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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the relation between the preparation and teaching subjects of the secondary school teachers… Muir, James French 1940

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A STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THE PREPARATION AND TEACHING SUBJECTS OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA "by James F r e n c h M u i r A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l j 1940 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d f o r the c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l the p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s of the secondary s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia who made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . I a l s o w i s h t o thank Mr. H.N. M a c C o r k i n d a l e , the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s of Vancouver, f o r making c e r t a i n d a t a a v a i l a b l e , and Mr. J.L. Watson, the R e g i s t r a r of t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n , f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from him. CONTENTS Chapter Page I» H i s t o r y of T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g and C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia ..... 1 I I . The P r e p a r a t i o n o f Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and T h e i r T e a c h i I I I . A Comparison of the T r a i n i n g , of S e n i o r High S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n R e l a t i o n to the S u b j e c t s They Taught .» 51 IV. Academic and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia 66 x"b 3. x o^£tjp«««•««««»«««««•«««««•««««»«« 03 Appendix A. Requirements f o r the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e 95 Appendix B. Requirements f o r the v3 ^ ) 6 C X &3L G © *fc x JTx G 9»ij © » « « • « • * « • • » • * • »«-«•>• 9 3 Appendix C. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Teachers 108 oOo LIST OF TABLES Table Page I . A t t e n d a n c e and Diplomas i s s u e d a t the Vancouver Normal S c h o o l . 1901-14 13 I I . Number of S p e c i a l Teachers Employed by the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d s , 19 0 JL 0 9 »*«•••••••••#•«•••••««•••«• « « « « * « > « » » 0 20 I I I . ' K e p l i e s to Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .... „ 28 IV. The Secondary S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia A c c o r d i n g to the Type of S c h o o l and Number O f ? 3 cL C llG 2? 5 f 1 9 39 "* 40 • « « « « « « « i « e e « « « s « < t a a » o » o • 3IL V. Number of S c h o o l s i n • t h e P r o v i n c e and the Number of S c h o o l s S t u d i e d , 1939-40 33 VI . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Teachers A c c o r d i n g to Type of S u b j e c t Taught, 1939-40 36 V I I . The R e l a t i o n Between the U n i v e r s i t y S u b j e c t s and H i g h S c h o o l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d V I I I . T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n Two-Teacher S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40 38 IX. T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n S m a l l , Medium and Lar g e H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40 39 X. Teac h i n g Time i n Subj e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n Medium and Large J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40 41 X I . Teaching Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n S m a l l , Medium and Large Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s 1939-40 . 43 - i i i -Table Page X I I . X I I I n> XIV. Teaching Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s , 1939-40 Teac h i n g Time i n Academic S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n the S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 19 3 9 e=*40 • • • •»»«-»• • * « • » « •«« e • » « «>« a « « « • • « « « Teaching Time i n Academic S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n Medium and Large J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40 ..... 44 45 ^ » «> e> « » » » o » » » «• 46 XV» T e a c h i n g Time i n Academic S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n S m a l l , Medium and Large Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , , 1939-40 . * » » » » a • « « • » « 'a « « « e «. 46 XVI. XV I I . X V I I I . T eaching Time i n S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n the Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h . Columbia, 1939-40 © * 0 o Types o f C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by S p e c i a l Teachers i n the Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939-40 O 4 4 e 6 F i r s t and Second C l a s s Teachers Teaching Only Academic S u b j e c t s and Some S p e c i a l . S u b j e c t s i n the Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939»40 47 48 50 P e r c e n t of Time a t the U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the Major S u b j e c t P e r c e n t of S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n Iowa (1921-26) and B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a (1939-40) who Taught S u b j e c t s t h a t They l^ -t&j or eel i n • •««»••*•»•«'•<»«&*«<> • • «»»< 54 56 - i v -Table •XXI. X X I I I . XXIV. XXV. XXVI, X X V I I . X X V I I I . XXIX. XXX. XXXX X a S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers Who Gave Ho I n s t r u c t i o n i n T h e i r Own F i e l d ......... The Number of S c i e n c e s i n Which a Teacher Had U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g ............ Number and P e r c e n t of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n . U n i t e d S t a t e s (1930-31) and B r i t i s h Columbia (1939-40) w i t h Degrees P e r c e n t of Teachers w i t h Degrees Number of Degrees Held.by the Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia Page . 60 62 Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees H e l d i n the Three Groups by the Secondary S c h o o l T e a c h e r s . i n U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 ) and i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1939-40) .. • • « * « » D i s t r i b u t i o n of Degrees H e l d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l Teachers A c c o r d i n g t o Where R e c e i v e d . 1939-40 Number and P e r c e n t of Undergraduate and Graduate Degrees R e c e i v e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939-40 . Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees from some Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s o t h e r than the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939-40 Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees from some Ame r i c a n U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40 Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees i n Home Economics from Some of the U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40 • 9 & <» V & 9 9 Number and P e r c e n t o f Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who H e l d Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s ... 67 69 71 » «» « « • » 72 73 74 75 76 •76 77 Table X X X I I I . Number and P e r c e n t of J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who H e l d Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s XXXIVo XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII. X X X V I I I . Number and P e r c e n t of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who He l d S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s • • • • • «» Number and P e r c e n t of J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who H e l d S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s Types of C e r t i f i c a t e s Held by the Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1939-40 »> « * » « « « * * Number and P e r c e n t of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers Who R e c e i v e d the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e D i r e c t l y Through the U n i v e r s i t y o r A f t e r A t t e n d i n g Normal 3 c l i o o «L 9 X 9 39 "* 4Q • • * * • • »• »«>x»o«»« •« • • «•« < Number of Times a S p e c i a l S u b j e c t Was Taught, 1939—40 ..».»».....».«....»...< XXXIX. Number and P e r c e n t a g e of V a r i o u s S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by Secondary S c h o o l Teachers, 1939-40 CHAPTER I H i s t o r y o f T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g and C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia A t one time t h e r e was no t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s needed o n l y s u f f i c i e n t academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to pass a w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n i n o r d e r t o become f u l l y q u a l i f i e d . As the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the i n f l u x of t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s from o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet t h e demand and i t soon became e v i d e n t t h a t some form o f t e a c h e r -t r a i n i n g was needed i n the p r o v i n c e * To s a t i s f y t h i s growing need a normal s c h o o l was opened i n Vancouver i n 1901 and a second i n V i c t o r i a i n 1915. F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r to s u p p l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1923, undertook the t r a i n i n g o f these c a n d i d a t e s . The c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n of the types and d u r a t i o n of the t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s p a r a l l e l e d the growth of the B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system. A t f i r s t t h e r e were F i r s t , Second and T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s . W i t h the opening of the normal s c h o o l the Academic c e r t i f i c a t e was added. L a t e r when the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n of a t e a c h e r was r a i s e d to J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , t h e T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e was e l i m i n a t e d . When the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n was f i n a l l y r a i s e d to S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n the Second G l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e was a l s o e l i m i n a t e d . A l o n g w i t h these d e f i n i t e l y academic c e r t i f i c a t e s t h e s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s were added as the need a r o s e * I n 1872 the F i r s t A n n u a l S c h o o l K e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d by John J e s s o p , the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n . A t t h a t time t h e r e were no f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n o r d e r to become a t e a c h e r i t was n e c e s s a r y to w r i t e an e x a m i n a t i o n . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n was , 1 / marked by a Bo a r d of E d u c a t i o n . The board was a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l and i t s members h e l d o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e p l e a s u r e o f the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , who was the e x - o f f i c i o chairman of the b o a r d , was a l s o a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor . The e x a m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of (1) s p e l l i n g (200 marks) (2) r e a d i n g (200) (3) w r i t i n g (200) (4) c o m p o s i t i o n (200) (5) grammar (200) (6) a r i t h m e t i c (200) (7) book-keeping (200) (8) geography (200) (9) h i s t o r y (200) (10) mathematics (100 f o r each branch) 1. T h i r d Annual K e p o r t o f the P u b l i c ^Schools of __the. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1874. ( I n f u t u r e f o o t -notes -Annual R e p o r t s " w i l l r e f e r to the Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia.)p.35 (11) L a t i n (100) (12) F r e n c h (50) (13) drawing (50) and 2 (14) music ( 5 0 ) . 3 The f o l l o w i n g types of c e r t i f i c a t e s were i s s u e d by t h e board, on the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s . •. • . F i r s t C l a s s A. 80 per cen t F i r s t C l a s s B 70 per cent Second C l a s s A 60 p e r cent Second C l a s s B 50 p e r cent T h i r d G l a s s A 40 per cen t T h i r d G l a s s B 30 per cent The c e r t i f i c a t e s were g r a n t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s of t i m e . . A F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l be deemed good u n t i l revoked by the Board of E d u c a t i o n ; a Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l be deemed good f o r t h r e e y e a r s , and no l o n g e r ; and a T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l be deemed good f o r one y e a r , and no l o n g e r u n l e s s as h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d . ^ The p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e n e w a l of the Second and T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s was to t a k e the e x a m i n a t i o n over a g a i n . The f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l opened i n V i c t o r i a i n 1876 and was t o be f o l l o w e d by o t h e r h i g h s c h o o l s throughout the p r o v i n c e . The opening of a h i g h s c h o o l was soon to b r i n g about a v a r i a t i o n i n the v a l u e s o f the t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s . 2. T h i r d . A n n u a l R e p o r t , p. 48. 3. T h i r d Annual R e p o r t , p. 49. 4. T h i r d A n n u a l R e p o r t , p. 36. I n 187? the Temporary c e r t i f i c a t e was added t o the other s i x types and a t the same time t h e r e was a change i n t h e l e n g t h of time each was to be h e l d b e f o r e renewal and e x p l i c i t mention of the type of s c h o o l i n w h i c h a t e a c h e r was a l l o w e d to t e a c h w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r form o f c e r t i f i c a t e . V a lue and D u r a t i o n of C e r t i f i c a t e (1) A Temporary c e r t i f i c a t e * v a l i d u n t i l the next e x a m i n a t i o n of t e a c h e r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r to t e a c h t e m p o r a r i l y i n any s c h o o l . (2) A T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r one y e a r , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r to t e a c h i n any P u b l i c S c h o o l i n which one t e a c h e r i s employed, o r as an a s s i s t a n t i n one i n w h i c h more th a n one i s employed. (3) A Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r t h r e e y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r to h o l d any p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c S c h o o l . _ (4) A F i r s t C l a s s , Grade - B c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r vfoas y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r t o h o l d-any p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c S c h o o l , or t o a c t as an a s s i s t a n t i n a H i g h S c h o o l . (5) A F i r s t C l a s s , Grade A c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r f o u r y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e t he h o l d e r t o h o l d any p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c or H i g h S c h o o l . 5 The Board of Examiners had the a u t h o r i t y to i s s u e c e r t i f i c a t e s t o gr a d u a t e s o f a B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t y w i t h o u t the n e c e s s i t y o f w r i t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s • The next change was made i n the y e a r 1882-83 5. N i n t h Annual K e p o r t . 1879-80, p. 352 when t h e f o l l o w i n g two s e c t i o n s were added •1. E v e r y F i r s t C l a s s , Grade A, C e r t i f i c a t e , and every F i r s t C l a s s , Grade B, C e r t i f i c a t e , about to e x p i r e , s h a l l be renewed f r o m y e a r t o y e a r by the Examiners on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the h o l d e r of any such e x p i r i n g c e r t i f i c a t e , p r o v i d e d s u c h . c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l i n the range and scope of each s u b j e c t and of a l l s u b j e c t s f u l l y s a t i s f y the co n d i t i o n s o f the e x a m i n a t i o n i n p r o g r e s s a t the time o f s u c h a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e n e w a l . P r o v i d e d a l s o , t h a t the a p p l i c a n t produce s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o o f of su c c e s s as a t e a c h e r d u r i n g the time h i s c e r t i f i c a t e has been i n f o r c e . 2. Whenever i t s h a l l be deemed n e c e s s a r y to r a i s e the s t a n d a r d of e x a m i n a t i o n , a t l e a s t t w elve months' n o t i c e of such i n t e n t i o n s h a l l b e . g i v e n * 6 There were no f u r t h e r changes u n t i l the s l i g h t change mentioned i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l Report of 1886-87. The p r i n c i p a l changes made have r e f e r e n c e t o d u r a t i o n of c e r t i f i c a t e s - T h i r d C l a s s , Grade A, b e i n g v a l i d f o r two y e a r s , Second C l a s s , Grade A, f o r f i v e y e a r s and F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r l i f e or d u r i n g good b e h a v i o u r . ' I n t he r e v i s i o n of the r e g u l a t i o n s i n 1886-87, the c l a u s e w h i c h gave the Board o f Examiners the a u t h o r i t y to i s s u e c e r t i f i c a t e s t o graduates o f a B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t y , 8 w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n , was d e l e t e d . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r p r o v i s i o n was a g a i n made whereby a graduate of a r e c o g n i z e d 6. T w e l f t h Annual R e p o r t . 1882-83, p. 141. 7. S i x t e e n t h Annual R e p o r t , 1886-87, p. 199. 8. Lo o• c l t . B r i t i s h or Canadian U n i v e r s i t y who had proceeded r e g u l a r l y to h i s degree c o u l d o b t a i n a F i r s t C l a s s * Grade A,, c e r t i f i c a t e by s a t i s f y i n g the examiners as t o h i s knowledge of t e a c h i n g , d i s c i p l i n e and management. The renewal- of, c e r t i f i c a t e s was.ma.de by t a k i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n over a g a i n , o r , as mentioned i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l Report of 1888-89, the c e r t i f i c a t e was renewed w i t h o u t f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n s a f t e r a t e a c h e r had twelve 10 y e a r s ;co:ntinuous: s e r v i c e i n the p r o v i n c e * .The. P u b l i c , S c h o o l R e p o r t of 1893-94 mentioned another changer- h o l d e r s of F i r s t G l a s s . Grade B c e r t i f i c a t e s were no l o n g e r e n t i t l e d to a c t as a s s i s t a n t s i n h i g h 11 .  / . .. s c h o o l s * The d u r a t i o n of a c e r t i f i c a t e now was as f o l l o w s -T h i r d C l a s s one y e a r ; T h i r d C l a s s A, two y e a r s ; Second C l a s s B j t h r e e y e a r s ; Second C l a s s A9 f i v e y e a r s ; and F i r s t C l a s s A and B, l i f e . There were no f u r t h e r changes i n t h e d u r a t i o n o r v a l u e o f the c e r t i f i c a t e s u n t i l a f t e r the opening of t h e f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l a t Vancouver i n 1901. 9. S e v e n t e e n t h Annual R e p o r t , 1887-88, p. c x i x . 10. E i g h t e e n t h Annual R e p o r t , 1888-89, p. cxxv. 11. Twenty-Third Annual. R e p o r t , 1893-94, p* 305. The f i r s t movement i n the d i r e c t i o n of t e a c h e r -t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia of which we have r e c o r d was t h a t i n a u g u r a t e d by John J e s s o p , Esq.., on assuming h i s d u t i e s as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n i n 1872- n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e the opening of the f i r s t Normal S c h o o l i n Van-couver* R e f e r r i n g to the m a t t e r i n h i s r e p o r t to t he L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n J u l y 1873, he made the f o l l o w i n g statements 'A t r a i n i n g " s c h o o l w i l l soon become a n e c e s s i t y i n the p r o v i n c e ; b u t u n t i l s u c h an i n s t i t u t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d something might be ac c o m p l i s h e d i n s e c u r i n g u n i f o r m i t y of method by i n a u g u r a t i n g T e a c h e r s 5 Conventions o r I n s t i t u t e s where ti m e -t a b l e s and programmes of s t u d i e s c o u l d be s u b m i t t e d and d i f f e r e n t methods of t e a c h i n g d i s c u s s e d w i t h a view t o a d o p t i n g some r e g u l a r system i n all-:-schools t h a t may be. about e q u a l i n attendance and requirements'»°^2 The f i r s t c o n v e n t i o n was o r g a n i z e d a t a meeting a t t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly H a l l i n J u l y 1874 and was h e l d a y e a r l a t e r i n the same b u i l d i n g . Addresses were g i v e n on v a r i o u s t o p i c s and a wide range o f s u b j e c t s was d i s c u s s e d . This c o n v e n t i o n was to become an annual a f f a i r . For a number of y e a r s these c o n v e n t i o n s p a r t l y f i l l e d t h e needs of a normal s c h o o l . D u r i n g t h e t e n - y e a r p e r i o d p r i o r t o t h e opening of the f i r s t normal s c h o o l many r e f e r e n c e s were made by Dr.. S.D. Pope, the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , and W i l l i a m B u r n s , I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s , to the growing need f o r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n the province.. A part- o f one. urgent p l e a by W i l l i a m Burns 12. G i b s o n , J.W., F i f t y - S e v e n t h Annual R e p o r t , 1927-28, P» 40. i s s u f f i c i e n t to show h i s f e e l i n g s on the s u b j e c t I t w o u l d seem almost s u p e r f l u o u s to a g a i n mention the urgent need f o r a Normal S c h o o l i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , were i t not that, the n e c e s s i t y i s becoming more prominent every y e a r . D u r i n g t h i s y e a r many of our more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s have l e f t the p r o f e s s i o n and t h e i r p l a c e s have been s u p p l i e d by o t h e r s e n t i r e l y u n t r a i n e d or inexperienced., Under th e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to expect any p r o g r e s s and b o t h time and money a r e -therebywas-ted»13 F i n a l l y -it-became-- e v i d e n t t h a t - i t . was i m p o s s i b l e t o do w i t h o u t a normal s c h o o l any l o n g e r . On January 9 t h 1901, t h e f i r s t term of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l was h e l d i n the-Vancouver, h i g h s c h o o l , b u i l d i n g s * Out of the s i x t y - o n e p u p i l s e n r o l l e d a t the- end o f the f i r s t term June 2 8 t h * . f o r t y - s i x o b t a i n e d d i p l o m a s . No f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were h e l d . Diplomas were g r a n t e d on t h e r e s u l t s of work done d u r i n g the whole s e s s i o n * r a t h e r than on t h a t of a few hours a t i t s t e r m i n a t i o n * I n o t h e r words, the e x a m i n a t i o n extended over the whole term, and every s tudent who showed t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a c a p a c i t y f o r s t e a d y , con-s c i e n t i o u s work, was g r a n t e d a d i p l o m a . I - 4 A t t h a t time i t was not compulsory to a t t e n d the normal s c h o o l . A t e a c h e r c o u l d s t i l l r e c e i v e a c e r t i f i c a t e by p a s s i n g the t e a c h e r s * e x a m i n a t i o n s . The 13. B u r n s , W i l l i a m , Twenty-Ninth Annual R e p o r t , 1899-1900 p. 213<> 14. B u r n s , W i l l i a m , T h i r t i e t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1900-01, - p. 277. c e r t i f i c a t e o b t a i n e d through the normal s c h o o l , however, was permanent* A n o t h e r drawback',., according', to. W i l l i a m B u r n s , p r i n c i p a l , .of the normal .school,., was t h a t only- one type of d i p l o m a was i s s u e d * I t d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h between a t e a c h e r capable o f teaching, primary, work and one capable of t e a c h i n g s e n i o r , work and e n t i t l e d everyone to h o l d the h i g h e s t t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n i n any graded s c h o o l . The P u b l i c S c h o o l Report of 1901-02 d e s c r i b e d a f u r t h e r change i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I n the l i s t of c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s F i r s t C l a s s A became Academic (by f a r the m a j o r i t y of these t e a c h e r s h e l d degrees) and F i r s t C l a s s B became F i r s t C l a s s * There appeared to be Second C l a s s , Second C l a s s A, Second C l a s s B, T h i r d C l a s s , T h i r d • ' • • . . • 15 C l a s s A and T h i r d G l a s s B» These l a t t e r changes were due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e normal s c h o o l i s s u e d o n l y Academic, F i r s t C l a s s , Second C l a s s and T h i r d C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e s . The o t h e r types were g r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d . A f t e r J u l y , 1 9 0 1 3 the d e s i g n a t i o n o f , v a l i d i t y of and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the o b t a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s * c e r t i f i c a t e s were changed t o the f o l l o w i n g . 