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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of the electricity industry in British Columbia Taylor, Mary Doreen 1965

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DEVELOPMENT OP THE ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY IN BRITISH COLOMBIA MARY DORBEN TAYLOR A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQJJIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Geography. We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,. 1965. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study, I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission* Department of Geography The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada - i i -ABSTRACT It is the purpose of this study to examine the development of the electricity industry in British Columbia from its beginnings in 1883 until 1961, in order to see what relationship exists between this development and technological change; new uses of electricity; the part played by government; and the economic growth of the province. The study is divided by approximate growth periods and within each there is some description of major electric facilities; an examination of these in relationship to the. factors listed above; and some assessment of the causes and consequences of the total development. Electric generating capacity has grown from zero in 1883 to over three million kilowatts in 1961. The increase was rapid until 1931 and then slackened off during the Depression. New plants were being scheduled when the shortages of labour and materials causes by World War II forced utilities to halt construction. New construction began immediately after the War, and at such an increased rate that over four-and-a-half times as much generating plant was added between 1945 and 1961 as was built in the preceding years. Technology has never been a decisive feature for generating plants and transmission lines in British Columbia. Larger and more efficient stations were always developed before they-were needed. Transmission line technology also advanced with the need for longer lines at higher voltages. Government, both municipal and provincial, played an important role in the growth of the electricity industry in British Columbia. Municipal-ities were often responsible for introducing electric power into a commun-- iii -ity. It was only when the demands for power increased beyond the capabil-ity of the local power plant that some of these communities were forced either to sell the plant to a larger utility or to close the generating plant and purchase power from a larger producer. In 1944 the provincial govern-ment became involved in the electricity industry. Because the population of the province was small and consequently the number of customers few and scattered, there were many small generating plants and long transmission lines. This meant a high cost per customer. In order to overcome this to some extent and also to provide more rural electrification, the B.C. Power Commission was set up by the government. Expansion followed. Between 1945 and 1961 several of the major undeveloped water resources had been studied with a view to large scale hydro-electric development. Only the Kitimat - Kemano project materialized. However, in order to guarantee a major market for power from at least one more of these resources, the provincial government, in 1961, expropriated the B.C. Electric Company. This was, in 1962, amalgamated with the other provincial power agency to form the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority. Demand for electricity did not always keep pace with the generating capability. During the nineteen-twenties there was a wide gap between capacity and actual generation. This reflected, primarily, the larger scale construction programme being carried on. Also, because most of the customers of the municipal and private utilities were residential or commercial, the load factors were low; there was a great difference between the base and peak load. Since there had to be sufficient capacity to cover - iv -the peak load, it meant that there was idle plant during much of the time. Load factors increased during the 1950 to 1944 period as there was little new construction. The population grew and, after the early days of the depression, consumption per capita increased. That the capacity added after the War was needed is evinced in the fact that load factors remained quite high. Indeed, with expanded industrial production, higher labour income and new uses for electricity, consumption per capita increased so that in 1961 it was three times what it was in 1945; while residential consumption was almost five times what it had been. It was stated that the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships, if any, between the development of the electricity industry and technological change, new uses of electricity, the part played by government, and economic growth. New technology, while allowing for expansion in the electricity industry, has never been a decisive factor. However, throughout the study it is apparent that distinct relationships do exist between the development of the electricity industry and governmental action, new means of using electric power and economic growth. - V -TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION: THE ENERGY INDUSTRY 1 II. 1883 - 1909: THE EARLY YEARS 15 III. 1910 - 1930: A PERIOD OP GROWTH 31 Technological Advances 49 Electric Power Companies 57 The Role of Government in the Electric Industry 64 Growth and Expansion in the Electricity Industry .... 66 IV. 1931 - 1945: FROM SURPLUS CAPACITY TO POWER SHORTAGES .. 69 Technological Advances 75 Electric Power Companies 81 Role of Government 84 Expansion and Rural Electrification 94 V. 1946 - 1961: CONSOLIDATION AND EXPANSION 97 Technological Advances 107 Electric Power Companies 124 Role of Government 143 Consolidation and Expansion 149 VI. CONCLUSIONS 153 VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 179 - vi -MAPS 1. Electric power development, 1910 envelope at end 2. Electric power development, 1920 n n tt 3. Electric power development, 1930 it n n 4. Electric power development, 1940 it n tt 5. Electric power development, 1950 it tt n 6. Electric power development, I960 it it tt 7. Water resources of British Columbia, 1919 p. 51 8. Water resources of British Columbia, 1927 p. 52 9. Bridge River Development p. 62 10. Water resources of British Columbia, 1944 p. 76 11. Water resources of British Columbia, 1961 p. 108 12. Proposed Atlin-Taku hydro-electric project p. I l l 15. Columbia River, Treaty Plan p.115 14. Columbia River, McNaughton Plan p. 116 15. Peace River Project p. 119 16. Campbell River Development P.135 17. Nechako-Kitimat Project p. 141 18. Water resources of British Columbia, 1910-1961 P. 154 19. Generating Capacity, 1910-1961 p.161 and 162 20. Transmission System, 1910-1961 p. 164 21. Electric Power Systems, 1910-1961 p.171 and 172 - v i i -TABLES 1. Municipalities Served by Electric Power, 1909 •=SBas3i©>pe at end 2. Electric Power Systems in British Columbia, 1909 M " " 3. Municipalities Served by Electric Power, 1929 " n * 4. Electric Power Systems in British Columbia, 1930 M n » 5. Municipalities Served by Electric Power, 1944 " n » 6. Electric Power Systems in British Columbia, 1944 n w » 7. Municipalities Served by Electric Power, I960 " " M 8. Electric Power Systems in British Columbia, I960 n n • ti 9. Electric Generating Capacity and Output, 1920-1961 p. 4 10. Consumption of Electric Power, 1920-1961 p. 34 11. Population of British Columbia by Census Divisions 1911-1961 p. 40 12. B.C. Electric Railway Company, Ltd. Electric Rates, 1910-1930 p. 44 13. Net Value of Production, 1926-1961 p.100 14. Estimated Number of Appliances per 100 Customers, 1951-1961 p.104 15. Statistics Relating to the Supply of Electric Power, B.C. Power Commission, 1950-1961 pl32 and 133 - v i i i -FIGURES 1. Annual Generating Capacity and Output, 1920-1961 p.. 5 2. Daily System Load Curve p. 8 3. System Peak Load (Annual) p. 9 4* Daily System Load Showing Base and Peak Load p. 10 5. Hydrograph - Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon p. 11 6. Electric Power Systems and Municipalities Served, 1909-1961 p. 32 7. Consumption of Electric Power, 1920-1961 p. 38 8. Capital Costs per E.P. Installed and per K.W.H. Generated, 1920-1961 p. 56 9. Domestic Lighting p. 9 0 10. Net Value of Production, 1926-1961 p.101 Chapter I THE ENERGY INDUSTRY Energy consumption is an important factor in the development of a region. Many state that economic progress is proportional to the amount of energy consumed.1 Although one might quarrel with the idea that increase in productivity is directly proportionate to the amount of energy utilized, there is no doubt that some relationship exists and that certain general-izations may be made. (The geography of energy is concerned with an examination of the various forms of energy and their distribution; with the variations in the exploitation of these forms; and with the use of the energy in rela-tion to the economic activities of the region being studied.') It is con-cerned not only with the study of these factors for a given period, but also with the variations over time and the resultant relationships evolved. In studying the variations over time, change and growth in demand are important factors. Growth in demand has not been equal for al l forms of energy. Until the nineteenth century man was dependent on fuelwood; then coal dominated the industrial scene; and now petroleum and natural gas are of major importance. Thus there may be a marked variation in energy use within a region over time. Availability and quality exert an 1. See for example John Davis, Canadian Energy Prospects. Ottawa, Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, 1956, p.20, and N.B. Guyol, "Energy Consumption and Economic Development," in N.S. Ginsburg, ed. Essays on Geography and Economic Development. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, I960, p. 67-68. - 2 -important influence over the period of dominance of a particular form of energy. The manner in which these forms of energy have been used, has changed also. Electric power differs from other types of energy in that whereas coal, petroleum and natural gas are sources, electrical energy does not occur in nature but must be "manufactured." It is also unique in that electricity utilizes the mechanical energy of water-power or the heat energy of coal, petroleum, or natural gas to create a new source. This in turn may then be converted into thermal or mechanical energy to meet a wide range of domestic, commercial or industrial needs. Electrical energy can also be used directly as in the electro-chemical and electro-metal-lurgical processes. In British Columbia, as elsewhere, there has been a distinct change in the forms of energy utilized over time. Initially dependent on fuelwood, by 1950 this accounted for only 16$ of British Columbia's fuel 2 and power consumption. At that time coal supplied 40$ of a l l fuel consumed. A recent survey shows that "the major share of the energy burden is now borne by the petroleum industry: its share...at least three times that of the next 3 most important source." During the period between 1930 and I960, elec-tricity supply has increased more than tenfold even though representing 2. H.L. Purdy, "Power and Energy", Second B.C. Natural Resources  Conference. Victoria, 1949, p. 197. 3. J.D. Chapman et al, "Power and Energy", in Inventory of the  Natural Resources of British Columbia. Victoria, 1964» p. 455 - 3 -only 17$ of the total energy supply. Because of the differences between electric power and other sources of energy, the geography of electricity is not as likely to deal with production as is, say the geography of coal. It is much more likely to deal with consumption. Consumption may be studied in relationship to technological developments in production and transmission, the effect of new uses of electricity; the type of agency producing and distributing the power; the part played by government; and to economic development. It is the purpose of this study to examine electric power develop-ment in British Columbia, over time, in order to see what relationship does exist between growth in consumption and the above mentioned items. The study will be divided into chapters by approximate growth periods. Within each chapter there will be some description of electric facilities giving capacity, distribution pattern, and output. These facilities will be examined in terms of the factors listed in the preceding paragraph and some assessment of the causes and consequences of total development will be made. In order to select growth periods, several factors were taken into account. Basically, figures for generating capacity as seen in Table 9 and Figure 1 were examined to see i f any changes in trend occurred. Such changes appear in 1930 and in 1947. Growth of generating capacity was rapid in the early years of electric power development, but dropped off after 1930 with the beginning of the Depression. New construction of electric power plants was just starting when the advent of World War II almost brought i t to a halt once more. - 4 -T A B L E 9 E L E C T R I C G E N E R A T I N G C A P A C I T Y A N D O U T P U T 1920 21 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 1 9 3 0 31 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 1940 41 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 47 4 8 4 9 H Y D R O — E L E C T R I C C A P A C I T Y ( K W ) 4 7 , 4 2 5 1 6 0 , 8 6 4 1 6 1 , 2 0 0 1 7 5 , 8 7 8 1 9 4 , 8 8 6 2 0 6 , 1 8 8 2 5 0 , 5 2 9 2 6 5 , 4 0 9 2 6 7 , 4 6 0 3 0 7 , 7 3 2 3 3 4 , 6 0 8 3 7 5 , 6 9 0 3 8 9 , 6 6 7 4 4 3 , 2 0 7 4 4 8 , 4 3 3 4 4 9 , 5 6 8 4 5 1 , 5 9 7 4 3 5 , 8 4 2 4 4 0 , 5 0 0 4 7 6 , 1 0 1 5 0 2 , 0 1 2 5 2 1 , 3 0 9 5 4 5 , 7 0 9 5 5 3 , 9 5 4 5 4 6 , 3 5 2 5 4 6 , 5 1 4 6 1 3 , 9 7 9 6 0 6 , 4 8 5 6 2 5 , 2 2 5 7 0 6 , 1 2 5 8 5 0 , 2 4 1 T H E R M A L C A P A C I T Y ( K W ) 3 , 4 0 5 2 5 , 1 0 4 2 5 . 0 5 2 2 4 , 6 6 3 2 3 , 1 6 9 2 2 , 9 6 9 2 4 , 1 1 1 3 3 , 8 0 1 3 3 , 5 6 6 3 3 , 7 8 8 3 9 , 3 9 7 4 0 , 2 4 3 4 4 , 0 1 2 4 3 , 8 5 1 4 4 , 1 2 8 4 3 , 0 5 2 4 4 , 8 6 2 4 2 , 6 3 8 4 2 , 0 3 4 4 4 , 7 2 1 4 4 , 9 7 9 4 8 , 0 5 5 4 6 , 5 8 5 5 0 , 6 9 0 5 0 , 8 3 5 5 3 , 0 0 9 5 3 , 5 2 7 5 4 , 1 2 1 5 3 , 8 1 2 3 9 , 2 4 1 6 0 , 4 0 2 T O T A L C A P A C I T Y ( K W ) 5 0 , 8 3 0 1 8 5 , 9 6 8 1 8 6 , 2 5 2 2 0 0 , 5 4 1 2 1 8 , 0 5 5 2 2 9 , 1 5 7 2 7 4 , 6 4 0 2 9 9 , 1 1 0 3 0 1 , 0 2 6 3 4 1 , 5 2 0 3 7 4 , 0 0 5 4 1 5 , 9 3 3 4 3 3 , 6 7 9 4 8 7 , 0 5 8 4 9 2 , 5 6 1 4 9 2 , 6 2 0 4 9 6 , 4 5 9 4 7 8 , 4 8 0 4 8 2 , 5 3 4 5 2 0 , 8 2 2 5 4 6 , 9 9 1 5 6 9 , 3 6 4 5 9 2 , 2 9 4 6 0 4 , 6 4 4 5 9 7 , 1 8 7 5 9 9 , 5 2 3 6 6 7 , 5 0 6 6 6 0 , 6 0 6 6 7 9 , 0 3 7 7 4 5 , 3 6 6 9 1 0 , 6 4 3 E L E C T R I C I T Y G E N E R A T E D . ( 0 0 0 K W H ) 5 2 2 , 5 1 5 5 1 7 , 8 5 1 5 5 0 , 3 3 3 5 7 7 , 6 2 1 6 2 6 , 8 8 4 7 3 4 , 4 2 6 9 0 4 , 9 4 2 9 8 4 , 3 8 9 I , 0 9 2 , 3 7 1 I , 1 0 5 , 8 8 2 1 , 2 0 0 , 6 3 0 I , 2 2 9 , 3 7 9 1 , 3 0 0 , 2 3 2 1 , 3 8 7 , 8 6 8 1 , 5 9 8 , 8 7 3 I , 8 0 2 , 6 6 4 I , 7 6 9 , 8 4 6 I , 8 2 2 , 4 5 5 2 , 2 0 1 , 6 6 8 2 , 3 7 0 , 7 6 5 2 , 4 0 3 , 3 3 0 2 , 8 0 3 , 1 8 3 2 , 9 2 8 , 3 4 5 2 , 9 3 5 , 8 8 9 2 , 6 4 0 , 2 8 6 3 , 1 1 0 , 8 9 1 3 , 1 2 0 , 3 5 4 3 , 2 6 6 , 7 1 3 3 , 7 1 2 , 0 0 2 4 , 0 6 0 , 1 2 8 P L A N T F A C T O R 3 2 . 0 3 1 . 8 3 1 . 3 3 0 . 2 3 1 . 2 3 0 . 5 3 4 . 5 3 7 . 3 3 6 . 5 3 3 . 8 3 3 . 0 3 2 . 3 3 0 . 5 3 2 . 2 3 7 . 0 4 1 . 5 4 2 . 2 4 3 . I 4 8 . 3 4 9 . 5 4 8 . 5 4 . 5 5 . 5 6 . 5 0 . 5 3 . 5 3 . 9 5 4 . 9 5 6 . 9 5 0 . 9 1950 51 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 9 1 2 , 8 3 4 9 6 7 , 5 9 0 1 , 0 2 9 , 6 4 6 I , 0 6 6 , 0 8 6 1 , 6 2 5 , 3 6 4 I , 6 5 7 , 0 1 7 I , 9 3 3 , 0 2 2 2 , 2 6 6 , 0 7 7 2 , 2 6 0 , 9 9 0 2 , 3 1 2 , 0 6 1 6 4 , 5 2 6 6 8 , 5 7 6 6 1 , 5 5 3 6 5 , 4 7 8 5 9 , 1 8 4 7 7 , 7 4 8 1 8 5 , 1 0 8 2 4 2 , 9 1 5 2 6 1 , 9 7 2 4 0 1 , 2 6 7 9 7 7 , 3 6 0 1 , 0 3 6 , 1 6 6 1 , 0 9 1 , 1 9 9 1 , 1 3 1 , 5 6 4 I , 6 8 4 , 5 4 8 I , 7 3 4 , 7 6 5 2 , 1 1 8 , 1 3 0 2 , 5 0 8 , 9 9 2 2 , 5 2 2 , 9 6 2 2 , 8 0 8 , 5 3 4 4 , 5 9 2 , 9 9 3 4 , 7 9 4 , 6 9 1 4 , 9 4 0 , 3 9 5 5 , 6 1 7 , 3 6 3 6 , 4 1 3 , 5 3 5 7 , 9 9 9 , 5 1 5 1 0 , 0 7 0 , 3 3 6 1 0 , 7 2 4 , 0 3 7 I I , 8 8 2 , 7 0 3 1 2 , 3 7 3 , 2 1 7 5 3 . 6 5 2 . 9 5 1 . 7 5 6 . 7 4 3 . 5 5 2 . 6 5 4 . 2 4 8 . 8 5 3 . 8 5 0 . 3 1960 61 2 , 5 4 0 , 0 5 8 2 , 5 4 1 , 7 1 8 4 2 3 , 0 5 9 4 5 8 , 2 9 3 2 , 9 6 3 , 1 1 7 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 1 I 1 3 , 4 0 8 , 3 8 3 1 3 , 2 0 4 , 4 5 3 5 1 . 7 5 0 . 3 S O U R C E S B . C . E N E R G Y B O A R D . H Y D R O — E L E C T R 1 C G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I S T I C S . C A N A D A . D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S . E L E C T R I C P O W E R  S T A T I S T I C S . 1920 — 1 9 6 1 . - € -By 1945 consumption had almost caught up to capacity and so i t vas necessary to expand facilities as soon as materials and labour became available. Generating capacity has continued to increase rapidly since 1947* 1930 was thus chosen for the beginning of one period. The period ended in 1945 instead of 1947, because the passing of the "Public Utilities Act" in 1945 brought a major change in the type of agency producing and distributing power. The emergence of the British Columbia Power Commission started a new period in the central electric station industry in British Columbia. This continued until 1961 when a further act of the British Columbia legislature changed the structure of operating agencies once more. For this reason 1961 vas chosen as a closing date for this thesis. The period between 1883, when electricity vas first introduced into British Columbia, and 1930 vas divided into two. 1910 vas chosen arbitrarily as the date of division. Not only did this divide the early electrie power development into two almost equal stages but a study of the electric power industry shows a marked change in the pattern of con-sumption shortly after 1910; development from electricity for lighting to electricity for numerous other domestic and industrial uses. The size of individual generating stations also showed a noticeable increase around 1910. It has been mentioned earlier that the geography of electricity is concerned chiefly with consumption. In order to deal with this effectively, i t is necessary to look at typical patterns of consumption and their rela-tionship to the availability of electric power. In any one day the demand for electricity varies from hour to hour, as seen in Figure 2. Also, there is a marked, seasonal variation in demand. This can be seen in Figure 3. Since electric power cannot be stored easily, i t is necessary to provide sufficient generating capacity to meet the maximum or peak load. (See Figure 4). The base load is the average demand made on the system. In the electric power industry the relationship between the number of kilowatt-hours generated in the year to the number which would have been generated i f the peak load had been maintained throughout the year is known as the load factor. (The plant factor is the relationship between the number of kilowatt-hours generated to the total number which would have been generated i f the plants were being utilized to full capacity.) It is obvious to state that the more even the pattern of consumption, or expressed another way, the greater the load factor, and i f possible, the greater the plant factor, the greater the economy of operation. Another matter i f importance, which must be considered when elec-tricity is generated by water power, is the relationship between the demand for power and the availability of water. The stream flow for the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon is shown in Figure 5-Comparison of Figures 3 and 5 points to the fact that whereas the maximum demand for electric power usually comes through December and January, the maximum stream flow on the west coast is much more likely to occur in June. In order to reconcile these two i t is necessary either to regulate the stream flow by building storage basins or to provide only the base load from water power and to supply the peak load from some type of thermal station. (See Figure 4). -8-2., 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 I , 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 I , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 I , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 j2 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 h < o. J 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 -*—* ' ' • A . M . 1 i i 1 — ' ' 4 P . M . F I G U R E 2 D A I L Y S Y S T E M L O A D C U R V E ( D E C E M B E R ) - 9 -Q z < 5 hi O < bJ a. > < S 0. 3 , 1 0 0 r 3 , 0 0 0 L 2 , 9 0 0 L 2 , 8 0 0 2 , 7 0 0 2 , 6 0 0 . 2 , 5 0 0 2 , 4 0 0 2 , 3 0 0 2 , 2 0 0 2 , 1 0 0 J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N E J U L Y A U G S E P T O C T N O V D E C F I G U R E 3 S Y S T E M P E A K L O A D ( A N N U A L ) - 11 -Examples of both these methods of providing for peak consumption are used and projected in British Columbia. The principal example of the storage basin is found in the proposed scheme for the development of the Columbia River. Here storage in Canada would provide a more even flow of water through the turbines downstream in the United States and thus increase the amount of power available. The Port Mann plant of the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority is an example of the second method of meeting peak demand. Here the hydro-electric power of the Authority's generating stations provides the base load with the Port Mann plant being brought into operation only to meet peak requirements. The demand made on a power system may be for either firm or interr-uptible power. Firm power must be available always as in supplying resi-dential customers. Secondary or interruptible power is available only at specific times - in a hydro plant at high water, in steam plants during the night only, or when little current is being used. This secondary power naturally costs much less than firm power and is used, therefore, by power intensive industries which can adapt themselves to make use of this lower priced electricity. If a utility is able to sell a quantity of this interruptible power i t increases the load factor substantially and thus reduces overall cost to consumers. Although there had been electric power in British Columbia from 1883, there is no complete record of the electric power plants in the province until 1916 when a table listing them was published in the - 13 -4 Dominion Water Power Branch publication Water Powers of Canada* In 1919, 1922, and 1928 the Branch published directories of Central Electric 5 Stations in Canada* These were very useful but were limited to central stations. No industrial power plants are included. Similarly when the Dominion Bureau of Statistics published its annual Central Electric  Stations^ from 1917 until 1955, no statistics were included for capacity and production of industrial concerns unless these concerns sold power to residential and commercial customers. In the early years this was not too important as most industrial concerns did supply electricity to neighbour-ing towns. However, after the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company bought out a l l but one plant of West Kootenay Power and Light Company in 1947 and the Kemano project came into operation in 1955. lack of statistics for these operations made an important difference in the total picture. For this reason, the statistics for hydro-electric power during the period 1920 to 1955 were taken from the unpublished records of the B.C. Energy 7 Board. Thermal power statistics had to be taken from the publication Central Electric Stations and therefore, capacity and generation statistics 4. Canada Dominion Water Powers Branch. Water Powers of Canada. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1916. 5. Canada, Dominion Water Powers Branch. Central Electric  Stations in Canada. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1919, 1922, 1928. 6. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Central Electric  Stations. 1917-1955-7. British Columbia Energy Board, Hydro Electric Generating  Statistics. o cannot be said to be complete* In 1956 the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 8 , changed its publication to include a l l electric power statistics and these were used for the years 1956 to 1961. Statistics on the number of customers, transmission line mileage, etc. were taken from the Dominion Bureau of Statistics figures throughout. Statistics for the individual communities and generating agencies were taken from the directories of Central Electric Stations in Canada for the early years and from the McGraw-Hill Directory of Electric Util-q ities and company annual reports for the later years. Generating capacity is given in kilowatts. Early statistics listed capacities in horsepower. These were converted into kilowatts by multiplying by .746, but the figures are not really accurate as the horsepower capacity was given for the turbines and later capacities, given in kilowatts, are for the generators. Later statistics gave capacity in kilavolt-amperes. There is no exact formula for change to kilowatts as the kva depends on water flow. Ideally 1 kva would equal 1 k.w. but usually the kva runs between 70$ and 100$ of the kilowatt rating, with 80$ being the average. This last figure was used here for conversion. 8. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Electric Power Statis- tics. 9. McGraw-Hill Directory of Electric Utilities. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1925-1961. Chapter II 1883 - 1909: THE EARLY YEARS The electric power industry in British Columbia commenced shortly after the entrance of the Province into Confederation. In 1871, on promise of a railway to link i t with the East, the Colony of British Columbia joined with the rest of Canada. Although the railway was not built according to the originally agreed schedule, i t did reach the west coast in 1885, two years after the first electric lights were l i t in Victoria. Early electric power installations in British Columbia were es-tablished in the two major population centres, namely the south coast ports of Victoria, Vancouver, Ladyamith, and Nanaimo, and in the mining region of the East Kootenays. As the number of electric lighting sys-tems grew, the pattern became more dispersed. (See Map 1 in pocket). Within the cities of Vancouver, and Victoria, the use of elec-tricity grew rapidly. As new plants were built by the B.C. Electric Railway Company and its predecessors, the area of service was extended so that by 1909 electric power could be supplied to neighbouring commun-ities such as Oak Bay, Esquimalt, Richmond, Fort Moody, and North Vancouver. Nanaimo was not far behind Vancouver and Victoria in provid-ing electric lights. The first plant was built by the Nanaimo Electric Light, Power and Heating Company in 1888. The plant consisted of two 25 kilowatt direct current steam generators and two arc machines for street and commercial lighting. - 16 -Industrial development had been slow in British Columbia in the nineties. A depression had forced the closing of many businesses. Only in the Kootenays was there activity. Here, between 1890 and 1892, many mines were opened up. As these new mines commenced operation, towns sprang up, towns which were to become the first in British Columbia to develop electricity from water power. The first of these electric plants was built at Nelson in 1896 by the Nelson Electric Light Company. This company, in the hope of luring the newly established smelter from Trail Creek Landing, built a four-foot waterwheel on Cottonwood Creek and harnessed i t to a generator developing 55 k.w. Although Nelson did not succeed in becoming the centre for the smelter, the electric system proved so popular that the plant had to be enlarged to 110 k.w. the following year. It was in the Kootenay District also, that there came the first applications of electric power to industry. The first major installa-tion of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company was developed to pro-vide power for the copper smelter at Trail. In 1902, the first refined lead was produced in Trail, the first application in the world of an electrolytic method of refining lead.1** By 1907, when the Upper Bonn-ington hydro-electric plant was developed, the company was selling a l l its power for mining work, "for large motor equipments, for the lighting 10. J.V. Rogers "Power, the Pathway to Progress," Eighth British  Columbia Resources Conference. Victoria, 1955, p. 262. - 17 -and power of the mines, and the lighting requirements of the mining towns.11 Britannia Mining and Smelting Company (on the shores of Howe Sound) was another company which., from 1905 on, generated electric power for its mining operations. With the turn of the century, fishing and lumbering started to prosper. In the latter industry, as new mills were built, electricity was introduced. Mills at towns like Enderby had electric plants which supplied the sawmill during the day and the town lighting at night. Because these mill towns tended to spring up wherever there was an ade-quate supply of timber close to transportation, the pattern of electric power installations tended to become more dispersed throughout the south-ern portion of the province. Water power as a source of electricity became established after 1895 and several hydro-electric plants were built in British Columbia soon after that date. However, population centres were small and scatter-ed so that outside the Vancouver-Victoria and Rossland-Trail areas there was not sufficient market to warrant any large-scale hydro developments or the building of major transmission lines up to the level of technology of the period. The first record of the possibility of using electric motors for industry seems to have come from the Vienna exhibition of 1873. By 1878 i t was reported that an electric motor had been utilized in the sugar 11. R.A. Ross and Henry Holgate "Power Developments on the Kootenay River for the West Kootenay Power and Light Company, Limited" Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. Transactions, v.21, 1907, p.155 works of Sermaiz - les-bains, France, for unloading beet root from vessels.^ 1831, marked the real beginning of the electrical age. In that year Faraday discovered the principle of the generator. However, i t vas not until Gramme designed an improved machine in 1870 that the commercial use of electricity became an economic reality. The first application of this new invention came with the arc light which was first installed in Europe in 1878 and in the United States the following year. Unfortunately, arc lighting had two serious limitations. In the first place the lamp was much too brilliant for domestic purposes and was useful primarily for street lighting. Secondly, arc lighting systems were wired in series, which meant that a l l lights had to be in use at the same time, while arc-lighting systems were being installed in the late 1870's, Edison was work-ing on inventions which made these systems obsolete. Among the more im-portant of these were the parallel wiring system, the incandescent lamp for domestic use, and the variable-power generator which allowed the use of parallel wiring. In 1882, Edison opened his first electric station in New York, tak-ing advantage of the above named improvements and aimed at the domestic market. The electricity was transmitted by direct-current, at 110 volts, in order to make i t safe for home use. Because the distance power can travel varies directly with the voltage used, this meant that Edison's 12. F.A. Bowman "Some Applications of Electric Motors" Canadian  Society of Civil Engineers. Transactions, v.8, 1894, p. 189 - 19 -range of transmission was only about one-half mile, necessitating the building of numerous power stations. Alternating-current had been used i n Europe i n connection with arc-lighting; but i t was not u n t i l the transformer was developed that a l t e r -nating-current systems became practical. By this means the voltage could be increased or decreased and so high voltage current could be transmitted longer distances and then decreased for local distribution. Throughout the period under consideration, the arc lamp dominated the scene for street lighting. By using direct current and higher v o l t -ages, current could be transmitted greater distances. The individual lamps were usually rated at 2000 candlepower. The incandescent lamp was more suited to use i n the lighting of homes, stores and public buildings. Por use i n street-lighting the incandescent lamp of the 1890's did not provide illumination which was better than that provided by the gas 13 l i g h t . Once alternating current had been developed together with the transformer, the incandescent lamp came into i t s own. Thus, by the early 1890's a l l the major inventions which underlie modern el e c t r i c power sys-tems had been developed. By 1890 there were about 13,530 arc lights and about 70,765 incandescent lamps i n use i n Canada, there being a t o t a l of 14 150 arc lamps and 2,350 incandescent ones i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . The use of water-power as a means of generating e l e c t r i c i t y had i t s 13, Ibid. p. 185 14. A.J. Lawson "Generation, distribution and measurement of e l e c t r i c i t y for l i g h t and power" Canadian Society of C i v i l Engineers. Transactions v. 4, 1890, p. 184. beginnings in North America in 1895 when the Niagara Falls Power Company brought its plant at Niagara Falls into production. This installation, because of its size, efficiency, and reliability served as a model and 15 "inaugurated the era of giant water-power developments." Not only was the 3.730 k.w. turbine the largest so far installed, but transformers used on the 11,000 volt transmission line to Buffalo were of 932.5 k.w, capacity, whereas the largest previously installed had had a capacity of only .75 k.w. By 1909 hydro-electric units up to 13,428 k.w. had been installed in North America. The same progress was made in the transmission of power. In the early 1880*s, experience on the multiple-arc system of distribution showed that lights, singly controlled, could not be furnished economically at a greater distance from the central station than a quarter of a mile. The three-wire system, elaborated by Edison, added another quarter of a mile to the distribution radius.1** In 1890, A.J. Lawson stated that within a few years, with the use of the alternating current transformer system, mills and factories would be run by electric motors even when five to ten 17 miles from a hydro-electric power site. Yet, it was only two years 18 later, that a 4 KV transmission line was built over a distance of 13 miles, 15. John H. Dales, Rydroelectricitv and Industrial development; Quebec 1890-1940, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1957, p.19 16. Lawson, op cit p. 190 17. Ibid, p. 236 18. S.B. Crary, et al "Progress and Future Trends in Electric Trans-mission A.I.E.E. Transactions v. 71, pt. I l l , Oct. 1952, p. 1892 - 21 -and in 1907, R.A. Ross and H. Holgate wrote of the new power developments for West Kootenay Power and Light Company Limited that "the general scheme of electrical distribution is so arranged that power can at present be delivered to Phoenix, 79 miles distant at 60,000 volts; Grand Porks, 60 miles distant at 60,000 volts; Greenwood, 83 miles distant at 60,000 volts". 1 9 (Map 1 in Pocket) Transmission within the B.C. Electric system covered 15 miles at 20,000 volts from Lake Buntzen to Vancouver plus transmission to Hew Westminster (1904), North Vancouver (1905), Eburne for the Lulu Island railway line (1909), and to Chilliwack for the railway line which was placed in service in 1910. (Map l) As electric systems developed, so too did the machines for using this power. At first electricity was thought of only as an alternate source to gas for domestic and street lighting, but by 1894, P.A. Bowman was able to report on the use of electric power for hoisting, driving machines in factories; operating the rolls in rolling mills, and the 20 possibility of charging furnaces in the iron and steel industry. In 1897 there were five electrochemical concerns using Niagara power for the manufacture of artificial abrasives, carbide, ferro-alloys, and for the ?i electrolytic reduction of various ores. A check of the index to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 19. R.A. Ross, op. cit. p. 154-155 20. P.A. Bowman, op. cit. p. 198-201 21. Dales, op. cit. p. 21 - 22 -22 Transactions for the period from 1901 to 1910 shows several articles on the use of electric power in industry. Among them were: "Electric-ity in Mountain Mines" (l90l), "Electro-chemical industries" (1902), "Electric Heating" (1908), and "Rolling Mill motors" (1909). Tables 1 and 2 (in pocket) show that by 1910, 38 communities in British Columbia were served with electric power. Several of these were municipal systems set up to provide lighting; a few were private compan-ies set up for the same purpose; and at least five towns received their lighting from industrial concerns running electric plants for their own generation. Most of these companies were small and provided only enough power for their own needs. Only two companies expanded to provide ser-vice beyond the immediate needs of the period and area. These two were the British Columbia Electric Railway Company Limited and the West Kootenay Power and Light Company. It was in 1883 that Robert Burns McMicking entered into an agree-ment with the City of Victoria to provide three arc lights which would be placed on masts one hundred and fifty feet high at important sites in the city. These electric lights were to provide an illumination candle-power equal in the aggregate to fifty-thousand candles. Power was prov-ided by a 25 horse power steam engine. In 1886 i t was necessary to re-built the plant and make extensions for an additional twenty-six masts. 22. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Transactions. Index 1901-1910 inclusive, New York, 1913. p. 166 - 174. Mr. McMicking's electric system carried on until 1891 when the citizens defeated a by-law calling for an expenditure of $50,000. Mr. McMicking immediately set about organizing the Victoria Electric Illuminating Company which, became the first public incandescent electric lighting sys-tem in Canada. In the meantime, entrepreneurs in Vancouver had not been idle. In April of 1886 a charter was granted to the Vancouver Electric Illuminating Company Limited. Before the Company had time to make use of this charter the city vas destroyed by fire. A new company of the same name was incor-porated in 1887 and the City passed a by-law empowering the Company to build and operate a street-lighting system. This system provided 32 candle-power incandescent lamps and came into operation in August 1887. It is of interest to note that the News-Advertiser of February 23rd, 1888, was able to announce that the newspaper was now being printed by electric-23 ity, "the first paper in the Dominion to be printed in this manner''. The next step toward the formation of the B.C. Electric Railway Company Limited came with the granting of a charter to the National Electric Tramway and Lighting Co. Ltd. in 1888. This Company was to con-struct a street railway within the city of Victoria and to provide street lighting. The same Company also became empowered to construct and operate outlying tramways to connect with the proposed street railway in the City of Victoria. This system came into operation in 1890. By 1894, this company had merged with the Victoria Electric Illuminating Company to 23» Maiden, Cecil Lighted Journey. Vancouver, B.C., B.C. Electric Co. Ltd., p. 22. - 24 -form the Victoria Electric Railway and Lighting Company. Vancouver c i t i -zens also felt that a street railway system had become something of a ne-cessity and so the Vancouver Street Railway Company was incorporated to provide street railway service. Originally, the Company had intended to use horse-drawn cars but before these had been purchased electrical con-tractors persuaded the Directors that satisfactory electric equipment could be supplied. Electric cars were ordered and service commenced on June 26th, 1890. In 1890, New Westminster also entered the street railway field, and in that year two companies - the Westminster Street Railway Company and the Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company - were incorporated, only to amalgamate in 1891 as the Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company. This Company was responsible for the building of the interurban line between Vancouver and New Westminster, a distance of over twelve miles. At the time this was planned i t was regarded as an "unheard-of proposition"... "In the whole of Canada no other such interurban line 24 existed or was planned". Nevertheless, by October 3, 1891 a tram was making two trips per day between the two cities. Unfortunately for these new companies, however, British Columbia began to feel the effects of the nation-wide depression which had started in 1891. The expected new population did not arrive; business failed to increase as expected; and the public utility companies were hit badly. The Vancouver Electric Railway and Light Company offered the City its 24. Ibid, p. 38 - 25'-holdings. The City refused, and the assets were bought up in 1893, by a new company, the Consolidated Railway and Light Company. This company also acquired the small holdings of the North Vancouver Electric Company Limited, which had been incorporated in 1892. The Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company was also having difficulty. The number of passengers decreased and then lightning struck and burnt out one of the dynamos. The company defaulted and its assets were seized by the bond holders later to be sold to Frank Barnard on behalf of the Consolidated Railway and Light Company. It was at this time that Frank Barnard, together with Robert Home-Payne, conceived the idea of amalgamating the electric systems of Vancouver, Victoria, and New Westminster. They began an investigation into the Victoria system and by April 1896, had acquired the Victoria Electric Railway and Lighting Company. Unfortunately on Hay 24, 1896, the Point Ellice Bridge collapsed in Victoria under the weight of a street-car and fifty-four persons were killed. As a rsult of this disaster, financial backing for the Consolidated Railway Company was withdrawn and the Company went into Receivership. Mr. Barnard bought i t and together with Mr. Home-Payne organized a new company which they registered in April 1897 as the British Columbia Electric Railway Company Limited. As the cities of Victoria and Vancouver were growing rapidly, one of the first considerations of the B.C. Electric Company had to be an increased supply of power. At the time of the formation of the company, electric generation in Victoria was provided by a steam plant of approxi-mately 745 k.w.; in Vancouver a steam plant of 1590 k.w.; plus dynamos which served the street railways of New Westminster and North Vancouver. Hydro-electric development as a source of electric power had been shown to be practical two years earlier at Niagara and so i t was this form of power that the new. installations took in the two cities. In Victoria, the Goldstream River, some fifteen miles from the city, was harnessed in 1897-1898. Initially two 360 Kilowatt generators were installed but so quickly did demand rise that a 500 k.w. generator was installed in 1903 and fourth of 1,000 k.w. the following year. Even this was not sufficient to meet the needs of a growing city. Meanwhile in Vancouver, a subsidiary company, the Vancouver Power Company Limited, had been incorporated to build and control a plant on the North Arm of Burrard Inlet. The first unit of this plant at Lake Buntssen was put into service in 1903 - a 1,500 k.w. machine. By 1909 the install-ed capacity was 16,000 k.w. In spite of this growth in generating capac-ity the steam plant, which had been closed down in 1905, had to be press-ed into service in the winter of 1907-1908. As mentioned previously, a 1,800 k.w. plant was started on the Kootenay River at Lower Bennington Palls in 1897. Built by Lome Campbell for the West Kootenay Power and Light Company, this plant served the copper smelter at Trail. In 1898, the Canadian Pacific Rail-way completed its branch line to Kootenay Lake and in the same year acquired the Trail smelter and its railway line between Trail, Rossland, and Castlegar.2^ Thus, electric power and coal from the Crow's Nest 25. Rogers, op cit p 261 - 27 -region were made available to the Trail smelter which now prepared to handle ore from several small lead mines in the region. In 1899, the first lead blast furnace was blown in and in the same year the West Kootenay Power and Light Company found i t necessary to extend its plant to a capacity of 2,685 k.w. in order to meet the increased demand. In 1902, the first refined lead was produced in Trail, the first application 26 in the world of an electrolytic method of refining lead. By 1905 the supply of power for the Trail smelter was again falling short of demand and so in that year the Upper Bonnington Falls plant was brought into operation. This plant, with a capacity of 12,000 k.w., was the largest generating station in British Columbia up to that time. In addition to supplying power to the smelter, this plant enabled the West Kootenay Power and Light Company to extend its services and to provide electricity to the mining towns of Phoenix, Grand Forks, and Rossland and to many mines in the region. The Company had started to serve the mines in the Cascade - Greenwood area in 1901 after installing a 2,610 k.w. hydro-electric plant on the Kettle River at Cascade. Thus, the company ended the period with a total installed capacity of 18,500 k.w. Electric generating capacity in British Columbia at the end of 1909 stood at 50,850 k.w. The electricity generated served some 58 communities through 25 electric power plants. It is significant to note that approximately 90$ of this generating capacity was located in two areas, served for the most part by two companies. In the southwest corner of the province the B.C. Electric Railway Company, with an installed 26. Ibid. p.262 — 28 -capacity of 18,230 k.w. (35$ of the total generating capacity) served some 10 communities. Altogether the population of the region served by this company amounted to 214,768, 54$ of the total population. There is no doubt that the concentration of population here was one of the principal causes for the growth in the generation of electric power. The other area of major concentration of electric power development was in the West Kootenay region of the southeastern portion of British Columbia. In this region, although the plants of West Kootenay Power and Light Company (14,920 k.w.) were the major source of electric power, there were numerous other small private or municipal systems as well. Among these were a 1,750 k.w. plant of the municipality of Nelson, a 326 k.w. plant at Cranbrook; and a 320 k.w. plant of the Greenwood City Waterworks Company. In this region there was a slight concentration of population, 7$ of the provincial total, but whereas i t was the domestic, commercial and transportation consumption which accounted for the large generating capacity of the southwest, i t was industrial consumption which was important in the West Kootenay*s. The region was one of major mining activity with its centre at Trail with its smelter. In fact, i t was the consumption of electric power by the smelter which was the cause of the concentration of electrical generating capacity in the region. Not only did these two regions have the population and industrial concentrations necessary for major electric power development, but they also had accessible, suitable sources of hydro-electric power, the right size for the technological developments of the period. Also, these regions of concentration were relatively small. This meant that existing trans-mission voltages were sufficient to carry power from the generating plant - 29 -to the centre of consumption. The remaining 10$ of electric generating capacity was scattered throughout the southern portion of British Columbia. For the most part, the terrain had prevented an even settlement of the province. Population was centred in the valleys, where agriculture could be practiced; in the areas of accesible forest for lumbering (e.g. Enderby); in the mining regions (e.g. Fernie and Nanaimo); and along the transportation routes, (e.g. Eevelstoke). From the beginning industry played a major role in the development of electric power facilities. As technology advanced and new uses for electricity developed, industrial establishments were eager to utilize this new form of power. Because the nature of many of the industries in British Columbia made i t necessary for them to be established at a distance from a large central electric plant, industry was forced to generate its own electricity, often selling surplus electricity to the community for lighting. This tended to create a dispersed pattern to the electric gener-ating facilities. Although population concentration was one of the principal reasons for the major development of electric power in southwestern British Columbia, the economic conditions of the period were largely responsible for concentrating this development within one company. Depression and con-sequent business failure led to the amalgamation and integration of numer-ous electric, gas and transit companies into the B.C. Electric Railway Company. It has been pointed out that electric power development in British - 30 -Columbia at the end of 1909 was of a scattered, dispersed nature with two major centres of concentration. This meant that electric power was gener-ated by numerous small companies, in small plants, with l i t t l e linking. Outside the two major regions, capacities were too small and distances too great for transmission of power, thus preventing any integration of the electric power system. - 31 -Chapter III 1910 - 1930: A PERIOD OF GROWTH At the beginning of 1910 there were 23 electric power plants serv-ing 38 communities. Most of these plants were small; seventeen of them having a capacity of less than 500 k.w. Therefore, the plants were able to serve only the communities in which they were situated. Often most of the power was used by the industry on which the municipality depended, allowing electricity to residential and commercial customers only at night. Of the power companies which had been established prior to 1910, the B.C. Electric Railway Company, Ltd. and the West Kootenay Power and Light Company Ltd. alone were able to supply communities outside the immediate vicinity of the power plants. Thus the pattern of development was one of small scattered electric systems throughout the province with the two larger nuclei starting to spread out from their centres in the extreme western and eastern sections of the province. By 1930 the picture had changed. For the most part the pattern was s t i l l one of dispersion but the centres of concentration were more numerous and more marked. The number of communities served by electricity had risen to 118, while the number of agencies generating power had risen only to 41 served by some 58 generating plants. In other words, while the number of communities served by electric power had more than tripled, the number of electric systems had not quite doubled. A comparison of Maps 1, 2 and 3, and of Tables 1 and 3, 2 and 4 (in pocket) help to illus-trate this. (Figure 6 presents the information graphically). - 52 -F I G U R E 6 2 2 0 in 120 4 0 1 9 1 0 1930 ft"! 11 2 0 0 140 100 2 0 0 > o m z o m 1961 •W0\ N O . O F A G E N C I E S • N O . O F M U N I C I P A L I T I E S E L E C T R I C P O W E R S Y S T E M S A N D M U N I C I P A L I T I E S S E R V E D , 1910 - 1961 Prom the earliest period of electric power development in British Columbia hydro-electric power had predominated, The presence of numerous swift-flowing rivers and streams made small hydro-electric installations practical and relatively inexpensive. In 1910, over 47,425 k.w. of the total installed capacity of 50,830 k.w. were in hydro-electric plants. As both population and consumption of electric power increased greatly over the period (see Tableio), many local electric companies or municipal systems found i t difficult to maintain sufficient generating capacity. Hydro-electric power had proved to be the most economical but the small sites close to the markets were no longer sufficient to meet the increased demand. It became necessary to think in terms of larger and more economical hydro-electric projects. These in turn were stimulated by growth in demand for electricity and the consequent economy of a large central-station output where systems became integrated for central supply. Because most large potential sites were located at some distance from load centres, low-cost transmission was essential for effective dev-elopment. During this twenty-year period, from 1910 to 1930, attainable voltages and consequent distances that energy could be transmitted without prohibitive cost increased markedly. As a result of these developments, two things happened in British Columbia. Either a larger outside company took over the entire system of a small community, or the community or local company arranged to buy power in bulk from a larger company for distribution within the municipality. Kamloops, where the B.C. Electric Railway Company bought the franchise plus generating plants of the -34-T A B L E 10 C O N S U M P T I O N O F E L E C T R I C P O W E R P O P U L A T I O N N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S R E S I D E N T I A L C O M M E R C I A L I N D U S T R I A L T O T A L C O N S U M P T I O N ( O O O K W H ) R E S I D E N T I A L . C O M M E R C I A L I N D U S T R I A L C O N S U M P / T O T A L T R A N S . T O T A L R E S I D . C O N S U M P / . L I N E C U S T . C A P I T A M I L E S 1 9 1 9 1920 21 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 1 9 3 0 31 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 1940 41 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 1950 51 52 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 I 9 6 0 61 5 2 4 , 5 8 2 5 3 5 , 0 0 0 5 4 4 , 0 0 0 5 5 3 , 0 0 0 5 6 0 , 0 0 0 5 6 8 , 4 0 0 5 7 5 , 0 0 0 5 8 3 , 0 0 0 5 9 1 , 0 0 0 5 9 7 , 0 0 0 6 9 4 , 0 0 0 7 0 7 , 0 0 0 7 1 7 , 0 0 0 7 2 7 , 0 0 0 7 3 6 , 0 0 0 7 4 5 , 0 0 0 7 5 9 , 0 0 0 7 7 5 , 0 0 0 7 9 2 , 0 0 0 8 0 5 , 0 0 0 8 1 7 , 8 6 1 8 7 0 , 0 0 0 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 9 3 2 , 0 0 0 9 4 9 , 0 0 0 I , 0 0 3 , 0 0 0 I , 0 4 4 , 0 0 0 I , 0 8 2 , 0 0 0 I , 1 1 3 , 0 0 0 1 , 1 3 7 , 0 0 0 I , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 I , 2 0 5 , 0 0 0 I , 2 4 8 , 0 0 0 I , 2 9 5 , 0 0 0 I , 3 4 2 , 0 0 0 1 , 3 9 8 , 4 6 4 I , 4 8 2 , 0 0 0 I , 5 3 8 , 0 0 0 I , 5 6 7 , 0 0 0 I , 6 0 2 , 0 0 0 I , 6 2 9 , 0 0 0 6 9 , 9 0 9 7 3 , 8 1 1 7 7 , 6 6 0 8 5 , 7 1 3 9 0 , 2 0 9 9 6 , 9 9 6 9 8 , 5 9 3 1 0 3 , 7 0 7 1 1 4 , 1 1 6 1 3 0 , 0 9 2 1 2 5 , 1 7 1 1 2 5 , 7 4 8 1 2 6 , 6 0 1 1 2 7 , 6 4 7 1 2 9 , 8 3 7 1 3 4 , 2 6 7 1 3 8 , 5 5 8 1 4 4 , 1 3 0 1 5 0 , 9 5 5 1 5 6 , 0 5 2 1 6 3 , 2 7 7 1 7 1 , 6 3 5 1 7 8 , 6 8 5 1 7 9 , 1 3 6 1 8 6 , 0 1 9 1 9 2 , 9 9 1 2 1 0 , 8 1 7 2 2 7 , 1 0 0 2 4 6 , 0 2 5 2 6 5 , 8 3 5 2 7 8 , 4 1 7 2 9 1 , 1 6 5 3 0 2 , 3 3 9 3 1 6 , 1 0 7 3 3 0 , 4 6 1 3 4 7 , 4 1 7 3 6 6 , 4 3 8 3 8 2 , 2 2 2 3 9 9 , 3 4 3 4 1 6 , 2 5 1 4 2 8 , 4 1 8 4 3 9 , 0 8 7 1 5 , 8 9 7 1 5 , 9 9 5 1 7 , 2 4 4 1 6 , 5 4 2 1 6 , 7 9 1 1 7 , 1 0 0 1 6 , 5 1 0 1 7 , 5 7 8 1 8 , 6 6 1 1 7 , 9 4 4 2 0 , 2 2 2 2 2 , 1 4 6 2 3 , 1 0 0 2 2 , 4 0 5 2 3 , 3 0 0 2 3 , 9 5 9 2 4 , 7 7 2 2 5 , 6 6 6 2 7 , 1 0 4 2 7 , 8 9 2 2 7 , 8 1 2 2 8 , 7 0 5 2 8 , 5 8 8 2 7 , 4 8 9 2 8 , 2 9 0 2 9 , 7 1 5 3 2 , 6 7 1 3 5 , 9 3 8 3 5 , 0 7 2 4 2 , 8 0 5 4 4 , 6 9 8 4 6 , 1 1 0 4 8 , 1 1 9 5 0 , 6 9 2 5 2 , 9 3 3 5 4 , 8 4 8 5 6 , 0 3 3 5 8 , 9 9 5 6 1 , 5 2 1 6 2 , 2 4 0 6 4 , 2 0 3 6 9 , 5 5 2 2 , 9 1 7 3 , 3 4 1 3 , 3 6 1 3 , 5 1 6 3 , 6 6 2 3 , 9 6 0 4 , 4 6 5 5 , 5 1 0 4 , 5 1 6 4 , 8 6 9 4 , 6 9 6 5 , 1 8 1 4 , 8 3 6 4 , 9 9 0 5 , 2 1 3 5 , 4 7 3 5 , 6 7 2 5 , 2 8 4 5 , 5 0 0 5 , 5 3 5 5 , 4 1 4 5 , 5 7 8 5 , 8 1 5 6 , 2 6 1 6 , 7 4 8 6 , 9 1 9 6 , 9 6 3 7 , 1 4 9 7 , 2 6 6 7 , 5 9 6 7 , 7 0 3 7 , 8 9 4 8 , 0 6 8 8 , 2 7 0 8 , 1 1 4 8 , 2 8 6 8 , 7 6 3 9 , 0 1 3 5 , 0 9 5 8 5 , 8 0 6 , 8 9 , 8 0 6 9 4 , 9 0 4 1 0 5 , 1 7 2 I 1 0 , 3 4 1 I 1 7 , 4 5 7 I 1 8 , 6 1 9 1 2 4 , 9 4 7 1 3 6 , 7 3 7 1 5 2 , 5 6 4 1 5 0 , 9 7 1 1 5 2 , 4 1 0 1 5 4 , 7 7 0 1 5 4 , 7 4 8 1 5 8 , 8 4 4 1 6 3 , 0 6 2 1 6 8 , 3 2 0 1 7 5 , 0 0 9 1 8 3 , 5 3 2 1 8 9 , 6 2 6 1 9 6 , 3 7 3 2 0 5 , 8 4 0 2 1 2 , 8 0 8 2 1 2 , 0 3 9 2 1 9 , 3 7 9 2 2 8 , 5 2 1 2 4 9 , 8 8 4 2 6 9 , 9 2 7 2 9 2 , 1 6 9 3 1 5 , 7 6 9 3 3 0 , 4 3 6 3 4 4 , 7 1 6 3 5 8 , 2 4 0 3 7 4 , 6 9 8 391 , 4 8 9 4 1 0 , 5 3 2 4 3 0 , 9 3 8 4 4 9 , 5 4 6 4 6 9 , 3 8 2 4 8 7 , 5 0 3 5 0 1 , 9 6 1 5 1 3 , 7 3 4 1 0 1 , 7 4 2 1 1 0 , 6 2 1 1 1 0 , 1 5 0 1 0 9 , 4 7 9 1 0 6 , 5 9 0 I 1 5 , 0 2 6 1 2 7 , 7 8 8 1 3 4 , 4 1 4 1 4 7 , 6 1 3 1 5 1 , 9 3 0 1 5 8 , 7 8 1 1 7 4 , 4 5 4 1 8 2 , 9 1 4 1 9 0 , 9 6 7 2 0 6 , 3 7 7 2 3 5 , 0 4 3 2 7 4 , 1 3 8 3 2 6 , 2 5 1 4 1 4 , 8 5 0 4 9 1 , 8 9 7 6 0 7 , 4 2 7 6 9 0 , 9 0 4 7 8 8 , 1 6 8 9 0 2 , 3 4 1 I , 0 6 3 , 6 4 7 I , 2 5 6 , 0 0 2 1 , 4 4 5 , 0 5 9 1 , 6 5 7 , 6 1 9 1 , 7 7 5 , 9 9 6 I , 9 6 3 , 6 6 0 2 , 1 0 2 , 0 4 8 2 , 1 9 9 , 4 4 1 8 7 , 3 2 2 7 5 , 3 6 6 7 2 , 8 0 9 6 9 , 3 1 4 6 9 , 2 8 9 7 3 , 7 0 7 8 6 , 6 8 0 9 6 , 3 4 1 1 0 3 , 1 1 0 1 0 7 , 3 1 1 1 0 1 , 3 7 3 1 1 0 , 6 1 4 1 1 0 , 1 2 0 1 1 6 , 6 9 7 1 2 9 , 6 8 9 1 4 9 , 1 4 2 1 7 4 , 6 4 3 2 0 3 , 7 9 0 2 3 9 , 9 9 4 2 6 2 , 4 3 5 3 0 9 , 3 5 6 3 3 7 , 9 7 2 3 7 4 , 6 4 5 3 9 9 , 6 2 1 4 4 3 , 8 2 3 5 1 0 , 2 2 8 5 5 6 , 5 7 6 7 9 8 , 7 1 1 8 6 7 , 9 3 8 7 1 8 , 1 1 7 7 9 1 , 4 0 3 , 1 7 9 , 3 0 1 3 9 7 , 8 8 0 5 2 2 , 5 1 5 5 1 7 , 8 5 1 5 5 0 , 3 3 3 5 7 7 , 6 2 1 6 2 6 , 8 8 4 7 3 4 , 4 2 6 9 0 4 , 9 4 2 9 8 4 , 3 8 9 1 , 0 9 2 , 3 7 1 1 , 1 0 5 , 8 8 2 1 , 0 2 7 , 2 3 6 1 , 2 0 0 , 6 3 0 8 1 3 1 , 0 4 2 , 3 9 2 1 , 2 2 9 , 3 7 9 8 8 0 9 9 8 , 0 5 1 I , 1 7 6 , 8 4 4 8 7 0 1 , 1 8 5 , 0 1 4 I , 3 6 0 , 8 9 3 8 5 8 1 , 1 2 3 , 7 9 8 I , 2 9 9 , 6 7 7 821 I , 3 6 1 , 6 7 4 1 , 5 5 0 , 4 0 7 8 5 7 I , 2 9 2 , 7 7 1 I , 5 0 7 , 2 3 9 9 2 2 I , 3 1 8 , 7 8 7 1 , 5 4 9 , 5 4 2 9 3 3 I , 6 6 9 , 3 3 1 1 , 9 2 0 , 0 5 4 978 I , 8 3 5 , 8 1 2 2 , 0 9 5 , 0 5 3 974 I , 8 9 3 , 2 8 3 2 , 1 5 3 , 4 3 7 972 2 , 2 2 9 , 9 9 4 2 , 5 1 5 , 0 6 2 I , 0 1 6 2 , 3 0 8 , 9 0 4 2 , 6 0 1 , 9 3 8 1 , 0 2 4 2 , 3 1 2 , 0 6 3 2 , 6 1 9 , 7 2 7 I , 0 6 6 I , 9 8 2 , 4 8 0 2 , 3 1 8 , 5 4 6 1 , 1 0 9 2 , 3 7 7 , 5 1 4 2 , 7 6 1 , 6 9 9 I , 2 1 8 2 , 3 1 5 , 6 4 8 2 , 7 6 4 , 4 2 9 I , 3 0 0 2 , 4 6 5 , 8 3 4 2 , 9 9 5 , 8 7 5 1 , 3 6 7 2 , 8 3 4 , 3 2 4 3 , 4 8 9 , 1 6 8 1 , 6 8 2 2 , 9 1 7 , 2 5 8 3 , 6 7 1 , 5 9 6 1 , 8 5 0 3 , 1 3 1 , 1 2 9 4 , 0 4 7 , 9 1 2 2 , 182 3 , 2 3 4 , 1 7 3 4 , 2 6 3 , 0 4 9 2 , 3 7 3 3 , 2 1 7 , 4 5 0 4 , 3 8 0 , 2 6 3 2 , 6 0 7 3 , 5 7 4 , 6 6 1 4 , 8 7 6 , 6 2 3 2 , 8 5 5 4 , 3 2 7 , 5 7 5 5 , 8 3 5 , 0 4 5 3 , 2 1 9 5 , 5 4 3 , 3 6 4 7 , 3 0 9 , 5 9 4 3 , 6 1 5 7 , 3 0 4 , 7 7 3 9 , 3 0 6 , 4 0 8 3 , 9 4 4 7 , 7 2 3 , 3 5 9 1 0 , 1 7 8 , 6 8 9 4 , 3 3 7 8 , 3 8 8 , 6 8 3 1 1 , 0 3 2 , 6 1 7 4 , 4 4 7 8 , 6 6 3 , 5 6 6 1 1 , 3 4 5 , 3 4 3 4 , 7 1 7 9 , 7 2 8 , 7 0 1 1 3 , 6 2 2 , 1 5 2 4 , 9 0 7 8 , 8 6 4 , 5 2 4 1 2 , 2 4 3 , 2 6 6 5 , 0 0 9 9 8 5 I , 0 2 9 I , 0 6 1 1 , 1 3 3 I , 3 1 3 1 , 5 9 4 1 , 7 1 2 1 , 8 7 4 I , 8 7 1 2 , 0 1 1 1 , 7 7 1 1 , 6 6 5 I , 8 9 8 I , 7 8 8 2 , 1 0 7 2 , 0 2 3 2 , 0 4 2 2 , 4 7 7 2 , 6 4 5 2 , 6 7 5 3 , 0 7 5 2 , 9 9 1 2 , 9 1 1 2 , 4 8 8 2 , 9 1 0 2 , 7 5 6 2 , 8 7 0 3 , 2 2 5 3 , 3 0 0 3 , 5 6 0 3 , 6 5 9 3 , 6 3 5 3 , 9 0 8 4 , 5 0 6 5 , 4 4 7 6 , 6 5 5 6 , 8 6 8 7 , 1 7 3 7 , 2 4 0 8 , 5 0 3 7 , 5 1 6 " 2 , 5 5 4 2 , 8 3 1 2 , 7 9 0 • 3 , 0 4 2 3 , 1 2 8 3 , 3 1 3 3 , 3 8 3 3 , 4 4 9 3 , 5 3 7 3 , 4 7 0 3 , 9 1 I 4 , 2 0 8 4 , 8 9 1 4 , 5 5 3 4 , 6 4 9 4 , 9 8 2 5 , 108 5 , 2 1 I 5 , 3 4 2 5 , 4 2 8 5 , 5 0 0 5 , 5 8 7 5 , 7 0 1 5 , 7 9 6 6 , 0 6 8 6 , 2 3 0 6 , 8 0 2 6 , 7 9 4 7 , 3 0 9 8 , 3 6 3 9 , 4 2 2 1 0 , 2 5 5 1 0 , 6 5 3 I I , 4 4 7 1 2 , 6 1 5 1 3 , 4 3 1 1 4 , 1 3 5 1 5 , 1 8 0 1 5 , 0 7 0 1 5 , 7 1 6 1 6 , 4 8 3 1 7 , 1 5 9 1 8 , 0 6 7 S O U R C E S - C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , E L E C T R I C P O W E R S T A T I S T I C S . 1919 - 1 9 6 1 . C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , P O P U L A T I O N O F C A N A D A B Y P R O V I N C E S . 1921 - 1961 - E S T I M A T E D A S O F J u N E 1 F O R 1 N T E R C E N S A L Y E A R S . B . C . E N E R G Y B O A R D , H Y D R O - E L E C T R I C G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I S T I C S . municipal electric system in 1929; is an example of the former; Table 4 shows the extent to which the latter practice had increased. This was particularly true in the West Kootenay and Okanagan regions where many communities such as Princeton, Penticton and Summerland entered ^ ipto agree-ments with West Kootenay Power and Light Company to buy power in bulk. This became possible after a 110 kv line had been built which would allow sufficient power to be transmitted to the Okanagan from plants on the Kootenay River. Hitherto the highest voltage used in British Columbia had been 60 kv. Although i t was certainly true that by building large hydro-electric projects great economies could be effected, i t was also true that hydro power was economical for smaller projects as well. When Canadian Collier-ies (Dunsmuir) Ltd. decided to replace individual steam units at pit heads with an electrical system, i t was found that i t would be more economical to use hydro-electric power than the coal from the pits. Also, by 1930, hydro-electric power from the Bast Kootenay Power Company was replacing coal as a source of electricity in the eastern coal mining region. Only nine steam plants were in operation in British Columbia in 1910. For the most part these stations burnt coal to create steam; a few, attached to lumber mills, used wood; and at least one, Kamloops, was built to use either coal or wood. By 1918, the number of steam plants had increased to 18, with an installed capacity of approximately 25,000 kw. Again coal was the main fuel, but the Brentwood Steam plant (1912) of the B.C. Electric Railway Company was built to use either coal or o i l . The Central Electric Station Directory of 1928 shows that four of the steam plants in operation in 1918 had closed during the next ten year period. As mentioned earlier, with increased hydro-electric generating capacity and longer transmission lines i t became more economical to serve the munic-ipalities from a large central system. In 1910 there were no oil engines recorded as providing electric power, but by 1918 these had made their appearance and seven municipal-ities were served by diesel engines. In 1928 there were three more as this form of power became more common for supplying small amounts of power to isolated communities. The 23 electric systems which were in operation in 1910 consisted of ten electric power companies, four industrial firms and nine municipal systems. Some of these systems were fully utilized as in the case of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company which had a plant factor of 95$; while others, such as the municipality of Kelowna had much lower plant factors. By 1930, there were sixteen electric utilities, twelve indus-trial concerns and thirteen municipalities providing electric power. Plant factors for industrial concerns and for utilities selling primarily to industry were s t i l l high, although that of West Kootenay Power and Light Company had dropped to 75$ due primarily to the large increase in generating capacity in 1928, when the 55,950 k.w. South Slocan plant was 27. McGraw Central Station Directory. 1928. New York, McGraw-Hil l , 1929. brought in. For the province as a whole, the plant factor stood at 46.8$. This too reflects, to a large extent, the extensive construction programme within the industry during the 1920's when generating capacity almost tripled. During the same period consumption did not quite keep pace as the figures in Table 9 show. Graphically, the difference between the amount of power available for consumption and the amount actually consumed can be seen in Figure 1; while Figure 7 shows the growth curves for gener-ating capacity and consumption. As mentioned earlier the number of communities served had more than tripled over the twenty years, the number of electric systems did not quite double. There were two main reasons for this. In the first place, as the generating capacity of the larger systems increased, these were able to extend their transmission lines to bring power to nearby communities. In the case of the B.C. Electric Railway Company the transmission line mile-age rose from 117 to 332; West Kootenay Power and Light Company increased from 255 to 284 miles. In total, transmission line mileage rose from 383 to 4,208 miles. Because of this increased generating capacity and extended transmission system, the number of communities served by the B.C. Electric Railway Company increased from 11 to 25; the West Kootenay Power and Light Company from 5 to 24. A comparison of Maps 1, 2 and 3 helps to indicate the above. The second reason for the lower rate of increase in electric systems stemmed from a point made earlier. As large central electric stations were built and the overall size of the large utilities increased, the companies absorbed smaller utilities that were finding i t difficult to maintain sufficient capacity to keep up -38-F I G U R E 7 C O N S U M P T I O N O F E L E C T R I C P O W E R 1 ,000,000 900,000 :30,000 ZO.,000 N O . O F C U S T O M E R S C O N S U M P T I O N ( K W H S IN MIL C O N S U M P T I O N P E R C A P I T A 10,000 I ,000 - 39 -with demand. Maps 1, 2 and 3 show the growth in the number of areas served by-electricity. It can be seen that on the whole the pattern was s t i l l one of dispersion, although the nuclei which had been apparent at the beginn-ing of the period had increased in size. Also, small centres of concen-tration appeared in the region served by East Kootenay Power Company and on Vancouver Island. However, difficult terrain and distant isolated com-munities prevented a more concentrated pattern developing. The population of British Columbia grew from 392,480 in 1911 to 694,263 in 1931, practically doubling in the twenty year period. (Tablel'l) The population of Vancouver Island increased from 83,277 to 120,933, and on the Lower Mainland i t grew from 233,361 to 379,858. With the exception of the East Kootenay region such increases in population were general. In the East Kootenay's, the population actually declined from 22,466 in 1911 to 19,137 in 1921, and then rose to just pass the 1911 peak in 1931 with a population of 22,566. Difficulties in marketing agricultural produce and the closing of many of the mines which had opened during the mining boom of the early years of the century caused many people to leave this region. The economy had been buoyant in 1910, but with the outbreak of war there was serious disruption in economic activity. According to M.A. Ormsby, "A f a l l in the price of copper and other metals had deranged the mining industry; lack of shipping had caused supplies of manu-factured timber and of canned salmon to pile up; and the domestic market for Okanagan fruit had been almost destroyed by lower buy-- 40 -TABLE 11 POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY CENSUS DIVISIONS 1911 - 1961 C E N S U S 1911 1921 1931 I 9 4 I 1951 1961 D I V I S I O N 1 2 2 , 4 6 6 1 9 , 1 3 7 2 2 , 5 6 6 2 1 , 3 4 5 2 7 , 6 2 8 3 4 , 2 4 4 2 2 8 , 3 7 3 3 1 , 0 7 5 4 0 , 2 6 6 4 8 , 2 6 6 6 0 , 0 6 0 7 0 , 7 0 7 3 2 8 , 0 6 6 3 5 , 5 2 2 4 0 , 5 2 3 5 1 , 6 0 5 7 7 , 6 3 6 9 4 , 6 4 6 4 2 2 3 , 3 6 1 2 5 6 , 5 7 9 3 7 9 , 8 5 8 4 4 9 , 3 7 6 6 4 9 , 2 3 8 9 0 7 , 5 3 1 5 8 3 , 2 7 7 1 0 6 , 7 9 2 1 2 0 , 9 3 3 1 5 0 , 4 0 7 2 1 5 , 0 0 3 2 9 0 , 8 3 5 6 2 6 , 5 4 1 2 4 , 4 8 4 3 0 , 0 2 5 3 0 , 7 1 0 4 1 , 8 2 3 6 6 , 2 9 0 7 1 0 , 2 3 2 1 2 , 6 5 8 1 4 , 3 4 4 1 8 , 2 4 7 2 1 , 3 2 5 8 1 7 , 6 3 1 2 1 , 5 3 4 2 5 , 2 7 6 4 0 , 2 7 6 7 4 , 2 4 0 2 2 , 6 8 5 9 1 8 , 9 3 6 1 8 , 6 3 8 1 8 , 0 5 1 2 0 , 8 5 4 3 8 , 2 0 3 10 2 , 1 4 4 7 , 0 1 3 8 , 4 8 1 1 4 , 3 9 5 3 1 , 0 6 1 • T O T A L . 3 9 2 , 4 8 0 5 2 4 , 5 8 2 6 9 4 , 2 6 3 8 1 7 , 8 6 1 1 , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 1 , 6 2 9 , 0 8 2 S O U R C E — C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , C E N S U S O F C A N A D A . 1 9 1 1 . 1 9 2 1 . 1 9 3 1 . 1 9 4 1 . 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 6 1 . N O T E — C E N S U S D I V I S I O N S C H A N G E D F O R 1941 A N D S U B S E Q U E N T Y E A R S , T H E R E F O R E F I G U R E S A R E N O T S T R I C T L Y C O M P A R A B L E T O T H O S E O F T H E E A R L I E R Y E A R S . - 41 -ing power on the prairies and by high freight rates to the East." 2 8 This continued through 1915. In 1916, economic conditions were better once more, as contracts for munitions, for harbour improvements, and for shipbuilding began to come to British Columbia. The upswing continued until 1918. The mines in the Kootenay region were working to capacity producing lead and zinc for munitions; the lumber industry was busily cutting spruce for aeroplane construction; shipyards were working over-time on government orders; and the salmon canneries were engaged in fi l l i n g orders for the Armed Forces. There was a break in this upswing immediately after the war when the demand for war materials declined. This was especially true in the mining industry. The Trail smelter was forced to cut production and the smelters of Grand Forks and Greenwood closed down. With this, not only were the copper, lead and zinc mines affected, but also the coal mines which produced the coke for the smelters. Conditions gradually improved once more, and by the middle of 1922, the level of 1918 had again been reached. Throughout the nineteen-twenties prosperity continued. New markets opened up in the Far East; there was constant demand for mineral and fisheries products; and the recently developed pulp and paper industry prospered. The end of this period of economic upswing came with the collapse 28. Margaret A. Ormsby, British Columbia: A History, Toronto Macmillan, 1958, p. 384. of the stock market i n October, 1929. The effect of this was fe l t very soon as construction dropped and with i t came a consequent decline i n the lumber industry. By the end of 1930, a l l of British Columbia was feeling the effects of the Depression. As the period from 1910 to 1930 was a period of population and economic growth, so too was i t a period of growth i n the electric power industry. Total installed capacity rose from 50,830 k.w. to 415,933 k.w. Total kilowatt hours generated i n 1910 are not available, but by 1919, the 29 figure i s given as 397,880,000 k.w.h. 7 By 1930, output had risen to 1,200,630,000 k.w.h. During the same period the number of customers had increased from 85,806 to 150,971. In other words the consumption per customer had risen from 5,654 k.w.h. to 8,066 k.w.h. On a per capita basis, consumption rose from 950 k.w.h. to 1,800 k.w.h. This growth i n consumption i s shown in Figure 6. It must be remembered that this i s total per capita consumption and includes, for example, the 599,257,403 k.w.h. generated by West Kootenay Power and Light Company i n 1930, over 90$ of which was used i n the mining and smelting industry. Unfortunately i t i s not possible to show domestic consumption for this period. Figures for this do not become available until the final year of the period; and in 1930 domestic consumption was 813 k.w.h. per customer, or 170 k.w.h. per capita. Although data i s not available for domestic consumption over the 29. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Central Electric  Stations i n Canada, 1919. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1921. p. 34. - 43 -period, a comparison of Tables 1 and 3 will show a considerable growth in the number of communities served by electricity and in the number of domes-tic customers in most municipalities. Maps 1 and 3 show how this popula-tion was served by electricity. Noticeable also from a study of Tables 2 and 4 is a reduction in the rates charged for electric power. Although this reduction is by no means universal throughout a l l electric systems, i t is certainly true for for the major ones. Using the B.C. Electric Railway Company rates as an example, a consumption of 200 k.w.h. per month in 1910 would have cost $19.50. By 1918, the b i l l would have been reduced to $12.00; by 1923 to $10.00; and by 1928 to $4.60. In 1910 many rates were s t i l l based on a charge per 40-watt lamp. As meters were introduced, this gave way to a metered rate. This rate usually gave preference to the larger consumer by offering additional amounts of power at a lower rate (e.g. Table 12) The statement may not be made that these decreases in domestic rates were entirely responsible for any increased use of electricity in the home. In 1910, electric power was used primarily for lighting. By 1921, the B.C. Electric Railway Company was actively marketing electric fires, vacuum cleaners, sewing machines, fans, wringers, washing machines, 30 toasters and stoves. Nevertheless, i t was probably the combination of lower rates and new appliances which was responsible for the rise in the use of electric power from 479 k.w.h. per customer in 1923 to 1,121 k.w.h. 30. Maiden, op cit. p. 92 - 44 -TABLE 12 B.C. ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANY, LTD. ELECTRIC RATES 1910 - 1930 1910 5 0 K W H A T 11 C E N T S P E R K W H 5 0 K W H A T 10 C E N T S P E R K W H 3 0 0 K W H A T 9 C E N T S P E R K W H 3 0 0 K W H A T 8 C E N T S P E R K W H 3 0 0 K W H A T 7 C E N T S P E R K W H 5 0 0 K W H A T 6 C E N T S P E R K W H 5 0 0 K W H A T 5 C E N T S P E R K W H R E S T A T 4 C E N T S P E R K W H 1 , 0 0 0 S Q . F T . H O U S E U S I N G 2 0 0 K W H — B I L L . - $ 1 9 . 5 0 1918 1 , 0 0 0 K W H A T 6 C E N T S P E R K W H 1 , 0 0 0 K W H A T 4 C E N T S P E R K W H R E S T A T 3 C E N T S P E R K W H 1 , 0 0 0 S Q . F T . H O U S E U S I N G 2 0 0 K W H — B I L L — $ 1 2 . 0 0 1928 3 K W H P E R 100 S Q . F T . O F F L O O R A R E A A T 4 C E N T S P E R K W H M A X I M U M O F 6 0 K W H P E R 1 , 0 0 0 S Q . F T . R E S T A T 2 C E N T S P E R K W H 1 , 0 0 0 S Q . F T . H O U S E U S I N G 2 0 0 K W H — B I L L — $ 4 . 6 0 S O U R C E — B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O M P A N Y , L T D . R A T E B O O K S - 45 -per customer in 1950 in the Vancouver area. Altogether, the period from 1910 to 1950 was one of major expan-sion in the electric power industry as far as the domestic market was con-cerned. The number of customers increased from 69,909 in 1920 to 125,171 in 1950, thus almost doubling in the ten-year period. Nor did this increase simply reflect an increase in total population in the province for the number of customers per 100 population rose from 15.69 to 18.55 in the ten years. A comparison of the total consumption of 2,011 k.w.h. per capita in 1950 with the domestic consumption of 170 k.w.h. per capita serves to illustrate somewhat the importance of electric power to industry. In Chapter II several of the industrial uses of electric power were men-tioned. In this next period, industry turned more and more to electric-ity. As stated previously, the twenty years which comprise this period were ones of industrial and economic growth. There is no doubt that the availability of electric power and the new uses to which i t could be put played an important part. A study of the statistics for the final ten years of the period shows not only that the amount of power used in indus-try in 1950 (1,027,256,000 kwh) was almost twice the total amount of energy generated in 1920 (522,515,000 kwh) but also that the amount gener-ated by one, company for the use of the mining and smelting industry of Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. in 1950 (599,257,403 kwh) was greater than the total output ten years earlier. Of interest also, when one is studying the use made by industry of elec-tric power, is the fact that much of this power was generated by the - 46 -industrial concern ffor their own use. In 1950, at least 53$ of the total electric power generated was produced by industry. The large electric power installations of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company were installed essentially for the use of the mining and smelting operations of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. According to the Central Electric Station Directory for 1928, 88$ of this power Company's output was used by the mining and smelting industry, 7$ for lighting, and 5$ was sold in bulk. In several other mining operations, however, the mining company itself. Installed the electric power plants and used 97 - 98$ of the power for mining purposes, selling only the surplus to the mining community. The plant of the Britannia Mining and Smelting Company, Ltd. was already in operation in 1910 with an installed capacity of approximately 1,300 k.w. This was increased to a total capacity of 17,360 k.w. by 1920. The plant was entirely destroyed in 1921, when first there was a fire and then the dam burst. Installations totalling 8,395 k.w. were rebuilt, but as this was not sufficient to supply the entire needs of the mine, a con-tract was entered into with the B.C. Electric Railway Company in 1925» whereby a 54 kv transmission line would be built the thirty miles from North Vancouver in order to transmit 3,350 to 4,500 k.w. By 1928, the B.C. Electric Railway Company was supplying almost a l l the power for the mining operations. 31. Canada, Department of the Interior, Dominion Water Power and Reclamation Service, Central Electric Stations in Canada, Ottawa, King's Printer, 1929, p. 81. - 47 -About 1910, i t became necessary for the Canadian Collieries (Donsmuir) Ltd. to renovate and expand their steam plants at the various mines on Vancouver Island. Estimates were made of the capital costs of such improvements and also of the installation of either a central steam-electric or hydro-electric power station with a distribution system to the various mines. Comparative estimates showed the cost of installation and operation was greatly in favour of the hydro-electric station. The hydro-electric plant was built on the Puntledge River, about six miles above Courtenay. The plant, which was installed in 1913, had a capacity of 8,950 k.w. While 96$ of this power was used in the mining operations, about 3$ was sold in bulk to the neighbouring communities of Courtenay and Cumberland. Another interesting hydro-electric installation built by a mining company was the installation of the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company Ltd. at Anyox in northern British Columbia. This plant was installed in 1913 for use in the company's copper mining and smelting operations. A hydro-electric plant was built on Palls Creek with a capac-ity of 2,090 k.w. In addition, an oil-fired steam plant of 6,230 k.w. was installed in 1915 to provide power during the winter when there was a diminished water supply. In 1923 a new multiple arch dam was constructed on Palls Creek, two and a half miles above Anyox. This allowed for increased hydro-electric capacity to 19,000 k.w. The operations at Anyox continued until 1929 when falling prices forced the closing of the smelter. As in the mining industry, the pulp and paper industry too was instrumental in developing some major electric power stations in British -48 -Columbia. Because most of the mills were situated as close as possible to the source of the raw material; where there was an adequate water supply; and where there were inexpensive transportation facilities, the plants tended to be set up on coastal inlets close to the timber supply. These were often far from electric power installations. Therefore i t became necessary for the companies to develop their own. One of the earliest of the pulp mills to do this was the Powell River plant of the Powell River Company. This installation was started in 1912 when a plant was erected on Powell Lake. Generating capacity for hydro-electric power was 7,162 k.w. In 1925 another 10,000 k.w. unit was added. This was soon insufficient and so in 1929, work was started on the Lois River for a 13,500 k.w. hydro-electric station. The addition of this plant would allow output from the mill to increase from 520 to 650 tons a day. In 1911 the Whalen Pulp and Paper Mills, Ltd. started operations at Mill Creek (afterwards Woodfibre). Initially a 700 k.w. hydro-electric plant was installed. This was augmented by a 560 k.w. steam plant in 1915. In 1927, an additional development was made on Cedar Creek which allowed for much greater storage and a hydro-electric capacity of 2,000 k.w. Whalen Pulp and Paper Mills, Ltd. also operated plants at Swanson Bay and Quatsino (Port Alice). The Swanson Bay plant was installed in 1909 in connection with the company's pulp mill. It had a capacity of 450 k.w. The plant at Port Alice was first installed in 1917 when a 1,750 k.w. steam plant was placed in operation. The following year, a 225 k.w. hydro-electric plant was added. By 1928, total capacity had reached 5,000 k.w. When Pacific Mills Ltd. took over the pulp mill of the Ocean Palls Company in 1916, there was a power installation of 2,100 k.w. As Pacific Mills wished to extend the operations of the Company considerably by building a plant to make sulphite pulp, newsprint and wrapping paper, the demand for power increased considerably. This necessitated the construc-tion of a new dam and the installation of more power units. The first three, totalling 6,500 k.w., went into operation in 1916 and the fourth of 4,700 k.w. was installed in 1923. Technological Advances 32 According to G.R.G. Conway's report of 1915, there were "within reasonable distance of the cities of Vancouver and Victoria...possibilities of the economic development of water powers aggregating 750,000 h.p. (559,500 k.w.). These water powers are a l l situated within an area of 20,000 square miles, thus representing 37 l/2 h.p. (28 k.w.) for each square mile, of territory. Outside of this area a rough estimate of the water power possibilities of the Province would bring this figure up to 3,000,000 h.p. (2,238,000 k.w.) or nearly equal to the estimate for Ontario...." Conway goes on to discuss many of these water-power sites. It is interesting to note that in discussing the Fraser River, he sees no possi-bility of power development below Lytton because of the difficulty of 33 "harnessing this raging torrent" and also because of the construction of the railways beside the river. He also felt that railway development 32. G.R.G. Conway, Water Powers of Canada - Province of British  Columbia. Ottawa, Department of the Interior, 1915, p. 28 33. Ibid, p. 158 \ - 50 -would preclude damming the river beyond Lytton as well. Of the Peace River he stated: "Between thfe junction of the Findlay and Parsnip... and the eastern boundary of the Province, there are no water powers."-^  On Vancouver Island he estimated over 500,000 h.p. (373.000 k.w.) available. A later and more detailed report by A.V. White^  lists available water powers at 2,500,000 h.p. or 1,865,000 k.w. (Map 7). He also stated this "does not include about 400,000 h.p. (298,400 k.w.) for power possibilities on streams like the Fraser, Thompson, Skeena, and Nass Rivers, on which, because of proximity of railways, or possible interference with the salmon industry, economical dev-elopment cannot be considered under present conditions." By 1927, further studies had been made of Canada's hydro-electric potential. At this time the estimate for British Columbia stood at 3,807,211 k.w. of available power.36 Of this, 267,460 k.w. had been dev-eloped. (Map 8) Vancouver Island was thought to be capable of developing from 100,700 to 298,400 k.w.; the Fraser and its tributaries 447,600 to 1,195,000 k.w.; and the Columbia 388,000 to 932,500 k.w. A comparison of Maps 7 and 8 illustrates the changes made in water-power potential over the years, as more complete surveys were made. In 1910, the largest hydro-electric unit so far installed anywhere had a rating of 13,430 k.w. By 1930, units of 61,000 k.w. had been devel-oped. By 1920, the limit in efficiency was closely approached and the most 34. Ibid, p. 168 35. Arthur V. White, Water Powers of British Columbia. Ottawa, Commission of Conservation, 1919, p. 4-5 36. J.T. Johnston, Water Powers of Canada. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1927, p. 13. - 52 -MAP 8 UNDEVELOPED WATER POWERS, 1927 - 53 -important event in turbine design since that time was the development of 37 the propellor-type turbine. Other technological advances in hydro-electric generation were (l) the use of vertical-shaft turbines which permitted the building of much larger units than would have been feasible with the earlier horizontal settings; and (2) the increase in the specific 38 speed of the turbine. Steam power plants also increased in size and efficiency during this period. Throughout the world, the maximum size of 20,000 k.w. in 1912 rose to 60,000 k.w. in 1925, 110,000 k.w. in 1928 and 165,000 k.w. 39 in 1929. Developments in steam boilers were gradual but resulted in ever-increasing efficiency and capacity of individual units, with conse-quent reduction in the cost of producing steam. The most significant changes appeared in the size and capacity of individual boiler units. The size of the heating surface increased about seven times while only doubling the base area; the evaporation rating increased about four times; 40 as higher boiler pressures and temperatures became available. The increase in pressures and temperatures was one of the principal factors in increased station economy where the mounting pressures made attainable huge heat content of steam within moderate physical sizes of furnaces and boilers. At the same time, there was progress in furnace construction. 37. Prank fl. Rogers, "Hydro-Generation of Energy" A.S.C.E. Proceed-ings, vi 63, 1937, p. 1893 38. Ibid, p. 1894 39. George A. Orrok, "Progress in the Generation of Energy by Heat Engines." A.S.C.E. Proceedings, v. 6 3 , 1937, p. 1887. 40. John Bauer and Nathaniel Gold, The Electric Power Industry. New York, Harper, 1937, p. 15-16 Among major furnace developments was "the automatic control of combustion 41 essential to required heat and pressure". Improvements were made also in the superheater and air-heater; water-cooled furnaces came into use 42 about 1924; and the stoker was improved until i t was almost automatic. But by far the most important gains in steam power production were made in increasing the efficiency with which fuel was used, so that the number of pounds of coal needed to generate one kilowatt-hour dropped from ten pounds to approximately one pound. The most significant small-plant advances appeared not in steam plants but in diesel generation. Improvements were such that diesel plants furnished a total economy, both as to capital outlay and operating 43 costs, not much above the range of the average steam plant. With regard to operating expenses, diesel had advantage over small steam plants with respect to the amount of labour required for operation maintenance. Because no greater efficiency can be obtained with larger units and greater station capacity as in steam plants, development was limited to relatively small individual units. The highest transmission voltage used in British Columbia in 1910 was the 60 kv line of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company. During the period from 1910 to 1930, the B.C. Electric Railway Company and the East Kootenay Power Company also adopted 60 and 66 kv for their main transmission lines. Meanwhile the West Kootenay Power and Light Company 41. Ibid, p. 17 42. Orrok, op. cit. p. 1886 43. Baurer, op. cit. p. 27 - 55-installed a 110 kv line for the 135 miles between Greenwood, Penticton, Alleriby and Copper Mountain. This change to higher voltages shows in a comparison of Maps 1 and 3. In other parts of Canada transmission voltages rose much higher and 220 kv was regarded as standard for lines where power was to be trans-mitted from 150 to 300 miles. J.C. Smith and C.V. Christie in a paper on transmission and distribution which was published in 1930 state that '•when i t is necessary to bring power over long distances... where transmission distances may be as great as 500 miles, i t is probable that 330 kv will be used and no serious difficulty is anticipated.44 By 1930, technology had advanced to the place where larger units and longer transmission lines at higher voltages could be provided as the need for them arose. The cost of power developed in British Columbia may be evaluated from a study of the capital invested in generation, transmission and dis-tribution plus investments in such things as office buildings, stores, and working capital in relation to the installed horsepower capacity of the plants. A study of Figure 8 indicates that after an initial decrease costs rose until 1924. From then on there was a marked decline from $200.00 per h.p. in 1924 to $157.00 per h.p. in 1930. As these costs will vary considerably depending on the physical characteristics of the site; the price of labour; the price of materials; and on the cost of money, this chart may not be indicative of future trends. During the 44. J.C. Smith and C.V. Christie, "Electricity Transmission and Distribution", Canadian Engineer, v. 59, Aug. 5, 1930, p. 206-7. -5-3 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 , 0 0 0 9 , 0 0 0 8 , 0 0 0 7 , 0 0 0 6 , 0 0 0 5 , 0 0 0 U) 4 , 0 0 0 o 3 , 0 0 0 H < Q 2 , 0 0 0 5 u_ o IS) z O 1 , 0 0 0 _J 9 0 0 — 8 0 0 fH 7 0 0 F I G U R E 1 A N N U A L G E N E R A T I N G C A P A C I T Y A N D O U T P U T L E G E N D A V A I L A B L E R E C O R D E D O U T P U T 1940 - 5 6 -6 5 0 FIGURE 8 CAPITAL INVESTMENTS PER HP INSTALLED AND PER KWH GENERATED 4 0 0 Q 3 3 0 kl < ( /) 3 0 0 Z Q. X oc hi Q_ </) CE < -J O Q 2 5 0 6 5 0 _ 6 0 0 1925 1930 1935 1 9 5 0 1955 period under consideration the development of easily accessible sites suitable for large installations and close to the markets, such as the Stave Lake plant of the B.C. Electric Railway Company and South Slocan plant of West Kootenay Power and Light Company were constructed. Perhaps a more interesting cost relationship is that, also shown on Figure'7, of the cost per kilowatt-hour generated. Here there was a slight, though appreciable decline throughout the period of 1920 to 1950. As increased use was made of electric power, the load factor increased, and the cost declined. It is interesting to note that when compared with Canada as a whole, British Columbia has consistently lower capital costs per horse-power , installed capacity during this period; but because of smaller and more scattered population with fewer industries, the load factor is lower than that for Canada as a whole, and hence the cost per kilowatt-hour pro-duced is higher. By 1910, electric power was in common domestic use for lighting. It was during the twenty years between 1910 and 1930 that developments were made for heating, cooking, cleaning and refrigerating by electricity. The use of electric power for traction in electric railways reached its peak; electric automobiles briefly made an appearance. In industry there were new uses for electric power also. Of interest to British Columbia industry particularly was the increased use of power in pulp and paper mills where new, electrically driven machines allowed for much larger rollers with consequent increased production. Electric Power Companies From an installed capacity of approximately 50,830 k.w. at the beginning of 1910, electric power installations increased rapidly to a total of 415,933 k.w. by the end of 1930. This growth is shown graphi-cally in Figure 5. The two major power companies, which had started operation during the earlier period increased their capacities. In the case of the B.C. Electric Railway Company, this increase was from 18,230 k.w. to 182,300 k.w Kootenay Power and Light Company increased from 14,920 k.w. to 126,000 k.w. A third major utility was incorporated in 1922 when the East Kootenay Power Company was formed to acquire the assets and undertaking of the British Columbia and Alberta Power Company. By 1930, this company had an installed capacity of 16,500 k.w. Perhaps the most interesting electric power developments during the period from 1910 to 1930 were made by private industrial companies. In 1930, approximately 46,000 k.w. of the total of 415,933 k.w. were installed by industrial concerns, not including the 126,000 k.w. of West Kootenay Power and Light Company, the control of which had been acquired by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. in 1916. In this respect, British Columbia differed from most of the other provinces where the major part of the electric power was developed by central stat-ions and was sold in bulk to industrial concerns. The 2,200 k.w. developed by the B.C. Electric Railway Company on the Goldstream River was not sufficient to meet the demands of Victoria in 1910. Therefore, the Company incorporated the Vancouver Island Power Company, Ltd. to build a hydro-electric plant on the Jordan River about 43 miles west of Victoria. The first 3,200 k.w. unit of this plant went - 59 -into operation in 1911 and a second one in 1912. Even this was not suffi-cient to provide adequate power for the city and i t became necessary to build the Brentwood steam plant in 1912, with a generating capacity of 4,000 k.w. With this installation, and with work underway to enlarge the Jordan River plant, the Company was able to retire the first two units of the Goldstream plant which had been in operation since 1898. By 1930 the total installed capacity of the B.C. Electric Railway Company on Vancouver Island stood at 33,400 k.w. Meanwhile, in the Lower Mainland region the Company had also been active. There, too, i t became necessary to replace the original 1,310 k.w. steam plant for use as an auxiliary and standby plant. The first three units with a total capacity of 6,000 k.w. were placed in service in 1910; two units of 2,000 k.w. in 1911; and two units of 4,500 k.w. in 1912. In 1912, a 5,000 k.w. unit was added to the Lake Buntzen plant also. At the same time, work was progressing on a second plant at Lake Buntzen, a third of a mile south of the first plant. This plant had a total capacity of 26,700 k.w. when the third generator was installed in 1919. During this period another electric company had been active on the Lower Mainland. This was the Western Canada Power Company, which, in 1912, had built a hydro-electric plant at Stave Falls and had installed two 10,500 k.w. generators. A 60,000 volt transmission line was built to Vancouver. For several years prior to this, growth and development in Vancouver and the surrounding region had been rapid, but soon after the Western Canada Power Company commenced operations, the economy slowed down and the Company found i t hard to secure a market. In 1916, therefore - 60 -a contract was entered into between the West Canada Power Company and the B.C. Electric Railway Company under which power was to be sold to the latter in increasing quantities over a period of years. A similar con-tract was entered into with the city of Bellingham. As a result of the financial difficulties which the Company had had, i t was obliged to change its financial structure and emerged as the Western Power Company of Canada Limited. This Company carried on in competition with the B.C. Electric Rail-way Company for four years. Revival of business towards the end of, and following, the War brought a renewed demand for additional power. The Company had installed a third 10,500 k.w. unit in 1916 to meet the con-tract obligations to the B.C. Electric Railway Company. This did not suffice for long. As the B.C. Electric Railway Company already held water rights to Alouette Lake, and the best way to develop i t would be through Stave Lake and River, that Company entered into negotiations to buy out the Western Power Company of Canada Ltd. This was accomplished at the beginning of January, 1921. Immediately a construction programme started which carried on until November of 1950 and which added a further 64,200 k.w. to the system. The first item was the addition of a fourth 10,500 k.w. generator at Stave Falls. This was followed by extensive dam construction which increased the capacity of the station. Then a fifth 10,500 k.w. unit was installed in 1925* At the same time, work was started on the Alouette project. A dam was built at the south end of Alouette Lake and a diversion tunnel driven from the north end of the lake to connect with a power plant on the - 61 -west side of Stave Lake. This plant, which was completely automatic, had a capacity of 8,000 k.w. It was placed in service in 1928. Following this, a dam and power plant were built lower down the Stave River. This, the Ruskin plant, opened in 1950 with a 55,200 k.w. generator in i t and with provision for a further installation of the same size at a later date. While this activity was going on to the east of Vancouver, the B.C. Electric Railway Company was also investigating the hydro-electric power possibilities of an area to the north. In 1924, preliminary surveys were made in the Bridge River area. In 1925, after hearing the results of this survey, the Company bought out the shares of the Bridge River Power Company Limited, which had been incorporated in 1912 and which, had secured develop-ment rights on the Bridge River, but had constructed no works in the inter-vening period. Investigations, which showed a possible ultimate capacity of 575,000 to 522,000 k.w., were carried out through 1925. In 1926, work was started on the initial stage, which was to include a diversion dam across Bridge River, a storage dam at Gun Lake, and a 14,000 ft. tunnel diverting the waters of Bridge River across to Seton Lake. The initial development was to have a capacity of 40,285 k.w. (See Map 9 for an illustration of this project). The tunnels were started in 1926 and com-pleted in 1950. After this, because of a lessening demand for power, a l l construction was halted. From a total capacity of 14,920 k.w. in 1910, the hydro-electric installations of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company, Ltd. had expanded to 126,000 k.w. in 1950. The first additional installation was made in 1914 when a 6,700 k.w. unit was added to the Upper Bonnington plant; in 1916 a further 6,700 k.w. unit was placed in service. In 1916, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. pioneered the electrolytic refining of zinc. This called for s t i l l greater supplies of electric power. In order to be certain that sufficient power would be available, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada bought control of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company. In 1923-24, the Lower Bonnington plant with its capacity of 2,685 k.w. was torn down and replaced with an installation having a capacity of 44,760 k.w. As the operations of Cominco increased and as the company supplied power over an ever widening area, i t became necessary to expand installations s t i l l further. In 1928, the 55,950 k.w. South Slocan plant was brought into operation. This plant was built on the Kootenay River at South Slocan, about three miles below the plant at Lower Bonnington falls. The 2,610 k.w. Cascade station on the Kettle River, which had been con-trolled by the Company since 1907, ceased operations in 1920 and was later dismantled. The East Kootenay Power Company was incorporated in 1922 for the purpose of acquiring the assets and undertakings of the British Columbia and Alberta Power Company. These properties included a partially completed hydro-electric development on the Bull River and an undeveloped water power on the Elk River. The Bull.River plant was completed in 1922 with an installed capacity of 5,370 k.w., and the Elk River plant (ll,190 k.w.) was constructed in 1923. - 64 -The Role of Government in the Electric Industry In spite of the growth and development within the electric power industry during the twenty year period, there were many complaints from the consumers with regard to the standards of service and the rates charged. In 1919 a Public Utilities Commission was appointed by the Legis-lature. This Commission was first proposed in 1917, when Premier Brewster stated: "Many recent circumstances have shown the need for such an authority. The Commission would perform for the province in respect to many public services the same functions that the railway commission accomplished for the Dominion in the matter of railways, street railways, jitney services, etc. Electric and gas lighting, heating and power and telephones are among the public utilities.... There is no doubt the public enjoys the privilege of airing its grievances in a general sort of way, even where there is no redress. But i t is desirable that the people should have a court to remedy real wrongs.... It is also desirable that corporations charged with failure to perform their public duty should be able to meet these accusa-tions before a competent tribunal."45 Nothing seems to have come of this proposal and the matter of a Public Utilities Commission did not come to the fore again until 1927. At that time the Union of British Columbia Municipalities asked for the estab-lishment of a Commission. The City of Grand Porks and the West Kootenay Power and Light Company had a disagreement over rates. The Union advised Grand Forks municipality to refer its case to the Water Commission pending information on a Public Utilities Commission. Again nothing happened. In 1928, agitation recommenced, this time 45* Statement of Premier Brewster quoted in T.R. Myers, 90 Years  of Public Utility Service on Vancouver Island. Victoria, 1954, p. 115. because of the activities of the B.C. Electric Railway Company. In May 1928, the stock of the B.C. Electric Railway Company and its affiliated companies had been bought by financial interests represented by Nesbitt, Thompson & Company, the Power Corporation of Canada, The Royal Bank of Canada, the Canadian and Foreign Corporation, and Wood, Gundy and Company. This takeover caused a new demand for a strong utilities commission. The B.C. Power Corporation, as the new holding company which controlled the B.C. Electric Railway Company and its subsidiaries was called, continued to expand, which in turn led to an even greater demand for action by the Legislature to set up a Commission. In 1922, the B.C. Electric had started negotiations whereby i t would expand its transmission line north from Victoria in order to supply bulk power to Duncan. This line was completed in 1929* In 1929, also, the B.C. Electric bought the Kamloops municipal system, and acquired con-trol of the National Utilities Corporation. The National Utilities Cor-poration at that time owned or controlled the Port Alberni Electric Light Plant; City of Alberni Electric Light Plant; Cumberland Union Waterworks Company; Royston Light and Power Company; and Parksville Light, Power and Heating Company. Thus by this purchase the B.C. Electric Railway Company controlled a l l utilities on Vancouver Island with the exception of Cana-dian Utilities Ltd. serving Duncan and Nanaimo and the Courtenay municipal service. There was considerable feeling within the province after this action that the B.C. Power Corporation was becoming too powerful and that only the establishment of some strong regulatory body could keep rates down and service good. The Legislature agreed that such a commission should he established but had done nothing about i t by the end of the period. Growth and Expansion in the Electricity Industry A comparison of Maps 1 and 3 shows that the use of electricity had expanded greatly throughout the southern part of the Province during the twenty years between 1910 and 1930. Centres of concentration were more numerous. There were several reasons for this. In the first place the total population had increased 52*1$ over the twenty years and many new communities had developed, each desiring electric power. Even i f the use of electric power per capita had not increased, the percentage increase in population would have meant a similar increase in the demand for power. Consequently a larger total generating capacity would have been needed. Secondly, new uses for electric power by the domestic consumer and by industry caused an increase in electric power consumption from 985 k.w.h. per capita in 1920 to 2,011 k.w.h. in 1930. Statistics are not available for 1910 or the increase would have been even more marked. As a result of this increased demand, new capacity was added to existing plants or new plants were built. In several municipalities i t was found that, in view of the difficulty of raising sufficient capital for expansion, i t was necessary to sell the system to a larger electric utility such as the B.C. Electric Railway Company. In other communities, the old plant was kept in case of emergencies and agreements were entered into whereby the community could purchase power in bulk from a larger system. Tied in with the integration of systems mentioned above was the necessity faced by the major suppliers of electric power to find addi-tional, low-rcost sources of power. Since i t had been proved that hydro-electric power could be provided at a lower cost than power generated by steam, the utilities tried to find additional sites for hydro-electric development. Many of the sites close to the market had already been utilized and i t was now necessary to investigate larger sites, at some distance from the load centre. Because transmission of electric power had been improved to the point where i t was possible to transmit power a considerable distance, utilities sought agreements whereby they might sell power to more people in order to make i t economic to develop these larger, more distant sites. It has been pointed out earlier that because the capital outlay for larger plants was beyond the smaller companies and municipal systems, there was a consequent merger of these systems into the larger utilities; As a result the number of agencies generating power had only increased by 18, whereas the number of communities served by power had increased by 80. (See Figure 6). The new industrial uses of electric power, particularly by the pulp and paper industry, led to the establishment of large generating stations at the plant. Because most of the industries of British Columbia were primary industries, necessitating development as close to the source of the raw material as possible, i t was usually not possible for the indus-try concerned to be close enough to a large central electric system to purchase power from the utility. Therefore, the industry built its own generating plant in order to take advantage of increased productivity through the use of electric power. As a result, industry became a major generator of electric power in British Columbia in marked contrast to the general pattern throughout North America where power was generated by the electric utility and sold to the industrial user. - 69 -Chapter IV 1931 - 1945: PROM SURPLUS CAPACITY TO POWER SHORTAGES. The pattern of concentration which had been noticeable in the previous period became more marked during the years from 1931 to 1945. The number of communities served with electric power grew from 118 to 147; the number of agencies supplying power had increased by 11 to 52. In addition there were 13 distributing companies which bought power in bulk from larger utilities. This is in contrast to the earlier period which showed 18 companies buying power from agencies with major generat-ing facilities. It is interesting to note that seven of the distributing companies operating in 1930 ceased operation and became absorbed by the utility supplying the bulk power; two municipalities generating their own-power in 1930 contracted to buy power in bulk in the following period. Also, as the number of small generating stations declined, the transmission network spread so that communities could be supplied from large generating stations. Tables 3> 4, 5» and 6 help in comparing the municipalities served and the agencies responsible for distributing electricity over the two periods; while the comparison of Maps 3 and 4 serves to show visually the manner in which electric power generation had become concentrated into about four major areas - southern Vancouver Island, the Lower Mainland, the Vest Kootenay - Okanagan region and the East Kootenay region. At the end of 1930, the total generating capacity of the province stood at 415,933 k.w. By 1944, this had increased to 599,528 k.w., an increase of 183,590 k.w. compared with the 365,103 k.w. increase of the earlier period. Significant, also, is the fact that 58,300 k.w. of this increase came from plants under construction at the end of 1930 but not yet in production. These were the 18,000 k.w. plant of the Powell River Company and the 40,500 k.w. Corra Linn plant of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Transmission line mileage increased from 4,208 to 6,230 miles dur-ing the period reflecting the increased concentration through inter-connection which was mentioned earlier in the chapter. Major extensions were completed on Vancouver Island where a transmission line was built between Nanaimo, Parkesville, Duncan and Victoria. In the Okanagan, the generating plants of the West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation were connected with those of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company through extension of the transmission line north of Kelowna to Vernon, Salmon Arm and the Shuswap Falls plant. In 1931» the people of British Columbia were very aware of the consequences of the financial collapse of 1929. During 1930, the number of unemployed had risen over 300$. Mines and sawmills had been forced to close and there was no market for the products of the agriculture and fishing industries. This economic depression lasted through the early years of this period, and conditions were not helped by the labour dis-putes in almost a l l industries. In 1933, M.A. Ormsby says of British Columbia: "...Society seemed on the verge of collapse; a serious strike had brought a work stoppage at Anyox, the Coal Creek mines had been closed, and there was every prospect of a major labour disturbance in the lumber industry. Even the normally conserv-ative fruit-growers of the Okanagan Valley had taken the law into their own hands...and organized vigilance committees to A(-prevent the shipping of carloads to unauthorized distributors." Gradually economic conditions improved after 1933. The gold min-ing boom at Bridge River and Barkerville in 1936 were looked upon as signs of new wealth to come. By 1937, mining had made a big recovery. The number of persons on relief had declined; there appeared signs of improved conditions throughout the province. This upswing continued. With the start of the War, the aeroplane construction and shipbuilding industries increased. The population also increased rapidly at the Coast as workers came from the Prairies and the Interior to work in the factories and shipyards. But i t was not only in these industries that there was increased production. The lumber industry was busy supplying spruce for aeroplane frames; the smelter at Trail was turning out ammonia and other chemicals as well as lead and zinc for war purposes; agricul-tural and fish products were in demand for use overseas. Throughout the whole period, the population of British Columbia continued to rise from 694,000 in 1931 to approximately 932,000 in 1944, an increase of 34.4$ over a fourteen year period. During the early years, growth averaged about 10,000 persons per year but with the development of the wartime industries, this rose to over 30,000 a year after 1940. This growth in population was not evenly distributed throughout the province, however. While the population of the Lower Mainland and southern Vancouver Island increased from 471,422 in 1931 to 561,607 in 1941, parts of the Interior, such as the East Kootenay region, actually declined. 46. Ormsby, op. cit. p. 457. - 72 -Even within areas of moderate increase in population, it was noticeable that much of this increase was in the cities, especially in the larger ones. Cities such as Trail, Rossland, Vernon and Kelowna showed considerable gains, while Grand Forks, Armstrong, and Revelstoke lost population. The Depression and the consequent closing down of the mines and lumber mills caused many of the workers to leave towns such as these in search of work. The economic upswing caused by the War did little to change this pattern. Most of the major manufacturing plants were at the Coast and so it was to this area that the people moved in search of "war work". This redistribution of people within the province as well as the influx of newcomers played an important part in the future of the electric power systems of British Columbia. The amount of electric power generated in British Columbia rose from 1,217,774,000 k.w.h. in 1930 to 2,640,296,000 k.w.h. in 1944, a decline from the peak of 2,935>889,000 k.w.h. generated in 1943. In view of what has been stated earlier in this chapter concerning the economic conditions of the period, this increase seems very great. However, a study of Table 9 and Figure 1 shows that in fact the output increased slowly until 1940 and then rose very rapidly. This increase came soon after the outbreak of the War and was due to the demands made upon the electric power industry by wartime activity. This last statement must be qualified somewhat, however, in view of the decline in electric power consumption in 1943 and 1944, as seen in Table 10 and Figure 7. Much of this decline in output was accounted for by West Kootenay Power and Light Company. Since this Company sold most of its power to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, whose smelter was engaged in producing lead and zinc for use in the war, this seems difficult to under-stand. The reason is given in the Annual Reports for 1943 and 1944 of the Consolidated Mining, and Smelting Company. Primarily, a shortage of labour affected the rate of ore extraction at the Sullivan Mine and also caused development work to lag behind production. This in turn led to a decline in the production of refined metal from the Trail smelter, and in turn accounted for a decline in the use of electrical power. Because of the importance of the consumption of electric power by the Trail smelter to the whole electricity supply industry of British Columbia, the decline in power consumption by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company in 1943 and 1944 shows in the statistics of power consumption per capita shown in Table 10. The effects of the Depression are also reflected in this Table when one examines the consumption per capita for the period from 1931 to 1934. Domestic consumption per customer shows a like decline lasting through to 1934. Prom a high of 880 k.w.h. per customer in 1931, consumption declined to 821 k.w.h. per customer in 1934. Prom then on there was a steady rise to a high of 1,109 k.w.h. per customer in 1944. A similar pattern is evident in the number of domestic customers per hundred popular? tion. The decline in the latter years can be partially attributed to the movement of people from the Interior and Prairies to the Coast. With the housing shortage which had developed during the War, many of these people roomed or boarded with families in the coastal cities and these do not show as electric power customers. In the case of those moving from the - 74 -Interior there was probably an overall decline in customers as people gave up houses and apartments in that area and did not become customers else-where. Throughout the years from 1930 to 1944, in spite of the economic conditions of the Province, the utilization of electric power continued to spread. In 1930, 118 communities served a total of 150,971 customers. These customers were served by a total of 59 companies or municipalities. By 1944 this had risen to 147 coimaunities with 228,508 customers served by 65 agencies. While the number of customers per hundred people ranked second to Ontario when compared with the rest of Canada, the consumption per customer was only half what i t was in Ontario, only a quarter of what i t was in Manitoba. Part of the reason for this can be attributed to the scattered nature of the population. Numerous small scattered communities mean numerous small scattered electric plants. This results in a much higher cost for power, a cost which must be borne by the consumer, and which is reflected in the monthly bills for electricity. It is true that the average b i l l for domestic service had dropped from $2.04 to $1.94 for 60 k.w.h. consumption in Vancouver and from $5.08 to $3.64 in Nanaimo; but in Ontario the bills for similar consumption would have gone from $1.40 to $.97 in Toronto and $1.29 to $1.05 in Brockville. For other consump-tions the same disparities appear. Throughout the Province customers were noting these differences and asking that a Public Utilities Commiss-ion be set up to investigate the rates. Technological Advances.^  J.T. Johnston in 1927, estimated the available water power of British Columbia at 3,807,211 k.w. of which 267,460 k.w. had been devel-oped. By 1944, the Rural Electrification Committee in their Progress Report had placed the water power resources of the Province at 7,023,000 h.p. (5,239,150 k.w.), ordinary minimum flow of water, and 10,998,000 h.p. (8,204,500 k.w.) based on the flow of the stream for six 47 months of the year. Of this, 546,514 k.w. had been developed. Major sites are shown on Map 10-With regard to the development of these water power resources, the Committee investigated a number of smaller potential water powers and found that even under optimum conditions of location and possible demand, the generating and transmission costs to distributing stations would be higher than those for a Diesel power plant of like size built at the distributing station. The report goes on to state: "British Columbia, like the western states of America, is subject to variable meteorological conditions which cause most streams to be erratic in their flow. The wet season, usually commencing in October and continuing to March or April, together with the melting of the snows during the early summer, produces a heavy run-off which diminishes considerably during the later summer months, with the result that storage is essential on practically every stream in order to regulate the flow and develop the maximum power potentialities. Storage-sites of sufficient capacity are not always present and when present are expensive to con-struct. This is a decided factor in increasing the cost of hydro development in the Province. Until the last decade a large wdter-power possibility, 47. British Columbia, Rural Electrification Committee, Progress  Report. Victoria, King's Printer, 1944. p. 261. - 76 -MAP 10 UNDEVELOPED WATER POWERS, 1944 S O U R C E — B . C . R U R A L . E L E C T R I F I C A T I O N C O M M I T T E E , P R O G R E S S R E P O R T . 1944. - T i -to be attractive, had to be capable of progressive development to keep pace with a demand increasing at a moderate rate. Within the last few years, a number of projects in various parts of the world with initial developments in the hundreds of thousands of horse-power have been begun. This tendency serves to draw attention to other schemes (in British Columbia) which have not been considered feasible because of the initial capital outlay involved. The powers in the Fraser River drain-age system are in this class and i t is quite possible, in view of the use to which the water-powers in Quebec have been put for electro-metallurgical and electro-chemical purposes, that the water-powers referred to above could be utilized for similar purposes. Their location is such that, with our present means of transmission of electrical energy, development of several of them for use in our centres of population is not economically feasible, but for industrial purposes the sites appear to offer many advantages. The development of those which would divert water through the coastal range and generate electrical energy within a few miles of tide-water would allow industrial plants to be established at points readily accessible to ocean-going vessels."4® By 1930, most major technological developments had taken place with regard to hydro-electric power stations. Larger dams and generating plants could be built as the need arose. It was, in fact, during the early years of this period that such large installations as Hoover and Grand Coulee Dams were built in the United States with capacities of 1,340,000 k.w. and 1,974,000 k.w. respectively. One of the major changes in turbine generators was the speed of the machine. From 1920 to 1935 the 1,800-rpm machine predominated. Starting in 1935 the 3,600-rpm unit gradually took over from machines of lower speeds, and by the end of the period practically a l l new turbine generators were of 3,600-rpm, which is the maximum speed possible for 48. loc. cit - 78 -49 the generation of 60-cycle current. By 1936, the development of a simple hydrogen seal for generator bearings made hydrogen cooling possible, allowing the construction of 3,600-rpm steam units. Otherwise, in the development of steam boilers as in hydro-electric plants, the trend was to larger and larger units with higher pressures and temperatures. However, according to I.E. 50 Moultrop and G.A. Orrok there was no continuous improvement in effic-iency. James Watt's early boilers were 86$ efficient, the newest rarely exceeded 90$. "Initially small plants were built to supply local requirements for lighting and gradually were increased in size to supply power. The increasing demand for power in the early stages required large amounts of power to be transmitted longer dis-tances and therefore higher voltage for economical delivery and expansion."51 Up to 1930, 220 kv had been the highest transmission voltage but in the mid thirties 288 kv became the highest. lightning had always been one of the most formidable enemies of power lines and equipment. Protection took the form of overhead conductors grounded at each tower. By 1930, a 'direct stroke' theory was proposed which greatly improved this protection in the years which followed. Also, protector tubes were developed in 1933 which further helped to make lines lightning resistant. 49. A.C. Montieth and A.A. Johnson "Past Progress and Present Trends in the Art of Power Generation" A.I.E.E. Transactions, v. 71, pt. I l l , 1952, p. 948. 50. I.E. Moultrop and G.A. Orrok "Progress in the Electric Power Industry" A.I.E.E. Transactions, v. 70, pt.III, 1951, p.2059 51. S.B. Crary et al "Progress and Future Trends in Electric Transmission" A.I.E.E. Transactions, v.71, pt. I l l , 1952, p. 964. The nineteen-thirties also were important for improvement in system stability and in the prevention of corona. Electric cables were also improved to a point where "underground cable can now compete economically with a-c overhead transmission where a short cable can be substituted 52 for a much longer overhead line. The cost of a generator, a power plant, or the production of energy is variable, depending upon the cost of materials, labour, fuel, site location, and upon the economic conditions of the time. The total steam and hydro-electric production plant cost trend for the United States can be seen in Figure 8. It is interesting to note that after a slight decline from 1950 to 1932 reflecting the economic conditions of the time, costs tended to rise gradually throughout the period. In the same graph capital costs per h.p. in Canada actually declined slightly throughout the period. In British Columbia, however, these costs increased greatly, especially in the mid years of the period. It is possible that the costs shown on this graph hear out, to some extent, the statement, quoted earlier from the Progress Report of the Rural Elec-trification Committee, to the effect that storage is necessary in Brit-ish Columbia on practically every stream; that storage basins are expen-sive to construct; and that this is a decided factor in increasing the cost of hydro-electric development in the Province. At the same time as capital costs were rising, the cost per k.w.h. generated continued to drop. This follows a general trend throughout the - 80 -industry. As A.C. Montieth and A.A. Johnson state: "In the face of rising production costs, and material and labor v costs, the cost of power generation has been reduced. Increased loads, better load factors, careful attention to area margins between peak loads and installed generating capacity, technical advances, improved engineering techniques and larger and more efficient generators have a l l been helpful in producing the,.-trend of decreasing electricity costs over the past years." In 1930, most of the appliances and equipment using electricity were already established as practical devices. What was accomplished during the next fifteen years was their improvement, refinement and the ever-widening acceptance of them by the public. Even the fluorescent light which was introduced in 1938 was but a descendant of a patent application made by Edison in 1898. With the introduction of the fluor-escent lamp, light production efficiency was more than doubled. The greater efficiency of the tube, its lower operating temperature, and its flexibility of adaptation to architectural design made possible the use 54 of far greater amounts of light. The needs of wartime were instrumental in the development of new applications of electric power. Portable power plants were developed so that electricity could be provided wherever the need arose. Weapons were manufactured using electric firing mechanisms; electrical equipment was devised for use in aircraft; powerful searchlights were built; and radar as a means of revealing and identifying an unseen object came into widespread use. 53. A.C. Montieth and A.A. Johnson, op. cit.. p. 962. 54. "Utilization of Electricity" Electrical World, v. 131, May 21, 1949, p. 501. - 81 -The largest use of electricity in electronic applications in 1950 was in radio reception. Television had been developed as early as 1928. However, i t was with the inauguration of commercial television broadcast-ing in the United States in 1941 that television came into its own. In 1944, another important application of electricity to electronics was developed, for in that year IBM built the Automatic Sequence-Controlled 55 Calculator, the first large-scale digital computer. In industrial and power supply apparatus many other electronic applications came into use -in rectification, in induction heating, and in numerous perceptive and 56 control functions. Electric Power Companies The period from 1951 to 1944 saw relatively l i t t l e growth in the plant of the B.C. Electric Railway Company. The Bridge River project, which had been started in 1927, was called to a halt in 1951 when the tunnel was completed. By that time, the effects of the depression in business was being felt and load growth was greatly reduced. The capac-ity, which had been added in 1929 when the Ruskin plant was brought into production, had not been utilized. On Vancouver Island, the Company did add a fourth 12,000 k.w. unit to the Jordan River plant in 1951. This, too, was not utilized and so i t was found possible to transfer the first 3,200 k.w. unit from Jordan River to Bridge River in 1954. At that time there was a demand for power 55. E.T. Canby, A History of Electricity. New York, Hawthorne Books Inc., 1965, p. 110. 