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Nature symbolism and moral isolation in Hawthorne Stott, Jon Copeland 1964

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NATURE SYMBOLISM AND MORAL ISOLATION IN HAWTHORNE by JON COPELAND STOTT B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1964 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission,, Department of h. TV1 Q L I £ H The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Abstract The purpose of this thesis i s to present a systematic examination of the major groups of nature symbols used by Hawthorne i n his novels and tales t r e a t i n g moral i s o l a t i o n . Since Poe's and M e l v i l l e ' s early re-marks on Hawthorne's love of allegory and his power of blackness, many c r i t i c s have studied the extensive use of symbolism and the d e t a i l e d anal-y s i s of human nature i n his works. While c r i t i c s have not ignored the numerous examples of nature symbolism contained i n the works, none has made a comprehensive analysis of Hawthorne's systematic patterns. Such an analysis reveals a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the already acknowledged depth and genius of h i s symbolic method and shows that his use of nature sym-bolism, d i f f e r i n g from that of both h i s puritan ancestors and transcenden-t a l i s t contemporaries, serves as further evidence of his great a r t i s t i c o r i g i n a l i t y . In Chapter Two, an examination of The Scarlet Letter, i n which nearly a l l the nature symbols are used, reveals the great richness and complex-i t y with which Hawthorne develops them. The journey into the wilderness i s the chief symbol, giving not only a s t r u c t u r a l unity to several v i t a l chapters i n the centre of the novel, but also revealing the extent of the moral i s o l a t i o n of the characters. Within this major pattern, several other patterns emerge: the interplay of sunlight and darkness, the phy-s i c a l nature of the wilderness i t s e l f , and the attitudes of the various characters to nature symbolise the moral natures of Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale. The following chapters examine the systematic a p p l i c a t i o n of each set of symbols to a s p e c i f i c aspect of moral i s o l a t i o n . Moral innocence and attempts to regain or r e t a i n i t are symbolized by sunshine, flowers and the harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l s with nature; moral e v i l and g u i l t by the journey into the wilderness, the wild nature of the f o r e s t i t s e l f , and darkness. A t h i r d group of symbols r e l a t i n g to the garden r e f l e c t another aspect of i s o l a t i o n , that of the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i -dual attempting to enter into contact with others. Within each of these three symbolic patterns, the i n d i v i d u a l symbols are modified to r e f l e c t the unique moral conditions of the p a r t i c u l a r characters. Hawthorne's use of nature imagery takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e when considered i n r e l a t i o n to h i s a l l e g o r i c a l method. I t becomes an i n t e g r a l part of the method by which he was able to r e t e l l old material and common themes i n such a way as to give each a new l i f e and meaning. I t i s a part of the method which has helped to e s t a b l i s h his p o s i t i o n as a major American author. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank Mr. P. A, Quartermain and the members of my thesis committee f o r the assistance they have given me i n the preparation of this t h e s i s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page One Introduction 1 Two Nature Symbolism i n The Scarlet L e t t e r 11 Three Nature as Symbol of Innocence 33 Four Nature as Symbol of Moral E v i l 54 Five The Garden as Symbol 74 Six Conclusion 99 Bibliography Chapter One INTRODUCTION Two basic and acknowledged fac t s about Hawthorne's writings are that he was concerned primarily with human s i n and i s o l a t i o n , and that h i s w r i t i n g makes extensive use of symbols. Since Poe'sand M e l v i l l e ' s early remarks on Hawthorne's love of allegory and h i s power of blackness, many c r i t i c s have studied the extensive use of symbolism and the d e t a i l e d analy-ses of human nature i n his works. While c r i t i c s have not ignored the numer-ous examples of nature symbolism contained i n the works, none has made a comprehensive analysis of Hawthorne's systematic use of such symbolism i n h i s treatment of s i n and moral i s o l a t i o n . An analysis of his nature symbols reveals a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the already acknowledged depth and genius of h i s symbolic method and shows that h i s use of nature sym-bolism, d i f f e r i n g from that of both his puritan ancestors and h i s trans-cendentalist contemporaries, serves as further evidence of h i s great a r t i s -t i c o r i g i n a l i t y . Before proceeding to an examination of Hawthorne's nature symbolism, i t w i l l be useful to consider the major aspects of and c r i t i c a l viewpoints toward his symbolic methods and his view of human nature i n order to place t h i s discussion i n the general framework of Hawthorne's w r i t i n g and Hawthorne c r i t i c i s m . Since h i s own remarks on h i s "inveterate love of a l l e g o r y " and Poe's on "the s t r a i n of allegory -which completely overwhelms the greater number of h i s subjects"''", dozens of c r i t i c s have c a r e f u l l y examined Hawthorne's symbolic method. A glance at any of h i s works, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the American 2 Notebooks and Davidson's e d i t i o n of Dr. Grimshawe's Secret w i l l reveal the truth of Matthiessen's statement that Hawthorne had a "predetermined habit -2-3 of looking f o r emblems everywhere...." Modern c r i t i c a l opinion may be placed between the two extremes of Ivor Winters and Q. D. Leavis. Winters 4 emphatically states that "Hawthorne i s ... e s s e n t i a l l y an a l l e g o r i s t . . . . while Mrs. Leavis writes that "the symbol i s the thing i t s e l f with no separate paraphrasable meaning as i n an allegory: the language i s d i r e c t l y evocative.""' Perhaps the most acceptable explanations of the problem are those given by the foremost of the recent Hawthorne c r i t i c s , Richard Harter Fogle and Hyatt Howe Waggoner. Waggoner suggests that "most of Hawthorne's best tales e x i s t ... i n a realm somewhere between symbolism and allegory, as those terms are used t o d a y . F o g l e writes that "the symbol must be in t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f , not merely as i t points to something e l s e . This c r u c i a l requirement, which divides mere allegory from l i t e r a t u r e , Hawthorne f u l f i l l s . Hawthorne's symbols have the c l a r i t y of allegory, with the com-p l e x i t y of l i f e . " ^ One may then form the general i z a t i o n that, on the one hand, the symbols do not simply give a tangible q u a l i t y to the author's abstract ideas, or that, on the other hand, they do not ex i s t independently i n themselves, but that they embody within them Hawthorne's v i s i o n , the human concerns of his f i c t i o n . Marius Bewley suggests a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Hawthorne's symbolic method of w r i t i n g and his subject matter. This c r i t i c shows how the sym-b o l i c method presents the e s s e n t i a l concern of the works: the inner r e a l i t y of man as he grapples with the tensions e x i s t i n g between himself and society: [Hawthorne] projects the inner moral or psychological t r a v a i l outward into a world of external symbols where i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e continues to exi s t f o r the imagination apart from the protagon-i s t i n whom i t had i t s concern. The tendency of Hawthorne's ar t i s always outward; i t shows a habit of endowing the hidden -3-and the private with a high degree of p u b l i c i t y , and of reveal-ing not the unique differences i n men's souls but the hidden samenesses.^ This inner r e a l i t y , the subject matter of Hawthorne's works, has long fascinated c r i t i c s . James, who wrote that "the f i n e thing i n Haw-9 thorne i s that he cared f o r the deeper psychology," recognized what l a t e r c r i t i c s have expanded upon, the concern i n Hawthorne's f i c t i o n f o r the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l . This quotation from Matthiessen 1s American Renais- sance perhaps best explains t h i s concern: To escape from such moods [of discouragement] Hawthorne did not have the recourse of Emerson, who could say good-bye to the 'proud world,' and go home to f i n d himself i n s o l i t u d e . Hawthorne could never f e e l that a man became more human i n th i s way. In the f i r s t number of h i s Spectator, ... he had anticipated, with amazing completeness, h i s mature p o s i t i o n . He stated, i n a b r i e f essay 'On Solitude' ...: 'Man i s n a t u r a l l y a sociable being ... I t i s only i n society that the f u l l energy of h i s mind i s aroused. Perhaps l i f e may pass more t r a n q u i l l y , estranged from the pursuits and vex-ations of the multitude, but a l l the hurry and w h i r l of passion i s preferable to the cold calmness of i n d i f f e r e n c e . ' In s p i te of his l a s t i n g shyness, Hawthorne never saw any reason to a l t e r this b e l i e f . He did not share Thoreau's un-swerving confidence that man could f i n d himself by studying nature, indeed, i n no respect i s h i s diffe r e n c e more funda-mental than i n t h i s . For Hawthorne, the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l i s morally separated from society. Although H. B. Parkes statement that Hawthorne "came to regard i s o l a t i o n as almost the root of a l l e v i l , " * * i s c e r t a i n l y overexaggerated, i t does give a hint at one aspect of the nature of moral i s o l a t i o n i n Hawthorne's works. If Parkes' statement i s reversed and a l t e r e d to read that e v i l i s the root of much i s o l a t i o n , we are closer to the truth, f o r i t i s the e v i l of his characters which causes t h e i r great i s o l a t i o n . The most penetrating of Hawthorne's s t o r i e s , those containing the "power of blackness" which M e l v i l l e so admired, are concerned with those i n d i v i -duals whose sins have i s o l a t e d them morally from society. Hester Prynne, Ethan Brand, and Young Goodman Brown are but a few of those who have broken, or have " l o s t [their] hold of the magnetic chain of humanity." The sins of Hawthorne's characters often r e s u l t from a w i l l f u l d i s s o c i a -t i o n from society. Thus the pride of Hester, Brand, and Brown prevents them, i n various ways, from j o i n i n g t h e i r respective communities. How-ever, there i s another aspect of i s o l a t i o n . For Hawthorne, the morally u n i n i t i a t e d or amoral i n d i v i d u a l i s also i s o l a t e d . Because c h i l d r e n f a l l i n to t h i s category, he i s extremely interested i n the moral nature of the c h i l d . Pearl, Abraham, and, although he i s not l i t e r a l l y a c h i l d , Donatell f i t i nto t h i s category. The symbolic function of nature i n Hawthorne's treatment of these human concerns i s hinted at, but not expanded upon by Harry Levin, who writes: "he has an eye f o r the moral picturesque, rather than f o r purely 13 l o c a l c o l o r . . . . " Hawthorne's long walks i n nature, often noted by bio-graphers, and sometimes recorded i n his American Notebooks, are therefore i n t e r e s t i n g as they r e l a t e to h i s f i c t i o n a l processes. Obviously not the minutely accurate recorder and observer that Thoreau was, he generally saw the wilderness as i t related to human beings. For example, t r a v e l l i n g by stage coach he remarks: How very desolate looks a forest,when seen t h i s way, -- as i f , should you venture one step within i t s wild, tangled, many stammed, and dark-shadowed verge, you would i n e v i t a b l y be l o s t f o r e v e r . ^ However, he did not f e e l that nature d i r e c t l y influenced human beings. Toward man, the processes of nature were completely unsympathetic and -5-impersonal: "Nothing comes amiss to Nature -- a l l i s f i s h that comes to her net. If there be a l i v i n g form of perfect beauty i n s t i n c t with soul --why, - i t i s very w e l l , and s u i t s Nature well enough. But she would just as l i e f have that same, b e a u t i f u l , soul-illumined body to make worm's meat of and to manure the earth with." (AN, p. 118) Most often h i s re-marks are d i r e c t l y symbolic; the habit of looking for emblems leads him to use h i s observations of nature as symbols of moral concerns. For ex-ample he writes: It i s a marvel whence th i s perfect flower derives i t s love-l i n e s s and perfume, springing, as i t does, from the black mud over which the r i v e r sleeps, and where lurk the slimy eel and speckled frog and the mud-turtle whom continual washings cannot cleanse. I t i s the very same black mud out of which the yellow l i l y sucks i t s obscene l i f e and noisome odor. Thus we see, too, i n the world that some persons as-sim i l a t e only what i s ugly and e v i l from the same moral c i r -cumstances which supply good and b e a u t i f i e d r e s u l t s -- the fragrance of c e l e s t i a l flowers -- to the d a i l y l i f e of others. (The Old Manse) What i s i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t about Hawthorne's descriptions of nature i s h i s awareness of a d u a l i t y i n nature. I t i s both b e a u t i f u l and harsh, gentle and v i o l e n t , grim and beneficent. For example, i n "The Prophetic P i c t u r e s , " Hawthorne speaks of the dual aspects of nature, of "stern or lov e l y nature, [ofj the p e r i l s of the forest or i t s overwhelm-ing p e acefulness..."^ (I, p. 208). This being so, the value of nature as a symbol for the human heart i s even more apparent. F u l l of v a r i e t y i t s e l f , nature can serve as an excellent symbol for the complexity of human nature which so fascinated Hawthorne. Any discussion of Hawthorne's works which considers his use of nature as i t r e l a t e s to moral innocence and g u i l t , must take into account the -6-s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between t h i s work and the ideas of Puritanism and Transcendentalism. While i t i s not the purpose of t h i s paper to ac-cess Hawthorne's r e l a t i o n s h i p with those two forces, a b r i e f examination of s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences w i l l help to focus attention on the o r i -g i n a l i t y of Hawthorne's own w r i t i n g . Concerned, l i k e the Puritans, with the moral e v i l of man, and, l i k e the Transcendentalists, with the s e l f -r e l i a n t i n d i v i d u a l , Hawthorne, l i k e both of these groups, made extensive use of nature i n developing h i s ideas. But the r e s u l t s , neither trans-cendental nor puritan, reveal the unique greatness of h i s treatment of the human heart. Herbert Schnieder's o f t quoted remark that Hawthorne "saw the empiri-16 c a l truth behind the C a l v i n i s t symbols," contains the key to Hawthorne's a t t i t u d e toward Puritanism. Although, l i k e the Puritans, he r e a l i z e d that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s contained moral e v i l within them, and although he made extensive use of the wilderness to symbolize that idea, he did not agree with the superstitious b e l i e f s they held regarding the f o r e s t s . The Puri-tans, seeing conscious p a r a l l e l s between themselves and the Children of I s r a e l , maintained that the wilderness was a t e s t i n g ground. Deep i n the fore s t , Satan and his cohorts met to lure the lonely wayfarer from the C h r i s t i a n community into deep s i n . Heimert has suggested that the image of the garden played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e for the Puritans, representing for them the fact that they must overcome the wilderness and e s t a b l i s h a society i n God's name. Cotton Mather's representation of New England, l a t e i n the [l7thX century as "the almost only Garden, which our Lord Jesus has i n the vast continent of America" shows how per-s i s t e n t l y the Puritans refused to id e n t i f y . t h e garden which -7-they sought or attained with a mere untamed and unchurched paradise, however lush, f e r t i l e , or r o l l i n g i t s acres might b e . 1 7 The Puritan b e l i e f s that "adherence of the unregenerate man to nature and natural law w i l l lead to a l i f e of r i o t and confusion [and that] such 18 a man i s a creature of i n s t i n c t s . . . . " ^ere not d i r e c t l y held by Hawthorne. Concerned as he was with the human heart, nature served e s s e n t i a l l y as a symbol. Impersonal and amoral i t s e l f , i t was used to r e f l e c t the moral states of h i s characters. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n "Young Goodman Brown," Hawthorne while accepting the moral truths, refutes the superstitions by presenting them as a dream pro-duced i n the mind of Brown. In The Scarlet Letter, the references to the witch sabbath are placed i n the mouth of the most unbelieveable character of the story, Mistress Hibbins. Elsewhere Hawthorne notes that such be-l i e f s are the r e s u l t of "gray t r a d i t i o n " (I, p. 228) and are " f a n t a s t i c dreams and madmen's re v e r i e s . " Hawthorne believed, not that the lonely wanderer would be captured by demons, but that, as Schnieder's statement suggests, the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l suffered the danger of increasing the moral e v i l which was his by v i r t u e of his human nature. While this idea bears d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the C a l v i n i s t i c idea of innate depravity, i t i s Hawthorne's own, one he often gives, added force by describing i n terms of nature imagery which achieves some of i t s power through i t s echoes of puritan theology. S i m i l a r l y the idea of the garden as an area hewn out of the wilderness by the p'uritan society bears some s i m i l a r i t y to Hawthorne's idea of the garden. However, the garden was not for Haw-thorne the product of the chosen people overcoming the wilderness i n God's -8-name, but a symbol, based p a r t l y on his personal experiences, of the human heart i n r e l a t i o n to others. Whereas, for the puritans, the concern with nature i s mainly t h e o l o g i c a l , for. Hawthorne, i t i s symbolic of moral and psychological conditions. Although, i n "The C e l e s t i a l Railroad," and other works, Hawthorne openly condemns Transcendentalism, parts of h i s writings resemble aspects of Transcendentalism. In his concern with the s e l f - r e l i a n t i n d i v i d u a l and i n his use of nature to symbolize the innocence of the i n d i v i d u a l , he i s dealing with matters examined as well by Emerson and Thoreau. For ex-ample, passages from "Footprints on the Sea-Shore" and "The Old Manse" i n th e i r emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i t y to be achieved by solitude i n nature, ap-pear to p a r a l l e l passages i n Emerson's Nature and Thoreau's Walden. More-over, the carefree sylvan existence experienced by Donatello, and, to a degree by Pearl, would c e r t a i n l y have appealed to the two men. But, where-as Emerson wrote and Thoreau practiced that men must cast o f f the oppres-sive customs and t r a d i t i o n s and journey into nature where, surrounded by symbols which r e f l e c t the unity of existence, they may assert t h e i r s e l f -r e l i a n c e and ultim a t e l y become the transparent eyeball, Hawthorne, though i n the two sketches mentioned above, b e l i e v i n g a b r i e f t r i p to the seashore or country refreshing, b a s i c a l l y f e l t that extended solitude was dangerous to man. In his personal b e l i e f s (as opposed to his f i c t i o n a l ) the value of nature for him was not i n i t s a s s i s t i n g a person's t o t a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e , but i n helping him to acquire s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l i t y to oppose being completely crushed by laws and customs which are, nonetheless, necessary i f man i s to remain a s o c i a l animal. Contact with nature made man better able to l i v e i n society. -9-More b a s i c a l l y as regards his f i c t i o n , Hawthorne, who appreciated the beauty of nature as much as d i d the Transcendentalists, d i f f e r e d from them i n that he was interested not in formulating a philosophy of nature but i n using nature symbolically i n presenting human nature. His nature symbols do not, as perhaps Emerson's do, reveal the unity of a l l existence i n the Oversoul, but give a material representation of the p h y s i c a l l y i n -tangible q u a l i t i e s of the human heart. The following chapters examine these nature symbols as they are applied to the f i c t i o n a l works. An examination of The Scarlet L e t t e r , i n which nearly a l l the nature symbols are used, reveals the great richness and complexity with which Hawthorne develops them. A system-a t i c examination of the symbols reveals t h e i r d i v i s i o n into three major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , each one r e f l e c t i n g a major aspect i n Hawthorne's treatment of moral i s o l a t i o n . Moral innocence and attempts to regain or r e t a i n i t are symbolized by sunshine, flowers and the harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p of in d i v i d u a l s with nature; moral e v i l and g u i l t by the journey into the wilderness, the wild nature of the forest i t s e l f , and darkness. A t h i r d group of symbols r e l a t i n g to the garden r e f l e c t s another aspect of i s o l a t i o n , that of the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l attempting to enter into contact with others. Within each of these three symbolic patterns, the i n d i v i d u a l symbols are modified to r e f l e c t the unique moral conditions of the p a r t i c u l a r characters. -10-FOOTNOTES •I Edmund Wilson, ed., The Shock of Recognition (New York, 1943), I, p. 159. 2 Cambridge, Mass., 1954. 3 F. 0. Matthiessen, The American Renaissance (London, 1941), p. 244. 4 Ivor Winters, In Defense of Reason (Denver, 1947), p. 157. 5 Q. D. Leavis, "Hawthorne as Poet," Sewanee Review, LIX (Spring and Summer, 1951), Part.I, 182. 6 Hyatt Howe Waggoner, Hawthorne (Cambridge, Mass., 1955), p. 58. 7 Richard Harter Fogle, Hawthorne's F i c t i o n ; The Light and The Dark (Norman, Okla., 1952), p. 15. By mere allegory Fogle appears to mean a simple and obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p between an ideaand the physical substance used f i c t i o n a l l y to clothe i t . 8 Marius Bewley, The Eccentric Design (London, 1959), p. 141. 9 Henry James, "Hawthorne," Shock of Recognition, p. 476. 10 Matthiessen, op. c i t . , p. 238. 11 Quoted from Q. D. Leavis, "Hawthorne as Poet," 180. 12 Herman M e l v i l l e , "Hawthorne and h i s Mosses," Shock of Recognition, pp. 148-9. 13 Harry Levin, The Power of Blackness (New York, 1948), p. 58. 14 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The American Notebooks, ed. by Randall Stewart (New Haven, 1932), p. 131. ( A l l subsequent quotations from The  American Notebooks--abbreviated AN--are documented i n t e r n a l l y . ) 15 A l l quotations from Hawthorne's f i c t i o n are taken from The Works of  Nathaniel Hawthorne, 15 v o l s , (Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1891), and are documented i n t e r n a l l y . 16 The Puritan Mind (New York, 1930), p. 262. 17 Alan Hiemert, "Puritanism, the Wilderness and the F r o n t i e r , " NEQ, XXVI (September,.1953), 378-9. 18 Chester E i s i n g e r , "Pearl and the Puritan Heritage," College English, XII (March 1951), 324. Chapter Two NATURE SYMBOLISM IN THE SCARLET LETTER In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne burrows into the depths of our com-mon nature; indeed so much so that one c r i t i c , Ivor Winters, a t t r i b u t e s the success of the work to the f a c t that i t i s a perfect allegory of three major moral types of human beings: the repentant sinner, the half-repen-tant sinner, and the unrepentant sinner.''" Undoubtedly the novel i s more than t h i s , but i t does examine with a richness and complexity greater than any to be found i n his other works, the major moral types which so i n t e r e s -ted Hawthorne. I t i s , as Bewley states, "a subtle exploration of moral 2 i s o l a t i o n i n America." Accordingly, The Scarlet Letter serves as an excellent s t a r t i n g point for an examination of Hawthorne's nature symbolism. In t h i s work, he develops to the f u l l e s t nearly a l l the symbols used i n his other works, c a r e f u l l y and d e l i c a t e l y ordering them so that they v i v i d l y reveal the conditions of the human hearts which form the centre of the story. The nature symbolism i s of three kinds: the scenic background may serve as a symbolic projection of the inner states of the characters; the characters' at t i t u d e s to nature may reveal themselves; and t h e i r moral natures may be described metaphorically i n terms of external nature. The most s i g n i f i c a n t , v i v i d and complex nature symbol i n The Sca r l e t  Letter i s the f o r e s t scene which covers four chapters i n the second half of the novel. Hawthorne had referred to the f o r e s t as "that wild, heathen Nature of the forest, never subjugated by human law, nor illumined by higher t r u t h . . . . " (V, p. 243) and applying to i t h i s method of looking f o r emblems, had used i t to symbolize the moral i s o l a t i o n not only of Hester and Dimmesdale, but also of Pearl, three i n d i v i d u a l s who, though -12-c l o s e l y linked together, possess considerably d i f f e r i n g natures. A b r i e f survey of a few of the many a r t i c l e s dealing with this f o r e s t scene w i l l serve as a useful introduction to an examination of the symbols as they are used by Hawthorne. Frederick I. Carpenter, arguing that the novel i s a f a i l u r e because Hawthorne confused a Romantic a t t i t u d e to moral-i t y with a Transcendental one, writes of the f o r e s t scene that: This scene between Hester and her lover i n the f o r e s t also suggests the root of Hawthorne's confusion. To the t r a d i -t i o n a l moralists, the " f o r e s t , " or "wilderness," or " u n c i v i -l i z e d Nature" was the symbolic abode of e v i l - - t h e very nega-t i o n of moral law. But to the romantics, wild nature had become the very symbol of freedom. In t h i s scene, Hawthorne e x p l i c i t l y 'condemned Hester for her wildness--f or "breathing the wild, free atmosphere of an unredeemed, unchristianized, lawless region." And again he damned her "sympathy" with "that wild, heathen Nature of the forest, never subjugated by human law, nor illumined by higher truth. Such an explanation, while i t reveals a t t i t u d e s of thought of which Haw-thorne must c e r t a i n l y have been aware, tends to move the emphasis from the more basic and more universal concerns which influenced Hawthorne, the fundamental problems of the mind and heart of man. Thus R. W. B. Lewis' a s s e r t i o n that the f o r e s t "was the ambiguous se t t i n g of moral choice.... [that] The f o r e s t was the pivot i n Hawthorne's graad! recurring 4 pattern of escape and return," comes closer to the truth. The forest, however, i s more than a mere setting f o r moral choice. L e s l i e F i e d l e r ' s remark i s even closer to the truth: "the 'dark, inscrutable f o r e s t ' seems rather the a l l e g o r i c a l selva oscura of Dante than Natty Bumppo's l i v i n g bride: the symbol of that moral wilderness into which man wanders along the byways of sin, and i n which he loses himself forever.""' If Dante's selva oscura i s a symbolic pro j e c t i o n of the s e l f , the term must be q u a l i -f i e d as applied to The Scarlet Letter. F i r s t , the f o r e s t i s not completely -13-dark; i t reveals both the e v i l of Hester and Dimmesdale and the innocence of Pearl. Second, i t i s not obscure as i t r e l a t e s to the g u i l t of Hester 4 and Dimmesdale, f o r both are keenly aware of t h e i r respective moral con-d i t i o n s . Daniel G. Hoffman and Randall Stewart capture the essence of the nature symbolism of the f o r e s t scene; both showing that Hawthorne takes the amoral nature and uses i t f o r his complex symbolic purposes. Hoffman emphasizes the complete amorality of nature f o r Hawthorne: "For Hawthorne, Nature i s amoral but not malign. Witchcraft i s not the f o r e s t ' s nature.... The forest, having no moral w i l l , can shelter either the s p i r i t of the Maypole or the self-damned coven of the Prince of A i r . " ^ Stewart's sug-gestion follows l o g i c a l l y . Hawthorne, aware of t h i s amorality can mani-pulate h i s symbols to r e f l e c t more than one moral condition. "The symbolism i s d u a l i s t i c . The f o r e s t i t s e l f has a double s i g n i f i c a n c e : i t stands fo r moral error, being the place where Hester and Arthur go astray; and i t stands for natural innocence, f o r here l i t t l e Pearl becomes a c h i l d of nature...."^ Waggoner s p e c i f i c a l l y asserts the symbolic nature of the f o r e s t : "The most extended heart image i s the f o r e s t scene. The f o r e s t i n which Hester and Pearl take t h e i r walk has a l l the a t t r i b u t e s common to normal human hearts i n Hawthorne's work. I t i s black, mysterious, dismal, Q dim, gloomy, shadowy, obscure, and dreary." I t i s a l l t h i s and more: i t i s p a r t i a l l y bright, pure, and unrestrained as i s the heart^of Pearl. The f i r s t major aspect of the f o r e s t scene to be considered i s the journey. Of Hawthorne's use of the symbol of the journey, Waggoner writes: 9 "The moral journeys are ... largely suggested by physical imagery." There i s , as well, another aspect. Throughout the novel, as i n many of the short -14-s t o r i e s , a s p a t i a l movement away from the town into the wilderness serves as an index of the moral i s o l a t i o n of the characters. Lewis, as noted above, sees this as a journey to an area of moral choice, and, as also noted above, i t i s more than t h i s . The geographical movement of Hester, Pearl and Dimmesdale into the depths of the f o r e s t symbolizes the progress of each i n t o his greatest moral i s o l a t i o n : Hester has severed the slender threads that have heretofore bound her to the Puritan community; Dimmesdale has, for the f i r s t time i n the novel, slipped from the r i g i d s o c i a l frame-work which had sustained him; and Pearl f e e l s h e r s e l f more estranged than ever before from her mother. In each case, Hawthorne c a r e f u l l y prepares for the symbolic journey by presenting e a r l i e r the geographical positions of the characters. For example, Hawthorne very s p e c i f i c a l l y locates Hester's dwelling place as being apart from the community. A f t e r her release from prison, Hester determines not to escape into "the dark, inscrutable f o r e s t . . . . " (V, p. 102) Such a resolve r e f l e c t s her decision to r e f r a i n from completely i s o l a t i n g h e r s e l f . The p o s i t i o n of the cottage i n nature, close to the town, and yet somewhat apart from other dwellings, p a r a l l e l s that of Hester, close to Puritan society, yet excluded from i t . However, Hester's decision to meet with Chillingworth marks the f i r s t step of her complete severance from the Puritan community. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , she moves further from the community, to the seashore, an area which "heaved, swelled, and foamed, very much at i t s own w i l l , subject only to the tempestuous wind, with hardly any attempts at regulation by human law." (V, p. 27 8). Thus, the f i n a l stage of the journey, into the forest, has been well prepared f o r . However, Hester's withdrawl into complete moral i s o l a t i o n i s only temporary, -15-as i s symbolized by the fac t that the journey, l i k e those of so many of Hawthorne's characters, i s c i r c u l a r . Hester returns to her cottage, and to her former way of l i f e . The journey likewise symbolizes Dimmesdale's greatest moral i s o l a t i o n . His journey along the gloomy forest path i s likewise c a r e f u l l y prepared for by Hawthorne. To describe Dimmesdale's p o s i t i o n during the greater portion of the novel--that of the i n d i v i d u a l separated from, yet confined within society--Hawthorne uses the image of a pathway. Described as "a being who f e l t himself quite astray and at a loss i n the pathway of human existence..." (V, p. 88). Dimmesdale, "so far as h i s duties would permit, ... trod i n the shadowy by-paths..." (V, p. 88). He kept an "accustomed pathway i n the range of thoughts f a m i l i a r to him..." (V, pp. 150-1). The pathway serves as an appropriate image for Dimmesdale's i s o l a t e d , yet con-fine d l i f e , for i t i s a confined passageway which i s nonetheless not a common thoroughfare. His geographical separation from the community paral-l e l s h i s s p i r i t u a l separation from his parishioners. The forest path, along which he walks before meeting Hester, "isolated and separated from the community, symbolizes the lack of d i r e c t i o n and the i s o l a t i o n Dimmes-dale himself f e e l s . His stepping from the path into the depth of the fo r e s t , there to meet Hester, p a r a l l e l s his complete withdrawal into s i n . For Pearl, the movement away from Dimmesdale and Hester, into the depths of the forest, symbolizes her greatest separation from others. Although Hawthorne does not present Chillingworth i n the forest scene, he nevertheless uses the idea of the journey to symbolize his moral i s o l a -t i o n . He i s f i r s t presented as having just emerged, i n the company of an -16-Indian, from the wilderness, where f o r some time he has been held prisoner. He i s "clad i n a strange disarray of c i v i l i z e d and savage costume" (V, p. 84) which i s intended to cover a physical deformity. The detention i n the f o r e s t by the Indians, elsewhere described as "the heathen-folk" (V, p. 83) and as being d i s t i n c t l y apart from the puritans (V, p. 277) symbolizes C h i l l i n g w o r t h 1 s separation from the moral law of the l i t t l e community, a moral law he v i o l a t e s i n h i s d i a b o l i c a l search. His use of indian c l o t h i n g further symbolizes t h i s separation, for, i n arranging i t to cover h i s physical deformity, he i s attempting to hide the external manifestation of his moral nature and i s engaging i n the a n n i h i l a t i o n of his i d e n t i t y noted above. Furthermore, i t i s while l i v i n g deep i n the f o r e s t with the Indians that he learns the medicinal properties of the weeds which he uses while searching for the partner of Hester's crime. The second major aspect of the nature symbolism i n the f o r e s t scene i s the physical d e s c r i p t i o n presented by Hawthorne. This often serves as a symbolic projection of the characters' moral conditions. Herein, the i n t r i c a c y and complexity of Hawthorne's symbols are best seen. The major elements of the f o r e s t clearing--the brook, the decaying vegetation and the interplay of sunlight and shadow--are so described as to represent not only Hester, but also Dimmesdale and sometimes Pearl. As he did with the symbol of the journey, so too Hawthorne c a r e f u l l y prepares us for the.moral s i g n i f i c a n c e of the descriptions of the c l e a r -i n g . Just as Dimmesdale, before stepping off the f o r e s t path, had been metaphorically described as a wanderer along a gloomy fo r e s t path, so too the use of the f o r e s t to symbolize Hester's moral lawlessness had been -17-s k i l l f u l l y prepared f o r . F i r s t , Hawthorne minutely describes the physical s e t t i n g of Hester's i s o l a t e d cottage. On the o u t s k i r t s of the town, within the verge of the penin-sula, but not i n close v a c i n i t y to any other, habitation, there was a small thatched cottage. I t had been b u i l t by an e a r l i e r s e t t l e r , and abandoned, because the s o i l about i t was too s t e r i l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , while i t s comparative remoteness put i t out of the sphere of that s o c i a l a c t i v i t y which already marked the habits of the emigrants. I t stood on the shore, looking across a basin of the sea at the f o r e s t -covered h i l l s , towards the west. A clump of scrubby trees, such as alone grew on the peninsula, did not so much conceal the cottage from view, as seem to denote that here was some object which would f a i n have been, or at least ought to be, concealed. (V, p. 104) The en t i r e d e s c