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Secondary education in rural British Columbia Gordon, Roth Garthley 1935

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%  I  L  SBCOHMRY JSOTOAIXON IH RURAL BRITISH COLUMBIA  by  Eotk Garthley Gordon  MAS2SR OF 1BSS in the B apartment PHILOSOPHY  She University of British Columbia '>•  -  Beptefflbe)*  -  Aokrto WIQ dgne at.  She author takes this opportunity to thoalc a l l teachsrs and principals of rural secondary sohools in British Columbia v;ho contributed la any way to the inf ormation to be presented in the following pages. Special aoknovjledgment must b0viaade"foi-» tho Icind assistance forthcoming from Mr. J.W. Sib son M i , , B.Paod., Officer in Charge of High School Correspondence Courses; Mr, J;B»"De Long, B,A; # " Inspector of Eigh Sohools; B r . "Sullivan* B«A. In3T)Qctor of High Schools; and Mr, J . £ . Carz% 'President of the British Columbia trustees' Association.  2ABLE Of 001I3?fflSS PASS LIS!? Of CABLES AID ILLUSTRATIONS 1  0HAP2KR I  ~  IMTR0HJ02I0K.  tm&mm  -  LII'B HEEDS Of 1'HS PEOPLE II! RURAL COMMUNITIES«  11  CHAPTER %XI  ~  DESIRABLE FEAIURKB OF RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS.  21  CHAPTER I f  -  GEBERAL CHARACTERISE C3 Of THE SSOOITMRY SCHOOLS Of RURAL BRITISH COLUMBIA*  54  %t  CHAPTER 1  -  THE QUESTIOBIJAI RE TO SCHOOL BOARDS a •  55  CHAPTER ?I  -  COMSOLIDATIOX* OF SCHO OLS .  75  CHAPTER f l l  -  BUILDUPS All I) SQU1PMB1T  98  CHAPTER f i l l  -  THE RURAL HIGH SCHOOL STAFF,  117  CHAPTER IX  -  STUD133T POPULATION  140  CHAPTER X  -  THE P R E S M CURRICULUM  159  A PROPOSED CURRICULUM,  18 £  S U M I M MMD OOHCLUSIOHS,  199  CHAPTER  M  CHAPTER S I I APPENDICES, BIBLIOGRAPHY,  -  LIS® 0.F CABLES TABLE I  '9 •  TABLE I I  TABES I I I  LOOATIOl Of SCHOOL tlfSSTISATED AID PER C3HT OR BACH TOE RSPLYIItS TO QUESTIONNAIRE SHOWlHa TOTAL BUMBER Of DIVISXQHS (ROOMS) 11 URBAB ABB RURAL SCHOOLS* 1912-1933 INCLUSIVE  mbm  •f£MM  r  fx •  table V I I 'TABLE Till  TABLE 1% TABLE X  36A  36-B  P O m A T O I AREAS SERVED BY SASH of  TABLE If  PA®  mmoi*  38A  HflMBER OF J)I?iSIOIS ABD ESROL1I1T OF ALL REGULAR SECOHBARY SCHOOLS 111 BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1952-1933  40A  TEACHERS EMPLOYED BY ALL REGULAR HIGH SCHOOLS AHJ5 SUPERIOR SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1932-33  41A  YEARS Of SERVICE OF TEACHERS IE BW.BRBBS TYPES OF SCHOOLS  4LB  CUMULATIVE J?*RGBS3*£ffiSS DERIVED FROM TABLE 71  410  im BVStfBXQR SCHOOLS Of BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1932-33 (HQ. OF DIVISION, SBROIMEHT MID STAFF—A STOfARY TABLE)  47A  mimLimnm SCHOOLS  94A  FOR SPSOIALIIOID HIGH  A mmmf tabus showing TSI 'CPIMTIC® IB GESKUI Of EQUIPMENT IS EACH TYPE OF RURAL SSOOS.II4SY SCHOOL .  104A  A StOffltor TABLE SHOWIECr DETAILED COiTPITIOI OF E Q U I P M T POSSESSED BY ALL RURAL SECOEDARY SOHOOLS, AIJD THE RABE OF EACH FEATURE > ,  104B  fABLl-XII  O O i m f l O I OF "ESSKHTIAL" IQUJPUBBf IB EACH TYPE OF RURAL SB0OIBAHT SCHOOL  1040  TABLt, ZXtt  mnm'm®B OF "EBBSHASLS" /-iquipmsit IS EACH TYPE OF RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOL  104D  TABIS XI  LtSf Of CABLES {'continued) PAGE  TABLE S I T  COHDITIOJI Of "ESSEHTIAL EQUIPMENT" I I EACH TYPE OF RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOL  'TABLE XT  O W M I O N OP "DESIRABLE E A U R S F M P IB EACH n m 01 RURAL BEOOIDAEY SCHOOL PER « W SCHOOLS WISH EQUIPMENT, SCHOOLS BEIBG AOCORDIHG TO SIZE,  TABLE XTL  104F  SATISFACTORY 3 &S& CLASSIFIED ms i 104 G  s  PER: OBIT 02 SCHOOLS WIfl tarSAfflSFAOSJOHt EQUIPMENT, SCHOOLS B3IBG CLASSIFIED ' ACOORBJM TO BXZB  TABLE X U L  TABLE 2 T I I I  2ABLE XIX  1042  .  TABLE  PER '0®T Of SCHOOLS REBGRTIHG BO EQUIPH O T Of KIHD MEHTIOHED, SCHOOLS''BSIHG ' CLASSIFIED ACCORDIKG TO SIZE  104H  1041  OPIIIOHS OR- RURAL SECOHDARY-SCHOOL PRINCIPALS CGIROERLIIJG GRIT2RIA PROPOSED fOR JUDGING ® M SUCCESS Of RURAL TEACHERS  121A  SPECIAL SUBJECTS TAUGHT BY PRINCIPALS AHD ASSISTANTS XI RURAL AHD SEMI-RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS IH COMPARISON VATH THE KAJOH SUBJECTS STUDIED BY 2 H M AT U1ITOSITY  122A  ' SUHBlit AHD PES' Cmif OF PKIBOIEALS 'AID ASSISTANTS TIACHIKG THE SUBJECTS I I fSICH SEE! SPECIALISED  123 A  SALARIES Of PRINCIPALS AHD A S S I S M f S IH TARIOUS TYPES op rural secondary SCHOOLS 1932-33  13 £A  TABLE XXIIL  A COMPARATIVE SALARY TABLE SHOWIHG TARIOUS ESTIMATES' OF S E M I T E TALUS  135 A  TABLE X H T  METHODS OF OBTAIBIIG RURAL DIPLOMA FATORED BY TMGH1&S  13 7 A  TABLE 2Xf-  S U B I F E O M M A R M M OS1 OULBM RAMED BY SETEH GROUPS OF PEOPLE WITH IMPORTANCE OS A RURAL  174A  M L B XXI  TABLE XSZX  PR.LMF' 0USR1* IHTSRESTBD REGARD TO THEIR CURRICULUM  r"  LIST Of XLLUSTRjl'LOIgi .  '  :  •  '  •  FROMTISPIECE - MAP OP B.C. SHOWING- LOCATION OF SOHOOLS, 1932-33 PLATE 1 PLATE I I PLATE I I I  - TYPICAL SUPERIOR SCHOOLS HOT RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS  43A  - TYPICAL SiMI-RURAL HIGH SOHOOLS AMD URBAH HIGH SCHOOLS  43B  - TYPICAL RURAL M B URBAI HfVIEOMEIiT .  87A  APPltMfBS.  A APPFSDI2C B  - LIST Olf SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1232-19 33 - A REPORT 01 RURAL SECONDARY EDUCATION I I BRITISH COLUMBIA  APP3KDI2 0  - 'MB QtJKSTIOEBAlRE USED IB THIS SURVEY  APPIIPIX D  - A REFERENCE LIST Of LITERATURE 01 RURAL EDUCATION 111 THE UBITED STATES  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  I . IT VI '  ;'• VIII  •rs  "Scale 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 miles  0  Frontispiece  A>  8? /  o V®s  /  r  /  I  \  P  -o >  /  /  /'  >' r CP  P TV-'-  P  ' /cj by . i  P o •o  / V J>  r<  r i\ \(r~  •y  ss;  ?  s r  rx  Hoc j P  iy  :(  ]  r r X r s s  M A ? of , B R I T I S H C 0 L U'M.B I Showing '...,:.; LOCATIONS OF SCHOOLS, 1 9 3 3 . •  A •y  LEGEND  Superior s c h o o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rural high s c h o o l s . . . . . . . Semi-rural high schools  a r X  < A  s  r  r X  r rX  r  rs  A""" .  •O  .r  X s rx  r  X X  s  8 X  SECONDARY I M O A f l O f XI? RURAL BRITISH COLOMBIA '  CHAPTER X  .  , IHTR02JU0TOT  ffae .sygSQixt need for .attexiti on to • rural education. A growing dissatisfaction with, existing conaitions has been intoh in eridaice dtiring recent years a&<»3$ educators in general* ©specially with respect to curricular organisati on oil the  level.  I n substance, grave doubt has  been expireese& as to whether high, school students are being educated to suit their- best interests,  One has only to read  any modern treatise on the high, school curriculum in order to be impressed with the fact that there i s a revolt in progress* a revolt against the tyranny of tradition being a deciding factor in the selection of subjects to be included cn a high school course of studies, 0?o bring the matter nearer home* the first recommendation of the 1925 Survey of the School System expresses in the following words a somewhat similar criticism of prevailing practice "The study of modern educati onol objectives, especially-as determining curricula and methods of instruction i n a l l schools, should be promoted by the schoolmen* educational officials and ratepayers of the Province, So long as the Meseat. w i & e g p ^ M l l l M ^ Ii5prov5aen^» aoa&eialc or. of British Columbia, The noxiaal schools. t e a o h e r F a s s o ciaH o n s , meetings of par exit toaciiere, and trras tees' associations are strategic"centres for the promotion of this campaign for  41A  educational emancipation arid enlightenment. n Many revolutionary but progressive innovations, observing the caution stressed in the above quotation, have 'boon embodied in our educational program since the publication of this survey.  2m) of the most radical and beneficial  changes of this nature have been the addition of many of the newer optional courses of a prevocational nature to our secondary curriculum, [together with) a considerable reduction in the number-of traditionally compulsory subjects„ I n theory at least, it would seem logical to assume that this new freedom should mean that all secondary schools of British Columbia are now in a position to offer broad and flexible curricula, to suit the varying needs of their students.  But, in actual practice, it has been found  that, so far, only the high schools in large urban centres have been able to take advantage of many of these changes. Small high schools in the country have as yet to experience much of the impetus of this new movement for a more democratic type of education. I t is no secret, to anyone who has had any recent contact with both urban and rural schools, that our present high schools in small communities are considerably behind the times in their educational facilities. reason for this state of affairs is obvious.  (1) Putnam, J . I . ; and Weir, Syrtsm» Victoria, B . C . , 1925. p. 45.  The principal Urban centres,  Survey of the School  41A  from practically every st&nd£>oint, are far better situated for any direct application of the newer developments in educational practice thsft a r a m i schools must wait their turn.  tilstplpte*  Small high  But now that the larger high,  schools have been given an opportunity, during the past ten years* of freeing themselves somewhat from [many of) the shackles of i m & i t i o n a l feat  .perhaps it i s not too much to aste  ei&alle* high schools may be th© nact to  . the interests o* &  in  school system, some attention  to their special problems and pressing needs. Doubt may be expressed in some quarters as to there being any considerable degree of difference in efficiency between city and c ountry s oho ols p  Again,  5JI the event of  the inefficiency of small high, schools b*ing admit tod, the impossibility of ever doing au^thing towards improving such a eon&ition may iffimediately be taicen for granted,  'i'he major  reason for the under taking of the or a sen t investigation. is to earnfymtmi*the effect'of the imown exist on oe of these assumptions .  She two main objectives of the writer vdll be  to illustrate in these pages the present limitations of small . . " . ( . , .  high sohools, ® d  onCJ"  •  to point 0ut/many!praotieal m y e and means  of ipgro.ving' the esiatln$ situation, A •  Qpffg .lemefme £  . the past negl.oat of mpal,.edu^atlpn,^  Many yefetfsrwee.tfLt.hrespect to the past neglect of rural swhaola the School  to be fottnfi. 'fehw>flg&osrtrthe 192-B Survay of tern.  Among tho many reasons miioh might be  41A  cited to ace omit for this neglect, the writer believes the following to be of some importance; 1 . Urban schools have consistently enrolled many more pupils than have rural schools , B s Few teachers in rural schools are prepared to give instruction in the newer optional subjects of the high school •curriculum,, Many school boards are either finable or unwilling to i n s t a H the equipment necessary for teaching special subjects, 4 , tPhe present system of land taxation for educational purposes bears too heavily upon property owners,  especially  in sparsely-settled distriots . 5 . Small " c i t i e s " refuse to identify their needs with those of rural localities, by failing to recognize that they are actually rural communities in all else but name, since "city" i n British Columbia, according to the 1951 census, means a range in population of 246,422—from Vancouver (£46,593) to Greenwood ( 1 7 1 ) . . 6. She present system of having a multiplicity of small local administrative units for education makes i t practically impossible to obtain unity of action with respect to any progressive program of rural education, 7 , Ho extensive information of a reliable or statistical nature, directly concerning the rural high schools of British C o l u m b i a h a s hitherto been available to serve as a foundation  5  on which to base needed improvements 0  With reference to the last mentioned reason for the past neglect of rural schools, when we turn to the study of rural education i n British Columbia, the scarcity of literature bearing directly upon our problem serves a t once as a major obstacle to preliminary progress.  Available material is of  very recent origin and may be summarized in the following outline of what has so far been accomplished: Review of what has been done i n the field 1 , Anderson, H . H . , Supervision of Rural Schools in British Columbia, University of Washington, 1931 « (150 pages.) An unpublished Doctor's thesis, reviewing the present system of supervision in elementary schools and suggesting a plan of reorganization. 2 , Cameron, H.A,., The Small High School in British Columbia, University of British Columbia, 19 52. {200 pages.) An unpublished Master's thesis, investigating the administrative problems of seventy-five secondary schools* 3 , English, J.F.Z,,  She Combined Junior-Senior High  School, University of British Columbia, 1933.  (150 pages.)  An unpublished Master's thesis, descriptive of the Junior high school as a n educational unit, and not primarily concerned with.the problem of secondary education in small communities*  41A  4ff Etter, E . G . , Rural Education with Special Considerafrion of Problems in British Columbia.  j  (20 pages J  A lecture off Sr-ing constructive suggestions for'the 'reorganisation of rural education, delivered August 15th, 19S3, at the University, of British Columbia Summer School,, ff.be,Heeds of the Rural High School.,  ( 5 pages.)  |  A report by some Fraser Talley high school principals, containing criticisms of the present curricalum and suggestions  for its improvement, ,  In- addition to an intersive study of this local work, much extensive reading of a general nature was done by the writer in preparation for the present undertaking. I t was also found necessary to construct and send out  ;  questionnaires..  :  Three out of every four schools solicited  replied to the questionnaires addressed to principals, end .......... ... .,....'........ -  ! !j  one out of every four school boards filled i n and returned the forms sent to them.  Following is a detailed outline of  procedure-j  jii  Procedures followed in this investigation,.  •  1 . Careful reading of all educational tests listed in the Bibliography.  '  H  j;  !  2 . Study of all available local work on rural education. Correspondence and personal interviews with provincial authorities concerning rural education. 4 . Attendance at teachers* conventions and trustees® *  '  ;  :'  I' ll  .  i  meetings in order to hear comparative ideas.  j;  5 . Supplementary reading and analysis of government '• . publication, particularly the annual reports on education  j i j  xn British Columbia since 1910.  I I  •  . 6 . Preparation of questionnaires,, one addressed to principals, end the other to school boards. 7 . Classification and tabulation of data obtained by means•of queetionnaires.  ,  s  8 . Interpretation of findings from all sources In order to  obtain a clear picture of present conditions in rural  British* Columbia with . . respect to secondary education. •...:••• 9 . Writing of report, snmmarizing findings and rocomraond-  fl  ing certain changes in. or additions to, the educational  ^  •  -  '  •.•••-."-•••1  ' '  . -. • .  "  1  •  facilities of rural secondary schools. •  •  1  •  '  ,  1  • • '  j  '  •  •  P  I t might be well, at this point, to specify exactly •what the writer had in mind in attempting to make some contribution to extant literature on the subject of rural education.  I n preparing the present inquiry, special care  was taken to avoid any duplication of existing information, and every effort was made to supplement, wherever possible, the work of other investigators „  With this in mind, the  'j  writer offers the following outline of his major objectives: "  f  ffh© proposed contribution of the present study. 1 . A survey of some specific needs of rural communities .-•••'..• and rural high. schools in. the matter of secondary educational  j1, 11. j|:  facilities. *  [• -  -  • •  5  - •  •  " ••  ^  - • •  •  ^  - '  • ••. •  I  |f li  2„ Statistical information,  given according to size of  school, regarding the characteristics of all regular high schools of ten divisions and fewer in British Columbia, but i'lot included in the urban areas of Vancouver, Victoria, and How Sestrailister* 3» Responses of principals, teachers., and trustees of these schools., to questionnaires regarding curricula? revision in t e m s of rural needs. 4 . Recommendations, based on an analysis of all findings, concerning the further improvement of secondary education in rural British Columbia.  Special tems; defined. Before proceeding to our nest chapter it i s necessary, in order to avoid confusion, that we arrive at some definite agreement regarding certain terms to be used hereafter throughout this inquiry.  As before stated, the -writer- is  mainly interested in showing that high schools beyond the three distinctly urban areas of Vancouver, Victoria, and Her/ Westminster„ form a neglected half of our secondary educational system.  By a coincidence, during the school year 1932-33,  no high school in outside districts had more than ten rooms. Henceforth,  for the purposes of this inquiry, unless the  context otherwise requires tRaral, applied to a high school, shall mean that the school i n question has fewer than five divisions or classrooms. (Superior school has its usual meaning.)  41A  Semi-rural high school shall mean a school having £rom five to ten SI vis iocs inclusive, ana not sitcated in Vancouver', Victoria., or" Hew Westminster, Urban high schools shall be regular high schools of more than ten divisions , Secondary schools shall include in meaning a l l superior schools, and a l l regular senior high sohools. (A complete l i s t of schools concerned i n this study is given as Appendix A . )  -  "Rural" and "Agricultural" bi • i i i r n i U T i t f u i i  ojunm ami • i.n «tii,',n  She term "rural" is not to be confused with the term "agricultural".  All districts served with respect to  secondaiy education by superior, rural, and semi-rural schools, are to be considered as "rural" for the purposes of this investigation.  Why a study of the junior high school has been omitted. I t will be noted that any consideration of junior high schools has been excluded from the present v/ork. Although five of these latter institutions are nov? established at semi-rural centres, and one in a rural district, they are not as yet a noticeable feature of the open country*  Moreover,  the Junior high school as an educational unit has been dealt with in the recent past by one of the principals concerned." «i'»mi»n nwii'ii" in i > i >wmi'I1im i .iiii >iini mM ' n wnnifciiii '~iii < •i i'«n>  niinWiir"'*" 'H>i»iXim» niwi h h i mmnm ~i» nl'HTinH it uni'il'r i n •» ~i mrunt  i tuifm" iv rrr' *ti~rT~T"***"~—P"~~~**~~*  1 '  •*  ""*"""  "'  1 English, J . F . K . , gha Combined' Junior-Senior Hjpfr School, University of British Columbia, 1935„ Unpublished Master's thesis. •  41A  His work is ^vail&blo at the library of the University of British Columbia, and,, with so much to be done in the matter of investigating regular rural high schools, it ir;&s considered outside Is he province distinct type of school,  this study more than to mention this She vciter believes that were i t  possible to have regular rural high schools as well equipped and as little restricted i n the matter of optional courses as the aire rags junior high school, there vnuld be little immediate need for- this survey.  OHAEIER I I XIFS M S M OF SHE P®H>D I I RURAL GOMMMI^ISS  Rural life, needs classified., Egrtaft Dp ameer, in answer to the question "What knowledge is most worth?" emphasizes the point that the real test of relative values 3B to he found by inquiring f&at direot beaming -any fund of k»<m2edge has upon life i t s e l f . Admit t@dly hie well^lmown 40L&S si f i c t i o n of l i f e ne eds has stood the test of time, but one might conjecture that, were Spencer writing  I n modern days he would probably change hie  arrangement mm.imba.tr  He might lisoeM^ for example* a mot»©  promiaaent place to values of a recreational m t u r e generally held  k  I t is  to-day that education for leisure-time  activities vdll Call  much attention Ui the raar future,  Iti consideration of the requirements of presentday existence in rural 'communities a suggested re-classificailon of l i f e needs for itiicli training is essential is presented as follows^(1) vocations! efficiency, (8) worthy home-membership• IS)  citizenship,  (4) wholesome leisure-time activities,, (5) helpful religious (6)  leadership.  life.  41A  Such a fundamental readjustment i n relative values may be accounted, for as being the direct result of the application of modern progress in science and invention to everyday l i f e , especially with respect to the use of laborsaving devices<,  Shis statement is especially true of l i f e  i n the country.  Essential differences between city and  country l i f e are s t i l l evident, but country l i f e appears to be fast approaching .city life i n its complexity and intensity. More rapid methods of transportation and communication have brought about many changes. I n the case of country l i f e no longer is a small community "sufficient unto i t s e l f . "  Market conditions,  thousands of miles away, may mean, for its inhabitants, prosperity or distress.  often either  Adaptation to such newer conditions  of living is not an automatic process.  I t requires direct  effort and training for its successful accomplishment.  A  major contention of the writer Is that the rural high school is i n the most advantageous position for offering this training.  I f the truth of this statement be admitted, let  us examine the life needs of the people in rural communities, and relate them directly to the curricular organisation necessary for their satisfaction.  Vocational Efficiency^ Ehe need of .training for vocational efficiency in rural communities is evident when one considers the rapid rise in the general standards of living viiich characterizes  41A  the present age.  In farming districts no longer is a supply  of the bare essentials of existence considered enough. Progressive land-owners easily outstrip their less up-to-date neighbors by installing modern machinery and by employing a knowledge of scientific agriculture,  They find that, by  using these methods, more crops are obtained and more leisuretime is made available for " l i f e , liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." To-day, in order to be successful, a farmer must be conversant with market conditions„  She bookkeeping  required on the average farm demands special training.  She  owner of the farm is often called upon to express his opinions at meetings of his business associates.  Even the ordinary  farm laborer must understand something of mechanics in order to handle correctly the complicated machinery placed under his charge. Although agricultural activities have been stressed as an example, it must be clearly understood that no phase of rural l i f e has escaped this intrusion of science and invention in the interests of efficiency,  She possession of.  highly speciali zed knowledge and. skill to-day appears to be absolutely necessary in order to obtain any kind of a respectable livelihood.  An el en entary education is not enough.  Pre-vocational training is required. The obvious inference would seem to be that, in a l l types of community, the local secondary school should reflect in the courses it offers, an adaptation to this need for  • 14 vocational efficiency.  Subjects of direct value in this  resjject would be, first of a l l , any pre-vocational courses specially suiting the needs of the gQiieral, bus iness arithmetic,  community, and then in  everyday mechanics, general  science, oral expression, economics, and sociology.  Worthy home--member ship*  . ' i i ' i m i j . ' J i i i  •uinininw»'tiwwp mwmwiwwii unai  •  .  .  For m r t h y home-membership in rural communities I n the past, v&ien man  special training is also needed,  labored from davvn until dusk, the home was often merely a place in which to eat and sleep,  How that machinery i s  rapidly doing away with the need for long hours of manual labor, the home in the country as a place in which to live and enjoy l i f e is b©coming more of a reality.  In order to  impress this point more clearly, lei us pause for a moment in order to draw a word-pictur e of a co untry horn© in which the members of the family have had the advantage of training in the matter of xx> rthy home-member ship* As one approaches such a duelling artistic- landscaping of lawns and gardens meets the eye . . . .  Ills excellent architeea  turol design of tho building itself is a subject for admiration. Within the house, we observe almost every modern oonvenienoe which science has to ofxer 0  Superior taste i s literature*  art, music, and dress is character is ti o of the occupants* Ihe food  provided  prepared  with a view  accordance ' with the  daily on.the  table  to assuring latest  and  is purchased  a balanced beet  in  diet  and in  scientific  41A  knowledge. •The acquiring and maintaining of such a high standard of family l i f e are not automatic.  In order to reach  and keep this high degree of excellence, it is necessary to have a training agency giving instruction in, modern science, art and music appreciation,, home economics for girls, ana some constructive course for hoys.-  Good citizenship» To anyone not intimately acquainted by long residence  with life in a rural community any suggestion that  country people need special training in citizenship seems uncalled f o r . evident  Strangers are ordinarily impressed with the  peacefulness of l i f e as it is lived in the country.  Xet anyone who has resided in a number of rural localities knows from experience that every small town has many undercurrents of fierce personal animosities.  Sometimes racial  or religious hatreds even make groups of people disregard the rights of other groups.  At other times whole districts  are involved in extensive commercial rivalries. provincialism in its narrowest than the exception.  m a word,  form is often the rule rather  Friendships as well as dislikes are  inclined to be out of all proportion to their actual importance.  , . • • • . • . . • . , . In such localities it would appear that  there is  a great need for the inculcation by some state agency of the meaning of citizenship.  Such a fundamental principle of  41A  community l i f e as the social interdependence of all human relationships and activities should he stressed, -understood, and acted upon.  Unless some special training is provided  as a centra-suggestion to prevailing practices,  children  reared in a small town environment will acquire the family or community hatreds and jealousies in an exaggerated form.. In soil of this nature such an ideal concept as good citizenship needs a great deal of care and attention before taking root and flourishing as a perennial growth. If Eewey i s correct in his principle of "learning by doing" one learns to become a good citigen by practising good citizenship.  A school, so organized as to represent a  community in miniature,offers the best opportunity to the young members of a district to acquire a sense of social responsibility.  Since a school is a state agency, continuous  observance, of all its rules and regulations should yield a fair degree of transfer of training in later l i f e , when other state agencies call upon the adult citizen to observe their ordinances. Courses best calculated to aid directly and indirectly,in the development of good citizens would be social studies, health and physical education,  literature,  economics and sociology, and perhaps a foreign language for the better understanding of other nations.  Extra-curricular  activities, of a social nature are particularly adapted to provide special training for this desirable feature.  41A  Vftiolesome leisnre-time activities., Perhaps one of the greatest tasks and responsibilities of the  high school of the fntm-e will be that of  inspiring students to employ their spare hours in a manner profitable to themselves and to their respective communities. Natural opportunities for recreation, particularly of the outdoor type such as walking and fishing, are much in evidence in rural communities, but many people prefer spending their time  either reading or at some forms of activity demanding  group participation.  In supplying this latter type of  enjoyment the-country in particular Is lacking.  This is  especially serious as it concerns the young people of the community. 'There is room for improvement by providing means of enjoyment through organized effort in the way of choral singing, instrumental and musical clubs, amateur dramatics and games, and other social agencies such as organised athletics or a debating association. Literature, art and music appreciation,  dramatics  and oral expression, and the better forms of extra-curricular activities can all be employed, directly and indirectly, to give training for participation in wholesome leisure-time activities.  SelPffrl religious life.* One hesitates to discuss education in rural communities for helpful religious life because of a fear of being misunderstood.  Yet training for religious l i f e in the  41A  practical and "broad sense of the Solden Bale is a real need for  complete living anywhere and at any time.  Bat the direct  teaching of any creed or dogma in school might prove to be a pernicious practice,, t o . i t s own objectives n  fatal in every sense of-the words Theoretically, perhaps the most  direct method of obtaining the required result would be to -offer a-course la-Ethics.  However* in practice, such instruc-  tion would probably be beyond the intellectual grasp of the majority of high school pupils.  It would seem then that a  better solution of the whole problem might lie in a generous employment of indirect means of conveying the desired information® Literature, art and music appreciation,  social  studies, health and physical education, and certain extra-  '  eurricular activities would appear to be suitable for the purpose of indirectly instilling wholesome moral concepts. Transfer of training, consciously sought for and emphasized, must be relied upon for the satisfaction of this need.  Leadership. I n the matter of leadership training is required and  must be given by some special institution, but obviously  not in the same degree to all members of rural communities. Only a small proportion of any population is destined by nature for high positions of authority. Yet any progress later made by the community will'usually be the direct result of the work of these few members.  Without intelligent leadership no continuous  41A  advance is possible. The early discovery of talented pupils may be greatly facilitated by the careful use of modern scientific measurements of intelligence employed in connection with other checks on the results thus obtained,  Having by these  means selected superior students., we will next find It necessary to see that they study courses best suited to develop their respective aptitudes,,  Perhaps, Tsfcere the staff  is not Qualified in special subjects desired by these pupils, this objective may best be accomplished in rural schools, by a judicious use of correspondence instruction.  The ever-  present rights of the majority of the students, with respect to the time of the teacher, are not sacrificed under this plan. Another advantage of this method of instruction Is that Its use permits these brighter students to attend the local school., and,, thereby, still remain at home while they are yet of an age when such a wholesome influence as family l i f e is most valuable*  The ordinary disadvantages associated with  study by correspondence should not seriously handicap any students possessing the ability necessary for leadership* English, science-, social studies, health and physical education and extra-curricular activities may be adapted to provide education for leadership, and these courses and activities should be found in every school possessing a good library and gymnasium.  Special aptitudes of individual  students may best be developed by the employment of the supplementary means of instruction suggested in the preceding  41A  paragraph*  • ••  ' - CpaoXSreienv It would seem- from a consideration of the ideas advanced so far, that the secondary school which best accomplishes the task of training for the l i f e needs of people in rural communities would need to be one with a broad and flexible curriculum,,  But, lest it be assumed that the  provision of such a curriculum furnishes a panacea for all the ille of rural -secondary schools,., the-asset chapter will be devotes t® a -description of the other requirements •• of the special type -of institution needed m order ,to'satisfy: adequately the l i f e , needs herewith spec if led*  •  CJUETBS 111 SSSIRABXB ,Fim T HES Of R U S H SECOJRDARY SCHOOLS .  .  .  Desirable features outlined. 2?h© emphasis of the preceding chapter has, .of necessity, been principally upon eurrieular r ovision in terms of rural requirements.  A number of subjects not yet  included in our program of studies has  been mentioned as  being essential to the satisfaction of certain life needs. Perhaps a primary step in the advance of rural education would be to provid-S for these subjects on our hi*rb school curriculum.  But such a procedure, commendable as it is,  should^only be the beginning ox any systematic program of reform.  Besides the provision of a broad and flexible  course of studies other important factors call for immediate consideration. After a subject has been placed on a program of studies i t is well to remember that it requires teaching. This presupposes enough instructors in every school to offer required courses.  I f favored subjects are new ones special  training of teachers will be necessary.  Frequent changes  in the personnel of staffs, resulting in any confusion of teaching methods, may defeat the objectives of the most upto-date program of studies.  Remoteness of teachers from  a source of professional assistance and advice may often prove a serious obstacle to the success of an otherwise  41A  satisfactory curriculum.  The best of teachers may be handi-  capped by lack of equipment or by equipment of inferior quality*  f i n a l l y , small Isolated schools, unless aided i n  some special way, may find it impossible to reap any real benefit from the most advanced course of studies. I n view of these conditioning factors, let us now consider what the writer be lie v es to be a fa irly comprehensive outline of some definitely desirable features of any rural secondary school.  '  Among the most important of these features  might be listed the following: (1) a flexible curriculum. (2) an adequate s t a f f . (3) specially trained teachers and principals a (4) long tenure of teachers, (5) adequate supervision. (6) good buildings and equipment. (?) supplementary means of instruction. Bach of these desirable features is worthy, of more explanation than is possible in the above summary.  let us  take each of them in order and specify its importance more fully.*.  A flexible curriculum. The 1925 Survey of the School System offers many convincing arguments in favor of a broad and elastic curriculum,  In some of the larger cities of the province this  1  Putnam, J . H . , and Weir, G.M,, op.cit. p. 86-87.  our trie ultra is already being put into operation.  Yet in  smaller centres (as vd.li be amply demonstrated in later ' chapters} chiefly on account of stress on present matriculation requirements., a scarcity of specially trained teachers, financial difficulties,. and perhaps general apathy to progress in education, few optional courses are being offered.  As  long as -this condition of affairs prevails, one part of the high school classrooms in our province is having instruction in a medieval curriculum while the other part envoys many of the c.dvantages of a broad and elastic program of studies. Yet surely a flexible curriculum Is as desirable for a rural secondary school as it is for any urban establishment. Besides attention to the individual needs of pupils, by the provision of eloctive courses, it is the belief of the writer that a special need of rural secondary education is the observance of some guiding principle such as "education in terms of environment,"  I n other words, let us try to  utilize, at a l l times, the natural features of any particular district in the practical Illustration of subject matter, and,, wherever possible, offer i n the local secondary school courses of direct value to a community.  As an example of  the application of this idea, subjects such as agriculture and fatra mechanics WDuld be o-ff erad- in farming communities, technical subjects would be given in industrial centres, and a course  such as elementary geology would be taught i n mining  districts.  41A  Yet it is not enough just to authorize a flexible curriculum,  even one based on a very broad and practical  philosophy.  -The teaching of the optional subjects on such  a program would require an adequate staff in every school.  < An - adequate s t a f f .  '  ;  An increase i n staff is a decided improvement for any school,, but to the r.ural s.chool i t means much more than to the urban.  r  £wo teachers, where formerly there tsas only  one, means^a more efficient establishment with almost double facilities.  She work is usaally divided between the teachers,  and if- one of them is a woman then the high school girls are assured of a counsellor and an instructress in physical education.  Again, by the law of averages, there i s double  the chance that one of the tw> may be gifted in music, art, or amateur dramatics, and, with more time available,  there  is a possibility of the occasional interesting and socially instructive option being offered on the iaily program. Professional companions hi. p also is assured and a higher salary is a usual concomitant of larger organization. Small wonder the 1525 Survey of the School System • *fii advocated that the minimum staff of any high school be two. At that time there were seventeen one-teacher hi.^h schools— a truly deplorable condition5,  f  f o-day (1933) there are  twenty-one. Putnam, J . H . ,  and IVeir, G..M., o p . c i t p .  116-11?.  41A  The increase i n efficiency noted for two-teacher high schools may be traced directly upward to urban, levels, th© effects lessening of course by the 3bw of diminishing returns, for each teacher added.  2he greatest need then i s  for additions to the staffs of the smaller rural high schools.  This brings us to a consideration of the qualifications required of our larger s t a f f — a very important matter— for additional teachers mi^it not necessarily imply a much more efficient staff than formerly.  . Specially trained teachers and principals. She naw rami secondary education which we recommend will need to be in the hands of specially qualified teachers, teachers trained to give instruction both in some of the optional subjects now on our course of studies and i n some newer ones specially suited to rural needs.  Unless teachers  in country schools are specially trained in these subjects there is little likelihood of their appearing on ruzal programs no matter how urgently the pupils and. community may need them-"-or how many of the 'courses themselves are already provided for on the authorized curriculum. 'i'his means that ambitious teachers now in service must he given an opportunity of talcing special subjects at sunraor sessions or else of enrolling in correspondence courses giving this special training.  It also means that these  courses v,dll need 'to be added as optional subjects to the  CKf I'-. J*  present teacher-training program of th« University.  Svsnt-  uarLy it should mean that the possession of a Rural Diploma as evidence of this tmining will he a recognised advantageT/.hcra a teacher is seeking a rural, high school position, and ifoenever £?a:te*»y~chsngee or rearrangement of staff are being cent em$>3a ted All litis calls for reorganization at the training centres of our province; it calls for willingness on the part ° f or.tr Iflucation .Department to introduce these <s-henges.  Long tenure of teachers, Mow let w ing tenure.  consider the desideratum of longer teach-  It can hardly be denied that this is desirable  especially in the smaller centres, where more direct personal contacts are established with the students than is in the city,  the cp.se  The ideal of individual instruction approaches  its maximum of realization in small high schools where the teacher-pupil ratio is low,,  The direct implication of this  is that teachers of rural schools, if they can be induced to remain in a community for a considerable period are of much more value to that community than a teach©r who remains for only one or two years . An instructor who has gone into a new school knows that much of the first term-is . spent in linking up his efforts with the work of his predecessor end establishing contacts with the students and with the community,.  Dn.ring the second  year- this ground does not need to be retraced,  consequently  41A  th.e time thus saved may be utilized in direct ins traction. She teacher himself by this time has probably joined several community organizations, and, if musically or dramatically Inclined., he has done much to improve the social life of his district.  But all these humanizing contacts become broken  when he resigns and a new teacher takes his place. I t is not to be implied that such a constant succession of new teachers has nothing at a l l in its favor, but the writer does not believe that, any reasonably minded person can seriously argue that a short tenure is desirable in general, either for the teacher, pupil, or community. Granted a flexible curriculum, larger staffs, and specially trained teachers with long teaching tenure, we have now the matter of adequate supervision to discuss.  Adequate supervision. She lack of adequate supervision in small schools is a serious natter.  I n large urban centres we find the  "walking principal ft , and in some semi-rural localities the principal with part-time supervisory functions.  However,  when we come to discuss education in districts served by small rural high schools and superior schools, has practically disappeared,  supervision  the viiole time of the principal  being absorbed i n the everyday routine of teaching.  Yet our  new rural secondary schools must have adequate supervision. The yearly or sometime s bi-yearly visi t of the  £8  high school inspector I n smaller schools lasts only for a few hours and is mainly employed in making an estimate of the teacher's work, rather than in providing for the general improvement of the teacher.  Cities are fairly well supervised,  whereas rural areas, \fnich stand most in need of supervision, are being neglected. 2VSD high school inspectors and three inspectors of elementary schools look after the secondary schools in their areas.  They offer much helpful criticism and inspira-  tion, but naturally there can be l i t t l e "carry over" owing to the long period intervening between the very short visits and the absence of any follow-up pro gram. of the writer the  In the opinion  superior and rural high school groups  would benefit immensely i f the present system of inspection were gradually supplemented or replaced by some system of supervision stressing the idea of regular and continuous help to the teacher, rather than mere appraisal of his work as Is now the case.  Good buildings and equipment. A reading of the reports of school inspectors i n vjhich buildings and equipment are mentioned leaves the impression that the small rural high school possesses little but the bare essentials necessary for teaching even the constants on the curriculum.  I n many cases necessary equip-  ment is reported either as unsatisfactory or as not possessed  41A  • at a l l ,  . I f the present curriculum is ever to bo more than  a paper possibility the putting Into practice of the theories advancea i n one section in particular of our course of studies, namely that dealing with physical education, 1 will require veiy we 11-equipped schools-. I t is futile to expect the authorized course in physical education to be given where no gymnasium or play* ground equipment may be obtained.  In many small high schools  the playground Itself is small, rough, muddy, and in some cases even shared during the day with elementary school ' pupils.  Home economics cannot be offered in a school too  small to obtain the necessary equipment or too isolated to be visited by the local travelling instructress—in the rare event of their being such an instructress.  Agriculture  cannot be taught unless there is available either a school garden or property which can be used as an experimental plot. Even English and social studies cannot be adequately provided for in rural .schools where unsatisfactory library conditions prevail*  Good buildings and equipment are surely a necessity  for our new rural secondary schools. We now come to one more desirable feature for rural secondary schools, a feature vdiich the writer does not think has. been as much stressed in the past as its importance deserves.  