56. "Utilization of Electricity" op. cit.^, p. 505. - 82 -in the Bridge River Valley as a result of the discovery of lode gold in the area. By 1938, population growth and an upturn in business activities had once more stimulated load growth in the Lower Mainland. To meet this demand, the B.C. Electric Railway Company installed a second 35,200 k.w. unit at Buskin. This installation was expected to be sufficient to meet the demand for some tame. However, with the start of the War, load increased so rapidly that increased capacity was needed. In 1942, the Company applied to the Power Controller for authority to proceed with the Bridge River development. The necessary authority was hot forthcoming and the Company was advised that i t would be impossible to secure prior-ity ratings to obtain the necessary materials and equipment. On Vancouver Island, the power supply continued to be adequate until the early 1940's. Then the demand for electric power to meet war-time production was felt there as well. An extension was planned for the Brentwood steam plant but wartime conditions and a continuing man-power shortage resulted in the length of time required to bring the plant into operation being practically double that originally allowed. The 8,000 k.w. unit was placed in service in May 1944. Meanwhile, in Port Alberni, National Utilities Company, a subsid-iary of the B.C. Power Corporation, made plans to increase power supply to that city. In 1932, a new Diesel plant was installed which doubled the power plant capacity. This did not suffice for long and in 1934, the Company arranged with Alberni Pacific Lumber Company to take surplus power generated by the Company's mill, for distribution in Port Alberni;: the plant already installed to be kept as a stand-by unit. West KoDtenay Power and Light Company had a project underway at Corra Linn. 60 X) feet upstream from the Upper Bonnington plant, in 1930. This plant, which was completed in 1932, had a capacity of 36,880 k.w. The Company emoarked on no further developments until 1938 when a 33.650 k.w. extension was added to the Upper Bonnington plant. The Brilliant plant, with an installed capacity of 55,200 k.w. was constructed between 1942 and 1944 to enable the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company to increase output of essential war materials. This plant was located about eleven miles downstream from earlier stations at the junction of the Kootenay aid Columbia Rivers. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Ltd. had obtained control of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company, Ltd. in 1926. In 1947. the Company bought outright three of the four plants on the Kootenay River. West Kootenay Power and Light Company retained the Lower Bonnington plant with its capacity of 44,750 k.w. West Kootenay Power and Light Company also installed a hydro-electric plant on the Goat River about three miles from Creston to meet the needs of this dis-trict. In 193;?» the initial 186 k.w. unit was installed. This was followed by a <>00 k.w. unit in 1934. Pew othor installations of any size were made in this period. Perhaps the only other one worthy of mention was the 2,800 k.w. generat-ing station of the West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation at Shuswap Palls. The first unit had been installed in 1929 and this addition was placed in service in 1942 to help meet the need for electric power in - 84 -the North Okaragan area. One of the hydro-electric plants under construction in 1930 but not yet in operation was the Lois River plant of the Powell River Company. This 18,650 k.w. plant was built on the Lois River some thirteen miles south of Powell River and allowed for a much greater utilization of the Company's mill. Another plant which was being constructed at the end of the previous period was the Falls River plant of the Northern British Columbia Power Company Ltd. This plant added 4,800 KW to the capacity of the generating stations serving the Prince Rupert area. Role of Government The foniation and subsequent elimination of the Public Utilities Commission of IL919 - 1920 was discussed in Chapter III. Through the following yean i agitation for the establishment of such a body grew. During the election of 1933, Mr. Pattulo made the formation of a Commission pari; of his platform. Nevertheless, in December of that year he announced that the Legislature was too busy, at the moment, to consider 57 the appointment of a Public Utilities Commission. In spite of numerous appeals made by such bodies as the Union of B.C. Municipalities nothing had been done s.bout a Commission at the beginning of 1938. In January of 1938, a joint committee representing Victoria, Saanich, Oak Bay, and Esquimalt met to consider engaging an expert to study light and power costs in connection with the renewal of the street 57. Myers, op. cit.. p. 226 - 85 -railway franchise. R.W. Beck was appointed and in the report, which he tabled in Aug.ist, he advocated the establishment of a Municipal Public Utilities Commission and consideration of the matter of public ownership of utilities :Tor the Victoria area. This report was passed and submitted to the Departiient of Municipal Affairs. The government was in a difficult position with regard to Victoria's plan to take control of public utilities. It had announced already that a b i l l concerning a Public Utilities Commission would be brought before the next session of the Legislature. A little later, Premier Pattulo announced that control of public utilities in British Columbia would be vested in a utilities comndssion and that i t would replace the attempts of municipal-ities in regulating utilities. He then added: "If Victoria wants to make any temporary arrangement with the B.C. Electric, for instance, until our 58 utility law is in operation, we would have no objection." The Public Utilities Act which set up the Public Utilities Commission was enacted finally in December 1938. Under the Act a l l public utilities were required to maintain ade-quate service; to furnish service without discrimination or delay; to obey the orders of the Commission; and to furnish the Commission with such information as the Commission required. The Commission would be the final authority on the granting of certificates of public convenience and necessity for :aew construction; on the matter of rates and rate making; and on the issuing of securities. General supervision of a l l utilities 58. IhLd, p. 249 was also vested in the Commission which "may make such regulations and orders regarding equipment, appliances, safety devices, extension of works or systems, filing of schedules of rates, reporting and other matters as are necessary Tor the safety, convenience or service of the public, or for the proper carrying out of this Act or of any contract, charter, or 59 franchise involving the use of public property or rights." Althougi the Commission was set up in 1938, the commissioners were not appointed until January 1939. Because of the complaints regarding electric rates which had been made against the B.C. Electric Railway Com-pany in Victor:La and in other municipalities served by the Company, one of the first aots of the Commission was to enquire into the rates of the B.C. Electric Kailway Company and its associated and subsidiary companies. These included the Bridge River Power Co. Ltd., British Columbia Electric Power and Gas (lo. Ltd., Burrard Power Co. Ltd., National Utilities Corpor-ation Ltd., Royston Light and Power Co. Ltd., Vancouver Island Power Co. Ltd., and Western Power Company of Canada Ltd. The order, dated August 15, 1939, also provided for a complete appraisal of the companies. The B.C. Electric Railway Company appraisal was not completed until 1943. Reports were made to the Lieutenant-Governor which recom-mended that immediate relief be given to certain consumers of electricity, such relief to be given through the omission of billing customers for a definite period."^ As a result of this recommendation, Vancouver Island 59. Public Utilities Act, R.S.B.C. 1948, c. 22, p.12 60. B.C. Public Utilities Commission, Fifth Annual Report. 1943, Victoria, 1944, p. 20. South, Alberni, Port Alberni, and Kamloops were granted free billing for two months and the Lower Mainland area, Newcastle - Nanoose and Royston were granted one month. Free billing for a one month period was granted in the two succeeding years. Meanwhile appraisals had been ordered in the case of West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation, Ltd., The Cumberland Electric Lighting Com-pany, Ltd., and West Kootenay Power and Light Company, Ltd. It was decided that the rates charged were fair in the case of the Cumberland Electric Lighting Company. West Kootenay Power and Light Company voluntarily reduced domestic and commercial rates by 20$ as a result of these appraisals. The reports were completed for West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation but as the Company was taken over by the B.C. Power Commission at that time, the reports were not tabled. These rate changes made a considerable difference to the electric bills paid by a large number of electric power customers in British Columbia, but they did not begin to bring the rates down to compare with those of Ontario. Also, while the number of customers per capita was high, i t was felt that there was considerable room for expanding electric facil-ities to serve rural customers. This feeling resulted in the establishment in 1943 of a Rural Electrification Committee whose function was "to survey and report upon the extent and condition of electrical services in the 61 Province, with particular reference to the servicing of rural areas." In January, 1944, the Rural Electrification Committee submitted a 61. British Columbia, Rural Electrification Committee, Progress Report, op. cit. p.5 - 88 -Progress Report on the state of rural electrification i n British Columbia. Main points from the summary of findings were as follows: (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 (14 British Columbia i s a close second to Ontario i n percentage of farms to which electrical service is available - 35.8$ to 37$. Except on the Lower Mainland (including the Fraser Valley), the cost of electric service throughout the rural areas is relatively high, and quality of service i s relatively poor. The average use in rural areas i s relatively low. Sixty-five separate organizations are engaged in providing central station service i n the Province. There are 206,723 customers of electric service in the Province, of whom 38,227 may be classified as rural. Within practical distribution distances from central stations there are approximately 10,000 potential customers who might be served with central station energy. Few, i f any, of these potential consumers can sustain separ-ate enterprises at rates that w i l l induce them to take serv-ice. Farm electrification will have to be developed by extensions from the local centres of population, some of which are quite small. The limit of extension from such centres depends on the size and use in such centres and on the suitability of the local supplying organizations. A number of the organizations providing service have s u f f i -cient capacity for a material extension and have not the financial resources to provide additional capacity. Taxation (Dominion taxes alone approximate 20$ of revenue) is an important factor i n the cost of service. The average charge per kilowatt-hour i n the Province under municipally operated systems is higher than under those operated by private companies and industrial organizations. The sparsity and distribution of population i n the Province makes a general Provincial grid system impractical. No material extension of rural electrification can be made on a self-sustaining basis without a reorganization of the central station industry.62 The Report goes on to state: "Nowhere has rural electrification been accomplished as a separate and distinct business....Private companies and publicly owned 62. Ibid, p. 9 - 89 -regional utilities have been able to furnish electricity to rural areas because their organizations have been developed first to supply urban areas. Having established a sufficient volume of business they have been able to extend their areas of service to rural communities wherever the new consumers can provide the increment cost of service ... All rural electrification is in some degree an expansion of the established central station indus-try and is made possible only by the internal subsidy element operating within the utility enterprise, supplemented in some cases by government subsidies. In British Columbia there were few electric utilities which f i l l the description of "having established a sufficient volume of business" to allow them to enter the field of rural electrification. The Committee made a detailed study of power consumption and elec-tric rates in the communities. They found that, in general, power consump-tion varied inversely as the rates changed. An example of this with regard to the larger communities is seen in Figure 9. Because rates for electricity were high in British Columbia as compared with some other provinces, i t was not surprising therefore to find that power consumption was considerably lower. Because most of the small utilities could not expand their services to provide rural electrification without considerable addition of plant, this capital cost would have to be added to rates already too high and this would probably result in a decline in customers rather than a gain. It is true that 84.5$ of the electric power distributed was distributed by the B.C. Electric group of utilities, and that this group plus West Kootenay Power and Light Company, Northern British Columbia Power Company, West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation, and East Kootenay Power Company 63. Ibid, p. 20 - 90 -F I G U R E 9 D O M E S T I C L I G H T I N G A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y C O N S U M P T I O N A N D A V E R A G E C H A R G E S 1942 > < m > m o o z to c 2 u j o z T) ni SJ o c If! H 0 2 m A V E R A G E C O N S U M P T I O N A V E R A G E C H A R G E S - 91 -distributed almost 95$ of the total. While the B.C. Electric Company operations on the Lower Mainland, southern Vancouver Island, and Kamloops, as well as areas served by the East Kootenay Power Company, West Kootenay Power and Light Company, Northern B.C. Power Corporation and Crow's Nest Pass Electric Light and Power Company, could finance rural electrifica-tion for their areas, the other 60 distributing systems could not. Some of these systems were owned by industrial concerns who only supplied power to their employees and townsites, others were municipally owned and operated, while the rest were privately owned utilities. As a result of the survey, the Committee proposed "that certain rural areas which are now served by private operators and where those operators are financially capable of making extensions and which also have sufficient plant to serve these extensions, be required to extend their systems, i f necessary invoking the provisions of the 'Public U t i l i -ties Act* to require them to do so." The report goes on to state that other areas "where the private operators of the systems serving those areas are considered for the reasons expressed in this report, in a d i f f i -cult position to make the desired extensions or to increase the plant capacity, should be organized into a single enterprise as a sufficient volume of business would then be provided to support a centralized manage-65 ment with an efficient technical staff." Municipal systems should be assisted financially in providing extensions outside the municipal 64. British Columbia, Rural Electrification Committee, Report ..  as of January. 1945. Victoria, King's Printer, 1945, p. 29 65. Ibid, p.30 - 92 -boundaries according to the Report. The Committee also stated that estimates made by the Water Rights Branch of the Department of Lands and Forests indicated that hydro-e l e c t r i c energy could be produced at reasonable costs i n the small quan-t i t i e s required. The great distances between centres of population (see Map 4') and the small loads make i t economically impossible to transmit power over a high voltage gri d system from a large hydro-electric station. The Committee recommended therefore, that energy be obtained from hydro-e l e c t r i c stations near the d i s t r i b u t i o n areas or from isolated steam or dies e l operated stations. Nowhere did the Committee advance the idea of a government owned u t i l i t y , although i t did recommend a reorganization of as many as possible of the supply systems under one control which should have s u f f i c i e n t cap-i t a l to carry out an extensive construction programme and to carry on the operation of the combined systems, the service from which should be provided at cost, the cost being kept to an absolute minimum. In this way, e l e c t r i c power could be extended to ru r a l customers and both the new and old customers could be encouraged to increase t h e i r power consumption through the adoption of new and lower rates. Although the Report of the Rural E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n Committee did not s p e c i f i c a l l y advocate public ownership of the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t i e s i n order to accomplish the above, t h i s was resolved by the Legislature with the passing of the " E l e c t r i c Power Act" of 1945, under which the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Commission was established as an operating u t i l i t y . The purpose of th i s act i s set forth i n i t s t i t l e - "An Act to - 93 -Provide for Improving the Availability and Supply of Electrical Power". In order to do this, the Act provided for the establishment of the British Columbia Power Commission as an electric utility to operate anywhere in British Columbia as long as the operations in each power district could be conducted as a self-sustaining financial undertaking. In enacting this, the Legislature supported the policy of "public ownership" similar to that found in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This decision was influenced, no doubt, by the large capital requirements necessary to improve the availability and supply of power. This capital would be available at a much lower interest rate to a government agency than to a private company. Also, such a public organization would not have to sat-isfy shareholders and should be able to provide power at the lowest possi-ble rates. In summary, the British Columbia Power Commission was authorized, by the Act: (1) To generate and supply power (2) To take by expropriation any property, power site, or power plant needed in order to accomplish (l) above. (3) To purchase or lease property and equipment needed (4) To supply wholesale power to municipalities having contracts with the Commission. (5) To distribute power in any district where i t is practicable to maintain a plant for the supply of power in the district (6) To design rate schedules to permit and encourage the maximum use of power (7) To raise or borrow money in order to carry on the functions just described.66 66. Electric Power Act. R.S.B.C. 1948, c. 108 - 94 -The British Columbia Power Commission was established on April 17, 1945* During that year, the Commission acquired the plant and system of West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation and its associated utilities -Hope Utilities, Ltd.; Pacific Power and Water Company, and Quesnel Light and Water Company, Ltd.; Columbia Power Company Ltd. and its subsidiary Columbia - Vanderhoof Power Company, Ltd.; Nanaimo - Duncan Utilities, Ltd.; and the diesel plant at Terrace. Thus by the end of 1945 the Commission was supplying power in the north Okanagan, Hope, Alert Bay, Quesnel, Golden, Nakusp, Sechelt, Williams Lake, Smithers, Vanderhoof, Nanaimo, Duncan, Saltspring Island, and Terrace. Expansion and Rural Electrification In this period as in the previous periods, the small and scattered nature of the population of the province made i t difficult to develop electric power to serve a l l , especially at low cost. Economic conditions during these fifteen years were such that there was surplus generating capacity during the early years when expected load growth did not develop; in the latter years when new generating capacity was needed, the restric-tions of wartime prevented its being built. Rates were high. At least a part of the reason for this lay with the low population density and consequent small number of customers. This meant a high cost per customer to provide the necessary distribution. Also, the major industries in the province tended to provide their own electric power. Thus there were few large power customers for the u t i l i -ties who could increase overall load on the system and decrease the cost per k.w.h. generated. Finally, the need for storage added to the capital costs of providing electric power. Nor were the utilities themselves - 95 -blameless as they felt obliged to provide a substantial return to the shareholders. Arising as a consequence of the high rates was a low cons-sumption per customer. There was little rural electrification in British Columbia out-side the Fraser Valley. As stated earlier, rural electrification is usually an expansion of the established central electric station, where having established a sufficient volume of business, the utility has been able to extend its service to rural areas. In British Columbia there were few electric utilities which could be said to have achieved the nec-essary volume of business to allow them to enter the field of rural elec-trification. One result of a comparison of rates charged in British Columbia and in the rest of Canada was a renewed demand for a Public Utilities Commission. This was established in 1938 with the authority to act as a "watchdog" over utilities in the interests of the people. Another result of rate comparisons and consumption levels, and of the low level of rural electrification, was the setting up of the Rural Electrification Committee to survey and report on the extent of electrical services in the province, with particular reference to the servicing of rural areas. From the report of this Committee came the Electric Power Act of 1945 which estab-lished the B.C.' Power Commission. In setting up the Commission, the , Legislature hoped that by the reorganization of several systems under one control, which would have sufficient capital to carry out an extens-ive construction programme and which would carry out the operation of these systems, costs could be kept low thus allowing for expansion of - 96 -power to rural areas and for increased power use throughout the province. - 97 - ' Chapter V 1946 - 1961: CONSOLIDATION AND EXPANSION The period from 1946 to 1961 was one of tremendous growth. As a study of Table 1 and Figure 1 will show, generating capacity increased to more than four times its size in 1946: the amount of electricity generated was ten times as great. Maps 5 and 6, when compared with Map 4, shows this growth. The emergence of the B.C. Power Commission, with its larger gener-ating stations and intertieing transmission network, helped to intensify the pattern of concentration which had been developed over the two earlier periods. At the same time, the demand for power was such that some dis-persion took place as utilities found i t necessary to look farther afield for major sources of hydro-electric power. By 1961, some 200 communities in British Columbia were served with electricity by some thirty-six agencies, of which five were distributing companies. In contrast, 147 municipalities were served with electric power by 65 agencies in 1945. This reduction in the number of operating companies came as the B.C. Power Commission grew through the consolida-tion of several systems under one control, thus allowing for more effic-ient use of capital in electric power development. Of the 2,332,505 k.w. installed during the sixteen years over 1,800,000 k.w. came from 16 hydro-electric installations and 273.000 k.w. from 7 thermal plants. Of these plants, seven had capacities of 100,000 k.w. or over. This reflected the trend towards larger and possibly more - 98 -distant installations. It is interesting to note that of the more than two million kilowatts of generating capacity, almost one million were in plants owned by industrial concerns. Thus industrial production of elec-tric power has carried on through to the present day. Pole line mileage increased from 6,794 to 18,067 miles in the 1946 - 1961 period; of the latter, 4,656 miles represented transmission lines. 1,706 miles of line were built by the B.C. Power Commission as part of its programme. The Campbell River and Whatshan hydro-electric projects increased the generating capacities of central Vancouver Island and the North Okanagan - Columbia Valley sufficiently to allow for the transmiss-ion of power to more remote areas. The B.C. Power Commission also entered into an agreement with West Kootenay Power and Light Company. This con-tract, signed in 1956, called for the joint construction of a 138 KV transmission line, approximately 45 miles in length, for interconnection between the Kootenay River plants of West Kootenay Power and Light and the Whatshan plant of the B.C. Power Commission. West Kootenay Power and Light Company also interconnected with East Kootenay Power Company. Prior to 1953, the latter company had supplied power to the Kimberley operations of Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. In 1953, the operations of the Kimberley concentrator plus those of the recently opened fertilizer plant increased power demands beyond the capacity of East Kootenay Power Company. As a result a 90 miles 171 KV transmission line was completed between the Kootenay plants and Kimberley. Finally, there was the interconnection between the B.C. Electric - 99 -and B.C. Power Commission on Vancouver Island. This interconnection took place prior to this period but was increased from an original 60 KV line to 138 KV. Noticeable is the fact that while 110 KV was the highest cir-cuit in use in 1945, not only were 138 and 171 KV lines placed in service during the period under review, but also 220 and 350 KV, thus enabling large amounts of power to be transmitted from distant generating stations to the consumption centres. In June 1945, the estimated population of British Columbia stood at 949,000. The million mark was passed in the next year and by 1961 the population had risen to 1,629,000, an increase of 71.6$ over the fifteen year period. The population of the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island continued to grow rapidly and in 1961 accounted for 73.6$ of the total population. In contrast to the 1931 - 1945 period, however, the other areas of the Province also showed considerable increases and actually out-ranked the Lower Mainland - Vancouver Island area in percentage increase for the ten year period of 1951 - 1961. This is shown, by census divis-ions, in Table 11. Accompanying this period of population growth was a period of econ-omic growth which showed an increase in the net value of production from $614,741,000 in 1946 to $1,898,301,000 in 1961. It is true that growth had not been even throughout the period. There was also a considerable difference from industry to industry as seen in Table 13 and Figure 10, but overall the increase was in excess of 200$. Manufacturing showed important increases with production value increasing from $181,233,000 in 1946 to $863,443,000 in 1961. The great increase in the value of -100-T A B L E 13 N E T V A L U E O F P R O D U C T I O N , 1930 - 1961 ( T H O U S A N D S O F D O L L A R S ) •c" E A R A G R I C U L T U R E F O R E S T R Y F I S H E R I E S T R A P P I N G M I N I N G E L E C T R I C P O W E R M A N U F A C T U R I N G C O N S T R U C T I O N L A B O U R I N C C 1930 26,124 12,873 755 33,138 10,483 98,470 248,000 I93I 18,771 5,881 572 20,247 10,544 75,209 216,000 1932 16,030 4,732 493 16,657 9,964 58,036 178,000 1933 19,429 6,296 583 20,857 9,790 59,035 163,000 1934 19,418 7,330 871 25,677 10,626 70,619 17,000 179,000 1935 21,643 19,425 8,082 692 22,484 I I ,177 73,291 22,000 194,000 1936 23,574 26,662 7,504 1,076 31,470 12,126 87,780 30,000 21 I,000 1937 25,262 30,916 7,838 1,234 43,225 12,991 99,359 34,000 241,000 1938 25,791 35,268 8,669 661 42,207 13,748 90,472 28,000 242,000 1939 26,909 29,407 7,891 896 39,724 14,338 103,263 27,000 248,000 1940 28,197 39,923 9,067 1 ,080 45,225 15,620 130,206 30,000 279,000 1941 31 ,448 45,702 15,836 1,625 51,108 17,066 181,233 48,000 327,000 1942 37,444 42,901 18,415 I ,655 52,750 17,864 272,926 74,000 425,000 1943 46,522 46,080 15,644 I ,576 41 ,816 17,806 341,699 104,000 499,000 1944 55,677 54,851 17,333 2,306 34,352 16,798 337,137 66,000 496,000 1945 58,655 54,776 21,201 2,718 36,615 19,737 307,955 63,000 495,000 1946 58,879 71,167 21 ,372 2,894 50,200 22,256 293,353 93,000 544,000 1947 61,846 125,430 22,355 1,617 82,092 15,922 388,702 117,600 641,000 1948 66,059 127,125 32 ,644 1,507 110,713 23,554 417,601 149,500 794,000 1949 71,151 1 I I,068 27,251 835 88,660 26,189 409,665 163,100 825,000 1950 61,255 158,793 36,345 950 91,953 31,050 479,606 168,000 915,000 1951 77,281 196,216 40,638 I ,589 122,467 36,003 592,448 219,400 I,072,000 1952 78,833 201,262 30,158 813 11 5 ,524 41 ,258 556,172 282,700 I,214,000 1953 79,434 199,071 31 ,281 709 85,098 45,265 615,686 319,900 I,279,000 1954 73,912 211,615 34,458 568 94,781 49,466 651,813 264,200 1,302,000 1955 70,520 264,232 27,71 I 774 100,415 54,761 750,877 318,700 I,426,000 1956 76,641 293,169 36,058 572 109,816 60,552 824,249 476,800 I,649,000 1957 81,759 258,671 30,021 399 88,978 64,826 767,914 579,897 1,761,000 1958 86,865 192,743 51,353 393 73,640 75,681 786,620 447,393 I,742,000 1959 86,743 231,830 34,995 422 81,787 86,013 848,404 460,246 I,873,000 I960 86,488 273,202 27,962 812 96,566 91,976 849,729 428,927 1,948,000 1961 93,593 284,041 38,788 647 95,502 97,647 863,443 424,652 I,984,000 S O U R C E S — C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , S U R V E Y O F P R O D U C T I O N . 1926—56. 1961 C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , L A B O U R I N C O M E . 1926—58, 1962. -101-Q 2 < O X H Q: < _ i o Q 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 9 0 , 0 0 0 8 0 , 0 0 0 7 0 , 0 0 0 6 0 , 0 0 0 5 0 , 0 0 0 4 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 , 0 0 0 _. 2 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 , 0 0 0 1960 - 102 -manufacturing which came between 1954 and 1955 reflected the bringing in of the complex of the Aluminum Company of Canada at Kitimat - Kemano and an increase in production in the pulp and paper industry; that of the 1950 - 1951 period, the pulp and paper mills installed after the War. In 1945 there were seven pulp and paper mills in the province; and in 1954 there were twelve and considerable expansion had taken place in the existing ones. Construction expenditures too had grown in this time. From $93,300,000 in 1946 the value of construction reached a high of $579,897,000 in 1957 emphasizing the economic expansion in the manufact-uring industries mentioned above as well as in utility development, install-ations of oil and gas facilities, road and highway construction, and hous-ing. From 1957 to 1961 the construction industry declined somewhat as large projects such as the natural gas pileline and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway extension had been completed. Throughout the period electric power development was important. Construction of new hydro electric installations not only added materially to the value of the construction industry but also were instrumental in the growth of the manufacturing industry. The availability of a low cost power site was a major reason for the decision of the Aluminum Company of Canada to build its aluminum plant at Kitimat. That the reduction in rates does have considerable influence on electric power consumption is undeniable. However, other factors, such as increased personal income and new uses of electricity, play a major part. For example, while the number of households in Vancouver increased - 103 -48$ between 1951 and 1961, the number of refrigerators in use increased 67 175$, this in a period when domestic rates for electricity actually increased. The estimated number of appliances per 100 customers accord-68 ing to an Appliance Saturation Survey carried on by the B.C. Electric can be seen in Table 14. The declines shown for such things as conventional washers and refrigerators reflect a turn to a newer type of appliance rather than a decline in use; the washer being replaced by the automatic washer and washer-dryer combination and the refrigerator by the refrigerator-freezer combination. During this same period the average weekly wage in Vancouver rose from $50.12 to $83.62; an increase of 67$ which was only partially offset by the increase in cost of living from 114.3 to 129.4. This increased income together with the availability of the new appliances played a major part in the increased per capita consumptions seen in Table 10. This was particularly true in the larger cities. In the smaller munici-palities and rural areas where rates dropped as much as 50$ between 1946 and 1961, the change in rates was instrumental, no doubt, in bringing about much of the increased power consumption. Industrial consumption of electric power also showed a marked 67. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada. 1951, 1961; figures given are: 1951 1961 No. of Households 153,979 228,596 No. of Refrigerators 80,045 219,957 68. B.C. Electric Company, Limited, Appliance Saturation Survey, 1951, 1961. - 104 -TABLE 14 ESTIMATED NUMBER OP APPLIANCES PER 100 CUSTOMERS 1951 - 1961 B.C. ELECTRIC SERVICE AREA 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 Ranges, Electric 29.4 34.5 42.9 49.0 56.1 58.1 Refrigerators 47.1 69.8 79.3 84.5 93.2 87.8 Freezers .7 4.9 5.0 6.9 10.5 14.0 Water Heaters, Electric 15.0 20.3 29.1 31.6- 47.0 44.8 Washers (Conventional) 75.7 76.1 73.5 70.2 58.9 54.0 Washers (Automatic) 5.6 7.5 10.9 15.2 23-5 26.4 Clothes Dryers .5 .9 2.9 6.0 12.2 15-4 Television .8 6.0 56.4 77.0 86.0 91.7 Ironers 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.8 7.4 Dishwashers .3 .5 .9 1.5 1.5 2.0 SOURCE: B.C. Electric Company Limited Appliance Saturation Survey. 1951, 1961 - 105 -increase during the period. In 1946 2,039,556,000 KWH were sold by elec-tric utilities to industrial consumers in British Columbia and the Tukon Territory. In 1961, this had only increased to 2,562,392,000 KWH. The reason for this seemingly small increase lies in the fact that many of the major industries of British Columbia produce their own power. Accurate statistics for the amount produced by industrial establishments for their own use are not available for years prior to 1956. The closest approximation is the number of kilowatt hours which were produced by hydro-electric power. According to the report prepared by the B.C. Energy Board,^ approximately 1,875,621,200 KWH were generated by industrial con-cerns in 1946. By I960 this figure had risen to 6,704,774,000 KWH. The major industrial consumer of electric power in 1946 was the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company which utilized approximately 1,521,389,000 KWH. In I960, this Company used 2,428,206,000 KWH. In the latter year the Aluminum Company of Canada was top consumer, using over 3,741,310,000 KWH. Thus almost 66$ of the total amount of power utilized by industry went to the two major smelters in the province. The next most important producers and consumers of industrial power are the pulp and paper mills. In 1946, three companies produced 302,599,000 KWH, in I960 two companies produced 443,498,000 KWH of hydro-electric power. In addition the B.C. Power Commission supplied power to MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Company plants at Harmac and Alberni and to B.C. Forest Products Ltd. The B.C. Electric supplied some of the 69. B.C. Energy Board, Hydro-electric Generating Statistics - 106 -power needed at the m i l l i n Powell River and to the Vancouver d i v i s i o n s of MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell R i v e r , L t d . and Canadian Forest Products, L t d . The mining and lumbering i n d u s t r i e s were the other major users of e l e c t r i c power. There had been several schemes f o r e l e c t r i c power develop-ment i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Of these, only the Kitimat - Kemano project was completed. At l e a s t two of the others,, Frobisher, L t d . and the Wenner-Gren B . C . Development Corporation were prepared to e s t a b l i s h large hydro-e l e c t r i c i n s t a l l a t i o n s , being sure that with cheap power, industry would fol low. This d i d not seem to be the case. Reynolds Aluminum Co. had planned to b u i l d an aluminum r e f i n e r y to make use of t h i s power but upon hearing of the K a i s e r proposal f o r b u i l d i n g a storage dam on the Columbia R i v e r , they withdrew. Following t h i s several contemporary newspaper reports t o l d of F r o b i s h e r , L t d . having d i f f i c u l t y i n securing the necessary markets. I t has often been stated that industry w i l l come to the s i t e of e l e c t r i c power. This i s true only i n a few i n d u s t r i e s . Aluminum r e f i n -i n g i s one of them. The pulp and paper industry also uses large q u a n t i -t i e s of power but the a v a i l a b i l i t y of power i n t h i s industry i s not as important as other considerations. I t i s noticeable that no large pulp and paper m i l l s have found i t necessary to investigate any of the major r i v e r systems with a view to e s t a b l i s h i n g a large supply of cheap power. Power was consumed by numerous other secondary i n d u s t r i e s , large and small of which the fol lowing, taken from a 1 9 5 8 B.C. E l e c t r i c - 107 -70 publication, are an example: B.C. Cement Co. Ltd., Westminster Paper Co. Ltd., Electric Reduction Co. of Canada, Ltd., Shell Oil Co. of Canada, Ltd., Sidney Roofing and Paper Co. Ltd., and Vancouver Rolling Mills, Ltd. As in the case of the residential use of electricity the availability of sufficient and relatively inexpensive power brought new uses, and so indus-trial consumption of electric power increased 140$ over a fifteen year period. Technological Advances When the Rural Electrification Committee submitted its progress report in 1944, the water power resources of the Province were estimated at 10,998,000 HP (8,204,500 KW). The location of the major water powers as recorded for this period are shown on Map 10. Of this potential, 546,514 KW had been utilized; 472,218 KW by the central electric station industry; 79,076 KW by the pulp and paper; and the rest by mining and other industries. By 1961, this potential had risen to 22,108,300 KW according to the Water Resources Service of the Province. In addition, 2,541,718 KW had been utilized for a total of 24,650,018 KW. These water power resources are shown on Map 11. Although electric power development had been rapid in the 1910 to 1930 period, the developments of 1946 to 1961 completely overshadow the earlier period. In spite of the fact that the hydro-electric developments 70. British Columbia Electric Company Limited. "Exhibit 9: 50 Largest Electric Accounts." The B.C. Electric Group of Companies, 1958 71. B.C. Rural Electrification Committee, Progress Report, p.59 - 108 -MAP 11 UNDEVELOPED WATER POWERS, 1961 B . C . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A N D S , F O R E S T S A N D W A T E R R E S O U R C E S , W A T E R R E S O U R C E S S E R V I C E , W A T E R P O W E R S B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A . C A N A D A . A N N U A L R E V I E W . 