Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Nutritional studies with strawberries and the breakdown of the strawberry in canning Ritchie, Myles Houston 1939

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1939_A4 R5_N8.pdf [ 16.61MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105566.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105566-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105566-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105566-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105566-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105566-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105566-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105566-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105566.ris

Full Text

NUTRITIONAL STUDIES WITH STRAWBERRIES AND THS BREAKDOWN OF THE STRAWBERRY IE CANEIEG. by I t y l es Hous ton R i t c h i e ^ B . S . A . t B.A. An essay submitted, f o r the degree o f MASTER OP SCIENCE OF AGRICULTURE i n the department THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A f e r i l , 1939, TABLE OF,COSTENTS * .1 Page Acknowledgement ~ ..- I I n t r o d u c t i o n • — — — — 2 Rev iew of L i t e r a t u r e ' — - - —«• -• 4 Ob jec t — — — — — .-77 M a t e r i a l - - - » — .- — — 7 Method — — 13 R e s u l t s (a) Gene ra l Appearance : — - 15 .(b) Runner P r o d u c t i o n - - — - — « .. 18 (c ) A n a l y s i s of S o i l and F r u i t - — — » : . 22 D i s c u s s i o n (a) Genera l Appearance - — 26 (b) Runner P r o d u c t i o n - - - » - . — - - . — — - - - . . - 31 (c) A n a l y s i s o f S o i l and F r u i t — , 33 Suromary — - — » — — - — „ « , -• 35 Recommendations — - — - - - - - - - - « - - * - » • - - . - - - » - . . . - 37 L i t e r a t u r e C i t ed , ---*> — - — . . « . * . . . . . - . . . . . . . . , . , * . . . , . . . . . . . 38 The writer w i shes to thank D r . G . Howell Harris, Associate Professor of H o r t i c u l t u r e , under whose direction this Yfork was carried on, for his kind supervision aad v a l u a b l e assistance in outlining the investigation, carry-ing out the laboratory work, and in the preparation of this essay. Acknowledgment is also g i v e n to D r . A , 3?» B a r s s , Professor of' Horticulture, fox- the kindly interest and helpful advice given during the progress of this work. Also- to Mr. Ha r r y Pearson of Bro&er Canning Company Limited, Hew Westminster, B.C., for supplying strawberries for this experiment® NUTRITIONAL STUDIES WITH STRAWBERRIES AND THE BREAKDOWN OF' THE STRAWBERRY.-1H CANNING". In t rodcuc t i on The e a r l i e s t r e co r ded exper iments w i t h water c u l t u r e s were c a r r i e d out by Woodward in. 1699. He grew p l a n t s i n r i v e r , , s p r i n g , , r a i n , and d i s t i l l e d wate r to de -te rm ine whether i t was the water or the s o l i d p a r t i c l e s o f the s o i l wh ich nou r i s hed the p l a n t s . Around 1835 L e i b i g , . the German s c i e n t i s t found tha t a l l p l a n t s used c e r t a i n e lements such as oxygen, n i t r o g e n , ca rbon , phosphorus , and po t a s s i um . Based on - h i s f i n d i n g s he propounded the Law of the Minimum i n 1843. The law wh i ch i s fundamenta l i n P l a n t N u t r i t i o n i s commonly s t a t e d a s , "The y i e l d of any crop a lways depends on t ha t n u t r i t i v e c o n s t i t u e n t wh ich i s p r e sen t i n the minimum amount, the s o i l i s r ende red b a r r e n f o r a l l those c rops to whichL . th i s c o n s t i t u e n t i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e , M ; i • EB11owing up on l e i b i g ' s work, G i l b e r t and Lawes con f i rmed h i s s t a tements a t Rothamstead, Eng l and . Knop, about the m idd l e o f the n i n e t e en t h c en tu r y , showed tha t o the r e lements were necessa ry be s i d e s those demonst ra ted by L e i b i g and, i n 1865 he brought f o r th , h i s f o rmu l a f o r a water s o l u t i o n of s a l t s t ha t would suppor t the l i f e o f a p l a n t . Th i s s o l u t i o n has not been improved upon and i s s t i l l used today . Sacchs i n I860 , p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t s t anda rd f o rmu l a f o r a c u l t u r e s o l u t i o n f o r p l a n t s . F o l l o w i n g the success i n t h i s f i e l d of p h y s i o -l o g y , a l a r g e number of worke rs tu rned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to t h i s p rob l em, and we f i n d a l a r g e number o f d i f f e r e n t nu t -r i e n t s o l u t i o n s deve l oped , o u t s t a n d i n g o f wh i ch were T o t t i n g , ham's i n 1914; Sh i v ee i n 1915, and Hoag lands i n 1920. L i v i n g s t o n e around 1900 worked w i t h the the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s , s t u d y i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n to p l a n t g rowth , e s p e c i a l l y n o t i n g the unequa l a b s o r p t i o n o f i on s o f s a l t wh ich gave a marked e f f e c t on the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n . P r e s en t day work d ea l s c h i e f l y w i t h the e l e -ments the p l a n t t akes f rom the s o i l and these have been de te rm ined v e r y a c c u r a t e l y . Those r e q u i r e d i n l a r g e r quant -i t i e s a r e c a l c i u m , n i t r o genp phosrbiorus, and po tass ium^ and \ those i n s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s a r e aluminimuin, i r o n , magnesium,, manganese, and s u l p h u r . There a r e p r obab l y two o the r m i c r o -chem i ca l e lements tha t shou l d be added to the l i s t , namely boron and z i n c , , wh ich may be r e q u i r e d i n v e r y s m a l l amounts. These n u t r i e n t s a re a v a i l a b l e to the p l a n t when i n s o l u t i o n but i n any o the r c o n d i t i o n the p l a n t w i l l not t o l e r a t them. There a r e many f a c t o r s t ha t i n f l u e n c e the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f these e lements t o the p l a n t . T h i s paper w i l l d e a l w i t h the e f f e c t s o f de-f i c i e n c i e s and excesses o f these e lements i n r e l a t i o n to the s t r awbe r r y p l a n t and to the breakdown of some s t r a w b e r r i e when canned„ Rev iew o f L i t e r a t u r e C o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done on the e f f e c t o f n i t r o g e n as a f e r t i l i z e r on s t r awbe r r i e s , , White wo r k i ng i n Hew J e r s e y showed t h a t n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d the y i e l d , r e s u l t i n g f rom an i n c r e a s e i n s i z e o f the f r u i t and not the f r u i t number ( 1 9 ) 0 Woburn E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms i n Eng land found tha t a heavy a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i q u i d manure l e ad to a r e t a r d i n g i n f l u e n c e on the r i p e n i n g o f the f r u i t , but o t he rw i s e had no e f f e c t on the c rop ( I) . Chand le r i n M i s s o u r i found tha t n i t r o g e n e i t h e r as n i t r a t e o f soda or b l ood meal a p p l i e d i n the s p r i n g be f o r e the c ron was h a r v e s t ed gave i n j u r i o u s r e s u l t s , c au s i ng excess weed growth and reduced c rop ( 3 ) . Love wo rk i ng a t M i c h i g an conc luded tha t n i t r o g e n has been the c h i e f l i m i t i n g e l emen t , b e i n g an impor t ant f a c t o r i n p romo t i ng v e g e t a t i v e growth e s p e c i a l l y a t the t ime o f f r u i t bud d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Wi th a l i m i t e d s u r e l y o f n i t r o g e n the r o o t s a r e l a r g e i n compar i son to the tops (|2.). D a v i s and H i l l s t a t e d tha t the n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n t and the n i t r o g e n l a c k i n g s e r i e s began to e x h i b i t ev i dencesod f l a c k o f t h i s element by the e a r l y f a l l i n t h e i r s m