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A comparative study of participants in lecture classes and participants in study discussion groups 1963

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE CLASSES AND ;;' PARTICIPANTS IN STUDY DISCUSSION GROUPS by KNUTE B. BUTTEDAHL B.Com., University of British Columbia, 1950 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (ADULT EDUCATION) i n the Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1963 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Faculty of Education Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date A p r i l 5, 1963 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study i s to analyze two distinct methods of adult education to determine i f there are any significant differences between them with respect to certain selected socio-economic character- i s t i c s of the participants. The hypothesis assumes that there are no significant differences at the .01 level of confidence between adults enrolled i n lecture classes and those enrolled i n study-discussion groups. In the study design an effort was made to reduce the dependent variables i n so far as possible so that the primary variable would be the method employed i n the adult education programs. Certain programs conducted by the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia during the f a l l of 1961 were used i n the study. These i n - cluded Living Room Learning groups which used the discussion group method and certain Evening Classes which represented the class°method. Three research groups were constructed consisting of those par- ticipants i n evening classes, those i n discussion groups, and a control group. Data was collected from participants by a questionnaire. This was analyzed and tested by the Chi Square test for s t a t i s t i c a l l y sig- nificant differences. The results indicate that there are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences i n certain specific characteristics of people served by different adult education methods. Differences were found i n age, educational background, marital status, occupation, and previous i i i experience i n adult education programs. No significant differences were found with respect to sex, social status, social participation score, memberships i n community organizations, and length of residence. In addition this study revealed that participants in university adult education are above average i n socio-economic status, are actively involved i n community organizations, and have lived for a relatively long period in their present community. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 The Setting of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 4 The Hypothesis . 5 Definition of Terms 5 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 7 Literature on Characteristics in Adult Education . . . 7 Comparative Studies of Lecture and Discussion . . . . 11 Literature on Variable Characteristics 12 Relation to the Present Study 14 III. PLAN OF THE STUDY 16 Population Studied 16 Characteristics Studied . . 18 Procedure 22 IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS . . . 25 Lecture and Discussion Participants Compared . . . . . 25 Significance of Comparative Characteristics 35 Similarities in Characteristics 35 Differences in Characteristics . . . . . 40 Characteristics in "Ways of Mankind" Control Group . . 43 CHAPTER PAGE V. SUMMARY AND COMPARISONS 48 Summary 48 Comparison with Other Studies 52 VI. CONCLUSIONS 65 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 APPENDIX A. Questionnaire Used 76 APPENDIX B. Table of Characteristics Studied 80 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Age of Participants i n Lecture and. Discussion Groups . . 27 II. Educational Background of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 27 III. Occupational Grouping of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups . . . . . . . 30 IV. Social Participation Score for Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 33 V. Number of Memberships i n Community Organizations Reported by Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 33 VI. Length of Residence of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 36 VII. Participation i n Other Educational Courses by Participants in Lecture and Discussion Groups . . . . 36 VIII. Previous Participation i n Lectures by Lecture and Discussion Participants . . . . . . . . 37 IX. Previous Participation i n Discussion by Lecture and Discussion Participants 37 X. Comparison of Social Participation Scores 46 XI. Chi Square Test for Significant Differences Between Characteristics of Participants i n Lecture Classes and i n Study-Discussion Groups 47 XII. Influence of Sex on Social Status in Lecture Classes . . 52 XIII. Comparison of Age of Population i n Vancouver Commencing at Twenty Years -witni^gefof Participants in Lecture and Discussion Groups . . . . 54 XIV. Comparison of Marital Status of Population i n Vancouver with Marital Status of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 54 v i i TABLE PAGE XV. Comparison of Age of Adult Participants in University- Sponsored Part-Time Courses i n B r i t i s h Columbia with Age of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 57 XVI. Comparison of Marital Status of Adult Participants i n University Sponsored Part-Time Courses i n Br i t i s h Columbia with Marital Status of Participants i n Lecture and Discussion Groups 57 XVII. Comparison of Educational Background of Adult Participants i n University Sponsored Part-Time Courses i n British Columbia with Educational Background of participants in Lecture and Discussion Groups . . . . . . . . 58 XVIII. Comparison of Educational Background of Participants in Los Angeles Program with Educational Background of Participants in Vancouver Program 58 XIX. Comparison of Number of Organizational Memberships Held by Participants in Los Angeles Program with Those Held by Participants i n Vancouver Program . . . 60 XX. Comparison of Marital Status of Participants i n • i Los Angeles Program with Marital Status of Participants in Vancouver Program 60 XXI. Tears of Schooling of Evening Class Participants i n F a l l of 1961 Compared to Evening Class Participants i n Spring of 1962 63 XXII. Marital Status of Evening Class Participants i n F a l l of 1961 Compared to Evening Class Participants i n Spring of 1962 63 XXIII. Occupation of Labor Force (Male and Female) i n Evening Classes in F a l l of 1961 Compared,to Those i n Evening Classes i n Spring of 1962 64 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Within the past decade an increasing number of institutions of higher learning in Canada and in the United States have been adding study-discussion to their repertoire of methods in adult education. While a number of published studies have reported on the relative effec- tiveness of discussion in achieving certain educational goals, particu- larly in comparison with the more traditional technique of lecturing, no one appears to have attempted to analyze the participants to determine i f there are any differences in the kinds of people served by different kinds of educational methods. I. THE SETTING- OF THE STUDY The Significance of Study-Discussion. One of the most dramatic developments in adult education has been the phenomenal growth of liberal adult education through the use of the method which has become known as "study-discussion''. Implicit in this success is the accep- tance of t his method both by the participants and by the sponsoring institutions, however, a large share of the credit must go to three organizations—The Great Books Foundation, The American Foundation for Political (now "Continuing") Education, and The Fund for Adult Educa- tion. The support of these three foundations has affected the direc- tion which study-discussion has taken. The Great Books Foundation, established in 1947, reports that in 1957-58 approximately 35,OOG persons in more than 1,100 communities in the United States participated in Great Books discussion groups."1" In addition, a number of Great Books groups flourish in Canada and abroad. The American Foundation for Continuing Education was founded in 1947. It has reported that in 1957-58 there were almost 10,000 par- ticipants in 400 communities taking part in discussion programs spon- 2 sored by this foundation. During the same period programs developed by The Fund for Adult Education involved another 10,000 adults.^ The Fund also reports that during the period 1951 to 1958, i t spent over 4 two million dollars on its Experimental Discussion Project. In Canada the development of study-discussion has been slower but the last few years have witnessed an impressive spurt of activity. In I960 the Canadian Association for Adult Education set up a national distribution agency under the name of "Living Library" for the express purpose of promoting the use of packaged discussion programs. Living Library reports that during its f i r s t nine months of operation, i t The Future of Study-Discussion Programs. A Joint Statement by: The Great Books Foundation, The American Foundation for Political Education, The Fund for Adult Education [White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, ca. 1959], P. 7. 2Ibid., p. 8. 3Ibid., p. 10. ^Glen Burch. Accent on Learning (White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, I960), p. xiv. 3 distributed material to ninety-seven study-discussion groups across 5 Canada. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Within the framework of non-credit adult education programs at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia two principal educational methods are used. On the one hand, the older, traditional Evening Class non-credit program accounts for an increasing number of participants i n lecture classes on l i b e r a l arts topics, while on the other hand, the Study-Discussion Program i n the Liberal Arts, f i r s t organized i n 1957, has been growing and accounts for a sizable share of the t o t a l enrollment i n a l l Extension programs. The Extension Department of the University of British Columbia conducted study-discussion groups i n forty-two communities throughout the Province and involved almost 2,500 adults i n the three year period, 1957-1960.^ This compared with 25 ,600 adults enrolled i n non-credit Evening Classes during the same period. Some Concerns of Adult Educators. A frequently expressed goal of adult education is to broaden the base of participation. Institutions tend to attract particular clientele that are different i n terms of such characteristics as education, occupation, and socio- . Peter. Martin, secretary of Living Library, i n a personal l e t t e r dated May 8, 1961. ^Study-Discussion—the F i r s t Three Years 1957-1960, a printed report, (Vancouver: Department of, University Extension, The University of Br i t i s h Columbia),I960). 4 economic status, but increasing concern i s being shown for"under- privileged" groups—those who are poorly educated and of low status. Adult educators are also giving increased attention to programing for specific groups with special interests or needs, such as univer- si t y alumni, women, public leaders, or trade union members, to name but a few. I f adult education i s to be more than "hit and miss", i t s organization and methodology must be based on careful and con- tinuing studies of the populations served. While adult educators have already noted trends towards the segregation of certain adults into the various agencies of formal adult education, l i t t l e attention has been given to the selection by certain adults of various programs offered within the same i n s t i t u - tion. An understanding of the role that method plays i n attracting adults would provide the adult educator with another instrument to use i n designing programs to reach particular segments of the population. There i s a need for knowledge about whether different methods employed in adult education appeal to or attract different kinds of people and this provides the focus for this study. II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM It i s the purpose of this study to analyze certain selected characteristics of participants i n liberal-education programs for adults offered by The University of British Columbia. These programs represent two distinct methods of adult education so that i t w i l l be 5 possible to determine i f there are any significant differences between participants i n terms of the method. III. THE HYPOTHESIS This study i s based on the hypothesis that there are no significant differences at the .01 level between adults enrolled in lecture classes and those enrolled i n study-discussion groups with respect to certain selected socio-economic characteristics; specifically; 1. There is no significant difference i n age. 2. There i s no significant difference i n length of residence i n the community. 3. There i s no significant difference i n socio-economic status. 4. There i s no significant difference i n s o c i a l participa- tion scores. 