1961. - 109 -of these fifteen years added more than three times the capacity of a l l developments up to 1945» i t was s t i l l necessary for the B.C. Electric Company and the B.C. Power Commission to install the Port Mann and Georgia thermal plants to meet anticipated demand and for peaking power. Also, in addition to the new generation actually added to the " hydro-electric systems, this was the period when several large scale plans were discussed. Of these, the planned development of the Columbia River and of the Peace River were active in 1961. In 1947, the Muminum Company of America contemplated damming Lakes Bennett, Atlin and Teslin and to carry the water west through a tunnel to a power site north of Skagway. This $500,000,000 project received considerable attention but was ultimately rejected by the British Columbia government in favour of a plan put forth by Frobisher, Ltd. The reason for this concerned the loca-tion of the power house. According to the Aluminum Company plan this would be in Alaska and would in fact mean exporting the water from Canada to build up a foreign industry. The Frobisher plan on the other hand would have been entirely in Canada. This plan was made known in 1953. The Company proposed to dam the Yukon near Whitehorse and thus send the water south through Atlin Lake and tunnel systems to generate power on the Nakonake River. The power would then be carried by transmission lines to an industrial site on Taku Inlet. This would allow for an electric power output of 656,480 KW. The next phase would divert the waters of the Teslin River into the storage area and with further expansion of the power plant capacity would reach 746,000 KW. Next would be the construction of a second storage dam - 110 -on the Yukon River below the Salmon River. This water would be pumped into the main storage area to increase output to 2,088,800 KW. Finally, an eight mile tunnel would be constructed to carry al l the water used in the Nakonake River powerhouse to a second powerhouse on the Taku River. The total capacity would be 3,655,400 KW (see Map 12). The power created by the above project was to be used in the smelting of nickel, aluminum, cobalt, iron and various ferroalloys. The Company envisioned an indus-trial city rising there, using power for the above industries and also for a pulp and paper industry. Various difficulties arose. One of these was the difficulty in securing a suitable industrial site as the Taku Inlet is shallow. Also, as mentioned earlier, i t was found that there could be difficulty in securing a market for the power especially in this area so lacking in population. In 1957, Frobisher Ltd. moved their attention from the Yukon - Taku region to an investigation of the Nass River. Nothing further was done and in 1959, the Legislature returned their deposit to the Company. Another hydro-electric power site on the west coast which has been fully surveyed is the Homathko River, from Bute Inlet to Chilco Lake. In 1956, a thirty-man survey party from the B.C. Power Commission, spent four months in the area. As a result of the findings of this group, a report stated that a hydro potential of over 746,000 KW existed which could be developed in economic stages as load growth within the Commission warranted. Originally, the Waddington Mining Company had promoted this power development. That Company had seen the river as a good source of power for the Quesnel - Prince George region. - I l l -- 112 -In the same period, the B.C. Power Commission was also investigat-ing power sites on the Quesnel and Clearwater Rivers with a view to u t i l -izing them as a possible source of power for the Central Interior Region. Consideration was also given to construction of a central steam generat-ing station, using coal from near Telkwa as a fuel. Then, in 1956 the construction of a gas pipeline from the Peace River area to Vancouver was announced. A favourable price for gas was negotiated, leading to the decision to provide for immediate future requirements in this area by means of gas fired diesel generating stations. Further to the southeast, the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corpora-tion, in 1954, announced plans whereby the Company had petitioned the Provincial Legislature for permission to build a storage dam near Castlegar on the Columbia River. No power would be produced in British Columbia but the additional storage provided by this dam would add a fur-ther 2,COO million kilowatt-hours a year to production from the generating plants downstream in the United States. By way of recompense, British Columbia would receive 20$ or 400 million kilowatts of the power pro-duced plus water rentals of $270,000 per year. Kaiser would keep 40$ and the Bonneville Power Administration would retain 40$ and receive one million dollars annually. Kaiser then offered to buy the British Columbia share of the power for $730,000 per year or a total of $1,000,000 annu-ally. The overall cost of power to Kaiser would be so low that i t was estimated that the Company would be able to make aluminum for one quarter the price of the Aluminum Company of Canada. The provincial government was prepared to agree to the proposal but i t was not assented to by the - 113 -Federal Government, as the whole matter of the development of the Columbia River had been before the International Joint Commission since 1944. The Columbia River rises in Canada flowing first to the north, turning south at the Big Bend, and crossing the international border flows south and west to the Pacific Ocean. The Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909, with regard to any waters crossing the boundary, gave to each country the exclusive authority over the use or diversion of such waters within its own borders. This exclusive authority was granted subject to one provis-ion: Any obstruction or diversion in the upstream country resulting in injury to downstream interests gave rise to the same rights and legal remedies as i f the resultant injury arose in the country where the obstruc-72 tion or diversion occurred. The Treaty further provided that the two national governments would refer to the International Joint Commission, set up by the Treaty, matters of difference between them along the inter-national boundary. In 1944, the United States government asked the gov-ernment of Canada to join with i t in requesting the International Joint Commission to study and report on the possibilities of further development of the Columbia River. The study was to "determine whether a greater use than is now being made of the waters of the Columbia River system would 73 be feasible and advantageous." To assist in carrying out this assign-ment, the International Joint Commission established the International 72. Canadian - American Committee, Cooperative Development of the  Columbia River Basin. Montreal, Private Planning Assoc. of Canada, I960 P.5 73. loc. cit - 114 -Columbia River Engineering Board to carry out extensive studies of the problems of development of the Columbia River basin. The findings of this board were released in March 1959. They con-sisted of three distinct plans each of which would offer nearly 17,000,000 extra kilowatts with about 30 to 35$ being generated in Canada. Each was based on the flooding of the Arrow Lakes so that they become one long lake stretching 145 miles from near Castlegar to Revelstoke. Otherwise the plans were: (l) Non Diversion: this would leave the Kootenay running into Montana as i t does now, except that i t would be regulated. Canada would build a dam, with a little power, at Bull River, 42 miles north of the border. The U.S. would build Libby Dam, backing water right up to the Bull River. (2) Copper Creek Diversion: this plan allowed Libby to be built but at Copper Creek, 12 miles south of Canal Flats, a dam would divert almost the full Kootenay flow into the Columbia. This dam would produce no power at site but there would be generators at Luxor, at the other end of the reservoir. Eight miles north of Donald there would be another dam at Calamity Curve. (3) Dorr Diversion: this is the McNaughton Plan. It would eliminate Libby since i t would turn almost the whole Canadian Kootenay River into the Columbia. A dam at Dorr near the border would back water up to the Bull River dam, over which i t would be pumped. Then i t would go through Luxor, Calamity Curve and the dams common to a l l three plans - Mica Creek, Revelstoke Canyon, Downie Creek and Murphy Creek. Plan (l) was adopted for the Treaty. The Treaty and McNaughton plans are shown on Maps 13 and 14. Upon receipt of this and other reports, the government of the two - 117 -countries commenced negotiations. These culminated in the signing of the Columbia River Treaty, January 17, 1961. By the Treaty, plan (1) was the one selected with a clause which allows Canada to divert the Kootenay into the Columbia in the "Copper Creek diversion" twenty years after rati-fication of the Treaty. Other features of the Treaty were as follows: (1) Canada to provide 15,500,000 acre feet of storage by building dams at Mica Creek, Lower Arrow Lake, and Duncan Lake; the first to be constructed within nine years and the last two within five years. (2) Canada to be paid $64,400,000 (US) for flood control benefits on commencement of storage operations. (3) Canada is to be entitled to one-half the downstream power benefits. That is the power generated in the United States as a result of the Canadian storage. (4) United States to have the option of commencing of the Libby storage dam for five years after ratification. The United States Senate ratified this Treaty, but to the end of 1961, i t had not been ratified by Canada. In November 1956, Axel Wenner-Gren, a Swedish financier, filed a memorandum of intention with the British Columbia government for the development of the Peace River area. Among other proposals, this memor-andum proposed that the principals "survey the water sources of the pro-"74 posed area of development, with the object of hydro development. This section of the memorandum was assigned to the Peace River Power Develop-74. "Text of Wenner Gren Memorandum of Intent" Western Business  and Industry, vol. 31, March 1957, p. 71-72 - 118 -ment Company; which company proceeded with an engineering assessment of the power potential of the Peace River. The report, when filed, showed that i t would be practical to build a dam on the Peace River near Hudson Hope, (see Map 15) which dam would provide 2,544,000 kilowatts of power. An additional 56,000 KW could be provided by a second dam downstream at ••site 1." It was estimated that the resultant power could be transmitted to Vancouver over a 500 KV line at a price of approximately 6 mills, the price of power to the B.C. Electric Company in 1959. While the reports of the Peace River Power Development Company showed that the scheme could be carried out there remained the problem of finding markets for the power. The United States was not interested because of the cost of the power and the B.C. Electric Company stated that i t would not buy power from the Peace i f i t was to be more expensive than alternative sources. Other markets, such as pulp and paper mills and a uranium enrichment plant, did not materialize. The Peace River Power Development Company continued to plan for the Peace River develop-ment through I960. The Company made application to the Public Utilities Commission for a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity. This was withheld while the Columbia and Peace projects were receiving examin-ation by the B.C. Energy Board. As a result of the Power Development Act passed on August 1, 1961, and the subsequent acquisition of the Peace River Power Development Company by the government, the Public Utilities Commission no longer had jurisdiction over the development of the river. Under the Act, this dev-elopment passed into the hands of the now publicly owned B.C. Electric - 120 -Company. No discussion of the possible power developments of British Columbia is complete without mention of the Fraser River. The capacity of undevel-oped power sites on the river has been estimated at 6,258,900 KW. This is the largest single water power resource in the Province. It is also the closest to the centres of population. However, up until the end of this period no power developments had taken place because of the migration and spawning of salmon. The Fraser River Board in its report of 1956 suggested that, in the absence of a solution to the fish - power problem a partial development of the basin be undertaken which would: w ( l ) provide flood control to non-damaging levels in the lower Fraser Valley (2) form an integral part of a comprehensive plan for the basin in which a l l the economical power sites would be fully devel-oped; (3) be compatible with maintaining anadromous fish runs; and (4) be economically self supporting through power production.M^ Technological developments in the field of hydro-electric power were concerned with larger and higher dams capable of impounding greater amounts of water for use in more and larger turbines. In thermal power installations a significant development was the introduction of generator conductor cooling which permitted the building of generators of even 76 larger capacity without a corresponding increase in their physical size. Between 1920 and 1940, the average capacity of new steam turbine generators installed was 12,000 KW; in the 1950's the average capacity was 110,000 KW, 75. Fraser River Board, Preliminary Report on Flood Control and  Hydro Electric Power, Victoria, 1958, p. 132 76. J.A. Miller, At the Touch of a Button, Schenectady, Mohawk: Development Service, Inc., 1962. p.116 - 121 -with about one-third of the new units 200,000 KW or larger. Another major advance in technology during the 1950's was the use of steam at very high pressure - called supercritical. This allowed,for a greater efficiency in producing electricity, which in turn meant less fuel required to produce one kilowatt-hour. Figures compiled by the Edison Electric Institute show that while the average number of pounds of coal required to generate one kilowatt-hour decreased from 1.189 lb. in 1950 to 0.880 lb. in I960, a plant opened in 1958 using supercritical 77 pressure, used 0.70 lb. of coal. Concurrent with the above techno-logical advances in the generation of electricity, has been the investi-gation of new sources of electric power. Chief among these has been the development of the nuclear power plant. The first atomic plant to open was the Calder Hall plant in Britain which came into operation in 1956. Since that time several others have been built throughout the world. Ways to produce electricity without using conventional generating methods started to receive attention shortly after the end of World War II. Among the methods under discussion were (l) thermoelectrics (2) thermionics (3) fuel cells (4) magnetohydrodynamics and (5) controlled 78 fusion. The desire to develop electric power sources to be carried in missiles and rockets was a major reason for extensive research in these methods. Of the unconventional methods of generating electrical energy, the fuel cell is the most highly developed and may prove useful in remote locations or where i t can be employed adjacent to the place of generation. 77. JbM p. 183 78. Ibid. p. 176 - 122 -The other methods are s t i l l largely experimental. "Voltage is electrical pressure. Without picking up their slide rules, engineers figure that i t takes a pressure of 1,000 volts to push electric energy one mile. Thus, to move electricity economically 500 miles would require 500,000 volts. Within cer-tain limits, the higher the voltage, the farther you can send power, and the more power you can transmit. When you double the voltage of a line you increase its carrying capacity about four times. Meanwhile, you may only double the cost of the line. In the end, you have cut the number of lines that would be required to cross the countryside, and you have saved a lot of valuable This statement by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, The Honorable Stewart L. Udall, shows the major trend in transmission towards extra-high-voltage. In 1945, the highest voltage in use was 287 KV. This remained the highest voltage level until a 400 KV system was developed in Sweden in 1952. By the end of 1961, lines with voltages up to 750 KV were under discussion. These higher voltages became necessary as various regions became interconnected for the more efficient use of power, and as sources of "cheap" power became further from the load centres. Throughout the period, research has gone forward in the field of direct-current transmission. Used in the early days of electricity, direct-current gave way to alternating-current because of the difficulty of tapping the line to take off power at an intermediate point. The pres-ent interest in d-c transmission stems from the fact that overhead d-c transmission lines have been variously estimated to range in cost between 79. S.L. Udall, "EHV Sets the Pace." Public Utilities Fortnightly v. 73, June 4, 1964, p.40 - 123 -80 60$ and 80$ of an equivalent a-c circuit. However, d-c terminal equip-ment is much more costly than that necessary for a-c transmission. For this reason, up to the end of the period d-c is economically comparable, in general, with a-c for point-to-point transmission only where cable dis-tances are greater than 30 miles and overhead line distances in excess of 500 miles. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics stopped keeping statistics on the capital investments in electric power in 1942 and did not revive these figures until 1956. Although no accurate check can be made, Figure 8 gives an indication of how this investment has risen. The Handy-Whitman Index, seen on the same graph, shows the trend for the United States. In spite of the big increase in the investment per KW of installed capacity, i t is interesting to note that the investment per KW generated has only increased from 4 to 6.5 cents since 1942. This is attributable to the great increase in demand for power and to economies in operation of plants. It is reflected in the fact that electric rates have not risen to any marked extent even though the consumer price index increased by 15.1 points. Most of the major electric appliances were in use in 1945; this period was one of improvement. Among new appliances introduced were electric can opener, electric shaver, hair dryer, and toothbrush. On the farm, the use of electricity also grew. It has been stated that electric 80. U.S. Federal Power Commission, National Power Survey, Advisory  Committee Report No. 20 on High-Voltage D.C. Transmission. Washington, 1963, p.3 81. loc. cit - 124 -power, by I960 performed some 400 tasks previously done by manual labour. ' Among them were chopping grain, milking, gathering and grading eggs and churning butter. In industry also, s t i l l other uses for electricity and electronics have been found. The applications of electricity in the elec-tronics field have been numerous with the two most startling applications of electronics being in computers and telemetry. The electronic computer, developed towards the end of the previous period, has found widespread application. Electric Power Companies At the beginning of 1946, the installed capacity of the B.C. Electric mainland system stood at 196,000 KW. This was insufficient to meet the ever growing needs of the Company. The Company had applied to the Power Controller for permission to proceed with the Bridge River Project in 1943, but this was denied. By the time approval was given in the f a l l of 1943, i t was too late a date to start i f the project were to be completed in time. Arrangements were made, therefore, with Puget Sound Power and Light Company to obtain "dump" power on a year to year basis. The Company then applied to the Public Utilities Commission for permission to build a 220 KV line to the border in order to obtain "firm" power from the Bonneville Power Administration. This was denied and on June 5 , 1945. the Commission ordered the Company to start work on the Bridge River development without delay. The Company proceeded with this project, the development being essentially the same as that visualized in 82. J.A. Miller op. cit p.137 - 125 -1927. The first two units of 45,000 KW each were placed in service in 1948 and 1949, and are served by the tunnel completed in 1931. In 1949, a branch tunnel was completed and a third 45,000 KW unit installed. (See Hap9 )• As power became available to the Mainland from the Bridge River development, the B.C. Electric Company was able to retire first the steam station in 1949 and then the Lake Buntzen #1 plant in 1950 and 1951. The old Lake Buntzen plant, which had had a total capacity of 21,000 KW, was replaced by a new plant. This plant opened in 1951 with a nameplate rat-ing of 50,000 KW. During this same period, a third unit was added to the Ruskin plant adding another 35,200 KW and bringing the system total on the Mainland at 377,800 KW, almost doubling the installed capacity between 1948 and 1951. S t i l l capacity was not sufficient to meet the anticipated demand. Therefore, the B.C. Electric started construction on its Wahleach hydro-electric station. This plant is located on the banks of the Fraser River between Chilliwack and Hope and draws its water from Wahleach Lake in the mountains south of the Fraser River by tunnel through the mountain for some 10,830 feet. Capacity of this plant, which opened in December 1952, is 60,000 KW. In 1954, a fourth 45,000 KW generator was installed at Bridge River and a start was made on the further development of this area. In December 1953, construction began on a project at Seton Creek where the Bridge River water used in the turbines at Seton Take would be reused as i t flowed from Seton Creek into the Fraser River. The storage dam at - 126 -La Joie, a part of the original Bridge River development, was raised to its final height of 282 feet in 1955, and the reservoir i t created was sufficient to allow the Bridge River plant to operate at f u l l capacity. A generating station was started at the La Joie dam in 1956 permitting another 22,000 KW to he added to the system in 1957. The demand for power kept abreast of these developments. There-fore, new projects had to be started. Throughout 1955 and 1956, work had been progressing on another development, this time in the Squamish area on the Cheakamus River. Here the project called for the diversion of water from the Cheakamus River through a six and three-quarter mile tunnel to the Squamish River, where a powerhouse was built to contain two 70,000 KW units. These went into service in 1957. In 1956, the B.C. Electric had purchased the Sechelt Peninsula system of the B.C. Power Commission which included a 3,000 KW hydro devel-opment at Clowhom Palls. The Company immediately started to enlarge this plant to a capacity of 30,000 KW. The enlarged plant went into operation in 1958. To complete the hydro-electric developments of this period, the Company started on the final stage of the Bridge River development in 1956. This project (Bridge River No. 2) called for the construction of a large storage dam in the vicinity of the Bridge River diversion dam and a second tunnel through Mission Mountain to a new powerhouse on Seton Lake, a half mile west of Bridge River No. 1. The first two of four units of 62,000 KW each were brought into service in the f a l l of 1959 and the last two in I960. This brought to completion the Bridge River development - 127 -which included three dams and four generating stations with an installed nameplate capacity of 492,000 KW. For this development see Hap 9 . Apart from these hydro-electric developments, the demands on the B.C. Electric system were such that in 1955 plans were made for the con-struction of a gas turbine plant in the vicinity of Port Mann. This plant, with a capacity of 100,000 KW, was built to utilize natural gas or oi l . The plant was completed in 1959. It is utilized primarily as a stand-by plant to supplement the hydro system in critical water years or in the event of unforeseen troubles. The plant is particularly valuable for emergency operation in that i t can be brought into operation in min-utes instead of hours as with conventional steam driven thermal plants. As the Bridge River project neared completion in 1957, the Company had to start searching for ways in which to meet the power needs of the future. In the Annual Report for 1957, the B.C. Power Corporation states: "Apart from major river systems of great potential which, i f made available for development, would take several years to bring into service, there are no other substantial sources of firm economical energy within reasonable transmission distance of the Company's service area. To ensure adequate power for the years immediately following I960, a gas fueled high pressure steam electric plant is under construction near loco, about 10 miles east of Vancouver. Two units of 157,000 KW each will be completed in 1961, with four units to be added as required, raising total capacity of this plant to 945,000 KW. The cost of long distance transmission is avoided by locating this plant in the Greater Vancouver area."®3 The first unit was delivered in 1961 and although commissioning tests had not finished i t was available for emergency stand-by service in the winter 83. British Columbia Power Corporation, Limited. Annual Report  1957, Vancouver, 1958, p.15-- 128 -of 1961. In I960, as part of its long term programme, the Company purchased a large coal deposit 140 miles from Vancouver near Hat Creek, B.C. Invest-t igations indicated that this deposit is capable of supporting a thermal plant of a capacity of 2,000,000 KW. No decisions had been made on the actual plant when the Company was expropriated in August 1961. Since then, the B.C. Electric Company has been given charge of developing the Peace River and, therefore, probably will not investigate the possibilities of a steam plant using Hat Creek coal any further. So far, discussion regarding the B.C. Electric Company's install-ations have concerned those in the Lower Mainland region as shown on Map 10. On Vancouver Island, there has not been too much development. The 3,200 KW unit from Brentwood, which had been transferred to Bridge River in 1934, was returned in 1953. No other developments took place. In 1949, a transmission line was constructed from Campbell River to Victoria which enabled the Company to purchase power from B.C. Power Commission's John Hart plant. Then in 1954, the B.C. Electric announced the start of work on a submarine cable to bring added power supply to Vancouver Island. The cable, which would be 46 miles long, would supply current to the Island at 132 KV and have a capacity of 120,000 KW. This cable was com-pleted in 1956. In 1958 cable capacity was increased to almost 240,000 KW. Under the terms of the Electric Power Act, 1945, the B.C. Power Commission had the authority to expropriate whatever properties i t felt necessary in order to bring better service to the Province as a whole. As a result of this, the Power Commission expropriated the holdings of the - 129 -B.C. Electric subsidiaries in Kamloops, Alberni, Port Alberni, Parkes-ville - Qualicum, and Royston in 1946. On the other hand the B.C. Elec-tric was able to buy out the Power Commission's Sechelt properties in 1956 in order that the Company could provide power from Bridge River to the Powell River area. Until 1946, the operations of the Company had been concerned with several relatively small regions, each with its own power supply. Thus transmission line mileage had been kept to a minimum. In 1946, there were 891 miles of transmission line. The breakdown of this according to voltage may be seen in Table 5. As the system grew and sources of hydro-electric power further from the load centre were developed, this trans-mission mileage increased. By 1961 there were 1,500 miles in operation. (See Table8.'). Overall the B.C. Electric Company had grown from a system serving 150,000 customers from 9 generating stations with a total capacity of 234,300 KW to one of 346,000 customers served by 16 generating stations with a combined capacity of 1,093,000 KW. The service area of the Company changed little in the period beyond the loss of the Kamloops and central Vancouver Island areas to the Power Commission and the acquisition of the Power Commission's Sechelt Peninsula properties. The company also built a transmission line from the Bridge River - Seton Lake area through Lillooet to Ashcroft, which municipality had previously been supplied from a local diesel unit. With this exten-sion the B.C. Electric through a subsidiary Western Development and Power Ltd. established Riverland Irrigated Farms Ltd. in the Lillooet area to - 130 -demonstrate how low cost electric power to pump water could bring new land into production and can increase yields on existing farms. A comparison of Maps 4 and shows the extension of the B.C. Electric services. The Report of the Rural Electrification Committee in 1945 called for a reorganization of power distribution in British Columbia in order to bring electric power to rural areas and to encourage the increased consumption of electricity by customers already being served. As a result of this Report the British Columbia Power Commission was formed and given wide powers of expropriation in order to achieve these objectives. The Power Commission during its first year of operation took over the properties of two companies, the Nanaimo-Duncan Utilities Ltd. and West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation, serving Central Vancouver Island and the North Okanagan respectively. In 1946,-they acquired the holdings of the B.C. Electric Company in Alberni, Parkesville - Qualicum, Royston and Kamloops. The acquisition of the generating and distribution systems of these municipalities helped give a more economic, improved and extended service to the two regions already under Power Commission control. The commencement of the Campbell River project in 1945 together with the building of a 132 KV transmission system from Campbell River to Nanaimo also helped to improve service on Vancouver Island. The Whatshan develop-ment did the same in the Interior region. By the end of March 1947, the Commission served 16 power districts containing IS,705 domestic customers using 12,484,250 KWH or 1,888 KWH per customer. Consumption per customer can be compared with that of 1944 as shown in Table 10. - 131 -In the following fourteen years, the number of power districts rose to 47. Some of these were obtained by expropriation. Nanaimo-Duncan Utilities Ltd. is an example of one. Other municipalities, approached by the Commission, sold the local power station as in the case of McBride Village; while s t i l l others were communities previously without any form of central electricity authority. The Ucluelet - Tofino area is a case in point. Table 15.'-, Statistics Relating to the Supply of Electrical Energy. /B.C. Power Commission. 1947-1961 shows the dates on which the various districts came under the Commission and the increased consumption per residential account. Rates to consumers declined during this period. These rates are s t i l l high when compared with Vancouver and Victoria (see Tables 5 and but very much lower than those charged by the former suppliers. Govern-ment financing, a centralized agency able to effect economies not possible to numerous small utilities, coupled with the order to supply electricity at cost played a major part in this. During its first ten years of operation the Power Commission had reduced the rates of its consumers greatly, but in 1958, the B.C. Power Commission found i t necessary to apply an increase in rates. This was necessitated because the average capital investment which the Commission found i t necessary to make on behalf of each customer had increased steadily. There were three reasons for this: (l) Decreasing density in numbers of customers per square mile, meant fewer customers per distrib-ution line and therefore proportionately higher capital costs per customer; (2) increased use of service had made necessary an increased capital -132-TABLE 15 STATISTICS RELATING TO THE SUPPLY OF ELECTRIC POWER, B.C. POWER COMMISSION, 1950 - 1961 P O W E R D I S T R I C T Y E A R D O M E S T 1 C S E R V I C E C O M M E R C I A L S E R V I C E I N D U S T R I A L S E R V I C E T O T A L ( F I S C A L ) C O N S U M P T I O N N O . O F K W H / C U S T . C O N S U M P T I O N N O . O F C O N S U M P T I O N N O . O F C O N S U M P T I O N N O . i K W H C U S T O M E R S K W H C U S T O M E R S K W H C U S T O M E R S K W H C U S T O A L B E R N I I 9 S I 6 , 3 1 9 , 9 3 8 3 , 5 2 7 I , 8 3 6 3 , 6 3 0 , 0 6 3 5 3 4 2 , 3 4 3 , 6 4 1 5 5 1 2 , 4 9 8 , 8 0 5 4 , 1 1 8 1956 1 7 , 8 0 2 , 6 7 7 4 , 4 5 9 4 , 1 1 9 5 , 6 7 7 , 5 6 4 581 1 6 , 9 7 9 , 7 9 5 6 2 4 0 , 7 3 0 , 2 8 5 5 , 1 0 4 1961 3 4 , 2 9 7 , 2 0 5 6 , 0 3 1 5 , 8 4 5 9 , 7 8 9 , 4 7 5 6 3 4 3 , 7 8 4 , 6 2 5 81 4 8 , 7 5 5 , 2 5 7 6 , 7 5 3 A L E R T B A Y 1951 1956 1961 4 4 9 , 8 6 0 1 , 2 4 0 , 1 7 1 I , 7 2 4 , 1 1 7 3 3 0 4 3 4 5 1 2 1 , 9 8 0 2 , 8 3 0 3 , 4 2 8 3 7 1 , 9 7 9 I , 1 7 3 , 8 8 6 1 , 2 9 4 , 1 6 5 8 7 108 128 2 6 0 , 8 9 9 9 0 , 8 4 0 3 0 4 , 5 4 0 10 10 14 I , 1 3 7 , 8 9 0 2 , 6 0 9 , 8 7 3 3 , 4 3 8 , 6 6 0 4 3 0 5 5 8 6 5 9 A R R O W L A K E S 1961 3 , 2 2 0 , 3 2 0 1 , 1 0 4 2 , 9 4 3 I , 2 3 7 , 5 3 8 2 1 4 9 6 8 , 7 6 3 2 4 5 , 5 6 4 , 1 8 1 I , 3 5 1 B E L L A C O O L A 1956 6 5 , 7 8 3 2 0 4 1 . 4 0 7 6 3 , 6 9 2 3 5 1 3 6 , 0 2 2 2 4 0 1961 I , 2 8 4 , 8 9 4 2 8 7 4 , 6 3 4 5 6 0 , 4 8 8 5 5 3 0 , 8 6 0 2 1 , 9 0 5 , 0 5 4 3 4 5 B U R N S L A K E 1951 2 0 3 , 6 4 1 2 4 2 9 3 6 3 5 1 , 8 9 4 82 1 6 2 , 1 6 2 10 7 4 3 , 1 4 3 3 3 5 1956 I , 0 0 5 , 4 9 0 4 7 2 2 , 2 2 0 I , 0 8 9 , 3 5 0 132 9 6 9 , 1 2 6 14 3 , 1 2 2 , 9 2 2 6 2 0 1961 1 , 5 7 7 , 1 0 4 5 9 2 2 , 7 0 6 I , 4 1 6 , 3 7 0 134 1 , 2 9 0 , 1 5 8 2 2 4 , 3 9 3 , 2 0 2 7 5 0 C A M P B E L L R I V E R 1951 9 8 7 , 0 6 1 9 2 2 1 , 1 5 2 8 6 9 , 2 7 9 188 3 6 8 , 4 7 1 12 2 , 2 6 8 , 6 1 1 1 , 1 2 4 1956 1961 1 8 , 8 2 6 , 3 9 4 3 2 , 9 8 0 , 0 9 5 5 , 3 8 1 7 , 1 0 2 3 , 6 0 1 4 , 6 7 4 7 , 9 6 5 , 9 9 3 2 0 , 1 1 7 , 3 5 1 7 S3 I , 0 1 9 7 , 9 5 3 , 1 0 7 3 , 3 4 1 , 5 7 9 98 9 5 3 5 , 1 1 2 , 3 0 6 5 7 , 0 1 3 , 2 2 3 6 , 2 3 9 8 , 2 2 6 C A R I B O O 1956 8 2 , 2 2 3 1 0 5 1 . 7 5 3 1 8 9 , 3 9 1 5 0 3 3 4 1 2 7 4 , 2 4 5 1 5 7 1961 1 , 9 6 8 , 8 0 6 591 3 , 4 9 2 1 , 8 1 8 , 9 2 4 162 2 , 6 4 7 , 3 8 3 13 6 , 5 1 3 , 1 3 3 7 7 0 C H E T W Y N D 1961 2 3 8 , 2 1 8 144 1 , 8 1 7 5 5 2 , 4 6 5 5 8 1 , 3 4 5 , 1 0 0 I 2 , 1 3 5 , 7 8 3 2 0 3 C L I N T O N 1956 3 6 2 , 0 0 5 124 3 , 0 8 5 5 3 8 , 7 1 2 57 I , 6 8 6 2 9 2 6 , 4 6 5 184 1961 I , 0 0 2 , 0 9 1 2 3 3 4 , 4 4 9 8 4 1 , 5 0 8 7 5 1 7 8 , 9 4 2 5 2 , 0 8 9 , 2 0 5 3 1 4 C O L U M B I A V A L L E Y 1956 2 , 5 4 4 , 9 5 4 9 9 5 2 , 8 2 0 2 , 1 1 8 , 1 4 2 2 5 8 6 , 7 7 7 , 6 0 8 21 1 1 , 5 4 5 , 7 6 9 I , 2 7 8 1961 6 , 5 9 6 , 6 4 2 I , 7 3 7 4 , 0 0 7 3 , 8 3 1 , 3 2 5 3 6 9 3 , 9 0 5 , 7 4 0 4 0 1 4 , 5 3 7 , 1 0 3 2 , 1 5 1 C O M O X V A L L E Y 1951 2 , 9 3 3 , 5 4 7 2 , 5 1 1 1 , 2 1 2 I , 8 8 4 , 6 9 5 5 , 2 3 2 3 9 6 , 7 9 1 3 8 5 , 4 4 9 , 7 9 8 2 , 9 2 1 F O R L A T E R Y E A R S S E E C A M P B E L L R I V E R D A W S O N C R E E K 1951 1956 1 , 1 1 4 , 4 1 2 3 , 5 8 1 , 1 2 7 I , 151 2 , 0 4 8 I , 0 3 2 1 , 8 6 4 I , 4 2 9 , 9 6 9 4 , 1 9 9 , 5 1 8 2 9 7 4 3 9 7 1 0 , 5 7 4 2 , 0 5 3 , 6 3 1 4 4 74 3 , 2 9 5 , 6 1 8 9 , 9 3 6 , 1 2 8 1 , 4 9 4 2 , 5 6 3 F O R I 961 S E E P E A C E R I V E R D U N C A N F O R 1951 , , 1956 S E E N A N A I M O — D U N C A N 1961 2 8 , 4 5 9 , 6 5 4 6 . 2 9 7 4 , 5 4 9 8 , 8 0 9 , 4 1 9 846 4 , 7 2 0 , 8 4 7 74 4 2 , 6 0 5 , 4 3 0 7 , 2 2 8 F O R T N E L S O N 1961 3 3 0 , 4 7 4 3 2 1 2 , 3 1 8 1 , 1 7 5 , 2 3 5 139 3 6 , 9 9 1 7 I , 5 4 2 , 7 0 0 4 6 7 F O R T S T . J A M E S 1 9 5 6 1961 4 3 1 , 3 9 5 8 3 5 , 6 1 3 172 2 6 0 2 , 5 9 2 3 , 3 5 7 4 0 4 , 5 4 3 4 6 5 , 3 4 7 3 9 5 5 8 4 4 , 4 0 0 7 8 5 5 , 6 2 0 2 , 2 0 1 , 2 1 4 2 1 3 3 2 5 G O L D E N 1951 2 1 3 , 6 1 I 197 1 , 1 1 6 2 8 4 , 8 1 7 6 0 1 4 , 3 6 4 5 5 5 5 , 7 1 5 2 6 3 F O R L A T E R Y E A R S S E E C O L U M B I A V A L L E Y H A Z E L T O N 1951 1 9 5 6 1961 1 5 0 , 3 4 7 6 9 4 , 6 6 0 1 , 0 4 6 , 3 7 7 144 2 2 4 3 4 9 1 , 1 7 6 3 , 1 6 4 3 , 1 3 4 H O , 9 8 0 4 1 1 , 3 9 4 7 0 5 , 2 3 8 4 9 61 8 3 1 0 0 , 7 3 8 2 3 9 , 3 5 4 3 1 8 , 6 6 0 1 3 3 6 4 , 0 6 5 1 , 3 8 0 , 4 3 8 2 , 1 0 3 , 4 4 5 1 9 6 2 8 9 4 3 8 H O U S T O N 1951 1956 1961 5 0 , 9 9 5 4 8 6 , 8 8 7 7 3 3 , 5 7 8 6 3 111 175 1 , 1 2 8 4 , 4 8 4 4 , 2 4 4 3 3 , 7 1 5 2 7 3 , 2 8 4 3 5 5 , 3 0 0 17 2 3 3 8 I , 0 6 1 2 , 0 9 0 8 9 1 , 3 4 0 I I 4 9 0 , 0 2 0 7 7 9 , 7 1 1 2 , 0 0 9 , 1 9 0 8 2 136 2 1 8 K A M L O O P S 1951 1956 1961 5 , 4 0 5 , 7 0 9 1 6 , 9 7 3 , 0 8 4 3 1 , 4 8 4 , 5 7 8 3 , 5 4 6 5 , 1 8 9 7 , 2 0 1 I , 5 7 2 3 , 3 7 9 4 , 4 5 1 4 , 5 4 6 , 9 7 5 7 , 8 5 2 , 7 2 8 1 4 , 0 1 4 , 4 5 3 8 2 2 9 3 8 1 , 1 1 9 6 , 0 1 9 , 2 4 3 1 7 , 8 3 8 , 5 6 8 2 8 , 3 2 3 , 2 4 2 1 3 3 162 196 1 6 , 2 3 0 , 0 9 8 4 3 , 5 4 5 , 7 3 0 7 5 , 1 3 5 , 2 7 0 4 , 5 0 4 6 , 2 9 4 8 , 5 3 2 K I N G S G A T E — Y A H K 1 9 5 6 1961 6 0 , 8 8 6 2 2 1 , 9 8 2 5 4 7 6 2 , 3 8 8 3 , 0 4 8 5 6 , 0 9 3 2 2 1 , 9 1 8 12 2 8 1 1 6 , 9 7 9 4 4 5 , 1 9 6 6 6 105 L A K E C O W I C H A N 1951 1 9 5 6 F O R L A T E R 3 1 6 , 7 7 0 2 , 5 7 6 , 5 5 0 Y E A R S S E E 4 5 6 9 8 8 D U N C A N 7 3 2 2 , 6 5 2 2 3 8 , 0 9 2 8 3 4 , 0 3 4 7 9 115 2 I , 0 6 2 , 2 8 2 1 8 5 6 3 , 1 4 1 4 , 6 1 7 , 3 2 1 5 3 7 1 , 1 1 3 L A K E W I N D E R M E R E 1951 F O R L A T E R 2 2 2 , 9 8 1 Y E A R S S E E 2 7 8 C O L U M B I A V A L L E Y 9 7 2 2 5 3 , 2 5 6 8 2 7 6 , 7 7 0 3 5 5 7 , 8 9 3 3 6 4 M C B R I D E 1 9 5 6 1961 2 1 7 , 7 0 5 I , 0 0 6 , 6 1 5 173 3 3 5 I , 4 3 9 3 , 1 9 7 3 3 4 , 6 1 0 7 2 6 , 8 1 7 5 6 7 3 1 0 2 , 9 4 8 4 3 4 , 2 8 0 4 3 6 8 7 , 0 9 6 2 , 2 0 8 , 4 4 0 2 3 5 4 1 3 M E R R I T T I 951 1956 1961 6 0 , 9 8 4 I , 0 3 3 , 6 8 0 2 , 9 7 4 , 6 1 8 3 8 8 5 3 6 1 , 0 0 1 6 3 6 1 , 9 7 8 3 , 2 1 4 9 3 , 2 2 0 8 3 2 , 4 5 4 2 , 1 4 3 , 0 2 0 8 0 105 2 0 7 5 4 , 5 5 0 5 2 9 , 3 9 4 2 , 8 7 2 , 3 8 0 7 I I 2 0 2 3 4 , 1 5 4 2 , 5 0 1 , 0 1 8 8 , 1 3 2 , 8 9 9 4 7 6 6 5 3 1 , 2 3 2 -133-P O W E R D I S T R I C T Y E A R ( F I S C A L ) D O M E C O N S U M P T I O N S T I C S E R V I N O . O F C E K W H / C U S T . C O M M E R C I A L C O N S U M P T I O N S E R V I C E N O . O F I N D U S T R I A L C O N S U M P T I O N S E R V I C E N O . O F T O T A L C O N S U M P T I O N N O . K W H C U S T O M E R S K W H C U S T O M E R S K W H C U S T O M E R S K W H G U S T O N A K U S P 1 9 S I 3 4 7 , 6 1 0 2 9 6 1 , 1 8 8 1 9 5 , 9 8 4 67 1 8 , 1 4 6 9 5 6 9 , 3 6 0 3 7 3 1 9 5 6 F O R 1961 I , 3 8 0 , 1 6 2 S E E A R R O W L A K E S 6 5 8 2 , 1 2 0 5 8 6 , 8 6 0 107 1 8 6 , 7 2 0 12 2 , 1 6 3 , 2 2 2 7 7 9 N A N A I M O F O R 1961 1951 , 1956 S E E N A N A 6 0 , 3 6 0 , 6 5 2 I M O — D U N C A N 1 2 , 3 9 1 5 , 1 3 0 2 1 , 0 2 7 , 4 2 5 1 3 , 1 9 5 1 4 , 9 1 7 , 2 5 0 163 1 0 2 , 3 5 4 , 7 1 7 1 4 , 4 6 2 N A N A I M O — D U N C A N 1951 1 9 5 6 F O R I 961 1 8 , 3 4 2 , 4 0 7 5 0 , 4 9 3 , 0 6 5 S E E N A N A I M O A N D I I , 4 5 7 1 3 , 9 7 3 D U N C A N I , 6 4 4 3 , 6 7 4 1 I , 8 6 0 , 2 1 6 1 8 , 5 8 2 , 1 1 2 I 1 , 8 1 1 , 9 7 6 1 3 , 1 7 5 , 5 6 7 1 3 , 6 3 5 , 8 6 3 144 174 4 4 , 2 0 1 , 8 4 8 8 4 , 0 9 0 , 2 1 9 1 3 , 4 2 6 1 6 , 1 3 8 N O R T H O K A N A G A N 1951 1 9 5 6 1961 1 0 , 8 9 2 , 6 5 1 2 2 , 4 6 2 , 4 7 9 4 1 , 6 7 0 , 1 5 4 6 , 9 9 2 8 , 2 8 8 1 0 , 5 9 0 1 , 6 0 8 2 , 7 2 9 3 , 9 6 8 4 , 4 8 6 , 4 4 5 ! 