s cue but he has no auch cue. F i n a l l y , remember that we are only i n t e r e s t e d i n peoples' r e a c t i o n s , that you w i l l r e c e i v e no s t i m u l u s , and that your tas k i a merely to observer, Please ask questions now, because I won't be able t o answer any once we s t a r t . " Once questions, i f any, were answered, P was s i g n a l l e d to re-enter the room. I f i t was a "shock" c o n d i t i o n , (S-F, S-S, S-F-V), electrodes were taped t o h i s f i n g e r s , i n p l a i n view of 0. I n s t r u c t i o n s were then read as f o l l o w s , depending on whether or not shock was in c l u d e d i n the c o n d i t i o n : 1. No Shock; " I t h i n k both of you are aware now of what your r o l e s are t o be durin g t h i s experiment. This t a s k haa been found t o be a f a i r l y d i f f i c u l t one. There w i l l b b e a i x t e e n t r i a l s . Get the marble to the s t a r t i n g l i n e and wait f o r the a i g n a l t o begin. I f there are any questions, I s h a l l be pleased to answer them at the end of the experiment." 2 . Shock: " I t h i n k both of you are aware now of what your r o l e s are to be during t h i s experiment. This t a s k haa been found t o be a f a i r l y d i f f i c u l t one so you, performer, may r e -ceive a few shocks. Pleaae t r y not to make any gestures or noises when you are shocked. There w i l l be s i x t e e n t r i a l s . Get 26. the marble to the s t a r t i n g l i n e and wait for the sig n a l to begin. I f there are any questions, I s h a l l be pleased to answer them at the end of the experiment. Following each set of t r i a l s , 0's were asked to rate the d i f f i c u l t y of the task and the quality of P's performance on f i v e point r a t i n g scales. (These scales are found i n Appen-dix B). After 0 had completed the ra t i n g s , an attempt was made to fi n d out ( l ) whether he had any idea that P might have been a confederate of E; and (2) how 0 f e l t about P dur-ing the task, whether he wanted P to succeed or f a i l , and how he f e l t about the outcome of the t r i a l s . 0's were then thanked for t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and asked not to mention the d e t a i l s of the experiment to any of t h e i r peers f o r at least a month. Experimental Desigpi The main design was f a c t o r i a l , and included four f a c t o r s . The effects of performers success or f a i l u r e , shock, sex d i f -ferences and changes i n patterns of responses over time were determined i n r e l a t i o n to three dependent varia b l e s : ( l ) UCR's to the CS; (2) CR's; and (3) VIR's. (Since the fourth and eighth t r i a l s of the 16 were not scored, there were seven blocks of two t r i a l s each, making Hj. t r i a l s i n a l l . The reason for the exclusion of t r i a l s 1+ and 8 as that on these t r i a l s the CS was not paired with the UCS, as t o t a l accuracy i n pre-di c t i o n s by E was found, i n p i l o t work, to be implausible and aroused suspicion). An analysis of variance was performed on 2 7 . 1 the data . A secondary a n a l y s i s was conducted between the three f a i l u r e groups (S-P, NS-P, and S-P-V) t o determine whether "CR's" had p o s s i b l y been e l i c i t e d by s i t u a t i o n a l conditioned s t i m u l i . The a n a l y s i s of variance was again the s t a t i s t i c a l method employed. The U.B.C. Computer Center was most h e l p f u l i n p r e p a r i n g and a n a l y z i n g the data, and t h e i r kind a s s i s -tance i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged at t h i s time. 1 Data were considered t o be acceptable f o r a n a l y s i s of variance f o l l o w i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n of homogeneity of variance c r i t e r i a suggested by Winer (1963). 28. CHAPTER IV Results It was hypothesized that: (1) (a) Failure by P would more e f f e c t i v e l y e l i c i t a f f e c -t i v e responses (G.S.R.'s) than would success, for the reasons outlined i n the introductory chapter. (b.) Shock contingent upon f a i l u r e would y i e l d a greater frequency of a f f e c t i v e responses than f a i l u r e alone. (2) These emotional responses could be conditioned to a li g h t which served as a warning signal to 0 of P's imminent f a i l u r e • (3) Sex differences i n a f f e c t i v e responses and condition-ing could be found, the assumption being that females would be more sensitive to this p a r t i c u l a r type of s o c i a l - a f f e c t i v e s i -tuation than males. (Lj.) A f f e c t i v e responses would decrease i n frequency over t ime. Data were scored for three classes of G.S.R. deflections: (1) Unconditioned responses to the li g h t (CS). These were G.S.R. deflections which occurred within ij. seconds aft e r the onset of the CS; (2) Conditioned responses (CR's). Deflections which took place a f t e r the CS had been on for 1| seconds and within the next 3«5 second i n t e r v a l , were scored as CR's. Thus the time i n t e r v a l for CR's extended 1.5 seconds past the o f f -set of the CS; (3) Unconditioned Responses to P's performance, 29. v i c a r i o u s l y Instigated responses (VIR's). The time inter v a l s for VIR's began 1.5 seconds after the offset of the CS, and extended for the next l± seconds. Thus, responses seared as UCR's to the CS, CR's, and VIRVs, had to occur i n the succes-sive time i n t e r v a l s of 1|> 3.5, and ij. seconds respectively. One further s t i p u l a t i o n was that i n order to constitute a G.S.R., the pen had to deflect at least one pen width and movement had to indicate an accelerating rather than deceler-ating change. The i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l s varied randomly be-tween 20 and 60 seconds. Each t r i a l began at E's s i g n a l , a f t e r P had raised the marble to a sta r t i n g p o s i t i o n . Scoring of responses was done by two scorers working i n -dependently and without i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of records i n terms of conditions to which 0's had been assigned. Scorers disagreed on only 121\. of 21^ .00 responses. Their per cent agreement was thus 9 l+.8$. Preceding the analysis of the dependent variables, basal conductance levels were examined i n order to ensure that re-sults were not due to i n i t i a l differences In conductance among the various experimental groups. A. Basal Conductance Levels, Rating Scales, and Question Per iod 1. Basal Conductance Levels Basal resistance le v e l s were transformed Into log conduc-3 0 . 