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A comparative study of participants in lecture classes and participants in study discussion groups Buttedahl, Knute Bjarne 1963-12-31

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE CLASSES AND ; ' PARTICIPANTS IN STUDY ;  DISCUSSION GROUPS by KNUTE B. BUTTEDAHL B.Com., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1950  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (ADULT EDUCATION) i n the Faculty of Education  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1963  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e British  Columbia, I agree t h a t the  a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  University  of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y I f u r t h e r agree t h a t  permission  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may g r a n t e d by  the  Head o f my  It i s understood t h a t f i n a n c i a l gain  Department o r by h i s  s h a l l not  be  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  A p r i l 5,  1963  representatives.  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r  Faculty of Education  Date  be  Columbia,  written  permission.  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study i s t o analyze two d i s t i n c t methods of a d u l t education to determine i f there are any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between them with respect t o c e r t a i n selected socio-economic characteri s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The hypothesis assumes that there are no  s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l of confidence between adults enrolled i n lecture classes and those enrolled i n study-discussion groups. In the study design an e f f o r t was made t o reduce the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n so f a r as possible so that the primary variable would be the method employed i n the adult education programs.  Certain programs  conducted by the Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia during the f a l l of 1961 were used i n the study.  These i n -  cluded L i v i n g Room Learning groups which used the discussion group method and c e r t a i n Evening Classes which represented t h e class°method. Three research groups were constructed consisting of those part i c i p a n t s i n evening classes, those i n discussion groups, and a control group.  Data was collected from participants by a questionnaire. This  was analyzed and tested by the Chi Square test f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences. The results indicate that there are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people served by d i f f e r e n t adult education methods.  Differences were found i n age,  educational background, m a r i t a l status, occupation, and previous  iii experience i n adult education programs.  No s i g n i f i c a n t differences  were found with respect to sex, s o c i a l status, s o c i a l  participation  score, memberships i n community organizations, and length of residence.  In addition t h i s study revealed that participants i n  u n i v e r s i t y adult education are above average i n socio-economic status, are a c t i v e l y involved i n community organizations, and have l i v e d f o r a r e l a t i v e l y long period i n t h e i r present  community.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  The Setting of the Study  1  Statement of the Problem  4  The Hypothesis  .  Definition of Terms II.  5 7  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Literature on Characteristics i n Adult Education . . . Comparative Studies of Lecture and Discussion  III.  ....  7 11  Literature on Variable Characteristics  12  Relation to the Present Study  14  PLAN OF THE STUDY  16  Population Studied Characteristics Studied  16 . .  Procedure IV.  5  CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS  18 22  ...  25  Lecture and Discussion Participants Compared . . . . .  25  Significance of Comparative Characteristics  35  Similarities i n Characteristics Differences i n Characteristics  35 .....  40  Characteristics i n "Ways of Mankind" Control Group . .  43  CHAPTER V.  VI.  PAGE  SUMMARY AND COMPARISONS  48  Summary  48  Comparison with Other Studies  52  CONCLUSIONS  65 73  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A.  Questionnaire Used  76  APPENDIX B.  Table of Characteristics Studied  80  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II.  III.  IV.  V.  VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI.  XII. XIII.  XIV.  PAGE Age of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Lecture and. Discussion Groups . .  27  Educational Background of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  27  Occupational Grouping of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups . . . . . . .  30  S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score f o r Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  33  Number of Memberships i n Community Organizations Reported by Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  33  Length of Residence of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  36  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Other Educational Courses by P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Lecture and Discussion Groups Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Lectures by Lecture and Discussion P a r t i c i p a n t s . . . . .  . . . .  36  . . .  37  Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Discussion by Lecture and Discussion P a r t i c i p a n t s  37  Comparison of S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scores  46  C h i Square Test f o r S i g n i f i c a n t Differences Between C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Participants i n Lecture Classes and i n Study-Discussion Groups  47  Influence of Sex on S o c i a l Status i n Lecture Classes . .  52  Comparison of Age of Population i n Vancouver Commencing at Twenty Years -witni^gefof Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  54  Comparison of Marital Status of Population i n Vancouver with M a r i t a l Status of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  . . . .  54  vii TABLE XV.  XVI.  XVII.  XVIII.  XIX.  XX.  XXI.  XXII.  XXIII.  PAGE Comparison of Age of Adult Participants i n UniversitySponsored Part-Time Courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia with Age of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  57  Comparison of Marital Status of Adult Participants i n U n i v e r s i t y Sponsored Part-Time Courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia with M a r i t a l Status of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups  57  Comparison o f Educational Background of Adult Participants i n U n i v e r s i t y Sponsored Part-Time Courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia with Educational Background of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Lecture and Discussion Groups . . . . . . . .  58  Comparison of Educational Background of Participants i n Los Angeles Program with Educational Background of Participants i n Vancouver Program  58  Comparison of Number of Organizational Memberships Held by Participants i n Los Angeles Program with Those Held by Participants i n Vancouver Program . . .  60  Comparison of Marital Status of Participants i n • i Los Angeles Program with M a r i t a l Status of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vancouver Program  60  Tears of Schooling of Evening Class Participants i n F a l l of 1961 Compared t o Evening Class Participants i n Spring of 1962  63  M a r i t a l Status of Evening Class Participants i n F a l l of 1961 Compared t o Evening Class Participants i n Spring of 1962  63  Occupation o f Labor Force (Male and Female) i n Evening Classes i n F a l l of 1961 Compared,to Those i n Evening Classes i n Spring of 1962  64  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Within the past decade an increasing number of institutions of higher learning i n Canada and i n the United States have been adding study-discussion to their repertoire of methods i n adult education. While a number of published studies have reported on the relative effectiveness of discussion i n achieving certain educational goals, particul a r l y i n comparison with the more traditional technique of lecturing, no one appears to have attempted to analyze the participants to determine i f there are any differences i n the kinds of people served by different kinds of educational methods. I. THE SETTING- OF THE STUDY The Significance of Study-Discussion.  One of the most dramatic  developments i n adult education has been the phenomenal growth of l i b e r a l adult education through the use of the method which has become known as "study-discussion''.  Implicit i n this success i s the accep-  tance of t his method both by the participants and by the sponsoring institutions, however, a large share of the credit must go to three organizations—The Great Books Foundation, The American Foundation for P o l i t i c a l (now "Continuing") Education, and The Fund for Adult Education.  The support of these three foundations has affected the direc-  tion which study-discussion has taken.  The Great Books Foundation, established i n 1947, reports that i n 1957-58 approximately 35,OOG persons i n more than 1,100 communities i n the United States participated in Great Books discussion groups."" 1  In addition, a number of Great Books groups flourish i n Canada and abroad. The American Foundation f o r Continuing Education was founded i n 1947.  I t has reported that i n 1957-58 there were almost 10,000 par-  ticipants i n 400 communities taking part in discussion programs spon-  2  sored by this foundation.  During the same period programs developed  by The Fund f o r Adult Education involved another 10,000 adults.^  The  Fund also reports that during the period 1951 to 1958, i t spent over  4 two million dollars on i t s Experimental Discussion Project. In Canada the development of study-discussion has been slower but the last few years have witnessed an impressive spurt of activity. In I960 the Canadian Association for Adult Education set up a national distribution agency under the name of "Living Library" for the express purpose of promoting the use of packaged discussion programs.  Living  Library reports that during i t s f i r s t nine months of operation, i t The Future of Study-Discussion Programs. A Joint Statement by: The Great Books Foundation, The American Foundation for P o l i t i c a l Education, The Fund for Adult Education [White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, ca. 1959], P. 7. 2  I b i d . , p. 8.  3  I b i d . , p. 10.  ^Glen Burch. Accent on Learning (White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, I960), p. xiv.  3 d i s t r i b u t e d material to ninety-seven study-discussion groups across 5 Canada. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Within the framework of  non-credit adult education programs at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia two p r i n c i p a l educational methods are used.  On the one  hand, the older, t r a d i t i o n a l Evening Class non-credit program accounts f o r an increasing number of participants i n l e c t u r e classes on l i b e r a l arts t o p i c s , while on the other hand, the Study-Discussion Program i n the L i b e r a l Arts, f i r s t organized i n 1957,  has been  growing and accounts f o r a sizable share of the t o t a l enrollment i n a l l Extension programs. The Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia conducted study-discussion groups i n forty-two communities throughout the Province and involved almost 2,500 adults i n the three year period, 1957-1960.^  This compared with 25,600 adults enrolled i n  non-credit Evening Classes during the same period. Some Concerns of Adult Educators.  A frequently expressed  g o a l of adult education i s to broaden the base of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n s tend to a t t r a c t p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e that a r e d i f f e r e n t i n terms of such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as education, occupation, and socio-  . Peter. Martin, secretary of Living Library, i n a personal l e t t e r dated May 8, 1961. ^Study-Discussion—the F i r s t Three Years 1957-1960, a printed report, (Vancouver: Department of, University Extension, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia),I960).  4 economic status, but increasing concern i s being shown for"underp r i v i l e g e d " groups—those who are poorly educated and of low status. Adult educators are a l s o giving increased attention t o programing f o r s p e c i f i c groups with s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s or needs, such as univers i t y alumni, women, public leaders, or trade union members, to name but a few.  I f adult education i s to be more than " h i t and miss",  i t s organization and methodology must be based on c a r e f u l and continuing studies of the populations served. While adult educators have already noted trends towards the segregation of c e r t a i n a d u l t s into the various agencies of formal adult education, l i t t l e attention has been given t o the selection by c e r t a i n adults of various programs offered w i t h i n the same i n s t i t u tion.  An understanding of the r o l e that method plays i n a t t r a c t i n g  adults would provide the adult educator with another instrument to use i n designing programs to reach p a r t i c u l a r segments of the population. There i s a need f o r knowledge about whether d i f f e r e n t methods employed i n adult education appeal t o or a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t kinds of people and t h i s provides the focus f o r t h i s study. I I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  I t i s t h e purpose of t h i s study to analyze certain selected c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of participants i n liberal-education programs f o r adults offered by The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  These programs  represent two d i s t i n c t methods of adult education so that i t w i l l be  5 p o s s i b l e to determine i f there are any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between participants i n terms of the method. I I I . THE HYPOTHESIS  This study i s based on the hypothesis that there are no s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01  l e v e l between adults enrolled  i n l e c t u r e classes and those enrolled i n study-discussion  groups  with respect to c e r t a i n selected socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; specifically; 1.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n age.  2.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n length of  residence  i n the community. 3.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n socio-economic  4.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a -  status.  tion  scores. 5.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n previous experience  with e i t h e r l e c t u r e classes or study-discussion  groups.  IV. DEFINITION OF TERMS Evening Classes.  The class method as u t i l i z e d by the Univer-  s i t y Extension Department consists of a program of evening lectures conducted on the campus of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia located i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  The majority of the topics f a l l  under the category of "the l i b e r a l a r t s " .  Almost a l l leetures are  6 conducted by u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y members.  Most of the courses range  i n length from eight to twelve weeks, meeting i n the evenings f o r l | to  2 hours.  The t y p i c a l format f o r an evening lecture class includes  a one-hour presentation by the i n s t r u c t o r which i s followed by a quest i o n period.  