a l l e r s i z e and p a l e r l e a v e s ( i f ) . F u r t h e r work by Dav i s and H i l l showed tha t i n g e n e r a l , r e l a t i v e excess a c c u m u l a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n i s ev idenced by abno rma l l y da rk f o l i a g e , w i t h a d i s t i n c t tendency to c u r l upwards and f r e q u e n t l y accompanied by a b r on z i n g and p u r p l i n g o f the o l d e r l e a ve s {(D). Lo ree a t M i c h i g a n found tha t a s p r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n a l one or i n comb ina t i on w i t h phosphorus and po t a sh caused a v i g -orous runner growth but w i t h equa l amountsoof the same nu t -r i e n t s a p p l i e d d u r i n g the summer few runne r s were produced * ; Dav i s and H i l l found tha t p l a n t s l a c k i n g i n po t a s s i um e x h i b i t e d f o l i a g e o f a da r k green c o l o r w e l l i n t o the f r u i t i n g season , but the p l a n t s were not as l a r g e or as v i g o r o u s as the f u l l n u t r i e n t p l a n t s , f i n a l l y the l e ave s c u r l e d and t u r ned a pu r p l e c o l o r (.5 ) . They a l s o found tha t , w i t h an excess o f po t a s s i um t he r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e f rom the f u l l n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n p l a n t s , except f o r a s l i g h t l y da r ke r c o l o r i n the f o l i a g e and a l i t t l e more v i g o r ou s appea r -ance ( 7 ) . L a t i m e r and Wentworth showed tha t when sodium n i t r a t e and po t a s s i um c h l o r i d e were a p p l i e d b e f o r e the p l a n t s were s e t , the y i e l d was reduced due to the dea th o f a few pa ren t p l a n t s and a low p r o d u c t i o n o f r unne r s ( U K Lo ree s t a t e d t ha t phosphorus a l one a p p a r e n t l y had no e f f e c t on v e g e t a t i v e g rowth , but i n combimat ion w i t h n i t r o g e n i t promoted a l a r g e r v e g e t a t i v e growth {XT.). D a v i s and H i l l p o i n t e d out t ha t p l a n t s l a c k i n g i n phosphorus had da r k d u l l g reen l e a v e s wh i ch were s m a l l i n s i z e and had sho r t p e t i o l e s and by the end o f the season e x h i b i t e d r edd i sh -b rown t i n t s and w i t h an ex ces s o f phosphorus the f o l i a g e was v i g o r -ous but l i g h t e r i n c o l o r than the no rma l 8 c u r l i n g a f t e r the f r u i t i n g season , f i n a l l y t u r n i n g r ed i n c o l o r ( i f ) , L a t ime r and Wentworth s t a t e d t ha t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f phosphorus have never p roven harrafu l i .and t h e r e i s s l i g h t ev i dence tha t i n comb ina t i on w i t h n i t r o g e n and manures a s m a l l b e n e f i t may occur ( t l ) . Waltman wo r k i ng w i t h optimum pH v a l u e s f o r the growth o f s t r a w b e r r i e s conc luded t h a t they r e q u i r e a r e l a t -i v e l y l a r g e amount o f phosphorus and t ha t the r e a c t i o n o f the s o i l may i n f l u e n c e m a t e r i a l l y the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h i s e lement and t h a t i t appea r s t ha t an a c i d r e a c t i o n i s f a v o r a b l e to the u t i l i z a t i o n o f phosphorus by the p l a n t s (Vo ) . D a v i s and H i l l found t ha t an excess c a l c i u m • caused the p l a n t s to be da r k d u l l g reen c o l o r , accompanied w i t h a l a c k o f v i g o r , wh i ch was f o l l o w e d i n the e a r l y f a l l , by a p u r p l i n g o f the o l d e r l e a v e s . The c o n d i t i o n i n t h i s case r e s emb l i n g the symptons f o r low po ta s s i um and low phosphorus . The d e f i c i e n t c a l c i u m s e r i e s d i s p l a y e d e x c e p t i o n a l v i g o r , h a v i n g l a r g e l e a v e s , l o n g p e t i o l e s and no t i n t s ( 7 ) „ Wa l t -man s t a t e d t ha t a p p l i c a t i o n of l ime to the l a nd be fo r e s e t t i n g out o f s t r a w b e r r y p l a n t s does not seem to be j u s t i f i e d , s i n c e the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e l i m i n g may be h a rm f u l u n l e s s the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n o f the s o i l i s so a c i d t ha t the p l a n t s cannot grow D a v i s and H i l l found t ha t the s e r i e s d e f i c i e n t i n su l phu r d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r v i g o r than any o the r s e r i e s they t r i e d , w i t h ou t showing f o l i a g e t i n t s ( 7 ) , M o r r i s and C r i s t conc luded t ha t the optimum pH i n wa te r c u l t u r e s f o r s t r a w b e r r y p l a n t s was between 5,7 and 6.0Q In the more a c i d s o i l s i r o n i s more a v a i l a b l e to the p l a n t ' (Uh) . Sh-oemaker and G r i e v e , i n Oh io have shown t ha t t he re i s no d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n between n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n and the f i rmne s s of the s t r a w b e r r y . They found tha t s t r aw -b e r r i e s ob t a i ned f rom f i e l d s t ha t had a s p r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r v/ere s l i g h t l y s o f t e r t han those from t h e i r check p l o t s , but tha t the pe rcen tage of s t r a w b e r r i e s sh ipped a d i s t a n c e o f 100 m i l e s , d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n sound c o n d i t i o n between the f r u i t o f f e r t i l i z e d and un -f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s . They found tha t mo i s t u r e contend was not c o n s i s t e n t between the b e r r i e s f rom f e r t i l i s e d and u n f e r t i l i z e d p l o t s . They found tha t the t o t a l y i e l d was not i n c r e a s e d by n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n the e a r l y s p r i n g o f the f r u i t i n g yea r , even though the re was a h i g h e r n i t r o g e n con ten t i n the b e r r y , but t ha t f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i e d i n the AuguEt p r i o r to the f r u i t i n g seaso n gave a marked i n c r e a s e i n the y i e l d . The pH o f the j u i c e o f the b e r r i e s from the check p l o t s was lower than tha t f rom the n i t r o g e n p l o t s{i ( o ) # Ob^^ejit . The o b j e c t s o f t h i s paper a r e : I „ To d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s e x t e r n a l symptons produced by excesses and d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the v a r i o u s e s s e n t i a l e lements i n s t r a w b e r r i e s , 2. To a s c e r t a i n wh ich e lements promote runne r p r o d u c t i o n . 3. To de te rm ine the e f f e c t o f excesses and d e f i c i e n c i e s o f m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s on the breakdown i n the cann ing o f s t r aw -b e r r i e s , 4 . To f i n d out the type o f f e r t i l i z e r be s t s u i t e d f o r grow-i n g s t r a w b e r r i e s f o r canning pu rpo se s . M a t e r i a l s On June I 1937, f o r t y - f i v e un i f o rm s i z e d s t r aw -be r r y p l a n t s o f the v a r i e t y B r i t i s h S o v e r e i g n were s e l e c t e d from the s t o c k f rom the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia f a rm . The r o o t s were c a r e f u l l y washed i n o rder to remove any s o i l or f o r e i g n ma t t e r t ha t was adhe r i n g to the r o o t s . Each p l a n t was po t t e d i n an e i g h t i n ch pot t ha t had been f i l l e d w i t h f i r e washed sand . The f o r t y - f i v e po t s were d i v i d e d i n t o f i f t e e n s e r i e s o f t h ree po t s each on wh ich the f o l l o w i n g ex-pe r imen t s were c a r r i e d out ; — Ser ies- I - Complete n u t r i e n t . S e r i e s 2 - K i t r ogen d e f i c i e n t . S e r i e s 3 - Phosphorus d e f i c i e n t . S e r i e s 4 - Po tass ium d e f i c i e n t . S e r i e s 5 - Ca l c i um d e f i c i e n t . S e r i e s 6 - Su l pha te d e f i c i e n t . S e r i e s 7 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess o f n i t r o g e n . S e r i e s 8 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess o f phosphorus . S e r i e s 9 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess o f p o t a s s i um . S e r i e s 10 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess o f c a l c i um . S e r i e s I I - Complete n u t r i e n t r>lus a n excess o f bo ron , z i n c and manganese S e r i e s 12 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess of bo ron . S e r i e s 13 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess o f manganese. S e r i e s 14 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an excess o f z i n c . S e r i e s 15 - Complete n u t r i e n t p l u s an exces s o f i r o n . 