5. There i s no significant difference i n previous experience with either lecture classes or study-discussion groups. IV. DEFINITION OF TERMS Evening Classes. The class method as u t i l i z e d by the Univer- si t y Extension Department consists of a program of evening lectures conducted on the campus of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia located i n the City of Vancouver. The majority of the topics f a l l under the category of "the l i b e r a l arts". Almost a l l leetures are 6 conducted by university faculty members. Most of the courses range i n length from eight to twelve weeks, meeting i n the evenings for l | to 2 hours. The typical format f o r an evening lecture class includes a one-hour presentation by the instructor which i s followed by a ques- tion period. Discussion by and among the participants i s seldom ut i l i z e d or encouraged. Study-Discus sion Groups. The study-discussion method as ut i l i z e d by the University Extension Department involves several prin- cipal characteristics: the discussion i s guided by trained leaders who are not necessarily experts i n the subject matter under discussion; the program involves a series of regularly scheduled meetings at which participants analyze and evaluate reading materials which have been assigned for home study; and the group meetings are designed to stimu- late individual achievement and growth rather than reaching any consen- sus or group conclusions. Living Room Learning. In British Columbia the study-discus- sion method i s conducted by the University Extension Department under the popular t i t l e of Living Room Learning. A typical Living Room Learning group consists of 15 participants who meet one evening a week for a ten or twelve week period. As the t i t l e suggests these groups meet i n private homes two hours at a time under the guidance of a volunteer leader who has been trained i n discussion techniques by the University Extension Department. The topics are i n "the l i b e r a l arts" and range from painting, poetry, drama, or the humanities, to economic and world a f f a i r s ; from anthropology and rel i g i o n , to philosophy and world p o l i t i c s . CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In reviewing the studies that have been made of the participants i n adult education programs, i t i s noted that they include a wide selection of institutions and a variety of methods and techniques. Very few of these studies concern themselves exclusively with programs i n the l i b e r a l arts and consequently they have l i t t l e v a l i d i t y for direct comparison with the present study as i t cannot be assumed that participants i n vocational or credit programs w i l l be the same as those i n non-credit l i b e r a l education programs since the motivation to par- ticipate i s different. Although a few studies of l i b e r a l arts programs deal exclusively with the class method, studies on the use of the study-discussion method are sparse, and comparative studies concerned with characteris- t i c s of participants i n classes and study-discussion are rare. I. LITERATURE ON CHARACTERISTICS IN ADULT EDUCATION A review of studies reporting the characteristics of particip- ants i n adult education reveals two significant factors. F i r s t l y , programs using different methods tend to attract different kinds of adults. Secondly, studies of similar types of programs using the same methods produce f a i r l y consistent profiles of the adult p a r t i - cipants. Brunner points out that "an examination of the results of the many surveys of participation suggests that however inclusive i t s goals, each organization enlists those individuals who are attracted by i t s program, and i t s clientele".'*' Brunner contrasts public school adult education which attracts a larger proportion of young adults and those with less than a high school education, with the Federal Exten- sion Service which reaches adults under t h i r t y least effectively but reaches more people with high school and some college education. He cites "descriptive studies of library users, enrollees i n correspon- dence study and viewers of telecast courses sponsored by university extension divisions" as reinforcing the impression that there i s con- siderable diversity among the participants i n adult education. A report by Knox^ on l i b e r a l adult education also notes the differences i n characteristics among participants enrolled i n several different programs, although there are also some consistencies noted which might be attributed to the nature of the subject matter and of the sponsoring institutions. Knox's comparative summary of student characteristics^ revealed some differences in age, education, and occupation between discussion groups, lecture courses, and seminars. ?33dmund deS. Brunner, et a l . , An Overview of Adult Education Research (Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959), P. 92. 2 I b i d . . p. 95. 3Alan B. Knox, The Audience of Liberal Adult Education (Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1962). 4 Ibid., p. 24. 9 There i s , however, a consistency similar to that reported by Verner and Newberry who noted that participants i n university extension are, on the average, better educated and with a higher socio-economic status. By contrast, the study by Allison and Kempfer^ of private home study schools revealed that a different kind of adult enrolled i n correspondence courses. He tended to be male, married, and young. The median age was 26.5 years and only one-half of the students were high school graduates. Home study education makes i t s greatest impact on the sk i l l e d , technical, and professional occupational groups. There are further differences among those who enrol i n study- 7 8 9 10 discussion groups. Kaplan , Davis , Burch , and H i l l , a l l produce 11 a consistent prof i l e of the study-discussion participant. This ^Coolie Verner and John Newberry, "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i - pation", Adult Education, vol. VIII, no. 4 (Summer 1958), pp. 208-222. ^Helen Allison and Homer Kempfer, Private Home Study i n the United States, A St a t i s t i c a l Study (Washington, D.C: National Home Study Council, 1956). 7 Abbott Kaplan, Study-Djscus3ion i n the Liberal Arts (White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund fo r Adult Education, I960). 8 James A. Davis, et a l . , A Study of Participants i n the Great Books Program (White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, I960), 9 Burch, op. c i t . ^Richard J. H i l l , A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods (White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult.Education, I960). ^*A detailed comparison of these findings as they relate to this study i s presented i n Chapt. V. participant tends to be female, married, and a college graduate; professional or managerial in occupation, and f a l l i n g into the age group between 35 and 45 years. As Fletcher^ 2 points out i n the preface to each of these studies, "The studies themselves make i t clear that the reading-discussion method attracts a particular kind of audi- ence, and that the larger population from which i t i s drawn has many other tastes and pr o c l i v i t i e s " . Similar conclusions were reached by Brunner when commenting on the discussion program of the Great Books Foundation and on the Los Angeles metropolitan area discussion program i n the l i b e r a l arts. He concluded that, "they are most selective with respect to education, economic status, and occupation... Both of these programs draw heavily from the better-educated segment of the population with above average .. 13 incomes". A report on the non-credit evening c l a s s e s ^ conducted by the University of British Columbia suggests that "socio-economic factors play a considerable part in the composition of adult evening classes". 12 C. Scott Fletcher was President of the Fund for Adult Education, publishers of these four research studies. 13 Brunner et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 94- 14 The University of Bri t i s h Columbia, Department of Univer- si t y Extension, "A Report of the Geographic Variation i n Greater Vancouver of Registration i n Non-credit Evening Courses on Campus i n the F a l l of 1958", (December, 1958, mimeographed). Vide Alice Linden- berger and Coolie Verner, "A Technique for Analyzing Extension Course Participants", Adult Education, vol. XI, no. 1 (Autumn, I960). 11 Even when distance of place of residence from the campus was taken into account, a higher proportion of the participants came from sections having a higher percentage of professional and business people and higher income groups. Counselling experience revealed "that adults whose formal education did not go beyond elementary school or a few years of high school, frequently feel that courses offered by a univer- sity are not within their scope". Similar characteristics were revealed by Jones"'"'' in his study of university non-credit evening class participants. He found over sixty per cent of his sample had some school attendance beyond high school graduation and over one-half reported proprietary, managerial, or professional occupations. II. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF LECTURE AND DISCUSSION In a search for literature comparing adult participants in lecture classes with those in discussion groups only one major study in the area of liberal education was found. This study at the University of California at Los Angeles was reported by H i l l . 1 ^ Since H i l l was concerned primarily with the effects of the two methods upon particip- ants, lesser attention was paid to the possibility of similarities or PH. Gordon Jones, "A Test of Validity of Place of Residence as an Indicator of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Participants in University Non-credit Evening Classes" (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1962). 16 H i l l , op. c i t . differences in the characteristics of participants.in the two programs. H i l l concluded that "in general, the same kind of people were attracted 17 by both methods". 18 An investigation by Ashmus and Haigh revealed that there i s a significant difference i n student preferences for the teacher-centered approach i f they have no previous experience with group-centered methods. Students having past experience with both methods show no significant difference i n preference for either. 19 Kaplan's study ' also revealed differences between those who participated i n study-discussion groups and those i n the regular exten- sion courses. He reported that study-discussion attracted more women, older and better educated adults, and that they were mainly i n profes- sional occupations. He also concluded that participants i n the d i s - cussion program were not typical or representative of the general adult population. III. LITERATURE ON VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS Social participation i s defined by Brunner as "inter-action with others i n a socially defined relationship wherein the roles of those 18 Mable Ashmus and Gerard Haigh, "Some Factors Which May Be Associated With Student Choice Between Directive and Non-Directive Classes, "American Psychologist, vol. VTI ( 1952) , p. 247, cited by Richard J. H i l l , Ibid., p. 105. 19 Kaplan, op_. c i t . 13 20 participating are more or less structured and mutually understood". Since this definition f i t s organized adult education, research in the area of social participation offers further clues about and attests to the differences i n the characteristics of adults who participate at different rates and i n different kinds of adult education a c t i v i t i e s . 21 Brunner Ts review of social participation indicates such differences. In urban communities occupation i s significantly related to formal participation. Brunner reports that the highest rate of par- ticipation i s evidenced by "professional-technical" and managerial personnel. Service and unskilled workers are least active. Further testimony is provided by Verner and Newberry who point out that d i f - ferent organizations draw their memberships from different occupational 22 groups. Brunner also suggests that i t i s probable that those with more education are more highly motivated to participate,, and further, that the social standing of an individual i n the community "profoundly af- 23 fects his participation, no matter how his social position i s measured". Verner and Newberry's review corroborated the fact that participation i s greater for those of higher status. 20 Brunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 99 21 Ibid., chapt. VI. ^^Vemer and Newberry, op_. c i t . 23 ^Brunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 105 14 Age was reported by Brunner to be associated with differences i n rates and patterns of s o c i a l participation. Youth and young adults participate l i t t l e with the peak of participation f a l l i n g within the age group thirty - f i v e to f i f t y , after which there is a decline i n par- ticipation among the older groups in the population. As Verner and Newberry noted, the younger and the older adults are generally the least active participants. Finally, participation patterns d i f f e r between men and women. Brunner points out that "men usually participate more heavily than women in non-church formal associations"; 2^ however, Verner and New- berry report that urban, middle class women attend more meetings more regularly, although men i n similar situations belong to more organiza- tions. IV. RELATION TO THE PRESENT STUDY Although the participants i n adult education are not representa- tive of the general adult population, the studies cited give support to the contention that even among these participants there i s consider- able diversity. While certain different programs or methods evidence some consistency i n some of the characteristics of the adults enrolled, other characteristics show great differences. The studies which dealt with lectures alone or with discussion Ibid., p. 106 alone, must be approached with caution i n terms of their comparative value in this present study. The variable of subject matter must be considered. For this reason the studies of programs in the l i b e r a l arts^5 have greater significance for this study and w i l l receive com- parative treatment i n Chapter V. Further caution i s needed. Unless participants are given an obvious opportunity to make a choice between the two methods then the resultant findings about their characteristics w i l l not necessarily reveal differences between participants i n the two types of programs. It seems highly probable that a different set of values and expecta- tions come into play i f the.decision i s between enrolling or not enrolling i n one particular adult program, than i f the decision revolves around choosing between two alternative;methods. The only comparative study cited was that reported by H i l l and he concluded, "In general, the same kinds of people were attracted 26 by both methods". This conclusion i s being retested by the present study i n terms of adults i n British Columbia. 25 Kaplan, Davis, Burch, and Jones. 