1. T h i r d C l a s s ? v a l i d f o r t h r e e y e a r s , not renewable 2* Second C l a s s , F i r s t C l a s s and Academic, a l l v a l i d f o r l i f e F o r t h e l a s t t h r e e c e r t i f i c a t e s named 15. T h i r t y - F i r s t Annual R e p o r t , 1901-02, p. A l x x i x . 10 g r a d u a t i o n f r o m Normal S c h o o l or a p e r i o d of t e n y e a r s a c t i v e s e r v i c e i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e was r e q u i r e d . S t u d e n t s of H i g h S c h o o l s i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n . o r . I r e l a n d . o r of the Dominion of Canada who had passed the e x a m i n a t i o n f o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n i n A r t s of any such U n i v e r s i t y were exempt f r o m e x a m i n a t i o n i n o t h e r t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b j e c t s of Second c l a s s t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t e s . S i m i l a r exemption f o r F i r s t c l a s s t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t e s was g r a n t e d to those who passed S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n or F i r s t y e a r A r t s , and f o r Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s t o those who passed a t l e a s t the i n t e r m e d i a t e e x a m i n a t i o n i n A r t s . Thus came i n t o e x i s t e n c e two avenues l e a d i n g t o these c e r t i f i c a t e s . One by way of the B r i t i s h Columbia Board of Examiners' e x a m i n a t i o n s and one by way of a f f i l i a t e d U n i v e r s i t i e s . 1 6 I n t h i s same y e a r the exa m i n a t i o n s f o r the h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s were adopted as the e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s . The s u b j e c t s of ex a m i n a t i o n s were as f o l l o w s : (a) F o r a T h i r d C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , t he s u b j e c t s of e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l be the same as those f o r the J u n i o r Grade Course of H i g h S c h o o l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t La - t i n i s o p t i o n a l w i t h c a n d i d a t e s f o r T h i r d C l a s s t e a c h e r s 1 : c e r t i f i c a t e s * (b) F o r a Second C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , the s u b j e c t s of e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l be the same as those f o r t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade Course o f H i g h S c h o o l s . (c) F o r a F i r s t C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , the s u b j e c t s o f examination., s h a l l be the same as ..those f o r the S e n i o r Grade Course of H i g h S c h o o l s . (d) F o r an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e , the s u b j e c t s 16. S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1901, Chapter 48, c i t e d i n M a c L a u r i n , Donald L., H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936, p. 228. - 11 of e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l he the same as those f o r the S e n i o r Academic Course of High S c h o o l s hut a l l , c a n d i d a t e s who have not a l r e a d y passed the S e n i o r Grade e x a m i n a t i o n p r e s c r i b e d f o r H i g h S c h o o l s , must a l s o take S e c t i o n s B, C, and D of t h e S e n i o r Grade Course. .Every c a n d i d a t e to be s u c c e s s f u l must o b t a i n a t l e a s t 33 1/3 per cent*, of the marks a t t a c h e d to each s u b j e c t of e x a m i n a t i o n , and not l e s s than an average of 50 p er c e n t , on a l l s u b j e c t s . The f i x e d s t a n d a r d o f marks a t t a c h e d t o each s u b j e c t of e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l be 1 0 0 . 1 7 Three y e a r s l a t e r by amendment to the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t p r o v i s i o n was made whereby r e g u l a r l y employed t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e who, p r i o r t o August 1901, h e l d e i t h e r a T h i r d C l a s s , Grade A or Grade B c e r t i f i c a t e s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o an annual renewal of t h e i r T h i r d G l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s 1 on a p p l i c a t i o n t o the S u p e r i n -tendent of E d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d e i t h e r t h a t they were graduates of an approved Normal S c h o o l or by June 3 0 t h , 1904, they had completed t e n y e a r s of a c t i v e s e r v i c e on the t e a c h i n g s t a f f of the Province.-1-® One o f the most i m p o r t a n t improvements i n t e a c h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia was due to the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t o f 1910 whi c h made i t compulsory f o r a l l f u t u r e t e a c h e r s t o a t t e n d normal s c h o o l . The d u r a t i o n of t h e 17. Manual of S c h o o l Law, 1901, p. 57, c i t e d i n M a c L a u r i n , Donald L., H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936, p. 229. 18. S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1903-04, Chapter 47, c i t e d i n M a c L a u r i n , Donald L.. H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i B h Columbia, 1936, p. 229. - 12 -c e r t i f i c a t e s was a l s o extended. The B oard of Examiners s h a l l have the a u t h o r i t y t o g r a n t c e r t i f i c a t e s , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n and v a l i d i t y of which s h a l l be as f o l l o w s : -(a) T h i r d C l a s s , v a l i d f o r t h r e e y e a r s : (b) Second C l a s s , v a l i d f o r l i f e : ( c) F i r s t C l a s s , v a l i d f o r l i f e : (d) Academic, v a l i d f o r l i f e : A f t e r January 1911, a l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s must h o l d a t l e a s t a P r e l i m i n a r y c e r t i f i c a t e of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l o r of o t h e r Normal S c h o o l s approved by the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n ; p r o v i d e d , however, t h a t a T h i r d C l a s s c e r -t i f i c a t e , supplemented by a P r e l i m i n a r y Normal S c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e or by a t l e a s t one y e a r of a c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n the s c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e , and f u r t h e r supplemented by an Advanced Normal S c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e , s h a l l . b e v a l i d f o r . l i f e . A l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r Second and F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s must h o l d Advanced c e r t i f i c a t e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l or of o t h e r Normal S c h o o l s approved by the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n . 1 9 From the opening of t h e Vancouver Normal S c h o o l i n 1901 u n t i l the m i d d l e of 1905, the s c h o o l y e a r was d i v i d e d i n t o w i n t e r and summer s e s s i o n s . The d u r a t i o n of the w i n t e r s e s s i o n v a r i e d but l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y from October t o June i n c l u s i v e . The summer s e s s i o n l a s t e d f r om J u l y to September i n c l u s i v e . The 1905 w i n t e r s e s s i o n was the f i n a l s e s s i o n of t h i s t y p e . The s e s s i o n s now became known as the P r e l i m i n a r y s e s s i o n , Sept ember to December and the Advanced s e s s i o n , January to June. The c e r t i f i c a t e s 19. T h i r t y - N i n t h A nnual R e p o r t . 1909-10, p. A.32. i s s u e d a t the end o f these s e s s i o n s were the P r e l i m i n a r y and. Advanced Normal S c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e s r e f e r r e d to i n the p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h . TABLE I At t e n d a n c e and Diplomas I s s u e d a t the Vancouver Normal S c h o o l , 1 9 0 I - 1 4 a W i n t e r s e s s i o n Summer s e s s i o n Year Attendance Diplomas A t t e n d a n c e Diplomas 1901 61 46 97 86 1902 34 18 61 5? 1903 37 32 46 42 1904 55 49 33 32 1905 64 57 Advanced s e s s i o n P r e l i m i n a r y s e s s i o n 1905 60 55 1906 58 37 72 66 190? 58 47 55 50 1908 4? 46 62 58 1909 61 52 75 72 1910 96 93 120 1911 160 152 160 1912 168 162 145 1913 162 152 186 174 1914 168 147 a. Annual R e p o r t s * From Table I i t i s seen t h a t the a t t e n d a n c e a t the Vancouver Normal S c h o o l g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d . F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o accommodate p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s of v i c t o r i a and v i c i n i t y , a second normal s c h o o l was opened i n - 14 -V i c t o r i a on January 1 4 t h , 1915. D.L. M a c L a u r i n was the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l . The types and d u r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t e s as s t a t e d i n the 1917-18 r e p o r t were the same as i n the 1909-10 r e p o r t . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the Academic c e r t i f i c a t e , however, were extended and made c l e a r e r . Graduates i n a r t s , i n s c i e n c e or i n l i t e r a t u r e o f r e c o g n i z e d Canadian, B r i t i s h or c o l o n i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s who have proceeded r e g u l a r l y t o t h e i r degrees may, on a p p l i c a t i o n , he g r a n t e d academic c e r t i f i c a t e s , p r o v i d e d they h o l d c e r t i f i c a t e s o f Canadian normal s c h o o l s , or of o t h e r normal s c h o o l s approved by the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n ; or p r o v i d e d they s a t i s f y , by w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n , the Board of Examiners as t o t h e i r knowledge of the a r t of t e a c h i n g , s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e and management, and the s c h o o l law o f t h e Province.*® I n 1922 the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n made two i m p o r t a n t changes. The minimum n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a d m i s s i o n t o the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l s was r a i s e d to J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n . A t the same time the i s s u a n c e of T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s was d i s -21 c o n t i n u e d . A second i m p o r t a n t change was t h e i s s u i n g o f an i n t e r i m s t a n d i n g t o those s t u d e n t s - i n - t r a i n i n g whose work l e f t some doubt as to t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y to the t e a c h i n g 20. F o r t y - S e v e n t h A nnual R e p o r t , 1917-18, p. D99. 21. F i f t y - S e c o n d Annual R e p o r t , 1922-23, p. F48, - 15 -p r o f e s s i o n . Those who were g r a n t e d i n t e r i m s t a n d i n g had to prove t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y i n a c t u a l t e a c h i n g and had to be repor t e d upon f a v o u r a b l y by the P r o v i n c i a l I n s p e c t o r s 22 of S c h o o l s b e f o r e they r e c e i v e d permanent c e r t i f i c a t e s . I n 1925 r e g u l a t i o n s were passed whereby a l l new t e a c h e r s were i s s u e d i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e s upon c o m p l e t i o n of t h e normal s c h o o l t r a i n i n g and c o u l d r e c e i v e permanent c e r t i f i c a t e s o n l y a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g two s u c c e s s f u l y e a r s of t e a c h i n g . I n 1935 a f u r t h e r change was made i n the r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e . T h is change w i l l be noted l a t e r . U n t i l 1923 f u t u r e h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were a b l e to r e c e i v e elementary s c h o o l t r a i n i n g o n l y . September, 1923, saw the s t a r t o f t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g f o r secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A t the r e q u e s t of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y undertook, i n September 1923, t h e d i r e c t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of c a n d i d a t e s f o r the Academic c e r t i f i c a t e . Courses i n elementary methods and i n s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s of t h e el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m were p r o v i d e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l , and f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g were f u r n i s h e d through the k i n d n e s s of the Vancouver S c h o o l Board and the P r i n c i p a l and S t a f f of the K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l . These courses were open o n l y to t h e U n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . L e c t u r e r s on methods i n h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s were a p p o i n t e d 22. F i f t y - S e c o n d Annual K e p o r t , 1922-23, p. F48. — 16 «• 23 f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y s t a f f * The f i r s t term was devoted to elementary methods and t h e second term to secondary methods. Teaching p r a c t i c e was compulsory i n b o t h the elementary and secondary s c h o o l s * -The i s s u i n g of c e r t i f i c a t e s and diplomas was governed by t h e f o l l o w i n g . A t t h e c l o s e of the s e s s i o n , s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s w i l l be recommended, t o the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r the Academic c e r t i f i c a t e and to the F a c u l t y of A r t s and S c i e n c e f o r the g r a n t i n g of t h e U n i v e r s i t y Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n . 2 * The 1924-25 and 1925-26 U n i v e r s i t y c a l e n d a r s r e f e r r e d to t h e Teacher T r a i n i n g Course o n l y * From the 1926-2? c a l e n d a r i t was noted t h a t the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the newly formed Department of E d u c a t i o n . By comparing the types of courses o f f e r e d i n the 1923-24 and 1939-40 c a l e n d a r s i t i s seen t h a t t h e r e has been no fundamental change i n the types of c o u r s e s w h i c h a r e compulsory. A l o n g w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l c o u r s e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y to t a k e f o r t y hours of o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n the elementary s c h o o l s d u r i n g the f i r s t term and s i x t y hours o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n the h i g h 23. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia C a l e n d a r , 1924-25,p. 259. 24. C a l e n d a r . 1924-25, p. 261. - 1? s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h e second term. Teachers who have t h e i r B.A. and normal s c h o o l d i p l o m a may r e c e i v e t h e i r Academic c e r t i f i c a t e by c o m p l e t i n g c e r t a i n academic r e q u i r e m e n t s and i n c e r t a i n cases by a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n the secondary s c h o o l s . The requirements v a r y w i t h the t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s of the teacher but do not c a l l f o r a complete y e a r i n the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course. The complete r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e s c r i b e d i n an a r t i c l e p r i n t e d by the 25 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. (See Appendix A) As y e t no mention has been made of the c e r t i f i c a t e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h o l d i n o r d e r to. t e a c h i n a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . The programme of s t u d i e s , 1928-29. s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g . 1. To be q u a l i f i e d f o r the p o s i t i o n of p r i n c i p a l o f a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l a c a n d i d a t e must be the h o l d e r of an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e f o r t h i s P r o v i n c e . 2. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t e a c h e r s of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s such as Home Economics, Manual T r a i n i n g , M u s i c , A r t , P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g , Commercial s u b j e c t s , a c a n d i d a t e f o r the p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r i n a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l must h o l d an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e or F i r s t - c l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r t h i s P r o v i n c e . 3* A t l e a s t 50 p e r c e n t , of the persons s e l e c t e d by a Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s as a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r s i n a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l - e x c l u s i v e 25. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Requirements f o r the Academic Teachers * C e r t i f i c a t e . - 18 of t e a c h e r s of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s r e f e r r e d to above - must be h o l d e r s of Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s f o r t h i s P r o v i n c e * 2 6 A t p r e s e n t the h o l d e r s of c e r t a i n s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h i n a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . These c e r t i f i c a t e s w i l l be noted l a t e r . I n a pamphlet i s s u e d by the Department of E d u c a t i o n i n 1934, C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers, the f o l l o w i n g was s t a t e d . F i r s t - c l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m and Permanent) ( e n t i t l i n g the h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n an elementary or a c t as the p r i n c i p a l of a s u p e r i o r s c h o o l ) Academic C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m and Permanent) ( e n t i t l i n g t h e h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n an elementary o r h i g h s c h o o l ) 2 " ? I t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o h o l d an Academic c e r t i f i c a t e i n o r d e r to g e t a p o s i t i o n i n a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . The r e q u i r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y to t r a n s f o r m an I n t e r i m Academic to a Permanent Academic c e r t i f i c a t e have not been, changed* The h o l d e r o f an I n t e r i m Academic C e r t i f i c a t e , who has completed two y e a r s ' p r o b a t i o n a r y s e r v i c e and has been recommended f o r permanent s t a n d i n g by the I n s p e c t o r who has examined h i s work, w i l l 26. Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the H i g h and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia and Requirements f o r Teachers' C e r t i f i c a t e s . 1928-29, p. 78. 27. C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s . 1934, i s s u e d by the Department of E d u c a t i o n . - 19 -28 "be e n t i t l e d to r e c e i v e a Permanent C e r t i f i c a t e . I n 1935 t h e r e was a change i n the r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g F i r s t C l a s s Permanent c e r t i f i c a t e s . The p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s are as f o l l o w s . To he e l i g i b l e f o r permanent c e r t i f i c a t i o n , g r a d u a t e s o f P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l s must complete i n sequence the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s : -(a) To be i n charge of a s c h o o l or c l a s s f o r a t l e a s t one term f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n f r om Normal S c h o o l . (b) To complete s u c c e s s f u l l y 3 f u n i t s of work i n the Summer S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n . (c) To be i n charge of a s c h o o l o r c l a s s f o r a t l e a s t one term f o l l o w i n g ( b ) . (d) To complete s u c c e s s f u l l y a second 3-f u n i t s of work i n the Summer S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g ( c ) . 2 9 I n 1937 the minimun n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g was r a i s e d to f u l l u n i v e r s i t y entrance s t a n d i n g and f u l l s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a n d i n g o r t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t s . This e l i m i n a t e d the Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s . • Academic s u b j e c t s do not p l a y t h e same i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m as th e y d i d a few y e a r s ago. Non-academic s u b j e c t s have always had a p l a c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m but even more emphasis has been thrown upon, them s i n c e t h e i s s u i n g o f the l a t e s t Course o f S t u d i e s i n 1936 and 1937. The Department of E d u c a t i o n 28. C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f Teachers« Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1940, p. 6. 