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Value orientations in Ceylon: a comparative study and critique Stuart, Crampton Michael 1965

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VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN CEYLON: A COMPARATIVE STUDY AND CRITIQUE by Crampton Michael Stuart B.A., University of British Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s representatives„ I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date September 21, 1965 ABSTRACT This thesis comprises the analysis of data gathered in Ceylon by a value-analysis questionnaire, the Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule, and a critique of the method. The data were gathered from a total of 403 respondents in Ceylon during the Summer of 1963 by Dr. Michael M. Ames of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of British Columbia. The particular focus of the study was upon a sample of 75 parent-child pairs who completed the Ceylonese questionnaires together with a critique of the particular questionnaire method, including its use in two studies which preceded the Ames research. In 1961, F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck published the original study in which the Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule was developed and tested in five cultures in the American Southwest. In 1962, W. Caudill and H.A. Scarr published a partial replication of the Kluckhohn and Sttodtbeck study utilizing the questionnaire in Japan. The Ames use of the same value schedule followed in Ceylon in 1963. The Caudill and Scarr and Ames research suffer from some limitations not found in the original study, including statistically incidental sampling, but in general, since the same value schedule was used in all three studies, the same underlying assumptions guided each. Our approach to the analysis of the Ames data and the construction of the critique begins with a brief introduction to the study of values in Chapter I, followed in Chapter II by a description of the Caudill and Scarr ii Japanese research and the statement of the hypotheses derived from this research to be tested with the Ceylonese data. In Chapter III the analysis of the data is outlined and an attempt is made to assess the influence of selected background variables upon value-orientation (value-configuration) choice. The material relevant,for the test of the hypotheses is presented in Chapter IV. The methodological critique is presented in Chapter V. Our initial finding, that none of a comparatively large number of background characteristics of the respondents seemed to exert as much differential effect upon value-orientation choice as did differences between questionnaire items within the same value-orientation area, led us to question the validity of the value.schedule. As far as the test of the hypotheses formulated from the Caudill and Scarr Japanese findings is concerned, we found that hypotheses describing empirical facts, otherwise unexplained, were more successful in prediction than those more general in scope and hence including a greater number of implicit variables. An attempt was made in the methodological critique.to assess this difficulty in terms of the philosophical assumptions underlying this particular approach to value analysis. We found that there seem to be dominant and major variant value-orientations (most and second most chosen value configurations according to the items on the Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule supposed to represent these configurations) but that division of the sample according to categories of such variables as age, sex, and place of residence seems to exert little effect upon value-orientation choice. An attempt, following Caudill and Scarr, to use questionnaire items to tap selected "behaviour spheres" defined on a "common-sense" basis must be considered to be largely a failure, due to the diffuseness of the definition of the spheres, iii the fewness of items thought by C a u d i l l and Scarr to represent them, and the small number of cases i n the sample. We conclude with a suggestion for an assessment of the si g n i f i c a n c e of the data so f a r c o l l e c t e d by these value studies u t i l i z i n g a f i r s t approximate, graphic, comparative method. i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This analysis was financed by a joint grant from the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council for research on Asia awarded to Michael M. Ames in 1963, and grateful acknowledgement is made to these organizations. The author is particularly indebted to Dr. Ames, of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of British Columbia, also the principal thesis advisor, whose patience with shortcomings and stimulating criticism at all times was a major factor in successful completion of the work. Special thanks also go to Drs. R.A.H. Robson and T. Nosanchuk of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of British Columbia for invaluable advice in the analysis of the data and to Dr. Hugh Dempster of the U.B.C. Computing Center for his patient and also invaluable advice and assistance in programming the data. Needless to say, the author is solely responsible for errors and inadequacies in the completed work . CONTENTS: AN OVERVIEW CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION . 1 II THE CEYLONESE RESEARCH 5 I. GENERAL ORIENTATION 5 II. BACKGROUND 6 III. HYPOTHESES AND RATIONALE, 14 IV. RESEARCH DESIGN 16 III THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 25 I. INTRODUCTION 25 II. GENERAL 26 III. THE KVOS ITEMS 27 IV. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS 30 V. THE LANGUAGE OF THE KVOS 37 VI. THE VALUE-ORIENTATION PROFILES OF THE PARENT-CHILD SAMPLE AND THE REMAINING SAMPLE 39 VII. THE PARENT-CHILD SAMPLE DIVIDED BY GENERATION, SEX, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE 71 IV THE VERIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHESES 91 I. INTRODUCTION . . 91 II. THE TEST OF THE HYPOTHESES . • 91 ,V THE METHODOLOGICAL CRITIQUE 124 I. GENERAL 124 II. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS . . . . . 125 CHAPTER PAGE III. THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE KVOS 130 IV. THE VALIDITY OF THE KVOS 135 V. THE USE OF THE CAUDILL AND SCARR JAPANESE ANALYSIS AS A MODEL FOR THE CEYLONESE RESEARCH 137 VI. SUMMARY STATEMENT . . 144 vii CONTENTS •v,-:v PAGE LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . xvi LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi CHAPTER Ii. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER II: THE CEYLONESE RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 I. GENERAL ORIENTATION . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A. PURPOSE . . . . . o o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B. METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF CAUDILL AND SCARR 7 1. The Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule (KVOS) . . . 7 2. The Conceptual Orientation of Caudill and Scarr . . . 9 a) Definition of a "value-orientation area" 9 b) Definition of a "value-orientation position1 . . . 9 c) Definition of a "value orientation" . 9 d) Possible value-orientation rankings 10 e) The "distance" between value orientations . . . . 10 f) Relationships between value orientations 11 g) "Dominant" and "major variant" value orientations.^; 11 h) "Behaviour spheres" 11 3. The Caudill and Scarr Hypotheses 12 a) Prediction of Japanese value orientations . . . . 12 b) Prediction of differential value-orientation preferences in the four behaviour spheres . . . 12 viii PAGE c) Prediction of cultural change in the four behaviour spheres by generation 1 2 4 . The Japanese Sample 1 3 5 . Summary of Results 1 3 a) Predictions of dominant and ma.jor variant value orientations . . . . . . 13 b) Generalization of the results to the Japanese culture 1 4 III. HYPOTHESES AND RATIONALE 1 4 A. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE ORIENTATIONS 1 4 1 . First Hypothesis 1 4 2 . Second Hypothesis 1 4 3 . Rationale 1 4 B. THE PATTERNING OF VALUE ORIENTATIONS BY GENERATION, SEX, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE 1 5 1 . Third Hypothesis 1 5 2 . Fourth Hypothesis 1 5 3 . Rationale '. 1 5 C. THE DIRECTIONS OF CHANGE OF CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES 1 5 1 . Fifth Hypothesis 1 5 2 . Sixth Hypothesis 1 5 3 . Rationale 1 5 4 . Seventh Hypothesis 1 6 5 6ix PAGE D. CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1. Eighth Hypothesis 16 2. Rationale . 16 IV. RESEARCH DESIGN 16 A. THE KVOS 16 B. THE CEYLONESE SAMPLE 17 C. THE METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION . . 19 1. The Questionnaire 19 2. The Total Sample . 20 3. The Parent-Child Sample . 21 4• Administration of the Questionnaire 23 CHAPTER III: THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 25 I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 25 II. GENERAL 26 III. THE KVOS ITEMS 27 IV. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS 30 A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS 30 B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS . 31 C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 32 D. THE DETAIL OF THE ANALYSIS . 33 1. The Chi-squares . . . . . . . . 33 2. The Compilation of Value-Orientation Choice Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 x PAGE 3 • The Rank Ordering of Dominant and Major Variant .. Value Orientations 3 4 4 . Comparison of Value-Orientation Area Items with Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Categories as Determinants of Value-Orientation Choice 3 5 5 . The Relevance and Signi f i c a n c e of the Results . . . . 3 5 V. THE LANGUAGE OF THE KVOS 3 7 A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS 3 7 B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS 3 7 C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 3 8 D. THE RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF-THE RESULTS 3 9 VI. THE VALUE-ORIENTATION PROFILES OF THE PARENT-CHILD SAMPLE AND THE REMAINING SAMPLE 3 9 A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS 3 9 B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS 4 0 C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS ' . . 53 D. THE DETAIL OF THE ANALYSIS 54 E. THE RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS 7 1 VII. THE PARENT-CHILD SAMPLE DIVIDED BY GENERATION, SEX, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE . ...... . .. . . . . 7 1 A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS 7 1 B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS 72 C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS 7 2 D. THE DETAIL OF THE ANALYSIS 88 E. THE RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS 9 0 xi PAGE CHAPTER IV: THE VERIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHESES 91 I. INTRODUCTION 91 I I . THE TEST OF THE HYPOTHESES 91 A. HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE ORIENTATIONS 91 1. F i r s t Hypothesis . . . . . 91 2. Second Hypothesis 92 3. Rationale { 92 4. Analysis 92 5. Conclusions 93 B. HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE PATTERNING OF THE VALUE ORIENTATIONS BY GENERATION, SEX, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE 94 1. Th i r d Hypothesis 94 2. Fourth Hypothesis 94 3. Rationale 94 4. General Comment . 94 5. Analysis 95 6. Conclusions 96 C. HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE DIRECTIONS OF CHANGE OF CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES 96 1. F i f t h Hypothesis 96 2. Sixt h Hypothesis . 96 3 • Rationale 97 x i i PAGE 4. Seventh Hypothesis 97 5. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . 97 6. General Comment ......... 97 7. Analyses; Intergenerational Comparisons in the Four Behaviour Spheres 99 a) The graphic analysis 99 (1) The Family Life Behaviour Sphere 99 (2) The Political Life Behaviour Sphere . . . . . . 104 (3) The Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere . . . . 104 (4) The Religious Life Behaviour Sphere 105 (5) Conclusions 105 b) Comparison of the Ceylonese and Japanese cultures . 106 (1) Combined Analysis: All Four Behaviour Spheres . 106 (2) Conclusions Ill c) The Japanese and Ceylonese cultures: value-orientation variation by generation 112 (1) The Family Life Behaviour Sphere 112 (2) The Political Life Behaviour Sphere .115 (3) The Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere . . . . 118 (4) The Religious Life Behaviour Sphere 120 (5) Conclusions fr. 120 D. HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE UNIQUENESS OF CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS 121 1. Eighth Hypothesis 121 xiii PAGE 2 . Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1 3 . Analysis 1 2 1 4 . Conclusions 1 2 3 CHAPTER V: THE METHODOLOGICAL CRITIQUE ' . 1 2 4 I. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 I I . SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS 1 2 5 A. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS UPON VALUE-ORIENTATION CHOICE 1 2 5 B. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE UPON VALUE-ORIENTATION CHOICE, COMPARING SINHALESE AND ENGLISH VERSIONS OF THE KVOS. 1 2 5 C. DIFFERENCES IN VALUE-ORIENTATION PROFILES BETWEEN VARIOUS BREAKDOWNS OF THE CEYLONESE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA 1 2 6 D. DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE ORIENTATIONS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM . 1 2 7 E. CHANGE IN CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES . . . . . . . . 1 2 7 F. COMPARISON OF INTERGENERATIONAL CHANGES IN THE JAPANESE AND CEYLONESE CULTURES IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES . . . . . . . . . . 128 G. THE UNIQUENESS OF THE DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE-ORIENTATION PATTERNS OF THE CEYLONESE . . . . . . 128 H. SUMMARY 1 2 9 I I I . THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE KVOS 1 3 0 IV. THE VALIDITY OF THE KVOS 1 3 5 V. THE USE OF THE CAUDILL AND SCARR JAPANESE ANALYSIS AS A MODEL FOR THE CEYLONESE RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 7 PAGE A. THE BEHAVIOUR SPHERE ANALYSIS . 139 B. THE INTERGENERATIONAL ANALYSIS . 141 VI.. SUMMARY, STATEMENT 144 APPENDIX I . 148 APPENDIX II 151 APPENDIX III . . . . 181 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 184 xv LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Japanese Sample . . . . . 1 3 2 . Numerical D i s t r i b u t i o n of Parent-Child Pairs i n the Ceylonese Sample . . . . . 18 3 . P a i r D i s t r i b u t i o n of Parent-Child Pairs i n the Ceylonese Sample 18 4 . Items from the Rural Form of the KVOS As Used i n the Ceylonese Study 2 7 5. C o r r e l a t i o n Between Sinhalese and E n g l i s h Language Versions of the KV0& 3 8 6 . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations f o r the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form U t i l i z e d i n the Ceylonese Study 4 2 7 . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations f o r the Remaining Sample (The T o t a l Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample) on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form U t i l i z e d i n the Ceylonese Study 4 3 8. Frequency of Choices of Each Value i n Each Choice P o s i t i o n f o r Dominant and Major Variant Value-OrientationsChoices R e l a t i o n a l Area 5 7 9. Frequencyvof ..Choices of;Each.'Value^.in Each>.Ch6iee P o s i t i o n f o r Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Time Area 59 10. Frequency of Choices of Each Value i n Each Choice P o s i t i o n f o r Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Man-Nature Area , • 6 1 1 1 . Description and Interpretations of Value Orientations 6 3 1 2 . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations of Parents fo r the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form U t i l i z e d i n the Ceylonese Study 73 x v i TABLE PAGE 13... Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Children for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study 74 14. i Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Males :'\fbr the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS '. Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study 75 15. -Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Females .forthe Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS ..Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study . . . . . . . . . 76 16. iPercentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Matara Residents for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items ;ofthe KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study. . . . 77 17. Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Colombo Residents for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study . . . 78 18. Percentage Comparison of Ceylonese and Japanese Parent-Child Pairs According to the Distance Between the Value Orientations of Parent and Child on Selected (Behaviour Sphere) Items from the KVOS 107 19. Percentage Comparison of &eylonese and Japanese Parent-Child Pairs, Items Arranged According to Increasing Percentage of "Very Distant" (a two or three-distance apart) Parent-Child Pairs . .' 1Q8 20. Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child Pairs:in the Family Life Behaviour Sphere (R3) . 113 21. Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 73 Parent-Child Pairs in the Political Liffe Behaviour Sphere (R4) 113 22. Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child Pairs in the Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere (#1 of 3-R2). . . . . . . . . . . . 114 xvii TABLE PAGE 23• Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child P a i r s i n the Occupational L i f e Behaviour  Sphere (#2 of 3-R5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 24. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child P a i r s i n the Occupational L i f e Behaviour : . Sphere (#3 of 3-MN3) 115 25. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 67 Parent-Child P a i r s i n the Re l i g i o u s L i f e Behaviour Sphere (#1 of 3-T3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 26. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 55 Parent-Child P a i r s i n the Re l i g i o u s L i f e Behaviour Sphere (#2 of 3-T4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 27. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 60 Parent-Child P a i r s i n the Re l i g i o u s L i f e Behaviour Sphere (#3 of 3-MN5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 28. Comparison of O v e r a l l Value-Orientation P r o f i l e s i n Five American Southwest and the Japanese and Ceylonese Cultures as Measured by the KVOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 29 »••» Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 236 Parent-Child P a i r s on R2, Help i n Case of Misfortune; Japanese Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 30. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 236 Parent-Child P a i r s on R2} Help i n Case of Misfortune; Japanese Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 31. Summary of Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Comparing Value-Orientation Areas with Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (Condensed from Tables 32 to 47, Appendix II.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 x v i i i TABLE PAGE 32. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Occupation versus KVOS Items . . . . . . 159 33. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Occupation versus KVOS Items . . . . . . . . 160 34. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Education versus KVOS Items . . . . . . . . 161 35. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Education versus KVOS Items 162 36. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Locus of Schooling versus KVOS Items 163 37. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Locus of ;.Schooling versus KVOS Items 164 38. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Occupation of Father versus KVOS Items . 165 39. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Occupation of Father versus KVOS Items 167 40. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Education of Father versus KVOS Items 169 41. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Education of Father versus KVOS Items 170 42. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Locus of Schooling of Father versus KVOS Items 171 43- Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Locus Of Schooling of Father versus KVOS Items 172 44. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r R e l i g i o n versus KVOS Items . . . . . 173 45. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r R e l i g i o n versus KVOS Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 46. Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r School versus KVOS Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 x i x TABLE PAGE 47. Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices f o r School versus KVOS Items 176 48. Chi-squares f o r Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s versus Value-Ori e n t a t i o n Items Interpreted f o r Level of Sign i f i c a n c e . . . 178 xx LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 . Diagrammatic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on R e l a t i o n a l Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample. (Adapted from C a u d i l l and Scarr, p. 6 8 . ) . . . 4 4 2. Diagrammatic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Time Items For the Parent-Child Sample. (Adapted from C a u d i l l and Scarr, p. 6 9 . ) . . . . . . 4 5 3. Diagrammatic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample. (Adapted from C a u d i l l and Scarr, p. 7 0 . ) . . . 4 6 4 . Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n .of Value Orientations on R e l a t i o n a l Items For the Parent-C h i l d Sample. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . 4 7 5 . Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Time Items f o r the Parent-Child Sample. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . . . . 4 8 6 . Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . 4 9 7 . Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on R e l a t i o n a l Items f o r the Remaining Sample (the T o t a l Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample). (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) *. 5 0 8 . Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Time Items f o r the Remaining Sample (the T o t a l Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample). (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . . . 5 1 x x i FIGURE PAGE 9. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f or the Remaining Sample (the T o t a l Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample). (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) 52 10. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of ' . Value Orientations on R e l a t i o n a l Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample Divided by Generation. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 11. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Time Items f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation. (Percentages of Persons '•>.•<?•;'• Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 12. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample Divided by Generation. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) 81 13. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on R e l a t i o n a l Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample Divided by Sex. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . . . . . . 82 14. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Time Items f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Sex. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) 83 15. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample Divided by Sex. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $84 x x i i FIGURE PAGE 16. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on R e l a t i o n a l Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample Divided by Place of Residence. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value O r i e n t a t i o n s on the Abscissa.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 17. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Time Items f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Place of Residence. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) 86 18. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f o r the Parent-C h i l d Sample Divided by Place of Residence. (Percentages of Persons Choosing-are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . . . 87 19- Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations i n the Family Behaviour Sphere (R3, T2) f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex and Place of Residence. (Adapted from Figures 10 to 18.) 100 20. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations i n the P o l i t i c a l Behaviour Sphere (R4) f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex, and Place Of Residence. (Adapted from Figures 10 to 1 8 . ) . i . . . 101 21. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations i n the Occupational Behaviour Sphere (R2, R5, MN3) f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex, and Place of Residence (From Figures 10 to 18.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 22. Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations i n the Religious Behaviour Sphere (T3, T4, MN5) f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex, and Place of Residence, (From Figures 10 to 18.) 103 23« Sample Graph Showing Value O r i e n t a t i o n Comparisons f o r Seven Cultures on Item MN1.; (Percentages of.Persons; Choosing, are Shown . on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . . . 146 x x i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The present paper comprises the analysis of questionnaire data from Ceylon together with some criti c a l comments and suggestions upon the method of information gathering utilized, the Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule. The implied scope of the project indicates that immediate delimitation of objectives and the area of inquiry actually investigated is necessary to avoid misinterpretation,, The Ceylonese study was based upon a study of Japanese value orientations (Caudill and Scarr 1962) utilizing the questionnaire developed by F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck (1961) in a study of five cultures in the American Southwest, The purpose of the study was replication, insofar as this was possible, of the Japanese value analysis for both a delineation of Ceylonese value orientations and a cross-cultural comparison of these with the value orientations found in Japan and in the five cultures in the American Southwest. In addition to these objectives, a critique of a l l three studies, with particular emphasis upon an•evaluation of the Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule, was planned. It is recognized that ideally the study of values should begin with an attempt at solving a very old problem in social scientific inquiry, the "value*1 versus M f a c t M controversy, for in any scientific inquiry, a philosophical position is implied, whether or not i t is stated. Can values be studied? Clyde Kluckhohn has suggested the existence of the following possibilities: -z Philosophers t e l l us that there have been four main approaches to the problem of values the Pl a t o n i c view that values" are " e t e r n a l objects",; the p o s i t i o n of subjectivism or of r a d i c a l e t h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y ; the assumption held i n common by c e r t a i n Marxists, l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s , and " l i n g u i s t i c " philosophers that judgments of value are merely "emotional" or "verbal" assertions altogether removed from the categories of t r u t h and f a l s i t y ; the n a t u r a l i s t i c approach which holds that- values are accessible to the same methods of i n q u i r y and canons of v a l i d i t y applied to a l l forms of empirical knowledge. (C. Kluckhohn 1958: 469) This paragraph would require at l e a s t several volumes f o r adequate expansion and unfortunately space and time do not permit. We must note i n passing, however, that there appears a tendency to contrast the " n a t u r a l i s t i c " approach rather u n f a i r l y and e u l o g i s t i c a l l y with everything from Plato's Forms to very p o s i t i v e l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s . Rapoport, f o r example, would not agree with G. Kluckhohn on the naivete of the l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s : I t has always been the curse of philosophy ( u n t i l t h i s curse was l i f t e d by the l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s ) to assume that e n t i t i e s c a l l e d p o l i t i c s , society, power, welfare, tyranny, democracy, m i l i e u , progress, e t c . , a c t u a l l y e x i s t , j u s t as cats, icebergs, coffee pots, and grains of wheat e x i s t , and that each has an essence discoverable by proper a p p l i c a t i o n of reason and observation. I add observation, because I am speaking not only of the P l a t o n i s t s but also of the A r i s t o t e l i a n s , Now I am c e r t a i n l y not t r y i n g to say what i s often said i n vulgarized versions of the l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t p o s i t i o n , namely that "concrete" objects c e r t a i n l y e x i s t while "abstractions" don't. A "cat" i s no l e s s an abs t r a c t i o n than "progress," when you come to think of i t - The problem i s not one of existence but one of consensus. i\lot what i s a cat . but what e a s i l y recognizable objects s h a l l be c a l l e d cats, i s the f i r s t question. Because agreement i s comparatively easy to reach on t h i s question^, we can pass immediately to the study of the cats themselves, t h e i r "nature," i f you wish. But where agreement i s not easy, that i s , where one cannot immediately agree on an e a s i l y recognizable c l a s s of events which s h a l l be subsumed under the term "democracy" or "status" or "power," i t i s f u t i l e to pass to the study of these supposed e n t i t i e s . (Rapoport 1958: 979-980) The debate i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one, but however engaging i t s attempted r e s o l u t i o n might be, i t i s not within the scope of t h i s study. We are forced to touch upon i t again b r i e f l y toward the conclusion of the study i n noting that the c i r c u l a r i t y of the v o l u n t a r i s t i c model that F. Kluckhohn takes to be in opposition to the positivistic one, and in part forms the basis for her theory of variation in value orientations, is a major problem in assessing, and a major factor in questioning, the theory. For the researcher here is a real dilemma, for the longer one dwells in the realm of the philosophy of science the longer i t will take him to get to Ceylon. In this study we have attempted to steer a middle course, utilizing the data from Ceylon, building its analysis upon the Japanese study, and criticizing both analyses and the parent study in which the questionnaire was developed. It goes without saying that at many points along this passage we have seen Scylla and Charybdis both perilously close at hand. Our middle course has consisted of utilizing the F. Kluckhohn questionnaire, adopting, insofar as feasible, the methods of analysis utilized in the Japanese study, and constructing a critique based both upon changes we have made in the methods of analysis and such logical, philosophical and technical considerations as were judged to be necessarily involved. We have, in particular, attempted to utilize methods of analysis in keeping with the level of sophistication of the data. The extensive use of graphic representations of value-orientation profiles for purposes of comparison is the salient example here. One additional point requires clarification. Because of the nature of the Japanese and Ceylonese samples (they were statistically incidental) we have been largely unable to utilize the methods of analysis of the data from the parent study. It should be borne in mind, therefore, that much of the criticism that applies to the Japanese and Ceylonese studies does not apply to the parent study, and in addition, the methods utilized in the parent study have not been subjected to assessment. C r i t i c i s m of the parent study i s l a r g e l y confined to the l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l basis of the questionnaire and i t s subsequent performance upon samples admittedly gathered by i n f e r i o r sampling techniques. In the remainder of the study we present our a n a l y s i s . In Chapter I I we o u t l i n e the methods and procedures of the Japanese study and present our own hypotheses f o l l o w i n g from i t . The general features of the research design and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample f o r the Ceylonese study are also presented. The a n a l y s i s of the data i s presented i n Chapter I I I . Here we consider the relevance of selected background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as i n f l u e n c e r s of value o r i e n t a t i o n choice and other gross dimensions of the a n a l y s i s and leave the a c t u a l t e s t of the hypotheses to Chapter IV. The t e s t of the eight hypotheses that form the basis of the Ceylonese study i s included i n Chapter IV. We restate the hypotheses, presented f i r s t i n Chapter I I , and our fin d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to them. Reference i n t h i s Chapter i s frequently made to the more general f i n d i n g s presented i n Chapter I I I , f o r the a n a l y s i s of Chapter I I I forms the basis f o r the t e s t of our hypotheses. In Chapter V, the Methodological C r i t i q u e , we restate our most relevant f i n d i n g s i n summary form and conclude with an assessment of the questionnaire used and the a n a l y s i s performed i n the Japanese and Ceylonese research. F i n a l l y , i t should be noted that the present author was not involved i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the data, and hence h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with the project postdates the hypothesizing to a large extent, and r e a l l y begins with the a n a l y s i s of the data. CHAPTER II THE CEYLONESE RESEARCH I. GENERAL ORIENTATION In this Chapter we present a brief outline of the two studies upon which the Ceylonese research is based and the hypotheses to be tested with the Ceylonese data. Only such details of the first two studies as are required for an understanding of the Ceylonese research are presented, the remaining necessary details being left to subsequent chapters in which they become relevant. In 1961 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck published an anthropological study on the patterning of variation in value orientations of human groups. The notions that helped generate their hypotheses about value orientations included aspects of the action theory of Talcott Parsons and others and some other influences including theories about the role of biological factors in human social behaviour. They assumed that: (1) There is a limited number of common human problems for which a l l peoples at a l l times must find some solution. (2) While there is variability in solutions of a l l the problems, i t is neither limitless nor random but is definitely variable within a range of possible solutions. (3) A l l alternatives of a l l solutions are present in a l l societies at a l l times but are differentially preferred. (F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck 1961: 10. The italics of the original statements have been removed and numbers have been inserted for clarity. The wording remains the same.) They postulated five tentative problems common to a l l human groups, constructed a questionnaire to test for the patterning of postulated tripartite choice patterns within each value orientation -6-and tested i t in five different communities in the American Southwest (F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck 1961: 1-48). In 1962, Caudill and Scarr published a partial replication of the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck study in which the questionnaire referred to above, the Kluckhohn Value Orientation Schedule (hereinafter referred to as the KVOS) was administered to a statistically incidental sample of 619 respondents in Japan. Included were 253 matched parent-child pairs. During the Summer of 1963, Dr. Michael M. Ames of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of British Columbia administered the KVOS (along with some other instruments he is interested in evaluating) to an incidental sample of 403 respondents in Ceylon. Included were 75 matched parent-child pairs. (Because of space limitations the questionnaire has not been included in this study. Copies of both the English and Sinhalese versions used are available upon request, and several sample items from the English version are included in Chapter III. The English language form may be found in F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck 1961: 80-90.) II. BACKGROUND A. PURPOSE The general purpose of the Ames research was to replicate the Caudill and Scarr study of Japanese value orientations in the Ceylonese culture. The following general questions were asked of the Ceylonese culture, and from these, and also from some of the findings of Caudill and Scarr, specific hypotheses were formulated. The concepts involved -7-i n the statement of these questions w i l l be explained i n the pages that follow. ( 1 ) What are the r e l a t i o n s between dominant and major variant value orientations? ( 2 ) What are the Ceylonese value p r o f i l e s i n selected "behavioural spheres" ( F a m i l i a l , P o l i t i c a l , Occupational and R e l i g i o u s ) ? ( 3 ) What are the d i r e c t i o n s of change i n the Ceylonese values? ( 4 ) How do Ceylonese value o r i e n t a t i o n s compare with those of other groups investigated by the KVOS method (Japanese, Spanish-Americans, Texans, Mormons, Zuni and Navaho)? B. METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF CAUDILL AND SCARR 1 . The Kluckhohn Value O r i e n t a t i o n Schedule (KVOS) In d e s c r i b i n g the KVOS we follow the conceptual o u t l i n e of C a u d i l l and Scarr, since i t i s t h e i r method that i s l a r g e l y followed i n the a n a l y s i s of the Ceylonese data. C a u d i l l and Scarr note that Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck defined f i v e common human problems concerning: ( l ) the nature of man himself (the human nature problem), ( 2 ) h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to nature and supernature (man-nature), ( 3 ) h i s place i n the flow of time (time), ( 4 ) the modality of human a c t i v i t y ( a c t i v i t y ) , and ( 5 ) the r e l a t i o n s h i p man has to h i s f e l l o w man ( r e l a t i o n a l ) ( F . Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck 1 9 6 1 : 3 4 0 - 3 4 4 and C a u d i l l and Scarr 1 9 6 2 : 5 5 ) . Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck tested f o r four of the f i v e areas of o r i e n t a t i o n , omitting the human nature area. C a u d i l l and Scarr tested f o r three areas, omitting both the human nature and a c t i v i t y areas. (The a c t i v i t y area was omitted because i t allows only two rather than three choices within each value o r i e n t a t i o n . ) -8-Caudill and Scarr do not present a detailed analysis of the KVOS but merely accept i t as a working tool, making some changes in i t that they feel are necessary to adapt i t to the Japanese culture (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 6l). For this reason, a consideration of i t s validity will be left to the methodological critique. Briefly, the KVOS consists of twenty-two items, seven relational, five man-nature, five time, and five (one having two parts, therefore, six) activity items. The rationale for the items is as follows: Each item of the schedule first delineates a type of l i f e situation which we believe to be common to most rural, or folk, societies and then poses alternatives of solution for the problem which derive from and give expression to the theoretically postulated alternatives of the value orientation in question. For example, each of the items developed for testing on the relational orientation contains alternatives of solution of a very general problem situation which expresses the Lineal, Collateral, and Individualistic variations. (F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck 1961: 77.) The considerations guiding Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck in the preparation of the KVOS were four, (l) They sought to include items that would delineate single value orientations. (2) They sought cross-culturally applicable items. (3)They sought items that would minimize defensiveness and idiosyncrasy on the part of the respondents. (4) They sought 11. . . the production of a schedule method, general in nature and limited in length, which could be used as the basis of the development of testable hypotheses about other, more specific, types of behaviour patterns." (F. Kluckhohn and F.L. Strodtbeck 1961: 79.) A more comprehensive consideration of these aims together with a critique of the questionnaire and its theoretical basis is presented in Chapter V. -9-2. The Conceptual O r i e n t a t i o n of C a u d i l l and Scarr C a u d i l l and Scarr u t i l i z e eight conceptual p o l a r i z a t i o n s l a r g e l y based upon those of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck but with some elaborations, p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding the concept of distance between value o r i e n t a t i o n s ( C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: 56). a) D e f i n i t i o n of a "value-orientation area" They define a v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area as c o i n c i d i n g with one of the f i v e common human problems postulated by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, S p e c i f i c a l l y they consider three: the r e l a t i o n a l , time, and man-nature areas. b) D e f i n i t i o n of a "valu e - o r i e n t a t i o n p o s i t i o n " The three p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n each of the v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n areas are as follows: R e l a t i o n a l area (R): I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ( I ) , C o l l a t e r a l (C), and L i n e a l (L)T Time area ( T ) : Past (Pa), Present ( P r ) , and Future (Fu). Man-Nature area (MN): Sub.jugation-to-Nature (S), Harmony-with-Nature (W), and Mastery-over-Nature ( 0 ) . c) D e f i n i t i o n of a "value o r i e n t a t i o n " Following Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, C a u d i l l and Scarr define a value o r i e n t a t i o n as a ranking of the three possible p o s i t i o n s i n a val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area, f o r example, I>C>L. (Ties i n p o s i t i o n -10-are omitted from consideration, although these were permitted of respondents completing the schedules.) d) Possible v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n rankings I t follows that s i x complete rankings are possible f o r the three p o s i t i o n s i n each of the val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n areas: R e l a t i o n a l area Time area Man-nature area I>C>L Fu>Pr>Pa 0>W>S I>L>C Fu>Pa>Pr 0>S>W L>I>C Pa>Fu>Pr S>0>W L>G >I Pa>Pr>Fu S>WX) C >L >I Pr >Pa>Fu W>S X) C>I>L Pr>Fu>Pa W>0>S e) The "distance" between value o r i e n t a t i o n s The distance between value o r i e n t a t i o n s can also be considered. The distance between two value o r i e n t a t i o n s i s the smallest number of adjacent p o s i t i o n rank r e v e r s a l s required to turn one value o r i e n t a t i o n i n t o another. For example, I>C>L becoming I>L>C requires that C and L, which are adjacent, reverse ranks. I>C>L and I>L>C are thus a one-distance apart. I>C>L and L>I>C are a two-distance apart, since two rank r e v e r s a l s of adjacent p o s i t i o n s are required to turn one into the other. These are l o g i c a l manipulations of the s i x possible value o r i e n t a t i o n s i n a value-o r i e n t a t i o n area and fo l l o w from t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n . -11-f) Relationships between value orientations Caudill and Scarr define a value orientation that is a one-distance from another as a first-order variant and a value orientation that is a two-distance from another as a second-order variant. Empirically they found that a dominant value orientation (most often chosen by respondents) was usually followed most closely in percentage choosing by a first-order variant, followed next by a second-order variant, and lastly by a third- order variant. g) "Dominant" and "major variant" value orientations The value orientation held by the largest proportion of the sample Caudill and Scarr called the dominant value orientation. The value orientation held by the second largest proportion was called the ma.jor variant value orientation. The latter was in a l l cases a first-order variant of the dominant value orientation. h) The "behaviour spheres" Caudill and Scarr define four behaviour spheres made up of various items from the KVOS. These spheres are: family l i f e (items R3 and T2), political l i f e (item R4), occupational l i f e (items R2, R5 and MN3), and religious l i f e (items T 3 , T4, and MN5). This allowed them, they felt, to add an additional dimension to the Japanese cultural analysis by the use of the KVOS. -12-3. The Caudill and Scarr Hypotheses Although the Caudill and Scarr hypotheses were not stated as we state them here, briefly they were as follows: a) Prediction of Japanese value orientations They predicted that a specific dominant value orientation would be found empirically for each value orientation area delineated by the KVOS. b) Prediction of differential value orientation preferences in  the four behaviour spheres They hypothesized that there would be differential preferences for value orientations in the four behaviour spheres by generation, sex, and place of residence. c) Prediction of cultural change by generation They hypothesized that there would be cultural change, delineated by generational differences in value-orientation preference: Our criterion of success of the parent in instilling his values in his child is the distance between the value orientations of the parent and the child.,.. . Parent-child pairs which are a zero-distance apart represent the &^oatest success by the parent in transmitting his values to his child. Such success decreases progressively as parent-child pairs are a one-distance, a two-distance, and a three-distance apart. The distance between the members of a parent-child pair is taken as a measure of the amount of change which has occurred from the orientation of the parent to that of the child. (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 82.) -13-4. The Japanese Sample Caudill and Scarr obtained a total sample of 619 respondents, of which 253 were accounted for by identifiable parent-child pairs. Included were 109 father and son pairs and 144 mother and daughter pairs. Three statistically incidental samples were taken in three different communities from among senior high school students, the older generation sample comprising the parents of the students (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 63T64> 82). The age and sex breakdown of the sample is shown in Table 1. TABLE 1* Distribution of Japanese Sample Rural Urban (Small city) Metropolitan (Tokyo) totals Males Females Males Females Males Females Old 24 38 42 62 56 55 277 Young 25 44 58 61 85 69 342 Totals 49 82 100 123 141 124 619 * From Caudill and Scarr 1962: Table 2, p. 63. 5. Summary of Results a) Predictions of dominant and ma.jor variant value orientations Caudill and Scarr found that in nine out of twelve items for which they report predictions in the Japanese case the predicted dominant value orientation occurred as a statistically significant proportion of the responses from the' total sample. A first-order variant of the predicted dominant value orientation occurred in the other three cases (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 64-66). -14-b) Generalization of the results to the Japanese culture Caudill and Scarr generalize their results as follows: Three facts about culture change in Japan can be stated as a result of the foregoing analysis. First, in terms of sheer amount, children have moved eway from the value orientations of their parents relatively l i t t l e . Second, this l i t t l e movement is distributed unequally over the four behaviour spheres; most of i t occurs in political l i f e , moderate amounts in family and occupational l i f e , and only a slight amount in religious l i f e . Third, by controlling for parental value orientation, we have been able to show how the generational differences which were found. . . were the consequence of shifting value orientations as parents, with a greater or lesser degree of success, attempted to f u l f i l l their roles as transmitters of culture. (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 89.) III. HYPOTHESES AND RATIONALE The hypotheses tested in the Ceylonese study f a l l into four groups as outlined previously. A. RELATIONS BETWEEN DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE ORIENTATIONS 1. First Hypothesis. As the distance from the dominant value orientation increases, the proportion of choices falling in other value orientations decreases. 2. Second Hypothesis (corollary). The major varient value orientation coincides with one of the logically deduced first-order variants of the dominant value orientation. 3. Rationale. These hypotheses follow from the empirical findings of Caudill and Scarr. B. THE PATTERNING OF THE VALUE ORIENTATIONS BY GENERATION, SEX, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE 1. T h i r d Hypothesis. Value o r i e n t a t i o n s that are dominants and major var i a n t s f o r the t o t a l sample remain dominants and major va r i a n t s f o r the sub-samples divided by generation, sex,and place of residence. 2. Fourth Hypothesis. Differences that do occur w i l l be found to be most marked by generation, next most marked by sex, and l e a s t marked by place of residence. 3. Rationale. These hypotheses also follow from the empirical f i n d i n g s of C a u d i l l and Scarr. C. THE DIRECTIONS OF CHANGE OF CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES 1. F i f t h Hypothesis. In terms of sheer amount, c h i l d r e n have moved away from the value o r i e n t a t i o n s of t h e i r parents r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n the four behaviour spheres. 2. Six t h Hypothesis. What l i t t l e movement i s exhibited i s d i s t r i b u t e d unequally over the four behaviour spheres. The most change occurs i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e , moderate amounts i n family and occupational l i f e , and only s l i g h t change occurs i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e . 3. Rationale. These hypotheses also f o l l o w from the empirical f i n d i n g s of C a u d i l l and Scarr. Here i t i s assumed that parents wish to i n s t i l l i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n values s i m i l a r to t h e i r own. The degree of s i m i l a r i t y -16-between generations vd.ll, therefore, r e f l e c t the degree of c o n t i n u i t y i n values. The distance between members of parent-child p a i r s i s taken as a measure of the amount of change that has occurred i n value o r i e n t a t i o n s . 4. Seventh Hypothesis. The d i r e c t i o n s of change i n value o r i e n t a t i o n s i n the Ceylonese sample w i l l be s i m i l a r to the d i r e c t i o n s of change i n the Japanese sample. 5. Rationale. As i n hypothesis s i x , the areas of change i n a developing nation as between generations w i l l be, from greatest to l e a s t , p o l i t i c a l l i f e , f amily and occupational l i f e , and r e l i g i o u s l i f e . D. CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER GROUPS 1. Eighth Hypothesis. The Ceylonese sample possesses d i s t i n c t dominant and major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n patterns. 2. Rationale. Since the Ceylonese culture d i f f e r s i n many respects from the other c u l t u r e s i n which the KVOS has been administered, i t w i l l e x h i b i t unique dominant and major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n s . IV. RESEARCH DESIGN A. THE KVOS The r u r a l form of the KVOS, as found on pages eighty to ninety of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961), was administered to the Ceylonese sample to t e s t the hypotheses outlined above. A l l twenty-two items were included, thus including the activity items that Caudill and Scarr omitted from their analysis. Since there are only two choice alternatives on these items they cannot be used for the type of analysis presented here; they were, however, cross-tabulated to supply additional information about the Ceylonese culture for possible later use. Two language forms of the KVOS were employed, one i n English and one in Sinhalese translation. These two forms are cross-tabulated to determine their differences i n Chapter III. B. THE CEYLONESE SAMPLE As noted earlier, the KVOS was administered to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y incidental sample of 404 Ceylonese chosen from different walks of l i f e . Included were 75 parent-child pairs. Thirty-two of these pairs were from Matara (a town in southern Ceylon—population 27*641) and forty-three from Colombo, the capital c i t y of Ceylon (population 493*029).^" Cross-tabulations were performed on a large number of potentially significant variables on the data from these populations as a means of control. A complete l i s t i n g of these variables w i l l be found i n Appendix I. From this l i s t i t can be seen that the number of variables potentially affecting value-orientation choice was f e l t to be much greater for the Ceylonese sample than i t was for the Japanese sample I These population figures for Matara and Colombo are based upon the 1953 census figures of 413*431 and 31*981 respectively and an average previous (since 1871) mean rate of increase of 15.7 per cent per decennium for the total Ceylonese population and are hence estimates only. (Ceylon Year Book 1958. 27-28, 33.) -18-of Caudill and Scarr. In addition, the number of cases is smaller for the Ceylonese study, both for the total sample and for the parent-child pairs. It should be noted also that for the Ceylonese data, the parent-child pairs a l l came from relatively urbanized areas, while in the Japanese data a rural area sample was included. A numerical breakdown of the Ceylonese sample follows in Tables 2 and 3. TABLE 2 Numerical Distribution of Parent-Child Pairs in the Ceylonese Sample Males Matara Females Colombo Males Females Totals Parent s 27 5 39 4 75 Children 17 13. 26 17 73* Totals 44 18 65 21 148 # Two female were utilized students twice to whose mothers and fathers both answered the KVOS form a total of 75 parent-child pairs. TABLE 3 Pair Distribution of Parent-Child Pairs in the Ceylonese Sample Mother-Daughter Mother-Son Father-Daughter Father-Son Totals Matara 4 1 11 16 32 Colombo 1 3 16 23 43 Totals 5 4 27 39 75 As indicated in Table 3, there are too few mother-sibling pairs (9) for this breakdown to be a meaningful category. The small cell sizes -19-force us to modify some of the C a u d i l l and Scarr analyses as shown i n Chapter IV. C. THE METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 1. The Questionnaire The KVOS was administered o r a l l y to a c u l t u r a l l y s t r a t i f i e d sample of 106 persons i n f i v e cultures of the Southwestern United States (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 104). I t was administered i n written form (Japanese) to an i n c i d e n t a l sample of 619 students and parents i n Japan by C a u d i l l and Scarr (1962). I t was administered by Ames i n Ceylon (July-August, 1963) i n two written forms (English and Sinhalese) to an in c i d e n t a l sample of 403 persons (307 males and 96 females). The " r u r a l " rather than the "urban" form of the questionnaire was used f o r a l l respondents i n Ceylon, whether they resided i n a town (Matara, Jaffna) or c i t y (Colombo). The reasons were: ( l ) i t meant that the same form would be used i n Ceylon as was used i n the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck and C a u d i l l and Scarr studies; (2) the r u r a l form was thought to be more e a s i l y understood by a l l Ceylonese respondents than would be the urban form; and (3) i t avoided the problem of comparing town and c i t y respondents' responses to dif f e r e n t forms of the same questionnaire. The English version of the KVOS was retained for 104 Ceylonese not fluent i n Sinhalese (Christians, Muslims, Tamil Hindus, and Western-educated Sinhalese). The Sinhalese version was given to the remaining 299 respondents. The questionnaire was f i r s t translated into semi-colloquial Sinhalese by a professional t r a n s l a t o r . This version was translated back -20-into E n g l i s h as a check on accuracy and then a corrected t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o Sinhalese was made. The corrected version was made under the d i r e c t i o n of W.D. Ailapperuma, a graduate student i n the Department of Sociology, the Un i v e r s i t y of Ceylon. In t h i s way a reasonably comparable, although by no means pe r f e c t , t r a n s l a t i o n was obtained. (Were the Sinhalese v e r s i o n to be used again, f u r t h e r checks on accuracy should be made.) The Ceylonese schedules contained face sheets with i n s t r u c t i o n s and f i n a l pages requesting background information from respondents. In most instances another questionnaire not discussed i n t h i s report was administered along with (and always a f t e r ) the KVOS. 2. The T o t a l Sample The purposes of the Ceylonese study were: ( l ) to obtain value p r o f i l e s of people representing s t r a t e g i c occupations, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Sinhalese community, and (2) to t e s t the u t i l i t y of the KVOS as an instrument f o r obtaining these p r o f i l e s . No random samples of respondents were taken because t h i s would have necessitated i d e n t i f y i n g t o t a l populations and interviewing a l l respondents i n d i v i d u a l l y , tasks f o r which there was neither adequate time nor funds. (Needless to say, were the questionnaire to be used again i n Ceylon f o r more than an exploratory study, random sampling should be planned.) The procedure was to se l e c t r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e categories of people and, wherever p o s s i b l e , administer the questionnaire c o l l e c t i v e l y . Where t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , respondents were interviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y , u s u a l l y i n t h e i r homes. -21-The following categories of people were interviewed i n groupss Matriculation students (from eight schools) . . . . . . . . . . 21.6 Buddhist monks (from two large and three small temples) . . . , 54 Government servants (a night class at Vidyodaya University). . „ 23 . Village'residents (near Colombo) . „ . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 16 Teachers (from a village primary school) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Total . . . . 321 The remaining 82 respondents, mostly parents of the students, were interviewed individually. The total sample (combining the 82 with the 322) contains the following breakdowns by "occupational" category: Students . . . . . 0 . . . . . 216 Government servants . . . . . 56 Buddhist monks . . . . . . . . 54 School teachers . . . . . . . 28 Businessmen, lawyers, physicians, landed proprietors, petty traders . . . . . . . . 22 Tradesmen, "blue-collar" workers, village o f f i c i a l s , farmers . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Housewives . . . . . . . . . . 9 Total . . 403 3. The Parent-Child Sample The parent-child sample, a sub-sample of the t o t a l sample, was obtained i n the following manner. The questionnaire was administered to a l l students i n Matara and Colombo who satisfied the following three c r i t e r i a : (1) Were the most senior students (equivalent to junior and senior matriculation) i n the most prestigeful schools i n Matara and Colomboo The following l i s t of schools shows the number of students obtained from each: Matara Schools Rahula. . . . .(11 boys) St. Thomas . .(18 boys) St. Servatius .(11 boys) Sujata. . . o .(20 gi r l s ) Convent „ . . .(21 g i r l s ) Colombo Schools Royal . o . . .(31 boys) Ananda. . . „ .(26 boys) Visakha . . . .(29 gi r l s ) (2) Were normally residents (with parents) i n Matara and adjoining suburbs or i n Colombo municipality. A l l "out-station" students attending these schools were excluded from the sample. (3) Were present i n school on the day the questionnaire was administered (average attendance was approximately 90 per cent). It was too large a task to select students from a l l schools; i t was thus decided to limit the sample to those schools having reputations for being the best., and within each, a l l those students sufficiently literate to understand the questionnaire (criterion 1), normally resident in Matara or Colombo with their parents (criterion 2), and present when the study was conducted (criterion 3). Because of the nature of the schools,, this sample probably has a "middle" to "upper" class bias. This ensured that most of the parents also would be able to read the questionnaire. -23-(In f a c t , only one parent, a carpenter, had d i f f i c u l t y i n reading the questionnaire.) Following the student interviews, the homes of a l l students were v i s i t e d at l e a s t twice i n order to administer the same questionnaire to as many fathers as possible (and i n t h e i r absence, mothers). Again, because of the time f a c t o r no e f f o r t was made to match mothers with daughters and fathers with sens, as C a u d i l l and Scarr did i n the Japanese study. T h i s meant that since whatever parent was a v a i l a b l e was used only a few mother-sibling p a i r s were obtained as shown i n Table 3° A t o t a l of 66 fathers and nine mothers were obtained i n t h i s way. Other parents, due to absence from the home or unwillingness to cooperate, were dropped from the parent-child sample along with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t i s worth noting that the Colombo parents were more westernized, better educated, and generally held better p o s i t i o n s than the Matara parents. Predominant among the Colombo parents were doctors, lawyers, and h i g h l y placed government servants, while the Matara parents were predominantly teachers, ordinary c l e r k s , and blue c o l l a r workers. 4- Administration of the Questionnaire In the Japanese study C a u d i l l and Scarr and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s administered the w r i t t e n questionnaire to students i n t h e i r classrooms and then provided the students with extra copies to take home to t h e i r parents, daughters to mothers and sens to f a t h e r s . In the Ceylonese study a l l respondents answered the questionnaire while under the supervision of one of the f o l l o w i n g : the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r (Ames), the a s s i s t a n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s (W.D. Ailapperuma, W. Jayaratne, C. Ameresekere, and -24-A. Abeywickrama), or school teachers, Moet of the students answered the questionnaire during c l a s s time and under the supervision of t h e i r teachers. In about one-half of these cases the students were not advised that the study was under fo r e i g n auspices. One or more of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s administered the KVOS to the other groups. Those interviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y were t y p i c a l l y v i s i t e d i n t h e i r homes by one of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s , who remained u n t i l the task was completed. These v i s i t s were preceded by a l e t t e r explaining the purpose of the study and accompanied by a supporting l e t t e r from the M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s . (For copies of these l e t t e r s , see Appendix I I I . ) In no case was discussion of the questionnaire permitted u n t i l respondents had completed t h e i r answers. Most respondents cooperated w i l l i n g l y and with considerable i n t e r e s t . A recurrent a t t i t u d e was that i t was one's duty to a s s i s t f o r e i g n scholars who have come to study Ceylon customs. This a t t i t u d e was also encouraged by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . Some respondents expressed a desi r e to present Sinhalese, Hindu, e t c . , values i n a good l i g h t , but at the same time they d i d not hesitate to point out that people did not always l i v e up to these values. Ceylonese make a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between i d e a l and a c t u a l patterns of behaviour. Because there was no random sampling, no pretesting,, no c o n t r o l groups, and no one standardized method of administration, there are obvious l i m i t a t i o n s to the v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and g e n e r a l i t y of the r e s u l t s of the survey. I t cannot be overemphasized that any conclusions based upon these r e s u l t s are of the most t e n t a t i v e nature. CHAPTER III THE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA I. INTRODUCTION In this Chapter we present the analysis of the data and the most important findings in outline„ The detailed findings relevant to the testing of the hypotheses are presented i n Chapter IV. There i s a major d i f f i c u l t y i n such a presentation as this, inasmuch as the number of factors to be considered to ensure a measure of completeness i s large. In the f i r s t place, there are a number of dimensions along which the data are to be considered. Secondly., although we are largely following the procedures of Caudill and Scarr i n the analysis, we make a number of modifications which partially constitute the critique and which w i l l require careful explanation and justification as they are presented. Third, as a background for the analysis along the dimensions required by the design of the study and the c r i t i c a l modifications to be made i n the Caudill and Scarr methods, technical explanations concerning the manipulation of the data must be presented. Finally., the results and their relevance and significance must be clearly outlined within a presentation that could easily be a confusion of detail. In an attempt to meet these problems and retain readability the following procedure w i l l be adopted, the success of which the reader must judge. The major dimensions or sections of the analysis w i l l be considered separately under the appropriate sub-headings. A l l the considerations outlined above pertaining to a given section w i l l be included i n that -26-section under sub-sections. Each sub-section w i l l contain: ( l ) a b r i e f statement of the purpose of the p a r t i c u l a r data manipulation or a n a l y s i s and a b r i e f statement of the findings that would be expected according to the v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n theory; (2) a b r i e f statement of the method of the a n a l y s i s ; (3)a summary statement of the a c t u a l f i n d i n g s ( r e s u l t s ) ; (4) a more d e t a i l e d explanation and d e s c r i p t i o n of the a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g t a b l e s and f i g u r e s where app l i c a b l e ; and (5) a consideration of the relevance and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s . Some of the more t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s w i l l be included i n footnote form or i n appendices. Although i t may appear that t h i s elaboration of the method of presentation i s unnecessary, i t i s hoped that i t s usefulness w i l l become apparent as the content of the Chapter i s presented. Modifications i n the present scheme are made where the content outlined i s not relevant. I I . GENERAL The a v a i l a b i l i t y of a computer program to handle questionnaire data such as t h i s enabled us to complete the a n a l y s i s using t h i s f a c i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l questionnaires containing the value-orientation choices were coded and punched on to standard eighty column IBM cards along with the coded relevant background v a r i a b l e s . Subsequently, b i v a r i a t e tables of the background v a r i a b l e s cross-tabulated against the single items from the KVOS were assembled. From these t a b l e s , a breakdown of the sample into the behaviour spheres of C a u d i l l and Scarr was also obtained. The manipulation of the data f o r the t e s t i n g of the hypotheses, which i s l a r g e l y i n accordance with the method of C a u d i l l and Scarr, i s presented i n Chapter IV. -27-I I I . THE KVOS ITEMS So f a r we have d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l t h e c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( C h a p t e r I I J but have n o t d i s c u s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s t h e m s e l v e s . S i n c e i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o r e f e r t o t h e KVOS i t e m s i n t h i s C h a p t e r , a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e KVOS i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. TABLE 4 I t e m s f r o m t h e R u r a l Form o f t h e KVOS a s Used i n t h e C e y l o n e s e S t u d y I t e m S e r i e s Number (As used by K l u c k h o h n and S t r o d t b e c k 1961.) P l a c e o f I t e m i n t h e Sequence o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e R u r a l Form S h o r t T i t l e R e l a t i o n a l I t e m s : R I . R2 . R3 . R4 . R5 . R6 . R7 . Time I t e m s : 2 W e l l Arrangement s. 7 H e l p i n Case o f M i s f o r t u n e , 8 F a m i l y Work R e l a t i o n s . 9 C h o i c e o f D e l e g a t e . 12 . . . . . Wage Work. 16 L i v e s t o c k I n h e r i t a n c e . 17 . . . . . Land I n h e r i t a n c e . T I . . . . T2(Young) T2(01d) . T3 • • . . T4 . . . . T5 . . . . Man-Nature I t e m s : 3 5a 5b 11 . 14 • 20 . C h i l d T r a i n i n g . E x p e c t a t i o n s About Change. E x p e c t a t i o n s About Change. P h i l o s o p h y o f L i f e . C e r e m o n i a l I n n o v a t i o n . Water A l l o c a t i o n . MN1 MN2 MN3 MN4 MN5 4 L i v e s t o c k D y i n g . 6 F a c i n g C o n d i t i o n s . 10 . . . . . Use o f F i e l d s . 13 . . . . • B e l i e f i n C o n t r o l . 19 . . . . . L e n g t h o f L i f e . -28-As mentioned previously, space l i m i t a t i o n s preclude presentation of the e n t i r e KVOS i n ei t h e r the E n g l i s h c r Sinhalese forms. So that some idea of the content of the schedule may be obtained, four representative items from i t are presented below. 7. Help i n Misfortune r e l a t i o n a l : Item R2 A man had a crop f a i l u r e , or, l e t us say, had l o s t most of h i s sheep or c a t t l e . He and h i s family had to have help from someone i f they were going to get through the winter. There are d i f f e r e n t ways of g e t t i n g help. Which of these three ways would be best? B Would i t be best i f he depended mostly on h i s brothers and ( C o l l ) s i s t e r s or other r e l a t i v e s a l l to help him out as much as each one could? C Would i t be best f o r him to t r y to r a i s e the money on h i s (ind) own outside the community ( h i s own people) from people who are neither r e l a t i v e s nor employers? A Would i t be best f o r him to go to a boss or to an older (Lin) important r e l a t i v e who i s used to managing things i n h i s group, and ask him to help out u n t i l things get better? 