The reference is to the use of more supplementary  means of instruction. 1953  of  Education, Programme of Studies. Victoria,  so  Supplementary moans of ins traction. (a) The radio,. The present advanced stage of radio reception and transmission makes quite feasible any plans for the use of this means of instruction.  The Departments of Education of  Saskatchewan and Manitoba have already tried this method and found It practicable. . let us hope that I n the near future the student population of British Columbia will also hear scheduled broadcasts—both those of a general educational nature,  and  others employed as aids in correspondence instruction. Lectures by leading educators as well as whole courses, particularly in the content subjects, might easily be made available not only to the school population but a Is o to the adult as -well. (b) The motion picture. Much has been written concerning the advantages of visual instruction in school, but i n many localities,  little  by way of a practical demonstration of its value hat> yet been accomplished.  The rural school, remote as it is from libraries,  art galleries, museums and the like-, depends almost entirely upon the few pictures in ordinary text books for any appeal to the eye as an aid to 1 earning.  I n view of the existence  of such a state of affairs, the writer submits the following plan as a partial solution of this pressing problem: The projector and screen of a "home movie" outfit may now be purchased for an amount easily comparable vidth the sum of money often invested in certain items of science  41A  equipment used very l i t t l e during a school year.  Any high  school teacher* or student for that matter, could easily learn to operate the simple mechanism of the machine in question, i s for films, it should be possible for our Department of Education to arrange for the making of a series of pictures shoving the processes involved in some of the major industries of the Province.  Important passages in English literature  and certain scenes from history might also be dramatized in this manner.  The finished films, accompanied by lessons or  talks on each series, could be sent around from one school to another on a prearranged schedule allowing each school a certain time for demonstration and explanation.  I t vjould of  course be necessary that a l l schools be equipped with the same type of projector.  Rigid regulations, concerning the  care of films would also need to be enforced, (c) Correspondence instruction. Gorrespondence instruction is vyell advanced in this province, but the writer is of the opinion that much greater use of It could be made than at present.  IPor example  it should be possible for a principal in a small rural school to have these courses made available for study by his students while he is engaged vrilth other: classes.  Shis would greatly  increase the number of elective courses at present possible in such a school and make it almost feasible for It to compete with the larger schools in respect to curricula.  ,  Having considered these desirable features let us  41A  now turn to discuss by ^hat moans such impr ovements may b© brought about.  Ways and means of obtaining: these improved f a c i l i t i e s . . - . • • •  Perhaps the most obvious method of obtaining -  . . . . . . . .  .jp  ....  improved facilities in rural schools Is by consolidations either partial or complete.  But there are many isolated  secondary schools in rural British Columbia where this solution of their problem can never be feasible.  Again, to  advocate more teachers and expensive equipment for a snail high school population would not be good economy even in consideration of the resulting improvement.  Yet surely i t  is within the rights of these small or isolated schools to have teachers as well qualified as those elsewhere.  Granted  such teachers, these schools tvould then have the opportunity of placing more optional courses on their programs. The obvious means of obtaining the services of these teachers would seem to be the establishing of a uniform sa3.ary schedule, where equal work, responsibility and experience would receive equal recompense no matter where the teacher were located.  Such an ideal condition of affairs of  course presupposes that a new system of taxation for educational purposes has been established.  Desirable features and the snail isolated school. At the best, however, considerable time is required  41A  i f any drastic changes are to be made.  Years must be spent  by teachers training for new subjects.  So change a taxation  system i s not the work of a day.  therefore if the problem  presented by the small isolated school is to be partly solved at present, immediate action must be taken.  The  writer believes that the desirable feature most needed right now in the small school is more use of supplementary, methods of ins traction—the radio, motion pictures, and correspondence courses.  The f i r s t , as a modem means of conveying informa-  tion, is rapidly winning favor; the second is. entirely feasible; and the third is being tried in actual practice, and requires only more opportunities for further extension of services.  Conclusion.  '  I f a flexible curriculum, an adequate staff, specially trained teachers enjoying long tenure, adequate supervision, better building and equipment, and the employment of supplementary means of instruction are desirable features of secondary schools In rural communities, then the sooner steps are taken to secure them the better. Present deplorable conditions, soon to be described as characteristic of small schools, cannot but point to the existing neglect of rural education, and to the obvious fact that our youth in the country have as yet to see the muchto-be-desired ideal of "equal educational opportunity" more than a vague possibility.  •  CHAPTER IT GENERAL CHAHACISBI8TIOS OP THE" SIGQKBARY SCHOOLS OF RURAL BRITISH COLUMBIA  -  -  /  Aims of this chapter. In order to illustrate cDearly the characteristics of rural secondary schools in British Columbia, emphasis throughout the present chapter will -be placed on two main considerations! (1) a general comparison between educational facilities i n "rural" and in "urban" British Columbia. (2) a particular study of the superior school, the rural high school and the semi-rural high school.  The need for a standard of comparison. "l-ii ••-rin--r-"-ii- ••-•!• f i r - r i i rY —v  •HI irn  T I I T H ir~  iri'n'i  mi in in i m.  H mil in rn' miiii i  n •••umiiniilii m» ii n i l ilium -  I t is important to have in mind, first of all, a definite standard of comparison for our rural group of schools.  Otherwise, in referring to these schools, the use  of relative terms such as "small", "badly equipped",  "poorly  staffed", and "cramped as to curriculum" will convey little moaning.  The principal of a ten-room high school may appear  very impressive to an assistant in a superior school, but far from awe-inspiring to the head of an establishment containing more than fifty divisions. Since wo have already been using the terms "rural"  41A  and "urban" in a comparative sense let us continue with that usage.  With our present rural schools considered as a whole,  let us compare our present urban schools also considered as 'a whole. In using urban schools as a standard of comparison for rural schools we have no intentions of. assuming that urban conditions are ideal In any respect.  But urban condi-  tions do represent vfcat can be don© and tibat 1ms been done already for on© part of the school system of British Columbia. The present writer Is particularly Interested in demonstrating throughout the following pages, that the rural part of our school system 3s also worthy of as much consideration. I f it can be shown that our rural schools have as many class ro cans as our urban group and serve approximately as many people, it would appear to follow that we have some basis for the argument that both groups are comparable and worthy of the same degree of attention.  I f i t can be further  shown that the rural half of. our secondary educational system is at present Inferior in many respoots to the urban half, then surely i t is not too much to ask "that some measures be taken to improve the facilities of the neglected part. We will first demonstrate that our rural schools possess as many classrooms as our urban schools and. serve as many people.  Then we w i l l proceed to show in some detail  that our rural schools are at present inferior i n many respects to our urban group.  41A  Rural and or bail schools pom-pared as to n.iassro oms.-' As before mentioned in our Introductory chapter • this investigation assumes that all secondary institutions of -ten rooms and under in British Columbia but not in Vancouver, Vie tori a, and Sew Westminster, are "rural"» and all others "•urban"*'' Table I furnishes specific information •vvith respect to the sisoj number and location of the rural group of schools, as well as giving the number and percentage of schools replying to the questionnaire sent to their principals.  Details  concerning our urban group of schools are to be found from a study of Appendix A of this investigation. A study of Appendix A will also reveal that our rural group of schools during the school year 1932-33 possessed in a l l 302 classrooms. 299 divisions.  At the same time our urban group had  I t would appear then that in 1933 we had  ground for any decision that one half of our educational system was "rural" and one half was "urban" „  Table I I def-  initely establishes this state of affairs as true for many years-*-namely, that our rural group of schools has for a considerable period, equalled the urban group of schools with respect to total number of divisions.  Rural and urban schools compared as to population served. According to the 19 31 c e n s u s ^  * V Canada Year Bo ok, 1932. 103, 104, 108.  there are only  Population tables,  pp. 101,  36A  V  T&srn x o c A T i o i O F smmoz  i.  mim-TiQAtsB  ma  PSR C »  OF  Mffi fZPE BEPXOTG ®> QtFSSfiQKBAIHS T^pe of School  I©* of Sural ©1st-' Cities Dlsfc- riot * ' riots Brnia'Ipalitiee  A. 1 Bazal  .  *  HigH  1 a  1 I? f 0§ •  4 rotal  £9 '  1 Z  S S ' 11  • 5 ' 3 • 4  •  1-6  •Potal  EOo leplflag Sobls . t© QnsstISttUi*® sire  *  Eeslyixzg to Questionsail'©  i ' ;/ s r . ' • 28  TO  a 12 IS • 7  83. 33 81 71  If 10 13 5  66  80 -  0. rural  •  5 •  $  1  0 §  - 7. 8 9 10  ©  total  1  0 .  3 1 .3 • .a 1 " s 2 . • 2 0 I 0 ' s u  .  §  4 • 4 2 3 1 1  5 . 4  €  1 g •  80 80 7S 100 SO  21  15  70  fetal S $> & S> » m  20  m  97  m  78  Totals  22  m  114  as  7§  m  36 B El © ©  rss • ©  J3  ©  I©  m  £  c 03 CVS fr JO to m o HS r-J Hi r4  e* H so ®> 15 IS H  f  n © •  ro:<  HI ' O o. . •s c.  >  H P ^  9  I  g :.:  u o  G  nS  Ov HI S3 w ta  is o o  ft  ©  c  O ©I ffi O *fi> t> S»* O rf ri rt K  e  t' < -J  E® ® O © 83 m S3 IS to to 01 o fJ ra w W K N Kil H' ' SH  o H  US so M K C4 ©s G& HI r4 rt  <t© © W CS! 0 »l O* C& C5* C& H H H ri  tHto  W ©5 m  Qi  A O ©  £  o cs fl  0. X! a •HI  •oSffl-H # IS  S»  Gi  -O  <3»  C3 .HI « O r4  ©  h: o S3 - J © OC o © ter OCR § © © fij £5 ^ um m C *r4 CO h El ©  &*»  - IO m:  A ^  o •©a to H « N n o ce ©s o to <0 CD © ffl. ri H H. ® • i*®!  1.  a  £  ©3 j® t» © HI H' r-§ <r! H H H & ©S C& ®> Q> <J» H if HI f^i rHl  o  « St K W « <s* e> *"t H  H®  03  41A  three cities in British Columbia having populations in excess of fifteen thousand, .  These cities are. respectively Vancouver  {246,593), Victoria (39,082) and lex? Westminster  (17,524).  fey a coincidence, these same localities happen to'be the ones have selected as "ur bancentres'for-the panoses of this investigation.  Their combined population is SOS, 199„  To  this total may be added the population figures for both South Burnaby and Horth Vancouver, because these two places are also served by "urban" high schools (twelve rooms).  The resulting  figure {approximately 525,000)' wi 11 indicate that the present writer i s more than fair to city schools in his estimation that half the  total population of British Columbia (694,265) may  , be considered as  band-  it follows that the remaining half of our population (appropriately 370,000) may logically be referred to as "rural". Then it w>uld seem  only reasonable to say that one half of  the population of British Columbia is oust as important aa the other h a l f .  I n other tords, the rural half should receive  approximately as much attention in the matter of education as the urban h a l f .  I t does not necessarily follow that each half  should reel eve the same kind of attention—because it can be shown that the two types of environment are distinctly different and therefore have separate needs.  This fact we will proceed  to prove more definitely by means of the illustrations contained . in the following paragraphs.  m population and occupation of people compared. I n t.he matter of relative population served we have fomid^the rural schools serve at least as many people as the 'hrbasu  But if there is a similarity in total population  served, we note a great, dissimilarity when we analyse the chief occupations of the two groups of people, ffe find, from a study of Sable I I I , more than two-fifths of the rural, population interested in some pursuit calling for extensive Iand-ownership* centres,  This Is not true of people in our urban  Furthermore, about a quarter of the rural popula-  tion is dependent i n some way or other upon the mining industry., and about a fifth upon lumbering,  neither of these  two latter industries can be carried on directly within urban borders.  Both occupational groups are engaged in commercial  and minor industrial activities,, but these combined clain less than a fifth of the rural population, tfoereas they claim more than three-quarters of the urban.  Again, just as agri-  culture, mining, and lumbering call for the use of extensive territory, and ore therefore considered as peculiarly rural occupations, the city serves a class of people almost without counterpart in outside districts—nsraely,  the professional  .class.'.* I t would seem logical to assume from the fact that the two types of environment are so fundamentally different that the training agencies in rural and urban localities should in some way reflect this difference.  Rural high  HI S21¥I3U BY MACK TYPE OF 3CE302,  W1M  MWWSKM AHM Typo of School  I A), Super! as (B)Rural High . School  (G)Serai-rural • High School  * "  Average population s e w e d by each typo of school* {apppoxe )•  Ho 9 of t)iv r'  1 3 3 4 Average  500 1000 1500 E000 1600  •5 6 7 • S 9 10 Average  5500 4500 4000 6000 6500 4500  3® 6 18,7 4,6  AAgricul-* %ittiag ture .  '  3  Luiab« cring  %oraras2»cial  trial *(-r)lonal  :  fl?| lot including 1 , 2 and S .  500  "1  Average for types"B & 0 Avar age fos? A. 3 a o Average fos? IMma Average for a l ^ Schools  Grouping of Districts According to Chief Occupations  30 fo  80 io  ' 24 ^  8  io  6  $  14 9 6 0 9  14 $  .  0 20  84  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  24 17 19 0 13  10 17 IS SO • 14  20 20 ' .26 . 25 0 0  0 20 50  5500  80 AO 25 2© 0 50 43  19  0 0 14  3500  SO  18  14  13  5  0  3250  40  17  13  s  0  3G000  0  ' 0  0  44  ss  la  5000  89  19  18  IS  10  2  •'38 50 63 •  m  52  ©  •  50 100 60  1.Canada Year Book, 1932. Population tables PP. 101, 103, 104, 108.  0 '  0 0 0 "o  0  0 7 !  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  io  41A  schools could very well offer some provocations! training to suit the needs of their districts, and or ban high schools might well be exoused whai they malce- some provision for students "wishing to enter professional l i f e . Tat the irony of the rfoole situation i s that rural high schools at present train only for the professions, while c i t y high schools could easily train for vocations such as agriculture, mining, and lumbering.  Both types of school at  present err in that they provide too much training f o r professional l i f e .  lumber and g'ize of rural and, urban high schools compared. When HQ consider the relative number of schools in each unit we are struck at once with the great number of rural schools and the small number of city institutions.  In  1933 there wer-e 114 rural high, sohools and only sixteen urban. I f we trace back, for thirty years we shall always find a greater number of rural secondary establishments. I n terms of divisions last year the average rural school had less than three rooms ifeile the average urban, had more than eighteen.  However-, the urban high school served  about 30*000 peopie while the rural school served l i t t l e more than 3 , 0 0 0 .  Enrolment o ompared» Another general comparison brings us to a consideration of the number of students served by the two types of  41A  schools.,  She writer, although not devoting a separate table  to the matter, has traced this comparison back in each group over a period'of mora than thirty years.*  I n all eases the  ''urban group of schools enrolled more students than the rural. An examination of Table I f will disclose the fact that last year considerably more girls than boys were to be found In rural high schools.  At the same time our urban  schools actually enrolled more boys, than girls.  2his fact  is made doubly interesting by certain statistics regarding the relative number of boys and girls in secondary schools throughout Canada from 1904 to 1931 inclusive,  tie find that  with the exception of one year there have always been more girls enrolled than boys 0 Columbia in 1920.  I n that year there were enrolled 5,825  boys and 25,810 g i r l s . 1 Columbia enrolled group enrolled  She one exception was British  I n 1933 the urban group in British  681 boys said 6,550 girls, while the rural 742 boys and 4, 252 girls.  Incidentally,  in  not one sub-classification of enrolment i n the rural section from the superior to the ten-roan school inclusive were there more boys enrolled than girls.  T ea ch ers c cam re &..  afcaan.wi.aAim.iUmiq.iin«r,,i«ia1j . t w . wtiw.n 'mmitiiiV  I n its matter of staff urban schools employ more teachers than do the rural group, although the former possess fewer divisions „  1  She explanation is simply that teachers with-  Annual Survey of Education in Panada, 1931, p . 50.  TABLE  I?  MOMBEB OF DIVISIONS AND ENHOIAffiOT OF ALL REGULAR SECONDARY" SOHOOLS IN BKCBXS3 OOLmiBXAg, 1932 - 1933. ' Type School Superior Rural  Ho®  No.  Total  of,  of.  No. of  DlV.  Sehls*  1  J L  (2 ( 3 ( 4  24  535  48  1 2 2 4  2'8  729 3 3 4 2919 I3S2  16 £  121  SemiRural  28  32 9 20  All Second- " ary Sehoola.  3.02 202 221 605  1 2  3 0  al To el  3J2  JL 21  2*  Rural Urban  (1) Total Boys Girls  21  Total  Totals for all High Schools.  E B H O L M E LIT-  il  4.31  881 871 1 0 4 5 244  366  19225  10 1 1 44 18 aft 38 38 76 48 56 1 0 4 "24 -251 52 21  397  4 7 4  507  538  1 1 5  1 2 9  2 4 4  92 99 118 1 2 7 134 115 129  356  334  156  .7321- 3 4 4 0  601  18  139 176 217 261  265  1.30  619 395 1557  461  4402  7994 ixSji  3 1 4  4 2 0  144  302 isiL  229  327  668 J12  1 6  1 1 4  371  ,&¥*i:nrol. Av.lirvrol. Avo KnroI» per por • ./'•;. per Total Sohool Division Teacher Total TH Cr  2078  2324  210  3881  65  178  22  25.3 26 24* # X 27.6 29® 3 31 32«6  27a 3 3 » 4  99  111  ~30.6  90  4 5  50  27.6  70  33  37  26.5 37.6  15681  4252 5550  702  355  9 4 2 3  9802  148  73  3742  53  84  18 21  75  18 21 21.4  _ 4 0  30 87  1 5  17 .23  47  47  70  64  25  22»7  1 1 1  26  115 i l 115 '70  22.8 24.8  172  27-5  1 8 9  3 1  237  26.1  24.4 26.7  303 244 335  27  ho Total  8  76  78 101  103  99 105 136 157 148 115 129 161 1 8 4 161 1 8 4  335 161  1 8 4  2 4 . 4  3 3 5  161 973  1 8 4  911  816  147'6'  27.8  1 4 7 6  tfalQDs Yaiico w a r 'Technical School, where no Rirls ars enrolled, is considered, vl; Note, more girls enrolled than boys throughout rural sections.  G  3  31 12 55 2 4 94  1 5  21  Al  76  25o2  30® 9  9  .d  816  119 204  56  65 93  63 78  110  229 106 121 244  1 1 5  333  1 5 1  1]Z  119 JS  63  2  2  7 274  102 127*  41A  out home-rooms, and teachers with special certificates, are a feature of urban secondary organization.  An inspection of  £able ? vail reveal that in 1935 city high schools employed '363 teachers while outside places had 328.  Of the former  sixty-one had special certificates while only thirty-one of the latter possessed this qualification.  I n the matter of  degrees sixty-six urban teachers possessed the H . A . degree, while only twenty-four similar degrees were found in the country.  With regard to other degrees besides the B.A» and  K . A . forty-seven urban instructors held such special qualifications while only twenty-five rural teachers possessed similar distinctions. One of the outstanding characteristics of urban staffs is the absence of women principals.  There are no  women high school principals in our three cities, inrhile there are eighteen in the country.  I'here are twice as many men  assistants as women in the cities, while there are only ninety men assistants and 124 women in the outside districts . She general situation for high schools is that there are actually more men employed than women in both divisions, but the rural employs far more women than the urban.  In the  country, although the principal is a man, the general rule is to engage women assistants.  Obviously, the smaller salary  which may be paid to a ivonsn is the deciding factor in many cases.. A glance at Table VI and VII will reveal the fact  41A  £13 H r-3 ©H  «  ©  ©O  Ps©  <J> OfflOOMlO  m  S3  ©5  ®  to | O XS |sO  O  OfiQ  am.  a•  0 K 1 M O h-f  a .  too 03 ifni' . .••.*. . « o 1 • B» a to 08 £3 * 03 O ® COS- r-i 'S^ 4S> &  ogs o c* ffiri o  a.  >  w « EH M  rt  US . ©  1 o. •S5 HI  E© l  o _ "A G>  & m © ©  IS H  -© lO-t©  r-r o  irtQ®  s  ©2 £ 9 0 ^ 0 0 3 ; H H  i  m  §  te*£> IQ tQ US JSJ'ia  sa  © ©  .©H . tfj®.  oC3  t  esr O O O © O © m ©3 #4 • •; Oto e-. o S o o ° o  e-  © O O OrfO"  H  £0 i-3  its ©  O 05  riririri  ' RlMri  twaa. SO Hi  tst CO rfHHrf r-J  M  HI ffl o i-tca ^ o • 02 - O w JT*I 1-4 ffHi to 05  •  <35 ..  tats-M  • 0000<s^i IQ •s  -  A • o  OS  ^  © Ti  §  .  oo ©  '53  CQ I  9 eM g5 I& C<4D0  • •  H m & rf  H  H'  r«  1-5 O « B ; H H ,©<H i... I- • '..••• -..».. i •m U ' C EK O trj •<H' Ort ^ rH 0 <D Cti ©O c ee a-, si 5a © £4 02 0« <31 PP  1  ©  -  H  lO  j-l ©a • rtJSrt e*  ec tooa  ^ O W  ©O'CS to taM? ^ to irj 8 ' 'O  to © ^fSsO fitVSrk  G?  ri  E H  m  03 OS rl i*4 «-S W  ^  i r-i  ^4S> H  #  Hil  O &S  SI HI  S W) a) -H ca © tu o  .  to C3 © «u Q ©H 4» o g Q « XI O ro to  a ^ ©c - fc H © K C> JS C OT  CDS3 H riW i Cj . "O ffi ca IQ © a f r< r4 r4 -a O -5 & B3 wo© s SG H ' 43 © S3 ©oca CO f ri. rt •CO 4* H .CJ ©O ©s-rt'ri © 0 t^ ; ci © fe- ® C3 uJ & to to a xi '•••m&G  ©H W  H6a<sf  «  wests  B  see  r4  Q © O. HI  W  ts si r-i ®  £© - TO  as S3 •Sfc*8 S SH < CPj © ss !V© fr Sm « o Cj  4P fij'^t «3  1  U CO  m  A ft hlt-i © 3 m  S3ns5 til-  C3 H es  OO®  I  M tf ®  O R  m &  •«•  O c8 pq  © <& SOB < p © o • co o • • Hi £3 ,43 W co f3 en 4= B .« « cd i r-4 M WPrl hH •a^ flD «=jj  4 IB  m ri  o oXj t o m  fe o CO iK! CLj N £4 85 « f*i HI Pi is>  A e-i  Hi CO  §  £-r  o >rt H DO 03  ftj <4 (M  <a ©  G o5  ©  <1-9  0  14  ©  1 HI  TABLE VII SIMULATIVE PERCENTAGES DERIVED FROM TABLE ¥1 1-30  1-5 ys?.  96fi  (A)" Superior •• 'ff  (B) Sural (Of  fl-  as  [ '2ft". ;' :  48  59  i  61  78  Aver ages for A B & •G  " for all above group s  .;  Wifs  1 .T  99  ! io#  ,  M  "'-fSr v/-;.  Averages for B & G  . »; for Urban H«S.  - U S f\  :/ -ft :  "  over 30 ys?-.  1-35 yr.  !  ., -  .  :  "'  ft;  '  <  94 83  96  41A  that urban teachers far surpass rural teachers in length of professional experience.  More than half the former have  been teaching for over ten years, whereas only a quarter of the rural Instructors have this qualification.  The explan-  ation is probably that the city is in a position to offer bett er salaries » The same explanation of better salaries doubtless has much to do with the fact that the city teacher stays i n his position much longer than does the country teacher.  A  cursory glance through any annual reports on education for the past thirty years will reveal the fact that city principals in particular are especially tenacious of office. The rural principal, on the other hand*  especially  if he is unmarried, is as often as not on a scenic tour of the province; compared as to tenure of office with any urban principal he Is a mere will-o'-the-wisp.  The writer wishes  to emphasise very strongly that, for the sake of the community and students concerned, something should be done to minimize this evil.  As long as rural schools are without a definite  salary-schedule no one can blame the ambitious rural teacher ......... .. .•.••••••••••'. from zig-zagging higher up the scale by any ingenious method that may occur to him.  Equipment compared. In the writer's opinion, the equipment of one group of schools differs greatly i n adequacy from that of  I I  the other group. The general exterior of the two types of schools may best he judged from a study of the photostats shown as 'Plates I and I I .  Suffice it to say that sore than eighty  Per cent of the rural school principals responding to the questionnaire reported frame buildings,  The average age of  a l l buildings was sixteen years. Let us apply the word "essential" to the following: playground,  library, science laboratory, boys1 and girls 1  basements» sanitation, janitor service, water., ventilation, heating,  lighting systems, supplies and storeroom; and the  word "desirable " to gymnasium, gymnastic and playground equipment, library room and teachers' room, assembly and study halls, and school garden. I f this classification and terminology be granted and kept in mind, we find upon examination that the rural schools report only seventy per cent of their "essential" equipment as satisfactory."  Altogether, in the matter of  total equipment, the rural school to-day is working under a great disadvantage.  f  be the lack of boolcs.  fhe most serious deficiency is found to Very little "desirable" equipment is  possessed by any of the schools, even the semi-rural.  VThen  we remember that we are calling gymnasium facilities "desirable", although we have a perfect right, since physical education is compulsory, to term them "essential", the seriousness of the conditions in the rural high school may be seen.  1 Table  X.  41A Plate I Typical Superior Schools and Rural High School* Superior Schools  ^azelton  Pitt  Meadows  Hope  Quesnel  Burns Leke  Vanderhoof  Rural High Schools  Mission  Mount Lehman  Smlthers  Dewdney  Sumas-Abbot sford  Agassiz  Prince Oeorge  Port Coouitlam  4 SB Plate  (-  2  Typical Semi-Rural High Schools end Urban High Schools Semi-rural High Schools  Lane;ley  Surrey  ChilliwacJc Prince Rupert Urban High Schools  „_. gh School of Commerce  Victoria  41A  A detailed description of all equipment—- "essential", "desirable", and 'Interesting"—will be given in tabular form in a later chapter and need not concern us farther at this point.  Suffice, it to say that the urban schools are i n a l l  respects far better equipped than the rural.  She writer has  no complaint to make against their possessing this equipment, but it Is time the rural group of schools were given some consideration, at least in regard to libraries and gymnasiums.  Gurric ula compared,  ,  ,  When we come to a discussion of the curricula offered i n rural and urban schools, much may be inferred from a study of equipment and of staff qualifications. well-known fact that the smaller schools can offer, present,  It is a even at  only the Matriculation and Sorma1 Entrance curricula.  Some effort may be made in semi-rural schools to include a few optional courses, but, according to returns from ourextensive questionnaire,  the variety offered is not extensive  and can i n no way be compared favorably with urban electives. This matter will find.fuller discussion ill a later chapter.  Some educational methods peculiar to rural districts. In concluding the extensive comparisons we have been JIG king between rural and urban high schools, some mention might be made concerning two groups of students having no counterpart in cities but peculiar to rural districts.  The  41A  reference is to students  .studying high school subjects while  e Tiro Ilea in elementary sohools, and to students enrol lea. in hi$i school correspondence courses itLO may or may not be *  attending a school as fa 11-time  pupils*  Shese students have successfully completed a l l high school entrance requirements but live la pl&oes too email or too r-5S0t-& for  a high school to be established in the vicinity.  Their parents.1 cannot afford, to send them -away to nearby dities* Consequently, .thoy are as often as not at a loss to laaow what to do.  Some of them so Ire their problem by obtaining permission  to stuc^r i n locel elementary schools either privately or isith assistance from teachers.  Others, particularly those desiring  special vocational subjects* enrol in correspondence courses„ In IS 3 5 there rare fifty-four el omenta ry sohools in rural districts enrolling a. total of 102' high school students, eighty-five I n Grade IX ana seventeen in Grade I .  fhe  1 argest number of pupils noted in any one school was six, the smallest, a single s tudont.  He furtiier mention will be  made of .this group; neither id 11 the 695 students enrolled last ,yesr in high school correspondence courses be given detailed  consideration*  •  Both of theso groups however are  worthy of special investigation with respect to their educational achievements in the faoe of considerable difficulties.  m  1  Sixty-Second Annual Hgport of the Public Schools of. ths Province, of 'British Columbia, Victoria, 2 . 0 . (1932-38) PP. M56 and M93,  41A  How let us leave this extensive comparison, interesting as it may be, and proceed to a more detailed consideration and description o f the different types of rural secondary institution studied in this investigation,  Ihe superior school  first calls for its share of attention.  TEB SUPERIOR SOBQOL. A superior school, according to School law, 1 " means any public school which I s established or maintained for the teaching of pupils enrolled in Grades I to X Inclusive of the courses of study prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction.  .  • I'his type of school came into existence between  1905 and 1910, but only since 1927 has it sprung into prominence.  In 1 9 3 3 - there were thirty-seven such institutions in  operation, thirty-four In rural districts, ixva in district municipalities,  and one in a city.  She average superior school serves a population of about 500.  She occupations of the people concerned are almost  evenly divided among the pursuits connected with agriculture, mining, and lumbering.  Oommercial and minor industrial work  combined, makes up the remainder*  lore girls than boys were  enrolled last year, the total enrolment being 673—302 boys and 371 girls.  1  Men principals and women assistants are •  Manual of the School Law and School Regulations of the Province of British Columbia, Victoria, B . C . (1932) p . 7.  41A  characteris tic„  ®Iis woman principals * of vhom. there were  five las:t year, are better Qualified academically than the men, but on the average are much more poorly paid.  Tenure  I s in general somewhat lens than is found in thcs rural high School.*.  N She buildings are usually inferior to those of the  regular high school,  "Bseentlal" equipment is in m misafcis-  factory condition, and "desirable" equipment conspicuous by its absence.' Mbraries., science laboratories and basements neecl. special attention... The curric aluia offered Is of the narrowest J-rind as a rule, 'but a real effort is being made in a few schools to expeidment along new lines which promise wall for future improves!©lit,  .2? or statistical information regarding the *  superior schools of 1933 the reader is referred to Table ¥111.  . E-gSUMB ••HPSftL H1SE 30BP0&3* The next type of high school to be considered is the regular- rural high school.  The superior school needs  only eight students and a teacher with a first-class certificate, but fifteen duly qualified and available persons are required in any school district before a .high school may be established. An academic certificate or its equ.lva3.ent is the minimum qualification of the teacher of such a school. At least seven out of every ten high schools built outside of urban limits have been, for more than twenty years,  47A  i so  § _ 4» S O £3 S3 J8 © W m m . © < ' a  |5?s © 0 m.  *  a m m  I Et  o IK ®'  O to •<© o o © e~ to ri ri  O o  O  kO  o  O  <S» tO & S© OJ ri JO SO ©2 O  oa 03  ©a ^r r4 ri  © sa-  cs  to  ©3 •««  HI  ®  S3 -H  J© HI ®  S3 © a © Hi  ^  I S  j-i o «  to P k o o ft  to o  CO »o  ri  a  © •  S ° © o ri ri ri O O  ©  U  ©  O rt  CO  •CO  «t ri-  5 ^  ri  O <tt  OrS a  o e» CV2  -  m  e» '  ri  ri ri  IS  03  10  t> sa 63 '  a' o 03 rt  KJ  e- SO  ri .to ri  ri CO  03  cc ea  D»  ri  ri  ri  ri  © •  •© 02 CO  O ca  £  '  JS  a ri  to ri  S  a o* to  o  CS, « eo  aa  to to  to ri  ri ri  ri  ri  t  03 W  ri  .g  ©  ri  riS> K > r-4 H § 5 osva § -03 ri tO S5  O . r i  ©  a  e IS i* «o  HWO see «P * ,53 ® O O O £9  ri  to  2 o  S  g  t©  ft  02  S f® tss m ts IS to •ri a03 o* ri ri ©s>  O m  03  o ' ©-  2 -dp  5 05 •ri  o P3  m  ca  § •  filsf  |3S 3 f3  s*J  m  H  4  c o WW.  .s  ® tft ca «sp  *©  m  mm  o  ri.  ©  ts w  §  i© ' t0  A  gf O P4 CO  ©  ri  o r4  ri <a O &  V  48A  rural high schools,  Furthermore, at least s i s out of every ten  high schools in existence In British Columbia during this period were rural high' schools of fewer than five divisions. I t xsould appear, then, that this group has some claim to reco gniti on. The most common size has been and s t i l l is the oneroom high school.  The Survey of 1925 had much to say about  the acknowledged handicap of this type of school^" yet for the past ten years this kind of institution has been more numerous than any other s i z e . In 1933 there were fifty-six typical rural high schools in operation:  twenty-nine in rural districts,  in district municipalities,  and sixteen in cities.  eleven  The to tai  number of divisions was 121. The average rural high school serves a population of about 1 , 5 0 0 .  I t is interesting to note that the one-room  school serves approximately 500 pupils, the two-room 1,000, the three-room 1, 500 and the four-room 2,000. The districts served by the rural high school are predominantly agricultural, although mining and lumbering are fairly common.  There are a few commercial and several miscella-  neous industrial regions. The total enrolment in 1933 for this group was 2,919,  1 2  Putnam, J . H . and Weir, Gr.M. op. clt. p. 116-117.  Canada Year Bo ok, 1932— population tables pp. 101, 103, 104, 108, and Table I I .  49A  of vhioh 1,36 2 were boys and 1, 557 ivere girls.  She average  enrolment per division was 2 4 . 1 , while the teacher-pupil ratio was 2 2 . 8 . lowest nine,  The highest single enrolment was 115, and the  She average enrolment per school was fifty-two  pupils—twenty-four hoys and twenty-eight girls» This group last year employed 128 teachers—seventytwo men and fifty-sis women„ cipals and twelve women.  There were forty-four men prin-  Of the seventy-two assistants  twenty-eight were men and forty-four wcaen0  Taking all the  teachers into consideration, thirteen possessed the M.A. degree and eleven held other degrees, most of these being in science .  There were nine possessing special certificates.  The highest salary paid to a principal was #2,800, the lowest f l , 200, the average $ 1 , 7 1 2 ,  The highest salary paid to an  assistant was #2,002, the lowest |980, and the average #1,346. As might be .expected, tenure is somewhat longer with this group than with the superior school group.  About half the  teachers in this group of schools have had less than six yearsT experience and more than a quarter have from six to ten years,*  .  '  "Essential" equipment i s about seventy-five per cent satisfactory. per cent efficient.  "Desirable" equipment is about twenty This means that the typical rural high  school is seriously handicapped by lack of equipment.  Again,  library facilities stand out as in need of attention.  Gym-  nasiums and gymnastic equipment are very little in evidence  50A  in spite of our compulsory course in physical education. In regard- to the curriculum offered by the rural high school, it might be well, lost the- writer be accused of prejudice,  to quote an outside authority:  "Differentiation of curriculum to meet the needs of individuals has become one of the accepted qualifications of the good high school, and In this respect the small high school is handicapped. Small high schools usually hatfe limited ourricalums and poorly-arranged, ill-balanced coftrs os. She subject requirements are generally unjustifiable. "Studies indicate that the curriculum content of rural high Schools i s designed primarily to prepare pupils for college, She pro gram of s t u d i o usually contains only the older, more traditional college-preparatory subjects and to only a e-nall degree the newer college-preparatory work. I t has been found that ninety-one per cent of the rural high school pupils pursue, academic curriculuzns as compared frith fifty-six per cent of the urban high school population, The emphasis inmost of the smaller schools I s on language and mathematics; ancient and medieval history are taught during the first two years, and modem English and .American history and other social science subjects necessary for effective citizenship are taught in the last two years, the period reached by only a few of the pupils. Electives are rare before the third and fourth year© and often consist merely of additional courses in required subjects. Approximately one-half the pupils -vho enter rural high schools never reach the third year and more than three-fourths of those who enter never get as far as the fourth year. Of those who endure until they are graduated, less than one-half continue in higher education, and less than three-fifths of these who do continue their education enter colleges or universities. In other words most of the time in high, school is spent preparing for a college that is never entered. Too little i s done In the s&all high schools towards training pupils for everyday l i f e . " 1 Before we proceed to a detailed study of our semirural group, another quotation from the same author seems apropos»  I ' - ' — ••. • Edmonson, J . B . , Roemer, Joseph and Bacon, Secondary Sphool Administration, p. S31-39S.  51A  "ninety and three-tenths per cent of a l l the broils enrolled in public high schools in the United States attend schools having enrollments of less than 600, That is-, more than nine-tenths of the high schools enrol less than 500 pupil I n British Columbia, we find i n 1930 that ten of our urban. schools have enrolments of rao.ro than 500*  four enrol  more than '400 students and only two have fewer than 400 a  Hone  of our- rural and seni-rural group enrol as many as 550te  SSsII-RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS,  .  Our group of semi-rural schools ..?ias never very prominent numerically before 1S2G.  Until that year there  ^ers never sore than three schools in this class c  But since  then, owing of course to the .solid building up of the rural section, uhich had be on going on unnoticed a l l this time-., it has leapt into prominence* and at present otttnttinbers the city high sohools.  Last year there were tuenty-one schools  ai.is?»'ering to our classification of "semi-rural".  Only one  was in a rural district, nine were i n district municipalities, and eleven in cities 4 144.  She total number of divisions came to. •  '  -  Hie average semi-rural high school serves a population of about 5,500, but there is not that constant ratio between increase in population and increase in rooms -which is  by the smaller high schools,  I n fact the semi-rural  school shows many characteristics analogous to those which  Edmonson, J . B , , Roemer, Joseph and Bacon, 3?.L„, op.cit.  52A  in human beings are signs of adolescence. . I t wocld appear to be, in general, a type of school too large to be considered rural, and too small to be called strictly urban. The districts served by the s t i l l about two-fifths agricultural.  s end-rural school are Mining is easily the  chief industrial occupations, but commercial pursuits would appear to be nest in imp or'tance to the agricultural,.  Lumber-  ing as an occupation claims less than fifteen per cent of the population served by the semi-rural group of h i $ i schools, The total enrolment last year for this class was 4 , 4 0 2 , of which 2,078 were boys and 3,524 were girls.  The  average enrolment per division was 3 3 . 6 and the teacher-pupil ratio was twenty-seven. and the lowest 119.  The hi#.est single enrolment was 325  The average enrolment per school m s 210  pupils—99 boys and H I  girls.  The number of teachers employed last year by this group of schools totalled 163, of which 62 were men and 81 were -women.  There were twenty men employed as principals and  only on© woman* .  •  -  *  .  women.  .  Of the 142 assistants 62 were men and_60 were . •  ••  -  •  -  Eleven out of a l l the teachers possessed the K . A .  degree, A i l © fourteen'possessed ether degrees., most of these being in science..  Twenty-two possessed special certificates.  The highest salary paid - W principal «vas #3,195, the lowest #1,607, the average #2,369.  The highest salary paid an assist  ant was $2,483, the lowest §1,000, the average #1,622.  in the  natter of the tenure of teachers we find an improvement In  m  this class of school compared with. the superior school group or the rural school group.  About seventy-five per cent of  the teachers in this class of school have had less than eleven years of experience and only ten per cent have taught more than twenty years. A slight improvement in essential equipment is to be noticed, the semi-rural group reporting their "essential" equipment as eighty per cent satisfactory, tshile at least thirty per cent of their "desirable" equipment is satisfactory, Shis means that the semi-rural school is operating on almost a sixty per cent efficiency basis in the matter of total equipment.  But v&sn we realise that we are talking about a group  of schools having from five to ten classrooms this percentage is remarkably low.  Again we find the great need in essential  equipment is attention to library facilities, which are only f i f t y per cent satisfactory.  Sixty per cent of these schools  have no gymnasium or gymnasium apparatus. She curricula offered by the semi-rural school group show an advance over the typical rural school group, but not enough to make them compare at all favorably with urban schools.  E.I3. Ferriss in his "Secondary Education in  Country and Village", writes as follows concerning the types of ourriculums found in rural and semi-rural high schools: "Of 165 curriculums rep or ted by high schools with fewer than five instructors, 154 or eighty-one per cent were of tho traditional academic type as general, 'Latin, classical, college preparatory, scientific and academic. Only thirtyone, or nineteen per cent were c£ the new or practical type  54A  as commercial, home economics, agricultural* etc. Of the 20? curriculums reported by high schools with five to ten instructors,319 or fifty-seven per cent, were of the traditional academic type and eighty-eight, or forty-three ner a$ftfrt were of the new or practical type. • Sweaty*£ our per cent more of the curriculums in the larger high sohools were "of the practical type than in the smaller high schools. She difference probably should not be interpreted as meaning that the m a i l e r school is less willing to adjust its curriculums to meet modern needs, but rather that, in ihe face of traditional standards and requirements, it is less able to expand in the f l e c t i o n of the newer sorts of educational activities." 1 •  Conclusion, •  On consideration of a l l that has been presented in  this chapter, i t v;qaM seem that the educational opportunities offered by the small high schools are necessarily limited in range and variety.  I f such schools are to offer a democratic  type of education i t is essential that their work bo of such a nature as to meet in the most vital manner,possible the educational .needs of a I I children of hlgh-sqfimol age in their communities.  We should always -bear in mind that these needs  are determined primarily by % © abilities, apfclt&aee, interests, and life-purposes of the pupils and by the significant activities of those pupils and ex their communities.  Ferris a, B . H . , Secondary gfrttoatifln .In Country & M fillsge 9 p . SB.  