1 tance l e v e l s (mierorohos)• The e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t experimental i n s t r u c t i o n on the b a s a l conductance l e v e l s of 0's was ex-amined using an a n a l y s i s o f variance design. Main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s were net observed. However, i t was found that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e v e r s a l ( f = 7*56, df = 1,30, p< . 0 l ) of sex under shock c o n d i t i o n s (S-F, S-S) compared w i t h no shock c o n d i t i o n s (NS-F, NS-S); males having a higher mean conductance l e v e l (.94-1 micromhos) i n shock c o n d i t i o n s than females (.834- micromhos) but a lower one (.804. micromhos) i n no-shock conditions (mean f o r females = .963 micromhos). The summary of the a n a l y s i s of variance i s shown i n Appendix A. Ge n e r a l l y , since the main e f f e c t s f o r shock, f a i l u r e , and sex c o n d i t i o n s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , the groups' b a s a l conductance l e v e l s may be regarded as s i m i -l a r , and not c r i t i c a l i n determining other aspects of t h i s study. In order t o ensure that G.S.R. frequencies were not the r e s u l t o f v a r i a t i o n s i n i n i t i a l b a s a l l e v e l s , the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between these two v a r i a b l e s was examined. A c o r r e -l a t i o n between bas a l conductance l e v e l s and the frequency of 1 Research w i t h the G.S.R. has shown t h a t , p r i o r to s t a t i s t i c a l a n alyses, readings of r e s i s t a n c e (ohms) may be more normally d i s t r i b u t e d i f transformed i n t o conductance u n i t s (mhos). T h i s Is done merely by t a k i n g the r e c i p r o c a l s of the measurements i n ohms.:An"even b e t t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n fr6m•the standpoint o f no r m a l i z i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n s has been i n d i c a t e d by Haggard (I94.9) who advocates the use of l o g conductance u n i t s . This t r a n s f o r -mation from r e s i s t a n c e u n i t s (ohms) to l o g conductance u n i t s ( l o g micromhos) preceded the present a n a l y s i s of basa l conduc-tance l e v e l s . 31. VIR's and CR's e l i c i t e d was non-significant (p = .05, N = J+0). Thus differences i n frequency i n VIR and CR classes of G.S.R.'s which might have been found between experimental conditions could not be attributed to any re l a t i o n s h i p to i n i t i a l basal conductance l e v e l s . 2. Rating Scales 0's were asked, after the t r i a l s were completed, to rate (a) the d i f f i c u l t y of the task, and (b) the quality of the per-formance on the five-point r a t i n g scales found i n Appendix B. These ratings served as another check on the ef f i c a c y and p l a u s i b i l i t y of the experimental conditions. In Table I the mean ratings given by the four groups In the main analysis are presented. In f a i l u r e conditions, 0's rated the task d i f f i c u l t y with a mean of 3*7 units (between "moderate" and " d i f f i c u l t " on the scale) and at 2.6 units for P's performance (between "moderate" and "quite poor"). On the other hand, 0's i n success conditions rated the d i f f i c u l t y with a mean of 2.ij. and the performance at lj..5» It appeared that observers incondltions where P f a i l e d consistently rated the task more d i f f i c u l t . This was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l (P = 30.33, df = 1,32). The performance was rated s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer i n conditions where P f a i l e d than in conditions where he consistently succeeded (P = 97.79, df = 1,32, p <.0l). Complete tables of the analy-s i s of variance are given i n Appendix C. 32. TABLE I Mean Observers' Ratings of the Quality of Performance and D i f f i c u l t y of Task Gondit ion Performance D i f f i c u l t y S-P 2.5 3.7 s-s k-h 2.5 NS-F 2.7 3.6 NS-S ij . , 5 2.2 33. 3* Question P e r i o d The q u a l i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about 0's a t t i t u d e s to P during the experiment, due to the open-ended nature of the questions, and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c c u r a t e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y r e -cording the answers was not amenable to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . However, from E's notes, a few general trends could be ob-served: ( l ) Subjects g e n e r a l l y expressed the f e e l i n g that they had hoped P would succeed, were pleased when he d i d , and disappointed when he f a i l e d : (2) No Ss suspected that P was E's confederate; (3) Some Ss (about 10%) suspected that the shock used was very weak, but none s a i d they doubted shock was used at a l l . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these s u b j e c t i v e comments f o r the nature of the i n s t i g a t e d a rousal are examined f u r t h e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n . l i . Conclusions The frequency of VIR and CR responses d i d not appear r e l a t e d t o i n i t i a l l e v e l s of b a s a l conductance. A n a l y s i s of r a t i n g s s c a l e data i n d i c a t e d that the i n s t r u c t i o n s and ex-perimental s i t u a t i o n were e f f e c t i v e l y and p l a u s i b l y s t r u c -t u r e d . B. Dependent V a r i a b l e s 1. V i c a r i o u s I n s t i g a t i o n (a) F a i l u r e It was hypothesized that P's f a i l u r e would be more e f f e c -t i v e than success i n e l i c i t i n g a f f e c t i v e responses i n 0. I t was f u r t h e r expected that shock eont ingent upon f a i l u r e would 3k* e l i c i t more responses than f a i l u r e alone. Table II shows the mean number of VIR's f o r the experi-mental groups. The mean i n f a i l u r e groups (S-F, NS-F) was 6.2, as compared with a mean of only 2.9 i n success groups (S-S, NS-S). This difference, as shown In Table I I I , was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l of confidence (F = 21.89, df = 1,32; p <.0l). This result suggests that f a i l u r e e l i c i t e d more frequent affeet than success, and, even more importantly, that the experimental conditions employed were ef f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g a f f e c t i v e responses. Also In Table I I , i t i s seen that the mean for the Shock-Failure group was 7*0, somewhat higher than the mean for the No-Shock-failure group which is 5.1|. Though Table III shows that t h i s result was non-significant, the trend i s , nevertheless, i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n . Generally i t may be concluded that f a i l u r e was s i g n i f i -cantly more e f f e c t i v e than success i n e l i c i t i n g v i c a r i o u s l y Instigated emotional responses, but that shock contingent upon f a i l u r e was no more e f f e c t i v e than f a i l u r e alone, though the trend was In the hypothesized d i r e c t i o n . (b) Shock It was expected that instructions about shock might a l t e r the frequency of v i c a r i o u s l y instigated responses, and, from Table I I , an inspection of the various groups means sug-gests that this was the case. 35 TABLE II Mean Number of Vicariously Instigated Responses (VIR) and Unconditioned Responses to the Conditioned Stimulus (UCR to CS) Condit ion Vicarious Instigation UCR-CS S-P 7.00 7.60 s-s 3.50 6.2.1-0 NS-P 5.14-0 6.90 NS-S 2.30 5.20 TABLE III Summary of Analyses of Variance of Vicariously I n s t i -gated Responses (VIR) and Unconditioned Responses to the Conditioned Stimulus (UCR to CS) Source df Vicarious Inst i g a t i o n UCR to CS MS P MS P Shock (A) 1 .25000 3.91+-* .1289^ 0.63 Failure(B) 1 .15557 21.89*** .30036 1.24-7 Sex (C) 1 .15.286 0.01 .60357 0.30 AB 1 .57124-3 0.08 .89283 O.0I4. A.C 1 .28000 3.9*4* .22321 1.09 BC 1 .35714 0.50 .12893 0.63 ABC 1 .22857 0.32 .35725 0.00 Blocks (D) 6 .10500 2.68** .2|38lO II .3I4** AD 6 .21667 0 .55 .29762 0.77 BD 6 .3l4-Oi|-8 O.87 .16190 O.I4.2 CD 6 .•&762 I.I4.O .621522; 1.67 ABD 6 .514-024-8 1.38 .562^ 29 1.24.6 A CD 6 .20000 0.51 .Ij.9024.8 I . 2 7 ABCD 6 .295224- 0.75 .22857 0.59 BCD. 6 .12381 0.32 .97619 0.25 Error 193 .39196 .38614-5 p <.10* p <.. 05** p <.01*** 3 6 . Shock groups (S-P, S-S) gave a mean of 5*3 VIRs, while only 3.9 VIRs were e l i c i t e d i n no-shock conditions (NS-F, NS-F). In a comparison of f a i l u r e and success groups (Table III) t h i s result approached significance (P = 3«9l|-> df = 1,32 p <.10) suggesting that shock instructions might play some part i n augmenting 0's r e a c t i v i t y to P's performance. (c) Sex The effect of sex differences on VIR's was not s i g n i f i -cant, as indicated i n Table I I I , suggesting that males and females did not d i f f e r i n t h e i r capacity for v i c a r i o u s l y i n -stigated emotion. There were, however, some Interactions between sex and other independent variables which approached s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus, the Sex X Shock i n t e r a c t i o n suggested a differences i n the emotional r e a c t i v i t y of males and females i n the presence or absence of shock i n s t r u c t i o n s . Males were found to give more VIR's than females under shock conditions ( 6.G to lj..5 respectively) but fewer G.S.R.'s i n the absence of shock (3.2 to I4..5) • Thus i t appeared that the female a f f e c t i v e respon-s l t i v i t y stayed the same, while the male's was greater i n the presence of shock i n s t r u c t i o n s . (P = 3*9)4-, df = 1,32, p< . 1 0 ) . (d) Blocks of T r i a l s An analysis of the effect of time on VIR's shows some support for the hypothesized decline i n arousal. In Figure 3 the decline i n frequency of G.S.R.'s over t r i a l s may be seen. Table III shows the summary of the analysis of variance f o r 37. 1.5-l 2 3 I I I 7 FIGURE 3 : Effect of Blocks on Mean Number of G.S.R.'s on three dependent va r i a b l e s : UCR's to CS, CR's, and VIR's 38. t h i a e f f e c t , and indicates that, i n the main design, a s i g -n i f i c a n t decline i n affect was found (P = 2.68, df = 6,192, p <.0£). 2. Conditioned Responses (a) F a i l u r e It was hypothesized that P's f a i l u r e would be more e f f e c -t i v e than success i n e l i c i t i n g 0's conditioned responses and, further, that conditioning would be more e f f e c t i v e when shock was made contingent upon f a i l u r e . Table IV shows the frequency of CR's in the various treatment conditions. It can be seen that the mean number of CRs i n f a i l u r e conditions, 6.1, was more than twice that found i n success groups, 2.3. The analysis of variance, summarized i n Table V, Indicates that t h i s difference was highly s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 12.96, df = 1,32, p <.0l). Thus f a i -lure was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g conditioned responses than was success. In a secondary analysis, which involved only the three f a i l u r e groups (S-F, NS-P, S-P-V), the fact that the mean of the S-P-V group (5*4-) was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from either the S-P (7.0) or NS-P (5.1) conditions indicates that "CRs" were not being e l i c i t e d by extraneous cues such as the height of the marble. Hence, f a i l u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y e l i c i t e d greater conditioned af f e c t than success, while the addition of shock instructions 39. TABLE IV Mean Number of Conditioned Responses m Condltion '.' Conditioned Responses S-F 7.00 S-S 2.20 NS-F 5.10 NS-S 2 .lj.0 S-F-V 5.11-0 TABLE V Summary of Main Analysis of Variance for Conditioned Responses (CR)  df Conditioned Responses MS P Shock (A) 1 .10321 0.67 F a i l u r e (B) 1 .20089 12.96-3HH* Sex (C) 1 0.28 AB 1 .15750 1.02 AC 1 .35696 0.00 BC 1 .lp211| 0.28 ABC 1 .80357 0.52 Blocks (D) 6 .15869 AD 6 .23214 0.72 BD 6 .lj-5595 I.I4.I CD 6 .3^881 1.08 ABD 6 .12500 0 .39 A CD 6 .20357 0.63 ABCD 6 .32021+ 0.99 BCD . 