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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Placement of the high school student in business and in industry Mulvin, Vernon Wallis 1938

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PLACEMENT OF THE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT BUSINESS AND IN INDUSTRY "by Vernon Wallis Mulvin A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department THE UNIVERSITY OF- BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1958 PREFACE PREFACE Since the publication, i n the F a l l of 1957, of the programme on Guidance i n the Senior High School syllabus, the guidance committee, of which the author was chairman, has received many requests f o r further information and assistance. The reason f o r these demands i s obvious. Outside of the c i t y of Vancouver, there are few high schools i n the province with trained guidance teachers, and the course i t s e l f i s new, demooratio and revolutionary. In an attempt to s a t i s f y t h i s insistent demand for further information, the secretary of the committee, Mr A.J". Dodd, and the writer intended to collaborate on a handbook for administrators and teachers to accompany the course. In t h i s , some of the more d i f f i c u l t sections were to be set out in d e t a i l . For technical reasons such a joint work could not be used as a thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. In order to overcome this d i f f i c u l t y and at the same time make a worth-while contribution, i t was decided that each should take a pa r t i c u l a r aspect of the f i e l d , treat i t i n his own way and submit the re s u l t i n g study as his thesis. Mr Dodd, i n his thesis, i s stressing the vocational guidance side of the subject, t h i s important topic, consequently, being mentioned only i n c i d e n t a l l y i n thi s work. i i The aim of the present thesis i s to make clear the meaning and application of the placement of the high school student i n business and i n industry. The Class Survey, Counsellor's P r o v i n c i a l Transfer Card, and Counsellor's Record Card, which appear i n the Appendix,were devised by the author. They have been adopted i n the new Programme of Studies f o r the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Various schools throughout the province have reported that they f i n d them of value. Any further material i n t h i s thesis which appears i n the new syllabus i s the work of the writer. Grateful acknowledgment i s made to the guidance committee, Dr. H.B. King, Dr. J.B.W.. Pilcher and many others, whose advice and c r i t i c i s m have proved of great help. In particular, thanks are due to Dr. J. Morsh, whose painstaking counsel has made t h i s work possible. V.W.M. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chap te r I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I Gu idance i n R e l a t i o n t o P l a c e m e n t . . 9 I I I The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P l a cement 42 IV The F o l l o w - U p Sys tem i n P l acement 50 V S o c i a l A g e n c i e s i n P l a cemen t Work 55 V I Employment C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f M i n o r s 62 V I I S c h o l a r s h i p s 67 V I I I V o c a t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n and Re s ea r c h 73 X3C 3?IX1D X x c x " t r ^ " « • + ••«••••••••«••••••«••• 78 ( X! C ono X.vxs xoxi © •••• * •••••••««•«••«• 34: X I Append i x 88 X I I B i b l i o g r a p h y . 105 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 2 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The t e rm V o c a t i o n a l Gu i d an c e ' i s i n g e n e r a l use on t h i s c o n t i n e n t , but i t has been g i v e n so many a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t i t i s f r e q u e n t l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Among schoo l -men i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , the t i t l e , ' G u i d a n c e ' i s p r e f e r r e d because o f i t s w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s t e rm i n c l u d e s e d u c a t i o n a l , c i v i c , s o c i a l , a v o c a t i o n a l and l e a d e r s h i p g u i d a n c e , as w e l l as v o c a t i o n a l gu i dance i n i t s t r u e s en s e . The u l t i m a t e a im o f a l l gu i dance i s t o a s s i s t the s tuden t t o choose , t o p r e pa r e f o r , and t o become p l a c e d i n t he v o c a t i o n f o r wh i ch he i s be s t s u i t e d . To f u n o t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , p lacement must be such t h a t i t w i l l g i v e p rom i se o f s u c c e s s and h a p p i n e s s t o t he i n d i v i d -u a l and must enab l e h im t o make the maximum use o f h i s t a l e n t s towards p r o g r e s s i v e ad j u s tmen t , and , c o n s e q u e n t l y t o w e l l -a d j u s t e d p r o g r e s s and advancement . I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f p l a cemen t , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e f i e l d o f gu i dance be r e v i e w e d , f o r p laoement depends f o r i t s s u c c e s s upon t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t he gu idanoe programme as a w h o l e . P laoement i s the o b j e o t i v e o f a good gu i dance programme, wh i ch s hou l d p r e ven t the p roduc t o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l s f r om b e i n g th rown upon the l a b o u r market t o r e a c h i t s d e s t i n a t i o n i n wha teve r way i t c a n . I n a w e l l -d i r e c t e d gu i dance programme, w h i c h g i v e s adequate a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l pha se s , p lacement 3 w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the s u b j e c t o f g u i d an ce has no t r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n t h a t i t d e s e r v e s . T r u e , i t has been t he c on ce r n o f t e a c h e r s s i n c e t ime immemor i a l , a l t h o u g h many of them may not have r e a l i z e d t h e f a c t . That g r e a t t r i n i t y , t h e g r e a t e s t o f our s t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t he home, t he c hu r ch and t he s c h o o l , have each a t t emp t ed , t oo o f t e n i n an " i n c i d e n t a l manner, t o gu i de ou r you th i n t h e way t h e y s hou l d g o . But have t he se f o r c e s r e a l i z e d t h a t good g u i d a n c e , t o be e f f e c t i v e , must be an o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t i n the p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l g o a l s , and of m o d i f y i n g them p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n a c co rdance w i t h t he d e v e l o p i n g c a p a c i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l ? Too o f t e n , t h e home i s so nea r t h e b o r d e r - l i n e o f mere s u b s i s t e n c e t h a t the e a r l i e s t o p p o r t u n i t y i s t a k e n by p a r e n t s t o make the c h i l d a b r e a d - w i n n e r , r e g a r d l e s s o f m e n t a l , p h y s i c a l o r m e c h a n i c a l a p t i t u d e f o r the work a v a i l a b l e , t o say n o t h i n g o f f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s . The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t i s t h a t l a b o u r t u r n o v e r amongst *teen-age employees i s t remendous . Employment m o r t a l i t y o f t h i s g roup a g g r a v a t e s the unemployment s i t u a t i o n and p l a n t s the seed o f s o c i a l d i s c o r d . Home gu idance does have a v e r y d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n our s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , but i t i s t oo o f t e n n e g l e c t e d , t hus t h r o w i n g an added burden upon the s c h o o l . Then a g a i n , the ' b roken home'', more common t o - d a y t h an ever b e f o r e , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a v e r y l a r g e number o f our j u v e n i l e m i s f i t s and d e l i n q u e n t s . The s o - c a l l e d ' s o c i a l 1 home may a l s o be a t f a u l t , where t he c h i l d i s l e f t t o f end f o r h i m s e l f , w h i l e the p a r e n t s spend a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e i r t ime on the g o l f cou r se o r a t t h e b r i d g e t a b l e . Many o f our chu r ches a r e d o i n g nob l e work i n one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e f i e l d s o f g u i d a n c e . Some a r e do i ng l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g . I f t h e chu r ch i s t o m a i n t a i n i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n t h e community, i t mus t , o f n e c e s s i t y , assume i t s f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t owa rds t h i s p r o b l em . By so d o i n g , i t w i l l h e l p t o ease t he burden f r om t h e a l r e a d y t oo h e a v i l y - l a d e n s c h o o l . The gu idance programme i n t he s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i s no t a new d e p a r t u r e , but r a t h e r an o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t on a p r a c t i c a l b a s i s . I t i s based upon the f o u n d a t i o n s l a i d i n t he home, i n t h e c h u r c h , and i n t he e a r l i e r g r ades o f t h e . s c h o o l , but d e a l i n g w i t h them i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , w i t h the o b j e c t i v e , p l a cemen t , a lways i n v i e w . H e r e t o f o r e , gu idance has been haphaza rd and i n c i d e n t a l , and the p r ob l em c h i l d has been the one t o r e o e i v e most a t t e n t i o n . The s u b j e c t ooncerns i t s e l f , however , w i t h a l l t he s t uden t s a l l t h e t ime t h e y a re i n t h e s c h o o l , and even on i n t o p o s t - s o h o o l y e a r s . L e s t t h e r e be some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t , a b r i e f resume o f gu idance i n a c t i o n may be i n o r d e r . I t s hou l d be no ted t h a t each h i g h s c h o o l must work out i t s own 5 programme, s u i t e d t o i t s own needs , "but, i n t h e ma i n , t h e f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e i s a p p l i c a b l e t o any h i g h s c h o o l , l a r g e o r s m a l l , r u r a l o r u r b a n . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e programme r e s t s w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l o r Head . - 'As i s the Head, so i s t h e s c h o o l , and so i s t h e gu i dance programme' . I t i s assumed t h a t he i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i v e t o h i s d u t i e s t o e n l i s t t he i n t e r e s t o f a l l members o f h i s s t a f f i n a s t ud y o f such p rob lems as (a) t he r e a s on s f o r s t u d e n t s l e a v i n g s c h o o l ; (b) what becomes o f such s t u d e n t s and g r a d u a t e s ; ( c ) t h e causes o f s u b j e c t f a i l u r e s and w i t h d r a w a l s ; (d) t he l a c k o f s t uden t l e a d e r s h i p ; (e ) r e t a r d a t i o n and m i sp l a cemen t i n c l a s s e s ; ( f ) p r ob l em ca se s ; and (g) o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment i n b u s i n e s s and i n i n d u s t r y , ( I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t t h e r e a r e h i g h s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e where some, i f no t a l l , o f t h e above i t ems r e c e i v e no a t t e n t i o n . ) The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n i s t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t , i n each h i g h s c h o o l , o f a gu i dance depar tment devo ted t o t he s t udy o f t h e p rob lems o f e d u c a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l ad ju s tmen t o f eaoh i n d i v i d u a l s t uden t and h i s e v e n t u a l p lacement i n b u s i n e s s o r i n i n d u s t r y . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , t h e r e shou l d be a c o u n s e l l o r f o r eaoh 200-300 s t u d e n t s , s e l e c t e d because o f p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y o r t r a i n i n g . (See c h a r t i n Append i x , pages 39 -41 . ) Fo r conven ience t he c o u n s e l l o r ' s work may be d i v i d e d . i n t o f o u r ma in d i v i s i o n s , v i z : (a) P e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s and r e s e a r c h , i . e . , a c umu l a t i v e case h i s t o r y o f eaoh s t u d e n t . (b) I n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g , i n c l u d i n g an en t r an ce and w i t h d r a w a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h each s t u d e n t . ( c ) Group c o u n s e l l i n g , i . e . , c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n on gu idance t o p i c s . (d) P lacement and f o l l o w - u p , i . e . , p l a c i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r chosen v o c a t i o n s and a s s i s t i n g them t o r e a d j u s t t hemse l ve s t h e r e a f t e r . I n the s c h o o l t h e r e s u l t s t o be e xpec t ed f rom such a programme a re improved e f f o r t , improved mora le and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f dead wood i n the o u r r i o u l u m and s t a f f , s i n c e each s u b j e c t , i n my o p i n i o n , must e v e n t u a l l y become e l e c t i v e . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o g r e s s i s p l a c e d v e r y l a r g e l y upon the s t u den t and as a r e s u l t d i s c i p l i n a r y p rob lems ? / i l l d i s a p p e a r a lmos t e n t i r e l y . C u r r i c u l a i n h i g h s c h o o l s t o d a y a r e beooming v o c a t i o n a l r a t h e r t h an c u l t u r a l , y e t t he r e a son s f o r s t uden t w i t h d r a w a l s f r om s o h o o l a r e se ldom g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Whether t he s t uden t s a r e p r epa r ed f o r work o r no t i s o f no impo r t and , y e t our h i g h s c h o o l s a r e r a t e d as e f f i c i e n t . Whether o r not s t u d e n t s o b t a i n employment i s o f l i t t l e moment, y e t we comp l a i n o f t h e oos t o f r e l i e f and t he upkeep of gove rnmen ta l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . 7 On ly r e c e n t l y has t h e t a s k o f p l a c i n g t h e h i g h s c h o o l s t uden t i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y become a p a r t o f t h e work o f our s c h o o l s . O rgan i z ed gu i dance work i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i s new, and v o c a t i o n a l gu idance has overshadowed a l l o t h e r fo rms o f t he s u b j e c t whereve r i t has become e s t a b l i s h e d i n ou r s o h o o l s y s t em . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c i t y o f Vancouver u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i t s v o c a t i o n a l gu i dance bureau d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n b e f o r e i t had become f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s f a c t has m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t t h e s e t t i n g - u p o f a s i m i l a r o f f i c e , he re o r e l s ewhe re i n t he p r o v i n c e , and s o , p lacement i s c a r r i e d on i n o n l y i s o l a t e d c a s e s . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s on t h a t t h i s work d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h p l a c emen t . The open ing s e c t i o n c o ve r s t he p l a c e o f gu i dance i n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , f o r w i t h ou t g u i d an c e , e f f e c t i v e p lacement i s i m p o s s i b l e on an o r g a n i z e d b a s i s . The wastage i n b u s i n e s s and i n i n d u s t r y caused by m i sp l a cement i s so f a m i l i a r t h a t i t i s unnece s s a r y t o s t r e s s t h i s r e s u l t o f t h e l a c k o f g u i d a n c e , but r a t h e r t o emphas ize t he p o s i t i v e a n g l e o f s u c c e s s f u l p l a c emen t . Fo r the p r e s e n t , each h i g h s c h o o l must c a r r y out i t s own gu idance programme and make i t s own p l a c e m e n t s . An e f f o r t was made by the Gu idance Committee t o have t h e p r o v i n c i a l gove rnmen ta l Depar tments o f Labour and E d u c a t i o n c o l l a b o r a t e on an i n d u s t r i a l o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f the p r o v i n c e . They ag ree t h a t t h i s i s an i m p e r a t i v e need f o r t h e s u c ce s s o f a gu i dance programme, but t o da te have not 8 seen t h e i r way elear to undertake such a project. U n t i l t h i s i s done each school must work out i t s own system i n i t s own way. CHAPTER II GUIDANCE IN" RELATION TO PLACEMENT 10 CHAPTER I I GUIDANCE IN RELATION TO PLACEMENT Gu idance i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l a ims t o b r i n g about a u n i o n between t he s c h o o l and the workaday w o r l d , t o check up on t h e s c h o o l p r odu c t f r om t he v o c a t i o n a l s t a n d - p o i n t and t o c o r r e l a t e t he s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m w i t h l i f e and t he communi ty . The method c a l l s f o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e v o c a t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y a s a b a s i s f o r a l l s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , and , wo r k i ng f r om the o u t s i d e i n , the s hap i ng of the s c h o o l programme t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the b u s i n e s s o f l i v i n g s Gu idance , a s t h e t e rm i s used t o d a y , c o ve r s a v e r y comprehens ive f i e l d . An adequate t r e a tmen t of t h e s u b j e o t i n c l u d e s a knowledge o f t h e s t u d e n t , e d u c a t i o n a l and c ou r s e gu i d an c e , c i v i c , m o r a l and s o c i a l g u i d a n c e , gu i dance i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a s w e l l a s v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , p lacement and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s . I n o r d e r t o a s s i s t the s t uden t i n t e l l i g e n t l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have as complete a knowledge o f h im as p o s s i b l e . The w ide v a r i a t i o n s i n the c a p a c i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r e t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and c umu l a t i v e t h roughou t t he s c h o o l l i f e o f t h e 11 s t u d e n t . • T h i s may be o b t a i n e d f r om t h r e e ma in s o u r c e s , t h e s t uden t h imse l f ' 1 ' , s c h o l a s t i c r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , and t he r e s u l t s o f s t anda rd t e s t s and measurements . W i t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , t he c o u n s e l l o r i s r e a d y t o b e g i n h i s work . The H i g h S c h o o l C l a s s Su r vey w i l l g i v e the c o u n s e l l o r a case h i s t o r y o f each s t u d e n t , c o v e r i n g f a m i l y , p h y s i c a l , s c h o o l and s o c i a l r e c o r d s , and f u t u r e p l a n s . So s imp l e a r e t he se forms t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s may have c l a s s t e a c h e r s t a k e charge o f t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n , s t a r r i n g any o u t s t a n d i n g p o i n t s wh i ch t h e y may deem wo r t hy o f immed ia te a t t e n t i o n . T h i s r e l i e v e s the c o u n s e l l o r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r o u t i n e work and , i t has t he added advantage t h a t i t e n l i s t s t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f home room t e a c h e r s i n the s t udy o f t he i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e i r own s t u d e n t s . The f a m i l y r e c o r d , f o r example , may d i s c l o s e a ' b r o k en home ' , f a t h e r unemployed o r on r e l i e f , s t e p - f a t h e r , o r p a r e n t s de ceased , any one o f wh i c h f a o t s may be t he r e a s o n the s t uden t i s o r i s l i k e l y t o become a p r ob l em c a s e . Y/ith such i n f o r m a t i o n , i r r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e , t r u a n c y , i n d i f f e r e n t work o r b ehav i ou r becomes more r e a d i l y unde r -s t a ndab l e by the c l a s s t e a c h e r . He may pass t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a l o ng t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r immed i a t e l y , and t h e l a t t e r w i l l •^ See H i g h S c h o o l C l a s s Su r vey i n t he Append i x , pp . 