2 B po t s were sur rounded w i t h sawdust to p reven t any a b s o r p t i o n or passage o f m i n e r a l n u r i e n t s f rom the a d -j o i n i n g s o i l . The p l a n t s were p r o t e c t e d f rom e x c e s s i v e sun -l i g h t by a l a t t i c e s h e l t e r . N u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s were a p p l i e d to the v a r i o u s s e r i e s as shown i n t a b l e I , page 10, each p l a n t r e c e i v i n g 400 c c s . o f s o l u t i o n . To eve r y f ou r l i t r e s of n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n 2 c c s , o f a one pe r c en t f e r r i c c i t r a t e s o l u t i o n was added. P l a n t s were watered w i t h d i s t i l l e d water throughout the expe r imen t . Prom June 5 to Oc tober 30 the p l a n t s were g i v e n the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s tw i c e ® week on Tuesdays and F r i d a y s , on the o the r days the p l a n t s were watered w i t h d i s -t i l l e d wa te r , i f r e q u i r e d . On the t w e n t y - e i g h t h o f each month the po t s were l ea ched by means o f an excess w a t e r i n g to remove the m i n e r a l e lements t ha t had accumu la ted around the r o o t s p r e v e n t i n g maximum abso rp t i on , , A l l l e a v e s t ha t had w i t h e r e d were removed f rom the p l a n t so t ha t l e a f development would not be impeded or p l a n t d i s e a s e s i n t r o d u c e d . The r unne r s were a l l o w e d to grow i n o rde r to note the e f f e c t o f the v a r i o u s m i n e r a l e lements on runner g rowth . Pho tog raphs o f the p l a n t s were t aken on Oc tober 8 f f l The f r u i t samples used i n the second pa r t o f the exper iment were ob t a i n ed d u r i n g the months o f June and J u l y by Broder Cann ing Company L i m i t e d and were canned i n d u p l i c a t e , one se t a t t h e i r p l a n t i n Eew W e s t m i n s t e r . B . C . , and the o the r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia . The reason f o r do i ng two s e t s o f samples b e i n g to de te rm ine whet -he r the cann ing p r o ce s s used by the f i r m or whether the excess or d e f i c i e n c y o f m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s was a f f e c t i n g the f i r m n e s s o f the b e r r i e s when canned„ -10-cc-- \ ? £ 3 u _ l U-i U -H cc 1-The samples were taken from the f i e l d s o f the f o l l o w i n g growers and s e r i a l numbers a s s i g n e d . PYA2 and PYA2A A . Uno S t r awbe r r y H i l l , B . C PYA3 and PYA3A . c. H i k i t a Hewton .B .C . . PYA4 and PYA4A c. Tsumura S u r r e y , B . C . , PYA5 and PYA5A T. Sunada South P o r t Mann,B.C PYA6 and PYA6A T . H i r o s e South P o r t Mann,B.C PYA7 and PYA7A A . Tak i da A l d e r g r o v e , B , C . 4 PYA8 s. Gr i c e Green T i m b e r s , B . C . , PYA9 P . S e v i l l e Green T imbers , B . C . . PYAIO s . Semolenko Green T i m b e r s , B . C . . S o i l samples were a l s o taken from each of these f a rms , s e v e r a l samples b e i n g taken f rom the f i e l d and m i xed , then a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f about t h r ee k i l o g r ams t a k e n . The l e n g t h o f c u l t i v a t i o n o f the l a n d , the age of the p l a n t s and the f e r t i l i z e r s used by the d i f f e r e n t f r u i t growers a r e •? shown i n Tab le 2, page 12 , - 1 2 -TABLE 2. GROWING CONDITIONS OF STRAWBERRIES USED FOR CANNING. Sample No, Age o f Land Age o f P l a n t s F e r t i l i z e r s Used P YA2 6 y r s II y r Ch i c ken manure, 3 - 10 -8 . PYA2A I I F i s h mea l , 3 - 10 -8 . PYA3 . " ' 5 . ' 3 Ch i c ken manure, 3 -10 -8 , 100 l b s tankage per a c r e PYA3A I ' I 100 l b s 3 -10-8 per a c r e . PYA4 *. 6 2 Ch i c ken manure l i g h t l y T r i a n g l e B f e r t i l i z e r / PYA4A • I 1 T r i a n g l e B f e r t i l i z e r . PYA5 7 4 Ch i c ken manure, Bone & F i s h M e a l , P o t a s h , Supe r -phosphate PYA5A. 1 ' Po t a sh , Superphosphate , 5-1.0*12. .;'•> • • .• PYA6 5 5 Bone & F i s h Mea l , P o t a sh , Superphospha te . PYA6A •i Bone & F i s h M e a l , 3 - I 0 - I 0 , Superpho ephat e„ PYA7 8 3 700 l b s 4 - I 0 - I 0 vsv a c r e . -. PYA7A ' I: I I 400 l b s 4 - I 0 - I 0 per a c r e . PYA8 I I 400 l b s 4 - I 0 - I 0 per a c r e PYA9 2 600 l b s g -10 -8 per a c r e . PYAIO 3 2 500 l b s 4 - I 0 - I 0 per a c r e . Methods The f r u i t samples canned a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia were a n a l y s e d f o r t i t r a t a b l e a c i d i t y , suga r s , s t a r c h , p r o t e i n and m i n e r a l e l emen t s . Fo r a n a l y s i s the f r u i t sample was d i v i d e d i n t o two p o r t i o n s , one f o r e x t r a c t i o n o f suga rs and the o the r f o r d r y we igh t de t e rm ina t i on s , , The sugars were e x t r a c t e d f rom the f i r s t sample by the use o f a S o x h l e t e x t r a c t o r , u s i n g a l c o h o l as the ex-t r a c t i n g f l u i d . The e x t r a c t was d i s t i l l e d to d r i v e o f f a l l the a l c o h o l , and the t i t r a t a b l e a c i d i t y was dete rmined by t a k i n g a p o r t i o n o f t h i s s o l u t i o n , the r e s u l t b e i n g expressed as the number o f c c s , o f a . I E HC1 s o l u t i o n per 100 grams o f f r u i t . The r e d u c i n g suga r s were de te rm ined by the use o f Fehling's S o l u t i o n , the method o f Lane and JSynon ( 10). Then the t o t a l sugar was de te rm ined by h y d r o l y s i n g the sugars w i t h c i t r i c a c i d . The d i f f e r e n c e of these two sugar d e t e rm i na t i o n s g i v i n g the amount o f s u c r o s e . The r e s i d u e f rom the Soxh l e t e x t r a c t i o n was used f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s t a r c h . The method employed was tha t o f a c i d h y d r o l y s i s , the s t a r c h b e i n g conve r t ed to g l u c o s e and determined by the Lane and Eynon method. The second sample was d r i e d i n an e l e c t r i c oven a t 75°C u n t i l the water was e n t i r e l y d r i v e n o f f and weighed to a cons tan t w e i g h t . The n i t r o g e n was dete rmined by the K y e l d a h l method ( 9 ) . Another p o r t i o n was taken f o r the phosphorus d e t e r m i n a t i o n by Bragg's Method The remainder of the d r i e d sample was p l a c e d i n the e l e c t r i c f u r na ce and i n c i n e r a t e d , the ash ob ta i ned brought i n t o s o l u t i o n w i t h h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d and t h i s s o l u t -i o n was then used f o r the d i f f e r e n t m i n e r a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , K r a m e r - T i s d a l Method f o r po t a s s i um was used w i t h the mod i f -i c a t i o n tha t a c e n t r i f u g e was used to s e t t l e the p r e c i p i t a t e and the p r e c i p i t a t e was read i n the c e n t r i f u g e tubes ( ) . Magnesium and c a l c i u m were de te rm ined by the McCance and S h i pp method (Al). -F r u i t samples f rom the v a r i o u s growers were canned under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; A t B roder Cann ing Company L i m i t e d , Eew West-m i n s t e r , B .C . , the