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The legend of Parsifal and the Grail and its treatment of Wolfram von Eschenbach and Richard Wagner Vance, Helen Madeleine 1939

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L £ 5 /i 7 The Legend o f P a r s i f a l and the G r a i l and i t s Treatment by Wolfram von Eschenbach and R i c h a r d Wagner H e l e n M a d e l e i n e Vance A T h e s i s submitted, f o r the Degree o f MASTER 01 ARTS i n the Department o f Modern Languages -0-The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia M a r c h , 1939 T a b l e o f Son t e n t s P a g e C h a p t e r 1. The o r i g i n . a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e 1 l e g e n d o f P a r s i f a l and t h e G r a i l a n d i t s p l a c e i n A r t h u r i a n r omance C h a p t e r S . The t r e a t m e n t o f t h e l e g e n d i n W o l f r a m v o n E s c h e n b a c h ' s P a r z i v a l 52 C h a p t e r 3. The t r e a t m e n t o f t h e l e g e n d i n . • • • R i c h a r d W a g n e r ' s P a r s i f a l 99 B i b l i o g r a p h y 226 1 . C h a p t e r One The Q ' r i g i n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l e g e n d of P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l a n d i t s p l a c e i n A r t h u r i a n romance f*Wagner|s drama P a r s i f a l o p e n s t o u s t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f A r t h u r i a n romance a n d t h e c y c l e o f t h e G r a i l legend.**" 1" The s a g a o f P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l i s a " b l e n d i n g o f m o t i f s from, v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . The I r i s h f o i l : t a l e theme o f a v i s i t t o t h e o t h e r w o r l d , t h e C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d o f J o s e p h o f A r i m a t h e a a n d t h e cup o f t h e : L a s t S u p p e r , t h e l a y o f t h e G r e a t . F o o l a n d t h e m e d i e v a l l e g e n d of* the; G r a i l k n i g h t s a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e . they S a g a . E a c h o f t h e s e t h e m e s d e v e l o p e d s e p a r a t e l y ^ t h e n A w e r e . w e l d e d t o g e t h e r a n d f i n a l l y a l l w e re s w e p t w i t h i n t h e m a g i c c i r c l e o f A r t h u r i a n r o m a h c e . A l t h o u g h > a t a n e a r l y d a t e * t h e G r a i l l e g e n d was n o t a t o p i c o f A r t h u r i a n r o m a h c e a n d t h e P a r s i f a l m y t h was I n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e G r a i l theme.,-the c o m b i n e d theme .of P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l became t h e s y m b o l o f t h e h i g h e s t , a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t c o u l d be s e t b e f o r e men. ? Hhe o r i g i n o f t h e G r a i l s t o r y I s unknown b e c a u s e t h e s o u r c e h a s b e e n l o s t a n d a l s o b e c a u s e a c e s s a t i o n o f I n t e r e s t . ' f a l l o w e d - t h e . ' w i d e s p r e a d t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l f r o m 1170 t o 1220. I n s p i t e o f the" u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e G r a i l t h e m e , f e w p r o b l e m s i n l i t e r a t u r e h a v e b e e n t h e c a u s e o f s o much i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d s p e c u l a t i o n a s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e p o s s i b l e o r i g i n o f t h e G r a i l l e g e n d . Among t h e many 1. S e n d . 4 5 0 . e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h i s i n s o l u b l e q u e s t i o n t h r e e m a i n t h e o r i e s a r e o u t s t a n d i n g , n a m e l y , t h e a r g u m e n t s f o r a C e l t i c , a R i t u a l a n d a C h r i s t i a n o r i g i n . , \ - To t h e C e l t i c s u p p o r t e r s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l i s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e g r a d u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f o l d C e l t i c f o l k t a l e s t o a poem c h a r g e d w i t h C h r i s t i a n symbolism."'" V i l l e m a r q u e was t h e f i r s t t o a r g u e f o r a C e l t i c o r i g i n o f t h e G r a i i l e g e n d b y c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e G r a i l was t h e d r u i d i c b a s i n o f T a l * 4 s s i n . Brown i d e n t i f i e s t h e L a n c e o f C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s w i t h -the' L u i n o f G e l t c h a r and t r a c e s b o t h l a n c e and s w o r d s t o t h e t a l i s m a n s o f ' - r i n a t h a d a Danoan-t , {the S t o n e o f D e s t i n y , t h e C a u l d r o n o f D a g l a , the. S p e a r o f L u g a n d t h e S w o r d o f L o g , y e t t h e s o l e a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s g r o u p i n g i s t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y X e a t i n g who d o e s n o t d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e o f jthe t a l i s m a n s . A s P e e b l e s s a y s " W i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n L a n c e ( i . e . o f L o n g i n u s ) . s o o b v i o u s l y and s u i t a b l y a t h a n d i n l i t e r a t u r e . w h i c h , a s w r i t e r s o f r o m a n c e s t h e m s e l v e s j t h e y must h a v e known . . . . why s h o u l d t h e G r a i l r o m a n c e r s s e e k a b l e e d i n g L a n c e i n t h e L u i n o f G e l t c h a r w h i c h a f t e r a l l d o e s n o t b l e e d . " 2 B u t t , t h e f o l k l o r i s t , b r i n g s a l l t h e i n s t a n c e s i n t o w h i c h t h e G r a i l a p p e a r s u n d e r two f o r m u l a e , t h e "Vengeance o r f e u d b y means o f m a g i c t a l i s m a n s : s w o r d , l a h o e , v e s s e l , a n d t h e U n s p e l l i h g f o r m u l a o r B e s p e l l e d c a s t l e 1. .BEAR-, 2 7 3 , 2 7 1 , 2 6 9 . 2. IMSLHGJ 2 2 1 . where t h e d w e l l e r s l e a d a s u p e r n a t u r a l l i f e , due t o a m a g i c v e s s e l a n d a r e r e l e a s e d b y a q u e s t i o n a b o u t i t . \ To h i m t h e • G r a i l o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e m a g i c r e v i v i f y i n g c a u l d r o n o f B r a n . B r o n s , t h e h e r o o f t h e e a r l y c o n v e r s i o n l e g e n d , he e q u a t e s • w i t h B r a n t h e C e l t i c god o f t h e u n d e r w o r l d a n d l o r d o f t h e c a s t l e o f t a l i s m a n s . JMutt s u g g e s t s t h a t B o r r o n became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e B r a n c o n v e r s i o n l e g e n d and f u s e d i t w i t h t h e b e t t e r known J o s e p h o n e . The h e r o o f a c o n v e r s i o n l e g e n d w o u l d n a t u r a l l y g r a v i t a t e t o G l a s t o n b u r y , t h e f i r s t p l a c e d e v o t e d t o C h r i s t i a n w o r s h i p . A v a l o n , a c c o r d i n g t o N u t t , i s t h e W e l s h T i r - n a - n - o g . When J o s e p h t o o k B r a n ' s p l a c e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w o u l d e x t e n d t o h i m , T h i s t h e o r y . a s s u m e s a c o n -v e r s i o n l e g e n d whose h e r o was a C e l t i c d i v i n i t y a n d t h a t J o s e p h , l i k e w i s e t h e h e r o o f a c o n v e r s i o n m y t h , r e p l a c e d B r a n ; The g e a r o f t h e o l d C e l t i c g o d s was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o o b j e c t s p r o m i n e n t i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e P a s s i o n t o e x p l a i n J o s e p h ' s s u s t e n a n c e a n p r i s o n . . C a m p b e l l b e l i e v e s t h a t P a r s i f a l was a C e l t i c h e r o who i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y became " l e c h e r c h e u r d u b a s i n " . . H e n d e r s o n m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e was., i n t h e s t o r i e s o f P e r e d S t , some r e s e m b l a n c e t o a l e g e n d o f . t h e G r a a l quesib w h i c h c a u s e d t h e K y m r i c f o l k h e r o t o become t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f t h e q u e s t . 1. NSLHG- 2 3 1 . • - . 4. C u c h u l l i n , a s t h e s o n o f c o n c h o h a r ' s s i s t e r and L u g , t h e l i g h t god,, b e a r s t h e same r e l a t i o n t o C o n c h o b a r a s G a w a i n t o A r t h u r b u t t h e p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n P a r s i f a l a n d C u e h u l l l n k o M s o n l y i n g e n e r a l m o t i f s . The C e l t i c . f o l k t a l e - m o t i f s o f t h e t u r n i n g c a s t l e and t h e b e h e a d i n g , game may a l s o h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r t o t h e B r e t o n s a n d t h u s t o t h e F r e n c h . L i k e F o e r s t e r and G o e t h e r , B r u c e t h i n k s t h a t t h e d e b t t o C e l t i c s o u r c e s h a s b e e n g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d a n d t h a t p e r s o n a l , i n v e n t i o n i s most i m p o r t a n t , t h e a u t h o r s b e i n g p r i m a r i l y p o e t s a nd n o t t r a n s c r i b e r s o f f a i r y A '.. t a l e s . : i t h a s b e e n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r e p l a c e i n t h e G r a i l c a s t l e r e s e m b l e s t h e o p e n h e a r t h o f T a r a i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e room, r a t h e r t h a n , t h e c h i m n e y s o f F r e n c h m e d i e v a l c a s t l e s . S i n c e we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h f a n t a s M c r o mance, why s h o u l d i t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f o r m l i t e r a l l y w i t h t h e c u s t o m s o f t h e t i m e ? M i g h t i t n o t h a v e b e e n made a r c h a i c p u r p o s e l y ? T h i s t h e o r y , t h e r e f o r e o f C e l t i c f o l k , t a l e s i s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y . No f o l k t a l e c o r r e s p o n d s i n i n c i d e n t s a n d s e t t i n g t o t h e G r a i l s t o r y a n d i t i s i m p r o b a b l e t h a t a p u r e l y f o o d p r o v i d i n g v e s s e l b e l o n g i n g t o f o l k l o r e s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e . o b j e c t s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . The; R i t u a l t h e o r y was s u g g e s t e d f i r s t b y S i m r o c S i n 1 1842 when he s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e G r a i l s p r a n g f r o m t h e r i t u a l o f some c u l t o f t h e " v e g e t a t i o h s p i r i t . M t z e , u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f F A i a ^ e r ' s G o l d e n B o u g h , c o m p a r e s t h e E l e u s i n i a n 1. v . BEAR 2 7 6 . m y s t e r i e s o f G r e e c e t o a D e m e t e r c u l t o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n S p i r i t , I . e . , t h e G r a i l c e r e m o n y i s an I n i t i a t i o n t o e n s u r e t h e l i f e o f t h e V e g e t a t i o n S p i r i t , a l w a y s i n d a n g e r o f e x t i n c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h i s b a s i s t h e F i s h e r K i n g i s a n i h t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t a n d t h e h e r e a f t e r . He i s a s y m b o l o f t h e c r e a t i v e f r u c t i f y i n g f o r c e i n n a t u r e a n d I s s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w a t e r . H i s i n f i r m i t y a g r e e s w i t h n a t u r e ' s d e c l i n i n g s t r e n g t h , t h u s h i s l a n d l i e s w a s t e o r I s u n d e r t h e b a n n o f e n c h a n t m e n t . The G t a i l fcnlght i s a n v i n i t i a t e . I f he f a i l s , t h e c r o p s f a i l a n d t h e s p r i n g s r u n d r y . I f he. s u c c e e d s he, becomes t h e F i s h e r . K i n g . The G r a i l i n t h e l l e u s i n i a n m y s t e r i e s was r e p r e s e n t e d a s a H o l y Box p o s s e s s i n g t a l i s m a n i c p r o p e r t i e s o f p r o v i d i n g f o o d and; p r e s e r v i n g a g a i n s t d i s e a s e . I n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y t h i s vra.s i d e n t i f i e d b y means o f t h e S a i n t S a n g m y t h w i t h t h e r e l i c s o f C a l v a r y a n d t h e eup o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r , t h e a v e n u e o f t r a n s m i s s i o n b e i n g Fecamp o r G l a s t o n b u r y . The L a n c e was i d e n t i c a l i n o r i g i n w i t h t h e C e l t i c S w o r d o f ' L i g h t . The o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e t h e o r y a r e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e a n c i e n t m y s t e r i e s i s f r a g -m e n t a r y and a gap o f one t h o u s a n d y e a r s e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e s e a n d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e • G r a i l . : •• " L o o m i s a g r e e s t h a t t h e G r a i l m y t h ; i s a s e a s o n a l m y t h i n v o l v i n g t h e t e s t i n g o f a y o u n g . g o d b y a n o l d and t h e d i s p l a y o f t a l i s m a n s w h i c h come i n t o t h e y o u n g g o d ' s p o s s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d b y h i s m a r r i a g e t o t h e V e g e t a t i o n , goddess.-'' Ee I v Loomis. 2 6 0 . 6 . assumes t h a t t h e ; ' G r a i l was c o n n e c t e d w i t h s e c r e t d o c t r i n e s , t h a t G r a i l a n d l a n c e a r e p h a l l i c s y m b o l s , t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e q u e s t i o n : , s u g g e s t s s e x i n i t i a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e l o s s o f r e -p r o d u c t i v e p o w e r s of: t h e k i n g h a d a s t e r i l i z i n g e f f e c t on t h e l a n d a n d t h e p e o p l e , The t h e o r y w h i c h h a s b e e n m o s t c o n s i s t e n t l y w o r k e d 1 o u t i s t h e filtual T h e o r y o f j e s s i e L. W e s t o n . W e s t o n , i n s t e a d o f s e e k i n g a n a l o g i e s t o t h e G r a i l l e g e n d i n t h e E l e u s i n i a n m y s t e r i e s , l o o k s f o r t h e m i n t h e A d o n i s c u l t w h i c h , d r i v e n f r o m h i g h e s t a t e b y t h e f o r c e \ o f r e l i g i o u s e v o l u t i o n , l i n g e r e d o n o p e n l y i n f o l k p r a c t i c e a n d s e c r e t l y . I n e a v e s u n t i l t h e T e m p l a r s met such, s u r v i v a l s o f t h e N a a s e n e d o c t r i n e i n t h e .. E a s t . B e h i n d t h e romance l i e s f o l k l o r e , b e h i n d f o l k l o r e l i e s •a f o r g o t t e n , f a i t h j s a y s W e s t o n , who b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e P a r s i f a l m y t h r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f a l o n g e v o l u t i o n a r y g r o w t h . She m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e G h r i s t i a n t h e o r y , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s a r e G h r i s t i a n a n d e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , f a l l s down b e c a u s e t h e r e i s . no G h r i s t i a n l e g e n d o f J o s e p h o f A r i m a t h e a a n d ;the. G r a i l . The C e l t i c , f o l k l o r e t h e o r y s h e d i s q u a l i f i e s b e c a u s e t h e P a r s i f a l s t o r y o r i g i n a l l y h a d n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e G r a i l a n d no C e l t i c f o l k t a l e c o n t a i n s : a n a c c o u n t o f t h e Waste L a n d , f i s h e r K i n g , e t c . .. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s h e s e e s f i a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n e a c h f e a t u r e o f t h e s t o r y a n d t h e r e c o r d e d s y m b o l i s m of; t h e m y s t e r y c u l t s . The G r a i l m y t h a s a medium o f i n s t r u c -t i o n i o t h e n a t u r e and s o u r c e s , o f l i f e was d i s c o u r a g e d a n d 1. BEAR 282 f f . r e p l a c e d b y t h e C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n a n d i d e n t i f i e d i t s e l f wi.th. i t s v i c t o r i o u s r i v a l : o n t h e o u t w a r d r e v e r e n c e p a i d t o t h e S a i n t Sang r i t e A t h a t o f N i cod-emus a t Fecamp. I t s - s u c c e s s was Immediate s i n c e C h r i s t i a n i t y now made p o p u l a r t h e i n i t i a t i o n a n d p u r i f i c a t i o h w h i c h h i t h e r t o h a d b e e n a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o a f e w . B e f o r e 1147 B J L e h e r i s t o l d t h e s t o r y t o t h e Normans -then i n t h e n e s t t h i r t y y e a r s t h e m y t h was C h r i s t i a n i z e d on t h e model of a S t . S a n g l e g e n d , G a w a i n was r e p l a c e d b y P a r s i f a l a n d t h e P a r s i f a l s t o r y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e G r a i l g u e s t , -vhe G a w a i n - P a r s l f a l . r o mance was c o n s t r u c t e d . I n 1 1 6 5 - 7 7 , t i r e G r a i l p o r t i o n ' w a s c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e P a r s i f a l o r n o n - G r a i l p o r t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of t h e l i f e s y m b o l s on t h e l o w e s t p l a n e . II90"Ssobert de B o r r o n r e w r o t e t h e s t o r y t o c o n -f o r m w i t h t h e l u c h a r i s t i c d o c t r i n e . - I n t h e e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e P a r s i f a l s t o r y t o o k i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , was t u r n e d i n t o p r o s e a n d c o n n e c t e d w i t h L a n c e l o t . I h e f i n a l s t a g e was t h e s u p e r s e s s i o n o f t h e p r o s e P a r s i f a l b y t h e G a l a h a d q u e s t , t h i s b e i n g t h e l a s t w o r d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l i f e c u l t s w i t h t h e h i g h C h r i s t i a n symbols.. • A c c o r d i n g t o h e r t h e o r i e s t h e s l a i n god i s a maimed k i n g d e p r i v e d o f h i s r e p r o d u c t i v e p o w e r s a n d w a i t i n g f o r r e s u r r e c t i o n . The k i n g r e p r e s e n t s t h e V e g e t a t i o n S p i r i t a n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e q u e s t b y r e s t o r i n g t h e k i n g t o h e a l t h r e s t o r e s t h e w a s t e l a n d s t o v e r d u r e , t h e s u p e r s t i t i o n t h a t t h e 1. W S i r P 257. 8, f e r t i l i t y o f t h e l a n d I s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h e a l t h of t h e k i n g b e i n g f o u n d i n t h e O d y s s e y a n d among t h e S h i l l u k t r i b e s . The G r a i l a nd b l e e d i n g l a n c e , s a y s W e s t o n , a r e p h a l l i c s y m b o l s . o f The- c e r e m o n i e s h a v e b o t h a g e n e r a l and an e s o t e r i c m e a n i n g . The m a i n body o f w o r s h i p p e r s r e g a r d t h e c e r e m o n y a s a means o f s e c u r i n g f r u i t f u l n e s s b u t t o t h e e l e c t t h e G r a i l i s t h e s o u r c e a n d f o o d o f l i f e . On t h e f i r s t p l a n e t h e G r a i l i s a f o o d -p r o v i d i n g , d i s h g i v i n g i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e o r i g i n o f p h y s i c a l l i f e . On t h e e s o t e r i c s t a g e i t i s a s y m b o l o f the. f e m a l e e l e m e n t i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f l i f e . F i n a l l y t h e G r a i l r e p r e s e n t a n i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e h i g h e r s e c r e t s o f t h e m y s t e r i e s o f r e g e n e r a t i o n a n d s p i r i t u a l l i f e . E a c h s t a g e o f t h e s e c r e t r i t e h a d i t s g u a r d i a n . The maimed k i n g was t h e g u a r d i a n o f t h e G r a i l a s a f e e d i n g v e s s e l . The k e e p e r o f t h e s e c o n d s t a g e was t h e m y s t e r i o u s t h i r d s 1 b r o t h e r , t h e K i n g o f C h a t e l i . i o r t e i l . When^ o n t h e h i g h e s t p l a n e , t h e G r a i l i s t h e s o u r c e o f s p i r i t u a l l i f e . , , v i s i b l e o n l y a s - a r e w a r d f o r p a s s i n g t h e t e s t , ' t h e i f i s h e r K i n g i s t h e g u a r d i a n . T h u s Wagner r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e t h r e e k i n g s what was p r o b a b l y a n o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e o f t h e s t o r y . J u s t a s t h e r e were t h r e e G r a i l k e e p e r s - J o s e p h , B r o n s , P e r c e v a l , so t h e r e were: t h r e e G r a i l w i n n e r s - G a w a i n , P a r s i f a l , ' G a l a h a d . I n W o l f r a m p r o b a b l y L o h a n g r i n n o t G a l a h a d was t o be t h e t h i r d w i n n e r . 1. W S i r P 257. 9. P a r s i f a l was o r i g i n a l l y " l e f i s de l a v e u v e n , t h e s o n s o f t h e widow b e i n g a w i d e s p r e a d synonym, f o r i n i t i a t e s , a s m asons a r e c a l l e d c h i l d r e n o f t h e w i d o w . The w i d o w I s t h e e a r t h b e r e f t o f t h e s u n . H e n c e , t o W e s t o n t h e G r a i l i s a n I n i t i a t i o n s t o r y a n d t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f G a w a i n i n t h e c h a p e l o f t h e b l a c k ; h a n d w h i c h e x t i n g u i s h e d ' t h e c a n d l e s I s a t e s t ' f o r p r i m a r y i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e s o u r c e s , o f p h y s i c a l l i f e c o n s i s t i n g o f c o n t a c t ..with t h e d e a d , t h e a c t u a l i n i t i a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n t o t h e m e a n i n g o f .Lahce a n d Gup i n t h e i r s e x u a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n . I t seems m o r e p r o b a b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t P a r s i f a l o r i g i n a l l y was n o t a n i n i t i a t i o n s t o r y b u t a s i m p l e B u m m T i n g m l r c h e n . She i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t -Gawain n o t P a r s i f a l was t h e O r i g i n a l h e r o a n d b e l i e v e s t h a t a t 'one t i m e a d o c t o r o r m e d i c i n e man was a c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t o r y and t h a t t h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n t h e - p e r s i s t e n t a t t r i b u t e s , o f h e a l i n g t o G a w a i n , a g i f t w h i ch' i s d e n i e d t o T r i s t a n , t h e m o s t a c c o m p l i s h e d hero?",. S i n c e G a w a i n seems so u n s u i t a b l e a p e r s o n f o r t h i s y i t was p r o b a b l y a s u r v i v a l o f t h e t r a d i t i o n when G a w a i n , I n - h i s r o l e o f G r a i l w i n n e r , c u r e d t h e k i n g n o t b y a q u e s t i o n o r t h e w e l d i n g o f a b r o k e n s w o r d , b u t b y a h e a l i n g h e r b . When t h e r e l a t i o n o f b o d y a n d s o u l became o f c a r d i n a l i m p o r t a n c e ^ t h e m e d i c i n e man gave p l a c e t o t h e R edeemer. 1. f L l . W.R 9 3 . 10. I n t h e B i g T e l a W e s t o n s e e s a p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n o f 'the G r a i l s t o r y . The. G r a i l k n i g h t s , she b e l i e v e s , o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e M a r u t s who a t t e n d e d I n d r a o r e l s e i n t h e Roman S a l l l . I h d f a b e s t o w e d t h e boons, o f r a i n a n d d a y l i g h t a n d t h e f e a t f o r w h i c h he i s p r a i s e d i s t h e same a s t h a t o f G a w a i n and P a r s i f a l ' , i . e . , t h e F r e e i n g o f t h e W a t e r s . I n t h e s t o r y o f R i s h y a c r i n g a , o f t h e M a h a b h a r a t a a y o u n g B r a h m i n i s b r o u g h t up i n a l o n e l y f o r e s t , l i k e P a r s i f a l i g n o r a n t o f t h e w o r l d a n d women. The k i n g l e a r n s t h a t a d r o u g h t w i l l e n s u e a s l o n g a s t h e b o y r e m a i n s c h a s t e . A y o u n g g i r 1, d i s g u i s e d a s a h e r m i t , p e r s u a d e s t h e b o y t o b o a r d h e r s h i p w h i c h i s f i t t e d o u t a s a h e r m i t ' s c e l l . On a r r i v a l a t t h e c a p i t a l he m a r r i e s t h e k i n g ' s d a u g h t e r a n d r a i n f a l l s . S i n c e t h e c e r e m o n i a l m a r r i a g e was a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t o f t h e F e r t i l i t y r i t e , . W e s t o n b e l i e v e s t h e o r i g i n a l P a r s i f a l s t o r y i n c l u d e d t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e h e r o . The A d o n i s r i t e s , w h i c h f o r m e d a b r i d g e b e t w e e n , t h e r e l i c - s o f A r y a n a n d B a b y l o n i a n a n t i q u i t y , a n d m e d i e v a l a n d modern, were a c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e d e a t h a n d r e t u r n o f a p e r s o n o n whose l i f e a n d w e l l b e i n g t h e o r d i n a r y p r o c e s s e s o f n a t u r e a n d t h e l i f e o f man d e p e n d . S i n c e d e s t r u c t i o n f a l l s on t h e l a n d u n t i l t h e k i n g i s h e a l e d , t h e c a l a m i t y w h i c h t h e A d o n i s r i t u a l s o u g h t t o a v e r t was t h e t e m p o r a r y s u s p e n s i o n o f a l l t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e e n e r g i e s o f n a t u r e . I n t h i s c u l t , a s i n D i u A r o n e and t h e p r o s e L a n c e l o t , much p r o m i n e n c e was a s s i g n e d t o t h e w e e p i n g women. A c c o r d i n g t o W e s t o n t h e G r a i l c a s t l e was a l w a y s n e a r w a t e r b e c a u s e i n t h e A d o n i s c u l t t h e e f f i g y o f 1 1 . t h e d e a d k i n g , a c c o m p a n i e d b y w e e p i n g women, was t h r o w n i n t o t h e w a t e r . W e s t o n m a i n t a i n s i t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e W a s t e l a n d i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m a n d t h a t Wagner i s r i g h t i n c h o o s i n g a s t h e c e n t r e - o f t h e i n t e r e s t A m f o r t a s , t h e d i v i n e r u l e r a t o n c e g o d a n d k i n g o n whose u n i m p a i r e d v i t a l i t y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Land and p e o p l e d e p e n d . I n C h r i s t i a n a r t a n d t r a d i t i o n L a n c e a n d Gup a r e n o t a s s o c i a t e d symbols," 1" t h o u g h t h e y s u r v i v e t o d a y i n . p a g a n t r a d i t i o n a s i n t h e M o r r i s d a n c e s o f B e r k s h i r e where t h e l e a d e r c a r r i e s a c h a l i c e a n d a sword.-, K a t h e r t h e L a n c e i s f o u n d w i t h c r o s s , n a i l s , s p o n g e and t h o r n a n d t h e Cup w i t h t h e H o s t . T h e r e f o r e W e s t o n s t a t e s t h e . L a n c e and t h e Cup were c o n n e c t e d b e f o r e C h r i s t a s s e x s y m b o l s o f i m m e m o r i a l a n t i q u i t y . I n •lapan a b o y a t 14- r e c e i v e s , a s w o r d b u t r e m a i n s c e l i b a t e u n t i l i n a s e c o n d c e r e m o n y h e i s p r e s e n t e d wi.th ; a c u p . The o b j e c t i o n s t o t h i s t h e o r y a r e t h a t t h e gap • b e t w e e n t h e : A d o n i s c u l t and t h e G r a i l r o m a n c e i s t h e same a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e E l e u s l n i a n m y s t e r i e s . I n d e e d , we know e v e n l e s s o f t h e A d o n i s c u l t s t h a n we do o f t h e E l e u s l n i a n m y s t e r i e s . N e i t h e r do we know what a r e t h e r i t e s t o f o c c u l t s e c t s o f t o d a y o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e , t h e same a s t h o s e o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , w h i l e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e G r a i l e l e m e n t s a s p h a l l i c s y m b o l s i s f a n t a s t i c . U n d o u b t e d l y some f e a t u r e s a r e common t o C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d a n d a n c i e n t c u l t s , b u t i t i s 1 , W R t o R 9 5 . 12. more l i k e l y t h a t t h e G r a i l r o m a n c e s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d t h a n f r o m t h e u n d e r g r o u n d p e r p e t u a t i o n of' t h e l a t t e r . C h r e t i e n ' s u n f i n i s h e d w o r k g i v e s no i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e r e l i c s a n d h i s c o n t i n u a t o r s i n v e n t e d t h e i r own. R o b e r t de B o r r o n s a y s t h e G r a i l i s o f C h r i s t i a n o r i g i n a n d p o s s e s s e s wonder w o r k i n g pwwers l i k e a m e d i e v a l r e l i c . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C h r i s t i a n t h e o r y t h e theme was o r i g i n a l l y p a g a n but. O h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n was b e g u n w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a n c e w i t h t h a t o f L o n g i n u s . The n e x t , s t e p was t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e G r a i l a s a. f e e d i n g v e s s e l w i t h C h r i s t i a n ' t r a d i t i o n t h r o u g h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f J o s e p h o f A r i m a t h e a , t h e e f f o r t t o c o n n e c t Joseph'. w i t h , the.. r e l i c o f t h e s a c r e d b l o o d b e i n g i n s p i r e d b y t h e e x a m p l e .of JF.el3.pmp. To t h i s d a y i n t h e G r e e k mass a k n i f e w i t h a l a n c e - l i k e b l a d e i s u s e d tb.eeuttthe b r e a d a n d t h i s i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e l a n c e o f t h e Roman s o l d i e r . I t h a s b e e n r e m a r k e d ' t h a t t h e p r o c e s s i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n mosfe v e r s i o n s i n t h e c a s t l e , n o t a c h u r c h , a n d t h a t t h e b e a r e r o f t h e G r a i l I s a d a m s e l , n o t a p r i e s t , w h i c h w o u l d seem b l a s p h e m o u s t o t h e M i d d l e A g e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n C a t h o l i c l a n d s ^ p r o c e s s i o n s a r e n o t , c o n f i n e d t o t h e c h u r c h e s w h i l e i n t h e E a s t , I r e l a n d and B r i t a i n ^ w o m e n m i g h t h e a r t h e l u c h a r i s t . A b o v e a l l we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h p o e t r y , n o t a t h e o l o g i c a l w o r k and t h e a u t h o r i s f i t t i n g a r e l i g i o u s con-, c e p t i o n i n t o a romance o f c h i v a l r o u s a d v e n t u r e . T h i s t h e n seems t h e most l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e G r a i l . 1 3 . : Many e l e m e n t s go t o make up t h e s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l -t h e L a n o e , S w o r d , t h e G r a i l C a s t l e , t h e . B e s p e l l e d . . C a s t l e , t h e Que.ster and h i s t a s k , t h e F i s h e r K i n g , t h e h e r o ' s l o v e , e t c . Of t h e s e t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t i s .the G r a i l i t s e l f . The w o r d g r a i l means a v e s s e l . The l a t e r f o r m s o f g r a a l o r g r e a l show t h a t f o r p h o n e t i c r e a s o n s t h e w o r d c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n drawn f r o m W e s t e r n F r a n c e o r E n g l a n d . The Low L a t i n f o r m i s ? ' g r a d a l i s ' and t h e G r e e k • c r a t e r a ' , a b o w l . I n t h e C h r o n i c l e o f H e l i n a n d o f F r o i d m o n t , 7 1 7 - 1 9 , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t " G r a i l was a F r e n c h name f o r J a b r o a d a n d deep d i s h .. i n w h i c h p r e c i o u s v i a n d s w e r e s e t b e f o r e t h e r i c h i n d i f f e r e n t -rows, one p i e c e a f t e r t h e o t h e r o n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . - i t i s a l s o c a l l e d ' g r e a l ' b e c a u s e i t i s g r a t e f u l o r a c c e p t a b l e t o a p e r s o n who e a t s i n i t , b o t h on ;.ac6ount o f t h e . c o n t a i n i n g v e s s e l , b e c a u s e p e r c h a n c e i t i s o f s i l v e r o r some o t h e r v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l and o n a c c o u n t o f - t h e c o n t e n t s . " A c c o r d i n g t o C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n O t f r i d ' s a i h t f e j c e n t i i r y I v a n g e l i u m shows t h e b l o o d o f C h r i s t ' s wounds f l o w i n g i n t o a v e s s e l . . The f o l k l o r i s t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e c l a r e t h a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e H o l y G r a i l , i s t h a t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f . t h e C e l t i c p a g a n v e s s e l o f i n c r e a s e t o a C h r i s t i a n s y m b o l o f t h e m i r a c l e o f t r a n s u b s . t a n t i a t i o n i " 1 " Y i l l e m a r q u e , f o r e x a m p l e , e l a i m s t h e G r a i l i s t h e d r u i d i c b a s i n o f T a l e i s s l n . I n t h e Welsh- poem o f t h e H a r r y i n g o f H a d e s i s d e p i c t e d t h e c a u l d r o n o f i n s p i r a t i o n r i d g e d a r o u n d w i t h p e a r l s and b o i l e d b y t h e b r e a t h o f t h e G r a i l m a i d e n s who. I f BEAR, 254. GQE, 34. WLWD, 15 8 . r e p r e s e n t the 1 muses. The c a u l d r o n r e f u s e d t o c o o k f o o d f o r a c o w a r d o r l i a r . R h y s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s a r e l i c o f t h e d a y s when t h e m e d i c i n e man i n t o x i c a t e d h i m s e l f o r w o r k e d h i m s e l f i n t o a s t a t e o f e c s t a s y b y a. s a c r e d brew. I n t h e W e l s h c a u l d r o n o f B r a n i n t h e M a b i n o g l a n i t i s s t a t e d t h a t " i f a.man be s l a i n t o d a y and, be c a s t t h e r e i n , t o m o r r o w he w i l l be a s w e l l a s e v e r , h e - w a s , a t h i s b e s t e x c e p t t h a t he w i l l n o t r e g a i n h i s s p e e c h . T h o s e who a r g u e f o r t h e C e l t i c t h e o r y f i n d p r o t o t y p e s f o r t h e G - r a i l i n Anmwn, t h e c a u l d r o n , o f B r i t a i n w i t h Manawyd t h e p e r p e t u a l g u a r d i a n , t h e c u p o f s o v e r e i g n t y i n L u g ' s p a l a c e , B r a n , e t c . On t h e o t h e r hand,, N u t t b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a l a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e ©rail a n d t h e m a g i c c a u l d r o n o f C e l t i c f a b l e whose d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e i s • r e n o v a t i o n . I n B o r r o n ' s v e r s i o n t h e t a b l e r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r . The G r a i l i s t h e h o l y v e s s e l u s e d b y C h r i s t a n d i s t h e means o f s e p a r a t i n g t h e p u r e f r o m t h e impure... Ho b h e a r t o f man m i g h t i m a g i n e t h e g r e a t d e l i g h t we. h a v e o f i t n o r t h e j o y i n which'we a b i d e a n d s o j o u r n u n t i l t h e m o r n i n g . I t i s by. t h i s V e s s e l we a r e p a r t e d f r o m y o u f o r i t b e l o n g e d t o no. s i n n e r . " I n n C S r e t i e n i t i s a C h r i s t i a n r e l i c b u t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s p u r e l y p h y s i c a l , "D'une s e u l e o i s t e 11 s a i n s horn g u a n t e n c e g r e a l l i a p o r t e S a v i e s o s t i e n e t c o n f o r t t a n t s a i n t e c o s e e s t l i g r a a u s . " M a n d s s i e r makes no s p e c i f i c R e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e . G r a i l , f , C ' e s t i c . e l g r a a l p o r v o i r Q,ue n o s t r e s i r e s t a n t ama Que de s o n s a i n t s a n e 15. I ' a n o r a Au.: j o r que i l f u en c r o i x m i s . " , G a u t i e r says,. " L o r s v i t p a r m i l a s a l e a l e r L a r i s e g r e a l k i s e r v o i t e t m i s t l e p a i n a g r a n t e s p l o i t - l i d i a b l e s n e e d e i g o i t n t i l nomme k i l e j o r l e sroie I\ie he l e met e n m a l e v o i e P o r f a i r e p e c i e c r i m i n a l . ' ' I n t h e M a b i n o g i a n t h e v e s s e l c o n t a i n s a b l e e d i n g man's h e a d . I t i s s t r a n g e t h a t I n W o l f r a m ' s P a r z i v a l . w h i c h i s a n i m a t e d , b y so l o f t y a s p i r i t u a l f e e l i n g , t h e G r a i l i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d a s the r e c e p t a c l e o f C h r i s t ' s b l o o d b u t r a t h e r a s a s t o n e c o n n e c t e d o n l y w i t h t h e P a s s i o n b y t h e d o v e w h i c h r e n e w s i t s p o w e r s e a c h g o o d F r i d a y b y l a y i n g o n I t t h e s a c r i f i c i a l w a f e r . The s t o n e p r o l o n g s y o u t h and h a s t h e p o w e r o f p r o p h e s y i n g t h e names o f t h e c h o s e n G r a i l company and t h e k i n g ' s b r i d e . T h e r e ' i s no s i n g l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f.how t h e G r a i l came ,to t h e b e a r e r . I n W o l f r a m i t i s , p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e n e u t r a l a n g e l s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e . W a r t b u r g & r i e g l e g e n d . By t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y t h e u r a i l a n d i t s b e a r e r , w e r e c o n - • n e c t e d w l i l e B o r r o n i d e n t i f i e d t h e b e a r e r w i t h J o s e p h . J o s e p h came i n t o I t s p o s s e s s i o n i n v a r i o u s ways a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s . The G r a i l r e c e i v e d t h e b l o o d o f the; . c r u c i f i x i o n . ( G a u t i e r , M a n i s s i e r , Dos d o t ) j J o s e p h h a d i t made ( P s e u d o G a u t i e r ) ; he f o u n d i t h i m s e l f (.Grand S t . G r a e l ) , o r • C h r i s t g a ve i t . t o h i m i n p e r s o n d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e o f f i c e s r e n d e r e d h i m were s y m b o l i c a l o f t h e S a c r a m e n t ; i . e . , t h e s e p u l c h r e was t h e a l t a r , t h e s h e e t t h e c o r p o r a l , t h e v e s s e l *he c h a l i c e and t h e t o m b s t o n e t h e p a t i n a . The a r r i v a l o f t h e G r a i l i n -England was the c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e t h r e e k e e p e r s , 16. b e c a u s e t h e t h i r d was o f B r i t i s h b l o o d t h e G r a i l a c c o m p a n i e d h i m . I n C h r e t i e n a nd G a u t i e r t h e r e i s no a c c o u n t o f t h e J o u r n e y I n t h e p s e u d o - G a u t i e r J o s e p h a nd h i s company s a i l t o t h e W h i t e I s l e - , ' i . e . * E n g l a n d , i n t h e m e t r i c a l J o s e p h " v e r s Occident^'. J o s e p h . a n d h i s f a m i l y d e p a r t f o r B r i t a i n f r o m S a r r a s , t h e G r a i l s u p p o r t i n g i t s b e a r e r s t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r . G l a s e n a p p s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e L a n c e v/as t h e sunbeam o f t h e S p r i n g g o d , . i n - W o l f r a m .the s p e a r i s n o t t h e h o l y weapon o f L o n g i n u s b u t i s the, p o s s e s s i o n o f a h e a t h e n who, l i k e A n f o r t a s , wooed Orgel.us'e. The b l e e d i n g v s p e a r i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e G r a i l • k i n g b e c a u s e r e l i e f comes b y p l a c i n g t h e l a n c e on t h e .wound. A ' ' c o a t i n g w h i c h a c c u m u l a t e s o h i t i s o n l y r e m o v e d by t h e s i l v e r k n i v e s v f o r W o l f S a m m i s t o o k ^ T a l l l e o . r d * a r g e n t " f o r " s n i d e n d e e s l . l b e r " . Wagner.- i n t e r p r e t s ' t h e l a n c e a s t h e s y m b o l o f k n i g h t l y . i n t e g r i t y a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e . . h e a l i n g i s h e i g h t e n e d b e c a u s e A n f o r t a s , was wounded w i t h t h e same s p e a r a s C h r i s t . I n r e p r o d u c i n g - : t h e s p e a r n o t t h e G r a i l a s t h e o b j e c t o f t h e q u e s t ^ a n d t h e m o t i v e t h e d e s i r e t o h e a l t h e k i n g Wagner was p r o b a b l y r e p r o d u c i n g a n o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e o f t h e s t o r y . - ' ' • ' . -The p r o b l e m o f t h e s w o r d i s a c o m p l e x one f o r i t s p o w e r a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t a n d i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h e h e a l t h . 1 and s t r e n g t h o f i t s m a s t e r s . when t h e h e r o i s t o o y o u n g he c a n n o t ®ieId i t , w i t h " f p l l e f f e c t ; when a t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s powers, he i s i n v i n c i b l e . I n C h r e t i e n a n d D i u K r o n e t h e h o s t 1. Loomis.,244. 17. p r e s e n t s P a r s i f a l w i t h t h e s w o r d d e s t i n e d f o r him,, y/hich w i l l b r e a k and he mended o n l y b y T r e b u c h e t . . I n P e r M u r t h e h e r o m u s t j o i n t h e f r a g m e n t s t o g e t h e r as. a m e a s u r e o f h i s s t r e n g t h , t h i s " f o r g i n g b e i n g r e m i n i s c e n t o f S i e g f r i e d s t a s k . I n W o l f -ram t h e s w o r d was n o t s e n t b y t h e 1-isher K i n g ' s n i e c e b u t h a d b e e n : b o r n e by t h e k i n g h i m s e l f , s o t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f b r e a k i n g o r f o r g i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s S i g u n e t e l l s h i m o f t h e s p e l l and how t h e SY/ord w i l l b r e a k a t t h e s e c o n d blow.. P r o b a b l y . t h e s w o r d was a t f i r s t a s u n weapon w e l d e d b y p l u n g -i n g i t i n t o s p r i n g w a t e r b e f o r e dawn, i n t h e C h r i s t i a n V e r s i o n s t h e r e h a s b e e n , n o room f o r t h e s w o r d . A c c o r d i n g t o W o l f r a m t h e G r a i l C a s t l e was b u i l t o h t h e o n y x r o c k o f S a n S a l v a d o r t o w h i c h t h e a n g e l s l e d T i t u r e l . The c a s t l e was c i r c u l a r w i t h s e v e n t y - t w o o c t a g o n a l c h o i r s , e v e r y s e c o n d one h a v i n g a b e l f r y t o w e r t o p p e d b y a c r y s t a l c r o s s and o u t s p r e a d e a g l e , i n s i d e were s c u l p t u r e d ...vines, r o s e s a n d l i l i e s and c a r v e d b i r d s , c a r b u n c l e s were p l a c e d a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a r c h e s w h i l e t h e v a u l t e d r o o f was woven w i t h s u n and-moon a n d s t a r s . . W i t h i n t h e g r e a t t e m p l e was a s m a l l e r s a n c t u a r y f o r t h e G r a i l . The p r o b l e m o f t h e V i s i t t o t h e G r a i l c a s t l e i s c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e want o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s 1Mb l i g h t i s t h r o w n f r o m C e l t i c s o u r c e s o n s u c h a v i s i t n o r I s t h e r e a n y e x p l a n a t i o n i n t h e c h r i s t i a n o r i g i n . I n l e ' C o n t e  de. G r a a l two s q u i r e s b r i n g ' c a n d l e s t i c k s a n d t e n c a n d l e s . One d a m s e l b e a r s a p l a t e , a n o t h e r t h e G r a i l w h i c h p a s s e s , a t e v e r y d i s h . w h e r e a s ' i n . P a r z i y a l i t r e m a i n s on t h e t a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e f e a s t . , I n t h e . D a d o t P e r c e v a l , a d a m s e l c a r r i e s t h e d i s h , a page t h e v e s s e l . , I n t h e M a b l n o g i e n t h e c a s t l e l i e s b e y o n d a meadow,the g a t e s a r e o p e n e d b y a h o a r y man. The u n i q u e f e a t u r e o f t h i s v e r s i o n i s t h a t i n t h e G r a i l p r o c e s s i o n a . s p e a r i s b o r n e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s a l v e r c o n t a i n i n g a b l e e d i n g man's h e a d w h i c h I s c a r r i e d b y g i r l s , t h e p r o b l e m i s f u r t h e r -. '. ' c o m p l i c a t e d b e c a u s e t h e e f f e c t p r o d u c e d b y t h e h e r o ' s a c t i o n a t t h e c a s t l e o f t a l i s m a n s is-.analogous, t o , t h o u g h o f c o n t r a r y • n a t u r e , t o t h a t p r o d u c e d o n t h e i n m a t e s o f t h e ,be s p e l l e d oul ::lc... c a s t l e . ^ The q u e s t i o n f r e e i n g one f r o m t h e s p e l l o f l i f e i n d e a t h f r e e s t h e o t h e r f r o m d e a t h i n l i f e . T h e . c a s t l e t o w h i c h t h e a v e n g e r m u s t p e n e t r a t e t o w i n t h e t a l i s m a n s and, t h a t t o w h i c h t h e h e r o comes ' w i t h t h e i n t e n t , o f f r e e i n g i t s l o r d a r e b o t h s y m b o l s .of t h e u n d e r w o r l d . I n t h e v i s i t s o f l a t e r v e r s i o n s o n l y t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f d e p a r t u r e a nd th e , b e d . on . w h e e l s , w h i c h s y m b o l i s e d t h e w h i r l i n g c a s t l e o f t h e s k y , s u g g e s t t h e u n d e r -w o r l d . \ r i n t h e b e s p e l l e d c a s t l e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y s i t u a t e d a c r o s s a r i v e r , t h e v i s i t o r i s r e q u i r e d t o do c e r t a i n . t h i n g s -s u c h , a s t o p u t a q u e s t i o n o r t o a b s t a i n f r o m s l e e p o r ^ . d r i n f c . ft p ( T u r l i n ) The i n m a t e s o f t h e c a s t l e l i v e a n o v e r l e n g t h e d l i f e a s . u n w i l l i n g p r i s o n e r s , t h e k n i g h t s a n d l a d i e s r e s i d i n g 1., NSLHG-, 1 7 1 , 175.. 2. i b i d , , 1 9 0 . 19. a p a r t . I n C h r e t i e n i s f o u n d a new c o n c e p t o f t h e l o r d o f t h e c a s t l e a s e v i l . T h e r e i s a w i d e s p r e a d t r a d i t i o n o f men s l u m b e r i n g i n c a v e s o r r u i n e d c a s t l e s u n a b l e t o d i e u n t i l t h e r i g h t w o r d i s u t t e r e d w h i c h b r e a k s t h e i r s p e l l . I n C e l t i c t r a d i t i o n * when A r t h u r was wounded b y I C o d r e d , he p a s s e d a c h a r m e d l i f e i n J L v a l o n Y/hither M o r g a n - l a Jfay c a r r i e d h i m f o r h i s h e a l i n g , whence he w o u l d r e t u r n t o f r e e h i s p e o p l e . t h T h e same S l e e p i n g B e a u t y • t h e m e was a p p l i e d t o S i e g f r i e d a n d , B a r b a r o s s a . The o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t I s t h e m y t h o f t h e summer god b a n i s h e d b y ' w i n t e r b p t d e s t i n e d t o r e t u r n . The e a r l y c o n c e p t o f t h e v e n g e a n c e theme was a v i s i t t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d . -t h e C e l t s made no d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l a n d o f t h e d e a d a n d E l y s i u m - t o w i n a t r e a s u r e and f r e e I m p r i s o n e d b e i n g s . U n t i l t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e v e n g e a n c e t h e l L o a t h l y D a m s e l r e t a i n e d h e r u g l y g u i s e . I n t h e ©jtesie. I s r e p r e s e n t e d " C h r i s t • s d e l i v e r y o f t h e s o u l s i n p u r g a t o r y . A s w e l l a s -the- S l e e p i n g B e a u t y theme t h e r e e x i s t e d a w i d e s p r e a d f o l k t a l e , f o r e x a m p l e , o f a h e r o . f GriiiriiDis P e r ^ r a u t e s e j . ) . r o b b e d o f , t h r e e g i f t s , w h i c h he r e t r i e v e d w i t h t h e a i d o f t a l i s m a n s . G r a d u a l l y t h e t a l i s -mans, a means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e q u e s t f o r v e n g e a n c e , became t h e o b j e c t o f t h e q u e s t i t s e l f . I n t h e e a r l y f o r m s t h e r e was no c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e t a s k o f t h e G r a i l - Q u e s t e r a n d t h a t o f ttawain. a t C a s t l e M a r v e l l o u s . The f i r s t s u f f e r e d c h a n g e b y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d w h i l e t h e s e c o n d r e t a i n e d i t s p r i m i t i v e C e l t i c c h a r a c t e r . T h e . e p i s o d e s o f G r g e l u s e and t h e B e s p e l l e d ; - 20.. .' C a s t l e were o r i g i n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t t a l e s , l i n k e d o n l y b y t h e f i g u r e o f Gawain. The e v e r g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f P a r s i f a l c a u s e d t h e t a l e s t o be I n c l u d e d among t h e l a t t e r 1 s a d v e n t u r e s . . " ..' G a w a i n , a s A r t h u r ' s nephew and f i r s t ' f o l l o w e r . , , was supreme i n t h e e a r l i e s t s t o r i e s , i n d e e d , W e s t o n , a s has" b e e n shown, a r g u e s t h a t he was the O r i g i n a l q u e s t e r . By 1090 he was t h e . I t a l i a n b e a u i d e a l , i n D i u ; K r o n e n o t P a r s i f a l , b u t G a w a i n , p u t s t h e q u e s t i o n . The w a g i n g a n d w a n i n g o f h i s s t r e n g t h b e t r a y h i s s o l a r o r i g i n , s i n c e a t d a y b r e a k h i s s t r e n g t h i s human b u t from. s i x . t o n i n e i s d o u b l e d . He p o s s e s s e s a m a r v e l l o u s s t e e d , A a l n g a l e t , l i k e S i e g f r i e d ' s G r a n . G a w a i n i s t h e w i n n e r o f a k i n g d o m a p p r o a c h e d by w a t e r whose I r i s h c o u n t e r p a r t i s t h e I s l e o f Women i n t h e P r o u d L a d y s t o r y , o r t h e l a n d t o 'which men- a r e l u r e d i n t h e s t o r y o f CbnnTa a n d O i s i n . The German p a r a l l e l i s t h e I v l e i d e l a n d o f D i u ..Krone. Whereas T r i s t a n ' s d e a t h i s u n i m p o r t a n t a n d L a n c e l o t o u t l i v e s A r t h u r , t h e r e a r e many, r e f e r e n c e s to"Gawain'.s p a s s i n g . W o l f r a m d e s c r i b e s h i s r e t u r n f r o m t h e c a s t l e t o t h e c o u r t ; M a l o r y i n t r o d u c e s h i s g h o s t a t t h e c o u r t o f A r t h u r , i . e . , he was r e a l l y d e a d a n d l i v i n g i n f a i r y l a n d . A s f a r a s h i s l o v e s a r e c o n c e r n e d t h e r e i s . no t r a c e o f a n y l i a i s o n b u t h i s c h a r -a c t e r s u f f e r e d f r o m a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e c a s t l e o f m a i d e n s . U s u a l l y h i s l o v e i s n a m e l e s s a n d o f s u p e r n a t u r a l o r i g i n ^ d u e t o h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e u n d e r w o r l d c a s t l e . O f t e n she i s f o u n d b e s i d e w a t e r o r i s a f a i r y u n d e r a s p e l l ^ a s i n The ..Marriage o f S i r . G a w a i n . W e s t o n s u g g e s t s t h a t s i n c e P a r s i f a l - • •• ; 2 1 . and. G a w a i n were r e l a t e d and P a r s i f a l ' s f a t h e r i s s e l d o m named G a w a i n i s the f a t h e r o f P a r s i f a l . I f t h i s were t r u e t h e c o m b a t t b e t w e e n them w o u l d p a r a l l e l t h e H i l d e b r a n d s l i e d . G a w a i n was a n e a r l y p o p u l a r f i g u r e i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n a n d c o n n e c t e d w i t h A r t h u r b e f o r e t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d s . AT-t h o u g h Ohr e 11 e n r a n fee d him. s up r erne a n d W ac e p r e s e n t s h I'm a s •v-the- .ajxeen+s 'knight, one o f t h e b e s t k n i g h t s , t h e w i s e s t o f t h e w o r l d , t h e l e a s t • m i s s p e a k e r , no b o a s t e r and b e s t t a u g h t o f a l l t h i n g s t h a t b e l o n g t o w o r s h i p o r t h e c o u r t i e r " , y e t he i s n o t t h e h e r o af a n y one r o m a n c e . T r i s t a n a n d L a n c e l o t a s l o v e r s s u r p a s s e d h i m i n p o p u l a r i t y * When t h e G r a i l became p r o m i n e n t t h e r e was a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x a l t G a w a i n b u t P a r s i f a l h a d b e e n p r o v i d e d b y u h r e t i e n a n d R o b e r t , and P a r s i f a l was i n t u r n s u p e r s e d e d b y G a l a h a d . S i n c e G a w a i n ' s c h a s t i t y was a d a n g e r o u s r e p r o o f ts> t h e o t h e r k n i g h t s a n d b e c a u s e he r i v a l l e d P a r s i f a l a n d G a l a h a d , i n t h e Q u e s t ^ h e was d e p r i v e d o f h i s c h a s t i t y a n d became so d e g r a d e d t h a t T e n n y s o n d e p i c t s M m a s t h e - s y m b o l o f f i c k l e n e s s and l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . H i s c h a s t i t y e n d e a r e d h i m , h o w e v e r , t o t h e E n g l i s h l o w e r c l a s s e s t o whom 'in c o u r t l y l o v e made no a p p e a l . A c c o r d i n g l y S i r G a w a i n a n d t h e  G r e e n K n i g h t , t h e g r e a t e s t E n g l i s h r o m a n c e , he a p p e a r s a s a h i g h p r i n c i p l e d k n i g h t , f a c i n g c e r t a i n d e a t h f r o m a s u p e r n a t u r -a l f o e r a t h e r t h a n b r e a k h i s p l e d g e . . T h e r e i s much c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e f i g u r e o f t h e l i s h e r 1. T a y l o r , 7 8 . 2 2 e K i n g ; he may h e o l d o r two p e o p l e h u t he i s n e v e r y o u n g - y o u t h b e i n g r e s e r v e d f o r t h e H e d e e m e r . I n t h e p r i m a r y form: he was p r o b a b l y d e a d and r e s t o r e d t o l i f e b y h e r b s a s i n t h e mumming p l a y s . I n t h e u n i q u e B l e h e r i s v e r s i o n he i s t a l l , s t r o n g , q u i t e y o u n g b u t b a l d . T h e r e i s a l s o a d e a d k i n g o n a b i e r but' n e i t h e r i s c a l l e d t h e F i s h e r K i n g , n o r i s h e ' s o named i n M u K r o n e where he i s r e a l l y d e a d b u t h a s t h e s e m b l a n c e o f l i f e . B o r r o n e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e t i t l e was a c q u i r e d when, t o s e p a r a t e t h e s i n n e r s , B r o n s c a u g h t a f i s h a n d l a i d i t b e s i d e t h e G r a i l , ' w h e r e a s a t one t i m e i t may h a v e b e e n c o o k e d i n t h e • v e s s e l . I n C n r e ' t i e n t h e r e a r e two k i n g s , one o l d and one wounded, t h e f a t h e r , who was f e d f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s b y t h e w a f e r , s y m b o l i z i n g t h e H o l y G h o s t . W o l f r a m c o n n e c t s t h e name w i t h a l i k i n g f o r f i s h i n g . . (He. m i s t o o k ' r i v i e r e ' f o r 1 v i v i e r e ' so t h e k i n g f i s h e s i n a r i v e r n o t a l a k e . ) The o l d e r man i s n o t t h e f a t h e r b u t . t h e g r a n d f a t h e r o f t h e k i n g . The wound o f t h e k i n g i s a p u n i s h m e n t f o r t h e u n l a w f u l , l o v e o f a p a g a n p r i n c e s s . T h i s ' t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n law. e x p l a i n s fey-, a f t e r h i s v i t a l i t y i s r e s t o r e d , t h e k i n g f o r f e i t s h i s t h r o n e t o h i s h e a l e r . F r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l a f i s h h a s b e e n t h e s y m b o l o f t h e o r i g i n a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l i f e a n d t h e s o u r c e o f t h e ^ s y m b o l i s t h e b e l i e f , s o common i n I n d i a n a n d B u d d h i s t c o s mogony, t h a t a l l l i f e comes from, t h e w a t e r . The I r i s h 1. ' W R. t o R, 112.. .; v . NSLHG, 2 6 7 . .23. s a l m o n o f w i s d o m was c a u g h t by F i n n i n t h e B o y n e . He t o u c h e d ^ t h e w a s t e d f i s h w i t h h i s thumb, p u t h i s f i n g e r , t o h i s m o u t h and t h u s o b t a i n e d a l l k n o w l e d g e a s S i e g f r i e d d i d f r o m t h e d r a g o n ' s blood. I n B o r r o n a n d t h e G r a n d S t . G r a a l t h e k i n g p a s s e s his l i f e s e e k i n g f o r a ' f i s h t o d i s t i n g u i s h . g o o d f r o m e v i l o r p r o v i d e a n i n e x h a u s t i b l e m e a l t o men; The t i l e o f F i s h e r T/as a p p l i e d t o t h e r e s c u e r o f s o u l s b e c a u s e o f C h r i s t ' s w o r d s , Matthey/ I V , 19, ' F o l l o w me a n d I w i l l make y o u f i s h e r s o f men', and b e c a u s e t h e i n i t i a l s o f t h e G r e e k w o r d s ' J e s u s C h r i s t , t h e S o n o f God t h e S a v i o u r ' y^ere ? X o 4 s o r t h e word -' f i s h ' . .The p r o b l e m o f t h e v F i s h e r E i n g d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n s o l v e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y so f a r . H e i n z e l s a y s , E r 1 s t . e i n fischerkSnig w e l l e r f i s c h t und e r f i s c h t w e l l e r k r a n f c • I-st.." B r u c e on t h e o t h e r h a n d m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e . wounds, on t h e C r o s s w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e l e g e n d o f t h e maimed k i n g ; i t i s t h e f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n ' ! " O r i g i n a l l y , a s h a s been, p o i n t e d o u t , t h e P a r s i f a l s t o r y h a d no c o n n e c t i o n e i t h e r w i t h t h e G r a i l o r w i t h A r t h u r ' s c o u r t * I n d e e d , t o t h e e n d , P a r s i f a l was. n e v e r a h a b i t u e ' o f t h e c o u r t b u t o n l y a p a s s i n g g u e s t . The P a r s i f a l s t o r y r e p r e s e n t s a p r e h i s t o r i c A r y a n hero, "a D u m m l i n g m a r c h e n " a n d t h e a c h i e v e r of. a m y s t i c q u e s t . J . G. H a h n i n h i s " A r i s c l i e A u s s e t z o n g u n d R e i c K k e h r f o r m e l " b e l i e v e s t h a t P e r s e u s , T h e s e u s , H e r a k l e s , P a r s i f a l and. S i e g f r i e d w e r e t y p i c a l T e u t o n f o r m u l a h e r o e s . W e s t o n s a y s t h a t S i e g f r i e d i s b u t t h e T e u t o n i c d e v e l o p m e n t 1. BEAR,, 26 0 . • 24. o f an A r y a n o r i g i n a l whose. B r i t i s h p a r a l l e l i s t o he f o u n d i n . P a r s i f a l , S i e g f r i e d b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s a g a s t a g e o f t h e m y t h and P a r s i f a l t o t h e f a a r c h e n . C e r t a i n l y t h e p a r e n t a g e and b i r t h o f . t h e two h e r o e s do a g r e e . I n t h e T h i d r e E s a g a t h e c h i l d I s l a i d i n a g l a s s .case w h i c h i s s w e p t down by a s t r e a m a n d b r o k e n a g a i n s t t h e r o c k s . The b a b y i s s u c k l e d b y a h i n d a n d f o u n d b y M a t n & r . H i s . m o t h e r i s unknown a n d h i s f a t h e r a h e r o o f s e m i - d i v i n e o r i g i n named S i g m u n d . A s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t s a s w e l l b e t w e e n t h e t a s k s o f t h e two h e r o e s i n t h a t .one o f t h e E x p m l s i o n and R e t u r n a c h i e v e m e n t s i s t h e w a k e n i n g o f t h e m a i d ' o r t h e f r e e i n g f r o m a s p e l l i n v o l v i n g a v i s i t t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d . T h i s i s a n a t u r e .myth s i g n i f y i n g t h e a w a k e n i n g o f e a r t h f r o m w i n t e r s l e e p . B r y n h i l d , t h e s l e e p i n g m a i d e n p r i c k e d b y t h e n S V e f n - b o r n y was s u r r o u n d e d b y t h e b l a m e s o f t h e f u n e r a l p y r e - a n d a hedge i n t e r s woveh w i t h t h o r n s . I n t h e Th&dret' s a g a h e r home...is>a c a s t l e , ,the h e d g e r e p r e s e n t s a f o r t r e s s and t h e d o o r s t h e p o r t a l s o f H a d e s . I n t h e M a b e l u n g e n l i e d s h e d w e l l s o n a n i s l a n d - t h e l a i v e I s l a n d s o f the.