UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Red River architecture, 1812-1870 Wade, Jill 1967

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RED RIVER ARCHITECTURE, 1812-1870 b y J I L L WADE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1963 B.L.S., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967 A THE S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i n e A r t s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1967 I n presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Pine A r t s . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada. September, 1967« i RED RIVER ARCHITECTURE, 1812-1870 i i ABSTRACT The t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t b e t w e e n 1812 when t h e S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s f i r s t a r r i v e d a t R e d R i v e r a n d 1870 when t h e p r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n . I t s o b j e c t i v e s a r e ( i ) t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s o n R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d ( ' i i ) t o e x a m i n e t h e p l a c e o f t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e R e d R i v e r e n v i r o n m e n t . R e s e a r c h c o n s i s t e d o f f i e l d w o r k a n d e x a m i n a t i o n o f w r i t t e n a n d p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l . A l m o s t a l l t h e e x t a n t b u i l d i n g s w e r e v i s i t e d , p h o t o g r a p h e d , a n d , i n some i n s t a n c e s , m e a s u r e d . P r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y a n d t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t w e re u s e d , a n d o r i g i n a l a n d r e p r o d u c e d p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l was e x a m i n e d . I t h a s b e e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e common l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t was t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e , a l s o known a s t h e R e d R i v e r f r a m e , t h e " p o t e a u x s u r s o l e " , a n d " p i e c e s u r p i e c e " . The Hudson's B a y s t y l e was u s e d i n t h e t r a d e o f t h e N o r t h West Company a n d l a t e r t h e Hu d s o n ' s B a y Company, a n d i t was a d o p t e d b y t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s a t R e d R i v e r f r o m t h e f u r t r a d e r s who p r e c e d e d them i n t h e a r e a . I t was u s e d i n h o u s e s a n d c h u r c h e s , a s w e l l a s o u t b u i l d i n g s , s t o r e s , a n d s c h o o l s . I t became o u t m o d e d a f t e r I87O when d i f f e r e n t l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n m e t h o d s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , a n d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s w e re i n t r o d u c e d b y s e t t l e r s f r o m i i i O n t a r i o . I t h a s a l s o b e e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e l a r g e s t o n e a n d wood h o u s e s o f t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t w e re b u i l t i n a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company. The s t y l e o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e A n g l o - N o r m a n b u i l d i n g s o f F r e n c h C a n a d a a n d i n t h e l a i r d ' s h o u s e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y S c o t -l a n d . A t R e d R i v e r , i t was a d o p t e d f o r t h e homes o f t h e n a t u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t f r o m t h e f u r t r a d e b u i l d i n g s w h i c h were b u i l t a t U p p e r F o r t G a r r y a n d L o w e r F o r t G a r r y a f t e r 1830. C h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e i n R e d R i v e r was i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i t e c t u r e o f F r e n c h C a n a d a a n d E n g l a n d . The Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s were b u i l t i n t h e s t y l e o f Thomas B a i l l a i r g e , w h e r e a s t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s i n t e g r a t e d G o t h i c R e v i v a l d e t a i l w i t h t h e b o x - l i k e f o r m common t o R e d R i v e r b u i l d i n g s . The P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h e s t e n d e d t o f o l l o w t h e s t y l e o f t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s w i t h some m i n o r a d a p t -a t i o n s . The p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e s o n R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e w e r e t h u s B r i t i s h a n d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n i n o r i g i n . The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t was e s s e n t i a l l y a r i v e r s i d e v i l l a g e . I t s b u i l d i n g s s t o o d i n a row a l o n g t h e b a n k s o f t h e r i v e r s . The l i n e a r a r r a n g e m e n t was r e l i e v e d b y t h e w i n d i n g r i v e r s a n d p u n c t u a t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , b y t h e l o c a t i o n o f i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g s o n t h e b e n d s o f t h e r i v e r s , a n d b y t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s i v i n t h e f o r t s , m i s s i o n s a n d f a r m - y a r d s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE L I S T OF PLATES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i PREFACE 1 C h a p t e r . I . THE HUDSON' S BAY STYLE l± I I . RED RIVER HOUSES 27 R e d R i v e r H o u s e s i n W i n t e r t i m e I I I . RED RIVER CHURCHES Sk The C a t h e d r a l s o f S t . B o n i f a c e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h e s i n t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e -ment The K i r k o f K i l d o n a n A f t e r m a t h I V . THE RED RIVER SETTLEMENT 100 C o n e l u s i o n s BIBLIOGRAPHY 123 APPENDICES 135 I . L I S T OF EXTANT RED RIVER ARCHITECTURE I I . L I S T OF RED RIVER CHURCHES, 1812-1870 I I I . RED RIVER MASONS I V . B R I E F BIOGRAPHIES OF PERSONS MENTIONED I N THE TEXT INDEX TO RED RIVER BUILDINGS llj . 8 v i L I S T OP PLATES PLATE PAGE I . The H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e o f l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n . . 5 I I . O r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g , P o r t L a n g l e y 7 I I I . R e s t o r e d b u i l d i n g , F o r t L a n g l e y 8 I V . R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t , 1817 10 V. G r e y Nuns' h o u s e (I8I4.6> d u r i n g r e s t o r a t i o n . 12 V I . D e t a i l o f a p a r t i t i o n , G r e y Nuns' h o u s e .... 13 V I I . J o h n I n k s t e r ' s s t o r e , S e v e n Oaks h o u s e 16 V I I I . S t o n e w a r e h o u s e , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , b u i l t 1832-33 20 I X . The N o r ' W e s t e r o f f i c e 23 X. Map s h o w i n g e x t a n t R e d R i v e r h o u s e s 26 X I . The b i g h o u s e , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , b e g u n 1830. 29 X I I . A t y p i c a l p l a n o f a l a r g e one s t o r e y R e d R i v e r h o u s e 31 X I I I . The S c o t t h o u s e , n e a r S t . Andrew's C h u r c h .. 32 X I V . S e v e n O a k s , J o h n I n k s t e r ' s h o u s e , b u i l t 1851 3k XV. S t . Andrew's r e c t o r y , a s p h o t o g r a p h e d b y Hime, 1857-58 37 X V I . M i s s D a v i s ' s c h o o l , o r T w i n Oaks ItO X V I I . A t y p i c a l p l a n o f a l a r g e two s t o r e y R e d R i v e r h o u s e 4-2 X V I I I . E v e c h e , S t . B o n i f a c e , b e g u n 1839 kS X I X . P l a n , E v e c h e , S t . B o n i f a c e , b e g u n I839 lj.8 XX. Map s h o w i n g R e d R i v e r c h u r c h e s 53 X X I . The f i r s t S t . B o n i f a c e c h u r c h 56 X X I I . J o h n West's c h u r c h , o p e n e d 1822 58 v i i L I S T OP PLATES - C o n t i n u e d . PLATE PAGE X X I I I . S t . B o n i f a c e C a t h e d r a l , b e g u n 1833 61 X X I V . S t . B o n i f a c e C a t h e d r a l , b e g u n 1862 66 XXV. S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h , b u i l t 1832 70 X X V I . S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h , o r M i d d l e C h u r c h , b u i l t c a . I844 73 X X V I I . S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h , b e g u n 181+5, as p h o t o -g r a p h e d b y Hime, 1857-58 76 X X V I I I . P l a n , S t . Andrew's C h u r c h 78 X X I X . Window, S t . P e t e r ' s C h u r c h , b e g u n 1853 80 XXX. S t . Anne's C h u r c h , P o p l a r P o i n t , b e g u n 1862. 83 X X X I . S t . C l e m e n t ' s C h u r c h , M a p l e t o n , b e g u n i860 . 85 X X X I I . S t . J o h n ' s C a t h e d r a l , b u i l t 1861, a s i t a p p e a r e d i n 1900 87 X X X I I I . K i l d o n a n , b u i l t 1852 90 X X X I V . P l a n , K l l d o n a n C h u r c h 92 XXXV. D e t a i l o f V e r a n d a h P o s t s , S e v e n Oaks 96 X X X V I . H e x a g o n a l p r i v y , A r c h e v e c h e , S t . B o n i f a c e .. 97 X X X V I I . House i n t h e Hudson's Bay s t y l e , S e l k i r k , M a n i t o b a 98. X X X V I I I . Copy o f a Map o f a P o r t i o n o f R u p e r t ' s L a n d . 101 X X X I X . U p p e r P o r t G a r r y 105 XL. Andrew McDermot's s t o r e 112 X L I . L o w e r P o r t G a r r y , t h e S t o n e P o r t 116 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many p e o p l e a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e a s s i s t e d me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r . P r o f e s s o r s A b raham R o g a t n i c k a n d W o l f g a n g G e r s o n o f t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d P r o f e s s o r s B.C. B i n n i n g a n d I a n M c N a i r n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P i n e A r t s h a v e h e l p e d me b e g i n , c o n t i n u e a n d c o m p l e t e i t . The G l e n -bow F o u n d a t i o n i n C a l g a r y p e r m i t t e d me t h e u s e o f t h e F i n l a y s k e t c h e s a n d p r o v i d e d a summer's e m p l o y m e n t . I n W i n n i p e g , I was a b l e t o u s e t h e T a y l o r j o u r n a l a n d t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n a t t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , a n d , i n T o r o n t o , o n l i b r a r y s c h o o l f i e l d w o r k , I was g i v e n t h e f r e e d o m t o e x a m i n e t h e J o h n R o s s R o b e r t s o n C o l l e c t i o n a t t h e T o r o n t o P u b l i c L i b r a r y . B u t p e r h a p s I am most a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e t e a a n d s t o r i e s a n d e n t h u s i a s m f r e e l y g i v e n b y t h o s e who showed me t h r o u g h t h e R e d R i v e r h o u s e s a n d c h u r c h e s a n d t a l k e d a b o u t t h e m w i t h me. 1. PREFACE The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s a n o a s i s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s . I t was s i t u a t e d i n t h e g r a s s l a n d s o f c e n t r a l N o r t h A m e r i c a , r e m o t e f r o m B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d t h e C a n a d i a n c o l o n i e s , a n d s u b j e c t e d t o a r i g o r o u s c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e o f l o n g , c o l d w i n t e r s a n d s h o r t , h o t , a n d d r y summers. I t became a n o u t p o s t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f u r t r a d e r s o f t h e N o r t h West Company a n d t h e H u d s o n ' s Ba y Company a n d t h e S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s i n t h e e a r l y n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . L a t e r , i t was a l s o p o p u l a t e d b y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s , S w i s s c o l o n i s t s , s o l d i e r s , c l e r g y m e n , r e t i r e d f u r t r a d e r s , a n d e x p l o r e r s a n d a d v e n t u r e r s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e n a t i v e S a u l t e a u x I n d i a n s . By 1870, t h e p o p u l a t i o n was l a r g e l y m e t i s , o r m i x e d b l o o d , a n d was a b o u t e q u a l l y F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g . F o r f i v e d e c a d e s , t h e s e t t l e m e n t s u p p o r t e d t h e f u r t r a d e b y t h e b u f f a l o h u n t a n d t h e r i v e r l o t . V e r y l i t t l e i n d u s t r y o u t s i d e t h e a c t i v -i t i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company f o r t s d e v e l -o p e d . L i f e was r e a s o n a b l y p e a c e f u l b e t w e e n t h e h o s t i l i t i e s o f t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t a n d t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n o f 1869-70 a n d c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h e s a n d t h e f o r t s . The q u i e t i s o l a t i o n o f R e d R i v e r g r a d u a l l y e n d e d a s t h e A m e r i c a n f r o n t i e r moved w e s t w a r d s . F i n a l l y , i n 1870, t h e p r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a was c r e a t e d , a n d h o m e s t e a d e r s f r o m C a n a d a , E u r o p e , a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e g a n t o f l o o d t h e West. 2. A d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d t h e w i l d e r n e s s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t . T h e r e h a v e b e e n f e w a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e o r e x p l a i n t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e . M i l t o n O s b o r n e a n d J o h n Graham h a v e w r i t t e n a l i t t l e a b o u t i t , a n d o t h e r s h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n p r e v a l e n t a t R e d R i v e r . Some r e s e a r c h o n R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e was t h e r e f o r e n e e d e d . T h i s p a p e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o b e g i n t h a t r e s e a r c h . I t h a s d r a w n c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s u s e d a t R e d R i v e r a n d e x a m i n e d t o some e x t e n t t h e p l a c e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e R e d R i v e r e n v i r o n m e n t . The f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s c o n s i d e r l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n , h o u s e s , a n d c h u r c h e s a t R e d R i v e r , a n d t h e l a s t c h a p t e r p l a c e s t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e R e d R i v e r l a n d s c a p e . A p p e n d i c e s i n c l u d e a l i s t o f e x t a n t b u i l d i n g s , a l i s t o f R e d R i v e r c h u r c h e s b e t w e e n 1812 a n d 1870, b i o g r a p h i e s o f f o u r R e d R i v e r masons, a n d b r i e f b i o g r a p h i e s o f s e v e r a l p e o p l e whose names a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e t e x t . 3. The s e t t l e r s ' h o u s e s a r e g e n e r a l l y p l a i n s q u a r e b o x e s d e v o i d o f t h e s m a l l e s t a t t e m p t a t o r n a m e n t ; w i t h o u t a c h i m n e y e v e n , u n l e s s a s h o r t p r o j e c t i n g i r o n s t o v e - p i p e may be c a l l e d s o . Wood i s t h e m a t e r i a l i n v a r i a b l y e m p l o y e d - p l a c e d h o r i z o n t a l l y i n l o n g l o g s a b o u t a f o o t s q u a r e . N e i t h e r g a r d e n s n o r s u r r o u n d i n g f e n c e s a r e I n f a v o u r , a n d t h e c o t t a g e s s t a n d a l l b a r e - f a c e d , a s b o u l d e r s a r e s t r e w n b y a f l o o d , o r m e t e o r s t o n e s d r o p p e d f r o m t h e s k y . - L o r d S o u t h e s k a t G r a n t o w n , i860. 4. CHAPTER I THE HUDSON'S BAY STYLE A d e s c r i p t i o n o f R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e p r o p e r l y b e g i n s w i t h t h e l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The c o n s t r u c t i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y a f r a m e o f s q u a r e d oak l o g s . 1 I t c o n s i s t e d o f v e r t i c a l l o g s t e n o n e d i n t o a s i l l a n d h o r i z o n t a l l o g s s l i d i n t o p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e g r o o v e d u p r i g h t s . A w a l l p l a t e c o m p l e t e d t h e f r a m e . Windows a n d d o o r s w ere s e t i n b e t w e e n two m i n o r u p r i g h t s o r b e s i d e one o f t h e m a j o r u p r i g h t s . A l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s t y p e was f r e q u e n t l y p l a c e d o n a s t o n e f o u n d a t i o n a n d u s u a l l y g i v e n a t h a t c h e d r o o f . T h i s l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n v a r i o u s names. L o c a l l y , i t i s known a s t h e R e d R i v e r f r a m e a n d t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e . M a r i u s B a r b e a u h a s c a l l e d I t " p o t e a u x s u r s o l e , " o r p o s t s i n t h e s i l l , a n d F r e d K n i f f e n a n d H e n r y G l a s s i e r e f e r t o i t a s " p i e c e s u r p i e c e . " P e r h a p s i t i s s i m p l e s t t o c a l l i t t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e , s i n c e i t was u s e d most e x t e n s i v e l y b y t h e f u r t r a d e r s o f B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e Hud s o n ' s B a y Company men. •••See P I . I p M a r i u s B a r b e a u , "The House That. Mac B u i l t , " The  B e a v e r , O u t f i t 276. December, 1945, pp.10-13; F r e d K n i f f e n a n d H e n r y G l a s s i e , " B u i l d i n g i n Wood i n t h e E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s ; A T i m e - P l a c e P e r s p e c t i v e , " The G e o g r a p h i c a l R e v i e w , LVT. J a n u a r y , 1966, pp.47-48, 50. See a l s o , R i c h a r d W. H a l e , J r . , "The F r e n c h S i d e o f t h e 'Log C a b i n M y t h ' , " P r o -c e e d i n g s o f t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , L X X I I . 1957-60, pp.110-125. P L A T 3 I < I •- The H u d s o n 1 s B a y s t y l e o f l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n . ( S k e t c h e d f r o m B a r b e a u ' s a r t i c l e a n d - t h e n X e r o x 6. The s t y l e o r i g i n a t e d a s " c o l o m b a g e " i n E u r o p e a n d was b r o u g h t t o N o r t h A m e r i c a b y t h e s e t t l e r s o f New P r a n c e . 3 I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f u r t r a d e w h i c h g r e w u p o u t o f M o n t r e a l a f t e r 1760 a n d w i t h t h e N o r t h West Company w h i c h p a s s e d i t o n t o t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company a f t e r t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f 1821.^  The f u r t r a d e r s u s e d i t a t t h e i r p o s t s a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t f r o m L a b r a d o r t o V a n c o u v e r I s -l a n d . R e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s t y l e o c c u r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f . A t P o r t L a n g l e y a n e x t r a s i l l o f g r e a t b r e a d t h was p l a c e d b e l o w t h e w i n d o w s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y c o u l d be r e c e s s e d a n d p r o -t e c t e d f r o m t h e rain.° F u r t h e r m o r e , r e d c e d a r was u s e d a t L a n g l e y , w h e r e a s w h i t e o a k was u s e d i n t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e -ment . The s t y l e was t a k e n t o R e d R i v e r b y t h e men o f t h e N o r t h West Company. The S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s b e g a n t o a r r i v e t h e r e i n 1812, two y e a r s a f t e r t h e company b u i l t F o r t G - i b r a l t e r . They seem t o h a v e a d o p t e d t h e s t y l e o f t h e f u r t r a d e a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y s i n c e t h e y u s e d i t i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e i r f o r t , D o u g l a s . On A u g u s t 6, 1811+, P e t e r F i d l e r w r o t e 3 B a r b e a u , p. 10; H a l e , pp. 119-20, 121+-25. ^ B a r b e a u , pp.10-13- The s t y l e was n o t p r e v a l e n t i n t h e o l d F r e n c h N o r t h West b e f o r e 1760. R a t h e r a v e r t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e " p o t e a u x e n t e r r e " was u s e d a t F r e n c h D e t r o i t . See R e x f o r d Newcombe, A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e O l d  N o r t h West T e r r i t o r y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1950:: ^ I b i d . See P I . I I & I I I 0 P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , S e p t e m b e r , 1966. PLATE I I O r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g , , F o r t Lang ley . C o u r t e s y R.A. A n d r e w s . Restored b u i l d i n g , Port Langley. Courtesy R.A. Andrews. 9. t h a t " i j . men a r e c o n s t a n t l y e m p l o y e d a t t h e l a r g e H o u s e -t h i s day t h e y g o t up a l l t h e p o s t s a n d t h r e e l o g s h i g h a l o n g t h e F r o n t . T h e s e t t l e r s a l s o u s e d t h e s t y l e i n t h e i r h o u s e s a n d c h u r c h e s i n t h e e a r l i e s t y e a r s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . C o n t e m p o r a r y s k e t c h e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o t -t a g e s a n d t h e f i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c a n d A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s s t y l e . The s t y l e t h u s p a s s e d f r o m t h e f u r t r a d e r s , t o t h e s e t t l e r s . T h a t i t was p o p u l a r l y u s e d i n t h e g r a s s l a n d s o f t h e R e d R i v e r V a l l e y m i g h t seem i m p r a c t i c a l . H o w e v e r , t h e r i v e r s were b o r d e r e d w i t h m a p l e , e l m , a n d o a k , a n d a s p e n g r e w i n b l u f f s o n t h e p l a i n s . T i m b e r was a l s o c u t a t " t h e p i n e s " , t h e wooded r i d g e s e a s t o f t h e R e d R i v e r , a n d a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f L a k e W i n n i p e g . I n g e n e r a l , o ak was u s e d f o r t h e f r a m e , p i n e f o r t h e f l o o r s , a n d w h i t e wood, o r 9 b a s s w o o d / f o r t h e f u r n i t u r e . O t h e r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a . Hay f o r t h a t c h e d r o o f s was t a k e n 7 W i l l i a m D o u g l a s , New L i g h t o n t h e O l d F o r t s o f  W i n n i p e g , A P a p e r R e a d b e f o r e t h e H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , S e r i e s I I I , No. 11, e d i t e d b y P a u l Y u z y k . W i n n i p e g : H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1956, p. 1", c i t i n g a n a c c o u n t b y P e t e r F i d l e r , S e l k i r k P a p e r s , A u g u s t 6, l8lli, p.l8ii32. 8 See P I . I V , X X I I , a n d X X I . . S e e a l s o t h e v e r s o o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r o f The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 282. M a r c h , 1952, f o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f P e t e r R i n d i s b a c h e r 1 s s k e t c h o f t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h d u r i n g t h e f l o o d o f 1826. 