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A study of the history and regional distribution of wheat production in British Columbia Hatcher, Gilbert Temple 1940

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A STUDY OF THE HISTORY AND REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION 03? WHEAT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA byTemple Hatcher  A T h e s i s submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t The Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of Agronomy  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1940.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r wishes to take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y of e x p r e s s i n g h i s g r a t i t u d e to Dean IP. M. Clement, P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Economies, and D r . G-„ G-« Moe, P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department of Agronomy, f o r t h e i r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  thesis*  • />  . TABLE OF gOOTMTS Page  praRODucTioiir 1. PURPOSE OF THESIS  .  .  •  1  BODY 2. HISTORY OF WHEAT IIT BRITISH COLIHBIA  2-26  Table 1 - Showing the Varieties, Acreages and Percentages of the important Spring Wheats Grown by Districts i n B r i t i s h Columbia .«..«•.»•...»....••»..•..«*«..»..».  21  Table 2 - Showing the Varieties, Acreages and Percentages o f the Important F a l l Wheats- Grown by Districts i n B r i t i s h Columbia ...... .  22  Table 3 - Showing the Production of Wheat in Canada and i n B r i t i s h Columbia (in Bushels) and Percent B.C. of (JsndcLsi •  25  Chart 1 - Showing percentage of Total Wheat Grown i n B r i t i s h Columbia as to Total Grown i n Canada  26  •Si EFFECT OF ElYIBOMEETT AID HEREDITY OM THE PHOTEUT GOHTEfT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WHEAT  •'.  (a) DATA STUDIED (b) OBSERVATION  27-54 27-29  *  A. g a l l Wheats (1) Effect of Seasonal Differences (2) Effect of Place Differences Table 4 - S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Place Differ-  30-50 30-46 30-31 32-39  Table 5 - Comparison of the Protein Contents of 42 Varieties of F a l l Wheat Grown at Eamloops and Salmon Arm ....«, .» 36-37 (3) Effect of Varietal Differences Table 6 - S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Varietal Differences  39-46 41-42  Table 7 - Summary of the number of Varietal Differences for the Districts of U»B,C, Salmon Arm, Kamloops and Armstrong ..... 43  II  Table 8 - Showing the Average Protein Content of 36 Varieties of F a l l Wheat for 1935 and 1936 for the D i s t r i c t s of (1) TJ.B.C*, (2) Kamloops, (3) Bridesv i l l e , (4) Armstrong................ B. Spring Wheats ..«••.»..».».»«.»»»«»..*..••»»...»»»»»« (1) Effect of Seasonal Differences  .....  •  (2) Effect of Place Differences * (3) Effect of Varietal Differences ................... Table 9 "Showing the Average Protein Content of 23 Varieties of Spring Iheat for 1927-31 by Districts and the Average Protein Content for Each Variety for a l l D i s t r i c t s ............... (c) SUHHABY OF ABOVE OBSERVATIOHS 00TTCLlJ2£IQLTS ••••••••• »»•»»«••• •  »»•  A STUDY OE THE HISTORY AND REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OE WHEAT PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  INTRODUCTION 1.  PURPOSE OE THESIS Ever s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia wheat has p l a y e d an important r o l e *  A t f i r s t i t was  mainly a means of s u b s i s t e n c e , but l a t e r p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d u n t i l i t was an a r t i c l e o f commerce*  I t was s o l d and t r a d e d  to miners i n B r i t i s h Columbia and even as f a r south as C a l i fornia*  I n r e c e n t times wheat has become i n c r e a s i n g l y im-  p o r t a n t and to-day  c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s a r e used by the  m i l l e r s and bakers f o r domestic consumption. A l s o , there has been a g i t a t i o n by Vancouver m i l l i n g companies f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f s o f t wheats i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia •  T h i s a g i t a t i o n was based, i n the b e g i n n i n g , on two  considerations —  domestic need and the development of the  O r i e n t a l market. As c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts of s o f t wheat were imported  into  B r i t i s h Columbia from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t was f e l t t h a t i t would be advantageous i f s u i t a b l e areas f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s crop c o u l d be d e f i n e d i n the p r o v i n c e . Due to v a r i a t i o n s i n topography and i n c l i m a t e , there a r e many d i f f e r e n t wheat-producing areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia. There are a l s o many d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s grown i n these o f t e n  i s o l a t e d areas.  S i n c e i t was f e l t that many o f these  vari-  e t i e s were i n f e r i o r wheats, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia conducted a s e r i e s o f v a r i e t y t e s t s d u r i n g the y e a r s 1937 to 1936." I n c l u d e d i n these t e s t s were wheats o b t a i n e d from v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s on t h i s c o n t i n e n t and i n Europe.  In a l l  t e s t s data f o r y i e l d and p r o t e i n c o n t e n t were r e c o r d e d . In view o f these d i f f e r e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and due t o the f a c t t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e data were a v a i l a b l e , i t was dec i d e d t o undertake a study of the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the wheat crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  In addition,  particular  a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n to the q u a l i t y o f wheat as r e p r e s e n t e d by the p r o t e i n c o n t e n t , and an attempt was made to a s s o c i a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o t e i n content w i t h c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d v a r i a t i o n s i n environment and h e r e d i t y * BODY S.  HISTOBY OE WHEAT IK BRITISH COLUMBIA The h i s t o r y o f wheat t h a t w i l l f o l l o w i s arranged a c c o r d -  i n g to d i s t r i c t s and p l a c e s *  The h i s t o r y of each d i s t r i c t i s  given s e p a r a t e l y and arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y .  I t was f e l t  t h a t t h i s method o f arrangement was perhaps more s u i t a b l e j u s t a c h r o n o l o g i c a l development c o v e r i n g a l l d i s t r i c t s ,  than which  might tend to confuse any reader because o f the m u l t i p l i c i t y of d i s t r i c t s , p l a c e s , e t c . The d i s t r i c t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r :  (1) Nootka and D i s t r i c t (2) F o r t S t . James, F o r t E r a s e r and D i s t r i c t s (3) Columbia R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t s •(4) V i c t o r i a  and D i s t r i c t s  and D i s t r i c t  (5) Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and D i s t r i c t (6) F r a s e r D e l t a D i s t r i c t (7) Kamioops and D i s t r i c t (8) Okanagan and Spallumoheen D i s t r i c t s . (1) Hootka and D i s t r i c t The f i r s t c u l t i v a t e d wheat i n B r i t i s h Columbia was probably  t h a t grown by the S p a n i a r d s a t Nootka i n 1787.  Mozino says? ment:  "The wkeat and corn were always a d i s a p p o i n t -  the l a t t e r grew v i c i o u s l y ,  n e i t h e r the one n o r the other spears."  According  the former l a n g u i s h e d ; but  ever saw the g r a i n r i p e n i n i t s  to Mozino, the l a n d i n t h i s  d i s t r i c t d i d n o t have the n e c e s s a r y f e r t i l i t y satisfactorily.  particular  to grow wheat  A l s o he s t a t e s t h a t the f r o s t s and c o l d  w i n t e r s i n h i b i t e d the s a t i s f a c t o r y growth of wheat* The next few y e a r s g i v e no r e f e r e n c e o f wheat.  to the growing  These y e a r s seem to have been taken up by the  q u a r r e l s between the S p a n i a r d s and E n g l i s h as r e g a r d s possess i o n of Nootka, and a l l r e f e r e n c e s a r e of t h i s n a t u r e * as f a r as the author c o u l d f i n d , made r e f e r e n c e duction* j  ;  1  Mozino. N o t i c i a s De Nutka.  None,  to wheat p r o -  - 4 (8)  Fort St* The  JameBj  F o r t F r a s e r and  next r e f e r e n c e S  to wheat found by the w r i t e r  t h a t i n "Harmon* s J o u r n a l * . speaking  Districts  On October 3, 1810,  was  Harmon,  of t h a t p a r t of the Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t east of the'  R o c k i e s , says:  " I am of the o p i n i o n that wheat, r y e , b a r l e y ,  o a t s , pease, etc«, would grow w e l l i n the p l a i n s around us," On May Lake d i s t r i c t ,  SS, 1811, "As  says:  Harmon, speaking the f r o s t i s now  we have p l a n t e d our p o t a t o e s , which are the f i r s t t h a t we the m o u n t a i n s . " James i n 1811,  a  about the S t u a r t out of the ground,,  and sowed b a r l e y , t u r n i p s , etc©,  ever sowed on the west s i d e of  These p l a n t i n g s took p l a c e a t F o r t Harmon's statements are the f i r s t  St„  references  to wheat grown on the Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia, as f a r as the w r i t e r c o u l d a s c e r t a i n , Anderson, i n h i s " H i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast", speaking  of F o r t F r a s e r i n 1838,  says;  "This p o s t i s s i t u a t e d  at the lower end of F r a s e r * s Lake, near the d i s c h a r g e lake.  The  p o s i t i o n was  very p i c t u r e s q u e .  of  There were good  gardens i n the v i c i n i t y o f the f o r t i n which p o t a t o e s , and other v e g e t a b l e s , fection.  the  turnips,  w i t h b a r l e y and even wheat, came to  Wheat, however, i s not c u l t i v a t e d to any  i t i s a p r e c a r i o u s crop owing to o c c a s i o n a l  extent, 3 frosts,"  Harmon, Voyages and T r a v e l s * Anderson, A.C, H i s t o r y o f the North-West Passage.  peras  (3)  Columbia R i v e r Settlements'and D i s t r i c t s From B a n c r o f t ' s " H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia" we  l e a r n t h a t the Hudson's Bay Company l e a s e d l a n d from the R u s s i a n s i n 1809, w i t h the agreement t h a t "The R u s s i a n American Fur Company s h o u l d purchase a l l t h e i r European goods from the Hudson's Bay Company, who, a l s o , alone were to supp l y such a g r i c u l t u r a l  p r o d u c t s as the s e v e r a l R u s s i a n p o s t s 4  and v e s s e l s s h o u l d r e q u i r e d The next mention i s made by Begg, speaking of F o r t Vancouver  ( t h i s i s the o l d F o r t Vancouver on the Columbia,  which a t t h a t time was B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y ) , 1834-1835. says;  Begg  "The p l a i n around the f o r t and a l o n g the r i v e r as f a r  as Calapooya Creek f o r about 9 square m i l e s was o c c u p i e d by a well-managed gardens,  tt  farm, f e n c e d i n t o g r a i n f i e l d s , p a s t u r e s and  T h i s produce was absorbed by the B u s s i a n c o l o n i e s ,  except t h a t , o f c o u r s e , used f o r the F o r t ' s own use* "In F e b r u a r y , 1854, John Work ( F o r t Vancouver)  wrote  to Frank E r m a t i n g e r ( F o r t L a n g l e y ) t h a t the q u a n t i t y o f g r a i n t h a t the d o c t o r (Doctor M c L a u g h l i n , G h i e f F a c t o r ) was r a i s i n g at F o r t Vancouver was enormous.  