Discussion by and among the participants i s seldom  u t i l i z e d o r encouraged. Study-Discus sion Groups.  The study-discussion method as  u t i l i z e d by the University Extension Department involves several p r i n cipal characteristics:  the discussion i s guided by trained leaders  who are not n e c e s s a r i l y experts i n the subject matter under discussion; the program involves a series of regularly scheduled meetings at which p a r t i c i p a n t s analyze and evaluate reading materials which have been assigned f o r home study; and the group meetings are designed t o stimul a t e i n d i v i d u a l achievement and growth rather than reaching any consensus or group conclusions. L i v i n g Room Learning.  In B r i t i s h Columbia the study-discus-  sion method i s conducted by the University Extension Department under the popular t i t l e o f Living Room Learning.  A t y p i c a l L i v i n g Room  Learning group consists of 15 participants who meet one evening a week f o r a ten or twelve week period.  As the t i t l e suggests these groups  meet i n private homes two hours at a time under the guidance of a volunteer leader who has been trained i n discussion techniques by the University Extension Department.  The topics are i n "the l i b e r a l a r t s "  and range from painting, poetry, drama, or the humanities, to economic and world a f f a i r s ; from anthropology and r e l i g i o n , t o philosophy and world p o l i t i c s .  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  In reviewing the studies that have been made of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n adult education programs, i t i s noted that they include a wide s e l e c t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s and a v a r i e t y of methods and  techniques.  Very few of these studies concern themselves e x c l u s i v e l y with programs i n the l i b e r a l a r t s and consequently they have l i t t l e v a l i d i t y f o r d i r e c t comparison with the present  study as i t cannot be assumed that  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n vocational or c r e d i t programs w i l l be the same as those i n non-credit l i b e r a l education programs since the motivation to participate i s different. Although a few studies of l i b e r a l a r t s programs deal e x c l u s i v e l y with the c l a s s method, studies on the use of the study-discussion method are sparse, and comparative studies concerned with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n classes and study-discussion are rare. I. LITERATURE ON CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULT EDUCATION A review of studies reporting the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p ants i n adult education  reveals two s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s .  Firstly,  programs using d i f f e r e n t methods tend to a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t kinds of adults.  Secondly, studies of s i m i l a r types of programs using the  same methods produce f a i r l y consistent p r o f i l e s of the adult p a r t i cipants.  Brunner points out that "an examination of the results of the many surveys of p a r t i c i p a t i o n suggests that however i n c l u s i v e i t s goals, each organization e n l i s t s those individuals who are attracted by i t s program, and i t s clientele".'*'  Brunner contrasts p u b l i c school  adult education which a t t r a c t s a l a r g e r proportion o f young adults and those with l e s s than a high school education, with the Federal Extension Service which reaches adults under t h i r t y l e a s t e f f e c t i v e l y but reaches more people with high school and some college education.  He  c i t e s "descriptive studies of l i b r a r y users, enrollees i n correspondence study and viewers of t e l e c a s t courses sponsored by u n i v e r s i t y extension d i v i s i o n s " as r e i n f o r c i n g the impression that there i s considerable d i v e r s i t y among the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t education. A report by Knox^ on l i b e r a l adult education a l s o notes the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among p a r t i c i p a n t s enrolled i n several d i f f e r e n t programs, although there are also some consistencies noted which might be attributed t o the nature of the subject matter and o f the sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Knox's comparative summary of student  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ^ revealed some d i f f e r e n c e s i n age, education, and occupation between discussion groups, lecture courses, and seminars.  ?33dmund deS. Brunner, et a l . , An Overview of Adult Education Research (Chicago: Adult Education Association o f the U.S.A., 1959), P. 92. 2  I b i d . . p. 95.  3Alan B. Knox, The Audience o f L i b e r a l Adult Education (Chicago: Center f o r the Study of L i b e r a l Education f o r Adults, 1962).  4  I b i d . , p. 24.  9 There i s , however, a consistency s i m i l a r t o that reported by Verner and Newberry  who noted that participants i n u n i v e r s i t y extension are,  on the average, better educated and with a higher socio-economic status. By contrast, the study by A l l i s o n and Kempfer^ of private home study schools revealed that a d i f f e r e n t kind of adult enrolled i n correspondence courses.  He tended t o be male, married, and young.  The median age was 26.5 years and only one-half of the students were high school graduates.  Home study education makes i t s greatest  impact on the s k i l l e d , t e c h n i c a l , and professional occupational groups. There are further differences among those who enrol i n studydiscussion groups.  7  8  9  Kaplan , Davis , Burch , and H i l l  10  , a l l produce  a consistent p r o f i l e of the study-discussion p a r t i c i p a n t .  11  This  ^Coolie Verner and John Newberry, "The Nature o f Adult P a r t i c i pation", Adult Education, v o l . VIII, no. 4 (Summer 1958), pp. 208-222. ^Helen A l l i s o n and Homer Kempfer, Private Home Study i n the United States, A S t a t i s t i c a l Study (Washington, D.C: National Home Study Council, 1956). 7 Abbott Kaplan, Study-Djscus3ion i n the L i b e r a l Arts (White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, I960).  8  James A. Davis, et a l . , A Study of Participants i n the Great Books Program (White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, I960),  9  Burch, op. c i t . ^ R i c h a r d J . H i l l , A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods (White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult.Education, I960). ^*A d e t a i l e d comparison of these findings as they relate t o t h i s study i s presented i n Chapt. V.  p a r t i c i p a n t tends t o be female, married, and a college graduate; professional o r managerial i n occupation, and f a l l i n g into the age group between 35 and 45 years.  As F l e t c h e r ^ points out i n the 2  preface to each of these studies, "The studies themselves make i t c l e a r that the reading-discussion method a t t r a c t s a p a r t i c u l a r kind of audience, and that the l a r g e r population from which i t i s drawn has many other tastes and p r o c l i v i t i e s " . Similar conclusions were reached by Brunner when commenting on the discussion program of the Great Books Foundation and on the Los Angeles metropolitan area d i s c u s s i o n program i n the l i b e r a l a r t s .  He  concluded that, "they are most s e l e c t i v e with respect to education, economic status, and occupation... Both of these programs draw heavily from the better-educated segment of the population with above average  .. incomes".  13  A report on the non-credit evening c l a s s e s ^ conducted by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia suggests that "socio-economic  factors  play a considerable part i n the composition of adult evening classes".  12 C. Scott F l e t c h e r was President o f the Fund f o r Adult Education, publishers o f these f o u r research studies.  13  Brunner et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 94-  14 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Univers i t y Extension, "A Report of the Geographic V a r i a t i o n i n Greater Vancouver of Registration i n Non-credit Evening Courses on Campus i n the F a l l of 1958", (December, 1958, mimeographed). Vide A l i c e Lindenberger and Coolie Verner, "A Technique f o r Analyzing Extension Course P a r t i c i p a n t s " , Adult Education, v o l . XI, no. 1 (Autumn, I960).  11 Even when distance of place of residence from the campus was taken into account, a higher proportion of the participants came from sections having a higher percentage of professional and business people and higher income groups.  Counselling experience revealed "that adults  whose formal education did not go beyond elementary school or a few years of high school, frequently feel that courses offered by a university are not within their scope". Similar characteristics were revealed by Jones"'"'' i n his study of university non-credit evening class participants.  He found over sixty  per cent of his sample had some school attendance beyond high school graduation and over one-half reported proprietary, managerial, or professional occupations. II. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF LECTURE AND DISCUSSION In a search for literature comparing adult participants i n lecture classes with those i n discussion groups only one major study i n the area of l i b e r a l education was found.  This study at the University  of California at Los Angeles was reported by H i l l . ^ 1  Since H i l l was  concerned primarily with the effects of the two methods upon participants, lesser attention was paid to the possibility of similarities or  H. Gordon Jones, "A Test of Validity of Place of Residence as an Indicator of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Participants i n University Non-credit Evening Classes" (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1962). P  16  H i l l , op. c i t .  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . i n the two programs. H i l l concluded that " i n general, the same kind of people were attracted 17 by both methods". 18 An i n v e s t i g a t i o n by Ashmus and Haigh  revealed that there i s a  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student preferences f o r the  teacher-centered  approach i f they have no previous experience with group-centered methods.  Students having past experience with both methods show no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n preference f o r e i t h e r . 19 Kaplan's study ' a l s o revealed differences between those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n study-discussion groups and those i n the regular extension courses.  He reported that study-discussion attracted more women,  older and better educated adults, and that they were mainly i n profess i o n a l occupations.  He also concluded that p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the d i s -  cussion program were not t y p i c a l or representative of the general adult population. III.  LITERATURE ON VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS  S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s defined by Brunner as "inter-action with others i n a s o c i a l l y defined r e l a t i o n s h i p wherein the roles of those  18 Mable Ashmus and Gerard Haigh, "Some Factors Which May Be Associated With Student Choice Between D i r e c t i v e and Non-Directive Classes, "American Psychologist, v o l . VTI ( 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 2 4 7 , c i t e d by Richard J . H i l l , I b i d . , p. 1 0 5 .  19 Kaplan, op_. c i t .  13 20 p a r t i c i p a t i n g are more or l e s s structured  and mutually understood".  Since t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f i t s organized adult education, research i n the area of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n offers further clues about and the differences  i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults who  attests to  p a r t i c i p a t e at  d i f f e r e n t rates and i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of adult education a c t i v i t i e s . 21 Brunner s review of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n indicates T  such differences.  In urban communities occupation i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to formal p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Brunner reports that the highest rate of par-  t i c i p a t i o n i s evidenced by "professional-technical" personnel.  and managerial  Service and u n s k i l l e d workers are least a c t i v e .  testimony i s provided by Verner and  Newberry who  Further  point out that d i f -  ferent organizations draw t h e i r memberships from d i f f e r e n t occupational 22 groups. Brunner also suggests that i t i s probable that those with more education are more highly motivated to participate,, and further,  that  the s o c i a l standing of an i n d i v i d u a l i n the community "profoundly a f 23 f e c t s his p a r t i c i p a t i o n , no matter how  h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s measured".  Verner and Newberry's review corroborated the f a c t that  20  i s greater f o r those Brunner, et aofl .higher , op_. c istatus. t . , p. 99  21 I b i d . , chapt. VI. ^^Vemer and  Newberry, op_. c i t .  23 ^Brunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . , p.  105  participation  14 Age was reported by Brunner t o be associated with differences i n rates and patterns of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Youth and young adults  p a r t i c i p a t e l i t t l e with the peak of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a l l i n g within the age group t h i r t y - f i v e t o f i f t y , a f t e r which there i s a decline i n part i c i p a t i o n among the older groups i n the population.  As Verner and  Newberry noted, the younger and the older adults are generally the l e a s t active p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns d i f f e r between men and women. Brunner points out that "men usually p a r t i c i p a t e more heavily than women i n non-church formal a s s o c i a t i o n s " ; ^ however, Verner and New2  berry report that urban, middle c l a s s women attend more meetings more r e g u l a r l y , although men i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s belong t o more organizations. IV. RELATION TO THE PRESENT STUDY Although the participants i n adult education are not representat i v e of the general adult population, the studies c i t e d give support to the contention that even among these p a r t i c i p a n t s there i s considerable d i v e r s i t y .  While c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n t programs o r methods evidence  some consistency i n some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the adults enrolled, other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s show great d i f f e r e n c e s . The studies which d e a l t with lectures alone or with discussion  I b i d . , p. 106  alone, must be approached with caution i n terms of t h e i r comparative value i n t h i s present study. considered.  The variable of subject matter must be  For t h i s reason the studies of programs i n the l i b e r a l  arts^5 have greater significance f o r t h i s study and w i l l receive comparative treatment i n Chapter V. Further caution i s needed.  Unless participants are given an  obvious opportunity t o make a choice between the two methods then the resultant findings about t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l not necessarily reveal differences between participants i n the two types of programs. I t seems highly probable that a d i f f e r e n t set of values and expectations come into play i f the.decision i s between enrolling or not e n r o l l i n g i n one p a r t i c u l a r adult program, than i f the decision revolves around choosing between two alternative;methods. The only comparative study c i t e d was that reported by H i l l and he concluded, "In general, the same kinds of people were attracted  26 by both methods".  