14. Ceremonial Innovation time: Item T4 Some people i n a community l i k e your own saw that the r e l i g i o u s ceremonies (the church services) were changing from what they used to be. C Some people were r e a l l y pleased because of the changes i n (Fut) r e l i g i o u s ceremonies. They f e l t that new ways are u s u a l l y better than old ones, and they l i k e to keep e v e r y t h i n g — even ceremonies—moving ahead. A Some people were unhappy because of the change. They f e l t (Past) that r e l i g i o u s ceremonies should be kept e x a c t l y — i n every way—as they had been i n the past. B Some people f e l t that the old ways f o r r e l i g i o u s ceremonies (Pres) were best but you just can't hang on to them. I t makes l i f e easier just to accept some changes as they come along. -29-13. B e l i e f i n Control man-nature: Item MN4 Three men from d i f f e r e n t areas were t a l k i n g about the things that c o n t r o l the weather and other conditions. Here i s what they each sa i d . A One man said: My people have never c o n t r o l l e d the r a i n , wind, (Subj) and other natural conditions and probably never w i l l . There have always been good years and bad years. That i s the way i t i s , and i f you are wise you w i l l take i t as i t comes and do the best you can. B The second man said : My people believe that i t i s man's job (Over) to f i n d ways to overcome weather and other conditions just as they have overcome so many things. They believe they w i l l one day succeed i n doing t h i s and may even overcome drought and fl o o d s . C The t h i r d man said : My people help conditions and keep things (With) going by working to keep i n close touch with a l l the forces which make the r a i n , the snow, and other conditions. I t i s when we do the r i g h t t h i n g s — l i v e i n the proper way—and keep a l l that we have—the land, the stock, and the w a t e r — i n good condition, that a l l goes along w e l l . 19. Length of L i f e man-nature: Item MN5 Three men were t a l k i n g about whether people themselves can do anything to make the l i v e s of men and women longer. Here i s what each sai d . B One said : I t i s already true that people l i k e doctors and (Over) others are f i n d i n g the way to add many years to the l i v e s of most men by discovering ( f i n d i n g ) new medicines, by studying foods, and doing other things such as vaccinations. I f people w i l l pay at t e n t i o n to a l l these new things they w i l l almost always l i v e longer. A The second one said : I r e a l l y do not believe that there i s much (Subj) human beings themselves can do to make the l i v e s of men and women longer. I t i s my b e l i e f that every person has a set time to l i v e , and when that time comes i t just comes. C The t h i r d one said: I believe that there i s a plan to l i f e (With) which works to keep a l l l i v i n g things moving together, and i f a man w i l l l e a r n to l i v e h i s whole l i f e i n accord with that plan, he w i l l l i v e longer than other men. -30-IV. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS The purpose of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s to determine the e f f e c t of diffe r e n c e s i n background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents upon t h e i r v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices and to develop a means of assessing any such in f l u e n c e s . No s p e c i f i c hypotheses p r e d i c t i n g r e s u l t i n g patterns of value-o r i e n t a t i o n choices were made. The l i s t of eight d i f f e r e n t background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r sub-categories was assembled as a check upon possible i n f l u e n c e r s of valu e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice. This check constitutes an a d d i t i o n a l means of c o n t r o l over the data and i s the more important since randomization i n sampling was not po s s i b l e . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i f the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t v a l u e - o r i r n t a t i o n choice, each category wi t h i n each background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c should have a d i s t i n c t i v e v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e determined by the e f f e c t of the given background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The eight background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d i n Appendix I. While age, sex, place of residence," and language of KVOS administration are included i n Appendix I i n the order i n which they were coded, with the exception of a f i r s t approximate examination of the breakdown of age in t o sub-categories these v a r i a b l e s were not included i n t h i s section as "background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " The language of KVOS administration was treated separately i n greater d e t a i l since more s p e c i f i c information was desired on t h i s v a r i a b l e . The v a r i a b l e s age (generation), sex, and place of residence form the subject matter f o r the hypotheses to be tested i n -31-Chapter IV and.are not treated here i n the same manner as the "background c h a r a c t e i i s t i c s . " L o g i c a l l y , of course, i t would be desir a b l e to subject a l l p o s s i b l y relevant background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the same, and most rigorous t e s t p o s s i b l e , but the sheer quantity of data along with i n d i c a t i o n s from f i r s t approximate analyses that the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice suggested that t h i s approach was not warranted. B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS The background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as v a r i a b l e s p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice were cross-tabulated against the val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices f o r each item of the questionnaire u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study f o r the parent-child sample. Once the b i v a r i a t e computer tables were assembled, four techniques of varying degrees of thoroughness were u t i l i z e d i n attempting to assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : ( l ) Chi-squares, r o u t i n e l y computed f o r each b i v a r i a t e computer table of a KVOS item cross-tabulated against a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; (2) a compilation of the frequency of val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices, summed f o r a l l the items i n a given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area, was made f o r each background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c subdivided i n t o i t s categories; (3) a rank ordering f o r dominant and major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n s was made f o r each b i v a r i a t e computer table and tables of dominant and major variant v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices were assembled f o r value-o r i e n t a t i o n areas by background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (these Tables appear i n Appendix I I ) ; and (4) u t i l i z i n g the Tables compiled f o r (3), above, modal val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices by background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (choices within -32-rows of the Tables) and by value-orientation area item (choices within columns of the Tables) were compared among KVOS items (among rows) and among background characteristics (among columns) as percentages i n an attempt to relate numerically the significance of the background characteristics to the significance of inter-item consistency i n determining value orientation choice. Since the details of this last analysis are extensive, since the method i t s e l f does not constitute an independent assessment of either the background characteristics or inter-item consistency, but only relates the influence of one variable to that of the other, and since methodologically the distance of i t s indices from the data render conclusions hazardous, the analysis i s presented only i n Appendix II. C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS In general, we were unable to assess the influence of the background characteristics upon value-orientation choice because of a lack of consistency among the items within each of the three value-orientation areas. Our approach to an assessment of the influence of background characteristics on value-orientation choice assumed coherence between the items i n each value-orientation area. We founds however, that this coherence between items was lacking, and our assessment of the influence of the background characteristics upon value-orientation choice was unsuccessful. We found that i n general there was more variation among items in a value-orientation area compared against a background characteristic that there was variation among the categories within a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c compared against v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n areas. (The d e t a i l of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s included i n Appendix II.) D. THE DETAIL OF THE ANALYSIS 1. The Ghi-squares The Chi-squares give a f i r s t approximation of the v a r i a b i l i t y to be found i n each b i v a r i a t e computer table of a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c cross-tabulated against a KVOS val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area item. This d e s c r i p t i o n , however, gives us only a measure of the o v e r a l l v a r i a b i l i t y within a given table (that i s , whether or not the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the values fourd i n the c e l l s of the t a b l e s i s l i k e l y to have occurred by chance), and does not a f f o r d further elaboration of the e f f e c t of one v a r i a b l e upon the other. In any case, an examination of the Chi-square values shows a wide v a r i a b i l i t y i n the l i k l e h o o d of a chance d i s t r i b u t i o n of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices as the items i n a given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area are compared. (The Chi-squares f o r each of the b i v a r i a t e computer tables of a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c cross-tabulated against a value-o r i e n t a t i o n area item, i n t e r p r e t e d f o r the p r o b a b i l i t y of a chance d i s t r i b u t i o n , may be found at the end of Appendix II.). Within any given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area cross-tabulated against a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c there i s t y p i c a l l y a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of a chance d i s t r i b u t i o n as the items are compared, often ranging between .01 and ,99» -34-2. The Compilation of Value-Orientation Choice Frequencies Since, i n the compilation of the frequency of the value-o r i e n t a t i o n choices summed f o r a l l . the items i n a given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area, no majcr departures were seen from the picture presented by the o v e r a l l percentages of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices f o r the total, parent-c h i l d sample, t h i s a n a l y s i s i s not presented i n d e t a i l here. (The o v e r a l l percentages of the v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s and t h e i r graphic representation f o r each item f o r the parent-child sample w i l l be presented l a t e r on i n the Chapter.) A comparison of the column showing rr.odal value o r i e n t a t i o n choices among rows i n Tables 32 to 47 i n Appendix I I with the o v e r a l l percentages of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices f o r the parent-child sample i n Figures 4 to 6 w i l l i n d i c a t e the s i m i l a r i t y of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices i n these two analyses. 3. The Rank Ordering of Dominant and Major Variant Value Orientations Tables 32 to 47 i n Appendix I I were compiled by rank ordering dominant and major variant value orie n t a t i o n s f o r each computer b i v a r i a t e table and combining the dominant and major variant rankings f o r each of the computer b i v a r i a t e tables by putting a l l items i n the three value-o r i e n t a t i o n areas versus a given background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t o one of the Tables. (For a more d e t a i l e d explanation of the construction of Tables 32 to 47.- see Appendix II.) This method helped e f f e c t a condensation of the very large number,, of computer b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , but the condensed tables r e v e a l no patterning of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices c o n s i s t e n t l y or s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In f a c t , the modal choices of value o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r -35-each row (for each item by a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) show s i m i l a r v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s to the o v e r a l l v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r the t o t a l parent-child sample, as mentioned i n 2 . , above, (See Figures 4 to 6 and Tables 3 2 to 4 7 i n Appendix II.) I f any other tendency i s to be noted, i t i s greater consistency among the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c categories than among value-orientation area items. 4. Comparison of Value-Orientation Area Items with Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Categories as Determinenta of Value- Orientation Choice As noted above, t h i s a nalysis i s presented i n d e t a i l i n Appendix I I and w i l l not be elaborated upon here. I t i n d i c a t e s , however, that v a r i a t i o n i s greater among the items of the KVOS i n any given value-o r i e n t a t i o n area cross-tabulated against any given background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c than among the categories within any given background  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 5. The Relevance and Sig n i f i c a n c e of the Results The most important f i n d i n g i n our assessment was that the items within any value - o r i e n t a t i o n area do not appear to be measuring the same value. Each of the four analyses performed on the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggests t h i s conclusion, and while we have demonstrated that the items appear not to be measuring the same thing, t h i s analysis i s unable to suggest what, i f anything, the KVOS items a c t u a l l y do measure. -36-I t i s important also that because of the lack of consistency between the items i n any given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area we were unable to demonstrate c o n c l u s i v e l y what, i f any, influence was being exercised upon v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice by the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . What evidence we do have, however, suggests that v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y since the d e f i n i t i o n of dominant and major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n s i s i n comparatively gross terms. The influence of the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s could only be assessed from a minute examination of the computer b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , and even i f t h i s were attempted, the small number of cases would render i t extremely hazardous. In a d d i t i o n , even i f a consistent trend were found i t would be u n l i k e l y to influence value o r i e n t a t i o n choice, since our present evidence suggests that only a very small trend, i f any, would be l i k e l y to be found; and again, the d e f i n i t i o n of dominance and major variance i n v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice i s i n comparatively gross terms. Because of the f i n d i n g s j u s t described, i n c l u d i n g the small number of cases and the c r u d i t y of the measuring techniques, the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l not be considered f u r t h e r i n the remainder of the study as s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t i n g value-orientation choice. While i t may be that the value o r i e n t a t i o n s are "basic" i n the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck sense and hence are r e l a t i v e l y unaffected by such background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as we have considered i n the foregoing analysis., i t i s important to remember that what we have demonstrated here i s neither that these "basic" value o r i e n t a t i o n s e x i s t nor that the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining value--37-o r i e n t a t i o n choice. We have r e a l l y only i n d i c a t e d that the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear to be l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining value-o r i e n t a t i o n choice than are the di f f e r e n c e s between the KVOS items i n any given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area, inasmuch as these items are supposed to cohere as a meaningful u n i t , each item being but another expression of the value o r i e n t a t i o n of concern i n the p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area. We return to a consideration of t h i s f i n d i n g i n Chapter 7. IV. THE LANGUAGE OF THE KVOS A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS Since two language forms of the KVOS were administered to the Ceylonese sample, an English-language version f o r the English-speaking and a Sinhalese-language version f o r the Sinhalese-speaking respondents, as accurate an assessment as possible of the di f f e r e n c e s , i f any, between these two language forms was desired. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i f the t r a n s l a t i o n was perfect and i f the language d i f f e r e n c e among the respondents was not a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r i n value - o r i e n t a t i o n choice, no d i f f e r e n c e s i n val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice patterns would be expected between respondents to the d i f f e r e n t language versions. B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS For the purpose of determining the effectiveness of the KVOS t r a n s l a t i o n , assuming va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n patterns to be s i m i l a r between the two d i f f e r e n t language groups, c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson r's) were computed between the corresponding percentages of value - o r i e n t a t i o n -38. choice f o r the two language versions. These c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r the parent-child sample for each of the value - o r i e n t a t i o n areas and also f o r the three areas together. For the purpose of comparison the c o r r e l a t i o n was also computed between the two language versions of the KVOS f o r the t c t a l remaining sample (the t o t a l sample exclusive of the parent-child sample). C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS Table 5 summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n s found between the two language versions of the KVOS f o r the various sub-groups of val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice areas and sample. TABLE 5 C o r r e l a t i o n Between Sinhalese and E n g l i s h Language Versions of the KVOS f o r D i f f e r e n t Sub-Groups of Choice Areas and Sample Group of Sample and Value-Orientation Choice Area C o r r e l a t i o n (Pearson r) Parent-Child Sample R e l a t i o n a l area . Time area . . . . Man-Nature area . A l l areas combined 0.58 0.75 0.79 0.70 Remaining Sample (Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample) A l l Areas Combined . . . . . 0.71 -39-D. THE RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS These c o r r e l a t i o n s appear to be within acceptable l i m i t s considering the d i f f i c u l t i e s with and inadequacies of the t r a n s l a t i o n . (Some of these problems were discussed i n Chapter II.) Although we are s t i l l not c e r t a i n that such dif f e r e n c e s as do e x i s t between the d i f f e r e n t language versions of the KVOS are a product of the problems of t r a n s l a t i o n rather than d i f f e r i n g value o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t language groups, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the highest c o r r e l a t i o n found i s i n p r e c i s e l y the v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area (man-nature) that the greatest coherence between items i s found f o r the dominant and major variant v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices f o r the parent-c h i l d sample. This suggests that a t h i r d f a c t o r , the coherence between the items i n a v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area, must also be taken into consideration i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these c o r r e l a t i o n s . Is the i n t e r - i t e m consistency of the KVOS (and hence the measurement of the same value by a l l items) also r e f l e c t e d i n the degree to which t r a n s l a t i o n f o r another language group i s successful, and i f t h i s i s a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n which d i r e c t i o n does i t go? V. THE VALUE-ORIENTATION PROFILES OF THE PARENT-CHILD SAMPLE AND THE REMAINING SAMPLE A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS In t h i s section we examine the patterning of the value-o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r dominant and major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r the Ceylonese data, both f o r the parent-child sample and, f o r the purpose of comparison, f o r the remaining sample (exclusive of the parent--40-c h i l d sample). According to the theory of v a r i a t i o n i n value o r i e n t a t i o n s upon which the construction of the questionnaire was based we would expect to f i n d that the dominant and major vari a n t v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices do not vary among the items i n a v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area. The dominant value o r i e n t a t i o n i s defined by the value o r i e n t a t i o n f o r which the highest frequency of responses i s found e m p i r i c a l l y , and the major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n by the value o r i e n t a t i o n f o r which the second highest frequency of responses i s found. Since no c u t - o f f point i s defined, any percentage of responses l a r g e r than the chance expectancy of 16 2 / 3 per cent f o r any given value o r i e n t a t i o n could be a dominant or major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n provided i t was the highest or second highest frequency. We would also expect to f i n d , according to the theory, that as the distance between the dominant value o r i e n t a t i o n and the other value o r i e n t a t i o n s increases, the proportion of respondents choosing the other value o r i e n t a t i o n s decreases. Since we define no major d i f f e r e n c e s between the parent-child sample and the remaining sample, we would expect to f i n d that t h e i r value-orien-t a t i o n p r o f i l e s do not d i f f e r g rossly. We do, however, predict subtle d i f f e r e n c e s varying by behaviour sphere. B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS The v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices are characterized as percentages of the t o t a l number of choices f o r a l l s i x value o r i e n t a t i o n s on any given item f o r each v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area. Both tabular and diagrammatic representations of the data are presented f o r each item and the items -41-are grouped together f o r comparison within each va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area. Tables 6 and 7 show the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s of value o r i e n -t a t i o n s f o r two parts of the sample, Table 6 f o r the parent-child sample and Table 7 f o r the remainder of the sample, exclusive of the parent-c h i l d sample. Since the parent-child sample i s our focus here, the remainder of the sample i s included only f o r purposes of comparison. Figures 1, 2, and 3 present the data of Table 6 diagrammatically a f t e r the method of C a u d i l l and Scarr. These diagrams are included f o r the sake of completeness, since we have u t i l i z e d a graphic representation of t h i s data throughout the remainder of the t h e s i s . Figures 4, 5, and 6 present the data of Table 6 (and of Figures 1, 2, and 3) and Figures 7* '8, and 9 present the data of Table 7. Considerable thought was given to the use of the C a u d i l l and Scarr Figures, and i n i t i a l l y a l l our diagrammatic presentations were made i n the manner of Figures 1, 2, and 3= We subsequently f e l t , however, that the only advantage offered by the C a u d i l l and Scarr Figures was that they show c l e a r l y that value o r i e n t a t i o n s 1 (l>C>L i n the r e l a t i o n a l area) and 6 (C>I>L i n the r e l a t i o n a l area) are only a l o g i c a l one-distance apart (see Chapter I I ) . While t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not as c l e a r l y depicted by the tabular or graphic representations, i t need only be kept i n mind as they are read. By contrast, the graphic f i g u r e s o f f e r at l e a s t two c l e a r advantages: ( l ) a q u a n t i t a t i v e , v i s u a l comparison between the s i x possible v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices within any given v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area item; and (2) a q u a n t i t a t i v e , v i s u a l comparison between the percentage choosing a given value o r i e n t a t i o n and both the t o t a l percentage l i k e l y by chance f o r that value o r i e n t a t i o n (16 2/3 per cent) and the percentage of the p o s s i b i l i t y of a l l respondents choosing i n that TABLE 6 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete No Total Rankings Answer Per Cent (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Relational I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I OI >L RI 27.7 (26.4) 12.2 3.4 7.4 18.2 4.1 0.7 100.1 R2 12.8 40.5 (18.2) 12.2 8.8 4.7 2.0 0.7 99.9 R3 (16.9) 9.5 0.7 14.9 41.9 13.5 2.0 0.7 100.1 R4 15.5 14.9 12.2 12.8 23.7 (19.6) 1.4 - 100.1 R5 39.2 16.9 2.7 2.7 10.1 (25.7) 2.0 0.7 100.0 R6 22.3 4.1 4.1 2.7 (30.4) 31.8 2.7 2.0 100.1 R7 21.0 8.8 4.7 4.1 33.8 (23.7) 2.7 1.4 100.2 Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa TI (13.5) 2.0 — 1.4 13.5 60.8 6.1 2.7 100,0 T2Y (23.3) 45.2 5.5 - 2.7 12.3 6.9 4.1 100.0 T20 (40.0) 49.3 - - 1.3 4.0 4.0 1.3 99.9 T3 (31.8) 10.1 0.7 2.0 11.5 38.5 3.4 2.0 100.0 T4 15.5 4.1 8.1 (18.2) 15.5 24.3 10.1 4.1 99.9 T5 26.4 (23.0) 7.4 4.7 7.4 22.3 6.8 2.0 100.0 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W SX)>W S>W>0 W>S>0 WX)>S MN1 35.1 (20.3) 14.9 9.5 2.7 11.5 4.7 1.4 100.1 MN2 14.2 (31.D 36.5 2.0 0.7 5.4 6.1 4.1 100.1 MN3 61.5 12.2 3.4 0.7 3.4 (16.2) 2.0 0.7 100.1 MN4 33.1 8.1 6.1 (18.2) 12.2 17.6 2.0 2.7 100.0 MN5 27.7 10.1 6.8 12.8 6.8 (25.0) 8.1 2.7 100.0 = Dominant Value Orientation; () = Major Variant Value Orientation N = 148 •^Discrepancy of three from total N due to "no answers" being combined with responses to alternate form of T2. TABLE 7 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations for the Remaining Sample (The Total Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample) on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete No Total Rankings Answer Per Cent (1) (2) (3) (4) Relational I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I RI 24.7 (23.9) 12.6 6.3 R2 (21.2) 26.3 12.9 14.5 R3 11.0 6.7 3.5 11.4 R4 11.8 11.8 11.8 20.4 R5 39.2 13.7 1.2 4.7 R6 18.0 7.1 4.7 6.3 R7 (20.8) 10.6 6.3 11.4 Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu TI (15.3) 2.8 1.6 1.2 T2Y (29.2) 40.7 3.7 2.3 T20 (46.4) 50.0 - — T3 (30.6) 9.0 2.0 1.2 T4 (14.1) 11.8 8.6 (14.1) T5 27.5 (21.2) 8.6 2.0 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W s>o>w S>WX) MN1 23.9 16.5 (22.4) 7.8 MN2 8.2 (26.3) 40.8 7.1 MN3 44.7 14.9 2.4 2.4 MN4 19.6 10.6 9.8 (18.0) MN5 21.6 8.6 14.1 12.2 (5) (6) C>L>I C>I>L 6.8 19.6 2.8 3-5 100.2 8.2 9.0 5.1 2.8 100.0 45.1 (15.3) 2.8 4.3 100.1 (19.6) (19.6) 2.4 2.8 100.2 8.6 (22.0) 7.5 3.1 100.0 (27.1) 27.5 5.1 4.3 100.1 24.7 18.8 3.9 3.5 100.0 Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa 14.1 56.5 7.5 1.2 100.2 3.2 16.2 4.6 - 99.9 N=216* - 3.6 - - 100.0 N= 28* 12.2 35.7 5.1 4.3 100.1 13.7 23.I 9.8 4.7 99.9 9.0 20.8 4.7 6.3 100.1 OSX) w>o>s 2.8 12.9 10.1 3.5 99.9 1.6 3.9 5.1 7.1 100.1 8.2 (18.8) 3.9 4.7 100.0 14.9 17.7 3.9 5.5 100.0 11.8 18.8 7.4 5.5 100.0 = Dominant Value Orientation; () = Major Variant Value Orientation N = 255 •^-Discrepancy of eleven from total N due to "no answers" being ..combined with responses to alternate form of T2. RI: Well arrangements R 2 : Help in misfortune R3: Family work relations R7: Land inheritance . FIGURE 1 piagrammatic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Relational Items for the Parent-Child Sample. (Adapted from Caudill and Scarr, p. 68.) TI: Child training T2(young)i Expectations T2(old):. Expectations about about change change T3t Philosophy of TU} Ceremonial T5* Water arrangements l i f e . . innovation Dominant value orientation Major variant value orientation FIGURE 2 Diagrammatic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Time Items for the Parent-Child Sample. (Adapted from Caudill and Scarr, p. 69*) . -46-MN1: Livestock dying MN2t Facing conditions MN3» Use of f i e l d s MN4» Belief i n control MN5* Length of l i f e ; Dominant value orientation Major variant value orientation FIGURE 3 Diagrammatic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items for the Parent-Child Sample. (Adapted from Caudill and Scarr, p. 70.) 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R I : Well arrangements 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R 4 : Choice of delegate 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 f / / — — , / 1 2 3 4 5 6 R7s Land inheritance 1 2 3 4 5 6 R2s Help in misfortune 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 R 5 J Wage work 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 R 3 : Family work relations 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 R6: Livestock inheritance 1 equals I>C>L 2 3 4 5 6 I»L»C L»I»C L»C»I C>L»I C»I»L © equals Dominant value orientation O n Major Variant value orientation FIGURE 4 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Relational Items for the Parent-Child Sample. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -4B~ 100 1 2 3 4 5 TI: Child training 3 4 5 6 100 T2(young): Change expectancy ?2(old)s Change expect 100, ) 1 ) ) T3: Philosophy of 1 - 2 - 3 4 5 6 T4s Ceremonial innovation 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 3 0 ^ , 10 0 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 T5: Water arrangements 1 2 3 4 5 6 equals Fu>Pr>Pa Fu > Pa > Pr Pa>Fu»Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr»Pa>Fv. Pr>Fu>Pa © equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation • FIGURE 5 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Time Items for the Parent-Child Sample. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 3d 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 ' 5 6 KNli Livestock dying lOOr 90 80 70 6 0 .50 '.40 3 0 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN2: Facing conditions 100 90 80 70) 60 50 40 3 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN4: Belief in control 90 80 70 60' 50 40 30 20 10 0 \ \ \ \ \ J / 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN3s Use of fields 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN5s Length of life 1 equals 0>W>S 2 " 0>S>W 3 " S»0»W 4 " S>W>0 . 5 " W»S>0 6 " W»0>S equals Dominant value orientation " Major Variant value orientation •FIGURE 6 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items for the Parent-Child Sample. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -50-100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 2 10 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 RI: Well arrangements 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R4: Choice of delegate 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 2i 10 0 1 2 3 4 5. 6 R7: Land inheritance 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R2: Help in misfortune 2 3 4 5 R3: Family work relations 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 > I-— 1 2 3 4 R5: Wage work 1 2 3 4 5 6 R6: Livestock inheritance 1 equals I>C»L 2 » I»L>C 3 " L>I»C 4 " L»C»I 5 " C>L»I 6 » C>I»L © equals Dominant value orientation O , " Major Variant value orientation FIGURE 7 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Relational Items for the Remaining Sample (the Total Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample). (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) - 5 1 -100 100 4.5 6 TI: Child training T2(young)s Change expectancy T2(old); Change expect, 100, T3s Philosophy of l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 6 T4: Ceremonial innovation 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 3 20 10 0 T5: Water arrangements 1 equals Fu>Pr>Pa 2 « 3 « 4 » 5 » 6 « Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu»Pr Pa>Pr»Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa © equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation FIGURE 8 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Time' Items for the Remaining Sample (the Total Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample). (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -52-100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MNls Livestock dying 100 90 80 70) 60 5 0 40 30 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN2i Facing conditions 1 0 0 9 0 80 7C 60 50 40 3 0 2' 1 0 100 90 80 70 6 0 5 0 40 3 0 20 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN3s Use of fields 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN4J Belief in control 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN5: Length of l i f e 1 equals 0>W>S 2 " 0»S>W 3 " S>0>W 4 " S»W>0 5 " W»S»0 6 " W>0>S © equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value o r i e n t a t i o n FIGURE 9 Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items f o r the Remaining Sample (the Total Sample Exclusive of the Parent-Child Sample). (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -53-value orientation. In addition, the positioning of the dominant and major variant value orientations among the items and within an item seems to be more clearly read from the graphs than from the Caudill and Scarr Figures. C. SUMMARY OF RESULTS We have shown that there are no important differences between the parent-child sample and the remaining sample as far as value-orientation profiles are concerned. This suggests that at least for each item, whatever i t is measuring, i t measures consistently throughout the Ceylonese sample. A lack of inter-item consistency for the parent-child sample (as well as for the remaining sample), however, is shown by the data, and no one value orientation among the items in a value-orientation area i s consistently chosen. There is a tendency, however, for modal choices to occur, a tendency which can be amplified i f the hazards of doing so are recognized. Such an amplification is presented in Tables 8 to 10 which approximately summarize the value patterns for each of the three areas, relational, time, and man-nature. There is a tendency, as the theory of value orientations predicts, for the frequency of choice of value orientation to decrease as the distance from the dominant value orientation increases, although there are some reversals. The value-orientation profiles in each of the value-orientation areas are otherwise generally dissimilar. D. THE DETAIL OF THE ANALYSIS -54-From a comparison of Figures 4 and 7, 5 and 8, and 6 and 9 i t can be seen at once that there i s no d i f f e r e n c e that makes a d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r e n t - c h i l d sample and the remaining sample, and t h i s comparison w i l l not be elaborated upon fu r t h e r . Differences that d e f i n i t e l y do make a d i f f e r e n c e , on the other hand, are evident among items within each v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n area. Considerably l e s s consistency of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice among items i s evident f o r the Ceylonese data than was shown by the Japanese data of C a u d i l l and Scarr. We are faced with the problem here of discovering whether there i s a patterning of v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices (or of values at a l l , f o r that matter), a task rendered extremely d i f f i c u l t on two counts: ( l ) we are l i m i t e d by apparent i n t e r - i t e m inconsistency within the KVOS va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n areas, suggesting that the items i n a value-o r i e n t a t i o n area i n f a c t measure d i f f e r e n t values, i f they measure.values at a l l ; and (2) we are l i m i t e d , with the Ceylonese sample, as i n the Japanese sample, to somewhat cruder techniques f o r assessing value and v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n patterning than were used by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck. The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n could be produced by inadequacies e i t h e r of the KVOS or of the sample, and could only r e l i a b l y be assessed by a r e p e t i t i o n of the questionnaire administration i n the Ceylonese culture upon a l a r g e r , more c a r e f u l l y selected sample. The second l i m i t a t i o n could perhaps be overcome with the present data i f time and space permitted, but i t i s doubtful that the data are worth such an -55-1 elaboration. A more economical course for the purposes of this study-would seem to be a less rigorous but, hopefully, worthwhile technique to determine any patterning of values and value orientations relevant for the culture under consideration. In this section we w i l l not consider possible interpretations of value and value-orientation patterns, but w i l l only attempt to characterize any such patterns as can be found. We w i l l return to a more detailed consideration of this topic i n Chapter IV. 1 While Caudill and Scarr computed significance levels for their percentage distributions of value orientations u t i l i z i n g Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W), this was f e l t not to be an appropriate step i n presenting these data. In the f i r s t place, their comment "The unevenness of the distribution of responses over the six value orientations from each item, with a sample as large as ours, almost guaranteed such significance." (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 66) seems to be a point well taken, and as applicable to the Ceylonese data as to their data from Japan. In addition, we are more interested here in determining the patterning of the dominant and major variant value orientations i n accordance with their definitions, accepting the KVOS at i t s proffered value and leaving i t s c r i t i c a l appraisal u n t i l Chapter V. More important, however, i s the point that the W s t a t i s t i c used by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck and repeated by Caudill and Scarr on their data was the f i r s t test of a three-part s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the significance of the relationships among the responses at three different levels. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck explain their analysis as follows: The questions of within-culture regularities and between-culture differences are themselves faceted, and there appears to be no simple or single means of analyzing the data for the finding of the answers to them. The most crucial test i s that of ascertaining whether or not there i s a significant ordering of the alternatives i n the responses given to the individual items i n an orientation series of items in a particular culture. But we wish also to know the degree of significance between the choices within this ordering, and even more we desire to go beyond the item orderings and test for the significance of the overall—the summary—patterns of the ordering of the alternatives for a t o t a l series of items. These three types of answers are needed for the assessment of the within-culture regularities, and i t i s only when we have a l l of them that we can ask and seek to answer the fourth major question—the question of the degree of between-culture differences. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 121-122.) In l i e u of the s t a t i s t i c a l techniques u t i l i z e d by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck to assess value and v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n patternings, l e t us be content f o r the moment with a cruder assessment. The frequencies with which a given value ( I , C, or L i n the r e l a t i o n a l area) occurs i n f i r s t , second, and t h i r d p o s i t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y They state the n u l l hypotheses (HQ'S) f o r the three l e v e l s of t e s t as follows: ( 1 ) T o t a l Item Patterning. A f t e r members of a culture have ranked the a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n item, how l i k e l y i s i t that the resultant pattern of responses could have occurred i f , among the members of the c u l t u r e , there were no preferences f o r some ranking patterns rather than others? ( 2 ) Intra-Item Patterning. A f t e r members of a c u l t u r e have ranked the a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n item, how l i k e l y i s the pattern of responses i f they do not prefer one p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e to a second p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e i n t h e i r responses to the item? ( 3 ) T o t a l O r i e n t a t i o n Patterning. A f t e r members of a c u l t u r e have ranked the a l t e r n a t i v e s to a l l the items i n a v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n s e r i e s , how l i k e l y i s the pattern of responses i f they do not prefer the a l t e r n a t i v e s i n that s e r i e s which represent one p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p o s i t i o n to those which represent a second p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n ? (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1 9 6 1 : 1 2 2 - 1 2 3 . ) For the t e s t of the f i r s t HQ they use the W s t a t i s t i c which C a u d i l l and Scarr repeated on the Japanese data, and which could also be used on the Ceylonese data. For the t e s t of the second HQ ( i n r e a l i t y three, more s p e c i f i c HQ"S r e l a t i n g to the preferences of one value over another) they u t i l i z e a normal-curve approximation to a binomial d i s t r i b u t i o n . This technique could not be used on the Ceylonese data, since the shape of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not known and another t e s t would have to be found. To t e s t the t h i r d HQ they u t i l i z e d t - t e s t s , which could not be used on the Ceylonese data, since they assume homogeniety of variance and normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s . A technique such as the Randomization Test f o r Two Independent Samples given by S i e g e l ( 1 9 5 6 : 1 5 2 ) might be u t i l i z e d i n t h i s case f o r the Ceylonese data. (For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on the analyses j u s t o u t l i n e d see Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1 9 6 1 : 1 2 1 - 1 3 7 . ) The point to be made here i s that i f use of the KVOS i s to be made i n the manner of C a u d i l l and Scarr, and hypotheses are to be formulated and tested i n t h e i r terms, the three-stage t e s t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the values must be foregone, and one stage such as C a u d i l l and Scarr used (the W s t a t i s t i c ) i s not u s e f u l or relevant enough to warrant i n c l u s i o n . On these grounds alone t h i s study must l i m i t i t s e l f to being exploratory, accepting the model of the KVOS as a t o o l i n comparing cultures in dominant and major variant value-orientation choices were tabulated from Table 6 and are presented in Tables 8 to 10. These frequency counts are taken as approximate indications of the preference of one value relative to the other two. For example, in the relational area I occurs in first position in three out of seven dominant orientations and i t occurs first in two out of seven major variant orientations (see Table 6). Over-all i t is chosen five out of fourteen times, which makes i t second in preference only to C, chosen eight out of fourteen times (see Table 8). TABLE 8 Frequency of Choices of Each Value in Each Choice Position for Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Relational Area Value First Position Second Position Third Position Dom. Maj. Total Dom. Maj. Total Dom. Maj. Total Var. Var. Var. I .3 2 5 1 4 5 1 3 4 L 0 1 1 4 2 6 3 4 7 C 4 4 8 2 1 3 1 2 3 Dominant Orientation = OL>I Major Variant Orientation = C>I>L There is no outstanding over-all pattern for the relational area, but in general i t would appear that the dominant orientation is C>L>I and the major variant orientation is C>I>L. The pattern C>L>I is chosen as dominant three out of seven times, and C>I>L is chosen as major variant three out of seven times. Furthermore, the major variant C>I>L is chosen once as a dominant, and the dominant C>L>I is chosen once as a major variant. This indicates a fairly strong preference for Collaterality as a first choice i n both dominant (four out of seven) and major variant (four out of seven) value o r i e n t a t i o n s . Next to C o l l a t e r a l i t y , I n d i v i d u a l i t y runs high i n pop u l a r i t y as a f i r s t choice dominant (three out of seven times as compared to four out of seven times f o r C o l l a t e r a l i t y ) and a f i r s t choice major variant (two out of seven times as compared with four out of seven times f o r C o l l a t e r a l i t y ) . This suggests a strong underlying preference f o r I n d i v i d u a l i t y . I t s competition with C o l l a t e r a l i t y as a f i r s t choice dominant and major v a r i a n t , and i t s competition with L i n e a l i t y as a second choice dominant and major variant may also be i n d i c a t i v e of i n c r e a s i n g Individualism i n Ceylon. I f such an increase i s taking place, then preference f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y should be stronger among younger members of the sample population. L i n e a l i t y i s c l e a r l y l a s t i n preference. I t i s never chosen as a f i r s t dominant, and only once as a f i r s t major variant (R2). The most popular p o s i t i o n f o r L i n e a l i t y i s next to C o l l a t e r a l i t y , e i t h e r as a second choice (C>L>I) or a t h i r d choice (l>C>L). L i n e a l i t y occurs i n the t h i r d p o s i t i o n of both dominant and major variant o r i e n t a t i o n s f i f t y per cent of the time. The lack of any one c l e a r pattern i n the r e l a t i o n a l area could be a r e f l e c t i o n of two d i s t i n c t aspects of Sinhalese society: ( l ) the large element of uncertainty i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s said to characterize a "l o o s e l y - s t r u c t u r e d " s o c i e t y (Ryan and Strauss 1954)* and (2) uncertainty caused by changing s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a modernizing society. There i s more consistent patterning i n the time area than i n the r e l a t i o n a l area. (See Table 9 . ) Past o r i e n t a t i o n i s c l e a r l y a l a s t choice f o r most people (eight out of twelve times). One exception i s T4* where Pa> 5r>Fu i s chosen as a major v a r i a n t . Item T 4 appears to be quite i r r e g u l a r . According to the value-orientation theory, the major variant should be only a one-distance from the dominant orientation. This is so for all time items except T4- The dominant choice for T4 is Pr>Fu>Pa, chosen by 24 per cent of the respondents (Table 6). The theoretically expected major variant, therefore, should be either Pr>Pa>Fu or Fu>Pr>Pa (each chosen by 15 per cent of the respondents). The actual choice of major variant (Pa>Pr>Fu) is selected by 18 per cent, only slightly more than the percentage who chose either one of the expected major variants, TABLE 9 Frequency of Choices of Each Value in Each Choice Position for Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Time Area Value First Position Second Position Third Position Dom. Maj, Total Dom. Maj. Total Dom. Maj. Total Var. Var. Var. Fu •3 5 8 3 0 3 0 1 1 Pa 0 •1 1 2 1 3 4 4 8 Pr 3 0 3 1 5 6 2 1 3 Dominant Orientation = Fu=Pr>Pa Major Variant Orientation = Fu>Pr>Pa The explanation for this irregular distribution becomes apparent when we examine the content of T4. Item T4 covers attitudes towards religious ceremonies and it is the only time item in which Past orientation has any preference at all (Table 6). Twenty-six per cent of the respondents select Past as their first choice ("religious traditions should be kept inviolable"), compared to forty per cent who select Present orientation as a first choice ("old ceremonies may be best -60-but they are d i f f i c u l t to r e t a i n i n these times"). There i s also a strong underlying sentiment i n favor of Future o r i e n t a t i o n ( " r e l i g i o n should modernize"): almost twenty per cent s e l e c t Future o r i e n t a t i o n as a f i r s t choice and thirty-two per cent select i t as a second choice. Only twenty per cent s e l e c t Past o r i e n t a t i o n as a second choice. Adding f i r s t and second choices, we f i n d that f o r t y - s i x per cent of the respondents sel e c t Past o r i e n t a t i o n compared to f i f t y - t w o per cent who s e l e c t Future o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s supports the general conclusion that i n the time area there i s a strong o v e r - a l l preference f o r Future o r i e n t a t i o n as a f i r s t choice (eight out of twelve times, Table 9). Future o r i e n t a t i o n competes equally with Present o r i e n t a t i o n as a dominant f i r s t choice, and i s a c l e a r l y favoured f i r s t choice as a major vari a n t o r i e n t a t i o n ( f i v e out of si x times). In the r e l a t i o n a l area I n d i v i d u a l i t y was the one o r i e n t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d more or l e s s equally among f i r s t , second, and t h i r d choices (a d i s t r i b u t i o n of 5 - 5 - 4 ) . We might i n t e r p r e t t h i s as a suggestion that I n d i v i d u a l i t y i s changing i n po p u l a r i t y . (The p r e d i c t i o n would be f o r an increase i n popularity.) We f i n d i n the time area that there i s again one of the o r i e n t a t i o n s (Present) somewhat more equally d i s t r i b u t e d than the others, although not so evenly as I n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the r e l a t i o n a l area. Present o r i e n t a t i o n has a 3-6-3 d i s t r i b u t i o n among f i r s t , second, and t h i r d choices, compared to the strongly skewed Future (8-3-1) and Past (1-3-8) d i s t r i b u t i o n s . This suggests some uncertainty about the p o s i t i o n of Present o r i e n t a t i o n , an i n d i c a t i o n (as i n the case of I n d i v i d u a l i t y ) that i t s p o p u l a r i t y may be changing. The p r e d i c t i o n would be that Future o r i e n t a t i o n i s stronger and Present o r i e n t a t i o n i s weaker among younger members of the sample; or, i n other words, that the p o p u l a r i t y of Present o r i e n t a t i o n i s -61-decreasing r e l a t i v e to future o r i e n t a t i o n . To some extent Present o r i e n t a t i o n r e f l e c t s a p r a c t i c a l or pragmatic approach to s i t u a t i o n s . We would therefore expect that even i f i t does decrease r e l a t i v e to Future o r i e n t a t i o n , i t would nevertheless s t i l l continue as a strong preference, Although there i s more consistent patterning i n the time area than i n the r e l a t i o n a l area, there i s s t i l l considerable v a r i a b i l i t y between items and patterns within o r i e n t a t i o n s . For example, Present i s strongest i n items TI, T3* and T4* whereas Future i s strongest i n items T 2 I , T 2 0 , and T 5 . Some of these v a r i a t i o n s and secondary patterns w i l l be discussed i n l a t e r sections. The dominant o r i e n t a t i o n f o r man-nature i s c l e a r l y 0>W>S. No other pattern i s close to t h i s i n preference. In the major v a r i a n t o r i e n t a t i o n , Mastery-over-Nature competes with Harmony-with-nature fo r f i r s t p o s i t i o n (each being chosen two out of f i v e times). TABLE 1 0 Frequency of Choices of Each Value i n Each Choice P o s i t i o n fo r Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Man-Nature Area Value F i r s t P o s i t i o n Second P o s i t i o n T h i r d P o s i t i o n Dom. Maj. T o t a l Dom. Maj. T o t a l Dom. Maj. T o t a l Var. Var. Var. 0 4 2 6 1 2 3 0 1 1 s 1 1 2 0 2 2 4 2 6 w 0 2 2 4 1 5 1 2 3 Dominant O r i e n t a t i o n = 0>W>S Major Variant O r i e n t a t i o n = 0==W>S -62-On an o v e r - a l l basis Mastery-over-Nature i s i n a strong f i r s t p o s i t i o n , d i s t r i b u t r d over f i r s t , second, and t h i r d choices i n the order of 6-3-1. Subjugated-to-Nature o r i e n t a t i o n i s equally entrenched i n the f i n a l , l e a s t popular p o s i t i o n (2-2-6). Harmony-with-Nature o r i e n t a t i o n i s the more or l e s s equally d i s t r i b u t e d o r i e n t a t i o n , corresponding to I n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the r e l a t i o n a l area and Present i n the time area, with a d i s t r i b u t i o n of 2-5-3. The strongest p o s i t i o n f o r Harmony-with-Nature i s as a second choice following Mastery-over-Nature. (Note that one of the strongest posi t i o n s f o r Present i s also as a second choice, i n that case following Future o r i e n t a t i o n . ) The r e l a t i v e l y equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of Harmony-with-Nature o r i e n t a t i o n we might i n t e r p r e t as a r e f l e c t i o n of uncertainty regarding t h i s value. Again i n l i n e with the genaral assumptions about value changes i n a modernizing nation (F. Kluckhohn 1963; Levy 1952), we would predict a decrease i n the p o p u l a r i t y of the Harmony-with-Nature o r i e n t a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the Mastery-over-Nature o r i e n t a t i o n ; or, i n other words, that Mastery-over-Nature i s stronger and Harmony-with-Nature weaker among younger members of the sample population. To a i d the reader i n following our speculative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the Ceylonese v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices we have included a b r i e f area-by-area and item-by-item d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the KVOS and the Ceylonese responses to i t i n Table 11. - 6 3 -TABLE 11 Description and Interpretation of Value Orientations Item Values Ceylonese Responses: Interpretation Dominant Major Variant Relational Area RI Who should direct and plan a community project? L-older or recognized I>C>L leaders of important families C-public discussion until most people agree I-everyone votes and abides by the majority decision, even though many disagree R2 From whom should one seek help in misfortune? I>L>C Individualistic: stress on the importance of the individual with secondary inclusion of everyone in the decision process. C-help from other I>L>C relatives I-find own solution L-seek help from important group member L>I>C Individualistic: prefer to seek own solution, possibly with the assistance of influential people. R3 How families I-each family on his arrange work own to be done. ._, -, , , C-closely related families cooperate L-only closely related families work under leadership of oldest able person C>L>I I>OL Collateral Emphasis: Families should cooperate as equals, with secondary preferences for going i t alone and for working under one's superiors. -64-TABLE 11 (continued) Item Values Ceylonese Responses: Interpretation Dominant Major Variant R4 How group C-obtain consensus of is to choose almost everyone a delegate. through open discussion L-recognized leaders make the choice I-majority vote, even i f many oppose R5 Ways a man who does not hire others may work. R6 Ways children can manage inherited livestock. I-alone and self-reliant as one's own boss C-cooperating with others on an equal basis L-working for and depending upon a "big boss" L-oldest clearly in charge I-each handles his or her own share independently C-work and make decisions together as equals OL>I OI>L Collateral Emphasis: strong preference for obtaining unanimity through discussion, with a secondary preference for relying on leaders to make decisions. I>C>L OI>L Individualistic: preference i s to be one's own boss or to cooperate with others on an equal basis. Dislike being dependent upon a patron. C >I >L C >L >I Collaterality* stress on the group as a d eci sion-making and cooperating unit with a secondary preference for working independently. ' TABLE 11 (continued) Item Values Ceylonese Responses: Interpretation Dominant Major Variant R7 Ways children can manage inherited land. L-oldest clearly in charge I-each handles his or her own share independently C-work and make decisions together as equals C>L>I C>I>L Collaterality: stress on the group as a de c e si on-making and cooperating unit with a secondary preference for dependence upon older siblings. Overall Interpretation of the Relational Orientation: In general there appears to be an emphasis on Collaterality (cooperating as equals--chosen four times out of seven out of a l l items) especially where getting certain tasks accomplished is the problem at hand. A secondary over-all stress on Individuality (chosen three times out of seven over a l l items) appears where one must decide upon ways of working in general, upon who should participate in community projects, and upon sources of help in the case of misfortune. Time Area TI What we Pa-traditions because should teach old ways are best our children.„ . ,... , , , Pr-traditions but also new ways that will help them adjust to changes Fu-things that will encourage them to discover new ways to replace the old Pr>Fu>Pa Fu>Pr>Pa Pragmatic: teach mixture of old and new ways, with emphasis on the new to meet changing times. Continuity with present and past also important consideration. -66-TABLE 11 (continued) Item Values Ceylonese Responses: Interpretation Dominant Major Variant T2Y Young peoples' expectations for their children. Pa-Future will be the same. It is best to work hard to keep up things as they have been in the past. Pr-Uncertain. Things go up and down even i f people work hard. Fu-Optimistic. Things usually get better for those who really try. Fu>Pa>Pr Fu>Pr>Pa Future should be better than present or past, providing people work hard. Secondary preference to retain some aspects of the past. T20 Old peoples' expectations for their children. Pa-Future will be the same. Children should work to keep things going as in the past. Pr-Cannot predict because things go up and down even i f one works hard. Fu-better i f they work hard and plan right Fu>Pa>Pr Fu>Pr>Pa Future should be better than present or past, providing people work hard. Secondary preference to retain some aspects of the past. -67-TABLE 11 (continued) Item Values Ceylonese Responses: I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Dominant Major Variant T3 Own o r i e n t a t i o n to time. Pa-work hard to r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n s which are always better Pr-Pragmatic: r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n s where p r a c t i c a l , but be w i l l i n g to adapt to new conditions. Fu-New ways u s u a l l y better, so plan a long time ahead and work f o r future b e n e f i t s . Pr>Fu>Pa Fu>Pr>Pa Pragmatic: The past i s gone and the future i s uncertain, so focus on the present. Retain what continues to be u s e f u l , but always be w i l l i n g to change. New ways are frequently better. T4 Attitude toward changing r e l i g i o u s customs. Pa-Unhappy. Should be kept i n v i o l a b l e . Pr-Old ceremonies best but d i f f i c u l t to r e t a i n . Makes l i f e e asier to accept some changes as they come along. Fu-Pleased. New ways are u s u a l l y better, and even ceremonies should be modernized. Pr >Fu >Pa Pa>Pr >Fu Ambivalenc e: Dominant a t t i t u d e i s again pragmatic:-t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s ways are best, but sometimes easier to accept changes as they come. Strong underlying sentiment i n favour of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s customs. They are the best only i f they can be retained. R e l i g i o n i s the only sphere i n which past o r i e n t a t i o n i s given a strong secondary preference. -68-TABLE 1 1 (continued) Item Values C eylone se Dominant Responses* Major Variant Interpretation T5 How should one plan for change (community development)? Pa-follow past customs Pr-wait and see, then decide Fu-make good plans ahead of time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Future: Always plan ahead for any community develop-ment, although strong underlying sentiment that one should "wait and see" before making too many detailed plans—the pragmatic attitude, again. People generally do net favor tackling new problems in traditional ways. Over-all Interpretation of Time Orientation: Optimistic about the future, especially for children, but this future is approached pragmatically and cautiously. Retain those traditions that continue to be useful; before making too many future plans wait and see how things develop. Those past traditions favoured most are associated with religion. Man-Nature Area MN1. Attitude towards the death of one1s cattle. S-such losses cannot 0>W>S be prevented and the individual is not to blame O-losses are one's own fault, and they can be avoided by keeping up on new techniques W-losses due to one's failure to maintain harmony between himself and the forces of nature 0>S>W Mastery-over-Nature: stress on the mastery or the responsibility for the control of nature, with secondary stress on Harmony-with-Nature. The subjugated or "fatalistic" attitude is weakly represented. - 6 9 -TABLE 1 1 (continued) Item Values Ceylonese Responses: Dominant Int e r p r e t a t i o n Major Variant MN2 How the gods are r e l a t e d to man and the n a t u r a l forces a f f e c t i n g h i s crops and l i v e s t o c k . W-people should keep i n harmony with the gods and forces of nature to bring about good conditions 0-gods do not c o n t r o l conditions, so i t i s up to people to t r y hard to c o n t r o l them S-people can neither know the actions of gods nor c o n t r o l conditions themselves, so i t i s best to take what comes S>0>W 0>S>W Sub.jugation-to-Nature, a " f a t a l i s t " response, i s emphasized. But parado x i c a l l y the second preference i s f o r Mastery-over-Nature . MN.3 Ways of taking care of crops i n r e l a t i o n to the influence of natural conditions. W-work hard and keep i n harmony with nature S-work no more than necessary because r e s u l t s depend upon n a t u r a l conditions 0-hard work and new s c i e n t i f i c ideas w i l l prevent e f f e c t s of bad conditions 0>W>S WX)>S Mastery-over-Nature The emphasis i s on hard work and the use of modern techniques, but with a secondary preference f o r l i v i n g properly and keeping i n harmony with nature -70-TABLE 11 (continued) Item Values Ceylonese Responses: Interpretation Dominant Major Variant • MN4 How weather and other natural conditions are controlled. S~man has no control 0>W>S over such things so take things as they come and do one's best 0-it is man's job to 'try to overcome natural conditions, and one day he will succeed W-living properly and maintaining harmony with nature will help conditions and bring success S >W>0 Mastery-over-Nature; The emphasis is on one's own responsibility for controlling events, but this is tempered by secondary preferences for accepting what comes, living properly, and keeping in harmony with nature. MN5 Attitudes toward extending human l i f e span. 0-it is possible to extend l i f e by discovering and using new medical techniques S-humans can do l i t t l e to extend their lives, so they should accept what c ome s W-man must learn to accommodate himself to the "over-all plan" to live longer 0>W>S WX)>S Mastery-over-Nat ure s The emphasis is on paying attention to new scientific techniques that will control nature, with a secondary preference for living one's l i f e properly. Over-all Interpretation of Man-Nature Orientation: The Mastery-over-Nature orientation is clearly preferred (it is chosen four times out of five). Man, with the aid of science, can control natural events i f he works hard. There is a strong secondary preference for living in harmony with nature, especially by performing one's duties and "living properly." This concern with harmony would seem to temper the otherwise strong mastery orientation. It is interesting, however, that where the question (MN2) has more directly religious overtones (although Caudill and Scarr do not include this in their religious behaviour sphere) subjugation is first choice. E. THE RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS The s i m i l a r i t y of the val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s between the parent-child sample and the remaining sample shows that there are no important d i f f e r e n c e s as f a r as va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choice i s concerned between the two samples. The lack of i n t e r - i t e m consistency i n the data, however, i s a serious problem. Only another administration of the KVOS under more rigorous conditions i n the same culture could c l e a r the suspicion that the questionnaire items measure d i f f e r e n t values, i f they are i n f a c t measuring values at a l l . Our attempt to f i n d modal value o r i e n t a t i o n patterns may be of some use i n understanding other data from the Ceylonese c u l t u r e , but by i t s e l f i t i s but a weak and approximate form of a n a l y s i s . The decrease i n response to the value o r i e n t a t i o n s as t h e i r distance from the dominant value o r i e n t a t i o n increases does not help us to account f o r the d i s s i m i l a r v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s among the KVOS items. VI. THE PARENT-CHILD SAMPLE DIVIDED BY GENERATION, SEX, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE A. SUMMARY OF PURPOSE AND EXPECTED FINDINGS In accordance with four of our hypotheses, hypotheses 3S 4, 5? and 6, i t i s important that we show any d i f f e r e n c e s to be found i n the patterning of va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s i f our sample i s di v i d e d by generation, sex, and place of residence. According to hypotheses 3? we would expect to f i n d that dominant and major variant v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n -72-choices would be similar in the divided sample for each of the three ways of dividing i t , but that, according to hypothesis 4? any differences that were found would be most marked by generation, next most marked by sex,, and least marked by place of residence. The more detailed findings in accordance with these hypotheses will be considered in the following Chaptero Here, however, we will present the value-orientation profile comparisons in tabular and graphic form and comment briefly upon the distributions. B. THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS In making comparisons by generation, sex, and place of residence we have utilized percentages computed upon a simple frequency count of value-orientation choices in the sub-divisions of the sample. The percentage figures will be found in Tables 12 to 17. A graphic presentation similar to the one utilized earlier in the Chapter has been used to compare the data of Tables 12 to 17. The graphic representations are found in Figures 10 to IS. C o SUMMARY OF RESULTS The results of this analysis indicate that there are few, i f any, apparently significant differences between the sub-samples of the parent-child sample divided by generation, sex, and place of residence. In less than one-fifth of the cases where comparisons by these three divisions on value-orientation choices are possible is there more than a ten per cent difference between the value-orientation choices. In short, in the majority of cases, the curves of the value-orientation TABLE 12 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Parents for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete No Total Rankings Answer Per Cent (1) (2) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) (5) ( 6 ) Relational I>C>L I>LX3 L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I OI >L RI (24.0) 25.3 18.7 4.0 8.0 12.0 6.7 1 .3 100.0 R2 10.7 40.0 (25.3) 13.3 5.3 2.7 2.7 - 100.0 R3 20.0 8.0 1 .3 (22.7) 41.3 5.3 1.3 - 99.9 R4 14.7 17.3 8.0 10.7 28.0 (21 .3) - - 100.0 R5 30.7 20.0 5.3 2.7 13.3 (22.7) 4.0 1.3 100.0 R6 (25.3) 1.3 4.0 2.7 21.3 41.3 2.7 1 .3 99.9 R7 21.3 5.3 6.7 4.0 (28.0) 32.0 1.3 1 .3 99.9 Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa TI 12.0 2.7 — 1 .3 (16.0) 56.0 6.7 5.3 100.0 T2Y - - - - - 1 .3 — 98.7 100.0 T20 (40.0) 49-3 - - 1.3 4.0 4.0 1 .3 99.9 T3 (29 .3) 12.0 1.3 4.0 9.3 42.7 1.3 - 99.9 T4 12.0 4.0 8.0 24.0 14.7 (21.3) 13.3 2.7 100.0 T5 29.3 16.0 6.7 5.3 6.7 (28.0) 5.3 2.7 100.0 fen-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W s>o>w S>W>0 W>SX) WX)>S MN1 37.3 (18.7) 12.0 5.3 — (18.7) 6.7 1.3 100.0 MN2 16.0 32.0 (28.0) 2.7 - 9.3 6.7 5.3 100.0 MN3 66.7 (13.3) 1.3 - 4.0 (13.3) 1 .3 - 99.9 MN4 38.7 6.7 2.7 13.3 9.3 (26.7) 2.7 - 100.1 MN5 30.7 12.0 4.0 10.7 9,3 (21.3) 10.7 1.3 100.0 = Dominant Value Orientation; () = Major Variant Value Orientation N = 75 TABLE 13 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Children for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete Rankings No Answer Total Per Cent (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Relational I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>OI C>L>I O I >L RI 31.5. (27.4) 5.5 2.7 6.9 24.7 1.4 _ 100.1 R2 (15.1) 41.1 11.0 11.0 12.3 6.9 1.4 1.4 100.2 R3 13.7 11.0 - 6.9 42.5 (21.9) 2.7 1.4 100.1 R4 16.4 12.3 16.4 15.1 19.2 (17.8) 2.7 — 99.9 R5 47.9 13.7 - 2.7 6.9 (28.8) - - 100.0 R6 19.1 6.9 4.1 2.7 39.7 (21.9) 2.8 1.4 99.9 1 R7 (20.6) 12.3 2.7 4.1 39.7 15.1 4.1 1.4 100.0 Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa TI (15.1) 1.4 — 1.4 11.0 65.8 5.5 _ 100.2 T2Y (23.3) 45.2 5.5 - 2.7 12.3 6.9 4.1 100.0 T20 - — - - - - - 100.0 100.0 T3 34.3 8.2 - - (13.7) 34.3 5.5 4.1 100.1 T4 (19.2) 4.1 8.2 12.3 16.4 27.4 6.9 5.5 100.0 T5 (23.3) 30.1 8.2 4.1 8.2 16.4 8.2 1.4 99.9 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W S>0>W S>W>0 W>SX) W>0>S MN1 32.9 (21.9) 17.8 13.7 5.5 4.1 2.7 1.4 100.0 MN2 12.3 (30.1) 45.