8 , 2 3 1 , 7 4 2 1 3 , 1 6 4 , 2 7 0 I I I , 0 9 4 , 2 3 9 , 4 4 5 9 , 0 2 9 , 7 5 4 1 7 , 0 1 3 , 3 8 4 2 5 , 0 0 5 , 5 3 8 2 4 9 2 3 3 2 7 9 2 4 , 9 7 7 , 8 4 8 4 8 , 1 9 8 , 9 3 7 8 0 , 8 8 1 , 2 6 9 8 , 3 4 3 9 , 7 7 2 1 2 , 3 3 3 P E A C E R I V E R F O R 1961 1951 , 1956 S E E D A W S O N 1 3 , 9 7 6 , 7 4 1 C R E E K 5 , 0 6 8 2 , 9 3 8 1 4 , 5 8 7 , 1 1 5 982 8 , 0 0 8 , 7 4 7 152 3 7 , 1 9 1 , 4 2 9 6 , 2 1 0 P E A C H L A N D — W E S T B A N K 1951 1956 I 961 4 9 4 , 9 4 9 1 , 2 3 5 , 2 2 8 2 , 3 9 5 , 8 8 2 4 0 3 5 4 0 6 2 6 I , 2 3 6 2 , 3 0 3 3 , 8 2 6 2 1 9 , 1 9 2 4 8 0 , 9 9 1 6 8 3 , 7 6 8 70J 8 5 105 5 4 8 , 7 3 8 8 7 5 , 8 5 2 I , 0 2 8 , 5 6 0 2 4 1 9 16 I , 2 9 8 , 9 6 9 2 , 6 2 2 , 8 7 1 4 , 2 4 5 , 5 6 0 4 9 9 6 4 6 7 S I P O R T H A R D Y I 961 1 4 2 , 8 0 6 123 I , 3 5 0 I , 2 4 6 , 2 3 0 2 7 8 0 , 4 0 0 2 I , 5 1 0 , 0 0 6 1 5 3 P R I N C E G E O R G E 1961 2 3 , 0 4 1 , 4 9 7 5 , 5 2 4 4 , 3 8 6 1 3 , 9 1 5 , 5 6 9 891 1 3 , 4 4 1 , 4 0 6 137 5 6 , 9 8 9 , 4 2 1 7 , 2 8 0 Q U E E N C H A R L O T T E 1 9 5 6 3 5 4 , 4 9 7 137 2 , 6 3 8 1 6 1 , 3 4 6 2 7 5 1 7 , 6 1 4 1 6 5 1961 5 0 8 , 3 6 8 170 3 , 0 6 7 3 0 9 , 0 0 4 3 4 8 4 9 , 5 7 1 2 0 7 Q U E S N E L 1951 1956 1961 6 9 1 , 3 5 7 4 , 7 8 4 , 9 1 7 8 , 5 6 0 , 2 6 5 6 4 7 I , 5 2 0 2 , 1 9 1 I , 1 8 8 3 , 2 5 1 4 , 0 0 0 9 8 5 , 7 0 1 3 , 2 6 4 , 9 1 2 4 , 7 0 7 , 2 2 1 171 2 9 6 3 4 7 6 0 4 , 3 0 6 6 , 8 9 1 , 2 6 0 1 0 , 3 6 1 , 8 3 9 2 8 4 7 6 3 2 , 3 1 9 , 5 2 6 1 5 , 0 2 4 , 3 4 9 2 3 , 8 8 9 , 2 0 3 8 4 7 1 , 8 6 5 2 , 6 0 6 S L O C A N 1956 F O R 1961 1 3 1 , 5 0 4 2 2 7 S E E A R R O W L A K E S 1 , 1 5 3 2 0 1 , 6 5 7 6 0 I , 2 8 0 I 3 5 9 , 9 2 1 2 9 1 S M I T H E R S I 951 1 9 5 6 1961 8 2 7 , 6 7 8 3 , 6 4 3 , 5 4 1 5 , 3 7 3 , 3 5 7 4 4 7 7 6 2 I , 0 2 7 I , 9 2 0 4 , 8 8 7 5 , 4 4 6 6 2 5 , 4 3 6 1 , 8 0 9 , 0 1 8 2 , 3 2 5 , 0 4 7 118 154 2 0 4 6 5 5 , 4 4 1 1 , 4 7 6 , 3 3 8 2 , 2 2 9 , 3 0 2 21 2 4 3 2 2 , 1 5 9 , 3 5 5 7 , 0 2 9 , 2 9 7 1 0 , 0 6 8 , 3 2 9 5 8 8 9 4 2 I , 2 6 5 T E R R A C E I 951 1 9 5 6 1961 4 3 1 , 9 3 2 4 , 1 0 4 , 4 5 0 8 , 1 3 5 , 7 3 1 3 8 1 9 9 5 I , 4 8 8 1 , 1 8 8 4 , 3 2 3 5 , 5 5 2 3 6 1 , 4 4 8 2 , 4 7 2 , 3 4 7 4 , 2 0 5 , 2 4 8 97 192 2 6 3 3 8 4 , 7 3 9 1 , 3 6 2 , 0 7 0 2 , 0 9 8 , 6 9 6 15 3 2 4 3 1 , 1 9 8 , 1 4 9 8 , 0 2 0 , 3 1 4 1 4 , 5 8 1 , 3 5 8 4 9 4 I , 2 2 0 I , 7 9 2 U C L U C L E T — T O F I N O 1 9 5 6 1961 8 0 9 , 3 3 5 I , 6 1 9 , 5 0 9 2 7 4 3 7 1 3 , 1 3 7 4 , 5 0 9 6 1 3 , 5 7 1 I , 4 4 9 , 5 7 3 71 105 I , 1 4 9 , 5 8 2 1 7 7 , 8 9 2 I I 6 2 , 6 1 8 , 1 8 5 3 , 2 9 8 , 2 3 4 3 5 8 4 8 4 V A L E M O U N T 1961 8 8 , 7 2 1 101 I , 5 6 1 1 0 7 , 5 0 6 2 6 1 9 6 , 2 2 7 1 2 7 V A N D E R H O O F 1951 1 9 5 6 1961 2 6 3 , 6 5 4 I , 0 8 1 , 4 0 0 2 , 5 1 7 , 3 4 7 188 3 7 0 7 5 2 I , 6 5 6 3 , 0 6 8 3 , 6 2 6 3 1 6 , 2 1 8 9 8 3 , 3 7 8 I , 7 2 5 , 1 1 3 7 2 100 172 6 6 , 7 7 2 1 7 6 , 5 2 8 8 2 7 , 2 3 0 9 14 2 3 6 7 1 , 7 4 4 2 , 2 8 3 , 6 5 6 5 , 1 5 6 , 8 8 3 2 7 0 4 8 6 9 5 1 W I L L I A M S L A K E 1951 1 9 5 6 1961 4 3 3 , 4 1 5 2 , 6 5 6 , 4 8 7 5 , 0 1 5 , 2 6 4 2 7 2 6 7 1 I , 2 4 3 I , 6 3 2 4 , 4 3 5 4 , 2 3 1 6 0 3 , 3 5 4 2 , 3 2 6 , 2 4 0 4 , 4 3 2 , 7 2 0 116 176 3 0 0 1 6 1 , 8 5 4 1 , 7 0 5 , 3 9 4 3 , 4 8 3 , 6 4 4 17 3 0 4 2 I , 2 2 8 , 4 6 3 6 , 7 2 6 , 7 7 0 1 3 , 0 9 0 , 0 3 0 4 0 6 8 7 8 I , 5 8 6 S O U R C E — B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N , A N N U A L R E P O R T , 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 . - 154 -investment; and (5) a l l costs connected with the operation of the commis-sion had risen. From this request arose the "Royal Commission in the matter of the British Columbia Power CommissionM. The Royal commission examined the costs outlined and reasons for these. As a result, the requested rate increase was declined. The Power Commission came into being as a result of the Electric Power Act, 1945, as discussed earlier in the chapter. By the end of that year, the Commission had acquired the properties and developments of Nanaimo-Duncan Utilities Ltd., West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation and the Terrace municipal plant. Negotiations had also started regarding the construction of a hydro-electric plant on the Campbell River. This project had been considered in an earlier period, in fact the B.C. Elec-tric Company had been given the authority to develop i t , but pressure from those saying that i t would destroy the beauties of the area, plus the depression which had slowed down load growth to a point where there was not demand for power, had delayed action on the project. Campbell River has its sources in the central Vancouver Island Mountains. From its headquarters the river flows successively through Buttle Lake, Upper Campbell Lake, Campbell Lake and then by a series of falls and rapids to the Straits of Georgia. (See Map 16) The overall development of Campbell River was planned to take place in stages corres-ponding to anticipated requirements. The first stage involved the build-ing of the 42,000 KW John Hart Generating Station. This station was built on the section of falls and rapids to take advantage of the normal drop in the river. This plant was opened in 1947 when the first MAP 16 CAMPBELL RIVER DEVELOPMENT - 136 -20,000 KW unit went into operation. The second unit was placed in opera-tion in 194S. Load growth increased rapidly during the construction of the John Hart station and necessitated an immediate start on the next stage in the development of the river. Included in this stage was the construction of a storage dam at Ladore Palls at the outlet of Lower Campbell Lake. The increased storage provided by this dam allowed two more 20,000 KW units to be installed at the John Hart Station in October 1949. In October 1951, the final phase of the John Hart development commenced. This con-sisted of an addition to the power building; construction of a third pipe-line surge-tank, and penstock; and installations of two more 20,000 KW generators. These final two generating units were brought into production in 1953 bringing the installed capacity up to 120,000 KW. In 1947, the Power Commission received approval for the construc-tion of a hydro-electric development at Whatshan, near Needles, on the west shore of Lower Arrow Lake, (see Map 11) This plant was to supply the power requirements of the Arrow Lakes areas and the Okanagan and Kamioops power districts. Plans called for a small dam at the outlet of Whatsan Lake for water storage; a tunnel 12,500 feet long bringing the water from the lake to the shore of Lower Arrow Lake; and a power house on Lower Arrow Lake. Initially two 11,250 KW units were to be installed. Work was started in 1948 and completed in June 1951 when the second unit was completed. With the completion of this project, power from Whatshan became available in the Kamloops area and so the Barriers generating station was removed from service. In August 1953, two successive mud - 137 -and rock slides destroyed the powerhouse at Whatshan. One generating unit was brought back into operation in December and the second in July 1954. In 1958 a third 11,250 KV unit was placed in service. Construction of a hydro-electric power development at Clowhom Palls, consisting initially of two 1,500 KW generating units, was begun late in 1950. This installation, at the head of Salmon Inlet, was designed to bring power to the Sechelt area. It commenced operation in May 1952. In 1957, this plant was bought by. the B.C. Electric Co. and replaced with a 30,000 KW station. On March 14, 1951 an agreement was reached with Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Ltd. and Wellington Colliery Company Ltd. for the purchase by the Commission of the Colliery companies' hydro-electric project on the Puntledge River. The purchase was to become effective in 1953« Upon receipt of the plant, the B.C. Power Commission immediately started the construction of a new development to replace the old one. The new plant containing a single 25,000 KW unit commenced operation in 1955. It is remotely controlled and operated from the John Bart plant. Work was started on the Spillimacheen development in 1953 also. The plant, which had an initial capacity of 4,000 KW, consists of a small dam and intake on the Spillimacheen River, a tunnel 3,900 feet long leading to the powerhouse. The development commenced service in May 1955 serving the Upper Columbia Valley between Gfolden and Canal Plats. Stage 2 of this development comprised construction of a small dam on Bugaboo Creek to divert water to the Spillimacheen River via a pipeline in order to augment water flow at the existing dam. - 138 -Construction commenced in May 1955 on a tunnel from the existing dam at Ladore Falls; this tunnel to be connected to a surge tank from which short penstocks would lead to three turbines. The first two gener-ating units of 25,000 KW each were commissioned in December 1956. The Upper Campbell Lake development represented the final stage in the development of the Campbell River system. Commencing in 1955, a dam was built about two miles below the outlet of Upper Campbell Lake. Since the flood line behind this dam extended water storage to include Buttle Lake and part of the Elk River Valley. Since the upper end of Buttle Lake lies within Strathcona Provincial Park the Comptroller of Water Rights in granting a licence, did so on condition that (l) a l l standing timber be removed from the area to be flooded. (2) a l l debris be removed (3) the Power Commission to contribute to the cost of restocking Buttle Lake with game fish (4) they operate the storage in such a manner that the reservoir be nearly fu l l through June, July and August (5) they construct 84 a public access road to Buttle Lake at or near the proposed damsite. An appeal by the Power Commission was dismissed. The area was logged and the dam constructed. The first 33,750 KW unit was installed in June 1958. During the same period work was being done at Salmon River to effect the diversion of flow from about one hundred square miles of drainage area at the upper end of the Salmon River, through Brewster Lake and by natural channel into Lower Campbell Lake. Also, a portion of the Heber River was 84. British Columbia Power Commission, Memoranda. August 1952 re  "Electric Power Act" and British Columbia Power Commission. Victoria, 1952 Exhibit 3. - 139 -diverted from its natural route into the Elk Bayer and Upper Campbell Lake. Finally the Quinsam River was diverted into Gooseneck Lake and thence via Miller Creek into Lower Campbell Lake. The above diversions added materi-ally to storage for use by the Upper Campbell, Ladore and John Hart developments. (See Map 16) Preliminary work commenced in January 1957 on the Ash River hydro project in the Alberni area. The project consisted of constructing a low dam at the outlet of Elsie Lake, and a conduit system five miles long to a powerhouse on the north shore of Great Central Lake. The 25,200 KW hydro unit was placed on line in June 1959. In addition to the hydro projects outlined above, the B.C. Power Commission constructed the Georgia Generating Station, seven gas-diesel generating stations and thirteen diesel stations. Location of these plants can be seen on Map 6 . Special mention must be made of the Georgia Generating Station. This gas turbine generating plant was constructed at Chemainus on Vancouver Island. Work on the plant commenced in 1956 and was completed in 1959. It contains four units having a total capacity of 75,500 KW, which thermal capacity complements the hydraulic generating capacity on Vancouver Island especially during a dry year and protects the customers against emergency. As the B.C. Power Commission gradually extended its services throughout the province, i t was necessary to construct transmission lines to bring the power to the customers. A comparison of Maps5.' and &> will show the progress made in the eleven year period. Table 8 shows the - 140 -number of miles of transmission line, at the various voltages, in opera-tion at the end of I960. Numerous large scale power projects were studied during the period from 1946 to 1961 but most of them had not been undertaken by the end of the period. The project of the Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd. at Kitimat - Kemano is one which did commence operation. From 1928 to 1931 and from 1937 to 1939, preliminary surveys were carried out by the British Columbia government. The results of these sur-veys indicated that the high level lakes behind the Coast Range were poten-tial sources for hydro-electric power. Alcan was asked to study the possi-bility of locating in British Columbia during the war but i t was not until 1948 that survey crews investigated the power potential of the Kitimat -Kemano area. By building the Kenney dam which diverted the flow of the Nechako River from west to east a 145 mile long reservoir was created. From the Tahtsa Lake end of this reservoir a ten mile long tunnel brings the water down to Kemano, the site of the powerhouse, some 2,600 feet below Tahtsa Lake. (See Map 17) From Kemano the power is transmitted fifty-one miles to Kitimat over a 287 KV line. An initial 291,000 KW were installed in 1954; in 1956 this was increased to 486,000 KW; by 1961 the installed capacity had reached 707,200 KW. The power installations of the B.C. Electric Company, the B.C. Power Commission and the Aluminum Company of Canada included nearly a l l the major developments of this period. The one other large installation was the Waneta hydro-electric plant of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting - 142 -Company. This plant is situated on the Pond d'Oreille River just north of the international boundary, utilizing 200 feet of head and having a capac-ity of 144,000 KW. However, because a l l but the last sixteen miles of the river are controlled by a United States dam on the upper reaches, this out-put cannot always be utilized. Other developments of Cominco included the installation of a third 27,500 KW unit at the Brilliant plant and construc-tion of a 90-mile, 170 KV transmission line to Kimberley. This line, com-pleted in 1953, included the construction of a two mile long crossing over Kootenay Lake. Additional units were installed in the hydro-electric plants of MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Co., Nelson Municipality and Northern British Columbia Power Company. Otherwise installations were for thermal power and were primarily for the use of the industrial concerns installing them. The largest of these included the 16,200 KW oil burning plant at Port Alice; the 15,200 KW plant at Powell River utilizing woodwaste or oil; the 15,000 KW plant of Columbia Cellulose on Watson Island, also burn-ing o i l or woodwaste; and the 6,400 KW oi l burning unit of Northern B.C. Power Company at Prince Rupert. As in the case of areas served by the B.C. Electric and B.C. Power Commission, there was a considerable increase in the consumption of elec-tricity by the customers of West Kootenay Power and Light Company, North-em B.C. Power Company and other small utilities and municipal electric departments. In these areas also, rate reductions were effected for the most part. Canadian Utilities Ltd., for example, reduced domestic rates in Port St. John in 1946; Prince George Municipality and Princeton Power - 143 -and Light Company in 1951; and West Kootenay Power and Light Company in 1955. Role of Government The basic policy and powers of the British Columbia Power Commission was outlined in Chapter IV, p. 93« Prom the time of i t s inception, when the Commission expropriated several u t i l i t i e s serving approximately 13,000 customers, to March 1958 the areas served and the number of customers had increases significantly. At the same time the density of customers had increased significantly. At the same time the density of customers had decreased from 26.7 to 16.2 customers per mile of distribution. The average capital investment which the Commission found i t necess-ary to make on behalf of each customer increased steadily because: (l) the decreasing density, referred to above, meant fewer customers per mile of distribution line and therefore proportionately higher capital costs per customer; (2) increasing use of the service made necessary increased capi-ta l investment in a l l types of electric plant; and (3) a l l the costs con-nected with the operation, both the capital costs for materials and labour as well as the operating costs, interest on investment, maintenance, 85 repairs, materials, and labour, had risen steadily. For these reasons, the British Columbia Power Commission in Septem-ber 1958, recommended to the Executive Council that consumer power rates be increased by approximately 12$. The Executive Council did not agree to this recommendation and set up a royal commission under the Chairmanship 85. B.C. Royal Commission in the matter of British Columbia Power Commission, Report. Victoria, 1959, p. 10 - 144 -of Gordon M. Shrum. This commission was to enquire into the rate structure and to report thereon as to the j u s t i f i c a t i o n or necessity, i f any, of the proposed rate increase and the reasons therefor-and s p e c i f i c a l l y to enquire into and report upon: "(a) The experience of the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Commission i n construction contracts or construction work since January 1, 1952, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to variations, i f any, which exist between estimate cost of construction and the actual cost thereof: (b) The interest and other charges that should be paid by the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Commission f o r cash advances by the Province and f o r borrowings by the issue of the Commission's own debentures or other securities and the security, i f any, which should be offered by the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Commission to the Province f o r the cash advance: (c) Such other matters pertaining to the operation of the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Commission as the Commissioners deem proper."86 As a result of the investigations of the Commissioners, several conclusions were reached and recommendations were made. In the matter of interest charges, an agreement was reached between the Commission and the Economic Adviser of the Department of Finance with respect to the financing of the Provincial Government's cash advances to the Power Commission. In the matter of the rate structure and the need f o r a rate increase, the Commissioners considered that the rate increase was unnecessary at that time. The Commissioners also recommended a change i n the r e s i d e n t i a l rate structure, eliminating a preferential rate which had been i n e x i s t -ence, and establishing a common block type rate f o r a l l r e s i d e n t i a l cus-tomers. At the same time the Commissioners recommended that the 86. Ibid, p.1-2 - 145 -Commission take ful l advantage of the section of the Power Act which states that where there are not sufficient customers in a rural area to provide revenue equal to the cost of supplying power the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council may, upon recommendation of the Commission, pay up to 50$ of the capital cost out of the Consolidated Revenue. This had not been done. With regard to construction contracts and work, the Commissioners concluded that there had been errors in judgment concerning several pro-jects which resulted in said projects being much more costly than antici-pated. They, therefore, recommended that the Power Commission improve and correct their cost estimating procedures so as to provide more realistic estimates. The Commissioners also recommended the use of the Commission's own staff for construction projects since the use of these forces had shown economies. The final section of the Report of the Royal Commission dealt with the charges of Mr. H. Lee Briggs, the General Manager of the B.C. Power Commission, in which he brought charges against the Provincial Government, the B.C. Electric Company Limited, and the British Columbia Power Commis-sioners in office at the time he was an employee. The Royal Commission findings indicated: (l) political interference by the Government in the affairs of the Power Commission to be unfounded; (2) relations between the Power Commis-sion and the B.C. Electric not as unsatisfactory as suggested; and (3) - 146 -charges against the Power Commissioners to be invalid. Apart from the findings of the Royal Commission with respect to the terms of reference laid down by the Government, the Commission made some general observations and recommendations. The first of these stated that since the Power Commission had almost consistently failed to foresee the need for expansion in time to undertake the most economical development, more emphasis be placed upon long term study and forecast of power require-ments in the areas served. The second recommendation stemmed from the observation that system integration in British Columbia was inadequate, that there must be agreements between utility companies based on long-term planning and designed to produce a proper sequence of developments so as to reduce overall costs of power. The Royal Commission then recom-mended that an over-all authority be established in the Province to control and direct the generation, transmission and distribution of al l electric power in British Columbia specifically: "(a) to resolve conflicts of interest in water resources development after careful consideration of al l values and costs involved; (b) to establish an over-all policy for the development of the energy resources of the Province based upon a careful evaluation of needs and resources; (c) to resolve any conflicts of interest between utilities which are beyond the authority of the Public Utilities Commission. (d) to study and advise on fish - power problems and their relationship to other resource.uses such as irrigation, flood-control and recreation. 87. Ibid p. 194 - 195 88. Ibid p. 196 - 197 - 147 -As a result of these recommendations the British Columbia Energy-Board was established. In the interest of examining and developing the water resources of British Columbia, the government set up the B.C. Energy Board in January, I960. Its terms of reference were as follows: "To study and report from time to time to the Executive Council upon (a) Existing and estimated energy resources of the province; (b) Existing and estimated energy requirements of the province; (c) The extent to which the development and application of various energy resources to provincial requirements may or should be related one to the other; and (d) Any specific matter affecting energy referred to the Board by the Executive Council."89 One of the first tasks given this Board was to investigate the costs and benefits to be derived from the Columbia River and Peace River power projects. The Board was to: "determine by assembly of known data or by its independent inquiry, or both, with respect to each project, and report (a) the cost of each project or of each phase thereof i f staged development is involved, (b) the assumptions and established data upon which the cost is determined, (c) the at-site cost of electricity as a result of site generation and the at-site cost, taking into account site-generation and the return of foreign energy deliv-ered under treaty, (d) the cost of transmitting electrical energy to various areas of the province, particularly Greater Vancouver, northern and southern Vancouver Island and Prince George. (e) the assumptions and established data used to determine the transmission cost under clause (d), including assumptions and data respecting the capital cost of transmission facilities, 89. Terms of Reference British Columbia Energy Board as obtained from the Board Secretary. - 148 -(f) the cost of engaging or providing standby facilities for transmission of energy under clause (d), (g) the probable cost of electrical energy to the consumer in the areas mentioned in clause (d) and the assumptions or data, including load factor, upon which the determination of cost is based, (h) the extent to which the two projects may be related to one another i f at a l l and, i f complementary in this relationship, the legal and economic conditions under which complementary development may take place. (i) calculations of cost based upon current and defined rates of interest.w90 A first report was published July 31, 1961. The salient features were as follows: (l) Both projects are feasible from an engineering point of view. (2) If the Columbia River was to be developed by the Government and the Peace River by a private company, the Columbia would provide power at a lower cost, but (3) If both projects were to be developed through the use of public monies then the Peace River development would have a lower unit cost at site and roughly the same cost at load centre; (4) If large markets for power outside the province could be found for power which British Columbia could not currently absorb, then there would be a case for developing both projects more or less simultaneously. On August 1, 1961, the Government passed the "Power Development Act". By this Act the B.C. Electric Company Limited became a crown corporation with a l l right, title and interest of the Peace River Development Co. Ltd. including any plans and proposals respecting the generation and distribu-91 tion of electric power and any applications made under the "Water Act." 90. British Columbia Energy Board, Report on Columbia and Peace  Power Projects. Victoria, 1961, p. 7 91. "Power Development Act,1961" Statutes of British Columbia. 2d. session, 1961. Chapter 4* - 149 -It also enabled the crown corporation to borrow money at a lower interest rate by means of government guaranteed loans. Thus, the government hoped to pave the way for simultaneous development of the two rivers. With the passing of this Act, there came a change in the trend of electric power development in British Columbia. The Public Utilities Act of 1945 had caused a similar change. The latter act was passed, creating the B.C. Power Commission in order that electric power could be brought to the more remote areas of the province. This was done and consumption increased sharply. In passing the Power Development Act and bringing the development of the Peace River under a public agency the government guaran-teed a major market for the Peace River hydro-electric power in the Lower Mainland region. At the same time i t sought to bring not only power, but also increased industrial development to a section of the province hitherto only served by diesel plants. Furthermore, by this Act, one of the large power schemes discussed earlier in this chapter could be completed. Consolidation and Expansion An examination of Table 9 and Figure 1 shows the great increase in the electric generating capacity and electric generation between 1945 and 1961. What were some of the causes and consequences of this? In the first place, there was a shortage of power throughout the province in 1945. The necessary permission to build generating stations had been withheld during the war years and as consumption continued to climb, existing capacities were being fully utilized by the end of 1945. As soon as the necessary materials could be obtained, companies such as the B.C. Electric Co. started to expand their facilities. - 150 -A second cause for the increase in capacities and generation also had its beginnings at the end of the previous period when the government caused the B.C. Power Commission to be set up. On the whole, the plants taken over by the Commission were small. In order to expand the use of electricity in the rural areas of the province, i t was necessary first to expand generating facilities. As a result, plants such as the John Hart, the Whatshan, the Puntledge, the Spillimacheen, the Upper Campbell River, the Georgia Thermal, and the Prince George Diesel were built. Thirdly, the years from 1945 to 1961 were ones of major economic activity throughout the country. In British Columbia, as elsewhere, industrial production increased greatly as a study of Table 13. shows. Population rose from 949,000 to 1,629,000 and wages increased some 67$. Together these meant an increase in the demand for electricity. Table 10 shows that the per capita consumption rose from 2,756 to 7,516 k.w.h. This, in turn, meant increased generating capacity, not only for domestic use but also for industry. This was seen in the development of the Aluminum Co. of Canada complex at Kitimat and in the establishment of several pulp and paper mills which supply their own power. In the case of increased domestic consumption of electric power, higher wages, new and improved appliances, lower rates in some areas, and increased availability of electricity a l l played a part. Lower rates and increased availability played a major part in the increased consumption in the rural areas of the province. With the establishment of the B.C. Power Commission, rates in the service area of the Commission decreased substan-tially, followed by rate reductions effected by West Kootenay Power and - 151 -Light Company and other small utilities. Also, electricity was brought to new areas of the province. In the service area of the B.C. Power Commis-sion alone, transmission line mileage increased by some 1,700 miles. As a consequence of this increased demand for electric power, gener-ating companies were forced to look farther afield for sources of hydro-electric power; and they were forced to turn to other methods of generat-ing electricity. The pattern of concentration which had become more marked through, suceeding periods, now started to break down as new generating stations were planned in the more distant part of the province, to be linked to the centres of consumption by high voltage transmission lines. British Columbia had always looked to water power as the principal means of supplying electrical energy. When hydro-electric sources were close to the market, coal, oil and natural gas could not compete in pro-ducing low-cost power. But with the added costs of long distance trans-mission lines to bring power from distant generating stations, these sources of power became increasingly important. Oil and gas became impor-tant fuels in this development, and coal, which had long been out-of-favour in British Columbia as a source of electric power, once again became of interest. Also, a consequence of this increased demand for power, and the necessity of developing such large projects as the Peace River and Columbia River projects, was the expropriation of the B.C. Electric Company. By doing this, the government assured a market for this power, and assured development of these projects in the more remote parts of the province. In the early years of electric power development, electricity was - 152 -supplied primarily by small private concerns and municipalities. Over the years, these small companies and municipalities were absorbed by larger private companies. Then the provincial government entered the e l e c t r i c power production f i e l d , to become the largest supplier of e l e c t r i c i t y by the end of this period. Thus, there has been an almost complete switch from private to public power over the nearly eighty years of ele c t r i c power supply i n B r i t i s h Columbia. - 153 -Chapter 71 CONCLUSIONS Hydro-electric power was first developed on a commercial scale at Niagara Falls in 1895. In 1897, British Columbia's first hydro-electric plants were placed in production at Sandon, Easlo, and Lower Bonnington on the Columbia River. From that time hydro-electric energy has been the principal form of energy used to produce electricity in British Columbia. The use of the water power resources of the province for electric power development has been logical. British Columbia at the time of the earliest surveys was credited with a hydro-electric potential of 2,238,000 KW. Over the years as more extensive surveys have been carried on this potential has grown. In 1961, i t was given as 24,650,000 KW. This increase in potential is shown graphically in Map 18. Although British Columbia has this great hydro-electric potential, the very nature of the rivers in the province present problems of develop-ment. The rivers which flow through the mountains are swift and highly seasonal in their flow; also many are rivers used by salmon to gain their spawning grounds in the upper reaches. For these reasons, only a few attempts have been made so far to harness the major rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean. In the first place, the amounts of power which would be involved have been greater than local industry could use. Secondly,(in order to obtain satisfactory seasonal flow characteristics, entire river systems would have to be diverted, or expensive storage dams built.The Kemano installation of the Aluminum Company of Canada involved the former; - 155 -the Peace River project, flowing eastward through the Rocky Mountains will involve the latter. Finally, there is the problem of the salmon. The salmon fisheries are of major importance to British Columbia and so until some satisfactory method can be found to bring the spawning fish up the rivers, and the fry back down, the electric power industry is having to forego the damming of the major rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean. Instead, the industry has made use of the fast flowing streams by placing its installations, not on the major rivers but on the smaller streams and rivers, some of them tributaries of the large river systems. These have been built in close proximity to major consuming centres. In this way, by constructing high head installations, i t has been possible to produce bulk power with relatively small quantities of water and to avoid excessive charges for the transmission of power over rugged terrain. As these smaller rivers, close to load centres, have become more fully utilized, i t has been necessary to look to the major rivers. Although the hydro-electric potential is great, the difficulties mentioned earlier make the development of such water powers very large and costly. Thus, although less than ten percent of the estimated hydro-electric poten-tia l h^H been developed, i t has been necessary on some occasions to turn from utilization of this resource. The current developments with regard to the Peace and Columbia Rivers have pointed out the difficulties of costs with regard to storage, diversion, and transmission, and also to the difficulties of having surplus power where there is not sufficient popula-tion to provide an adequate market. The magnitude of the hydro-electric potential of British Columbia - 156 -often causes one to forget the other energy resources of the province and their possible utilization for the development of electric power. There are numerous coal deposits in the Bast Kootenays, on Vancouver Island, in northern British Columbia, and in the Hat Creek region of the Interior. To date, their utilization for power production has been minor. In Chapter III i t was pointed out that Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Ltd. found i t more economical to develop electric power from the Puntledge River than from the colliery's own coal. In recent years, the question of using coal for firing thermal plants came to the fore once more when the B.C. Electric, having utilized the rivers close to service area for hydro-electric development, procured the right to develop the Hat Creek coalfield for thermal power. Since the expropriation of this Company by the Government, and with the start of the development of the Peace River for electric power, the prospect of utilizing this coalfield-has faded from sight. There has been greater use made of the o i l and gas resources of the province. With the building of the natural gas pipeline to Vancouver in 1956, i t became possible to use this form of energy to generate electric power at a large load centre. The Port Mann plant was thus constructed to provide standby thermal power in the Lower Mainland region. Since that time, the B.C. Power Commission has also constructed gas-diesel plants at Prince George, Quesnel, Fort St. John, and Williams Lake to use natural gas from the Peace River region. The Burrard Thermal plant is able to utilize either natural gas or o i l as fuel. Oil has also been utilized in the Georgia Generating plant on Vancouver Island. Here, the lack of - 157 -further hydro-electric potential made i t necessary for the B.C. Power Commission to install thermal power. Oil-diesel units also operate in small towns and villages of the interior plateau where demands have been relatively small and the hydro-electric sites do not lend themselves to small-scale developments. Finally, mention must be made of the use of wood in producing electric power. In the early years of electric power development, several of the sawmills utilized logs and wood-waste as fuel for thermal plants. The early steam plant at Kamloops was built to use either wood or coal. As more and more companies turned to hydro-electric power in the early days of power in British Columbia, the use of wood declined. However, in recent years, several of the pulp and paper mills (see Table 8 ) have turned once more to utilizing wood-waste for steam and for electric power generation. British Columbia possesses coal, petroleum, natural gas and wood resources as well as water resources which may be used for the creation of electric power. To date, i t has been found more economical to utilize the smaller hydro-electric sites close to load centre than to use the other forms of energy for generating electricity. The possible exception to this is the use of by-product wood-waste in the lumbering and pulp and paper industries. Generating stations have now been constructed on most of the readily available sites. Therefore, the electric utilities and industrial concerns must look now to the large, but more distant hydro-electric sites; or, i f these prove too large for the demand or too costly to construct, they must turn to the other sources of energy for electric power generation. - 158 -Until the Aluminum Company of Canada constructed the Kitimat -Kamano project in 1954» the location of population centres, or of raw materials dictated the location of electric generating stations. The Kamano project was the first in which the hydro-electric site dictated the location of an industry and of a population centre. As long as British Columbia continues to rely on hydro-electric power, this trend will continue. Only i f conventional fuels are used, and then possibly only petroleum and natural gas, will future generating stations be popula-tion oriented. In 1910, the largest hydro-electric unit, which had been installed, had a rating of 13,450 KW. By 1920, the limit of efficiency for turbines and generators had been approached. Since that time, only the size of the site and the demand for power has limited the size of generating units. This has been true for thermal installations as well as hydro-electric units. Table 2 shows that in 1909, installations in British Columbia tended to be in units of 100 to 150 KW except for the two major companies where units of up to 5,000 KW had been installed. The unit size of installa-tions increased through the years as demand increased. To date the 105,600 KW units of the Aluminum Company's plant at Kemano are the largest hydro-electric generating units installed, while the B.C. Hydro's 150,000 KW units at Burrard Thermal plant form the largest thermal installation. Transmission of power has been a more limited factor on the development of distant hydro-electric sites. As the distance that electric energy can travel varies inversely with the voltage of the line, as long as line voltage was low, the distances which power could - 159 -travel were short. Lines were developed to take the higher voltages but in some cases the line hardware such as insulators and conductors did not keep pace. This was true as recently as 1954 when Bruce Cooper stated, regarding the transmission line from Kemano to Kitimat, that 287 KV had been chosen because "St i l l higher voltages were precluded, primarily, by the limitations of available electrical equipment. 287$KV was at or above the upper limit of voltage proven in service...and line hardware for volt-92 ages above that voltage is special." Since that time, much research has been done on high-voltage transmission with the result that the projected intertie between the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration is set for transmission at 500 KV. Thus, the technological developments in the transmission of elect, trie power have now reached the stage where i t will be possible to transmit the power generated at the Peace River some 580 miles at 500 KV to the population centre of the province. In the past, sites close to the centre of load were chosen because (l) they were within the technological range of transmission to the load centre and (2) they were more easily developed. Now this technological range has been greatly increased, and, costs, availability of site, and other factors being equal, there is no reason why electric power should not be developed at the best hydro-electric sites and transported to the market. Developments in generation and transmission have played and are 92. Bruce Cooper and D.G. Dunbar, "Design and Construction of the Transmission Line", The Alcan Nechako-Demano-Kitimat Development re-printed from The Engineering Journal November, 1954 and April 1953, P»42 - 160 -playing a very definite part in the evolution of electric power in British Columbia as from the three arc lamps built in Victoria by Robert Burns McMicking, the electric power industry has forged ahead until, by the end of 1961, British Columbia had an installed generating capacity of 3,000,011 KW. This growth is portrayed in Table 9-, and Figure 1 and Map 19. The installation of electric power plants started slowly; then increased rapidly until 1930 and the beginning of the Depression. Capacity, installed just prior to that date, was not utilized as quickly as fore-casted and so few new installations were made for some time. By the time additional capacity was needed, World War II had started and i t was imposs-ible to obtain the necessary permits, labour and materials to construct new plants. This resulted in power shortages toward the end of the war and immediate activity after i t . A study of Map 19 will show that the general picture up until the latest period, has been one of dispersion. There were two centres of con-centration in the southwestern and southeastern portions of the province, but the majority of the generating stations were small and scattered. They were essentially market oriented. It is only since 1945 that the general pattern has become more concentrated. As the market increased, the small local station often could not expand to meet demand. Nearby hydro-electric power sites were either fully utilized or too small and so i t became necessary to look for the possible economies of integrated large scale operations. Although the new generating plants were inclined to be more resource than market oriented, the costs of transmission had to be taken - 1 6 2 -M A P 19 - 163 -into account i f low-cost power was desired. For this reason, sites as close to the market as possible were chosen. These too, became exhausted and so the central electric agencies began to build thermal plants. Up until the mid nineteen-fifties, thermal power had played a relatively minor role in the total power picture in British Columbia. Most existing thermal plants were small diesel plants, built in isolated communities, or steam plants built to utilize fuel which was a by-product of a manufactur-ing process, such as the wood-waste from a lumbering operation. At the end of 1961, a trend toward dispersion is noticeable once again. However, instead of numerous small generating stations scattered throughout the province there will be several large installations built at major hydro-electric sites, the power being brought by long distance, high-voltage transmission to load centres. In the early days of electric power in British Columbia, technology had not advanced to the point where electricity could be transmitted far from the site of the generating station. Even as technology improved, long distance transmission was slow to follow in a province where the market was small and scattered, and the terrain difficult for economic construction. Map 20 shows that by 1910, the only major lines that had been built were in the two regions of concentrated generating capacity, where the market too, was most densely concentrated. Map 20 shows that transmission lines remained concentrated in these two areas up until the last period. Only as nearby hydro-electric sites became fully utilized, and i t became necessary to build new and larger generating stations, resource oriented, did the transmission network really spread. A - 165 -comparison of Maps 1 to 6 (in envelope), shows how voltages have been increased over the years, allowing greater quantities of power to be transmitted over longer distances to consumers. Figure 1 relates the amount of electric power actually generated to what could have been generated i f the generating stations had operated to f u l l capacity. This relationship, or plant factor, is also shown on Table 1. During the nineteen-twenties, there is a wide gap between gener-ating capacity and actual generation; a fact which reflects the large-scale construction programme being carried on. The population was s t i l l small and consumption low, but increased demands were forecast. Also, because most customers of the municipal and private utilities were resi-dential and commercial, the load factors were low, and there was a great difference between the base and peak load. Since there had to be suffic-ient capacity to cover the peak load, i t meant that there was idle capac-ity during much of the time. In Chapter I i t is stated that the greater the load factor, the greater the economy of operation in the utility or industrial concern. It is interesting to note from Tables 2, 4, 6 and 8 the load factors for major British Columbia companies over the years. Industrial concerns such as Alcan and Cominco show high load factors because of the even demand made upon the electric power facilities. On the other hand, u t i l -ities such as the B.C. Electric Company and B.C. Power Commission which rely heavily on domestic and commercial customers have lower load factors. Here the uneven demands for electric lighting in stores and offices coin-cide with domestic demands for cooking and lighting. As these companies - 166 -have built up industrial accounts over the years, there has been some improvement in the total load factor for the Province as shown in Table 9* System load capability is based on the nameplate ratings of the generators and since most generators can produce more power than indicated by the nameplate rating, figures in excess of 100$ may occur. During the period from 1930 to 1945, there was little construction of new capacity. However, population continued to increase; after the early days of the depression, consumption increased, and consequently Figure 1 and Table B show an increase in plant factor from 30-35$ in the 1920*s to 55-60$ in the thirties. By the end of the war, generating capacity was just able to meet the peak demand and there was danger of a shortage. New construction began immediately and capacity has been added at an ever increasing rate so that over four-and-half times as much generat-ing plant has been added in the yeais 1946-1961 as was built in the preced-ing years. That this capacity was needed is reflected in the fact that plant factors have remained about 50$. Table 10 shows that the total con-sumption per capita has increased