9 A l e x a n d e r R o s s , The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . A R e p r i n t o f t h e E d i t i o n P u b l i s h e d i n L o n d o n : S m i t h , E l d e r , a n d Co., .", 1856. M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a : R o s s a n d H a i n e s , I n c . , 1957, P.388. R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t , lSl?. C o u r t e s y P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a , 11. f r o m t h e p l a i n s , a n d mud f r o m t h e r i v e r b a n k s was u s e d t o f i l l t h e c r a c k s o f t h e l o g w a l l s , t o make p l a s t e r , a n d t o b u i l d f i r e p l a c e s . 1 0 H o w e v e r , wood became s c a r c e i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t b y t h e l a t e 184.0*3 a n d h a d t o be c u t many m i l e s u p s t r e a m a n d f l o a t e d i n booms t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . The l o g s f o r S t . James' C h u r c h (1853} were r a f t e d down t h e A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r f r o m B a i e S t . P a u l . 1 1 I n 1859-60, L o r d S o u t h e s k n o t e d t h e s c a r -c i t y o f wood a t R e d R i v e r , a n d , i n t h e l860's, S a m u e l T a y l o r 12 a n d h i s s o n h a d t o go t o t h e p i n e s f o r wood. Once t h e l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n was a d o p t e d b y t h e s e t t l e r s i t r e m a i n e d t h e common way o f b u i l d i n g i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t u n t i l 1870. I t was u s e d f o r t h e h o u s e s , c h u r c h e s , s t o r e s , o u t b u i l d i n g s , a n d s c h o o l s o f t h e s e t t l e r s , a n d i t c o n t i n u e d t o be u s e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e f u r t r a d e . 1 3 T h e r e was no p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m a l o g t o a f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t h e r e a s o n p e r h a p s l i e s i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l b a c k w a r d n e s s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . I n 1870, t h e p i t saw was s t i l l u s e d t o c u t l u m -ber. 1**" A saw m i l l h a d b e e n b u i l t b y i860, a l t h o u g h i t was l a t e r 1 0 B e l o w , p. 51. " ^ E l i s a b e t h H e n d e r s o n , w r i t i n g i n W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , J a n u a r y 2, I 9 6 0 . "LP James C a r n e g i e ( E a r l o f S o u t h e s k ) , S a s k a t c h e w a n a n d t h e R o o k i e M o u n t a i n s . E d i n b u r g h : E d m o n s t o n a n d D o u g l a s , 1 8 7 5 , p.350; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f Samuel T a y l o r , I , F e b r u a r y , i860, p.51. 1 3 S . H . S c u d d e r , The W i n n i p e g C o u n t r y . New Y o r k : N.D.C. H o d g e s , P u b l i s h e r , 1 8 9 0 , p . 1 1 9 . I k G e o r g e Y o u n g , M a n i t o b a M e m o r i e s . T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1897, p.198. P L A T E V P L A T E V I D e t a i l o f a p a r t i t i o n , •rey Nuns' h o u s e (l8k6) d u r i n g r e s t o r a t i o n . d e s t r o y e d b y f i r e , b u t m i l l s w e r e n o t e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h any p e r m a n e n c y u n t i l t h e I 8 7 0 1 s . 1 ^ W i t h o u t saw m i l l s , a w i d e -s p r e a d u s e o f f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n a t R e d R i v e r was i m p o s s -i b l e . P o r t h e most p a r t , h o u s e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t w e re s m a l l . T hey were p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o o n e , t w o , o r t h r e e rooms b y w a l l s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h p o p l a r t r u n k s , l a t h w o r k , a n d 16 p l a s t e r . H o w e v e r , t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y s t y l e f a c i l i t a t e d t h e 17 a d d i t i o n o f more rooms. 1 A c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e m p o r a r y a c c o u n t s , t h e s e t t l e r s l i v e d c o m f o r t a b l y i n t h e i r s m a l l wooden h o u s e s : ...we s e l e c t a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e common c l a s s o f h o u s e s , a n d a s k f o r d i n n e r . I t i s a l o g c a b i n , l i k e a l l o f t h i s c l a s s (some f a r b e t t e r o n e s h a v e w a l l s o f s t o n e ) w i t h a t h a t c h e d r o o f a n d a r o u g h s t o n e a n d m o r t a r c h i m n e y p l a n t e d a g a i n s t one w a l l . I n s i d e i s b u t a s i n g l e room, w e l l w h i t e w a s h e d , a s i s i n d e e d t h e o u t -s i d e a n d e x c e p t i o n a l l y t i d y ; a b e d o c c u p i e s one c o r n e r , a s o r t o f c o u c h a n o t h e r , a r u n g l a d d e r l e a d s u p t o l o o s e b o a r d s o v e r h e a d w h i c h f o r m a n a t t i c , a t r a p d o o r i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e r oom o p e n s t o a s m a l l h o l e i n t h e g r o u n d where m i l k a n d b u t t e r a r e k e p t c o o l ; f r o m t h e beam i s s u s p e n d e d a hammock, u s e d a s a c r a d l e f o r t h e b a b y ; s h e l v e s s i n g u l a r l y h u n g h o l d a s c a n t y s t o c k o f p l a t e s , k n i v e s a n d f o r k s ; two w i n d o w s o n e i t h e r s i d e , c o v e r e d w i t h m o s q u i t o n e t t i n g , a d m i t t h e l i g h t , a n d a modicum o f a i r ; c h e s t s a n d b o x e s s u p p l y t h e p l a c e o f s e a t s w i t h h e r e a n d t h e r e a k e g b y way o f e a s y - c h a i r . ^ M a n t o n M a r b l e , "To R e d R i v e r a n d B e y o n d , " H a r p e r 1 s  New M o n t h l y M a g a z i n e , X X I I . 1861, pp.310, 316; A l e x a n d e r B e g g a n d W a l t e r R. N u r s e y , T e n Y e a r s i n W i n n i p e g . W i n n i p e g : " T i m e s " P r i n t i n g a n d P u b l i s h i n g H ouse, 1679, PP.65, 82, 8b. 1 6 S e e P I . V I . 1 7 S e e P I . XL. 1 5 . I s t a r t a g a i n w e n t up t o Mr. McDermot a n d Game b a c k t o Mr. J o h n I n k s t e r ' s p l a c e a n d b o u g h t one b a g o f P e m i c a n f r o m h i m ( W e i g h i n g 107 l b s , p r i c e lk4g p e r l b , ) - I s l e e p e d t h e r e t h a t N i g h t , a n d e v e r y M a r k o f K i n d n e s s Shown t o me b y e v e r y one i n t h e h o u s e , I l e f t t h e r e a b o u t 9 O ' c l o c k a.m. u p o n S a t u r d a y 2 k t h . - Samuel T a y l o r , i 8 6 0 . 17. A n o p e n f i r e p l a c e o f w h i t e w a s h e d c l a y g i v e s s i g n o f c h e e r a n d w a r m th i n t h e l o n g w i n t e r , a n d a h a l f - d o z e n b o o k s f o r l i b r a r y c o m p l e t e t h e s c e n e . T h i s i s a l a r g e r h o u s e . . . . We h a v e e a c h a c h a m b e r t o o u r s e l v e s i n t h e g a r r e t , r e a c h e d i n t h e same p r i m i t i v e m e t h o d a s b e f o r e m e n t i o n e d - a n d a r e shown w i t h a d i p o f b u f f a l o t a l l o w t o o u r rooms. The f u r n i t u r e o f t h e s e c o n s i s t s o f a s o r t o f c o u c h , w i t h b u f f a l o s k i n s f o r mat-t r e s s a n d w o l f s k i n s f o r s h e e t s a n d c o v e r l e t , a c h e s t f o r a s e a t , a p u n c h - b o w l o f w a t e r o n a b r o k e n c h a i r f o r a w a s h - s t a n d , a n d a t o r n b i t o f r a g f o r a t o w e l ; w h i l e a b a r r e l c o v e r e d w i t h a w h i t e c l o t h s e r v e s a s a c e n t r e -t a b l e , a n d i s b e s p r i n k l e d w i t h a n t i q u e b o o k s . 1 ° However, t h e t r a n s i e n t m e t i s who f o l l o w e d t h e b u f f a l o h u n t o r t h e f u r t r a d e , " g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , e x h i b i t e d more o f t h e d i s c o m f o r t s t h a t a t t e n d a mere encampment i n t h e i r d w e l l i n g s , " 1 9 a n d t h e h o u s e s a t t h e I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t a s d e s -c r i b e d b y W i l l i a m C o c h r a n i n l8ii5 w e r e n e i t h e r n e a t n o r e l e g a n t : The seams o f t h e l o g w a l l s were p l a s t e r e d w i t h mud; t h e c h i m n e y s w ere o f t h e same m a t e r i a l ; t h e r o o f s w e r e t h a t c h e d w i t h r e e d s a n d c o v e r e d w i t h e a r t h ; t h e b o a r d s o f t h e f l o o r s , a n d d o o r s , a n d b e d s , w e r e p l a n e d w i t h t h e saw a n d t h e w i n d o w s p w e r e f o r m e d o f p a r c h m e n t made o f t h e s k i n s o f f i s h e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e c o t t a g e s were t h e l a r g e wooden h o u s e s b u i l t when t h e s e t t l e m e n t became more p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d : I n R e d R i v e r , a s i n C a n a d a , a n d most o t h e r new c o u n t r i e s , t h e p e o p l e , f o r a l o n g t i m e , c o n t e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h what a r e c a l l e d wooden h o u s e s , o f s u c h h u m b l e a p p e a r a n c e ^ S c u d d e r , p p . 109 - 1 0 , 111-12. 1Q 7 R o s s , p.195. 20 G . J . M o u n t a i n , The J o u r n a l o f t h e B i s h o p o f Mont-r e a l d u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y ' s  N o r t h - W e s t A m e r i c a M i s s i o n . L o n d o n : S e e l e y , B u r n s i d e , a n d S e e l e y , H a t c h a r d a n d S o n , N i s b e t a n d Co., l8ii5, p.209, c i t i n g W i l l i a m C o c h r a n . 18. a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d where means a r e l o w , workmen s c a r c e , a n d wages a t a h i g h r a t e . The c o s t o f s u c h h o u s e s depends o n a v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; but t h e a v e r a g e may be t a k e n a t £ 60 s t e r l i n g . T h e s e f r a m e b u i l d i n g s , s i m p l e , y e t commodious a n d c o m f o r t a b l e , d i f f e r i n s i z e a s i n c o s t , b u t a r e s e l d o m more t h a n t h i r t y f e e t i n l e n g t h , o r l e s s t h a n t w e n t y ; t h e o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s b e i n g o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o p o r t i o n . A s u p -e r i o r c l a s s o f d w e l l i n g s h a v e s h i n g l e d r o o f s , s t o n e f o u n d a t i o n s , w i n d o w s , d o o r s a n d p a r t i t i o n s p a n e l e d a n d p a i n t e d , a n d t h e w a l l s r o u g h c a s t w i t h l i m e . One o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r t y o r f i f t y f e e t l o n g , a n d w e l l f i n i s h e d , w i l l c o s t £300. S u c h was t h e c o s t o f one b u i l t f o r t h e w r i t e r ; b u t i t was t h e b e s t i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f i t s s i z e . Of l a t e , a d e c i d e d i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e c h a r -a c t e r o f o u r wooden b u i l d i n g s h a s become m a n i f e s t . S e v e r a l a r e o f two s t o r i e s h i g h , some w i t h g a l l e r i e s , a n d two o r n a m e n t e d w i t h v e r a n d a s . T a s t e , a s w e l l a s c o n v e n i e n c e , b e g i n s t o r e c e i v e i t s due s h a r e o f c o n s i d e r -a t i o n ; t h e l u x u r y o f g l a s s w i n d o w s , a n d a l o c k o n t h e o u t e r d o o r , t h i n g s h i t h e r t o s c a r c e l y known i n R e d R i v e r , h a v e become f a s h i o n a b l e , i n d e e d , a l m o s t g e n e r a l . S u c h h o u s e s , w h i t e a s snow, l o o k w e l l , a n d h a v e a v e r y g a y a p p e a r a n c e . P o s s i b l y t h e l a r g e s t wooden h o u s e was t h e t w o -s t o r i e d G r e y Nun's h o u s e (l8k6)), t h e d i m m e n s i o n s o f w h i c h 22 w e r e 100 X kO f e e t . I t was c o v e r e d w i t h v e r t i c a l w e a t h e r -b o a r d s i n t h e F r e n c h t r a d i t i o n . O t h e r h o u s e s w e r e t h e W i l l i a m R o s s (l85k): a n d t h e Andrew McDermot h o u s e , E m e r a l d G r o v e o r E m e r a l d L o d g e . The l a t t e r was "a v e r y l a r g e ^ R o s s , p . l k O . A c c o r d i n g t o T.C.B. B o o n , The  A n g l i c a n C h u r c h f r o m t h e Bay t o t h e R o c k i e s . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 2 6 , g l a s s was u s e d i n t h e e a r l y c h u r c h e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s i n c e t h e M i d d l e C h u r c h l o s t i t s g l a s s w i n d o w s i n t h e f l o o d o f 1826. 2? L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J u n e 1 6 , l 8 k 6 , J o s e p h - N o r b e r t P r o v e n c h e r , " L e t t r e s de M o n s e i g n e u r J o s e p h - N o r b e r t P r o v e n c h e r , P r e m i e r E v e q u e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , " B u l l e t i n de l a S o c i 6 t e H i s t o r i q u e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , I I I . 1 9 1 3 , p.21+3. 19. t w o - s t o r y h o u s e , " J a n d R o s s h o u s e was s m a l l e r , b e i n g o n l y one s t o r y i n h e i g h t . O r i g i n a l l y , t h e y , t o o , were c o v e r e d w i t h w e a t h e r b o a r d . The f i r s t c h u r c h e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t were c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e H u d s o n ' s B ay s t y l e . Many were l a t e r r e p l a c e d b y s t o n e o r f r a m e b u i l d i n g s , t h e M i d d l e C h u r c h o r S t . P a u l ' s (l82k), t h e L o w e r C h u r c h o r S t . Andrew's (1831);, t h e c h u r c h a t t h e I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t o r S t . P e t e r ' s (1836), S t . M a r y ' s a t P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e (l855>, S t . M a r g a r e t f s a t H i g h B l u f f (1861)), a n d S t . F r a n c o i s - X a v i e r (ca . l829), i n a d d i t i o n t o S t . B o n i f a c e a n d t h e U p p e r C h u r c h . O n l y one l o g c h u r c h i n t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e r e m a i n s t o d a y , S t . A n n e ' s , P o p l a r 25 P o i n t (1862)!. I t i s d i s g u i s e d w i t h w e a t h e r b o a r d s , a n d more o r l e s s r e s e m b l e s S t . M a r y ' s a s i t was d e s c r i b e d b y A.C. G a r r i o c h : The c h u r c h was s e v e n t y f e e t l o n g b y t h i r t y f e e t wid£, a n d i n h e i g h t u n d e r t h e e a v e s a b o u t t h i r t e e n o r f o u r -t e e n f e e t . A t t h e n o r t h e n d was a t o w e r t e n f e e t s q u a r e a n d s i x t y f e e t h i g h , f i n i s h e d w i t h a s p i r e s u r m o u n t e d b y a c r o s s . The w a l l s o f b o t h c h u r c h a n d t o w e r w e r e o f -^W.J. H e a l y , Women o f R e d R i v e r . W i n n i p e g : R u s s e l l , L a n g a n d Co., 1923, p. 137. 2 k I b i d .: The R o s s H o u s e : W e s t e r n C a n a d a ' s F i r s t P o s t O f f i c e . W i n n i p e g : H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i r i c s o c i e t y 01 M a n i t o b a , p . 2 . 2 ^ S e e P I . XXX. 21. o a k l o g s hewn o n two s i d e s , t h o s e o f t h e f r a m e , i . e . t h e l o g s were t e n o n e d i n t o p o s t s t h a t s t o o d t e n o r t w e l v e f e e t a p a r t , a n d t h o s e o f t h e t o w e r i n t h e s t y l e c a l l e d d o v e t a i l , i . e . t h e l o g s w e re f i t t e d i n t o e a c h o t h e r a t t h e f o u r c o r n e r s . The c h u r c h a n d t h e t o w e r were c l a p b o a r d a n d w h i t e w a s h e d , a n d t h e r o o f o f t h e c h u r c h c o v e r e d w i t h u n p a i n t e d o a k s h i n g l e s . W i t h i n , t h e c h u r c h w a l l s were n o t l a t h e d b u t s i m p l y a x e - s c o r e d a n d p l a s t e r e d w i t h a m i x t u r e o f c l a y a n d f i n e l y c h o p p e d h a y , a n d f i n i s h e d o f f w i t h w h i t e w a s h . T b ^ g e i l i n g was o f b a s s w o o d a n d p a n e l w o r k , a n d u n p a i n t e d . Of a l l t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y s t y l e o n l y J o h n I n k s t e r ' s s t o r e a t S e v e n 27 Oaks h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d . I t i s c l e a r , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s e b u i l d i n g s were s i m p l e a n d u n p r e t e n t i o u s , n o t u n l i k e t h e 28 wooden h o u s e s a n d c h u r c h e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t . Not a l l t h e l o g b u i l d i n g s a t R e d R i v e r w e re c o n -s t r u c t e d i n t h e s t y l e . The l o g c a b i n was u s e d ; , one was 29 s k e t c h e d b y C o l . F i n l a y a t L o w e r F o r t G a r r y i n l8ii7*. The N o r ' W e s t e r o f f i c e was h a l f - t i m b e r o r " c o l o m b a g e " i n s t r u c t u r e . 3 0 An e v e n t i e r c o n s t r u c t i o n was u s e d a t S e v e n O a k s , J o h n I n k s t e r ' s h o u s e (185D; s q u a r e l o g s w e r e p l a c e d 26A .C. G a r r i o c h , F i r s t F u r r o w s . W i n n i p e g : S t o v e l Co., 1923, p. 121^. 2 7 S e e P I . V I I . 28 See P I . I V , X X I I . 2 9 S e e P I . V I I I . 3 0 S c u d d e r , p p . l l 8 - 1 9 . See P I . I X . 22. I n t h i s v i c i n i t y a r e a f e w o t h e r h o u s e s , w h i c h , l i k e t h i s , do n o t s t a n d u p o n t h e r i v e r - d a n k j among o t h e r s , t h e o f f i c e o f "The N o r ' W e s t e r , a w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s t a r t e d t h e p r e c e d i n g C h r i s t m a s - a l o w , o n e - s t o r i e d s t r u c t u r e , w i t h a t h a t c h e d r o o f , a n d r o u g h , p l a s t e r e d c o n c r e t e w a l l s , b u i l t i n a wooden f r a m e . Two y o u n g men a r e a t o n c e e d i t o r s a n d c o m p o s i t o r s . I t e v e n b o a s t s a s i g n - b o a r d o v e r t h e d o o r . - S.H. S c u d d e r , ' i 8 6 0 . 23. PLATS I X F r o m a s k e t c h i n The W i n n i p e g C o u n t r y b y S.H. S c u d d e r (New Y o r k , 1 8 9 0 ) . 2k. one o n t o p o f e a c h o t h e r a n d p e g g e d t o g e t h e r . A n d a s G a r r i o c h r e m a r k e d , d o v e t a i l i n g was u s e d i n t h e t o w e r o f S t . M a r y ' s C h u r c h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e was t h e common t y p e o f l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n a t R e d R i v e r u n t i l a b o u t 1870 when h o m e s t e a d e r s f r o m O n t a r i o b e g a n a r r i v i n g i n g r e a t n u m b e r s , 32 b r i n g i n g w i t h t h e m t h e i r own c o r n e r - t i m b e r i n g m e t h o d s . The l o g b u i l d i n g i t s e l f s o o n became o u t m o d e d i n t h e R e d R i v e r a r e a a f t e r 1870. New t a s t e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e e m e r g e d , a n d o t h e r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s l i k e b r i c k became 33 a v a i l a b l e . A s e a r l y a s 1873, A l e x a n d e r B e g g a n d W a l t e r N u r s e y c o n s i d e r e d a new C o u r t H o u s e o f oak l o g s b u i l t a t t h e 3k c o s t o f $1+0,000 t o be no o r n a m e n t t o W i n n i p e g . J F r a n k H a l l , " S e v e n Oaks House Opened a s a Museum," M a n i t o b a P a g e a n t , V o l . I V , No. 2, p. 12j K n i f f e n a n d G l a s s i e , p. i+9. The r e c e n t r e s t o r a t i o n o f S t . James' C h u r c h f o r t h e C a n a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l h a s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c h u r c h was b u i l t i n a n e v e n t i e r l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o a c o n t e m p o r a r y p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e v e s t r y o f S t . James' C h u r c h t h e manse a l s o h a d t h e same t y p e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . 32 See W.L. M o r t o n a n d M a r g a r e t M o r t o n F a h r n i , T h i r d C r o s s i n g . W i n n i p e g : A d v o c a t e P r i n t e r s , 191+6, p. 13. 33Below, p.99. B r i c k - y a r d s h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y b e f o r e 1870, a n d t h e few b r i c k s t h a t w e r e p r o d u c e d were u s e d f o r c h i m n e y s ; see The N o r ' W e s t e r , A u g u s t l k , i 8 6 0 , a n d B egg a n d N u r s e y , p.56. B e g g a n d N u r s e y , pp.90-91. 25. SUMMARY The common l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t was t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y S t y l e . I t was a c o n -s t r u c t i o n u s e d i n t h e t r a d e o f t h e N o r t h West Company a n d l a t e r t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, b u t i t was a d o p t e d b y t h e s e t t l e r s a t R e d R i v e r f r o m t h e f u r t r a d e r s who p r e c e d e d t h e m i n t h e a r e a . I t was u s e d i n h o u s e s a n d c h u r c h e s , a s w e l l a s o u t b u i l d i n g s , s t o r e s , a n d s c h o o l s . I t became o u t m o d e d a f t e r 1870 when d i f f e r e n t l o g c o n s t r u c t -i o n m e t h o d s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , a n d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d b y s e t t l e r s f r o m O n t a r i o . 26. PLATE X Couiky ho ure. ^ ftb*/ ke>us&^£?^0u%*n Louse ?c*# ktujtjwis* * W r ' relict , /J~nJirf/ey- house Map s h o w i n g e x t a n t R e d R i v e r h o u s e s . 27. CHAPTER I I RED RIVER HOUSES Most o f t h e h o u s e s a t R e d R i v e r were s m a l l a n d s i m p l e b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e . T h e y were " g e n e r a l l y p l a i n s q u a r e b o x e s d e v o i d o f t h e s m a l l e s t a t t e m p t a t o r n a m e n t j w i t h o u t a c h i m n e y e v e n , u n l e s s a s h o r t p r o j e c t -i n g i r o n s t o v e - p i p e may b e c a l l e d s o . " 1 H o w e v e r , a s A l e x a n d e r R o s s n o t e d , s e v e r a l l a r g e h o u s e s w e r e b u i l t a s t h e s e t t l e m e n t 2 was p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e s e l a r g e h o u s e s w ere a l s o b o x - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s . T h e y were one o r two s t o r i e s i n h e i g h t a n d h a d p i t c h e d o r h i p p e d r o o f s a n d r e g u l a r f e n e s t r a t i o n . T h e y m i g h t be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h wood o r s t o n e , a n d t h e y o f t e n h a d p o r c h e s . Ornament was f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d t o t h e f r o n t d o o r , t h e p o r c h , a n d t h e s t a i r c a s e , b u t i t was a l w a y s s i m p l e i n n a t u r e a n d l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t . The o l d e s t b u i l d i n g o f t h i s t y p e w h i c h h a s s u r v i v e d t o t h e p r e s e n t i s t h e b i g h o u s e a t L o w e r P o r t G a r r y . I t was b u i l t f o r G o v e r n o r G e o r g e S i m p s o n a n d h i s w i f e . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f o r t was p r o m p t e d b y t h e f l o o d o f 1826 w h i c h h a d c a u s e d much damage t o t h e o l d P o r t G a r r y . A more p e r m a n e n t s t r u c t u r e o n a h i g h e r s i t e was d e s i r a b l e . The l o c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d b y S i m p s o n a n d h i s w i f e i n I83O when t h e y p a s s e d t h r o u g h R e d R i v e r o n t h e i r way t o "'"Carnegie, p p . 348-349. 2 A b o v e p p. I T - I S . 3 S e e P I . X I . 