26 H i l l , op_. c i t . , p. 84. CHAPTER III PLAN OF THE STUDY In order to examine the problem selected for this study i t was necessary to collect data about certain selected socio-economic charac- t e r i s t i c s of participants in two distinct methods of adult education. The program conducted by the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia provided the variety of methods and the participants that would meet the requirements of the study. I. POPULATION STUDIED In designing this study an effort was made to reduce the dependent variables i n so far as possible so that the primary variable would be the method employed in the adult education program. By studying selected groups from the Extension Department a c t i v i t i e s i t was possible to control such factors as subject matter, fee structure, starting time, duration of program, and geographic accessibility. In this way the variable of method could be isolated and i t s influence analyzed. During the f a l l of 1961 the Extension Department program included a variety of different adult education a c t i v i t i e s readily available to any interested adult. For purposes of this study, certain programs were selected. These included specific ac t i v i t i e s from the Living Room Learn- ing series which employed the discussion group method and certain Evening Extension Classes which represented the class method. These two types of programs offered choices of l i b e r a l arts topics, at the same fee, 17 commencing in late September and continuing for one evening a week for an eight to twelve week period. Both types of programs were readily accessible to residents of the area. With such similarities, the participants would be self selecting and any difference among characteris- tics of participants could be attributed or related to the difference in method. Three research groups were constructed consisting of those partici- pating in evening classes, those in discussion groups, and a control group. Lectures. Almost a l l Extension Department non-credit Evening Classes are held on the campus of the University of British Columbia, situated in the City of Vancouver. Gut of the total Evening Class program in theFall of 1961, seven classes"1" enrolling 272 adults were selected for study as being most comparable to Living Room Learning in terms of subject matter. Discussion. A l l Living Room Learning study-discussion groups functioning in Vancouver during the Fall of 1961 were included in this study. Some 173 adults were enrolled in thirteen discussion groups in topics similar to those in the lecture classes. Lecture topics included (with enrollment shown in brackets): World's Great Religions (128), Introduction to Philosophy (20), Pre- history of British Columbia (19), The Indomitable Romans (46), Intro- duction to the Appreciation of Literature (27), Faith in Times of Disintegration (13), and The Ways of Mankind (19). ^Discussion topics included: Great Religions of the World, Philosophy in the Mass Age, World Politics, Shakespeare and His Theatre, An Introduction to the Humanities, and The Ways of Mankind. . 18 Control Groups. Although care was taken to choose test groups with similar subject matter content, a further control was u t i l i z e d by selecting groups in which the topic was not only similar but also identical. "The Ways of Mankind" was the topic chosen for the control groups because i t was readily adaptable to both lecture and study- discussion and because i t s previous popularity would suggest that groups could once again be successfully started. Advertising for both Evening Classes and Living Room Learning specifically pointed out the choice available between lecture and study-discussion for this particular topic. One lecture class among the seven studied was devoted to The Ways of Mankind, while this same topic attracted three study-discussion groups out of a t o t a l of thirteen groups. II. CHARACTERISTICS STUDIED Certain socio-economic characteristics of participants were isolated f o r study. These tend to be the items most apt to indicate differences among participants i n the two methods i f such should be found to exist. Furthermore, these characteristics are commonly employed in social-scientific research i n analyzing groups. The follow- ing characteristics were selected for study. Age. Age has been used f a i r l y consistently as a measure of par- tic i p a t i o n i n adult education programs. As Brunner points out, " p a r t i c i - 3 pation i n adult education decreases with age". Verner and Newberry •^runner, et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 96 19 report that "young adults of both sexes are generally poor participants", and further "age, per se, however, is not a serious barrier to p a r t i c i - 4 pation. Kind rather than the amount of participation may be a factor". Length of Residence. One of the sub—hypotheses in this study concerns length of residence, which, according to Brunner, has been found to influence formal participation i n a l l communities.^ However, according to Verner and Newberry, "migrants to a community are less active participants than residents... Socio-Economic Status. To determine social status an index 7 developed by McGuire and White was chosen because of i t s simplicity. The McGuire and White index (short form) u t i l i z e d the three characteris- t i c s of occupation, source of income, and education. These were rated on a scale from 1 to 7 and weighted. The scale for occupational ratings developed by McGuire and White was replaced by a seven scale table of occupations developed by Blishen. By using Blishen Ts scale based on the 1951 Canada Census i t was intended to ensure identification of occupa- tiona l ratings in terms appropriate to Canadian society. In determining Verner and Newberry, op_. c i t . , pp. 210-211. 5 Brunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 107 ^Verner and Newberry, op_. c i t . , pp. 210-211. 7 Carson McGuire and George D. White, The Measurement of Social Status. Research Paper i n Human Development No. 3 (revised), (Depart- ment of Educational Psychology, The University of Texas, Marchl955) Bernard R. Blishen, "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale", Canadian Society, Sociological Perspectives, (Toronto: Macmillan, 196lTpp. 477-485. . 20 the index for housewives, occupation of head of household was used. As Davis expressed i t , "in our society a married woman's social status 9 i s generally determined by her husband's occupation, not her own". A. Occupation. No separate hypothesis was proposed about occupation, but i t i s an important component of the measure of social status. Yet occupation i s important in i t s own right since i t "also 10 appears to be highly related to participation i n adult education". B. Source of Income. Source of income was used i n develop- ing the index of social status. McGuire and White point out that the kind of income appears to be more important than the amount. The 11 reputed main source of income i s symbolic of placement i n the community. C. Educational Background. "Amount of formal schooling appears to be the most significant determinant of participation i n a l l 12 forms of adult education which has been studied". No specific hypothesis on educational background was proposed in this study, but this characteristic served as one component in the index of social status. Social Participation Score. A scheme for calculating social participation scores, devised by Lionberger and Coughenour,^ was used 9 Davis, et a l . , oj>. c i t . , p. 18. ^ GBrunner, et a l . , op_. c i t . . p. 96. McGuire and White, op_. c i t . , p. 9 12 Brunner, et a l . , loc. c i t . "^Herbert F. Lionberger and Milton C. Coughenour, Social Structure and Diffusion of Farm Information. Research Bulletin 631, (Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri, College of Agriculture, A p r i l 1957). 21 i n this study. This scheme i s a modification of the Chapin Social 14 Participation Scale, but i t i s simpler to use and u t i l i z e d data which was relatively easy to procure. Each participant was rated on the number of memberships in community organizations, weighted by the amount of participation i n each organization. For purposes of analysis, Lionberger and Coughenour's classification of scores was used—none (zero score), low participation (1 to 9 score), and high participation (score of 10 and over). Social participation i s significant to identify the type and extent of participation i n c i v i c , social, community, or professional organizations or clubs i n order to evolve the social participation score. Brunner reports that "people active i n formal organizations tended to have more education and higher incomes and socio-economic status than others".^"'' Previous Part icipation. Previous experience within the last three years i n other educational courses was another characteristic . identified in this study. Within three years was stipulated to lessen the effect of memory loss and to reveal a consistent pattern of par- ti c i p a t i o n i n adult education rather than a sporadic pattern. Adults who are products of our formal.educational system may well identify the lecture with the acquisition of fact, information, and knowledge, 14 F.S. Chapin, "Social Participation and Social Intelligence", American Sociological Review, vol. 4 , no. 2 (April 1939) . ^^Edmund deS. Brunner, The Growth of a Science (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957) , p. 108. 22 and understandingly may hesitate to try other educational methods. How- ever, adults who have had experience with the study-discussion or other methods may perceive that satisfying educational and other goals are attainable by methods other than lectures. Sex. Sex i s another characteristic frequently studied i n adult education programs. It i s a particularly important factor i n inter- preting other characteristics such as age, occupation, and marital status, as well as being a fundamental factor i n describing any profile of participants. Verner and Newberry conclude that the participation of 16 women increases as social status and the degree of urbanism increases. Marital Status. The marital status of adults has consequences for the social roles they are called upon to play and i n turn the extent of their social participation. Verner and Newberry point out that "married persons are generally more active members of formal organiza- 17 tions than either single or widowed persons". III. PROCEDURE A l l data for this study was collected from participants by means 18 of a questionnaire which was distributed to seven lecture classes and 16 Verner and Newberry, op. c i t . , pp. 210-211 1 7 I b i d . 18 A sample of the questionnaire is included i n the Appendix. thirteen study-discussion groups during the fourth and f i f t h week of operation of the two programs. The questionnaires were distributed, completed, and collected together before the evening's program was introduced. No one refused to complete a questionnaire, although a number of participants had dropped out of the program or were absent on the particular evening the questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire was devised to pose nine questions to the participants to reveal the characteristics chosen for this study. Direct questions produced data on the following characteristics: length of residence, age grouping, marital status, sex, educational ii background, number of memberships i n formal organizations, extent-of participation i n these forrtal organizations, occupation of particip- ant or of head of household, main source of income, and extent of par- ticipation i n educational courses within the last three years. The resultant data was analyzed by applying a Chi Square test for s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences at the .01 l e v e l . An additional questionnaire containing two further questions was given to the control group which was composed of participants i n the lecture and i n the study-discussion groups dealing with the topic "The Ways of Mankind". The f i r s t question was intended to reveal the extent to which those enrolled i n the control group were aware of a choice of method being available on this particular topic. The other question was open-ended and searched for reasons for choosing this particular group. The answers given were analyzed to determine i f geographic location of the groups, or i f location of residence of the participant was a factor in selection by the participant of a particular group, or i f some other factors were present which were not inherent in the methods studied. CHAPTER IV CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS The comparative characteristics of a l l participants i n lecture classes and i n study-discussion groups are analyzed f i r s t i n this chapter followed by a summary of the similarities and differences of adult participants i n the two methods. Finally, a comparison i s made between lecture and discussion participants i n the control groups where the subject matter was held constant.^" I. LECTURE AND DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS COMPARED A general explanation of the data collected from a l l p a r t i c i - pants i n the lecture classes and a l l those i n the study-discussion groups i s presented here under the various categories of characteris- t i c s . Sex. A study of the data procurred from adults i n a l l lecture classes reveals a ratio of four women to one man or 79-2 per eent women. Participants i n a l l the discussion groups studied were distributed i n a ratio of seven women to three men. Thus, women accounted for 68.8 per cent of the discussion participants. Age. Median age i n lecture classes.was thirty-five years, with more than one-third of the participants being twenty-nine years or A detailed summary of a l l data collected i n this study i s presented i n Appendix "Bn. younger. As Table I on page 2? reveals, one-half of the lecture participants (49.5 per cent) were younger than thirty-five years. The remainder were distributed fairly evenly throughout the other age categories. In the discussion groups the median age was forty-one years. There were few younger people. Only 7.8 per cent were twenty-nine or younger. Almost 61 per cent were forty years and older as shown in Table I. Educational Background. Lecture participants included a high percentage of university graduates. Over a third reported having graduated from university. With another one-quarter reporting some university experience, i t is apparent that 60 per cent of the lecture participants have been involved in higher education at some point in their l i f e cycle. The high level of educational background among the lecture participants is given further support in Table II on page 2.7" which shows that only 10 per cent had not completed high school. A study of the discussion participants reveals that 63 per cent had high school graduation or less. Only 19.8 per cent were univer- sity graduates. As Table II indicates almost 26 per cent of the discussion participants had not completed high school. An examination of these discussion participants who had not completed high school tells us that exactly one-half were forty-five years or older, compared to 38 per cent in this age category in the total discussion population. 