r i p t i o n serves as a symbolic projection of Hester's moral condition and p o s i t i o n up to the meetings with Dimmesdale and C h i l l i n g -worth. The s t e r i l i t y of the s o i l i s l i k e Hester's repressed or withered womanliness and the p o s i t i o n of the cottage, facing toward the forest, i s l i k e Hester's thoughts, directed toward moral wilderness rather than to orthodox conformity. The f a i l u r e of the trees to obscure the dwelling r e f l e c t s the i n a b i l i t y of Hester to hide her shame. Second, before her meeting with Dimmesdale, Hester's moral condition i s described i n terms of s p e c i f i c nature images. We are t o l d that "Hester Prynne, whose heart had l o s t i t s regular and healthy throb, wandered with-out a clew i n the dark la b y r i n t h of mind: now turned aside by an insur-mountable precipice; now s t a r t i n g back from a deep chasm. There was wild and ghastly scenery a l l around her...." (V, p. 201) and l a t e r that, "she had wandered, without rule or guidance, i n a moral wilderness; as vast, as i n -t r i c a t e and shadowy, as the untamed f o r e s t . . . . " (V, p. 239), The l i t t l e brook which runs through the clearing i s described as follows: -18-[There was] a brook flowing through the midst, over a bed of f a l l e n and drowned leaves. The trees impending over i t had flung down great branches, from time to time, which choked up the current and compelled i t to form eddies and black depths at some points.... Le t t i n g the eyes follow along the course of the stream, they could catch the r e f l e c t e d l i g h t from i t s water, at some short distance within the forest, but soon l o s t a l l traces of i t amid the bewilderment of tree-trunks and underbrush, and here and there a huge rock covered over with gray lichens. A l l these giant trees and boulders of granite seemed intent on making a mystery of the course of thi s small brook; fearing, perhaps, that, with i t s never-ceasing loquacity, i t should whisper tales out of the heart of the old f o r e s t whence i t flowed, or mirror i t s revelations on the smooth surface of a pool. (V, p. 223) Several aspects serve to make th i s d e s c r i p t i o n an appropriate metaphor of Dimmesdale's s i n f u l and, therefore, i s o l a t e d heart. F i r s t , given the f a c t mentioned above that the f o r e s t was "never subjugated by human law, nor illuminated by higher t r u t h , " (p. 146) the broken branches and decayed leaves i n the stream represent the sins that have s u l l i e d the minister's s p i r i t . Second, the sunlight r e f l e c t e d rather than absorbed into the water, p a r a l l e l s the s p i r i t u a l truths and purity Dimmesdale r e f l e c t s i n his c a l l -ing but does not a b s o r b . ^ F i n a l l y , the hidden nature of the stream sym-bol i z e s the hidden nature of Dimmesdale's s i n . As well, the complete d i s -order of the brook p a r a l l e l s the disorder of Hester's mind. She hers e l f sees the melancholy sound of the brook as a symbol of the melancholy i n her soul. As related to Pearl, the brook reveals the difference between her s e l f and her parents. She, unlike her mother and father, i s unable to sympathize with the l i t t l e brook which had symbolized the s i n of her parents. S i g n i -f i c a n t l y , a l l her actions take place on the other side of the brook from those of the parents who have just excluded her from t h e i r conversations. -19-As Dimmesdale notes, more c o r r r e c t l y than he r e a l i z e s , the brook i s a boun-dary between her world and t h e i r s . I t i s the symbolic boundary between amorality and morality. -< In his discussion with Hester, Dimmesdale s i t s upon a heap of moss which,"at some epoch of the preceding century, had been a giga n t i c pine, with i t s roots and trunk i n the darksome shade, and i t s head a l o f t i n the upper atmosphere." (V, p. 223). Here i s a symbolic pro j e c t i o n of the ruined mind of Dimmesdale, which, l i k e the tree had r i s e n above others, e x i s t i n g i n a region pure and etherial," but which, when overthrown by pas-sion, by roots i n the s i n of man's nature, had f a l l e n and decayed. Not only does the gloom and condition of the cl e a r i n g p a r a l l e l the minister's condition, but i t p a r a l l e l s as well, Hester's state. Hester blends with the scenery. She i s "a form under the trees, clad i n garments so sombre, and ... l i t t l e r e l i e v e d from the gray t w i l i g h t into which the clouded sky and heavy f o l i a g e had darkened the noontide...." (V, p. 227). The richness of the decay about the clearing, p a r a l l e l s the r i c h humanity mouldering within her. Throughout the novel, Hawthorne foreshadows the harmony revealed by Pearl f o r the animals of the f o r e s t . From the early chapters Hawthorne describes her amorality and innocence i n nature images. Hawthorne makes extensive use of two of the major symbols he used throughout h i s works to describe children: flowers and sunshine. Waggoner writes of th i s use by Hawthorne of flower imagery: The rose i s "good" i n the same sense i n which the cemetary i s an " e v i l " : i t s beauty i s neither moral nor immoral but i s c e r t a i n l y a p o s i t i v e value. Like the beauty of a healthy c h i l d or an animal, i t i s the product not of choice but of necessity, of the laws of i t s being, so that i t can be admired but not judged. Pearl, l a t e r i n the story, i s s i m i l a r l y immune from judgment.^ -20-Pearl's innocence and purity are f i r s t described i n flower imagery. She i s "that l i t t l e creature, whose innocent l i f e had sprung ... a lovely and immortal flower, out of the rank luxuriance of a g u i l t y passion" (V, p. 113) and has "the wild-flower prettiness of a peasant baby." (V, p. 114)» These preferences, i n addition to suggesting her innocence, also l i n k her to the wild rose of the f i r s t chahter. The rose was also a sym-bol of hope, a token "that the deep heart of nature could pi t y and be kind to [the p r i s o n e r ] " (V, p. 68) and a symbol of "some sweet moral blossom." (V, p. 68) Pearl, who had i n her, "the blossom of womanhood" (V, p. 200) i s c l o s e l y associated with nature, i s the hope of her mother, preventing her from f a l l i n g into greater s i n . During the v i s i t to Governor B e l l i n g -ham's mansion, when th i s aspect of Pearl i s most important, i t i s emphasized by comparing her to a rose. As she looks i n t o the governor's garden, she c r i e s to be given a domestic red rose which she does not receive. This f a c t symbolizes her own wild, and i s o l a t e d , rather than domestic nature. Mr. Wilson refers to her as a red rose, (V, p. 135) and she h e r s e l f remarks that "she had not been made at a l l , but had been plucked by her mother off the bush of wild roses that grew by the prison-door." (V, p. 138), Regarding the use of sunshine i n the novel, Fogle writes: There i s no hue of heaven i n The Scarlet Letter which r e a l l y o f f s e t s [the shades of h e l l ] . Sunlight i s the nearest ap-proach to i t , and i t s sway i s too f l e e t i n g to have any great e f f e c t . 1 2 However, the sunlight, which, as Waggoner has shown "suggests both truth 13 and health," and, i t may be added, i n the case of Pearl, innocence and purity, i s used extensively throughout the novel, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f o r e s t scene, as a means of revealing the moral state of the characters. -21-During the opening scenes Hester stands i n the b r i l l i a n t noonday sun-l i g h t as the truth of her moral s i t u a t i o n i s revealed to the attendant v i l l a g e r s . One thing, however, i s s i g n i f i c a n t . As she stands i n the sun-l i g h t , "she had dark and abundant hair, so glossy that i t threw off the sunshine with a gleam...." (V, p. 73), This reveals that she cannot, be-cause of her s i n f u l nature, absorb and contain purity and innocence. This i s made evident again when, as she approaches Governor Bellingham's mansion, she r e p l i e s to Pearl's demands for sunshine by saying that "thou must gather thine own sunshine. I have none to give thee'." (V, p. 129), As Hester enters the forest, Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes that she i s excluded from sunshine. She walks amid the gloom of the f o r e s t and finds the sunlight vanishing before she can grasp i t . About to commit a great sin, she can-not embrace truth. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that as Hester discards the Scarlet Letter and loosens her hair, Hawthorne describes the f u l l n e s s of the sun-shine. This i s not to be taken as the r e v e l a t i o n of a harmony between ;;the sinners and the sunshine, for, as Hawthorne himself notes: "Had the f o r e s t s t i l l kept i t s gloom, i t would have been bright i n Hester's eyes...." (V, pp. 243-4)v There i s no mention of the sunshine f a l l i n g upon Hester or Dimmesdale. Indeed, throughout the scene, only Pearl i s seen i n the sun-l i g h t . What i s illuminated, however, i s the Scarlet Letter, which, s i g n i -f i c a n t l y , had not been hidden by the brook which had symbolized secret s i n . Truth, i n the form of sunshine, symbolically shines on the emblem of Hester's sin, the Scarlet Letter, which i s " g l i t t e r i n g l i k e a l o s t jewel...." (V, p. 242) revealing the f a c t that Hester i s increasing her s i n by attempting to escape her punishment for and acknowledgment of i t . Hester's a t t i t u d e toward the f o r e s t at this time, seeing i t as a place of happiness and of -22-escape from e v i l , i n that i t i s wrong, symbolizes the incorrectness of her view that she can escape her s i n . Only at the end of the novel does Hester stand again i n the sunlight, as the true r e l a t i o n s h i p between herself and Dimmesdale i s revealed. This i s s i m i l a r l y the case with Dimmesdale. U n t i l the closing pages of the novel, Dimmesdale avoids f u l f i l l i n g the conditions of the moral which Hawthorne suggests: "Be true', be true!" (V, p. 307)„ When he ascends the s c a f f o l d i n the dark i n a mockery of confession, i t i s only an unnatural and l u r i d l i g h t , what Waggoner c a l l s a " f a l s e l i g h t , " which shines on him, revealing the falseness and hypocrisy i n his nature. In the forest, while he plans a f i n a l escape, the sun i s shrouded by the trees and clouds, causing him to t r a v e l i n a t w i l i g h t gloom. We are t o l d of "the gray twi-l i g h t into which the clouded sky and the heavy f o l i a g e had darkened the noontide...." (V, p. 227) and of the f o r e s t creaking "with a b l a s t that was passing through i t . " (V, p. 234). Within Dimmesdale i s a s p i r i t u a l gloom created by h i s overpowering sense°fthe g u i l t which has weakened and morally separated him from h i s parishioners. The gloom i s emphasized by Hawthorne who notes that the f o r e s t "disclosed ... imperfect glimpses of the sky above...." (V, p. 220) and that a "gleam of f l i c k e r i n g sunshine might now and then be seen at i t s s o l i t a r y play along the path." (V, p. 220),, Thus as Dimmesdale1 s entrance into the f o r e s t symbolizes not only his withdrawal from the puritan society but his r e j e c t i o n of truth, the absence of the sunlight i s s i g n i f i c a n t . He only deludes himself into thinking, upon his pledge with Hester, that "a sudden smile of heaven," (V, p. 243) shines into the f o r e s t . Hawthorne reveals the error: "Had the f o r e s t s t i l l kept i t s gloom, i t would have been bright i n Hester's -23-eyes, and bright i n Arthur Dimmesdale's!" (V, p. 146), Only at the end of the novel, i n his confession, does he face truth, and here symbolically, the sun shines upon him as he stands upon the s c a f f o l d with Hester and Pearl. "The sun, but l i t t l e past i t s meridian, shone down upon the clergy-man, and gave a di s t i n c t n e s s to his figure, as he stood out from a l l the earth to put i n his plea of g u i l t y at the bar of Ete r n a l J u s t i c e . " (V, p. 301), Truth shines on Dimmesdale as he too passes the meridian of h i s l i f e . Whereas with Dimmesdale, Hester and Chillingworth, sunlight had shown t h e i r sin, when applied to Pearl, i t reveals her innocence and love of truth. She, he r s e l f i s described as having an " i n t e l l i g e n c e that threw i t s quivering sunshine over [her] tiny features...." (V, p. 113) and as possessing such beauty that "there was an absolute c i r c l e of radiance around her...." (V, p. 114), She i s f i r s t seen winking and turning aside her " l i t t l e face from the too v i v i d l i g h t of day...." (V, p. 73), When she ap-proaches the governor's mansion she demands that Hester give her the sun-shine r e f l e c t e d o ff the w a l l . I t i s i n the f o r e s t scene that the sunshine i s used most f o r c e f u l l y as a symbol of her purity and truth. Hester, whose si n and falsehood are most evident i n this section, i s unable to stand i n the sunshine, while Pearl, i n d i r e c t contrast to her mother, i s able to stand i n i t and even appears to absorb i t . Both Hester and Pearl see that the sunshine r e f l e c t s her innocence. " : ,Mother," said l i t t l e Pearl, 'the sunshine does not love you. I t runs away and hides i t s e l f , because i t i s a f r a i d of something on your bosom....I am but a c h i l d , i t w i l l not f l e e from me, f o r I wear nothing on my bosom yet'.'r " (V, p. 220), Hester re-p l i e s " "Run away c h i l d ... and catch the sunshine'. I t w i l l soon be gone!'' " -24-(V, p. 221), When the sunshine fades, i t appears as though i t has been absorbed by Pearl: "To judge from the bright expression that was dancing on Pearl's features, her mother could have fancied that the c h i l d had ab-sorbed i t into h e r s e l f . . . , " (V, p. 221). In Chillingworth's case, sunlight images are conspicuous by t h e i r absence. Several times, however, his e v i l and perverted soul i s described i n the terms of unnatural l i g h t . For example, i n discussing with Hester his revenge on Dimmesdale, he l e t "the l u r i d f i r e of his heart blaze out before her eyes." (V, p. 207)» I t i s the red l i g h t of the meteor that shines on Chillingworth as he watches Dimmesdale standing on the s c a f f o l d with Pearl and Hester, and t h i s l i g h t serves to reveal h i s e v i l nature. "Then might Roger Chillingworth have passed with them f o r the arch-fiend ..„." (V, p. 189), Another aspect of nature symbolism i s found i n the novel . Not only sunlight i s used to describe Pearl: other aspects of personality which render her i s o l a t e d are described i n appropriate nature images. Her i n -f i n i t e v a r i e t y resembles "nothing so much as the phantasmagoric play of the northern l i g h t s , " (V, p. 120) and her complete lack of concern f o r people i s l i k e an A p r i l breeze: The mother ... had schooled he r s e l f to hope f o r l i t t l e other return than the waywardness of an A p r i l breeze; which spends i t s time i n a i r y sport, and has i t s gusts of i n e x p l i c a b l e passion, and i s petulant i n i t s best of moods, and c h i l l s oftener than caresses you, when you take i t to your bosom; i n r e q u i t a l of which misdemeanors, i t w i l l sometimes, of i t s own vague purpose, k i s s your cheek with a kind of doubtful tenderness, and play gently, with your hair, and then begone about i t s other i d l e business, leaving a dreamy pleasure at your heart. (V, p. 216) Her reluctance to be touched by other people and the wild nature of her -25-dress which causes people to avoid her as the Scarlet Letter incarnate are r e f l e c t e d i n this image: "The c h i l d , unaccustomed to the touch of f a m i l i a r i t y of any but her mother, escaped through the open window, and stood on the upper step looking l i k e a wild t r o p i c a l b i r d of r i c h plumage, ready to take f l i g h t into the upper a i r . " (V, p. 137). F i n a l l y , her poten-t i a l a f f e c t i o n i s expressed thus: "She possessed a f f e c t i o n s , too, though hi t h e r t o a c r i d and disagreeable, as are the r i c h e s t f l a v o r s of unripe f r u i - t . " (V, p. 216), The image i s important: orchards give evidence, as w i l l be noted i n a l a t e r chapter, of human care bestowed upon wild nature to make i t useful to mankind. Pearl, l i k e the unripe f r u i t , w i l l mature and serve a purpose i n l i f e . In the f i n a l scene of the novel, when Pearl's i s o l a t i o n i s emphasized to contrast her approaching "humanization," nature imagery i s extensively used. As she capers about the v i l l a g e square on e l e c t i o n day, Pearl has no connexion with the v i l l a g e r s . She i s a "bright and sunny apparition (V, pp. 271-2) and "[her] dress, so proper was i t [to her that i t ] seemed an effluence, or i n a v i t a b l e development and outward manifestation of her character, no more to be separated from her than the many-hued b r i l l i a n c y from a b u t t e r f l y ' s wing, or the painted glory from the leaf of a bright flower." (V, p. 272). In her actions she i s constantly compared to a b i r d . She f l i t s "with a b i r d - l i k e movement," (V, p. 272) "seemed to be borne upward, l i k e a f l o a t i n g sea-bird," (V, p. 281) and, f i n a l l y , f l i e s to Dimmesdale, "with the b i r d - l i k e motion which was one of her character-i s t i c s . " (V, p. 299), The only people i n the square that hold any i n t e r e s t for Pearl are s i g n i f i c a n t l y , other creatures of nature, the Indians and the seamen. The former, when looking at Pearl, become "conscious of a -26-nature wilder than [their] own." (V, p. 291), A f i n a l aspect of Hawthorne's nature symbolism, one which i s most c l e a r l y seen i n the f o r e s t scene, i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the various charac-ters a t t i t u d e s toward and actions i n nature to portray t h e i r moral condi-tions. In the forest, p h y s i c a l l y separated from a society from which he i s already mentally i s o l a t e d , Dimmesdale's actions reveal the true condi-ti o n of h i s soul. "He lockadfJiaggard and feeble, and betrayed a nervous despondency i n h i s a i r , which had never so remarkably characterized him i n h i s walks about the settlement, nor i n any other s i t u a t i o n where he deemed himself l i a b l e to notice. Here i t was wofully v i s i b l e , i n t h i s i n -tense seclusion of the f o r e s t . . . . " (V, p. 226), This weakness i s symbolized i n h i s a t t i t u d e to the f o r e s t . Lacking strength, he sees the wilderness only as a place i n which to collapse. "He saw no reason f o r taking one step farther, nor f e l t any desire to do so, but would have been glad, could he be glad of anything, to f l i n g himself down at the root of the nearest tree, and l i e there passive for„.evermore. The leaves might bestrew him, and the s o i l gradually accumulate and form a l i t t l e h i l l o c k over his frame, no matter whether there were l i f e i n i t or no!" (V, p. 226), His receiving Hester's strength and a morbid energy which possesses him and leads him into greater sin, i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s changed a t t i t u d e to nature. Hawthorne, using nature imagery, remarks that Dimmesdale's pledge to Hester had "the e x h i l a r a t i n g e f f e c t ... of breathing the wild, free atmosphere of an unredeemed, unchristianized, lawless region...." (V, pp. 241-2) and Dimmesdale finds that with the moral wildness i n h e r i t e d from Hester he has achieved a sympathy with the physical wilderness about1. -27-Remarking of h i s change that "I l e f t him [his old s e l f ] yonder i n the f o r -est, withdrawn into a secret d e l l , by a mossy tree trunk, and near a mel-ancholy brook," (V, p. 259) he entertains s i n f u l thoughts that work his mind into a frenzy and further i s o l a t e him. This state i s symbolized by the reckless abandon with which he travels through the forest, and by h i s changed a t t i t u d e to nature: The pathway among the woods seemed wilder, more uncouth with i t s rude natural obstacles, and less trodden by the foot of man than he remembered i t on h i s outward journey. But he leaped across the plashy places, and thrust himself through the c l i n g i n g underbrush, climbed the ascent, plunged into the hollow, and overcame, i n short, a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the track, with an unweariable a c t i v i t y that astonished him. (V, P . 