28. t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , b e i n g a s t a t e l y o l d m a n s i o n w i t h w i d e v e r a n d a s , l o f t y c e i l i n g s , h e a v y o l d - f a s h i o n e d f u r n i t u r e , w i t h p l e n t y o f b r a s s , e v e n t o s w i n g i n g k n o b s o n t h e d o o r s , p l a s t e r e d w a l l s p a i n t e d g r e e n , f l o o r s b a r e o f e v e r y t h i n g b u t s k i n s , a n d o p e n f i r e -p l a c e s i n e v e r y room. - S.H. S c u d d e r , i860. pq The b i g h o u s e , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , b e g u n 1830. • F r o m t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , 1857-58, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . • 30. t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f c o u n c i l a t Y o r k F a c t o r y . ^ T h e y c h o s e a n e l e v a t e d s i t e i n t h e l o w e r s e t t l e m e n t where s t o n e a n d 5 l i m e f o r b u i l d i n g t h e new f o r t w e r e a v a i l a b l e . The p l a n n i n g a n d t h e d i g g i n g o f c e l l a r s f o r t h e b i g h o u s e seems t o h a v e b e g u n i n t h e f a l l a n d w i n t e r o f 1830. R o b e r t C a m p b e l l n o t e d t h a t o n a b o u t t h e 20th o f O c t o b e r t h a t y e a r h e was " s e n t t o s u r v e y f r o m t h e r a p i d s down t o n e a r what i s now t h e S t o n e F o r t ("the c e l l a r s o f w h i c h were b e i n g dug a t t h a t t i m e p r e p a r a t o r y t o t h e b u i l d i n g s b e i n g e r e c t e d i n t h e s p r i n g ) . " The mason r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o r t a n d t h e b i g h o u s e was a H u d s o n ' s Bay Company b u i l d e r , P i e r r e L e B l a n c , whom 7 S i m p s o n h a d s e n t f r o m Y o r k F a c t o r y t o F o r t G a r r y . L e B l a n c p r e p a r e d a h o u s e f o r t h e S i m p s o n s t o o c c u p y w h i l e t h e i r h o u s e a t t h e new f o r t was b e i n g b u i l t . P r o b a b l y , he a n d S i m p s o n t o g e t h e r p l a n n e d t h e b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e l a y o u t o f t h e f o r t . The S i m p s o n s moved i n t o t h e b i g h o u s e i n 1832, b u t 8 t h e y s p e n t o n l y a y e a r i n i t . I t was s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c i d e d t o ^ M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , p.5; G r a c e L e e Nu t e ('ed.\, " J o u r n e y f o r F r a n c e s , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 282+. Summer, 195V P«15. R o b e r t W a t s o n , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y ; A H i s t o r y o f t h e S t o n e F o r t . W i n n i p e g : H u d s o n ' s Bay Co., 1 9 2 5 , p.3, c i t i n g t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f a c o u n c i l m e e t i n g o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company's N o r t h e r n D e p a r t m e n t , Y o r k F a c t o r y , 1830. R o b e r t C a m p b e l l , Two J o u r n a l s o f R o b e r t C a m p b e l l ,  C h i e f F a c t o r , H u d s o n ' s Bay Company, l b O b t o 1B53. S e a t t l e ^ W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 5 8 , p.6. 'MacLeod, L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , pp.5-6. See A p p e n d i x I I I . Q I b i d . , pp.6-7« 31. P L A T S X I I 1 J -{• 3 — 4 N I -r T L 1 A T y p i c a l p l a n o f l a r g e one s t o r e y R e d R i v e r h o u s e . 33. re b u i l d Port Garry at the forks. The big house i s a box-like building with regular fenestration. It has a hipped roof, although the impression 9 of a p a v i l i o n roof i s created by the verandah. There i s a centre-doorway with a staircase to one side of i t , and the front rooms are larger than the ones at the rear. A kitchen was l a t e r added to the southwest corner of the. house. The house seems to have been the prototype -- f o r smaller houses i n wood and stone. Three of these houses 3 t i l l stand, the William Ross house, the Scott house, and the Thomas Bunn house or V i c t o r i a Cottage ( 1 8 6 2 ) . 1 0 They are a l l one-story box houses with regular fenestration, a t t i c s , and centre-hall plans. Ross house has larger front rooms than back rooms on either side of i t s small entrance h a l l , and the Scott house has a centre h a l l running through i t with two large rooms on eithe r s i d e . 1 1 The Bunn house o r i g i n -a l l y had a plan l i k e the Scott house. Both houses have f i n i s h e d a t t i c s p a r t i t i o n e d into bedrooms. Many two storey houses i n wood and stone were b u i l t i n the settlement, for example, the Inkster house or Seven Oaks, Miss Davis 1 school or Twin Oaks ( 1866) , St. Andrew's ^The big house i s being restored to 1857-58 according to the Hime photograph of that year. 1 0 S e e PI. XIII. 1 : LSee PI. XIX. •:: *ven O a k s , J o h n I n k s t e r ' s h o u s e , b u i l t 1851. om t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , 1857-58, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . 35. r e c t o r y (1853K t h e C o w l e y h o u s e o r D y n e v o r ( l 8 6 2 i , a n d t h e < 13 12 G r e y Nuns' h o u s e . They h a d c e n t r e h a l l p l a n s o n b o t h f l o o r s , a n d u s u a l l y t h e f r o n t rooms were l a r g e r t h a n t h e b a c k o n e s Some h o u s e s h a d f u l l b a s e m e n t s , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e i r f i r s t f l o o r s a n d p o r c h e s were h i g h above t h e g r o u n d . S u c h / A / was t h e c a s e a t t h e b i g h o u s e , Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r ' s e v e c h e , ' . l k .. a n d "the H a r r i o t t h o u s e o r H a w t h o r n e L o d g e . O t h e r h o u s e s l i k e M i s s D a v i s ' s c h o o l a n d S t . Andrew's r e c t o r y h a d p a r t i a l b a s e m e n t s , a n d t h e i r p o r c h e s a n d m a i n f l o o r s were a l m o s t a t g r o u n d l e v e l . I t a p p e a r s t h a t many h o u s e s w h i c h h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d o v e r t h e y e a r s w ere s i m i l a r t o t h e s e l a r g e , r e g u l a r , a n d b o x - l i k e h o u s e s . A n d r e w McDermot's h o u s e was a l a r g e wooden 15 two s t o r y w i t h a c e n t r e h a l l a n d two rooms o n e i t h e r s i d e . Dr. Gunn's h o u s e h a d a c e n t r e h a l l w i t h a d i n i n g room o n one 16 '•• • s i d e a n d a p a r l o r o n t h e o t h e r . P h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e B i r d h o u s e a n d t h e H a r r i o t t h o u s e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y r e s e m b l e d 1 2 S e e P I . V I I , X V I , XV, V. 1 3 S e e P I . X V I I . "^See P I . X I , X V I I I , X I X . A c c o r d i n g t o a n a r t i c l e i n The N o r ' W e s t e r , December 17, i860, w h i c h r e p o r t e d t h e f i r e i n S t . B o n i f a c e , H a w t h o r n e Lodge a l s o h a d a n u n d e r -g r o u n d s t o r y . l 5 H e a l y , p.137-I b i d . , p. 158. 3 6 . The p a r s o n a g e h o u s e , al3o r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d , i s i n e v e r y r e s p e c t f i t t e d f o r t h e s e v e r i t i e s o f t h e w i n t e r c l i m a t e o f t h e c o u n t r y . The s i z e i s f i f t y f e e t b y t h i r t y , a n d two s t o r i e s h i g h ; t h e w a l l s , o f l i m e s t o n e , a r e two f e e t e i g h t i n c h e s t h i c k , t h e rooms l o f t y a n d c a p a c i o u s , a n d i n i t s i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s i t l e a v e s n o -t h i n g t o be d e s i r e d . - H.Y. H i n d , 1857-58. 37. S t . Andrew'3 r e c t o r y , a s p h o t o g r a p h e d b y R i m e , 1857-58. 38. 17 M i s s D a v i s 1 s c h o o l a n d S t . A n d r e w ' s r e c t o r y . A l l t h e s e h o u s e s s h a r e d t h e same e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a l s o common t o t h e f u r t r a d e w a r e h o u s e s a n d q u a r t e r s a t t h e f o r t s . The s t o n e w a r e h o u s e s b u i l t a t L o w e r P o r t G a r r y i n 1832 a n d 1833 w e r e g r e a t r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g s w i t h h i p p e d r o o f s a n d 18 r e g u l a r l y s p a c e d w i n d o w s . The w a r e h o u s e s a n d q u a r t e r s a t 19 F o r t G a r r y w e re l a t e r c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e same s t y l e . I n d e e d , t h e s e b u i l d i n g s a t b o t h t h e f o r t s were p r o b a b l y t h e p r o t o -t y p e s f o r a l l t h e l a r g e r s t o n e a n d wooden h o u s e s i n t h e s e t t l e -ment. The H u d s o n ' s Bay Company u s e d t h i s s t y l e o f b u i l d i n g i n t h e i r p o s t s a n d f o r t s a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t . I t was a s i m p l e s t y l e , e c o n o m i c a l t o b u i l d a n d a d a p t a b l e t o many g e o -g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s . The o r i g i n s o f t h e s t y l e l a y I n t h e A n g l o -Norman h o u s e o f F r e n c h C a n a d a a n d i n t h e l a i r d ' s h o u s e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y S c o t l a n d . The A n g l o - N o r m a n h o u s e was t h e o l d Q u e b e c o i s t y p e o f h o u s e g i v e n t h e s o l i d p r o p o r t i o n s a n d 1 7 |rhere i s a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e B i r d h o u s e i n t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . F o r a p h o t o -g r a p h o f t h e H a r r i o t t h o u s e , s e e E l s i e McKay, The S t o n e F o r t ;  L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . S e l k i r k , M a n i t o b a : E n t e r p r i s e P u b l i s h e r s , n . d . p.10. -j o M a c L e o d , Lower F o r t G a r r y , p .6. See P I . V I I I . 19 F o r p h o t o g r a p h s o f U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , s e e Anna M. Cowan, " M e m o r i e s o f U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 2 6 6 . S e p t e m b e r , 1935, pp.25-30. 39. I went up t o b u i l d a t M i s s D a v i s S t o n e h o u s e u p o n T h u r s d a y k t h . . . . Duncan M a c r a e , a n d m y s e l f l e f t o f B u i l d i n g a t M i s s D a v i s h o u s e t h e a b o v e 2 k t h e v e r y t h i n g f r o z e n . Our wages was f i v e S h i l l i n g s p e r day a n d w e l l f e d . - Samuel T a y l o r , O c t o b e r , 1866. Ui. f o r m a l symmetry o f B r i t i s h c l a s s i c i s m . I t s i n f l u e n c e e x t e n d e d t o t h e N o r t h West t h r o u g h t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n v o y a g e u r s o f t h e f u r t r a d e , a n d i t was t h e p r o t o t y p e f o r t h e b u i l d i n g s a t F o r t W i l l i a m a n d f o r t h e b i g h o u s e a t L o w e r 21 F o r t G a r r y a n d Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r ' s h o u s e i n S t . B o n i f a c e . The S c o t t i s h l a i r d ' s h o u s e h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s a p l a i n , r e c t a n g u l a r , g a b l e - r o o f e d b l o c k o f two m a i n s t o r e y s a n d a n a t t i c h a v i n g a s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n i n w h i c h a s i n g l e l a r g e room i s p l a c e d o n e i t h e r s i d e o f a c e n t r a l s t a i r c a s e o n e a c h f l o o r . More a c c o m o d a t i o n i s some-t i m e s o b t a i n e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a b a s e m e n t , a n d b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e w i d t h o f t h e b u i l d i n g 30 t h a t two rooms i n s t e a d o f o n e , c a n be p l a c e d o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e s t a i r . The symmetry o f t h e p l a n i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e l e v a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e m a i n f r o n t , w h ere t h e w i n d o w s a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s r e g u l a r l y d i s p o s e d a b o u t a c e n t r a l e n t r a n c e - doorway a t p r i n c i p a l - f l o o k * l e v e l . I m . s m a l l e r h o u s e s k i t c h e n a n d p a r l o u r u s u a l l y o c c u p y t h e g r o u n d f l o o r , w i t h p e r h a p s one o t h e r l i v i n g - r o o m a n d b e d r o o m s a b o v e , b u t w h e r e t h e r e i s a s e r v i c e b a s e -ment a s many a s t h r e e o r f o u r p r i n c i p a l rooms may be g r o u p e d o n t h e two m a i n f l o o r s . The l a r g e h o u s e s a n d s t o r e s o f t h e f u r t r a d e were i n f l u e n c e d b y t h i s t y p e o f h o u s e . H o w e v e r , t h e r o o f s were g e n e r a l l y h i p p e d , n o t p i t c h e d , a n d p o r c h e s were f r e q u e n t l y a d d e d . The i n f l u e n c e r e a c h e d t h e N o r t h West t h r o u g h t h e S c o t t i s h f a c t o r s 20 F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A n g l o - N o r m a n s t y l e , s e e A l a n Gowans, L o o k i n g a t A r c h i t e c t u r e i n C a nada. T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, p.83, p l . i j . 2 , a n d t h e r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e same, B u i l d i n g C a n a d a ; An A r c h i t e c t u r a l  H i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n L i f e . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, p.6I1, p i . 7 3 . 2 1 The b u i l d i n g s a t F o r t W i l l i a m a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n a n a r t i c l e b y S t e w a r t W a l l a c e , " F o r t W i l l i a m o f t h e F u r T r a d e , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 279. December, 19^9, pp.16-19. J o h n G. D u n b a r , The H i s t o r i c A r c h i t e c t u r e o f S c o t l a n d . L o n d o n : B.T. B a t s f o r d , L t d . , 1966, p . 0 1 . 1+2. .  PLATS X V I I i . i i D • r ' • - — " "v-y,7-A t y p i c a l p l a n o f a l a r g e two s t o r e y R e d R i v e r h o u s e . 43. a n d t r a d e r s o f t h e f u r - t r a d e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company h a d a d e f i n i t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e w h i c h i t e m p l o y e d a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t . Many o f t h e c o m p a n i e s w h i c h h a v e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e . e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a h a v e h a d d i s t i n c t s t y l e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r one t h i n k s o f t h e C a n a d -i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , a n d t h e C a n a d i a n : N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y a n d 23 t h e i r g r e a t " c h a t e a u x " . I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a b a s i c s t y l e was u s e d a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t w i t h m i n o r l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n s t o t h e g e o g r a p h y a n d c u l t u r e . V a r i a t i o n s o f t e n o c c u r r e d d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e b u i l d e r s w e r e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n o r B r i t i s h i n b a c k g r o u n d . The F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s t e n d e d t o u s e a p a v i l i o n r o o f , v e r t i c a l w e a t h e r b o a r d s , a n d c a s e m e n t w i n d o w s , w h e r e a s t h e B r i t i s h p r e f e r r e d a h i p p e d o r gable> r o o f , h o r i z o n t a l 2k w e a t h e r b o a r d s , , a n d s a s h w i n d o w s . G e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d 2? p r o d u c e d s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s . F o r e°xample, o n t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t w h e r e r a i n f a l l i s h e a v y , r o o f s w e re commonly b e l l - c a s t i n s h a p e a n d d e e p - e a v e d t o d i r e c t t h e w a t e r away f r o m t h e w a l l s , b u t , a t R e d R i v e r w here t h e s n o w f a l l i s h e a v y , h i p p e d 23 See Gowans, B u i l d i n g C a n a d a , pp.137-38 a n d P e r c y S. Nobbs, A r c h i t e c t u r e i n C a n a d a . L o n d o n : R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , 1924, pp.6-7-^ C o m p a r e t h e v e r t i c a l b o a r d i n g a n d c a s e m e n t windows o f t h e G r e y Nuns' h o u s e w i t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l b o a r d i n g a n d s a s h windows o f S e v e n O a k s . 2 ^ A b o v e , p. 6. 44-J e me p r o p o s e de l o g e r c e s b o n n e s s o e u r s dans ma.maison de p i e r r e que j ' a i q u i t t e e l e l e r du A m o i s p o u r h a b i t e n f i n c e l l e que j ' a i b a t i e au p i g n o n de l ' e g l i s e d o n t j e p a r l e d e p u i s l o n g -temps e t q u i a e t e b a t i e l e n t e m e n t f a u t e d'ouv-r i e r s ; e l l e a 70 p i e d s s u r L6 e t deux e t a g e s ; e l l e me donne u n b o h e t ample l o g e m e n t , une t r e s b e l l e s a c r i s t i e e t une e c o l e q u i a e t e commencee l e l e r de c e m o i s ; 25 e c o l i e r s . - Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r , l8it3. 4 5 . PLATE X V I I I lei- Vol. — ]>. 02. A/OPD E v e c h e , S t . B o n i f a c e , b e g u n 1839. Prom V i e de Mgr. T a c h e b y J.P.A. B e n o i t ( M o n t r e a l , 1 9 0 k ) . 4 6 . o r g a b l e r o o f s w e re p r e f e r r e d t o p a v i l i o n r o o f s w h i c h 26 w o u l d t e n d t o c a t c h a n d h o l d t h e snow. A c o n t i n e n t - w i d e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e w i t h r e g i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n s was t h u s 27 a c h i e v e d b e f o r e t h e C a n a d i a n C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f 1867• B u t i t was n o t f o u n d i n a l l p a r t s o f C a n a d a , a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e d i e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e f u r t r a d e . I t c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a n a t i o n a l s t y l e . R a t h e r i t was t h e s t y l e o f a f u r t r a d e e m p i r e . The h o u s e s b u i l t i n t h i s s t y l e a t R e d R i v e r w e r e owned b y t h e n a t u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t , t h e r e t i r e d o f f i c e r s o f t h e f u r t r a d e , t h e m e r c h a n t s , a n d t h e c l e r g y m e n . P r o b a b l y , t h e r e t i r e d f u r t r a d e r s h e l p e d c a r r y t h e s t y l e i n t o t h e d o m e s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e c o l o n y . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s t y l e w i t h t h e l a i r d s * h o u s e s o f S c o t l a n d p e r h a p s a p p e a l e d t o them. The a t m o s p h e r e o f r u d e g e n t i l i t y w h i c h p e r v a d e d t h e homes o f t h i s a r i s t o c r a c y i s e p i t o m i z e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e H a r r i o t t h o u s e w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n H a r p e r ' s I l l u s t r a t e d News; A f e w w e l l - s e l e c t e d b o o k s , h o u s e - p l a n t s i n t h e w i n d o w s , c h o i c e e n g r a v i n g s o n t h e w a l l , r i d i n g w h i p s a n d g u n s i n t h e h a l l , t o b a c c o j a r s a n d p i p e s o n t h e s i d e - t a b l e , a m e l o d e o n a n d a c c o r d e o n a n d m u s i c - b o x i n t h e room w h i c h New E n g l a n d e r s c a l l a p a r l o r , t e l l t h e s t o r y o f how t h e p l e a s a n t summer d a y s a n d l o n g w i n t e r n i g h t s a r e w h i l e d 2 o C o m p a r e t h e b u i l d i n g s a t P o r t L a n g l e y , P i s . I I a n d I I I , w i t h t h e R e d R i v e r b u i l d i n g s . 2 ^ S e e A l a n Gowans on t h e q u e s t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l s t y l e i n L o o k i n g a t A r c h i t e c t u r e i n C a n a d a , p p . 2 2 1 - 2 2 . H e n r y Y o u l e H i n d , R e p o r t on t h e E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e  C o u n t r y b e t w e e n L a k e S u p e r i o r a n d t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . T o r o n t o : J o h n L o v e l l , lt»5tf, p. 306. 47. D e r r i o r e e t a 1'ombre de l a C a t h e d r a l e aux t o u r s j u m e l l e s , s e t r o u v a i e n t . i m m e d i a t e m e n t adosseV l a R e s i d e n c e e p i s c o p a l e , g r a n d e c o n s t r u c t i o n a deux etag.es de 70 p i e d s s u r kO. Le p r e m i e r e t a g e , a d e m i - s o u t e r r a i n , e t a i t c o n s t r u i t e n p i e r r e , l e s e c o n d a i n s i q u e , l e g r a n d g a l e t a s q u i l e s u r m o n t a i t ' e t a i e n t . e n b o i s . V o i c i s a d i m e n s i o n : a. 1 * e t a g e i n f e r d e u r se t r o u v a i e n t une d e p e n s e ou c a v e , du c o t e s u d l a c u i s i n e , u n p a s s a g e q u i s e r v a i t de r e f e c t o i r e aux dom-e s t i q u e s e t e n f i n l e r e f e c t o i r e ^ e p i s c o p a l , q u i s e r v a i t e n meme temps aux 3b e l e v e s p e n s i o n -n a i r e s a u C o l l e g e . L j e t a g e s u p e r i e u r ^ e t a i t a p r o p r e m e n t p a r l e r l a r e s i d e n c e de l ' E v e q u e e t de s o n c l e r g e , v o i c i s a d i v i s i o n : a u n o r d , l a b i b l i o t h e q u e e t l a chambre e p i s c o p a l e , u n e s a l l e de r e c e p t i o n , u ne chambre o b s c u r e , u n p a s s a g e c o r r e s p o h d a n t a l ' e n t r e e s u d e t a l ' e s c a l i e r du g a l e t a s e t e n f i n l a s a c r i s t i e ; a u s u d , deux chamb r e s dormant dans u n g r a n d s a l o n , une chambre o b s c u r e , u n p a s s a g e p o u r l a p o r t e sud^, u n e s a l l e de d e p o t e t une p e t i t e s a c r i s t i e ou s ' h a b i l l a i e n t l e s e n f a n t s de c h o e u r . S i s t e r C u r r a n , i n t h e C h r o n i q u e dos S o e u r s G r i s e s , i860. TJT A n n ? ' y T V ler Vul.-.p. 94. C/iem/n (ai/jourd'/iu/ C'/netfere des Soeurs) SUD 35x50P/'eds Parterre. titflti k JO 1 *M Jj C/assc des T/f/es ffe/ecto/r^^ des Soet/rj C/asse des Gd/cor>sPar'1 Hefedom de. Mgr. ef des Ptici j Perfe de/a /Vor/c/at PorfC Care Part*. Porte CJSSVJ- CAJSSIS Ctnil/i £ ? r f t l . Ct'lHI r / V . f ' / por/t d-er>S,e'e AfORD E v e i - l i i - i l l ' S a i i i t - U i n i i f n c i - (1S4"I). — Premier e i i i j j e . Chemi'n (~auj ouid'hut Cimeh'e're deiSocurs) SUD k 3 C/>ne//£/•£. Parterre fscd/iei dehors 3 c/wst/s Chaui: CAjts/fZ CAJSS/J fTWSfcg CAHSS/I k 10 kj Cfiambre du PereAuber, -Parte PerT, Sa/on POlti Pc,tt Z^^s/jCu'siiic Pet, C/m.fisr. C/ui. Cnbre'e Chambre de Mgr. PfMCfKAe, ACCPOTTI P°<N fbrr-Perth Sdl/e. de. •g PoiJe ngi:noi>enc/iet Porrt CftJrnb du 'it-du U l i f i l M Porte fiOrfC Commu/idu/'e bo/foir Porte " „ IBJ -Sacrisf/e fbrte fortes pour S ^ k k i NORD C/'/neA/i/'c , begun 1339. by J.P.A. Benoit (Montreal, 190k). 49. away, a n d how a l i f e d f e x p o s u r e a n d a d v e n t u r e a n d 2 q t o i l i s r o u n d e d w i t h r e s t a n d c a l m a n d d o m e s t i c p e a c e . 2 9 M a r b l e , p p . 3 1 1 - 1 2 . 