27 TABLE I AGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS Age i n years Lecture Discussion N % N % . . . 64 36.0 9 7.8 30 - 34 . . . . 24 13.5 19 16.5 12.9 17 14.8 10.1 26 22.6 45 - 49 12.4 17 14.8 11.2 20 17.4 3.9 7 6 .1 Total 178 100.0 115 100.0 TABLE II EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS Educational Level Lecture Discussion N % N % .6 4 3-5 . . . . 4 2.2 3 2.6 7.3 23 19.8 Completed high school (Grade 12) 53 29.8 43 37.1 . . . . 43 24.2 20 17.2 . . . . 54 30.3 20 17.2 5.6 3 2.6 Total 178 100.0 116 100.0 28 Among the eighteen lecture participants represented in the 10 per cent net completing high school, exactly one-half were forty-five years or older, yet in the total lecture group only 27.5 per cent f e l l into this age group. Marital Status. An examination of marital status in lecture groups reveals that 49 per cent were married and 41 per cent were single. Separated, widowed, and divorced accounted for the remaining 10 per cent. Only 15 per cent of the discussion participants were single, while 75.6 per cent were married. The remaining 9.6 per cent included separated, widowed, and divorced. The 15 per cent single were d i s t r i - buted in a ratio of 8 women to 2 men as compared to a 7 to 3 ratio in the total discussion population. The married participants were 63 per cent women and this compared with the 68.8 per cent women for the total discussion population. In the lecture classes 68 per cent of the married participants were women compared to the 79.2 per cent women in the total lecture population. Occupation. Table III on page 30 indicates the distribution of occupations. Almost 35 per cent of the lecture participants are accounted for in the professional, managerial, and proprietary cate- gories. Another 31 per cent are housewives. When housewives are distributed among the occupational categories in terms of the occupa- tion of the head of the household, we find an 18 per cent increase in the upper categories. Professional, managerial, and proprietary occupations then account for 52.8 per cent of the lecture participants. The other 13 per cent of the housewives are distributed f a i r l y evenly into the other occupational categories. Only 20 per cent of the discussion participants reported profes- sional, managerial, or proprietary occupations, but 46 per cent were housewives. The housewives reported the head of the household in occupations accounting for another 26 per cent i n the upper categories. Thus, when housewives are distributed into the occupation of the head of the household, the professional, managerial, and proprietary cate- gories account f o r 46 per cent of the discussion participants as indicated i n Table III. The remaining 20 per cent of housewives are evenly distributed among four other categories. Cleric a l occupations were indicated by 19.7 per cent of the lecture participants, while sales were indicated by 3.3 per cent. The category of blue collar, which included technical, construction, indus- t r i a l , mechanical, transportation, communication, and skilled-workers, accounted for almost 8 per cent. In the t o t a l lecture population studied (N=178) only one service worker, a janitor, was enrolled. Discussion participants reported 16.5 per cent c l e r i c a l occupa- tions and 8.7 per cent i n sales. Blue collar occupations accounted f o r almost 8 per cent. Not a single discussion participant l i s t e d a service occupation. Some 4 per cent of the discussion participants reported that they were retired and no longer active i n the occupation l i s t e d . TABLE III OCCUPATIONAL GROUPING OF PARTICIPANTS IN.LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS Percentage i n Lecture Classes Percentage i n Discussion Groups "Occupational Occupation Housewives % Increase Occupation Housewives % Increase Distributed Attributed to Distributed Attributed to Grouping of a l l v into Inclusion of of a l l into Inclusion of Occupation Occupation of Occupation Occupation of Participants of Head of Head of Participants of Head of Head of Household Household Household Household Professional 29.7 44.4 14.7 12.2 26.1 13.9 Managerial and Proprietary- ••a 5.1 8.4 3.3 7.8 20.0 12.2 22.5 2.8 16.5 21.8 5.3 3.3 5.1 1.8 8.7 13.0 4.3 7.9 11.1 3-2 7.8 13.9 6.1 .6 .6 0 0 0 0 7.9 5.1 .9 5.2 4.3 0 46.1 0 " Total 100.0 100.0 30.9 100.0 100.0 46.1 31. Out of the t o t a l lecture group only four participants were retired. This represented 212 per cent of the t o t a l lecture population and their previous occupation i s included in the total l i s t i n g . Social Status. The McGui re-White Index of Social Status provides for five l e v e l s — a n upper class, an upper and a lower middle class, and an upper and a lower lower class. In this study only four lecture participants (N=178) f e l l into the upper class to account for 2w2 per cent. The bulk of the lecture participants studied were distributed into the next two levels—45.5 per cent in upper middle and 43.8 per cent i n lower middle. The two lower classes accounted for 8.5 per cent with only one participant f a l l i n g into the lower lower category. A study of social status among discussion participants indicates that only one adult (0.9 per cent) scored sufficiently to be assigned to the upper class. Upper middle accounted for 36.5 per cent and another 47.8 per cent f e l l into lower middle. Only one discussion participant f e l l into lower lower class, but 13.9 per cent f e l l into upper lower. Social Participation Score. Based upon the Lionberger-Coughenour Social Participation Score, three levels of participation i n community organizations were set: (l) none, (2) low, and (3) high. Almost 25 per cent of the lecture participants reported no participation. Sixty per cent report low participation and 15 per cent a high participation score as indicated i n Table IV on page 33- Some 21.8 per cent of the discussion participants reported no 32 participation in community organizations. Over one-half reported low social participation scores. The remaining 26 per cent had a high score as presented i n Table IV. Memberships i n Community Organizations. The 75 per cent of lecture participants reporting memberships i n community organizations denotes an impressive record. While only 15 per cent had a high par- ticipation score, and while 21 per cent hold membership i n only one organization, some 54 per cent of the lecture participants reported two or more memberships and of these 14 per cent hold four or more as shown i n Table V on page 33* While among the discussion participants 21.8 per cent hold no memberships i n community organizations, some 60.8 per cent report two or more memberships and th i s includes the 21.7 per cent who hold four or more memberships. Length of Residence. A study of length of residence i n present neighborhood reveals a high degree of permanence among lecture p a r t i c i - pants. Only 20 per cent have resided i n their present neighborhood less than two years, while 55 per cent have resided more than five years. Table VI on page 36 indicates that most changes of residence have taken place within the area of metropolitan Vancouver. Almost 80 per cent of the lecture participants have resided i n Greater Vancouver for more than fiv e years. Only 6 per cent have resided less than two years i n Greater Vancouver. Table VT also reveals that very few discussion participants TABLE IV SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE FOR PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS Score Lecture Discussion N % N . Jg None 44 24.8 25 21.8 Low 107 60.1 60 52.2 High . 27 15-1 30 26.0 Total 178 100.0 115 100.0 TABLE V NUMBER OF MEMBERSHIPS IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS REPORTED BY PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE.AND DISCUSSION GROUPS , . Number of memberships Lecture Discussion N N % 24.8 25 21.8 ... . 38 21.3 20 17.4 27.5 27 23.5 12.4 18 15.6 9.0 13 11.3 5.0 12 10.4 Total 178 100.0 115 100.0 are newcomers to the community. Only 11 per cent have resided less than two years i n their present neighborhood or 5 per cent i n the Greater Vancouver area. Over 66 per cent report more than five years residence i n their present neighborhood. Within the Greater Vancouver area almost 86 per cent of the discussion participants have resided more than fiv e years. Previous Participation in Educational Courses• A substantial number of the lecture participants were participating i n their f i r s t educational program within recent years as indicated in Table VII on page 36. Twenty-seven per cent had not participated within the last three years. Analyzing the type of participation of the 73 per cent who had participated in some educational activity, whether i t be other lecture courses, discussion groups, seminars, or workshops, reveals that most of their previous experience was with lectures. Slightly more than 60 per cent of the t o t a l lecture population studied had participated i n other lecture courses, but only 13 per cent had p a r t i c i - pated in discussion courses, almost 24 per cent had taken part i n three or more lecture courses, while only 3 per cent had participated i n three or more discussion groups. Tables VIII and IX on page 3̂  summarize these figures. A l l data i s baSedon participation within the last three years. Discussion participants evidenced a high degree of previous participation i n educational courses. Only 9.6 per cent reported no participation within the last three years as indicated i n Table VII. 35 The remaining 90.4 per cent had taken part in some type of educational course. Most of this previous experience was centered around lecture courses and discussion groups. While 40 per cent had participated i n lecture courses, some 75 per cent had previous experience i n discussion courses. As summarized i n Tables VTII and IX on page 37, over 31 per cent had taken three or more discussion courses, although only 6 per cent had participated i n three or more lecture courses. II. SIGNIFICANCE OF COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS The significant differences and similarities between characteris- t i c s of lecture participants and of study-discussion participants, as 2 determined by the Chi Square Test, are outlined i n this section. A. Similarities i n Characteristics. When characteristics of a l l adults enrolled in the lecture classes were compared to a l l adults enrolled i n discussion groups and tested for significance by the use of the chi square test, five characteristics revealed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference at the .01 level of confidence between lecture and discussion participants—(1) sex, (2) social status, (3) social participation score, (4) memberships i n com- munity organizations, and (5) length of residence. Sex. Lecture classes enrolled 79.2 per cent women compared to A summary of the results of the Chi Square Test i s included i n Table XI on page 47. 36 TABLE VI LENGTH OF RESIDENCE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS ,, „ Lecture Discussion Length of Residence l * 1 Present In Greater In Present In Greater i n Years Neighborhood Vancouver Neighborhood Vancouver N % N i l % N % N % Less than 2 . . 35 19,8 11 6.2 13 11.4 6 5.3 2 to 5 • . . . . 44 24.9 26 14.8 25 21.9 10 8.8 More than 5 . . 98 55.3 139 79.0 76 66.7 98 85.9 Total *177 100.0 *176 100.0 114 100.0 114 100.0 ^Difference i n totals due to two incomplete questionnaires. TABLE VII PARTICIPATION IN OTHER EDUCATIONAL COURSES BY PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS ... Participation within the last three years Lecture Discussion N % N % Did participate 130 73.0 104 90.4 Did NOT participate 48 27.0 11 9.6 Total 178 100.0 115 100.0 37 TABLE VIII PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN LECTURES BY LECTURE AND DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS Number of LECTURE courses participated i n within last Lecture Participants Studied Discussion Participants Studied three years . N % N * No participation . . . • • * 70 39-3 69 60.0 66 37.1 39 33-9 26 U.6 7 6.1 16 9.0 0 0 Total 178 100.0 115 100.0 TABLE IX PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN DISCUSSION BY LECTURE AND DISCUSSION PARTICIPANTS Number of DISCUSSION courses participated i n within last three years Lecture Participants Studied N Discussion Participants Studied N No participation 155 87.0 1 or 2 courses 18 10.1 3 or 4 courses 4 2.3 5 or more courses . . . . . 1 .6 29 50 20 16 25.2 43.5 17.5 13.9 Total 178 100.0 115 100.0 68̂ 8 per cent i n discussion groups. While this difference i s st a t i s - 3 t i c a l l y significant at the .01 level of confidence, i t was ruled out at the .005 leve l . This particular characteristic was judged at the .005 level, to reduce the chance of error because the distribution was violently skewed by data from the Ways of Mankind control lecture group. This particular group enrolled a l l women and the sample collected was small (N=ll). The data collected revealed no obvious reason for the complete absence of men from this group. Social Status. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference at the .01 lev e l was found i n social status as between lecture and discussion participants. In both populations the bulk of the adults f e l l into two classes. Upper middle class accounts for 36.5 per cent of the discussion.participants and 45-5 per cent of the lecture participants. Lower middle class participants were represented by 47.8 per cent i n discussion and 43.8 per cent in lectures. Thus, these two social status classes together accounted for 84.3 per cent of the discussion participants and 89.3 per cent of the lecture participants. Social Participation Score. As Table IV on page 33 summarized, 24.8 per cent of the lecture participants scored "zero" compared to 21.8 per cent of the discussion participants. Sixty per cent of the lecture participants scored "low" compared to 52.2 per cent of the ^The chi square test result was 6.693 compared to a rejection value of 6.635 at the .01 level of confidence. j d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . This s l i g h t tendency toward a=. higher 1 ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n score on the part of adults i n dis c u s s i o n groups i s ! confirmed by the "high" score which includes 26 per cent of the > discussion participants, but only 15.1 per cent of the lecture partici- pants; however, the chi square test shows that this was not a statis- • tically significant difference at the .01 level of confidence. Memberships in Community Organizations. Although this charac- teristic forms the foundation for the calculation of the Social Partici- pation Score, i t has been analyzed separately to provide a further dimension to our understanding of the participant population. Table V on page 33 attests to the very close relationship between lecture and discussion participants in terms of their memberships in community organizations. Among the lecture participants, 21.3 per cent hold one membership, 27-5 per cent hold two, 12.4 per cent hold three, 9 per cent hold four, and 5 per cent hold five or more. Discussion participants reported that 17.8 per cent hold one a membership, 23.5 per cent hold two, 15.6 per cent hold three, 11.3 per cent hold four, and,10.4 per cent hold five or more. The slight tendency for discussion participants to hold more memberships, coincides with their slightly higher participation score but this difference was not sufficient to be statistically significant at the .01 level. Length of Residence. This was another characteristic which evidences a close relationship between adults in lectures and adults in discussion groups. The chi square test revealed no statistically significant difference at the .01 level in length of residence either in present neighborhood or in Greater Vancouver. As Table VI on page 36 indicates, most of the population studied have lived in Greater Vancouver more than five years—79 per cent of the lecture participants 40 and 85.9 per cent of the discussion participants. Even i n comparing length of residence i n present neighborhood, a majority of the p a r t i c i - pants have resided more than five years—55.3 per cent i n lectures, 66.7 per cent i n discussion. Again the close relationship between lecture and discussion participants i n respect to length of residence i s evident. B. Differences i n Characteristics. More significant for the purposes of this study were the charac- t e r i s t i c s of adults which showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences. Upon application of the chi square test to the data from a l l lecture participants and from a l l discussion participants, s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences at the .01 level of confidence were found i n six a r e a s — ( l ) age, (2) educational background, (3) marital status, (4) occupation, (5) previous experience i n lecture classes, and (6) previous experience i n discussion groups. Table X on page46 i l l u s - trates these results. Age. Pronounced differences are revealed i n an investigation of the ages of participants i n lecture and discussion groups. Median age i n lectures was 35 years and i n discussion i t was 41 years. While i n lectures 49.5 per cent were 34 years or younger, i n discussion only 24.3 per cent f e l l into this category. On the other end of the age scale, i n discussion groups 59.9 per cent were 40 years and older compared to 37.6 i n lectures. F i f t y years and older accounted f o r 41 15.1 per cent i n lectures but 23.5 per cent i n discussion. The relative older age of discussion participants i s quite apparent i n Table I on page 27. Educational Background. S t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences were revealed between lecture and discussion participants i n terms of th e i r educational background. Some 63 per cent i n discussion had high school or less, compared to 39*9 in lectures. University graduates accounted for only 19.8 per cent of the discussion participants but 35.9 per cent of the adults in lectures. Table II on page 27 attests to the higher, educational background of the lecture participants. Marital Status. Married participants accounted for three- quarters of the t o t a l discussion population, but only one-half of the lecture participants. Separated, widowed, and divorced accounted for almost identical percentages—9.6 in discussion and 10.G i n lectures. Table XIII on page 54 illustrates the s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference i n participation by single adults. Occupation. A substantially greater number of housewives participated i n discussion groups, 46.1 per cent compared to 30.9 per cent i n lectures. The remainder account for 29.7 per cent i n profes- sional occupations among the lecture participants as compared to only 12.2 per cent among adults i n discussion. As Table III on page 30 indicates, the other occupational groups showed only small differences between lecture and discussion participants. However, these d i f f e r - ences were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. 42 When the housewives category was eliminated and distributed into the other seven occupational categories on the basis of the occupation of the head of the household, the resultant distribution was distorted i n one category—managerial and proprietary. While housewives (through head of household occupations) add only 3*3 per cent to managerial and proprietary i n lecture classes, in discussion they add 12.2 per cent. Almost one-half of the housewives in lecture classes reported the head of the household to be i n the professional grouping, while i n discussion groups housewives reported almost one-third i n professional and another one-quarter i n managerial and proprietary occupations. One other occupational category revealed considerable d i f f e r - ences. Thirteen per cent of the discussion participants reported sales occupations compared to 5.1 per cent of those i n lectures. Previous Experience i n Lecture Classes. Discussion participants reported 60 per cent who had not participated i n other lecture courses within the last three years, while lecture participants reported 39.5 per cent who had not participated previously i n lectures. This d i f f e r - ence was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The greater previous participa- tion i n lecture courses by the lecture participants studied was also reflected i n the 23.6 per cent who had taken three or more lectures courses compared to only 6.1 per cent of the discussion participants included i n this study and reported in Table VII on page 36 and Table VIII on page 37. Previous Experience i n Discussion Groups. Tables VIII and IX 43 on page 37 reveal a paradox. Only 25.2 per cent of the discussion participants reported no previous discussion experience within the last three years, while 87 per cent of the adults i n lecture classes reported no previous experience in discussion. The chi square test revealed this difference to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Some 31.3 per cent of the discussion participants had previous experience i n three or more discussion courses but only 2.9 per cent of the lecture participants had such intensive experience i n discussion. III. CHARACTERISTICS IN "WAYS OF MANKIND" CONTROL GROUP Although a l l the lecture and discussion groups dealt with subject matter in the l i b e r a l arts, there were small differences in the actual topic offered. In an attempt to isolate any differences which might be attributed to the subject matter, the data obtained from "The Ways of Mankind" lecture class and discussion groups was analyzed separately. F i r s t , the question of awareness of choice was studied. Based upon replies to the question, "Were you aware that there was a choice available between enrolling i n a lecture class or enrolling i n a study- discussion group for the WAYS OF MANKIND course?" awareness of choice available was determined. Almost unanimous awareness was evidenced by both Mankind lecture and Mankind discussion participants. The answers revealed: Were aware Not aware Mankind lecture participants 10 1 Mankind discussion participants 21 1 kk Thus, choice of method by most participants in the Mankind control groups was made with an awareness that there was a choice of method available. It is interesting to note that fifteen of the discussion participants (N-22) had had previous experience in discussion compared to only one of the lecture participants (N»ll), while eighteen in the Mankind discussion groups or 81.8 per cent had experience in lectures compared to 72.7 per cent in the Mankind lecture class. Therefore, adults enrolled in Mankind discussion groups revealed greater previous experience with both methods compared to adults in the Mankind lecture class who evidenced no previous experience with discussion. The reasons given for the choice of method were analyzed to determine i f geographic location of the group was a factor in this choice. Only one participant in the total Mankind control group (N=33) made mention of location by reporting, "nearness to my residence". This participant was also identified as the one adult in Mankind discussion who was not aware of the availability of a choice in method. A l l other Mankind participants gave reasons considered inherent in the particular method chosen. Adults enrolled in the Mankind lecture class gave reasons such as: "Expected to get more", "Enjoy lectures", "Not enough time to do reading", "Felt I need to know more to enter a discussion group". Adults enrolled in the Mankind discussion groups reported: "Wanted to discuss", "Wanted to meet new people", "Knew the leader", "Had previous experience in discussion groups". When Mankind lecture classes were compared to Mankind discussion groups, statistically significant differences at the .01 level of confidence were found in the same six categories as found in the total groups, namely: (l) age, (2) educational background, (3) marital status, (4) occupation, (5) previous experience in lecture classes, and (6) previous experience in discussion groups However, two characteristics which evidenced no significant differences between the total lecture and the total discussion popula- tions, did reveal significant differences between Mankind lecture and Mankind discussion. One of these characteristics was social status. Mankind discussion participants were distributed as follows: Upper class 0 per cent Upper middle class 50.0 per cent Lower middle class 40.9 per cent Upper lower class 9-1 per cent Lower lower class 0 per cent Mankind lecture participants were distributed thusly: Upper class 0 per cent Upper middle class 9.1 per cent Lower middle class 81.8 per cent Upper lower class 9-1 per cent Lower lower class 0 per cent It was noted that i f the upper and lower middle class categories are combined into one class, then both distributions become identical as follows: ^-Complete comparative data is presented in Appendix "B". 46 Upper class 0 per cent Middle class 90.9 per cent Lower class 9*1 per cent Because the data is confined to only three classes out of a possible five, and because of the ease with which the frequencies can be manipu- lated as shown above, as well as because of the small sample (N=ll) available from the Mankind lecture group, i t is possible that the difference is not as significant as f i r s t concluded. The other characteristic was social participation score, which revealed no statistically significant difference at the .01 level between a l l lecture and a l l discussion groups, but which did produce a significant difference between Mankind lecture and Mankind discussion, as shown in the following table. TABLE X COMPARISON OF SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES Social participation Percentage of Participants Control A l l Control A l l Lecture Lectures Discussion Discussion Zero score 36.4 24.8 31.8 21.8 Low score 63.6 60.1 31.8 52.2 High score . . . . 0 15.1 36.4 26.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Again i t i s possible that the small sample i n the Mankind lecture control group (N=ll) which distributed into only two categories out of a possible three, has distorted the distribution curve beyond permissible limits and rendered the s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant d i f f e r - ence meaningless. TABLE XI CHI SQUARE TEST FOR SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE CLASSES AND IN STUDY-DISCUSSION GROUPS Charact e r i st i c s Tested Degrees of Freedom Chi Square A l l Groups Control Groups 1 6.693** 1021.352 6 43.638 50.154 6 38.050 1382.579 Marital Status . . . , 4 37.539 95.130 Educational Background. 6 45.594 795.065 4 7.620* 204.275 Social Participation 2 8.492* 1341.449 Length of Residence i n Present Neighborhood 2 6.275* 1.431* Previous Participation i n Lectures . . . 3 25.128 188.272 . Previous Participation i n Discussion . . 