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Red River architecture, 1812-1870 Wade, Jill 1967

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RED  RIVER  ARCHITECTURE,  1812-1870  by JILL  WADE  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1963 B.L.S., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1967  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF A R T S  in  We  accept to  t h e Department of Fine Arts  this  thesis as  the required  conforming  standard  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H September, 1967  COLUMBIA  In presenting requirements  this thesis i n  partial  f o r an advanced degree at the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree t h a t the  freely  for  available  reference  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e for scholarly Department  purposes may  o r by h i s  that copying  the of  and  study.  I further  copying of t h i s  thesis  Head o f  my  I t i s understood  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  w i t h o u t my  Department of P i n e A r t s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada. 1967«  University  be g r a n t e d by the  or p u b l i c a t i o n  of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  representatives.  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  September,  fulfilment  written  permission.  i  RED R I V E R ARCHITECTURE,  1812-1870  i i ABSTRACT  The the  t h e s i s i s concerned with  Red R i v e r  S e t t l e m e n t b e t w e e n 1812 when t h e S e l k i r k  settlers  first  province  of Manitoba Its  influences the  place  a r r i v e d a t Red R i v e r entered  objectives are ( i ) to e s t a b l i s h the on Red R i v e r  of that  measured. the  Almost  a l lthe  extant  a n d , i n some  source m a t e r i a l s  instances, relating  to  h i s t o r y and the a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the Red R i v e r  material  were used,  was It  has been concluded that  the Red R i v e r  "piece trade  and o r i g i n a l  and reproduced  t h e common l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n  S e t t l e m e n t was t h e H u d s o n ' s  sur piece".  frame,  t h e "poteaux  The Hudson's  Bay s t y l e  o f t h e N o r t h West Company a n d l a t e r  Company, a n d i t was a d o p t e d b y t h e f i r s t River  from the f u r traders  was u s e d  stores,  i n houses  and schools.  different  pictorial  examined.  known a s t h e R e d R i v e r  It  environment.  work and e x a m i n a t i o n o f  photographed,  Primary and secondary  Settlement  in  material.  were v i s i t e d ,  stylistic  a r c h i t e c t u r e and ('ii) t o examine  a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the Red River  and p i c t o r i a l  buildings  a n d 1870 when t h e  Confederation.  Research consisted of f i e l d written  the architecture of  Bay s t y l e ,  also  s u r sole", and was u s e d  i nthe  t h e Hudson's Bay settlers  a t Red  who p r e c e d e d t h e m i n t h e a r e a .  and churches, as w e l l as o u t b u i l d i n g s , I t became outmoded a f t e r  I87O w h e n  l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n methods, a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s ,  and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  were i n t r o d u c e d  by s e t t l e r s  from  i i i  Ontario. I t has also been concluded that wood houses o f t h e Red R i v e r architectural The  Settlement  style associated  with  stone and  were b u i l t  i n an  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company.  s t y l e o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e Anglo-Norman b u i l d i n g s  Canada and i n t h e l a i r d ' s land.  At Red R i v e r ,  natural  Fort  house o f eighteenth  w h i c h were b u i l t  Garry a f t e r  contemporary  The  Roman C a t h o l i c  G a r r y and Lower  whereas the A n g l i c a n with  the box-like  The P r e s b y t e r i a n  style of the Anglican  was i n f l u e n c e d  by  o f F r e n c h Canada and E n g l a n d .  c h u r c h e s were b u i l t  detail  buildings.  i n Red River  architecture  Thomas B a i l l a i r g e ,  River  Scot-  1830.  the  Revival  century  from the f u r trade  a t Upper Fort  Church a r c h i t e c t u r e  Gothic  o f French  i t was a d o p t e d f o r t h e homes o f t h e  a r i s t o c r a c y of the settlement  buildings  the  the large  i n the style of churches  f o r m common t o R e d  churches  churches with  integrated  tended t o follow  some m i n o r  adapt-  ations. The  primary  were thus B r i t i s h The village. the  on Red R i v e r  architecture  and French Canadian i n o r i g i n .  Red R i v e r  S e t t l e m e n t was e s s e n t i a l l y a r i v e r s i d e  I t s buildings  rivers.  winding  influences  s t o o d i n a row a l o n g  the banks o f  The l i n e a r a r r a n g e m e n t was r e l i e v e d b y t h e  r i v e r s and punctuated by the d i f f e r e n t types o f  architecture,  by the l o c a t i o n o f important b u i l d i n g s  bends o f the r i v e r s ,  and by the concentration  on the  of buildings  iv  in  the  forts,  m i s s i o n s and  farm-yards.  V  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS PAGE  LIST  OF P L A T E S  v i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  1  PREFACE Chapter . I.  THE HUDSON' S B A Y  II.  RED R I V E R H O U S E S Red  III.  l±  STYLE  27  R i v e r Houses i n Wintertime Sk  RED R I V E R CHURCHES S tn .t hB e o nRi ef da c Re i v e r AT h ne g l iC ca at nh e dC rh au lr sc h eo sf i ment The K i r k o f K i l d o n a n Aftermath  IV.  Settle-  100  THE R E D R I V E R SETTLEMENT Conelusions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  123  APPENDICES  135  I. II. III. IV.  L I S T OF E X T A N T R E D R I V E R  ARCHITECTURE  L I S T OF R E D R I V E R CHURCHES, 1812-1870 R E D R I V E R MASONS B R I E F B I O G R A P H I E S OF P E R S O N S MENTIONED I N THE T E X T  I N D E X TO RED R I V E R B U I L D I N G S  llj.8  vi  L I S T OP  PLATES  PLATE  PAGE The  II.  Original building,  Port  Langley  7  III.  Restored building,  Fort  Langley  8  IV.  Red  V.  Grey Nuns' house  VI.  Detail  VII.  John Inkster's  VIII.  Hudson's Bay  River  style  1817  Settlement,  store,  Stone warehouse,  The  Nor'Wester  X.  Map  showing extant  XI.  The  b i g house,  XII.  A  restoration  G r e y Nuns' house Seven  Lower  IX.  typical  10  (I8I4.6> d u r i n g  of a partition,  1832-33  of log construction..  5  I.  Fort  .  ....  Oaks h o u s e Garry,  plan  built  20 23  Red  R i v e r houses  Fort  of a large  Garry, one  26  begun  storey  1830.  The  Scott  XIV.  Seven Oaks,  31  house,  near S t . Andrew's  John I n k s t e r ' s house,  Church  ..  32  built  3k  1851 XV.  29  Red  R i v e r house XIII.  13 16  office  Lower  12  S t . Andrew's  rectory,  as p h o t o g r a p h e d by  H i m e , 1857-58 XVI.  Miss Davis'  XVII.  A  typical  37  school,  plan  o r T w i n Oaks  of a large  two  ItO  storey  Red 4-2  R i v e r house XVIII.  Eve che,  St. Boniface,  XIX.  Plan, Eveche,  XX.  Map  showing Red  XXI.  The  first  XXII.  J o h n West's  begun  St. Boniface, River  St. Boniface church,  1839 begun  kS  I839  lj.8  churches  53  church  56  opened  1822  58  vii  LIST  OP  PLATES -  Continued.  PLATE  PAGE  XXIII.  St. Boniface  C a t h e d r a l , b e g u n 1833  61  XXIV.  St. Boniface  C a t h e d r a l , b e g u n 1862  66  XXV.  St. John's  Church, b u i l t  XXVI.  St. Paul's  Church,  1832  or Middle  70 Church,  built  c a . I844 XXVII.  73 181+5, a s p h o t o -  St. Andrew's Church, begun  1857-58  g r a p h e d by Hime,  76 78  XXVIII.  P l a n , S t . Andrew's Church  XXIX.  Window, S t . P e t e r ' s  XXX.  S t . Anne's Church,  XXXI.  St. Clement's  XXXII.  St. John's C a t h e d r a l , b u i l t a p p e a r e d i n 1900  XXXIII.  Kildonan, built  XXXIV.  Plan, Klldonan  XXXV.  Detail  XXXVI.  Hexagonal  XXXVII.  House i n t h e Hudson's Bay Manitoba  C h u r c h , b e g u n 1853  80  P o p l a r P o i n t , b e g u n 1862.  Church,  Mapleton, begun 1861,  i860 .  as i t  90  Church  privy,  85 87  1852  of Verandah  83  92  Posts,  Seven  Archeveche,  Oaks  St. Boniface  style,  96 ..  97  Selkirk,  o f a P o r t i o n o f Rupert's Land.  98. 101  XXXVIII.  C o p y o f a Map  XXXIX.  Upper Port  XL.  Andrew McDermot's  store  112  XLI.  Lower P o r t  the  116  105  Garry  Garry,  Stone P o r t  v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many p e o p l e preparation of this  and institutions paper.  Binning  have helped bow  o f Architecture and Professors  a n d I a n McNairn o f t h e Department o f P i n e me b e g i n ,  Foundation  continue  i n Calgary  sketches  and provided  was  able  to use the Taylor  the  Public  school  and complete  The G l e n -  a summer's e m p l o y m e n t .  I n Winnipeg,  I  j o u r n a l a n d t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n a t and, i n Toronto,  on  library  work, I was g i v e n t h e f r e e d o m t o examine t h e  John Ross Robertson  Collection  a t the Toronto  But  perhaps  and  enthusiasm  the  Red R i v e r houses and churches  me.  it.  Arts  p e r m i t t e d me t h e u s e o f t h e F i n l a y  Archives o f Manitoba,  field  a s s i s t e d me i n t h e  P r o f e s s o r s Abraham R o g a t n i c k a n d  Wolfgang Gerson o f t h e School B.C.  have  Public  Library.  I am m o s t a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e t e a a n d s t o r i e s freely  given by those  who s h o w e d me  through  a n d t a l k e d about them  with  1. PREFACE  The described It  was  Red R i v e r  Settlement  has frequently  as an o a s i s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n  s i t u a t e d i n the grasslands  remote from B r i t a i n , colonies,  and subjected  of  long,  It  became a n o u t p o s t  cold winters  the  f u r traders  Bay  Company  teenth  of c e n t r a l North  States,  of civilization  Later,  settlers  continental  was l a r g e l y  with  Saulteaux metis,  settlement  and  the river  ities  supported  soldiers,  lot.  connected with  oped.  Life  Indians.  the e a r l y years  of  1869-70  forts.  of the settlement  from  the province  West.  about  decades,  the activ-  forts  between the  hunt  devel-  hostilities  and the i n s u r r e c t i o n  around the p a r i s h churches and the  isolation  of Red R i v e r g r a d u a l l y  o f M a n i t o b a was c r e a t e d ,  Canada, Europe,  the  a n d was  industry outside  peaceful  i n  by the b u f f a l o  t h e A m e r i c a n f r o n t i e r moved w e s t w a r d s .  1870,  the  The q u i e t  French  clergymen,  For five  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company  and centred  by  B y 1870,  or mixed blood,  little  was r e a s o n a b l y  of  as  Very  nine-  and adventurers,  the f u r trade  of  and the Hudson's  i n the early  equally French and E n g l i s h speaking. the  climate  the a r r i v a l  i t was a l s o p o p u l a t e d  Swiss c o l o n i s t s ,  to the native  population  and the Canadian  W e s t Company  f u r t r a d e r s , and explorers  addition  America,  a n d s h o r t , h o t , a n d d r y summers.  and the S e l k i r k  Canadian s e t t l e r s ,  i n the wilderness.  to a rigorous  of the North  century.  retired  the United  been  and the United  States  ended  Finally, i n and homesteaders began t o f l o o d  2.  A initial  distinctive  contact  between  developed i n the to  describe  and  architecture representative of  settlement.  or explain that  examined  on Red  needed.  paper has  has  This  drawn c e r t a i n  u s e d a t Red  R i v e r and  architecture chapters Red  R i v e r , and  the  Red  architecture.  examined  i t ,and  others  a t Red  River.  o f Red  o f f o u r Red  therefore that  t o some e x t e n t  River environment.  chapter  places  Appendices  Osborne  research.  architectural  l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n , houses,  the l a s t  a list  about  attempts  Milton  about  attempted to begin  conclusions  River landscape.  biographies  wilderness  have been few  R i v e r a r c h i t e c t u r e was  i n the Red  consider  buildings,  the  the l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n prevalent  Some r e s e a r c h  of  There  and  John Graham have w r i t t e n a l i t t l e  have  It  civilization  the  styles  the place  of  The  first  and  churches  the  three at  the a r c h i t e c t u r e i n  include a l i s t  R i v e r churches between R i v e r masons, and b r i e f  s e v e r a l p e o p l e w h o s e names a r e m e n t i o n e d  1812  of  extant  and  1870,  biographies  i n the  text.  3.  The plain  settlers'  square boxes  attempt  a short  may  called  invariably in  devoid of the smallest  at ornament; without  unless be  houses are g e n e r a l l y  projecting so.  employed  stones  stove-pipe  the material  - placed  horizontally  gardens nor surrounding  boulders  iron  even,  Wood i s  long l o g s about a f o o t  and the cottages  a chimney  square.  fences  Neither  are I n  favour,  stand a l lbare-faced,  are strewn  by  a flood,  as  or meteor  dropped from the sky.  - Lord Southesk at Grantown,  i860.  4. CHAPTER I THE A  HUDSON'S B A Y S T Y L E  d e s c r i p t i o n o f Red River  begins with  the  The  log construction prevalent  construction  oak  logs.  and  horizontal logs  1  architecture  I tconsisted slid  i nthe settlement.  was e s s e n t i a l l y a f r a m e o f s q u a r e d of vertical into place  logs  tenoned i n t o a  A wall plate  doors were  s e t i nbetween two minor u p r i g h t s  t h emajor u p r i g h t s .  frequently thatched  placed  Locally,  or  to  A log construction  on a stone foundation  posts  i nt h e s i l l ,  andFred  t y p e was  andusually given  various  a  i t t h e Hudson's Bay s t y l e ,  nineteenth  century,  names.  frame a n d t h e Hudson's  K n i f f e n and Henry  sur piece."  extensively by thefur traders the  o r b e s i d e one  Marius Barbeau has c a l l e d I t "poteaux  t o i t as "piece  call  Windows a n d  of this  l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n has been given  i t i s known a s t h e R e d R i v e r  style.  refer  completed t h e frame.  roof. This  Bay  sill  between t h e grooved  uprights.  of  properly  sur sole," Glassie  Perhaps i t i s simplest since  of British  i t was u s e d  most  North America i n  i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e Hudson's Bay  Company men.  •••See P I . I p  M a r i u s B a r b e a u , " T h e H o u s e T h a t . Mac B u i l t , " T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 276. D e c e m b e r , 1945, pp.10-13; Fred Kniffen a n d H e n r y G l a s s i e , " B u i l d i n g i n Wood i n t h e E a s t e r n United S t a t e s ; A T i m e - P l a c e P e r s p e c t i v e , " The G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, L V T . J a n u a r y , 1966, pp.47-48, 50. S e e a l s o , R i c h a r d W. H a l e , J r . , "The F r e n c h S i d e o f t h e ' L o g C a b i n M y t h ' , " P r o ceedings o f theMassachusetts H i s t o r i c a l Society, LXXII.  1957-60, pp.110-125.  PLAT3  I  <  •-  I  The H u d s o n s B a y 1  of  style  log construction.  (Sketched from Barbeau's  article  and-then  Xerox  6.  The was  brought  style  originated  a s "colombage" i n Europe a n d  t oNorth America  b y the  s e t t l e r s o f New P r a n c e .  It  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  up  out  o fMontreal  Company w h i c h  after  passed  the amalgamation o f posts land. to  a c r o s s the  1821.^  anextra  the windows i n o r d e r t e c t e d from Langley,  the  w i t h the  North  The f u r t r a d e r s used  continent from  m a t e r i a l s and  Langley  and  Labrador  i n the to the  sill  style  t oVancouver I s occured with respect  constructionitself.  At  o f g r e a t b r e a d t h was p l a c e d b e l o w  rain.° F u r t h e r m o r e , oak  after  i t at their  t h a t they c o u l d be r e c e s s e d and  whereas white  grew  West  i t o n t o t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company  Regional variations  building  Port  1760  f u r trade which  3  was u s e d  pro-  r e d c e d a r was u s e d a t i n the  Red  River  Settle-  ment . The  style  was taken  North  W e s t Company.  there  i n 1812,  G-ibralter. trade of  almost  their  Douglas.  Barbeau,  after  seem t o h a v e  immediately  fort,  3  The S e l k i r k  twoy e a r s  They  t o Red  p.  10;  R i v e r b y the men o f the  s e t t l e r s began t o a r r i v e  t h e company b u i l t adopted  the  since they used On A u g u s t Hale,  pp.  style  Fort o fthe  i t i n the  6, 1811+,  fur  building  Peter Fidler  wrote  119-20, 121+-25.  ^ B a r b e a u , pp.10-13The s t y l e was not p r e v a l e n t i n t h e o l d F r e n c h N o r t h W e s t b e f o r e 1760. Rather a v e r t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , the "poteaux e n t e r r e " was u s e d a t F r e n c h Detroit. S e e R e x f o r d Newcombe, A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e O l d N o r t h West T e r r i t o r y . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o fChicago Press,  1950::  ^Ibid. 0  See P I . I I & I I I  P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , September,  1966.  PLATE I I  Original building,,Fort  Langley.  C o u r t e s y R.A. A n d r e w s .  Restored b u i l d i n g , Port Langley. Courtesy  R.A.  Andrews.  9. that  "ij. men a r e c o n s t a n t l y e m p l o y e d a t t h e l a r g e H o u s e -  this  day they  along  g o t up a l l t h e p o s t s  the F r o n t . T h e  settlers  and three  tages  Contemporary sketches  and the f i r s t  were c o n s t r u c t e d The settlers. of  style  rivers  thus  for  churches  passed from the f u r t r a d e r s , t o the  were b o r d e r e d  "the pines",  along  the cot-  T h a t i t was p o p u l a r l y u s e d i n t h e g r a s s l a n d s  aspen grew i n b l u f f s at  indicate that  of the  style.  the Red R i v e r V a l l e y might  the  years  Roman C a t h o l i c a n d A n g l i c a n  i n this  high  also used the style i n  t h e i r houses and churches i n the e a r l i e s t settlement.  logs  the shores  seem i m p r a c t i c a l .  w i t h maple, elm, and oak, and  on the plains.  T i m b e r was a l s o c u t  t h e wooded r i d g e s east o f Lake Winnipeg.  t h e frame, pine  However,  f o rthe floors,  o f the Red R i v e r , and  I n general, and white  o a k was  used  wood, o r  9 basswood/ f o rthe f u r n i t u r e . available  i n the area.  Other b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  Hay f o r t h a t c h e d  r o o f s was  were  taken  7 W i l l i a m D o u g l a s , New L i g h t o n t h e O l d F o r t s o f Winnipeg, A Paper Read before the H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , S e r i e s I I I , No. 11, e d i t e d by Paul Yuzyk. Winnipeg: H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society o f M a n i t o b a , 1956, p . 1", c i t i n g a n a c c o u n t b y P e t e r F i d l e r , S e l k i r k P a p e r s , A u g u s t 6, l8lli, p.l8ii32. See P I . I V , X X I I , a n d X X I . . S e e a l s o t h e v e r s o o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r o f T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 282. March, 1952, for a reproduction of Peter Rindisbacher s sketch of the Anglican church during the f l o o d o f 1826. 9 A l e x a n d e r R o s s , The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . A R e p r i n t o f t h e E d i t i o n P u b l i s h e d i n L o n d o n : S m i t h , E l d e r , a n d C o . , .", 1856. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Ross and Haines, I n c . , 8  1  1957,  P.388.  Red Courtesy  River Settlement, Public  lSl?.  Archives of  Canada,  11. from the p l a i n s , f i l l  a n d mud f r o m t h e r i v e r  the cracks o f the l o g walls,  build  fireplaces.  in  184.0*3  and had  (1853}  I n  i n the  settlement by the  t o b e c u t many m i l e s u p s t r e a m  were r a f t e d  St. P a u l .  city  o f wood a t R e d R i v e r ,  site.  