8 9 - 9 5 . 12 i n t e r v i e w t h e s t uden t i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t h im t o s o l v e h i s p r ob l em . ' One example w i l l s u f f i c e t o i l l u s t r a t e t he p o i n t . A boy o f s e v en t e en was d o i n g med i o c r e work i n s c h o o l . H i s a t t endance was I r r e g u l a r and he was o f t e n t a r d y . I n v e s t i g a t i o n d i s c l o s e d t h a t t he boy had been absen t f o r t h e c l a s s s u r v e y . He was g i v e n i t e v e n t u a l l y and the c o n d i t i o n s b rough t t o l i g h t demanded immediate a t t e n t i o n . The p a r e n t s were s e p a r a t e d , and the boy was a t t e m p t i n g t o do t he housework , l o o k a f t e r a younger b r o t h e r and a t t e n d s c h o o l , w h i l e t he f a t h e r worked o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y . A t t h e i n t e r v i e w , t he boy s t a t e d t o the c o u n s e l l o r t h a t he wou ld l i k e t o go f a r m i n g , and t h a t an u n c l e on t he p r a i r i e s was p r epa r ed t o g i v e h im employment. The mother was pe r suaded t o t a k e charge o f t he younger b r o t h e r , and t he e l d e r boy, w i t h some a s s i s t a n c e , was a b l e t o go t o the u n c l e , where he i s now a wo r t hy and u s e f u l c i t i z e n . Such a case i s gu i dance i n a c t i o n . The p h y s i c a l r e c o r d i s s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehens ive t o b r i n g out any d e f e c t s i n t h e h e a l t h o f t h e s t u d e n t . I t i s no t ewo r thy t h a t s t u den t s a r e , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , e x c e e d i n g l y f r a n k i n an swe r i ng t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The m e d i c a l depar tment welcomes, e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , t h e p h y s i c a l r e c o r d c l a s s s u r v e y , f o r i t s i m p l i f i e s t h e i r r o u t i n e work, and , w i t h new s t u d e n t s e s p e c i a l l y , draws the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l nu r se t o ca ses wh i ch r e q u i r e immediate c a r e . 13 The case o f George B. w i l l g i v e a p i c t u r e o f what may be done. I n g o i n g ove r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n handed i n , a c l a s s t e a c h e r f ound t h a t t h i s boy r e p o r t e d h i m s e l f as twe l v e pounds unde rwe i gh t , t i r e d e a s i l y , had f r e q u e n t s o r e t h r o a t , and e s t i m a t e d the number o f t imes absen t i n t he l a s t y e a r on accoun t o f i l l n e s s a s t e n , the cause b e i n g g i v e n as ' t o o s i c k t o a t t e n d ' . The case was pa s sed on t o t h e s c h o o l n u r s e , who immed i a t e l y examined t h e boy and c a l l e d the s o h o o l d o c t o r , who r e f e r r e d h im t o t he Chest C l i n i c . Here i t was f ound t h a t he was s u f f e r i n g f r om t u b e r c u l o s i s . R e s t and t r e a tmen t were p r e s c r i b e d , and he i s now w e l l on t h e r o ad t o r e c o v e r y . Ano the r depar tment wh i c h i s a p p r e c i a t i v e o f su ch i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n depa r tmen t , where , i n most h i g h s c h o o l s , c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o r e m e d i a l wo rk . S t u d e n t s who r e p o r t h e a r t t r o u b l e o r o t h e r s e r i o u s d e f e c t s may need t o be exempted f r o m t h e more s t r enuous p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s , w h i l e o t h e r s may be i n need o f c o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s t o remedy such c o n d i t i o n s as f l a t f e e t , s p i n a l c u r v a t u r e s , e t c . Then a g a i n , the s u r v e y may b r i n g t o l i g h t t h e e x c e s s i v e use o f t o b a c c o , unba l anced d i e t s , i n s u f f i c i e n t s l e e p o r e x e r c i s e . These may w e l l be t a k e n as l e s s o n t o p i c s f o r s p e c i a l emphas is by t he s u b j e c t t e a c h e r o f h e a l t h . Those s t u d e n t s w i t h d e f e c t i v e h e a r i n g o r e y e s i g h t shou l d be n o t e d , so t h a t s e a t i n g p l a n s may be a r r anged t o 14 t h e i r advan tage , the s t u d e n t s so a f f e c t e d b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o the s c h o o l n u r s e . The s c h o o l r e c o r d i s a r e p o r t o f t he s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s , pa s t and p r e s e n t . A c l a s s t e a c h e r w i l l f i n d much food f o r t hough t i n p e r u s i n g the answers o f each s tuden t i n the l i g h t o f h i s l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , r a n k i n c l a s s and c o n d i t i o n s o f s t u d y . I t s hou l d be a c h a l l e n g e t o the t e a c h e r to a s c e r t a i n whether the d e f i c i e n c y , i f any , i s t h e f a u l t o f the s t uden t o r the t e a c h e r s , and t o t r y t o f i n d a remedy. The s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e towards work w i l l be shown by h i s r e sponse t o t he v a r i o u s i t ems a p p e a r i n g i n the s o c i a l r e c o r d . I f he has been a b l e t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f so t h a t he i s g a i n f u l l y employed d u r i n g a p o r t i o n o f h i s spa re t i m e , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y i s t h a t he w i l l be a b l e t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f i n permanent employment. I t a l s o a f f o r d s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t he c o u n s e l l o r t o c o m p i l e a l i s t o f needy boy s , who may be a s s i s t e d t o f i n d work , i f and when open ings o c c u r . F u t u r e p l a n s a r e , o f c o u r s e , s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n , but t h e s t u d e n t ' s answers t o t h i s page may v e r y w e l l d e s i g n a t e h i s f u t u r e v o c a t i o n . F a c t s may come t o l i g h t wh i c h r e v e a l t h e weaknesses o f the s c h o o l or t h e s t u d e n t s . F o r example , a boy may s t a t e t h a t he i n t e n d s t o l e a v e s c h o o l a s soon as he oan ge t work, t he r e a son b e i n g t h a t he d e s i r e s shop work and d i s l i k e s academic work . Ad jus tmen t i n h i s c ou r s e w i l l p r e v en t h i s e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l and a f f o r d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 15 h im t o r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n t he work w h i c h he l i k e s . S c h o l a s t i c r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s t oday a r e so f a m i l i a r t h a t t h e y do no t r e c e i v e t he a t t e n t i o n t h e y d e s e r v e . Much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n may be ga i n ed by the c o u n s e l l o r f r om t he p r o g r e s s r e p o r t , and i t s e r v e s a s a f r u i t f u l s ou r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w . S t u d e n t s who a r e n o t wo r k i n g t o c a p a c i t y may be a sked t o f i n d t h e r e a s o n f o r poo r s t a n d i n g , and v e r y o f t e n s u r p r i s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n may be f o r t h c o m i n g . S t a nda r d t e s t s and measurements a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l known t h a t i t i s unne ce s s a r y t o d e a l a t l e n g t h w i t h them h e r e . The I n t e l l i g e n c e Quo t i e n t o f e ve r y s t uden t s h ou l d be known, and i f t h e r e s u l t s o f a ch i evemen t , s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and a p t i t u d e s a re known, t h e y a r e i n v a l u a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s i n g u i d a n c e , and no c o u n s e l l o r can a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t them. E d u c a t i o n a l Gu idance has f o r i t s a im , t h e a s s i s t i n g o f s t u d e n t s i n c h o o s i n g , p r e p a r i n g f o r , e n t e r i n g upon , a d j u s t i n g themse l ves t o , and making p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r c o u r s e s , i n t h e i r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l programme. I t s hou l d l e ad the s t uden t t o a p p r e c i a t e t he n e o e s s i t y f o r and the v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n , t o choose i n t e l l i g e n t l y h i s c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and t o p r o g r e s s i n them. I n a d d i t i o n , i t s h o u l d make h im f a m i l i a r w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and encourage a d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r 16 e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , so as to g i v e a "broader u n d e r s t a n d i n g , more t o l e r a n c e and g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t he j o y o f l i v i n g . F i n a l l y , t h r ough e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , each s t uden t s h ou l d be enab l ed t o s e c u r e , d u r i n g h i s l e i s u r e t i m e , t he r e - c r e a t i o n o f body, mind and s p i r i t wh i c h w i l l be m a n i f e s t i n t he en r i chment and en la rgement of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . C i v i c Gu idance a ims t o a s s i s t c i t i z e n s - i n - t h e - m a k i n g t o a c l e a r e r concept o f community i n t e r e s t and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t s h o u l d g i v e s t u d e n t s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , l o o a l , p r o v i n c i a l , f e d e r a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , and a knowledge o f w o r l d problems+ The i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e r v i c e t o , and l e a d e r s h i p i n , s c h o o l and home, w i l l l a r g e l y de t e rm ine the p l a c e he w i l l t a ke a s a c i t i z e n o f h i s c i t y , h i s c o u n t r y , and o f t he wo r l d* some f o rm o f s t uden t government , adap ted t o t h e s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l , w i l l do much t o i n c u l c a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p i n i t s many r a m i f i c a t i o n s . I t w i l l r educe prob lems o f d i s c i p l i n e and go f a r towards enhanc ing t h e t one and s p i r i t of. t h e s c h o o l . M o r a l and S o c i a l Gu idanoe a r e t o a s s i s t t h e s t uden t t o f o rm r i g h t h a b i t s o f work and c onduc t , and t o d e ve l op h i g h i d e a l s o f l i v i n g ; t o a s s i s t h im t o l e a r n t o f o rm r i g h t judgments and to accompany them by r i g h t a c t i o n ; t o d e v e l o p , t h r ough i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e , c o r r e c t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and c o r r e c t s o c i a l u s age . D i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n must seek 17 t o i n s t i l s e l f c o n t r o l , s e l f r e l i a n c e , r e l i a b i l i t y , h o n e s t y , f a i r p l a y , c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s , c l e an -m i ndedne s s , k i n d l i n e s s , t o l e r a t i o n and l o y a l t y . T h i s i s a l a r g e o r d e r . The p rob l em method w i l l be found most e f f i c a c i o u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h such t o p i c s as e t i q u e t t e , manners , mo r a l s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l t e a c h e r s s hou l d a l s o be on t h e l o o k o u t f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d r aw i ng the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o o u t s t a n d i n g m o r a l and s o o i a l q u e s t i o n s when t h e y a r i s e . Gu idance i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e s gu idance f o r l e i s u r e , f o r l e a d e r s h i p , f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u b work and i n s t uden t government . As the need f o r t h e advantageous use of l e i s u r e t ime has become r e c o g n i z e d , so t h e s c h o o l s a r e endeavou r i ng t o meet t h i s need i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c l u b s , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c o n c e r t s , d r a m a t i z a t i o n s , c h o i r s and o r c h e s t r a s , d eba t e s , o r a t o r i c a l c o n t e s t s , mock p a r l i a m e n t s , s c h o o l magaz i ne s , s t uden t c o u n c i l , house s y s t em, e t c . Su c ce s s i n t h i s work c a l l s f o r a t remendous amount o f c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a l l members o f t h e s t a f f . Wise and j u d i c i o u s s u p e r v i s i o n on the p a r t o f t h e s t a f f a nd , e s p e c i a l l y , t h e p r i n c i p a l i n en cou r ag i ng t h i s f o rm of a c t i v i t y w i l l do much t o make i t t h e po t en t f o r c e i t s h o u l d be i n r a i s i n g t h e tone and s p i r i t o f t h e s c h o o l . Through V o c a t i o n a l Gu idance the i n d i v i d u a l i s a s s i s t e d i n c h o o s i n g an o c c u p a t i o n , p r e p a r i n g f o r i t , e n t e r i n g 18 upon I t and p r o g r e s s i n g i n i t . Under e x i s t i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h keen c o m p e t i t i o n and a h i g h degree o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e s e r v i c e o f gu i dance i s more e s s e n t i a l t h an e v e r . The economic l o s s s u f f e r e d "by the I n d i v i d u a l and by s o c i e t y t h r o ugh wrong p lacement u s u a l l y comes f rom m i sgu i ded o r ungu ided human ene rgy . I d e a l l y , eve ryone shou ld do t h a t work wh i ch he I s be s t f i t t e d by n a t u r a l a b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n t o do, and s h o u l d a c q u i r e t he utmost t r a i n i n g p o s s i b l e f o r such work . The d e c i s i o n t h a t de te rm ines what t h i s l i f e work s h a l l be i s f a r t oo impo r t an t t o be l e f t t o chance o r the c a p r i c e o f i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . A s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f our e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t em i s t h a t , i n many c a s e s , g r a d u a t e s know a lmos t n o t h i n g o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment o r f o r t r a i n i n g i n the b u s i n e s s o f mak ing a l i v i n g . Some have made no c h o i c e o f a v o c a t i o n , o t h e r s have made c h o i c e s w i t h no knowledge o f t h e most f undamenta l f a c t s , and s t i l l o t h e r s have made w e l l - c o n s i d e r e d o h o i o e s , but do not know how o r where t o market t h e i r s e r v i c e s o r t o s e cu r e t h e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r s u c c e s s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n p r e v a i l s , t o o o f t e n , w i t h the g r a d u a t e , w h i l e t he p l i g h t o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l o r ' d r op - ou t * i s even more s e r i o u s . W i th no i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e he d r i f t s f r om one t empora ry p o s i t i o n t o a no t h e r , but w i t h l e n g t h y p e r i o d s o f unemployment and ' j o b - h u n t i n g ' between j o b s . The l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n a l c r e d e n t i a l s makes h im an easy v i c t i m o f t hose who p r o s p e r by e x p l o i t i n g j u v e n i l e l a b o u r . 19 S y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g i n t he s tudy o f v o c a t i o n s i s no t advoca ted as a comple te and su r e cu re f o r a l l t h i s wastage and l a b o u r t u r n o v e r . But i t w i l l go f a r t owa rds h e l p i n g s t u den t s t o p r epa r e t hemse l v e s f o r engag ing i n the s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s o f mak ing a l i v i n g . I n o r d e r t o be most e f f e c t i v e , t he gu i dance o f f i c e r must see t o i t t h a t t h e programme r ea che s t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s b e f o r e t h e 'peak o f l e a v i n g ' i s r e a c h e d . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , he must c o n s u l t the r e o o r d s t o l e a r n a t what age o r g rade the g r e a t e s t number o f w i t h d r a w a l s t a k e s p l a c e . P lacement has f o r i t s o b j e c t i v e , the p l a c i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s chosen v o c a t i o n . To f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , i t must have p l a c e d h im i n t h e v o c a t i o n w h i c h g i v e s p rom i se Of s u c c e s s and h a p p i n e s s , and where he w i l l make t he maximum use o f h i s t a l e n t s . F a i l u r e o f s t u den t s t o e n t e r t h e i r chosen v o c a t i o n s when t h e y f i r s t l e a v e s c h o o l may r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s m i sp l a cemen t , w i t h consequent l o s s t o t hemse l ve s and s o c i e t y . U n t i l s u ch t ime as an i n d u s t r i a l o r o c c u p a t i o n a l su r vey o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s a v a i l a b l e , c o u n s e l l o r s o r p lacement o f f i c e r s must g a t h e r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s . The work i s d i f f i c u l t and c a l l s f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f a g r e a t d e a l o f t ime and ene r g y . I n l a r g e u r b an s c h o o l s y s t ems , by a j u d i c i o u s d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , a number of s c h o o l s m igh t w e l l unde r t ake such a s u r v e y on a m o d i f i e d s o a l e , commencing w i t h 20 key i n d u s t r i e s , such as shown i n t h e Append i x , pages 9 7 - 9 8 . The f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f a l l p l a cemen t s i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t he gu i dance programme. The f a c t s r e v e a l e d w i l l p rove e x t r eme l y u s e f u l t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and c o u n s e l l o r . There i s no b e t t e r way f o r knowing the e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h e community t h a n t o s t u d y t h e pa th s and t r a i l s l e a d i n g f r om the h i g h s c h o o l i n t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n o r employment. Cu r r en t c o n d i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s u p p l y and demand o f m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s w i l l be known, and s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a w i l l need t o con fo rm t o them. T h i s s u r v e y w i l l a l s o d i s c o v e r c a s e s o f m a l a d j u s t e d wo r ke r s so t h a t gu idance and encouragement may enab le them t o r e a d j u s t t h e m s e l v e s . The r e c e n t r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n our h i g h s c h o o l a t t endance makes some k i n d o f gu idance programme a lmos t i m p e r a t i v e . The accompany ing c h a r t , t a k e n f r om enro lment a s g i v e n i n t h e Annua l R e p o r t s o f t he Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n a t " V i c t o r i a , shows t h a t w h i l e the i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l en ro lment i n a l l s c h o o l s f r om the y e a r 1912-13 t o 1935-36 was 20 p e r c e n t , t h e i n c r e a s e i n h i g h s c h o o l a t t endance was 78 p e r c e n t . F u r t h e r , a l t h o u g h t o t a l a t t endance i n a l l s c h o o l s f o r t h e f i v e y ea r p e r i o d , 1930-31 t o 1935-36 , shows an i n c r e a s e o f o n l y 5 pe r c en t , h i g h s c h o o l a t t endance f o r the same p e r i o d shows t he amaz ing i n c r e a s e o f 184 p e r c e n t . I t i s appa ren t t h a t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ago a t t endance I n h i g h s c h o o l was t he 21 p r i v i l e g e o f t h e few, hut t o day i t i s r e ga r ded as t he r i g h t o f the m a j o r i t y . T h i s means t h a t our h i g h s c h o o l s a r e f a c e d w i t h a t remendous t a s k i f t h e s e young peop l e a r e t o r e c e i v e the a i d i n gu i dance wh i ch t h e y d e s e r v e . T a b l e I COMPARISON OF INCREASE IN TOTAL SCHOOL ENROLMENT AND HIGH SCHOOL ENROLMENT Tea r T o t a l En ro lment R a t i o t o 1912 -13 . H i g h S c h o o l E n r o lmen t . R a t i o t o 1912 -13 . 1912-13 57 ,608 1. 2 ,680 1. 1913-14 62,263 1 .08 3,007 1.12 1914-15 64,624 1.12 3 ,912 1.45 1915-16 64,570 1 .12 4 ,770 1.78 1916-17 65 ,118 1;13 4 , 841 1.81 1917-18 67,516 1.17 5,150 1.92 1918-19 72,006 1.25 5,806 2.17 1919-20 79,243 1.37 6,636 2 .48 1920-21 85 ,950 1.49 7.259 2 .71 1921-22 91,919 1.59 8 , 634 5*22 1922-23 94 ,888 1.65 9 ,220 3 .44 1923-24 96 ,204 1.67 9,889 3.69 1924-25 97,954 1.70 10 ,597 3 .95 1925-26 101 ,688 1.76 11,779 4 .39 1926-27 105,008 1.82 12 ,906 4 .82 1927-28 108,179 1.88 13.516 5.04 22 Yea r . T o t a l Enro lment R a t i o t o 1912 -13 . H i g h S c h o o l R a t i o t o En r o lmen t . 1912 -13 . 1928-29 109,558 1.90 14 ,545 5.43 1929-50 111,017 1*93 14 ,675 5.48 1930-31 113,914 1.98 16 ,197 6.04 1931-32 115,919 2 .01 18 ,134 6.76 1932-33 116,816 2 .03 18 ,552 6.92 1933-34 115.792 2 . 01 18 ,932 7 .06 1934-35 117 ,233 2.04 19,969 7 .45 1935-36 116,722 2 .03 21,119 7 .88 Taken f r om Annua l R e p o r t s , Department o f E d u c a t i c B .C. >n, V i c t o r i a , The n e c e s s i t y f o r gu idance i n t h e s c h o o l i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by t h e d e c l i n e i n p r o p o r t i o n o f you th i n employment. The i n f l u x o f you th i n t o the h i g h s c h o o l s i s d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o a d e o l i n e i n t h e numbers i n employment. The t r e n d i s shown by the f i g u r e s g i v e n i n t h e census r e t u r n s o f t h e 1 o Domin ion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e y e a r s , 1911, 1921 and 1 9 3 1 . 3 Canada Yea r Book, 1922-23 , p . 698. T a b l e 1. "Canada Yea r Book, 1929, p. 140 . T a b l e 4 9 . ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Seven th Census o f Canada, 1931 . B u l l e t i n No XXXIV, Ot tawa, 1933. 23 T a b l e I I TOTAL POPULATION 10-24 TEARS OF AGE AND NUMBER AND PER GENT ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATION • Ma le Yea r T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 10-24 y r s . Engaged i n G a i n f u l O c cupa t i o n P e r Cent 1911 1 ,088,947 638,348 58.62 1921 1 ,214 ,351 626,997 51 .63 1931 1 ,529,919 754.313 49 . 31 Female 1911 992,374 187,769 18 .92 1921 1 ,209,657 243 ,155 20 .10 1931 1 ,491,212 322 ,905 21 .65 Wh i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t the number o f f ema l e s g a i n f u l l y employed shows an i n c r e a s e o f 1 .18 pe r cen t f o r t h e yea r 1921 ove r t he y ea r 1911 , t h i s i s more t h a n o f f - s e t by t he dec rease i n the number o f ma l e s , wh i ch equa l s 6.99 pe r c e n t . These d a t a a r e open t o s l i g h t c r i t i c i s m , s i n c e t hey t ake i n the age group t o 24 y e a r s . The t r e n d bea r s out the c o n c l u s i o n , however, t h a t t he burden o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and ad jus tment o f s t u d e n t s t o e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s b e i n g s h i f t e d t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r l e v e l s 24 •of age and t r a i n i n g . T h i s b e i n g s o , ou r h i g h s c h o o l s , i n o r d e r to* g i v e t he g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e t o t he g r e a t e s t number, must p r o g r e s s i v e l y a d j u s t t he i r •p rog ramme t o meet t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand. The r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n h i g h s c h o o l a t t endance t oday c a l l s f o r a v a r i e t y o f f undamen ta l m o d i f i c a t i o n s no t r e q u i r e d i n t he more s e l e c t i v e h i g h s c h o o l o f a few y e a r s ago . W i t h t he expanded and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l u m , e du c a t o r s g e n e r a l l y have become i n t e r e s t e d i n the p rob lems o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the b r oaden i ng o f i n t e r e s t s and t h e d i s c o v e r y and deve lopment o f s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s . So complex a r e t he se p rob lems t h a t u n l e s s s t u d e n t s a r e a s s i s t e d i n mak ing w i se c h o i c e s o f work and o f e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s i n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , f a i l u r e , ma l ad ju s tmen t o r l o s s o f mo ra l e may o c c u r . A . w e l l - o r g a n i z e d gu idance programme, on t he o t h e r hand , w i l l enab l e the s t uden t s t o u t i l i z e t o the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e e x t en t t he human r e s o u r c e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t , p e r s o n a l i t y and i n i t i a t i v e , wh i ch go to make up a happy and con t en t ed democ ra t i c c i t i z e n r y . Gu idance t hu s becomes one of t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f a modern democ r a t i z ed seconda ry s c h o o l . Re f erenoe has been made t o t h e expanded and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i o u l u m o f the modern h i g h s c h o o l . T h i s f e a t u r e a l one makes a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d gu idanoe programme an i n d i s p e n s a b l e f a o t o r i n any h i g h s c h o o l . The o l d t y p e o f 25 h i g h s c h o o l o f f e r e d no o p t i o n o f work t o t h e s t u d e n t . W i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f two o r more c u r r i c u l a , t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e as to wh i ch the s t u d e n t was t o p u r s u e . I n most c a s e s , p a r e n t s were no t i n a p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r i n t e l l i g e n t gu idance i n the m a t t e r . The d u t y , t h e r e f o r e , devo l ved upon the s c h o o l . I n most c a s e s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a c cep t ed t h e c h a l l e n g e , a l t h ough t h e r e a r e s t i l l h i g h s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e i n wh i ch s t u d e n t s a r e f o r c e d t o d e c i d e f o r t hemse l ve s t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l c a r e e r , w i t h l i t t l e o r no h e l p f rom anyone . S i n c e t h e Grea t War, c u r r i c u l a have been drawn up w i t h adm i t t an ce t o o c c u p a t i o n s o r o c c u p a t i o n a l groups as t he o b j e c t i v e , r a t h e r t h a n c u l t u r a l or academic t r a i n i n g . T h i s means t h a t the s e l e c t i o n of a c u r r i c u l u m o r o f a s u b j e c t o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n now becomes e q u i v a l e n t t o choo s i ng o n e ' s o c c u p a t i o n , even i f t e m p o r a r i l y ; Thus gu i d an c e , becoming v o c a t i o n a l , i n v o l v e s a knowledge o f t h e tremendous f i e l d o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n ou r d i v e r s i f i e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , a knowledge of where the s t uden t may go , and how he may ge t t h e r e . The s c h o o l o f f o rme r days m a n i f e s t e d l i t t l e o r no i n t e r e s t i n the s t uden t who was e l i m i n a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y the u n s u c c e s s f u l one . Even t oday , t oo many o f our h i g h s c h o o l s a re c on t en t t o l o o k upon suoh w i t h d r a w a l s as a boon, r a t h e r t han as an i n d i c t m e n t o f f a u l t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The h o l d i n g power o f any h i g h s o h o o l may w e l l be used as a measure o f i t s s u c c e s s . 26 Guidance i s necessary to augment, where possible and desirable,) the forces which would reduce the withdrawals. The more democratic high school which we now have must concern i t s e l f with a l l of i t s students, the unsuccessful as well as the successful, the withdrawal as well as the graduate. Generally speaking, the student who withdraws i s an unadjusted student. The poor adjustment may be, and usually i s , of minor degree, but even t h i s may lead to serious disturbance i f not properly handled. Speaking of the modern view of progress, Lumley says one of the conditions i s : ''Universal educational opportunity for those who can p r o f i t by i t , and the e a r l i e r turning of a l l others into channels of useful vocation,"! Yet the student who leaves school because he i s 'fed up' (the number of such would surprise the most s c e p t i c a l ) , or because he has been forced to withdraw on account of a breach of regulations, i s seldom, i f ever, guided or assisted into gainful employment. These withdrawals are usually the result of ignorance - ignorance of the role that i s to be played, ignorance of how to co-operate with others, or ignorance of the requisite s k i l l or accomplishment that 2 would enable him to work with others. Hoag says; "There are masses of people who do not understand the situation; who have never had i t explained to xLumley, F.E., Principles of Sociology, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. New York, N.Y., 193Q. p. 481. SHoag, E.B., Crime, Abnormal Minds and the Law, Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1923, Introduction p. XI. 27 them why they s hou l d g i v e up t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s and conform t o t h e mandates o f t h e g r oup . . . . . t h e r e i s a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f peop l e who have no t s u f f i c i e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e t o unde r s t and t h e s i t u a t i o n . And ano t he r g roup , who, w h i l e t h e y have a good degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e s u f f e r i n g f rom m e n t a l s i c k n e s s , and cannot r e a s o n c l e a r l y o r cannot c o n t r o l t h e i r own i m p u l s e s . " I t - would appea r , t h e n , t h a t t h e c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and gu idance o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s on w i t h d r a w a l i s a du ty t o t h e community. On l y i n t h i s way, can the d i s t r i b u t i o n and ad jus tmen t t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g o f a l l our s t u d e n t s i n the h i g h s c h o o l s be r e a l i z e d , and so s e c u r e f o r them p lacement i n o c c u p a t i o n s s u i t e d t o t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s and need s . Such p l a cemen t , w i t h i t s n a t u r a l complement, s y s t e m a t i c f o l l o w - u p shou l d ensure d e f i n i t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n l i f e work f o r the g r e a t m a j o r i t y and make f o r a happy and c on t en t ed s o c i e t y . I t i s now r e c o g n i z e d t h a t many o f ou r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s a r e y ou t h s who have been unab l e t o secu re s u i t a b l e or any employment. Through m i s spen t l e i s u r e and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t he a n t i - s o c i a l l y i n c l i n e d t h e y a r e e a s i l y l e d i n t o c r imes f r om wh i ch gu idance and p lacement might have saved them. The more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t t h e gu idance and p l acement , the g r e a t e r w i l l be t he dec r ea se i n j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . That p a r en t s and s t u d e n t s e x pe r i e n c e t he demand f o r gu idance i s e v i denced by t he numbers o f pe r sons who e x p l o i t t h i s need . C e r t a i n w i d e l y a d v e r t i s e d and a l l u r i n g methods c l a i m t o be a b l e to l i s t and c l a s s i f y t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s 28 and to provide quick and r e l i a b l e ways of discovering q u a l i t i e s of character and special aptitudes f o r certain occupations. I f this could be done much time and money would be saved and the process of guidance would be much more sure. Unfortunately human beings are prone to follow anyone who claims to have a short cut method to wealth, happiness or success. It i s the duty of the school to enable the student to secure r e l i a b l e information about the dangers of such spurious methods of guidance as phrenology, physiognomy, astrology, graphology, f o r t u n e - t e l l i n g and the l i k e . They should learn to compare these methods with those which u t i l i z e trustworthy information or are based on frank discussion with experts. Thus many ^'character analysts" would automatically become eliminated by a programme which i s founded on s c i e n t i f i c research and common sense, and the public would be saved much time, money and many delusions. 1 On t h i s point Jones says: "Reputable papers and magazines are f u l l of cleverly worded advertisements of these so-called 'experts', and there i s a compelling appeal i n the i r arguments. Human nature i s too prone to seek the short-cut process." "Every careful teacher and guidance worker should be on his guard against these methods. Up to the present, no r e l i a b l e short-cut method has been discovered or devised to enable us to analyze the complexities of human character. We s t i l l are forced to the long and often tedious process of 1Jones, Arthur, J., Princ i p l e s of Guidance, McGraw-H i l l Book Co. Inc., 1930. p. 199. 29 i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . We shou l d he p r o f o u n d l y t h a n k f u l t h a t t h i s i s t r u e , f o r s u c c e s s i n t he f i e l d o f gu idance depends upon t h e degree t o wh i ch we keep our eyes f i x e d upon t he i n d i v i d u a l and h i s own p e c u l i a r n e e d s . " One o f t h e economic f a c t o r s i n d i c a t i v e o f t he need f o r gu idance i n our h i g h s c h o o l i s the changed c o n d i t i o n o f l a b o u r and i n d u s t r y , more p a r t i c u l a r l y the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y . I n e a r l y p i o n e e r days men were a l l - r o u n d workmen do i ng a l l o r a lmos t a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n s . But modern l i f e demands t h a t p r o d u c t i o n be speeded up , t h a t i n d u s t r y be s p e c i a l i z e d , and t h a t each man l e a r n t o do one t h i n g and do i t w e l l , i n o r d e r t h a t mass p r o d u c t i o n may r e s u l t . The d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s so f a m i l i a r t o da y t h a t i t i s not n e c e s s a r y to e l a b o r a t e , save t o p o i n t out t h a t such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as ' l umberman ' f o r example , may be s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o as many as 19 s p e c i a l i z e d o c c u p a t i o n s , many o f wh ioh may be f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d * While, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s most marked i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g , i t a l s o a p p l i e s t o o f f i c e work, f a r m i n g , t r a d i n g , b a n k i n g , governmenta l work , t he p r o f e s s i o n s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e . Thus we see t h a t when l i f e was s i m p l e , o c c u p a t i o n s few, and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s e q u a l l y meagre, t h e r e was much l e s s need t han now f o r s y s t e m a t i c h e l p i n s e l e c t i n g a l i f e work . An impo r t an t change i n ou r economic l i f e , wh i ch has 30 a b e a r i n g on t he i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n above , and a l s o on t he need f o r g u i d a n c e , i s t he i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f our p o p u l a t i o n i n u rban c en t r e s* The accompany ing c h a r t shows t h a t i n t h e l a s t decade , u rban c e n t r e s i n Canada abso rbed n e a r l y 77 pe r cen t o f t h e t o t a l i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e i n " B r i t i s h Co l umb i a , 86*8 pe r cen t o f the i n c r e a s e was found i n u r ban c ommun i t i e s * 1 T a b l e I I I RURAL AMD URBAN POPULATION OF CANADA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA  1891 , 1901 , 1911 , 1921 and 1931 Canada B r i t i s h Co lumb ia P o p u l a t i o n P e r Cent P o p u l a t i o n Pe r Cent 1891-R u r a l 3 , 296 ,141 68.2 60 ,945 62 .08 U rban 1 ,537 ,098 31 . 8 37 ,228 37 .92 1901-R u r a l 3 , 357 ,093 62 .5 88 ,478 49 .52 Urban 2 ,014 ,222 37 . 5 90,179 50 .48 1911-R u r a l 3 ,933 .696 54.6 188,796 48 . 10 Urban 3 ,272 ,947 45 . 4 203,684 51 .90 1921- o R u r a l 4 ,435 ,827 50 . 5 277,020^ 52 .81 Urban 4 ,352 ,122 4 9 . 5 247 ,562 47 .19 1931-R u r a l 4 , 8 04 , 728 4 6 . 3 299,524 43 .14 Urban 5 ,572 ,058 53 .7 394,739 56 .86 Numer i c a l I n c r e a s e i n t he Decade 1921-1931 R u r a l 368 ,901 23 .21 22 ,504 15 .20 Urban 1 ,219 ,936 76.79 147,177 86 .80 ICanada Tea r Book, 1934-35 , p . 