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UBC Theses and Dissertations

How one becomes what one is Schleinitz, Wulfing von 1967

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HOW ONE BECOMES WHAT ONE I S by W u l f i n g v o n S c h l e i n i t z B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f PHILOSOPHY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A P R I L , 1967 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t -.he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study- I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives„ I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g ain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission„ Department of PHILOSOPHY The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A I » i l ^6? i i ABSTRACT In t h i s essay, I e x p l a i n what Nietzsche meant by saying "God i s dead," and what he thought t h i s Implied f o r the European m o r a l i t y of h i s day. The f i r s t s e c t i o n deals w i t h the d o c t r i n e of e t e r n a l recurrence. The d o c t r i n e i s o u t l i n e d by means of the two main passages that Nietzsche devotes to the p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s i n the books published by him. I t i s then i n d i c a t e d how s e r i o u s l y Nietzsche took e t e r n a l recurrence. I proceed by q u e s t i o n i n g the s c i e n t i f i c soundness of the d o c t r i n e , but conclude the s e c t i o n by p o i n t i n g out the s i g n i f i c a n c e that e t e r n a l recurrence would have had, had l t been t r u e . The most important consequence of the d o c t r i n e of e t e r n a l recurrence, t o Nietzsche, i s t h a t i t would have overthrown the C h r i s t i a n God, worldview, and m o r a l i t y . S e c t i o n two proceeds to e s t a b l i s h t h a t f o r Nietzsche and us, even without the d o c t r i n e of e t e r n a l recurrence, the C h r i s t i a n God has d i e d . I show that we s t i l l p r i d e ourselves on being C h r i s t i a n s , but I then go on t o i n d i c a t e t h a t we l a c k the b e l i e f s that would make us true C h r i s t i a n s . The main c o n c l u s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t science and r a t i o n a l i s m have k i l l e d God. In the t h i r d s e c t i o n , I o u t l i n e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of God's death by showing how, w i t h the removal of God, the C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and worldview are l e f t without foundation. i i i I t h e n b e g i n t o p o i n t o u t t h e f r e e d o m w h i c h man h a s t h e r e b y r e c e i v e d . I show t h a t c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s a n d c e r t a i n m e t a -p h y s i c a l v i e w s c a n no l o n g e r be e m p l o y e d w i t h o u t a s e v e r e s h i f t i n m e a n i n g . I c o n c l u d e by o b s e r v i n g t h a t man d o e s n o t n e e d t o be ashamed o f h i m s e l f a n y m o r e . God's d e a t h i s e x a m i n e d f u r t h e r , i n t h e f o u r t h s e c t i o n , t h r o u g h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s l t h a s f o r t h e p a s s i o n s . I t i s shown t h a t God's d e a t h s e r v e s f i r s t o f a l l a s a means t o remove a number o f s t u p i d i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a s s i o n s . The s t u p i d i t i e s o f t h i n k i n g t h e p a s s i o n s h o r -r e n d o u s a n d o f t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e o n l y m e t h o d t o c o p e w i t h t h e p a s s i o n s i s e x t i r p a t i o n a r e e x a m i n e d , a n d t h e n d i s m i s s e d . I f i n i s h b y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a m a s t e r i n g a n d c o n q u e r i n g o f t h e p a s s i o n s i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o become m a s t e r i n a n y t h i n g a t a l l . The f i f t h a n d f i n a l s e c t i o n r e - i n t r o d u c e s t h e d o c t r i n e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e t o show how i t l e d N i e t z s c h e t o s e e t h e man s e e k i n g s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n a s t h e b e s t e x a m p l e o f a means t o d e a l w i t h t h e p a i n s a n d m i s e r i e s o f l i f e . I t i s t h e n shown how t h i s i d e a l s e r v e s t h e same f u n c t i o n f o r t h e p e r s o n r e j e c t i n g t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e d o c t r i n e b u t n o t t h e v i e w t h a t God i s d e a d . To s e e how o n e ' s l i f e c a n be c o n c e i v e d a s a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e , a n a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e o f N i e t z s c h e a n d h i s r e m a r k s a b o u t G o e t h e a r e e x a m i n e d . C e r t a i n N i e t z s c h e a n c o n c e p t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e i v man who s e e k s s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n , t o show how t h i s g o a l c a n be a c h i e v e d . I c o n c l u d e t h e s e c t i o n by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o n e ' s l i f e c a n be s e e n a s f o r m i n g a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e by h a v i n g a " d o m i n a n t t a s k " b e i n g b r o u g h t t o o u r a w a r e n e s s t h r o u g h o u r " o r g a n i z i n g ' i d e a ' . " V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i INTRODUCTION 1 SECTION I : ETERNAL RECURRENCE 3 SECTION I I : GOD I S DEAD 12 SECTION I I I : DAWN 24 SECTION I V : THE PASSIONS 36 SECTION V: HOW ONE BECOMES WHAT ONE I S 47 EPILOGUE 68 FOOTNOTES 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Mr. E.N. R a n d , n o t o n l y f o r t h e many h o u r s o f h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t N i e t z s c h e , b u t a l s o f o r h i s c o r r e c t i o n s o f my many g r a m m a t i c a l e r r o r s . My g r a t i t u d e a l s o t o Mr. S t e p h e n P o r s c h e f o r p r o o f r e a d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s . New b a t t l e s . — A f t e r Buddha was dead, people s t i l l pointed f o r centuries to his shadow i n a cave—an Immense, hor-r i b l e shadow. God i s dead: but men being what they are, there w i l l probably f o r thousands of years to come be caves i n which one w i l l point to his shadow. —And we—we must defeat even h i s shadow! F r i e d r i c h Wilhelm Nietzsche INTRODUCTION F r i e d r i c h Wilhelm Nietzsche's books contain what i s , perhaps, the best prose i n the German language. I f that were his only accomplishment, he would s t i l l be ranked as a figure of f i r s t - r a t e a b i l i t y and achievement. However, he also was a philosopher of some stature. This i s sometimes l o s t upon those who read h i s books as l i t e r a t u r e , paying attention only to the well-turned phrases, the cutting s l o -gans and epigrams, or the bombastic s t y l e of various pas-sages. That approach to Nietzsche's writings often hides his philosophic contributions. What a p i t y . Nietzsche has some-thing to say to us. His writings are made up of readable prose f o r you and me, on matters of concern to us. His words speak to his readers—perhaps a l i t t l e too eloquently at times, since he has been a l l things to a l l men. To be sure, s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s and sel e c t i v e quoting of h i s texts have 2 had t h e i r share i n t h i s . Furthermore, c e r t a i n s t r i k i n g words and phrases such as the notorious "TJebermenscb" or the dichotomy of "slave- and mater-morality" have not ex-a c t l y endeared Nietzsche to many students of philosophy. Let u s hope that t h i s sort of approach to Nietzsche has passed and that he may now be studied as a philosopher, as one who i s of int e r e s t to u s at t h i s moment. That i s the general view with which I approach t h i s man. I have read Nietzsche*s works i n an e f f o r t to derive something of per-sonal i n t e r e s t and use from them. In t h i s essay, i t i s my intention to explicate and convey Nietzsche's thoughts on an issue that i s s t i l l very much a l i v e today. The issue i n question concerns the "death of God." I s h a l l t r y to show what i s meant by saying "God i s dead", and what Nietzsche thought t h i s implied f o r the European morality of his day(and, hence, to the average man of his time). In order to accomplish t h i s task and to f a c i l i t a t e understanding of some Nietzschean passages, the doctrine of eternal recurrence must be introduced and discussed. 3 SECTION I ETERNAL RECURRENCE The f i r s t f u l l - f l e d g e d reference to eternal re-currence i s to be found i n The Gay Science while the second such reference i n extended form turns up i n Thus Spoke Zara-thustra. They give us the bare skeleton description, and I reproduce both below: How, i f some day or night, a demon were to sneak a f t e r you into your l o n e l i e s t loneliness and say to you: "This l i f e , as you now l i v e l t and have l i v e d I t , you w i l l have to l i v e once more and innumerable times more; and there w i l l be nothing new i n i t , but every pain and every joy and every thought and sigh...must return to y o u — a l l i n the same succession and sequence—even t h i s spider and t h i s moon-l i g h t between the trees and even t h i s moment and I myself. The eternal hourglass of existence i s turned over and over — a n d you with i t , a dust grain of dust!" Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the de-mon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him: "You are a god, and never d i d I hear anything more godlike!" I f t h i s thought were to gain possession of you, i t would change you as you are, or perhaps crush you. The question i n each and everything "do you want t h i s once more and innumerable times more?" would weigh upon your actions as the greatest s t r e s s . Or how well disposed would you have to become to yourself and to l i f e to crave nothing more fervently than t h i s ultimate eternal confirmation...? 1 'Behold t h i s gateway, dwarf!* I went on: ' i t has two aspects. Two paths come together here: no one has ever reached t h e i r end. 'This long lane behind us: i t goes on f o r an eter-n i t y . And that long lane ahead of u s — t h a t i s another eternity. 'They are i n opposition to one another, these paths; they abut on one another: and i t i s here at t h i s gateway that they come together. The name of the gateway i s written above i t : "Moment". •But i f one were to follow them further and ever further and further: do you think, dwarf, that these paths would be i n eternal opposition?' •Everything straight l i e s , 1 murmured the dwarf d i s d a i n f u l l y . *A11 truth i s crooked, time i t s e l f i s a c i r c l e . ' • S p i r i t of Gravity! 1 I said angrily, •do not treat t h i s too l i g h t l y ! O^r I s h a l l leave you squatting where you are, Lamefoot—and I have car r i e d you high! •Behold t h i s moment!' I went on. 'From $hls gateway Moment a long, eternal lane runs back: an eternity l i e s be-hind us. •Must not a l l things that can run have run already along t h i s lane? Must not a l l things that can happen have already happened, been done, run past? 'And i f a l l things have been here before: what do you think of t h i s moment, dwarf? Must not t h i s gateway, too, have been here—before? •And are not a l l things bound f a s t together i n such a way that t h i s moment draws a f t e r i t a l l future things? Therefore—draws i t s e l f too? •For a l l things that can run must also run once again forward along t h i s long lane. •And t h i s slow spider that creeps along i n the moonlight, and t h i s moonlight i t s e l f , and I and you at t h i s gateway whispering together, whispering of eternal things —must we not a l l have been here before? •—and must we not return and run down that other lane out before us, down that long, t e r r i b l e lane—must we not return eternally?' 2 These passages, I think, are straightforward e-nough as regards the basic outline of the doctrine of eternal recurrence. Taken only as a hypothesis, i t says that every-thing repeats i t s e l f innumerable times, and i n the exact same succession and sequence that l t has occurred innumerable number of times before. That Nietzsche thought very highly of the doctrine of eternal recurrence can be seen from remarks that he makes i n two of his l a s t three books. In the Twilight of The Idols, he says the following i n the l a s t part of that book: And herewith I again touch that point from which I once went 5 f o r t h : The B i r t h of Tragedy was my f i r s t revaluation of a l l values. Herewith I again stand on the s o i l out of which my intention, my a b i l i t y grows—I, the l a s t d i s c i p l e of the philosopher Dionysus—I, the teacher of the eternal recur-rence. 3 The above quotation gives us a d i r e c t clue to the significance of eternal recurrence to Nietzsche, but more of t h i s i n a moment. The other quotation comes from Eoce Homo, where, i n talifcng about Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche says: "...the eternal-recurrence thought, the highest form of affirmation that can be reached...." These two quotations would indicate that Nietzsche never forgot the doctrine of eternal recurrence. I t was to 5 him "the most s c i e n t i f i c of a l l possible hypotheses." He even planned to provide a s c i e n t i f i c proof f o r lt. He: ...grappled with Duehring, R. Mayer, Boscovich, and presumably also with Helmholtz, f o r a s c i e n t i f i c proof of his doctrine and contemplated the plan of studying physics and mathematics at the University of Vienna or P a r i s . 6 Nietzsche l e f t a number of notes among which the following would Indicate that he must have once contemplated writing a book on t h i s topic: The Eternal Recurrence. A Prophecy. 1. Presentation of the doctrine and i t s t h e o r e t i c a l presup-positions and consequences. 2. Proof of the doctrine. 3. Probable consequences i n case i t should be b e l i e v e d ( l t breaks everything open). a) Means to tolerate i t ; b) Means to remove i t . 4. Its place i n history as a Middle. Time of the highest danger. Formation of an oligarchy over the races and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s : education to an all-human p o l i t i c . Counterpart of Jesuitism. 7 Whether he proceeded further towards the goal of writing such a book, and of providing a s c i e n t i f i c proof f o r 6 eternal recurrence, i s a more touchy question to s e t t l e . Among the notes published as The W i l l to Power a f t e r Nietzsche's collapse into insanity, there are a number that seem to have been the basic material f o r such a possible proof. They are a b i t lengthy, and t h e i r reproduction here would not serve any useful purpose, p a r t i c u l a r l y since a f a i r l y good account of these notes i s given by A.C.Danto In h i s book Nietzsche  As Philosopher(pp. 206-9)/ I can, however, o f f e r an abridged version of the notes: I f science assumes a f i n i t e amount of energy i n a f i n i t e space and an i n f i n t e time, i t might follow that only a f i n i t e number of configurations of the power quanta were possible. In that case, either an end state must be reached or the same configurations must eventually be reached and recur e t e r n a l l y . I f an end could be reached—and no beginning of time i s p o s i t e d — t h e end state must have been reached by now: but empirically that i s not the case, and there i s s t i l l change. Therefore, Nietzsche concluded, the doctrine of the eternal recurrence of the same—at great intervals—must be con-sidered "the most s c i e n t i f i c of a l l hypotheses." 8 Having given an outline of eternal recurrence and having indicated how seriously Nietzsche took the doctrine, one may ask: Is I t true? Here I must become a b i t dogmatic, since t h i s i s not the place to s e t t l e a s c i e n t i f i c question. S c i e n t i s t s have not rushed up to embrace the doctrine, and, as f a r as I am able to a r b i t r a t e such a matter, present day s c i e n t i f i c thought does not lend support to eternal recur-rence as a true hypothesis about the universe. Does present day s c i e n t i f i c thought, then, contradict the doctrine? Well, l t Is sometimes suggested that the second law of thermody-namics does, because i t claims that the universe i s "running 7 down" and w i l l reach an end state. However, our present day-views i n the cosmological f i e l d are s t i l l quite unsettled. There are, at the moment, several theories under active con-sideration. One of these, roughly speaking, sees the universe as p e r i o d i c a l l y contracting and expanding. Whether t h i s par-t i c u l a r theory(if true)would make Nietzsche's eternal recur-rence doctrine more probable, I am not r e a l l y competent enough to judge. Our attitude to the doctrine of eternal recurrence must, therefore, be neutral. There i s no evidence, at presentf to suggest that the doctrine i s untrue; but, while what we know today about the universe does not contradict the doctrine with any certainty, i t would not e a s i l y f i t 9 into the present framework of s c i e n t i f i c thought. I t Is d i f f i c u l t to imag&ne what ro l e i t could play there. Assuming, however, as Nietzsche c e r t a i n l y did, that the eternal recurrence doctrine i s true as a s c i e n t i f i c hy-pothesis about the universe, what would be i t s significance and importance? Almost surely, i t s importance would not l i e so much i n what i t t o l d us about the physical universe as such, that i s , that i t goes through exactly the same sequence of events an innumerable number of times. This would, of course, be a f a c t worth knowing, but the most important con-sequence of eternal recurrence would manifest i t s e l f i n the e t h i c a l f i e l d of human thought. Insofar as our e t h i c a l thought influences our conduct, the doctrine would have i t s a f f e c t there too. 8 To understand just what the doctrine of eternal recurrence would do to our ethical thought, we need to repeat the description of the doctrine once more. What did this description t e l l us? It told us of a universe in which there is an endless repetition of exactly the same cycle of events. To use an analogy, this would amount to something like a record needle getting stuck In a groove and endlessly repeat-ing exactly the same sequence of sounds—"a tale told by an 10 Idiot, idiotically repeated ad infinitum". Here are Nie-tzsche's own words from a note later included in the Will  to Power; Let us think this thought In its most terrible form: existence as i t is, without sense and aim, but inevitably recurring without a finale into naught: 'the eternal recurrence'. 11 If eternal recurrence gave us an adequate and true description of the universe, then we would have shown that i t was not 12 moving towards some goal, f u l f i l l i n g some purpose or plan. 13 "That which is always the same is obviously never different." Our universe, given eternal recurrence, would thus have lost something that i t had possessed under many other worldviews—especially the Christian, as expounded in the Holy Bible. These worldviews had claimed a goal-directed movement.; for the events taking place within the universe. Insofar as our lives were part of these events, our lives also derived their significance from that goal-directed movement. But endless repetition reaches nothing and f u l f i l s nothing. The spectacle begins nowhere and ends nowhere. In 9 the words of W.Kaufmann and A.C.Danto respectively: The doctrine means...that there i s no plan or goal to give meaning to hi s t o r y or l i f e , and that we are mere puppets i n an absolutely senseless play. The eternal recurrence i s the epitome of "a t a l e t o l d by an i d i o t , f u l l of sound and fury, s i g n i f y i n g nothing". 14 ...whatever there i s w i l l return again, and...whatever there i s , i s a return of I t s e l f . . . i t has a l l happened before, and w i l l happen again, exactly i n the same way each time, forever. Nothing happens that has not happened an i n f i n i t e number of times and which w i l l not happen again, f o r a l l eternity, i n exact i t e r a t i o n s of i t s e l f . There i s no beginning and end, and no middle either to the story of the world: there i s only the monotonous turning up always of the same episode, time and again. 1 5 I f the universe turns out to be nothing but a merry-go-round of colpssal proportions, then i t or i t s work-ings can provide us with no clue to the sort of l i f e we must lead. Moralities that are based on views which see the uni-verse as approaching some goal or end, or f u l f i l l i n g some purpose(e.g. Darwinism or natural law)are incompatible with the doctrine of eternal recurrence. There w i l l be no f i n a l Day of Judgment, nor a h e l l or a heaven. Everything only repeats I t s e l f , over and over again. C h r i s t i a n i t y , the Chris-t i a n morality and worldvlew, are refuted. They have no basis i n a universe that e t e r n a l l y repeats i t s e l f . "That which i s 16 always the same i s obviously never d i f f e r e n t . " Just how we might be affected by eternal recur-ence, i s described i n the aphorism from The Gay Science quoted e a r l i e r ( p . 3)» Nietzsche asks us how we would react to the demon's message. Would we gnash our teeth because our l i f e was without any redeeming features that would make an 10 e n d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n o f i t b e a r a b l e ? W o u l d we g r o a n b e c a u s e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e r o b b e d o u r l i f e o f i t s m e a n i n g , o f i t s v a l u e ? We v e r y w e l l m i g h t ; i t c e r t a i n l y seems t o h a v e a f f e c t e d N i e t z s c h e i n t h i s way a t f i r s t , i f we a r e t o b e l i e v e w h a t L o u - A n d r e a s v o n S a l o m e t e l l s u s i n h e r b o o k F r i e d r i c h N i e t z -s c h e i n S e i n e n W e r k e n ; U n f o r g e t t a b l e a r e t h e h o u r s i n w h i c h h e r e l a t e d i t £ t h e t h o u g h t o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e / t o me a s a s e c r e t , a s s o m e t h i n g b e f o r e w h o s e t r u t h . . . h e f e l t u n s p e a k a b l e f e a r ; h e s p o k e o f i t o n l y w i t h l o w v o i c e a n d a l l t h e s i g n s o f t h e d e e p e s t h o r r o r . A n d , i n f a c t , h e s u f f e r e d l i f e s o d e e p l y t h a t t h e c e r t a i n t y o f t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e o f l i f e m u s t h a v e b e e n f o r h i m s o m e t h i n g h o r r i b l e . 