29. C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f TeacherB, 1940, p. 7. 20 -i s s u e s not o n l y F i r s t G l a s s and Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s but a l s o s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s i n a r t , c o m m e r c i a l , home economics, i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , m u s i c , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , l i b r a r y and p r i m a r y work. TABLE I I Number of S p e c i a l Teachers Employed by the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d s , 1901^09. a Manual P h y s i c a l Domestic Music Drawing t r a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n s c i e n c e Y e a r V i c . Vane. V i c . Vane. V i C i Vane. V i c . Vane. V i c . Vane. 1901-02 1 : / ' 1902-03 1 1903-04 3 3 1 1 1904-05 3 3' . 2 1 1905-06 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1906-07 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1907-08 3 4 2 1 2 3 1 • 1 1 1 1908-09 3 5 2 1 2 3 •1 1 1 1 a. A n n u a l R e p o r t s . T a b l e I I shows the number of s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s employed by the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d s , 1901 to 1909. A p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i n V i c t o r i a was the f i r s t s p e c i a l t e a c h e r to be employed. Two y e a r s l a t e r s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s f o r manual t r a i n i n g were t e a c h i n g i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver. A t the same time a domestic s c i e n c e t e a c h e r was added t o the s t a f f o f the Vancouver s c h o o l s . - 21 -D u r i n g t h e 1905-6 s c h o o l y e a r the f i r s t s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s of music and drawing were added to the Vancouver s c h o o l system. A t one time the types of c e r t i f i c a t e s and the names of the t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g each type were l i s t e d i n the A n n u a l R e p o r t . The 1914-15 r e p o r t makes the f i r s t m e ntion o f s e p a r a t e c e r t i f i c a t e s i s s u e d to t e a c h e r s o f the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . These c e r t i f i c a t e s were as f o l l o w s . F i r s t C l a s s Manual T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . Second C l a s s Manual T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . Permanent Manual T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . Commercial C e r t i f i c a t e s . Domestic S c i e n c e C e r t i f i c a t e s . A r t C e r t i f i c a t e s . P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . . S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s (music, deaf and sub-normal) Home Economics. The f i r s t d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e t e a c h e r j o i n e d the s t a f f o f t h e V i c t o r i a s c h o o l s i n 1903 and two y e a r s l a t e r a d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e t e a c h e r was added to the s t a f f of the Vancouver s c h o o l s . I n the e a r l y y e a r s the work o f s u p e r v i s i n g the t e a c h e r s of domestic s c i e n c e was c a r r i e d out by the O r g a n i z e r of T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n . The home economic b r a n c h grew u n t i l f i n a l l y M i s s J e s s i e McLenaghen was a p p o i n t e d to devote h e r whole time to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of the work a t the v a r i o u s c e n t r e s . F o r two reasons the y e a r 1926-27 was an out-s t a n d i n g y e a r f o r home economics i n the p r o v i n c e . I t was 22 -d u r i n g t h i s s c h o o l y e a r t h a t the D i r e c t o r of Home Economics was a p p o i n t e d * A l s o d u r i n g t h i s y e a r there was a u n i t e d d r i v e "by women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r a C h a i r of Home Economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The o b j e c t i v e was $80,000. The sum of $11,000 was r a i s e d and p l a c e d t o the c r e d i t of the combined o r g a n i z a t i o n s to be handed to t h e u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s when p l a n s f o r the c h a i r were completed. I n 1929 i t appeared as i f a C h a i r of.Home Economics was t o be e s t a b l i s h e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A s p e c i a l c o u r s e was planned f o r two y e a r s and p r o v i s i o n s were made t o tak e the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e j u n i o r and s e n i o r y e a r s . . A f t e r two y e a r s the u n i v e r s i t y was unable t o c a r r y on the work i n home economics on account of the d e p r e s s i o n . The s t u d e n t s were g i v e n b u r s a r i e s of $400 from t h e i n t e r e s t accumulated 30 from moneys c o l l e c t e d i n 1926. The s c h o o l y e a r 1935-36 a g a i n was an o u t s t a n d i n g y e a r i n t h e h i s t o r y o f home economics i n the p r o v i n c e . Up u n t i l t h i s time home economics was taught i n the s c h o o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e o n l y on the a p p r o v a l of the v a r i o u s s c h o o l 30. McLenaghen, J e s s i e , H i s t o r y of Home Economics From 1926 to 1939. (Most of the m a t e r i a l on home economics i s based on t h i s u n p r i n t e d a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by M i s s McLenaghen.) - 23 -boards* I n 1935-36 the f o l l o w i n g amendment was added to the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t * I n Grade V I I and V I I I i n c i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second c l a s s and I n oth e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s where the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n so d i r e c t s , the Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g equipment and c o u r s e s of s t u d y , s h a l l e s t a b l i s h i n the s c h o o l s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n c ourses i n p r a c t i c a l a r t s , i n c l u d i n g manual t r a i n i n g and home economics.^1 The r e s u l t of t h i s amendment was the r e - o p e n i n g of a l l c e n t r e s c l o s e d d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n and i n a d d i t i o n the opening o f many new ones. The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s i n t e r i m and permanent home economic c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r the elementary and j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . R e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e s e c e r t i f i c a t e s w i l l be found i n Appendix B. A r t . John J e s s o p , i n the 1874-75 Annual R e p o r t , made a r e f e r e n c e to drawing. He noted how i m p o r t a n t i t was i n s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n but a l s o p o i n t e d out the i m p o s s i b i l i t y 32 of employing a s p e c i a l t e a c h e r . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e r e was no p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o draw i n g . I n 1885, D a v i d W i l s o n , P r i n c i p a l 31. McLenaghen, J . , H i s t o r y o f Home Economics. 32. F o u r t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1874-75, p. 15. - 24 -of the Boy's S c h o o l i n New Westminster and l a t e r i n 1893, W i l l i a m B u r n s , I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s , emphasized the importance of drawing i n the s c h o o l s hut a l s o p o i n t e d out the poor r e s u l t s t h a t were b e i n g o b t a i n e d * The drawing books were the main means of t e a c h i n g . I n 1898 W i l s o n s t a t e d * Where d r a w i n g books are i n use, t h e r e i s s t i l l a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n to t r u s t e n t i r e l y to them f o r b r i n g i n g p u p i l s to a s t a t e o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n drawing. The s l a t e and b l a c k b o a r d s h o u l d a l s o be employed and a due amount of i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n . I f e a r t h a t a t p r e s e n t a good d e a l of what passes f o r drawing i s merely c o p y i n g , r u l e r and s c a l e .being f r e e l y used*33 A s t e p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f drawing t e a c h e r s was i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1902 when D. B l a i r , a B r i t i s h a r t m aster, was a p p o i n t e d to the s t a f f of the Vancouver Normal S c h o o l . I t i s seen from T a b l e I I t h a t the f i r s t s p e c i a l t e a c h e r i n drawing was a p p o i n t e d by the Vancouver s c h o o l board i n 1905. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r a s p e c i a l t e a c h e r was a p p o i n t e d i n V i c t o r i a . From t h e n on a r t d e v e l o p e d not o n l y i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver b u t l a t e r i n o t h e r c e n t r e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . P r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the i s s u i n g of c e r t i f i c a t e s i n A r t w i l l be f o u n d i n Appendix B. 33. Twenty-Seventh Annual R e p o r t , 1897-98, p. 1249. - 25 -P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . From Table I I I t i s seen t h a t the f i r s t s p e c i a l t e a c h e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was a p p o i n t e d to the s t a f f of the V i c t o r i a s c h o o l s i n 1901. I t was not u n t i l 1905 t h a t a s i m i l a r appointment was made i n Vancouver. The importance of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s was soon r e c o g n i z e d . More p h y s i c a l e d u o a t i o n t e a c h e r s were added to the s t a f f of the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver s c h o o l s . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n became an i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t i n t h e normal s c h o o l . The 1928-30 Programme o f S t u d i e s l i s t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as one o f the s u b j e c t s t a k e n i n Grade IX and X. I n 1930 p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was made a compulsory s u b j e c t i n a l l grades o f h i g h s c h o o l . The r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the i s s u i n g of s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be found i n Appendix B. P r i m a r y . I n 1911 the importance o f the work of the p r i m a r y t e a c h e r was f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d . A s u p e r v i s o r of p r i m a r y 34 c l a s s e s was a p p o i n t e d i n Vancouver. R e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the i s s u i n g of the p r i m a r y 34. F o r t y - F i r s t A n nual R e p o r t , 1911-12, p. A.47. - 26 c e r t i f i c a t e w i l l "be found i n Appendix B. I n d u s t r i a l A r t s . The f i r s t a n n u a l r e p o r t o f H a r r y B u n n e l l , the I n s p e c t o r of Manual T r a i n i n g , was made i n J u l y 1908. He " b r i e f l y reviewed t h e work done i n manual t r a i n i n g s i n c e i t was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1900. I n November o f 1900, P r o f e s s o r R o b e r t s o n , on b e h a l f of S i r Wm. Mac dona I d , v i s i t e d B r i t i s h Columbia t o make arrangements w i t h t h e E d u c a t i o n Department and the S c h o o l T r u s t e e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Manual T r a i n i n g i n t o the s c h o o l s , f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s , t o i l l u s t r a t e t he u s e f u l n e s s of some form of handiwork b e i n g t a k e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l l i f e . 3 5 The V i c t o r i a and Vancouver s c h o o l boards p r o v i d e d rooms i n w h i c h to c a r r y on t h e stu d y of i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . The remain!ng expenses were pa.id : by S i r Wm. Macdonald. T h i s work was c a r r i e d on f o r t h r e e y e a r s . I n 1903 P r o f e s s o r R o b e r t s o n v i s i t e d the p r o v i n c e a g a i n . On c o n d i t i o n t h a t the S c h o o l T r u s t e e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver c a r r i e d on t h e work f o r one y e a r a t t h e i r own expense, the equipment o f the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s was g i v e n t o them f r e e of any e x p e n s e . 3 6 B o t h s c h o o l boards d e c i d e d t o c a r r y on t h e work w h i c h had begun so s u c c e s s f u l l y . 35. T h i r t y - S i x t h Annual R e p o r t . 1907-08, p. B.32. 36. LOG. c i t . - 27 -F o r two y e a r s t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f w o r k i n g the s c h o o l s was borne r e s p e c t i v e l y by V i c t o r i a and Vancouver; s i n c e t h a t t i m e , as you know, S i r , the E d u c a t i o n Department has a s s i s t e d i n p a y i n g t h e s a l a r i e s of b o t h the Manual T r a i n i n g and Domestic S c i e n c e I n s t r u c t o r s . ' The t e a c h i n g of the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s g r a d u a l l y spread to o t h e r c e n t r e s . A t p r e s e n t these s u b j e c t s a r e taught i n the o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s , i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s and i n n i g h t s c h o o l s * R e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the i s s u i n g of s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r t s w i l l be found i n Appendix B. The Department of E d u c a t i o n a l s o i s s u e s s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s i n c o m m e r c i a l , music and l i b r a r y . The r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l be found i n Appendix B... 37. T h i r t y - S i x t h A nnual R e p o r t , 1907-08, p. B.32. CHAPTER I I The P r e p a r a t i o n of Secondary, S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and T h e i r T eaching S u b j e c t s Purpose. The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s to st u d y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e p a r a t i o n of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the s u b j e c t s t h a t the t e a c h e r s a r e a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g . 3?or t h i s purpose c o p i e s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c i r c u l a t e d t o e v e r y s e n i o r , j u n i o r and combined j u n i o r -s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n the p r o v i n c e . E ach t e a c h e r was r e q u e s t e d t o answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A copy of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be found i n Appendix C. The r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were v e r y 38 g r a t i f y i n g . Out of 129 secondary s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from 123 s c h o o l s . TABLE I I I R e p l i e s • t o • Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S c h o o l s Jjlo. o f flfthaols No. - r e p l i e d P e r c e n t a g e . . r ' e p l i fid S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r - J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l 94 14 21 89 14 20 9 4 . 7 • 100 9 2 . 5 T o t a l 129 123 9 5 . 3 3 8 . T h i s number was a r r i v e d a t f r o m a Department l i s t o f s c h o o l s and p r i n c i p a l s . - 29 -A l t h o u g h 123 s c h o o l s sent i n r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e was not 100 per c e n t * r e p l y from the t e a c h e r s of these schools,. D u r i n g the 1939-40 s c h o o l 39 y e a r 1349 t e a c h e r s were r e g i s t e r e d i n the secondary s c h o o l s of t h e p r o v i n c e . K e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from 1251 o f these t e a c h e r s . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s 93.4 per c e n t . of the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of the p r o v i n c e . P r e p a r a t i o n t o t e a c h academic s u b j e c t s . I n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r the answers to the f o u r t h , f i f t h and p a r t o f t h e s i x t h q u e s t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h . I t w i l l be noted t h a t the f o u r t h q u e s t i o n l i s t s the major and minor subj e c t s the t e a c h e r took i n t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h y e a r a t a. U n i v e r s i t y w h i l e s t u d y i n g towards a degree. I f a subj e c t was l i s t ed under e i t h e r a major o r minor the t e a c h e r was c o n s i d e r e d to be p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h t h a t subj e c t i n a secondary s c h o o l . N a t u r a l l y , any p o s t graduate work done i n a s u b j e c t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d p r e p a r a t i o n t o t e a c h t h a t s u b j e c t . I t i s r e a l i z e d of c o u r s e , t h a t c r e d i t i n a s u b j e c t i s not a r e l i a b l e measure of a t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y to t e a c h t h a t s ubj e c t . U n t i l more r e f i n e d measures a r e 39. T h i s number was a r r i v e d a t from a Department L i s t o f t e a c h e r s c o m p i l e d by the B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n . - 30 -developed we may use t h i s measure as a f a i r e s t i m a t e of t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n . The answers to q u e s t i o n f i v e show the s u b j e c t s a t p r e s e n t b e i n g taught by the t e a c h e r as w e l l as the number of p e r i o d s o f t e a c h i n g i n each of these s u b j e c t s per week. . .• . • Q u e s t i o n s i x c a l l s f o r the type of t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e h e l d by the t e a c h e r answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Secondary S c h o o l s . To s i m p l i f y the d i s c u s s i o n i t was necessary to d i v i d e the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n t o s m a l l e r groups. The f i r s t t h r e e n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s were the s e n i o r , j u n i o r and combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . Table IV shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e secondary s c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e d i v i s i o n s . The t a b l e a l s o shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f each of these d i v i s i o n s a c c o r d i n g to the number of t e a c h e r s . i n t h e s c h o o l . - 31 -TABLE IV The Secondary S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia A c c o r d i n g to t h e Type of S c h o o l and lumber of Teachers, 1939^40^ No. of t e a c h e r s .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . Q 10 11 12 13 14 15. 16 17 18 19 20-29 30-39 40-49 over 49 T o t a l No. of s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s 15 30 5 5 6 3 2 . 1 2 6 .1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 94 IMO. of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 14 No. of j r - s r h i g h s c h o o l s 2 i 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 21 T o t a l 15 30 7 6 7 4 4 1 4 7 3 ,4 1 3 4 2 2 3 3 8 4 4 129 a. Department L i s t , B.C. Teachers" F e d e r a t i o n . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t i t would be n e c e s s a r y to s u b d i v i d e e a ch o f the t h r e e main types of secondary s c h o o l s b e f o r e f u r t h e r study c o u l d be made. S i n c e i n a one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l i t i s - 32 -i m p o s s i b l e f o r a t e a c h e r t o have s p e c i f i c p r e p a r a t i o n i n more t h a n a few s u b j e c t s , i t was d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o e l i m i n a t e t h e s e s c h o o l s . From Table 1 IV i t was seen t h a t t h e r e were t h i r t y two-teacher s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s was by f a r the l a r g e s t number when the s c h o o l s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number of t e a c h e r s . Such s c h o o l s have so much i n common t h a t i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e to c o n s i d e r them t o g e t h e r . 40 E.N. F e r r i s s s t u d i e d 285 r u r a l h i g h s c h o o l s . He found t h e median number o f t e a c h e r s i n these s c h o o l s to be t h r e e and o n e - h a l f . The m i d d l e 50 per c e n t , ranged f r o m two to f i v e and o n e - h a l f . I n s t u d y i n g 125 serai -r u r a l s c h o o l s he found the median number of t e a c h e r s t o be f o u r and o n e - h a l f . The m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t , ranged from two and o n e - h a l f to s i x and o n e - h a l f . He came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the t y p i c a l s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l c o n t a i n e d t h r e e to f i v e i n s t r u c t o r s ( i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l ) . From F e r r i s s * f i n d i n g s and f r o m Table IV i t was d e c i d e d t o group t o g e t h e r the B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s w i t h t h r e e t o f i v e t e a c h e r s . These were c a l l e d s m a l l s c h o o l s . 40. F e r r i s s , E.U. * Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e , p. 27. - 33 — The next break appeared a t the t h i r t e e n t e a c h e r l e v e l . There were no s e n i o r o r combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s w i t h t h i r t e e n t e a c h e r s . S c h o o l s w i t h s i x to t w e l v e t e a c h e r s were c a l l e d medium s i z e d s c h o o l s and s c h o o l s w i t h t h i r t e e n or more t e a c h e r s were c a l l e d l a r g e s c h o o l s . The groups were thus as f o l l o w s : one t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ( e l i m i n a t e d ) two t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t h r e e t o f i v e t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ( s m a l l ) s i x t o twelve t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (medium) over t w e l v e t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ( l a r g e ) s i x to twelve t e a c h e r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (medium) over twelve t e a c h e r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ( l a r g e ) t h r e e t o f i v e t e a c h e r combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (smal1) s i x to twelve t e a c h e r combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (medium) over twelve t e a c h e r combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ( l a r g e ) TABLE V Number of S c h o o l s i n the P r o v i n c e and the Number o f S c h o o l s S t u d i e d . 