50. R e d R i v e r H o u s e s i n W i n t e r t i m e The r i g o r o u s w i n t e r s a t R e d R i v e r p r e s e n t e d s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s f o r t h e s e t t l e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e p r o b l e m s seem t o h a v e b e e n o v e r c o m e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r homes. The w a l l s o f t h e i r h o u s e s w e r e s t o n e o r wood. L o g w a l l s w e re c h i n k e d w i t h a m i x t u r e o f mud a n d s t r a w o r b u f f a l o h a i r , a n d , i n some b u i l d i n g s l i k e S e v e n Oaks o r t h e G r e y Nuns* h o u s e , t h e y were s i d e d w i t h w e a t h e r b o a r d w h i c h g a v e 30 t h e m p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e c o l d a n d t h e f r o s t . I n some i n s t a n c e s , r o u g h - c a s t was a p p l i e d t o wood s u r f a c e s ; C o l o n y 31 G a r d e n s , A l e x a n d e r R o s s 1 wooden h o u s e , was s t u c c o e d . H o w e v e r , s t o n e w a l l s w e r e u s u a l l y n o t c o v e r e d w i t h r o u g h -c a s t o r w e a t h e r b o a r d . I n n e r w a l l s u r f a c e s were p a n e l l e d o r p l a s t e r e d , a l t h o u g h a t S e v e n Oaks b o t h p a n e l l i n g a n d p l a s t e r w e r e u s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o A l e x a n d e r R o s s , " t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e p e o p l e u s e s t r a w t h a t c h r o o f s , w h i c h a r e l i g h t , w a t e r t i g h t , 32 a n d d u r a b l e " . T h e y were p r o b a b l y warm, t o o . I n f a c t , p r a i r i e f a r m e r s s t i l l o f t e n b a n k t h e i r h o u s e s w i t h s t r a w t o p r o t e c t them f r o m t h e c o l d i n w i n t e r t i m e . Oak a n d c e d a r 33 s h i n g l e s w e r e s o m e t i m e s u s e d f o r r o o f s . H o w e v e r , c e d a r was - ^ E x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e G r e y Nuns' h o u s e d u r i n g r e s t o r a t i o n s , 1965* 31, A b o v e , p. 18. 1 33n 3 2 R o s s , p.388. See P i s . I X a n d X L . ' I b i d . 51. c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l u x u r y , a n d oak w a r p e d i n t h e summer h e a t a n d h a d t o be r e p l a c e d e v e r y t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n y e a r s . The h o u s e s w e r e g i v e n f u l l b a s e m e n t s i n some c a s e s , a l t h o u g h p a r t i a l b a s e m e n t s were more common."^" A n u n d e r g r o u n d s t o r y p r o v i d e d g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e c o l d . The t o t a l a r e a o f windows a n d d o o r s was s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e e n t i r e w a l l s u r f a c e . P r o b a b l y t h e s m a l l window o p e n i n g s were a s e f f e c t i v e i n k e e p i n g h e a t o u t i n summertime a s t h e y were i n k e e p i n g i t i n i n t h e w i n t e r t i m e . F i r e p l a c e s a n d s t o v e s w e re u s e d t o h e a t t h e h o u s e s . F i r e p l a c e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h s t o n e o r w i t h a f r a m e o f b r a n c h e s a n d a m i x t u r e o f c l a y , w a t e r , a n d s t r a w k n e a d e d 3"5 i n t o a p a s t e a n d b a k e d h a r d b y t h e h e a r t h f i r e . ^ S t o v e s w e re p o p u l a r a n d h a d t o be i m p o r t e d f r o m B r i t a i n o r , l a t e r , t h e 36 U n i t e d S t a t e s . The G a r r o n s t o v e s o f S c o t l a n d w e re t a k e n t o Y o r k F a c t o r y i n p i e c e s , a s s e m b l e d , a n d f i r e d , a n d t h e n t h e y w e r e s e n t t o R e d R i v e r a n d s o l d o n c e t h e c r a c k s h a d b e e n 37 r e p a i r e d . The s t o v e s a n d f i r e p l a c e s t e n d e d t o be c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e h o u s e s . A t S e v e n O a k s , f o r e x a m p l e , a G a r r o n s t o v e s t o o d i n t h e f r o n t h a l l , a n d , a t t h e Bunn h o u s e , t h e o r i g i n a l f i r e p l a c e was s e t a g a i n s t a n i n t e r i o r w a l l . -^"Above, p. 35* 3£ ^ H e a l y , p.72. 36 See I s a a c G o w i e , The Company o f A d v e n t u r e r s , T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1913, p.212. 37 The R o s s H o u s e , p.6. 52. SUMMARY The l a r g e s t o n e a n d wood h o u s e s o f t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t w e re b u i l t i n a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company. The s t y l e o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e A n g l o - N o r m a n b u i l d i n g s o f F r e n c h C a n a d a a n d t h e l a i r d ' s h o u s e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y S c o t l a n d . A t R e d R i v e r , i t was a d o p t e d f o r t h e h o u s e s o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t f r o m t h e f u r t r a d e b u i l d i n g s w h i c h w ere b u i l t a t U p p e r a n d L o w e r F o r t G a r r y a f t e r 1830. f & M a y ' s PLATS XX ! S Y . . / 3 * W / j r Fro. WfOt'S-'XtL u/cy>^ , Map showing R e d R i v e r c h u r c h e s . 5k-CHAPTER I I I RED RIVER CHURCHES The f i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c a n d C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d m i s s i o n a r i e s a r r i v e d a t R e d R i v e r i n l8l8 a n d 1820. A Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n , w h i c h came t o be known a s S t . B o n i f a c e , was e s t a b l i s h e d o n l a n d g r a n t e d b y L o r d S e l k i r k o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e R e d R i v e r , o p p o s i t e t h e f o r k s o f t h e R e d a n d A s s i n i b o i n e . The A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d o n l a n d s e t a s i d e b y S e l k i r k f o r a k i r k a n d s c h o o l - h o u s e i n 1817 a n d was l a t e r c a l l e d t h e U p p e r C h u r c h o r S t . J o h n ' s . I t was l o c a t e d a b o u t two m i l e s b e l o w S t . B o n i f a c e o n t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e R e d R i v e r . Rude wooden c h u r c h e s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y b u i l t a t t h e m i s s i o n s . I n a p p e a r a n c e , t h e y c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e o t h e r l o g b u i l d i n g s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t o n l y b y t h e i r b e l l t o w e r s . Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r 1 s f i r s t c h a p e l was p a r t o f h i s 50 X 30' p o p l a r h o u s e . 1 H o w e v e r , b y J u l y , 1819, he h a d h a d m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d f o r a n oak c h u r c h m e a s u r i n g 80 X 35'• The c h u r c h was b u i l t b e t w e e n l820and 1825.3 I t was one o f t h e " ^ L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. J.O. P l e s s i s , A u g u s t 30, I 8 l 8 , P r o v e n c h e r , pp.31-32. A c c o r d i n g t o D o u g l a s , PP.33-34* t h e f i r s t s e r v i c e s were h e l d i n t h e b i g h o u s e a t P o r t D o u g l a s . L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. J.O. P l e s s i s , J u l y 27, 1819, P r o v e n c h e r , p.39. 3 Georges Dugas, M o n s e i g n e u r P r o v e n c h e r e t l e s M i s s i o n s  de l a R i v i e r e - R o u g e . M o n t r e a l : C O . B e a u c h e m m e t F i l s , L i b r a i r i e s - I m p r i m e u r s , 1889, p.121. See P I . X X I . 5 5 . L a c h a p e l l e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , de 80 s u r 3 5 , e s t e q u a r r i e , j e l a f e r a i l e v e r a u s s i t o t que l e s o u v r i e r s a u r o n t m i s l e p r e s b y t e r e de M. D u m o u l i n l o g e a b l e ; . . . . . J ' e n a i r e c u une e n meme temps de M y l o r d S e l k i r k p a r l a B a i e d'Hudson p a r l a q u e l l e s a S e i g n e u r l e m ' e n v o i e q u e l q u e s a r t i c l e s a mon a d r e s s e , s u r t o u t une c l o c h e d'une c e n t a i n e de l i v r e s q u i a e t e c o n s a c r e e a L o n d r e s ; ........ - Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r , 1 8 1 9 . 56. The f i r s t S t. Boniface Ctaareh. Court©«y P u b l i c A r c h i v e * o f Manitoba 57. I c o n s i d e r i t a s no s m a l l p o i n t g a i n e d , t o h a v e a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g d e d i c a t e d t o r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s , whose s p i r e s h o u l d c a t c h t h e e y e , b o t h o f t h e w a n d e r i n g n a t i v e s , a n d t h e s t a -t i o n a r y c o l o n i s t s . - J o h n West, l 8 2 k . 58. 5 9 . f e w b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h s u r v i v e d t h e f l o o d o f 1826. k J o h n West's c h u r c h - s c h o o l h o u s e was o p e n e d f o r d i v i n e s e r v i c e o n J u l y 2 1 , 1 8 2 2 . ^ By t h e n e x t y e a r , i t h a d a s p i r e a n d a bell.° I t was c a p a b l e o f h o l d i n g 150 p e o p l e , a n d i t s 7 d i m e n s i o n s w e r e 6 0 X 2 1 ' . T h e s e e a r l y c h u r c h e s w e re r e p l a c e d b y s t o n e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e l 8 3 0 ' s . O t h e r p a r i s h e s w e r e g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g t h e R e d a n d A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r s , a n d o t h e r c h u r c h e s w e r e b u i l t . The Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s u s e d s t y l e s w h i c h w e r e p r e v a l e n t i n c o n t e m p o r a r y Quebec, a n d t h e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s , b o t h C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d a n d P r e s b y t e r i a n , Iwere i n f l u -e n c e d b y t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n E n g l a n d . The C a t h e d r a l s o f S t . B o n i f a c e . Two Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s d o m i n a t e d t h e R e d R i v e r s k y l i n e b e t w e e n 1 8 3 0 a n d 1 8 7 0 . The f i r s t o n e , t h e " t u r r e t s t w a i n " o f W h i t t i e r ' s poem, was Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r * s c h u r c h . The g o o d b i s h o p ,was e n c o u r a g e d t o b u i l d i t b y G o v e r n o r G e o r g e S i m p s o n when he was e n g a g e d i n b u i l d i n g h i s f i r s t s t o n e ^ L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. B . C . P a n e t , J u l y 1 5 , 1 8 2 6 , P r o v e n c h e r , p . I l k . cj ^ B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p. 1 5 . See P I . X X I I . 6 I b i d . ^A.C. G a r r i o c h , The C o r r e c t i o n L i n e . W i n n i p e g : S t o v e l Co., 1933, p.164. 60. By f a r t h e most i m p o s i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b u i l d -i n g i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t i s t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h o f S t . B o n i f a c e , n e a r P o r t G a r r y , The e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e i s n e i t h e r p l e a s i n g n o r t a s t e f u l , a l t h o u g h a t a d i s t a n c e t h e two t i n -n e d s p i r e s g l i t t e r i n g i n t h e s u n l i g h t g i v e a n i m p o s i n g a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e b u i l d i n g . . . Two o r t h r e e v e r y s w e e t t o n e d b e l l s r i n g a t m a t i n s a n d v e s p e r s , a n d t o a s t r a n g e r j u s t a r r i v e d f r o m a l o n g j o u r n e y t h r o u g h u n p e o p l e d w a s t e s , no s i g h t o r s o u n d i n R e d R i v e r c r e a t e s s u c h . s u r p r i s e a n d m e l a n c h o l y p l e a s u r e a s t h e s w e e t t o n e s o f t h e b e l l s o f S t . B o n i f a c e , b r e a k i n g t h e s t i l l n e s s o f t h e m o r n i n g o r e v e n i n g a i r . - H.Y. H i n d , 1857-58. P L A T S X X I I I G l e n b o w F o u n d a t i o n . 6 2 . g e v e c h e i n 1829. He h a d m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e c h u r c h b y 1831, b u t h i s b u i l d i n g p l a n s w e re f r u s t r a t e d b y a s c a r c i t y 9 I f ) o f m asons. By 1833, h o w e v e r , f i v e masons were a t work. The r o o f o f b o a r d s a n d s h i n g l e s was c o m p l e t e i n 1837, b u t t h e m a s o n r y a b o u t t h e p o r t a l a n d t h e woodwork w e r e s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d . 1 1 I n 1839, P r o v e n c h e r a d d e d a s a c r i s t y a n d a n e v e c h e , i n w h i c h h e was l i v i n g b y l8k3. 1 2 The c h u r c h s t i l l 13 l a c k e d a v a u l t a n d s t e e p l e s i n I84.3. T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , h o w e v e r , one s t e e p l e was f i n i s h e d , a n d a n o t h e r was b u i l t b e t w e e n l8k6 and7,l860 when b o t h s t o o d c o m p l e t e a n d c o v e r e d w i t h t i n . ^ 4 T h e n , o n December l k , i860, a f t e r t h i r t y y e a r s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , a f i r e d e s t r o y e d b o t h t h e c a t h e d r a l a n d t h e e v e c h e . 8 L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. P a n e t , J u n e 6, 1829, P r o v e n c h e r , pp.126-27. 9 L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. P a n e t , S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1831, P r o v e n c h e r , p.13k. 1 0 A . G . M o r i c e , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a , f r o m L a k e S u p e r i o r t o t h e P a c i f i c (1659*-l895). T o r o n t o : M u s s o n Book Co., 1910, I , p.133. " ^ L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J u l y k, 1837, P r o v e n c h e r , p . 1 6 7 . L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J u l y 8, 1839, P r o v e n c h e r , pp.211-12. • ^ L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J a n u a r y 2, l 8 k 3 , P r o v e n c h e r , p.212. A c c o r d i n g t o M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , B e l l s o f R e d R i v e r , p.21, W.J. B o n d f o u n d o n l y one t o w e r c o m p l e t e d when he was i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t i n 1851. l k S e e P I . X X I I I . B e l o w , p. 120. 63. The c a t h e d r a l was 100::feet l o n g a n d J4.5 f e e t w i d e . The w a l l s w e r e I4.0 f e e t i n h e i g h t , a n d t h e s t e e p l e s r o s e 100 f e e t a b o v e t h e g r o u n d . The e v e c h e was 70 X k 6 ' . l D A c c o r d i n g t o H a r p e r ' s New M o n t h l y M a g a z i n e , t h e c h u r c h was . . . p e r h a p s , t h e f i n e s t , c e r t a i n l y t h e most i m p o s i n g b u i l d i n g i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t . . . . I n i t s two t i n n e d a n d a i r y t o w e r s i s a f i n e a n d w e l l - m a t c h e d p e a l o f t h r e e b e l l s , w e i g h i n g u p w a r d o f 1600 p o u n d s . I n t h e r e a r o f t h e c a t h e d r a l , w i t h a l o w e r r o o f , i s t h e d w e l l i n g o f t h e b i s h o p . He e s c o r t e d u s , b y a r e a r e n t r a n c e , t h r o u g h h i s h o u s e i n t o t h e c a t h e d r a l , o n t h e o c c a s i o n o f o u r f i r s t v i s i t t o h i m , a n d a more s t r i k i n g s u r p r i s e c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r u s . We came o u t b y a d o o r a t t h e s i d e o f t h e a l t a r , a n d t h e r e s u d d e n l y b e h e l d p i l l a r e d a i s l e s , f r e s c o e d r o o f , a n d a l l t h e g o r g e o u s p a r a p h e r n a l i a w i t h w h i c h t h e M o t h e r C h u r c h s o l i c i t s a n d a t t r a c t s h e r c o m m u n i c a n t s . To a n i c e t a s t e t h e e f f e c t m i g h t seem a l i t t l e g a u d y , b u t when we l e a r n e d t h a t t h e S i s t e r s o f C h a r i t y a n d some o f t h e B r o t h e r s h a d a c c -o m p l i s h e d t h e s e d e c o r a t i o n s w i t h o u t a i d o r p a t t e r n , t h e o f f e n s e p a s s e d ; f o r p i e t y t a k e s r a n k a b o v e t a s t e , o r e l s e what e x c u s e h a v e we f o r t h e b a r e w a l l s , t h e s t i n g y p a i n t , t o s a y n o t h i n g o f t h e b e g g a r l y p i n c h e d c e r e m o n i a l i n some a b o d e s o f o u r e n l i g h t e n e d P r o t e s t a n t w o r s h i p ? I n d e e d , o f a Sunday o r a f e t e d a y , when t h e c h u r c h i s t h r o n g e d ; when, a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l h u n t a n d s a f e r e t u r n , t h e h a l f - b r e e d s g a t h e r t o t h e c a t h e d r a l i n a l l t h e i r f a n c i f u l v a r i e t y o f d r e s s , t h e i r b r i l l i a n t s a s h e s , a n d b l u e o r w h i t e c a p o t e s ; t h e d r e s s o f t h e women, t o o , n o t l e s s b r i l l i a n t l y c a t c h i n g t h e e y e , t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f ha r m o n y g r a t i f i e d b y t h i s l i k e n e s s a n d g e n e r a l p r e v a l e n c e o f s t r i k i n g c o l o r s , w h i c h w o u l d n e v e r be e l i c i t e d b y t h e same t h r o n g s i n a c o u n t r y m e e t i n g - h o u s e i n New E n g l a n d . 1 ' B e n o i t , V i e de Mgr. T a c h e , A r c h e v e q u e de  S t . B o n i f a c e . M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e B e a u c h e m i n , 1901+, I , p . 3 8 l . l o L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J a n u a r y 2, l8 k 3 , P r o v e n c h e r , p.211. 1 7 M a r b l e , p.31k. 6k. The c h u r c h h a d a g r e a t a l t a r , t w o s i d e a l t a r s a n d s i d e g a l l e r i e s s u p p o r t e d b y p i l l a r s , a s w e l l a s a n o r g a n , p u l p i t , b e n c h e s , a n d p e w s . 1 ^ The c h u r c h was d e r i v e d i n s t y l e f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c h u r c h e s d e s i g n e d b y Thomas B a i l l a i r g e , who c o m b i n e d t h e o l d Q u e b e c o i s a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e c l a s s i c i s m o f L o u i s X V . 1 9 S t . B o n i f a c e r e s e m b l e s C h a r l e s b o u r g (1828), 20 i n p a r t i c u l a r . B o t h h a d g r e a t w e s t f r o n t s w i t h t w i n t o w e r s , t h r e e e n t r a n c e s , a n d a l a r g e c e n t r e window. The i n f l u e n c e f r o m F r e n c h C a n a d a seems t o h a v e b e e n d i r e c t . P r o v e n c h e r , who was o n c e a s t u d e n t a t t h e N i c o l e t S e m i n a r y , a s k e d Jerome Demers, t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r o f Thomas B a i l l a i r g e a n d d i r e c t o r o f t h e N i c o l e t S e m i n a r y , t o d e s i g n p l a n s f o r h i s c h u r c h . W r i t i n g t o Mgr. P a n e t , t h e B i s h o p o f Quebec, o n Ju n e 6, 1829, he s a i d , " J e d e s i r e r a i s que M. Demers d r e s s a t l e p l a n p o u r e t r e e n v o y e l e p r i n t e m p s p r o c h a i n , c a r s i l e s moyens v i e n n e n t j ' e n j e t e r a i l e s f o n d a t i o n s l ' e t e p r o c h a i n . " 2 1 L a t e r , i n 183k, he w r o t e t h e n e x t B i s h o p o f Quebec, Mgr. S i g n a y , a n d a s k e d f o r a window d e s i g n "a l a g o t h i q u e " : l 8 T h e N o r ' W e s t e r , December 17, i860. - ^ s e e A l a n Gowans, "Thomas B a i l l a i r g e a n d t h e Q u e b e c o i s T r a d i t i o n o f C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e , " A r t B u l l e t i n , X X X I V . M a r c h , 1952, pp.117-37 20 R.H. H u b b a r d , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d i a n A r t . O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963, p.25, PI.15. o n L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. P a n e t , J u n e 6, 1829, P r o v e n c h e r , p.127. 65. a i M. Demers ou a u t r e s a v a i t l a b o n t e de me f a i r e u n p e t i t p l a n p o u r p a r t a g e r l ' e v e n t a i l d es c h a s s i s de mon e g l i s e q u i s o n t £ l a g o t h i q u e , i l me r e n d r a i t s e r v i c e . J ' a i a d o p t e c e mode l e c r o y a n t p l u s s o l i d e , m a i s l e p a r t a g e de c e t e v e n t a i l e s t d i f f i c i l e p o u r n ' a v o i r p a s des c a r r e a u x t r o p g r a n d s ; p e u t - e t r e p o u r r a i t - o n d o n n e r u n p l a n e l e g a n t s a n s c e t i n c o n v e n i e n t q u i e s t y g r a n d i c i p a r c e que l e s g r a n d s v i t r e s s o n t d i f f i c i l e s a v f a i r e £2 v e n i r l e s f e n e t r e s o n t c i n q p i e d s t r o i s p o u c e s de l a r g e . S i n c e M. Demers d e n o u n c e d t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l , one w o n d e r s a b o u t h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h i s r e q u e s t a n d w h e t h e r he d i d , i n f a c t , d e s i g n t h e w indows o f S t . B o n i f a c e . The s e c o n d c a t h e d r a l a t S t . B o n i f a c e was b u i l t b y t y 2k Mgr. T a c h e f o l l o w i n g t h e f i r e o f i860. I t s s a c r i s was b e g u n i n 1862 a n d s e r v e d a s a c h a p e l f o r some t i m e . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1862-63, wood was c u t a t P o i n t e d es Che n e a ( S t e . A nne) b y M. T h i b e a u l t a n d some m e t i s , a n d m a s o n r y w o r k o n t h e b o d y o f t h e c a t h e d r a l b e g a n i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1863. By t h e autumn, f o u r w a l l s , a r o o f a n d a v a u l t h a d b e e n e r e c t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s t o f t h e c a t h e d r a l was n o t f i n i s h e d f o r many y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s . A s t o r m i n 1868 d e s -2? t r o y e d t h e f i r s t t o w e r a n d t h e r o s e window. ^ The g a l l e r y was s t i l l i n c o m p l e t e i n 1875, a n d t h e s e c o n d t o w e r a n d c r o s s c r . 26 wer e n o t f i n i s h e d u n t i l I883. The c a t h e d r a l was f i n a l l y PP L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , December 1? a n d 18, 183k, P r o v e n c h e r , p . lk3. 2 3 S e e P I . X X I V . 2 k B e n o i t , I , pp.k73-76. ^ M a c L e o d , B e l l s Of R e d R i v e r , p.22. p. 22. 2 6 B e n o i t , I I , p . 288-89; MacLeod, B e l l s o f R e d R i v e r , 67. c o n s e c r a t e d o n S e p t e m b e r 18, 1887.27 I t was u s e d u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t c a t h e d r a l was b u i l t b e h i n d i t a n d o p e n e d i n 1905. Mgr. T a c h e ' s c a t h e d r a l was a l s o d e r i v e d i n s t y l e f r o m Thomas B a i l l a i r g e ' s c h u r c h e s . H o w e v e r , i n t h i s c a s e , t h e c h u r c h e s w h i c h - B a i l l a i r g e d i d a f t e r 1830 l i k e S a i n t -J o s e p h L a u z o n o r L e s B e c q u e t s , S a i n t - P i e r r e , w e re t h e p r o t o -29 t y p e s . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i n f l u e n c e was d i r e c t a s i t was w i t h t h e f i r s t c a t h e d r a l h a s n o t b e e n a s c e r t a i n a b l e . The new e v e c h e was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d b y B a i l l a i r g e ' s c l a s s i c i s m . I t s f o u n d a t i o n s w e re p u t down e a r l y i n l86k, w o r k c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g t h e summer a n d w i n t e r , a n d t h e h o u s e 30 was f i n a l l y h a b i t a b l e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1865. A t t h a t t i m e t h e r o o f was p i t c h e d , n o t g a m b r e l , a n d a c u p o l a a n d a f e w 31 d o r m e r s s a t u p o n t h e r o o f . C l a s s i c i s m was m a r k e d i n t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p i l a s t e r s a n d p i l l a r s o f t h e c u p o l a a n d v e r a n d a h , t h e p e d i m e n t s o f t h e d o r m e r s , t h e r o u n d e d windows o f t h e p o r c h , a n d t h e r e g u l a r i t y o f f e n e s t r a t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t 27 B e n o i t , I I , p.563. A.G. M o r t i c e , V i e de Mgr. L a n g e v i n , O b l a t de M a r i e  I m m a c u l e e , A r c h e v e q u e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e . S a i n t B o n i f a c e : c h e z 1' A u t e u r , 1916, pp.229-30, 2ii5-46. 29 See G-owans, L o o k i n g a t A r c h i t e c t u r e i n C a n a d a , p.93, PI.I4.5, f o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f S a i n t - J o s e p h , L a u z o n . 