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 5.5 2.7 100.0 MN3 56.2 11.0 5.5 1.4 2.7 (19.2) 2.7 1.4 100.1 MN4 27.4 9.6 9.6 (23.3) 15.1 8.2 1.4 5.5 100.1 MN5 (24.7) 8.2 9.6 15.1 4.1 28.8 5.5 4.1 100.1 = Dominant Value Orientation I 0 = Maj or Variant Value Orientation N = 73 TABLE 14 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Males for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete No Total Rankings Answer Per Cent (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Relational I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>OI OL>I O I >L RI (24.8) 27.5 12.8 1.8 8.3 21.1 2.8 1.0 100.1 R2 11.0 43.1 (20.2) 11.9 7.3 4-6 1.8 — 99.9 R3 12.8 9.2 0.9 (17.4) 45.9 11.9 1.8 _ 99.9 R4 11.9 16.5 9.2 13.8 25.7 (22.0) 0.9 — 100.0 R5 35.8 16.5 2.8 3.7 10.1 (28.4) 1.8 1.0 100.1 R6 21.1 0.9 4.6 1.8 34.9 (32.1) 2.8 1.8 100.0 R7 22.0 3.7 5.5 2.8 35.8 (25.7) 2.8 1.8 100.1 Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa TI 12.8 2.8 — 0.9 (14.7) 58.7 6.4 3.7 100.0 T2Y (22.7) 56.8 4.5 - 2.3 6.8 6.8 — 99.9 T20 (40.0) 49.2 - - 1.5 4.6 4.6 — 99.9 T3 (31.2) 11.0 0.9 0.9 9.2 41.3 2.8 2.8 100.1 T4 19.3 4.6 7.3 (20.2) 13.8 23.9 8.3 2.8 100.2 T5 31.2 21.1 5.5 5.5 8.3 (22.9) 4.6 1.0 100.1 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W S>0>W S>WX) W>SX) w>o>s MN1 34.9 (18.4) 16.5 9.2 3.7 11.9 4.6 1.0 100.2 MN2 14.7 (33.0) 37.6 1.8 - 4.6 4.6 3.8 100.1 MN3 63.3 13.8 2.8 0.9 1.8 (14.7) 1.8 1.0 100.1 MN4 39.5 5.5 5.5 14.7 10.0 (22.0) 1.8 1.0 100.1 MN5 31.2 10.1 3.7 11.9 7.3 (28.4) 6.4 1.0 100.0 I = Dominant Value Orientation; () = Major Variant Value Orientation N = 109 TABLE 15 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Females for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete No Total Rankings Answer Per Gent (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Relational I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>OI C>L>I C>I>L R I 35.9 (23.1) 10.3 7.7 5.1 10.3 7.7 _ 100.1 R2 (18.0) 33-3 12.8 12.8 12.8 5.1 2.6 2.6 100.0 R3 (28.2) 10.3 - 7.7 30.8 18.0 2.6 2.6 100.2 R4 25.6 10.3 (20.5) 10.3 18.0 12.8 2.6 — 100.1 R5 48.7 (18.0) 2.6 - 10.2 (18.0) 2.6 - 100.1 R6 (25.6) 12.8 2.6 5.1 18.0 30.8 2.6 2.6 I O O . I ."j R7 18.0 (23.1) 2.6 7.7 28.2 18.0 2.6 - 100.2 f Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa TI (15.3) — — 2.7 10.3 66.7 5.1 _ 100.1 T2Y (25.9) 29.6 7.4 - 3.7 (25.9) 7.4 - 99.9 N=27* T20 (44.4) 55.6 - - - - - - 100.0 N= 9* T3 33-3 7.7 - 5.1 18.0 (30.8) 5.1 - 100.0 T4 5.1 2.6 10.3 12.8 (20.5) 25.6 15.4 7.7 100.0 T5 12.8 28.2 12.8 2.6 5.1 (20.5) 12.8 5.1 99.9 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W S>0>W S>WX) W>S>0 WX)>S MN1 35.9 (25.6) 10.3 10.3 — 10.3 5.1 2.6 100.1 MN2 12.8 (25.6) 33-3 2.6 2.6 7.7 10.3 5.1 100.0 MN3 56.4 7.7 5.1 - 7.7 (20.5) 2.6 — 100.0 MN4 15.4 15.4 7.7 28.2 (18.0) 5.1 2.6 7.7 100.1 MN5 18.0 10.3 (15.4) (15.4) 5.1 (15.4) 12.8 7.7 100.1 = Dominant Value Orientation; () - Major Variant Value Orientation N = 39 •^Discrepancy of three from total N due tc "no answers" being combined with responses to alternate form of T2. TABLE 16 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Matara Residents for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete No Total Rankings Answer Per Cent (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Relational I>OL I>L>C L>I>C L>C >I C>L>I C>I>L RI 40.3 17.7 4.8 — 6.5 (22.6) 6.5 1.6 100.0 R2 (19.4) 35.5 16.1 12.9 6.5 3.2 4.8 1.6 100.0 R3 9.7 8,1 1.6 12.9 48.4 (16.1) 3.2 - 100.0 R4 24.2 11.3 8.1 11.3 (21.0) 24.2 — — 100.1 R5 38.7 16.1 1.6 3.2 9.7 (25.8) 3.2 1.6 99.9 R6 14.5 - 6.5 3.2 (29.0) 40.3 3.2 3.2 99.9 R7 16.1 4.8 8.1 3.2 38.7 (24.2) 3.2 1.6 99.9 Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa TI (14.5) 3.2 _ 1.6 11.3 6I.3 4.8 3.2 99.9 T2Y (25.8) 51.6 - - 3.2 19.4 - - 100.0 T20 48.4 (41.9) — — — 6.5 3.2 - 100.0 T3 38.7 16.1 1.6 1.6 8.1 (29.0) 1.6 3.2 99.9 T4 (19.4) 3.2 8.1 17.7 12.9 27.4 9.7 1.6 100.0 T5 (24.2) 19.4 6.5 4.8 9.7 30.7 1.6 3.2 100.1 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W s>o>w S>¥>0 W>S>0 WX)>S MN1 37.1 8.1 14.5 9.7 6.5 (19.4) 3.2 1.6 100.1 MN2 8.1 (25.8) 48.4 1.6 80! 6.5 1.6 100.1 MN3 48.4 16.1 4.8 - 3*2 (25.8) 1.6 =. 99.9 MN4 32.3 . 4.8 3.3 (24.2) 12.9 17.7 1.6 3.2 100.0 MN5 (27.4) 11.3 3.2 11..3 8.1 22a2 6.5 1.6 100.1 — Dominant Value Orientation; () = Major Variant Value Orientation N = 62 TABLE 1 7 Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations of Colombo Residents for the Parent-Child Sample on the 18 Items of the KVOS Rural Form Utilized in the Ceylonese Study Item Ranking of Value-Orientation Positions Incomplete Rankings No Answer .Total Per Cent ( 1 ) (2) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) ( 6 ) Relational I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C >I C>L>I - C>I>L RI (18 . 6 ) 3 2 . 6 1 7 . 4 5.8 8 . 1 1 5 . 1 2 . 3 9 9 . 9 R2 8 . 1 4 4 . 4 ( 1 9 . 8 ) 1 1 . 6 1 0 . 5 5.8 =• - 1 0 0 . 0 R3 ( 2 2 . 1 ) 1 0 . 5 - 1 6 . 3 3 7 . 2 1 1 . 6 1.2 . 1 . 2 1 0 0 . 1 R4 9 . 3 ( 1 7 . 4 ) 1 5 » 1 1 4 . 0 2 5 . 6 1 6 . 3 2 . 3 - 1 0 0 . 0 R5 3 9 . 5 1 7 . 4 3 . 5 2 . 3 1 0 . 5 ( 2 5 . 6 ) 1 . 2 _ 1 0 0 . 0 R6 ( 2 7 . 9 ) 7 . 0 2 . 3 2 , 3 3 1 o 4 2 5 . 6 2 . 3 1 . 2 1 0 0 . 0 R7 ( 2 4 . 4 ) 1 1 . 6 2 . 3 4 . 7 3^2 2 3 . 3 2 . 3 1.2 1 0 0 . 0 , Time Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa ^ • i CXJ-I TI 1 2 . 8 1 . 2 — 1.2 ( 1 5 . 1 ) 6 0 . 5 7 . 0 2 . 3 1 0 0 . 1 T2Y ( 2 2 . 5 ) 4 2 . 5 1 0 . 0 2 . 5 1 0 . 0 1 2 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 N = 4 0 * T20 ( 3 4 . 9 ) 5 5 . 8 - - 2 . 3 2 . 3 4 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 N = 4 3 * T3 ( 2 6 . 7 ) 5.8 2 . 3 1 4 . 0 4 5 . 4 4 . 7 1.2 1 0 0 . 1 T4 1 2 . 8 4 . 7 8 . 1 (18.6) 1 7 . 4 2 2 . 1 1 0 . 5 5.8 1 0 0 . 0 T5 2 7 . 9 ( 2 5 . 6 ) 8 . 1 4 o 7 5.8 1 6 . 3 1 0 . 5 1.2 1 0 0 . 1 Man-Nature 0>W>S 0>S>W S > 0 > ¥ S>W>D W>S>0 W>0>3 MN1 3J_o_7 ( 2 9 o l ) 1 5 . 1 9 . 3 5.8 5.8 1.2 1 0 0 . 0 MN2 18 .6 24-2 ( 2 7 . 9 ) 2 . 3 1 . 2 3 . 5 5.8 5.8 1 0 0 . 0 MN3 7 0 o 9 (93) 2 . 3 1 . 2 3 . 5 ( 9 . 3 ) 2 . 3 1.2 1 0 0 co MN4 3 ^ 7 1 0 , 5 sa. 1 4 o 0 1 1 . 6 ( 1 7 . 4 ) 2 , 3 2 . 3 9 9 . 9 MN5- 2 7 o 9 9 . 3 9 o 3 1 4 . 0 5.8 ( 2 0 . 9 ) 9 . 3 3 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 — Dominant Value Orientationj () -• Major Variant Value Orientation N — 86 ^Discrepancy of three from total. N due to "no answers" being combined with responses to alternate form of T2. -79-1 0 0 9 0 80 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 RI: Well arrangements 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R4: Choice of delegate 100 90 80 70 60 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 R7: Land inheritance 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10( 0 *i —LL f \ V \ > 1 2 3 4 5 6 R2: Help in misfortune 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 R3: Family work relations 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 2 10 f V • \ \ ' • • — 1 2 3 4 R5: Wage, work 1 2 3 4 5 6 R6: Livestock inheritance 1 equals I>C>L 2 3 4 5 6 I»L»C L»I»C L»C>I C>L»I C>I>L O O equals Dominant value orientation " Major Variant value orientation equals Parents " Children FIGURE.10 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Relational Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation. . (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -80-100 100 3 4 5 T I : Child training M /•' 3 4 5 6 T3s Philosophy of l i f e • . . • • ' 2 3 4 5 6 T2(young): Change expectancy T2(old): Change expect. 100, 90 80 70 60 50 40-30 T4J Ceremonial innovation ^ G. s ...^ > 1 2 3 4 5 6 T5s Water arrangements 1 2 3 4 5 6 equals Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa»Pr Pa>Fu»Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu»Pa © equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation equals Parents " Children FIGURE 11 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Time Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation. (Percentages of Persons.Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -81-1 2 3 4 5 6 MNl: Livestock dying 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN2: Facing conditions c > 1 2 3 4 5 MN3s Use of fields 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN4J Belief in control 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN5: Length of l i f e 1 equals 0>W»3 2 3 4 5 6 o»s>v s»o>w S»W>0 W»S>0 w>o>s © equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation :.. equals Parents .... " Children FIGURE 12 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation. (Percentages of Persons.Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -82-3( 2C si 1 2 3 4 5 6 RI: Well arrangements c , • * * • •. 1 2 3 4 5 6 R4: Choice of delegate 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A \ / 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 R7: Land inheritance 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 3 0 20 ( 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R 2 : Help in misfortune k 1 2 3 4 5 6 R3: Family vork relations 100 90 1 2 3 4 R5: Wage work R 6 : Livestock inheritance equals I>C>L I»L»C L>I»C L>C>I C»L»I C»I»L @ equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation equals Male .... " • Female FIGURE 13 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Relational Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Sex. (percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -83-30 X N 1 2 3 4 5 TI: Child training \ \ • • ^^^^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 T3* Philosophy of l i f e 100 70 60 50 40 30, j / A t \ )'• , (< f \ • \ • • .... 100 4 5 4 5 6 T2(young): Change expectancy T2(old)s Change expect 100, 50 40 20 ) s V C • • • . 1 2 3 4 5 6 T4s Ceremonial innovation • 1 2 3 4 5 6 T5J Water arrangements 1 equals Fu»Pr»Pa 2 3 4 5 6 « n II it tt Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu»pr Pa»Pr>Fu Pr>Pa»Fu Pr»Fu»Pa O equals Dominant value orientation O *' Major Variant value orientation \ equals Male .... " Female . FIGURE 14 Graphic Representation of-the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Time items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Sex. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -84-70 60 50 40, 30* 20 10 0 * • • * 1 2 3 4 5 6 MNls Livestock dying lOOr 90 80 70 60 .50 .40 30 20 10 0 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN2: Facing conditions 1 \ • N • Si ••• • • -— ^ • 100 90 80 7C 60 50 40 3 1 2 3 4 5 HN3s Use of f i e l d s 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN4t Belief In control 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN5* Length of l i f e 1 equals 0»W>S 2 » ' 0»S>W 3 " S»0>W 4 " S»W»0 5 M w»S»0 6 » W»0»S O equals Dominant value orientation O n Major Variant value orientation ______ equals Male .... » Female FIGURE 15 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Sex. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate ancHFalue Orientations on the Abscissa,) -85-1 0 0 90 80 70 6 0 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 RI: Well arrangements 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 20^  10, 0 k l 1 2 3 4 5 6 R4: Choice of delegate 1 0 0 9 0 80 7 0 6 0 50 40 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R7: Land inheritance 1 2 3 4 5 6 R2: Help in misfortune 70 6 0 5 0 40| 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 A 1 2 3 4 R5i Wage work 5 6 R6: Livestock inheritance 1 2 3 4 5 6 equals I>C>L I»L»C L»I»C L»C>I C»L»I C»I»L Q equals Dominant value orientation O •, " • Major Variant value orientation equals Matara . . .... " Colombo FIGURE 16 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Relational Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Place of Residence. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -36-100 1 2 3 4 5 TI: Child training 1 3 4 5 6 T3: Philosophy of l i f e 100 T2(young): Change expectancy T2(old): Change expect lOOr 90 80 70 60-50-40-'30 2 10. 0 1 T4: Ceremonial innovation 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 3 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 T5s Water arrangements 1 2 3 4 5 6 equals Pu>Pr>Pa n II TI l» II Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa > Pr > Fu Pr»Pa>Fu Pr»Fu>Pa O equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation equals Matara .... " Colombo FIGURE 17 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Time Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Place of Residence. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) -37-70 60 50 30! 20 10 0 V \ 1 2 3 4 5 6 M N I J Livestock dying IOC) 90 80 70 60 :50 40 30 20 10 0 it k , A 'A 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN2t Facing conditions 100 90 80 70| 60 50 40 3 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN4t Belief in control 3( 2C 80 70 < 6 0 5 °< 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN3i Use of fields • 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN5s Length of l i f e 1 equals 0»W>S 2 " 0>S>W 3 " S>0>W 4 " S>W>0 5 »' W>S>0 6 " W»0>S O equals Dominant value orientation O " Major Variant value orientation equals Matara .... " Colombo FIGURE 18 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations on Man-Nature Items for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Place of Residence. (Percentages of Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) . -88-profiles comparing generations, sexes, and places of residence follow one another quite closely. . The few discrepancies that can be noted might be explained in terms of stereotypical models of the cultural context, but this exercise would be purely speculative in view of the overall picture presented by the data. D. THE DETAIL OF THE ANALYSIS In Figures 10 to 18, comparisons of value-orientation profiles for each KVOS item can be made by generation, sex, and place of residence, since the percentage choices by these divisions of the sample are superimposed on the graphs for each item. The most striking feature of the comparisons is that there are few, i f any, apparent differences that make a difference between the paired sub-samples. There are very few cases displaying a difference of more than a few per cent. If we examine each of the 18 items for each of the three break-downs of the sample (by generation, sex, and place of residence) and look at each possible value-orientation choice pair comparison, six for each of the 17 items by three breakdowns (generation on T2 young and T2 old becomes one item) we have 318 possible paired comparisons. As estimated from Figures 10 to 18, in only 60 of these comparisons is there more than a ten per cent difference between the pairs (18.9 per cent of the paired comparisons). More important, however, is that in a l l but a few cases, the curves of the value-orientation profiles for a given item follow one another very closely. -89-Shifts between the sub-samples between dominant value-orientation choices are few, and where they do occur they almost always represent a one-distance. In only two cases (item T4 by generation and item R4 by sex) is there a two-distance between the dominant value orientations of the sub-samples, and in only one case (item MN4 by sex) is there a three-distance between the dominant value orientations. Major variant value orientations typically follow the patterning of the total parent-child sample, falling a one distance from the dominant value orientation. They vary more in position as between sub-samples than do the dominant value orientations, however, since they may f a l l either side of the dominant value orientation and s t i l l meet the one-distance criterion of typical major variant value orientation position. Although the position difference between major variant value-orientation positions as between the sub-samples may be more than a one-distance, the percentage difference as between the sub-samples on these positions is typically small. There are, perhaps, a few exceptions worthy of mention. On item R5 ("wage work") by generation, children choose the dominant value orientation that parents also choose (l>C>L) 17.2 per cent more than parents. This finding might f i t the stereotype of youth placing more stress upon individualism in a westernizing country. On item T2 young ("expectations about change") by sex, the dominant value orientation (Fu>Pa>Pr) is chosen 27.2 per cent more by males than by females. The greater aggressiveness of the male could account for this discrepancy. On item MM3 ("use of fields"), Colombo residents choose the dominant value orientation (0>W>S) 22.5 per cent more than do Matara -90-residents. This choice could r e f l e c t the greater l e v e l of " s c i e n t i f i c sophistication" and higher education of the urban dweller. I t should be unnecessary to state, i n view of the o v e r a l l picture presented by the data, that these speculations are very hazardous, i f not i d l e . Any such hypothetical statements must await further and suitable test f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . E. THE RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS In view of the findings just described, l i t t l e can be said of differences between the sub-samples of the parent-child sample divided by generation, sex, and place of residence. This indicates that such differences do not e x i s t , that the questions on the KVOS are not the right ones to tap the values sought, or that neither the differences nor the values have been tapped by the sample upon which these comparisons have been made. Some further discussion of these findings i s undertaken i n Chapter V. I t should be mentioned that within some of the speculations we we have made from the data there are implied hypotheses that, with further c l a r i f i c a t i o n along with i s o l a t i o n of the relevant variables, might subsequently be tested. We have suggested, for example, that individualism may be stronger among younger members of the sample population (page 5 8), that emphasis upon the future i s stronger than emphasis upon the present among the young (pages 60 -61), and that there i s a decrease i n the popularity, among the young, of keeping i n harmony with nature r e l a t i v e to attempting to master nature (page 62). In view of the equivocal nature of our r e s u l t s , we can, at present, only suggest these p o s s i b i l i t i e s . CHAPTER IV THE VERIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHESES I. INTRODUCTION This Chapter comprises the material necessary for the verification of the eight hypotheses concerning Ceylonese values stated in Chapter II. Here the hypotheses will be stated again and followed by such evidence as is relevant to their test. This evidence consists partly of summary statements of analyses presented in the previous Chapter, partly of replications of Caudill and Scarr methods of analysis, and partly of analytical innovations of our own. To conserve space we will keep these analyses to a minimum, including only the most relevant material. This procedure is unhappily facilitated by the inconclusiveness of our results. As in Chapter III, where we have adopted techniques differing from those of Caudill and Scarr, our justification and explanation of these will be presented in footnote form. We will not utilize the five-step presentation of each analysis used in Chapter III, but merely state the eight hypotheses and present the material relevant for their test, together with conclusions afforded by its significance. II. THE TEST OF THE HYPOTHESES A. HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE ORIENTATIONS l o FirstHypothesis•. As the distance from the dominant value orientation increases, the proportion of choices falling in other value orientations -92-decreases. 2. Second Hypothesis (corollary). The major variant value orientation coincides with one of the logically deduced first order variants of the dominant value orientation. 3. Rationale. These hypotheses follow from the empirical findings of Caudill and Scarr. 4. Analysis. In accordance with the empirical findings of Caudill and Scarr, we have, in general, verified hypotheses one and two. Reference to Figures 4 to 6 in Chapter III shows that among the eighteen items for which percentages of value-orientation choices have been graphed, in only two cases (R3 and T4) do the graphs display bimodality where the dominant value orientation and major variant value orientation are a two-distance apart, and in only one graph (the graph of MN3) is bimodality produced by a three-distance separation of the dominant and major variant value orientations.There i s , in addition, one case (MN5) of a bimodal curve 1 In reading these graphs, since the peak (the dominant value orientation) does not occur uniformly at the same value-orientation choice, i t is necessary to begin at the lowest point and travel "up" in both directions, jumping from 1 to 6 or from 6 to 1 (a one-distance) where this is necessary. If these journeys are "up" a l l the way in both directions to the dominant value orientation, the graph is unimodal, and, by definition, the dominant and major variant value orientations will be a one-distance apart. -93-which is not produced by a more than one-distance separation of the dominant and major varient value orientations. In this case the extra peak in the graph (a three-distance from the dominant value orientation and a two-distance from the major variant value orientation) i s of small magnitude. 5. Conclusions. This finding is perhaps the best evidence in our data to support the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck hypothesis concerning dominant and major variant value orientations. By chance, i f no other selective factors were involved in value-orientation choice, i t would be expected that a nearly horizontal line would be found for the graph of the value-orientation profile for each item. We are not able to say, however, what selective factors are producing these curves. They may or may not be values. Another look at the graphs will show that in fact some of these curves are very nearly flat, for examples, R4, T4, MN4, and MN5, i f some fluctuation between value-orientation choices (a one-distance apart) is permitted the chance model due to uncontrolled factors. The majority of the item value-orientation profile curves do display a distinctive unimodal pattern, however. This finding is additionally interesting, and also unfortunately additionally perplexing, inasmuch as we have not found as uniform a pattern of dominant and major variant value-orientation choices (in other words we have found inter-item inconsistency) as was found in the previous studies* We will consider this point further when discussing hypothesis eight. -94-B. HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE PATTERNING OF THE VALUE ORIENTATIONS BY GENERATION, SEX AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE l o Third Hypothesis. Value orientations that are dominants and major variants for the total sample remain dominants and major variants for the sub-samples divided by generation, sex, and place of residence. 2.Fourth Hypothesis. Differences that do occur will be found to be most marked by generation, next most marked by sex, and least marked by place of residence. 3c Rationale. These hypotheses also follow from the empirical findings of Caudill and Scarr. 4» General Comment It must be stated at the outset that inasmuch as we have already shown that there are few differences that make a difference in our sample by generation, sex, and place of residence, our hypotheses here are not borne out as far as differences between the sub-samples are concerned. We should also explain that while i t may appear from hypotheses three and four that we "loaded" the situation so that we could not help but be at least f i f t y per cent correct (having hypothesized no difference in dominant and major variant value orientations by the three breakdowns in hypothesis three and then discussed the amount of difference in hypothesis four) this apparent surreptitious guarantee of partial success was not the intention of thus phrasing the hypotheses. We expected some variation in magnitude of percentages of value-orientation choices between the sub-samples, along a gradient imposed by the differing effects of the three different sample breakdowns. -95-5. Analysis In accordance with hypothesis three, then, dominant value orientations are the same value-orientation choice as between the sub-samples by generation in eleven cases out of seventeen, or in 64.7 per cent of the generational comparisons by item (see Figures 10 to 12 in Chapter III). By generation, major variant value orientations are the same for the two sub-samples in only six of the seventeen comparisons (24.9 per cent). By sex (Figures 13 to 15 in Chapter III), in twelve of the eighteen comparisons (66.7 per cent) dominant value orientations are similar between the sub-samples, and in eight out of eighteen cases (44.4 per cent) major variant value orientations are similar. By place of residence (Figures 16 to 18 in Chapter III), in ten of the eighteen cases of comparisons (55.6 per cent) dominant value orientations are similar, while in only three of the eighteen cases (16.7 per cent) are major variant value orientations similar between the sub-samples.^  2 In making these three sets of computations, ties (multiple dominant or major variant value orientations on a single item) have been ignored and any value orientations being compared that fall upon the same value-orientation choices, regardless of whether one of these sub-sample choices is tied with another position, are considered to be the same choice. MM3 by place of residence (Figure 18 in Chapter III) serves as an example of a major variant value orientation choice that was taken to be the same as between the sub-samples. -96-6. Conclusions It would appear from this analysis that i f i t were possible to choose between the three breakdowns as to order of magnitude, there is most similarity of dominant and major variant value-orientation choice by sex, somewhat less by generation, and least by place of residence. The differences in the percentages are small, however, and this relationship cannot be said to have been demonstrated conclusively. It must also be remembered that these findings, as well as those related to the other hypotheses, are overshadowed by the lack of inter-item consistency. C. HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE DIRECTIONS OF CHANGE OF CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES 1. Fifth Hypothesis.In terms of sheer amount, children have moved away from the value orientations of their parents relatively l i t t l e in the four behaviour spheres. 2. Sixth Hypothesis. What l i t t l e movement is exhibited is distributed unequally over the four behaviour spheres. The most change occurs in political l i f e , moderate amounts occur in family and occupational l i f e , and only slight change occurs in religious l i f e . 3. Rationale. These hypotheses also follow from the empirical findings of Caudill and Scarr. Here i t is assumed that parents wish to i n s t i l in their children values similar to their own. The degree of similarity -97-between generations will, therefore, reflect the degree of continuity in values. The distance between members of parent-child pairs is taken as a measure of the amount of change that has occurred in value orientations. 4. Seventh Hypothesis. The direction of change in the Ceylonese sample will be similar to the direction of change in the Japanese sample. 5. Rationale. As in hypothesis six, the areas of change in a developing nation as between generations will be, from greatest to least, political l i f e , family and occupational l i f e , and religious l i f e . 6. General Comment The "common-sense meaning" of the definition of the behavioural spheres adopted by Caudill and Scarr (1962: 73) as the basis of their behavioural sphere analysis is a problem we will consider further in the methodological critique (Chapter V), but this method of selecting items from the questionnaire as representative of the values involved, in certain spheres of behaviour is additionally hazardous in relation to the Ceylonese data. In addition to the untested choices of items to represent these behavioural spheres, our data display a poor inter-item consistency and very small differences between subvivisions of the sample by generation, sex, and place of residence. We will, however, attempt to follow the Caudill and Scarr methods of analysis insofar as this i s -98-3 feasible. As was discussed in Chapter III, there appears to be little effect exerted upon value-orientation choice differentially by the variables of generation, sex, and place of residence. However, in keeping with our purpose of replicating the Caudill and Scarr study in the Japanese culture, we will present a brief discussion of these breakdowns for the four behaviour spheres utilizing our graphic analysis see Figures 19 to 22 and footnote 3). We will then present a brief comparison of the Japanese and Ceylonese cultures concerning the effectiveness of cultural transmission from the older to the younger generation in the four behaviour spheres (Tables 18 and 19), We will 3 An additional problem, the small size of our sample, forced us to abandon one of the methods of analysis utilized by Caudill and Scarr to assess the differences in value-orientation patterns in the four behaviour spheres by generation, sex, and place of residence. We found that in constructing tables to hold two of the three variables of generation, sex, and place of residence constant to discuss the effects of the third as Caudill and Scarr did (1962: see their Tables 5 to 13, 74-81), the number of cases in a cell was often too small to be meaningful. For this reason, and also since we have already seen that these variables have little, if any, effect upon value-orientation choice (see Figures 10 to 18 in Chapter III), we have chosen to discuss hypotheses five and six in part by utilizing our previous graphic breakdown of the sample. We have thus selected the relevant graphs from Figures 10 to 18 (Chapter III) of the previous analysis and reproduced them in Figures 19 to 22, which show the family, political, occupational, and religious life behaviour sphere items cf Caudill and Scarr broken down and compared by generation, sex, and place of residence. We will expand our test of hypotheses five and six and compare the Japanese and Ceylonese value-orientation patterns (hypothesis seven) by utilizing another Caudill and Scarr behavioural sphere method of analysis, that of taking as "Our eriterion of the success of the parent in Instilling his values in his child . . . the distance between the value orientations of the parent and the child . . . ." (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 82). Caudill and Scarr present this analysis in their Tables 14 to 23., pages 83 to 89. Our Tables 18 to 27 present similar data for our sample, Tables 18 and 19 also including relevant summary data from the Caudill and Scarr Tables 14 and 15 respectively for comparison of the Japanese and Ceylonese samples (hypothesis seven). -99-conclude with a more detailed consideration of the nature of the variation by generation in the four behaviour spheres, but since our data here do not allow valid conclusions, the section is included largely for the sake of completeness in keeping with our aim of replicating the Caudill and Scarr study (see Tables 20 to 21). 7. Analyses; Intergenerational Comparisons in the Four Behaviour Spheres a) The graphic analysis (l) The Family Life Behaviour Sphere In the family l i f e behaviour sphere (Figure 19), the dominant value orientation remains dominant between the sub-samples in a l l cases but one (seven times out of eight), the place of residence breakdown on item T2 old. Even here, however, there is only a one-distance difference between the sub-samples and the percentage choice for each differs by only 7.4 per cent. The major variant value orientation is the same as between the sub-samples in only four cases out of the eight comparisons. It is interesting that for our data the two forms <o'£ it/em T2, young and old, resemble one another as closely as they do in value-orientation profiles, inasmuch as this item was discarded by Caudill and Scarr in discussing intergenerational change (1962: 82), although this item was administered in a different form to the two generations.'^ 4 Caudill and Scarr apparently lost faith in the similarity <o'£ ''the two forms of this item when i t did not f u l f i l l their predictions. "Item'T2 would not be expected necessarily to behave regularly over the t'otal sample for i t was administered in a different form to the two generations. .. . .'" (1962: 67)« This point will be discussed further in Chapter V. -100-100 equals Pajrentjs ^0 ' ChtLldiJen 8 0 70 60 ; 50 40 30 2 10 0 61 100 90 CO 70 60 50 40 ( 30 20 10 0 • \ \ \ \ \ \ 1 2 3 4 5 R3: Family work relations 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 T2(young): Change expectancy 5 6 / / \ A T2(old): Change expect. 100 1 2 3 4 5 R 3 : Family work relations 1 2 3 4 5 6 T2(young): Change expectancy •. 1 0 0 _ 90 80 70 60 50 4 0 ^ 30 20 10 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 R3 : Family work relations 2 3 4 5 6 T2(old): Change expect. 100 2 3 4 5 6 T2(young): Change expectancy 3 4 5 6 T2(old): Change expect. FIGURE 19 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations in the Family Behaviour Sphere (R3, T2) for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex and Place of Residence. (Adapted from Figures 10 to 18.) -101-100 90 . 80 •70 • 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 — 1 . .r — y mi* , GENERATION _____ equals Parents .... » Children 1 2 3 4 5 6 R4: Choice of delegate SEX equals Male " Female 1 2 3 4 5 6 R4: Choice of delegate 100 90 80 •70 60 50 40 30, 10 0 >. • • • • . • PLACE OF RESIDENCE equals Matara .... " Colombo 1 2 3 4 5 6. R4: Choice of delegate FIGURE 20 Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations in the Political Behaviour Sphere (R4) for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex and Place of Residence. (Adapted from Figures 10 to 18.) -102-ERA! ION • • • ec ual 9 Pa ?ent t it Ch ildr 6 / i I / \ ^ '. "•v • • • ' r 50 AO 30 20 10< 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 R2: Help in misfortune 100 50 40 30 20( 10 0 SE> • e<j_uai s Ma Le • • • • i " iiale 0] fi 1 • • » • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 R2: Help in misfortune 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 ( 10 0 .OF, \ )F R =T>TD e lual 3 Ma tars • • • Co lomt t *\*-1 2 3 4 5 6 R2: Help in misfortune 1 2 3 4 5 6 R5i Wage, work 100 90 80 70 60 50^ 40 30 20 10 0 loo 90 80 70 60 50 40^  30 20 10 0 it) 1 2 3 4 5 6 R5t Wago work V A -A 1 2 3 4 R5: Wago work FIGURE 21 5 6 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ; —— •\ 1 2 3 4 5 MN3: Use of fields 2 3 4 5 MN3: Use of fields Graphic Representation of the Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations in the Occupational Behaviour Sphere (R2, R5> MN3) for the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation,- Sex and Place of Residence* (From Figures 10 to 18.) s Pareni.s Child: 'en T3: Philosophy of l i f e I X qua^s Male 1—Fqrnalfe T3J Philosophy oi l i f e 100 Cdlombo 1 2 3 4 5 6 ) ! ) r.