b e r r i e s were packed i n t i n s , cooked a t a p r e s su r e o f f i f t e e n atmospheres f o r t h i r t y m inu te s , i n a s y -r up wh i ch was f i f t y - f i v e pe r c en t suga r , A t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , the b e r r i e s were packed i n g l a s s s e a l e r s , cooked a t a p r e s su r e o f twe l ve atmospheres f o r t w e n t y - f i v e m inu te s , to one se t no sy rup was added, s i n c e these b e r r i e s were to be used f o r a n a l y s i s , to the o the r se t a f i f t y pe r cen t sugar sy rup was added . The samples packed i n the sugar sy rups were opened and the b e r r i e s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r f i r m -ness i n t o th ree g roups , f i rm^ s o f t and decomposed, a l s o the c l a r i t y of the sy rup was ob se r ved . The c o n d i t i o n o f the b e r r y was de te rm ined by p i c k i n g the b e r r y up between the thumb and f o r e f i n g e r and a p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e . The b e r r i e s were counted, c l a s s i f i e d and the r e s u l t s o f the two s e t s compared. > The s o i l samples were ana l y s ed by the r a p i d method o f C.H.Spurway ({"]}, The t e s t s employed i n t h i s meth od were s e n s i t i v e enough to make comparable approx imate d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a n t i t i e s o f a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s i n the s o i l R e s u l t s Gene ra l Appearances, o f P l a n t s , The. symptons o f l a c k o f v i g o r o f c e r t a i n p l a n t and excess o f f o l i a g e o f o t he r s can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the n u t r i e n t s f e d to the p l a n t s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each group a r e l i s t e d be l ow . S e r i e s I . {> complete n u t r i e n t ) showed f o l i a g e wh i ch was v i g o r o u s and o f a r i c h g reen c o l o r th roughout the e n t i r e g row ing season showing that t he re were no m i n e r a l s l a c k i n g , ( p l a t e I , page A ) S e r i e s 2 . ( n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n t ) was marked by a dwa r f i n g o f tfce l e a v e s , wh i ch were o f a l i g h t g r e e n i s h - y e l l o w co l o r , du r -i n g the e a r l y summer l a t e r becoming a b r i g h t r e dd i s h - b r own , ( p l a t e 2, page A ) S e r i e s 3. ( phosphorus d e f i c i e n t ) was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the dwa r f i n g o f the f o l i a g e , The l e a v e s were s t un t ed and o f a d a r k g reen c o l o r . The v i t a l i t y and growth o f the p l a n t de -c reased r a p i d l y d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t o f J u l y and by the m i dd l e o f August the p l a n t s were v e r y sma l l h a v i n g on l y two or t h ree l e a v e s per p lant , , ( p l a t e 3, page A ) S e r i e s 4 . ( po t a s s i um d e f i c i e n t ) showed normal s i z e d l e a ve s t ha t were v e r y d u l l i n c o l o r l a c k i n g b r i g h t n e s s . The marg ins o f these l e a v e s were l o ng and t h i n . ( p l a t e IV , page B ) S e r i e s 5, ( c a l c i u m d e f i c i e n t ) e x h i b i t e d e x c e p t i o n a l v i g o r w i t h l a r g e l e a v e s w i t h l o ng stems and were of a b r i g h t green color- , \ The p l a n t s were f r e e f rom b l o t c h e s or d i s c o l o r a t i o n s when the l e a v e s d i e d . The p l a n t s e x h i b i t e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y good growth f o r the e n t i r e g row ing sea son . The p e t i o l e s were t h i c k , ( p l a t e V,; page B ) S e r i e s 6, ( s u l p ha t e d e f i c i e n t ) d i s p l a y e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y v i g -orous growth as w e l l as b e i n g o f a v e r y b r i g h t g reen c o l o r . The l e a ve s were much l a r g e r than those on the complete nu t -r i e n t p l a n t s and the p e t i o l e s were l o n g and t h i c k . ( p l a t e V I , page B ) S e r i e s 7 ( excess n i t r o g e n ) l ooked v e r y s i m i l a r to the com-p l e t e n u t r i e n t s e r i e s except tha t the f o l i a g e was o f a deeper g reen c o l o r . The p e t i o l e s were t h i n n e r than i n the com-plete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s but o t he rw i s e the l e a v e s were o f the same s i z e , ( p l a t e VII , page C ) S e r i e s 8 0 excess phosphorus ) grew to be the l a r g e s t p l a n t s i n any s e r i e s , b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y an abundance o f v e r y l a r g e l e a v e s . The l e a v e s were v e r y b r i g h t g reen i n c o l o r d u r i n g J u l y and August t u r n i n g t o a r e d d i s h - p u r p l e i n l a t e September, T h i s s e r i e s p roduced more l e a ve s per p l a n t than any o the r s e r i e s , ( p l a t e V I I I , page C ) S e r i e s 9 ( excess po ta s s i um ) was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e ave s wh i ch were o f a d u l l g reen c o l o r , chang ing to red i n the f a l l . The p e t i o l e s were l a r g e r then u s u a l but the i n d i v i d u a l l e a f l e t were s m a l l e r i n p r o p o r t i o n . The whole l e a f b e i ng somewhat l a r g e r than those found i n the complete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s . ( p l a t e IX , page C ) -17 S e r i e s 10, ( excess c a l c i um ) produced dwarfed p l a n t s wh ich had l e a ve s o f a d u l l da r k green c o l o r . The l e a ve s tu rned "brown v e r y e a s i l y , someth ing wh ich d i d not occur i n any o the r s e r i e s . The p e t i o l e s were v e r y s ho r t i n p r o p o r t i o n to the r e s t o f the l e a f , ( p l a t e X, page D ) S e r i e s I I . ( excess bo ron , manganese and z i n c ) l ooked ve r y s i c k l y due p o s s i b l y to too g r ea t an excess o f these s a l t s b e i ng added . The p l a n t s were dwar fed and the l e ave s a d u l l g reen i n c o l o r . The p e t i o l e s were s h o r t . ( p l a t e XI, page D ) S e r i e s 12 . ( excess boron ) r r oduced l e a ve s wh ich were a l i t t l e s m a l l e r than those found i n the complete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s . The l e a ve s were b r i g h t green i n c o l o r r ema in i ng tha t way throughout the e n t i r e g row ing sea son . ( p l a t e XII, page I) ) S e r i e s 13 . ( excess manganese ) produced p l a n t s o f normal s i z e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the l e a f l e t s b e i n g v e r y s m a l l and the p e t i o l e s ve ry t h i n . The l e a ve s were o f a b r i g h t green c o l o r d u r i n g the e n t i r e g row ing season , ( p l a t e X I I I , page JB ) S e r i e s 14 . ( excess z i n c ) was a most i n t e r e s t i n g s e r i e s i n tha t i t produced ve r y s t u r d y p l a n t s , w i t h l e a ve s much l a r g e r than those found i n the complete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s . The l e ave s were ve r y broad and the p e t i o l e s ve r y t h i c k but sho r t i n p r o p o r t i o n to the s i z e o f the l e a f l e t s compared to those found i n the o the r s e r i e s . ( p l a t e XIV, page E ) S e r i e s 15 . ( excess i r o n ) -produced p l a n t s a lmost i d e n t i c a l to those grown i n the complete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s . The l e ave s were o f a b r i g h t g reen c o l o r and ma i n t a i n ed t h i s c o n d i t i o n throughout the g row ing season . ( p l a t e XV, page S ) Compar isons of the v a r i o u s s e r i e s w i t h the com-p l e t e n u t r i e n t s e r i e s a r e shown i n f i g u r e s I to 9, pages 19, 20,and 21 . B a Runner P r o d u c t i o n . The e f f e c t of the v a r i o u s t rea tments on runner p r o d u c t i o n i s shown i n t a b l e 3 be l ow . P i c t u r e s of the runner p r o d u c t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s a r e shown i n p l a t e s ' X V I to XIX, i n c l u s i v e , pages F and G, TABLE 3. SHOWING HUNKER PRODUCTION IN RELATION TO TREATMENT S e r i e s Pot No. No. o f r unne r s Date o f Appearance S l a n t super runner 1s t 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Complete I . .'