By 1838 the a g r i c u l t u r a l  b u s i n e s s had become so g r e a t t h a t the Puget Sound  Agricul-  t u r a l Company was formed to handle t h a t end o f the trade  B a n c r o f t . H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 5 Begg. H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. F o r t L a n g l e y 1837-1937, A Century o f S e t t l e m e n t ,  6  In 1839$ E n g l i s h and Scotch farmers were brought from the east and p l a c e d i n s e v e r a l of the most f a v o r a b l e p a r t s of the  country.  In the v i c i n i t y o f E o r t Vancouver and  elsewhere,  the areas of a g r i c u l t u r e were soon g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d ,  and  g r e a t m i l l s were e r e c t e d f o r making the s e v e r a l grades of f l o u r r e q p i r e d f o r the Russian-American t r a d e . "About 6 m i l e s up  Begg says:  the Columbia, a g r e a t m i l l and a s a w m i l l 5  were i n o p e r a t i o n . "  This great m i l l i s very l i k e l y  the  same one r e f e r r e d to by B a n c r o f t . Begg s a y s i " "The upwards o f 1200  Farm of E o r t Vancouver c o n t a i n s  a c r e s under c u l t i v a t I o n which have t h i s year  (1841) produced 4000 b u s h e l s o f wheat, 3500 o f b a r l e y , oats and p e a s e .  n  "The  wheat which has y i e l d e d these r e t u r n s i s of  very f i n e q u a l i t y ^ weighing "On  65 to 68-|- pounds per  the C o w l i t z farm ( t h i s i s one  farms developed  bushelo"  5  of the l a r g e  f o r p r o d u c i n g f o r the K u s s i a n t r a d e ) t h e r e  were a l r e a d y (1842) about a thousand a c r e s o f l a n d under the plough, b e s i d e s a l a r g e d a i r y , an e x t e n s i v e park f o r h o r s e s , etc•  The crops t h a t season amounted to 8000 to 9000 bushels  o f wheat, 4000 of o a t s , w i t h due  p r o p o r t i o n s of b a r l e y ,  potatoes, e t c . " Begg.  H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Bancroft states:  "Crops were r a i s e d by the Hudson*  Bay Company a t F o r t Vancouver u n t i l 1850, but a f t e r 1846 the farms d e c l i n e d and the R u s s i a n Company c o n t r a c t s , which p r i o r to  t h a t time had been f i l l e d from F o r t Vancouver, were a f t e r -  wards s h i p p e d from Oregon C i t y * " "It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the method o f t h r e s h i n g .  In 1845 g r a i n was threshed by d r i v i n g horses round a r i n g i n 4 the  barn*" B a n c r o f t mentions wheat a t F o r t H e s q u a l l y i n 1859© Puget Sound Go* a t F o r t N e s q u a l l y - mention o f  wheat, Begg says; visit,  "At the time o f Governor  Simpson's  the W i l l a m e t t e S e t t l e m e n t extended from the F a l l s f o r  c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e up both banks o f the stream, c o n t a i n i n g about 130 farms v a r y i n g i n s i z e from 100 to 500 a c r e s each* The produce t h a t season (1843) was about 35j000 b u s h e l s o f e x c e l l e n t wheat, w i t h due p r o p o r t i o n s o f o a t s , b a r l e y , pease, 5 potatoes, etc*" (4)  V i c t o r i a and Vancouver  Island D i s t r i c t s  The Hudson's Bay Company e s t a b l i s h e d a f o r t where V i c t o r i a now s t a n d s .  T h i s was done as a p r e c a u t i o n a r y move  because the B r i t i s h foresaw t h a t p r o b a b l y t h e 49th p a r a l l e l would be the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i n e .  4  T h i s f o r t a t V i c t o r i a was*  B a n c r o f t , H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 5 Begg. H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia*  i n r e a l i t y , t o take the p l a c e of F o r t Vancouver should the 49th p a r a l l e l be e s t a b l i s h e d as the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  line*  The  f o r t a t V i c t o r i a was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1843-1845. n  I n a l i t t l e more than 3 years a f t e r  i t s commence-  ment (1846-47) there were 160 a c r e s of l a n d under c u l t i v a t i o n on which were grown wheat, o a t s , p o t a t o e s , c a r r o t s ,  turnips,  and other vegetables.'* " I t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t i n 1847 on the f l a t where now r u n the most prominent b u s i n e s s s t r e e t s ,  where stand the  banks, the post o f f i c e , and the p r i n c i p a l b u s i n e s s houses, 300 a c r e s were c l e a r e d and under c u l t i v a t i o n .  The l a n d was  r i c h , p r o d u c i n g f i n e pease and p o t a t o e s , and of wheat 40 5 b u s h e l s to the acre.'' ^In 1847, 5000 b u s h e l s o f wheat and l a r g e q u a n t l t i e of beef and mutton were shipped from V i c t o r i a Harbour i n two Russian v e s s e l s .  I t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t p a r t o f t h i s  cargo had been brought from F o r t Langley I n s m a l l b o a t s .  It  seems t h a t s u r p l u s produce from the other f o r t s on the F r a s e r were sent down i n s m a l l b o a t s , e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h i n g V i c t o r i a , where they were s t o r e d . " " A l s o i n 1847, war v e s s e l s and merchantmen were s u p p l i e d w i t h a l l the beef and v e g e t a b l e s they r e q u i r e d from Fort V i c t o r i a .  Beef was s o l d to them a t 8 cents per pound  and f l o u r and v e g e t a b l e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y cheap.  Both Begg  and B a n c r o f t mention a g r i s t and saw m i l l , which was p r o b a b l y  —  -1=Begg,  H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  e r e c t e d a t the upper end o f E s q u i m a l t Harbour to supply f l o u r 4 & 5 and lumber* •The d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1848 a l s o brought a l a r g e trade to V i c t o r i a ,  The miners d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  s u p p l i e s were p l e n t i f u l a t V i c t o r i a ,  ' w h i l s t a t San F r a n c i s c o  such goods as they most r e q u i r e d were of l i m i t e d supply and s o l d a t extravagant p r i c e s , '  Many o f these miners came to  V i c t o r i a to do t h e i r p u r c h a s i n g ,  Mr, F i n l a y s o n ( C h i e f F a c t o r  a t V i c t o r i a ) i n h i s autobiography r e f e r s to t h i s , and says; " E a r l y i n 1849 a v e s s e l appeared i n the h a r b o r , the crew o f which wore r e d f l a n n e l s h i r t s , to be p i r a t e s ,  When they landed we took them  I ordered the men to the guns, manned the  b a s t i o n s and made ready f o r defence. miners i n t h e i r customary r e d f l a n n e l  However, they were 5 shirts*  w  In 1855 the Puget Sound Company had under c u l t i v a t i o n and i n charge o f three b a i l i f f s , 25 a c r e s of t h e i r open patch o f 200 a c r e s l y i n g between V i c t o r i a and E s q u i m a l t , With the d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n C a l i f o r n i a (1848) and B r i t i s h Columbia (1858), m i n i n g became the major t o p i c o f the day, and l i t t l e can be found t h a t has r e f e r e n c e to a n y t h i n g else* By 1858 "The Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company had 3 w e l l s t o c k e d farms i n the neighborhood  of V i c t o r i a ,  They  were known as the G r a i g f l o w e r or MacEenzie farm, the S k i n n e r farm, and the Langford farm, each under the charge o f a B a n c r o f t , H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Begg* H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia* 4  5  b a i l i f f or manager, who, though not under the Hudson's BayCompany, a c t e d i n harmony w i t h them.  Every branch  A g r i c u l t u r a l Company's b u s i n e s s was conducted thorough  of the  on the most  and l i b e r a l s c a l e ; the b u i l d i n g s , massive and con-  v e n i e n t , were b u i l t p r i n c i p a l l y o f s t o n e .  None but the best  breed of c a t t l e , horses, o r sheep were imported, and the machinery used was of the most improved k i n d .  Crops g e n e r a l -  l y were good, but b e t t e r adapted f o r stock r a i s i n g than f o r grain.  V e g e t a b l e s d i d remarkably w e l l .  A t the s e t t l e m e n t of  C r a i g f l o w e r , about 2|r m i l e s from V i c t o r i a , t h e r e were from 14 to 20 f a m i l i e s , a w e l l c u l t i v a t e d c e n t r a l farm w i t h saw m i l l , 5 oat m i l l , e t c . " Erom 18 52-186 7 most o f the r e p o r t s concern b u i l d i n g , and c o n f e d e r a t i o n , and i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y  road difficult  to f i n d any r e f e r e n c e s to a g r i c u l t u r e i n any way, shape or form. S p r o a t g i v e s the f i r s t s t a t i s t i c s on a g r i c u l t u r e i n h i s " B r i t i s h Columbia";  He s a y s :  " P r o d u c t i o n on good farms  i n S o u t h - e a s t e r n and E a s t e r n D i s t r i c t s of Vancouver I s l a n d , 7 1874,  f o r wheat was 30-3 5 bu. per a c r e . " S p r o a t , speaking o f B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole,  says i n r e l a t i o n to the course o f c r o p p i n g :  "After breaking  up new l a n d , perhaps a f i r s t crop o f peas, o r o a t s i s put i n , or i t i s l e f t as a summer f a l l o w u n t i l  the e a r l y p a r t of  0ctober, when wheat i s put i n t o the ground,"' Begg. H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S p r o a t . B r i t i s h Columbia* 5  7  7  - 11 «* H© a l s o s t a t e s t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia  imported f l o u r ,  7  wheat and meat i n 1875.' The next r e f e r e n c e to a g r i c u l t u r e was made by Begg, when he spoke of Lord Lome's v i s i t to V i c t o r i a i n 1882: "Lord L o m e , Governor-General,  opened the A g r i c u l t u r a l F a i r a t  V i c t o r i a i n 1882, September 2 7 . " Begg s t a t e s ;  5  "Before h i s d e p a r t u r e from V i c t o r i a ,  a c i v i c banquet was g i v e n H i s E x c e l l e n c y ( O c t . 37, 1883) a t the c i t y h a l l ( V i c t o r i a ) .  