^ f o l k s o n g s Of Denmark. A n o t h e r t r a d i t i o n i s t h a t B r y n h i l d l i v e s o n t h e G l a s h e r g , t h e abode o f M o l d a , t h e g o d d e s s o f t h e d e a d , t h i s s p o t feeing i d e n t i f i e d w i t h . G l a s t o n -b u r y . S i e g f r i e d ' s t a s k t h e n i s t o show t h a t d e a t h i s b u t a s l u m b e r f r o m w h i c h t h e s o u l a w a k e s t o new l i f e . Where t h e romahce w r i t e r s made p o w e r , r i c h e s , l e a r n i n g o r p e r s o n a l 1. G . T. SC. , 1 2 0 . 2 5 . s a l v a t i o n the ;" g o a l o f men's d e s i r e , t h e f a i r y t a l e b i d s h i m s e e k . h a p p i n e s s i n oommon human a f f e c t i o n s . O r i g i n a l l y t h e P a r s i f a l m y t h was a f o l k t a l e o f w o r l d w i d e - d i f f u s i o n - t h e s t o r y o f t h e s o n o f a widow", b r o u g h t up. i n i g n o r a n c e l i k e P e r s e u s , C y r u s , R o m u l u s and Remus, S i e g f r i e d a n d A r t h u a ? . O n l y i n t h e D a d o t P e r c e v a l d o e s t h e h e r o g r o w up i n h i s f a t h e r f s h o u s e a nd go t o c o u r t a t h i s p a r e n t s ' w i s h . I n t h e L a y of t h e G r e a t F o o l , L a o i d h a n . A m a d i n M h o i r , s t r i f e b e t w e e n b r o t h e r s d r i v e s t h e c h i l d t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s , l i e c a t c h e s a w i l d h o r s e a n d g o e s t o h i s u n c l e ' s p a l a c e d r e s s e d i n d e e r s k i n s . - The C e l t i c f o r m o f F l o r i n f o l l o w s t h e r e v e n g e t h e m e . O t h e r v e r s i o n s a r e t h e H i g h l a n d " A i d u o f G r i a n a s g " , t h e S w e d i s h " C a v a l l i u s o b e r l e i t n e r ' , and I t a l i a n ,?*Rentamerone M. The Germanic-p a r a l l e l i s .-Grimm's No. 6 0 ^ t h e t w i n b r o t h e r e ^ c l e . A n o t h e r G e r m a n i c t y p e may be t h e s t o r y o f t h e t r e a s u r e v i s i b l e o n l y t o . S u n d a y c h i l d r e n o r p u r e y o u t h s a s t h e G r a i l was v i s i b l e o n l y t o t h o s e t o whom G o d ' s . g r a c e " w a s " g r a n t e d . tt t« . . . Thus t h e D u m m l i n g m a r c h e n a t f i r s t was. a n i n d e p e n d e n t s t o r y b u t s i n c e i t made a h a d m i r a b l e f o l k t a l e a n d t h e G r a i l ' was t h e most, f a s c i n a t i n g t o p i c o f m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e , , when c o n n e c t e d t h e y p o s s e s s e d a u n i q u e c h arm., O n l y a t a l a t e r ; d a t e came t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A r t h u B r s c o u r t . T h a t - i s t o s a y , P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l came t o g e t h e r b e f o r e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e G r a i l a s a G h r i s t i a n s y m b o l . P a r s i f a l i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e 1 . I M S L G H - , 1 6 2 . 26. G r a i l o n l y i i i t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e ; a f t e r wards-.* when t h e l a t t e r i s f m i l y f L p c c e p t e d a s . a G h r i s t i a n s y m b o l , G a l a h a d i s t h e h e r o . Mb one k n i g h t was t h e h e r o o f t h e Q,uest i n a l l v e r s i o n s . I t was C h r e t i e n who t r a n s f e r r e d t h e p o p u l a r f o l k t a l e t o t h e e n -v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c o u r t f o r t h e s h e e r n o v e l t y o f t h e theme. I t . p r o v e d e a s i e r t o i n v e n t a h e r o t h a n t o s e l e c t a Y / e l l known k n i g h t b e c a u s e a b s o l u t e p e r f e c t i o n was r e q u i r e d and none o f t h e k n i g h t s a l r e a d y f a m o u s - L a n c e l o t , . ' T r i s t a n , E r i c , Y w a i n ^and G a w a i n - h a d m a i n t a i n e d a c o n s i s t e n t r e p u t a t i o n f o r p e r f e c t c h a s t i t y a n d o f t h e s e o n l y G a w a i n h a d n e v e r h a d a w i f e o r m i s -t r e s s . L a t e r i t was f o u n d i m p o s s i b l e f o r P a r s i f a l t o m a i n t a i n e q u a l i t y w i t h L a n c e l o t who h i t h e r t o h a d b e e n supreme^ s o a. new h e r o , G a l a h a d , was c r e a t e d b e c a u s e P a r s i f a l was m a r r i e d . Where at! f i r s t t h e G r a i l h a d b e e n o n l y o n e j o f many a d v e n t u r e s * . - s o o n r o m a n c e s were w r i t t e n c o n f i n e d t o t h e q u e s t , i n w h i c h many k n i g h t s a t t e m p e t e d t h e t a s k b u t o n l y u a l a h a d was . . s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t a i n i n g t h e G r a i l . The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f G a l a h a d and P a r s i f a l a l i k e was a s c e t i c i s m * E x c e p t i n W o l f r a m , h o w e v e r , t h i s was n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e m e c h a n i c a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 'concept o f p u r i t y , i . e . , a v o i d a n c e o f s i n . H o h b e r g e r r e m a r k s , n E s 1 s t i n t e r e s s a n t , d a s s a l l e B e a r be i t e r d e r P a r z i v a l ^ s a g e j.e n a c h S i n n u n d GeschmacK den Hamen i h r e s H e l d e n a n d e r s d e i i i t e t e n ,und s c h r e l b e n , dasselisssaa- ' Bezfeichung e i n e S t a ' g e r u n g e f f u h r , b i s z u e i n e m g e w i s s e n He* h e p u n l i t , d e r i n d e r a s t h e l i s c h - e t h i s e i h e w e ' r t ^ j r o l l e n B f c o t u h g d e s M e i s t e r s g t p f e l t . x C h r e t i e n e x p l a i n s i t a s " p e r c e v a l n , p£©ree t h e 1. M.E., 9 1 . 1 ~ ' : ' ~ ~ ' 27. . v a l l e y , l i k e t h e German ' " S p r i n g i h s f e l d " , " p e r e e h a l e " ( p i e r c e h e d g e ) b e i n g t h e name o f t h e s o n o f R e y n a r d t h e F o x . " C h r e t i e n , s a y s i " A d r o i t a s a nom P e r c h e v a x c a r p a r v o u s ' e s t t i v a x p e r c h i e z . " I n C l i g e s i s f o u n d " L a i s s i e z G l i g e s e t P e r c e v a l Q u i l e s QWers p e r c e e t t r a i t a v a l . " T h u s i t i s a F r e n c h name a n d l i e a l l o i s was i n v e n t e d t o g i v e a C e l t i c c o l o r i n g , ' t h o u g h t h e name was unknown t o t h e W e l s h . P e r e d u r means mos t b e a u t i f u l , a s t h e s o n o f a f a i r y , l i k e W o l f r a m ' s " c h e r f i z b e a f i z . " *^ W o l f r a m s a y s ? uDer nam i s r e h t e e n m i t t e n d u r e h " i n t h e ' s e n s e o f p i e r c i n g , h i s m o t h e r T s h e a r t w i t h s o r r o w . W a g n e r , f o r h i s own • p u r p o s e s - d e r i v e s t h e wo^d f r o m t h e P e r s i a n " P a r s e h f a l " o r .. p u r e f o o l . I n a n a n a l y s i s o f f o u r t e e n A r y a n t a l e s a nd e i g h t .. C e l t i c t h e f o l l o w i n g s e q u e n c e o f common i n c i d e n t s o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e h e r o ' s l i f e : ; h e r o b o r n o u t o f w e d l o c k , p o s t h u m o u s l y , s u p e r n a t u r a l l y o r a s a t w i n ; h i s m o t h e r i s a p r i n c e s s i n . h e r . own c o u n t r y w h i l e h i s f a t h e r i s a g o d o r h e r o f r o m a f a r ; b e c a u s e \ o f w a r n i n g s o f . g r e a t n e s s he i s d r i v e n f r o m home, s u c k l e d b y b e a s t s a n d b r o u g h t up b y a c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e , a s h e p h e r d o r a widow; of a p a s s i o n a t e a n d v i o l e n t n a t u r e he s e e k s s e r v i c e I n f o r e i g n l a n d s , s l a y s m o n s t e r s , a n d a c q u i r e s s u p e r n a t u r a l k n o w l e d g e b y e a t i n g a f i s h , e t c . ( S i e g f r i e d , F i o n n , u-wion) ; r e t u r n s t o h i s own c o u n t r y , o v e r c o m e s enemies', f r e e s h i s m o t h e r a n d s e a t s h i m s e l f on t h e t h r o n e . 1. BEAR- 2 5 1 . 2. : P a r z i v a l , l & Q , 1 5 . 28. T h e ' p r o b l e m s o f P a r s i f a l ' s p a r e n t a g e , b i r t h a n d c h i l d h o o d ' a r e c o m p l i c a t e d b e c a u s e no o r i g i n a l o f t h e E h f a n c e s 1. e x i s t s n o r d o e s a n y f o r m r e p r o d u c e t h e o r i g i n a l . The name o f .the f a t h e r v a r i e s i n e v e r y v e r s i o n , t h e m o t h e r i s anonymous e x c e p t i n P a r z i y a l ' a n d S y r P e r c y v & l l e w here she I s s i s t e r t o A r t h u r . Y e t a l l a c c o u n t s a g r e e t h a t he i s t h e s o n o f a w i dow, I g n o r a n t o f h i s b i r t h r i g h t , g i f t e d w i t h b o d i l y s t r e n g t h a n d . f l e e t n e s s , y e t w i t h a n a i v e t e b o r d e r i n g o n f o o l i s h n e s s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a c k i n g i n S i e g f r i e d a n d t h e E x p u l s i o n - a n d .. R e t u r n h e r o e s b u t p a r t o f t h e C e l t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o r m u l a and a ..feature o f t h e D u m n i l i n g m a r c h e n . I n g e n e r a l h i s f a t h e r i s one o f two t o t w e l v e b r o t h e r s , he h a s a s i s t e r o f s a i n t l y , c h a r a c t e r and when h i s f a t h e r i s s l a i n t h e news i s b r o k e n t o t h e m o t h e r by an o l d man who i n ' P a r z i v a l s a v e s , t h e i n f a n t ' s l i f e . S i n c e P a r s i f a l was b r o u g h t up i n t h e woods b y a-widow, t h e f a t h e r may h a v e b e e n a d d e d t o a c c o u n t f o r h e r w i d o w h o o d and a n x i e t y . W o l f r a m g i v e s t h e b e s t a c c o u n t o f t h e E n f a n c e s ^ w h i c h he t r e a t s w i t h r a r e p o e t i c f e e l i n g a nd a k e e n eye f o r d e t a i l . He r e t a i n e d t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s o f t h e p i c t u r e s q u e s t o r y a n d a d d e d o t h e r t o u c h e s w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t o f a man i n l o v e w i t h h i s work, C h r e t i e n i s l e s s o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f t h e s t o r y and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n d i r e c t a n d r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s i m p l e m e t h o d o f t h e f a i r y t a l e . I n d e e d s i m p l i c i t y was f o r e i g n t o t h e g e n i u s o f C h r e t i e n a n d he b e t r a y s hi© a n x i e t y t o b r i n g , h i s h e r b i n t o t h e a r t i f i c i a l c o u r t a t m o s p h e r e t o : w h i c h he was 1. WLWD, 191 . - 29. a c c u s t o m e d . ' I n a l l c a s e s t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n c o r e o f u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e t a s k o f t h e h e r o , y e t t h e d i v e r s i t y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n h a s u n d e r g o n e g r a d u a l m o d i f i c a t i o n . ^ I n B l e h e r i s , G a w a i n h a s no c l e a r i d e a o f t h e t a s k . P a r t i a l r e s t o r a t i o n f o l l o T a s t h e q u e s t i o n o n t h e l a n d s y when t h e Q u e s t e r i n q u i r e s o f t h e l a n c e t h e w a t e r s r e t u r n t o t h e i r c h a n n e l s , i n D i u K r o n e t h e q u e s t i o n i s more g e n e r a l , a f f e c t i n g a l l t h e m a r v e l s . • The- h e r o knows what i s e x p e c t e d o f h i m , he r e l e a s e s the k i n g f r o m . t h e s e m b l a n c e o f l i f e a n d r e s t o r e s t h e l a n d * I n Per£e^al t h e t a s k i s t o h e a l t h e k i n g , i n C h r e t i e n t h e t a s k i s t o a s k f o r t h e G r a i l , n o t what i t i s h u t whom i t s a v e s and t o r e s t o r e t h e k i n g t o y o u t h ^ w h i c h w i l l c a u s e t h e l a n d t o become f e r t i l e . W o l f r a m ' s f o r m o f t h e q u e s t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The e m p h a s i s i s ' o n t h e k i n g ' s s u f f e r i n g s a n d P a r z i v a l m u s t a s k "What a i l e t h t h e e ? " i . e . , t h e t i r a i l i s t o be won b y a n e x p r e s s i o n o f s y m p a t h y w i t h o n e ' s f e l l o w man. I ' a i l u r e t o a s k t h e q u e s t i o n c a u s e s t h e p u n i s h m e n t t o f a l l on t h e h e r o , n o t o n t h e l a n d , i n T P e r l e s v a u x , f a i l u r e t o a s k c a u s e s t h e s i c k n e s s o f t h e k i n g who d i e s b e f o r e t h e t a s k i s a c h i e v e d . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e n , t h e r e i s no c u r e , o f k i n g o r l a n d a n d t h e t a s k , o f t h e G r a i l i s n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d . The G a l a h a d v e r s i o n s c o n t a i n no w a s t e l a n d , t h e mere f a c t t h a t G a l a h a d i s t h e p r e d e s t i n e d w i n n e r , s u f f i c e s t o h e a l t h e k i n g b e f o r e t h e Q u e s t i s a c h i e v e d . I n U l r i c h ' s v e r s i o n P a r z i v a l c u r e s n o t b y a q u e s t i o n b u t b y a . I*' w 11 t o R ; , . u . - 3 0 . . p r a y e r ^ w h i l e t h e q u e s t i o n m o t i f i s a b s e n t i n A l b r e c h t . F r o m t h e a b o v e c a s e s i t t h u s a p p e a r s t h a t t h e o b j e c t o f t h e Wl*est i s r e s t o r a t i o n o f a k i n g t o h e a l t h o r y o u t h o r o f w a t e r s t o t h e i r c h a n n e l s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e h e r o must p u t a q u e s t i o n t o r e l e a s e t h e p r i s o n e r a n d t h e L a n c e a n d t h e G r a i l a r e d i s p l a y e d t o i n v i t e t h e q u e s t i o n . Many r e a s o n s h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d f o r t h e s i l e n c e o f t h e Q,uester o n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e m a g i c t a l i s -mans. I n C h r e t i e n t h e s i l e n c e i s c a u s e d b y f o r m a l o b e d i e n c e t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r , a n s e c o n d r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t • the s i l e n c e was decreed.,as a p u n i s h m e n t f o r l e a v i n g h i s m o t h e r . I h : W o l f r a m t h e s i l e n c e i s n o t f a i l u r e t o a s k a n unknown- f o r m u l a • • • • b u t - ' a - p i t i a b l e , b l u n d e r 'the f a i l u r e t o a s k a s i m p l e , f r i e n d l y q u e s t i o n . ' - / I n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n i s t h e o p p o s i t e formula', o f t h e f a i r y t a l e theme o f s i l e n c e . I t ,1s . p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e name must be k e p t s e c r e t on a v i s i t t o ' t h e ••% u n d e r w o r l d o n p a i n o f l o s i n g t h e p©%er t o r e t u r n t o t h i s w o r l d . P r o b a b l y t h i s i n t u r n comes f r o m t h e p r i m i t i v e • i d e a t h a t t h e name i s p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n - a n d must, n o t be m e n t i o n e d t o a n o t h e r f o r f e a r o f t h e h a r m f u l u s e t h a t m i g h t be m a d e . o f i t . I n o t h e r w o r d s i t h a s a t o t e m i c b a s i s l i k e a g e s s o r a m a g i c f o r m u l a , a t h i n g o r a c t f o r b i d d e n - b e c a u s e of. i l l l u c k w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m i t s d o i n g , a s D a i r m a i d m e e t s h i s d e a t h b y t h e f o r -b i d d e n h u n t i n g o f a svran. I n s h o r t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s i l e n c e I n t h e u n s p e l l i n g s t o r i e s i s t h a t t h e h e r o must f u l f i l 3 1 . t h e q u e s t i l l s p i t e o f r e s t r i c t i o n s l a i d u p o n him, by t h e enemy. H a v i n g ' t h e same t o t e m i c b a s i s b u t i n s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o -the t a s k w h i c h :can be a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y by t h e p u t t i n g o f a q u e s t i o n , i s t h e miyth o f v t h e Swan K n i g h t . , L o h e n g r i n , i n w h i c h •the q u e s t i o n i s f o r b i d d e n . A l t h o u g h t h e L o h e n g r i n m y t h i s one o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s , i t i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t a s a m y t h , f o r t h e '-'Swan K n i g h t n e v e r t o o k a r e a l h o l d on t h e . i m a g i n a t i o n , o f t h e f o l k . H i s a c t , n o t b h l s p e r s o n , w a s ' l i M i o r t -a l i s e d . O r i g i n a l l y , L o h e n g r i n p r o b a b l y was a s o l a r h e r o c o m i n g from. He 1, t h e a b o d e o f t h e d e p a r t e d , a s A p o l l o r e t u r n e d f r o m .. - ''.•.•••' .. . 1 •. t h e l a n d o f t h e H y p e r b o r e a n s i n a c h a r i o t d r a w n b y swans. Among e a r l y p e o p l e s , b i r d s m i g r a t i n g i n t h e s p r i n g were t a k e n t o be h e r a l d s o f t h e s p r i n g g o d . T h e r e a r e many i n c i d e n t s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f human b e i n g s i n t o s w a n s . The Y a l k y r i e a p p e a r a s swans b y d o n n i n g , , S c h w a n e n t f e j n l d ! T ; t h e c h i l d r e n o f L i r become swans when c h a i n s a r e t h r o w n a b o u t t h e i r , . n e c k s . G a s t o n Baris s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c h a i n was d e r i v e d f r o m t h e one w i t h w h i c h t h e swan d r e w t h e k n i g h t ' s b o a t . P r o b a b l y t h e o r i g i n a l t a s k o f t h e k n i g h t o f t h e swan i n h i s c h a r a c t e r o f a s p r i n g g o d was t h e r e l e a s e o f m o t h e r e a r t h . Le C h e v a l i e r - a u . Cygne i n t h e C h a n s o n s de G e s t e s c o m b i n e d t h e m i s s i o n a n d t h e f a i r y l i k e p a r e n t a g e , ' I n t h i s t h e s i x s o n s and one d a u g h t e r o f • K i n g O r i a n t a n d t h e m y s t e r i o u s B e a t r i x a r e s t o l e n b y t h e k i n g ' s m o t h e r . When t h e k i n g f i n d s t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e woods t h e c h a i n s a r e r e m o v e d a n d t h e c h i l d r e n become s w a n s . B u t when B e a t r i x 1. WLTffl, 244. 2. i b i d . 2 28. .• '32. i s a b o u t to* d i e t h e a n g e l s b r i n g t h e c h a i n s so t h a t t h e s o n s ' become men once m o r e , t h e one f o r whom t h e r e was no c h a i n r e -t a i n i n g t h e g u i s e o f sv/an t o d r a w t h e b o a t . The e l d e s t s o n , H e i y a - s , m a r r i e s t h e d a u g h t e r o f t h e D u c h e s s Of B o u i l l o n who had b e e n f a l s e l y a c c u s e d o f p o i s o n i n g h e r h u s b a n d . When h i s 'hame I s a s k e d a f t e r s e v e n y e a r s h e ' - d i s a p p e a r s a s " i i i t h e L a y of- W i e l a n d t h e swan b r i d e s l e a v e t h e i r h u s b a n d s i n t h e n i n t h y e a r The names o f t h r e e women a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h P a r s i f a l ; p h i s w i f e , h i s s i s t e r a n d the G r a i l b e a r e r . T h e r e a r e t h r e e s t a g e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f P a r s i f a l ' s l o v e - t h e f o l k l o r e o r p o p u l a r a s i n W a u c h i e r , t h e l i t e r a r y i n C h r e t i e n and t h e m y s t i c a l . I n t h e f i r s t t h e h e r o w i n s t h e f a i r y m a i d b y a t a s k , s u c h a s . t h e , w i n n i n g o f the. L a d y o f t h e C h e s s b o a r d who r o s e f r o m t h e w a t e r a n d whose s p e l l was b r o k e n b y t h e c a p t u r e o f t h e w h i t e s t a g . . I n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e t h e f a i r y becomes m o r t a l a n d i s won i n o r d i n a r y c h i v a l r i c f a s h i o n b y f r e e i n g h e r f r o m t h e p e r s e c u t i o n o f &n unwelcome l o v e " . I n t h e l a s t s t a g e . P a r s i f a l h a s . no e a r t h l y l o v e b u t i s c e l i b a t e u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e G r a i l . I n G e r b e r t f o r e x a m p l e P a r s i f a l ' s f a i l u r e t o f i n d t h e G r a i l i s a s c r i b e d t o h i s d e l a y i n m a r r y i n g B l a n c h e f l e u r b u t t h e t w o d e c i d e t h a t c e l i b a c y i s b e t t e r . The r 6 l e o f P a r s i f a l ' s s i s t e r i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h r e e f i g u r e s : a l a d y a t t a c k e d b y a w i c k e d k n i g h t a n d r e s c u e d b y h e r b r o t h e r , a c o m p a n i o n o f t h e h e r o ' s c h i l d h o o d a n d a d a m s e l c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e G r a i l . Where 1. E'er, 109. . .2. W SirP:, 105. t h e h e r o ' s w i f e p l a y s a l e a d i n g r o l e a s i n C h r e t i e n and W o l f r a m he h a s no s i s t e r a n d v i c e v e r s a ; i . e . , t h e s i s t e r i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e w i f e a s a g u a r d i a n t o t h e h e r o and t h e c o n t r o l l e r o f 1 h i s d e s t i n y . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n W o l f r a m t o show t h a t t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e L o a t h l y D a m s e l a r e bound up w i t h ' t h e q u e s t a s i n Wagner. I n C e l t i c f o l k l o r e , h o w e v e r , s h e i s t h e r e a l p r o t a g o n i s t who c a n n o t be f r e e d u n l e s s t h e h e r o s u c c e e d s i n p -h i s t a s k . The L o a t h l y D a m s e l may o r i g i n a l l y h a v e 1 b e e n t h e h e r o i n e o f a ' s e a s o n a l a b d u c t i o n s t o r y . A s t h e m i s t r e s s o f t h e moon a n d v e g e t a t i o n she was f o u n d i n t h e arms o f a . y o u t h f u l g o d who was s t r u c k w i t h l i g h t n i n g b y h e r h u s b a n d . She was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c u l t i n w h i c h a p r i n c e s s b o r e a v e s s e l a d o r n e d w i t h l i g h t s a n d i n t h e i n i t i a t i o n c e r e m o n y she was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h e a l i n g o f t h e maimed k i n g . ^ I n P e r l e s v a u x she i s b a l d , l o n g - e a r e d , b e a r d e d and r a t - e y e d , y e t s h e i s t h e G r a i l b e a r e r a n d k e e p s h e r a r m i n a s l i n g so t h a t she w i l l n o t h o l d a n y t h i n g l e s s s a c r e d . I n t h e D i d e t P e r c e v a l she i s P e r c e v a l ' s s i s t e r , i . e . , t h e G r a i l - b e a r e r , m e s s e n g e r , w i f e a n d s i s t e r a r e i d e n t i c a l . The f i n a l s t e p i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of- t h e c o m p l e t e s t o r y o f P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l was'; the p l a c e m e n t o f t h e t a l e i n a n A r t h u r i a n a t m o s p h e r e , c h a r g e d w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f r o m a n c e a n d - c h i v a l r y . O r i g i n a l l y r o m a n c e was a t e r m - d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g 1. L o o m l s , 2 7 5 . 2. I b i d . 2 9 1 . HS, 142. 34. h i s t o r y w r i t t e n i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r from, t h a t w r i t t e n i n L a t i n . L a t e r , h o w e v e r , i t came t o mean a c o n v e n t i o n a l t e r m f o r any l y r i c ' l o v e poem c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b a s e l e s s f a n c y d i v o r c e d f r o m l i f e - w i t h an e m p h a s i s Oh t h e e x c i t i n g r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e i n s p i r i n g . ' * " T h o s e u s i n g t h e v e r n a c u l a r r e a l i s e d t h a t h i s t o r y w o u l d be u n a c c e p t a b l e i f i t w e r e n o t e n t e r t a i n i n g . So t h e y r e f a s h i o n e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l a n d a d d e d t o i t l e g e n d s , f o l k l o r e a n d p o p u l a r s u p e r s t i t i o n , " g a i n i n g c r e d e n c e b y c l a i m i n g L a t i n s o u r c e s a s C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s a s s e r t s t h a t P e r c t v a l li. G a l l o i s i s b u t a . F r e n c h v e r s i o n o f a L a t i n b o o k . The s o u r c e s o f A r t h u r i a n romance were t h r e e - f o l d : p r i m i t i v e A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d s w h i c h a b o u t 1250 were r e f a s h i o n e d a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Romance i n p l a c e o f h e r o i c poems t o p l e a s e a • f e m i n i n e a u d i e n c e , * F r e n c h l e g e n d s , a n a t h e a n c i e n t m a t e r i a l o f T r o y a n d A l e x a n d e r , A r t h u r i a n romance p r o b a b l y d e v e l o p e d a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : 1. B r e t o n l e g e n d s t o l d i n p r o s e Or v e r s e * , S. F r e n c h poems on t h e same; 3. l o n g v e r s e r o m a n c e s on t h e s e t o g e t h e r w i t h e l e m e n t s f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s ( C h r e t i e n d e . T r o y e s a n d R o b e r t d e ' B o r r o n ) ; 4. r o m a n c e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t v v e r s i o n s o f t h e same themes due t o v a r i a t i o n s i n l o r a l . " t r a d i -t i o n s , v a r i a n t l e g e n d s o f d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f e x t r a n e o u s e l e m e n t s f o r i n t e r e s t ; 5.. B r e t o n l a y s o n o t h e r s u b j e c t s .sis w e l l a s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f A r t h u r i n t o u n r e l a t e d s t o r i e s f o r i n t e r e s t ; 6. l o n g p r o s e r o m a n c e s o n 1, T, E 1 0 . 2. T a y , 50.. 3 5 . s e v e r a l k n i g h t s , a c o m p o s i t e n a r r a t i v e o f A r t h u r ' s c a r e e r ; a n d f i n a l l y , , t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e s e t h e m es b y l a t e r p o e t s s u c h a s M a l o r y , S p e n s e r a n d , T e n n y s o n , e a c h p r e s e r v i n g t h e e s s e n c e of t h e , b e s t o f m e d i e v a l romance b u t a d a p t i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o h i s own a i m s . F r o m w h a t d i v i s i o n o f t h e C e l t s then' d i d t h e F r e n c h d e r i v e t h e i r t a l e s ? The. o r i g i n o f F r e n c h r o m a n c e h a s b e e n V a r i o u s l y c l a i m e d f o r W a l e s o r A r m o r i c a , d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e M a t i e r e de B r e t a g n e i s . t a k e n t o r e f e r t o B r i t a i n i t s e l f o f t o L i t t l e . B r i t a i n o r B r i t t a n y * L i t t l e h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d of. t h e e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e C e l t s . S u c h b o o k s a s t h e ":Black B o o k o f Gaermarthen^ t h e B o o k s o f " A n u e r i n a n d T a l i e s s i n " -and t h e "Red B o o k o f H e f g e s t " p u r p o r t t o b e l o n g t o t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y b u t a c t u a l l y , b e l o n g t h t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n t h e t e n t h and t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s . We h a v e F r e n c h l a i s from, t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y down, l i k e t h o s e o f M a r i e de F r a n c e , s a i d t o be b a s e d , o n t h e B r e t o n , l a y s , b u t , s i n c e t h e r e a r e no, s u c h p i e c e s i n e x t a n t W e l s h o r I r i s h l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e the- B r e t o n s d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e C e l t s . We c a n n o t c l a i m t h a t t h e W e l s h t a l e s "Owen and L u n e t " , ' P e r e d u r a l x i . E v r a w o " a n d i ' G e r a i n t a n d - E n i d ' ' h a v i n g t h e same t h e m e s a s C h r e t i e n , I v a i n , P e r c e v a l a n d E r i c ^ g o b a c k i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o common W e l s h s o u r c e s , s o g r e a t i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t y l e b e t w e e n t h e s e and t h e n a t i v e t a l e s ' o f ."Branwen", " K u l h w c h " a n d "Olw e n " i n t h e M a b i n o g i o n . M o r e o v e r t h e B r i t o n s , who i n t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h c e n t u r i e s h a d f l e d t o A r m o r i c a , h a d , b y t h e t e n t h , 36. c e n t u r y , a s s i m i l a t e d t h e n o r t h e r n F r e n c h . c i v i l i z a t i o n and .language.''.'There r e m a i n s t h e r f o r e no d o u h t t h a t B r i t t a n y i s t h e s o u r c e o f w h a t e v e r i s C e l t i c i n C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s ' . ^ The w o r d l a i i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e F r e n c h " l a i d " o r " l o i d " , a s o n g t o t h e C e l t i c r o t e o r h a r p . A l t h o u g h M a r i e ' d e F r a n c e , t h e c r e a t o r , o f t h e g e n r e a nd t h e o n l y a u t h o r o f g e n u i n e n a r r a t i v e l a y s whose name i s p r e s e r v e d t o u s , d e r i v e d t h e m a t e r i a l f o r some l a y s f r o m B r e t o n s t o r i e s , s h e was i g n o r a n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e and h a d no p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t ' w i t h : t h e B r e t o n s . B e c a u s e M a r i e s o m e t i m e s l o c a l i z e s h e r p l o t s i n B r i t a i n a n d g i v e s a l t e r n a t e t i t l e s i n F r e n c h a nd E n g l i s h , l i a s t o n P a r i s made t h e d e d u c t i o n t h a t , b e f o r e , t h e M'orman;: C o n q u e s t , W e l s h m u s i c i a n s h a d s p r e a d among t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s t o r i e s ' w i t h w h i c h t h e l a y s d e a l . M a r i e h o w e v e r was m e r e l y i m i t a t i n g Wace's . t r i c k o f g i v i n g names i n . d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s . T h o m a s , u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e - o f M a r i e , made h i s B r i t i s h h e r o T r i s t a n . , a h a r p e r , so l a t e r p o e t s r e -p r e s e n t e d t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s a s s i n g i n g f , l a i s B r e t o n s ' ' . The l a y s o f M a r i e de F r a n c e a r e c h a r m i n g , d i r e c t a n d s i m p l e s t o r i e s o f a n i d e a l i s t i c l o v e , t r i u m p h a n t b e c a u s e i t i s t h e m o s t e n n o b l i n g o f a l l i n f l u e n c e s on c h a r a c t e r . The r o m a n c e s . d e p i c t .the same w o r l d o f r o m a n c e and m a r v e l a s do t h e l a y s b u t 'with•• t h e r o m a n c e s t h e A r t h u r i z a t i o n i s t h o r o u g h g o i n g a nd t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s e m o t i f s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f f e u d a l s o c i e t y , i s more d r a s t i c . 1 . BEAR, 61-, V I . 3 7 . A r t h u r was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l i t e r a t u r e l a t e r t h a n C h a r l e m a g n e h u t s o o n o v e r s h a d o w e d h i m . W h i l e t h e i n t e r e s t i n C h a r l e m a g n e i s . h i s t o r i c a l , A r t h u r ' s . c h a r m i s n o t f a c t b u t f a n c y . . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d n o t s o much i n A r t h u r ' s p u b l i c a c t i o n s a s i n h i s d o m e s t i c l i f e . I f A r t h u r f i r s t r e p r e s e n t e d a n h i s t o r i c a l B r i t i s h l e a d e r who o p p o s e d t h e S a x o n s , b y t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , h e h a d become a n e b u l o u s f i g u r e i n p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n . who, when a n a t i o n a l e±isis a r o s e , w o u l d r e t u r n t o . a i d h i s p e o p l e . The c o n c e p t o f a c h i e f and p i c k e d w a r r i o r s - i s "common t o a l l h e r o i c t r a d i t i o n b u t n o w h e r e i s i t o f s u c h i i m p o r t a n c e i n s h a p i n g t h e s t o r y a s i n C o n c h o b a r a n d t h e . i l l ; . ' K n i g h t s o f t h e A e d T B r a n c h , I l o i r h and t h e F.i'anna a n d A r t h u r ' l/-;V.'''•• and h i s k n i g h t s . A r t h u r , a s t h e . u n i v e r s a l p r o t e c t o r , a l l o c a t e s a n d b l e s s e s b u t , a s a g r e a t k i n g , he p e r f o r m s s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h h i s v a s s a l s . I n t h e f l r s i ; p l a c e I h e k n i g h t s a r e more a t t r a c t -i v e t h a n k i n g s who a r e r e m o t e f r o m human I n t e r e s t s . M o r e o v e r , A r t h u r was d i s q u a l i f i e d b e c a u s e he was m a r r i e d . . I n t h e g a e r i e ftueen'individual k n i g h t s s y m b o l i z e i n d i v i d u a l v i r t u e s . A r t h u r c o m b i n e s a l l t h e v i r t u e s and r e p r e s e n t s p e r f e c t i o n . ' L i k e A l e x a n d e r a n d T h e o d o r i c b o t h man and g od,:he was t h e g u i d i n g s t a r t o a w h o l e n a t i o n and a. s t i m u l u s t o c h i v a l r y i n a c t u a l l i f e . He became t h e i d e a l o f w o r l d l y c h i v a l r y a s t h e G r a i l k i n g was; t h e i d e a l o f s p i r i t u a l k n i g h t h o o d . A r t h u r Mab U t h e r , t h e n , b e g a n h i s c a r e e r i n h i s t o r y , e x t e n d e d h i s c o n q u e s t s i n t o 1. NSLHG, 2 2 9 . 38. t h e r e a l m o f W e l s h and B r e t o n m y t h and c o m p l e t e d h i s t r i u m p h h y a c h i e v i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f E u r o p e a n Romance. The c o n -n e c t i o n o f t h e G r a i l Q u e s t w i t h A r t h u r t r a n s f o r m e d a f e w p o p u l a r t a l e s o f a p s e u d o - h i s t o r i c a l k i n g i n t o t h e g r e a t e s t romance i n h i s t o r y . The f i r s t m e n t i o n o f t h e Round T a b l e o c c u r s i n - t h e F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n b y Wace i n 1155 o f G o e f f r e y o f .Monmouth's'. V i t a Gildae.,.' V a r i o u s t h e o r i e s h a v e b e e n ^ a d v a n c e d "to e x p l a i n t h e o r i g i n o f t h e t a b l e . T h e s e t h e o r i e s v a r y a l l t h e Way f r o m t h e s a c r i f i c i a l B e l t a n e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e S c o t t i s h H i g h l a n d s t o t h e t a b l e o r d e r e d b y M e r l i n i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e ••Las-t S u p p e r . I t seems m o s t p r o b a b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e Round T a b l e was t h e c u s t o m o f f e a s t i n g w h i l e s i t t i n g a r o u n d .the camp f i r e . -f M e d i e v a l r o m a n c e s a r e s t o r i e s o f a d v e n t u r e i n w h i c h t h e c h i e f p a r t s a r e p l a y e d b y k n i g h t s , k i n g s o r - d i s t r e s s e d i l a d i e s a c t i n g u n d e r t h e i m p u l s e o f l o v e , r e l i g i o n o r mere 1 ' . ' ' • d e s i r e , f o r a d v e n t u r e . T hough R o b e r t de B o r r o n a i m e d a t c r e a t i n g a c y c l e o f poems w h i c h s h o u l d r e l a t e t h e w h o l e A r t h u r i a n s t o r y , C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s c o m p o s e d a number o f poems e a c h r e l a t i n g t h e d e e d s o f some one k n i g h t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e o t h e r s . T h u s A r t h u r i a n romance f r o m t h e ' b e g i n n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f i s o l a t e d p e r s o n a g e s , e a c h t h e h e r o of a s e r i e s o f a d v e n t u r e s a n d h a v i n g l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r s , ' t h e o n l y t h i n g l i n k i n g t h e s e r i e s t o g e t h e r b e i n g t h e G r a i l Q u e s t . 1. EEMR, '10.0 a n d T a y . , 71. 3 9 . W hereas i n t h e e a r l y v e r s e r o m a n c e s P a r s i f a l a l o n e was t h e Q , u e s t e r , I n t h e p r o s e c y c l e s a l l t a k e p a r t . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c l a r i t y a n d s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e e a r l y h e r o i c e p i c , t h e m e d i e v a l romance was a b a t r a e t a nd p u r -p o s e l y r e f l e c t i v e a n d o b s c u r e , d w e l l i n g on t h e c i r c u m s t a n t i a l and g a i n i n g i t s u n i t y f r o m t h e h e r o o r i t s I d e a . The g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e a r l i e r h e r o i c p o e t r y a n d m e d i e v a l romance i s due t o a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . The h e r o i c e p i c v o i c e s t h e o p i n i o n s n o t o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , b u t o f t h e n a t i o n a s a w h o l e . .The v i r t u e s , v i c e s a n d c r i m e s p o r t r a y e d r e p r e s e n t t h e . e t h i c a l c ode o f t h e n a t i o n w h i l e t h e . . c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h e r o e m b o d i e s t h e n a t i o n a l i d e a l s . I n l a t e r p e r i o d s t h e a u t h o r ' s j u d g m e n t o n c h a r a c t e r , m o r a l i t y and e t h i c s i s i n d i v i d u a l n o t n a t i o n a l . A n y r e f l e c t i o n o f a u n i v e r s a l s e n t i m e n t i s i n c i d e n t a l . I n h e r o i c p o e t r y t h e theme a n d c h a r a c t e r s a l o n e a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o s t i r t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f 1 a n a u d i e n c e . When t h e h e r o . c e a s e s t o i n s p i r e b y h i s m a n l i n e s s and v i v i d p e r s o n a l i t y ^ e a c h w r i t e r r e l i e s on t h e n o v e l t y o f • f a n t a s y and e x a g g e r a t i o n ? u n t i l t h e h e r o becomes i n v i n c i b l e a n d t h e r e f o r e i n h u m a n . When m o r t a l s became p u n y ^ g i a n t s were i n t r o d u c e d a n d f i n a l l y g o d s -whose'powers were i n v i n c i b l e . The w h o l e o f A r t h u r i a n romance i s c o l o r e d b y t h e c o n c e p t o f c h i v a l r y c u r r e n t i n t h a t a g e . The w o r d s " c h e v a l i e r " and " c h i v a l r y " come f r o m " c a v a l i e r " b e c a u s e t h e h i g h e r r a n k s f o u g h t on. h o r s e b a c k . Thus t h e w o r d s i g n i f i e d t h e k n i g h t l y o l a s s a n d l a t e r t h e i d e a l s o f t h i s c l a s s s u c h a s c o u r t e s y , 40. l o y a l t y t o d u t y and s e r v i c e , t o t h e O p p r e s s e d . S i n c e t h e w h o l e n a t i o n was a l e a g u e w i t h t h e k i n g a s o v e r l o r d , s e r v i c e t o t h e s t a t e was man's supreme d u t y . B e s i d e s d e v o t i o n t o h i s o v e r - l o r d ^ t h e k n i g h t must s ^ r v e , h i s God a n d h i s l a d y . The c h a r a c t e r o f a n y l i t e r a t u r e i s d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y b y i t s p a t r o n s . I n a c i v i l i z a t i o n l a c k i n g b o t h e d u c a t i o n a n d p r i n t -i n g , l i t e r a t u r e was d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y b y t h e c o u r t . A r t h u r i a n romance r e c e i v e d i t s g r e a t e s t . . s t i m u l u s f r o m t h e c o u r t o f . .Champagne w h e r e , w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d c u l t u r e a n d r e f i n e m e n t s a f t e r t h e f i r s t c r u s a d e a n d t h e r e n a i s s a n c e i n l e a r n i n g , came t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t mere b r u t e s t r e n g t h was not, t h e . k n i g h t ' s g r e a t e s t a t t r i b u t e . G e n t l e n e s s a n d c o u r t e s y , t h e d e f e n c e n o t o f k i n g o r f a i t h b u t o f t h e .weak o r h e l p l e s s i n t h e s e r v i c e o f h i s l a d y , came t o b e I d e a l s o f t h e a g e . The s e r i o u s w a r -f a r e o f t h e h e r o i c poems h a d i n v o l v e d t h e w h o l e s t a t e * romance r e g a r d e d w a r f a r e m e r e l y a s a n e x c i t i n g p a s t i m e . D u r i n g t h e , a b s e n c e o f men a t t h e c r u s a d e s , " t h e women h a d g a i n e d i n power. Once t h e women h a d the. r i g h t s o f f e u d a l i n h e r i t a n c e , t h e p o e t s s o u g h t t h e i r p a t r o n a g e . The l a d i e s e n d e a v o u r e d t o r e o r g a n i z e s o c i a l l i f e I n a c c o r d w i t h t h e i d e a l s , o f l i t e r a t u r e . Tp p l e a s e them t h e p o e t s i n t r o d u c e d a new e l e m e n t o f m y s t e r y a n d e x p r e s s e a new c o n c e p t o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e s e x e s . L o v e i s n a t u r a l l y t h e d o m i n a n t theme o f a l i t e r a t u r e d e s i g n e d f o r women C h r e t i e n ' m a d e t h e A r t h u r i a n s t o r i e s p o p u l a r a n d u n d e r M a r i e ' s i n f l u e n c e j t r a n s f o r m e d them i n t o f o r m a l a n d s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s e s o f l o v e . The t r e a t m e n t o f l o v e p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h r e e s t a g e s : 4 1 . t h e s e n s u a l , a r t i f i c i a l l o v e o f t h e c h a n s o n s de g e s t e s , t h e a r t i f i c i a l j c o u r t l y l o v e o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r s and t h e i d e a l i s e d a nd p a s s i o n a t e l o v e o f M a r i e de I r a h c e . A s l o n g a s men a n d women w e r e mere pawns i n the t r i b a l g r o u p t h e h i g h e s t c o n c e p t o f l o v e was i m p o s s i b l e . • • I n t h e T e u t o n i c m y t h s t h e f a i r y m a i d i s f o r c e d a t tim e s , : , n o t h i n g l o a t h , t o become t h e m o r t a l A s ' m i s t r e s s b u t s o m e t i m e s , l i k e B r m i n n h i l d e , s h e f e e l s d e g r a d e d i n c o n s e q u e n c e . I n t h e C e l t i c s t o r i e s t h e m o r t a l l o v e r i s c a r r i e d t o f a i r y l a n d , a n d M s s i m m o r t a l m i s t r e s s l o s e s n e i t h e r h e r l i b e r t y n o r . d i v i n e ' n a t u r e . ' L o v e was n o t d e p i c t e d a s n o b l e b u t n a t u r a l and u n f o r t u n a t e . The elhur oh r e g a r d e d m a r r i a g e a s a b l e m i s h A b u t , a t t h e same t i m e , f o s t e r e d a n i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l i s m a n d e x a g g e r a t e d w o r s h i p o f women a n d - t h e ': V i r g i n . When m a r r i a g e was a b u s i n e s s c o n t r a c t ^ a l o v e s t o r y * t o r e f l e c t l i f e . , must be e i t h e r t r a g i c , b e c a u s e u n f u l f i l l e d , o r i l l i c i t . ' L a n c e l o t a n d T r i s t a n , t h e g r e a t e s t l o v e r s o f A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e , were bfflth a d u l t e r e r s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y c h a s t i t y was t h e supreme v i r t u e . A c o n s i s t e n t m o r a l i d e a d o e s r u n t h r o u g h some o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e age., s u c h a s t h e e m p h a s i s o n c h a s t i t y i n S i r . G a w a i n . a n d t h e G r e e n K n i g h t and t h e s t e a d f a s t . s t r i v i n g a g a i n s t t e m p t a t i o n i n P a r z i v a l . I n g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , t h i s i s n o t s o . The d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i d e a l a n d t h e a c t u a l i s g r e a t e r p r o b a b l y i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s t h a n i n a n y o t h e r p e r i o d . , The I d e a l s s e t b e f o r e men and women seemed so i m p o s s i b l e o f a t t a i n m e n t t h a t t h e y c o m m i t t e d s i n s f i r s t a n d a f t e r w a r d s . 1. T. 2 3 0 - 3 6 , a n d NSLGH, 229.. 42. s o u g h t to e x p i a t e them hy p e n a n c e . The A r t h u r i a n romance d e h u m a n i s e d i t s h e r o e s b e c a u s e t h e G r a i l k i n g must be p e r f e c t b u t i t p r e s e n t e d I d e a l s and s t r e s s e d a n a l y s i s o f c h a r a c t e r . I n m e d i e v a l E n g l i s h r o m a n c e s , on t h e c o n t r a r y , l o v e p l a y s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p a r t , f o r among t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s , l o v e and m a r r i a g e were q u i t e c o m p a t i b l e . L a n c e l o t a n d T r i s t a n a r o u s e d l i t t l e e n t h u s i a s m and G a w a i n was t h e most p o p u l a r h e r o o f t h e E n g l i s h . A l l t h e l o v e themes o f A r t h u r i a n romance' h a v e t h e same p u r p o s e , I . e . , t o show l o v e t r i u m p h a n t o v e r a l l b a r r i e r s o f n a t i o n a l o r c o n j u g a l d u t y , f i l i a l a f f e c t i o n o r c a s t e , d i s t i n c t i o n . How i m p o r t a n t was t h e p l a c e ; o f l o v e i s shown i n . S i r G a w a i n a n d t h e , G r e e n K n i g h t w h e r e t h e l a d y s a y s , "Of a l l . , c h i v a l r y t h e c h i e f p a r t i s l o v e , t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f a r m s ; i t i s t h e t i t l e a n d t e x t o f t h e i r w o r k s , how men f o r t h e i r l o v e d o n e s h a v e e n d a n g e r e d s t h e i r l i v e s , e n d u r e d g r e a t h a r d s h i p s , a v e n g e d them w i t h v a l o u r , r e m o v e d t h e i r s o r r o w and b r o u g h t b l i s s ; i n t o the, b o w e r . " C o m b i n e d w i t h a h o v e r w h e l m i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a i n theme o f l o v e i s t h e d e l i g h t i n t h e f a n t a s t i c and s e n s a t i o n a l . T h i s c r a v i n g f o r t h e e x c i t i n g was c a u s e d b y t h e e m o t i o n a l s t r a i n i n t h e r e l i g i o n o f t h e t i m e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n and t h e m o n o t o n y o f c a s t l e l i f e . A n y theme c o u l d be t u r n e d i n t o romance b y a s e t o f l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s t o g e t h e r w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d o f a g o r g e o u s n e s s w h i c h r e a l l i f e c o u l d n o t 1. T,, 210. . 43. a t t a i n , t h e . e x c l u s i o n o f a l l h u t t h e b r i g h t e s t a s p e c t s o f m e d i e v a l l i f e a n d ' a l a v i s h use. o f t h e m a r v e l l o u s i n . a l l i t s a s p e c t s t o g a i n r e m o t e n e s s f r o m l i f e . The a u d i e n c e h a d no a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e t r u t h ^ b e c a u s e t h e y l a c k e d c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y a n d were i g n o r a n t o f s c i e n c e . No d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d be made b e t w e e n n a t u r a l l - and s u p e r n a t u r a l . , s o a n y t h i n g was c r e d i b l e . I n r e l i g i o n , t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , n o t t h e e t h i c a l o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l , a s p e c t was:, s t r e s s e d . . The r e s u l t was a r e v e r e n c e f o r m y s t e r y and m a g i c a n d a l o n g i n g t o e s c a p e i n m i r a c l e s . . T h e h e a r e r s h a d no c e r t a i n k n o w l e d g e o f d i s t a n t c o u n t r i e s , s o t h e s t r a n g e s t o b j e c t s a n d c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be d e p i c t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e E a s t became f o r them a f a n t a s t i c r e a l m o f m a g i c and g l a m o u r i n v i v i d c o n t r a s t w i t h r e a l l i f e . The f i r s t a u t h o r i n t h e l i n e o f C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n was R o b e r t de B o r r o n y - , a t r o u v e r e o f H e a u x who a p p a r e n t l y d r e w f r o m G h r i s t i a n l e g e n d s s u c h as. f f A c t a P i l a t i ' 1 , " D i s c e n s u s C h r i s t i " , M v " I n d i c t a S a l v a t o f e s " a n d f r o m B r e t o n s a g a s . I n h i s J o s e p h he t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f t h e cup g i v e n b y P i l a t e t o J o s e p h . w h i c h n o u r i s h e d t h e l a t t e r i n p r i s o n u n t i l he was f r e e d b y V e s p a s i a n whose s o n h a d b e e n h e a l e d m i r a c u l o u s l y . .Then R o b e r t g o e s o n t o t e l l o f t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e G r a i l t a b l e and. how,the p u r e r e c e i v e d p l e a s u r e and n o u r i s h m e n t f r o m t h e Gup. t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f i s h c a u g h t b y H e b r o n , w h i l e s i n n e r s went away u n r e f r e s h e d . R o b e r t , u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e 1. G o l . , 4 5 , 120 f . BEAR, 2 4 2 . 4 4 . m e d i e v a l l o v e of. , r e l i e s , i s t h e c r e a t o r o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e G r a i l - a s t h e Cup o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r a n d t h e H o l y B l o o d . He makes t h e G r a i l t h e Gup r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e b l o o d o f C h r i s t a n d t h e s y m b o l o f b o t h B u r i a l a n d E u c h a r i s t , I t i s a v e s s e l n o t o f f o o d bitt o f g r a c e . O n l y t h e G r a i l a n d t h e t i t l e o f F i s h e r c o n n e c t C h r e t i e n a n d '.Robert. F o r t h e l a t t e r , t h e i n n e r s t o r y i s i m p o r t a n t ; f o r m o s t o f h i s e o n t i n u a t o r s ^ t h e o u t e r e v e n t s a t t r a c t e d g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n . B o r r o n s h a p e s t h e s t o r y i n " . R e c o r d w i t h . h i s own c o n c e p t o f a l l e a r t h l y l o v e a s s i n . To h i m t h e p e r f e c t k n i g h t i s a n armed monk c o n v e r t i n g t h e h e a t h e n and . r e s i s t i n g t e m p t a t i o n . The c r e d i t f o r t h e f i r s t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c o m b i n e d , s t o r y o f P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l i n an A r t h u r i a n s e t t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y g i v e n ' t o Chretien de T r o y e s , a n a t i v e o f champagne, a t t a c h e d . t o t h e c o u r t ^ o f t h a t name a n d t h e a u t h o r o f P e r c e v a l . l i G a l l o . l s o r L e C o n t e d e l G r a a l , c . . 1 1 8 0 . C h r e t i e n h a s b e e n v a r i o u s l y a c c l a i m e d a s t h e •.'creator o f t h e s a g a o f P a r s i f a l and t h e G r a i l ^ y -Weston-.and G o l t h e r , ^ a n d a s a mere i n t r o d u c e r i n t o l i t e r a t u r e o f a n o l d o r a l t a l e . We h a v e no k n o w l e d g e o f h i s s o u r c e s o r h i s - p l a n n o r c a n we s a y d e f i n i t e l y w h e t h e r t h e r e were a n y w r i t t e n A r t h u r i a n Romances b e f o r e C h r e t i e n . H i s P e r c e v a l L i G a l l o i s i s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n a d a p t e d f r o m t h e b o o k l e n t h i m by C o u n t P h i l i p o f A l s a c e , A c c o r d i n g t o 1. H e n d . , 4 5 6 ; S i m , 1 0 2 ; BEAR, 8 2 0 ; 2-55, 2 5 3 , 247; West S i r P., X X I , 45. v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s t h i s was a r i t u a l o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n S p i r i t , a C e l t i c f o l k t a l e , o r a G h r i s t i a n l e g e n d . W e c h s s l e r m a i n -t a i n s t h a t E r e o i m p l i e s a f u l l y d e v e l o p e d l i t e r a t u r e b e f o r e .Chretien- and c h a m p i o n s t h e p r i o r i t y over. C h r e t i e n o f t h e F r e n c h o r i g i n a l o f t h e M i d d l e - H i g h German L a n z e l e t b y u l r i c h v o n Z a t z l k h o v e n e. 1 3 0 0 . B r u c e and S c h o e p p e r l e ' on t h e o t h e r h a n d a r g u e t h a t t h e l o s t romance was n o t w r i t t e n b e f o r e 1160 a n d . t h a t h i s s o u r c e s l i k e l y were n o t w r i t t e n m a n u s c r i p t s bgit o r a l r e c i t a t i o n s . H owever t h i s may b e , C h r e t i e n -was t h e f i r s t t o " c o n s t r u c t h i s r omance b y c o m b i n i n g t h e m o t i f o f r e m o v i n g a • s p e l l b y p u t t i n g a . q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e G r a i l theme.; b y m a k i n g Tthe r u s t i c s i m p l e t o n who c o n q u e r s r e n o w n e d w a r r i o r s -the h e r o o f t h e G r a i l , q u e s t , , a n d f i n a l l y a d d i n g t h e A r t h u r i a n s e t t i n g o f t h e whole'. T h a t i s , t h e {Great F o o l who i s a l s o a G r a i l q u e s t e r becomes' a k n i g h t o f A r t h u r ' s c o u r t and i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h G a w a i n , t h e m o d e l o f c o u r t e s y and p r o w e s s . I n m a k i n g A r t h u r ' s c o u r t 'the s e t t i n g - a s he d i d i n h i s o t h e r r o m a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y C l i g e s - C h r e t i e n a v a i l e d h i m s e l f o f t h e fame o f t h a t c o u r t t o g i v e e c l a t t o h i s own h e r o e s . J u s t as t h e G a w a i n m o t i f a p p e a r s i n a l l h i s w o r k s so t h e q u e s t f o r a t a l i s m a n w o u l d a p p e a l t o h i m ? s i n c e a l l h i s r o m a n c e s p r e s e n t q u e s t s o f s i n g l e c h a m p i o n s f o r a d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e . One wonders., t h o u g h , why C h r e t i e n c h o s e P a r s i f a l a s h i s h e r o y s i n c e b e f o r e t h i s t h e r e i s no s t o r y a t t a c h e d t o t h e name o f P e r c e v a l l i G a l l o i s a s f o u n d I n t h e l i s t o f A r t h u r ' s k n i g h t s i n S r e c . The h e r o m u s t be a n A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t b u t p r o b a b l y , 4 6 . b e c a u s e n o n e , o f t h e w e l l known k n i g h t s were s u i t a b l e f o r t h e new theme, he r e q u i r e d a new k n i g h t , u p o n whom, f o r t h e s a k e o f n o v e l t y , h e c o n f e r s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h e r o o f t h e G r e a t f o o l t a l e . The s t o r y f a l l s i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : t h e I n f a n c e s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e h e r o a n d t h e G r a i l q u e s t . I n t h e o n l y romance i n w h i c h he r e l a t e s c h i l d h o o d a n d y o u t h , t h e h e r o , C l i g e s , i s b r o u g h t up i n t h e f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t o f m e d i e v a l s o c i e t y . . N o w he v a r i e s t h e t a l e b y h a v i n g a h e r o o f n o b l e o r i g i n , who g r o w s up i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s o u t s i d e o f c o n v e n t i o n -a l l i f e , a n d whose a w k w a r d n e s s and n a i v e t e r e n d e r h i s p r o w e s s t h e more p i q u a n t . G o l t h e r s a y s , " I m m e r h i n s c h e i n t dem D i c h t e r b e i P e r c e v a l d i e A b s i e h t * d e s b i o g r a p h i s c h e n Romanes, d i e I n t w i c k l u n g e l n e s H e l d e n v o n s e i n e r E i n d h e i t a n , n a c h e i h e m b e s t i m m t e n Z i e l e h i l U , v o r z u s e h w e b e n , w a h r e n d Gawan n u r i m S i n n e . d e s e p i s c h e n Romanes e r s c h e i n t , d e r G r a l a l s d a s h o c h s t e I S i e l , w o d u r c h P a r z i v a l zum Y e r t r p t e r e i n e s h o h e r e n g e i s t l i c h e n R i t t e r t u m s w i r d , w a h r e n d Gawan d e r g a l a n t e w e l t i l e h e F r a u e n r i t t e r b l e i b t * " • P e r c e v a l g o e s f o r t h t o become a k n i g h t a n d w i n s B l a n c h e f l e u r , " a b e r h o h e r a l s R i t t e r s c h a f t u n d W e i b e s i i i n n e s t e h t d e r G r a l . ' 1 T h i s i s t h e m a i n t h o u g h t o f C h r e t i e n ' s w o r k . The r e a l a c h i e v e m e n t o f C h r e t i e n , , t h e b e s t o f t h e F r e n c h r o m a n c e r s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e " M a t i e r e de B r e t a g n e " , i s t h a t , ? ' h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e n o n - C h r i s t i a n f r a m e w o r k , he l i f t e d 1. G o l , 11. 