UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the relation between the preparation and teaching subjects of the secondary school teachers… Muir, James French 1940

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A STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THE PREPARATION AND TEACHING SUBJECTS OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  "by James F r e n c h M u i r  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h A p r i l j 1940  Columbia  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f all  t h e p r i n c i p a l s and teachers o f t h e secondary  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who made t h i s  schools  study p o s s i b l e .  a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k Mr. H.N. M a c C o r k i n d a l e , t h e Superintendent  of Schools  o f Vancouver, f o r making  c e r t a i n d a t a a v a i l a b l e , and Mr. J.L. Watson, the R e g i s t r a r o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from him.  I  CONTENTS Chapter I» II.  III.  IV.  Page  H i s t o r y o f T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g and C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .....  1  The P r e p a r a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Their Teachi A Comparison of the T r a i n i n g , of S e n i o r High School Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S u b j e c t s They T a u g h t .»  51  Academic and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Secondary School Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia  66  x"b 3. x o^£tjp«««•««««»«««««•«««««•««««»«« A p p e n d i x A. R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Academic C e r t i f i c a t e A p p e n d i x B. v3 ^) 6 C X &3L  G©  A p p e n d i x C.  03  95  Requirements f o r the *fc x JTx G 9»ij ©  » « « • « • * « • • » • * • »«-«•>•  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Teachers  oOo  9 3  108  L I S T OF TABLES  Table I. II.  Page A t t e n d a n c e and D i p l o m a s i s s u e d a t t h e V a n c o u v e r N o r m a l S c h o o l . 1901-14  13  Number o f S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s E m p l o y e d by t h e V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d s , 19 0 JL 0 9 »*«•••••••••#•«•••••««•••«•  20  « « « « * « > « » » 0  III. IV.  'Keplies to Questionnaire  VI.  „ 28  The S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Type o f S c h o o l and Number Of  V.  ....  ? 3 cL C l l G 2? 5 f  1 9 39 "* 40  • « « « « « « « i « e e « « « s « < t a a » o » o  • 3IL  Number o f S c h o o l s i n • t h e P r o v i n c e a n d t h e Number o f S c h o o l s S t u d i e d , 1939-40  33  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s A c c o r d i n g t o Type o f S u b j e c t T a u g h t , 1939-40  36  VII.  The R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y S u b j e c t s and H i g h S c h o o l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d  VIII.  T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n Two-Teacher S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40  38  T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n S m a l l , Medium a n d L a r g e H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40  39  T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n Medium a n d L a r g e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40  41  IX.  X.  XI.  T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n S m a l l , Medium and L a r g e Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s 1939-40 . 4 3  - iii  -  Table XII.  X I I I n>  Page T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , 1939-40  44  T e a c h i n g Time i n A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l Teachers i n the S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 19 3 9 *40 • • • •»»«-»• • * « • » « •«« e • » « «>« a « « « • • « « «  45  T e a c h i n g Time i n A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s i n Medium and L a r g e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40 ..... ^ » «> e> « » » » o » » » «•  46  Teaching Prepared Teachers Combined 1939-40  46  e=  XIV.  XV»  , XVI.  XVII.  XVIII.  Time i n A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l i n S m a l l , Medium and L a r g e Junior-Senior High Schools, . *»»»»a • « « • » « 'a « « « e «.  T e a c h i n g Time i n S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l Teachers i n the Secondary S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , 1939-40 © * 0 o  47  Types o f C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1939-40 O 4 4 e 6  48  F i r s t and S e c o n d C l a s s T e a c h e r s T e a c h i n g O n l y A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s and Some S p e c i a l . S u b j e c t s i n the Secondary Schools of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1939»40  50  P e r c e n t o f Time a t t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the Major Subject  54  P e r c e n t of S e n i o r High S c h o o l Teachers i n I o w a ( 1 9 2 1 - 2 6 ) and B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 ) who T a u g h t S u b j e c t s t h a t They l^-t&j or eel i n • •««»••*•»•«'•<»«&*«<> • • «»»<  56  - ivTable •XXI.  XXIII.  XXIV. XXV.  Page S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s Who Gave Ho I n s t r u c t i o n i n T h e i r Own F i e l d ..........  60  The Number o f S c i e n c e s i n W h i c h a T e a c h e r Had U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g ............  62  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n . U n i t e d S t a t e s (1930-31) and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1939-40) w i t h D e g r e e s  67  P e r c e n t o f Teachers w i t h Degrees  69  Number o f D e g r e e s H e l d . b y t h e S e c o n d a r y School Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia 71  XXVI,  XXVII.  XXVIII.  XXIX.  XXX.  XXXX X a  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s H e l d i n the T h r e e Groups by t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s . i n U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 ) and i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1939-40) .. • • « * « »  72  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Degrees H e l d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l Teachers A c c o r d i n g t o Where R e c e i v e d . 1939-40  73  Number and P e r c e n t o f U n d e r g r a d u a t e a n d Graduate Degrees R e c e i v e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1939-40 .  74  Number and P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s f r o m some Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s o t h e r than the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1939-40  75  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s f r o m some A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40  76  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s i n Home E c o n o m i c s f r o m Some o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40 • 9 & <» V & 9 9  •76  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Who H e l d A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e s ... » «» « « • »  77  Table XXXIII.  Number and P e r c e n t o f J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who H e l d A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e s  XXXIVo  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Who H e l d S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s • • • • • «»  XXXV,  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia Who H e l d S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s  XXXVI,  Types o f C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by t h e Secondary S c h o o l Teachers of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1939-40 »> « * » « « « * *  XXXVII.  Number and P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s Who R e c e i v e d t h e A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e D i r e c t l y Through the U n i v e r s i t y o r A f t e r A t t e n d i n g Normal 3 c l i o o «L 9 X 9 39 "* 4Q • • * * • • »• »«>»o«»« •« • • «•« < x  XXXVIII. XXXIX.  Number o f Times a S p e c i a l S u b j e c t Was T a u g h t , 1939—40 ..».»».....».«....»...< Number a n d P e r c e n t a g e o f V a r i o u s S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s Held by Secondary S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , 1939-40  CHAPTER I  H i s t o r y o f T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g and C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  At  one t i m e  B r i t i s h Columbia. sufficient  t h e r e was no t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n  Prospective teachers  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  examination  needed  only  to pass a w r i t t e n  i n o r d e r t o become f u l l y q u a l i f i e d .  As the  s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the i n f l u x  of trained  f r o m o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s was i n s u f f i c i e n t  t o meet t h e demand  and  i t s o o n became e v i d e n t  teachers  t h a t some f o r m o f t e a c h e r -  t r a i n i n g was n e e d e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e *  To s a t i s f y  this  g r o w i n g need a n o r m a l s c h o o l was opened i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1901  and a s e c o n d i n V i c t o r i a  to s u p p l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  i n 1915.  Finally,  trained high school  i n order  teachers, the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1923, undertook the training  o f these The  candidates.  constant  revision  of the t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s  o f t h e t y p e s and d u r a t i o n  paralleled  B r i t i s h Columbia school system.  the growth of the  At f i r s t  Second and T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s .  there were F i r s t ,  With the opening of  t h e n o r m a l s c h o o l t h e A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e was a d d e d .  Later  when t h e a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n  o f a t e a c h e r was r a i s e d t o  J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , t h e T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e was eliminated.  When t h e a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n was  r a i s e d t o S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n the Second G l a s s  finally certificate  was a l s o e l i m i n a t e d . A l o n g w i t h t h e s e d e f i n i t e l y certificates  academic  t h e s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s were added as t h e  need a r o s e * I n 1872 t h e F i r s t A n n u a l S c h o o l K e p o r t p u b l i s h e d by J o h n J e s s o p , t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t A t t h a t time  of Education.  t h e r e w e r e no f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I n o r d e r t o become a t e a c h e r i t was  necessary to w r i t e an examination. ,1 marked by a B o a r d by  was  of Education.  the Lieutenant-Governor  T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n was /  The b o a r d was  appointed  i n C o u n c i l a n d i t s members  h e l d o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e p l e a s u r e o f the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , who was t h e e x - o f f i c i o chairman  o f t h e b o a r d , was a l s o a p p o i n t e d b y t h e L i e u t e n a n t -  Governor . (200 m a r k s )  The e x a m i n a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f ( 1 ) s p e l l i n g (2) r e a d i n g (200)  (4) c o m p o s i t i o n ( 2 0 0 ) (200)  (7) book-keeping  (9) h i s t o r y  1.  (200)  (3) w r i t i n g (200)  ( 5 ) grammar ( 2 0 0 ) (200)  (6) a r i t h m e t i c  (8) geography (200)  ( 1 0 ) m a t h e m a t i c s (100 f o r e a c h  branch)  T h i r d A n n u a l K e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c ^Schools o f __the. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1874. ( I n f u t u r e f o o t notes -Annual R e p o r t s " w i l l r e f e r to the Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s of t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia.)p.35  (11) L a t i n ( 1 0 0 ) ( 1 2 ) F r e n c h 2 (14) m u s i c ( 5 0 ) .  (50)  (13) drawing  (50)  and  3 The  f o l l o w i n g types of c e r t i f i c a t e s  were i s s u e d  by t h e board, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e examinations.  •. • .  F i r s t C l a s s A. F i r s t Class B Second C l a s s A Second C l a s s B Third Glass A Third Glass B The  certificates  80 70 60 50 40 30  per per per per per per  cent cent cent cent cent cent  were g r a n t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  periods of time. . A F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l be deemed good u n t i l revoked by t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n ; a S e c o n d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l b e deemed good f o r t h r e e y e a r s , a n d no l o n g e r ; and a T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l b e deemed good f o r one y e a r , and no l o n g e r u n l e s s a s h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d . ^ The  p r o v i s i o n f o r the renewal  Class certificates  o f t h e Second and T h i r d  was t o t a k e  the e x a m i n a t i o n  over  again.  The f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l opened i n V i c t o r i a i n 1876 and was t o be f o l l o w e d by o t h e r h i g h s c h o o l s the p r o v i n c e .  The o p e n i n g  throughout  o f a h i g h s c h o o l was s o o n t o  b r i n g about a v a r i a t i o n i n t h e v a l u e s o f the t e a c h i n g certificates.  2.  T h i r d . A n n u a l R e p o r t , p. 48.  3.  T h i r d Annual R e p o r t , p. 49.  4.  T h i r d A n n u a l R e p o r t , p. 36.  I n 1 8 7 ? t h e T e m p o r a r y c e r t i f i c a t e was added t o t h e o t h e r s i x t y p e s and a t t h e same t i m e  t h e r e was a  change i n t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e e a c h was t o be h e l d renewal  before  and e x p l i c i t m e n t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f s c h o o l i n  w h i c h a t e a c h e r was a l l o w e d t o t e a c h w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r form of c e r t i f i c a t e . Value and D u r a t i o n o f C e r t i f i c a t e (1) A T e m p o r a r y c e r t i f i c a t e * v a l i d u n t i l t h e n e x t examination of teachers, s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r t o t e a c h t e m p o r a r i l y i n any s c h o o l . (2) A T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r one y e a r , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r to teach i n a n y P u b l i c S c h o o l i n w h i c h one t e a c h e r i s e m p l o y e d , o r a s a n a s s i s t a n t i n one i n w h i c h more t h a n one i s e m p l o y e d . (3) A S e c o n d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r three y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r to h o l d any p o s i t i o n i n a n y P u b l i c S c h o o l . _ (4) A F i r s t C l a s s , Grade - B c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d f o r vfoas y e a r s , s h a l l e n t i t l e the h o l d e r to h o l d - a n y p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c S c h o o l , or t o a c t as an a s s i s t a n t i n a H i g h S c h o o l . (5) A F i r s t C l a s s , G r a d e A c e r t i f i c a t e , v a l i d for four years, s h a l l e n t i t l e the holder t o h o l d a n y p o s i t i o n i n any P u b l i c o r High School. 5  The B o a r d o f E x a m i n e r s h a d t h e a u t h o r i t y t o issue certificates without  the necessity of w r i t i n g The  5.  to graduates  of a B r i t i s h  University  examinations•  n e x t change was made i n t h e y e a r  N i n t h A n n u a l K e p o r t . 1 8 7 9 - 8 0 , p . 352  1882-83  when t h e f o l l o w i n g two s e c t i o n s w e r e added •1.  2.  E v e r y F i r s t C l a s s , Grade A , C e r t i f i c a t e , a n d e v e r y F i r s t C l a s s , Grade B , C e r t i f i c a t e , a b o u t t o e x p i r e , s h a l l be r e n e w e d f r o m y e a r t o y e a r b y t h e E x a m i n e r s on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e h o l d e r o f any s u c h e x p i r i n g c e r t i f i c a t e , p r o v i d e d s u c h . c e r t i f i c a t e s h a l l i n the range and s c o p e o f e a c h s u b j e c t a n d o f a l l s u b j e c t s f u l l y s a t i s f y the condi tions o f the examination i n p r o g r e s s a t t h e time o f s u c h a p p l i c a t i o n for renewal. Provided a l s o , that the applicant produce s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o o f of success as a t e a c h e r d u r i n g t h e time h i s c e r t i f i c a t e has been i n f o r c e . W h e n e v e r i t s h a l l b e deemed n e c e s s a r y t o r a i s e the standard of examination, a t l e a s t t w e l v e months' n o t i c e o f s u c h i n t e n t i o n shall be.given* 6  T h e r e w e r e no f u r t h e r changes u n t i l change mentioned  the s l i g h t  i n the P u b l i c School Report  o f 1886-87.  The p r i n c i p a l c h a n g e s made h a v e r e f e r e n c e t o d u r a t i o n o f c e r t i f i c a t e s - T h i r d C l a s s , Grade A, b e i n g v a l i d f o r two y e a r s , S e c o n d C l a s s , Grade A, f o r f i v e years and F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r l i f e o r d u r i n g good b e h a v i o u r . ' In  t h e r e v i s i o n of the r e g u l a t i o n s i n 1886-87,  the c l a u s e w h i c h gave the Board to  issue certificates  o f Examiners  to graduates o f a B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t y , 8  w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n , was d e l e t e d .  The f o l l o w i n g  p r o v i s i o n w a s a g a i n made w h e r e b y a g r a d u a t e 6.  T w e l f t h Annual  7.  S i x t e e n t h Annual  8.  L o o• c l t .  the authority  year  of a recognized  R e p o r t . 1882-83, p. 141. R e p o r t , 1886-87, p. 199.  B r i t i s h o r C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t y who  had p r o c e e d e d  regularly  t o h i s d e g r e e c o u l d o b t a i n a F i r s t C l a s s * Grade A,, c e r t i f i c a t e by s a t i s f y i n g t h e e x a m i n e r s as t o h i s k n o w l e d g e o f t e a c h i n g , d i s c i p l i n e and The  management.  r e n e w a l - of, c e r t i f i c a t e s was.ma.de by  the e x a m i n a t i o n  taking  over a g a i n , o r , as mentioned i n the P u b l i c  S c h o o l R e p o r t o f 1 8 8 8 - 8 9 , t h e c e r t i f i c a t e was without f u r t h e r examinations  renewed  a f t e r a t e a c h e r had 10  y e a r s ;co:ntinuous: s e r v i c e i n the  twelve  province*  .The. P u b l i c , S c h o o l R e p o r t o f 1 8 9 3 - 9 4 m e n t i o n e d another  c h a n g e r - h o l d e r s o f F i r s t G l a s s . Grade B  w e r e no l o n g e r e n t i t l e d 11 ..  certificates  t o a c t as a s s i s t a n t s i n h i g h . /  ..  schools* The  d u r a t i o n o f a c e r t i f i c a t e now was  Third Class Second C l a s s B j  one  y e a r ; T h i r d C l a s s A,  two  years;  three y e a r s ; Second C l a s s A  9  and F i r s t C l a s s A and B,  life.  as f o l l o w s -  five  years;  T h e r e w e r e no f u r t h e r  c h a n g e s i n t h e d u r a t i o n o r v a l u e o f the c e r t i f i c a t e s a f t e r the o p e n i n g of the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l Normal a t Vancouver i n 9.  1901.  Seventeenth Annual Report,  1 8 8 7 - 8 8 , p.  10.  Eighteenth Annual Report,  1 8 8 8 - 8 9 , p.  11.  T w e n t y - T h i r d Annual. R e p o r t ,  1 8 9 3 - 9 4 , p*  cxix. cxxv. 305.  until  School  The f i r s t movement i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f w h i c h we h a v e r e c o r d was t h a t i n a u g u r a t e d by J o h n J e s s o p , Esq.., on a s s u m i n g h i s d u t i e s as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1872- n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e o p e n i n g of t h e f i r s t N o r m a l S c h o o l i n V a n couver* R e f e r r i n g to the matter i n h i s report to t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n J u l y 1 8 7 3 , he made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s 'A t r a i n i n g " s c h o o l w i l l s o o n become a n e c e s s i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e ; b u t u n t i l such an i n s t i t u t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d s o m e t h i n g m i g h t be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s e c u r i n g u n i f o r m i t y o f method b y i n a u g u r a t i n g Teachers C o n v e n t i o n s o r I n s t i t u t e s where t i m e t a b l e s a n d programmes o f s t u d i e s c o u l d be s u b m i t t e d a n d d i f f e r e n t methods o f t e a c h i n g d i s c u s s e d w i t h a v i e w t o a d o p t i n g some r e g u l a r s y s t e m i n a l l - : - s c h o o l s t h a t may be. a b o u t e q u a l i n a t t e n d a n c e a n d requirements'»°^2 5  The f i r s t at  c o n v e n t i o n was o r g a n i z e d a t a  meeting  t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y H a l l i n J u l y 1874 a n d was  h e l d a y e a r l a t e r i n t h e same b u i l d i n g .  Addresses  g i v e n on v a r i o u s t o p i c s and a wide range  o f s u b j e c t s was  discussed. For filled  were  T h i s c o n v e n t i o n was t o become a n a n n u a l a number o f y e a r s t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s  t h e needs o f a normal  school.  affair.  partly  During the ten-year  p e r i o d p r i o r t o the opening of the f i r s t  normal  school  many r e f e r e n c e s w e r e made b y Dr.. S.D. P o p e , t h e Superintendent o f E d u c a t i o n , and W i l l i a m Burns, I n s p e c t o r of  S c h o o l s , t o t h e g r o w i n g need f o r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n  the p r o v i n c e . . A part- o f one. u r g e n t p l e a b y W i l l i a m B u r n s  12.  G i b s o n , J.W., F i f t y - S e v e n t h A n n u a l P» 4 0 .  Report,  1927-28,  is sufficient  t o show h i s f e e l i n g s on t h e s u b j e c t  I t w o u l d seem a l m o s t s u p e r f l u o u s t o a g a i n m e n t i o n t h e u r g e n t need f o r a N o r m a l S c h o o l i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , were i t not that, the n e c e s s i t y i s b e c o m i n g more p r o m i n e n t e v e r y y e a r . During t h i s y e a r many o f o u r more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s h a v e l e f t t h e p r o f e s s i o n and t h e i r p l a c e s h a v e b e e n s u p p l i e d by o t h e r s e n t i r e l y u n t r a i n e d o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d . , Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e x p e c t any p r o g r e s s and b o t h t i m e a n d money a r e -therebywas-ted»13 F i n a l l y -it-became-- e v i d e n t t h a t - i t . was t o do w i t h o u t a n o r m a l the f i r s t  s c h o o l any l o n g e r .  