On t h a t o c c a s i o n , he s a i d :  Wherever  there i s open l a n d , the wheat crops r i v a l the best grown e l s e where, w h i l e there i s nowhere any d e a r t h o f ample p r o v i s i o n of f u e l and lumber f o r the w i n t e r . "  5  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note here t h a t S a a n l c h s o f t wheat took p r i z e s a t the Chicago World's F a i r i n 1893. The author of " B r i t i s h Columbia  60 Years o f  P r o g r e s s " , speaking o f the P r o v i n c e as a whole, says:  "As the  country became s e t t l e d , the s t o c k - r a i s i n g b u s i n e s s n a t u r a l l y waned, the l a r g e and unbroken s t r e t c h e s of range b e i n g no longer a v a i l a b l e f o r pasturage • "wheat was k i n g %  Then commenced a p e r i o d when  and the r i c h bottom l a n d s soon began to  y i e l d a r i c h h a r v e s t o f golden g r a i n to the t i l l e r s o f the s o i l who had d i s p l a c e d the stockmen and cowboys.  A t o n and  a h a l f to the a c r e (about 50 b u s h e l s ) was c o n s i d e r e d an a v e r age crop of wheat i n good seasons, and under p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o r a b l e o o n d i t i o n s , 65 to 70 bushels were not an uncommon yield;" 8  8  . B r i t i s h Columbia  60 Years o f P r o g r e s s .  - 12 (5)  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and D i s t r i c t s I n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y o f wheat i n t h i s d i s -  t r i c t i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , ,  This i s perhaps p a r t l y due to  the very great importance g i v e n by p u b l i c a t i o n to mining and road b u i l d i n g i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t *  A l s o i t appears  t h a t most o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s e s from t h i s  district  e v e n t u a l l y found t h e i r way to F o r t V i c t o r i a , where they were recorded* Fort A l exandr i a i "At F o r t A l e x a n d r i a , 1843-1848, 400-500 bushels o f wheat were r a i s e d a n n u a l l y .  T h i s wheat was converted  i n t o f l o u r by  means of a m i l l w i t h stones e i g h t e e n i n c h e s i n diameter, wrought by h o r s e s .  As much as 40 bushels  t a i n e d d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r v a l (1843-1848) .J*  to the acre were ob9  "Wheat has been found to produce n e a r l y 40 bushels to the 6  a c r e (1846 J..** ... F o r t Hopes The o n l y r e f e r e n c e made to F o r t Hope t h a t the w r i t e r was a b l e to observe was by Howay:  "So f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d ,  the very f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r farming l a n d was made i n November, 1858, when W,K.  S q u i r e s a p p l i e d f o r 100 a c r e s f o r a g r i 9 c u l t u r a l purposes on the i s l a n d j o p p o s i t e F o r t Hope*"  F o r t Langley 1827-1927, A Century Howay  §  F, 1,  B r i t i s h Columbia,  of Settlement,  - 13 As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , a g r i c u l t u r a l  surpluses^  produced  at F o r t Hope, were sent down the F r a s e r R i v e r to V i c t o r i a  0  Maple Ridges "John M c l v o r , who had been an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, r e t i r e d i n I860 and took up a p i e c e of l a n d t h e r e upon which he l i v e d u n t i l h i s death i n May, 1913 ,"  9  C h i l l i w a c k and Sumas; "With the e x c e p t i o n o f the Hudson's Bay Company's farm a t L a n g l e y j and the s m a l l c u l t i v a t e d patches near i t s f o r t s and in  the v i c i n i t y o f the C a r i b o o r o a d , the e a r l i e s t attempt a t  s y s t e m a t i c f a r m i n g on the mainland was made i n the C h i l l i w a c k and Sumas V a l l e y s . In October 1862, the f i r s t s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d a t C h i l l i wack.  Soon o t h e r s f o l l o w e d , and by the s p r i n g o f the f o l l o w -  ing year about 60 persons had pre-empted  l a n d a l o n g the  H a r r i s o n and C h i l l i w a c k . The produce f o r 1866 was 818 tons o f hay, 12,770 b u s h e l s of g r a i n , 5,200 b u s h e l s o f p o t a t o e s , and 2,800 b u s h e l s of t u r n i p s , b e s i d e s tomatoes^ melons, and c o r n i n abundance. P r o b a b l y most o f the g r a i n was o a t s ; however, some wheat was undoubtedly  grown.  The C h a l l s e y B r o t h e r s b u i l t i n 1875 the f i r s t g r i s t m i l l on Sumas p r a i r i e .  A f t e r about f o u r y e a r s they removed the 9  p l a n t to C h i l l i w a c k . " 9 Howayj F. W«  B r i t i s h Columbia.  Fort  Langley: "Soon a f t e r F o r t Langley was founded i n 1827, the com-  pany began to r a i s e g r a i n and vegetables of Langley  there.  The f e r t i l i t y  P r a i r i e was e a r l y d i s c o v e r e d by them and year  after  year the farming o p e r a t i o n s were extended, u n t i l i n conjunct i o n with the salmon t r a d e , they q u i t e e c l i p s e d the f u r trade at that  posto"  As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , a f t e r 1842-3, w i t h the e s t a b l i s h ment of a f o r t a t V i c t o r i a , much o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l  surpluses  9 were shipped to V i c t o r i a , (6)  Fraser Delta D i s t r i c t One o f the e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s on the d e l t a o f the  F r a s e r was Hugh McBoberts.  Pre-empting a piece o f l a n d a few  m i l e s below New Westminster, he, about 1864, dyked i t to prevent o v e r f l o w , and began farming i n a s m a l l way, from 2 acres he secured 120 bushels o f f i n e wheat. b e l i e v e d to be the f i r s t wheat r a i s e d on the r i c h  I n 186 5, This i s alluvial  s o i l of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond (which i n o l u d e d L u l u I s l a n d ) was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1879, (7)  9  Kamloops and D j s t r i e t "The f i r s t house i n Kamloops, o u t s i d e of the f o r t  b u i l d i n g s , was e r e c t e d by W i l l i a m F o r t u n e i n , or about, 1864  9 Howay, F,W.  B r i t i s h Columbia,  0  "John O'Mara, John V/ilson, James M c i n t o s h , and John Us alter b u i l t , i n 1875, a combined lumber and f l o u r m i l l on the f l a t , which l a y to the eastward of the  town.  This d i s t r i c t developed i n t o one of the i m p o r t a n t wheat-growing  areas of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a * "  9  "In 1909, Marquis wheat found i t s way i n t o the Kamloops d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia, and l a t e r i n 1914, Marquis was f i r s t grown i n the P a c i f i c Northwest i n e o n s i d e r 10 a b l e q u a n t i t i e s d u r i n g the season 1914*'* (8)  Okanagan-Spallumoheen P i s t r i c t s .  Spallumc.heen; The p i o n e e r on the Spallumcheen was A. 1. F o r t u n e •  He  had been one o f the o v e r l a n d p a r t y i n 186 2, and a f t e r a few years• e x p e r i e n c e , determined to devote h i m s e l f to f a r m i n g . He p i tehed h i s t e n t near the p r e s e n t town of Enderby, i n June 1866.  I n a year or two he became the f i r s t e x p o r t e r of  farm produce from the Qkanagan, sending out by rov/boat or canoe, hams, bacon, and o t h e r farm products to Kamloops©  By  186 7 t h e r e was a demand f o r f l o u r a t the C a r i b o o mines. Fortune determined to p l a n t wheat on h i s l a n d .  The wheat had  to be p l a n t e d e a r l y , as i t was a l a r g e s o f t v a r i e t y which r e q u i r e d f u l l y f i v e months to r i p e n .  Impressed by the wonder-  f u l y i e l d s o f wheat, F o r t u n e was soon j o i n e d by o t h e r men 9 a r r i v e d to take up l a n d . Howay, F.W.  B r i t i s h Columbia.  B u l l e r ^ A.H.R.  Essays on Wheat;  who  - 16 In 1868 wheat was shipped by boat to Kamloops, where a 11 g r i s t - m i l l was s t a n d i n g , b u i l t by W, About 1869,  Fortune,  F r e d e r i c k Bennett s e t t l e d nearby, and soon  other's f o l l o w e d , a t t r a c t e d by the knowledge, obtained by Mr, F o r t u n e ' s e f f o r t s , that the Spallumcheen V a l l e y would produce f a l l wheat o f the f i n e s t q u a l i t y w i t h o u t  irrigation,  9  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the f i r s t smut e x t r a c t o r 11 was  I n s t a l l e d i n 1885, "The  wheat acreage i n the n o r t h e r n  end o f the Okanagan  V a l l e y was i n c r e a s i n g by l e a p s and bounds.  As the c o n d i t i o n s  had been i d e a l i n the southern p o r t i o n f o r c a t t l e r a i s i n g , so they were i n the area n o r t h o f Vernon f o r wheat growing. D u r i n g t h e year o f the b i g crop, 1884, the r e t u r n s f o r wheat per acre were from 50 to 70 b u s h e l s , and, as might have been expected, very few farmers had s u f f i c i e n t granary room to h o l d such a c r o p , " The  f i r s t person to r e c o g n i z e  t h a t i n the development of  the d i s t r i c t the n a t u r a l advantages of P r i e s t V a l l e y would tend to make i t the commercial c e n t r e , was Mr. W,B, Megaw, I n 1885  he e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h a t p o i n t the f i r s t g e n e r a l s t o r e i n  the Okanagan, The u s u a l c r o s s - r o a d v i l l a g e came s l o w l y i n t o b e i n g . T h i s i s the o i t y o f Vernon i n i t s baby days. I n 1890,  the l a n d was l a i d out as a towns i t e ,  the s i t e o f the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of the present Howay, F,W. B r i t i s h Columbia, H Ormsby, M, T h e s i s , U.B.C, L i b r a r y , 9  I n 1890  c i t y o f Vernon,  - 17 then a wheat f i e l d , was purchased by a s y n d i c a t e o f Coast c a p i t a l i s t s from Frank Delany, and surveyed i n t o  town l o t s ,  Iri 1895 the c i t y o f Vernon was i n c o r p o r a t e d , A l o n g the l i n e o f the r o a d t h a t connected Spallumcheen w i t h P r i e s t V a l l e y was a v i l l a g e  called  Lansdowne.  When i t  became known t h a t the l i n e o f the Shuswap and Okanagan B a i l way would be l o c a t e d some t h r e e m i l e s s o u t h , the town moved en masse to a new s i t e on the r a i l w a y l i n e i n 1891.  This  town became the Armstrong of today. I t might be mentioned t h a t i n 1891, a t Armstrong, a oo9 o p e r a t i v e f l o u r m i l l was . b u i l t by the f a r m e r s . In 189 5 the acreage i n wheat i n the t e r r i t o r y between Kelowna and Enderby had i n o r e a s e d to 2330 a c r e s o f f a l l wheat and 6680 o f s p r i n g wheat. In 189 5, 30 c a r l o a d s of f l o u r were s h i p p e d to the Japanese Government.  By 1911 t h i s t o t a l had r i s e n  to 13,128  tons. Attempts were made to grow Red F i f e , which was r e q u i r e d to mix w i t h the s o f t e r w i n t e r v a r i e t i e s the  growers•  produced by most of  Many I n d i a n s engaged i n growing wheat i n t h i s  area were given, the Bed F i f e by the Government, i n o r d e r to have s u f f i c i e n t wheats.  