3°Benoit, I , pp.k76-77. 31 The a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e e v e c h e a r e a p p a r e n t i n t^he^ p h o t o g r a p h s p r e s e n t e d b y M a u r i c e B a u d o u x , P r e s b y t e r e , e v e c h e s  e t a r c h e v e c h e de S t . - B o n i f a c e , l8l8-196k, R e p r i n t f r o m L e s C l o c h e s de S a i n t B o n i f a c e , L X I V . J a n u a r y , 1965, P.13* 68. a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e r o o f a n d p o r c h d e s t r o y e d t h o r i g i n a l 32 c l a s s i c i s m . A n g l i c a n C h u r c h e s i n t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t The s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e w h i c h was e x e r c i s e d o n most o f t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s b u i l t a t R e d R i v e r a f t e r 1830 was t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l . I t r e a c h e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s s e n t f r o m E n g l a n d t o s e r v e t h e r e . H o w e v e r , t h e c h u r c h e s w ere G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n t e r m s o f t h e i r d e t a i l s . P o i n t e d windows a n d d o o r w a y s were i m p o s e d o n a s i m p l e , b o x - l i k e f o r m t h a t d i d n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t wooden c h u r c h e s e r e c t e d b y Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r a n d J o h n West. I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l o n A n g l i c a n c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e was p r e s e n t b u t s l i g h t i n e x t e n t a n d t h a t i t was i n t e g r a t e d o v e r a number o f y e a r s w i t h t h e b o x - l i k e f o r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The f i r s t s t o n e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h a t R e d R i v e r was n o t i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l . T h i s c h u r c h was known a s 33 t h e U p p e r C h u r c h o r S t . J o h n ' s . J By I83I, J o h n West's l i t t l e c h u r c h was t o o s m a l l a n d d e c a y e d t o be u s e d v e r y much l o n g e r . I n 1832, p l a n s f o r a new c h u r c h w e r e b e i n g made u n d e r D a v i d 34 J o n e s , a n d s u b s c r i p t i o n s were b e i n g c o l l e c t e d . On May 15, 3 2 I b l d . , p.12. 3 3 S e e P I . XXV. 3 ^ B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , pp.31-33. 6 9 . S t . J o h n ' s c h u r c h i s i n a v e r y u n s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n , t h e w a l l s b e i n g s u p p o r t e d w i t h wooden p r o p s . A l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f s t o n e i s now l y i n g n e a r i t f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c a t h e d r a l , w h i c h i s e s t i m a t e d t o c o s t £5 ,000 s t e r l i n g . - H.Y. H i n d , 1857-58. PLATS XXV S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h , b u i l t 1832. F r o m t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , 1857-58, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . 71. I832, t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e was l a i d . F i n a l l y , b e t w e e n 1832 a n d 183k, t h e new c h u r c h was a c t u a l l y e r e c t e d n o r t h a n d w e s t o f t h e o l d wooden c h u r c h . The mason was P i e r r e L e B l a n c , t h e b u i l d e r o f L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . The f i r s t s e r v i c e s were h e l d i n November o f 183k. H o w e v e r , t h e c h u r c h was n e v e r v e r y s e c u r e , a n d f o u n d a t i o n p r o b l e m s made wooden b u t t r e s s e s n e c e s s a r y . M o r e o v e r , i t was b a d l y f l o o d e d i n 1852. I t was f i n a l l y c o n s e c r a t e d a s S t . J o h n ' s C a t h e d r a l o n O c t o b e r 28, 1853-Bishop D a v i d A n d e r s o n , b u t , o n l y e i g h t y e a r s l a t e r , o n May 19, 1861, he p r e a c h e d h i s l a s t s e r v i c e i n t h e c h u r c h b e f o r e i t was d e m o l i s h e d . The b a s i c c h u r c h f o r m e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e e a r l i e r w ooden b u i l d i n g s o f b o t h Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r a n d J o h n West, t h a t i s , t h e r e c t a n g u l a r b o x a n d a t t a c h e d t o w e r , was c o n t i n -u e d i n t h e U p p e r C h u r c h . I t was a l o n g b u i l d i n g w i t h h i g h g a b l e s f r o n t a n d b a c k a n d a b e l f r y p l a c e d b e h i n d t h e f r o n t g a b l e . The d e t a i l was n o t G o t h i c R e v i v a l . R a t h e r , t h e f i v e w i n d o w s w h i c h w e r e r a n g e d a l o n g e a c h s i d e w a l l w e r e r o u n d e d , a f a n window was s e t i n a b o v e t h e d o o r , a n d a n o c u l u s was p l a c e d d i r e c t l y a b o v e t h e d o o r a n d f a n window. G o t h i c R e v i v a l d e t a i l a r r i v e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e p o i n t e d w i n d o w s o f t h e f i r s t s t o n e S t . B o n i f a c e . How-e v e r , i t was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e w i t h t h e e r e c t i o n o f a s e c o n d s t o n e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h , t h e M i d d l e C h u r c h , o r S t . P a u l ' s , f i n i s h e d i n t h e l8k0*s, a n d a t h i r d , t h e L o w e r 35 S e e D a v i d A n d e r s o n , N o t e s o f t h e F l o o d a t t h e  R e d R i v e r , 1852. L o n d o n : H a t c h a r d , 1 5 5 2 . The M i d d l e C h u r c h , w h i c h i s n o t q u i t e c o m p l e t e d , a n d w h i c h h a s b e e n b u i l t b y t h e u n a i d e d e x e r t i o n s o f t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n , i s a n e d i f i c e o f s t o n e , s i x t y f e e t l o n g . - B i s h o p o f M o n t r e a l , 18k5 73 S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h , o r M i d d l e Chi F r o m t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , 1857-58, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . 7k. C h u r c h , o r S t . A n d r e w ' s , c o m p l e t e d a f e w y e a r s a f t e r t h e f i r s t . The f i r s t M i d d l e C h u r c h , b u i l t i n l82k-25 b y D a v i d J o n e s , who w o r k e d u p o n i t h i m s e l f , was wooden a n d h a d t o be 36 r e p l a c e d i n t h e l8k0's b y a s t o n e c h u r c h . A c c o r d i n g t o M o u n t a i n ' s J o u r n a l , t h i s new c h u r c h was a b o u t s i x t y f e e t i n 37 l e n g t h a n d was n e a r l y f i n i s h e d i n l8kk. I t was c o n s e c r a t e d 38 S t . P a u l ' s b y A n d e r s o n o n J a n u a r y 6, 1853. I t was de m o l -i s h e d a b o u t 1868 a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d b y t h e p r e s e n t 39 wooden c h u r c h . L i k e S t . J o h n ' s , i t was a l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g . A t t a c h e d t o i t was a h i g h t o w e r s u r m o u n t e d b y a b e l f r y . The p o i n t e d w i n d o w s a n d d o o r a n d t h e c r e n e l l a t e d t o w e r i n d i c a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f G o t h i c R e v i v a l . H o wever, t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c R e d R i v e r c h u r c h f o r m w i t h t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l d e t a i l was none t o o s u c c e s s f u l . The t h i r d s t o n e c h u r c h , t h e L o w e r C h u r c h o r S t . A n d r e w ' s , r e p l a c e d a n e a r l i e r 50 X 22' wooden b u i l d i n g . b e g u n u n d e r W i l l i a m C o c h r a n i n I 8 3 I , d e d i c a t e d o n May 7, 1832, a n d u s e d u n t i l l8k9 when t h e s t o n e c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d . ^ The new c h u r c h was p l a n n e d i n l8kk, t h e t i m b e r f o r i t was c u t i n 36 B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.2k; M o u n t a i n , p . 8 l . 3 7 M o u n t a i n , p . 8 l . See P I . X X V I . B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.71. 3 9 I b i d . , p.109. k Q I b i d . , p.37. See P I . X X V I I , X X V I I I . 77. t h e w i n t e r o f l8k5, a n d o n J u l y k, l8k5, J o h n S r a i t h u r s t f r o m t h e c h u r c h a t t h e I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t l a i d t h e c o r n e r s t o n e . ^ 1 I t was f i n i s h e d i n l8k9, a n d o n December 1 9 t h o f t h a t y e a r i t w a s ' c o n s e c r a t e d S t . A n d r e w ' s b y B i s h o p A n d e r s o n . I t s t i l l s t a n d s , t h e o n l y one o f t h e f i r s t f o u r s t o n e c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t t o ha v e s u r v i v e d . I t h a d d e t e r i o r a t e d b a d l y b y t h e 1930's, b u t f o r t u n a t e l y i t was r e s t o r e d . ^ 3 A p p a r e n t l y , t h e c h u r c h was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o be t h e c e n t r e o f B i s h o p A n d e r s o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r h e a r r i v e d i n l8k9, w h i c h may e x p l a i n t h e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o i t s design.44 The p r o p o r t i o ' n s o f v o i d t o mass a n d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e t . . »'" '* v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e t o w e r a n d o f t h e t o w e r a n d c h u r c h body w e r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e y h a d b e e n a t t h e M i d d l e C h u r c h . The c h u r c h was b u i l t u n d e r A r c h d e a c o n W i l l i a m C o c h r a n , t h e g r e a t c h u r c h - b u i l d e r a t R e d R i v e r , a n d t h e H e b r i d e a n i £ mason, Duncan McRae. T o g e t h e r , t h e y i n t e g r a t e d t h e b a s i c c h u r c h f o r m o f r e c t a n g u l a r b o d y a n d a t t a c h e d t o w e r w i t h G o t h i c R e v i v a l d e t a i l . k l I b i d . , pp.37-38. k 2 I b i d . , pp .38, 67, 70. k 3 " S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 262. M a r c h , 1931, pp.190-91; M.L. K e n n e d y , "The M i s s i o n a t t h e R a p i d s , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 26k. S e p t e m b e r , 1933, pp.52-54« ^ B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , pp.68-69, 70. ^ R o b e r t B. H i l l , M a n i t o b a ; H i s t o r y o f I t s E a r l y  S e t t l e m e n t , D e v e l o p m e n t a n d R e s o u r c e s . T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1 8 9 0 , pp. 1 7 7 - 7 8 . 78. • - T I T - - r - t - T r T T T » • P l a n , S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h ( l8k5) . 79. O n l y a f e w y e a r s a f t e r S t . A n d r e w ' s was f i n i s h e d , C o c h r a n s t a r t e d a n o t h e r s t o n e c h u r c h , a t t h e I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t . I n I836, he h a d b e g u n t h e f i r s t I n d i a n c h u r c h , a wooden one a c c o m m o d a t i n g a b o u t 300 a n d m e a s u r i n g a b o u t 50 f e e t i n l e n g t h . ^ B u t , i n 1853, w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n o f S t . A n d r e w ' s , he s t a r t e d a s t o n e c h u r c h . I t s f o u n d a t i o n 47 s t o n e was l a i d o n May 23rd o f t h a t y e a r . C o c h r a n , who a t t h a t t i m e was s t a r t i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t a t P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e , d i d n o t s t a y t o c o m p l e t e t h e c h u r c h . R a t h e r , A r c h d e a c o n C o w l e y t o o k t h e I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t i n 1854 a r i d saw t h e c h u r c h 48 f i n i s h e d . The c h u r c h l a c k e d t h e c a r e f u l i n t e g r a t i o n o f e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n S t . A n d r e w ' s . I t h a d no t o w e r , a n d t h e b e l f r y was a w k w a r d l y p l a c e d a b o v e a m o n o t o n o u s f a c a d e . L a t e r a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e f a c a d e h a v e n e v e r t h e l e s s i m p r o v e d i t s a p p e a r a n c e . A s a n c t u a r y a n d v e s t r y w e re a d d e d t o t h e c h u r c h i n l a t e r y e a r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e v e s t r y w i n d o w s l a c k t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e w i n d o w s i n t h e o r i g i n a l p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h . The d e s i g n o f t h e w i n d o w s a t S t . P e t e r ' s i s t h e same 49 a s t h a t o f t h e w i n d o w s a t S t . A n d r e w ' s a n d K i l d o n a n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w i n d o w s o f S t . P a u l ' s were __ M o u n t a i n , p.79; B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , pp.39-40, c i t i n g a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y W i l l i a m C o c h r a n , A u g u s t 2, 1837. ^ B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.42. k 8 I b i d . k 9 S e e P I . X X I X . PLATS X X I X 81. 50 a l s o t h e same a s t h e o n e s a t S t . P e t e r ' s . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e w i n d o w s a t S t . A n d r e w ' s , K i l d o n a n , a n d S t . P e t e r ' s a r e a l l f i v e f e e t f o u r i n c h e s i n w i d t h , a l m o s t t h e same 51 w i d t h a s t h e win d o w s o f t h e f i r s t s t o n e S t . B o n i f a c e . I t may he t h a t t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h b u i l d e r s a t R e d R i v e r c o p i e d t h e window d e s i g n u s e d a t S t . B o n i f a c e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e window d e s i g n was made b y Jerome Demers. Two y e a r s a f t e r he s t a r t e d S t . P e t e r ' s , C o c h r a n was 52 b u i l d i n g a wooden c h u r c h a t P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e (1855). T h i s c h u r c h , S t . M a r y ' s , r e s e m b l e d t h e e a r l i e s t wooden c h u r c h e s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t a l t h o u g h i t was more d e c i d e d l y G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n d e t a i l : " t h e r e w e re f o u r G o t h i c w indows o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e c h u r c h , a n d a l a r g e r one a t t h e s o u t h 53 e n d " . I n s i d e t h e r e was no c h a n c e l , a f e a t u r e o f a l l t h e c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n t h e c o u n t r y i n A r c h d e a c o n C o c h r a n e ' s t i m e . The s u b s t i t u t e i n t h e c a s e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h e a p p o r t i o n i n g o f a b o u t t e n f e e t o f t h e s o u t h e n d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h i s was s h u t o f f b y means o f a w h i t e p a i n t e d r a i l , a n d e n c l o s e d what t h e w o r s h i p p e r s r e v e r e n t l y r e g a r d e d a s a most h o l y p l a c e , n o t t o be t r o d d e d u p o n n e e d l e s s l y b y a n y , i n t h a t i t was s e t a p a r t t o m i n i s t e r h o l y t h i n g s . W i t h i n t h i s e n c l o s u r e were two w h i t e p a i n t e d p u l p i t s e i g h t f e e t i n h e i g h t , s t a n d i n g one a t e a c h c o r n e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g . A communion t a b l e s t o o d i n t h e u s u a l p l a c e , b e n e a t h t h e window i n t h e c e n t r e , a n d o n e a c h s i d e o f i t s t o o d a h i g h c h a i r made o f b i r c h a n d p a i n t e d b l a c k . 50 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Hime P h o t o g r a p h o f S t . P a u l ' s , P I . X X V I . 51 A b o v e , p. 65. 52 B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.4.3. 53 G a r r i o c h , F i r s t F r o w s , p 90. 82. The pews were made a n d p r o v i d e d e n t i r e l y b y t h e p e o p l e , a n d i t i s n o t e w o r t h y a s s h o w i n g t h e m e c h a n i c a l s k i l l o f t h e P o r t a g e p i o n e e r s , t h a t t h e r e were n o t many fam-i l i e s t h a t d i d n o t make a s w e l l a s f u r n i s h t h e i r own pew. A common m o d e l was f i r s t d e c i d e d o n , a n d t h e n p a s s e d f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r . A pew h a d two h e a v y o a k e n d s , t h e t o p o f e a c h b e i n g f i n i s h e d o f f i n s e v e n c u r v e s w h i c h must h a v e t a x e d n o t o n l y t h e s k i l l b u t t h e p a -t i e n c e o f t h e workman. The b o d i e s o f t h e pews were made o f p o p l a r a n d b a s s w o o d , a n d i n c l u d e d a b o o k a n d k n e e l i n g b o a r d . The pews were u n p a i n t e d a n d c o u l d n o t h a v e l o o k e d more, a l i k e h a d t h e y b e e n t h e w o r k o f t h e same c a r p e n t e r . ^ The p u l p i t s a n d t h e communion r a i l came f r o m t h e o l d wooden c h u r c h a t t h e I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t . ^ The c h u r c h e s o f S t . M a r g a r e t ' s , H i g h B l u f f , b u i l t 1861-62, a n d S t . A n n e ' s , P o p l a r P o i n t , b u i l t d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r s o f 1862, 1863, a n d l86k, were t h e same a s S t . M a r y ' s , a l t h o u g h S t . A n n e ' s was t e n f e e t s h o r t e r i n l e n g t h t h a n t h e 56 o t h e r s . S t . James was n o t u n l i k e t h e c h u r c h e s a t P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e , H i g h B l u f f o r P o p l a r P o i n t i n a p p e a r a n c e , a l t h o u g h 57 i t was b u i l t i n 1853• I t h a d , h o w e v e r , a n e v e n t i e r l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n l i k e t h e manse . O r i g i n a l l y , i t h a d a t h r e e -s t o r i e d t o w e r , w h i c h was r e m o v e d i n t h e e a r l y l870's a n d r e p l a c e d b y a b e l f r y . A v e s t r y was l a t e r a d d e d . The i n t e r -i o r o f S t . James was d e c o r a t e d w i t h t e x t s a n d o t h e r o r n a m e n t a l ^ k I b i d . , pp.90-91. 55 B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.4.3. ^ 6 G a r r i o c h , F i r s t F u r r o w s , p.12k. See P I . XXX. -^Bo o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.87. 58jgii Sabeth H e n d e r s o n , w r i t i n g i n t h e W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , J a n u a r y 2, I 9 6 0 . begun 1862. 8k. June i860 : I ..began to b u i l d at the Church on Wednesday the 13th. I wrought 3 days at b u i l d -i n g stones and one day carpenter work the f i r s t week ..... November i8 6 0 : John Hudson put I n the Mapleton Church windows on 9th ..... I was b u i l d i n g and p l a s t e r i n g at the Church on Saturday 9th, 11th and 12th Tuesday, 19th, was a s o f t snowy day. I was p l a s t e r i n g above the Church door a l i t t l e w h i l e . December 1861: Sunday 1st. The C h u r c h o f S t . C l e m e n t ' s was p p e n e d f o r D i v i n e W o r s h i p b y t h e L o r d B i s h o p o f R u p e r t ' s L a n d a n d Mr*. H u n t e r - t h e C h u r c h was f u l l o f p e o p l e f r o m up abo v e a n d f r o m down b e l o w , i n d e e d many h a d t o go home as i t was r a t h e r c o l d t h a t e v e n i n g . November 1862: There was a f i n e b e l l put up at St. Clement's on Saturday 15th a f t e r dark at night w i t h f i r e and l a n t e r n l i g h t . - Samuel Taylor. S t . C l e m e n t ' s C h u r c h , M a p l e t o n , b e g u n i 8 6 0 . 86. 59 d e s i g n p a i n t e d b y t h e f i r s t i n c u m b e n t , Mr. T a y l o r . The l a s t two s t o n e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n t h e R e d R i v e r p e r i o d w e r e S t . C l e m e n t ' s a n d S t . J o h n ' s o f 1861. S t . C l e m e n t ' s was p l a n n e d a s e a r l y a s O c t o b e r , 1857, b u t i t was n o t s t a r t e d i n t i l i 8 6 0 . 0 0 The mason was Samuel T a y l o r , who d e s c r i b e d w o r k o n t h e l i t t l e c h u r c h i n h i s j o u r n a l . The f i r s t s e r v i c e was h e l d o n December 1, 1861, a n d t h e c o n s e -c r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e o n J a n u a r y 11, l 8 6 k . D l The t o w e r was 62 f i n i s h e d a n d c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1928. U n t i l t h e n , t h e b e l l w h i c h h a d o r i g i n a l l y h u n g i n J o h n West's c h u r c h a n d a f t e r -w a r d s t h e f i r s t s t o n e S t . J o h n ' s , was k e p t i n a s c a f f o l d w h e r e i t h a d b e e n p l a c e d " a t n i g h t w i t h f i r e a n d l a n t e r n l i g h t " i n November, l862.° 3 S t . C l e m e n t ' s i s a l i t t l e r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g , w i t h f o u r p o i n t e d w indows down t h e s i d e w a l l s , a s m a l l p o i n t e d window o v e r t h e d o o r , a n d , l i k e a l l t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s , a l a r g e e a s t window. O l d S t . J o h n ' s was l a s t u s e d i n 1861, t h e same y e a r ^ C a r n e g i e , p.3k. ^°T.C.B. B o o n , " B a c k g r o u n d a n d E a r l y H i s t o r y o f S t . C l e m e n t ' s , M a p l e t o n , " S t . C l e m e n t ' s C h u r c h , M a p l e t o n ;  C e n t e n a r y , 1861-1961. W i n n i p e g : ? W a l l i n g f o r d P r e s s , l t d . , 1961, p.7. T a y l o r , J o u r n a l , I , December 1861, p.67; I b i d . , I I , J a n u a r y , 186J+, p. 5-. AP B o o n , " B a c k g r o u n d a n d E a r l y H i s t o r y o f S t . Clement's, M a p l e t o n , " p . 11. 6 3 ^ T a y l o r , J o u r n a l , I , November, 1862, p.77; See M a c L e o d , B e l l s o f R e d R i v e r , p p . 10-13, f o r t h e s t o r y o f J o h n W e s t ' s b e l l . 8 8 . t h a t a new s t o n e c h u r c h was b e g u n . ^ However, B i s h o p D a v i d A n d e r s o n h a d b e e n t h i n k i n g a b o u t a new c h u r c h f o r some t i m e . I n 1 8 5 6 , when he was i n E n g l a n d a r r a n g i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l h e l p , he o b t a i n e d p l a n s f o r a c h u r c h f r o m a n a r c h i t e c t f r i e n d i n 65 D e r b y . T h e s e p l a n s a f t e r w a r d s h a d t o be a d a p t e d t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The c o r n e r s t o n e was l a i d o n 6A J u n e k, 1 8 6 2 . A t o w e r , p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e , l a t e r p r o v e d u n s t a b l e a n d h a d t o b e t a k e n down i n 1875 , a t 67 w h i c h t i m e t h e w e s t w a l l was r e b u i l t . The c h u r c h i t s e l f was u s e d u n t i l 1 9 1 3 , a n d , f i n a l l y , i n 1926 t h e p r e s e n t c a t h e d r a l was s t a r t e d . The f o u n d a t i o n s a n d n o r t h w a l l o f t h e l a t t e r 68 w e r e b u i l t w i t h t h e s t o n e s o f t h e o l d c a t h e d r a l . S t . J o h n ' s o f 1861 was t h e most e l a b o r a t e o f t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s a t R e d R i v e r . The G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n f l u e n c e was g r e a t e r u p o n i t t h a n t h e o t h e r c h u r c h e s . A c c o r d i n g t o a n e n t h u s i a s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n The N o r ' W e s t e r , i t s c e i l i n g w a s " l o f t y " a n d p a i n t e d , " G o t h i c p a n n e l l i n g " l i n e d t h e w a l l s a b o u t t h e a l t a r , a n d w i n g s o r s i d e p o r c h e s w e re a t t a c h e d t o 69 t h e m a i n b o d y . M o r e o v e r , i t h a d a p u l p i t t h a t was "a m o d e l o i + B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.7 2 . See P I . X X X I I . 