On  impossible January  9th  1901,  term of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l  was  h e l d i n the-Vancouver, h i g h s c h o o l , b u i l d i n g s *  t h e s i x t y - o n e p u p i l s e n r o l l e d a t the- end June 2 8 t h * . f o r t y - s i x o b t a i n e d  Out  of  of the f i r s t  term  diplomas.  No f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e h e l d . D i p l o m a s w e r e g r a n t e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f w o r k done d u r i n g t h e w h o l e s e s s i o n * r a t h e r t h a n on t h a t o f a few h o u r s a t i t s t e r m i n a t i o n * I n o t h e r w o r d s , the e x a m i n a t i o n extended over the whole t e r m , and e v e r y s t u d e n t who showed t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a c a p a c i t y f o r s t e a d y , cons c i e n t i o u s w o r k , was g r a n t e d a d i p l o m a . I - 4  A t t h a t t i m e i t was the normal  school.  not compulsory  A teacher could s t i l l  to a t t e n d  receive a  c e r t i f i c a t e by p a s s i n g the teachers* examinations.  13.  Burns, W i l l i a m , Twenty-Ninth p. 213<>  14. -  Annual  Report,  Burns, W i l l i a m , T h i r t i e t h Annual Report, p. 277.  The  1899-1900  1900-01,  certificate  obtained  through the normal s c h o o l , however,  was p e r m a n e n t * A n o t h e r drawback',., according', to. W i l l i a m B u r n s , p r i n c i p a l , .of t h e n o r m a l .school,., was t h a t only- one o f d i p l o m a was i s s u e d * a teacher  capable  I t d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h between  o f t e a c h i n g , p r i m a r y , w o r k and one  of t e a c h i n g s e n i o r , work and e n t i t l e d highest  far  school.  P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t o f 1901-02 d e s c r i b e d  a f u r t h e r change i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . certificated  capable  everyone t o h o l d the  t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n i n any graded The  type  I n the l i s t of  t e a c h e r s F i r s t C l a s s A became A c a d e m i c ( b y  the m a j o r i t y of these  teachers  C l a s s B became F i r s t C l a s s *  h e l d d e g r e e s ) and F i r s t  T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be S e c o n d  C l a s s , S e c o n d C l a s s A, S e c o n d C l a s s B , T h i r d C l a s s , T h i r d • ' • • . . • 15 C l a s s A and T h i r d G l a s s B» These l a t t e r changes were due  t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e normal s c h o o l i s s u e d  Academic, F i r s t C l a s s , Second C l a s s and T h i r d Certificates.  The o t h e r  only Class  types were g r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d .  After July, 1901 the designation o f , v a l i d i t y of and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e o b t a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s * c e r t i f i c a t e s were changed t o t h e following. 1. Third Class v a l i d f o r three years, not renewable 2* S e c o n d C l a s s , F i r s t C l a s s a n d A c a d e m i c , a l l valid f o r l i f e 3  ?  For the l a s t  15.  Thirty-First  three c e r t i f i c a t e s  A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 0 1 - 0 2 , p. A  named  lxxix.  10 g r a d u a t i o n f r o m Normal S c h o o l o r a p e r i o d of t e n years a c t i v e s e r v i c e i n the p u b l i c schools of the P r o v i n c e was r e q u i r e d . Students of High Schools i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t i e s of Great B r i t a i n . o r . I r e l a n d . o r of the Dominion of C a n a d a who h a d p a s s e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n f o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n i n A r t s o f any such U n i v e r s i t y w e r e exempt f r o m e x a m i n a t i o n i n o t h e r t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b j e c t s o f Second c l a s s t e a c h e r s ' certificates. S i m i l a r exemption f o r F i r s t c l a s s t e a c h e r s ' c e r t i f i c a t e s was g r a n t e d t o t h o s e who passed S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n or F i r s t year A r t s , and f o r A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s t o t h o s e who passed a t l e a s t the i n t e r m e d i a t e examination in Arts. Thus came i n t o e x i s t e n c e two a v e n u e s l e a d i n g t o these c e r t i f i c a t e s . One b y way o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Board of Examiners' e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d one by way o f a f f i l i a t e d Universities. 1 6  In t h i s  same y e a r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e h i g h  s c h o o l c o u r s e s were adopted as t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r teachers.  The s u b j e c t s o f e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e a s f o l l o w s :  (a) F o r a T h i r d C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , t h e s u b j e c t s o f e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l b e t h e same a s t h o s e f o r t h e J u n i o r Grade C o u r s e o f H i g h S c h o o l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n that La-tin i s o p t i o n a l with candidates f o rThird Class teachers certificates* (b) F o r a S e c o n d C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , t h e s u b j e c t s o f e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l be t h e same a s t h o s e f o r t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade C o u r s e o f H i g h Schools. (c) F o r a F i r s t C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e , t h e s u b j e c t s o f examination., s h a l l be t h e same a s ..those f o r t h e S e n i o r G r a d e C o u r s e of H i g h S c h o o l s . (d) F o r an A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e , t h e s u b j e c t s 1  :  16.  S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1901, Chapter 48, c i t e d i n M a c L a u r i n , Donald L., H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 6 , p. 2 2 8 .  - 11 o f e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l he t h e same a s t h o s e f o r t h e S e n i o r Academic Course o f High S c h o o l s h u t a l l , c a n d i d a t e s who h a v e n o t a l r e a d y p a s s e d t h e S e n i o r Grade e x a m i n a t i o n p r e s c r i b e d f o r H i g h S c h o o l s , must a l s o t a k e S e c t i o n s B , C, a n d D o f t h e S e n i o r Grade Course. .Every c a n d i d a t e t o be s u c c e s s f u l must o b t a i n a t l e a s t 33 1/3 p e r cent*, of t h e marks a t t a c h e d t o each s u b j e c t o f e x a m i n a t i o n , and n o t l e s s than a n average o f 50 p e r c e n t , on a l l s u b j e c t s . The f i x e d s t a n d a r d o f marks a t t a c h e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t of e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l be 1 0 0 . 1 7  T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r b y amendment t o t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t p r o v i s i o n was made w h e r e b y r e g u l a r l y employed t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e who, p r i o r t o A u g u s t 1 9 0 1 , h e l d e i t h e r a T h i r d C l a s s , Grade A o r Grade B c e r t i f i c a t e s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o an annual renewal of t h e i r T h i r d G l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s on a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e S u p e r i n tendent o f E d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d e i t h e r t h a t they were graduates of an approved Normal S c h o o l or b y June 3 0 t h , 1 9 0 4 , t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d t e n y e a r s of a c t i v e s e r v i c e on t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f o f t h e Province.- -® 1  1  One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t e a c h i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia  was due t o t h e P u b l i c  A c t o f 1910 w h i c h made i t c o m p u l s o r y teachers t o a t t e n d normal  school.  Schools  f o ra l l future  The d u r a t i o n o f t h e  17.  M a n u a l o f S c h o o l Law, 1 9 0 1 , p . 5 7 , c i t e d i n M a c L a u r i n , Donald L., H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936, p . 2 2 9 .  18.  S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1903-04, C h a p t e r 4 7 , c i t e d i n M a c L a u r i n , Donald L.. H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i B h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 6 , p. 2 2 9 .  - 12  c e r t i f i c a t e s was  also  -  extended.  The B o a r d o f E x a m i n e r s s h a l l h a v e t h e a u t h o r i t y t o g r a n t c e r t i f i c a t e s , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n and v a l i d i t y o f w h i c h s h a l l be as f o l l o w s : (a) (b) (c) (d)  Third C l a s s , v a l i d f o r three years: Second C l a s s , v a l i d f o r l i f e : F i r s t Class, v a l i d f o r l i f e : Academic, v a l i d f o r l i f e :  A f t e r J a n u a r y 1911, a l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s must h o l d a t l e a s t a P r e l i m i n a r y c e r t i f i c a t e of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l o r of o t h e r Normal S c h o o l s a p p r o v e d by the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n ; p r o v i d e d , however, t h a t a T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e , s u p p l e m e n t e d by a P r e l i m i n a r y N o r m a l S c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e o r by a t l e a s t one y e a r o f a c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n the s c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e , and f u r t h e r s u p p l e m e n t e d by an A d v a n c e d Normal School c e r t i f i c a t e , shall.be v a l i d f o r . l i f e . A l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r S e c o n d and F i r s t C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s must h o l d A d v a n c e d c e r t i f i c a t e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l o r of o t h e r N o r m a l S c h o o l s a p p r o v e d by t h e C o u n c i l of Public Instruction. 1 9  From the in  1901  until  o p e n i n g of t h e Vancouver Normal S c h o o l  the m i d d l e o f 1905,  divided into winter the w i n t e r  and  O c t o b e r t o June i n c l u s i v e .  and  19.  of t h i s  The  of  from  summer s e s s i o n l a s t e d f r o m  The  type.  was  duration  l a s t e d approximately  The  J u l y to September i n c l u s i v e .  known a s  school year  summer s e s s i o n s .  s e s s i o n v a r i e d but  the f i n a l s e s s i o n  the  1905 The  winter sessions  session now  was  became  t h e P r e l i m i n a r y s e s s i o n , S e p t ember to December  the Advanced s e s s i o n , January to June.  T h i r t y - N i n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1 9 0 9 - 1 0 , p.  The  certificates  A.32.  i s s u e d a t the end o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s w e r e t h e P r e l i m i n a r y and. A d v a n c e d the  Normal  School c e r t i f i c a t e s  r e f e r r e d to i n  previous paragraph. TABLE I A t t e n d a n c e and Diplomas I s s u e d a t t h e V a n c o u v e r Normal S c h o o l , 1 9 0 I - 1 4  Winter  session  a  Summer s e s s i o n  Year  Attendance  Diplomas  Attendance  Diplomas  1901 1902 1903 1904 1905  61 34 37 55 64  46 18 32 49 57  97 61 46 33  86 5? 42 32  Advanced 1905 1906 190? 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914  session  58 58 4? 61 96 160 168 162 168  37 47 46 52 93 152 152 147 a.  Preliminary 60 72 55 62 75 120 160 162 186  session 55 66 50 58 72 145 174  Annual Reports*  From T a b l e I i t i s seen t h a t the a t t e n d a n c e at  t h e V a n c o u v e r Normal  School gradually increased.  i n o r d e r t o accommodate p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s o f and v i c i n i t y , a s e c o n d n o r m a l  s c h o o l was  Finally,  victoria  opened i n  - 14  -  V i c t o r i a on J a n u a r y 1 4 t h , 1915.  D.L.  M a c L a u r i n was  the  first principal. The  t y p e s and  d u r a t i o n of teachers' c e r t i f i c a t e s  as s t a t e d i n t h e 1917-18 r e p o r t were the same as  i n the  1909-10 r e p o r t .  certificate,  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the Academic  h o w e v e r , w e r e e x t e n d e d and  made c l e a r e r .  Graduates i n a r t s , i n s c i e n c e or i n l i t e r a t u r e of recognized Canadian, B r i t i s h or c o l o n i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s who h a v e p r o c e e d e d r e g u l a r l y t o t h e i r d e g r e e s may, on a p p l i c a t i o n , he g r a n t e d academic c e r t i f i c a t e s , p r o v i d e d they h o l d c e r t i f i c a t e s o f Canadian normal s c h o o l s , or o f o t h e r n o r m a l s c h o o l s a p p r o v e d by t h e C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n ; or p r o v i d e d they s a t i s f y , by w r i t t e n e x a m i n a t i o n , the B o a r d of E x a m i n e r s as t o t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e a r t o f t e a c h i n g , s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e and management, and t h e s c h o o l l a w o f t h e Province.*® I n 1922 two  important  t h e C o u n c i l of P u b l i c  changes.  The  q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r admission Schools  was  raised  t i m e the i s s u a n c e 21  minimum  I n s t r u c t i o n made  non-professional  t o the P r o v i n c i a l Normal  to J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n .  At  the  of T h i r d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s was  same  dis-  continued. A  second important  i n t e r i m standing to those  change was  the i s s u i n g of  students-in-training  left  some d o u b t as  to t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y  20.  Forty-Seventh  A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 1 7 - 1 8 , p.  21.  F i f t y - S e c o n d A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 2 2 - 2 3 , p.  an  whose w o r k  to the  teaching D99.  F48,  - 15 profession.  Those who w e r e g r a n t e d i n t e r i m s t a n d i n g had  to  prove t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y  to  be r e p o r t e d upon f a v o u r a b l y by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  of S c h o o l s b e f o r e In  i n a c t u a l t e a c h i n g and had  they r e c e i v e d permanent  1925 r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e p a s s e d  Inspectors 22  certificates. whereby a l l new  t e a c h e r s w e r e i s s u e d i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e s upon  completion  o f t h e n o r m a l s c h o o l t r a i n i n g a n d c o u l d r e c e i v e permanent certificates of t e a c h i n g .  only after completing  I n 1935 a f u r t h e r change was made i n t h e  regulations governing change w i l l be n o t e d  the i n t e r i m c e r t i f i c a t e .  r e c e i v e elementary  This  later.  U n t i l 1923 f u t u r e h i g h to  two s u c c e s s f u l y e a r s  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were  school training only.  able  September,  1 9 2 3 , saw t h e s t a r t o f t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , the U n i v e r s i t y undertook, i n September 1923, t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of c a n d i d a t e s f o r the Academic c e r t i f i c a t e . C o u r s e s i n e l e m e n t a r y methods a n d i n s p e c i a l subjects of the elementary school c u r r i c u l u m were p r o v i d e d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l , and f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g w e r e f u r n i s h e d through the kindness of the Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d and t h e P r i n c i p a l and S t a f f o f t h e K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l . These c o u r s e s were open o n l y t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s . Lecturers o n methods i n h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w e r e a p p o i n t e d  22.  F i f t y - S e c o n d A n n u a l K e p o r t , 1922-23, p. F 4 8 .  — 16 «• 23 f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y The f i r s t  staff*  t e r m was  devoted to elementary  methods and t h e s e c o n d t e r m t o s e c o n d a r y m e t h o d s . p r a c t i c e was secondary  Teaching  c o m p u l s o r y i n b o t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y and  schools* -The i s s u i n g o f c e r t i f i c a t e s and d i p l o m a s  was  g o v e r n e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g . A t t h e c l o s e of the s e s s i o n , s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s w i l l be recommended, t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e and t o t h e F a c u l t y of A r t s and S c i e n c e f o r the g r a n t i n g of t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i p l o m a i n E d u c a t i o n . * 2  The 1924-25 and 1925-26 U n i v e r s i t y c a l e n d a r s r e f e r r e d to t h e Teacher T r a i n i n g Course o n l y *  From the  1 9 2 6 - 2 ? c a l e n d a r i t was  Training  C o u r s e came u n d e r  noted t h a t the Teacher  the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the newly  formed  Department of E d u c a t i o n . By comparing the types of c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n the  1923-24 and 1939-40 c a l e n d a r s i t i s s e e n t h a t t h e r e  h a s b e e n no f u n d a m e n t a l change i n t h e t y p e s o f c o u r s e s which are compulsory. it  A l o n g w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l courses  i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e f o r t y h o u r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and  p r a c t i c e i n the elementary s c h o o l s d u r i n g the f i r s t  term  and s i x t y h o u r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n t h e h i g h  23.  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a l e n d a r , 1924-25,p.  24.  C a l e n d a r . 1924-25, p.  261.  259.  -  s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h e second T e a c h e r s who d i p l o m a may  1?  term.  have t h e i r B.A.  school  r e c e i v e t h e i r A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e by c o m p l e t i n g  c e r t a i n a c a d e m i c r e q u i r e m e n t s and additional practice The  and n o r m a l  i n c e r t a i n cases  by  t e a c h i n g i n the secondary s c h o o l s .  r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r y w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and  U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s o f t h e t e a c h e r b u t do n o t c a l l f o r a complete  year i n the Teacher  T r a i n i n g Course.  The  complete  r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e s c r i b e d i n an a r t i c l e p r i n t e d by 25 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  (See A p p e n d i x  A s y e t no m e n t i o n has b e e n made o f the it  25.  A) certificates  i s n e c e s s a r y t o h o l d i n o r d e r to. t e a c h i n a j u n i o r  high school. the  the  The programme o f s t u d i e s , 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 . s t a t e d  following. 1. To be q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l o f a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l a c a n d i d a t e must be the h o l d e r of an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e f o r t h i s Province. 2.  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f teachers of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s s u c h as Home E c o n o m i c s , M a n u a l Training, Music, A r t , Physical Training, Commercial s u b j e c t s , a c a n d i d a t e f o r the p o s i t i o n of a s s i s t a n t teacher i n a Junior H i g h S c h o o l must h o l d a n A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e or F i r s t - c l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r t h i s P r o v i n c e .  3*  A t l e a s t 50 p e r c e n t , o f t h e p e r s o n s s e l e c t e d by a B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s as a s s i s t a n t teachers i n a Junior High School - exclusive  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R e q u i r e m e n t s the Academic Teachers * C e r t i f i c a t e .  for  -  18  of teachers of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s r e f e r r e d to above - m u s t be h o l d e r s o f A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e s for this Province* 2 6  At present  the holders of c e r t a i n  certificates are qualified school.  special  to teach i n a j u n i o r  These c e r t i f i c a t e s w i l l be n o t e d  high  later.  I n a p a m p h l e t i s s u e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1934, C e r t i f i c a t i o n of T e a c h e r s , the f o l l o w i n g was  stated. F i r s t - c l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m and P e r m a n e n t ) ( e n t i t l i n g t h e h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n an elementary o r a c t as t h e p r i n c i p a l o f a s u p e r i o r s c h o o l ) A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m and P e r m a n e n t ) ( e n t i t l i n g t h e h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n an e l e m e n t a r y or high school) "? 2  It i n order  i s now n e c e s s a r y  t o h o l d an Academic  certificate  to get a p o s i t i o n i n a j u n i o r high school. The r e q u i r e m e n t s  I n t e r i m Academic  necessary  to transform  an  to a Permanent Academic c e r t i f i c a t e have  n o t been, c h a n g e d * The who and by  h o l d e r o f an I n t e r i m A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e , h a s c o m p l e t e d two y e a r s ' p r o b a t i o n a r y s e r v i c e h a s b e e n recommended f o r permanent s t a n d i n g t h e I n s p e c t o r who h a s e x a m i n e d h i s w o r k , w i l l  26.  Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r t h e H i g h a n d T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r T e a c h e r s ' C e r t i f i c a t e s . 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 , p. 78.  27.  C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s . 1934, i s s u e d by t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n .  - 19 28 "be e n t i t l e d  t o r e c e i v e a Permanent  Certificate.  I n 1935 t h e r e was a change i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s governing  F i r s t C l a s s Permanent c e r t i f i c a t e s .  requirements  The p r e s e n t  a r e as f o l l o w s .  To he e l i g i b l e f o r p e r m a n e n t c e r t i f i c a t i o n , g r a d u a t e s o f P r o v i n c i a l N o r m a l S c h o o l s must complete i n sequence the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s : ( a ) To be i n c h a r g e o f a s c h o o l o r c l a s s f o r a t l e a s t one t e r m f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n f r o m Normal S c h o o l . (b) To c o m p l e t e s u c c e s s f u l l y 3 f u n i t s o f w o r k i n t h e Summer S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n . ( c ) To be i n c h a r g e o f a s c h o o l o r c l a s s f o r a t l e a s t one t e r m f o l l o w i n g ( b ) . (d) To c o m p l e t e s u c c e s s f u l l y a s e c o n d 3-f u n i t s o f w o r k i n t h e Summer S c h o o l o f Education f o l l o w i n g ( c ) . 