This conclusion i s being retested by the present  study i n terms of adults i n B r i t i s h  25 26  Columbia.  Kaplan, Davis, Burch, and Jones.  H i l l , op_. c i t . , p. 84.  CHAPTER I I I  PLAN OF THE STUDY  In order to examine the problem selected f o r t h i s study i t was necessary to c o l l e c t data about c e r t a i n selected socio-economic charact e r i s t i c s of participants i n two d i s t i n c t methods of adult  education.  The program conducted by the Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia provided the v a r i e t y of methods and the p a r t i c i p a n t s that would meet the requirements of the study.  I . POPULATION STUDIED In designing t h i s study an e f f o r t was made to reduce the dependent variables i n so f a r as possible so that the primary variable would be the method employed i n the adult education program. groups from the Extension Department a c t i v i t i e s i t was  By studying  selected  possible to control  such factors as subject matter, fee structure, s t a r t i n g time, duration of program, and geographic a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  In t h i s way the variable of  method could be i s o l a t e d and i t s influence analyzed. During the f a l l of 1961  the Extension Department program included  a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t adult education a c t i v i t i e s r e a d i l y available to any interested adult. selected.  For purposes of t h i s study, c e r t a i n programs were  These included s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s from the L i v i n g Room Learn-  ing series which employed the discussion group method and c e r t a i n Evening Extension Classes which represented the class method.  These two  types  of programs offered choices of l i b e r a l a r t s t o p i c s , at the same fee,  17 commencing i n late September and continuing for one evening a week for an eight to twelve week period.  Both types of programs were readily  accessible to residents of the area.  With such similarities, the  participants would be self selecting and any difference among characterist i c s of participants could be attributed or related to the difference in method. Three research groups were constructed consisting of those p a r t i c i pating in evening classes, those i n discussion groups, and a control group. Lectures.  Almost a l l Extension Department non-credit Evening  Classes are held on the campus of the University of British Columbia, situated i n the City of Vancouver.  Gut of the total Evening Class  program i n theFall of 1961, seven classes" " enrolling 272 adults were 1  selected for study as being most comparable to Living Room Learning i n terms of subject matter. Discussion.  A l l Living Room Learning study-discussion groups  functioning i n Vancouver during the F a l l of 1961 were included in this study.  Some 173 adults were enrolled i n thirteen discussion groups  i n topics  similar to those in the lecture classes.  Lecture topics included (with enrollment shown in brackets): World's Great Religions (128), Introduction to Philosophy (20), Prehistory of British Columbia (19), The Indomitable Romans (46), Introduction to the Appreciation of Literature (27), Faith i n Times of Disintegration (13), and The Ways of Mankind (19). ^Discussion topics included: Great Religions of the World, Philosophy i n the Mass Age, World Politics, Shakespeare and His Theatre, An Introduction to the Humanities, and The Ways of Mankind. .  18 Control Groups.  Although care was  taken to choose t e s t groups  with s i m i l a r subject matter content, a further control was u t i l i z e d s e l e c t i n g groups i n which the topic was identical.  "The Ways of Mankind" was  groups because i t was  not only s i m i l a r but  also  the topic chosen f o r the  r e a d i l y adaptable to both l e c t u r e and  by  control  study-  discussion and because i t s previous popularity would suggest that groups could once again be successfully started.  Advertising f o r both Evening  Classes and L i v i n g Room Learning s p e c i f i c a l l y pointed out the choice a v a i l a b l e between l e c t u r e and One  study-discussion  lecture class among the seven studied was  for this particular topic. devoted to The Ways of  Mankind, while t h i s same topic attracted three study-discussion  groups  out of a t o t a l of t h i r t e e n groups.  I I . CHARACTERISTICS STUDIED  Certain socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of participants were i s o l a t e d f o r study.  These tend to be the items most apt to indicate  differences among participants i n the two found to e x i s t .  methods i f such should be  Furthermore, these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are commonly  employed i n s o c i a l - s c i e n t i f i c research i n analyzing  groups.  The  follow-  ing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were selected f o r study. Age.  Age  has been used f a i r l y consistently as a measure of par-  t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education programs.  As Brunner points out,  "partici-  3 pation i n adult education decreases with age".  •^runner, et a l . , op. c i t . , p.  96  Verner and Newberry  19 report that "young adults of both sexes are generally poor p a r t i c i p a n t s " , and f u r t h e r "age, per se, however, i s not a serious b a r r i e r t o p a r t i c i -  4 pation.  Kind rather than the amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be a f a c t o r " . Length of Residence.  One of the sub—hypotheses i n t h i s study  concerns length of residence, which, according to Brunner, has been found t o influence formal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l communities.^  However,  according t o Verner and Newberry, "migrants to a community are l e s s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s than residents... Socio-Economic Status.  To determine s o c i a l status an index  7 developed by McGuire and White  was chosen because of i t s s i m p l i c i t y .  The McGuire and White index (short form) u t i l i z e d the three characterist i c s of occupation, source of income, and education. on a scale from 1 t o 7 and weighted.  These were rated  The scale f o r occupational ratings  developed by McGuire and White was replaced by a seven scale table of occupations developed by Blishen.  By using B l i s h e n s scale based on T  the 1951 Canada Census i t was intended t o ensure i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of occupat i o n a l ratings i n terms appropriate t o Canadian society.  In determining  Verner and Newberry, op_. c i t . , pp. 210-211.  5 Brunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 107 ^Verner and Newberry, op_. c i t . , pp.  210-211.  7 Carson McGuire and George D. White, The Measurement of S o c i a l Status. Research Paper i n Human Development No. 3 (revised), (Department of Educational Psychology, The University of Texas, Marchl955) Bernard R. Blishen, "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale", Canadian Society, S o c i o l o g i c a l Perspectives, (Toronto:  Macmillan, 196lTpp. 477-485. .  20 the index f o r housewives, occupation of head of household was used. As Davis expressed i t , " i n our society a married woman's s o c i a l status  9 i s generally determined by her husband's occupation, not her own". A. Occupation.  No separate hypothesis was proposed about  occupation, but i t i s an important component of the measure of s o c i a l status.  Yet occupation i s important i n i t s own right since i t "also  10 appears to be highly related t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education". B. Source of Income. ing the index of s o c i a l status.  Source of income was used i n developMcGuire and White point out that the  kind of income appears to be more important than the amount. The  11 reputed main source of income i s symbolic of placement C. Educational Background.  i n the community.  "Amount of formal schooling  appears t o be the most s i g n i f i c a n t determinant of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l  12 forms of adult education which has been studied".  No s p e c i f i c  hypothesis on educational background was proposed i n t h i s study, but t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c served as one component i n the index of s o c i a l status. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score.  A scheme f o r c a l c u l a t i n g s o c i a l  p a r t i c i p9a t i o n scores, devised by Lionberger and Coughenour,^ was used Davis, et a l . , oj>. c i t . , p. 18. ^ Brunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . . p. 96. G  McGuire and White, op_. c i t . , p. 9  12 Brunner, et a l . , l o c . c i t . "^Herbert F. Lionberger and Milton C. Coughenour, S o c i a l Structure and D i f f u s i o n of Farm Information. Research B u l l e t i n 631, (Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri, College of A g r i c u l t u r e , A p r i l 1957).  21 i n t h i s study.  This scheme i s a modification of the Chapin S o c i a l 14  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale, was  but i t i s simpler to use and u t i l i z e d data which  r e l a t i v e l y easy to procure.  Each p a r t i c i p a n t was  rated on the number  of memberships i n community organizations, weighted by the amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each organization.  For purposes of a n a l y s i s , Lionberger  and Coughenour's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of scores was used—none (zero score), low p a r t i c i p a t i o n (1 to 9 score), and high p a r t i c i p a t i o n (score of 10 and  over). S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t to i d e n t i f y the type and  extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c i v i c , s o c i a l , community, or professional organizations or clubs i n order t o evolve the s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score. Brunner reports that "people a c t i v e i n formal organizations tended to have more education and higher incomes and socio-economic status than others".^"'' Previous Part i c i p a t i o n .  Previous experience within the l a s t  three years i n other educational courses was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study.  another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  Within three years was  stipulated to lessen  the effect of memory l o s s and to reveal a consistent pattern of part i c i p a t i o n i n adult education rather than a sporadic pattern. who  Adults  are products of our formal.educational system may w e l l i d e n t i f y  the l e c t u r e with the a c q u i s i t i o n of f a c t , information, and knowledge, 14 F.S. Chapin, "Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n and S o c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 4 , no. 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 3 9 ) . ^^Edmund deS. Brunner, The Growth of a Science (New York: and Brothers, 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 108.  Harper  22 and understandingly may hesitate to t r y other educational methods.  How-  ever, adults who have had experience with the study-discussion or other methods may  perceive that s a t i s f y i n g educational and other goals are  attainable by methods other than l e c t u r e s . Sex.  Sex i s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c frequently studied i n adult  education programs.  I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y important  factor i n inter-  preting other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as age, occupation, and m a r i t a l status, as w e l l as being a fundamental f a c t o r i n describing any p r o f i l e of participants.  Verner and Newberry conclude that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  16 women increases as s o c i a l status and the degree of urbanism increases. Marital Status.  The m a r i t a l status of adults has consequences  f o r the s o c i a l roles they are c a l l e d upon to play and i n turn the extent of t h e i r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Verner and Newberry point out that  "married persons are generally more active members of formal organiza17 t i o n s than e i t h e r single or widowed persons".  III. A l l data f o r t h i s study was  PROCEDURE collected from p a r t i c i p a n t s by means  18 of a questionnaire  which was d i s t r i b u t e d to seven lecture classes and  16 Verner and Newberry, op. c i t . , pp. 210-211 1 7  Ibid.  18 A sample of the questionnaire i s included i n the Appendix.  t h i r t e e n study-discussion groups during the fourth and f i f t h week of operation of the two programs.  The questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d ,  completed, and collected together before the evening's program was introduced.  No one refused t o complete a questionnaire, although a  number of participants had dropped out of the program or were absent the p a r t i c u l a r evening the questionnaire was  on  administered.  The questionnaire was devised to pose nine questions to the p a r t i c i p a n t s to reveal the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s chosen f o r t h i s study. D i r e c t questions produced data on the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : length of residence, age grouping, m a r i t a l status, sex, educational ii background, number of memberships i n formal organizations, extent-of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these forrtal organizations, occupation of p a r t i c i p ant or of head of household, main source of income, and extent of part i c i p a t i o n i n educational courses within the l a s t three years. The resultant data was analyzed by applying a Chi Square t e s t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l . An a d d i t i o n a l questionnaire containing two f u r t h e r questions  was  given to the control group which was composed of participants i n the l e c t u r e and i n the study-discussion groups dealing with the topic Ways of Mankind".  "The  The f i r s t question was intended to reveal the extent  to which those enrolled i n the control group were aware of a choice of method being a v a i l a b l e on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c .  The other question  was open-ended and searched f o r reasons f o r choosing t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group.  The answers given were analyzed to determine i f geographic  location of the groups, or i f location of residence of the participant was a factor i n selection by the participant of a particular group, or i f some other factors were present which were not inherent i n the methods studied.  CHAPTER IV  CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS  The comparative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l participants i n l e c t u r e classes and i n study-discussion  groups are analyzed f i r s t i n t h i s  chapter followed by a summary of the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences o f adult participants i n the two methods.  F i n a l l y , a comparison i s made  between l e c t u r e and discussion participants i n the control groups where the subject matter was held constant.^" I. LECTURE AND DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS COMPARED  A general explanation of the data c o l l e c t e d from a l l p a r t i c i pants i n the lecture classes and a l l those i n the  study-discussion  groups i s presented here under the various categories  of characteris-  tics. Sex.  A study of the data procurred from adults i n a l l l e c t u r e  classes reveals a r a t i o of four women t o one man o r 79-2 per eent women. Participants i n a l l the discussion groups studied were d i s t r i b u t e d i n a r a t i o of seven women t o three men. cent of the discussion Age.  