149 . T a b l e 38-39 ^South Vancouver - 52 ,267 P o i n t Grey 15 ,756 T o t a l 46 ,003 c l a s s i f i e d a s r u r a l 1921 u rban 1931 51 Other movements of the population increase the need for guidance and complicate i t s problems. Since much of the work i n t h i s province i s seasonal, families move about considerably and t h i s means a s h i f t i n g school population, For t h i s reason the Counsellor's P r o v i n c i a l Transfer Card"*" (see Appendix, page 94) has been prepared by the Department of Education. Its purpose i s to enable the counsellor of the l a s t school the student attended to pass on to the counsellor of the new school to which a student transfers, d e t a i l s which w i l l enable him to appreciate the new student at his worth, and have him placed accordingly. Heretofore, no such record has been available, and the re s u l t has been, too often, a maladjusted student and an early withdrawal. Another need for guidance often cited from the economic world i s change of vocation and labour turnover. Maladjustment through careless selection of employees causes a high rate of labour turnover. Such s h i f t s are economically and s o c i a l l y wasteful and may be reduced by an adequate programme of guidance i n the high schools so that care'in placement w i l l place the right person i n the right position. In a democratic high school, the necessity for guidance i s obvious. Yocational choices are going to be made whether or not anything i s done about i t . Service i s the id e a l of the l i f e of every high school and, since this i s true, Dept. of Education: Programme of Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 446-447. 32 c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g on an o r g a n i z e d b a s i s must be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the haphaza rd sys tem o f t r i a l and e r r o r . The programme o f gu i dance must be c a r e f u l l y a d j u s t e d t o t he d i f f e r i n g needs and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the s t u den t s i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t em . C e r t a i n more o r l e s s d e f i n i t e groups w i l l comp le te a f u l l h i g h s c h o o l oourse w i t h s u c c e s s , o t h e r s w i l l l e a ve s c h o o l as soon as p o s s i b l e . F a vou r ab l e and u n f a v o u r a b l e home c o n d i t i o n s w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e v a r i a t i o n s i n the programmes o f i n d i v i d u a l s . Be i ng d e m o c r a t i c , t h e h i g h s c h o o l must c a r e f o r each and eve r y one o f t h e s e ca se s , and by so d o i n g , i t w i l l p roduce more h i g h l y deve l oped i n d i v i d u a l s , more e f f i c i e n t c i t i z e n s and a more p r o g r e s s i v e s t a t e . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f gu idance may be c o n s i d e r e d . A . I n the l a r g e Urban S c h o o l Sy s t em. (See c h a r t s pp . 3 9 - 41 . ) The i d e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r c a r r y i n g out t he gu idance programme as l a i d down i n t he new H i g h S c hoo l Programme o f S t u d i e s wou ld be c e n t r a l i z e d i n t he Department o f E d u c a t i o n a t Y i o t o r i a , ( c h a r t 1 ) . A c t i n g under a s u p e r v i s o r or d i r e o t o r o f gu idance and p l a cemen t , d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r s wou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s . The d u t i e s o f such s u p e r v i s o r s m ight w e l l be unde r t a k en by t h e p r e s en t i n s p e c t o r s , who a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s wo rk . S3 C r i t i c i s m may be made t h a t , owing t o geog raph i c c o n d i t i o n s , i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , such a p l a n i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e . As D r . K i n g says i n h i s p l a n f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he e d u c a t i o n a l sys tem: "The o f f i c i a l s a l r e a d y e x i s t . What i s p roposed i s a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and t i t l e s . V o c a t i o n a l Gu idance has been added , because V o c a t i o n a l Gu idanoe (wh ich i n c l u d e s the g i v i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ) s hou l d be P r o v i n c i a l i n s c o p e , " 1 F o r the p r e s e n t , gu i dance i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s t o be d e c e n t r a l i z e d , i . e . , each h i g h s c h o o l must work out i t s own programme i n d e p e n d e n t l y . I n a l a r g e u rban s ohoo l s y s t em, t h i s need not p r even t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n , such a s t h a t o f t h e D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l , ( c h a r t I I ) I n t h e sugges ted programme, a s shown i n c h a r t I I , t he s u p e r i n t e n d e n t or i n s p e c t o r w i l l d i r e c t t h e e f f o r t s o f h i s s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f * The s u p e r v i s o r s a r e cha rged w i t h t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f imp rov i ng i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r v a r i o u s depa r tmen t s . He re , a l l academic and s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n . No s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f i s comp le te w i t h o u t a s u p e r v i s o r o f gu i d an ce , an o f f i c i a l who i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r improvement i n t he work o f t he gu idance s t a f f . Work ing d i r e c t l y under t he s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h e r e shou l d be a c e n t r a l s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f f o r t h e improvement o f x K i n g , H . B . , S c h o o l F i n an c e i n B r i t i s h Co l umb ia , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B . C . , p . 127, v o l . I V . 34 t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e . T h i s s e r v i c e shou l d he made a v a i l a b l e * t o a l l t e a c h e r s engaged i n t he work . I t w i l l i n c l u d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and use o f e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s and a gu idance c l i n i c . T h i s c e n t r a l bu reau s h o u l d a l s o r e c o r d home v i s i t s , and keep an a c c o u n t i n g o f s t uden t a d d i t i o n s , t r a n s f e r s and w i t h d r a w a l s . I n a d d i t i o n , g roup gu idance methods , c u r r i c u l u m and gu idance r e s e a r c h , h e a l t h e x a m i n a t i o n s , o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l s u r v e y s , p lacement and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s , s hou l d be i n c l u d e d i n the s e r v i c e o f t h i s depa r tmen t . The advan tages o f such a c e n t r a l i z e d bu reau a r e m a n i f o l d . I t wou ld keep t he s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n f o rmed o f t he p r o g r e s s o f t he .work i n each h i g h s c h o o l . I t wou ld c o - o r d i n a t e the work , i n s u r i n g u n i f o r m i t y , c o - o p e r a t i o n and s y s t e m a t i c s u p e r v i s i o n , as w e l l as a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t s . As w i l l be seen l a t e r , t h e advan tages i n p lacement and f o l l o w - u p work w i l l w e l l r e p a y t he a d d i t i o n a l e xpense . B. . I n t he S m a l l B u r a l S c h o o l S y s t em . Wh i l e c o n d i t i o n s i n any two h i g h s c h o o l s a r e neve r t h e same, t he t e n t a t i v e p l a n ( c h a r t I I I ) i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o c o n d i t i o n s i n any h i g h s c h o o l , r u r a l o r u r b a n . The p r i n c i p a l has cha rge o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n h i s s c h o o l and he unde r t a ke s t o o r g a n i z e h i s s c h o o l w i t h due r e g a r d t o c u r r i c u l u m r e q u i r e m e n t s , o f wh i ch gu idance i s one . The gu idance r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the s c h o o l administrator include the delegation of guidance functions to counsellors, guidance teachers and subject teachers. He supervises a l l guidance a c t i v i t i e s and develops the morale and s p i r i t of his school. The re v i s i o n of the school programme and student a c t i v i t i e s are his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * The disposition of a l l serious problem cases comes under his j u r i s d i c t i o n . In the small school, i t i s probable that much of the counsellor's work w i l l be performed by the p r i n c i p a l or h i s assistant, i f he has one. Inasmuch as the functions of administrators and counsellors are somewhat di f f e r e n t , they are herewith set out at some length. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r implementing the guidance programme f a l l s upon the p r i n c i p a l , as well as the supervision of i t s progress. 'As i s the p r i n c i p a l , so i s the school, and so i s the guidance programme.* He i t i s who selects and supervises the counsellors, just as he does the subject and home-room teachers. The s p i r i t and morale of the school, the continuous progressive r e v i s i o n of the school programme and curriculum, the supervision and encouragement of extra-cur r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and the study of problem cases referred to him by the counsellors are a l l part of his work. A capable subject teacher, interested i n his subject and his students, can do much to arouse interest and right attitudes. Good subject motivation, leadership development, 36 a t t e n t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , good team-work and a h i g h p r o f e s s i o n a l s p i r i t a r e a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s . He w i l l s t r e s s t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f h i s s u b j e c t , a r r ange t r y - o u t p r o j e c t s i n i t , and encourage and deve l op s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r those hand i capped i n h i s s u b j e c t . He s h o u l d be a b l e and w i l l i n g t o sponsor a t l e a s t one c l u b o r a c t i v i t y and f i n a l l y , he must c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s and the home room t e a c h e r . A home room t e a c h e r i s a l s o a s u b j e c t t e a c h e r and s hou l d t e a c h the c l a s s he e n r o l s . ( I n some h i g h s c h o o l s i n t he p r o v i n c e t h i s i s no t t he c a s e . ) A h e l p f u l , f r i e n d l y , p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n each s t uden t i s a f i r s t e s s e n t i a l * O r i e n t a t i o n o f s c h o o l l i f e and r o u t i n e , h e a l t h , r e c o r d s , r e p o r t s and a t t e n d a n c e , t h e deve lopment o f s c h o o l c i t i z e n s h i p , l e a d e r s h i p and p e r s o n a l i t y a r e h i s c a r e . He must c o - o pe r a t e w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s and s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s and i n v e s t i g a t e p rob l em ea s e s , p a s s i n g o n l y t ho se t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r wh i ch he i s unab l e t o s o l v e h i m s e l f . C o u n s e l l o r s a re chosen by t he p r i n c i p a l because o f s p e c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y , s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , and a s u p e r i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e t o t h e i r work* Those o f h i s s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s who have shown, i n marked deg ree , the a b i l i t y t o c o - o p e r a t e , t o e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d l y s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , t e a c h e r - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p a r e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and an i n t e r e s t i n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he v a l u e o f r e c o r d s and r e s e a r c h w i l l be found most s u i t a b l e . H i s numerous d u t i e s may be b r i e f l y s e t out as f o l l o w s : 1. The a s s emb l i ng o f a comp le te case h i s t o r y o f each s t u d e n t . (See Append i x , pages 8 9 - 9 3 ) . Each r e c o r d must be c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and ma l ad j u s tmen t s ; and i t ems o f impor tance must be b rough t t o the a t t e n t i o n o f t he s tuden t and t h e department c on ce r ned . 2 . Group and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g , wh i ch demand t h a t t he c o u n s e l l o r have a s p e c i a l programme t o ensu re t ime f o r work and c o n t i n u i t y i n i n s t r u c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l p r ob l ems . 3 . I n t e r v i e w s , p lacement and f o l l o w - u p work i n a l l t h e i r r a m i f i c a t i o n s w i l l a l s o demand c o n s i d e r a b l e time*. I n p a s s i n g , i t s hou l d be no ted t h a t i n t e r v i e w s can o n l y be conducted s u c c e s s f u l l y i n p r i v a c y , i n an atmosphere conduc i v e t o the o b t a i n i n g o f the f u l l e s t c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e s t u d e n t . 4 . He must make f u l l use o f and c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t he s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , such as h e a l t h , a t t e n d a n c e , t e s t i n g and p s y c h o l o g i c a l bu reau and p laoement o f f i c e , b r i n g i n g t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n oases wh i ch he f e e l s a r e i n need o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s . I n t he event o f any o r a l l o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s not b e i n g a v a i l a b l e , , the d e f i c i e n c y may be met by 38 co-operation with outside d i s t r i c t s , agencies, etc., where such may he had. In conclusion, i t should be noted that counsellors only perform those functions which cannot be performed e f f e c t i v e l y by others, and counsellors should not be expected to administer punishments i f they are to r e t a i n the f u l l e s t confidence of the students. 39* C H A R T I. P r o v i n c i a l Organization of Guidance Minister of Education D i s t r i c t Supervisor D i s t r i c t supervisor! D i s t r i c t Council D i s t r i c t {supervisor! D i s t r i c t Council Jounsellora D i s t r i c t (Supervisor! D i s t r i c t Council Counsellors D i s t r i c t [Supervisor D i s t r i c t Council Counsellors D i s t r i c t Council Counsellors lounsell&rs 40. C H A R T I I . Gui'da-nce Organization f o r a Large School System D i s t r i c t Council Superintendent of Schools or Inspector (Chairman) P r i n c i p a l or other chosen "by the chairman (Vice-chairman) Secretary-Treasurer Body of the Council a. - A l l Counsellors. , "b-i. - Representatives of Industry. c. - Representatives of Serxd.ce Clubs, etc.j Placement Bureau. 41* C H A R T I I I . Guidance Organization^or^a^Small School System P r i n c i p a l Guidance Committee Teachers Community Representatives R o l l Class Teacher Subject Teacher Community Organization The Student Body (Groups or Individuals) CHAPTER III THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PLACEMENT 43 CHAPTER I I I THE' ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OE PLACEMENT P lacement i s t he work o f p l a c i n g the s tuden t i n h i s chosen v o c a t i o n and a s s i s t i n g h im t h e r e a f t e r t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f f o r f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s . I n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e , i t s hou l d be p receded by a c a r e f u l programme o f g u i d a n c e . Thus , t h e s t u d e n t , h a v i n g i n f o rmed h i m s e l f o f c o n d i t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o c c u p a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o have made d e f i n i t e v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s , and t o have p r epa red h i m s e l f f o r a d e f i n i t e f i e l d o f work . The s e r v i c e s r ende r ed by the p lacement bu r eau , whether i t be l o o a t e d i n the h i g h s c h o o l o r i n a c e n t r a l bu r eau , a r e s i m i l a r . I t a c t s as a c l e a r i n g s t a t i o n f o r a p p l i c a n t s f o r work , p a s s i n g them on t o p o s i t i o n s deemed s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . T h i s means t h a t the bureau must have a comprehens i ve , c umu l a t i v e case h i s t o r y o f each s t u d e n t . The emp loyers o f l a b o u r w i l l demand much d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s and t he p lacement o f f i c e r w i l l r e q u i r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o s e l e c t the i n d i v i d u a l s b e s t s u i t e d f o r c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s . I t w i l l a l s o p rove a f e r t i l e f i e l d o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o f f i c e r s who have cases o f ma lad jus tment i n employment t o a s s i s t , as w e l l as f o r i n t e r v i e w s and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . 44 By s e r v i n g as an a r t i c u l a t i n g element between s c h o o l and work-, t h e bureau p l a y s an impo r t an t p a r t . I t s u p e r v i s e s c h o i c e s o f p o s i t i o n s on the one hand, and ad j u s tmen t s on t he o t h e r , mak ing p l acements and r e p l a c e m e n t s , c a r r y i n g out o r s u p e r v i s i n g f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s so t h a t those who a r e t o t r a v e l t he same r oad beyond the s c h o o l may l e a r n f rom the e xpe r i e n c e o f p r e v i o u s p l a c e m e n t s . Thus , each s u c c e s s i v e c l a s s s h ou l d be a b l e t o l e a r n much o f v a l u e f r om the e x p e r i e n c e o f f o rmer c l a s s e s * U s u a l l y , such e x p e r i e n c e i s no t r e c o r d e d , so t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s know o n l y o f the c on sp i c uou s s u c ce s s e s and f a i l u r e s among t h e i r f o rmer s t u d e n t s . A c c u r a t e and comp le te s t a t i s t i c s can be o b t a i n e d o n l y by s y s t e m a t i c and r e pea t ed f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y s . Each s c h o o l a ims t o p r o v i d e t h e t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n most s u i t a b l e t o each s t u d e n t . Hav i ng comple ted t h e p r o c e s s , the s c h o o l s hou l d assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a r k e t i n g i t s p r o d u c t . But ove r - emphas i s o f the f i n d i n g o f p o s i t i o n s may l e a d t o t he r e s u l t a n t o ve r - s hadow ing o f t he gu idance a c t i v i t i e s . These l a t t e r c a r r y o ve r i n t o employment, a l t h o u g h the gap between s c h o o l and work i s w i d e . Employment t o t he s t uden t means e n t e r i n g upon a s t r a n g e , new w o r l d , where he meets new c o n f l i c t s and s i t u a t i o n s f o r wh i ch h i s p a s t e x pe r i e n c e have no t p r epa r ed h i m . He w i l l need h e l p and a d v i c e wh i c h he knows he can t r u s t , and w h i c h he knows i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e , u nb i a s s ed and s y m p a t h e t i c . 