3 548-300 2442.240 *Not a significant difference at the .01 leve l . *Not a significant difference at the .005 leve l . CHAPTER ? SUMMARY AND COMPARISONS This chapter w i l l synthesize the findings from this study of the data collected from participants i n lecture courses and in study- discussion groups. Relevant portions of the data and the findings of several other investigations are then compared with this study. I. SUMMARY Adults i n this study who participated i n lecture classes and i n discussion groups were found to have a number of characteristics i n common. Almost three-quarters of the participants were women. The difference of about 10 per cent between the sexes in lecture and discussion groups was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The bulk of both populations f e l l into two social status classes. Close to 90 per cent were contained in the upper middle and in the lower middle classes. In terms of social participation, over one-half scored "low11. Nevertheless, this represented considerable community activity. Three- quarters of those studied reported memberships i n community organiza- tions. Almost three-fifths of both populations studied held two or more memberships. Discussion participants revealed a slig h t l y higher degree of social participation and held more memberships, but this difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Both populations revealed a certain tendency towards permanence in residence. Eighty per cent and more had lived i n the Greater Vancouver area for more than five years. Only about one in twenty had resided less than two years i n Greater Vancouver. Even within this larger com- munity the participants i n this study did not indicate any particular mobility. About 60 per cent had resided more than five years i n their present neighborhood within the Greater Vancouver area. A few striking and s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences were also revealed i n this study. Adults participating i n lecture classes and those i n discussion groups revealed pronounced differences in age. The adults enrolled in discussion groups were significantly older than those enrolled i n lecture classes. One-half of the lecture p a r t i c i - pants were less than thirty-five years of age, while 61 per cent of the adults in discussion groups were forty years or older. Educational background was another source of s t a t i s t i c a l l y sig- nificant differences. Sixty per cent of the lecture participants were university graduates or had received some education beyond high school, compared to only 37 per cent of the discussion participants. While only 10 per cent of the lecture participants had not completed high school, i n discussion groups almost 26 per cent had not completed high school. Married adults comprised about one-half of the lecture p a r t i c i - pants, but three-quarters of the discussion participants were married. Both groups only had about 10 per cent in the category of separated, divorced, or widowed. Discussion groups attracted more housewives; almost one-half of the discussion participants compared to one-third i n lecture classes. Occupations of the participants or of the head of the household evidenced s i g n i f i c a n t differences between lecture and discussion groups. Forty-four per cent i n the lecture classes ci t e d professional occupa- tions compared to 26 per cent i n the discussion groups. However, adults i n discussion groups accounted f o r 20 per cent i n managerial and propri- etary occupations while only 8 per cent of the lecture participants reported these occupations. Service workers were almost non-existent i n both populations. Blue c o l l a r occupations and sales occupations accounted f o r very few participants, while on e - f i f t h of both lecture and discussion participants reported c l e r i c a l occupations. Few of the participants were r e t i r e d from active work—4 per cent i n discussion and about one-half t h i s percentage i n lectures. Discussion participants i n t h i s study evidenced a substantially higher record of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n discussion courses. Three- quarters reported previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n discussion compared to 13 per cent of those who were enrolled i n lecture classes. Conversely, the lecture participants i n t h i s study reported 60 per cent previous exper- ience i n lecture courses, while those enrolled i n discussion groups reported 40-per cent. Discussion participants on the whole showed a considerably higher record of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational courses generally—over 90 per cent, while 73 per cent of the lecture participants reported previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational courses. This study also revealed that the s p e c i f i c topic within the general area of the l i b e r a l arts had l i t t l e apparent influence upon the type of adult who enrolled. When the subject matter was held constant, the characteristics of participants showed no significant differences when compared to the rest of the populations studied. Although two characteristics, namely social status and social participation score, evidenced some s t a t i s t i c a l differences, these differences were viewed with caution because of the smallness of sample in one lecture class arid because this same class inexplicably skewed in terms of sex. As Table XII on page 52 indicates, the characteristic of sex has a profound influence on social status class. Women evidence a trend toward lower status compared to the men. This i s even more pronounced among single women. Therefore, Table XHwould appear to support the contention that the distortion i n the one lecture class in terms of sex might ?have profound influence on social status and social participation. The differences evidenced by these two characteristics, there- fore, were not accepted as conclusive evidence of any fundamental difference between the participants i n one specific subject matter area as compared to the rest of the populations studied. However, the need for further research seems indicated to re-test the characteristics of adults when subject matter i s held constant. Finally, in this study the geographic location of Evening Classes or of Living Room Learning groups was not considered by par- ticipants to be a conscious factor i n their choice between educational opportunities. 52 TABLE XII INFLUENCE OF SEX ON SOCIAL STATUS IN LECTURE CLASSES Social Status Percentages i n Lecture Classes Categories Total Male Female Single Only Only Female Upper Class 2.2 5.4 1.4 0 Upper Middle Class 45.5 59.5 41.8 34.9 Lower Middle Class 43.8 27.0 48.2 57.1 Upper Lower Class 8.0 5.4 8.6 8.0 Lower Lower Class .5 2.7 0 0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 II. COMPARISON WITH OTHER STUDIES Interesting and revealing comparisons can be made with a number of other studies which report on the socio-economic characteristics of adults. Such comparisons, however, are restricted to those studies which report some data i n a form comparable to the data collected for this investigation. Canada Census, 1956. A comparison of the age of the discussion and lecture participants with the population of Vancouver, as reported i n the 1956 census, reveals that the age distribution of adults enrolled i n discussion groups i s more nearly comparable to the t o t a l population than that of the lecture participants, although both show differences that are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant when compared to the t o t a l community. As Table XIII on page %> indicates, lecture p a r t i c i - pants account for almost double the proportion of younger people, thirty-four years of age and under, as are found in the t o t a l community. Conversely, only about one-half as many adults aged forty-five years and over are found in lecture classes. The significant differences i n age between lecture and discussion participants i s also found to exist between lecture participants and the t o t a l population of the community. Neither discussion participants nor lecture participants have any relationship to the general community in terms of distribution by sex. While both lectures and discussions attract a preponderance of women, the census figures reveal that women account for only 50.1 per cent of the t o t a l Vancouver population over 19 years of age. In terms of marital status, the adults studied are dissimilar to the total population of the community as outlined i n Table XIV on page 54'. While the t o t a l community reports 24 per cent single, the lecture participants studied report 41 per cent, but the discussion participants account for only about 15 per cent of the single adults. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada: 1956, Population. Bulletin 4§14 (Ottawa; Queen's Printer, 1957), 54 TABLE XIII COMPARISON OF AGE OF POPULATION IN VANCOUVER COMMENCING AT TWENTY YEARS WITH AGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS . Age i n Years 1956 Census % Lecture % Discussion % 34 or younger 29-4 49.5 24.3 35 to hh 21.2 23.0 37.4 45 and older 49.4 27.5 38.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF MARITAL STATUS OF POPULATION IN VANCOUVER WITH MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS Marital Status 1956 Census % Lecture % Discussion 41.0 14.8 Married and Separated . . . 64-9 51.2 76.8 9.5 6.7 5.2 1.1 3.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 55 The Adult Learner at University. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics in 1962 released figures on adult participation in university sponsored courses in British Columbia. These data include both credit and non-credit part-time courses, but s t i l l serve as useful comparison 2 with two specific non-credit part-time courses in the liberal arts. Age shows a statistically significant difference at the .01 level for discussion participants, but not for lecture participants, as revealed in Table XV on page 57. Adults enrolled in Evening Classes are comparable in age to a l l adults enrolled in university sponsored part-time courses. On the other hand, Living Room Learning enrolls a decidedly older participant. The discussion participants reveal no statistically significant difference at the .05 level when marital status is compared to that of a l l adults enrolled in university sponsored courses in British Columbia; however, lecture participants reveal a much higher proportion of single adults. Table XVI on page 57 shows only 18.8 percent are single in the total university sponsored part-time population, but Evening Classes in the liberal arts enrolled 41 per cent who are single. A comparison of educational backgrounds in Table XVII on page 58 confirms that there is no statistically significant difference at the .05 level between Evening Class participants and a l l participants enrolled in university sponsored part-time courses in British Columbia. Living Room Learning participants, however, reveal significant differences. ^Dominion Bureau of Statistics, The Adult Learner at University. Preliminary release, June 3> 1962 (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statis- tics, Education Division, Adult Education Section) (Mineographed). 56 Relatively fewer have had any university training and a greater ratio have high school or less. California Comparative Study. Although the major purpose of 3 H i l l ' s study at the University of California at Los Angeles was to assess the relative effectiveness of two methods, some of his data provide for useful comparisons with this investigation. S t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences at the .01 level were found in comparing educational background i n both lectures and discus- sions as portrayed i n Table XVIII on page 58. H i l l found no s i g n i f i - cant differences at the .05 level between discussion and lecture participants with respect to education, but this present study did find such differences. Also i n this study both lecture and discussion participants evidenced significant differences when compared with H i l l ' s sample. At the University of British Columbia both lecture and discussion participants reported lower educational attainment. Table XIX on page 60 presents data on number of memberships held i n community organizations. No significant differences were revealed at the .01 l e v e l . Both the California study and this present study conclude that the population studied i s active i n voluntary organiza- tions. Marital status shows significant differences for both lecture and discussion participants. Although discussion in both studies had only 14 per cent single participants, the California program reported another 14 per cent were divorced, compared to 3.5 per cent in this H i l l , op. ext., TABLE XV 57 COMPARISON OF' AGE OF ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN UNIVERSITY SPONSORED PART-TIME COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH AGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS Age i n Years University Lecture % Discussion % Sponsored % 34 or younger 53.2 49.5 24.3 35 to 44 28.2 23.0 37.4 45 and older 18.6 27.5 38.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Includes a l l credit and non-credit part-time courses. TABLE XVT COMPARISON OF MARITAL"STATUS OF ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN UNIVERSITY-SPONSORED PART-TIME COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE^ AND DISCUSSION GROUPS = . Marital Status University Lecture % Discussion % Sponsored % Single 18.8 41.0 14.8 Married 77.4 48.9 75.6 Widowed, Separated, or Divorced 3.8 10.1 9.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Includes a l l credit and non-credit part-time courses. TABLE XVII 58 COMPARISON OF EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF ADULT PARTICIPANTS IN UNIVERSITY SPONSORED PART-TIME COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WITH EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS IN LECTURE AND DISCUSSION GROUPS ! Educational University Lecture % Discussion % Level Sponsored % .3 .6 3.5 1.9 2.2 2.6 7.3 19.8 Completed High School . . , . . 30.7 29.8 37.1 24.2 17.2 35.9 19.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Includes a l l credit and non-credit part-time, courses TABLE XVIII COMPARISON OF EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS IN LOS ANGELES PROGRAM WITH EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND, OF. PARTICIPANTS IN VANCOUVER PROGRAM Educational Lectures % Discussions ̂ Level UCLA UBC UCLA UBC Completed Grade 8 or less 2.8 .8 6.1 2.1 7.3 3.6 19.8 11.1 29.8 14.2 37.1 39.6 24.2 32.8 17.2 30.3 23.1 17.2 5.6 25.5 2.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 59 study. While the California lecture study revealed that 17 per cent were single, this present study of lectures uncovered two and one-half times as many single participants, or 41 per cent, as indicated i n Table XX on page 60. Experimental Discussion Project Test Centers. Analysis of data collected for The Fund for Adult Education from group participants i n test center study-discussion programs in the United States during the year 1956-57 was provided by Burch.