The l o g s  L o r d Southesk  and,  i n the  and  f o r St.  down t h e A s s i n i b o i n e  1859-60,  Baie  1 1  and to  1 0  booms t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  Church  was u s e d t o  t o make p l a s t e r ,  However, wood became s c a r c e late  banks  James'  River  from  noted the  l860's,  floated  scar-  Samuel  Taylor  12 a n d h i s s o n h a d t o g o t o t h e p i n e s f o r wood. Once t h e l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n was a d o p t e d b y t h e it  r e m a i n e d t h e common w a y o f b u i l d i n g  until  1870.  I t was u s e d f o r t h e h o u s e s ,  outbuildings,  reason perhaps  lies  I n 1870,  ber. **" A s a w m i l l 1  1 0  January  B e l o w , p.  been b u i l t  by  i860,  There and  used  was n o  the  backwardness  t h e p i t saw was s t i l l  had  1 3  construction,  i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l  stores,  a n di t c o n t i n u e d  o fthe f u r t r a d e .  p r o g r e s s i o n from a l o g t o a frame  settlement  churches,  a n dschools o fthe s e t t l e r s ,  to be used i n the b u i l d i n g s  settlement.  i n the  settlers  o f the  t o cut  lum-  a l t h o u g h i t was l a t e r  51.  " ^ E l i s a b e t h Henderson, 2, I 9 6 0 .  writing  i n Winnipeg Free  Press,  "LP James C a r n e g i e ( E a r l o f S o u t h e s k ) , Saskatchewan and the Rookie Mountains. E d i n b u r g h : Edmonston a n d Douglas, 1 8 7 5 , p.350; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f Samuel T a y l o r , I , F e b r u a r y , i860, p.51. S . H . S c u d d e r , T h e W i n n i p e g C o u n t r y . New Y o r k : N.D.C. H o d g e s , P u b l i s h e r , 1 8 9 0 , p . 1 1 9 . Ik George Young, M a n i t o b a Memories. T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1897, p.198. 1 3  PLATE  V  PLATE  Detail  of a  •rey N u n s ' during  VI  partition,  house  (l8k6)  restoration.  destroyed  by  fire,  permanency u n t i l spread  use  but  were not  established with  I870 s. ^ Without  the  o f frame  mills 1  1  saw  c o n s t r u c t i o n at Red  mills,  a  R i v e r was  any  wide-  imposs-  ible.  Por small. by  the  most p a r t , houses i n the  They were p a r t i t i o n e d  walls constructed with poplar  plaster.  16  However, the  a d d i t i o n o f more rooms. the  into  settlers  lived  one,  trunks,  Hudson's Bay 17 1  According  comfortably  settlement two,  or  three  lathwork,  style  were  and  facilitated  to contemporary  i n their  rooms  s m a l l wooden  the  accounts, houses:  ...we s e l e c t a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e common c l a s s of houses, and ask f o r d i n n e r . I t i s a log cabin, l i k e a l l o f t h i s c l a s s (some f a r b e t t e r o n e s h a v e w a l l s o f stone) w i t h a t h a t c h e d r o o f and a rough stone and m o r t a r c h i m n e y p l a n t e d a g a i n s t one w a l l . Inside i s but a s i n g l e room, w e l l w h i t e w a s h e d , as i s i n d e e d t h e o u t s i d e a n d e x c e p t i o n a l l y t i d y ; a b e d o c c u p i e s one corner, a s o r t o f c o u c h a n o t h e r , a r u n g l a d d e r l e a d s up t o l o o s e b o a r d s o v e r h e a d w h i c h f o r m an a t t i c , a t r a p door i n the m i d d l e o f the room opens t o a s m a l l h o l e i n the g r o u n d where m i l k and b u t t e r are kept c o o l ; f r o m the beam i s s u s p e n d e d a hammock, u s e d a s a c r a d l e f o r t h e baby; shelves s i n g u l a r l y hung h o l d a scanty s t o c k of p l a t e s , k n i v e s a n d f o r k s ; two w i n d o w s o n e i t h e r s i d e , c o v e r e d w i t h m o s q u i t o n e t t i n g , admit the l i g h t , and a modicum o f a i r ; c h e s t s and boxes s u p p l y the p l a c e o f s e a t s w i t h h e r e a n d t h e r e a k e g b y way o f e a s y - c h a i r .  ^ M a n t o n M a r b l e , "To R e d R i v e r a n d B e y o n d , " H a r p e r s New M o n t h l y M a g a z i n e , X X I I . 1861, pp.310, 316; Alexander B e g g a n d W a l t e r R. N u r s e y , T e n Y e a r s i n W i n n i p e g . W i n n i p e g : " T i m e s " P r i n t i n g a n d P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1679, PP.65, 82, 8b. 1  1 6  See  PI.  VI.  1 7  See  PI.  XL.  15.  I  start  a g a i n w e n t up  back to one  bag  price  Mr. of  John I n k s t e r ' s  Pemican from him  lk4g p e r  l b ,) - I  and  every  one  i n the house,  a.m.  t o Mr.  place  I left  and  there  that  S h o w n t o me  there  about 9  Game  bought 107  (Weighing  sleeped  Mark o f Kindness  upon Saturday  McDermot and  by  lbs, Night, every  O'clock  2kth. -  Samuel T a y l o r ,  i860.  17. An open f i r e p l a c e o f w h i t e w a s h e d c l a y g i v e s s i g n o f c h e e r and warmth i n the l o n g w i n t e r , and a h a l f - d o z e n books f o r l i b r a r y complete the scene. T h i s i s a l a r g e r h o u s e . . . . We h a v e e a c h a c h a m b e r t o o u r s e l v e s i n t h e g a r r e t , r e a c h e d i n t h e same p r i m i t i v e m e t h o d as b e f o r e m e n t i o n e d - and a r e shown w i t h a d i p o f b u f f a l o t a l l o w t o our rooms. The f u r n i t u r e o f t h e s e c o n s i s t s o f a s o r t o f couch, w i t h b u f f a l o s k i n s f o r matt r e s s and w o l f s k i n s f o r sheets and c o v e r l e t , a chest f o r a s e a t , a punch-bowl o f w a t e r on a b r o k e n c h a i r f o r a wash-stand, and a t o r n b i t of r a g f o r a t o w e l ; w h i l e a b a r r e l c o v e r e d w i t h a white c l o t h serves as a c e n t r e t a b l e , and i s b e s p r i n k l e d w i t h a n t i q u e books.1° However, the hunt of  or  the  the  f u r trade,  discomforts  dwellings,"  t r a n s i e n t m e t i s who  1 9  and  "generally  that  the  attend  houses at  f o l l o w e d the  speaking,  exhibited  a mere encampment i n the  Indian  Settlement  W i l l i a m C o c h r a n i n l8ii5 w e r e n e i t h e r n e a t  c r i b e d by  buffalo more  their as  des-  nor  elegant: The seams o f t h e l o g w a l l s w e r e p l a s t e r e d w i t h mud; t h e c h i m n e y s w e r e o f t h e same m a t e r i a l ; t h e r o o f s were t h a t c h e d w i t h r e e d s and c o v e r e d w i t h e a r t h ; the b o a r d s of the f l o o r s , and doors, and beds, were p l a n e d w i t h t h e saw a n d t h e w i n d o w s w e r e f o r m e d o f p a r c h m e n t made o f t h e s k i n s o f f i s h e s . p  In contrast houses b u i l t  to  when the  these  cottages  settlement  were the  became more  large  wooden  permanently  established: I n R e d R i v e r , a s i n C a n a d a , a n d m o s t o t h e r new countries, the people, f o r a long time, contented themselves w i t h what are c a l l e d wooden h o u s e s , o f s u c h humble appearance  ^Scudder,  pp. 109-10,  111-12.  1Q 7  Ross,  p.195.  20 G . J . M o u n t a i n , The J o u r n a l o f t h e B i s h o p o f M o n t r e a l during a v i s i t to the Church Missionary Society's North-West America M i s s i o n . London: Seeley, Burnside, and S e e l e y , H a t c h a r d a n d S o n , N i s b e t a n d C o . , l8ii5, p.209, c i t i n g W i l l i a m Cochran.  18. as m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d where means a r e l o w , workmen s c a r c e , a n d wages a t a h i g h r a t e . The c o s t o f s u c h h o u s e s d e p e n d s o n a v a r i e t y o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; but t h e a v e r a g e m a y b e t a k e n a t £ 60 s t e r l i n g . These frame b u i l d i n g s , s i m p l e , y e tcommodious a n d c o m f o r t a b l e , d i f f e r i n s i z e a s i nc o s t , b u t a r e seldom more t h a n t h i r t y f e e t i nl e n g t h , o r l e s s than twenty; t h e o t h e r dimensions being o f corresponding proportion. A supe r i o r c l a s s o f d w e l l i n g s have s h i n g l e d r o o f s , stone f o u n d a t i o n s , windows, doors a n d p a r t i t i o n s p a n e l e d a n d p a i n t e d , a n d t h e w a l l s r o u g h c a s t w i t h l i m e . One o f t h i s description, forty o r f i f t y feet long, andw e l l finished, w i l l c o s t £300. Such was t h e c o s t o f one b u i l t f o r the w r i t e r ; b u t i t was t h e b e s t i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f its size. Of l a t e , a d e c i d e d improvement i nthe c h a r a c t e r o f o u r wooden b u i l d i n g s h a s become m a n i f e s t . S e v e r a l a r e o f t w o s t o r i e s h i g h , some w i t h g a l l e r i e s , and two ornamented w i t h verandas. Taste, as well as c o n v e n i e n c e , b e g i n s t o r e c e i v e i t s due s h a r e o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; t h e l u x u r y o f g l a s s windows, a n d a l o c k on t h e o u t e r door, t h i n g s h i t h e r t o s c a r c e l y known i n R e d R i v e r , h a v e become f a s h i o n a b l e , i n d e e d , a l m o s t g e n e r a l . Such h o u s e s , w h i t e a s snow, l o o k w e l l , a n d h a v e a v e r y g a y appearance. Possibly s t o r i e d Grey  t h el a r g e s t  Nun's house  wooden house was t h e t w o -  (l8k6)),  t h e dimmensions o f which  22 w e r e 100 boards  X kO f e e t .  I t was c o v e r e d w i t h v e r t i c a l  i nthe French t r a d i t i o n .  W i l l i a m Ross  (l85k):  Grove o rE m e r a l d  Other houses  were t h e  a n d t h e Andrew McDermot h o u s e ,  Lodge.  The l a t t e r  weather-  was "a v e r y  Emerald  large  ^ R o s s , p.lkO. A c c o r d i n g t o T.C.B. B o o n , T h e A n g l i c a n Church from the Bay t o t h eRockies. Toronto: R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1962, p.26, g l a s s was u s e d i n t h e e a r l y churches i nthe s e t t l e m e n t s i n c e t h eM i d d l e Church l o s t i t s g l a s s windows i n t h e f l o o d o f 1826. 2? L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , June 16, l 8 k 6 , J o s e p h - N o r b e r t P r o v e n c h e r , " L e t t r e s de Monseigneur Joseph-Norbert Provencher, Premier Eveque de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , " B u l l e t i n d e l a S o c i 6 t e H i s t o r i q u e d e S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , I I I . 1 9 1 3 , p.21+3.  19. two-story one  house,"  a n d Ross house was s m a l l e r , b e i n g  story i n height.  with  first  they,  t o o , were  churches i nthe settlement  t h e Hudson's B a y s t y l e .  stone  covered  theIndian  at  Portage  (1861)),  Settlement  l aP r a i r i e  o r St. Peter's  (l855>,  St.  Boniface  the  Hudson's Bay s t y l e  25  (1862)!.  remains  (1836),  (ca.l829),  a n d t h e Upper Church.  constructed  replaced by  (1831);,  S t . Margaretfs  and St. Francois-Xavier  were  Church o rSt. Paul's  t h e Lower Church o r S t . Andrew's  at  Point  Many w e r e l a t e r  o r frame b u i l d i n g s , t h eMiddle  (l82k),  or  Originally,  only  weatherboard.  The in  J  the church S t . Mary's  a t High  Bluff  i n additiont o  Only one l o g c h u r c h i n  today,  S t . Anne's,  Poplar  I ti s disguised w i t h weatherboards,  a n d more  l e s s r e s e m b l e s S t . Mary's a s i t was d e s c r i b e d b y  A.C.  Garrioch: The c h u r c h w a s s e v e n t y f e e t l o n g b y t h i r t y f e e t wid£, and i n h e i g h t u n d e r t h e eaves about t h i r t e e n o r f o u r teen feet. A t t h en o r t h e n d was a tower t e n f e e t square and s i x t y f e e t h i g h , f i n i s h e d w i t h a s p i r e surmounted by a c r o s s . The w a l l s o fb o t h c h u r c h a n d tower were o f  -^W.J. H e a l y , Women o f R e d R i v e r . L a n g a n d C o . , 1923, p . 137.  Winnipeg: R u s s e l l ,  I b i d .: T h e R o s s H o u s e : W e s t e r n C a n a d a ' s F i r s t O f f i c e . W i n n i p e g : H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i r i c s o c i e t y 01 M a n i t o b a , p.2. 2  2  k  ^See  PI.  XXX.  Post  21.  oak l o g s hewn on two s i d e s , t h o s e o f t h e f r a m e , i . e . the l o g s were t e n o n e d i n t o p o s t s t h a t s t o o d t e n o r twelve f e e t a p a r t , and those o f the t o w e r i n the s t y l e c a l l e d d o v e t a i l , i . e . the l o g s were f i t t e d i n t o each other at the four corners. The c h u r c h a n d t h e t o w e r w e r e c l a p b o a r d and whitewashed, and the r o o f of the church c o v e r e d w i t h u n p a i n t e d oak s h i n g l e s . W i t h i n , the c h u r c h w a l l s were not l a t h e d but s i m p l y a x e - s c o r e d and p l a s t e r e d w i t h a m i x t u r e of c l a y and f i n e l y chopped hay, and f i n i s h e d o f f w i t h whitewash. T b ^ g e i l i n g was of basswood and p a n e l work, and unpainted. Of the  a l l the  Hudson's Bay  other  style  types  only  of  buildings constructed  John I n k s t e r ' s  store  at  i n  Seven  27 Oaks has  been preserved.  buildings  were  simple  It i s clear,  and  however, that  unpretentious,  not  unlike  these  the  28 wooden houses and  Not  churches i n the  a l l the  s t r u c t e d i n the  settlement.  l o g b u i l d i n g s a t Red  style.  The  l o g c a b i n was  R i v e r were  con-  u s e d ; , one  was 29  sketched The  by  C o l . F i n l a y at Lower F o r t  Nor'Wester o f f i c e  structure.  3 0  An  was  half-timber or  even t i e r  Oaks, John I n k s t e r ' s house  2  1923,  used at  (185D; s q u a r e l o g s w e r e  6A.C. G a r r i o c h , F i r s t  See  i n l8ii7*.  "colombage"  c o n s t r u c t i o n was  p. 121^.  PI.  VII.  See  PI.  IV,  2 9  See  PI.  VIII.  3 0  Scudder, pp.ll8-19.  2 7  Garry  Furrows.  Winnipeg:  28 XXII.  See P I . I X .  i n Seven placed  Stovel  Co.,  22.  In  this  which,  vicinity like  river-dankj "The  this,  are  a few  do  not  Nor'Wester,  a weekly  preceding  one-storied  structure,  rough,  built  i n a wooden frame.  at once  even boasts  a  - a  and  Two  -  walls,  young  compositors.  sign-board over  S.H.  low,  thatched  plastered concrete  editors  of  newspaper  with a  and  the  office  Christmas  roof,  houses,  stand upon  among o t h e r s , t h e  s t a r t e d the  are  other  the  men It  door.  Scudder,' i 8 6 0 .  23.  PLATS  IX  From a s k e t c h i n The W i n n i p e g by  S.H. S c u d d e r  (New Y o r k ,  Country 1890).  2k.  one  on  top of each other  Garrioch St.  remarked,  Mary's  d o v e t a i l i n g was  together.  And  as  used i n the tower  of  Church.  Nevertheless, type  and pegged  t h e Hudson's Bay  of l o g construction  homesteaders  a t Red  from Ontario  began  River  s t y l e was until  arriving  about  i n great  the  common  1870  when  numbers,  32 bringing  with The  Red R i v e r style  them t h e i r  own  corner-timbering  log building itself  area  a f t e r 1870.  emerged, and o t h e r  33  New  methods.  s o o n became outmoded i n t h e tastes  i n architectural  building materials  like  brick  became  available. A s e a r l y a s 1873, A l e x a n d e r Begg and W a l t e r N u r s e y c o n s i d e r e d a new C o u r t H o u s e o f o a k l o g s b u i l t a t t h e  cost  of  $1+0,000  3k t o be  no  ornament  to Winnipeg.  F r a n k H a l l , " S e v e n O a k s H o u s e O p e n e d a s a Museum," M a n i t o b a P a g e a n t , V o l . I V , No. 2, p . 1 2 j K n i f f e n and G l a s s i e , p . i+9. The r e c e n t r e s t o r a t i o n o f S t . James' C h u r c h f o r t h e C a n a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l h a s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c h u r c h was b u i l t i n an even t i e r l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n . According to a contemporary p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e v e s t r y o f S t . James' C h u r c h t h e manse a l s o h a d t h e same t y p e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . J  32 Crossing.  S e e W.L. Morton and Margaret Morton F a h r n i , W i n n i p e g : A d v o c a t e P r i n t e r s , 191+6, p . 13.  Third  33Below, p.99. B r i c k - y a r d s had been introduced u n s u c c e s s f u l l y b e f o r e 1870, and t h e few b r i c k s t h a t were p r o d u c e d w e r e u s e d f o r c h i m n e y s ; see T h e N o r ' W e s t e r , A u g u s t l k , i 8 6 0 , a n d B e g g a n d N u r s e y , p.56. Begg and Nursey,  pp.90-91.  25. SUMMARY T h e common l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e R e d S e t t l e m e n t was  t h e Hudson's Bay  s t r u c t i o n used i n the trade and by  later  o f t h e N o r t h West  at Red R i v e r  p r e c e d e d them i n t h e area.  It  I t was  a  I t was u s e d  b e c a m e o u t m o d e d a f t e r 1870  settlers  i n houses  s t o r e s , and  who and  schools.  when d i f f e r e n t l o g c o n s t r u c t -  i o n methods, a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , by  adopted  from the f u r traders  as w e l l as o u t b u i l d i n g s ,  were i n t r o d u c e d  con-  Company  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, b u t i t was  the s e t t l e r s  churches,  Style.  River  from  and b u i l d i n g Ontario.  materials  26. PLATE X  Couiky  ho ure.  ^  ftb*/ ke>us&^£?^0u%*n  ?c*# ktujtjwis*  *Wr'  , /J~nJirf/ey- house  Map s h o w i n g  extant  Red R i v e r  houses.  Louse  relict  27. CHAPTER I I RED R I V E R HOUSES Most o f t h e h o u s e s a t Red R i v e r were buildings  constructed  "generally plain at ing  ornamentj iron  stove-pipe  Ross noted,  i n t h e Hudson's Bay s t y l e .  square boxes devoid  without  small  simple  They  of the smallest  a chimney even, unless may b e c a l l e d  and  were  attempt  a short  project-  s o . " However, as A l e x a n d e r 1  s e v e r a l l a r g e houses were b u i l t  as the  settlement  2 was p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d . box-like and  structures.  had pitched  porches.  door,  or hipped roofs  i n nature  to  built  flood Garry.  often  applied to the front simple  type which has  a t Lower P o r t  Simpson and h i s  survived  Garry.  I t was  wife.  was p r o m p t e d b y t h e  w h i c h h a d c a u s e d m u c h damage t o t h e o l d P o r t  A more permanent  desirable. in  i s t h e b i g house  construction of the fort  o f 1826  and they  i n extent.  f o rGovernor George The  w i t h wood o r stone,  oldest building of this  the present  fenestration.  a n d t h e s t a i r c a s e , b u t i twas a l w a y s  and l i m i t e d  The  and regular  Ornament was f r e q u e n t l y  the porch,  also  They were one o r two s t o r i e s i n h e i g h t  They might be c o n s t r u c t e d had  These l a r g e houses were  structure on a higher  site  was  The l o c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d b y S i m p s o n a n d h i s w i f e  I83O w h e n t h e y p a s s e d t h r o u g h R e d R i v e r " ' " C a r n e g i e , p p . 348-349. 2  Above pp. IT-IS.  3  See  P I . XI.  on t h e i r  way t o  28. the stately  residence  doors, bare  heavy  of brass,  old-fashioned furniture, even t o swinging  knobs  p l a s t e r e d w a l l s painted green,  of everything  places  being  o l d mansion w i t h wide verandas,  ceilings, plenty  of the o f f i c i a l s ,  i n every  but  skins,  and open  a  lofty with on  the  floors fire-  room.  - S.H.  Scudder,  i860.  pq  The b i g h o u s e , L o w e r F o r t b e g u n 1830. F r o m t h e Hime Public  •  Collection,  Archives  of  Garry,  1857-58,  Manitoba.•  30. the  annual meeting  an e l e v a t e d  site  of council  a t York F a c t o r y . ^ They  i n t h e l o w e r s e t t l e m e n t where  chose  stone and  5 lime  for building The  house  t h e new f o r t  were  available.  planning and the digging  of cellars  seems t o h a v e b e g u n i n t h e f a l l  Robert  Campbell  noted that  on about  and winter o f  the  20th  y e a r h e was " s e n t t o s u r v e y f r o m t h e r a p i d s is  now t h e S t o n e  at  that  the  Fort  ("the c e l l a r s  for the b i g 1830.  o f October  down t o n e a r  that what  o f w h i c h were b e i n g dug  time p r e p a r a t o r y t o the b u i l d i n g s being erected i n  spring). " The  was  mason r e s p o n s i b l e  for the fort  a H u d s o n ' s B a y Company b u i l d e r ,  Pierre  a n d t h e b i g house L e B l a n c , whom  7 Simpson  had sent from York F a c t o r y t o Fort  p r e p a r e d a house at  t h e new f o r t  f o r t h e Simpsons was b e i n g b u i l t .  