47. t h e s t o r y t o a l o f t i e r m o r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p l a n e t o h o l d i t s p l a c e a g a i n s t t h e p u r e l y G h r i s t i a n p o r t i o n . By b l e n d i n g t h e k n i g h t l y a n d r e l i g i o u s p o r t i o n s he made t h e s t o r y f a s h i o n -a b l e "and g a v e a new v a l u e a n d . c h a r a c t e r t o t h e poems r e l a t i n g t o A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s . The i d e a s , w h i c h h i s romance, embody a r e t h o s e o f h i s own t i m e and c o u n t r y . L i k e T e n n y s o n , he made t h e s t o r i e s o f a n e a r l i e r age t h e v e h i c l e o f i d e a l s and s e n t i m e n t s o f h i s own a g e . H e r e , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more p r i m i t i v e c h a n s o n s de g e s t e , p i c t u r e s o f c o u r t e s y and r e - . . • ! f i n e m e h t , o f m a n n e r s c o n s t i t u t e • t h e m a i n s o u r c e s Of I n t e r e s t . A p a r t f r o m t h e e x t e r n a l s , , the" c ode o f c h i v a l r y a n d t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s e x e s most i n t e r e s t h i m . S i n c e l o v e I s t h e d o m i n a n t theme, he d i s p l a y s h i s s k i l l b e s t i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f women. To C h r e t i e n t h e s t o r y i s p u r e r o m a n c e . He h a s no k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e a l m e a n i n g o f t h e G r a i l , , i t was m e r e l y a means t o a n e n d . The wound h a s no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e G r a i l , f Jun g r a l t t o r ' a c o n t a i n e r iSf t h e H o s t a s h u n g o v e r m e d i e v a l a l t a r s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e l a n d i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Q u e s t e r . Mowhere i s t h e i d e a l o f c h a s t i t y s e t f o r t h . The s t o r y o f P e r c e v a l , n o t o f t h e G r a i l ^ f i l l s t h e s t a g e a n d w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e h e r o comes on t h e s c e n e a c r o w d o f f o l k t a l e t h e m e s f o r e i g n t o t h e G r a i l : t h e r e d k n i g h t , t h e u g l y d a m s e l , t h e , t h r e e d r o p s , t h e l o v e t r a n c e * t h e command o f s i l e n c e . 1 P e r c e v a l i s b r a v e a s a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e , p u n c t u a l 1. BEAR, 1 1 2 ; l . S i f P., 216; and MPS, 6 9 . 4 8 . • i n o b e y i n g '"the commands o f h i s mother, a n d t e a c h e r s b u t d i s p l a y i n g no p r o g r e s s t o s p i r i t u a l p e r f e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e two q u e s t s t h a t o f t h e G r a i l c o n n e c t e d w i t h P e r c e v a l a n d t h e L a n c e ' a s s o c i a t e d w i t h G a w a i n . We a r e n o t t o l d d e f i n i t e l y w h i c h o f t h e two became k i n g . A t t h i s d a t e t h e A r t h u r i a n t h e m es h a d T o s t t h e i r f r e s h n e s s a l r e a d y and s k i l l o f p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u n t e d , f o r a s much a s t h e s t o r y i t s e l f . , The s t y l e i s g r a c e f u l and s u b t l e b u t f a r removed, f r o m t h e p r i m e v a l f i r e d i r e c t d r a m a t i c s i m p l i c i t y and s w i f t n e s s o f a c t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r h e r o i c e p i c . P h r a s e and i m a g e r y a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l . T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f t h e h i g h e r i m a g i n a t i o n , , o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r i d d l e s o f e x i s t e n c e . On t h e c o n t r a r y t h e c r i t i c i s m o f l i f e i s t h a t o f a - s h r e w d , a l e r t man o f t h e Y / o r l d , c o n t e n t e d w i t h f e u d a l s o c i e t y and d e l i g h t i n g i n t h e b u s t l e a n d s p l e n d o u r o f I t s f e s t i v i t i e s , p a g e a n t r y a n d t o u r n a m e n t s . T h e u n f i n i s h e d s t o r y o f C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s was c a r r i e d on. b y a t l e a s t f o u r ' l a t e r p o e t s . The f i r s t c o n t i n u a -t i o n was t h a t o f a n unknown w r i t e r o f 1 1 9 0 - 1 2 0 0 and i s c a l l e d t h e P s e u d o W a u c h i e r . T h i s d i s c u s s e s J o s e p h ' s i m p r i s o n m e n t , f r e e d o m and j o u r n e y . S p e a r a n d G r a i l a r e c o n n e c t e d a s h o l y r e l i c s f o r t h e r e was no- s t o r y t r e a t i n g t h e l a n c e a l o n e . The v e s s e l i s n o t t h a t o f t h e L a s t S u p p e r b u t a g o l d e n cup h o l d i n g C h r i s t ' s b l o o d . J o s e p h i s o n l y t h e k e e p e r o f a h o l y r e l i c . Not- k n o w i n g t h e p L a n o f ' C h r e t i e n ' s i n c o m p l e t e . . w o r k t h e a u t h o r c o u l d -choose a s h e r o e i t h e r B e r f i e ^ a l o r G a w a i n . H e r e he c h o s e 4 9 . G a w a i n , i n t r o d u c e s a new s t o r y . a b o u t t h e s w o r d and ends t h e p oem a s G a w a i n wakes o u t o f a f a n t a s t i c dream. The l a n d i s r e s t o r e d p a r t l y a f t e r G a w a i n p u t s t h e q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e L a n c e a n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e s t o r e d f u l l y h a d he a s k e d a b o u t t h e G r a i l F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a s e c o n d v i s i t was i n t e n d e d W a u c h i e r d i D e n a i n o r G a u t i e r de D o u l e n s , i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e C o u n t e s s J e a n n e o f F l a n d e r s t r e a t s o f b o t h P e r c e v a l and G a w a i n , G a w a i n , h o w e v e r , i s n o t d e s t i n e d t o be t h e G r a i l w i n n e r f o r he c a n n o t f o r g e t h e s w o r d , o m i t s t h e q u e s t i o n a n d f a l l s a s l e e p b e f o r e t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n t h e L a n c e . P e r c e v a l , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , u n d e r g o e s t h e s w o r d t e s t s u c c e s s f u l l y a n d p u t s t h e q u e s t i o n on h i s s e c o n d v i s i t . A n o v e l i d e a i s t h a t t h o s e who saw t h e G r a i l c o u l d ' d o no s i n o n t h a t d a y . A n o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n , w h i c h o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n l a t e r v e r s i o n s , i s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e G r a i l n o t g u s t i n t h e c a s t l e b u t o u t s i d e i n t h e woods a s w e l l . T h i s v e r s i o n e q u a l s C h r e t i e n S i n g r a c e a n d v i v a c i t y b u t l a c k s c r e a t i v e p o w e r and h a s no c o n e e p t o f a p l a n . M a n e s s i e r a l s o w r o t e f o r C o u n t e s s J e a n n e b u t h i s a d d i t i o n ( 1 2 1 4 - 2 0 ) i s r a m b l i n g and d u l l . P e r c e v a l a v e n g e s . t h e m u r d e r o f t h e F i s h e r K i n g ' s B r o t h e r b y P a r t i n a l a n d u n d e r g o e s t h e s w o r d t e s t , . .'He r e f u s e s t o o c c u p y h i s u n c l e ' s t h r o n e b e f o r e t h e l a t t e r d i e s a n d u n t i l t h e n s e r v e s t e n y e a r s a s a p r i e s t , A f t e r P e r c e v a l ' s d e a t h b o t h G r a i l and k e e p e r s d i s a p p e a r . The L a n c e i s t h e L a n c e o f L o n g i n u s . T h u s S p e a r a n d G r a i l a r e b o t h h o l y a f t e r M a n e s s i e r ; t h e Gup was no • • 5 0 -l o n g e r c a l l e d t h e ' G r a i l b u t t h e ^ . H o l y G r a i l a n d h a s t h e power b o t h o f h e a l i n g ?/ounds a n d p r o v i d i n g n o u r i s h m e n t . G e r b e r t ' s c o n t i n u a t i o n , f a l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d , i n t r o d u c e s t h e a n g e l s o f t h e G r a i l and t h e a u t h o r makes t h e h e r o ' s s i n t h e d e s e r t i o n o f B l a n e h e f l e u r . The G r a i l r o m a n c e ( t h e n ( w a s no s i m p l e p e a s a n t ' s t a l e , w h i c h came t o t h e C h r i s t i a n s t o r y t e l l e r b u t one w h i c h h a d b e e n a l t e r e d a n d e l a b o r a t e d b y b a r d i c p o e t r y , m y t h s and h e r o i c t r a d i t i o n . . The p r e - C h r i s t i a n t a l e s o f t h e s t r u g g l e s o f gods an d d e m i - g o d s h a d b e e n f u s e d w i t h t a l e s h a v i n g a s - l i h e i r o h j e c t s t h e g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f B r i t a i n , a n d an a c c o u n t o f t h e i l l u s t r i o u s ; . o r i g i n - o f t h e C h u r c h . A f a i r y t a l e h e r o s u p p l a n t e d the" d e m i - J gods;, t h e p a g a n v e s s e l o r f e r t i l i t y t a l i s m a n h a d b e e n r e s h a p e d ' a s a C h r i s t i a n r e l i c . The u n s p e l l i n g m o t i f s u f f e r e d m o s t c h a n g e f o r t h e w u e s t i o n was l o s t , o r became u n i n t e l l i g i b l e s .' w h i l e t h e v e n g e a n c e theme r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d u n t i l i t d i s -a p p e a r e d when P a r s i f a l was r e p l a c e d b y L a n c e l o t a n d G a l a h a d . A v a l o n h a d b e e n s u g g e s t e d , a s t h e g o a l .of t h e G r a i l keeper, •' so t h e s t o r y b e c a m e - a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A r t h u r ' s c o u r t a n d B o r r o n f u s e d t h e B r a n c o n v e r s i o n l e g e n d w i t h J o s e p h , . t h u s t h e v e s s e l b e c a m e : a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e G r a i l . The l e g e n d , s t a r t e d w i t h t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e t i m e , a n d o f a s s o c i a t i o n t h r o u g h B r a n s w i t h C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , o w i n g t o t h e b l e n d i n g o f - d i v e r s e s t r a i n s i n t h e s t o r y , : i t was v a g u e e n o u g h t o be p l a s t i c . -While C h r e t i e n i g n o r e d t h e s p i r i t u a l e l e m e n t s and c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e k n i g h t l y •  • • 5 1 . l a s p e c t o t h e r w r i t e r s e l a b o r a t e d : t h e , e a r l y h i s t o r y , and a c c e n t u a t e d t h e . ; r e l i g l p u s , e l e m e n t s .'-/.In- g e n e r a l i t may be s a i d t h a t i n t h e o l d e r f o r m s t h e k n i g h t l y a d v e n t u r e s d o m i n a t e , I n t h e . l a t e r ' - t h e - Q u e s t . T h i s i s t o s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e two f o r m s o f t h e s t o r y : t h e o r i g i n arid w a n d e r i n g s o r e a r l y h i s t o r y , a n d t h e ^ u e s t ^ w h i c h i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 'txar©- G l a s s e s , t h o s e h a v i n g P a r s i f a l a s t h e h e r o and t h o s e h a v i n g t h r e e . Q.uesters...' Few l e g e n d s h a v e a t t a i n e d s u c h c e l e b r i t y o r b e e n a c c e p t e d a s s o t h o r o u g h l y s y m b o l i c a l o f one m a s t e r c o n c e p t i o n . By .1200 e v e r y o x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e h a d r e p r o d u c e d t h e s t o r y w h i c h s u p p l a n t e d G h a f l e m a g n e e a n d A l e x a n d e r and h a d n o t o n l y b e e n c h a r g e d w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f r o m a n c e b u t h a d become t h e s t a n d a r d o f a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e l o f t i e s t a n d n o b l e s t m i n d s : o f C h r i s t e n d o m . The supreme m e d i e v a l , t r e a t m e n t o f t h e l e g e n d i s t h a t o f W o l f r a m v o n I s c h e n b a e h . , C h a p t e r Two The t r e a t m e n t o f t h e l e g e n d i n W o l f r a m v o n ;E,schenbach\s P a r z i v a l . L i t t l e i s . known o f t h e l i f e o f W o l f r a m ;von E s c h e n -b a e h . P r o b a b l y he was b o r n a b o u t 1170 I n S s c h e n b a c h i n • B a v a r i a a s t h e y o u n g e r s o n o f a k n i g h t l y f a m i l y , a nd he was t h u s a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f H a r t m a n n , G o t t f r i e d a n d W a l t h e r . 1 He was b u r r e d t l i n t h e F r a u e n k i r c h e i n O b e r e s c h e n b a c h n e a r t h e p l a c e s named i n h i s poems s u c h a s W a l l e n b e r g a n d A l b e u b e r g . H i s g r a v e was s o u g h t i n ,1462 b y E u t e r i c h v o n A e i c h e r t s h a u s e n ^and s e e n i n 1.608 b y K r e s s von- M urmberg. He was' n o t a wander--i n g s i n g e r l i k e W a l t h e r v o n d e r v.ogelweide b u t j o u r n e y e d f o r a d v e n t u r e a n d was a t t a c h e d a s g u e s t t o t h e M a r g r a v e o f W o h l -b u r g whose w i f e , E l i z a b e t h , was t h e r e c i p i e n t o f h i s poems. P a n n i e r t h i n k s he a l s o w r o t e , f o r t h e M a r f t g r a f i n v o n ' H e i t s t e i n . He was c o n n e c t e d , t o o * w i t h t h e L a n d g r a v e Hermann, v o n T h u r l n g e n . I n T201-2 1 i s s u p p o s e d t o h a v e o c c u r r e d h i s m e e t i n g w i t h W a l t e r v o n d e r v o g e l w e i d e Trom w h i c h t h e W a r t b u r g k r i e g l e g e n d a r o s e . W o l f r a m p o s s e s s e d a h o u s e b u t no l a n d u n t i l he was g i v e n l a n d i n W i l d e n b e r g ( M u n s a l v a e s e h e ) b y G r a f v o n W e r t h e i m . He was d o u b t l e s s p o o r f o r he a l l u d e s t o t h e s c a r c i t y i n h i s own h o u s e where no mouse was t e m p t e d t o s t e a l . A g a i n , s p e a k i n g o f t h e f i r e i n t h e G r a i l c a s t l e ( P a r z i v a l 192-4) he s a y s , T T S a h e i n e s M e n s o h e n Jiuge j e s o l c h e f e u e r w o h l z u W i l d e n b e r g so K o s t b a r 1.. P.P.* 1 1 ; G o l d T e D i c h t 2 0 6 ; l e s t , S i r P x S a i n t s , 2 6 0 . 5 3 . war d o i t pedes Wer.R." . He. was m a r r i e d b e f o r e P a r z i v a l ( v , 1 1 2 4 f a n d . h a d one d a u g h t e r , i n T i t u r e l he, s a y s , Z u r r e c h t e n Z e i t gewahr'te S e i n Weib i h n e i n e s K i n d e s D a s s metick G o t t e r l a s s e • I n meinem H a u s e s o d c h e n I n g e s i n d e We'nn i c h e s so t h e u e r mussfc e h l g e l t e n . He a l l u d e s t o M s d a u g h t e r f i r s t a s a c h i l d p l a y i n g w i t h h e r d o l l s } t h e n l a t e r a s a y o u n g g i r l r e a d y f o r m a r r i a g e . T h o u g h one l a d y i l l - t r e a t e d h i r i i j h e i s n o t p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t a l l g o o d women b u t e x a l t s t h e h a p p i n e s s o f wedded l i f e and t h e j o y o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e home. W o l f r a m e x a l t s h i s o f f i c e o f k n i g h t a b o v e t h a t o f p o e t . He s a y s , "Zum S c h i l d e s a m t b i n i c h g e b o r e n He r e m a i n s a. man i n whom no r e v e r s e s o f f o r t u n e , ^ no "d e p e n d e n c e -on t h e f a v o u r o f t h e s e a b o v e h i m e v e r l e s s e n e d t h e p r o u d s e n s e o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l w o r t h . H i s T/orks c o m p r i s e s e v e n s o n g s , " T a g e w i e s e n " o r " W a c h t e r l i e d e r " , t h e two f r a g m e n t s o f " T i t u r e l a n d " S i g u n e and S c h i o n a t u l a n d e r " , W i l l h a l m l , a v e r s i o n o f t h e F r e n c h c h a n s o n de g e s t e L a B a t a i l i e , d'. A l i s c a n s whose h e r o i n e , G y b u r g , I s t h e f i n e s t o f - W o l f ram's d e l i n e a t i o n s o f .women,' a n d f i n a l l y and, m o s t i m p o r t a n t , P a r z i v a l , t h e b e s t " K u n s t e p o s " . Of t h e e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s } D 8 5 7 ( c o m p r i s i n g 17 t e x t s a n d 37 f r a g m e n t s ) i n t h e a b b e y l i b r a r y o f S t . G a l l i s n e a r e s t t o t h e o r i g i n a l . I t i s the-'work o f t h r e e c o p y i s t s and ?/as i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e S w i s s f a m i l y o f A e g i d i u s T s c h u d y f r o m the g '• s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o 1 7 6 8 . P a r z i v a l was f i r s t p r i n t e d b y M e n t e l e n i n S t r a s s b o u r g i n 1 4 7 7 . 1. W i l l e h a l m , 33^4-. 2. P a r z i v a l was e n l a r g e d b y G l a u s WIsse a n d P. G o l l i n 1 3 3 4 - 3 6 . 5 4 -The s o u r c e s o f W o l f ram's-- P a r z i v a l . a r e w r a p ped i n a m y s t e r y w h i c h i t i s h o p e l e s s t o a t t e m p t t o p i e r c e . 1 O n l y one v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y i s known to, w h i c h he c o u l d h ave had a c c e s s , n a m e l y , C h r e t i e n d e . T r o y e s * P e r c e v a l ' l i G a l l o i s and t h i s he d i d f o l l o w , h u t G h r e ' t i e n h a s no p a r a l l e l f o r t h e s t o r y o f Gahmuret o r f o r t h e l a s t , t h r e e h o o k s , w h i l e h i s a c c o u n t d i f f e r s i n many d e - J a i l s . W o l f r a m c i t e s a s h i s a u t h o r i t y K y o t o r G u i o t , t h e P r o v e n c a l , whose, v e r s i o n he c o n s i d e r s more c o r r e c t t h a n t h a t o f C h r e t i e n . E l e g e t a n i s , c a l l e d Z a b u l o n i n t h e l e g e n d o f t h e f a r t b u r g k r l e g , was t h e s o n o f a h e a t h e n and a J e w e s s . He r e a d t h e name an d the, s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l i n t h e s t a r s a n d w r o t e i t down i n t h e A r a b i a n v e r s i o n w h i c h K y o t f o u n d An. T o l e d o and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o F r e n c h . I t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t P a r z i v a l - shows A r a b i a n i n f l u e n c e s s u c h a s the, name Z v a l f o r t h e p l a n e t S a t u r n biait no P r o v e n c a l c o u l d make t h e m i s t a k e o f a p p l y i n g , t h e vrord " g r a z a l " t o a s t o n e when t h e w o r d was w e l l known a s a p p l i e d t o a k i n d o f d i s h . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n w o u l d a l s o l e a v e t h e p r o b l e m o f T i t u r e l u n s o l v e d , f o r t h e s t y l e i s u n d e n i a b l y ..the same as i n P a r z i v a l . T h o u g h no p r o b l e m o f t h e G r a i l l i t e r a t u r e h a s e x c i t e d more a c t i v e d i s -c u s s i o n , t h a n W o l f ram' s s o u r c e s , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i f W o l f r a m h i m s e l f h a d n o t s a i d K y o t was h i s s o u r c e , t h e r e w o u l d be no s u c h q u e s t i o n . I t i s m o s t p r o b a b l e t h a t W o l f r a m was i n d u l g i n g i n a common m e d i e v a l t r i c k o f b o l s t e r i n g up h i s own i n v e n t i o n 1. W . S i r P. X I ; BeylL; G o l 1 9 ; BEAR 3 2 3 . 2. A o e r s t e r t h i n k s W o l f r a m m i s t o o k " g r a z a l " , f o r , " g r a i s " o r s a n d s t o n e . BEAR 3 5 4 . 55© w i t h a n i m a g i n a r y a u t h o r i t y much as w h e n i n W i l l e h a l m he p r e t e n d s h i s a u t h o r i t y was C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s and when he a s s e r t s he Gould n o t w r i t e , w h e r e a s h i s assumed i l l i t e r a c y p r o b a b l y was m e r e l y a h i t a t t h e l i t e r a r y p r e t e n s i o n s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y l i a r t m a n n y o n A u e . "No o t h e r med-i e v a l p o e t c o u l d have composed a w o r k o f s u c h h i g h c a l i b r e , so f r e e f r o m c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and i n e q u a l i t i e s a n d so d o m i n a t e d b y a c e n t r a l i d e a . Why' s h o u l d we d e n y W o l f r a m a n y p o w e r o f o r i g i n a l i t y i n i n c i d e n t , when h i s m o r a l c o n c e p t i o n s a n d i d e a s a r e s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e o f a l l h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s I n m e d i e v a l p o e t r y a n d u n e q u a l l e d among r o m a n t i c w r i t e r s t o t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d ? Why de n y h i m n a r r a t i v e g i f t s ^ w h e n h i s s t y l e , w h i c h i s t h e same i n W i l l e h a l m a s i n P a r z i v a l and T i t u r e l , i s t h e most i n d i v i d u a l i n m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e ? A f t e r a l l , t h e i n c i d e n t s r e q u i r e . n o g r e a t c r e a t i v e g i f t ; t h e y a r e co m m o n p l a c e s o f m e d i e v a l r o m a n c e . The s t o r y o f P a r z i v a l i s an A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e i n t r o d u c e d b y what a p p e a r s t o he a t r a v e s t y o n t h e ' s t o c k s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e F r e n c h v e r s i o n s o f A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e . G-ahmurat g o e s t o t h e c o u r t o f t h e C a l i p h Of Bagdad, who c o r r e s p o n d e d i n t h e h e a t h e n w o r l d t o t h e P o p e , 0'ust a s t h e h e r o g o e s t o A r t h u r ' s c o u r t , i t i s t h e u n i q u e s i g n i f i c a n c e . w i t h w h i c h s u c h i n c i d e n t s a r e i n v e s t e d , t h e g r o t e s q u e and v i v i d d e t a i l w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e s e t f o r t h , t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o l o r i n g g i v e n t o e v e r y p a r t o f t h e w o r k w h i c h 1. N o t e h i s own s a t i r i c a l r e m a r k "Mine a v e n t u r a f a h r t ahne s t e u e r d e r b t l c h e . " c o n s t i t u t e s I t s g r e a t n e s s , A s B r u c e s a y s , "The c r e a t i v e a c t i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t a s c o m p a r e d w i t h that i n v o l v e d i n t h e s u b l i m e I n v e n t i o n of t h e w o r l d w i d e G r a i l c o m munity which i s i n -d i s p u t a b l y h i s . " 1 B e s i d e s the o r d e r of t h e ; G r a i l •"knights,, TAolfram's v e r s i o n i s u n p a r a l l e l e d i n that', t h e n a r r a t i v e o f Gahmuret i s f o u n d i n . n o o t h e r German v e r s i o n , A S . l l i t h o u g h t i t " > i s n i n y' v l i n e w i t h Thomas' T r i s t a n a n d C h r e t i e n 1 s G l i g e s . W o l f r a m ' s e t h i c a l p u r p o s e , i s a l s o u n i q u e - t h a t i s t o show how l a c k of f a i t h may'mar a n o t h e r w i s e n o b l e c h a r a c t e r , y e t by s t e a d f a s t p u r p o s e a nd l o y a l t y man may a t o n e f o r e a r l y f a i l u r e s a n d g a i n t h e b l e a s i n g once f o r f e i t e d , t h o u g h f a l l o w i n g C h r e t i e n i n t h e m a i n ^ W o l f r a m y e t h a s h i s o w n . p l a n ' o f the w h o l e . W h i l e o t h e r s c o n t i n u e d G h r e ' t i e n ' s w ork w i t h l e g e n d s a nd t a l e s o f r e l i c s , r e w o r d i n g t h e o l d . . m a t e r i a l i n . a b o r i n g f a s h i o n w i t h -o u t a f i t c o n c l u s i o n , w m t h l t h e r l a t e r h i s t o r i e s o f A e i r e f i z and L o h e r a n g r i n , W o l f r a m ' c o m p l e t e s h i s s t o r y . I n W o l f r a m t h e k i n g ' s wound i s a p u n i s h m e n t f o r h i s b r o k e n , vow; C h r e t i e n shows no s u c h m o r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n i n P e r c e v a l i s r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a l i s m a n ; i n P a r z i v a l , to.. , t h e s u f f e r e r f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f s i n arid t o t h e h e r o who a t t a i n s p e r f e c t i o n b y c o m p a s s i o n . The h e r o r e m a i n s a l w a y s i n t h e p i c t u r e e v e n d u r i n g t h e n a r r a t i o n o f G a w a i n ' s a d v e n t u r e s . G r e a t e r e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on t h e s w o r d o n c e b o r n e ; b y J u d a s M a c c a b e u s s ? M l e t h e p e r s i s t e n t u r g e t o r e t u r n t o K o n d w i r a m u r 1. BEAR; 5 2 3 . 2. G o l 134 d'e L i c h t 722. JMSLHG 14. 57. and t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e G r a i l a s a s t o n e a r e u n i q u e . New, t o o , i s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y . I t I s an o r i g i n a l German t o u c h t o c o n n e c t t h e g e n e a l o g i c a l t a b l e s o f A r a f o r t a s : and G ahmuret. Due t o t h e . r e l a t i o n s h i p o f H e r z e l e i d e a n d T i t u r e l , m ost o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e s t o r y a r e c o n n e c t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o W o l f r a m , K y o t r e a d F l e g e t a n i s ' s t o r y i n T o l e d o and l o o k e d f o r t h e k e e p e r s o f t h e G r a i l i n many l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g B r i t t a n y and I r e l a n d , a nd f i n a l l y f o u n d them i n A n j o u o r A n s c h o w e , t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l r e i g n i n g h o u s e I n E u r o p e , c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e G u e l p h s i n n o r t h Germany, whose i n f l u e n c e e x t e n d e d t o t h e c o u r t o f W o l f r a m ' s p a t r o n , n e r m a n n o f T h u r i n g i a . W o l f r a m w i s h e d t o e x a l t h i s h e r o b y c o n n e c t i n g h i m w i t h t h e a c t u a l d y n a s t y o f t h e t i m e v w h i l e he a l s o f l a t t e r e d h i s b e n e f a c t o r . " 1 " The g e n e a l o g i c a l t a b l e r u n s s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h i s : 2 F u m u t e l j T TITUREL C l a r i s s a ANFQRTAS T r e v r i z e n t :Sh©aslant . R e p a n s e H e r z e l e i d e v • .. - K i p t s E e i r e f i z ^ G a h m u r e t S i g u n e " " P i i e . s t e r J o h a n n e s PARZIVAL = O o n d i v d r a m u r K a r d e i s s L o h e r a n g r i n - S l s a We h a v e m e n t i o n e d W o l f r a m ' s p a r t i c u l a r d e l i g h t i n names. Some a r e German: F r e d e b r a n d , H e r n a n t , H e r l i n d e I s e n h a r t ; some a r e 1. G o l 141-2; BEAR 231. 2. The g r a n d f a t h e r n o t f a t h e r o f G r a i l k i n g a s i n G h r e t i e n . The n a m e ^ t a k e n f r o m T y d o r e l . i n Hartmann. v o n Aue's" E r e c : ( t h e h e r o o f a B r e t o n l a l . 5 8 . t a k e n f r o m l i t e r a t u r e a s P r o t h e z i l i a s , K a r l e t v o n Hos K J U s r a s t f r o m H a r t m a n n ' s E r e c . Many names a r e m e r e l y i n v e n t e d b y W o l f r a m i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f a f a i r y t a l e . The name o f P a r z i v a l ' S f a t h e r was t a k e n f r o m G omeret, t h e name o f a k i n g d o m i n C h r e t i e n ' s E r e c , i t b e i n g a n e n t i r e l y new i n n o v a t i o n t o c o n n e c t t h e l e g e n d w i t h A r a b i a and I n d i a . G a h m u r e t , t h e y o u n g e s t s o n o f K i n g ( i a n d i n o f A n joy;, r e c e i v e d a s h i s h e r i t a g e o n l y h i s a r m o u r , h i s h o r s e and h i s c o u r a g e . L i k e F a u s t , he w i s h e s t o p o s s e s s t h e h i g h e s t power on e a r t h . T o . f u r t h e r h i s p u r p o s e he e n t e r s t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e C a l i f o f B a g d a d , a n d m a r r i e s t h e M o o r i s h Queen B e l e K a n e , t h e i r c h i l d b e i n g F e i r e f i z . R e s t l e s s l y d r i v e n o n by h i s u n c e a s i n g d e s i r e f o r a d v e n t u r e , he r e t u r n s t o S p a i n . H e r e h e w i n s H e r z e l e i d e i n a t o u r n e y a g a i n s t A r t h u r P e n d r a g o n * l i e h a s no d e s i r e t o m a r r y H e r z e l e i d e , b u t i s moved b y h e r t e n d e r b e a u t y . Y e s p e r , 1 i n h i s b e a u t i f u l m o d e r n v e r s i o n , makes h i m r e s i s t h e r p l e a s b y s a y i n g , H I c h habe e.in u n s t a l e s f l a t t e r h a f t e s H e r z , d a s n o c h a n fteinem O r t e Ruhe f a n d . " To t h i s H e r z e l e i d e . r e p l i e s w i t h W o l f r a m ' s r e f l e c t i o n s , " E i n m a l m u s s t e d e r M e n s c h s e i n .Haus b a u e n , ' i r g e n d w o a u f d e r E r d e und F r e u n d e urn s i c h sammeln und K i n d e r h a b e n und e i n e He i m a t .•'•'• B u t G a h m u r e t ' s o u t s t a n d i n g t r a i t , w h i c h m o t i v a t e s P a r z i v a l ' s a d v e n t u r e s , shows i t s e l f . " H e r r i n , I h r k e n n t n i c h t d i e S e h n s u c h t n a c h A b e n t e u e r n . Wen s i e e i n m a l e r g r e i f t , d e r f i n d e t n i f ^ e n d n i e h r Huhe und H e i m a t . " 1.Vesp. 142 f . 59. And so b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f P a r z i v a l he s e t s o f f o n c e more f o r f o r e i g n l a n d s where he d i e s . 1 H e r z e l e i d e n e a r l y v d i e s a f t e r t h e t e r r i b l e news o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s d e a t h . . A f t e r t h e b i r t h o f h e r s o n , H e r z e l e i d e l a v i s h e s u p o n t h e c h i l d a l l h e r a f f e c t i o n . A s V e s p e r s a y s , "So r e l t e t e d e r Knabe. d e r K o n i g i n ( g e i s t u n d ISeh'en." To p r e v e n t h i m f r o m f o l l o w i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s f a t e and t o keep h i m f o r h e r s e l f she r e t i r e s t o s o l i t u d e . By t h i s means sne s o u g h t t o k e e p h i m d e p e n d e n t and p r o t e c t h i m . f r o m d a n g e r i n s t e a d o f t e a c h i n g h i m t h e s t r e n g t h t o f i g h t t h e s t r u g g l e s a n d temp-t a t i o n s o f a c t u a l l i f e . So P a r z i v a l g r e w s t r o n g and b e a u t i f u l l i k e h i s f a t h e r b u t h i s ' s p i r i t r e m a i n e d a s i n n o c e n t and h e l p l e s s fas t h a t o f a young, c h i l d . W h e r e a s i n t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l Q u e t e t h e h e r o i s a shadowy p e r f e c t i o n ' a n d t h e d r i v i n g power i s s u p p l i e d by t h e f i e r c e i n s i s t e n c e on c e l i b a c y , i n W o l f r a m t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e h e r o p r o v i d e s t h e m a i n i n t e r e s t . W h i l e t h e ' a d v e n t u r e s o f G a w a i n c o n s t i t u t e a n A b e n t e u e r ^ r o m a n t h e s t o r y of P a r z i v a l i s t h e f i r s t o f t h e l o n g l i n e o f t h a t t y p i c a l l y German t y p e , t h e . " B&idungs" o r E r z i e h a i n g s r o m a n , t h e s t o r y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o l i f e , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s l o w i n n e r . g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g and e n n o b l i n g o f a c h a r a c t e r w h i c h s u f f e r s a n d s i n s , l o v e s and e n d u r e s y e t i s s t a u n c h a n d t r u e . , w h i c h i s p u r i f i e d b y t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f s u f f e r i n g a n d a t l e n g t h a t t a i n s t h e summit o f u s e f u l n e s s . 1 . S a i l M a t t e s u g g e s t s t h e name comes f r o m ' e r s c h l a i s ' ' - f ^ i g & t -f u l n o i s e . Hh^s (.123) d e r i v e s i t f r o m ' a r g l o y d e s 1 - l a d y . Wagner i n t h e p r o s e v e r s i o n c a l l s h e r S c h m e r z e l e i d e . 6 0 . I n P a r z i v a l * ' t h e e d u c a t i o n i s marked' h y t h r e e s t a g e s - t h e e a r l y t e a c h i n g s o f t h e mother,, t h e e d u c a t i o n t o c h i v a l r y b y ciurnemanz and t h e s p i r i t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n o f T r e v r i z e n t . tt The Dummling i s an i n e x p e r i e n c e d o r b a c k w a r d y o u t h , who e n d s b y s u r p r i s i n g t h e w o r l d w i t h h i s p r o w e s s a n d b e c o m i n g t h e w o n d e r o f t h e a g e . 1 I n t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e f i n d i n g o f g r e a t t r e a s u r e s , o r e n t r y i n t o t h e h i l l s i d e s , p o v e r t y , s i m p l i c i t y , and v i r g i n i t y f r e q u e n t l y a r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l q u e s t e r . So t o o a r e t h e m y s t i c b i r t h r i g h t s , s u c h a s b e i n g a S u n d a y ' s c h i l d , o r a s e v e n t h s o n . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g u n c o u t h o r h a l f w i t t e d i n W o l f r a m ' s l i f e - l i k e a n d l o v a b l e p i c t u r e . ' W o l f r a m - e m p h a s i s e s r a t h e r t h e f r e s h n e s s and a m b i t i o n o f y o u t h a n d . - r e j o i c e s i n i t s p r o m i s e . N o t o n l y h a s he g i v e n u s a d e l i g h t f u l b o y b u t he c o n v i n c e s u s t h a t no o t h e r h e r o c o u l d have f u r t h e r e d t h e e . d v e n t u r e s so w e l l . ffor he and t h e h e r o g r o w t o g e t h e r . T h e r e i s no r e p e t i t i o n ; e a c h a d v e n t u r e comes a s a new s t a g e i n P a r z i v a l ' s r i p e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t h e p o e t t r e a t s i t i n a new way. C h r e t i e n ' s P e r c e v a l i s a l s o a c a p t i v a t i n g a n d i r r e s i s t -i b l e f i g u r e , s h o w i n g t h e i n e o r r u p t e d s t u r d i n e s s o f h i s n a t u r e e v e n i n h i s t o m f o o l e r i e s a n d r e c k l e s s e s c a p a d e s , a s when he r i d e s i n t o t h e t e n t o f t h e " a r n i e " o f O r g e l u s e t h i n k i n g i t i s a c h u r c h , l e t s h i s ' h o r s e t r o t i n t o A r t h u r ' s c o u r t a n d k n o c k o f f t h e k i n g ' s h a t or. t h i n k s t h a t t h e t o w e r s o f Gurnemanz* c a s t l e m u s t h a v e b e e n sown b y A r t h u r . M e V i ' t l e s t o r z d e l 1. .1?ioVieuj 1 6 ; v . NSLHG, 247.. 2. F r a n c V e 2 9 . 6 1 . .chaste 1 n e s t r e q u ' a v i s I I f u q u ' e t e s n e s s v i e n t e que f o r s de l a r o e h e i s s o i e n t . " I n W o l f r a m h o w e v e r t h e f u l l p o e t r y o f J h e t a l e o f t h e h a p p y - g o - l u c k y s i m p l e t o n i s r e v e a l e d . He d o e s n o t l a c k f i n e r f e e l i n g s f o r he i s s t i r r e d b y t h e r e b u k e o f t h e l a u g h i n g . l a d y a n d l o n g i n g f o r h i s m o t h e r . P a r z i v a l i s a dreamy s e n s i t i v e b o y s o a f f e c t e d b y t h e b i r d ' s s i n g i n g t h a t he weeps and t e a r s h i s h a i r w i t h o u t k n o w i n g why. He w o u l d l i s t e n t o t h e i r m e l o d y i n g a r d e n a n d woods., w a t c h t h e m w h e e l and c i r c l e a n d - s t r e t c h h i s arms t o w a r d s them a s t h e y r o s e above t h e woods and d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o t h e unknown. . The c l o s e n e s s w i t h n a t u r e w h i c h P a r z i v a l n e v e r l o s e s i s Wolfram's'.own i n v e n t i o n . I n -d e s c r i b a b l e l o n g i n g f o r t h e w o r l d w h i c h was h i d d e n f r o m h i m s e i z e d t h e b o y . When h i s m o t h e r s e e s t h a t t h e b i r d s o n g t r o u b l e d h i m she o r d e r s h e r s e r v a n t s : t o t r a p a n d s h o o t 'the b i r d s . P a r z i v a l p l e a d s f o r f r e e d o m f o r t h e b i r d s and H e r z -e l e i d e r e a l i s e s t h a t God made them a n d i t i s n o t f o r h e r t o undo H i s w o r k . When P a r z i v a l q u e s t i o n s h e r a n d l e a r n s t h a t God, t h e S h i n i n g One, i s t h e c r e a t o r o f a l l a n d t h a t a l l s e r v e H i m b u t t h e e v i l §ne who l i v e s i n d a r k n e s s , he t o o w i s h e s t o s e r v e . H e r z e l e i d e s e e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h i s d e s i r e t o make h i m a p r i e s t a n d t h u s p r e v e n t h i m f r o m b e c o m i n g a k n i g h t . So P a r z i a r a l p r a y s t o a l l b r i g h t t h i n g s - t h e s u n , t h e t w i n k -l i n g l i g h t o f t h e s t a r s , t h e p a l e g l e a m o f t h e moon, r e f l e c t -i o n s i n t h e b r o o k a n d e v e n t h e f i r e i n t h e f i e l d a n d he b e a t s t h e b l a c k n e s s w i t h h i s f i s t s t o a i d uod i n h i s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e d a r k n e s s . To s t i l l h i s r e s t l e s s n e s s t h e m o t h e r g i v e s h i m 6 2 . a r m s , n o t t h o s e b e f i t t i n g a k n i g h t b u t s u c h a s were u s e d by-p e a s a n t s , - bow a n d a r r o w a n d s p e a r , H e n c e f o r t h P a r z i s a l s p e n d s h i s t i m e h u n t i n g , i n s p i t e o f t h e m o t h e r ' s ' • p r e c a u t i o n s , P a r -z i v a l l e a r n s o f k n i g h t h o o d f r o m t h e t h r e e k n i g h t s i n t h e i r g l i s t e n i n g a r m o u r ; whom t h e s i m p l e b o y w o r s h i p s a s g o d s , he t h e n demands t h a t he be a l l o w e d t o s e r v e God b y b e c o m i n g a k n i g h t . The d e s p a i r i n g H e r z e l e i d e d r e s s e s h i m , a s a f o o l , s o t h a t t h e c o u r t may r e j e c t h i m and t h e b o y r e t u r n t o h e r . .- A s P a r z i v a l r i d e s away, s h e f a l l s d e a d , a t r a g i c and d i s a p p o i n t e d ; 1 •  f i g u r e ^ t y p i c a l l y S h a k e s p e a r i a n i n b l e n d o f v i t a l i t y and g r a c e . On h i s way t o . . A r t h u r 1 s c o u r t P a r z i v a l t a k e s t h e r i n g ? a t h w h i c h he p a y s t h e g r e e d y f i s h e r f o r a n i g h t 1 s l o d g i n g -from-, J e s c h u t e a n d k i s s e s h e r i n l i t e r a l o b e d i e n c e t o t h e ,: •• f a r e w e l l p r e c e p t s o f h i s . m o t h e r . Jess chute., a p a s s i v e a n d c o l o u r l e s s c h a r a c t e r i n C h r e t i e n , becomes i n W o l f r a m , who i s so. s k i l l e d i n the: d e p i c t i o n o f women, a n o b l e woman;, shamed i n h e r i n n o c e n c e b u t f i n a l l y f o r g i v e n . E s p e c i a l l y f i n e i s , t h e c h a n g e - w h e r e W o l f r a m makes .her p r a i s e t h e r e m a r k a b l e -1. A s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e s t o r y o f P a r z i v a l a n d t h e s i m p l . i z i s s i m . u s - o f Grimme3^iausen. The l a t t e r was a l s o b r o u g h t up i n t h e woods i g n o r a n t o f t h e w o r l d * °lch k a n n t e w e d e r u o t t n o c h M e n s c h e n , w e d e r H i m m e l n o c h H o d l e , weder E n g e l n o c h T e u f e l , i c h w u s s t e w e d e r §utes n o c h n o s e s z u u n t e r s c h e i d e n . " L i k e P a r z i v a l he was c a l l e d ' a-'.fool...' "Du b l e i b s t d e n L e b e l a n g a n a r r . n When q u e s t i o n e d by t h e . h e r m i t ^ w h o m he m i s t a k e s f o r a-wo Iff,, he r e p l i e s l i k e Wagner's P a r s i f a l . " I c h habe k e i n e n v.ater o d e r M u t t e r , i c h fceisse •Hi^b' a u c h S c h e l m o d e r E s e l . " He, comes t o t h e S w e d i s h camp a s P a r z i v a l t o t h e c o u r t o f A r t h u r , becomes p a g e , s o l d i e r a n d 'Beau a l m a n l , l o s e s h i s f o r t u n e a n d t h e n , r e m e m b e r i n g h i s s o u l , becomes a h e r m i t , 63. b e a u t y o f t h e f o o l i s h b o y and t h u s a r o u s e O r g e l u s e • s j e a l o u s y , w h e r e a s i n P e r c e v a l he i s d e s c r i b e d by h e r a s " e n u i e u s e v i l a i n e s o t . " A t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t P a r z i v a l demands i m p a t i e n t l y t h a t " he be made a k n i g h t a t once and k i l l s I t h e r i n s u d d e n a n g e r , t a k i n g f r o m t h e s l a i n man t h e a r m o u r w h i c h he t h i n k s w i l l make h i m a k n i g h t . P a r z i v a l r i d e s o n , e x p e c t i n g e v e r y m i n u t e t h a t God w i l l a p p e a r t o r e c e i v e h i m i n t o h i s s e r v i c e . T h e n i n t h e s h a d e o f t h e l i n d e n t r e e Garnemans a p p e a r s t o h i m and t h e k i n d l y o l d k n i g h t w e l c o m e s . t h e b o y i n p l a c e o f h i s own t h r e e s o n s and o f f e r s t o t e a c h h i m how t o c o n d u c t h i m s e l f a s a k n i g h t . R e m e m b e r i n g h i s m o t h e r ' s a d v i c e , P a r z i v a l a c c e p t s . T h e r e i s a m a r k e d and i n t e r e s t i n g p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o u n s e l s i n t h e v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s . The m o t h e r o f P e r c e v a l t e l l s h e r s o n t o a i d dames a n d d a m s e l s , t h a t one h a s much f r o m k i s s i n g a m a i d i f she w i l l t o l i e w i t h , y o u , b u t i f she f o r b i d , l e a v e i t a l o n e ; i f she h a v e r i n g o r w r i s t b a n d and f o r l o v e o r a t y o u r p r a y e r g i v e i t , ' t i s w e l l y o u t a k e i t . N e v e r . h a v e c o m r a d e s h i p w i t h one f o r l o n g w i t h o u t s e e k i n g h i s name. S p e a k e v e r t o w o r t h y men a n d e v e r p r a y i n c h u r c h e s and m o n a s t e r i e s . I n t h e M a h i n o g i o n t h e h e r o i s t o l d " W h e r e v e r t h o u s e e meat and d r i n k and none o f f e r , t a k e . . . . . . i f t h o u see a j e w e l t a k e a n d g i v e i t t o a n o t h e r t o o b t a i n p r a i s e t h e r e b y . P a y t h y c o u r t t o a f a i r woman w h e t h e r she w i l l o r n o . " I n S y r P e r c y v t l l e he i s t o t a k e o n l y h a l f t h e f o o d and d r i n k - a n d t h e k i s s i n g i s n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h h i s -.•mother" s c o u n s e l . I n .Wolf ram he i s n o t t o f o l l o w u n t r o d d e n p a t h s , , i s t o b e a r h i m s e l f e v e r b e c o m i n g l y , g r e e t a l l men p o l i t e l y a n d a c c e p t t h e t e a c h i n g o f a g r e y b e a r d . I f t h e r i n g and . g r e e t i n g o f a f a i r woman a r e t o be w o n , he must s t r i v e / t h e r e a f t e r a n d k i s s h e r , f o r t h a t b r i n g s h a p p i n e s s and c o u r a g e ; i f she b e c h a s t e a n d worthy.. F r o m t h e -.knight P e r c e v a l l e a r n s t h a t he i s t o d e n y m e r c y t o no k n i g h t , t o a i d damsels•>.- t o go o f t e n t o c h u r c h , n o t t o q u o t e h i s m o t h e r o r t o be o v e r t a l k a -t i v e . C h r e t i e n t h u s s t r e s s e s e d u c a t i o n i n c h i v a l r y , t h e " e s s e n t i a l d u t i e s o f c h a r i t y to-.the u n p r o t e c t e d , m e r c y t o • f a l l e n e n e m i e s , p i e t y t o w a r d s God a n d t h e m e r i t s o f r e t i c e n c e . .Wolfram's P a r z i v a l l e a r n s t h a t he i s "not t o ha v e h i s m o t h e r ' a l w a y s o n h i s l i p s , t o k e e p a m o d e s t b e a r i n g , h e l p a l l I n n e e d s b u t t o g i v e w i s e l y n o t h e e d l e s s l y . When he. h a s . l a i d h i s arms down,he i s t o l e t no t r a c e s ^ t h e r e o f be s e e n b u t m u s t wash h i s h a n d s a nd f a c e f r o m t h e s t a i n o f d u s t . He I s t o -.hold 1 women I n l o v e a n d h o n o r a nd may n e v e r s e e k t o d e c e i v e them* - f o r f a k e l o v e , i s f l e e t i n g , and men a n d women a r e one a s a r e s u n a n d d a y l i g h t . Gurnemans w i s h e s P a r z i v a l t o m a r r y h i s d a u g h t e r L i a s s e who s e e s i n h i m t h e w o r l d b e y o n d t h e c a s t l e w a l l s a n d w i s h e s t o f o l l o w h i m on h i s a d v e n t u r e s , b u t P a r z i v a l n o t i c e s t h a t Garnemans c a n t e l l h i m l i t t l e o f God. e x c e p t t h a t k n i g h t s s e r v e Mm w i t h d e e d s n o t p r a y e r s . P a r z i v a l " s l o n g i n g . a n d : s t e a d f a s t n e s s o f p u r p o s e d r i v e h i m away f r o m c e r t a i n c o m f o r t i n t o , u n k n o w n a d v e n t u r e s . The f r e s h n e s s o f h i s l o n g i n g f o r new w o r l d s t o c o n q u e r i s shown i n . W o l f ram's w o r d s a s he r i d e s • . - 65.. o f f , ^ Z u e n g e r s c h i , e n d i e .We.lt i h m .Die.. B r ^ i t e d u n k t i h m a l l z u s c h m a l l . Das gr.uh e r s c h i e n ihm. w e l k und f a h l Und w e i s s d e s P a n z e r s r o t e r S c h e i n . I n t h e b e s i e g e d c i t y o f B e l r a p . e i r e P a r z i v a l m e e t s t h e l o v e l y 1 ''Kondwiramur*' D u r i n g t h e n i g h t , a s s h e p l e a d s f o r a i d a t h i s b e d s i d e , he i s so moved b y h e r b e a u t y t h a t he c h a m p i o n s i n h e r name t h e a t t a c k e r K i n g r u n . ' r A f t e r t h e v i c t o r y he weds K o n d w i r a m u r . f r a n c k e c o n s i d e r s t h a t P a r z i v a l ' s m a r r i a g e t o K o n d w i r a m u r i s t h e most o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e o f Y t o l f r a m ' s poem, for i n none o f t h e e p i c s i s t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n man and w i f e s o f i n e . P a r z i v a l shows h i s c o n s t a n c y i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s w i f e a n d t h e G r a i l and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t W o l f r a m a l w a y s s p e a k s o f . b o t h t o g e t h e r a s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i m s o f . 2 t h e h e r o ' s l i f e . To t h e l o v e i d e a l o f h i s d a y , b a s e d w h o l l y u pon p a s s i o n a n d v a n i t y a n d s e v e r e d f r o m a l l f a m i l y . . t i e s , W o l f r a m o p p o s e s t h e wedded l o v e o f P a r z i v a l a n d K o n d w i r a m u r * The h e r o ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f h e r i s t h e s a v i n g i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h -o u t t h e y e a r s o f d o u b t a n d d i s c o u r a g e m e n t w h i c h f o l l o w Kundry's r e p r o a c h e s . T h r o u g h h i s - m a r r i a g e P a r z i v a l i s c harmed a g a i n s t 1* P P £06. K o n d w i r a m u r - c o i n de v o i r e amour, i . e . , t h e i d e a l o f t r u e l o v e . 2. B1AH 3 3 7 . 3. I n C h r e t i e n , on. t h e c o n t r a r y , he l e a v e s B l a n c h e f l e u r t o : s e e k h i s m o t h e r a n d a f t e r t h e l o v e t r a n c e t h e r e i s h o m e n t i o n o f h e r , t h o u g h he was u n d e r p r o m i s e t o m a r r y h e r . 6 6 . a l l w o r l d l y a l l u r e m e n t s t o w h i c h , h i s c o u n t e r p a r t G a w a i n y i e l d s . H e r image r i s e s b e f o r e h i m a n d makes h i m s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s no r o o m i n h i s h e a r t f o r f a i t h l e s s n e s s ; t h e t h o u g h t o f h e r h o l d s h i m a l o o f f r o m t h e p r o f f e r e d I'oYe o f O r g e l u s e . I n t h e m i d s t o f t h e m i s e r y w h i c h seems t o h i m so c r u e l l y u n d e s e r v e d , he c a n w i s h Gawain-a-woman c h a s t e a n d good- whom'he -may . l o v e ^ and who s h a l l be h i s g u a r d i a n a n g e l . The t r a g e d y o f h i s l i f e and t h e a g o n y o f h i s l o n e l y w a n d e r i n g a f t e r t h e c u r s e i s a g g r a v a t e d - b y t h e t h o u g h t t h a t he c a r r i e s h e r d e s p a i r w i t h h i m . He r e n e w s t h e h o p e l e s s f i g h t w i t h F e i r e f i z a t t h e t h o u g h t o f her , 1 w i n s t h e c r o w n f o r h e r , a n d t h e s c e n e o f t h e i r :,reUnion, w h i c h , i s u n s u r p a s s e d i n d e p t h a n d p u r i t y o f s e n t i m e n t j i s h i s f i r s t t a s t e o f j o y . MO p o e t o f h i s age h a s g i v e n more t h o u g h t t h a n W o l f r a m t o woman's t r u e p l a c e i n t h e s o c i a l order,. The c o n c l u s i o n o f P a r z i v a l b r i n g s o u t t h e i d e a o f c h i v a l r y a s a s y n t h e s i s b e t w e e n t h e c l a i m s o f t h i s w o r l d a n d t h e , w o r l d t o pome; t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n shows i t a s a h a r m o n i o u s u n i o n b e t w e e n men a n d women. . W h e r e a s t h e o t h e r r o m a n c e s were b a s e d on a f u n d a m e n t a l l y l o w a n d d e g r a d e d .'view o f women, W o l f r a m m p h o l d s a 'sane and h e a l t h y m o r a l i t y , c h a s t i t y r a t h e r , t h a n , c e l i b a c y , i s h i s M e a l , i r o m a n c e i s n o t l e s s e n e d b y m a r r i a g e . A l o y a l o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e m a r r i a g e bond i s ' t h e h i g h e s t v i r t u e . "Man unde w i b s l n t e n e i n . " To h i m , m a r r i a g e I s a p e r f e c t s h a r i n g , a s t a n d i n g t o g e t h e r i n t h e w o r l d ' s s i g h t , r e c o g n i z e d and h o n o r e d , i . e . , i t . r e f l e c t s t h e H o m e r i c I d e a l b u t t h e 67. d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t g r a f t e d on i t i s t h e i d e a o f r ,amor c o u r t o i s " , o f k n i g h t l y s e r v i c e , as t h e c o r o l l a r y o f l o v e . E s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s i n c h i v a l r y a r e f i g h t i n g and l o v e . 7/ar i s t h e s e r v i c e f i t t i n g man t o r e c e i v e l o v e ; l o v e i s t h e q u i c k e n -i n g I n f l u e n c e w h i c h . g i v e s s t r e n g t h i n b a t t l e . 1 P a r z i v a l a n d K b ndi/veramur a r e t h e p e r f e c t e x a m p l e o f t h i s . H e r p e o p l e , h e r l a n d , h e r own l i f e he h a d s a v e d f r o m p e r i l . S h e , I n r e t u r n , g ave h i m l o v e . I n H e r z e l e i d e i s shown t h e s t e r n c o n -s e q u e n c e o f an. i d e a l b a s e d on t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of l o v e • and w a r . H e r g r i e f f o r G a b m u r e t ' s d e a t h , dre'ad f o r , h e r c h i l d , s o r r o w when he l e a v e s , s u g g e s t Yvo I f ram's c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s u f f e r i n g o f womankind i n a n age o f r o m a n c e . Compared w i t h H e r z e l e i d e , S i g u n e ' s r e m o r s e i s m o r e . p o i g n a n t s t i l l j b e c a u s e She s e n t h e r l o v e r t o d e a t h f o r t h e s a k e o f a mere b a u b l e , t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e -runaway G a r d . e v a i s . The l o v e s o f M e l j a n z de L i s a n d G b i e a r e h a p p i e r . The s p o i l e d O b i e s c o r n s h e r l o v e r who r e t a l i a t e s p r o u d l y b y m a k i n g war o n h e r f a t h e r u n t i l h e . i s C a p t u r e d b y G a w a i n , w h e r e u p o n t h e l o v e r s become r e -c o n c i l e d . I n t h e s t o r y o f O r i l u s and j e s c h u t e i s shown t h e a r r o g a n t a s s u m p t i o n o f m a l e a u t h o r i t y o v e r a l o n g - s u f f e r i n g and f o r g i v i n g w i f e . W i t h G a w a i n a n d O r g e l u s e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e l a d y ' s c a p r i c e , f i n d s e a s y p r e y I n h e r s u b s e r v i e n t l o v e r . O r i l u s l a c k s t h e f i n e r i d e a l s , he shows , r ' e l l e n "ane f u o g e " v a l o u r w i t h o u t b r e e d i n g . G a w a i n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f m a n l y p r i d e I n r e s p o n s e t o an e x a g g e r a t e d l . R l o U ^ . 1 7 9 , 1 8 1 . . 6 8 . i d e a o f f e m i n i n e p r e s t i g e . I n t h e e n d , h o w e v e r , O r i l u s shows t h a t he i s c a p a b l e o f n o b l e r w a y s , w h i l e G a w a i n shows t h a t he i s n o t t h e f o o l O r g e l u s e h a d t h o u g h t h i m . A n f o r t a s : i s t h e r e v e r s e o f u-awaln. H e r e t h e s e r v i c e o f l o v e e n c o u r a g e s n o t a b j e c t s u b m i s s i o n b#t v a i n g l o r i o u s s t r i v i n g a f t e r r e n o w n c o n t r a r y t o t h e l a w o f t h e G r a i l . Thus t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e r e l a t i o n - b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s , v r t i i c h f i n d s i t s p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e l o v e o f P a r z i v a l a nd K o n d i r a r n u r , i s embued i n e a c h c a s e w i t h W o l f r a m ' s e n n o b l i n g and i n d i v i d u a l i d e a s . P a r z i v a l e n j o y s a p e r i o d o f h a p p i n e s s , t h e n once .more g r o w s r e s t l e s s . To f i n d God he h a d l e f t h i s m o t h e r and -a k n i g h t , must n o t h e s i t a t e t o p u r s u e h i s g o a l . A t t h i s p e r i o d he t h i n k s God i s l i k e t h e w i l d a n i m a l s he s o u g h t a s a c h i l d , w h i c h one p u r s u e d a n d c a u g h t . One e v e n i n g he comes t o a l a k e where he i s g r e e t e d b y t h e J f i s h e r a nd e s c o r t e d t o t h e c a s t l e o v e r w h i c h h a n g s a p a l l o f h o p e l e s s s a d n e s s . The m y s t i c c e r e m o n y o f t h e G r a i l t a k e s p l a c e b e f o r e h i m a n d he w i t n e s s e s A a a f d r t a s * a g o ny b u t , b e c a u s e uurne.manz had w a r n e d h i m a g a i n s t a s k i n g p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s , he i s - s i l e n t . How c o u l d h e , who a l s o h a s g r e a t s o r r o w and c a n n o t h e l p h i m s e l f , h e l p o t h e r s ? N e x t m o r n i n g t h e c a s t l e i s e m p t y and o n l y t h e m a r k s o f f o o t -p r i n t s i n t h e dew sho?^ t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s h a v e f l e d . As he l e a v e s , a v o i c e c u r s e s h i m , a s i n t h e f a i r y t a l e s : f t h o s e who wake t o f i n d t h e m a g i c c a s t l e v a n i s h e d , a r e c u r s e d f o r t h e i r s t u p i d i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o W o l f r a m , P a r z i v a l * s f u t u r e and f a t e a r e 69. l i n k e d w i t h ' , a n d c o n d i t i o n e d b y , t h r e e f a c t o r s : t h e a c c i d e n t a l f i n d i n g o f t h e G r a i l c a s t l e , t h e r e s p l d e r i n g o f the' sword t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r o f t h e m a g i c " s p r i n g , and t h e f a t e f u l q u e s t i o n . 1 i l i s s i n s " are, t h r e e i n number: c a u s i n g t h e . d e a t h o f h i s m o t h e r 2 , t h e s l a u g h t e r a n d r o b b e r y ..of i t h e r ( b y w h i c h he b o t h k i l l e d a r e l a t i v e a n d t r a n s g r e s s e d t h e r u l e s o f c h i v a l r y ) , . a n d t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n . I n C h r e t i e n t h e f a i l u r e t o a s k t h e q u e s t i o n Is' m e r e l y a n i n c i d e n t o f t h e f a i r y t a l e s p e l l t o be undone b y a q u e s t i o n i n s p i r e d b y c u r i o s i t y and a l e r t n e s s o f m i n d . W o l f r a m i s s c o n c e p t l o n makes t h e wound o f t h e k i n g t h e r e s u l t o f u n l a w f u l l o v e j a n d : t h e h e a l i n g . q u e s t i o n c a n o n l y be .put b y one w o r t h y t o t a k e up t h e h i g h o f f i c e o f G r a i l k i n g . P a r z i v a l ' s f a i l u r e t o p u t t h e . q u e s t i o n i n W o l f r a m b e t r a y s a want o f s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e s u f f e r i n g j 6 f h i s f e l l o w men ; P a r z i v a l was r e s t r a i n e d b y t h e i n j u n c t i o n s o f GO-smemans. T h e s e were m e r e l y t h e f o r m u l a e o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l e t i q u e t t e b u t i n t h i s c r i s i s p r o v e d s t r o n g e r t h a n c o m p a s s i o n . K e f e r s t e i n s a y s ^ "Das U n t e r l a s s e n d e r F r a g e n , i s t b e i C h r e t i e n n i c h t e i n e S c h u l d s o n d e r n a i n U'nglucft,, d a s a l s S t r a f e fij»r e i n e f r u h e r e S e h u l d e n t r i f c t . D i e F r a g e b e i W o l f r a m a l s s i n . e t h s s c h e a t A k t muss s p o n t a n und f r e i w i l l i g , u n m i t t e l b a r a u s dem i n n e r s t e n M e r z e n 1. 'RacWbauer . 1 56. 2. O r i g i n a l l y t h e m o t h e r was l i t t l e l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e . mcteTr^ss and t h e y were r e u n i t e d . L a t e r h e r d e a t h was i n t r o -. d u c e d t o e x p l a i n P a r z i v a l ' s f a i l u r e t o r e t u r n t o h e r . • W S i r P., 1 2 8 . 3. 2 5 5 , 1 7 ; 4 8 4 , 2 4 . 