258) S i m i l a r l y , Pearl's actions r e f l e c t her nature.*"' Again Hawthorne prepares f o r the f o r e s t scene. Early i n the novel, her d i s l i k e of the puritans i s r e f l e c t e d i n her symbolizing "the u g l i e s t weeds of the garden [as] t h e i r children, whom [she] smote down and uprooted, most unmercifully." (V, p. 120)» Her lack of concern for people i s symbolized by the f a c t that alone, i n the f o r e s t or 'at the sea-shore, away from.others she i s most natu r a l . "She was gentler here than i n the grass margined streets of the settlement, or i n her mother's cottage." (V, p. 295), F i n a l l y , her p e l t i n g her mother's Scarlet Letter with both flowers and weeds helps c l a r i f y her p o s i t i o n as the agent saving Hester from greater e v i l and of serving as a "messenger of anguish." In the former case, she i s using symbols of hope, and i n the l a t t e r , symbols of e v i l and both times she makes Hester acutely aware of her s i n . As Hester confers with Chillingworth, she dismisses Pearl from her presence, bidding her "run down to the margin of the water, and play with -28-the s h e l l s and tangled sea-weed..,." (V, p. 203). Pearl's amorality i s symbolized by the r e v e l a t i o n of her complete harmony with the aspects of the sea which "heaved, swelled, and foamed, very much at i t s own w i l l , or subject only to the tempestuous-wind, with hardly any attempts at regula-t i o n by human law." (V, p. 278). She attempts to become one with the scene about her by entering into a sea pool i n which she finds' her own image r e f l e c t e d . She i s i n her actions compared to a b i r d (V, p. 203) and f l i e s upon the wind "with winged footsteps." (V, p. 214), Her separation from . human society i s further symbolized by the f a c t that her one "commercial enterprize" at the seashore f a i l s : "She made l i t t l e boats out of b i r c h -bark, and freig h t e d them with s n a i l - s h e l l s , and sent out more ventures on the mighty deep than any merchant i n New England; but the larger part of them floundered near the shore." (V, p. 213), Her i n e x p l i c a b l e and unpre-d i c t a b l e a t t i t u d e toward other people i s r e f l e c t e d i n her treatment of the various animals on the shore. She lays crabs and s t a r f i s h out on the sand to die and pe l t s sea-birds. However, recognizing the s i m i l a r i t y between the creatures and herself, Pearl d e s i s t s . "One l i t t l e gray b i r d , with a white breast, Pearl was almost sure, had been h i t by a pebble, and f l u t -tered away with a broken wing. But then the e l f - c h i l d sighed, and gave up her sport; because i t grieved, her to have done harm to a l i t t l e being that was w i l d as the sea-breeze, or as wild as Pearl h e r s e l f . " (V, p. 214). A l -though s i m i l a r to her mother i n "a g i f t f o r devising drapery and costume," (V, p. 214) Pearl s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r s from her mother, for she clothes h e r s e l f with the plants of the sea-shore, thus appearing to be even closer to nature. Although Hester denies i t s importance, the sea-weed l e t t e r of -29-gireen that Pearl fashions i s of considerable importance. Whereas Hester's l e t t e r symbolizes her connexion with humanity through moral law, a l b e i t broken, Pearl's, constructed out of the products of nature, symbolizes the f a c t that she, l i k e nature, has never been subjugated by human law. Pearl's actions i n the f o r e s t reveal the difference between her and her parents. "The great black f o r e s t - - s t e r n as i t showed i t s e l f to those whojbrought the g u i l t and troubles of the world into i t s bosom--became the playmate of the lonely infant, as well as i t knew how." (V, pp. 244-5), Here, even more than at the seashore i s her harmony with nature revealed. This i s appropriate, because here, moreso than at the seashore, she i s being i s o l a t e d from human concerns that r e l a t e to her. Like the forest, Pearl has "never [been] subjugated by human law, nor illuminated by -higher t r u t h . " (V, p. 243). Here she w i l l not receive the truth of her r e l a t i o n -ship with Dimmesdale. Hawthorne f a n c i f u l l y suggests that she wanders close to the wild animals who appear to recognize i n her a kindred s p i r i t . Here, as at the seashore, she decks he r s e l f with the products of nature. Hester remarks that "they could not have become her better," (V, p. 247) and she i s r i g h t , f o r Pearl, i n her i s o l a t i o n , looks l i k e "whatever ... was i n closest sympathy with the antique wood." (V, p. 246) < Although Chillingworth does not appear i n the f o r e s t scene, much of his character i s also symbolized through h i s use of nature. Extensive mention i s made throughout the novel of his use of weeds and herbs. While the herbs themselves are b e n e f i c i a l , i t i s the use to which he puts them that i s not. He uses them to further what becomes an inhuman desire f o r revenge. In the early part of the novel, before his dehumanization pro-cess has advanced very far, he eases Hester's and Pearl's physical pain -30-with h i s knowledge of "the kindly properties of simples.*' (V, p. 95) a However, l a t e r i n the novel, s p e c i f i c reference i s made to his use, not so much of herbs but of weeds. The import of this change of image i s re-cognized when i t i s remembered that Hawthorne had written i n his notebooks that: "there i s an unmistakeable [sic] analogy between these wicked Weeds and the bad habits and s i n f u l propensities which have overrun the moral world...." (AN, p. 186) and that i n the opening chapter weeds are linked to the prison, "the black flower of c i v i l i z e d society," (V, p. 68) and i t s emblem of sin, and that Chillingworth himself had been lodged there 16 on h i s f i r s t night i n the v i l l a g e . Chillingworth himself had suggested that the gravestone weeds he i s examining represent the secret sins of a deadman's heart. Therefore h i s deracination of weeds, overtly done i n the name of medical aid, symbolizes his hideous deracination of Dimmesdale's clos e l y guarded secret. To reveal the change i n Chillingworth from a calm seeker f o r j u s t i c e to an e v i l l y possessed and dehumanized searcher, Hawthorne uses a new nature image: that of a miner probing the earth f o r precious metals. Leo Marx, discussing "Ethan Brand" has suggested that the i n d u s t r i a l images i n that story represent a picture of a v i o l a t i o n . o f nature.*^ This seems also to be the case of the mining images i n The Scarlet Letter where the images are used to symbolize action s i m i l a r to that i n "Ethan Brand", Chillingworth's v i o l a t i o n of the sanctity of a human heart. We are t o l d that "He now dug i n t o the poor clergyman's heart, l i k e a miner searching f o r gold...." (V, p. 158). The image continues, describing Chillingworth i n terms which sug-gest a b l a s t furnace used i n r e f i n i n g the products taken from nature. "Sometimes a l i g h t glimmered out of the physician's eyes, burning blue and -31-ominous, l i k e the r e f l e c t i o n of a furnace...." (V, p. 158), This a p p l i c a t i o n of C h i l l i n g w o r t h 1 s use of weeds and herbs to reveal his moral e v i l constitutes only one of the major symbolic patterns of The  Sca r l e t L e t t e r. As the analyses i n t h i s chapter reveal, Hawthorne's nature symbolism i s not only very r i c h and complex, i t i s also c a r e f u l l y arranged in t o basic patterns. The journey into the wilderness i s the chief symbol, giving not only a s t r u c t u r a l unity to several v i t a l chapters i n the centre of the novel, but also revealing the extent of the moral i s o l a t i o n of the characters. Within this major pattern of the journey, several other pat-terns emerge: the interplay of sunlight and darikness, the physical nature of the wilderness i t s e l f , and the at t i t u d e s of the various characters to nature symbolize the moral natures of Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale. More-over, these symbolic patterns are not confined to the f o r e s t scene. Haw-thorne makes consistent use of them throughout the novel. Although used with t h e i r greatest richness and complexity i n t h i s novel, these symbolic patterns are not unique to The Scarlet L e t t e r. The following chapters examine t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to s i m i l a r moral problems presented by Hawthorne i n the short s t o r i e s preceeding and the novels f o l -lowing The Sc a r l e t Letter. The next chapter examines the a p p l i c a t i o n of the symbols of flowers and sunshine to s t o r i e s treating moral innocence and attempts to regain l o s t innocence. These symbols, used by Hawthorne i n h i s examination o f f P e a r l , are to be found i n his early short stories, f o r example i n "The Maypole of Merry Mount," throughout h i s work to h i s l a s t completed romance, The Marble Faun. -32-FOOTNOTES 1 See In Defense of Reason, pp. 157-175. 2 The Eccentric Design, p. 61. 3 Quoted from The Sca r l e t L e t t e r : Text, Sources and C r i t i c i s m , ed. Bradley, Beatty, and Long (New York, 1962), p. 291. 4 Ib i d . , p. 321. 1 5 L e s l i e A. F i e d l e r , Love and Death i n the American Novel (New York, i960), p. 510. 6 3radley, Beatty, and Long, op. c i t . , p. 371. 7 Ib i d . , p. 347. 8 Waggoner, op. c i t . , pp. 137-8. 9 Ib i d . , p. 144. 10 See below page 22. 11 Waggoner, op. c i t . , pp. 120-1. 12 Fogle, op. c i t . , p. 106. 13 Waggoner,, op. c i t . , p. 125. 14 Op. c i t . , p. 127. 15 Chester Eis i n g e r has f u l l y discussed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Pearl's actions and the Puritan a t t i t u d e to nature i n "Pearl and College English, XII (March, 1951), 323-9. 16 Waggoner writes: "The unnatural flowers and unsightly vegetation are aligned with moral e v i l and with Chillingworth i n p a r t i c u l a r . " Op. c i t . , p. 131. 17 "The Machine i n the Garden," NEQ, XXIX (March, 1956), 27-42. Chapter Three NATURE AS A SYMBOL OF INNOCENCE Many of the nature symbols portraying moral innocence and the st o r i e s i n which they appear are very conventional. For example, i n two American  Notebook entries proposing subjects for children's s t o r i e s the images are treated as follows: "The immortal flowers--a c h i l d ' s story..." (AN, p. 101) and, "The Magic Play of Sunshine, for a c h i l d ' s story..." (AN, p. 101). The consistency and the conventionality with which he uses these two basic symbols i s seen i n th i s sampling of i n c i d e n t a l references to the ch i l d r e n who appear i n the various tales and sketches. For example, he writes: "I have been gladdened by the sight of a score of these l i t t l e g i r l s and boys, i n pink, blue, yellow, and crimson frocks, bursting sud-denly f o r t h into the sunshine, l i k e a swarm of gay b u t t e r f l i e s that had been shut up i n the solemn, gloom. Or I might compare them to cherubs, haunting that holy place" (I, p. 35). Here by coupling the nature image with that of angels, the innocence of the ch i l d r e n i s f o r c e f u l l y presented. Elsewhere, a young g i r l dressed i n white i s described as wearing "a garment of the sunshine" (I, p. 36). In comparing an aged bride with her youth-f u l attendants,, Hawthorne contrasts "au o l d , brown, withered rose, on the same s t a l k with two dewy buds..." ( I , p. 345),, In " L i t t l e Annie's Ramble, the c h i l d , who, throughout the sketch, i s contrasted with care-ridden adult i s likened to "some bright b i r d i n the sunny a i r " (I, p. 143). The youth-f u l beauty of a maiden i s described as a "beauty that would have gladdened t h i s dim and dismal chamber, as with sunshine" (I, p. 519). The p u r i t y of one of Dimmesdale's young parishioners i s described as " f a i r and pure as a l i l y that had bloomed i n Paradise" (V, p. 262). -34-Hawthorne applies another conventional symbol to innocence: the romantic return to and harmony with nature. For example, i n the "New Adam and Eve," a f a n c i f u l treatment of the l i v e s of a couple newly created a f t e r the t o t a l a n i h i l a t i o n of humanity, Hawthorne symbolizes the innocence of the young man and woman by emphasizing t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n toward objects of nature. Although they have been created i n the centre of a c i t y , sur-rounded by the most b e a u t i f u l and splendid of man made objects, they f i n d t h e i r f i r s t d e l i g h t i n the blue sky and i n tuf t s of grass growing through the pavement. Eve reje c t s costly jewelry found i n a vacant store, r e c e i v -ing greater enjoyment i n placing flowers i n her h a i r . Hawthorne summarizes t h e i r innocence with t h i s a nalysis of t h e i r preference f o r the things of nature. Given a choice between a r t and nature: t h e i r i n s t i n c t s and i n t u i t i o n s would immediately recognize the wisdom and s i m p l i c i t y of the l a t t e r , while the former with i t s elaborate p e r v e r s i t i e s , would o f f e r them a continual succession of puzzles. (II, p. 280) Although these major symbols, flowers, sunshine, and harmony with nature, which i s symbolic of a moral a t t i t u d e , are used i n an e s s e n t i a l l y conventional manner i n the examples above, they are, i n the major tales and romances which are concerned with moral innocence, given complex v a r i a -tions which reveal the s p e c i f i c natures of the moral conditions examined. This v a r i a t i o n within a conventional pattern i s found i n a l l aspects of Hawthorne's nature symbolism: his symbols are generally t r a d i t i o n a l , they remain b a s i c a l l y the same throughout his works, and yet they are modified to meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l works, giving both symbols and works a new v i t a l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e . Hawthorne devotes four stories--"The Snow Image," " L i t t l e Daffydown--35-d i l l y , " "The Gentle Boy," and A Wonderbook--to the treatment of children, and i n each of these, the carefree and innocent q u a l i t i e s of the c h i l d r e n are symbolized through the use of the images of flowers and sunshine. "The Snow Image" presents a contrast between the f a i t h and imagina-t i o n of two young chi l d r e n and the common sense of t h e i r father. The two c h i l d r e n are described as being of "simple and undoubtable frame of mind," and Hawthorne, to emphasize the innocence and f a i t h that sets them apart from the matter-of-fact world represented by t h e i r father, describes them as things of nature and presents t h e i r sympathy with nature. The names of the c h i l d r e n are themselves symbolic of t h e i r nature, both being names of flowers; V i o l e t and Peony: The elder c h i l d was a l i t t l e g i r l whom, because she was of a tender and modest d i s p o s i t i o n and was thought to be very b e a u t i f u l , her parents, and other people who were f a m i l i a r with her, used to c a l l V i o l e t . But her brother was known by the s t y l e and t i t l e of Peony, on account of the ruddiness of his broad and round l i t t l e phiz, which made everybody think of sunshine and great s c a r l e t flowers. ( I l l , p. 391) The mother, seeing them f r o l i c k i n g i n the snow, considers them as being l i k e snow-birds, ( I H j p. 392), Their tremendous enjoyment of nature re-f l e c t s t h e i r innocence and s i m p l i c i t y and t h i s i s symbolized i n t h e i r creation of the snow image out of nature. So great i s t h e i r b e l i e f , that they are able to see l i f e i n the creation, a contrast to the a t t i t u d e of t h e i r father, who, stern r e a l i s t that he i s , cannot enter into sympathy with t h e i r innocent b e l i e f s and destroys the image. The framework of A Wonderbook represents another consideration of c h i l d r e n . As i n "The Snow Image," the children are given the names of flowers: Primrose, Sweet Fern, Cowslip, Buttercup and others. Throughout -36-the introductions to the t a l e s , the c h i l d r e n reveal a carefree a t t i t u d e which seems to v e r i f y the statement of the book's opening paragraph that i t was a " b e a u t i f u l and comfortable world" (IV, p. 15). This a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d