2 9  I n 1937 t h e m i n i m u n n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l was r a i s e d t o f u l l  u n i v e r s i t y entrance  training  s t a n d i n g and f u l l  senior matriculation standing or their equivalents. eliminated  t h e Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s . •  A c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s do n o t p l a y t h e same r o l e i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m as they ago.  This  important  d i d a few years  Non-academic s u b j e c t s have a l w a y s had a p l a c e i n  t h e c u r r i c u l u m b u t e v e n more e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n t h r o w n upon, t h e m s i n c e t h e i s s u i n g o f t h e l a t e s t C o u r s e o f Studies  i n 1936 a n d 1 9 3 7 .  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n  28.  C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f Teachers« D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1940, p . 6.  29.  C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r B , 1 9 4 0 , p . 7.  20 i s s u e s n o t o n l y F i r s t G l a s s and A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s b u t also special  c e r t i f i c a t e s i n a r t , commercial,  economics, i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , music, p h y s i c a l l i b r a r y and p r i m a r y  home education,  work. TABLE I I  Number o f S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s E m p l o y e d by t h e V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d s , 1 9 0 1 ^ 0 9 . a  Manual training Year  Vic.  1901-02 1902-03 1903-04 1904-05 1905-06 1906-07 1907-08 1908-09  3 3 3 3 3 3  Physical education  Domestic science  Vane. V i c . V a n e . V i C i  1 1 1 1 a.  1 1 1 2 2 2  Annual  /'  1 2 3 3  1 1 • •1  1901 t o 1 9 0 9 .  t e a c h e r i n V i c t o r i a was  t e a c h e r t o be e m p l o y e d .  1 1 1  t e a c h e r s e m p l o y e d by  t h e V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d s ,  special  1 1 1 1  Reports.  T a b l e I I shows t h e number o f s p e c i a l  A physical education  Drawing  V a n e . V i c . Vane. V i c . V a n e . :  1 1 3 1 3' . 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 5 2  Music  the f i r s t  Two y e a r s l a t e r  special  t e a c h e r s f o r manual t r a i n i n g were t e a c h i n g i n V i c t o r i a and  Vancouver.  A t t h e same t i m e a d o m e s t i c  science  t e a c h e r was a d d e d t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s .  1 1 1 1  - 21 D u r i n g t h e 1905-6 s c h o o l y e a r  the f i r s t  special  teachers  o f m u s i c and d r a w i n g w e r e added t o t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l system. At  one t i m e t h e t y p e s o f c e r t i f i c a t e s a n d t h e  names o f t h e t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g e a c h the Annual Report.  type were l i s t e d i n  The 1914-15 r e p o r t makes t h e f i r s t  mention  o f separate c e r t i f i c a t e s issued to teachers of the  special  subjects.  These c e r t i f i c a t e s were as f o l l o w s .  F i r s t C l a s s Manual T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . Second C l a s s Manual T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . Permanent Manual T r a i n i n g C e r t i f i c a t e s . Commercial C e r t i f i c a t e s . Domestic S c i e n c e C e r t i f i c a t e s . Art Certificates. Physical Training Certificates.. Special Certificates  ( m u s i c , deaf and sub-normal)  Home E c o n o m i c s . The f i r s t  domestic  staff of the V i c t o r i a a domestic  science teacher joined the  s c h o o l s i n 1 9 0 3 a n d two y e a r s  later  s c i e n c e t e a c h e r w a s added t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e  Vancouver s c h o o l s .  I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s t h e work o f  s u p e r v i s i n g t h e teachers o f domestic  s c i e n c e was  out by t h e O r g a n i z e r o f T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n .  carried  The home  e c o n o m i c b r a n c h grew u n t i l f i n a l l y M i s s J e s s i e M c L e n a g h e n was  a p p o i n t e d t o devote h e r whole time t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  and  direction  of the work a t the v a r i o u s c e n t r e s .  F o r two r e a s o n s  t h e y e a r 1926-27 was a n o u t -  s t a n d i n g y e a r f o r home e c o n o m i c s i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  I t was  22 -  during t h i s school year  t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r o f Home  E c o n o m i c s was a p p o i n t e d *  Also during t h i s year  there  was a u n i t e d d r i v e "by women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r a C h a i r o f Home E c o n o m i c s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h The o b j e c t i v e was $ 8 0 , 0 0 0 .  Columbia.  The sum o f $11,000 was r a i s e d  and p l a c e d t o t h e c r e d i t o f t h e c o m b i n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o be h a n d e d t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s when p l a n s f o r the c h a i r were c o m p l e t e d . I n 1 9 2 9 i t a p p e a r e d a s i f a C h a i r of.Home Economics was t o be e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  A s p e c i a l course  was p l a n n e d  f o r two  y e a r s a n d p r o v i s i o n s w e r e made t o t a k e t h e t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e j u n i o r a n d s e n i o r y e a r s . . A f t e r two y e a r s t h e u n i v e r s i t y was u n a b l e t o c a r r y on t h e w o r k i n home e c o n o m i c s on a c c o u n t o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n .  The s t u d e n t s  w e r e g i v e n b u r s a r i e s o f $400 f r o m t h e i n t e r e s t 30 f r o m moneys c o l l e c t e d  accumulated  i n 1926.  The s c h o o l y e a r 1935-36 a g a i n was a n o u t s t a n d i n g year  i n t h e h i s t o r y o f home e c o n o m i c s i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  Up u n t i l  this  t i m e home e c o n o m i c s was t a u g h t  of t h e province 30.  o n l y on t h e a p p r o v a l  i n the schools  of the various  school  M c L e n a g h e n , J e s s i e , H i s t o r y o f Home E c o n o m i c s F r o m 1926 t o 1 9 3 9 . (Most o f t h e m a t e r i a l o n home e c o n o m i c s i s based on t h i s u n p r i n t e d a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by M i s s McLenaghen.)  - 23 -  boards* to  I n 1935-36 t h e f o l l o w i n g amendment was added  the Public Schools Act* I n Grade V I I a n d V I I I i n c i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d c l a s s and I n o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s where t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n so d i r e c t s , t h e Board o f S c h o o l Trustees, i nconformity w i t h the regulations g o v e r n i n g equipment and c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , s h a l l e s t a b l i s h i n t h e s c h o o l s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n courses i n p r a c t i c a l a r t s , i n c l u d i n g m a n u a l t r a i n i n g a n d home e c o n o m i c s . ^ 1 The r e s u l t  of  o f t h i s amendment was t h e r e - o p e n i n g  a l l c e n t r e s c l o s e d d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n and i n  a d d i t i o n the opening  o f many new o n e s .  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s i n t e r i m a n d p e r m a n e n t home e c o n o m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y and  j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s .  t h e s e c e r t i f i c a t e s w i l l be f o u n d  Regulations governing  i n Appendix  B.  Art. J o h n J e s s o p , i n t h e 1874-75 A n n u a l R e p o r t , made a reference to drawing.  He n o t e d how i m p o r t a n t i t was  in  school i n s t r u c t i o n but a l s o pointed out the i m p o s s i b i l i t y 32  of  employing  a special  teacher.  F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e r e was no p a r t i c u l a r reference t o drawing.  I n 1885, D a v i d W i l s o n , P r i n c i p a l  31.  M c L e n a g h e n , J . , H i s t o r y o f Home E c o n o m i c s .  32.  F o u r t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1874-75, p. 15.  - 24 o f t h e B o y ' s S c h o o l i n New W i l l i a m Burns, importance  -  W e s t m i n s t e r and  I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s , emphasized  of drawing  In  1893,  the  i n the schools hut a l s o p o i n t e d  out the p o o r r e s u l t s t h a t were b e i n g The  later in  obtained*  d r a w i n g b o o k s w e r e the m a i n means o f t e a c h i n g .  1898 W i l s o n s t a t e d * Where d r a w i n g b o o k s a r e i n u s e , t h e r e i s s t i l l a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n t o t r u s t e n t i r e l y to them f o r b r i n g i n g p u p i l s to a s t a t e of p r o f i c i e n c y i n drawing. The s l a t e a n d b l a c k b o a r d s h o u l d a l s o be e m p l o y e d and a due amount o f i n s t r u c t i o n given. I f e a r t h a t a t p r e s e n t a good d e a l of what p a s s e s f o r drawing i s m e r e l y c o p y i n g , r u l e r and s c a l e .being f r e e l y u s e d * 3 3 A s t e p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f d r a w i n g  was  inaugurated  m a s t e r , was  i n 1902  appointed  when D.  teachers  Blair, a British art  to the s t a f f of the Vancouver  Normal S c h o o l . It  i s s e e n f r o m T a b l e I I t h a t the f i r s t  t e a c h e r i n d r a w i n g was board  i n 1905.  appointed  The  appointed  the Vancouver  school  f o l l o w i n g year a s p e c i a l teacher  i n Victoria.  o n l y i n V i c t o r i a and  by  special  F r o m t h e n on a r t d e v e l o p e d  Vancouver but l a t e r i n other  not centres  of the p r o v i n c e . Present certificates  33.  regulations governing  in Art w i l l  be f o u n d  Twenty-Seventh Annual Report,  the i s s u i n g  i n Appendix  1 8 9 7 - 9 8 , p.  was  of  B.  1249.  - 25 -  Physical  Education. From Table  I I I t i s seen that the f i r s t  t e a c h e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was a p p o i n t e d s t a f f o f t h e V i c t o r i a s c h o o l s i n 1901. 1905  special  to the  I t was n o t u n t i l  t h a t a s i m i l a r a p p o i n t m e n t was made i n V a n c o u v e r . The  importance  of physical education i n the  s c h o o l s was s o o n r e c o g n i z e d .  More p h y s i c a l e d u o a t i o n  t e a c h e r s w e r e added t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e V i c t o r i a a n d Vancouver s c h o o l s .  P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n became a n i m p o r t a n t  s u b j e c t i n t h e normal s c h o o l . The  1928-30 Programme o f S t u d i e s l i s t e d p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n a s one o f t h e s u b j e c t s t a k e n i n Grade I X a n d X. In  1930 p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was made a c o m p u l s o r y s u b j e c t  in  a l l grades o f h i g h s c h o o l . The  regulations governing  the i s s u i n g of s p e c i a l  c e r t i f i c a t e s i nphysical education w i l l  be f o u n d i n  A p p e n d i x B.  Primary. In  1911 the importance  t e a c h e r was f i r s t  recognized.  c l a s s e s was a p p o i n t e d  A supervisor of primary 34 i n Vancouver.  Regulations governing  34.  o f t h e w o r k of t h e p r i m a r y  F o r t y - F i r s t Annual Report,  the i s s u i n g of the primary  1911-12, p. A.47.  - 26 c e r t i f i c a t e w i l l "be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B. Industrial Arts. The  f i r s t annual  report of Harry B u n n e l l , the  I n s p e c t o r o f M a n u a l T r a i n i n g , was made i n J u l y 1 9 0 8 . " b r i e f l y reviewed  He  t h e w o r k done i n m a n u a l t r a i n i n g s i n c e  i t was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1 9 0 0 . I n November o f 1 9 0 0 , P r o f e s s o r R o b e r t s o n , on b e h a l f o f S i r Wm. Mac dona I d , v i s i t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o make a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h t h e E d u c a t i o n Department and t h e School Trustees o f V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f M a n u a l Training into the schools, f o ra period of three years, t o i l l u s t r a t e the usefulness of some f o r m o f h a n d i w o r k b e i n g t a k e n i n connection w i t h a child's school l i f e . 3  The  V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l b o a r d s  rooms i n w h i c h t o c a r r y o n t h e s t u d y The  5  r e m a i n ! n g e x p e n s e s w e r e pa.id  :  of i n d u s t r i a l  b y S i r Wm.  Professor Robertson v i s i t e d On c o n d i t i o n V i c t o r i a and f o r one y e a r equipment o f t o them f r e e  arts.  Macdonald.  T h i s w o r k was c a r r i e d o n f o r t h r e e y e a r s . 1903  provided  the province  In  again.  that the School Trustees of V a n c o u v e r c a r r i e d on t h e w o r k a t t h e i r own e x p e n s e , t h e t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s was g i v e n o f any e x p e n s e . 3 6  Both school boards decided  t o c a r r y on t h e work  w h i c h had begun so s u c c e s s f u l l y .  35.  T h i r t y - S i x t h Annual Report.  36.  LOG. c i t .  1907-08, p. B.32.  - 27  -  F o r two y e a r s t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f w o r k i n g t h e s c h o o l s was b o r n e r e s p e c t i v e l y by V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r ; s i n c e t h a t t i m e , as y o u know, S i r , t h e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t has a s s i s t e d i n p a y i n g t h e s a l a r i e s of b o t h the Manual T r a i n i n g and D o m e s t i c S c i e n c e I n s t r u c t o r s . ' The  t e a c h i n g of the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s g r a d u a l l y  spread to other c e n t r e s .  At present these subjects are  taught i n the o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s , i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s in  and  night schools* R e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the i s s u i n g of s p e c i a l  certificates Appendix  i n industrial  in  B. The  certificates  Department of E d u c a t i o n a l s o i s s u e s s p e c i a l i n c o m m e r c i a l , m u s i c and l i b r a r y .  r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l be f o u n d  37.  a r t s w i l l be f o u n d  i n Appendix  The  B...  T h i r t y - S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 0 7 - 0 8 , p.  B.32.  CHAPTER I I The P r e p a r a t i o n o f Secondary, S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Their Teaching Subjects Purpose. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r relationship  i s to study the  between the p r e p a r a t i o n of secondary  school  teachers  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and the s u b j e c t s t h a t the  teachers  are actually  teaching.  3?or t h i s p u r p o s e c o p i e s circulated  t o every  o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  s e n i o r , j u n i o r and combined  senior high school i n the province. requested  junior-  Each teacher  t o answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  was  A copy o f t h i s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C. The r e s u l t s  of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  very  38  gratifying. province  Out o f 129  i n the  r e p l i e s w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m 123 s c h o o l s . TABLE I I I Replies•to•Questionnaire Schools  Senior High School Junior High School Senior-Junior High Total 38.  secondary schools  School  Jjlo. o f flfthaols  No. -replied  94 14 21  89 14 20  94.7 100 92.5  129  123  95.3  Percentage .  . r ' e p l i fid  T h i s number was a r r i v e d a t f r o m a D e p a r t m e n t o f s c h o o l s and p r i n c i p a l s .  •  list  - 29 Although  123  schools sent i n r e p l i e s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e was  n o t 100  t e a c h e r s of these schools,. 39 y e a r 1349  -  of these t e a c h e r s . the secondary  the  per cent* r e p l y from  During  the  t h e 1939-40 s c h o o l  t e a c h e r s were r e g i s t e r e d i n the  s c h o o l s of t h e p r o v i n c e .  to  secondary  K e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from  T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s 93.4  per cent.  1251 of  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of the p r o v i n c e .  P r e p a r a t i o n t o teach academic s u b j e c t s . In f i f t h and  t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r the answers to the  p a r t o f t h e s i x t h q u e s t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  w i l l be d e a l t w i t h . question l i s t s  It will  be n o t e d  t h a t the f o u r t h  t h e m a j o r and m i n o r s u b j e c t s t h e  t o o k i n t h e t h i r d and  I f a s u b j e c t was  u n d e r e i t h e r a m a j o r o r m i n o r t h e t e a c h e r was be p r e p a r e d  school.  subject.  t o t e a c h t h a t subj ect i n a  N a t u r a l l y , any p o s t g r a d u a t e  s u b j e c t was  teacher  f o u r t h y e a r a t a. U n i v e r s i t y w h i l e  s t u d y i n g towards a degree.  to  l i s ted considered  secondary  w o r k done i n a  a l s o considered p r e p a r a t i o n to teach that  I t i s r e a l i z e d of c o u r s e , t h a t c r e d i t i n a  s u b j e c t i s not a r e l i a b l e measure of a t e a c h e r ' s to  39.  fourth,  t e a c h t h a t s ubj e c t .  ability  U n t i l more r e f i n e d m e a s u r e s  T h i s number was a r r i v e d a t f r o m a D e p a r t m e n t o f t e a c h e r s c o m p i l e d by the B.C. Teachers' Federation.  are  List  - 30 developed  we may u s e t h i s m e a s u r e as a f a i r e s t i m a t e o f  their preparation. The a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n f i v e at present  being  show t h e s u b j e c t s  t a u g h t b y t h e t e a c h e r as w e l l a s t h e  number o f p e r i o d s o f t e a c h i n g i n e a c h o f t h e s e p e r week.  . .• Question  .  subjects  •  s i x c a l l s f o r t h e type o f t e a c h i n g  c e r t i f i c a t e h e l d by t h e t e a c h e r answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Secondary  Schools.  To s i m p l i f y t h e d i s c u s s i o n i t was n e c e s s a r y d i v i d e the secondary school teachers The f i r s t  to  i n t o s m a l l e r groups.  t h r e e n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s were t h e s e n i o r , j u n i o r  and c o m b i n e d j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . T a b l e  I V shows  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e secondary s c h o o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e according to these d i v i s i o n s .  The t a b l e a l s o shows t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f each of these  d i v i s i o n s according to the  number o f t e a c h e r s . i n t h e s c h o o l .  - 31  -  TABLE I V The  No. o f teachers .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .  Q 10 11 12 13 14 15. 16 17 18 19 20-29 30-39 40-49 o v e r 49 Total  Secondary Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Type o f S c h o o l and l u m b e r of T e a c h e r s , 1939^40^  No. o f s e n i o r high schools  Total  IMO. o f j u n i o r No. o f j r - s r high schools high schools  15 30 5  2 i  5 6 3 2 . 1 2 6  1 1 1 2 1 1 1  2 1 1 2 2  .1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2  2 1  94  14  1 1 1  2 2 3 3 8 4 4  5 1  a . D e p a r t m e n t L i s t , B.C. I t was  15 30 7 6 7 4 4 1 4 7 3 ,4 1 3 4  decided  Teachers"  21 Federation.  t h a t i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y  s u b d i v i d e each o f the t h r e e main types schools before f u r t h e r  129  of secondary  s t u d y c o u l d be made.  Since i n a one-teacher high school i t i s  to  - 32 i m p o s s i b l e f o r a t e a c h e r t o have s p e c i f i c more t h a n  preparation i n  a f e w s u b j e c t s , i t was d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o  eliminate these  schools.  F r o m Table  1  I V i t was s e e n t h a t t h e r e w e r e  two-teacher s e n i o r h i g h schools i n the province.  thirty T h i s was  b y f a r t h e l a r g e s t number when t h e s c h o o l s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f t e a c h e r s .  Such s c h o o l s have  so much i n common t h a t i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e  to consider  them t o g e t h e r . 40 E.N. F e r r i s s  s t u d i e d 285 r u r a l h i g h  He f o u n d t h e m e d i a n number o f t e a c h e r s t o be t h r e e and o n e - h a l f .  The m i d d l e  f r o m two t o f i v e a n d o n e - h a l f .  schools.  i n these  schools  50 p e r c e n t ,  ranged  I n s t u d y i n g 125 serai -  r u r a l s c h o o l s he f o u n d  t h e m e d i a n number o f t e a c h e r s t o  be f o u r a n d o n e - h a l f .  The m i d d l e  f r o m two and o n e - h a l f  to s i x and o n e - h a l f .  the c o n c l u s i o n that the t y p i c a l three to f i v e  instructors  From F e r r i s s * decided  to group together  40.  ranged  He came t o  small high school  (including  contained  the p r i n c i p a l ) .  f i n d i n g s and f r o m T a b l e  schools w i t h three to f i v e small  50 p e r c e n t ,  I V i t was  the B r i t i s h Columbia secondary teachers.  These w e r e  called  schools.  F e r r i s s , E.U. * S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n V i l l a g e , p. 2 7 .  i n C o u n t r y and  - 33 — The n e x t b r e a k a p p e a r e d a t t h e t h i r t e e n level.  T h e r e w e r e no s e n i o r o r combined  high schools w i t h thirteen teachers. to twelve  teacher  junior-senior  Schools w i t h s i x  t e a c h e r s w e r e c a l l e d medium s i z e d s c h o o l s and  s c h o o l s w i t h t h i r t e e n o r more t e a c h e r s were c a l l e d  large  schools. The g r o u p s w e r e t h u s as f o l l o w s : one t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ( e l i m i n a t e d ) two t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s three t o f i v e teacher senior high schools (small) s i x t o t w e l v e t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (medium) over twelve teacher s e n i o r h i g h schools ( l a r g e ) s i x t o t w e l v e t e a c h e r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (medium) over twelve teacher j u n i o r h i g h schools ( l a r g e ) t h r e e t o f i v e teacher combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (smal1) s i x to t w e l v e t e a c h e r combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s (medium) over twelve t e a c h e r combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h schools (large) TABLE V Number o f S c h o o l s i n t h e P r o v i n c e a n d t h e Number o f S c h o o l s S t u d i e d . 