q u a n t i t i e s of Red F i f e to mix w i t h the s o f t e r  However, the Red F i f e d i d n o t prove v e r y s u c c e s s f u l  as grown by I n d i a n s , Of the 1140 c a r s of g r a i n i n s p e c t e d i n the C a l g a r y G r a i n 8 9  - - B r i t i s h Columbia 60 Years of P r o g r e s s . Howay, F.W. B r i t i s h Columbia.  - 18 I n s p e c t i n g Area d u r i n g the season 1905-6* 60 per cent found a market i n B r i t i s h Columbia, most o f i t going to the Columbia F l o u r i n g M i l l s a t Enderby, and the Okanagan F l o u r i n g M i l l s a t Armstrong* However, these m i l l s f a i l e d because o f c o m p e t i t i o n from newly e r e c t e d p r a i r i e m i l l s and l a c k of a necessary q u a n t i t y grown i n B r i t i s h Columbia to keep the m i l l s working a t a r a t e t h a t would pay d i v i d e n d s ; A f t e r the f a i l u r e of the m i l l s ,  the Spallumcheen  farmers  c o n t i n u e d t o grow a c e r t a i n amount o f wheat, but they s t a r t e d to add supplementary e n t e r p r i s e s , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t mixed f a r m i n g i s the g e n e r a l r u l e a t the present  time;  Okanagant '•The f i r s t f o o t h o l d o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t was the Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n on Okanagan Lake, near Kelowna; On every s i d e l a y great s t r e t c h e s of unoccupied benches, where bunch-grass,  h i l l s and  the most n u t r i t i o u s o f v e g e t a t i o n ,  grew i n g r e a t p r o f u s i o n , g i v i n g v i s i o n s o f a f u t u r e when uncounted  thousands of c a t t l e , waving a c r e s of wheat f i e l d s ,  and t r i m , w e l l - k e p t o r c h a r d s would cover the face o f the l a n d . In 1863 came L o u i s B r e n t , who b u i l t i n Okanagan,  mill  A v e r y premature a f f a i r i t was, but n e v e r t h e l e s s  the f o r e r u n n e r of o t h e r s , " "The country l y i n g Vicinity  the f i r s t f l o u r  9  south o f Okanagan Lake, being i n the  of Rock Creek and t r a v e r s e d by the Dewdney t r a c t j was  9 Howayj F,W.,  B r i t i s h Columbia;  * 19 * e a r l y r u n over by the m i n e r s , but they were soon a t t r a c t e d t o the C a r i b o o , and i t l a p s e d i n t o i t s o r i g i n a l  condition.  About 1864 a Custom House was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Osoyoos. A Mr. Thomas E l l i s s e t t l e d a t P e n t i o t o n i n 1866, and h i s h o l d i n g s amounted t o 31^000 a c r e s a t one t i m e .  He was  l i t e r a l l y the c a t t l e k i n g of the Okanagan.  I n 1874 he  p l a n t e d the f i r s t o r c h a r d i n the Okanagan.  I n 1892 the  t o w n s i t e o f P e n t i o t o n was l a i d o u t . Peachland came i n t o b e i n g i n 1897, Summerland i n 1906. With the success o f the f i r s t o r c h a r d s , many more were p l a n t e d , and to-day t h i s ' forms the major i n d u s t r y of t h i s district."  9  This h i s t o r y w i l l now be brought up to date when p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t s , v a r i e t i e s and q u a n t i t i e s o f wheat grown, w i l l be indicated. There a r e , o f c o u r s e , many d i s t r i c t s where wheat i s grown i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but o n l y the most Important  dis-  t r i c t s are discussed here. A p o i n t t h a t s h o u l d be noted i s the remarkable  similarity  between the d i s t r i c t s o f to-day and the d i s t r i c t s where wheat was grown by the e a r l y s e t t l e r s .  The e a r l y s e t t l e r s  produced  wheat i n many l o c a l i t i e s where i t i s not r a i s e d to-day, j u s t as we produce wheat i n many l o c a l i t i e s where i t was not r a i s e d by the e a r l y s e t t l e r s ; i n the main, however, the c h i e f 9 Howay, F.W,  British  Columbia.  wheat-producing  areas of e a r l y times a r e v e r y s i m i l a r  to the  present a r e a s *  F o r example, a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g wheat d i s -  t r i c t s o f to-day were a l s o wheat d i s t r i c t s of the pasts S a a n i c h , D e l t a , F r a s e r V a l l e y , P e n t i c t o n , "Border", Salmon Arm, and Kamloops.  Armstrong,  Some o f the other d i s t r i c t s which  were not so important to the e a r l y s e t t l e r s a r e : C r e s t on, M a r y s f l l l e , P r i n c e t o n , Vanderhoof, Streatham,  Telkwa, (The  above-mentioned d i s t r i c t s a r e a r b i t r a r i l y named f o r the imp o r t a n t towns i n each d i s t r i c t * ) I t was hoped t h a t a very c a r e f u l study of the v a r i e t i e s , grades and p r o t e i n contents o f the wheats grown i n B r i t i s h Columbia, by d i s t r i c t s , could be made•  Unfortunately, this  i n f o r m a t i o n has never been a c c u r a t e l y r e c o r d e d up to the present.  However, i t w i l l ,  i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , be gathered i n  the f u t u r e and p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s *  (Tables 1 a n d 2)  TABLE 1 Showing the Varieties, Acreages and Percentages of the Important. Spring; Wheats Grown hy 'Districts i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Also the Percentage Acreage Each.District has of Total B r i t i s h Columbia Acreage and Total Acreage for Each Variety, 3 Z 4 . -1 DISTRICTS DATA. Total % of Districts KARQUIS Distract : B, C. Assage iteage % : . Acres: :  Peace River 45, 000 64.8  5  6 7 VARIETIES REWARD .RED BOBS ;  GARNET  %  Acres;  ,"  %  80.0 36,000 8,8  Acres  A  4,000 11*2  Acres  8  9  BLUESTEM  OTHERS  %  Acres  %'  Acres  5,000  Oranbrook  1,000  Oreston  9,000 13.0 80,0 7,200  Rock Creek  3,000  4*4 8G.0 2,400  20.0  600  Forth Ok  3,000  4*4 80.0 2,400  20.0  600  Kamloops  4 000  5*8 40*0 1,600  40.0 1,600 10.0  490  North B.C.  4*000  5.8 40.0 1>60@  10.0  400  9  Others Totals  ?  1.5 50.0  500  5Q.0  500  20.0 1,800  10.0. 2G.Q  800 20.Q  400 800 IG.O  4Q0  100 . ,»s 69,100 100.0 22.8 15,700  53 J4 36,800 7.6  5,200  7.9  5,400  2.4 1*600  6.3  4,300  TABLE 2 Showing th© Varieties, Acreages and Percentages of the Important P a l l Wheats Grown by D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Golxuribia. Also the Percentage Acreage Each D i s t r i c t has of Total B r i t i s h Columbia Acreage and Total Acreage f o r Each Variety. 1  2  -s  DISTRICTS DATA  District s  Total District Acreage  " % of Total B»C»' .; Acreage  8,000:  7©-*8  Rosehill and Forth Areas Saanich  1,'QGO  8*9  Others  1,800  Tot a l  11,300  PIPE.. 0RAI& PIPE  :  Okanagan  500  6  4  %  Acres  75  6,000  '•'  % 25  :  • Acres  8  VARIETIES EHARKOP.  %  Acres  100  1*000  OTHERS  WASH, s m  %  Acres  2,000  100  4.4  .500  15.9  m \  6,000  21  2,000  10*5  :' 5»5- "'  500  %  Acres  - 25 Tables 1 and 8 c o n t a i n a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n that c o u l d be o b t a i n e d as r e g a r d s the above, f o r the p r e s e n t * are  not complete.  These t a b l e s  They w i l l , however, give a r e a s o n a b l y c o r -  r e c t p i c t u r e of acreages, v a r i e t i e s , and b u s h e l s of wheat grown i n the most i m p o r t a n t wheat d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  These f i g u r e s were approximated from data and r e -  cords o b t a i n a b l e a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. There a r e , of c o u r s e , many s m a l l acreages s c a t t e r e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia; these areas are i n c l u d e d under other areas.  They a r e o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e , so v a r i e t i e s  have n o t been t a b u l a t e d *  ;  As r e g a r d s the s u p p l y o f wheat, i t i s seen from the above c h a r t s t h a t s p r i n g wheat forms the g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y of the wheat grown i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  S p r i n g wheat takes up approx-  i m a t e l y 85 per cent o f the t o t a l acreage, o r about 70,000 a c r e s of a t o t a l o f 80,000 a c r e s * M a r q u i s , Garnet, Reward, Red Bobs, and B l u e s t e m make up about 94 per cent of a l l  the s p r i n g wheats grown.  Thus i t i s seen t h a t the major p a r t o f the acreage i s taken up by r e l a t i v e l y few v a r i e t i e s . mentioned  I t s h o u l d , however, be  t h a t i n c l u d e d i n the "other v a r i e t i e s " a r e p r o b a b l y  a hundred o t h e r v a r i e t i e s .  There a r e many farmers s h i p p i n g  wheat who themselves do not know what v a r i e t y they a r e growing.  The Board o f G r a i n Commissioners has g r a i n  coming  through i t s o f f i c e s which i t i s unable to i d e n t i f y , and i n many cases i s unable to say whether such g r a i n i s s p r i n g or f a l l wheat*  , - 24 -  I t was thought a d v i s a b l e to show the p r o d u c t i o n of wheat i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n r e l a t i o n Table 3 and C h a r t 1 present  to t h a t f o r Canada. this information.  From these  i t can be seen t h a t i n no year up to 1938 has B r i t i s h Columbia p r o d u c t i o n been one per cent of the t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n f o r Canada.  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i n the f u t u r e B r i t i s h C o l -  umbia p r o d u c t i o n may be a g r e a t e r percentage than a t p r e s e n t . In f a c t ,  Graph 1 would tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s w i l l be the  case, other  things remaining  equal.  While t h i s , the p r o d u c t i o n  of wheat i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  i s of g r e a t importance to the w r i t e r as w e l l as to the growers and  those connected i n any way w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n  o f wheat,  the above f a c t s were mentioned so t h a t any reader would r e member t h a t the wheat problem i s o n l y a s m a l l one of many as f a r as B r i t i s h Columbia i s concerned.  - 25 TABLE 3 Showing the P r o d u c t i o n of Wheat i n Canada and i n B r i t i s h G o l u m b i a ( i n b u s h e l s ) and Per Cent B.C. of Canada Year 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 19 22 19 £3 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1958  K  Production' o f Wheat i n Canada ( b u s h e l s ) 112,434,000 166,744,000 132,049,000 230,924,000 224,159,000 251,717,000 161,280,000 393,542,600 262,781,000 251,730,000 189,075,550 195,260,400 263,189,500 500,858,100 399,786,400 474,199,000 262,097,000 395,475,000 407,136*000 479,665,000 566,726,000 304,520,000 420,672,000 321,525,000 443,061,000 281,892,000 275,849,000 281,955,000 219*218,000 182,410,000 350,010,000  No data a v a i l a b l e  P r o d u c t i o n of Wheat i n B . C . (bushels) as  $ B.C. of Canada  525,000 495,000 618,700 816,000 1,000,000 8 7 3,"300 1,178,700 1,035*000 1,119,000 1,017,000 1,072,000 1,886,000 1,508,000 1,481,000 1,395,000 1,321,000 1,580,000 1,408,000 1,317,000 1,597,000 1,432,000 1,487,000 1,768,000 1,444,000  .13$ . 