65 ^ I b i d . , pp. 7 1 - 7 2 ; R o b e r t M a c h r a y , L i f e o f R o b e r t  M a c h r a y . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n Co. o f Canada, L t d . , 1 9 0 9 , p p . 1 1 5 - 1 9 . 66 B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.7 2 . 6 7 I b i d . , p. 7 3 . I b x d . 69 The N o r ' W e s t e r , November k, 1862. 89. The U p p e r P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i s a n e a t b u i l d -i n g o f s t o n e , s i t u a t e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The c o s t o f i t s e r e c t i o n e x c e e d e d £ l,000 s t e r l i n g , a n d i t h a s s i t t i n g s f o r $00. The manse i s d e l i g h t f u l l y p l a c e d o n t h e r i v e r b a n k , w h i c h h e r e s l o p e s u n i f o r m l y t o t h e w a t e r ' s edge f r o m t h e g r e a t p r a i r i e l e v e l , some t h i r t y f e e t a b o v e t h e r i v e r a t t h e t i m e o f my v i s i t - H.Y. H i n d , 1857-58. PLATE XXXIII 91. o f t a s t e a n d g o o d w o r k m a n s h i p " a n d "a g e n u i n e , o r t h o d o x r e a d i n g d e s k " . The K i r k o f K i l d o n a n A l t h o u g h b y 1820 b o t h A n g l i c a n a n d Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s h a d a r r i v e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t , a P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r t o a d m i n i s t e r t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s a n d t h e i r d e s c e n d e n t s d i d n o t a r r i v e u n t i l 1851. Once i t was c e r t a i n t h a t a m i n i s t e r was c o m i n g , t h r e e h u n d r e d P r e s -b y t e r i a n s s e c e d e d f r o m t h e A n g l i c a n c o n g r e g a t i o n a n d s t a r t e d w o r k o n a c h u r c h a n d manse l o c a t e d i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f S t . J o h n ' s p a r i s h . A manse, 35 X 20*, was r e a d y f o r t h e m i n i s t e r , J o h n B l a c k , o n h i s a r r i v a l , a n d i t was u s e d f o r 70 s e r v i c e s u n t i l a s t o n e c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d . I n t h e f a l l a r i d w i n t e r o f 1851, t i m b e r was p r e p a r e d , s t o n e was b r o u g h t f r o m S t o n y M o u n t a i n , f o u r t e e n m i l e s d i s t a n t o v e r t h e p l a i n s , a n d l i m e f o r m o r t a r was b u r n e d a t t h e q u a r r y a n d t a k e n t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . 7 1 The f l o o d o f 1852 i n t e r r u p t e d b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y , a n d t h e c h u r c h was n o t r e a d y f o r u s e u n t i l J a n -72 u a r y 5, 1851+. Some a l t e r a t i o n s h a v e s i n c e b e e n made i n t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f pews a n d i n t h e f a c a d e . A v e s t i b u l e h a s 73 b e e n a d d e d , a n d t h e w a l l s h a v e b e e n r o u g h - c a s t . 7°Margaret M c B e t h , The S t o r y o f K i l d o n a n C h u r c h ,  1851-1951. W i n n i p e g : W a l l i n g f o r d P r e s s , L t d . , 1951, p.7. See P I . X X X I I I , X X XIV. 7 1 I b i d . 72 I b i d . 7 3 I b i d . , p.8. 92. P L A T S X X X I V P l a n , K i l d o n a n Church (18 93-K i l d o n a n was n o t a t r a d i t i o n a l S c o t t i s h K i r k . R a t h e r , l i k e t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s , i t i n t e g r a t e d t h e b o x -l i k e f o r m w i t h G o t h i c R e v i v a l d e t a i l . H o w e v e r , i t was d e f i n i t e l y a P r e s b y t e r i a n , n o t a n A n g l i c a n c h u r c h . I t h a d no l a r g e e a s t window, i t s v e s t r y was p l a c e d w i t h a c e r t a i n t h r i f t i n e s s u n d e r t h e s t a i r s g o i n g up t o t h e g a l l e r y , , a n d t h e p u l p i t was c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d i n o r d e r t h a t e v e r y o n e i n t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n c o u l d see a n d h e a r . And, a s G e o r g e B r y c e commented, i t was " p l a i n , e v e n t o s e v e r i t y " . 7 ^ 7 k S e e I a n G. L i n d s a y , The S c o t t i s h P a r i s h K i r k . E d i n b u r g h : S a i n t Andrew P r e s s , I 9 6 0 . 75 G e o r g e B r y c e , J o h n B l a c k , t h e A p o s t l e o f R e d R i v e r . T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s ; M o n t r e a l : C.W. C o a t e s ; H a l i f a x : S.P. H u e t i s , 1898, p.83. 9 k . SUMMARY C h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e i n R e d R i v e r was i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i t e c t u r e o f F r e n c h Canada a n d E n g l a n d . The Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s w e re b u i l t i n t h e s t y l e o f Thomas B a i l l a i r g e , w h e r e a s t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s i n t e g r a t e d G o t h i c R e v i v a l d e t a i l w i t h t h e b o x - l i k e f o r m common t o R e d R i v e r b u i l d i n g s . The P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h e s t e n d e d t o f o l l o w t h e s t y l e o f t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s w i t h some m i n o r a d a p t a t i o n s . 95. A f t e r m a t h The m a j o r i t y o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t were " p l a i n s q u a r e b o x e s " . Ornament was e i t h e r n o t u s e d , o r i t was a p p l i e d t o a f e w a r e a s , t h a t i s , s t a i r c a s e s , d o o r s , p o r c h e s , s t e e p l e s , a n d w i n d o w s , a n d c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s i m p l i -c i t y a n d sameness. R a i l i n g p o s t s i n t h e Bunn h o u s e , K i l d o n a n c h u r c h , a n d S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h w ere a l l a l i k e , a n d a t 76 S e v e n Oaks t h e y w e r e e n l a r g e d t o v e r a n d a h p o s t s . G e o r g i a n f a n l i g h t s w e r e p l a c e d above t h e d o o r s o f l a r g e h o u s e s , a n d p o r c h e s w e r e o f t e n e d g e d w i t h l a t t i c e w o r k o r a c c e n t e d w i t h 77 p i n n a c l e s . S t e e p l e s a n d b e l f r i e s , t h e f o c a l p o i n t s o f t h e 7ft R e d R i v e r s k y l i n e , r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n . The o n l y b u i l d i n g s w h i c h w ere g i v e n a n e x c e s s o f d e c o r a t i o n w e r e 79 t h e i n t e r i o r s o f t h e c a t h e d r a l s o f S t . B o n i f a c e . The t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e p l a i n , s q u a r e R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e t o t h e e l a b o r a t e V i c t o r i a n s t y l e s o f e a r l y W i n n i p e g a r c h i t e c t u r e o c c u r r e d i n t h e f i r s t two d e c a d e s a f t e r 1870. H o w e v e r , t h e t r a n s i t i o n was a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n f l u e n c e s u p o n P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , u p o n t h e o r n a m e n t o f d o m e s t i c a r c h -i t e c t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t h e l 8 6 0 ' s , i n f l u e n c e s f r o m t h e 7 6 S e e P I . XXXV. 77 'See P I . X V I . The B i r d h o u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , h a d a s m a l l p i n n a c l e d p o r c h . 7 8 B e l o w , p. 120. See a l s o P I . X X I V a n d X X V I I . 79 A b o v e , p.63. PLATE XXXVI H e x a g o n a l p r i v y , A r c h e v e c h e , S t . • B o n i f a c e . i n t h e H u d s o n 1 s B a y s t y l e S e l k i r k , M a n i t o b a . 99. C a n a d i a n c o l o n i e s w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o i n f i l t r a t e R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e . T a c h e 1 s e v e c h e was f l a n k e d b y two h e x a g o n a l p r i v i e s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e p o l y g o n a l b u i l d i n g s f a d i n 80 O n t a r i o a n d t h e e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . B u t , f o r t h e most p a r t , t h e c h a n g e came a f t e r I87O, n o t b e f o r e . O n l y i n t h e l880's were g r e a t b r i c k b u i l d i n g s l i k e t h e B a w l f B l o c k , t h e E m p i r e H o t e l , G o v e r n m e n t H o u s e , a n d t h e o l d W i n n i p e g C i t y 81 H a l l f i n a l l y b u i l t . Once t h e V i c t o r i a n s t y l e s a r r i v e d i n W i n n i p e g , t h e o l d s t y l e s o f t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t g r a d u a l l y l o s t t h e i r p r o m i n e n c e . Some o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s i n t h e F r e n c h s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e c o n t i n u e d i n t h e s t y l e o f T a c h e ' s c a t h e d r a l , a n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h s t y l e s o f t h e O n t a r i o s e t t l e r s were n o t v e r y much d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o l d A n g l i c a n a n d P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h e s o f t h e s e t t l e -82 ment. The H u d s o n ' s Bay s t y l e o f l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n was n o t u s e d b y t h e new s e t t l e r s , a n d t o d a y o n l y a f e w e x a m p l e s 83 r e m a i n a l o n g t h e A s s i n i b o i n e a n d R e d R i v e r s . O f ) See P I . X X X V I . See a l s o J o h n I . R e m p e l ; "A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f P o l y g o n a l B u i l d i n g s w i t h R e s i d u a l E v i d e n c e i n O n t a r i o , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r y , L V I . December, 1 9 6 k , pp.235-k8. See J o h n W. Graham, W i n n i p e g A r c h i t e c t u r e ; t h e  R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t ; 1 8 3 1 - 1 9 6 0 . W i n n i p e g : U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a P r e s s , I 9 6 0 . 8 2 B e n o i t , I I , P I . f a c i n g p p . 3 1 2 , 390, k66. 83 J S e e P I . X X X V I I . 100. CHAPTER I V THE RED RIVER SETTLEMENT The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t i n 1870 was s h a p e d l i k e a d i s t o r t e d cross."'' I t e x t e n d e d n o r t h a n d s o u t h a l o n g t h e R e d R i v e r f r o m N e t l e y C r e e k t o S t . A g a t h e , w e s t w a r d s a l o n g t h e A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r f r o m P o r t G a r r y t o P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e , a n d e a s t w a r d s f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e S e i n e R i v e r , o r 2 German C r e e k . The p i v o t a l p o i n t o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t was t h e f o r k s o f t h e R e d a n d A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t t l e m e n t s t r e t c h e d f o r m i l e s i n f o u r d i r e c t i o n s , i t o n l y e x t e n d e d two m i l e s o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e r i v e r s . The r i v e r l o t s y s t e m o f F r e n c h C anada h a d b e e n a d o p t e d b y t h e S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s u n d e r M i l e s M a c d o n e l l who 3 h a d become f a m i l i a r w i t h i t t h e r e . The f i r s t f o r m a l l a n d s u r v e y was made i n 1813 b y t h e H u d s o n 1 s Bay Company t r a d e r a n d s u r v e y o r f r o m B r a n d o n H o u s e , P e t e r F i d l e r . k He l a i d o u t l o t s o f one h u n d r e d a c r e s w i t h a f r o n t a g e o f f o u r a c r e s o n t h e w e s t b a n k o f t h e R e d R i v e r , a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e s i z e o f t h e l o t s v a r i e d t h e r e a f t e r , t h e r i v e r l o t s y s t e m r e m a i n e d •""See P I . X X X V I I I . ^ F o r t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t i n 1871, see M o r t o n , M a n i t o b a , pp.151-53. •* -'John W a r k e n t i n , M a n i t o b a S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s , A P a p e r R e a d b e f o r e t h e H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , S e r i e s I I I , No. 1 6 , e d i t e d b y D o u g l a s Kemp. W i n n i p e g : H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1961, p.63 c i t i n g a l e t t e r f r o m M i l e s M a c d o n e l l t o L o r d S e l k i r k i n t h e S e l k i r k P a p e r s . M i c r o f i l m Copy, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J u l y 17, I813, p.787. k I b i d . 0''-' '. f'iuii-ir . •'. '}.ik • Go 0 A fa vt1 r r c i < I'tZvit'/'"-' , ,'' , „ , / 3 0 4- sfsnti& jl'jJcti A X * / ; f « u d a rt e# j ^ . : ^ ' **** V re • •JL. marches - ^ t ^ - f " : ^ / " " " farming Ct ., frairie Oh* ,opy of a Map of a P o r t i o n of Rupert's LE the A s s i n i b o i n e and Saskatchewan E x p l o r i n g E x p e d i t i o n i n the Year 1858; under I n s t r u c t i o n s from the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, Canada. , Surveyed and Examined by d i t i o nt a r y , ale of O r i g i n a l Map: % " 1 5 mi l e s . 102. f i r m l y i m p r i n t e d o n t h e a r e a . I n d e e d , t h e c i t y p l a n o f W i n n i p e g h a s b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e s y s t e m . Many s t r e e t s l i k e McDermot', B a n n a t y n e , R o s s , a n d L o g a n mark t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f l o t s o n c e owned b y s e t t l e r s o f t h a t name.'' A r i p a r i a n p l a n o f s e t t l e m e n t h a d c e r t a i n a d v a n t a g e s f o r R e d R i v e r b u i l d e r s a s w e l l a s t h e s e t t l e r s . F i r s t , t h e r i v e r b a n k s p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s l i k e wood a n d s t o n e . T i m b e r was c u t a l o n g t h e r i v e r s u n t i l i t became s c a r c e , a n d l i m e s t o n e c o u l d be q u a r r i e d o r p i c k e d up a l o n g t h e b a n k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , a r o u n d L o w e r F o r t G a r r y a n d t h e G r a n d R a p i d s n e a r S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h . ' S e c o n d l y , t h e r i v e r s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . When t i m b e r f i n a l l y h a d t o be c u t a t a d i s t a n c e , i t was f l o a t e d i n booms t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . M o r e o v e r , t h e s t o n e f o r U p p e r F o r t G a r r y was p r o b a b l y t a k e n u p s t r e a m o n s l e d g e s o v e r t h e f r o z e n 8 r i v e r s f r o m t h e l o w e r s e t t l e m e n t . The r i v e r s a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e l i n k w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i m p o r t i n g o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s l i k e p a i n t , t i n , n a i l s , a n d g l a s s t o R e d R i v e r The d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e r i p a r i a n l o c a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , was s p r i n g f l o o d i n g . S e v e r e f l o o d s o c c u r r e d i n 1826 a n d 1852. 5 H e a l y , pp.139-40. ^See W.L. M o r t o n , " A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e Red R i v e r C o l o n y , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , XXX. December, 19li9, pp.318-19, f o r t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e r i v e r l o t s y s t e m i n g e n e r a l . 7 H i n d , pp.29k-95. A b o v e , p. 9, 11. o W a t s o n , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , p.10. 103. Many b u i l d i n g s were d e s t r o y e d o r damaged, an d , i n some 9 i n s t a n c e s , new c o n s t r u c t i o n was d e l a y e d . B u i l d i n g s were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d o n t h e p r a i r i e l e v e l f o r p r o t e c t i o n , b u t , e v e n t h e n , o n l y t h e l o w e r s e t t l e m e n t was h i g h e n o u g h t o e s c a p e t h e f l o o d s . The u s e o f t h e r i v e r l o t s y s t e m c r e a t e d a s o l i d l i n e o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g t h e r i v e r s . A l l t h e b u i l d i n g s f a c e d t h e r i v e r s , a n d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s e t t l e m e n t was a r o a d s i d e o r , r a t h e r , r i v e r s i d e , v i l l a g e . T h i s l i n e a r a r r a n g e m e n t was r e l i e v e d b y t h e s i n u o s i t y o f t h e r i v e r s a n d p u n c t u a t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e - f o r t s , c h u r c h e s , a n d l a r g e a n d s m a l l h o u s e s , a n d b y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b u i l d i n g s -P o r t G a r r y f l a n k e d b y e m b r y o n i c W i n n i p e g a n d t h e S t . B o n i f a c e m i s s i o n , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , m i s s i o n s , a n d f a r m - y a r d s . The f o r k s was t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . I t h a d b e e n a n i m p o r t -a n t s i t e s i n c e L a V e r e n d r y e h a d h a d F o r t Rouge e r e c t e d t h e r e a b o u t t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a c e n t u r y b e f o r e t h e f i r s t S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d i n t h e R e d R i v e r V a l l e y . L a t e r , i n 1810, t h e N o r t h West Company b u i l t F o r t G i b r a l t e r a t t h e f o r k s . 1 0 I t was p u l l e d down d u r i n g t h e h o s t i l i t i e s o f l8l6 ^See A n d e r s o n ' s N o t e s o f t h e F l o o d a t t h e R e d R i v e r ,  1852. a n d Chap. I X o f R o s s ' The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . A l s o , see a b o v e , p.91. D o u g l a s , p.3. 10k. P o r t G a r r y i t s e l f , w h i c h f r o n t s o n t h e A s s i n i -b o i n e , c l o s e t o i t s m o u t h , s t a n d s a l i t t l e a p a r t , t h e g r o u n d a b o u t i t b e i n g h e l d o p e n b y t h e company; a n d i t c o n t a i n s some b u i l d i n g s o f more s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u i l t o f s t o n e o r axe-hewn l o g s , a n d two a n d a h a l f s t o r i e s h i g h , - s t o r e -h o u s e s f o r t h e p r o d u c e a n d p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e c o l o n y , a n d o f f i c e s f o r t h e company. T h e i r r o o f s a n d e v e n t h e i r u p p e r s t o r i e s c a n be s e e n r i s i n g a b o v e t h e h i g h s t o n e w a l l s , seamed, w i t h c r a c k s o f a g e , w h i c h e n c l o s e t h e w h o l e , l o o p -h o l e d f o r m u s k e t r y , a n d g u a r d e d a t t h e f o u r c o r n e r s b y r o u n d e d , b a s t i o n - l i k e t o w e r s , w h i c h a r e p i e r c e d f o r s m a l l a r t i l l e r y . - S'.H. S c u d d e r , i 8 6 0 . U p p e r F o r t G a r r y . m t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , l8p7~58, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . 106. a n d was p a r t l y r e - e r e c t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . A f t e r t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f t h e r i v a l f u r t r a d e c o m p a n i e s i n 1821, some a d d i t i o n s a n d p a l i s a d e s were b u i l t , a n d i t became t h e Hudso n ' s B a y Company's f o r t a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f N i c h o l a s 12 G a r r y , whose name i t l a t e r was g i v e n . The damage w h i c h i t s u f f e r e d i n t h e f l o o d o f 1826 p r o m p t e d t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new f o r t , t h e S t o n e P o r t o r Lower P o r t G a r r y . 1 3 The S e l k i r k s e t t l e r s l o c a t e d a b o u t a m i l e f r o m t h e f o r k s . T h e i r f o r t , D o u g l a s , was e r e c t e d o n P o i n t D o u g l a s i n 1813, b u t i n 1816 i t was d e s t r o y e d a n d h a d t o be r e b u i l t . " 1 " ^ The l a s t f o r t t o be c o n s t r u c t e d a t t h e f o r k s was 15 U p p e r F o r t G a r r y . I t was p l a n n e d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f l83k-35 a n d b e g u n i n t h e s p r i n g o f l835.1^ A l e x a n d e r C h r i s t i e , r e n o w n e d a s a f o r t b u i l d e r i n H u d s o n ' s B a y Company h i s t o r y , i s u s u a l l y c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e f o r t . He was a t R e d R i v e r a s g o v e r n o r f r o m J u n e 1833 t o J u n e 1839 a n d r e s i d e d a t t h e S t o n e F o r t u n t i l F o r t G a r r y was h a b i t a b l e . 1 7 1 1 I b i d . , pp.21-22, 31. 12 E r n e s t V o o r h i s , H i s t o r i c F o r t s a n d T r a d i n g P o s t s  o f t h e F r e n c h Regime a n d o f t h e E n g l i s h F u r T r a d i n g C o m p a n i e s . O t t a w a , 1930, pp.71-72. 13 ^ A b o v e , p. 127. - ^ D o u g l a s , p p . l l - l k . ^ S e e P I . X X X I X . • ^ M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC," The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 279. J u n e , 1949, p.5. 17 R o s s , p . k l O ; C a m p b e l l , J o u r n a l s , p.26. 1 0 7 . The mason was P i e r r e L e B l a n c , who w o r k e d on t h e f o r t u n t i l 18 he made h i s f a t e f u l t r i p t o C o l u m b i a D i s t r i c t i n I 8 3 8 . Duncan McRae a n d J o h n C l o u s t o n w o r k e d a t P o r t G a r r y a f t e r 19 t h e y a r r i v e d a t R e d R i v e r i n 1 8 3 7• By 1 8 3 7 , h o w e v e r , t h e f o r t was s u f f i c i e n t l y a d v a n c e d f o r C h r i s t i e t o move f r o m t h e 20 S t o n e P o r t t o P o r t G a r r y . P o r t G a r r y was c o m p l e t e d f o r t h e most p a r t b y 1 8 3 8 when James H a r g r a v e r e p o r t e d t o G o v e r n o r G e o r g e S i m p s o n t h a t t h e new f o r t i s c o m p l e t e l y a n d s e c u r e l y w a l l e d i n , w i t h two e x c e l l e n t B a s t i o n s w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y sweep e v e r y s i d e a n d r e n d e r i t t h e s e c u r e s t a s w e l l a s t h e b e s t f i n i s h e d f o r t t h e Company h a s i n R u p e r t * s L a n d . 1 H o w e v e r , b e t w e e n 1838 a n d l 8 k 5 , two a d d i t i o n a l b a s -t i o n s were b u i l t . S i m p s o n d e s c r i b e d i t i n 181x5 a s "a q u a d -r a n g l e o f 21x0 X 250 f e e t , w i t h s t o n e w a l l s 15 f e e t h i g h a n d 22 f o u r c o r n e r b a s t i o n s " . T hey w e r e p r o b a b l y c o n s t r u c t e d u n d e r A l e x a n d e r C h r i s t i e who r e t u r n e d t o s e r v e a t R e d R i v e r f r o m 23 J u n e l 8 L k t o J u n e I8I4.6. A l e x a n d e r R o s s d e s c r i b e d t h e f o r t l 8 S e e A p p e n d i x I I I . 19 W a t s o n , p . 9 . 2 0 M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , "The C i t y T h a t N e v e r Was," The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 2 8 0 . S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 5 0 , p.l5« 21 M a c L e o d , " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC," p . 6 , c i t i n g J ames H a r g r a v e . 22 I b i d . 23 R o s s , p.1x10. 