17 B u t w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , N i e t z s c h e m u s t h a v e o v e r -come h i s i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e , s i n c e i n h i s n e x t b o o k ( T h u s S p o k e  Z a r a t h u s t r a ) e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e i s a f f i r m e d a s t h e m o s t d i v i n e m e s s a g e . T h a t i s t h e o t h e r r e a c t i o n we m i g h t m a n i f e s t — a f e e l i n g o f d e l i g h t a n d p l e a s u r e a t t h e s e " g l a d t i d i n g s . " We m i g h t r e a c t i n t h i s s e c o n d way b e c a u s e o u r l i f e h a d b e e n s u c h t h a t we c o u l d n o t a s k f o r m o r e , e x c e p t t o h a v e i t r e p e a t e d d o w n t o t h e l a s t d e t a i l a d i n f i n i t u m . I t m i g h t a l s o b e b e c a u s e , a s I h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e s w e e p s a w a y c e r t a i n m o r a l i t i e s , i . e . t h o s e w h i c h s e e t h e u n i v e r s e a s a p p r o a c h i n g some e n d o r g o a l o r f u l f i l l i n g some p u r p o s e . T h e s e w o u l d b e g o n e , a n d man w o u l d now be h i s own m a s t e r . I t i s a s t h o u g h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n h a d s u d d e n l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e a d u l t s t h e y w e r e f r i g h t e n e d o f d i d n o t e x i s t o r h a d d i e d l o n g a g o . T h i s i s w h a t e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e p r o m i s e s ; i t p r o m i s e s f r e e d o m f r o m c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s t o w h i c h many m o r a l c o d e s 11 had hitherto conformed or been subject. Now by f a r the most important consequence of eternal recurrence must be the observation that i f the doctrine i s true, our l i f e has no g o a l — a t l e a s t , no externally imposed goal. I am thinking e s p e c i a l l y of the C h r i s t i a n morality and worldview, where we have a goal i n the form of a Day of Judgment, and an external lawgiver i n God. Eternal recurrence can thus serve to restore joy i n l i f e by pointing out that we are the masters of our own f a t e . I t attempts to do t h i s f o r European and North American man primarily by overthrowing the C h r i s t i a n morality and worldview. The C h r i s t i a n God i s thereby dethroned, because he i s an intimate part of the C h r i s t i a n morality and world-view(see Section I I I ) . The world has been redeemed, as a b e l i e f i n and obedience to the C h r i s t i a n God had always devalued the earth i n order to g l o r i f y an a f t e r l i f e or a Supreme Being: The concept of "God" was u n t i l now the greatest objection to existence. We deny God, we deny the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n God: only thereby do we redeem the world. 18 12 SECTION II GOD IS DEAD Now that we have seen that Nietzsche's doctrine of eternal recurrence i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y shaky and perhaps even untenable, what happens to Hietzsche's attempt to f i n d 1 9 A "meaning i n a purely human existence"? Is t h i s programme not impaired, i f eternal recurrence i s not accepted? Well, yes and no. Yes, insofar as eternal recurrence i s not v e r i f i e d as a s c i e n t i f i c hypothesis, and Insofar as the overthrow of the C h r i s t i a n morality and worldview have not been otherwise established. But i f we can show, i n some other way, that the C h r i s t i a n morality and worldview are overthrown, then i t should s t i l l be possible to salvage most of Nietzsche's attempt to f i n d "meaning i n a purely human existence". Most of his comments and objections that follow from the doctrine of eternal recurrence are aimed at the C h r i s t i a n worldview and the C h r i s t i a n morality, which he considered, o f f i c i a l l y at l e a s t , to be the worldview and the morality of the Euro-pean continent of that time. Now I propose to show that f o r Nietzsche and f o r us the C h r i s t i a n God of the C h r i s t i a n worldview had died, that science and rationalism had k i l l e d him. 13 To proceed with my argument, let me describe a cartoon which is quite familiar to many of us. It usually consists of two or three pictures.(Thunderbolt striking down Nietzsche in the second is optional.) The f i r s t shows Nietzsche writing "God is dead." on a wall while the last picture shows the personification of the Supreme Being himself—in his white robe and long beard disguise—doing a bit of wall writing himself. His message, as one might expect, i s : "Nie-tzsche i s dead." This last result is not at a l l surprising and tends to shake few people. However, the f i r s t "event" — t h a t God is dead—would not be greeted with such indif-ference and calm. Our Western Civi l i z a t i o n s t i l l prides i t s e l f on being Christian—or, i f we consider individual countries, they take pride in being Christian countries. This would have to be the conclusion of anyone who looked at some of the things which make up our way of l i f e . Our politicians, whether the Institution to which they belong is called Congress, Parlia-ment or Assembly, open their daily sessions with a prayer or a passage from the Holy Bible. At election time(or any other time while holding office), no candidate would, under the normal circumstances, deny belief in a Supreme Being, although It must not necessarily be the Christian God.(I seem to re-member that Bertrand Russell once ran afoul of a nominating committee in one of the elections for the English House of Commons, because he would not even pretend to be religious by going to Church once in a while I) At other than election 14 times, statements to the ef f e c t that we are a r e l i g i o u s country are less frequently heard, though not exactly rare, (e.g. Eisenhower i n December 1 9 5 2 : "Our government makes no sense unless i t i s founded i n a deeply f e l t r e l i g i o u s f a i t h 19B — a n d I don ft care what l t i s . " ) More instances of our alleged C h r i s t i a n i t y can be mentioned. In courts of law, we swear on the Bible and f i n i s h 20 the oath by the words "so help me God". Our coinage contains i n s c r i p t i o n s which make d i r e c t reference to God; e.g. U.S.A. coins have the famous motto "In God we tr u s t " , while Canadian coins t e l l us of "Elizabeth I I , Dei Gratia Regina"(Elizabeth II , Queen by the Grace of God). Many people s t i l l believe that being an atheist d i s q u a l i f i e s one from c e r t a i n tasks though I do not know i f any Western country s t i l l bars atheists from holding p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . Perhaps the most famous recent such case i s that of the New York City College, which was prevented from obtaining Lord Russell's services as professor of philosophy, even though his classes were r e s t r i c t e d to l o g i c and the philosophy of mathematics. The case i s well known, and I need not go into d e t a i l s . I merely wish to reproduce excerpts from a l e t t e r written to a l l New York newspapers when Russell's appointment to the fac u l t y of the College was made public. The author i s Bishop Manning of the Protestant Episcopal Church: What i s to be said of colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s which hold up before our youth as a responsible teacher of philosophy... a man who i s a recognized propagandist against both r e l i g i o n 15 and m o r a l i t y , and who s p e c i f i c a l l y defends a d u l t e r y . . . Can anyone who cares f o r the welfare of our country be w i l l i n g to see such teaching disseminated w i t h the countenance of our co l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ? 21 Bishop Manning must have a very narrow concept of m o r a l i t y since I am not aware th a t R u s s e l l propagandizes f o r murder, t h e f t , l y i n g , e t c . I t h i n k these few examples s u f f i c e to e s t a b l i s h that w e — I am here t a l k i n g of the general p u b l i c — s t i l l regard ourselves as C h r i s t i a n s , and that we would regard the "death of God" as a se r i o u s matter. Prom p r i v a t e conversations w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , I have gathered the impression t h a t many people would r e a c t t o the non-existence or death of God i n the f o l l o w i n g way: " I f God does not e x i s t , every-22 t h i n g i s permitted." I s h a l l now t r y t o show t h a t , w h i l e we engage i n the r i t u a l s of C h r i s t i a n i t y , we have given up the b e l i e f s which would make us tru e C h r i s t i a n s . I n f a c t , I s h a l l t r y to show that we h a r d l y pay any a t t e n t i o n to the tenets of C h r i s -t i a n i t y as they are expounded i n the Holy B i b l e . Since I am e x p l i c a t i n g a main strand of Nietzsche's thought i n t h i s essay, I s h a l l present much of my case i n h i s words. Now Nietzsche, i n examining the world around him, came to a simple, though f o r h i s time remarkable c o n c l u s i o n . "God i s dead", he observed—but found i t necessary t o convey t h i s i n a magnifleant parable: The Madman.—Have you not heard of th a t madman who l i t a l a n t e r n i n the b r i g h t morning hours, r a n t o the market-place, 16 and c r i e d incessantly: "l|am looking f o r GodI I am looking fo r God!" As many of those who d i d not believe i n God were standing together there, he excited considerable laughter. Have you l o s t him, then? said one. Did he lose his way l i k e a child? said another. Or i s he hiding? I--s he a f r a i d of us? Has he gone on a voyage? or emigrated? Thus they shouted and laughed. The madman sprang into t h e i r midst and pierced them with his glances. "Where has God gone?" he c r i e d . "I s h a l l t e l l you. We have k i l l e d him—you and I. We are a l l his murderers. But how have we done this? How were we able to drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What did we do when we unchained t h i s earth from i t s sun? Whither i s i t moving now? Whither are we moving now? Away from a l l suns? Are we not perpetually f a l l i n g ? Backward, sideward, forward, i n a l l directions? Is there any up or down l e f t ? Are we not straying as through an i n f i n i t e nothing? Do we f e e l the breath of empty space? Has i t not become colder? Is not more and more night coming on a l l the time? Must not lanterns be l i t i n the morning? Do we not hear anything yet of the noise of the gravediggers who are hurrying God? Do we not smell anything yet of God's de-composition? Gods too decompose. God i s dead. God remains dead. And we have k i l l e d him. How s h a l l we, the murderers of a l l murderers, console ourselves? that which was h o l i e s t and mightiest of a l l that the world has yet possessed has bled to death under our knives. Who w i l l wipe t h i s blood off us? With what water could we p u r i f y ourselves? What f e s t i v a l s of atonement, what sacred games s h a l l we need to Invent? Is not the greatness of t h i s deed too great f o r us? Must not we ourselves become gods simply to seem worthy of i t ? There has never been a greater deed; and whoever s h a l l be born a f t e r u s — f o r the sake of t h i s deed he s h a l l be part of a higher h i s t o r y than a l l hi s t o r y ftltherto." Here the madman f e l l s i l e n t and again regarded h i s l i s t e n e r s ; and they too were s i l e n t and stared at him i n astonishment. At l a s t he threw his lantern to the ground, and i t broke and went out. "l)come too early," he said then; "my time has not come yet. This tremendous event i s s t i l l on i t s way, s t i l l trav-e l l i n g — i t has not yet reached the ears of men. Lighting and thunder require time, the l i g h t of the stars requires time, deeds require time even a f t e r they are done, before they can be seen and heard. This deed i s s t i l l more distant from them than the most distant s t a r s — a n d yet they have done l t themselves." I t has been rel a t e d further that on that same day the madman entered divers churches and there sang a requiem aeternam deo. Led out and quietened, he i s said to have retorted each time: "What are these churches now i f they are not the tombs and sepulchres of God?" 23 I t i s obvious who the madman and the people i n 1 7 the market-place are; the madman i s Nietzsche himself while the others are h i s contemporaries. They have not as yet noticed that "God i s dead", that anything i s wrong, and are not, therefore, plagued about the implications. Nietzsche, however, found t h i s s i t u a t i o n disturbing. With the death of the Chris-t i a n God, an old "picture", an old view of man, had been over-thrown. So many of the things which had formerly hidden behind the cloak of God, and were made plausible by i t , had now l o s t t h e i r support. How would one go about establishing that God i s dead? Certainly not i n the ordinary way, by pointing to the r o t t i n g corpse, even though Nietzsche asks i n the parable of the madman: "Do we not smell anything yet of God's decom-position?" The Ch r i s t i a n God, at any rate, i s not the sort of e n t i t y which leaves a decaying body a f t e r having expired. The C h r i s t i a n God's demise w i l l have to be demonstrated i n other; ways. But i n that case, what are these other ways of showing that God i s dead? They consist i n pointing out the disuse into which the concept of God has f a l l e n . One cannot, without a proof, say that God does not exist; yet, one can show that a ce r t a i n sort of God, the Ch r i s t i a n God—for my purpose, does not have a s i g n i f i c a n t function any more. This, i f we l i k e , i s the equivalent of a r o t t i n g corpse f o r a God. In the words of M. Heidegger: Thus God i s not dead? Yes and nol Yes—he i s dead. But which God? The "moral" God, the Ch r i s t i a n God i s dead; the "father" to whom one del i v e r s oneself; the "judge" with whom one s e t t l e s ; the "rewarder" through whom one l e t s oneself be 18 paid f o r one's v i r t u e s ; that God with whom one conducts one's "business".... 24 This i s the God that we have mainly i n mind, when the death of God i s announced. To be sure, there are other f i e l d s i n which the "regulating finger of God" has also disappeared. Perhaps the easiest way of showing the disuse into which the concept of God has f a l l e n , i s to be found i n re-tracing some of the steps made e a r l i e r to i l l u s t r a t e our alleged C h r i s t i a n i t y . I pointed out that i n the assemblies of our elected and appointed representatives, prayers or Bible passages usually usher i n the d a i l y session. So we ask God's guidance—but where does i t manifest i t s e l f i n the debates of these bodies? Is the national transportation p o l i c y based on the Scriptures? The salary of the represent-atives? The foreign p o l i c y of the nation? War and peace? No; none of these things are. When i t comes to our public welfare, we do not tr u s t i n God. But perhaps i t i s the ov e r a l l d i r e c t i o n of our representatives's deliberations which follow the guidance of the Holy B i b l e . Are, then, the p o l i c i e s decided upon by our governing bodies designed to a i d the salvation of our souls? Not to my knowledge. As f a r as I am able to discover, they aim rather to decrease.our worldly misery while t r y i n g to Increase our worldly happiness. These goals do not presuppose an a f t e r l i f e or a Supreme Being. About the only time when God or Bible quotation are introduced into our l e g i s l a t i v e assemblies i s i n discus-sions of the criminal c o d e — p a r t i c u l a r l y when the o v e r a l l 19 aim of punishment, or when sex, li q u o r , drugs, etc., are the topic under discussion. Even here, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to decide whether Scripture quotations constitute the main argument of the person using them or whether they serve only the minor r o l e of making the person's case psychologically overwhelming. One hardly ever finds a person who on, say, the subject of abortions rests h i s complete argument on the Bib-l i c a l commandment "Thou shalt not k i l l " . The motto says "In God we tr u s t " ; but we do not. When we want protection from burglars, we set up a police force and bu i l d prisons f o r convicted burglars. When we have a pain, we go to the doctor, and when i t needs surgery, we have 25 surgery performed. When we want security i n old age, we i n s t i t u t e Old Age Pension plans and Medicare. When we have a foe i n ba t t l e , we send sol d i e r s i n planes, tanks,and b a t t l e -ships to subdue him, not prophets or pries t s of God. What place i s there f o r God i n our science? None whatsoever. God, as a hypothesis, has absolutely no explanatory value. On Occam's dictum, "Do not multiply e n t i t i e s beyond need", he would have to be removed forthwith. Insofar as we r e l y on science to provide us with a l l sorts of b e n e f i t s — a n d who does not praise or c a l l on science these days?—we have relegated God to the corner of unused concepts. We have reached a stage where "the b e l i e f i n the 2 6 C h r i s t i a n God has become unbelievable...." Not only do we look towards other things, i . e . the various sciences, when 20 we reach and f i n d ourselves i n d i f f i c u l t i e s ! but science, the r a t i o n a l way of looking at events and situations which we have adopted, i s at odds with the attitudes necessary to remain a C h r i s t i a n . In the C h r i s t i a n system "Even doubt i s 27 a s i n . " But doubting, testing, s c r u t i n i z i n g , etc., are slowly becoming our second nature, though t h i s process has not yet advanced into a l l our thought. We s t i l l have horoscopes, good luck charms and age-old sayings. Yet, on the whole, we are slowly finding the concept of God as Nietzsche found i t : I am too curious, too questioning...to put up with a rough-f i s t e d answer. God i s a rough-fisted answer, an Indelicacy against us t h i n k e r s — a t bottom even a mere rough-fisted forblddanoe to us: you s h a l l not think. 28 But "you s h a l l not think", i s the negation of a l l r a t i o n a l enterprises. Thus, C h r i s t i a n i t y must be against them, against science: A r e l i g i o n l i k e C h r i s t i a n i t y , which does not have contact with r e a l i t y at any point, which crumbles as soon as r e a l i t y i s conceded i t s r i g h t s at even a single point, must naturally be mortally h o s t i l e against the "wisdom of t h i s world", which means science. I t w i l l applaud a l l means with which the d i s c i -plines of the s p i r i t , purity and severity i n the spirit's matters of conscience, the noble coolness and freedom of the s p i r i t , can be poisoned, slandered, brought into disrepute. "Faith" as an imperative i s the veto against s c i e n c e — I n practice, the l i e at any cost. 29 One would thus expect that a man of science could not and would not think of himself as a C h r i s t i a n f o r : C h r i s t i a n i t y presupposes that man does not know, cannot know, what i s good f o r him, what e v i l : he believes i n God, who alone knows i t . C h r i s t i a n morality i s a command; i t s o r i g i n i s transcendent; i t i s beyond a l l c r i t i c i s m , a l l r i g h t to c r i t i c i s m ; . . . 30 Besides, C h r i s t i a n i t y contains things and tenets which, to a 21 man who i n other respects demands scrupulous adherence to well-known canons of evidence, must seem utterly incredible and doubtful: ...a Jew crucified two thousand years ago who said he was the son of God. There is no evidence for such an assertion... a god who begets children on a mortal woman; a sage who invites us no longer to work, no longer to s i t in judgment, but to pay heed to the signs of the imminent end of the world; a •(Justice which accepts an innocent man as a vicarious sacrifice; someone who bids his disciples drink his blood; prayers for miracles; sins committed against a god atoned by a god; fear of a beyond to which death i s the gateway.... Jl Also: In Christianity neither morality nor religion has even a single point of contact with reality. Nothing but imaginary causes("God", "soul", " s p i r i t " , "free w i l l " — f o r that matter "unfree w i l l " ) , nothing but Imaginary effects("sin", "re-demption", "grace", "punishment", "forgiveness of sins"). Intercourse between imaginary beings("God". " s p i r i t s " , "soul"); an imaginary natural science(anthropocentric; no trace of any concept of natural causes); an imaginary psy-chology (nothing but self-misunderstandings, interpretations of agreeable or disagreeable general f e e l i n g s — f o r example, of the states of the nervus sympathlcus— with the aid of the sign language of the religlo-moral idiosyncracy: "repentance", "pangs of conscience", "temptation by the devil", "the pres-ence of God"); an imaginary teleology("the kingdom of God", "the last Judgment", "eternal l i f e " ) . 