19$ .27 fo  .43$ .52$ .33$ .39$ .26$ .24$ .39$ .27$ .32$ .31$ .26$ .46$ .31$ .49$ .32$ .47$ .51$ .51$ .68$ .9 7$ .41$  Source: The Canada Year Books 1918-1959  - 26 -  As  To  TOTAL.  Q/^OW/V  Ye$rs.  /A/  (2A/VAT>A_  3i  EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT AND HEREDITY ON THE PROTEIN CONTENT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 7/HE AT (a)  DATA STUDIED  .This study of the s e a s o n a l , p l a c e and v a r i e t a l  effects  was made from data s u p p l i e d by the Department o f Agronomy of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The data were o b t a i n e d  from f a l l wheats and s p r i n g wheats grown at the v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s s e l e o t e d i n each  district*  F a l l Wheat Data, 19&7 t o 1931; There were 41 f a l l wheats s t u d i e d , namely; American Banner Burbank China Crail Fife Dawson's Golden C h a f f E a r l y G„ G i a n t E x t r a Squarehead Foreign Forty-fold Fultz Gypsy Harvest King H a r v e s t Queen G.I. H a r v e s t Queen K a n I m p e r i a l Amber Jones' F i f e Kanred Kharkof Leap Mealy 0  M i c h i g a n Amber OeAeG . 1 0 4 . Minhardi Pansar Poole Prohibition P u r p l e Straw Red Rock C h a f f Red V e l v e t C h a f f Red Wave Red Winter Rooky Mountain Rudy Weibul Standard Weibul Svea Turkey Red Que. Turkey Red Wis. Washington Sun White Winter Yaroslav Zimmerman  The y e a r s s t u d i e d were 19S7 t o 1931, i n c l u s i v e , and the s t a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r the t e s t s were Myncaster, Salmon Arm, Kamloops, Armstrong,  and the U n i v e r s i t y .  S p r i n g Wheat Data, 1935-1936; The namely:  study of the s p r i n g wheats c o n s i s t e d o f S3 v a r i e t i e s ,  - 88 Baar t Bishop Ottawa Bobs x F e d e r a t i o n Bunyip. C h a r l o t t e t o w n 123 Dicklow Federation Federation x Dicklow Garnet Jenkins L i t t l e Club Wash. 500  Marquis Ottawa Mindum Ones P a c i f i c Bluestem Pelissier Bed Bobs 222 Red C h a f f Reward Vermilion White R u s s i a n Piloraw Monad  The y e a r s of the study were 1935 and 1936• v a r i e t i e s were t e s t e d a t the f o l l o w i n g  stations:  Quick S t a t i o n , Dewey, S m i t h e r s , Venderhoof,  These 23 U.B.O.,  Creston, North  Newlands, Cranbrook, Rock Creek, ^ u e s n e l , P r i n c e t o n , Kamloops, and  Streatham. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due to abnormal weather c o n d i t i o n s , r e s u l t s  from c e r t a i n of these s t a t i o n s are years.  not a v a i l a b l e f o r both  While i t had, of c o u r s e , been planned to use r e s u l t s  from a l l o f these s t a t i o n s , i t was  decided to use o n l y those  f o r which the data f o r both y e a r s were a v a i l a b l e , namely, U.B.C., Quick S t a t i o n , Dewey, S m i t h e r s , Vanderhoof,  and  Creston. With r e s u l t s f o r o n l y two y e a r s a v a i l a b l e , methods other than those used f o r e x p l a i n i n g the f a l l wheat r e s u l t s were necessary.  I t i s hoped t h a t more complete r e s u l t s w i l l  a v a i l a b l e i n the near f u t u r e •  be  However, under the circumstances  the above r e s u l t s have been a n a l y s e d f o r the two y e a r s i n the hope t h a t they would show r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s . should be mentioned,  It  however, t h a t as o n l y two y e a r s ' r e s u l t s  are a v a i l a b l e , any c o n c l u s i o n s s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as  oonolusive.  I n order to o b t a i n an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e , the r e -  s u l t s f o r more y e a r s would have to be o b t a i n e d .  However, the  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from the above r e s u l t s should show tendenc i e s , and a t l e a s t give l e a d s as to what might be expected i f more complete data were a v a i l a b l e , F a l l Wheat Data. 1955-1956; The study of f a l l wheats f o r 1935 and 1936 c o n s i s t e d of 54 v a r i e t i e s , namely; A l b i t , Sidney American Banner Burbank China Grail Fife Dawson's Golden Ghaff E a r l y Genessee G i a n t E x t r a Squarehead Foreign Forty-fold Fults Golden C o i n Gypsy Harvest King H a r v e s t Queen C , I , H a r v e s t Queen Kan. H y b r i d 138 Wash. H y b r i d 143 Wash. I m p e r i a l Amber Jones' F i f e Kanred Kanred x B e l B a f f i n Kanred x M i n h a r d i Karmont Kharkov L e t h . 1933 Kharkov 23 M.C. L e t h . Kharkov  Leap Mealy M i c h i g a n Amber Minhardi M i n t u r k i L e t h . 1933 O.A.G. 104 Oro L e t h , Pahsar Poole Prohibition P u r p l e Straw Red Rock Red V e l v e t C h a f f Red l a v e Red W i n t e r Redit S i d . Rocky Mountain Rudy Standard Weibul Svea Turkey Red, Que, Turkey Red, Wis. Turkey x Minessa, L e t h , Washington Sun White Winter Yaroslav Zimmerman  The s t a t i o n s where s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d were U.B.C., Kamloops, B r i d e s v i l l e , Armstrong, Dewey and Quesnel.  - 30 (b)  OBSERVATIONS  F a l l Wheats (1)  E f f e c t o f Seasonal D i f f e r e n c e s ; F i r s t , a study of the e f f e c t o f seasons on the p r o -  t e i n content was made and the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s observed, I t was n e c e s s a r y to d i v i d e the v a r i e t i e s i n t o two l o t s , because the t a b l e f o r Students* Method does hot enable one to determine the odds f o r f o r t y - o n e determinations* 1,  A t U,,B,,Q ; : I . Comparing Seasons 19S8 and 1929, D i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , I I * Comparing Seasons 1929 arid 1930, D i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , I I I , Comparing Seasons 1935 and 1936, D i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ,  .3,  A t Salmon Arm; I , Comparing Seasons 1928 and 1929, D i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t ,  5,  A t Armstrong; I , Comparing Seasons 1938 and 1929, D i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t , I I * Comparing Seasons 1935 and 1936, D i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  4,  A t Kamloops: I * Comparing Seasons 1938 and 1929* D i f f e r e n c e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t * I I , Comparing Seasons 1955 and 1936, D i f f e r e n c e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  - 31 5y ', A t Mynoaster: Unfortunately  the data f o r 1928 and 1930 a r e  not a v a i l a b l e , so under these circumstances 1927 and 1929 were compared, and a l s o 1939 and 1931, I , Comparing Seasons 1927 and 1929. D i f f e r e n c e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I I . Comparing Seasons 1929 and 1931. D i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . 6.  A t Quesnel: I . Comparing Seasons 1935 and 1936. D i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t .  7.  At B r i d e s v i l l e : I . Comparing Seasons 1935 and 1936. D i f f e r e n c e s were h i g h l y  Observations;  - While more y e a r s would have to be  s t u d i e d to make d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s ticular district^  significant.  as r e g a r d s each p a r -  there can be no doubt t h a t d i f f e r e n t  seasons may cause q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p r o t e i n  contents,,  This does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t a l l d i s t r i c t s w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s each and every  year.  From t h e above data i t can be seen t h a t a t U.B.C. and a t Armstrong the d i f f e r e n c e s as r e g a r d s season were n o t s i g nificant.  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s may be t h a t c l i m a t i c  t i o n s a r e l e s s v a r i a b l e a t these two p o i n t s .  condi-  This seems  to be the case a t U.B.C,, because i n a l l three comparisons t h a t were made, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed. I n any case, s e a s o n a l  d i f f e r e n c e s may have  consider-  a b l e e f f e o t on the p r o t e i n content o f the wheats s t u d i e d *  (2)  E f f e c t of P l a c e D i f f e r e n c e s : Secondly, the data were s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n to place  differences, T h i s study has been broken up i n t o two p a r t s , because d i f f e r e n t methods have had to be used i n each case. 1. Data 1927-1951: Comparison between v a r i e t i e s a t Salmon Arm and U.B.C., u s i n g the D i f f e r e n c e of the Mean and P r o b a b l e E r r o r o f t h i s D i f f e r e n c e to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e . (Table 4)  - 33 TABLE 4 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Place Differences Comparison of the Protein Content of 42 Varieties of P a l l Wheat Grown at U.B*C. and Salmon Arm, Using the Differences of the Means; and the Probable Error of These Differences to Determine the Significance. (Canadian Plant Breeders" Method) VARIETIES GF PALL WHEAT /  U.B.0. "SAL1DF ABIT V; Mean P.E. Mean P.E.  Diff.  P.E.cf Diff.  American Banner  11.88  ±•28  8.32  ±.28  3.56  i.40  Burbank  11.10  1.29  8.55  ±,52  China  13.02  *.30  9,98  Grail l i f e  11.30  ±.26  8.14  Dawson's Golden Chaff 11.35  ±.30  8*23  Early Genesee Giant  13,66  ±,32  9.54  Extra Squarehead  12,28  ±*29  7.92  Foreign  12.86  £.30  9.70  Forty-fold  12.24 ±,29  8.56  Fultz  15,38  Gold Coin  -  ±. 31  -  ±,43 3.04  ±.45  3,16  ±.37  5,12  ±.43  ±.32  4.12  ±.45  ±.26  4.36  ±.39  3.16  ±.44  ±.29  3.68  ±.41  9.44'  ±.32  3*94  ' ±.45  8*27  ±.36  -  ±.27  -  Gypsy  12,94 ±.30  8.56  ±.29.  4.38  ±.42  Harvest King-  13.84 ±..32  9.00  ±.30  4.84  ±.44  Harvest Queen G.I.  12*98  -.30  9.32  i.31  3.66  ±.43  Harvest Queen Kan.  13,20  *.31  9.22  ±.31  3.98  ±.44  Imperial Amber  12.06  ±.28  9.16  ±.31  2,90  ±.42  Jones* Fife  11.48  ±.27  8.60  ±.32  2.88  ±.42  Kanred  12.74 ±.30  8.68  ±.29  4.06  ±.42  Kharkof  12.80  9.04  -.30  3.76  i  .30  ,42  - 34 Table 4 ••VARIETIES . OF FALL WHEAT  SALMON ARM Mean P.E,  (confe)  ••••u.B.a. Mean  " Diff.  P.E. of Diff. ±.42  Leap  12.76  ±.30  8.78  Mealy  12.40  ±.29  8.48  ±.28  3 & 92  ±.40  Michigan Amber  13.40  ±.31  7.84  ±.26  5.56  ±.40  O.A.C. 104  12.13  ±,32  8.85  ±.33  3.28  ±,46  Pansar  12.08  ±.28  8,04  ±.27  4.04  ±.39  Poole  13.44  ±.31  9.30  ±.31  4.14  ±.44  Prohibition  11.88  ±•31  7,98  ±.3Q  3,90  ±.43  Purple Straw  13.82  9,48  ±.32  4,34  ±.45  Red Rock  14.24  ±.33  9,68  ±.32  4.56  ±.46  Red Velvet Chaff  12.14  ±.28  9.10  ±.30  3.04  ±.41  Red Wave  11.08  ±.26  8,26  ±.28,  2.82  ±.38  Red Winter-  13.25  ±.35  9.60  ±.36  3.65  ±.50  Rocky Mountain  14.66  ±.34  9.70  ±.32  4.96  ±.47  Rudy Weibul  15,04  ±.35  10.44  ±.35  4*60  ±.50  Standard Weibul  12.92  ±.30  8.04  +.27  4.88  ±,40  Svea  13.38  ±,35  8.65  ±.32  4.73  ±,47  Turkey Red Q»  12.64  ±.30  9.56  • ~*» 32 3.08  ±.44  Turkey Red Wis*  12.80  ±.30  9,42  '±,31  3.38  ±.43  Washington Sun  13.20  ±.31  8.40  ±.28  4.80  ±,42  White Winter  11.94  ±.28-  8.34  ±.28  3.60  ±.40  Yaraelav  13.66  ~» 33  9.30  -.40  4.36  ±.51  Zimmerman  12.14  -.285  8.48  £.28  3.66  ±.40  Minhardi  12.70  ±.30  8.88  ±.