108. n o t l o n g a f t e r w a r d s : I t s f o r m i s n e a r l y s q u a r e , b e i n g a b o u t 280 f e e t f r o m e a s t t o w e s t , a n d 2k0 f e e t f r o m n o r t h t o s o u t h . I t i s s u r r o u n d e d b y a s t o n e w a l l o f 15 f e e t h i g h , a n d o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t h i c k n e s s ; h a v i n g two l a r g e g a t e s o n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h s i d e s , a n d f o u r r o u n d e d t o w e r s o r b l o c k h o u s e s a t e a c h c o r n e r , w i t h p o r t a n d l o o p h o l e s f o r c a n n o n a n d m u s k e t r y . I n t h e i n s i d e o f t h e w a l l i s a g a l l e r y w h i c h r u n s a r o u n d t h e f o r t , a n d w h i c h a f f o r d s a p l e a s a n t w a l k , a n d a n e x t e n s i v e v i e w o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y . The p r i n c i p a l d w e l l i n g - h o u s e -a l a r g e a n d commodious b u i l d i n g - o c c u p i e s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s q u a r e , b e h i n d w h i c h a n d n e a r t h e n o r t h e r n g a t e , s t a n d t h e f l a g s t a f f a n d b e l f r y . T h e r e a r e a l s o h o u s e s w i t h i n t h e w a l l s , f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e r s a n d men a t t a c h e d t o t h e f o r t ; t o g e t h e r w i t h s t o r e s a n d g r a n a r i e s , a n d - w o u l d i t w e r e n o t n e c e s s a r y t o a d d -a j a i l a n d c o u r t h o u s e f o r t h e c o l o n y . I t i s a n e a t a n d com p a c t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a n d r e f l e c t s g r e a t c r e d i t o n Mr. G o v e r n o r C h r i s t i e , u n d e r whose eye t h e w o r k was The n o r t h e r n s t o n e w a l l was r e m o v e d a n d s q u a r e o a k w a l l s were a d d e d . The g a t e w h i c h s t i l l s t a n d s t o d a y was b u i l t i n t o t h e new n o r t h w a l l . I t i s s a i d t h a t A l e x a n d e r H u n t e r M u r r a y , a c h i e f f a c t o r a n d f o u n d e r a n d b u i l d e r o f P o r t Y u k o n , d e s i g n e d 26 t h e g a t e . The f o r t i t s e l f s t o o d u n t i l t h e l880's when i t was d e s t r o y e d b e c a u s e i t i n c o n v e n i e n t l y c r o s s e d t h e s o u t h e r n e x t e n s i o n o f M a i n S t r e e t . By 1882, i t was p a r t l y g o n e , a n d i n 1888 t h e g o v e r n o r ' s h o u s e a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g b u i l d i n g s 27 w e r e s o l d . I n t h e l850's t h e f o r t was e n l a r g e d n o r t h w a r d s . 25 2 k I b i d . , p . lk2. ^ M a c L e o d , " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC, " p .6. 2 6 I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . , p.7 1 0 9 . The f o r t was t h e p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t . I t was t h e s e a t o f t h e G o v e r n o r o f A s s i n i b o i a , a n d t h e C o u n c i l o f A s s i n i b o i a a l w a y s met a t t h e f o r t . A c o u r t -28 h o u s e a n d g a o l w e r e b u i l t n e a r t h e f o r t i n I8I4.3. B u t t h e f o r t was a l s o t h e e c o n o m i c c e n t r e o f a s e t t l e -ment w h i c h p r o v i s i o n e d t h e f u r t r a d e w i t h f l o u r f r o m i t s c r o p s a n d p emmican f r o m t h e b u f f a l o h u n t . I t c o n t a i n e d f l o u r a n d pemmican w a r e h o u s e s a n d d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s , a n d s t o r e s w h e r e i m p o r t e d g o o d s were s o l d , w h e r e t h e b u f f a l o h u n t was o u t f i t t e d , a n d w h ere g o o d s u s e d i n t h e f u r t r a d e were s t o r e d b e f o r e b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e f o r t a s . a d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d i n t h e l 8 5 0 ' s when g o o d s were r o u t e d t h r o u g h S t . P a u l i n s t e a d o f Y o r k F a c t o r y ; i t was t h i s e x p a n s i o n w h i c h p r o b a b l y n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e a d d -i t i o n t o t h e f o r t a t t h a t t i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o G e o r g e B r y c e , t h e F o r t ' s s t o r e was a c o l o u r f u l a n d l i v e l y p l a c e : I n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f F o r t G a r r y was t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t o r e . O r i g i n a l l y i t was r e a c h e d b y way o f R i v e r G a t e , a n d was a p p r o a c h e d f r o m t h e w e s t s i d e , o r e l s e b y t h e p o s t e r n g a t e . I n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e i t was n o t s o . The e a s t e r n s t o n e w a l l o f t h e f o r t g a ve way, a n d o n i t s f a l l was r e p l a c e d p a r t i a l l y b y a p a l i s a d e o f oak l o g s . The p o r t i o n n e a r t h e s o u t h e a s t b a s t i o n was n o t r e b u i l t , a n d a t t h i s o p e n i n g t h e f r o n t o f t h e s t o r e was made. To f o r g e t t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y s t o r e f o r one who saw i t was i m p o s s i b l e . To e n t e r i t o n ^ a n y day i n t h e m o r n i n g was i n t e r e s t i n g . The s t a l w a r t M e t i s d r e s s e d up i n b l u e c a p o t e s a n d b r i g h t r e d s c a r f s a b o u t t h e m i d d l e , were t h e r e i n d o z e n s . The a t m o s p h e r e h a d 'Morton, M a n i t o b a , p.6 9 . 110. a p u n g e n t o d o r a s one e n t e r e d . I t was t h e famous " k i n u i - k i n i k " , o r d r i e d r e d - w i l l o w b a r k t h a t was b e i n g u s e d . The s t o r e was t h i c k w i t h smoke. The g o o d s were s u i t e d t o t h e t i m e s . Many e x p e n s i v e c l o t h s w e r e t h e r e -h i g h - c o l o r e d - r e d , b l u e a n d g r e e n . B u t t h e day t o s e e t h e s t o r e was i n J u n e . T h e n h u n d r e d s o f h u n t e r s w e re encamped o n t h e p l a i n a b o u t t h e f o r t . T h e y were p r e -p a r i n g f o r t h e b u f f a l o h u n t . Some t w e l v e o r f i f t e e n h u n d r e d c a r t s were t h e r e t o be f i t t e d o u t . One c r i e d i n t h e s t o r e f o r " a n a x e " , a n o t h e r f o r " l e a t h e r " , a t h i r d f o r a " m u s k e t " , a n d o t h e r s f o r s c o r e s o f o t h e r a r t i c l e s . A l l c l a m o r e d a t o n c e . The a r t i c l e s o f p u r -c h a s e were o b t a i n e d o n c r e d i t , t o be p a i d f o r o n r e t u r n f r o m t h e h u n t , i n a f e w m o n t h s . The c l e r k s were i n d e s p a i r , a n d o f t e n b e r a t e d t h e i r n o i s y c u s t o m e r s , or-p q t h r e a t e n e d t o h a v e i t o u t w i t h them o n t h e i r r e t u r n . ' L a t e r , t h e f r e e t r a d e , w h i c h went u n c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e Company a f t e r t h e S a y e r T r i a l , r e s u l t e d i n t h e g r o w t h o f a s m a l l v i l l a g e a r o u n d t h e f o r t . I n 1873 t h e v i l l a g e was i n c o r p o r a t e d a s W i n n i p e g , b u t i n 1868 i t p r e s e n t e d "a s o r r y s c e n e " t o G e o r g e Y o u n g : What a mass o f s o f t , b l a c k s l i p p e r y a n d s t i c k y R e d R i v e r mud was e v e r y w h e r e s p r e a d o u t b e f o r e u s ! S t r e e t s w e r e n e i t h e r s i d e w a l k s n o r c r o s s i n g s , w i t h now a n d a g a i n a g o o d s i z e d p i t o f m i r e f o r t h e t r a v e l l e r t o a v o i d o r f l o u n d e r t h r o u g h a s b e s t he c o u l d ; a few s m a l l s t o r e s w i t h p o o r g o o d s a n d h i g h p r i c e s ; one l i t t l e t a v e r n where " D u t c h G e o r g e " was "monarch o f a l l h i s s u r v e y " ; a f e w p a s s a b l e d w e l l i n g s w i t h "no rooms t o l e t " , no s p a c e f o r b o a r d e r s ; n e i t h e r c h u r c h n o r s c h o o l i n s i g h t o r i n p r o s p e c t ; p o p u l a t i o n a b o u t one h u n d r e d i n s t e a d o f one t h o u s a n d a s we e x p e c t e d - s u c h was W i n n i p e g o n J u l y k t h , 1868.3° The v i l l a g e s t o r e s , w h i c h w e r e owned b y men l i k e McDermot a n d _ B a n n a t y n e , were l o c a t e d a t a r e s p e c t f u l d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e f o r t , G e o r g e B r y c e , A H i s t o r y o f M a n i t o b a , I t s R e s o u r c e s  a n d P e o p l e . T o r o n t o a n d M o n t r e a l : Canada H i s t o r y Co., 1906, p . 1 0 1 . 3 0 Y o u n g , p p . 6 3 - 6 k . 111. A r r i v e d there we confront a l o t of o l d b u i l d i n g s without any windows, and a rough l o o k i n g door w i t h a strong padlock, the whole bearing the a i r of a d i l a p i d a t e d barn, used to store odds and ends. - G.B. 2 1 1 i o t , i860. v. Hime C o l l 113. 31 a n d some were s i t u a t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c o l o n y . K i t t s o n ' s s t o r e was o n t h e S t . B o n i f a c e s i d e o f t h e R e d R i v e r , a n d 32 J o h n I n k s t e r ' s s t o r e was b e s i d e h i s h o u s e , S e v e n Oaks. A f t e r 1859, t h e v i l l a g e a l s o h a d h o t e l s l i k e E m m e r l i n g ' s 33 H o t e l a n d t h e R o y a l H o t e l , w h i c h was c a r p e t e d w i t h s a w d u s t . The o f f i c e o f t h e f i r s t n e w s p a p e r , t h e N o r ' W e s t e r , was 34 l o c a t e d i n t h e v i l l a g e . S i n c e F o r t G a r r y was t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e o f t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t a n d l a t e r t h e g r e a t d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e o f t h e f u r t r a d e , t r a i l s c o n v e r g e d u p o n i t f r o m many 35 d i r e c t i o n s . The K i n g ' s R o a d , "a mere c a r t - t r a c k i n t h e 36 deep l o a m " , r a n f r o m t h e l o w e r s e t t l e m e n t t o t h e f o r t . A r o a d w h i c h r a n t o t h e f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t o n L a k e M a n i t o b a , b y way o f S t o n y M o u n t a i n , w here l i m e s t o n e was q u a r r i e d , met t h e K i n g ' s R o a d a t M i d d l e C h u r c h . 3 7 A n o t h e r t r a i l r a n w e s t -w a r d s f r o m F o r t G a r r y t o P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e a n d o n t o F o r t E d m o n t o n . T h r e e r o a d s went s o u t h t o S t . P a u l , one o n t h e 3 1 S e e P I . XL. 3 2 M a n t o n , p.309. See P I . V I I . 33 See I s a a c C o w i e , The Company o f A d v e n t u r e r s . T o r o n t o W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1 9 1 3 , P I . f a c i n g p.115J R o d e r i c k C a m p b e l l , The F a t h e r o f S t . K i l d a . L o n d o n : W.R. R u s s e l l a n d Co., 1 9 0 1 , pp.133-34. 3 k S c u d d e r , pp.118-19. See P I . I X . 35 ^ S e e P I . X X X V I I I . S c u d d e r , p . 1 0 9 . 3 7 A b o v e , p. 9 1 . I l k . w e s t s i d e o f t h e Red, one o n t h e e a s t , a n d one b r a n c h i n g f r o m t h e e a s t t r a i l o v e r a c r o s s t h e r i v e r t o t h e w e s t t r a i l . Now, o f c o u r s e , t h e K i n g ' s R o a d i s M a i n S t r e e t , t h e S a s k a t -c h e w a n t r a i l i s P o r t a g e A v e n u e , t h e s o u t h r o a d o n t h e w e s t b a n k i s L o r d S e l k i r k , o r P e m b i n a , H i g h w a y , t h e r o a d o n t h e e a s t b a n k i s S t . A n n e ' s Road, a n d t h e r o a d c u t t i n g f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r i s S t . M a r y ' s Road. The K i n g ' s R o a d r a n f r o m P o r t G a r r y t o L o w e r P o r t G a r r y , a s e c o n d a r y e c o n o m i c c e n t r e i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e b i g h o u s e a n d w a r e h o u s e s o f t h e L o w e r P o r t h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e l 8 3 0's, o n l y t o be r e p l a c e d b y t h e U p p e r P o r t a s t h e m a i n f u r t r a d e c e n t r e . The w a l l s a n d b a s t i o n s were f i n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d when B r i t i s h r e g i m e n t s w e re s e n t t o R e d R i v e r d u r i n g t h e O r e g o n b o u n d a r y d i s p u t e . A b o u t a d e c a d e l a t e r , t h e f o r t was d e s c r i b e d b y S . J . Dawson: The S t o n e P o r t , o r L o w e r P o r t G a r r y , o n t h e R e d R i v e r , i s b y f a r t h e f i n e s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h e t e r r i t o r y . A s q u a r e a r e a o f some s i x a c r e s i n e x t e n t i s e n c l o s e d w i t h w a l l s a n d b a s t i o n s o f s t o n e . W i t h i n t h i s e n c l o s u r e a r e t h e Company's b u i l d i n g s , a l l o f them most s u b s t a n t i a l e d i f i c e s o f s t o n e . The s t o r e s a r e s i t u a t e d o n e i t h e r s i d e , a n d i n t h e c e n t r e s t a n d s t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e o f f i c e r s , a v e r y i m p o s i n g b u i l d i n g , w i t h v e r a n d a h s r u n -n i n g c o m p l e t e l y r o u n d i t , a n d g r o u n d s i n f r o n t l a i d o f f a n d p l a n t e d w i t h g r e a t t a s t e . - ' M a c L e o d , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , p. 6. 3 ^ S . J . Dawson, R e p o r t o n t h e E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e  C o u n t r y b e t w e e n L a k e S u p e r i o r a n d t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t , a n d b e t w e e n t h e L a t t e r P l a c e a n d t h e A s s i n i b o i n e a n d S a s k a t -c h ewan, a n a p p e n d i x t o t h e S e v e n t e e n t h v o l u m e o f t h e J o u r n a l s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f Canada. T o r o n t o : J o h n L o v e l l , 1859, n.p. 1 1 5 . T h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , c a l l e d "Lower P o r t * G a r r y " , c o v e r s a b o u t a s much g r o u n d a s S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l , i n L o n d o n . The f o r t i s s q u a r e , a n d b u i l t o n a r o c l c o r l i m e s t o n e q u a r r y , s u r r o u n d e d b y a s t o n e w a l l , a n d p r o t e c t e d b y f o u r r o u n d t o w e r s o r b a s t i o n s L o w e r P o r t G a r r y i s more s e c l u d e d t h a n t h e U p p e r F o r t , a l t h o u g h p i c t u r e s q u e a n d f u l l o f r u r a l b e a u t y . H e r e t h e G o v e r n o r o f R u p e r t ' s L a n d r e s i d e s , when he p a s s e s any t i m e i n t h e c o l o n y . To t h o s e o f s t u d i o u s a n d r e t i r e d h a b i t s , i t i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e u p p e r f o r t . • - A l e x a n d e r R o s s , 1 8 5 6 . the Finlay C o l l e c t i o n (l8k7), Glenbow Foundation. 117. The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e f o r t h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s " f a r m i n g , r e t a i l d e a l i n g , a n d b o a t - f r e i g h t i n g . A t t h i s p o s t , d u r i n g summer m o n t h s , b o a t - b r i g a d e s a r e o u t f i t t e d f o r t h e t r i p t o Y o r k F a c t o r y a n d o t h e r p o s t s i n l a n d . " 4 ° V a r i o u s A r c t i c a n d s c i e n t i f i c e x p e d i t i o n s were o u t f i t t e d a t t h e f o r t . R e t a i l b u s i n e s s was c a r r i e d o n i n t h e s t o r e a n d f u r l o f t : A l a r g e s t o n e s t r u c t u r e o f t h r e e s t o r i e s , i t h a s w i t h i n i t s w a l l s n e a r l y e v e r y a r t i c l e u s e d i n t h a t c l i m a t e . The s a l e s - r o o m i s a s q u a r e a p a r t m e n t , no p l a s t e r , t h e c e i l i n g m e r e l y t h e j o i s t s a n d f l o o r i n g o f t h e s e c o n d f l a t , t h i c k l y s t u d d e d w i t h n a i l s a n d h o o k s , f r o m w h i c h a r e s u s p e n d e d v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s o f t r a d e . A l o n g t h e s i d e w a l l s a r e box s h e l v e s , n e a r l y two f e e t deep. On t h e f l o o r w i t h i n t h e c o u n t e r a r e p i l e d b a l e s o f g o o d s , b u n d l e s o f p r i n t s , h a r d w a r e , e t c . , a n d t h i s s p a c e w i t h i n t h e c o u n t e r c o m p r i s e s a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e room. A s m a l l a r e a i s r a i l e d o f f n e a r t h e d o o r , s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o h o l d t w e n t y s t a n d i n g c u s t o m e r s . 4 1 F a r m i n g a n d i n d u s t r y went o n o u t s i d e t h e f o r t , w h e r e t h e r e w e re f i e l d s , f a r m b u i l d i n g s , a g r i s t m i l l , d i s t i l l e r y , b o a t - b u i l d i n g s h e d s , r o o t h o u s e , i c e h o u s e a n d b e e r c e l l a r , t r a d e s m e n ' s s h o p s , homes a n d b o a t l a n d i n g s . ^ 2 B o t h U p p e r a n d L o w e r F o r t s G a r r y a t v a r i o u s t i m e s h o u s e d m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s , w h e t h e r t h e B r i t i s h r e g i m e n t s s e n t d u r i n g t h e O r e g o n b o u n d a r y d i s p u t e , t h e W o l s e l e y e x p e d -i t i o n , o r t h e N o r t h West M o u n t e d P o l i c e , b u t n e i t h e r e v e r a c t u a l l y p r o t e c t e d t h e s e t t l e r s . I n d e e d , L o u i s R i e l a n d h i s k 0H.M. R o b i n s o n , The G r e a t F u r L a n d . L o n d o n : Sampson, Low, M a r s t o n , S e a r l e a n d R i v i n g t o n , 1 5 5 0 , p.73. k l I b i d . , pp.74-76. W a t s o n , pp.50-51. 118. men c a s u a l l y w a l k e d t h r o u g h t h e op e n g a t e s o f t h e U p p e r P o r t i n 1 8 6 9 . k 3 I f t h e two f o r t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t , t h e m i s s i o n s , a s c e n t r e s o f c o m m u n i t y l i f e i n t h e p a r i s h e s , w e re t h e n e x t l a r g e s t . The c h u r c h y a r d s o f t h e m i s s i o n s were t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e A t h e n i a n m a r k e t - p l a c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e x c h a n g e o f n e w s . ^ The m i s s i o n s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d a c h u r c h , r e c t o r y , a n d s c h o o l - h o u s e w h i c h w ere i n f o r m a l l y s i t u a t e d i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f b u i l d i n g s a r o u n d a s q u a r e a t t h e f o r t s . k ^ The c h u r c h was a l w a y s r e m o v e d f r o m i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s b y a wooden f e n c e o r a s t o n e w a l l . The p a r i s h was "a s e t t l e m e n t , w h i c h h a d e i t h e r g r o w n up a r o u n d a m i s s i o n , o r i n w h i c h a m i s s i o n h a d b e e n e s t a b -l i s h e d . " ^ The o r i g i n a l p a r i s h e s w e r e S t . B o n i f a c e , S t . J o h n ' s , S t . P a u l ' s ( M i d d l e Church)-, S t . A n d r e w ' s ( L o w e r C h u r c h ) , S t . P e t e r ' s ( I n d i a n S e t t l e m e n t ) , a n d S t . F r a n c o i s - X a v i e r ( G r a n t o w n ) , t h e m e t i s s e t t l e m e n t o n t h e A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r . k 7 L a t e r , t h e r e were o f f s h o o t s o f t h e s e p a r i s h e s , S t . James, k 3 F r e d E . B a r t l e t t , "The F a l l o f F o r t Garry',' The  B e a v e r , O u t f i t 2 9 6. S p r i n g , 1966, p . k 8 . ^ R . G . M a c B e t h , The Romance o f We s t e r n C a n a d a , 2 d . e d . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 2 0 , p.105. k ^ S e e P I . X X V I . k^W.L. M o r t o n , "The R e d R i v e r P a r i s h : I t s P l a c e i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f M a n i t o b a , " M a n i t o b a E s s a y s , e d . R.C. L o d g e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n a n d Co., 1 9 3 7 , P.90. I b i d . , p p . 9 0 - 9 3 -119. S t . C h a r l e s , H o l y T r i n i t y ( H e a d i n g l e y ) , S t . M a r y ' s , S t . M a r g -a r e t ' s , S t . A n n e ' s , S t . N o r b e r t , S t . V i t a l , S t . C l e m e n t ' s a n d K i l d o n a n . F a r m - y a r d s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s . A t S e v e n O a k s , t h e h o u s e was f l a n k e d b y f a r m b u i l d i n g s a n d J o h n I n k s t e r ' s s t o r e . ^ H e r e , some a t t e m p t was a p p a r e n t l y made t o o r d e r t h e b u i l d i n g s a r o u n d a s q u a r e , b u t i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t a f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f f a r m b u i l d i n g s was e v e r a c h i e v e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t . The f o r t s , c h u r c h e s , a n d l a r g e h o u s e s o f t h e s e t t l e -ment were u s u a l l y g i v e n i m p r e s s i v e l o c a t i o n s o n t h e b e n d s o f t h e r i v e r s , a s i f t o u n d e r l i n e t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . F o r t G a r r y commanded two r i v e r s , F o r t D o u g l a s was s i t u a t e d o n t h e s o u t h b e n d o f t h e R e d a r o u n d P o i n t D o u g l a s , n e a r t h e m o u t h o f t h e S e i n e R i v e r , a n d t h e S t o n e F o r t was l o c a t e d o n a " b e a u t i f u l s p o t o n a g e n t l e e l e v a t i o n , s u r r o u n d e d b y wood, a n d commanding a f i n e v i e w o f t h e r i v e r . H o u s e s l i k e D y n e v o r a n d T w i n Oaks a n d c h u r c h e s l i k e S t . B o n i f a c e , S t . And-50 r e w ' s , a n d S t . P e t e r ' s d o m i n a t e d sweeps o f t h e R e d R i v e r . The s i t e o f S t . A n d r e w ' s i s a v e r y f i n e o ne. S t a n d i n g u p o n i t s p o r c h one may l o o k u p o r down t h e r i v e r a n d see t h e n e a t homes a n d f a r m s o f t h e s e t t l e r s , w h i l e i t s t a s t y o u t l i n e s f o r m k 8 S e e P I . V I I . k 9 N u t e , p.15. See P I . X L I . 50 J See P I . X X I I I . 120. a p r o m i n e n t o b j e c t i n t h e l a n d s c a p e t o t h o s e g a z i n g u p o n i t f r o m e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . 5 1 The t o w e r s a n d s p i r e s o f t h e R e d R i v e r c h u r c h e s a c t e d a s p i v o t a l p o i n t s a b o u t w h i c h t h e r i v e r s wound, a n d t h e s p i r e s o f S t . P e t e r ' s , S t , James, a n d S t . B o n i f a c e were l a n d m a r k s t o t r a v e l l e r s who a p p r o a c h e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t f r o m t h e n o r t h , w e s t a n d s o u t h . P r o b a b l y t h e m o s t i m p o s i n g o f a l l t h e R e d R i v e r t o w e r s w ere t h e " t u r r e t s t w a i n " o f S t . B o n i f a c e : ...we d i d n o t come i n s i g h t o f t h e s p i r e s o f t h e C a t h e d r a l e de S a i n t B o n i f a c e t i l l n e a r s u n s e t . A t l a s t t h e y a p p e a r e d - two b r i g h t l i n e s r i s i n g a bove t h e l a s t g r o v e o f p o p l a r t r e e s t h r o u g h w h i c h we h a d t o p a s s , s t a n d i n g o u t c l e a r a n d g l i s t e n i n g a g a i n s t t h e deep b l u e o f t h e s k y , a n d s u r m o u n t e d b y t h e c r o s s . 5 2 The c h u r c h t o w e r s a l s o a c c e n t e d t h e " f l a t , f e a t u r e -l e s s , a n d f e r t i l e " p l a i n s o f t h e R e d R i v e r V a l l e y . One t r a v e l l e r o b s e r v e d t h a t S p i r e s o f c h u r c h e s , a n d t h e l o n g arms o f w i n d m i l l s , b r o k e t h e l e v e l l i n e s o f t h e p i c t u r e s t h a t g r e e t e d o u r e y e s a s t h e r o a d l e d u s o n f r o m o p e n p l a c e t o o p e n p l a c e , t h r o u g h t h e p o p l a r s t h a t s u r r o u n d e d i t f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e w a y . " As Ramsay T r a q u a i r h a s r e m a r k e d , "a f l a t c o u n t r y seems t o grow s l e n d e r s p i r e s . " - ^ " ^ - M a r b l e , p.312. 