together planned the buildings The  Simpsons  moved i n t o  t o occupy  Garry. while  LeBlanc their  house  P r o b a b l y , he a n d Simpson  and the layout  of the fort.  t h e b i g h o u s e i n 1832,  but  8  they  spent only a year i n i t . I t was s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c i d e d t o ^ M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y , p.5; G r a c e L e e N u t e ('ed.\, " J o u r n e y f o r F r a n c e s , " T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 282+. Summer, 195V P«15. Robert Watson, Lower F o r t G a r r y ; A H i s t o r y o ft h e S t o n e F o r t . W i n n i p e g : H u d s o n ' s B a y C o . , 1 9 2 5 , p.3, citing the r e s o l u t i o n o f a c o u n c i l meeting o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company's N o r t h e r n D e p a r t m e n t , Y o r k F a c t o r y , 1830. R o b e r t C a m p b e l l , Two J o u r n a l s o f R o b e r t C a m p b e l l , C h i e f F a c t o r , H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, l b O b t o 1 B 5 3 . S e a t t l e ^ W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 5 8 , p.6. 'MacLeod, Lower F o r t Q I b i d . , pp.6-7«  G a r r y , pp.5-6.  See A p p e n d i x I I I .  31.  PLATS  XII  1 J  -{•  3  — 4  NI-  A Typical plan  of l a r g e  r  T  L  1  one  storey  Red  River  house.  33. r e b u i l d P o r t Garry at the f o r k s . The b i g house i s a b o x - l i k e b u i l d i n g w i t h r e g u l a r fenestration.  I t has a h i p p e d r o o f , although the impression  9 of a p a v i l i o n r o o f i s c r e a t e d by the verandah.  There i s a  centre-doorway w i t h a s t a i r c a s e to one side o f i t ,  and the  f r o n t rooms are l a r g e r than the ones at the r e a r .  A kitchen  was l a t e r added to the southwest c o r n e r o f the. house. The house seems to have been the prototype - f o r -  s m a l l e r houses i n wood and stone. 3 t i l l  Three o f these houses  stand, the W i l l i a m Ross house, the Scott house, and  the Thomas Bunn house or V i c t o r i a Cottage  (1862).  1 0  a l l one-story box houses w i t h r e g u l a r f e n e s t r a t i o n , and c e n t r e - h a l l p l a n s .  They are attics,  Ross house has l a r g e r f r o n t rooms  than back rooms on e i t h e r side o f i t s small entrance  hall,  and the Scott house has a centre h a l l running through i t w i t h two l a r g e rooms on e i t h e r s i d e .  1 1  a l l y had a p l a n l i k e the S c o t t house.  The Bunn house o r i g i n Both houses have  f i n i s h e d a t t i c s p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o bedrooms. Many two s t o r e y houses i n wood and stone were b u i l t i n the settlement, f o r example, the I n k s t e r house o r Seven Oaks, Miss D a v i s  1  s c h o o l o r Twin Oaks ( 1 8 6 6 ) , St. Andrew's  ^The b i g house i s being r e s t o r e d to 1857-58 a c c o r d i n g to the Hime photograph of that year. 1 0  See  1:L  PI. X I I I .  S e e PI. XIX. •::  *ven O a k s ,  John I n k s t e r ' s built  om  1851.  t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n ,  Public  Archives  house,  1857-58,  of Manitoba.  35.  (1853K  rectory  G r e y Nuns'  t h e Cowley house  house.  and u s u a l l y  12  the front  floors  (l862i,  and the <  They h a d c e n t r e h a l l rooms were  Some h o u s e s h a d f u l l first  o r Dynevor  plans  on both  larger  than t h e back  ones  basements,  i n which case  their  a n d p o r c h e s were h i g h  above  the ground. / A  was  floors,  13  Such /  t h e case a t t h e b i ghouse, Mgr. Provencher's eveche, ' . l k ..  a n d "the H a r r i o t t  house  like  school  Miss  Davis'  basements, ground  andtheir  o r Hawthorne  Lodge.  a n d S t . Andrew's  Other houses  rectory had partial  porches and main f l o o r s  were  almost a t  level. It  a p p e a r s t h a t many h o u s e s w h i c h h a v e  o v e r t h e y e a r s were box-like  houses.  similar  t o these  large,  Andrew McDermot's house  disappeared  regular, and  was a l a r g e  wooden  15  two s t o r y w i t h a c e n t r e h a l l a n d two rooms o n e i t h e r s i d e . Dr. Gunn's h o u s e h a d a c e n t r e h a l l w i t h a d i n i n g room o n o n e side house  anda p a r l o r  on the other.  andthe Harriott  house  16  indicate  1 2  See  P I . V I I , X V I , X V , V.  1 3  See  P I . XVII.  '•• •  Photographs o f the B i r d that  they resembled  "^See P I . X I , X V I I I , X I X . A c c o r d i n g t o a n a r t i c l e i n T h e N o r ' W e s t e r , D e c e m b e r 17, i860, w h i c h r e p o r t e d t h e f i r e i nS t . B o n i f a c e , Hawthorne Lodge a l s o h a da n u n d e r ground story. l 5  Healy, Ibid.,  p.137p.  158.  36.  The  parsonage house,  is  i n every  of  the  is  fifty  the  and  winter  f i t t e d f o r the  climate of  f e e t by  walls,  inches  respect  thirty,  of limestone,  thick,  the  t o be  severities  the  country.  and  two  are  rooms l o f t y  i n i t s internal  thing  al3o r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d ,  The  stories  two  feet  and  size high; eight  capacious,  arrangements i t leaves  no-  desired. - H.Y.  Hind,  1857-58.  37.  S t . Andrew'3  rectory,  as photographed by Rime,  1857-58.  38. 17 Miss  Davis All 1  s c h o o l and S t . Andrew's r e c t o r y . t h e s e h o u s e s s h a r e d t h e same e a s i l y  characteristics,  and these  to  warehouses  the f u r trade  The  stone  1833  warehouses b u i l t  were  great  regularly Fort  were  and quarters a t Lower P o r t  were  also  at the Garry  later  18  The  common  forts.  i n 1832  rectangular buildings with hipped  spaced windows.  Garry  characteristics  recognizable  and  roofs  warehouses and q u a r t e r s 19  c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e same s t y l e .  these  buildings at both  types  f o r a l l the l a r g e r stone  and  the f o r t s  were  probably  the  at Indeed,  proto-  and wooden h o u s e s i n t h e  settle-  ment. The H u d s o n ' s in  their  simple  posts  style,  graphical  Bay  and f o r t s economical  r e g i o n s . The  Norman house o f F r e n c h eighteenth old  century  Quebecois type  Company u s e d t h i s across  the continent.  to build  origins Canada  Scotland.  style  and adaptable  of the style  o f house g i v e n  building  I t was  a  t o many  geo-  l a y I n the  and i n the l a i r d ' s The  of  house  Angloof  A n g l o - N o r m a n h o u s e was the s o l i d proportions  the and  7 rhere i s a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e B i r d house i n t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a . F o r a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e H a r r i o t t h o u s e , s e e E l s i e McKay, The S t o n e F o r t ; Lower F o r t Garry. S e l k i r k , Manitoba: E n t e r p r i s e P u b l i s h e r s , n.d. p.10. -j o MacLeod, Lower F o r t G a r r y , p.6. See P I . V I I I . 1  |  19 F o r p h o t o g r a p h s o f U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , s e e A n n a M. Cowan, " M e m o r i e s o f U p p e r F o r t G a r r y , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 2 6 6 . S e p t e m b e r , 1935, pp.25-30.  39.  I  went  up  to build  at Miss  Davis  upon T h u r s d a y k t h . . . . Duncan Macrae, left 2kth  of Building  at  every thing  Shillings  Miss frozen.  Stone house and  myself  Davis house the Our w a g e s was  above five  p e r day a n d w e l l f e d .  -  Samuel T a y l o r ,  October,  1866.  Ui. formal  symmetry o f  extended to the voyageurs of buildings Fort The  the  and  classicism.  N o r t h West t h r o u g h the fur trade,  at Fort  Garry  British  William  Mgr.  and  and  i t was  f o r the  Its French the  influence Canadian  prototype  b i g house  Provencher's house i n St.  S c o t t i s h l a i r d ' s house has  been described  at  for  the  Lower  Boniface.  21  as  a p l a i n , r e c t a n g u l a r , g a b l e - r o o f e d b l o c k o f two m a i n s t o r e y s and an a t t i c h a v i n g a s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n i n w h i c h a s i n g l e l a r g e room i s p l a c e d on e i t h e r s i d e o f a c e n t r a l s t a i r c a s e on e a c h f l o o r . M o r e a c c o m o d a t i o n i s somet i m e s o b t a i n e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a b a s e m e n t , and by i n c r e a s i n g t h e w i d t h o f t h e b u i l d i n g 30 t h a t t w o r o o m s i n s t e a d o f one, c a n be p l a c e d on e a c h s i d e o f t h e stair. The s y m m e t r y o f t h e p l a n i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e l e v a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the main f r o n t , where the windows are almost always r e g u l a r l y d i s p o s e d about a c e n t r a l e n t r a n c e - doorway at p r i n c i p a l - f l o o k * l e v e l . I m . s m a l l e r houses k i t c h e n and p a r l o u r u s u a l l y occupy t h e g r o u n d f l o o r , w i t h p e r h a p s one o t h e r living-room and bedrooms above, but where t h e r e i s a s e r v i c e basem e n t a s m a n y a s t h r e e o r f o u r p r i n c i p a l r o o m s may be g r o u p e d o n t h e two m a i n f l o o r s . The by  l a r g e houses and this  type  hipped, not influence  stores  of house. pitched,  reached the  of  the  fur trade  However, the  and  roofs  were  were  p o r c h e s were f r e q u e n t l y  N o r t h West t h r o u g h t h e  influenced  generally added.  The  Scottish factors  20 For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Anglo-Norman s t y l e , see A l a n Gowans, L o o k i n g a t A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Canada. T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, p.83, pl.ij.2, and the r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e same, B u i l d i n g C a n a d a ; An A r c h i t e c t u r a l History of Canadian L i f e . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1966,  p.6I1, p i . 7 3 . 21  The b u i l d i n g s a t F o r t W i l l i a m a r e i l l u s t r a t e d an a r t i c l e by S t e w a r t W a l l a c e , " F o r t W i l l i a m o f the Fur T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 279. D e c e m b e r , 19^9, pp.16-19. Scotland.  J o h n G. D u n b a r , T h e H i s t o r i c A r c h i t e c t u r e L o n d o n : B.T. B a t s f o r d , L t d . , 1966, p.01.  of  in Trade,"  1+2. ..  PLATS  i  XVII  .  i i •  D '  of  a large  • - — "  A  typical  two  storey  r  "v-y,7-  plan Red R i v e r  house.  43. and traders It  o f the fur- t r a d e . i s significant  had a d e f i n i t e  architectural  the c o n t i n e n t . important  role  had distinct ian  Pacific  that  the Hudson's  style  Bay  Company  which i t employed  across  Many o f t h e c o m p a n i e s w h i c h h a v e p l a y e d i n the.economic development o f Canada  styles.  In particular  one  thinks  an  have  of the  Railway, and the Canadian: N a t i o n a l Railway  Canadand  23 their  great It  across  "chateaux". i s also  significant  the continent  that  a basic  with minor l o c a l  geography and c u l t u r e .  Variations  style  adaptations  was  used  to the  often occurred depending  on w h e t h e r t h e b u i l d e r s were F r e n c h C a n a d i a n o r B r i t i s h i n background. roof,  The  vertical  French Canadians tended to use a  pavilion  w e a t h e r b o a r d s , and casement windows,  t h e B r i t i s h p r e f e r r e d a h i p p e d o r gable> r o o f ,  whereas  horizontal  2k  weatherboards,, and sash windows. Geographical location i n f l u e n c e d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n and  2? produced s t y l i s t i c c o a s t where in  variations.  rainfall  F o r e°xample, o n t h e  i s heavy, r o o f s were  shape and deep-eaved t o d i r e c t  commonly  Pacific  bell-cast  t h e w a t e r away f r o m t h e  walls,  b u t , a t Red R i v e r where t h e s n o w f a l l i s heavy, h i p p e d 23 S e e G o w a n s , B u i l d i n g C a n a d a , pp.137-38 a n d P e r c y S. Nobbs, A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Canada. London: R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , 1924, pp.6-7^ C o m p a r e t h e v e r t i c a l b o a r d i n g and casement o f t h e G r e y Nuns' h o u s e w i t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l b o a r d i n g s a s h windows o f Seven Oaks. 2  ^ A b o v e , p.  6.  windows and  44J e me  propose  de l o g e r  m a . m a i s o n de p i e r r e  ces  que  bonnes  soeurs  j ' a iquittee  dans  l e l e r du A  mois pour h a b i t pignon temps  enfin  de l ' e g l i s e  celle  dont  et qui a ete batie a 70  lentement  p i e d s s u r L6  elle  elle  donne u n b o h e t ample  belle le  sacristie  e t une  l e r de c e m o i s ;  25  j ' a ibatie  je parle  riers; me  que  ecole  depuis  long-  faute  e t deux logement,  au  d'ouv-  etages; une  tres  q u i a e t e commencee  ecoliers. - Mgr.  Provencher,  l8it3.  45.  PLATE X V I I I  lei- Vol. — ]>. 02.  A/OPD  Eveche,  St. Boniface,  P r o m V i e de M g r . J.P.A.  Benoit  begun  1839.  Tache by  (Montreal,  190k).  46. or  gable  r o o f s were p r e f e r r e d t o p a v i l i o n  would tend  to c a t c h and  architectural  style  h o l d the  snow.  26  roofs A  which  continent-wide  with regional adaptations  was  thus 27  achieved it  was  before  not  died with a  the  Canadian Confederation  o f 1867•  found i n a l l p a r t s o f Canada, and that of  the  national style.  fur trade.  Rather  i t was  i t s importance  I t c a n n o t be the  style  of  But  considered a  fur  trade  empire. The owned by retired  the  style  i n this  of  the  Probably,  f u r trade, the  retired  into  the  domestic  association of  the  style  perhaps  appealed  to  which pervaded the in  the  style  n a t u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y of  officers  clergymen. the  houses b u i l t  The  homes o f  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  the the  River  merchants,  lairds*  and  the  of  carry  colony.  houses of rude  aristocracy i s  Harriott  the  f u r traders helped  atmosphere  this  were  settlement,  a r c h i t e c t u r e of the  w i t h the  them.  a t Red  The  Scotland  gentility  epitomized  house which appeared  i n  H a r p e r ' s I l l u s t r a t e d News; A few w e l l - s e l e c t e d books, h o u s e - p l a n t s i n the windows, c h o i c e e n g r a v i n g s on t h e w a l l , r i d i n g w h i p s and guns i n t h e h a l l , t o b a c c o j a r s and p i p e s on the s i d e - t a b l e , a melodeon and a c c o r d e o n and music-box i n the room w h i c h New E n g l a n d e r s c a l l a p a r l o r , t e l l t h e s t o r y o f how the p l e a s a n t summer d a y s a n d l o n g w i n t e r n i g h t s a r e w h i l e d Compare I I I , w i t h the 2 o  and  the Red  b u i l d i n g s at Port River buildings.  Pis. II  ^ S e e A l a n Gowans on t h e q u e s t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l Looking at A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Canada, pp.221-22. 2  in  Langley,  H e n r y Y o u l e H i n d , R e p o r t on Country between Lake S u p e r i o r and the T o r o n t o : J o h n L o v e l l , lt»5tf, p . 3 0 6 .  style  the E x p l o r a t i o n of the Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t .  47.  D e r r i o r e e t a 1'ombre d e l a C a t h e d r a l e a u x t o u r s jumelles, se t r o u v a i e n t . immediatement adosseV l a Residence episcopale, grande c o n s t r u c t i o n a d e u x etag.es d e 70 p i e d s s u r kO. Le p r e m i e r etage, a demi-souterrain, etait construit en pierre, l e second a i n s i que, l e grand galetas qui l e surmontait 'etaient. e n b o i s . Voici sa dimension: a. 1 * e t a g e inferdeur se t r o u v a i e n t une depense ou cave, du c o t e s u d l a c u i s i n e , un passage qui servait de r e f e c t o i r e a u x domestiques et enfin l e refectoire^episcopal, qui servait e n meme t e m p s a u x 3b e l e v e s pensionn a i r e s au C o l l e g e .  Ljetage superieur ^ e t a i t a proprement parler l a residence de l ' E v e q u e e t de s o n c l e r g e , voici sa division: au nord, l a bibliotheque et l a chambre e p i s c o p a l e , u n e s a l l e de r e c e p t i o n , u n e chambre obscure, un passage correspohdant a l ' e n t r e e s u d e t a l ' e s c a l i e r du g a l e t a s e t e n f i n l a s a c r i s t i e ; a u s u d , deux chamb r e s d o r m a n t d a n s un grand s a l o n , une chambre o b s c u r e , u n passage p o u r l a p o r t e sud^, u n e s a l l e de d e p o t e t une p e t i t e s a c r i s t i e o u s ' h a b i l l a i e n t l e s e n f a n t s de choeur.  S i s t e r Curran, i nthe Chronique dos Soeurs G r i s e s ,  i860.  TJT A n n ? ' y T V  Parterre.  C/iem/n (ai/jourd'/iu/ C'/netfere des Soeurs  ler Vul.-.p. 94.  SUD 35 50P/'eds x  titflti  k  C/assc des T/f/es  C/asse des de/a Gd/cor>s ' Par  /Vor/c/at PorfC  ffe/ecto/r^^  3  Part*.  de. efdes Mgr. Ptici CJSSVJ-  k  Care  1 des *M Jj Soet/rj Hefedom Perfe JO  1  Porte  j  CAJSSIS  Ctnil/i  £ ?  r  f  t l .  Ct'lHI  r/V.f'/  por/t d-er>S,e'e  AfORD E v e i - l i i - i l l ' S a i i i t - U i n i i f n c i - (1S4"I). — Premier e i i i j j e .  C/>ne//£/•£. Chemi'n (~auj ouid'hut Cimeh'e're deiSocurs) Parterre SUD  fscd/iei dehors fTWSfcg Cfiambre Cnbre'e du Sa/on PereAuber, - Commu/idu/'ebo/foir CftJrnb du" „ IBJ c/wst/s  3  k  10  kj  Chaui:  CAjts/fZ  fortes  C/m.fisr. C/ui. CAJSS/J  Parte  PerT,  POlti  Pc,t  Z^^s/jCu'siiic  Chambre P°< de Mgr.  fiOrfC  k  'it-  t  Pet,  Porte  S  ^  ki  ACCPOTTI  du Sacrisf/e Perth de. Sdl/e. N  PfMCfKAe,  Porte  pour  U l CAHSS/I ifilM  •g ngi:noi>enc/iet  fbrr-  PoiJe  fbrte  Porrt  NORD  C/'/neA/i/'c  , b e g u n 1339.  by J.P.A. B e n o i t  (Montreal,  190k).  49. a w a y , a n d how a l i f e d f e x p o s u r e a n d a d v e n t u r e a n d q t o i l i s rounded w i t h r e s t and calm and domestic peace. 2  2 9  Marble,  pp.311-12.  50. Red R i v e r Houses i n Wintertime The problems  r i g o r o u s w i n t e r s a t RedR i v e r presented  f o r the settlers.  However,  the problems  have been overcome i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r The w a l l s  oftheir  houses were  walls  were c h i n k e d w i t h a m i x t u r e  hair,  a n d , i n some b u i l d i n g s  Nuns*  house, t h e y were  them p r o t e c t i o n instances,  homes.  o r wood.  Seven Oaks o r t h e  sided w i t h weatherboard  was a p p l i e d  seem t o  Log  o f mud a n d s t r a w o r b u f f a l o  like  against the cold  rough-cast  stone  serious  which  30 and the frost.  Grey gave  I n some  t o wood s u r f a c e s ;  Colony 31  Gardens,  Alexander  However,  stone  cast  1  wooden h o u s e , was s t u c c o e d .  w a l l s were u s u a l l y  o r weatherboard.  plastered, were  Ross  Inner w a l l  not covered w i t h  rough-  s u r f a c e s were p a n e l l e d o r  a l t h o u g h a t Seven Oaks b o t h p a n e l l i n g  and plaster  used. According  people  t o Alexander  Ross,  "the generality  u s e straw t h a t c h roofs,  which  are l i g h t ,  o f the  watertight,  32 and  durable".  T h e y w e r e p r o b a b l y warm, t o o .  prairie  farmers  still  protect  them f r o m  o f t e n bank t h e i r  the c o l d  I n fact,  houses with straw t o  i n wintertime.  Oak a n d c e d a r  33 s h i n g l e s were sometimes used f o r r o o f s . However, c e d a r was - ^ E x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e Grey Nuns' house d u r i n g r e s t o r a t i o n s , 1965*  31,  Above, p.  3 2  R1 o s s ,  33' I b i d . n  18.  p.388.  See P i s . I X and X L .  51. c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l u x u r y ,  a n d o a k w a r p e d i n t h e summer  a n d h a d t o be r e p l a c e d e v e r y The  twelve  houses were g i v e n f u l l  although p a r t i a l  to fifteen  heat  years.  b a s e m e n t s i n some  b a s e m e n t s w e r e m o r e common."^" A n  cases,  underground  story provided greater protection against the cold. The comparison  total  a r e a o f windows a n d d o o r s was s m a l l i n  to the entire  window openings  wall  surface.  were as e f f e c t i v e  i n keeping heat  summertime as t h e y were i n k e e p i n g Fireplaces  Probably the small out i n  i ti n i n the wintertime.  and s t o v e s were u s e d  t o heat  the houses.  