7 ° ' komtaen, m u s s u n v o r b e r e i t e t und ohne E«ic!4sicht a u f d i e :angenerimen o d e r unangenehmen F o l g e n g e s c h e h e n . " 1 Trie G r a i l s c e n e r e s e m b l e s C h r e t i e n ' s i n many p l a c e s word- f o r w o r d . The o r d e r o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n i n C h r e t i e n i s s w o r d , l a n c e , G r a i l , t a b l e a r t i c l e s ; i n W o l f r a m l a n c e , t a b l e , G f a i l , s w o r d . Two women a p p e a r i n C h r e t i e n , t w e n t y - t h r e e i n W o l f r a m . The c a n d l e s t i c k s i n C h r e t i e n a r e b o r n e b y two b o y s , i n W o l f r a m b y two g i r l s . I n C h r 6 t l e n a c o u c h i s l a i d I n t h e l a r g e h a l l , i n W o l f r a m t h e g u e s t i s l e d t o h i s c h a m b e r b b y f o u r m a i d s a n d t h e c o u r t - j e s t e r a s t o l d b y a l i n e l o s t i n W o l f -ram b u t f o u n d i n t h e N o r w e g i a n v e r s i o n . C h r e t i e n ' s h o l d e r o f t h e H o s t and s i l v e r p l a t t e r • t a k e i n P a r z i v a l t h e f o r m o f Dove and G r a i l s t o n e . The f o r m e r s a y s t h e G r a i l -was- b r o u g h t f r o m a n o t h e r room b u t he d o e s n o t know w h e r e i t i s k e p t ; W o l f r a m s a y s i t i s k e p t i n t h e t e m p l e s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r i t w h i c h some s a y i s m o d e l l e d a f t e r S t . S o p h i a i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . C h r e t i e n s a y s t h a t t h e G r a i l i s c a r r i e d . p a s t a t e a c h m e a l . "A c h a s c u n . m e s don 1'an s e r v o i t p a r d e v a n t l u i t r e s p a s s e r . v o l t i e . g r a a l . n H e r e . i t r e m a i n s on a t a b l e b e f o r e P a r z i v a l a n d t h e k i n g . C h r e t i e n makes no m e n t i o n o f t h e G r a i l ' s p ower o f s u p p l y i n g f o o d and d r i n k . T h u s , t h o u g h t h e o u t l i n e o f t h e G r a i l s c e n e i s t h e same, W o l f r a m ' s a c c o u n t i s i m a g i n e d w i t h g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y . The s p l e n d o u r and s o r r o w o f M u n s a l v a e s c h e g i v e a n i m p r e s s i o n o f i s o l a t e d s t r e n g t h a n d g r a n d e u r and t h e . s e r v i c e o f t h e G r a i l i s e n t h r a l l i n g i n l i s s t r a n g e n e s s , i t s 1. K e f . , 29. 7 1 . •measured d i g n i t y a n d s l o w - a c c u m u l a t i o n , o f r i c h n e s s and " ' r a d i a n c e . - A n o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e o f W o l f ram's-, t r e a t m e n t o f t h e l e g e n d i s h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e G r a i l a s a s t o n e . F r o m t h i s c o n c e p t i o n come t h e a t t e m p t s t o d e r i v e t h e G r a i l f r o m . J e w i s h , S y r i a n a n d A r a b i c l e g e n d s . Some s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s t h e s t o n e o f M e c c a s a i d t o h a v e f a l l e n t o e a r t h w i t h Adam.-1- O t h e r s t r a c e i t t o a m e t e o r i c s t o n e s u c h a s t h e H e l i o t r a p e E o n , t h e s u n t a b l e u p o n w h i c h p i o u s I t h i p p i a n s n i g h t l y f o u n d f o o d . 2 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t may be c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e T i s c h l e i n d e c k d i c h o f t h e f o l k t a l e . 3 A c c o r d i n g t o T r e v r i z e n t t h e G r a i l was t h e s t o n e o f t h e n e u t r a l a n g e l s and f e l l f r o m L u c i f e r ' s crown:, i t was a l a p s i t e x c e l l i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s t o n e a n d f o r m e d t h e f u n e r a l p y r e o n which, t h e p h o e n i x , b u r n i n g i t s e l f t o . a s h e s , r e n e w s I t s , l i f e . A w h i t e . do&e d e s c e n d s e a c h Good F r i d a y w i t h a w a f e r w h i c h i t l a y s on t h e s t o n e t o r e n e w i t s p o w e r s . The l a w s o f t h e G r a i l , t h e nameS: o f t h e c h o s e n members o f t h e company and t h e p r o p h e c i e s a p p e a r on t h e G r a i l a n d t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s f a d e when t h e y a r e r e a d . I t r e s t r a i n s ' f r o m s i n " , s u f f e r s no 1 u n c h a s t e s e r v a n t , may 1. BEAR 334; S i m . 3 4 3 . ; .2. W e s s e l o p s k y , S t e t z e n b a c h , B a g e n e t a l . 5. S i n c e t h e s t o n e i s s m a l l a n d e a s i l y c a r r i e d b y a m a i d e n i t r e m i n d s G o l t h e r o f t h e p o r t a b l e a l t a r s w h i c h f r ;,.a t h e c e r e t a o u y on w e r e c a r r i e d by k i n g s a n d p r i e s t s on t h e i r • j o u r n e y s . Some were s i m p l y made o f wood; o t h e r s were o f m e t a l i n s e t w i t h p r e c i o u s j e w e l s . be s e e n b y no h e a t h e n . The s i m p l e b e h o l d i n g o f i t p r e s e r v e s men f r o m d e a t h - i . e . , i t i s a s y m b o l o f r e d e m p t i o n and e t e r n a l l i f e ^ a m i x t u r e o f A r a b i a n , B i b l i c a l a n d f a i r y l i k e f e a t u r e s . I t may be t h a t •. W o l f r a m d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f t h e f o o d -p r o v i d i n g q u a l i t i e s b u t h e r e a s e l s e w h e r e a l l o w s p a r t o f t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n t o s t a n d a g a i n s t h i s b e t t e r j u d g m e n t . Though W o l f r a m shows l i t t l e ' c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e f o r m a l u s e o f t h e m y s t i c t a l i s m a n s ^ h e ' d i d n o t t h i n k o f a s s o c i a t i n g t h e G r a i l w i t h t h e l a s t S u p p e r b u t i t s r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s n e v e r -t h e l e s s a s m a r k e d a s i n R o b e r t - d e B o r r o n o r t h e Q,ueste> f o r t h e g u i d a n c e , w h i c h . , i n o t h e r v e r s i o n s comes f r o m God, h e r e comes d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e G r a i l ; i t i s the a c t u a l v e h i c l e o f t h e D e i t y ' s commands. - A c c o r d i n g t o W o l f r a m .the G r a i l k i n g i s t h e s o v e r e i g n o f a s p i r i t u a l r e a l m c o e x t e n s i v e w i t h m a n k i n d ; i . e . , i t i s an o f f i c e more e x a l t e d t h a n t h a t o f t h e Pope^ f o r I t s a u t h o r i t y r e s t s w h o l l y o n a b a s i s o f s p i r i t u a l a n d m o r a l a s p i r a t i o n s a n d i s u n t r a m m e l l e d by'dogma and u n s u l l i e d b y w o r l d l y i n t e r e s t s . The m e d i e v a l church... was e h a r y o f l e n d i n g t h i s scheme c o u n t e n -a n c e , f o r an a t t e m p t was made t o c l a i m f o r p r i e s t l y k n i g h t h o o d s u c h a s t h e T e m p l a r s ( T e m p l e i s e n - T e m p l e n s i s f o u n d e d 1 1 1 9 ) , a p o s i t i o n e q u a l o r s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e r e g u l a r p r i e s t h o o d . The G r a i l k n i g h t s l i v e on' M u n s a l v a e s c h e - Mont S a u v a g e , t h e F r e n c h e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e name o f W o l f r a m ' s own t o w n W i l d e n b e r g 1 1. P a r z i v a l , 2 3 0 , 2 1 . t h e m o d e r n - W e h l e n b e r g n e a r A n s b a c h . T h e y p r o t e c t t h e G r a i l a g a i n s t a l l c o m e r s ; e v e n A r t h u r i s a f r a i d o f them. The T e m p l a r s had a s p e c i f i c d u t y , n a m e l y t o c o n v e r t t h e h e a t h e n ; t h e s p e c i a l t a s k o f t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s was t o r e s c u e t h e i n n o c e n t and o p p r e s s e d and t o r u l e t h o s e c o u n t r i e s w h i c h were l e f t l e a d e r -l e s s . The p r i v i l e g e o f m a r r i a g e i s r e s e r v e d i n g e n e r a l , f o r t h e k i n g b u t members m i g h t be wed o u t s i d e , t h e m a i d s o p e n l y , . t h e men s e c r e t l y a s f r o m t h e unknown. B e c a u s e o r d i n a r i l y t h e G r a i l company s h o u l d show no e a r t h l y c a r e , t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e c a s t l e f i l l e d w i t h s o r r o w i s i n t e n s i f i e d . . I n t h e e a r l y m i d d l e a g e s m e t a l d o v e s were o f t e n 1 u s e d a s v e s s e l s f o r t h e H o st.- H e r e i n s t e a d o f s w i n g i n g t h e H o s t t h e d ove f l u t t e r s down f r o m h e a v e n t o t h e a l t a r o f t h e G r a i l s t o n e > u p o n w h i c h t h e b i r d p l a c e s t h e body o f C h r i s t w i t h t h e H o s t . I n t h e t w o p l a c e s i n t h e B i b l e where t h e H e a v e n o p e n s - j t h e dove ( o r H o s t ) i s s e e n h o v e r i n g . So t h e emblem o f t h e k n i g h t s i s a d o v e , n o t t h e T e m p l a r ' s r e d c r o s s -o n a w h i t e g r o u n d . L a t e r , t h r o u g h t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e G r a i l l e g e n d w i t h t h e m y t h o f t h e swan k n i g h t , t h e swan became r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e b i r d o f t h e G r a i l . N o t u n t i l he m e e t s S i g u n e u n d e r t h e r o c k y c l i f f m o u r n i n g o v e r h e r d e a d l o v e r , S e h i o n a t u l a n d e r , d o e s P a r z i v a l r e a l i z e t h e f u l l hoinror o f h i s s i n . I n r e p l y t o h i s q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e c a s t l e ^ s h e t e l l s h i m what t h e G r a i l i s and how 1. G o l . , 2 0 5 ; d'e D i c h t , 216; G o l . , 1 9 1 . v A t t f o r t a s , b y k i l l i n g a r i v a l whom he had f o u n d i n t h e arms o f O r g e l u s e , . h a d l a i d u p o n t h e e n t i r e company t h e s u f f e r i n g w h i c h can be r e l i e v e d o n l y b y t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a f o o l . I f t h o s e who-are l e d t o t h e G r a i l b y Sod H i m s e l f do n o t a s k a b o u t t h e G r a i l , t h e G r a i l i s l o s t t o them f o r e v e r . The t e n s e n e s s and i r o n y o f t h i s s c e n e . r e a c h t h e i r c l i m a x i n S i g u n e ' s . h o r r o r ©hat . l i s c o v e i l h g s t h a t n P a r z i v a l h a d b e e n t o t h e c a s t l e a n d y e t o m i t t e d t h e q u e s t i o n . She r e c o g n i z e s P a r z i v a l when s h e h e a r s t h a t he i s c a l l e d , " b o n f i z b e a f i z " a n d t e l l s h i m o f t h e S o r r o w t h a t h i s f a t h e r had b r o u g h t h i s m o t h e r . A n i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f W o l f r a m ' s v e r s i o n i s P a r z i v a l ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h S i g u n e a t e a e h d e c i s i v e p o i n t i n h i s c a r e e r . G o l t h e r s a y s , • *»Be'i j e d e n i ' A b s p h n i l t s e i n e s L e b e n s v e r i r r t s i c h P a r z i v a l z u i h r und .empfangt Rat: Und. f r o s t . , ? I n C h r e t i e n , P e r c e v a l m e e t s r S i g u n e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a f t e r h i s ' v i s i t t o t h e G r a i l c a s t l e . ' I n W o l f r a m he m e e t s h e r b e f o r e h i s s t a y a t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t . ' T t i s a c l e v e r f e a t u r e o f W o l f r a m ' s p o e t i c i n v e n t i o n t o p l a c e h e r l a t e r on i n t h e h u t o f t h e G r a i l n e a r T r e v r i z e n t . When P a r z i v a l . p a u s e s b e s i d e t h e l o n e l y c e l l t o a s k t h e way he f i n d s h e r i n h e r h a i r s h i r t s p r a y i n g w i t h p s a l t e r i n h a n d . I t i s w i t h t h i s s c e n e t h a t P a r z i v a l ' s r e p e n t a n c e b e g i n s . She r e -moves t h e c u r s e f r o m h i m and d i r e c t s h l o i t o t h e c a s t l e . . . il£l m i n g e r i c h s o l u f . d i c h n i v e s i n v e r & o r n . . . .nu h e l f e d i r d e s h a n d dem a l l e r kumber 1 s t . b e S a n t . " F i n a l l y , as k i n g , he f i n d s S i g u n e d e a d , k n e e l i n g b e s i d e h e r l o v e r ' s c o f f i n a n d r a i s i n g t h e l i d , P a r z i v a l p l a c e s h e r b e s i d e -him. So, i n t h e 75. compass o f a ' f e w s h o r t s c e n e s , t h e r e i s - r e v e a l e d t o us the e n t i r e s t o r y o f S i g u n e a n d S c . h i p n a t u l a n d e r . f r b m c h i l d h o o d d a y s t o t h e i r b u r i a l n e a r t h e G r a i l c a s t l e . - On t h e s h o r e s o f P l i m i z o l a f a l c o n s e i z e s . a swan and t h e b l o o d , o f t h e b i r d d r o p s u p o n t h e snow. P a r z i v a l , r i d i n g g l o o m i l y t h r o u g h t h e woods i n t h e c o l d daWn, becomes e n t r a n c e d by t h e b l o o d y d r o p s . .She r e d r e m i n d s h i m o f K o n d w i r a m u r ' s l i p s a nd t h e w h i t e : o f h e r s k i n , "Wie e i n W a l d v o n Rosen und D & r n e n u m s t r i e k t e n i h n d i e g e d a n t l e n a n K o n d i v e r a m u r . n l F r o m t h i s s p e l l o n l y /Gawain i s a b l e t o wake h i m by c o v e r i n g t h e 2 d r o p s w i t h : snow. G a w a i n l e a d s P a r z i v a l t o t h e k i n g a n d he I s r e c e i v e d a s a k n i g h t of. t h e Round T a b l e w i t h g r e a t h o n o u r . T h i s r e c e p t i o n m a r k s a c l i m a x i n t h e s t o r y of . p a r z i v a l * s e a r l y s u c c e s s b u t not i n t h e e t h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The s c e n e i s b i t t e r l y i r o n i c a l , f o r we know t h a t P a r z i v a l i s n o t w o r t h y o f t h i s h o n o r . A t t h e 1. "Vesper, 2 0 3 . • 2. Th.is theme o f t h e d r o p s o f b l o o d i s a f e a t u r e i n C e l t i c f o l k l o r e , d e s c r i b i n g t h e a w a k e n i n g o f D e i r d r e ' s l o v e f o r I J s n i c h , A s h e r f o s t e r f a t h e r was b u s y i n . t h e w i n t e r t i m e s k i n n i n g a c a l f o u t i n t h e snow she b e h e l d a r a v e n w h i c h d r a n k up t h e b l o o d on t h e snow. She vows t h a t o n l y s u c h a man c o u l d she l o v e h a v i n g h a i r as b l a c k a s t h e r a v e n , c h e e k s l i k e b l o o d and a b ody l i k e snow. I n t h e M a b i n o g i a n . t h e same w o r d s a r e a p p l i e d t o a woman. I n C h r e t i e n a n d Wolfram- t h e r e i s no r a v e n a n d t h e s t r e s s i s . on t h e d r o p s . h e i g h t :of t h e c e l e b r a t i o n t h e h o r r i b l e f i g u r e o f t & i n d r i e l a S u r g i e r e a p p e a r s , s e n d i n g a s h u d d e r t h r o u g h t h e women a n d c a u s i n g t h e men t o g r i p t h e i r w eapons. She i s a m y s t e r i o u s h i d e o u s b e i n g , y e t h a s a k i n d l y heart and i s the G r a i l m e s s e n g e r . She i s l e a r n e d i n g e o m e t r y , a s t r o n o m y a n d l a n g -u a g e s ( t h i s : i s n o t f o u n d i n C h r e t i e n . ) She r i d e s a g r e y mule w i t h c o s t l y h a r n e s s a nd b r i d l e . H e r n o s e i s l o n g and b r o a d ."1 l i k e a d o g ' s , . h e r t e e t h a r e l o n g a n d s h e h a s e a r s l i k e a b e a r . T h i s m o n s t r o u s a p p a r i t i o n w e a r s a F r e n c h cape a nd a p e a c o c k h a t h a n g i n g down h e r b a c k . She a n d h e r b r o t h e r ? t h e f r i g h t f u l M a l e r e a t m a r e ^ w e r e g i f t s o f Queen S e k u n d i l l a t o A n f o r t a s who i n t u r n p r e s e n t e d t h e m t o O r g e l u s e o f L o g r o i s . The G r a i l m e s s e n g e r comes t o d e n o u n c e P a r z i v a l a s t h e c a u s e o f g r e a t s o r r o w , l i e has k i l l e d h i s m o t h e r b y l e a v i n g h e r . He k i l l e d - I t h e r i n a n g e r , A l l t h e m i s e r y o f A n f o r t a s and t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s p a s s e d b e f o r e him. y e t d i d n o t move h i m t o a s i n g l e w o r d o f c o m p a s s i o n . C u r s e d a r e a l l who a r e n e a r h i m . God h i m s e l f damns h i m and e v e r y t h i n g , he d o e s . P a r z i v a l t u r n s s h a r p l y o n h e r . 'What r i g h t h a s God t o c u r s e h i m ? God a l o n e I s ...responsible: f o r a l l t h i s . F o r H i s s a k e he had l e f t H e r z e -l e i d e , f o r H i m he h a d s l a i n I t h e r so t h a t he c o u l d become a k n i g h t a n d s e r v e H i m . F o r H i m he h a d l e f t L i a s s e a n d K o n d -vvteramur. He : s c o r n s God a n d f r o m now o n he w i l l no l o n g e r s e r v e H i m b u t h i n d e r H i m a n d w i n t h e G r a i l i n s p i t e o f Him. l . H . l . , l 4 2 ; L o o m i s , 2 9 1 . 77. P r e s e n t l y he r e a l i z e s t h a t what he h a d done, was done u n k n o w i n g l y . How, w i t h f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he w i l l s t r i v e t o r e g a i n ' what he h a s l o s t . G a w a i n , t o o , w i s h e s t o s e e k t h e G r a i l b u t P a r z i v a l r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e Q u e s t m u s t be.made a l o n e , e a c h f o r h i m s e l f . So P a r z i v a l , d i s p i i s e d a n d . d i s h o n o r e d , g o e s o f f i n t o t h e d a r k woods o n h i s l o n e l y s e a r c h . F o r-many y e a r s he wanders now o u t o f s i g h t , t h e n a p p e a r i n g t o r e s i s t O r g e l u s e , t o r e s c u e G a w a i n f r o m t h e a v e n g e r s o f K i n g r u s i n o r t o f i g h t G a w a i n b y m i s t a k e i n t h e f o g . A n i n t e r e s t i n g : e x a m p l e o f t h e way i n w h i c h Wo I f ram-b u i l t u p o n a s u g g e s t i o n , i n h i s s o u r c e i s t h e m a g i c c a s t l e . . C h r e t i e n knew o n l y o f t h e " l i t de m e r v e i l l e " . W o l f r a m d e v e l o p s . t h i s , i n t o t h e . c i t y ' o f Ros.che S abb i n s , t h e bed,, t h e c a s t l e a n d t h e w h o l e m a g i c c o u n t r y w h i c h i s r u l e d b y t h e m a g i c i a n K l i n g s c h o r . K l i n g s c h o r T s name i s t a k e n f r o m " K l i n g e s a e r e " , s i n g e r o r " S p i e l m a n n " . O r i g i n a l l y he h a d no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e G r a i l . He ims b r o u g h t up i n S i c i l y , where h a l f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w e re S a r a c e n s so he was p r o b a b l y o f h e a t h e n o r i g i n . P r o b a b l y K l i n g s c h o r ...who r e v e n g e s h i m s e l f b y s e d u c i n g men and women i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h v A r g i l i u s o f H a p l e s who s o u g h t v e n g e a n c e o n t h e w h o l e c i t y o f Home f o r t h e f a i t h l e s s n e s s o f a woman. The F r e n c h v e r s i o n s know t h e a d v e n t u r e o f t h e c a s t l e h u t do n o t m e n t i o n t h i s name. I n D i u K r o n e he i s c a l l e d :Aun c l e r e b o n n e g r o m a n c i e n e t b i e n s a i g e e n a s t r o l o g e . " W o l f r a m c a l l s h i m " e i n P f a f f e d e r w o l z o u b e r l a s " . C h r e t i e n p a y s l i t t l e h e e d t o h i m be.cause h i s P e r c e v a l s t o r y i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h A r t h u r ' s c o u r t , where M e r l i n p l a y e d t h i s r o l e . 1 K u n d r y i s more v i v i d l y p o r t r a y e d t h a n M o r g a n e * M o n s a l v a e s c h e i s more . f a i r y l i k e t h a n t h e t o w e r s o f G o r b e b e k ; K l i n g s c h o r i s more-shadowy t h a n M e r l i n ; y e t W o l f r a m ' s c h a r a c t e r t o o k so l i v i n g a h o l d on p o p u l a r f a n c y t h a t i n t h e t a l e o f t h e Wart--:- b u i g k r l e g a n d i n t h e p i c t u r e s o f t h e " M a n e s s i s o h e H a n d s c h r i e f t» lie i s d e p i c t e d a s a n a c t u a l p e r s o n . , A m f o r t a s woos O r g e l u s e , P a r z i v a l d i s d a i n s h e r , G a w a i n f a l l s b e n e a t h h e r m a g i c s p e l l . I n c o n t r a s t t o P a r z i v a l , t h e k n i g h t who . p u r s u e s a n i d e a l , G a w a i n i s m e r e l y t h e p e r f e c t embodiment o f c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u r t e s y a n d w o r l d l y a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . W"hen G a w a i n t e l l s P a r z i v a l t h a t b y t h e w i n n i n g o f O r g e l u s e he h a s f o u n d t h a t w h i c h ' ' - w i l l make h i m h a p p y f o r a l l t i m e 5 P a r z i v a l w i t h new t o l e r a n c e s a y s t h a t he d o e s - n o t d i s d a i n t h a t wi i c h / p l e a s e s G a w a i n b u t he h i m s e l f c a n f i n d - n o j o y i n s u c h p l e a s u r e s , ; f o r t h e t h i n g s he s e e k s a r e w o r t h f a r more t h a n j e w e l s and o u t w a r d b e a u t y . When G a w a i n a n d P a r z i v a l r e t u r n t o c o u r t t h e r e I s l i t t l e : z e s t i n W o l f r a m ' s t e l l i n g . '/Wolfram'-lias no l o n g e r a n y g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e d o i n g s , o f t h e t a b l e , f o r no mere s o c i a l n e u n l o n c a n b r i d g e t h e s p i r i t u a l g a p w h i c h t h e c u r s e h a s made b e t w e e n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i s h e r o a n d t h a t e p h e m e r a l . w o r l d w h i c h he h a s o u t g r o w n . I n C h r e t i e n on t h e o t h e r hand^ P e r c e v a l m a i n t a i n s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A r t h u r . I n t h e / m i d s t o f t h e f e a s t i n g a n d d a n c i n g P a r z i v a l f e e l s the l o n e l i n e s s o f a man w i t h o u t home o r f r i e n d s . Goa h a s t a k e n a l l f r o m h i m , 1. G o l . , 1 8 5 ; S a i n t s . 254; S i m . , 3 5 8 . 79. w h i l e h e , f b r V h i s p a r t , has: b a n i s h e d G o d / f r o m h i s h e a r t . These o t h e r s , a r e h a p p y a n d t h o u g h t l e s s ; he l a d e n w i t h s o r r o w and d i s g r a c e . Q u i e t l y he c r e e p s away a n d m o u n t s h i s h o r s e . As t h e s o n g and l a u g h t e r f a d e upon h i s e a r s he r i d e s o u t b eyond the; b l i n d i n g f i r e l i g h t i n t o t h e s t i l l woods u n t i l t h e s t a r s s e p a r a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e smoke a n d s h i n e c l e a r a n d s p a r k -l i n g a b o v e him.. Now, i n p l a c e o f h i s u s u a l s a d n e s s , d e l i g h t i n t h e f r e s h a i r and s o l i t u d e s t e a l s u p o n h i m . K o n d l v a r a m u s a n d ; t h e G r a i l s t a n d l i k e s t a r s b e f o r e h i m a n d he knows t h a t somewhere a way t o them must opan up. He t o o , he f i n d s , h a s a h a p p i n e s s among a l l h i s s o r r o w s , b u t i t i s a s e c r e t and n o t t o be s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s . , l i k e f o o d and d r i n k . A f t e r h i s m e e t i n g w i t h S i g u n e ^ t h e snow l i e s i n the shadow o f t h e h i l l s b u t i n t h e l e v e l , s u n n y s p a c e s t h e f i r s t '.pale g r e e n l e a v e s a n d f r e s h f l o w e r s a p p e a r . Eo l o n g e r c a n t h e n o t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l b i r d s be d i s t i n g u i s h e d b u t a l l s i n g t o -g e t h e r . G l o o m i l y , l i k e t h e s p i r i t o f w i n t e r , P a r z i v a l r i d e s w i t h c l o s e d v i s o r . P i l g r i m s p a s s h i m o n t h e i r way and K a h e n i s o f P u n l i e r t e i s r e p r o a c h e s h i m : f o r wearing,, a r m o u r h o l y day'. B r u s q u e l y P a r z i v a l r e p l i e s t h a t he k e e p s no a c c o u n t o f t h e : days.. B u t t h e p i l g r i m u r g e s h i m t o go t o t h e n e a r b y h e r m i t , w h i l e t h e two y o u n g d a u g h t e r s t r y . t o e n t i c e h i m t o t h e i r c a s t l e . P a r z i v a l s m i l e s a t t h e e a g e r n e s s o f y o u t h a n d a g e , ;each c o m p e t i n g f o r t h e i r own e n d s , a n d p a s s e s o n , d e c i d i n g n e v e r t h e l e s s t o s e e k c o u n s e l o f t h e a n c i e n t h e r m i t . 8 0 . W i t h t h e n i n t h b o o k a n d t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e h e r o a t T r e v r i z e n t ' s c a v e b e g i n s t h e p u r p o s e f u l and m e a n g i n g f u l d e p a r t u r e o f W o l f r a m f r o m h i s s o u r c e s and h i s o r i g i n a l c o n - ' t i n u a t i o n . H e r e P a r z i v a l l e a r n s t h e s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g s o r i c h i n C h r e t i e n a s T r e v r i z e n t ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e G r a i l . W h e r e a s C h r e t i e n o n l y m e n t i o n s v a g u e l y t h e G r a i l a n d P a r z i v a l ' s r a c e i n 182 l i n e s , W o l f r a m w r i t e s 1530 l i n e s . . H e r e t h e t h r e a d s o f t h e s t o r y r u n b a c k w a r d s and f o r w a r d s . T h i s l o n g e s t a n d f i n e s t b o o k p a r a l l e l s t h e r e c i t a l of•. G u rneman* i n A c t 1. o f P a r s i f a l . The h e r m i t i s p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r y b u t n e i t h e r i n t h e F r e n c h o r W e l s h v e r s i o n s i s t h e c h a r a c t e r t r e a t e d w i t h s u c h f u l l n e s s , s o l e m n i t y and d i g n i t y . T r e v r i z e n t c o m p l e t e s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f P a r z i v a l b y r o u n d i n g : o u t t h e s p i r i t u a l s i d e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . He shows P a r z i v a l t h a t God c a n n o t be s t o r m e d b y f o r c e a n d r a g e b u t comes t o t h o s e who s e r v e h i m i n c l a r i t y a n d s t i l l n e s s . A f t e r A m f o r t a s h a d b e e n wounded_,his b r o t h e r h a d s e a r c h e d t h e w o r l d o v e r : , l i k e Wagner's! S u n d r y , f o r some h e a l i n g ' p o w e r , t h e n r e t i r e d t o s t r u g g l e , w i t h G o d , i n - s o l i t u d e . ^e h a s f o r s a k e n the w o r l d l i k e S i g u n e b u t he i s n o t s u n d e r e d f r o m i t a s s h e is., f o r t h e memory o f h i s ' k n i g h t l y d a y s i s a l i v i n g f o r c e t o h i m . I n t h e company o f t h i s f i n e c h a r a c t e r , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f f r u g a l l i v i n g o n h e r b s a n d c l e a r s p r i n g water, and l o n g n i g h t s o f s i l e n t t h o u g h t , P a r z i v a l s e e s c l e a r l y h i s - g i n s , r e p e n t s and i s f o r g i v e n . T h e n , a t l a s t , h i s s e a r c h , i s r e w a r d e d . H e , Eeenters t h e G r a i l c a s t l e , r e l e a s e s A n f o r t a s a n d i s r e u n i t e d 8 1 . . w i t h K o n d w i r a m u r . h> r i n d s Thus the. q u e s t i o n w h i c h i n C h r e t i e n i s one c o n c e r n -i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e G r a i l r i t u a l , w i t h W o l f r a m becomes a q u e s t i o n o f human s y m p a t h y . P a r z i v a l f a i l s t o a s k b e c a u s e he h a s b e e n l e d a s t r a y by t h e p r e c e p t o f c o u r t e o u s s i l e n c e , , and b e c a u s e he h a s e r r e d • u n k n o w i n g l y t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n seems u n j u s t t o h i m . He i s b e n t o n w i n n i n g by s h e e r f o r c e and p r o w e s s t h e c r o w n ' w h i c h c a n be wen., o n l y by h u m i l i t y ' o f h e a r t a s a g i f t f r o m a b o v e . 1 Then t a k e s p l a c e t h e b e a u t i f u l t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f h i s s o u l l e a d i n g t o p u r i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e s . The s e l f - s a c r i f i c e a n d c a l m l i f e o f t h e r e c l u s e , S i g u n e , b y t h e g r a v e o f h e r d e a d l o v e r , awaken i n B a u i z i v a l h u m i l i t y a n d g e n t l e h o p e . The m e e t i n g w i t h t h e k n i g h t a n d h i s f a m i l y , b a r e f o o t a n d ; i n s a c k c l o t h on a p i l g r i m -age t o . a. s h r i n e , c a l l s up i n P a r z i v a l 1 s m i n d the memory o f a l o n g f o r g o t t e n means o f g r a c e , f i n a l l y , w i t h T r e v r l z e n t , . P a r z i v a l f i n d s h i m s e l f a g a i n . He i s i n s t r u c t e d i n God's m y s t e r i o u s a n d m e r c i f u l w a y s , i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e s e e r e t s o f t h e G r a i l and becomes f u l l y c o n s c i o u s o f h i s g u i l t . The s t o r y o f P a r z i v a l i s n o t r o u n d e d o f f b u t t a k e s up t h e t a l e o f F e i r e f i z 2 , t h e p a r t i - c o l o r e d s o n o f Gahmuret and t h e M o o r e s s . I n t h e s e c o n d l a s t b o o k P a r z i v a l and F e i r e f i z m e et, f i g h t and become r e c o n c i l e d . The h e a t h e n c a n n o t a t f i r s t see. t h e G r a i l b u t becomes b a p t i s e d l a t e r , m a r r i e s Repanse de 1. F r a n c K e , 3 3 - 3 5 . 2.. F r o m t h e O l d F r e n c h " V a i r o f i z " . - " 8 2 . S c h a y e a n d * , f u r t h e r s t h e work o f t h e K i n g d o m i n I n d i a ; i . e , t h e G r a i l i s t h e s y m b o l of•: C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h r o u g h F e i r e f i z W o l f r a m ' s p h a n t a s y e x t e n d s o v e r t h e l a s t from. Zasamanc and A z a g o r e over B a g d a d t o I n d i a ; w h e n c e - S e k u n d i l l a h a d s e n t A n f o r t a s g o l d and t h e two h o r r i b l e c r e a t u r e s . W o l f r a m ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e a s t was g a i n e d n o t f r o m b o o k s b u t f r o m t h e o r a l a c c o u n t s o f C r u s a d e r s a n d t h e f a i r y t a l e s o f . S p i e l m a n n e r , -The e n d i n g o f P a r z i v a l , i n w h i c h W o l f r a m c o n t i n u e s t h e s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l k i n g ' s s o n L o h e r a n g r i n , 1 i s p e c u l i a r t o t h e German v e r s i o n . ; S o l t h e r s a y s -"Nergends so 'wie h i e r l a s s t W o l f r a m s - G e d a n k e n f o l g e e r ^ k e n n e n , w i e e i w e l t a u s e i n -a n d e r l i e g e n d e B i n g e m i t d i c h t e r i s c h e r j . F r e i h e i t u n t e r e i n e m n e u e n Gedan&en z u ^ s a r m a e n f a s s t . " 2 The h i g h e s t d u t i e s o f t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s were t h e f i g h t w i t h , a n d c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e h e a t h e n a n d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f i n n o c e n t p e o p l e . I n t h e e a r l y v e r s i o n s o f t h e L o h e n g r i n m y t h b o t h m o t h e r a n d d a u g h t e r a r e i n . p e r i l a n d t h e d a u g h t e r i s t h e r e w a r d f o r f r e e i n g t h e m o t h e r . W o l f r a m i s t h e f i r s t t o g i v e t h e m a i d e n a r e a l c h a r a c t e r and he m a k e s h e r a ' s a i n t . I n - t h e F r e n c h s o u r c e s t h e Swan K n i g h t h a d no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e G r a i l b u t W o l f r a m c o n n e c t e d t h e t w o . b e c a u s e i n b o t h s t o r i e s a q u e s t i o n p l a y s t h e p r i m a r y r o l e . The q u e s t i o n w h i c h was t o be a s k e d i n t h e G r a i l s t o r y i s f o r b i d d e n i n t h e m y t h o f . t h e Swan K n i g h t . W o l f r a m makes 1. The name means' 1 1 L o h e r e n G a r i n ' , i . e . , G a r i n d e r L o t h r i n g e r ' a n d t h e k n i g h t a p p e a r s o n l y i n A n t w e r p , t h e l o w e r Ehine. a n d C o l o g n e . , 2. G o l . 19i>. c. WLSB,: 2 4 4 . • r e f e r e n c e -to t h e s t o r y o f l r e c , . w h o f o r b a d e E n i d t o s p e a k on p a i n o f d i r e p u n i s h m e n t , y e t came t o a t r u e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h e r w o r t h b y h e r b r e a c h o f s i l e n c e . I n t h e s t o r y o f t h e Swan" Knight., t h e e a t s s t r o p h e comes when E l s a a s k s . L o h e r a n g r i n ' s name. When E l s a ^ p e r s e c u t e d b y : T e l r a m u n d , r e f u s e s t o m a r r y , a f a l c o n a p p e a r s w i t h a b e l l w h i c h E l s a r i n g s and t h e s o u n d i s h e a r d i n M u n s a l v a e s c h e . L o h e n g r i n s e t s o u t w i t h t h e swan a n d f o r f i v e clays he h a s no f o o d u n t i l on t h e f i f t h d a y , t h e swan, g i v e s h i m a f i s h , i . e . , - t h e H o s t . E a c h t a k e a h a l f . E l s a l o o k i n g o u t f r o m t h e p a l a c e s e e s L . o h e r a n g r i n a s l e e p o n h i s s h i e l d . The D u c h e s s o f G l e v e s I s so s c o r n f u l o f t h e - m y s t e r i o u s k n i g h t w h o • d e f e a t s ' a l l o p p o s i t i o n " t h a t . s h e p e r s u a d e s E l s a t o - a s k t h e f a t e f u l q u e s t i o n . To a n a s s e m b l e d g r o u p a t A n t w e r p t h e Swan K n i g h t t e l l s h i s s t o r y } t h e n l e a v e s w i t h t h e swan. W o l f r a m ' s p u r p o s e i n mak i n g ' L o i t e r a h g r i n t h e s o n o f P a r z i v a l i s c l e a r . The c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e G r a i l e n a b l e s t h e I. h e r o t o r e v e a l h i s name, a n d o r i g i n w i t h o u t l o s s o f d i g n i t y so t h a t , while, -he' i s . - no:'-l&nger'.' divine, .'he ' r e m a i n s a b e i n g e x a l t e d a b o v e h u m a n i t y . I iWcJISram's i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f 2 b o t h p r a i s e a n d c r i t i c i s m . . - G o t t f r i e d v o n S t r a s b o u r g r e -p r o a c h e s t h e p o e t f o r h i s l a c k o f c l a r i t y a s " e i n E r f i n d e r " 1. The German v e r s i o n s o f t h e m y t h a r e P e r j u n g e r e T i t u r e l - P e r S c h w a n e n r i t t e r b y K o n r a d v o n . W i e r z b e r g , ,13th c e n t u r y • a n d t h e L o h e n g r i n o f 1260 b y a n unknown a u t h o r on w h i c h Wagner b a s e d h i s drama. WLWD, 2 2 5 . 2. v . G o l . 134, 194; S c h r e n c K . 3 1 . 84.. ." w i l d e r Maren.n •: i n d e e d - t h e s t y l e i s . very- d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f H a r t m a n n v o n Aue and G o t t f r i e d , i t shows m a r k e d f r e e d o m and o r i g i n a l i t y , i s o f t e n i l l o g i c a l and l a c k i n g i n o c l a r i t y , yet--'&t t i m e s i t i s l u c i d a n d p r e g n a n t . A s Rich.ey s a y s , " I t I s a b a f f l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e w i t h i t s a b r u p t t u r n s of t h o u g h t , i t s s u d d e n a l l u s i o n s and f l a s h e s o f c u r i o u s i m a g e r y , it s t y l e v i v i d l y and s t r a n g e l y a k i n t o t h a t o f B r o w n i n g . H i s s p e e c h i s more t h a t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a n o f l i t e r a t u r e and e a c h c h a r a c t e r , s p e a k s d i f f e r e n t l y . .He i n v e n t s many new wor d s a n d he t a k e s a g r e a t J o y i n h i s q u o t a t i o n s o f F r e n c h w o r d s , a l l u s i o n s t o Y i l d M i e , H a r t m a n n , G o t t f r i e d , l a l t h e r v o n d e r ' V o g e l w e i d e , t h e A i b e l u n g e n l i e d , s m a t t e r i n g s of. a s t r o - , l o g y , A r a b i a n names o f s t a r s , c a t a l o g u e s o f s t r a n g e names and g e n e a l o g i c a l t a b l e s and l i s t s o f p r e c i o u s s t o n e s # o v e r f i f t y gems b e i n g m e n t i o n e d i n P a r z i v a . 1 . H i s i m a g e s a r e c h o s e n , f r o m k n i g h t h o o d . A l o v e r i s " e i n Freud-ens c h i l d g e g e n Kummer", s t a r s , a r e " Q u a r t i e r m a e h e r u n d F a h n e n t r u p p d e r H a c h t . 1 * F r a n c R e r e m a r k s t h a t . P a r z j h r a l . i s s p o i l e d f o r the u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e a d e r b y t h e l a c k o f a r t i s t i c s e l e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e s s e n t i a l a n d t h e s u p e r f i c i a l , by> h i s c r o w d i n g o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l "theme, by. a mass o f e p i s o d e s . W o l f r a m i s l i k e the P r o v e n c a l t r o u b a d o u r s who a l s o - u s e d a c o m p l i c a t e d a n d i l l o g i c a l s t y l e . Though t h e i r main, themes a r e c l e a r ,£h§1f p e r m i t t h e m s e l v e s d i g r e s s i o n s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l I . M c h e y , : 1. .' .'. . 8 5 . * . r e m a r k s , s o t h a t t h e i d e a s become i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e a t t i m e s . •.•.'Even when h i s p h i l o s o p h i c m i n d i s c o n c e i v i n g a s t o r y u n d e r a .new a s p e c t , W o l f r a m - s t i l l h o l d s c a r e f u l l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 1 : f o r m - a n d i t s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , W o l f r a m ' s l o v e o f d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a c c u r a c y o f s t a t e m e n t make t h e po,em a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o n t h e c u s t o m s o f m e d i e v a l Germany s u c h a s t h e a r m o u r o f k n i g h t s , a n d t h e c u s t o m s o f t h e t o u r n e y s . .The e p i c i s f i l l e d w i t h c o u n t l e s s v i v i d p i c t u r e s o f t h e l i f e o f t h e t i m e . . ./The p a g e a n t r y o f A r t h u r ' s c o u r t w i t h i t s f e a s t s and t o u r n e y s and b a t t l e s s t a n d s . I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e h e a v y s a d n e s s o f ..the G r a i l c a s t l e ; t h e l o n e l y woods t o K l i n g s c h o r ' s m a g i c c a s t l e w i t h i t s m a g i c m i r r o r and b e d ; t h e f r i e n d l y c a s t l e of :' Go-ynemans.with i t s l i n d e n ' t r e e s where t h e y o u n g m a i d e n s . a t t e n d P a r z i v a l ' s b a t h , t o T r e v r i z e n t ' s q u i e t h u t i n t h e woods ,where t h e h e r m i t l i v e s on r o o t s a n d s p r i n g w a t e r . Thus t h e s t o r y r e s e m b l e s a g a i l y c o l o r e d a n d c l o s e l y p a t t e r n e d c a r p e t t h r o u g h w h i c h r u n s t h e g o l d e n t h r e a d o f t h e G r a i l s e a r c h , w h i l e a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d a p p e a r s t h e c h a r m i n g f i g u r e o f • P a r z i v a l , c o m b i n i n g \. i t : I i t h e c o u r a g e o f h i s f a t h e r and • t h e f a i t h f u l n e s s o f h i s m o t h e r . D e s p i t e t h e many d e t a i l s , , t h e ' m a s t e r y O f m a t e r i a l ' i s f i r m y e t s u p p l e , t h e i n t e r e s t l i v i n g , ' r e v e a l i n g a m i n d e v e r a l e r t t o d i s c o v e r a n d c o m b i n e new / o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t i s - t h i s , h o l d on l i f e , w h i c h g i v e s W o l f r a m ' s l vSortexampleMyh£s\reference t o snow on P e n t e c o s t , May 28. 8 6 . ' / I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t s many s i d e d v i t a l i t y ( w h i c h r e f l e c t s so " v i v i d l y t h e l i f e he e a r e d f o r i n i t s h e r o i c a s p e c t s and a t t h e same t i m e i t s f a m i l i a r l e v e l s . He s u b o r d i n a t e s t h e t r a n s -i t o r y f a s h i o n s o f t h e age t o what i s f u n d a m e n t a l and l a s t i n g . A l l t h r o u g h t h e b o o k t o u c h e s o f n a t u r e a p p e a r w h i c h make i t a s f r e s h a n d l i v i n g a s t h o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s were a c t u a l l y o u r /own a t t h e moment o f r e a d i n g . •'For i n s t a n c e , when K o n d i w e r a m u r comes t o P a r z l v a l ' s b e d s i d e , W o l f r a m w r i t e s , tt . N o c h war so s p a t e s • i n d e r M a c h t D a s s man k e i n . H a h n e n & r a h n vernahm. . D i e H a h n e n b a i k e n s t a n d e n l e d i g D i e H o t d e r H u h n e r l'angst v e r s c h l a n g . E v e r y now and t h e n , t h e h e a v y l a n g u i d a i r o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w h i c h ''-surrounds A r t h u r ' s c o u r t i s s t i r r e d b y a r e f r e s h i n g b r e e z e , f r o m t h e c o o l d a r k woods t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e l o n e l y P a r z i v a l wanders.. We f e e l w i t h h i m t h e w o n d e r s o f a b i r d ' s f l i g h t , t h e m y s t e r y o f d a r k woods, t h e c o m f o r t of •  s t a r l i g h t a n d f i r e l i g h t , t h e w armth o f s p r i n g s u n s h i n e , t h e s t r a n g e n e s s o f d a r k shadows on t h e snow and e a r l y dew. ..For P a r z i v a l , l i k e W o l f r a m , ' n e v e r l o s e s / t o u c h w i t h t h e n a t u r e w h i c h he h a d grown t o l o v e a s a . c h i l d . : The g r e a t n e s s , o f W o l f ram's" p o e t r y i s t o be s o u g h t l e s s i n i t s l i t e r a r y a r t t h a n i n the s p i r i t w h i c h i n s p i r e s i t . I t r e f l e c t s i n a l m o s t e v e r y page t h e u n t a r n i s h e d n o b i l i t y o f ' t h e m a n . 1 Nowhere i n t h e h i s t o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e i s t o be f o u n d a n a t u r e s t r o n g e r , t r u e r , more s i n c e r e , t h a n t h a t o f W o l f r a m . 1. RHGL, 9 8 . 8 7 . No one saw d e e p e r i n t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e w o r l d , none was e v e r l e s s b l i n d e d b y I t s f a l s e n e s s . He same n e a r e r t h a n a n y o t h e r m e d i e v a l p o e t t o a s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s and c o n f l i c t s o f human l i f e . The C r u s a d e s , b o t h i n p r a c t i c a l l i f e and i n -i. l i t e r a t u r e h a d b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e u n i o n o f t h e t w o g r e a t i d e a l s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e M i d d l e A g e s : t h e i d e a l o f c h i v a l r y and t h e i d e a l o f a C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h . 1 I n t h e F r e n c h r o m a n c e s t h e i d e a l o f c h i v a l r y i n t h e s p i r i t o f n a r r o w e s t a s c e t i c i s m i s c o m p l e t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h a t o f t h e c h u r c h , w h i l e i n t h e German poem, w i t h a s a n e r e c o g n i t i o n o f - t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v a l u e s , t h e two a r e c o m b i n e d i n p e r f e c t harmony. The Q u e s t i s n o t t o b e a c h i e v e d b y u t t e r i s o l a t i o n from, t h i s e a r t h and i t s s t r u g g l e s . Nor: c a n a n y man w i n t h e G r a i l i n h i s own s t r e n g t h . T h e r e I s no b a r r i e r b e t w e e n t h i s w o r l d and t h e n e x t , b e t w e e n C h r i s t i a n a n d h e a t h e n . The c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f t h e G r a i l k i n g d o m i s t o s u p p l y an a b i d i n g t y p e o f a d i v i n e l y o r d e r e d s o c i e t y . The G r a i l t r a i n s l e a d e r s f o r t h o s e com-m u n i t i e s w h i c h l a c k them; i . e . , i t i s a S i m i l i z i n g power a s fy©ll a s a p a l a c e s p i r i t u a l . I n W o l f r a m ' s calm, w i s e s o u l t h e : b i t t e r d i s s e n s i o n w h i c h h a d d i v i d e d E u r o p e s i n c e t h e r i s e o f . s p i r i t u a l power, i n t h e %§nth c e n t u r y h a s no p l a c e . T hus t h e s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s p o e t r y i s t h a t i t e f f e c t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n b e t w e e n E r a u W e l t a nd t h e 1. BEAR, 194. 88. 1 . C h u r c h . K n i g h t h o o d h e r e r e a c h e s i t s h i g h e s t i d e a l i n s e r v i c e t o God. G e r v i n u s s a y s , "Das G r o s s e i n P a r z i v a l i s t , d a s s h i e r a l l d i e s e s a c h e i n b a r a u s s e r e C h a o s , d u r c h e i n i n n e r e s G e s e t z , b e h e r r s c h t e i n t i e f s i n n i g e r P l a n , e i n e V e r e i n i g u n g d e s b e s c h a u l i c h - a s c e t i s c h e n und t a t i g - k r i e g e r i s c h e n l e b e n s . l r it s b h i l d e r t d i e z w i e s p a l t i g e K a t u r e i n e r s o l c h e n P e r i o d e , j e n e n Kampf d e r i n d i v i d u e l l e n R i c h t u n g m i t d e r u n i v e r s e l l e n . D e r r o h e n K r a f t d e r R i t t e r l i c h k e i t , i h r e n z i e l l o s e n T a t i g k e i t , S e l b s t s u c h t u n d G e w a l t w i r d a l s o i n P a r z i v a l e i n G e g e n w i e h t g e b e n , i n d e m j e n e K r a f t , j e n e u n b e s t i m m t e T a t i g k e i t m i t 2 B e w u s s t s e i n a u f e i n e n Eweck g e r i c h t e t w i r d . " Wolfram: s t a n d s ' o u t among h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a s t h e o n l y w r i t e r o f a n A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e w h i c h , i n t r u e e p i c f a s h i o n r e v e a l s t o u s n o t o n l y t h e e x t e r n a l s b u t t h e v e r y s o u l 3 o f k n i g h t h o o d . W i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e romance f o r m he i s a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h e m a g n i t u d e and f u l l n e s s o f t h e l i f e o f c h i v a l r y a n d p r o d u c e t h a t . . i m p r e s s i o n o f l i f e - s i z e r e a l i t y w h i c h d i s t i n g -u i s h e s t h e e p i c f o r m f r o m a l l l e s s e r k i n d s o f n a r r a t i v e , and w h i c h m akes h i s w o r k s t a n d n e a r e r t o u s t h a n D a n t e ' s , n e a r e r -e v e n t h a n C h a u c e r ' s . A s N a d l e r s a y s , " W o l f r a m h a t d i e g a n z e K u l t u r s e i n e r g a n z e n Z e i t g e s c h i l d e r t , w e l t l i c h e s und g e i s t -4 l i c h e s , R i t t e r t u m , F r a u e n d i e n s t , j a o f d i e n s t und A b e n t e u e r . " M e d i e v a l . l i f e was d o m i n a t e d b y a c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , u n l i k e m o d e r n l i f e w h i c h i s d o m i n a t e d b y t h e I n d i v i d u a l . I - Rob, 9 8 . 2. G e r v i n u s , 3 9 3 . 3. R i c h e y , 194; We.ston X I . 4. Madler, 8 9 . 8 9 . I n d e e d c h i v a l r y i m p l i e d s u b m i s s i o n and assumed t h a t c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a c e r t a i n s e t o f c o n v e n t i o n s vra.s t h e t r u e s t a n d a r d o f c o n d u c t . Y e t W o l f r a m makes h i s h e r o s u f f e r f o r a t o o r e a d y c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h i s s e t o f r u l e s . Whereas W a l t h e r s t r e s s e s t h e b r e a c h b e t w e e n t h e h i g h e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e age and t h e i r f u l f i l m e n t , W o l f r a m ' s o p t i m i s m i s u n s h a k e n b y t h e s h o r t -c o m i n g s o f l i f e . " I t i s W o l f r a m ' s v i e w t h a t i t i s a good t h i n g t o l i v e t h e l i f e o f t h i s w o r l d n o b l y y e t l e s s n o t t h e 1 s o u l ' s s a l v a t i o n . " T h o u g h h i s poem b r e a t h e s t h e l a r g e r a i r o f h u m a n i s m ^ i t d o e s n o t e x c l u d e t h e a s c e t i c l i f e , f o r t h o s e who h a v e l o v e d a n d l o s t , l i k e S i g u n e , t h e o n l y way i s t o r e n o u n c e t h e w o r l d and t a k e r e f u g e i n a l i f e o f p o v e r t y and p e n a n c e . The s e c r e t o f W o l f r a m ' s c l e a r o p t i m i s m l i e s i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f and l o v e f o r a l l f o r m s of y o u t h . The p o e t was y o u n g a t h e a r t vrtio c o u l d e x p r e s s so l o v i n g l y t h e sweet ways o f c h i l d r e n , t h e b r i g h t p r e c o c i t y o f m a i d e n h o o d , t h e 2 e c s t a s y o f r e b o r n n a t u r e . F r o m t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n comes h e l p and g u i d a n c e b u t i t i s t h e y o u n g who s e t t h e p a c e and d o m i n a t e t h e s c e n e . . W o l f r a m ' s i s a, human, p r a c t i c a l c o n c e p t . W h i l e he r e t a i n e d t h e f r a m e w o r k and i n c i d e n t s o f t h e f a i r | ; v t a l e , he y e t r a i s e d i t t o a l o f t i e r l e v e l a n d made i t a f i t v e h i c l e f o r p h i l o s o p h i c t h o u g h t . P a r z i v a l i s more t h a n an e n t h r a l l i n g e p i c o f c h i v a l r y . L i k e D e r atme H e i n r i c h - q t i s t h e h i s t o r y 1. H i c h e y , 1 7 7 . 2. i b i d . , . 1 8 9 . 9 0 . o f a human s o u l , w h i c h p a s s e s t h r o u g h l i f e and i t s t e m p t a t i o n s u n t a r n i s h e d b y z w i v e l , b y - v a c i l l a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r . I n s p i t e o f t h e c o n f u s i o n o f f a n t a s t i c e p i s o d e s , P a r z i x a l shows u s t h e s t r i v i n g f o r a f u l l y r o u n d e d p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e u n r e m i t t i n g p r e s s i n g f o r w a r d w i t h s t e a d f a s t n e s s and u n d a u n t e d c o u r a g e , t h e s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t d o u b t and f a i t h l e s s n e s s . P a r z i v a l i s a f o r e r u n n e r o f Durerfe k n i g h t f e a r l e s s l y r i d i n g i n t o t h e w o r l d -t h o u g h a c c o m p a n i e d b y d e a t h and t h e d e v i l . D i d W o l f r a m a i m t o t e a c h a p u r e l y r e l i g i o u s l e s s o n o r i s h i s poem o f P a r z i v a l an a l l e g o r y o f l i f e , P a r z i v a l h i m s e l f a s y m b o l o f t h e man p e r p l e x e d b y t h e s e e m i n g i n j u s t i c e o f God's d e a l i n g w i t h men a n d f i g h t i n g t h r o u g h d e s p a i r t o r e n e w e d f a i t h ? Can a t r u e k n i g h t , t h o u g h l a c k i n g f a i t h i n God, by k e e p i n g i n t a c t f a i t h w i t h man, b y . l o y a l t y a n d s t e a d f a s t n e s s w i n b a c k t h e s p i r i t u a l b l e s s i n g f o r f e i t e d b y h i s y o u t h f u l f o l l y ? P r o b a b l y b o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e t r u e . T h a t i s W o l f -ram f o u n d t h e germ o f t h e i d e a i n t h e F r e n c h s o u r c e b u t t o h i m a l o n e we owe t h a t h u m a n i s i n g o f t h e i d e a l w h i c h h a s b r o u g h t P a r z i v a l i n t o harmony w i t h t h e b e s t a s p i r a t i o n s o f men i n a l l a g e s . P a r z i v a l i s t h e e x e m p l a r o f what t o W o l f r a m was t i e . c h i e f v i r t u e j " d i u t T i - t i w e " w h i c h G o t t h o l d B o t t i c h e r d e f i n e s as " d i e f e s t e z u v e r l a s s i ^ e G e s i n n u n g i n j e d e r B e z i e & u n g i n a l i e n fcebenslagen, d i e G e s i n n u n g a n d e r k e i n F a l s c h i s t , d i e R e i n f i e i t und L a u t e r k e i t d e s u e c m t e s i m w e i t e s t e n S i n n . " To Y/ o l f r a m D o unt i s t h e p o t e n t c o r r u p t e r o f t h e s o u l . I n H a r t m a n n v o n l u e ' s G r e g o r l o u s ^ t h e o n l y u n p a r d o n a b l e s i n i s r e l i g i o u s d o u b t . . ' 9 1 . To W o l f r a m i t 1 i s I n c o n s t a n c y o f c h a r a c t e r , the. want o f a f i x e d purpose,. He who g i v e s h i m s e l f o v e r t o u n f a i t h f u l n e s s t r e a d s t h e downward p a t h . The i d e a o f s i n a s e r r o r i s one o f t h e m o s t d e e p l y r o o t e d o f -.Wolf r a n i 1 s ' c o n c e p t i o n s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s ^ h u m i l i t y , r e p e n t a n c e a n d human s y m p a t h y may e x p i a t e e v e n t h e s i n o f u n f a i t h f u l n e s s a n d he w h o , t h u s r e p e n t s may he c h o s e n h y God f o r t h e G r a i l k i n g s h i p , t h e s u m m i t t o f f e a r t h l y h o l i n e s s . .'Wolfram says., A A. 1 s t z w i v e l h e r a ^ n n a h g e b u r d a s s muoz d e r s i t e w e r d e r s u r . g e s m a c h e t unde g e z i e r t 1 s t , swa s i o h p a r r i e r t u n v e r z a g e t mannes muot a l s a g e l a t u m v a r w e t u o t . We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e s t o r y o f P a r z i v a l i s a w e l d i n g t o g e t h e r o f v a r i o u s i n h a r m o n i o u s h u t e x c i t i n g t h e m e s . I t c o m b i n e s t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e G r a i l a n d o f A r t h u r , t h e Dummling-•It The m a r e h e n , t h e s t o r y o f ^ B w a n , t h e t a l e o f P r e s t e r J o h n a nd o f K l i n g s c h o r ; o f t h e ' W a r t b u r g k r i e g who was i n l e a g u e w i t h t h e d e v i l . I t i s a ' m i x t u r e o f " M a r e h e n " a n d " N o v e l l e " c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a " R i t t e r r o m a n " . Wolfram, f i r s t made t h e s t o r y human a n d o r i g i n a l b y i g n o r i n g t h e i n c o n g r u o u s e l e m e n t s , s t r e s s i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ;.of P a r z i v a l ' s c h a r a c t e r , m a k i n g t h e r e s t o r a -t i o n o f t h e k i n g ' s h e a l t h d e p e n d on t h e h e r o ' s i n s i g h t , I m b u i n g t h e w h o l e w i t h t h e c r u s a d i n g s p i r i t a n d i m p r e s s i n g u p o n i t t h e stamp o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . P a r z i v a l i s t h e g r e a t e s t a c h i e v e m e n t o f p u r e l y m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e . Ho o t h e r e p i c o f c h i v a l r y p r e s e n t s so v a r i e d a p i c t u r e o r i s so r i c h i n l i v i n g c r e a t i o n s , i n men and women who, a f t e r a l a p s e o f a l m o s t s e v e n c e n t u r i e s , a r e s t i l l • 1 h u m a n l y i n t e r e s t i n g . None b e a r s s o d i s t i n c t l y t h e stamp o f i t s c r e a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . Above a l l , none c a n compare w i t h i t i n t h e f a r - r e a c h i n g s p i r i t u a l i t y o f i t s i d e a l s . P a r z i v a l i s i n many ways g r e a t e r t h a n t h e ' M i d d l e A g e s b e l i e v e d i t . t o b e . What t o W o l f r a m was a romance o f human s u f f e r i n g and s y m p a t h y becomes t o t h e m o d e r n main a t r a g e d y o f d o u b t a n d s p i r i t u a l r e v o l t , f h e theme i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f F a u s t , who i s f i r e d by• t h e same s p i r i t o f g i g a n t i c s t r i v i n g . , b u t , F a u s t ' s q u e s t i s c u r s e d , , h i s p u r s u i t o f k n o w l e d g e i s u n l a w f u l a nd r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t God dooms h i m i r r e v o c a b l y . N ot u n t i l G o e t h e ' s day i s t h e f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e • s t o r y s e e n , i s t h e theme w i d e n e d t o emb r a c e t h e t o t a l i t y o f human s t r i v i n g s . O t h e r v e r s i o n s l a c k W o l f r a m ' s d e p t h o f i n s i g h t , h i s w i d e c h a r i t y , h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e d u t y o f l o v e f r o m man t o man. tt A s V e s p e r s a y s , " Y i e l e h a b e n u b e r d i e Sage - v o n P a r z i v a l n a c h -g e d l c h t ^ e t undjan i h f g e f o r m t a b e r 'Wolfram v o n E s c h e n b a c h h a t ti •' ' s l e a l l e u b e f t r s f f e n . und P a f z i v a l s S c h i c f t s a l e n E w i g h e i t v e r l i e h e n , d a s s s i e h a n s e i n e r G e s t a l t d i e tae n s c h e n m e s s e n tt und e r b a u e n k o n n e n . " 1. RHGL* 9 2 . 93. I n "the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y commenced t h e g r o w t h of t h e • G r a i l n o v e l c y c l e s m o t i v a t e d by R o b e r t ' s J o s e p h and M e r l i n . 1 The f i r s t o f t h e s e was t h e J o ' s e p h - M ' e r l i n ^ - B e r o e v a l o f 1230. 1 P e r l e s v a x , 1 2 4 0 , was i n d e p e n d e n t and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . The . a l l e g o r i c a l a n d s y m b o l i c a l P e r l e s v a x w i t h i t s sombre s t r e n g t h and u n i t y o f d e s i g n f o r m e d a s t e p p i n g s t o n e f r o m J o s e p h - , M e r l i n - P e r c a v a l t o t h e G a l a h a d r o m a n c e s . The s o u r c e s w e re C h r e t i e n , G e r b e r t and R o b e r t 7 s J o s e f . T h e r e a r e t h r e e q u e s t e r s , P e r c e v a l , L a n c e l o t and G a w a i n . P e r c e v a l - becomes t h e k i n g o f a m o n a s t i c i s l a n d s t a t e . The. G r a i l d i s a p p e a r s i n t h e end and t h e s t o r y c o n t a i n s n o " m e n t i o n o f t h e p l a t e , t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s o r t h e wound. I n 1250 The Q u e s t e was c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e M o r t Ar - t u and i n 1260 t h e t h r e e p a r t n o v e l was f o r m e d , L a n c e l o t , Q u e s t e , M o r t A r t u . . Whereas W o l f r a m ' s P a r z i v a l i s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f m e d i e v a l humanism, a s t o r y - c o n c e i v e d a s s s u p e r b drama Of human d e s t i n i e s a c t e d f o r c e f u l l y a g a i n s t a r o m a n t i c a l l y g r a c i o u s b a c k g r o u n d , t h e Q,ueste ( T e n n y s o n ' s s o u r c e ) i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f m e d i e v a l a s c e t i c i s m , t h e s t o r y an a l l e g o r i c a l p i c t u r e o f t h e r i g i d . , , e a r t h - d e n y i n g p i e t y whose r e w a r d i s i n 2 h e a v e n . The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r t o o k t h e s t o r y f r o m B o r r o n , G a u t i e r a n d C h r e t i e n a n d r e a d i n t o i t s i n c i d e n t s a deep s y m b o l i c a l m e a n i n g , b a s e d on t h e C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h o l y t a l i s m a n s . He b r o k e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l f r a m e , d i s p o s s e s s e d t h e o r i g i n a ^ e r o a n d l e f t n o i n c i d e n t o f t h e m o d e l u n t o u c h e d . 