by the complete harmony they reveal with a l l aspects of nature. Even i n winter, "the c h i l d r e n l i k e d the snow-storm better than t h e i r i n -door games . I t suggested so many b r i s k enjoyments for to-morrow, and a l l the remainder of the winter" (IV, p. 79). An inconsequential piece, e n t i t l e d " L i t t l e Daffydowndilly," deals with the discovery by the youthful hero of the necessity to t o i l i n l i f e . The hero's name i s chosen i n order to symbolize the innocent nature of his character: " L i t t l e Daffydowndilly was so c a l l e d because i n h i s nature he resembled a flower, and loved to do only what was b e a u t i f u l and agreeable ..." ( I l l , p. 607). Although the images of flowers and sunshine which r e f l e c t a harmony with nature are employed co n s i s t e n t l y by Hawthorne as a means of emphasi-zing the innocence of h i s f i c t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , they are i n "The Gentle Boy" s i g n i f i c a n t l y absent* Ilbraham, the main character, has led a l i f e i n many respects s i m i l a r to that of Pearl. Like her, he is an outcast, savagely persecuted by society, and l i k e her he does not play with other c h i l d r e n . However, unlike Pearl, he does not have the care of a mother, and, because of h i s unsettled l i f e : , "sorrow, fear, and want had destroyed much of his i n f a n t i l e expression" (I, p. 80). Only when, a f t e r his adoption by the Pearsons, Ilbraham begins to lead a more secure and s e t t l e d l i f e , does he b r i e f l y regain a c h i l d - l i k e a i r . I t is only at this time that Hawthorne describes him i n terms of nature images : "His a i r y gayaty, coming to him from a thousand sources, communicated i t s e l f to the family, and Ilbraham -37-was l i k e a domesticated sunbeam, brightening moody countenances, and chas-ing away the gloom from the dark corners of the cottage." (I, p. 108)^ Hawthorne's flower imagery and symbolism serves another purpose beyond that of r e f l e c t i n g the innocence and purity of c h i l d r e n . I t r e f l e c t s the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the end of t h e i r innocence. Flowers, l i k e childhood i n -nocence, must wither, and must suffer the doom of age and m o r t a l i t y : Old age i s not venerable when i t embodies i t s e l f i n l i l a c s , rose bushes, or any other ornamental shrub; i t seems as i f such plants, as they grow only f o r beauty, ought to f l o u r i s h always i n immortal youth, or, at least, to die before t h e i r sad decrepitude. Ties of beauty are t i e s of paradise, and therefore, not subject to decay by t h e i r o r i g i n a l nature, though they have l o s t that precious b i r t h r i g h t by being transplanted to an earthly s o i l . There i s a kind of ludicrous unfitness i n the idea of a time-stricken and grandfatherly l i l a c bush. The analogy holds good i n human l i f e . Persons who can only be graceful and ornamental--who can give the world nothing but flowers — should die young, and never be seen with gray h a i r and wrinkles, any more than the flower shrubs with mossy bark and blighted f o l i a g e , l i k e the l i l a c s under my window. (II, P. 173) Youthful innocence, l i k e pretty flowers, i s of l i t t l e use to the r e s t of humanity, and must fade and wither. L i t t l e Daffydowndilly, l i k e Pearl and Donatello, must leave his childhood innocence to enter into the world of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s governed by Mr. T o i l . Hawthorne's f a v o r i t e symbol of t h i s process i s the rose, t r a d i t i o n a l flower of youth. In the short story "Edward Fane's Rosebud," an aged widow r e c a l l s a youthful romance and re-members that she had been c a l l e d a "rosebud." In "Dr. Heidegger's Experi-ment, " a withered rose symbolizes the withering of youthful love. As the various characters i n t h i s story attempt to revive t h e i r youth through drinking the e l i x i r of l i f e , the rose, also nourished i n the f l u i d , i s restored to o r i g i n a l beauty. However, the attempts of the characters are fallacious and unsuccessful, as i s symbolized by the f a c t that the rose -38-i t s e l f soon withers when deprived of the miraculous l i q u i d . Hawthorne uses this aspect of flower imagery most f o r c e f u l l y i n the de s c r i p t i o n of Phoebe Pyncheon who, i n The House of the Seven Gables, emerges from youthful innocence into mature womanhood. During the e a r l i e r part of the novel, the usual images of both flowers and sunshine symbolize her innocence. Her "fresh and maidenly f i g u r e [is] both sunshine and flowers...." ( I l l , p. 135); she i s constantly compared to a rose, being referred to as a "young rose-bud of a g i r l . . . ' . 1 ( I l l , p. 144) and as having a s p i r i t which resembled " i n i t s potency, a minute quantity of ottar of rose...." ( I l l , p. 166), "She impregnated [the a i r ] . . . . w i t h the perfume of garden roses..,," ( I l l , p. 124). However, the f a c t that flowers also symbolize the fading of youthful innocence foreshadows the changes that w i l l soon come over Phoebe. Hawthorne notes her i n t e r e s t , soon a f t e r her a r r i v a l , i n the blighted white roses of the garden to emphasize that Phoebe hers e l f cannot maintain her youthful p u r i t y . A subtle change gradually overcomes her: Her eyes looked larger, and darker, and deeper; so deep at some s i l e n t moments, that they seemed l i k e Artesian wells, down, down, into the i n f i n i t e . She was less g i r l i s h than when we f i r s t beheld her a l i g h t i n g from the omnibus; less g i r l i s h , but more a woman. ( I l l , p. 210) Hawthorne, tracing t h i s change, appropriately uses flower imagery: "Yet, i t must be said, her petals sometimes drooped a l i t t l e , i n consequence of the heavy atmosphere about her. She grew more thoughtful than heretofore." ( I l l , p. 174) and, "the blooming g i r l must i n e v i t a b l y droop and fade...." ( I l l , p. 209). In several s t o r i e s , these symbols of flowers, sunlight and the return -39-to nature are applied to another aspect of Hawthorne's concern with moral innocence. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n "The L i l y ' s Quest," "The Maypole of Merry Mount," and The Blithedale Romance they reveal the nature and extent of the i s o l a t i o n attendant on those persons who remove themselves from nor-mal society i n an unsuccessful e f f o r t to avoid the cares and r e s p o n s i b i l i -t i e s of l i f e and to recapture l o s t innocence. In one of the lesser known tales, "The L i l y ' s Quest," Hawthorne's s k i l l f u l use of flower imagery and c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the various scenes i l l u s t r a t e s the f o l l y of the youthful characters' attempts to create a Temple of Happiness wherein they planned to "consecrate [themselves] to. a l l manner of refined and innocent enjoyments." (I, p. 495), Although the weather harmonizes with t h e i r a t t i t u d e - - i t i s a "breezy and cloudless afternoon...!' (I, p. 495). and they appear "as i f moulded of Heaven's sun-shine..,." (I, p. 496),--the landscape does not. They walk "down the avenue of drooping elms," (I, p. 429) whose appearance symbolizes the gloom which surrounds them and from which they cannot escape. Although each s i t e chosen by Adam and L i l i a s appears to them to be completely free from any taint, each has i n i t a symbol of human care and sorrow. The f i r s t l o c a t i o n chosen would necessitate the proposed Temple's facing westward toward the s e t t i n g sun, symbol not of youth and freshness, but of age and death. The second l o c a t i o n i s surrounded by gray p r e c i p i c e s . Hawthorne further symbolizes the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r achieving t h e i r goal by revealing that each of these supposedly Arcadian areas, while apparently i s o l a t e d geographically, i s i n r e a l i t y the scene of a major human tragedy. This i s most f o r c e f u l l y emphasized by the f a c t that the l o c a t i o n f i n a l l y chosen, f a r from being i s o -lated, proves to be a tomb, a place of death, the most inescapable f a c t -40-of human l i f e . ^ The rose and the l i l y are also e f f e c t i v e l y used to symbolize the un-r e a l i t y of the quest. The couple plan that " a l l pure delights were to c l u s t e r l i k e roses among the p i l l a r s of the e d i f i c e and blossom ever new and spontaneously." (I, p. 494)* These innocent thoughts l i k e roses, can-not remain ever fresh and new, but w i l l wither to be replaced by thoughts of care and death. The name Hawthorne gives the heroine i s s i g n i f i c a n t : "Adam Forrester was wont to c a l l her L i l y , because her form was a s . f r a g i l e and her cheek almost as pale," (I, p. 495), She, l i k e the flower she sym-bolizes, has a d e l i c a t e innocence and purity that cannot Survive when faced with the fa c t s of adult l i f e . When the Temple i s b u i l t on the tomb, L i l i a s dies. "The c h i l l winds of the earth had long since breathed a b l i g h t into this b e a u t i f u l flower, so that a loving hand had now trans-planted i t , to blossom b r i g h t l y i n the garden of Paradise." (I, p. 502) m In "The Maypole of the Merry Mount, " the same basic symbols of flowers and sunshine and the corresponding harmony with nature are used. C r i t i s i s m of the story generally ©flows along l i n e s s i m i l a r to those of Fogle who writes that "the a l l e g o r i c a l element of "The Maypole of Merry Mount" re-sides i n the clear-cut statement and development of a problem which i s embodied i n the c o n f l i c t between Merry Mount and Plymouth, j o l l i t y and gloom, Merry England and Puritan New England."''" Stein writes that "[Haw-thorne's] purpose i s to i s o l a t e the inherent e v i l i n the dogmatic positions of the two ideologies.... The hedonism of the votaries of the Maypole i s contrasted with the gloomy acceptance of existence as an ordeal of tempta-2 t i o n . " The nature symbolism operates w i t h i n the framework of these ideas. C r i t i c s , however, have not noted the f u l l implications of these symbols. -41-Fogle, w r i t i n g of the a l l e g o r i c a l and symbolical composition of the story, r i g h t l y notes that "Merry Mount i s the dream of Paradise,"^ but does not notice several important d e t a i l s which appear to contradict h i s remarks that "the commencement of the t a l e i s a poetic celebration of Merry Mount ...." 4 . S i m i l a r l y , Daniel G. Hoffman's remark that the r e v e l l e r s "are i n perfect sympathy with Nature and Nature with t h e m , d o e s not take account of these d e t a i l s . Indeed, the u n r e a l i t y of the r e v e l l e r s attempts are symbolized by the maypole, t h e i r focus of unity and the emblem of t h e i r philosophy of pleasure. Although created from the materials of nature, i t appears unnatural and incongruous i n i t s f o r e s t s e t t i n g . An a r t i f i c i a l mixture of many trees, i t r e f l e c t s not only the i n e v i t a b l e de-feat of t h e i r attempt to l i v e i n complete joy, but also the n e c e s s i t i e s of facing the stern r e a l i t i e s of l i f e they had sought to avoid. "This venerated emblem was a pine-tree^ which had preserved the slender grace of youth, while i t equalled the l o f t i e s t height of the old wood monarchs." (I , p. 70) This c e n t r a l pine i s further made incongruous by the additions of b i r c h boughs which, i n themselves, r e f l e c t the age-youth contrast through t h e i r being p a r t l y green, p a r t l y s i l v e r . In a d d i t i o n , they are e a s i l y withering deciduous leaves, which, l i k e the innocent joys the pilgrims f o o l i s h l y attempt to recreate, soon die to be mourned only by the ever-green pine which remains. These branches are loosely and f l i m s i l y t i e d on by ribbons which, Hawthorne i s c a r e f u l to note, " f l u t t e r e d i n f a n t a s t i c knots of twenty d i f f e r e n t colors, but no sad ones" (I, p. 71). An a r t i -f i c i a l rainbow i s created by the p a r t i c o l o r e d ribbons f l o a t i n g from the stained top of the tree, and both w i l d and c u l t i v a t e d flowers are unnaturally mixed i n the greenery. Among these flowers i s "an abundant wreath of roses, -42-some that had been gathered i n the sunniest spots of the f o r e s t , and others, of s t i l l r i c h e r blush, which c o l o n i s t s had reared from English seed" (I, p. 71). Hawthorne by r e f e r r i n g to roses, symbols of t r a n s i t o r y q u a l i t y of the aspects of youth, again shows the unnaturalness of t h i s attempt to recreate the innocence of youth. Endicott's vigorous destruction of the Maypole and the easy f a l l i n g of the leaves and petals symbolizes the de-feat of the dream and the necessity of the r e v e l l e r s 1 f a c i n g r e a l i t y . ^ Because they are w i l l i n g to face the cares and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of human l i f e , and because they are aware of the dreamlike q u a l i t y of the f e s t i v i t i e s , two characters, Edgar and E d i t h , appear detached from the r e v e l l e r s . This d i f f e r e n c e i s symbolized by the d e s c r i p t i o n of the roses about the two: "Bright roses glowed i n contrast with the dark and glossy c u r l s of each, and were scattered round t h e i r feet, or had sprung up spon^ taneously there" (I, p. 73). The apparent spontaneity of these flowers enhances the contrast between the young couple and the scene about them. Truly innocent, where t h e i r companions are not, they are more natural than the others. They w i l l face the r e a l i t y of fading innocence symbolized by the roses. Unlike the others, both r e a l i z e the t r a n s i t o r y aspects of the gaiety: "0, E d i t h , " remarks Edgar, " t h i s i s our golden time! Tarnish i t not by any pensive shadow of the mind; for i t may be that nothing of f u t u r i t y w i l l be brighter than the mere remembrance of what i s now passing" ( I , p. 74). At t h i s moment, the showering down of the rose petals reveals t h e i r f a l l from innocence. S i m i l a r l y , the attempt of the pilgrims i n The B l i t h e d a l e Romance to create a U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t i c farm i s revealed, from the opening pages of the novel, as being highly u n r e a l i s t i c . Deserting the c i t y , they intend to create a new Arcadia, o v e r t l y proposing "to give up whatever L t h e y J had -43-heretofore attained, f or the sake of showing mankind the example of a l i f e governed by other than the f a l s e and cruel p r i n c i p l e s on which human society has a l l along been based..1' (V, p. 342), However, l i k e the r e v e l l e r s at Merry Mount, they are evading r e a l i t y . As Coverdale notes, they are, as i n d i v i d u a l s "who had gone through such an experience as to disgust them with ordinary pur s u i t s . . , . " (V, p. 390) b a s i c a l l y planning an area i n which to escape from many of the hardships of the human condition. "We had i n d i v i d u a l l y found one thing or another to quarrel with i n our past l i f e , and were pretty well agreed as to .the inexpedience of lumbering along with the old system any f u r t h e r . " (V, p. 391), As Fogle notes they begin t h e i r enterprise of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the Golden Age i n weather which sym-bolizes the u n r e a l i t y of t h e i r attempt. In the midst of a v i o l e n t snow-storm, huddled before a warm f i r e , they more resemble Eskimos than Arcadians. Later, the appearance of t h e i r sylvan f e s t i v a l symbolizes the u n r e a l i t y of t h e i r scheme. Based on an actual Brook Farm experience which Hawthorne had f e l t showed that "the every day laws of Nature were suspended, " (AN,, p. 78) i t i s described by Coverdale as "weird and f a n t a s t i c , " (V, p. 558) rendered unreal and evanescent by the f a l l i n g of "a shower of September leaves...upon the r e v e l l e r s . " (V, p. 558), In the character of Donatello, hem of The Marble Faun, Hawthorne pre-sents h i s most extensive examination of the i n e v i t a b l e movement from i n -nocence to g u i l t . As Fogle and Waggoner state, the core of the theme i s to be found i n Miriam's statements that: The story of the f a l l of man! Is i t not repeated i n our romance of Monte Beni? And may we follow the analogy yet further? Was that very s i n , - - i n t o which Adam p r e c i p i t a t e d himself and a l l his race,--was i t the destined means by which, over a long pathway of t o i l and sorrow, we are to a t t a i n a higher, brighter, -44-and profounder happiness, than ( O u r v l o s t b i r t h r i g h t gave? W i l l not t h i s idea account f o r the permitted existence of s-in,, as no other theory can? Although c r i t i c s continue to debate the question of whether or not Hawthorne f u l l y accepted the doctrine of the Fortunate F a l l , they generally agree that the story f i t s i nto the major pattern suggested above. Within t h i s pattern, the major symbols are again employed. Fogle treats these images i n d e t a i l to r e l a t e them to what he considers the basic c o n f l i c t of the novel, that between s i m p l i c i t y and complexity. The nature images applied to Donatello r e l a t e to his simplicity.'' Before the murder, of the Capuchin? monk, Donatello i s presented as a completely amoral, innocent being, c h i l d l i k e andalmost sub-human i n his u n f a l l e n state'. Like the marble faun he resembles, he i s "endowed with no p r i n c i p l e of v i r t u e , and would be incapable of comprehending such...." (VI, p. 24). Although much advanced i n years from childhood, Donatello's purity and innocence, h i s separation from normal human concerns, render him c h i l d l i k e . Miriam constantly refers to him as a c h i l d , and a l l his friends i n s o c i a l intercourse ... h a b i t u a l l y and i n s t i n c t i v e l y allowed for him, as f o r a c h i l d or some other lawless thing, exacting no s t r i c t obedience to conventional rules, and hardly n o t i c i n g his e c c e n t r i c i t i e s enough to pardon them. There was an i n d e f i n -able c h a r a c t e r i s t i c about Donatello that set him outside of r u l e s . (VI, p. 28) This indefinable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems to a r i s e from the f a c t that Donatello, unlike h i s companions, has "nothing to do with time, but has a look of eternal youth i n his face." (VI, p. 29)„ In many ways he i s , i n h i s amoral-i t y , even less than a c h i l d , and more l i k e "neither man nor animal, and yet no monster, but a being i n whom both races met on f r i e n d l y ground." -45-(VI, p. 25). However, Donatello 1s state of innocence i s not permanent. His f a l l , which i s foreshadowed by his almost f a t a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r Miriam and by the general deadening e f f e c t of the c i t y upon him, makes a moral human being of him: I t had kindled him into a man; i t had developed within him an i n t e l l i g e n c e which was no native c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Donatello whom we have heretofore known. But that simple and joyous creature was gone forever. (VI, p. 203) Donatello himself r e a l i z e s that his loss of innocence has changed him from the c h i l d he was: "I am not a boy now. Time f l i e s over us, but leaves hi s shadow behind." (VI, p. 258), The l a s t h a l f of the novel deals with the pervasive e f f e c t s the s i n and new knowledge--have upon Donatello's character. Donatello i s no longer i s o l a t e d from humanity: he and Miriam become "members of an innumberable confraternity of g u i l t y ones...." (VI, p. 208), More important, i n h i s sin, he becomes i n e x t r i c a b l y united with Miriam. Their deed ... had wreathed i t s e l f ... l i k e a serpent, i n i n -e x t r i c a b l e l i n k s about both t h e i r souls, and drew them into one, by i t s t e r r i b l e c o n t r a c t i l e power. I t was closer than a marriage-bond. (VI, p. 205) Donatello's sylvan ancestry and childhood, his actions i n nature, h i s resemblance to the creatures of the forest, e s p e c i a l l y to the marble faun-r a l l , by l i n k i n g him to the Arcadian countryside i n which he was born, sym-b o l i z e the nature and extent of h i s i s o l a t i o n and innocence. Kenyon, v i s i t -ing Monte Beni, learns from Thomaso and the peasant neighbors of a legendary ancestry that connects Donatello with a sylvan faun who roamed the neigh-boring f o r e s t s . The ancestral l i n e , reputedly descended from the founders of the Grecian Golden Age, originated i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p between an innocent maiden and a sylvan creature. The geneology of the family traces a con--46-tinued closeness to nature. I t was a pleasant and kindly race of men, but capable of savage fierceness, and never quite r e s t r a i n a b l e within the trammels of s o c i a l law. They were strong, active, genial, cheerful as the sunshine, passionate as the tornado. Their l i v e s were rendered b l i s s f u l by an unsought harmony with nature. (VI, p. 270) Although many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l o s t i n time, they p e r i o d i c a l l y recurred i n a descendant considered a reincarnation of the founder of the race. To t h i s person are a t t r i b u t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of simple honesty, and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . He i s , as well, able to communicate with the creatures of nature. Hawthorne, by placing Donatello i n t h i s lineage, and by emphasizing that he has i n h e r i t e d many of these recurrent character-i s t i c s , symbolizes the innocence of the hero. These q u a l i t i e s are further emphasized by the discussion of Donatello's own childhood. Of the symbolic value of Donatello's homeland, Waggoner writes: "The chapters on Donatello's native country and on h i s r e l a t i o n to i t i n the past are I think, among the best that Hawthorne ever wrote. Everything contributes to the e f f e c t of innocence and v i t a l i t y . " The b e a u t i f u l , pastoral countryside i n which Donatello has enjoyed his youth i s an appropriate area for so innocent a creature. Kenyon, r e f e r r i n g to i t as "a v e r i t a b l e Arcadia," (VI, p. 274) i s most impressed with the sylvan d e l l which Donatello considers the scene of his happiest moments. Dominated by a marble fountain, i t has associated with i t the legends of his ancestry, and i s the scene of h i s clo s e s t kinship with nature. Kenyon, the neighbors, and Donatello himself note the sylvan q u a l i t i e s that made him so c l o s e l y resemble the founder of the family. "There i s , " says Kenyon, "a great deal of animal nature i n him, as i f he had been born i n the woods, and had run wild a l l h i s childhood, and were as yet but im--47-p e r f e c t l y domesticated.'' (VI, p. 128), From the people of the d i s t r i c t come tales of his having always played unharmed i n even the most perilous areas of the forest, and of his having played with the wild creatures. Donatello himself c r e d i t s these s t o r i e s , t e l l i n g Kenyon of his childhood a b i l i t y to c a l l to himself the various small animals. Kenyon, hearing him c a l l the birds, considers his c a l l s the most appropriate language f o r man to use i n nature: "The sculptor fancied that such might have been the o r i g i n a l voice and utterance of the natural man, before the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the human i n t e l l e c t formed what we now c a l l language. In t h i s broad d i a l e c t — b r o a d as the sympathies of n a t u r e — t h e human brother might have spoken to h i s i n a r t i c u l a t e brotherhood that prowl the woods...." (VI, p. 286), Even as a young man, h i s innocence remains, and i s best symbolized by his actions i n the Borghese Gardens. Here, away from the deadening i n f l u -ences of the c i t y , he i s joyously elated. For him, t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a return to nature, as the gardens i n t h e i r semi-neglected state resemble the countryside about his home rather than an a r t i f i c i a l promenade; These wooded and flowery lawns are more b e a u t i f u l than the f i n e s t of English park-scenery, more touching, more impres-sive, through the neglect that leaves Nature so much to her own ways and methods. Since man seldom i n t e r f e r e s with her, she sets to work i n her quiet way and makes hers e l f at home. There i s enough of human care, i t i s true, bestowed, long ago and s t i l l bestowed, to prevent wildness from growing into deformity; and the r e s u l t i s an i d e a l landscape, a woodland scene that seems to have been projected out of the poet's mind. (VI, p. 91) In the gardens, Donatello captures the beauty of the scene about him, casts off the s t u l t i f y i n g influence of Rome, and gambols joyously about. Small animals show no fear of him as he races along the paths and embraces tree trunks and climbs l o f t y branches. "His joy was l i k e that of a c h i l d that -48-had gone astray from home, and finds him suddenly i n his mother's arms again" (VI, p. 95). His innocence i s emphasized by the fact that, l i k e Pearl, he i s often described i n images that l i k e n him to the creatures of the for e s t . His songs i n the Borghese gardens "seemed as natural as bird-notes" (VI, p. 103). When Miriam attempts to examine h i s ears he "started back, as shyly as a w i l d deer..." (VI, p. 127) and even when influenced by the f a l l e n Miriam he i s constantly compared to a devoted dog. The creature of nature he most resembles i s the Faun of P r a x i t e l e s , a legendary creature of nature, the statue of which, portraying a thing of nature, revealed a being "en-dowed with no p r i n c i p l e of v i r t u e , and ... incapable of comprehending such ..." (VI, p. 24). Such a being exists outside of human morality and i t s sylvan q u a l i t y i s an i n t e g r a l part of i t s being: " A l l the pleasantness of sylvan l i f e , a l l the genial and happy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of creatures that dwell i n woods and f i e l d s , w i l l seem to be mingled into one substance, along with the kindred q u a l i t i e s i n the human soul. ... The idea may have been ... a poet's reminiscence of a period when man's a f f i n i t y with nature was more s t r i c t . . . " (VI, p. 25). Miriam, looking at the statue, notes how the innocence of such a creature would leave i t i n nature outside human r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Imagine, now, a r e a l being, s i m i l a r to th i s mythic Faun; how happy, how genial, how s a t i s f a c t o r y would be his l i f e , enjoy-ing the warm, sensuous, earthy side of nature; r e v e l l i n g i n the merriment of woods and streams; l i v i n g as our four-footed kindred do, as mankind did i n i t s innocent childhood; before s i n , sorrow or morality i t s e l f had even been thought of! (VI, P. 27). Such a being i s Donatello, and when these q u a l i t i e s are mcBt evident, his s i m i l a r i t y to the marble faun i s emphasized. For example, i n the Borghese -49-Gardens, t h i s likeness i s seen. "Judging by the pleasure which the sylvan character of the scene excited i n him, i t might be no merely f a n c i f u l theory to set him down as the kinsman, not far remote, of that wild, sweet, p l a y f u l , r u s t i c creature, to whose marble image he bore so s t r i k i n g a re-semblance" (VI, p. 89). One further nature image i s used to symbolize his innocence. Like Pearl, Donatello i s attracted to and associated with sunshine. He expresses a marked preference for sunlight. He t e l l s Miriam that hs i s "apt to be f e a r f u l i n o l d , gloomy houses, and i n the dark" (VI, p. 58) and, while i n the catacombs, constantly agitates to return to the "blessed daylight!" (VI, p. 40). Even i n the wooded shadows, he f e e l s that " i f a stray sunbeam st e a l i n , the shadow i s a l l the better for i t s cheerful glimmer" (VI, p. 58). He i s often compared to sunshine. As he dances about Miriam's studio, the e f f e c t "was an enlivening as i f one bright ray had contrived to shimmer i n and f r o l i c around the walls, and f i n a l l y r est just i n the centre of the f l o o r " (VI, p. 64). Kenyon refe r s to the "natural sunshine" (VI, p. 129) Donatello brings Miriam, and, indeed, as he lands by her side i n the Borghese gardens " i t was as i f the swaying of the branches had l e t a ray of sunlight through" (VI, p. 95). Another aspect of sunshine associated with Donatello i s the Monte Bene wine "sunshine." The very symbols used to present Donatello's innocence contain within them elements foreshadowing his f a l l . His ancestry, although associated with the p u r i t y of the sylvan scene, had l o s t many of the o r i g i n a l charac-t e r i s t i c s , and even those members of the family who retained them l o s t much of the attractiveness i n l a t e r l i f e . The b e a u t i f u l countryside i n which Donatello enjoyed so much of h i s youth has associated with i t s t o r i e s of -50-murder and betrayal; and the Borghese Gardens, the scene of h i s l a s t hours of innocence, contain within them the lin g e r i n g traces of malaria and the Capuchin monk whose presence immediately f i r e s a v i o l e n t hatred i n Dona-t e l l o . Although he i s often related to the gentler animals of nature, Donatello i s often compared to the f i e r c e r animals when he reveals the rage which w i l l lead him to murder. He himself, when angered, says that he " s h a l l be l i k e a wolf of the Apennines...." (VI, p. 26) and once re-veals a " t i g e r - l i k e fury gleaming from h i s wild eyes." (VI, p. 176)« If he resembles the marble faun's i s o l a t i o n and innocence, he also resembles i t s capacity f o r being "educated through the medium of h i s emotions...." (VI, p. 24). Even sunshine, i n the form of the famous Monte Beni wine, contains wit h i n i t symbols of Donatello's downfall. I t i s cl o s e l y associated with the family i t s e l f and has q u a l i t i e s of Donatello himself i n that i t i s l i k e "the a i r y sweetness of youthful hopes, that no r e a l i t i e s w i l l ever s a t i s f y ! " (VI, p. 258). Two of i t s q u a l i t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t : f i r s t , i t s f l a v o r soon evaporates a f t e r the b o t t l e i s opened; and, second, i t loses i t s f l a v o r when shipped from the family estates. In these respects i t symbolizes Donatello's innocence--passing, and sonn l o s t when removed from i t s native scene. Donatello's loss of innocence i s symbolized by his changed reactions to the aspects of nature that had pleased him before. This loss i s f i r s t symbolized i n h i s v i s i t , the day a f t e r the murder, to the Medici Gardens, an area cl o s e l y resembling the Borghese Gardens he had v i s i t e d two days before, whereas he had danced through the Borghese Gardens a carefree and vivacious s p i r i t , loving and enjoying the things of nature about him, he -51-now walks s u l l e n l y about, not only not enjoying, but also not even n o t i c i n g the lovely things about him. Hawthorne comments on the noticeable change, using the image of the marble faun to show just how much the i s o l a t e d , innocent creature of nature has f a l l e n : "In t h i s dismal mood, bewildered with the novelty of s i n and g r i e f , he had l i t t l e l e f t of that singular resemblance, on account of which, and for t h e i r sport, h i s three friends had f a n t a s t i c a l l y recognized him as the v e r i t a b l e Faun of P r a x i t e l e s . " (VI, p. 235) . He can no longer a t t r a c t the kind and gentle animals and shies away at the approach of a l i z a r d . The change i s further symbolized by his reaction to h i s country home. His home, gayly decorated with Arcadian scenes, seems to him s o l i t a r y and gloomy. He himself attempts to shut out the l i g h t i n his dim chambers. He d i s l i k e s the wine "sunshine." His deep gloom i s revealed i n the f a c t that, standing i n the tower above his home, he can see only the darkness of the storm i t s e l f and not the sunlight that follows i t . As they walk through the woods that he had so loved, Donatello t e l l s Kenyon that "a sort of strangeness had overgrown them, l i k e c l u s t e r s of dark shrubbery, so that he had hardly recognized the places which he had known and loved so w e l l . " (VI, p. 280). In a sincere and cesperate attempt to r e e s t a b l i s h h i s l o s t community with nature he earnestly c a l l s to the beings of the f o r e s t i n the manner of his e a r l i e r days, but again f a i l s , being able to summon only a deformed, two-tailed l i z a r d . Realizing that his crime has i s o l a t e d him from a l l that i s innocent i n nature, Donatello likens himself to a legendary forefather who, because of sin, could not summon f o r t h the maiden of the fountain. He laments: "They shun mel A l l nature shrinks from me, and shudders at me! ... No innocent thing can come near me." -52-(VI, p. 288), Hawthorne also sees these events as symbolic of the f a c t that Donatello, i n f a l l i n g , has suffered the i n e v i t a b l e human destiny: "Nature ... i s what i t was of old; but sin, care, and self-consciousness have set the human portion of the world askew..*." (VI, p. 277), "We a l l of us," says Kenyon, "as we grow older.... lose somewhat of our proxi-mity to nature. I t i s the price we pay for experience.*' (VI, p. 289), In t h i s chapter, i t has been seen that two major symbols and a sym-b o l i c a t t i t u d e are consistently used by Hawthorne to reveal the moral i n -nocence i n his characters. By describing the many chil d r e n of the s t o r i e s i n terms of sunshine and flowers and by emphasizing the harmony with which they react to the objects of nature, Hawthorne symbolizes the innocent qual-i t y which separates them from the normal adult world. However, i t has been seen that these symbols are also used to reveal the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of an end to innocence. In "The Maypole of the Merry Mount" and The Marble  Faun innocence i s l o s t . In the former story, the petals of the maypole wither and f a l l , and the sun sets; i n the l a t t e r Donatello ceases to enjoy his arcadian countryside and avoids the bright sunlight. In symbolizing Donatello's f a l l by stressing h i s disenchantment with nature and his preference for gloomy places, and the coming of the Puritan regime by the increase of the dusk, Hawthorne employs another group of nature symbols. The next chapter examines Hawthorne's de t a i l e d use of these and associated symbolic patterns. -53-FOOTNOTES Fogle, op. c i t . , p. 60. William Bysshe Stein, Hawthorne's Faust (Gainesville, 1953), p. 60. Fogle, op. c i t . , p. 62. Ibid., p. 65. Form and Fable i n American F i c t i o n (New York, 1961), p. 129. This s i g n i f i c a n t l y takes place at sunset. As Fogle notes, the fading of the day symbolizes the death of the unnatural gaiety of the re-v e l l e r s and the coming of the moral gloom of the Puritans. More-over, i t takes place on Mid-Summer Night. The natural rhythm of the season, which Norton's people have attempted to evade, has con-tinued; just as the cares and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l i f e which they have also attempted to evade have come upon them. (See Hoffman, Op. c i t . , p. 132.) See Hawthorne's F i c t i o n , pp. 164-7. Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 208. Chapter Four NATURE AS SYMBOL OF MORAL EVIL The major nature symbol Hawthorne uses to reveal the moral state of hi s characters i s o l a t e d through s i n and g u i l t i s that of the journey into the wilderness, a voyage symbolic of a moral separation which has re s u l t e d either because of the ind i v i d u a l ' s i n a b i l i t y to accept the burden of a g u i l t which i s often common to humanity or because of his harboring a deep e v i l , often pride, which he fe e l s places him beyond other people. Within t h i s major symbol, the physical q u a l i t i e s of the wildernesses surrounding the various characters often r e f l e c t t h e i r peculiar mental states. As i n hi s use of other symbols, Hawthorne uses the symbol of the wilderness with great delicacy; while i t s general o u t l i n e remains constant, i t i s c a r e f u l l y a l t e r e d and shaped to f u l f i l l the requirements of mirroring the i n d i v i d u a l characters i n "The Hollow of the Three H i l l s , " "Young Goodman Brown," "Roger Malvin's B u r i a l , " "The Great Carbuncle," "The Man of Adamant," and "Ethan Brand." The symbol of a journey i s also used by Hawthorne i n other t a l e s , most notably i n "My Kinsman, Major Molyneaux." However, i n this t a l e , i t is not a journey s p e c i f i c a l l y into nature and does not f i t into the pattern analyzed i n t h i s chapter. Robin, whose voyage from h i s country home to the c i t y i s nearly complete as the story commences, does not undergo a personal i n i t i a t i o n into e v i l . Moreover, he i s mainly an onlooker viewing h i s uncle's e v i c t i o n from o f f i c e , an a c t i o n l a r g e l y symbolic of the overthrow of the B r i t i s h ; and, at the conclusion of the story, he i s not a morally i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l , for he has presumably learned the lessons the night's exper-iences have taught him and i s now ready to enter the community on equal footing with other people. In The American Adam, R. W. B. Lewis remarks that, i n Hawthorne's f i c --55-tion, "we have the f r a n t i c shuttling, i n novel a f t e r novel, between the v i l l a g e and the forest, the c i t y and the country...."''" And, i n "The Hollow of the Three H i l l s , " "Young Goodman Brown," "Roger Malvin's B u r i a l , " and "The Man of Adamant," the journey into the country becomes the major sym-bol of the characters' i n i t i a t i o n into, or progress deeper into e v i l . The image of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s encounter with moral e v i l and g u i l t was a dominant one i n Hawthorne's mind, and served as the basis for one of his most famous and oft-quoted notebook e n t r i e s : The human Heart to be a l l e g o r i z e d as a cavern; at the entrance there i s sunshine, and flowers growing about i t . You step within, but a short distance, and begin to f i n d yourself sur-rounded with a t e r r i b l e gloom, and monsters of divers kinds; i t seems l i k e H e l l i t s e l f . You are bewildered, and wander long without hope. At l a s t a l i g h t s t r i k e s upon you. You peep towards i t , and f i n d yourself i n a region that seems, i n some sort, to reproduce the flowers and sunny beauty of the entrance, but a l l perfect. These are the depths of the heart, or of human nature, bright and peaceful; the gloom and the t e r r o r may l i e deep; but deeper s t i l l i s the eternal beauty. (AN, p. 98) As t h i s image i s expanded i n h i s f i c t i o n , however, there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . F i r s t , although the journey takes place i n the gloomy places of nature, i t i s generally outside of the cavern, i n the f o r e s t i t s e l f . Second, the majority of Hawthorne's characters do not complete the journey and a r r i v e at the area of perfe c t i o n . F i n a l l y , the image i s seldom handled as simple allegory; generally, i t functions as-."a complex symbol. The symbol f i r s t appears i n one of Hawthorne's e a r l i e s t works, "The Hollow of the Three H i l l s . " E s s e n t i a l l y , the story deals with the t w i l i g h t meeting between a young woman and an old hag, probably a witch. Here the lady, f i l l e d with g u i l t , learns of the fate of the parents, husband and c h i l d she has abandoned. The journey of the lady to the lonely spot i s -56-not discussed, but i t i s made obvious that the place of t h e i r pre-arranged meeting has been chosen f o r i t s i s o l a t i o n : "In the spot where they en-countered, no mortal could observe them," (I, p. 228), Although the symbolic journey i t s e l f i s not described, the setting of the meeting i s . As what Marius Bewley refers to as "a p o e t i c a l l y evoked 2 symbol," the wilderness which surrounds her r e f l e c t s the e v i l w ithin that has i s o l a t e d her. The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the hollow i s the gloom pervading i t . Although, throughout the sketch, the sun has not set i n the world beyond the hollow, the hollow i t s e l f becomes darker as the extent of her moral e v i l i s revealed to both the lady he r s e l f and to the reader. If Bewley's view that the three h i l l s "are symbols of her profoundest human 3 r e l a t i o n s h i p s " be al t e r e d to read that they are symbols of the e v i l s that have entered into these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the gloom of the hollow gains added s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s her e v i l which prevents the sunlight, which as we have seen i s symbolic of moral goodness and innocence, from shining on her. Bewley r i g h t l y suggests that the hollow represents the woman's heart or soul, i s o l a t e d and f i l l e d with gloom. However, the items described by Hawthorne do not, as Bewley suggests, represent the fates of those deserted, but the state of her own mind. Thus the dwarfed pines ringing the hollow symbolize "the untimely b l i g h t " (I, p. 228) which marks the lady " i n what should have been the f u l l e s t bloom of her years..." (I, p. 228). "The brown grass of October," (I, p. 228) the decayed oak and the pool of green and sluggish water, symbolize the death of love, and the moral decay and stagnation which have led the lady to her present condition. In t h i s very early sketch are b r i e f l y traced the basic nature symbols Hawthorne uses i n the examination of those characters morally e v i l . The -57-journey i t s e l f , the gloom of the wilderness, and the physical state of the f o r e s t are a l l expanded and f u l l y developed i n l a t e r t a l e s . For ex-ample, i n "Young Goodman Brown," the en t i r e story i s contained within the framework of the journey, the action takes place between dusk and dawn, and the appearance of the f o r e s t becomes a symbolic projection of Brown's moral and psychological state. Although c r i t i c s debate about the meaning of the tale, and, indeed, 4 Fogle sees i t s ambiguity as central, one aspect of the meaning i s obvious: Young Goodman Brown i s i s o l a t e d i n his discovery that e v i l e x i s t s i n human-i t y . The story opens with his conscious r e j e c t i o n of human companionship, that of his wife, and as he continues alone i n h i s e v i l journey one charac-t e r i s t i c becomes noticeable: h i s pride. He f e e l s that he alone has de-feated the d e v i l . As the d e v i l leaves him: "the young man sat a few mo-ments by the roadside, applauding himself greatly, and thinking with how clear a conscience he should meet the minister i n h i s morning walk..,." (II, p. 96) However, his egotism i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to preserve him and, completely alone, he sinks into the destructive doubt discussed by Fogle. Generally speaking, the closing scenes deal with t h e ' i n a b i l i t y of the i s o -lated Brown to recognize and accept the burden of g u i l t shared not only by h i s neighbors but by himself. The nature symbolism r e f l e c t s the moral i s o l a t i o n of Brown. As noted above, the story opens at sunset, with Brown consciously re-j e c t i n g the pleas of h i s wife and determining to go h i s journey completely alone, and to then never again leave h i s wife. His movement i s therefore one into increasing i s o l a t i o n and e v i l . Hawthorne's v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of the physical journey r e f l e c t s t h i s : -58-He had taken a dreary road, darkened by a l l the gloomiest trees of the f o r e s t , which barely stood aside to l e t the narrow path creep through, and closed immediately behind. I t was a l l as lonely as could be; and there i s this p e c u liar-i t y i n such a solitude, that the t r a v e l l e r knows not who may be concealed by the innumerable trunks and the thick boughs overhead; so that with lonely footsteps he may yet be passing through an unseen multitude. (II, p. 90) Obviously the movement in t o the f o r e s t away from the v i l l a g e p a r a l l e l s the i n t e n t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n Brown acquires i n his e g o t i s t i c a l attempt to confront evilaalone. However, as he pursues h i s quest he enters areas which i n t h e i r density and gloom symbolize the e v i l which he i s more d i -r e c t l y encountering. Moreover, the doubt he entertains concerning the p o s s i b i l i t y of persons hiding behind trees, foreshadows the i n t e r n a l doubt he w i l l acquire regarding the existence of e v i l . When Brown meets the d e v i l , that i s when he f i r s t confronts e v i l , Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes the physical darkness which symbolizes the moral darkness. " I t was now deep dusk i n the forest, and deepest i n that part of i t where these two were journeying.' 4 (II, p. 91). However, the d e v i l ' s remarks that "we are but a l i t t l e way i n the f o r e s t yet," (II, p. 92) i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r the knowledge of e v i l as yet acquired by Brown and h i s present moral i s o l a t i o n within i s small and w i l l increase. As Brown continues h i s journey h i s awareness of the e v i l of a l l men increases as he hears the voices of the v i l l a g e r s Goody Cloyse and Deacon Gookin. His actions i n the f o r e s t symbolize the present state of his soul: "Young Goodman Brown caught hold of a tree f o r support, being ready to sink down on the ground, f a i n t and overburdened with the heavy sickness of his heart." (II, p. 97), At t h i s point, his actions are l i k e those of Arthur Dimmesdale, who, wandering alone i n the forest, wished to dissolve -59-in t o the f o r e s t f l o o r , rather than face and assume the burden of h i s g u i l t . While Brown i s not g u i l t y of a s p e c i f i c sin, he i s find i n g , i n his i s o l a t e d state, that he i s unable to accept man's o r i g i n a l s i n . His actions i n the f o r e s t symbolize the weakness i n h i s soul. At t h i s moment, as his aware-ness of e v i l increases, so too does the darkness of the forest, as "a cloud, though no wind was s t i r r i n g , hurried across the zenith and hid the brightening s t a r s . " (II, p. 98), His apparent discovery of the g u i l t of his wife, Faith, and his i n -a b i l i t y to accept this f a c t , r e s u l t s i n his complete moral i s o l a t i o n . His cry that "My F a i t h has gone!" (II, p. 99) i n add i t i o n to symbolizing a loss of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , suggests a loss, perhaps a r e j e c t i o n , of his wife, and with her of his t i e s with humanity. Fogle notes that "Nature i s made at once to sympathize with and to mock the anguished chaos i n Goodman Brown; i n h i s rage the hero i s both united with and opposed to the f o r e s t and the wind."^ I t i s more than t h i s , f o r the wilderness and his actions-i n the wilderness become a symbolic pro j e c t i o n of h i s moral condition: And, maddened with despair, so that he laughed loud and long, did Goodman Brown grasp h i s s t a f f and set f o r t h again, at such a rate that he seemed to f l y along the f o r e s t path rather than to walk or run. The road grew wilder and d r e a r i e r and more f a i n t l y traced, and vanished at length, leaving him i n the heart of the dark wilderness, s t i l l rushing onward with the i n s t i n c t that guides mortal man to e v i l . The whole f o r e s t was peopled with f r i g h t f u l sounds--the creaking of the trees, the howling of wild beasts, and the y e l l of Indians; while sometimes the wind t o l l e d l i k e a distant church b e l l , and some-times gave a broad roar around the t r a v e l l e r , as i f a l l Nature were laughing him to scorn. But he was himself the chief hor-ror of the scene, and shrank not from i t s other horrors. (II, P. 99) The complete disappearance of the f o r e s t path symbolizes Brown's complete moral i s o l a t i o n , for, although he apparently rushes to the meeting of the -60-witches' sabbath, he rushes away from the v i l l a g e , h i s e v i l influences completely dominant. The chaos of the wilderness p a r a l l e l s the chaos i n Brown 1s mind. I t may seem i l l o g i c a l that the destination of Brown's journey of i s o -lation;' i s symbolized as a witches' sabbath at which the v i l l a g e r s profess t h e i r common bond of s i n . However, i t should be r e a l i z e d that Brown does not j o i n that community and that the rest of h i s l i f e i s spent i n a gloomy i s o l a t i o n apart from h i s wife, family and friends; that "a stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a d i s t r u s t f u l , i f not a desperate man did he become from the night of that f e a r f u l dream." (II, p. 106). This i s symbolized by the f a c t that h i s destination i s not the witches' sabbath, but the cold and empty f o r e s t he wakes up i n . The setting of the witches' sabbath-sym-bo l i z e s the communion that awaited Brown by the acceptance of his brother-hood i n s i n . Thus, as i s stated by Hawthorne, the burning pines and the great rock symbolize the candles and a l t a r at which the brotherhood i s confirmed. However, Brown, at the f i n a l moment, r e s i s t s communion. He has committed what Hawthorne elsewhere refers to as a grave s i n . "Man must not d i s c l a i m h i s brotherhood, even with the g u i l t i e s t , since, though his hand be clean, his heart hath surely been po l l u t e d . . . . " (I, p. 257), Thus Young Goodman Brown has i s o l a t e d himself from his fellows by committing a grave s i n himself, that of pride. The f i n a l nature symbol of the story serves to reveal the extent of the moral i s o l a t i o n brought about by his pride: Hardly had he spoken when he found himself amid calm night and solitude, l i s t e n i n g to a roar of the wind which died heavily away through the f o r e s t . He staggered against the rock, and f e l t i t c h i l l and damp; while a hanging twig, that -61-had been a l l on f i r e , besprinkled his cheek with the coldest dew. (II, p. 105) The complete solitude of Brown i n the depths of the dark f o r e s t symbolizes the complete i s o l a t i o n he w i l l f e e l f o r the rest of h i s l i f e . His heart, l i k e the rock against which he staggers, w i l l become c h i l l and damp. Thus his nighttime t r i p symbolizes not merely a journey of i n i t i a t i o n into e v i l , but one of great sin, pride, i n which hi s r e j e c t i o n of human e v i l has brought moral and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n upon him. Like "Young Goodman Brown," "Roger Marvin's B u r i a l " also considers the e f f e c t s of a young man's struggles with a burden of g u i l t . Waggoner remarks that "here, most c l e a r l y , i s the usual preoccupation with secret g u i l t , with the r e s u l t i n g i s o l a t i o n , and with a sense of compulsion." Howev^er, although he notes that "the two key scenes of the story take place deep i n the heart of the dark forest, i n a glade which Reuben i s unable to forget as he i s unable to cast out the secret that l i e s i n 'the sepulchre of h i s h e a r t , ' h e summararily dismisses the nature symbolism g i n a paragraph. Agnes Donohue notes the p a r a l l e l s to Young Goodman Brown: "In both tales ... Hawthorne's i n t e r e s t l i e s i n the forest, the wilderness, and what happens there;" but she considers mainly the mythical aspects of this symbolism. The f o r e s t i s indeed symbolic, but, as Fogle only hints, i t i s symbolic of Brown's moral condition. However, both Fogle and Donohue f a i l to.develop this s i g n i f i c a n c e . The basic outline of the symbolism i s s i m i l a r to that of "Young Good-man Brown": there i s the c y c l i c a l journey with town and country as the two poles, the major ac t i o n takes place i n an i s o l a t e d clearing, deep i n the wilderness, and the dominant elements of the cle a r i n g are a large rock -62 and unusual trees. However, there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the sym-bols used: most obvious, the journey i n "Roger Malvin's B u r i a l " i s the reverse from that i n "Young Goodman Brown," moving from wilderness to town and back to wilderness; and, i n the f i n a l h a l f of the journey the t o t a l i t y of the gloom i s p a r t i a l l y d i s p e l l e d . These differences i n rsymbols used r e f l e c t the basic differences i n the characters themselves, f o r though both heroes are i n i t i a t e d into e v i l , Bourne f i n a l l y achieves a higher posi-t i o n than Brown, f o r the expiation of h i s g u i l t , although tra g i c , ends his great i s o l a t i o n . Thus, while at the end of "Young Goodman Brown," the hero "on the Sabbath day, when the congregation were singing a holy psalm . could not l i s t e n because an anthem of s i n rushed loudly on his ear and drowned a l l the blessed s t r a i n , " (II, p. 106) at the end of "Roger Malvin 1 B u r i a l , " "a prayer, the f i r s t f o r years, went up to Heaven from the l i p s of Reuben Bourne," (II, p. 406). As he did i n The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne makes the d e t a i l s of the c l e a r i n g appropriate symbols of his character's moral state. F i r s t , i t i s i s o l a t e d from the community as Bourne himself i s . Second, the vegetation sets i t apart from the area around i t , just as Bourne's moody condition sets him apart from the community: "Oaks and other hard-wood trees had supplied the place of pines, which were the usual growth of the land...." (II, p. 382), The oaks themselves r e f l e c t the state of Brown's heart and mind. They have not the enduring q u a l i t y of the pines that surround them, jus t as Reuben, unlike the other s e t t l e r s , i s unable to endure and prosper i n the community. Because the c l e a r i n g i s located deep within the forest, he cannot r e c a l l i t s exact location, j u s t as he was "unable to penetrate the secret place of h i s soul where his motives lay hidden...," (II, p. 402 -63-The oak to which he a f f i x e d his blood stained bandage i s likewise a symbol of Bourne himself. At the opening of the story i t i s , l i k e the youth, "a young and vigorous s a p l i n g " (II, p. 382). At the conclusion of the story, The sapling to which he had bound the bloodstained symbol of his vow had increased and strengthened into an oak, f a r indeed from i t s maturity, but with no mean spread of shadowy branches. There was one s i n g u l a r i t y observable i n t h i s tree which made Reuben tremble. The middle and lower branches were i n luxur-iant l i f e , and an excess of vegetation had fringed the trunk