CHAPTER Y THE QtnSSTIOMUIRB TO SCHOOL BOARDS  . ffhe present importance of school boards.  iio report on rural secondary education in British Columbia rauld be complete without some special reference to the impressive part at present played by local boards of sckool trustees.  The number of trustees on each board varies accord-  ing to the type of district in which the board is situated, but general qualifications for the position are standard. To become a member of a school board one must be a British subject, a resident of one's district, a qualified voter, have paid taxes, and be of the full age of twenty-one. Although trustees have had. no direct hand in determining the high-school curriculum., it would be ill-advised under our present system to advocate new subjects without some effort to consult them in the matter. place,  In the .first  they are responsible for the general upkeep of the  school i t s e l f .  I n the second place, they have the deciding  voice in any proposed purchase of new equipment.  They appoint  teachers and to a large extent determine the salaries that shall be paid to them.  Furthermore, it is no uncommon matter  to find as members of the school board parents of some of the children attending the high schools in question.  Truly, to  say they possess a lively interest in education in all its  56A  phases Is to give them but indifferent mention. I n fact, so much power do they possess that without their consent to any progressive measures in education nothing "'would be achieved but a "paper victory" of no practical value. This is particularly true of new or old courses calling for expensive equipment.  The paucity of options in smaller t  .  communities may in some cases be traced directly to the inability or disinclination of the school board to obtain the equipment or pay the salary of the special teacher.  The questionnaire to school boards. With this in mind, the writer considered i t a part of this investigation to attend a number of trustee-meetings. He was fortunate in securing the co-operation of the president of the British Columbia School Trustees Association.  l?ith  his collaboration a questionnaire m s worJred out, using the five-point-scale technique in order to facilitate•reply, copies were sent to rural and municipal school boards.  and About  eighty boards were approached, and of these twenty replied. Unfortunately this is not a high  proportion on which to base  reliable deductions, it is true, but a few ideas as to school board reactions to rural high school problems have be si gleaned from this source.  Ho follow-up system was employed,  as was done with the questionnaire to principals; this probably accounts in some measure for the low percentage of returns.  j  57A  A smnary of the findings from this questionnaire i s contained in a report  given in Appendix B.  As this is  necessarily very much abbreviated and omits a considerable "part of the questionnaire, it has been thought best to give the actual at atistical returns and to permit the reader to draw his own conclusions from them,  Por those ?iio cannot  find time or inclination for this task the author later presents his own interpretation of the findings.  This he  bases on the assumption that the opinions of twenty rural high-school boards are representative.  Explanation of statistical treatment of findings. In placing before the reader a summation of returns," the writer wishes to explain the method by which he arrived at the percentages shown under the caption "summary of responses". I t will be noted that the answers to the first question have been rated at gSya opposed.  The 0 column does  not enter into the scoring, beyond giving the number of school boards having neutral opinions.  A and B represent •  favorable opinions (a "plus" score), vith A scoring twice as much as B.  D and E represent unfavorable estimates (a "minus"  score), with E scoring twice as much as D„  Thus in the  response to the first question we have 1 (42) + 2 (41) = 4 as favorable, and 5 (-1) * 5 (-2) = -15 as opposed.  This gives  us a total of -11 out of a possible "minus" score of -40,  1  See v. t, 0  58A  that is (BO X -2} sine© there are twenty school boards concerned.  As a percentage we have  approximately 28$.  of 100$ « 2 7 . 5 $ or  One school board out of the twenty did  "not answer the first question so we put 5$ in the "no reply" column. The oral nary method of computing the percentage in each column might have been employed; the result would then have been as follows:  A - very favorable - 5fo; B - favorable  - 10/»; 0 - neutral - 30$; 3) - opposed - 25ft; 1 - very much opposed - 25fo; no response - 5 $ .  Total 100$.  This method was abandoned as being too complex, for it makes six divisions where only two are necessary. . v/hat we wish to know is whether the trustees favor certain suggested changes or not.  I f total percentages showing opinions favor-  able and opposed are compared and their difference found, the result (60 - 15 )fo = 3&P opposed is inaccurate, in that the relative weights of A and B or I) and S are ignored.  Again,  there is a danger with this method of placing too much emphasis upon column 0, the neutral opinion.  It is the  belief of the writer that for the purpose of evaluating responses this c olumn may be disregarded entirely.  One i s  fairly justified in assuming that, were any suggested educational changes to be made, this group, being in the balance, would be inclined to swing with the tide and add its momentum to the popular movement.  Of far greater importance is the group  which did not reply at all and thereby reserved its ideas.  59A  To class the people comprising it with the neutral group would indeed be an error.  2hey represent an unknown element  whieh. m y incline either way, and as often as not they are 'against any suggested changes.  Psychologically, their  reticence would, seem to be a tacit admission of somewhat extreme viewpoints which they do not care to make known for fear of consult ting a blunder.  The important thing to notice about  them is that they do not wish to be considered as neutral. The advocate of new things would do well not to ignore their existence, because an active unseen minority can often completely disrupt the best-laid plans. With these introductory explanations and comments, the  complete returns of the questionnaire sent to school  boards will now be presented.  For those who still would wish  to have percentages given, all that is necessary is to'multiply mentally each figure in the different columns by f Ive.  Results of. the questionnaire presented in tabular form. The results of the questionnaire which was sent to rural and municipal school boards are here presented in tabular form.  •  THE QUES T10IfIIAl RB • '.•:'•• •-•.:. In answerin-g the questions given below kindly show your approximate opinion by putting the correct letter in the space provided after each question.  A B 0 D B  .-  Opinions Very favorable Favor able Beutral Opposed Very much oppos ed  responses-'// foM .- Per cent ffeyomble i® 0'; ^ /epposei • • ^ g R ; - c e n t not replying  I j \ j;  .  -1 | I I  60 Questionnaire  LHFfBR VALUE IT3MBRIOIL VALUE • ?s  •  '  A 2  B 1  (continued)  0 0  3)  1  '  As a trim tee what i s , or wtrild be .your opinion concerning:  fetal Eo.oi Soh.' Brds, Replying  final Score  i  Stosaary of ReiSpO]ises * * • 0 H.a.  1 . The new 4-year high sohool as compared with, the 3-year type?  1  S  6  5  5  . ?L9  -11  2« Any suggestion that the rural high school be recognized as a division of the educational system with characteristic problems of its own?  •5  7  4  1  0  17  16  40  15  3 . Any suggestion that a superintendent of rural high schools be appointed by the Department of Education? "  6  $  2  6  2  10  4  10  5  4 . Oomple te corisoli.ta,tion for the purpose of securing a larger - high school?  7  4  3  1  IS  12  m  5  5 . Consolidation for obtaining ins traction in certain optional subjects (van carries equipment and teachers)?  2  6  3  19  -5  IS  5  6. Consolidation for obtaining a high school specialising in certain subjects (van carries pupils to school having special equipment)?  0  7  3  18  -10  B5  10  5  3  B  28  5  61 Questionnaire (continued) . LETTER VALUE humerioal value  A  B 1  2  C D 0 -1  S  Total Bo,Of Sch.' Brds. Replying  isA-iiwiiaj. our© xor aoequate equipment for Home Eg onoraic s?  2  4  4  8.  1  19  8 . Eapen&Itor e . f or ade quate equipment for Manual Training?  ,2  7  3  6  1  19  9 . Expenditure for adequate equipment for Commercial Training?  3  8  s  g  .0. Expenditure for adequate equipment f o r Farm Mechanics?  5  6  a '4  10 9 9 13 4 6 8  3 S 5 2 1 2  2 1 1 0 5 4 1 0 1 3 4 4 4 4 3 0 5 2  t  *  Final Scor<:  Sumary Of Responses fa  F  J3.E  5  5  3  8  5  19  5  13  5  1  19  10  25  5  0 0 0 0 1 B 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 2 •6 2 4 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 1 3 2 1 '2 1 0 3 0 4 0 0  15 15 15 15 13 14 14 15 15 15 14 13 14 15 13 14 14 14 13 14 13 15 13 13 13 12  .  . •  X • The inclusion in the rural high school curriculum of the follovdng subjectst a '.Literature b;Compos ition o:Grammar d Arithmetic e;Algebra f;Geometry g; History h ; Geography i 1 Health j physical Education k ; f reach liGezman a;Latin n;Physics o;Chemistry p ; Agriculture t;Biology r;General Science s .'Art t :Mus io uiBramatics v; Pub lie Speaking v/IManual Trai ning x*.Domestic Science y;Cormiercial z .Technical  9 7 2 0 0 7 5 14 5 6 2 3 0 •6 5 5 6 3  3  6 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 0 2  6 1 4 2 5 4  A  2  3  5 2  5 1 1 1 1 2  %  0  0 0 0 0 g  23 58 23 58 23 58 28 70 - 5 13 12 30 16 40 24 60 21 53 17 43 0 0 -9 -10 16 40 15 38 70 38 10 25 18 45 -1 3 8 -5 33 13 28 11 38 11 25 10 135  0 23 25  3 13  25 25 25 25 35 30 30 25 25 25 30 35 30 • 25 35 30 30 30 35 30 35 '25 35 35 35 40  62 Questionnaire (continued)  M T S R YAWS W W m X O A & VALUE '*  . - -  A 2  S 1  0 0  5)  B -S  a  4  4  . 20  0  0  3  1  20  13  33  0  S  . 19  8  20  5  -  Total Final Bo.<5f" Score Sch.B. Replying  Summary ' of fic >nses %7 * ' 0 I-.R.  1 2 . Use of school for communi ty pur pos es i n the awning?  3  13. a teacher with special training for rural - school work?  6  6  4  14. A course i n Eural Economics requiring a trained t e a s e r ' ' but'no expenditure for eauinmeirt? .  6  5  5  15 . A course i n Sural Sociology requiring a trained teacher but no expenditure for Equipment?  4  2  •6  5  s  If  1  3  5  16. The present high school curriculum as satisfying the existing needs of your community?  0  8  1  4  4  17  -4"  10  15  17. Any movement to make the high, school curriculum more suited to 10 rural needs?  4 '2  0  0  16  24  60  20  18. Any suggestion 'that a successful Grade Till student go to work (assuming it possible ) for a year or "two and then go to high school either as a regular student or i n night classes?  1  l' 5  2  16  6  15  20  —-"•":'•"""•  I-"-'——  7  0  0  63 Questionnaire (continued) 19  • Underline what in your opinion is the usual cause of students leaving the rural high school before completing matriculation "Answers a ; lack of ability to do the work required —~ b; lack of interest in high school subjects 10 c. Economic reasons 7  20* I f agriculture is not taught in your school underline or mention reason or reasons Answers a ; Teacher not qualified to teach it — b; Pupils do not wish it 0 c ; Environmental conditions unsuitable l* d; Necessary equipment to expensive i e; Parents do not wish it 0 f . School Board does not \d.sh i t 1 21« I f your school is at present used, for any community purpose at other than school hours please' elaborate Answers - Yes (5)  So (6)  Bo reply (9)  Uses mentioned: 1; Z\ 31 4. * 5.  Has been used by farmers* Institute,, 'Bo revenue Any legitimate church or social event. Ooismunity work, meetings etc. Municipal and school activities (chiefly) in Junior High School,, Bight school„  Some comments by school boards on above questions; 1 . Agriculture is neglected in the "school and it is apparently | a need which should be supplied. 2„ The above School Boards have answered the questions as they appealed to this particular district. ('Agricultural.) 3* This being strictly a £r uit-growlng district and the government being under the expense of maintaining a District Horticulturalist seme fona of training along these lines is deemed necessary by this board. 4. To my mind the whole problem ranges around the matter of equipment and room* If means were found for securing the money to get these the present four-year programme veould serve quit© nicely.  64: 5 . We are strongly of the opinion that the present curriculum is entirely unsatisfactory insomuch as pupils are not tumed out as they should be9 equipped frith the laiowlerlge Miich will enable them to earn a living. I n our opinion precious- time is utterly wasted teaching such subjects as latin, ; Algebra, etc.'which are never used i n after l i f e " by 99f* of the pupils „ Time at present so wasted could be much more profitably spent In teaching subjects which could ? be of value and assistance i n earning a living i . e . , agri- i culture and farm economics for those intending to be farmers aiid commercial "subjects for those rath commercial ambitions, latin, etc. could be made optioned subjects to be taken in the pupils spare time—after .regular school hours* 6 . If or the four year course of studies I cannot answer as I am not qualified to do so. But i t seems to me i s the rural districts instead of vans for carrying pupils a less -expensive m y to got pupils in high school would be a centralised school wi th a boarding house i n charge of a capable hostess., Kach pupil would furnish his bedroom and supply his share of food with the government or- districts" interested, with goversament help f i n i s h i n g the buildings. Should pupils wish to come from other districts ; •: such districts shauM be asked to pay a reasonable tuition fee say to the age of seventeen as pupils In rural districts have not the advantages of schooling so they can finish even Grade X at the age of fifteen. The government and the district would pay the hostess in the same manner as the teachers a ( I n our district the winters are quite severe and at times a van would be impossible v )  '  Then i t seems to me it would be a great thing in rural districts if pupils we re permitted to take up only certain subjects so that they would only have to study during school hours because some boys and girls on farms have work which makes home studies impossible so it seems as I f they could take up say four of the most important studies. This would give then a wider view o£l what they read as education helps the "farmers in every way. I have, been trustee of this school for s i x years, have seen it grow from a small one foom school trxth ten mipils to a Superior School with sixtyeight pupils. Within a radius of about twenty milos"surround* ing our school we have I believe ten smaller schools. This year twenty-one pupils from here and these other schools took the Entrance feas, Those same pupils for lack of finances m 11 not be able to attend school. I t seems that something should be done for thsm for they were some very young. As ou^ hom«s her-G are mast of them small and crowded th© child*has very small opportunity for studying Correspondence  65A  work 2hen too there i s ' t h e lack of soaeone to hel*> them over the difficult parts. About taking up fewer subjects in school. I should have keeps him irom his studies„ Such part time students m i l d improve under the school room associations of other youm? people of thai, r a g s as social contacts for children between the ages ox thirteen and seventeen in rural a is t r a c t s »re not always what they s ha aid be * I hope some of my saggeati ons may be of help to so If© the ' rural problem of high schooling for the bovs pnfl P-ir»s ± n outlying districts, (Peace River Area)  1 Senegal Interpretation of the Opinions of So* 1001 Board Members Concerning: 1  ' gggPicqlar. offerings (Questionnaire to school boards ?stion Bo. 1 1 , ) Before 'proceeding in this discussion the reader is  again reminded of the report of the president of the trustees* association.  An analysis of trustee reactions by a trustee  is given in Appendix B.  To go - on v&tb. oar oiiii interpretation, v/e might say that trustees appear s lightly favorable to Algebra, have little to say regarding IPresiefc, and are opposed to German and Latin being taught in rural schools.  Ehey do not favor  Biology, but, since there is no actual opposition to the course, it may be hoped that should it later find its m y to rural programs it trail win final recognition by its merits alone e  Shis would encourage teachers to qualify in it as part  of their regular training.  Trustees seem to be somewhat  opposed to the inclusion of -&rt and Dramatics as subjects on the rural currlcula .  They also express small approval concern"  66A  ing the inclusion of Music,  However the courses we are going  to propose in these subjects are not the old standby^ but courses constructed in view of the modern needs of consumption /rather than production.  Appreciation should be stressed,  rather than medioore unwilling performance . that  I t w u l d seom  the school boards are qu.ito favorable to Public  Spiking  as a rural highest!hool subject, somewhat less pleased with the idea of including manual training,  domestic science and  commercial courses, and not very much in favor of technical courses»  Shis is somewhat i n agreement vith their attitude  towards expenditure for equipment for these subjects, 2 , Present amid rurally mod ifie d curricula fOugH^ " School boards appear someviiat oppos<?d to the present curriculum ana strongly i n favor of any movement to mafce it more suited to meet rural needs.  I f this is so, i t is  enoouraging nevis to pioneers in the field of earrieular* adjustment, for. nothing can be more discouraging than to sow carefully prepared seed on barren ground*  But if our  facts are reliable such a result should not be feared over~ isaah in British Columbia* teachers trained for new courses TOueiTFonnaire, McesT" ls7"T4t"~8nd 1 5 . ) I n general, trustees would seem to favor teachers who are specially trained in rural school work, but their -  reserve in the matter leads one to believe they suspect a ,!  nisger i n the woodDile n In the natter of a higher salary  !  67A  demanded by such a teacher,  They favor a course in Rural  Economics mo re than one in Rural Sociology..  Perhaps teachers  trained to give instruction in a combined course in these subjects would make the best appeal of a l l . BKpenditures (Questionnaire, Hos. 7. 8. 9. and 10) When opinions concerning expenditures for adequate equipment for such subjects as home economics, manual training, commercial training and farm mechanics are examined, it is found that school boards are somewhat opposed to spending money for home economics but favorable to expenditures for manual training, commercial training and farm mechanics .  It  is to be noted that not more than twenty per cent adopt a neutral attitude, and only five per cent f a i l to give some sort of answer to this particular section. I f these figures can be taken to be representative of the opinions of school boards in general, they would seem to suggest that for teachers to train at present to teach home economics would be impracticable, since they would be unable to find schools suitably equipped, or school boards willing to equip them.  Teachers skilled in commercial work  would find a more favorable f i e l d .  The important thing to  note, however, is the evident appeal #iich a suggested course in farm mechanics has to rural and munic ipal school boards. Evidently the practical nature of the applications of such a course calls out the favorable reaction.  It would seem to  augur well for the formation of a teacher-training c ourse in this subject end the insertion of the course its elf somewhere  68A  on a rural high-school curriculum.  Teachers trained in this  field might he reasonably sure of obtaining positions. 5. Consolidations (Questions 4 , 5 . 6) I t would appear that boards replying to questions  I  on consolidation are in favor of complete consolidation, but not of partial consolidation or of consolidation for specialised high schools.  Tradition may be traced as an influence  behind these attitudes.  I t .has taken a long time even for  the idea of total consolidation to be favored by school boards. I n general, their unfavorable attitude to the two new types need not be taken too seriously. that  The author is of the opinion  they have not quite grasped the implications of the last  types of consolidation, and, rather than commit themselves, have opposed the new ideas, hiding behind the good old bulwarks of expense. Again, they might be thinking of some local conditions  which make the last two types impracticable in terms  of their community, and so have an excellent argument i n favor of their opinion.  In any case, the neutral column does  not show any great degree of indifference; this is a reassuring sign. 'them*.--  They have opinions to express, and they express '•. • •  .:.•••.-.•••  Probably the best solution of this question will be some way of educating the boards as to the advantageous features of the various types of consolidation.  Then, should  any of these types at some time appear feasible in their  69A  different districts, at least ignorance would not be a deciding factor in any opposition that might arise. 6  * Migogltoteoiia questions (MOB . 1. 3. S. 12, 18, 19, 20 21) The four-year high school seems to meet with less  favor from trustees than the three-year plan, obviously on account of the extra cost entailed of keeping pupils i n school an.other year.  High-school principals express a contrary  opinion, and perhaps from an educational standpoint their conclusion favoring the newer plan Is the sounder one. The suggestion that the rural higji school be recognized as a division of the educational system with characteristic problems, of its own meets with considerable favor. Apparently, trustees as well as teachers are becoming more and more conscious. that rural s eeondary education is not a l l that, it might be. In view of the above verdict it is surprising that, when asked regarding the appointment of. a rural superintendent, we find them much less- favorable than might be expected. Probably again there is a fear that such an appointment would constitute another Item of expense for them. The suggested use of the school for community  !  purpos es, a feature often advocated in books on rural e clue ation, finds no encouragement from our school trustees. " •' . •  Being  i I I I  responsible for buildings, it may be presumsd that they do  j  not wish to ran the risks involved of fire, theft, and break-  I  age..  70.  Trustees seem somewhat in favor of successful Entrance pupils working for a time at some occupation, other than school tasks, before going to high school. She often unnoticed fact that the trustee is frequently a parent of the high school student is somenhat humourously illustrated .by his naive be lief that lack of ability is not a great cause of students leaving the academic high school.  Unfortunately for this conviction, both psycho-  logical measurements of mentality and the common observation of teachers agree that all students cannot succeed equally well Mien trained "en masse" for professional life as at present.  Assuredly, hop;ever, besides lack of superior ability,  lack of interest and economic factors certainly play a great part in pupil elimination, "Untrained teachers and lack of equipment "—these v/ords practically sera up and explain the f a c t that so f e t ; schools teach agriculture as an option. lastly* information that few schools are mentioned as being used for community purposes agrees mth the general response of trustees to a former question (Bo.12) regarding their attitude to this matter.  3?o the writer it has always  appeared unfortunate that school buildings and equipment should stand idle for such a large proportion of the time that they might profitably be employed by the community for many and varied purposes,  perhaps in the future an increase in the  amount of leisure time given to a l l people will cause more attention to be paid to this matter »  71A  la the questionnaire sent to principals^ information was requested concerning the general attitude of communities to the new four-year high school,  we have already noted that  trustees seem more in favor of the three-year plan.  As a  matter of interest, the writer considers it worthvshil© to present at  this point a detailed account of the responses  of principals fey m y of contrast to the opinions of trustees with respect to a similar interrogation.  Opinions concerning the new f our-year high school., (Questionnaire to Principals, Section I , A, question 3} twenty-four principals reported their districts favorable to the new four-year plan, forty districts were neutral, seventeen were opposed and one conmunity a s as very much opposed.  reported  Only four principals did not reply to  this question* Among the reasons given for favoring the four-year plan the following are cited as typical: Reasons for favoring the new four-.vear plan Superior Schools 1, Parents wish time for home activities (less homework). 2„ When community thinks at all it is favorable. 5 . .Final results more satisfactory, 4 . Course too difficult to cover i n three years. High Schools 5 . Increased opportunity for a thoroughly broad hirfi school education,, Appendix G.  72  6. Parents not anxious to push their children ahead. 7  openings for work at present.  :  8 , Less crowding,,  . .  •r  *  9;  Junior high school i n neighborhood.  1 0 . Pupils best in school during period of depression. Principals reporting their communities as neutral offer the explanations listed below: Reasons for neutral opinions concerning three and four year plan 1 . People not yet informed enough to pass an opinion, 2. Interest passive except for parents themselves. 3 . depends on political leanings (reeve opposed to education}, 4„ Opinion cannot be ascertained in a c cmpsny town. 5. Opinion mixed and violent both pro and con. 6. Opposition of two years ago dying out, A summary of the reasons given for opposing tfte four year plan I s stated below: -Reasons for opposing the f our year plan Superior Schools  •  .  1 . Four year plan makes Junior Matriculation impossible in the Peace River area—parents see no hojoe of educating their children beyond Grade '£• or X I . 2 . Mine workers cannot afford the extra year needed for Matriculation.  V  73A  3 . Parents dissatisfied because paying- tuition fees for two years instead of one. 4  " Hardship worked on older pupils  in rural community .  High Schools 5. School taxes raised (mentioned six times). 6. ^our years, too long. Present curriculum makes four year high school for rural sections wasted. Average age on entering high school is high in this community (Granhy). 9 . People do not realize that 120 units must be compressed into three years under the old plan. 10.- Four years gives less of teachers1 time to any one grade 11. Poor railway employees need to have their children matriculate in three years. 12. Parents desire to get pupils through as soon as possible,; 13. Good pupils are retarded too much. 14. Understaffed school cannot take advantage. 15 . Industry and ambition of student destroyed.  Discussion of rural education• by school boards or communities, (Questionnaire, Section I I , B» question 2) Thirteen principals also reported that problems, directly and indirectly concerning a definit e program of rural education, had been discussed by their community or school  :7p  board,  forty-eight replie a that no such thing ila.d ever occurred  to their knowledge in their respective districts, and twentv•  -a  five did not reply.  *  '  e?  Of those who answered this question some  mention was made that the problems discussed mostly concerned curricular organization.  School boards in the Eraser Valley  appeared more responsive than did. those elsewhere.  Many  school boards and communities were reported as not satisfied wi tli present curricular requirements „  Ocnclusioa. One can hardly f a l l to be impressed, from a study of the foregoing chapter, with the great variety of opinions expressed by school trustees concerning educational-reorganization,  -But., with all due respect to the sincerity of their  motives, the fact remains that, in the majority of cases, these  ]  same trustees possess no extensive training or fundamental •' •• * interest in this highly specialized f i e l d of service. Yet so  I j  ,  ,  •  • . • ' • .  '  j I  great are the local autonomous powers of school trustees that •" • ' • • •. .  j iI •  they can easily obstruct, if they so desire, any scheme of  j  educational reorganisation infringing upon their special  •  privileges. Oentrslizatioil of authority and control by esperts is absolutely essential f o r the carrying out ox the program of rural education to be advocated in these pages., and centralization of authority and control by experts necessarily implies a., considerable change and reduction in the present powers of school boards.  0 HAP 5) BR VI 0OESOLIDAIIOI? OF SCHOOLS  Pefiniti on of consolidation. lll»l»IIIIIIIMII|M||llll|«l||l|lt||l|.»lfii;iifiHiil^awag«W*»W'*»8««ll llll Hlliir^MWMMi Mli fil I lim"nn»ll m i -TH| Hi m^ •  |n||  .  Consolidation i n its broadest sense implies the coming  together in some way of acy&oent school districts for  the purpose of providing better educational- facilities for the children of school age within their respective boundaries. Two main types nay be noted—complete and partial.  I t is  essential however, before discussing consolidation of schools in detail, that we first examine the many different kinds of school districts to be found at present i n British Columbia.  School districts in general.  A detailed description of every kind of school district may be obtained by reference to the "Manual of the School Law and School Regulations of the Province of - British Columbia," (7ictoria, 1 9 3 2 ) .  I t is not the province of this  investigation to go into a minute discussion of the question.  A summary of essential points to be noted is all that is needed*.  ' 3Hie school districts with vhich we are concerned in  this study fall under teo general classifications, municipal and rural. . Municipal school districts comprise the areas  unbraced withan the corporate limits of any municipality together with such areas as are added by the Council of Public Instruction by extending the boundaries of the jatmicipsi school districts, and they comprise also such other areas as are by or under the Public School Act constituted municipal school districts.  Rural school districts comprise a l l school districts  other than municipal school districts and community school d5striets„  A community school district is land upon which  people are living or sojourning under communal or tribal conditions „  I n no way does it concern this inves tigation,  so no further mention of it need be made.  Sub-divisions of municipal school districts* Municipal school districts are further sub-divided into city school districts and district municipalities.  City  school districts have further classifications on the basis of the attendance at the pablic schools included within their boundaries „ A city school district of the first class must have a public school attendance of not less than 1 , 0 0 0 .  City  school districts of the second class must have not less than 250 and city school districts of the third class are those having an attendance of less than 250 „ District municipality school districts include all district municipalities except any included in a city school district*  77A  As regards classification of school districts for the purposes of the distribution of grants, no longer are these grants calculated as certain percentages of teachers* salaries„  Account Is now taken of assessed value of taxable  property, considered in relation to the number of teachers regularly employed., by the school district i n question*  United districts,, United (consolidated) school districts are formed when two or- more school districts come together for the purpose of obtaining better school accomodation,,  Sew con-  soli dated districts are after union referred to by the name of the largest district forming part of the consolidation, Thus a city school district uniting with a rural would create a consolidated district classified as a city school district* The Council of Public Instruction has power to create rural school districts, extend the boundaries of municipal school districts,  unite districts for the purpose  of constituting a "high school area" and establish thereon one or mor e high scho ols .  Hi ph. s 0 ho ol areas *  •<MrM»ii«iimr'M»rtnlWiMi tiiMi>iiiiriiiiir'Ui"n 1 irnBaOTniBir.MiWmr*  ' "  A high school area means any area constituted as a high, school area by the union for that purpose of tvra or more adjoining school districts. There are three types of high school areas—technical, regular, and rural.  The technical school area is the  78A  equivalent cf a city school district of the first class, the regular high, school area is the equivalent of a city school district, the exact class depending upon attendance, and the riiral high school area is, considered to be a regularly organised rural school district. Although not specified in the Public Schools Act as such, there is another kind of high school district or area which mast not be ignored in any inclusive study,  fh©  reference i s to the total territory served by any one high school.  Rural high schools often anr-ol many students from  nearby public school areas having school boards other- than those of the high schools in quest ion.  I f these students  are under sixteen years of age the school board of their own district generally pays their tuition fee; if over the agelimit the parents are usually held responsible.  llaturslly  this type of district lias no definite boundaries nor- any exact legal status, but it plays a very important role in rural secondary education in British Columbia, and as ranch is deserving of special mention in this investigation,,  lumber .of trustees i n each district ; or' area* Oity school districts of the first class elect seven trustees, those of the second class elect five, and those of the third elect throe.  District municipality school  boards have five members and rural school boards have three. United districts vary as to the number of trustees  79A  on their respective school boards,, ffiio union of a district municipal!ty and a rural district is served by five trustees. Two or more district municipalities, if have six members.  they consolidate, must  Three or more rural districts unitin  am  possessing the services of at least three teachers must have five trustees„ When rural districts unite to form a rural highschool area, one trustee is appointed from each board concerned. Regular high-school areas and technical-school areas may appoint tw> trustees frtm each school board, or they vary this to suit themselves„  Complete consolidation„ To return to a detailed discussion of total and partial consolidations we find tlat total consolidation is the prevailing type aril calls for complete consolidation of the districts concerned „  Usually a central site is chosen  and a large modem school building constructed.  Small, schools  are closed and the children conveyed to the large school by means of buses.  Specially qualified teachers are ehosen and  are paid larger salaries than were given less experienced instructors,  She cost is distributed over the districts uniting*  This often enables a poor district to obtain aid by being associated with a more prosperous area which can well afford any added expense*  soA  Partia 1 o oas o lid at ion „ Partial consolidation occurs v&en two or more districts gay tho expenses of a travelling instructor In charge of a van containing special equipment such as is needed for home economics.  Sometimes eqiripment Is possessed  by each school, and the teacher alone travels from one school to another, spending halt a day at eaeh.  Agriculture  and .manual training lend themselves very well to this kind of consolidation,, Another type of partial consolidation might also be mentioned.  Sometimes districts unite but do not close  their smaller schools, pupils are concerned.  2his usually occurs v&ere elementary Eh© lower grades are s t i l l taught in  the separate schools and the older pupils conveyed, in buses to the central institution for entrance class and high school instruction.  Later,  it often happens that parents lose their  disapproval of long bus rides for young children and eventually the small schools are all closed and complete consolidation has to,ken tho place of the partial union.  Consolidation for specialized high schoola. Consolidation for specialized high schools is still another  kind of partial consolidation.  She Report on the  Agricultural Instruction Act-, Ottawa (1916) in Appendix B refers to such institutions under the name of Associated Schools.  81A  T  'i.his form of organization contemplates bringing about an Intimate relation between a centrally located village or town school, and all the smell rural schools within" the usual- trading radius of the village or torn community. I t is designed to serve as a compromise when consolidation is objected to as doing violence to time-honoured ideals and traditions, and as'a compromise it has proved satisfactory to all concerned. Association is often the first step to consolidation. "The striking feature of this system is that all the districts entering into the Association retain their independent organisation for local purposes, including the general control of the home school". At the same time they become merged Into one large district—the associated district—for all matters of common educational interest, under the general management of an associated board. The superintendent of the central school i s held responsible for the work done in the association schools, and adequate supervision for all . is in this way provided. The services of the Industrial teachers of th© central schools are also extended to the rural schools, so that the latter in a manner become parts of one complete system centering in the village school." < A real community school is thus made possible, combining the resources of town and country.  Bach central  school specializes in these courses best suited to the needs of the conznunity served.  If several distinct types of  central school exist vithin a reasonable radius of one another the pupiIs of the intervening districts have a choice as to vtiich type of specialization best suits their individual interests.  They simply arrange to he enrolled in the selected  high school.' This latter type of consolidation is practically unknown at present in British Columbia, and serious objections  (1) /lari cultural Instruction Act, Depa rtr&ent of Agriculture. 1914-15, 6 Geo rge If, A. 1916, p. 172.  82A  to its extensive applies,tion in rural areas may easily be advanced.  I n actual practice the creation of such institutions  would mean that the c ountry student could actually choose whether he would tafce up agricultural, industrial, or commercial work, a procedure which, at present, is easily possible in the city,.  Some advantages of consolidation. Perhaps before we proceed, a general summary of some of the advantages of consolidated schools might not. be amissj  W© may l i s t than as follows:  1 . Longer tenure of office for teachers. 2„ Specialists in agriculture, home economics, and manual training in the larger consolidated schools,, . 3 . More men teachers. 4 0 A commodious, and modern building, a" centre for the'social l i f e of the community. 5., Depar tm m tal i sat ion of vuo rlt. Options other than those mentioned under (2} e ¥ „ Education meeting the definite needs of community l i f e . 8 . Adequate supervision. 9 „ Adequate "essential 17 and "desirable" equipment. 10. Grading of pupils; larger classes, greater interest, more rapid progress. 11« Fitting; of individual requirements, and" consequent prolongation of school training. 12. High-school privileges without"the necessity • of leaving home to obtain them.  I  100A  13. Comfort a bio transportation, preserving health. 1 4 . Increased and regular attendance. 1 5 . Increased social life for pupils. 16. full value for expenditure.  The problem of consolidation in Gam da, as a whole „ The gene m l problem of consolidation as it affects the whole of Canada, is given special mention by V/.F. % d e in his "Public Secondary Education in Canada./' "The Secondary School 'System is Developing Under £lo&eer Conditions of L i f e . Substantially this statement is well founded. There are, of course, cities spaced at. intervals across the dominion in * which large secondary institutions are to be found. There are, too, differences between provinces in * the extent to which pioneering conditions prevail. At the same time one of the outstanding problems of the country is that of providing adequate opportunities for secondary education for pupils in rural areas. I n the Dominion as a whole at least one-third, and in the Dominion excluding the Province of Ontario at least one-half, of a l l high school pupiIs are receiving their training in graded or ungraded schools either in separate classrooms or in classrooms along with elementary pupils. The secondary education which these rural pupi Is receive is too frequently obtained at the hands of teachers with inferior preparation; adequate equipment is frequently lacking; and the curriculum tends to be narrow and formal. Sot only is the secondary education of the country child inferior in quality but it Is often difficult to secure near home . A multiplicity of small school districts in rural areas each with its little school and its own school board represent the administrative side of the situation. Yoluntary unions between adjacent districts have so far afforded the chief correctives for the disabilities imposed by the district system, and there is good evidence that the educational conditions y&ich exist under consolidation are better "than "those which are found in the one-room school." 1  1  Dyde, S.j?., Public Secondary Education in Canada, p.£19.  84A  Assuredly both the negative presentation of the matter as given above by 3>y&e and the positive presentation suggested by the detailed l i s t of advantages are strong arguments for larger units of organization. But in order to bring the whole matter nearer home and also to witness what happens in practice,, let us see • T?.hat our neighbor» Alberta, has found and is doing in this matter of improving school accommodation.  The problem in Alberta. A recent pamphlet entitled "Rural High Schools in Alberta" issued by the Minister of Education, describes conditions as follows; " I t is everywhere agreed that secondary education is a problem beyond the power of solution by the board of a rural school district. All successful attempts at its solution have been through the association of several such districts; For the carrying on of school vsopk of all the grades. Some years ago there were set up in this province sixty-five consolidated school districts representing this type of organization. For a time the costs involved in transp or tat ion brought about a good deal of financial distress * and the attempt to convey the very young children over long distances to and from the school, met v.dth serious ana in some eases justified opposition on the part of parents. Today thes e districts have, for the most part, found a sound and smooth working basis, and many of them are in a very strong position financially, while the schools are affording educational services, public and high, in a most satisfactory manner. The success of these consolidations pointed the way to a solution of the problem of secondary education in rural com- • muni ti es . "  1  Rural High-Schools  Alberta (1930), p. 1 0 .  in Alberta, Department of Education,  85A  Thus having persuaded the reader that consolidation has been tested and found to work in practice, the little booklet methodically proceeds to outline the steps necessary for consolidation.  