1939-40 S c h o o l No. of s c h o o l s i n p r o v i n c e No. of s c h o o l s s t u d i e d Two t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l 30 16 16 17 5 9 4 6 11 29 13 15 17 5 9 3 6 11 S m a l l s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Medium s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Large s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Medium j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l L a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l S m a l l j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Medium j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Large j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l T o t a l 114 108 - 3 4 • On the b a s i s of the s u b j e c t s taught the t e a c h e r s of each o f t h e s c h o o l groups were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d I n t o (a) academic (b) academic and s p e c i a l (c) s p e c i a l . By **academic" t e a c h e r s we mean t e a c h e r s who t e a c h the o r d i n a r y academic s u b j e c t s : E n g l i s h , mathematics, F r e n c h , g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , e t c . By " s p e c i a l " t e a c h e r s we mean t e a c h e r s who t e a c h the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s : c o m m e r c i a l , home economics, music, a r t , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . By "academic and s p e c i a l " t e a c h e r s we mean t e a c h e r s who t e a c h both academic and s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . I n t h e modern h i g h s c h o o l t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between academic and s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . The " s p e c i a l " s u b j e c t s a re not " s p e c i a l " except i n the sense t h a t the Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r the t e a c h i n g of these s u b j e c t s . I t was not an easy m a t t e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e t e a c h e r s i n t o one o f the t h r e e groups, academic, academic and s p e c i a l , and s p e c i a l . A l t h o u g h most of the t e a c h e r s t a u g h t s t r i c t l y academic or s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , many taught b o t h . I f a t e a c h e r taught academic subj e c t s 85 p er c e n t . or more of t h e time p l u s s p e c i a l subj e c t s the remainder of t h e t i m e , he was i n c l u d e d under the academic h e a d i n g . - 35 -I n a s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l a t e a c h e r o f t e n had t o spend a few p e r i o d s a week t e a o h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t i f h i s academic s u b j e c t s took a t l e a s t 85 p e r c e n t , of h i s t e a c h i n g time he s h o u l d be p l a c e d under the academic heading. He was s t u d i e d o n l y f r o m the p o i n t of view of h i s academic t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . On the o t h e r hand i f a t e a c h e r taught s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s 85 per c e n t o r more of the time p l u s academic s u b j e c t s t h e r e m ainder of the time he was p l a c e d i n the s p e c i a l group. O f t e n a t e a c h e r of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s had to f i l l out h i s t i m e t a b l e w i t h academic s u b j e c t s . Such a t e a c h e r was c l a s s i f i e d o n l y under s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . The r e m a i n i n g t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n the academic and s p e c i a l group. These t e a c h e r s taught academic or s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s a t l e a s t 16 p e r c e n t , of the time and the remainder o f the time was spent t e a c h i n g the o t h e r group of s u b j e c t s . I t became necessary to study the l a t t e r group f r o m two p o i n t s of view - the academic and the s p e c i a l . I n s t u d y i n g the group from the academic p o i n t of view o n l y the academic s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d . I n t h i s . case the t e a c h e r s were imagined to be i n the s t r i c t l y acaderaic group. I n s t u d y i n g the group from the s p e c i a l p o i n t of view o n l y t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d . - 36 -The r e s u l t s from 1088 t e a c h e r s were a n a l y s e d . The t e a c h e r s were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o Table V I . TABLE VI D i s t r i b u t i o n of Teachers A c c o r d i n g to Type of Subj ec t Taught,, 1959-40 Academic Academic S p e c i a l T o t a l S c h o o l and S p e c i a l Two t e a c h e r s e n i o r h.s. 48 2 1. 51 S m a l l s e n i o r h.s. 35 13 8 56 Medium s e n i o r h.s. 93 21 15 129 Large s e n i o r h.s. 252 51 110 413 Medium j u n i o r h.s. 16 10 9 35 L a r g e j u n i o r h.s. 90 22 64 176 .Small j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s* 4 6 - 10 Medium j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s* 26 13 9 48 La r g e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s. 101 22 47 170 T o t a l .- 665 160 263 1088 P r e v i o u s l y , i n d i s c u s s i n g q u e s t i o n f o u r , i t was shown what was meant by the s u b j e c t s t h a t a t e a c h e r was p r e p a r e d to t e a c h . Table V I I was used i n j u d g i n g t h e r e l a t i o n between U n i v e r s i t y work and the s u b j e c t s taught i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C olumbia. - 37 -TABLE V I I The R e l a t i o n Between U n i v e r s i t y S u b j e c t s And H i g h S c h o o l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d to Teach U n i v e r s i t y s u b j e c t s H i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h (a) Languages: F r e n c h F r e n c h ; L a t i n L a t i n German . German e t c . e t c . (b) E n g l i s h E n g l i s h , L i b r a r y (c) H i s t o r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s (d) H i s t o r y and Economics Geography Geography (e) Mathemat i c s , A p p l i e d Mathematics S c i e n c e ( f ) A p p l i e d S c i e n c e ( G e n e r a l S c i e n c e S c i e n c e s : P h y s i c s ) P h y s i c s C h e m i s t r y J Chemis t r y e t c . (g) {"Home Economics H e a l t h p i o l o g y (.Bacteriology A t e a c h e r i s s a i d t o be t e a c h i n g 100 p e r c e n t , i n h i s own f i e l d i f a l l the subject® he i s t e a c h i n g ( q u e s t i o n f i v e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) are t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t he i s prepar e d to t e a c h ( q u e s t i o n f o u r ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not always 100 per c e n t , and i t i s t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e s u b j e c t s taught and the s u b j e c t s p r e p a r e d to be taught t h a t i s t o be s t u d i e d . Academic• The f i r s t column of Table V I I I shows the percentage - 38 groups i n t o w h i c h a t e a c h e r c o u l d he p l a c e d . I t w i l l he noted t h a t t h e f i r s t group. G to 4 per c e n t . , and the l a s t group, 95 to 100 per c e n t . , have a much s m a l l e r range than the o t h e r n i n e groups. A l l t e a c h e r s p l a c e d i n one o f t h e s e two groups may he c o n s i d e r e d to be t e a c h i n g 0 per c e n t , or 100 per c e n t , of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . The second column shows the number of t e a c h e r s i n each o f t h e s e groups. spent a t l e a s t 85 per c e n t . of t h e i r time t e a c h i n g academic s u b j e c t s . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, a l l t h e s e t e a c h e r s TABLE V I I I T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n Two-Teacher S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . 1939-40 P e r c e n t of t e a c h i n g time i n own f i e l d No. of t e a c h e r s P e r c e n t of t o t a l no. of t e a c h e r s 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 - 4 - 14 - 24 - 34 - 44 - 54 - 64 - 74 - 84 - 94 -100 4 1 2 2 10 6 3 7 4 1 8 16.9 4.2 4.2 20.8 12.5 6.2 14.6 8.3 2 8.3 2 T o t a l 48 100 - 39 F o r t y - e i g h t of the f i f t y - e i g h t t e a c h e r s i n the twenty-nine two-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s were i n c l u d e d i n the group shown i n Table V I I I . • As would be expected, a l a r g e number (39.5 per c e n t . ) of the t e a c h e r s were found t o be t e a c h i n g from t h i r t y - f i v e to s i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t , of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . However e i g h t t e a c h e r s taught 95 per c e n t , or more of t h e time i n t h e i r own f i e l d w h i l e f o u r taught 4 p e r c e n t , or l e s s of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . TABLE I X Teaching Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of -Academic Teachers i n Small.Medium !and Large S e n i o r High S c h o o l s . 1959-40. . S m a l l Medium Large P e r c e n t J";,, No .• P e r c e n t Ho. P e r c e n t No. P e r c e n t o f of of of t e a c h i n g o f to t a l o f t o t a l o f t o t a l time i n no. of no. of no. of own t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s f i e l d 0- 4 -5.7 5 5.4 24 9.5 5- 14 - 1 . .4 1 5 - 2 4 2 5.7 2 2 * 3 1.2 25- 34 2 5.7 1 X ® X 10 3.9 35- 44 2 5.7 2 2.2 4 1.6 45- 54 1 2.9 3 . •3 « S 6 2.4 55- 64 «» 4 4.3 4 1.6 65-.74 5 14.3 2 2t • 2 5 1.9 7 5 - 8 4 5 14.3 9 9.7 9 ' 3.6 85- 94 2 5 • * 13 . 13.8 6 2.4 95-100 14 40 52 55.9 180 VX » 5 T o t a l , ,35 100 93 100 252 100 — — ~. - 40 -R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m t h i r t e e n of the s i x t e e n s m a l l s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , f i f t e e n of the s i x t e e n medium s i z e d s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and a l l seven-t e e n l a r g e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s * A l t h o u g h o n l y t h i r t y - f i v e t e a c h e r s f r o m the s m a l l s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were s t u d i e d the t a b l e g i v e s some i d e a of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e i r t e a c h i n g t i m e . The l a r g e s t number was i n the 100 per c e n t group a l t h o u g h t h i s group c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y 40 per cent o f the t o t a l . The o t h e r two gro u p s , n i n e t y - t h r e e and 252 t e a c h e r s , g i v e a muoh b e t t e r i d e a of the s i t u a t i o n i n the group. As would be e x p e c t e d , as the s c h o o l s grow l a r g e r the percentage i n the 100 per cen t group a l s o grows l a r g e r . I n the medium and l a r g e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s we f i n d f i f t y two (55.9 per c e n t . ) and 180 (71.5 per c e n t . ) o f the t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g 95 per c e n t , or more of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . However i t must be noted t h a t a l t h o u g h the l a r g e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s have the l a r g e s t number of t e a c h e r s (180 or 71.5 p e r c e n t . ) t e a c h i n g 95 per c e n t . or more of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d the next l a r g e s t number ( t w e n t y - f o u r or 9.5 per c e n t . ) i n the group c o n s i s t s of those t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g 4 per c e n t , or l e s s o f the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d * The l a r g e s t number of t e a c h e r s appears a t the two extremes. TABLE X Te a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of; Academic Teachers i n Medium and Large J u n i o r . H i g h S c h o o l s , 1959-40 Med ium L a r g e P e r c e n t No. P e r c e n t No. P e r c e n t of t e a c h i n g of of t o t a l o f of t o t a l time i n t e a c h e r s • no. o f t e a c h e r s •' no. of own f i e l d t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s 0- 4 4 24.9 ' 20 22 • 2 5- 14 «. 15- 24 2 2 9 2 25- 34 •1. 6.3 5 .5*6 35- 44 "1 6.3 3 3.3:': 45- 54 4 24.9 5 5.6 55- 64 ' I 6.3 2 2«2 65- 74 - 1 75- 84 - - 2 2 « 2 85- 94 - 3 3«•3 95-100 & . 31.3 47 5 2 a 2 T o t a l 16 100 90 100 R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m a l l f i v e of the medium s i z e d and a l l n i n e of the l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . S i x t e e n t e a c h e r s were i n the f i r s t group. - 42 -We note t h a t a l t h o u g h no c o n c l u s i o n s based on the study of as s m a l l a group can be more than s u g g e s t i v e , the t e a c h e r s seem t o f a l l e v e n l y i n t o t h r e e n e a r l y e q u a l d i v i s i o n s . The d i v i s i o n s c o n t a i n t h o s e t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g n e a r l y a l l , about h a l f and almost none of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . N i n e t y t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n the l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l academic group. F o r t y - s e v e n or 52.2 p e r c e n t . o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s taught 95 per c e n t . or more of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . Twenty or 22.2 per c e n t . , however, taught 4 p e r cent or l e s s of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . T h i s 22.2 per c e n t , seems a v e r y l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s noted t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s are the l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s o f the c i t i e s . I t may be t h a t when a vacancy oc c u r s a t e a c h e r i s promoted from the elementary to the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l w i t h o u t much r e g a r d to the s u b j e c t s t h a t he i s p r e p a r e d to t e a c h . Even though the bare s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l may be so elementary t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e t e a c h e r s a r e capable of t e a c h i n g most of the s u b j e c t s , t h e p u p i l s w i l l , undoubtedly, r e c e i v e more b e n e f i t and l a s t i n g , good from the course i f a t e a c h e r i s a b l e to draw, f o r enrichment, upon a w e a l t h of knowledge r e c e i v e d through advanced t r a i n i n g - 43 -i n t h e subj eet. TABLE XI Teaching Time i n S u b j e c t s Prepared, f o r of Academic Teachers i n S m a l l , Medium and Large Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40 S m a l l Medium Larg P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t o f Uo. of No. of Ho. of t e a c h i n g of t o t a l o f t o t a l of t o t a l time i n t e a c h e r s no. of t e a c h e r s no. o f teachers no. of own t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s f i e l d 0- 4 4 15.4 8 7.9 5- 14 - - «» 15- 24 .1. ' • 3.8 «, 25- 34 1 25 - 3 2.9 35- 44 - - - - 3 2.9 45- 54 2 50 - - 9 8.8 55- 64 - - . 2 3 2.9 65-.- 74 - 3 11.5 *T J. .9 75- 84 - 2 7.7 8 7.9 85- 94 - - - - 4 3.9 95-100 1 .25 . 14 53.9 62 61.9 T o t a l 4 100 26 100 101 100 R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f rom t h r e e of the f o u r s m a l l , a l l s i x medium and a l l e l e v e n l a r g e combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . F our t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n the s m a l l combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l group. Tw e n t y - s i x t e a c h e r s i n the medium s i z e combined 44 j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were s t u d i e d . As i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i t was found t h a t t h e l a r g e s t number, f o u r t e e n o r 53.9 per c e n t . , were i n the 100 per c e n t , group. The next l a r g e s t number, f o u r or 15.4 per c e n t . , were i n the 0 per c e n t . group. One hundred and one t e a c h e r s i n the l a r g e combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were s t u d i e d . S i x t y -two or 61.9 p e r c e n t , were i n the 100 per c e n t , group. The next l a r g e s t number,nine or 8.8 p e r c e n t . were i n the 50 p e r c e n t , group. However e i g h t o r 7.9 per c e n t . were found to be i n the 0 per c e n t , and the 80 per c e n t . groups. TABLE. X I I Teac h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n the B r i t i s h C olumbia Secondary S c h o o l s . 1939-40 P e r c e n t of t e a c h i n g time i n own f i e l d No* o f t e a c h e r s P e r c e n t of t o t a l no. of t e a c h e r s 0- 4 71 10.8 5- 14 2 .3 15- 24 12 1.8 -' 25- 34 25 3.8 35- 44 25 3.8 45- 54 36. 5*2 55- 64 19 2.9 65- 74 24 3.6 75- 84 39 5.9 85- 94 26 3.9 95-100 386 58 T o t a l 665 100 Table X I I i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of Tables V I I I t o X I , and t h e r e f o r e r e f e r s to the percentage of t e a c h i n g time i n s u b j e c t s p r e p a r e d f o r of academic t e a c h e r s i n the B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s . A l t o g e t h e r 665 t e a c h e r s were i n t h i s l a r g e academic group. Three hundred e i g h t y - s i x or 58 per c e n t , of the s e t e a c h e r s taught 95 per c e n t , or more o f t h e time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . The next l a r g e s t number of t e a c h e r s i s seventy-one or 10.8 per c e n t , of the t o t a l . These t e a c h e r s were a t the o t h e r extreme and ta u g h t 4 per c e n t . o r l e s s of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . Academic and S p e c i a l . • TABLE X I I I T e aching Time i n Academic S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n the Senior ./High S c h o o l s , 1939-40 S m a l l Mec lium - Lar< P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t Pereerfc of : l b . .of Mo. of Ho. of t e a c h i n g of t o t a l o f t o t a l o f t o t a l time i n t e a c h e r s no* of t e a c h e r s no. of t e a c h e r s no. of own. t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s f i e l d 4 ••» 1 4.7 10 22 5 - 1 4 - .1 ' 2«3 15- 24 3 23.1 1 4.7 1 2 e 3 25- 34 - 1 4. 7 1 2 e 3 35- 44 — 1 4*7' — 45- 54 2 15.4 2 9.8 1 2.3 55- 64 2 15.4 1 • 4.7 «. • 65- 74 «» 1 4*7 1 2 ft 3 75- 84 1 7.6 - - 2 4.5 85- 94 2 15.4 - - . -95-100 3 2 3 • X 13 62 27 61.3 T o t a l 13 100 21 100 44 100 TABLE XIV Teaching Time i n Academic S u b j e c t s Prepared f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n Medium and Large J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . 1939-40 T e d L a r e e P e r c e n t No. P e r c e n t P e r c e n t of t e a c h i n g Qf of t o t a l No. of t o t a l time i n t e a c h e r s no. of of • no. of own f i e l d t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r s .  0- 4 . 1 10 : 2 12.5 •' 5- 14 «cs> — „ ' 15- 24 . : • • • « , • ' m — 25- 34 2 20 . 35- .44. — • •** — • 45- 54 *» 55- 64 -65- 74 ao-75- 84 m. OSS 85- 94 3 30 ~ • 95-100 4 40 14 87.5 T o t a l 10 100 16 100 : TABLE XV Teac h i n g Time i n Academic S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l Teachers i n S m a l l . Medium and Large Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h Schools,1939-40 S m a l l Med ium Large P e r c e n t H e r e e s t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t of No. • of No. of No. of t e a c h i n g o f . t o t a l .  • .. .of t o t a l of t o t a l time i n t e a c h e r s no. o f t e a c h e r s no. o f t e a c h e r s no. of own t e a c h e r s teachers. t e a c h e r s :• f i e l d ; o- .4 3 25 5 27.6 5 - 1 4 - • -15- 24 • .1- 16.7 - -25- 34 — #9. -. -35- 44 1 16.7 1 8.3 45- 54 1 8*3 - -55- 64 met. - - 2 11.2 65- 74 1 8*3 : -75- 84 1 . 16.7 • - 1 5.6 85- 94 1 : 16.7 1 .• 8.3 1 5.6 95-100 2 33.2 5 41.8 9 50 T o t a l 6 • 100 I S 100 18 100 - 47 -The c o n c l u s i o n s "based on Tables X I I I , XIV and XV .are much the same as those "based on the p r e v i o u s t a b l e s . The l a r g e s t number of t e a c h e r s a r e t e a c h i n g 95 per c e n t , or more o f t h e time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . I n the l a r g e s c h o o l s the next l a r g e s t number a r e those t e a c h i n g 4 p e r c e n t , o r l e s s of t h e i r time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . TABLE XVI Teaching Time i n S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic and S p e c i a l - T e a c h e r s i n t h e Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1939-40 S c h o o l 0 per cent 100 per cent T o t a l •Two-teacher s e n i o r h.eu- 2 2 S m a l l s e n i o r h.s. 13 - 13 Medium s e n i o r h.s. 20 1 21 L a r g e s e n i o r , h. s*: • 39 11 50 Medium j u n i o r h.s. ' 10 „ 10 La r g e j u n i or h.s. 14 8 22 S m a l l j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s. 3. 