6 .63211+ 1.96* Er ror 193 .32292 * p < , 1 0 ** P <.o5 «**p <.oi 14-0. just tended to increase t h i s conditioning a f f e c t . (b) Shock The mean number of G.S.R.'s for shock groups was I 4 . . 6 , compared with a mean of 3.8 i n the No-shock conditions. An analysis o f variance to test the ef f i c a c y of shock i n s t r u c -tions on conditioning yielded results which f e l l short of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , (p <..10), but were i n the hypothe-sized d i r e c t i o n (see Table V for the P values). Thus, shock instructions did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the frequency of conditioned responses. (c) Sex Males tended to give more CR's (1|..5>) than females (3.9) In a comparison of f a i l u r e and success conditions. The effect of sex on e o n d i t i o n a b i l i t y was not, however, found to be s i g -n i f i c a n t (See Table V for the P values). A number of interactions between sex and other factors approached s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . That i s , they were s i g -n i f i c a n t at the 10$ l e v e l of confidence, as indicated i n Table V. (i ) The marginally s i g n i f i c a n t F a i l u r e X Sex X Blocks i n t e r a c t i o n (P = I.96, df = 6,192, p ^.10) suggests that the ef f i c a c y of f a i l u r e i n producing CR's depended both upon the sex of the observer and upon the p a r t i c u l a r t r i a l under con-si d e r a t i o n . ( i i ) The marginally s i g n i f i c a n t Shock X Sex X Blocks i n -te r a c t i o n (P = 1.7ij-» df = 12,li|l|., p <.10) suggests that the 14-1. effect of shock depended both on 0's sex and the p a r t i c u l a r t r i a l being considered. Generally the effects of sex on the frequency of condi-tioned responses were non-significant. (d) Blocks The hypothesized decline i n conditioned affect over time was supported by the data. Figure 3 shows t h i s decrease graphically, while Table V shows the significance of t h i s adaptation (F = i|..9l, df = 6,192, p<.Ol). It may be seen from Figure 3 that the frequency of GR's was maximal as early as the f i r s t block of t r i a l s . The f r e -quency of conditioned G.S.R. 's and the percentage of Ss giving CR's (across a l l f i v e experimental conditions) may be ana-lyzed as follows: T r i a l " Frequency of CR's % of Ss Thus the frequency and percent of subjects giving conditioned G.S.R.'s was greater f o r t r i a l s 2 and 3 than f o r t r i a l 1. Possible reasons f o r the immediate appearance of GR's are d i s -cussed i n Chapter V. Generally, i t may be concluded that the frequency of CR's decreased over time. 3« Unconditioned Responses to the CS Expectations that f a i l u r e , shock, and sex differences would not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r responses to the CS were borne out by the r e s u l t s . Attempts to adapt out i n i t i a l responses 1 2 3 18 2i+ 2k 36 to the CS were not undertaken, for on the basis of past r e -search i n the area (e.g. Stewart, ei^. a l . , 196l) i t has been found that even though such responses may seem to have adap-ted, they reappear upon the f i r s t presentation of the CS and UCS. This phenomenon of apparent r e s e n s i t i z a t i o n to the CS after a period of adaptation led to the suggested use of a decreased latency c r i t e r i o n for scoring responses, i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between resensitized responses to the CS and "true" CR's. In Table II i t may be seen that the mean number of G.S.R.'s to the CS did not vary greatly between experimental groups. As i n the case of VIR and CR r e s u l t s , means for f a i l u r e groups tended to be higher than for success groups (7.3 vs. £.8) while the addition of shock i n s t r u c t i o n s to the f a i l u r e groups again appeared to increase the number of G.S.R.'s e l i c i t e d . However, as indicated i n the summary of the analy-s i s of variance given i n Appendix D, the P r a t i o s f o r the main effects were short of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gnificance (p<.10). The only s i g n i f i c a n t effect was found for blocks of t r i -a l s . This was expected (P = 11.3k> df = 6,193, P <.01) and suggests a general decrease i n responslvity to the CS over time. 4.• Summary of Results The effects of P performance, Shock Instructions, Sex differences, and Blocks of t r i a l s on three responses classes -Vicariously Instigated Responses (VIR's), Conditioned Responses 1+3. (GRs), and Unconditioned responses t o the Conditioned Stimulus (UCR's t o CS) - were examined by means of an a n a l y s i s of variance design. F a i l u r e was found s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e than success i n the i n s t i g a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n i n g o f GSR responses. Shock i n s t r u c t i o n s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the frequency of G .S.R. fs nor were sex d i f f e r e n c e s found. The number of a f f e c t i v e responses d e c l i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y over time both f o r CRs and f o r UCR's t o the CS, but t h i s decrease was l e s s pronounced i n the case of VIR's. CHAPTER V Discussion In discussing the r e s u l t s of this study the general order of presentation i n Chapter IV was follows. Some t h e o r e t i c a l implications of these data and some suggestions for further research were also outlined. Since t h e i r relationship to