1939-40  School Two t e a c h e r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Small senior high school Medium s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Large senior high school Medium j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Large j u n i o r high school Small junior-senior high school Medium j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l Large j u n i o r - s e n i o r high school Total  No. o f s c h o o l s i n province  No. o f s c h o o l s studied  30 16 16 17 5 9 4 6 11  29 13 15 17 5 9 3 6 11  114  108  -34  •  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s u b j e c t s t a u g h t  the teachers  of each o f t h e s c h o o l groups were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d Into  (a) academic By  (b) academic and s p e c i a l  **academic" t e a c h e r s we mean t e a c h e r s who  teach t h e o r d i n a r y academic s u b j e c t s : French,  (c) s p e c i a l .  E n g l i s h , mathematics,  general science, s o c i a l studies, etc.  By  t e a c h e r s we mean t e a c h e r s who t e a c h t h e s p e c i a l commercial,  "special"  subjects:  home e c o n o m i c s , m u s i c , a r t , p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l a r t s .  By "academic and s p e c i a l "  t e a c h e r s we mean t e a c h e r s who t e a c h b o t h a c a d e m i c a n d special subjects. I n t h e modern h i g h s c h o o l t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between academic and s p e c i a l "special"  s u b j e c t s a r e not " s p e c i a l "  subjects.  except  The  i n t h e sense  t h a t t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s s p e c i a l  certificates  f o r the t e a c h i n g of these s u b j e c t s . I t was n o t a n e a s y m a t t e r into  one o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s ,  s p e c i a l , and s p e c i a l .  a c a d e m i c , a c a d e m i c and  A l t h o u g h most o f t h e t e a c h e r s  taught  s t r i c t l y academic o r s p e c i a l  taught  both. I f a teacher  t o c l a s s i f y the teachers  taught  s u b j e c t s , many  a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s 85 p e r c e n t .  o r more of t h e t i m e p l u s s p e c i a l  subj ects the remainder  o f t h e t i m e , h e was i n c l u d e d u n d e r t h e a c a d e m i c  heading.  - 35  -  I n a s m a l l h i g h school a teacher  o f t e n had  t o spend a  p e r i o d s a week t e a o h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . reasonable  I t seems  t h a t i f h i s academic s u b j e c t s took a t  85 p e r c e n t , o f h i s t e a c h i n g t i m e he under the academic heading.  He was  few  s h o u l d be  least  placed  studied only from  the  p o i n t o f v i e w of h i s a c a d e m i c t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . On  t h e o t h e r hand i f a t e a c h e r  s u b j e c t s 85 p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e  taught  time p l u s academic  s u b j e c t s t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t i m e he was  p l a c e d i n the  special  group.  to f i l l  out h i s t i m e t a b l e w i t h a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s .  a t e a c h e r was The and  Often a teacher  special  classified remaining  s p e c i a l group.  or s p e c i a l  of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s  o n l y under s p e c i a l  had Such  subjects.  t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n the academic  These t e a c h e r s  taught  academic  s u b j e c t s a t l e a s t 16 p e r c e n t , o f t h e  the r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t i m e was  spent t e a c h i n g the  time  and  other  g r o u p of s u b j e c t s . I t became n e c e s s a r y  to s t u d y  the l a t t e r  f r o m two p o i n t s o f v i e w - t h e a c a d e m i c and  the  group  special.  I n s t u d y i n g the group f r o m the academic p o i n t of view o n l y the a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d .  In t h i s  c a s e the t e a c h e r s w e r e i m a g i n e d t o be  strictly  acaderaic g r o u p .  i n the  I n s t u d y i n g t h e g r o u p f r o m the  p o i n t of v i e w o n l y t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s were  .  special  considered.  - 36 The r e s u l t s f r o m 1088 t e a c h e r s were  analysed.  The t e a c h e r s w e r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e V I . TABLE V I D i s t r i b u t i o n of Teachers A c c o r d i n g to Type o f S u b j ec t Taught,, 1959-40  Academic Academic S p e c i a l T o t a l and Special  School  Two t e a c h e r s e n i o r h . s . Small s e n i o r h.s. Medium s e n i o r h . s . Large s e n i o r h.s. Medium j u n i o r h . s . Large j u n i o r h.s. .Small j u n i o r - s e n i o r h . s * Medium j u n i o r - s e n i o r h . s * Large j u n i o r - s e n i o rh.s. T o t a l .-  48 35 93 252 16 90 4 26 101  2 13 21 51 10 22 6 13 22  665  160  1. 8 15 110 9 64 9 47  51 56 129 413 35 176 10 48 170  263  1088  -  Previously, i n discussing question four, i t was  shown w h a t was meant b y t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t a  t e a c h e r was p r e p a r e d  to teach.  T a b l e V I I was  used  i n j u d g i n g t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n U n i v e r s i t y w o r k and the s u b j e c t s taught Columbia.  i n the secondary  schools of B r i t i s h  - 37 TABLE V I I The R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n U n i v e r s i t y S u b j e c t s A n d H i g h S c h o o l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d to Teach  University  subjects  (a) Languages:  French Latin German . etc.  ;  High school subjects prepared to teach French Latin German etc. English, Library Social Studies Geography  (b) E n g l i s h (c) H i s t o r y (d) H i s t o r y and E c o n o m i c s Geography ( e ) Mathemat i c s , A p p l i e d Science (f) Applied Science Sciences: Physics Chemistry etc. (g) {"Home E c o n o m i c s piology (.Bacteriology A teacher h i s own f i e l d  Mathematics (General Science )Physics J Chemis t r y Health  i s s a i d t o be t e a c h i n g 100 p e r c e n t , i n  i f a l l t h e subject® he i s t e a c h i n g  (question  f i v e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) a r e t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t he i s p r e p a r e d to teach  (question four).  Unfortunately  this  i s n o t a l w a y s 100 p e r c e n t , a n d i t i s t h i s between t h e s u b j e c t s taught be t a u g h t  relationship  discrepancy  and t h e s u b j e c t s p r e p a r e d  to  t h a t i s t o be s t u d i e d .  Academic• The f i r s t  c o l u m n o f T a b l e V I I I shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e  -  38  g r o u p s i n t o w h i c h a t e a c h e r c o u l d he p l a c e d . noted  t h a t t h e f i r s t g r o u p . G t o 4 p e r c e n t . , and  l a s t g r o u p , 95  t o 100  of these  two g r o u p s may  0 p e r c e n t , or 100 field.  The  the  he  A l l teachers placed i n  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  teaching  per c e n t , of the time i n t h e i r  own  s e c o n d c o l u m n shows t h e number o f t e a c h e r s i n  each of these  groups.  As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , a l l t h e s e spent a t l e a s t  85 p e r c e n t . o f t h e i r  time  teachers  teaching  academic s u b j e c t s . TABLE V I I I T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n Two-Teacher S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . 1939-40  P e r c e n t of t e a c h i n g time i n own f i e l d 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95  he  p e r c e n t . , have a much s m a l l e r  range than the other nine groups. one  It will  - 4 - 14 - 24 - 34 - 44 - 54 - 64 - 74 - 84 - 94 -100  Total  No. o f teachers  P e r c e n t of t o t a l no. o f teachers  4 1 2 2 10 6 3 7 4 1 8  8.3 2 4.2 4.2 20.8 12.5 6.2 14.6 8.3 2 16.9  48  100  - 39 F o r t y - e i g h t of t h e f i f t y - e i g h t t e a c h e r s i n the twenty-nine  two-teacher  h i g h s c h o o l s were i n c l u d e d i n  t h e g r o u p shown i n T a b l e  VIII.•  A s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , cent.)  a l a r g e number  of the t e a c h e r s were found  thirty-five  to s i x t y - f o u r  own f i e l d .  However e i g h t t e a c h e r s  (39.5 p e r  t o be t e a c h i n g f r o m  p e r c e n t , o f t h e time i n t h e i r taught  95 p e r c e n t ,  o r more o f t h e t i m e i n t h e i r own f i e l d w h i l e f o u r 4 per cent, or l e s s  of t h e t i m e  i n t h e i r own  taught  field.  TABLE I X T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f -Academic T e a c h e r s i n S m a l l . M e d i u m a n d L a r g e S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . 1959-40. !  Medium  . Small  Large  Percent J";,, No .• Percent Ho. Percent of of of t o tal teaching to t a l o f of time i n no. o f no. o f own teachers teachers teachers teachers field 04 5- 14 15-24 25- 34 35- 44 45- 54 55- 64 65-.74 75-84 85- 94 95-100 Total,  -5.7 2 2 2 1  5.7 5.7 5.7 2.9 «»  14.3 14.3 5 •* 40  5 5 2 14  100  ,35 ——  ~.  5  2 1 2 3 . 4 2 9 13 . 52 93  5.4 2* X®X 2.2 •3 « S 4.3 2t • 2 9.7 13.8 55.9 100  Percent of total of no. o f teachers teachers No.  24 1 3 10 4 6 4 5 9 6 180 252  .  9.5 .4 1.2 3.9 1.6 2.4 1.6 1.9 ' 3.6 2.4 VX » 5 100  - 40 R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m t h i r t e e n o f t h e s i x t e e n s m a l l s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , f i f t e e n of the s i x t e e n medium s i z e d s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s a n d a l l s e v e n teen large senior high schools* Although  only t h i r t y - f i v e  teachers f r o m the  s m a l l s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were s t u d i e d t h e t a b l e g i v e s some i d e a o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i r time.  teaching  The l a r g e s t number was i n t h e 100 p e r c e n t  group although  t h i s g r o u p c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y 40 p e r c e n t  of the t o t a l . The 252 in  o t h e r two g r o u p s ,  n i n e t y - t h r e e and  t e a c h e r s , g i v e a muoh b e t t e r i d e a o f t h e s i t u a t i o n the group.  grow l a r g e r  As would be e x p e c t e d , a s t h e s c h o o l s  the p e r c e n t a g e  g r o u p a l s o grows l a r g e r .  i n t h e 100 p e r c e n t I n t h e medium a n d l a r g e  s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s we f i n d f i f t y two (55.9 p e r c e n t . ) and  180 ( 7 1 . 5 p e r c e n t . )  o f the teachers  teaching  95 p e r c e n t , o r more o f t h e t i m e i n t h e i r own However i t must be n o t e d  that although  field.  the l a r g e  s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s h a v e t h e l a r g e s t number o f t e a c h e r s (180  o r 71.5 p e r c e n t . )  t e a c h i n g 95 p e r c e n t . o r more o f  t h e t i m e i n t h e i r own f i e l d  t h e n e x t l a r g e s t number  ( t w e n t y - f o u r o r 9.5 p e r c e n t . )  i n the group c o n s i s t s o f  those teachers  teaching 4 per cent, or l e s s of the time  i n t h e i r own f i e l d *  The l a r g e s t number o f t e a c h e r s  a p p e a r s a t t h e two e x t r e m e s . TABLE X T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of; A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n Medium and L a r g e J u n i o r . H i g h S c h o o l s , 1959-40  Med ium  Percent teaching time i n own f i e l d  of  No. of teachers  04 5- 14 15- 24 2 5 - 34 3 5 - 44 4 5 - 54 5 5 - 64 65- 74 75- 84 8 5 - 94 95-100  •1. "1 4 ' I  Total  16  4  Larg e  Percent of t o t a l • no. o f teachers 24.9  No. of teachers  '  20  «.  6.3 6.3 24.9 6.3  -  -  -  &  .  31.3 100  2 5 3 5 2 1 2 3 47 90  R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m a l l f i v e medium s i z e d  Percent of t o t a l •' no. o f teachers 22 • 2 29 2 .5*6 3.3:' 5.6 2«2  :  2 «2 3«•3 52 a 2 100  of the  and a l l n i n e o f t h e l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h  schools. S i x t e e n t e a c h e r s were i n the f i r s t  group.  - 42 We  -  n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h no c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on  study  o f as s m a l l a g r o u p c a n be more t h a n  t h e t e a c h e r s seem t o f a l l equal d i v i s i o n s .  The  evenly  i n t h e i r own Ninety  d i v i s i o n s contain those  Forty-seven  taught  more o f t h e t i m e i n t h e i r own c e n t . , however, taught i n t h e i r own  field.  a very large percentage, that these  95 p e r c e n t . field.  T h i s 22.2  matter  I t may  be  to t e a c h .  t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e  per cent,  wealth  the  seems  schools  t h a t when a v a c a n c y  occurs  to the  to the s u b j e c t s  Even though the bare be  so  junior that  subject  elementary  teachers are capable  most o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e p u p i l s w i l l , r e c e i v e more b e n e f i t and  22.2  e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s n o t e d  i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l may  a teacher  or  o r l e s s of  i s promoted from the elementary  i s prepared  the  per  Twenty o r  4 per cent  h i g h s c h o o l w i t h o u t much r e g a r d he  o r 52.2  schools are the l a r g e j u n i o r h i g h  o f the c i t i e s . a teacher  a l m o s t none o f  t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n the l a r g e j u n i o r  cent. of these teachers  time  teachers  field.  h i g h s c h o o l academic group.  per  suggestive,  into three nearly  t e a c h i n g n e a r l y a l l , a b o u t h a l f and time  the  of  teaching  undoubtedly,  l a s t i n g , good f r o m t h e c o u r s e i f  i s a b l e to draw, f o r enrichment,  of knowledge r e c e i v e d through  upon a  advanced  training  - 43 i n t h e subj e e t .  TABLE X I T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d , f o r o f A c a d e m i c T e a c h e r s i n S m a l l , Medium and L a r g e Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1939-40  Small  Medium  Percent Percent of Uo. of total of teaching time i n teachers no. o f own teachers field 04 5- 14 1 5 - 24 25- 34 35- 44 4 5 - 54 55- 64 65-.- 74 75- 84 8 5 - 94 95-100  -  -  1  .25  Total  4  100  -  -  1  -  25  -  50  2  -  --  No. of teachers  .1. -  Larg  Percent of total no. o f teachers  4  15.4  Ho. of teachers  8  Percent of total no. o f teachers  7.9 «»  ' ••  3.8  -  . 2 3 2  11.5 7.7  . 14  53.9  -  26  -  100  «,  3 3 9 3 *T  J.  8 4 62 101  2.9 2.9 8.8 2.9 .9 7.9 3.9 61.9 100  R e p l i e s w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m t h r e e of t h e f o u r s m a l l , all  s i x medium and a l l e l e v e n l a r g e c o m b i n e d j u n i o r - s e n i o r  high schools. F o u r t e a c h e r s were p l a c e d i n t h e s m a l l combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l group. T w e n t y - s i x t e a c h e r s i n t h e medium  s i z e combined  44 j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were s t u d i e d . p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i t was f o u n d  As i n the  that the largest  number,  f o u r t e e n o r 53.9 p e r c e n t . , were i n t h e 100 p e r c e n t , group.  The n e x t l a r g e s t number, f o u r o r 15.4 p e r c e n t . ,  were i n t h e 0 p e r c e n t .  group.  One h u n d r e d and one t e a c h e r s i n t h e l a r g e c o m b i n e d j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were s t u d i e d . two o r 61.9 p e r c e n t , w e r e i n t h e 100 p e r c e n t ,  Sixty-  group.  The n e x t l a r g e s t n u m b e r , n i n e o r 8.8 p e r c e n t . w e r e i n t h e 50 p e r c e n t , g r o u p . found  However e i g h t o r 7.9 p e r c e n t . w e r e  t o be i n t h e 0 p e r c e n t , and t h e 80 p e r c e n t . TABLE. X I I T e a c h i n g Time i n S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r of Academic Teachers i n the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . 1939-40  Percent of t e a c h i n g time i n own f i e l d  '  No* o f teachers  04 5- 14 15- 24 2 5 - 34 35- 44 4 5 - 54 55- 64 65- 74 75- 84 8 5 - 94 95-100  71 2 12 25 25 19 24 39 26 386  Total  665  36.  Percent of t o t a l no. o f teachers 10.8 .3 1.8 3.8 3.8 5*2 2.9 3.6 5.9 3.9 58 100  groups.  Table X I I i s a combination  of Tables V I I I t o X I ,  and t h e r e f o r e r e f e r s t o the p e r c e n t a g e subjects prepared Columbia secondary  f o r o f academic t e a c h e r s i n the B r i t i s h schools.  A l t o g e t h e r 665 t e a c h e r s w e r e  i n t h i s l a r g e academic group. 58 p e r c e n t , o f t h e s e  Three hundred e i g h t y - s i x or  teachers taught  o f t h e t i m e i n t h e i r own f i e l d . of t e a c h e r s  of teaching time i n  95 p e r c e n t , o r more  The n e x t l a r g e s t  number  i s s e v e n t y - o n e o r 10.8 p e r c e n t , o f t h e t o t a l .  These t e a c h e r s w e r e a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e and t a u g h t 4 p e r c e n t . o r l e s s of t h e t i m e i n t h e i r  own  field.  Academic and S p e c i a l . • TABLE X I I I T e a c h i n g Time i n A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s i n t h e Senior ./High S c h o o l s , 1939-40 Small  Mec l i u m - Lar< Percent Percent Percent Pereerfc of of Ho. of :l b . .of Mo. total teaching total of total of of time i n teachers no* o f t e a c h e r s no. o f t e a c h e r s no. o f teachers teachers own. teachers field ••» 4.7 22 1 10 4 2«3 .1 ' 5-14 2e 3 15- 24 4.7 1 3 23.1 1 4. 7 1 2e3 1 2 5 - 34 — 1 4*7' 35- 44 — 2.3 2 1 2 9.8 4 5 - 54 15.4 «. 1 • 4.7 55- 64 2 15.4 «» 1 2ft3 1 4*7 65- 74 2 4.5 7.6 75- 84 1 8 5 - 94 15.4 2 61.3 13 62 27 23•X 95-100 3 100 100 44 Total 21 100 13  -  -  •  -  -  -  .  -  TABLE X I V T e a c h i n g Time i n A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c a n d S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s i n Medium and L a r g e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . 1939-40 Percent of t e a c h i n g time i n own f i e l d .. 04 •' 5- 14 ' 1 5 - 24 . 25- 34 . 3 5 - .44. 45- 54 55- 64 65- 74 75- 84 8 5 - 94 95-100 Total  Ted No. Qf teachers . 1  Laree Percent of t o t a l no. o f teachers 10  «cs>  Percent of t o t a l no. o f teachers  No. of • teachers :  2  12.5 „  —  :•••«,•'  2  20  —  •  *»  —  m  — •  •**  -  aoOSS  m.  3 4 10  ~  30 40 100  •  14 16  87.5 100 :  TABLE XV T e a c h i n g Time i n A c a d e m i c S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s i n S m a l l . Medium and L a r g e Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 Small Med Percent Hereest of • of No. No. teaching . t o t a l .. • .. .of of time i n t e a c h e r s no. o f t e a c h e r s own teachers :• f i e l d ; o- .4 3 5-14 16.7 15- 24 • .1-. 25- 34 35- 44 1 16.7 1 4 5 - 54 1 met. 55- 64 1 65- 74 • 16.7 75- 84 1. 1 16.7 85- 94 1 5 2 33.2 95-100 I S Total 100 6 •  -  ium Large Percent Percent of No. of total of total no. o f t e a c h e r s no. o f teachers. teachers 25  5 •  -  27.6  -  -  #9.  —  -  :  8.3 8*3  -  -  11.2  1 1 9 18  5.6 5.6 50 100  8*3 .• 8.3 41.8 100  -  2  :  -  - 47 The c o n c l u s i o n s "based on T a b l e s X I I I , X I V and XV .are much t h e same a s t h o s e "based on t h e p r e v i o u s  tables.  The l a r g e s t number o f t e a c h e r s a r e t e a c h i n g 95 p e r c e n t , or more o f t h e time schools  the next  cent, or less  i n t h e i r own f i e l d .  l a r g e s t number a r e t h o s e  of t h e i r t i m e  i n t h e i r own  In the large teaching 4 per field.  TABLE X V I T e a c h i n g Time i n S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s P r e p a r e d f o r o f A c a d e m i c and S p e c i a l - T e a c h e r s i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1939-40  School  0 per cent  •Two-teacher s e n i o r h.euSmall senior h.s. Medium s e n i o r h . s . L a r g e s e n i o r , h . s*: Medium j u n i o r h . s . L a r g e j u n i or h . s . Small j unior-senior h.s. Medium j u n i o r - s e n i o r h . s . Large j u n i o r - s e n i o r h.s.  126  Total  Definite  2 13 20 • 39 ' 10 14 3. 11 14  100 p e r c e n t  Total  -  8  2 13 21 50 10 22 4 13 22  31  157  1 11 „  8 1  2  c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d n o t be a r r i v e d a t  from the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the teachers  of s p e c i a l  s u b j e c t s i n t h e a c a d e m i c a n d s p e c i a l g r o u p as i t was n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o s a y w h e t h e r a t e a c h e r was p r e p a r e d teach the s p e c i a l subjects.  to  O f t e n a t e a c h e r , by t a k i n g  - 48 extra courses prepared  »  d u r i n g t h e summer o r w i n t e r , may  t o t e a c h a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t y e t may  held a special  s p e c i a l g r o u p who special subjects.  shows 157  The  t e a c h e r s , f o r the p u r p o s e of to teach a s p e c i a l  t w e n t y - s i x o r 80.3  t e a c h e r s were found  t o be  s u b j e c t s b e t w e e n 16 and 85 p e r c e n t  19.7  to do s o .  The  subject  per cent,  teaching  of  special  of t h e t i m e w i t h o u t  remaining  p e r c e n t , were t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l  holding a special  this  certificate.  hundred and  being prepared  and  w e r e s t u d i e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w of  they h e l d a s p e c i a l  t h e s e 157  have  teachers i n the academic  s t u d y , were c o n s i d e r e d p r e p a r e d  One  not  certificate.  Table XVI  if  have b e e n  t h i r t y - o n e or  subjects while  certificate.  Special. TABLE X V I I T y p e s o f C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by S p e c i a l T e a c h e r s i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1939-40.  Certificate  No. o f teachers  F i r s t class Academic Special  12 41 210  Total  263  Percent o f t o t a l no. of t e a c h e r s 3.2 16.9 79.9 100  - 49 T a b l e X V I I shows t h e 2 6 3 t e a c h e r s who were t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s 85 p e r c e n t o r more of t h e time.  I t was f o u n d t h a t t w e l v e o r 3.2 p e r c e n t , o f t h e  teachers held F i r s t Class c e r t i f i c a t e s ,  forty-one or  16.9  p e r c e n t , h e l d Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s  79.9  per cent, held s p e c i a l  and 210 o r  certificates.  T e a c h e r s h o l d i n g F i r s t and S e c o n d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s a n d no S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e who were n o t p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d In the previous discussions only teachers  with  d e g r e e s w e r e p l a c e d i n t h e a c a d e m i c and a c a d e m i c and s p e c i a l g r o u p s w h i l e any t e a c h e r , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r he h e l d a d e g r e e o r n o t  f  was p l a c e d i n t h e s p e c i a l  group  i f he s p e n t a t l e a s t 85 p e r c e n t . o f h i s t e a c h i n g - t i m e teaching special subjects. six  teachers without  There s t i l l remained e i g h t y -  degrees o r s p e c i a l  who h a v e n o t b e e n e x a m i n e d .  