1 4 Medium j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s. 11 2 13 Large j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s. 14 8 22 T o t a l 126 31 157 D e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d not be a r r i v e d a t from the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the t e a c h e r s of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s i n the academic and s p e c i a l group as i t was not always p o s s i b l e t o say whether a teacher was prepared to t e a c h t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . Often a t e a c h e r , by t a k i n g - 48 » e x t r a c o u r s e s d u r i n g the summer or w i n t e r , may have been p r e p a r e d to t e a c h a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t y e t may not have h e l d a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . T a b l e XVI shows 157 t e a c h e r s i n the academic and s p e c i a l group who were s t u d i e d from the p o i n t of view of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . The t e a c h e r s , f o r the purpose of t h i s s t u d y , were c o n s i d e r e d p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t i f they h e l d a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . One hundred and t w e n t y - s i x or 80.3 per c e n t , of these 157 t e a c h e r s were found to be t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l subj e c t s between 16 and 85 per cent of the time wi thout b e i n g p r e p a r e d to do s o . The r e m a i n i n g t h i r t y - o n e or 19.7 p e r c e n t , were t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s w h i l e h o l d i n g a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . S p e c i a l . TABLE X V I I Types of C e r t i f i c a t e s Held by S p e c i a l Teachers i n t h e Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1939-40. C e r t i f i c a t e No. of t e a c h e r s P e r c e n t of t o t a l no. of t e a c h e r s F i r s t c l a s s 12 3.2 Academic 41 16.9 S p e c i a l 210 79.9 T o t a l 263 100 - 49 Table X V I I shows the 263 te a c h e r s who were t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s 85 per cent or more of the time. I t was f o u n d t h a t twelve or 3.2 per c e n t , of the te a c h e r s h e l d F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s , f o r t y - o n e or 16.9 per c e n t , h e l d Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s and 210 or 79.9 p e r c e n t , h e l d s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s . Teachers h o l d i n g F i r s t and Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s and no S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e who were not p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d I n t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s o n l y t e a c h e r s w i t h degrees were p l a c e d i n the academic and academic and s p e c i a l groups w h i l e any t e a c h e r , r e g a r d l e s s of whether he h e l d a degree or n o t f was p l a c e d i n the s p e c i a l group i f he spent a t l e a s t 85 p er c e n t . of h i s t e a c h i n g - t i m e t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . There s t i l l remained e i g h t y -s i x t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t degrees or s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s who have not been examined. These t e a c h e r s taught m a i n l y i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s a l t h o u g h a few taught some s u b j e c t s i n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . The e i g h t y - s i x t e a c h e r s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups (a) t e a c h e r s who taught academic s u b j e c t s o n l y (b) t e a c h e r s who taught some s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . W h i l e no study was made of the' t e a c h i n g t i m e spent i n t e a c h i n g the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , i t was observed t h a t the te a c h e r s c o u l d not be i n c l u d e d - 50 -i n the s p e c i a l group. The i n t e r e s t was s o l e l y i n the number of te a c h e r s w i t h F i r s t and Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s who taught (1) academic s u b j e c t s o n l y (2) some s p e c i a l subjec ts» TABLE X V I I I • F i r s t and Second C l a s s Teachers Teaching Only Academic S u b j e c t s and Some S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s i n the Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia K_l939^40 No. O f P e r c e n t t e a c h e r s Academic s u b j e c t s o n l y 47 54.7 Some s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s 39 45.3 T o t a l 86 100 F o r t y - s e v e n or 54.7 per c e n t , of the te a c h e r s spent a l l of t h e i r time t e a c h i n g academic s u b j e c t s . The r e m a i n i n g t h i r t y - n i n e or 45.3 per c e n t , of the t e a c h e r s spent some of t h e i r t e a c h i n g time t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . CHAPTER I I I A Comparison of the T r a i n i n g of S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n R e l a t i o n to the S u b j e c t s They Taught Purpose. The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o compare the t r a i n i n g of s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n r e l a t i o n to the s u b j e c t s they t a u g h t . M a j o r S u b j e c t . I n the study i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were s a i d to be t e a c h i n g i n t h e i r own f i e l d i f t h e y were t e a c h i n g e i t h e r t h e i r majo o r minor s u b j e c t . Jj'or the purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r "own f i e l d " t akes on a new meaning. "Own f i e l d " w i l l now r e f e r o n l y to the major. The change was n e c e s s a r y because i n a l l the s t u d i e s examined the t e a c h e r s were grouped a c c o r d i n g to the major s u b j e c t taken a t the u n i v e r s i t y . B e f o r e a comparison of the r e s u l t s c o u l d be « 52 -made i t was n e c e s s a r y to i n v e s t i g a t e what was meant by a "major" i n an American u n i v e r s i t y and to see whether t h i s d e f i n i t i o n d i f f e r e d from t h a t g i v e n i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e r e f o r e w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of a major i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s axe from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia C a l e n d a r and show what i s meant by a major. A G e n e r a l Course degree w i l l be granted on c o m p l e t i o n of courses amounting to s i x t y u n i t s chosen i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h C a l e n d a r r e g u l a t i o n s . 4 1 T h i r d and F o u r t h Year F o r a G e n e r a l Course a student must s e l e c t two major s u b j e c t s . a c c o r d i n g to e i t h e r of the f o l l o w i n g schemes A. minimum of n i n e u n i t s i n one s u b j e c t and a minimum of s i x u n i t s i n an o t h e r s u b j e c t . B. minimum of n i n e u n i t s i n each of two s u b j e c t s * C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s were l i s t e d under b o t h Groups A and B. The s u b j e c t s i n Group A were r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r w h i l e those i n Group B were u n r e l a t e d . 41. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia C a l e n d a r , 1939-40 42. I b i d . , p. 77. Work i n the F i r s t o r Second Year i s r e q u i r e d i n each o f the major s u b j e c t s , except . E d u c a t i o n and M u s i c . 4 3 F o r a major s u b j e c t a stude n t must take a minimum o f twelve u n i t s . He must t h e r e f o r e spend a t l e a s t 20 p e r c e n t . of the time a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia t a k i n g a major. The u n i v e r s i t y y e a r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two terms or semesters. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s , w h i c h were taken f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h B u l l e t i n , d e f i n e a major. A c r e d i t i s g i v e n f o r one hour of r e c i t a t i o n o r l e c t u r e p e r week throughout a semester of s i x t e e n weeks• I n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s a r a t i o of two hours f o r one semester c r e d i t i s o b t a i n e d f o r l a b o r a t o r y work. F o r g r a d u a t i o n a t o t a l of,120 c r e d i t s must be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y completed. ^ M a j o r . The major must c o n t a i n a group _ of c o u r s e s a g g r e g a t i n g t w e n t y - f o u r credits.-° A student must spend a t l e a s t 20 p e r c e n t , of the time a t the U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , i n h i s major s u b j e c t . A major a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Montana may be 43. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia C a l e n d a r . 1939-40, p. 77:. 44. U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h B u l l e t i n . G e n e r a l Catalogue 1926-27, p. 73. 45. I b i d . , p. 102. d e f i n e d f r om the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s . C a n d i d a t e s f o r the degree of. B a c h e l o r of A r t s a r e r e q u i r e d to complete 180 c r e d i t s i n a d d i t i o n to r e q u i r e d c r e d i t s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 4 6 ( t w e l v e c r e d i t s ) C r e d i t s S e q u i r e d f o r a M a j o r . A d e p a r t -ment o r s c h o o l may r e q u i r e t h a t the major s t u d e n t s complete from f o r t y to f i f t y - f i v e c r e d i t s I n the chosen f i e l d . ' I t i s seen t h a t out of 192 u n i t s a minimum of f o r t y or 20.8 per c e n t , must he i n t h e major f i e l d o f study. TABLE XIX P e r c e n t of Time a t the U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the Ma j or S ub,j eo t U n i v e r s i t y 8 - P e r c e n t 20 P i t t s b u r g h 20 Montana 20.8 R o c h e s t e r 21 • 8 M i s s o u r i 18.8 M a r y l a n d 23.6 Iowa 19.7 a. U n i v e r s i t y B u l l e t i n s . T a b le XIX i n d i c a t e s the p ercentage of time 46. U n i v e r s i t y of Montana B u l l e t i n , 1932-33, pp. 17-18. 47. L o c . c i t . - 55 -spent i n the major s u b j e c t a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and s i x A m erican u n i v e r s i t i e s . The percentages f o r the A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same as t h a t f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I n the f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s i t i s assumed t h a t a major means the same t h i n g a t an A m erican u n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia and Iowa. 48 By means of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e James Henry Inman made a s t u d y of the t r a i n i n g of 1048 Iowa h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o the s u b j e c t s they t a u g h t . 49 The graduates of e l e v e n of the c o l l e g e s i n Iowa, d u r i n g the p e r i o d from 1921 t o 1926, who had had from one to f i v e y e a r s of h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n were s e l e c t e d as a b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y . 0 From a study of the t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia and Iowa i t was found t h a t no m a t t e r what a t e a c h e r * s major s u b j e c t was, t h e r e was a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t 48. Inman, James Henry, The T r a i n i n g of Iowa H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n R e l a t i o n to the Subj e c t s They Teach, S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , V o l . I V , no. 9, 1928. 49. C e n t r a l , Coe, C o r n e l l , Des Moines U n i v e r s i t y , Drake U n i v e r s i t y , G r i n n e l , Iowa Wesleyan, M o r n i n g s i d e , P a r s o n s , Penn and Simpson* 50. Inman* op. c i t . , p. 9* - 56 -he would, be c a l l e d upon to teach o t h e r s u b j e c t s as w e l l , i f indeed not i n s t e a d of the s u b j e c t s majored i n . TABLE XX a P e r c e n t of S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n Iowa (1921-26) and B r i t i s h Columbia (1959-40) who Taught S u b j e c t s t h a t They Majored i n Iowa B r i t i sh Columbia T o t a l Number P e r c e n t T o t a l Number P e r c e n t t e a c h i n g majored t e a c h i n g maj or ed s u b j e c t s u b j e c t E n g l i s h 505 212 42 195 116 59.6 F r e n c h 45 25 5o & 6, 99 55 55 ® .5 S p a n i s h 22 4 X8»:2- 2 — «=* L a t i n 173 26 15 63 25 39*7 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 454 74 16.3 150 67 : 44.7 Maths. 373 84 25.6'" 147 • 55 37.4 B i o l o g y 130 19 14*6 10 • 7 70 P h y s i c s 206 10 4*9 . 30-'. • 6. - 20 C h e m i s t r y 27 15 '. 55*6 .- 40 . . . 23 . 57.5 Home E c . 111 96 86*5 28 28 100 Music 68 20 29.4 14 1 7» X' a. Inman, op. c i t . , . pp. 28-29. Ta b l e XX i n d i c a t e s the number of s e n i o r h i g h s o h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia who taught the subj ec t s l i s t e d and the number and percentage of t e a c h e r s who majored i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s . The p e r c e n t a g e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia are h i g h e r t h a n those f o r Iowa. There a r e a t l e a s t two reasons why t h i s i s so* As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Iowa was sent t o t e a c h e r s who had one to f i v e y e a r s o f . h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The r e s u l t s covered a maximum t e a c h i n g time of f i v e y e a r s . A t e a c h e r may have been l i s t e d as t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t a l t h o u g h he may not have taught i t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . The r e s u l t s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia were based o n l y upon the one ye a r covered by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t s f o r Iowa .moreover, undoubtedly i n c l u d e d some one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s * These t e a c h e r s taught a v a r i e t y of subj e c t s . The percentages would t h e r e f o r e be l o w e r . The r e s u l t s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, however, d i d not i n c l u d e one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h the percen t a g e s d i f f e r , i t must be noted t h a t i n one r e s p e c t t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r i t y between the r e s u l t s f o r Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia. Two s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s a re compared. The percentage f o r home economics i s the l a r g e r f o r b o t h Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia, 86.5 pe r cent.and 100 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . M u s i c , w h i c h i s the o t h e r s p e c i a l s u b j e c t compared, has r e l a t i v e l y low p e r c e n t a g e s * S p a n i s h and b i o l o g y may be eliminated from the d i s c u s s i o n o f academic s u b j e c t s . There a re o n l y a few t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g these s u b j e c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t appears t h a t the t h r e e academic subj e c t s , E n g l i s h , - 58 -Fr e n c h and c h e m i s t r y , which hare the l a r g e s t percentages of-majors i n Iowa, are a l s o t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h the l a r g e s t percentages I n B r i t i s h Columbia. P h y s i c s has the l o w e s t percentage i n b o t h Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia, 4.9 per c e n t , and 20 per c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . L a t i n , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and mathematics have the next t h r e e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e s i n b o t h Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i j i s h _ j C o l u m b i a and_Al_abama. 51 Henry C l i f t o n Panne11, i n h i s a r t i c l e The P r e p a r a t i o n and Work, .of Alabama Hig h S c h o o l Teachers a r r i v e d a t the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . One-half of the tea c h e r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study taught t h e i r maj or c o l l e g e s u b j e c t , w h i l e o n e - f o u r t h taught s u b j e c t s f o r w h i c h they had l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g than a c o l l e g e minor. I n some s u b j e c t s t e a c h e r s had no undergraduate s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w h a t e v e r . ^ 2 S e v e n t y - f i v e per c e n t . of the t e a c h e r s i n Alabama taught e i t h e r t h e i r maj or or minor subj e c t s . By u s i n g the r e s u l t s of the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i t was found t h a t o n l y 58.7 per c e n t , of the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l 51. Panne 11«. Henry C l i f t o n , "The P r e p a r a t i o n and Work of Alabama H i g h S c h o o l Teachers", Teacher's C o l l e g e R e c o r d , V o l . XXXV, Oct. 1933-Kay 1934. 52. I b i d , p. 237. 59 -t e a c h e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n s c h o o l s of more than one tea c h e r taught e i t h e r t h e i r major o r minor s u b j e c t s . B r i t i s h C olumbia, U n i t e d S t a t e s and New York. 54 E.N. F e r r i s s made a study of the r e l a t i o n between the t e a c h e r ' s major f i e l d and t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . He fou n d , f rom t h e r e p o r t s of 396 r u r a l h i g h s c h o o l teachers i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h a t 16 p er cent . taught f u l l t ime, 68 p e r c e n t , p a r t time and the r e m a i n i n g 16 p er c e n t , none of the time i n t h e i r major f i e l d . The d a t a f o r 612 t e a c h e r s i n s e m i - r u r a l s c h o o l s showed t h a t 38 p er c e n t , taught f u l l t i m e , 50 p er ce n t , taught p a r t time and 12 p e r c e n t . taught none of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . A s i m i l a r s t u d y was made of te a c h e r s i n New York S t a t e . D a t a on 1105 who taught i n s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s d u r i n g 1920-21 showed t h a t 30.5 per c e n t , were t e a c h i n g f u l l t i m e , 56.5 p e r ce n t . p a r t time and 13 per c e n t , none of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . I n the s c h o o l s of New York w i t h an enrolment of fewer t h a n f i f t y p u p i l s 14 p e r c e n t , were g i v i n g a l l of t h e i r t i m e , 72 pe r c e n t , p a r t of t h e i r time and the r e m a i n i n g 14 p er c e n t , none of t h e i r time to subj e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r major 54. F e r r i s , E.N., "The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l : I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m " , B u l l e t i n No. 10, U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f .Education? 1925. - 60 -55 f i e l d o f t r a i n i n g . TABLE XXI S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers Who Gave No I n s t r u c t i o n i n T h e i r Own F i e l d P l a c e T o t a l - n o . No. not i n P e r c e n t Df t e a c h e r s own f i e l d U.S.A. ( r u r a l ) 396 63 16 U.S.A. ( s e m i - r u r a l ) 612' 68 12 N.Y. ( s m a l l ) . 1105 124 13 N.Y. (fewer than f i f t y p u p i l s ) a - 14 B.C. ( s m a l l and medium) . 162 . 7 4.3 B.C. O a r g e ) b 296 34 11.5 a. J i ' e r r i s s , The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l . pp. 14-15. h. R e s u l t s from p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . T able XXI shows the percentage of t e a c h e r s who gave no i n s t r u c t i o n i n s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r own f i e l d . I n U n i t e d S t a t e s and New York the major s u b j e c t was the t e a c h e r ' s "own f i e l d " . The r e s u l t s from B r i t i s h Columbia were t a k e n f r o m Ta b l e s IX and X I I I . The major and minor s u b j e c t s were the t e a c h e r ' s "own f i e l d " . Because of the w i d e r scope of p r e p a r e d s u b j e c t s the B r i t i s h Columbia t e a c h e r s were more l i k e l y to be t e a c h i n g t h e i r major or m i n o r . The p e r c e n t a g e f o r the s m a l l and medium h i g h s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia approaches z e r o . The p e r -55. F e r r i s s , The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l , pp. 14-15. - 61 -centage f o r the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l i s 11.5 per c e n t . The r e s u l t s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those from U n i t e d S t a t e s . B r i t i s h Columbia and M i n n e s o t a . 56 I n 1921-22 P.W. Hutson made an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n o f the p r e p a r a t i o n of s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s t o the s u b j e c t s they taught. One thousand one hundred 57 and t h i r t y - f o u r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s answered a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was sent out by the C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a . Two hundred and seventy 5® of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they were t e a c h i n g one or more c l a s s e s i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . N i n e t y - s e v e n 5 ^ o f these t e a c h e r s taught g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . The t e a c h e r s 60 were d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f o u r groups a c c o r d i n g to the s i z e of the h i g h s c h o o l f a c u l t i e s from w h i c h they came:-Group I - t h i r t y or more t e a c h e r s Group I I - e l e v e n to t h i r t y t e a c h e r s 56. H utson, P.W., "High S c h o o l S c i e n c e Teachers: A Study of T h e i r T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n to the S u b j e c t s They a r e T e a c h i n g " , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , V o l . I X , No. 7, Oct. 1923. 57. I b i d . , p. 423. 58. L o c . c i t . 59. L o c . c i t 60. LOG . c i t - 62 -Group I I I - t e n or fewer t e a c h e r s Group IV - h i g h s c h o o l departments of s t a t e graded s c h o o l s . TABLE X X I I The Number of S c i e n c e s i n V/hich a Teacher Had U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g P e r c e n t of t o t a l number of t e a c h e r s P l a c e 0 s c i e n c e 1 s c i e n c e 2 s c i e n c e s 3 or more s c i e n c e Minn. Group I & I I 6.4 2X » 3 72.3 Group I I I 23 9.1 13.6 74.9 Group I V a 43.8 18 . 7 37.5 JB«0 • l a r g e 26 • 2 36.6 26.6 10.2 medium & s m a l l 33.8 25.8 »o 8.1 a. Hutson, H i g h S c h o o l S c i e n c e Teachers, p.423. Table X X I I compares the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g e n e r a l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s of M i n n e s o t a and B r i t i s h Columbia a c c o r d i n g t o the number of s c i e n c e s t a k e n . A t e a c h e r i n M i n n e s o t a was l i s t e d as t a k i n g a s c i e n c e i f he took o n l y one course i n h i s undergraduate work a t u n i v e r s i t y . The d a t a were not a v a i l a b l e f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia t e a c h e r s . The o n l y mention of c o u r s e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r the major and minor. The p e r c e n t a g e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e d o n l y the s c i e n c e s t a k e n as a major or minor. I f the s c i e n c e s t a k e n , b u t not r e c o r d e d as a maj or or minor, were added - 63 -t h e r e would he a much s m a l l e r percentage i n the zero and p r o b a b l y the one s c i e n c e groups and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a r g e r p ercentage i n the o t h e r groups. Prom Table XX i t appears t h a t t e n , t h i r t y and f o r t y s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s taught b i o l o g y , p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y r e s p e c t i v e l y w h i l e 122 t e a c h e r s were found to t e a c h g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . I f a t e a c h e r i s going t o s p e c i a l i z e i n s c i e n c e i t i s b e t t e r to take a t l e a s t t h r e e s c i e n c e s , p r e f e r a b l y b i o l o g y , p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y r a t h e r t h a n t o s p e c i a l i z e i n one s c i e n c e . The p r e s e n t B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m throws the ~ greatest emphasis on g e n e r a l science. The q u e s t i o n o f t e n asked by p r o s p e c t i v e h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i s "What t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s h o u l d I take as a maj o r ? " T h i s q u e s t i o n i s u s u a l l y asked w i t h the i d e a of b e i n g a b l e t o get a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course. Prom the p o i n t o f view of the t e a c h e r t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n and knowing h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h o r o u g h l y the obvious answer would be, "The s u b j e c t w h i c h you l i k e the b e s t and i n wh i c h you p r o b a b l y get the h i g h e s t marks." Prom the p o i n t of v i e w of b e i n g a b l e to get a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n the answer would be, "The t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s i n g r e a t e s t demand." I s i t p o s s i b l e to p i c k out the t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t - 64 -f o r w h i c h there i s the g r e a t e s t demand? T h i s t h e s i s does not make a study of the s u p p l y and demand of t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. From Table XX, however, i t should be p o s s i b l e to a r r i v e a t some c o n c l u s i o n w i t h r e g a r d to the r e l a t i v e demand f o r t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who majored i n the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . From the column w i t h the percentages of t e a c h e r s who majored i n the s u b j e c t s they are t e a c h i n g i t appears t h a t p h y s i c s , mathematics and L a t i n are the s u b j e c t s w h i c h have the l o w e s t percentage of t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g t h e i r maj o r . The p e r c e n t a g e s , however, g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n . I f the number of t e a c h e r s who majored i n a s u b j e c t i s s u b t r a c t e d from the t o t a l number of t e a c h e r s the r e s u l t g i v e s the number of t e a c h e r s who d i d not maj or i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t . I t i s observed t h a t n i n e t y -two, . e i g h t y - t h r e e , s e v e n t y - n i n e and f o r t y - f o u r t e a c h e r s who taught some mathematics, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , E n g l i s h and F r e n c h r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i d not major i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t . I t a p p e a r s , then, t h a t t h e r e i s l i k e l y to be the g r e a t e s t demand f o r t e a c h e r s who majored i n mathematics, s o c i a l s t u d i e s and E n g l i s h . The obvious r e a s o n why there a r e so many teac h e r s t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h and s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s tfeat b o t h these s u b j e c t s a r e compulsory i n the h i g h s c h o o l . - 65 -S i m i l a r l y f r om Table X V I I i t sh o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o . g e t some i d e a of the r e l a t i v e demand f o r t e a c h e r s of the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s who h o l d a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . There a r e 178 p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g w i t h -out a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . A r t and commercial rank second and t h i r d w i t h f i f t y - s i x and f i f t y - f o u r r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t appeal's t h a t t h e r e would be the g r e a t e s t demand f o r t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a r t and commercial s u b j e c t s . The reason why th e r e a r e so many te a c h e r s t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s compulsory i n a l l secondary s c h o o l s . I t must-be remembered t h a t t h e r e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a s c a r c i t y of q u a l i f i e d academic and s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e . The r e s u l t s o n l y show the s u b j e c t s w i t h the g r e a t e s t number of te a c h e r s t e a c h i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e p a r e d (major or s p e c i a l ) . CHAPTER IV Academic and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia T h i s c h a p t e r s t u d i e s the academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, u t i l i z i n g f o r the purpose the r e s u l t s of the t h i r d , seventh, e i g h t h , n i n t h and p a r t of the s i x t h q u e s t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Teachers H o l d i n g Degrees, The secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were f i r s t s t u d i e d f r om the p o i n t of view of the academic degrees they h e l d . 