• I • '. J u l y 26 2 N u t r i e n t 2 .••-I J u l y 26 2 S o l u t i o n 3 ;,i J u l y 28 2 Exces s I • ' • 3 J u l y 6 J u l y 8 J u l .8 .3 3 3 ••" Phosphorus 2 3 J u l y 5 J u l y 7 J u l . 7 . 3 3 S o l u t i o n 3 ' . 3 J u l y 10 J u l y 7 [ J u l .7 3 > 3. Exces s I J u l y 20 J u l , 2 9 2 2 Po t a s s i um 2 . • 2 '•' J u l y 22 J u l . 2 6 2 2 S o l u t i o n 3 J u l y 22 Aug, I --' ! . 2 Ca l c i um I I I Aug . 8 I D e f i c i e n t i • Aug.4 I S o l u t i o n 3 I Aug . 5 I -21-- 2 2 -C. A n a l y s i s of S o i l and F r u i t . The r e s u l t s ob t a i ned from the r a p i d Spurway me thod ' o f s o i l a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n t a b l e 4, page 23, The f i rmnes s o f the s t r a w b e r r i e s canned by B roder Cann ing Company L i m i t e d and at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t -i s h Co lumbia a r e shown i n t a b l e 5, page 24„ The b e r r i e s can-ned a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia gave s l i g h t l y b e t t e r r e s u l t s . T h i s may have been due to the f a c t t ha t the b e r r i e s can red a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia were done i n g l a s s c o n t a i n e r s or tha t the cook i ng t ime and cook i ng p r e s s u r e were l owe r . . The complete a n a l y s i s o f the s t r a w b e r r i e s can* ned a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , i s shown i n t a b l e 6, page 25, - 2 3 -TABLE 4', RAPID SOIL ANALYSIS OE VARIOUS AVAILABLE HJTRIBKTS Sample No, M i n e r a l E lements and R a d i c l e s i n p ,p ,m t • N0 3 P K Ca Mg Pe A l CI s o 4 N 0 2 Mn PYA2 4 2 i 20 50 5 I 0 0 0 10 0 0 PYA2A 8 2 15 40 6 2 0 10 0 1 2 0 0 PYA3 40 2 35 40 5 8 0 20 0 25 0 0 PYA3A 25 15 30 I 10 2 15 " Or 2 Of- 0 PYA4 25 n 2 2 40 2 8 I 20 0 2 0 0 PYA4A 20 i 22 40 7 8 0 40 0 5 0 0 PYA5 if- 25 40 I 4 3 20 0 3 0 0 PYA5A- 2 2 2 25 40 8 2 0 30 0 25 0 0 PYA6S- 10 l i 15 30 7 2 I 50 0 20 0 0 PYA6A 25 i i 10 30 I 4 0 0 10 5 0 0 PYA7 25 i i 25 100 9 I I 50 0 20 0 0 PYA7A 50 44 25 100 9 2 3 35 0 5 0 0 PYA8 4 - Xi 25 30 2 I 3 20 0 8 0 0 PYA9 2 i 25 30 6 I I 50 10 5 0 0 PYAIO 40 1 30 i 40 7 2 0 60 10 5 0 0 A - 2 4 -T A B L E 5 « I^gmg^._S^.!rRAWBBRRIBS CANNED BY BRODER CANTOS COMPANY LIMITED AND AT THE UNIVERSITY OF B.C. Sample No Brod er Cann ing C & . L t d . U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. F i r m So f t Decomj 5 Syrup F i rm So f t Decorop Syrup PYA2 90,74 9.26 0 . 0 0 C l e a r 91,63 8.37 0 . 00 C l e a r • PYA2A 84,94 15.06 0.00 C l e a r 87 .32 12,68 0.00 C l e a r PYA3 '•. 53,84 26. 92 19.24 Cloudy ' 52.64 26.84 21 .52 j Cloudy PYA3A 68 .75 21.25 10,00 C loudy 71 .62 21.43 6.95 Cloudy PYA4 13,46 42,31 44 .23 Cloudy 14 .32 44.71 41,97 Cloudyj PYA4A 8.00 12.00 80.00 C loudy 8.16 10 .92 80 .92 1 C loudy PYA5 61.54 34.61 3.85 Cloudy- 60.46 33. 29 6.25 C loudy PYA5A 100.00 0.00 0.00 C l e a r 100.00 0,00 0.00 C l e a r PYA6 94, 64 3.57 ' 1.79 C l e a r 95.16 4.84 0.00 C l e a r PYA6A 63,16 23,69 13 .15 C loudy 65.16 22.96 11 .88 C loudy PYA7 0 .00 0.001 :oo,oo C loudy $.00 0.001 00,00 Cloudy-PYA7A 0 .00 5.66 94.34 C loudy 0 .00 7 .32 92.68 C loudy PYA8 •88.4.6 7.69 3.85 1 j C l e a r 88 .08 9 .72 2.20 C l e a r PYA9 5, 88 7.84 86.28 C loudy 7, 81 7.95 84. 24 C loudy PYAIO 0 ,00 14 .29 85.71 C loudy 0 .00 12.91 87,09 Gloudy N O T E : - "The vJixloes {ov £>roAe< Catioiti£ Co U l weft oxrUvrved ^row sfcm'fWs Taken Uam -four - q at Can6. v o W s U«\u/ers.\V*j i>\ iJ-C went atA&wetl r^orv, 9amV>Ve» ttnictn Span, 4<uo - I yt'Sealers . ^ O R . r 5 o <r ^» o • 5 o s $ o -S or o •* S o 0 3 5 f o S-r-r-•2 3 0 r-c-5 <3 -3 s 0 t? S £ to o H * r-o F o o ? g V) r-•s o 3 0 <r <p o o V r-5 i« 6 <r 5 0 rl I— -9 O r-r~ 0 £ 0 0 Jo f g ST •ar 3 I r* ' o r o 0 o Is y r> o ?? 0 r-w -T D -3 1" 5 (» n 0 0-8 5-r-J -A " X 5 s 3 <r r< rJ >r-~S >/> S "3" <t> ~ i V> of y> ri I o c< O _» s o H o o->/> o £? S 2? o r< 0 o O 0 0 0 0 0 >x> 0 M 5 3 o 6 r-00 :* s 3T o~ r t l~ «r y> S T-5? to J ' cn ct s U> 'P 'J> oo C< o o c e'-n 3-i* Ol ?? <-« o s° 0^ c r c< to rl 9-CI 3-fi <r r> 5? t--5-r« "a r< T o CP >/> r- 5 ? r-er Kfi 7-1 o ? oO CO o r l r- § 3 1— 3 TP x~ r-to # \n r— 6 o f 7V •/» <3" 17 o a o» •v» 0 :r s 0 r? O t» a" <r O r <f m r i O r£ o a j? O O :r O 3* d d '2 Of •A 0 'fi 0 > >/) t— 8? o r-*> 1 r< <p o r-$ s 5S O 8? >/> cr §c $ ^> in cr §T "Z "3 V V <p ot <x <C C cr >-rO CC >-Ck. /r r o CC >-o-$ > \ l n cr >-o-o: >-rx y p-'or cc r-<c cr r— CP cc > 0 -cr <i >-0 > 0--26 D i s c u s s i o n B E r e s u l t s o f t h i s exper iment i n d i c a t e tha t s t r a w b e r r i e s respond ve ry d e f i n i t e l y to t rea tment w i t h d i f f -e r en t m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s , and t ha t n i t r o g e n and phos-phorus a re v e r y e s s e n t i a l . P l a n t s grown i n a d e f i c i e n t n i t r o g e n s o l u t i o n became ve r y s t un t ed soon a f t e r the t rea tment began s i n c e any r e s e r v e n i t r o g e n t ha t was i n the p l a n t was t i e d up i n such a way as to be u n a v a i l a b l e , b e i n g i n the fo rm o f p r o t e i n s i n the c e l l w a l l , i n enzymes, and i n a l l a c t i v e l y g row ing r>arts o f the p l a n t . On ly sma l l amounts o f t h i s n i t r o g e n can be conve r ted i n t o f ood by the p l a n t , t h e r e f o r e we have the l a c k o f l e a v e s and the s t un ted growth i n the n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s . The n i t r o g e n i s con ta i ned i n the p r o t ap l a sm eo any l a c k o f i t wou ld upse t the normal me t abo l i sm . A d e f i c i e n c y o f n i t r o g e n would i n t u r n a f f e c t the r e s p i r a t o r y p ro ce s se s and cause a c i d to be accumula ted i n the p l a n t s . An excess o f n i t r o g e n causes a n i n c r e a s e i n the v e g e t a t i v e g rowth , but at the same t ime reduces the r e p r odu c t -i v e ness o f . the p l a n t , hence we f i n d t h a t an excess o-r n i t r o g e n produces a rank g rowth . Th i s i s d e s i r a b l e f o r c rops l i k e l e t t u c e but not f o r s t a w b e r r i e s . There i s a ve ry d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between ca rbohyd ra t e s and n i t r o g e n as i s shown by the f a c t t ha t a d e f i c i e n c y o f c a rbohyd ra t e s and o f n i t r o g e n n e i t h e r gave excess f o l i a g e nor r ep roduced , whereas a n excess of n i t r a t e s over c a rbohyd ra t e s gave e x c e s s i v e growth but d i d not r ep roduce . Then as the ca rbohyd ra te s i n c r e a s e d the re was a p r o p o r t i o n a l i n c r e a s e i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n and a dec rease i n the g rowth , t h e r e f o r e a d e f i n i t e ba l ance must be ob ta i ned between ca rbohyd ra t e s and n i t r o g e n to o b t a i n the maximum g row th - a l ong w i t h the optimum f r u i t bud f o r m a t i o n . Phosphorus i s ano the r e lement t ha t shows d e f i c -i ency symptons ve r y e a r l y . The phosphorus becomes t i e d U P i n the p l a n t as r edu c t a s e enzymes and a o r g a n i c phosphorus compounds, wh ich when once produced y i e l d 3 i t t l e phosphorus , hence phosphorus b e i n g an e s s e n t i a l e lement , the p l a n t s show l a c k o f i t by be i ng dwar fed and s t u n t e d . T h i s s t u n t i n g i s due to improper c e l l d i v i s i o n wh ich i s connected w i t h the p h o s p h o l i p o i d s , The d e f i c i e n c y o f phosphorus a l s o reduces the amount o f the r educ t a se enzyme formed, wh i ch i n t u r n a c t s on the n i t r a t e i n the manufac tu re o f p r o t e i n s . A l a c k of t h i s enzyme