45 The school has a reputation f o r impartiality with students and employers. It cannot he accused of u l t e r i o r motives i n the adviee offered or the service rendered. It i s not encroaching on the work of any agency already i n existence, and i t should he borne i n mind that the f i n a l decision must, at a l l times, be made by the student. It makes no attempt to curb individual i n i t i a t i v e , and no one i s compelled to accept i t s services. Everyone i s free to make his entrance upon work i n his own fashion. Those who do a v a i l themselves of i t s services are advised how they may make the greatest use of th e i r own resources i n seeking a position or i n earning advancement. The ultimate goal of a l l guidance i s the development of the a b i l i t y to guide one's se l f * In a large, urban school system, a central placement bureau i s a great advantage, although no single form of organization of placement i s suitable for a l l communities. Local conditions must govern many of the d e t a i l s . I t i s essential, however, that i t be an in t e g r a l part of the school system. The plan of organization should recognize the fact that i t i s primarily for counselling and secondarily for placement. A l l placement work i n the school system should be closely co-ordinated and cleared through a central o f f i c e which deals with a l l employers. In t h i s way, the o f f i c i a l i n charge of the central o f f i c e has his finger on the pulse of the labour market at a l l times, and i s i n a position to give 46 expert advice to applicants for positions* An advisory committee of employers may be of assistance i n creating a more adequate understanding of the work and more generous co-operation on the part of employers. The functions of the placement o f f i c e are to make contacts with employers, to receive c a l l s from employers when vacancies ocour, to interview applicants and refer suitable ones to employers, and to follow up a l l placements afte r a short period, and again a f t e r a longer i n t e r v a l . While the personal interview i s more sat i s f a c t o r y i n follow-up work than by l e t t e r , i t i s much more expensive i n time and money. In addition, the central o f f i c e w i l l d i r e c t and standardize the work of the counsellors i n the individual high schools, especially i n follow-up surveys. The placement o f f i c e i s also closely related to the other c h i l d welfare departments of measurement and testing, attendance, d i s c i p l i n e , home v i s i t i n g , employment c e r t i f i c a t i o n and the guidance c l i n i c f o r problem eases. It may prove advantageous i n a large school system to place the supervision of educational and vocational guidance and placement under the direction of an assistant superintendent, who would co-ordinate these services. In large c i t i e s of over 200,000 population, at least two placement o f f i c e r s and adequate stenographic help would be required. For c i t i e s of 100 ,000 population or less, one 47 placement o f f i c e r and a secretary should prove adequate* At'the outset, progress w i l l be slow, but careful placements w i l l encourage employers to make repeated requests for assistance. It i s by such work, coupled with a definite campaign of sane p u b l i c i t y by recognized methods, that the bureau may establish i t s e l f and f u l f i l a need that has been f e l t for sometime. The r e g i s t r a t i o n of applicants deserves consideration. Whether t h i s function i s carried out i n the high school or the placement bureau, the procedure w i l l be the same. The school has one advantage, and that i s that the counsellor w i l l l i k e l y know more about the applicant and i s , therefore, better situated to judge the s u i t a b i l i t y of the student for a certain position. On the other hand, i f a l l applicants are registered with the central o f f i c e , where some form of rating i s used on applicants' cards, less delay w i l l be experienced i n f i l l i n g vacancies. Whichever system i s used, the bureau should interview each applicant before his interview with the employer. It w i l l afford an opportunity for the placement o f f i c e r to 'size up' the applicant, and at the same time to give any counsel he may see f i t . It w i l l also give the applicant a chance to ask any questions he may desire and, above a l l , i t w i l l have the effect of making the applicant more oonfident of himself, which i s a desirable feature. At the same time, the bureau should keep a f i l e of 'applicants sent', and a notation should be made of the disposal of each 48 c a s e . I n t h i s way, t a b u l a t i o n o f r e s u l t s f o r f u t u r e s t u d y w i l l he easy , and emp loye r s , who a re mak ing use o f t h e s e r v i c e , may soon he c l a s s i f i e d . The s o l i c i t a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s f o r s t uden t s w i l l p r o v e , a t t h e commencement, a d i f f i c u l t t a s k f o r t h e p lacement o f f i c e r . He must he p r epa r ed t o expec t r e b u f f s , f o r emp loye rs w i l l have t o be shown by r e s u l t s t h a t such an agency i s n e c e s s a r y . A f t e r t h e f i r s t y e a r , f i l e s o f t h e names and add r e s s e s o f the emp loyers o f g r adua t e s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a l i s t o f the u s e r s o f t h e s c h o o l p r o d u c t . T h i s l i s t i s a b y - p r odu c t o f t h e f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y . The p lacement o f f i c e r engaged i n s e e k i n g v a c a n c i e s s hou l d l e a r n t o do s o , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . S i n c e a gove rnmen ta l s u r v e y o f i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s i s u n l i k e l y a t p r e s e n t , he must make h i s own. To be of v a l u e i t must be kept up t o d a t e , as c o n d i t i o n s change r a p i d l y . I n a l a r g e s c h o o l s y s t em, t he v a r i o u s h i g h s c h o o l s can be a l l o t t e d c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s and i n t h i s way the i n f o r m a t i o n may be ga the r ed and made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . I n the Append i x , pages 97-98, a r e shown two b r i e f c h a r t s on l o g g i n g and m i n i n g wh i ch may s e r v e as a b e g i n n i n g i n mak ing a s t u d y o f i n d u s t r i e s . These have been t r i e d and found h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n v o c a t i o n a l g u i d an c e . As t ime goes on , t h e y may be expanded and improved f r om t h e i n f o r -ma t i on ga i n ed t h r ough f o l l o w - u p work . 49 In the two charts, the legend shows the scholastic standard required for the different positions. It i s not intended that these standards he adhered to sla v i s h l y , hut are to serve merely as a guide* The wages are standard average f o r the current year, but subject to modification i n keeping with the size of the camp. Pre-occupational training varies considerably, and no hard and fast rules can be l a i d down. Since lumbering and mining are two of the chief industries i n this province, and because a large number of high school students w i l l f i n d t h e i r way into the vocations connected with these industries, i t i s imperative that they should receive attention. CHAPTER IT THE FOLLOW-UP SYSTEM IN PLACEMENT 51 CHAPTER IT ' THE EOLLOW-UP SYSTEM IN PLACEMENT Supervision of employment or 'follow-up* has two major objectives. The f i r s t i s the service provided for the young employees. Many problems met i n f i r s t positions w i l l not have been anticipated i n the high school programme and others may not have been adequately covered to prepare the student to meet them successfully without assistance. The second objective i s a check up on the guidance programme i n the high school. In the l a s t analysis the test of a good guidance service i s the a b i l i t y and capacity of former students to meet the demands of t h e i r work afte r leaving school so that they may become well adjusted, happy c i t i z e n s . Not a l l students w i l l obtain employment i n positions whioh they wish to enter. A follow-up questionnaire such as that i n the Appendix, pages 100-103, makes i t possible to discover these and make re-placements, i f the f i r s t position i s not satisfactory or promising. ¥/hether to remain i n or resign from a position i s a d i f f i c u l t problem for a young person to solve, and the guidance service should give assistance i n this matter when needed. The t o t a l future plans of the student should be considered along with the chances of employment i n the occupation desired. The fact that he i s not succeeding i n his work i s evidence of the need for guidanoe. If he i s not succeeding i n his personal 52 relationships, a frank discussion of the situation may help him. In .the Appendix, page 99, are the results of a study by Brewer i n t h i s regard. Of 4,375 cases of discharge, over 62 per cent were based on lack of e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and about 34 per cent on lack of e f f i c i e n c y . 1 The follow-up programme w i l l be much more effective i f an evening o f f i c e hour can be arranged "to give an opportunity to boys (and g i r l s ) i n employment to c a l l f o r advice or help or to report progress". The presence of such a service should be made known to a l l students before they leave school. The long range survey as used i n Providence, Rhode Island, i s described by A l l e n . In t h i s c i t y , information i s obtained about students one, three and f i v e years after they leave sohool. These surveys are made by the counsellor who advises the students during their three year term i n high school. The combined res u l t s of the different schools make a report for the entire system. It has been found that the percentage of students furnishing information i s very high. B r i e f l y the programme i s as follows: "1. In the orientation course of the eleventh and twelfth grades, the pupils study the follow-up reports that have been made of previous classes. This fact tends to arouse their interest, and to prepare them for the follow-up studies of their own c l a s s . The class adviser and the supervisor ''"Brewer, John M., Occupations, Ginn & Co., Montreal, p.Q., 1936, pp. 107-8. 2Annual Report, 1936, Headmaster's Employment committee of the Incorporated Association of Headmasters of Public Secondary Schools i n co-operation with the Ministry of Labour, London, England, p. 6. 53 i n t h e i r t a l k s t o t h e c l a s s , s t r e s s t he impo r t ance o f such s t u d i e s , the need o f promptness and a c c u r a c y , and t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e f a c t s g i v e n . Thus t h e y do a l l i n t h e i r power t o i n s u r e a f a v o r a b l e , c o - o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e on the p a r t o f t h e p u p i l . When t h e t ime f o r b e g i n n i n g the s tudy app roaches , t h e a d v i s e r u s u a l l y i n v i t e s t h e c l a s s o f f i c e r s t o h i s home some even i ng t o d i s c u s s p l a n s f o r a c l a s s r e - u n i o n . Sometimes t h e y a dd r e s s the enve l opes a t t h i s mee t i n g , and u s u a l l y e n c l o s e a p r e l i m i n a r y n o t i c e of the c l a s s r e - u n i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h the f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e . An enve l ope add ressed t o t he c l a s s a d v i s e r i s a l s o e n c l o s ed w i t h a l e t t e r u r g i n g a prompt answer and f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t he s t u d y . U s u a l l y f r om 30 pe r cen t t o 60 pe r cent o f the p u p i l s w i l l answer i m m e d i a t e l y . A f t e r about two weeks, a second l e t t e r i s sen t t o t hose who have not r e sponded . I t c o n t a i n s ano the r copy of t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a v e r y u r gen t p l e a f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n . U s u a l l y t h i s b r i n g r e p l i e s f r om 20 t o 30 pe r cen t more o f the p u p i l s . The a d v i s e r c a l l s the r e m a i n i n g p u p i l s on the t e l e p h o n e , somet imes w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f c l a s s o f f i c e r s . T h i s b r i n g s r e p l i e s f rom most o f the d e l i n q u e n t s . The l a s t 5 -per cen t o f t h e p u p i l s a r e t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o r e a c h . Some have moved away, some a re d i s oou r aged and s e n s i t i v e , and some a r e s imp l y i n d i f f e r e n t . V i s i t s t o t he home by t h e a d v i s e r or by one o f t h e home v i s i t o r s a r e u s u a l l y n e ce s s a r y i n a v e r y few c a s e s . Impos s i b l e as i t may seem, many one -yea r s t uden t s show 100 pe r cent r e t u r n s , and the r e c o r d i s se ldom be low 97 o r 98 pe r c e n t . Many t h r e e yea r f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s show 95 pe r cent o f r e p l i e s . The number i s se ldom l e s s t h an 92 o r 93 pe r o en t . F i v e y ea r s t u d i e s u s u a l l y range between 85 and 90 pe r c e n t . When t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e a l l a c coun ted f o r , the a d v i s e r t r e a t s them s t a t i s t i c a l l y , u s i n g p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s as mode l s . The a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f p lacement i s a lways a v a i l a b l e and welcome, e s p e c i a l l y t o new a d v i s e r s . 54 8 . Each s t u d y i s t h en mimeographed by t he c e n t r a l o f f i c e and sent t o a l l a d v i s e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and s t a f f o f f i c e r s . L a t e r , t h e s t u d i e s o f a l l t h e a d v i s e r s o f the grade i n t h e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s a r e combined t o make a v a i l a b l e a p i c t u r e o f t he c i t y as a w h o l e . " ! Such a s u r v e y r e q u i r e s some o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n s i d e r a b l e work , but r e s u l t s w i l l w e l l r e pay t h e e f f o r t . A l l e n l i s t s t h r e e ma in uses wh i ch may be made o f t h e f a c t s . 1 . I n o r i e n t a t i o n cou r se s f o r s u c c eed i ng c l a s s e s . (a) L i s t o f c o l l e g e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d . (b) L i s t o f o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and emp l oye r s . ( c ) Knowledge o f wage c o n d i t i o n s . (d) Knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s u p p l y and demand. (e) O the r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 3 . I n c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h and r e v i s i o n . (a) Causes o f f a i l u r e s i n e d u c a t i o n and employment. (b) E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r y o u t s and t r a i n i n g . (c) O c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d . 3 . I n p lacement and c o u n s e l l i n g . (a) F i l e o f u s e r s o f s c h o o l p r o d u c t . (b) Reco rds of emp loyers and p u p i l s . ( c ) Unad j u s t ed g r a d u a t e s . 2 The cou r se i n gu idance and p laoement as l a i d down i n the new Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia i s s i m i l a r t o t h e P r o v i d e n c e p l a n as s e t 3 out by A l l e n . S e v e r a l s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e a r e u s i n g i t w i t h r ema r kab l e s u c c e s s . N o t a b l e examples a re K i t s i l a n o and Lo rd Byng h i g h s c h o o l s and the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s o f Vancouve r . T h e i r s u c ce s s i s due i n no s m a l l measure t o t he i n i t i a t i v e and en thus i a sm of t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , and the suppor t A l l e n , R i c h a r d D. , Con t i nuous F o l l ow -Up Su rvey i n S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , V o c a t i o n a l Gu idance Magaz ine X , pp 105-110 . December 1931 . ^ I b i d . pp . 106-108 3 A l l e n , R i c h a r d D . , O r g a n i z a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n o f Gu idance i n P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , I n o r P u b l i s h i n g Co . IVT.Y. . iflsa. 55 and co-operation of the p r i n c i p a l s and s t a f f s of their respective schools. CHAPTER V SOCIAL AGENCIES IN PLACEMENT WORK 56 CHAPTER V SOCIAL AGENCIES IN PIACEMENT WORK One of the most useful of our s o c i a l agencies i n placement work i s the Bureau of Tests and Measurements. Tests of general intelligence are the ones i n most common use today. Such tests propose to measure an individuals*s general native capacity to learn or to p r o f i t by experience. They do not claim to measure the whole personality, nor to indicate special a b i l i t i e s , d i s a b i l i t i e s , or p a r t i c u l a r fitness f o r one l i n e of work or study as opposed to another. They offer, therefore, no basis f o r s t r i c t vocational guidance, other than to say, 'this c h i l d stands high i n the a b i l i t y he shows to p r o f i t by the experiences and interests which he has encountered to date.' One has no basis f o r assuming that a student would make a better lawyer than a doctor, or a better carpenter than a plumber, but one may f e e l reasonably safe i n recommending that his mental capacity warrants, for example an opportunity for professional training or other position demanding a high degree of mental a b i l i t y . Various other types of tests which would be useful to guidance and placement o f f i c e r s are available, but are used but l i t t l e for several reasons. Chief of these, i s that they are too involved or d i f f i c u l t to administer as now 57 constructed. Diagnostic tests for occupations, special aptitude tests, tests of manual dexterity, personality rating scales, educational achievement and trade tests have been devised and promise p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The uses to which the results of mental tests may be put i n guidance work are educational guidance, vocational guidance and placement. Segregation of the feeble-minded and 'dull-normal' i n special rooms for them on the basis of mental tests i s one service i n school adjustment common to most junior and senior high schools i n the province. More and more p r a c t i c a l work i n a modified curriculum i s the present trend towards f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r adjustment to i n d u s t r i a l l i f e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the regular grades i s the main purpose of the testing of the majority of students. As a basis f o r dividing grades into ' a b i l i t y groups', or classes, considerable progress has been made, but care must be taken to re-grade when further data are available, such as marks, progress, application to work, etc. In t h i s regard, teachers and counsellors must be a l e r t to note exceptional cases. A solution to problem or behaviour cases may be arrived at by a careful study of the res u l t s of psychological examinations. Inferior or superior intelligence may be at the root of the trouble; e.g., a student of marked a b i l i t y 58 may be a problem case because, through, f a u l t y grading, he finds himself i n a group which offers l i t t l e or no competition and where the work i s much too easy, thus giving him the opportunity to become a nuisance. In educational guidance," choice of courses may be determined on a broad basis by the Intelligence