32 Are there, then, scientists who also claim to be Christians? Plenty. They go to church on Sundays and give talks to the effect that science and Christianity are not 33 Incompatible. Now I do not know exactly how they manage to preserve the God of Moses, Abraham the Decalogue, Jesus, Paul, etc., while also remaining in the sc i e n t i f i c community, but, often enough, i t is done by leading a compartmentalized l i f e , divided into different spheres of one's activity. There is the Church and there is the laboratory, and "never the 22 twain s h a l l meet". Another solution consists In seeing God as the f i r s t cause, the unmoved mover, of one's worldview. On such an assumtion, God created the universe and made It conform to the laws that are so laboriously being unearthed by the sciences and other d i s c i p l i n e s of human thought. Where the moral superstructure, the moral commandments and sanctions, h e l l and heaven, enter, I do not know. Do we, i n f a c t , j u s t i f y our conduct, our moral codes, by reference to God or to the Bible? L e g i s l a t o r s , In general, do not, as I indicated e a r l i e r . Philosophers have, i n general again, t r i e d to show that what i s morally good i s so not be-cause God commands i t , but because i t i s seen to be so on other grounds. This makes God, as a moral lawgiver, an un-needed e n t i t y . Does the average person j u s t i f y his own per-sonal conduct by reference to God and C h r i s t i a n i t y ? As f a r as my knowledge regarding the common man extends, I must say no. Fear of the p o l i c e , the good of society, "that i t i s n ' t done", etc., are more l i k e l y candidates f o r the average person's j u s t i f i c a t i o n of his conduct. What, i n that case, i s the single most important f a c t which has preserved b e l i e f i n God? I f one may venture to give a short, somewhat dogmatic answer, i t must be the existence of man, the world and the universe. This f a c t , t h i s existence, c r i e s out f o r an explanation, and God, not neces-s a r i l y the C h r i s t i a n God, has frequently been offered as such an explanation. Such a God, who serves only In an explanatory 23 capacity, i s not the "moral" God, the Ch r i s t i a n God who says that vengeance i s h i s . And, i t i s the l a t t e r who i s quite dead—though the former i s also f a l l i n g into rapid disuse, because just to postulfcate an explanation, where i t seems to be demanded, does not r e a l l y solve the problem. 24 SECTION III DAWN God i s dead and with him have gone a l l those things that were formerly His r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In Ho l l i n g d a l e 1 s words: The basis of a l l moral judgment, of a l l notions of r i g h t and wrong and of good and e v i l , has been removed. Modern Europe i s f a l l i n g through a void. 34 But, men have not become aware of t h i s . They behave as though everything were s t i l l as before. "This tremendous event i s 35 s t i l l on i t s way...it has not yet reached the ears of men." People are s t i l l secure i n t h e i r ways, as though the old order 36 of the C h r i s t i a n God s t i l l held sway; However, some persons have become suspicious already: This greatest newest even t — t h a t "God i s dead", that the b e l i e f i n the C h r i s t i a n God has become unbelievable—begins to throw i t s f i r s t shadows over Europe already. Por the few, at l e a s t , whose eyes, whose suspicion i n the eyes i s strong and f i n e enough f o r t h i s spectacle, some sun just appears to have set, some old deep trust twisted into doubt: our old world must appear to them d a i l y more dusklike, d i s t r u s t f u l , foreign, "older". In the main, however, one can say that the event i t s e l f i s much too big, too f a r , too remote from the capacity/Fassungsveraoegen/of many as that i t s knowledge could even be said to have reached us; not to say that many know already what has a c t u a l l y occurred therewith—and what, now that t h i s b e l i e f i s undermined must now collapse because l t was b u i l t on i t , leaned on i t , had grown into i t : f o r instance, our whole European morality... 37 With the death of God, some blanket of i n f i n i t e t r u s t has been destroyed. We have been deprived of something 25 v i t a l — a n d now have neither up nor down, neither l e f t nor r i g h t . With God, with the C h r i s t i a n morality and worldview, each one of us had a place and a goal. To obtain salvation, that had been the end of our s t r i v i n g s , or, at any rate, was thought to have been the proper goal of our earthly existence. This i s no more. God has died. There i s no salvation; there i s no externally imposed goal which we must reach; there i s no heaven and h e l l . We are alone. But are we r e a l l y , once having been freed from the Chr i s t i a n God, freed from the C h r i s t i a n morality? Nietzsche c e r t a i n l y thought so. He says: When one has given up the Ch r i s t i a n f a i t h , one p u l l s the r i g h t to C h r i s t i a n morality out from under one's feet. This morality i s by no means self-evident: t h i s point has to be exhibited again and again...Christianity i s a system, a whole view of things thought out together. By breaking one main concept out of i t , the f a i t h i n God, one breaks the whole: nothing neces-sary remains i n one's hands. C h r i s t i a n i t y presupposes that man does not know, cannot know, what i s good f o r him, what e v i l : he believes i n God, who alone knows i t . C h r i s t i a n morality i s a command; i t s o r i g i n i s transcendent; i t i s beyond a l l c r i t i c i s m , a l l r i g h t to c r i t i c i s m ; i t has truth only i f God i s the t r u t h — i t stands and f a l l s with f a i t h i n God. 38 Chr i s t i a n morality f a l l s with the death of God—though t h i s does not mean that people w i l l stop acting i n ways that out-wardly, at any rate, conform to the commands of that moral-ity—because that God was not only a jealous God, who would tolerate no others beside him, but also a God of vengeance. Those who did not head his words were, as the Bible reports, subject to his wrath: And whosoever s h a l l not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet f o r a tes-26 timony against them. V e r i l y I say unto you, I t s h a l l be more tolerable f o r Sodom and Gomorrah i n the day of judgment, than fo r that c i t y . 39 And i f thine eye offend thee, pluck i t out: i t i s better f o r thee to enter into the kingdom of God "with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into h e l l f i r e : Where t h e i r worm dieth not, and the f i r e i s not quenched. 40 Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the S p i r i t of God dwelleth i n you? If any man d e f i l e the temple of God, him s h a l l God destroy; f o r the temple of God i s holy, which temple ye are. 41 The C h r i s t i a n morality i s a morality based on the commands issued by the C h r i s t i a n God. I t i s backed up by h i s promises of reward to the virtuous and threats of punishment to the wicked. Remove the command-giver, and you have also removed the morality based on these commands and the force standing behind them, unless the morality finds another basis f o r i t s existence, i . e . , i s given another j u s t i f i c a t i o n . We are now at a point s i m i l a r to that reached by means of the doctrine of eternal recurrence; although, i f t h i s doctrine had been a true description of our universe, i t would have been a stronger argument f o r the C h r i s t i a n God's death. Our existence has been unchained—that i s , i t finds i t s e l f without a goal. We are l e f t without values to guide our way and our existence. We have l o s t the b e l i e f that there i s a way, or a destiny. So, we must draw the consequences of t h i s loss of b e l i e f . Did not Nietzsche, when tal k i n g of God's death i n the parable of the madman, say: Is not the greatness of t h i s deed too great f o r us? Must not we ourselves become gods simply to seem worthy of i t ? 42 2? This i s p r e c i s e l y what must take place now. Perhaps, we cannot he gods, but we must usurp one of the fu n c t i o n s that was f u l f i l l e d by the C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and w o r l d v i e w — namely, to give ourselves v a l u e s , t o give our l i f e and existence meaning. H i t h e r t o , the C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and worldview had provided our existence w i t h a meaning by g i v i n g our e a r t h l y l i f e a goal and a purpose. Once the C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and worldview are overthrown however, our existence i s robbed of t h i s meaning, because the goal and the purpose that had given i t meaning are gone. I n l o o k i n g f o r a new t a b l e 43 of values t h a t could give meaning to our l i f e and ex i s t e n c e , we cannot accept j u s t any t a b l e of va l u e s . I t was science and r a t i o n a l i s m that k i l l e d God, and t h i s v i c t o r y s i g n a l s a new e r a — o n e t h a t has given up the metaphysical world. God was our l a r g e s t piece of metaphysical r e a l e s t a t e , but not the only one. In other words, the trend of our thought has become more p o s l t i v i s t l c , not only I n m o r a l i t y but a l s o i n science , p o l i t i c s , e t c . Nietzsche c o l l a p s e d t h i s trend Into a short note i n the T w i l i g h t of The I d o l s : HOW THE'REAL WORLD' AT LAST BECAME A MYTH. H i s t o r y of an e r r o r . 1. The r e a l world, a t t a i n a b l e to the wise, the pious, the v i r t u o u s man—he dwells i n i t , he i s i t . (Oldest form of the id e a , r e l a t i v e l y s e n s i b l e , simple, convincing. T r a n s c r i p t i o n of the pro-p o s i t i o n 'I Plat.fr/ am the truth'./Wahrheit, corresponding t o wahre W e l t — r e a l w o r l d / ) • 2 8 2 . The r e a l world, unattainable f o r the moment, but promised to the wise, the pious, the virtuous man('to the sinner who r e p e n t s 1 ) . (Progress of the idea: i t grows more refined, more enticing, more incomprehensible—it becomes a  woman, l t becomes C h r i s t i a n . . . ) . 3. The r e a l world, unattainable, undemonstrable, cannot be promised, but even when merely thought of a consolation, a duty, an imperative. (Fundamentally the same old sun, but shining through mist and scepticism; the idea grown sublime, pale, northerly, Koenigsbergian./i.e. Kantian/). 4. The r e a l world—unattainable? Unattained, at any rate. And i f unattainable also unknown. Consequently also no consolation, no redemption, no duty; how could we have a duty towards some-thing unknown? (The grey of dawn. F i r s t yawning of reason. Cockcrow of Positivism.) 5. The 'real w o r l d 1 — a n idea no longer of any use, not even a duty any l o n g e r — a n idea grown useless, superflous, con-sequently a refuted idea: l e t us abolish i t i (Broad daylight; breakfast; return of cheerfulness and bon sens; Plato blushes f o r shame; a l l free s p i r i t s run r i o t . ) 6. We have abolished the r e a l world: what world i s l e f t ? the apparant world perhaps?...But no! with the r e a l world we have  also abolished the apparant world! (Mid-day; moment of the shortest shadow; end of the lowest error; zenith of mankind; INCIPIT ZABATHUSTRA.) ILLL This p o s i t l v i s t i c trend i n our thought automatically rules out the introduction of worldviews and moralities simi-l a r to the Ch r i s t i a n , because whatever k i l l e d the C h r i s t i a n worldview and morality would also come out the v i c t o r against these others. Thus* the way i n which our existence i s now, a f t e r the death of God, to be given meaning must be compat-i b l e with science and rationalism. The dawn of a new era has overtaken us: 29 Indeed, we philosophers and "free s p i r i t s " f e e l as though we were bathed i n l i g h t by a new dawn, upon the news that the "old God i s dead"; our heart overflows i n gratitude, surprise, foreboding, e x p e c t a t i o n — f i n a l l y the horizon ap-pears free again, assuming even that i t i s not bright; f i n a l l y , our ships may put out to sea again, against every danger, every venture of the recognizing one i s allowed again; the sea, our sea l i e s open again, perhaps there never was such an "open sea". 45 Given God's death, we are freed from cert a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s . There i s no Big Brother, of the heavenly va-r i e t y , watching our every step and reckoning up against our name, a l l the deeds that we may have committed. We are freed from the Chr i s t i a n worldview and morality, and the framework within which they are expressed and f i n d t h e i r meaning. To be more s p e c i f i c , the freedoms that the death of God proclaims are, more or l e s s , freedoms from various things that the Chris-t i a n worldview contained. There are, f o r instance, a number of concepts that loom large In t h i s worldview. I f we i n s i s t on keeping these terms i n a non-Christian view of the world, they cannot keep t h e i r old meanings which, a f t e r a l l , r e-quired the Chr i s t i a n God. Some of the more prominant concepts of the Chris-t i a n worldview and morality, the old order, are s i n , remorse, resentment, punishment, etc. They have quite s p e c i a l meanings i n the Christian framework. Sin, to take an example, consists i n disobeying God or the commands of God. Hence, a C h r i s t i a n who feels himself to be a sinner, or s i n f u l , thinks that he has not f u l f i l l e d God's laws and demands: 30 But i f the conception of God f a l l s away, then, too, that f e e l i n g of " s i n " as a v i o l a t i o n a g a i n s t d i v i n e order, as a s t a i n a g a i n s t a d i v i n e l y consecrated c r e a t u r e . Probably there s t i l l remains that d i s p l e a s u r e which i s very overgrown and r e l a t e d w i t h the f e a r of punishment from the wordly j u s t i c e or the d i s p l e a s u r e from people; the d i s p l e a s u r e from the b i t e of conscience, the strongest thorn i n the f e e l i n g of g u i l t , i s however broken o f f , when one r e a l i z e s t h a t through one's a c t i o n s one can very w e l l offend a g a i n s t human convention, human s t a t u t e and order, but has not therewith placed i n jeppardy the " e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n of the s o u l " and i t s r e l a -t i o n t o God. 46 In the C h r i s t i a n order, to be a sinner was a very ser i o u s matter. What, a f t e r a l l , was a short e a r t h l y existence compared to the e t e r n i t y to f o l l o w ? A few pleasures now, obtained through a v i o l a t i o n a g a i n s t the d i v i n e order, could never be made up by the e t e r n i t y of brimstone and h e l l - f i r e a w a i t i n g us i n the a f t e r l i f e . However, w i t h the death of God, the d i v i n e order f a l l s , and? hence, there can be no longer a v i o l a t i o n a g a i n s t i t . To be sure, t h i s leaves human convention and human s t a t u t e , but these are subject t o human c a p r i c e and do not possess the s a n c t i t y of a d i v i n e order. The concepts of s i n , remorse, g u i l t , punishment, e t c . , can, of coursei f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n a s e c u l a r order of s o c i e t y , but not without undergoing a very s u b s t a n t i a l s h i f t i n meaning from what they were i n a d i v i n e order. Furthermore, the s e c u l a r order i s man-given. The C h r i s t i a n moral i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of phenomena, on the other hand, was something supposedly imposed on humanity from outside of humanity. Now as soon as we give up such a metaphysical b e l i e f i n an e x t e r n a l l a w g i v i n g agency(and the accompanying frame-work), we are l e f t w i t h the view t h a t : "There are no moral phenomena, only moral i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of phenomena...." 31 This i s why Nietzsche could say: . . . i t has u t t e r l y escaped me i n how f a r I could have been " s i n f u l " . I n the same way I l a c k a r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i o n f o r a s c e r t a i n i n g what a p r i c k of conscience i s : from what one hears about i t , a p r i c k of conscience Is nothing respectable . . . I should hate t o leave an a c t i o n i n the l u r c h afterwards; I would p r e f e r to leave the bad outcome, the consequences from the problem concerning the value of an a c t i o n on p r i n -c i p l e . . . . 48 A l s o : That one does not commit cowardice against one's deeds! th a t one does not leave them i n the l u r c h a f t e r w a r d s ! — T h e b i t e of conscience i s indecent. 49 These remarks have e s s e n t i a l l y the same message: the man who has given up or has l o s t h i s b e l i e f i n God w i l l have l i t t l e or no reason t o see himself as, say, i n n a t e l y e v i l or a s i n n e r . Instead, there now i s freedom from obe-dience to the d i v i n e order, and any s e c u l a r order has a st a t u s more a k i n t o t h a t of a game. Or, i f we were concerned w i t h punishment, we might t h i n k of the matter i n t h i s way: ...punishment works l i k e a k i n d of p r i c e system: by a l t e r i n g the p r i c e one has t o pay f o r the performance of a c t i o n s i t supp l i e s a motive f o r a v o i d i n g some a c t i o n s and doing others. 50 And we decide what i s t o be p r i c e d , not God! Perhaps, too, the o l d views on human agency w i l l disappear, f o r the o l d moral order, though t h i s may not Just be a p e c u l i a r i t y of the C h r i s t i a n worldview, had maintained: . . . a l l a c t i v i t y as conditioned by an a g e n t — t h e " s u b j e c t " . . . Por, j u s t as popular s u p e r s t i t i o n d i v o r c e s the l i g h t n i n g from i t s b r i l l i a n c e , viewing the l a t t e r as an a c t i v i t y whose subject i s the l i g h t n i n g , so does popular m o r a l i t y d i v o r c e strength from i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , as though there were be-hind the strong a n e u t r a l agent, f r e e t o manifest i t s strength or c o n t a i n i t . But no such agent e x i s t s ; there i s 32 no ""being" b e h i n d t h e d o e r , a c t i n g , b e c o m i n g ; t h e " d o e r " h a s s i m p l y b e e n a d d e d t o t h e d e e d by t h e i m a g i n a t i o n — t h e d o i n g Is e v e r y t h i n g . 51 T h u s , i t was e a s y f o r t h e o l d m o r a l o r d e r t o h o l d : . . . t h a t i t i s w i t h i n t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e s t r o n g t o be weak, o f t h e b i r d o f p r e y t o be a l a m b . Thus t h e y assume t h e r i g h t o f c a l l i n g t h e b i r d o f p r e y t o a c c o u n t f o r b e i n g a b i r d o f p r e y . . . . 52 To be s u r e , t h e weak, i f t h e y r e s o r t t o t h i s s u b t e r f u g e , c a n n o t e x a c t l y be b l a m e d f o r t h i s s i n c e i t i s t h e y who w i l l be s l a u g h t e r e d b y t h e s t r o n g . T hey c a n n o t f i n d t h e m s e l v e s t h r i l l e d when N i e t z s c h e o c c a s i o n a l l y comes o u t w i t h s t a t e -m e n t s l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g : B u t y o u d i v i n e p a t r o n e s s — i f t h e r e a r e a n y s u c h i n t h e r e a l m b e y o n d g o o d a n d e v i l — g r a n t me now a n d a g a i n t h e s i g h t o f s o m e t h i n g p e r f e c t , w h o l l y a c h i e v e d , h a p p y , m a g n i f i c i e n t l y t r i u m p h a n t , s o m e t h i n g s t i l l c a p a b l e o f i n s p i r i n g f e a r I 53 However, t h i s i s somewhat b e s i d e t h e p o i n t . N i e t z s c h e ' s v i e w i s t h a t i t I s n o t , a n d c a n n o t , be " w i t h i n t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e s t r o n g t o be weak". T h a t w o u l d be? To e x p e c t t h a t s t r e n g t h w i l l n o t m a n i f e s t i t s e l f a s s t r e n g t h , a s t h e d e s i r e t o o v e r c o m e , t o a p p r o p r i a t e , t o h a v e e n e m i e s , o b s t a c l e s , a n d t r i u m p h s i s e v e r y b i t a s a b s u r d a s t o e x p e c t t h a t w e a k n e s s w i l l m a n i f e s t i t s e l f a s s t r e n g t h . 5k A s l o n g a s t h e r e e x i s t e d t h e b e l i e f i n a C h r i s t i a n God a n d o f a d i v i n e l y I n s t i t u t e d o r d e r , e v i l h a d t o be a c -c o u n t e d f o r i n some way. God, h o w e v e r , i s w h o l l y g o o d a n d c o u l d n o t v e r y w e l l be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n y e v i l t h a t d i d o c c u r . H e n c e , t h e r e h a d t o be e i t h e r someone o r s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n God, a n e v i l c r e a t u r e o r a n e v i l f o r c e , a t t h e r o o t o f t h e e v i l w h i c h d i d o c c u r i n t h e w o r l d . S i n c e C h r i s t i a n i t y i s n o t a n a n i m i s t i c r e l i g i o n , e v i l h a d t o be t h e r e s u l t o f , 33 b e s i d e s S a t a n ' s i n f l u e n c e , human i n t e r v e n t i o n . Remove God a n d t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d v i e w , a n d y o u h a v e , f i r s t o f a l l , r e -moved t h e o l d n o t i o n s o f g o o d a n d e v i l . S e c o n d l y , y o u h a v e r e m o v e d t h e o l d c o n c e p t o f human a g e n c y , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t , w i t h o u t r e d e f i n i t i o n a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new m o r a l o r d e r , i t h a s no u s e f u l f u n c t i o n . I n f a c t , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f we c a n e a s i l y r e - i n t r o d u c e t h e n o t i o n s o f g o o d a n d e v i l , i n n a t e l y w i c k e d , e t c . , b e c a u s e , a s we h a v e s a i d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n , man becomes t h e maker o f h i s own v a l u e s . Man a s j u s t man, t h a t i s , n o t a d i v i n e l y c o n s e c r a t e d c r e a t u r e , c a n n o t be s e e n i n t h i s way. We c a n , a t b e s t , o f f e r o n l y " m o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f phenomena", now t h a t we no l o n g e r b e l i e v e i n m o r a l phenomena. The g i v e n , f o r u s , i s n a t u r e . B u t n a t u r e "shows u s a n e n c h a n t -i n g w e a l t h o f t y p e s , t h e a b u n d a n c e o f a l a v i s h p l a y a n d c h a n g e 55 o f f o r m s " . N a t u r e , f u r t h e r m o r e , shows u s t h a t b i r d s o f p r e y t e n d t o be a n d r e m a i n b i r d s o f p r e y . B u t ; t h e C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y a n d w o r l d v i e w ( a n d n o t o n l y t h e C h r i s t i a n ) h a d d e s i g n a t e d some f a c e t s o f man a s e v i l o r a s s h a m e f u l . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s s e x . H e r e , men w e r e made t o f e e l g u i l t y a n d d e p r e s s e d a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h e y c o u l d n o t o v e r c o m e a n d c o u l d n o t c h a n g e . B u t : One r e a l i z e s r e a d i l y how h u m a n i t y . . . b e c o m e s w o r s e when i t d e s i g n a t e s t h e u n a v o i d a b l e - n a t u r a l a s b a d a n d l a t e r a l w a y s f e e l s i t a s s u c h . T h i s i s t h e t r i c k o f r e l i g i o n a n d t h o s e m e t a p h y s i c i a n s who w a n t man e v i l a n d s i n f u l by n a t u r e , make h i m s u s p i c i o u s o f n a t u r e a n d , t h u s , make man b a d h i m s e l f : b e c a u s e , i n t h i s way, he l e a r n s t o f e e l h i m s e l f a s b a d , n o t b e i n g a b l e t o s h e d t h e g a r m e n t o f n a t u r e . E v e n t u a l l y he b e g i n s t o f e e l , t h r o u g h a l o n g l i f e i n t h e n a t u r a l , o p p r e s s e d b y s u c h a w e i g h t o f s i n s t h a t s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be a b l e t o l i f t t h i s l o a d ; a n d t h e r e w i t h t h e . . . d e s i r e f o r redemp-t i o n h a s s t e p p e d o n t o t h e s c e n e a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t t h e m a n i -3k f e s t a t i o n o f a r e a l b u t o n l y a n i m a g i n a r y s i n f u l n e s s . L o o k t h r o u g h t h e i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l a s s e r t i o n s o f t h e d o c u m e n t s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , a n d one w i l l f i n d e v e r y w h e r e t h a t t h e demands a r e e x a g g e r a t e d s o t h a t h u m a n i t y i s n o t a b l e t o s a t i s f y t hem; t h e i n t e n t i o n i s n o t , t h a t man become more m o r a l b u t t h a t he f e e l h i m s e l f a s s i n f u l a s p o s s i b l e . 56 A l s o : C h r i s t i a n i t y h a s t r a n s f o r m e d E r o s a n d A p h r o d i t e . . . i n t o d i a -b o l i c a l k o b o l d s a n d phantoms by means o f t h e t o r m e n t s i t i n t r o d u c e s I n t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f b e l i e v e r s w h e n e v e r t h e y a r e s e x u a l l y e x c i t e d . I s l t n o t d r e a d f u l t o make n e c e s s a r y a n d r e g u l a r l y - r e c u r r i n g s e n s a t i o n s i n t o a s o u r c e o f i n n e r m i s e r y a n d i n s u c h a manner t o w a n t t o make t h e i n n e r m i s e r y o f e v e r y p e r s o n n e c e s s a r y a n d r e g u l a r l I n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t i t r e m a i n s a s e c r e t a n d , t h e r e f o r e , d e e p e r r o o t e d m i s e r y : b e c a u s e n o t a l l h a v e t h e c o u r a g e o f S h a k e s p e a r e t o own up t o t h e i r C h r i s t i a n d a r k n e s s a t t h i s p o i n t a s he h a s done I n h i s s o n n e t s . . . A n d o u g h t one t o c a l l E r o s a n enemy! I n t h e m s e l v e s t h e s e x u a l a s w e l l a s t h e s y m p a t h e t i c a n d a d o r i n g s e n s a t i o n s h a v e t h i s i n common, one p e r s o n , b y d o i n g what p l e a s e s , g i v e s p l e a s u r e t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n — s u c h b e n e v o l e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e n o t t o be f o u n d s o v e r y o f t e n i n n a t u r e ! A n d t o c a l u m i n a t e s u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t o r u i n i t t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i n g i t w i t h a b a d c o n s c i e n c e ! To a s s o c i a t e t h e p r o c r e a t i o n o f man w i t h a b a d c o n s c i e n c e ! . . . 57 Men, l i v i n g u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t God i s d e a d , h a v e no n e e d a n y l o n g e r t o d e n y w h a t t h e y a r e . T h e y c a n own u p t o t h e i r " C h r i s t i a n d a r k n e s s " n o t n n l y i n r e g a r d s t o t h e i r s e x u a l i t y b u t a n y o t h e r d r i v e a n d i n s t i n c t a s w e l l . T h a t way, t h e r e may be a b e t t e r c h a n c e o f d e a l i n g w i t h o n e ' s p a s s i o n s . When t h e y a r e d r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d , t h e y c a n do i n c a l c u l a b l e h a rm, b e s i d e s c a u s i n g u n n e c e s s a r y m i s e r y . What h a v e we a r g u e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n ? Man h a s b e e n g i v e n a n o t h e r t a s k , now t h a t God i s d e a d . Man, i f he w i s h e s t o h a v e v a l u e s a n d h i s own m e a n i n g i n a m e a n i n g l e s s u n i v e r s e , must c r e a t e h i s own v a l u e s a n d h i s own m e a n i n g . I f t h e c o n -c e p t s o f s i n , r e m o r s e , r e s e n t m e n t , g u i l t , p u n i s h m e n t , e t c . , 35 are s t i l l to be used, they must be s t r i p p e d of t h e i r former C h r i s t i a n meanings and connotations. I t might be best t o r e t i r e them,since they are so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a world-view which h e l d "that i t i s w i t h i n the d i s c r e t i o n of the b i r d of prey t o be a lamb." What i s the s e a l of achieved freedom?—Not to be ashamed of oneself anymore. 58 36 SECTION I V THE PASSIONS U n t i l now, my a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n e s s e n t i a l l y n e g -a t i v e — s h o w i n g w h a t God's d e a t h t o o k away. B u t we h a v e t h e v i s i o n o f a h u m a n i t y t h a t c r e a t e s i t s own v a l u e s a n d p r o v i d e s i t s e x i s t e n c e w i t h a m e a n i n g . The r e a s o n f o r i n t r o d u c i n g t h e p a s s i o n s i s t h a t , i n a v e r y s i m p l e way, t h e p a s s i o n s ( L e l d e n -s c h a f t e n ) a r e t h e man. N i e t z s c h e , a s he h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d s o f a r , a p p e a r s t o h a v e u s e d t h e f a c t t h a t God i s d e a d a s a c l u b a g a i n s t E u r o p e a n m o r a l i t y , t h a t i s , C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y . I s N i e t z s c h e , t h e r e f o r e , r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e u n c o n t r o l -l e d p a s s i o n s , o r , t o u s e a n e x a m p l e f r o m D a n t o ' s b o o k , t h e 59 l i f e o f a " l a t e Roman e m p o r e r " ? One m i g h t o b t a i n t h i s i m -p r e s s i o n on a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g o f N i e t z s c h e ' s w o r k s . H e r e a r e a f e w e x a m p l e s t h a t c o u l d l e a d t h e r e a d e r a s t r a y : My demand u p o n t h e p h i l o s o p h e r i s known, t h a t he t a k e h i s s t a n d b e y o n d g o o d a n d e v i l a n d l e a v e t h e i l l u s i o n o f m o r a l j u d g m e n t b e n e a t h h i m s e l f . T h i s demand f o l l o w s f r o m a n i n s i g h t . . . t h a t t h e r e a r e a l t o g e t h e r no m o r a l f a c t s . M o r a l j u d g m e n t s a g r e e w i t h r e l i g i o u s o n e s i n b e l i e v i n g i n r e a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e no r e a l i t i e s . 60 A n " a l t r u i s t i c " m o r a l i t y — a m o r a l i t y i n w h i c h s e l f - i n t e r e s t w i l t s a w a y — r e m a i n s a b a d s i g n u n d e r a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . . . I n s t i n c t i v e l y t o c h o o s e w h a t i s h a r m f u l f o r o n e s e l f , t o f e e l a t t r a c t e d by " d i s i n t e r e s t e d " m o t i v e s , t h a t i s v i r t u a l l y t h e f o r m u l a f o r d e c a d e n c e . . . M a n i s f i n i s h e d when he becomes a l t r u i s t i c . 6l 37 I am pleased to hear that our sun Is moving rapid l y toward the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of Herculus; I hope that man on t h i s earth w i l l imitate the sun i n t h i s . And we foremost, we good Europeans. 62 I t would be f o o l i s h to form an opinion based on a few excerpts which, often enough, assume a quite d i f f e r e n t proportion when read i n and placed into t h e i r appropriate context. Let us not assume that the only a l t e r n a t i v e to a l l externally imposed moralities w i l l r e s u l t i n everyone becoming l i k e Plato's democratic man, whose i n s t i n c t s and b i o l o g i c a l drives are a l l on an equal footing, thus making the unfortunate creature run hither and thither, now here, now there, i n order to s a t i s f y them a l l . Naturally, such a person, even i f he were a " l a t e Roman emporer", could not succeed i n s a t i s f y i n g a l l his passions since they w i l l not only disturb but, i n some cases, contradict each other. Hence, Plato's democratic man i s u n l i k e l y to be held up as an i d e a l . In the l a s t section, we saw that we no longer need f e e l ashamed of many of the drives and i n s t i n c t s which were considered part of our baser nature under the old moral order. S e l f - p i t y and remorse, i n the sense of the r e s u l t s of f a i l u r e to l i v e up to externally imposed goals, have become u n j u s t i -f i e d f e e l i n g s . But how w i l l society fare i n that case? W i l l there be a state of nature, a war of everyone against everyone else? Well, r i g h t now we have our "moral solips£ts" who view t h e i r own position as i n some way more p r i v i l e g e d than that of t h e i r fellow men. However, God's death should not lead us into thinking that t h i s loss w i l l make "moral solipsism" the order of the day, God's death(and, even more so, eternal recurrence) 38 s e r v e s , f i r s t o f a l l , a s a c o r r e c t i v e t o t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s o f l i f e - n e g a t i n g m o r a l i t i e s a n d d i v i n e i m p e r a t i v e s . A s t h e c r e a t o r s o f o u r own v a l u e s , we may r e g a i n a l o v e o f l i f e w h i c h we h a d l o s t u n d e r t h e y o k e o f s i n t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t Impose on u s . H i t h e r t o : C o n c e r n i n g l i f e , t h e w i s e s t men o f a l l a g e s j u d g e d a l i k e : l t i s no g o o d . A l w a y s a n d e v e r y w h e r e one h a s h e a r d t h e same s o u n d f r o m t h e i r m o u t h s — a s o u n d f u l l o f d o u b t , f u l l o f m e l -a n c h o l y , f u l l o f w e a r i n e s s o f l i f e , f u l l o f r e s i s t a n c e t o l i f e . 63 C h r i s t i a n i t y h a d h e l d t h a t man was some k i n d o f b e a s t , a t a n y r a t e , s i n f u l , a n d t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o tame t h e b e a s t i n t h e name o f i t s God. B u t : To c a l l t h e t a m i n g o f a n a n i m a l i t s " i m p r o v e m e n t " s o u n d s a l m o s t l i k e a j o k e t o o u r e a r s . Whoever knows w h a t g o e s on i n m e n a g e r i e s d o u b t s t h a t t h e b e a s t s a r e " i m p r o v e d " t h e r e . T h ey a r e w e a k e n e d , t h e y a r e made l e s s h a r m f u l , a n d t h r o u g h t h e d e p r e s s i v e e f f e c t o f f e a r , t h r o u g h p a i n , t h r o u g h wounds, a n & t h r o u g h h u n g e r t h e y become s i c k l y b e a s t s . I t i s n o d i f -f e r e n t w i t h t h e tamed man whom t h e p r i e s t h a s " i m p r o v e d " . I n t h e e a r l y M i d d l e A g e s , when t h e c h u r c h was i n d e e d , a b o v e a l l , a m e n a g e r i e , t h e m o s t b e a u t i f u l s p e c i m e n s o f t h e " b l o n d b e a s t " w e r e h u n t e d down e v e r y w h e r e ; a n d t h e n o b l e T e u t o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e " i m p r o v e d " . B u t how d i d s u c h a n " i m p r o v e d " T e u t o n who h a d b e e n s e d u c e d i n t o a m o n a s t e r y l o o k a f t e r w a r d ? L i k e a c a r i c a t u r e o f a man, l i k e a m i s c a r r i a g e : he h a d b e -come a " s i n n e r " , he was s t u c k i n a c a g e , i m p r i s o n e d among a l l s o r t s o f t e r r i b l e c o n c e p t s . A n d t h e r e he l a y , s i c k , m i s e r a b l e , m a l e v o l e n t a g a i n s t h i m s e l f : f u l l o f h a t r e d a g a i n s t t h e s p r i n g s o f l i f e , f u l l o f s u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t a l l t h a t was s t i l l s t r o n g a n d h a p p y . I n s h o r t , a " C h r i s t i a n " . 6k God's d e a t h e n t e r s a s a b r e a t h o f f r e s h a i r t o b l o w away c e n t u r y o l d i d o l s . N o t t h a t i t p r o p o s e s t o e r e c t i t s own. T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e o n c e we h a v e g i v e n up t h e m e t a -p h y s i c a l w o r l d : What a l o n e c a n be o u r d o c t r i n e ? T h a t no one g i v e s man h i s q u a l i t i e s — n e i t h e r God, n o r s o c i e t y , n o r h i s p a r e n t s a n d 39 ancestors, nor he himself...No one i s responsible f o r man's being there at a l l , f o r his being such-and-such, or f o r his being i n these circumstances or i n t h i s environment. The f a t a l i t y of his essence i s not to be disentangled from the f a t a l i t y of a l l that has been and w i l l be. Man i s not the e f f e c t of some spe c i a l purpose, of a w i l l , and end; nor i s he the object of an attempt to a t t a i n an " i d e a l of humanity" or an " i d e a l of happiness" or an " i d e a l of morality". I t i s absurd to wish to devolve one's essence on some end or other. We have invented the concept of "end": i n r e a l i t y there i s no end. One i s necessary, one i s a piece of fatefulness, one belongs to the whole, one Is i n the whole; there i s nothing which could judge, measure, compare, or sentence our being, f o r that would mean judging, measuring, comparing, or sen-tencing the whole. But there i s nothing besides the whole. That nobody i s held responsible any longer, that the mode of being may not be traced back to a causa prima, that the world does not form a unity either as a sensorium or as " s p i r i t " — t h a t alone i s the greatest l i b e r a t i o n ; with t h i s alone i s the innocence of becoming restored. The concept of "God" was u n t i l now the greatest objection to existence. We deny God, we deny the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n God: only there-by do we redeem the world. 65 God's death has cleared the ground of C h r i s t i a n moral imperatives. Thus any repression or checking or e x t i r -pation of the passions that i s recommended w i l l not be i n the name of a God or an i d o l that humanity has squeezed out of nature. This does not mean that there w i l l be no repressing, checking, or extirpating of the passions at a l l . Certainly not, since t h i s might be the necessary prerequisite f o r some personal goal that the i n d i v i d u a l had set himself. There are i n connection with the passions two common s t u p i d i t i e s . They are about equally prevalent, although the second usually receives more attention: There i s the s t u p i d i t y of a man who supposes he can become master i n anything i f he has not f i r s t become master of his own l u s t s , hates, and resentments. There i s also the s t u p i d i t y of the b e l i e f that the passions are as such horrendous, and must, i n the name and hope of v i r t u e , be annihilated. 66 40 Let us take the second stu p i d i t y f i r s t . I t Involves not only the b e l i e f that some passions are i n some sense e v i l or beastly or otherwise i n t r i n s i c a l l y undesirable, but also the b e l i e f that the only way i n whichjone can cope with these p a s s i o n s — o f t e n quite strong p a s s i o n s — i s by repression or extirpation. In other words, these passions are found t e r r i f y i n g , and t o t a l war Is declared against them, because one fears being overwhelmed by them. To some extent, one's i n t u i t i o n s may have been r i g h t : A l l passions have a phase when they are merely disastrous, when they drag down t h e i r v i c t i m with the weight of stu p i d i t y ...Formerly, i n view of the element of stu p i d i t y i n passion, war was declared on passion i t s e l f , i t s destruction was plotted; a l l the old moral monsters are agreed on t h i s : 11 faut tuer  les passions./One must k i l l the passions/The most famous formula f o r thi s i s to be found i n the New Testament, i n that Sermon on the Mount, where i n c i d e n t a l l y , things are by no means looked at from a height. There i t i s said, f o r example, with p a r t i c u l a r reference to sexuality: " I f thy eye offend thee, pluck i t out." 6? This i s the recommendation of a desperate man, and, hence, a desperate morality. I t could be, as i n t h i s case, the recommendation of a man who has given up a l l concern with earthly a f f a i r s . Of course, to those who have given up the b e l i e f i n an a f t e r l i f e , the recommendation to pluck out the offending eye w i l l f a l l on deaf ears, just as i t seems to have i n the case of most Christians. Extirpation of the passions, merely because they offend us, would seem to be a cure worse than the disease. The measure i s too dr a s t i c , although, one must admit, there may have been situations when extirpation provided the only method to get out of what 41 was thought of as an unbearable condition. The monk, working within the framework of the C h r i s t i a n worldview and morality, may have considered himself to be i n such a s i t u a t i o n . Today however: Destroying the passions and cravings, merely as a preventive measure against t h e i r s t u p i d i t y and the unpleasant conse-quences of t h i s s t u p i d i t y — t o d a y t h i s i t s e l f s t r i k e s us as merely another acute form of s t u p i d i t y . We no longer admire dentists who "pluck out" teeth so that they w i l l not hurt any more. 68 To o f f e r extirpation as the only cure or r e l i e f against the strength of the passions, Is not only an i n -e f f i c i e n t but also an u n i n t e l l i g e n t procedure. I t i s , as Nietzsche was quick to point out, a l i f e - n e g a t i n g procedure, that i s , of our earthly l i f e : The church f i g h t s passion with excision i n every sense: i t s practice, i t s "cure", i s castratism. I t never asks: "How can one s p i r i t u a l i z e , beautify, deify a craving?" I t has at a l l times l a i d the stress of d i s c i p l i n e on extirpation(of sen-s u a l i t y , of pride, of the l u s t to rule, of avarice, of vengefulness). But an attack on the roots of passions means an attack on the roots of l i f e : the practice of the church i s h o s t i l e to l i f e . 69 Since the C h r i s t i a n Church placed l i t t l e emphasis on our earthly l i f e as such, i t could a f f o r d to be " h o s t i l e to l i f e " . We who have given up the b e l i e f i n the C h r i s t i a n God, however, can understand Nietzsche's objections. The passions, to speak roughly, are the man, and to deny them, to mutilate them, to hide them, to extirpate them, to downgrade them,etc., i s a denial not only of what we are, i . e . beings with such passions, but also a denial of l i f e and the "springs of l i f e " . We could not, to follow I. Kant, w i l l t h i s denial of k>2 our passions to be a universal law of nature, since such a denial would contadict the very forces and drives which had brought us into existence. Such a system of nature could, there fore, not e x i s t . An equally important point about extirpation of the passions i s t h i s : our attempts to dam the passions, as opposed to channeling them, are usually s i n g u l a r l y i n e f f e c t i v e , with-out the more d r a s t i c procedure of eradicating the source of these passions. This, not only i n the case of man's sexuality, means castration, with the r e s u l t i n g loss of capacity. I f one does not castrate, chances are that one w i l l be s i t t i n g on top of a bubbling pot whose l i d i s i n perpetual danger of f l y i n g o f f . To Ignore our passions,by a process of erecting mental dams, becomes the f i r s t step to psychological abnor-mality. Fortunately f o r the l i f e - a f f i r m i n g man, the greater part of mankind has always found the dictum " I f thy eye offend thee, pluck i t out" an impossible recommendation. For one thing, our eye has never seemed that offending. Then, too, damming and castration of the passions d e b i l i t a t e s and, i n some cases, endangers our continued existence: The decrease i n i n s t i n c t s which are h o s t i l e and arouse mistrust — a n d that i s a l l our "progress" amounts to—represents but one of the consequences attending the general decrease i n v i t a l i t y : i t requires a hundred times more trouble and caution to make so conditional and late an existence p r e v a i l . . . . 70 This i s an important point. The man who has muzzled or extirpated his passions thereby deprives himself of the ^3 help which c e r t a i n t4jcs may require, or, at l e a s t , without which t h e i r achievement becomes more d i f f i c u l t . The passions can be a valuable a l l y . Great tasks require great and strong passions. One who alms to be a champion w e i g h t l i f t e r requires an appropriately developed body. Such a man would not expect to achieve h i s goal by s i t t i n g i n a chair a l l day or by cut-t i n g off h i s hands. S i m i l a r l y , we are jeopardizing our devel-opment i n other ways, say those of an a r t i s t , when instead of mastering and using our passions, we extirpate them. By hounding our strong i n s t i n c t s , as Nietzsche points out i n an aphorism on the criminal, we become anemic: The criminal and what i s rel a t e d to him. The criminal type i s the type of strong human being under unfavorable circum-stances: a strong human being made sic k . He lacks the wilder-ness, a somehow fre e r and more dangerous environment and form of existence, where everything that i s weapons and armor i n the i n s t i n c t s of the strong human being has i t s r i g h t f u l place. His v i r t u e s are ostracized by society; the most v i v i d drives with which he i s endowed soon grow together with the depres-sing a f f e c t s — w i t h suspicion, fear, and dishonour. Yet th i s i s almost the recipe f o r physiological degeneration. Whoever must do secretly, with long suspense, caution and cunning, what he can <io best and would l i k e most to do, becomes anemic; and because he always harvests only danger, persecution, and calamity from his i n s t i n c t s , his attitude to these i n s t i n c t s i s reversed too, and he comes to experience them f a t a l i s t i c a l l y ....Let us generalize the case of the criminal: l e t us think of men so constituted that, f o r one reason or another, they lack public approval and know that they are not f e l t to be beneficient or u s e f u l — t h a t Chandalfca f e e l i n g that one i s not considered equal, but an outcast, unworthy, contaminating. A l l men so constituted have a subterranean hue to t h e i r thoughts and actions; everything about them becomes paler than In those whose existence i s touched by daylight. 