certificates  These t e a c h e r s  taught  i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s a l t h o u g h a few taught subjects i n the senior high schools.  some  The e i g h t y - s i x  t e a c h e r s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s ( a ) t e a c h e r s t a u g h t a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s o n l y ( b ) t e a c h e r s who some s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s .  mainly  who  taught  W h i l e no s t u d y was made o f the'  teaching time spent i n teaching the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , i t was o b s e r v e d  t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s c o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d  - 50 i n the s p e c i a l  group.  The i n t e r e s t was s o l e l y i n t h e  number o f t e a c h e r s w i t h F i r s t and S e c o n d C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e s who t a u g h t  (1) academic s u b j e c t s o n l y  ( 2 ) some s p e c i a l  s u b j e c ts» TABLE X V I I I • F i r s t and Second C l a s s Teachers Teaching Only Academic S u b j e c t s a n d Some S p e c i a l S u b j e c t s i n t h e S e c o n d a r y Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia _l939^40 K  No. O f teachers Academic s u b j e c t s only Some s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s  86  Total  Forty-seven  thirty-nine  100  t e a c h i n g academic s u b j e c t s .  The  o r 45.3 p e r c e n t , o f t h e t e a c h e r s  s p e n t some o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g t i m e subjects.  54.7 45.3  o r 54.7 p e r c e n t , o f t h e t e a c h e r s  spent a l l of t h e i r time remaining  47 39  Percent  teaching  special  CHAPTER I I I  A C o m p a r i s o n o f the T r a i n i n g o f S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S u b j e c t s They Taught  Purpose. The the  training  C o l u m b i a and  p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o compare of s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l teachers of B r i t i s h the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n r e l a t i o n  subjects they  to  the  taught.  Major Subject. I n the study i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , secondary their  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were s a i d  own f i e l d  refer  teaching i n  i f t h e y were t e a c h i n g e i t h e r  or minor s u b j e c t . field"  t o be  Jj'or the p u r p o s e o f  t a k e s on a new  meaning.  o n l y to the major.  The  "Own  the  t h e i r majo  this chapter field"  change was  will  "own now  necessary  b e c a u s e i n a l l the s t u d i e s e x a m i n e d t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e grouped a c c o r d i n g to the major s u b j e c t taken a t  the  university. Before  a comparison of the r e s u l t s  could  be  « 52 -  made i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e what was meant b y a " m a j o r " i n a n A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y and t o s e e w h e t h e r t h i s d e f i n i t i o n d i f f e r e d from that given i n the questionnaire and t h e r e f o r e w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a m a j o r i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f o l l o w i n g  e x t r a c t s axe f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a l e n d a r and show w h a t i s meant by a major. A G e n e r a l C o u r s e d e g r e e w i l l be g r a n t e d on c o m p l e t i o n o f c o u r s e s a m o u n t i n g t o s i x t y u n i t s chosen i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h Calendar regulations. 4 1  T h i r d and F o u r t h Year F o r a G e n e r a l C o u r s e a s t u d e n t must s e l e c t two m a j o r s u b j e c t s . a c c o r d i n g t o e i t h e r o f the f o l l o w i n g schemes A.  minimum o f n i n e u n i t s i n one s u b j e c t and a minimum o f s i x u n i t s i n another subject.  B.  minimum o f n i n e u n i t s i n e a c h o f two subjects*  C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s were l i s t e d A and B.  u n d e r b o t h Groups  The s u b j e c t s i n Group A w e r e r e l a t e d t o e a c h  other while  t h o s e i n Group B w e r e  unrelated.  41.  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a l e n d a r , 1939-40  42.  I b i d . , p. 77.  Work i n t h e F i r s t o r S e c o n d Y e a r i s r e q u i r e d i n each o f the major s u b j e c t s , except . E d u c a t i o n and M u s i c . 4 3  F o r a m a j o r s u b j e c t a s t u d e n t must t a k e a minimum o f t w e l v e u n i t s .  He must t h e r e f o r e s p e n d a t  l e a s t 20 p e r c e n t . o f t h e t i m e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia The or semesters.  t a k i n g a major.  u n i v e r s i t y y e a r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two terms The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s , w h i c h were  taken from the U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h B u l l e t i n , d e f i n e a  major. A c r e d i t i s g i v e n f o r one h o u r o f r e c i t a t i o n o r l e c t u r e p e r week t h r o u g h o u t a s e m e s t e r o f s i x t e e n weeks• I n s c i e n c e c o u r s e s a r a t i o o f two h o u r s f o r one s e m e s t e r c r e d i t i s o b t a i n e d f o r l a b o r a t o r y work. F o r g r a d u a t i o n a t o t a l o f , 1 2 0 c r e d i t s must be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y completed. ^ Major. The m a j o r must c o n t a i n a g r o u p _ o f c o u r s e s a g g r e g a t i n g t w e n t y - f o u r credits.-° A  s t u d e n t must s p e n d a t l e a s t 20 p e r c e n t , o f  the time a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , i n h i s major subject. A m a j o r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t a n a may be  43.  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia p. 77:.  Calendar.  1939-40,  44.  U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h B u l l e t i n . General 1 9 2 6 - 2 7 , p. 7 3 .  45.  I b i d . , p. 102.  Catalogue  defined  from the  following  quotations.  C a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e d e g r e e of. B a c h e l o r o f A r t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e 180 c r e d i t s i n a d d i t i o n to r e q u i r e d c r e d i t s i n P h y s i c a l Education. (twelve c r e d i t s ) 4 6  C r e d i t s Sequired f o r a Major. A department o r s c h o o l may r e q u i r e t h a t t h e m a j o r students complete from f o r t y to f i f t y - f i v e c r e d i t s I n the chosen f i e l d . ' It  i s s e e n t h a t out  o f f o r t y o r 20.8 of  o f 192  p e r c e n t , must he  u n i t s a minimum i n the major  field  study. TABLE  XIX  P e r c e n t o f Time a t t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e Ma j o r S ub,j eo t  University  Pittsburgh Montana Rochester Missouri Maryland Iowa a.  Table XIX  8 -  Percent 20 20 20.8 21 • 8 18.8 23.6 19.7  University Bulletins.  i n d i c a t e s the p e r c e n t a g e o f  time  46.  U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t a n a B u l l e t i n , 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 , pp.  47.  Loc. c i t .  17-18.  - 55 spent  -  i n t h e m a j o r s u b j e c t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a and s i x A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s .  The  percentages  f o r the American u n i v e r s i t i e s are approximately as t h a t f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . following  t h e same In  the  s t u d i e s i t i s assumed t h a t a m a j o r means t h e  same t h i n g a t an A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y and of B r i t i s h  the  University  Columbia,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  Iowa. 48  B y means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e James H e n r y Inman made a s t u d y o f t h e t r a i n i n g o f 1048  Iowa h i g h s c h o o l  t e a c h e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o the s u b j e c t s they t a u g h t . 49 The g r a d u a t e s o f e l e v e n of the c o l l e g e s i n I o w a , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1921 t o 1926, who had had f r o m one t o f i v e y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e g r a d u a t i o n were s e l e c t e d as a b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y . 0  F r o m a s t u d y o f the t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  I o w a i t was  found  t e a c h e r * s m a j o r s u b j e c t was,  t h a t no m a t t e r what a  t h e r e was  a probability  that  48.  Inman, James H e n r y , The T r a i n i n g o f Iowa H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S u b j e c t s They T e a c h , S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , V o l . I V , no. 9, 1928.  49.  C e n t r a l , C o e , C o r n e l l , Des M o i n e s U n i v e r s i t y , D r a k e U n i v e r s i t y , G r i n n e l , Iowa W e s l e y a n , M o r n i n g s i d e , P a r s o n s , P e n n and S i m p s o n *  50.  Inman* op.  c i t . , p.  9*  - 56  -  he would, be c a l l e d u p o n t o t e a c h o t h e r s u b j e c t s as w e l l , if  indeed  not i n s t e a d of the  subjects majored i n .  TABLE XX a P e r c e n t o f S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n Iowa (1921-26) and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1959-40) who T a u g h t S u b j e c t s t h a t They M a j o r e d i n  Iowa Total Number P e r c e n t t e a c h i n g majored subject English French Spanish Latin Social Studies Maths. Biology Physics Chemistry Home E c . Music  505 45 22 173 454 373 130 206 27 111 68  212 25 4 26 74 84 19 10 15 '. 96 20 a.  T a b l e XX  B r i t i sh Columbia Total Number P e r c e n t t e a c h i n g maj o r ed subject  42 195 116 5o & 6, 99 55 X8» 22 — 15 63 25 16.3 150 67 : 25.6'" 147 • 55 14*6 10 • 7 • 6. 4*9 . 30-'. 55*6 .40 . . . 23 . 28 86*5 28 29.4 14 1 :  Inman, op.  c i t . , . pp.  i n d i c a t e s the number o f s e n i o r h i g h  t h e s u b j ec t s l i s t e d  The  and  t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e  majored i n these percentages  t h a n those f o r Iowa. why  t h i s i s so*  «=*  39*7 44.7 37.4 70 - 20 57.5 100 7» X'  28-29.  s o h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Iowa and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who  t e a c h e r s who  59.6 55 ® .5  taught of  subjects.  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia are  T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two  higher  reasons  As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  for  I o w a was s e n t t o t e a c h e r s who h a d one t o f i v e  of.high school teaching experience.  The r e s u l t s  a maximum t e a c h i n g t i m e o f f i v e y e a r s .  years covered  A t e a c h e r may  h a v e b e e n l i s t e d a s t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t a l t h o u g h he may n o t have t a u g h t  i t f o rseveral years.  The r e s u l t s f o r  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were b a s e d o n l y upon t h e one y e a r covered  by t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The  r e s u l t s f o r I o w a .moreover, u n d o u b t e d l y  i n c l u d e d some o n e - t e a c h e r  high schools*  taught a v a r i e t y o f subj e c t s . t h e r e f o r e be l o w e r .  The p e r c e n t a g e s  The r e s u l t s f o r B r i t i s h  however, d i d not i n c l u d e one-teacher Although noted  These  the percentages  Columbia,  d i f f e r , i t must be  t h a t i n one r e s p e c t t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r i t y  s u b j e c t s a r e compared.  The p e r c e n t a g e  between  Two s p e c i a l  f o r home e c o n o m i c s  t h e l a r g e r f o r b o t h Iowa a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 86.5  per cent.and is  would  high schools.  t h e r e s u l t s f o r I o w a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  is  teachers  100 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Music,  which  the o t h e r s p e c i a l s u b j e c t compared, has r e l a t i v e l y  low percentages * Spanish  a n d b i o l o g y may be e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e  d i s c u s s i o n o f academic s u b j e c t s . t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g these  There a r e o n l y a few  subjects i nB r i t i s h  Columbia.  I t appears t h a t t h e t h r e e academic subj e c t s , E n g l i s h ,  - 58 F r e n c h and c h e m i s t r y , w h i c h h a r e t h e l a r g e s t  percentages  of-majors i n Iowa, a r e a l s o t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e l a r g e s t percentages  I n B r i t i s h Columbia.  the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e  P h y s i c s has  i n b o t h Iowa and B r i t i s h  4.9 p e r c e n t , and 20 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . s o c i a l s t u d i e s and mathematics percentages  Columbia, Latin,  have t h e next t h r e e l o w e s t  i n b o t h Iowa and B r i t i s h  Columbia.  B r i j i s h _ j C o l u m b i a and_Al_abama. 51 Henry C l i f t o n Panne11,  i n h i s a r t i c l e The  P r e p a r a t i o n a n d Work, .of A l a b a m a H i g h S c h o o l  Teachers  arrived at the f o l l o w i n g conclusions. One-half of the teachers included i n t h i s s t u d y t a u g h t t h e i r maj o r c o l l e g e s u b j e c t , w h i l e o n e - f o u r t h taught s u b j e c t s f o r w h i c h they had l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g than a c o l l e g e minor. I n some s u b j e c t s t e a c h e r s h a d no u n d e r g r a d u a t e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n whatever.^ 2  Seventy-five per cent. of the teachers i n A l a b a m a t a u g h t e i t h e r t h e i r maj o r o r m i n o r  subj e c t s .  By  u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i t was f o u n d t h a t o n l y 58.7 p e r c e n t , o f t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l  51.  Panne 11«. H e n r y C l i f t o n , "The P r e p a r a t i o n and Work of Alabama High School Teachers", Teacher's C o l l e g e R e c o r d , V o l . XXXV, O c t . 1933-Kay 1934.  52.  I b i d , p . 237.  59 teachers teacher  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n s c h o o l s o f more t h a n one taught  e i t h e r t h e i r major o r minor s u b j e c t s .  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d New Y o r k . 54 E.N. F e r r i s s  made a s t u d y  the t e a c h e r ' s major f i e l d found,  o f t h e r e l a t i o n between  and t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s .  f r o m t h e r e p o r t s o f 396 r u r a l h i g h s c h o o l  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h a t 16 p e r c e n t . 68 p e r c e n t , p a r t t i m e a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g none o f t h e t i m e 612 t e a c h e r s taught f u l l  i n t h e i r major f i e l d .  i n semi-rural schools  taught  A similar York S t a t e .  teachers  full  time,  16 p e r c e n t , The d a t a f o r  showed t h a t 38 p e r c e n t ,  t i m e , 50 p e r c e n t , t a u g h t  12 p e r c e n t .  taught  He  none o f t h e t i m e  p a r t time and i n their  own f i e l d .  s t u d y was made of t e a c h e r s  D a t a on 1105 who t a u g h t  i n New  i n small high  s c h o o l s d u r i n g 1920-21 showed t h a t 30.5 p e r c e n t , w e r e teaching f u l l  t i m e , 56.5 p e r c e n t . p a r t t i m e and 13 p e r  c e n t , none o f t h e t i m e  i n t h e i r own f i e l d .  I nthe  s c h o o l s o f New Y o r k w i t h a n e n r o l m e n t o f f e w e r t h a n p u p i l s 14 p e r c e n t , w e r e g i v i n g a l l o f t h e i r per  cent, p a r t of t h e i r  none o f t h e i r  54.  time  fifty  t i m e , 72  t i m e and t h e r e m a i n i n g  14 p e r c e n t ,  t o subj e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r  major  F e r r i s , E.N., "The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l : I t s Organization and C u r r i c u l u m " , B u l l e t i n No. 1 0 , U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f .Education? 1925.  - 60  -  55 field  of  training.  TABLE  XXI  S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s Who Gave I n s t r u c t i o n i n T h e i r Own F i e l d  Total-no. No. Df t e a c h e r s own  Place U.S.A. ( r u r a l ) U.S.A. ( s e m i - r u r a l ) N.Y. (small) . N.Y. (fewer than f i f t y p u p i l s ) B.C. ( s m a l l and medium) . B.C. Oarge)  396 612' 1105  a. h.  U n i t e d S t a t e s and "own  -  162 . 296  7 34  shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s  instruction  teacher's  i n s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r own  New  field".  were t a k e n f r o m Tables  The  results  I X and X I I I . "own  the w i d e r scope of prepared  subjects  t e a c h e r s w e r e more l i k e l y  to be  from B r i t i s h The  field".  who  field.  Y o r k the m a j o r s u b j e c t was  s u b j e c t s were the t e a c h e r ' s  Because  the B r i t i s h  In  the Columbia  m a j o r and  minor of  Columbia  t e a c h i n g t h e i r major  minor.  The  schools  of B r i t i s h Columbia approaches zero.  55.  16 12 13 14 4.3 11.5  J i ' e r r i s s , The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l . pp. 14-15. R e s u l t s from previous chapter.  Table XXI gave no  not i n P e r c e n t field  63 68 124  a  b  No  or  p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e s m a l l and medium h i g h  F e r r i s s , The  R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l , pp.  The  14-15.  per-  - 61  -  c e n t a g e f o r the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l i s 11.5  per cent.  The  r e s u l t s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h o s e f r o m U n i t e d S t a t e s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  Minnesota. 56  In  1921-22 P.W.  Hutson  made a n  investigation  of the r e l a t i o n of the p r e p a r a t i o n of s c i e n c e to  and  the s u b j e c t s t h e y 57 thirty-four  One  t h o u s a n d one  hundred  h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s answered  q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was of  taught.  teachers  s e n t o u t by  the U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a .  a  the C o l l e g e of  Two  h u n d r e d and  Education 5  seventy ®  o f t h e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were t e a c h i n g one more c l a s s e s i n t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . of these  teachers  5  Ninety-seven ^  taught g e n e r a l s c i e n c e .  were d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f o u r groups to  or  The 60  teachers  according  the s i z e o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l f a c u l t i e s f r o m w h i c h  t h e y came:Group I - t h i r t y o r more t e a c h e r s Group I I - e l e v e n t o t h i r t y t e a c h e r s 56. H u t s o n , P.W., "High School Science Teachers: A Study o f T h e i r T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S u b j e c t s They a r e T e a c h i n g " , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , V o l . I X , No. 7, O c t . 1923. 57.  I b i d . , p.  58.  Loc. c i t .  59.  Loc. c i t  60.  LOG . c i t  423.  - 62  -  Group I I I - t e n o r f e w e r t e a c h e r s Group I V - h i g h s c h o o l departments of graded s c h o o l s .  state  TABLE X X I I The Number o f S c i e n c e s i n V/hich a T e a c h e r Had U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g  Percent Place  0  Minn. Group I & I I Group I I I Group I V JB«0 • large medium & s m a l l  science 1  t o t a l number of t e a c h e r s  s c i e n c e 2 s c i e n c e s 3 o r more s c i e n c e  23  6.4 9.1 43.8  2X » 3 13.6 18 . 7  72.3 74.9 37.5  26 • 2 33.8  36.6 25.8  26.6 »o  10.2 8.1  a  a.  of  Hutson, High School Science  T e a c h e r s , p.423.  T a b l e X X I I compares the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f science teachers  i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s of M i n n e s o t a  and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a c c o r d i n g t o the number o f taken.  A  t e a c h e r i n M i n n e s o t a was  s c i e n c e i f he  took  work a t u n i v e r s i t y .  o n l y one The  course  The  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  percentages  The  l i s t e d as t a k i n g  only mention of  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e d only  not r e c o r d e d  a  i n h i s undergraduate  f o r t h e m a j o r and  s c i e n c e s t a k e n as a m a j o r o r m i n o r . taken, but  sciences  d a t a were n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r  the B r i t i s h Columbia t e a c h e r s . courses  general  I f the  minor. the  sciences  as a maj o r o r m i n o r , w e r e added  - 63 t h e r e w o u l d h e a much s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e i n t h e z e r o and probably  t h e one s c i e n c e g r o u p s and a  l a r g e r percentage i n the other  corresponding  groups.  P r o m T a b l e XX i t a p p e a r s t h a t t e n , t h i r t y and f o r t y senior high school teachers and  taught b i o l o g y , p h y s i c s  c h e m i s t r y r e s p e c t i v e l y w h i l e 122 t e a c h e r s w e r e f o u n d  to t e a c h g e n e r a l  science.  I f a teacher  i s going t o  s p e c i a l i z e i n s c i e n c e i t i s b e t t e r t o take a t l e a s t t h r e e s c i e n c e s , p r e f e r a b l y b i o l o g y , p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y rather than to s p e c i a l i z e  i n one s c i e n c e .  The p r e s e n t  B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m throws the ~ g r e a t e s t e m p h a s i s on g e n e r a l science. The  q u e s t i o n o f t e n asked by p r o s p e c t i v e  school teachers a s a maj o r ? "  i s "What t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s h o u l d  the Teacher T r a i n i n g Course.  of view of the teacher subject matter  thoroughly  be,  "The s u b j e c t w h i c h y o u l i k e  the obvious  Prom t h e p o i n t  answer w o u l d  the b e s t and i n w h i c h  get t h e h i g h e s t marks."  of v i e w o f b e i n g a b l e  after  t a k i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n and k n o w i n g  his  you p r o b a b l y  I take  This q u e s t i o n i s u s u a l l y asked w i t h the  idea of being able to get a teaching p o s i t i o n completing  high  Prom t h e p o i n t  to get a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n the  a n s w e r w o u l d b e , "The t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s i n g r e a t e s t demand."  