Thus, women accounted f o r 68.8 per  participants.  Median age i n l e c t u r e classes.was t h i r t y - f i v e years, with  more than one-third  of the participants being twenty-nine years o r  A d e t a i l e d summary of a l l data collected i n t h i s study i s presented i n Appendix "B . n  younger.  As Table I on page 2? reveals, one-half of the lecture  participants (49.5 per cent) were younger than thirty-five years. The remainder were distributed f a i r l y evenly throughout the other age categories. In the discussion groups the median age was forty-one years. There were few younger people. younger.  Only 7.8 per cent were twenty-nine or  Almost 61 per cent were forty years and older as shown i n  Table I. Educational Background.  Lecture participants included a high  percentage of university graduates. graduated from university.  Over a third reported having  With another one-quarter reporting some  university experience, i t i s apparent that 60 per cent of the lecture participants have been involved i n higher education at some point i n their l i f e cycle.  The high level of educational background among the  lecture participants i s given further support i n Table II on page 2.7" which shows that only 10 per cent had not completed high school. A study of the discussion participants reveals that 63 per cent had high school graduation or less. s i t y graduates.  Only 19.8 per cent were univer-  As Table II indicates almost 26 per cent of the  discussion participants had not completed high school. An examination of these discussion participants who had not completed high school t e l l s us that exactly one-half were forty-five years or older, compared to 38 per cent i n this age category i n the total discussion population.  27  TABLE I AGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  Age i n years  Lecture  %  N .  30 -  .  .  . ...  34  36.0  64  24  45 - 49  178  Total  Discussion N % 7.8  13.5 12.9 10.1 12.4 11.2 3.9  9 19 17 26 17 20 7  16.5 14.8 22.6 14.8 17.4 6.1  100.0  115  100.0  TABLE I I EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  N  .  .  .  .  Completed high school (Grade 12) . .  Total  Discussion  Lecture  Educational Level  . . . .  4  53 . .  43 54  178  %  N  .6 2.2 7.3 29.8 24.2  4 3  23  % 3-5 2.6  19.8  5.6  43 20 20 3  37.1 17.2 17.2 2.6  100.0  116  100.0  30.3  28 Among the eighteen lecture participants represented i n the 10 per cent net completing high school, exactly one-half were forty-five years or older, yet i n the total lecture group only 27.5 per cent f e l l into this age group. Marital Status.  An examination of marital status i n lecture  groups reveals that 49 per cent were married and 41 per cent were single. Separated, widowed, and divorced accounted for the remaining 10 per cent. Only 15 per cent of the discussion participants were single, while 75.6 per cent were married.  The remaining 9.6 per cent included  separated, widowed, and divorced.  The 15 per cent single were d i s t r i -  buted i n a ratio of 8 women to 2 men as compared to a 7 to 3 ratio i n the total discussion population.  The married participants were 63 per  cent women and this compared with the 68.8 per cent women for the total discussion population. In the lecture classes 68 per cent of the married participants were women compared to the 79.2 per cent women i n the total lecture population. Occupation. occupations.  Table III on page 30 indicates the distribution of  Almost 35 per cent of the lecture participants are  accounted for i n the professional, managerial, and proprietary categories.  Another 31 per cent are housewives.  When housewives are  distributed among the occupational categories i n terms of the occupation of the head of the household, we find an 18 per cent increase i n the upper categories.  Professional, managerial, and proprietary  occupations then account f o r 52.8 per cent of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The other 13 per cent of the housewives are d i s t r i b u t e d f a i r l y evenly i n t o the other occupational categories. Only 20 per cent of the discussion participants reported profess i o n a l , managerial, o r proprietary occupations, but 46 per cent were housewives.  The housewives reported the head of the household i n  occupations accounting f o r another 26 per cent i n the upper categories. Thus, when housewives are d i s t r i b u t e d into the occupation of the head of the household, the professional, managerial, and proprietary categories account f o r 46 per cent of the discussion participants as indicated i n Table III.  The remaining 20 per cent of housewives are  evenly d i s t r i b u t e d among four other categories. C l e r i c a l occupations were indicated by 19.7 per cent o f the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s , while sales were indicated by 3.3 per cent.  The  category of blue c o l l a r , which included t e c h n i c a l , construction, indust r i a l , mechanical, transportation, communication, and skilled-workers, accounted f o r almost 8 per cent.  In the t o t a l lecture population  studied (N=178) only one service worker, a j a n i t o r , was enrolled. Discussion participants reported 16.5 per cent c l e r i c a l occupat i o n s and 8.7 per cent i n sales. f o r almost 8 per cent. service occupation.  Blue c o l l a r occupations accounted  Not a single discussion participant l i s t e d a Some 4 per cent of the discussion participants  reported that they were r e t i r e d and no longer active i n the occupation listed.  TABLE I I I OCCUPATIONAL GROUPING OF PARTICIPANTS IN.LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  Percentage i n Lecture Classes "Occupational Grouping  Occupation of a l l Participants  Professional Managerial and Proprietary- ••a  Housewives Distributed v into Occupation of Head of Household  % Increase Attributed t o Inclusion of Occupation of Head of Household  Occupation of a l l Participants  Housewives Distributed into Occupation of Head o f Household  % Increase Attributed t o Inclusion of Occupation of Head of Household  29.7  44.4  14.7  12.2  26.1  13.9  5.1  8.4  3.3  7.8  20.0  12.2  22.5  2.8  16.5  21.8  5.3  3.3  5.1  1.8  8.7  13.0  4.3  7.9  11.1  3-2  7.8  13.9  6.1  .6  .6  0  0  0  0  7.9  5.1  .9  5.2  4.3  0  Total  Percentage i n Discussion Groups  100.0  100.0  46.1  30.9  100.0  0"  100.0  46.1  31. Out of the t o t a l lecture group only four participants were This represented 212  retired.  per cent of the t o t a l lecture population  and t h e i r previous occupation i s included S o c i a l Status. for  i n the t o t a l l i s t i n g .  The McGui re-White Index of S o c i a l Status provides  f i v e l e v e l s — a n upper c l a s s , an upper and a lower middle c l a s s , and  an upper and a lower lower c l a s s .  In t h i s study only four l e c t u r e  p a r t i c i p a n t s (N=178) f e l l into the upper class to account f o r 2w2 cent.  per  The bulk of the l e c t u r e participants studied were d i s t r i b u t e d  i n t o the next two levels—45.5 per cent i n upper middle and 43.8 i n lower middle.  The two lower classes accounted f o r 8.5  per cent  per cent with  only one participant f a l l i n g into the lower lower category. A study of s o c i a l status among discussion participants that only one adult to the upper c l a s s . another 47.8  (0.9  indicates  per cent) scored s u f f i c i e n t l y to be assigned  Upper middle accounted f o r 36.5  per cent f e l l into lower middle.  p a r t i c i p a n t f e l l into lower lower c l a s s , but 13.9  per cent  Only one  and  discussion  per cent f e l l into  upper lower. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score.  Based upon the Lionberger-Coughenour  S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score, three l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community organizations were set:  ( l ) none, (2)  low,  and  (3) high.  cent of the lecture participants reported no p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Almost 25 Sixty  per  per  cent report low p a r t i c i p a t i o n and 15 per cent a high p a r t i c i p a t i o n score as indicated i n Table IV on page 33Some 21.8  per cent of the discussion participants reported no  32 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community organizations. s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores.  Over one-half reported low  The remaining 26 per cent had a high  score as presented i n Table IV. Memberships i n Community Organizations.  The 75 per cent o f  l e c t u r e participants reporting memberships i n community organizations denotes an impressive record.  While only 15 per cent had a high par-  t i c i p a t i o n score, and while 21 per cent hold membership i n only one organization, some 54 per cent of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s reported two o r more memberships and of these 14 per cent hold four or more as shown i n Table V on page 33* While among the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s 21.8 per cent hold no memberships i n community organizations, some 60.8 per cent report two or more memberships and t h i s includes the 21.7 per cent who hold four or more memberships. Length of Residence.  A study of length of residence i n present  neighborhood reveals a high degree of permanence among lecture p a r t i c i pants.  Only 20 per cent have resided i n t h e i r present neighborhood  l e s s than two years, while 55 per cent have resided more than f i v e years.  Table VI on page 36 indicates that most changes of residence  have taken place within the area of metropolitan Vancouver.  Almost 80  per cent of the lecture participants have resided i n Greater Vancouver f o r more than f i v e years.  Only 6 per cent have resided l e s s than two  years i n Greater Vancouver. Table VT also reveals that very few discussion participants  TABLE IV SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE FOR PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  Score  Lecture  None Low High . Total  Discussion  N  %  44  24.8  25  21.8  107  60.1  60  52.2  27  15-1  30  26.0  178  100.0  115  100.0  N.  Jg  TABLE V NUMBER OF MEMBERSHIPS IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS REPORTED BY PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE.AND DISCUSSION GROUPS , .  Discussion  Lecture  Number of memberships N  ... .  Total  38  178  N  %  24.8  25  21.8  21.3  20  17.4  27.5  27  23.5  12.4  18  15.6  9.0  13  11.3  5.0  12  10.4  100.0  115  100.0  are newcomers to the community.  Only 11 per cent have resided l e s s  than two years i n t h e i r present neighborhood or 5 per cent i n the Greater Vancouver area.  Over 66 per cent report more than f i v e years  residence i n t h e i r present neighborhood.  Within the Greater Vancouver  area almost 86 per cent of the discussion participants have resided more than f i v e years. Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Educational Courses•  A substantial  number of the lecture participants were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i r f i r s t educational program within recent years as indicated i n Table VII on page 36.  Twenty-seven per cent had not p a r t i c i p a t e d within the l a s t  three years. who  Analyzing the type of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the 73 per cent  had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some educational a c t i v i t y , whether i t be other  l e c t u r e courses, discussion groups, seminars, or workshops, reveals that most of t h e i r previous experience was with l e c t u r e s .  Slightly  more than 60 per cent of the t o t a l l e c t u r e population studied had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n other l e c t u r e courses, but only 13 per cent had p a r t i c i pated i n d i s c u s s i o n courses, almost 24 per cent had taken part i n three or more l e c t u r e courses, while only 3 per cent had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n three or more discussion groups. these f i g u r e s .  Tables VIII and IX on page 3^ summarize  A l l data i s baSedon p a r t i c i p a t i o n within the l a s t three  years. Discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s evidenced a high degree of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational courses.  Only 9.6  per cent reported no  p a r t i c i p a t i o n within the l a s t three years as indicated i n Table VII.  35 The remaining 90.4 per cent had taken part i n some type of educational course.  Most of t h i s previous experience was centered around l e c t u r e  courses and discussion groups.  While 40 per cent had participated i n  l e c t u r e courses, some 75 per cent had previous experience i n discussion courses.  As summarized i n Tables VTII and IX on page 37, over 31 per  cent had taken three or more discussion courses, although only 6 per cent had participated i n three or more lecture courses.  II.  SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS  The s i g n i f i c a n t differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between characterist i c s o f lecture participants and of study-discussion  p a r t i c i p a n t s , as  determined by the Chi Square Test, are outlined i n t h i s section.  2  A. S i m i l a r i t i e s i n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . When c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l adults enrolled i n the lecture classes were compared to a l l adults enrolled i n discussion groups and tested f o r significance by the use of the c h i square t e s t , f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s revealed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .01 l e v e l of confidence between l e c t u r e and discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s — ( 1 )  sex, (2)  s o c i a l status, (3) s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score, (4) memberships i n community organizations, and (5) length of residence. Sex.  Lecture classes enrolled 79.2 per cent women compared t o  A summary of the results of the Chi Square Test i s included i n Table XI on page 47.  36 TABLE VI LENGTH OF RESIDENCE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  ,, „ Length o f Residence i n Years  Lecture l * Present Neighborhood 1  N Less than 2 2 to 5 • . . More than 5  . . . . . .  Total  35 44 98 *177  %  Discussion  In Greater Vancouver Nil  In Present Neighborhood N  %  19,8 11 24.9 26 55.3 139  6.2 14.8 79.0  13 25 76  100.0 *176  100.0  114  %  In Greater Vancouver  %  N  6 10 98  5.3 8.8 85.9  100.0 114  100.0  11.4 21.9 66.7  ^Difference i n t o t a l s due t o two incomplete questionnaires.  TABLE VII PARTICIPATION IN OTHER EDUCATIONAL COURSES BY PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS ...  P a r t i c i p a t i o n within the l a s t three years  Lecture N  Did p a r t i c i p a t e Did NOT p a r t i c i p a t e  Total  Discussion %  N  %  130  73.0  104  90.4  48  27.0  11  9.6  178  100.0  115  100.0  37 TABLE VIII PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN LECTURES BY LECTURE AND DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS  Lecture Participants Studied  Number o f LECTURE courses p a r t i c i p a t e d i n within l a s t three years  .  No p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . •  N  %  *  70 66 26 16  39-3 37.1 U.6 9.0  69 39 7 0  60.0 33-9 6.1 0  178  100.0  115  100.0  • *  Total  N  Discussion Participants Studied  TABLE IX PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN DISCUSSION BY LECTURE AND DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS  Number of DISCUSSION courses participated i n within l a s t three years  Lecture Participants Studied  N  N  No p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 or 2 courses 3 or 4 courses 5 or more courses Total  . . . . .  Discussion Participants Studied  155 18 4 1  87.0 10.1 2.3 .6  29 50 20 16  25.2 43.5 17.5 13.9  178  100.0  115  100.0  68^8 per cent i n discussion groups.  