F i r e p l a c e s were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h stone  o r w i t h a frame o f  branches  and straw  into  and a mixture  a paste  popular  of clay,  water,  and baked hard by the hearth f i r e .  a n d h a d t o be i m p o r t e d f r o m  Britain  kneaded  3"5 ^ Stoves  were  or, later, the  36  United  States.  The G a r r o n  s t o v e s o f S c o t l a n d were t a k e n t o  York  F a c t o r y i n p i e c e s , assembled,  and f i r e d ,  and then  they  were  sent t o Red R i v e r a n d s o l d once t h e c r a c k s h a d been  37 repaired.  The s t o v e s a n d f i r e p l a c e s  l o c a t e d i n the houses. stove  stood i n the front  original  fireplace  tended  t o be  A t Seven Oaks, f o r example, a hall,  wall.  35*  3£ ^Healy,  Garron  and, a t t h e Bunn house, t h e  was s e t a g a i n s t a n i n t e r i o r  -^"Above, p .  centrally  p.72.  36 See I s a a c G o w i e , T h e Company o f A d v e n t u r e r s , T o r o n t o : 37 W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1913, p.212. T h e R o s s H o u s e , p.6.  52. SUMMARY The Settlement with  large  stone a n d wood h o u s e s o f t h e Red  were b u i l t  t h e Hudson's  i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l style  B a y Company.  The  style  River  associated  originated i n the  Anglo-Norman b u i l d i n g s o f F r e n c h Canada and t h e l a i r d ' s house  of eighteenth  century  Scotland.  adopted f o r the houses o f the leaders from  the f u r trade  Lower F o r t  Garry  At Red River, of the  b u i l d i n g s w h i c h were b u i l t  after  1830.  i t was  settlement a t Upper and  PLATS XX  f  &  May's !  Fro. WfOt'S-'XtL u/cy>^ ,  Map s h o w i n g R e d R i v e r  churches.  SY../3*W jr /  5kCHAPTER I I I RED The  first  missionaries Catholic was  mission,  Assiniboine. set  a s i d e by  was  later  located of  The  two  River  the  for a kirk  m i l e s below  Roman  St. Boniface,  Lord Selkirk  or  A  on the  o f the Red  established  east  and  on  land  s c h o o l - h o u s e i n 1817 St. John's.  St. B o n i f a c e on  It  and  was  the west  side  I n appearance,  subsequently b u i l t  t h e y c o u l d be  of the  at  distinguished  s e t t l e m e n t o n l y by  the  from  their  towers.  X 30'  Provencher s f i r s t 1  poplar house.  1  c h u r c h was  built  c h a p e l was  However, by  m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d f o r an oak The  1820.  and  known as  and  the Upper Church  of England  River.  Mgr. 50  l8l8  opposite the forks  other l o g buildings  bell  i n  came t o be  Rude wooden c h u r c h e s were missions.  Church  A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n was  Selkirk  about  and  l a n d g r a n t e d by  River,  called  the Red  which  on  o f the Red  CHURCHES  Roman C a t h o l i c  a r r i v e d a t Red  established  side  RIVER  between  July,  part 1819,  he  church measuring  l820and 1825.  3  of h i s  80  I t was  had  had  35'•  X one  of  the  " ^ L e t t e r f r o m M g r . P r o v e n c h e r t o M g r . J.O. Plessis, I 8 l 8 , P r o v e n c h e r , pp.31-32. According to Douglas, PP.33-34* t h e f i r s t s e r v i c e s w e r e h e l d i n t h e b i g h o u s e a t Port Douglas. August  July  30,  L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. 1819, Provencher, p.39.  27,  J.O.  Plessis,  3 Georges D u g a s , M o n s e i g n e u r P r o v e n c h e r e t l e s M i s s i o n s de l a R i v i e r e - R o u g e . M o n t r e a l : C O . Beauchemm et F i l s , L i b r a i r i e s - I m p r i m e u r s , 1889, p.121. See P I . X X I .  55. La  chapelle  de  est  equarrie,  je l a ferai  les  ouvriers  auront mis  M.  Dumoulin  J'en Selkirk  a i r e c u une  Seigneurle  livres  35,  aussitot  que  l e presbytere  de  lever  de  80  logeable;.....  par  adresse,  sur  Saint-Boniface,  l a  Baie  en  meme t e m p s de  d'Hudson  m'envoie quelques s u r t o u t une  qui a  ete  cloche  consacree  - Mgr.  par  Mylord  laquelle  articles  a  mon  d'une c e n t a i n e  a Londres;  sa  de  ........  Provencher,  1819.  56.  The f i r s t S t . B o n i f a c e Ctaareh. Court©«y P u b l i c A r c h i v e * o f  Manitoba  57. I  consider  have  a public building  purposes, both  i t a s no s m a l l  whose  of the  tionary  spire  point gained,  dedicated should  wandering n a t i v e s ,  to  catch  to  religious the eye,  and the  sta-  colonists. - John West,  l82k.  58.  59.  few  buildings  1826.  service  a bell.°  1822.^ By t h e next y e a r , i th a d a  were 60 X early  the l830's.  along  21,  I t was c a p a b l e o f h o l d i n g  These  21'.  churches  Other  were  enced  twain"  and other  styles  which  Quebec, a n d t h e P r o t e s t a n t and Presbyterian,  Iwere  of Whittier's  churches  dominated  The f i r s t  the Red R i v e r  one, t h e " t u r r e t s  poem, was Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r * s  g o o d b i s h o p ,was e n c o u r a g e d  to build  c h u r c h . The  i t by Governor  S i m p s o n when he was e n g a g e d i n b u i l d i n g  ^ L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r 1826, Provencher, p . I l k .  h i sfirst  George stone  t o Mgr. B . C . P a n e t ,  cj ^Boon, A n g l i c a n Church, 6  p.15.  See P I . X X I I .  Ibid.  ^A.C.  influ-  i n England.  b e t w e e n 1830 a n d 1870.  15,  churches  Cathedrals of St.Boniface.  Two R o m a n C a t h o l i c skyline  buildings  established  churches used  of England  by the Gothic R e v i v a l  The  r e p l a c e d by stone  Rivers,  were p r e v a l e n t i n contemporary Church  people, andi t s  p a r i s h e s were g r a d u a l l y  The Roman C a t h o l i c  churches, both  150  spire  7  the Red and A s s i n i b o i n e  were b u i l t .  July  the flood of  West's c h u r c h - s c h o o l h o u s e was o p e n e d f o r d i v i n e  on J u l y  dimensions  in  survived  k  John  and  i n the settlement which  Garrioch,  S t o v e l C o . , 1933, p.164.  The C o r r e c t i o n  Line.  Winnipeg:  60.  By ing  f a r the most i n the  imposing  settlement  i s the  Church of  St. Boniface,  external  appearance i s  tasteful,  although  ned  three  appearance  very  sweet  vespers,  from a long no  sight  and  tones  the b e l l s  stillness  distance  ring  stranger  of  the  two  tin-  Two  at  an or  matins arrived  unpeopled  wastes,  River creates as  St. Boniface,  the  Hind,  such . sweet  breaking  morning or evening  - H.Y.  nor  just  melancholy pleasure of  The  sunlight give  bells  Red  the  building...  through  or sound i n and  of  a  Garry,  neither pleasing  to the  to  build-  Roman C a t h o l i c  near Port  i n the  toned  journey  surprise  the  a  spires glittering  imposing  and  at  ecclesiastical  air.  1857-58.  PLATS  Glenbow  X X I I I  Foundation.  62.  eveche  i n 1829.  g  He h a d m a t e r i a l s  1831, b u t h i s b u i l d i n g o f masons.  9  roof  o f boards  the  masonry about  unfinished. eveche,  p l a n s were f r u s t r a t e d b y a s c a r c i t y  B y 1833, h o w e v e r ,  The  1 1  f i v e masons were a t work.  and shingles t h ep o r t a l  I n 1839,  prepared f o r t h echurch by  was c o m p l e t e  If)  i n 1837, b u t  a n d the woodwork were  still  Provencher added a s a c r i s t y a n d an  i n w h i c h h e was l i v i n g  by l8k3.  1 2  The c h u r c h  still  13 lacked  a vault  and steeples  however, one steeple  i n I84.3.  Three  and covered  t i n . ^ 4 T h e n , o n D e c e m b e r l k , i860, a f t e r t h i r t y  with  construction,  the  later,  was f i n i s h e d , a n d a n o t h e r was b u i l t  b e t w e e n l8k6 and7,l860 w h e n b o t h s t o o d c o m p l e t e  of  years  a fire  years  destroyed both thecathedral and  eveche.  1829,  8 L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r P r o v e n c h e r , pp.126-27.  6,  t o Mgr. P a n e t ,  June  t o Mgr. Panet,  September  9 26,  1831,  L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r P r o v e n c h e r , p.13k.  A.G. Morice, H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c Church i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a , f r o m L a k e S u p e r i o r t o t h e P a c i f i c (1659*-l895). T o r o n t o : M u s s o n B o o k C o . , 1910, I , p.133. 1 0  "^Letter  f r o m Mgr.  p.167.  P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J u l y k,  1837,  Provencher,  1839,  L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. S i g n a y , J u l y P r o v e n c h e r , pp.211-12.  8,  • ^ L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r t o M g r . S i g n a y , J a n u a r y P r o v e n c h e r , p.212. According t o Margaret Arnett M a c L e o d , B e l l s o f R e d R i v e r , p . 2 1 , W.J. B o n d f o u n d o n l y o n e t o w e r c o m p l e t e d w h e n h e w a s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t i n 1851.  2,  l8k3,  l k  See  PI. XXIII.  B e l o w , p . 120.  63.  The The feet  c a t h e d r a l w a s 100::feet  w a l l s w e r e I4.0 f e e t i n h e i g h t , above t h e ground. According  church  long  a n d J4.5 f e e t  andthe steeples  The eveche was  70  t o H a r p e r ' s New M o n t h l y  X  k6'.  wide. rose  100  l D  Magazine, t h e  was  ...perhaps, t h e f i n e s t , c e r t a i n l y t h emost i m p o s i n g b u i l d i n g i nt h e s e t t l e m e n t . ...In i t s two t i n n e d a n d a i r y towers i sa f i n e a n d well-matched p e a l o f three b e l l s , w e i g h i n g u p w a r d o f 1600 pounds. I n therear o f the c a t h e d r a l , w i t h a lower r o o f , i s t h e d w e l l i n g o f the bishop. He e s c o r t e d u s , b y a r e a r e n t r a n c e , through his house i n t o t h e c a t h e d r a l , on t h e occasion o f o u r f i r s t v i s i t t o h i m , a n d a more s t r i k i n g s u r p r i s e c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r u s . We came o u t b y a d o o r a t the s i d e o f t h e a l t a r , and there suddenly beheld p i l l a r e d a i s l e s , f r e s c o e d roof, a n d a l l t h e gorgeous paraphernalia w i t h which t h eMother Church s o l i c i t s and a t t r a c t s h e r communicants. To a n i c e t a s t e t h e e f f e c t m i g h t s e e m a l i t t l e g a u d y , b u t w h e n we l e a r n e d t h a t t h e S i s t e r s o f C h a r i t y a n d some o f t h e B r o t h e r s h a d a c c omplished these decorations without a i do r p a t t e r n , the o f f e n s e p a s s e d ; f o r p i e t y t a k e s rank above t a s t e , o r e l s e w h a t e x c u s e h a v e we f o r t h e b a r e w a l l s , t h e s t i n g y paint, t o saynothing o f thebeggarly pinched ceremonial i n some a b o d e s o f o u r e n l i g h t e n e d P r o t e s t a n t w o r s h i p ? I n d e e d , o f a Sunday o r a f e t e d a y , when t h e c h u r c h i s t h r o n g e d ; when, a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l h u n t a n d s a f e r e t u r n , the h a l f - b r e e d s gather t o t h e c a t h e d r a l i na l l t h e i r f a n c i f u l v a r i e t y o f dress, t h e i r b r i l l i a n t sashes, and b l u e o r w h i t e c a p o t e s ; t h e d r e s s o f t h e women, t o o , n o t l e s s b r i l l i a n t l y c a t c h i n g t h e eye, there i sa sense o f harmony g r a t i f i e d b y t h i s l i k e n e s s a n d g e n e r a l prevalence of s t r i k i n g c o l o r s , which would never be e l i c i t e d b y t h e same t h r o n g s i n a c o u n t r y m e e t i n g - h o u s e i n New England. ' 1  St.  Boniface.  B e n o i t , V i e d e M g r . T a c h e , A r c h e v e q u e de M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e B e a u c h e m i n , 1901+, I , p . 3 8 l .  Letter J a n u a r y 2, l 8 k 3 , l  o  1 7  Marble,  f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r P r o v e n c h e r , p.211. p.31k.  t o Mgr. Signay,  6k. The  church h a da great a l t a r ,  galleries benches,  supported by p i l l a r s , and  The French  two side  altars  as well  and side  as an organ,  pulpit,  pews. ^ 1  c h u r c h was d e r i v e d i n s t y l e  Canadian  churches  1 9  contemporary  d e s i g n e d b y Thomas B a i l l a i r g e , who  combined the o l d Quebecois of Louis X V .  from  architecture  St. Boniface resembles  a n dthe  classicism  Charlesbourg  (1828),  20 in  particular.  three  Both h a dg r e a t west  entrances, anda large  from F r e n c h Canada was  c e n t r e window.  seems t o h a v e b e e n  once a student a t the N i c o l e t  Demers, t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r the N i c o l e t Writing 1829, pour  Seminary,  t o Mgr.  he s a i d , etre  viennent  Signay,  towers,  P r o v e n c h e r , who  asked  Jerome  anddirector of  t o design plans f o r h i s church. the Bishop  l eprintemps  j'en jeterai  direct.  Seminary,  twin  The i n f l u e n c e  o f Thomas B a i l l a i r g e  "Jedesirerais  envoye  i n 183k,  Later,  Panet,  fronts with  o f Quebec, o n June  6,  q u e M. D e m e r s d r e s s a t l e p l a n p r o c h a i n , c a r s i l e s moyens  les fondations l'ete prochain."  he wrote  the next  2 1  B i s h o p o f Quebec, Mgr.  a n d a s k e d f o r a window d e s i g n "a l a g o t h i q u e " : l 8  The  Nor'Wester,  December  17, i860.  - ^ s e e A l a n Gowans, "Thomas B a i l l a i r g e a n d t h e Quebecois T r a d i t i o n o f Church A r c h i t e c t u r e , " A r t B u l l e t i n , X X X I V . M a r c h , 1952, pp.117-37  20  Ottawa:  1829,  R.H. H u b b a r d , T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d i a n A r t . Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1963, p.25, PI.15. on  L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. P r o v e n c h e r , p.127.  Provencher  t o Mgr.  Panet,  June  6,  65. a i M. D e m e r s o u a u t r e s a v a i t l a b o n t e d e me f a i r e u n p e t i t p l a n p o u r p a r t a g e r l ' e v e n t a i l d e s c h a s s i s de mon e g l i s e q u i s o n t £ l a g o t h i q u e , i l me r e n d r a i t s e r v i c e . J ' a i a d o p t e c e mode l e c r o y a n t p l u s s o l i d e , m a i s l e p a r t a g e de c e t e v e n t a i l e s t d i f f i c i l e p o u r n ' a v o i r p a s des c a r r e a u x t r o p g r a n d s ; p e u t - e t r e p o u r r a i t - o n d o n n e r un p l a n e l e g a n t sans c e t i n c o n v e n i e n t q u i est g r a n d i c i parce quel e s grands v i t r e s sont d i f f i c i l e s a f a i r e £2 v e n i r l e s f e n e t r e s o n t c i n q p i e d s t r o i s p o u c e s de l a r g e . y  v  Since  M. D e m e r s d e n o u n c e d t h e  about h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h i s fact,  design The  Mgr.  the  Gothic  request  windows o f St.  f o l l o w i n g the  b e g u n i n 1862  fire  andserved  asa chapel  Chenea  ( S t e . A n n e ) b y M. T h i b e a u l t  masonry work o n the  been erected. finished  body o fthe  f o r many y e a r s  wasb u i l t b y  f o r some  time.  2k  a tPointe des  a n d some m e t i s , a n d  c a t h e d r a l began i n the  autumn, f o u r w a l l s , a r o o f  However, the  i n  I t s s a c r i s t y was  o f 1862-63, w o o d w a s c u t  winter  By the  Boniface  o f i860.  the  1863.  whether he d i d ,  Boniface.  During  of  and  second cathedral a t St.  Tache  R e v i v a l , one wonders  r e s t o f the  afterwards.  spring  a n da v a u l t h a d  c a t h e d r a l was n o t  A storm  i n 1868  des-  2? t r o y e d the s t i l l  first  tower a n dthe i n 1875,  incomplete  rose  andthe 26  window. ^ Theg a l l e r y was  second tower a n d cross  cr.  were not  finished until  I883.  Thec a t h e d r a l was f i n a l l y  PP Letter and  1?  December  p.  22.  f r o m Mgr.  18, 183k,  2 3  See  PI.  2 k 2 6  BB ee nn oo ii tt ,,  ^MacLeod,  P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. Provencher, p.lk3.  Signay,  XXIV. I I I,,pp.k73-76. p p . 288-89; Bells  MacLeod, B e l l s  Of RedRiver,  p.22.  o fRed River,  67. consecrated present  on September  c a t h e d r a l was b u i l t Mgr.  behind  27  I t was u s e d u n t i l t h e  i t a n d o p e n e d i n 1905.  T a c h e ' s c a t h e d r a l was a l s o  f r o m Thomas B a i l l a i r g e ' s the  18, 1887.  churches.  However, i n t h i s  churches w h i c h - B a i l l a i r g e d i da f t e r  Joseph Lauzon o r Les Becquets,  derived i n style  1830  like  case,  Saint-  S a i n t - P i e r r e , were t h e p r o t o -  29 types.  W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e i n f l u e n c e was d i r e c t  with the f i r s t The classicism.  c a t h e d r a l has not been a s c e r t a i n a b l e .  new e v e c h e was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d b y I t s foundations  work c o n t i n u e d  a s i t was  during  Baillairge's  w e r e p u t down e a r l y i n l86k,  t h e summer a n d w i n t e r ,  and t h e house  30 w a s f i n a l l y h a b i t a b l e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1865. At t h a t time t h e r o o f was p i t c h e d , n o t g a m b r e l , and a cupola and a few  31 dormers s a t upon t h e r o o f . details  of the pilasters  verandah,  C l a s s i c i s m was m a r k e d i n t h e  and p i l l a r s  o f the cupola  t h e pediments o f t h e dormers, t h e rounded  and windows  of  the porch, and the r e g u l a r i t y o f f e n e s t r a t i o n . Subsequent 27 B e n o i t , I I , p.563. A.G. M o r t i c e , V i e de M g r . L a n g e v i n , O b l a t de M a r i e I m m a c u l e e , A r c h e v e q u e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e . S a i n t B o n i f a c e : c h e z 1' A u t e u r , 1916, pp.229-30, 2ii5-46.  29 See G-owans, L o o k i n g a t A r c h i t e c t u r e i n C a n a d a , p . 9 3 , PI.I4.5, f o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f S a i n t - J o s e p h , L a u z o n . 3  ° B e n o i t , I , pp.k76-77.  31  T h e a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e e v e c h e a r e a p p a r e n t i n t^he^ p h o t o g r a p h s p r e s e n t e d by M a u r i c e Baudoux, P r e s b y t e r e , eveches e t a r c h e v e c h e de S t . - B o n i f a c e , l 8 l 8 - 1 9 6 k , R e p r i n t f r o m L e s C l o c h e s de S a i n t B o n i f a c e , L X I V . J a n u a r y , 1965, P.13*  68. alterations classicism.  t o the roof and porch  destroyed  th  original  32  Anglican  Churches i n the Red  River  Settlement The of the  stylistic  the Anglican Gothic  i n f l u e n c e w h i c h was  churches b u i l t  Revival.  Pointed  windows  J o h n West.  Revival slight years of  wooden  I t would  on A n g l i c a n i n extent  with  the  1830  was  through the  from England t o serve  there.  R e v i v a l i n terms of  d i d not s u b s t a n t i a l l y  their  differ  c h u r c h e s e r e c t e d b y Mgr. seem t h a t  i t was  Provencher  the influence of the  c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e was  and that  most  a n d doorways were i m p o s e d on a  b o x - l i k e form that  from the e a r l i e s t and  sent  t h e c h u r c h e s were G o t h i c  details. simple,  a t Red R i v e r a f t e r  I t reached the settlement  Anglican missionaries However,  e x e r c i s e d on  present  Gothic  but  i n t e g r a t e d o v e r a number  the box-like form characteristic  of  of the buildings  settlement.  The  first  stone A n g l i c a n  i n f l u e n c e d by the Gothic  c h u r c h a t R e d R i v e r was  Revival.  This  c h u r c h was known  not as  33 the  Upper Church o r St. John's.  c h u r c h was In  1832,  J  By  I83I,  J o h n West's  t o o s m a l l a n d d e c a y e d t o be u s e d v e r y  plans  f o r a new  c h u r c h were b e i n g  much  little longer.  made u n d e r  David  34 Jones,  and s u b s c r i p t i o n s were b e i n g 3  2  3 3  3  Ibld., See  collected.  p.12.  P I . XXV.  ^Boon, Anglican  Church,  pp.31-33.  On M a y  15,  69.  St.  John's  church  condition, with of  i s i n a very unstable  the w a l l s  wooden p r o p s .  stone  i s  construction  now of  estimated to cost  being  A  large  lying  near  supported quantity i t f o r the  a cathedral,  £5,000 - H.Y.  which  i s  sterling.  Hind,  1857-58.  PLATS  St.  John's  From t h e Hime Public  XXV  Church, b u i l t Collection,  1832.  1857-58,  Archives o f Manitoba.  71. I832, t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e w a s l a i d . 