1. G o l . , 1 0 7 , 3 7 9 , 94; v . BEAR, 364, 3 7 9 , B . 4 1 7 . 2. R i c h e y , 1 9 5 ; G o l . 7 9 . 94. I t i s s i n g l e q u e s t y e t t h e - a d v e n t u r e s a r e u n c o n n e c t e d . The s a c r a m e n t a l a c t s u p p l i e s t h e m a t t e r o f t h e f i n e s t s c e n e s . The p u r p o s e o f s u p p l a n t i n g P e r c e v a l b y G a l a h a d was t o make t h e l a t t e r a n I n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s r i g i d i d e a l s - o f m i l i t a n t a s c e t i c i s m . G a l a h a d i s t h e s y m b o l o f C h r i s t b u t i n t h e f o r m o f a k n i g h t ' . Thus-.: i t i s G a l a h a d who becomes t h e k i n g j w h i l e P e r c e v a l r e t i r e s a s a h e r m i t . A s a w o r k o f a r t t h e M b r t , A r t u i s s u p e r i o r a t e v e r y p o i n t t o t h e Q u e s t e . 1 , ' I t . i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a H o m e r i c s t r e n g t h and s i m p l i c i t y a n d . a s p a r i n g u s e o f t h e . s u p e r n a t u r a l . The s t o r y c e n t r e s w i t h o u t d i g r e s s i o n a b o u t t h e l o v e s o f L a n c e l o t a n d G u i n e v e r e . The t r a g i c a n n i h i l a t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t s i s i n t e n s i f i e d , b e c a u s e t h e r u i n was c a u s e d by A r t h u r ' s own I n n o c e n t i n c e s t w i t h h i s s i s t e r . L i k e O e d i p u s , A r t h u r ' s s i n was p e r p e t r a t e d unknowingly., y e t i t b r i n g s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , , t h e r e t r i b u t i o n o f t h e F a t e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s a s t e r p a s s e s b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f I n d i v i d u a l t r a g e d y a n d s u g g e s t s t h e g e n e r a l l o t o f men and t h e t r a i i s i t o r i n e s s o f e a r t h l y g l o r y . By 1250 t h e p r o s e romance, h a d e c l i p s e d t h e m e t r i c a l r o mance i n p o p u l a r i t y and e n j o y e d u n d i m i n i s h e d f a v o u r u n t i l : i n t e r e s t was r e a w a k e n e d i n t h e l a t t e r a t t h e end ;of t h e • e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . : T h e m o s t p o p u l a r r e d a c t i o n was t h e t u l g a t e C y c l e , c o n s i s t i n g o f L ' S s t o I r e d e l S t . G r a a l o r G r a n d St... G r a a l , L ' l s t o i r e ; de; M e r l i n ( a p r o s e r e d a c t i o n o f R o b e r t ' s 1. X . BEAR, 4 2 9 . 95 . M e r l i n t o g e t h e r w i t h a c o n t i n u a t i o n ) , L i L i v r e s de L a n c e l o t , L a Q u e s t e d e l S t . G r a a l and L a M o r t A r t u , t h e l a s t t h r e e f a l s e l y -a s c r i b e d t o iMap. The p r o s e r o m a n c e s had a f a r r e a c h i n g i n f l u e n c e on s u b s e q u e n t l i t e r a t u r e . 1 T h e y w e r e d i r e c t m o d e l s f o r A r i o s t o ' s O r l a n d o F u r i o s o , 1516, and e v e n p e n e t r a t e d t h e I t a l i a n N o v e l l e . ' The i n f l u e n c e on S p a n i s h l i t e r a t u r e c a n b e t r a c e d t o C e r v a n t e s 1 Don Q u i x o t e , i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e t o S p e n s e r ' s F a e r y Queen. The W e l s h p r o s e romance o f t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h ' c e n t u r y , t h e M a b i n o g i o n o f P e r e d u r ab B y v a m . a p p e a r s i n t h e Red B o o k a n d T a y l o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s v e r s i o n i n s p i r e d 2 Wagner. The s c h o l a r s who c l a i m t h a t t h e W e l s h t a l e s a r e • •> i n d e p e n d e n t o f C h r e t i e n , b a s e t h e i r a r g u m e n t s on t h e f a c t t h a t P e r e d u r i s more l o g i c a l and p r i m i t i v e . T h a t i s t o s a y , i t i s n o t d e r i v e d f r o m C h r e t i e n b u t f r o m a common s o u r c e . L a d y G u e s t c l a i m s t h a t i t i s t h e o l d e s t f o r m o f t h e G r a i l Q u e s t 3 and a n t e d a t e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c h r i s t i a n s y m b o l s . P e r e d u r i s s u r r o u n d e d b y an a t m o s p h e r e o f g l a m o u r and f a n t a s y , y e t i t r e m a i n s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and l o g i c a l v e r s i o n o f t h e h e r o ' s v e n g e a n c e o n s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s f o r i n j u r i e s i n f l i c t e d on h i s k i n d r e d . The h e r o i s p a s s i v e a n d t h e o b j e c t o f t h e t a l i s m a n s i s t o r e m i n d h i m o f t h e w r o n g a n d s u p p l y t h e a v e n g i n g 1. v . BEAR 2, 3 9 , 4 1 . ft 2. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v e r s i o n s v. R h y s , 7 5 f f ; G o l . , 109; N, 1 3 2 ; BEAR 2, 59.; 3 4 5 ; I M . P . S . , 1 6 . 3. G u e s t , 3 5 4 . 96. weapon. The ' s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h i s v e r s i o n a r e t h a t t h e G r a i l d o e s ' n o t a p p e a r , b u t i t s p l a c e i s t a k e n by t h e b l e e d i n g h e a d o f P e r e d u r ' s u n c l e and w i t h t h i s h e a d i s c o n n e c t e d t h e L a n c e . The G r a i l o c a s t l e i s a c h i e v e d b y d e s t r o y i n g t h e s o r c e r e s s e s " o f G l o u c e s t e r . The G a w a i n a d v e n t u r e s a r e a b b r e v -i a t e d a n d t h e c h i v a l r o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l i f e a r e o m i t t e d w h i l e W e l s h f a i r y t a l e m o t i f s - t h e c h e s s b o a r d , s t a g h u n t and d r o p s a r e i n t r o d u c e d . - T h e r e a r e o n l y two E n g l i s h r o m a n c e s on t h e c o m p l e t e G r a i l q u e s t b e f o r e M a l o r y ' s M o r t e a ' A r t h u r i n w h i c h G a l a h a d i s t h e h e r o , n a m e l y J o s e p h o f A r i m a t h e a i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a n d t h e H i g h H i s t o r y o f t h e H o l y G r a i l i n t h e f i f -t e e n t h . S i r P e r c y v e l l e o f G a l l e s h a s P e r c e v a l f o r t h e h e r o b u t t h e r e I s no m e n t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o r t h e Q u e s t , o n l y t h e v e n g e a n c e theme a p p e a r s . Some h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t . t h i s i s t h e o r i g i n a l P a r s i f a l s t o r y b e f o r e t h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e G r a i l ^ f o r - i t c o n t a i n s no G r a i l and t h e f i g u r e o f G a w a i n and t h e ' G u r s e o f t h e l o a t h l y d a m s e l a r e l a c k i n g a l s o . T hough t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h romance was w holesome and d i r e c t , i n g e n e r a l i t was i n f e r i o r t o b o t h t h e F r e n c h and German p r o d u c t i o n s . ! T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s w a s ' t h a t t h e e a r l y E n g l i s h w r i t e r s a d a p t e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s o f a f o r e i g n r a c e t o s u i t t h e E n g l i s h l o w e r - c l a s s e s . To a t t r a c t a n a u d i e n c e t h e s e w r i t e r s s a t u r a t e d r o m a n c e w i t h t h e s e n s a t i o n a l a nd m e l o d r a m a t i c . P h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h r a t h e r t h a n c o u r t l i n e s s a p p e a l e d t o t h e loY/er c l a s s e s s o t h a t R o b i n Hood became t h e supreme h e r o of, E n g l a n d a s L a n c e l o t was o f F r a n c e . I n s p i t e o f t h e f o r e g o i n g S i r G a w a i n and t h e G r e e n K n i g h t , i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y , c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n c h a r a c t e r a n d s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n i s ' s u r p a s s e d o n l y by T r i s t a n and P a r z i v a l , t o w h i c h i t i s a k i n . A s ' f a r a s t h e l a t e r German v e r s i o n s o f P a r s i f a l and t h e G r a i l a r e c o n c e r n e d , e x c l u d i n g d e r j u h g e r e . T i t u r e l and A l h r e c h t v o n S c h a r f e n b u r g * s L o h r % g r i n , ~ ' t h e f i r s t I m p o r t a n t ' w ork a f t e r W o l f r a m I s D i u K r o n e b y H e l n r i c h v o n dem T u r l i n a b o u t 122Q :. T h i s a u t h o r u t i l i z e s a n d e n l a r g e s u p o n t h e o l d e r v e r s i o n s , f o l l o w i n g C h r e t i e n a n d W o l f r a m c h i e f l y . A s G a s t o n - P a r i s shows i r r h i s H i S t b l r e A l i t t e r a l r e G a w a i n r o s e i n I m p o r t a n c e f r o m Le Conte., d e l G r a a l u n t i l h e was p l a c e d o n e q u a l i t y w i t h P a r s i f a l and f i n a l l y H e i n r i c h w r i t e s what m i g h t be t e r m e d a =Gawain r o m a n c e . P a r z i v a l ' s u n c l e who k i l l e d h i s b r o t h e r h a d b e e n c u r s e d w i t h t h e s p e l l o f l i f e i n - / d e a t h , , u n t i l one of t h e r a c e a s k s t h e s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l j a f t e r w h i c h t h e G r a i l d i s a p p e a r s . T h e v i s i t t o t h e G r a i l c a s t l e i s o n l y one among many a d v e n t u r e s a n d h a s no s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . A l b r e c h t ^ s T i t u r e l , c. 1 2 8 0 , h a s t h r e e h e r o e s - G a w a i n , P a r s i f a l and T r i s t a n b u t t h e s t o r y i s so a r r a n g e d , t h a t i t r e v o l v e s a r o u n d i s c h i o n a t u l a n d e r , S The l a s t German A r t h u r i a n romance was III r i c h d e r F u e t r e r s ferzival a t t h e -end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H e r e i s w e l d e d t o g e t h e r and r e p r o d u c e d i n - c y c l i e f o r m t h e a c t i o n o f t h e o l d e r e p i c s b u t a l l r e f l e c t i v e a nd 1. G o l , .215. 2. G o l 2 3 1 . • 9 8 . " - e x p l a n a t o r y p a r t s , a l l s e c t i o n s h a v i n g no d e f i n i t e c o n n e c t i o n - 1 ' w i t h t h e a c t i o n a r e d e l e t e d . The e s s e n c e o f t r u e r omance i s a s i m p l e s t o r y o f : a d v e n t u r e , a g u e s t p u r s u e d w i t h s t e a d f a s t f a i t h , c o l o r e d w i t h t h e r o s y m i s t s o f i l l u s i o n , b u t i n f u s e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e a n d b a s e d on t h e n o b l e s t e t h i c a l i d e a s . T h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e l a y s o f M a r i e .de F r a n c e , G a w a i n and; t h e G r e e n K n i g h t , T r i s t a n and P a r z i v a l b u t a r e l a c k i n g i n m o s t o f t h e o t h e r r o m a n c e s . M e d i e v a l r o m a n c e was l i e l i t e r a t u r e o f f e u d a l i s m and t h e : p r a c t i c a l b a s i s o f c h i v a l r y . When f e u d a l i s m d i e d the_ r e a l s p i r i t o f c h i v a l r y d i e d a l s o a n d w i t h : i t the. m e d i e v a l r o m a n c e . T h e r e f o l l o w e d a n a b r u p t c e s s a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t o r y o f P a r s i f a l a n d t h e G r a i l a n d t h e theme l a y d o r m a n t f o r o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d and f i f t y y e a r s . The. e d i t i o n s o f Bodrner, i n 1 7 5 3 , a n d M a i l e r i n 178S, i n f l u e n c e d G o e t h e ' s D i e G e h e l m n l s s e (.1784} and Immermann T s • M e r l i n ; ( 1 8 3 8 ) , b u t i n g e n e r a l i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e theme was not- r e v i v e d u n t i l t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e r o m a n t i c s i n t h e k i d d l e A g e s i n s p i r e d - e d i t i o n s o f L a c h m a n n ( 1 8 3 3 ) and S i m r o c f i (1842).. I t was t h e l a t t e r w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d t h e themes o f P a r z i v a l a n d L o h e n g r i n t o H i c h a r d Wagner, 1. B o y d Chapter Three 99. The Treatment of the Legend I n R i c h a r d Wagner*s P a r s i f a l I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d something o f the f a s c i n a t i o n which the P a r s i f a l s t o r y e x e r c i s e d over Wagner f o r so many y e a r s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know something of the l i f e and c h a r a c t e r of Wagner h i m s e l f . The f i r s t c r i s i s i n h i s l i f e came o n l y a few months a f t e r h i s b i r t h i n L e i p z i g on May 22, 1813, when h i s f a t h e r d i e d of t y p h o i d , irrom t h i s p r e dicament the f a m i l y was r e s c u e d b y Ludwig Geyer, t o whom Wagner owed much of h i s e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n a r t and music. Wagner grew up a d e l i c a t e and s e n s i t i v e c h i l d . A t t h i s time he. s a i d t h a t he l i v e d and b r e a t h e d i n t h e 1 a i r o f Hoffmann's G h o s t s . He showed an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n p o e t r y and m y t h o l o g y , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h which he says t h a t , i n o r d e r t o st u d y O l d and M i d d l e h i g h German i n the r i g h t f r ame-of mind, he began a g a i n from the b e g i n n i n g w i t h Greek a n t i q u i t y and was f i l l e d w i t h g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m f o r the s u b j e c t . A f t e r h e a r i n g Beethoven's N i n t h Symphony and the s u s t a i n e d f i f t h s w h i c h were t o form the keynote o f h i s music, he d e t e r -mined to become a m u s i c i a n . "For me," he s a y s , "music was a s p i r i t , a n o b l e and m y s t i c monster and any attempt t o r e g u l a t e i t seemed t o l o w e r i t i n my e y e s . " 1. Leb., 411. 100. Wagner's f i n a n c i a l s t r u g g l e s , began e a r l y . M s f i r s t p o s i t i o n , w hich he o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h K o s a l i e and A l b e r t , was t h a t o f chorus master a t Wurzburg, t h e home of W a l t h e r von d e r vogelwelde,who p r o v e d the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r h i s c h a r a -c t e r of I t h e r von S t o l z i n g . n i s i d o l s , a t t h i s t i m e , were Beethoven, Weber and S c h r o d e r - D e v r i e n t , who showed him t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f a woman's v o i c e . N e x t , a t Magdeburg, t o o k p l a c e h i s m e e t i n g w i t h Minna P l a n e r . T h e i r l i f e t o g e t h e r was one of r e c r i m i n a t i o n and r e p e n t a n c e , o f p r o j e c t s which were a l w a y s f r u s t r a t e d and i d e a s w h i c h , i n s p i t e of her devo-t i o n , she c o u l d not share because of in c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The p e r i o d i n H i g a was f o l l o w e d by the stormy t r i p t o London and the m e e t i n g w i t h Meyerbeer->who i n h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of showy . m u s i c a l e f f e c t s w i t h a l l the r e s o u r c e s o f t h e a t r i c a l i s m , u n d o u b t e d l y i n f l u e n c e d Wagner. I n a l l Wagner's chequered c a r e e r t h e r e is no episode, of deeper d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , o f greater n o s t a l g i a and d i s i l l u s i o n n i e n t a W t F r e n c h and I t a l i a n o p e r a , t h a n t h a t w h i c h s h a t t e r e d h i s hopes a t B a r i s and which not o n l y f r u s t r a t e d h i s p r o j e c t s b u t b r o u g h t him w i t h i n imminent danger of s t a r v a t i o n , w h i c h was a v e r t e d only by h i s p r o s e a r t i c l e s f o r the G a z e t t e M u s i c a l e . xhe performance o f K i e n z i , 1841, was f o l l o w e d by e x c u r s i o n s i n t o h i s t o r y . A f t e r r e a d i n g Baumer's H i s t o r y o f t h e Ho h e n s t a u f e n she p l a n n e d a drama on A r i e d r i c h I I , w h i l e urimm's Deutsche Sagen i n t r o d u c e d him t o TannhSuser and L o h e n g r i n , sagner was now t h i r t y and i f he had d i e d then he would be unknown, ais a c t u a l a c h i e v e -ment was a l l but n e g l i g i b l e f o r , though he was s t i l l hampered 101. by convention', a g r e a t change was t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i s work. Between D i e Fsen and T r i s t a n t h e r e i s no common ground i n t r e a t m e n t , s u b j e c t , d r a m a t i c o u t l o o k or command of m u s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . Der fl&egende H o l l a n d e r (1843), which marked the e a r l y Dresden p e r i o d , seemed b l e a k and d u l l t o an audience which had hoped f o r a r e n e w a l o f the georgeous pageantry and r a p i d a c t i o n of i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . Work f o l l o w e d on two new tt o p e r a s a r i s i n g out o f Tannhauser. From the Wartburg scene Wagner d e r i v e d the i d e a of Sachs and t h e M e i s t e r s i n g e r . From the o l d p o e t r y book l e n t him by L e h r s i n P a r i s the s t o r y o f L o h e n g r i n and the Swan was s k e t c h e d . Meanwhile Yfagner's r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l views had brought an open b r e a c h w i t h t h e c o u r t . I t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t when he t o o k p a r t i n the r e v o l u t i o n of 1848 he was a s^alatfced o f f i c i a l o f the c o u r t which he a t t a c k e d . I t i s remark a b l e t h a t d u r i n g the u p r i s i n g he wrote Kunstwerk der Z u k u n f t , whose c a l m a n a l y s i s o f a r t i s i n / s a l i e n t c o n t r a s t t o t h e t u r b u l e n c e of h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s e x i l e t o 1853, when he began Das R h e i n g o I d , Wagner wrote no note o f m u s i c . Wagner's work i s d i v i d e d by the Dresden R e v o l u t i o n . i n h i s e a r l y works he a c c e p t e d the c u r r e n t r o m a n t i c v o c a b u l a r y , the s o f t d h r o m a t i c e f f e c t s and b r i l l i a n c e o f s p e c t a c l e * I n the l a t e r works the t e x t u r e i s c l o s e r k n i t , t h e r e i s more a s s u r e d and c o n s i s t e n t use o f m o t i f s and t h e s e improve i n r i c h n e s s o f c o l o r and eloquence of p r e s e n t a t i o n . He a l s o shows g r e a t e r knowledge of i n s t r u m e n t s , such as the c l a r i n e t v w h i c h e n r i c h e s the s t r i n g s i n the opening phrase of P a r s i f a l and:the oboe wh i c h sharpens the edge of the-;.Meister-s i n g e r ' s march. From the communism of 1848 Hagner gr a d u a l l y -p assed t o c o n s e r v a t i s m and s u b m i s s i o n t o the s t a t e . He came to see t h a t p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n was u s e l e s s and t h a t the i d e a l was a r e f o r m a t i o n of the w o r l d by u n i v e r s a l l o v e . He p a s s e d , t o o , f r o m the pessimism which was a n n a t u r a l accompani-ment of h i s many discouragements t o t h e o p t i m i s m o f l a t e r days,, w h i c h was a t r u e r e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s h o p e f u l c h a r a c t e r . D u r i n g h i s e x i l e Wagner o c c u p i e d h i m s e l f c h i e f l y w i t h c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s . L o h e n g r i n , w h i c h was performed i n 1850, Wagner d i d not hear u n t i l 1861. H i s u n e v e n t f u l l i f e i n e x i l e was i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e c o n c e r t s i n London. There f o l l o w e d the days i n A s y l , the garden p a v i l i o n of the Wesendoncks. A p e r i o d o f deep d e p r e s s i o n o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of S i e g f r i e d 4 when he f e l t the i m p r a c t i b i l i t y o f h i s p r o j e c t s which no e x i s t i n g t h e a t r e , c o u l d p r o d u c e * Then came the commission of the Emperor of B r a z i l and i n the w r i t i n g o f T r i s t a n Wagner found r e l i e f f r o m h i s l o v e f o r MathiEe Wesendorek, from w h i c h he f l e d t o . l u c e r n e i n 1858. A second attempt to s t o r m P a r i s r e s u l t e d i n the f i a s c o of the ffiannhauser p e r f o r m a n c e . At the age o f 50 he had never had a penny f r e e f r om encumbrance and he had no o u t l o o k f o r the f u t u r e . The moments o f s u c c e s s f o l l o w i n g H i e n z i and L o h e n g r i n had been b r i l l i a n t but had l e d t o n o t h i n g s u b s t a n t i a l . He was met by 1 u n i v e r s a l h o s t i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f the c r i t i c s . On May 2, 1. He had a r o u s e d so g r e a t an i n t e r e s t t h a t by 1883 t h e r e were 10,000 books and pamphlets about him. 103 1864, Wagneriwas h i d i n g f r o m h i s c r e d i t o r s i n a h o t e l i n S t u t t g a r t when, f o r the second t i m e , he was r e s c u e d by a m i r a c l e - t h e summons o f LudTag I I to s t a y w i t h h i m always and produce h i s works-=as he wished. W i t h t h i s a s s u r a n c e , l i f e at l a s t became e a s i e r . The s u c c e s s of T r i s t a n , however, aroused so much o p p o s i t i o n t h a t he was f o r c e d t o l e a v e f o r T r i e b s c h e n , n e a r L u c e r n e , where he was j o i n e d by the t w e n t y - n i n e y e a r o l d IT Cosima Bulow, the i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter of L i s z t and the Countess d ' A g o u l t . When Ludwig abandoned h i s p r o j e c t f o r a s p e c i a l o p e r a house i n Munich., Wagner, i n B a y r e u t h , f u l -f i l l e d the i d e a w h i c h he had l o n g h e l d of a town c o n s e c r a t e d to the p e r f e c t performance of h i s works^which s h o u l d s e r v e a l s o as a t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r Wagnerian s i n g e r s . The f i r s t p e r f ormances were announced f o r 1873 b u t the n e c e s s a r y money was not f o r t h c o m i n g , d u e t o Wagner's p e t u l a n c e and t a c t l e s s n e s s , . and the R i n g was not produced u n t i l A u gust 13, 1876. H i s i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n i n c r e a s e d under the i n f l u e n c e of Cosima, who was a devout C a t h o l i c . The l i b r e t t o of P a r s i f a l , s k e t c h e d i n 1865, r e a d i n London i n 1878, was f i n i s h e d i n Palermo i n 1882. The performance o f P a r s i f a l t o o k p l a c e on J u l y 26, 1882 w i t h Winkelmann i n the r o l e o f P a r s i f a l , S c a x i a as Gurnnemanat and M a t e r n a as Kundry. I t was the f i r s t time t h a t an o p e r a o f Wagner's had been a w a i t e d e a g e r l y by the e n t i r e m u s i c a l w o r l d . The performance of P a r s i f a l was f o l l o w e d by h i s r e t i r e m e n t to I t a l y where he d i e d on F e b r u a r y 13, 1883. Thus the man who had begun as the d i r e c t o r o f a bankrupt c o u n t r y t h e a t r e ended a t B a y r e u t h w i t h e v e r y r e s o u r c e a t h i s 104 d i s p o s a l and.a b r i l l i a n t c i r c l e o f a d m i r e r s . From the s t o r y of h i s l i f e i t i s c l e a r t h a t Wagner was an e x a c t i n g f r i e n d and u n r e l e n t i n g enemy. He was an i n t e n s e l y a g g r e s s i v e c r i t i c and r e f o r m e r and made a c e a s e l e s s e f f o r t t o spread by p o l e m i c w r i t i n g s the meaning of h i s d o c t r i n e s . H i s f a i t h i n h i m s e l f never wavered f o r a moment and he c o n t i n u a l l y r a t i o n a l i s e d h i s b e h a v i o u r to prove t h a t he was r i g h t . Wagner's o u t s t a n d i n g t r a i t was t h i s m a s t e r f u l s e l f - r e l i a n c e 9 " t h e r e s u l t o f h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the message he had t o d e l i v e r w h i c h swept a s i d e a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of 1 r e t i c e n c e o r p e r s o n a l g r a t i t u d e . wot Caesar h i m s e l f pursued h i s end w i t h more s i n g l e n e s s of h e a r t o r h e l d h i m s e l f more f r e e 2 i n t h e c h o i c e o f means t o a t t a i n i t . He was aflame w i t h the f i r e o f h i s own g e n i u s . He knew what i t was i n him to produce and he r e b e l l e d b i t t e r l y a g a i n s t the c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e of h i s d a i l y needs which would f o r c e him t o w r i t e p o t b o i l e r s and abandon h i s v a s t p r o j e c t s . He appeared t o t h i n k t h a t the w o r l d should s u p p o r t h i s g e n i u s . I n c o n t r a s t to t h i s d r i v i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h e r e was something unmanly and n e u r o t i c about the c h a r a c t e r o f Wagner. He was a b n o r m a l l y s e n s i t i v e , i r r i t a b l e , i m p o l i t i c and i m p a t i e n t o f a l l r e s t r a i n t and c o n v e n t i o n . He had p e r i o d s o f intemperance and d e p r e s s i o n and f r e q u e n t l y e n t e r t a i n e d s u i c i d a l t h o u g h t s . Wagner was i n o r d i n a t e l y f o n d of l u x u r i e s and g r a t i f i e d t h e s e e x t r a v a g a n t t a s t e s . He s a i d , " I cannot 1. Had. 10. 2. Hend. 67. 105 s l e e p i n s t r a w and d r i n k bad w h i s k e y , i must be eoapced i n one way o r a n o t h e r . " Yet he o f t e n knew what i t was t o l a c k n e c e s s i t i e s . L i s z t says t h a t he was as i m p u l s i v e as a g a i l y c o l o r e d f o u n t a i n b u b b l i n g o v e r . He would o f t e n r o l l about the. f l o o r w i t h Peps t a l k i n g nonsense, a l l the t i m e , o r would s i t f o r hours on an o l d f o u n t a i n i n the m i d d l e of a d r y l a k e . There was always a good d e a l of the r o m a n t i c about Wagner. I n Oper und Drama he >ag.f&... t h a t he had a c r a z e f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h e a t r i c a l and s p e c t a c u l a r as d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m s i m p l e b o u r g e o i s customs and t h a t he was opposed t o a l l n a t u r a l i s m i n music. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s mediums i s i n i t s e l f a r o m a n t i c i d e a . Romantic, t o o , a r e h i s themes o f l o s e and d e a t h , the i n t e n s e l o n g i n g o f h i s h e r o e s and the c h a r a c t e r s s u c h as Tannhauser, Jsaseortas, Kundry, who d i e d i v i d e d a g a i n s t t h e m s e l v e s . N i e t z s c h e s a y s , "Von Wagner ware im A l l g e m e i n e n zu sagen, dass er a l l e m i n der iNlatur^was b i s j e t z t n i c h t r eden wo l i t e , e i n e Sprache gegeben h a t . . . , I r t a u g h t auch i n Morgen^rote Wald, N e b e l , K l & l p t , B e r g e s h o h e N a c h t s c h a u e r , Eondes^ a n Z ; h i n e i n uhd merkt i h n e n e i n h i m m l i s o h e s Begehren ab: s i e w o l l e n auch t o n e n . " 1 M k e the r o m a n t i c s V/agner was much i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, myths and the m a r v e l l o u s . The d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t w h i l e o t h e r a r o m a t i c s were c o n t e n t t o dream of t h e s e f i g u r e s u n t i l " t h e w o r l d became a dream and the dream a w o r l d " Wagner was n o t c o n t e n t u n t i l he had g i v e n 1 . S c h r e n c k , 78. 106 form t o the dream f i g u r e s and awakened to l i f e the whole s p i r i t and c o l o u r o f t h e i r p e r i o d s . Wagner *has been aeeused of b e i n g a n t i c h r i s t i a n . The boy who shuddered a t h i s f i r s t communion belonged t o no church and was opposed to the dogma and e x t e r n a l s of the C a t h o l i c c h u r c h . Yet even i n the p e r i o d from 1849-52, when h i s a t t i t u d e i s d i r e c t l y h o s t i l e to t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e r e i s not a s i n g l e work by him i n w h i c h he does not speak of r e l i g i o n as t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t r u e human d i g n i t y . R e l i g i o n , f o r Wagner^was the i n n e r l i f e . He e n v i s a g e d h i s own l i f e ' s c ourse as the o p e r a t i o n of the World S p i r i t . He v e n e r a t e d C h r i s t ' s s u f f e r i n g s and b e l i e v e d i n a m o r a l f o r c e and the r e d e m p t i o n o f the w o r l d . There i s no b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of h i s a t t i t u d e t o r e l i g i o n t h a n h i s emphasis on the s a c r e d n e s s of h i s " B u h n e n w e i h _ . f e s t s p i e l P a r s i f a l . : i When Ludwig demanded t h a t the second performance be g i v e n i n Munich Wagner a d d r e s s e d to the k i n g h i s famous p e t i t i o n . T h i s l a s t and most s a c r e d o f a l l h i s works he wished to p r e s e r v e from the f a t e o f be-1 coming a v u l g a r o p e r a . How, he a s k e d , c o u l d a drama i n which the s u b l i m e s t r i t e s of t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h are o p e n l y r e p r e s -e n t e d , 'be produced i n an o r d i n a r y t h e a t r e ? On September 28, . 1880 ;he wrote t o Ludwig, "Dort t i n B a y r e u t h ) d a r f d e r P a r s i f a l i n a l l e r Z u k u n f t e i n z i g und a l l e i n a u f g e f u h r t werden. N i e s o i l d e r P a r s i f a l a u f irgendeinem anderen t h e a t e r aem P u b l i k u m 1. LA, 28. 107 ft -j zum Amusement d a r g e b o t e n . " Wagner h i m s e l f s t r e s s e s p i t y as h i s o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c : "Das M i t l e i d erkenne i c h i n m i r a l s s t a r f t s t e n Zug meines m o r a l l s c h e n Wesens und v e r m u t l i c h i s t d i e s e r auch 2 der Q u e l l meiner Eunst*,?' I t was t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r c o n s c i o B s s u f f e r i n g as a means t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l i f e t h a t made the E a s t I n d i a n r e l i g i o n a t t r a c t i v e t o h i n u To M a t h i l d e Wesendonck, October 1, 1858 ? and a l s o t o Schopenhauer Wagner w r i t e s , " I c h habe mi<fc menschen weniger m i t l e i d a l s m i t T i e r e n . . . . D e r Mensch haft i n s e i n e r Mot den We.g z u r E r l o s u n g j d e r eben dem T i e r e v e r s c h l o s s e n i s t . " Man by r e s i g n a t i o n can r a i s e h i m s e l f above s u f f e r i n g to • ^ ^ E ! : ' . o n and s i n c e the purpose of s u f f e r i n g i s t o arouse p i t y , s u f f e r i n g and t h e consequent p i t y may l e a d t o r e d e m p t i o n . "Wenn d i e s e s L e i d e n einem Zweck hafcen kann, so i s t es e i n z i g d u r ch Erwecftung des M i t l e i d e s im Menschen, der dadureh das v e r f e h l t e D a s e i n d e s tt T i e r e s i n s i c h auf nimmt und zum E r l o s e n der Welt w i r d , indem tt e r uberhaupt den I r r t u m a l l e s D a s e i n s e r k e n n t . . . . D i e s e Bed«etung w i r d D i r e i n m a l aus dem 3. A k t e des P a r g i f a l am K a r f r e i t a g s -morgen k l a r w e r d e n . . . . M i t l e i d m i t den T i e r e n hang$ m i t der gute des S h a r a k t e r s so £enau zusammen, dass....wer gegen T i e r e grausam i s t , , konne k e i n g u t e r Mensch s e i n . " 4 I n a l e t t e r 1. I n s p i t e o f a l l h i s p r e c a u t i o n s P a r s i f a l was produced a t t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n i n New York on C h r i s t m a s eve, 1903, and. t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r s h i s d e a t h , on A p r i l 13, 1923, was d e c l a r e d "vogelfr£&". S.October 1, v 5 8 , Yen. D i a r y . 3. G01. 341. 4. V e n e t i a n d i a r y , O c t . l , 1858. 108 to E r n s t von•Weber i n 1880 Wagner w r i t e s , "Was erwai-ten w i r von e i n e r R e l i g i o n , wenn w i r das M i t l e i d m i t den T i e r e n a u s s c h l i e s s e n . " L i k e L i s z t he was opposed to v i v i s e c t i o n as a u s e l e s s s a c r i f i c e o f a n i m a l s . As a boy Wagner had drowned some p u p p i e s i n a s h a l l o w p o o l b e h i n d h i s u n c l e ' s house i n E l s l e b e n and f o r e v e r a f t e r he was u n a b l e to t h i n k o f the slow d e a t h of these poor c r e a t u r e s w i t h o u t horror. He always 2 had p e t s . The p a r r o t Papo who w h i s t l e d s e l e c t i o n s from R i e n z i and was t r a i n e d t o say " R i c h a r d Wagner, you're a g r e a t man", Peps who. was f a t enough,for a bun, Mark and the a n i m a l s which . . . 3 • a r e b u r i e d not f a r from h i s geave... The p r o g r e s s o f B i e A t e i s . t e r - s i n g e r was a r r e s t e d f o r a month because i n t e n d i n g a stray,, s i c k dog h i s hand was so b a d l y b i t t e n t h a t he was unable t o h o l d a pen. The i l l n e s s o f Peps postponed f o r two days h i s t r i p t o S e e l i s b e r g , and a f t e r the poor dog had d i e d i n h i s arms^ Wagner s a y s t h a t he f e l t sorrow and b i t t e r p a i n f o f h i s dear f r i e n d of t h e p a s t t h i r t e e n y e a r s . Some o f h i s b i o g r a p h e r s have devoted much space t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Wagner as a p h i l o s o p h e r . Henderson b e l i e v e s t h a t he was n o t , a p h i l o s o p h e r a t a l l i n the s t r i c t sense o f t h a t term. He t h i n k s t h a t Wagner was a g r o p e r a f t e r p h i l o s o p h i e s and sought f o r a r a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s a r t i s t i c t h e o r i e s and endeavoured to found them upon meta-p h y s i c a l t e n e t s borrowed f r o m books. I f t h i s i s so,the best t e x t books o f Wagner's p h i l o s o p h i e s a r e h i s o p e r a s , f o r i n 1. G o l . 365. 2. Leb. 91. 3. Haw. 439; L e t t e r s , 205. 109 these i s found that, i t was the e t h i c a l s i d e of p h i l o s o p h y t h a t touched him most d i r e c t lye. and t h a t i t d i d so because of i t s c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the t r a g i c i n human e x p e r i e n c e . S u r e l y t h i s pays him a h i g h e r compliment than t o c a l l him a p h i l o s o p h e r , f o r i t a s s e r t s t h a t he was g u i d e d c h i e f l y by h i s d r a m a t i c f e e l i n g . The p h i l o s o p h e r s who most i n f l u e n c e d Wagner were Feuerbach and Schopenhauer and to a much l e s s e r degree N i e t z s c h e , ^ e s x o n , e t c . Weston and o t h e r c r i t i c s r e g a r d P a r s i f a l as a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between p e s s i m i s m and o p t i m i s m , between the • 1 p h i l o s o p h i e s of Feuerbach and Schopenhauer. To Feuerbach Wagner d e d i c a t e d "Kunstwerk der Z u k u n f t " , f o r he r e g a r d e d him as the i d e a l exponent o f the r a d i c a l r e l e a s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l from the t h r a l d o m of a c c e p t e d n o t i o n s founded dn the b e l i e f i n a u t h o r i t y . Feuerbach's p h i l o s o p h y was one of a t h e i s m combined w i t h the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of n a t u r e . God t o him i s o n l y i d e a l i s e d man. R e l i g i o n and l e g e n d are the c r e a t i o n s of p o p u l a r f a n c y . The r e l i g i o n o f the Greeks was the w o r s h i p of the b e a u t i f u l w i t h p e r f e c t man as the c e n t r e , whereas t h e G h r i s t i a n i d e a was t h a t i f one l i v e d here m i s e r a b l y , reward would come i n heaven. A c t u a l l y Wagner took n o t h i n g f r o m Feuerbach but a few words and concepts w h i c h s e r v e d as s t e p p i n g s t o n e s t o Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer s t a r t s w i t h K a n t ' s s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i s m 1. LN, 81; Leben.552; Ghamb.147. ' no . The w o r l d i s . o u r i d e a ; i t i s i l l u s i o n and has no e x i s t e n c e i n and f o r i t s e l f but t r u e r e a l i t y e x i s t s b e h i n d t h i s appear-ance, Schopenhauer m a i n t a i n s i t i s p o s s i b l e to know the t h i n g i n i t s e l f by an i n t u i t i v e , i f not by a l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e . T h i s u n d e r l y i n g t h i n g i s W i l l ) w h i c h i s more i m p o r t a n t than b e i n g . Man i s p r i m a r i l y a w i l l i n g r a t h e r t h a n a t h i n k i n g b e i n g . I n t e l l e c t i s the s l a v e o f w i l l . B l i n d and u n r e a s o n i n g w i l l f u n c t i o n s as i n s t i n c t i n lower a n i m a l s w i t h o u t the a i d of i n t e l l e c t . As i t r i s e s h i g h e r i t c r e a t e s a mind f o r i t s e l f . P e s s i m i s m - i s L i n e v i t a b l e because o f the n a t u r e o f w i l l . W i l l i n g a r i s e s from want. The s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a w i s h ends i t but m e r e l y g i v e s p l a c e t o a n o t h e r u n f u l f i l l e d w i s h . Thus h a p p i n e s s l i e s "only i n the f u t u r e o r e l s e i n the p a s t . L i f e may not seem worth l i v i n g but Schopenhauer o f f e r s us a p a l l i a t i v e i n the shape o f a r t . By pure c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t on which the W i l l has o b j e c t i f i e d i t s e l f , a r t seeks to see the Ideas t h a t l i e b e h i n d the o b j e c t and r e p r e s e n t them more p e r f e c t l y , the s o l e purpose o f a r t b e i n g t o communicate i d e a s . I n contemp-l a t i o n o f a r t , f r e e f r o m a l l d e s i r e , the human s o u l l o s e s the sense o f e x i s t e n c e and f r e e s i t s e l f from W i l l . M u s i c can e x p r e s s t h e W i l l d i r e c t l y . I n the language of music,under-s t o o d w i t h a b s o l u t e d i r e c t n e s s y e t u n t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o t h a t of r e a s o n , the i n n e r n a t u r e o f a l l l i f e and e x i s t e n c e e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f . M u s i c e x e r c i s e s a c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t because i t never causes us a c t u a l s o r r o w . 1. B a r r y , 1 2 4 . I l l A l t h o u g h Schopenhauer had an u n f a v o r a b l e o p i n i o n o f Wagner a n d . p r e f e r r e d R o s s i n i , Wagner was g r e a t l y f a s c i n a t e d by Schopenhauer's work, Di e Welt a l s W i l l e und Y o r s t e l l u n g , not o n l y by i t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y f a t e i n a t t r a c t i n g no a t t e n t i o n u n t i l n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , b u t a l s o by the c l e a r n e s s and p r e c i s i o n w i t h which the most d i f f i c u l t m e t a p h y s i c a l problems were t r e a t e d . F o r many y e a r s , he s a y s , t h e book never l e f t him and i t i n f l u e n c e d the whole co u r s e of h i s l i f e . 1 An o p t i m i s t by n a t u r e , Wagner found i t h a r d t o abandon t h e c h e e r f u l Greek a s p e c t and a c c e p t the i d e a of a n n i h i l a t i o n . He says t h a t the f i n a l summing up r e g a r d i n g the a n n i h i l a t i o n of the w i l l and complete a b n e g a t i o n alarmed h i m but a f t e r Herwegh showed him t h a t a l l t r a g e d y i s d e r i v e d from t h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the n u l l i t y of the v i s u a l w o r l d , he -turned t o the JNibelungen and u n d e r s t o o d Wo t a n a t l a s t . Wagaer f o l l o w s Schopenhauer's t h e o r y of l o v e as the most p o w e r f u l and i r r e s i s t i b l e m o t i v e a f t e r t h e l o v e of l i f e , and t h e r e f o r e e n t i t l e d t o be the c h i e f i n t e r e s t o f a drama. The w i l l o f the i n d i v i d u a l appears as the w i l l o f t h e s p e c i e s which i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v e under the i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e y seek t h e i r own p l e a s u r e . Thus T r i s t a n und I s o l d e becomes the t r a g e d y of l o v e r s dravm t o g e t h e r by t h i s w i l l . B o t h Schopenhauer and Wagner were a t t r a c t e d by B u d d h i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , Wagner p a r t i -c u l a r l y under t h e i n f l u e n c e of B o u r n o u f l s I n t r o d u c t i o n to  the H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n Buddhism. Schopenhauer contended t h a t 1. B a r r y , 127, 129; Leben, 615. 112 p i t y was t h e - c h i e f v i r t u e , f o r i n f e e l i n g p i t y f o r o t h e r s we deny the W i l l s a s e x p r e s s e d i n o u r s e l v e s and l o s e our i n d i v i d u a l -i t y i n sympathy. By c o n s t a n t p r a c t i c e i n sympathy w i t h a l l s u f f e r i n g we t h w a r t the e x p r e s s i o n i n us of t h e w i l l t o l i v e and r e a c h the s t a t e of n i r v a n a . The h i g h e s t i d e a l o f a l l l i f e i s the s t i f l i n g o f d e s i r e and the a b s o l u t e c e s s a t i o n f o r a l l p e r s o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; " t h e n n o t h i n g c a n t r o u b l e him more f o r he has c u t the thousand c o r d s of w i l l which h o l d us bound 1 t o the w o r l d . " I n a l e t t e r t o L i s z t , W a g n e r e x p r e s s e d u n c e r t -a i n t y as to whether sympathy t a k e s the f o r m of a common j o y o r common sorrow but f e l t t h a t the s a i n t s o f a l l times had seen and f e l t n o t h i n g but sorro w i n the d e v o u r i n g n a t u r e of W i l l . Schopenhauer s e r v e d Wagner p r i n c i p a l l y i n the c a p a c i t y o f e l u c i d a t o r , f o r he e x p r e s s e d i n c l e a r language the t h e o r i e s Wagner had employed i n h i s work but never f o r m u l a t e d f o r him-s e l f . He a c c e p t s Schopenhauer's i d e a s w i t h o u t changing h i s fundamental c o n v i c t i o n s . Though t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s a re c l o s e l y a l l i e d , one r e p r e s e n t s the w o r l d as seen by the m e t a p h y s i c i s t , the o t h e r as seen by the p o e t . One l e a d s t o a s t a t e o f nega-t i o n , the o t h e r t o a f f i r m a t i o n and p o s s i b l e r e g e n e r a t i o n . A p e r s o n n a t u r a l l y as o p t i m i s t i c as Wagner c o u l d not re m a i n f o r l o n g under t h e s p e l l o f u n q u a l i f i e d p e s s i m i s m . I n P a r s i f a l , composed a f t e r a l i f e o f b i t t e r n e s s and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , he c r i e s ^ ' d e r Glaube l e b t " . The n e g a t i o n o f the w i l l t o l i v e i s not th e ' e n d , but the b e g i n n i n g of a new hope o f t h e 1. B a r r y , 129. I I S r e g e n e r a t i o n - o f man by r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l p i t y . Sohrenck t h i n k s t h a t P a r s i f a l cannot be t a k e n as a r e f l e c t i o n o f Schopenhauer's p h i l o s o p h y u n l e s s P a r s i f a l i s r e g a r d e d as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of b l i n d i n s t i n c t i v e W i l l who, made wise t h r o u g h p i t y , a t t a i n s h i s own n e g a t i o n . 1 i n s t e a d , h e t h i n k s t h a t P a r s i f a l i s e n t i r e l y human,,as... d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m Eundry who i s h a l f s y m b o l i c a l . To him, sympathy i s the main theme but nowhere i s t h e r e a t r a c e of the n e g a t i o n of the w i l l . Schopenhauer s u g g e s t s t h a t o n l y i n s o f a r as a c t i o n s p r i n g s f r o m p i t y has i t m o r a l w o r t h . S e r e the s t r i c t p e s s i m i s t i c r e s i g n a t i o n o f D i e S&eger has y i e l d e d t o a c t i o n . Because Wagner c o u l d not r e c o n c i l e the w i l l t o l i v e and Buddhism, "of n e c e s s i t y he t u r n e d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , not as a f o r m a l dogma, but a r e l i g i o n of p i t y > w h i o h i s n o t h i n g but the l o v e o f the Feuerbach p e r i o d tempered by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Schopenhauer, the f r u i t of t h i s Weltanschauung b e i n g P a r s i f a l . Wagner i s n o t a p e s s i m i s t , f o r h i s f i n a l word i s not d e a t h bppb r e n u n c i a t i o n ^ w h o s e o b v e r s e , says Hadow, i s redemp-2 t i o n . F o r h i m t r a g e d y i s not j u s t d e a t h and d i s a s t e r . On the;, c o n t r a r y h i s a r t e x p r e s s e s i n p r o f o u n d symbols, w i t h m a r v e l l o u s i n t e n s i t y of emotion, the s u f f e r i n g of humanity and the m y s t e r i o u s , s w e e t p r e s e n t i m e n t of f u t u r e r e d e m p t i o n . The s t r i v i n g f o r an i d e a l i s found u n v a r i e d from Tannhauser to P a r s i f a l . Wagner i s not r e l i g i o u s i n the s t r i c t sense o f the 1. Sohrenck, 2 0 9 . v. Chamb. 1 5 1 , 2 8 4 , and Kapp. 1 2 0 . 2. .Had. 237. 114 word, tie c h e r i s h e d e t h i c a l i d e a s b u t d e n i e d t h a t he taught C h r i s t i a n i t y . , -tie c a l l e d t h e N i b e l u n g e n a pagan t r i l o g y yet when he f i r s t s k e t c h e d . t h e R i n g he saw t h a t the & r a i i was but an i d e a l i s e d v e r s i o n of the t r e a s u r e . C h r i s t he p l a c e s above Buddha,because C h r i s t came not t o the e l e c t but to t h e poor and he t a u g h t men how to d i e , w h i c h i s the o n l y p r o t e s t man can mafee. He o b j e c t e d to C a t h o l i c i s m and e x t e r i o r pomp. P a r s i f a l r e c o n c i l e s the C a t h o l i c i s m of 1'annhauser and the P r o t e s t a n t i s m o f D i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r . I t b e a r s o n l y t h o s e o u t e r t r a c e s of C a t h o l i c i s m which are a - p a r t of a work of t h e M i d d l e Ages. A work of a r t to Wagner i s the l i v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n . R e l i g i o n has become dogma, so m u s i c , to remain r e l i g i o n , must s e p a r a t e f r o m r e l i g i o n . The a r t i s t i s c a l l e d upon to succeed the p r i e s t . "Wahre K u n s t kann nur auf der Grundlage wahrer S i t t l i c h f c e i L v gedeifeen^ auf den gewinn e i n e r a l l g a m e i n e n m o r a l -« 1 i s c h e n Uberein c,stimmung." "Wie e i n r o t e r Aaden z i e h t s i c h d u r c h Wagners Wer&e n das g l e i c h f a l l s d e r Romantik e n t s p r o s s e n e Erlosungs_,thema < I s umspahnt d i e b e i d e n Wagnersehen Haupt^probleme Lie-be und T o d . " 2 N i e t z c h e s a y s , "Seine 6per i s t d i e 9per d e r E r l o s u n g . D i e s i s t s e i n P r o b l e m . " 3 I n a l l Wagner's e a r l i e r works s a l v a t i o n comes t h r o u g h l o v e and i s accompanied by d e a t h ; i n h i s l a s t works i t comes t h r o u g h p i t y a l o n e . THere was no 1. "LW, 432. 2. Kapp, 237. 3. V o l k e r , 5. ,115 e t h i c a l i d e a , i n the opera b e f o r e 'Wagnerj y e t the myth i s e s s e n t i a l l y e t h i c a l . Most o f Wagner's works have a p h i l o s o -p h i c a l meaning. He emphasizes e s p e c i a l l y the s a v i n g grace o f women due to t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t woman'ss s o u l c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d f o r good under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e . 1 When woman i s i n f l u e n c e d by hatej as i s Qrtrudrjher power w h i c h would'be d e s t r u c t i v e p r o v e s f u t i l e . S e n s u a l i t y i s ne v e r h e a l t h y . I t i s a d e l i r i u m i n Tannhaflser and Kundry which can o n l y be c u r e d by the p u r i t y of E l i s a b e t h and P a r s i f a l . Wagner fs heroes have no c h i l d r e n ; l o v e i s not. f o r them a l i v i n g bond w i t h i t s n a t u r a l consummation, but a s t r i v i n g f o r n e g a t i o n w h i c h d e s t r o y s e a r t h l y p l e a s u r e s . Only 'i n l o v e does the f i n i t e become i n f i n i t e . Wagner picxbures, as Schopenhauer s a y s , the p o s i t i v e s i d e o f d e a t h . 2 He overcomes the h o r r o r o f deaths f o r i t becomes not an end, which i s . t e r r i f y i n g and d e s t r u c t i v e , but the h a r b i n g e r o f the lo n g e d f o r and happy s a l v a t i o n . Thus d e a t h comes t o have an e n t i r e l y new meaning; i t i s not the c o n c l u s i o n .but the c u l m i n a t i o n of a Wagnerian Drama. Wagner says i n "Jesus von IMazareth", , "Das Leben des Mensehen i s t E n t w i c h l u n g im Egoismus and Wi e d e r e n t t a u s c h u n g des s e l b e n zujgunsten d e r a l l g e m e i n h e i t . Das l e t z t e Aufgehen des E i n z e l n e n i n das oesamtleben i s t der Tod, e r i s t d i e l e t z t e und beatimrateste Aufiiebung des Egoismus.... S e i n Tod i s t das §eibstepfer je d e s Qeschopfes 3 zugunsten der E r h a l t u n g und Berfctcherung des uanzen." 1. I n "Jesus von iMazareth" ( R e u s c h e l p.439) Wagner says "Das Weib " i s t i n s i c h unvollkommen und kann nur i n d e r E r w i e d e r -ung der L i e b e des Mannes z u r T a t i g k e i t e r l a n g e n . " 2. Kapp., £37. 3. R e u s c h e l , 433. 116 Trie-, d e s i r e f o r death p l a y s a g r e a t p a r t i n Wagner's works, i n d e e d the l o n g i n g f o r l o v e and f o r d e a t h i n h i s own b r e a s t i s the s o u r c e o f T r i s t a n und I s o l d e . T h i s y e a r n i n g f o r a pure l o v e he f e l t was the n o b l e s t t h i n g h i s h e a r t c o u l d f e e l . What c o u l d i t be o t h e r t h a n a l o n g i n g f o r r e l i e f from t h i s a b s o r p t i o n and an element of e n d l e s s l o v e , a l o v e d e n i e d t o e a r t h and r e a c h a b l e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e g a t e s of death? Wagner p l a c e s a h i g h value, on s e n s u a l l o v e a's the n a t u r a l and complete s a t i s f a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e abandonment of t h e ego. T h i s l e a d s t o d e a t h b u t not to damnation. Suoh a p a s s i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y t r a g i c but d e a t h e n n o b l e s and t r a n s f o r m s i t . I s o l d e ' s d e a t h i s t h e t r i u m p h of s p i r i t u a l e m a n c i p a t i o n from the yoke o f p a s s i o n . I n the e a r l y T r i s t a n v e r s i o n , P a r s i f a l t r i e s to soothe the l o v e r s w i t h the p o s i t i v e i d e a l of p i t y and l o v e , to show t h a t t h e n e g a t i o n o f t h e w i l l i s a p r i n c i p l e of l i f e as w e l l as d e a t h . T r i s t a n sees th e f i n a l consummation o f l o v e o n l y i n ; n i g h t and d e a t h - "Lose von d e r Welt mich aus". "Wahrend T r i s t a n B e f r e i u n g vom L i e b e s f u r f i h t nur im W u n d e r r e i e h d e r Wel'tenmacht s i e h t , l e b t i n P a r s i f a l der G&aube an den S i e g des Lebens d u r c h G o t t g e w o l l t e T a t e n der R i t t e r -s e h a f t . t .' The f l y i n g Dutchman, l i k e A n t f o r t a s and T r i s t a n , • seeks d e a t h but i s condemned to l i v e , "Wie oft- i n meeres t i e f s t e n S c h l u n d s t u r z t i c h v o l ! Sehnsucht m i c h h i n a b , doch aeh. den Tod , i c h f a n d i n n n i c h t , . . . i m w i l d e n Kampfe h o f f t i c h T o d . . . N i r g e n d s e i n Grab. N i e m a l s d e r Tod ; D i e s d e r Verdammnis S c h r e c k g e b o t . . . . D i e Sehnsucht nach dem h e i l mich 1. LW, 325. 117 T r e i b t . E i n ;Weib kann a l l e i n mieh e r l o s e n _ e i n Weib,das Treu b i s i n den Tod m i r f f e i h t . Ew'ge Y e r n i c h t u n g nimm mich a u f ! " A m f o r t a s c r i e s , "Tod! S t e r b e n l E i n z i g e g n a d e i " Even the mighty Wotan cannot endure l i f e , " E i n e s nur w i l l i c h noch^das Ende das Ende." Tannhauser p r e f e r s d e a t h t o the sensuous j o y s o f the venusberg. He s a y s , ."Eein, Sehnent. d r a n g t zum Kampfe ; f! n i c h t such' i c h Wonne und L u s t , 0 G o t t i m w o l l es f a s s e n . m i c h d r a n g t es h i n zum Tod." Kundry i n her agony c r i e s , " S c h l a f ! - S c h l a f J t i e f e r S c h l a f - TOd." Of a l l Wagner's works, i n L o h e n g r i n o n l y i s t h e r e l o n g i n g f o r l o v e a l o n e . The i d e a of r e d e m p t i o n t h r o u g h the s e l f - s a c r i f i c e o f a l o v i n g and p i t y i n g f e l l o w b e i n g grew i n importance "throughout h i s dramas. 1 The r e d e m p t i o n theme appears even i n the e a r l y work,"Die FSeri where the f a i r y queen renounces immor~ t a l i t y f o r h er l o v e d one and i s r e l e a s e d f r o m a c r u e l s p e l l by A r i h d a l * s s t e a d f a s t n e s s . L i k e E l s a he i s never t o a s k wi o a she i s and' upon h i s e n q u i r y she d i s a p p e a r s . When she i s r e f o u n d she, l i k e u n d i n e , i s never to.be c u r s e d but on the l a s t day she f o r c e s him t o cur s e h er and t o endure the t r i a l s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y t o r e l e a s e h e r . A t the end she s a y s , "Die u n / e r i d l i c h e i e w a l t d e r Li e b e 1 ...Yerlleh D i r jene hohe K r a f t , ' d i e nur U n s t e r b l l c h e n zu e i g e n i s t v e r l i e h e n . ; " I n : t h i s p l a y the man i s t h e s a v i o u r . From t h i s p o i n t Wagner t u r n s t o t h e s a v i n g pdwer of a l o v i n g woman,in S e n t a , . E l i s a b e t h , B r u n n h i l d e . 1 . v. Ohamb. 283; Koch 3 - 529; R e u s c h e l 1 7 . 118 The whole romance o f the i l y i n g Dutchman grows f r o m Senta's b a l l a d , the c r u x of which i s the p l i g h t and s a l v a t i o n o f the t o r t u r e d wanderer. "Wie e i n P f e i l f l i e g t e r h i n Ohne Z i e l . o h n e Hast ohne Ruhl Doch kanodem b l e i c h e n Manne E r l o s u n g e i n s t e n s noch werden, f a n d e r e i n Weib;, da&sbis i n den Tod $ e t r e u ihm auf E r d e n . " The Dutchman s a y s , "konnte d i c h d u r c h d r i n g e n f u r meine L e i d e n t i e f s t e s M r g e f a i A h l ? L o h e n g r i n never f i n d s t r u e l o v e l i k e t h e Dutchman. He oonnot renounce h i s d i v i n i t y . E l s a i n c o n t r a s t t o s e n t a i s i n s t i n c t i v e , n a i v e , j e a l o u s , s u s p i c i o u s . Perhaps t h e y w i l l be r e u n i t e d on a h i g h e r p l a n e . Wagner says "Hech der schonen b u d d h i s t i -schen Annahme w i r d d i e f l e c k e n l o s e R e i n h e l t des L o h e n g r i n s e i n f a c h daraus e r ^ a r l i c h , dass er d i e A ' o r t s e t z u n g P a r z i v a l s , der d i e R e i n h e i t s i c h e r s t erhampfte - i s t „ Ehenso wurde E l s a i n i h r e r W i e d e r g e b u r t b i s zu L o h e n g r i n h i n a n r e i c h e n . Somit e f s c h i e n m i r der P l a n zu meinen S i e g e r n a l s d i e a b s c h l i e s s e n d e E o r t s e t z u n g zu L o h e n g r i n , " and a g a i n "Der L o h e n g r i n i s t d i e E o r t s e t z u n g des P a r z i v a l und f i n d e t s e i n e n ^ b s c h l u s s i n den S i e g e r n . " 1 O n l y S i e g f r i e d and P a r s i f a l can fcnow pure l o v e . "Diese L i e b e n i c h t zu f a s s e n s e i a l s d i e L e i d e n s c h a f f e n d e L e i d e n s c h a f t z w i s c h e n mann und Weib ( T r i s t a n und I s o l d e ) sondern a l s d i e l a u t e n d e L i e b e z w i s c h e n i e n s c h zu mensch, das erlo'sende und feefreiende m i t l e i d . " Here not S i e g f r i e d and B r u n n h i l d e a l o n e b u t the e n t i r e s e t up 1. L A , 10. 119 of the gods* i s s a c r i f i c e d t o redeem the w o r l d . That I s , Wagner's c o n c e p t i o n o f s a l v a t i o n changed from the s a v i n g grace ' of woman's l o v e t o the b r o a d e r problem of t h e r e d e m p t i o n of the whole w o r l d by s o c i a l p i t y . " e i n t i e f g a f u h l t e s u n i v e r s -e l l e s M i t l e i d m i t a l l e m , was Leben h a t , zunachst aber m i t dem menschen." Schrenck s a y s , 1 "Aus dem frommen 6 l a u b i g e n S i n n , der s i c h a l l e m L e b e n d i g e n verbunden w e i s s , f l i e s s t das M i t l e i d und zu E r l o s u n g f u h r t e s . " Thus h i s sympathy, commencing w i t h a f e e l i n g o f k i n d n e s s to a n i m a l s , grows u n t i l i t embraces t h e t o t a l i t y o f mankind. Schopenhauer says t h a t the n e g a t i o n of the w i l l t o l i v e on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s o l v e s the whole w o r l d and redeems i t thereby. The more Wagner had t o s u f f e r ^ the more he f e l t t h a t s a l v a t i o n c o u l d come o n l y from u n r e s e r v e d .sympathy. N o t h i n g , he b e l i e v e s , i s more worthy o f l o v e than the community o f mankind. .What i s i t , he a s k s , t h a t d e s t r o y s our c i v i l i z a t i o n i f i t i s n o t the want of l o v e ? Love which has sprung f r o m sympathy and has been i n t e n s i f i e d u n t i l i t has c o m p l e t e l y b r o k e n t h e w i l l of the i n d i v i d u a l is the,redeem-i n g f o r c e o f C h r i s t i a n l t y , the l o v e v/hich of i t s e l f i n c l u d e d f a i t h and hope - f a i t h as the c e r t a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the w o r l d , hope as the knowledge of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s ever b e i n g deceivedJesai jswi "Jesus-von N a z a r e t h V/as i h r kann n i e s u n d i g werden.... . d i e L i e b e i s t das & e s e t z des L e b e n s . " g 1. S c h r e n c k , 217. ~~ 2. G o l . , 344. 