61 Edward S. Evenden and Guy C. Gamble made a s t u d y o f 121,133 secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g 1930-31, b a s i n g the f i g u r e s on d a t a r e c e i v e d f rom s m a l l and l a r g e , r u r a l and urban and j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n a l l the s t a t e s . The t e a c h e r s 61. Evenden, Edward S., and Gamble, Guy C.,"Teacher P e r s o n n e l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " , U.S. Bureau of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1933, No. 10, V o l . I I , p.49. - 67 -i n v o l v e d c o n s t i t u t e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n of a l l those i n the secondary s c h o o l s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . TABLE X X I I I Number and P e r c e n t of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n U n i t e d S t a t e s (1930-31*)"^ and B r i t i s h ColumbiaH^1959-40~) w i t h Degrees No. t e a c h e r s No. degrees Perc ent S c h o o l TJ«S O ® *B«C» TJ • S o,Jk» £«C © U.S.A. B.C. S e n i o r 84,882 , 742 72,136 625 85 84*2 J u n i o r 36 g 35X 260 20,552 190 56.7 65 J u n i o r - S e n i o r "' 249 192 . - : 7 7 . 1 T o t a l X«2 X j X *o> 3 1251 92,688 986 76.5 78.9 a. Evenden and Gamble, op. c i t . T a b l e X X I I I shows the number and percentage of j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia and the number and percentage of combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h degrees. A l t h o u g h the American f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d i n 1930-31, the r e s u l t s w i l l g i v e some i d e a of how B r i t i s h Columbia compares to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the percen t a g e s of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w i t h degrees were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l . I n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s the percentages f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s were 84.2 per c e n t , and 85 per c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e f o r the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s they were 65 per c e n t , and 56.7 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . One hundred and n i n e t y - t w o or 77.1 per c e n t , of the 249 combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia h e l d degrees. As would be expected t h i s average i s between the 84.2 p e r cent f o r the s e n i o r and 65 per c e n t . f o r the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . A f u r t h e r comparison of the percentage of h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s who h e l d degrees may be made from the r e s u l t s as 62 - . •• s t a t e d by F e r r i s s . The New York survey showed t h a t i n 1920-21, 62 per c e n t , of the h i g h s c h o o l s t a f f i n s c h o o l s i n c e n t r e s under 4500 h e l d c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y degrees. I n Montana, f o r 1921-22, 76 per c e n t , of a l l the h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the s t a t e were r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g f o u r y e a r s or more academic t r a i n i n g above h i g h s c h o o l . I n the h i g h s c h o o l s i n v i l l a g e s of the t h i r d - c l a s s d i s t r i c t s , however, the percentage h a v i n g such t r a i n i n g was o n l y 62. I n N o r t h D a k o t a i n 1920-21, 70 p e r c e n t , of the i n s t r u c t o r s i n second- and t h i r d - c l a s s h i g h s c h o o l s h e l d c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y 62. F e r r i s s , Emery N., Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e . =» 69 -63 degrees. A c c o r d i n g t o C.J. Anderson , i n W i s c o n s i n h i g h s c h o o l s of two to f i v e t e a c h e r s , 21 p e r c e n t , were graduates of c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s and 77 per c e n t , were normal-s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . I n s c h o o l s of s i x or more t e a c h e r s , the percentage of c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y graduates r a n from 21 i n s c h o o l s of s i x t e a c h e r s t o 64 per c e n t . i n s c h o o l s of e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n t e a c h e r s and 69 per c e n t . i n h i g h s c h o o l s of over f i f t e e n t e a c h e r s . 4 TABLE XXIV P e r c e n t of Teachers w i t h Degrees P l a c e Montana (19.21-22) Montana (1921-22) t h i r d c l a s s N o r t h Dakota (1920-21) 2nd & 3rd c l a s s W i s c o n s i n (2-5 t e a c h e r s ) W i s c o n s i n (6 t e a c h e r s ) W i s c o n s i n (11-15 t e a c h e r s ) W i s c o n s i n (over 15 t e a c h e r s ) a B.C. ( s e n i o r h i g h ) B.C. ( a l l s e c o n d a r y ) 1 3 -Pe r c e n t 76 62 70 21 31 64 69 84.2 78.9 St 4 b. F e r r i s s , Emery N., Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e , p. 14-15. Ta b l e X X I I I . T a b l e XXIV shows the percentage of teac h e r s 63. Anderson, J.C., The S t a t u s of Teachers i n W i s c o n s i n , pp. 86-93, c i t e d i n F e r r i s s , Emery N., Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e , p. 14. 64. F e r r i s s , Emery N., Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e , pp. 14-15* - 70 -w i t h degrees. F o r Montana i t , w a s assumed t h a t the t e a c h e r s w i t h f o u r or more y e a r s t r a i n i n g above h i g h s c h o o l h e l d degrees. A c t u a l l y the percentage w i t h degrees s h o u l d be l o w e r . The percentages f o r B r i t i s h Columbia are the l a r g e s t shown i n the t a b l e . A l l the t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who were examined d i d not h o l d degrees. The t e a c h e r s who h e l d degrees were d i v i d e d i n t o the two groups:- ( l ) those h a v i n g degrees and academic c e r t i f i c a t e s (2) those h a v i n g degrees and no academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . Those not p o s s e s s i n g degrees were a l s o examined to see whether or not they were s t u d y i n g towards a degree. The 986 secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia w i t h degrees were examined to see whether they h e l d academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . Of the e i g h t y t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t an academic c e r t i f i c a t e , t w e n t y - f o u r or 30 per c e n t . i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were w o r k i n g towards an academic c e r t i f i c a t e . F i f t y - t h r e e h e l d a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . Only t h r e e of these l a t t e r t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were w o r k i n g towards an academic c e r t i f i c a t e . Twenty-one out of the t w e n t y - f o u r t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g towards an academic c e r t i f i c a t e d i d not possess a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . I t was f o u n d • t h a t 265 or 21.1 per c e n t , of the * 71 * 1251 secondary t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not have a degree. Ninety-two o r 34.8 per c e n t . of these t e a c h e r s were found t o he w o r k i n g towards a degree. I t must he remembered t h a t some o f the t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t a degree h e l d a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e * D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Degrees. TABLE XXV Number of Degrees H e l d by the Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h ^ o T u l m b ^ ^ No. degrees No. t e a c h e r s T o t a l degrees 1 800 800 2 169 338 3 . 15 45 4 2 8 986 1191 As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, 986 secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia h e l d degrees. Table XXV shows that these 986 t e a c h e r s h e l d 1191 degrees. The 1191 degrees were next grouped under the t h r e e h e a d i n g s , undergraduate, graduate and d o c t o r . By an undergraduate degree we mean the f i r s t degree, such as the B.A. and B.Sc. By a graduate degree we mean a degree such as the M.A. and B.Paed. which i s r e c e i v e d - 72 -a f t e r the undergraduate degree hut b e f o r e the d o c t o r ' s 65 degree. By a d o c t o r ' s degree we mean the Ph.D. and D.Paed. The 108,714 degrees h e l d by the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the Uni ted S t a t e s who were s t u d i e d , were 66 c l a s s i f i e d as B.A*, M.A« and D o c t o r . No mention was made of o t h e r undergraduate o r graduate degrees. They were presumably grouped w i t h the B.A. or M.A. TABLE XXVI Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees H e l d i n the Three Groups by the Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n Uni ted " S t a t e s ~ (1930-31J" and i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1959-40) B.C. Group. Degrees P e r c e n t Degrees P e r c e n t Undergraduate 92,688 85.3 1010 : 8 4 . 8 Graduate 15,631 14.4 178 14.9 D o c t o r 395.. 3 » 3 To t a l 108,714 100 1191 100 a. U.S. Bureau of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n , l o c . c i t . T a b l e XXVI compares the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 108,714 degrees h e l d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the 1191 65. A c t u a l l y a graduate degree i s a degree r e c e i v e d a f t e r the undergraduate degree but f o r the purpose of t h i s s t u d y undergraduate degrees w i l l not i n c l u d e d o c t o r a t e s . 66. U.S. Bureau of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1933, No. 10, p. 49. degrees h e l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia a c c o r d i n g to the groups, undergraduate, graduate o r d o c t o r . The d a t a f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s were of c o u r s e , somewhat o l d e r than those f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The t a b l e shows the percentages of degrees i n the t h r e e groups to be a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same* • TABLE XXVII D i s t r i b u t i o n of Degrees H e l d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l Teachers A c c o r d i n g to Where R e c e i v e d (1939-4_dT Degrees from No. Degrees P e r c e n t UiB»G© 806 / 67.7 Re s t of Canada 255 21.4 U.S.A., 72 6 B r i t i s h I s l e s 5 8 a 4*9-. 1191 100 a. I n c l u d i n g one degree from Bombay, I n d i a . From Table XXVI i t i s seen t h a t by f a r the l a r g e s t number of degr e e s , 806 or 67.7 per c e n t . , were r e c e i v e d f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The next l a r g e s t number, 255 or 21.4 p e r c e n t . , were r e c e i v e d f r om u n i v e r s i t i e s s i t u a t e d i n the remainder of Canada.• Only seventy-two or 6 per c e n t , of the degrees were r e c e i v e d f r o m u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i l e - 74 -f i f t y - e i g h t o r 4.9 per c e n t , were r e c e i v e d from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s . Degrees from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE X X V I I I Number and P e r c e n t of Undergraduate and Graduate Degrees R e c e i v e d a t the • U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia " "(1939^40"j" Undergraduates Graduates T o t a l degrees 1010 178 Ho* U.B.C. 721, . 85 P e r c e n t U.B.C. • 71.4" 47.7 From T a b l e X X V I I I the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r importance o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r undergraduate than graduate work i s e v i d e n t . Thus w h i l e 71.4 p e r c e n t , of the undergraduate degrees were r e c e i v e d from t h i s u n i v e r s i t y i t i s seen t h a t o n l y 47.7 p e r c e n t , of the graduate degrees were from the u n i v e r s i t y . - 75 -Degrees from o t h e r Canadian- U n i v e r s i t i e s . TABLE XXIX Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees f r o m some Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s o t h e r than the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959-40. Deg r e e s Number P e r c e n t M a n i t o b a 45 17.6 Toronto 55 • 13.7 Queens 34 13.3 Saskatchewan 24 9.4 :ffiG ;GIll 07 9 Others 94 37 T o t a l 255 100 m' .I,,,, ,,' I,,, ij,,;;^ i mi-,1.,;^ ,,-,',1,^ ,1 1,,, , , • „ ; , , w ,, L ' 1 IJ1_ II '•! II |, 1 I t was found t h a t i f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was e x c l u d e d , 255 degrees were i s s u e d f rom Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Table XXIX i n d i c a t e s the f i v e u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t i s s u e d the l a r g e s t number. 161 or 63 per c e n t . , of these degrees. The U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a ranks f i r s t w i t h f o r t y - f i v e o r 17.6 per c e n t , of the degrees. The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto and Queens rank second and t h i r d w i t h t h i r t y - f i v e o r 13.7 per c e n t , and t h i r t y - f o u r or 13.3 p e r c e n t , of the degrees - 76 -r e s p e c t i v e l y . Degrees f r o m U n i t e d S t a t e s . ' TABLE XXX Number and P e r c e n t o f Degrees from some American U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40 U n i v e r s i t y No. degrees P e r c e n t Washington 39 54*2 Columbia 10 13.9 C a l i f o r n i a 6 8.3 Others ... ta 23.6' T o t a l •72 .;• 100 The secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who were examined h e l d seventy-two degrees from American u n i v e r s i t i e s . Table XXX shows the thr e e u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t i s s u e d f i f t y - f i v e or 76.4 per c e n t , of these degrees. The U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington e a s i l y ranks f i r s t w i t h t h i r t y - n i n e or 54.2 per c e n t , of the t o t a l . Columbia and the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a rank second and t h i r d w i t h t e n or 13.9 p e r c e n t , and s i x o r 8.3 per c e n t , of the degrees r e s p e c t i v e l y . Home Economic Degrees. TABLE XXXI Number and P e r c e n t of Degrees i n Home Economics f r o m Some of t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40. U n i v e r s i t y No. degrees P e r c e n t M a n i t o b a 27 64.7 Washington - 6 14* 4 Others 9 20.9 T o t a l 42 100 The home economics t e a c h e r s are the o n l y t e a c h e r s who need a s p e c i a l type of degree. Forty-two of the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who were examined h e l d a B.Sc. degree i n home economics. Table XXXI shows t h a t by f a r the g r e a t e s t number, twenty-seven or 64.7 per c e n t . , were o b t a i n e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba. The U n i v e r s i t y of Washington r a n k s second w i t h s i x or 14.4 per c e n t , of the t o t a l . C e r t i f i c a t e s . TABLE XXX I I Number and P e r c e n t o f Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who He l d Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s 8 . Year Number No. academic P e r c e n t t e a c h e r s : ' • . c e r t i f i c a t e s 1925-26 401 362 90*2 1926-27 469 397 81.3 1927-28 549 447 :.. -81.5. 1928-29 672 521 77.5 1929-30 735 •562 ' 76.* 9 1930-31 798 578 72.9 1931-32 837 613 * 3 * 3 • 1932-33 890 653 73.4 1933-34 883 662 74*9 . 1934-35 933 . 716 76.7 1935-36 958 735 76.7 1936-37 1072 794 74.1 1.937-38 1183 833 70:. 4- . 1938-39 1312 886 67.5 1939-40 1251° 906 70.2 a. Annual R e p o r t s . b. Not t o t a l number - r e s u l t s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e . - 78 -TABLE X X X I I I Number and P e r c e n t o f J u n i o r and S e n i o r High S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who Hel d Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s a i l u n i j or h i g h s c h o o l s Sen! or h i g h s c h o o l s Y e a r Number Number P e r c e n t Number Number Percen beachers academic tea c h e r s academic c e r t i f i c a t e s c e r t i f i c a t e s 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 Dm- 401 362 9 0 . 2 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 17 3 1 7 . 7 452 394 8 7 . 2 1 9 2 7 - 2 8 68 32 4 7 . 7 481 415 8 6 . 3 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 157 59 3 6 . 9 515 462 8 9 . 7 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 . .181 69 3 8 . 1 554 493 8 8 . 9 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 209 85. . 40-. 7 589 493 8 3 . 7 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 205 86 41 . 9 632 527 8 3 . 4 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 234 102 4 3 . 5 656 551 8 3 . 9 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 213 101 4 7 . 4 670 561 8 3 . 7 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 218 107 4 9 . 1 715 609 8 5 . 1 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 SX5 107 4 9 . 7 743 628 8 4 . 5 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 270 135 50 802 659 8 2 . 1 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 351 162 4 6 . 1 832 671 8 0 . 5 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 411 187 4 5 . 5 901 699 7 7 . 6 a. Annual R e p o r t s . TABLE XXXIV Number and P e r c e n t of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia \¥ho H e l d S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s Y e a r 'Number No. s p e c i a l . P e r c e n t ..teachers fiprt.ifioa.tfts 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 401 28 6 . 9 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 469 50 1 0 . 7 1 9 2 7 - 2 8 549 70 1 2 . 8 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 672 59 8 . 8 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 735 70 9 . 5 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 798 127 1 5 . 9 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 837 126 X § * X 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 890 141 1 5 . 9 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 883 144 1 6 . 4 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 933 152 1 6 . 3 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 958 157 1 6 . 4 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 1072 192 1 7 . 9 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 1183 222 1 8 . 9 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 X 3 X 2 285 2X • V 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 1 2 5 1 ° 229 X8 « 3 a. Annual R e p o r t s . b. Not t o t a l number p r e s u l t s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e . TABLE XXXV Number and Percent, o f J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia ¥ho~Held Spec i a l ~ C e r * t i f i c a t e l ? " J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s S e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s Number Number Pe r c e n t Number Number Pe r c e n t Year t e a c h e r s s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s c e r t i f i c a t e s 1925-26 -'• 401 28 •6-.§ 1926-2? 17 5 29*4 452 45 9.9 1927-28 68 17 25 . 481 53 11 1928-29 15? 27 , 16*9 515 32 0 o> 2 1929-30 181 . 40 " 22 * X 554 30 5.4 1930-31 209 46 22 . 589 81 1-3*7 1931-32 205 47 22.4 632 79 12.5 1932-33 234 46 19.7 656 95 14.5 1933-34 213 45 2X • X 670 .99 14*7 1934-35 .218 : • 48 22 • .>4t?±5 104 -14*5 • 1935-36 215 45 20*9 743 112 15.1 1936-37 270 60 22 * 2 802 132 16.5 1937-38 351 86 21*6 832 136 X*S * 3 1938-39 . 411 98 • - 23*8 901 .•: . 