183k,  and  of the  the  new c h u r c h  secure,  19,  consecrated  1861,  before  as St.  i n the  Mgr.  the  was n o t G o t h i c ranged along  directly  placed behind Revival.  each  Revival detail  i t was f i r m l y  second stone  Paul's,  on  church  arrived  first  i n the  West, was c o n t i n with the  were  high front  the five rounded,  a n d a n o c u l u s was window.  i n the  settlement  St. Boniface.  e s t a b l i s h e d there w i t h the  Anglican church,  finished  stone  earlier  Rather,  side wall  above t h e door a n d f a n  p o i n t e d windows o f the  ever,  Red  and John  I t was a l o n g b u i l d i n g  f a n window was s e t i n above t h e door,  Gothic  28,  later,  s e r v i c e i nthe  Provencher  andback and a b e l f r y  windows w h i c h were  a  only eight years  form e s t a b l i s h e d b y the  Upper Church.  The d e t a i l  placed  I t was  demolished.  basic church  front  gable.  very  f l o o d e d i n 1852.  i s , t h er e c t a n g u l a r box and a t t a c h e d tower,  gables  a  was n e v e r  held  John's Cathedral on October  Anderson, but,  wooden b u i l d i n g s o f b o t h  ued  LeBlanc, t h e  s e r v i c e s were  However, t h ec h u r c h  he preached h i s l a s t  i t was The  that  The f i r s t  Moreover, i t was b a d l y  1853-Bishop D a v i d May  e r e c t e d n o r t h and west  a n d f o u n d a t i o n p r o b l e m s made w o o d e n b u t t r e s s e s  necessary. finally  1832  between  The mason was P i e r r e  o f Lower F o r t Garry.  N o v e m b e r o f 183k.  in  was a c t u a l l y  o l d wooden c h u r c h .  builder  Finally,  t h eMiddle  with  How-  erectionof  Church, o r S t .  l8k0*s, a n d a t h i r d , t h e L o w e r  35See D a v i d A n d e r s o n , N o t e s o f t h e R i v e r , 1852. London: Hatchard, 1552.  Flood at the  The  Middle  and which of  Church, has  which  been b u i l t  i s not by  the C o n g r e g a t i o n , i s an  sixty feet  quite  completed,  the unaided edifice  of  exertions  stone,  long. -  Bishop  of Montreal,  18k5  73  St.  Paul's  Church,  or Middle  Chi  F r o m t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , Public  Archives of  1857-58,  Manitoba.  7k. Church,  o r S t . Andrew's, completed  a fewyears a f t e r t h e  first. The  first  Middle Church,  built  J o n e s , who w o r k e d u p o n i t h i m s e l f ,  i n l82k-25 b y D a v i d  was wooden a n d h a d t obe  36 r e p l a c e d i n t h e l8k0's b y a s t o n e c h u r c h . According t o M o u n t a i n ' s J o u r n a l , t h i s new c h u r c h was a b o u t s i x t y f e e t i n  length  St.  a n d was n e a r l y  o n J a n u a r y 6,  Paul's by Anderson 1868  i s h e d about  i n l8kk.  finished  37 I t was c o n s e c r a t e d  38  1853.  I t was demol-  and subsequently replaced by the present  39 wooden c h u r c h . Like Attached  St. John's,  i t was a l o n g  t o i t was a h i g h t o w e r  rectangular  surmounted  by a b e l f r y .  p o i n t e d windows a n d door a n d t h e c r e n e l l a t e d tower the of  influence thebasic  detail  Andrew's,  indicate  However, t h e i n t e g r a t i o n  church form w i t h t h e Gothic  third  stone c h u r c h , t h eLower Church  replaced an e a r l i e r  William  Cochran  l8k9  used u n t i l new  Red River  The  Revival  was none t o o s u c c e s s f u l . The  under  o f Gothic Revival.  building.  50  i nI83I,  X 22'  or St.  wooden b u i l d i n g . b e g u n  d e d i c a t e d o n M a y 7,  1832,  when t h e s t o n e c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d . ^ The  c h u r c h w a s p l a n n e d i n l8kk,  t h e t i m b e r f o r i t was c u t i n  36 Boon, A n g l i c a n 3 7  and  Mountain,  p.8l.  Boon, A n g l i c a n 3  9  Ibid.,  p.109.  k  Q  Ibid.,  p.37.  Church,  p.2k;  See P I . Church,  Mountain,  XXVI. p.71.  See P I . X X V I I , X X V I I I .  p.8l.  77. o f l8k5, a n d o n J u l y  the  winter  the  church a t theIndian  k, l8k5, J o h n S r a i t h u r s t  Settlement l a i d  the cornerstone.^  It  w a s f i n i s h e d i n l8k9, a n d o n D e c e m b e r 1 9 t h o f t h a t  it  w a s ' c o n s e c r a t e d S t . Andrew's b y B i s h o p Anderson.  s t i l l  stands, theonly  one o f t h e f i r s t  built  i nt h e s e t t l e m e n t t o have  Apparently, the in The  stone  year I t  churches  i t was r e s t o r e d . ^  activities  1  I th a d d e t e r i o r a t e d  t h e c h u r c h was o r i g i n a l l y  c e n t r e o f Bishop Anderson's  3  i n t e n d e d t o be  a f t e r he a r r i v e d  l8k9, w h i c h may e x p l a i n t h e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o i t s d e s i g n . 4 4 proportio'ns o f v o i d t  .  .  t o mass a n d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n  of the  »'" '*  various parts were more  o f t h e tower  successful  The the  four  survived.  b a d l y b y t h e 1930's, b u t f o r t u n a t e l y  from  and o f t h etower  and church  than they h a d been a t t h eMiddle  c h u r c h was b u i l t  under Archdeacon  great church-builder a t Red River,  William  body Church. Cochran,  and the Hebridean  i £  mason,  Duncan McRae.  church  form o f r e c t a n g u l a r body a n d a t t a c h e d tower w i t h G o t h i c  Revival  Together,  they integrated  the basic  detail. k l  Ibid.,  pp.37-38.  k 2  Ibid.,  p p . 3 8 , 67, 7 0 .  " S t . A n d r e w ' s C h u r c h , " T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 262. M a r c h , 1931, pp.190-91; M.L. K e n n e d y , " T h e M i s s i o n a t t h e R a p i d s , " T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 26k. S e p t e m b e r , 1933, pp.52-54« k  3  ^Boon,  A n g l i c a n Church,  pp.68-69,  70.  ^ R o b e r t B. H i l l , M a n i t o b a ; H i s t o r y o f I t s E a r l y S e t t l e m e n t , Development a n d Resources. T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1 8 9 0 , pp. 177-78.  78.  • -TIT-  -r-t-T  r T T T  »  •  Plan,  St.  Andrew's Church  (l8k5).  79. Only  a few y e a r s  Cochran s t a r t e d another  after stone  S t . A n d r e w ' s was church,  I n I836, h e h a d b e g u n t h e f i r s t accommodating about  B u t , i n 1853,  length.^ St.  300  A n d r e w ' s , he  finished,  at the Indian  Indian  church,  Settlement.  a wooden one  and measuring  a b o u t 50  with  of the congregation  the help  s t a r t e d a stone  church.  feet i n of  I t s foundation  47 stone that  was  laid  t i m e was  did not stay Cowley  o n May  23rd  starting  the settlement  t o complete  took the Indian  48  of that year.  the church.  Settlement  C o c h r a n , who  at Portage Rather,  i n 1854  at  l a Prairie,  Archdeacon  arid saw t h e  church  f i n i shed. The  church  lacked  found i n S t . Andrew's. awkwardly p l a c e d to A  the c a r e f u l i n t e g r a t i o n o f elements  I t h a d no t o w e r ,  above a monotonous facade.  the facade have n e v e r t h e l e s s sanctuary  The  improved i t s appearance.  the v e s t r y windows l a c k  windows i n the o r i g i n a l design  part  was  Later alterations  and v e s t r y were added t o t h e church  Unfortunately, the  and the b e l f r y  of the  i n later  the proportions  years.  of  church.  o f t h e windows a t S t . P e t e r ' s  i s t h e same  49 as  that  o f t h e windows a t S t . Andrew's and  Furthermore,  i t appears that  t h e windows o f S t . P a u l ' s  __  citing  Kildonan. were  M o u n t a i n , p.79; B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , pp.39-40, a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y W i l l i a m C o c h r a n , A u g u s t 2, 1837. ^Boon, k  8  k 9  Anglican  Ibid. See  P I . XXIX.  Church,  p.42.  PLATS X X I X  81. 50 ao fl s ot htehwei nsame s tt S ht e .o A ne d o w s aa ns d ra e wt' S s ,t .K iP le dt oe nr a' ns ,. are  a l lfive  feet four inches  i n width,  a nTdh e S t d.i mP ee nt se ir o' ns s  almost  t h e same  51 width  a s t h e windows o f t h e f i r s t  may h e t h a t the that  window  the Anglican church  stone  St. Boniface.  b u i l d e r s a t Red R i v e r  design used at S t . Boniface.  t h e window  design  Two y e a r s  I t  was made b y J e r o m e  copied  I t i s also possible Demers.  a f t e r he s t a r t e d S t . P e t e r ' s ,  C o c h r a n was  52 building This  a wooden  church,  churches Gothic  church  S t . Mary's,  a t Portage  resembled the e a r l i e s t  i n the settlement  Revival i n detail:  l a Prairie  although "there  (1855). wooden  i t was more  were f o u r G o t h i c  decidedly windows on  e a c h s i d e o f t h e c h u r c h , a n d a l a r g e r one a t t h e s o u t h 53 end". Inside there was no c h a n c e l , a f e a t u r e o f a l l t h e c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n the country i n Archdeacon Cochrane's time. The s u b s t i t u t e i n t h e c a s e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h e a p p o r t i o n i n g o f about t e n f e e t o f t h e south end f o r t h i s purpose. This was s h u t o f f b y means o f a w h i t e p a i n t e d r a i l , a n d e n c l o s e d what t h e w o r s h i p p e r s r e v e r e n t l y r e g a r d e d a s a most h o l y p l a c e , n o t t o be t r o d d e d u p o n n e e d l e s s l y b y a n y , i n t h a t i t was s e t a p a r t t o m i n i s t e r h o l y t h i n g s . W i t h i n t h i s e n c l o s u r e were two w h i t e p a i n t e d p u l p i t s e i g h t f e e t i n h e i g h t , s t a n d i n g one a t e a c h c o r n e r o f t h e building. A communion t a b l e s t o o d i n t h e u s u a l p l a c e , b e n e a t h t h e window i n t h e c e n t r e , a n d on each s i d e o f i t s t o o d a h i g h c h a i r made o f b i r c h a n d p a i n t e d b l a c k . 50 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Hime P h o t o g r a p h o f S t . P a u l ' s , PI. XXVI. 51 A b o v e , p . 65.  52 53 BG oa or nr ,i o cA hn ,g l Fi ic ra sn t  C Fh u r cr ho ,w s p.4.3. , p.90.  82. T h e p e w s w e r e made a n d p r o v i d e d e n t i r e l y b y t h e p e o p l e , and i t i s noteworthy as showing t h em e c h a n i c a l s k i l l o f t h e P o r t a g e p i o n e e r s , t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o t many f a m i l i e s t h a t d i d n o t make a s w e l l a s f u r n i s h t h e i r own pew. A common m o d e l w a s f i r s t d e c i d e d o n , a n d t h e n p a s s e d f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r . A pew h a d t w o h e a v y o a k ends, t h e t o po f each b e i n g f i n i s h e d o f f i n seven c u r v e s w h i c h must have t a x e d n o t o n l y t h e s k i l l b u t t h e p a t i e n c e o f t h e workman. The b o d i e s o f t h e pews were made o f p o p l a r a n d b a s s w o o d , a n d i n c l u d e d a b o o k a n d kneeling board. The pews were u n p a i n t e d a n d c o u l d n o t h a v e l o o k e d more, a l i k e h a d t h e y b e e n t h e w o r k o f t h e same c a r p e n t e r . ^ The  pulpits  a n d the communion r a i l  church a t t h eIndian The  1861-62, winters  came f r o m  Settlement. ^  churches  o f St. Margaret's, High B l u f f ,  a n d St. Anne's, P o p l a r P o i n t ,  of  although  1862,  t h e o l d wooden  1863,  and  l86k,  S t . Anne's was t e n f e e t  built  built  during the  w e r e t h e same a s S t . shorter  Mary's,  i nlength than the  56 others. St. Prairie,  James was n o t u n l i k e  High Bluff  t h echurches a t Portage l a  o r Poplar Point  i nappearance,  although  57 it  was b u i l t  i n 1853•  construction storied  like  t h e manse  however, a n even  .  Originally,  A vestry  was l a t e r  o f S t . James was d e c o r a t e d w i t h ^ Ibid., k  texts  tier  log  i t had a three-  t o w e r , w h i c h was removed i n t h e e a r l y  replaced by a belfry. ior  I t had,  l870's a n d  added. andother  The i n t e r ornamental  pp.90-91.  55 Boon, A n g l i c a n Church, ^ Garrioch, 6  First  -^Boon, A n g l i c a n  Furrows, Church,  58jgii abeth H e n d e r s o n , J a n u a r y 2, I 9 6 0 . S  Press,  p.4.3. p.12k.  See P I . XXX.  p.87.  writing  i nt h eWinnipeg  Free  begun 1862.  8k.  June i 8 6 0 : I ..began t o b u i l d a t t h e Church on Wednesday t h e 13th. I wrought 3 days a t b u i l d i n g stones and one day c a r p e n t e r work t h e f i r s t week ..... November i 8 6 0 : John Hudson p u t I n t h e Mapleton Church windows on 9 t h ..... I was b u i l d i n g and p l a s t e r i n g a t t h e Church on Saturday 9 t h , 1 1 t h and 1 2 t h Tuesday, 1 9 t h , was a s o f t snowy day. I was p l a s t e r i n g above t h e Church door a l i t t l e while. December 1861: Sunday 1st. The Church o f St. C l e m e n t ' s was ppened f o r D i v i n e Worship b y t h e L o r d B i s h o p o f R u p e r t ' s L a n d a n d Mr*. H u n t e r - the Church was f u l l o f p e o p l e f r o m up above a n d f r o m d o w n b e l o w , i n d e e d m a n y h a d t o g o home as i t was r a t h e r c o l d t h a t e v e n i n g .  November 1862: There was a f i n e b e l l p u t up a t St. Clement's on S a t u r d a y 15th a f t e r dark a t n i g h t w i t h f i r e and l a n t e r n l i g h t . - Samuel  Taylor.  St.  Clement's  Church,  Mapleton, begun  i860.  86. 59 d e s i g n p a i n t e d b y t h e f i r s t i n c u m b e n t , Mr. T a y l o r . The l a s t two s t o n e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n t h e R e d River  p e r i o d were  Clement's  was  St. Clement's  not s t a r t e d i n t i l  who  described  i860.  The mason was  work on the l i t t l e  s e r v i c e was h e l d  cration  0 0  took place  o f 1861.  1857,  p l a n n e d as e a r l y as October,  was  first  and S t . John's  St.  but i t  Samuel  Taylor,  church i n h i s journal.  o n December  o n J a n u a r y 11,  1,  1861,  l86k.  D l  and the  The  tower  The  consewas  62 finished  a n d c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1928.  which had o r i g i n a l l y wards the f i r s t where  stone  i n November, St.  window large  windows  Old  West's c h u r c h and  bell after-  with  fire  and  lantern  3  i s a little  rectangular  building,  down t h e s i d e w a l l s , a s m a l l  over the door, east  "at night  l862.°  Clement's  four pointed  then, the  S t . J o h n ' s , was k e p t i n a s c a f f o l d  i t had been placed  light"  a  hung i n John  Until  and, l i k e  a l lthe Anglican  with  pointed churches,  window. S t . John's  ^Carnegie,  was  last  u s e d i n 1861,  t h e same y e a r  p.3k.  ^°T.C.B. Boon, " B a c k g r o u n d a n d E a r l y H i s t o r y o f St. Clement's, Mapleton," St. Clement's Church, Mapleton; C e n t e n a r y , 1861-1961. W i n n i p e g : ? W a l l i n g f o r d P r e s s , l t d . ,  1961, p . 7 .  Taylor,  II,  Journal,  I , December  1861,  p.67;  Ibid.,  J a n u a r y , 186J+, p . 5-. AP  Boon, "Background M a p l e t o n , " p . 11.  a n d E a r l y H i s t o r y o f S t . Clement's,  63  ^ T a y l o r , J o u r n a l , I , N o v e m b e r , 1862, p.77; See M a c L e o d , B e l l s o f R e d R i v e r , p p . 10-13, f o r t h e s t o r y o f John West's b e l l .  88. that  a new s t o n e  c h u r c h was b e g u n . ^ However, B i s h o p  Anderson had been t h i n k i n g In  1856,  he  obtained plans  a b o u t a new c h u r c h  when he was i n E n g l a n d f o ra church  David  f o r some  time.  arranging f o rfinancial from  an architect  help,  friend i n  65 Derby.  These p l a n s  resources  a f t e r w a r d s h a d t o be a d a p t e d  of the settlement.  The c o r n e r s t o n e  to the  was l a i d  on  6A J u n e k, 1862. later  proved  A  tower,  unstable  part of the original  and h a d t o be taken  structure,  down i n 1 8 7 5 ,  at  67 which time  t h e west w a l l was r e b u i l t . i n 1926  u s e d u n t i l 1913, and, f i n a l l y , was s t a r t e d .  The f o u n d a t i o n s  The c h u r c h the present  and north w a l l  itself  was  cathedral  of the latter  68 were b u i l t  w i t h the stones  St.  J o h n ' s o f 1861  A n g l i c a n churches  enthusiastic  was"lofty"  was t h e most e l a b o r a t e o f t h e  at Red R i v e r .  was g r e a t e r u p o n i t t h a n an  of the o l d cathedral.  The G o t h i c  Revival influence  the other churches.  According to  d e s c r i p t i o n i n The N o r ' W e s t e r , i t s c e i l i n g  and painted, "Gothic p a n n e l l i n g " l i n e d  about the a l t a r ,  and wings o r side porches  the walls  were a t t a c h e d t o  69 the main body. M o r e o v e r , i t h a d a p u l p i t t h a t was " a m o d e l B o o n , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , p.72. See P I . X X X I I . o i +  65 ^ I b i d . , pp.71-72; Robert Machray, L i f e o f Robert M a c h r a y . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n Co. o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1909, pp.115-19.  66  Boon, A n g l i c a n Church, 6 7  Ibid.,  69 I b x d . The  p.72.  p.73.  Nor'Wester,  November k,  1862.  89. The  Upper P r e s b y t e r i a n Church  ing  o f stone,  settlement. £l,000  The c o s t  sterling,  The manse bank,  edge  and i t has s i t t i n g s  some t h i r t y  here from  the middle  of i t serection  i s delightfully  which  water's  o f my  situated i n  i s a neat  placed  slopes  of the exceeded f o r $00.  on the r i v e r  uniformly  to the  prairie  level,  the great  f e e t above  build-  the r i v e r  a t the time  visit  - H.Y.  Hind,  1857-58.  PLATE XXXIII  91. of  taste  and good workmanship"  reading  a n d "a genuine,  desk". The A l t h o u g h b y 1820  Kirk  of Kildonan  both Anglican  a n d Roman  missionaries had arrived i n the settlement, a minister and  orthodox  to administer  their  descendents  was c e r t a i n byterians  that  Presbyterian  t o t h e needs o f t h e S e l k i r k d i dnot arrive  a minister  seceded  Catholic  until  was c o m i n g ,  1851.  settlers Once i t  three hundred  Pres-  from the Anglican congregation and s t a r t e d  w o r k o n a c h u r c h a n d manse l o c a t e d i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f St.  John's  A m a n s e , 35  parish.  minister,  John Black,  X 20*,  was r e a d y f o r t h e  on h i s a r r i v a l ,  a n d i t was u s e d f o r  70 services u n t i l winter  a s t o n e c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d .  o f 1851,  t i m b e r was p r e p a r e d , s t o n e was b r o u g h t  Stony Mountain, lime  fourteen miles distant  f o r m o r t a r was b u r n e d  construction activity,  site.  7  1  over the plains,  from and  a t the quarry and taken t o the  The f l o o d  o f 1852  interrupted  building  a n d t h e c h u r c h was n o t r e a d y f o r u s e u n t i l J a n -  72 5, 1851+.  uary the arrangement been added,  Some a l t e r a t i o n s h a v e s i n c e b e e n made i n o f pews a n d i n t h e f a c a d e . A vestibule has  and t h e w a l l s have been rough-cast.  73  °Margaret McBeth, The S t o r y o f K i l d o n a n C h u r c h , W i n n i p e g : W a l l i n g f o r d P r e s s , L t d . , 1951, p.7. P I . X X X I I I , XXXIV. 7  1851-1951.  See  I n the f a l l  7  1  Ibid.  72 Ibid. 7  3  Ibid.,  p.8.  arid  92.  P L A T S  Plan,  Kildonan  X X X I V  Church (18  93-  Rather, like  Kildonan  was  like  Anglican  form with Gothic  definitely no  the  not  a  traditional churches,  Revival  window,  under  the  pulpit  was  the  congregation  the  centrally  c o m m e n t e d , i t was  could  i t i n t e g r a t e d the  an  placed  see  "plain,  going  and  However, i t  Anglican  i t s v e s t r y was stairs  Scottish Kirk.  detail.  P r e s b y t e r i a n , not  large east  thriftiness  a  up  to  i n order hear.  the  a  It  had  certain  gallery,,  that  And,  was  church.  placed with  box-  and  everyone  as  George  i n  Bryce  even to s e v e r i t y " . ^ 7  S e e I a n G. L i n d s a y , The S c o t t i s h P a r i s h E d i n b u r g h : S a i n t Andrew P r e s s , I960. 7 k  Kirk.  75 George Bryce, John B l a c k , the T o r o n t o : W i l l i a m B r i g g s ; M o n t r e a l : C.W. S.P. H u e t i s , 1898, p.83.  A p o s t l e o f Red R i v e r . Coates; H a l i f a x :  9k.  SUMMARY Church  architecture  the  contemporary  The  Roman C a t h o l i c  architecture  Thomas B a i l l a i r g e , Gothic Red  Revival  River  follow  whereas t h e A n g l i c a n  buildings.  adaptations.  with  was i n f l u e n c e d  by  o f F r e n c h Canada a n d E n g l a n d .  