52 I b i d . , p.307. ^ 3 I b i d . , p.310 -^•Ramsay T r a q u a i r , The O l d A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Quebec. T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n Go. o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1947, p.135. 121. A r h y t h m i n t h e l i n e o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g t h e R e d a n d A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r s was t h u s c r e a t e d by t h e v a r y i n g d e n s i t y , t y p e s , a n d l o c a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s . 122. C o n c l u s i o n s I The p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e s o n R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e w e r e t h e l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e o f t h e H u d s o n 1 s Bay Company, t h e c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Thomas B a i l l a i r g e , a n d t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n E n g l a n d . F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a r c h -i t e c t u r e e x e r c i s e d t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t h e f u r t r a d e a n d t h e Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s s e n t t o R e d R i v e r . B u t F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e i t s e l f was i n f l u e n c e d b y B r i t i s h c l a s s i c i s m a t t h a t t i m e , a n d t h u s t h e i n f l u e n c e s o n R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e were b o t h B r i t i s h a n d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n i n o r i g i n . I I A l t h o u g h i t was i n f l u e n c e d b y s t y l e s i n B r i t a i n a n d F r e n c h C a n a d a , R e d R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e was a d a p t e d t o i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e were t h e o u t g r o w t h o f t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t o f w i l d e r n e s s a n d c i v i l i z a t i o n . S u c h a c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s c e n t r a l t o C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y . I l l The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t was e s s e n t i a l l y a r i v e r s i d e v i l l a g e ; i t s b u i l d i n g s s t o o d i n a row a l o n g t h e b a n k s o f t h e R e d a n d A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r s . The l i n e a r a r r a n g e m e n t was r e l i e v e d b y t h e w i n d i n g r i v e r s a n d p u n c t u a t e d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , b y t h e l o c a t i o n o f i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g s o n t h e b e n d s o f t h e r i v e r s , a n d b y t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e f o r t s , m i s s i o n s , a n d f a r m - y a r d s . 123. BIBLIOGRAPHY I . RED RIVER ARCHITECTURE A. A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y Documents P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . J o u r n a l o f Sa m u e l T a y l o r ,  I8k9-l863, 1863-1867. 2 v o l s . B o o k s C a r r e , W i l l i a m H. A r t Work o n W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a , C a n a d a . 1900. Gowans, A l a n . B u i l d i n g C a n a d a ; A n A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n L i f e . Rev. e d . T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1966. . 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W i n n i p e g : H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1961. W i l s o n , C l i f f o r d . " P o u n d i n g P o r t Y u k o n , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 277. J u n e , 1947, P P . 38-43. 135. A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX I L I S T OP EXTANT RED RIVER ARCHITECTURE TYPE BUILDING Chu r c he s K i 1 do n a n L i t t l e B r i t a i n a S t . A n d r e w 1 s S t . A n n e ' s S t . C l e m e n t ' s S t . Jame s• b S t . P a u l ' s S t . P e t e r ' s F o r t s L o w e r F o r t G a r r y : A b e l l h o u s e B i g h o u s e Men's h o u s e S t o r e s ( t w o ) DATE 1852 1873 I8k5 1862 i860 1853 1875 1853 1830 1832-33 MATERIAL L i m e s t o n e L i m e s t o n e L i m e s t o n e Wood L i m e s t o n e Wood Wood L i m e s t o n e L i m e s t o n e L i m e s t o n e Wood; s t o n e L i m e s t o n e MASON McRae McRae T a y l o r McRae L e B l a n c L e B l a n c APPENDIX I - C o n t i n u e d . BUILDING DATE MATERIAL MASON U p p e r P o r t G a r r y : P o r t G a r r y G a t e c a . 1852 L i m e s t o n e A r c h e v e c h e a n d l86k L i m e s t o n e P r i v i e s ( t w o ) Wood Bunn h o u s e 1862 L i m e s t o n e T a y l o r C o w l e y h o u s e 1862 L i m e s t o n e MaRae, G l o u s t o n F r a s e r h o u s e 1835 Wood G r e y N u n s 1 h o u s e I8k6 Wood I n k s t e r h o u s e 1851 Wood Ken n e d y h o u s e 1870 L i m e s t o n e M i s s D a v i s 1 s c h o o l 1866 L i m e s t o n e M c r a e , T a y l o r R o s s h o u s e 185k Wood S t . A n d r e w ' s r e c t o r y 1853 L i m e s t o n e S c o t t h o u s e L i m e s t o n e N i s b e t h a l l 186k L i m e s t o n e APPENDIX I - C o n t i n u e d . TYPE BUILDING DATE MATERIAL MASON S t o r e s J o h n I n k s t e r ' s s t o r e Wood a L i t t l e B r i t a i n was p l a n n e d b y James N i s b e t i n 1865 b u t was n o t b u i l t u n t i l 1873. S t . P a u l ' s o f l8kk was t o r n down a b o u t 1868 a n d n o t r e - o p e n e d u n t i l 1875. APPENDIX I - Continued. TYFS WXLmm MSB MATERIAL MASON Stores John Ix&ster's store Wood a L l t t l e Britain was planned by «Tas»s Niabet in 1865 but iras not built until 1873* bSt. Paul«s of l8kk was torn down about 1868 and not re-opened until 18?5. APPENDIX I I L I S T OP RED RIVER CHURCHES, 1812-18-70 R E L I G I O N CHURCH DATE MATERIAL MASON A n g l i c a n H o l y T r i n i t y 1 S t . A n d r e w ' s 1 2 S t . A nne's 1 S t . C l e m e n t ' s 1 S t . James* 1 S t . J o h n ' s 1 2 3 S t . M a r g a r e t ' s 1 S t . Mary' Js 1 S t . P a u l ' s 1 2 3 1868 Wood 1831 Wood l8k5 L i m e s t o n e McRae 1862 Wood 1860 L i m e s t o n e T a y l o r 1853 Wood 1822 Wood 1832 L i m e s t o n e L e B l a n c 1861 L i m e s t o n e McRae, C l o u s t o n 1861 Wood 1855 Wood 182k Wood ca.lSkk L i m e s t o n e ca.l868 Wood APPENDIX I I R E L I G I O N CHURCH S t . P e t e r ' s 1 2 P r e s b y t e r i a n K i l d o n a n 1 Knox 1 Roman C a t h o l i c S t . B o n i f a c e 1 2 3 S t . F r a n ^ o i s - X a v i e r 1 2 3 S t . N o r b e r t 1 C o n t i n u e d DATE MATERIAL 1836 Wood 1853 L i m e s t o n e 1852 L i m e s t o n e 1868 Wood 1820 Wood 1833 L i m e s t o n e 1862 L i m e s t o n e a.1829 Wood 1832 Wood a.l8k0 Wood 1855 Wood MASON McRae McRae 11+1. APPENDIX I I I RED RIVER MASONS P i e r r e LeBlanc, a "French-Canadian o f good c h a r a c t e r , " was i n the Hudson's Bay Company s e r v i c e f i r s t at York F a c t o r y and l a t e r at F o r t Garry. He was sent t o F o r t Garry i n 1829 by Governor George Simpson f o r whom he prepared a temporary house and l a t e r began a new stone f o r t below the Grand Rapids. He b u i l t the b i g house and two stone ware-houses at the Lower F o r t i n the e a r l y l830's. Afterwards, between 1835 and 1838, he d i d the stonework o f the w a l l s and two b a s t i o n s at the Upper F o r t . LeBlanc was the f i r s t stone mason i n the settlement. He worked on the f i r s t two stone b u i l d i n g s at Red R i v e r , the powder magazine at o l d F o r t Garry (1830) and Mgr. Provencher's house (1829). He a l s o b u i l t the f i r s t stone A n g l i c a n church i n the settlement, St. John's (1832). He m a r r i e d Nancy McTavish, the former country w i f e o f a c h i e f f a c t o r , and was t r a v e l l i n g w i t h her and h i s f a m i l y to the Columbia D i s t r i c t i n 1838 when he was ac-c i d e n t a l l y drowned. Sources; T.C.B. Boon, The A n g l i c a n Church from the  Bay t o the Rockies. Toronto, 1962, p.31» L e t t e r from Mgr. J.-N. Provencher t o Mgr. B.C. Panet, June 6, 1829, Joseph-Norbert Provencher, "Lettres de Monseigneur Joseph-Norbert Provencher, Premier Eveque de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , " B u l l e t i n de l a S o c i e t e Hi3torique de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , I I I , 1913, p.126; Margaret A r n e t t MacLeod, The L e t t e r s o f L e t i t i a Hargrave. Toronto, 191+7, p. 36 n.; idem, "Winnipeg and the HBC, " The Beaver, O u t f i t 279, June, 191+9, p.5; A r t h u r S. Morton, S i r George Simpson, Overseas Governor o f the Hudson's Bay  Company. Toronto, 191+!+, pp. 165-66. Ik2. APPENDIX I I I - C o n t i n u e d . Duncan MaRae, t h e H e b r i d e a n mason, a r r i v e d i n t h e R e d R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t e a r l y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1838. He came i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company. He w o r k e d u p o n t h e b a s t i o n s a t t h e U p p e r P o r t b e t w e e n 1838 a n d l8k5 a n d l a t e r , i n t h e l 8 k 0 ' s , o n t h e w a l l s a n d b a s t i o n s o f t h e L o w e r P o r t . When h i s c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e Company e n d e d , McRae s e t t l e d w i t h h i s f a m i l y a t S t . Andrew's a n d d i d t h e s t o n e -w o r k o f s e v e r a l R e d R i v e r c h u r c h e s a n d h o u s e s t h e r e a f t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o Sa m u e l T a y l o r ' s j o u r n a l , he w o r k e d o n A r c h -d e a c o n C o w l e y ' s h o u s e (1862-63), S t . J o h n ' s C a t h e d r a l (1863), a n d M i s s D a v i s ' s c h o o l Cl866). He a l s o b u i l t S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h ( l 8 k 5 - k 9 ) , where h e was i n j u r e d i n a f a l l , K i l d o n a n C h u r c h (1852), a n d S t . P e t e r ' s C h u r c h Cl853>. He became a n i n v a l i d i n 1883 a n d d i e d i n I898 i n h i s 85th y e a r . S o u r c e s : R o b e r t B. H i l l , M a n i t o b a : H i s t o r y o f I t s E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t , D e v e l o p m e n t a n d R e s o u r c e s . T o r o n t o , 1 9 1 0 , p p . 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 , 5 6 5 ; M a r g a r e t M c B e t h , The S t o r y o f K i l d o n a n  P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h , 1851-1951. W i n n i p e g , 1951, P-b; E l s i e McKay, e d . , S e l k i r k ' s 75th A n n i v e r s a r y . S e l k i r k , 1957, P.13; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f Samuel T a y l o r , l8k9-l863, 1863-1867, I , J u l y , 1862, p.7k, I I , S e p t -e mber, 1863, p.20, I I , O c t o b e r , 1863, P«2, I I , J u l y , l86k, p . 1 1 O c t o b e r , 1866, p.37; R o b e r t W a t s o n , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . W i n n i p e g , 1928, pp. 9-11. 143. APPENDIX I I I - C o n t i n u e d . J o h n C l o u s t o n a c c o m p a n i e d Duncan McRae f r o m t h e H e b r i d e s t o t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t i n 1837-38. He a l s o came i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e Hu d s o n ' s B a y Company. P r o b a b l y he a n d McRae b o t h w o r k e d o n t h e w a l l s a n d b a s t i o n s o f U p p e r P o r t G a r r y a n d L o w e r P o r t G a r r y b e t w e e n I838 a n d t h e l a t e l8ii0's. L a t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o S a m u e l T a y l o r , C l o u s t o n a n d McRae b u i l t A r c h d e a c o n C o w l e y ' s h o u s e (1862-63) a n d S t J o h n ' s C a t h e d r a l (1863). S o u r c e s : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f Samuel T a y l o r , l8li9-l863, 1863-1867, I , J u l y , 1862, p.74, I I , S e p t e m b e r , 1863, p .2 , I I , O c t o b e r , 1863, P .2 , I I , J u l y , 186k, p . l l j R o b e r t W a t s o n , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . W i n n i p e g , 1928, pp.9-11. 144. APPENDIX I I I - C o n t i n u e d . S amuel T a y l o r was b o r n i n 1812 a t F i r t h i n t h e O r k n e y I s l a n d s . A s a y o u n g man he j o i n e d t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company a n d was s e n t t o Moose F a c t o r y , w h ere he a r r i v e d S e p t e m b e r 3, I836. He s p e n t t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s i n t h e S o u t h e r n D e p a r t m e n t . However, d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1857, he moved t o t h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t w i t h h i s f a m i l y . He s e t t l e d a t M a p l e t o n , w h e r e b e t w e e n i860 a n d 1862 he b u i l t S t . C l e m e n t ' s C h u r c h . He a l s o b u i l t t h e Bunn h o u s e ('1862-61+J a c r o s s t h e R e d R i v e r f r o m S t . C l e m e n t ' s a n d w o r k e d o n M i s s D a v i s ' s c h o o l (1866) w i t h Duncan McRae. He d i e d i n 1896 i n S e l k i r k . S o u r c e s : T.C.B. B o o n , " B a c k g r o u n d a n d E a r l y H i s t o r y o f S t . C l e m e n t ' s , M a p l e t o n , " C e n t e n a r y , 1861-1961, S t . C l e m e n t ' s  C h u r c h , M a p l e t o n . W i n n i p e g , 1961, p.10; E l s i e McKay, e d . S e l k i r k ' s 75th A n n i v e r s a r y . S e l k i r k , 1957, PP. 28-29; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f Samuel T a y l o r , 1849-1863, 1863-1867, 2 v o l s . 11+5. APPENDIX I V B R I E F BIOGRAPHIES OF PERSONS MENTIONED I N THE TEXT A b e l , C a p t a i n E . Hu d s o n ' s B ay Company e n g i n e e r a t L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . A n d e r s o n , D a v i d (l8lk-l885) A n g l i c a n B i s h o p o f R u p e r t ' s L a n d . B a l l a n t y n e , R o b e r t M. Cl825-l89li) A u t h o r who d i d s e r v i c e i n t h e HBC. B a n n a t y n e , A.G.B. W i n n i p e g m e r c h a n t . B e g g , A l e x a n d e r (1839-1897) W i n n i p e g m e r c h a n t a n d a u t h o r . B l a c k , Rev. J o h n Cl8l8-l882) F i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r a t K i l d o n a n . B r y c e , Rev. G e o r g e ('l8kk-1931) P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r a n d h i s t o r i a n . C h r i s t i e , A l e x a n d e r (f1.l809-l8k9) G o v e r n o r o f A s s i n i b o i a . C o c h r a n , Rev. W i l l i a m ("1798-1865) A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n , b u i l d e r o f s e v e r a l R e d R i v e r c h u r c h e s , a n d f o u n d e r o f t h e P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e s e t t l e m e n t . C o w l e y , Rev. Abraham A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n a t S t . P e t e r ' s . D a v i s , M a t i l d a M i s t r e s s o f a b o a r d i n g s c h o o l f o r g i r l s a t S t . A n d r e w ' s . Dawson, S i m o n James (1820-1902) C i v i l e n g i n e e r a n d e x p l o r e r . F i n l a y , L i e u t e n a n t G e o r g e O f f i c e r i n t h e S i x t h R e g i m e n t o f F o o t s e n t t o R e d R i v e r , I8I16 -4.8. F r a s e r , J o h n R e d R i v e r f a r m e r . I k 6 . APPENDIX I V - C o n t i n u e d . G a r r i o c h , R e v . A l f r e d C a m p b e l l Cl8k8-193k) A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n a n d h i s t o r i a n . Gunn, D o n a l d ( 1 7 9 7 - 1 8 7 8 ) H i s t o r i a n a n d s c i e n t i s t . H a r r i o t t , J o h n E d w a r d C h i e f f a c t o r o f HBC r e t i r e d a t R e d R i v e r . H i n d , H e n r y Y o u l e ('1823-1908) G e o l o g i s t a n d e x p l o r e r . I n k s t e r , J o h n R e t i r e d f u r t r a d e r a n d m e r c h a n t n e a r S t . J o h n ' s . J o n e s , Rev. D a v i d A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n a t S t . J o h n ' s a n d S t . P a u l ' s . K e n n e d y , C a p t a i n W i l l i a m (l8lk-l890) A r c t i c e x p l o r e r . M u r r a y , A l e x a n d e r H u n t e r (l8l8-l87k) HBC f u r t r a d e r a n d e x p l o r e r . N i s b e t , James (l823-l87k) P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n a r y a t K i l d o n a n . P r o v e n c h e r , J o s e p h - N o r b e r t (I787-I853) F i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c B i s h o p a t S t . B o n i f a c e . R i n d i s b a c h e r , P e t e r (I806-I83I4.) A r t i s t s o n o f a S w i s s c o l o n i s t . R o s s , A l e x a n d e r (1773-1856) H i s t o r i a n a n d f u r t r a d e r r e t i r e d t o R e d R i v e r . R o s s , W i l l i a m P o s t m a s t e r a t R e d R i v e r . S c o t t , W i l l i a m F a r m e r a t S t . A n d r e w ' s . S i m p s o n , S i r G e o r g e ( c a . I 7 8 7 - I 8 6 O ) G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f o f R u p e r t ' s L a n d . S m i t h u r s t , Rev. J o h n (1807-1867) A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n a t S t . P e t e r ' s . S o u t h e s k , James C a r n e g i e , S a r i o f (1827-1905) S c o t t i s h a u t h o r a n d a d v e n t u r e r who made a n e x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h - W e s t , 1859-60. 114-7. APPENDIX I V - C o n t i n u e d . T a c h e , A.-A. ( l 8 2 3 - l 8 9 i p F i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c A r c h b i s h o p o f S t . B o n i f a c e . T a y l o r , Rev. W.H. F i r s t A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n a t S t . J a m e s 1 . West, Rev. J o h n (ca.1775-l8k5) F i r s t A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y a t R e d R i v e r . Y o u n g , Rev. G e o r g e (1821-1910) F i r s t M e t h o d i s t c l e r g y m a n a t R e d R i v e r . INDEX TO RED RIVER BUILDINGS A b e l , E.R. : h o u s e , 2 6 , 136. A r c h e v e c h e , see E v e c h e (186k). B a n n a t y n e , A.G.B.: s t o r e , 110. B i g h o u s e , L o w e r P o r t G a r r y , 2 6 - 3 0 , 33* k l , 136, l k l . B i r d , W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 35, 38, 95. Bunn, Thomas: h o u s e C V i c t o r i a C o t t a g e ) , 2 6 , 33, 51, 95 , 137, 144. C o l o n y G a r d e n s , see R o s s , A l e x a n d e r : h o u s e . C o w l e y , Abraham; h o u s e ( D y n e v o r ) , 2 6 , 35, 119, 137, I k 2 - l k 3 . D y n e v o r , s e e C o w l e y , Abraham: h o u s e . E m e r a l d G r o v e , s e e McDermot, Andrew: h o u s e . E m e r a l d L o d g e , see McDermot, Andrew: h o u s e . E m m e r l i n g s H o t e l , 113. E v e c h e ('1829), 2 6 , 6 2 , l k l . E v l c h e C1839), 2 6 , 35 , k l , k k - k 5 , k 7 - k 8 , 6 2 - 6 3 . Ev&che ( 186k) , 2 6 , 67-68, 97, 99, 137-P o r t D o u g l a s , 6, 5k, 106, 119. F o r t G a r r y C D , 2 6 , 27, 53, 106, l k l . F o r t G a r r y ( 2 ) , s e e U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . F o r t G i b r a l t e r , 6, 103. F o r t Rouge, 103. F r a s e r , W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 2 6 , 137. G r e y Nuns' h o u s e , 12-13, 18, 2 6 , 35, k 3 , 5 0 , 137-Gunn, D o n a l d : h o u s e , 35. H a r r i o t t , J . E . : h o u s e ( H a w t h o r n e L o d g e ) , 35, 38, k 6 . li+9. INDEX TO RED RIVER BUILDINGS - C o n t i n u e d . H a w t h o r n e L o d g e , s e e H a r r i o t t , J . E . : h o u s e . H o l y T r i n i t y C h u r c h (1868)!, 139 . I n k s t e r , J o h n : h o u s e ( S e v e n O a k s ) , 15-16, 2 1 , 2 6 , 33-34, 43, 50-51, 9 5 - 9 6 , 113, 1 1 9 , 138 . J o h n W e s t ' s C h u r c h , s e e S t . J o h n ' s ( 1 ) . K e n n e d y , W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 137* K i l d o n a n C h u r c h , 53, 7 9 , 81, 89 , 9 0 - 9 3 , 95, 1 3 6 , l k o , 142. K i t t s o n , N.W.: s t o r e , 113. Knox C h u r c h ( 1 8 6 8 ) , I k O . L i t t l e B r i t a i n C h u r c h , 53, 136 . L o w e r C h u r c h , s e e S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h . L o w e r P o r t G a r r y ( S t o n e F o r t ) 1 , 2 0 - 2 1 , 2 6 - 2 7 , 38, 7 1 , 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 , 106 , H I 4 . - I I 7 , 136 , l l r l - l k 3 . L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , A b e l h o u s e , s ee A b e l , E.K.: h o u s e . L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , b i g h o u s e , s e e B i g h o u s e , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , Men's h o u s e , 1 3 6 . L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , w a r e h o u s e s , 2 0 , 3 8 , 136 , l k l . McDermot, Andrew: h o u s e ( E m e r a l d Lodge o r E m e r a l d G r o v e ) , 18 , 35« McDermot, A n d r e w : s t o r e , 1 1 0 - 1 1 2 . M i d d l e C h u r c h , s e e S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h . M i s s D a v i s ' s c h o o l ( T w i n O a k s ) , 2 6 , 33, 3 5 , 3 8 - 4 0 , 119 , 137 , 1 4 2 , 144 . N i s b e t H a l l , 137-N o r ' W e s t e r o f f i c e , 2 1 - 2 3 , 1 1 3 . P r i v i e s , E v e c h e ( l 8 6 k ) , 9 7 . 99, 137-R a p i d s ' C h u r c h , see S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h 150. INDEX TO RED RIVER BUILDINGS - C o n t i n u e d . R o s s , A l e x a n d e r : h o u s e ('Colony G a r d e n s ) , 50. R o s s , W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 18-19, 2 6 , 33, 137. R o y a l H o t e l , 113-S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h CLower C h u r c h ) (1), 19, 53, 74, 139-S t . A ndrew's C h u r c h (2), 53, 71, 74-79, 8 l , 95, 102, 1 1 9 , 136, 139, 142. S t . A n d r e w ' s r e c t o r y , 2 6 , 33, 35-38, 137. S t . Anne's C h u r c h , 19, 53, 82-83, 136, 139. S t . B o n i f a c e C h u r c h (1), 9, 1 9 , 53, 54-56, 68, 71, 140. S t . B o n i f a c e C a t h e d r a l (2), 53, 57-65, 71, 8 l , 95, 119-120, IkO. S t . B o n i f a c e C a t h e d r a l (3), 53, 65-67, 99, 140. S t . B o n i f a c e C a t h e d r a l ( k ) , 53, 67. S t . C l e m e n t ' s C h u r c h , 53, 8k-86, 136, 139, I k k . S t . F r a n q o i s - X a v i e r C h u r c h (1), 19, 53, 140. S t . F r a n c o i s - X a v i e r C h u r c h (2), 53, 140. S t . F r a n c o i s - X a v i e r C h u r c h (3), 53, 140. S t . James' C h u r c h , 11, 19, 53, 82, 120, 136, 139. S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h ('1) ( J o h n W e s t ' s C h u r c h ) , 9, 1 9 , 53-54, 57-59, 68, 71, 86, 139. S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h (2) ( U p p e r C h u r c h ) , 53, 68-71, 74, 86, 139, 141. S t . J o h n ' s C a t h e d r a l C3), 53, 86-88, 91, 139, 142-143-S t . J o h n ' s C a t h e d r a l ( k ) , 53, 88. S t . M a r g a r e t ' s C h u r c h (1861), 19, 53, 82, 139-S t . M a r y ' s C h u r c h (1855), 19, 2k, 53, 81-82, 139. S t . N o r b e r t C h u r c h (1855), 53, 140. 151. INDEX TO RED RIVER BUILDINGS - C o n t i n u e d . S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h ( M i d d l e C h u r c h ) (1), 18-19, 53, 74, 139. S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h C2), 53, 71-74, 77, 79, 139. S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h ('3), 53, 74, 136, 139-S t . P e t e r ' s C h u r c h (1), 19, 53, 79, 119, lko. S t . P e t e r ' s C h u r c h (2), 53, 79, 8 0 , 8l, 119, 136, IkO, 142. S c o t t , W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 26, 32, 33, 137. S e v e n O a k s , s e e I n k s t e r , J o h n : h o u s e . S t o n e P o r t , see L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . T w i n O a k s , s e e M i s s D a v i s ' s c h o o l . U p p e r C h u r c h , s e e S t . J o h n ' s C h u r c h . U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , 2 6 , 38, 102-llk, 117-119, 137, l k l , Lk2, 143-U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , g a t e , 108, 137. V i c t o r i a C o t t a g e , s e e Bunn, Thomas: h o u s e . 

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