causes a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p ro top l a sm and t h i s reduces the s i z e o f the p l a n t as w e l l s.s r e d u c i n g the ca rbohyd ra te c o n t e n t . An excess o f phosphorus i n c r e a s e d the v e g e t a t i v e growth due to the f o r m a t i o n o f the p h o s p h o l i p i d s , wh ich a i d e d the c e l l d i v i s i o n , a l s o the r educ t a se enzymes a re produced and they make more n i t r o g e n a v a i l a b l e f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f p r o t e i n s w i t h i n the p l a n t . D a v i s and H i l l found t ha t an excess o f phosphorus a l o ng w i t h an excess o f po tass i um b r i n g s about a h i g h e r y i e l d p but a low po ta s s i um con ten t w i t h a n excess o f phosphorus dec reases t h e ; , y i e l d . They a l s o found tha t the po tass i um fed to a p l a n t shou ld be th ree t imes the amount o f the phosphorus to o b t a i n maximum f r u i t bud forms. t ion ("7 ). Lo ree s t a t e d tha t phosphorus a l o ne had no e f f e c t on growth ((£.). - 2 8 -T h e r e f o r e f rom the r e s u l t s ob ta i ned i n t h i s exper iment , when phosphorus i s added i n excess to a complete n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n the re i s much g r e a t e r v e g e t a t i v e growth, hence i t ari-oears tha t i t i s the e f f e c t of the n i t r o g e n and po tas s i um tha t causes the phosphorus to f u n c t i o n so b e n e f i c i a l l y to the p l a n t . M a s s i u m d e f i c i e n c y does not show up as q u i c k l y as n i t r o g e n and phosphorus d e f i c i e n c i e s s i n c e i t i s not t i e d up i n i n s o l u b l e compounds, but a c t s c h i e f l y as a c a t a l y s t f o r the b u i l d i n g up of c a rbohyd ra t e s and suga r . The p l a n t s i n t h i s exper iment showed l e a v e s o f normal s i z e but w i t h t h i n l o n g p e t i o l e s , wh ich may have been caused by the improper d i v i s i o n o f the c e l l s . Second l y the a s t i m u l a t i o n o f c a rbo -h y d r a t e s and sugars i s reduced due to the l a c k o f po tass ium and t h i s shou ld be accompanied by an i n d i c a t i o n o f low ca rbo -h y d r a t e s i n the r o o t s , l e a v e s and f r u i t . W i th an excess of po tass i um the p l a n t i s manu f a c t u r i n g ca rbohyd ra te s and sugars and then s t o r i n g them, hence , as was i n d i c a t e d i n the excess po tas s i um s e r i e s , t he re was an i n c r e a s ed v e g e t a t i v e g rowth . T h i r d l y the re may have been base exchange in. the po tass i um d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s , s i n c e sodium d i - a c i d phosphate wasuused i n p l a c e o f po ta s s i um d i - a c i d phosphate i n the d e f i c i e n t po tass ium s e r i e s . Some worke r s c l a i m tha t t he re i s no b e n e f i t i n app l e o r cha rds f rom po ta sh f e r t i l i z e r s i n a r e a s where the s o i l con-t a i n s a h i g h pe r cen tage of sod ium. Here the sodium was t a k i n g the p l a c e o f the po t a s s i um . T h i s cou ld e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s ob t a i ned i n the d e f i c i e n t po ta s s i um s e r i e s where growth appear -ed no rma l . F u r t h e r a .na lys ie however would be necessa ry b e f o r e t h i s r e a s on c ou l d be c on s i d e r ed i n the case o f the s t r awbe r r y . Davis and H i l l have shown that with a d e f i c i e n c y of potassium there was the maximum accumulation of nitrogen, while with the absence of phosphorus there was no such accumulation of nitrogen. They, concluded that potassium i s so r e l a t e d to the nitrogen that i t controls the intake of nitrogen, while -Phos-phorus tends to augment it(*7). The excessive vegetative growth i n the calcium d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s can be explained as follows; the calcium ion being absent does not prevent the rapid intake of the other ions. The calcium i o n i s a. slow moving ion. The leaves-were large l i k e those found i n the excess phosphorus an pot-assium series,, hence we can associate an increase i n vegetative growth v/ith potassium and phosphorus i n a d e f i c i e n t calcium treatment, Davis a.nd H i l l found correenording r e s u l t s n o i n t i n g out where calcium was not fed there were no symptons of a lack of phosphorus orpo tassium •( *7 ) . V/ith an excess of calcium the plant was stunted • due to the e f f e c t s of the calcium ion. The slow moving calcium ion has i n t e r f e r e d with the passage of the potassium and phos-phorus ions, hence the supply of these nutrients to the plant was l i m i t e d , with the r e s u l t that the plant was dwarfed. The sulphate d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s showed exception-a l l y vigorous growth due to the fact that the potassium, phos-phorus, and n i t r a t e ions were able to pass into the tissues more r e a d i l y when the sulphate i o n was absent. The growth appeared very s i m i l a r to an excess potassium s e r i e s , and was probably due to the fact that the potassium ionswere able to pass into the tissues more r a p i d l y when there were no sulrthate - 3 0 -i o n s . The c a l c i um p r e sen t i n the s o l u t i o n would have an e f f e c t on the phosphorus , t h e r e f o r e ; i t appears tha t the r>otaseium was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the added v e g e t a t i v e g rowth . Recent work has p r o v en t h a t bo ron , manganese, and z i n c a r e e s s e n t i a l e lements f o r p l a n t growth, but a r e r e q u i r e d i n ve r y sma l l q u a n t i t i e s . The s m a l l e r growth t h a t was e x h i b i t e d i n the excess b o r o n s e r i e s was due p o s s i b l y to the amount o f b o r o n a p p l i e ' b e i n g too g r ea t an exces s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t i f bo ron had been omitfced from the s o l u t i o n s u f f i c i e n t would have been ob t a i n ed f rom the sand . The t o l e r a n c e to excess boron v a r i e s g r e a t l y w i t h the v a r i o u s p l a n t s , s t r a w b e r r i e s appear to r e q u i r e ve ry l i t t l e bo r on . With, manganese the l e a f l e t s were s m a l l e r and the p e t i o l e s t h i n n e r than those i n the complete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s , even though the l e a v e s were o f the same s i z e . The amount of manganese t ha t was a p p l i e d was about 5 p.p.m. which may have been somewhat t o x i c to the p l a n t , hence the reduced v i g o r due to the excess o f manganese, The a d d i t i o n o f an. excess o f z i n c to the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n had a marked e f f e c t , in. t ha t i t p roduced p l a n t s wh ich were l a r g e r t h a n the complete n u t r i e n t p l a n t s , w i t h the• l e a f -l e t s b e i ng l a r g e and the p e t i o l e s ve ry t h i c k . Hence i t appears tha t z i n c has a. ve ry marked e f f e c t on the v e g e t a t i v e growth of the s t r awbe r r y . The s e r i e s to wh ich the th ree e lements , bo ron , z i n c , and manganese were added i n excess shov^ed a marked s t u n t i n g and d w a r f i n g . Th i s was due to the t o x i c e f f e c t o f these e lements which were added p o s s i b l y i n too g rea t an ex-cece . Aga i n the th ree e lements may have an a n t a g o n i s t i c e f f e c t on one a n o t h e r . F u r t h e r work w i t h these th ree e lements a t v a r i o u s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and r a t i o s would prove i n t e r e s t i n g and y i e l d c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s as to t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and v a l u e i n s t r awbe r r y n u t r i t i o n . W i th an excess o f i r o n we f i n d tha t the re was no g r e a t e r v e g e t a t i v e growth than i n the complete n u t r i e