the independent variables of shock, f a i l u r e , sex, and blocks of t r i a l s was s i m i l a r , the findings for the VIR and CR dependent variables were discussed concurrently. A. Basal Conductance As reported i n the r e s u l t s section, there was one s i g n i f i -cant f i n d i n g with regard to differences i n I n i t i a l basal l e v e l s . This was i n the nature of an i n t e r a c t i o n between shock i n s t r u c -tions and 0's sex. It might be suggested that any subsequent differences be-tween experimental groups i n the frequency of CR's or VIR's produced was the r e s u l t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n i t i a l basal conductance levels and GSR a c t i v i t y . A positive corre-l a t i o n has been found between basal skin resistance and the amplitude of G.S.R. (Haggard, 19l|-5)> while Martin (I960) has reported a negative c o r r e l a t i o n between basal skin resistance and number of subsequent G.S.R.'s. The c o r r e l a t i o n of .05 between basal conductance leve l s and the frequency of G.S.R.'s in CR and VIR classes, though positive and therefore In l i n e with expectations, was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, even though one difference i n the number of VIR's e l i c i t e d approached s i g n i -ficance, i . e . p .10 (males i n shock conditions - S-P, S-3 -gave more VIR's than females, but fewer In no-3hock-conditions - NS-P, NS-S, the non-significant c o r r e l a t i o n shows that t h i s trend cannot be explained solely In terms of i n i t i a l conduc-tance l e v e l s . U n t i l , however, r e p l i c a t i o n of these r e s u l t s rules out the p r o b a b i l i t y that the findings were due to chance e f f e c t s , further i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not j u s t i f i e d . B. VIR and CR Classes The e f f i c a c y of the experimental s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n e l i c i t i n g and conditioning vicarious a f f e c t i v e responses was r e l i a b l y demonstrated. Thus, the findings of other writers (Haner, et.. a l . , I960; Barnett & et_. a l . , I960; and Berger, 1962) were extended to a more general s o c i a l - a f f e c t i v e s i t u a -t i o n , one which seemed more closely related to everyday ex-perience than one i n which shock to another was the Instiga-t i n g stimulus. C. F a i l u r e and Shock Effects Though f a i l u r e r e l i a b l y e l i c i t e d arousal, shock i n s t r u c -t i o n s , contrary to expectations, did not enhance the i n s t i g a -t i o n or conditioning of such responses, though trends f o r vicarious i n s t i g a t i o n were i n the hypothesized d i r e c t i o n . This f i n d i n g contradicts previous work on the one hand, and supports i t on the other. In contrast with studies by Haner and Whitney (I960) and by Berger (1962), shock instructions did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y induce a f f e c t i v e arousal i n the present 14.6. in v e s t i g a t i o n . One possible explanation for the Inefficacy of shock instructions to r e l i a b l y Increase the frequency of both VIR's and CR's was the paucity of cues about shock pro-vided to the observers i n Shock conditions (S-P, S-S and S-P-V). Unlike the research referred to above, the present method eliminated cues such as instrument readings and other c r i t i c a l v i s u a l and auditory cues. Another explanation i s based on comments made by a number of observers during the p o s t - t r i a l questioning period. Some observers stated that, i n spite of E's instructions to the contrary, they expected P to respond i n v o l u n t a r i l y to a shock i f that shock were i n fact intense and p a i n f u l . Since 0's neither saw nor heard any ind i c a t i o n of pain from P, t h e i r i n i t i a l expectations probably changed af t e r the f i r s t few t r i a l s ( i n Shock conditions). In order to ins t i g a t e emotional responses, Berger ( 1 9 6 2 ) found that i t was necessary for 0 to see P'a arm jerk at the moment of apparent shock. Thus shock i n s t r u c t i o n s , without accompanying movement, were i n e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g arousal. The observation of arm movements per se, was a s u f f i c i e n t s t i -mulus for the i n s t i g a t i o n of a f f e c t . Perhaps, using the pre-sent design, cues to 0 about P's actual behavior or about the inten s i t y of the shock might be systematically varied in order to learn more about the rel a t i o n s h i p (a) between the stimulus events impinging upon P and 0's reactions (Aronfreed's 196L[.b) d e f i n i t i o n of "vicarious experience", and (b) between the overt behavior of the model and inst i g a t e d a f f e c t (Aronfreed's "empathy"). Whether c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t s would be f a c i l i t a t e d to a greater extent, i f any, by the use of a " v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i -ence" paradigm or an "empathy" paradigm might have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f i e l d of criminology, where i s s u e s con-cerning the a d v i s a b i l i t y of observing offenders being punished, or the deterrent e f f e c t s of various types of p u n i t i v e measures on p o t e n t i a l c r i m i n a l s are s t i l l not c l e a r l y r e s o l v e d . D. Sex E f f e c t s The f a c t t h a t males d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r from females i n the frequency of v i c a r i o u s l y i n s t i g a t e d responses, conditioned responses, or unconditioned responses to the CS i s a f i n d i n g e s s e n t i a l l y i n agreement w i t h previous studies (e.g. Haner et_. a l . , i960). However, t h i s r e s u l t was contrary to p r i o r expectations f o r t h i s study, since p i l o t work and our general expectations i n d i c a t e d some tendency toward greater r e s p o n s i v i t y on the part o f females. Further research In t h i s area might include a l t e