While t h i s difference i s s t a t i s -  3 t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e .01 l e v e l of confidence, a t the .005 l e v e l .  i t was ruled out  This p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was judged at the  .005 l e v e l , to reduce the chance o f error because the d i s t r i b u t i o n was v i o l e n t l y skewed by data from the Ways of Mankind control lecture group. This p a r t i c u l a r group enrolled a l l women and the sample collected was small (N=ll).  The data c o l l e c t e d revealed no obvious reason f o r the  complete absence of men from t h i s group. S o c i a l Status.  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference a t the  .01 l e v e l was found i n s o c i a l status as between l e c t u r e and discussion participants. two classes.  In both populations the bulk of the adults f e l l into Upper middle class accounts f o r 36.5 per cent of the  discussion.participants  and 45-5 per cent of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Lower middle class participants were represented by 47.8 per cent i n discussion and 43.8 per cent i n l e c t u r e s .  Thus, these two s o c i a l  status classes together accounted f o r 84.3 per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s and 89.3 per cent of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score.  As Table IV on page 33 summarized,  24.8 per cent of the l e c t u r e participants scored "zero" compared t o 21.8 per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s .  S i x t y per cent of the  l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s scored "low" compared t o 52.2 per cent of the  ^The c h i square t e s t r e s u l t was 6.693 compared t o a r e j e c t i o n value of 6.635 at the .01 l e v e l of confidence.  j discussion participants. T h i s s l i g h t tendency toward a=. h i g h e r ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n score on the p a r t o f a d u l t s i n d i s c u s s i o n groups i s ! confirmed by the "high" score which i n c l u d e s 26 p e r cent o f the > 1  discussion participants, but only 15.1 per cent of the lecture p a r t i c i pants; however, the chi square test shows that this was not a statis- • t i c a l l y significant difference at the .01 level of confidence. Memberships i n Community Organizations.  Although this charac-  t e r i s t i c forms the foundation for the calculation of the Social P a r t i c i pation Score, i t has been analyzed separately to provide a further dimension to our understanding of the participant population.  Table V  on page 33 attests to the very close relationship between lecture and discussion participants i n terms of their memberships i n community organizations.  Among the lecture participants, 21.3 per cent hold one  membership, 27-5 per cent hold two, 12.4 per cent hold three, 9 per cent hold four, and 5 per cent hold five or more. Discussion participants reported that 17.8 per cent hold one a  membership, 23.5 per cent hold two, 15.6 per cent hold three, 11.3 per cent hold four, and,10.4 per cent hold five or more.  The slight  tendency for discussion participants to hold more memberships, coincides with their slightly higher participation score but this difference was not sufficient to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .01 level. Length of Residence.  This was another characteristic which  evidences a close relationship between adults i n lectures and adults i n discussion groups.  The chi square test revealed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant difference at the .01 level i n length of residence either i n present neighborhood or i n Greater Vancouver.  As Table VI on page  36 indicates, most of the population studied have lived i n Greater Vancouver more than five years—79 per cent of the lecture participants  40 and 85.9 per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Even i n comparing  length of residence i n present neighborhood, a majority of the p a r t i c i pants have resided more than f i v e years—55.3 per cent i n l e c t u r e s , 66.7 per cent i n discussion.  Again the close relationship between  l e c t u r e and discussion participants i n respect to length of residence is  evident.  B. Differences i n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . More s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the purposes of t h i s study were the charact e r i s t i c s of adults which showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Upon a p p l i c a t i o n of the c h i square t e s t t o t h e data from a l l l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s and from a l l discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences a t the .01 l e v e l of confidence were found i n s i x a r e a s — ( l ) age, (2) educational background, (3) marital status, (4) occupation, (5) previous experience i n l e c t u r e classes, and (6) previous experience i n discussion groups.  Table X on page46 i l l u s -  t r a t e s these r e s u l t s . Age.  Pronounced differences are revealed i n an investigation  of the ages of participants i n l e c t u r e and discussion groups.  Median  age i n lectures was 35 years and i n discussion i t was 41 years.  While  i n lectures 49.5 per cent were 34 years or younger, i n discussion only 24.3 per cent f e l l into t h i s category.  On the other end of the age  s c a l e , i n discussion groups 59.9 per cent were 40 years and older compared to 37.6 i n l e c t u r e s .  F i f t y years and older accounted f o r  41 15.1  per cent i n lectures but 23.5  per cent i n discussion.  The  r e l a t i v e older age of discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s i s quite apparent i n Table I on page 27. Educational Background.  S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences  were revealed between l e c t u r e and discussion participants i n terms of t h e i r educational background.  Some 63 per cent i n discussion had high  school or l e s s , compared to 39*9 i n l e c t u r e s . accounted f o r only 19.8 35.9  University graduates  per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s but  per cent of the adults i n l e c t u r e s .  Table I I on page 27 a t t e s t s  t o the higher, educational background of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Marital Status.  Married p a r t i c i p a n t s accounted f o r three-  quarters of t h e t o t a l discussion population, but only one-half of the lecture participants.  Separated, widowed, and divorced accounted f o r almost  i d e n t i c a l percentages—9.6 i n discussion and 10.G  i n lectures.  Table  XIII on page 54 i l l u s t r a t e s the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s i n g l e adults. Occupation.  A s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater number of housewives  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n discussion groups, 46.1 cent i n l e c t u r e s .  per cent compared to 30.9  The remainder account f o r 29.7  per  per cent i n profes-  s i o n a l occupations among the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s as compared to only 12.2  per cent among adults i n discussion.  As Table I I I on page 30  i n d i c a t e s , the other occupational groups showed only small differences between l e c t u r e and discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s . ences were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  However, these d i f f e r -  42 When the housewives category was  eliminated and d i s t r i b u t e d into  the other seven occupational categories on the basis of the occupation of the head of the household, the resultant d i s t r i b u t i o n was d i s t o r t e d i n one category—managerial  and proprietary.  head of household occupations) add only 3*3  While housewives (through  per cent to managerial  proprietary i n lecture c l a s s e s , i n discussion they add 12.2  and  per cent.  Almost one-half of the housewives i n l e c t u r e classes reported the head of the household to be i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l grouping, while i n d i s c u s s i o n groups housewives reported almost one-third i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and another one-quarter i n managerial and proprietary occupations. One other occupational category revealed considerable d i f f e r ences.  Thirteen per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s reported sales  occupations compared to 5.1 per cent of those i n l e c t u r e s . Previous Experience i n Lecture Classes. reported 60 per cent who  Discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s  had not participated i n other l e c t u r e courses  w i t h i n the l a s t three years, while lecture participants reported per cent who ence was  had not participated previously i n l e c t u r e s .  statistically significant.  39.5  This d i f f e r -  The greater previous p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n i n l e c t u r e courses by the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s studied was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the 23.6  per cent who had taken three or more lectures  courses compared to only 6.1  per cent of the discussion participants  included i n t h i s study and reported i n Table VII on page 36 and Table VIII on page 37. Previous Experience i n Discussion Groups.  Tables VIII and IX  43 on page 37 reveal a paradox.  Only 25.2 per cent of the discussion  p a r t i c i p a n t s reported no previous discussion experience within the l a s t three years, while 87 per cent of the adults i n lecture classes reported no previous experience i n discussion.  The c h i square t e s t  revealed t h i s d i f f e r e n c e to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Some 31.3 per cent of the discussion participants had previous experience i n three or more discussion courses but only 2.9 per cent of the l e c t u r e participants had such intensive experience i n discussion. I I I . CHARACTERISTICS IN "WAYS OF MANKIND" CONTROL GROUP Although a l l the l e c t u r e and discussion groups dealt with subject matter i n the l i b e r a l a r t s , there were small differences i n the actual t o p i c offered.  In an attempt t o i s o l a t e any differences which might  be attributed to the subject matter, the data obtained from "The Ways of Mankind" l e c t u r e class and discussion groups was analyzed  separately.  F i r s t , the question o f awareness o f choice was studied. upon r e p l i e s t o the question,  Based  "Were you aware that there was a choice  a v a i l a b l e between e n r o l l i n g i n a lecture class or e n r o l l i n g i n a studydiscussion group f o r the WAYS OF MANKIND course?" awareness of choice a v a i l a b l e was determined.  Almost unanimous awareness was evidenced  by both Mankind lecture and Mankind discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s . The answers revealed: Were aware  Not aware  Mankind lecture p a r t i c i p a n t s  10  1  Mankind discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s  21  1  kk Thus, choice of method by most participants in the Mankind control groups was made with an awareness that there was a choice of method available.  It i s interesting to note that fifteen of the discussion  participants (N-22) had had previous experience in discussion compared to only one of the lecture participants (N»ll), while eighteen i n the Mankind discussion groups or 81.8 per cent had experience in lectures compared to 72.7 per cent in the Mankind lecture class.  Therefore,  adults enrolled in Mankind discussion groups revealed greater previous experience with both methods compared to adults i n the Mankind lecture class who evidenced no previous experience with discussion. The reasons given for the choice of method were analyzed to determine i f geographic location of the group was a factor in this choice.  Only one participant in the total Mankind control group  (N=33) made mention of location by reporting, "nearness to my residence". This participant was also identified as the one adult in Mankind discussion who was not aware of the availability of a choice in method. A l l other Mankind participants gave reasons considered inherent in the particular method chosen. Adults enrolled i n the Mankind lecture class gave reasons such as:  "Expected to get more", "Enjoy lectures", "Not enough time to do  reading", "Felt I need to know more to enter a discussion group". Adults enrolled in the Mankind discussion groups reported: "Wanted to discuss", "Wanted to meet new people", "Knew the leader", "Had previous experience i n discussion groups".  When Mankind lecture classes were compared to Mankind discussion groups, statistically significant differences at the .01 level of confidence were found i n the same six categories as found i n the total groups, namely:  (l) age, (2) educational background, (3) marital  status, (4) occupation, (5) previous experience in lecture classes, and (6) previous experience i n discussion groups However, two characteristics which evidenced no significant differences between the total lecture and the total discussion populations, did reveal significant differences between Mankind lecture and Mankind discussion.  One of these characteristics was social status.  Mankind discussion participants were distributed as follows: Upper class  0  per cent  Upper middle class  50.0 per cent  Lower middle class  40.9 per cent  Upper lower class  9-1 per cent  Lower lower class  0  per cent  Mankind lecture participants were distributed thusly: Upper class  0  per cent  Upper middle class  9.1 per cent  Lower middle class  81.8 per cent  Upper lower class  9-1 per cent  Lower lower class  0  per cent  It was noted that i f the upper and lower middle class categories are combined into one class, then both distributions become identical as follows: ^-Complete comparative data i s presented i n Appendix "B".  46 Upper class  0  per cent  Middle class  90.9 per cent  Lower class  9*1 per cent  Because the data i s confined to only three classes out of a possible five, and because of the ease with which the frequencies can be manipulated as shown above, as well as because of the small sample (N=ll) available from the Mankind lecture group, i t i s possible that the difference i s not as significant as f i r s t  concluded.  The other characteristic was social participation score, which revealed no statistically significant difference at the .01 level between a l l lecture and a l l discussion groups, but which did produce a significant difference between Mankind lecture and Mankind discussion, as shown in the following table. TABLE X COMPARISON OF SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES  Social participation Control Lecture  Percentage of Participants All Control All Lectures Discussion Discussion  Zero score  36.4  24.8  31.8  21.8  Low score  63.6  60.1  31.8  52.2  0  15.1  36.4  26.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  High score  Total  ....  Again i t i s possible that t h e small sample i n the Mankind lecture c o n t r o l group (N=ll) which d i s t r i b u t e d into only two categories out of a possible three, has distorted the d i s t r i b u t i o n curve beyond permissible l i m i t s and rendered the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence meaningless.  TABLE XI CHI SQUARE TEST FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE CLASSES AND IN STUDY-DISCUSSION GROUPS  Charact e r i st i c s Tested  Degrees of Freedom  1  Chi Square A l l Groups  6.693**  Control Groups  1021.352  6  43.638  50.154  6  38.050  1382.579  . . . ,  4  37.539  95.130  Educational Background.  6  45.594  795.065  M a r i t a l Status  4  7.620*  204.275  2  8.492*  1341.449  Length o f Residence i n Present Neighborhood  2  6.275*  Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Lectures . . .  3  25.128  Previous P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Discussion . .  