I s i t p o s s i b l e t o p i c k out the t e a c h i n g  subject  - 64  -  f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s t h e g r e a t e s t demand? T h i s t h e s i s does n o t make a s t u d y o f t h e and  demand o f t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  T a b l e XX,  supply  From  h o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e  at  some c o n c l u s i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e l a t i v e demand f o r t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who subjects.  majored i n the v a r i o u s  From the column w i t h the percentages  t e a c h e r s who  majored i n the s u b j e c t s they are  of teaching  i t a p p e a r s t h a t p h y s i c s , m a t h e m a t i c s and L a t i n a r e s u b j e c t s w h i c h have the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e t e a c h i n g t h e i r maj o r . false  impression.  The  percentages,  of  the  teachers  however, g i v e a  I f t h e number o f t e a c h e r s who  majored  i n a s u b j e c t i s s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l number o f t h e r e s u l t g i v e s t h e number o f t e a c h e r s who i n their teaching subject.  I t i s observed  two, . e i g h t y - t h r e e , s e v e n t y - n i n e who  taught  French  d i d n o t maj o r that ninety-  and f o r t y - f o u r  teachers  some m a t h e m a t i c s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , E n g l i s h and  r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i d not m a j o r i n t h e i r  subject.  I t appears,  teaching  then, that there i s l i k e l y  t h e g r e a t e s t demand f o r t e a c h e r s who  to  be  majored i n  m a t h e m a t i c s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and E n g l i s h .  The  obvious  r e a s o n why  there are  and  s t u d i e s i s tfeat b o t h t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e  social  teachers  so many t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h  compulsory i n the h i g h s c h o o l .  - 65 S i m i l a r l y f r o m T a b l e X V I I i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o . g e t some i d e a o f t h e r e l a t i v e demand f o r t e a c h e r s o f t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s who h o l d a s p e c i a l T h e r e a r e 178 p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n out a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e .  certificate.  teachers  teaching with-  A r t and commercial rank  second and t h i r d w i t h f i f t y - s i x and f i f t y - f o u r r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t appeal's  t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be t h e g r e a t e s t demand f o r  teachers holding s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s  i n physical  e d u c a t i o n , a r t and commercial s u b j e c t s . t h e r e a r e so many t e a c h e r s is  The r e a s o n  teaching physical  why  education  that i t i s compulsory i n a l l secondary s c h o o l s . I t m u s t - b e remembered t h a t t h e r e i s n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y a s c a r c i t y o f q u a l i f i e d a c a d e m i c and s p e c i a l teachers  i n the province.  The r e s u l t s o n l y show t h e  s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f t e a c h e r s without  being s p e c i f i c a l l y prepared  teaching  (major o r s p e c i a l ) .  CHAPTER I V  Academic  and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f S e c o n d a r y School Teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia  This chapter  s t u d i e s t h e academic  professional qualifications  and  of the secondary s c h o o l  teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia, u t i l i z i n g f o r the purpose t h e r e s u l t s o f the t h i r d ,  s e v e n t h , e i g h t h , n i n t h and  p a r t of the s i x t h q u e s t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Teachers H o l d i n g Degrees, The  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were  first  s t u d i e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e academic  degrees  they h e l d . 61 E d w a r d S. E v e n d e n and Guy C. Gamble  made a  s t u d y o f 121,133 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 , b a s i n g t h e f i g u r e s on  data  r e c e i v e d f r o m s m a l l and l a r g e , r u r a l and u r b a n and and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n a l l t h e s t a t e s .  61.  The  junior  teachers  E v e n d e n , E d w a r d S., and Gamble, Guy C . , " T e a c h e r P e r s o n n e l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , U.S. B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 3 , No. 1 0 , V o l . I I , p.49.  - 67 i n v o l v e d c o n s t i t u t e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f a l l those i n the secondary schools  of t h e United S t a t e s . TABLE X X I I I  Number and P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s (1930-31*)"^ a n d B r i t i s h ColumbiaH^1959-40~) w i t h D e g r e e s  No. School  teachers  TJ«S O ®  Senior Junior Junior-Senior Total  *B«C»  84,882 , 742 36 g 3 5 X 260 249  No.  degrees  TJ • S o,Jk» £«C © 72,136 20,552  "'  X«2 X j X *o> 3 1251  92,688  625 190 192 986  P e r c ent U.S.A.  B.C.  85 56.7  84*2 65  -  : 77.1  76.5  78.9  .  a. E v e n d e n a n d Gamble, op. c i t . T a b l e X X I I I shows t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e o f j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l teachers  i n United  States  and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e o f combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s Columbia w i t h degrees. were o b t a i n e d  Although  i n British  the American f i g u r e s  i n 1930-31, t h e r e s u l t s w i l l  g i v e some  i d e a o f how B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a compares t o t h e U n i t e d States. The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the percentages  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s were equal.  I n the senior high schools  of  approximately  the percentages f o r  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and and  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e r e 84.2  per  85 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e f o r the j u n i o r  s c h o o l s t h e y w e r e 65 p e r c e n t , and  56.7  per  cent, high  cent  respectively. One o f t h e 249  h u n d r e d and  ninety-two  per  combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l  i n B r i t i s h Columbia held degrees. t h i s a v e r a g e i s b e t w e e n t h e 84.2 and  o r 77.1  As w o u l d be  cent, teachers expected  p e r c e n t f o r the  65 p e r c e n t . f o r t h e j u n i o r h i g h  schools.  A f u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e of school teachers S t a t e s who s t a t e d by  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  h e l d d e g r e e s may 62 Ferriss.  senior  i n the  high  United  be made f r o m t h e r e s u l t s - . •••  as  The New Y o r k s u r v e y showed t h a t i n 1 9 2 0 - 2 1 , 62 p e r c e n t , o f the h i g h s c h o o l s t a f f i n s c h o o l s i n c e n t r e s u n d e r 4500 h e l d c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y degrees. I n Montana, f o r 1 9 2 1 - 2 2 , 76 p e r c e n t , o f a l l t h e h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the s t a t e were r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g f o u r y e a r s o r more a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g above h i g h s c h o o l . I n the h i g h s c h o o l s i n v i l l a g e s of the t h i r d - c l a s s d i s t r i c t s , however, the p e r c e n t a g e h a v i n g s u c h t r a i n i n g was o n l y 62. In North D a k o t a i n 1 9 2 0 - 2 1 , 70 p e r c e n t , o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s i n s e c o n d - and t h i r d - c l a s s h i g h schools held college or u n i v e r s i t y  62.  F e r r i s s , Emery N., and V i l l a g e .  Secondary Education  i n Country  =» 69 63 degrees. According t o C.J. Anderson , in W i s c o n s i n h i g h s c h o o l s o f two t o f i v e t e a c h e r s , 21 p e r c e n t , were g r a d u a t e s of c o l l e g e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d 77 p e r c e n t , were n o r m a l school graduates. I n s c h o o l s o f s i x or more teachers, the percentage of c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s r a n f r o m 21 i n s c h o o l s o f s i x t e a c h e r s t o 64 p e r c e n t . i n s c h o o l s o f e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n t e a c h e r s a n d 69 p e r c e n t . i n h i g h s c h o o l s of over f i f t e e n t e a c h e r s . 4  TABLE X X I V Percent o f Teachers w i t h Degrees  Place  Percent 76 62 70 21 31 64 69 84.2 78.9  M o n t a n a (19.21-22) Montana (1921-22) t h i r d c l a s s N o r t h D a k o t a (1920-21) 2nd & 3 r d c l a s s W i s c o n s i n (2-5 t e a c h e r s ) W i s c o n s i n (6 t e a c h e r s ) W i s c o n s i n (11-15 t e a c h e r s ) W i s c o n s i n ( o v e r 15 t e a c h e r s ) B.C. ( s e n i o r h i g h ) B.C. ( a l l s e c o n d a r y ) a  1 3  St 4 b.  F e r r i s s , Emery N., S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n and V i l l a g e , p . 1 4 - 1 5 . Table X X I I I . T a b l e X X I V shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e  i n Country  of teachers  63.  A n d e r s o n , J . C . , The S t a t u s o f T e a c h e r s i n W i s c o n s i n , pp. 8 6 - 9 3 , c i t e d i n F e r r i s s , Emery N., S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n C o u n t r y a n d V i l l a g e , p. 14.  64.  F e r r i s s , Emery N., S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n C o u n t r y and V i l l a g e , p p . 14-15*  - 70 w i t h degrees.  F o r M o n t a n a i t , w a s assumed t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s  w i t h f o u r o r more y e a r s t r a i n i n g above h i g h s c h o o l degrees.  Actually  be l o w e r .  held  the percentage w i t h degrees s h o u l d  The p e r c e n t a g e s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e t h e  l a r g e s t shown i n t h e All  table.  t h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who  examined d i d not h o l d d e g r e e s .  The t e a c h e r s who  were held  d e g r e e s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h e two g r o u p s : - ( l ) t h o s e h a v i n g d e g r e e s and a c a d e m i c  certificates  h a v i n g d e g r e e s and no a c a d e m i c  (2) t h o s e  certificates.  Those n o t  p o s s e s s i n g d e g r e e s w e r e a l s o e x a m i n e d t o see w h e t h e r not  or  they were s t u d y i n g towards a degree. The  986 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a w i t h d e g r e e s w e r e examined t o s e e w h e t h e r h e l d academic c e r t i f i c a t e s . w i t h o u t an a c a d e m i c  academic  t w e n t y - f o u r o r 30 p e r  they w e r e w o r k i n g t o w a r d s  certificate.  certificate.  Of t h e e i g h t y t e a c h e r s  certificate,  cent. indicated that  they  Fifty-three held a  Only three of these l a t t e r  t h a t t h e y were w o r k i n g towards  an  special teachers indicated  an a c a d e m i c  certificate.  Twenty-one o u t o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g towards an academic  certificate  d i d not possess a  special  certificate. I t was  f o u n d • t h a t 265 o r 21.1 p e r c e n t , o f t h e  * 71 * 1251  secondary t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i d n o t have  a degree.  N i n e t y - t w o o r 34.8 p e r c e n t . o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s  w e r e f o u n d t o he w o r k i n g t o w a r d s a d e g r e e .  I t must he  remembered t h a t some o f t h e t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t a d e g r e e held a special Distribution  certificate*  o f Degrees. TABLE XXV  Number o f D e g r e e s H e l d b y t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l Teachers of British^oTulmb^^  No.  degrees 1 2 3 4  No.  teachers 800 169 . 15 2 986  Total  degrees  800 338 45 8 1191  A s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , 986 s e c o n d a r y teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia h e l d degrees. shows t h a t  school  T a b l e XXV  t h e s e 986 t e a c h e r s h e l d 1191 d e g r e e s .  The  1191 degrees were n e x t grouped  under t h e  t h r e e h e a d i n g s , u n d e r g r a d u a t e , g r a d u a t e and d o c t o r . a n u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e we mean t h e f i r s t d e g r e e ,  By  such  as t h e B.A. and B . S c . B y a g r a d u a t e d e g r e e we mean a degree  s u c h a s t h e M.A. and B . P a e d . w h i c h i s r e c e i v e d  - 72 a f t e r t h e undergraduate degree h u t b e f o r e the d o c t o r ' s 65 degree.  By a d o c t o r ' s d e g r e e we mean t h e Ph.D. and  D.Paed.  The 108,714 d e g r e e s h e l d by t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l  t e a c h e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s who were s t u d i e d , w e r e 66 classified  a s B.A*, M.A« and D o c t o r .  No m e n t i o n was  made o f o t h e r u n d e r g r a d u a t e o r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s .  They  w e r e p r e s u m a b l y g r o u p e d w i t h t h e B.A. o r M.A. TABLE X X V I Number a n d P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s H e l d i n t h e T h r e e Groups b y t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n U n i t e d " S t a t e s ~ (1930-31J" and i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1959-40)  B.C. Group.  Degrees  Undergraduate Graduate Doctor To t a l a.  92,688 15,631 395.. 108,714  Percent 85.3 14.4 100  Degrees  Percent  1010 178 3  :  1191  100  84.8 14.9 » 3  U.S. B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n , l o c . c i t . T a b l e X X V I compares t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  of the  108,714 d e g r e e s h e l d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e 1191  65.  A c t u a l l y a graduate degree i s a degree r e c e i v e d a f t e r t h e undergraduate degree but f o r the purpose of t h i s study undergraduate degrees w i l l not include doctorates.  66.  U.S.  B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1 9 3 3 , No. 1 0 , p . 49.  degrees h e l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia a c c o r d i n g to the groups, undergraduate, graduate or doctor.  The d a t a f o r t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s were o f c o u r s e , somewhat f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  o l d e r than those  The t a b l e shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e s  of degrees i n the t h r e e groups  t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e  same*  •  TABLE  XXVII  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Degrees H e l d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l Teachers A c c o r d i n g to Where R e c e i v e d (1939-4_dT  Degrees from  No. D e g r e e s 806 / 255 72 58  UiB»G© R e s t o f Canada U.S.A., British Isles  a  1191 a.  Percent 67.7 21.4 6 4*9-. 100  I n c l u d i n g one d e g r e e f r o m Bombay, I n d i a .  F r o m T a b l e X X V I i t i s s e e n t h a t by f a r t h e l a r g e s t number  o f d e g r e e s , 806 o r 67.7 p e r c e n t . , w e r e  received from the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  n e x t l a r g e s t number, 255 o r 21.4 p e r c e n t . , w e r e r e c e i v e d from u n i v e r s i t i e s s i t u a t e d Only seventy-two  i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f Canada.•  or 6 p e r c e n t , o f the degrees were  received from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United States, while  - 74 fifty-eight  o r 4.9 p e r c e n t , w e r e r e c e i v e d  u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the B r i t i s h Degrees from the U n i v e r s i t y  from  Isles. of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  TABLE X X V I I I Number and P e r c e n t o f U n d e r g r a d u a t e a n d G r a d u a t e Degrees R e c e i v e d a t the • U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " " ( 1 9 3 9 ^ 4 0 " j "  Undergraduates T o t a l degrees Ho* U.B.C. P e r c e n t U.B.C.  Graduates  1010 721, . • 71.4"  178 85 47.7  From T a b l e X X V I I I t h e r e l a t i v e l y importance o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h for  undergraduate  greater Columbia  t h a n g r a d u a t e work i s e v i d e n t .  w h i l e 71.4 p e r c e n t , o f t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e were r e c e i v e d from t h i s  Thus  degrees  u n i v e r s i t y i t i s seen  that  o n l y 47.7 p e r c e n t , o f t h e g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s w e r e f r o m the  university.  - 75 D e g r e e s f r o m o t h e r Canadian- U n i v e r s i t i e s . TABLE X X I X Number and P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s f r o m some C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s o t h e r t h a n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959-40.  Deg r e e s Number Manitoba Toronto Queens Saskatchewan  45 55 34 24 07 94  :ffiG GIll ;  Others Total m' .I,,,,  ,,' I,,,  ij,,;;^  C o l u m b i a was  •  255  i mi-,1.,;^,,-,',1,^,1  I t was  Percent  1,,,  , ,  •  „;  17.6 13.7 13.3 9.4 9 37 100  ,,  w  ,,  L  ' 1 IJ1_ II  '•! II  |, 1  found t h a t i f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  e x c l u d e d , 255  Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s .  degrees were i s s u e d  Table XXIX i n d i c a t e s  from  the  u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t i s s u e d t h e l a r g e s t number. 161 63 p e r c e n t . , o f t h e s e d e g r e e s .  The U n i v e r s i t y  five or of  M a n i t o b a r a n k s f i r s t w i t h f o r t y - f i v e o r 17.6 p e r c e n t , of the degrees. r a n k s e c o n d and c e n t , and  The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o and Queens t h i r d w i t h t h i r t y - f i v e o r 13.7  t h i r t y - f o u r o r 13.3 p e r c e n t , o f t h e  per degrees  - 76 respectively. Degrees from U n i t e d  States. '  TABLE XXX  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s f r o m some A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40  University  No.  Washington Columbia California Others Total The who  39 10 6  ... ta •72 .;•  Percent 54*2 13.9 8.3 23.6' 100  secondary s c h o o l teachers i n B r i t i s h  were examined  universities.  degrees  Columbia  h e l d seventy-two degrees from American  T a b l e XXX shows t h e t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s  issued f i f t y - f i v e  o r 76.4 p e r c e n t , o f t h e s e d e g r e e s .  U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington  e a s i l y ranks f i r s t w i t h  o r 54.2 p e r c e n t , o f t h e t o t a l .  that The  thirty-nine  C o l u m b i a and t h e U n i v e r s i t y  o f C a l i f o r n i a r a n k s e c o n d a n d t h i r d w i t h t e n o r 13.9 p e r c e n t , a n d s i x o r 8.3 p e r c e n t , o f t h e d e g r e e s Home E c o n o m i c  respectively.  Degrees. TABLE X X X I  Number a n d P e r c e n t o f D e g r e e s i n Home E c o n o m i c s f r o m Some o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s , 1939-40.  Universi ty Manitoba Washington Others Total  No.  degrees -  27 6 9 42  Percent 64.7 14* 4 20.9 100  The home e c o n o m i c s who need a s p e c i a l  teachers are the only teachers  type o f degree.  Forty-two of the  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who w e r e examined h e l d a B . S c . d e g r e e i n home e c o n o m i c s . the  T a b l e X X X I shows t h a t by f a r  g r e a t e s t number, t w e n t y - s e v e n o r 64.7 p e r c e n t . , w e r e  obtained a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba.  The U n i v e r s i t y  o f W a s h i n g t o n r a n k s s e c o n d w i t h s i x o r 14.4 p e r c e n t , of  the t o t a l .  Certificates. TABLE X X X I I Number a n d P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Who H e l d A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e s  Number teachers  Year  1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 1.937-38 1938-39 1939-40  401 469 549 672 735 798 837 890 883 933 958 1072 1183 1312 1251°  8 .  No. a c a d e m i c Percent : '•.certificates 362 397 447 521 •562 ' 578 613 653 662 . 716 735 794 833 886 906  90*2 81.3 :.. -81.5. 77.5 76.* 9 72.9 * 3*3 • 73.4 74*9 . 76.7 76.7 74.1 70:. 4- . 67.5 70.2  a.  Annual Reports.  b.  N o t t o t a l number - r e s u l t s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  -  78  -  TABLE X X X I I I Number a n d P e r c e n t o f J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Who H e l d A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e s  a  Sen! or h i g h s c h o o l s i l u n i jor h i g h s c h o o l s Number Number Percent Number Number Percen beachers academic teachers academic certificates certificates  Year  1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39  Dm-  17 68 157 . .181 209 205 234 213 218  3 32 59 69 85. . 86 102 101 107 107 135 162 187  SX5 270 351 411  a.  Annual  17. 7 47.7 36.9 38.1 40-. 7  41.9  43.5 47.4 49.1 49.7 50 46.1 45.5  401 452 481 515 554 589 632 656 670 715 743 802 832 901  362  394 415 462 493 493 527 551 561 609 628 659 671 699  Reports.  TABLE X X X I V Number and P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a \¥ho H e l d S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s Year  'Number ..teachers  1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40  a. b.  401 469 549 672 735 798 837 890 883 933 958 1072 1183 X3 X 2 1251°  No. special fiprt.ifioa.tfts 28 50 70 59 70 127 126 141 144 152 157 192 222 285 229  Annual Reports. N o t t o t a l number p r e s u l t s  . Percent 6.9 10.7 12.8 8.8 9.5 15.9 X§ * X 15.9 16.4 16.3 16.4 17.9 18.9 2X • V X8 « 3  of questionnaire.  90.2 87.2 86.3 89.7 88.9 83.7 83.4 83.9 83.7 85.1 84.5 82.1 80.5 77.6  TABLE XXXV Number and P e r c e n t , o f J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h School Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia ¥ho~Held Spec i a l ~ C e r * t i f i c a t e l ? "  Junior high Year  Number teachers  1925-26 1926-2? 17 1927-28 68 1928-29 15? 1929-30 181 1930-31 209 1931-32 205 234 1932-33 1933-34 213 1934-35 .218 : 215 1935-36 1936-37 270 1937-38 351 1938-39 . 4 1 1  schools  Senior high  Number Percent special certificates  5 17 27 , . 40 " 46 47 46 45 • 48 45 60 86 98 • a.  Number teachers  -'• 401 452 29*4 481 25 . 16*9 515 22 * X 554 22 . 589 632 22.4 19.7 656 670 2X • X 22 • .> ?±5 20*9 743 22 * 2 802 21*6 832 23*8 901  Annual  4t  schools  Number Percent special certificates 28 45 53 32 30 81 79 95 .99 104 112 132 136 .•: . 137  •6-.§ 9.9 11 0 o> 2 5.4 1-3*7 12.5 14.5 14*7 -14*5 • 15.1 16.5 X*S * 3 •" 20*7;  Reports.  T a b l e X X X I I shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e  of  secondary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who h e l d a c a d e m i c certificates.  The s c h o o l y e a r 1925-26 i s t h e f i r s t  shown b e c a u s e i t was d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r first  year  that the  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n t h e p r o v i n c e was o p e n e d .  