r n a t i n g female w i t h male Performers, to determine the e f f e c t s of the sex v a r i a b l e on observers 1 r e -sponses • E. E f f e c t s of Blocks of T r i a l s Though a d e c l i n e In emotional r e a c t i v i t y over t r i a l s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e p o r t s by e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s , the reasons f o r t h i s e f f e c t are not yet c l e a r . One explanation may be that the G.S.R. adapts over time (Berger, 1962). Another i s t h a t , i n view of the tedious nature of the t a s k , and the f a c t that ii-8. subjects f r e q u e n t l y expressed, both by t h e i r a c t i o n s (e.g. gazing d i s t r a c t e d l y about the room, appearing r e s t l e s s , etc.) and by t h e i r v e r b a l comments a f t e r the t r i a l s had been com-p l e t e d , f e e l i n g s of boredom, general a r o u s a l t o the e x p e r i -mental s i t u a t i o n decreased over time. It i s p o s s i b l e that decrease i n arou s a l may have been r e -l a t e d to some k i n d of " s e t " , or tendency on the part of 0 t o respond t o cues f o r f a i l u r e o n l y , w h i l e d i s r e g a r d i n g s t i m u l i r e l a t e d t o P's success. I t might be worthwhile to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , had success been the c l a s s of performance p r e d i c t e d by the CS (rather than f a i l u r e ) greater i n t e r e s t may have been maintained. In the present study, conditioned responses were found t o occur as e a r l y as the f i r s t CS-TJCS p r e s e n t a t i o n , whereas i n most s t u d i e s of c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g , c o n d i t i o n e d responses are not detected u n t i l a f t e r a number of p a i r e d CS-UCS presen-t a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t , i n the present study, many CR's were detected as e a r l y as the f i r s t few t r i a l s may be explained i n terms of two main f a c t o r s : ( l ) the e f f e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s on the G.S.R.; and (2) the use of a reduced la t e n c y c r i t e r i o n f o r s c o r i n g CR's. I n s t r u c t i o n a l parameters have o f t e n been found to a f f e c t human c o n d i t i o n i n g . A c l a s s i c example i s that of Cook and H a r r i s (1937) i n which the magnitude o f G.S.R. i n -creased when S was t o l d he would r e c e i v e a shock, and decreased when he was t o l d he would not. ij-9. Research on c l a s s i c a l conditioning of the e y e l i d response has shown that instructions to Ss can influence the l e v e l of conditioning. In some cases (e.g. Norris & Grant, I9I+8) i n -structions (e.g. "Do not b l i n k u n t i l you f e e l the puff of a i r " ) have been found to have an i n h i b i t o r y effect on conditioning. Razran (1955) has reported that conditioning i s better in subjects who have no knowledge of conditioning than i t i s i n subjects who understand the process. Other writers (e.g. M i l l e r , 1939) have found that instructions have had a f a c i l i -tatory effect on conditioning. A recent study undertaken by Nichols and Kimble (I96I4.) sought to examine the relationship between instructions of an i n h i b i t o r y nature and. "neutral" or " f a c i l i t a t i v e " instructions and consequent conditioning. Pre-vious findings were confirmed, f o r It was shown that compared to neutral i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n h i b i t o r y instructions hindered the progress of conditioning. In a discussion of t h i s topic Kimble (1961) has concluded "...the nature of instructions can deter-mine the degree of conditioning, even though the response i s not completely under voluntary control (p. 1 0 5 - 6 ) " . The G.S.R., l i k e the eye l i d response, Is involuntary, but the conditioning of thi s autonomic response has been shown to be influenced by Ss awareness (Chatter jee & Ericksen, I960)'. On the basis of research on eyeblink and G.S.R. conditioning, the variable of instructions may be assumed to have influenced 0 fs responses. Instructions to observers i n the present investigation were 50. two-fold In purpose: (1) To ensure that 0's were aware that t h e i r role was merely to observe the performance without attemp-t i n g to influence t h e i r spontaneous reactions to I t ; and ( 2 ) To c l a r i f y to 0's the contingency between the CS and the per-formance which followed. It was assumed that these i n s t r u c -tions increased Observers' awareness of the s i t u a t i o n , and that possibly a kind of "set" was evoked which f a c i l i t a t e d early anticipatory responses to the CS. This state of i n -creased readiness to respond, due to the effect of i n s t r u c t i o n s , might account for the presence of GR's as early as the f i r s t few t r i a l s . Another explanation for the detection of early GR's is the use of a reduced latency c r i t e r i o n i n t h e i r scoring. Since t h i s technique takes Into account the physiological latency of the G.S.R. to a stimulus, i t i s possible to obtain separate measures of responses to the CS and UCS, and to i d e n t i f y CR's fo r each t r i a l . Hence, each t r i a l becomes a p o t e n t i a l test t r i a l . There has been discussion concerning the adequacy of the reduced latency c r i t e r i o n . Lockhard and Grings (1963) have questioned the claim by Stewart e_t. a l . , that i t i s possible to d i f f e r e n t i a t e r e l i a b l y between responses which are "true" CR's and responses which are spontaneous s e n s i t i z i n g reactions to the CS, They advocated the use of acoit r o l group In which the CS and UCS were unpaired, i n order to guard against erro-neously scoring such responses as CR's. $1. F. The Nature of Vic a r i o u s l y Instigated Affect Since the experimental s i t u a t i o n employed i n t h i s study proved e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g autonomic responses, interpreted as emotional