Quotient. For example, students with an Intelligence quotient of less than 110 should be advised to avoid the c l a s s i c a l or academic course, and to take the vocational course, while those below 80 should be directed into the i n d u s t r i a l course* While i t i s generally recognized that certain types of trade training require considerable a b i l i t y , others can be handled by less promising students; but as yet no great progress has been made i n helping students to choose training on the basis of special aptitudes or d i s a b i l i t i e s as revealed by tests. Herein l i e s a f r u i t f u l f i e l d for research. Mental tests, other than intelligence tests, are seldom used i n recommending students for positions. If a student of high mental capacity wishes to enter an unskilled occupation which shows no p o s s i b i l i t i e s of advancement, the counsellor or placement o f f i c e r would quite properly endeavour to persuade him to aim higher. Sim i l a r l y , the student of low mental a b i l i t y who wishes to enter one of the professions would be dissuaded from such a course* 59 As a n a i d t o e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l gu i dance and p l a cemen t , t e s t s a r e u sed e x t e n s i v e l y i n g u i d i n g s t u d e n t s t h r ough t he r e g u l a r e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l programme a-. and have g i v e n s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h a t t h e y s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e t h e r a t e a t wh i ch one can be s t p roceed and t he amount he can p r o p e r l y a b s o r b . These t e s t s a re a l s o used f o r s e g r e g a t i n g t h o s e s t u d e n t s m e n t a l l y u nab l e t o d e r i v e b e n e f i t f r om t h e o r d i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s f o r an o c c u p a t i o n de te rm ined i n the modern h e a l t h c l i n i c , i s b a s i e t o a l l v o c a t i o n a l ad ju s tmen t s The gu i dance programme cannot be s a i d t o f u n c t i o n i f s t uden t •-are p l a c e d i n employment or a l l o w e d t o en t e r an o c c u p a t i o n f o r wh i ch t h e y a re not p h y s i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d , o r i n any o c c u p a t i o n i f t h e y a r e not p h y s i c a l l y f i t t o work , o r i f t h e y a r e a l l o w e d t o r ema i n a t work i n an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t i s p h y s i c a l l y I n j u r i o u s . U n t i l such t ime as our laws p r o v i d e t h a t no s t uden t s s h a l l l e a v e s c h o o l f o r work except t h o s e who meet c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s , t h e gu idance worke r cannot keep p h y s i c a l l y d e f e c t i v e s t uden t s out o f u n s u i t a b l e employment, The p h y s i c a l s t a nda r d f o r employment i s t h e r e f o r e , q u i t e as impo r t an t f rom t h e v o c a t i o n a l gu i dance p o i n t o f v i ew as an adequate e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d . Among t he recommendat ions o f t h e U . S . C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau Committee on p h y s i c a l s t anda rd s f o r wo r k i ng c h i l d r e n a r e s e v e r a l , t h e 60 r e l a t i o n o f wh ich t o gu idance i s c l o s e and o b v i o u s . " 1 . The minimum age f o r t h e en t r ance o f c h i l d r e n i n t o i n d u s t r y s h ou l d be no t younger t h an 16 y e a r s . S i n c e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t he p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e ad j u s tmen t s i n c i d e n t t o pubescence (wh ich i n t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f cases a r e no t comp le ted u n t i l t he s i x t e e n t h y e a r ) de te rm ine a p e r i o d o f g e n e r a l i n s t a b i l i t y wh i c h makes g r e a t and s p e c i a l demands upon t he v i t a l i t y of t h e c h i l d . I t i s o f paramount impo r t ance t h a t he s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d f r om the p h y s i o a l and ne rvous s t r a i n w h i c h en t r ance i n t o i n d u s t r y i n e v i t a b l y e n t a i l s , 2 . No c h i l d between t h e ages o f 16 and 18 shou l d be p e r m i t t e d t o go t o work who i s not f i t f o r the work at w h i c h he i s t o be emp loyed . 3 . The p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g i n d u s t r y shou ld be de te rm ined by means o f a t ho r ough p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n conduc ted by a p u b l i c m e d i c a l o f f i c e r appo i n t ed f o r t h i s pu r po se , 4 . W i th eaoh change o f employer ano the r e x am i na t i o n s hou l d be made b e f o r e t h e c h i l d i s a g a i n p e r m i t t e d t o work, the mode o f p ro cedu re t o be the same as i n the i s s u a n c e o f t h e o r i g i n a l p e r m i t . 5 . A l l employed c h i l d r e n up t o t he age o f 18 shou ld have at l e a s t one y e a r l y p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , t o be made by a p u b l i c m e d i c a l o f f i c e r a ppo i n t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . " ! Thus t he p h y s i c a l e x am i na t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t he employment c e r t i f i c a t e g i v e s t h e c o u n s e l l o r p lacement o f f i o e r a b a s i s f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f m i sp lacement o f s t uden t s i n employment; and i t has the f u r t h e r advantage t h a t i t h e l p s t o de te rm ine t he e f f e c t of v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s upon the h e a l t h o f young p e r s o n s . P h y s i c a l S t anda rd s f o r Work ing C h i l d r e n , pp . 7 - 8 . U .S . C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau P u b l i c a t i o n s No 79 . Wash ing ton , 1924. 61 Service Clubs and Welfare Organizations are also f r u i t f u l - sources of assistance. F u l l use should be made of any organizations whose support and co-operation can be enlisted i n guidance and placement work, Kiwanis, Rotary and similar clubs are usually anxious and w i l l i n g to supply speakers on vocational subjects. Invariably they w i l l also arrange f o r high school groups to v i s i t i n d u s t r i a l plants during working hours. In addition, copies of pamphlets on vocations, etc. are often available g r a t i s . The guidance worker w i l l f i n d a number of agencies anxious and w i l l i n g to help. Care should be taken i n selecting them, and once chosen, they should be kept busy. The ingenious counsellor w i l l see to i t that he always has a problem for them to solve or an objective to reach. The job of r a i s i n g funds for the scholarships may very well be taken care of by one or more of these organizations. Their support and encouragement w i l l mean much to the guidance and placement movement. CHAPTER VI EMPLOYJ/EENT CERTIFICATION OF MINORS 63 CHAPTER VI * • EMPLOYMENT CERTIFICATION OF MIHORS Vocational guidance i s a process of informing and advising, and i n i t s e l f should i n no way involve compulsion. But the effectiveness of the process depends to a large extent upon the existence of l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s upon the employment of minors. Without such r e s t r i c t i o n s i t i s impossible under present conditions to keep a large number of immature g i r l s and boys i n school long enough to get an education and impossible to keep them out of unsuitable kinds of work or to maintain any supervision over t h e i r early working years. I f the guidance programme i s to function e f f e c t i v e l y , the school or some closely a l l i e d agency, such as a central bureau, must have authority to supervise the t r a n s i t i o n from the school to the situation. At present i n B r i t i s h Columbia, minors are free to accept employment as soon as they have reached the school leaving age, which i s 15 years. In fact many leave a year e a r l i e r than t h i s i n schools where administration i s lax. For the majority of occupations offering any d e f i n i t e promotional p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a common school education at least, together with some technical t r a i n i n g , i s generally needed. In the case of students of low mentality, instead of "'"Manual of The School Law and School Regulations of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 7.2, s e c 159 (1). 64 permitting them to leave school for work as soon as they cannot keep up with the regular work, some form of supervised training within t h e i r capacity up to 15 years of age i s even-more necessary than for the normal c h i l d . Physical f i t n e s s for an occupation i s basic to a l l vocational adjustments, yet i n t h i s province at the present time, no medical examination i s demanded of minors entering business or industry, with one exception. The Metropolitan Health Board of Greater Vancouver recently introduced a measure, making i t compulsory for restaurant workers to be examined, thus including minors. The only governmental c e r t i f i c a t i o n of minors i n t h i s province at the present time i s that of apprentices under the Apprenticeship Board. It would appear that we are far behind the more progressive parts of the United States where this procedure i s the r u l e . Without a central placement bureau, which would be the l o g i c a l centre for the issuance of employment c e r t i f i c a t e s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y could be delegated to the school p r i n c i p a l s . On evidence of age, school record and promise of employment, the school prinoipal would issue the c e r t i f i c a t e , subject to proof that the student had passed a physical examination by a duly q u a l i f i e d public health o f f i c e r . But this procedure would only follow after the counsellor has held an interview 65 with the c h i l d and his parent or guardian. In the case of an orphan, some other member of the s t a f f , delegated by the p r i n c i p a l , might assume the duty of guardian for the time being. If i t .seemed advisable, the counsellor might inform the parent and c h i l d of the disadvantages of early school leaving, the limited opportunities for employment that are open to young workers and the kinds of training the schools o f f e r . Cases of economic necessity may cause a large number of the applications. Each should be carefully considered, and i f i t i s deemed advisable, an effort should be made to keep the student i n school through a scholarship grant or suitable part time employment, (see chapter VII, Scholarships) When changes of employment are made, i t should be compulsory by law for minors to return to the issuing o f f i c e for new c e r t i f i c a t e s . This would e n t a i l another physical examination and an interview with the counsellor. Here the applicant would be advised as to more suitable or desirable work, and given assistance i n finding such work, i f the occupation i n which he has been engaged seemed unsuitable. If and when our c h i l d labour law includes provision for the employment c e r t i f i c a t i o n of minors, then, and only then, w i l l guidance workers be able to maintain oontact with the individual young wage-earner and to supervise the early years of his working l i f e . Further than t h i s , the v i t a l importance to the school and to industry of the records of 66 employment c e r t i f i c a t e issuance cannot be too strongly stressed. The Director of the vocational bureau of Cincinnati sums i t up as follows: " S t a t i s t i c s of working permits are v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s of the school. They correspond to the death rate of the community. The usefulness of s t a t i s t i c s of the death rate depends on how accurately they are analyzed. Most communities plan t h e i r campaigns of health and sanitation on the basis of t h e i r v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s . The s t a t i s t i c s regarding working permits should have just as direct a bearing on school problems."! Such a conception of the employment c e r t i f i c a t e as a laboratory test of the e f f i c i e n c y of the sohools i n terms of what becomes of the children who leave school to go to work, lends special interest and significance to the c h i l d labour law from the point of view of vocational guidance. Woolley, H.T., The Issuing of Working Permits and Its Bearing on Other School Problems., School and Society. Vol. 1, No. 21, May 22, 191b, pp. 726-733. CHAPTER VII SCHOLARSHIPS 68 CHAPTER T i l • . SCHOLARSHIPS A f und f o r t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f d e s e r v i n g s t u den t s s hou l d he a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e use o f t h e gu idance department i n any s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . Eve r y y e a r , even i n p ro spe rous t i m e s , a number o f s t u d e n t s a r e f o r c e d t o l e a v e s c h o o l on accoun t o f c i r c ums t an c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , such as l o s s o f p a r e n t s , i l l n e s s i n t h e home, unemployment o f p a r e n t s , economic n e c e s s i t y o f the f a m i l y , e t c . Too o f t e n , t h e s e s t u den t s a r e the b r i g h t , p r o m i s i n g ones , who, g i v e n a r e a s onab l e o p p o r t u n i t y , wou ld make t h e i r mark* To d a t e , no c on c e r t e d a c t i o n has been f o r t h c o m i n g t o p r e ven t t h i s was tag o f one o f t h e f i n e s t a s s e t s o f our ooun t r y , t he p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s o f tomorrow, who a r e so b a d l y needed . The o b j e c t i o n so o f t e n r a i s e d t o suoh a p r o p o s a l i s t h a t no money I s a v a i l a b l e . Any gu i dance department wor thy o f t h e name w i l l c h a l l e n g e such a s t a t emen t . S o c i e t y goes t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o c a r e f o r t h e d e l i n q u e n t , y e t n e g l e c t s t o p r o v i d e f o r some o f the b e s t c i t i z e n s o f tomorrow, because t hey l e a v e s c h o o l q u i e t l y , w i t h o u t a t t r a c t i n g a t t e n t i o n , and l e a s t o f t e n , the n o t i c e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . Any good h i g h s c h o o l , r u r a l o r u r ban , wh i ch i s f u n c t i o n i n g t o c a p a c i t y , w i l l p r o v i d e f o r a c a r e f u l s y s t e m a t i c e x i t - i n t e r v i e w w i t h each w i t h d r a w a l to i n s u r e 69 gu idance f o r p l a cemen t . I t i s p a r t o f t h e work of such s c h o o l t o know where such s t uden t s a re headed f o r and what t he u l t i m a t e r e s u l t o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l may he . Too l o n g have we been s a t i s f i e d t o a c c ep t t he s i t u a t i o n , and , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t i t i s a p r ob l em , y e t , a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g i s b e i n g done about i t . Such w o r t h - w h i l e a s s e t s must no t be a l l o w e d t o d i s a p p e a r . The q u e s t i o n i s , i n what p r a c t i c a l way may t hey p r o v i d e d f o r ? I n t h i s p r o v i n c e , s c h o l a r s h i p s have no t become common i n our h i g h s c h o o l s . One o r two s c h o o l s , a t p r e s e n t , a r e u s i n g them t o advantage i n a s m a l l way. Our l e g i s l a t o r s r e a d i l y g r an t l a r g e sums a n n u a l l y f o r t h e bes t l i v e - s t o o k , e t c . , a t summer and w i n t e r f a i r s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n , t o expec t ou r governments t o s e t a s i d e a fund t o p r o v i d e t h e minimum o f n e c e s s i t i e s so t h a t wo r t h y s t u den t s may be m a i n t a i n e d i n s c h o o l . The g r an t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a lways as e d u c a t i o n a l , r a t h e r t h a n as a r e l i e f measure . The degree o f f i n a n o i a l a i d may be a s c e r t a i n e d t h r ough an i n q u i r y i n t o t he f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n by t h e c o u n s e l l o r , f o l l o w i n g methods and s t a nda r d s approved by t he b e s t r e l i e f a g e n c i e s , but w i t h t he u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be p r i v a t e and c o n f i d e n t i a l . I t seems s t r ange t h a t we t r o u b l e t o b u i l d c i v i c b u i l d i n g s , r o ad s , b r i d g e s , e t c . , c o s t i n g m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s , y e t a r e s a t i s f i e d t o see some o f our bes t s t uden t s f o r c e d 70 i n t o ' b l i n d - a l l e y * o c c u p a t i o n s . From such , t hey may neve r emerge, ' c e r t a i n l y not t o t he h e i g h t s t h e y might have a t t a i n e d i f t he few e x t r a yea r s* t r a i n i n g n e c e s s a r y had been p r o v i d e d t o equ ip them t o t ake t h e i r p r o pe r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . Sou r ce s o f r evenue , o t he r t h an gove rnmen ta l , a r e such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the s e r v i c e c l u b s , P a r e n t - T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n s , community ches t and w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . La rge sums a r e c o l l e c t e d and expended a n n u a l l y on p l a yg rounds h o s p i t a l s , swimming p o o l s , e t c . , a l l o f wh i ch a r e r e c o g n i z e d as wor thy c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g . Bu t , i f some o f t h i s revenue c o u l d be d i v e r t e d t o ca re f o r needy s t u d e n t s , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y o f such s t uden t s wou ld w e l l r e pay t he e x p e n d i t u r e . P h i l a n t h r o p i c i n d i v i d u a l s who w i s h t o be o f r e a l s e r v i c e may here f i n d an o u t l e t f o r h e l p i n g o t h e r s t h a t w i l l r e p a y , not o n l y t h emse l v e s , but t h e i r c o u n t r y as w e l l . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of such a fund may be c a r r i e d out i n any one o f s e v e r a l ways . The one wh i ch has been found most s u c c e s s f u l i s t h a t o f a s c h o o l o r community t r u s t , wh ioh a c c e p t s , a f t e r c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , recommendat ions f r om the l o c a l s c h o o l o r community a u t h o r i t i e s . The maoh inery f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e pu rposes need no t be e l a b o r a t e , o r e x p e n s i v e . P r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h e l i g i b i l i t y i s , o f c o u r s e , a n e c e s s i t y and more e s s e n t i a l , i f a n y t h i n g , 71 to e n l i s t the co-operation of parents or guardian i n the student T,s educational programme or objective. Opposition may be encountered and w i l l have to be broken down. Counsellors and class teachers should always be on the look-out for bright students who may need f i n a n c i a l assistance. Scholarships, as above stated, may not be large, but should be awarded on a short time basis, not extending over a month between payments. In f a c t , weekly or f o r t n i g h t l y payments may be found preferable. This permits of ready budgeting' f o r immediate needs, and has the added advantage of permitting'the administrator to interview the recipient at regular and frequent intervals, when advice and counsel may be sought by the student or given by the counsellor. In t h i s way, progress i s noted and an understanding effected, the results of which can not be measured, but which should be considerable. Experience has shown that, for high school students, the direct g i f t plan i s more advantageous than the loan scheme. For university assistance, the loan system may be j u s t i f i a b l e , but not for high school aid. If the student wishes to continue to university, the very fact that he has to repay a high school loan may discourage him from further encumbering himself. If i t i s his endeavour to complete only high school, the repayment may be a heavy burden, especially as his earnings i n employment at f i r s t may be r e l a t i v e l y small and subject to the fluctuations of the labour market. 