^ More than 50 per cent of the registrants i n Test Center discussion groups were under 40 years of age and about 5 per cent were 60 years or older. In the present study only 39 per cent of the discussion p a r t i c i - pants were less than 40 years of age, although only 6 per cent were sixty years or older. Living Room Learning participants tended to be older than their counterparts in American programs. In the Test Center populations women outnumbered men by a ratio of six to four, which compares closely to the 69 per cent women found i n Living Room Learning groups. Educational background compared as follows i n percentages: Test Living Room Centers Learning High school graduation or less... 13 63 College graduates 54 20 Obviously, the study-discussion program conducted by the University of W ^ . cit., pp. 56-57. 60 TABLE XIX COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERSHIPS HELD BY PARTICIPANTS IN LOS ANGELES PROGRAM WITH THOSE . - HELD BY PARTICIPANTS IN VANCOUVER PROGRAM Number of Lecture and Discussion Combined Memberships ~ ~ U.C.L.A.g U.B.C* None 20.9 23.3 1 20.0 19.3 2 12.7 25.5 3 20.9 14.0 4 11.8 10.1 5 or more . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 7.7 Total 99.9 99.9 TABLE XX COMPARISON OF MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN LOS ANGELES PROGRAM WITH MARITAL STATUS OF PARTICIPANTS IN VANCOUVER PROGRAM Marital Lectures % Discussions % Status UCLA UBC UCLA UBC Single 17.0 41.0 14.6 14.8 Married 74.9 48.9 64.8 75.6 Separated . 9 2.3 2.4 .9 Widowed 2.1 6.7 4.0 5.2 Divorced 5.1 1.1 14.2 3.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 61 B r i t i s h Columbia i s attracting a considerably greater number of p a r t i c i - pants with lower educational background than the study-discussion program i n the United States as represented by the test center data. The reasons for such significant differences are beyond the limits of this investigation and require further research. The Test Centers also reported that 42 per cent had lived i n their respective communities for nine years or more. Only 20 per cent had lived there two years or less. A casual comparison with Living Room Learning suggests a similar pattern of established residence. Almost the identical percentage of adults in Test Center discus- sion groups were l i s t e d as housewives (45 per cent) as in the Living Room Learning groups (46 per cent). In terms of occupation i n the Test Center groups 46 per cent were executives, proprietors, professionals, and semi-professionals. This i s identical with the experience of Living Room Learning. Evening Class Test of a Methodology. In February of 1962 Jones undertook a study of Evening Class participants at the University of Bri t i s h Columbia.'' His data was collected only about four months after the data collected for this study and provides an excellent basis for comparison. The February study produced evidence that 55.6 per cent of the participants were women, compared to 79.2 per cent i n this study of data collected i n the F a l l of 1961. Another difference was revealed 5Jones, op., c i t . 62 i n the number of housewives reported. Jones found 47.7 per cent of his total lecture sample were housewives compared to only 30.9 per cent found i n the lecture classes i n the present study. The reasons for the higher proportion of working women in the present study as compared to Jones's study, are not evident from the data collected. Future research seems warranted on the influence of subject matter and of seasonal variations on the kinds of adults enrolled i n Evening Classes. However, as Tables XXI and XXII on page 63 and Table XXIII on page 64 signify, there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences at the .05 level i n years of schooling, in marital status, or i n occupa- tion, as between the lecture participants i n the F a l l of l°6l and those i n the Spring of 1962. Thus, the data collected on these three charac- t e r i s t i c s was given credence. 63 TABLE XXI YEARS OF SCHOOLING OF EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN FALL OF 1961 COMPARED TO EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN SPRING OF 1962 -. Years of Schooling % F a l l 1961 i Spring 1962 4.1 . . . . 37.1 34.0 61.5 .4 Total 100.0 100.0 TABLE XXII MARITAL STATUS OF EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN FALL OF 1961 COMPARED TO EVENING CLASS PARTICIPANTS IN SPRING OF 1962 Fall 1961 % Spring 1962 % Marital Status . Male Female Male Female Single-. 27.0 44.7 27.0 36.6 Married . . . . . . . . 73.0 45.4 71.3 56.5 Widowed . 0 8.5 1.1 5.5 Divorced 0 1.4 .6 1.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 64 TABLE XXIII OCCUPATION OF LABOR FORCE (MALE AND FEMALE) IN EVENING CLASSES IN FALL OF I96I COMPARED TO THOSE IN EVENING CLASSES IN SPRING OF I962 Occupational Grouping Percentage in Lecture Classes Fall 1961 Spring 1962 Proprietary and Managerial . . . 7.3 10.1 Professional 43.1 40.7 Clerical 28.4 20.9 Sales (including commercial and financial 4.9 11.-2 Blue Collar (including manufacturing, mechanical, construction, trans- portation, and communications) 11.4 8.5 Service (including personal) . . .8 3.5 A l l Other 4.1 5.1 Total 100.0 100.0 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS This study has determined that there are statistically significant differences in the kinds of people served by different adult education methods. A pronounced difference was found in the age of participants in university sponsored non-credit liberal arts programs. Lecture classes attract almost one-half of their participants from the age group of thirty-four years or younger. Discussion groups have few young people and a disproportionately strong attraction for the older adult with some 61 per cent forty years of age or older. While the older adult may have attitudes more deeply rooted or more firmly fixed, this apparently did not deter him from enrolling in discussion groups in the liberal arts. The choice of discussion by the older adult suggests that there is validity in the conclusion already enunciated by Powell to the effect that the older adult seeks opportunity to "think about what he already knows. This is the'opportunity that the informal study-discussion process attempts to give him".̂ " It was hypothesized at the beginning of this study that there is no significant difference in age. This hypothesis must be rejected. Compared to the 1956 census data for Vancouver, discussion groups Powell, op. ci t . , p. 3' 66 attract more middle aged adults than the community average but fewer older adults. But lectures attract almost double the community average of adults thirty-four years or younger. However, the lecture experience i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y comparable to the age of a l l adults enrolled i n univer- s i t y sponsored part-time courses i n Br i t i s h Columbia. Consequently, adults enrolled i n the discussion groups are decidedly older than those enrolled i n the to t a l university sponsored part-time courses as well as being older than adults i n the lectures. Living Room Learning p a r t i c i - pants also tend to be significantly older than their counterparts i n American study-discussion programs. While adults whose formal education does not go beyond high school may feel that university sponsored courses are beyond their capacity, a substantial number of these same adults (63 per cent) seem motivated to take part i n Living Room Learning study-discussion groups sponsored by the University of British Columbia. The British Columbia experience tends to contrast with the findings of Kaplan. His study i n California led him to suggest that people who typically participate i n l i b e r a l arts 2 discussion programs have already had a great deal of formal schooling. However, adults enrolled i n Evening Class lectures on l i b e r a l arts topics f i t this description more closely. Most of those studied in Evening Classes (60 per cent) have had some university experience and t h e i r educational background is very similar to that of adults enrolled i n a l l university sponsored part-time courses i n British Columbia. , op_. c i t . , p. 12. 67 Yet both lecture and discussion participants in this study report lower educational attainment than the participants studied by H i l l in his comparative study of lecture and discussion methods. Living Room Learning participants also evidenced considerably lower educational attain- ment than study-discussion participants in American Test Centers. The discussion program appears more attractive to married adults (75.6 per cent) while only one-half of the lecture participants are married. The unmarried lecture participants in this study evidence a stark contrast (41 per cent) to the single adults reported for the total community (24 per cent), or to the single adults enrolled in a l l univer- sity sponsored part-time courses in British Columbia (18.8 per cent), or to the single adults studied in the California comparative study (17 per cent). This contrast to other studies was not duplicated by the data from adults in the Living Room Learning program. To the contrary, the 14.8 per cent single adults in discussion groups closely approximated the experience of a l l university sponsored part-time courses (18.8 per cent), and of the California comparative study (14.6 per cent), although i t did not f i t quite so closely to the 1956 census data (24.2 per cent) for Vancouver. Although the comparative study in California revealed no signifi- cant differences between marital status of lecture and discussion participants, this present study revealed highly significant differences between adults drawn from the Vancouver area. More housewives were attracted to Living Room Learning than to Evening Classes dealing with the l i b e r a l arts. But both programs attracted a sizeable percentage of housewives. Both programs also are characterized by a high proportion of women. In discussion groups most of these women are married and are housewives. Although almost 80 per cent of lecture participants are women, most of these are single and young. Although there i s no evidence of s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences in the sexes as between discussion and lecture participants, there i s a stark converse relationship noted i n relation to the com- munity, since the census revealed only 50.1 per cent women i n the total community. There may well be sustenance i n the conclusion that men tend to pursue courses for occupational, professional, or career purposes, while women, and particularly those not in the labor force, tend to be interested i n a more l i b e r a l education. While i t might be expected that adults who are retired and have ample leisure time would be attracted to l i b e r a l arts programs, this study did not substantiate such an expectation. Very few—4 per cent and less—were i n evidence i n either program studied. Participants i n both programs were concentrated i n the upper echelons of the occupational pyramid—professionals, managers, and proprietors. Adults in.lecture classes tend disproportionately to be professionals. Clerical occupations accounted for about one-fifth. Sales and skilled "blue collar" occupations are moderately represented but service and unskilled are practically non-existent in both programs. The housewives in lecture classes are apt to have husbands who are i n professional occupations. Housewives in discussion groups tend to have husbands i n managerial and proprietary occupations as well as i n the professions. The concentration of discussion participants into the upper occupational groups parallels the experience of the American test centers. Despite a number of seeming similarities i n occupation between adults in lectures and those in discussion groups, there was a s t a t i s - t i c a l l y significant difference noted. This study re-emphasizes the maxim that familiarity (and possibly satisfaction) with one type of educational experience w i l l encourage a tendency towards choice by the participant of that type of experience in future enrollment. Thus, adults i n lectures tended to have been exposed previously to other lecture courses but to very few discussion groups. Conversely, adults i n the discussion groups tended to have had most of their previous experience with other discussion groups. Discussion participants on the whole showed a considerably higher record of previous experience i n educational courses. There was a significant difference between adults enrolled i n these two programs, demonstrating that we must reject the hypothesis that there i s no significant difference i n previous experience with either lecture classes or study- discussion groups. In a number of characteristics, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences were evident. Adults i n both kinds of program were above 70 average in terms of social status. Rather than imply that adults of a particular socio-economic status choose a particular kind of educa- tional opportunity or choose a particular method of learning, this study suggests that an adult with high social status i s more apt to be involved i n continuing education i n any form. The adults studied did not evidence any significant differences in social status as between those enrolled in discussion groups and those enrolled i n lecture classes. The hypothesis that there i s no significant difference in socio-economic status must be accepted. The adults in both programs are alike also i n their degree of social participation. These are busy people belonging to a number of community organizations. In this respect they are very similar to the adults i n the California comparative study. The varying intensity of social participation by adults does not appear to influence their enroll- ment in any particular program. While there is s t i l l room for future speculation that i t i s the l i b e r a l arts subject matter which attracts adults who are active in community af f a i r s , this study indicates that both the discussion participant and the lecture participant are f a i r l y equally involved i n community activity. We must accept the hypothesis that there i s no significant difference in social participation score. Although there may be social implications to participating i n Living Room Learning and while such participation may provide an oppor- tunity to meet people and make new friends, i t was overwhelmingly clear i n this study that adults enrolled i n the discussion groups were not newcomers to the community. To the contrary, these adults evidenced roots i n the community by their relatively long period of residence i n both the larger community and in their respective neighborhood. This study also revealed that the adults enrolled i n l i b e r a l arts lecture classes evidenced the same residential permanence. Therefore, the hypothesis that there i s no significant difference i n length of resid- ence in the community must be accepted. The highly mobile individual i n our society, so often identified by the sociologist, was conspicu- ously rare in both the discussion and the lecture program. This pattern of established residence coincides with the experience of American Test Centers. Geographic location within the community of the lecture classes or of the discussion groups was not an important factor i n the choice of a particular program. These adults also did not choose a particular kind of program because i t was the only one that came to their atten- tion. Their choice was based on other factors. This study makes i t clear that in the non-credit l i b e r a l arts program sponsored by the University of Bri t i s h Columbia, there are significant socio-economic differences between those adults enrolled i n lecture classes and those enrolled i n study-discussion groups. cThe data i n this study represents further evidence for the conclusions drawn from the literature on adult education to the effect that adults who participate in university extension classes are above average in socio-economic status. 