The present writer was favorably impressed  by the compactness of the special section devoted to illustrating 'these steps, and here he ventures 1© quote it verbatim. The original is to be found on page 15 of the pamphlet under the following caption: AH EXAMPLE "I?or the purpose of clarifying procedure, let us suppose that a trustee or ratepayer desires to see a Rural High School consolidation established in his ne ighborhood. We shall assume that he considers i t feasible to unite seven districts, A,B,C,D s E,j?, and'G, one of these districts, 0, being a village district. He should first communicate with the local inspector or with the Department of Education. The inspector will then call a meeting of the trustees of these several districts to consider the feasibility of the proposal and report upon the same to the Minister. Let us suppose, further, that because of distance, lack of interest, or for other reasons, it "is not found feasible to include districts F and G. If the Minister approves the proposal to consolidate A, B,C,I>, and E, a meeting of the ratepayers of those districts will be addressed by a representative of the Department, following which petitions asking for a vote" upon the question are circulated in all districts . Unless 25$ of the resident ratepayers, that is, those persons entitled to vote at an election for a trustee, in each of the districts, sign the petitions, the scheme cannot be proceeded with further, and if any modified scheme is later attempted the whole procedure to this point must be repeated. Assuming that the petitions are signed by 25fo of the resident ratepayers in each of the districts A,B,G,D,B, a vote is authorised, the poll being at a central place and usually open f or 5 to 6 hours. The ratepayers of 0, being a village district, do not vote at this time and with the ratepayers of the rural districts, so that the rural districts can be brought in only by a majority vote of the ratepayers of these rural districts . If  86A  a majority of a l l the votes cast is for the consolidation, the board of 0 district passes a favorable resolution, and if no vote is demanded by its rate- " payers, the consolidation is reaSy for establishment, " I t is nest necessary for the board of each district to meet and appoint a representative, one of its own members, to act as a trustee of the High School consolidation.. The trustees so appointed meet." I t is their duty Id find accommodation, purchase equipment, and engage a teacher. Th© board mates up "a statement to show the cost of meeting these and other expenditures Incidental to operation for the year." I (The total cost is paid by each district contributing according to its assessed valuation.) And now let us consider the possibilities of consolidations I n British Columbia.  We shall probably find  these calling for special treatment without parallel In other parts of the Dominion,,  Nevertheless, it has been interesting  to ascertain the extent of the problem in Canada in general, and also to see mi at nearby provinces are accomplishing.  The problem in British Columbia. The problem in British Columbia is greatly complicated by many factors. illustrate this statements  A mere glance at a map.will districts are separated not only  by single mountains but sometimes- by mountain ranges .  Long  chains of rivers and lakes make small communities on either side of them almost as much separated, for purposes of consolidation, as if an ocean were between them.  1  Several  Alberta Department of Education, Op. c i t . , p . 15.  87A  of our superior and small high schools are even found on. islands out in the sea. different climatic belts.  Between the mountain ranges we find Unrelated industries such as coal-  minings gold-mining, fruit-growing and rssichiisg are sometimes carried on within an inclusive radius of a few miles.  Thus  very distinct classos of occupational groups are found living close together but with v e r y divergent needs. Then there is the matter of roads. i n summer but useless In v?inter.  Some are good  Many are too rough, narrow,  or dangerous f or feasible transportation.  Districts connected  by such roads may often be quite willing to combine but would require an aeroplane more than a bus for the purpose of transporting pupils oven to a central location.  Only further increase  in the rural population of British Columbia will make some consolidations possible, although with the improvement of roads and means of transportation many further consolidations will undoubtedly be undertaken in the future.  Plate I I I shows,  typical examples of rural environment ana illustrates some of the difficulties already mentioned as characteristic of British Columbia. Kith a view to locating fairly definitely just where any unions of districts might be possible. Section C of the questionnaire submitted to rural high-school principals m s devoted to this matter.  All types of consolidation were  dealt with. let us first of a l l examine a list of conditions reported as unfavorable to total consolidation before considering schools with conditions favoring larger organisation.  Plate 3 Typical Rural and Urban Environment  87A  88A  List of conditions unfavorable to total consolidations. (Questionnaire to Principals, Section 0, question 5a) Among the reasons advanced by principals against . the practicability of total consolidation in their districts we find the following: Superior Schools 1 . Schools close but transportation difficult on account of bad roads (Peace River Area)„ 2 , neighboring schools too small, 3 a Severe winter conditions (mentioned three tiroes). High Schools 4 . Heavy cost of transportation. 5 . Schools too remote (mentioned s i x times). 6. Sown completely isolated (mentioned five times}. 7 . (Coo much time wasted i n transportation. 8 . Local opposition to idea.  Schools tilth environmental conditions favourable for complete consolldatioETTSeFilon^n quiitioiT^*^T7~ Asked vfo ether environmental conditions in their localities were favorable for complete consolidation,  twenty-  five principals replied in the affirmative, thirty-two in the negative,  and twenty-nine did not answer. • following- is a  .list of the schools reporting favor-able conditions? Superior;  va*vtm.#kmavtam>m  t m i I m n tfsa •  Ghemainus, ^ort George, Lumby, Horth  Cedar, Pitt Meadows. High;  Armstrong, Chilliwaok, Comox, Conrtenay,  89A  Creston, Dev/ctaoy, % derby, Kelowna, Maple Ridge, Mats qui, Morritt, Mission, Hanaimo, H©w Denver, Parksville, Port Coquitlam, Qualicum Beach, Smithers, 7ernon.  Possible complete consolidations (Section C question 2 ) . Asked whether definite schools could be mentioned wlth which their own could be united in ord^r to become a larger high school, thirty-five principals gave information, twenty-five wore unable to do so, and twenty-six left this section blank. following 3s a summary of suggested consolidations. Obvious duplications have been omitted. Superior Schools  tMVOiX^sijaaea nrmynkiti  mm < lawmani untum-tn iMeantsecw HTWITII -  1 . Brechin with- Hsnaimo, Harewood and South Wellington. 2. Bsynes Lake with Waldo (three pupils now attend). 3 . Greemiood 'With Boundary Falls, Kidway and Uoiwegian Greek. 4 . JSPort George \vi th Prince George High (theoretical but unlikely).. 5 . Eazelton with Sew Hazelton. 6. Horth C e d a r with tvo or three elementary schools. 7. Pitt Meadows with Port Ooquitlam and Haney. 8 . Holla with schools 6, 8, 9 miles away (but transportation difficult in winter). 9 . Rutland with Jlelowna High School. 10. Sooke with elementary schools (considered but rejected)  •  mA  11. Chemainus with Ladysmith and Duncan, 12* Queen Charlotte with Sid.degate, 13, Blake born with Coalmont and i'ulameen (possibly)«, High Schools 14, Gobble Hill with Duncan (10 miles). 15 , Oomox with 2solum, Court©nay and Cumberland „ 16.  c  reston with. Bricks on, Canyon, Alice Siding and  % n n d e l (only common sense ) . I V . Bewdney with. Derochi, Hat sic Prai ri e and Bicomen Island* 1 8 . Howe So mid with Slphinston Bay and Roberts Greek E a s t 19. loco with Port Moody {this has since be cn done)» 20. Maple Ridge with a l l schools between Pitt and Stave Rivers. 21. Herritt with Upper and loiter Eicola, and Canford (fifteen miles). 22. Hew Denver with Silverton Superior School, 2S. Parksville ?dth Erxington, Hilliers, Coombs, Uanoose, ^uaLisum leach  1  24, Port Coqui tlam ri th Maillar&ville, Viotoria Drive, Glen, Pitt Meadows, ^ssondale, 25, Princeton wi th Allenby (bad roads to Blafceburn and Eedley)» 26 . Ross3and with SPrail* 2?, -Smit hers with Telkwa (fourteen miles). 23. Sumas—Abbots ford wi th Mats qui and Mount Lehman.  91A  29 . Sumnerland w i t h Ponticton and Peach land, ( f i f t e e n miles). SO. T e r n o n with C o l d s t r e a m * and I»avingtcm. 31. Mission "-"i th Dewdney. . Eanairao w i t h half a dozen s m a l l e r suburban s c h o o l s . S3. Salmon ^ r m w i t h Snderby (fifteen miles) *  Schools with environmental conditions favorable for partialHso"^ Environmental conditions favorable to consolidation for certain subjects (such as Agriculture* Home Economics and Manual draining) were mentioned by twenty-f our principals, Shirty replied negatively and thirty-two neglected to answer this question, .She schools mentioned i n the list below are those reporting i n the affirmative. Superior Schools—Brechin, Campbell River, Chemainus , Hazel ton, Pitt Meadows, Holla,  Rutland.  Hi ah. Spho ols —-Phi 1 liwack, Oranbrook, Dewdne y, Grand Forks, Kelowna, LangLey, Maple Ridge, Mats qui, Mission, Paris villa, Penticton, Port Moody, Qualicum Beach, Rossland, Salmon Arm, Surrey, Vernon,  Possible partial consolidations (Section C9 question 4 ) . In reply to a request for definite mention of schools suitable for partial (subject) consolidation with their own, twenty-nine principals \Tolunteered information. Shirty principals could, not find any such schools and twenty-  mA  seven did not enswer. A summary of the suggested partial. sonsolldatioas is given below In the hope that it nay la- soft© maimer prove ".useful.,,  -  Superior Schools.. 1. Brechin with liar ©wood. 2. Chemalnus with I»adysmith and Dune an . 3. Campbell River with Hsolurn and Oomos:fl 4 . Rolla with schools 6, 8 , 9 miles away (but winter •v  «  .  •  -  trans por tat ion di f f i cu It \ 6 5„ Rutland with Kelowna. 6. Lumby with Lavington. 7 . Haselton with Sew Haselton 0 High Schools 8 . Dewdney td th Mission, Mats qui* Sumas-Abbo tsf ord and ift* Ashman,.  •  •  .  '  9 „ Howe Sound va. th Wood fibre, and Britannia Beach. 10o Eelowna with Rutland (for agriculture) „ . . . 11. langLey wi th Surrey, Mt. Lehman, Sumas-Abbo tsf ord and . -Mats^tti^ 12. lew Denver with Silver ton Superior School. 1 3 . SEorth Sasuaich with Saanich schools (for agriculture). 14. Port Moo% with Ooquitlam and loco. 15  0  QuaLieum Beach vdth ^ashwo ed, Hilliors.,. Goombs, Partevillfr.  16. Roesland with 'frail.  '  9S  IV. Surrey and Langloy with regard to s t a f f . 18. Alberni with public schools for some Junior high school subjects,, 19„ Piince Rupert with neighboring public schools {once in operation for Home Economies 1. 20„ Salmon Arm with Enderby, Armstrong, and Chase Superior. 21. Cumberland with Tsolura, Coin ox, Pourtenay. 22. Merritt with Upper and Lower Hicola, Oanfordn 25. Vernon with* small schools which have been closed and buses used.*. 24. Penticton with Summerland (for agriculture) . 25. Ghilliwack with Agassi2. I t will be noticed that there is a distinct similarity between the 13bt of schools showing suggested complete consolidations and the list showing possible partial consolidations„  But there is a real tliff erenee in actual,  practice in that complete consolidation can at best be advisee! only if schools are not more than twenty miles apart, while, with regard to partial consolidation, in these days of good roads-end reliable rapid transportation facilities the range of a travelling instructor is considerably widened, few reasons were definitely advanced against this latter typo of consolidation.  But it was mentioned that it might  prove too expensive, and some schools reported no other high schools within reasonable travelling distance.  94A  Personal reactions of principals to partial consolidations. (Section 0, question 3) L query. regarding the personal reaction of the principals to partial consoli&ation of schools with respect to such sub^octs as manual training, home economics and agriculture showed fifty-one principals favorable* seven neutral 8 and only five opposed,,  twenty-three did not reply,  Of the  five opposed, one gave as a reason that the time consumed in travelling would be too great (this district has since been consolidated},,  Another principal menfcioned that In his com-  munity it was a case of complete consolidation or none. I t would appear from this that, should these special subjects somehow reach the rural high-school program, they would be assured of a welcome, at least from the teaching personnel of the schools concerned,, -  Consolidation for sp ecialized high schools (Section Ct question6) I he question regarding consolidation for specialised high schools met with an extensive response, but, -as .shown in Table IX, elicited one result surprising to the writer. Principals stated (if totals are to be believed) that the type of specialisation best suiting their community was still matriculation,  Doss this mean that the academic tradition s t i l l  subconsciously persists even among those who should iaiow bettor?  In these same schools not one student in eight, as  the questionnaire shows, intends to' proceed to the University I  94A  SABLE 12  "'  --  COESSQLI m n m ' M m  spssmmB.  HI m  SOHQ OM.  Sypo of School Replyin  Sffll^  8o»a%  HwaX  «  1 . Matriculation «  3.1  SeohaiOal S o m a ! Entrance  4* ..  Home Economics  *  Agriculture  18  •8  18  "0  IS  10  .a, •  •  11  10  14  8  12  B>  6.J  Business  7. Professional  i  .  4 .  8 ,  13. ... s 8 •  ;  37 35  , ,/so 30 29  7  l|  m • •  '  •  -  •  -  .  •  •  .  -  •  •••  •  '  '  il  ij Closely following matric ulation as a favorite for specialized high schools came technical education, normal entrance, home economics, agriculture,  then  business  ("commercial), and, last of a l l , preparation for the professions. Bow preparation for the professions is not distinct from matriculation so we find our principals ranking the same type of specialization both first and last1. I n the opinion of the writer, years of teaching traditional courses, coupled with an intensive academic train-  j  Ing, have had the psychological effect of making some principals  j  quite unable to think in terms of the needs of their community or their students.  j  The outcome of it a l l is that they actually  j  consider they are performing the best possible service to their districts Ashen they achieve admittedly excellent two students out of every ten that started.  results with  Some day someone  in author i % is going to become inquisitive concerning the  jj  natural rights of the neglected eight in the matter of secondary education.  Coxsaunities favorable to consolidation (Section 0, question I )  1  Schools reporting the general attitude ox their respective communities as favorable to consolidation are given below*.  "  | '  Superior Schools: Baynes Lake, Brechin, Chase, Lumby, .-:•-•. ••• " Pitt Meadows, Vanderhoof. Hi/?h Schools :  Armstrong,- Ghilliwack, Oourtenay, Creston,  Duncan, Howe Sound, Maple Ridge, Sew Denver, Princeton,  j.  j .  j;I  96A  Qualicum Beach, Sumas-Abbotsf crd4 Summer land, Pontic ton, Salmon Arm.  general. att i fade of, communl t iea towards cons olidat ion (Section 0 , question 1} When questioned regarding the general attitude of their communities toward consolidation,  twenty principals  reported their districts as "favorabletwenty-eight as "neutral", and seventeen as "opposed".  Twenty-one failed to  respond to this query. Of those favorable, some mentioned that their distriots were already consolidated, and the others, for the most part, made no definite comment in reply to this question. Most of the latter, however, offered helpful suggestions elsewhere in this section of the questionnaire.  The neutral  group also did not let the indifference of their communities prevent them from offering constructive informtion elsewhere, and even those rating their communities as "opposed" explained in many cases the cause of the opposition. The value of this particular question would seem to lie in the fact that the pulse of a community must be felt before the prescription for Its ills may be given, and often the patient has to be coaxed out of a stubborn f i t before the beneficial medicine is administered.  In concluding this chapter the writer submits the following recommendations.  Some of them may be impracticable  97A  at present because of expense involved, but they are believed to be justifiable should the future mate them feasible, Reoonrnendatlons „ 1-* That a financial survey of rural British Columbia be undertaken in order to find out which districts can best assume added financial responsibilities when merged with others Into larger units of or ganization. S 0 i'bat a sociological survey also b© made with a view to determining where population-groups w i l l probably *  increase in sis© most rapidly.-' *  3. 2bat a l l possible consolidations at present known to be feasible and. desirable be hastened to completion, with or (if necessary) without the approval of local boards . 4» 2hat the Superintendent of Education authorize and organize a canplete study of the question of possible future consolidations. 5 , Ehat assistance., in every manner possible., be given to all boards showing ail earnest desire to better their educational facilities through eonsolidatione« 6 . 'fhat any program of public works which includes the building of good roads and the improvement of those now in existence be encouraged, for the sate of facilitating consolidations. That supplementary means- of instruction* such as the radio, motion-pictures, and correspondence-courses, be provided v&en consolidation Is shown to be not an immediate possibility.  OH APS BR VII BUILDINGS A I D EQUIEHBHOf . "g  .  .  •  •  I deal 0 pndi t-1 o as. It is easy enough to Imagin® ideal conditions of buildings end equipment for a rural high school, but to obtain such a state of affairs is quite another matter,  A roseate  pSeture might be painted of a typical rural high school surrounded by spacious grounds, perfectly level of course, and bordered by trees and ornamental shrubs»  Plenty of room  for all mariner of outdoor games together -with every sort of apparatus for- physleal education would be available,, would, be spaces allotted for baseball and softball, basketball, volleyball, and tennis. be a swimming pool. would be provided.  3?here football,  Another feature wo old  i?or rainy days gymnasium facilities Plenty of apparatus would be In evidence.  At least as jaueh would be available as is now regarded as the minimal gymnasium essential for city schools.  Schools, adapted, to the 'mmrnxmlM.* I f the school were situated In a definitely agricultural environment there would be space provided for boys' and girls ".gardens, a barn for farm animals and a place for poultry.  Even the teacher would not be forgotten1.  Shere  would be a house for the principal with lawn and gardens  99A  artistically landscape d, and inside this house there would be every modern convenience*  :  I f the school wore in an industrial community, provision would be rr&de in it for a general shop,  equipped  with every type ©f machine necessary for the teaching of technical subjects.  '<' •. .  A commercial locality would have a high school equipped with book-keeping, listing, and billing machines, mimeographs, multl graphs, dictaphones, addressographs9 and adding machines, and of course the usual typewriters.  Modern school buildings.. -The buildings themselves would a l l be of modern construction, using the best of materials and built by people who knew their business,  fhe ground-plan and whole design  would be in'keeping with the moot advanced knowledge of higji «  school architecture.  .  .  .  .  Provision would be made for an auditorium  which might easily be converted as occasion demanded into a study hall, music or art room, as well as a theatre for amateur dramatics.  I t would have a stage and a l l the equipment necessary  for the artistic presentation of plays. Sven some original one-act productions by specially talented students could be presented in the form of short motion pictures, for the school would possess a complete outf i t such as at present advertised for "homy movies".  A radio  as well as a piano and phonograph would be • in evidence as  100 •  part of the essential equipment necessary for the course in  :  music appreciation offered by each school. She library would be a spacious room well stocked  I  with the best literature of a l l ages and a specially trained  j ii  teacher' would be always on hand to direct student reading  j  along the most approved channels.  !  The science laboratory would have apparatus sufficient  ;  to illustrate m y phase of this type of work offered by the »  jf:  school.  j  Any extra supplies needed would be immediately forth-  coming upon mere requisition.  -  There would even be a teachsr-s* room artistically and comfortably furnished where the staff might find relaxa-  j 1 J  tion during the recess and noon intermission and before and after school.  ;  Obviously, of course, in our model school no fault  ,  could be found with euch necessary features as sanitation,  ;  ventilation, heating, lighting and water systems.  j  service would be ideal. would be provided.  The janitor  Separate boys' and girls' basements  These no aid be adequately lighted and  ventilated and kept free from dust.  ji  Some practical considerations, But practical considerations must be faced the moment even the most enthusiastic advocate of better- equipped rural hi gin schools faces actual conditions.  Ho matter how  willing rural communities may be to provide the children of their schools with adequate high school facilities there is  j  101A  always the problem ox obtaining- the money required.  She  present system of land taxation for educational purposes bears too heavily on the possessor of extensive property. I n this connection the "Harper Commission" {May 80th, 1933} on behalf of the British Columbia School (trustees1 Association. makes the following statement: "Basis of Taxation for Education I t is submitted that the cost of education should not be borne by the owners of land as such to nearly as great an extent as at : present but rather by the people of the Province from the Province's Income from all"sources.. Education being a service to the state and to individuals as human units and a benefit to a31 should bs paid for not by individuals vho happen to own land rather than say shares or bonds, but by all the individuals viewed as a V/hole according to their total income as a body politic. There are services to property or land as land, which are properly chargeable to it but education is not one of these." Judging from the above information it would appear that until our present system of taxation is revised it is useless to hope for rural schools which are adequately equipped. And until our rural schools are adequately equipped i t is hopeless to expect from then high standards of education.  Condition of equipment in rural secondary schools in the .past, That rural high schools have always suffered In the matter of even essential equipment I s the conclusion reached by the writer after reading the reports of high-school inspectors.  Even as far back as 19IS wo find the following evidences  ^ Memorandum of argument presented by B*G. Trustees Association to His- Honour Andrew Miller Harper, Alexander McDonald Peterson and Herbert Anacomb.  102A  of neglect of the sural schools: "Despite the growing interest in hiph schools, however, I regret to report that the accommodation and eauiTjment, of man;/ of the smaller ones ©specially, are s t i l l far" f rom satisfactory. Library books, chemical and physical' apparatus, and even drawing models and a good Bngiish dictionary are still needed in a few cases. ,T 1  Present conditions as shown by inspector& T . reports. wuraerous other reports might be quoted, but to bring the matter at onao up to date let us turn to "Excerpts from Reports of Provincial Inspectors of Schools" of last year's Annual Report, -Ahere we find those remarks: "A number of the high-school buildings of my district are in poor repair and really should be replaced by new ones, " but trustees feel that this is impossible at the present time." 2 vVhen we turn to reports of Inspectors of Elementary and Superior Schools., the first sentence we read concerns the matterc in question. "Because of their financial difficulties the Rural School Boards and qualified voters have- made no marked imiorovement" to^the school-grounds, buildings or equipment durinp-f the ye&fv" 0 At the risk of em-phaslsing a point too strongly (that rural -school boards are at a tremendous disadvantage in the matter of pro aiding adequate educational facilities for their schools)„ one more ascerpt will be givan:  ^ Go rdon, J . S . , Report of "lias pec tor of High Scho ols. Public Schools Repo rt, 1912, p. AE7. ""* p .  j  * DeLong, J . B . , Report ox Inspector of High Schools,, Public School Reports*~19*55} p . 1529. ~ • ~ 2 Bruce, L . J . * Repo^t^of^Inspector_.of Elementary and Superior Schools, Public Scho"ol Report, 1933, p." H30  103A r  "It has been a year when little new equipment was * added to tho schools and few additions made to the"'libraries. Just the necessary outlay In keeping school-grounds and so ho ol~ buildings In shape was made." 1  1 plan to meet the emergency. I l l the reports for last year, not only in our province but light across Canada, reflect the seme condition of affairs.  Probably a survey of any other- school system  would reveal a similar situation in regard to the provision of school equipment.  In the face of such information it  would be folly even to suggest the adoption of any plans requiring extensive expenditure on equipment for the rural high schools of British Columbia.  To the writer the best  plan of action to meet the emergency has been to find out the actual condition of as much as possible of the present equipment of rural high schools.  With this information at  hand, a scheme of Improvement based on relative need can be worked out.  Obviously requirements in "essential" equipment  call for immediate attention. equipment can wait if need be.  Improvement in less important Some "desirable" equipment  will probably never be possessed by the rural high schools. All schools returning questionnaires completely filled in the section devoted to equipment.  But not sat-  isfied even with this high percentage of returns, the writer  1  Fraser, II.C., Report of Inspector of B1amentafry and Superior Schools, Public School Report, 1333, p. 1-131. 2  Section 0—Questionnaires to Principals, Plate IT.  104A  sent to high-school inspectors a list of superior and high, schools concerning which no data were then available,,  By  the courteous co-operation of these authorities a final return on equipment was made possible which was ninety per cent effective.  Of the rural hi^i schools only Prince George and  Horth Burnaby had to he omitted in the preparation of tables• The superior schools about which 110 information could he obtained are, Ashcroft, Athalmer-Invermere, Burns Lake, Fort St, John, James Island, Malcolm Island, McBride, Pouce Coupe, Procter and Big Sand Greek*,  Otherwise the statistics soon  to be presented in Tables X to XVIII regarding the condition of the equipment in rural secondary schools may be said to be one hundred per cent inclusive and as accurate as the estimations of principals and high school inspectors can make them e  fables showing condition of equipment,. 2he main object of the writer was to ascertain to what extent rural schools are supplied with satisfactory essential and desirable equipment.  In using a three-point  scale of rating for features of equipment ho believed that to employ a more complicated method such as the five-point seal© would serve no real purpose, and would prove a source of irritation to busy principals in the matter of scoring. •The fact that principals without exception completed this section is proof enough that any effort to make scoring  104A  3EABEE- Tl  A summary m i s h o o t © -Mi c o m m o n iw general of m m m m T n each- WVE OF rural secohdary school  5?ype of School  1. "Essential" Equipment  2."Desirable* Equipment  Satisfactory  Satisfactory  A l l Equipment (1 & 2) Satisfactory  A.Superior  63  6  35  B.Rural High School  76  20  48  C. Semi-rural High School  79  32  56  Averages for B and C  78  26  52  Averages for A , B and C  70  16  43  "ffggqgtlaiw equipment (playground,  library,  science  1  j-aooratory, girls basements, boys' basement, sanitation, janitor service, v/ater system, ventilation, heating, lighting, supplies, storeroom) 2 . "Desirable" e•^jjjrcent (gymnasium, gymnasium apparatus, lay ground auDaratus. libra-ru room, vnntn +teachers® .c>nnhr>playground apparatus, library room, assembly h a l l , study h a l l , school garden.)  104A TAB IE XI A StSMMAHY TABLE SHOWIHS DETAILED OO0DITIOI? OP EQ,UIH(EE!5? POSSESSED BY AIL RURAL SECOHDAKY SCHOOLS M B 'THE EAIHC OF SAGS FEATURE. 1.  "Essential" of a eh. with satEquipment. isfactory equipment  Playground 55 Library 46 Science- Lab® 83 Girls* Basement 68 Boys5 Basemen"! . 66 •Sanitation B7-'Janitor Service 92 Water System - 88 Ventilation 77 , Heating 88 • lighting 82 Supplier 92 Storeroom 55 desirable" Equipment. Gymnasium G-ym. .Apparatus Playground u Library Soon Teachers' w Assembly H a l l , Study « School Garden  of soli. with unsatisfactory equipment  -  32 45 10 15  15 12 8 10 21 '12 13 6 12  '  fst with ranking Tanking no of each ' of a l l ' equip- type equinraen-' ment (1 and B included 3 9 7 17 19 1 0 • s 2 0 .  10 13 6 9 10 K :• 1 4 •8 3 . 7  '  2 23  1JB.  11 IS 6 9 10 • • 5 • 1 4  • 8 3 •  ?  - -'18  .  SO 14 . -48 16 51 SO 7  13 •  68 73 3S 78  8  IS •23 6 •  :7 1 1  27  63 92 86  4• 8  17 19  & 1  • 18 14 16 21 • 20  •  ^ . n O'  7  1040A MAO H ol H rAi O f ftO .Of<\0s o pi : uy\ t~ r-5J ^OJO F • pij: •• frtj f q 4 3 I fo H 03 £  £  ° VJ rt • <«S r-J. OJ I* Q, EM co ° O -P OOHCJWOOOOOOOOJ 8 fl  tA Cx  o  to •H CO <; ! p,  y o  qvovoe»HO«oo\£iK\t<\ CO O w H- H CM C  (O,  IS  CO  MY©  SJ -P r © A •P JS  O If  C O IA  ^ H H!F>N£ W HrtHrirtri ^ ** HI H  iA M M  w a N N OvOCO W cx CO H CO OJ PV jH r* jri H HJ  a. o o  11 s  O 0 as u 03 © • Cj« <4 W  to  Q  coOr^^-ttMfvcucutrvtfY iA-^ ^ f**8. oo oj c~-co t r - v o c^o rr\o 'sfGN. ** r-5 OS «SW\0<K\OWO Hf H 'U\vD so O  f*\ C—  l£VCV3 if\ C-C-r-J'"a- O CM C-GOCO C GO 5' C» IS\ CO CvCO co CO.tf-.cSJr\ CN  .Cl Jf Pi, r •|er m  K  00 cvj  P  w ©co "a? sne-co® C-u\ os H H-ir! -Hrt-HHHH «-! H-H H8  8 lr A©  CVJ  -a. H fH oo .» .{«JH S05 ,0 Cd f  C OO J ts\ O CN  C- O  B O -P •* o ® S ofl'Bg 1 I « « ra 1 e.  v-4 <j> 1* <D E s ao1 ra mm  . p  cr r So «®r' "P t #S °"d Pi©d' 3a 13 ' tew a  8\3 t  104A •  •: »  O H| JP ffl -13 to f 0  O W O ' T ^ M V ! ) C CO CO CO « \ C O OS  I  •ri  43 .E! jp t  q  , Q *ef  , ,S0 ... B O 4J <2 rt 0 ,11 Q 0 s w a  o  m  0 g e . 2 fi w Is;  OS  i*\ o j u \ m t s \ \ o s o  <n ^ f -g  W W H H  j  .  H  OJ OS OS CO H HI  f ^ s s sjco ^ ^ OJ ''s|- W ^  0  51  CO Cvj  rjJ-  " 1 « \ « \ W V B «sfr t — a > CV!OJi-ICV5<MCWCMC\J  0 1 CO  K?  • •  ©ss0 * A ' - 0 U \ H W H  O ONi  rf  w  w so  B*. U  M M U  g A ft-  a  B  a J f 55 cd C3 r H .ta <f-i f i 0  "3  0  £  t  1* .  CV CO CO H,  B V O ^ r l H HI  • O K \ s O ttf.\£> 04 O  O  m  Cv) cu *<\ -m- K V H I . . . . . H • . ••  k &  s§ ! § <5 ••  W  ON o v a .i*\co u v « \ CN r)Hti\rt H  » .O • s^e-t 5  ..-ta I I 0 >p co ©  OS -HI  H • H : S*\  H I rt <30 6 O ' O O  H  O H ' *•> Ed  t ' %  ^  m  <3 2 - 2 6  D  «  ' C D C s C O 04 U \ t r y K \ 0 i H I • OS H i K H H  L"> CO  C%  OJ H  i-l  f f l " " r-I  W OS H I OJ rt" ; "•SI  i M  %-j <H 0 to «H . • .g  O <sj- ©sCD H H  •HJ -CO  . ^ •J  "Basirable" Equipment  Pr, O  tS  I"  •g  ^  H  '§ E ^  ^ S 1 1 p >> s! •r) » i p bs u I~1 M H  s  >§  ®  s ! -e J fe § ra " H > » H - H 0 (3 S3 C5 D B ^ 01 CO i  ^  f  HABLR XIV OOIIPIHON OF "ESSSffTL^L BCSOHMBSn?" IE EACH TXPE OF BUBAL SECONDARY. SCHOOL  f of Schools reporting  "Essential Equipment" Playground  Library  Equipment "as satisfactory 1 " *'"* 1 Sups Sural Semi-a StVfa Total fotal 74 54 56  78  76 m 56 48 56 65 I 85 Janitor Service 92 93 Water System 85 56 Ventilation " 87 10 Heating System 89 78 Lighting rt 63 84 Supplies 100 76 Storeroom jw J1 Science Lab® Girl*s Bassmsnt Boys' Basement Sanitation  ADEEMS  S3  60 50 90 70 65 85 90 90 75 65 75 95 70  13  79  % of Schools reporting of Schools reporting Ho Bqtrlpment of this type. Ernxlpstent as raasatisfaotory BuraL Somi-P Sub Total Sun. Total Sup. "Jtaral 3emi~B Sub Total Total  44 80 60 5? 85 92 87 84 83 81 81 r* ? po  73 41 73 56 56 eo 92 78 50 85 76 86 51  22 44 22 15 11  •78  70  20  31 8 37 II 22 22  0  11  15  40 15 33  15 1  11  13 11 5 19 7 Tj  40 50 5 20 25 15 10 10 25 15 25 5 20  21  43  11  16 16 13 8  11  16 12 15 11 15  22 43 14 16 15 19 8 18 17 15 14  4 22 22  7 18  *S 1  41 41 0 0 ?  29 31 2 0  11  19 G 15 0 52  0 0 11 5 4g  IS  17  11  11  4  0 0 5 10 10 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 lo  hp  9 24 25 2  0 2  0 0 8 •4  XV CONDITIO!* OF "SSS1EABLS E&UIPSIEHP" EI S&OH TYPE OF HUHAL SEOOHBiffiY SCHOOL 0?  of Schools OX sunoaAcs I'opOrUlEg laujiwagnt aa eiatlafaCt.Qps:  f, of Schools reporting  aa tmeatisfaotoiy  f, vrltix no Equipment of thic typQ-s:  "Basirable" Equipment Gynmasi'um Gyro. Apparatus PlaygrouM " Library Sooss £oaclie?s? Boom Assembly Hall Study Hall School Garden AVERAGES  1/ o  8 I  § 8 8 , 8 8:: | 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 H H H H HHH'riHHHH  r  » II  o  ooooooooooooo ciHriHHH H H M'rt:. i CO fl o to O KMO O O O O O Q o o "S" CO ifSfr-Ofr-e-oooooB-oo '< . £» s£» M>oi o o o o S o HHHH H oo o o ©•© ©O^StS o r4  OlQOtpoOO lO CV3 U5 c- to COfr-o O O <£) O tO «£> to  f>  ©o  t  i©  iO  »© H  o>  ©ooooooo-  0 1  8 S | | g §  "FT eg 3 CO a  ea  «H S> s  <i> •• •  o «  o •ft  «0 © 60 O O O O W O O S " - 00 CO<0©<£)'t0©©O©COO©<j> €0 H HHHH Hrt © CO'Cft H © t© ^ 1 > CD 03 OlOOi l£S ©3 »Q © - 0 » 60fcQ.i©to to 03 CO  E> ^ f  H  8 1 ©4  ira is © eo  to ©a to c^ to  sK  i> eo e*> us  os  H  w  H  H  5  s  tg h to H e» as co © ® a> co $  63 60 oi-lto © © m © (S  Q  I ILL  e e CSJ -P I s « © © ,'fc-B -ri 53 a n 0 fl a>-p o 4S G> Ct! O © 03 02 «H © m & s d-Pf^WcJMpjoo ©A VI «;H «• P3 CS O j-l H iH «ri ta pi S f-5 CQ v4 © +3 *= Pi fc S «} 5)0*0 P• g• • H «H O t* I^CS 5 «HOaGfc!}©©«HEJ4= Hfk H}CQ « mfc®rnb-fcs} W W 03  io :  /.. H -.  H & & S3. « I S'8 •H Pi Ofc-.PH ri •H 22 *i-< q P* h © .o ©0 i . .. o © Rd ' O &ci sd e p ja ea H <H O 03 -p.© 02 - ©  ©  S ©4  oa oh'** <4 cS^  104H  TABLE XVII PER CENT OF SCHOOLS WITH UNSATISFACTORY EQUIPMENT . SCHOOLS BEING CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.  1. "Essential Equipments  Playground Library Science Lab. (Mrls s Base?at Boys' " Sanitation Janitor Serv. Water System Ventilation Heating lighting Supplies Storeroom .verages 2 . "Desirable15 Equipment Qymnasittm Gymn«Appar atui Playground m Library 'Eooa Teachers® " Assembly Hall 57 Study School Sard en Averages Averages foi all equip (1 & 2)  Ho® of Divisions in School  1041  TABLE XVIII PER CEN® OF SCHOOLS REPORTING- HO EQ.UIPMEU11 OF KFfB MEITIOIED, SCHOOLS BEING C L A S C T I E F T O U I S l I G <?0~SIZE. Ho. ot llTlsions in School Equipmen-fc  . ior  Playground Library Science Lab. ' Girls® Base'mt. R Boys* Sanitation Janitor Service Water.Sys tern Tentilatlon Heating Lighting Supplies Storeroom .. Averages  i  4 22  Sural sp 2  4  " 19 22 19 41 38 41 38 0 0 0 j 0 -7 s 19 0 0 0 15 14 0 5 52 | 62  17 25 17 25 25 0 0 8 0 0 17 0 42  19  0 17 0 0 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 1  17  14  10  -  16  6 13 0 31 31 0 0 0 0 6  Semi-Rural 7 I 8 9  5 0 go  0  0 0 0 0  20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4  tj  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  I  1 i  10  2."Desirable" Equipment Gymnasium Gym .Apparatus Playground w Library Room Teaehers? « Assembly S a i l Study * .School Garden  V  81  81  96 89 100  100  Averages  88  Average for all equip. {1 and 2)  52  38 90 81 90 90 90  f 48  92 92 42 83 58 100 92 83  69 56 25 69 88 88  66 66 0 100 0 66 100 66  80  69  58  63  65  50  53  88  4^  39  31  m  34  27  26  44  69  88  ; 80 80 I 33 St ; 40 80 33 75 20 40 33 0 1100 60 • 67 50: 0 20 0 25 | 80 40 33 £5 100 100 100 100 80 100 100! 100  100  100 100  100 0 100 100 100  50 0 50 0 0 50 50  121A  simple is well worth while .  Regarding emphasis on the tkr©-ap-  point rating to be presented in this chapter the author wishes to bring oat one-point definitely,  She rating given the  equipment under the heading "unsatisfactory" i s actually an underestimation regarding this condition in rural schools0 A proof of this statement is necessary and is offered in the, following'paragraphs She rating here used calls for reporting equipment as."satisfactory",  "unsatisfactory",  op "no equipment".  2hus,  total percentage is divided three ways, instead of two as would have been the case if only "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory" ratings had been requested.  Admittedly both "unsatis-  factory" and "no -equipment" are unsatisfactory conditions. In short, the percentage of these two ratings should be considered together.  The author admits that without this qual-  ification i t would be confusing to consider the tables for "unsatisfactory" and "no equipment" separately.  2he table  for "satisfactory" equipment may be taken at all times on its face value. Another point needs to be mentioned before proceeding to a detailed study of present equipment as found in rural secondary institutions of British Colombia.  In studying the  tables given in this chapter too much must not be inferred from the larger size of schools, particularly the s oral-rural group.  f  fhe most obvious illustration of what is meant by this  caution may be illustrated if we remember that there is only  121A  one nine room school (Prince Kupert) on our list and only tr/o ten room schools (Ohilliwack and Kamloops),  But informa-  tion was secured concerning twenty-seven out of a possible thirty-seven superior schools ano of the one room high schools all tr/enty-one- are reported upon. Kith these  to  cautions in mind the reader is invited  to an intensive study of the many tables devoted to a survey of equipment.by sizes of school for rural seeondai?y institutions .  Some of the facts brought out by these tables have  .  already found general mention in Chapter I ? . I n tlw chapter- just cited information is given vertically* that is, totals are quoted for the different classes of schools.  Any interested reader with the tables  before him'may carry this plan further and study the rural and semi-rural groups by sizes of school, beginning with the on© room type ant! eventually arriving at the ten room institution. I'he writer has decided to 'adopt a different method of approach, for the remainder of this chapter.  By this is  meant that an itemised study of equipment under two iiiajor sub^ divisions, "essential" equipment and "desirable" equipment,, w i l l be made „  Following a general survey of the condition  of present school buildings we will proceed with, our detailed study by a, consideration of the features of •equipment #  • .  "essential"-  121A  General typo aid condition of school buildings. (Questionnaire to principals,, Section B, question 2 4 . ) More than eighty per cent of the schools replying to this question reported frame buildings. are constructed of brick. and one is of stucco„  Eleven schools  A few are of the briok-frame type  She average size of building is four  rooms and the average age of building, siscteen years. ' Brick buildings are found at Ghillixyack, Hanaimo, Ilelson, C ran brook, Ferule, Kelowna, Salmon Arm, Grand Forks, Bnderby, Zaslo, and Rutland.  Of these schools six are semi-  rural, four rural and one superior. Vernon reports a brick-frame structure, as does Armstrong.  Michel-Ifetal Superior mentions stone and cement  while Mission school is of stucco.  B S S m i / i X BQfflBMElf .„ For the purpose of this study the following features of equipment have been termed "essential": playground, library, science laboratory,  j j  girls 1 basement, boys' basement, sanitation,  janitor service, water system, ventilation, heating, lighting,  j  supplies, storeroom.  I  -  A. study of playground conditions calls for attention first. \  jj I  Playground. (Questionnaire. Section B, question 2 3 ) . In general playground facilities may be considered fairly satisfactory, although almost twenty per cent of the  j.: : I  121A  two room schools report they possess no playgrounds.  However,,  no size of school above the three-room school is without this necessity „ Unsatisfactory conditions are reported by the following schools;  lillooet, Blake b u m , Lumby, Pitt Meadows,  Queen Charlotte, Steivart, Armstrong, Oomox, Courtenay, Cranbrook, Cumberland, Dunoan, Eeloisna, Haplo Ridge, Kelson, lew Denver, Princeton, Powell Hiver, Revelstoke, Rossland, Hanaimo, Prince Rupert, Ho playgrounds are to be found at Hdaelton, Granby Bay .and Qualicum Beach."  fhe last named school uses a vacant  lot as a substitute for regular space. Rough or rooky playgrounds are mentioned by twelve schools, nine define their playing fields as too small, while five state theirs are unsuitable for organised games.  Seven  schools mention poor drainage, and the same number state they find a sloping ground is a disadvantage„  r  fhree describe their  playgrounds as being shared with public school pupils«  She  writer be lie ves this latter condition a common one in rural British Columbia, although specifically mentioned by only three principals „ Library (section B, question 4 ) « She general condition of libraries f especially in the smaller schools of our -province, is frankly deplorable. Only a third of the superior-school group report satisfactory conditions e  Less than a quarter of the one-room high, schools  have good libraries,,  Only the two ten-room schools appear to  121A  be satisfied with this part ox their equipment,, But the matter becomes really serious when we find at least one out of every five superior schools definitely stating that it does not possess a library.  She same assertion  is made by almost the same proportion of one-room schools, and fully a quarter of the two-room group are in a similar situation.  Even some four-room schools have no  librae  lion© of the semi-rural schools are without this "essential 11 , but even some of the.® report a high percentage of unsatisfactory conditions  P  .  Science laboratory (section B, question 1 ) , In general, science facilities are better than library f a c i l i t i e s S h e average condition reported Is unsatisfactory, however, for superior and one-room schools»  About  a fifth of each group—'Superior* one-room, and two-room schools —are without necessary science equipment.  As mi gat be  expected,, definite improvement Is noted as we ascend our scale of schools, but more than sixty per cent of even the : seven-roan schools report unsatisfactory conditions. •Boys' and girls 8 basements (questions 8, 9) „ Assuredly these two items deserve mention to get.her c Separate basements are "essential"* and in general with few exceptions such -a commendable arrangement i s quite common I n our secondary schools. 'Bat when we .find that forty per cent of the superior schools possess no basements whatsoever* and that the same conditions -hold true for more than one-fifth of the one, two.  121A  three j, six and s even room groups, it would seam about time that definite enquiry were made as to the cause of this condition,  Surely basements may be ranked as very essential  equipment,  8vsn the five-room schools report their basements  as fifty per cent unsatisfactory,, Hooessagar conveniences (questions 14-20 inclusive and So. 1 fhe writer has taken the liberty of grouping sanitation, Janitor service, later system, ventilation, heating-, lighting, supplies and storeroom under the above inclusive heading,,  I n general these say be said to display a high per-  centage in the matter of being satisfactory. are•especially favored in this respect.  Semi-rural schools  Unsatisfactory water  systems are reported by more than one-third of the superior  '  schools -and one-fifth of this group complains also about heating and lighting equipment.  'Some schools of three rooms and  smaller report no lighting equipment,,  Five and six room high  schools appear to experience difficulty vAth their ventilation .  .  .  .  '  systems as well as heating end lighting.  •  r\  .  ' Quite a high percent-  age of schools up to five-rooms inclusive report ho convenient place for putting sundry material* • All schools above this group are completely equipped in this respect,  tstra supplies  are reported as highly satisfactory. Kris brings us to a" discussion of the nest section of our major- classification of equipment.  