72 Then, too, as i s often the case, the student receiving the loan may he the eldest in the family, and, thus, -will be called upon to as s i s t younger members of the family or even parents, as soon as he becomes a wage-earner. The subject i s one demanding attention and our school-men, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n charge of guidance, are most certainly being remiss i n th e i r duty, i f the subject i s not brought f o r c e f u l l y to the attention of our leading c i t i z e n s . The human factor cannot and must not be neglected when the need i s so great and the opportunity for service i s so pronounced. CHAPTER VIII VOCATIONAL INFORMATION AND RESEARCH 74 CHAPTER V I I I VOCATIONAL INFORMATION AND RESEARCH If the student i n school or seeking employment i s to be assisted i n planning f o r his future occupation or i n finding employment, the counsellor, the placement o f f i c e r , the parents and the student must have information on a variety of industries and occupations and on l o c a l opportunities for employment and conditions of work. The amount of d e t a i l and the emphasis w i l l d i f f e r f o r the different age and grade groups, but each group must know the facts that are s i g n i f i c a n t for i t s purposes, the information must be concrete and up-to-date, and as nearly f i r s t hand as i s practicable. If a f u l l time investigator can be employed to study occupations and industries, t h i s i s , of course, an advantage. The f i r s t step In a programme of occupational or vocational research i s to compile as much general background information as possible, i n forms suited to the requirements for which the information i s to be used. The preparation of reading l i s t s and the assembling i n systematic order i n school l i b r a r i e s and i n the o f f i c e s of counsellors of a l l available literature bearing on vocations and related subjects w i l l do a great deal to make the existence of such material known to vocational guidance teachers and students. Much excellent information on s p e c i f i c occupations 75 and. industries, as well as information of a general nature, can be obtained from secondary sources, and before a counsellor or department undertakes the assembling of any new material through f i r s t hand investigation, i t should study available publications and, wherever practicable, use them. If not suitable, often they may be adapted for l o c a l use at sl i g h t trouble and expense. Thus time, effort and money may be saved by taking similar studies made i n other c i t i e s and using them. There are a number of occupations, such as those i n the building trades, and many commercial and professional occupations in which a large number of workers are employed i n every c i t y . In these occupations, conditions vary l i t t l e from c i t y to c i t y , and information on them, i f i t i s accurate and covers the essential points, w i l l do quite as well for one place as another. For example, an analysis of the work of a nurse applies to Vancouver, as well as to Ottawa and, to the small town as well as the large c i t y . Even in the case of such workers as machinists, auto mechanics, or printers, where there i s greater variation between c i t i e s on points such as conditions of work, unionization and r e l a t i v e importance of the trade, there i s l i t t l e or no difference i n the essential processes of the trade, type of training necessary and the general l i n e of promotion i n the trade. In the case of occupations of special l o o a l importance, of which no suitable studies have been made that 76 can be adapted to the l o c a l situation, i t i s necessary that the counsellor make his own. The numbers employed i n the occupations w i l l determine whether i t warrants study, unless, for some spec i f i c reason, a minor occupation requires study. The aim should be to show students what qua l i f i c a t i o n s and preparation are needed to achieve success i n them, and to show, more especially those thinking of leaving school to enter the crowded occupations, how l i t t l e opportunity most of them o f f e r . The s k i l l e d trades, and business, and professional occupations should be studied to Indicate to students the value of adequate vocational training, as well as to furnish guidance workers with information on the qu a l i f i c a t i o n s and tr a i n i n g needed for these occupations. The most valuable survey for guidance purposes i s one made, or at least planned, supervised, and analyzed by a person especially trained i n research i n t h i s f i e l d . For t h i s reason, the pro v i n c i a l government i s the l o g i c a l medium through which such a survey of t h i s province should come. F a i l i n g t h i s , a permanent staff of one or more experts i n t h i s work i s the ideal f o r large centres able to provide the same. Under existing conditions, i t w i l l be necessary for senior high schools to make their own surveys. Chart IV of the Appendix, page i s a copy of a questionnaire to employers which might be used as a s t a r t . Any such form 77 must not be too lengthy to cause employers annoyance, yet must include the essential d e t a i l s one i s desirous of learning Reports on results of surveys should be of two d i s t i n c t types. Technical reports with detailed information for guidance workers and pamphlets s p e c i f i c a l l y adapted for the use of students and parents. The f i n a l test of the value of such surveys for vocational guidance purposes i s the extent to which the information i s used and the"way i n which i t meets the needs of those engaged in guidance work. The facts presented and the method of presentation should be subjected to frequent c r i t i c i s m from many interested sources with a view to whether or not they f u l f i l the requirements of the various groups to be served. CHAPTER EC P U B L I C I T T 79 CHAPTER IS ' • PUBLIC ITT I f guidance and placement i n the senior high school are to become the established practice, a great deal of p u b l i c i t y work i s necessary. In the f i r s t place, i t must begin i n the schools, to break down the apathy, ignorance and passive resistance which exists among schoolmen of the •old school' type. These people, mostly academic men, can see nothing but the scholastic or c u l t u r a l type of education. In many cases, the only way of winning their support and co-operation i s for the counsellors and placement o f f i c e r s to produce r e s u l t s . This done, they can usually be won over and may become r e a l enthusiasts i n support of the work. A de f i n i t e programme of publioity should be outlined by the administrator, acting i n conjunction with the counsellors i n each high school. This may include s t a f f meetings, with the counsellors leading the discussion but being careful to s o l i c i t the co-operation of the other members, rather than to demand i t . Talks by c a r e f u l l y chosen speakers from business and industry on the particular occupation i n whioh they are engaged i s a profitable use of the guidance period. I f the speaker i s given an outline of the way i n which the counsellor wishes the subject handled, i t w i l l l i n k up with his group guidance work. It also forms a method of introduction for the placement o f f i c e r , who may 80 wish to approach t h i s firm at a l a t s r date. Such speakers at school assemblies should be picked from key industries or businesses which are familiar to a majority of the students and i n which they are interested. Methods of making and establishing relationships with employers are many. Counsellors may arrange to give addresses at meetings of business and i n d u s t r i a l organizations. Service clubs and similar organizations offer a f i e l d for t h i s type of p u b l i c i t y . Personal contaot, through actual v i s i t s to the places of business, and an interview with the employment manager or, i n the smaller establishments with the proprietor himself, are frequently productive of immediate r e s u l t s . The l i s t of employers who have taken applicants w i l l #rove a valuable asset. It i s a d i f f i c u l t problem to find places for juniors i n periods of i n d u s t r i a l depression. If f r i e n d l y relationships have been established with employers when they have called for help when a vacancy occurred, they are more l i k e l y to respond when called upon to place a particular applicant when no vacancy has been reported. C i r c u l a r i z a t i o n , i f done systematically, and the issuing of a regular b u l l e t i n to employers of juniors are methods which have proved valuable, but they involve work and expense. The f i r s t placement which an employer accepts should be acknowledged by the placement o f f i c e r . This 81 courtesy should never he overlooked and, i n fact, i t may prove advantageous to aknowledge a l l placements, thus strengthening f r i e n d l y relationships. Trade and labour organizations may be of -vital assistance, especially i n the placing of apprentices, and their good w i l l i s at a l l times something which the offioe should desire and seek. Contact must be maintained with the various s o c i a l agencies of the community and use made of them, when required. It i s an integral part of the plan of all-round service to the student that those charged with the work of placement should understand how such co-operation can be effected, and should be able to command i t for the good of applicants. In fact, the entire community must be made conscious of the scope and importance of the work. An advisory committee or committees, composed of outstanding representatives of various interests i n the community may prove the nucleus about which the placement o f f i c e may commence i t s campaign of p u b l i c i t y . The d a i l y newspaper, especially the Sunday edition, i s a medium which should be used extensively. The editors should be approached and the plan explained to them. They w i l l usually be found more than generous i n their reception, and i t may even be possible to secure space regularly for worth-while a r t i c l e s , reports, etc. This i s a type of work 82 in which the assistance of other members of the staf f , and pa r t i c u l a r l y counsellors may be encouraged. Careful d i c t i o n and a bright, breezy style w i l l add much to the interest created. Trade journals are another source through whioh to reach the public. A r t i c l e s for these should be written with some bearing on the industry i n question and should be carefully composed. The radio should be used on a l l possible occasions, and most broadcasting stations w i l l be found most receptive to the idea. The ingenuity of the counselling service w i l l discover a variety of programmes whioh should prove both entertaining and ins t r u c t i v e . Those in charge of such broadcasts from among the counsellors should f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the technique required before the microphone so that f u l l benefit may be derived from the programmes by the l i s t e n e r s . In every community there are exhibitions of one kind or another where displays may be arranged. These may be posters, charts, or projects of a varied assortment, but a l l having f o r their purpose, the publi c i z i n g of the guidance and placement programme. The l o c a l f a i r invariably has a school exhibit. Here posters made by the art departments may be displayed. They may form subject topics f o r addresses, newspaper a r t i c l e s or pamphlets, which may be developed by 83 students or teachers. The guidance and placement programme contributes not alone to the student, the employer and the school, but given a properly organized plan of advertising, i t may become a rea l community builder. Upon the harmonious adjustments which the placement o f f i c e i s able to effect w i l l rest, in no inconsiderable measure, the happiness and prosperity of a coming c i t i z e n r y . CHAPTER X CONCLUSION. 85 CHAPTER X CONCLUSION One of the most serious cr i t i c i s m s of our educational system i s that i n many cases the graduates of our secondary schools and uni v e r s i t i e s are unable to adapt themselves to conditions of employment. If t h i s i s true of graduates, the position of withdrawals i s even more serious. They possess neither educational credentials, nor developed craft s k i l l s , and as a result d r i f t about from one temporary 'blind-alley' •job to another. This condition i s a r e f l e c t i o n on those charged with planning the educational p o l i c y of the province. It can be overcome by a programme of guidance and placement that w i l l prepare students to meet successfully the problems with which they are sure to be confronted. This must result i n r a d i c a l curricula r e v i s i o n better suited to the interests, needs, a b i l i t i e s , and prospects of students, which w i l l f i t them more adequately for the business of making a l i v i n g . Investigation and research must be carried on over a period of years to establish the nature of the problems of young people after they leave school, the best methods of preparing students to meet these problems and the best method of u t i l i z i n g the services of the various bodies, governmental and othervri.se, that may be of assistance. E a r l i e r i n t h i s thesis, attention has been drawn to the so c i a l agencies used i n placement work, i n view of the 86 fact that t h e i r co-operation and influence i s too often neglected. Fu l l e s t use should be made of t h e i r assistance, especially that offered by service clubs and welfare organizations, such as Kiwanis, Gyros, Lions and Y.M.C.A. Since the members of these organizations are voluntary helpers, enthusiasm may outrun discretion, and i t i s for t h i s reason that their efforts need to be directed along the most useful l i n e s . Employment c e r t i f i c a t i o n of minors has been found to be a most useful adjunct to placement though, as yet, i t has not been adopted here. By means of such a system, carefully compiled data are rea d i l y available on the labour situation at a l l times. Scholarships are not common i n our high schools at present, though some few schools do reward the best students. Invariably this award i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y large to be of any r e a l value i n furthering educational placement. There i s , at present, a decided laok of organized d i s t r i b u t i o n of endowments i n a l l of our educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . Vocational information and research must constantly be carried on to have counsellors and placement o f f i c e r s well informed on supply and demand of the labour market. This entails a great deal of effort on the part of an e f f i c i e n t s t a f f , but for the achievement of successful placement this phase cannot be neglected. 87 P u b l i c i t y i s a crying need of our entire educational system. Too long have we hesitated to advertise our educational a c t i v i t i e s . If the school i s to maintain i t s place of leadership i n the community, i t must make the f u l l e s t use of every j u s t i f i a b l e means at hand to bring to the attention of the public, the paramount plaoe which i t holds i n the community. Guidance and placement must be recognized as the core about which our entire educational system i s constructed. CHAPTER XI APPENDIX 89 CHAPTER SI APPENDIX A Class Survey 1. Family Record. The following questionnaire i s for the purpose of gathering some general s t a t i s t i c s about your class i n school. 1. Name . Class ... Bir t h Date (day month year) 2 • .A.clcl.T?©ss •«•*••«••* T © 1 • XTo ••««*••••»•• (years) (months) 3. Where born? .. 4. How many i n household? .... In family? .... At home? 5. Father 's name Country of b i r t h or 6. Step-father's name Country of bi r t h ... 7. Mother's name , Country of bi r t h ... or 8. Step-mother's name Country of birth ... 9 . Name of guardian Country of birth ... 10. Father or Mother deceased? (state) 11. Both parents at home? 12. Children at home At school ... At work ...Unemployed. (under school age) Total 13. Father's occupation ...... Working? On r e l i e f 14. Mother's occupation ( i f other than at home) 15. How many of family completed -(a) Elementary school (b) High school (c) University (d) Business or Trade school (e) Any other (state) 90 APPENDIX A Class Survey 2. Physical Record. Date Name... Class 1. Height f t . . . inches. 2. Weight ....lbs. Overweight.....lbs. Underweight... lbs. 3. What i s the condition of your general health?..... 4. Do you t i r e e a s i l y ? . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . «5. Do you suffer from headaches or other pains?,...Where?.... 6. What contagious diseases have you had? Diphtheria........ Scarlet Eever?.... Whooping Cough?...Measles?...Others (state) 7. Have you ever had trouble with your eyes?. 8. Have glasses been recommended for you? 9. Do you wear glasses now?. 10. Have you ever had trouble i n hearing? 11. Have you ever had any heart trouble?..., 12. Have you ever had stomach trouble?....,. 13. Have you any other physical defects? ( s t a t e ) . . . . . , . . . . , . . . 14. Have you ever had a major surgical operation (state) 15. Name any i l l n e s s that has kept you out of sohool a month or more 16. Name any serious i n j u r i e s you have ever suffered.... 17. What i s the condition of your teeth?......, 18. Do you have trouble i n breathing through your nose?..,.... 19. Do you have a frequent sore throat? 20. Have you had your tonsi l s removed? Adenoids?......... 21. Have you a tendency towards nervousness?. 22. Have you, or have you had a speech defect?. 23. Have you ever been i n a fresh a i r class? 24. Have you regular hours for sleep? How many? 25. What time do you usually r e t i r e ? . . * Arise?........... 26. Do you exercise every day?...... What games? (state)...... 27. Do you drink coffee?..... Tea? How often per day?... 28. Do you smoke? How many per day? 29. Estimate the times absent i n last year because of i l l n e s s Cause......... 30. Do you have a good breakfast usually? 31. Of what?. 32. What i s your usual time for meals? 91 APPENDIX A Glass Survey 3. School Record Date..... Name. .Glass..... .Course 1. What Elementary schools did you attend?,. 2. What Junior High school did you attend? 3. What other High school, i f any, have you attended? 