arousal, questions dealing with the subjective nature for the observer are relevant. However, as pointed out e a r l i e r , the primary concern of the present investigation was the source of t h i s arousal, rather than i t s nature. Berger (1962) has developed a framework within which to analyze, i n a rudimentary sense, the kind of arousal e l i c i t e d here. He used such descriptive terms as empathy, envy, and sadism. Envy and sadism occurred when the responses of the model e l i c i t e d discordant responses i n the observer, i n terms of a pleasantness-unpleasantness a f f e c t i v e dimension. Thus, i f pleasurable affect i n F aroused unpleasantness i n ©, t h i s was the prototype for envy; unpleasantness to P which caused 0 to experience pleasure termed sadism. I f the responses of 0 and P were concordant (either both posi t i v e or both negative) 1 the arousal was termed empathic. The f i r s t point to determine, i n categorizing the nature of the responses of 0 i n t h i s study, was whether such responses were discordant or concordant with P's. It was assumed that P experienced (or was i n f e r r e d to experience) pleasure when he succeeded and displeasure when he f a i l e d . 1 This d e f i n i t i o n of empathy d i f f e r e d from Aronfreed's (I96I4I)) where empathy referre d to the sources of stimulation (P's overt responses) and was distinguished from vicarious experi-ence (the observation of sti m u l i acting upon P). 52. Since the G.S.R. measured the presence of arousal, but not i t s quali t y , the only source of data about 0's subjective feelings were statements by 0's themselves during the post-t r i a l question period. Therefore, In addition to asking 0's whether they had suspected that P was a stooge, 0's were asked how they f e l t about P. That i s , an attempt was made to deter-mine whether 0's wanted P's to succeed or f a i l , and how they actually f e l t about his performance. Answers to these l a t t e r questions were recorded, but due to t h e i r open-ended nature they were not amenable to s t a t i s -t i c a l a n a l y s i s . However, ca r e f u l inspection of the r e p l i e s r e -vealed some pattern trends i n response content. Most 0's reported f e e l i n g disappointment when P f a i l e d and pleasure when he succeeded. Further, a great many 0's stated that they had "rooted" for 0's during each t r i a l . In instances where 0's responses were concordant with P's we had a model of empathy, according to Berger's (1962) schema described above. However, since f a i l u r e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e than success i n producing VIR's, i t was, i n terms of t h i s model, concordant negative empathic feelings (displeasure on the part of both 0 and P) which were exhibited, rather than a p o s i t i v e type of empathic response. G. Theoretical Implications The r e s u l t s of the present study have implications for a number of areas i n psychology, especially those concerned with 53. "vicarious reinforcement" and s o c i a l learning. S o c i a l learning studies by Walters,(1963), Bandura and Walters (1963), Walters, Parke & Carre,(1965), and others have shown that people acquire new standards of s o c i a l conduct afte r being permitted to observe the consequences that various behaviours have for a model. Since actual reward or punishment to the model i s not d i r e c t l y experienced by the observer, there i s much discussion of the nature of the mechanisms which mediate t h i s apparently "vicarious" learning. Some suggestions have included "covert imitative or i d e n t i f i c a t o r y response" (Mowrer, I960); "vicarious reinforcement" (Kanfer, 1963); and "response i n h i b i t i o n " (Walters, I963). These suggested mediating mechanisms, whose interpretations are strongly cognitive i n flavour, have tended to suggest some kind of conscious lear n -ing process on the part of the observer. The present study, however, suggests that the vicarious i n s t i g a t i o n of responses may be mediated by a f f e c t i v e , p h y s i o l o g i c a l processes rather than (or, i n addition to) cognitive ones. Perhaps physiolo-g i c a l changes i n r e a c t i v i t y precede cognitive discriminations. This paradigm has been developed by Aronfreed (19611b) i n his discussion of the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of standards of moral con-duet, and has l e d to the hypothesis that conditioned emotional responses, acquired during the course of a child's early l i f e experiences, provide the foundations for such constructs as conscience, and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . 51+. This study a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f or the development of t e s t s of "empathic a b i l i t y " , i f such a b i l i t i e s are defined i n terms of v i c a r i o u s l y i n s t i g a t e d a f f e c t i v e responses to the experiences of other s . The a b i l i t y t o empathize i s s a i d t o be h e l p f u l t o people i n the f i e l d s of a c t i n g , communication, and c l i n i c a l psycho-logy, t o give j u s t a few examples. D e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h i s facet or p e r s o n a l i t y may c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of c e r t a i n deviant p s y c h o l o g i c a l groups such as psychopaths. Lacey (1959) pointed out that no s i n g l e i n d i c a t o r o f A.N.S. ar o u s a l could be s u f f i c i e n t to give a r e l i a b l e p r o f i l e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s complex a f f e c t i v e s t a t e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that perhaps the G.S.R. is one of the measures which might be used i n a b a t t e r y of p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s of empathic a b i l i t y . Other techniques might i n c l u d e the use of p s y c h o l o g i c a l assessment procedures such as qu e s t i o n n a i r e s , r a t i n g s c a l e s , paper and p e n c i l t e s