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 T4: Ceremonial innovation v J 1 2 3 4 5 6 T4: Ceremonial innovation 100, 90 80 70 60 50 4C '3d 10 o. l 100 90 80 7C 60 50 100 90 80 7C 60 50 40 T3s Philosophy of l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 MN5« Length of l i f o 1 2 3 4 5 6 KN5: Length of l i f o 1 2 3 4 5 6 MN5: Length of l i f o f. T4: Ceremonial innovation FIGURE 22 Graphic Representation of the Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations i n the Religious Behaviour Sphere (T3, T4, MN5) f o r the Parent-Child Sample Divided by Generation, Sex and Place of Residence. (From Figures 10 to 18.) -104-There appear to be few other differences between the sub-samples that can be commented upon, except on item T2 young by sex, a difference that was discussed previously (see Chapter III). (2) The Political Life Behaviour Sphere The single item, R4> representing the political l i f e behaviour sphere (Figure 20) shows l i t t l e differentiation as between the three paired comparisons, by generation, sex, and place of residence. In addition,, for the Ceylonese data, this item differentiates poorly between the six value-orientation choices,, the graphs forming a flat., i f wavy, curve. The dominant and major variant value orientations are the same between the six sub-sample pairs on R4 only once out of the three pair comparisons (R4 by generation). (3) The Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere The occupational l i f e behaviour sphere (Figure 21) also shows similar patterns of value-orientation profiles for the three paired comparisons. Over-all, this sphere perhaps shows the least variation between the sub-samples„ The dominant value orientation for each paired comparison is the same value-orientation choice between the pairs throughout the nine comparisons. The major variant value-orientation choice is the same on six of the nine paired comparisons. -105-(4) The Religious Life Behaviour Sphere Two of the items representing the religious l i f e behaviour sphere (Figure 22) appear to discriminate poorly among the six value-orientation choices, item T4 especially, but also item MN5. With this added limitation i t i s doubly difficult to assess any difference between sub-samples, but as with the other behaviour spheres, they display largely insignificant differenceso The dominant value orientation is the same on only four of the nine paired comparisons, and the major variant value orientation is the same on only one comparison, MN5 by sex. In addition, the female sub-sample on this comparison is a nearly flat curve, showing three major variant value orientations. (5) Conclusions It would be unjustified here to choose a gradient of behaviour sphere differences in accordance with hypothesis six in the light of our data. There i s , perhaps, one sphere in which the sub-samples are more closely related in their value-orientation profiles, the occupational sphere. If this could be supported, i t would not be strictly in accordance with the prediction of hypothesis six. Beyond this observation, however, the hazards of speculation in view of the picture these data present preclude commentary. It does appear to be true, however, in accordance with hypothesis five, that the value orientations of parents and children in the behaviour spheres differ l i t t l e . If we may be permitted a brief digression, one test of the representativeness of the items of the same behaviour sphere might be the similarity between items in a given behaviour sphere that come from the same -106-value-orientation area. This would be most interesting for the Ceylonese data, since, in view of the inter-item inconsistency, it might also delineate dimensions along which greater inter-item consistency would be found. We have already seen that the value-orientation profiles of the two forms of item T2 in the family life behaviour sphere are very similar (Figure 19). If we compare items R2 and R5 in the occupational behaviour sphere, the dominant value orientation for each item remains the same for each of the three paired comparisons and between the pairs. For R2 the dominant value orientation is I>L>C, and for R5 the dominant value orientation is I>C>L, and these value-orientation positions are only a one-distance apart. In addition, the unimodal shape of the graphs with a peak at approximately the same height ("t 40 per cent of the value-orientation choices) indicates a similarity between the items. It is not possible, of course, to compare item MN3 with items R3 and R5 in the occupational behaviour sphere in this manner, but for all three of the paired comparisons item MN3 clearly displays a similar unimodal graph of value-orientation profile, and the dominant value orientation between all three paired comparisons and among the pairs is 0>W>S. Assessment of the KVOS by other means, however, would be more valid than an exercise such as this, considering both the speculative choice of items to represent the behavioural spheres and their fewness. b) Comparison of the Ceylonese and Japanese cultures (l) Combined Analysis: All Four Behaviour Spheres Tables 18 and 19 compare the Ceylonese and Japanese cultures by generation in the four behaviour spheres. TABLE 18 Percentage Comparison of CeyJone^e and Japanese Parent-Child p a i r s According to the Distance Between +hp V a l n o Orientationp oi Parent and Child or Selected (Behaviour Snhere) Items from the KVOS Item Number 0 Distance Between Parent and Child (One-distances) 1 2 .3 Total Per Cent Number of Parent-Child Pairs R2 24 (36)* 44 (40) 25 (18) 7 (6) 100 (100) 71 (236) R3 28 (42) 39 (33) 20 (19) 13 (5) 100 (99) 71 (236) R4 21 (23) 33 (42) 29 (26) 16 (9) 99 (100) 73 (238) R5 25 (53) 49 (39) 24 (8) 1 (0) 99 (100) 71 (227) T3 34 (51) 45 (39) 16 (9) 5 (1) 100 (100) 67 (237) T4 18 (35) 31 (45) 38 (17) 13 (3) 100 (100) 55 (224) MN3 49 (43) . 39 (36) 11 (15) 0 (6) 99 (100) 71 (243) M5 20 (51) 32 (35) 33 (9) 15 (5) 100 (100) 60 (233) X 28 (42) 39 (39) 25 (15) 10 (4) I H O I *Japanese data (in parentheses) from Caudill and Scarr 1962: Table 14, page 83. -108-Caudill and Scarr state that by their definition of the success of a parent instilling his values in his child, Japanese parents are "highly successful" in transmitting their values to their children (1962: 82). The average of total transmissions expressed as a percentage (a zero-distance between parent and child) is 42 per cent as compared with the chance expectancy of 16.7 per cent. The Ceylonese total average trans-mission as a percentage is 28 per cent, about one and two-thirds times chance expectancy. The Ceylonese would thus appear to be less successful than the Japanese, on the average over the behaviour spheres, in transmitting their values to their children. TABLE 19 Percentage Comparison of Ceylonese and Japanese Parent-Child Pairs, Items Arranged According to Increasing Percentage of "Very Distant" (a two-or three-distance apart) Parent-Child Pairs Item Behaviour Per Cent of Number Sphere Very Distant Pairs T4 (R4)« Rel. (Pol.) 51 (35) MN5 (R2) Rel. (Occ.) 48 (24) R4 (R3) Pol. (Fam.) 45 (24) R3 (MN3) Fam. (Occ.) 33 (21) R2 (T4) Occ. (Rel.) 32 (20) R5 (MN5) Occ. (Rel.) 25 (14) T3 (T3) Rel. (Rel.) 21 (10) MN3 (R5) Occ. (Occ.) 11 (8) *Japanese data (in parentheses) from Caudill and Scarr 1962: Table 15, page 83. -109-I f the c r i t e r i o n of success i n the transmission of values i s relaxed to include pairs at a one-distance as w e l l as those at a zero-distance apart, the average percentage transmission of values from old to young over the behaviour spheres i s 81 per cent f o r the Japanese data and 67 per cent f o r the Ceylonese data. The success of the Japanese transmitting t h e i r values now drops from approximately two and one-half times to approximately one and five-eighths times the revised chance expectancy of f i f t y per cent. Here the increase over chance expectancy of the Ceylonese value transmissions has dropped only s l i g h t l y from one and two-thirds times to one and one-third times chance expectancy. Table 19 attempts to delineate the areas i n which parents have had the least success i n holding t h e i r children to t h e i r own value orientations and also attempts to compare the Japanese and Ceylonese cultures i n t h i s respect. C a u d i l l and Scarr found that by grouping the eight items by value-orientation areas, the mean percentages of difference f o r the items i n the r e l a t i o n a l , man-nature, and time areas respectively were 23, 18, and 15 per cent. In grouping the items according to behaviour sphere, they found the percentages of difference for items i n the p o l i t i c a l (R4), f a m i l i a l (R3), occupational (R2, R5, and MN3), and r e l i g i o u s (T3, T4, and MN5) spheres to be respectively, 35, 24, 18, and 15 per cent ( C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: 84). They conclude from t h i s analysis that the behaviour spheres more than the value-orientation areas seem to separate the items 5 according to the percentages of difference between parents and children. 5 Where we have spoken of "percentages of difference" between the value orientations of the parents and the ch i l d r e n , C a u d i l l and Scarr have spoken of "rates of change." With t h i s method, one can only delineate percentage differences. Even i f we assume that the childrens' values are -110-Their conclusion, the derivation of which they do not explain, presumably fellows from the wider range of the percentage values among the behaviour spheres than among the value-orientation areas. It should be pointed out, however, that i f the one-item political behaviour sphere percentage value is removed, the two gradients are the same. Their comment, " . . . many more items in a l l areas as well as spheres would be needed before definitive conclusions could be reached." (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 84) seems to indicate the wisest course of action. For what i t is worth, we may perform a similar ordering of the items on the Ceylonese data. We find that in grouping the eight items by behaviour sphere our mean values are 45* 33* 23* and 40, by political, familial, occupational, and religious spheres respectively, and in grouping by value-orientation areas our mean values are 34, 25* and 36 for the relational, man-nature, and time value-orientation areas respectively. The gradients of difference in the two ways of ranking thus do not coincide for the Japanese and Ceylonese values, although only the value for the religious sphere is out of place in the Ceylonese behaviour sphere ranking compared to the same ranking for the Japanese data. Again, the differences in the figures are too small, and more important, the items are too few for anything exceeding speculation. those of the parents differentially retained, and thus imply that the percentage differences between the parents and children reflect "change," these percentage values are not rates. A rate cannot be derived from a single value from a synchronic analysis such as this, even though i t may be expressed as a single value. ("Value" in the last sentence means quantity.) -111-(2) Conclusions We have shown that the children have adopted the values of their parents to a greater degree than would be expected by chance alone. In view of the previous graphic analysis, however, i t appears that this model probably exaggerates the extent of the difference in value profiles between the parents and children. Prom the previous analysis (see Figures 19 to 22), since we saw few and small intergenerational differences, we might expect that parents and children would be seen to hold similar values to a much greater extent than was indicated in the above analysis. The analysis does indicate that the Ceylonese are apparently less successful in instilling their values in their children than are the Japanese. This finding could be said to be generally in accord with hypothesis five. As far as the gradient of difference in values between the parents and children among the behaviour spheres as stated in hypothesis six is concerned, our evidence suggests that i f any patterning exists i t is not the hypothesized one of greatest difference by political, moderate amount of difference by family and occupational, and least difference by religious l i f e behaviour spheres. Reference to Table 19 shows that the items representing a given behaviour sphere are, in addition, separated from one another in the frequency with which they are chosen in both the Japanese and the Ceylonese data. Hypothesis seven does not seem to be supported by this analysis. Differences in value orientations between the parents and the children form a different gradient by item for the Ceylonese data than for the Japanese data (see Table 19). -112-c) Comparisons between the Japanese and Ceylonese cultures; value-orientation variation by generation Tables 20 to 27 show the' differences in value orientations in the four behaviour spheres between parents and children. The estimate of the expected distribution of value orientations held by the children on a given item is the actual distribution held by their parents. Table 20 represents the family l i f e behaviour sphere, Table 21 the political l i f e behaviour sphere, Tables 22 to 24 the occupational l i f e behaviour sphere, and Tables 25 to 27 the religious l i f e behaviour sphere. (Since we are following the method of Caudill and Scarr here and comparing the Japanese and Ceylonese data, we have omitted item T2 for the family l i f e behaviour sphere as did Caudill and Scarr.) While the number of cases in any one cell is too small to present a meaningful picture in many instances, there are a few values in the Tables large enough to be worthy of comment. For the purposes of this analysis we have arbitrarily chosen a cell value of less than ten among the Ceylonese responses as the cut-off point for values too small to merit discussion. (l) The Family Life Behaviour Sphere A comparatively large number of children have retained the C>L>I value orientation of their parents on this item (R3) representing the family l i f e behaviour sphere. In addition, a comparatively large number have shifted a one-distance from L>C>I to C>L>I. The gain in Collaterality described for the Japanese sample (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 85-86), including an increase in preference for -113-TABLE 20 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child Pairs in the Family Life Behaviour Sphere (R3) Value Value Orientations of Children Distribution Orientations of Parents of Parents I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I C>I>L I>C>L (2)* I>LX) 2 L>I>C 1 L>C>I 2 C>L>I 3 C>I>L Distribution of Children 10 2 1 5 1 1 (2) 10 5 2 (14) 2 8 5 32 4 14 3 6 1 1 16 6 30 (2) 4 16 71 Total. * ( )= frequency of identical parent-child value orientations. J four pairs omitted for "incomplete" or "no answer1' responses. TABLE 21 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controllong for Value Orientations Among Parents over 73 Parent-Child Pairs in the Political Life Behaviour Sphere (R4) Value Value Orientations of Children Distribution Orientations of Parents of Parents I>C;1 I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I C>I>L I>C>L (2)* I>L>C 5 L>I>C 1 L>C >I 1 C>L>I 2 C>I>L 3 Distribution of Children 14 1 1 2 1 (2) 1 1 5 1 (2) 2 1 1 2 5 3 (5) 2 2 3 2 9 11 11 14 3 10 14 6 5 8 2 19 (4) 16 14 73 Total * () = frequency of identical parent-child value orientations, •f two pairs omitted for "incomplete" or "no answer" responses. -114-TABLE 22 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child Pairs in the Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere (#1 of 3-R2) Value Orientations Value Orientations of Children Distribution of Parents of Parents I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I C>I>L I>C>L (5)* 2 1 1 9 I>L>C 5 (11) 4 3 3 1 27 L>I>C 1 11 (1) 3 3 1 20 L>C>I 4 3 2 1 10 C>L>I 1 1 1 3 C>I>L 1 1 2 Distribution of Children 12 29 9 8 9 4 71 * () = frequency of identical parent-child value orientations, •f four pairs omitted for "incomplete" or "no answer" responses. TABLE 23 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child Pairs in the Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere (#2 of 3-R5) Value Value Orientations of Children Distribution Orientations of Parents of Parents I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I C>I>L I>C>L (10)* I>L>C 9 L>I>C 2 L>C>I 1 C>L>I 6 C>I>L 6 Di stribution of Children 34 4 1 (2) 1 1 (1) 3 3 10 1 5 8 23 4 15 4 1 2 3 10 (5) 17 21 71 Total * () = frequency of identical parent-child value orientations. •{• four pairs omitted for "incomplete" or "no answer" responses. -115-C>L>I and C>I>L among the c h i l d r e n s r e s p o n s e s over the parents' on tMs item i a o n l y s l i g h t l y echoed (L>G>I becoming 0>L>l) among the Ceylonese c h i l d r e n . (2) The P o l i t i c a l L i f e Behaviour Sphere In the item representing t h i s sphere (R4, Table 21) there i s no one c e l l d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y large (or small) enough to merit d i s c u s s i o n . (This f i n d i n g i s an echo of the f l a t - c u r v e p r o f i l e of va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n choices found on t h i s item i n comparisons by generation, sex, and place of residence. See Figure 20.) For the Japanese data ( C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: 8 4 - 8 5 ) increased emphasis on Individualism was seen among the c h i l d r e n as compared with parents on t h i s item. TABLE 24 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children C o n t r o l l i n g f o r Value Orientations Among Parents over 71 Parent-Child Pairs i n the Occupational L i f e Behaviour Sphere (#3 of 3-MN3) Value Orientations of Parents Value Orientations of Chil d r e n 0>W>S 0>S>W S>0>¥ S>WX) W>SX) W>0>S D i s t r i b u t i o n of Parents 0>W>S 0>S>W S>0>W S>V/X) W>S>0 W>0>S D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n ( 2 8 ) * 5 6 (3) 2 6 4 2 8 (1) 11 (3) 14 4 8 10 1 3 9 71 Total''" * () = frequency of i d e n t i c a l p a r e n t - c h i l d value o r i e n t a t i o n s , four p a i r s omitted f o r "incomplete" or "no answer" responses. TABLE 25 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 67 Parent-Child Pairs in the Religious Life Behaviour Sphere (#1 of 3-T3) Value Orientations of Parents Fu>Pr>Pa Value Orientations of Children Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu>Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa Distribution of Parents Fu>Pr>Pa (9)* 2 3 7 21 Fu>Pa5Pr 6 2 ' 9 Pa>Fu>Pr 1 1 Pa>Pr>Fu 2 1 3 Pr>Pa>Fu 2 (2) 1 5 Pr>Fu>Pa 9 3 . 5 (11) 28 Distribution of Children 28 6 10 23 67 TotaJ * . ( ) ' — frequency of identical parent-child value orientations. \ eight pairs omitted for "incomplete" or "no answer" responses. TABLE 26 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 55 Parent-Child Pairs in the Religious Life Behaviour Sphere (#2 of 3-T4) Value Orientations Value Orientations of Children Distribution of Parents of Parents Fu>Pr>Pa Fu>Pa>Pr Pa>Fu5Pr Pa>Pr>Fu Pr>Pa>Fu Pr>Fu>Pa Fu5Pr>Pa (1)* 3 3 7 Fu>Pa>Pr : • - 1 2 3 Pa>Fu>Pr 2 " : 2 1 5 Pa>Pr>Fu / "4 - . 1 3 (2) 2 5 17 Pr>Pa>Fu 3 1 1 (1) 3 9 Pr>Fu>Pa 2 1 1 3 1 (6) ^ Distribution of Children 12 3 6 7 7 20 55 Tota] * () = frequency of identical parent-child value orientations. •J- twenty pairs omitted for '•incomplete'' or "no answer" responses. -118-(3) The Occupational Life Behaviour Sphere In this sphere, the two relational items (R2 and R 3 ) display a general pattern of the retention of Individuality as a value. On R2 (Table 22) a disproportionately large number of children whose parents held the value orientation I>L>C retained i t and the same number whose parents held the value orientation L>I>C shifted a one-distance to I>L>C. Similarly on item R5 (Table 23) a disproportionately large number of children whose value orientation was I>C>L retained i t . Caudill and Scarr (1962: 86-88) note a gain in Collaterality on item R2 for the Japanese data that our cell values are too small to indicate. They also note the dominance of first-rank Individualism TABLE 2 7 Frequency Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 6 0 Parent-Child Pairs in the Religious Life Behaviour Sphere (#3 of 3-MN5) Value Value Orientations of Children Distribution Orientations of Parents of Parents 0>W>5 0>S>W SX)>W S>W>0 W>S>0 W>0>S 0>W>S ( 6 ) * 1 4 . 3 2 5 2 1 0>S>W 3 ( 1 ) 3 1 8 S>0>W 2 1 3 S>W>0 1 2 ( 1 ) 1 3 8 W>S>0 2 1 3 6 WX)>S 4 1 3 2 ( 4 ) 1 4 Distribution _ of Children 1 6 6 7 1 1 3 1 7 6 0 Total1' * () = frequency of identical parent-child value orientations. \ fifteen pairs omitted for "incomplete" or "no answer" responses. -119-on t h i s item.^ On item R5 i n t h i s sphere for the Japanese data the largest values show an endorsement of C o l l a t e r a l i t y by the young. On item MN3 (Table 24) f o r t h i s behaviour sphere a greatly disproportionate number of children r e t a i n the 0>W>S value orientation of t h e i r parents, while a smaller but s t i l l disproportionate number change from the 0>W>S value orientation of t h e i r parents to the value orientation WX)>S, a one-distance s h i f t . For the Japanese data on t h i s item ( C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: 87-88) the largest number of children also r e t a i n the 0>W>S value orientation of t h e i r parents, but the authors favour a lesser tendency for the parental value orientation 0>W>S to become the childrens' value orientation WX»S (see footnote 6 i n t h i s Chapter). 6 Since by far the largest proportion (70 out of 236) on item R2 for the Japanese data shows a retention of I>OL from parents to children and the second largest proportion (40) shows a one-distance change from I>L>C to I>C>L between parents and children, the C a u d i l l and Scarr stress on a gain i n C o l l a t e r a l i t y among the children on t h i s item seems to be somewhat contrived, even though the t h i r d largest value (25) i s a s h i f t from parents to children a one-distance from I>OL to C>I>L (see C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: Table 18, page 86). One can, of course, argue that i n terms of the model for t h i s analysis the "resting position" of the parent-child differences would occur i f a l l responses were i n the diagonals of the Tables, and hence large figures i n the diagonals (the c e l l s i n parentheses i n our Tables 20 to 27 and the C a u d i l l and Scarr Tables 16 to 23) are less important than large figures i n the other c e l l s . I t would seem, however, that any disproportionately large (or small) figures are equally important i n showing retention of values or change i n values by generation. This analysis can be improved somewhat by converting the c e l l values to percentages by row. A sample i s given i n Chapter V. - 120 -(4) The Religious Life Behaviour Sphere On item T3 i n this sphere (Table 25) a disproportionately large number of children retain the parental value orientation Pr>Fu>Pa. Note, however, that almost as large a proportion, although below our arbitrary cut-off point of ten, retain the parental value orientation Fu>Pr>Pa. No values for item T4 (Table 26) are disproportionately large (or small) enough to allow us to Compare this item with item T3, even though the largest c e l l value i n T4 i s also a retained Pr>Fu>Pa. For the Japanese data on T3 and T4 for this behaviour sphere (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 88-89) the authors note a movement away from first-rank Future orientations toward the first-rank Present orientation Pr>Fu>Pa. On item MN5 for this sphere for the Ceylonese data (Table 2?) we again see an apparently random pattern of proportion-of-choices distribution. For the Japanese data, Caudill and Scarr (1962: 89) mote a similarity of the value-orientation distributions between the parents and children on this item. (5) Conclusions As was stated earlier, our sample was really too small to mate a meaningful analysis of the foregoing kind. Where c e l l figures were disproportionately large i n our Tables 20 to 27 we have, however* attempted to characterize the value-orientation distribution pattern for the items amd compare i t with the same item for the Japanese data. With the seii.©i&$ limitations of both the method of comparing generations amsi the small siae of the Ceylonese sample, comparisons between the Qultnures* especially sinmce -121-no very large or consistent discrepancies, or consistent similarities, between them are to be found, are probably idle. Some more important considerations, treated further in Chapter V, concern the nature of the behaviour sphere analysis and its relationship to the value orientation analysis, the usefulness of the intergenerational method utilized here and the meaning, in the light of the shortcomings of the method, of the results. Because these considerations will be extended in Chapter V, we will not elaborate further upon this analysis at the present time. D. HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE UNIQUENESS OF CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS 1. Eighth Hypothesis. The Ceylonese sample possesses distinct dominant and major variant value-orientation patterns. 2. Rationale. Since the Ceylonese culture differs in many respects from the other cultures in which the KVOS has been administered, i t will exhibit unique dominant and major variant value orientations. 3. Analysis' The test of hypothesis eight is clouded by the inter-item inconsistency in the Ceylonese value-orientation profile data that has plagued us throughout the study. If we may utilize the speculative value-orientation profile patternings suggested in Chapter III, however, we can compare the Ceylonese value-orientation profiles with those of five American Southwest cultures studied by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck -122-(F.R. Kluckhohn 1963: 230 i s a more convenient summary than appears i n Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 350) and with the Japanese culture ( C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: 67). Table 28 presents t h i s comparison. TABLE 28* Comparison of Over-all Value-Orientation P r o f i l e s i n Five American Southwest and the Japanese and Ceylonese Cultures as Measured by the KVOS Culture Value Value-Orientation Area Orientation Relational Time Man-Nature Texan o v e r a l l I>C>L Fu>Pr>Pa 0>S>W Mormon ov e r a l l I>C>L Fu>Pr>Pa 0>W>S Spanish-American o v e r a l l I>L>C Pr>Fu>Pa SX)>W Navaho o v e r a l l C>L>I Pr>Pa>Fu w>s=o Zurii o v e r a l l C>L>I Pr>Pa>Fu Nonsignificant Japanese dominant I>C>L Pr=Fu>Pa 0>W>S major . variant O I >L Fu>Pr>Pa 0>W>S Ceylonese dominant C>L>I Fu=Pr>Pa 0>W>S major , variant O I >L Fu>Pr>Pa o=w>s *Parts of t h i s Table are adapted from F.R. Kluckhohn 1963: 230, and C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: 67. In the r e l a t i o n a l area, the o v e r a l l dominant value-orientation choice of the Ceylonese (C>L>I) appears to be shared only with the Navaho and the Zuni of the American Southwest. The Ceylonese major variant value orientation (OI>L) i s shared with the Japanese (also as a major variant value or i e n t a t i o n ) . In the time area, the Ceylonese dominant value orientation (Pr=Fu>Pa) i s unique. I t i s a close r e l a t i v e , however, of the o v e r a l l value orientations of both the Texans and the Mormons, and also of the -123-Japanese major variant value orientation. The Ceylonese najor variant value orientation in the time area (Fu>Pr>Pa) is also shared with the three cultures mentioned, itself being closely related to the Ceylonese dominant value orientation. In the man-nature area the Japanese and Ceylonese cultures seem to be similar as far as this analysis is concerned, the 0>W>S value orientation being preferred. This value orientation is also preferred by the Mormons, according to the Kluckhohn analysis. Mastery-over-Nature is also first-choice position among the Texans, but slips to second choice among the Spanish-Americans (Subjugation-to-Nature is first choice) and third choice (equal to Subjugation-to-Nature) among the Navaho, among whom Harmony-with-Nature is a first choice. 4. Conclusions In accordance with hypothesis eight we have shown that the Ceylonese exhibit unique dominant and major variant value orientations in comparison with several other cultural groups, although they share individual area configurations with some of these. In generalizing from the sample to the Ceylonese culture i t must be borne in 'mind that the representativeness of the sample is not known and thus that interpretations can only be speculative. In addition, as is discussed further in Chapter V, the validity of the KVOS for assessing values must be accepted with caution i f at a l l . Beyond these considerations, the formulation of hypotheses for future test with a basis upon the speculative findings of this study i s outside the scope of the present analysis. CHAPTER V THE METHODOLOGICAL CRITIQUE I. GENERAL If the reader has been able to fellow the circuitous path along which he has been led throughout this study, he must now surely be faced with the conclusion that the number of possibly relevant considerations involved render impossible a critique that is in any way complete within the scope of the analysis. The circular and limiting nature of this dilemma for the author in attempting to write such a conclusion to the research that has been described must thus be clearly kept in mind at a l l times. No matter what one chose to include he could be charged with omissions, and even in the topics considered the author can be charged with incompleteness and inadequacy. What follows, then, is really an outline of a critique, hopefully including the mose relevant points to be considered in evaluating the approach to the study of values embodied in the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, Caudill and Scarr, and Ames research. Since the critique has already partly been written in the preceding pages by the methodological adaptations made to utilize the Japanese study methods of analysis in the analysis of the Ceylonese data, and also since the critique is primarily a methodological one, we will begin with a brief summary statement in point form of the significant findings Of the Ceylonese study and their most important implications. In addition, i t is hoped that this procedure will assist the reader to draw conclusions from the data and also aid in the development of the -125-critique along dimensions closely relevant to the research described. II. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS A. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTED BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS UPON VALUE-ORIENTATION CHOICE In general, we were unable to assess the influence of these background characteristics upon value-orientation choice. (See Appendix I for a l i s t of the background characteristics.) This was because we found a greater variation among the items within the value-orientation areas than among the categories within a background characteristic when comparing the two variables. The implication of this finding is that, whatever the items of the KVOS are measuring, they do not appear to be measuring the same thing, at least in terms of their being grouped together under the postulates of the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck theory of variation in value orientations, for there appear to be differing value-orientation profiles among the items within a value-orientation area, at least according to the Ceylonese research. With regard to the influence of the background characteristics themselves upon value-orientation choice, we have at least indicated that within the limitations imposed by the inter-item inconsistency, they do not produce value-orientation profiles that differ to any significant extent (see Chapter III). B. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE UPON VALUE-ORIENTATION CHOICE, COMPARING SINHALESE AND ENGLISH VERSIONS OF THE KVOS Although the correlation between the two language versions is far -126-from perfect, i t does indicate a substantial to marked similarity between them, the over-all figure of 0.71 (Pearson r) displaying a moderate to high correlation within the bounds of the accepted statistical interpretation of a "correlation of this magnitude. (Interpretation of a correlation is always relative, of course, depending upon the reasons for computing it.) While we cannot be certain that the discrepancy that exists between the two language versions is a product of the problems of translation rather than differences in value orientations, we have some evidence for drawing this conclusion (see Chapter III). C. DIFFERENCES IN VALUE-ORIENTATION PROFILES BETWEEN VARIOUS BREAKDOWNS OF THE CEYLONESE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA . We have shown that among the several ways we have broken down the Ceylonese sample there are only slight and generally insignificant variations from the value-orientation profiles found for the total sample. This holds true for comparisons of paired sub-samples including the total ramaining sample (exclusive of the parent-child sample) versus the parent-child sample and for old versus young, male versus female, and Matara residents versus Colombo residents for the parent-child sample The import of these findings is at least that the "value-orientation profiles" that have been delineated by the KVOS items are well entrenched throughout the sample. Whether these are really values or value-orientation profiles so "basic," in accordance with the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck theory, that they are unaffected by such variables as age, sex, and place of residence (or any of the background characteristics) is another question, and one for which we have no immediate answer. We can say with reasonable certainty, however, in the light of these findings, that the -127-questlonnaire items are not measuring the same thing, whatever i t is that they are measuring (see Chapters III and IV). D. 'DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE ORIENTATIONS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM We have in general found as was hypothesized on the basis of the previous research with the KVOS that there is a dominant value orientation and that as the distance from i t increases along the value-orientation choices the proportion of responses falling in the other value-orientation choices decreases producing as well a major variant value orientation. In the majority of cases, the dominant and major variant value orientations are a one-distance apart. Since we are uncertain, on the basis of the previous findings from the Ceylonese data, that the questionnaire items are representing value orientations, this ordering of choices can really only be said to show preferences over a l l the Ceylonese sample for certain responses to each of the questions generated by as yet undetermined causes (see Chapter IV). E. CHANGE IN CEYLONESE VALUE ORIENTATIONS IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES We are able to say very l i t t l e about the four behaviour spheres, family l i f e , occupational l i f e , political l i f e , and religious l i f e , that Caudill and Scarr delineated by selected items from the KVOS. As far as intergenerational differences among the items representing these spheres are concerned, the spread appears to be insignificant, although i f we define the degree of success of the parenl instilling his values in his child as the distance between the value orientations of the -128-parent and c h i l d we do obtain a greater s i m i l a r i t y between parents and ch i l d r e n than would be expected by chance alone„ In view of our graphic, a n a l y s i s v however,, we would expect a greater s i m i l a r i t y here between the generations,. When we assume that the expected d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n s 5 value o r i e n t a t i o n s are those of the parents we f i n d few cl e a r trends. T h i s i s undoubtedly p a r t l y the f a u l t of a r e l a t i v e l y small number of parent'-child p a i r s , but even with t h i s l i m i t a t i o n any c l e a r choice-pattern trsnds should be r e f l e c t e d i n the data. F„ COMPARISON OF INTERGENERATIONAL CHANGES IN THE JAPANESE AND CEYLONESE CULTURES IN THE FOUR BEHAVIOUR SPHERES The Japanese and,Ceylonese c u l t u r e s are not s i m i l a r i n the generational comparisons f o r the four behaviour spheres as was hypothesized„ Part of the an a l y s i s performed to make t h i s comparison was s p e c u l a t i v e i n the l i g h t of the Ceylonese sample size,, To the ex±ent that t h i s a n a l y s i s i s v a l i d , t h i s would i n d i c a t e that the order of change between generations among the behaviour spheres i s not the same from.culture to culture as hypothesized (hypothesis seven)o G„ THE UNIQUENESS OF THE DOMINANT AND MAJOR VARIANT VALUE- -ORIENTATION PATTERNS OF THE CEYLONESE While there are s i m i l a r i t i e s among the va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s of the cultures compared (see Table 28 i n Chapter TV) among value-o r i e n t a t i o n areas considered one at a time, the Ceylonese have t h e i r own pattern of va l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s when a l l three areas are considered together„ -129-Again, i f the analysis i s v a l i d , t h i s f i n d i n g i s i n accord with cur hypothesized r e s u l t (see hypothesis e i g h t ) . H. SUMMARY In sum, we have v e r i f i e d hypotheses one and two concerning the existence of and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between dominant and major vari a n t value o r i e n t a t i o n s . We have also seen that, i n accordance with hypothesis three, subdivisions of the sample by generation, sex, and place of residence does not show di f f e r e n c e s i n dominant and major variant value o r i e n t a t i o n s between the sub-samples. We d i d not f i n d , however, as stated i n hypothesis four, that a gradient of small d i f f e r e n c e s between the three breakdowns of the sample would be, from most to l e a s t , by generation,, sex, and place of residence. We also found l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between generations i n the four behaviour spheres as stated i n hypothesis f i v e , but not the gradient by sphere as stated i n hypothesis s i x . We d i d not f i n d s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n s of change i n the Ceylonese and Japanese samples as predicted by hypothesis seven. We d i d f i n d that the dominant and major v a r i a n t value o r i e n t a t i o n s of the Ceylonese sample were unique i n comparison with the other cultures of KVOS administration as stated i n hypothesis eight. An important caveat i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these f i n d i n g s i s that when we go beyond the simple empirical existence of dominant and major v a r i a n t value o r i e n t a t i o n s and v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n p r o f i l e s , u n a l t e r e d by a v a r i e t y of variable s , i n t o the realm of subtle d i f f e r e n c e s , our f i n d i n g s , as w e l l as the C a u d i l l and Scarr methods of a n a l y s i s , are quite equivocal. - 1 3 0 -III. THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE KVOS From a consideration of the findings described and the number of analyses performed to reach the conclusions suggested, two questions should be foremost in the reader's mind: why such equivocal results, and why so many different attempts to obtain them? Unfortunately, at least from the point of view of brevity, the roots of the answers to these questions begin deep within the soil which first germinated the theory of variations in value orientations. The essentially structural-functional model upon which Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck base their "theory" of variation in value orientations, with roots in the Parsonian "action theory," especially as elaborated for value analysis by Clyde Kluckhohn (C. Kluckhohn and others 1 9 6 2 ) , has not been tested. This is the first serious criticism of these studies. The author's suspicion at present is that a "theory" stated at this level of abstraction is inherently untestable, but for the moment this is beside the point. By their own statement, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck did not test the theory: Ideally, i t would be best i f one were able to test directly at the high level of abstraction at which the value orientations are conceptualized. This is not possible. Since the value orientations are in large part implicit, hence seldom consciously verbalized, no systematic direct testing of them can be made. Mot even very many of the persons who are highly sophisticated in their knowledge of cultural differences have the degree of conscious awareness of the total ordering of their own preferences on an orientation to state i t abstractly. This ordering must be inferentially derived from the preferences allocated to the theoretically derived alternatives of solution of problem situations which have something of a concrete content. But i f the barriers of language differences are to be hurdled in order that a uniform method for cross-cultural testing can be achieved, neither the situations which are described nor the alternatives of solving the problems they pose can be highly specific and particularized. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1 9 6 1 : 9 3 ° ) -131-Leaving aside the problem of whether the unconscious i s , by definition, unknowable, we find the authors even more explicit on this point in their summary and discussion: Ideally one would prefer to test directly at the high level of abstraction at which the value orientations themselves are formulated. This is not possible, for not even those few persons who are highly sophisticated in the matter of cultural variation are sufficiently well aware of their own implicit value orientations to give clear distinctions on a l l orientations at this level of analytical abstraction. The solution seemed to be that of finding items for questioning which were at a sufficiently high level of empirical generalization to offer some certainty that what was being elicited was a response to the effects of a single orientation in a very wide range of generally similar situations rather than a response to the effects of the interrelations of several, or a l l , of the orientations in more specifically delineated types of situations. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 345.) This failing would appear to have important consequences for the ultimate test of such highly abstract theories of the machinery of the social order, since i t is implied here that the operational definition of concepts and the formulation of hypotheses to test relationships between them is not feasible. A consideration of this problem, however, falls more within the realm of the philosophy of science than of the present analysis. A more relavant problem is just exactly what the KVOS is measuring. Another root for the formulation of value-orientation variation theory lies in the belief that " . . . directiveness in behaviour is a biologically determined predisposition." (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 7.) While there can be l i t t l e doubt about the importance of biological considerations in human behaviour, the actual content of such influences upon our social lives is as yet largely undetermined and a great deal more knowledge is needed before such biological, behavioural directives can be considered to be well enough delineated and organized to be useful as bases for the formulation of hypotheses concerning human behaviour. -132-While speculation about the relevance of action theory and biological directives of social behaviour in their present state of theoretical usefulness may suggest fruitful areas for analysis prior to value studies, we are as yet l i t t l e closer to the actual basis for responses to the KVOS. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck spent some space on answering the charge, believed by them to be positivistic (1961: 97), that the study of values is inherently circular. They conclude that a l l thought in general, and the scientific method in particular, is inherently circular: We therefore conclude that the problem of circularity of reasoning is common to a l l thought, inclusive of the postulates and procedures of science, and argue that the only question of importance relative to i t is that of so ordering one's theoretical concepts and so developing the means of testing these that there is some definite separation in the order of the data one uses for the different purposes. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 101.) Again, these considerations are more properly the concern of the philosophy of science, but we are left with the realization, for the purposes of this critique, that the basis for the construction of the KVOS was speculative description of the social order within the framework of a circular, structural-functional model of reality. No judgement is being passed upon this model here; its statement in such terms is only intended to indicate the basic limitations beyond which the interpretation of any findings obtained by the study of value orientations within this framework must not go. It should also be clearly borne in mind that since the author is only cursorily familiar with the anthropological knowledge that might lead to very valuable and insightful speculation upon which testable hypotheses could be based, he is in no way attempting to disqualify whatever anthropological insights led to the formulation of the items of the KVOS. The only issues being raised here are: (l) i f - 1 3 3 -anthropological insights were used in the formulation of the KVOS, what were they, and were they tested previously, or i f they were being tested by the KVOS, how were they tested, and (2) to the extent that action theory and biological considerations helped form the substance of the KVOS items, the results the questionnaire obtains are speculative. To return to the problem of circularity as i t affects, in the view of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, the construction of the KVOS, the authors felt that within their structural-functional, philosophical framework, degree of circularity rather than its existence or non-existence was the important consideration. They are particularly concerned to show that acceptable circularity of reasoning within the structural-functional framework is kept at a minimum in the postulation of variation in value orientations because: (l) they are not predicting values from behaviour within a single culture or based upon knowledge of a single culture, and (2) there is a systematic separation in their approach between the data producing the concepts being tested and the data to which results are then applied: . . . there is no part of either the classification of the alternatives of the value orientations or the ideas about variation which are generalizations from the observed data in a single culture. The value-system analyses of individual cultures, together with other kinds of materials, were inductively examined and analyzed for the purpose of providing the means of deducing the component parts of value systems in general. Thus the nature of the theory—its trans-cultural characteristic—destroys the ground of one part of the circularity with which the value-system analyst has been charged—the within-culture type of circularity. But a large part of the problem s t i l l remains. Even i f one has a theoretical formulation which is general to many cultures rather than specific to one culture, there should be a fairly systematic separation of the data which are utilized for the testing of the concepts and those to which the conclusions reached are then applied, in the form of either testable predictions or explanations. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1 9 6 1 : 9 9 - ) -134-At least one reviewer of the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck study has addressed herself to some of the problems inherent in such a circular model of society as far as empirical test of hypotheses i t generates is concerned (Goody 1964). In the first place, since the subjects were only asked which of three values they preferred on a given value orientation item, not how they would conceptualize the area (what values were, in their view, appropriate to hold in the particular area), the only test of the validity of the value-orientation preferences would be the rejection of the null hypothesis that none was regularly preferred to any other. Thus, within a given value orientation area, inter-item inconsistency (which was found to be extremely troublesome in the Ceylonese case) is permissible within the theory as variation in value orientations within any given value-orientation area, but leaves us further away than ever from empirical validation of the conceptual categories, the value orientations themselves. Secondly, Goody points out that a case displaying no significant patterning of value preferences as individuals rank alternatives for each of the four areas, the ZuHi, i s , under the theory, supposed to be in a state of unusually rapid and widespread social change. The Zuni pattern, however, is explained as being a case of "controlled variation, 0 since other evidence is used to show that differences in station within a well-organized and stable culture produce the differences in value-orientation profiles. Again the contradiction of the hypothesized dominant and major variant value orientations that are culture-wide is not considered. Goody concludes by suggesting that in the face of difficulties in testing for such elusively widespread variations in value orientations, studies of two-variable propositions . .directed to formulating and -135-testing hypotheses about how holders of a given set of value-orientation profiles—from whatever culture—will act in certain set situations." might be preferred (Goody 1964s 158). This discussion naturally raises a related problem, which, while largely outside the scope of the present study, deserves at least mention. As is documented by such studies of values as that of Jacob and Flink (1962), the problem of definition of the concept "value" so that i t can be useful in the study of human social behaviour is a serious one. Perhaps the use of what can generally be agreed upon by behavioural scientists to be a value (if that is possible I) as one variable in a two-variate proposition to determine its relationships to a given item of behaviour, the other variable, might prove to be more useful in building a body of theory. This is essentially Goody's closing suggestion, and would seem to be more appealing than seeking variation in value orientations which themselves have not been proven to be related to other facts of human behaviour, i f only because definition of them is difficult. Here again we are waxing philosophical and should perhaps follow the precedent of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck where they discuss the problem of the relationships between existential premises and normative standards, and return to more strictly methodological considerations: "This question is one which philosophers must solve . . . ." (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 6). IV. THE VALIDITY OF THE KVOS Because of the philosophical problems just discussed, the validity of the KVOS as an instrument for value measurement must be considered to be tentative. The Ceylonese experience has underscored the importance of this caution, for the inter-item inconsistency displayed by the questionnaire, -136-together with the sample-wide consistency of the value-orientation profiles by item, suggests that the questions are understood and interpreted relatively uniformly, but the bases for interpretation (Are these values?) are unknown. Such differences in the "value-orientation profiles" among different cultures pose the same problem; the bases for interpretation of the questions vary by culture but remain unknown. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck themselves reflect upon the difficulty of choosing items that are discriminatory of single values within the bounds of their theory, let alone items that are discriminatory of the desired value. These problems in fact were major considerations in : selecting the questionnaire items. In general, they sought items expressive of single value orientations, cross-culturally applicable, and low in potentiality for tapping individual defensiveness and idiosyncrasies. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 79.) Since specific steps taken to meet these objectives are not discussed, and since they would presumably be based largely upon additional knowledge of the cultures involved, the present author i s , as mentioned, not at liberty to criticize, and the fulfillment of these conditions cannot be considered further here. The authors do t e l l us, however, that due to the pressure of time and other factors, they retained some dubious items."'" (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 102-103.) 1 Interestingly, the authors retained ". . .one outstanding illustration of . * .§sn] item which yielded almost no discriminatory results. . . the relational orientation item labeled Choice of Delegate (item R4 in the schedule)." (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 103.) which Caudill and Scarr adopted as representative of the political l i f e behaviour sphere. See the comment on this retention later on in this chapter. -137-In summary, i t is probably safest to say that further use of the KVOS would be more fruitful i f additional, extensive cross-checking of the value tapping potential of the items preceded i t . This procedure, however, would begin to lead away from the theoretical orientation of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, as we have seen in considering the apparent logical inconsistencies built into the empirical assessment of the theory of variation in value orientations. V. THE USE OF THE CAUDILL AND SCARR JAPANESE ANALYSIS AS A MODEL FOR THE CEYLONESE RESEARCH Since Caudill and Scarr accepted the KVOS as an instrument capable of making the desired value-orientation assessment, i t was implicitly also accepted in the Ceylonese research. Thus the critical considerations pertaining to the KVOS previously raised in this Chapter apply to both-pieces of research. 3h using the Japanese research as a model for the present study, however, a number of changes were made in specific techniques of analysis, and consideration of these changes, as well as the methods of Caudill and Scarr, must now be made. Within the limitations discussed previously in this Chapter concerning the study of variations in value orientations, we have been guided in the selection of the types of analysis we have used in modifying and criticizing the Japanese analysis largely by considerations of appropriateness. This is in no disagreement with the method of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, for they acknowledge both that the inappropriate application of sophisticated statistical techniques can lead only to ridiculous conclusions (1961: 98) and that, in terms of the answers sought in this study " . . . there appears to be no simple or single means of analyzing -138-the data . . . ." (121.) The graphic representations of the value-orientation profiles upon which we have relied heavily for the analysis of the Ceylonese data were felt to be first approximations in keeping with the level of sophistication of the data. While the methods used are in no way as sophisticated as those utilized by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, we feel that we have in no serious way strayed from the basic considerations underlying the selection of the statistical methods utilized by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck; In the selection of these methods the focus of attention was necessarily centered upon the two general questions of the existence or nonexistence of uniformities in the ranking of the orientation alternatives within each of the communities and the existence or nonexistence of differences in these uniformities community by community. As has been previously stated, both the number of items used in the research instrument and the number of persons questioned in each of the communities were too few to permit a statistical treatment of the evidence which was indicative of intra-cultural variation. (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck l°6l: 121.) The authors also utilized a graphic presentation of their data, but one in keeping with the level of sophistication of their statistical techniques (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 127). The basis of the Ceylonese study comprises hypotheses about Ceylonese value-orientation profiles generated by the Caudill and Scarr Japanese analysis. Prior to testing these hypotheses, we attempted to assess the influence of a comparatively large number of background characteristics upon Ceylonese value-orientation choice. Subsequently we began systematically to follow the Japanese analysis, with mixed success as we have seen. Perhaps the most general comment we can make about the differences between the Japanese and Ceylonese analysis is that we placed a great deal less emphasis upon possible predictions that could be made from the findings. -139-This is in part due to the fact that the author, as mentioned, i s not anthropologically trained and in part a reflection of a lesser confidence thai that of Caudill and Scarr in the validity of the results. Some examples here should serve to illustrate. A. THE BEHAVIOURAL SPHERE ANALYSIS As we have seen, the behavioural sphere analysis that engages Caudill and Scarr for much of their paper is based upon "common-sense" (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 73) selection of items from the KVOS representing the spheres. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck speak of the 11 economic-occupational," "religious," "recreational," and "intellectual-aesthetic" behaviour spheres, referring to the content as being comparable to the generally accepted, concept of institution (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961: 28-29), while Caudill and Scarr speak of "political l i f e , " "occupational l i f e , " "family l i f e , " and "religious l i f e " behaviour spheres. Since neither study is primarily concerned with the development of the concept of these spheres, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck holding that the development of the value orien-tation concept is logically and historically prior to the development of the concept of the ordering of the value orientations, and Caudill and Scarr accepting this incomplete level of the theory of behaviour spheres as already analytically useful, i t is perhaps unfair to question the development of the concept. It would seem, however, i f one may speculate in passing, that i t . w i l l , i f developed under the same conception of the nature of theory, be fraught with the same problem of definition and test. We can ask, however, why Caudill and Scarr changed the names of the behaviour spheres, i f they were following Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck as far as they went, and what the difference i s between the two sets of definitions. -140-We can also ask why an item, chosen by its "common-sense" meaning, that has to do with "Length of Life" (MN5) is more representative of concern with religious behaviour than an item that has to do with "Belief in Control" (MN4). The former, chosen by Caudill and Scarr as an item representative of the religious behaviour sphere, discusses practical methods of prolonging l i f e , by food, medicines, and vaccinations and the possibility of adaptation to the "plan of l i f e " (admittedly an idea with religious overtones), but the latter directly discusses belief in control over the rain, wind, and snow and the forces which make them. (See the complete statement of these two items at the beginning of Chapter III.) Which should we choose and for what reasons? (It is interesting that the value-orientation profiles for these two items for the parent-child Ceylonese sample are relatively flat and relatively similar. See Figure 6 in Chapter III.) In addition to the problem of the selection of representative items, their fewness and the impossibility of making any meaningful comparisons from value orientation to value orientation (the items are chosen from different value orientation areas) introduce additional complications. In sum, we can really only follow the authors' caution that ". . . many more items in a l l areas as well as spheres would be needed before definitive conclusions could be reached." (Caudill and Scarr 1962: 84.) In the light of the speculative nature of the behaviour sphere concept, we would suggest greater caution than such definitely stated conclusions as Caudill and Scarr present: "Three facts about culture change in Japan can be stated as a result of the foregoing analysis." (1962: 89. Italics added.) -141-B. THE INTERGENERATIONAL ANALYSIS Let us look i n closer d e t a i l at one of the tables i n which C a u d i l l and Scarr compare value orientations by generation for the four behaviour spheres. The estimate of the expected d i s t r i b u t i o n of value orientations held by the children, i t w i l l be remembered, i s the actual d i s t r i b u t i o n held by t h e i r parents on a given item. (See our Tables 20 to 27 f o r the Ceylonese data, and C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: Tables 16 to 23 for the Japanese data.) In Table 29 we have reproduced Table 18 of C a u d i l l and Scarr (1962: 86) for r e l a t i o n a l item R2. In Table 30 we have expressed the frequency of choices as percentages by row, so that we are able to say what percentage of the childrens' choices on each parental choice f a l l s i n each value-orientation choice. In addition, we have computed means by column to TABLE 29* Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Value Orientations Among Children Con t r o l l i n g for Value Orientations Among Parents over 236 Parent—Child Pairs on H2, Help i n Case of Misfortune; Japanese Sample Value Value Orientations of Children D i s t r i b u t i o n Orientations of Barents of Parents I>OL I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I O I >L I>C>L (70) 8 5 3 7 25 11'8 I>L>C 40 (10) 2 - 6 13 '71 L>I>C 5 1 (1) 1 3 1 12 L>C>I 3 - 1 ( ) 1 1 •6 -C>L>I 7 - - 1 (1) 3 12 C>I>L 9 2 - - 2 (4) 17 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Children 134 21 9 5 20 47 :236 Tota! * From C a u d i l l and Scarr 1962: Table 18, page 86. -142- ' assist in gauging central tendency in the comparison of percentages on- .1 > the childrens' choices across the parental choices, and we have added the value-orientation profile percentages for the total Japanese sample on R2 to the bottom of Table 30. TABLE 30*. Percentage Distribution of Value Orientations Among Children Controlling for Value Orientations Among Parents over 236 Parent-Child Pairs on R2, Help in Case of Misfortune; Japanese Sample Value Value Orientations of Children Total Per Cent Orientations Distribution of Parents I>C>L I>L>C L>I>C L>C>I C>L>I C>I>L of Parents I>C>L (59)% 7% k% 3% 6% 21$ 100$ I>L>C 56 (14) 3 - 8 18 99 L>I>C 42 8 (8) 8 25 8 99 L>C>I 50 - 17 - 17 17 101 C>L>I 58 - - 8 (8) 25 99 C>I>L 53 12 - - 12 (24) . 101 Mean Per Cent Distribution of Children 53 10 8 6 13 19 Per Cent Distribution on R2 for the Total Japanese Sample (N=6l9) 51 18 4 2 7 14 • 96 < ^Adapted from Caudill and Scarr 1962: Table 18, page 86. fLess four per cent incomplete rankings. In interpreting the frequency distribution table, Caudill and Scarr close by noting the first-choice position of the first-ranked-Individuality position I>C>L. They first of a l l note, however, a consistent -143-gain in Collaterality among the children with both first-rank Collaterality value-orientation positions increasing their representation. They note a secondary trend in gain in Collaterality between I>C>L and I>L>C and between L>C>I and L>I>C (see Table 29). These are secondary trends indeed, for a glance at Table 30 shows that in every case but one, f i f t y per cent or more of the value-orientation choices of the children f a l l in the value-orientation choice I>C>L (the odd case being forty-two per cent) regardless  of the value orientation held by the parents. The column with the next highest percentages of choice i s , to be sure, a choice with first-rank Collaterality (C>I>L), but again, the childrens' choices are largely made regardless of the value orientations held by their parents. If we compare the value-orientation profile of the total sample of 619 respondents (including the paired parent-child sample of 236 broken down in Tables 29 and 30 which would, admittedly, affect the distribution of the total sample) with h^e mean value orientation profile for the childrens 1 choices across the parental choices, we observe that they are strikingly similar. If, then, this method is a valid way of assessing intergenerational differences in value orientation profiles produced by parental socialization of their children, parents have been so effective in instilling their values in their children that these values are the same throughout the sample (and throughout the Japanese culture to the extent that Caudill and Scarr generalize to the culture) and remain the same throughout the individuals' lives (by age), whether they are male or female, educated or uneducated, no matter how much socialization outside the home impinges upon them, and regardless of any differences they might show from anyone else in the sample. Moreover, values have remained the same in Japan throughout the - 1 4 4 -lives of the oldest persons on the sample, and even before, since presumably they too took on the values of their parents, regardless of any social changes that may have taken place. Some additional checks upon the validity and reliability of the measuring instrument seem to be indicated. An interesting addendum is that a similar analysis of the remainder of these Tables of Caudill and Scarr (1962: Tables 16 to 23, pages 85-89), which we have not had space to include,shows a strikingly similar picture; and we note in the Ceylonese data a similar preference for value orientations at either end of the Tables (l>C>L and C>I>L, 0>W>S and W>0>S, and Fu>Pr>Pa and Pr>Fu>Pa), diminishing toward their centers. Just what causes this distribution is unknown, but since i t is similar regardless of the value-orientation area, i t seems not to be explicable under the theory of variation in value orientations. VI. SUMMARY STATEMENT We have noted several other problematical parts of the Caudill and Scarr analysis, for examples, the replication of only one part of a three-part analysis by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (the use of Kendall's W, the Coefficient of Concordance), their unexplained elimination of item T2 from the behaviour sphere analysis, and their choice of an item to represent the political behaviour sphere that was, in the eyes of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, poorly discriminatory. It would be picayune to belabour isolated points such as the discrepancy between F. Kluckhohn's statement that Harmony-with-Nature is ". . . strongly evident in the Japanese culture at the present time, as well as historically." and both the prediction and - 1 4 5 -finding of the dominant 0>¥>S by Caudill and Scarr (F. Kluckhohn 1 9 6 0 as 5 and Caudill and Scarr 1 9 6 2 ) , or that Kluckhohn has apparently changed her mind on the over-all man-nature value orientation of the Zuni from W>S^ 0 (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1 9 6 1 : 351) to "Nonsignificant" (F. Kluckhohn 1 9 6 3 s 2 3 0 ) . We wish instead to speculate upon the import of our most general findings and suggest tentatively a means of drawing additional information from the existing data to suggest whether or not further value-orientation analysis prior to rigorous reassessment of the KVOS would be fruitful. We have seen with the Ceylonese data, and insofar as we have been able to observe with the Japanese data, that there are minimal differences in value-orientation profiles no matter how the sample is broken down, but that the responses to any set of items supposed to represent a given value-orientation area are generally variable. Perhaps there are no differences, as indicated, perhaps the samples could not be indicative as they were chosen, perhaps the items of the questionnaire were not tapping value orientations, or perhaps a dominant value orientation to please Caucasian researchers prevailed. We do not know. Figure 2 3 suggests with a simple graph of the item MN1 for a l l seven cultures studied (in the American Southwest, Japan, and Ceylon) a means of discovering with a minimum of effort whether or not there are large or consistent differences, or both, observable among the cultures by the items of the KVOS. We can observe, for example, that the Navaho and Zuni profiles, and more especially the Navaho one, appear to be reflecting l i t t l e more than chance distributions, i f we accept a 1 6 2 / 3 per cent response on each of the six items as our chance expectancy. Among the -146-100 90 80 70 60 50 H • JV 1 # / J7 / \ ** \ x \ V /f 1 • \ N . \ N *. \ *« * \ \ X ' s-N;<0/> V" \ v \ \ \ / N i p \ x \ x " • • • V \[ # 40 30 20 10 0 o>w>s 0>S>W s>o>w s>w»o FIGURE 23 W>S»0 w»o>s Sample Graph Showing Value Orientation Comparisons for Seven Cultures on Item MN1. (Percentages of• Persons Choosing are Shown on the Ordinate and Value Orientations on the Abscissa.) - 1 4 7 -cultures represented, however, some Interesting groupings appear. The Texan, Japanese, and'Mormon cultures parallel one another very closely, and except for one value-orientation choice, 0>S>W, the Spanish-American culture also follows these three. The Ceylonese, Zuni, and Navaho cultures taken as a group also exhibit similar profiles. If these two groupings were found to remain distinct for a l l , or at least a majority, of the questionnaire items, some interesting speculations would be possible. Is, for example, the apparently reduced discrimination of the value-orientation profiles on this item among the Ceylonese, Zuni, and Navaho a function of the problems of translation of the language expressive of the universal values supposed to be tapped by the KVOS? If such large and/or consistent differences were found, more sophisticated techniques, such as a Chi-square analysis or an assessment of the statistical significance of the differences in percentage of choices could be made. This kind of analysis would allow some better-guided speculation on the validity of the items, both within and between cultures, and should aid substantially in the rearrangement or replacement of items to tap the desired values... It would, in fact, be well to perform this kind of analysis on a l l the items of the KVOS for the existing data prior to further value testing with this instrument. Such an analysis would also help resolve a dilemma that has been seen to plague us throughout the Ceylonese study. We refer here to the very large number of implicit assumptions and uncontrolled influences in the global theory that has given rise to the value schedule, for a parallel problem that looms as large as the question with which we have been grappling, the question of what has come out.of the KVOS, is what has gone into i t . APPENDIX I BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS -149-(1) Age: (a) 10-19 years •• (b) 20-24 • " (c) 25-29 11 (d) 30-34 " (e) 35-39 " ( f ) 40-44 " (g) 45-49 " (h) 50-54 " ( i ) 55-59 " ( j ) 60 and over (2) Sex: (a) male (b) female (3) Place of (a) Matara, Tangalla Residence: (b) Colombo, Jaffna (4) Occupation: (a) student (b) monk (c) farmer, "blue (5) Education: c o l l a r , " tradesman, v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l (d) teacher (ej government servant ( f ) businessman, lawyer, landed p r o p r i e t o r , planter, petty trader (g) housewife (a) 1-10 years (b) E n g l i s h ma t r i c u l a t i o n or equivalent (c) m a t r i c u l a t i o n plus other p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (teaching c e r t i f i c a t e ; pandita) (d) B.A. student, B.A. plus other p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (law, medicine), etc. (6) Locus of (a) Buddhist or Schooling: Hindu school (b) Mixed Buddhist/ Hindu and C h r i s t i a n school (c) C h r i s t i a n school (d) Government school only ( 7 ) F a t h e r 1 s (a) farmer Occupation: /, \ , , „, -. c \,b; tradesman, "blue c o l l a r " (c) teacher (d) government servant (e) mercantile, business ( f ) lawyer (proctor, advocate) (g) physician (h) landed proprietor, planter ( i ) v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l ( j ) petty trader (8) Father's (a) 1-5 years Education: ^ 6 _ 1 Q „ (c) E n g l i s h matriculation or s i m i l a r c e r t i f i c a t e (d) matriculation plus other p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (teaching, pandita) -150-(9) Locus of  Father1s  Schooling: (10) Language  of Quest-ionnaire: (11) Religion: (e) B.A., etc. (a) Buddhist or Hindu school (b) Mixed Buddhist/ Hindu and Christian school (c) Christian school (d) Government school only (a) Sinhalese version (b) English version (a) Buddhist (b) Hindu (c) Muslim (d) Christian (12) School: (a) Rahula, Matara (b) St. Thomas, Matara (c) St. Servatius, Matara (d) Royal College, Colombo (e) Ananda College, Colombo (f) Sujata Vidyalaya, Matara (g) Matara Convent, Matara (h) Visakha Vidyalaya, Colombo (i) "Vinaya Vardhana, Colombo (j) Jaffna English Version (k) Vidyodaya University APPENDIX II TABLES OF RANK ORDERED VALUE-ORIENTATION.CHOICES BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS -152-I. ANALYTICAL DETAILS OF THE COMPARISON OF VALUE-ORIENTATION AREA ITEMS WITH BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTIC CATEGORIES AS DETERMINANTS OF VALUE-ORIENTATION CHOICE In order to characterize the degree of relationship between a background characteristic (with its categories) and a KVOS item (with its value-orientation choices) and condense a very large number of computer bivariate tables showing this relationship into a manageable number at the same time, we devised a rank-ordering method of expressing the relationship. To accomplish this condensation and characterization, we first rank-ordered the value orientation choices within each computer bivariate table of a KVOS item cross-tabulated against a background characteristic, and selected by this method the dominant and major variant value orientations for each category of a background characteristic. The computer-coded numerals for the value-orientation choices were utilized for the ranking. (For example, in the relational value-orientation area, 1 = I>C>L, 2 = I>LXJ, etc. The six complete rankings possible for each value-orientation area are numbered from one to six in the order that the description of the rankings appears in Chapter II. It should be noted that only two positions were ranked, the dominant and major variant value orientations. The numerals from one to six in Tables 32 to 47 refer to the value-orientation positions, and not to positions of ranking.) Tables were then compiled both for dominant and major variant value orientations, utilizing these two position rankings. (These are Tables 32 to 47 in this Appendix, as mentioned above.) Each row of each of these Tables comprises an item from a value-orientation area of the KVOS and each column comprises a category of a background characteristic. Thus for a l l three value-orientation areas cross-tabulated against a -153-background characteristic there is a table of dominant value orientations and a table of major variant value orientations. We may use Tables 32 and 33 to illustrate this procedure. In the computer bivariate table of RI cross-tabulated against occupation, 1 (l>C>L) is the dominant value orientation and 2 (l>L>C) is the major variant value orientation in the "student" occupational category. Thus, for Table 32 the dominant value orientation 1 was placed in column 1, row 1, and for Table 33 the major variant value orientation 2 was placed in column 1, row 1. In this manner Tables 32 and 33 were constructed utilizing the dominant and major variant value-orientation choices respectively from each of the computer bivariate tables of a relational, time, and man-nature item cross-tabulated against occupation. The remaining Tables were similarly constructed. Each of the Tables was then examined for the frequency of choice of any given value orientation made in the individual rows among a l l the rows within a value-orientation area, and for the frequency of choice of any given value orientation made in the columns among a l l the columns within the same value orientation area. The frequencies of the modal value orientations among the rows and among the columns for each value-orientation area were expressed as percentages. For example, in Table 33 in the relational area the modal value-orientation choice among the rows was chosen three times out of seven (chosen in rows R3, R4> and R 5 ) or 43 per cent of the time among a l l the rows. By comparison, the same value orientation was chosen three times out of six, or 50 per cent of the time among a l l the choices for the columns in the relational area. An examination of the compilation of frequency of value-orientation choices discussed in Chapter III facilitated the decision -154-to combine the separate items i n a value-orientation area i n t o single b i v a r i a t e tables with the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the cross-tabulation v a r i a b l e s and group these f o r the three value-orientation areas. The Tables i n t h i s Appendix (Tables 32 to 47) thus comprise the three value-orientation areas, i n turn, cross-tabulated against a background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by-dominant and major variant value-orientation choices. Since there are three val u e - o r i e n t a t i o n areas represented i n each of the Tables, eight background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and tables of dominant and major variant value-orientation choices, there are sixteen tables i n a l l with f o r t y - e i g h t sections. In the r e l a t i o n s h i p s emerging from the a n a l y s i s , i t should be emphasized, there are only f i r s t approximations, for the percentages u t i l i z e d were computed upon a very small number of cases (the rows and columns of each of the three sections of eac h of Tables 3.2 to 47), i n c l u d i n g a number of equal rankings, and these i n d i c e s themselves are modes of modes, and hence a considerable distance from the data. Thus i t i s strongly emphasized that these percentages should not be Considered to have any i n t r i n s i c value; they are merely i n d i c a t i v e of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s , and they are only i n d i c a t i v e . A summary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Tables 32 to 47 i s given by Table 31. In the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Table 31 i t w i l l be i n s t r u c t i v e to look f i r s t at one of the d e t a i l e d Tables as an example. The f i r s t one may be selected f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n (Table 32). I f , among the columns (occupational categories) f o r each row we f i n d a "low" consistency of value-orientation choice among a l l the rows (value-orientation items f o r a given value-orientation area) we can say that there i s a low degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p by value-o r i e n t a t i o n choice among the items (rows). Otherwise put, no one value o r i e n t a t i o n that i s the modal choice (of value o r i e n t a t i o n ) f o r a given -155-TABLE 31 Summary of Dominant and Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices Comparing Value-Orientation Areas with Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (Condensed from Tables 32 to 47, Appendix II.) Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c and Value Orientation Area Dominant Value Orientation Major Variant Value-Choices Orientation Choices Among KVOS Items Among Back- Among KVOS ground Charac- Items t e r i s t i e s Among Back-ground Charac-t e r i s t i c s V a l . As % of V a l . As % of , V a l . As % of Val., ..As % i Or... Choices Or. •  Choice's 0 r * Choices Or. Ijphoici • • • :,:•:> - ("row") (.".coi.") ("row") '"("col Occupation: r e l a t i o n a l area. 5 43$ 5=1 33$ 6 43$ 6 5$ time area 1=2=6 33 6 83 1 67 1 83 man-nature area 1 80 1 83 1 60 1 50 Education: r e l a t i o n a l area 5 43 5=6 50 1=2=6 43 1 75 time area 6 50 6 50 1 100 1 75 man-nature area 1 80 1 100 1=2=6 40 2 75 Locus of Schooling: r e l a t i o n a l area 5 57 5 100 6 43 6 100 time area 6 50 6 75 1 67 1 75 man-nature area 1 80 1 100 2=6 40 2=6 50 Father's Occupation : r e l a t i o n a l area 5 57 5 60 1 43 1 60 time area 6 67 6 70 1 67 1 60 man-nature area 1 60 1 90 no choice - 1=2=4 30 Father's Education: r e l a t i o n a l area 5 43 5 60 6 43 1 80 time area 6 50 2 60 6 67 1 60 man-nature area 1 60 1 100 6 40 2=6 40 Father's Schooling: r e l a t i o n a l area 1=5 43 5 50 6 43 6 75 time area 2=6 50 6 50 1 67 1 100 man-nature area 1 80 1 100 6 60 2=6 50 R e l i g i o n : r e l a t i o n a l area l 71 5=1 50 6 57 2=6 50 time area 6 71 6 100 1 83 1 100 man-nature area 1 80 1 100 6 60 6 100 School: r e l a t i o n a l area 5 43 5 63 1 57 1 57 time area 6 60 6 75 1 60 1 71 mas-nature area 1 60 1 75 no choice 1=2 43 * For the two p a i r s of columns of percentages, one pa i r under "dominant value-orientation choices" and one p a i r under "major variant value-o r i e n t a t i o n choices," percentage of choices among items ("rows") should be -156-row (value-orientation area item) is also the modal choice for a l l the, rows. In the converse case, a "high" degree of consistency would be found, and the modal value orientation choice for a majority of rows in a given value-orientation area would be found to be the same choice when these rows were compared."^ " In the case of the illustrative Table (Table 32), the number of times that a value orientation that is chosen modally for each row is also chosen among a l l the rows is three times out of seven (three rows out of seven), or 43 per cent. As we will see below, this is a "high" consistency relative to the modal choice among columns. In addition to comparing the rows of these Tables to determine the effect that a background characteristic has upon value-orientation choice by item, and among items, in a given value-orientation area of the KVOS, we may also compare the columns (background characteristic categories) of the Tables to determine, within a value-orientation area, the number of times any modal value-orientation choice by column compared with percentage of choices among background characteristics ("columns"). Higher consistency among KVOS items would be indicated by higher percentages in this column of Table 31, vis-a"-vis the percentages in the column with which they are being compared. Since the opposite is generally the case ("column" percentages are generally higher than "row" percentages) a lack of consistency between items with respect to the background characteristics is suggested. 1 The terms "low" and "high" consistency as used here are important only in relation to one another. If the same value-orientation choice was found to be made for each row the highest possible consistency between rows would be seen. Conversely, no two rows bearing the same value-orientation choice would reveal lowest, or no consistency between rows. The same is true in comparing the columns, and the relationship between the rows and columns has no referent outside the model. -157-(background characteristic category) for a given value-orientation area is chosen among a l l the columns in a given value-orientation area. Again referring to Table 32 for illustrative purposes, i f , among rows in the relational area (relational items) we find a "low" consistency of value-orientation choice among columns (occupational categories) there is a "low" degree of relationship among columns (occupational categories). Otherwise put, no modal choice for a given column (occupational category) in a given value-orientation area is also the modal choice among a l l the columns (occupational categories) in a given value-orientation area. Again in the converse case, i f a "high" degree of consistency was found, a given value-orientation choice for many columns would be the same choice when columns were compared. In the case of the illustrative Table, 32, in the relational area the number of times that a value*.orientation that is chosen among the rows for each column is also chosen among a l l rows is two times out of six, or 33 per cent. This is a "low" consistency relative to the percentage of choice among the the rows in the relational area of 43 per cent. These relationships for each of the Tables (32 to 47) in Appendix II have been summarized in Table 31* If we examine the first row of Table 31 (occupation—relational area) and the first four figures in the row (showing the dominant value-orientation choices) we find the two relationships just described for Table 32, the modal dominant value-orientation choice among items, 5 (OL>l), being chosen 43 per cent of the time, and the modal dominant value-orientation choice among background characteristics, 5 or 1 (C>L>I or I>C>L), being chosen 33 per cent of the time. Thus the analysis of Table 32 has revealed that there is a relatively higher degree of consistency among row choices of dominant -158-value orientations (choices by KVOS item, and by occupational category within each item) than there is among the column choices of dominant value orientations (choices by occupational category, and by KVOS item within  each occupational category). In other words, occupational category appears to be more significant in determining value orientation choice than does KVOS item within a given value-orientation area. Although the difference between the percentage figures characterizing this comparison is not great, i t does suggest, within the limitations of the relatively crude measurement method, that a background characteristic is potentially more significant in determining value-orientation choice than.is the questionnaire item. It will be seen at a glance at Table 31* however, that the illustrative item from the first row of the Table is an anomalous case. Of the forty-eight pairs of comparisons made for Tables 32 to 47 (including two cases for which no value-orientation choice was evident), only seven exhibit this kind of relationship. In a l l the remaining cases except three, the background characteristic appears to be less significant in determining value-orientation choice than is the difference between the questionnaire items when these two variables are compared, the one in terms of the other. The three odd cases are ties. -159-TABLE 32 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for Occupation versus KVOS Items o -p -P CD .a CD Items ^ ^ u | g £ . : £ Row Modal S CD* ^ fi-g! § Modes Column - O S O CD fn -H CD CQ Mririp pi iU n3 > CD co 3 ivioue -P cd CD O CO ^ O RI 1 6 1 1=2 2 •1-3=4=6 1 R2 2 2 2 2 2 3=4 2 R3 5 5 5 4 5 1 5 R4 5 5=1 4 . 5 2=5=6 1 5 R5 1 1=2 1 1 2 5=6 1 R6 5 6 5 6 6 1 6 R7 5 1 5 6 5=6 6 5 Column Modes 5 1 5 6 2 1 Modal Row Mode 5 (43$) TI 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 T2Y 2 - - - - - 2 T20 - 1 2 2 2 2 2 T3 1 1 1=6 6 6 2=4 1=6 T4 6 4 6 4 4 3=4=5 4 T5 2 1 6 1=2 1 6 1 Column Modes 2=6 1 6 2=6 6 2=4=6 Modal Row Mode 1=2=6 (33$) MN1 1 3 6 2 l 1=2 1 MM2 3 3 3 2 2 6 3 MN3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MM4 1 1=5 1=6 1 1 4 1 MN5 6 2=4 6 1 1 3=4=5 1=4=6 Column Modes 1 1=3 6 1 1 1=4 5=1 (33$) 6 (83$) 1 (83$) Modal Row Mode 1 (80$) -160. TABLE 33 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices for Occupation versus KVOS Items Items -p a CD -P C O O -P <x> I -P CD CD W u O m o CD • H CD o JS > -P o (0 U • H CD > CD CO CD a C O EH Ci PQ CD CD CQ O Row Modes Modal Column Mode RI . 2 2=1 3 3 3 1=3=4=6 3 R2 . 1 1 3 3 3 2=5 3 R3 6 6 4 5 1 4 6 R4 6 6 5=2 6 3 5 6 R5 6 6 6 5 1=6 1=3 6 R6 6 1 6 1 1 2 1 R7 1 3=6 1=6 5 1 1=2=3 1 Column Modes 6 6 6 5 l 1 Modal Row Mode 6 (43*) TI 1 1=5 1 5 5 1 1 T2Y 1 - - — _ _ 1 T20 - 2=6 1 1 1 1 1 T3 6 2=4=5=6 2 1 1 5=6 6 T4 1 3 1=5 1=6 5 3=4=5 1=5 T5 1 4=5=6 1 6 3=6 - 6 Column Modes 1 5=6 1 1 1=5 1=5 i • Modal Row Mode 1 (67*) MN1 2 1=4 1 l 2 3 l MN2 2 ' 2 1 3 1 3 1=2=3 MN3 6 2=5=6 6 2 6 2 6 MN4 4 6 4 6 6 2 6 MN5 1 1 1 6 6 5 1 Column Modes 2 1=2=6 1 6 6 2=3 .4 6 (50*) | 1 (83*) 6 (50*) Modal Row Mode 1 (60*) -161. TABLE 34 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for Education versus KVOS Items Row Modal Modes Column Mode RI 6 1 1 2 1 R2 2 2 2 2 2 R3 4 5 5 5 5 R4 5 5 6 2 5 R5 1 1 1 1=6 1 R6 6 5 6 1 6 R7' 1= =6 5 5 5=6 5 Column Modes 6 5 1=5=6 2 i Modal Row Mode 5 (43*) TI 6 6 6 6 6 T2Y - 2 _ - 2 T20 1 2 2 2 2 T3 1 6 6 6 6 T4- 4 6 6 6 6 T5 1 2 6 1 1 Column Modes 1 2 6 6 Modal Row Mode 6 (50*) MN1 3 1 6 1 1 MN2 3 3 3 2 3 MN3 1 1 1 1 1 MN4 6 1 . 1 1 1 MN5 1=2=4 6 6 1 1=6 Column Modes 1=3 1 1=6 1 Modal Row Mode 1 (80*) 5=6 (50*) 6 (50*) 1 (100*) Items CO U nj <D o H O -H -P + O -162-TABLE 35 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices for Education versus KVOS Items Items 1-10 years Matric. Matric. + B.A. Row Modes RI 2 2 3 1 2 R2 1=3 3 3 4 3 R3 5 6 1 1 1 R4 1 6 2 '4 1=2=4=6 R5 2 6 2 2=5 2 R6 1=3=5 6 5 6 5=6 R7 5 6 1=6 1 1=6 Column Modes 1=5 6 1=2=3 1 Modal Row Mode 1=2=6 (43$) TI 1=5 1 l 5 1 T2Y - 1 - - 1 T20 2 1 1 1 1 T3 2=6 1 1 1 1 T4 3=5 1=4 1=4=5 1=4=5 1=4=5 T5 6 1 1 2 1 Column Modes 2=5=6 1 1 1 Modal Row Mode 1 (100$) MN1 1=4 2 1 2 1=32 MM2 2 2 2 1 2 MN3 2=5 6 6 - 6 MM4 5 4 6 6 6 MN5 6 1 1 2 1 Column Modes 2=5 2 1=6 r ' ' 2 Modal Column Mode 1 (75$) 1 (75$) 2 (75$) Modal Row Mode 1=2=6 (40$) -163-TABLE 36 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for Locus of Schooling versus KVOS Items 1 3t and :ian -P Items -p CO 1 3t and :ian Oj 1 Row • H CD T H to Christi i Modes Buddt Buddl Chn Christi Govei RI 2 1 2 1=2 2 R2 2 2 3 2 2 R3 5 5 5 5 5 R4 5 5=6 6 4 5=6 R5 1 1 1 1 1 R6 5 5 1=5 5 5 R7 5 5 1=5 5 5 Column Modes 5 5 1=5 5 Modal Row Mode 5 (57*) TI 6 6 6 6 6 T2Y 2 2 2 2 2 T20 1 2 2 2 2 T3 6 6 6 1 6 T4 4 6 6 1 6 T5 1 1 1 2 1 Column Modes 1=6 6 6 2 Modal Row Mode 6 (50*) MN1 1 1 1 1 1 MN2 2 3 3 3 3 MN3 1 1 1 1 1 MN4 1 1 1 4=6 1 MN5 1 6 1 1=6 1 Column Modes 1 1 1 1 Modal Row Mode 1 Modal Column Mode 5 (100*) 6 (75*) 1 (100*) (80*) -164-TABLE 37 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices for Locus of Schooling versus KVOS Items a „ Items ra -a to !p >H g Row Modal:;. •ri CD -H CQ -p g . '• x * ,a -H to h Modes Column TI g -a x! ^ > Mode 3 3 o xi o pq PQ o O RI 1 6 ;. 1 3=5 1 R2 3=4 4 2 3 3=4 R3 1 4 4 6 4 R4 2 1 5 2=6 2 R5 6 6 2 6 6 R6 6 1=6 6 6 6 R7 6 1=6 6 6 6 Column Modes 6 6 2=6 6 Modal Row Mode 6 (43$) TI 1=5 5 1 1 1 T2Y 1 1 3=5 1=6 1 T20 2 1 1 1 1 T3 1 1 1 6 1 T4 5 4 4 6 4 T5 2 6 6 6 6 Column Modes 1 1 1 6 Modal Row Mode 1 (67$) MN1 2 2 6 2 2 MN2 3 2 2 2 2 MN3 6 6 6 6 6 MM4 ' 6 4 5 1=2=3=5 5 MN5 6 1 4=6 5 6 Column Modes 6 2 6 2 6 (100$) 1 (75$) 2=6 (50$) Modal Row Mode 2=6 (40$) TABLE 38 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for Occupation of Father versus KVOS Items Items CD B u En -P CD G C CD H 23 CD O •H (0 & •H +3 CO CO CD > C CD CD X! PH PH ce a T3 O CD CD O -H ni tf > CO PH CO PH CD • O m p EH EH C5 S pq PH CD 1-3 a tf •ri O •ri CO j? a, PH o -p CD •ri PH (X o PH PH H bO-H ctf O H -H i—I H H •H ' H > O PH -P X) -p cti CD PH PH EH Row Modes Modal Column Mode RI 1=2 1 1 2 2=3 1 4 2 1=2 1=6 1 R2 2 .3 2 2 3 2 5 2 2 2 2 R3 5 6 5 5 5 5 1=5 1=4 5 5 5 R4 1 1 6 2 5 1 3 5 5 6 1=5 R5 1 6 6 1 1 1=6 1 6 1=5 1=2 1 R6 5 6 6 5 1 5 1 5 6 6 5=6 R7 5 1=3=5 5 5 1=5 5 1 5 6 5=6 5 Column Modes 5=1 1=6 6 2=5 1=5 1=5 1 5 5 6 Modal Row Mode 5 (57$) TI 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 T2Y 2 2 2 2 2 2 1=2 2=6 2 2 T20 1 1 2 2 1=2 2 — 2 2 1=2 2 T3 1 6 1 6 6 1 6 6 6 1 6 T4 3=4 6 6 6 4 1 5 4 1 6 6 T5 6 1 2 2 3=6 1=2=6 1=2=4=5=6 1 1 6 1=6 Column Modes 2=6 6 2 2=6 6 1=2 6 1=2=6 6 6 H O I 5 (60$) 6 (70$) Modal" Row Mode 6 (67$) o & o s; en ft cT o a H CD d to a V/1 I .p- V J J ro H H O H V>J O .p- v/i H V J O J-H H W H H V I H O N H ro H ft CD B CD Farmer Tradesman Teacher Government Service Mercantile, Business Lawyer Physician Proprietor Village Official Petty Trader c? w a- o CD s; W ~ ° s S o o O H O -f=L d p) CD B H - 9 9 T -TABLE 39 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value Orientation Choices f o r Occupation of Father versus KVOS Items Items - P CD C CD H CD O • H CO U M • H - p CO CO CD > G CD CD CP X t cti C - d O CD CD O - H u cti cti f> C O CO u CD O CD 2 E H C3 S P Q u CD cti SH O cti - P r—1 •ri CD CD cti O • H t>0-H •H £H cti O !>:, CD CO . O . r H - H - p - a >> O r H <H - P cti X i £H • H « M CD U P-< P-, > O P-. E-i Row-Modes Column Mode RI'-:. 3 6 6 1=6 4=5=6 2 1=2=6 3 5 2 6 R2 1=3=5 1=4 1=3=4 1=3 2 4 1=2=3 3 1=3 1=3 1=3 R3 4 5 1=2 6 1 1 2 5 1=4=6 4 1 R4 5 6 1=2 3=4=5 2=3 5 2=4=5 2=3=6 6 4 2 R5 2=6 1=2 1 6 6 2=3=5 2=5=6 1=2 2=3=6 6 2=6 R6 1 3=5 5 1 6 1=3=6 5 6 1=5 1 1 R7 1 - 6 1=6 6 2 4=5 6 5 1=3 6 Column Modes 1 1=5=6 1 1=6 6 2 2 3=6- 1=5=6 1 I H ON ^! I 1 (60*) Modal Row Mode 1 (43*) TI 1 1 1 5 5 1=2 1 5 5 1 1 T2Y - 1=6 1 1 1 1=3 1=5 3 - - 1 T20 2 2=6 - 6 - - - 1 1 - 1=2=6 T 3 2=6 1 5 1 1=5 6 1=5 1 1 6 1 T4 2=5=6 1=5 1=3 1=5 6 6 1=4 5 4=5=6 4 5 T5 1 2 6 1=6 4=5 5 - 2 2=5 4 2=5 Column Modes 2 1 1 1 5 1=6 1 1=5 5 4 1 (60*) Modal Row Mode 1 (67*) g o o o o p . P- H g g g S g CO £ § § § § § H CO 3 VJI 4^ u> ^ H o s; - p -II II o p . T II II CD - p - O p - W M H C M v i M IT •p- 1—1 o r o - p -r o CO <j| cr u i P~ o r o ^ vn .p-II II II •p- o r o u> o " I v^ i QN r o r o *oo r o H> i—• H H O H O O ON O ON VJI p - ON r o ON I—1 -p- ON r o CD g CO Farmer Tradesman Teacher Government Service Mercantile, Business Lawyer Physician Proprietor Village Official Petty Trader o ?d a. o CD s; CO g o o o H a CD § H -891--169-TABLE 40 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for Education of Father versus KVOS Items + to « to u + < u n) ci CD • • pq CD o o >» •H •rl O PH PH * w\ H - P - P < I 1 03 « H v O s P Q Items b 5S ~ R o w Modal Modes Column Mode Rl 2 1 2=6 2 1 2 R2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R3 5 5 5 5 1=5 •'5 R4 6 5 5 6 4=5 5 R5 1=2=6 1 1 6 1 1 R6 6 6 5 6 5 6 R7 1=5 5= =6 5 5 1=5 5 Column Modes 2=6 5 5 6 1=5 Modal Row Mode 5 (43$) TI 6 6 6 6 6 6 T2Y 2 2 2 2 2 2 T20 1 2 2 2 2 2 T3- 1 6 6 1 6 6 T4 4 6 5 6 1 6 T5 1 1 1 2 2 1 Column Modes 1 6 2=6 2 2 Modal Row Mode 6 (50$) MN1 1 1 1 1 2 1 MN2 3 3 3 3 3 3 MN3 1 1 1 1 1 1 MN4 1 1 1 1 1=4 1 MN5 2 6 6 6 1=4 6 Column Modes 1 1 1 1 1 Modal Row Mode 1 5 (60$) 2 (60$) 1 (100$) (60$) -170-J TABLE 41 Rank Ordered Major Varient Value-Orientation Choices for Education of Father versus KVOS Items Row Modal Modes Column Mode RI 1 2 1 1 6 1 R2 3=5=6 1 3 3=4 5 3 R3 4 4=6 1 6 2 4=6 R4 1=2 1=3=6 2 2=4 6 2 R5 5 6 6 1 6 6 R6 1 5 1 5 1 1 R7 3 1 6 2 6 6 Column Modes 1 1=6 1.1=2=4 6 Modal Row Mode 6 (43$) TI 1 1 5 1=5:, 1 1 T2Y 6 — 1=6 1 6 6 T20 2=5=6 1 1=6 — - 1=6 T3 6 1 1 5=6 1 1 T4 6 1 6 1=5 5 1=5=6 T5 4=6 2=6 2=6 6 1=6 6 Column Modes 6 1 6 1 1 Modal Row Mode 6 (67$) MN1 3 6 3 4 1 3 MN2 2 1 2 2 2 2 MM3 6 6 2=6 6 2 6 MM4 4 4=6 6 5 5 4=5=6 MN5 1=3=4=5 1 1 1 2=5=6 1 Column Modes 3=4 6 2=6 - 2 1 (80$) 1 (60$) 2=6 (40$) Modal Row Mode 6 (40$) W PH + - p i PH OEJ • Items cd cu • • pq C D > j o o > j _ - H - H O PH PH • LT\ H -P -P < H NO S* J i PQ -171-TABLE 42 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices f o r Locus of Schooling of F a t h e r v»r. q„ 0 KVOS Items Items -p to •H XI *§ OP T3 c cti q cd -P -H T3 tO Q) -rj tO 5 T3 '£ S "Q ,C ,5 ° PQ c cti •H -P CO •H SH X! O •P c CD > O C 3 Row Modes Modal Column Mode RI 2 R2 2 R3 5 R4 6 R5 1=6 R6 6 R7 5 Column Modes 6 Modal Row Mode 2 2 5 5 1 1 5 1 3 5 1=5 1 1 5 1 1 2 5 5 1 5 5 1=2 2 5 5 1 1 5 1=5 (43*) 5 (50*) TI 6 6 6 6 T2Y 2 2 2 2 T20 2 1=2=6 2 2 T3 1 6 1 6 T4 1 6 5=6 4 T5 1 2 6 1=2 6 2 2 1=6 6 1=2 Column Modes 1 6 6 2 Modal Row Mode MN1 1 1 1 1 MN2 2 3 3 3 MN3 1 1 1 1 MN4 1 1=4 1 1 MM5 1 1=6 6 1 Column Modes 1 1 1 1 Modal Row Mode 2=6 (50*) 1 3 1 1 1 1 (80*) 6 (50*) 1 (100*) -172-TABLE 43 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices for Locus of Schooling of Rather versus KVOS Items Items Buddhist Mixed Buddhist and Christian Christian Government Row Modes Modal Column Mode RI 1 6 2 2 2 R2 3=4 1 . 2 3 3 R3 4=6 1 1=6 1 1 R4 5 1 4=6 2 -R5 2 2=3=6 6 6 6 R6 5 2=4=5=6 5=6 6 5=6 R7 6 6 1=2=6 1 6 Column Modes 4 =5=6 6 6 1=2=6 "6 (75*) Modal Row Mode 6 (43*) TI 1 5 5 1 1=5 T2Y 1 1=6 6 1 1 T20 1 - 1 1 1 T3 6 1 6 1 1=6 T4 6 2=5 1=3 6 6 T5 6 1=3=4=6 2 6 6 Column Modes 1=6 1 1=6 1 . l i ioo*) Modal Row Mode 1 (67*) MN1 3 2 2 2 2 MN2 3 2 2 2 2 MN3 2 6 6 6 6 MN4 6 2=5=6 5 4=6 6 MM5 6 3=4 1 6 6 Column Modes 3=6 2 2 6 2=6 (50*) Modal Row Mode 6 (60*) -173-TABLE 44 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for Religion versus KVOS Items Items -P CO • r l xi T3 PQ C al •ri -P CQ •ri U x: o Row Modes Modal Column Mode Rl R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 1 2 5 5 1 5 5 1 1 1=6 6 2 6 1 1 1=2 1=5=6 5=6 1=2 5=6 5=1 Column Mode s 5 Modal Row Mode TI T2Y T20 T3 T4 6 2 2 6 6 6 6 2 1 6 1 (71$) 6 2=6 2 1=6 6 T5 1 1=2=3=4=6 1=2=3=4=Column Modes 6 Modal Row Mode MN1 1 MM2 3 MN3 1 MN4 1 MN5 1 1=2=3=6 3 1 1 1 6 (71$) 1 3 1 1 1 5=1 (50$) 6 (100$) Column Modes 1 1 (100$) Modal Row Mode 1 (80$) -174-TABLE 45 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices for Religion versus KVOS Items Items .3 Row Modal £ m Modes Column 3 u Mode m o RI 2 2=5 2 R2 3 3=5 3 R3 1 2 1=2 R4 6 1=2=4 1=2=4=6 R5 6 1=5=6 6 R6 6 1 1=6 R7 6 2=4=6 6 Column Modes 6 2 2=6 (50*) Modal Row Mode 6 (57*) TI 5 1=2 1=2=5 T2Y 1 - 1 T20 1 - 1 T3 1 6 1=6 T4 4 1=5 1=4=5 T5 2 - 2 Column Modes 1 1 Modal Row Mode 1 (83*) MN1 2 _ 2 MN2 2 1=2 2 MN3 6 6 6 MN4 4 3=6 3=4=6 MN5 6 3=4 3=4=6 Column Modes 2=6 3=6 1 (100*) 6 (100*) Modal Row Mode 6 (60*) -175-TABLE 46 Rank Ordered Dominant Value-Orientation Choices for School versus KVOS Items Items (TJ X cd P4 o X E H -P CO CO -0 •H -P cd > U CD CO -p CO CD H CD cd H > » H O O Pt5 O CD cd bo CD C H cd H -a? o CD cd H -P ed cd '<~i T} 3 rl CO > cd u cd -p -p c CD O o •a R co x> •H -H > > Row Modes Modal Column Mode Rl 1 1=2=6 6 2 6 1 5 2 1=2=6 R2 1=2=3=4 2 1 2 2 1=2=4 5 2 2 R3 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 R4 1 2=3=4=6 5 4 5 6 4 3 4 R5 6 1 1 6 1 1 2 1 1 R6 6 5 5=6 5 5 6 1 1 5 R7 5 5 5 5 : 1 5 2 2 5 Column Modes 1 2=5 5 5 5 1 2=5 2 Modal Row Mode 5 (43$) TI 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 T2Y 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 T3 1 6 6 1 1 1 6 6 1=6 T4 6 6 1 1 3 6 5 5=6 6 T5 2 1 1 2 1 6 3 2 1=2 Column Modes 2=6 6 1=6 1 1 6 6 6 Modal Row Mode 6 (60$) MN1 1 1=5 1 1=2 3 1 2 2 1 MW2 3 3 3 3 2=3 2 3 3 3 MM3 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 MN4 1 4 1 1 1 1 3 4 1 MM5 6 6 6 4 1 1 3 4 6 Column Modes 1 1 1=6 1 1 1 3 4 5 (63$) 6 (75$) 1 (75$) Modal Row Mode 1 (60$) TABLE 47 Rank Ordered Major Variant Value-Orientation Choices for School versus KVOS Items , g r P •H (Q - p Items o u <o a > c ? . p c e t ? Row Modal cd xi 0) bO c S b O n J H n J C ^ H w , n -, H E-< co H t u D I D ^ n i ^ i D A i t s Modes Lolumn 0 cd H C H c d ! > s c t i > c d r > a M , .c • • i>aH u r i ' T O +1 c to A Mode Ctj -P ft! co cd cd cti > tt) 0) cd +3 cd cd Q)  cd bO cd i—1 cd C £1 i—1 C O  0) C - p cd *H CD ! cd cd    cd >4 cd > cd > » ! .  cd rH •i-J T 3 - p C CQ T J -P o o g o P -ri o •H -rl C O o < o C O > o > > RI 6 - 1=2=5 1 R2 - 1=3=4=6 2=3=4 3=4=5 R3 1=6 6 2=4 1 R4 6 1 1 2=6 R5 1 6 2=4=6 1 R6 5 6 1=3 1=3=6 R7 - 1=3=6 1=3=6 1=6 Column Modes 6 6 1=2 1 Modal Row Mode TI 1=5 1 1 T2Y 1 1 1 1=3=5=6 T3 6 1=2=5 1=2 6 T4 1 1=5 6 4=5 T5 6 2=5 5=6 6 Column •Modes 1=6 1=5 1 6 Modal Row Mode 2 2=6 - 1 1=2 5 3=5 - 1 3 2 1=2 - 1=5 1 4 2=3 - 1=5 1 6 6 - 2 6 6 1=4=5 - 2=5 1=5=6 6 1 - 1=5 1 6 1=2 - 1 1 (57*) =5 1 - 1=5 1 1 1 - 1 1 6 5=6 - 5 6 6 1=3=4 - 4 1=4 6 2 - 1 6 6 1 - 1 1 (57*) l..(73*) 1 (60*) TABLE 47 (continued) £l Row Modal cd H to la xi H Modes Column - P cd ^  CD , i d cd , cd > , cd t> cd t>» Mode 3 - H i d O - H - H c o > a Q > >  MN1 2=4 2 3 3=4 1=4 6 1=4 4 MN2 2 1=2 2 2 1 3 2 2 MN3 2=6 3=6 1 2 2=6 6 - 3=5=6 6 MN4 3=5 1=6 4 4=5 4 5 2=5 5 MN5 $=2 1 1 1=6 6 2=6 3 1 Column Modes 2 1 1 2=4 1=4=6 6 - 2=3=5 1=2 (43*) CO p • H CO .p Items i > o U 0) CD cd .C CD W U M H En CO H CD xf CD p fd iH C i—I Xi • • !>>rl Cd cd -P -p o o « co co pi o Modal Row Mode 1=2=4=5=6 no choice -178-TABLE 48 Chi-squares for Background Characteristics versus Value-Orientatlore Items Interpreted for Level of Sigmificance Bivariate p Bivariate p Computer X d.f. P- Computer X d .f. P-Table Table Age versus Occupation versus Rl 67.3 56 .10 Rl 93.4 40 .005 R2 62.6 .25 R2 34.7 <.75>.5 R3 41.4 .90 R3 52.3 <.1>.05 R4 30.4 .99 R4 28.2 <.95>.90 R5 62.6 .25 R5 40.9 <.5>.25 R6 42.9 .90 R6 39.6 .5 R7 43.5 .90 i R7 32.9 <.90>.75 •- TI 59.3 <.5>.25 TI 65.4 <. 01X005 T2Y 8.6 >.995 T2Y 6.2 X995 T20 10.1 >.995 T20 17.5 >.995 T3 43.9 • 90 T3 65.8 <.01>.005 T4 65.9 .10 - T4 55.8 .05 T5 75.3 .05 T5 85.1 <.005 MN1 43.4 .90 Ml 65.5 <. 01X005 MN2 108.7 >.005 MN2 63.7 .01 MN3 29.4 .995 MN3 23.3 <• 99X975 MN4 57.2 .50 MN4 48.3 <. 25X10 MN5 58.6 .25 MN5 83.9 <.005 Sex versus Place of Residence versus Rl 12.7 8 <.25>.10 Rl 23.0 8 <.005 R2 3.4 .9 R2 9.9 <.5>.25 R3 8.2 <.5>.25 R3 8.2 <.5 >.25 R4 13.5 .1 R4 10.6 .25 R5 2.7 .95 R5 1.4 .995 R6 15.9 .05 R6 12.9 <. 25X10 R7 18.4 <.025>.01 R7 8.0 <.5X25 TI 9.7 <.5>.25 TI .6.3 <.75>.5 . T2Y 9.4 <.5>.25 T2Y 8.5 <.5X25 T20 1.6 .99 T20 3.1 <. 95X90 T3 5.9 <.75>.5 T3 12.7 <.25 X10 T4 9.5 <.5>.25 T4 4.3 <.90>.75 T5 12.3 <.25>.l T5 9.6 <.5 >.25 MN1 5.3 .75 MN1 20.2 .01 MN2 9.8 .25 MN2 13.6 .10 MN3 6.2 <.75>.50 MN3 12.6 <. 25X10 MN4 19.0 <.025>.01 MM4 7.8 <.5>.25 MN5 17.2 .025 MN5 8.6 <.5X25 -179-TABLE 48 (continued) Bivariate ^ Bivariate ^ Computer X d.f. p. Computer X d.f. Table Table Education versus Occupation . of Father versus RI 26.5 24 <.5 >.25 -.79.6,;;?2 • ><.25 >.10 R2 24.5 <.5>.25 54.9 <.95>.90 R3 21.2 <.75 >.5 R3 4 0 . 7 >.995 R4 19.2 • 75 R4 70.4 <.50>.25 R5 15.7. .90 R5 45.2 .99 R6 19.2 .75 R6 6 9 . 7 <.25>.10 R7 13-3 <.975>.95 R 7 73.9 <.50>.25 TI 13.8 .95 TI 4 4 . 0 <.995>.990 T2Y 0 . 0 >.995 T2Y 28.7 X995 T20 11.1 <.99>.975 T20 38.8 >.995 T3 27.3 <.5>.25 T3 80.6 <.25>.lO T4 19.8 <.75 >.50 T4 76.4 <.50>.25 T5 26.2 ' <.5>.25 T5 80.5 <.25>.10 M l 4 4 . 1 <.01>.005 MN1 68.2 <.75>.50 MN2 20.7 <.75>.50 MM2 78.5 <.25 >.10 MN3 18.4 <.90>.75 MN3 59.2 <.90>.75 MN4 3 3 . 0 .10 MN4 67.7 <.75>.50 MN5 24.8 <.50 >.25 MM5 6 4 . 7 <.75>.50 Locus of Schooling versus Education of Father versus RI 35.5 24 <.10>.05 RI 20.3 32 . 9 0 R2 24.0 <.50>.25 R2 27.3 <.75>.50 R3 22.9 <.75>.50 R3 18.9 .95 R4 17.9 <.90>.75 R4 3 3 . 1 <.50>.25 R5 16.0 <. 90X75 R5 2 2 . 2 <.90>.75 R6 24.9 <.50>.25 R6 27.6 <.75>.50 R7 21.2 <.75>.50 R7 3 4 . 6 .25 TI 24.5 <.50>.25 TI 26.9 <.75>.50 T2Y 17.4 <.90>.75 T2Y 17.0 <.975>.95 T20 16.5.-,, <.90>.75 T20 26.7 <.75>.50 T3 17.8- " <.90>.75 T 3 3 0 . 1 <.50>.25' T4 22.4 <.75>.50 T4 34.6 .25 T5 24.3 <.50 >.25 T5 44.0 .05 MN1 23.1 .50 MN1 32.9 <.50>.25 MN2 16.0 <.90>.75 MN2 25.8 <.75>.50 MN3 22.3 <.75 >.50 MN3 17.4 <.975 >.95 MN4 24.6 <.50 >.25 MN4 20.8 .90 MN5 22.3 <.75 >.50 MN5 40.9 .10 -180-TABLE 48 (continued) Bivariate p Bivariate T — — Computer d.f. P. Computer X d.f o P-Table Table Locus of Father's Schooling versus Religion versus Rl 24.3 24 <. 50X25 Rl 11.5 8 <.25>.10 R2 20.8 <.75>.50 R2 9.0 <.50>.25 R3 13.9 .95 R3 8.0 <.50>.25 R4 10.8 .99 R4 3.4 ;.90 R5 16.3 <.90>.75 R5 3.0 <.90>.75 R6 39.4 .025 R6 4.2 <.90>.75 R7 14.1 , <.95>.90 R7 7.0 <.75 >.50 TI 13.8 \ .95 TI 11.8 <.25>.10 T2Y 12.3 .975 T2Y 12.6 <.25>.10 T20 11.2 <.990>.975 T20 8.2 <.50>.25 T3 22.7 <.75>.50 T3 2.7 .95 T4 36.1 .05 T4 4.7 <.90>.75 T5 26.0 <.50>.25 T5 6.1 <.75>.50 Ml 13.6 .95 MM1 4.6 <. 90X75 MM2 30.2 <.25>.10 MN2 28.5 <.005 MN3 16.2 <.90>.75 MN3 1.4 <. 995X99 MN4 23.0 .50 MM4 4.8 <.90X75 M5 25.3 <.50>.25 MN5 6.5 <. 75X50 Language versus Rl 25.8 8 <.01 R2 15.8 <. 05X02 R3 16.7 <.05 X02 R4 5.5 <.7>.5 R5 19.6 <. 02X01 R6 14.4" <.1X05 R7 6.3 <.7>.5 TI 11.8 <.2X1 T2Y 0.0 X99 T20 3.8 <.9X8 T3 10.6 <.3X2 T4 10.4 <.3>.2 T5 5.7 <.7X5 Ml 14.5 <.1>.05 MM2 25.3 • <.01 MN3 6.8 <.7X5 M4 9.1 <.5X3 MM5 12.5 <.2X1 School versus Rl 43.9 56 .75 R2 44.1 .75 R3 26.9 X995 R4 58.9 .25 R5 32.0 .99 R6 54.7 .50 R7 59.2 .25 TI 25.8 X995 T2Y 38.8 .95 T20 0.0 X995 T3 35.4 .99 T4 57.1. .25 T5 58.0 .25 Ml 65.2 .10 M2 36.8 .975 M3 , 38.7 .95 M4 33.8 .99 M5 54.8 .50 APPENDIX III SUPPORTING LETTERS -182-Copy of the Letter Sent to Parents Visited in Their Homes-* Dear We are conducting an international study of attitudes about education, recreation, and other similar topics. Your name has been randomly selected from a representative sample of school parents in Ceylon. Would you be willing to help us complete our survey? Students in Colombo and out-station schools have already been interviewed. Now we would like to consult with each parent in our random sample to give our study wider scope. The interview takes approximately one hour and resembles a public opinion survey. It can be conducted in either Sinhalese or English. Similar interviews have been carried out in other countries as well, such as in Japan and Mexico, and most people have responded with considerable interest. This survey also has the definite practical advantage of increasing international understanding by providing average people in different countries an opportunity to express their views about everyday affairs. Since this study will represent Ceylon accurately only i f we are able to interview every person in the random sample, we sincerely hope you will be able to spare an hour to assist us. We of course realize that most of your time will be fully occupied. So as not to put you to any inconvenience I will therefore personally telephone you or call at your house sometime during the next few weeks to ask for an appointment. You can at that time ask any questions and also decide whether you wish to act as one of our consultants. I look forward to meeting you. Yours sincerely, Michael M. Ames, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Anthropology McMaster University, Canada * References to random and representative samples were purely for the purpose of eliciting cooperation. - 1 8 3 -Copy of "Supporting L e t t e r " from 1-iinistry of C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s Mote: This l e t t e r introc'uces Ames i s a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y teacher who has come t o Ceylon to l e a r n about b e l i e f s and customs. The reader i s asked to a s s i s t Mr. Ames i n h i s research. ttocJbnBs) o O c ^ Si?die; G ^&&<3&Jnd 0)J25)QDG3 di<$ ©jcfOC 3c© 0C;IB(3GJ e)32>3 SqaG S^ uX; oSffisQjcfis QdGcJef <?J9>CA ?c3o)(f cpio, tfvd Btswi Queued QQmoziO ca) 60. cpc^ e GQ&d1 S^cJcjsf mi® uBofestocf ff)dGaiz) o o . G3 o S s f ^ j c3Cjs>3 5)dj$ SoocT Cflja) da) aSra a>»djb S8e>0 cpstbcft £Jc3c? <3tW3 o j S S CoGes? 5)QGOJ osCOsi odoiSH) caejos C3Q)0 Gc;sfa>'0 y d t W SJJO (pOod-ocfe) 2)g}0 e q a GS>3? Q©3 ©dji&GDetf QC?C3. q^'.-'Usf G§ odcn qjejZj qpjS) 88 GC^JZJOC^ 5zafflo> rajS Ogj . GOOO , QiDecfJ inside GCJQO, -184-BIBLIOGRAPHY Ames, M.M. 1963 Ideological and Social change in Ceylon. Human Organization 22% 45-53. 1 9 6 4 Religion, politics, and economic development in Ceylon: an interpretation of the Weber thesis. Proceedings of the 1 9 6 4 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society, M.E. Spiro, ed. 61-76. Belshaw, C.S. 1959 The identification of values in Anthropology. American Journal of Sociology 64: 555-562. Bidney, D. •:• 1953 The concept of value in modern Anthropology. In Anthropology today A.L. Kroeber, ed. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Caudill, W. and H.A. Scarr 1962 Japanese value orientations and cultural change. Ethnology 1: 53-91. Edwards, A.L. 1955 Statistical methods for the behavioral sciences. Mew York, Rinehart. Fallding, H. 1965 A proposal for the empirical study of values. American Sociological Review 3 0 : 223-233. Firth, R. 1953 The study of values by social anthropologists. Man 53' 146-153. Goode, W.J. and P.K. Hatt. 1952 Methods in social research. New York, McGraw-Hill. Goody, E. 1964 Review of F. Kluckhohn's and F.L. Strodtbeck's "Variations in value orientations". Man 64: 157-158 Government of Ceylon. 1959 Ceylon year book 1958. Colombo, Department of Census and Statistics. Guilford, J.P. 1956 Fundamental statistics in Psychology and Education. New York, McGraw-Hill. -185-Jacob, P.E. and J.J. Flink. 1962 Values and their functions in decision-making. The American Behavioral Scientist 5: 1-38. Kendall, M.G. 1955 Rank correlation methods, second edition. New York, Hafner. Kluckhohn, C. 1954 Culture and behaviour. In Handbook of Social Psychology, II. G. Lindzey, ed. Reading, Addison-Wesley. 1956 Toward a comparison of value-emphases in different cultures. In The state of the social sciences. L.D. White, ed. Chicago, The University of• Chicago Press. 1958 The scientific study of values in contemporary civilization. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 102: 469-476. 1961 The study of values. In Values in America. D.N. Barrett, ed. Notre Dame, The University of Notre Dame Press. Kluckhohn, C. et al. 1951 Values and value-orientations in the theory of action: an exploration in definition and classification. In Toward a general theory of action: theoretical foundations for the social sciences. (Copyright 1951 by Harvard University—• reprinted 1962.) Evanston, Harper and Row. Kluckhohn, F.R. 1960a A method for eliciting value orientations. Anthropological Linguistics 2: 1-23. 1960b Variations in the basic values of family systems. In A modern introduction to the family. N.W. Bell and E.F. Vogel, eds. Glencoe, Free Press. 1961 Dominant and variant value orientations. In Personality in nature, society,'and culture. C. Kluckhohn, H.A. Murray, and D.M. Schneider, eds. Chicago, Knopf. 1963 Some reflections on the nature of cultural integration and change. In sociological theory, values, and sociocultural change. E.A. Tiryakian, ed. Glencoe, Free Press. Kluckhohn, F.R. and F.L. Strodtbeck. 1961 Variations in value orientations. Evanston, Row, Peterson. Levy, M.J. 1950 Some basic methodological difficulties in social science. Philosophy of Science 17: 287-301. 1952 The structure of society. Princeton, Princeton University Press. -186-Levy, M.J. 1963 Some problems for a unified theory of human nature. In Sociological theory, values, and sociocultural change. E.A„ Tiryakian, ed. Glencoe, Free Press. Mendis, G.C. 1957 Ceylon today and yesterday: main currents of Ceylon history. Colombo, Associated Newspapers. Parsons, T. 1949 The structure of social action. Glencoe, Free Press. Rapoport, A. 1958 Various meanings of theory. American Political Science Review 52: 972-988. Ryan, B.F. and M.A. Straus. 1954 The integration of Sinhalese society. Research Studies of the State College of Washington.22: 179-227. Selvaratnam, S. 1959 National Planning Council: Population projections for Ceylon, 1956-1981. Report prepared at the Demographic Training and Research Center, Bombay, at the request of the Planning Secretariat, Ceylon. Ceylon, the Government Press. Siegel, S. 1956 Nonparametric statistics for' the behavioral sciences. New York, McGraw-Hill. Spiegel, M.R. 1961 Theory and problems of statistics. New York, Schaum. Whiting, J.W.M. 1954 The cross-cultural method. In Handbook of Social Psychology, I. G. Lindzey, ed. Reading, Addison-Wesley. Wriggens, W.H. 1960 Ceylon: dilemmas of a new nation. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Zetterberg, H.L. 1965 On theory and verification in Sociology, third enlarged edition. Totowa, The Bedminster Press. 

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