churches were b u i l t  detail  the style  i n Red River  the box-like  The P r e s b y t e r i a n  of the Anglican  i n the style of churches  integrated  f o r m common t o churches  churches with  tended to some m i n o r  95. Aftermath The m a j o r i t y were  "plain  o r i t was porches, city  square boxes".  Ornament  a p p l i e d t o a few areas,  was  that  Settlement  e i t h e r not used,  i s , staircases,  s t e e p l e s , and windows, and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  and sameness.  church,  o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e Red R i v e r  Railing  posts  simpli-  i n t h e Bunn house,  and S t . Andrew's Church were a l l a l i k e ,  doors,  Kildonan  and at  76 Seven Oaks fanlights  they  were e n l a r g e d  were p l a c e d  77  Red R i v e r  Steeples  skyline,  Georgian  above t h e doors o f l a r g e h o u s e s ,  porches were o f t e n edged w i t h pinnacles.  to verandah posts.  latticework or accented  and b e l f r i e s ,  the f o c a l  received considerable  o n l y b u i l d i n g s w h i c h were g i v e n  points  attention.  and with  of the  7ft  The  an excess o f d e c o r a t i o n  were  79 the  interiors The  transition  architecture Winnipeg after  and,  from  to the elaborate  However,  of St.  the p l a i n ,  architecture occurred  1870.  Gothic  of the cathedrals  Boniface. square Red  Victorian styles i n the f i r s t  t h e t r a n s i t i o n was  R e v i v a l i n f l u e n c e s upon Protestant  to a l e s s e r extent,  itecture. 7 6  Furthermore, See  River  of early  two  decades  anticipated i n the church  architecture  upon the ornament o f domestic  arch-  i n the l860's, i n f l u e n c e s from the  P I . XXXV.  77 'See P I . X V I . The B i r d h o u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e Hime C o l l e c t i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Manitoba, had a small pinnacled porch. 7 8  B e l o w , p . 120.  79  A b o v e , p.63.  See a l s o  P I . XXIV and  XXVII.  PLATE  Hexagonal p r i v y ,  XXXVI  Archeveche,  St.•Boniface.  in  the  Hudson s  Selkirk,  1  Bay  Manitoba.  style  99. Canadian c o l o n i e s were b e g i n n i n g architecture. privies  to infiltrate  Red R i v e r  T a c h e s e v e c h e was f l a n k e d b y t w o h e x a g o n a l 1  reminiscent  of the polygonal  buildings f a d i n  80 Ontario part,  and the eastern United  t h e c h a n g e came a f t e r  l880's  were g r e a t  brick  States.  I87O,  B u t , f o r t h e most  not before.  buildings like  Only i nthe  the Bawlf  Block, the  Empire H o t e l , Government House, and t h e o l dWinnipeg  City  81 Hall  finally  built.  Once t h e V i c t o r i a n old  styles  o f t h e Red R i v e r  prominence. French  Some  settlements  styles  Settlement  from  gradually lost  their  o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s i n t h e of the province  Tache's c a t h e d r a l , and, o f course, styles  a r r i v e d i n Winnipeg, the  of the Ontario  settlers  continued  i n the style  the Protestant  were n o t v e r y  much  of  church different  t h e o l dA n g l i c a n and P r e s b y t e r i a n churches o f t h e s e t t l e -  82  ment. The H u d s o n ' s B a y s t y l e o f l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n was n o t u s e d b y t h e new s e t t l e r s , a n d t o d a y o n l y a f e w e x a m p l e s remain along Of)  the A s s i n i b o i n e and Red R i v e r s .  83  See P I . X X X V I . S e e a l s o J o h n I . R e m p e l ; "A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f Polygonal B u i l d i n g s with Residual Evidence i n O n t a r i o , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r y , L V I . D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 k , pp.235-k8. S e e J o h n W. G r a h a m , W i n n i p e g A r c h i t e c t u r e ; t h e Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t ; 1831-1960. Winnipeg: U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba P r e s s , I960. 8 2  Benoit,  83 J  See  I I , P I . f a c i n g pp.312,  P I . XXXVII.  390,  k66.  100. CHAPTER I V THE RED R I V E R  The distorted River  i n 1870  Settlement  cross."'' I t e x t e n d e d n o r t h  from Netley  Assiniboine and  Red River  SETTLEMENT  River  eastwards  was shaped l i k e  a n d south  along  Creek t o S t . Agathe, westwards from Port  f o ra short  Garry  t o Portage  distance  along  a  the Red  along t h e  l a Prairie,  the Seine River, o r  2 German Creek. forks  The p i v o t a l  point  o f thesettlement  o f the Red andAssiniboine  Rivers.  Although the settlement  stretched  directions, rivers.  i tonly  The r i v e r  e x t e n d e d two m i l e s  was t h e  f o rmiles  on each  i n four  side  of the  l o t system o f F r e n c h Canada h a d been  adopted by t h eSelkirk  settlers  under Miles  M a c d o n e l l who  3 had  become f a m i l i a r  s u r v e y w a s made and lots  surveyor  with  i n 1813  i tthere.  formal  b y t h e H u d s o n s B a y Company 1  from Brandon House, P e t e r  o f one h u n d r e d a c r e s  with  the  west bank o f t h e R e d R i v e r ,  the  lots  Morton,  The f i r s t  Fidler.  a frontage  acres  on  the size o f  l o t system  ^For the extent o f the settlement M a n i t o b a , pp.151-53.  trader  He l a i d o u t  o f four  and, although  v a r i e d t h e r e a f t e r , ther i v e r •""See P I . X X X V I I I .  k  land  i n 1871,  remained see  •*  -'John W a r k e n t i n , M a n i t o b a S e t t l e m e n t Patterns, A Paper Read before the H i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c Society o f M a n i t o b a , S e r i e s I I I , N o . 1 6 , e d i t e d b y D o u g l a s Kemp. Winnipeg: H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society o f Manitoba, 1961, p.63 c i t i n g a l e t t e r f r o m M i l e s M a c d o n e l l t o L o r d S e l k i r k i n the S e l k i r k P a p e r s . M i c r o f i l m Copy, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J u l y 17, I813, p.787. k  Ibid.  '. f'iuii-ir  . •'. '}.ik  0''-' •  vt  1  Go  0  fa  A  r r  i  c  <  I'tZvit'/'"-'  /;  f  «  ,  ,''  , „  ,  u d a rt e#  /30  j^.:^'  sfsnti& jl'jJcti  4-  ****  A X *  - ^ t ^ - f " : ^  V  farming  ., frairie  Oh*  re  •JL.  /"""  marches  •  , Surveyed and Examined by ,opy o f a Map o f a P o r t i o n o f R u p e r t ' s LE the A s s i n i b o i n e and Saskatchewan E x p l o r i n g E xxppeeddiittiioonn i n t h e Y e a r 1858; under I n s t r u c t i o n s from the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e ttaarryy,, Canada. a l e o f O r i g i n a l Map: % "  1  5 miles.  Ct  102. firmly  imprinted  on t h e area.  Indeed, t h e c i t y  Winnipeg h a s been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e system. like of  McDermot', B a n n a t y n e , R o s s ,  lots  once A  for  owned b y s e t t l e r s  riparian plan  stone.  scarce, the  o f that  o f settlement  name.'' h a d c e r t a i n advantages  St.  around Lower F o r t  Andrew's Church.'  Garry  h a d t o be c u ta t a d i s t a n c e ,  G a r r y was p r o b a b l y  site.  Moreover,  wood  i t became  o r picked  up  along  and the  Secondly,  for thetransportation of materials.  theconstruction  like  therivers until  c o u l d be q u a r r i e d  banks, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  finally  First, the  essential building materials  and limestone  provided  streets  a n d Logan mark t h e b o u n d a r i e s  Timber was c u t a l o n g  Grand Rapids near  to  Many  Red River b u i l d e r s as w e l l as the s e t t l e r s .  r i v e r banks provided and  plan of  the rivers  When  timber  i t was f l o a t e d i n booms t h e stone f o r Upper  taken upstream on sledges  over  Fort  the frozen  8 rivers the  from thelower  link  with  building  settlement.  civilization  materials  like  The r i v e r s  andfacilitated  paint,  t i n , nails,  also  the  provided  importing o f  andglass  t o Red  River The was  spring 5  disadvantage flooding.  Healy,  o f theriparian  Severe f l o o d s  l o c a t i o n , o f course,  occurred  i n 1826  and  pp.139-40.  ^ S e e W.L. M o r t o n , " A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e R e d R i v e r C o l o n y , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , X X X . D e c e m b e r , 19li9, pp.318-19, f o r t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e r i v e r l o t s y s t e m i n general.  7 Hind,  pp.29k-95.  A b o v e , p.  9,  11.  o  Watson,  Lower F o r t  Garry,  p.10.  1852.  103. Many b u i l d i n g s w e r e instances, usually  new  even then,  only  escape  floods.  The  or  c o n s t r u c t i o n was  l o c a t e d on  the  destroyed  use  the  the  prairie  lower  the  river  of b u i l d i n g s along  the  rivers.  and  rather,  riverside,  r e l i e v e d by the  Port  and  site  1810,  1 0  three  settlers  the  forks.  of  the  and  by  high  embryonic  the  the  was  rivers  a  settlement.  arrived  of  had  and  roadside  a century  i n the  Red  W e s t Company b u i l t  Fort  I t was  p u l l e d down d u r i n g  the  was by  churches,  and  of b u i l d i n g s the  St.  Boniface  farm-yards.  economic,  and  been an  Rouge before  import-  erected the  first  Gibralter hostilities  at of  ^See A n d e r s o n ' s N o t e s o f t h e F l o o d a t t h e Red a n d Chap. I X o f R o s s ' The R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . above, p.91. p.3.  the  River Valley. Later,  North  Douglas,  line  or,  punctuated  and  I t had Fort  a solid  arrangement and  Winnipeg  missions,  to  buildings faced  linear  geographical,  quarters  enough  concentrations  since LaVerendrye had  about  Selkirk  f o r k s was  centre  was  settlement  of  Lower F o r t G a r r y ,  political  f o r p r o t e c t i o n , but,  A l l the  This  some  B u i l d i n g s were  of a r c h i t e c t u r e - f o r t s ,  f l a n k e d by  The  there  the  sinuosity  types  level  9  i n  l o t system created  village.  small houses,  Garry  mission,  1852. see  the  different  large  ant  essentially  delayed.  settlement  of  rivers,  damaged, and,  i n  the  l8l6 River, Also,  10k.  Port  Garry i t s e l f ,  boine,  close  apart, the  i t s mouth,  the ground about  company;  more  to  which f r o n t s on the A s s i n i -  logs,  built  for  colony,  the produce  and o f f i c e s  and even  above t h e h i g h  cracks  o f age,  holed  corners are  high,  axe-hewn - store-  and p r o v i s i o n s of the  f o r t h e company. stories  c a n be  Their seen  s t o n e w a l l s , seamed, w i t h  which enclose  f o r musketry,  h e l d open by  of stone o r  t h e i r upper  rising  little  some b u i l d i n g s o f  a n d two a n d a h a l f s t o r i e s  houses  roofs  i t being  and i t contains  significance,  stands a  the whole,  and guarded  at the  loopfour  by rounded, b a s t i o n - l i k e towers, which  pierced f o r small  artillery.  -  S'.H.  Scudder,  i860.  Upper Fort m  the  Public  Garry.  Hime C o l l e c t i o n , Archives  of  l8p7~58,  Manitoba.  106. and  was p a r t l y  r e - e r e c t e d the  amalgamation o f t h e r i v a l additions  following y e a r . A f t e r the  f u r trade  a n d p a l i s a d e s were b u i l t ,  Hudson's B a y Company's f o r t  c o m p a n i e s i n 1821,  some  a n d i t became t h e  a t thesuggestion  o f Nicholas  12 Garry,  w h o s e name i t l a t e r  suffered new  i nthef l o o d  fort,  forks. in  Selkirk  last  building  Garry.  l o c a t e d about a m i l e  i t was d e s t r o y e d  fort  of a  1 3  D o u g l a s , was e r e c t e d o n P o i n t  b u t i n 1816 The  T h e damage w h i c h i t  prompted the  o r Lower P o r t  settlers  Their fort,  1813,  o f 1826  t h e Stone P o r t  The  was g i v e n .  from t h e Douglas  a n dh a d t o be rebuilt." "^ 1  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d a t t h e f o r k s was  15 Upper F o r t Garry.  l83k-35  I twas p l a n n e d  and begun i n the  renowned as a f o r t  spring of  usually credited with  the  at  Red River  from June  1  as governor  Ibid.,  12  1  building  a t t h e Stone F o r t u n t i l 1  l835. ^  t h ew i n t e r o f Alexander  b u i l d e r i n H u d s o n ' s B a y Company  is  resided  during  pp.21-22, 31.  1833  of thefort. t o J u n e 1839  Fort Garry  Christie, history, He was and  was h a b i t a b l e .  1 7  Ernest Voorhis, H i s t o r i c Forts andTrading Posts o f t h eF r e n c h Regime a n d o f the E n g l i s h F u r T r a d i n g Companies. O t t a w a , 1930, pp.71-72. 13 ^Above, p. -^Douglas, ^See The  PI.  127. pp.ll-lk.  XXXIX.  • ^ M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC," B e a v e17r , O u t f i t 279. J u n e , 1949, p.5. Ross, p.klO; Campbell, J o u r n a l s ,p.26.  107.  The he  m a s o n was  Pierre  made h i s f a t e f u l  D u n c a n McRae a n d they  arrived  fort  was  at  LeBlanc, trip  to  who  Columbia  John Clouston Red  the  District  worked at Port  R i v e r i n 1837•  sufficiently  w o r k e d on  advanced  19 By  1837,  for Christie  i n  fort  until  I838.  Garry  18  after  however,  the  t o move f r o m  the  20  Stone P o r t  to Port  Port  Garry.  Garry  was  when James H a r g r a v e that  completed f o r the  reported  most p a r t  to Governor George  1838  by  Simpson  the new f o r t i s c o m p l e t e l y a n d s e c u r e l y w a l l e d i n , w i t h t w o e x c e l l e n t B a s t i o n s w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y sweep e v e r y s i d e and r e n d e r i t the s e c u r e s t as w e l l as the b e s t f i n i s h e d f o r t t h e Company h a s i n R u p e r t * s L a n d . 1  H o w e v e r , b e t w e e n 1838 tions  were b u i l t .  rangle  21x0  of  X  250  and  l8k5,  Simpson d e s c r i b e d feet,  with  stone  two  additional  i t i n 181x5 w a l l s 15  as feet  "a  basquad-  high  and  22  four  corner  Alexander June  Christie  l8Lk l 8  bastions".  to See  June  who I8I4.6.  They were p r o b a b l y returned  to  serve  at  constructed Red  River  under  from  23  Alexander  Ross  described  the  fort  Appendix I I I .  19 Watson,  p.9.  20  M a r g a r e t A r n e t t M a c L e o d , "The C i t y T h a t N e v e r B e a v e r , O u t f i t 280. S e p t e m b e r , 1950, p.l5« 21 M a c L e o d , " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC," p.6, citing James H a r g r a v e .  The  22  Ibid. 23  Ross,  p.1x10.  Was,"  108. not  long  afterwards:  I t s f o r m i s n e a r l y s q u a r e , b e i n g a b o u t 280 f e e t f r o m e a s t t o w e s t , a n d 2k0 f e e t f r o m n o r t h t o s o u t h . I t i s s u r r o u n d e d b y a s t o n e w a l l o f 15 f e e t h i g h , a n d o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t h i c k n e s s ; having two l a r g e gates on t h e north and south s i d e s , and four rounded towers o r blockhouses a t each corner, w i t h port and loopholes f o r cannon a n dmusketry. I n the i n s i d e o f the w a l l i s a g a l l e r y which runs around the f o r t , and which affords a pleasant walk, and an extensive view o f t h e surrounding country. The p r i n c i p a l dwelling-house a l a r g e a n d commodious b u i l d i n g - o c c u p i e s the c e n t r e of the square, behind which a n dnear the northern gate, stand the f l a g s t a f f andb e l f r y . There a r ea l s o houses w i t h i n the w a l l s , f o r the accommodation o f the o f f i c e r s a n d men a t t a c h e d t o t h e f o r t ; t o g e t h e r w i t h s t o r e s a n d g r a n a r i e s , a n d - w o u l d i t were n o tn e c e s s a r y t o a d da j a i l andcourthouse f o r the colony. I ti s a neat a n d compact e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a n d r e f l e c t s g r e a t c r e d i t o n Mr. G o v e r n o r C h r i s t i e , u n d e r whose e y e t h e w o r k w a s  I n the The  northern  l850's  stone  added. The gate new  north wall.  chief  factor  the  wall  which  fort  was e n l a r g e d  northwards.  was removed a n d square  s t i l l  stands  I ti s s a i d  and founder  today  andbuilder  oakw a l l s  was b u i l t  that Alexander  25 were  into the  Hunter Murray,  o f Port Yukon,  a  designed  26 The f o r t  itself  gate.  was  destroyed because i t i n c o n v e n i e n t l y c r o s s e d the  extension o f Main Street. in  1888  t h egovernor's  stood u n t i l  B y 1882,  house  a n dthe  the  l880's  the  i t was p a r t l y remaining  sold. 2  k  Ibid.,  p.lk2.  ^MacLeod, 2  6  Ibid.  2  7  Ibid.,  " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC, " p . 6 .  p.7  southern  gone, a n d  buildings  27 were  when i t  109. The It  was  the  Council  fort seat  was of  the  the  political  centre  of  the  settlement.  Governor of A s s i n i b o i a , and  o f A s s i n i b o i a a l w a y s met  at  the  fort.  A  the  court-  28 house  and  g a o l were b u i l t  But  the  fort  was  near the a l s o the  ment w h i c h p r o v i s i o n e d t h e crops and  and  fort  pemmican warehouses and  with  depots,  outfitted,  where goods u s e d i n the  being  distributing  centre  goods were r o u t e d it  was  ition  this to the  s o l d , where the  distributed.  through  According  at  The  St.  that  settle-  from i t s  and  f u r trade the  fort  l850's  flour  stores  were  i n s t e a d of York  which probably  a  b u f f a l o hunt  function of  Paul  of  I t contained  g r e a t l y expanded i n the  expansion fort  flour  warehouses,  goods were  before  centre  b u f f a l o hunt.  where i m p o r t e d and  I8I4.3.  economic  fur trade  pemmican from the  in  was stored  as.a when Factory;  n e c e s s i t a t e d the  add-  time.  to George Bryce,  the  Fort's  s t o r e was  a  c o l o u r f u l and l i v e l y p l a c e : I n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f F o r t G a r r y was t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay s t o r e . O r i g i n a l l y i t w a s r e a c h e d b y way o f R i v e r G a t e , a n d was a p p r o a c h e d f r o m t h e w e s t s i d e , o r e l s e b y the postern gate. I n the l a s t t e n years of i t s existence i t was n o t s o . The e a s t e r n s t o n e w a l l o f t h e f o r t g a v e way, a n d o n i t s f a l l was r e p l a c e d p a r t i a l l y b y a p a l i s a d e o f oak l o g s . The p o r t i o n n e a r t h e s o u t h e a s t b a s t i o n was n o t r e b u i l t , a n d a t t h i s o p e n i n g t h e f r o n t o f t h e s t o r e was m a d e . To f o r g e t t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y s t o r e f o r o n e who saw i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e . To e n t e r i t o n ^ a n y d a y i n t h e m o r n i n g was i n t e r e s t i n g . The s t a l w a r t M e t i s d r e s s e d up i n b l u e c a p o t e s a n d b r i g h t r e d s c a r f s a b o u t the m i d d l e , were t h e r e i n dozens. The a t m o s p h e r e h a d 'Morton, M a n i t o b a ,  p.69.  110. a p u n g e n t o d o r a s one e n t e r e d . I t was t h e f a m o u s " k i n u i - k i n i k " , o r d r i e d r e d - w i l l o w b a r k t h a t was b e i n g used. The s t o r e was t h i c k w i t h smoke. The goods were s u i t e d to the times. Many e x p e n s i v e c l o t h s w e r e t h e r e h i g h - c o l o r e d - r e d , blue and green. But t h e day t o see t h e s t o r e was i n J u n e . Then hundreds o f h u n t e r s were encamped on t h e p l a i n about t h e f o r t . They were p r e paring f o r the b u f f a l o hunt. Some t w e l v e o r f i f t e e n h u n d r e d c a r t s w e r e t h e r e t o b e f i t t e d o u t . One c r i e d i n t h e s t o r e f o r "an axe", a n o t h e r f o r " l e a t h e r " , a t h i r d f o r a "musket", and o t h e r s f o r scores o f o t h e r articles. A l l clamored a t once. The a r t i c l e s o f p u r c h a s e were o b t a i n e d on c r e d i t , t o be p a i d f o r o n r e t u r n from t h e hunt, i n a few months. The c l e r k s w e r e i n d e s p a i r , a n d o f t e n b e r a t e d t h e i r n o i s y c u s t o m e r s , or-p t h r e a t e n e d t o have i t out w i t h them on t h e i r r e t u r n . ' q  Later, the a  the free  trade,  w h i c h went u n c h a l l e n g e d  Company a f t e r t h e S a y e r T r i a l ,  small  village  incorporated scene"  around the f o r t .  