t s , and so on, i n order t o a r r i v e at an optimal p r e d i c t o r of a person's a b i l i t y to empa-t h i z e . I f subsequent research i n t o the nature of the arou s a l v i c a r i o u s l y i n s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study r e v e a l s that i t was i n f a c t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s i c a l notions of empathy, then the development o f adequate instruments f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s a b i l i t y may become f e a s i b l e . CHAPTER VI Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether a f f e c -t i v e responses, as measured by e l e c t r i c a l skin conductance, could be v i c a r i o u s l y instigated and c l a s s i c a l l y conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus i n a two-person s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , A naive observe!1 watched a model (a confederate of the experi-menter) attempt a d i f f i c u l t motor task. The task involved l i f t i n g a marble, supported on the end of a s p e c i a l l y grooved rod, to the top of a three foot v e r t i c a l channel, and then into a funnel. It was hypothesized that the model's f a i l u r e experiences on the task would increase the frequency of the observer's a f f e c t i v e responses to a greater extent than would the model's success. This same re l a t i o n s h i p was hypothesized for condi-tioning e f f e c t s . The addition of instructions to the observer that the model's f a i l u r e on the task would result i n an el e c -t r i c shock to the model was expected to enhance both i n s t i g a t i o n and conditioning e f f e c t s . Differences i n male and female r e -a c t i v i t y , as well as a decline i n frequency of responses over time, were expected. Subjects were £0 volunteers from introductory psychology classes, 2£ male and 2£ female. They were randomly assigned to f i v e experimental groups, with the s t i p u l a t i o n that each group contain an equal number of males and females. A four factor analysis of variance design constituted the main s t a t i s -t i c a l a n alysis. Main effects for Shock, F a i l u r e , Sex, and 54 ( B ) Blocks of T r i a l s were analyzed i n terms of t h e i r relationship to three response classes - Vicariously Instigated Responses (VIR)j Conditioned Responses (CR): and Unconditioned Respon-ses to the CS (UCR to CS). The CS was a small light warning the oobserver that the experimenter predicted the performer's f a i l u r e on the task was imminent; the UCS to the observer was the i n f e r r e d emotional response of the performer to h i s suo-ces or f a i l u r e on the task, A secondary analysis comprised three of the f i v e experimental groups i n which only the ef-fects of shock, sex and blocks of t r i a l s were examined. I n i -t i a l basal conductance levels were recorded and analyzed. In addition, ratings of the quality of the performance, the d i f -f i c u l t y of the task, and comments by Observer's about t h e i r subjective attitudes during the experiment were examined. It was found that the paradigm employed e f f e c t i v e l y In-sitgated a f f e c t i v e arousal, and that this arousal could be conditioned to a warning s i g n a l . Shock contingent upon f a i l -ure was no more e f f e c t i v e than f a i l u r e alone i n producing these i n s t i g a t i o n and conditioning e f f e c t s . No sex d i f f e r -ences i n responsivity were found. Signifi c a n t declines i n arousal over blocks of t r i a l s were observed. Ratings of the quality of the performance and the d i f f i c u l t y of the task conformed to expectations. 5 5 . REFERENCES Adler, H.E. Some factors of observational learning i n cats. Journal of Genetic Psychology. 1955, 86, 159-177. A l l p o r t , F.H. S o c i a l psychology. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1924. Aronfreed, J u s t i n . The o r i g i n of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . Psychologi- c a l Review, I96I4., 71, 193-218. Aronfreed, J u s t i n . Conduct and Conscience: a natural history of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . To be published i n M.S. Hoffman (ed.) Character Development' (tentative t i t i e ) N.Y.: S o c i a l Science Research Council, I96ij.b. Asch, S.B. 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New York: Houghton-M i f f l i n Company, 1931}.. Winer, B.J. S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s in experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. Woodworth, R.S. & Schlosberg, H. Experimental psychology. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1958. 6 0 . APPENDIX A SUMMARY OP ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE LEVELS FOR BASAL CONDUCTANCE Source df MS F Shock (A) 1 0 N S F a i l u r e ( B ) 1 . 0 1 NS Sex (C) 1 0 NS AB 1 .17 7.56-JHH:-AC 1 .02 NS BC 1 0 NS ABC 1 0 NS Error 32 .017 Total 39 61. APPENDIX B RATING,;SCALES USED TO RATE QUALITY OP PERFORMANCE AND DIFFICULTY OF.TASK (a) 1 P e r f o r - awful ma nee q u i t e poor moderate very good superb (b) D i f f i -c u l t y extreme- easy l y easy J L moderate d i f f i c u l t extremely d i f f i c u l t 62. APPENDIX C SUMMARY OP ANALYSES OP VARIANCE FOR RATINGS OP PERFORMANCE AND DIFFICULTY Performance D i f f i c u l t y Source df MS P df MS p Shock (A) 1 .225 0.61+ I .1+00 .73 F a i l u r e (B) 1 .31+2 9 7 . 7 9 * * * 1 .169 3 0 . 7 3 * * * Sex (C) 1 .250 .07 1 .1+00 .73 AB 1 .21+9 . 0 7 1 .100 .18 AC 1 .21+9 .07 1 .1+00 .73 BC 1 .21+9 .07 1 .100 .18 ABC 1 .225 .61+ 1 .100 .18 Error 32 .350 32 .550 T o t a l 39 .l!-59 39 *** p <.01 APPENDIX D 63 SUMMARY OP SECONDARY ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE FOR CONDITIONED RESPONSES.(CR) Source df Conditioned Responses MS P Shock (A) 2 .111-333 0.57 Sex (B) 1 .30I|.76 0.12 AB 2 .51905 0.20 Blocks (C) 6 .15714 1J..76 * AC 12 .33333 1.01 BC 6 .26032 0.79 ABC 12 .57460 1.74 Error .33016 * p <.10 

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