137 •" 20*7; a. Annual R e p o r t s . T a b l e X X X I I shows the percentage o f secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who h e l d academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . The s c h o o l y e a r 1925-26 i s the f i r s t y e a r shown because i t was d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h a t the f i r s t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n the p r o v i n c e was opened. Only the t e a c h e r s who answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were shown f o r the 1939-40 s c h o o l y e a r . The percentage of thes e t e a c h e r s w i t h an academic c e r t i f i c a t e would v a r y - 80 -o n l y s l i g h t l y from the percentage of the t o t a l number of t e a c h e r s w i t h an academic c e r t i f i c a t e . B e f o r e the opening of the f i r s t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n the p r o v i n c e the percentage of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w i t h an Academic c e r t i f i c a t e was 90.2 per c e n t . T h i s percentage g r a d u a l l y decreased u n t i l d u r i n g the 1930-31 s c h o o l y e a r i t reached 72.9 per c e n t . F o r the next f o u r y e a r s i t i n c r e a s e d to 76.7 per c e n t , and then decreased a g a i n u n t i l i n 1938-39 i t reached the l o w e s t i t had been, 67.5 p e r c e n t . I n 1939-40 i t was 70.2 p e r c e n t . Many o f the t e a c h e r s who d i d not answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were t e a c h e r s of the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s and w i t h o u t a degree, T h i s caused the s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the percentage of academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . T a b l e X X X I I I s t a t e s the number and percentage o f j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia who h e l d Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . D u r i n g 1938-39 the percentage of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w i t h t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e was 45.5 p e r c e n t . T h i s was the l o w e s t i t had been s i n c e 1932-33. I n the same y e a r the percentage i n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s was 77.6. This was the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e shown f o r the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s * The courses of s tudy i a s u e d i n 1933, 1936 and 1937 widened t h e scope of s u b j e c t s t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e to t a k e . Many s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s were added t o those a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e . The h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n diploma was a l s o i s s u e d . Many p u p i l s who dropped out of s c h o o l because they c o u l d not complete t h e i r j u n i o r m a t r i c u l a t now completed t h e i r f our y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g by t a k i n g some s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g an Academic c e r t i f i c a t e i t i s seen from T a b l e X X X I I I t h a t t h e r e has been a d e c r e a s e i n the percentage of t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e . T a b l e XXXIV shows the number and percentage of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who h e l d s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s . From the t a b l e i t appears t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e i s i n c r e a s i n g . From Table XXXV i t appears t h a t the percentage of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who h e l d a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e v a r i e d f r o m y e a r to y e a r . I n 1938-39, however, i t reached i t s l a r g e s t percentage (except f o r the f i r s t two y e a r s t h a t the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l opened i n t h e p r o v i n c e ) . D u r i n g the same ye a r the percentage i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s was the l a r g e s t i t has been. The apparent r e a s o n f o r these i n c r e a s e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s now a g r e a t e r emphasis upon the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . There must be a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of t e a c h e r s o f these s u b j e c t s . TABLE XXXVI Types of C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by the Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1939-40 C e r t i f i c a t e s Permanent I n t e r i m T o t a l P e r c e n t Academic ( o n l y ) 774 106 880 70.3 F i r s t ( o n l y ) 120 8 127 10.2 Second ( o n l y ) 6- - 6 .5 S p e c i a l & Academic 25 1 26 2 » X F i r s t or Second & Sp. 170 32 203 X6#2 Temporary - 9 9 .7 T o t a l 1095 156 1251 100 The r e s u l t s f r om the s i x t h q u e s t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are i n d i c a t e d i n Table XXXVI. The t a b l e shows how the c e r t i f i c a t e s of the 1251 t e a c h e r s a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were grouped a c c o r d i n g to permanent or i n t e r i m and academic o n l y , f i r s t o n l y , second o n l y , s p e c i a l and academic, f i r s t o r second and s p e c i a l , and temporary. I t was found that 1095 or 86.7 p e r c e n t , of the c e r t i f i c a t e s were permanent. As would be e x p e c t e d the l a r g e s t number of t e a c h e r s , 880 o r 70.3 per c e n t , h e l d o n l y the academic c e r t i f i c a t e . The next l a r g e s t number, 202 or 16.2 p e r c e n t . , h e l d a f i r s t or second c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e and a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . - S3 -TABLE XXXYII Number and P e r c e n t ;of Secondary S c h o o l Teachers Who R e c e i v e d the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e D i r e c t l y Through the U n i v e r s i t y or A f t e r . A t t e n d i n g Normal S c h o o l , 1939-40 P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g No, t e a c h e r s P e r c e n t U n i v e r s i t y Normal 8* 467 323 59.2 . '-.40 ..8 -T o t a l 790 100 a. The t e a c h e r s who went t h r o u g h normal s c h o o l r e c e i v e d some secondary s c h o o l t r a i n i n g -see Appendix A. The r e s u l t s of q u e s t i o n seven are shown i n Table XXXVII, The t a b l e shows the number and percentage of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who r e c e i v e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l 67 t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y and a t a normal s c h o o l . A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y were found to have taken t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y and had thus r e c e i v e d s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r secondary work a l a r g e number (40.8 per cent.) had not r e c e i v e d t h i s s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . 67. The number of t e a c h e r s shown, 790,does not agree w i t h the t o t a l number of t e a c h e r s who h e l d an academic c e r t i f i c a t e . I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e some of the t e a c h e r s i n e i t h e r of the two groups as they d i d not answer th e q u e s t i o n . - 84 -TABLE XXXVIII Number of Times a S p e c i a l S u b j e c t was Taught* 1939-40. No. t ime s No* times P e r c e n t w i t h o u t w i t h T o t a l w i t h s p e c i a l s p e c i a l s p e c i a l Home Economics 1 66 67 99 Commercial 54 57 111 51.3 I n d u s t r i a l A r t s 20 63 83 75.9 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 178 16 194 »8 Music 40 8 48 16.7 A r t 56 19 75 25»3 T o t a l 349 229 578 Table X X X V I I I shows the number of times a s u b j e c t i s b e i n g taught by a secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia w i t h o u t a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . Each t e a c h e r was examined to see whether he was t e a c h i n g a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t . I f he taught p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and music a l o n g w i t h academic s u b j e c t s he was l i s t e d as t e a c h i n g b o t h s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s once. By " t i m e s " i s meant how o f t e n the s p e c i a l subj e c t s were t a u g h t . The s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s were found t o be taught 578 t i m e s . There were s l i g h t l y f ewer than 578 t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d as some of the t e a c h e r s were t e a c h i n g more th a n one s p e c i a l s u b j e c t . When a number r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t i t was a c t u a l l y the number of t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g the s u b j e c t . - 85 -A t e a c h e r might have been counted under more t h a n one s u b j e c t . I t was found t h a t 229 te a c h e r s h e l d s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s . These teachers taught the s p e c i a l subj e c t s 229 times or 39.6 per c e n t . of the number of times they were t a u g h t . Home Economics was taught 99 p e r c e n t , of the time by a h o l d e r of a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . I n d u s t r i a l A r t s ranks second. I t was taught 75.9 per c e n t , of the t o t a l number of times by a h o l d e r of a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . A t t h e o t h e r extreme i t was found t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and music were taught .8 p er c e n t , and 16.7 per c e n t , of t h e t o t a l number of times by teac h e r s h a v i n g a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . TABLE XXXIX Number and Percentage of V a r i o u s S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by Secondary S c h o o l Teachers. 1939-40 S p e c i a l i\i umber P e r c e n t c e r t i f i c a t e s t e a c h e r s Home Economics 66 28.9 Commercial 57 - \-2i ^  9 9 .... I n d u s t r i a l A r t s 63 27*5 P h y s i c a l E d u o a t i o n . 16.... . 6.9 Music 8 3 & 5 A r t . 19 8.3 T o t a l 229 1 0 0 • - 86 -Table XXXIX shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 229 secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e they h e l d . S i x t y - s i x or 28.9 per c e n t , of the t e a c h e r s h e l d s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s i n home economics. Music r a n k s l a s t w i t h e i g h t or 3.5 per c e n t . of the t o t a l number o f t e a c h e r s . CHAPTER V C o n c l u s i o n . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t to a l l the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Returns were r e c e i v e d from 1251 of these t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t s were s t u d i e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s and c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t . The main c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be b r i e f l y summarized. • 1* Academic Group. I t was f o u n d , t h a t i f the major and minor-were c o n s i d e r e d t o be the t e a c h e r ' s "own f i e l d " , the l a r g e s t number of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were t e a c h i n g 95 p e r c e n t , or more of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d and the next l a r g e s t number were t e a c h i n g 4 per c e n t . or l e s s of the time i n t h e i r own f i e l d . 2. Academic and S p e c i a l Group. Prom an academic s t a n d p o i n t the same c o n c l u s i o n was a r r i v e d a t as i n the academic group. Prom a s p e c i a l p o i n t of v i e w i t was found t h a t 80.3 per c e n t of the - 38 -t e a c h e r s examined were t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s between 16 and 85 p e r cent o f the time w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n t o do so and the r e m a i n i n g 19.7 per c e n t , were t e a c h i n g t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s w h i l e h o l d i n g s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s . 3. S p e c i a l Group. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 per c e n t , of the t e a c h e r s i n the s p e c i a l group h e l d S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s , 17 per c e n t , h e l d Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s and 3 per c e n t , h e l d F i r s t C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e s . 4. F i r s t and Second C l a s s . I t was f o u n d t h a t n e a r l y 55 per c e n t , of' the t e a c h e r s who were t e a c h i n g i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s w i t h a F i r s t or Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e spent a l l t h e i r time t e a c h i n g academic s u b j e c t s and the r e m a i n i n g 45 p e r c e n t , spent some of t h e i r time t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s • 5. Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia. I f t h e major s u b j e c t was t a k e n as the t e a c h e r ' s "own f i e l d " i t was found t h a t t h e r e was a s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Iowa and B r i t i s h Columbia who taught s u b j e c t s t h a t they - 89 -majored i n . The percentages were not equal but the same s u b j e c t s were i n the h i g h e r and lower percentage groups. 6. Alabama and B r i t i s h Columbia. S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t , of the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Alabama and 58.7 per c e n t , i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia taught e i t h e r t h e i r major or minor s u b j e c t n e a r l y 100 p e r c e n t , of the time. • 7. U n i t e d S t a t e s , New York and B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was found t h a t t h e r e was a s i m i l a r i t y i n the p e r c e n t a g e s of s e n i o r h i g h sohool t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g i n t h e i r own f i e l d . 8. M i n n e s o t a and B r i t i s h Columbia. A study was made of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e a c h e r s of g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a c c o r d i n g to the number o f s c i e n c e s i n w h i c h they had u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o get complete i n f o r m a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, from the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s t -r i b u t i o n o f the number of s c i e n c e s taken would p r o b a b l y be the same i n b o t h s t u d i e s . 9. S u b j e c t s W i t h L e a s t S p e c i f i c T r a i n i n g . I t was shown t h a t mathematics and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were the academic and s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s which the g r e a t e s t number of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia were t e a c h i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y p r epared to do so (major or s p e c i a l ) . 10. Degrees - Secondary S c h o o l s - U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia The percentages o f j u n i o r and senior h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w i t h degrees, i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l . • 11. Degrees - S e n i o r H i g h Sch o o l s -Montana. N o r t h Dakota, W i s c o n s i n and B r i t i s h Columbia The s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia had the l a r g e s t percentage o f tea c h e r s w i t h degrees. 12. Degrees - Undergraduate. Graduate and Doctor -U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia A study was made of the percentage of under-graduate , graduate and d o c t o r degrees h e l d by the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were n e a r l y e q u a l . 13* Degrees - Where R e c e i v e d The l a r g e s t number of degrees h e l d by the B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were r e c e i v e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 14* Degrees from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e s u l t s showed the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r importance of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r undergraduate than graduate work. 15. Degrees from o t h e r Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s . E x c l u d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia the l a r g e s t number of degrees from a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y were from the U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba. 16. Degrees from the U n i t e d S t a t e s The l a r g e s t number of American degrees were r e c e i v e d f r o m the . U n i v e r s i t y of Y/ashington. 17. Degrees i n Home Economics Most o f the degrees i n home economics were r e c e i v e d f rom the U n i v e r s i ty of Manitoba. 18. Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s The p e r c e n t a g e of secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s • i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s i s s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s i n g . T h i s decrease i s p r o b a b l y due to the g r e a t e r emphasis upon the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . 19. S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s The percentage of S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s h e l d by the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n c r e a s i n g * 2 0 . Types of C e r t i f i c a t e s By f a r the l a r g e s t number of c e r t i f i c a t e s h e l d by the secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . 21. Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s - P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g N e a r l y 60 per c e n t , of the h o l d e r s of Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s r e c e i v e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y . 22. S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s - W i t h S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s Home economics was taught n e a r l y 100 per c e n t . o f the time by h o l d e r s of S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s . A t the o t h e r extreme i t was found t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was t a u g h t .8 per c e n t . of the t o t a l number of times by t e a c h e r s h a v i n g S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s . BIBLIOGRAPHY A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f P u b l i c _ S c h o o l s _ o f the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V I c t o r i a, K i n g ' s ^ r l ^ t e r . C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers. Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a ^ K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1940, pp.25. Evenden, Edward S., Gamble, Guy C., and B l u e , H a r o l d G., "Teacher P e r s o n n e l " , U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau, of E d u c a t i o n , No. 10, V o l . I I , 1933, Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933, pp. 258. F e r r i s s , Emery J I . , "The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l : I t s O r g a n i z a t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m " , U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau of E d u c a t i o n . B u l l e t i n No. 10, 1925, Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1925, pp. 74. F e r r i s s , E • N., Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e , New York and London, D. A p p l e ton and Company, 1927, pp. x i x - 401. Hutson, P.W. , "High S c h o o l S c i e n c e Teachers: A Study of T h e i r T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n to the S u b j e c t s They are T e aching", E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , V o l . I X , No. 7, October 1923, B a l t i m o r e , • Warwick'and York, 1923, pp. 389-452. Inman, James Henry, "The T r a i n i n g of Iowa High S c h o o l Teachers i n R e l a t i o n to the Subj e c t s They Teach", U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa S t u d i e s , V o l . IV, No. 9, Iowa C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928, pp. 66. M a c L a u r i n , Donald L., H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1936, pp. 359. McLenaghen, J e s s i e , H i s t o r y of Home Economics From 1926 to 1939. ( u n p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l ) P a n n e l l , Henry C l i f t o n , "The P r e p a r a t i o n and Work of Alabama H i g h S c h o o l Teachers", Teachers' C o l l e g e R e c o r d , V o l . XXXV, October 1933-May 1934, pp.237-238. - 94 Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the High and T e c h n i c a l Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia and Requirements f or" T j a c h e r s * C e r t i f i c a t e s . 1928-29, V i c t o r i a " ; K i ng's P r i n t e r , " 1928, pp. 80. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Requirements for^Jbhe Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia_Calendar, Vaneouver. U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa B u l l e t i n , 1937, Iowa C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland O f f i c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n . 1932-1933, C o l l e g e P a r k , 1932, pp. 320. U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i B u l l e t i n , 1937-1938, Columbia, 1938, pp. "415 - .129* U n i v e r s i t y of Montana B u l l e t i n , . 1932-1933, M i s s o u l a , 1933, pp. 103. " U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h B u l l e t i n . 