•30 ; 3.82  ±.42  3,98  The c o n c l u s i o n s from Table 4 were t h a t there no doubt o f the p l a c e d i f f e r e n c e s being  was  significant*  T h i s r e s u l t i s i n a c c o r d w i t h what might be expected because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l and c l i m a t e * I t was  thought t h a t a comparison between Salmon  Arm and an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t i o n  (Kamloops), would  g i v e a more c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t i f two such d i s t r i c t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ,  (Table 5)  TABLE 5 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Place Differences Comparison of the protein Content of 42 Varieties of F a l l Wheat Growa at Kami oops and Salmon Arm, Using the Differences of the Means and the -Probable Error of These Differences to Determine the Significance. (Canadian Plant Breeders' Method) :  KA1L00P-S: Mean P.E.  Mean.  P*E, .." Diff.  American Banner  15,50  ±.39  11.88  ±,28  1.62  ±.48  Burbanlc  12,85  ±.37  11.10  ±.29  1.75  ±.47  China  14,20  £.41/  13.02  ±.30  1.18  ±.51  Crail F i f e  X£* 93  ±.57  11.30  ±* 26  1.63  ±.45  Dawson's Golden Chaff 13.20  ±.38  11.35  ±.30  1.85  Early Genesee Giant  14.95  ±.45  13.66  —« 3&  1.29  ±.54  Extra Squarehead  15*10  . ±.44  12*28  ±.29  2.82  ±.53  Foreign  14.25  ±.41  12.86 : ±i.30  X • 39  ±.51  Forty-fold  13.87  ±.40  12.24  +.29  1.63  ±.49  Fultz  14.95  ±.43  13* 38  ' •*»» «5X.  1.57  ±.55  TAHIETIES OP PALL WHEAT  Gold Coin  -  S A L W AE» ;  -  ;  -  -  P.E. of Diff.  +  -r.48  -  .15.00  ±.43  12*94  ±.30  2.06  ±.53  Harvest King  15.32  ±.44  13.84  ±.32  1.49  ±.54  Harvest Queen C.I.  14.53  ±.42  12.98 . ±.so  1.55  ±.52  Harvest Queen Kara,  14.68  ±.42  13.20  r*» 3X  1.48  ±.53  Imperial Amber  14.15  ±.41  12.06  ±.2&  2*09  ±.49  Jones' F i f e  13.40  ±.39  11.48  ±.27  1.92  ±.47  Kanred  13.93  -.40  12.74  -.30  1.19  + ^  Kharkof  14.38  +  12.80  ±.30  1.58  ±.52  Gypsy  A?  -.50  Table 5 (cont.)  VARIETIES . . OP PALL WHEAT  KAmiQOPS ' •" ;SMLMM ARM: ; Mean Mean  Leap  •14.58  ±.42  12,76 ; ±.30  1.82  Mealy  13..78  ±.40  12.40  ±.29  1.38  ±.49  Michigan Mber  14.45  ±.42  13.40  ±.31  1.05  ±.53  Minhardi  13.85  1,40  12.70  ±.30  1.15  ±.50  O.A.C. 104  13.48  £.39  12,13  ±.32  1.35  1.50  Pansar •  14.30  ±,41  12.08  1,28  2© 22  1.49  Poole  14.78  ±.43  13.44  ±.31  1.34  ±.53  Prohibition  14.35  ±.41  11.88  ±.31  2.47  ±.52  Purple Straw  15.08  ±.44  13,82  ±.32  1.26  ±.55  Red Sock  15.73  ±.45  14.24  W0  33  1.49  ±.54  Bed Velvet Chaff'  13.80  ±.40  12.14'  ±.28  1.66  ±.48  Red Wave  12.93  1.37  11.08  ±.26  1.85  ±.45  Bed Winter  14.90  ±,43  13.25  ±.35  1.65  ±.55  Rocky Mountain  16,40  ±.47  14,66  ±,34  1.74  1.58  Rudy Weibul  16.83  ±.49  15.04  ±.35  1.79  ±.60  Standard Weibul  14.80  ±.43  12.92  ±.30  1.88  ±.53  Svea  15.05  ±.43  13.38  1.35  1.67  1.55  Turkey Red Q,  14. 95  ±.43  12.64  ±.30  2.31  ±.53  Turkey Red Wis.  15.08  ±.44  12.80  ±.30  2.28  ±.54  Washington Sun  14,65  ±.42  13.20  ±.31  1.45  ±.53  White Winter  13.73  ±.40  11,94  ±.28  1.79  ±.48  Yaraslav  14.75  ±.43  13.66  1.32  1.09  1.54  Zimmerman  13. 60 v±.39-: •; 12.14  ±.28  1.46  ±.48  ;  :  Diff.  P.E, of Diff.  - 38 > Prom Table 5 i t can be seen t h a t w h i l e the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are not so dominant as they are i n Table 4,  there are s t i l l many s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -  ences® In Table 4 there are more s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , because i n t h i s t a b l e two in climatic  stations differing  c o n d i t i o n s are compared, and  the r e s u l t s a l s o i n c l u d e seasonal  therefore  differences.  In Table 5 we are comparing two w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t , and  widely  d i s t r i c t s not  t h e r e f o r e the seasonal  so  differ-  ences are not given so much weight i n t h i s t a b l e as i n Table  4.  23 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s Table 5 - 1 2 not s i g n i f i c a n t 6 on border Table 4 - 4 1  significant differences.  However, as averages over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s were used, the e f f e c t s ©f d i f f e r e n t  seasons would no t be  en-  t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d i n the comparison between Kamloops and Salmon Arm* 8. Data 193 5-36:. Here, because data f o r only two years were a v a i l a b l e , some method other Breeders* Method was differences".  than the Canadian P l a n t  needed i n order  to show "place  The method used i s that suggested by  M i l l s ( S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, p. 558), where the ferences  Dif-  of the Means are compared w i t h the Standard  E r r o r s of these D i f f e r e n c e s .  - 39 I.  U.B.C. and Kamloops D i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t .  •II.  U.B.C. and B r i d e s v i l l e D i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t .  III.  U.B.C. and Queanel D i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t .  IV.  U.B.C. and Armstrong D i f f e r e n c e s were no t s i g n i f i c a n t .  Observations: t h a t seasonal  -  The above r e s u l t s would i n d i c a t e  d i f f e r e n c e s were w e i g h t i n g  the p l a c e -  d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , showing s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t d i f f e r e n t s o i l s i n themselves have very l i t t l e e f f e c t on p r o t e i n c o n t e n t o f wheat. I t s h o u l d be mentioned a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t c l i m a t e , b e s i d e s a c t i n g d i r e c t l y on the p l a n t , a l s o a c t s I n d i r e c t l y on the p l a n t through i t s a c t i o n on the s o i l .  That i s ,  w h i l e p l a c e d i f f e r e n c e s c h i e f l y i n v o l v e s o i l as the cause of d i f f e r e n t p r o t e i n c o n t e n t s ,  i t must be remembered  that  c l i m a t e a l s o has t h i s i n d i r e c t e f f e c t , (3)  E f f e c t of V a r i e t a l D i f f e r e n c e s : T h i r d l y , the data were s t u d i e d to see i f p r o t e i n con-  tent i s a f f e c t e d by v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the wheats. This study a l s o has been broken up i n t o two p a r t s , because d i f f e r e n t methods have had to be used i n each case.  - 40 s  1. Data 1937-1931: These comparisons  were made on the b a s i s of com-  p a r i n g the D i f f e r e n c e s of the Means ana Probable E r r o r o f these D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h G r a i l E i f e as the base i n each case* (Tables 6, 7 and 8)  TABLE: 6 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis of Varietal Differences Comparison of the Protein Content of 42 Varieties of P a l l Wheat Grown at IJ.B.C., Salmon Arm, Myneaster, Kamloops and Armstrong, Crail Fife, was used as a Base, The Differences and Probable Error of these Differences were Applied to Determine Significance. VARIETIES 0F FALL WHEAT  American Banner  , U.B.C. ; KiiLooPS;.,; AmBTBOE'G ' *CraiI Fife 8.14 *Crail F i f e 11.30 ' *Crail F i f e , 14.23 *Crail Fife.12*93 ''Crail Fife 11*40 ±.27 ±.37 ±o 32 P.E.of D i f f . . P.E. of . D i f f . P.E. of P.E. of .. D i f f . P.E. of D i f f , Diff. Diff. Diff. Diff. Diff* • Diff. + .18 ±.40 + ,58 ±.38 + .17 + .57 ±.68 ±.54 + .93 ±.47 ;  Burbank  + .41  ±.42 * - .20  ±.39  + .37  China  +1,84  ±.43  +1.72  ±.40  +1.44  ±*72  + .00  ±.27  .00  -.26  .00  £.48  •+ .09  ±.41  + .05  ±.40  + .27  Early G. Giant  +1.40  ±.42  +2.36  ±.41  +1.44  Extra Squarehead  - .22  ±.37  + .98  ±.39  Foreign  +1.56  ±.42  +1.56  Portyf old  + .42  ±.40  + .94  Fultz  +1.30  Gold Coin.  + .09  -.42 ±.45  Gypsy  + .42  ±.40  Grail F i f e  35  Dawson's G. Chaff  +  +2.08  +1.64  - .08  ±.52  - .02  ±.45  +1*27  ±.55  +1.63  ±.49  .00  £.37  + .37 ±.72  +1.10 •  ±.40 ±.39 •fc.  -.40  ±.40  ;  .00  £.32  ±.53  •V .33  ±.46  +2.02  ±.57  +1.58  ±.49  ±.70  +'2.17  ±.57  +1.10  ±.48  1,04  ±.70  +1,32  ±.55 : +1.25  ±.48  - ,06  ±.68  + .94  ±.55  + .58  ±.47  +1.70  ±.72  +2.02  £.57  +1.65  £.49  - .26  ±. 67  +1.50  ±.72  H W * >  +2.07  ±.57  +1.73  ±.49  TABLE 6 (cont.) VARIETIES OP PALL WHEAT  U.B.C MTNCASTER KAMLOOPS 'ARMSTRONG *Crail Fife 8.14 • C r a i l Fife 11.30 *Crail F i f e 14.23 •Crail Fife 12.95 •Crail Fife 11.40 ±.27. ±.48 ±.32 ±,26 Biff. P.E. of D i f f . P.E.. of .D i f f . P.E. of D i f f . P.E.of Diff, P.E. of • Diff. Diff. Biff, Diff. ., +,.86 ±•40 +2,54 +1.77 ±.41 ±".72 +2.40 • ±.57 +1.75 ±.49 .  ...  Harvest King  ...  +1.18  . £...41  +1.68.  MP  " Kan. +1.08  ±.41  +1.90  '±.40  +1,84  Imperial Amber  +1*02  *.41  + .76  ±.38:  + .52  Jones* Pife  + ,46  f.42  + .18  -.37  - ,36  Kanred  + .54  -.40^  +1.44  -.40  Kharkof  + *9Q  ±.40  +1.50  Leap  + *64  ±.40  Mealy  + .34  Michigan Amber  Harvest Queen CI  +1.60  ±.5S  +1.10  ±.48  +1.75  ±.56  +1.65  ±.49  +1.22  ±.55  + .98  ±.47  -.67  + .47  ±.54  + .43  ±.47  +1.04  -.70  +1.00  -.55  + .80  -.47  ^ 40  + .60  ±.69  +1.45  —.56  + .93  ±.47  +1,46  ±.40  + .80  ±*69  +1.65.  #.56  +1.45  ±.49  ±.40  +1.10  ±.39  + .97  ±.70  + .85  ±.55  + ,80  ±.47  + .30^  ±.37  +2.10  ±.40  +1.47  ±.72  +1.52  ±.56  +1,35  ±.46  Minhardi.  + .74  ±.40  +1.40  ±.40  + .30  ±.69  + .92  i.55  +1.05  ±.47  O.A.C. 104  + ,71  ±.43  + .83  ±.41  + .82  + .55  ±.54  + .70  ±.47  Parasar  - .10  ±.40  + .78  ±.38  + .70  ±.69  +1.37  ±.55  + .85  ±.47  Poole  +1.16  ±.41  +2.14  ±.40  +2.04  ±.73  +1.85  ±.57  +2.00  ±.50  Harvest  ±.72  TABLE 6 (concl.)  U.B.C* ' ' sALiof ARE; Crail Fife 8.14 C r a i l F i f e 11.30 ±,2? ±.26 P.E* of B i f f . P.E. of Diff. .... Diff. - .16 ±.40 ±.40 + .58 Prohibition Purple Straw ±.41 +1.34 +2,52 ±.42 ±.42 ±.42 +2.94 +1.54 Red Rook ±.38; + .84 Red Velvet Chaff + .96 ±.40 +.40 ±.37 - .22 + .12Red Wave VARIETIES OP PALL WHEAT  :MWC ASTER KAM.00BS C r a i l Fife 14.23 C r a i l Fife 12*93 ±.37 . D i f f . ' P.E. o fi D i f f . . P.E. of Diff. . Diff. +1.42 +1.82 ±.55 : ±,57 ; +2.15 +2..14 i.73 +2.80 , ±.58 +2.-40 ±.74 + .87 ±.68 ±.55 - .06 ±,67 .00 - .33 +.52  ARMSTRONG Crail Fife 11.40 ±.32 D i f f . P.E, of Diff. + .48 •±.47 ±.50 +1.85 ±.50 +2.33 +1.00 ±.47 1.-45 - .10  1  :  ;  +1.97  ±.57  + .98  ±.47  +3-4? +3.90  '. ±.60 ±.61  +2.90 +3.08  ±.51  +1.87  -.57  +1.13  ±.48  ±.57 ±.57 ±.55 +.56 ±.55 -.57  +1.53 .88 + .78 +1,20: + .35 +1.80  +.49 ±.47 ±.47 +.48 ±.46  ±»41.. ;•-+1,34  ±.70 ±.72 ±.72 ±.69 ±.71  +2.12 +2.0-2 +2*15 +1,72 + .80 +1*82  ±.50  ±.38  ±.70  + .67  ±.54  + .78  ±.47  Red Winter  +1,46  ±.45  +1.95  ±.44  +1,97  Rocky Mountain Rudy Weibul  +1.56 +£.30  +3.36 +3.74  ±.43 -.44  Standard Weibul  - .10  ±.42 ±.44 ±.38  +1.62  ±.40  +3.27 +3,34 + .92  Svea Turkey Red Q. Turkey Red Wis. Wash. Sun White Winter taraslav  + -..