3  548-300  Social Participation  *Not a s i g n i f i c a n t difference a t the .01 l e v e l . *Not a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .005 l e v e l .  1.431* 188.272 . 2442.240  CHAPTER ?  SUMMARY AND COMPARISONS  This chapter w i l l synthesize the findings from t h i s study o f the data collected from participants i n lecture courses and i n studydiscussion groups.  Relevant portions o f the data and the findings of  several other investigations are then compared with t h i s study.  I.  SUMMARY  Adults i n t h i s study who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l e c t u r e classes and i n discussion groups were found t o have a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common.  Almost three-quarters of the participants were women.  The  d i f f e r e n c e of about 10 per cent between the sexes i n l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n groups was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The bulk of both populations f e l l into two s o c i a l status c l a s s e s . Close t o 90 per cent were contained i n the upper middle and i n the lower middle c l a s s e s . In terms o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , over one-half scored "low . 11  Nevertheless, t h i s represented considerable community a c t i v i t y .  Three-  quarters of those studied reported memberships i n community organizations.  Almost t h r e e - f i f t h s of both populations studied held two o r  more memberships.  Discussion participants revealed a s l i g h t l y higher  degree of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and held more memberships, but t h i s difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Both populations revealed a c e r t a i n tendency towards permanence i n residence.  Eighty per cent and more had l i v e d i n the Greater Vancouver  area f o r more than f i v e years.  Only about one i n twenty had resided  l e s s than two years i n Greater Vancouver.  Even within t h i s l a r g e r com-  munity the participants i n t h i s study d i d not indicate any p a r t i c u l a r mobility.  About 60 per cent had resided more than f i v e years i n t h e i r  present neighborhood within the Greater Vancouver area. A few s t r i k i n g and s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences were a l s o revealed i n t h i s study.  Adults p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l e c t u r e classes  and those i n d i s c u s s i o n groups revealed pronounced differences i n age. The adults enrolled i n discussion groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y older than those enrolled i n l e c t u r e classes.  One-half of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i -  pants were l e s s than t h i r t y - f i v e years of age, while 61 per cent of the adults i n discussion groups were f o r t y years or older. Educational background was another source o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences.  Sixty per cent of the lecture participants were  u n i v e r s i t y graduates or had received some education beyond high school, compared to only 37 per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s .  While  only 10 per cent o f the l e c t u r e participants had not completed high school, i n discussion groups almost 26 per cent had not completed  high  school. Married adults comprised about one-half of the lecture p a r t i c i pants, but three-quarters of the discussion participants were married. Both groups only had about 10 per cent i n the category of separated, divorced, o r widowed.  Discussion groups a t t r a c t e d more housewives; almost one-half of the d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s compared to one-third i n l e c t u r e c l a s s e s . Occupations of the p a r t i c i p a n t s o r of the head of the household evidenced s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n groups. F o r t y - f o u r per cent i n the l e c t u r e c l a s s e s c i t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l occupat i o n s compared t o 26 per cent i n the d i s c u s s i o n groups.  However, a d u l t s  i n d i s c u s s i o n groups accounted f o r 20 per cent i n managerial and p r o p r i e t a r y occupations while only 8 per cent of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s reported these occupations.  Service workers were almost non-existent  i n both populations. Blue c o l l a r occupations and sales occupations accounted f o r very few p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e o n e - f i f t h of both l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s reported c l e r i c a l occupations. Few of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e t i r e d from a c t i v e work—4 per cent i n d i s c u s s i o n and about one-half t h i s percentage i n l e c t u r e s . D i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study evidenced a s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher record of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n courses.  Three-  quarters reported previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n compared t o 13 per cent of those who were enrolled i n l e c t u r e c l a s s e s .  Conversely, the  l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study reported 60 per cent previous experience i n l e c t u r e courses, while those e n r o l l e d i n d i s c u s s i o n groups reported 40-per cent.  D i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s on the whole showed a  considerably higher record of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational courses g e n e r a l l y — o v e r 90 per cent, while 73 per cent of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s reported previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational courses. This study a l s o revealed that the s p e c i f i c t o p i c w i t h i n the  general area of the l i b e r a l a r t s had l i t t l e apparent influence upon the type of adult who  enrolled.  When the subject matter was  held constant,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of participants showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences when compared to the r e s t of the populations studied. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , namely s o c i a l status and  Although  two  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score,  evidenced some s t a t i s t i c a l differences, these differences were viewed with caution because of the smallness of sample i n one l e c t u r e class arid because t h i s same class inexplicably skewed i n terms of sex. Table XII on page 52 indicates, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of sex has profound influence on s o c i a l status c l a s s . toward lower status compared to the men. among single women.  As  a  Women evidence a trend This i s even more pronounced  Therefore, Table XHwould appear to support the  contention that the d i s t o r t i o n i n the one l e c t u r e class i n terms of might ?have profound influence on s o c i a l status and s o c i a l The differences evidenced by these two f o r e , were not accepted as conclusive  sex  participation.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , there-  evidence of any fundamental  difference between the participants i n one s p e c i f i c subject matter area as compared to the rest of the populations studied.  However,  the need f o r further research seems indicated to re-test the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults when subject matter i s held constant. F i n a l l y , i n t h i s study the geographic l o c a t i o n of Evening Classes or of L i v i n g Room Learning groups was  not considered by par-  t i c i p a n t s to be a conscious f a c t o r i n t h e i r choice between educational opportunities.  52 TABLE XII INFLUENCE OF SEX ON SOCIAL STATUS IN LECTURE CLASSES  S o c i a l Status Categories  Percentages i n Lecture Classes Total  Male Only  Female Only  Single Female  2.2  5.4  1.4  0  Upper Middle Class  45.5  59.5  41.8  34.9  Lower Middle Class  43.8  27.0  48.2  57.1  Upper Lower Class  8.0  5.4  8.6  8.0  Lower Lower Class  .5  2.7  0  0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  Upper Class  Total  II.  COMPARISON WITH OTHER STUDIES  Interesting and revealing comparisons can be made with a number of other studies which report on the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults.  Such comparisons, however, are r e s t r i c t e d t o those studies  which report some data i n a form comparable t o the data c o l l e c t e d f o r this investigation. Canada Census, 1956.  A comparison of the age o f the discussion  and l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s with the population of Vancouver, as reported  i n the 1956  census,  reveals that the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of adults  enrolled i n discussion groups i s more nearly comparable to the t o t a l population than that of the l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s , although both show differences that are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t when compared to the t o t a l community.  As Table XIII on page %> indicates, l e c t u r e p a r t i c i -  pants account f o r almost double the proportion  of younger people,  t h i r t y - f o u r years of age and under, as are found i n the t o t a l community. Conversely, only about one-half as many adults aged f o r t y - f i v e years and over are found i n l e c t u r e classes.  The  s i g n i f i c a n t differences  i n age between l e c t u r e and discussion participants i s also found t o e x i s t between lecture participants and the t o t a l population of the community. Neither discussion participants nor lecture participants have any relationship to the general community i n terms of d i s t r i b u t i o n by sex.  While both lectures and discussions  a t t r a c t a preponderance of  women, the census figures reveal that women account f o r only 50.1 cent of the t o t a l Vancouver population over 19 years of  per  age.  In terms of marital status, the adults studied are d i s s i m i l a r to the t o t a l population of the community as outlined i n Table XIV on page 54'.  While the t o t a l community reports 24 per cent single, the l e c t u r e  p a r t i c i p a n t s studied report 41 per cent, but the discussion  participants  account f o r only about 15 per cent of the s i n g l e adults.  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada: 1956, Population. B u l l e t i n 4§14 (Ottawa; Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957),  54 TABLE XIII COMPARISON OF AGE OF POPULATION IN VANCOUVER COMMENCING AT TWENTY YEARS WITH AGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS .  Age i n Years  1956 Census %  Lecture %  Discussion %  34 or younger  29-4  49.5  24.3  35 t o hh  21.2  23.0  37.4  45 and older  49.4  27.5  38.3  Total  100.0  100.0  100.0  TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF MARITAL STATUS OF POPULATION IN VANCOUVER WITH MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  M a r i t a l Status  Married and Separated  Total  1956 Census %  .  . .  Lecture %  Discussion  41.0  14.8  64-9  51.2  76.8  9.5  6.7  5.2  1.1  3.5  100.0  100.0  100.0  55 The Adult Learner at University.  The Dominion Bureau of  Statistics in 1962 released figures on adult participation i n university sponsored courses i n British Columbia.  These data include both credit  and non-credit part-time courses, but s t i l l serve as useful comparison 2 with two specific non-credit part-time courses in the l i b e r a l arts. Age shows a statistically significant difference at the .01 level for discussion participants, but not for lecture participants, as revealed in Table XV on page 57.  Adults enrolled i n Evening Classes  are comparable in age to a l l adults enrolled in university sponsored part-time courses.  On the other hand, Living Room Learning enrolls  a decidedly older participant. The discussion participants reveal no statistically significant difference at the .05 level when marital status i s compared to that of a l l adults enrolled in university sponsored courses in British Columbia; however, lecture participants reveal a much higher proportion of single adults.  Table XVI on page 57 shows only 18.8 percent are single in the  total university sponsored part-time population, but Evening Classes i n the l i b e r a l arts enrolled 41 per cent who are single. A comparison of educational backgrounds i n Table XVII on page 58 confirms that there i s no statistically significant difference at the .05 level between Evening Class participants and a l l participants enrolled i n university sponsored part-time courses in British Columbia. Living Room Learning participants, however, reveal significant differences. ^Dominion Bureau of Statistics, The Adult Learner at University. Preliminary release, June 3> 1962 (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statist i c s , Education Division, Adult Education Section) (Mineographed).  56 R e l a t i v e l y fewer have had any u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and a greater r a t i o have high school or l e s s . C a l i f o r n i a Comparative Study.  Although the major purpose of  3 H i l l ' s study  at the University of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles was  to  assess the r e l a t i v e effectiveness of two methods, some of his data provide f o r useful comparisons with t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l were found i n comparing educational background i n both lectures and sions as portrayed  i n Table XVIII on page 58.  H i l l found no  discussignifi-  cant differences at the .05 l e v e l between discussion and l e c t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s with respect to education, but t h i s present study d i d f i n d such d i f f e r e n c e s .  Also i n t h i s study both l e c t u r e and  discussion  p a r t i c i p a n t s evidenced s i g n i f i c a n t differences when compared with H i l l ' s sample.  At the University of B r i t i s h Columbia both l e c t u r e and  discussion participants reported lower educational attainment. Table XIX on page 60 presents data on number of memberships held i n community organizations. at the .01 l e v e l .  Both the C a l i f o r n i a study and t h i s present study  conclude that the population tions.  No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were revealed  studied i s active i n voluntary  organiza-  M a r i t a l status shows s i g n i f i c a n t differences f o r both lecture  and discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Although discussion i n both studies  had  only 14 per cent s i n g l e p a r t i c i p a n t s , the C a l i f o r n i a program reported another 14 per cent were divorced, compared to 3.5 per cent i n t h i s H i l l , op.  ext.,  TABLE XV  57  COMPARISON OF' AGE OF ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN UNIVERSITY SPONSORED PART-TIME COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH AGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS  Age i n Years  University Sponsored %  Lecture %  Discussion %  34 or younger  53.2  49.5  24.3  35 to 44  28.2  23.0  37.4  45 and older  18.6  27.5  38.3  Total  100.0  100.0  100.0  Includes a l l c r e d i t and non-credit part-time courses.  TABLE XVT COMPARISON OF MARITAL"STATUS OF ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN UNIVERSITY-SPONSORED PART-TIME COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE^ AND DISCUSSION GROUPS = .  M a r i t a l Status  Single Married  University Sponsored %  Lecture %  Discussion %  18.8  41.0  14.8  48.9  75.6  3.8  10.1  9.6  100.0  100.0  100.0  77.4  Widowed, Separated, or Divorced Total  Includes a l l credit and non-credit part-time courses.  58  TABLE XVII COMPARISON OF EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN UNIVERSITY SPONSORED PART-TIME COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS !  Educational Level  University Sponsored %  Total  Discussion %  .6 2.2 7.3 29.8 24.2 35.9  .3 1.9 Completed High School . . ., .  Lecture %  30.7  100.0  3.5 2.6 19.8 37.1 17.2 19.8  100.0  100.0  Includes a l l credit and non-credit part-time, courses  TABLE XVIII COMPARISON OF EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS IN LOS ANGELES PROGRAM WITH EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND, OF. PARTICIPANTS IN VANCOUVER PROGRAM  Educational Level  Lectures % UCLA UBC  Completed Grade 8 or less 2.1 11.1 39.6  Total  100.0  2.8 7.3 29.8 24.2 30.3 5.6 100.0  Discussions ^ UCLA UBC .8 3.6 14.2 32.8 23.1 25.5 100.0  6.1 19.8 37.1 17.2 17.2 2.6 100.0  59 study.  While the C a l i f o r n i a l e c t u r e study revealed that 17 per cent  were s i n g l e , t h i s present study of lectures uncovered two and one-half times as many single p a r t i c i p a n t s , or 41 per cent, as indicated i n Table XX on page 60. Experimental Discussion Project Test Centers.  Analysis of data  c o l l e c t e d f o r The Fund f o r Adult Education from group participants i n t e s t center study-discussion programs i n the United States during the year 1956-57 was provided by Burch.^ More than 50 per cent of the registrants i n Test Center discussion groups were under 40 years o f age and about 5 per cent were 60 years o r older.  In the present study only 39 per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i -  pants were less than 40 years o f age, although only 6 per cent were s i x t y years o r older.  Living Room Learning p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be older  than t h e i r counterparts i n American programs. In the Test Center populations women outnumbered men by a r a t i o of s i x t o four, which compares c l o s e l y to the 69 per cent women found i n Living Room Learning groups. Educational background compared as follows i n percentages: Test Centers  L i v i n g Room Learning  High school graduation or l e s s . . .  13  63  College graduates  54  20  Obviously, the study-discussion program conducted by the University of  W ^ .  cit., pp. 56-57.  60 TABLE XIX COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERSHIPS HELD BY PARTICIPANTS IN LOS ANGELES PROGRAM WITH THOSE . HELD BY PARTICIPANTS IN VANCOUVER PROGRAM  Number of Memberships  Lecture and Discussion Combined ~ ~ U.C.L.A.g U.B.C*  None  20.9  1 2 3 4  23.3  20.0 12.7 20.9 11.8  5 or more  . . . . . . . . . .  Total  19.3 25.5 14.0 10.1  13.6  7.7  99.9  99.9  TABLE XX COMPARISON OF MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LOS ANGELES PROGRAM WITH MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN VANCOUVER PROGRAM  Marital  Lectures %  Discussions %  Status  UCLA  UBC  UCLA  UBC  Single Married Separated Widowed Divorced  .  17.0 74.9 9 2.1 5.1  41.0 48.9 2.3 6.7 1.1  14.6 64.8 2.4 4.0 14.2  14.8 75.6 .9 5.2 3.5  Total  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  61 B r i t i s h Columbia i s a t t r a c t i n g a considerably greater number of p a r t i c i pants with lower educational background than the study-discussion program i n the United States as represented by the t e s t center data.  The  reasons f o r such s i g n i f i c a n t differences are beyond the l i m i t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and require further research. The Test Centers a l s o reported that 42 per cent had l i v e d i n t h e i r respective communities f o r nine years or more. had l i v e d there two years or l e s s .  Only 20 per cent  A casual comparison with Living Room  Learning suggests a s i m i l a r pattern of established residence. Almost the i d e n t i c a l percentage of adults i n Test Center discussion groups were l i s t e d as housewives (45 per cent) as i n the Living Room Learning groups (46 per cent).  In terms of occupation i n the Test  Center groups 46 per cent were executives, proprietors, professionals, and semi-professionals.  This i s i d e n t i c a l with t h e experience of  L i v i n g Room Learning. Evening Class Test of a Methodology.  In February of 1962 Jones  undertook a study of Evening Class p a r t i c i p a n t s at the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia.''  His data was c o l l e c t e d only about four months a f t e r  the data collected f o r t h i s study and provides an excellent basis f o r comparison.  The February study produced evidence that 55.6 per cent  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were women, compared t o 79.2 per cent i n t h i s study of data c o l l e c t e d i n the F a l l of 1961.  5Jones, op., c i t .  Another difference was revealed  62 i n the number of housewives reported.  Jones found 47.7  per cent of  his t o t a l l e c t u r e sample were housewives compared t o only 30.9 found i n the l e c t u r e classes i n the present study.  per cent  The reasons f o r the  higher proportion of working women i n the present study as compared to Jones's study, are not evident from the data c o l l e c t e d .  Future research  seems warranted on the influence of subject matter and of seasonal v a r i a t i o n s on the kinds of adults enrolled i n Evening Classes. However, as Tables XXI and XXII on page 63 and Table XXIII on page 64 s i g n i f y , there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .05 l e v e l i n years of schooling, i n m a r i t a l status, or i n occupat i o n , as between the lecture participants i n the F a l l of l°6l and those i n the Spring of 1962.  Thus, the data collected on these three charac-  t e r i s t i c s was given credence.  63 TABLE XXI YEARS OF SCHOOLING OF EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN FALL OF 1961 COMPARED TO EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN SPRING OF 1962 -.  i  %  Years of Schooling  F a l l 1961  . .. .  Spring 1962 4.1 34.0 61.5 .4  37.1  100.0  100.0  Total  TABLE XXII MARITAL STATUS OF EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN FALL OF 1961 COMPARED TO EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN SPRING OF 1962  F a l l 1961 %  Marital Status  Single-. Married  . . . . . . . .  Widowed Divorced Total  .  Spring 1962 % .  Male  Female  Male  Female  27.0  44.7  27.0  36.6  73.0  45.4  71.3  56.5  0  8.5  1.1  5.5  0  1.4  .6  1.4  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  64 TABLE XXIII OCCUPATION OF LABOR FORCE (MALE AND FEMALE) IN EVENING CLASSES IN FALL OF I96I COMPARED TO THOSE IN EVENING CLASSES IN SPRING OF I962  Occupational Grouping  Percentage i n Lecture Classes F a l l 1961  Proprietary and Managerial . . .  Spring 1962  7.3  10.1  Professional  43.1  40.7  Clerical  28.4  20.9  4.9  11.-2  11.4  8.5  .8  3.5  4.1  5.1  Sales (including commercial and financial Blue Collar (including manufacturing, mechanical, construction, transportation, and communications) Service (including personal) . . A l l Other  Total  100.0  100.0  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS This study has determined that there are statistically significant differences i n the kinds of people served by different adult education methods. A pronounced difference was found i n the age of participants i n university sponsored non-credit l i b e r a l arts programs.  Lecture classes  attract almost one-half of their participants from the age group of thirty-four years or younger.  Discussion groups have few young people  and a disproportionately strong attraction for the older adult with some 61 per cent forty years of age or older. While the older adult may have attitudes more deeply rooted or more firmly fixed, this apparently did not deter him from enrolling in discussion groups in the liberal arts.  The choice of discussion by the  older adult suggests that there i s validity in the conclusion already enunciated by Powell to the effect that the older adult seeks opportunity to "think about what he already knows.  This i s the'opportunity that  the informal study-discussion process attempts to give him".^" It was hypothesized at the beginning of this study that there i s no significant difference in age.  This hypothesis must be rejected.  Compared to the 1956 census data for Vancouver, discussion groups  Powell, op. c i t . , p. 3'  66 a t t r a c t more middle aged adults than the community average but fewer older adults.  But lectures a t t r a c t almost double the community average  of adults t h i r t y - f o u r years or younger.  However, the lecture experience  i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y comparable t o the age of a l l adults enrolled i n univers i t y sponsored part-time courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Consequently,  adults enrolled i n the discussion groups are decidedly older than those enrolled i n the t o t a l u n i v e r s i t y sponsored part-time courses as well as being older than adults i n the lectures.  L i v i n g Room Learning p a r t i c i -  pants also tend t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y older than t h e i r counterparts i n American study-discussion programs. While adults whose formal education does not go beyond high school may f e e l that u n i v e r s i t y sponsored courses are beyond t h e i r capacity, a substantial number o f these same adults (63 per cent) seem motivated to take part i n L i v i n g Room Learning study-discussion groups sponsored by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The B r i t i s h Columbia experience  tends to contrast with the findings of Kaplan.  His study i n C a l i f o r n i a  l e d him to suggest that people who t y p i c a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i b e r a l a r t s  2 discussion programs have already had a great deal of formal schooling. However, adults enrolled i n Evening Class lectures on l i b e r a l a r t s t o p i c s f i t t h i s description more c l o s e l y .  Most of those studied i n  Evening Classes (60 per cent) have had some u n i v e r s i t y experience and t h e i r educational background i s very s i m i l a r to that of adults enrolled i n a l l u n i v e r s i t y sponsored part-time courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia. , op_. c i t . , p.  12.  67 Yet both lecture and discussion participants i n this study report lower educational attainment than the participants studied by H i l l i n his comparative study of lecture and discussion methods.  Living Room  Learning participants also evidenced considerably lower educational attainment than study-discussion participants in American Test Centers. The discussion program appears more attractive to married adults (75.6 per cent) while only one-half of the lecture participants are married.  The unmarried lecture participants in this study evidence a  stark contrast (41 per cent) to the single adults reported for the total community (24 per cent), or to the single adults enrolled i n a l l university sponsored part-time courses in British Columbia (18.8 per cent), or to the single adults studied in the California comparative study (17 per cent). This contrast to other studies was not duplicated by the data from adults in the Living Room Learning program.  To the contrary, the 14.8  per cent single adults i n discussion groups closely approximated the experience of a l l university sponsored part-time courses (18.8 per cent), and of the California comparative study (14.6 per cent), although i t did not f i t quite so closely to the 1956 census data (24.2 per cent) for Vancouver. Although the comparative study in California revealed no s i g n i f i cant differences between marital status of lecture and discussion participants, this present study revealed highly significant differences between adults drawn from the Vancouver area.  More housewives were attracted to Living Room Learning than to Evening Classes dealing with the l i b e r a l a r t s .  But both programs  a t t r a c t e d a sizeable percentage of housewives.  Both programs also are  characterized by a high proportion of women.  In discussion groups most  of these women are married and are housewives.  Although almost 80 per  cent of l e c t u r e participants are women, most of these are s i n g l e and young.  Although there i s no evidence of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  differences i n the sexes as between discussion and lecture participants, there i s a stark converse relationship noted i n r e l a t i o n to the community, since the census revealed only 50.1 per cent women i n the t o t a l community.  There may w e l l be sustenance i n the conclusion that men  tend to pursue courses f o r occupational, professional, or career purposes, while women, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those not i n the labor force, tend to be interested i n a more l i b e r a l education. While i t might be expected that adults who are r e t i r e d and have ample l e i s u r e time would be attracted to l i b e r a l arts programs, t h i s study d i d not substantiate such an expectation.  Very few—4 per cent  and l e s s — w e r e i n evidence i n either program studied. Participants i n both programs were concentrated i n the upper echelons of the occupational pyramid—professionals, managers, and proprietors. professionals.  Adults in.lecture classes tend disproportionately to be C l e r i c a l occupations accounted f o r about o n e - f i f t h .  Sales and s k i l l e d "blue c o l l a r " occupations are moderately  represented  but service and u n s k i l l e d are p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent i n both programs.  The housewives i n lecture classes are apt to have husbands who are i n professional occupations.  Housewives i n discussion groups tend  to have husbands i n managerial and proprietary occupations as w e l l as i n the professions.  The concentration of discussion p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o  the upper occupational groups p a r a l l e l s the experience of the American t e s t centers. Despite a number of seeming s i m i l a r i t i e s i n occupation between adults i n lectures and those i n discussion groups, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e noted. This study re-emphasizes the maxim that f a m i l i a r i t y (and possibly s a t i s f a c t i o n ) with one type of educational experience w i l l encourage a tendency towards choice by the p a r t i c i p a n t of that type of experience i n future enrollment.  Thus, adults i n lectures tended to have been  exposed previously to other l e c t u r e courses but to very few discussion groups.  Conversely, adults i n the discussion groups tended to have had  most of t h e i r previous experience with other discussion groups. Discussion participants on the whole showed a considerably higher record of previous experience i n educational courses.  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e between adults enrolled i n these two programs, demonstrating that we must reject the hypothesis that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n previous experience with e i t h e r lecture classes or studydiscussion groups. In a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences were evident.  Adults i n both kinds of program were above  70 average i n terms of s o c i a l status.  Rather than imply that adults of  a p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic status choose a p a r t i c u l a r kind of educat i o n a l opportunity or choose a p a r t i c u l a r method of learning, t h i s study suggests that an adult with high s o c i a l status i s more apt to be involved i n continuing education i n any form.  The adults studied d i d  not evidence any s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n s o c i a l status as between those enrolled i n discussion groups and those enrolled i n l e c t u r e classes. The hypothesis that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n socio-economic status must be accepted. The adults i n both programs are a l i k e also i n t h e i r degree of social participation. community organizations.  