O n l y t h e t e a c h e r s who a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e shown f o r t h e 1939-40 s c h o o l y e a r .  The p e r c e n t a g e  t h e s e t e a c h e r s w i t h an a c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e w o u l d  of vary  -  80  -  o n l y s l i g h t l y from the percentage o f t e a c h e r s w i t h an a c a d e m i c Before  the opening  o f t h e t o t a l number  certificate. o f the f i r s t  s c h o o l i n the p r o v i n c e the percentage  junior  of secondary  t e a c h e r s w i t h an A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e was This percentage  g r a d u a l l y decreased  1930-31 s c h o o l y e a r next f o u r years decreased  i t reached  72.9  i t i n c r e a s e d to 76.7  90.2  per cent.  per cent.  per cent.  p e r c e n t , and  i n the percentage  Table XXXIII o f j u n i o r and C o l u m b i a who  s t a t e s t h e number and  h e l d Academic c e r t i f i c a t e s .  c e r t i f i c a t e was  45.5  per cent.  in British During  1938-39  T h i s was  77.6.  this  the l o w e s t i t  T h i s was  percentage the  lowest  shown f o r t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s *  The 1937  percentage  I n t h e same y e a r t h e  i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s was  the  increase  of j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w i t h  had b e e n s i n c e 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 .  percentage  70.2  certificates.  s e n i o r high school teachers  the p e r c e n t a g e  then  subjects  T h i s caused the s l i g h t  of academic  the  lowest  d i d not a n s w e r  q u e s t i o n n a i r e were t e a c h e r s of the s p e c i a l and w i t h o u t a d e g r e e ,  the  cent.  the  For  I n 1939-40 i t was  Many o f t h e t e a c h e r s who  school  per  u n t i l during  a g a i n u n t i l i n 1938-39 i t r e a c h e d  i t had b e e n , 67.5  high  courses  o f s t u d y i a s u e d i n 1933,  w i d e n e d t h e s c o p e of s u b j e c t s t h a t i t was  1936  and  possible  to  take.  Many s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s w e r e a d d e d t o  already available. was  also issued.  The  those  high school graduation  Many p u p i l s who  d r o p p e d out  diploma of  school  because they c o u l d not complete t h e i r j u n i o r m a t r i c u l a t now  c o m p l e t e d t h e i r f our y e a r s  some s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s .  o f t r a i n i n g by  Although  t h e r e has  taking  been an  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g an A c a d e m i c certificate  i t i s seen from T a b l e X X X I I I  that there  been a decrease i n the percentage of teachers this  has  holding  certificate. T a b l e X X X I V shows t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e  secondary school teachers special certificates.  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who  of  held  F r o m the t a b l e i t a p p e a r s t h a t  the p e r c e n t a g e i s i n c r e a s i n g . F r o m T a b l e XXXV i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who certificate  v a r i e d from year  held a  to year.  percentage  special  I n 1938-39,  however, i t reached  i t s l a r g e s t percentage (except f o r  the f i r s t  that the j unior h i g h school  two y e a r s  i n the p r o v i n c e ) .  During  t h e same y e a r  i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s was The  apparent reason  i s now  opened  the percentage  t h e l a r g e s t i t has  f o r these i n c r e a s e s i s t h a t  been.  there  a g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s upon t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s .  T h e r e must be a c o r r e s p o n d i n g  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f  teachers  of these  subjects. TABLE XXXVI  Types o f C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d by t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1939-40  Certificates  Permanent I n t e r i m T o t a l P e r c e n t  Academic ( o n l y ) F i r s t (only) Second (only) S p e c i a l & Academic F i r s t o r S e c o n d & Sp. Temporary Total  The  774 120 625 170  106 8  880 127 6 26 203 9  -  1 32 9  -  1095  156  70.3 10.2 .5 2 »X X6#2 .7  1251  100  r e s u l t s f r o m the s i x t h q u e s t i o n of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e are i n d i c a t e d i n Table XXXVI. shows how  t h e c e r t i f i c a t e s o f the 1251  s e c o n d o n l y , s p e c i a l and and  special,  o r 86.7  per  and  I t was  or  1095  c e n t , of the c e r t i f i c a t e s were permanent. e x p e c t e d t h e l a r g e s t number of  880  per cent, held only  certificate.  only,  second  found that  As w o u l d b e o r 70.3  table  according  academic o n l y , f i r s t  academic, f i r s t  temporary.  The  teachers  a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were grouped t o p e r m a n e n t o r i n t e r i m and  the  The  the a c a d e m i c  n e x t l a r g e s t number, 202  per  cent., held a f i r s t  and  a special certificate.  teachers,  or  16.2  or second c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e  - S3  -  TABLE X X X Y I I Number and P e r c e n t o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s Who R e c e i v e d t h e A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e D i r e c t l y T h r o u g h the U n i v e r s i t y o r A f t e r . A t t e n d i n g N o r m a l S c h o o l , 1939-40 ;  Professional  training  No,  University Normal * Total  teachers 467 323 790  8  Percent 59.2 . '-.40 ..8 100  -  a. The t e a c h e r s who went t h r o u g h n o r m a l s c h o o l r e c e i v e d some s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t r a i n i n g see A p p e n d i x A.  XXXVII,  The  r e s u l t s o f q u e s t i o n s e v e n a r e shown i n  The  t a b l e shows t h e number and  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y and  percentage  Table of  received their professional 67 at a normal s c h o o l .  Although  the m a j o r i t y were f o u n d to have taken t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y and had  thus r e c e i v e d  t r a i n i n g f o r s e c o n d a r y w o r k a l a r g e number (40.8 had  67.  not  received this specific  specific per  cent.)  training.  The number o f t e a c h e r s shown, 790,does not a g r e e w i t h t h e t o t a l number o f t e a c h e r s who h e l d a n academic c e r t i f i c a t e . I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e some of t h e t e a c h e r s i n e i t h e r o f t h e two g r o u p s as t h e y d i d n o t a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n .  - 84 TABLE  -  XXXVIII  Number o f Times a S p e c i a l S u b j e c t was T a u g h t * 1939-40.  No. t ime s without special  No* t i m e s with special  Total  Home E c o n o m i c s Commercial Industrial Arts Physical Education Music Art  1 54 20 178 40 56  66 57 63 16 8 19  67 111 83 194 48 75  Total  349  229  578  Table XXXVIII  school teacher i n B r i t i s h  Columbia without a s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e . e x a m i n e d to see w h e t h e r he was  subject.  I f he  taught p h y s i c a l  b o t h s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s once.  By  e d u c a t i o n and  s l i g h t l y fewer  t h a n 578  special music  l i s t e d as t e a c h i n g  " t i m e s " i s meant  o f t e n t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s were t a u g h t . t o be  Each teacher  teaching a  a l o n g w i t h a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s he was  s u b j e c t s were found  99 51.3 75.9 »8 16.7 25»3  shows t h e number o f t i m e s a s u b j e c t  i s b e i n g t a u g h t by a s e c o n d a r y  was  Percent with special  t a u g h t 578  The  times.  how  special There were  t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d as some o f  t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e t e a c h i n g more t h a n one  special subject.  When a number r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t i t was a c t u a l l y t h e number o f t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t .  - 85 A t e a c h e r m i g h t have been counted  u n d e r more t h a n one  subject. I t was f o u n d t h a t 229 t e a c h e r s h e l d certificates. 229  special  These t e a c h e r s t a u g h t t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s  t i m e s o r 39.6 p e r c e n t . o f t h e number o f t i m e s  were t a u g h t .  Home E c o n o m i c s was t a u g h t 99 p e r c e n t , o f  the time by a h o l d e r of a s p e c i a l A r t s ranks second. total  they  certificate.  Industrial  I t was t a u g h t 75.9 p e r c e n t , o f t h e  number o f t i m e s b y a h o l d e r o f a s p e c i a l  certificate.  A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e i t was f o u n d t h a t p h y s i c a l and m u s i c w e r e t a u g h t  education  .8 p e r c e n t , a n d 16.7 p e r c e n t ,  o f t h e t o t a l number o f t i m e s b y t e a c h e r s h a v i n g a s p e c i a l certificate. TABLE X X X I X Number a n d P e r c e n t a g e of V a r i o u s S p e c i a l C e r t i f i c a t e s Held by Secondary S c h o o l T e a c h e r s . 1939-40  Special certificates  i\i umber teachers  Home E c o n o m i c s Commercial Industrial Arts Physical Eduoation Music Art .  66 57 63 . 16.... . 8 19  Total  229  Percent  28.9 - \-2i ^  9  9 ....  27*5 6.9 3 &5 8.3 100 •  - 86  -  T a b l e X X X I X shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a c c o r d i n g to t h e certificate  they h e l d .  Sixty-six  o r 28.9  the t e a c h e r s h e l d s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s M u s i c r a n k s l a s t w i t h e i g h t o r 3.5 number o f  teachers.  of  229  special per cent,  of  i n home e c o n o m i c s .  p e r c e n t . of t h e  total  CHAPTER V  Conclusion.  In  order to obtain m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  s e n t to a l l the secondary  teachers  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  f r o m 1251  of these t e a c h e r s .  in  the p r e v i o u s  arrived  at.  The  chapters  R e t u r n s were r e c e i v e d The  r e s u l t s were s t u d i e d  and c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s were  m a i n c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be  summarized.  briefly  • 1*  I t was were c o n s i d e r e d  Academic  found, t o be  Group.  t h a t i f t h e m a j o r and minorthe teacher's  "own  field",  l a r g e s t number o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g 95 p e r c e n t , or more o f t h e t i m e field  and  school  were  in their  t h e n e x t l a r g e s t number were t e a c h i n g 4  c e n t . o r l e s s o f t h e t i m e i n t h e i r own 2.  A c a d e m i c and  the  own per  field.  S p e c i a l Group.  P r o m an a c a d e m i c s t a n d p o i n t t h e same c o n c l u s i o n was  arrived  a t a s i n the a c a d e m i c g r o u p .  p o i n t o f v i e w i t was  found  t h a t 80.3  Prom a  per cent  of  special the  - 38  -  t e a c h e r s examined were t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l 16 and  85 p e r c e n t  p r e p a r a t i o n t o do  o f the time w i t h o u t so and  the r e m a i n i n g  were t e a c h i n g t h e s p e c i a l  s u b j e c t s between specific  special  19.7  cent,  per  subjects while holding  special  c e r t i f ic a t e s .  3. Approximately i n the s p e c i a l  S p e c i a l Group. 80 p e r c e n t , o f t h e  g r o u p h e l d S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s , 17  c e n t , h e l d A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s and F i r s t Class  per  3 per cent, h e l d  Certificates. 4.  I t was t e a c h e r s who  teachers  F i r s t and  Second C l a s s .  f o u n d t h a t n e a r l y 55 p e r c e n t , o f ' the  were t e a c h i n g i n t h e s e c o n d a r y  schools  w i t h a F i r s t or Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e spent a l l t h e i r t i m e t e a c h i n g a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s and 45 p e r c e n t , s p e n t some o f t h e i r  the  remaining  time t e a c h i n g  special  subjects• 5.  I o w a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  I f t h e m a j o r s u b j e c t was "own  field"  i t was  i n the percentages  t a k e n a s the  f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was  teacher's  a similarity  of s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s  I o w a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who  taught  subjects that  in they  - 89 majored i n .  The p e r c e n t a g e s  w e r e n o t e q u a l b u t t h e same  s u b j e c t s w e r e i n t h e h i g h e r and l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e 6.  A l a b a m a and B r i t i s h  groups.  Columbia.  S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t , of the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n A l a b a m a and 58.7 p e r c e n t , i n B r i t i s h Columbia taught  e i t h e r t h e i r major or minor s u b j e c t  n e a r l y 100 p e r c e n t , o f t h e t i m e . • 7.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , New Y o r k and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a s i m i l a r i t y i n  the percentages  of s e n i o r h i g h sohool  teachers  teaching  i n t h e i r own f i e l d . 8.  Minnesota  and B r i t i s h  Columbia.  A s t u d y was made o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f teachers  o f g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number  o f s c i e n c e s i n w h i c h t h e y had u n i v e r s i t y  training.  It  was i m p o s s i b l e t o g e t c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  However, f r o m t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , i t was i n d i c a t e d  that the d i s t -  r i b u t i o n o f t h e number o f s c i e n c e s t a k e n w o u l d  probably  be t h e same i n b o t h s t u d i e s . 9.  Subjects With Least Specific Training.  I t was shown t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s and p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n w e r e t h e a c a d e m i c and s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s w h i c h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were t e a c h i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g prepared  specifically  t o do so ( m a j o r o r s p e c i a l ) .  10.  Degrees - Secondary Schools - U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia  The p e r c e n t a g e s  o f j u n i o r and senior h i g h  school  t e a c h e r s w i t h d e g r e e s , i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  equal.  •  11. Degrees - S e n i o r H i g h Schools Montana. North Dakota, W i s c o n s i n and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h had  Columbia  the l a r g e s t percentage of teachers w i t h degrees. 12.  D e g r e e s - U n d e r g r a d u a t e . G r a d u a t e and D o c t o r U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  -  A s t u d y was made o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e , g r a d u a t e a n d d o c t o r d e g r e e s h e l d by t h e secondary s c h o o l teachers B r i t i s h Columbia. nearly  o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y were  equal. 13*  D e g r e e s - Where  Received  The l a r g e s t number o f d e g r e e s h e l d by t h e B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were r e c e i v e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  14*  Columbia.  D e g r e e s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The r e s u l t s showed t h e r e l a t i v e l y  greater  i m p o r t a n c e of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r undergraduate  15.  than graduate work.  Degrees  from other Canadian  Universities.  E x c l u d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the  Columbia  l a r g e s t number o f d e g r e e s f r o m a C a n a d i a n  university  w e r e f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a . 16.  Degrees  f r o m the U n i t e d S t a t e s  The l a r g e s t number of A m e r i c a n d e g r e e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m the . U n i v e r s i t y of Y/ashington. 17.  Degrees  i n Home E c o n o m i c s  M o s t o f t h e d e g r e e s i n home e c o n o m i c s  were  r e c e i v e d f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. 18.  Academic  Certificates  The p e r c e n t a g e o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s • i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h Academic decreasing. emphasis  certificates  T h i s d e c r e a s e i s p r o b a b l y due  upon t h e s p e c i a l  subjects.  i s steadily  to the g r e a t e r  19. The  Special  percentage  the secondary  Certificates  of S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s h e l d  by  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s  increasing* 20. By h e l d by  Types o f  Certificates  f a r t h e l a r g e s t number o f c e r t i f i c a t e s  the secondary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were a c a d e m i c  certificates.  21.  Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s  - Professional  Training N e a r l y 60 p e r c e n t , of t h e h o l d e r s of A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s received  their professional  training  at  a university. 22.  Special Subjects - With Special Certificates  Home e c o n o m i c s was of the  n e a r l y 100  per  t i m e by h o l d e r s o f S p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s .  o t h e r e x t r e m e i t was taught  taught  found  cent. At  that physical education  .8 p e r c e n t . o f t h e t o t a l number o f t i m e s  teachers having Special c e r t i f i c a t e s .  by  the was  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f P u b l i c _ S c h o o l s _ o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V I c t o r i a, K i n g ' s ^ r l ^ t e r . C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers. Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a ^ K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1940, pp.25. E v e n d e n , E d w a r d S., Gamble, Guy C., and B l u e , H a r o l d G., " T e a c h e r P e r s o n n e l " , U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau, of E d u c a t i o n , No. 10, V o l . I I , 1933, W a s h i n g t o n , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933, pp. 258. F e r r i s s , Emery J I . , "The R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l : Its O r g a n i z a t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m " , U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n . B u l l e t i n No. 10, 1925, W a s h i n g t o n , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1925, pp. 74. F e r r i s s , E • N., S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n C o u n t r y and V i l l a g e , New Y o r k and L o n d o n , D. A p p l e t o n and Company, 1927, pp. x i x - 401. H u t s o n , P.W. , " H i g h S c h o o l S c i e n c e T e a c h e r s : A S t u d y o f T h e i r T r a i n i n g i n R e l a t i o n t o the S u b j e c t s They a r e T e a c h i n g " , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , V o l . I X , No. 7, O c t o b e r 1923, B a l t i m o r e , • W a r w i c k ' a n d Y o r k , 1923, pp. 389-452. Inman, James H e n r y , "The T r a i n i n g o f Iowa H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e S u b j e c t s They T e a c h " , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa S t u d i e s , V o l . I V , No. 9, Iowa C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928, pp. 66. M a c L a u r i n , D o n a l d L., H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n C o l u m b i a , 1936, pp. 359.  in British  M c L e n a g h e n , J e s s i e , H i s t o r y o f Home E c o n o m i c s F r o m t o 1939. (unprinted material)  1926  P a n n e l l , H e n r y C l i f t o n , "The P r e p a r a t i o n and Work o f Alabama High School Teachers", Teachers' C o l l e g e R e c o r d , V o l . XXXV, O c t o b e r 1933-May 1934, pp.237-238.  - 94 Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r t h e H i g h and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and R e q u i r e m e n t s f or" T j a c h e r s * C e r t i f i c a t e s . 1928-29, V i c t o r i a " ; K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , " 1928, pp. 80. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R e q u i r e m e n t s Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e .  for^Jbhe  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia_Calendar, Vaneouver. U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa B u l l e t i n , 1 9 3 7 , Iowa C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y Press. U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d O f f i c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n . 1932-1933, C o l l e g e P a r k , 1 9 3 2 , p p . 320. U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i B u l l e t i n , 1937-1938, C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 8 , p p . "415 - .129* U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t a n a B u l l e t i n , . 1932-1933, M i s s o u l a , 1933, pp. 103. " U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h B u l l e t i n . 1926-1927, P i t t s b u r g h , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 6 , p p . 544. U n i v e r s i t y o f R o c h e s t e r B u l l e t i n , 1939-40, New U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 , pp. 212.  