DESIRABLE BQTOMSI3?, In this list we include such features ass  gymnasium  Ill  and gymnastic apparatus, playground apparatus, library room, teachers3 room, assembly hall, study hall, school garden. She inclusion of the last item as a part of equipment may occasion some disagreement, but the author is thinking primarily not of a flower-garden but of a plot of ground essential to the teaching of agriculture. We are first concerned with gymnastic f a c i l i t i e s . Equipment for Physical Sduoation (questions 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) . Gymnasium and gyaxiastie apparatus, also playground apparatus, are included tmder the above caption.  -The first  t\so features may be said to be at present virtually absent from about eighty per cent of a l l rural high schools.  Physical  Education as a compulsory subtest cannot be undertaken in British Columbia under present conditions, outside of large urban centres.  I t is useless to put pressure on the already  overburdened r a m i taxpayer to improve this situation.  Revenue  must be obtained from some other source or sources. Playground apparatus ia more in evidence in the rural school than gymnastic equipmentc are twofold:  f  ihe obvious reasons for this  {1} lack of gymnasiums and (2) the sharing of  playgrounds with elementary classes. • Library room and teachers' room (questions 5,  6).  More teachers' rooms than library rooms aro reported as satisfactory.  As might be e x p e c t e d t h e possession of both  theso types of room is mora characteristic of seal-rural schools than of rural.  Hore unsatisfactory conditions of teachers'  121A  rooms are mentioned than of library rooms„  Shis is to be  :  expected when we ascertain, that there are many more-teachers3 rooms than library rocms,  -  Assembly and study halls (craestiORS 2,  S)„  I?o superior school reported possession of either a study hall or an assembly h a l l .  Obviously this state of  affairs is'natural end one which may be expected to continue for some time." halls p  A• few-,rural high schools motion satisfactory  but the writer believes that the true interpretation  of what a study hall or an assembly hall really implies has been misunderstood by the. principals reporting the possession of either feature„- ' Perhaps by assembly hall thoy moon tho  i  •m  \  place where the pupils assemble before going into classes # The writer regrets not having used tho more definite term "auditorium".  At a l l events mo re large schools mention satis-  factory assembly halls than do the smaller . Scarcely any school, even including the semi-rural, possesses- a study h a l l .  I t would seem that possession of  assembly and study halls Is net a characteristic Of rural  l:  secondary schools and probably never w i l l be. School jjag&sat (question 33 }. I f agriculture is to be emphasised as a subject specially suitable for a rural school curriculum a school garden for experimental purposes is a necessary part of the laboratory equipment needed for the proper teaching of this science-,  •-....••••••••-  ' •' • •  •  "I  '  ' '•  . -  -  • ,  •  •  • •  [  -  :•..:•••  I I f  ft  3***L3*u>C? We find upon eacamination that easily ei ght out of every ten secondary schools in tho country are not in possession of anything that might be called a school garden. Available land for experimental plot (question 31)„ Olosely allied to a discussion of school gardens we find this query regarding the availability of land for experimental purposes„  I f no school gardens are nov; in evidence the  question arises whether or not land in possession of the school might quickly be adapted to serve this purpose, ffortysis schools replied in the affirmative to this question, (Twenty answered in the negative,  twenty did not reply„  Evidently tho almost complete lack of gardens is not such a serious matter as at first might be supposed if agriculture is to be advanced as a desirable subject for the high schools of farming ccmmunities. She following schools report no available land for experimental purposesc Superior schools. fort George, Haze It on, Rutland, Wo oaf ib re,. Blakeburn, Queen Charlotte. High schools. Armstrong, Enderby, Granby Bay, Howe Sound, loco, Kelson S r . , Peachland, Powell River, Rosaland, 7ernon, Pernie, Saslo, Hanaimo, Penticton,  SPECIAL BQUIPMEH5 (question  • .  22).  2he possession of some kind of special or unusual  121A  equipment cannot 'be said to be a prepossessing feature of rural secondary schools.  Only forty-three schools could f i n d  anything to list in this natter,  Sweaty-seven reported that  they had no such equipment, and sixteen did not reply,  2he  writer is led to believe this latter response is equivalent to a negative asaav?er„  Shis would mean that half of a l l rural  secondary schools possess no special equipment. 2he piano is easily the outstanding article under this classification of equipment,,  I t is followed in popularity  by the phonograph.; £he uses of both are varied and numerous. A.complete list of special equipment mentioned by the schools is here given in order of frequency of mention..  Article  i're que nay of mention  . Piano  Piano (a) recreational purposes (b) singing • • (c) concerts and literary society meetings  Phonograph Kimeograph Project1on lantern  o  Lantern slid o  9  Organ  P a  Outdoor gya. equipment Motion picture machines (Prince Rupert, Ocean Falls)  Uses  • 2 2  Phonograph (a) reoreational purposes '""(b) music appreciation. (Penticton) (c) typing (d) teaching Prench Mimeograph school paper'  Miscellaneous items and their uses. These items include a tennis court, surveyor's transit,  121A  microscope, balopticon, radio and type-liters,,  Th© surveyor's  transit is employed in teaching geometry and the balopticon for geography and agricultural classes,  A high power micro-  scope possessed by Ganges High School is used for general cultural purposes, tife have now completely surveyed about ninety per cent of the equipment ©t present in possession of ten-room highschools and a l l the smaller secondary institutions beyond the boundaries of Vancouver, Victoria and Sew Westminster.  A few  recommendations based on our findings are offered in conclusion.  Recommendations , 1 . I'hat adequate amounts be made available for the purchase of equipment now essential for the proper teaching of compulsory subjects„ 2 . That as soon as funds are available primary attention be paid to outstanding needs in "essential" .equipment„  library  conditions should first be improved. 2hat as soon as all "essential" equipment can be said to be in satisfactory condition progressive improvements be made as rapidly as circumstances warrant in the matter of "desirable" equipment.  She provision of adequate gymnasium  facilities for rural secondary schools is worthy of attention as soon as possible. 4 . That definite minimum standards in the matter of rural school buildings and grounds be determined and demanded of school boards contemplating the erection of new structures.  121A  Such standards ara outlined la tire "Strayer-Engolhardt Boo re . Card for High School Buildings" and the "Score Card for Tillage and Sural School Buildings of Four Teachers and Less" ®hat as a present emergency measure a pamphlet giving practical Instructions for improving the general appearance of schools and for the constimetion of inexpensive playground and gpKfflsiua equipment be prepared fey 'the Department of Education and sent to- a l l r a m i ma. municipal school boards and principals. Shat tli© ninety per cent return on equipment here outlined be checked over and raised to one hundred per cent by a competent authority using some method involving personal visits to each school and the securing of photographic evi&erce of any serious deficiencies.  CHAPTER Tttll TEE RURAL HIGH SCHOOL STAFF  Sources of data. iTii© teaching staffs of our superior schools and high school groups hare already received some mention in a * "l former chapter,  ' .1 General comparisons were advanced between  the staffs of different types of schools.  But Information  there given in i&Is .respect was mostly of a statistical nature obtained frcm annual school reports, particularly the Annual Report of Public Schools 1932-33. fhis chap ter wi 11 give further details ooncernixg the teachers of our rural secondary schools.  She information  here given i s that obtained from the questionnaire submitted to principals»  She staff of the superior school will claim  our first attention. .  She staff of ..the s uperior schools in-general. As has been noticed before, women assistants and men principals are a characteristic of rural secondary schools, and this statement is especially true of the superior school. Of the thirty-seven principals of the secondary type of school thirty-two are men and five are women.  Of the ninety assis-  tants only eighteen are men and the rest are women.  1  Chapter IT,  ®omen  121A  principals are not to be found in the larger superior schools of more than four rooms.. Shree men principals and three women principals possess academic certificates.  Of the men  assistants thirteen possess first class teaching certificates, four have second class qualifications and one man assistant has a specialist certificate.  Of the women assistants sis  have academic certificates, twenty-four have first class certificates, forty-one have second class qualifications and one has a third class certificate,  'fhe average salary paid  men assistants i n 19S3 was #1140 and the average salary paid women assistants during the same period \ms llOSS. I n spite of what has been said in our introductory paragraph th© above information weald appear to be s t i l l mainly of a statistical nature.  She reason is that no defin-  ite section of the questionnaire submitted to principals called for information regarding teachers of elementary divisions. I t was therefore thought necessary to present the few details obtained from other sources before continuing our discussion. With these few general remarks regarding the staff of superior sehools we proceed to a detailed interpretation of information obtained regarding the heads of such institutions  SHE PRINCIPALS OF THB SUPERIOR SCHOOLS. >i@nce. The average experience of principals of superior schools who replied to Section I I question 1(a) of the questionnaire is eight and one half years„  Shis is more than a year in  121A  advance of the  figure 7 . 0 3 ,  given for this class of school »  in "The B . C . Teacher" of December* 1 9 3 2 . 1  The explanation of  course is that we -are dealing with principals alone, while the latter estimate is based on information concerning 151 superior school teachers.  About seventy per cent of the principals of  this type of school have less than, ten years® teaching experience.  ••••••  ...•••.....  Ih© fact that so few principals of superior schools possess the academic certificate indicates plainly that they are mostly products of the provincial normal schools, while high school principals, for the most part, receive their training at the University of British Columbia.  Special, 'gualif i-esitlons « She special qualifications reported by superior school principals are not very extensive when compared with those reported for hi^i school teachers. desire .for improvement is observable. school principals are  JIB.king  However an earnest  Many of the superior  efforts to obtain the B . A . degree  and academic certificate, mostly by means of work during svjnmer vacations.  Obviously they hope some day to be prin-  cipals of larger schools or assistants in urban institutions. A few principals report extensive travel, and two research work, one in heredity and mental pathology in children, and the other in the organization of elementary and secondary  1  p. 38.  121A  education for rural and village communities. According to the annual, report for 1952-33, sixteen superior schools, enrol students in matriculation classes, the total number of such students being fifty-two.  2his is men-  tioned mainly as a proof that much is often demanded of the superior school^ instructor in the matter of teaching highschool subjects.  She average superior-school principal has  a very difficult task on his hands.  He teaches not only high-  school subjects but also many elementary .school subjects as well,  (There is only on© other person in our whole secondary  school system x-ho may truthfully be said to be more overworked than he.  Ifcat person undoubtedly is the teacher of a one-room  high school.  Special work in rural  education.  One superior-school principal mentions having taken a course in rural "education and has also written reuorts on this subject*  -Two principals are contemplating taking agri-  cultural •and economic courses i n summer session. has taught rural science and agriculture.  One principal  Another has made a  private study of local conditions as they affect rural education,,  S t i l l another has done experimental work in the field,  of extra-currf.cular activities «,  Opi-mionsj 023. criteria for judging success, of rural teachers. A sunraary of what superior-school principals consider criteria for judging professional success of teachers in rural  121A  communities reveals some interesting decisions .  I t would  appear that they are somewhat opposed to ts-king as criteria length ox teaching-service or number of pupils. object to extreme specialization.  They strongly  On the other hand they are  completely in favor of the number of subjects and classes taught being taksn into consideration.  2hey also consider  inspectors 1  Shey are very much  reports a n excellent test B  i n favor- of the intelligence of pupils being considered i f pass percentages are employed as a criterion, and t h e y consider s ocial adaptability i n a rural community to be very important.  2hey strongly advise that professional prepara-  tion beyond minimum requirements be taken into 'fable  consideration,  XIX : nay be studied at this point If i t Is rem sabered  that the figures given are totals for a l l rural schools and not for superior schools alone. Further suggested criteria, not shovm i n the tables but supplied by individual principals, include mention, of the moral tone of the school, athletics, and after-school interest i n students on the part of the. teacher,  tenure „ Ho special information concerning tenure was asked for in the questionnaire, but the writer has made some estimates regarding this matter which would seem to Indicate that the average tenure of the principals of superior schools and oneroom high schools is not more than two years.  However- such  a statement is only tentative and calls for extensive reasearch  121A  TABLE  ®  XJZ  ?  ™ OHMRY-SCHOOL PRIICIPALS PH0P0SE3 n- S S ? ? ^ FOR TOMXVO TEE £> JCCESS Ojj SURAL TEACHERS.  tfrequeucy oxJ meatTog" Criteria  ab Least Desir- Desirable ( r ) able(o'  a;Pass percentages • taking- intelligence ,of pupils into consideration '  m  b,Social adaptability i n rural eoramunit? -  m  ©.Inspectors*  Reports  d.lumber of subjects and classes taught e»Professional preparation beyond minimum requirements •  55  g.Other • suggested criteria  Pass percentages disregarding, i n t e l l igenco of pupils  10  23  6'  25  64  7  29  64  13  23  52  20  Zi  42.' 31  ' 27  11 •  24  0  67  22  0  34  20  41  20  48  32  5  m.  31  41  A  IS  67  h.Suraber of pupils taught i .Extreme . specialization  6  19  27  19  81  9  45  f.teaching experience i i n length of service!  'Percentages reply - .{ BT«> jBLa ^ X , 0 I . R ,  55  &t  78  121A  for statistical verification.,  H L ^ - p i S  S T O O L PRINCIPAL AMD, HIS ASSIS'IAHSS.  erlenc 9 * R  2he 3.G„ Seacher" for Dee-saber, 1 9 3 2 , 1 gives 11.8  years as th© average experience of the hi^a-school teacher. Ihis figure* which includes all teachers, is lower than that of the principals replying to Section I I question' I f a l . a a d lb) of the 'questionnaire,  She average experience of this  group is 5.25 .years for their experience i n elementary and superior school vtork and 8 . 2 4 for high school teaching, maMng a total of IS .49 years,.  IDhe experience of high school  assistants reported by the principals is less than this, being for them approximately one and a half years in elementary and superior school %-ork, and five years in high-school teaching.  •  Major subjects- taken at the gniversity {Section I I , question 1) A, study of Tabl* 2X. shows that ma Jos? s u b l e t s taken most frequently at the University by these principals are 'mathematics and chemistry.  English and social studies come  next in order of popularity. last of all, natural sciences.  1  g  I'hen come French and Latin, and Health, music and art, home  p . 38.  Henceforth, for the purposes of this investigation, the term "natural science" shall me an a grouping together of agriculture, txTtany, biology and general science; "aesthetic" subjects shall mean music, art and dramatics; and "practical"1 subjects shall mean home economics and manual training.  122A  :  :  TABLE XX~  SPECIAL SUBJECTS 1'AUGHE BY PRINCIPAL M B ASSISTANT'S IH RURAL JUS SEEX-RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS IH COMPARISON WITH THE ITAJOE SUBJECTS STUDIED BY THEM AT 'ulflTHSRSITY P H .UI C I P A L S major subsets Spec.Subjects a ^ U n i T ^ s i t y ||ofaught<g ; ' 1"——1 - It?" . 1 $ -'."'30 ' .. . 11  ^Department Mentloned  English  AS  S l S . g j l f  S  Bimwauwwsw  61  44  53 [38  Mathematics  19 " :'3S  25  58  30  22  , 40  Social Stud.  15  26  11  26  3E  23  50  36  0  6  0  • 0  ' 17  12  19  kJ  31  EE  33 : 24  13  4 ' j  17  12  27 ; BO  ' IB  28 ' 20.  j 2^  •  Health  • 0-  I*rencb. Latin  ..'m  PhyHGhem* Hate Science Aesthetic  -  M f 19 9  is  32  24  | 56  s  K  §  12  • 0  0  Practical  0  0  2 ' ! i 0  Technical  0  0  o  Commercial  0  0  0  ; '  V  57 139  1  4  8  6  •  0  6  4 •  0  0  0  3  £  0  2  7  5  - 4S - 139  -  1  5  4  Representing for Major Subjects Principals Assistants  1  •  Representing for- Special Subjects Principals Assistants  S  ,  BL  .  1 *U<J *  economies, and .manual training receive no mention, not being offered at present at our university. Almost half the assistants reported by their principals would seem to have specialized In English; social studi.es (mostly history) corns nest,closely followed fey.Preach, mathematics, science and latin in tfea order named..  Slight  mention i s made of practical courses, natural science, aesthetic and conmereial s ub j c- cts, and none of health, or technical She reason of course is the same no that given for  subjects-. the p r i n d  o»  from tils i t would appear that in rural schools there is a distinct lack of teachers specially trained in the ne?/er vocational subjects.  Until t M s state of affairs Is  altered, i t is useless -to hope for improvement in rural ' curricular conditions or imagine the present options of our enlightened, program of studies w i l l ever reach rural secondary institutions.  . m j o r subjects taught by principals and assistants, (Section i l , question 1) ~~~ "  A study of TableXII shows that out of fifty-eight rural high school principals reporting we find seventeen per cent not teaching' any major subjoot studied at. the' University. Thirty-four per cent teach one of their major subjects, while sixteen per cent of the principals- teach two major subjects. Only three per cent teach three special subjects taken at the University*  She important fact to note however is that thirty  las A  TPMM  XXI  slumber snfi Per Goat of Principals end Assistants teaehing the subjects in v/hich they specialized.  Ho. of Teachers  (A) Principals teaching none of their major subject! »  B  oas -  R  «  tm  •••» '  '<S:  ttffiae " all  >;  •»  «  «  «  •«  t?  «  »  -*  -5  »  Total reportlag  H  'OHB  >  tl  -W  . n  50 58  I00f=  6 68  'two "  48  three "  2 Total rsnortins  Gent*.  17  Assistants teaching none of their major subjects n  Per  126  38  121A  per cent of the principals are employed in one-room high schools and therefor© teach a l l subjects. Gut of 126 assistants reporting, sis: per cent are teaching none of their major subjects at University, fiftyfour per cent teach one of these, thirty-eight per cent teach two nhile only two per cent teach three of the subjects special3y studied.  - . ,  • . *  '  taught by principals, and assistants. Of the special subjects taught by the principals  •the order of preference, if judged by the. total number reporting each, makes mathematics and science first and second choice respectively, but v/e find them almost equal in popularity.  Shese two departments are followed, but not closely, by  BngLish and social studies.  2hen came French, health, natural  science and Latin and the aesthetic subjects . reported practical,  Ho principal  technical or commercial.subjects in this  •-column*  • • . . • • • . . 3?he assistants appear to teach subjects in the  following order of number of times mentioned—Bn^Lish,  social  studies, mathematics, French, science, latin, health, music and art, commercial subjects practical subjects, natural science and technical subjects,  Forty-three principals  reported on special subjects taught and fifty-seven listed the ma j or subjects they studied at the University.  2he reason  for the striking difference between these tivo totals is found in the large number of one-room schools reporting.  In each  121A  of these and In all superior schools the teacher gives instruction in all subjects, or at 1 east attempts to do so 4 In both questions the number of assistants (one hundred and thirty-nine) remains constant.  :  g H J S ^ S l ^ ^ M M Q M g j ^ ^ Q g s e s s e d by rural high school teachers (Section 11, question 2} . • She possession of special qualifications such as  having taught at a university, extensive travel, research or *  study for advanced degrees, was mentioned on forty-one replies. Sight sohools answered in tho negative-and thirty-two omitted a response to this question,, 'A summarized l i s t is here presented in the hope that it may prove of interest in estimating the special qualifications of members ox rural secondary school staffs.  The  superior school list* which is naturally not so extensive as that of the high school, is given f i r s t . fai Sp|gial...qmalifl-catioas o f superior school teachers. . 1 . Educational research a , la. Botany b. in the mental pathology of children o. in the organization of elementary and secondary school curricula in village communities. 2. Iravel on the continent Completing th© degrees of ESQ*, Bachelor of Education, B,A. by means of extra-mural work* 4 . Summer school courses toviards the degree of B . l ,  121A  '5. Toaohing of matriculation classes for s i x years.. Spec la 1 qualifications of high school teachers. 1 . gravel (mentioned fifteen times) in the British Isles, Surope, Asia, Denmark, France,  Switzerland,  around the world, Hawaii, ten days in the U . S . S . R , and through the Panama Canal. Study for M.A, degree (mentioned thirteen times). 3  « Summer Sessions (mentioned ten times) in Latin, Physical Education (University of Washington) French (Paris) Art (Yietoria) French conversation (McGill) and courses at the University of British Columbia and Queens.  4 . University teaching. a* Assistant in Mathematics, University of British Columbia. b. Ass is tant i n Mathematics, University of Alberta.* 5. Post graduate study. a . At Chicago, Bristol, Washington, Cambridge and Leland Stanford. b . French in Paris. c» 'feaohers course in French, McGill. d» Vocational guidance, University of California 6 . Special positions, held.. a. Barrister, b. Superintendent of Soldier Settlement Board in Jpane0„,  .  121A  o« Potato Inspector {exhibition extension service) Rural School Inspector and Principal of a Rural Consolidated School P . B . I . Qr, Professional draughsman, military training. 7 . Special SlploiBas. and Certificates,, a . diploma in German and also in Rural science. "o. Diploma in Applied KLectrioal Snginoering. c . Scholarship, Scottish University. d. Commercial training. 8« Hlseellanep UB qualif iea tl ons^ . a . Research in education (mentioned three times). b. Completing 13, Paed. Besides the teachers possessing these qualifications, there are two principals.,, one at Princeton and the other at Chilliwaek, deserving of special mention on account of the great variety of their experience..  -She former has had two  years in Chemical Engineering at the University of -Poronto, held the post of chemist for the Ministry of Munitions, London, Engl and, for two years and res for a similar period chemist for the Whalen Pulp Company, British Columbia.  He is&s also  a surveyor for one year- in EGrthem British Columbia. Ihe latter for three years taught at the Yen thing University, Peiping.  He also has travelled in Europe, and  carried on an investigation on rural education in Denmark.  Special courses taken and wgrkndQne in rural education. Only twenty principals mentioned special courses.  taken in .some phase of rural education or special work done ' I n that field by themselves or their staffs.  Forty-five  definitely stated they did not possess such training or experience and twenty-one principals left this question a blank. It would appear from this response that very little specialization In any pirnso of rural education 1ms been undertaken even by^ teachers spending many years of their lives in rural schools-.  There is a great need for some attention to  this matter I f secondary education in rural British Columbia is ever- to approach a peak of efficiency or even to Improve to any extent.  A sunsmiry list of special work in rural education done by the principals and assistants of superior schools and rural high schools is her© offered for reference. {&) Special roral -education work done or ogzrtemplatea by Bitperlor school teachers. -«  "  111  iii«iiiii]i.hii 11 ii 111 bi"fti ii 1111 • 1"mil I i u  1 . Course taken in rural education and reports  2. Intention of taking Agricultural Economics at summer session of University. Ejtperimental ¥70rk in f i e l d of extra-curricular activities. *  4,  4 . .Private study of local conditions. 5 . teaching of Rural Science and Agriculture. (b} Special rural education work done by high school teachers, 1 . Special courses. a . Whree or four summer school courses with Mr.  121A  _ Gibson ana Botany wi th Professor John Pavidson. b  »  teal  Economic courses seventeen years ago at  Victoria (hold certificate)„ c« teacher T s course in Rural Science at Guelph. 2 . Special vroris. a , taught Agriculture* Biology, Gardening i n Alberta. b . Informal discussions' tztth School Board after personal thought on subject, e, B . A . v&vte on snail high. school. d. Stadied Boys3 Globe (4 II Olub at Oosmell). '  Sural- experience., a . Managed "stump ranch" for five years.' b* Bro ught up on farm In Saskatchewan. 4 . Special positions.held* a . Supervising principal of Junior high school organisation. b . Principal of Agricultural and technical School at Oharlottetovm, P . B . I . ,  for four  yearn. Again tv:o principals,  one at Ohilliwaois. and the  other at Haney, have had rural education experience w>rthy of separate mention,  Ihe former principal has planned and or-  ganised agricultural courses in China, investigates, the Danish Folk High Schools, and studied conditions i n schools for "new Canadians" on the prairies „  {  fhe latter has been & director  of Rural School Fairs and School Gardening, trained teams in  ISO  Judging crops and stock, and for ten years was Supervisor of school and home project work in agriculture.  Opinions of principals concerning literature read on rural education (Section I I I B, question if). The last question of the questionnaire sent to principals asked for the extent of their reading on the subject of rural education,  So this thirteen replied that they  had done some reading of recent literature,  Five replied  in the negative and sixty-eight omitted all'answer*  She writer  believes that this indifferent attitude on the part of educators is one of the most serious menaces to the future success of rural education in British Columbia,  Of those who replied there  v?as not a unanimity of opinion, regarding the n e c e s s i t y of attention being paid to this matter, but more principals were in favor of a definite program for rural education than were opposed to such a policy.  Attitude to improvement off,, professional,status. All rural high-school teachers, v& th the possible exception of soma of the special teachers (of v/hom there are few)» possess academic degrees, principally-in Arts.  She  M . A . degree is much in evidence and will probably be increasingly a characteristic of rural school qualifications in the future.  Likewise the B.A. degree m i l increasingly be found  in the superior schools end the PhD. degree in c i V  schools.  Many rural teachers realise that teaching standards will rise  2 SI  and are obtaining advanced degrees by summer sessions and extra-mural work. .  The professional training of hi#i school teachers 'has mainly been' obtained at the University, although some of the principals of the smaller schools have Uormal School training, having come up from superior school ranks after obtaining an academic certificate by attendance at summer session courses.  S M i Q M a , for. .Judging rural teacher's professional success. r (Seetion 11, question 8) — I n the matter of criteria for Judging the professional success of the rural teacher, as shown in Tabl<--  the  h i # . school principals agreed ?ath the estimates given by the superior school except in one particular*  They favored teach-  ing experience in length of service as a measure while the superior schools. opposed i t .  i, psychological  interpretation  would show, as a basis for this opinion, the greater experience and longer tenure of high school teachers as compared with those of superior schools. fourteen other criteria for the evaluation of professional success in the rural field were suggested.  She  complete list less duplications reads as follows: 1 . General spirit and attitude of school (discipline). 2. Pupils attitude to teacher. 5 . love of rural life and things of a practical nature. 4 . Ability to meet school emergencies*  121A  5. Business experience and contact with out-of-school l i f e generally. 6. Ability to inspire pupils. Organisation of athletics. 8 . Co-operation with. members of staff and with students. 9 . Sympathy, capacity for leadership. 10. Effect on pupils in making them useful, upright and successful citizens,  fenure e She tenure of rural high school principals and their staffs calls for extensive study and research worthy of separate treatment by itself.  The writer has gone into the  question only f a r enough to have fairly clear general ideas. He believes that when exact figures are available thay will show definitely that the smaller the school the shorter the tenure.  It would be a very interesting study to compute the  correlation between tenure and salary.  The Problsn of a Rural Salary Scale (Section I I ,  question 9 ) .  The mention of salary brings us to a discussion of this matter as it relates to rural secondary school staffs . She exact amounts paid teachers in 1933 for the different classes of school, both superior and high school, are given in Table XXI.  Our present approach to the subject v/ill be  from a different angle.  TABLE  xxn  SALARIES OF PRIICIPALB.AU1) A 3 S I S M 2 S 111 VARIOUS TYPES OF RURAL SSCOifDARY SCHOOLS 1932-33. Syp3 of School j'Sizs l1! 1 1 11  (A) Superior Schools Average Salary-  High School Assistants  High School Principals  Principals  -High©st Lowe st' Average .Highest lowest Average •Men (3) Rural High Schools.  «s  Sen  #1950  2  ESQO  1200  1761  #1890  liOOO  §1229  #1342  3  2790  1350  1914  2002  1000  1351  1256"  1325 . .#1140  4  2100  1600  1818  1680  980  ' 1374  1535  1450  Average for(B)  1712 2430  160?  2006  2000  1180  1363  6  2754  1800  2314  2080  1000  1500  - 7  3195  S280  2576  2070  111S  1632  < 5 ©  2970  2296  2640  2483  1223  ' 1784  %  2100  2100  2100  2160  1360  1814 .  2300  2537  2160  1360  1710  '1850 U }142S !  wiMfywiwiritiT*  Average (C)  2369  1622  Ave. (B) ana (C)  1818  XI5&3  •n 1 • • m i 1 ri ii i> h i i in i n 11 in hi."  $1175  #1016  1169  1023  1040  883  1346  5  10  Women  • ea  l'  1  (0) SemiRural High Schools.  389  foaoo; #1495  Women  Assistants  •  1400 1620  1055  950 «  1440  1033.  940  1225  1170  1140  1132  121A  I n the questionnaire submitted for consideration by principals these principals were given a table to complete. Minimum end maximum principals' and assistants 1 salaries as .'estimated for Vancouver we re given and teachers requested to complete the four spaces provided for their estimates of relative rural salaries to be paid.  I t was hoped by the  writer to derive from his results a definite ratio between, urban and rural scales,  so that at any one time, granted an  urban scale, it would be possible to estimate what rural teachers believed they should be earning at the same time.  • 4-gggal salary scale in terns of an urban (Vancouver) scale.  A total of seventeen rural principals decided that the same scale should be used for rural schools as for orban. Sorae qualified their answers by remarking that ability of districts to pay was the deciding factor.  I n not one case did  a rural principal place his estimate above the figures given for urban schools.  In many cases the figures were, decidedly  lower, showing a very modest sense of personal "valuation and also the ability to see conditions in terms of the communities' straggle to pay whatever salaries are offered. Bringing averages to the nearest dollar, we find that when the city principal has a maximum set of $4,000 the rural principal wo aid ask for at least #3, £72. salary for an urban principal were would like to be sure of #2, 262.  If the minimum  000 his rural equivalent  121A  Coming to the assistants we find that r&aii an assistant's maximum is | S , 0 0 0 i n the city the rural assistant isould consider #2, 289 as his equivalent compensation!  When  "the minimum for assistants is #1,500 in larger centres, the smaller communities would bo paying #1,435 according to our scale:..  .tec other pro posed scales. i'he issues of "The B.C.. Teacher" for the month of November and December 1932"" were practically devoted to a discussion and comparison of tm> conflicting panels of a provincial salazy commit tee e name ly the 2eaehers r Panel and the Peopled Panel.  After much search in the mass of detail  offered for consideration we finally ascertain that Tsfoere the teachers 1 Panel would pay a maximum salary to a principal of #4,500,. the People's Panel calls for #3, 780, while the minimums are re so ectively #2,600 andft2, 660.  ^e further  discover that the teachers' Panel offers $ 3 , 2 0 0 as a maximum for an assistant while the People's Panel gives #2,620 as the suggested amount.  She former cites S I , 4 0 0 as the correct  approximate for an assistant's minimum v»hile the latter believes §1,190 is a closer figure.  Actual salaries paid 1933. Actual salary figures for 1933 were considerably  1  Vol. X I I , IIos. 3 and 4 .  121A below some of these amounts.  I n urban schools the maximum  salary paid a principal was §3,432, the minimum f 2 , 7 5 0 . maximum for assistants vvas §2,730 and the minimum,  The  #1,166.  during the same period our rural group? (including a l l semirural schools and not taking into consideration elementary assistants in superior schools) offered #3,195 as the maximum salary paid to a principal,, vhile the minimum  to  §1,008..  The  highest paid assistant received §2,483 while the lowest obtained §980.  A, method of comparing a l l salaries. Just as city c o n d i t i o n in the matter of equipment were assumed as standard, lot us lifeorziso call urban salaries a constant factor.  This moans lhat the Teachers'  and People's  Pan el ragy be compare a with city salaries actually paid in 1931 (they use this comparison themselves)„  furthermore i t means  that rural and urban salaries for 1933 may be compared -on a T  -  '  percentage basis by a method similar to the plan- of the table i n Section I I of the questionnaire to principals „ We find #ien this i s wsrlce d out as shorn, in. fab l a J X I I I that our rural school estimates agree very closely with those of the People's Panel, except that the rural school is decidedly more can bit ious than any other'group in the matter of minimum salaries to be paid assistants.  The Teachers® Panel  practically agrees with the People's Panel with respect to the minimum for principals but is far in advance of it in a l l other ratings,.  I t even outdoes the urban scale in operation i n 1931  as regards principals' maximums „  TABLE  XXI13  A GOMPAmTITE SALARY TABLE SffJWIHG T/fflXOtiS SSTHM3S OF RSLATIV3 VALUK.  !  Opinion rag arding desirable salaries  Urbaa Standard  Proposed  .Peoples'  Sural  Panel  1 Scale  1933 (§2730) Prin. . 100$ Ifflf®  "  i5i  Asst. (§1X66) 100$ (03432)  w  ~  M  72 %  51%  66$  78$  60 i  101%  54i  100%  49$  100%  82$  90%'  Asst. C|2730) 100$  76$  v%  MX*  Actual Salaries5 1933  ATeachers' StlBQ3?i03? inc ludin Panel elemental, , ass is tantfg)  -  (1) Derived from averages cf estimates given by all rm.*aL secondary achool teachers based on assumed Vancouvsr seals of §3000» §1500 (rrdsu) asA §4000, §3000 (iaax.)» (2) Derived £20111 Tfaacouvcir scale (1931) - §3600 (asottasd •*> actual figure §3800), Al800 (rain.)  34200, §3200 (mas,).  Table is based on assumption that the Vancouver scale at any one time represents 100$  121A  A Proposed Rural fljpioma {Section I I ,  question 4 ) .  'With a view.to finding out If courses giving spe-eiai training to teachers in subjects of direct value to rural * pupils \"Quld prove popular w i m taach©rs~iii~service» were asked i f they were favorable to such a n idea*  principals Sueh  courses were to be offered i f the present ,curriculum were adapted to rural needs, successful  A Sural Diploma would be given the  graduate.  J?if ty-seven principals favored such a procedure, ten were opposed to it, question.  and nine did not reply a t a l l to the  Almost six times a s many principals were in favor  of taking up special courses culmimtiag In a Rural Mploma G S  definitely opposed to the idea.  Shis fact would  seem to imply that the time is opportune f o r the introduction of sueh courses at training-cent res for high school teachers. Many principals responded affirmatively wi th out any comment. A few made reservations regarding remuneration and the nature of the courses.  Swo openly scoffed a t the whole idea.  Method of training favored {Section I I ,  question 5 ) .  She favored method of training for these special courses was easily correspondence coarses for the superior school group and summer session a t the University for the high school section.  This difference is interesting from a  psychological viewpoint.  She superior school principal  objected to the expense and fatigue of summer school work and favored private study next to correspondence courses.  Private  121A  study was the second choice of the high school principals. Ehis was followed by the choice of correspondence courses for third place. groups.  Summer session at Victoria ranked last with both  I t rould appear that more than one method of training  should be made available—probably courses at summer session and some correspondence instruction.  A summary of the responses  of the teachers replying to this section of the questionnaire is given in Table  MIV.  jtoggl. ®.&QQation coarses. a -part of regular training fsiet^ ' — — More than eighty per cent of the superior school principals were in favor of special rural education courses being given a t the University as part of the regular teacher training program.  They  were also four to one i n favor of  these courses being made optional.  One suggested a definite  course in "How to teach in a Rural School", another asiced give urban training to rural teachers?" and another noted that most teachers are farced to teach in rural schools f i r s t . One also remarked that since most graduates must serve a few years in rural schools it seems imperative that some guidance as to rural problems be given.  Another went as far as to  suggest replacing some of our present courses vath the special ones suggested. She psychological interpretation of the words 1? ' 11 *' ' forced" and "serve" reveals an unfortunate attitude among teachets in general wittt respect to teaching in the country. Bills viewpoint must be improved or changed before much progress  13 7A  I !  mm  m y  " METHODS OF GBfAZIXfS WJR&L DIPSOSA FA70REI) BY TEACHERS  number who faror Method Favored  a . Sxmmer Seosioa at the TFnlversitsr  Ken  -  Women  $otal • Per Coat •  S3 .  22  §S  41  Reading Course {Private SfeSy]  S3  12  55  86  Co Gorrospondenee C0TLS?8G  ' 26  e  5  6  25  d 0 Siijas^i? School at  Total  y  87  48  11  135  :  100  121A  ean be made i n rural education.  Once teaching outside of the  larger cities is irnde attractive especially from a financial viewpoint, the problem of the efficient staffing of the rural high school w i l l be largely solved.. Principals of rural high schools i n the ratio s i x to one favor courses in rural education being pat on the regular . teacher training program of the University,  like the principals  of superior schools, they would have such courses mad© optional rather than compulsory.  I'his judgment indicates a sane attitude  • on the part of rural teachers to the needs of some teachers vfeo vlll never teach in the country, few though the numbers, of such undoubtedly w i l l always be.. Several recommendations would appear to be in order as a fitting close to this chapter.  Recommendations. 1« That teaching In a rural secondary school be recognized, by the Department of Education as requiring different training from that provided at present, T?hich is more adapted to prepare teachers for large urban schools' where inexperienced teachers are not employed.  Z.„ Ehat more adequate courses giving definite train-' ing i n rural school administration and rural sociology be put as soon as possible on the regular teaching program at the University of British Columbia, sueh courses to be optional for students.  3 . Tbat summer school courses giving similar advice and training be made available for smbiticus teachers-inservice wishing to give of 12ieir best to their respective '* rural communi ti es . 4 . 3?hat siroplementary means of obtaining the advantages of such special training, such as through correspondence courses, be made available during the school term,  especially  in the winter months, for teachers of remote schools ?iic otherwise would he denied the privilege of improving their professional status, 5„ 3?hat a- Rural diploma be, granted at the "Successful completion of these courses,  Shis diploma in recognition of  expense incurred in obtaining it might carzy with it some privilege preferably in the m y of a salary bonus, i?hich need not be large but should be adequate. 6. That' a l l high school teach ers-in-training as part of their regular work be sent to do practice-teaching and observation in'some superior school or rural high school (preferably the one-room type) for a period of at least two weeks, such students to be aveilable as assistants to the' ' principals of these schools a t a l l tiraes during their residence. 7 . fhat research work be undertaken in the matter of ascertaining the tenure of principals and assistants in a l l sizes of rural and urban secondary schools of British Columbia, and, if possible,, the re3ationship between tenure and sise of school and tenure and salary be established.  CHAPTER IX STU DH'SG?' POPOLAl'IOll  The needs and rights of students. "Youth to the Teacher" 5;each me to live, teach me to love, Teach me to work, to play, To keep alight the torch of truth To ' luminate my way That I may guide my steps aright That this, our vsorld, may be A better and more glorious home For tilose who fo llow -me .. *( R . D . A . Princeton, B„C.) The above "lines, written by one of our rural school principals, strike at once the ksyaote of a chapter to be dedicated to a discussion of the characteristics and needs of high school students, particularly "those attending rural secondary schools of British Columbia.  That students as a  bo6y have certain definite rights in the matter of what should be taught them would appear t o be obvious, but only lately has any extensive recognition been made of the matter.  In our own  Province this fact was clearly indicated by the survey of 1925. Since that time great improvement has taken place in curricular adjustment i n urban centres, but the rural high school student has as yet had little opportunity of profiting by our new extensive course of studies. Any count iy claiming to be a democracy should re cog-  121A  nise the needs of the pupil, viaether that pupil be in a small school or a large one.  Dyde in his chapter on "She High  School Population" sums up tho matter in these words j rt  2?he character of any school trf.ll be intimately affected by the character of the pupils who come x?ithin its doors. 