71 I t Is easy to see why such a creature becomes anemic. He i s required to f i g h t one h a l f of his s e l f with the other h a l f . This i s u n l i k e l y to allow such a man the kk a c h i e v e m e n t o f g r e a t g o a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e y r e q u i r e t h e f u l l f l o w o f p a s s i o n s a n d i n s t i n c t u a l e n e r g i e s w h i c h a r e h e r e s e t one a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . To he a n e m i c , t o l a c k a c e r t a i n n e c e s s a r y v i t a l i t y , i n c a p a c i t a t e s one f o r many t h i n g s . One c o u l d n o t l i v e t h r o u g h them: The s t r o n g , h e a l t h y p e r s o n d i g e s t s h i s e x p e r i e n c e s ( I n c l u d i n g e v e r y d e e d a n d m i s d e e d ) a s he d o e s h i s m e a l s , e v e n t h o u g h he may h a v e s w a l l o w e d a t o u g h m o r s e l . I f he c a n ' t g e t r i d o f a n e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n t h i s k i n d o f i n d i g e s t i o n i s e v e r y b i t a s p h y s i c a l a s t h e o t h e r a n d o f t e n , i n f a c t , m e r e l y one o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e o t h e r , 72 The o n l y way i n w h i c h we c a n s w a l l o w t o u g h m o r s e l s i s b y b e i n g o r b e c o m i n g a " s t r o n g , h e a l t h y p e r s o n , " w h i c h i m p l i e s t h e o p p o s i t e o f a n e m i a a n d , h e n c e , t h e o p p o s i t e o f r e p r e s s i o n o r e x t i r p a t i o n o f t h e p a s s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h o s e who a f f i r m l i f e , t h a t i s , a c c e p t t h e p a s s i o n s a s m a n i f e s t a -t i o n s o f t h e s p r i n g s o f l i f e , do n o t n e g a t e e a s i l y : M o r a l i t y , i n s o f a r a s i t condemns f o r i t s own s a k e , a n d n o t o u t o f r e g a r d f o r t h e c o n c e r n s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a n d c o n t r i v -a n c e s o f l i f e , i s a s p e c i f i c e r r o r w i t h w h i c h one o u g h t t o h a v e no p i t y . . . W e o t h e r s , we i m m o r a l i s t s , h a v e , c o n v e r s e l y , made room i n o u r h e a r t s f o r e v e r y k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o m p r e h e n d i n g , a n d a p p r o v i n g . We do n o t e a s i l y n e g a t e ; we make i t a p o i n t o f h o n o u r t o be a f f i r m e r s . 73 H o w e v e r , t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o l o n g e r a n y r e a s o n t o n e g a t e e a s i l y ( 0 o d i s d e a d ) , t h e r e i s n e e d o f o b s t a c l e s a n d e n e m i e s t o d e v e l o p a l l t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s : A n o t h e r t r i u m p h i s o u r s p i r l t u a l i z a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t y . I t c o n s i s t s i n a p r o f o u n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f h a v i n g e n e m i e s : i n s h o r t , i t means a c t i n g a n d t h i n k i n g i n t h e o p p o s i t e way f r o m t h a t w h i c h h a s b e e n t h e r u l e . . . T h e p r i c e o f f r u l t f u l n e s s i s t o be r i c h i n i n t e r n a l o p p o s i t i o n ; one r e m a i n s y o u n g o n l y a s l o n g a s t h e s o u l d o e s n o t s t r e t c h I t -s e l f a n d d e s i r e p e a c e . N o t h i n g h a s become more a l i e n t o u s / i m m o r a l i s t s a n d A n t i - C h r l s t i a n s / t h a n t h a t d e s i r a t u m o f f o r m e r t i m e s , " p e a c e o f s o u l " . . . t h e r e i s n o t h i n g we e n v y l e s s 45 t h a n t h e m o r a l i s t i c cow a n d t h e f a t h a p p i n e s s o f t h e g o o d c o n s c i e n c e . One h a s r e n o u n c e d t h e g r e a t l i f e when one r e -n o u n c e s w a r . 7k T h e r e i s t h e n t h e o t h e r s t u p i d i t y o f t h e p e r s o n who t h i n k s t h a t he c a n become m a s t e r i n a n y t h i n g w i t h o u t f i r s t b e c o m i n g m a s t e r o f h i s p a s s i o n s . The a b o v e a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t r e p r e s s i o n a n d e x t i r p a t i o n o f t h e p a s s i o n s m e r e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e f o u n d t o be s t r o n g a n d , s o m e t i m e s , t e r r i f y -i n g , l e a v e s two p o s s i b i l i t i e s l o g i c a l l y o p e n . The f i r s t c o n s i s t s i n l e t t i n g e a c h p a s s i o n a n d i n s t i n c t go i t s own way, o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , p l a c i n g no r e s t r a i n t s o n a n y one o f them. T h a t i s n o t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y w h i c h N i e t z s c h e w o u l d recommend: "Fr e e d o m w h i c h I do n o t mean." I n t i m e s l i k e t h e s e , a b a n d o n -ment t o o n e ' s i n s t i n c t s i s one c a l a m i t y more. Ou r i n s t i n c t s c o n t r a d i c t , d i s t u r b , d e s t r o y e a c h o t h e r . . . . 75 B e t w e e n abandonment t o o n e ' s i n s t i n c t s a n d r e p r e s s i o n a n d e x t i r p a t i o n o f them t h e r e i s a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y . I t c o n s i s t s i n some f o r m o f o r d e r b e i n g p u t o n o r e x e r c i s e d o v e r t h e p a s s i o n s a n d i n s t i n c t u a l e n e r g i e s . T h a t i s w h a t N i e t z s c h e e n v i s a g e s : What i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y . — A p e r s o n , whb i s n o t w i l l i n g t o become m a s t e r o v e r h i s i r a s c i b i l i t y , h i s b i l i o u s n e s s a n d r e v e n g e m a n i a , h i s l u s t , a n d a t t e m p t s t o become m a s t e r i n a n y t h i n g e l s e , i s a s s t u p i d a s t h e plowman who p l a n t s h i s f i e l d s b e s i d e a t o r r e n t w i t h o u t s a f e g u a r d i n g h i m s e l f a g a i n s t i t . 76 A l s o : To u n d e r s t a n d S t o i c i s m o r P o r t - R o y a l o r P u r i t a n i s m , i t i s w e l l t o remember t h e r e s t r a i n t s u n d e r w h i c h a n y l a n g u a g e h i t h e r t o h a s r e a c h e d i t s p e a k o f power a n d s u b t l e t y — t h e r e s t r a i n t o f m e t r i c s , t h e t y r a n n y o f rhyme a n d r h y t h m . How much t r o u b l e h a v e t h e p o e t s a n d o r a t o r s o f e a c h n a t i o n a l w a y s 1*6 t a k e n . . . w i t h a n I n e x o r a b l e c o n s c i e n c e i n t h e i r e a r . . . E v e r y a r t i s t knows how f a r h i s m o s t " n a t u r a l " c o n d i t i o n i s f r o m t h e f e e l i n g o f l e t t i n g o n e s e l f g o , how r i g o r o u s l y a n d s u b t l y he o b e y s a t h o u s a n d f o l d l a w i n t h e moments o f " i n s p i r a t i o n " , i n h i s f r e e o r d e r i n g , l o c a t i n g , d i s p o s i n g , a n d f o r m g i v i n g . . . . 77 B u t t h i s order;',!' t h i s m a s t e r i n g o f t h e p a s s i o n s , i s n o t a n end i n i t s e l f , m e r e l y t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e man who w i s h e s t o a c c o m p l i s h g r e a t t a s k : C o n q u e r i n g t h e p a s s i o n s . — T h e man who h a s c o n q u e r e d h i s p a s s i o n s e n t e r s i n t o t h e m o s t f e r t i l e r e g i o n , l i k e t h e c o l -o n i s t who h a s become m a s t e r o f w o o d l a n d a n d m a r s h . The n e x t p r e s s i n g t a s k , i s t o sow t h e s e e d s o f g o o d s p i r i t u a l w o r k s i n t h e s o i l o f m a s t e r e d p a s s i o n s . The c o n q u e r i n g i t s e l f i s o n l y a means, no g o a l ; i f i t i s n o t l o o k e d a t i n t h i s way, t h e n a l l manner o f weeds a n d d e v i l s - s t u f f w i l l g r o w on t h e empty f a t g r o u n d , a n d s o o n t h i n g s w i l l be w o r s e t h a n b e f o r e . 78 47 SECTION V HOW ONE BECOMES WHAT ONE I S I B o t h x t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e a n d t h e G o d - i s - d e a d d o c t r i n e s , a s p r e s e n t e d s o f a r , l e a d t o s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . T h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s a r i s e o u t o f t h e n e g a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e two d o c t r i n e s . Once t h e g r o u n d h a s b e e n c l e a r e d , h o w e v e r , t h e r e r e m a i n s t h e p o s i t i v e t a s k . How i s t h e new " t a b l e o f v a l u e s " o b t a i n e d ? How d o e s one " f i n d m e a n i n g i n a p u r e l y human e x i s t e n c e " ? To show how N i e t z s c h e t h o u g h t t h i s was p o s s i b l e , a n d t o show why one w o u l d w a n t t o become m a s t e r i n a n y t h i n g a t a l l , I s h a l l r e - i n t r o d u c e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n . Both:/ t h e G o d - i s - d e a d a n d t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e d o c t r i n e s do away w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d v i e w a n d God. B o t h g i v e t h e man who h a s r e a l i z e d t h i s t h e f r e e d o m t o go h i s own way, t h a t i s , t o become w h a t he w a n t s t o b e , a s o p p o s e d t o h a v i n g t o become w h a t God w a n t s h i m t o b e . T h e r e i s , t o be s u r e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t someone m i g h t h o l d t h e G o d - i s -d e a d v i e w t o g e t h e r w i t h a n o t h e r v i e w t h a t saw t h e u n i v e r s e m o v i n g t o w a r d s some g o a l o r f u l f i l l i n g some i n e x o r a b l e l a w — 48 a s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n D a r w i n i s m . H o w e v e r , a s l o n g a s t h e r e i s no Day o f J u d g m e n t a n d n o r e a p i n g o f w h a t one s o w e t h , c o n f o r m -i t y t o t h e g o a l o r l a w i s a m a t t e r o f s u b j e c t i v e p r e f e r e n c e r a t h e r t h a n o f o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t . T h i s i s w h e r e e t e r n a l r e -c u r r e n c e i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . I t d o e s n o t p r o m i s e a Day o f J u d g m e n t e i t h e r , b u t t h e r e i s a s o r t o f r e a p i n g o f w h a t one s o w e t h . L e t me e l a b o r a t e o n t h i s . T h o s e who t h i n k t h a t God i s d e a d u s u a l l y a d o p t t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e l i f e we a r e l i v i n g i s t h e o n l y s u c h l i f e we s h a l l h a v e , a n d t h a t d e a t h i s t h e e n d o f e x i s t e n c e . On t h i s " o n e - l i f e " v i e w , a s I s h a l l c a l l i t , a l i f e t h a t i s f o u n d t o o d i f f i c u l t , t o o t e r r i b l e , c a n be t e r m i n a t e d by s u i -c i d e w i t h o u t h a v i n g , s o t o s p e a k , u n d e s i r a b l e a f t e r e f f e c t s . S i n c e t h e r e i s o n l y one l i f e t o be l i v e d , s u i c i d e s i m p l y e n d s i t a l l . We may w i s h t o c a l l s u i c i d e a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s e o f t h e G o d - i s - d e a d d o c t r i n e , e s p e c i a l l y t o a l i f e f i l l e d w i t h p a i n a n d m i s e r y . A s a l m o s t e v e r y l i f e c o n t a i n s a l a r g e s h a r e o f p a i n a n d m i s e r y , s u i c i d e , t o j u d g e by o n e ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s one h a s h a d w i t h f r i e n d s , p r e s e n t s i t s e l f w i t h r e m a r k a b l e f r e q u e n c y a s a means o f e s c a p e f r o m s u c h a l i f e . B u t * t h e r e i s a n o t i c e -a b l e N i e t z s c h e a n s i l e n c e on t h i s m a t t e r o f s u i c i d e . T h e r e i s one r e m a r k i n B e y o n d Good a n d E v i l ; The t h o u g h t o f s u i c i d e i s a s t r o n g c o n s o l a t i o n ; one c a n g e t t h r o u g h many a b a d n i g h t w i t h i t . 07° T h i s seems t o be m e r e l y a n e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t h a d 49 l i t t l e t o d o w i t h a n y t h i n g e l s e , a n d i t seems t o be p r e s e n t e d a s s u c h . The o n l y o t h e r p l a c e , t h a t comes t o m i n d r e a d i l y , w h e r e N i e t z s c h e a p p r o a c h e s s u i c i d e i s i n t h e c h a p t e r e n t i -t l e d "Of V o l u n t a r y D e a t h " f r o m Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a . H e r e i s a s a m p l e p a s s a g e : I command t o y o u my s o r t o f d e a t h , v o l u n t a r y d e a t h t h a t comes t o me b e c a u s e I w i s h i t . A n d when s h a l l I w i s h i t ? — H e who h a s a g o a l a n d a n h e i r w a n t s d e a t h a t t h e t i m e m o s t f a v o u r a b l e t o h i s g o a l a n d h i s h e i r . A n d o u t o f r e v e r a n c e f o r h i s g o a l a n d h i s h e i r he w i l l h a n g up no more w r e a t h s i n t h e s a n c t u a r y o f l i f e . 80 W h i l e s u c h a d e a t h w o u l d s t i l l be a f o r m o f s u i c i d e , i t i s n o t t h e s u i c i d e o f d e s p e r a t i o n , o f e s c a p e , b u t t h e s u i c i d e t h a t c r o w n s o n e ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s . I t i s t h e l a s t a c t w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h i s l i f e , amount t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e , a n d i s p r o b a b l y b e t t e r c a l l e d , t o f o l l o w N i e t z s c h e , a v o l u n t a r y d e a t h , s i n c e " s u i c i d e " t e n d s t o c a r r y t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f a n a c t o f e s c a p e f r o m l i f e . How a r e we t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e N i e t z s c h e a n s i l e n c e o n t h e m a t t e r o f s u i c i d e , o u t s i d e o f t h e r e m a r k s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l a s t p a r a g r a p h ? I n t h e u n i v e r s e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e we c o u l d a l s o t e r m i n a t e o u r l i f e b y s u i c i d e — b u t w o u l d t h i s seem t o be much o f a s o l u t i o n when t h e l i f e , f r o m w h i c h s u i -s i c e i s t h o u g h t o f a s a means o f e s c a p e , w i l l r e c u r a g a i n a n d a g a i n ? S u i c i d e d o e s n o t e n d i t a l l i n t h i s c a s e , a n d p r e s e n t s o n l y a t e m p o r a r y s o l u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h a v e t o be e t e r n a l l y r e n e w e d . We do n o t , i n o t h e r w o r d s , a c c o m p l i s h by 50 s u i c i d e w hat we may h a v e s e t o u t t o d o , i . e . t o make t h e p a i n a n d m i s e r y o f l i f e c e a s e f o r e v e r . T h e r e f o r e , k i l l i n g o n e s e l f t o e s c a p e f r o m a t r y i n g s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n ( t h o u g h I do n o t w i s h t o i m p l y t h a t i t i s n e v e r a g o o d s o l u t i o n i n a n e t e r n a l l y r e c u r r e n t u n i -v e r s e ) . The c o n n e c t i o n , h e r e , b e t w e e n t h e d o c t r i n e o f e t e r -n a l r e c u r r e n c e a n d t h e r e j e c t i o n o f s u i c i d e a s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n i s n o t o f a l o g i c a l n a t u r e , b u t seems more c o r r e c t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a f e e l i n g o f a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . S i n c e t h e d o c t r i n e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e d o e s n o t s u g g e s t s u i c i d e a s a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n , e v e n t o a l i f e o f p a i n a n d m i s e r y , a n d s i n c e p a i n a n d m i s e r y a r e s t i l l w i t h . u s , N i e t z s c h e , now c o m m i t t e d t o l i v e l i f e , r e q u i r e d s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w o u l d n o t o n l y j u s t i f y p a i n a n d m i s e r y , b u t a l s o g i v e m e a n i n g t o o u r p u r e l y human e x i s t e n c e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , he c o u l d n o t s a y "Man o u g h t t o be s u c h a n d s u c h ! " , w h e r e t h i s i s u n d e r s t o o d a s a c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a t i v e o r a s a command i m p o s e d b y a n e x t e r n a l s o u r c e . T h i s p r o b l e m o f how t o c o p e w i t h w h a t seems m e a n i n g l e s s s u f f e r i n g h a d b e e n I n v e s t i g a t e d by h i m e a r l i e r i n a n e s s a y on t h e a s c e t i c i d e a l . H e r e he h a d r e a c h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n : U n t i l t h e a d v e n t o f t h e a s c e t i c i d e a l , man, t h e a n i m a l man, h a d n o m e a n i n g a t a l l on t h i s e a r t h . H i s e x i s t e n c e was a i m l e s s ; t h e q u e s t i o n , "Why i s t h e r e s u c h a t h i n g a s man?" c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a n s w e r e d ; man w i l l e d n e i t h e r h i m s e l f n o r t h e w o r l d . B e h i n d e v e r y g r e a t human d e s t i n y t h e r e r a n g , l i k e a r e f r a i n , a n e v e n g r e a t e r " I n v a i n ! " Man knew t h a t s o m e t h i n g was l a c k i n g ; a g r e a t vacuum s u r r o u n d e d h i m . He d i d n o t know how t o j u s t i f y , t o e x p l a i n , t o a f f i r m h i m s e l f . H i s own m e a n i n g was a n u n s o l v e d p r o b l e m a n d made h i m s u f f e r . He a l s o s u f f e r e d i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s , b e i n g a l t o g e t h e r a n 51 a i l i n g a n i m a l , y e t w h a t b o t h e r e d h i m was n o t h i s s u f f e r i n g b u t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n "What i s t h e m e a n i n g o f my t r o u b l e ? " Man, t h e m o s t c o u r a g e o u s a n i m a l , a n d t h e m o s t i n u r e d t o t r o u b l e , d o e s n o t d e n y s u f f e r i n g p e r s e ; he w a n t s i t , he s e e k s i t o u t , p r o v i d e d t h a t i t c a n be g i v e n a m e a n i n g . F i n a l l y t h e a s c e t i c i d e a l a r o s e t o g i v e i t m e a n i n g — i t s o n l y m e a n i n g s o f a r . B u t a n y m e a n i n g i s b e t t e r t h a n n o n e a n d , i n f a c t , t h e a s c e t i c i d e a l h a s b e e n t h e b e s t s t o p g a p t h a t e v e r e x i s t e d . S u f f e r i n g h a d b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d , t h e d o o r t o a l l s u i c i d a l n i h i l i s m slammed s h u t . No d o u b t t h a t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n b r o u g h t new s u f f e r i n g i n i t s wake, d e e p e r , more I n w a r d , more p o i s o n o u s s u f f e r i n g : i t p l a c e d a l l s u f f e r i n g u n d e r t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f g u i l t . . . A l l t h e same, man h a d s a v e d h i m s e l f , he h a d a c h i e v e d a m e a n i n g , he was no l o n g e r a l e a f i n t h e w i n d , a p l a y t h i n g o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o f " c r a s s c a s u a l t y " : he was now a b l e t o w i l l s o m e t h i n g — n o m a t t e r t h e o b j e c t o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f h i s w i l l i n g ; t h e w i l l i t s e l f h a d b e e n s a v e d . 81 W i t h " t h e a d v e n t o f t h e a s c e t i c i d e a l . . . t h e d o o r t o a l l s u i c i d a l n i h i l i s m slammed s h u t . " B u t , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e , i . e . t o " p l a c e a l l s u f f e r i n g u n d e r t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f g u i l t " , i s n o t o p e n t o N i e t z s c h e . The c o n c e p t o f " g u i l t " c a n n o t p l a y a n y s u c h r o l e i n t h e u n i v e r s e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e , b e c a u s e t h e o l d m o r a l o r d e r , w i t h i n w h i c h t h i s c o n c e p t f o u n d i t s m e a n i n g , h a s b e e n o v e r t h r o w n . The q u e s t i o n w h i c h N i e t z -s c h e n e e d e d t o a n s w e r was t h e n : ...how w e l l d i s p o s e d w o u l d y o u h a v e t o become t o y o u r s e l f a n d t o l i f e t o c r a v e n o t h i n g more f e r v e n t l y t h a n t h i s u l t i m a t e e t e r n a l c o n f i r m a t i o n . . . ? 