to almost three times what i t was at the beginning of the period; residential consumption almost five times. It is also interesting to note that in 1961, industrial use of electric power accounted for 8,864,524 thousand kilowatt hours of the total 13,204,453,000 k.w.h. generated, or 67.1$. On the other hand, street lighting accounted for only .6$. Although new applications of electric power did help to bring about increased consumption, consumption of electricity in British Columbia was - 167 -s t i l l low in comparison with the rest of Canada in 1944. At that time the Progress Report of the Rural Electrification Committee stated: "It has been shown that the average annual consumption for domestic purposes throughout the Province is less than half that of comparably sized commun-93 ities in Ontario and that the average unit cost is more than double." ^  The population of the province was small and therefore the number of customers few. The customers were scattered necessitating many small gen-erating plants or long transmission lines. This meant a high cost per customer for the electric authority. Also, since many of the major indus-tries produced their own electricity, there were few large power customers to increase overall load and thus decrease the cost per kilowatt-hour gen-erated. As a result electric rates were high. Rates had been cut over the years as indicated by a comparison of Tables 1, 3, 5 and .7; but they were s t i l l very high in comparison with the rest of Canada, especially up to 1945. As the rates declined, consump-tion of electricity increased. How much of this increased consumption can be attributed to the lowered rates and how much to new technology is d i f f i -cult to ascertain. However, a study of Table 15 does show the increased consumption which followed the establishment of the B.C. Power Commission in 1945 and the subsequent reduction of rates in the areas served by the Commission. These major rate reductions were made possible through the centralization of numerous small generating systems under one authority, which allowed for greater economies of operation. Also, because this 93* B.C. Rural Electrification Committee, Progress Report, p. 81 - 168 -authority was government owned, i t paid no income tax and was able to borrow money at some one to one-and-a-half percent lower interest rate than could the smaller privately owned companies, thus further reducing the cost per kilowatt-hour generated. Another factor has also influenced electric power consumption in the post-war period. This has been a period of major economic activity. The value of industrial production increased from 615 million dollars in 1946 to 1,898 million dollars in 1961. At the same time, wages also increased by some 65$. This increased income together with the availability of new appliances played a major part in the increase of electric power consumed. In order to meet this increased demand, new generating stations and transmission lines had to be built. As nearby sources of electric power became fully utilized, i t became necessary to look farther afield and to new sources of power. Thus increased use plus reduced cost have aided in the development of electric power in British Columbia. As the number of municipalities in British Columbia, being served by electric power grew, so too did the number of agencies supplying elec-tricity. In 1909, 23 agencies supplied electric power. By 1930 this had increased to 41, and by 1944 to 65. Many of these agencies were small, serving only a few customers and as a result the rates were high and the plants uneconomic. Because of the costs involved few agencies were able to extend transmission and distribution lines to bring power to the sur-rounding rural areas. Basically, up until 1944, the pattern of electric power development in the province was one of dispersion with only two major centres of concentration. In southwestern British Columbia, the - 169 -B.C. Electric Company Limited served the region of major population con-centration. Because of the size of operation necessary to provide ade-quate amounts of electricity to Vancouver and Victoria, this Company was able to expand its services to the nearby rural areas. Also, the relative density of customers meant lower unit cost and consequently lower rates. In the southeastern part of the province, West Kootenay Power and Light Company could also expand services but for a different reason. Most of the power produced by this Company was sold to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited for use in their smelting opera-tions. This meant a high load factor. Therefore, although the number of domestic and commercial customers was low, unit cost was also low and money could be made available for the expansion of the transmission sys-tem to the other areas. Also, as i t was pointed out earlier, many of the small agencies providing power found i t more economical to close the local generating plant and to contract for the purchase of bulk power from one of the large agencies. Thus costs could be kept down and the rates low-ered. There is no doubt that the consolidation of many of these small agencies into the B.C. Power Commission has been instrumental in improving service to many people who had electric power prior to 1945. Also by having the capital necessary to install new and larger plants and to increase transmission line mileage, the Power Commission has been able to spread electric service to communities hitherto without power. Thus by 1961, the picture of electric power developments in British Columbia had changed from one of almost complete dispersion to one of relative conceh-- 170 -tration. This change in the organization of electric power systems over the years can be seen on Map 21. In making the above statement concerning the role played by the B.C. Power Commission in the development of electric power in British Columbia, there is no intention of stating a preference for government ownership of electric power. It is stated in the Progress Report of the Rural Electrification Committee that: "There are in Canada, the United States, and other countries examples of self-sustaining electric utilities, distinguished by progressive expansion of facilities, increased per customer use of electricity and reduced average cost to the public. Such examples are to be found under private ownership and public ownership controls. There are too under both types of control, examples of so-called electric utilities that are more or less than self-sustaining, and are marked by no expan-sion of facilities a limited per customer use of electricity and high average unit costs to the public, none of which is rendering the highest standard of service. In this day when both types of control have been tried and both found wanting in some cases, and when both have proven highly efficient in other cases, i t has been amply proved that the success of a utility does not depend upon any inherent qualities of public or private control. The success of a u t i l -ity depends upon the efficiency of the administration and the zeal of competent management, and to conclude that these are to be found exclusively under either private or public forms of ownership is to betray ignorance of the utility business or a personal interest in the one or the other form."94 The important thing is to have an agency or agencies large enough to "provide electrical service to the largest number of people at the low-est possible cost by the intelligent co-ordination of capital, management 95 a^nd labour...." 94. Ibid, p. 19 95. loc. cit. -172-M A P 2\ - 173 -No discussion of the part played by the agencies developing electric power and the total development of the industry would be complete without mention of the industrial producers of electricity in British Columbia. In contrast to most others areas where industrial concerns purchase power from large utilities, the major industrial consumers of electricity in British Columbia produce their own electricity. The nature of British Columbia's major industries - forest products, mining and smelting - made i t necessary that the industry be situated close to the raw materials. Since these were often far from centres of population concentration and thus far from centres of electric power developed for a residential and commercial load, i t was less expensive for the industrial concern to manufacture its own power than for transmission lines to be built to the industrial site from the major load centres. In fact, in the early days of electricity, technology had not been developed to the point where this could be done. The fact of these power developments is one of the factors behind the dispersed picture of electric power development up to 1945. The distribution of electric power facilities by type of agency can be seen on Map 21 and on Maps 1 to 6. This trend for industry to produce its own power has persisted. Of the total of 8,864,524,000 k.w.h. consumed by industrial customers in 1961, 6,400,183,000 k.w.h. or 72.2$ was generated by industry for its own use. So persistent has been this trend in British Columbia, that the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, which at first bought power from West Kootenay Power and Lights Gojtepany, bought out the latter Company in 1916. West Kootenay Power and Light Company operated as a subsidiary until 1947, - 174 -selling much of its power to the parent organization. In 1947, however, the parent body bought out a l l but one generating station so that now the power is produced by Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company for use in its own plant. The use of electricity by industry largely accounts for the high overall per capita consumption of electricity. Also, when industry devel-oped power for its own use, i t usually was able also to supply the residen-tial and commercial needs of the industrial site; and in a few cases could supply power to nearby communities, communities which might have found i t too expensive to provide their own electric power. Government, provincial and municipal, has played an important role in the development of electric power in British Columbia also. In the early days of the industry, i t was municipal government which played the major role. In most municipalities, i t was the town administration which was first responsible for bringing electricity to the community, often in the form of street-lighting. Many municipalities felt that electric power could be developed most efficiently by the municipality itself. As the consumption of electric power increased, however, some communities discov-ered that they could not provide adequate service at reasonable rates and so were forced either to sell the electric system to a private utility or to arrange for the purchase of power in bulk from such an agency, while maintaining the distribution system. As the private agencies became more powerful, there was a demand that the provincial government provide a regulatory body to be "watch-dog" over these utilities in order to see that they maintained adequate service - 175 -at a reasonable cost. A Public Utilities Commission was established in 1919, only to be dissolved the following year when the B.C. Electric Railway Company applied for a franchise under the federal government. Agitation continued, however, and a Commission was finally appointed in 1938. Appraisals of the major utilities followed. These, in turn, were followed by substantial rate reductions, or, in the case of the B.C. Electric Railway Company, by one or two months "free" electricity for the following three years. These rate changes made a considerable difference to the electric bills paid by a large number of electric power customers, but they were s t i l l high. Also, while the number of customers per capita was high, i t was felt that there was considerable room for the expansion of electric facilities to rural areas. As a result the government established a Rural Electrification Committee, in 1943. The purpose of this Committee was to survey the electrical services of the province, with particular reference to rural areas. The Committee made two reports, the final one in January 1945* Its recommendations, as stated earlier, led to the establishment of the B.C. Power Commission and the active participation of the provincial government in electric power development in the province. Consolidation of numerous small electric operations followed; new and larger generating stations were built; and new transmission lines brought power to sections of the province not hitherto provided with electricity. During the period of economic growth which followed after 1945» the consumption of electric power increased greatly. Soon private utilities, - 176 -industrial concerns, and the provincial government were investigating new and larger sources of hydro-electric power. With the exception of the Kitimat project of the Aluminum Company, none of the large schemes envis-aged were carried out. In most cases, i t was found that an insufficient market and high transmission costs made the schemes impractical. Never-theless, the provincial government f e l i that the development of at least some of these projects could lead to the economic development of parts of the province so far underdeveloped, and so, in order to provide a market for this electric power when developed, the government passed the Power Development Act of August 1, 1961 expropriating the B.C. Electric Company and bringing i t under government control. By thus providing a major market for future power developments, the province could plan for and oversee almost the entire future development of hydro-electric power in British Columbia. Electric power generating capacity in British Columbia has grown from zero to 3,000,011 KW in less than eighty years. At the same time, the population has increased from 49,000 to over 1,629,000. Industrial produc-tion has likewise increased greatly. A study of Table 13, and Figure 10 will serve to illustrate the increases over the years, particularly in the last half of the period. The question which arises is "What relationship is there, i f any, between the increase in generating capacity and growth in production?". The early settlers of British Columbia were interested in the fur trade. Following these came those seeking mineral wealth; the railroad builders; the loggers; the fishermen and farmers; and finally the manu-- 177 -facturers. There had always been manufacturing in British Columbia, but i t was carried on on a small scale until the twenties. During the depress-ion a l l industry suffered. It recovered during the war and since that time has gone forward at a greatly increased rate. There is no doubt that the availability of electric power has played a part in this development. J.V. Rogers in his paper "Power, the Pathway 96 to Progress" outlines the part played by electric power in the development of the large smelting and refining complex at Trail. The availability of large-scale, low-cost hydro-electric power motivated the establishment of the aluminum smelter at Kitimat. Also, the availability of power has been important in the growth of the pulp and paper industry. In other indus-tries too, the use of power is important but not as Important as in the smelting, refining, and forest product industries. Because i t is these latter industries which are important to the general economic development of British Columbia, i t is evident that electric power has had an important part to play in the economic growth of the province. It is important in studying the relationship between the use of electricity and economic development to know whether the industry developed because there was low-cost power available, or whether the industry devel-oped out of other considerations such as availability of the raw materials, and that the electric power for processing was of secondary consideration. In the case of the aluminum smelter at Kitimat, there is no doubt that the presence of a large hydro-electric site was instrumental in the establish-96. J.V. Rogers, op. cit. p. 262 - 1 7 8 -ment of the smelter, though even here, the fact that i t was on tidewater was also of consequence. In the case of the Cominco complex at Trail and Kimberley, i t was the presence of high grade ores and available coal which first gave impetus to the industry. In the pulp and paper industry, i t is the availability of suitable forest wealth, then available water for processing, and only then the availability of electric power which is important. The electric power industry has spread throughout British Columbia in the eighty years since the first installation was made but in a l l cases, excepting Kitimat, i t has followed population. After population has moved into a region, there has come a demand for electricity. Perhaps this will change in the future. The building of the large Peace River hydro-electric project will show i f this will happen. In this case, the electric power will be available in advance of any major population growth. It will be interesting to observe i f large scale economic development does follow in that region. Generally speaking, i t is the opinion of the writer, that while electric power plays an important part in the economic development of British Columbia, other factors, such as the availability of raw mater-ials and population growth play just as important a part. - 179 -VII BIBLIOGRAPHY Government Reports Baltzer, CE. and W.H. Harper. Power Briefs. 2nd ed. Ottawa, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Mines Branch, Fuels Division, 1958. l l l p . B.C. Dept. of Lands, Forests and Water Resources. Water Resources Service. Water powers of British Columbia. Canada: annual review 1960-1963. B.C. Energy Board. Report on Columbia and Peace Power pro.iects. Victoria, Queen's printer, 1961. 32p. B.C. 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MUNICIPALITIES SERVED BY ELECTRIC POWER 19 09 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N (1911) S E R V E D B Y A S H C R O F T B R I T A N N I A B E A C H B U R N A B Y C A S C A D E C H A S E 600 C O A L C R E E K 500 C R A N B R O O K 3,090 E N D E R B Y 835 E S Q U I M A L T F E R N 1 E 3,1146 G O L D E N 900 G R A N D F O R K S 1,577 G R E E N W O O D 778 K A M L O O P S 3,772 K A S L O 722 K E L O W N A 1,663 L A D Y S M I T H 138 M I C H E L 1,100 N A N A I M O 8,168 N E L S O N 4,476 N E W D E N V E R 300 N E W W E S T M I N S T E R " . 13,199 N O R T H V A N C O U V E R 8,196 O A K B A Y P E A C H L A N D 385 P H O E N I X 662 P O I N T G R E Y 4,320 P O R T M O O D Y R E V E L S T O K E 3,150 R I C H M O N D R O S S L A N D 2,826 S A N D O N 151 S O U T H V A N C O U V E R 16,126 S U M M E R L A N D 2,500 S W A N S O N B A Y T R A I L 1,460 V A N C O U V E R 98,047 V I C T O R I A 31,660 A S H C R O F T W A T E R , E L E C T R I C A N D I M P R O V E M E N T S C O . B R I T A N N I A M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . A D A M S R I V E R L U M B E R C O . C R O w ' s N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . C R A N B R O O K E L E C T R I C L I G H T C O . O K A N A G A N S A W M I L L S L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . ^ M U N I C I P A L P L A N T G O L D E N L I G H T , P O W E R A N D W A T E R C O . M U N I C I P A L C O N T R O L — P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . G R E E N W O O D C I T Y W A T E R W O R K S C O . M U N I C I P A L P L A N T M U N I C I P A L P L A N T M U N I C I P A L P L A N T M U N I C I P A L P L A N T C R O w ' s N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O ^ N A N A I M O E L E C T R I C L I G H T , P O W E R A N D H E A T I N G C O . M U N I C I P A L P L A N T D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L C O N T R O L — P O W E R F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L P L A N T P H O E N I X E L E C T R I C L I G H T I N G C O . — P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L P L A N T B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . S A N D O N W A T E R W O R K S A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L P L A N T W H A L E N P U L P A N D P A P E R M I L L S L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . S O U R C E S — C A N A D A , D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E I N T E R I O R , D O M I N I O N W A T E R P O W E R B R A N C H , C E N T R A L E L E C T R I C S T A T I O N S IN C A N A D A . 1919. D E N I S , L E O G . E L E C T R I C G E N E R A T I O N A N D D I S T R I B U T I O N IN C A N A D A . 1918. TABLE 2 V ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 19 09 I N S T A L L E D C A P A C I T Y ( K W ) H Y D R O / T H E R M A L M A J O R U S E S Y S T E M P L A N T F A C T O R T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) 2 1 — 4 0 K V 4 1 — 6 0 K V 61 — I 0 0 K V 1 0 1 — 2 0 0 K V O V E R 2 0 0 K V A D A M S R I V E R L U M B E R C O . A S H C R O F T W A T E R , E L E C T R I C A N D I M P R O V E M E N T S C O . B R I T A N N I A M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . C R A N B R O O K E L E C T R I C L I G H T C O . C R O W S N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . F E R N I E M U N I C I P A L I T Y D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . G O L D E N L I G H T , P O W E R A N D W A T E R C O . G R E E N W O O D C I T Y W A T E R W O R K S C O . K A M L O O P S M U N I C I P A L I T Y K A S L O M U N I C I P A L I T Y K E L O W N A M U N I C I P A L I T Y L A D Y S M 1 T H M U N I C I P A L I T Y N A N A I M O E L E C T R I C L I G H T , P O W E R A N D H E A T I N G C O . N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y O K A N A G A N S A W M I L L S L T D . P E A C H L A N D M U N I C I P A L I T Y R E V E L S T O K E M U N I C I P A L I T Y S A N D O N W A T E R W O R K S A N D L I G H T C O . S U M M E R L A N D M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W H A L E N P U L P A N D P A P E R M I L L S L T D . ISO S T E A M W O O D S A W M I L L N O I N F O R M A T I O N O N P L A N T I N S T A L L E D I N 1899 I , 3 0 0 1 8 , 2 2 0 H Y D R O , S T E A M H Y D R O , S T E A M A U X I L I A R Y 4 5 150 H Y D R O S T E A M H Y D R O O I L O I L S L A C K C O A L S L A C K C O A L S T E A M F R O M B O I L E R S C O P P E R M I N I N G B U L K T O N E W W E S T M I N S T E R L I G H T I N G M A N U F A C T U R I N G T R A N S P O R T A T I O N L I G H T I N G M I N I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G -S A W M I L L L I G H T I N G N O I N F O R M A T I O N O N S T E A M 120 2 9 5 115 150 1 , 7 5 0 7 5 50 7 0 0 7 0 H Y D R O S T E A M S T E A M H Y D R O H Y D R O S T E A M H Y D R O H Y D R O G A S E N G I N E L I G H T I N G P L A N T I N S T A L L E D I N 1896 L I G H T I N G W O O D C O A L S A W D U S T L 1 G H T 1 N G P E A C O A L L I G H T I N G S T E A M F R O M B O I L E R S L I G H T I N G M A N U F A C T U R I N G L I G H T I N G M A N U F A C T U R I N G S A W M I L L L I G H T I N G H Y D R O N O I N F O R M A T I O N O N P L A N T 2 5 , 2 5 0 H Y D R O H Y D R O L I G H T I N G P E A C O A L L I G H T I N G . L I G H T I N G . S M E L T I N G L I G H T I N G M A N U F A C T U R I N G T R A N S P O R T A T I O N M I L L L I G H T I N G . ) A P P R O X . 5 5 % A P P R O X . A P P R O X . 1 5 % A P P R O X . 3 4 % A P P R O X . 6 0 % A P P R O X . A P P R O X . 9 6 % 4 8 (1 1 K V ) 6 9 ( 3 4 . 6 K V ) 1 I ( 1 2 K V ) 8 5 ( 2 0 K V ) 170 ( 6 0 K V ) S O U R C E S — C A N A D A , D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E I N T E R I O R , D O M I N I O N W A T E R P O W E R B R A N C H , C E N T R A L E L E C T R I C S T A T I O N S I N C A N A D A . 1 9 1 9 . P . 2 6 — 4 9 D E N I S , L E O G . E L E C T R I C G E N E R A T I O N A N D D I S T R I B U T I O N I N C A N A D A . 1 9 1 8 . P . 2 1 2 — 2 3 0 T A B L E 3 M U N I C I P A L I T I E S S E R V E D B Y E L E C T R I C P O W E R 19 29 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1931 S E R V E D B Y N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L I N D U S T R I A L K W H U S E D A G A S S I Z A L B E R N I A L D E R G R O V E A L L E N B Y A R M S T R O N G A S H C R O F T A S H N O L A B A L F O U R B E V A N B O N N 1 N G T O N B O U N D A R Y F A L L S B R O U S E B U L L R I V E R B U R N A B Y B U R N S L A K E C A S C A D E C A S T L E G A R C H A S E C H E M A I N U S C H I L L I W A C K C L A Y B U R N C O A L C R E E K C O A L M O N T C O L D S T R E A M C O M O X C O P P E R M O U N T A I N C O Q U I T L A M C O U R T E N A Y C R A N B R O O K C U M B E R L A N D D E L T A D E W D N E Y D U N C A N E L K O E N D E R B Y 25,564 202 2,461 4,871 I ,219 3,067 2,371 3,709 1 ,843 555 I ) 2) C H 1 L L I W A C K E L E C T R I C C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M P O R T A L B E R N I 195 A L D E R G R O V E E L E C T R I C L I G H T S Y S T E M 15 W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L P L A N T 370 A S H C R O F T W A T E R , E L E C T R I C A N D I M P R O V E M E N T C O . 72 W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . N A K U S P E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . R . M . R U D D Y E L E C T R I C C O . 8 W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . A D A M S R I V E R L U M B E R C O . 98 V I C T O R I A L U M B E R I N G A N D M A N U F A C T U R I N G C O . 175 C H I L L I W A C K E L E C T R I C C O . 26 C L A Y B U R N C O . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . 20 C R O w ' s N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . C O A L M O N T C O L L I E R I E S L T D . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M V E R N O N 79 M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F C O U R T E N A Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S 400 ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . 811 M 1 N T O E L E C T R I C L I G H T , H E A T A N D P O W E R L T D . B U Y S IN B U L K 30 F R O M C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . C U M B E R L A N D E L E C T R I C L I G H T I N G C O . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M 510 C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . ( C O N T R O L L E D B Y I N T E R N A T I O N A L 346 U T I L I T I E S C O R P . ) E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y 147 24 3 46,130 I 5 0 / K W H , I 0 % D I S C . 4,500 18fZ!/KWH 20 27 27 132 61 S A W M I L L S A W M I L L C L A Y P R O D U C T S C O A L M I N E S C O A L M I N E S 254,000 21,000 5,200 ,148,000 46,500 913,315 21,279 481,600 862,000 14,960 266,338 455,490 I 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 7 . 5 8 V K W H — P O W E R 3 0 - 2 5 0 / K W H A C C O R D I N G T O A M T . U S E D 2 2 ^ / K W H I 0 0 / K W H l O g / K W H 500/40 W A T V A M P 1 5 — 1 0 0 / K W H — L I G H 1 6 £ / K W H — P O W E R 10—5<2!/KWH — L I G H T 6 — I . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — 4 0 / K W H — C O O K I N G 1 0 — 8 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5 . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 4 - 5 ^ / K W H — L I G H T 10— 5 « ! / K W H — P O W E R 1 3 - 6 « ; K W H — L I G H T 6 — 4 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 4 — 8 0 / K W H — L I G H T 8 - 3 . 5 « y K W H — P O W E R 30 78,070 2 2 — 1 2 0 / K W H T A B L E 3 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N J93I S E R V E D B Y N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L I N D U S T R I A L K W H U S E D R A T E S E S Q U I M A L T F A I R V I E W F E R N I E F I E L D G O L D E N G R A N D F O R K S G R A N I T E G R E E N W O O D H A R R O P H E A D Q U A R T E R S H E D L E Y H O P E J A M E S I S L A N D K A M L O O P S K A S L O K E L O W N A K E N T K E R E M E O S K I L G A R D K I M B E R L E Y L A D Y S M I T H L A N G L E Y M A P L E R I D G E M A T S Q U I M C B R I D E M E R R I T T M I C H E L M I S S I O N M O Y 1 E N A K U S P N A N A I M O N A R A M A T A N A T A L N E L S O N N E W D E N V E R N E W W E S T M I N S T E R 3,724 2,732 I ,298 171 6,167 523 4,655 1 ,207 I ,443 5,537 4,932 3,835 I ,296 3,593 6,745 5,992 306 17,524 B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F N E L S O N 1) M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . 2) I) 2) E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y G O L D E N L I G H T , W A T E R A N D P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F N E L S O N C O M O X L O G G I N G A N D R A I L W A Y C O . H E D L E Y G O L D M I N I N G C O . H O P E T R A D I N G A N D S U P P L Y C O . C A N A D I A N E X P L O S I V E S L T D . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N ICI P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C H I L L I W A C K E L E C T R I C C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C L A Y B U R N C O . C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . C A N A D I A N N A T I O N A L R A I L W A Y S M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M C A N A D I A N N A T I O N A L R A I L W A Y S M U N I C I P A L I T Y C R O w ' s N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . F R O M K I M B E R L E Y N A K U S P E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . N A N A I M O E L E C T R I C L I G H T , P O W E R A N D H E A T I N G C O . ( C O N T R O L L E D B Y I N T E R N A T I O N A L U T I L I T I E S C O R P . ) W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C 930 69 .76 130 345 51 20 75 I ,170 841 43 158 2,500 I ,500 160 4,651 8 30 B 13 2 276 36 170 300 37 231 1 I R A I L W A Y E X P L O S I V E S M F G . MINING R A I L W A Y M I N I N G 65 179,634 200,000 I 0 - 4 « ! / K W H - L I G H T 7 g ! / K W H — P O W E R $ 1 . — . 7 5 / M T H / 4 0 W A T T L A M P 1 3 - 5 ^ / K W H — L I G H T 5—3.5<Z/KWH — P O W E R 93,575 1 0 - 5 0 / K W H 7,000,000 9,120 25,995 6,263,220 362,743 1,281,500 29,306,84 9 60^/40 W A T T L A M P 2 0 8 I / K W H I .25— 1 ^ / K W H 1 4 — 8 ^ / K W H — L I G H T 3 g / K W H — C O O K I N G 6— I g / K W H — P O W E R 1.25—.825<i;/KWH — L I G H T , 2. 75—1 . 75(2/ K W H — P O W E R 8 ^ / K W H — L I G H T S ' - J ^ / K W H — P O W E R I 0 - 6 C I / K W H - L I G H 1 3 ^ / K W H — H E A T 223,457 I 4 « ! / K W H 14,143 1 6 ^ / K W H 265,580 20— 1 7 ^ / K W H 5 0 « ! / 4 0 W A T T L A M P 4,334,000 I 0 # / K W H 37,500 2,289,745 I 2 - 6 0 / K W H - L I G H T 8 — 3 ^ / K W H — P O W E R 8,016,300 10— , 5 ^ / K W H — L I G H T 5 — 2 ^ / K W H — P O W E R 100,740 I .66—I . S ^ / K W H — L T . 2 . 5 - 2 ^ / K W H — P O W E R 3,535,509 9 — 4 « ! / K W H — L I G H T 5 ( £ / K W H — P O W E R TABLE 3 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1931 S E R V E D B Y N I C O M E N N O R T H V A N C O U V E R O A K B A Y O C E A N F A L L S 13 ,298 5,892 B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y P A C I F I C M I L L S L T D . O K A N A G A N F A L L S O K A N A G A N M I S S I O N O L I V E R P E A C H L A N D P E N T I C T O N 318 4,640 W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . P H O E N IX P I T T M E A D O W S P O I N T G R E Y P O R T A L B E R N I 832 2,356 W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O R T A L I C E B . C . P U L P A N D P A P E R C O . P O R T M O O D Y P O W E L L R I V E R I ,260 B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . P O W E L L R I V E R C O . P R I N C E G E O R G E P R I N C E R U P E R T 2,479 6,350 M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y P R I N C E T O N P R O C T O R R E V E L S T O K E R I C H M O N D R O C K C R E E K R O S S L A N D 2,736 8,182 2,848 P R I N C E T O N C O A L A N D L A N D C O . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . R O Y S T O N S A A N 1 C H S A L M O N A R M 12,968 830 R O Y S T O N L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y S A N D O N S 1 C A M O U S S 1 L V E R T O N S M I T H E R S S O U T H S L O C A N S O U T H V A N C O U V E R S Q U A M 1 S H 272 999 202 S A N D O N W A T E R W O R K S A N D L I G H T C O . C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . S M I T H E R S E L E C T R I C L T D . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M C . N . R . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . P A C I F I C G R E A T E A S T E R N R A I L W A Y S T E W A R T S U M A S S U M M E R L A N D 610 1,812 1 ,791 I N T E R N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S K W H U S E D D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L I N D U S T R I A L R A T E S .27 378 P U L P A N D P A P E R 22,730 67,525,000 8fZ!/KWH 1 S T 4 0 K W H F R E E R E S T 2 . 5 « ; / K W H 105 1 ,052 5 256 92,133 3 7 . 5 — 2 0 0 / L A M P 793,600 1 2 — 8 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 . 5 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — C O O K I N G , I — S j l / K W H — P O W E R 260 160 13 373,054 I2-7<Z/KWH - L I G H T 4 0 / K W H — P O W E R 90 P U L P A N D P A P E R 465 I ,327 187 125 384 6, P U L P A N D P A P E R 10 86 59,338,244 310,000 7,609,251 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 2 2 — I 4 « ; / K W H 8—2CI/KWH — L I G H T 4— .5<Z!/KWH — P O W E R 93,330 1 5 — 2 0 / K W H 778 2,249,000 I 0 - 4 8 I / K W H - L I G H T 5 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 2 ,000 15 596,387,618 1 0 — 4 « ! / K W H — L I G H T S M E L T I N G 3 — . 0 0 4 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9,460 1 4 — 7 0 / K W H 162 50 I 75,795 1 6 0 / K W H — L I G H T 8 ^ / K W H — P O W E R 85 10 115,000 7 - 3 0 / C . P . 20 R A I L W A Y 86,194 I 5 C I / K W H 112 38 53,949 I B - l ^ / K W H 3 83,176 I I — 4 g / K W H — L I G H T R A I L W A Y 6 — 2 0 / K W H — P O W E R 5 302,400 1 5 — 3 0 / K W H 10 - 100,340 1 4 — I 1 0 / K W H TABLE 3 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1931 S E R V E D B Y N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S K W H U S E D D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L I N D U S T R I A L R A T E S S U R R E Y 8,388 T A D A N A C 464 T E R R A C E 352 T R A I L 7,573 U N I O N B A Y V A N C O U V E R 246,593 X V E R N O N 3,685 V I C T O R I A 39,082 W E S T F E R N I E W E S T V A N C O U V E R 4,786 B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O — E L E C T R I C C O R P . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F F E R N I E B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . 56,291 11,435 1,197 156 16,289 1,180 2,208 350,497,176 4 . 5 - 2 < Z j / K W H - L I G H T 4 . 5 — 2 0 / K W H — P O W E R 50 1,460,000 10— [ , 5 ^ / K W H — L I G H T 5—I. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 457 61,676,725 7 0 / K W H - L I G H T 7 — 2 « ! / K W H — P O W E R V A N C O U V E R P O P U L A T I O N 1931 I N C L U D E S P O I N T G R E Y A N D S O U T H V A N C O U V E R S O U R C E S — C A N A D A , D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E I N T E R I O R , D O M I N I O N W A T E R P O W E R A N D R E C L A M A T I O N S E R V I C E . C E N T R A L E L E C T R I C S T A T I O N S IN C A N A D A . 1929, P.56—97 C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , C E N T R A L E L E C T R I C S T A T I O N S IN C A N A D A 1929. C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , C E N S U S O F C A N A D A 1931. TABLE 4 ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS IN BRITISH O W N E R I N S T A L L E D H Y D R O / T H E R M A L C A P A C I T Y K . W . M A J O R U S E C H I L L 1 W A C K A L D E R G R O V E E L E C T R I C L I G H T S Y S T E M A R M S T R O N G M U N I C I P A L I T Y A S H C R O F T W A T E R , E L E C T R I C A N D I M P R O V E M E N T C O . R . M . R U D D Y E L E C T R I C C O M P A N Y A D A M S R I V E R L U M B E R C O M P A N Y V I C T O R I A L U M B E R A N D M A N U F A C T U R I N G C O . C R O w ' s N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O A L M O N T C O L L I E R I E S L I M I T E D D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L I M I T E D A P P R O X 50 A P P R O X . 90 59 5 180 3,300 I ,000 A P P R O X . 295 E N D E R B Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y L T D . 16,560 A P P R O X . 75 C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y C O . G O L D E N L I G H T , P O W E R A N D W A T E R C O M P A N Y L T D . H E D L E Y G O L D M I N I N G C O M P A N Y L T D . H O P E T R A D I N G A N D S U P P L Y C O . K A S L O M U N I C I P A L I T Y L A D Y S M I T H M U N I C I P A L I T Y M E R R I T T M U N I C I P A L I T Y N A K U S P E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y N A N A I M O E L E C T R I C L I G H T , P O W E R A N D H E A T I N G C O M P A N Y N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y , L T D . P A C I F I C M I L L S L I M I T E D P E A C H L A N D M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O R T A L B E R N I M U N I C I P A L I T Y B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P U L P A N D P A P E R C O M P A N Y L T D . P O W E L L R I V E R C O M P A N Y , L T D . P R I N C E G E O R G E M U N I C I P A L I T Y P R I N C E R U P E R T M U N I C I P A L I T Y R E V E L S T O K E M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y , L T D . S A L M O N A R M M U N I C I P A L I T Y 90 13 A P P R O X . I ,250 10 120 1 15 125 A P P R O X . 246 I ,750 A P P R O X . 90 I I ,190 50 A P P R O X . 200 7,100 17,235 A P P R O X . 200 2,000 A P P R O X . I ,700 125,075 100 H Y D R O T H E R M A L H Y D R O T H E R M A L T H E R M A L T H E R M A L T H E R M A L T H E R M A L T H E R M A L T H E R M A L H Y D R O T H E R M A L T H E R M A L H Y D R O T H E R M A L H Y D R O T H E R M A L T H E R M A L H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O T H E R M A L H Y D R O H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O T H E R M A L O I L W O O D D I E S E L C O A L W O O D O I L L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G S A W M I L L S A W M I L L M I N I N G M I N I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G M I N I N G R A I L W A Y S A W M I L L L I G H T I N G M I N I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G P U L P A N D P A P E R L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G P U L P M I L L P U L P A N D P A P E R L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G S M E L T I N G L I G H T I N G I. COLUMBIA, 1930 S Y S T E M T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) . P L A N T 0—20KV 21—40KV 41—60KV 61 —I00KV L0I—200KV O V E R 200KV F A C T O R 130 ( 6 6 K V ) 69.0 54 ( I 2 K V ) 6.7 ( 2 . 3 K V ) 104.0 3 ( 2 . 3 K V ) 7 ( 1 3 . 2 K V ) I 47 101 135 ( 2 . 2 K V ) (20KV) (60KV) (110KV) T A B L E 4 II. I N S T A L L E D H Y D R O / T H E R M A L C A P A C I T Y • K . W . M A J O R U S E S Y S T E M P L A N T F A C T O R 0—20KV T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) 21—40KV 41—60KV 61 —100KV 101—200KV O V E R 200KV S A N D O N W A T E R W O R K S A N D L I G H T P A C I F I C G R E A T E A S T E R N R A I L W A Y I N T E R N A T I O N A L E L E C T R I C C O M P A N Y C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S ( D U N S M U I R ) L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O M P A N Y L T D . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O — E L E C T R IC C O R P O R A T I O N , L T D . B R I T A N N I A M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O M P A N Y L T D . 70 II A P P R O X . 225 8,950 186,540 3,000 8,395 H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O H Y D R O O I L L I G H T I N G R A I L W A Y L I G H T I N G M I N I N G L I G H T I N G G E N E R A L P O W E R L I G H T I N G M I N I N G 36.0 33.0 76.0 12 ( I 7 . 5 K V ) 15 ( I I K V ) 273 32 ( 3 4 . 6 K V ) (60KV) S O U R C E S . 1) C A N A D A , D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E . I N T E R I O R , D O M I N I O N W A T E R P O W E R A N D R E C L A M A T I O N S E R V I C E , C E N T R A L E L E C T R I C S T A T I O N S IN C A N A D A . O T T A W A , 1929, P . 56—97 2) B . C . E N E R G Y B O A R D , H Y D R O — E L E C T R IC G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I S T I C S . TABLE 5 MUNICIPALITIES SERVED WITH ELECTRIC M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N S E R V E D B Y 1941 A B B O T S F O R D A G A S S I Z A L B E R N I A L B E R T C A N Y O N A L E R T B A Y A L L E N B Y A R M S T R O N G A S H C R O F T B A R K E R V I L L E B E L L A B E L L A B L U E R I V E R B O N N I N G T O N B O W E N I S L A N D B R I D G E R I V E R V A L L E Y B R I L L I A N T B R I T A N N I A B E A C H B U L L R I V E R B U R N A B Y B U R N S L A K E C A M P B E L L R I V E R C A N A L F L A T S C A S C A D E C A S I N O C A S T L E G A R C H A S E C H I L L I W A C K C L I N T O N C O A L C R E E K C O M O X C O P P E R M O U N T A I N C O U R T E N A Y C R A N B E R R Y L A K E C R A N B R O O K C R E S C E N T V A L L E Y C R E S T O N C R O W S N E S T C U M B E R L A N D D A W S O N C R E E K D U N C A N E L K O E L L I S O N E N D E R B Y F E R N I E F I E L D 1 , 8 0 7 9 7 7 7 5 2 2 6 7 1 , 2 0 0 I , 4 5 0 2 1 8 4 7 8 2 2 2 160 189 3 0 0 I , 7 6 7 2 5 6 2 0 3 7 0 2 189 1 , 7 3 7 2 , 5 6 8 I , 1 5 3 150 8 8 5 5 1 8 2 , 1 8 9 3 0 3 2 , 5 4 5 4 5 0 B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C S U B S I D I A R Y N A T I O N A L U T I L I T I E S C O R P . C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O - E L E C T R I C C O R P . G R A N B Y C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G , S M E L T I N G A N D P O W E R C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O — E L E C T R I C C O R P . A S H C R O F T W A T E R , E L E C T R I C A N D I M P R O V E M E N T C O . B A R K E R V I L L E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . B . C . P A C K E R S L T D . C A N A D I A N N A T I O N A L R A I L W A Y S W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . U N I O N E S T A T E S L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C C H R I S T I A N C O M M U N I T Y O F U N I V E R S A L B R O T H E R H O O D B R I T A N N I A M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C J . G O W A N V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D U T I L I T I E S L T D . C . G . L A R S E N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C A R L I N B R O T H E R S L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C F . T . B O Y D A N D C L I N T O N M O T O R S C R O W ' S N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . C O U R T E N A Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y G R A N B Y C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . C U M B E R L A N D E L E C T R I C C O . D O M I N I O N E L E C T R I C P O W E R C O . N A N A I M O — D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O — E L E C T R I C C O R P . M U N I C I P A L I T Y C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y POWER 1944 T O T A L C O N S U M P T I O N C U S T O M E R S ' P E R D O M E S T I C C U S T O M E R K W H 2 , 2 4 4 6 146 8 9 136 2 8 I I 68 94 146 3 9 5 ; l , 2 5 0 2 2 0 5 6 0 2 9 9 4 3 16 16 3 3 9 8 2 2 0 44 2 4 2 90 940 2 9 9 I , 0 8 6 21 747 16 6 7 5 4 1 3 I , 8 5 3 4 8 917 89 5 9 8 4 0 0 4 5 2 2 0 7 7 6 9 9 1 2 2 0 8 3 9 0 6 4 0 158 7 2 9 6 0 0 2 1 0 143 581 2 4 0 4 6 5 7 0 7 6 4 9 2 0 0 8 7 5 2 3 5 3 3 5 701 2 0 7 701 5 8 6 4 8 0 4 3 7 4 5 9 1 , 1 2 4 3 9 0 4 8 8 551 162 6 3 5 7 6 9 471 2 2 9 A V E R A G E C O S T P E R K W H D O M E S T I C 3 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 7 4 . 