2hero mast be great differences i n diameter be two en an institution which is highly selective and one which owens its doors to a l l . I n the former case the school .may pursue aims viiich are limited by the particular capacities and destinies of a favored minority of young veopls* In the latter ease it must e v e n t u a l s u i t its aims and materials to th© interests, capacities, and future callings of a group which is as1 wide as youth. ' Many of the papils no longer belong 1s those social levels in the community for whose children a eonrolete hi^i school education and subsegaent entrance upon the university is regarded as a social and professional necessity. Such pupils m y enter high school and thai dron out again i f their education does not appear to be satisfying any strong and rather immediate need. This, among other influences, has resulted in cumulative "eliminati on from grade to oracle thro tilth the high school course. "3. ~ ~' Such broad general remarks concerning the newer trends i n secondary education apply to the whole of Canada and require audi further delimitation in order to be shorn, as valid for rural secondary schools of British Columbia. But certain questions are raised which may be interpreted in terms of the group of schools under our consideration,  -for  example we may well ask ourselves questions such as - the following: % a t are the characteristics of rural high school students in general?  Is the rural high school destined  always to be as highly selective as it is at present?  I f so-,  and where are the fatrored minority in the country for  1  Dyde, op, cit„ p . 67.  121A  vJhom t h i s  highly selective high school is maintained?  If it  is not to be highly selective,, what are the interests, capacities, and future callings of youth in rural communities? '  3)0  r^ral pupils belong to social groups which regard complete  high school and university training a social and professional necessity?  And do. rural high school pupils begin high school  only to drop out so on afterwards because their education does not appear to be satisfying any strong and rather immediate need? frith, a view to finding a solution for some of these pressing matters the present writer has relied on several sources.  Differences with regard to the abilities and home  life of rural pupils m y be described with f a i r accuracy from about ten years® experience in teaching such students and from living in such homes in many different sections of the province.  A special part of the questionnaire sent to  principals (Section 1 A question; 2) ivas also devoted to ascertaining plans of students.  Further information regard-  ing rural high school students' reactions to the present curriculum was obtained mostly direct from a very typical high school class in a rural community taught by the writer himself.  Ihe thirty students comprising this class were  given compositions torar-ltein-which' they were asked to express themselves frenltly on many phases of rural secondary education as it exists at present«  Moreover an objective  type of questionnaire on the high school curriculum was filled in by the class.  The results of this latter investigation are  121A  given i n detail in a later section of this chapter. «  Ability-differences among rtsrsl high school students. In the matter of ability-differences we find the rural high school student not unlike the urban pupil, but the former is not permitted to develop his latent possibilities to the same extent as the latter.  However there is only one type  of student for vhom the present curriculum as taught in rural centres can almost be said to be specially designed.  That  pupil is one of the five out o f every hundred who is endowed by nature with an I„Q» of 120 or over.  Such a student requires  only a small amount of attention from the teacher and actually thrives on sm?mo mating'difficulties*  Neither inadequate  equipment, poor instruction, nor narrow curricular offerings can give him a distaste for learning.  Such an intellectual  •  aristocrat is the sole survivor of the "favored minority" for ^hoEi the traditional high school was formerly intended. As far as the needs of the other ninety-five per cent of student population are concerned, even today in the country the students comprising this latter- group are offered only one curriculum or 'tec closely related curricula at most„ It is tacitly implied in giving them this meagre range of choice that they can "take it or leave i t " .  Any study of  statistics showing pupil-elimination during the early years of high school supplies the answer as to just what happens. She student takes it—and leaves i t .  121A  Only a teacher in. a rural high school uho struggles day after day to impart a traditional curriculum to many members of this ninety-five per cent knows the magnitude of - the task confronting him,  2ry as he may he finds it impossible  to convey In any satisfactory sense of the word an appreciation of the classics, the abstract subtleties of mathematics or even the intricacies of a modern foreign language.  fhe pupil  vvho is not "built that way" simply does not respond. .  •  "  It may  - *"V  be said that he does not openly object either-, because his • training in obsequiousness has been perfect and parental authority is behind his attendance.  The  "ritual fallacy" at  Its TOrst may be seen I n any rural high school classroom today in rural British Columbia.  Ho one *«oiil& ever think of teaching  music to the deaf, singing to the dumb, and art to the blind. Xet every day in every way \m blithely proceed to impress what rre fondly believe to be "culture" on students who are practically deaf, dumb, and blind by nature to most .of ishat we have to impart.  I n other -tfords we calmly insist upon  training future loggers, fishermen, mechanics, aviators, farmers, merchants* miners along lines leading only to professional modes of life.  It would almost appear that the  only defence possible and at the same time logical for such a system vaouia be the traditional one—namely, that what was good enough for our ancestors cannot fail to be good enough for "us „  121A  f he ..home H f e of rural studentsI n the matter of horns l i f e there is a great lack of variety i n the matter of environment in rural communities, ' As .a general rule the high school student in the open oountrv sees the same < things day after day. • He sees the identical people he l m w last year ai»d the ys&r before. sams things in the same way.  They say the  She village store., ^feioh  generally also serves as a pos toff ice, i s the meeting place i n the afternoon and evenings for a group of people who in '  .  «  sny ordinary sense of the word can easily be classed as idlers. At any rate they do not provide stimulating companionship for the youth of the smaller ccsirnunities. Th© rural high school at present does very l i t t l e to relieve the monotony of existence i n rural communities. Who ever heard or even thought of a group of country students discussing Latin, French, geometry, algebra or similar subjects outside of school hours or even during Hi ese hours i f they could possibly avoid it?  The writer is not i n the slightest-  way advocating the use of "soft pedagogy" in saying t h i s .  It  is his fir in belief that the rural student up to the present  '  has never been shown how to relate the ordinary events of his borne l i f e and the activities of his community to the outside world.  There i s nothing "soft" about such a mental exercise. I f the student i s in a n agricultural  community ho  does his daily chores and his milling, and where his physical exercise ceases his mental exercise has never even began. has never been taught to follow in imagination the chain of  He  121A  c ire mi sialics s viiicli Ills own work starts»  Ho knows practically  no thing concsrning the so oiologieal, e conomic, and ethical implications inherent in ©very exchange of commodities.  His  'geography, general science,and arithmetic have never besaa jaa&e real in the "little red school house" but are always so maoy pages of homework out of a book with examinations looming over the horizon.  If i n a mining district ha has  no realization of the-intense human drama surrounding the extraction of minerals and the reflection of such a caption in a newspapera^Gold Standard Abandoned®.  I f la a fishing  town he has no conception of the implications to prodoe'er and consumer alike vhen the price of salmon drops even one dent a pound „ I f we »nter directly into the rural home and look around us we find that only the exceptional parents possess even a reasonably large bookshelf adequately stocked with th© better class of reading matter„  The occasional piano is to  be found, but i t Is as of tea as- not a mere o niament or piece of furniture-, for competent Instructors in music are not to be found in every small district,  The radio is coming more  and'more into evidence, but the taste of -the average student is not for very refined music, especially i f he has never been trained how to' hear it i n a music-appreciation course.  Around  the walls may be hung the occasional reprint but the cheap calendar type predominates.  Obviously the present limited  home life of the average student., if i t cannot be improved extensively by indirect means based on formal discipline as  121A  i n th© past, should be improved intensively in the future by . direct means founded on conscious .transfer of training,  2his  is one of the tasks of the rural secondary school, • ....  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  j  .  Distances of rural pupils from secondary institutions .  j  'fhe comparatively long distances travelled by some .  .  .  .  .  .  .  |  .  rural high school students in their efforts to acquire an 1  ! I  education are worthy of much more study and investigation than  I  have ever been given the subject i n the past.  |  Intimately  acquainted as he is with the lives of rural students, • to the .. '• . . '  tI I  writer there is a slight touch of pathos in the thought of  |  skat a poor substitute for real education after a l l is given  |  to the eager-eyed young people \mo trudge or ride long distances  |j  .  i n the hope of obtaining something  •  V.  worthwhile when the school  house is finally reached„  I  Srlxe writer has taught In many types of community and  '  would say that a mining district presents the least objectionable feature in respect of pupil-distance from school, •  In  I  i  some pjiaces the sound of the bell may be heard by a large, part of the population. 2his is not true of an agricultural community.  Of  course an consolidates districts adequate bus service practically does away with this problem.  Extreme cases occur when high  j,|  school pupils come from t m or more different districts not united for high school purposes. As a matter the .author upon enquiry found •.•••:•-•.••>• .Interest • ' that many and varied were the distances travelled by M s  .'  fj few ji  121A  students, and  the sarss might be said concerning their  methods of travel.  Practically half the members of this  particular class live more than a mile from the school 'grounds.  The average distance travelled by this group  found to be four and one half miles.  A fetr walked to school,,  some cam© on bicycles, the rest caught rides on milk tracks or were even taken to school i n private automobiles driven -by their parents, miles.  fhe walking range was about one to three  The use of a bicycle extended this to eight miles .  'I'wo students came twelve miles every day, being brought in their parent's automobile .  Shese particular parents make  another trip in the afternoon to take their children home. One student actually for a ^hile rode his bicycle between the tracks on the railroad in an effort to shorten M s otherwise nine mile trip every morning. A similar enquiry made in the senior room of the elementary school section of this same building revealed the fact that the range of pupil-distance from school was' less for younger papils.  I t uras found to be one to four miles.  I n the elementary school the average distance walked by those coming from more than a mile was two and a half miles. '' A frequent sight in, the morning is to see ma jay pupils swaisning off convenient milk tracks driven by go od-natared drivers tafao are always billing to stop for them.. .  • -  A  Relative -proportion of boys and girls in rural schools> Mention lias before been made of the 3& rger number  121A  of girls than boys to bo found enrolled in rural secondary schools/  The writ or suggests that a w r y profitable research  would be the tracing of the prevalence of this state of affairs from the early educational history of British Columbia to the present,  Any research on the relative proportion of boys and  girls in rural schools should of course offer to explain the reasons for pupil-elimination at'any particular time. -  of rural etad^atg proceeding to higher We now return to- information to be gleaned from principals of rural high schools circularised -as to what •proportion of the student population of their establishment • intend to proceed to University or to Hernial School*  She  averages of estimates supplied by the eighty-six schools answering the question shows definitely that about twelve per cent of the students concerned intend to go on to the University, and eleven per cent are interested in teaching as a career.  Small as these percentages are the writ®?  believes they would he even smaller I f more optional courses were offered in rural high schools.  As conditions are now  the parents in rural communities who cannot afford to send students away to special training schools trust that the acquisition of a matriculation certificate may prove of some service, concerning the exact extent of the advantage of which they have no very clear ideas, • • • T1 " T " ir,,[l -"''- I ' w ? ,, . n ' l ' l "" l| " l >"» 1 *"  ^ Chapter 1 7 * ' p . 40*.-  •••-,, ,..,„.  , -,-. ,.,...•,...-,, ,  ||h1||||<t-M.  .  ,.„,„„„  ,,,  „ ; .....[1||t-  • __ ,  121A  Plans ox Rural Students as to Future Occupations (Scotion 1, question A2, More than half the students now in rural secondary schools -throughout British Columbia have never made any special effort to plan a future career so as to motivate their attendance at high school.  It would appear obvious  that "there i s a grave need for som© sort of guidance being given such students «  A course in present day occupations  may be made very fascinating by a teacher who has had a varied espsrience of l i f e , arid such a course mould prove more useful to any student  than some of the present day  offerings. According  to the estimates of principals concerning  plans of student a,, about a quarter of their students have definite plans for the future.  One school (Snithere) found  out the following information concerning its sixty-five students: Plans of Students  jo,, of Students  Mechanics jJoitnal School Bursing H e e t r l c a l work University Business Commercial m v k fining Engineering Aeronautics Interior decorating Pharmacy . Radio Mechanics  9 • 8 7• g. £ • 4 5 5 3 2 2 2  Individual students gave the following as their choice— . Dietetics., Architecture. Publishing* Writing, Telegraphy, Salesmanship and Medicine„ plans.  Five students had no definite  121A  Baring given the complete response of an inAividiial school vio shell now offer a general l i s t of the plans sITI5tte by students as indicative of their future l i f e vioy±. "plans will be subdivided into thro©, groups';  These  the first listing  the choices raacle by boys, the second those by the girls, and the third a small group of occupations suitable f o r -both sexes.  j  She superior school will be.dealt v& th first .  j  • •  ••  -• . ' •  '  :  ' •  •  •• • • •.-. •  •  '  • •  (a) g3ans of students of superior schools (list i n order oxpr^^renceTT > * — „ Boys—Faming, business, mechanics, to clinical work, surgery, building trades, forestry, pharmacy* mining, wireless, professional life..  I  \ ;  j  . .  Girls—ITurslng: {mentioned eight times), stenography (noted twice). Miscellaneous—g©aching,  landscape gardening, music.'  :  (b) Plans of hlfih school stuxlents (listed in order of Boys—Mechanics, business, farming, pharmacy, electrical engineering,  engineering,  technical work, 'aviation, army,  medicine, baiild.ng, chartered: accountancy, carpentry, physical education,, scientific agriculture,, trade, logging, fruit ranching, surveying, law, industrial work, Baval Department, forestry, journalism, marine engineering, Dominion Fisheries. girls—Ilursing (mentioned erighteen times), dietetics, interior  i:  dooorating, dental 'nursing-, church work, stenography, waiting, .'•.,•"•.• * • • stage dancing, home economics« • ,  | i j  121A  Boys or Girls—Music, clerking,  teaching, commercial art,  journalism,  art. Committees on curriculum organisation mi$it well  ask th ems elves what they intend to do concerning the needs of so varied a group as rural high school students represent. Eeodless to say these needs cannot be met individually.  But  this fact is no argument for recourse to a traditional curriculum r&ich definitely i s aimed at fitting a l l who take it for professional l i f e which not many can successfully undertake and in which the vacancies are few. To the writer one amusing fact revealed by the l i s t  j  is that no girl gave home-making as a choice of a future  t  career.  j  Yet a recent census report in the United States  jj  revealed that of American women twenty-five years old and over, 86.7 per cent are married.  Surely such a normal condi-  tion of affairs must be true of Canada also .  's  lursing is  easily the outstanding choice of girls as a career.  !  j  The boys  appear to favor mechanics and allied occupations .  '  Pupil Response to Present Curriculum* Craning to the matter of pupil response to curricular ••  •  J  _  offerings, the writer found the students of his school quite ~ , •• willing to express themselves freely in matters pertaining to their education.  In general they favor health as a subject  but are opposed to latin, French, algebra, and geometry.  They  i,  f  do not care much about ancient history and wish a course in modern social problems or law and politics could be substituted. • .  ' .  . - ' - • . • :  ^  j jil  121A  S-'hey -syould like to see domestic science for girls and manual training for boys put on their high-school time-table.. A questionnaire arranged to obtain responses of an objective nature which could be expressed .as percentages supplied the folio-King information:  (She percentages given  in brackets are based on the number of students completing th©  questionnaire, in this case twenty-six pupils,) (a) Subjects which students consider suitable for all Health, Literature, Grammar. Geography, Composition,  (100$) • {90fa)  Arithmetic, General Science,  (80  Chemistry, Algebra, French,  ( 70^)  fk) Subjects which students consider suitable f or a rural Literature, Composition, Health,  ( 100$)  Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic,  (85^)  Chemistry, History, General Science.( 70$) (0) Subjects whfoh students consider should be taken off latin, Geometry, Greek, Algebra,  (60$) .,-..(50%)  (French, German, Art, Music)  (40^)  (d) Subjects students consider should be added to rural curriculum. " ~ 1 "" " ™ Domestic Science, Manual 2raining, Bookkeeping, typing, Shorthand, Metal-working, Botany, Woodworking.  (50$>) • (35fo)  (20%)  121A  (e) Subjects which a tod exits consider need more suitable : : 1 texts; ' : History,  (75$)  Composition,  (50%)  Chemistry, Algebra,  {35$)  French, Grammar, Arithmetic, Health, latin, General Science .  { 25$)  •(£)• Subjects -ishiflh students c consider should be begun in elmrnte^sehooTr" " ~ ——- • Geometry,  (75$)  French,  (50$)  Algebra,  •  General Science,  (40$) (30$)  (&) Subjects which students consider to be easy. literature,  Grammar, Geography,  (30$)  Health,  {25$)  Composition, Geometry, History.  (20$)  fk) M b j c c t s which students consider to be difficult.  •  Algebra, Latin,  (70$)  Geometry, Chemistry,  (60$)  History, French.  (50$)  { i ) Subjects which students consider to be interesting. Geography, Health,  (50$)  Literature, General Science,  (40$)  His tory, Geome try.  {soft)  215-  {j) Subjects which students consider? to be uninteresting, latin,  (55$)  History,  (45$)  Algebra, Geometry, French,  (S5$)  Arithmetic, Chemistry,  (£6$)  f^) All subjects on the course of studies ranked by students -subjeoVWingmentiHied f i r i f T " ' ' ^ ^ " "  "  1  —  —  (1) Health (2) Literature (5) Grammar (4) Geography (5) Composition (6) Physical Education (7) Domestic Science (8) General Science (9) Manual Training (10) Bookkeeping (11) Typing (12) Shorthand (15) Arithmetic (14) Agriculture (15) Botany (16 Woodvsorking (17) His tory (18) Biology (19) Physics (20) Mechanical Drawing (21) Itfetalworking (22) Art .(23) Spanish (24) Dramatics (25) Greek (26) Algebra (27) German (28) Geometry (29) French (SO) Music (31) Ohsaistry (SB)  Latin.  ( i ) ghe subjects grouped under twelve subjeot-a apartments and ranked by students. (1) English (2) Health (3) Mathematics (4) Social Studies (5) Practical subjects (6). Natural Science (7) Aesthetic subjects (8) Physics and Chemistry (9) Commercial subjects (10) French-German (11) Technical subjects (12) Latin-Greek. The low rank of Latin is an outstanding feature of student ratings.  On the positive side health is the favorite  subject of the students.  Whether these ratings would be  215-  changed considerably if checked by larger groups Is unknown to the writer.  One of the principals of a rural school  (Duncan) took the trouble to submit a questionnaire to his Students asking for a ranking of subjects studied by each grade.  latin is not taken in that.school but health was seen  to be ranked quite 1 ow by his students.  She writer is of the  opinion that pupil judgments are not very reliable except in a very general s ease.  Young students are inclined to adopt  unreservedly opinions expressed by people for whom they possess great respect or admiration.  Bote the inconsistency o f pupil  judgment in sections K and. L with respect to mathematics. A genuine effort is being made by the school just mentioned (Duncan) to adapt the rural high school to the needs of the pupils *  We quote as follows:  "She students have signified their desire for some the approval of the local School Board we intend to offer ^ e junior business course to Grade IK this year to take the place of art for the boys and general science for the x li^Xs $ "In the next year a bookkeeping course will be offered to the new Grade IX and the new Grade vMch latter will be the Grade IX having had a junior business course the preceding year. In this way we will offer these courses In alternate years and handle two classes, thus each year xil 11 get both courses. "She general feeling is that we should offer in addition to the above a course in, woodworking for the boys (vd thout the metal work now included in the technical* courses) and a dressmaking course for the girls (without the cooking which, is offered in the domestic science courses at present). 3?here should also be a course in typewriting and shorthand. In other words for those going through university they should have the subjects as at present, but for those who Kill probably have to s e o k positions in business houses, lumber company offices and so forth there should be amors practical type of curriculum.  215-  The ratepayer claims that hie sons and daughters should not have to take a business course after having completed and paid for high school work, "We are trying in so ffer„as possible to folio® alone these lines in this district.  A few recommendations have occurred to the author during the preparation of this chapter and include those on the list given below:  Re co mine nfla ti ons „ 1 . That any future changes made in curricular organisation of rural- secondary schools be based, partly at least, on the known needs of the students ufeo are .to attend the schools in question, 2» That research be instituted in the matter of finding the cause or causes and probably remedies for pupililimination in the early years of high school attendance, especially as these affect the rural high school boy, 3 C Ihat some form of guidance be made available for high school students especially for the large percentage of them who appear to be comparatively aimless with regard to plans for their futur© s 4„ That some present subjects, of direct use only to a small proportion of high school students, such as Latin and French, be offered only as optional correspondence subjects, teaching time thus saved being devoted to larger interests. 5. 'fhat home economics in some form, not necessarily employing the services of a specialist, x  be made available for  ." • • •„, • • Questionnaire to Principals, Section I , 2 , — Reply from Duncan High School.  215-  girls in rural high schools v/hil© a practical course in. general mechanics or- some allied subject be riven the botrs.  CHAPTER X THE PRESEHT CURRICULUM  Evolution of the present curriculum. • I t is difficult to realise that the broad and flexible curriculum today available .in large urban centres of British Columbia can actually be traced back to one which was very narrow and formal.  I n fact the only evidence now  left of this evolution is.found in the programs .of rural high schools where primitive conditions still prevail.  Elsewhere,  especially within recent years, expansion of curriculum offerings has been, much in vogue in educational circles.  Subjects studied by high school pupils of Canada in 1923. I n order to substantiate this last statement with concrete evidence, let us select a definite year in the educational history of Canada and find out the relative Importance of the various high school studies at that time on a composite secondary curriculum. Dyde i n Table 45 of his study*" presents an account of the number of students studying thirty-two subjects in six provinces of Canada in 1925,  The sampling included 89,383  pupils, of whom considerably mors than half i?ere from Ontario. English, easily the leading subject, was taken by  Dyde, op. Pit. p . 186.  215-  86,229 pupils nh.il© only 800 students were enrolled in Spanish, She  complete list of studies pursued in their relative order  of importance based on this method of ranking is shovm •»as follows:  ^'iri^^TZ!  j  5 1 1 0 9  of  Sank  'Subject  Rank  1  English  li IE IS 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20  2  •  to be  s French 4 History * 5 - Physical Cul. 6 Latin W: — 7 Geometry 8 Arithmetic 9 Geograohy 10 Art ~  Yayi012R  hip;h s e h 0 0 1  Subject  Rank  Subject  21 22 23 24 26 25 27 28 29 50 51 32  Physiology 'Agriculture typewriting Stenography trigonometry Military Drill ' Business Law etc lausic German Practical Maths . Greek Spanish  Botany Physics Chemistry . Physiography Reading Zoology Elem. Science Manual r£raiii* Bookkeeping Household Sci,  fitthJeote  S . B . -The reader Is requested to note in all other tables the positions of the four subjects underlined„  jects in British Oolumbia in 1923. In Cable 46'A we find th© highest sixteen subjects of the curriculum ranked according to the number of pupils taking them in different provinces. Upon examination we find the following order holding true for British Oolumbia:  Byde,, op. oit., p , 188„  215-  Rank 1 3  Subject  Rank  English Algebra  9 10  11  3  4 5 6 7  a  12  Latin Arithmetic Chemistry Geography  15 14 16  Subject  History Art Physics Manual draining Bo t say Household Science Stenography Typewriting  The solid grouping of Algebra, Geometry,. French and latin second only to % g l i s h its to be noted as characteristic of the high school curriculum offered in British Columbia in 1925*  But comparisons so far given show only roughly the  relative weightings of'the various subjects on the high school curriculum f o r 1923 and must not be pressed to give meaning which they cannot properly yield*  A mors accurate method would be to obtain the time spent studying each subject from the product of the number of pupils studying a subject and the number of minutes per week assigned to that subject i n the time-table.. then given a w o i o f  I f English is  one hundred and the other subjects  weights egressed as percentages of the weight of ."English* a more truthful picture is presented of curricular tendencies in Canada and in British Columbia in 1923.  Table 47 as given  by Dyde i s here abridged by omitting four provinces and showing only the composite ranking given by five in comparison with British Columbia.  215-  TABm 47 twelve Important, high sohooj I j S p l I ^ ^  l?ive Provinces 2  Subject  100  English Preach 'Algebra 'jtotin History Slementary S c i . §ecsaeti Arithmetic Geography Art ' • ' Physics Chemistry %de,  100 74 64  B& 56  f 1} (  2}  ( 3) 52 f 5) 21 (10) 18 . . (12) 6S ( 4) 52 f 7) 24 ( 8) MO (11) B2 ( 9) 23 { 6)  32 48 4732  SO  SC •22 20 17  op B c i t p „  British Columbia  190.  flora Scotia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia.  aM-jor branches of study.  as-, to  Finally the relative weights of five major 'branches of secondary study in British Columbia and for five provinces combined are shown. . The following summary is derived from Table 4 8 1 ; Major Branch  five Provinces Eelatiim Weight-  Snglisb Mathematics Scienoe^™™^ ' Social Studies •••"  •" 1 •  '  1  ,  • •"  —-r- •  100 108 124 84 73  Byde, op. c i t . . p. 192.  British Columbia • Relative Beiaht ' 100 112 159  --—»—-  45  I  153  I t would appear that in 19 S3 not only in British Columbia but throughout Canada too much stress in the high school curriculum was laid on mathematics and foreign languages, to the neglect of science and social studies, Byde1 here remarks that the authors of the British Columbia Survey criticised the curriculum in that province on the ground that it was prevocational in too narrow .a sense. thR  t  it is- well known what j.mprovements have been  instituted by that survey, bat the present w i t e r believes that the rural secondary school curriculum is s t i l l pretty much in the same, state as it was in 1923.  fhis fact he hopes  to demonstrate amply later on in this chapter.  fjgg^-gglag t .ea4encl.es in Canada from 1920 to 1930. .  •'  I'LII'I'N'INIIUI INIII JI1111111 .•IMIYIII — II I' « I INMIIWI III II I'LL II« I IWHIOIIH X T ' II»L.T» M N  IMRRI N I M N N M :  Before proceeding to this discussion the next logical thing to do in our study of the background of the present curriculum write appear to be to ascertain what progress has been made from 1923 to the present; first for Canada in general and- then for British Columbia. ®he Annual Survey -of Education i n -Canada for 1951 supplies the following Information:  .  secondary schools have recently been changing in character to sttraot-^-or perhaps better, to servo—a wider range of students« Curricula have been altered and broadened in variety to include courses that i t was previously not-possible to obtain the publicly controlled school systems, technical and vocational courses have  1  We,  op, o i t . , p. 192,  215-  ma-chema'caoB and the natural sciences' may be gained from th© following figures whieh compare the Proportions"" Soudymg certain subjects in th© secondary schools of six provinces (there being no data, available for Manitoba Queoee and Prince Edward Island) in 19SO with those of ' ten years ago:l  •p  er Gent Studying Each Subject  languages English ffrench is t m Mathematics Arithmetic trigonometry latural Sciences Geo grapliy Physics Chemistry Botany Zoology technical and focati&n&l Manual training . fypewritiag Stenography Other !£echnical Courses  1920  1930  §•0:4 69:1 59.0  & ®o 69 :&  69 ; 1 8 rn& 61 ,2  5441 40; 15 30.9  mA  47:7 64 ;o so; 7 6.1 Ri -yf 23;s 24; 6 17 11.5  9:7 ' MB ^ .: 8;s 9.4 14.8 So comparative figures  Evidently during the ten year period in question much was done.in Canada in general to offset the criticism made concerning conditions in 1923 with reference to too much emphasis being placed on mathematics and foreign languages.. It may be seen from a study of this table that Latin, arith-  1  Annu&l Sufrvey of Education in Canada, Ottawa, 1930 *~">tor 1 9 p . XII „ ' '  215-  Miotic* algebra and geometry are much less generally studied in the high schools than they were tern years ago.  Offsetting  the general decreases in. mathematics, latin and science there ..are increases in th© technical and vocational courses shown,  gfegaggfij,,,in. secondary curricula in British .Oolumbia from 1 : i9ie to 1 9 ^ 7 — —' • -Jhese statements concerning Canada may make us wo»der_wfcat progress British Columbia can shor; in some similar period.  Again the Annual Survey of Education this time for  19SO comes to our aid by supplying a list of subjects studied in th© high schools of British Columbia from IS 18 to 1930 inclusive.^ I f the statistics for subject enrolment for th© two years 1918 and 1930 of this table are taken as partial evidence concerning the relative importance of the subjects concerned, we find some value in the following comparison of rankings;  1  Annual Survey of Education, Ottawa, 1930, p, 47  215-  British. Go Iambi a High SchoolsSubjects ranked according to number of students studying them Raak  Subjects in 1918  1 2 3 - 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  English Comp. -English literature Algebra Geometry latin 1  IB  13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  frSSSk  Arithmetic Br&wing Physics Botany Domestic Science Woodwork Geography Typewriting Stenography Bookkeeping. Chemistry General History Commercial law Agriculture 'Mechanics Trigonometry Physiology mmsm  Greek  Rank 1 2 45 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 IS 3.4 15 16 17 18 19 SO 21 32 25 24 25  Subjects in 19SO English composition English literature  '3 Algebra WSeiry Arithmetic ff.genoh PHYSICAL GUJ/OTI 1 Drawing omabihi c m c s GMJSEAI SCIEHCE Chemistry Latin . . . , Woodwork Geography Physics HEEDLEWORE & DfiKSSMAEIHff typewriting Physiology DIETETICS AHD COOKERY HUSIO IfBT/iI WORE DRAS'TIEG Bookkeeping Stenography  In. addition to these, on the IS30 high school curriculum wq find arranged in order of the number of. students electing thent the following subjects; (26) (Zt) (28) (29-) (50) (51) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36)  mSSSTlSM M B SLSCTRICITY COMMERCEr B0SIH3SS OORRESPOHDSBrCB AITD FILING MA0H1IIB SHOP IIBOEABIOS 'Commercial law SCOHOMICS Trigonometry Agriculture Botany German Greek  subjects offered in 1930'but not in 1918 are here capital!sed for the sake of -emphasis.  215-  Fo figures were given for Domestic Science, Statistical law, Biology, and Printing for 19SO. 1 study of the two subject listings reveals the .,fact  that  « period of twelve years has made a remarkable  difference both in the number of subjects offered and also in the matter of relative emphasis placed on the subjects,  A few of the older studies moved upward, but most of them suffered downward displacement' to make way for newer ' and more practical courses«  Only one disappointing feature  was to be noticed in this general trend:  Agriculture dropped  in rank from twentieth to thirty-third. Following is a list of all subjects of the original twenty-five offered in 1918,. which suffered a loss of prestige of more than five places in their new rank on the 1930 ratings,  1918 , « , • . , Subjects losing rank by more than five points Botany Agriculture Gorman, Greek Stenography, Commercial Law, (Trigonometry Mechanics,, Latin, Bookkeeping . Physics  .J»O,SS  IN  rank 24  10 Q 7  On account of the favorable reception given the many new subjects in 1930 only four of the 1918 list of subjects showed any .gain in rank as Is shown in the summary following:  16<-  1918. Sabject,«3 gaining somewhat in wank  Gain  General History • Chemistry •Physiology Arithmetic  ia  mjjt  1P  t  £  -C  A study of the table shorfisg. high school subjects offered in British Columbia in 1918 and 19SO will reveal the fact that eight new subjects (those ranking lees than twentyfive) have come up to displace others of the older group, !i!wo of these courses are obviously practical subjects for girls and take the place of the single coarse formerly offered.  gSg&gS^ogggaggla? progress in British Oolumbia a inn a i.93n Since 1930 we may report still further progress. In our latest syllabus we find mention of such subjects as Spanish, Dramatics and Oral Expression.  Also some technical  and commercial courses have boon improved and extended.  It  would appear we have some name for fooling a justifiable pride in our educational advancement.  But before we permit  ourselves to wax very eloquent on the progress we are making let us read what a principal -of a rural school has to report on what happens when an attempt is made to put this broadened curriculum into 'practice; Limitations of the small school. "Probably the main factor which leads to difficulty in the small rural high school at present is the general practice of electives and the copious programmes which  215the teachers of such a school are required to cover. "In the first place the teaching staff is limited to three or four and the four year course is generally adopted. In a school where there is a four year course and only three members on the teaching staff, two classes, of necessity, have to be placed in the same room. Since the classes become smaller and smaller toward the final year, it is the two classes which are in the higher grades which are placed together, there being insufficient seating capacity in most instances for any other two grades. 2his means that the teacher In the two upper grades must divide the three-quarter hour teaching period between these two upper grades w h o t h e work is the most difficult. Ihis would probably be a matter of small moment if the number of subjects required were reduced to suit existing conditions but the rural school must compete with the larger city schools as far as matriculation standards are concerned, as though, the two were on on equal .basis... -..••...••••• n,  fhe free electives on the curriculum are for the most part a dead number as far as the rural school • is concerned. Due to the limited teaching staff., a definite curriculum must be laid down i f the school is to afford the high school graduating diploma, the Hormal Entrance Diploma,, and the Matriculation Certificate . Geography is essential for Uoraaal Entrance but not for LTatf-iculation, Grammar is a new subject on both courses. Health is a new subject and Arithmetic has now been placed on the requirements for Sormal Entrance.. A certain number of periods per week Is definitely stipulated. The last three"Subjects mentioned may be considered additional subjects. Shis means that in order to f u l f i l l the requirements in Chemistry, Physics, Latin and French three of these subjects must be definitely chosen, there being no alternative, otherwise it is impossible to provide a ' time table meeting the requirements. In other words, the Department provides a curriculum including electives and at the same time provides'stipulations which make any free elective impossible. As far as other electives, such as Agriculture, Home Economics,, Botany, Music, Trigonometry, Art 2, Greek, Advanced Algebra, Spanish, etc. are concerned, they are not even considered. The present curriculum as it exists, has been prepared only for the larger high schools,, the restricted ability of the rural schools not having been taken into consideration."3-  1  Affleck, R.D., Principal, Princeton High. School, 193.2.  215-  She author of this same essay, an experienced teacher, goes on to point out how a student transferring from one rural school to another suffers through the lack of .uniformity of programs of different schools. It would appear from the evidence given in this particular report that a broad and flexible curriculum at present is not for the rural high school, maoh -though it may be desired by that institution, lest too much would seem to be inferred from one study,, reliable as the author undoubtedly i s , let us ascertain opinions ^ from other high school principals throughout the province.  By this means we may be assured of more extensive  information*  ol'eurrlculuia f questionnaire to principals. Section I I I , A and B}„ Section I I I of the questionnaire addressed to high school principals undertook in detail a discussion of many features of the rural high school curriculum,.  She first psrt  called for a ranking ox the subjects of the curriculum grouped under twelve subject-departments.  Individual subject check-  ings were requested, using seven varieties of grouping of subjects.  The second part listed some suggested courses and  asked for assignments of credit units and an expression of opinion as to die the r the courses should be optional or compulsory. ffihis part will be deferred for discussion until the nest chapter.  215-  by departments (Section JIJI Ii A ~ '-  question I ) .  In order to determine tlie consensus of opinion of British Columbia rural high school principals concerning the relative importance of the subjects now on the curriculum, the different subjects were grouped in a somewhat arbitrary fashion into twelve departments for  easy  ranking.  The  principals were then asked to rank these departments, employing three different criteria * then a l l returns were In, there remained the task of determining the composite opinion of principals concerning ^subject-department ratings using various criteria.  Obviously  since a rank of one was Indicative of the subject considered to be most important and a rank of twelve showed what .was deemed to be least important,, the subject with the lowest . total score was ranked first, followed by the one with the next lowest eoors and so on to the one obtaining the highest score, here considered the twelfth or least important. fhe writer at this point presents three summarytables showing the results of the final relative rankings of sub jo ct-departments as follows: (1) Subjects ranked for a l l B.C. High Schools assuming present equipment, present courses,  Rank  CJ  3  4-  5 6  Department English Social Studies, Mathematics Health. & " Phy. S'duo. Physic s-Cheni. natural Science  Score Rank 105 SS8 29 8 <JO± 379 400  7 8 Q  Department  Score  10  French-German Aesthetic subjects 17 Practical latin-Greek  557 575  11 • 12  Commercial Technical  602 62 8  " "  484 518  215-  ffatural Science—Aggioul tur c, Botany, Biology, General Science, Aesthetic subjects--Art, Music, Dramatics. Practical subjects—Manua 1 (Draining, Home Economics. (.2) Subjects ranked in terms of rural needs, present equipment and courses, assuming only 15fa of students proceed to University or to Hernial School. Bank ~ . Department 1 2 3 4 5 6  Score Rank  English 2*fath<snatios Natural Science Social Studies * Health & Phy. Ed. Practical subjects  120  7  SOI  ft 9 10 11 12  314 316 329  380  Department  Score  Physics-Cheais try (Technical subjects Aesthetic . " n Commercial It-S nch-German Latin-Greek  391 526 531 568 590 677  (3) Subjects ranked in terns of rural noeds'assumin^ modixied courses and adequate equipment. ° Rank 1 2 3  4 b 6  Department  Score Hank Department  English Hataral Science • Practical Subjects Health & Phy.Sduc. 3 ocia 1 3 tudie s Mathematics  114 280 289 296 301 319  7 8 9 10 11 12  Score  PHYsi G s - Oh em i strY  Technical Subjects Aesthetic " n Commercial French- German latin-Greek  Comments on and Interpretation of these rankings. I n commenting upon the three ratings .given the an disputed leading position of English is noteworthy.  But  the high ranking accorded mathematics in two out of three « instances hardly agrees with all that is known regarding transfer of training.  However, when it is remembered that  370  443 447 479 573 646  r/s  many of those principals hare specialised in mathematics *  one. reason for this order is obvious*  Another explanation  might be that the principals are thinking primarily of arithmetic as mathematics, instead of geometry and algebra.  Ihis  theory finds substantiation in another'part of the questionnaire Tfeen some -of them indicate that they consider mathematics owes its present importance more to traditional valuation than to any practical use. She high rank of Social Studios would seem to .  indicate that any effort to humanise the curriculum in terms of social needs would be received with favor.  Again the high  standing of the new subject of Health would seem to revealthat our principals are open-minded and ready to accept a new co-arse on its merits and see that it has a fair trial. The place of all sciences above all languages except the mother tongue is also indicative of a new viewpoint, ana the position of French ahead of latin again emphasises the modern practical outlook.  