02& How c o u l d we w i s h o u r l i f e , a s i t was a n d i s , t o r e t u r n e t e r -n a l l y when i t h a s s o f a r b e e n a l i f e o f m i s e r y a n d p a i n ? M u s t we n o t s e e t o i t t h a t t h e t o t a l i t y o f o u r l i f e , I n -c l u d i n g i t s p a i n s a n d m i s e r i e s , becomes p e r f e c t e d , a e s t h e t -i c a l l y p l e a s i n g , i n some s e n s e ? M u s t we n o t , i n o t h e r w o r d s , i n t e g r a t e a n d s a l v a g e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s i n i t i n t o a mean-i n g f u l w h o l e ? T h a t i s w h a t N i e t z s c h e t h o u g h t was t h e o n l y 52 a p p r o p r i a t e r e a c t i o n t o a n e t e r n a l l y r e c u r r e n t u n i v e r s e ; t h e a l t e r n a t i v e i s a g n a s h i n g o f t e e t h l e a d i n g , a l m o s t c e r -83 t a i n l y , t o d e p r e s s i o n o r t o madness: One t h i n g i s n e e d f u l . " G i v i n g s t y l e " t o o n e ' s c h a r a c t e r — a g r e a t a n d r a r e a r t I I t i s e x e r c i s e d b y t h o s e who s e e a l l t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e i r own n a t u r e s a n d t h e n com-p r e h e n d them i n a n a r t i s t i c p l a n u n t i l e v e r y t h i n g a p p e a r s a s a r t a n d r e a s o n , a n d e v e n w e a k n e s s d e l i g h t s t h e e y e . H e r e a l a r g e mass o f s e c o n d n a t u r e h a s b e e n a d d e d ; t h e r e a p i e c e o f o r i g i n a l n a t u r e h a s b e e n r e m o v e d : b o t h b y l o n g p r a c t i c e a n d d a i l y l a b o u r . H e r e t h e u g l y w h i c h c o u l d n o t be r e m o v e d i s h i d d e n ; t h e r e i t h a s b e e n r e i n t e r p r e t e d a n d made s u b l i m e . . . . j§4 O n l y b y m a k i n g o u r w h o l e l i f e i n t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e , c a n we w i s h o u r l i f e t o r e c u r e t e r n a l l y w i t h o u t r e s -e r v a t i o n s . T h i s i s t h e c r i t e r i o n w h i c h e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e o f f e r s f o r e r e c t i n g t h e new " t a b l e o f v a l u e s " . B u t w h i l e t h e c r i t e r i o n i s g e n e r a l , i . e . a p p l i e s t o a l l m a n k i n d , t h e s p e c i f i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o f m a k i n g o n e ' s l i f e i n t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e a r e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , i . e . d e p e n d e n t on e a c h p e r s o n ' s s i t u a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s w i l l h a v e t o " g i v e s t y l e " t o t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i n d i f f e r e n t ways s o t h a t t h e y " c r a v e n o t h i n g more f e r v e n t l y t h a n t h i s u l t i m a t e e t e r n a l c o n f i r m a t i o n " p r o v i d e d b y a n e t e r n a l l y r e -c u r r e n t u n i v e r s e . We, who do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e d o c t r i n e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e s o u n d , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e c o n v i n c e d t h a t God i s d e a d , c a n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , make u s e o f N i e t z s c h e ' s i n s i g h t ; t h a t i s t o s a y , h i s way o f o b t a i n i n g a " t a b l e o f v a l u e s " i n t h e u n i v e r s e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e may a l s o be t h e way i n w h i c h we c a n f i n d m e a n i n g i n t h e u n i v e r s e w h e r e God i s d e a d , 53 b u t w h e r e t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e d o c t r i n e i s c o n s i d e r e d u n -s o u n d . N i e t z s c h e ' s i n s i g h t m i g h t do t h i s — e v e n t h o u g h we h a v e a r g u e d t h a t o n t h e " o n e - l l f e " v i e w , s u i c i d e seems p r i m a f a c i e a much more n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n a n d s o l u t i o n t o a l i f e f i l l e d w i t h p a i n a n d m i s e r y . R e c a l l t h a t t h e s o r t o f s u i c i d e we p r e s e n t e d t h e r e i s n o t s o much a s o l u t i o n t o a s a n e s c a p e f r o m a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n . S u c h a s u i c i d e i s o n l y a way o u t o f l i v i n g a l i f e c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e s h a r e o f p a i n a n d m i s e r y . We c h o o s e i t t o t e r m i n a t e o u r e x i s t e n c e , b e c a u s e a l l o t h e r a v e n u e s a p p e a r c l o s e d a n d b e c a u s e we c a n g i v e no m e a n i n g t o o u r s u f f e r i n g . B u t a l l a v e n u e s a r e n o t c l o s e d , a n d o u r s u f f e r i n g c a n be j u s t i f i e d . The a v e n u e w h i c h i s s t i l l , a n d a l m o s t a l w a y s , o p e n i s t h a t o f m a k i n g o u r l i f e i n t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s -i n g w h o l e . Once t h i s i s d o n e , o r o n c e t h i s i s a t t e m p t e d , we a r e a b l e t o s e e t h e p a i n a n d m i s e r y o f l i f e a s more t h a n j u s t p a i n a n d m i s e r y . T h e s e a r e now s e e n a s n e c e s s a r y p a r t s o f o u r w h o l e l i f e , w h e r e t h i s l i f e c o m p r i s e s "an a r t i s t i c p l a n " . ( S e e p. 5 k) When p a i n a n d m i s e r y a r e p l a c e d u n d e r t h i s p e r -s p e c t i v e , t h e y a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a m e a n i n g , a n d t h u s no l o n g e r l e a d u s t o s e e t h e s u i c i d e o f e s c a p e a s s u c h a n a t u r a l r e -s p o n c e . We remove t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r t h i s s o r t o f s u i c i d e when we t a k e up t h e a t t e m p t t o make l i f e i n t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e . N i e t z s c h e , o f c o u r s e , d i d n o t h a v e t o a r g u e i n t h e way I h a v e done i n t h e a b o v e p a r a g r a p h , b e c a u s e he 54 t h o u g h t t h e d o c t r i n e o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e s o u n d . T h i s d o c -t r i n e , a s I h a v e shown, p r o v i d e d h i m w i t h a more c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e way o f r e j e c t i n g s u i c i d e . I t a l s o made i t more i m p e r a t i v e t o f i n d a means o f a f f i r m i n g a n d r e d e e m i n g p a i n a n d m i s e r y . I , t h e r e f o r e * t u r n t o a c l o s e r s c r u t i n y o f how t h i s a f f i r m a t i o n a n d r e d e m p t i o n i s a c h i e v e d ( k e e p i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h i s i s a l s o t h e way o f a f f i r m i n g a n d r e d e e m i n g t h e p a i n a n d m i s e r y o f a l i f e l i v e d u n d e r t h e b e l i e f t h a t God i s d e a d ) . I I The p o s s i b i l i t y o f p a i n a n d m i s e r y c o n s t i t u t i n g a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f l i f e i s m o s t a p p a r e n t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r , t h e a r t i s t , o r t h e man who h a s a c h i e v e d a m e a s u r e o f s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n . S u c h a man m i g h t d e s i r e " t o h a v e n o t h i n g d i f f e r e n t , n o t f o r w a r d , n o t b a c k w a r d , n o t i n a l l 84 e t e r n i t y . " The r e a s o n t h a t t h i s i s l i k e l y t o come f r o m t h e l i p s o f s u c h a man i s t h a t i n h i s c a p a c i t y a s , s a y , a n a r t i s t a n d c r e a t o r — b e i t p a i n t i n g , n o v e l , o r c o n q u e s t — h e , t h e a r t i s t a n d c r e a t o r , r e a l i z e s o n l y t o o w e l l how e v e r y moment o f t h e p a s t , s o m e t i m e s t h e more I m m e d i a t e p a s t , h a s b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g i v i n g h i s m a s t e r p i e c e i t s p r e s e n t f o r m a n d s h a p e . T h u s , i n r e j o i c i n g i n t h i s m a s t e r p i e c e , he m u s t a l s o a f f i r m t h o s e t h i n g s , no m a t t e r how p a i n f u l a n d d i s t r e s s ' i n g t h e y w e r e , w h i c h h a p p e n e d on t h e p a t h t o i t . T h a t i s why N i e t z s c h e , who h a d a t r u l y p a i n f u l a n d m i s e r a b l e e x i s t e n c e 55 f o r m o s t o f h i s l i f e , c o u l d s a y i n h i s l a s t b ook: On t h i s p e r f e c t d a y when a l l i s r i p e n i n g a n d n o t o n l y t h e g r a p e becomes b r o w n , a r a y o f s u n l i g h t h a p p e n e d t o f a l l o n t o my l i f e : I saw b a c k w a r d s , I saw i n t o t h e f u t u r e , I n e v e r saw s o many a n d s u c h g o o d t h i n g s a t o n c e . I d i d n o t b u r y my f o u r - a n d - f o u r t i e t h y e a r f o r n o t h i n g t o d a y , I was a l l o w e d t o b u r y i t — w h a t i s l i f e i n i t , h a s b e e n s a v e d , i s i m m o r t a l . The f i r s t b o o k o f t h e R e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l V a l u e s , t h e S o n g s  o f Z a r a t h u s t r a . t h e T w i l i g h t o f t h e I d o l s , my a t t e m p t t o p h i l o s o p h i z e w i t h t h e h a m m e r — a l l g i f t s o f t h i s y e a r , i n d e e d o f t h i s l a s t q u a r t e r y e a r ! How s h o u l d I n o t be t h a n k f u l f o r  my w h o l e l i f e ? — A n d s o I t e l l my l i f e . 85 How c o u l d he r e f r a i n f r o m b e i n g t h a n k f u l f o r h i s w h o l e l i f e , when o n l y I n b e i n g t h e way i t was c o u l d l t h a v e l e a d t o t h e t h i n g s he v a l u e d m o s t ? What r o l e I s t h e r e f o r s u i c i d e h e r e ? We g i v e s t y l e t o o u r c h a r a c t e r b y i n t e g r a t i n g e v e r y s t r e n g t h a n d w e a k n e s s i n t o " a n a r t i s t i c p l a n u n t i l e v e r y t h i n g 86 a p p e a r s a s a r t a n d r e a s o n " . B u t t h i s seems t o be v e r y l i k e a n o l d i d e a l w h i c h g o e s by many names. M o s t o f t e n , i t i s c a l l e d s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n o r s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n . D a n t o s p e a k s o f 87 i t a s " t h e p a s s i o n s d i s c i p l i n e d b u t n o t d e n i e d " . N i e t z s c h e , r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , r e f e r s t o i t a s "How one becomes w h a t one 88 i s . " T h e r e a r e v e r y f e w p a s s a g e s i n N i e t z s c h e ' s w o r k s t h a t s h e d a n y d i r e c t l i g h t o n t h i s c r u c i a l t o p i c . O f t e n , we g e t o n l y h i n t s a n d l i t t l e s i g n p o s t s t h a t t a n t a l i z e b u t do n o t e x p l a i n . N a t u r a l l y , N i e t z s c h e h a s b e e n r e p r o a c h e d f o r t h i s : I t i s s o m e t h i n g o f a n i r o n y t h a t N i e t z s c h e i s l e a s t o r i g i n a l w h e r e he h a s b e e n m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l . H e r e i s a n a n c i e n t v a g u e l y p a g a n i d e a l , t h e p a s s i o n s d i s c i p l i n e d b u t n o t d e n i e d , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e l i f e a n d a t t i t u d e o f g u i l t y c e l i b a c y w h i c h h a s b e e n a n o f f i c i a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n u n t i l r a t h e r r e c e n t t i m e s . 89 H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e some p a s s a g e s t h a t seem t o d e a l s p e c i f i -c a l l y w i t h t h e man who s e e k s a n d t h i n k s he h a s r e a c h e d s e l f -5 6 p e r f e c t i o n . One o f t h e s e i n t e r e s t i n g p a s s a g e s i s t h e f o l l o w i n g : A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o e v a d e t h e r e a l a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n , how one becomes w h a t one i s . A n d t h e r e w i t h I t o u c h u p o n t h e m a s t e r p i e c e i n t h e a r t o f s e l f -p r e s e r v a t i o n — s e l f i s h n e s s . . . N a m e l y g r a n t i n g t h a t t h e t a s k , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h e f a t e o f t h e t a s k g r e a t l y e x c e e d s t h e a v e r a g e m e a s u r e o f s u c h t h i n g s , t h e n no d a n g e r w o u l d be g r e a t e r t h a n t o come f a c e t o f a c e w i t h o n e ' s s e l f b y t h e s i d e o f t h i s t a s k . T h a t one becomes w h a t one i s , p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t one h a s n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t s u s p i c i o n w h a t one i s . Prom t h i s s t a n d p o i n t e v e n t h e b l u n d e r s o f l i f e h a v e t h e i r own m e a n i n g a n d v a l u e , t h e t e m p o r a r y byways a n d d e v i a t i o n s , t h e moments o f h e s i t a t i o n , t h e "moments o f m o d e s t y " , t h e e a r n e s t n e s s w a s t e d u p o n p r o b l e m s l y i n g b e y o n d t h e t a s k . T h e r e i n a c l e v e r n e s s , p e r h a p s e v e n t h e h i g h e s t c l e v e r n e s s r e a c h e s e x p r e s s i o n : w h e r e n o s c e t e i p s u m w o u l d be t h e r e c i p e f o r r u i n ; f o r g e t t i n g o n e ' s s e l f , m i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o n e ' s s e l f , b e l i t t l i n g o n e ' s s e l f , n a r r o w i n g o n e ' s s e l f , m a k i n g o n e ' s s e l f m e d i o c r e w o u l d amount t o r e a s o n i t s e l f . E x p r e s s e d m o r a l l y : l o v e o f o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r , t o l i v e f o r o t h e r s a n d o t h e r t h i n g s c o u l d be t h e p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e f o r t h e h a r d e s t k i n d o f e g o i s m . T h i s i s t h e e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e i n w h i c h I , c o n t r a r y t o my p r i n c i p l e a n d c o n v i c t i o n , t a k e t h e s i d e o f t h e " a l t r u i s t i c " i n s t i n c t s : t h e y w o r k h e r e i n t h e s e r v i c e o f s e l f i s h n e s s a n d s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . — O n e must k e e p t h e w h o l e s u r f a c e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s — c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a s u r f a c e — f r e e f r o m a n y one o f t h e g r e a t i m p e r a t i v e s . C a u t i o n e v e n b e f o r e e v e r y g r e a t w o r d , e v e r y g r e a t a t t i t u d e ! A l l d a n g e r s t h a t t h e i n s t i n c t t o o s o o n " u n d e r s t a n d s I t s e l f " — . M e a n w h i l e t h e o r -g a n i z i n g " i d e a " , d e s t i n e d t o become m a s t e r , g r o w s a n d g r o w s i n t h e d e p t h — l t b e g i n s t o command, i t l e a d s s l o w l y b a c k f r o m byways a n d d e v i a t i o n s , i t p r e p a r e s i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s a n d e x c e l l e n c e s w h i c h w i l l one d a y make t h e m s e l v e s f e l t a s i n d i s -p e n s a b l e t o t h e w h o l e — o n e by one i t f o r m s a l l s e r v i c a b l e f a c u l t i e s b e f o r e i t e v e n h i n t s a n y t h i n g o f t h e d o m i n a n t t a s k , o f t h e " g o a l " , " p u r p o s e " , " m e a n i n g " . — V i e w e d f r o m t h i s s i d e , my l i f e i s s i m p l y w o n d e f f u l . P r o b a b l y more a b i l i t i e s w e r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t a s k o f t r a n s v a l u e l n g v a l u e s t h a n c o u l d be f o u n d s i d e by s i d e i n one i n d i v i d u a l , a b o v e a l l e v e n a n t a g -o n i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , w i t h o u t t h e s e d e s t r o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s , b e i n g a l l o w e d t o d e s t r o y t h e m s e l v e s . O r d e r o f r a n k b e t w e e n a b i l i t i e s ; d i s t a n c e ; t h e a r t o f s e p a r a t i n g w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g h o s t i l i t y ; m i x i n g n o t h i n g , " r e c o n c i l i n g " n o t h i n g ; a t r e m e n d o u s v a r i e t y w h i c h i s n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e o p p o s i t e o f c h a o s — t h i s was t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , o f t h e s l o w , s e c r e t w o r k a n d a r t i s t i c m a s t e r y o f my i n s t i n c t . I t s s u p e r i o r g u a r d i a n s h i p m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n s u c h a d e g r e e o f s t r e n g t h t h a t i n no c a s e d i d I e v e r s u s p e c t w h a t g r e w w i t h i n m e — u n t i l s u d d e n l y a l l my c a p a c i t i e s w e r e r i p e , a n d one d a y b u r s t f o r t h i n t h e i r f u l l e s t p e r f e c t i o n . T h e r e i s l a c k i n g i n my m e m o r i e s a n y f e e l i n g o f h a v i n g e x e r t e d m y s e l f . T h e r e i s no t r a c e o f s t r u g g l e i n my l i f e , I am t h e r e v e r s e 57 o f a h e r o i c n a t u r e . To "want" s o m e t h i n g , t o " s t r i v e " f o r s o m e t h i n g , t o h a v e a " p u r p o s e " , a " w i s h " i n o n e ' s m i n d — I know no n e o f t h e s e t h i n g s f r o m e x p e r i e n c e . E v e n a t t h i s moment I l o o k o u t upon,my f u t u r e — a b r o a d f u t u r e ! — a s u p o n a c a l m s e a : no s i g n o f l o n g i n g makes a r i p p l e o n i t s s u r f a c e . I w o u l d n o t i n t h e l e a s t t h a t s o m e t h i n g becomes o t h e r t h a n i t i s : I m y s e l f do n o t w i s h t o be o t h e r w i s e . . . B u t I h a v e a l w a y s l i v e d l i k e t h i s . I h a v e no d e s i r e s . A man who, a f t e r h i s f o u r - a n d f o u r t i e t h y e a r , c a n s a y t h a t he h a s n e v e r b o t h e r e d h i m s e l f a b o u t h o n o r , women, o r money! — N o t t h a t t h e y d i d n o t come my way.... 90 A b i t o f c a u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n r e a d i n g a n d u s i n g t h i s p a s s a g e f r o m E ooe Homo. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r b o o k was b e g u n on O c t o b e r 15, 1888, j u s t two a n d a h a l f months b e f o r e N i e t z s c h e s u f f e r e d a n i r r e v o c a b l e c o l l a p s e i n t o i n s a n i t y o n J a n u a r y 3, 1889. I n s o f a r a s N i e t z s c h e u s e s h i s own l i f e t o make a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t , we m u s t e x e r c i s e c a r e s i n c e t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s c a n n o t a l w a y s be t r u s t e d . Too o f t e n a s m a l l mouse becomes a n e l e p h a n t , o r w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g t h e " a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e " : . . . e v e r y w h e r e e l s e I h a v e r e a d e r s — a l l s e l e c t i n t e l l i g e n c e s ; t r i e d , i n h i g h p l a c e s a n d d u t i e s e d u c a t e d p e r s o n s ; I e v e n h a v e r e a l g e n i u s e s among my r e a d e r s . I n V i e n n a , i n S t . P e t e r s -b u r g , i n S t o c k h o l m , I n C o p e n h a g e n , i n P a r i s a n d New Y o r k — e v e r y w h e r e I h a v e b e e n d i s c o v e r e d : I am n o t i n E u r o p e ' s f l a t -l a n d Germany...And, t h a t I c o n f e s s i t , I am e v e n more g l a d a b o u t my n o n r e a d e r s , s u c h , who h a v e n e v e r h e a r d my name, n o r t h e w o r d p h i l o s o p h y ; b u t , w h e r e v e r I go h e r e i n T u r i n f o r I n s t a n c e , e v e r y f a c e c h e e r s u p a n d i m p r o v e s a t my p r e s e n c e . What h a s t i c k l e d my v a n i t y t h e m o s t i s t h a t o l d woman-hawkers do n o t r e s t b e f o r e t h e y h a v e s e l e c t e d f o r me t h e s w e e t e s t o f t h e i r g r a p e s . . . . 91 T h e s e a n d o t h e r p a s s a g e s i n E c c e Homo, a n d e v e n more s o i n t h e p r i v a t e l e t t e r s o f t h a t p e r i o d , show a man who i s l o s i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n r e a l i t y a n d w i s h f u l t h i n k -i n g , u n t i l on t h e f i n a l d a y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n c e a s e s t o e x i s t f o r h i m , s o t h a t , i n h i s own m i n d , he becomes w h a t he t h i n k s 58 92 he I s . T h i s d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , e n t i t l e u s t o go t o t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e o f I g n o r i n g t h i s l a s t w o r k s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t c o n t a i n s o b v i o u s f a l s e h o o d s r e g a r d i n g h i s l i f e . The p h i l o -s o p h i c a l p o i n t s , w h i c h t h e s e p a g e s c o n t a i n , w i l l s t a n d o n t h e i r own two f e e t , t h e i r own p h i l o s o p h i c a l m e r i t . W i t h t h i s p r o v i s o , we c a n now e x a m i n e t h e a p h o r i s m o f page 56 a n d 57• I f we e x p e c t e d t o f i n d t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f N i e -t z s c h e ' s e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e a n d God i s d e a d d o c t r i n e s i n t h e f o r m o f a l i s t o f s t e p s o n how t o r e a c h s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n , t h e n we arel . i i no d o u b t , somewhat d i s a p p o i n t e d . The a d v i c e , i f one c a n a c t u a l l y c a l l i t a d v i c e , i s a l m o s t w h o l l y n e g a t i v e . We a r e n o t t o l d w h a t t o d o , b u t r a t h e r what t o a v o i d . T h i s may be a b i t a n n o y i n g t o p e o p l e who h a v e become a c c u s t o m e d t o c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s , y e t i t may j u s t be s u f f i c i e n t t o r e a c h some m e a s u r e o f s e l f - p e r f e c t i o n . I f we r e a l l y m ust h a v e a more p o s i t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a t t e r , t h e n l e t me r e p r o d u c e w h a t N i e t z s c h e h a d t o s a y a b o u t G o e t h e , a man he a d m i r e d g r e a t l y : G o e t h e — n o t a German e v e n t , b u t a E u r o p e a n one: a m a g n i f -i c e n t a t t e m p t t o o v e r c o m e t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by a r e t u r n t o n a t u r e , by a n a s c e n t t o t h e n a t u r a l n e s s of; t h e R e n -a i s s a n c e — a k i n d o f s e l f - o v e r c o m i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h a t c e n t u r y . He b o r e i t s s t r o n g e s t i n s t i n c t s w i t h i n h i m s e l f : t h e s e n s i b i l i t y , t h e i d o l a t r y o f n a t u r e , t h e a n t i - h i s t o r i c , t h e i d e a l i s t i c , t h e u n r e a l a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y ( t h e l a t t e r b e i n g m e r e l y a f o r m o f t h e u n r e a l ) . He s o u g h t h e l p f r o m h i s t o r y , n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , a n t i q u i t y , a n d a l s o S p i n o z a , b u t , a b o v e a l l , f r o m p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y ; he s u r r o u n d e d h i m s e l f w i t h l i m i t e d h o r i z o n s ; he d i d n o t r e t i r e f r o m l i f e b u t p u t h i m s e l f i n t o t h e m i d s t o f i t ; he was n o t f a i n t h e a r t e d b u t t o o k a s much a s p o s s i b l e u p o n h i m s e l f , o v e r h i m s e l f , i n t o h i m s e l f . What he w a n t e d was t o t a l i t y ; he f o u g h t t h e m u t u a l e x t r a n e o u s n e s s o f r e a s o n , s e n s e s , f e e l i n g , a n d w i l l ; . . h e 59 d i s c i p l i n e d h i m s e l f t o w h o l e n e s s , he c r e a t e d h i m s e l f . I n t h e m i d d l e o f a n age w i t h a n u n r e a l o u t l o o k , G o e t h e was a c o n v i n c e d r e a l i s t : he s a i d Y e s t o e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was r e -l a t e d t o h i m i n t h i s r e s p e c t — a n d he h a d no g r e a t e r e x -p e r i e n c e t h a n t h a t e n s r e a l i s s i m u m c a l l e d N a p o l e o n . G o e t h e c o n c e i v e d a human b e i n g who w o u l d be s t r o n g , h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , s k i l l f u l i n a l l b o d i l y m a t t e r s , s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d , r e v e r e n t t o w a r d h i m s e l f , a n d who m i g h t d a r e t o a f f o r d t h e w h o l e r a n g e a n d w e a l t h o f b e i n g n a t u r a l , b e i n g s t r o n g e n o u g h f o r s u c h f r e e d o m ; t h e man o f t o l e r a n c e , n o t f r o m w e a k n e s s b u t f r o m s t r e n g t h , b e c a u s e he knows how t o u s e t o h i s a d v a n t a g e e v e n , t h a t f r o m w h i c h t h e a v e r a g e n a t u r e w o u l d p e r i s h ; t h e man f o r whom t h e r e i s no l o n g e r a n y t h i n g t h a t i s f o r b i d d e n — u n l e s s i t be w e a k n e s s , w h e t h e r c a l l e d v i c e o r v i r t u e . S u c h a s p i r i t who h a s become f r e e s t a n d s a m i d t h e cosmos w i t h a j o y o u s a n d t r u s t i n g f a t a l i s m , i n t h e f a i t h t h a t o n l y t h e p a r t i c u l a r i s l o a t h s o m e , a n d t h a t a l l i s r e d e e m e d a n d a f f i r m e d i n t h e w h o l e — h e d o e s n o t n e g a t e a n y more. S u c h a f a i t h , h o w e v e r , i s t h e h i g h e s t o f a l l p o s s i b l e f a i t h s : I h a v e b a p t i z e d i t w i t h t h e name o f D i o n y s u s . 