n t s e r i e s where a t r a c e of i r o n was added. The r e f o r e i r o n i s r e q u i r e d i n v e r y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s but an exces s proved n e i t h e r h a rm fu l or b e n e f i c i a l . I r o n i s e s s e n t i a l i n the development o f c h l o r o p h y l l , f o r i n i t s absence the l e a ve s a r e p a l e y e l l o w and c h l o r o t i c . The i r o n a c t s as a c a t a l y s t i n the f o rma t i on of the p y r o l r i n g i n the c h l o r o p h y l l , t h e r e f o r e i t i s v e r y e s s e n t i a l to the p l a n t . An example of how i r o n overcame c h l o r o s i s was shown a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t h i s h Co lumbia fa rm, where a row o f the F a i r f a x v a r i e t y of s t r a w b e r r i e s when t r e a t e d w i t h f e r r i c s u l pha t e s o l u t i o n tu rned from a s i c k -l y y e l l o w c o l o r to a b r i g h t g reen w i t h i n a week, showing that i r o n i s v e r y e s s e n t i a l to the s t r awbe r r y p l a n t , even though i n v e r y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s . U n t i l samples o f the f r u i t , l e a v e s and r o o t s o f these v a r i o u s s e r i e s a r e a n a l y s e d , no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn as to the f u n c t i o n o f the v a r i o u s m i n e r a l e l -ements found i n the stra.wberry p l a n t . . Runner p r o d u c t i o n seems to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v a r i o u s m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s as i s shown by the r e s u l t s o f t h i s expe r imen t . Wi th the complete n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n we - 3 2 -found tha t each p l a n t produced a s i n g l e runner w i t h two runner p l a n t s . I n the case o f the excess phosphorus s e r i e s the re was a marked i n c r e a s e i n runner p r o d u c t i o n . Here the phosphorus was conve r t ed i n t o p h o s p h o l i p o i d s and r educ t a se , enzymes and these i n c r e a s e d the v e g e t a t i v e growth of the p l a n t , wh i ch was accompanied by i n c r e a s ed runner p r o d u c t i o n . W i t h an i n c r e a s e o f po ta s s i um i n the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n these was an added v e g e t a t i v e growth due to the p r o d u c t i o n of sugar8 and c a r bohyd r a t e s . I n the d e f i c i e n t c a l c i um s e r i e s . t h e runners were produced due to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the o the r m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s po tas s i um and phosphorus , bo th o f wh ich produced runne r s i n the s e r i e s i n wh i ch they were i n e x ce s s . The re -f o r e i n the case o f the d e f i c i e n t c a l c i um s o l u t i o n , t he re i s r e a l l y an excess o f po ta s s i um and phosphorus , wh i ch caused the runne r s to be produced, due to the passage of these e lements i n t o the p l a n t unimpeded because o f the absence o f the c a l c i um i o n . . Bo th an excess o f po tass ium and phosphorus produced g r e a t e r runner growth per p l a n t than d i d the d e f i c -i e n t c a l c i um or the complete n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s , s i n c e the po ta s s i um and the phosphorus were p r e sen t i n excess amounts. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to no te the r a p i d i t y o f the e f f e c t o f the v a r i o u s m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s on runner p r odu c t -i o n . The phosphorus had the q u i c k e s t r e a c t i o n on the p l a n t s , r unne r s appea r i ng e a r l y i n J u l y , ' whereas those formed i n the complete n u t r i e n t and excess po tass ium s o l u t i o n s d i d not come u n t i l n e a r l y th ree weeks l a t e r , w h i l e those i n the d e f i c i e n t c a l c i um s e r i e s were ano the r two weeks l a t e r . -33-Ou t s i d e o f the above f o u r s e r i e s , none o f the o the r p l a n t s p roduced r unne r s , wh i ch p o i n t s to the f a c t tha t s t r awbe r r y p l a n t e r r e q u i r e phosphorus and -potassium f o r runner p r o d u c t i o n . There appears to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e lements ( po t a s s i um , phosphorus , c a l c i um , and n i t r o g e n ) , c a r bohyd r a t e s , and the mo i s t u r e con ten t , wh i ch causes the v a r i a t i o n s i n the f i rmne s s o f the b e r r i e s , I w i l l f i r s t d e a l w i t h the s o i l a n a l y s i s i n r e l a t i o n to the breakdown of the b e r r i e s . The c a l c i um phos-phorus r a t i o v a r i e d throughout the samples showing a ve r y d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the f i rmnes s o f the b e r r i e s . I n sample PYA5A wh i ch had the h i g h e s t pe r cen tage of f i r m b e r r i e s , I found the c a l c i um phosphorus r a t i o to be 20 :1 ; i n sample PYA7 wh ich had the lowes t pe rcen tage of f i r m b e r r i e s the r a t i o was 6 7 : 1 . A l l samples wh i ch had a h i g h pe r cen tage o f f i r m b e r r i e s had a c a l c i um phosphorus r a t i o o f 20 :1, but the d i f f -e ren t degrees o f f i rmnes s was due to the v a r i a n c e of the o the r e l emen t s . I n sample PYA3, where the ca l c i um phosphorus r a t i o was 20:1 and the pptass iumrwas adequate , the re was a ve ry h i g h n i t r o g e n content, which r e s u l t e d i n the b e r r i e s b e i n g l e s s f i r m . A l s o i n sample PYA7A where the c a l c i um phosphorus r a t i o was 2 5 : I , the po tass i um moderate and the n i t r o g e n e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h the re was a complete breakdown, t h i s must have been due to the excess n i t r o g e n as the c a l c i u m phosphorus r a t i o was not much h i g h e r t h an t ha t found i n the b e t t e r samp les . -34-A low n i t r o g e n va l ue does not seem to have much a f f e c t on the breakdown of the b e r r i e s . Fo r example, i n the samples PYA2 and PYA8, the c a l c i um phosphorus r a t i o was 2 0 : 1 , the po ta s s i um moderate , and the n i t r a t e ve r y low, ye t the re was on l y a s l i g h t breakdown. An excess or d e f i c i e n c y o f no tas s i um i n the s o i l has a. s l i g h t a f f e c t on the f i rmnes s o f the b e r r i e s as i s shown i n samples PYA3- and PYA5, where on l y the po tass ium v; v a r i e d . The sample w i t h the h i g h e r po tass i um v a l u e , had a s l i g h t l y l ower pe r cen tage of f i r m b e r r i e s . I n samples PYA5A and PYA6A where on l y the po t a s s i um v a r i e d , sample PYA5A wh i ch had a moderate po t a s s i um con ten t had p e r f e c t b e r r i e s , whereas sample PYA6A wh ich had a low po tas s i um content had a low pe rcen tage o f f i r m b e r r i e s . Prom the above d i s c u s s i o n i t appears tha t the .. c a l c i um and phosphorus shou ld be i n the r a t i o o f 2 0 : 1 , and the po ta s s i um and n i t r o g e n i n moderate amounts i n the s o i l , I w i l l now d e a l w i t h the a n a l y s i s o f the f r u i t i n r e l a t i o n to the breakdown. The d r y we igh t o f the samples shows tha t the g r e a t e r the dry we igh t the f i r m e r the b e r r i e s , the lower the d ry we igh t the s o f t e r the b e r r i e s . I n the f i r m e s t samples the t o t a l sugar i s the h i g h e s t . The t i t r a t a b l e a c i d i t y was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r i n the samples o f the f i r m e s t b e r r i e s due to the f a r.t t ha t more sugar a c i d s had been fo rmed . T o t a l ash v a r i e s l i k e w i s e w i t h the f i rmnes s o f the f r u i t , the g r e a t e r t o t a l ash b e i n g found i n the samples - 3 5 -where t he r e was l e a s t breakdown. The po tas s i um wh i ch makes up the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the t o t a l a sh a l s o