jfog-P Pinions of seven groups' of people concerning the rural high s e h o o l c t t r ^ i u l m r ^ ' * ' ^ ^ Before passing'on to the nest cection of the questionnaire the writer wishes -to draw the attention of the reader to a very interesting comparison of opinions on this same problem of the relative ranking of the subjects by departments on a practical basis,, In the questionnaire to school' boards the trustees  215-  were requested to soore each, subject as to its value for a rural high school curriculum.  By grouping a l l subjects under  twelve departments 'and averaging the,scores of each group to ascertain an index number for the department In Question, the writer was able to determine- what wooia appear to be the verdict of school boards on the relative importance of these departments. asked  Also the students taught by the writer were  to give a similar rating,  Total scores were also  obtained for a n types of rural secondary schools, the superior - group, the rural high school group and the semi-rural group, ffaws seven distinct groups express their opinions on the same  question  The reader is referred to Sable OT for complete  statistical i n f o r a t i o n concerning the result obtained. In all cases it m s found that English easily maintained first rank, and Latin was ranked last by every group without exception.  Mathematics never once dropped into  the lower half of the rankings, although ranked sixth by the trustees. ^Social studies and health maintained high positions throughout,  natural science varied from fifth to second place  and practical subjects held a middle position alternately with the physics and chemistry department.  Th& aesthetic subjects  were ranked low, the semi-rural group being the only one to place them^as high as sixth on the list... French remains low . throughout,  So also do the technical and commercial subjects  but to a lesser degree than the foreign languages,  TABLE! XXV' Subject - departments of present curriculum ranked by seven interested groups of people vitii regard to their importance on a rural ouxriouluxa.  A School Score  Subject Department  Board Bank  Studenta Score Bank  B  Superior Sch. Rank Score  0  Sural Sch. SCOX'9  Hsak  Semi-Rural Sch. Score Rank  j- • English Mathematics Soco S t . H e a l t h  &  23  J 15 | ' 20 P.F.. 19  French Latin Fhy. Ohsm* Hat. Sc. Ae3th. Sufc. Pract. Sub. Tech. Sub. Coma. Sub.  - 10  <  16 •  18 2/3  < 2.5 j  11  s  5  s 10 ;  1  6 ' 2 P 11 ' • *?•  12 5 4 -  10  1  102  3  1 3 3  4  41  8 5  2  210  1 0  24?  1 2  186 1 8 5  30  1  69  8 5  2  1 3 4  5 •  1 3 6  4  1 6 6  112 9 7  183 215  9 1 2  277 317  ••X 2 —> 4  10 12  • 21 82 68 66 130 145 88  L  1  3  10  12  7  1 2 4  ,•6  1 7 ?  6  6  88  3 8 7 11  1 7 6  5  50  2  284  1 1  83  6  7  198 175  9  246  1 1  3  201  9  8. 5  164 132  189 1 8 5  10  209  7 n 0  243  9  196.  88  128 138  „  •4 •  7  B Score  •  9 0  "216 204 232 407 462 267  8  226 367 • 248  9  ! 337  1 1  .  383  &G Hank 1  . A , B5 o » Score B a n k 1 2 0  2  301 316  5  329  3  11 12  590 677  1  2 4 5  11  12  7  1?91  4  1  fl4  3  568  10'  9 6 8 1 0  Bi 380 526  8  !  Hs3»  The above scores r/ere obtained from questionnaires aubmittad to 20 school boards s 26 students, 26 superior school principals» 44 rural school principals 02id 16 principals of semi-rural schools.  215-  Subjects having traditional valna. The principals were asked to name the subjects which owed their present importance mainly to a traditional valuation,  A count of the number of times a subject was checked  as coming under this heading revealed the following illuminating information:.  lank  flame  1 2 •3  of Subject  latin French Mathematics  lumber of times mentioned 49 m so  Subjects or departments mentioned once or twice only may be disregarded as possibly the result of a misunderstanding of the Question.  MM  eots, to he substituted f o r the fore go in Hart, principals were requested to list subjec  vB  which could be advantageously substituted for the foregoing Below we f i n d a summary of their opinions.  Hank 1 £ 3 .  Mame of Subject Batural Science Practical subjects Aesthetic subjects  U m b e r of times mentioned 20 15 IS  215-  Sub^ts,,, requiring more suitable textbooks. When the principals were asked regarding subjects for which more suitable textbooks ar© required a longer list was given than might have been expected.  I n order of frequency  of mention these subjects are grouped as follows:  Rank 1  2  3 4 5  6  7 8 9  Borne of Subject Phys ic s-Gheaiis try Mathematics Batural Science Social Studies Practical subjects Commercial " Seclmi oal " English French  lumber of times mentioned 19  17 17  15  8 8  6 6 3  g£^^£M_sabj.ects_.fQr a rural hipjx school. ,4n interesting arrangement of subject-departments was forthcoming in response to a query as to what should be the required subjects for a rural high school:  A suimrary xs  given below:  Rank 1  2  3 4  5 6 7  8  Same of subject English natural Science Social Studies Mathematics Health Practical subjects Physics-Oheaistry Aesthetic subjects  Ifo. of times mentioned 43 36 33  31 26 20 15  215-  elementary gradoa .  with related anhiontp. x —— —  of  the one -  Subjects of the elementary schools which should be more closely articulated with related high school subje< »cts were named in the following order of frequency:  Hank 1 2 S 4 5  lame of subject  Ho. of times mentioned  Natural Science Mathematics English Practical subjects Social Studies Health  12 8  8  7 6-  Common optional subjects.  :  The question concerning the subjects most frequently employed as options on rural programs elicited the following inf ormati on:  wame of Subject 1 £ 3 4  •«o«. of times mentioned  Physics-Gheaistry Latin Preach Aesthet ic s ubje cts natural Science Practical subjects Geography  87 21 19 IS 10 5  6  Subjects of vital interest to students . Last of a l l , principals were asked to state what in their opinion should be considered subjects of vital interest  215-  "to th© students themselves.  Incidentally, the list given  below might be compared with a former list given elsewhere of subjects chosen by a rural high school class as beinr verv .interesting to them.*^  Hank 1  2  s 4 5 6 7  8 9  10  Same of Subject rhysios-Chemistry Natural Science English Social Studies Health & Phy. Bduc. Practical subjects (M,.2. & H.Seon.) leathern a tics Technical subjects Aes the tic sub'j ects Commercial subjects  lumber of times mentioned 26  18 12 10 9  6  6 A  Qfogg checkings by principals, k separate column was set aside for use in case any farther method of checking subjects occurred to principals, but as might be expected it was employed by very few. One principal checked social studies end commercial subjects as requiring expansion in the present curriculum and suggested farm Accountancy as worthy of being put on the curriculum.  Another checked certain subjects as courses often  desired and asked for, such as natural science, technical subjects, practical subjects and commercial subjects.  A third  checked certain studies as drawing a response from the home.  list appears on page 154.  215-  In this third list were to be found physios and chemistry, *  health, agriculture, music and dramatics, manual training,  ffMegg-i comments of checkings of subjects. Much might be said in commenting upon the many checkings, of subjects made by the principals but the numbers tell their own story.  Only & few general remarks need be made  concerning the way of interpreting some of these findings. I t is interesting to notice that in place of the three departments specified as owing their importance mostly to traditions! valuation we find suggested as substitutes • -natural science, practical subjects and aesthetic subjects. '2he problem of suitable textbooks is a pressing one, as the variety of suggested changes v/ould seem to imply, S?he ranking of subjects to be required for a rural high school shows as might be expected that emphasis is still to be placed on the present constant subjects but natural science is put second only to iinglish which rating is- in agreemental th other rankings of this at present undervalued department 9  science on a rural curriculum. Natural science also leads all subject-departments as a group of subjects requiring better articulation with related elementary school courses.  It is not found very hi$i  on the list of options characteristic of rural programs, yet i t is mentioned second on the list of  subjects of vital  215-  interest to studert?*  Thn  e  ** Jxtlt  ^  ,' is preceded in popular-  ity by the physics~chemistry department on this last mentioned list may be explained in part at least by the fact  that one  .out of- every three principals has taken either physics or chenistry as a ma^or subject at the University. Recommendati ons. 1 , i'hat the next curricular reorganisation of secondary education in British Columbia take cognizance of the pressing needs of rural high school students in the matter of curricular expansion and be partly directed to progressive improvement in that direction. 2. 'i'hat the fulfilling of present matriculation requirernents^be not given the chief emphasis in the rural high schoolSc S, 'JJhat subjects of real life value be more emphasized v/herever possible as deserving of a special place in rural secondary curricula i n keeping with the present trend of secondary education everywhere recognized but hitherto only practised in urban centres. 4 . 2hat authorities responsible for textbooks to be employed in rural high schools take into consideration in writing such books in future that these texts will not be used by specialists and explained to large .classes bat be employed directly by students for study by themselves.  The majority  of these students have limited vocabularies and some of them do not possess the high grade of intelligence needed for  215-  analysis of complicated subject matter.  Allowances should he  made for these facts. 5. That some courses up to the present considered as only to he given at the University {e*g 0 geology, elementary psychology, and economies) be introduced into the upper years of the high school curriculum as available correspondence courses for brighter students, particularly if such are courses of great life value.  Bore advanced geography (particularly  economic geography) and a study of tho most important peoples of the world are needed, and also courses in music and art and more literature. * #  6 . That some of the subjects up to the present considered as solely belonging to high school { e . g . French, Latin, Spanish, old.) be offered In elementary grades.  She  existence of these subjects on the present pro grams of our junior high schools is sufficient evidence that this suggestion Is feasible* 7„ That certain. hi gh school subjects f e . g . mathematics, general science,, geography, social studies,  etc,} be  better articulated with related, subjects In the' elementary grades.  .  0KAE2BR H .  A PROPOSED GURRIOULUK  Proposed reorganization in ^ e a a m l .  In proposing- a curriculum definitely aimed at making allowances for the rural needs specified in preceding chapters„ the writer has in mind a regrouping of new and old courses ' under three major heads, namalyj I . Constants ("Cere" Curriculum} • I I . District VariableS. I l l . Slectives.  Terms defined. ®he special meanings here given these terms perhaps need further explanation.  I . Ooggtants are subjects fundamental to a l l secondary education, no master whether given in a rural or an urban high scfeo.ol.  Subjects essential for the promotion of health,  for the training for citizenship in a democracy, for the acquirement of a command of the vernacular, and for the development of the essential foundations of personality and cultures, are considered as constants. Shere will be a difference however between the number of these subjects as offered in rural and urban schools. Rural schools will offer additional constants giving special  215-  training la oourses of direct value in the matter of satisfying the life-needs of rural Communities,, V  11  * MjMsUMsligs.  Shis group of subjects will  • **  be geographically determined*. feeing dependent m different communities,  the needs of  They w i l l be required subjects insofar  as they are offered by the community because of their direct 'Ta3.ii© and since .expense w i l l of tea mk« ical*  '  small c l o s e s uneconom-  Some communities will offer more of these subjects than  will others,  The reason for this is that the range of choice  of subjects will be limited by factors such as the following; (1) more courses are airailable to suit  wtaia  types of community than are available to suit others (there are none at present provided for mining). (2)  some districts can afford aore specialisation  to suit their needs than can others (this conditioa we hope w i l l -be remedied)., (S) f©w teachers are at present specially trained in these newer o ourses. (4) the number of pupils available for each course will often determine the choice. In farming communities, if theory is put into practice., subjects such as agriculture and farm mechanics w i l l be found in this group.  Industrial communities will have  technical subjects on the program of the local high schcfol, while commercial districts will offer business courses.  Schools  unable to provide cany district variables will need to correct this deficiency from elective subjects*  ' ' jBleet-lves^  104  She present optional courses on  the curriculum remaining -after a l l the refuireamts of the previously mentioned groups have h e m satisfied will constitute this sesticm*  Saturally the nnmber of these  subjects will depend primarily m the equipment available at th  ® school* the qua!if ioations of the teachers, the number of  students interested, and th© use mad© of oo r re spend ena© instruct! . is  distinctions in mind the following plan as a tentative outline of our proposed curriculum:  9PBJB0!gS Off PROPOSE!) OtJRRIGim®, ARRAHffiED UlDll MAJOR lyftfafrWwurtl.i-MVm.Hi ,i<>i»iiltii*diiiini^«iw«M n I (  1.  i,, tn  iH^r.Ii!wl'J'H'liTrii'lil iinif.nur »in'ni«liliiWii mi Mili umni^iir, ifi ,1 ViiIiImimiim iniVliiiliiiti ;»I il ("tiii  ....-.' - .---V—r-.''.'•  -'' - -•• -  ft.  » ».  ya Curriculum (76 units} i ^ ^ ^ M ^ m m  to ,al,l schools, urfega.aM rural  Bnglis h-'-Jsiterature Composition, oral and written Srsmmr Sooial Studies—World history Canadian history Canadian civics Elementary economics fooational gaidance Health ana Physical Education rum3, schoola Sural Sociology and Economics Practical Bathem&tics (arithmetic and correlated maths,) Manual draining or General Mechanics Home Economics General Science Music Appreciation Art Appreciation Oral Expression  215-  Bistpiat Variables ( 1 5 — 2 5 units} Agricultural Areas--Agriculture Bo tony Zoology Biology Ferzii Mechanics etc. Qommerc ial Areas-  Commercial correspondence Bookkeeping C ommer c ial lav; Commercial penmanship Stenography and' Syp ewr it lag g t o,.  Indus trial Areas-  Industrial technology technical drawing (drafting) Woodwork Metal wo sk Ji&chine shop Mechanics Magnetism and Electricity etc«  III* jELo.etiyeg (20--SO units} Xgaagcage Group  •Science Gpoug  .French  Physics Chemistry Phys ical Geography  Spanish Latin Greek Math gnatic3 Group  ^Aesthetic" Group  Special Arithmetic Algebra Geometry Trigonometry  Art I I I Music I I I , 17; Dramatics etc„  M^L^A^Pj^ljalfi  on certain suggested courses.  1}.  Before' proceeding with a discission of programs it might'be well at this stage to give information as to how some of our .suggested courses appeal to .high school principals .  The  215-  table given below summarises the opinions of all principals who completed this section of the questionnaire:  .Rank  1; 2; 0; 4; 5; 6.  Suggested Courses for rural high . -SChO 0:1 • Sconomics* Sociology1 Sassi Mechanics Music Appreciation Art Appreciation Mechani m l Drawing  Value in Credits  'Compul-' Option- Total Eo sory ai Replying' 5 *  5 4 5 3 3 4  27 17 -9 11 7 4  84 30 32 29 31 30  51 47 41 40 38 34  t i With special emphasis on 'rural problems, • 2?he special emphasis placed upon a course in Economics is noteworthy.  Perhaps this course combined with  Sural Sociology would prove to be very .acceptable in rural hi$i schools. Other courses, suggested by individual principals as suitable for a rural curriculum are listed below:  '  l ; Elementary geology or mineralolo^r 2; accounting Preparation for civil service 4 ; Public speaking and procedure at public meetings 6; Courses in lumbering 6; World n e w (current events) 7 : Gardening or rural science 81 Experimental farming 9 . 'Elementary economies fchese -were mostly cited as optional courses.  Ehe  value in credits assigned rangen from two .units for shorter courses to ten for the'more important.  215-  Igg^ggOgOSSP CURRICULUM OPTLIHBD I I TERMS OF PR05-HA.MB. The. problem of outlining our proposed curriculum in texas of programs calls first of all for a consideration .of the individual needs of the pupils concerned.  Up to the  present we have almost completely ignored this matter and attempted to force all students along the same beaten path, a path leading to professional success for a few but nowhere in particular for the great majority.  Our proposed programs  must provide for esrery student, whether he stay four months or four years in a secondary institution.  J L j S M g f c ^ ^ M n g Jimior matriculation and normal entrance, For those students who desire f u l l matriculation or normal entrance courses the way will s t i l l be open for them to express their individuality, but not as now at the expense of ninety per cent of the student population of the school. These few students will take the constant or c ore-curriculum subjects 'with the rest of the class, and also the district variables, which are available In the school.  The remaining  subjects they s t i l l lack to make up their units for the particular academic course they have chosen must be made up eitliex5 by taking group electives if available at the school or by means of high school correspondenee Instruction.  This  will work no hardship on this group of supposedly superior students, and i f it does,, the selective function of the advanced schools will have been automatically fulfilled.  The  writer is of the opinion that members of this group- who obtain their matriculation this way will have no difficulty in learn-  215-  |  ing to take notes and work by themselves—a training Invaluable  |  for a prospective university or normal school student.  He  also believes such students will very favorably compare with |  .any who will proceed to higher institutions by other means,  |  especially with those -who w i l l be admitted via the "accrediting" 'route.  |  Students proceeding to technical schools. Another group of students similar In the matter of time spent in higjh school to those just mentioned will be that group desiring to proceed to hi^ier vocational institutions such as business colleges, agricultural colleges, and technical schools,  I t would be well i f the members of this group "Could  have the advantage during their years at high school of efficient vocational guidance,  rests as to particular apti-  tudes would provide data for such guidance.  A general  Intelligen ce test should be given as preliminary to any later achievement tests.  She reason for special c$re being taken  with this group is that i t w i l l contain mary pupils whose parents cannot afford that a serious mistake in choiee of occupation should occur.  Constants, district variables and  group electives for this group w i l l be for the most part identical with those taken by the school as a unit.  Individual!  variation of course will again be largely a matter of supervise co rrespondenc e ins true ti on. {c) Students requiring general course. Probably another large group, which the writer  215-  believes will b© composed more of girls than of boys, nill be those students talcing a general course culminating in a High School Graduation Certificate,  fhese people will be attending  .high school i n order to obtain a broad education, and our proposed curriculum t3i.il be i n a position to satisfy their desires.  They w i l l be given the opportunity of electing  oult&ml subtests such as music, art, additional literature, history, and current ©vents, and of continuing these in some oases for four years which w i l l allow a soli a foundation to. be laid for later specialization i f so desired.  *  length for other students. But the most difficult problem of all will be the matter of outlining curricula of varying lengths suitable for those students (and thsy are numerous J \&ose parents cannot afford, to give Ik em four years of secondary schooling or who personally desire to spend only a short Miile i n high school, I n this connection one principle above a l l others must be obserfed, namely; the specific  "the less time available for work toward fin T'T'^trtii1Tins Viei  words, the relative amount of time given to the core subjects should be inversely proportional to the length of the curriculum, As an illustration, a four-month currieulam in homemaking or agriculture should be almost entirely limited to core materials of immediate values, A four-year curriculum in either field, however, may well give a considerable proportion of its time to material of a theoretieal and technical nature, to the economic and sociological principles underlying vocational activities, and to subjects of indirect and appreciations! values, likewise a three or four year  215-  literal" curriculum la the refalar school should have & relatively smaller proportion of its subjects of immediate values than- & eae' or two year "liberal 57 ourriculuia, of secondary grade designs cL to meet the needs of the pupils of A 1 a continuation s c h o o l . " ^ Ultimately the logic of ideal conditions calls for individual curricula for each pupil in M g x school, and not only that, but also individual treatment of subject matter— -not. "arithmetic", but "John Smith's arithmetic 0 ,  However, any  . practical application to so wide an extent of the well-known modern psychological principle of attention to individual differences would also make too great a demand upon tinie and teachers«  le must make the most out of itiat we know to be  possible under present conditions, and much may be accomplished if the will to do end the authority to do it are present.  I M M S I B ...SUB^gGf MOTBR OF  QOURSBS. •  Mrn-k ml$it be wilt ten In .detail concerning the  probable subjeet matter of the courses suggested on our proposed curriculum, but it is hardly within the province of this investigation to attempt such a tssk»  Only a - few under-  lying principles will be mentioned under our three major headings.  .  fa) Pons tents for all schools., urban and rural.  S M s group of subjects w i l l have practically the same subject-matter for a l l schools, • • •t  1  — " „ . .r  •  •  fhe courses as now  i  Ferris, E.B., op. c i t . p. 106—7.  M  j  ,  215-  offered in our provincial program are satisfactory I I less stress is placed upon examination requirements calling for a formal and arid method of teaching in rural secondary schools, library and gymnasium facilities Should be Improved in our outside schools if the same standards are to be expected from all.  fhe texts in social studies should be written from the  sociological and psychological viewpoint. Mditional. constants for rural schools> Rural Sociology should furnish a systematic study of the sociological problems in the rural communities of Western Canada:  industrial history, showing the development  of rural l i f e ; the rural home, school administration, consolidation, agricultural, industrial and commercial education, continuation classes and \?dder use of the school, the rural church, local societies and associations, junior societies, rural health and recreation, the assimilation of the foreigner, rural surveys,  etc.  5cenemies should develop personal equipment for the responsibilities which are being placed more and more upon workers in rural communities c  2he topics presented should  appeal to tiose who look forward to intelligent and effective citizenship at& to the rendering of a true citizen's service to the neighborhood. Subject matter in relation to fanning communities should includet  land, its acquirement sat use; the economy of  '.farm management» labour as' relat&i. to agricultural production?  19'2 Capital mQ. its importance in the operation of the fern; cooperation applied to marketing and other rural activities: rural credit, and other topics,, la relation to commercial communities subject mat totto be stressed should include discussions on the principle of value, prices, money and banking,  international trade, tariffs,  monopoly, commercial la^v marketing and business forecasting, She writing of reports and prices should be stressed* Emphasis in an industrial connmnity would be placed on a study of the history and development of the particular • industry or industries of the community and. in general on such topics as capitalistic production,, profit sharing, co-op©ration, arbitration and W  w  legislation.  A general survey of th©  principal resources and industries of th© world should be made* Both this course a M the one given in Rural Sociology •will need to be very broad in outlook, and the two might profitably be combined Into one coarse.  Such a composite course  would aim at showing-the interdependence of a l l human activities Just as general science should illustrate the interrelationship of a l l physical activities.  Content should be as f a r as pos-  •sible explained and illustrated in tern© o f actual present . conditions in British Columbia. •  ggactical...Mathematlcs as its name implies should  relate common arithmetical, geometrical and algebraical processes to every day interests of life.  The solution of  problems of immediate interest and concern to students themselves should be stressed.  General Science will sarve as much as possible to • •give a real meaning to every phase of the environment of the impil s  % Hunzt its feeing too provincial,. It should foe possible  to have .a text book written in terras of British Columbia for British Columbia students.  Our province is varied enough  geographically to give practical, illustration to nearly eirery ., phase of. this subject. of  Such a book would employ the principle  the Saaown to the unknown" much more than could any  ordinary text written for students in a foreign country or in any other part o f Canada.  .  ifesic and art appreciation and dramatics should provide students with an active desire to participate in some way or other in the social activities of their communities. She writer believes that, in teaching aesthetic subjects to students of only noiraal intelligence, less stress should be 3a3& on the fine points of technical performance as a producer ant more on enjoyment as a "consamer o f the product". Music appreciation w u l d call f o r the possession of & radio, phonograph or piano by the school, and a textbook •giving the lif e and works of the world's most renowned composers and musicians.  fhe subject-matter of this text  TO!  provide  material for class discussions and comparisons after the actual . hearing of the music had tafcai place and a simplif led interpretation hat been given by the t e a & e r *  •1  Art appreciation under this scheme would call for textbooks profusely illustrated with colored reproductions showing tha best to be had in painting, sculpture and archi-  215•••• tr  •. .  tecture, Lives of tiie authors ana interesting stories concerning the pictures vx>ul& form the content of these textbooks. A set of large reproductions for black-board demonstrations could be circulated from school to school i f the purchase of complete sets for each secondaiy Institution were found to be too expensive.  Most of the subjects in tills group are already features of our present^ curriculum, but one in. particular, Biology, needs emphasis,  fills course has bean neglected i n  past, but now that it is provided for on our program of studies a l l that remains to be done is to see that it is taught in our rural schools, particularly those in agricultural communities.  Literature describing the particular  merits of this subject should be sent to school boards, and teachers should be encouraged to qualify for giving instruction in this course. Concerning the actual content of this course and of others included under district TEriables*  the reader is referred  to th© p y p g M of high school s t u & U s - She writer is mainly interested in seeing that these ooarses are taught in rural Schools.  However one course requires a general explanation  as to content since it w u l d bo new on the curriculum,  The  reference is to farm Mechanics. .. : .'A  g&KS Jech^sics. should be a practical course.  She  need for it is based on the fact that daring recent time much knowledge of a mechanical kind is required of the farmer*,  IBB'' Th© modern farm is supplied with labor-saving implements and machinery,  la their effective use the farmer must either  gain -a knowledge of their mechanism or employ some one who has it.  Instruction in the meohanioal principles and cons tract! on  of t&m  machinery is a new field which is becoming more  important i n modern farm operations with the increased produo"tion-of maohinery to l i s t e n the burdens of farm life* She economical use of machinery and the ability to take apart and to reconstruct depend upon a knowledge of the meohanioal features a£ tho machine.  Since much machinery is  required and used on th© farm, a mechanical training is almost • as important  to the famer as to the worker in. industry.  Where, no adeouate equipment or special teacher is provided this group w i l l of necessity be given by correspondence —teaoher  merely acting as a general supervisor as far as  thess subjects are concerned.  This method should be feasible  i,ti higi school ?2here it can be assumed, that students are old enough to take an interest in their ovsrn progress without excessive official stimulation. ©ie writer believes that uOiera French is concenaed the ability to read should bo stressed much more than the ability to speak, if , a class. ' in a rural school is ...... to be taught • . "r. 'c -'«••: • by a teaoher vtao has not speoiaHged in this subject*  He also  believes that mach additi onal Sn^.ish literature and the reading of go od translations of the great Latin and Greek classics w i l l do more for the avorago student than the study of latin  215-  and Greek languages in the original has ever- done. fo. get students to do a great deal -of reading of , good .literature for their own pleasure should be the- object 'of courses in languages.  Students are sometimes made to dislike  extremely snything savoring of "the beet in literature" by  •  having such literature always associated in their minds with concent rati on upon hair-splitting distinctions of form.  It  would appear ^t bat what is needed i s less formalism and. more appreciation* • .  ,  : jgjggB.ana Means of Realig ing Thege  , -  Hefonas/  Ways and means of realizing iheee reforms call for rery drastic reorganisation along certain lines *  Por the sake  of brevity these may b© given in the following list: 1» Advertise the availability of correspondence lessons in many optional courses (e«g B such matriculation courses as Xiatin, French, advanced algebra or geometry).  praoticabil-  ity of this may be shown by an excerpt from the report on High School Oorreqp ondence Ins true ti on for last year: BBlAffIOESHIP gQ THE SM/JujuER, £I(H SCHOOLS • • - "During the past year several of the smaller hi schools and superior schools lave taken advantage of the offer to assist in meeting the needs of certain students desiring optional subjects—such as the special sciences, foreign languages, and commsrci&l subjects. Por the very moderate tuition fee of §5.00 per subject per. student the teacher can be relieved of the added burden of ' teaching one or more sab3eets that may be required by a rery snail number of the students. I M s plan has already given very satisfactory results in a u m b e r of schools, and School Boards are coming to realise that it is  215-  advantageous alike to teachers and pupils to havo the special meets of -certain pupils provided f o r through correspondence courses, ffiils co-operative scheme .of instruction makes possible a greatly enriched curriculum in any small high school- I n fact, through the si9 of t*e High School Correspondence Courses it is now possible for pupils attending the smallest high school 'In 'the Province to- have as wide a-choice of options &s can be found in almost any of the large M # schools." (1)  A reduction or abolition of the fee m enti one'd above is the only change'suggested by the writer,  .  Ba Make no artificial distinctions as to si se of .school m m the accrediting system is pit into practice.  She rural  pupil Is not necessarily poorer university material than the urbsn pupil and the teacher is not necessarily an inferior teacher.  Admittedly both are working' under serious -disadvan-  tages but these disadvantages should be remedied as much as possible and not made an excuse for further embarrassment of the snaller  schools.  8* 3?exalt more courses to be made available as "B" courses. As an example of what is meant by  tt  Bn courses, on the present  curriculum there i s an "A" and a "3 W course i n French,  m  n  An  course is one expected in a school employing a specialist.  A "B" course TOUIS be far less technical in nature, with emphasis more on agireelatloii than on performance. 4 . Make matriculation requirements of loss importance insofar as they concern the large number of students who have no intention of proceeding to higher institutions. -5, See that vocational guidance is made available for a l l (1) Report of 3.W. Gibson, H . A . , B. Paed.; officer in charge. Public School Report, 1932—SS, p. 1557.  215-  rural secondary schools, even if It Is necessary to appoint an itinerant espert to visit these schools and consult vdth pupils, as .is done at present by th© medical officer for health. 6» Encourage school boards to provide an adequate place, preferably a library rocm, vftere advanced students intent on private study during school hours may go and not be disturbed by the ordinary routine of .classwork.  ( i t otter times-this  rocm mi^it be put to many and varied uses and in that manner w p a y the cost of building in schools not at present equipped In. this respect.)  t  -  important of a l l , ©iiang-e the present system of having small administrative areas in charge 'of local m a comparatively untrained officials, to one of larger units of organization, each under the direction of a .well- qualified specialist in rural education directly responsible to the Department of Education."  OE&KCBH XII S M A R T AID COUOLUSIOHS  l ^ m l . method of seminary indicated.* ^ I t now remains for m  in this our concluding chapter  to offer a res cine of all the important problems brought up for detailed discussion throughout this investigation,,  The  general  ' method adopted w i l l be to condense the main theme of every chapter into one sentence and below it to give a synopsis of ! the  important conclusions arrived at within the diapter. following this will oome a euaunarizea list of the  recommendations proposed throughout this study of secondary education in rural British Oolumbia. An outline of a few problems suitable for further research in mral so GO M a r y education w i l l then conclude our ~ dis eassi on„  SOUS" BffiOHfASf COIOIUSIOIS Secondary educational institutions beyond the three dis tinotly urban areas of Tan dourer, Tictoria and Eew Westt  minster constitute a neglected part of the- present M A . school system of British Oolumbia. {-Chapter 1 ) 1 . Bducators in genoral have lately expresE ed grave doubt as to whether high school students are being educated to suit their best interests.  •  215-  2 . With respect to British" Columbia th© 1925 Survey of the School System warns particularly against allegiance Being paid to the formal disciplinary theory of studies. S e Since the publication of this survey many improvements, especially with reference to high school subjects, have been embodied in our Provincial course of studies. tr  At present only high schools i n large urban centres have been able to take advantage of many of these notable improvements * 5. I n the interests of a well-balanced school system, some attention should now be given to the needs of secondary schools in rural communities. 6. In order to accomplish this objective it will first be necessaiy to illustrate clearly the present limitations of small high schools and then to point out definitely many practical ways and means of improving the existing situation. 7. Among the many reasons which might be suggested as excuses for ihis existing situatl on perhaps the best is that little reliable infoisnati on concerning rural schools has so far been available „ 8 . I n attempting  '  •  to contribute something to ©stent  information the present writer proposes to offer a survey of some specific needs of rural communities and rural high schools; - to give statistical information regarding present conditions in these schools? to summarize certain opinions of teachers and trustees regarding cttriicular revision; and, in conclusion, to suggest various practical recommendations.  215-  9* Junior high schools,, on account of the fact that they are not at present characteristic of rural communities, are considered to be outside the province of this investigation.  people in rusml communities have- definite life needs AlQfa.. the, local secondary school should as far as possible strive to satisfy.  {-Chapter I I )  lff In vie?/ of the fact that the proper employment of leisure-time is an urgent problem of present day l i f e , a rearrangement of Spencer's well-known classification of life values is necessary in order to allow for the changing needs of modern existence. Modern needs, far which special training is necessary, may be summarized under sis headings as follows; (a) (b) (o) , (d) ( e) (f)  vocational efficiency worthy home membership good citizenship v.holeeome leisure tinre activities helpful r eligioue, l i f e . leadership  3 . Curricular organisations at the secondary level should be based on these needs, 4 , Education for vocational efficiency calls- is particular for pr©vocational courses suiting the needs of a community, and in general, for business arithmetic, everyday mechanics, general science, oral expression, economics and sociology. • 5 . Education for worthy home membership requires instruction in modern science, music and art approciati on, home economies for girls, and a constructive course f or boys.  20 2  6  * "Bdusation for good QlUmmhtp  demands emphasis on  social studies, health and physical education,  literature,  economics and sociology, a foreign language*, and attention to : extra-eurricular activities, Sducation f or wholesome. leisure^time a c t i v i t t ^ involves stress on literature* art and music appreciation, dramatics and oral expression, and the better forms' of extra-curricular activities. 8  •  . .  * Education for- helpful religious life must be sought by  indirect means during the teaching of such subjects as literature, art and music appreciation, social studies, health and physical education, and certain extra-curricular activities 0 9 , Education for leadership requires the ©areful selection of superior students and the training of then by judicious use of correspondence instruction ihere time and. teachers are not Gvailable. 1 0 . She authorization of a flexible curriculum, unless supplemented by further improvements, w i l l not serve as a panancea for the many i l l s of rural secondary schools.  In order to satisfy adequately the l i f e needs of their respective communities certain features are necessary i n a l l rural secondary schools.  (Chapter I I I )  , ^ 1.* Features which should be found in a l l efficient rural secondary schools may be listed as follows:  .  215-  :  ^  Tb) f-e) id) f e) (f) (g)  ' B, fiesdlble o ur ricu lum • an adequate staff specially trained teachers and principals long tenure of teachers adequate supervision ' ' ' good buildings and equipment supplementary means of instruction '  A flexible garrlcuLtim wonId be one taking cognizance,, not only of the individual differences of each student, bat • also of th© geographical variations of each community. ' :  -M.  sMgaate, staff la any rural high school, no matter  how remote or saall, implies an irreducible minimum of two . teachers--a man principal and a• woman assistant, ^  - jg^oial training of teachers for rural school work is  . essential i f newer and optional subjects are ever to be found ; on  tho ^programs of m a i l e r high schools. S D Wim. long tenure of teachers is secured in our smaller  schools, the educational ideal of "individual instruction" w i l l :  approach its maximum of realisation* 6 . Ateqaats supervision implies a system whereby regular and continuous help is supplied to all teachers requiring assistance• good btyilfltagB and equipment. especially irf.Hi respect to libraries end gymnasiums, are essential for the successful teaching of ordinary compulsory subjeots, as well as for instruction in special optional courses* 8 , She provision of sup pigmentary means of instruction,,  such as more use of the radio-;* motion pictures,, _ and correspond" ence Instruction, wen Id be of outstanding advantage to a l l rural secondary schools, but especially to small or isolated  215I I  institutions,,... 9  *  Th  *> present most obvious means of obtaining improved  facilities i n rural secondary schools are by consolidations and by the establishment of a uniform rural salaryschedgl©,  iSSLJIlggj^jrenfl of secondary schools of British • .compares favorably in importance with the "urban" JSESSSLjaOhg^-ggo^lv^ the, sane degree of -attention. .  _  (Chapter I ?  1 . She advantage-of employing urban-.conditicns a s ; a standard  for Judging rural schools is simply ifcat they represent vbat °an be done and what has been don© for one p ® t of the school system of British Columbia,, 2 1  i  •  '  « Our rural group of schools is equal to the urban group  in regard to somber of classrooms . ^  of the  Our rural group of schools also serves as large a part total population of British Columbia.  4 , Rural people, however, compared with urban, have dissimilar occupations calling for corresponding differences in training agencies 0. W b s n schools, compared with our rural group, enroll, and have always enrolled, a larger student population. 6„ Urban.schools, compared with rural schools as to staff, exhibit the Allowing characteristics: (a) more teachers (b) better qualified teachers • (c) more experienced teachers (A) better paid teachers (e-)-more men teachers I f ) teachers with longer tenure  SOS.  Soma «haMftot«HLBtios -of b u i l d i n g and Boitl^ggt^ i n rural schools may he summarised as follows: M  fbeme bn.iim.nSB without sof £l<sl«nts basement accomo&tioi2 e (b) deplorable library conditions, (c) inadequate gymnasium facilities. 8  »  average rural secondary school can offer only the  Matriculation and Horrnal Entrance curricula. 3« Superior schools, regular rural high schools and semirural hi#i schools, as types of m m l secondary schools, possess certain definite characteristics.  Softool' boards under our present astern .possess powers • M M h are sufficient, if thg? are .not properly employed,, to disrupt completely any progressive program of rural secondare?' •ejBtnerat-ioa.  '{Oh&pter ?)  1 . I t would be ill-advised under our present system to disregard the opinions of trustees when contemplating pro3ects for the advancement of rural education. twenty, out of. eighty rural and municipal school boards, • replied to th© questionnaire sent  to their secretaries.  3 , fhese school boards espress themselves as favoring: (a) (b) {<5) f d)  recognition of the needs of rural high schools. complete consolidations. practical courses. a curriculum modified to suit the needs of rural . cotaaanlties. (o) teachers specially trained to teach i n rural high schools.  4 S 2hey are opposed to the four-year high school, partial eonsolidations, expenditure for equipment for home economics,  215-  certain go urses of studies, and are neutral in regard to t h e use of ^ ta ei r schools, for community purposes. .  omission, 'by trustees, of answers to certain  ..questions, is not to be construed as essentially indleatlte of neutral opinions'concerning these matters. 6 ; in  *  -general, • school, trustees appear to •desire a change  the echool curriculum, but seem adverse to certain expend!-  turss necessaty for the purpose of bringing this change into effect*  .  4,  7  * Host school boards and communities are s t i l l inclined •  to be apathetic with regard to the  discussion of problems  concerning any definite policy of rural education in British •Columbia,  .  .  .  8 , School boards at present '.enjoy more power than. perhaps consistent with the easily fulfilled qualifications required for membership on such bodies. .  