0 1 0 . 3 2 . 8 5 . 2 5 . 7 1 9 . 6 5 . 9 8 . 0 4 . 8 10 . 0 5 . 9 5 . 3 5 . 0 1 7 . 0 2 . 4 2 0 . 0 7 . 2 6 . 5 7 . I 7 . 7 6 . 4 12 . 9 3 . 8 2 0 . 0 7 . 7 4 . 8 5 . 9 4 . 8 4 . 2 5 . 7 9 . 0 6 . 9 7 . 0 8 . 2 1 0 . 7 6 . 6 9 . 0 5 . 2 6 . I 2 . 8 T A B L E 5 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1941 S E R V E D B Y F O R T S T . J O H N F R U I T V A L E G L A C I E R G O L D E N G R A N D F O R K S G R A N D V I E W G R E E N W O O D 450 172 .' 73 630 I ,259 846 363 H A R R I S O N H O T S P R I N G S 600 H A Z E L T O N H E D L E Y H O P E 1 N V E R M E R E K A L E D E N K A M L O O P S K A S L P K E L O W N A K E R E M E O U S K I M B E R L E Y K I N N A I R D L A D N E R L A D Y S M I T H L A K E C O W 1 C H A N L I L L O O E T L Y T T O N M C B R 1 D E M E R R I T T M I C H E L M I R R O R L A K E M 1 S S I O N N A K U S P N A N A I M O N A R A M A T A N E L S O N N E W D E N V E R N E W W E S T M I N S T E R N E W T O N N E W C A S T L E N O R T H B E N D N O R T H V A N C O U V E R O C E A N F A L L S O K A N A G A N M I S S I O N O L I V E R 398 648 515 464 101 5,959 468 5,118 4,250 I ,002 1,706 305 427 459 237 940 803 1,957 723 6,635 346 5,912 310 21 ,967 804 292 747 C A N A D I A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y N A T I O N A L U T I L . C O R P . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y H A R R I S O N H O T S P R I N G S K 1 T A N M A X W A T E R A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O E L E C T R I C C O R P . S U B S I D I A R Y H O P E U T I L I T I E S L T D . 1 N V E R M E R E C O N T R A C T I N G C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M N A N A 1 M O — D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . L A K E C O W I C H A N E L E C T R I C C O . P A C I F I C G R E A T E A S T E R N R A I L W A Y L Y T T O N E L E C T R I C L I G H T C O . L T D . M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y C R O W S N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . IN B U L K F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . M I R R O W L A K E E L E C T R I C L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O . L T D . N A N A I M O D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S IN B U L K F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y B . C . E L E C T R I C P A C I F I C M I L L S L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . T O T A L C O N S U M P T I O N A V E R A G E C O S T C U S T O M E R S P E R ' p E R K W H D O M E S T I C C U S T O M E R D O M E S T I C K W H 155 285 II 140 373 245 615 400 374 496 14.8 6.6 4.8 12.4 166 53 45 173 132 931 457 218 635 317 5.2 4. I 25.0 6. I 12.3 45 157 27.5 52 1,192 3.9 2,427 1,152 2 .9 272 500 7.0 1,892 838 4.3 116 627 6.4 1,611 1,085 3.4 45 739 6.6 875 3.8 66 5 397 8.3 106 225 10.0 106 573 10.5 73 254 16.8 82 212 13.4 362 250 13.6 573 465 6.5 13 600 2.0 875 3.8 233 313 9.5 2,916 609 5.4 135 548 6.5 2,769 970 4.4 912 5.7 6,643 645 4.5 333 76 289 10.9 2.45 502 4,432 0.7 99 758 5.5 458 536 6.9 T A B L E 5 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N S E R V E D B Y 1 9 4 1 O S O Y O O S S 6 7 P A R K E S V 1 L L E P E A C H L A N D 4 7 9 P E N T I C T O N 5 , 7 7 7 P I N C H I L A K E P O R T A L B E R N I 4 , 5 8 4 P O R T A L I C E P O R T C O Q U I T L A M 1 , 5 3 9 P O R T M O O D Y 1 , 5 1 2 P O U C E C O U P E 2 5 1 P O W E L L R I V E R 5 , 7 5 0 P R I N C E G E O R G E 2 , 0 2 7 P R I N C E R U P E R T 6 , 7 1 4 P R I N C E T O N 1 , 7 7 5 Q U A L I C U M B E A C H 3 1 5 Q U E S N E L 6 5 3 R A D I U M H O T S P R I N G S 8 0 R E V E L S T O K E 2 , 1 0 6 R O B S O N 1 5 0 R O S E B E R R Y R O S S L A N D 3 , 6 5 7 R O Y S T O N 3 1 9 S A L M O 2 9 1 S A L M O N A R M 8 3 6 S A L T S P R I N G I S L A N D S A N D O N 2 5 0 S E C H E L T S H E E P C R E E K S 1 L V E R T O N 2 0 7 S M I T H E R S 7 5 9 S O U T H W E L L S S P E N C E S B R I D G E 2 5 0 S Q U A M I S H 5 6 5 S T E V E S T O N 1 , 1 0 2 S T E W A R T 4 4 6 S U M M E R L A N D 2 , 0 5 4 T R A I L 9 , 3 9 2 T R A N Q U I L L E U N I O N B A Y 4 0 0 V A N C O U V E R 3 4 7 , 6 6 5 ( G R E A T E R ) V A N D E R H O O F 3 5 0 V E R N O N 5 , 2 0 9 V I C T O R I A 7 7 , 5 8 0 ( G R E A T E R ) W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O E L E C T R I C C O R P . M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y B U Y S I N B U L K F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . O F C A N A D A L T D . N A T I O N A L U T I L I T I E S C O R P . S U B S I D I A R Y O F B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P U L P A N D P A P E R C O . B . C . E L E C T R 1 C B . C . E L E C T R I C D O M I N I O N E L E C T R I C P O W E R C O . L T D . P O W E R R I V E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O . P R I N C E T O N P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O E L E C T R I C C O R P . Q U E S N E L L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . D O M I N I O N G O V E R N M E N T M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . S E C U R I T Y C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . B . C . E L E C T R I C W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O E L E C T R I C C O R P . N A N A I M O — D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S S A N D O N W A T E R W O R K S A N D L I G H T C O . C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O . W E L L S L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . S P E N C E S B R I D G E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . P A C I F I C G R E A T E A S T E R N R A I L W A Y B . C . E L E C T R I C N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O . M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . P R O V I N C I A L G O V E R N M E N T C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O . W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O E L E C T R I C C O R P . L T D . B . C . E L E C T R I C T O T A L C O N S U M P T I O N A V E R A G E C O S T C U S T O M E R S P E R P E R K W H D O M E S T I C C U S T O M E R D O M E S T I C K W H 1 1 8 2 , 0 6 3 5 4 3 5 4 5 3 9 7 8 3 0 6 . 9 7 . 3 7 . I 4 . 0 91 2 , 2 4 4 4 7 6 5 9 8 5 1 3 8 8 6 3 , 3 6 9 5 6 2 2 5 6 14 9 0 6 2 2 5 1 , 1 0 4 5 7 1 7 7 2 1 0 16 2 7 3 8 7 5 8 7 5 4 8 8 2 2 , 8 2 2 3 8 2 I , 6 3 6 3 6 1 5 4 5 4 2 2 5 0 0 1 , 2 7 2 9 8 4 5 7 0 6 1 5 7 6 9 5 6 1 6 4 1 2 3 0 0 . 4 1 0 . I 2 . 2 6 . 5 7 . 3 8 . 4 1 1 . 9 3 . 2 1 2 . 5 3 . I 6 . 7 6 . 6 5 . 2 8 . 6 4 . 4 1 4 . 7 2 9 6 4 0 21 2 0 7 9 1 2 3 3 4 1 7 5 6 0 0 2 4 0 8 7 5 5 . 7 1 2 . 3 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 6 9 9 4 6 5 4 . 9 3 , 5 8 2 1 , 2 1 1 3 . 1 51 1 9 8 6 4 0 5 . 0 1 0 7 , 5 4 3 1 , 1 5 7 2 . 2 101 2 , 7 4 9 2 2 , 4 6 5 3 4 5 9 0 0 I , 0 0 6 1 3 . 6 4 . I 2 . 5 TABLE 5 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 194 I S E R V E D B Y T O T A L C U S T O M E R S C O N S U M P T I O N P E R D O M E S T I C C U S T O M E R K W H A V E R A G E C O S T P E R K W H D O M E S T I C W A N E T A W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . 3 615 6. ,6 W A R D N E R 181 E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . 28 644 8. 6 W E L L S I ,325 W E L L S T O W N S I T E C O . 116 456 10. 5 W E S T B A N K 300 W E S T B A N K U T I L I T I E S L T D . 85 325 12. ,4 W E S T V I E W 350 M U N I C I P A L I T Y 694 684 3. ,8 W I L D W O O D M U N I C I P A L I T Y 184 704 2. 6 W I L L I A M S L A K E 540 C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O . 152 581 10. 6 Y M IR 195 W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . 51 581 6. 6 Y O U B O U I N D U S T R I A L T I M B E R M I L L S , L T D . 60 I ,191 2. 9 S O U R C E S . 0 2) 3) M C G R A W - H I L L D I R E C T O R Y O F E L E C T R I C U T I L I T I E S . 1944. B . C . R U R A L E L E C T R I F I C A T I O N C O M M I T T E E . R E P O R T . V I C T O R I A , 1945. C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S . C E N S U S O F C A N A D A . 1941. TABLE 6 -ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1944 I. J N S T A L L E D C A P A C I T Y K . W . H Y D R O / T H E R M A L M A J O R U S E P O W E R G E N . K W H P L A N T F A C T O R 0—20KV T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) 21—40KV 41—60KV 61 —100KV K)l—200KV O V E R 200KV A S H C R O F T W A T E R , E L E C T R I C A N D B A R K E R V I L L E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . B O Y D , F . T . A N D C L I N T O N M O T O R S B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O M P A N Y L T D . C A R L I N B R O T H E R S L T D . C O L U M B I A P O W E R C O M P A N Y L T D . C R O w ' s N E S T P A S S E L E C T R I C L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . C U M B E R L A N D E L E C T R I C C O M P A N Y L T D . D E N V E R L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . L T D . D O M I N I O N E L E C T R I C P O W E R C O . L T D . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y L T D . G O W A N , J . I N V E R M E R E C O N T R A C T I N G C O M P A N Y K 1 T A N M A X W A T E R A N D P O W E R C O . L A K E C O W I C H A N E L E C T R I C C O M P A N Y L A R S E N , C . G . L Y T T O N E L E C T R I C L I G H T C O M P A N Y L T D . M I R R O R L A K E E L E C T R I C L I G H T C O . N A N A I M O — D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O M P A N Y L T D , P R I N C E T O N P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . L T D . S A N D O N W A T E R W O R K S A N D L I G H T C O . L T D S P E N C E S B R I D G E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . U N I O N E S T A T E S , L T D . V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D U T I L I T I E S L T D . W E L L S L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y W E L L S T O W N S I T E C O M P A N Y , T H E W E S T C A N A D I A N H Y D R O E L E C T R I C C O R P O R A T I O N L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y L T D . W E S T S 1 D E U T I L I T I E S L T D . C O U R T E N A Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y C R A N B E R R Y L A K E M U N I C I P A L I T Y C R A N B R O O K M U N I C I P A L I T Y F E R N I E M U N I C I P A L I T Y G R A N D F O R K S M U N I C I P A L I T Y K A S L O M U N I C I P A L I T Y K E L O W N A M U N I C I P A L I T Y L A D Y S M I T H M U N I C I P A L I T Y M C B R I D E M U N I C I P A L I T Y , M E R R I T T M U N I C I P A L I T Y N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y N E W W E S T M I N S T E R M U N I C I P A L I T Y P E A C H L A N D M U N I C I P A L I T Y P E N T I C T O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y 234,300 172 N O N N O N 112 395 16,560 129,060 172,360 H Y D R O H Y D R O / T H E R M A L - I G H T I N G L I G H T / P O W E R 270,552 751,225,440 27.5 43.4 12 (12KV) 102 493 (34KV) (60KV) 130 ( I 3 2 K V ) 154 (230KV) H Y D R O L I G H T I N G G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R H Y D R O L I G H T I N G T H E R M A L O I L L I G H T I N G 377,229 50.0 F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . F R O M C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S L T D . 400,000 81.5 H Y D R O L I G H T I N G 95,057,500 131.0 7 7 (66KV) I 12 I ,082 4,305 N O N H Y D R O H Y D R O G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G P U R C H A S E S P O W E R 90,129 18.3 3,505,130 73.9 24,562,828 130.2 F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y H Y D R O H Y D R O L I G H T I N G L I G H T / M I N I N G S M E L T I N G 487,708,400 I ,360,378,214 86.2 89.8 650 ( 6 0 K V ) N O N G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S L T D . N O N N O N N O N 225 N O N N O N 4,885 G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . H Y D R O G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . N O N G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . 67 H Y D R O P U R C H A S E S P O W E R P U R C H A S E S P O W E R P U R C H A S E S P O W E R L I G H T I N G P U R C H A S E S P O W E R P U R C H A S E S P O W E R L I G H T I N G P U R C H A S E S P O W E R L I G H T I N G F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . 676,500 68.6 F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . F R O M N A N A I M O — D U N C A N U T I L I T I E S L T D . 12,526,950 58.5 43.5 (12KV) N O N G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C R A I L W A Y C O . 108,000 36.8 F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . TABLE 6 II. O W N E R I N S T A L L E D C A P A C I T Y " K . W . H Y D R O / T H E R M A L M A J O R U S E P O W E R G E N . K W H P L A N T F A C T O R 0— 20KV T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) 21—40KV 41—60KV 61 —100KV 101—200KV O V E R 200KV P R I N C E G E O R G E M U N I C I P A L I T Y R E V E L S T O K E M U N I C I P A L I T Y S U M M E R L A N D M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T V I E W M U N I C I P A L I T Y W 1 L D W O O D M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . P A C K E R S L T D . B . C . S E C U R I T Y C O M M I S S I O N B R I T A N N I A M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . C A N A D I A N C O L L I E R I E S L T D . C A N A D I A N N A T I O N A L R A I L W A Y S C A N A D I A N P A C I F I C R A I L W A Y C O ' . C H R I S T I A N C O M M U N I T Y O F U N I V E R S A L B R O T H E R H O O D , T H E C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . O F C A N A D A , L T D . D O M I N I O N G O V E R N M E N T G R A N B Y C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G , S M E L T I N G A N D P O W E R C O . H A R R I S O N H O T S P R I N G S H O T E L C O . P A C I F I C G R E A T E A S T E R N R A I L W A Y P A C I F I C M I L L S L T D . 700 T H E R M A L O I L 895 H Y D R O N O N G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . L I G H T I N G L I G H T I N G 2,420,834 61.7 P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . 8,395 8,952 H Y D R O H Y D R O M I N I N G M I N I N G 23,958,000 24,604,500 65. I 62.7 N O N G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . 375 13,875 35,885 P O W E L L R I V E R C O . P R O V I N C E O F B . C . B . C . P U L P A N D P A P E R C O . 745 B . C . W E L D I N G S A L E S A N D E Q U I P M E N T C O . 97 B R A L O R N E M I N E S L T D 800 K O O T E N A Y B E L L G O L D M I N E S L T D . 335 P I O N E E R G O L D M I N E S L T D . 1,925 Q U E S N E L L I G H T A N D W A T E R C O . 150 S 1 L B A K P R E M I E R M I N E S 820 S U R F I N L E T C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N E S 940 H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O H Y D R O R A I L W A Y P U L P / P A P E R P U L P / P A P E R M I N I N G M I N I N G M I N I N G L I G H T I N G M I N I N G M I N I N G 813,270 69,997,200 194,785,700 4,104,917 344,000 5,100,000 I,596,240 2,974,800 267,090 2,383,120 500,000 49. 5 115. 1 125.8 81.0 145.5 108.7 35.3 40.6 66.3 12. I 13 (66KV;) S O U R C E S . I) M C G R A W - H I L L D I R E C T O R Y O F E L E C T R I C U T I L I T I E S 2) B . C . E N E R G Y B O A R D . H Y D R O — E L E C T R I C G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I S T I C S TABLE 7 MUNICIPALITIES SERVED WITH ELECTRIC POWER I960 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1961 S . E R V E D B Y N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L B U L K K W H U S E D A B B O T S F O R D 888 A G A S S I Z 602 A L B E R N I 4,616 A L E R T B A Y 825 A L L E N B Y 85 A R M S T R O N G 1,288 A S H C R O F T 868 A T L I N 150 B A R K E R V I L L E 62 B E A V E R D A L E B E L L A C O O L A 345 B L U E R I V E R 390 B O N N I N G T O N B O S T O N B A R 615 B O W E N I S L A N D 500 B R A L O R N E 950 B R I T A N N I A 775 B U L L R I V E R B U R N A B Y 100,157 B U R N S L A K E 1,051 C A M P B E L L R I V E R 3,737 C A N A L F L A T S 423 C A S C A D E C A S I N O 55 C A S S I A R 623 C A S T L E G A R 2,253 C A Y U S E 369 C H A S E 990 C E N T R A L S A A N 1 C H C H E A M V I E W 50 C H E M A 1 N U S 1,518 C H E T W Y N D 925 C H I L L 1 W A C K 8,259 B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C A T L I N C O M M U N I T Y L I G H T B A R K E R V I L L E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y L T D . M A S T O D O N — H I G H L A N D B E L L M I N E S B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C H O W E S O U N D C O M P A N Y E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y C A S S I A R A S B E S T O S W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . F O R E S T P R O D U C T S L T D . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C ( I N C L U D E S M U N I C I P A L I T Y ) 6,031 512 S E E V E R N O N 369 634 128 81 14 2 21 27 28 142 290 535 28,770 592 51 17 I I I 2,551 134 14 2 19 637 22 S E E C O M O X — C A M P B E L L R I V E R S E E G O L D E N 396 45 4 79 692 101 S E E V E R N O N 1.084 37 157 S E E D U N C A N 144 58 8,323 1,219 48,755,257 3,828,950 2,225,964 5,196,900 6—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2. 5—. 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R II— 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 250 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2. 5—. 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 1 — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5—2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 - 1 0 / K W H - L I G H T 1 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R I 211 2,358,042 1.0-1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1 .25—. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R I I— 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6—1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2. 5— . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9 - I . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 3 — 1 , 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1 — . 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R 6—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3— 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R I I — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 4— 2 0 / K W H - P O W E R TABLE 7 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1961 S E R V E D B Y C L I N T O N C L O V E R D A L E C O A L C R E E K C O A L H A R B O U R C O G H L A N C O M O X C O P P E R M O U N T A I N C O Q U I T L A M C O U R T E N A Y C R A N B R O O K C R E S C E N T V A L L E Y C R E S T O N C R O W S N E S T C U M B E R L A N D D A W S O N C R E E K D E E P C O V E D E L T A D U N C A N E L K O E L L I S O N E N D E R B Y E S Q U I M A L T E S S O N D A L E F E R N I E F I E L D F O R T S T . J A M E S F O R T S T . J O H N F O R T N E L S O N F R U I T V A L E G A L L O W A Y G I B S O N S G I S C O M E G L A C I E R G O L D B R I D G E G O L D E N 1 , 0 1 1 1 , 7 5 6 2 9 , 0 5 3 3 , 4 8 5 5 , 5 4 9 2 2 4 2 , 4 6 0 I , 3 0 3 1 0 , 9 4 6 1 4 , 5 9 7 3 , 7 2 6 I 17 I , 0 7 5 1 2 , 0 4 8 2 , 6 6 1 1 . 0 8 1 3 , 6 1 9 1 , 6 0 7 I , 0 3 2 193 I , 0 9 1 6 4 6 153 I , 7 7 6 B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C C R O W ' S N E S T P A S S P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y C O A L H A R B O U R U T I L I T I E S B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ( C O M O X — C A M P B E L L R . ) W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ( I N C L U D E S L A D Y S M I T H , E T C . ) E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C M U N I C I P A L I T Y N O R T H E R N C A N A D A P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C E A G L E L A K E S A W M I L L S B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ( I N C L U D E S C O L U M B I A V A L L E Y ) II. N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L B U L K K W H U S E D 2 , 0 8 9 , 2 1 5 7— 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 3 3 8 — I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 8 — 2 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7 , 1 0 2 9 , 5 4 4 S E E C O M O X I , 5 4 7 8 0 5 14 S E E C O M O X 5 , 0 6 8 1 , 0 1 9 6 8 6 95 5 7 , 0 1 3 , 2 2 3 2 1 8 3 982 5 4 6 152 4 2 , 5 2 6 , 9 3 4 6 — 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1 . 5 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9— 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I—. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 10— I . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 1 . 2 5 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — I . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7— I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 , 2 9 7 18 S E E V E R N O N 2 , 7 7 9 8 4 6 8 0 8 7 4 3 4 2 . 6 0 5 , 4 3 0 gn^^&Tfc'SSWE 9 — I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 102 2 6 0 18 5 5 S E E D A W S O N C R E E K 321 1 3 9 321 7 8 7 I I 9 - 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 2 , 2 0 1 , 2 1 4 I I — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5 — 2 . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9 — I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 2 , 0 1 4 , 8 7 0 1 5 — 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 6 . 5 — 3 . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R Ir.'^WfripSwlR 1 0 — . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I . 2 5 — . 5 / / K W H — P O W E R I , 7 3 7 1 4 , 5 3 7 , 1 0 3 9 - 1 . 5 0 / K W H - L 1 G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R T A B L E 7 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1961 S E R V E D B Y G R A N D F O R K S 2,347 G R A N D V I E W 73 G R E E N W O O D 932 H A N E Y 475 H A R R I S O N H O T S P . 475 H A T Z 1 C 724 H A Z E L T O N 410 H E D L E Y 425 H O N E Y M O O N B A Y 518 H O P E 2,751 H O U S T O N 699 H Y D E R I N V E R M E R E 744 I O C O 294 K A L E D E N 350 K A M L O O P S 10,075 K A S L O 646 K E L O W N A 13,188 K E M A N O 255 K E R E M E O S 563 K I M B E R L E Y 6,013 K I N N A I R D 2,123 K I T I M A T 8,217 L A D N E R L A D Y S M 1 T H 2,173 L A K E C O W I C H A N 2,149 L A N G L E Y 16,950 L A S Q U E T . I I S L A N D 115 L I L L O O E T 1,304 L U M B Y 842 L Y T T O N 442 M C B R 1 D E 590 M A P L E R I D G E 16,748 M A S S E T 547 M A T S Q U 1 14,293 M U N I C I P A L I T Y N A T I O N A L U T I L I T I E S C O R P O R A T I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T E R N F O R E S T P R O D U C T S B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O . T B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ) B . C . E L E C T R I C W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y M U N I C I P A L I T Y A L U M I N U 1 M C O M P A N Y O F C A N A D A W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y M U N 1CI P A L I T Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C L A S Q U E T I L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C C . M A R T I N U T I L I T I E S B . C . E L E C T R I C III. N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L B U L K K W H U S E D 726 10— I 0 / K W H — L I G H T 4^-2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8— I 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 349 200 28 1,126 175 S E E G O L D E N 83 33 I 311 38 .1 34 4 2 ,371,850 1 I — 2 0 / K W H - L I G H T 5—2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I—. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 2,327,450 I I — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5—2. 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R 8— 2 0 / K W H - L I G H T 2. 5 — 1 0 / K W H - P O W E R 9— I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7,201 258 3,630 I ,605 770 4,469 S E E D U N C A N S E E D U N C A N 5,294 6 499 S E E V E R N O N 154 335 6,048 I 18 3,856 18 1,119 52 764 123 162 92 196 75,135,270 667 3 141 75 73 675 27 558 67 20 121 4 3 115 4 50 2,414,050 8 - 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6—1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 .5—. 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8—I. 2 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5 — I . 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R 4—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2—1 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 - I 0 / K W H - L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 / / K W H — P O W E R 4—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 — 1 0 / K W H - P O W E R 9 —I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9— 1 . 5 0 / K W H - L 1 G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R 6—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2—5—. 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 I — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5 - 2 . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R T A B L E 7 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1961 S E R V E D B Y M E R R I T T 3,039 M E S A C H I E L A K E 338 Mil C H E L 417 M I D W A Y 319 M I L N E R 324 M I R R O R L A K E 67 M I S S I O N 5,324 M O U N T L E H M A N M O Y I E 137 N A K U S P N A N A I M O 14,135 N A R A M A T A 346 N A T A L 829 N E E D L E S 130 N E L S O N 7,074 N E W D E N V E R ' - 564 N E W W E S T M I N S T E R 33,654 N E W C A S T L E N E W T O N N O R T H B E N D 340 N O R T H S A A N 1 C H N O R T H V A N C O U V E R 62,627 O A K B A Y 16,935 O C E A N F A L L S 3,056 O K A N A G A N F A L L S 353 O K A N A G A N M I S S I O N 103 O L I V E R 1774 O S O Y O O S 1,022 P A R K E S V 1 L L E 1,183 P E M B E R T O N 131 P E N T I C T O N 13,859 P E A C H L A N D 641 P I T T M E A D O W S 2,187 P O R T A L B E R N I 11,560 B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N H I L L C R E S T L U M B E R C O M P A N Y - L T D . C R O W S N E S T P A S S P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C M I R R O R L A K E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ( A R R O W L A K E S R E G I O N ) B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y C R O W S N E S T P A S S P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C C R O W N Z E L L E R B A C H W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ( I N C L U D E S W E S T B A N K ) B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N P O R T A L I C E I ,065 R A Y O N I E R IV. N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L B U L K • K W H U S E D I ,001 80 179 125 8 ,132 ,899 25 5 18 9— 1 . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 3—I. 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8—I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 8 — 2 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8— 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 22 2,850 458 46 I , 104 12,391 205 272 S E E N A K U S P 2,697 S E E N A K U S P 9,160 I I 214 I ,587 49 43 513 I ,845 3 24 161 3 159 1 0 — 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I . 2 5 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 5,564,181 9—1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5—2. 50/KWH—P O W E R 95,370,317 6 — I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2. 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — I 0 / K W H - L 1 G H T I — . 5 C 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 8— 2 0 / K W H - P O W E R 9— 1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 5 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T 4. 5—2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 - I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 3. 5—I. 2 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 107 I ,325 17,622 5,342 538 200 181 552 338 S E E N A N A I M O 209 4,374 626 14 130 1 ,735 439 22 53 32 203 151 63 I ,159 I 14 308 30 1 8 I I 52 39 2 108 105 4,245,560 8 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1—0. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — I 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — I 0 / K W H — L I G H T I— . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 - 1 0 / K W H - L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R 9— 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I . 2 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R S E E A L B E R N I 199 6—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R TABLE 7 M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1961 S E R V E D B Y P O R T C O Q U I T L A M 8,111 P O R T H A M M O N D 1,267 P O R T H A R D Y 606 P O R T K E L L S P O R T M A N N P O R T M O O D Y 4,789 P O R T R E N F R E W 279 P O U C E C O U P E 669 P O W E L L R I V E R 10,748 P R I N C E G E O R G E 13,877 P R I N C E R U P E R T 11,987 P R I N C E T O N 2,163 Q U A L 1 C U M 759 Q U E S N E L 4,673 R A D I U M H O T S P R I N G S 306 R E V E L S T O K E 3,624 R I C H M O N D 43,323 R I O N D E L 681 R O B S O N 909 B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . F O R E S T P R O D U C T S B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O M P A N Y P R I N C E T O N P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . E L E C T R I C : W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y R O O S V 1 L L E R O S S L A N D R O Y S T O N R U S K 1 N S A A N I C H S A L M O S A L M O N A R M S A L T S P R ING I S L D . S A R D I S S E C H E L T S H A L A L T H S H E E P C R E E K S H E R M A N S I D N E Y S I L V E R T O N 4,354 700 447 48,876 889 I ,506 8 898 488 182 I ,874 285 L I N C O L N E L E C T R I C C O — O P W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . ( I N C L U D E S S H E E P C R E B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N S L O C A N 293 V . N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L B U L K K W H U S E D 123 1,622,400 13—30/ K W H — L I G H T 6.5—3. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1,626 149 48 S E E D A W S O N C R E E K 3,770 501 5,524 891 3,067 484 687 166 S E E N A N A I M O 2,191 346 S E E G O L D E N I I ,413 172 651 21 1,185 876 20 5 205 62 53 129 60,689,000 48,613,790 31 7—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6— I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7— 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2. 5 — 1 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 0 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3—1. 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7— 1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8— 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 . 5 — 1 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 14,908 270 S E E V E R N O N S E E D U N C A N 627 96 76 15 9—I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I - . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6—1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R 3,119 470 S E E S A L M O 9—I . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 609 181 S E E N A K U S P 9—1 . 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R TABLE 7 VI. M U N I C I P A L I T Y P O P U L A T I O N 1961 S E R V E D B Y N U M B E R O F C U S T O M E R S D O M E S T I C C O M M E R C I A L B U L K K W H U S E D S M I T H E R S S P A R W O O D S P E N C E S B R I D G E S Q U A M 1 S H S T E V E S T O N S T E W A R T S U M A S S U M M E R L A N D S U R R E Y T A T A C R E E K T A D A N A C T A H S 1 S T A Y L O R T E K L W A T E R R A C E T E X A D A I S L A N D T O F I N O T R A I L U C L U E L E T V A L E M O U N T V A N C O U V E R V A N D E R H O O F V E R N O N V I C T O R I A W A R F I E L D W A R D N E R W E S T V A N C O U V E R W E S T B A N K W H I T E R O C K W H O N O C K W I L L I A M S L A K E W O O D F I B R E Y A H K Y A L E Y A R R O W Y M IR Z E B A L L O S 2,487 29S 239 1 ,557 327 5,145 4,307 70,838 59 438 576 5,940 440 I I,580 782 51 I 384,522 I ,460 10,250 54,941 2,282 171 25,454 284 6,453 7,120 524 243 797 985 323 235 B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N C R O W S 1 N E S T P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C M U N I C I P A L I T Y B . C . E L E C T R I C E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y T A H S I S C O M P A N Y L T D . B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N ( I N C L U D E S N . O K A N A G A N ) B . C . E L E C T R I C v W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N R A Y O N 1 E R C A N A D A L T D . B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N B . C . E L E C T R I C B . C . E L E C T R I C W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y Z E B A L L O S U T I L I T I E S L T D . I ,027 71 108 719 204 58 169 2,040 12 160 2,049 I 1 S E E D A W S O N C R E E K S E E S M 1 T H E R S 1,488 263 293 65 S E E U C L U E L E T 3,583 730 371 105 101 26 106,020 752 10,590 17,691 645 7,595 21,998 172 I ,445 4,517 56 726 S E E P E A C H L A N D I ,243 163 76 I 15 71 300 28 16 27 32 2 I I ,226,830 314 4 43 13 128 6 5,680 23 382 10 I 79 1 I ,276,900 3,663,300 257,672 5,156,883 98,608,464 13,090,030 445,196 9 — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3— I. 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8— 1 . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 8 — 2 0 / K W H — P O W E R 8 — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2 . 5 — 1 0 / K W H — P O W E R 5 — I 0 / K W H — L I G H T 4—1. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 0 — 1 . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 1 . 2 5 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6— 1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9 - I . 5 0 / K W H - L 1 G H T 3—I . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9 - 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9 — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 3 - 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R I I — 2 0 / K W H — L I G H T 5— 2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 - 1 0 / K W H - L 1 G H T I - . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 I — 2 0 / K W H - L I G H T 5—2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 1 3 — 3 0 / K W H — L I G H T 6.5—3. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R I l - 2 0 / K W H - L I G H T 3 — 1 . 2 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6 — 1 . 5 0 / K W H - L I G H T 2.5—. 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 6-1 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 10—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 1 . 2 5 — . 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7—I. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T 2. 5 — . 7 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 7 - I . 5 0 / K W H - L 1 G H T 3 — I . 2 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R I I — 2 0 / K W H - L I G H T 5—2. 5 0 / K W H — P O W E R 9—1. 5 0 / K W H — L I G H T I — . 5 0 / K W H - P O W E R S O U R C E S I) C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S , C E N S U S O F C A N A D A . 1961. 2) C A N A D A , D O M I N I O N B U R E A U O F S T A T I S T I C S . E L E C T R I C A N D G A S M E T E R R E G I S T R A T I O N S . 1961 3) B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N , A N N U A L R E P O R T . 1960/61. 4) C A N A D A E L E C T R I C A L A S S O C I A T I O N . R A T E B O O K . 1961. TABLE 8 ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, I960 I. I N S T A L L E D C A P A C I T Y K . W . H Y D R O / T H E R M A L F U E L M A J O R U S E P O W E R G E N . K W H P L A N T F A C T O R 0—20KV T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) 21 — 4 0 K V 41—60KV 61 —I00KV 101—200KV . O V E R 200KV B . C . E L E C T R I C C O . B . C . P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N C O N S O L I D A T E D M I N I N G A N D S M E L T I N G C O . W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O . A T L I N C O M M U N I T Y L I G H T M A S T O D O N — H I G H L A N D B E L L M I N E S H O W E S O U N D C O M P A N Y C A S S I A R A S B E S T O S C R O W S 1 N E S T P A S S P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y C O A L H A R B O U R U T I L I T I E S F E R N 1 E M U N I C I P A L I T Y N O R T H E R N C A N A D A P O W E R C O M M I S S I O N E A G L E L A K E S A W M I L L S G R A N D F O R K S M U N I C I P A L I T Y N A T I O N A L U T I L I T I E S C O R P . N O R T H E R N B . C . P O W E R C O . K A S L O M U N I C I P A L I T Y K E L O W N A M U N I C I P A L I T Y A L U M I N U M C O . O F C A N A D A L T D . L A S Q U E T 1 L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . M I R R O R L A K E L I G H T A N D P O W E R C O . N E L S O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y N E W W E S T M I N S T E R M U N I C I P A L I T Y C R O W N Z E L L E R B A C H R A Y O N 1 E R C A N A D A L T D . B . C . F O R E S T P R O D U C T S L T D . P R I N C E T O N P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O . R E V E L S T O K E M U N I C I P A L I T Y S U M M E R L A N D M U N I C I P A L I T Y Z E B A L L O S U T I L I T I E S L T D . P E N T I C T O N M U N I C I P A L I T Y C R A N B R O O K M U N I C I P A L I T Y C O L U M B I A C E L L U L O S E 1,095,079 468,701 368,475 47,250 27,000 6,000 H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O H Y D R O G A S / O I L G A S / O I L C O A L L I G H T / P O W E R L I G H T / P O W E R S M E L T I N C L I G H T / P O W E R L I G H T / P O W E R 4,072,540,000 I,707,027,382 2,428,206,216 319,626,600 106,930,400 42.0 41.5 75.2 40 715 112 (34KV) (60KV) (66KV) 74 (33KV) 521 ( 6 0 K V ) 917 (66KV) 304 (66KV) N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . L I G H T M I N I N G M I N I N G 19,000,000 36.1 M I N I N G P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y . N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M E A S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R C O M P A N Y . 1 ,800 T H E R M A L W O O D W A S T E / L U M B E R I N G O I L 17,320 N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y . 50 D I E S E L O I L L I G H T 36,366,760 23.9 225 H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O O I L L I G H T / P O W E R L I G H T / P O W E R 54 (66KV) I,031,200 52.3 N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N S . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y . 787,200 H Y D R O S M E L T I N G 3,741,310,000 60.4 9,000 H Y D R O L I G H T / P O W E R 51.0 N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N 26,340 40,190,200 P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M B . C . E L E C T R I C C O . L T D . 1 1 ( 6 6 K V ) 29,560 H Y D R O / T H E R M A L H Y D R O / T H E R M A L T H E R M A L W O O D W A S T E / P U L P / O I L P A P E R O I L P U L P / P A P E R 12,800 A L W O O D W A S T E L U M B E R ING N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y . 6,800 H Y D R O / O I L L I G H T / 7,691,570 12.9 P O W E R  T H E R M A L N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y . N O N - G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y . N O N — G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I O N . P U R C H A S E S P O W E R F R O M W E S T K O O T E N A Y P O W E R A N D L I G H T C O M P A N Y . 15,000 T H E R M A L W O O D W A S T E / P U L P / O I L P A P E R 218 ( I32KV) 651 ( I38KV) 90 ( I70KV) 244 (230KV) y 240 (360KV) 51 (287KV) T A B L E 8 II. OWMF-R I N S T A L L E D H Y D R O F U E L M A J O R U S E P O W E R P L A N T T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S ( M I L E S ) C A P A C I T Y T H E R M A L G E N . K W H F A C T O R 0— 20KV Z I - 4 0 K V 4 I - 6 0 K V 6 I - I O 0 K V I01 -200KV O V E R 200KV K . W . " " . . . . C A N A D I A N F O R E S T P R O D U C T S L T D . 5,000 T H E R M A L W O O D W A S T E / P U L P O I L M A C M I L L A N , B L O E D E L A N D P O W E L L 84,550 H Y D R O / W O O D W A S T E L U M B E R / 375,612,000 50.7 13 R I V E R L T D . T H E R M A L P U L P / (66KV) P A P E R C A N A D I A N W E S T E R N L U M B E R C O . 12,500 T H E R M A L W O O D W A S T E L U M B E R S O U R C E S - I) M C G R A W - H I L L D I R E C T O R Y O F E L E C T R I C U T I L I T I E S . 1960. 1961. 2) A N N U A L R E P O R T S O F U T I L I T I E S . 3) B . C . E N E R G Y B O A R D , H Y D R O — E L E C T R I C G E N E R A T I N G S T A T I S T I C S . 4) C A N A D A , W A T E R R E S O U R C E S B R A N C H . P R I N C I P A L P O W E R D E V E L O P M E N T S IN C A N A D A . 1961. M A P 1 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1 9 1 0 E L E C T R I C P O W E R D E V E L O P M E N T HYDRO PLANTS O o o 0 - I ,000 KW I ,001 - 10,000 KW 10,001 - 100,000 KW OVER 100,001 KW THERMAL |"~| PLANTS 0 - I ,000 KW ,001 - 10,000 KW 0.001 - 100,000 KW MUNICIPAL INDUSTRIAL PROVINCIAL 0 - 59 KV 60 - 1 19 KV 120 - 199 KV OVER - 200 KV MUNICIPALITIES SERVED 160 M I L E S M A P 2 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1 9 2 0 E L E C T R I C P O W E R D E V E L O P M E N T 0 - I ,000 KW I ,001 - 10,000 KW HYDRO PLANTS o O 10,001 - 100.000 KW OVER 100,001 KW THERMAL PLANTS • • 0 - I ,000 KW I ,001 - 10.000 KW 10,001 - 100,000 KW o P R I V A T E TRANSMISSION MUNICIPAL INDUSTRIAL PROVINCIAL 0 - 59 KV 60 - 1 19 KV 120 - 199 KV OVER - 200 KV 160 M I L b S • MUNICIPALITIES SERVED 40 30 20 10 0 40 8 0 1 I t — I M A P 4 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1 9 4 0 E L E C T R I C P O W E R D E V E L O P M E N T .000 KW 10.000 KW HYDRO PLANTS o O o I ,001 10,001 - 100,000 KW OVER 100.001 KW THERMAL P I PLANTS 0 - I ,000 KW I ,001 - 10,000 KW 0.001 - 100,000 KW o P R I V A T E TRANSMISSION MUNICIPAL INDUSTRIAL PROVINCIAL 0 - 59 KV 60 - 1 19 KV 120 - 199 KV OVER - 200 KV • MUNICIPALITIES SERVED 40 30 20 10 0 -40 160 M I L E S M A P 5 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1 9 5 0 E L E C T R I C P O W E R D E V E L O P M E N T Q 0 - I ,000 KW I ,001 - 10,000 KW HYDRO PLANTS o 10,001 - 100,000 KW OVER 100,001 KW THERMAL PLANTS • • 0 - I ,000 KW I .001 - 10,000 KW 0,001 - 100,000 KW o P R I V A T E TRANSMISSION MUNICIPAL INDUSTRIAL 0 - 59 KV 60 - 1 19 KV 120 - 199 KV OVER - 200 KV MUNICIPALITIES SERVED 40 8 0 120 PROVINCIAL 160 M I L E S 

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