4. Did you attend any other school i n any other province or country? 5. Why did you choose this school?........* 6. What subjects do you l i k e best? 7. Why? , *....... 8. What subjects do you d i s l i k e most? 9. Why ? 10. How long do you study each night? (average)..,.. 11. Which subject takes the most time?............. 12. Have you a room at home to study i n quiet?......., 13. Is the l i g h t good? .......,..*.... 14. Is i t warm?...*.......* 15. Do others study with you? (state) 16. Is there anyone at home who can i n t e l l i g e n t l y a s s i s t you? , ,*............* 17. Do you play a musical instrument? What?,...... 18. Do you play i n the school orchestra?.....Other?*.......... 19. To what school clubs do you belong?...................,... 20. To what school teams do you belong?............,.......... 21. What was your l a s t rank?........*** Out of?............... 22. About where do you usually rank?................. 23. Could you do better?....,...*... 24. In what subjects would you l i k e help?....*....... 92 APPENDIX A Glass Survey 4. Social Eeoord Date . Name Class 1. What regular duties do you do at home? (chores, etc.).... 2. Do you receive an allowance? ..How muoh? 5. Have you a job outside your home?...... 4. What?.... Employer 5. How much do you earn per weak? 6. How many hours do you work per day? Per week?...... 7. How late do you work at night?, 8. Would you l i k e a job for after school?... ..... Saturdays? 9. What? 10. In what work have you had experience? 11. How much money do you spend per week? On pleasure?....., .......... On necessities (carfare, etc\ T o t a l . 12. Have you a Bank Account?..... 15. How do you spend your spare time? 14. Do you belong to the Guides, Scouts, Tuxis, etc (state) 15. To what other clubs outside school do you belong?........ 16. What Sunday School do you attend?,.... 17. What Church do you attend?............ 18. How do you spend your summer vacation? 93 94 APPENDIX Counsellor's Provincial Transfer Card Name....... Grade I.Q... Reason for transfer School transferred from to .........Date,. Father 's name Occupation........ Mother's name Occupation Step-parent Guardian. Brothers (ages).... Sisters (ages) *Home circumstances Health........... (state d i s a b i l i t i e s ) Sports..«.»«•»».««««..... Hobbies...................... Other activities.....«.»..................«.....*..*... Strong subjects........................................ Weak subjects. *Special aptitudes Educational plans...................................... Vocational plans C lis. I*Q.Q is ©i* *Remarks • • * • • • » 9 « ft • » « O • • • • • • * * • « « • • « e * • * * * (Signature of Principal) (Signature of Counsellor) *Any d e t a i l of value. APPENDIX Counsellor's Record Card Boys. 2fe.iii6•••«••••««••••«•••«••« GkrsLcl© ••«•••«••• C1Q.SS «»•«•••••• Address .Tel. No . .Locker No 2?3? ©"vx oils s olioo X•• «••••••••*••#•«••••»•••••*•«•«-•••••»•#*«•••• Father's name Birthplace Occupation.... Father' s address Mother's name Birthplace Occupation.... Mother 's address Step-parent Guardian Occupation.... Brothers (ages) Sisters (ages). H^ome c ircumstances Health (state d i s a b i l i t i e s ) Sports Hobbies. Other a c t i v i t i e s Strong subjects Weak subjects Special aptitudes Educational plans: (a) Student ..(b) Parent.... Vocational plans: (a) Student (b) Parent If employed while attending school, state work. Name of employer 'Comments: (a) Appearance (b) Temperament (c ) Character ;Any d e t a i l of value. 96 APPENDIX Counsellor's Record Card Interviews Date «•••••*•••••««••«••••« E.SQ.SOH • Counsel , Remarks « * « « * » « * « « « « « « « * * « « » « 9 « e « * « « * « 9 « » « . « « « « • « • « • « Dat© e « « « « » e » f f « 4 « s « « a « « « o « s R©a S O U . « * Counsel Remarks •••••••••••*••••••«••••••••• Dat 6 • • • • « • • * * • • • • • • « • • • • « • R 8 S . S O X 1 C O H I I S © 1 » 4 4 4 « « « 4 « « 9 « * « « « « « t 4 4 » a » 4 4 4 4 4 a 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 « « 4 4 * » « * « Remarks Date Reason. Counsel. Remarks Date Reason Counsel R©HLarkS •••••••«•»*<>«•» • « * * « « • • « « « « o « e « « « » 0 » * « e o « « » c « # * 4 » « Withdrawal Interview Date«••••••«•»•••«••««,««* Reason•• ••*••*•.•••*•••••«•••• De st ination • • • • • • • • ^ • • • • • • • • » » « « * e « « # c » # # # # 4 # # # # # 9 M 4 ^ 4 t a # Remarks « * # e « * 4 e e * « 4 4 « 4 f t 0 4 4 « « « 4 4 4 4 f t 4 4 « 4 « 4 « « « * e • • Follow-up !Dat e l * * * « « » 4 * e » « 4 4 « « 2 e « « a * 4 « e « 6 « * 4 ) e e 3 o 4 « 9 4 B « . « « « e « 4 « « o R QlHar ICS o » * * « f i e « » « « 4 « a e « 4 « « 4 « 4 * e « « 4 « 4 * e « » 4 « e « 4 * e 4 4 « « 4 4 * » « 9? APPENDIX Mining Chart Position Wages Pre-Occupatlonal Training A 1.Manager #250-1000 mo M.E. Graduate. Long A -B 2.Mine Sup Tt experience for big jobs. 200- 500 H Usually M.E. Graduate. B 3.Mine Foreman P r a c t i c a l experience. -C 175- 275 Tt P r a c t i c a l training. B -C 4.Master Mechani 175- 300 t t Practioal mechanical t r a i n i n g . B - -c S.Chief Account . 150- 300 I f Business t r a i n i n g . C.A. an advantage. A -B 6.Chief Engineer 175- 250 t t Graduate i n Engineering. A--B 7.Mill Sup't 175- 450 t t University Graduate i n Metallurgy. C 8.Mine S h i f t : ; 6.25-7.50 day P r a c t i c a l experience. Boss C 9.Mill S h i f t Boss 6.00-7.00 n " t t A--B 10, Assay-era #125-250 mo M.E. or Assay c e r t i f i c a t e . B 11.Surveyors 125-250 t t Engineering training. D 12.Mill labor $ 54.25-5.50 day Unskilled. C--D 13.Miner 3.50-6.00 S k i l l e d - p r a c t i c a l training. C--D 14.Timberman 4.50-6.00 t t " t t t t c--D 15.Hoistman 5.50 t t " Tt c--D C 16. Motorman 17. Muckers, 5.50 tt t t t t If Trammers & 3.75^5.00 t ! Unskilled. other labor D 18.Samplers 5.75-5.00 t ! t t D 19.Outside labor (general) 3.75-4.25 tt c--D 20.Blacksmith 4.75-6.25 tt S k i l l e d - p r a c t i c a l training, c-•D 21.Mechanics 5.00-6.50 t t t t t t « D 22.Teamsters 5.00-5.75 It Unskilled. D 23.Truck Drivers 4.50 f t t t D 24.Tram labor 5,75-4.50 tt t t D 25.Tram operators 4.75-5.25 f t Semi-skilled. P r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g . c-•D 26.Cooks 6.50 t t Experience necessary. D 27.Flunkeys 4.00 tt Course i n Cookery an advan-tage. Chance for advancement, Letters refer to Soholastio standing prerequisite. — • • _ 98, 1 SH 1 <D 1 ri XI 1 © o CO CD CO o R X h R CD I P« © CO s CD o .R •rH u xx - p u CD o CO © o O - P • P r-| R - P H M ri o r-i •rH Ci CD ri & U CD 6a 0 ri P* © Xi - p CD r H cd •rH w o R o co ri TH •rH O is ri ri PS, - P cd d PS, O o cd m ri 3 MS Or xx CD &;} o ri R CD ri Pi HI O © © N O CD R CD CO ri Pi R ri O ri C4 ra ri © o u o U Xi o o O ra o > © R !>> ri a © © +> pi CO CH I ri CO 10 Pi O XI fn P I © 6fl ri P i © Cd O P to o -P ri I ri X ri O £S is ri co d ps o O ri pi R S cd © ^ M o -p © CO s ri •p o o - P so R Pi TH * u © © © a H s vH © © JH R R O o o © ps H R ri c j Gi © > > o © CQ ri * ri en M 01 ,M o cd ri © © "4 o R o o o O O 1 S3 t H ft © ri to ri ri © Cd © © O fn o © O J-t O O R ta Pi or r^H O & ti. cd .3 o •R o CO o - P o ?H o © o R d ,R o ! 4J R © o o o g - p +» +3 C l - P p +: O ri ri ri Q ri ri ri > ri C3 ri est R O CD Cll © CQ • s O i •H ,R f n © o I R fn P< -p JH Pi o cd ri I ri ri ft cd JH © R +=» O ri .rH CO - P ri o H o u ft © © bt ?3 R •rH Pi R 0 d ,R - P CO CD O 1 ri fn - P pi CO O ol Xi ri O u xi © o ft-o "c*. o l o -P| t fn © © cd © C= Hi CO R - P ri © H ri CO • R u o • o ri •r-i © H -R CO i>s o • rH JH cd pi 4-> © HI o ri o EH o ri R ri © ri rO ri CJ s cd rH R wH * © o r4 ri CO ft •rH CD cd ri +3 © JH o © ai R pi o O ft • H - P - P 61) Pi &S cd +> R o R R R ri o o • H ri ri o ri 1 i >s cd © © © R O R u • H o c o ri CO •rH © R r l ri © ft rH R > © CD © ri o ft • P J B P3 © © o .R ^ i .n - P - p • p R R R o o o E a S U rH rH © © © CO ft ft ft © o o t i l m cd i to I o O o o to m to 03 rH o © • P cd o «-i «H •rH - P rH © o u © ri cd o co o ri rH o c<3 U co © o . § © ri CO pf &•§ o <5 Cd © f-H O ffl PS -P © ra o cd ft co » O o cd CO R -P ri PH R O © © ri S ri H a J-j rO - P Cd ra • U B f-i © pi - p pi p CD +> CO O HH O CO © o R © ri rH © ffl R o R rH o ra to © © ra £ p 1 ri o o E « o CD *> •p xi CO -5 + &D U R^O R <5 ri Cd ri U © EH ra t>i ri « P ffl 60 cd •p R cd > ri cd bO © R © « H CJH R — •rH cd R HI O EH -rH • P ri CO Cil R O ri ri E R «t ca ;•; rR R , o ffl I cd • H © O R PH © 60 cd •p ca cd s & © © o M © o R o o © O R R ri © ri rH © ffl ra ft Pi Ji ° K o © © Pi R o o © R o S rH O ffl • P cd o ri -HH •rH • P rH CD O U ffl © R o o /3 A HJ +3 R R o o S E rH rH © © ft ft o o w I LO ri ri i n ri tn •R •P R o E u © ft o m ca i o CO cd ri u © ft o i n «> r ? cd ri JH © ft O i n <P>= cd ri rH >S ffl cd ft cd cd cd cd ri ri ri ri ri i n rH HI fH JH © • ffl ffl © © ft c -1 ft ft ft ft o m in o o O o t> lO o « • « » • © to cd cd rH ri © ft rH © t>: cd ri cd ri s « ft cd ri • rH rH i n rH © © <0= © ft ft o P O o o - P O o I Q O • * # • • <-> pi D © JH © -p R ffl " D R R 0 © •rH -p 4= R ri ri ra u 0 ffl ft PH • •p to ri ra ra CM i -pq R ffl Ti s • p R ri R JH S © E ft © CO O r^ H • to R cd rH ^ ffl ri ft ri ffl <••! ffl © S w rH © -P CO u CH ( i t * • m CO ffl ri cd o co to u . . © M 60 ffl &D R R ri US ri >rH © © ri co p ra HI f-l © <a © © R rH ri o M &3 - P b f l © ra fn © © R ri &0 © R R © ' E ?§-S> § i O £ 3 -R o w i J-H EH JH O P5 P • » ri CM ri ri CO l » ffl ra « « R o pJ O ri « o co ri ri CQ fn ffl O ra fn © ra Pi f-. © © E3 f-i pi E o o H= ra o cd ft Pi hi • • * r> co a>; ri ri PQ o o PQ PQ O PQ O o o O P p p p p P J 99 APPENDIX; REASONS FOR DISCHARGE FROM INDUSTRY 1. Lack of e f f i c i e n c y i n s k i l l and technical knowledge; Per Cent Incompetence £5.3 Slow 4.6 Physically unadapted 3.9 Spoiling work .4 34.2 2. Lack of ethical r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ('job wisdom') Insubordination 11.1 General u n r e l i a b i l i t y 10.4 Absenteeism 10.1 Laziness 7.2 Trouble making 4.1 Drinking 4.1 Vi o l a t i o n of rules 3.2 Carelessness 2.7 Fighting 2.4 Misconduct 2.3 Dishonesty 2.1 Loafing or sleeping 1.8 D i s s a t i s f i e d .5 Habitual lateness .4 62.4 3. Miscellaneous reasons 3.4 100 Brewer, John M., Occupations, Ginn & Co., 1936, p. 107-8. 100 Covering setter to Accompany Questionnaire to Employer, The Manager Co B.C. Dear S i r : months ago we sent you one of our students, to f i l l the (name) position of... with your company. We are making a Eollow-TJp survey of our placements and would appreciate i t i f you would f i l l i n and return the attached questionnaire at your convenience. Thanking you, I am, Yours very t r u l y , Counsellor. High School 0 101 •Questionnaire to Employer A survey of the class of which, was (name) a member i s being taken. Please rate him on the following points. This information w i l l be treated as s t r i c t l y confidential, and w i l l not be used i n any way detrimental to yourself or your firm. Below Average Above 1. A b i l i t y 2. Accuracy....... 3 . Appearance...... 4. Concentration 5 . Co-operation 6. Health 7. Industriousness 8. Mechanical s k i l l 9 . R e l i a b i l i t y . . . . . 10, Resourcefulness. General Remarks S i gne d Position Company Note: If the school can be of service to you, please c a l l or write. 102 Covering Letter to Accompany Questionnaire to the Student. Date, To. Dear : We are making a Follow-up survey of your class, and would be glad i f you would f i l l i n the enclosed form. If there are any further points about your work that you would care to add, please do so. Your information w i l l be treated as confidential. Thanking you and wishing you success, I am, Yours sincerely, Counsellor. High School.. 103 Questionnaire to the student Please rate your occupation on the following points. This information w i l l be treated as s t r i c t l y confidential, and w i l l not be used i n any way detrimental to yourself. 1. Present Employer 2. Address Telephone 3. Tour present position 4. Working conditions 5. Rate of pay 6. Chance of promotion 7. What training, i f any, are you taking now for promotion, other than your work? 8. What courses, i f any, would have been better f o r you? 9. Are you s a t i s f i e d with your present position? Prospects 10. Is there some other position or occupation you would prefer? (state) Remarks or suggestions Signed Class Tear Note: If the school can be of service to you, please c a l l or write. 104 CHART IT SURTEY QUESTIONNAIRE TO EMPLOYERS 1. Firm Name 2* XJOco.*tiion o_T _ P l a . n x • • • # » » » • • • * • • • » • • • * • • • • • • * * 3. Nature of Industry... 4. Is the general trend of t h i s industry towards 5, How many employees, 15-•18 years, do you expect to add 6. How many employees, 19-•21 years, do you expect to add 7. How many employees, 22-•25 years, do you expect to add 8. Is there now, a shortage of suitable help i n t h i s l i n e ? , . . 9. Is there now, a surplus of suitable help i n this l i n e ? . . . . 10. What are conditions of entrance to t h i s occupation, re -(a) Schooling (b) Technical Training.............. (c) Experience. , (d) Open or closed shop...... (e) Others 11. Does a system of Apprenticeship exist i n this industry?... 12. If not, would such a system be advantageous?....... 13. Are there opportunities for training i n this occupation i n your firm?,. * 14. As to conditions of work (a) i s i t steady or seasonal?.... (b) What are the hours?..........,.. (c) Does the work cause (a) mental strain? (b) Physical... (d) Is overtime usual? (e) Is the work hazardous?....... I f yes, please state.... 15. Does t h i s occupation carry compensation?.................. 16. Are the opportunities for advancement (a) good? (b) f a i r ? .;....(o) poor? 17. Are relations between employer and employee generally amicable? 18. What i s the percentage turnover of employees per annum? 19 . Why? 20. Would you be w i l l i n g to secure help required through Senior High Schools, provided they could be supplied? 21. Are annual vacations the rule, (a) With pay?.,............ (b) Without pay? 22. How many days sick leave per annum are permitted (a) With pay? (b) Without pay? 25. Have you a pension scheme? 24. What i s your policy, re salary increases? 25. State below any ways i n which, i n your opinion, our schools could better prepare students for the work i n your particular industry. CHAPTER XII BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 CHAPTER SI I BIBLIOGRAPHY The bibliography i s a suggestion of readings especially valuable to Administratorsj Counsellors and Teachers. That there i s much good material not l i s t e d i s understood. The starred items are doubly recommended. * A l l e n , Richard D. The Inor Group Series, Vol.1, II, III, IT. Vol. I. Common Problems i n Group Guidance. Vol.II. Case Conference Problems i n Group Guidance. Vol.III. Self Measurement Problems i n Group Guidance. Vol. IV. Organization and Supervision of Guidance i n Public Eduoation. Inor Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. 1934. Allen, R.D. Continuous Follow-Up Survey i n Senior High  School, Vocational Guidance Magazine, No X. December 1931. pp. 105-110. The National Occupational Conference, 551 F i f t h Avenue, New.York, N.Y. ^Apprenticeship Act of B.C. - Regulations, etc. Apprenticeship Council of B.C., 907 Stock Exchange Building, Vancouver, B.C. B l i s s , W.B. Your School and You, A l l y n & Bacon, San Francisco C a l i f o r n i a , 1927. *Brewer, John M., Occupations, Ginn & Co., Montreal, P.Q. 1936. Broady, K.O., Sohool Provision for Individual Differences Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1930. Columbia University Press, 2960 Broadway, New York, N.Y. *Burt, C.L., The Young Delinquent, Appleton, D. 1925. Century Co., New York, Canadian Agent, Ryerson Press, Toronto, Ont. *Carver, T.N., et a l , , Trade Foundations, (a compilation) Guy M. Jones Co., 1919. 107 Cohen, I.D., Principles and Practices of Vocational G-uldance Century Press, 1929 . Cottier, J. and Brecht, E.W., Careers Ahead, L i t t l e , Brown & Company, 1933. Boston, Mass. *Department of Education, Programme of Studies for Junior High Schools. Programme of Studies for Senior  High Schools. Free-Text Br., Dept of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Edmonson, J.B. and Dondineau, A.D., Vocations Through Problems, The Macmillan Company of Canada, 1936 Toronto, Ont. Ernst, C.H., What S h a l l I Be?, Appleton, 1928. Ernst, C.H., Opportunity Ahead, Appleton, 1929. *Filene, C , Careers for Women, The Macmillan Company, 1927. *F i t c h , J.A., Vocational Guidance i n Action, Columbia University Press, 1935. Gardiner, G.L., How You Can Get a Job, Harper Bros, New York 1954". (Canadian Agent, Busson Book Co.) Giles, I.E., Occupational Civics, The Maomillan Co., 1936. Graham, W.C.-, How To Get a Job During a Depression, Associated Press, 1932, 347 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. *Headmasters' Employment Committee, Annual Report of The Incorporated Association of Headmasters of Public Secondary Schools i n co-operation with the Ministry of Labour, 41, T o t h i l l St., Westminster, London, S.W. I. His Ma jest's Stationery Office, Choice of Careers Series, Adastral House Kingsway, London, W.C. 2. Hatcher, O.L., Guiding Rural Boys and G i r l s , MoGraw-Hill Book Co.7 Inc., 1930, New York, N.Y. Hoag, E.B., Crime, Abnormal Minds and the Law, Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1925, Indianapolis, Indiana, Holbrook, H.L. and McGregor, L.A., Our World of Work, All y n and Bacon, 1929, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a . 108 *Jones, A.J., Princi p l e s of Guidance, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1930 Hew York, N.Y. *King rs Printer, Canada Year Book (current issue) Ottawa, Ont. Eitson, H.D., I Find My Vocation, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1931, New York. N.Y. Kitson, H.D., Psychology of Vocational Adjustment, J.B. Lippincott & Co. 1925, Philadelphia, Penn. Kiwanis Club, Vancouver, B.C., Pamphlets i n Vocational Guidance. Koos, L.V. and Kefauver, G.N., Guidance i n Secondary Schools The Macmillan Co., 1932, Toronto, Ont. ~ League for Social Reconstruction, Research Committee, Social Planning for Canada, Nelson, Thomas & Sons, Toronto, Ont. Leuch, M.S., Fields of Work for Women, Appleton, D. Century Co., New York, N.Y., 1931. Lumley, F.R., Principles of Sociology, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Ino., 1928. McKown, H.C., Home Room Guidance, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. 1935. : *Magoun, F.A., Problems i n Human Engineering, The Macmillan Co., 1932. *Menninger, K.A., The Human Mind, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1936, (Canadian Agent, Ryerson Press) Myers, G.E., L i t t l e , G.M. and Robinson, S.A., Planning Your  Future, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. N.Y., 1934. ^National Occupational Conference, Occupations, Vocational Guidance Magazine, N.A.C. 551 F i f t h Ave. N.Y. Proctor, W., Vocations, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , 1929 . Rexford, F.A. et a l , Beyond School, Henry Holt & Co. Inc., New Yorfe, 1933. ^University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Calendar, University of B.C. Vancouver, B.C. 109 U.S. Children's Bureau, Physical Standards for Working Children, Publication No 79, Washington," D.C. 192_. Woolley, H.T., The Issuing of Working Permits and Its Bearing on Other School Problems. scEoo"! and Society, Vol. I, No 21, May 22, 1915, 

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