i  •  .  •  ••  ;  •  ..  .  .  '  .  -  '  •  •  .s  •  •  .  -  .  - • , . . • • . .  •  of schools in British • OeluiBbla is made IgMSMl^JjAlMit  on.. acoount of the y&y letflr • and preyaleme features; but a considerable ...number of  i M ^ j ^ ' a s s o a i a t i ^ s is at present entirely feasible, fohnptm* TZ) 1. A consideration of the many different kinds ox school districts an British Columbia is prerequite to any discission concerning consolidation of schools. 2,. I'he^e are two main tyjes of school consolidations— total and partial.  •  3 . Consolidation for the purpose of securing a high  215-  school specializing in certain subjects is a type of partial consolidation.  • -  4* Educational conditions whi oh exist under consolidation ^.r© better than those vaiich are found under analler units of organ! sati on«, B P 3?he secondary school system of Canada as a whole is developing under pioneer conditions for which voluntary unions between adjacent districts offer the best correctives. 6, Alborta trie& consolidation of schools as a solution of the problem of secondary education in rural communities and found the method highly successful, 7, She problem of consolidation of schools in British Columbia is greatly complicated by taany factors of a geographical nature* 8 , ffiiirty-thr©e total consolidations and twenty-five partial consolidations are reported by principals as feasible at .present,*. M m t principals are personally in favor of partial (subject) Gonsoli&stions *  laral .secpatary schools are not at present adequately al^ow, for, tte pgy.ffl? teaching of certain compulsory course^ gat to sen a on soi® desiyable..0ptloiml subjects,, {Chapter 711} 1. Ideal conditions with regard to b u i l d i n g and equipment are easy to postulate but difficult to realise*  215-  Practical conei derations lead us to believe that, < •until the present basis of taxation for education is changed, it is useless 'even to hope for adequate equipment in rural s oho ols. Records show that as far back as 1912, the accoramodattca and equipment of small high schools was unsatisfactory* Inspectors' reports reveal that rural schools are s t i l l working under a great disadvantage with respect to adaqnate educational facilities, 5* So meet such an emergency it is necessary, as a preliminary step* to find out the exact situation with respect to rural school equipment. B4 With regard to "essential" equipment, the general condition of libraries is found to be frankly deplorable, • 7, With regard to "desirablo" equipment, gjmnasinme and gymnasiim apparatus may be said to be absent from eight out of evexy ten rural s oho ols. With regard to "special" equipment, half of all secondary sohools possess no items that m i # t properly be classified under this heading.  .  -  *  9 . Information conccrnir^ ninety per cent of the present •equipment of raral secondary schools in British Columbia.is given in this -phapter of ow? inquiry.  . .  in r ^ a l . secondary s oho ols are willing to ove their s a l i f i c a t i o n s if the means of • doing'so . are presided aa5 an. adequate. tftgal salary scale is established, (Chapter V I I I )  '  *  '  215-  1* 2?rincipals of superior schools differ i s training from principals of sural hi#. schools in being for th© most part graduates of a norml school rather than of a university, s  « Higi school principals, vMle at university, appear to  have specialised in ma thematic e and science, school assistants appear to have specialised in • English and'social studies, 4„ fravel and stufly for advanced degrees s ® up the tiro most outstanding features of the special qualifications possessed by S'toerior #n& high school teachers* . 6 , 2here ia: a distinct lack q$ rural teachers aho-aifc specially trained in newer yoaatifflml subjects, 6 , Very little specialisation in any phase of rural education. has been undertaken by these same teachers. 7, An earnest desire for improvement of professional status is, however, characteristic of imny superior and higi school teachers and principals, 8* Six times as many principals are ia favor of taking up special c curses calminating in a Rural Diploma as are definitely opposed to the idea.  • -  9* Correspondence courses for superior school teachers and summer sextons for high school teachers appear to bo favored methods of training for this diploma. 1 0 . She great majority of superior school and high school teachers suggest that special optional courses in WHP&X education be given at the University as p«a?t of the regular  I  /  •  .  :  .  :  .  •  •  •  .  .  :  • ... . • • • .  ;  • '  •  -  •  .  '  mo teacher-training program. 11* Rural teachers wool a he satisfied with % -salary schedule somewhat lower than on© provided for urban teachers.  High school students, in the country have.Certain inalienable Rights which ^Ural secondare s-ahopia.* as now organised* cannot satisfy ,ts .pay, really.appreciable. esteyfc. (Chapter 12} 1* High school strident populations are no longer composed of the sons and daughters of favored minorities of adult populations, s. ?er7 few pupiIs (only those of very superior intelligence) can profit to any consiter'sble degree from the studies pursued in the traditional seCondaiy school—of which the present rural high sohools appear to- be the sole survivor. • She hose® life and surroundings of many rural students Is chamcte^Ig©d by a monotony little relieved by present cur^isular offerings and methods of presentation, 4* With respect to plans for the future, less than one quarter of the rural high school student population intends to p3?ocee4 to higher Institutions of learning* 5 . More than half the students now in cur rural secondary schools have no definite plans regarding  their future careers.  6 . the rest of the students have a variety of plans which the present high -efhOol i s in a poor position to satisfy. 7. In their Choice of careers girls favor nursing while •tk - - - - -  .  boye favor meciiani&s' and a H i e d occup&ti ons •  215-  0 . Pupil ^udgaents as to the relative importance of high school subjects are not very reliable except in a general sense,  • • •  , .  A, .great '..change ig? to,fo®noted in the,  and  variety gf compass offered in British poltimbia the ,progmr&s. fowa&. in rural;, aecona^ry school. narrow and formal*  (Chapter  ,  still jylte  '1 '  1» In 1925 throughout Canada and especially in BritiSJa. Columbia mathematics and foreign languages were subjects given special emphasis„  .  8, During the decade b©twe<si 1920 and 1930 the shift of emphasis for Canada ifas away from traditidual sub-jcots to those of a more vocational nature. 3. I ' M  1313 to 19SO the -range in choice of subjects in  British Columbia increased from twenty-five to thirty-sis. 4 , Suricg this same period at least eleven of the older subjects decreased considerably in relative importance being displaced by newer subjects. Bi^it new subjects, mostly of a praotioal -nature* displaced older coursos to ratal; legs© • than tentyf-f i f t h e now scale of value to students. I n theory, British Columbia now possesses a very broad curriculum, but in actual practice i t is proving a. difficult matter to put this new curriculum into effect in rural secondary schools.  215-  7 . Principals -express the following estimates concerning the, importance of subjects now oil the high school curriculum: (a) English is always ranked ttost on any rating; f b) other constants are consistently tanked higfcu t o) natural scion09 as a sub jeot~d apartment is rapidly coming into favour. Ci) newer -vocational subjects are preferred to older tra&itios&l ooarses. Principals suggest that neVi? text books writ ten with a view to being used by rural students aro repaired in subjects.  A reprganjaatiM of curAciilar offerings, in. -terms of gOjggamity, and gftft&.aoffc r^^iyea^ats. is both necessary and feasible if piy.fatu.re progress is. to fee made with regard to secondary etoatiQii in rural British flolumbia. (Chapter Zi) 1. Old and new courses for a l l sohools require regrouping under three major heads* namely;  <  (a) oonst&ats (b) distridt variables (0) eleotives  •  .  2 , Additional oogetants of direot value to, small communities v?ill be required in rural secondary schools. 2. District variables will be geographically determined and compulsory wherever they are provided. 4 . Bleotives vrill call for considerable use t>.ai»g made of 00rrespondenco instruction. . 5 . Ourricular programs will provide for the needs of every student whether be stay £our monihs or four years in a seooMary institution,  tor ©jtemplo;  215-  (a) Students taking junior' aatriculation or normal entrance ?dll require a program placing considar&ble emphasis on the use of correspondence Instruction, (b> Students proceeding to technical'130,110ols will need special vocational guidance. (c) Students who request a goners 1 course will fee given an opportunity of studying*favored subjects both intensively and extensively. (d) Students desiring a f0ur-month curriculum will be limited to tak iag core material of immediate v&lu© 4 6.«' General principlas to be observed regarding the actual context of 00urae.s, may be outlined as follows} I . With j?ospect to .constants present courses are, for the most part, satisfactory if rural schools ate properly equipped in the matter of libraries and gymnasiums« Additional constants proposed for rural high schools should be of a practical nature specially suited to the needs of sparsely settled "communities, as distinguished from densely populated centres. II* With respect to district, variables, further allowances should be made for the special needs of small communities, as distinguished, one from the other, according to chief occupati ons, I I I . With respect to elective every effort should be raade to provide as many opportunities as possible for the satisfactory expression of the individual needs, of -oupils, in accordance with their special aptitudes and abilities. Some ways and means of accomplishing, these .reforms aret (a) more use of correspondence instruction. {b) en accrediting systsn for rural high schools, (c) more subjects offered as "B" courses {when specialists are not available). (a) less stress on matriculation as an ®ndl in itself, (e) vocational guidance for rural students. ( f | an "extra" room in every rural school, (g) centrallged control of. rural secondary education.  215-  KmmmMTimm  ODTLIBSD m mis  CHAPTERS SIX SO TEH of  iimmmmx® *r  Oonso 11 ciatl on (Chap ter 7 1 ) . 1 . that a financial survey of British Columbia be undertaken,  ,  2 , that a sociological survey also be made, tlmt all possible consolidations be completed, that a complete study of the caestion of possible future consolidations be authorised and organized, 6 . that encouragement and assistance be given to boards w i l i n g ' to i co pioliiate* 6* that good roads be built and others improved. 7 . that supplementary means of ias truotion be provided where consolidations are impossible, :.  ,.,.  ......  .. .  ^ f ! .. _ - ( . •  Plant and Equipment (Chapter ¥11) # 8 . that adequate amounts be made available for the purchase of equipment. 9. that "essential" equipment ( e . g . libraries) be first improved.  -  ,  .,  10. that "desirable" equipment ( e . g . gymnasiums) be •••'••.  -  -  -  ;  .!'.--•  •  . • ' • . . •  given next consideration. 11. that minimum standards for school building and grounds be 6et # I S , that a pamphlet showing construction of inexpensive equipment be prepared. 13. that all rural secondary schools be visited by a government specialist and oheeted for deficiencies of equipment.  axs  Battel jfygft School ..Staff  Till). •  14« that te&dhing in m r a l schools be recognised as r e t i r i n g special' training.* 3L6V that optlosBl r a m i eiluc&t%®n qo-ta?sea be offered  , • .  oa the regular toaoher-training program. 1 6 , that similar courses be also offeree! at suaaasp sessions . 1 7 , that correspondence courses in these subjects be mads available for isolated teach or s. 18* that a Rural diploma be issued upon successful -completion of these courses, 1 9 . that some piiactioe^teaeking in a e m l X j»ttml sohool be made compulsory for prospective high school teachers. 50. that research 7/ork with respect to the tenure and salaries of rural hi^i school teachers be instituted. Student Copula til.,on (Ohs.pt ©r I S ) . 51. that rural, student needSffefe considered in any future curricular r e g i o n . 22„ that there be un&ertakon m  investigation into,  the natter of pupil elimination in the rural school. 25, that vocational guidance be given to rural students, ;  24. that French and I & t i n be offered only as optional  • 'aabjaats (often by  t  g6. that home economics for girls and general mechanics •So* boys be provided. ' Present gurtlculgm {Ghe-ptsr  _  1  »  26. that the curriculum ox rural high schools be  19'2  that matriculation subjects be given moro by coITospoiidcnce, in order to allow teachers ta do more justio© -  t0  other subjects on the proe?cm of studies in tho interests *  about ninety per cent of the student popttl&tion, S8, that courses of more real life value bo emphasized, instead of tpadilioml imb-jecto, 29 . that future testb ooks be \?r-itt<?n in tens; of  •  student r e ^ i r a a o n t s , SO. that certain university sub j sets {e.g. geology* elementary psychology and economics) bo offered in high sohools. £1, that cor tain 111 gh school subjects (a .g. IPreadi. v . . . -4juatin, etc•5 be off orod. below grad© nine* 3£, that certain high school subjects ( e . g . nathsaetios^ gene-mi science, geography history, etc.} bo hotter articulated ^ith related subjeots in tbo elementary grades, i-tis^iiE  mBmmi  I . She- achi-Qvemonts of students enrolled in higji school grades in elementary schools arc \vor thy of special study. 2* I n investigation should be uiidert&tesi as. hi^i school progress i s i e under difficulties by correspondence students in .isolated districts of British Columbia. S, She relationship, if any, existing in British Oolumbia between teacher-tenuis and salary should bo ascertained by some stafient in S t o a t ion.  ZL1  4 , The relationship,  if  o  m  existing batmen teacher  tenure az'd size of school should be acerbately computed, (v A S112fly of pupil elimination S w i n g the early years of high school should reveal results very valuable to th©  tether  anilities.  Iwmnti*  of eecps&ary education in rural com-  Such problems as iraaeaiat© anfi. remote causes of  pupil elimination, obvious and suggested remedies, and bbx di fferencee as a factor of pupil elisdnati on, should all be carefully considered.  APPENDIX ID  LIST OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 193S-1933 (arranged In four groups according to size) A . Superior School Group (37 schools) (High School worlt taken in Division I of each school) Key loolfame of School of School 1, ^» 4. »  6. 7. 8. , 9.  Baynes lake Big Sand Creek Fort George Greenwood HazeIton Hedley Horth. Cedar Procter 'Queen Charlotte  Athalmer-Invermere X« • 3 s - Burns Lalce Campbell River a Chase Fort St• John 5s Hope 6. James Island 7. Lillooet 8. Q. Lumby Kalcolm Island 10. McBride 11. Pouce Coupe IE. Rolla 13. Sllverton 14. Sooke 15. Stewart 16* Williams Lake 17. '  • 1L © Ash croft Blakeburn Brechin • 44. Quesnel South Wellington Yanderhoof 6. Woodfibre 7.  Size of School in Divisions  ..  2 2 S S 2. 2 2 8 E  3 3 3 3 3 3 ' 3 3 3 • 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ' • •' 4' 4 4 4 4' 4 .6  Pitt Meadows Chemainus Rutland Michel latal ffotal Io« of Divisions Group (A)  5 6 8 10 IBS  B.» Rural High School group (56 schools)  Key HO:. Same of School of School 1.  Britannia Mines Gobble Hill 1£ 2> o : ' < Dewdney 4* Bnderby 5. Ganges Harbour 6a Golden, W I « Howe Sound 84 loco Easlo JCeremeos 11. Halcusp Hew Denver IS 4» North Bend Oliver 14. 15. Oyama Parlcsville 16. 17. Peachland 18. Q,ualicum Beach If. Slocan 20* Squamish sx. 'fellcwa  ^ SS  4.  vj e  1A 2^ 3. 4. 5® 8« 7. 8.  ^ «. .  10.  12. IS 0 14. 15. 16*  Size of School in Divisions 1 '1 .1 1 1 ! •  i 1 1 1 1 1 • •• • A 1 1 1 i 1 i"  1  Agassi a. Oomos Granby Bay Ki t sumgallum Merritt  2 2 2 2 2  Armstrong Courtenay Creston Cumberland Esauimalt Grand Forks Harewood Matsqui c ladysmith Mt. Hewton . Ocean Falls Powell River " Sraithers Rossland Sumas-Abbotsford Summerland  3 3 3 S  s  3 3 3  % 3  S  3 3 3 3  '  . X Alberni Delta % « Duncan V Mission " 15 a.Mt. Douglas Mt. Lehman • 7 , north Saanich 8 . Port Coquitlam 9 . Port Moody 10« Princeton 11. Esolum 1 2 . University Hill 6. Prince George 7 . Salmon Arm Total Ho. of Divisions Group (B)  4" A. /I •4  A  2 2 2 S 2 2 2 4 4 121  Ill  6. Semi-rural High. School Group (21 schools) Key So* same of School „ JO OJ. • School  3>. Urban High School  Xelowna Kimberley Langley Penticton Surrey  . 4»  fernie Revelstoke Maple Ridge ^ ft Richmond 4, • &3 «• •. • 1West ?ancouve3 GrahbrooS ' Horth Burnaby Trail-Tadanac Vernon  X* •3a 4. ^© aD a  .  group (16 schools)  6  A  1  7 7  Mt. View lanaimo lelson OalctBayPrince Rupert  X  Size of School in .Divisions  Ciiillivjaejr. ICamloop-s  §  10 10  - 8 Prince of 7/ales o Grandvi ew High 10 School of Commerce 10 3« Duke of Connaught 12 4 . Horth Vancouver 12 5« South Burnaby 13 6. King George 13 lord Byng 14 S» Trapp Technical Q Kitsilano . 17 18 10« Britannia 1 1 . Fairview High School 80 of Commerce 12 King Edward m i s . Magee 26 E7 1 4 . Vancouver Technical 37 15. John Oliver 38 16» Victoria Total I o . of Divisions Group (D)  299  Total Uo» of Divisions Group (G)  Total Ho® of Divisions Group A,B.0 ana Total I o . of School Group A.B.C and D.  601 130  M.B. Schools underlined in Groups A.B. and C. (28 schools) and all of Group D. either did not reply to questionnaire or were not solicited. Information concerning Katsqui and Sumas-Abbotsford obtained indirectly.  IV APPENDIX B  A Report  on R u r a l  S e c o n d a r y Education i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  fby cMr0 -J.: P , :Qarr, President of the British Columbia 1bchool Trustee's Association)  _  °r  l  Convention  -lle ? r a s e r  a report,  Valle  y ®  p r e p a r e d b y the  Hi,*  'The Needs of the m £ a l  Hign. b c h o o l . w a s r e a d ana r e f e r r e d to t h e i n c o m i n g e x e c u t i v e xor study ana m r t h e r r e p o r t a t the 1 9 5 5 c o n v e n t i o n . The- E x e c u t i v e h a y i n g a p p o i n t e d me to c a r r y out t h i s w o r k , I h a v e t r e a s u r e s i n reporting as follows: . In  studying  the needs  o f Rural  High  Schools  it  i s -most CanaL a m i s r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n in o t h e r P r o v i n c e s a s w e l l a s b e i r p p i o u s l y s t u d i e d b y T r u s t e e s , Teachers and P a r e n t s i n B r i t i s h r r - S S H / 6 ^ ! 4 ! s u b j e c t m e n t i o n e d in t h e A n n u a l r e p o r t s o? ™ in and Quebec; a n d t h e K i n 1 s t e r  encouraging^to f i n d t h a t t h i s i s a l i v e p r o b l e m t h r o u g h o u t  skooS  S„Iroerti ? S r t a  M S  pTlbli  ^ed  a  booklet  'Rural H i g h  A l l who s t u d y t h i s problem seem c o n v i n c e d t h a t T J U D I I S 01 n i g h S c h o o l s m R u r a l d i s t r i c t s a r e n o t b e i n r t r a i n e d to" tneir ovm or the country*s b e s t a d v a n t a g e . A s t h e D e o u t v Minister o f Jioncation f o r A l b e r t a s t a t e s i n h i s 1 ^ 2 r e p o r t ^most'"of t b S s n u c e n t s a r e b e i n g t r a i n e d f o r U n i v e r s i t y although t h e i r t a l e n t s ao not l e a d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . ?  i  ln  B  " ° * w e f i n d t h a t i n the average r u r a l Higli S c h o o l ' of enrolment I n t e n d to p r o c e e d t o Uiri v e ^ s i t y / 1 1 % t o  o n l y ld/ 0 f o r m a l S c h o o l , 2 4 % h a v e o t h e r d e f i n i t e o l a n s f o r f u t u r e and 5 3 1 h a v e 110 d e f i n i t e p l a n a . We may s a f e l y assume that some o f t h o s e ® L a e ^ l t e p l a n s i n t e n d to s t a y on t h e l a n d , and the ma i or it v 01 one with no plans "would s t a y o n the land, i f equinned to e a r n a comfortable living. Our High S c h o o l s o f f e r a " c o u r s e m a i n l y i n t e n d e d f o r t h o s e m i n o r i t y i n t e n d i n g to o r o c e e d to University or Normal and a r e o f d o u b t f u l benefit to those d e s i r i n g or b e s t f i t t e d to s t a y on t h e l a n d . I n f a c t it h a s b e e n s t a t e d t h a t our- p r e s e n t H i g h S c h o o l s a r e t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s  away from the land. A g r i c u l t u r e i s f t h e backbone o f the n a t i o n * and s u r e l y i t s h o u l d b o the a i m of our e d u c a t i o n a l , s y s t e m , p a r t i c u l a r ! y I n r u r a l a r e a s , t o g i v e our c h i l d r e n a n e d u c a t i o n that w i l l e n a b l e  them to earn their living on the land and remain on the farms Ox B r i t i s h  Columbia  as  satisfied  and u s e f u l  citizens.  drarm nn i ^ ^ S I S t t t ^ L S ^ K * ® 0 , h 0 0 l s ^ B.C. are Schools rfiich J p! t ^ o i s ?°?00ls in " auditoriums, etc. O a f ^ u S S i s ofS™' T o a m or leES nave none of these e^TOrtm*° 1 rac with the oresent c ^ n P f w M ? * -1 ? « c a l l y Impossible a education^ The s S S M S " °aiWio - separate do not c o n n e c t ^ S e ^ S * ^ . De^aney m S S ^ f T w J ^ l ^ principal of School fsoards K ^ t S = ® ? t i o m l a l r Q to S 1:1001 received nineteen replies ? rroblffiis and havereplies from a quesliomlire to t S ^ seOT schools. I " p r i n c i p a l s of rural high the t T M s t e ^ a S f S S S S S the H i S c h o o l c u r r S S m Soie the T e a c h e r s  are-rilling  *  Tepll  ^  Cha  "?&  r u r a l  t  1 C  arse  *S  that ^.Ice  tiiat  ^-eds and  that  ^o ^ ?? S* Preferably in ^ e r sessions- at tL uJ^rStr to teach a curriculum. The t e a c U s a S J l 1 modified optional courses in Emal I t e c l w o n m ^ f - r ^ i n c l u c i i n S s P ^ i a l program at the University. ° n e t e a c h e r training s h e e t s i fI the relative importance of • '• i ™ ' 1 ' opinion of J order- in the f o l i o s ? " l i s t ? J S ^ - M ? ?°«S l E sll°® considered of most i n S ^ i S I i i iintlMe bie and Agriculture are Geography? U t S r S u S f S ^ • « / o U ^ ; Science, Physical Education \vlTol r S ^ general  sarae order?®  tSaChers  ^ P  subjects in practically the  endorse r - e S l S S o n ' / f ™ ® ? We have ™t)°ered with ^ ^ ^ S S S S J ^ ^ ^ ^ i  S  S  -the executive Valley Branch. S J ^ Schools  some change should be  raa4e  to . S e thel S S I e ? f S 2 n t  relating t  f  ^  k  ^  T  f  i  M  T  *  °  **  opportunity of eo-  By th© time f i n a l returns were .ready f o r tabulation twenty school boards and eighty-sis principals had replied to the Questionnaires sent ant by the present writer.  APPENDIX 0 U3EB 111  VE^STTII GRALTTI O. No SO^N, 'IIN NV  AN  IN  SURTEY  SE EC CO ON ND DA AR RY Y c nD iU C A T I O N S E BRITISH COLUMBIA  RURAL  S E C T I O N I. NOTE:—Please  THE RURAL HIGH use reverse of sheets for „ , . . . „ „ , „ , r „ .  SCHOOL 'Pace than that provided.  1.  Name  —  Number of Divisions.-. Total Enrolment: 2.  (Indicate  of School  Boys.  —  About what per cent, of your (a)  N a m e of Principal Summer Address.  Girls.„  present total enrolment intend to proceed  to University?  ) (b) to Normal? have definite plans for the future; i.e. exclusive of (a) and <b) Specify any known plans for future (c)  3.  In your opinion what is the general attitude of •J-year• type? (Underline type (Underline onc°answcr)! Very °aTOTable,°"av'orobTe,'neM^^  ^ry^n^ieh , o'nnosc(i m ' , ' lrCl '  Remarks:  B.  EQUIPMENT. Rale  1.  S—satisfactory,  2.  Assembly  3.  Study Hall  4.  U—Unsatisfactory,  Sciencc Laboratory Hall  )  8.  )  9.  ) 10.  Library Library R o o m .... Teachers' R o o m .  N—None.  Girls' Basement Boys' Basement . Gymnasium  ) II.  Gymnasium  Apparatus  ) 12.  Playground  Apparatus  ) 13.  School Garden  (  ) IS.  Water  ) 16.  Ventilation  System ...  ) 17.  Heating System .  ) 18.  Lighting System .  ) 19.  Sanitary System ..  (  ) 20. Extras—B. B. Space, M a p s ) 14. Janitor Service ( and Supplies Kindly give details if there is any suitable or available land at or near your school which could be used ; mental plat? Storeroom  22. 23  Kindly mention  24.  C.  general  shape, dope, tmrfaec, etc).  condition of playground (she,  T y p e (frame, brick); size (in rooms); and age (condition  ^ " ^ ' ^ i ^ r M d i n Z  CONSOLIDATION  "  Hne^one 3 S & * "  »  *  —  i  ,  to consolidation?  y  —  Favorab.c, neutral, opplsed (unde,  Remarks;  Remarks: 3.  —  (  )  A r e you in favor of consolidation with i F a v „ ^ a b i ; ; ' , I ^ r o S S " ? 3 e S  o ^ e r T ' '  "  , b i e C U  "  ^  Hon* Economic^"  A  ^  ^  Remarks:  5.  Arc environmental conditions in your locality favorable Vor, (a) General Consolidation ( ) (b)  . e m a r : ' : " diS'anCC ™B' SCh°°'' " ' Contolidation for Specialized High School. % Normal entrance, H o m e Economics). Remarks:  Consolidation for certain subjects.  "-lug  ...(  would be appreciated).  meet  'S*.  .He community needs-nf you ..ir-— ---l-:--.  •"<."K..i.  QfTlONAL INFORMATION."(Requirin^Msay ,y|)c  if  "  Advantages Disadvantages Recommendations 1. Theoretical 2 . Practical.  SECTION T A B U L A T E - ^  (?)  self  as  (b)  T c a c h c r  RURAL No. I ™ d  (c)  II.  HIGH SCHOOL STAFF ^ s ^ " o n ' s a l a r y l a 's,  Special Subjects Taught  li. 3  Major Subjects it University  : -•  LII j i: I 9  10. _  -  11. .. 12. _ Note.—Include 1932-33 in experience. 2.  Please state for yourself and other teachers various teacher by  3.  t h e m e d i a e "  Have you or any of your staff ever taken special col rural education outside of regular teaching duties ? _ Remarks:  • done any special work connected directly or indirectly with (  }  '  "0t ^ ---  should the present curiculum be modified to favor rural needs' Remarks:  s  - K t S  1  zz™?^  -  you or your staff-men and women being Number who favo  Method favored  Men (a)  Prohibi,i™> ( )  Remarks, if any  Summer school at Victoria  (b)  Summer session at the University  (c)  Reading course  (d)  Correspondence course  (Private  Study)  D o you favor including special courses in Rural Education i  6.  the regular teacher training program at the University?  Remarks  — ( ) For teachers taking the regular tcachci r training course at the University, do you consider such a course should be (a) ) (b) Optional (  7.  compulsory ( Remarks:  the^rura^teacherr1'^1' 'hC i,C'"S  or should not be made the criteria of professional suceeTs'Tor  (j)  (")  M a r k (x) those you considerable most desirable. (a) Teaching expcricnce in length of service (b) -Number of subjects and classes taught (c) Number of pupils taught (d) Inspectors' reports High grade specialization _____ (e) —  .Marl; (o) tbosc you consider least desirable.  (  (f) Professional preparation beyond minimum  ,, requirements rass percentages disregarding intelligence of pupils lass percentages taking intelligence of pupils into con^dTra'tTc bocial adaptability in rural community A n y other suggested criterion  -  -  SALARY Urban Minimum  Maximum  i  - ( ( ( {  Rural  Principal  $3000.00  Assistant  $1500.00  Principal  $4000.00  Assistant  $3000.00  " S i n g your own personal estimates of relative value.  A •  S  W  p  •  T  S  a  S E C T I O N III. RURAL HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM  , l  ^  a= eva.ua,ion of the composite opinion <hc  carefully, using a descending scale of importance  Su»t«l»n.  ^ t r i ? ™ . ™ ^ } " * ' X ,  K  X)°rdi"E  „  10  —ponding  ,hC  In terms of needs present eq pment a n " J University or to Normal (practical ranking)  random checking used)  (i) (j) (k)  th  = curriculum.  Please complete  the curriculum-  b:  '  "'S  <hc  (See random ranking, example  C  (b)  (0 (S) < h)  o w  No. 1 (highest) to No. 12 (lowest).  In approximate order of importance for all B  (e)  °UrSCS "  column, o, the following c ^ I ™  (a)  (d)  C  Use pcncil in ease of a slight change of estimate requiring erasure  ^  t ™ o T T T ' ' ? s s u m , n S » » ' / fifteen per cent, of students procecd to  column using the following criteria (see example column  Y-  f n b S ! ' '( ° n y ' , r ? d i ' : « » » l rather than suited to rural needs Subjects, f any, suitable for .ubjtitution in place o (d) 1 . . to suit rural needs, urriculum of rural high school.  Sub,ec,s  ,f any, m which your students appear to t a k f a v i „ ,  ;„,„„,.  (Any other suggested checking) *\vt.cn clinic uepartment department is meant, use chcck m->rL- />/•, 1 . , — — letter * ' a f - " — V C abbrcvi-inns-IJotanv ( D ) DioloL^ fl i! f e ^ ' S u h h c L o r s l , I , j c c , s is use first Subjects beginning •nine with the same letter but in d i f f e r ^ ! 1 S c , c n c e < G S > - Arithmetic ( A ) , Algebra (Al). _ c r . out in depni micius, should not be confuscd, Ex. Arithmetic Art • f.artnient  X  I  | a  • ••;.«i>Jl  E x p l a n a t i o n of T c  [Mathematics  .  (Social Studies •/Health ' Frcnch-Gcrman 'Latin-Greek  Agriculture  .  Dotany  ..  Biology  .  General Science  ..Aesthetic  Physics-Ch cm is try-  ..  Natural Science  ..  Music  Aesthetic  ..  Dramatics  :  Practical  -Practical  Technical  Manual Training  Commercial B  H o m e Economics  Please complete by using chcck mark i any of the courses listed below— 1.  appropriate column and suggesting number of crcdits to be given if you favor  Suggested Courses for Rural High School (a)  Art  Value in Credits  Compulsory ?  Optional ?  Mechanical Drawing  (b)  Farm  (c)  Rural Economics  Mechanics  (d)  Rural Sociology  (e)  Art Appreciation  (f)  Music Appreciation  _  (e) <10  —  Remarks: 2.  Have any problems, directly or indirectly, concerning a definite program of Rural Education been discussed by your community or School Board?  _  ^  Remarks: 3.  If you have read any recent literature on Rural Education, please comment briefly on your reaction to it  Please r e t u r n completed f o r m t o R. G. Gordon, Esq., Principal, H i g h School, D e w d n e y , B. C.  I  ^  mi-  APPENDIX ID A R e f e r e n c e L i s t of Literature on R u r a l E d u c a t i o n I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  S O * . * ! * * '  D  T  o  e  ,  u  The  general ^ S n f e o w  .  c  n  ^  l  publications  /  S  of  the  ,  ^  ^  Office  tfiVSoiSEnl  1  ?  ^  0  of .Education  ?  ^  car.  ,  »ot  C0U trie ^ C S K t ^ f ln WhiCh the o f f l E ^ i S a g iraru, ox Lhe United States is not recognized. For ell document =• )e ' J or warded to such countries. one-third must t h e p r i c e s s t a t e d h e r e i n , to c o v e r t h e cost of p o sbt e a gaed e d to  BULLETINS  1914 No.8.  M a s s a c h u s e t t s h o n e - p r o j e c t n l a n of v o c a t i o n a l agricultural education. E.Y>'. S t i m s o n . 15 c t s .  N o . 1 9 . S t a t i s t i c s o f c e r t a i n sanual training, and i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l s . 10 cts. '  agricultural ~  " *  1916 N o . 2 . Agricultural a n d r u r a l e d u c a t i o n a t the International Exposition. H.W. Foght.  Panama - P a c i f i c 25 cts.  Ho.41.Agricultural and rural extension schools I n A.  C.  Monahan.  lj?  cts.  Ireland  IX  1917 No.23»  Three s h o r t c o u r s e s i n hone making. Lyfor&o  No.33.  15  A.  A comparison of the s a l a r i e s of r u r a l and u r b a n s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of s c h o o l s . A . C . Monahan and C.H. Dye. 10 cts. 1  l'To.66. T r a i n i n g Ho086.  Carrie  cts.  teachers  Administration  Q I C  of a g r i c u l t u r e . .  and s u p e r v i s i o n  10  cts.  of v i l l a g e  schools.  W.S. Deffenbaugh and J 0 C. Muerman.. 10 cts. 1920 No.l.  No.9«,  The problem of - matheraati es in s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . A r e p o r t of the Coramis sion on t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f secondary e d u c a t i o n . 5 cts.  The f e a s i b i l i t y of consolidating the schools of  joy Township, Adams County, P a . and W. S. Deffenbaugh • 3 cts.  Mount  K . M.  Cook  N o A g r i c u l t - a r e in secondary schools. A report of Commission on the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of secondary education. 3 cts. No.44.  Salaries  of p r i n c i p a l s  Bawden.  3 cts.  of h i g h s c h o o l s .  1921 1-Jo.3.  Part time education  ' of v a r i o u s  types.  the Commission on the r e o r g a n i s a t i o n of e due a t i o n . -No.32.  3  W.T.  A r e p o r t of secondary  cts»  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of m a t h e m a t i c s i n secondary e d u c a t i o n . Summary of r e p o r t by N a t i o n a l committee on mathemati c a l r e q u i r e m e n t So 1 0 cts „  No.34.  S t a t u s of the r u r a l teacher L . A . ICing. 10 cts.  in  Pennsylvania.  No.40.  Agricultural education, C.D. Jarvis. Advance s h e e t s from B i e n n i a l s u r v e y , 1 9 1 8 - 1 9 2 0 . 3 cts.  1922 Indenization . Ko.lO,,  ion  of  of  hose economics in secondary report- of Connnisaim on t h e T e o ^ a n i z a t -  / secondary  gperyision  education.  of r u r a l  5 cts.  spools..  ^  gamzat-  Katharine M.  Cook.  1923 • . ' ' Ko  '6a  Honie economics education. Henrietta W rn^, .Advance sheets fro, Biennial s S ^ I h w & Z  A.  MO59  t l S f sheets from  *  Worlcs,  survey, 1920-1922.  Biennial  ,^therine  M.  Cook.  5  Advance  cts.  Advance 5 cts.  Biennial s u r v e y , 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 2 2 .  - - SKSas^rasE^ probiems -  Ho.41. ~  t a  t i c n  of  -1924.  No.4.  ; Nb.<L • M0  ^ J j g h -  '  «iool.  1925 f i f ^ j c h o o l education selected States. E,  o f the f a r m p o p u l a t i o n 3 cts.  °f  -10' e ! ^  ^irlo  in  E. Windes.  -9-  HO  C.A. Nelscxi and I . E .  rUral  £8'.OIBBalaMiai  -pension. -  currieuXu*.  Ho.25* Constructive tendencies in r u r a l education Catherine M . C o o k . A d v a n c e s h e e t s from B i e n n i a l survey,  1922-1924.  5  cts..  No.32. Agricultural education. sheets from B i e n n i a l  max  G.A. Works.  survey,  Advance  1922-1924.  3  cts.-  '  1922  N O . 1 2 . Im^overiient of instruction in rural schools through professional supervision. 10 cts. 1927 Ifo.4*  "SI i W o n 4-r* _ . -> „ Bibliography of certain aspects of rural educa, sat ion. From Januaiy 1 , 1920 , to September 1 7 1 9 2 6 5 cts.  N 0 . I 5 . Progress of rural education, 1925 and 1926 K Advance sheets from Biennial survey71924-1926: Hoe24e Rural school supervision.  Ko  '6*  ¥ 10  10 cts»  Professional preparation of teachers for rural schoolso (Conference report.) 1$ .cts.  No* 2-8 * The rural junior high .school.  E. N. Ferriss.  cts.  1929 No.3..- Some essential viewpoints in supervision, of rural schools, 15 cts* ~ " -Ho.6.  Salaries and salary trends of teachers in rural schools. . W„H. GaurmitZo 10 cts.  No, 18.- Rural education in 1926-1928. Katherine M. Cook, Advance sheets from Biennial survey. 1926-1928 10 cts. No,28, Certain phases -of rural school supervision. No..3?» Developments In. rural school supervision. Reynolds. 5 cts,  10 cts„ Annie  1930 No. 6.  S i  State direction of rural school library service Edith A. Lathrop. - 10 cts.  No.13. The smaliness of America1 s rural high schools. ¥. H. Gauirmitz. 1 5 cts.  Ill  HEALTH EDUCATION PDBUCATIOHS Health Education S e r ^ s .  "  N 0 . I 5 . 1923. Suggestions for  6  prolan  i-,  ,, '  5  aaditianal copies, 4 cts. each. Physical Ho-3.  1923. S u g g e a t & a r f o r 1  No»8«  a p l l y s i c a l education  ^ r a m  8 e o o  h ^ r j schools. •' Walter S and Dorothy Hut chin scau 10 cts?; 1927. Games and e q u i u m p n 1 - f n r . ^ n  Marie M. - R e l a y ? 5 2 c t s . each,  r S Sb  sch001 . S S ^ additional copies  5  HOME ECONOMICS CIRCULARS  Ho.. 13. May,  192Z.  Home -economies in rural schools.  5 cts.  LIBRARY LEAFLETS—LISTS OF REHSREFFCLS Bo, 1 1 . Feb., 1920. Consolidation of schools.  5  ct8  No.16. May,  1922. Rural l i f e and culture.  3  I  1924. Rural life and culture.  3 cts.  *°'26"  cts.  MISC1LIABIE0US PUBLICATIONS 1929» Publications of the IT s special i n t e W t l S & . ^ o !  « -nS a S ^ ?  1 0  *  .  1922  READING COURSES No .22. Agriculture and country l i f e . H o . T h e  appreciation of music. RURAL SCHOOL LEAFLETS -  No.l.  Feb., 1922. School consolidation and rural l i f e , poos.  No.9.  Jan., 1923. An annotated list of official ° n « o n s ° l M a t i o n of "schools and cj.anspornation of pupils. J . F . Abel. 3 cts.  No.14. May, H0.17.  1923 Hupal-teacher situation in the United oGdteo. ivabel Carney. 3 ots»  June, 1923; Iowa plan of training superintendents oeachers .for consolidated schools. m&gj Campbell... 3 cts.  No.23. Kar., 1924. Training courses in consolidation of so no ols and transportation of pupils.. Abel. 3 cts. No.24. Apr., 1924. Salaries of country teachers in 1923. • Alex Summers. 3 cts. Ho.26. Aug., 1924. Types of courses of study in agriculture. v/maes. 5 cts. No.27. Apr., 1 9 2 4 . Milpitas - a rural school project in teacher training. Clara H„ Smith and La Rae Olvey. 3 cts. • No.29. June, 1 9 2 4 . The county unit in New Mexico. v. Conway. 3 cts.  John''  No-.36. Dec., 1924. Publications of the U . S . Bureau of Education pertaining to rural education. " Florence E. Reynolds. 3 cts. No.38. Apr., 1923. Preparation of teachers for rural consolidated and village schools. L.J. Alleman. 3 cts. No.39. Jan., 1926. Salaries of rural teachers and length of school term. Alex Summers. 3 cts. °  xiy  TEACHERS ?  LEAFLETS  BMIPHLBTS Pamphlet, ^ 6 , 1 9 3 0 .  Rural school consolidation, ' a decade  f r ^ l O p consolldaioed schools.  Timon  Covert,  Pamphlet; Ko,8 s . 1 9 3 0 . An a g e - g r a d e study of 7 632 elementary pupils in 45 consolidated'.schools. DdJ  -»  B l o s e a n d Tiraon C o v e r t .  Pamphlets Ho,,!!, 1 9 3 0 . cooperation.  3. c t s .  S c h o o l and comity l i b r a r y mith A. Lathrop. ~  SjiiLiiCTED  BIBL10GRAPHY  The A g r i c u l t u r a l G a z e t t e o f C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa, Canada. (complete*set). Dominion  Bureau of  of  Statistics  The C a n a d a Y e a r B o o k , 1 9 3 2 . Ottawa, 1932= Canada, 1 9 3 1 . A n o f f i c i a l H a n d b o o k of P r e s e r f C o n d i t i o n s and R e c e n t P r o g r e s s . Ottawa, 1 9 3 2 . A n n u a l S u r v e y of E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a , 1 9 3 0 . Ottawa 1031 A n n u a l S u r v e y of E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a , 1 9 3 1 . Ottawa' 1 9 * 2 ' C a n a d a and P r o v i n c e s , 1 9 3 1 . Ottawa, 1 9 3 2 . ' Annual Reports of  Departiasnts o f  Education  S i x t y - f i r s t A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931-32. Victoria, 1932. i w e n t y - S e v e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t of the D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n of t h e P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 3 2 = Edmonton 1 9 3 2 . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e of S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1 9 3 1 . Region, 1932. R e p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of M a n i t o b a f o r the y e a r e n d i n g J u n e 3 0 t h , 1 9 3 2 . Winnipeg, 1932. Report of the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , Province o f Ontario f o r the y e a r 1 9 3 2 . T o r o n t o , 3.933. R e p o r t of t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e of Quebec f o r the year 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 . Quebec, 1932. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the S c h o o l s of New B r u n s w i c k , 3 9 3 3 - 3 2 Frccericton, 1933. -Annual'Report o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of E d u c a t i o n Eova S c o t i a for- the y e a r e n d e d J u l y 3 1 s t . 1 9 3 2 .  for Halifax,  1933A n n u a l Keport- o f the D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e o f P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d f o r t h e f i s c a l yee-r ended December 3 1 s t , 1 9 3 2 . Charlottetov/n, 1 9 3 3 . I/Il s e e l l a n eo u s P r ov 111 c i al R op or t s R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l s in A l b e r t a . Edmonton Department o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of M a n i t o b a , R e g u l a t i o n s . R e v i s e d July 1, 1929. W i n n i p e g D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of Manitoba,Regulations for Secondary Schools. E f f e c t i v e July 1, 1932. S c h o o l R e g u l a t i o n s of the P r o v i n c e o f O u e b e c , r e v i s e d b y the P r o t e s t a n t Committees o f t h e C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n and a p p r o v e d J u l y 1 s t , 1931Ouebec, 1 9 3 1 . R e g u l a t i o n s o f Hew B r u n s w i c k . Fredericton, 1929.  1922  Sootia, 1923,  Amena-ents to , o » or B ^ A  vli9l  S E S £  susssfg  i  ^  i  y  ?  1  ^  -  '  *  *  r ' T - ^ f 1 ^ 8 , ° f / c ? e Twenty-Seventh Convention , B-i t ^ b h 0 0 1  Proceedincs  l T U S t e e S  lie I d  of t h e T w e n t y - E i g h t h Convent ior  at  ChmiLck, u m i sb  Columbia School Trustees-Association, S l a V S ^ n a ,  1932,  S S i S x ^ t r B ^ i 5fr Y0f, 1932: {rScouve^ 0 1 3 1 1 ° ° l m b i a '  J * * * " * * Parent-Teachor M e n t i o n Humbar, May,  l^r.-ff^k,70}-^1'  192? E0.6.  Toronto.  Provincial Programme of Studies c f S t lchoo5Bol S i ? ? ^ 1 ? ^ ^ ^ ^ i e s for t h e H i g h o o n o n i s ox jjrii,isn C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , 19 r e g u l a t i o n s o f the Department of EuM c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to a n ? Annual nations ilcondary o c h o o l s f o r t h e year e n d i n g J u n e 30,. 1 9 3 4 Edmon+™ iq-d • Kandbook for Secondary S c h o o l s , A l i ^ S f c o i ^ i ^ ^ i e i a i ^ of the C o u r s e s A u t h o r i s e d f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s b ^ t h l Department o f E d u c a t i o n . Baraonton, 1 9 3 0  °  f  f  3  ? i o n ,  xor Secondary Schools, ^rojrar.me o f  t  S ^ f  Regulations  1932-33-  S t u d i e s f a r the  M n S p ^  10r  the  and  Bogim.  Courses of  Schools' of l a m i t o b a , SCh  °01  Year  Study  *  Authorised  ^iimiag  ***  O n t a r i o Department of E d u c a t i o n , C o u r s e s of Study ond E x a m i n a t i o n s of {he ITi-h S c h o o l s , C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e 1 ana C o n t i n u a t i o n S c h o o l s . Revised 1^32 ^ t; ie C a t l i o l i G i ' Coram! t t e e o f the C o u n c i l I n s t r u c t i o n of the P r o v i n c e o f ...uebee, ( R e v i s e d m 1 9 1 ? a n a Amended-up t o the F i r s t o f J u T r iq?6 Quebec , 1 9 2 6 . " ' Amendments to the S c h o o l R e g u l a t i o n s of the C a t h o l i c Commitoee of t h e C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n ( 1 s t o f J u l ^ 1 9 2 6 t o 1st of J u l y 1 9 3 1 } A supplement published in 1 9 2 6 . One b e e 193*!.  to the  School  Reflations ^.jui-tions  Course of Instructions fn-r  —rv, o^v  Department of Education {Prince Edward O J n , to the Course of S t r a p s 1 oipjS V t ? i Supplement -S-^-lw. Guarlo11©town, 1932., Special Reports on Education Canada Dyde, R/.F.,  Public Secondary Education in Canada, Colunoia University Contribution! uo Jiducat ion, Teachers? College Series . New York, I-929. *  "  Putman, J . H . . ana  Victoria, 1925. Books on Rural Education ?u£?1t5 H . , and ijamncne, p . ,  The  Betts, C-.H.,  Nevr Ideals in Rural Schools Houghton IJifflin Cc-oary, Hew. Yor k., 1913 .  Lima,  Folk  Sch0Dl of Denmark, Oxford University Press5 London, 1926,  Cuhber ley. E.P. , The Iraproverrent of Rural Schools, Houghton Mifflin Colony. New York, I912, . Rural Life and Education, HcrarJitoa Mifflin Company. Hew York, '1914. . pa-vies, Hoe l i e , Education for Lif.e, Williams and Elorgate L t d . , London, I 9 3 I . Ferriss, E . N . , Secondary Education in Country and Villare 5 D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1927.  If  Bosks Oil Secondary Education (General) Counts,  Davis,  G.S.,  C.Q.,  She Senior iiigh School Curriculum, XTniversity of•Chicago Press. Chicago, 1927. Our Evolving High School Curriculum* World Book Company, 1927,  Douglass. A. A.  Secondary Education, Houghton Mifflin Company, lew York, 1927,  Edmonson, J»B», Roomer, Joseph; ana Bacon, 3T.L,  Secondary School Administration, • fhe Maeifilian Comuany, Mm York, 19SI.  Gunt on, T .3?,  fhe Jew Senior School, * • * ©rant Education Co, Ltd., London^, I f 0 1 .  Koos, 7».V.,  She American Secondary School, Gins and Company„  Lewis, W.D, c  Democracy's High School, Houghton Mifflin Company, few York, 1914.  Sneddon* Daytd*  Problems of Secondary Education, Houghton Uifflin Company, Hew York, 1917  Books on Philosophy of Education .  Dewey, John,  Democracy and Education, She MacMillen Company, Hew York, 1922.  ^ilpatrick-j W.H.* Education:.... for a Changing Civilisation* She M&eMillan Company, Hew York, 19 26.  


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