93 T h e r e i s i n t h e a b o v e a p h o r i s m , a n d t h a t o f page 56, a s t r e s s o n t o t a l i t y . We h a v e a l r e a d y I n d i c a t e d , i n t h e s e c t i o n on t h e p a s s i o n s , how v i t a l t o t a l i t y i s . T h e r e , t h e o p p o s i t e o f t o t a l i t y meant r e p r e s s i o n o r e x t i r p a t i o n o f some o f t h e p a s s i o n s . T h i s , a s was p o i n t e d o u t , w e a k ens t h e l n d i -94 v i d u a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s w a l l o w i n g " t o u g h m o r s e l s " . B u t t h e man who w i s h e s t o make h i s l i f e i n t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e may n e e d t o s w a l l o w many " t o u g h m o r s e l s " , a n d m u s t , t h u s , be s t r o n g . To t a k e G o e t h e ' s c a s e , i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o s e e why t o t a l i t y , w h o l e n e s s , s h o u l d be j u s t t h e s o r t o f t h i n g a n a r t i s t w a n t s a n d n e e d s . H i s a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s w o u l d be a b i t f l a t w i t h o u t t h e m o s t d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s , j u s t a s a p a i n t e r r e s t r i c t e d t o one o r two c o l o r s w o u l d s u f f e r t h e c o n -s e q u e n c e s i n h i s p i c t u r e s . He w o u l d l a c k b r e a d t h , h i s r e s u l t s w o u l d be s e r i o u s l y n a r r o w e d . I n g e n e r a l , one who d o e s n o t a i m 60 f o r t o t a l i t y , t h a t i s , d o e s n o t d i s c i p l i n e h i m s e l f t o w h o l e -n e s s , r u n s t h e r i s k o f n o t o n l y f i n d i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r l o a t h -some b u t a l s o b e i n g u n a b l e t o s a y o f h i m s e l f " t h a t , a l l i s 95 r e d e e m e d a n d a f f i r m e d i n t h e w h o l e " s i m p l y b e c a u s e he h a s s o l i t t l e t h a t c a n be made i n t o a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e . T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s t h e o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y on w h i c h a l i f e c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e m e a s u r e o f p a i n a n d m i s e r y becomes b e a r a b l e . H e n c e , N i e t z s c h e o p p o s e s d e s t r u c t i o n o f a b i l i t i e s : P r o b a b l y more a b i l i t i e s w e r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t a s k o f t r a n s -v a l u e l n g v a l u e s t h a n c o u l d be f o u n d s i d e by s i d e i n one i n -d i v i d u a l , a b o v e a l l e v e n a n t a g o n i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , w i t h o u t t h e s e d e s t r o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s , b e i n g a l l o w e d t o d e s t r o y them-s e l v e s . O r d e r o f r a n k b e t w e e n a b i l i t i e s ; d i s t a n c e ; t h e a r t o f s e p a r a t i n g w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g h o s t i l i t y ; m i x i n g n o t h i n g , " r e c o n c i l i n g " n o t h i n g ; a t r e m e n d o u s v a r i e t y w h i c h i s n e v e r -t h e l e s s t h e o p p o s i t e o f c h a o s . . . . 96 J u s t how t h i s " t r e m e n d o u s v a r i e t y w h i c h i s . n e v e r -t h e l e s s t h e o p p o s i t e o f c h a o s " i s a c h i e v e d a n d k e p t i n t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m , w i t h o u t some s o r t o f d i s c i p l i n e b e i n g i m p o s e d , i s n o t t o o c l e a r l y I n d i c a t e d by N i e t z s c h e . D i s c i p l i n e , o f c o u r s e , t e n d s t o r e s t r i c t one i n some r e s p e c t s a n d , i n t h i s c a s e , t o r e s t r i c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f some o f o n e ' s a b i l i t i e s . B u t t h a t i s t o be e x p e c t e d , i f we a r e t o r e a c h g o a l s t h a t r e -q u i r e a l o n g a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , a n d s t r i c t m e t h o d s i n t h e i r a c t u a l c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . N i e t z s c h e w e l l r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t i n a n e a r l i e r b o o k : E v e r y m o r a l i t y , i n c o n t r a s t t o l a l s s e r a l l e r . i s a w o r k o f t y r a n n y a g a i n s t " n a t u r e " a n d a l s o a g a i n s t " r e a s o n " . B u t t h i s i s n o t a n o b j e c t i o n t o i t — n o t u n l e s s one w i s h e d to. d e c r e e ( p r o c e e d i n g f r o m some s o r t o f m o r a l i t y ) t h a t a l l t y p e s o f t y r -a n n y a n d i r r a t i o n a l i t y a r e t o be f o r b i d d e n . What i s e s s e n t i a l a n d o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e i n e a c h m o r a l i t y i s t h a t i t i s a l o n g - l a s t i n g r e s t r a i n t . To u n d e r s t a n d S t o i c i s m o r P o r t - R o y a l 61 o r P u r i t a n i s m , I t i s w e l l t o remember t h e r e s t r a i n t s u n d e r w h i c h a n y l a n g u a g e h i t h e r t o h a s r e a c h e d i t s p e a k o f power a n d s u b t l e t y — t h e r e s t r a i n t o f m e t r i c s , t h e t y r a n n y o f rhyme a n d r h y t h m . How much t r o u b l e h a v e t h e p o e t s a n d o r a t o r s o f e a c h n a t i o n a l w a y s t a k e n . . . w i t h a n i n e x o r a b l e c o n s c i e n c e i n t h e i r e a r , " f o r t h e s a k e o f a f o l l y " s a y t h e U t i l i t a r i a n f o o l s who t h i n k t h e y a r e c l e v e r , " i n d e f e r e n c e t o a r b i t r a r y l a w s " s a y t h e a n a r c h i s t s who i m a g i n e t h e y a r e " f r e e " , i n f a c t f r e e t h i n k e r s . The s t r a n g e f a c t , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t e v e r y -t h i n g o f f r e e d o m , s u b l e t y , b o l d n e s s , d a n c e , a n d c r a f t s m a n l i k e c e r t a i n t y t h a t one c a n f i n d o n e a r t h , w h e t h e r l t a p p l i e s t o t h i n k i n g , o r r u l i n g , o r s p e a k i n g , o r p e r s u a d i n g — i n t h e a r t s a s w e l l a s i n c o d e s o f c o n d u c t — w o u l d n e v e r h a v e d e v e l o p e d s a v e t h r o u g h t h e " t y r a n n y o f s u c h a r b i t r a r y l a w s " . I n d e e d , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y i s s t r o n g t h a t t h i s i s " n a t u r e " a n d " n a t u r a l " — a n d n o t — l a l s s e r a l l e r ! E v e r y a r t i s t knows how f a r h i s m o s t " n a t u r a l " c o n d i t i o n i s f r o m t h e f e e l i n g o f l e t t i n g o n e s e l f g o , how r i g o r o u s l y a n d s u b t l y he o b e y s a t h o u s a n d f o l d l a w i n t h e moments o f " i n s p i r a t i o n " , i n h i s f r e e o r d e r i n g , l o c a t i n g , d i s p o s i n g , a n d f o r m g i v i n g , how h i s l a w s mock a t a l l f o r m u l a -t i o n s i n t o c o n c e p t s , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s o r i g o r o u s a n d w e l l - d e f i n e d . . . T h e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g " i n h e a v e n a n d o n e a r t h " , i t seems i s — t o s a y i t o n c e m o r e — t h a t t h e r e be o b e -d i e n c e , l o n g c o n t i n u e d o b e d i e n c e i n some one d i r e c t i o n . When t h i s h a p p e n s , s o m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e a l w a y s comes o f i t i n t h e e n d , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h makes l i v i n g w o r t h w h i l e ; v i r t u e , f o r e x a m p l e , o r a r t o r m u s i c o r d a n c e o r r e a s o n o r s p i r i t u a l i t y — s o m e t h i n g t h a t t r a n s f i g u r e s u s , s o m e t h i n g s u b t l y r e f i n e d , o r mad, o r d i v i n e . 97 T h a t i s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o " ' r e c o n c i l e ' n o t h i n g " i f we a r e , a t t h e same t i m e , e n g a g e d i n some o f t h e " b l u n d e r s o f l i f e " — n o t t o s p e a k , f i n a l l y , o f the"domina^t t a s k " . (The t e r m s a n d p h r a s e s i n q u o t a t i o n m a r k s a r e f r o m t h e p a s s a g e o n p a ge 56 a n d 570 The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e o b v i o u s . I n d o i n g s o m e t h i n g (A) w e l l , i t may be r e q u i r e d t o p u r s u e a c o u r s e w h i c h w i l l make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o do s o m e t h i n g (B) w e l l . P o r d i f f e r e n t p u r s u i t s , d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s m a s t be c u l t i v a t e d . H e n c e , " l o n g c o n t i n o u s o b e d i e n c e i n some one d i r e c t i o n " i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y g o i n g t o mean l o n g c o n t i n u e d a t r o p h y i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s i s b e c o m i n g more a n d more s o w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e 62 i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , p a r t l y due t o a m u s h r o o m i n g t e c h n o l o g y . I f i t r e q u i r e s t e n o r more y e a r s t o make a g o o d c h e m i s t o r a g o o d v i o l i n i s t , t h e n one c a n s e e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v i n g a c h a n g e f r o m one s o r t o f a c t i v i t y t o a n o t h e r . T h e r e p r o b a b l y i s no d a z z l i n g s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f d i s c i p l i n i n g b u t n o t d e n y i n g o n e ' s p a s s i o n s a n d a b i l i t i e s ; a t a n y r a t e , I do n o t t h i n k t h a t I c a n o f f e r a s o l u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d show a l l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t o be a p p a r e n t o n l y . On t h e one h a n d , a somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e r e g i m e m u s t be e x e r c i s e d o v e r o n e ' s p a s s i o n a n d a b i l i t i e s t o a c h i e v e g r e a t g o a l s ; w h i l e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , one d o e s n o t w i s h t o be t o o r e s t r i c t i v e , l e s t t h i s amount t o r e p r e s s i o n a n d e x t i r p a t i o n o f p a s s i o n s a n d a b i l i t i e s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e f u l f i l l -ment o f t h e s e g r e a t g o a l s . We a r e , t h e n , l o o k i n g f o r a " g o l d -e n m i d d l e " , a n d t h e r e i s one l i n e i n t h e p a s s a g e o n G o e t h e w h i c h m i g h t s u g g e s t s u c h a n a p p r o a c h . H e r e we a r e t o l d t h a t 9 8 G o e t h e " s u r r o u n d e d h i m s e l f w i t h l i m i t e d h o r i z o n s " . T h i s s o u n d s a b i t l i k e t h e m o t t o " N o t h i n g i n e x c e s s " o v e r . t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e t e m p l e t o t h e D e l p h i c O r a c l e . S u c h a p e r s o n w o u l d , one s u p p o s e s , s e t h i m s e l f o n l y s m a l l g o a l s a n d t a s k s s o t h a t a c h a n g e o f c o u r s e w i l l n o t be i m p o s s i b l e . B u t t h i s i m m e d i a t e l y p o i n t s o u t t h e d r a w b a c k s o f t h e " L i m i t e d H o r i z o n " a p p r o a c h . Some t a s k s r e q u i r e l a r g e a n d f i r m c o m m i t m e n t s , a n d , p e r h a p s , i r r e v e r s i b l e c o m m i t m e n t s , e.g. t h e j o b one t r a i n s f o r , o r m a r r i a g e . I f we w i s h t o be t h e b e s t swimmer, c h e m i s t , v i o l i n i s t , o r l a w y e r , t h e n we c a n n o t t r a i n h a l f - h e a r t e d l y . 63 We must go a b o u t d e v e l o p i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a p a c i t i e s a n d a b i l i t i e s w i t h u t t e r d e d i c a t i o n , a n d f e w , i f a n y , r e s e r v a -t i o n s . I f we do n o t , we w i l l f a i l i n o u r t a s k . T h e r e may s t i l l be a n a n s w e r , h o w e v e r , t o how we c a n d i s c i p l i n e , b u t n o t d e n y , o u r p a s s i o n s a n d a b i l i t i e s . N i e t z s c h e t a l k s a b o u t a n " o r g a n i z i n g • i d e a ' " t h a t l e a d s u s , by a d e v i o u s r o u t e , t o o u r " d o m i n a n t t a s k l : M e a n w h i l e t h e o r g a n i z i n g " i d e a " , d e s t i n e d t o become m a s t e r , g r o w s a n d g r o w s i n t h e d e p t h — i t b e g i n s t o command, i t l e a d s s l o w l y b a c k f r o m t h e byways a n d d e v i a t i o n s , i t p r e p a r e s i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s a n d e x c e l l e n c e s w h i c h w i l l one d a y make t h e m s e l v e s f e l t a s I n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e w h o l e — o n e by one i t f o r m s a l l s e r v i c a b l e f a c u l t i e s b e f o r e i t e v e n h i n t s a n y t h i n g o f t h e d o m i n a n t t a s k , o f t h e " g o a l " , " p u r p o s e " , " m e a n i n g " . 99 I s u p p o s e t h e r e i s l e s s d i f f i c u l t y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t e r m " d o m i n a n t t a s k " t h a n w i t h t h a t o t h e r t e r m , " o r g a n i z i n g • i d e a * " . The d o m i n a n t t a s k w o u l d s i m p l y be t h a t w h i c h one c a l l s , u s u a l l y w i t h h i n d s i g h t , t h e most p r o n o u n c e d e l e m e n t a r o u n d w h i c h t h e l i f e o f t h e p e r s o n i n q u e s t i o n c r y s t a l l i z e d . O f t e n e n o u g h , i n t h e c a s e o f a n a r t i s t o r a p h i l o s o p h e r , i t i s t h e f a c t t h a t he c h o s e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , we may p i c k o u t c e r t a i n p r e d o m i n a n t s t r a i n s i n h i s w o r k a n d l i f e a s i l l u s t r a t i n g h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t e n t e r -p r i s e o r q u e s t . We o f t e n engage i n t h i s s o r t o f a n a l y s i s i n r e g a r d t o g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . P o s t e r i t y f r e q u e n t l y c l a i m s t o f i n d s t r a n d s a n d p a t t e r n s i n t h e w o r k s a n d l i v e s o f s u c h p e r s o n s w h i c h t h e s e same p e r s o n s m i g h t h a v e b e e n a -mazed t o s e e t h e r e . O f t e n e n o u g h , we may s i m p l y be c r e d i t i n g t h e p e r s o n s i n q u e s t i o n w i t h m o r e j g i f t s t h a n t h e y a c t u a l l y 64 h a d . T a k e K e p l e r a n d h i s t h r e e l a w s o f p l a n e t a r y m o t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e . T h e s e w e r e h i d d e n a s j u s t a t i n y p a r t i n K e p l e r ' s many b o o k s , w h i l e h i s m a i n a m b i t i o n seemed t o l i e much more i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t g o a l s o f a s t r o n o m y c o n c e r n e d 100 w i t h t h e h i d d e n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p l a n e t a r y m o t i o n . I f we a r e t o b e l i e v e N i e t z s c h e ' s own w o r d s , t h e n h i s own d o m i n a n t t a s k t u r n e d o u t t o be t h e t r a n s v a l u a t i o n o f a l l v a l u e s , o r , u s i n g a p h r a s e i n t r o d u c e d e a r l i e r , " t o f i n d m e a n i n g i n a p u r e l y human e x i s t e n c e " . T h i s s t i l l l e a v e s u s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f how one d i s c o v e r s w h a t o n e ' s p e r s o n a l d o m i n a n t t a s k , d e s i g n e d t o g i v e m e a n i n g a n d p u r p o s e t o o n e ' s l i f e , is»Nietzsche s p e a k s o f t h e " o r g a n i z i n g ' i d e a ' " a s a s o r t o f p a t h f i n d e r i n t h e i n s t i n c t u a l r e a l m : I t s s u p e r i o r g u a r d i a n s h i p / t h e i n s t i n c t e m b o d y i n g o u r o r -g a n i z l n g " i d e a ^ / m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n s u c h a d e g r e e o f s t r e n g t h t h a t -in n o c a s e d i d I e v e r s u s p e c t what g r e w w i t h i n m e — u n t i l s u d d e n l y a l l my c a p a c i t i e s w e r e r i p e , a n d one d a y b u r s t f o r t h i n t h e i r f u l l e s t p e r f e c t i o n . 101 L e t u s s e e , w h a t we c a n make o f t h i s . A t f i r s t s i g h t , i t s t r i k e s u s a s o d d , s i n c e m o s t o f u s h a v e v e r y a c t i v e l y t r a i n e d t o become wh a t we a r e , a n d a r e n o t a w a r e o f h a v i n g w a i t e d f o r some s i g n o r o t h e r t h a t somehow made u s s e e t h e p a t h we s h o u l d p u r s u e . I n o t h e r w o r d s * we w a n t e d t o become a n x , a n d t r a i n e d f o r i t . We d i d n o t t r a i n a n d t h e n d i s c o v e r we w e r e a n x , o r e n g a g e d i n t h e t h i n g s t h a t make one a n x . B u t w a i t ; how d i d we d i s c o v e r t h a t we w a n t e d t o be a n x ? How d o e s one become, s a y , a p h i l o s o p h e r , a p a i n t e r . 65 a w r i t e r , a c o n q u e r o r , a s c i e n t i s t , e t c ? I s i t n o t s i m p l y by one d a y b e c o m i n g a w a r e t h a t one h a s t h e t a l e n t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e t a s k s , a n d by t r a i n i n g f o r them t h e n ? N a t u r a l l y , i f one f i n d s o u t t h a t one d o e s n o t a f t e r a l l h a v e t h e r e q u i r e d p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , a l l w i l l be f u t i l e — b u t on t h e o t h e r h a n d , we do n o t a r r i v e i n t h e w o r l d w i t h a n e a t l y o u t l i n e d l i f e p l a n e i t h e r . I n s t e a d , we c a r r y on w i t h a l l s o r t s o f t a s k s t o b u i l d a n d r o u n d o u t o u r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , a n d , somehow, we d i s c o v e r t h a t we h a v e t h e a b i l i t i e s t o be a w r i t e r , a p h i l o s o p h e r , o r a s c i e n t i s t . A c t u a l l y o n l y by d o i n g a l l manner o f t h i n g s , do we d i s c o v e r w h a t b e s t s u i t s u s . H e n c e , t h e d a y s , m o n t h s , a n d y e a r s u s e d u p i n d i f f e r e n t p u r s u i t s a r e n o t w a s t e d , t h o u g h t h e y o f t e n seem t h a t way. They a r e n o t o n l y v e r y o f t e n t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e d o m i n a n t t a s k , o n c e we know w h a t i t I s , b u t a l s o t h e means o f d i s c o v -e r i n g w h a t i t i s . O n l y b y d o i n g , s a y , p h i l o s o p h y do we b u i l d up a n d d i s c o v e r o u r p h i l o s o p h i c a l a b i l i t i e s . On t h e way t o t h e d o m i n a n t t a s k , we b e g i n t o s u r -r o u n d o u r s e l v e s , t o some e x t e n t , w i t h " l i m i t e d h o r i z o n s " j u s t b e c a u s e we c a n n o t be e n g a g e d i n e v e r y t h i n g a t o n c e . What h a p -p e n s m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d a s a g r a d u a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o w a r d s some one f i e l d o r g o a l . We s t a r t o u r l i v e s b y g e t t i n g a f a i r l y g e n e r a l o u t l o o k a n d e d u c a t i o n . O u r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i s , n o r m a l l y , f a i r l y b r o a d a n d u n s p e c i a l l z e d , a n d s o i s o u r i n i -t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h s o c i e t y . S l o w l y , t h e g r o u p s s t a r t i n g o u t t o g e t h e r i n l i f e d i v i d e , a n d d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s f o l l o w 66 d i f f e r e n t p a t h s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f d i v i s i o n t e n d s t o f o l l o w t h e g e n e r a l l i n e s o f o n e ' s a b i l i t i e s , b u t l a c k o f money o r o p p o r t u n i t y c a n s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l o n e ' s p r o g r e s s . F i n a l l y , a n d u s u a l l y a f t e r many y e a r s , one r e a c h e s a s t a g e w h e r e one h a s a f a i r l y g o o d i d e a w h a t one w i l l do i n l i f e , e . g . one knows t h a t one w i l l be a w r i t e r , a s c i e n t i s t , a p h i l o s o p h e r , o r a p o l i t i c i a n . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t new e n t e r p r i s e s a r e r u l e d o u t . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s a l w a y s open, t h o u g h i t i s now u n l i k e l y t h a t one w i l l do a n y t h i n g d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t o n e ' s f o r m e r t r a i n i n g h a d b e e n ; e . g . a p h i l o s o p h e r m i g h t d e c i d e t o become a p o l i t i c i a n o r a m i s s i o n a r y , b u t l e s s l i k e l y a p h y s i c i s t . I t i s i n t h i s way t h a t we c a n s u r r o u n d o u r s e l v e s w i t h " l i m i t e d h o r i z o n s " w h i l e s l o w l y f i n d i n g o u r s e l v e s a p -p r o a c h i n g some d o m i n a n t t a s k a r o u n d w h i c h t h e m e a n i n g o f o u r l i f e c r y s t a l l i z e s . We do n o t r e p r e s s o r e x t i r p a t e w h a t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s d o m i n a n t t a s k i t s e l f , b u t t h a t w h i c h i s n o t n e e d s no s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Now t a l k o f a d o m i n a n t t a s k a n d a n o r g a n i z i n g i d e a may n o t be f a m i l i a r t o t h e a v e r a g e man, y e t t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d by t h e s e t e r m s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o N i e t z s c h e . To sum u p : N i e t z s c h e h a d o v e r t h r o w n t h e b e l i e f t h a t "Man o u g h t t o be s u c h a n d s u c h ! " by t h e e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e a n d G o d - i s - d e a d d o c t r i n e s . L i f e , t h e n , w h i c h u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s a l a r g e m e a s u r e o f p a i n a n d m i s e r y i s o n l y t o l e r a b l e i f i t c a n be i n some way c o n s i d e r e d a n a e s t h e t -i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e , i n w h i c h " a l l i s r e d e e m e d a n d a f f i r m e d " . 67 I f we h a v e o r f i n d some d o m i n a n t t a s k , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e e o u r l i f e a s s u c h a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g w h o l e . I f we c a n f i n d no g u i d a n c e i n n a t u r e , i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , t o d i s c o v e r o u r d o m i n a n t t a s k , t h e n i t m u s t a n d c a n come f r o m w i t h i n . O u r i n s t i n c t u a l g r o p i n g s must g u i d e u s . T h a t , i n f a c t , t h e y c a n a n d do i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e l i v e s o f many o f t h e g r e a t h i s -t o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f t h e p a s t . Many o f them h a d a s e n s e o f m i s s i o n . Some o f them h a d t o c h o o s e d e a t h f o r t h e i r s e n s e o f m i s s i o n . D e a t h i s u n p l e a s a n t , b u t t h e s e men t h o u g h t t h e i r c a u s e s , t h e i r d o m i n a n t t a s k s , more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e a v o i d -a n c e o f d i s c o m f o r t . T h e i r d o m i n a n t t a s k s g a v e t h i s l a s t a c t , t h o u g h p a i n f u l a n d d i s t r e s s i n g , a m e a n i n g , a n d t h u s r e d e e m e d a n d a f f i r m e d i t i n t h e w h o l e . 68 EPILOGUE E t e r n a l recurrence i s , to be k i n d , a dubious doc-t r i n e . We have no reason to b e l i e v e that i t o f f e r s an accurate and adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of our universe. Hence, we must r e -j e c t i t . However, i f we r e j e c t i t , do we a l s o r e j e c t N i e t z -sche's philosophy? Not q u i t e , as I have shown. E t e r n a l r e c u r -rence i s the strongest weapon i n h i s armory, but one reason that I had f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the God-is-dead d o c t r i n e was to use something more v a l i d than the e t e r n a l recurrence doc-t r i n e to reach, more or l e s s , the same conclusions that t h i s l a t e r d o c t r i n e y i e l d s . Nietzsche's thought i s f r e q u e n t l y a blend of these two d o c t r i n e s , though the a t t e n t i v e reader of h i s works w i l l have n o t i c e d how few passages mentioning e t e r n a l recurrence there r e a l l y are, and how u n h e l p f u l some of these can be. In dropping t h i s d o c t r i n e , we are s t i l l faced by e x a c t l y the same problem that bothered Nietzsche so much, because f o r us today God i s dead too. We are, thus, on the same quest, namely how "to f i n d meaning i n a purely human ex i s t e n c e . " There i s a q u i t e n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n , on the "one-l i f e " view, to consider s u i c i d e as a means of escape from the misfortunes of l i f e ; but the d o c t r i n e of e t e r n a l r e c u r -rence, by f o c u s i n g our a t t e n t i o n on a l i f e where s u i c i d e i s not such a n a t u r a l response, opens our eyes to a way of 69 making suffering meaningful. Pain and misery are given a j u s t i f i c a t i o n by becoming ess e n t i a l to the man seeking to make his l i f e into an a e s t h e t i c a l l y pleasing whole through the guidance offered by the "organizing 'idea'" within him. "What does your conscience say?—You are to become him whom 102 you are." 70 FOOTNOTES I n c i t i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o N i e t z s c h e ' s w o r k s , I h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d by A . C . D a n t o i n h i s b o o k N i e t z s c h e  A s P h i l o s o p h e r , p p . 23k-5* h a v e c i t e d t h e r e f e r e n c e s s o t h a t r e a d e r s c a n l o c a t e t h e p a s s a g e s i n a n y e d i t i o n , i n a n y l a n g u a g e . I n e a c h c i t a t i o n t h e number r e f e r e n c e w i l l n o t be t o a page b u t t o a n a p h o r i s m . Roman n u m e r a l s r e f e r t o c h a p t e r s w h e r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t ; f o r e x a m p l e , w h e r e N i e -t z s c h e s t a r t s r e n u m b e r i n g h i s a p h o r i s m s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new c h a p t e r . Thus GM/T h a v e a l w a y s w r i t t e n o u t t h e t i t l e i n < f u l l w h e r e v e r l t i s m e n t i o n e d ^ , I I , 20 r e f e r s t o The G e n e a l -ogy o f M o r a l s . C h a p t e r Two, a p h o r i s m 20. N i e t z s c h e d o e s n o t a l w a y s g i v e n u m bers t o t h e s e p a r a t e p a r t s , b u t he p e r i o d i c a l l y b e g i n s t o r e n u m b e r t h e a p h o r i s m s . I n s u c h c a s e s t h e Roman n u m e r a l i n d i c a t e s t h e p a r t , t h e A r a b i c number i s t h e a p h o -r i s m . I n Thus S p a k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , N i e t z s c h e n umbered t h e c h a p t e r , o r p a r t s , b u t he g a v e t i t l e s t o t h e a p h o r i s m s . " 1. F r i e d r i c h W i l h e l m N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 3 k l . ( T r a n s l . by W a l t e r K a u f m a n n i n N i e t z s c h e ; P h i l o s o p h e r , P s y c h o l o g i s t , A n t i c h r i s t , p.280.) 2. N i e t z s c h e , Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , I I I , 2 . ( T r a n s l . by R . J . HolllngdaleTl 3. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f t h e I d o l s . X, 5 . ( T r a n s l . by K a u f m a n n i n The P o t a b l e Nietzsche.p. 5 6 3 . ) k. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo, Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , l . ( M y own t r a n s l a t i o n " ? } 5. N i e t z s c h e , The W i l l t o P o w e r . 5 5 « ( $ r a n s l . by W.Kaufmann i n N i e t z s c h e : P h i l o s o p h e r , P s y c h o l o g i s t , A n t i c h r i s t , p. 281.) 6. K a r l L o e w i t h , N i e t z s o h e s P h l l o s o p h l e d e r E w l g e n W l e d e r k e h r  d e s G l e l c h e n . p. 98.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 7. N i e t z s c h e , Werke i n D r e l B a e n d e n . e d . by K a r l S c h l e c h t a , 1 1 1 , 8 7 2 - 3 , ( M y own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 8. W a l t e r K a u f m a n n , N i e t z s c h e ; P h i l o s o p h e r . P s y c h o l o g i s t . A n t i c h r i s t , p p . 2 8 1 - 2 . 9 . The comments i n t h e a b o v e p a r a g r a p h s h o u l d be q u a l i f i e d b y t h e r e m a r k t h a t I am o n l y a n a m a t e u r i n s c i e n t i f i c m a t t e r s a n d w o u l d n o t w i s h t o s t a k e my l i f e o n w h a t i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h . I h a v e v e n t u r e d t o make t h e comments t h a t I do make f o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p l e t e n e s s . 10. G.A.Morgan, What N i e t z s c h e Means, p. 303. 1 1 . N i e t z s c h e , The W i l l t o P o w er. 55«(Transl. by K a ufmann i n N i e t z s c h e ; P h i l o s o p h e r , P s y c h o l o g i s t , A n t i c h r i s t , p. 282.) 1 2 . I s u p p o s e someone m i g h t a r g u e t h a t e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e c o u l d s t i l l be t h e p l a n o f some i n s c r u t a b l e o r mad g o d . H o w e v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o I m a g i n e how a n e n d l e s s r e -p e t i t i o n o f t h e same s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d a s t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f some p l a n o r g o a l . 71 F o o t n o t e s c o n t i n u e d : 13. A . C . D a n t o , N i e t z s c h e a s P h i l o s o p h e r , p . 211. 14. Kaufmann, N i e t z s c h e , p. 282. 15. D a n t o , op. c l t . . p p . 201-2 16. I b i d . , p. 211. 17. L o e w i t h , op. c l t . . p. 201 18. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . V I , 8 . ( t r a n s l . by K a u f -mann i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p . 501.) 19A. R . J . H o l l i n g d a l e ' s p h r a s e ( f r o m t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f N i e t z s c h e ' s Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , p.11) 19B. Q u o t e d by W. Kaufmann i n h i s book The F a i t h o f a  H e r e t i c , p . 276. 20. T h e r e a r e , n o w a d a y s , p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h o s e who a r e n o t C h r i s t i a n s t h o u g h many a r e , n o d o u b t , a l i t t l e embar-r a s s e d t o make u s e o f t h e s e when t h e y s t a n d i n t h e w i t -n e s s b o x w i t h t h e c l e r k h o l d i n g t h e B i b l e n e a r b y . 21. From P a u l E d w a r d s ' s e s s a y p r i n t e d i n B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l ' s b o o k Why I AM N o t a C h r i s t i a n , p. 209. The e s s a y q u o t e s many o t h e r l e t t e r s a n d s t a t e m e n t s f r o m p e o p l e who a r e n o t c l e r g y m a n b u t t h e i r t e n o r i s s i m i l a r . 22. The q u o t a t i o n comes f r o m D o s t o e v s k i ' s The B r o t h e r s K a r a -mazov, b u t I am u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e a page r e f e r e n c e . 23. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e . 1 2 5.(Transl. by R . J . H o l l i n g -d a l e i n Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , p p . 9-10.) 24. M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r , N i e t z s c h e , I , 321.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 25. T h e r e a r e , t o be e x a c t , s t i l l some s e c t s whose members p u t t h e i r f a i t h i n God's h e a l i n g p o w e r s . I n s o f a r a s many i l l n e s s e s a r e p s y c h o s o m a t i c a l l y i n d u c e d , " c u r e s " a r e p r o d u c e d . H o w e v e r , e v e n w i t c h - d o c t o r s a r e s a i d t o h a v e a m a z i n g r e c o v e r y r a t e s . 2.6. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 343. (My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 27. N i e t z s c h e , The A n t i c h r i s t . 5 2 . ( T r a n s l . by Kaufmann i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 635.) 28. N i e t z s c h e , E c o e Homo,Why I am s o C l e v e r , l . ( M y own t r a n s l a t i o n . " ! 29. N i e t z s c h e , The A n t i c h r i s t . 4 7 . ( T r a n s l . b y Kauf m a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 627.) 30. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . I X , 5 . ( T r a n s l . by Kaufm a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p . 516.) 31. N i e t z s c h e , Human, A l l - T o o - H u m a n , 113.(My: own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 32. N i e t z s c h e , The A n t i c h r i s t . 1 5 . ( T r a n s l . by Kauf m a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , pp. 581-2.) 33» V i r t u a l l y a y e a r l y o c c u r r e n c e a t U.B.C. s i n c e I h a v e b e e n a s t u d e n t h e r e . 34. R . J . H o l l i n g d a l e , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f N i e t z s c h e ' s Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a . p. 10.) 35• N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e . 125. ( T r a n s l . by R . J . H o l l i n g -d a l e i n Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , p. 10.) 36. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 108. 37. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 343.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 72 F o o t n o t e s c o n t i n u e d ; 38. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s , I X , 5 . ( T r a n s l . b y K a u f -mann i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p p . 515-6.) 39. Mark 6:11 40. M a r k 9-A? 41. P a u l , I C o r . 3:l6f. #2., N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 125. ( T r a n s l . by B . J . H o l l i n g -d a l e I n Th u s S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , p . 10.) 43. N i e t z s c h e ' s p h r a s e ( f r o m Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a . I , 15.) 44. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s , I V . ( t r a n s l . by E . J . H o l l i n g d a l e i n h i s b o o k N i e t z s c h e ; The Man a n d H i s  P h i l o s o p h y , p p . 240-1.) 45. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 343.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 46. N i e t z s c h e , Human, A l l - T o o - H u m a n , I , 133*(My own t r a n s -l a t i o n . ) 47. N i e t z s c h e , B e y o n d Good a n d E v i l , 1 0 8 . ( T r a n s l . b y M a r i a n n e Cowan.) 48. N i e t z s c h e , E o c e Homo, Why I am s o c l e v e r , l . ( M y own t r a n s l a t i o n ? ! 49. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . I , 1 0 . ( T r a n s l . b y K a u f -mann i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p . 467.) 50. J o h n R a w l s , "Two C o n c e p t s o f R u l e s " , P h i l o s o p h i c a l B e v i e w , J a n u a r y 1955. 12. 51. N i e t z s c h e , The G e n e a l o g y o f M o r a l s , I , 1 3 . ( T r a n s l . by F r a n c i s G o l f f i n g i n t h e d o u b l e v o l u m e The B i r t h o f T r a g e d y a n d The G e n e a l o g y o f M o r a l s . ) 52. I b i d . 53. I b i d . , 12.(My u n d e r l i n i n g . ) 54. I b i d , , 13. 55. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . V, 6 . ( T r a n s l . b y K a u f -mann i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p.491.) 56. N i e t z s c h e , Human. A l l - T o o - H u m a n . I , l4l.(My own t r a n s -l a t i o n . ) 57. N i e t z s c h e , Dawn. 76.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 58. N i e t z s c h e , 'The Gay S c i e n c e . 275* (My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 59. D a n t o , op. c i t . , p . 146. 60. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . V I I , 1 . ( t r a n s l . by - Kau f m a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 501.) 61. I b i d . . I X , 35.(PP. 535-6.) 62. N i e t z s c h e , B e y o n d Good a n d E v i l , 2 4 3 . ( t r a n s l . by M. Cowan.) 63. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . I I , 1 . ( T r a n s l . b y Kau f m a n n I n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p . 473.) 64. I b i d . . V I I , 2 .(p. 502.) 65. I b i d . . V I , 8 .(pp. 500-1.) 66. D a n t o , o p . c i t . , p.148. 67. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s , V, 1 . ( T r a n s l . by Kaufmann I n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 486.) 68. I b i d . ( p p . 486-7.) 69. I b i d . ( p . 487.) 73 F o o t n o t e s c o n t i n u e d ; 70. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s , I X , 3 7 .-(Transl. b y . . K a u f m a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 539.) 71. I b i d . , 45.(PP. 549-550.) 72. N i e t z s c h e , The G e n e a l o g y o f M o r a l s , I I I , 1 6 . ( T r a n s l . b y F. G o l f f i n g . ! 73. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . V, 6 . ( T r a n s l . by K a u f -mann i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 491.) 74,. I b i d . , 3. ( P P . 4 8 8 - 9 . ) 75. I b i d . , I X , 4 1 . ( p . 545.) 76. N i e t z s c h e , Human, All^-Too-Human, I I I , 65. (My own t r a n s -. l a t i o n . ) 7 7. N i e t z s c h e , B e y o n d Good a n d E v i l . 1 8 8 . ( T r a n s l . b y M. Cowan.) 78. N i e t z s c h e , Human, A l l - T o o - H u m a n . I l l , 53.(My own t r a n s -l a t i o n . ) 79. N i e t z s c h e , B e y o n d Good a n d E v i l , 1 5 7 . ( t r a n s l . b y M. Cowan.) 80 . N i e t z s c h e , Thus S p o k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , I , 2 1 . ( T r a n s l . b y E . J . H o l l l n g d a l e , p . 97.) 8 1 . N i e t z s c h e , The G e n e a l o g y o f M o r a l s , I I I , 2 8 . ( T r a n s l . b y F. G o l f f i n g i n The B i r t h o f T r a g e d y a n d The G e n e a l o g y o f . M o r a l s . ) 8 2 . N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo, P r e f a c e 2.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 82B. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e . 3 4 1 . ( T r a n s l . b y K a u f m a n n ., i n N i e t z s c h e : P h i l o s o p h e r , P s y c h o l o g i s t , A n t i c h r i s t , p . 280.) 83. Why h a v e n o t more p e o p l e gone mad? M o s t o f them s t i l l b e h a v e a s t h o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n God h a d n o t d i e d . F o r t h e r e s t "hope s p r i n g s e t e r n a l ' , ' a n d t h e y c o n s o l e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t a l l w i l l come o u t f o r t h e b e s t e v e n t u a l l y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y h a v e n o t a s y e t f a c e d t h e N i e t z s c h e a n p r o b l e m . 84. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo, Why I am s o C l e v e r , 10.(My own , t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 85. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo, p a s s a g e a f t e r t h e f o r w o r d . ( M y own t r a n s l a t i o n . ! 86. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e . 290.(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 87. D a n t o , o p. c i t . . p. 199» 88. S u b t i t l e o f E c c e Homo. 89. D a n t o , o p. c l t . , p. 199* 90. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo. Why I am s o C l e v e r , 9.(My own „ t r a n s l a t i o n . ! 91. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo. Why I W r i t e s u c h Good B o o k s , 2. , (My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) , 92. See t h e l e t t e r s w r i t t e n on J a n u a r y 3 a n d 4, I889. 93. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . I X , 4 9 . ( T r a n s l . by Kau f m a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p p . 553-4.) 94. N i e t z s c h e , The G e n e a l o g y o f M o r a l s , I I I , 1 6 . ( T r a n s l . b y F.' G o l f f i n g I n The B i r t h o f T r a g e d y a n d The G e n e a l o g y 74 F o o t n o t e s c o n t i n u e d ; 94. C o n t i n u e d ; o f M o r a l s . ) 95. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s . I X , 4 9 . ( T r a n s l . by Kau f m a n n i n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 554.) 96. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo, Why I am s o C l e v e r , 9 .(My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ! 97.> N i e t z s c h e , B e y o n d Good a n d E v i l . 1 8 8. ( T r a n s l . b y M. Cowan.) 98. N i e t z s c h e , T w i l i g h t o f The I d o l s , I X , 49. ( T r a n s l . by Ka u f m a n n I n The P o r t a b l e N i e t z s c h e , p. 554.) 99. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo, Why I am s o C l e v e r , 9» (My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ! 100. F o r a n e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f C o p e r n i c u s , K e p l e r a n d G a l i l e o a s men o f t h e i r s u p e r s t i t i o n r i d d l e d t i m e , s e e A t h u r K o e s t l e r ' s b o o k The S l e e p w a l k e r s . 101. N i e t z s c h e , E c c e Homo. Why I am s o C l e v e r , 9« (MY own t r a n s l a t i o n . ! 102. N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , 270. (My own t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY Brinton, Crane, Nietzsche, New York: Harper & Row, I965. Danto, Arthur C , Nietzsche As Philosopher, New York: The Macmillan Company, 19?>5• Heidegger, Martin, Nietzsche, 2 vols. Pfullingen: Verlag Guenther Neske, I96I. Holllngdale, R.J., Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy, London: Routledge & Kegan Pafal, I965. Jaspers, Karl, Nietzsche and Christianity, U.S.A.: Henry Regnery Company, 1961. Kaufmann, Walter, From Shakespeare to Existentialism, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., I960. r-. Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist, Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1956. Loewith, Karl, Nletzsches Phllosophle Der Ewlgen Wlederkehr  Des Glelohen, Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer Gmbh, Morgan, George Allen, What Nietzsche Means, New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, I965. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, Werke in Prein Baenden. ed. Karl Schlechta, Muenchen: Carl Hanser Verlag, 195k. . Beyond; Good and E v i l , trans. Marianne Cowan, Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1955 . The Birth of Tragedy and The Genealogy of Morals, trans. Francis Golffing, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 195^» . The Portable Nietzsche(containing the complete The Antichrist, Twilight of The Idols, and other material,) trans, and' edited by W. Kaufmann, New York; The Viking Press, 1954. . Thus Spoke Zarathustra, trans. R.J.Holllngdale, Great Britain: C. Nicholls & Company, I96I. Rawls, John, "Two Concepts of Rules", Philosophical Review (January 1955). 1-31 76 B i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t i n u e d ; S c h l e c h t a , K a r l , D e r F a l l N i e t z s c h e . M u e n c h e n : C a r l H a n s e r V e r l a g , 1 9 5 9 . 

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