120 J f . we agree w i t h L e a s i n g t h a t one of the o b j e c t s o f the t r a g i c s tage i s to awaken sympathy*we might be tempted t o c a l l P a r s i f a l the drama of a l l d ramas,for i n i t T i t u r e l , Kundry, K l i n g s o r , the u r a i l k n i g h t s , P a r s i f a l a l l s u f f e r as w e l l as A m f o r t a s and the s i g h t o f s u f f e r i n g a r o u s e s p i t y . Wagner says h i m s e l f , "Der M i t l e i d s g e d a n k e war vom Anfang an m i t dem Parsifal,.,drama u n l o s l i c h verbunden." Though a l l Wagner's works show the r e d e m p t i o n of a s i n f u l c r e a t u r e by the l o v e o f a n o t h e r human,in P a r s i f a l A m f o r t a s i s redeemed by the s u f f e r i n g o f t h e S a v i o u r h i m s e l f } w h i c h i s the redeeming power. P a r s i f a l on Kundry•s k i s s f e e l s i n h i m s e l f the wound o f A m f o r t a s and o f the S a v i o u r , who were b o t h wounded by the 3 -same sword. . As i n D i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r and Der R i n g des  Nibelungen,we are m i s l e d i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t the a c t i o n i s complete b e f o r e t h e r e a l hero a p p e a r s . A c t u a l l y the f i r s t p a r t i s o n l y the framework and the r e a l a c t i o n l i e s i n the awakening of sympathy i n P a r s i f a l ' s h e a r t and i t s e f f e c t on h i s i n n e r l i f e . I n each a c t t h e r e a l a c t i o n b e g i n s when sympathy has been awakened, not b e f o r e . The a c t i o n a t t a i n s i t s magnitude t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t n e s s of the h e r o ' s s o u l , f o r i t i s the sympathy of t h e s t r o n g n o t t h e weak t h a t wins our a d m i r a t i o n . There a r e t h r e e s t a g e s i n the development of sympathy: P a r s i f a l ' s sympathy w i t h a n i m a l s , w i t h men and f i n a l l y w i t h C h r i s t . A f t e r the wounding o f t h e w i l d swan 1. 'Chamb., 323. 2. Ven. D i a r y , O c t . l , 1858. 3. v. P r u f e r , M.H.E., 21. 121 i n t h e region'; o f t h e G r a i l where even the b i r d s and a n i m a l s are h o l y , Gurnemanz p o i n t s out h i s s i n . He shows him the c l o t t i n g b l o o d on the l i m p w h i t e wings and the s t a r i n g e y e s . 1 P a r s i f a l i s d e e p l y moved and r e p l i e s t h a t he d i d n o t know. He b r e a k s h i s bow and throws h i s arrows away as a s i g n o f the f i r s t c o n s c i o u s s t i r r i n g o f p i t y i n h i s young h e a r t . A t the a g o n i s i n g c r y f r o m A m f o r t a s , P a r s i f a l makes " e i n e krampkafte zuchende Bewegung nach dem Herzen", which shows t h a t he i s s u f f e r i n g w i t h the k i n g but t o Surnemanz' q u e s t i o n "Weisst du, was du s a h s t ? " he has no answer. The v i s i o n does not become i n t u i t i o n ; he has no sense o f t h e u n i v e r s a l t r a g e d y he has w i t n e s s e d . W i t h t h e k i s s of Kundry he becomes sudd e n l y " w e l t -feellsichlig? He sees now the u n i v e r s a l a s p e c t which had been h i d d e n from him b e f o r e . He s u f f e r s w i t h A m f o r t a s , w i t h C h r i s t , w i t h humanity, f o r by p i t y f o r one's f e l l o w men one grows t o p i t y w i t h the supreme s u f f e r i n g s of the S a v i o u r . "1m v o l l e n d e t e n P a r s i f a l i s t n i r g e n d s von Entsagung d i e Hede, sondern das M i t l e i d t r e i b t h i e r zu i'aten und d u r c h d i e Taten e r s t w i r d d e r Sieg e r r u n g e n . " 2 He i s e s s e n t i a l l y a hero of a c t i o n y e t he does not succeed o f h i s own s t r e n g t h a l o n e but i n the s i g n o f t h e C r o s s , t h r o u g h C h r i s t i a n g r a c e . The s a c r i f i c e o f d e a t h w h i c h was n e c e s s a r y i n Wagner's e a r l i e r works i s not n e c e s s a r y h e r e . I n P a r s i f a l the v i c t o r y o v e r 1. c f . D i e Feen "O s e n t das T i e r kann weinen. D i e Trane „ g l a n z t i n s e i n e n Aug' 0 w i e ' s gebrochen nach m i r schaut, 2. G o l . , 369. 1 2 8 Schopenhauer I s com p l e t e . Wagner makes more human the G h r i s t i a n concept o f Redemption by showing t h a t l o v e , e x p r e s s e d through p i t y , can redeem t h e w o r l d . P a r s i f a l l i v e s on; he i s not the d e s t r o y e r of a s i n f u l w o r l d but the f o u n d e r o f a new and b e t t e r o n e . 1 To Schopenhauer s u f f e r i n g was t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f l i f e and the n e g a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o l i v e was i m p e r a t i v e . Wagner b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s man's p r i v i l e g e t o s u f f e r because s u f f e r i n g l e a d s to p i t y , and sympathy t o r e d e m p t i o n . To him the w i l l to l i v e i s the essence of l i f e . Not by s u b o r d i n a t i n g the w i l l but by e x a l t i n g i t does man s u c c e e d . Schopenhauer says a l l l i f e i s bad. The o p t i m i s t i c Wagner b e l i e v e s t h a t the w o r l d i s not i n h e r e n t l y e v i l b ut t h a t man has made i t so and he hopes f o r t h e f u t u r e r e d e m p t i o n o f humanity. W h i l e N i e t z s c h e had come t o see t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of' p r o g r e s s Only t h r o u g h " d i e Umwertung a l l e r Werte", where Schopenhauer sought r e d e m p t i o n t h r o u g h p i t y , n e g a t i o n o f t h e 2 w i l l t o l i v e and a r t , Wagner does not j u s t e x p r e s s i n music 1. v. LW, 589. 2. P a r s i f a l was the cause of the d i s s o l u t i o n of the f r i e n d -s h i p between Wagner and N i e t z s c h e . N i e t z s c h e s t a r t e d as a d i s c i p l e of Schopenhauer but when P a r s i f a l was w r i t t e n he r e p u d i a t e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f pessimism and t r a n s f o r m e d t h e w i l l t o l i v e i n t o the w i l l to power, from the new s t a n d s p o i n t h e ' b e l i e V e d p i t y was the c h i e f v i c e so he was h o r r i f i e d a t P a r s i f a l w h i c h e x a l t s p i t y as t h e c h i e f v i r t u e , .v. B a r r y , 154. Koch says " A l s Wagner am Ausse des K r e u z e s zusammengesunB s e i , habe M e t z s c h e zum f r e i e n ftberiaenschentum und den neuen S i t t e n g e s e t z e n des W i l l e n s z u r JAacht hindrangende N a t u r s i c h dagegen a u f g e l e h n t . t ^ K o c h , 1512 ...A ; "13,) 123 Schopenhauer'.s i d e a s , f o r when he became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s i d e a s i n 1854. R i e n z i , P e r f l i e g e n d e H o l l a n d e r . Tannhauser and L o h e n g r i n had a l r e a d y t e s t i f i e d t o h i s s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s . Wagner rs p h i l o s o p h y combines and completes the i d e a s of N i e t z s c h e and Schopenhauer. To him s a l v a t i o n comes t h r o u g h an a c c e p t a n c e of l i f e f o r the sake o f o t h e r s and i t i s t h i s theme which forms the keynote o f a l l h i s works as has been shown. Wagner was a t once a c r e a t o r and a teacher who embodied h i s i d e a l s d i r e c t l y i n h i s o p e r a s and i n h i s w r i t i n g s and e x p r e s s e d them i n d i r e c t l y by r e d u c i n g them t o t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s . I n 1849 he became an a u t h o r d e l i b e r a t e l y because he r e a l i s e d t h a t h i s works c o u l d not be u n d e r s t o o d u n l e s s a change were wrought i n the c o n c e p t i o n of d r a m a t i c a r t and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m u s i c , a r t and l i f e . By h i s w r i t i n g s he sought t o p r e p a r e the s o i l i n which h i s a r t c o u l d grow. Wagner's aims and achievements might be summed up i n t h e words o f Browning: -" I have not chanted v e r s e l i k e homer, no -Nor swept s t r i n g s l i k e Terpander no" - nor c a r v e d And p a i n t e d men l i k e P h i d i a s and h i s f r i e n d . I am n o t g r e a t as they a r e , p a r t by p a r t , But i have .entered i n t o sympathy .With t h e s e f o u r , r u n n i n g t h e s e i n t o one s o u l Who s e p a r a t e , Ignored e a ch o t h e r ' s a r t * " Wagner i n s i s t e d on t h e d i g n i t y of a r t as the h i g h e s t common e x p r e s s i o n o f human l i f e . 1 H i s purpose was to r e f o r m l y r i c drama and t o b r i n g i t i n t o d i r e c t r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e , i . e . , t o make drama n a t i o n a l . He saw 1. Nad., 144; Hend.,-165* 124 t h a t music ha d come t o be an end i n s t e a d o f a means o f e x p r e s s i o n and he s t r o v e t o c o n f i n e i t to i t s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n and i t s p l a c e as o n l y one o f the f a c t o r s i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f a music drama. H i s p r i n c i p l e was t h a t , the t e x t once w r i t t e n by the p o e t , a l l o t h e r p e r s o n s who have t o do w i t h t h e work: the composer, the a r c h i t e c t , t h e m u s i c i a n s , the a c t o r s , s h o u l d aim a t one t h i n g o n l y * the most e x a c t , p e r f e c t and l i f e l i k e embodiment o f the p o e t ' s t h o u g h t . S a d l e r c a l l s Wagner's drama " e i n zusammenftanged l y r i s c h e s Gebaude, 1 i n welchem P o e s i e , M u s i k , A c t i o n , D e k o r a t i o n e i n s s i n d . " I n Kunst und R e v o l u t i o n he s t u d i e d the t h e o r i e s o f A e s c h y l u s and S o p h o c l e s and sought the r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r d e c l i n e . He s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined i n what way a l l the a r t s - p l a s t i c , m i m e t i c , p h o n e t i c and o r a l - had, i n t h e a n t i q u e t r a g e d y , combined t o s e r v e the h i g h e s t m u t u a l purpose, i n the d e v o t i o n o f Greek r e l i g i o n t o the i d e a l s of b eauty, Wagner found the e x p l a n a t i o n o f the u n i o n o f p o e t r y , music and m i m e t i c s i n Greek drama. W i t h the d e c l i n e of the A t h e n i a n s t a t e , the community s p i r i t was l o s t and the u n i o n o f a r t s which made the drama p o s s i b l e was d i s s o l v e d . The e r a s o f p h i l o s o p h y and C h r i s t i a n i t y had been i n i m i e a l t o a r t , he though^ and o n l y a r e v o l u t i o n would r e s t o r e i t t o i t s o r i g i n a l S t a n d i n g . I n Kunstwerk d e r Z u k u n f t he shows how, a f t e r the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the o l d u n i o n o f the a r t s , each sought I t s own development a l o n g independent l i n e s and sank to the l e v e l o f 1 . Nad., 2 1 1 . 125 mere amusement. Now each must s a c r i f i c e some measure o f i t s independence i n o r d e r t o combine w i t h the o t h e r s i n a r t i s t i c u n i t y . I n Opera und :Brama Wagner shows t h a t the drama was the most n a t i o n a l f o r c e i n . p o p u l a r c u l t u r e and the s i m p l e s t and most d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t mimetic impulse from w h i c h , says A r i s t o t l e , a l l a r t i s d e r i v e d , because i t comprises w i t h -i n i t s e l f e v e r y f o r m of a r t i s t i c e f f o r t : the s t r e n g t h of p o e t r y , the sweetness o f m u s i c , the r h y t h m i c movements o f the dance, b e a u t y o f l i n e and g r o w i n g c o l o u r . 1 T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , c o n t r a r y t o the p r i n c i p l e s of L e s s i n g ( w h o t r i e d t o d e l i m i t the f i e l d s o f a r t . The s e p a r a t e forms have l o n g r e a c h e d mat-u r i t y : s c u l p t u r e i n Greece, p a i n t i n g i n F l o r e n c e and V e n i c e , i p o e t r y w i t h Shakespeare, music w i t h Beethoven. P o e t r y w i t h -out drama a p p e a l s t o t h e senses t h r o u g h the i m a g i n a t i o n , i n i t s e l f i t i s not sound, c o l o u r o r s o l i d a r i t y . The spoken drama l a c k s the i n t e n s i t y w h i c h i s the unique f u n c t i o n o f m u s i c a l sound. . What i s l e f t , Wagner a s k s , but t h a t a l l s h o u l d be f u s e d i n t o a complex whole, each c o n t r i b u t i n g i t s p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y ? "True a r t , Wagner b e l i e v e s , cannot be d e t e r m i n e d by f a s h i o n but i s the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a genuine need f e l t by the whole n a t i o n . I t has i t s r o o t s i n p o p u l a r s o c i e t y and i s s t i f l e d by l u x u r y and c o n v e n t i o n . Man, he t h i n k s , i s a poet by i n t u i t i o n and the p e o p l e are t h e r e a l c r e a t o r s o f a r t . Opera had sprung not f r o m the e a r n e s t f e e l i n g of the m i r a c l e 1. Had., 510f. 126 p l a y but f r o m the d e s i r e o f I t a l i a n n o b l e s of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y to l i s t e n t o p o p u l a r m e l o d i e s i n a r e f i n e d form. The c r e a t o r s o f opera had borrowed r e c i t a t i v e from the c h u r c h and d a n c i n g from the f o l k , and, i n o r d e r t o g i v e a s e t t i n g to the a r i a , had i n t r o d u c e d t h e f o l k , not as r e a l people but as mere f i g u r e s i n a r t i f i c i a l costumes, t r a i n e d t o dance and s o n g . 1 Opera q u i c k l y became p o p u l a r and i t was found t h a t the e a s i e s t way t o p o p u l a r i t y was the p r o v i s i o n o f v o c a l a i r s o f s i m p l e , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d form and p r e t t y melody. Thus the a r i a became t h e c e n t r e of t h e opera w h i c h developed i n t o a s e r i e s o f a r i a s , d u e t s and t r i o s j o i n e d by a t h r e a d o f r e c i t a t i v e i n w h i c h the s t o r y was t o l d . So f a r t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n between the music and the words. The g e n e r a l view of the t i m e s i s w e l l e x p r e s s e d i n R o s s i n i ' s a d v i c e t o h i s s i n g e r s , "Do as you p l e a s e w i t h t h e words, but be sure n o t t o f o r g e t t o get y o u r s e l v e s w e l l applauded f o r your r a p i d r u n s . " I n German opera M o z a r t a c c e p t e d the p l a n o f the l y r i c drama w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n b u t gave the a r i a a new meaning and t h e r e c i t a t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y . Though Gluck had n o t M o z a r t ' s g e n i u s , Wagner b e l i e v e d t h a t he was a s i n c e r e r e f o r m e r . Gluck h i m s e l f s a i d , " I have t r i e d to reduce music to i t s t r u e f u n c t i o n , t h a t of s e c o n d i n g p o e t r y and s t r e n g t h e n i n g the e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g and t h e i n t e r e s t of the s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i n g the a c t i o n . " 2 I n F i d e l i o Beethoven r e v e a l e d the 1. Op. & Dr., 99 . 2 . i b i d . , 118.. 127 u n l i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t i e s of music i n r e p r e s e n t i n g m u s i c a l l y some s u b j e c t r e l a t i n g t o human l i f e . A f o r e r u n n e r of Wagner was Weber, who i n Der E r e i s c h u t z (1821) showed t h a t an opera was a work o f a r t complete i n i t s e l f , i n which a l l the r e l a t e d a r t s meet to f o r m an o r g a n i c u n i t y . I t i s Wagner•s b e l i e f t h a t opera must be c r e a t e d out o f the demand o f g r e a t drama f o r a m u s i c a l form of speech. S i n c e drama a r i s e s f r o m an i n t u i t i v e need o f the p e o p l e , f e e l i n g must d i c t a t e the f o r e h a n d the more l o f t y the a c t i o n the g r e a t e r t h e d i f f i c u l t y of e x p l a i n i n g i t . E v e r y t h i n g i n a d r a m a t i c s u b j e c t w h i c h a p p e a l s t o r e a s o n a l o n e can be e x p r e s s -ed i n words but i n p r o p o r t i o n as the emotion i n c r e a s e s the need o f a n o t h e r mode of e x p r e s s i o n makes i t s e l f f e l t more and more and t h e r e comes a moment when the language o f music i s the o n l y adequate medium. "Wenn der D i e h t e r uns das l e t z t e Wort g e s p r o c h e n h a t , dann sagt uns der M u s i k e r das m i t Worten U n a u s s p r e c h l l c h e . " 1 Thus the music must grow d i r e c t l y out of the e m o t i o n a l o h a r a c t e r o f the scene and s h o u l d be a f a c t o r v a l u a b l e o n l y because o f i t s u n e q u a l l e d power t o embody and convey emotion or the p o e t ' s t h o u g h t . Wagner says t h a t e v e r y b a r of d r a m a t i c music i s j u s t i f i a b l e o n l y i n so f a r as i t e x p l a i n s something i n the a c t i o n o r . c h a r a c t e r of an a c t o r . T o n a l l a n g u a g e , he s a y s , i s the p o e t ' s medium of e x p r e s s i n g t h e language o f f e e l i n g - the i n c r e a s e o r decrease i n tone c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the a c c e n t i n speech. I n s t e a d of 1. Kapp., 2 3 7 . • ' . 128 the c l e a r and s i m p l e " b e i c a n to " 5 h i s s i n g e r s were do employ a h e i g h t e n e d speach I"Sprachgesang"), m u s i c a l at tinE s but never a t the expense o f t r u t h f u l l y e x p r e s s i v e d e c l a m a t i o n . Thus-he sought a system of m u s i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s f o r the a c t u a l tones and cadences o f the s p e a k i n g v o i c e by r e a d i n g a l o u d the l i b r e t t o and c o p y i n g t h e t o n e s of a v o i c e drawing t h e utmost e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t from each word. The c h i e f g l o r y o f _ h i s t e x t s i s t h e i r i d e a l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r m u s i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n , w h i l e t h e d i g n i t y , i m a g i n a t i v e power and i m p r e s s i v e e m o t i o n a l sweep o f tiedd r a m a o f f s e t t h e o b s c u r i t y and i n o r d i n a t e b u l k of h i s l i b r e t t o s . S i n c e any f i x e d v e r s e f i g u r e would p r e s c r i b e the l i m i t s of the m u s i c , Wagner adopted f o r h i s purpose t h e o l d " S t a b r e i m " o r a l l i t e r a t i v e v e r s e i n wh i c h he saw the e a r l i e s t a t t e m p t t o s y s t e m a t i z e i n t o p o e t r y the e l e v a t e d speech o f emotion. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e " K n i t t e l v e r s " o f D i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r , the v e r s e of P a r s i f a l shows g r e a t freedom and v a r i e t y . The a p h o r i s t i c metre o f the G r a i l c h o i r s , the n a r r a t i v e i a m b i c s of Gurnemanz and the f r e e e j a c u l a t o r y rhyme o f Amfortas and P a r s i f a l c o n s t i t u t e d a new type of s p e e c h , i n the r e n d e r i n g o f which Y^agner'demanded the same n a t u r a l n e s s , p e r f e c t c l a r i t y and r e s t r a i n t as he d i d i n g e s t u r e . Wagner's melody c o n s i s t s o f many t h e m a t i c i d e a s , a l l worked up w h o l l y f o r the purpose of mood p a i n t i n g . Y e t t h e music i s not i n c o h e r e n t , f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e m a t i c i d e a s w i t h t h e p o e t i c thoughts e n a b l e d them t o make a l o g i c a l 129 and n a t u r a l groundwork and the boredom of r e p e t i t i o n i s a v o i d e d by t h e i r v i t a l i t y and unexpectedness. When the mood r e t u r n e d , i t s t h e m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n was r e p e a t e d , thus l a r g e l y d i s p o s i n g o f the a r i a . T h i s r e p e t i t i o n o f e m o t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s was g i v e n t o the o r c h e s t r a . w h i c h becomes not a mere accomp-a n i s t but a p o t e n t i n t e r p r e t e r and c r e a t o r of m u s i c a l atmos-p h e r e . I t i s the m a r v e l l o u s c o m b i n a t i o n of these themes, so v a r i e d and un e x p e c t e d , i n t o a s t e a d y woven f l o w of music t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s Wagner's r e m a r k a b l e method. Because of t h i s c o n t i n u o u s f l o w o f music,Wagner saw no p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i v i s i o n e x c ept i n t o a c t s , where t i m e and p l a c e change, the l e n g t h of t he scene b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y by the l e n g t h o f the "music. The " L e i t m o t i v " i s a m u s i c a l p h r a s e , s h o r t , s t r i k i n g and e a s i l y r e c o g n i s e d ( w h i c h e x p r e s s e s some a s p e c t i n the c h a r a c t e r s o r some i n c i d e n t i n the s t o r y , e x p l a i n s m o t i v e s , i l l u s t r a t e s a c t i o n s , e l u c i d a t e s s i t u a t i o n s i n the p l a y and r e n d e r s the whole d r a m a t i c movement c l e a r and i n t e l l i g i b l e 1 by s u g g e s t i n g i t s p r o p e r i m p u l s e and p r o p e r a s s o c i a t i o n . Thus the m o t i f p l a y s the same r o l e i n Wagner's dramas as the Greek c h o r u s i n the a n c i e n t t r a g e d i e s . When I s o l d e g i v e s the p o i s o n e d cup to T r i s t a n , w i t h s o p h o c l e a n i r o n y , the o r c h e s t r a t e l l s us t h a t t h e hero i s d r i n k i n g not dea t h but p a s s i o n . -When l a f n e r k i l l s A a s o l t f o r the magic g o l d j we know the v i c t o r has won w i t h t h e t r e a s u r e A l h e r i c h ' s c u r s e . When 1. Had., 316. 130 Gurnemanz speaks o f the f a l l o f Amfortas,.the Kundry theme i n t he o r c h e s t r a h i n t s the woman who a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s * Wagner had found i n G l u c k , M o zart and Beethoven the f a c u l t y of g i v i n g t o an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n o r s t a t e of mind a m u s i c a l symbol. Whereas M o z a r t began w i t h the complete melody t h e n broke i t up, Beethoven began w i t h the fragments and r e o r g a n i z e d them i n t o the whole. Wagner's f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the m o t i f was i n Senta's B a l l a d . Not u n t i l t h e R i n g d i d he f i n d the f u l l v a l u e of a system o f m u s i c a l c r o s s r e f e r e n c e s . Most f r e q u e n t l y the m o t i f i s a m e l o d i c f i g u r e of s e v e r a l n o t e s w h i c h may be m o d i f i e d i n i t s s t r u c t u r e rhythm, harmony o r o r c h e s t r a t i o n o r may change i t s s i g n i f i c a n c as when E r i c k a c o m p l a i n s , t h e o r c h e s t r a excuses Siegmund by announcing t h a t i t was s p r i n g . Some themes are i m i t a t i v e onomatopoeia as Kundry* s l a u g h t e r and the b r e e z e . Some emphasize p e r s i s t e n t rhythm, such.as the Ride o r the f o r g e . O t h e r s c a l l t o mind the i d e a of t h e o b j e c t they r e p r e s e n t . Wagner sought t o r e n d e r themes e x p r e s s i v e not o n l y of t h e i r p r i m a r y d r a m a t i c i d e a s , but of the b e a u t i f u l symbol b e h i n d the i d e a s . So t h e m o t i f o f the E u c h a r i s t spreads o u t l i k e an immense s i g n o f the G r o s s . The m o t i f s f a l l i n t o s e v e r a l groups: the m o t i f s o f p e r s o n s , H e r z e l e i d e , K l i n g s o r ; the moving f o r c e s o f t h e drama, promise and f a i t h ; p l a c e s and o b j e c t s , l i k e the Lance. 1 The music of the p e r s o n may be 1. Hend., 192. ' 131 m o d i f i e d t o -conform w i t h an a l t e r a t i o n i n c h a r a c t e r . S e v e r a l m o t i f s may be a p p l i e d t o one p e r s o n , m Kundry, f o r example, b o t h p i c t o r i a l movement and p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s are embodied, i t i s e v i d e n t many times t h a t p a r a l l e l t h o u g h t s of Wagner found s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n . The n o t e s o f the Swan are the same c h o r d i n L o h e n g r i n and P a r s i f a l . The f i n a l n o t e s of the f i r s t e n t r a n c e of the trombones i n the p r e l u d e t o Lohen-g r i n a r e l i k e the Lance m o t i f i n P a r s i f a l . The F a i t h Theme rese m b l e s the r e c i t a t i v e on the r e t u r n f r o m Home i n Tann-h a u s e r . i n P a r s i f a l , t h o u g h the m o t i f s a r e not numerous, Wagner*s m a s t e r y of h i s a r t i s . b e s t shown i n h i s maintenance of an e q u i l i b r i u m between music and language. As Koch s a y s , " N i c h t d u r c h M a n n i g f a 1 1 i g k e i t der Themen isondern M i t t e l s i h r e r D u r c h f u h r u n g und W u n d e r b a r k e i t w i r d der E i n d r u c l i 1 : m u s - i k a i i s c h e s B eichtums gewonnen." I n Oper und Drama Wagner m a i n t a i n s t h a t m y t h i c a l s u b j e c t s are more s u i t a b l e f o r m u s i c a l t r e a t m e n t than h i s t o r i -c a l . H i s t o r i c a l backgrounds w i t h t h e i r m u l t i p l i c i t y o f d e t a i l s a r e t o o i n f l e x i b l e f o r m u s i c . On t h e o t h e r hand, t o s a c r i f i c e h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y t o d r a m a t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s would change the t r u e -character of t h e s u b j e c t , i n Wagner's o p i n i o n S c h i l l e r was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n g i v i n g c l e a r n e s s and f o r m t o a mass of h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l but Shakespeare*s work r e s t e d on i m a g i n a t i o n and he p a i n t e d i n broad l i n e s m y t h i c a l s u b j e c t s because t h e s e p e r m i t t h e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of the poet's 1 . Koch., 3 - 582. 132 thought o n . c h a r a c t e r s and emotions and r i d him of the l i m i t a -t i o n s o f h i s t o r i c a l c o l o r i n g and c o n v e n t i o n s . Only i n m y t h i c a l s u b j e c t s a r e found those e l e m e n t a r y w o r l d thoughts which a l l o w freedom o f m u s i c a l t r e a t m e n t and t h a t p l a s t i c i t y w hich p e r m i t s . c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a few d e c i s i v e moments of the drama. A c c o r d i n g t o Wagner's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a myth i s - a p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n of an i n t u i t i v e v i e w o f tho s e a s p e c t s of l i f e common t o a l l and of u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t . Myths developed from the con-t e m p l a t i o n o f n a t u r e and f r o m the. concept o f gods tran s f o r m e d i n t o jbijtefigffla heroes:; w o r l d heroes i n t o whose c h a r a c t e r s have been po u r e d t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d i m a g i n i n g of many r a c e s and C e n t u r i e s , h e r o e s who l i v e a l r e a d y i n the minds of the p e o p l e . 'Because myths a r e the p o e t r y of• the p e o p l e , the embodiment of e l e m e n t a l w o r l d t h o u g h t s , the personages of myths become not o n l y w o r l d t y p e s but a t the same t i m e the embodiment of n a t i o n a l i d e a s . A e s c h y l u s and S o p h o c l e s , by u s i n g the g r e a t myths o f t h e i r , p e o p l e , b r o u g h t t h e t h e a t r e i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a c t u a l l i f e and t h o u g h t . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e o r d i n a r y k n i g h t l y romance emphasised not w o r l d t y p e s , n o r even i n d i v i -d u a l s , but r a t h e r e x t e r n a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . Wagner s e t b e f o r e h i m s e l f t h e i d e a l of f o u n d i n g a n a t i o n a l drama on the g r e a t myths of h i s . o w n p e o p l e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t the p o e t ' s t a s k was not t o i n v e n t but t o make a c t i o n i n t e l l i g i b l e . A l l the m a n i f o l d a s p e c t s of n a t u r e and t h e moods of men must be compressed i n t o the s i g n i f i c a n t and m a r v e l l o u s . Wagner s a y s . "VermOge d i e s e s Wunders i s t d e r D i c h t e r a b e r f a h i g d i e 133 u n e r m e s s l i c h s t e h Zusammenlange i n * a l l v e i s t a n d l i e h e r E i n h e i t d a r ^ u s t e i l e n . t f l The composer must a n a l y s e and s e l e c t , t r a n s f o r m the i n t e l l e c t u a l p i c t u r e i n t o f e e l i n g , t h e n f i n d the p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o r "Unmelodie" which w i l l make the a c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t . Wagner's accomplishment i s t h a t t h rough the o l d myths he h a n d l e s u n i v e r s a l human problems and at the same time has much t o say t o h i s age. He does not s t a r t w i t h an i d e a but he sees i n human a c t i o n the u n i v e r s a l so t h a t h i s c h a r a c t e r s become a t the same time h e r o i c and t y p i c a l . He a c c o m p l i s h e s t h i s because he bases h i s work on h i s own ex-p e r i e n c e , y e t so d e p e r s o n a l i z e s i t t h a t i t becomes t y p i c a l - o f u n i v e r s a l humanity. Opera i s not a c o n v i n c i n g form save when i t d e a l s w i t h m a t t e r s removed from our q u o t i d i a n l i f e and e n v i r o n m e n t , i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f the myth of P a r s i f a l however, Wagner succeeds i n t a k i n g h i s h e a r e r s i n t o a f a i r y w o r l d w h i c h i s f a r enough removed from a c t u a l l i f e t o g a i n grandeur and u n i v e r s a l i t y ^ y e t i s i n d i v i d u a l enough t o remain humanly a b s o r b i n g . Without a knowledge o f the s o u r c e s from which Wagner drew, th e o p e r a of P a r s i f a l seems a b l o o d l e s s a l l e g o r y . On t h e o t h e r hand, w i t h some a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the myth of P a r s i f a l and the l e g e n d o f the G r a i l i n t h e i r e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s , Wagner's t r e a t m e n t becomes a s u b t l e b l e n d i n g o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t elements t o f o r m an e n t i r e l y new c o n c e p t i o n . r a t h e r than a mere modern C h r i s t i a n v e r s i o n o f the theme. Wagner 1. Op. & Dr., 368. , : 134 took the framework of the s t o r y as t o l d hy Wolfram, who had -a l r e a d y combined the myth o f the "Dummling" w i t h the G r a i l l e g e n d . .Wagner, however, o m i t s the A r t h u r i a n s e t t i n g and as the o p p o s i n g f o r c e t o the G r a i l c a s t l e d e p i c t s i n s t e a d the t e r r i b l e magic o f K l i n g s o r , the c h a r a c t e r whom Wolfram had c r e a t e d but who l o n g s i n c e had become a l e g e n d a r y f i g u r e . He r e s t o r e s Kundry t o the i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n which she had once h e l d i n C e l t i c f o l k l o r e and he maUesAmfortas the c e n t r e of the drama. Wagner says t h a t the l e g e n d shaped i t s e l f around the f i g u r e s of K l i n g s o r , K u n d r y and A m f o r t a s . To 1 M a t h i l d e Wesendonck he w r o t e , H I c h kann m i r k e i n e n b r e i t e n it P l a n w a h l e n . . . . I c h muss a l l e s i n d r e i H a u p t s i t u a t i o n e n von d r a s t i s c h e m G e h a l t so Z»usammendrangen, dass doch der t i e f e und v e r z w e i g t e I n h a l t k l a r und d e u t l i c h h e r v o r t r i t t . " So from the mass o f m a t e r i a l a t hand, Wagner s e l e c t s o n l y those f e a t u r e s w h i c h b e s t f i t the d r a m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , adds elements from B u d d h i s t , B i b l i c a l and o l d German s o u r c e s , and uses t h e whole t o embody h i s own i d e a s o f a p e r f e c t music drama and the f i n a l e x p r e s s i o n , t h r o u g h a l e g e n d , o f the theme o f r e d e m p t i o n by p i t y w hich i s the k e y n o t e of a l l h i s works. P a r s i f a l , l i k e Goethe's F a u s t , i s a work wh i c h f o l l o w e d the a u t h o r t h r o u g h many y e a r s . Though work on i t was o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d ^ y e t the i d e a pursued him t h r o u g h a t l e a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s and c o m p e l l e d c o m p l e t i o n . Kapp s a y s , 1. May 30, 1859. v. L.A., 10. 2. Kapp, 235. 135 "Die P a r s i f a l s a g e h a t Wagner e b e n f a l l s schon f r u h e r kennen-g e l e r n t . Wenn s i e auch e r s t an seinem Lebensabend von ihm g e s t a l t e t wurde, b e s e h a f t l g t e e r s i c h doch i n n e r l i c h j a h r z e h n t e h i n d u r c h m i t ih r e m K e r n . " As Newman p o i n t s o u t , 1 i n t he poem of D i e Feen i s found t h e . r e d e m p t i o n motive of P a r s i f a l . I n P a r i s , i n h i s s t o r y , A P i l g r i m a g e t o Beethoven, Wagner s k e t c h e s the t h e o r y of the music drama he completed M If i n Z u r i c h . The f i r s t i m p u l s e s t o Tannhausser, L o h e n g r i n and Die M e i s t e r s i n g e r came i n h i s s t u d e n t days, but the i n t e r e s t i n the M i d d l e Ages was ob s c u r e d f o r a time by the study of Worse sagas. The s t u d y o f the M b e l u n g s l e d him to t h e c e n t r a l i d e a o f t h e R i n g and the symbol o f the H o l y G r a i l , w h i l e the "Bayreuth i d e a i s found i n the f i r s t work on t h e R i n g . From the performance o f Der L i e b e s m a h l der A p o s t e l i n Dresden (1845) d a t e s the use of the c h o i r h a l f w a y up and at the top of t h e dome of the h a l l i n ivionsa&vat. Of t h i s f i r s t a t t e m p t , however, Wagner s a y s " t h a t i t was one o f h i s u n i n s p i r e d c o m p o s i t i o n s . He was a s t o n i s h e d a t the compara-t i v e l y f e e b l e e f f e c t produced on t h e e a r by t h i s c o l o s s a l hpnan t a n g l e o f sounds and came t o . t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c h o r a l u n d e r t a k i n g s were f o l l y . I n 1842, a t x e p l i t z , Wagner was l o o k i n g f o r a new s u b j e c t a n d , on f i n d i n g t h e v e r s i o n o f T a n n h a u s e r , h i s mind went hack t o E.T.A.Hoffmann's S a n g e r k r i e g . I n h i s r e s e a r c h 1. Newman, 248. 2. Leben, 311. he came upon the l e g e n d s of P a r z i v a l and L p h e n g r i n , which he re a d i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s of Simrocft and G o r r e s , when s t a y i n g a t M a r i e n b a d f o r a c u r e i n J u l y , 1845. Of t h i s f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h Wolfram's P a r z i v a l Wagner s a y s , " I n den naVten W a l d r i n g e n am Bache g e l a g e r t , u n t e r h l e l t i c h m i c h m i t T i t u r e l und P a r z i v a l i n dem fttmdart-i g e n und doch so i n n i g f r a u l i c h e n u e d i c h t e W o l f r a m s . " 1 Such a l o n g i n g s e i z e d him to g i v e e x p r e s s i o n , t o the i n s p i r a t i o n g e n e r a t e d by t h i s poem,that he had t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n overcoming h i s d e s i r e t o g i v e up the r e s t he had been p r e s c r i b e d and s t a r t work upon i t . A t t h i s e a r l y date Y/agner had n o t a v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n of Yifolfram as a w r i t e r . 2 To M a t h i l d e Wesendonck he w r i t e s , "Bass e r von dem e i g e n t l i c h e r I n h a t t e r e i n gar n i c h t s v e r s t a n d e n , a a c h t n i c h t s a u s. E r hangt Begebnis an B e g e b n i s , Abenteuer an Abenteuer> g i b t m i t dem §ralsmotiB k u r i o s e und. Seltsame Vorgange und B i l d e r , •Eappt he rum und l a s s t dem e r n s t Cxewordfenen d i e Er a g e , was er demn e i g e n t l i c h w o l l t e . . . . W o l f r a m i s t e i n e durchaus u n r e i f e Ersehemung^woran a l l e r d i n g s wohl g r o s s e n t e i i s s e i n b a r b a r i s c h e s , g a n . z l i c h k o n f u s e s , z w i s e h e n dem a l t e n 6hristentum und d e r neuen S t a a t e n w i r t s c h a f t schwebendes Z e i t a l t e r s c h u l d i s t . I n d i e s e r Z e i t konnte n i c h t s f e r t i g werden: T i e f e des D i c h t e r s L-geht s o g l e i c h i n w e s e n t l i c h e r P h a n t a s e r e i u n t e r " and a g a i n on May 30, 1859, " S e i n e V e r z w e i f l u n g an o o t t i s t a l b e r n und 1. G o l . , 338; Leben, 365. S. see HE, 10. 137. .} (i u h m o t i v i e r t - n o c h u n g e g u g e n d e r s e i n e B e k e h r u n g ; das m i t d e r F r a g e 1 s t so g a n z a b g e s c h m a c h t u n d v o l l l g b e d e u t u n g s l o s . " 1 Why t h e n d i d h i s c h o i c e f a l l o n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l e g e n d and why d i d he s e l e c t t h e h e r o a s h i s t y p e o f t h e o n l y p e r f e c t s y m p a t h y a n d s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n t h e w o r l d h a s e v e r known? I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e he d i d so b e c a u s e W o l f r a m ' s i m -p r e s s i o n on t h e h e r o o f t h e G - r a i l q u e s t h a d r e n d e r e d h i m t h e 1. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e Wagner's t r e a t m e n t o f W o l f r a m i n T a n n h a u s e r . I n t h e o l d b a l l a d s t h e r e i s a n e l d e r l y : k n i g h t who s i t s o u t s i d e t h e V e n u s -b e r g w a r n i n g o f f t r a v e l l e r s , l i k e d e r t r e u e E c k h a r t o r E ^ k e w a r t i n t h e H i b e l u n g e n who g u a r d s t h e b o r d e r s o f R u d e g e r ' s . l a n d o r p r e c e d e s t h e w i l d Huntsman t o w a r n " t r a v e l l e r s f r o m t h e r o a d . W o l f r a m r e p r e s e n t s t h e w a t c h e r , a n d w a r n e r o f f f t h e o r i g i n a l l e g e n d ; who a t t e m p t s t o p r e v e n t T a n n h a u s e r f r o m y i e l d i n g t o . V e n u s . W o l f r a m l o v e d E l i s a b e t h b u t knows s h e l o v e s h i s r i v a l a n d i n h i s s e l f - s a c r i f i c e s e r v e s a s a £oil t o t h e p a s s i o n a t e and s e l f - g r a t i f y i n g T a n n h a u s e r . .Wagner c h o s e , f o r d r a m a t i c p u r p o s e s , t o a c c e n t t h e p o e t i c s i d e o f W o l f r a m ' s n a t u r e . He i s a champaipn o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d . t h e u p h o l d e r o f m a r r i a g e . H i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r n o b i l i t y o f h e a r t i n women t o . e x t e r n a l b e a u t y i s t h a t o f W o l f r a m i n Book One o f P a r z i v a l . A l t o g e t h e r h i s c h a r a c t e r i n t h e drama i s a t t r a c t i v e b u t i s n o t . g i v e n f u l l . j u s t i c e . f o r i t l a c k s f o r c e and v i t a l i t y . v . - WLWD, 3 6 ; .Hand.., S56. 138 f i t t i n g medium f o r Wagner ' s message o f depth of i n s i g h t , wide c h a r i t y and r e c o g n i t i o n o f the d u t y of l o v e from man to man and, Weston s u g g e s t s , t o embody Schopenhauer's p r i n c i p l e of the n e g a t i o n o f the w i l l t o l i v e . 1 The second r e a s o n f o r Wagner's i n t e r e s t i n P a r z i v a l i s found i n h i s i n t e r e s t i n those myths wh i c h he f e l t b e l o n g e d to the Germans by h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t but had been f o r g o t t e n u n t i l the r o m a n t i c s c h o o l commenced the e d i t i o n s o f m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e . He wished to p l a y h i s p a r t i n b r i n g i n g these myths i n t o touch w i t h n a t i o n a l l i f e a g a i n , f o r Wagner s a i d t h a t he was an i n t e r -p r e t e r : and- o n l y where n e c e s s a r y a c r e a t o r . When he r e r e a d P a r z i v a l i n San M a t t e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n (1859), he no l o n g e r e v a l u a t e d i t as a f a n t a s t i c poem but as a t e s t i m o n y o f the German s p i r i t . 2 He says i n "Was i s t D e u t s c h " , w r i t t e n a t t h i s t i me but not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1878 i n B a y r e u t h e r B l a t t e r , "Der Deutsche w i l l n i c h t nur das jfreih.de e a l s s o l c h e s , a l s r e i n fremdes a n s t a r r e n , sondern e r w i l l es d e u t s c h v e r s t e h e n . Er d i c h t e t das fremde d e u t s c h nach, um s e i n e s , m h a l t e s i n n i g bewusst zu werden. E r o p f e r t h i e r ^ b e i von dem jfremden das Z u f a l l i g e i S u s s e r l i c h e ^ h m U n v e r s t a n d l i c h e und ^ l a c h t t f dessen Y e r l u s t dadurch aus, dass e r von seinem e i g e n e n z u f a l l i g e n } a u s s e r l i c h e n Wesen s o v i e l d a r a n g i b t , a l s n o t i g i s t , den fremden Gsgenstand k l a r und arteu-testelit zu sehen... So w i r d von Deutschen P a r z i v a l und T r i s t a n w i e d e r g e d i e l i t e t ^ wahrend 1. WXTO, 210. •2. v . HE, ; 11 f . 139 d i e Q r i g i n a l e heute zu K u r i o s e n nur g e s c h i c h t l i c h e r Bedeutung geworden s i n d , erkennen w i r in. dem deutschen Nachbildungen p o e t i s e h e WerEe won u n v e r g a n g l i c h e n i Werte...BIe i n n e r e n T i e f e n e i n e s Wolframs von Eschenbach b i l d e t e aus dem S t o f f e der i n d e r u'rform uns a l s b l o s s e s K u r i o s u m aufbewahrt i s t , ewige Typen d e r P o e s i e . " A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the c h o i c e of P a r z i v a l may be f o u n d i n Wagner's i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n to r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n s . Undoubtedly he f e l t as d i d P a l e s t r i n a when he s a i d , "As o l d age b e g i n s to approach my thoughts t u r n to t h i n g s l o f t y , e a r n e s t , w o r t h y of a G h r i s t i a n man." T h i s i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n i s shown i n many o f h i s ? n ? i t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g Liber S t a a t und R e l i g i o n , R e l i g i o n und K u n s t , H e l d e n t u m und C h r i s t e n t u m , as w e l l as i n Der L i e b e s m a h l der  A p o s t e l and j e s u s von iMazareth. The i n t e r e s t was obscured f o r a time b y the Morse le g e n d s and the w o r s h i p o f s t r e n g t h but was r e v i v e d by the i n f l u e n c e ' of Gosima Wagner. As R e u s c h e l s a y s , "Von Buddha zu C h r i s t u s s c h l u g dann der P a r s i f a l e i n e Btsic&e, nachdem i n den M e i s t e r s i n g e r n d i e t! " Umwandlung zu e i n e r wehiiiu tig-fee i t e r en R e s i g n a t i o n verkundet worden war."-*-I n 1848 Wagner s k e t c h e d the p l a n of a drama J e s u s  von N a z a r e t h . The scene i s daybreak. J e s u s i s s l e e p i n g beneath a t r e e . M a r i a Magdalena k n e e l s a t h i s f e e t and, k i s s Ing t h e hem o f h i s garment, t e l l s him o f h e r remorse. " M a r i a d i e M u t t e r t r i t t h i n z u , d i e Magdalena wendet s i c h e r s e h r o c k e n 1. R e u s c h e l , 405. • . . . 140. it » ab u n d s t u r z t z u F u s s e n d e r M u t t e r . . . . . S i e h a t i h r g a n z e s E i g e n turn' v e r k a u f t u n d d e n Gewinn J u d a s i s c h a r a o t h dem S a c h e l -- f u h r e r d e r Gemeinde. u b e r g e h e n . S i e f l e h t d i e M u t t e r a n , s i c h rt b e i m So l i n e f u r s i e z u v e r w e n d e n , denn s i e b e g e h r e a l s d i e n a ^ d e r s t e Magd i n , d e r Gemeinde d i e n e n z u d u r f e n . " M a r y c o m f o r t s h e r and l e a v e s h e r . The f o r g i v e n e s s comes i n t h e f o u r t h a c t . a t t h e L a s t S u p p e r . , 1 M a r i a . nimmt e i n k o s t b a r e s F l a s e h c h e n a u s i h r e m B u s e j i , n a h t J e s u s w i e d e r , g i e s s t e s a u f « • • tt s e i n e m . S e h e i t e l , w a s c h t ihm d i e F u s s e , t r o e k n e t und s a l b t i h m u n t e r S e h l u c h z e n . " H e r e t h e n we h a v e a l r e a d y t h e s e r v i c e o f K u n d r y and the; f o o t w a s h i n g Of A c t , 3 . The n e x t m e n t i o n , o f P a r s i f a l comes d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f T r i s t a n i n 1 8 5 4 1 when he s a y s , "Im l e t z t e n A k t e , -f l o c h t e i c h s i n e s p a t e r n i c h t a u s g e f u h r t e E p i s o d e e i n , n a m l i c h e i n e n B e s u e h d e s n a c h dem G r a l u m h e r i r r e n d e n P a r s i f a l a n dem S i e c h b e t t e . " To M a t h i l d e Y/esendonck he s e n t t h e m e l o d y t o t h e w o r d s "Wo f i n d ! i c h d i c h du h e i l l g e r O r a l , d l c h s u e h t . v o l l S e h h s u o h t m e i n H e r z e ^ a n d . i n h i s n o t e b o o k , 1 8 6 4 / 5 , w r o t e , t ' D r i t t e r A k t . T r i s t a n a u f dem K r a n k e n l a g e r im S c h l o s s -g a r t e n . . ...aus, dem Schlummer e r w a c h e n d , r u f t e r n a c h dem K n a p p e n , d e n e r a u f d e r Z i n n e w a h n t , ob e r n i c h t s s a h e . D e r tt i s t n i c h t . d a . A u f s e i n e m R u f kommt e r e n d l l c h . Y o r w u r f e . E n t s f e h u ' l d i g u n g . E i n P i l g e r s e i z u b e w i r t e n g e w e s e n . . . T r i s t a n s U n g e d u l d . D e r Knappe sehe n o c h n i c h t s . . . Z w e i f e l . G e s a n g aus d e r T i e f e s i c h e n t f e m e n d . . . . P a r s i f a l , T i e f e r E i n d r u c k . L i e b e 1,.: G o l , 3 3 9 f f . 141 und qual.Meine: M u t t e r s t a r b y a l s s i e m i c h <§ebar, Hun i c h l e b e , s t e r b e i c h daran, geboren worden zu sft&n... .die ganze Welt n i c h t s wie u n g e s t i l l t e s Sehnen. Wie s o i l es denn je s i c h s t e l l e n . " Of t h i s Wolzogen s a y s , "Der nechdem G r a l suchende P a r s i f a l tt s o l l t e a uf K a r e o l a l s p i l g e r e i n k e h r e n , wahrend T r i s t a n d o r t im v e r z i r e i f e l s t e n L i e b e s l e i d e n auf dem Sterbe,_,b£tte l i e g t . Dem'Begehrenden ware so der I n t s a g e n d e , dem s i c h s e l b s t Fluchenden-jder s e i n e S c h u l d bussende:, dem b i s zum Tode L i e b e s -tt l e i d e n d e r ; d e r b i s z u r E r l o s u n g M i t l e i d e n d e g e g e n t t b e r g e s t f e l l t worsen. H i e r der Tod. D o r t das neue Leben. Und es h e i s s t , e i n e bestimmte & e l o d i e des wandernden P a r s i f a l habe zu dem tot^inden T r i s t a n e m p o rktingen s o l l e n , g l e i c h s a m d i e geheim-n i s s v o l l v e r k a l l e n d e Antwort auf d e s s e n l e b e n s v e r n i c h t e n d e r /ifrage' naoh' dem? Wjar.um 'desn.iDaseihs. .-.JLus d i e s e r m e l o d l e i s t das B u h n e n w e i h f i e s t s p i e l geworden." When the i d e a o f an i ndependent drama on P a r s i f a l grew, t h i s scene was e m i t t e d . D i e S i e g e r , a s k e t c h o f May 16k 1856, which Wagner sent t o M a r i e W i t t g e n s t e i n , and a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n the V i l l a A n g r i , t r e a t s the same s u b j e c t as P a r s i f a l under a Hindu • • • 1' d i s g u i s e . The i n f l u e n c e o f Schopenhauer i s e v i d e n t but Wagner wi s h e d t o show t h a t r e n u n c i a t i o n and sympathy were n o t the o r i g i n o f d e a t h but of a new l i f e . P r a & i t i f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h Ananda and h e r mother l u r e s him t o the brook where the g i r l meets him.- The pure Ananda, hovfever, r e j e c t s the s i n f u l 1. v i d e LA, 180; Leben, 639; IMewman, 44 8 ; L e t t e r s 4 4 8 ; G o l . , 3 6 0 . 142 l o v e o f P r a & i t i . P r a & i t i d e t e r m i n e s t o renounce him and to marry Uakya and a f t e r t h i s she sees the f u l l sorrow o f the w o r l d . F i n a l l y she i s r e c e i v e d i n t o Buddha*s company and g r e e t e d as s i s t e r . We l e a r n t h a t she was t h e d a u g h t e r o f -a B r a h m i n i n a p r e v i o u s existence., who r e p e l l e d , t h r o u g h p r i d e of c a s t e , t h e son of the k i n g T s c h a n d a l a . As punishment she must s u f f e r the pangs of u n r e q u i t e d l o v e u n t i l she renounces he r l o v e and r e c e i v e d f u l l r e d e m ption by r e c e p t i o n i n t o Buddha's company. I n the c h r i s t i a n i z e d v e r s i o n N i r v a n a becomes th e C h r i s t i a n dogma o f r e n u n c i a t i o n and Buddha's community t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s . Ananada i s r e p l a c e d by P a r s i f a l and P r a h i t i by Kundry. The d o c t r i n e o f r e b i r t h i n P a r s i f a l i s - c o n f i n e d t o the m u l t i p l e p e r s o n a l i t y o f Kundry and i s con-c e i v e d as a c u r s e f o r p e r s o n a l wrongdoing as r e s u l t i n g from a l a c k o f sympathy. The " K a r f r e i t a g z a u b e r " > the c o r e of P a r s i f a l , as Senta's B a l l a d i s of P e r F l i e g e n d e H o l l a n d e r , d a t e s from A p r i l 10, 1857.* S h o r t l y b e f o r e t h i s d a t e Wagner had moved i n t o A s y l n e a r the home o f the Wesendoncks. The f u r n a c e would not work and i t was so c o l d t h a t Wagner had been f o r c e d to s t a y i n bed. "Nun b r a c h auch schones F r u h l i n g s w e t t e r h e r e i n . Am K a r f r e i t a g erwachte i c h zum e r s t e n Male i n d i e s e r n Hause b e i v o l l e m S o n n e n s c h e i n . Das G a r t c h e n war e r g r u h t ' i d i e "Vogel sangen und e n d l i c h konnte i c h mich auf d i e Zinne des Hauschens setzen,um der l a n g e r s e h n t e n v e r h e i s s u n g s -1. v i d e , LA X I V ; G o l . , 40; Leben, 661; HE, 8 0 ; Kapp, 2 5 5 . 145 •. •vollen: S t i l l e mich zu e r f r e u e n . H i e r v o n . • e r f u l l t , sagjje i c h mich p l o t z l i c h , dass heute j a K a r f r e i t a g s e i und entsann mich wie bedeutungs*plldiese Mahnung m i r schon e i n m a l i n Wolframs P a r z i v a l a u f g e f a l i e n war. S e i t diesem k u f e n t h a l t e i n M a r i e n -bad ( J u l i 1845) ... h a t t e i c h mich n i e w i e d e r m i t jenem g e d i c h t e b e s c h a f t i g t , jetsst t r a t s e i n i d e a l e r g e h a l t i n uber-t? / w a l t i g e n d e r Form an mich h e r a n und von dem K a r f r e i t a g z a u b e r ' aus k o n s i p i e r t e i c h s c h n e l l e i n ganzes Drama, welches i c h i n IT n 3 A k t e gebaut und s o f o r t m i t ovenigen Zugen F l u c h t i g s k i z z i e r t e . " I n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y Wagner s a y s , " B e i der L e k t u r e des M i t t e l - -a l t e r l i c h e n P a r z i v a l s 1848 h i n t e r t i e s s d i e K a r f r e i t a g s z e n e e i n e n bedeutsamen E i n d r u c f t auf den L e s e r . " The r e p r o a c h which i s -found i n the e p i s o d e of t h e g r e y k n i g h t as w e l l as i n . t h e words of T r e v r i z e n t , here i s f o l l o w e d by the d e s c r i p t i o n of n a t u r e whieh Wagner e n r i c h e d w i t h h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . The Good F r i d a y scene i n Wolfram t a k e s p l a c e i n snow and f r o s t , i n Wagner amidst s u n s h i n e and b i r d - s o n g and i s one o f those remarkable touches o f n a t u r e w h i c h Wagner c o n t i n u a l l y i n t r o -duces i n t o h i s work, f o r example i n the "Waldweben" o f S i e g - T r l e d , i n t h e B r i d a l Chamber of L o h e n g r i n , where E l s a and L o h e n g r i n a t the o r i e l casement s t a n d between m o o n l i g h t and dawn, o r i & the S p r i n g o f D i e Walkure. Between t h i s time and t h e M u n i c h p r o s e s k e t c h , m e n t i o n i s made of P a r s i f a l , s o t h a t we know the s t o r y was o f t e n i n h i s t h o u g h t s . 1 On Ja n u a r y 19, 1859 5he w r i t e s t o 1. v i d e , Kapp, 235; LA, 6,174,155-151 s k e t c h ; G o l . , 3 4 8 - 5 0 ; Newman, 125; HE, 95; 52,55. • 144 M a t h i l d e Wesendonck, "meIn G e i s t i s t ahnungsw^&l vom P a r z i v a l e r f u l l t " and he d i s c u s s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of the redemptionof the w o r l d t h r o u g h p i t y . Kundry i s d e s c r i b e d on March 2, 1859^ as "erne Wundert>aan welt^damonisches Welb.-" and August 5!86Q$ Amfortas on May 50, 1859. Between August 27 and 30 was w r i t t e n down the f i r s t known f o r m , i n p r o s e , w i t h the encouragement o f K i n g Ludwig o f whom i t was s a i d . " L u d w i g war Wagners Kuns-t l e r t h u m s e l b s t , der e r l o s e n d e P a r s i f a l geworden," Indeed . among the c i r c l e o f Ludwig's f r i e n d s he was known as P a r s i f a l . Wagner.at t h i s time was de p r e s s e d by the d e a t h of Ludwig S c h n o r r von C a r o l s f e l d , the c r e a t o r of t h e r o l e o f T r i s t a n , i n Dresden J u l y 2&, 1865, and says of the work on the sketchy"Das war H i l f e i n d er N o t . " The prose s k e t e h l a c k s the m a r v e l l o u s d r a m a t i c c l i m a x and suspense of the drama, as w e l l as t h e . e l e v a t i n g m u s i c . B'or example, i n the drama by suspense we are prepar e d f o r the e n t r a n c e o f P a r s i f a l . I n the p r o s e s k e t c h i n j u s t one p l a c e i s the coming s a v i o u r m e n t i o n e d , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the m y s t i c words which appear on the G r a i l . The promise i n the s k e t c h r e a d s " M i t l e i d e n d l e i d v o l l w i s s e n d e i n Tor w i r d d i c h erlosen"'* There i s no me n t i o n as y e t o f the pure f o o l . The s t o r y i n the s k e t c h i s thought out i n g r e a t d e t a i l . I t 1. L a t e r Wagner • ©hanged the name o f h i s hero from. P a r z i v a l t o P a r s i f a l i n accordance w i t h Simroc&'s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the name was d e r i v e d f r o m the P e r s i a n " f a l pars<e" sPure • f o o l . The rafc&er o f c o u r s e was more a p p r o p r i a t e tor-Wagner's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . does n o t jump, i n t o the m i d d l e of the account h u t t e l l s o f the o r i g i n o f the G r a i l , g i v e s a p i c t u r e o f T i t u r e l , a n d A n f o r t a s and shows how K l i n g s o r ' s c a s t l e was b u i l t . The s t o r y i s b u i l t around the t h r e e h e r o e s , P a r z i v a l , K l i n g s o r and A m f o r t a s . A l r e a d y the comparison between T r i s t a n and Amfortas i s e v i d e n t . There i s no h o l y spear b u t the wound of the k i n g approximates t h a t o f the S a v i o u r . A m f o r t a s , l u r e d by Kundry, i s f a l l e n upon by K l i n g s o r and the spear t a k e n sway. The wound i s not f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s k e t c h . Wagner says m e r e l y , "Doch e i n e Wunde brenn.t ihm i n d e r S e i t e . " H i s p a i n i s more f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n the drama, i . e . , e p i c d e p i c t i o n i s t r a n s f o r m e d t o d r a m a t i c , i n the s k e t c h P a r z i v a l s e i z e s the s p e a r f r o m the k n i g h t and r e c o g n i z e s i t a t once as the one w i t h which Amfortas was wounded. I n the drama K l i n g s o r , l i k e Mara i n the Buddha s t o r y , throws i t a t P a r s i f a l and i t remains h o v e r i n g over h i s head, whereupon P a r s i f a l makes w i t h i t the s i g n o f t h e c r o s s - a n d K l i n g s o r * s ?