r e s u l t e d i n the growth of I n 1873  a s W i n n i p e g , b u t i n 1868  t o George  by  the v i l l a g e  i t presented  "a  was sorry  Young:  What a mass o f s o f t , b l a c k s l i p p e r y a n d s t i c k y R e d R i v e r mud was e v e r y w h e r e s p r e a d o u t b e f o r e u s ! S t r e e t s were n e i t h e r s i d e w a l k s n o r c r o s s i n g s , w i t h now a n d a g a i n a good s i z e d p i t o f mire f o r the t r a v e l l e r t o avoid o r f l o u n d e r t h r o u g h as b e s t he c o u l d ; a few s m a l l s t o r e s w i t h p o o r g o o d s a n d h i g h p r i c e s ; one l i t t l e t a v e r n where " D u t c h G e o r g e " was " m o n a r c h o f a l l h i s s u r v e y " ; a f e w p a s s a b l e d w e l l i n g s w i t h "no r o o m s t o l e t " , n o s p a c e f o r boarders; neither church nor school i n sight or i n p r o s p e c t ; p o p u l a t i o n a b o u t one h u n d r e d i n s t e a d o f one t h o u s a n d a s we e x p e c t e d - s u c h w a s W i n n i p e g o n J u l y k t h ,  1868.3°  The  village  _Bannatyne,  stores,  which were  o w n e d b y men  like  McDermot  and  were l o c a t e d a t a r e s p e c t f u l d i s t a n c e  from the  fort,  George Bryce, A H i s t o r y o f Manitoba, I t s Resources and People. T o r o n t o a n d M o n t r e a l : Canada H i s t o r y Co., 1906, p.101. 3 0  Young,  pp.63-6k.  111. A r r i v e d t h e r e we c o n f r o n t a l o t o f o l d b u i l d i n g s without  any windows,  and a rough  l o o k i n g door  w i t h a s t r o n g p a d l o c k , the whole b e a r i n g the a i r of a d i l a p i d a t e d barn,  used  to store  odds and  ends. - G.B.  v.  211iot,  i860.  Hime  Coll  113. and  some w e r e  s t o r e was  on  s i t u a t e d elsewhere the  i n the  St. Boniface side  colony.  o f the Red  31  Kittson's  River,  and 32  John  Inkster's  After  1859,  s t o r e was  the  village  beside h i s house, also  had h o t e l s  Seven  like  Oaks.  Emmerling's  H o t e l a n d t h e R o y a l H o t e l , w h i c h was c a r p e t e d w i t h The o f f i c e o f t h e f i r s t n e w s p a p e r , t h e N o r ' W e s t e r ,  sawdust. was  33  34 l o c a t e d i n the  village.  S i n c e F o r t G a r r y was of  t h e Red  the economic  R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t and  later  and  political  the g r e a t  centre  distributing  centre  o f t h e f u r t r a d e , t r a i l s c o n v e r g e d u p o n i t f r o m many 35 directions. The K i n g ' s R o a d , "a mere c a r t - t r a c k i n t h e 36  deep loam", road which b y way  of  ran from  Mountain,  Road at Middle  wards from F o r t Garry Edmonton. 3 1  3 2  lower  r a n t o the f i s h i n g Stony  the King's  the  s e t t l e m e n t on  Church.  went  p.309.  Lake  w h e r e l i m e s t o n e was  to Portage  Three roads S e e P I . XL. Manton,  settlement to the f o r t .  3 7  Another  l a Prairie  See  Manitoba,  quarried,  trail and  south to St. Paul,  A  on one  ran  met west-  to Fort on  the  PI. VII.  33 See I s a a c C o w i e , The Company o f A d v e n t u r e r s . T o r o n t o W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1913, P I . f a c i n g p.115J Roderick Campbell, T h e F a t h e r o f S t . K i l d a . L o n d o n : W.R. R u s s e l l a n d Co., 1901, pp.133-34. 3 k  Scudder,  35  ^See  PI.  Scudder, 3 7  A b o v e , p.  pp.118-19. XXXVIII. p.109. 91.  See  PI.  IX.  Ilk. west  s i d e o f t h e Red,  from  the east  Now,  of course,  trail  one o n t h e e a s t ,  over  the King's  chewan t r a i l  i s Portage  bank i s L o r d  Selkirk,  east to  across  the river  Road i s Main S t r e e t , the  Avenue, t h e south  road  Garry, noted  a secondary  trail.  Saskat-  on the west  o r Pembina, Highway, t h e road  i s S t . Mary's  The K i n g ' s  branching  t o the west  bank i s S t . Anne's Road, a n d t h e r o a d  the other  cutting  on the from  one  Road.  Road r a n from P o r t economic c e n t r e  Garry  t o Lower  Port  i n the settlement.  As  i n Chapter I I , the b i g house and warehouses o f the h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e l830's, o n l y  Lower P o r t r e p l a c e d by  the Upper P o r t  The w a l l s a n d b a s t i o n s were regiments dispute. S.J.  a n d one  were  sent  as the main f u r trade finally  t o Red R i v e r  About a decade l a t e r ,  centre.  c o n s t r u c t e d when  during  t o be  British  the Oregon boundary  the f o r t  was  described  by  Dawson: The S t o n e P o r t , o r L o w e r P o r t G a r r y , o n t h e Red R i v e r , i s by f a r the f i n e s t establishment i n the t e r r i t o r y . A s q u a r e a r e a o f some s i x a c r e s i n e x t e n t i s e n c l o s e d w i t h w a l l s and b a s t i o n s of stone. Within t h i s enclosure a r e t h e Company's b u i l d i n g s , a l l o f them most s u b s t a n t i a l e d i f i c e s o f stone. The s t o r e s a r e s i t u a t e d o n e i t h e r s i d e , and i n the centre stands the residence of the o f f i c e r s , a very imposing b u i l d i n g , with verandahs running completely round i t , and grounds i n f r o n t l a i d o f f and p l a n t e d w i t h g r e a t t a s t e .  -'MacLeod,  Lower F o r t  Garry,  p . 6.  ^ S . J . Dawson, R e p o r t o n t h e E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e Country between Lake S u p e r i o r and the Red R i v e r Settlement, and between the L a t t e r Place and the A s s i n i b o i n e and Saskatchewan, an appendix t o t h e S e v e n t e e n t h volume o f t h e J o u r n a l s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f Canada. T o r o n t o : J o h n L o v e l l , 1859, n.p. 3  115.  This  establishment,  *Garry", St.  covers  Paul's  fort  wall,  Cathedral,  Port  i n London.  and b u i l t  quarry,  and  "Lower  about a s much g r o u n d a s  i s square,  limestone  called  The  o n a roclc o r  surrounded by a  protected  by  four  stone round  towers o r bastions  Lower P o r t the  Garry  Upper F o r t  and  full  of  i s more s e c l u d e d  ,  although  rural  than  picturesque  beauty.  Here t h e  Governor of Rupert's  L a n d r e s i d e s , when  he  i n the colony.  passes  those it  of  any time studious  and  retired  To  habits,  i s p r e f e r r e d t o the upper f o r t . •  - Alexander  Ross,  1856.  the F i n l a y C o l l e c t i o n (l8k7), Glenbow Foundation.  117. The "farming, during trip and  functions  retail  o f the f o r t have been d e s c r i b e d  d e a l i n g , and b o a t - f r e i g h t i n g .  At  summer m o n t h s , b o a t - b r i g a d e s a r e o u t f i t t e d  to York Factory  and o t h e r  s c i e n t i f i c expeditions Retail  this  carried  on  at the  i n the  post,  f o r the  posts inland."4° Various  were o u t f i t t e d  b u s i n e s s was  as  Arctic  fort.  s t o r e and f u r  loft: A l a r g e stone s t r u c t u r e o f three s t o r i e s , i t has w i t h i n i t s walls nearly every a r t i c l e used i n that climate. The s a l e s - r o o m i s a s q u a r e a p a r t m e n t , no p l a s t e r , t h e c e i l i n g merely the j o i s t s and f l o o r i n g o f the second f l a t , t h i c k l y studded w i t h n a i l s and hooks, from w h i c h are suspended v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s of trade. Along the side walls a r e box s h e l v e s , n e a r l y two f e e t deep. On t h e f l o o r w i t h i n the c o u n t e r are p i l e d b a l e s o f goods, bundles o f p r i n t s , hardware, e t c . , and t h i s space w i t h i n t h e c o u n t e r c o m p r i s e s a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e room. A small area i s r a i l e d o f f near the door, s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to h o l d twenty standing customers.4 1  Farming there  and  i n d u s t r y went on o u t s i d e  were f i e l d s , f a r m b u i l d i n g s , a g r i s t m i l l ,  boat-building tradesmen's  sheds,  root house,  housed  military  during  ition,  expeditions,  whether  the Oregon boundary  the B r i t i s h  dispute,  protected  the  settlers.  Indeed,  k  l  Ibid., Watson,  pp.74-76. pp.50-51.  times  regiments  the Wolseley but  neither  Louis  Riel  H . M . R o b i n s o n , The G r e a t F u r Land. L o n d o n : M a r s t o n , S e a r l e and R i v i n g t o n , 1550, p.73. k 0  cellar,  2  Lower F o r t s G a r r y at v a r i o u s  o r t h e N o r t h West M o u n t e d P o l i c e ,  actually  Low,  landings.^  where  distillery,  i c e house and b e e r  s h o p s , homes and b o a t  Both Upper and  sent  the f o r t ,  expedever and h i s Sampson,  118. men  c a s u a l l y walked through  Port i n 1869. If  t h e open g a t e s  k 3  t h e two f o r t s  represented  of b u i l d i n g s i nt h e settlement, community l i f e churchyards Athenian  market-place missions  school-house  arrangement  The  church  The  largest.  were t h e e q u i v a l e n t respect  o r a stone  o f the  rectory, and  i n f o r m a l l y s i t u a t e d i nc o n t r a s t t o at the forts. ^ k  St.  Paul's  (Middle  St.  Peter's  p a r i s h e s were  Church)-,  there  were  St. Boniface,  S t . Andrew's  (Indian Settlement), t h emetis  which had either  o r i n which a mission h a d been  The o r i g i n a l  by a  wall.  p a r i s h was "a s e t t l e m e n t ,  lished."^  The  t o t h e exchange o f n e w s . ^  o f b u i l d i n g s around a square  around a mission,  Later,  t h enext  was a l w a y s removed f r o m i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s  wooden f e n c e  (Grantown),  as centres o f  u s u a l l y included a church,  w h i c h were  the  up  with  thelargest concentration  themissions,  i n t h ep a r i s h e s , were  o f t h emissions  The  o f t h e Upper  settlement  and St.  (Lower  grown  estabS t . John's,  Church),  Francois-Xavier  on t h eA s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r .  o f f s h o o t s o f these  parishes,  k 7  S t . James,  Beaver,  F r e d E . B a r t l e t t , " T h e F a l l o f F o r t Garry',' T h e O u t f i t 2 9 6 . S p r i n g , 1966, p . k 8 .  Toronto:  ^R.G. M a c B e t h , T h e R o m a n c e o f We s t e r n C a n a d a , 2 d . R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1920, p.105.  k 3  k  ^See  PI.  ed.  XXVI.  ^W.L. M o r t o n , "The R e d R i v e r P a r i s h : I t s P l a c e i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f M a n i t o b a , " M a n i t o b a E s s a y s , e d . R.C. L o d g e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n a n d Co., 1937, P . 9 0 . k  Ibid.,  pp.90-93-  119. St.  Charles,  aret's, and  Holy  Trinity  St. Anne's,  (Headingley),  St. Norbert,  At  buildings  and  apparently  Seven Oaks, the  ever  made t o o r d e r  achieved  The  that  the  Garry  bend of the  Seine  "beautiful  and  spot  Red  Fort  of  square,  was but  farm b u i l d i n g s  large houses of  a gentle view of  T w i n Oaks and  l o c a t i o n s on their  the  the  settle-  the  bends  importance.  D o u g l a s was  around Point  R i v e r , and  commanding a f i n e  Dynevor and  and  impressive  rivers,  on  some a t t e m p t  arrangement  i f to underline  the  farm  settlement.  churches,  commanded two  mouth of a  as  of  f l a n k e d by  the b u i l d i n g s around a  i n the  forts,  rivers,  south  h o u s e was  a formal  ment were u s u a l l y g i v e n  the  Marg-  Clement's  a concentration  John I n k s t e r ' s s t o r e . ^ Here,  seems u n l i k e l y  of  St.  St.  Kildonan.  buildings.  was  Mary's,  St. V i t a l ,  Farm-yards a l s o represented  it  St.  Fort  s i t u a t e d on  Douglas, near  S t o n e F o r t was  the  located  e l e v a t i o n , s u r r o u n d e d by the  r i v e r . H o u s e s  churches l i k e  on  wood,  like  St. Boniface,  St.  And-  50 rew's, The  and  site  St.  of  Peter's  St.  dominated  sweeps o f  the  Red  River.  Andrew's  i s a v e r y f i n e one. S t a n d i n g u p o n i t s p o r c h one may l o o k u p o r down t h e r i v e r a n d see t h e n e a t h o m e s a n d farms of the s e t t l e r s , w h i l e i t s t a s t y o u t l i n e s form  k 8  See  PI.  k 9  Nute,  VII.  p.15.  See  50 J  See  PI.  XXIII.  PI.  XLI.  120. a prominent object i n the landscape upon i t from e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . 5 1 The acted the  towers and s p i r e s o f the Red R i v e r  as p i v o t a l  S t , James, a n d S t .  landmarks t o t r a v e l l e r s  from the north,  who  west and south.  and  Boniface settlement  t h e most  o f a l l t h e Red R i v e r t o w e r s were t h e " t u r r e t s St.  wound,  approached the Probably  gazing  churches  p o i n t s about which t h e r i v e r s  spires of St. Peter's,  were  to those  imposing  twain"  of  Boniface: ...we d i d n o t come i n s i g h t o f t h e s p i r e s o f t h e C a t h e d r a l e de S a i n t B o n i f a c e t i l l n e a r s u n s e t . At l a s t t h e y a p p e a r e d - two b r i g h t l i n e s r i s i n g above t h e l a s t g r o v e o f p o p l a r t r e e s t h r o u g h w h i c h we h a d t o pass, standing out c l e a r and g l i s t e n i n g against the deep b l u e o f t h e s k y , a n d s u r m o u n t e d b y t h e c r o s s . 5 2 The  less,  church  and f e r t i l e "  traveller  observed  towers a l s o accented  the " f l a t ,  p l a i n s o f the Red R i v e r V a l l e y .  featureOne  that  S p i r e s o f c h u r c h e s , and t h e l o n g arms o f w i n d m i l l s , broke the l e v e l l i n e s of the p i c t u r e s that greeted our eyes as t h e road l e d us on from open p l a c e t o open place, through the poplars that surrounded i t f o r a portion of the way." As Ramsay T r a q u a i r grow  slender  has remarked,  "a f l a t  country  seems t o  spires."-^"  ^ - M a r b l e , p.312.  52 Ibid.,  p.307.  ^ Ibid., p.310 -^•Ramsay T r a q u a i r , T h e O l d A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Q u e b e c . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n Go. o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1947, p.135. 3  121.  A and  rhythm i n the  Assiniboine  density,  types,  Rivers and  line was  of b u i l d i n g s along  thus created  by  l o c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s .  the  the  Red  varying  122. Conclusions I The  primary  influences  on Red R i v e r  architecture  the  l o g construction  Bay  Company, t h e c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Thomas  and  the Gothic  itecture trade But  and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e of the Hudson s 1  Revival  exercised  i nEngland.  the greatest  influence  French Canadian architecture c l a s s i c i s m at that  Red  River  in  origin.  time,  Baillairge,  French Canadian  a n d t h e Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s  British  were  arch-  through thef u r sent  to Red  River.  i t s e l f was i n f l u e n c e d  by  and thus the influences  a r c h i t e c t u r e were b o t h B r i t i s h  and French  on  Canadian  II A l t h o u g h i t was i n f l u e n c e d b y s t y l e s i n B r i t a i n F r e n c h Canada, Red R i v e r geographical  construction  the  initial  a  a r c h i t e c t u r e was a d a p t e d t o i t s  surroundings.  log  I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e Hudson's Bay  a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e were t h e o u t g r o w t h o f  contact  confrontation  and  of wilderness  and c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Such  i s c e n t r a l t o Canadian h i s t o r y . Ill  The village; Red  Red River  Settlement  i t s buildings  and Assiniboine  Rivers.  r e l i e v e d by the winding types on  stood  was e s s e n t i a l l y a r i v e r s i d e  i n a row a l o n g The l i n e a r  t h e banks o f the  arrangement  r i v e r s and punctuated by the d i f f e r e n t  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , by the l o c a t i o n of important  t h e bends o f t h e r i v e r s ,  buildings  i n the forts,  was  and by the concentration  missions,  and farm-yards.  buildings of  123. BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  RED RIVER  ARCHITECTURE  A. A r c h i t e c t u r a l  History  Documents Public  Archives o fManitoba.  J o u r n a l o f Samuel 2 vols.  I8k9-l863, 1863-1867.  Taylor,  Books Carre,  W i l l i a m H.  1900.  A r t Work o n W i n n i p e g ,  Manitoba,  Canada.  Gowans, A l a n . B u i l d i n g Canada; An A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y of Canadian L i f e . Rev. ed. T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r sity Press, 1966. . L o o k i n g a t A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Canada. Oxford University Press, 1958.  Toronto:  G r a h a m , J o h n W. W i n n i p e g A r c h i t e c t u r e ; T h e R e d R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t ; 1531-1960. Winnipeg: U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a P r e s s , 19.60. Hale,  K a t h e r i n e . H i s t o r i c Houses o f Canada. R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1952  H u b b a r d , R.H. T h e D e v e l o p m e n t Queen s P r i n t e r , 1963  o f Canadian  Toronto:  Art.  Ottawa:  1  Osborne,  M i l t o n Smith. "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H e r i t a g e o f M a n i t o b a , " i n M a n i t o b a E s s a y s , e d i t e d b y R.C. L o d g e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1937,  P P . 53-87  Robertson, J .Ross. f o r Canadian  L a n d m a r k s o f C a n a d a ; W h a t A r t H a s Done History. Toronto, 1917-  Watson, Robert. 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The P i o n e e r Farmer  and  T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o P u b l i s h i n g Co., H a m i l t o n , J.C. The P r a i r i e Brothers, 1676.  Province.  Backwoodsman.  Toronto: Belford  Hammond, J o h n M a r t i n . Quaint and H i s t o r i c America. P h i l a d e l p h i a a n dLondon: c o t t a n d Co., 1915. H e a l y , W.J. Co.,  Winnipeg's E a r l y Days. L t d . , 1927.  2 vols.  L t d . , 1963.  Forts o f North J.B. L i p p i n -  Winnipeg:  Stovel  Hind, Henry Youle. North-We3t T e r r i t o r y . R e p o r t s o f Progress together with a Preliminary andGeneral Report on the A s s i n i b o i n e a n dSaskatchewan E x p l o r i n g E x p e d i t i o n , Made u n d e r I n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , Canada. Toronto: John Lovell, 1859. J e f f e r y s , C.W. The P i c t u r e G a l l e r y o f C a n a d i a n T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 19IJ.2. 2 v o l s . Lodge,  R.C. ( e d . ) . Manitoba Essays. C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1937.  MacBeth,  History.  Toronto: Macmillan  R.G. T h e R o m a n c e o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a . Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1920. . The S e l k i r k S e t t l e r s i n R e a l L i f e . William Briggs, 1897-  2d. e d . Toronto:  Macdonald, George Heath. Edmonton; F o r t , House, F a c t o r y . E d m o n t o n : D o u g l a s P r i n t i n g C o . L t d . , 1959. M a c k i n t o s h , W.A. P r a i r i e S e t t l e m e n t ; TheG e o g r a p h i c a l Setting. V o l . 1 i n the s e r i e s Canadian F r o n t i e r s o f S e t t l e m e n t , e d i t e d b y W.A. M a c k i n t o s h a n d W.L.G. Joerg. T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1934-. MacLennan, Hugh. Seven R i v e r s o f Canada. M a c m i l l a n Co. o f C a n a d a , 1961. MacLeod, Margaret A r n e t t ( e d . ) . Toronto: Ryerson Press,  Toronto:  Songs o f O l d M a n i t o b a .  19607  Macoun, John. Manitoba a n dthe Great North-West. O n t a r i o : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g C o . , lbtJ2. M a c q u e e n , M a l c o l m A. H e b r i d e a n P i o n e e r s . s o n D i r e c t o r i e s , L t d . , 1957.  Guelph,  Winnipeg:  Hender-  133. McWilliams, Margaret. Manitoba Milestones. Toronto and L o n d o n : J.M. Dent a n d S o n s , L t d . , 1928. Martin,  Chester. L o r d S e l k i r k 3 Work i n C a n a d a . Toronto: Humphrey M i l f o r d , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1916. 1  M e t c a l f e , J.H. The T r e a d o f t h e P i o n e e r s . Ryerson Press, 1932. Morton,  A r t h u r S,  Morton,  W.L. M a n i t o b a ; A H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1961.  