1926-1927, P i t t s b u r g h , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926, pp. 544. U n i v e r s i t y o f R o c h e s t e r B u l l e t i n , 1939-40, New York, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939, pp. 212. APPENDIX A Requirements f o r Tile Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e C a ndidates q u a l i f y i n g f o r the "Academic C e r t i f i c a t e " ( g i v e n by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , on t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course) take the course as p r e s c r i b e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y C a l e n d a r . T h i s course- i s open o n l y to graduates who have the s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e d . (Teachers, on the b a s i s of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g , may be g r a n t e d exemption, by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n , f r o m attendance upon the f a l l term of the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course.) Teachers who are graduates of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and who have had Normal S c h o o l t r a i n i n g o f t h i s P r o v i n c e may q u a l i f y f o r the "Academic C e r t i f i c a t e " w i t h o u t t a k i n g the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course. There a r e t h r e e groups of such c a n d i d a t e s ; "A" Group: Persons who have t h e i r Permanent Second or F i r s t C l a s s Teacher*s C e r t i f i c a t e and t h e i r B.A. Diplomas and who have had at l e a s t f i v e y e a r s ' s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the elementary s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia; "B" Group: Persons who have t h e i r B.A. and Normal S c h o o l Diplomas and whose U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s e n t i t l e them to a d m i s s i o n to the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course conducted by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; • - 96 -"C" Group: Persons who have t h e i r B.A. and Normal S c h o o l Diplomas and whose U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s do not e n t i t l e them to a d m i s s i o n t o the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course conducted by The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 0 O 0 "A" Group A p e r s o n i n "A" Group who has complied w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be g r a n t e d the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e : (a) Completed 4£ u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the 60 u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r the B.A. diploma; (b) Completed under the d i r e c t i o n of the Head of t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a d i n g c o u r s e i n the Methodology of two s u b j e c t s of the H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . "B" Group The I n t e r i m Academic C e r t i f i c a t e w i l l be g r a n t e d t o a p e r s o n i n "B" Group who, i n a d d i t i o h to m e e t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s (a) and (b) as s e t f o r t h f o r those i n "A" Group, completes under the d i r e c t i o n of t h e Head of t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 15 hours* o b s e r v a t i o n and 15 hours' p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n H i g h S c h o o l s . "C u Group The Academic C e r t i f i c a t e ( i n t e r i m or Permanent) w i l l be g r a n t e d to a p e r s o n i n "C" Group who has complied w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : (a) Secured a Permanent F i r s t C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e or r a i s e d h i s or h e r U n i v e r s i t y s t a n d i n g to the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r a d m i s s i o n to the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course conducted by The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; (b) Completed 4-g- u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the 60 u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r the B.A. Diploma; - 97 (c) Completed, under the d i r e c t i o n of the Head of the Department of E d u c a t i o n o f The Unive a i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a d i n g course i n the Methodology of two s u b j e c t s of the H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m ; (d) Completed under the d i r e c t i o n of the Head of the Department of E d u c a t i o n of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 15 hours' o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n h i g h s c h o o l s . ( F i v e y e a r s ' s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n elementary s c h o o l s to be ac c e p t e d i n l i e u of t h i s requirement.) APPENDIX B A l l the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s appendix i s c o n t a i n e d i n an a r t i c l e p r i n t e d i n 1940 by the Department of E d u c a t i o n - C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers. Home Economics C e r t i f i c a t i o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Home Economics C e r t i f i c a t e " ( I n t e r i m ) " Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . (a) Diploma i n Home Economics from a r e c o g n i z e d t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n Canada, the U n i t e d Kingdom, or the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (b) F i r s t - c l a s s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Colpmbia. J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Home Economics C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m ) Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . (a) A Degree i n Home Economics from a r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada, the U n i t e d Kingdom, or the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (b) A Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n f rom the U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, or i t s e q u i v a l e n t . Home Economics C e r t i f i c a t e (Permanent) To be e l i g i b l e f o r permenent c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n Home Economics, t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia I n t e r i m Home Economics C e r t i f i c a t e s a r e r e q u i r e d : -(a) To complete two y e a r s ' t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) To be recommended f o r permanent s t a n d i n g by the D i r e c t o r of Home Economics. (c) To a t t e n d one s e s s i o n o f the Summer S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n ( i f the Diploma of E d u c a t i o n has been o b t a i n e d o u t s i d e the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia) and complete c o u r s e s (one of which i s compulsory) t o t a l l i n g 5 u n i t s of c r e d i t . A r t S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s to those q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s as S p e c i a l i s t s i n A r t : -E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l A r t C e r t i f i c a t e . J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A r t C e r t i f i c a t e . S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A r t C e r t i f i c a t e . P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r the Elementary S c h o o l A r t C e r t i f i c a t e a re a F i r s t c l a s s ( o r h i g h e r ) Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e , f o r t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A r t C e r t i f i c a t e , a F i r s t c l a s s o r Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e and an E l e m e n t a r y School- A r t C e r t i f i c a t e , and f o r the S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A r t C e r t i f i c a t e , f u l l u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e , g r a d u a t i o n from the Vancouver S c h o o l o f A r t and a d i p l o m a of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l . I n each case c e r t a i n r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s are a l s o l i s t e d . These c o u r s e s are g i v e n a t the summer s c h o o l . S t u d e n t s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n A r t and have a n a t u r a l a p t i t u d e f o r t h i s s u b j e c t may e n r o l f o r these c o u r s e s w i t h o u t i n t e n d i n g to proceed t o A r t S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Only grades of A and B w i l l "be a c c e p t e d as c r e d i t f o r A r t c e r -t i f i c a t i o n , hut grades of C and D w i l l he a c c e p t e d a s c r e d i t f o r o t h e r purposes. Commercial Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o those who q u a l i f y the f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s A s s i s t a n t Commercial Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m ) . - This c e r t i f i c a t e q u a l i f i e s the h o l d e r t o t e a c h commercial s u b j e c t s i n any s c h o o l . - 100 -Commeroial Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n ( c o n t i n . ) Commercial S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e (Permanent).-T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e q u a l i f i e s the h o l d e r t o he the head of a commercial department i n any s c h o o l . The p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the A s s i s t a n t Commercial Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e i s the F i r s t c l a s s or Academic C e r t i f i c a t e and f o r t h e Commercial S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e the p r e r e q u i s i t e s are an A s s i s t a n t Commercial Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e and an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e or F i r s t c l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , w i t h a minimum of two y e a r s i n A r t s . The r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s are a l s o l i s t e d . These courses are g i v e n a t t h e summer s c h o o l . Music C e r t i f i c a t i o n The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o those q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s as S p e c i a l i s t s i n Music E d u c a t i o n . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Music C e r t i f i c a t e . H i g h S c h o o l Music C e r t i f i c a t e . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Music C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s . (a (b (o U (e A F i r s t - c l a s s ( o r h i g h e r ) Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e . M u s i c Courses t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s as h e r e -w i t h p r e s c r i b e d , or e q u i v a l e n t courses from r e c o g n i z e d s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , or c o n s e r v a t o r i e s . S u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the p i a n o f o r accompanying songs l i s t e d f or Grades I to V I . S u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the v o i c e f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n purposes. The p a s s i n g of a M u s i c a l A p t i t u d e t e s t . - 1G1 -Music C e r t i f i c a t i o n ( c o n t i n . ) H i g h Scho_ol Music C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s . (a) An Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) Music Courses t o t o t a l 15 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h , o r e q u i v a l e n t courses from r e c o g n i z e d s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , or c o n s e r v a t o r i e s . (c) S u f f i c i e n t knowledge of pia n o f o r accom-pa n y i n g songs l i s t e d f o r Grades V I I . - X I I . (d) S u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f v o i c e f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n purposes. (e) The p a s s i n g of a M u s i c a l A p t i t u d e t e s t . NOTE.- H o l d e r s of a F i r s t - c l a s s Teacher's Cer-t i f i c a t e who complete the t r a i n i n g p r e s c r i b e d h e r e -w i t h a r e e l i g i b l e t o t e a c h music i n a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . OR (a) B a c h e l o r ' s Degree i n Music from a r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y o r c o n s e r v a t o r y . (b) One y e a r of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a Normal S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia or a Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. (c) Music Courses to t o t a l 10 u n i t s as may be p r e s c r i b e d upon e x a m i n a t i o n of the a p p l i c a n t ' s r e c o r d . The r e q u i r e d and e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s , g i v e n a t the summer s c h o o l , are a l s o l i s t e d . Teachers who are i n t e r e s t e d i n music may e n r o l f o r any o f these c o u r s e s w i t h o u t i n t e n d i n g t o proceed t o Music S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n . Only • grades A and B w i l l be a c c e p t e d as c r e d i t f o r S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n , but grades of C and D w i l l be a c c e p t e d as c r e d i t f o r o t h e r purposes. -• 102 -S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t i o n The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o those q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s as S p e c i a l i s t s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : -E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e . H i g h S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s . (a) A F i r s t - c l a s s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Courses to t o t a l 10 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . (c) F i r s t A i d ( S t . John Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (d) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g (Bronze M e d a l l i o n ) . H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s . (a) An Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Courses t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . (c) F i r s t A i d ( S t . John Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (d) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g ( S i l v e r M e d a l l i o n ) • NOTE.- H o l d e r s of F i r s t - c l a s s T eachers 1 C e r t i f i c a t e _who complete the t r a i n i n g p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h a r e e l i g i b l e to t e a c h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s . (a) An Academic Teacher*s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r . B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Courses t o t o t a l 15 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . (c) F i r s t A i d ( S t . John Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (d) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g ( S i l v e r M e d a l l i o n ) . - 103 = P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e ( c o n t i n . ) R e q u i s i t e s . - OR (a) G r a d u a t i o n from a r e c o g n i z e d S c h o o l of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . -(b) One year of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g at a Normal S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia or a Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n from the U n i v e r -- s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. (c) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and o t h e r c o u r s e s to t o t a l 10 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d upon e x a m i n a t i o n of a p p l i c a n t ' s r e c o r d . (d) F i r s t A i d ( S t . John Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (e) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g ( S i l v e r M e d a l l i o n ) . The r e q u i r e d and e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s a r e a l s o l i s t e d . These c o u r s e s a r e g i v e n a t the summer s c h o o l . Only grades A and B a r e a c c e p t e d as c r e d i t f o r S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . P r i m a r y . S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e -The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s to those q u a l i f i e d a P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e . » ^ » T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e i s v a l i d f o r s i x y e a r s from date of i s s u e and may be renewed by the p r e s e n -t a t i o n to the Department of E d u c a t i o n of f i v e u n i t s i n p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n ( o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e d i t s , p o i n t s or semester hours) taken d u r i n g the s i x - y e a r a t a r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . R e q u i s i t e s . (a) A F i r s t - c l a s s o r Academic C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) F i v e y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r i n a t l e a s t two, and p r e f e r a b l y t h r e e , of the f i r s t t h r e e grades. - 104 -P r i m a r y S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s - ( c o n t i r u ) (c) A f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t from a s u p e r v i s o r y o f f i c e r on the c a n d i d a t e ' s a b i l i t y as a te a c h e r i n the prim a r y grades. Candidates f o r the c e r t i f i c a t e should r e q u e s t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of the r e p o r t on a p r e s c r i b e d form a t l e a s t one year b e f o r e they expect t o r e c e i v e the c e r t i f i c a t e . (d) A t o t a l of 15 u n i t s of c r e d i t as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . The r e q u i r e d a n d . e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s a r e a l s o l i s t e d . These c o u r s e s may be t a k e n a t the summer school* Only grades A and B are acc e p t e d as c r e d i t f o r s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n . L i b r a r y . S e r v i c e C e r t i f i c a t i o n The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s to those q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s -S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e . T e a c h e r - L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e . These c e r t i f i c a t e s are v a l i d f o r s i x y e a r s from the date of i s s u e and may be renewed by p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Department o f E d u c a t i o n of a minimum of t h r e e u n i t s of c r e d i t i n some phase of L i b r a r y S e r v i c e ( o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e d i t s , p o i n t s , or semester hours) t a k e n d u r i n g the s i x - y e a r p e r i o d a t a r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . A approved r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the c r e d i t s . S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e The S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e i s gra n t e d by the Department of E d u c a t i o n t o h o l d e r s of Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s who h o l d a L i b r a r y S e r v i c e Degree from an approved L i b r a r y S c h o o l . T e a c h e r - L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e R e q u i s i t e s . (a) A F i r s t - c l a s s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r Elementary S c h o o l s and an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e f o r J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . (b) Ten u n i t s of c r e d i t i n L i b r a r y S e r v i c e c o u r s es as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . The r e q u i r e d courses a r e a l s o l i s t e d . These co u r s e s may be taken a t the P r o v i n c i a l Summer S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n , Only grades of A and B are accepted f o r c r e d i t toward the T e a c h e r - L i b r a r i a n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s to those q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t e a c h e r - c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s :-J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e . - T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e e n t i t l e s the h o l d e r t o t e a c h I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i n an elementary o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e . - T h i s e n t i t l e s the h o l d e r to t e a c h I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i n a s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . T e c h n i c a l C e r t i f i c a t e . - T h i s e n t i t l e s the h o l d e r to t e a c h i n a t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l . Persons i n the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s are e l i g i b l e t o commence t r a i n i n g : -(a) Teachers h o l d i n g F i r s t - c l a s s or Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s . (b) Graduates of s e n i o r or t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l s . (c) Craftsmen w i t h e d u c a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t to the s t a n d a r d s e t f o r H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t i o n . - 106 I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n ( C o n t i n . ) A l l persons i n above c l a s s e s s h a l l have com-p l e t e d t h e J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Courses i n Metalwork, E l e c t r i c i t y , Woodwork, and Drawing. The courses necessary to o b t a i n the J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s a r e a l s o l i s t e d . The f o l l o w i n g are the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h e T e c h n i c a l c e r t i f i c a t e ( i n t e r i m and permanent) (a) The candidate-must be a b o n a - f i d e c r a f t s -man who has had not l e s s than f i v e y e a r s * e x p e r i e n c e and t r a d e t r a i n i n g of 100 per c e n t . s t a n d a r d a n a l y s i s . (b) H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t i o n Diploma or i t s e q u i v a l e n t . The courses necessary f o r t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e a r e a l s o l i s t e d . The I n d u s t r i a l A r t s courses are a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e summer a t the Vancouver T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l The Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s the f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s * These a r e the minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s . T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s (a) T e c h n i c a l S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s (a) Academic (b) S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A r t (c) A s s i s t a n t Commercial (d) Commercial S p e c i a l i s t (e) S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s ( f ) Teacher L i b r a r i a n (g) S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n - 107 -S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s ( c o n t i n . ) (h) H i g h S c h o o l Music ( i ) H i g h S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( j ) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s a) Academic b) J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A r t c) A s s i s t a n t Commercial d) Commercial S p e c i a l i s t e) J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s f ) Teacher L i b r a r i a n g) S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n h) H i g h S c h o o l Music i ) H i g h S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n j ) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e s (a) F i r s t C l a s s (b) E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l A r t (c) J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s (d) Teacher L i b r a r i a n (e) S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n ( f ) E l ementary S c h o o l Music (g) E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n (h) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S p e c i a l i s t (i.) P r i m a r y S p e c i a l i s t . I; - 108 -APPENDIX C The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Iducafcion Teacher's name '.. Name of School I!^ Degree, and University of which a graduate ( i f any) Major and minor^ subjects taken at University. (After each subject place the number of courses or units taken. A major i s at least three courses i n t h i r d or fourth year -work. This i s equivalent to nine units at U.B.C, A minor i s two courses i n t h i r d or fourth year work and i s equivalent to six units at U.B.C, A unit i s ah hour lecture or approximately three hours laboratory per week f o r one university year.) , ' - " Majors Minors " ' J)/- Subjects at present teaching, '(After each subject place the atmiber of the course . '"'{• {as i n Programme of Studies) and the number of periods each i s taught per week.) Example: GenV Sc. I I - 2. Gen. Sc. I l l - 5« 6) C e r t i f i c a t e at present held. Academic, f i r s t , second, special or temporary. Permanent or interim, I f academic, indicate how obtained (X) after either (a) Q£. (b). (a) D i r e c t l y through University , (after receiving degree,followed by the Teacher Training Course or one full. y e a r of professional wofk at the University level.;) . (b) Normal School then Academic v •. (attended Normal School (before or after receiving degree) - then f u l f i l l e d academic qualifications.) (8) I f no degree, indicate (X) i f studying towards degree ............... (?) I f f i r s t or second class c e r t i f i c a t e , indicate (X) i f studying towards academic c e r t i f i c a t e . ' If'.tfe'a^&i'iig,ISnJcy&'B'T^ioJ'*''^''u^ior'&^^'SSSSITor i n anjerenc schools ox same level,, f i l l i n questionnaire only once-

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