/hole domain s i n k s t o the ground. There a re many changes which i n c r e a s e the d r a m a t i c power o f the drama. The name o f S c h m e r z e l e i d e i s changed to H e r z e l e i d e . The w i l d swan o f the s k e t c h c i r c l e s about the head of i m f b r t a s a t the l a k e t h e n s i n k s b l e e d i n g t o the. ground. I n the drama we see t h e b i r d f l y i n g "millmatten A l u g e l s f l a t t e r n " f r o m the l a k e and t h e n s i n k d y i n g t o the ground, i n the s k e t c h i t i s p i c k e d up " e h r e r b l e t i g £ , A i n t h e drama "auf einem Bahre von f r i s e h e n Zweigen." I n the p r o s e v e r s i o n P a r z i v a l e n t e r s f r o m the wood w i t h h i s bow i n h i s hand b e f o r e Gurnemanz s t o p s him. I n t h e f i n i s h e d v e r s i o n he i s l e d t o Gurnemanz by pages. 146 P s y o h o l o g i c a l l y deeper i s the d e s c r i p t i o n i n the drama o f the a r o u s a l o f P a r s i f a l ' s emotions a t the de a t h o f h i s mother. I n the s k e t c h the account i s , "Waren d i e m i r den Weg v e r t r a t e n bos?" Gurnemanz l a c M t . "Wer 1st g u t ? " "Dfeine M u t t e r , du b i s t i h r e n t l a u f e n , s i e w i r d s i c h urn d i c h gramen, du musst n i c h t a l l e s g l e i c h f e i n d s e l i g b e h a n d e l n . " " B i n i c h f e i n d s e l i g ? " "Dem Schwan w a r s t du es und d e i n e r M u t t e r . " "Meiner Mutter?," Kundry;/, " S i e i s t t o t . " "Wer sagt d a s ? " I n t h e drama the scene i s as f o l l o w s : P a r s i f a l " Die mich b e d r o h t e n , waren s i e bos?" Gurnemanz l a c h t . "Wer 1 s t g u t ? " Gurnemanz ( e r n s t ) "d6®ne M u t t e r , der du e n t l a u f e n , d i e urn d i c h s i c h nun harmt und gramt." Kundry "Zu Inde i h r Gram. Seine Mutter,, 1st t o t . " P a r s i f a l i n f u r c h t b a r e n S c h r e c k e n . "Tot.Meine M u t t e r , wer sagt usw. prater & i n E r s t e n t l a n g wie e r s t a r r t und d a n n i n h e f t i g e s Z i t t e r n . p e r a i ; . i n the s k e t c h , " E r d r o h t umzusinkeu, Gurnemanz h a l t i h n . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n scene i s not c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d . " S i e e r s t e i g e n "Breppen und b e f i n d e n s i c h w i e d e r i n ge-wolbten gangen e n d l i e h s i n d s i e i n einem machtigen S a a l e angelangt.' I n the e a r l y ?rark Gurnemanz t a k e s h i s p l a c e . a n d watches P a r z i v a l ; i n the drama he l e a v e s empty t h e p l a c e n e x t t o him and i n v i t e s P a r s i f a l , by a g e s t u r e , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f e a s t s d r h e " L i e b e s m a h l s p r u c h " i s m i s s i n g i n the o p e r a . The drama l a c k s the remark t h a t accompanying the i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the G r a i l " e i n M c h t s t r a h t d e r B o f f n u n g i n Amfortas Se£le f a l l t " . I n the prose v e r s i o n when Gurnemanz asks the boy i f he u n d e r s t o o d what he saWj " P a r z i v a l s c h ' u t t e l t e i n wenig s e i n Baupt;" i n the drama 147 P a r s i f a l " f a s s t s i c h kramphaft am h e r z e n und s c h u t t e l t , " u s w . 1 I n the e a r l y v e r s i o n t h e r e i s n o t h i n g o f the c u r s e r e s t i n g on Kundry. I n t h i s a c c o u n t , i n the l a s t a c t Kundry goes to get the water w h i l e Gurnemanz k n e e l s i n p r a y e r by h i s h u t . I n the drama Surnemanz e n t e r s from h i s h u t , d i s c o v e r s Kundry a l m o s t l i f e l e s s among the bushes, l a y s her on the mound and r e v i v e s h e r , a f t e r w h i c h she f e t c h e s t h e w a t e r . The most i n t e r e s t i n g example o f the d i f f e r e n c e made by v e r s e i s found i n the Good F r i d a y s p e l L When P a r s i f a l a s k s whether a l l c r e a t i o n must not mourn on t h i s day o f sorrow Gurnemanz r e p l i e s i n the o r i g i n a l form. "Du s i e h s t ^ e s i s t i t n i c h t s o , heut' f r e u t s i c h a l l e u n v e r n u n f t i g e K r e a t u r su dem E r l o s e r a u f z u b l i c k e n . Ihm s e l b s t am Kreuze kann s i e M II n i c h t gewahren, da b l i c k t es denn zu dem e r l o s t e n menschen i t a u f , d e r f u h l t s i c h d u r c h das L i e b e s o p f e r G o t t e s h e i l i g und r e i n das merken d i e Blumen auf der Aue, dass der Mensch s i e h e u t ' n i c h t z e r t r i t t , s o n d e rn wie Gott der Menschen s i c h e r l a r m t e , h e u t r auch i h r e r s c h o n t . Nun dankt denn a l l e s . , was b l e i b t und s t i r b t . Es i s t d i e U n s c h u l d s t a g d e r Matur." The f i r s t words t o Kundry i n the s k e t c h , "Steh auf und s e i s e l i g " a r e r e p l a c e d by t h e more o r i g i n a l "dite w e i r i s t T s i e h . es l a c h t d i e Aue." I n the l a s t scene o f the s k e t c h Amfortas m e r e l y grumbles a n d • t h r e a t e n s when the k n i g h t s u n v e i l the G r a i l ; i n the f i n a l f o r m he demands from t h e depths of h i s . d e s p a i r t h a t the k n i g h t s k i l l him. I n t h e s k e t c h the h e a l i n g 1. V. Flower ma\<Uns W c K a n ^ * uncW l i . s , tape 148 1 of tne k i n g i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . P a r s i f a l says t o Amfortas n-Le.be i n Reue und iausse. Deine Wunde s c h l i e s s e i c h so. S r B e r u h r t m i t dem Speer A m f o r t a s 1 S c h e n k e l . P a r s i f a l f a h r t f o r t , ihm s e i n e L e i d e n , s e i n e n E e h l t r i t t , s e i n e i n n e r e P e i n zu s c h i l d e r n , von a l l e m s o i l e r nun e r l S s t s e i n . Der Zauber^dem du e r l a g e s t , i s t gebrocfeen....Dank deinem L e i d e n , es macht mich zum M t l e i d e n d e n , i a n k e du meiner To'rheit^ durch d i e konnte i c h zum Wissen g e l a n g e n . I c h d a r f des Amtes e w a l t e n , i c h s o i l e s , damit du e r l o s t s e i e s t . " Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o the Munich v e r s i o n , P a r s i f a l c o n t i n u e s w i t h a l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s p a i n ( l a t e r d e p i c t e d i n the P r e l u d e to A c t 3) and o n l y a f t e r t h i s i s A m f o r t a s s u d d e n l y h e a l e d , whereas i n the drama he i s h e a l e d a l m o s t a t once t h r o u g h the t o u c h of t h e l a n c e . The e a r l y form ends w i t h the words " S t a r k i s t d e r Zauber des Be&brenden Doch s t a r k e r der des Entsagenden", i n s t e a d o f the f i n a l "Hochsten H e i l e s Wunderl E r l S s u n g dem E r l o s e r ! " On J a n u a r y 5, 1870, Wagner wrote t o O t t o Wesendonck^ "Die S o t i t e r damme r u n g 1 s t begonnen, naeh edniger Ruhe und Sammlung s o i l dann P a r s i f a l f o l g e n " , y e t i t was n o t u n t i l J a n uary 28, 1077 t h a t he wrote t o Gosima, " I c h beginne den. P a r s i f a l und l a s s e m i c h n i c h t eher von ihm ab b i s e r f e r t i g . " A c t ©ne was w r i t t e n between March 29 and A p r i l 2, when i t was read a l o u d on L i s z t ' s b i r t h d a y i n W a h n f r i e d . A c t Two was completed on A p r i l 13, the f i n a l a c t on the 1 9 t h . The music o f A c t One was begun i n August and f i n i s h e d i n Jamuary 1878 (the p r e l u d e 1. G o l . , 351. 149 h a v i n g been p l a y e d a s a s e p a r a t e p i e c e a t C h r i s t m a s by t h e M a n i n g e n O r c h e s t r a ) . On M a r c h 1 0 t h he was b u s y on' t h e K u n d r y s c e n e . Of t h i s he w r o t e t h a t he w o u l d n e v e r w r i t e s u c h p a s s i o n a t e s c e n e s a g a i n . 1 I n d e e d he h a d a l r e a d y s w o r n i t w i t h T r i s t a n , "Dagegen 1 s t j a Tristans E l u e h r e i n s t e r S p a s s . Der 3e A k t d e r V / a l k u r e i s t d a g e g e n d i e r e i n e A r e u d e g ewesen und i m T r i s t a n w e n i g s t e n s d i e Yvonne d e s L e i d e n s , d e r S e h n s u c h t , h i e r a b e r n u r d a s L e i d e n d e r L i e b e . " The o r c h e s t r a t i o n , w h i c h was so c a r e f u l l y done- i n v i o l e t ink, w i t h o u t a n y e r a s i n g s , was b e g u n o n August:-S3, 1880^ and A c t One was c o m p l e t e d o n A p r i l 2 5 , 1881:, A c t 2, O c t o b e r 19,' and t h e w h o l e was f i n i s h e d oh J a n u a r y 1 3 , 1 8 8 2 , h a v i n g b e e n d e l a y e d two t y e a r s o . b y h i s p o o r h e a l t h . We- h a v e s e e n t h a t a l l o f Wagner's works! c o n t r i b u t e d to P a r s i f a l . The R e d e m p t i o n I d e a i s f o u n d i n Rienzi, L o h e n g r i n , A n a n d a ^ B u d d h a * T a n n h a u s e r , T r i s t a n a n d A m f o r t a s a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r a s a r e a l s o E l s a , S a v i t r i a n d K u n d r y . J e s u s v o n N a z a r e t h was o n l y a s k e t c h , Das L i e b e s m a h l d e r A p o s t e l was p e r f o r m e d o n l y o n c e , - y e t t h e s e wove i n t o t h e s t o r y o f t h e i i o l y G r a i l t h e message o f t h e Redeemer and the- s o l e m n i t y o f t h e s a c r a m e n t a l s e r v i c e . . L o h e n g r i n and T a n n h a u s e r were t h e f i r s t o f t h e l e g e n d a r y d r a m a s w h i c h were t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c h r i s t i a n c h i v a l r y and t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e Middle A g e s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e narrow. a d e a l s u M i i a s e e t i c i s m a n d t h e f r e e i n s t i n c t s o f 2 h u m a n . n a t u r e . P a r s i f a l f o r m s with them a g r e a t t r i l o g y o f 1. LA, 174. 2. H a w e i s , 5 3 9 . 150 C h r i s t i a n legend as the R i n g i s a t e t r a l o g y of Pagan, Rhine and Norse myth. B o t h t y p e s become a p p r o p r i a t e v e h i c l e s f o r a d i s p l a y o f the- r e c u r r e n t s t r u g g l e s of the o; / •• human h e a r t . L o h e n g r i n , Wagner's m o s t ' p o p u l a r c r e a t i o n , and P a r s i f a l u n i t e i n r e l i g i o u s and k n i g h t l y elements a l l t h a t i s b e s t i n m e d i e v a l C h r i s t i a n i t y . The s t o r i e s sum up not o n l y the n o b l e s t i m p u l s e s o f the M i d d l e Ages but a l s o some of the most c e n t r a l needs and r e l i g i o u s p a s s i o n s o f human n a t u r e . "They form dramas of our common endeavour, our p a t i e n c e , f a i l u r e and. a s p i r a t i o n . . . . T h e c h a r a c t e r s r e m a i n i n t h e i r v a s t o u t l i n e s so many phases o f the human s o u l . " * P a r s i f a l has been c a l l e d the most exact, s i n c e r e and complete e x p r e s s i o n of Wagner's p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s p i d e a s . i t i s f o r the l a s t p a r t of h i s l i f e what the Ri n g was f o r t h e p e r i o d a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n . He combines the le g e n d s o f t h e G r a i l and the N i b e l u n g e n and c o n c e i v e s the G r a i l as t h e s p i r i t u a l i s e d t r e a s u r e . J u s t as the R i n g shows the c o n f l i c t between l i g h t and d a r k n e s s , gods and dwarves, so P a r s i f a l d e p i c t s t h e c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l , the c a s t l e s o f the G r a i l and o f K l i n g s o r . The R i n g i s an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s i d e a s on t h e d e s t i n y o f t h e w o r l d and t h e problem o f r e d e m p t i o n . P a r s i f a l , i s the a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of the d o c t r i n e o f r e g e n e r a t i o n which r i s e s t o a concept of u n i v e r s a l e v o l u t i o n and a t the same time c r e a t e s a r a t i o n a l and a r t i s t i c p i c t u r e o f the U n i v e r s e . . Thus P a r s i f a l , l i k e Ehe R i n g , i s an a l l e g o r y t o 1. Haweis, 570. 2. LW, 439. f . 151 i l l u s t r a t e r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s i n sy m b o l i c p i c t u r e s , I f the e s s e n t i a l s of a s u c c e s s f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an o l d w o r l d myth be t h a t i t s h a l l l o s e n o t h i n g o f i t s o l d c h a r a c t e r w h i l e i t becomes charged w i t h f u l l e r meaning, Wagner has been t r e m e n d o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l , f o r he has a l l o w e d the s p i r i t of P a r s i f a l t o remould the i n c i d e n t s as i n the K i n g he moulds the s p i r i t t o the form. P a r s i f a l . d i f f e r s from Wagner's t r e a t -ment of o t h e r l e g e n d s i n t h a t i t i s t r e a t e d w i t h more freedom. Yftrile a d h e r i n g to t h e s p i r i t of the o r i g i n a l , h e y e t r e c a s t s the i n c i d e n t s w i t h g r e a t e r g a i n t o the d r a m a t i c f o r m and i n s i s t e n c e on what were p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e s of the s t o r y , though Wagner was c o g n i z a n t o n l y o f the d e r i v e d v e r s i o n s . T h e s t o r y i s l o n g e r t h a n S i e g f r i e d y e t the s a l i e n t p o i n t s are so brought out and t h e b a l a n c e p r e s e r v e d t h a t h e t r e a t e d the theme i n one drama i n s t e a d of two. I t i s a new r e n d e r i n g of the myth but i t i s so c o m p l e t e l y i n harmony w i t h the o l d one t h a t i t i s an i l l u m i n a t i v e commentary on the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y v e r s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n an independent r e n d e r i n g . Wagner's P a r s i f a l becomes more r e a l , v i r i l e and l e s s o f a t y p e when compared w i t h Wolfram's human and l o v a b l e h e r o , . w h i l e we. can s c a r c e l y g r a s p the beauty o f Wolftarn ' s P a r z i v a l u n t i l we see the s p i r i t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of which the s t o r y i s c a p a b l e i n the hands of Wagner. Weston says t h a t as a mu s i c drama the p o s i t i o n a s s i g n e d to i t may v a r y but as an a t t e m p t to r e t e l l an o l d l e g e n d w i t h due r e v e r e n c e f o r i t s t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m and f u l l sympathy f o r the modern s p i r i t 1 . . . P a r s i f a l w i l l r e m a i n e t e r n a l l y u n r i v a l l e d . Wagner a c c e n t u a t e s I WLWD, 154, 217. 152 a l l t h e m o s t . b e a u t i f u l e l e m e n t s and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y o f t h e t a l e . l I t I s a s ermon on t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p e r s o n a l p u r i t y i n t h e s e r v i c e o f God, on t h e b e a u t y o f r e n u n c i a t i o n and t h e n a t u r e o f r e p e n t a n c e b u t i t s r e a l power l i e s n o t on e t h i c a l t r u t h s a l o n e , b u t i n W a g n e r 1 s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e m o t i o n -a l f o r c e o f t h e a c t ^ o f c e r t a i n e t h i c a l i d e a s on human n a t u r e . T h r o u g h t h i s e m p h a s i s i t becomes a t r e m e n d o u s p l a y o f man's i n n e r s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t p a s s i o n . I n P a r s i f a l , a s i n T a n n h a u s e r , e t c . , Wagner p o s s e s s e s t h e same a d v a n t a g e a s t h e G r e e k p o e t s ^ f o r he a d d r e s s e s h i m s e l f t o r e l i g i o u s a n d m y t h i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s p o s s e s s e d by a l l . i t i s a r e l i g i o u s and p r o b l e m p l a y f o r t h e same r e a s o n a s A e s c h y l u s ' ' P r o m e t h e u s . T h i s b o l d n e s s i n r e -a d o p t i n g t h e s t a g e , a s t h e medium f o r t h e p u b l i c d e p i c t i o n o f / r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f e x e m p l i f i e s Wagner's t h e o r y , t h a t t h e drama s h o u l d be t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e t h o u g h t s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s , o f a p e o p l e . . P u r e l y a s a w o r k o f a r t , a p a r t f r o m t h e m u s i c , P a r s i f a l h a s a r a r e b e a u t y a n d p r o f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n c e , l e t N u t t s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s u n s u i t e d f o r d r a m a t i c p u r p o s e s f o r a t n n o p o i n t do we f i n d t h e " c l a s h of. m o t i v e s a n d c h a r a c t e r s , r e q u i r e d b y 2 t h e s t a g e . . The l o n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s o f W o l f r a m ' s poem, t h e s l o w g r o w t h o f t h e u n t h i n k i n g y o u t h i n t o a s t e a d f a s t man, t h e b r a v e man s l o w l y b e c o m i n g w i s e , i s r e p l a c e d b y a m y s t i c c o n v e r s i o n . F r o m t h e w b r l d o f human e n d e a v o u r we a r e t r a n s l a t e d t o t h e w h o l l y a s c e t i c a n d s y m b o l i c . Madow a g r e e s 1. H e n d . , 4 7 4 . 2. iTSLHGj 2 5 5 . 153 t h a t we a r e - t o o r e a d i l y d a u n t e d by t h e g i g a n t i c s c a l e o f t h e work and t h e t r e m e n d o u s i s s u e s w h i c h i t i n v o l v e s . 1 . The w h o l e work, he s a y s , b r e a t h s a l a r g e r a i r . i t s e m o t i o n a l l e v e l i s more s u b l i m e t h a n t h a t o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , i t h a s n o t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e R i n g o r t h e p a s s i o n o f T r i s t a n . The c h a r a c t e r s a r e l e s s d i s t i n c t t h a n i n S i e g f r i e d b u t more s i g n i f i c a n t a n d s u g g e s t i v e . P a r s i f a l , b y n p u r l t y a n d i n n o c e n c e o f h e a r t , t r i u m p h s i n t h e n o b l e s t o f a l l v i c t o r i a s , t h a t w h i c h t u r n s a n enemy t o a d i s c i p l e . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e r a i s e s i t a b o v e a l l o t h e r o p e r a t i c works P a r r y r e m a r k s t h a t t h e m u s i c b y i t s e l f i s n o t so p o w e r f u l o r so r i c h a s p a r t s o f Wagner *s T r i s t a n t f o r e x a m p l e , t h o u g h i t i s more d i g n i f i e d and r e s t r a i n e d , n o r i s t h e drama b y i t s e l f a s s t r i k i n g o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s so d i s t i n c t , a s i n T r i s t a n a n d t h e R i n g , b u t t h e m u s i c t h r o w s s l i g h t on t h e drama a n d i n t e n s i f i e s i t and t h e s i t u a t i o n s a n d a c t i o n s on t h e s t a g e r e a c t on t h e m u s i c a n d g i v e i t a s i g n i f i c a n c e o t h e r w i s e o v e r l o o k e d . Thus i t becomes t h e most: c o m p l e t e embodiment o f ¥fegner*s p r i n c i p l e s . The a c t i o n i s d e v e l o p e d i n P a r s i f a l i n a way new i n t h e h i s t o r y o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n , f o r i t i s w h o l l y i n w a r d . The G r a i l i s t h e v i s i b l e s y m b o l s u p p l y i n g t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r o c e s s e s i n P a r s i f a l ' s h e a r t a n d h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h i s p r o c e s s - t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s i m p l e y o u t h b l i n d l y f o l l o w i n g h i s own w i l l t o a f u l l y c o n s c i o u s man, s u b o r d i n a t i n g h i s w i l l t o a h i g h e r m i s s i o n - f o r m s t h e e n t i r e d rama, y e t t h i s p r o c e s s i s n o t d i d a c t i c a n d d o e s n o t a i m t o t e a c h m o r a l i t y o r r e l i g i o n . 1. H a d . , 2 9 4 , 3 2 2 . . 154 " R e l i g i o n und K u n s t , das Edefeste was d i e menschheit geftannt und k e n n t , vermahlen s i c h b e i Wagner und d i e s e r Bund w i r d im Z-fcicnen des K r e u z e s g e s c h l o s s e n . • P o h l s a y s , "Wir sehen i n P a r s i f a l d i e vollkommeneste S y m b o l i s l e r u n g des ewigen Kampfes der Menschkteit z w i s c h e n dem Guten und B^sen, z w i s c h e n der h o c h s t e n R e i n b e l f i und der g r o s s t e n V e r w o r f e n h e i t der s i n n l i c h e n j N a t u r dem h e r z l o s e s t e n Egolsmus m i t der Erhaben&eit C h r i s t l i c h e r Y f e l t e n t s a g u n g und M e n s c h e n l i e h e . . . .Die E r l o s u n g kommt nur durch den Glauben an d i e g o t t l i c h e L i e b e , d i e f u r uns i n den Tod t i . . gegangen i s t . E i n e u b e r s i n n l i c h e Welt tr&fct i n d i e Erschanugg tt e i n , welche uns den Weg i n s J e n s e i t s o f f n e t . H i e r teerrseht d i e a l l e r bLarmende g S t t l i c h e Gnade." 2 To L i s z t the R i n g had been -a s t r a n g e and c l o s e d w o r l d . Of P a r s i f a l he s a y s , "Nach dem hohan' L i e d e der i r d i s c h e n L i e b e i n T r i s t a n h at Wagner i n P a r s i f a l rufamreich das hoehste Lfefid g o t t l i c h e r L i e b e g e s c h a f f e n . ...Es i s t das Wunderwerk des j a h r h u n d e r t s . G a l d e r o n * de4nte Ihm zum V o r b i l d , d i e Oberammergauer S p i e l e 70m L e i d e n unseres g o t t l i c h e n E r l o s e r s . . . h a f e e n i i i v o l k s t u m l i c h e r Weise d i e s e r R i c h t u n g den Weg g e f i i h r t . . . . .Es s c h e i n t m i r an m y s t i s c h e r I n s p i r a t i o n a uf g l a c h e r iiohe m i t der l e t * t e n Szene des F a u s t I I . " 1 . v. ME, 23, 2. dibl:d^: ^ y 3.. Koch, 3, 587. 15.5 . The,, m u s i c a l p l a n o f P a r s i f a l i s one o f p e c u l i a r power a n d o u t w a r d a s p e c t s o f g r e a t b e a u t y . L a v i g n a c t e r m s t h e o p e r a t h e m a s t e r p i e c e o f Wagner's a r t i n m a i n t a i n i n g an e q u i l i b r i u m b e t w e e n m u s i c a l and d r a m a t i c l a n g u a g e . I n no o t h e r o f Wagner"s m u s i c . d r a m a s i s t h e mere e n u m e r a t i o n o f t h e themes so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e m u s i c a l i d e a s so s u b t l e , t h e b u i l d i n g up o f the l a r g e mood p i c t u r e s o f w h i c h t h e y a r e e l e m e n t s so m a s t e r l y , t h e e f f e c t o n t h e h e a r e r so p o t e n t t h a t one may t h r o w a s i d e t h e mere s t u d y of. themes and 1 a b a n d o n o n e s e l f t o t h e d r a m a t i c i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m u s i c . The m u s i c h a s b e e n c r i t i c i s e d a s c h u r c h m u s i c ^ b u t P a r s i f a l i s no m o r e ' e t e ^ a c f e s i c a l t h a n , t h e Oberammergau P a s s i o n P l a y . Wagner, was t o o g r e a t a n a r t i s t t o c o n f u s e s a c r e d and s e c u l a r m u s i c . He. m e r e l y a l t e r n a t e s t h e m. O n l y c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e work a r e i n t e n d e d t o be r e l i g i o u s - t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h e f e a s t and t h e Good F r i d a y m u s i c , a n d t h e s e f u l f i l t h e r e q u i s i t e e o n d i t i o n s r n o t a s a n i n s t a n c e o f c h u r c h m u s i c w h i c h i s t h e a t r i c a l , b u t s t a g e m u s i c w h i c h a t t i m e s i s d e v o t i o n a l . A s i n a l l Wagner's w o r k f r o m L o h e n g r i n o n , ? / i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f D i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r , e a c h a c t h a s a p r e l u d e . Of t h e s e he s a y s , "Meine T o r s p i e l e m u s s e n a l l e e l e m e n t a r i s c h . : c : : . ; s e i n ^ i c h t d r a m a t i s c h w i e d i e L e o n o r e n O u v e r t u r e . " H e r e Wagner -speaks and p r e p a r e s t h e m i n d by c a l m i n g i t t o p e r f e c t r e p o s e and f r e e i n g i t f r o m e x t e r i o r p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . The 1. H e n d . , 4 8 0 . 2. LA, 174. 156 p r e l u d e r e c a l l s t h a t p a r t o f t h e a c t i o n w h i c h h a s gone b e f o r e b u t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r what f o l l o w s , o r p r e p a r e s t h e m i n d b y d r a w i n g o n t h e C o m i n g a c t , o r f i l l s t h e m i n d w i t h a vague s e n s e o f m y s t e r y and c u r i o s i t y . The P r e l u d e t o A c t 1 o f P a r s i f a l h a s b e e n c a l l e d b y Hadow t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l o v e r t u r e i n e x i s t e n c The f i r s t s o u n d i s t h e l o n g s l o w A f l a t p l a y e d o h t h e G - s t r i n g \ . b y t h i r t y - t w o v i o l i n s i n s l o w s y n c o p a t e d movement. Then t h e theme o f t h e E u c h a r i s t s p r e a d s o u t s l o w , c a l m , m a j e s t i c , s i g n -i f y i n g t h e s a c r e d n e s s o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s . A f t e r a s i l e n c e t h e same m o t i f i s r e p e a t e d . P a i n c r e e p s i n , e m p h a s i s e d b y the, l o n g r e s t , t h e n t h e o r a i l m o t i f a p p e a r s -a n o l d c h o r a l e u s e d a l s o b y M e n d e l s s o h n i n t h e R e f o r m a t i o n Symphony. The L a n c e and t h e P r o m i s e themes a r e h e a r d . Soon t h e r e i s . r e v e a l e d t o us t h e m e n t a l p§.ln and b o d i l y t o r t u r e o f A m f o r t a s and t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s , t h e b u r d e n o f s i n . i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h g l i m p s e s o f u n h a l l o w e d j o y and f o l l o w e d b y t h e s e r e n e . p e a c e o f F a i t h a n d L o v e and t h e v i s i o n o f t h e G r a i l . F o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f P a r s i f a l . i n M u n i c h i n 1880 f o r t h e K i n g o f B a v a r i a , Wagner w r o t e a n e x p l a n a t o r y n o t e on the. p r e l u d e . Be o u t l i n e s t h e e e m a i n , t h e m e s , L o v e - F a i t h - Hope. The f i r s t theme he e x p l a i n s b y t h e w o r d s n f a k e ye my B o d y , t a k e ye my B l o o d i n t o k e n o f o u r l o v e " w h i c h i s r e p e a t e d i n f a i n t w h i s p e r s b y a n g e l v o i c e s . The s e c o n d theme b r i n g s t h e ' p r o m i s e o f r e d e m p t i o n t h r o u g h f a i t h . F i r m l y and s t o u t l y f a i t h d e c l a r e s 1. H a d . , 217. 2. Fewm. S t . . 1 2 8 . 157 i t s e l f ? t h e n * h p v e r s downwards f r o m t h e d i m m e s t h e i g h t s a s on p i n i o n s , f i l l s t h e w h o l e w o r l d o f n a t u r e w i t h t h e m i g h t i e s t f o r c e , t h e n g l a n c e s , up a g a i n t o h e a v e n . Once more f r o m o u t t h e awe o f t h e s o l i t u d e t h r o b s f o r t h t h e c r y o f l o v i n g p a i n and a g o n y - t h e d i v i n e d e a t h , t h r o e s o f G o l g o t h a . The b l o o d g l o w s noxv i n t h e c h a l i c e , s h e d d i n g o n a l l t h a t l i v e s and s u f f e r s t h e g r a c e o f r a n s o m won by 'Love.. By t h i s o v e r t u r e , Wagner b e l i e v e s o u r s y m p a t h y i s a r o u s e d f o r A m f o r t a s , t h e s i n f u l k e e p e r who m u s t q u a i l b e f o r e t h e g o d l i k e v i s i o n o f t h e G r a i l . We wonder w h e t h e r r e d e m p t i o n w i l l h e a l t h e t o r m e n t s o f h i s s o u l . • Once more we h e a r , t h e p r o m i s e a n d we hope. She p r e l u d e d o e s n o t f u l f i l t h e hope b u t i t s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y ^ t h o u g h i t e n d s w i t h t h e c h o r d o f t h e d o m i n a n t s e v e n t h s t i l l u n r e s o l v e d . C h a m b e r l a i n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t h r e e a c t s may be summed up a s . f o l l o w s . "Im e r s t e n w i r d das M i c f c l e i d e n rt d e s T o r e n e r r e g t , i m z w e i t e n f u f a r t d a s M i t l e i d e n zum W i s s e n •n 1 u n d i m d r i t t e n w i r d d e r m i t l e i d s ^ v o l l e W i s s e n d e zum E r l o s e j i . " S c h m i e d e l e x p r e s s e s i t t h u s : "Der e r s t e A k t h a n d e l t v o n dem R e i n e n d e r T o r b l e i b t , d e r z w e i t e z e i g t u n s d e n T o r e n , w e l c h e r r e i n b l e i b t , d e r d r i t t e z e i g t u n s d e n ' R e i n e n ^ w e l c h e r d i e tt T o r h e i t a b l e g t o d u r c h M i t l e i d w i s s e n d geworden^zum E r l o s e n d e s H a r r e n d e n e r K o r e n , ; K u n d r y d i e S u n d e r i n b e k e h r t ; A m f o r t a s tt " 2 h e i l t u n a s e l b s t a l s f r a l s t o o n i g d i e h e r k u n f t d e s H e i l s v e r b u r g t . The f i r s t s c e n e , f o l l o w i n g t h e s o u r c e , i s t h e g l a d e 1. RW 1 9 0 1 , p . 4 3 3 . v . H.E.,17. 2. R.W. 1 9 0 7 , p.58/59:. V. H.E.,17. .158 i n t h e f o r e s t ' o f M o n s a l v a t . The k e y n o t e I s s t r u c k i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e w a t c h e r s ' s o l e m n c a l l t o p r a y e r , t h e r i s i n g s u n above t h e l a k e m i s t s , t h e s o l a c e o f . t h e m o r n i n g b r e e z e a f t e r a n i g h t o f p a i n . Of P a r s i f a l ' s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e Wagner s a y s , " F u r P a r s i f a l s E i n f a i J t t habe i c h H o r n e r und T r o m p e t e n . H o r n e r a l l e i n war m i r z u w e i c h , z u w e n i g f e i e r l i c h ; f r o m p e t e a l l e i n z u b l e c h i g , k l a p p i e r i g . " 1 I n t h e f i r s t a c t P a r s i f a l i s n o t a s y e t a man. He i s a h a r m l e s s , i n n o c e n t i n d i v i d u a l b u t he seems t o Gurnemanz w e l l , b o r n a n d n o b l e . So, t o o , t h e P a r s i f a l m o t i f h a s d i g n i t y and n o b i l i t y . E v e n t h o u g h he §oes n o t know h i s own namejyet we f e e l t h a t b o u n d l e s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s l i e d o r m a n t . He i s o p e n and. f e a r l e s s , a l b e i t t h o u g h t l e s s , t | u i e t and l a c k i n g i n s o c i a l g r a c e s . . He i s v e r y b r a v e . E v e n t h e g i a n t s , s a y s Eundsy,, f e a r h i m . a l r e a d y . H i s r e p l i e s a r e s t e r e o t y p e d , f o r example h i s m o n o t o n o u s " d a s w e i s s i c h n i c h t " . H i s l o n g e s t s p e e c h i s t h a t a b o u t t h e " g l a n z e n d e M a n n e r " and t h e v i s i o n w h i c h f i l l e d h i s m i n d . The o p e n i n g e v e n t i s t h e k i l l i n g o f t h e swan w h i c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e i n c i d e n t i n t h e l i f e Of Buddha where t h e w o u n d i n g o f t h e swan s t i r s h i m t o t e a c h c o m p a s s i o n t o t h e w o r l d . The swan, a s we h a v e shown, had r e p l a c e d t h e dove a s t h e b i r d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e G r a i l a f t e r t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f L o h e n g r i n , t h e swan k n i g h t , P a r s i f a l ' s s o n . The s p e e c h o f Gurnemanz.on t h e wounded b i r d moves P a r s i f a l t o t e a r s a n d i m p u l s i v e l y he b r e a k s t h e bow and t h r o w s a s i d e t h e a r r o w s o f w h i c h h e had b e e n so p r o u d - ( " d e n s c h i B f i c h s e i & s t " , w h i c h i s m i s s i n g i n t h e p r o s e 1. L A , 187. 159 s k e t c h ) . T h e ? c l i m a x o f t h i s s c e n e i s h i s a t t a c k on K u n d r y . I n t h e l e g e n d P a r s i f a l l e a r n s o f t h e d e a t h o f h i s m o t h e r f r o m t h e H e r m i t l o n g a f t e r w a r d s . P a r s i f a l ' s f u r i o u s o u t b u r s t a g a i n s t K u n d r y , o n whom he s e e k s r e v e n g e i n s t i n c t i v e l y f o r H e r z e l e i d e * s d e a t h , p a r a l l e l s t h e i m p u l s i v e k i l l i n g o f i t h e r i n t h e e p i c . P a r s i f a l ' s a c c o u n t o f b e i n g a t t r a c t e d f r o m home b y t h e k n i g h t s i s common t o a l l t h e f o r m s b u t Y/agner o m i t s t h e r e a l c a u s e o f t h e d e p a r t u r e , t h a t i s , t h e d e s i r e f o r k n i g h t h o o d a t t h e c o u r t o f A r t h u r , u n l i k e a l l t h e o t h e r v e r s i o n s , Wagner's P a r s i f a l knows n o t h i n g o f A r t h u r and t h e c o u r t . The m e n t i o n o f G a w a i n i n A c t One i s t h e o n l y t - t r a e e l e f t o f t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . We h a v e shown t h a t P a r s i f a l 1 s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A r t h u r was r e a l l y s l i g h t a n d a l a t e d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i l e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h G a w a i n t o o k p l a c e b e f o r e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e G r a i l a s a C h r i s t i a n s y m b o l . A l t h o u g h o t h e r w i s e P a r s i f a l ' s b e a r i n g i s q u i t e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e r o m a n c e s , Wagner r e s t o r e s h i m t o h i s o r i g i n a l i n d e p e n d e n t p o s i t i o n . T he t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s c e n e i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s y m p h o n i c p a s s a g e o f a m a r c h l i k e q u a l i t y somewhat r e s e m b l i n g a B a c h P a s s i o n . The p o i g n a n t c l i m a x i s t h e s o u n d i n g o f t h e n o t e s o f A m f o r t a s ' s u f f e r i n g t h r e e t i m e s i n s u c c e s s i o n , t h e l a s t w i t h t h e u t m o s t r i c h n e s s . When t h e b e l l s c e a s e , s i x t r o m b o n e s g i v e o u t l o u d l y t h e theme o f t h e L o v e F e a s t . The k n i g h t s ; i n r e d and b l u e r o b e s , a n s w e r i n t u n e t o t h e r i n g i n g b e l l s w h i l e t h e p a c e i s d o u b l e d w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e e s q u i r e s . Mow we a r e i n t h e H a l l o f M o n s a l v a t w i t h i t s p i l l a r s o f m a r b l e I t s t e s s a l a t e d p a v e m e n t s , v a u l t e d r o o f g l o w i n g , w i t h 160 . g e l d . a n d s i l v e r , i t s m i s t y m o o n l i t a i r , t h e b e w i l d e r i n g p e r -s p e c t i v e o f h a l l s and c o r r i d o r s . The p a g e a n t r y of: t h e march o f the- G r a i l k n i g h t s i s u n e q u a l l e d i n o p e r a , e v e n i n ' Wagner- fs T o u r n a m e n t o f S o n g . The t h r e e p a r t c h o r u s o f k n i g h t s , a n d y o u t h s h a l f w a y up t h e dome an d t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e t o p , who t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e v i o l i n s i n t h e p r e l u d e , , h a d b e e n t r i e d b y V/agner i n 1842 i n t h e F r a u e n k i r c h e i n D r e s d e n . As L e o n a r d s showed a p a l e a l m o s t e f f e m i n a t e f a c e , h e i t h e r o l d o r y o u n g , so Wagner has e x p r e s s e d t h e w o r d s o f C h r i s t b y aimeans o f a c h o i r s o t h a t t h e d i v i n e v o i c e w o u l d be t h a t o f n e i t h e r a man n o r a woman. A s Wagner e x p l a i n e d tp> P l u d d e m a n n , May>1880, " C h r i s t u s k a n n man n i c h t m a l e n a b e r i n T o n e n kannman i h n w i e d e r g e b e n , so habe ti n Wagner es a u f g e g e b e n , s e m e n J e s u s - v o n . M a z a r e t h f u r d i e Buhne tt • • • t • z u g e s t a l t e n und d a f u r s e i n e n P a r s i f a l g e s c h a f f e n . " P a r s i f a l s t a n d s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d a s t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f G r a i l k n i g h t s p a s s e s , a s A m f o r t a s ' s o r r o w i s h e a r d and a t T i t u r e l ' s command t h e G r a i l i s u n v e i l e d . S i l e n t a nd m o t i o n l e s s , w i t h h i s b a c k t o t h e a u d i e n c e , P a r s i f a l w a t c h e s t h e s e h a p p e n -i n g s a n d when Gurnemanz h i m i f he knows what he h a s ©een he s h a k e s h i s h e a d , t h a t i s a l l . When.the s t a r h a s n o p a r t t o s i n g i t i s i n d e e d a f a r c r y f r o m I t a l i a n o p e r a . F r o m . t h e m i d d l e o f t h e a c t t o i t s c l o s e he s p e a k s no word and b r e a k s o n l y b y a s i n g l e g e s t u r e t h e i m m o b i l i t y o f h i s a t t i t u d e . H i s one movement i s t h a t o f s y m p a t h y f o r A m f o r t a s 1 a n d t h a t f o r e -shadowed h i s l a t e r a c t i o n . S o , t o o , K u n d r y i n A c t T h r e e i s s i l e n t b u t f o r t w o w o r d s - " d i e n e n d i e n e n " . T h i s h a s b e e n v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a s u b t l e p i e c e o f d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i -' A-" j„A -t«| •» f 161 I z a t i o n and as a f a l s e attempt at i m p r e s s i v e n e s s . Hadow b e l i e v e s t h a t whatever the v a l u e of t h e d e v i c e on one p r e s e n t -a t i o n ^ l o s e s i t s v a l u e when i t i s d u p l i c a t e d . How c o u l d the a u t h o r dare t o p r e s e n t a s i l e n t hero d u r i n g a l o n g s c e n e ^ i f he were not c o n v i n c e d t h a t we u n d e r s t a n d the hero a l r e a d y and f e e l how the m i r a c l e of the G r a i l w i l l r e a c t upon h i s c h i l d i s h s o u l ? I s he n o t . c o n v i n c e d t h a t the c o n t r a s t between the c o l o u r and m a g n i f i c e n c e of the G r a i l k n i g h t s and the s i m p l i c i t y o f the young boy w i l l arouse our p i t y f o r the l a d so overwhelmed by the s p l e n d o u r o f the G r a i l ceremony and the m i s e r y o f the k i n g ? I n W o l f r a m ^ P a r z i v a l does not v i s i t the G r a i l ceremony as the w i l d l a d who a r r i v e s a t the c o u r t o f A r t h u r , which c h a r a c t e r Wagner r e t a i n s t h r o u g h most of the p l a y , but as a k n i g h t , i n b o t h a l i k e he f a i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f what he s e e s . T h e . G r a i l v i s i o n t a u g h t P a r s i f a l n o t h i n g , because he was not awakened,to the deeper l i f e of the s p i r i t . Wagner s t r e s s e s the cause n o t the e f f e c t ; t h a t i s , he emphasises the s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l d u l l n e s s , which i n the legend cause P a r s i f a l t o omit the q u e s t i o n , r a t h e r than the r e s u l t s o f t h e f a i l u r e t o do so. Wagner sees the f a u l t i n the l a c k of s p i r i t u a l p e r c e p t i o n and cowardice which s h r i n k s f r o m a s t r a n g e s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n Wolfram, f o r h i s f a i l u r e to p u t the q u e s t i o n , P a r z i v a l i s shamed and because he f o l l o w s Gurnemans' I n s t r u c t i o n s t o the l e t t e r i n the only, way he 1. Had., 43. 162 comprehends;,:* he i s i n d i g n a n t a t K o n d r i e s a t t a c k , w h e r e a s P a r s i f a l f e e l s n o t h i n g b u t s e l f r e p r o a c h . I n t h e l e g e n d t h e h e r o i s n o t d r i v e n f r o m t h e h a l l b u t wakes n e x t m o r n i n g t o f i n d t h e i n h a b i t a n t s gone and t o be mocked b y t h e v o i c e o f a n i n v i s i b l e p e r s o n a s he c r o s s e s t h e d r a w b r i d g e . I n Wagner Gurnemanz o p e n s t h e d o o r a n d p u s h e s P a r s i f a l o u t , c a l l i n g h i m a g o o s e , t h e n f o l l o w s t h e k n i g h t s o u t t h e o t h e r d o o r . A s i n g l e a l t o v o i c e f r o m t h e h e i g h t s s i n g s t h e theme o f t h e p u r e f o o l , t h e o t h e r v o i c e s j o i n i n t h e G r a i l c h o r u s , t h e b e l l s p e a l a n d t h e c u r t a i n f a l l s on what Newman c a l l s " t h e most m o v i n g s c e n e e v e r - p u t o n t h e s t a g e , w i t h m u s i c w h i c h i s o f a 2 h e a r t r e n d i n g p a t h o s a n d b e a u t y . " The s e c o n d a c t c o m p r i s e s t h r e e e p i s o d e s : t h e e v o c a -t i o n o f K u n d r y , t h e f l o w e r m a i d e n s and t h e s c e n e b e t w e e n K u n d r y and P a r s i f a l . The p r e l u d e i s r e s t l e s s , p a s s i o n t o s s e d , t h e G r a i l m o t i f i s d i s t o r t e d , t h e s p e a r d i s c o r d a n t . F a i t h a n d Hope f l u t t e r l i k e a wounded dove i n p a i n , j a r r e d by f i e r c e b u r s t s o f p a s s i o n , s h o c k s o f u n c o n t r o l l e d m i s e r y , c a r n a l j o y and t h e s h u d d e r i n g m i g h t o f K l i n g s o r ' s a l c h e m y . We see • K l i n g s o r ' s r e t r e a t i n t h e t o w e r w i t h s t e p s d e s c e n d i n g t o as l o w e r l e v e l . ' I n s t r u m e n t s and m a g i c m i r r o r s g l e a m i n t h e e v i l d a r k n e s s . K u n d r y , somewhat a s S r d a i n A c t 2 o f S i e g f r i e d , r i s e s o n a b l u e v a p o u r i n v a g u e and f l u i d i c f o r m , t r e m b l e s and s c r e a m s , l o a t h i n g h e r v i l e m i s s i o n and d e s p e r a t e l y s e e k i n g t o f r e e h e r s e l f . The theme o f t h e G r a i l , w h i c h K l i n g s o r h o p e s 1. s ee P.P. p . 2 7 6 , 1 . 7 1 8 , where a v o i c e c a l l s " I h r g a n s e r t " a s P a r z i v a l l e a v e s . 2. Bewm., S t . 1 4 2 . 163 t o g a i n , pounds-. The g a r d e n shows f l o w e r s o f c o l o s s a l d i m e n s i o n s -huge r o s e s i n t a n g l e d f e s t o o n s , c a c t i , l i l i e s , b l u e b e l l s , o r c h i d s . The g i r l s a t f i r s t a r e n o t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m the f l o w e r s , t h e n t h e b a l l e t commences w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e R h i n e .maidens' s i n g i n g b u t i s f r e e r , w i l d e r , more c o m p l e x and i n m m a r v e l l o u s c o n f u s i o n . P a r s i f a l e n t e r s t o t h e P r o m i s e theme^ s y m b o l i s i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r a n d u n c o n s c i o u s m i s s i o n . P r o b a b l y some t i m e e l a p s e s b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d a c t s . P a r s i f a l i s q u i t e u n c h a n g e d b u t what we o n l y s u r m i s e d i n h i s c h a r a c t e r -t h e c r y s t a l c l e a r and e h l l d i s h l y i n n o c e n t p u r i t y o f h i s s o u l -i s h e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d i n a c t u a l i t y . S c h r e n c k s a y s , 1 "Das K n a b e n t u m i s t a u s . B i s f c e r gab es n u r e i n e n Weg f u r d i c h und w f e l l e s n u r e i n e r w a r , b r a u c h t e s t a u k e i n W i s s e n , h a t t e s t du k e i n e W a h l . Nun b i s t due am S c h e i d e w e g e . Du s i e k s t d i e beiden'We'ge- v o r d i r ^ b i s t wis.se.hder g e w o r d e n . . D e r g r o s s e Z w i e -s p a l t d r i n g t i n s e i n e S e e l e . " P a r s i f a l m i x e s w i t h t h e l o v e l y f l o w e r m a i d e n s , h a l f amused, h a l f a n g r y b u t w h o l l y i n n o c e n t . When t h e m a i d s h a v e l u r e d h i m i n v a i n , t h e v o i c e o f K u n d r y i s h e a r d i n t h e l o n g d r a w n c r y o f " P a r s i f a l " . The e f f e c t o f t h e e n t r y o f t h e s o l o v o i c e a f t e r t h e c o n f u s i o n o f t h e c h o r u s i s i n d e s c r i b a b l e . I t s e t s P a r s i f a l ' s memory s t i r r i n g f o r he r e m e m b e r s t h a t h i s m o t h e r . c a l l e d h i m t h a t . Wagner s a y s , "Zum e r s t e n M a l e w i r d s e i n Name g e n a n n t und so h a t s e i n e ' ' • . ' 2 . . M u t t e r i h n g e r u f e n ; d a s k a n n n u r d i e M u s i k . " The themes w h i c h 1. S e h r e n k , 2 0 0 . 2. LA, 172. 164 a ccompany t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f h i s name a r e t h e p r o m i s e , h e r z e -l e i d e , t h e P l a i n t . W i t h K u n d r y ' s k i s s we h e a r m a g i c , t h e E u c h a r i s t , t h e c r y o f s u f f e r i n g , G r a i l , L a n c e , t h e n M a g i c a g a i n . L a t e r o n , when K u n d r y r e v e a l s t h a t s he saw t h e S a v i o u r , we h e a r t h e E u c h a r i s t 0 t h e n upod F r i d a y . When P a r s i f a l p r o m i s e s h e r r e d e m p t i o n ? t h e P r o m i s e a n d F a i t h t h e m es a p p e a r . H e r p l e a d i n g w i t h h i m i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e P l a i n t and t h e g a l l o p , t h a t m y s t e r i o u s a n d t o r t u o u s f i g u r e b r i s t l i n g w i t h c h r o m a t i c s . A t " t h e end o f t h e A c t , a t t h e moment when K l i n g s o r t h r o w s t h e L a n c e a t P a r s i f a l , a c u r i o u s o r c h e s t r a l e f f e c t , a l o n g g l i s s a n d o o n . t h e h a r p two o c t a v e s i n l e n g t h , p r o d u c e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e w h i z z i n g o f t h e L a n c e t h r o u g h t h e a i r . 3 -Kundry i s f i r s t s e e n o n a c o u c h o f f l o w e r s , s w a t h e d i n l i g h t . , s o f t - c o l o r e d v e i l s a s t h o u g h t h e y h a d b e e n t h r o w n o n when she was s t a r t l e d o u t o f s l e e p . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l p l a n o f t h i s s i r e n i s i n t e r e s t i n g . P a r s i f a l h a s known b u t one l o v e . The s o r e s t s p o t i n h i s c o n s c i e n c e i s t h e memory o f t h e m o t h e r he h a s l e f t . K u n d r y , a s t h e a g e n t o f e v i l p o w e r s , s e e k s t o t o u c h t h a t s p o t , b u t awakens i n t h e i n t e n d e d v i c t i m t h e d i v i n e s p a r k o f p i t y a k i n t o l o v e , and by h e r k i s s s t r i v e s t o l e a d h i m o n w a r d t o v o l u p t u o u s p a s s i o n . B u t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p i t y e n l i g h t e n s t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d h e a r t o f the- g u i l e l e s s f o o l a n d t h e k i s s w h i c h w o u l d d r a w h i s s o u l f r o m h i m , s e r v e s b u t t o r e v e a l t o h i m t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s i n f o r w h i c h A m f o r t a s s u f f e r s a n d he c r i e s o u t w i t h t h e a n g u i s h o f t h e v e r y wound I t s e l f . N o t p a s s i o n b u t s y m p a t h y i s a r o u s e d * H i s p a s s i o n h a s become ' A m f o r t a s ' a n d A m f o r t a s ' s o r r o w h i s . The t a s k o f s a v i n g the. 165 G r a i l f r o m s i n f u l h a n d s s t a n d s c l e a r b e f o r e h i m . A s S c h r e n c k s a y s , 1 " M i t d e r l e i d ^ e n s c h a f t i s t i h m d a s M i t l e i d , m i t dem M i t l e i d d a s W i s s e n , m i t dem W i s s e n d a s B e w & i s s t s e i n d e r e i g e n e n M i s s i o n gekommen." To P a r s i f a l a s t o B r i i n n h i l d e a l l t h e h i d d e n t h i n g s o f t h e p a s t a r e r e c a l l e d , " M i c h m u s s t e d e r R e i n s t e v e r r a t e n , d a s w i s s e n d wurde e i n v i e i b , W e i s s i c h nun_, was d i r f r o m m t , a l l e s , a l l e s a l l e s w e i s s i c h , a l l e s w a r d m i r nun f r e i . " T h i s s c e n e h a s b e e n c a l l e d t h e W a g n e r i a n s c e n e com-b i n i n g t h e e s s e n c e o f T r i s t a n , T a n n h a u s e r , the- t h i r d a c t o f S i e g f r i e d ; woman, p a s s i o n a n d t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s o r r o w s o f t h e w o r l d . C e r t a i n l y i t i n v o l v e s a n a n a l y s i s o f c h a r a c t e r u n i q u e - i n m u s i c d r a m a , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e n t i m e n t and s i t u a t i o n a b s o l u t e l y n o v e l , , w h i c h c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n c e i v e d a n d c a r r i e d o u t o n l y b y a c r e a t i v e g e n i u s o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r . Kundry., t h e v i c t i m s t r u g g l i n g t o be f r e e f r o m t h e c u r s e o f h e r d u a l c h a r a c t e r a s a woman, i s u t t e r l y d e v o t e d , w i t h a l l t h e i n t e n s i t y o f h e r w i l d and d e s p e r a t e n a t u r e , t o t h e t a s k o f w i n n i n g P a r s i f a l , f o r s h e c o n c e i v e d o f h e r s a l v a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e o n l y i n a h u n i o n w i t h h i m a n d s h e t h i n k s t o w i n h i m by s t e a l i n g h i s l o v e t h r o u g h h i s m o t h e r ' s l o v e . A l l she s a y s he f e e l s f o r h i s m o t h e r b u t r e s i s t s h e r a t t e m p t s t o w i n h i m . H e r d e s p e r a t e d e c l a m a t i o n , h e a r t r e n d i n g s e n s e o f m i s e r y , p i t e o u s p r a y e r s f o r s a l v a t i o n and t h e f u r y o f b a f f l e d p a s s i o n a r e i n v a i n f o r , w i t h t h e k i s s , P a r s i f a l h a s p a s s e d f r o m i n n o c e n c e t o k n o w l e d g e . He i s s t i l l g u i l e l e s s b u t no f o o l . He h a s a c q u i r e d a k n o w l e d g e 166 o f good a n d . e y . i l . " The m i g h t o f s e n s u a l i t y w h i c h l o s t A m f o r t a s t h e s p e a r h a s b e e n met a n d d e f e a t e d . T h i s s c e n e i n t r o d u c e s Y/agner'smost i m p o r t a n t d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s t o r y ; . t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a s h a r p and s u d d e n t e s t o f t h e h e r o ' s p u r i t y a nd s t e a d f a s t n e s s f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t r i a l a n d s l o w d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y f o r d r a m a t i c a c t i o n b u t t h e c o n c e p t i s u n u s u a l and a d m i r a b l e f o r t h e m u s i c c e n t r a l i s e s t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n e n t i r e l y u p o n t h e p l a y o f t h e e m o t i o n s . P a r s i f a l n e e d s no q u e s t i o n and n e v e r h e a r s o f o n e ; h i s awakened s o u l g i v e s h i m t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . Wagner f o l l o w s t h e l a t e r u a l a h a d v e r s i o n s o f t h e G r a i l s t o r y w i t h t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f p u r i t y , y e t he c h a n g e s t h e o u t e r f o r m o f t h e s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n t h e s p i r i t . W o l f r a m ' s h e r o w i t h h i s r e v e r e n c e f o r K o n d V v & r a m u r 1 s m a i d e n h o o d , and h i s a d h e r e n c e t o t h e m a r r i a g e vows u n d e r p r o l o n g e d a b s e n c e i n a s o c i e t y where s u c h vows were h e l d l i g h t l y , i s no l e s s p u r e t h a n Wagner's v v i r g i n y o u t h r e p e l l i n g K u n d r y ' s a d v a n c e s . I n d e e d W o l f l r a m ^ s h e r o may be t h e more l i f e l i k e a n d v i v i d bp;t Wagner's h e r o g a i n s w i t h t h e g r e a t u n d e r l y i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e h e a l i n g a s w e l l a s b y t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a t y p e o f C h r i s t , N o t o n l y t h e c h a r a c t e r o f P a r s i f a l g a i n s f r o m t h i s c h a n g e o f m o t i f a n d i n c i d e n t b u t a l s o t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f u l i n g s o r a n d K u n d r y . H e r e Wagner d i s p l a y s h i s f u l l s t r e n g t h . Nowhere a r e t h e s i n i s t e r p o w e r s o f e v i l m a g i c more r e m o r s e l e s s l y e x e r c i s e d t h a n i n Klingsor»s b l a c k c h a m b e r . P a r s i f a l ' s i n v a s i o n o f t h e c a s t l e c u t s ' t h i s l i k e a s w o r d . T h e l l o v e d u e t 167 h a s no c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e v e n u s b e r g ; i t s t a n d s b y i t s e l f a n d i t i s a w o n d e r how a human m i n d c o u l d f o r m a n y t h i n g so s u b t l e a s t h e i n w a r d s t r u g g l e s o f K u n d r y a n d P a r s i f a l . S t r e n g t h -e n e d b y h i s own i n t e g r i t y P a r s i f a l w i n s t h e s p e a r a n d d e s t r o y s K l i n g s o r * s w h o l e d o m a i n . I n t h e p r e l u d e t o t h e t h i r d a c t i s s u g g e s t e d t h e w e a r i n e s s a n d d e s p a i r w h i c h h a v e s e t t l e d on t h e k n i g h t s , t h e p a i n and r e s t l e s s n e s s o f t h e y e a r s o f w a i t i n g f o r a d e l i v e r e r a n d t h e m i s e r y o f h ope d e f e r r e d i n t h e d i s t o r t e d c r y o f d e s p a i r . The l o n g p e r i o d o f w a n d e r i n g s , w h i c h W o l f r a m f i l l s w i t h G a w a i n ' s a d v e n t u r e s , Wagner d e s c r i b e s i n t h e m u s i c . The s t r a y i n g m o t i f d e p i c t s P a r s i f a l ' s p h y s i c a l w a n d e r i n g s and the c o n f u s i o n i n h i s s o u l . T h e n we s e e t h e f l o w e r y meadow s l o p i n g up t o t h e w oods, w i t h t h e s p r i n g i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d and g u r n e m a n z * h u t l e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e r o c k . The m u s i c o f K u n d r y , t h e P r o m i s e , M a g i c a n d t h e L a n c e s u g g e s t t h e t r e n d o f G u r n e -manz' m e d i t a t i o n . He c l e a r s away t h e b r u s h and d i s c l o s e s K u n d r y i n h e r c o a r s e b r o w n s e r g e g i r d e d w i t h r o p e . She wakes w i t h t h e memory o f t h e P l a i n t , t h e n t h e L a u g h i s h e a r d and f i n a l l y t h e B a l m shows h e r r e p e n t a n c e . The o r c h e s t r a c h a n g e s t o t h e G r a i l , Good F r i d a y a n d P a r s i f a l t h e m es a n d we a r e w a r n e d o f t h e h e r o ' s a p p r o a c h . B e n e a t h t h e b l a c k m a i l P a r s i f a l w e a r s a l o n g w h i t e t u n i c . T h i s a n d h i s a u b u r n r i n g -l e t s r e c a l l L e o n a r d o d a v i n c i ^ s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e S a v i o u r a s w e l l a s D u r e r ' s p i c t u r e o f t h e C h r i s t . P a r s i f a l i s a s y m b o l i c a l r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e L o r d . Many y e a r s l i e b e t w e e n 168 t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d a c t s . The y o u t h h a s become a m a t u r e man a n d h i s movements a r e s t i f f e r a n d more d i g n i f i e d . The l o n e l i n e s s o f h i s l i f e a n d t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l w a n d e r i n g seem t o make h i m even: more t a c i t u r n . Of t h e m e e t i n g w i t h Gurnemanz S c h r e n c k s a y s , " k e i n s t u r m i s c h e s H e r v o r q u e l i e n d e r F r e u d e , k e i n l a u t e r A u s b r u c h d e s e i g t a e n G e f u h t s . E i n s a n f t e r H andedruc& und e i n k u r z e r G r u s s , M e h r n i c h t . " The a c t i o n moves s l o w l y i n what Kapp d e s c r i b e s a s "das g r o s s e A d a g i o , d a s d i e s e s Yfunder-w e r k u m s p a n n t . " The g r e a t - s p a c e s o f s i l e n c e , b r o k e n o n l y b y a f e w w ords f r o m P a r s i f a l and G u r n e m a n z , a r e more e l o q u e n t t h a n w o r d s a s t h e . t i d a l m u s i c f l o w s o n i n a c e a s e l e s s s t r e a m o f c h a n g i n g h a r m o n i e s r e t u r n i n g e v e r t o t h e s w e e t a n d s l u m b r o u s Sound o f t h e w o o d l a n d s . The B r e e z e r e t u r n s a n d i n t e r w e a v e s a l l t h e s a c r e d t h e m e s . Them comes t h e d e l i g h t f u l l y s w e e t p h r a s e i n A f l a t o f t h e Good F r i d a y S p e l l , t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e e n t i r e d r a m a . The f o r e s t m u s i c b r e a k s t h r o u g h t h e hum o f h a p p y i n s e c t l i f e a n d t h e s o n g o f t h e w i l d b i r d s , i n v a r i a b l y t h r o u g h W a gner's dramas., i n t h e m i d s t o f human p a i n and p a s s i o n , n a t u r e i n t e r v e n e s , b r i n g i n g p e a c e and harmony. The woods a p p e a r i n T a n n h a u s e r , S i e g f r i e d a n d P a r s i f a l a s d o e s t h e s e a i n T r i s t a n und I s o l d e and P e r f l i e g e n d e H o l l a n d e r , e v e n i n g i n S i e g f r i e d s T o d , n i g h t and.dawn i n L o h e n g r i n . Of t h e m u s i c o f P a r s i f a l Wagner s a y s , . " B e i mesnem F ^ r s i J / a l w i l l i c h a u c h m i c h i n d e r i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n e i n f a c h h a l t e n ... 1. S c h r e n c k , 2 0 3 . 2. K a p p , 238. 3. LA,' 206. 169 w o h e i g e w i s s e t & o d u l a t i o n e n u n d m t e r v a l l e , p a t h e t i s c h e H a r m o n i e n u n d s e n t i m e n t a l e l l e l o d i t t g a r n i c h t v o l l k o m m e n k o n n t e n . •..