1870-71. 1939.  Toronto:  A H i s t o r y o f t h e C a n a d i a n West t o T o r o n t o : Thomas N e l s o n a n d S o n s , L t d . , Toronto: University o f  . "The R e d R i v e r P a r i s h : I t s P l a c e i n the D e v e l o p m e n t o f M a n i t o b a , " M a n i t o b a E s s a y s , e d i t e d b y R.C. L o d g e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n C o . o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1937. Plant,  Marjorie. The Domestic L i f e o f S c o t l a n d i n t h e Eighteenth Century. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University P r e s s , 1952.  Watson, Robert. Dreams o f F o r t C o . , L t d . , 1931. Articles  Malvina. Winter,  C o w a n , A n n a M. Outfit  Stovel  o f F o r t G a r r y , " The Beaver, 1966, p p . k8-52.  "The E n d Comes...," P P . 56-59.  1957,  Winnipeg:  and Reprints  B a r t l e t t , Fred E. "The F a l l O u t f i t 296. S p r i n g , Bolus,  Garry.  The Beaver,  Outfit  288.  "Memories o f Upper F o r t G a r r y , " The B e a v e r , S e p t e m b e r , 1935, P P . 25-30.  266.  G l u e c k , A l v i n C , J r . "TheM i n n e s o t a R o u t e , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 286. S p r i n g , 1956, p p . kk-50. . "The R i e l R e b e l l i o n a n d C a n a d i a n A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s , " Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, XXXVI. September, 1955,  p p . 199-221. Heron,  Francis. Outfit  " T h e R e c o r d F l o o d o f 1826," T h e B e a v e r , S e p t e m b e r , 1950, p p . l|.2-IjFI  280.  MacLeod, Margaret Winnipeg,  Arnett. 1962.  RedR i v e r ' s F e s t i v e  Season.  134M o r t o n , W. L. " A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e Red. R i v e r C o l o n y , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , X X X . D e c e m b e r , 194-9,  305-321.  PP.  . " T h e C a n a d i a n M e t i s , " T h e B e a v e r , O u t f i t 280. S e p t e m b e r , 1950, p p . 3-7. A R e v i e w o f M a r c e l Giraud's Le Metis Canadien. Paris: Institut d' E t h n o l o g i e , 1945. Peeps,  J .C a l d e r . "Port Langley i n R e - C r e a t i o n , " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 288. A u t u m n , 1958, p p . 30-39.  R e a d y , W.B. 277. .  "Early Red R i v e r Schools," TheBeaver, D e c e m b e r , 1947, P P . 34-37-  "Norway H o u s e , " T h e B e a v e r ,  1949, Shave, H a r r y . Outfit  Outfit  Outfit  279. M a r c h ,  P P . 30-35. "Centenary o f a D i o c e s e , " The Beaver. 2 8 9 / " S e p t e m b e r , 1949, p p . 4-7.  T h o m a s , L e w i s H . " T h e H i n d a n d D a w s o n E x p e d i t i o n s , 1857-58," T h e B e a v e r . O u t f i t 288. W i n t e r , 1958, p p . 39-45. Wallace,  W. S t e w a r t . "Port William o ft h e P u r Trade," T h e B e a v e r . O u t f i t 279. D e c e m b e r , 1949, p p . 16-19.  Warkentin, John. Manitoba Settlement P a t t e r n s . A Paper Read b e f o r e t h eH i s t o r i c a l a n d S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f Manitoba. S e r i e s I I I , N o . 16. E d i t e d b y D o u g l a s Kemp. Winnipeg: H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society o f M a n i t o b a , 1961. Wilson,  Clifford. "Pounding P o r t Yukon," The Beaver, O u t f i t 277. J u n e , 1947, P P . 38-43.  135.  APPENDICES  APPENDIX I L I S T OP E X T A N T R E D R I V E R  BUILDING  TYPE  Chu r che s  Ki  1 do  Little  nan Britain  a  ARCHITECTURE  DATE  MATERIAL  1852  Limestone  1873  Limestone  St.  Andrew s  I8k5  Limestone  St.  Anne's  1862  Wood  St.  Clement's  i860  Limestone  St.  J a m e s•  1853  Wood  1875  Wood  1853  Limestone  1  b St.  Paul's  MASON McRae  McRae  Taylor  McRae  St. P e t e r ' s Forts  Lower F o r t Abell Big  Garry:  house  Limestone  1830  house  Men's  house  Stores (two)  Lime stone Wood;  1832-33  LeBlanc  stone  Limestone  LeBlanc  APPENDIX I -  BUILDING  Upper P o r t  Garry:  Port  Gate  Garry  Archeveche and  DATE  ca.  1852  l86k  Continued. MATERIAL  MASON  Limestone Limestone Wood  P r i v i e s (two) Bunn house  1862  Limestone  Taylor  Cowley  house  1862  Limestone  MaRae,  Glouston  Fraser  house  1835  Wood  I8k6  Wood  Mcrae,  Taylor  Grey Nuns  house  1  Inkster  house  1851  Wood  Kennedy  house  1870  Limestone  1866  Limestone  185k  Wood  1853  Limestone  Miss  Davis  Ross  house  St.  1  Andrew's  Scott Nisbet  school  rectory  Limestone  house hall  186k  Limestone  APPENDIX TYPE  BUILDING  Stores  John I n k s t e r ' s  Little 1873. a  until  St.  I - Continued.  DATE  store  MATERIAL  Wood  B r i t a i n was p l a n n e d b y James N i s b e t  Paul's  of  l8kk  was t o r n  MASON  down a b o u t  1868  i n 1865  b u t was n o t b u i l t  and not re-opened u n t i l  1875.  APPENDIX I - Continued.  WXLmm  TYFS Stores  John Ix&ster's store  MSB  MATERIAL  MASON  Wood  L l t t l e Britain was planned by «Tas»s Niabet i n 1865 but iras not built u n t i l 1873* a  b  S t . Paul«s of l 8 k k was torn down about 1868 and not re-opened u n t i l 18?5.  APPENDIX I I L I S T OP R E D R I V E R  Anglican  DATE  CHURCH  RELIGION  CHURCHES,  1812-18-70  MATERIAL  Holy T r i n i t y  1  1868  Wood  St. Andrew's  1  1831  Wood  2  l8k5  Limestone  1862  Wood  1860  Limestone  1  St.  Anne's  St.  Clement's  1  MASON  McRae  Taylor  S t . James*  1  1853  Wood  St.  1  1822  Wood  2  1832  Limestone  LeBlanc  3  1861  Limestone  McRae,  1861  Wood  S t . Mary' s 1  1855  Wood  1  182k  Wood  2  ca.lSkk  Limestone  3  ca.l868  Wood  St.  John's  Margaret's 1 J  St.  Paul's  Clouston  APPENDIX I I  RELIGION  MASON  MATERIAL  Peter's 1  1836  Wood  2  1853  Limestone  McRae  1852  Limestone  McRae  1868  Wood  St. Boniface 1  1820  Wood  2  1833  Limestone  3  1862  Limestone  Kildonan 1 Knox  Roman C a t h o l i c  DATE  CHURCH St.  Presbyterian  Continued  1  St. F r a n ^ o i s - X a v i e r  1  2 3 St.  Norbert  1  a.1829 1832  a.l8k0 1855  Wood Wood Wood Wood  11+1.  APPENDIX I I I RED P i e r r e LeBlanc, was  a "French-Canadian  i n t h e Hudson's Bay Company s e r v i c e  Factory and l a t e r in  1829  at Fort  by Governor  a temporary  George  He b u i l t  h o u s e s a t t h e Lower F o r t b e t w e e n 1835  a n d 1838,  a t York  He was s e n t t o F o r t  Garry  Simpson f o r whom he p r e p a r e d below  t h e b i g h o u s e a n d two s t o n e  i n the early  l830's.  ware-  Afterwards,  he d i d t h e s t o n e w o r k o f t h e w a l l s a n d  was t h e f i r s t  worked on t h e f i r s t  s t o n e mason i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t .  two s t o n e b u i l d i n g s a t R e d R i v e r ,  t h e powder m a g a z i n e a t o l d F o r t Provencher's  house  (1829).  A n g l i c a n church i n the He of  first  b a s t i o n s a t t h e Upper F o r t . LeBlanc  He  Garry.  o f good c h a r a c t e r , "  h o u s e a n d l a t e r b e g a n a new s t o n e f o r t  the Grand Rapids.  two  RIVER MASONS  a chief  factor,  (1830)  He a l s o b u i l t  a n d Mgr.  the f i r s t  s e t t l e m e n t , St. John's  m a r r i e d Nancy M c T a v i s h ,  the former  a n d was t r a v e l l i n g  f a m i l y t o t h e Columbia cidentally  Garry  District  i n 1838  stone  (1832). country wife  with h e r and h i s when he was a c -  drowned.  S o u r c e s ; T.C.B. Boon, The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h f r o m t h e Bay t o t h e R o c k i e s . T o r o n t o , 1962, p.31» L e t t e r f r o m Mgr. J.-N. P r o v e n c h e r t o Mgr. B.C. P a n e t , June 6, 1829, J o s e p h N o r b e r t P r o v e n c h e r , "Lettres de M o n s e i g n e u r J o s e p h - N o r b e r t P r o v e n c h e r , P r e m i e r E v e q u e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , " B u l l e t i n de l a S o c i e t e H i 3 t o r i q u e de S a i n t - B o n i f a c e , I I I , 1913, p.126; M a r g a r e t A r n e t t MacLeod, The L e t t e r s o f L e t i t i a H a r g r a v e . T o r o n t o , 191+7, p. 36 n . ; idem, " W i n n i p e g a n d t h e HBC, " The B e a v e r , O u t f i t 2 7 9 , J u n e , 191+9, p.5; A r t h u r S. M o r t o n , S i r G e o r g e Simpson, O v e r s e a s G o v e r n o r o f t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay Company. T o r o n t o , 191+!+, pp. 165-66.  Ik2.  APPENDIX I I I -  Continued.  Duncan MaRae, t h e H e b r i d e a n mason, Red R i v e r in  settlement  e a r l y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1838.  t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e Hudson's  the  bastions  later,  arrived  B a y Company.  i n the H e came  He w o r k e d u p o n  a t t h e U p p e r P o r t b e t w e e n 1838 a n d l 8 k 5 a n d  i n t h e l8k0's, on the w a l l s and b a s t i o n s  o f t h e Lower  Port. When h i s c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e C o m p a n y e n d e d , s e t t l e d w i t h h i s f a m i l y a t S t . Andrew's work  and d i d the stone-  o f s e v e r a l Red R i v e r churches and houses t h e r e a f t e r .  According  t o Samuel T a y l o r ' s  deacon Cowley's house and  McRae  Miss  Davis'  school  journal,  (1862-63), Cl866).  he w o r k e d o n A r c h -  S t . John's C a t h e d r a l He a l s o b u i l t  S t . Andrew's  Church  (l8k5-k9), where h e was i n j u r e d i n a f a l l ,  Church  (1852),  invalid  and St. Peter's  i n 1883 a n d d i e d i n  C h u r c h Cl853>.  I898 i n h i s 8 5 t h  (1863),  Kildonan  He b e c a m e a n year.  S o u r c e s : R o b e r t B. H i l l , M a n i t o b a : H i s t o r y o f I t s E a r l y Settlement, Development a n d Resources. Toronto, 1910, pp.177-178, 5 6 5 ; M a r g a r e t McBeth, The S t o r y o f K i l d o n a n P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h , 1851-1951. W i n n i p e g , 1951, P - b ; E l s i e McKay, e d . , S e l k i r k ' s 75th A n n i v e r s a r y . S e l k i r k , 1957, P . 1 3 ; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f S a m u e l T a y l o r , l 8 k 9 - l 8 6 3 , 1863-1867, I , J u l y , 1862, p.7k, I I , S e p t e m b e r , 1863, p . 2 0 , I I , O c t o b e r , 1863, P « 2 , I I , J u l y , l 8 6 k , p . 1 1 O c t o b e r , 1866, p . 3 7 ; R o b e r t W a t s o n , L o w e r F o r t G a r r y . W i n n i p e g , 1928, p p . 9-11.  143. APPENDIX I I I John Clouston Hebrides  Continued.  a c c o m p a n i e d D u n c a n McRae f r o m t h e  t ot h eRed River  Settlement  i n 1837-38.  He a l s o  came i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company. Probably bastions  I838  and  o fUpper Port  and thelate  Clouston  h e a n d McRae b o t h w o r k e d o n t h e w a l l s a n d Garry  l8ii0's.  a n d McRae b u i l t  St John's Cathedral  a n d Lower P o r t  Later, according  Garry  between  t o Samuel  Archdeacon Cowley's house  Taylor,  (1862-63)  (1863).  Sources: Public Archives o f Manitoba, Journal o f S a m u e l T a y l o r , l8li9-l863, 1863-1867, I , J u l y , 1862, p.74, I I , S e p t e m b e r , 1863, p . 2 , I I , O c t o b e r , 1863, P.2, I I , J u l y , 186k, p . l l j Robert Watson, Lower F o r t Garry. Winnipeg,  1928, pp.9-11.  144. APPENDIX I I I S a m u e l T a y l o r was  Continued.  b o r n i n 1812  Orkney I s l a n d s .  As  t h e Hudson's Bay  Company a n d was  where he  S e p t e m b e r 3,  arrived  years i n the  a y o u n g man  Southern  he  I836.  Department.  He  s e t t l e d at Mapleton,  he b u i l t  house  moved t o t h e Red  St. Clement's  Church.  ('1862-61+J a c r o s s t h e R e d  spent  However,  his 1862  of  s e n t t o Moose F a c t o r y ,  he  He  i n the  j o i n e d the service  s u m m e r o f 1857, family.  at F i r t h  River  twenty-one  during the  Settlement with  where b e t w e e n i860 He  also built  River from  St.  the  and Bunn  Clement's  and worked on Miss  D a v i s ' s c h o o l (1866) w i t h D u n c a n M c R a e .  He  Selkirk.  d i e d i n 1896  i n  Sources: T.C.B. B o o n , " B a c k g r o u n d a n d E a r l y H i s t o r y o f S t . C l e m e n t ' s , M a p l e t o n , " C e n t e n a r y , 1861-1961, S t . C l e m e n t ' s C h u r c h , M a p l e t o n . W i n n i p e g , 1961, p.10; E l s i e McKay, ed. S e l k i r k ' s 75th A n n i v e r s a r y . S e l k i r k , 1957, P P . 28-29; P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f M a n i t o b a , J o u r n a l o f Samuel T a y l o r ,  1849-1863, 1863-1867, 2 v o l s .  11+5. APPENDIX I V  BRIEF  BIOGRAPHIES  OF PERSONS M E N T I O N E D I N T H E T E X T Abel, Captain E. H u d s o n ' s B a y Company e n g i n e e r a t L o w e r F o r t A n d e r s o n , D a v i d (l8lk-l885) Anglican Bishop o f Rupert's  Garry.  Land.  B a l l a n t y n e , R o b e r t M. Cl825-l89li) A u t h o r who d i d s e r v i c e i n t h e HBC. B a n n a t y n e , A.G.B. Winnipeg merchant. B e g g , A l e x a n d e r (1839-1897) Winnipeg merchant and author. B l a c k , R e v . J o h n Cl8l8-l882) First Presbyterian minister  a t Kildonan.  B r y c e , R e v . G e o r g e ('l8kk-1931) Presbyterian minister and historian. C h r i s t i e , A l e x a n d e r (f1.l809-l8k9) Governor o f A s s i n i b o i a . C o c h r a n , R e v . W i l l i a m ("1798-1865) Anglican clergyman, b u i l d e r o f several Red River churches, and f o u n d e r o f t h e P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e settlement. Cowley, Rev. Abraham Anglican clergyman a t S t . Peter's. Davis, Matilda M i s t r e s s o fa boarding  school  for girls  a t S t . Andrew's.  D a w s o n , S i m o n J a m e s (1820-1902) C i v i l engineer and explorer. Finlay, Lieutenant George O f f i c e r i nt h e S i x t h Regiment o f Foot  I8I16 -4.8.  Fraser, Red  John River  farmer.  sent  t o Red River,  Ik6. APPENDIX I V - C o n t i n u e d . G a r r i o c h , R e v . A l f r e d C a m p b e l l Cl8k8-193k) Anglican clergyman and h i s t o r i a n . Gunn, D o n a l d (1797-1878) Historian and scientist. Harriott, Chief  John Edward f a c t o r o f HBC r e t i r e d  a tRed River.  H i n d , H e n r y Y o u l e ('1823-1908) Geologist and explorer. I n k s t e r , John Retired fur trader  a n d merchant  Jones, Rev. David Anglican clergyman  a t S t . John's  Kennedy, C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Arctic explorer.  near  St. John's.  and St. Paul's.  (l8lk-l890)  M u r r a y , A l e x a n d e r H u n t e r (l8l8-l87k) HBC f u r t r a d e r a n d e x p l o r e r . N i s b e t , J a m e s (l823-l87k) Presbyterian missionary  a t Kildonan.  P r o v e n c h e r , J o s e p h - N o r b e r t (I787-I853) F i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c B i s h o p a t S t . B o n i f a c e . Rindisbacher, P e t e r (I806-I83I4.) A r t i s t son o f a Swiss c o l o n i s t . R o s s , A l e x a n d e r (1773-1856) Historian and fur trader Ross, W i l l i a m Postmaster  retired  t oRed River.  a tRed River.  Scott, William Farmer a t S t . Andrew's. Simpson, S i r George (ca.I787-I86O) G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f o f R u p e r t ' s Land. S m i t h u r s t , R e v . J o h n (1807-1867) Anglican clergyman a t S t . Peter's. S o u t h e s k , J a m e s C a r n e g i e , S a r i o f (1827-1905) S c o t t i s h a u t h o r a n d a d v e n t u r e r w h o made a n e x p e d i t i o n  t o t h e N o r t h - W e s t , 1859-60.  114-7. APPENDIX I V -  Continued.  T a c h e , A.-A. (l823-l89ip F i r s t Roman C a t h o l i c A r c h b i s h o p T a y l o r , Rev. W.H. First Anglican  clergyman at St.  of St. James . 1  West, Rev. J o h n (ca.1775-l8k5) F i r s t A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y a t Red  River.  Y o u n g , R e v . G e o r g e (1821-1910) F i r s t Methodist clergyman at Red  River.  Boniface.  I N D E X TO Abel,  E.R. : h o u s e ,  RED  (186k).  Bannatyne,  A.G.B.: s t o r e ,  B i g house,  Lower P o r t  William:  Bunn, Thomas: house  110. 26-30,  Garry, 35,  house,  BUILDINGS  136.  26,  Archeveche, see Eveche  Bird,  RIVER  38,  33*  k l , 136,  l k l .  95.  CVictoria  Cottage),  33,  51,  119,  137,  26,  95,  137,  144. Colony Gardens, Cowley,  see R o s s , A l e x a n d e r : h o u s e .  Abraham; house  Dynevor,  35,  ( D y n e v o r ) , 26,  see Cowley, Abraham:  house.  Emerald Grove,  see McDermot, Andrew:  house.  E m e r a l d Lodge,  see McDermot, Andrew:  house.  Emmerlings Hotel,  113.  Eveche  ('1829), 2 6 ,  62, l k l .  Evlche  C1839), 2 6 , 35,  Ev&che  ( 1 8 6 k ) , 2 6 , 6 7 - 6 8 , 97,  D o u g l a s , 6,  Fort  G a r r y CD,  Fort  G a r r y ( 2 ) , see Upper  Fort  Gibralter,  Fort  Rouge,  Fraser,  5k,  k l , k k - k 5 , k7-k8,  Port  26,  6,  106, 27,  99,  62-63.  137-  119. 53,  106, Fort  l k l . Garry,  Lower  Fort  Garry.  103.  103.  William:  Grey Nuns' house,  house,  26,  12-13, 18,  Gunn, D o n a l d : h o u s e , Harriott,  Ik2-lk3.  J.E.: house  137. 26,  35,  k3,  50,  137-  35. (Hawthorne  L o d g e ) , 35,  38,  k6.  li+9. I N D E X TO R E D R I V E R B U I L D I N G S - C o n t i n u e d . Hawthorne  Lodge,  Holy T r i n i t y Inkster,  see H a r r i o t t ,  C h u r c h (1868)!,  J.E.:  house.  139.  J o h n : h o u s e ( S e v e n O a k s ) , 15-16, 2 1 , 2 6 , 9 5 - 9 6 , 113, 1 1 9 , 1 3 8 .  50-51,  John West's  (1).  Church, see S t . John's  Kennedy,  W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 137*  Kildonan  C h u r c h , 53,  Kittson,  N.W.: s t o r e ,  7 9 , 81,  33-34, 43,  89, 9 0 - 9 3 ,  95,  142.  136, l k o ,  113.  Knox C h u r c h (1868), I k O . Little  Britain  C h u r c h , 53,  136.  Lower  Church, s e e St. Andrew's  Church.  Lower  Port  20-21,  Garry (Stone Fort) , 1  106,  HI4.-II7,  136,  Lower  Fort  Garry, Abel house,  Lower  Fort  Garry, b i g house,  Lower  Fort  G a r r y , Men's h o u s e , 1 3 6 .  Lower  Fort  Garry, warehouses,  McDermot, Andrew: house  Miss  Church,  Davis'  137,  Privies, Rapids'  Eveche  Lower  Fort  110-112. Church.  ( T w i n O a k s ) , 2 6 , 33,  21-23,  102-103,  Garry.  o r E m e r a l d G r o v e ) , 1 8 , 35«  35, 38-40,  137-  office,  71,  20, 38, 136, l k l .  142, 144.  Nisbet Hall, Nor'Wester  seeB i g house,  seeSt. Paul's  school  38,  see A b e l , E.K.: house.  ( E m e r a l d Lodge  McDermot, Andrew: s t o r e , Middle  26-27,  llrl-lk3.  113.  ( l 8 6 k ) , 9 7 . 99,  137-  Church, see S t . Andrew's  Church  119,  150. I N D E X TO R E D R I V E R B U I L D I N G S - C o n t i n u e d .  Ross,  A l e x a n d e r : house  18-19,  Ross, W i l l i a m : house, Royal Hotel,  50.  ('Colony G a r d e n s ) ,  33, 137.  26,  113CLower C h u r c h )  (1),  19,  53,  74,  139-  St.  Andrew's Church  St.  Andrew's Church  St.  Andrew's r e c t o r y ,  St.  Anne's Church,  St.  Boniface  Church  St.  Boniface  Cathedral  (2), 53, 57-65, 71, 8 l , 95, 119-120,  St.  Boniface  Cathedral  (3), 53, 65-67, 99, 140.  St.  Boniface  Cathedral  ( k ) , 53,  St.  Clement's  St.  Franqois-Xavier  Church  (1),  19,  St.  Francois-Xavier  Church  (2),  53,  140.  St.  Francois-Xavier  Church  (3),  53,  140.  St.  James'  St.  John's  St.  John's  Church  St.  John's  Cathedral  C3), 53, 86-88, 91, 139, 142-143-  St.  John's  Cathedral  ( k ) , 53,  St.  Margaret's Church  St.  Mary's  St.  Norbert Church  (2), 53, 71, 74-79, 8 l , 95, 102, 136, 139, 142. 26,  33, 35-38, 137.  19, 53, 82-83, 136, 139. (1), 9,  Church,  C h u r c h , 11,  19,  53, 54-56, 68, 71, 140.  67.  53, 8k-86, 136, 139,  19,  53,  82,  C h u r c h ('1) ( J o h n W e s t ' s 57-59, 68, 71, 86, 139.  139, 141.  Church  119,  (2)  53,  120,  Ikk.  140.  136,  Church),  (Upper Church),  139.  9,  19,  53, 68-71, 74, 86,  88.  (1861), 19, 53, 82, 139-  (1855),  19,  2k, 53, 81-82, 139.  (1855), 53, 140.  53-54,  IkO.  151. I N D E X TO R E D R I V E R B U I L D I N G S -  (1), 18-19, 53, 74, 139.  St.  Paul's  Church (Middle  St.  Paul's  Church  St.  Paul's  C h u r c h ('3),  St.  Peter's  C h u r c h (1),  19,  53,  St.  Peter's  C h u r c h (2),  53,  79, 8 0 , 8l,  Scott,  Church)  C2), 53, 71-74, 77, 79, 139. 53,  W i l l i a m : h o u s e , 26,  Seven Oaks,  74,  32,  136,  139-  79, 119, l k o .  33,  119, 136,  IkO,  142.  137.  see I n k s t e r , J o h n : house.  Stone P o r t , see Lower F o r t  Garry.  T w i n Oaks,  school.  see M i s s  Davis'  Upper  Church, see S t . John's  Upper  Fort Garry,  26,  Upper  Fort Garry,  gate,  Victoria  Continued.  Cottage,  Church.  38, 102-llk, 117-119, 137, l k l , Lk2, 143108,  see Bunn,  137. Thomas:  house.  

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