York,  APPENDIX A  Requirements f o r Tile A c a d e m i c  Teacher's  Certificate  C a n d i d a t e s q u a l i f y i n g f o r t h e "Academic C e r t i f i c a t e " (given by the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , on t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o u r s e ) t a k e t h e c o u r s e a s p r e s c r i b e d i n the U n i v e r s i t y Calendar. This course- i s open o n l y t o g r a d u a t e s who have t h e standing required. ( T e a c h e r s , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g , may be g r a n t e d e x e m p t i o n , by t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , f r o m a t t e n d a n c e upon the f a l l t e r m of t h e T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o u r s e . ) T e a c h e r s who a r e g r a d u a t e s o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and who have had Normal S c h o o l t r a i n i n g o f t h i s P r o v i n c e may q u a l i f y f o r t h e "Academic C e r t i f i c a t e " w i t h o u t t a k i n g t h e Teacher T r a i n i n g Course. There a r e t h r e e groups of s u c h c a n d i d a t e s ; "A"  Group:  P e r s o n s who have t h e i r P e r m a n e n t Second or F i r s t C l a s s Teacher*s C e r t i f i c a t e a n d t h e i r B.A. D i p l o m a s and who h a v e had a t l e a s t f i v e years' successful teaching experience i n the elementary s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia;  "B"  Group:  P e r s o n s who h a v e t h e i r B.A. and N o r m a l S c h o o l D i p l o m a s a n d whose U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s e n t i t l e them to a d m i s s i o n t o the Teacher T r a i n i n g C o u r s e c o n d u c t e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; •  -  "C"  Group:  96  -  P e r s o n s who have t h e i r B.A. and N o r m a l S c h o o l D i p l o m a s and whose U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s do n o t e n t i t l e them t o a d m i s s i o n t o t h e T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o u r s e c o n d u c t e d by The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 0O0  "A"  Group A p e r s o n i n "A" Group who has c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be g r a n t e d t h e A c a d e m i c Certificate: ( a ) C o m p l e t e d 4£ u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 60 u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e B.A. diploma; (b) C o m p l e t e d u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Head of t h e D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e a d i n g c o u r s e i n t h e M e t h o d o l o g y o f two s u b j e c t s of t h e H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . "B"  Group The I n t e r i m A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e w i l l be g r a n t e d t o a p e r s o n i n "B" Group who, i n a d d i t i o h t o m e e t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s (a) and (b) as s e t f o r t h f o r t h o s e i n "A" G r o u p , c o m p l e t e s u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Head o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 15 h o u r s * o b s e r v a t i o n and 15 h o u r s ' p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n H i g h S c h o o l s . "C  u  Group The A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e ( i n t e r i m o r P e r m a n e n t ) w i l l be g r a n t e d t o a p e r s o n i n "C" Group who has c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : (a) S e c u r e d a Permanent F i r s t C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e or r a i s e d h i s o r h e r U n i v e r s i t y s t a n d i n g to the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r a d m i s s i o n to t h e T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o u r s e c o n d u c t e d by The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; (b) C o m p l e t e d 4-g- u n i t s i n E d u c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to t h e 60 u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e B.A. Diploma;  -  97  ( c ) C o m p l e t e d , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Head o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f The U n i v e a i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a d i n g course i n t h e M e t h o d o l o g y o f two s u b j e c t s o f t h e High School Curriculum; (d) C o m p l e t e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Head o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 15 h o u r s ' o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n h i g h schools. (Five years' successful teaching e x p e r i e n c e i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t o be accepted i n l i e u of t h i s requirement.)  APPENDIX B  All  the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s appendix i s contained  i n a n a r t i c l e p r i n t e d i n 1940 b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Education  - C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers. Home E c o n o m i c s  Certification  E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Home E c o n o m i c s " (Interim)"  Certificate  Qualifications. (a) D i p l o m a i n Home E c o n o m i c s f r o m a r e c o g n i z e d t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n Canada, t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . (b) F i r s t - c l a s s T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Colpmbia. J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Home Economics C e r t i f i c a t e (Interim) Qualifications. ( a ) A D e g r e e i n Home E c o n o m i c s f r o m a r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada, t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (b) A D i p l o m a i n E d u c a t i o n f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, or i t s equivalent. Home E c o n o m i c s C e r t i f i c a t e  (Permanent)  To be e l i g i b l e f o r permenent c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n Home E c o n o m i c s , t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n t e r i m Home E c o n o m i c s C e r t i f i c a t e s a r e r e q u i r e d : (a) To c o m p l e t e two y e a r s ' t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) To b e recommended f o r permanent s t a n d i n g b y t h e D i r e c t o r o f Home E c o n o m i c s . ( c ) To a t t e n d one s e s s i o n o f t h e Summer S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n ( i f t h e D i p l o m a o f E d u c a t i o n has been obtained o u t s i d e the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia) and c o m p l e t e c o u r s e s (one o f w h i c h i s c o m p u l s o r y ) t o t a l l i n g 5 u n i t s of c r e d i t .  Art  Specialist  Certification  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e q u a l i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s as S p e c i a l i s t s in Art:ElementarySchool Art Certificate. Junior High School A r t C e r t i f i c a t e . Senior High School A r t C e r t i f i c a t e . P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r the Elementary Certificate  are a F i r s t c l a s s  (or higher)  School A r t Teacher's  C e r t i f i c a t e , f o r the J u n i o r High School A r t a F i r s t c l a s s or Academic Teacher's Elementary  Certificate,  C e r t i f i c a t e and  S c h o o l - A r t C e r t i f i c a t e , and f o r the S e n i o r  High School A r t C e r t i f i c a t e , f u l l  university  entrance,  g r a d u a t i o n f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t and a of  an  the P r o v i n c i a l  Normal S c h o o l .  r e q u i r e d courses are also l i s t e d .  I n each case  diploma  certain  These c o u r s e s  are  g i v e n a t t h e summer s c h o o l . S t u d e n t s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n A r t and h a v e a n a t u r a l a p t i t u d e f o r t h i s s u b j e c t may e n r o l f o r these courses w i t h o u t i n t e n d i n g to proceed to A r t S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Only grades of A and B w i l l "be a c c e p t e d a s c r e d i t f o r A r t c e r t i f i c a t i o n , h u t g r a d e s o f C and D w i l l he accepted as c r e d i t f o r other purposes. Commercial Teacher  Certification  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e who q u a l i f y t h e f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s A s s i s t a n t Commercial Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m ) . - T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e q u a l i f i e s the h o l d e r t o t e a c h commercial s u b j e c t s i n any s c h o o l .  -  100  Commeroial Teacher  -  C e r t i f i c a t i o n (contin.)  Commercial S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e (Permanent).T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e q u a l i f i e s the h o l d e r t o he t h e head o f a c o m m e r c i a l d e p a r t m e n t i n any s c h o o l . The p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e A s s i s t a n t Teacher's  Certificate  Certificate  Commercial  i s the F i r s t c l a s s or Academic  and f o r t h e C o m m e r c i a l S p e c i a l i s t  the p r e r e q u i s i t e s are an A s s i s t a n t Commercial Certificate  and a n A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e  Certificate Teacher's  or F i r s t  class  C e r t i f i c a t e , w i t h a minimum o f two y e a r s i n A r t s . r e q u i r e d courses are also l i s t e d .  The  These c o u r s e s a r e g i v e n  a t t h e summer s c h o o l .  Music  Certification  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e q u a l i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s as S p e c i a l i s t s i n Music E d u c a t i o n . Elementary School Music C e r t i f i c a t e . H i g h School Music C e r t i f i c a t e . Elementary  School Music  Certificate  Requisites. (a (b  (o U (e  A F i r s t - c l a s s ( o r h i g h e r ) Teacher's Certificate. M u s i c C o u r s e s t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s as h e r e w i t h p r e s c r i b e d , or e q u i v a l e n t courses from recognized s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , or c o n s e r v a t o r i e s . S u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e of t h e p i a n o f o r accompanying songs l i s t e d f or Grades I to V I . S u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the v o i c e f o r demonstration purposes. The p a s s i n g o f a M u s i c a l A p t i t u d e t e s t .  -  1G1  -  Music C e r t i f i c a t i o n ( c o n t i n . ) H i g h Scho_ol M u s i c  Certificate  Requisites. (a) A n Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) M u s i c C o u r s e s t o t o t a l 15 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d herewith, o r e q u i v a l e n t courses from recognized s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , or c o n s e r v a t o r i e s . ( c ) S u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e o f p i a n o f o r accomp a n y i n g songs l i s t e d f o r G r a d e s V I I . - X I I . (d) S u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e o f v o i c e f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n purposes. ( e ) The p a s s i n g o f a M u s i c a l A p t i t u d e t e s t . NOTE.- H o l d e r s o f a F i r s t - c l a s s T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e who c o m p l e t e t h e t r a i n i n g p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h a r e e l i g i b l e t o t e a c h music i n a j u n i o r h i g h school. OR (a) B a c h e l o r ' s Degree i n Music from a r e c o g n i z e d university or conservatory. (b) One y e a r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a Normal S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia o r a Diploma i n E d u c a t i o n from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( c ) M u s i c C o u r s e s t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s a s may be p r e s c r i b e d upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e applicant's record. The  r e q u i r e d and e l e c t i v e  courses, given at  t h e summer s c h o o l , a r e a l s o l i s t e d . T e a c h e r s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n m u s i c may e n r o l f o r any o f t h e s e c o u r s e s w i t h o u t i n t e n d i n g t o proceed t o Music S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n . Only • g r a d e s A and B w i l l be a c c e p t e d a s c r e d i t f o r S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n , b u t g r a d e s o f C and D w i l l b e a c c e p t e d as c r e d i t f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .  -• 102  -  School Physical Education C e r t i f i c a t i o n The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e q u a l i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s as S p e c i a l i s t s i n Physical Education:Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education C e r t i f i c a t e . High School P h y s i c a l Education C e r t i f i c a t e . Physical Education Specialist's C e r t i f i c a t e . Elementary  School  Certificate  Requisites. (a) A F i r s t - c l a s s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e s t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s a s p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . ( c ) F i r s t A i d ( S t . J o h n Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (d) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g ( B r o n z e Medallion). High School  Certificate  Requisites. (a) An Academic Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e s t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . (c) F i r s t A i d ( S t . John Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (d) Swimming a n d L i f e - s a v i n g ( S i l v e r M e d a l l i o n ) • 1  NOTE.- H o l d e r s o f F i r s t - c l a s s T e a c h e r s Certificate _who c o m p l e t e t h e t r a i n i n g p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h a r e e l i g i b l e to teach P h y s i c a l Education i n j u n i o r h i g h school. Physical Education Specialist's  Certificate  Requisites. (a) An Academic Teacher*s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r . B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e s t o t o t a l 15 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h . (c) F i r s t A i d ( S t . John Ambulance C e r t i f i c a t e ) . (d) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g ( S i l v e r M e d a l l i o n ) .  - 103  =  Physical Education Specialist's  Certificate  (contin.)  Requisites. -  OR  ( a ) G r a d u a t i o n f r o m a r e c o g n i z e d S c h o o l of Physical Education. (b) One y e a r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t a N o r m a l S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a or a D i p l o m a i n E d u c a t i o n f r o m the U n i v e r - s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. ( c ) P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and o t h e r c o u r s e s t o t o t a l 10 u n i t s as p r e s c r i b e d upon examination of a p p l i c a n t ' s r e c o r d . (d) F i r s t A i d ( S t . J o h n A m b u l a n c e C e r t i f i c a t e ) . ( e ) Swimming and L i f e - s a v i n g ( S i l v e r M e d a l l i o n ) . The listed.  r e q u i r e d and  elective  courses are  also  These c o u r s e s a r e g i v e n a t t h e summer s c h o o l . O n l y g r a d e s A and B a r e a c c e p t e d a s  for Specialist  credit  certification.  Primary .Specialist  Certificate -  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e q u a l i f i e d a Primary Education S p e c i a l i s t C e r t i f i c a t e . » ^ »  This c e r t i f i c a t e i s v a l i d f o r s i x years from d a t e o f i s s u e a n d may be renewed by the p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n of f i v e u n i t s i n primary education (or i t s equivalent i n c r e d i t s , p o i n t s or semester hours) taken d u r i n g the s i x - y e a r a t a r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l institution. Requisites. (a) A F i r s t - c l a s s o r A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. (b) F i v e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e a s a t e a c h e r i n a t l e a s t two, and p r e f e r a b l y t h r e e , of the f i r s t t h r e e g r a d e s .  - 104 Primary  Specialist  Certificate  Requisites-(contiru ) (c) A f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t from a s u p e r v i s o r y o f f i c e r on t h e c a n d i d a t e ' s a b i l i t y as a t e a c h e r i n t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s . Candidates f o r the c e r t i f i c a t e should request the preparation of the report on a p r e s c r i b e d f o r m a t l e a s t one y e a r before they expect t o r e c e i v e the certificate. (d) A t o t a l o f 15 u n i t s o f c r e d i t a s prescribed herewith. The r e q u i r e d a n d . e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s l i s ted.  These c o u r s e s  are also  may b e t a k e n a t t h e summer s c h o o l *  O n l y g r a d e s A and B a r e a c c e p t e d  as c r e d i t  for special certification. Library. Service  Certification  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g S p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n in Library ServicesSchool L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e . Teacher-Librarian Certificate. These c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e v a l i d f o r s i x y e a r s f r o m t h e d a t e o f i s s u e a n d may b e renewed b y p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f a minimum o f t h r e e u n i t s o f c r e d i t i n some p h a s e o f L i b r a r y S e r v i c e ( o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e d i t s , p o i n t s , or semester hours) taken d u r i n g the s i x - y e a r p e r i o d at a recognized educational i n s t i t u t i o n . A a p p r o v e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e c r e d i t s . School L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e The S c h o o l L i b r a r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e i s g r a n t e d b y the Department of E d u c a t i o n t o h o l d e r s of Academic C e r t i f i c a t e s who h o l d a L i b r a r y S e r v i c e D e g r e e f r o m an approved L i b r a r y S c h o o l .  Teacher-Librarian  Certificate  Requisites. (a) A F i r s t - c l a s s T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s and a n A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e f o r J u n i o r and S e n i o r High Schools. (b) Ten  u n i t s of c r e d i t  courses The c o u r s e s may  i n Library Service  as p r e s c r i b e d h e r e w i t h .  r e q u i r e d courses are a l s o l i s t e d . be  taken a t the P r o v i n c i a l  These  Summer S c h o o l  of  Education, O n l y g r a d e s o f A and B a r e a c c e p t e d toward  for  credit  the T e a c h e r - L i b r a r i a n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n  The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t o t h o s e q u a l i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t e a c h e r - c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s :J u n i o r H i g h School I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e . - This c e r t i f i c a t e e n t i t l e s the h o l d e r t o teach I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i n an e l e m e n t a r y o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . S e n i o r H i g h School I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher's C e r t i f i c a t e . - This e n t i t l e s the h o l d e r to teach I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i n a senior high school. T e c h n i c a l C e r t i f i c a t e . - This e n t i t l e s the h o l d e r t o t e a c h i n a t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l school. Persons i n the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s are e l i g i b l e t o commence t r a i n i n g : (a) T e a c h e r s h o l d i n g F i r s t - c l a s s o r A c a d e m i c Certificates. (b) G r a d u a t e s o f s e n i o r o r t e c h n i c a l h i g h schools. (c) Craftsmen w i t h e d u c a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t to the s t a n d a r d s e t f o r H i g h S c h o o l Graduation.  - 106 I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Teacher  Certification  (Contin.)  A l l p e r s o n s i n above c l a s s e s s h a l l have comp l e t e d t h e J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Courses i n M e t a l w o r k , E l e c t r i c i t y , Woodwork, and D r a w i n g . The  courses necessary  t o o b t a i n t h e J u n i o r and  Senior High School C e r t i f i c a t e s are also The  listed.  f o l l o w i n g are the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r the  Technical certificate  ( i n t e r i m and permanent)  (a) The c a n d i d a t e - m u s t be a b o n a - f i d e c r a f t s man who h a s h a d not l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s * e x p e r i e n c e a n d t r a d e t r a i n i n g of 100 p e r cent. standard a n a l y s i s . (b) H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t i o n D i p l o m a  or i t s  equivalent. The  courses necessary f o r t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e a r e  also l i s ted.  The I n d u s t r i a l A r t s c o u r s e s a r e a v a i l a b l e  d u r i n g t h e summer a t t h e V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l The D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n i s s u e s t h e f o l l o w i n g certificates *  These a r e t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s . Technical School  Certificates  (a) T e c h n i c a l Senior High School (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  Certificates  Academic Senior High School A r t A s s i s t a n t Commercial Commercial S p e c i a l i s t Senior High School I n d u s t r i a l Arts Teacher L i b r a r i a n School L i b r a r i a n  -  107  -  Senior High School C e r t i f i c a t e s  (contin.)  (h) H i g h S c h o o l M u s i c ( i ) High School Physical Education (j) Physical Education Specialist Junior High School a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)  Certificates  Academic Junior High School A r t A s s i s t a n t Commercial Commercial S p e c i a l i s t Junior High School I n d u s t r i a l Arts Teacher L i b r a r i a n School L i b r a r i a n High School Music High School P h y s i c a l Education Physical Education Specialist Elementary  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i.)  School  Certificates  F i r s t Class Elementary School A r t Junior High School Industrial Arts Teacher L i b r a r i a n School L i b r a r i a n Elementary School Music Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education Physical Education Specialist Primary S p e c i a l i s t .  -  108  -  APPENDIX C The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Iducafcion Teacher's name '.. Name o f School I^ !  I;  Degree, and University of which a graduate ( i f any)  Major and minor^ subjects taken at University. (After each subject place the number of courses or u n i t s taken. A major i s at least three courses i n t h i r d or fourth year -work. This i s equivalent to nine units at U.B.C, A minor i s two courses i n t h i r d or fourth year work and i s equivalent t o s i x units at U.B.C, A u n i t i s ah hour lecture or approximately three hours laboratory per week f o r one u n i v e r s i t y year.) , '- "  Majors  Minors " '  J)/- Subjects at present teaching, '(After each subject place the atmiber of the course . '"'{• {as i n Programme of Studies) and the number of periods each i s taught per week.) Example: GenV Sc. I I - 2. Gen. Sc. I l l - 5«  6) C e r t i f i c a t e at present held. Permanent or interim,  Academic, f i r s t , second, s p e c i a l or temporary.  I f academic, indicate how obtained (X) a f t e r e i t h e r (a) Q£. (b). (a)  D i r e c t l y through U n i v e r s i t y , ( a f t e r r e c e i v i n g degree,followed by the Teacher Training Course or one f u l l . y e a r of professional wofk at the U n i v e r s i t y level.;) .  (b)  Normal School then Academic v •. (attended Normal School (before or a f t e r receiving degree) - then f u l f i l l e d academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . )  (8) (?)  I f no degree, i n d i c a t e (X) i f studying towards degree  ...............  I f f i r s t or second class c e r t i f i c a t e , indicate (X) i f studying towards academic certificate . ' If'.tfe'a^&i'iig,ISnJcy&'B'T^ioJ'*''^''u^ior'&^^'SSSSITor i n a n j e r e n c schools ox same level,, f i l l i n questionnaire only once-  

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