*.Is d i i r f t e n i c h t s a u g e f u h r t e s s e i n . n u r w i e e i n l e i e h t e r Bammer...wo e r n o c h e i n m a l M e n s c h i s t , b e v o r e r K o n i g w i r d . . . D a s .Waldweben i m S i e g f r i e d ausrchaus i n e i n e r i N a l v e t a t d e r N a t u r , d e r , P a r s i f a j . . d g a g e ^ n i n e i n e r H a i v e t a t d e s H e i l i g e n z u fealten i s t . . . . . P e r P a r s i f a l g r e i f t d i c h t e r i s c h und t o n a l i n e k n e a n d e r e Welt., . d i e . d - e r . B e i b e .und d e r G l a u b i g e n v e r k l a r u n g . n The e p i s o d e o f A u n d r y..,..subdued, awed and w e e p i n g , w a s h i n g P a r s i f a l ' s f e e t a n d h i s - b a p t i s m o f her^acGomp.anied b y t h e theme o f F a i t h , i s a b o l d s t r o k e b u t t h e v o i c e s o f n a t u r e a n d t h e murmur o f ..the woods s y m b o l i s e s t h e p u r e a e v o t ' i p n o f t h e c u r s e d woman redeemed f r o m s i n . H e r w i l d k i s s , i n t h e g a r d e n k i n d l e d i n h i m f i e r c e f i r e ' m i n g l e d w i t h b i t t e r p a s s i o n a n d h i s i s t h e s e a l o f h e r e t e r n a l p a r d o n and p e a c e . The a i r d a r k e n s , t h e g r e a t b e l l s a r e h e a r d and t h e s l o w m o t i o n o f t h e s c e n e r y r e c o m m e n c e s . I n t h e w i l d c a v e t h e m u s i c s o u n d s s t r a n g e and h o l l o w . The shadows d e e p e n , t h e b e l l s g r o w c l e a r e r ' a n d t h e s t a g e b r i g h t e n s t o t h e g r e a t h a l l . The s o n g o f t h e k n i g h t l y c h o i r s a n d t h e b o y s d u r i n g T i t u r e l ' s p r o c e s s i o n i s f o u n d i n t h e M l i n i c h s k e t c h and was o r i g i n a l l y i n t h e l a s t a c t o f S i e g f r i e d s T od o f 1848,where t h e men and women s i n g i n q u e s t i o n a n d a n s w e r . Up t o now P a r s i f a l , b o t h a s man a n d y o u t h , i s e x t r e m e l y g e n t l e . A t t h e news o f • ' i T i t u r e l ' s d e a t h he i s r e a d y t o f a i n t a s he was i n A c t 1. He i l o v e s t h e b e a u t y o f n a t u r e . D u r i n g t h e s o e n e o n t h e f l o w e r y meadows p e r h a p s he a p p e a r s t o o t e n d e r a n d g e n t l e ; s o . t h a t i t i s 170 h a r d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s t r o n g h e r o , who h a s a l l o w e d no i n w a r d c o n f l i c t o f h i s own t o d e f l e c t h i m f r o m t h e p u r p o s e o f h i s m i s s i o n . U n n o t i c e d a n d y e t w i t h s o v e r e i g n a s s u r a n c e he a p p e a r s among t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s a t t h e moment o f A m f o r t a s 5 a p p e a l f o r d e a t h a nd b r i n g s t h e m s a l v a t i o n . 1 " A b e r d a b e i blfefebt e r tt " . 2 ' d e m o t i g , derm e i n e h o h e & a o h t h a t i h m a l l e s g e g e h e n . " He i s a b l e t o b r i n g r e d e m p t i o n . b e c a u s e he h a s . f e l t w i t h i n h i m s e l f a l l t h e s o r r o w s o f m a n k i n d a s w e l l a s t h o s e o f t h e S a v i o u r who-works t h r o u g h h i m . ..gotthe a d v e n t u r o u s y o u t h becomes t h e k i n g l y r e d e e m e r a n d t h e o p e r a e n d s i n t h a t mood o f g r e a t p e a c e f o r :which' Wagner''longed. W a gner's c h a r a c t e r s a r e s k e t c h e d i n b r o a d l i n e s ; t h e y a r e b o t h h e r o i c a n d t y p i c a l y e t i n d i v i d u a l . Many r e p r e s e n t , i d e a s ; f o r e x a m p l e , S a c h s a n d Wotan s y m b o l i s e l o v e and power; T a n n h a u s e r , S a c h s and W a l t h e r a r e a r t i s t s . Some, l i k e S i e g -f r i e d a r e c a s t i n t h e h e r o i c m o u l d . P e r h a p s t h e r e l i g i o u s h e r o e s L o h e n g r i n a n d P a r s i f a l a r e t h e b e s t . Some c h a r a c t e r s -t h e D u t c h m a n , T a n n h a u s e r , W otan, A m f o r t a s , K u n d r y - must be saved.' O t h e r s h a v e t h e power t o s a v e - S e n t a , E l i s a b e t h , i s r u n n h i l d e , S i e g f r i e d , H a n s , S a c h s . P a r s i f a l , T r i s t a n a n d I s o l d e b e l o n g t o b o t h c l a s s e s . 1. S c h r e n c k , 205. 2. " l i n e e d l l e k l o s t e r r i t t e r l i c h e E i n f a c h f e e i t b e k l e i d e t e d i e G e s t a g e n m i t m a l e r i s c h e r . I ' e i e r l i c h k e i t , d u r c h n l c h t s h a t t e d e r K o n i g s i c h v o n d e n ' a n d e r e n B i t t e r n z u u n t e r s c h e i d e n , a l s d u r c h ' d i e m y s t i s c h e W i c h t i g k e i t s e i n e r e r h a b e n e n A u n k t i o n . n ( L A , 124) 171 P a r s i f a l r e a l l y h a s two c h a r a c t e r s 1 t h a t o f Boy and Redeemer, b u t t h e same t r a i t s a r e f o u n d i n b o t h ; o n l p - t h e y a r e d e e p e n e d , r e f i n e d a n d s o f t e n e d i n t h e m a t u r e f i g u r e . Of a l l W agner's h e r o e s P a r s i f a l i s t h e most s p a r i n g o f w o r d s . O n l y where he f i g h t s t h e d e c i s i v e b a t t l e d o e s h i s e m o t i o n become a p p a r e n t i n w o r d s . E l s e w h e r e h i s f e e l i n g s a r e shown o n l y i n s i g h s o r g e s t u r e s o r t h e s t r u g g l e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e m u s i c , f o r a l l t h r o u g h t h e drama n o t o u t e r b u t i n n e r e v e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . Yet.how. c h a r m i n g l y Wagner/a fer i n g s r be. f o r e u s t h e n a i v e t e o f h i s h e r o , n o t b y a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s b u t b y c o n c r e t e w o r d s , f o r e x a m p l e when he c a l l s t h e h o r s e s " s c h o n e T i e r e " a n d s a y s i n s t e a d o f k n i g h t " g l a n z e n d e M a n n e r " . P a r s i f a l ' s l i f e i s a c t i o n a nd he i s e n t i r e l y u n d e r t h e d o m i n i o n o f h i s w i l l . L i k e a l l h e r o e s o f a c t i o n , , h i s , r e s o l v e s a r e a l w a y s s u d d e n , i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i s e d a n d c a r r i e d o u t c o n s i s t e n t l y . C e r t a i n t r a i t s o f t h e m y t h i c a l P a r s i f a l , h i s i n n o c e n c e a n d c o m p a s s i o n a t e n a t u r e were a c c e n t u a t e d b y Wagner. H i s i n t e n s i t y o f f e e l i n g h a s i t s o r i g i n i n t h e t e n d e r n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y o f h i s i n n e r a w a r e n e s s . He h a s no c o n s c i o u s k n o w l e d g e o f good and- e v i l b u t o n l y a n i n t u i t i v e f e e l i n g f o r them. Thus h i s p i t y f o r t h e swan c a u s e s h i m t o s t a n d s t u n n e d t h e n t o t r e m b l e a n d s t u m b l i n g l y s a y , " i c h y e r s c h m a c h t e " . The h e r o e s o f t h e o l d l e g e n d s w e re w a r r i o r s who' f o u g h t t h e i r way t h r o u g h l i f e , 1. On P a r s i f a l ' s c h a r a c t e r , v . Chamb., 32 5 ; HE, 9 5 f f ; Hend., 4 7 3 ; S c h r e n c k , 213 f f . ; LW, 2 9 3 , 2 6 6 , 2 8 9 ; B e k k e r , 4 5 5 ; K a p p , 237. 172 f e e l i n g a l l > w h o o p p o s e d them. B u t Wagner's P a r s i f a l i s a l l t e n d e r n e s s and p i t y , a nd t h r o u g h t h e s e he c o n q u e r s i n t h e e n d . Wagner h a s b e e n s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d f o r p r e s e n t i n g h i s h e r o a s an i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t . P a r s i f a l i s / h o w e v e r , no weak c o p y b u t r a t h e r a n o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e S a v i o u r o f A m f o r t a s and t h e • G r a i l ) b u t n o t o f h u m a n i t y a s was C h r i s t , o r e v e n o f t h e w o r l d a s was B r u n n h i l d e , who b y h e r s a c r i f i c e f r e e s Wotan and r e d e e m s . t h e w o r l d f r o m t h e c u r s e . T r i s t a n and. P a r s i f a l , s a y s C h a m b e r l a i n , b e l o n g o r g a n i c a l l y t o t h e R i n g . P a r s i f a l i s t h e n e c e s s a r y s e q u e l o f t h e B l n g , i s f o r e s h a d o w e d t h e r e i n a n d r e q u i r e d by ft B r u n n h i l d e r s d e a t h . ' The e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y o f , L o h e n g r i n , t h e p a g a n i s m o f P i e N i b e l u n g e n , t h e p e s s i m i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f T r i s t a n , c u l m i n a t e i n t h e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f o f P a r s i f a l ? l i n k e d b y t h e h e a l t h i e r i d e a s o f P i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r . S i e g f r i e d , W e s t o n p o i n t s o u t , i s b u t t h e T e u t o n i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n A r y a n o r i g i n a l , whose B r i t i s h p a r a l l e l i s i t o " b e f o u n d i n P a r s i f a l . S i e g f r i e d and P a r s i f a l , she s a y s , o r i g i n a l l y were o n e . S i e g f r i e d , h o w e v e r , b e l o n g s t o t h e s a g a , P a r s i f a l t o t h e M a r c h e n s t a g e . T h e r e e x i s t s s o g r e a t a. s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e e a r l y l i v e s o f P a r s i f a l and S i e g f r i e d t h a t Vfegner a v o i d e d r e p e t i t i o n b y o m i t t i n g a n y d e s c r i p t i o n o f P a r s i f a l ' s y o u t h b e c a u s e he had a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n S i e g f r i e d . F o r a n a c c o u n t o f t h e c h i l d h o o d d a y s Of P a r s i f a l , "then,, we must t u r n t o S i e g f r i e d . 1. Ghamb., 295 2. WLWP, 2. • 178 j M e l t h e r h a d a n y k n o w l d e d g e o f men," o f t h e i r f a t h e r s , e v e n o f t h e i r own names. B o t h p o s s e s s e d s u p e r n a t u r a l c o u r a g e . B o t h c r e a t e d t h e i r own arms a n d h u n t e d i n t h e f o r e s t w i l d e r n e s s . S i e g f r i e d i s Y/agner's i d e a l o f a h e r o i c l i f e exempt f r o m s a d n e s s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p e s s i m i s m o f t h e d i s i l l u s i o n e d Y/otan ^ S i e g -f r i e d i s a h e a l t h y a n i m a l , s u p e r b l y p a g a n , . i n n o c e n t o f r e m o r s e and a s c e t i c i s m , u n l i k e P a r s i f a l he i s f u l l o f q u e s t i o n s . • U n l i k e P a r s i f a l t o o , he i s q u i c k e r , more a c t i v e , . m o r e mature,, b e t t e r a d j u s t e d t o t h e w o r l d , a n d t o t h i s f o r c e e v e r y t h i n g g i v e s way - . F a f n e r , Mime, t h e S p e a r a n d F i r e . I n c o n t r a s t t o >Wotan, who i s g o v e r n e d b y r e a s o n , S i e g f r i e d f o l l o w s a s p o n t -a n e o u s I n s t i n c t . H i s o n l y g u i d e i s h i s i m p u l s e and h i s l o v e - o f n a t u r e , o f woods and b i r d s and b e a s t s . He knows no r e f l e c t i o n o r f e a r . S i e g f r i e d n e v e r makes t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a f o o l . I n a l e t t e r t o R o c h e l Wagner s a y s , 1 " A l l e r d i n g s s o i l m e i n H e l d n i c h t d e n E i n d r u c k e i n e s g a n z l i c h B e w u s s t l o s e n machen;- i m S i e g f r i e d h a b e l o h v i e l m e h r d e n m i r b e g r e i f l i c h e n v o l l k o m m e n d e n M e n s c h e n d a r s t e l l e n g e s u c h t , d e s s e n h o c h s t e s B e w u s s t s e i n immer n u r i m g e g e n w a r t i g e n L e b e n und H a n d e l n s i c h k u n d g i b t . " S a i n t S a e n s s a y s ? " S i e g f r i e d e s t b e t e comme l a . p u b e r t e e t l a f o r c e b r u t a l e . r i :h:i." ; . . . P a r s i f a l , s u p e r c e d e s S i e g f r i e d as a d i v i n e h e r o . L i k e S i e g f r i e d . P a r s i f a l i s a p u r e i n e x p e r i e n c e d " N a t u r b u r s c h " . He t o o f e l t t h e d e s i r e t o see t h e w o r l d , t o d e l i g h t i n b a t t l e and h u n t . A t f i r s t h e , t o o , h a s no p l a n t o h i s a d v e n t u r e s and 1 . " LWj 289. 2 . L W , 289. 174 seems r e a d y t o c e a s e h i s e n d e a v o u r s when he b r e a k s h i s . bow. W h i l e S i e g f r i e d a c c o m p l i s h e s h i s d e e d s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e c o n -s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and f a l l s a - v i c t i m o f h i s o w n - b l i n d n e s s t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a b o u t h i m , i n P a r s i f a l t h e s p i r i t u a l s i d e i s more s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d . P a r s i f a l i s a l o n e l y f i g u r e . He h a s no v i t a l a c t u a l i t y , no i n d i v i d u a l m u s i c a l m o t i f l i k e S i e g f r i e d . The f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e , o f t h e theme d o e s n & o t a p p e a r u n t i l t h e Good F r i d a y s c e n e , where t h e c h o r d a l m o t i f i s b u i l t up b y r h y t h m i c and h a r m o n i c c o m p r e s s i o n t o f o r m a p e r s o n i f i e d s y m b o l o f e x p i a t i o n a n d s e l f r e d e m p t i o n 1 « b y s u f f e r i n g . S c h r e n c k , s a y s , " F u r S i e g f r i e d w i r d j e d e s i» E r l e b n i s e i n S t u c k s e i n e s s e l b s t . F u r P a r s i f a l b e d e u t e t a l l e E r l e b n l s s e n u r d a s S u e h e n n a c h dem e i n e n g r o s s e n E r l e b n i s . s e i n e s L e b e n s . " S i e g f r i e d g o e s o u t t o f i n d t h e w o r l d ; P a r s i f a l w a n d e r s a b o u t i n i t b u t d o e s n o t f i n d o u t what he i s t o do u n t i l , i n a l l t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e , he f i n d s t h e u n i f y i n g , s p i r i t . S i e g f r i e d f r o m t h e b b e g i n n i n g i s a t home i n t h e w o r l d . To P a r s i f a l t h e w o r l d i s a l w a y s s t r a n g e . S i e g -f r i e d s l a y s t h e d r a g o n ; t o P a r s i f a l i t i s a s i n t o k i l l a swan. S i e g f r i e d f o r g e s h i s own s w o r d ; P a r s i f a l b r e a k s h i s bow. S i e g f r i e d d e s p i s e s d e a t h and l o o k s t o l i f e t o b r i n g him-h a p p i n e s s ; P a r s i f a l s u r r e n d e r s t o t a l l y h i s own d e s i r e s . S i e g -f r i e d s e e k s B r u n n h i l d e w i t h p r e m e d i t a t i o n ; P a r s i f a l comes u p o n K u n d r y a c c i d e n t a l l y . F r o m B r u n n h i l d e S i e g f r i e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e l e a r n s f e a r . P r e v i o u s l y he h a d b e e n o n l y h a l f a man. 1. S c h r e n e f t , 215. tt 175 W i t h B r u n n h i l d e He becomes a c o m p l e t e l y i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y . I n S u n d r y ' s a r m s P a r s i f a l a c c o m p l i s h e s h i s f i r s t g r e a t d e e d when he t e a r s h i m s e l f away f r o m h e r . B r u n n h i l d e ' s k i s s awakens h a p p y l o v e i n S i e g f r i e d . K u n d r y ' s embrace l e a v e s P a r s i f a l w i t h a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a l l t h e s o r r o w o f t h e w o r l d , T h i s p o s i t i o n demands n o t a b s o l u t e d e n i a l o f a l l s i m p l e a n d i n n o c e n t j o y s b u t o f i m p u r e d e s i r e s . , L o v e f o r P a r s i f a l must n o t be e g o i s t i c b u t d i s i n t e r e s t e d and c o m p a s s i o n a t e , T h r o u g h a k i s s b o t h h e r o e s become men. So t h e t wo ?who a s b o y s b o r e many r e s e m b l a n c e s t o e a c h o t h e r , i n t h e c r u c i a l moment o f t h e i r l i v e s f o r m t h e s h a r p e s t c o n t r a s t , S i e g f r i e d h a s k i l l e d t h e d r a g o n , won • . B r u n n h i l d e a n d t h e w o r l d , P a r s i f a l h a s l a s t t h e w o r l d o f t h e G r a i l , i n s t e a d o f j o y comes t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f g u i l t , S i e g f r i e d s t a n d s a t t h e g o a l o f h i s w i s h e s , P a r s i f a l , a f t e r h i s p u r p o s e l e s s w a n d e r i n g , h a s n o t h i n g . B u t b e c a u s e S i e g f r i e d h a s won a l l , n o t h i n g more r e m a i n s f o r h i m and he h a s e v e r y t h i n g t o l o s e . P a r s i f a l h a s l o s t a l l , so he c a n f o l l o w t h e i n n e r v o i c e o f p i t y . A t t h e moment when h i s o u t e r w o r l d i s s h a t t e r e d , f o r P a r s i f a l l i e s a h e a d t h e hope o f a new d e v e l o p m e n t . S i e g f r i e d , who e v e n a s a c h i l d was a t one w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e , a s a y o u t h c o n q u e r s t h e w o r l d . P a r s i f a l , who c a n f i n d no p l a c e f o r h i m -s e l f i n t h e scheme o f t h i n g s ? t u r n s f r o m t h e c o n q u e r i n g o f t h e G r a i l t o t h e i n n e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s p i r i t . The p i t y f o r a n i m a l s . w h i c h he i s t a u g h t b y Gurnemanz.and f o r men b y A m f o r t a s , he c a n n o t f u l l y r e a l i z e , b e c a u s e he d o e s n o t a t h e e v i l o f t h e w o r l d . A t t h e G r a i l c e r e m o n y he o n l y s e n s e s t h e . p r e s e n c e o f some .176 s o r r o w f u l m y s t e r y . K u n d r y ' s k i s s r e v e a l s a l l t o h i m . Sow he p i t i e s t h e s u f f e r i n g A m f o r t a s b e c a u s e he h i m s e l f knows t h e mean-i n g o f d e s i r e . T h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l o n e d o e s n o t s u f f i c e t o g i v e h i m t h e power o f a s a v i o u r . P i t y f o r a l l t h i n g s a l o n e makes h i m p o w e r f u l a n d t h i s he e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e l o n g l o n e l y w a n d e r i n g s d e s c r i b e d a s i n T a n n h a u s e r . d u r i n g t h e e n t r e -a c t , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e j o y f u l R h i n e j o u r n e y o f S i e g f r i e d . P a r s i f a l more t h a n S i e g f r i e d p o s s e s s e s i n t u i t i o n . S i e g f r i e d ' s g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e p h y s i c a l a c t s ; P a r s i f a l ' s a c c o m p l i s h -m e n t s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f i n t u i t i o n s so h i s a c t i o n s a r e n o t shown on t h e s t a g e . A s S i e g f r i e d and B r & n n h i l d e r e p a i r Wotan's i n i q u i t y , s o P a r s i f a l r e g a i n s t h e L a n c e , a t o n e s f o r K u n d r y and '-Amfortas and r e s t o r e s o r d e r t o t h e w o r l d . P a r s i f a l knows t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l ' l a w o f t h e w o r l d , a s B r f t n n h i l d e d o e s o n l y a t t h e It SI e n d o f ©otterdammerung. . The. c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n P a r s i f a l a nd T r i s t a n w h i c h was Wagner's i d e a h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e drama. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e m o t i f o f t h e p u r e f o o l , c h a n g e d b y c o n t r a r y m o t i o n and i n v e r s i o n i n t o a n a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e o f f i f t h s , i s t h e i n v e r s i o n o f t h e T r i s t a n m o t i f . J u s t a s s e n s u a l i t y i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f T a n n h a u s e r , Y e n u s a n d S u n d r y , so s a c r i f i c i n g p u r e l y i s d e p i c t -e d i n E l i s a b e t h and P a r s i f a l , b u t t h e s t r u g g l e w h i c h i n T a n n h a u s e r i s b e t w e e n Venus and E l i s a b e t h i n P a r s i f a l t a k e s p l a c e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e h e r o . • 177 1 1 .Comparing P a r s i f a l w i t h , . J o a n o f A r c } W a g n e r s a y s , HOT t P ^ s i f ' a l Afct 2 . M i t dem G o t t i n i h r e m i n n e r n s e i e n s o l c h e Wesen d u r c h e i n e n , i n i h r e n S n t w i c h l u n g s j a h r e n empfangenen g r o s s e n E i n d r u c k , d e r S i n n e n l u s t a u f e w i g e n t r i s s e n ; d e r N a t u r t r i e b i n i h n e n v o l l i g u m g e s c h l a g e n : d a s s e i das g r o s s e v o r b i l d i e h e E r l e b n i s a l l e r H e i l i g e n . B e i m f i e i l a n d s e i d i e s e U mkehr, d i e s e s U m s c h l a g e n s o z u s a g e n vom M u t t e r l e i b a u s p r a d e s t i n i e r t g e w e s e n . " I f P a r s i f a l c o m b i n e s t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f W o l f r a m ' s P a r z i v a l , J o s e p h i n R u d o l f v o n Ems L e g e n d e . S i e g f r i e d and J o a n o f A r c , Wagner i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n h i s h e r o i n t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e o f h i s w i l l and h i s a b i l i t y t o s e e r e a l i t y and b e y o n d i t - t h e g r e a t t r u t h . Wagner r e p r e s e n t s t h e G r a i l a s we know i t . T h ough he feetains t h e p r i m i t i v e a n d p r e - C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r o v e n c a l a n d f o l k t a l e f o o d - p r o v i d i n g v e s s e l , y e t t h i s v e s s e l h a s r e c e i v e d C h r i s t ! s b l o o d a n d i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e c h a l i c e o f t h e m a s s . I n W o l f r a m p o w e r i s d e r i v e d f r o m God, i n Wagner d i r e c t l y f r o m the C h r i s t i a n i s e d G r a i l . E b r Wagner's c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e G r a i l we mu s t t u r n t o t h e p r e l u d e o f L o h e n g r i n . Wagner h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r e l u d e , 2 "Das v a s p u l e l zum L o h e n g r i n s c h i l d e r t d i e H e r a b t u n f t d e s G r a l e s a u s H i m m e l s h S h e n i m G e l e i t e i n e r E n g e l s c h a r . D i e g o t t l i c h e E r s c h e i n u n g b r e i t e t s i c h i n immer t r a u l i c h e r Mahe.',vpr d e n v e r k l a r t e u S i n n e n d e s S c h a u e n d e n a u s . D i e E n g e l s c h a r s e h w e b t w i e d e r z u r Bohe und v e r s e h w i n d e t i m h e l l s t e n L i c h t e d e s b l a u e n B i m m e l s a t h e r s , w i e a u s ihm s i e i . H.E . ; , ; ; 8 g . —— 2 . QQI. t ^s. • 178 z u s i c h g®n<*ht. A b e r d e n G-ral H e s s s i e z u r u e k i n d e r H u t r e i n e r M e n s c h e n i n d e r e n H e r z e n s e i n I n h a l t s e l b s t s i c h s e g n e n d e r g o s s e n . " F o r Wagner t h e M i b e l u n g e n t r e a s u r e was. a l s o t h e G r a i l a n d F r i e d r i e h I was S i e g f r i e d and S i e g f r i e d was B a l d u r a n d B a l d u r was C h r i s t . 1 When Wagner f i r s t b e g a n t o s k e t c h t h e Hih£ 5he saw t h a t t h e G r a i l was b u t a n i d e a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f t h e T r e a s u r e , m h i s v i e w t h e two c o u l d n o t be s e p a r a t e d . The v e s s e l , o f g r a c e c o n s e c r a t e d w i t h t h e b l o o d o f t h e S a v i o u r a p p e a r e d a s t h e G h r i s t i a n p a r a l l e l t o t h e h e a t h e n c o n c e p t i o n Of t h e R h i n e g o l d . I n P a r s i f a l ; w h e r e t h e p e r s o n s a r e s h a d o w y . t h e i n n e r m o s t c e n t r e l i e s n o t i n a n y one i n d i v i d u a l b u t i n t h e G r a i l , t h e s y m b o l o f d i v i n e g r a c e . The S p e a r and t h e G r a i l b e l o n g t o g e t h e r . The S p e a r i s t h e s y m b o l o f t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h e k n i g h t s ; t h e G r a i l a n d t h e S p e a r t o g e t h e r f o r m t h e s y m b o l o f p e r f e c t power w h i c h w i l l be d e c r e a s e d i f e i t h e r i s l o s t . W o l f r a m c o n n e c t s t h e S p e a r ' O f G h r e t i e n w i t h t h e wound o f A m f o r t a s . Wagner c o n n e c t s W o l f r a m ' s t h o u g h t w i t h t h e m e a n i n g w h i c h i n t h e D r e n c h G r a i l r o m a n c e s was g i v e n t o t h e l a n c e , i . e . , t h e l a n c e w h i c h p i e r c e d G h r i s t h a s t h e power, t o i n f l i c t a n d t o h e a l wounds. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e b l e e d i n g L a n c e Wagner t h u s o b t a i n e d f r o m G h r e t i e n . , W o l f r a m made i t s i m p l y a p o i s o n e d L a n c e w i t h w h i c h a n unknown pagan, i n s t r i f e f o r t h e G r a i l , h a d wounded A n f o r t a s . • G h r e t i e n d e s c r i b e d i t a s t h e s p e a r w i t h w h i c h L o n g i h u s h a d p i e r c e d t h e s i d e o f t h e c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t . T h i s i d e a c o u l d 1. Newman, 26 . 179 n o t f a i l t o . , a t t r a c t Wagner b e c a u s e i t gave b i m an o p p o r t u n i t y , t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e e t h i c a l b a s i s . H e r e P a r s i f a l s e a r c h e s f o r t h e L a n c e , w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y Gawain'.s t a s k , w h i l e P a r z i v a l ' s q u e s t was t h e G r a i l . So Wagner c h a n g e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e weapon b u t i n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e S p e a r n o t t h e G r a i l a s t h e '•subject- o f t h e q u e s t > a n d t h e d e s i r e , t h e h e a l i n g o f t h e k i n g , p r o b a b l y he was n e a r e r t o t h e o r i g i n a l . The o l d e s t v e r s i o n -was a s e a r c h f o r a t a l i s m a n . T h i s became i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e G r a i l b u t i n G h r e t i e n , t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e l a n c e o c c u p i e s a l a r g e r p l a c e t h a n t h a t :p f t h e G r a i l . T h e n t h e S p e a r o f Lo.nginUs became i d e n t i f i e d ^ w i t h t h e l a n c e w h i c h , was a l r e a d y p a r t o f t h e s t o r y . T h u s t h e f e a s t , ' w h i c h i n W o l f r a m was p u r e l y s o c i a l , } o v e r s h a d o w e d b y t h e b l e e d i n g L a n c e b u t e m p h a s i s i n g t h e f o o d -p r o v i d i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e G r a i l , , i n Wagner assumes t h e c h a r -a c t e r o f a r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y . F o r a f u l l a c c o u n t o f t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s we must t u r n t o L o h e n g r i n , e s p e c i a l l y t o L o h e n g r i n ' s r e c i t a t i v e i n A c t • -,: ' l • • S9„ " I n f e r n e m L a n d " . T h e y a r e o n e a r t h t o t e s t i f y t o God and f i g h t t r u l y . T h e y a r e n o t monks b u t mon&s and k n i g h t s a t t h e same t i m e . They go o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d t o f i g h t f o r t r u t h a n d j u s t i c e , f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n n o c e n t and t h e h o n o u r o f women. T h e i r c o s t u m e s . a n d t h e b a n ; o n m a r r i a g e a r e t h e same a s i n . W o I f r a m ' s a c c o u n t . Wagner o m i t s a n y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e combat, o f P a r s i f a l w i t h t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s and he . ' ; s t r e n g t h e n s t h e bond b e t w e e n t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s and A m f o r t a s . 1. See too:;, M a t h i l d e Wesendonck, May 3 0 , 1859. 180 The F i s h e r K i n g a p p e a r s i n e v e r y v e r s i o n b u t t h e E n g l i s h S y r . P e r o y v e l l e . i n w h i c h t h e G r a i l does' n o t a p p e a r e i t h e r He b e l o n g s t o t h e p a r t w h i c h h a s b e e n m o s t s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d b y m y t h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e k i n g was s o c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t a l i s m a n s , t h a t when P a r s i f a l c e a s e d t o be t h e h e r o " p a r e x c e l l e n c e " o f t h e Q u e s t , t h e k i n g s t i l l r e t a i n s h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f t h e Q u e s t . A s a r u l e ' he i s o l d . i n W o l f r a m ' s P a r z i v a l he i s i n t h e p r i m e o f l i f e due t o t h e y o u t h - b e s t o w i n g p o w e r s o f t h e G r a i l . T r e v -r i z e n t , t h e h e r m i t , i s A n f o r t a s ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r b u t he i s d e p i c t e d a s o l d . Wagner d r o p s o u t one g e n e r a t i o n i n t h a t he makes A m f o r t a s T i t u r e l * s s o n , n o t h i s g r a n d s o n , a n d u n r e l a t e d t o P a r s i f a l . The c h a r a c t e r s t a k e n o v e r f r o m W o l f r a m b y 2 ? f a g n e r h a v e fell a n I n d i v i d u a l .Wagnerian c o l o r i n g . The d i s t -i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f W o l f r a m ' s v e r s i o n w h i c h g i v e s Wagner t h e ': 3 m o t i f w h i c h c o l o r s h i s drama i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A m f o r t a s a s wounded i n p u n i s h m e n t f o r u n l a w f u l l o v e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was i n harmony w i t h t h e s p i r i t u a l a n d e t h i c a l t r e a t m e n t w h i c h r a i s e s W o l f r a m a b o v e t h e F r e n c h v e r s i o n s and was u t i l i s e d b y Wagner t o t h e b e n e f i t o f A m f o r t a s ' r o l e . . I n o t h e r v e r s i o n s t h e . w o u n d was r e c e i v e d a c c i d e n t a l l y i n b a t t l e o r b y a m y s t e r i o u s s w o r d . The weapon was. one o f . t h e o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e l e g e n d . W i t h - t h e C h r i s t i a n i z i n g . - p r o c e s s i t g r a d u a l l y became t h e S p e a r o f L o n g i n u s , w h i c h was a i d e d by t h e f i n d i n g a t &• .-WLWD, 1 8 5 . 2. i b i d . , .186... 3 . The name A m f o r t a s comes f r o m A n f o r t a s - E n f e r t e z - t h e F r e n c h f o r ' s i c k man'' t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e P r o v e n c a l e n d i n g ' a s ' 181 A n t i o c a i n 1198 o f a s p e a r i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e C r u s a d e r s a s a weapon o f t h e P a s s i o n , I n t h e drama h i s c h a r a c t e r has a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e a k i n g a l t o g e t h e r i n t h e l e g e n d and a b e a u t y • version e x c e e d i n g W o l f r a m ^ f o r he l o s e s h i s r u l e r s h i p a t t h e e x p r e s s o r d e r o f t h e G r a i l ,because he t r a n s g r e s s e d t h e o r d e r s o f t h e G r a i l company^and he l o s e s , t h e s p e a r w h i c h he h a d i n h e r i t e d f r o m h i s f a t h e r , w h e n he w i s f a l s e t o h i s vows and f a l l s p r e y t o K u n d r y . He i s wounded by K l i n g s o r t ( i n t h e s k e t c h by one o f K l i n g s o r ' s armed men) (who t h e n o b t a i n s t h e s p e a r . The p r o s e s k e t c h r e c o u n t s t h i s a s f o l l o w s , " A m f o r t a s ^ d e r H i S t e r des G r a l , s i e c h t a n e i n e r u n h e i l b a r e n S p e e r w u n d e , d i e e r i n e i n e m g e h e i m n i s w o l l e n L i e b e s a b e n t e m e r a m p f a n g e n . . . , E r muss dem Amte " v o r s t e h e n . . . b i s e i n W u r d i g e r e r e r s c h e i n t , e s i h m abaunehnien." H i s a c t i o n , h o w e v e r , was n o t an o r d i n a r y o u t b r e a k o f s e n s u o u s -n e s s b u t o c c u r s d u r i n g a c o u r a g e o u s a t t e m p t t o c a r r y o u t t h e d u t i e s o f h i s p o s i t i o n . The s i c k A m f o r t a s makes s u c h a n i m p r e s s i o n o f a t h o r o u g h l y p i o u s m a n , t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h e y o u n g A m f o r t a s . The a n a l y s i s o f A m f o r t a s ' s u f f e r i n g s i s ' e m b o d i e d i n t h e m u s i c . H i s i s a n i n t e r m i t t e n t f e v e r o f s u f f e r i n g a n d j u b i l a t i o n . He l o n g s f o r t h e G r a i l and d e a t h b u t t h e g i f t o f t h e G r a i l i s I n a b i l i t y t o d i e . He f e e l s shame, o p p r e s s i o n , p a i n and g u i l t y among t h e g u i l t l e s s , f o r u n l i k e W o l f r a m ' s v e r s i o n , ' A m f o r t a s ' s i n i n v o l v e s i n m i s e r y t h e w h o l e G r a i l company. He i s o v e r w h e l m e d w i t h h i s own u n w o r t h i n e s s y e t he i s condemned by h i s p o s i t i o n t o f u l f i l t h e r i t e s i n a g o n y , s p i r i t u a l a n d p h y s i c a l , f o r t h e u n w o r t h i -182 n e s s o f t h e m i n i s t e r d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e v a l i d i t y o f h i s c o n -s e c r a t e d a c t . . S o h r e n c k d e s c r i b e s h i m t h u s , " A m f o r t a s i s t d e r T y p u s d e s z u g r o s s e n D i n g e n b e r u f e n e n , m i t s c h o n e n A n l a g e n b e g a b t e n M e n s c h e n , d e r m i t s i c h n i c h t f e r t i g w e r d e n k a n n , d e r v o n G o t t g e t r e n n t und d o c h m i t d e n t i e f s t e n W u r z e l n s e i n e s Wesens an G o t t g e b u n d e n i n f u r c h t b a r e r S e l b s t e n t z w e i u n g n a c h E r l o s u n g s c h r e i t . " Wagner d e s c r i b e s A m f o r t a s 1 p o s i t i o n i n a l e t t e r t o M a t h i l d e Wesendonck, M a y 3 0 , 1859. " D i e Speerwunde und w o h l no eh e i n e a n d ere. - i m H e r z e n , k e n n t d e r Arme i n s e i n e n f u r c h t e r l i c h e n S c h m e r z e n > k e i n e A n d e r e . S e h n s u c h t , a l s d i e z u s t e r b e n ; d i e s h o c h s t e L a b s a l z u g e w i n n e n , v e r l a n g t e s i h n immer w i e d e r n a c h dem . a n b l i c k d e s G r a l e s , ob d e r i h m • " w e n i g s t e n s d i e Wunden s c h l o s s e ... a b e r d e r G r a l g i b t ihm immer n u r d a s e i n e w i e d e r , - e b e n d a s s e r n i c h t S t e r b e n k a n n ; g e r a d e s e i n A n b l i c k v e r m e h r t a b e r n u r s e i n e Q u a l e n , i n d e m e r i h n e n n o c h u n s t e r b l i c h k e i t e r i . g i b t . A m f o r t a s . . .muss z u s e i n e r e i n z l g e n L a b u n g s l e h n a c h dem S e g e n de s B l u t e s s e h n e n , d a s e i n s t a u s d e r g l e l c h e n Speerwunde d e s H e i l a n d s f l o s s , a l s d i e s e r w e l t e n t s a g e n d , w e l t e r l o s e n d , w e l t l e i d e n d am K r e u z e s c h m a c h t e t e . . . . W o l l t e e r i m W a h n s i n n d e r V e r z w e i f l u n g s i c h g a n z l i c h vom G r a l abwenden, s e i n Auge v o r ihm s c h l p ^ s s e n . E r m o c h t e e s urn s t e r b e n z u k o n n e n a b e r - e r s e l b s t - e r ward zum B u t e r d e s G r a l e s b e s t e l l t . . . w e i l k e i n e r w i e e r s o t i e f und i n n i g d a s Wunder d e s G r a l e s e r k a n t , w i e n o c h j e t s s t s e i n e S e e l e / e n d l i c h immer w i e d e r n a c h dem A n b l i c f t e d r a n g t . . . i i i m m l i s c h e s 1. S o h r e n c k , 1 1 5 . 183 H e i l m i t a w l g e n VerdHmmMs g e w a h r t . . . . E r r e p r a s e n t i e r t . . . d a s L s i d d e r W e l t , d i e n u r d u r c h d i e v e r n e i n u n g d e s W i l l e n s e r l o s t w e r d e n kann."". S u n d r y a n d G a w a i n s e a r c h t h e w o r l d o v e r - f o r a means o f a s s u a g i n g A m f o r t a s ' p a i n h u t t h e o n l y r e l i e f he s e c u r e s i s f r o m h i s m o r n i n g . v i s i t t o t h e L a k e , w h i c h i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e m u s i c o f t h e f i r s t a c t / w h e n we h e a r t h e m u s i c o f t h e wound, t h e n t h e c o o l m o r n i n g b r e e z e f o l l o w e d b y t h e b u r s t o f w o o d l a n d n o t e s , t h e c h e e r y b i r d s o n g , t h e hum o f . i n s e c t s , the- r u s t l i n g o f n e t t e d b r a n c h e s a n d - t h e w a v i n g o f l o n g t a s s e l i e d g r a s s y f a r s u r p a s s i n g a n y t h i n g i n ; S i e g f r i e d . .-Thus Wagner d o e s away w i t h t h e f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e K i n g , w h i c h h a d n e v e r b e e n p r o p e r l y a c c o u n t e d f o r , y e t - b r i n g s h i m into - e v e n c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e L a k e by m a k i n g h i m b a t h e i n i t . So i n t e n s e i s t h e e m o t i o n a l i n t e r e s t o f t h i s f i g u r e , t h a t Wagner f e a r e d h e , a n d n o t P a r s i f a l , w o u l d o c c u p y t h e c h i e f r o l e . To M a t h i l d a Wesehdonck he w r i t e s , " Genau b e t r a c h t e t '•'•ist A m f o r t a s d e r Mitt-fcepunk-t u n d B a u p t g e g e n s t a n d . " " E r ( P a r s i f a l ) ' 1 s t u n e r l a s s l i c h n o t i g a l s d e r e r s e h n t e E r l o s e r ' d e s A m f o r t a s ; s o i l A m f o r t a s a b e r i n d a s w a h r e , i h m g e b u h r e n d e L l e h t g e s t e l I t w e r d e n , s o w i r d -er-, v o n s o u n g e h e u e r t r a g i s c h e m I n t e r e s s e , d a s s , e s f a s t m e h r a l s . s c h w e r w i r d , e i n z w e i t e s H a u p t i n t e r e s s e g e g e n i h n aufkqmmen z u l a s s e n , - und d o c h m u s s t e d i e s e s H a u p t l n t e r e s s e s i c h dem P a r z i v a l ztiwenden,. wenn e r n i c h t a l s - k a l t l B s s e n d e r Deus ex: m a e h i m . e b e n n u r s c h l i e s s l i c h h i n z u t r e t e n s o l l t e . S o m i t A s t P a r z i v a l s E n t w i c k l u n g s e i n a e r h a h e n s t e L a u t e r u n g , wenn a u c h p r a d e s t i n i e r t d u r c h s e i n 1. May 3 0 , 1859. is4 g a u z e s s i n n i g e s , l i e f , m i t l e i d v o l l e s N a t u r e l l , w i e d e r i n den Y o r d e r g r u n d z u s t e l l e n . " Wagner, h i m s e l f s a y s , ''Tannhauser, T r i s t a n , A m f o r t a s , s i e g i n g e n zusammen." T a n n h a u s e r i s n o t one o f Wagner's g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t s , y e t i t i s s e c o n d o n l y i n human i a t e r e s t t o T r i s t a n , i n d r a m a t i c s k i l l t o P a r s i f a l . I t owes l e s s t o i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , h o w e v e r , t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e s e f o r i t c o m b i n e s L a t i n a n d , T e u t o n i c e l e m e n t s , t h e b a l l a d o f T a n n h a u s e r and t h e V e n u s b e r g a n d t h e m i n s t r e l s ' c o m p e t i t i o n o f " t h e W a r t b u r g . The n o v e l t y o f Wagner's t r e a t m e n t i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e two w o r l d s . The Y e n u s b e r g . o f A c t One a n d t h e W a r t b u r g k r e i g o f A c t 2 become e o n f u s e d i n T a n n M u s e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and i n .}.the f i n a l a c t a r e b r o u g h t i n t o c o n f l i c t . . . T a n n h a u s e r b e l o n g s t o b o t h w o r l d s . „ I n P a r s i f a l , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e two w o r l d s o f t h e u - r a i l e a s t l e a n d A l i n g s o r 'j s m a g i c g a r d e n a r e s e p a r a t e a n d ' t h e h e r o p a s s e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o . The w h o l e o p e r a o f tt T a n n h a u s e r i s b ound t o g e t h e r i n t o m a g i c u n i t y b y . t h e c h a n t o f t h e p i l g r i m s w h i c h i s woven t h r o u g h t h e c h a n g i n g f a b r i c o f t h e drama l i k e a s c a r l e t t h r e a d , no?/ a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m e c h a n i c a l p a t t e r o f d u l l monks, now a s t h e m u s i c o f h e a v e n h e a r d b y one i n d e s p a i r , now a s t h e theme o f r e d e m p t i o n w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e y o u t h f u l w o r k a f Wagner a s w e l l a s t h e l a s t w o r k o f h i s m a t u r i t y . i n T a n n h a u s e r Wagner h a s summed u p , i n a f e w g l o w i n g s c e n e s , t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n a b u r s t o f f x e e s e n s u o u s l i f e a n d t h e h a r d n a r r o w i d e a l o f a s c e t i c i s m . A C h r i s t n o t c r o w n e d 185 ; w i t h t h o r n s j b u t t u r n e d t o s t o n e i s t h e o n l y a n s w e r t h e C h u r e h c o u l d g i v e t o t h a t s t o r m y i m p u l s e . 1 T a n n h a u s e r i s n o t o n l y one o f Wagner's most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r s b u t h i s n a t u r e ' l e n d s i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r Of A m f o r t a s . T a n n h a u s e r i s l u r e d t o t h e V e n u s b e r g a s t h e k n i g h t s a r e e n t i c e d t o K l i n g s o r ' s g a r d e n , b u t , u n l i k e t h e v i c t i m s o f K l i n g s o r ' s e v i l p o w e r , T a n n h a u s e r seems t h e o n l y m o r t a l who i s d e c o y e d . He succumbs t o s e n s u o u s l o v e a s A m f o r t a s t o K u n d r y . T a n n h a u s e r ' s i s a s t r o n g l y s e n s u a l n a t u r e b u t he i s n o t a common p r o f l i g a t e , h i s a m b i t i o n i s p u t t o s l e e p f o r a w h i l e , o n l y t o b r e a k o u t i n t o w i l d e r l i f e . L i k e T r i s t a n a n d A m f o r t a s he i s a b r a v e man w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r t h e - w o r l d a n d a t r e m e n d o u s t h i r s t f o r c o n q u e s t . I t i s h i s i n t e n s e l o v e o f t h e w o r l d , h i s u r g e t o f i g h t , h i s h o m e s i c k n e s s f o r n a t u r e , t h e f r e e s u m m e r . a i r o f .the u p p e r e a r t h and t h e warni M a y s u n s h i n e t h a t d r i v e h i m o u t o f V e n u s ' s l e e p y p u r p l e s hadows a nd r a i n b o w l i g h t . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e he f e e l s what t h e t r u e l o v e o f a p u r e woman m i g h t be t o a man. Then o n c e m o r e - t h e f r e e e l e m e n t i n T a n n h a u s e r , t h e r e c k l e s s d e f i a n t s p i r i t , b u r s t s t h e b o n d s b o t h o f s a c e r d o t a l i s m a n d s e n s u a l i t y and he b r e a k s t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l s t u p i d i t y o f h i s r i v a l s w i t h h i s a s s e r t i o n o f s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s . B y t h e p i l g r i m a g e t o Rome he d e e s n o t s e e k f o r g i v e n e s s f o r h i s own s i n so mucljt a s f o r h i s s i n a g a i n s t E l i s a b e t h . Thus T a n n h a u s e r ' s l i k e A m f o r t a s ' i s a n a t u r e d i v i d e d a g a i n s t i t s e l f - p u r i t y s t r u g g l i n g 1. B e k k e r , 1 5 8. - 186 a g a i n s t i m p u r i t y . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e t r a g e d y o f a man b e s e t b y t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e f l e s h , y e t h a u n t e d b y t h e u n d y i n g l o v e l i n e s s o f a o h a s t e and h o l y l o v e . F o r many y e a r s Wagner h a d s e e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f A m f o r t a s a n d T r i s t a n . He w r o t e , 1 " T r i s t a n i d e n t i f i z i e r t e s i c h . . . m i t dem A m f o r t a s i m G r a l r o m a n . " I n a l e t t e r t o M a t h l l d e ¥/esendonck he s a y s - o f Amfortas', f i r 1 s t m e i n T r i s t a n d e s 3. A k t e s m i t e i n e r u n d e n K I i c h e n S t e i g e r u n g , " N o t o n l y i s t h e r e a l i k e n e s s i n t h e i r eommon w i s h t o d e s t r o y t h e m s e l v e s b u t b o t h a r e p r e v e n t e d b y t h e i r g r e a t e s t t r e a s u r e ; T r i s t a n t h r o u g h I s o l d e , - w h o i s s t i l l a l i v e a n d w i t h o u t whom t h e r e c a n be no d e a t h f o r h i m , and " - A ^ o r t a s t h r o u g h t h e G r a i l . T r i s t a n a n d A m f o r t a s , h o w e v e r , l i v e i n q u i t e s e p a r a t e w o r l d s , s t r i v e f o r d i f f e r e n t i d e a l s a n d a r e g u i l t y i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . The s t o r y o f T r i s t a n a n d I s o l d e shows how t h e e v e r -s t r a i n i n g o f s o c i a l r e f i n e m e n t i s a p t t o b r i n g a b o u t a n i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n . T h e i r l o v e , w h i c h h a s a d e m o n i a c charm, an e l e m e n t a l p a s s i o n , b r e a k s t h r o u g h and d e m o l i s h e s t h e a r t i f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . C h i v a l r y i n v o l v e s t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e l i f e o f t h e day b u t i n I t s p l a c e Wagner e x p r e s s e s S c h o p e n h a u e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e n e g a t i o n o f t h e w i l l t o l i v e . The T r i s t a n o f t r a d i t i o n h a s r e t a i n e d a n e l e m e n t o f p r i m i t i v e p a s s i o n as c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e c o u r t l y l o v e o f L a n c e l o t . He i s a l o v e r r u l e d b y h i s p a s s i o n . The p h i l t r e 1. v . H.E., 1 7 5 . 2. May 30, 1 8 5 9 . 187 i s a s i r r e s i s t i b l e a s Daimuid's l o v e s p o t and f r o m t h e n on t h e o l d p r i n c i p l e s a r e mocked and v i o l a t e d . A m f o r t a s , l i k e T a n n h a u s e r a n d T r i s t a n , i s a s e n s u a l man y e t l i k e t hem h a s s u c h h i g h i d e a l s t h a t he i s i n c a p a b l e o f f i n d i n g a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e two s i d e s o f h i s n a t u r e . Am-f o r t a s , l i k e T a n n h a u s e r , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f P a r s i f a l , no o t h e r W a g n e r i a n c h a r a c t e r s d i s p l a y s o c l e a r l y t h e i r r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e s . Among a l l t h e m a l e h e r o e s o f Wagner, A m f o r t a s a n d T r i s t a n h ave no e q u a l s a s s y m b o l s o f g u i l t , f o r b o t h have s i n n e d a g a i n s t God. T h e i r s a l v a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f T r i s t a n . T h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r God i n T r i s t a n , t h o u g h t h e u n i t i n g o f t h e l o v e r s - i s r e l i g i o u s i n c h a r a c t e r , T r i s t a n i s re d e e m e d b y t h e s u b -m e r s i o n o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h a t o f h i s b e l o v e d , s o t h a t t h e l o v e d e a t h becomes a s y m b o l o f s e l f i s h p a s s i o n ^ p u r i f i e d . b y s o r r o w , o f r e d e m p t i o n b y n e g a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i f e , a n d t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l d e a t h o n l y c o m p l e t e s t h e i d e a w h i c h h a d b e e n a t t a i n e d i n A c t 2 , T a n n h a u s e r . i s s a v e d b y t h e p u r e and s y m p a t h e t i c l o v e o f a woman; A m f o r t a s b y t h e s y m p a t h y o f t h e p u r e P a r s i f a l . A m f o r t a s , more t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r s , f e e l s t h e i m m e n s i t y o f h i s g u i l t and h a s t h e c o u r a g e t o condemn h i m s e l f . He i s s u p r e m e l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n h i s h i g h c a l l i n g a n d h i s own s i n f u l n a t u r e . He c r i e s Was 1 s t d i e Wunde, i h r e r S c h m e r z e n Wut, Gegen d i e w o t , d i e H o l l e n p e i n , Zu d i e s e m Amt - verdammt z u s e i n I The r e d e m p t i o n , w h i c h i n T a n n h a u s e r a n d i r i s t a n comes t h r o u g h l o v e a n d d e a t h , i n P a r s i f a l comes t h r o u g h d i v i n e f o r g i v e n e s s 188 f o l l o w i n g a c o m p l e t e r e a l i s a t i o n o f A m f o r t a s 1 g u i l t . S c h r e n c k s a y s , 1 " I n T r i s t a n L i e b e , T o d , E r l o s u n g ; i n P a r s i f a l S e l h s t -e n t z w i u n g , S c h u l d g e f u h l , g o t t l i e h e V e r g e b u n g . ^ Of t h e end o f P a r s i f a l Wagner s a y s ^ " D i e s e r l e t z t e A k t i s t e i n w a h r e s W f e c h s e l f i e b e r - t i e f s t e s u n e r n o r t e s t e s L e i d e n und S c h m a c h t e n u n d d a n n u n m i t t e l b a r u h e r h o r t e s t e r J u b e l u n d J a u c h z e n . " W i t h t h e c o m i n g o f P a r s i f a l , A m f o r t a s , h i s s i n s f o r g i v e n , a p p r o a c h e s once more t h e m y s t i c w o r l d , n e a r w h i c h he h a d l i v e d f o r so many y e a r s f b u t w h i c h he h a d b e e n f o r b i d d e n t o e n t e r . The c h a r a c t e r o f T i t u r e l Wagner t o o k o v e r f r o m Y f o l f r a m i n a l l i t s m y s t e r i o u s n e s s b u t h e r e he i s n o t t h e G r a n d -f a t h e r b u t t h e f a t h e r o f i m f o r t a s . Me o n l y s p e a k s a f e w -words y e t t h e s e a r e f r i g h t e n i n g and c r e a t e a t r e m e n d o u s drama-t i c i m p r e s s i o n . I n t h e s k e t c h t h e r e a r e o n l y two q u e s t i o n s and one p a u s e ; i n t h e d r a ma t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , a s f r o m t h e g r a v e , a r e f o l l o w e d b y i c y s i l e n c e a n s w e r e d b y m u f f l e d drum b e a t s . T h i s same t e c h n i q u e Wagner h a d e m p l o y e d a l r e a d y i n t h e "Wer dat T a d d r e s s e d t o t h e Dutchman's s h i p , a n d t h e h e r a l d * s q u e s t i o n i n L o h e n g r i n . I n W o l f r a m t h e r e i s l i t t l e m e n t i o n o f t h e f a t h e r o f E r i m u l e l i n h i s y o u t h b u t , t h o u g h he was f i v e h und-r e d y e a r s o l d " s i n v a r w e e r j e d o c h n i e v e r l o s " b e c a u s e he was k e p t y o u n g by t h e s i g h t o f t h e G r a i l . T i t u r e l l i v e s f r o m t h e G r a i l and t h e t i r a i l f r o m t h e d o v e . A c i r c l e o f e t e r n a l l i f e s u r r o u n d s h e a v e n , e a r t h a n d t h e G r a i l . The a c c o u n t i n t h e s k e t c h r e a d s , "Im h d c h s t e n G r e i s e n a l t a r e r s t t t m p f t , i s t 1. S c h r e n c k , 1 3 2 . 2. To M a t h i l d e Wesendonck, May 3 0 / 5 9 . 189 e r n u r n o c h d u r e h d i e Wundermacht d e r firal u n t e r d e n L e b e n -d i g e n . " The a c c o u n t o f bow T i t u r e l r e c e i v e d t h e G r a i l i s n o t f o u n d i n t h e p r o s e v e r s i o n b u t was a d d e d b e t w e e n 1865 and 1877^ when Wagner r e r e a d Simmon.'-a t r a n s l a t i o n o f W o l f r a m ' s P a r z i v a l . Like Wotan, T i t u r e l i s b o t h God and K i n g . G l a s e n a p p c o n n e c t s t h e two and s a y s , " E r i s t Wotan, i n d e r Weltenfeagung w i r d i h m E r l p s u n g z u t e i l ; ihm. w i r d d a s h o c h s t e Gut a n v e r t r a u t und nun h u t e t e r e s K r i e g e r i s e h g o t t l i c h . " T i t u r e l i s a d i m i n u t i v e o f T i t u s , so t h a t he i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e e m p e r o r who so l e a r n e d t o . h a t e t h e J ews t h r o u g h h i s J e w i s h w i f e t h a t he r e -s o l v e d t o e x t i n g u i s h t h e e n t i r e r a c e . A s W o l z o g e n s a y s , "Der Z e r s t o r e r : v o n J e s u s w a re a l s o w i e d e r g e b o r e n e i n G r u n d e r - d e s G r a l h e i l i g t u m e s , w e l c h e r s e l b s t e i n w i e d e r g e b o r e n e r g e r m a n i s c h e n urgott w a r . " Ho o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s so s i g n i f i c a n t o r i s s h r o u d e d i n so much m y s t e r i o u s d a r k n e s s a s T i t u r e l . W h i l e a l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e a c t i v e , and b e l o n g t o t h i s l i f e of t h e p r e s e n t , T i t u r e l r e p r e s e n t s t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l e l e m e n t . L i k e t h e dove he s y m b o l i s e s e t e r n a l l i f e . T h e r e i s no t r a c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l human e l e m e n t a b o u t h i m . The m e a n i n g o f T i t u r e l 1 s c h a r a c t e r h a s a r o u s e d much d i s c u s s i o n . W o l z o g e n a s k s , " 1 s t e r das. I d e a l d e s u r a l r i t t e r t u m s , s e i n e E r i n n e r u n g , d i e f o r t l e b t , b i s sie v o r dem n e u e n G l a n z e ( P a r s i f a l ) e r b l e i c h t und f u r immer z u d e n t o t e n g e b e t t e t w i r d ? Oder 1 s t e r d i e Stimme d e s u n s t e r b l i c h e n . G e w i s s e n s d e r MensehheitI" O t h e r s s u g g e s t -t h a t T i t u r e l i s . t h e v o i c e o f n a t u r e , o f t h e same t y p e ®s . F a f n e r , f o r e x a m p l e , who h a s n o t d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r b u t only 190 a v o c a l c h a r a c t e r , i e e ' s , t h e y a r e l i v i n g v o i c e s . The f a i t h f u l s e r v a n t of A m f o r t a s a n d T i t u r e l i s Gurnemanz. I n t h e e a r l y v e r s i o n o f t h e l e g e n d t h e o f f i c e o f Gurnemanz was t o i n s t r u c t t h e h e r o . I n t h e P e r e d u r s a g a Gurnemanz i s t h e F i s h e r K i n g and u n c l e t o t h e h e r o . As a r u l e he i s d i s t i n c t from, b o t h a n d t h e h e r m i t i s t h e u n c l e who d i r e c t s h i s s p i r i t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s Burnemanz d i r e c t s h i s o u t w a r d h e a r i n g . Wagner u n i t e s b o t h i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e d i d a c t i c o l d k n i g h t . The Gurnemanz o f A c t One i s t h e Gnrnemans o f G r a h a n g o f B o ok T h r e e o f t h e , poem and t h e Gurnemanz o f t h e t h i r d a c t i s t h e h e r m i t T r e v r i z e n t o f t h e n i n t h b o o k . He a l s o b e a r s c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e o l d g r e y k n i g h t who p o i n t s o u t t o P a r z i v a l t h e m e a n i n g o f Good F r i d a y and t h e h e r m i t B a r l a a m who t e a c h e s J'osaphat t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . YAolf ram's T r e v r i z e n t , t o o , i s " e i n r i t e r a l t d e s p a r t a l , A A A ' A gra. was g e v a r , d a b i s i n sell unde d a r . " He t o o " i n e i n e s v e l s e s v a n t s i n l e b e n v r l s t e t . * * The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t w h i l e P a r z i v a l i s shown t h e way t o t h e G r a i l and a d v i s e d by t h e k n i g h t , i n Wagner t h e g u i d i n g hand o f God a l o n e c o n d u c t s P a r s i f a l t o t h e r e g i o n o f t h e G r a i l a nd l a t e r t o the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e h e r m i t . I n W o l f r a m t h e h e r o i s a d v i s e d t o be humble and c o u r t e o u s . I n Wagner t h e k n o w l e d g e dawns u p o n t h e f o o l g r a d u a l l y , b e i n g i n s t i n c t i v e l y p r e s e n t f r o m b i r t h . I n t h e drama P a r s i f a l r e c e i v e s no i n s t r u c t i o n s l i k e W o l f r a m ' s »ir e n s u l t n i g h t v i i g e v r a g e n . " , b u t becomes w i s e t h r o u g h p i t y and when he a s k s what t h e G r a i l i s ; t h e a n s w e r i s o n l y , "Das 191 s a g t s i c h , n i c h t , d o e h h i s t du s e l b t z u i h m e r k o r e n , b l e i b t d i r d i e Aunde u n v e r l o r e n . " I n t h e e p i c P a r z i v a l h e a r s a l o n g t a l k o n t h e o r i g i n and n a t u r e o f t h e G r a i l . J u s t a s S i e g f r i e d m u st c o n q u e r w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f t h e g o d s , s o on h i s own i n i t -• i a t i v e , P a r s i f a l m ust s o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e k i n g . Wagner h a d t o o m i t a l l t h e t e a c h i n g o n t h e n a t u r e o f l o v e , c h i v a l r y , t h e s i n s o f t h e w o r l d , God a n d t h e B i b l e . The o n l y p a r t t a k e n o v e r i n t o t h e drama i s t h e a d m o n i t i o n n o t t o car^y arms on Good F r i d a y . Why i s t h e h e r m i t n o t c a l l e d T r e v r i z e n t , s i n c e h e r e s e m b l e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r m o s t ? Wagner s a i d t o h i s c o n d u c t o r L e v i , "Der l e b e n s w a h r g e s c h i l d e r t e <|reise G r a l s h u t e r , d e r w i e k e i n e a n d e r e P e r s o n a n d e r W e l t d e r W i r k l i c h k e i t ;-mahnte, s o l l t e Gurnemanz h e i s s e n , w i e e b e n j e n e r m i t t e l a l t e r -l i c h e n er^,f a h r e n d e B i t t e r Gu?nemans im m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n G e d i c h t . " Wagner u s e s W o l f r a m ' s d e s c r i p t i o n " d e r h o u b e t man d e r w a r e n z i e h t , t r u g g r a w e n l o c k e n . " I n t h e p r o s e s k e t c h he s p e a k s o f h i m " z u f a s t k i n d i s c h e m G r e i s g e a l t e r f z i n the^n. drama ^ z u m t h o h e n G r e i s g e a l t e r t " . I n W o l f r a m Garnemaas i s a w a r r i o r who owns h i s own c a s t l e , h a s l o s t h i s w i f e a n d t h r e e s o n s a n d h a s o n l y one d a u g h t e r , L i a s s e , l e f t . I n Wagner he i s a p i o u s h e r m i t who h a s n e v e r b e e n m a r r i e d and who h a s s p e n t h i s e n t i r e l i f e , f r o m y o u t h o n w a r d , i n t h e G r a i l m o u n t a i n . E v e n i n t h e p r o s e s k e t c h he i s a l r e a d y t h e o l d " W a f f e n k n e c h t " o f T i t u r e l who s t i l l s e r v e s A m f o r t a s f a i t h f u l l y a nd i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h K l i n g s o r a n d K u n d r y . He was a w i t n e s s t o A m f o r t a s ' d e f e a t and was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e s c u i n g t h e wounded man. S e v e r a l t i m e s he i n t i m a t e s t h a t he knows s o m e t h i n g o f 192 K l i n g s o r b u t no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be d r a w n f r o m h i m . He seems t o know s o m e t h i n g u n b e l i e v a b l y s t r a n g e o f K u n d r y y e t s m i l e s a n d i s s i l e n t , a s t h o u g h he were n o t p e r m i t t e d t o s p e a k . P e r h a p s T i t u r e l h a s f o r b i d d e n h i m t o do s o . m t h e drama t h e o p p o s i t e i s the c a s e , h e r e he t e l