72 This study has also raised a serious question as to the validity of applying findings on socio-economic characteristics of American populations to the Canadian scene without further comparative studies. Several characteristics, but educational background i n particular, have revealed stark differences between this B r i t i s h Columbia study and the several American investigations which were cited. It may be that cultural differences are a factor that need future attention. The need for caution i s exemplified further by H i l l ' s comparative study of lecture and discussion methods. H i l l concluded, "In general, the same kinds of people were attracted by both methods". But this conclusion does not f i t the evidence collected from adults l i v i n g i n Vancouver. H i l l , op. c i t . , p. 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l i s o n , Helen and Homer Kempfer. Private Home Study i n the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Home Study Council, 1956. B e l l , Wendell and Maryanne Force. "Urban Neighborhood Types and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Formal Associations", American Sociological Review, v o l . 21,(February, 1956̂  pp. 25-34. Blishen, Bernard R. "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale", Canadian Society. Sociological Perspectives. Toronto: Macmillan, 1961. Pp. 477-485. Brunner, Edmund deS. "Adult Education and I t s Research Needs", Adult Education, v o l . X, no. 4, Summer, I960, pp. 218-227. . The Growth of a Science. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957. et a l . An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Educational Association of the U.S.A., 1959. Chapin, F. Stuart. "Social P a r t i c i p a t i o n and S o c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e " , American Sociological Review, v o l . IV, no. 2,\April, 1939v- Davis, James A., et a l . A Study of Participants i n the Great Books Program. White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, i960. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . The Adult Learner at University. (Preliminary release, June 3, 1962). Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Education D i v i s i o n , Adult Education Section. (Mineographed). . Census of Canada: 1956, Population. B u l l e t i n 4-14. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. The Future of Study-Discuss ion Programs. A Joint Statement by: The Great Books Foundation, The American Foundation f o r P o l i t i c a l Education, The Fund f o r Adult Education. [White P l a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund f o r Adult Education, ca. 1959]. H i l l , Richard J. A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods. White Pl a i n s , N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, I960. 74 Jones, H. Gordon. "A Test of Validity of Place of Residence as an Indicator of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Participants i n University Non-Credit Evening Classes". Unpublished Master's • thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. Kaplan, Abbott. Study-Discussion i n the Liberal Arts. White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education, i 9 6 0 . Knox, Alan B. The Audience for Liberal Adult Education. Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1962. Lindenberger, Alice and Coolie Verner. "A Technique for Analyzing Extension Course Participants", Adult Education, vol. XI, no. 1, fAutumn, I960,. Lionberger, Herbert F. and Milton C. Coughenour. Social Structure and Diffusion of Farm Information. Research Bulletin 631. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri, College of Agriculture, A p r i l , 1957. McGinnies, E l l i o t t and Willard Vaughan. "Some Biographical Deter- miners of Participation i n Group Discussion", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 41, no. 3,?1957,; pp. 179-185. McGuire, Carson and George D, White. The Measurement of Social Status. Research Paper in Human Development No. 3 (revised"5T The University of Texas, Department of Educational Psychology, K'March, 19552, Powell, John Walker. Research i n Adult Group Learning i n the Liberal Arts. White Plains, N.Y.: The Fund for Adult Education,. I960. Scott, John C , Jr. "Membership and Participation i n Voluntary Associations", American Sociological Review, vol. 22, no. 3, June, 1957| 9 pp. 315-326̂ Study-Discussion—the Fi r s t Three Years, 1957-1960. A printed report. Vancouver: Department of University Extension, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. Verner, Coolie and John Newberry. "The Nature of Adult Participation", Adult Education, vol. VIII, no. 4, Summer, 195$lo PP» 208-222. APPENDIX A D e p a r t m e n t o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA Do n o t s i g n y p u r name. (76) (1) C h e c k how many y e a r s you have l i v e d i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r L e s s t h a n 2 y e a r s From t o 5 2 y r s y e a r s More t h a n 5 y e a r s C heck how many y e a r s you have l i v e d i n y o u r p r e s e n t ne i g h b o r h o o d (2) Check y o u r age g r o u p : (3) Ch e c k one: S i n g l e ? 29 y e a r s o r y o u n g e r M a r r i e d ? 30 t o 34 y e a r s Sepa ra t e d ? 35 t o 39 y e a r s Widowed? 40 t o 44 y e a r s D i v o r c e d ? 45 t o 49 y e a r s 50 t o 59 y e a r s (4) Sex: M a l e 60 y e a r s o r o v e r F e m a l e (5) Check how much f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n you have h a d : L e f t s c h o o l b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g g r a d e 8. C o m p l e t e d g r a d e 8 b u t d i d n o t a t t e n d f u r t h e r . A t t e n d e d h i g h s c h o o l b u t d i d n o t g r a d u a t e . C o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l , g r a d e 12. A t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y b u t d i d n o t g r a d u a t e . _____ G r a d u a t e d f r o m a u n i v e r s i t y (B.A. o r e q u a l ) . R e c e i v e d an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e (M.A. o r h i g h e r ) . (77) (6) In how many c i v i c , s o c i a l , community, or p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s or clubs do you hold membership? Check to what extent you p a r t i c i p a t e i n each group: Hold a membership Attend me e t ings occa s i o n a l l y Attend meetings r e g u l a r l y Member of a committee Hold a n o f f i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n #1 O r g a n i z a t i o n #2 O r g a n i z a t i o n #3 O r g a n i z a t i o n #4 O r g a n i z a t i o n #5 O r g a n i z a t i o n #6 O r g a n i z a t i o n #7 L i s t more i f . . _ ^ _ — ^ — „ — . ^ (7) What i s your occupation (or the occupation of the head of your household)? If r e t i r e d , then check here ^ and l i s t your former occupation. If a housewife, check here and l i s t your husband's occupation. If you are self-employed, then check here . If you are an employer, then how many persons do you employ? (78) (8) What i s the m a i n s o u r c e o f y o u r income? Check one c a t e g o r y . ( I f y ou a r e a h o u s e w i f e , t h e n c h e c k t h e s o u r c e o f y o u r h u s b a n d ' s income] I n h e r i t e d i n c o m e . P r o f i t s , f e e s , r o y a l t i e s ; i n c l u d i n g e x e c u t i v e s who r e c e i v e a s h a r e o f t h e p r o f i t . Income f r o m i n v e s t m e n t s . S a l a r y , c o m m i s s i o n s , and r e g u l a r income on a m o n t h l y o r y e a r l y b a s i s . Wages on an h o u r l y b a s i s ; p i e c e - w o r k ; w e e k l y c h e q u e s as d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m m o n t h l y . Income f r o m "odd j o b s " ; o r s e a s o n a l work. S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; p u b l i c r e l i e f ; c h a r i t y . (9) W i t h i n t h e l a s t 3 y e a r s have you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s i n v o l v i n g 3 or more m e e t i n g s ? Yes No I f y e s , t h e n p l e a s e i n d i c a t e how many c o u r s e s o f e a c h t y p e : A t t e n d e d l e c t u r e c o u r s e s A t t e n d e d d i s c u s s i o n c o u r s e s A t t e n d e d s e m i n a r s and w o r k s h o p s A t t e n d e d o t h e r t y p e s o f c o u r s e s THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR COOPERATION. APPENDIX. B 80 TABLE OF FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES FOR ALL CHARACTERISTICS STUDIED Number of Participants Characteristic Discussion Groups Lecture Groups Studied Control Total Groups Control Total Groups D„ D L„ L c c f % f % f % f %• SEX "~Male 7 31.8 36 31.2 0 0 37 20.8 Female 15 68.2 79 68.8 11 100.0 141 79.2 Total . 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 AGE 29 years or younger 2 9.1 9 7.8 2 18.2 64 36.0 30 - 34 years . . . 0 0 119 16.5 1 9.1 24 13-5 35 - 39 years . . . 4 18.2 17 14.8 1 9.1 23 12.9 40 - 44 years . . . 6 27.3 26 22.6 3 27.3 18 10.1 45 - 49 years . . . 6 27.3 17 14.8 2 18.2 22 12.4 50 - 59 years . . . 4 18.2 20 17.4 1 9.1 20 11.2 60 years and over . 0 0 7 6.1 1 9.1 7 3.9 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 X l l 100.0 178 100.0 OCCUPATION (Housewives distributed) Professional . . . . 8 36.4 30 26.1 3 27.3 79 44.4 Managerial, proprietary 7 31.8 23 20.0 0 0 15 8.4 C l e r i c a l 1 4.5 25 21.8 5 45.4 40 22.5 Sales 4 18.2 15 13.0 0 0 9 5.1 Blue C o l l a r . . . . 2 9.1 16 13.9 1 9.1 20 11.1 Service 0 .0 0 0 0 0 1 .6 A l l others 0 0 6 5.2 2 18.2 14 7.9 Total . . . 22 100.6 115 100.0 H 100.0 178 100.0 OCCUPATION (Housewives withdrawn) Professional . . . . 4 18.3 14 12.2 2 18.2 53 29.7 Managerial,proprietary 4 18.2 9 7.8 0 0 9 5.1 C l e r i c a l 1 4.5 19 16.5 5 45.5 35 19.7 Sales 1 4.5 10 8.7 0 0 6 3.3 Blue C o l l a r . . . . 1 4.5 9 7.8 0 0 14 7.9 Service . . . . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 .6 A l l others . . . . . 0 0 1 .9 0 0 5 2.8 Housewives 11 50.0 53 46.1 4 36.3 55 30.9 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 81 (continued) Characteristic ' nc 0 - L~ Studied f" $> f % f # f> # MARITAL STATUS Single . . 2 9.1 17 14.8 5. 45.5 73 41.0 Separated 0 0 1 .9 0 0 '4 2.2 Widowed . 0 0 6 5.2 1 9.0 12 6.7 Divorced 1 4.5 4 3.5 0 0 2 1.1 Married 19 86.4 87 75.6 5 4 5.5 87 48.9 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 H 100.0 178 100.0 SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE Zero 7 31.8 25 21.8 4 36.4 44 24.8 Low 7 31.8 60 52.2 7 63.6 107 60.1 High 8 36.4 30 26.0 0 0 27 1 5.1 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 H 100.0 178 100.0 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Left before grade 8 . 0 0 4 3 . 5 0 0 1 .6 Completed grade 8 . . 0 0 3 2.6 1 9.1 4 2.2 Some high school . . . 5 22.7 23 19.8 1 9.1 13 7.3 Completed grade 12 . . 8 36.4 43 37.1 8 72.7 53 29.8 Some university . . . 6 27.3 20 17.2 0 0 43 24.2 University graduate . 3 13-6 20 17.2 1 9.1 54 30.3 Advanced degree . . . 0 0 3 2.6 0 0 10 5.6 Total 22 100.0 116 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 SOCIAL STATUS INDEX Upper class 0 0 1 .9 0 0 4 2.2 Upper middle class . . 11 50.0 4 2 36.5 1 9.1 81 45.5 Lower middle class . . 9 40.9 55 47.8 9 81.8 78 43.8 Upper lower class . . 2 9.1 16 13.9 1 9.1 14 7.9 Lower lower class . . 0 0 1 .9 0 0 1 . 6 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 MEMBERSHIP IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS Nil memberships . . . 7 31.8 25 21.8 4 36.3 44 24.8 One 2 9.1 20 17.4 3 27.3 38 21.3 Two 3 13.7 27 23.5 2 18.2 49 27.5 Three . . 6 27.3 18 15.6 2 18.2 22 12.4 Four 1 4.5 13 H.3 0 0 16 9.0 Five or more . . . . . 3 13.6 12 10.4 0 0 9 5.0 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 (continued) 82 Characteristic D Lc L Studied f % f % f % f % LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN NEIGHBORHOOD Less than 2 years . . • 4 18.2 13 11.4 2 18.2 35 19.8 5 22.7 25 21.9 2 18.2 44 24.9 More than 5 years . . • 13 59.1 76 66.7 7 63.6 98 55.3 Total 22 100.0 114 100.0 11 100.0 177 100.0 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN GREATER VANCOUVER Less than 2 years . . * 1 4.6 6 5.3 1 9.1 11 6.2 3 13.6 10 8.8 2 18.2 26 14.8 More than 5 years . . • 18 81.8 98 85.9 8 73.7 139 79.0 Total 22 100.0 114 100.0 11 100.0 176 100.0 PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION COURSES Participation within 86.4 last 3 years . . . • 19 104 90.4 10 90.9 130 73.0 No participation within last 3 yrs. • 3 13.6 11 9.6 1 9.1 48 27.0 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN LECTURE COURSES 1 or 2 lectures . . . * 15 68.2 39 33.9 8 72.7 66 37.1 3 or 4 lectures . . . • 3 13.6 7 6.1 0 0 26 14.6 5 or more lectures . • 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 9.0 No participation . . • 4 18.2 69 60.0 3 27.3 70 39.3 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0 PREVIOUS PARTICIPATION IN DISCUSSION COURSES No Participation . . * 7 31.8 29 25.2 10 90.9 155 87.0 1 or 2 discussions . • 10 45.5 50 43.5 0 0 18 10.1 3 or 4 discussions . • 4 18.2 20 17.4 0 0 4: 2.3 5 or more discussions • 1 4.5 16 13.9 1 9.1 1 .6 Total 22 100.0 115 100.0 11 100.0 178 100.0

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