v a r i e s correspond-i n g l y . • The p resence of the po tas s i um a i d s i n the f o r m a t i o n of the ca rbohyd ra t e s and i t i s f o r t h i s r ea son that the t o t a l sugars and s t a r c h e s a r e h i g h e r i n the f i r m b e r r i e s . From the above r e s u l t s i t appears tha t po ta s s i um i s the major f a c t o r i n the f i rmnes s o f the b e r r i e s . I n samples o f the b e t t e r b e r r i e s the r a t i o be-tween c a l c i um and magnesium was 2 : 1 . As soon as t h i s r a t i o v a r i e d the f i rmne s s of the b e r r i e s was a f f e c t e d . A l s o the c a l c i u m and phosphorus was i n the r a t i o o f 2 : I i n the f i r m -e r b e r r i e s and v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n the s o f t e r samp les . The n i t r o g e n v a r i e d ve ry l i t t l e throughout tfce samples , h a v i n g no apparen t e f f e c t on the f i rmne s s of the b e r r i e s . The r e f o r e f o r the b e r r i e s to be f i r m , they shou ld c o n t a i n a h i g h po tas s i um con t en t , wh ich i n t u r n a f f e c t s the t o t a l sugar , t o t a l c a r bohyd ra t e , t o t a l ash and d r y we igh t , c a l c i um and magnesium i n the r a t i o o f 2 : I and c a l c i u m and phosphorus i n the r a t i o o f 2 : I . Summary 1. A p l a n t t r e a t e d w i t h a complete n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n p r o -duced normal v i g o r o u s g rowth , accompanied by runner p roduc -t i o n , 2. A s o l u t i o n d e f i c i e n t in. n i t r o g e n produced dwarfed p l a n t s , and the l e a v e s turned a r e d d i s h - y e l l o w i n the f a l l , 3 . A l a c k o f phosphorus caused a s t u n t i n g o f the p l a n t s . - 3 6 -4 . P l a n t s l a c k i n g i n n i t r o g e n d i s p l a y e d a r edden i ng of the ma rg i n of the l e a v e s i n the f a l l . 5. The absence of c a l c i um caused runner p r o d u c t i o n and a g r e a t -er v e g e t a t i v e g rowth . 6 . Wi th a d e f i c i e n c y o f s u l pha t e the p l a n t s grew ve r y v i g o r -o u s l y . 7 . An e x ce s s o f n i t r o g e n had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the appearance o f the p l a n t s , 8 . Phosphorus when g i v e n i n excess amounts, p roduced both v i g o r ou s v e g e t a t i v e growth and i n c r e a s e d r un rer p r o d u c t i o n . 9. With an excess o f po ta s s i um the re was a dec rease i n l e a f a r e a , a l s o an i n c r e a s e i n runner p r o d u c t i o n . 10 . An excess o f c a l c i um dwarfed the p l a n t s , 1 1 . Z i n c when f ed to the p l a n t s i n excess caused a coarse v e g e t a t i v e g rowth . 12 . Boron and manganese appeared to have l i t t l e e f f e c t , 13 . I r o n i s d e f i n i t e l y e s s e n t i a l but o n l y i n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s . 14 . The c a l c i um phosphorus r a t i o i n the s o i l shou ld be kept as near 20 : I as p o s s i b l e i n o rde r to get f i r m b e r r i e s f o r c ann i ng pu rpo se s . 15 . Po t a s s i um and n i t r o g e n a r e r e q u i r e s i n moderate amounts i n the s o i l , 16 . The b e r r y i t s e l f shou ld c on t a i n a h i g h pe r cen tage o f po ta s s i um i n o rde r to be f i r m and of cann ing q u a l i t y . 17 . The ca l c i um and magnesium shou ld be i n the r a t i o o f 2 I I . 18 . The c a l c i u m arid phosphorus shou ld be i n the r a t i o o f 2 : I . 19£ N i t r o g e n appeared to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the f i rmnes s o f the b e r r i e s . Bee omme nda t i o. rs 1. F e r t i l i z e r s shou ld c o n t a i n abundant phosphorus , p r e f e r a b l y g i v e n as the superphospha te . 2. Po t a s s i um shou ld be s u p p l i e d abundan t l y i n the form o f y p o t a s h . 3. N i t r o g e n shou ld not be g i v e n i n too g rea t an exces s . 4„ Expe r imen t s shou ld be c a r r i e d on w i t h the cann ing p roces s i n r ega rd s to both t ime and p r e s s u r e . 5. A l s o expe r iments shou l d be c a r r i e d on w i t h the type o f c o n t a i n e r i n wh i ch the b e r r i e s a r e canned. The t i n c on t a i n e r may have some a f f e c t on the breakdown. - 38 -L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d . (1) BEDFORD,H„A.R. and P ICKERING,S .V . , Woburn E xpe r imen t a l Farms Repo r t 1900, pages 83-92 . (2) ERAGG, "Method of A n a l y s i s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists^' Wash ington D.C. 1935. (3) Chand l e r , V/.H., "Commerc ia l F e r t i l i z e r s f o r S t r a w b e r r i e s , " . U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i , A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n .113, 1913. (4) DARROW, G .M. , " E xpe r imen t a l S t u d i e s on the Growth and Development o f S t r awbe r r y P l a n t s " , J o u r n a l o f A g r i c -u l t u r a l Re sea r ch , 7 01 , 41 , 4 , pages 301-325, 1930. (5) DAVIES,M.B. and H I L L , H . , " N i t r o g e n , Phosphorus and Po t a sh S t a r v a t i o n a t D i f f e r e n t S tages of Growth of F r a g a r i a " , Domin ion of Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Pam-p h l e t 96, 1928, (6) DAVIES,M.B, and H I 1 L , H . , " N u t r i t i o n a l S t u d i e s w i t h F r a g a r -i a " , S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , V o l . V I I I , I I , 1928, ( 7 ) pAVIES ,M.B . and H I L L , H . , " N u t r i t i o n a l S t u d i e s w i t h F r a -g a r i a I I " , S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , V o l . X I V , 8, 1934. (8) KRAMER-TISDAL,' "Method of A n a l y s i s of the A s s o c i a t i o n of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists', ' Wash ington D.C. T$35 . (9) KYELDAHL,"Method o f A n a l y s i s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f -i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemis t s , Washington D.C. 1935. (10) LANE and EYEON, "Method o f A n a l y s i s of. the A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemis t s , Wash ington D.C. 1935. (11) LATIMER,I*.P. and WENTWORTH,S.W., " F e r t i l i z e r Exper iments on S t r a w b e r r i e s " , U n i v e r s i t y o f New Hampshi re , A g r i c -= 39-u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 55, 1933. (12) LOREE ,R .E . , "The S u t r i e n t Requ i rements of the S t r awbe r r y , " M i c h i g a n S t a t e C o l l e g e , A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 70, 1925, (13) McCANCE and SHIPP, "Method of A n a l y s i s of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemis t s , Wash ington B.C. 1935. (14) MORRIS,L .S . and CRIST, J . W . " T h e I n f l u e n c e o f R e a c t i o n of C u l t u r e Medium on Growth o f S t r awbe r r y P l a n t s , " M i c h i g a n S t a t e C o l l e g e , A g r i c u l t u r e Exper iment S t a t i o n T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 77 ,1927 . (15) RABER,0 . , " P r i n c i p l e s o f P l a n t P h y s i o l o g y , " M a c M i l l a n , New York . 1933, (16) SHOEMAKER J . S . a n d GREVE, E - W . " R e l a t i o n o f N i t r o g en F e r t -i l i z e r to the F i rmness and Compos i t i on o f S t r a w b e r r i e s " Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n 466 ,1930. ( I ? ) SPUR W A Y , C . H . , " S o i l T e s t i n g , A P r a c t i c a l System of S o i l D i a g n o s i s " , M i c h i g a n A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 132, ( r e v i s e d ) 1935. (18) WALTMAN, C . S . , " E f f e c t o f 'Hydroge n-Ion C o n c e n t r a t i o n .on the Growth of S t r a w b e r r i e s i n Sand and i n S o i l " , U n i v e r s i t y of Ken tucky , A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 321, 1931. (19) WHITE, J New J e r s e y A g r i c u l t u r a l Exper iment S t a t i o n Repo r t 1892, page 141. -B-Plate *U -F-- c -

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105566/manifest

Comment

Related Items