These are busy people belonging  to a number of  In t h i s respect they are very s i m i l a r t o the  adults i n the C a l i f o r n i a comparative study.  The varying i n t e n s i t y of  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by adults does not appear to influence t h e i r e n r o l l ment i n any p a r t i c u l a r program.  While there i s s t i l l room f o r future  speculation that i t i s the l i b e r a l a r t s subject matter which a t t r a c t s adults who are a c t i v e i n community a f f a i r s , t h i s study indicates that both the discussion p a r t i c i p a n t and the l e c t u r e participant are f a i r l y equally involved i n community a c t i v i t y .  We must accept the hypothesis  that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score. Although there may be s o c i a l implications to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n L i v i n g Room Learning and while such p a r t i c i p a t i o n may provide an opport u n i t y to meet people and make new f r i e n d s , i t was overwhelmingly c l e a r i n t h i s study that adults enrolled i n the discussion groups were not  newcomers t o the community.  To the contrary, these adults evidenced  roots i n the community by t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y long period of residence i n both the l a r g e r community and i n t h e i r respective neighborhood.  This  study also revealed that the adults enrolled i n l i b e r a l a r t s l e c t u r e classes evidenced the same r e s i d e n t i a l permanence.  Therefore, the  hypothesis that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n length of r e s i d ence i n the community must be accepted.  The highly mobile i n d i v i d u a l  i n our society, so often i d e n t i f i e d by the s o c i o l o g i s t , was conspicuously rare i n both the discussion and the l e c t u r e program.  This  pattern o f established residence coincides with the experience of American Test Centers. Geographic l o c a t i o n within the community of the l e c t u r e classes or of the discussion groups was not an important f a c t o r i n the choice of a p a r t i c u l a r program.  These adults also d i d not choose a p a r t i c u l a r  kind of program because i t was the only one that came to t h e i r attention.  Their choice was based on other f a c t o r s . This study makes i t c l e a r that i n the non-credit l i b e r a l a r t s  program sponsored by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, there are s i g n i f i c a n t socio-economic differences between those adults enrolled i n lecture classes and those enrolled i n study-discussion groups.  The  c  data i n t h i s study represents further evidence f o r the conclusions drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e on adult education t o the e f f e c t that adults who p a r t i c i p a t e i n u n i v e r s i t y extension classes are above average i n socio-economic status.  72 This study has also raised a serious question as to the v a l i d i t y of applying findings on socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of American populations  to the Canadian scene without further comparative studies.  Several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but educational background i n p a r t i c u l a r , have revealed stark differences between t h i s B r i t i s h Columbia study and the several American investigations which were c i t e d .  I t may be that  c u l t u r a l differences are a f a c t o r that need future attention. The need f o r caution i s exemplified further by H i l l ' s comparative study of lecture and discussion methods.  H i l l concluded, "In general,  the same kinds of people were attracted by both methods".  But t h i s  conclusion does not f i t the evidence c o l l e c t e d from adults l i v i n g i n Vancouver.  H i l l , op. c i t . , p. 84  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l i s o n , Helen and Homer Kempfer. P r i v a t e Home Study i n the United States. Washington, D.C.: N a t i o n a l Home Study C o u n c i l , 1956. B e l l , Wendell and Maryanne Force. "Urban Neighborhood Types and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Formal A s s o c i a t i o n s " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 21,(February, 1956^ pp. 25-34. B l i s h e n , Bernard R. "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class S c a l e " , Canadian S o c i e t y . S o c i o l o g i c a l Perspectives. Toronto: Macmillan, 1961. Pp. 477-485. Brunner, Edmund deS. "Adult Education and I t s Research Needs", Adult Education, v o l . X, no. 4, Summer, I960, pp. 218-227. .  The Growth of a Science.  New York:  Harper and Brothers,  1957. et a l . An Overview of Adult Education Research. Adult Educational A s s o c i a t i o n of the U.S.A., 1959.  Chicago:  Chapin, F. S t u a r t . " S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and S o c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . IV, no. 2 , \ A p r i l , 1939vDavis, James A., et a l . A Study o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Great Books Program. White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, i960. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . The Adult Learner at U n i v e r s i t y . (Preliminary r e l e a s e , June 3, 1962). Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Education D i v i s i o n , Adult Education Section. (Mineographed). . Census of Canada: 1956, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957.  Population. B u l l e t i n 4-14.  Ottawa:  The Future of Study-Discuss ion Programs. A J o i n t Statement by: The Great Books Foundation, The American Foundation f o r P o l i t i c a l Education, The Fund f o r Adult Education. [White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, ca. 1959]. H i l l , Richard J . A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods. White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, I960.  74 Jones, H. Gordon. "A Test of V a l i d i t y of Place of Residence as an Indicator of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Participants i n University Non-Credit Evening Classes". Unpublished Master's • thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. Kaplan, Abbott. Study-Discussion i n the L i b e r a l A r t s . N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, i 9 6 0 .  White P l a i n s ,  Knox, Alan B. The Audience f o r L i b e r a l Adult Education. Chicago: Center f o r the Study of L i b e r a l Education f o r Adults, 1962. Lindenberger, A l i c e and Coolie Verner. "A Technique f o r Analyzing Extension Course P a r t i c i p a n t s " , Adult Education, v o l . XI, no. 1, fAutumn, I960,. Lionberger, Herbert F. and Milton C. Coughenour. S o c i a l Structure and D i f f u s i o n of Farm Information. Research B u l l e t i n 631. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri, College of A g r i c u l t u r e , A p r i l , 1957. McGinnies, E l l i o t t and Willard Vaughan. "Some Biographical Determiners of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Group Discussion", Journal of Applied Psychology, v o l . 41, no. 3,?1957,; pp. 179-185. McGuire, Carson and George D, White. The Measurement o f S o c i a l Status. Research Paper i n Human Development No. 3 (revised"5T The University of Texas, Department o f Educational Psychology, K'March,  19552,  Powell, John Walker. Research i n Adult Group Learning i n the L i b e r a l Arts. White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education,. I960. Scott, John C , J r . "Membership and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Voluntary Associations", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . 22, no. 3, June, 1 9 5 7 | pp. 315-326^ 9  Study-Discussion—the F i r s t Three Years, 1957-1960. A printed report. Vancouver: Department of University Extension, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. Verner, Coolie and John Newberry. "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , Adult Education, v o l . VIII, no. 4, Summer, 195$lo PP» 208-222.  APPENDIX A  Department of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  Do n o t s i g n  ypur  name.  (76)  From 2 y r s to 5 y e a r s  Less than 2 years  More than 5 years  (1) C h e c k how many y e a r s y o u h a v e l i v e d i n Greater Vancouver Check  (2)  how many y e a r s y o u h a v e l i v e d i n your present ne i g h b o r h o o d  Check  your  age g r o u p :  29 y e a r s  Check  one:  Single? Married?  younger  30  to  34 y e a r s  Sepa ra ted?  35  to  39 y e a r s  Widowed?  40  to  44  45  to  49 y e a r s  50  to  59 y e a r s  60 y e a r s  (5)  or  (3)  C h e c k how m u c h Left  Divorced?  years  or  (4)  over  formal  education  Attended Completed Attended _____ G r a d u a t e d Received  grade high high  you have h a d :  completing  grade  8 but d i d not attend  school but d i d not school,  university from  Male Female  school before  Completed  Sex:  grade  further.  graduate.  12.  but d i d not graduate.  a university  an a d v a n c e d  8.  degree  (B.A. o r e q u a l ) . (M.A. o r h i g h e r ) .  (77) (6)  In how many c i v i c ,  social,  organizations  Check  t o what  or c l u b s  #1  Organization  #2  Organization  #3  Organization  #4  Organization  #5  Organization  #6  Organization  #7  List  membership?  i n each  group:  Attend Attend meetings me e t i n g s occa s i o n a l l y r e g u l a r l y  Member o f a committee  Hold an office  more i f  What i s your  „—.  ^ _ — ^ —  .._  (7)  or p r o f e s s i o n a l  do you h o l d  e x t e n t you p a r t i c i p a t e  Hold a membership  Organization  community,  ^  o c c u p a t i o n ( o r the o c c u p a t i o n o f the head  o f your  household)?  If  retired,  then check  If  a housewife,  If  you a r e s e l f - e m p l o y e d , t h e n  If  you a r e an e m p l o y e r ,  check  here here  ^ and l i s t and l i s t check  your your  here  t h e n how many p e r s o n s  former o c c u p a t i o n . husband's o c c u p a t i o n . . do you employ?  (78) ( 8 ) What (If  i s the main  source  you a r e a housewife,  Inherited Profits, a  share  Income  of your then  income?  check  Check  one c a t e g o r y .  the source  o f your  husband's  income. fees,  royalties;  including  e x e c u t i v e s who  receive  of the p r o f i t . from  investments.  S a l a r y , c o m m i s s i o n s , and r e g u l a r income on a m o n t h l y o r yearly basis. Wages o n a n h o u r l y b a s i s ; p i e c e - w o r k ; w e e k l y c h e q u e s a s distinguished  (9)  Within courses  If  from  Income  from  Social  assistance;  the l a s t  y e s , then  monthly.  "odd j o b s " ;  3 years  involving  income]  have  or seasonal  public  relief;  please  indicate  charity.  you p a r t i c i p a t e d  3 o r more m e e t i n g s ?  courses  Attended  lecture  courses  Attended  discussion  Attended  seminars  Attended  other  COOPERATION.  i n any e d u c a t i o n a l  Yes  how many  THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR  work.  No  of each  courses  and workshops  types  of courses  type:  APPENDIX. B  80 TABLE OF FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES FOR ALL CHARACTERISTICS STUDIED Number o f P a r t i c i p a n t s Characteristic  Discussion Groups  Studied  Control D„ c f  SEX "~Male  7  T o t a l Groups D  %  f  %  Control L„ c f  36  79  68.8  11  100.0  141  79.2  . 22  100.0  115  100.0  11  100.0  178  100.0  years o r younger - 34 years . . . - 39 years . . . - 44 years . . . - 49 years . . . - 59 years . . . years and over .  2 0 4 6 6 4 0  9.1 0 18.2 27.3 27.3 18.2 0  9 119 17 26 17 20 7  7.8 16.5 14.8 22.6 14.8 17.4 6.1  2 1 1 3 2 1 1  18.2 9.1 9.1 27.3 18.2 9.1 9.1  64 24 23 18 22 20 7  36.0 13-5 12.9 10.1 12.4 11.2 3.9  Total  22  100.0  115  100.0  X l l 100.0  178  100.0  8 7 1 4 2 0 0  36.4 31.8 4.5 18.2 9.1 .0 0  30 23 25 15 16 0 6  26.1 20.0 21.8 13.0 13.9 0 5.2  27.3 0 45.4 0 9.1 0 18.2  79 15 40 9 20 1 14  44.4 8.4 22.5 5.1 11.1 .6 7.9  Total . . . 22 100.6 OCCUPATION (Housewives withdrawn) Professional . . . . 4 18.3 Managerial,proprietary 4 18.2 Clerical 1 4.5 Sales 1 4.5 Blue C o l l a r . . . . 1 4.5 Service . . . . . . 0 0 A l l others . . . . . 0 0 Housewives 11 50.0  115  100.0  100.0  178  100.0  2 18.2 0 0 5 45.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 36.3  53 9 35 6 14 1 5 55  29.7 5.1 19.7 3.3 7.9 .6 2.8 30.9  178  100.0  OCCUPATION (Housewives distributed) Professional . . . . Managerial, p r o p r i e t a r y Clerical Sales Blue C o l l a r . . . . Service A l l others  Total  22  100.0  14 9 19 10 9 0 1 53 115  12.2 7.8 16.5 8.7 7.8 0 .9 46.1 100.0  3 0 5 0 1 0 2 H  11  100.0  37  %•  31.8  AGE 29 30 35 40 45 50 60  0  f  68.2  Total  0  %  T o t a l Groups L  15  Female  31.2  Lecture Groups  20.8  81  (continued) Characteristic Studied  ' c n  f" MARITAL STATUS Single . . Separated Widowed Divorced Married  2 0 . 0 1 19  Total  22  SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE Zero 7 Low 7 High 8 Total  22  EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Left before grade 8 Completed grade 8 . Some high school . . Completed grade 12 . Some university . . University graduate Advanced degree . .  . . . . . . .  Total SOCIAL STATUS INDEX Upper class Upper middle class Lower middle class Upper lower class Lower lower class Total  0 0 5 8 6 3 0 22  . . . .  . . . .  0 11 9 2 0 22  $> 9.1 0 0 4.5 86.4  22  f  %  17 1 6 4 87  14.8 .9 5.2 3.5 75.6  100.0 115  100.0  31.8 31.8 36.4  25 60 30  21.8 52.2 26.0  100.0 115  100.0  0  0 22.7 36.4 27.3 13-6 0  4 3 23 43 20 20 3  100.0 116  3.5 2.6 19.8 37.1 17.2 17.2 2.6  f 5. 0 1 0 5 H 4 7 0 H 0 1 1 8 0 1 0  100.0  11  1 42 55 16 1  .9 36.5 47.8 13.9 .9  0 1 9 1 0  100.0 115  100.0  11  0 50.0 40.9 9.1 0  MEMBERSHIP IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS N i l memberships . . . 7 31.8 One 2 9.1 Two 3 13.7 Three . . 6 27.3 Four 1 4.5 Five or more . . . . . 3 13.6 Total  -  0  25 20 27 18 13 12  21.8 17.4  15.6 H.3 10.4  4 3 2 2 0 0  100.0 115  100.0  11  23.5  # 45.5 0 9.0 0 4 5.5  ~  L  f>  #  73 41.0 '4 2.2 12 6.7 2 1.1 87 48.9  100.0 178 100.0 36.4  44  24.8  27  1 5.1  63.6 107 60.1 0  100.0 178 100.0 0 9.1 9.1 72.7 0 9.1 0  1 4 13 53 43 54 10  .6 2.2 7.3 29.8 24.2 30.3 5.6  100.0 178 100.0 0 9.1 81.8 9.1 0  4 2.2 81 45.5 78 43.8 14 7.9 1 . 6  100.0 178 100.0 36.3 27.3 18.2 18.2 0 0  44 38 49 22 16 9  24.8 21.3 27.5 12.4 9.0 5.0  100.0 178 100.0  82 (continued) D  Characteristic Studied  f  LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN NEIGHBORHOOD Less than 2 years . . • More than 5 years . . •  *  More than 5 years . . • Total PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION COURSES Participation within last 3 years . . . • No participation within last 3 yrs. • Total PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN LECTURE COURSES 1 or 2 lectures . . . * 3 or 4 lectures . . . • 5 or more lectures . • No participation . . • Total PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN DISCUSSION COURSES No Participation . . * 1 or 2 discussions . • 3 or 4 discussions . • 5 or more discussions • Total  13  %  f  %  f  %  f  %  18.2 22.7 59.1  13 25  11.4 21.9 66.7  2 2 7  18.2 18.2 63.6  35 44 98  19.8 24.9 55.3  76  22 100.0 114 100.0  Total LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN GREATER VANCOUVER Less than 2 years . .  4 5  1 3 18  4.6 13.6 81.8  6 10 98  5.3 8.8 85.9  22 100.0 114 100.0  19 3  86.4 104 13.6  11  22 100.0 115  15 3 0 4  68.2 13.6 0 18.2  39 7 0 69  22 100.0 115  7 10 4 1  L  Lc  31.8 45.5 18.2 4.5  29 50 20 16  22 100.0 115  11 100.0 177 100.0  1 2 8  6.2 14.8 79.0  11 100.0 176 100.0  90.4 10 9.6  11 9.1 18.2 26 73.7 139  1  90.9 9.1  130  73.0  48  27.0  100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0  33.9 6.1 0 60.0  8 0 0 3  72.7 0 0 27.3  66 26 16 70  37.1 14.6 9.0 39.3  100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0  25.2 10 0 43.5 0 17.4 13.9 1  87.0 90.9 155 0 18 10.1 0 4: 2.3 1 .6 9.1  100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0  

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