=51 +1.42 +1.28 + .26 + *20 +1.16  ±,42 ±*42 ±.41 ±.40 ±*40 ±.48  +2,08 +1*34 +1.50 +1.90 + .64 +2,36  ±.44 ±.40 ±.40 ±.40 ±.38  +1.72 + .84 +1.47 +1.50 + .44  Zimmerman  + .34  ±.40  + .84  +1*17  ±.76 —.76  •  TABLE 7 Summary of the number o f V a r i e t a l D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the D i s t r i c t s of U. B. 0., Salmon Arm, Eamloops and Armstrong;  Differences U.B.O * Significant Differences  Number of Years S t u d i e d  25  11  Questionable Differences Hot S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s  Districts Salmon Arm Eamloops  '  -  ••  Armstrong  •18  13  2  2  28  14  20  25  5  5  4  4  - 44 TABLE 8  Showing the Average Protein Content of 36 Varieties of F a l l Wheat f o r 1935 and 1936 for the Districts of: 1. U.B.C, 2. Kami oops, v.3. Brides.ville, 4. Armstrong. PROTEM . GO^TEN'T BY DISTRICTS. Ave. P.O. U.B.C Kamloops Brides.T Armstrong for a l l Districts ville  VARIETIES OP . FALL WHEAT. American Banner Burbank China Grail Fife * Dawson's Golden Chaff Early Genesee Giant Foreign Forty-fold Fultz Gold Coin Gypsy Harvest King Harvest Queen Harvest Queen Kan. Imperial Amber Jones' Fife Kanred . Kharkof Leap Mealy Michigan Amber Minhardi 0.A.C 104 Pansar Poole Prohibition Purple Straw Red Rock Red Velvet Chaff Red Wave Red Winter Rocky Mountain Standard Weibul Turkey Red Que. Turkey Red Wis, Washington Sun  10.0 10.4 11.9 9*8 10, 0 12.6 11.8 11.1 11.5 10.3 12.2. 11.5 12.0 13.8 12.6 11.1 12,7 12.1 11.0 10.2 11.1 12.1 11.6 10, 6 11.8 11.1 12.9 12*9 12.1 10.8 12.8 13.0 10.7 11.0 11.7 9.7  12.2 12.0 13.3 12.4 11*7 13.5 13.9 12.5 13.9 12.3 14.9 14.0 13.8 13*"2 12.6 13.4 13.2 13.2 12.3 12.7 12.8 11.9 13.2 14.5 14.1  iITs 12.2 11.9 — —»  —  13.2 12.5 13.1 12.2 12.8 14*6 14.4 13.1 14.3 12.7 14.3 14.1 14.3 14*7 13.9 13.0 13^2 13.8 14*0 13,2 13* 3 13. Q 14.3 13*4 14*3 14*9 12.8 12,7 14.1 . 16*2 14,1 14.3 15.9 14.0  •Average for 3 Districts Only*  11.0 10.5 12.4 10.3 10.5 12.5 13.0 II.8 12.4 11.5 12.3 12.7 12.6 13.3 12.1 12.1 12.7 12.2 11.9 11* 6 12.6 12.6 12.0 11.0 13.3 11.0 3 13. 6 11.9 10.9 13.0 13.6 11.7 . .11.4 12.6 11.5  11.60 11.30 12.68 11.18 11.25 13.30 13.28 12.13 13.03 11.70 13.43 13.08 13.18 13.93* 12.95 12.20 12.93* 12.50* 12.33 11.98 12.60 12.68 12.20 11.95 13.48 12.40 13.50* 13.93 12.25 11.58, 13.30* 14.27* 12.17* 12*23* 12.73* 11.73*  - 45 * * From a study of the data i n Tables 6 and V, i t can be seen t h a t v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e s are n o t so apparent as p l a c e or s e a s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  A l s o the  f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were noted: (a) Where the s e a s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s are not s i g n i f i c a n t t h e r e a r e a l s o the l e a s t s i g n i f i cant v a r i e t a l differences® (b) Where there are no s i g n i f i c a n t s e a s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s there are s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ences as r e g a r d s p l a c e and a l s o v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , although these a r e no t so apparent. I t may be n o t i c e d t h a t Salmon Arm, Kamloops and Armstrong  show the same tendencies as r e g a r d s the v a r -  i e t i e s , b e i n g h i g h e r or lower i n p r o t e i n content is Grail Fife•  than  These r e g i o n s a r e more adapted to  growing h i g h - p r o t e i n wheat than are U.B.C. and Myncaster.  U.B.C, and Myncaster  a r e the extremes  U.B.C. having 50-80 i n c h e s of r a i n f a l l , and Myncaster 9-12 i n c h e s .  The c l i m a t e a t U.B.C, and Myncaster  tends to mask the h e r e d i t a r y d i f f e r e n c e s . A l s o , i f c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r growing wheat, (U.B.C. and M y n c a s t e r ) , v a r i a t i o n s due to v a r i e t y a r e not s p e c i f i c and a r e a f f e c t e d by  climatic  c o n d i t i o n s to a l a r g e e x t e n t , 2.  Data 1955-56: As the data cover only two y e a r s , the Ganadian  P l a n t B r e e d e r s ' Method, or the method as suggested by M i l l s , i s not a p p l i c a b l e .  - 46 ;  The averages f o r each wheat f o r 4 o r 5 d i s t r i c t s  are shown i n Table Observations: -  8, In g e n e r a l , v a r i e t a l  differences  are n o t s p e c i f i c ; c e r t a i n l y not so s p e c i f i c as s e a s o n a l differences* Under extreme or poor c o n d i t i o n s , v a r i a t i o n s due to v a r i e t y are a f f e c t e d and masked by c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s * Where the e f f e c t of c l i m a t e i s minimized, there be some v a r i a t i o n i n p r o t e i n content due to v a r i e t a l  may dif-  ferences* S p r i n g Wheats (1)  E f f e c t of Seasonal  Differences:  F i r s t a study of the e f f e c t of seasons on the p r o t e i n content was made and the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s observed: 1. A t U*B*C * the s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n as between the y e a r s 1935 and 1936 showed very s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as r e g a r d s p r o t e i n content* The year 1955 gave h i g h e r p r o t e i n contents i n a l l 25 v a r i e t i e s . I t might be mentioned here that i n the case of the f a l l wheats, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ences were found f o r any of the years compared a t U.B.C* 3* A t Quick S t a t i o n the s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n f o r the two years as r e g a r d s the p r o t e i n c o n t e n t was f a i r l y s i g n i f i c a n t * although not so s i g n i f i c a n t as at U*B«C • The year 1955 gave h i g h e r p r o t e i n content i n 17 v a r i e t i e s and lower p r o t e i n c o n t e n t in 6 varieties, 5* A t Dewey, the s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n f o r the two years as r e g a r d s p r o t e i n content was v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t * Dewey shows even more s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s than at U.B.C. The year 1955 a l s o gave h i g h e r prot e i n c o n t e n t i n a l l 23 v a r i e t i e s .  4, 'At Smithers the s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n f o r the two y e a r s as r e g a r d s p r o t e i n content was very s i g n i f i c a n t , although not so s i g n i f i c a n t as a t U,B,0. and Dewey, but more so than a t Quick S t a t i o n * The year 1935 a l s o gave h i g h e r p r o t e i n c o n t e n t i n a l l 23 v a r i e t i e s . 5. A t Vanderhoof the s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n f o r the two years as r e g a r d s p r o t e i n content i s a l s o very s i g n i f i c a n t * b e i n g more s i g n i f i c a n t than a t Dewey. There were o n l y 17 v a r i e t i e s t e s t e d a t C r e s t o n and a l l o f these showed s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n . Thus i t may be concluded  t h a t as f a r as s e a s o n a l  v a r i a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t on p r o t e i n content are concerned, the r e s u l t s secured would i n d i c a t e  t h a t very s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s may occur i n t h e p r o t e i n content as a r e s u l t of s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n . T h i s i s i n a c c o r d w i t h r e s u l t s from f a l l wheat, and w i t h any p r e v i o u s work done on t h i s s u b j e c t , (2)  E f f e c t of Place Differences: Secondly, as r e g a r d s v a r i a t i o n i n p r o t e i n  content  due to p l a c e , because r e s u l t s f o r o n l y two y e a r s were available  f o r the s p r i n g wheats, some method o t h e r  the Canadian P l a n t B r e e d e r s showing t h i s .  9  than  Method was n e c e s s a r y f o r  A method o f comparing averages, as sug-  gested by M i l l s ( S t a t i s t i c a l Methods), was used; Comparisons were made between U.B.C, and each of the other f i v e s t a t i o n s , namely:  Quick S t a t i o n , Dewey,  S m i t h e r s , Vanderhoof and C r e s t o n . were o b t a i n e d :  The f o l l o w i n g  results  1, U.B.C. and Quick Station. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as regards p r o t e i n content, between these two stations,, 3. U.B.C, and Dewey No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between these two s t a t i o n s as r e g a r d s p r o t e i n content. 3, U.B.C, and S m i t h e r s S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as r e g a r d s p r o t e i n c o n t e n t between these two s t a t i o n s . 4. U.B.C, and Yanderhoof H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as regards p r o t e i n eontent between these two s t a t i o n s . 5« U.B.C, and C r e s t o n JJO s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s as regards p r o t e i n content between these two s t a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s show t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n p r o t e i n content due to p l a c e ( p l u s c l i m a t e i n d i r e c t l y ) were s i g n i f i c a n t i n c e r t a i n eases, namely:  U.B.C. and Quick S t a t i o n ,  U.B.C. and S m i t h e r s , U.B.O. and Yanderhoof;  and n o t i n  o t h e r s : U.B.C. and Dewey, and U.B.C, and C r e s t o n . These r e s u l t s a r e i n accordance w i t h what would be expected when ''weather" r e p o r t s are s t u d i e d . The r e s u l t s would a l s o i n d i c a t e that c l i m a t e i s the dominant f a c t o r , r a t h e r than s o i l * i n changing p r o t e i n content. The  above r e s u l t s a r e n o t c o n c l u s i v e , because of l a c k  of s u f f i c i e n t d a t a , b u t they do I n d i c a t e c e r t a i n tendenc i e s , which i t i s hoped w i l l l e a d to f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n this (3)  field. E f f e c t of V a r i e t a l D i f f e r e n c e s ; T h i r d l y , as r e g a r d s v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , because the  - 49  data o n l y cover  -  two years the Canadian P l a n t  Method c o u l d not he used.  Breeders'  N e i t h e r c o u l d the method used  i n f i n d i n g p l a c e d i f f e r e n c e s he employed i n t h i s  case,  because N (number) was below 10 and any r e s u l t s would n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t *  Therefore no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s as r e -  gards v a r i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be drawn under these c i r cumstanoes.  I t was deemed a d v i s a b l e , however, to average  each v a r i e t y f o r a l l d i s t r i c t s , and these are shown i n Table 9.  TABLE 9 Showing the Average Protein Content of 23 Varieties of Spring Wheat f o r 1927-31 by Districts and the Average Protein Content for Each Variety for a l l Districts.  • • PROTEIN CONTENT BY DISTRICTS Quick U.B.C. Dewey Smith- Yander- Creston Ave. P.O. Stetacn ers hoof for a l l Districts  VARIETIES OF SPRING- WHEAT Baart Bishop Ottawa Box x Federation  12.0 11.2 11.7 9.9 10.9 11.4 9.6 9.0 10.5  11.4 10.1 9.0  15.1 15.1 13.8  11.9 11.4 10.1  12.22 11.47 10.33  Bunyip  12.1 11.2 11.8  10.6  15.5  11.5  12.12  Charlottetown 123  11.4  9.7 12.0  10.2  15.9  11.7  Dicklow  9.6  8.4 10.6  8.5  15,1  9.9  10.35  Federation Federatiai x Dickl ow  9,6 '9.5  '9.0 10.1 9.1 11.1  8.9 9.3  1-4.2 14.2  10.1 9,7  10.32 10.48  12.5  10.8  15*2  12.1  10.9  s  11.82  Garnet  12.8  Jenkins  10.5  9.4 12.3  9,8  15,2  12 • 35 11.44*  L i t t l e Club Wash.  10.2  9.9 12.4  10.1  15,2  11.56*  Margjuls Ottawa  15.0 10.6  11.6  11.2  16,0  Mindum.  12,1 10.3 12.2  10.1  15. B  Onas  10.5  9.6  9*4  14.0  9.8  10,33  Pacific Bluestem  10.3 10.4 12.2  10.1  15.6  10.4  11.50  Peli&sier  12.6  10.9  13,0  10.5  15.5  Red Bobs 222  11.4  9,8 10.6  10.4  14.9  11.7  11.47  Red Chaff  11.1  9,8 11.8  10.1  15,1  JLX© 3  11*53  Reward  14.3 12.0  13.2  12.1  16*7  13.8  13,68  Vermilion Y/hite Russian  11.5  9.5 11.2  10,3  15.7  11.4  11.60  9,6 12.0  9.9  15.8  11.7  11.85  P11craw  12.1 9,9  8.9 10.6  9,4  14.3  Monad  12.4  9.7 12.2  9.9  15.3  8.7  •Average f o r 5 D i s t r i c t s Only.  12.3  12.45 12.04*  12,50*  10.62*  •— •  11.90*  - 51 -  ( c) SUMMARY OF ABOVE OBSERVATIONS 1.  V a r i a t i o n s i n p r o t e i n content due to seasonal d i f -  f e r e n c e s are c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by t h i s study* Seasonal d i f f e r e n c e s a r e o f primary importance i n det e r m i n i n g the p r o t e i n content of wheat* 2*  V a r i a t i o n s i n p r o t e i n content due to p l a c e d i f f e r -  ences a r e not so apparent, but a r e i n d i c a t e d ; "The c o n c l u s i o n  i s i n e s c a p a b l e that c l i m a t e very  l a r g e l y determines s o i l c h a r a c t e r and t h a t to a l a r g e e x t e n t the e f f e c t of s o i l upon, wheat q u a l i t y i s l i k e l y to prove i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s a c l i m a t i c e f f e c t a c t i n g through the agency of the s o i l . " 3,  V a r i a t i o n s i n p r o t e i n content due to v a r i e t a l  differ-  ences a r e n o t so apparent, a l t h o u g h they a r e i n d i c a t e d under good growing  conditions*  The above q u a n t i t a t i v e evidence i s supported by q u a l i t a t i v e evidence one t h i s work.  F o r example:  C a l i f o r n i a , Kansas and Maryland s o i l s were i n t e r c h a n g e d and wheat grown on them* case resembled  The c h a r a c t e r o f the wheat i n each  t h a t of the wheat i n the l o c a l i t y to which i t  had been t r a n s f e r r e d . A l s o , wheat was grown i n C a l i f o r n i a , Kansas and Maryland from seed from other l o c a l i t i e s .  The crop resembled the wheat  grown i n these new d i s t r i c t s more c l o s e l y than t h a t i n which  - 52 -  the seed was produced, A t y p i c a l l y hard wheat, when grown under adverse  condi-  t i o n s , w i l l be a l o w - p r o t e i n wheat, and when a t y p i c a l l y  soft  wheat i s grown under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s i t w i l l produce a h i g h - p r o t e i n wheat, although not so h i g h as hard wheats. There i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y . example, h i g h p r o t e i n wheats have been developed  For  i n regions  where the wheat commonly grown i s s o f t and weak. An attempt was made to c o r r e l a t e c l i m a t e ( r a i n f a l l and temperature)  w i t h p r o t e i n c o n t e n t , but because the data o n l y  covered 6 y e a r s , c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s y i e l d e d no s a t i s f a c t o r y results.  However, other s t u d i e s have been made on t h i s sub-  j e c t and the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s  observed:  George A. Olson, i n h i s a r t i c l e :  ''Factors A f f e e t i n g the  N i t r o g e n Content o f Wheat", s t a t e s t h a t a l o n g , m o i s t  growing  season produced l o w - p r o t e i n wheat, whereas a s h o r t , d r y growing  season produced h i g h - p r o t e i n wheat, H, F, Roberts  concerned,  states:  "So f a r as c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s a r e  a s h o r t , c o m p a r a t i v e l y dry growing  season,  especial-  l y i n s p r i n g i n the case o f w i n t e r wheat, f a v o u r s the development o f g r a i n r i c h i n g l u t e n and hence h i g h i n p r o t e i n . " A l s o Roberts s t a t e s :  "The primary f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the  c o m p o s i t i o n of wheat appear to be c l i m a t i c ,  n  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t many e x p e r i m e n t a l farms i n Canada  sug-  gest t h a t the d i s t r i c t producing the h i g h e s t p r o t e i n wheats are those e s p e c i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by markedly h i g h maximum  - 55 temperatures and low p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g the developing and r i p e n i n g stages o f the g r a i n . As regards  the p r o d u c t i o n o f s o f t wheat, i t seems that i n  the main t h i s depends on the v a g a r i e s o f the c l i m a t e .  The  o n l y areas where s o f t wheat c o u l d be produced i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia a r e a t the Goast or under I r r i g a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .  Even  when grown under Goast c o n d i t i o n s , the p r o t e i n content would be l i m i t e d by c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s from year to y e a r . i r r i g a t e d c o n d i t i o n s i t would n o t be economical,  Under  so i t i s  u n l i k e l y t h a t the growing o f l o w - p r o t e i n wheats i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d be a dependable or p r o f i t a b l e venture, and u n l e s s a l o w - p r o t e i n content wheat c o u l d be found i t might be better l e f t  alone.  The above c o n c l u s i o n s a r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d by other  studies  on t h i s same problem, namely: The Vancouver M i l l i n g Company i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia agreed to send D r . G.G. Moe as an observer  to the U n i t e d S t a t e s to study the c o n d i t i o n s under x  which these s o f t wheats were grown© this t r i p were.to.findj  The primary o b j e c t s of  f i r s t , th© sources o f the s o f t wheats  t h a t were b e i n g purchased f o r p a s t r y purposes; second, the s p e c i f i c areas adapted to s o f t wheat p r o d u c t i o n ; t h i r d , the normal v a r i a t i o n i n p r o t e i n content o f the wheats grown i n the I n l a n d Empire; and f o u r t h , l o w - p r o t e i n v a r i e t i e s , i f any.  36  From t h i s study the observer noted t h a t w h i l e c a r s o f Proceedings o f the F i f t h P a c i f i c Science Congress, V o l , I V , 1933,  s o f t wheat were a v a i l a b l e from time to time, there was no d e f i n i t e point of o r i g i n *  They came from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s  s c a t t e r e d throughout the S t a t e s of Washington, Oregon and Idaho*  Thus, w h i l e a c e r t a i n number of c a r s o f s o f t wheat  were a v a i l a b l e each year, there was no d e f i n i t e area from which t h i s wheat came* There were l o w - p r o t e i n wheats produced i n the Puget Sound a r e a , E l l e n s b u r g d i s t r i c t , ( i r r i g a t e d ) and the W i l l a m e t t e V a l l e y i n Oregon ( c o a s t c o n d i t i o n s ) * I t was concluded from t h i s study t h a t no v a r i e t i e s that were b e i n g grown i n these American areas would, i f grown i n the  wheat areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, produce a l o w - p r o t e i n  wheat, CONCLUSIONS From the above d i s c u s s i o n i t was concluded t h a t c l i m a t e and  s o i l are the major determinants as f a r as p r o t e i n content  i s concerned*  T h e r e f o r e one o f the major problems would seem  to be t h a t o f a d a p t i n g v a r i e t i e s to c l i m a t i c and s o i l c o n d i tions* the  T h i s would e n t a i l a c a r e f u l and s c i e n t i f i c  study of  d i f f e r e n t wheat d i s t r i c t s , as w e l l as any p r o s p e c t i v e  wheat d i s t r i c t s ,  to determine what wheats c o u l d be grown to  advantage i n each o f these  districts.  I t seems that the p r o d u c t i o n o f s o f t wheats depends i n the  main on the v a g a r i e s o f c l i m a t e a l s o , and i n a l l p r o b a b i l -  i t y would not be an economical v e n t u r e *  - 55 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, A,C, H i s t o r y o f the North-West Coast* From t h e copy i n t h e Academy of the P a c i f i c Coast H i s t o r y . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , California. B a n c r o f t , H. H. H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. H i s t o r y Company. 1887. Begbie, M« B, Columbia.  The  Journey i n t o The I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h E x c e r p t from R.G.S. J o u r n a l ,  Begg, A, H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia• W. B r i g g s , T o r o n t o , 1894, B u l l e r , A, H. R• Essays on Wheat The M a c M i l l a n Company, New York. 1919. F o r t u n e , A, L, C o l l e c t i o n of Addresses and N a r r a t i v e s . (Whereabouts of m a n u s c r i p t s from which these t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were made i s unknown.) Graham, D. D i a r y . U.B.C. L i b r a r y . Harmon, D.W. Voyages and T r a v e l s , F i r s t E d i t i o n . Andover, Mass. 1820. E d i t e d by D., H a s k e l . Howay, F. W. B r i t i s h Columbia, V o l . I I . The Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto. 1928. " M i l l s , F, W, S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, H*. H o l t & .Co., New York. 1938. Moxon, W, Wheat S t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r B.S.A. a t U.B.C., 1936, Mozino, -  N o t i c i a s De Nutka,  Ormsby, M. A * A Study of the Okanagan V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1931. S p r o a t , G, M. B r i t i s h Columbia. W, Clowes & Sons, London. 1876.  Thomson, F« L. A g r i c u l t u r a l P r i c e s . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. I n c . , Hew York and London. 1936. Wagner, Fuca.  Spanish E x p l o r a t i o n s i n the S t r a i t of Juan de  P r o c e e d i n g s of the F i f t h P a c i f i c S c i e n c e Congress, V o l . I V . The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n Agronomic R e s e a r c h . Canadian Seed Growers• A s s o c i a t i o n , Ottawa, 1929.  Ontario.  S e a r l e G r a i n Company R e p o r t s . Winnipeg, Manitoba. Monthly B u l l e t i n s of A g r i c u l t u r a l Ottawa, O n t a r i o .  Statistics,  F o r t Langley, B r i t i s h Columbia. Correspondence r e l a t i n g to F o r t L a n g l e y , 1832-1859• C o p i e d from t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y , V i c t o r i a , B..G • • ••  B r i t i s h Columbia - 60 Years of P r o g r e s s .  F o r t Langley, 1827-1927 - A Century of S e t t l e m e n t i n the V a l l e y of the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r . Denys N e l s o n , Vancouver.  

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