almost to the ground; but a b l i g h t had apparently s t r i c k e n the upper part of the oak, and the very topmost bough was withered, sapless, and u t t e r l y dead. (II, pp. 402-3) What of course has blighted the tree i s the bandage, just as i t was the u n f u l f i l l e d holy vow symbolized by the bandage that has helped to destroy Reuben's well being. The major symbol of the c l e a r i n g i s the large gray rock. Agnes, Donohue sees i t as the a l t a r upon which Reuben Bourne must o f f e r the r i t u a l i s t i c s a c r i f i c e of h i s son. However, i t i s more than t h i s ; i t i s the centre of Reuben's heart. I t i s introduced i n the second sentence of the story, and we are t o l d that: "the mass of granite, r e a r i n g i t s smooth, f l a t surface f i f t e e n or twenty feet above t h e i r heads, was not unlike a gigantic grave-stone, upon which the veins seemed to form an i n s c r i p t i o n i n forgotten characters" (II, p. 382). Roger Malvin remarks that "on ( t h i s rockj my dying hand s h a l l carve the name of Roger Malvin..." (II, p. 384) and l a t e r asks that Reuben prop him against the rock so that he might better watch the l a t t e r ' s departure. There are many p a r a l l e l s here between the rock and Reuben's heart. It i s cold and hard, as Reuben's heart becomes as he develops his "insulated emotions"; (II, p. 396) moreover, the veins forming the secret hieroglyphics, p a r a l l e l the secret engraved on his heart. -64-Hawthorne mentions the "sepulchre of h i s [Reuben's] heart," (II, p. 402) and Roger's wilderness sepulchre forms an apt comparison, f o r just as:'he has ins c r i b e d h i s name upon the rock against which he leans, so, indeed, has h i s name been engraved i n Reuben's heart, and his memory weighs on th i s heart. F i n a l l y , when, a f t e r slaying his son, Reuben ends h i s i s o l a -tion, Hawthorne notes that "the tears gushed out l i k e water from a rock." (II, p. 406). J Thus, Reuben's unconscious and yet compulsive return to the cle a r i n g symbolizes h i s return to and uncovering of the g u i l t w i t h i n h i s i s o l a t e d heart. As Agnes Donohue notes, the journey i s c y c l i c a l . I t begins on a May morning at sunrise i n the cle a r i n g and ends i n the clearing, eighteen years l a t e r , at sunset. From the beginning of the novel, there i s an i n -creasing gloom i n the f o r e s t which p a r a l l e l s the growing darkness of Reuben's soul. As he leaves Roger: "The morning sun was unclouded, and the trees and shrubs imbibed the sweet a i r of the month of May; yet there seemed a gloom on Nature's face, as i f she sympathized with mortal pain and sorrow." (II, p. 390), And, "on the second day the clouds, gathering densely over the sky, precluded the p o s s i b i l i t y of regulating h i s course by the posi-t i o n of the sun...." On the evening on which he returns to the clea r i n g , t h e i r camp i s made beneath the "gloomy pines" (II, p. 399) and as Dorcas and Reuben stand over the body of th e i r dead son, "the sun was ... beneath the horizon...." (II, p. 405) . Hawthorne emphasizes not only the deepening gloom of the journey but also the f a c t that the journey i t s e l f i s into a desolate and dismal area. "The tangled and gloomy fo r e s t through which the personages of my t a l e were wandering d i f f e r e d widely from the dreamer's land of fantasy...." f-65-(II, p. 398). As they make t h e i r f i n a l camp, so close to the c l e a r i n g sym-b o l i c of Reuben's heart, the loneliness of the forest i s again emphasized: "The dark and gloomy pines looked down upon them, and, as the wind swept through t h e i r tops, a p i t y i n g sound was heard i n the f o r e s t . . . " ( I I , pp. 399-400). However, although the journey i s one of gloom and i s o l a t i o n , i t i s also one which leads to an expiation of the g u i l t which had so long caused the i s o l a t i o n within Reuben, and, although the nature symbols underscore the former aspects, they do foreshadow the l a t t e r . The journey takes place i n May, at a time at which nature i t s e l f undergoes a r e b i r t h . Moreover, as the family begins i t s journey, Hawthorne notes i n nature a hint of a greater happiness than they now enjoy: "And yet there was something i n t h e i r way of l i f e that Nature asserted as her own, and the gnawing cares which went with them from the world were a l l that now obstructed t h e i r happiness" ( I I , p. 398). The most s i g n i f i c a n t symbol i n d i c a t i n g an end to i s o l a t i o n i s that of Dorcas* domesticating "the gloomy forest c l e a r i n g . "Tt had a strange aspect, that one l i t t l e spot of homely comfort i n the desolate heart of Nature" ( I I , p. 403). Although i n one aspect her l i t t l e song, into which "the poet had i n s t i l l e d the very essence of domestic love and household happiness..." (II, p. 404) i s i r o n i c a l l y t r a g i c , i t i s also a symbol of the warm human f e e l i n g that w i l l enter into the hereto-fore lonely and i s o l a t e d heart of Reuben. The journey into the wilderness serves as a symbol not only of the i s o l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s laboring under a burden of g u i l t , but also of i n d i v i d u a l s whose excessive pride causes them to i s o l a t e themselves from other people. For example, i n "The Great Carbuncle," a l l but two of those -66-searching a f t e r the fabulous gem seek a means to increase t h e i r sense of s u p e r i o r i t y over and, hence, i s o l a t i o n from t h e i r fellows. Thus t h e i r quest takes them not only into the heart of the wilderness, but even onto the denuded slopes of a mountainside "where [nature's] own green f o o t p r i n t s had never been.." (I, p. 185), And, i n "The Man of Adamant," Richard Digby' s plan to "seclude himself to the sole and constant enjoyment of his happy fortune," (III, p. 564) i s symbolized by h i s journey not only into the heart of the forest, but also into a deep cave where his callous heart l i t e r a l l y turns to stone. The quest f o r the Great Carbuncle represents the s t r i v i n g by the charac-ters f or something which w i l l increase t h e i r s e l f i s h and proud i s o l a t i o n . "They had come thither, not as friends nor partners i n the enterprise, but each, save one youthful pair, impelled by his own s e l f i s h and s o l i t a r y longing for t h i s wondrous gem." (I, p. 173). Of the group, only Matthew and Hannah, "who seemed strangely out of place among the whimsical f r a t e r -n i t y , " (I, p. 176) are not possessed by the s e l f i s h and e g o t i s t i c a l motives of the others. The story opens with the characters well into t h e i r quest, and accord-ingly, with t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l senses of i s o l a t i o n w ell marked. Hawthorne symbolizes t h i s i s o l a t i o n by emphasizing the loneliness of the s e t t i n g : A vast extent of wilderness lay between them and the nearest settlement, while a scant mile above t h e i r heads was that black verge where the h i l l s throw off t h e i r shaggy mantle of f o r e s t trees, and either robe themselves i n clouds or tower naked into the sky. The roar of the Amonoosuck would have been too awful for endurance i f only a s o l i t a r y man had l i s -tened, while the mountain stream talked with the wind. (I, p. 174) Although the i n t o l e r a b l e solitude has produced momentary fe e l i n g s of brother--67-hood within the group, t h e i r return to the quest increased t h e i r s e l f i s h i s o l a t i o n . As they approach the Carbuncle, the symbol of t h e i r pride and goal of t h e i r i s o l a t e d desires, the nature symbolism s i g n i f i c a n t l y changes. And upward, accordingly, went the pilgrims of the Great Car-buncle, now by treading upon the tops and thickly-interwoven branches of dwarf pines, which, by the growth of centuries, though mossy with age, had barely reached three feet i n a l -titude. Next, they came to masses and fragments of naked rock heaped confusedly together, l i k e a c a i r n reared by giants i n memory of a giant c h i e f . In this bleak realm of upper a i r nothing breathed, nothing grew; there was no l i f e but what was concentrated i n t h e i r two hearts; they had climbed so high that Nature h e r s e l f seemed no longer to keep them company. She l i n -gered beneath them, within the verge of the f o r e s t trees, and sent a farewell glance a f t e r her ch i l d r e n as they strayed where her own green f o o t p r i n t s had never been. But soon they were to be hidden from her eye. Densely and dark the mists began to gather below, casting black spots of shadow on the vast landscape.... (I, pp. 184-5) Here, the complete i s o l a t i o n of the pilgrims i s symbolized by the f a c t that they have gone beyond the most i s o l a t e d places of nature i n t o an area not only devoid of human l i f e , but even of natural l i f e . Moreover, the sun-l i g h t has not been dimmed by the shadows, i t has been completely a n n i h i l a -ted by the gathering mists. The change i n Hannah and Matthew, as they r e a l i z e the f o l l y of their quest and decide to return to society, i s symbolized by t h e i r reactions to the barren scenery about them. Their f i r s t desire i s "to behold that green earth again, more intensely, alas'I' than . . . they had ever desired a glimpse of heaven.." (I, p. 185). It i s only with t h e i r decision to turn back that they behold the carbuncle and, then, they have the wisdom to r e j e c t i t . They r e j e c t t h i s symbol of the s e l f i s h , proud, i s o l a t i n g de-s i r e s of man, for the sun and moon, symbols of what may be shared by a l l men: -68-We w i l l go hence, and return to our humble cottage. The blessed sunshine and the quiet moonlight s h a l l come through our window. We s h a l l kindle the cheerful glow of our hearth, at eventide, and be happy i n i t s l i g h t . But never again w i l l we desire more l i g h t than a l l the world may share with us. (I, p. 188) As Waggoner remarks: "the Man of Adamant| comes as close ... to being pure a l l e g o r y as any tal e that Hawthorne ever wrote."^ Here Haw-thorne makes the wilderness and journey into i t a symbolic projection of the mind and heart of Richard Digby, hi s most completely i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l . Digby i s a r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c whose convictions cause him to r e j e c t a l l other mortals: "His plan of sal v a t i o n was so narrow, that, l i k e a plank i n a tempestuous sea, i t could a v a i l no sinner but himself, who bestrode i t triumphantly, and hurled anathemas against the wretches whom he saw struggling with the billows of eternal death" ( H I , p. 564). To preserve h i s i s o l a t i o n from other people Digby "plunged into the drea r i e s t depths of the f o r e s t " ( I I I , p. 565). As i n the other s t o r i e s studied, the i s o l a t i o n and gloom of the journey p a r a l l e l the i s o l a t i o n and moral e v i l within Digby. "The farther he went, however, and the lone-l i e r he f e l t himself, and the thicker the trees stood along h i s path, and the darker the shadow overhead, so much the more did Richard Digby e x u l t " ( I I I , p. 565). The e v i l of his i s o l a t i o n i s symbolized by the fact that the sun continues to shine on the v i l l a g e he has l e f t , while he i s enveloped i n gloom: "The sunshine continued to f a l l peacefully on the cottages and f i e l d s . . . " ( I l l , p. 565) while, as Digby marches through the wilderness, "the gloom of the forest h i d the blessed sky..." ( I l l , p. 565). It i s i n the heart of the wilderness that he finds a sui t a b l e area, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which p a r a l l e l h i s moral conditions. "There was so -69-dense a v e i l of tangled f o l i a g e about i t , thaiE none but a sworn lover of gloomy recesses would have discovered the low arch of i t s entrance, or have dared to step within i t s vaulted chamber...," ( I l l , p. 566). The cave i t s e l f i s devoid of a l l l i f e , being f i l l e d with a p e t r i f y i n g l i q u i d , and, as such, i s a suitable symbol for Digby's own l i f e , which has been a continual hardening against others: The roof ... was hung with substances resembling opaque i c i -c l es; f o r the damps of unknown centuries, dripping down con-t i n u a l l y , had become as hard as adamant; and wherever that moisture f e l l , i t seemed to possess the power of converting what i t bathed to stone. The f a l l e n leaves and sprigs of f o l i a g e , which the wind had swept into the cave, and the l i t t l e feathery shrubs, rooted near the threshold, were not wet with a natural dew, but had been embalmed by t h i s wondrous process. ( I l l , p. 567) Digby finds this dreary and desolate spot i d e a l f o r h i s way of l i f e : "Here my soul w i l l be at peace; f o r the wicked w i l l not f i n d me." ( I l l , p. 566) t In the cave, he w i l l allow no sunlight, an action symbolic of his rejec-t i o n of the truths of C h r i s t i a n i t y : "The shadow had now grown so deep, where he was s i t t i n g , that he made continual mistakes i n what he read, con-v e r t i n g a l l that was gracious and m e r c i f u l to denunciations of vengeance and unutterable woe on every created thing but himself." ( I l l , p. 570), This r e j e c t i o n of sunlight also implies a r e j e c t i o n of humanity, for he spurns Mary Goffe, a character who appears bathed i n sunbeams, dressed i n a white garb, "which ... seemed to possess a radiance of i t s own^" (III, p. 568) and who, having within her " f a i t h and love united" (III, p. 568) possessed the true C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s Digby has rejected. Digby's f i n a l p osition, p e t r i f i e d by the minerals i n the cave, symbolizes h i s p o s i t i o n i n l i f e : "Within [the cave] sat the f i g u r e of a man, whose gesture and a t t i t u d e warned the father and c h i l d r e n to stand back...." ( I l l , p. 572), -70-In the story "Ethan Brand," another treatment by Hawthorne of an i n d i v i d u a l whose s i n has i s o l a t e d him from mankind, the symbols of the journey, the darkness and the wilderness are again used. The journey of Brand, a man who "had l o s t his hold of the magnetic chain of humanity" (III, p. 495) i s merely suggested. However, two aspects of i t are s i g n i -f i c a n t : f i r s t , his journey across the earth i s symbolic of h i s search f o r the forbidden sin, the quest which had i s o l a t e d him, causing him to become "a cold observer, looking on mankind as the subject of h i s experiment...," ( I l l , p. 495). Second, the journey, l i k e that of Brown and Reuben Bourne i s c i r c u l a r . As Fogle remarks: " I r o n i c a l l y , he travels c i r c l e wise, and finds his end i n h i s beginning. The Sin i s i n himself."*^ Thus the "wild mountainside" which i s the f i n a l destination of his journey becomes a sym-bol of Brand himself. The area around the l i m e - k i l n i s described as follows: Beyond that darksome verge, the f i r e l i g h t glimmered on the s t a t e l y trunks and almost black f o l i a g e of pines, intermixed with the l i g h t e r verdure of sapling oaks, maples, and poplars, while here and there lay the gigantic corpses of dead trees, decaying on.the leaf-strewn s o i l . ( I l l , p. 493) The gloom and loneliness of the area p a r a l l e l s that within Ethan Brand. However, Brand separates himself even from t h i s i s o l a t e d wilderness. Looking i n t o the l i m e - k i l n he c r i e s out: "0 Mother Earth ... who i s o no more my Mother...." ( I l l , p. 496), Indeed, Brand, l i k e the searchers of the Carbuncle and Richard Digby, i s i s o l a t e d to an extraordinary degree. Like them he i s possessed with an excessive pride and l i k e them, his i s o -l a t i o n i s symbolized through images which move beyond the confines of nature. Richard Digby moved into a cave where the things of nature could not l i v e ; the searchers, onto a rocky mountaintop where nature would not follow. Brand ends his l i f e by plunging i n t o the lime k i l n which resembles h i s -71-heart. Speaking of the k i l n , Leo Marx writes: " f i r e c r i p p l e s men and devastates the landscape...."*''' If t h i s i s so, the f i r e i s p a r a l l e l to the heart of Brand, i n which a l l good impulses had been crushed by the pride which has so i s o l a t e d him. Just as the heat of the k i l n has changed the products of nature, so too does Brand's intense search change both h i s own heart and those of h i s subjects. Thus the'lonesome a i d ... intensely thoughtful occupation...." ( I l l , p. 479) of burning lime at the k i l n , p a r a l l e l s the loneliness of Brand's search for the Unpardonable Sin. The darkness pervading these tales of i s o l a t i o n i s appropriately a l -tered to f i t Brand's moral state. The t a l e takes place between sunset and sunrise. To emphasize Brand's unnatural state, Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes the i n e f f e c t u a l attempts of the natural l i g h t of sun and moon to d i s p e l l the gloom. And, when, again, the i r o n door was closed, then reappeared the tender l i g h t of the h a l f - f u l l moon, which v a i n l y strove to trace out the i n d i s t i n c t shapes of the neighboring moun-tains; and, i n the upper sky, there was a f l i t t i n g congrega-t i o n of clouds, s t i l l f a i n t l y tinged with the rosy sunset, though thus f a r down into the v a l l e y the sunshine had vanished long and long ago. What replaces t h i s natural l i g h t i s the l u r i d and unnatural l i g h t from the lime k i l n , which serves only to reveal the desolation of the surrounding area and the e v i l w ithin Brand's heart. Only at the end of the t a l e when the e v i l and i s o l a t e d Brand has been destroyed does the sunlight shine nn the mountainside. The purity of nature and the community elements within i t are now emphasized. The early sunshine was already pouring i t s gold upon the mountaintops, and though the v a l l e y s were s t i l l i n shadow, they smiled c h e e r f u l l y i n the promise of the bright day that was hastening onward. The v i l l a g e , completely shut i n by h i l l s , which swelled away gently about i t , looked as i f i t had rested peacefully i n the hollow of the great hand of Providence. ( I l l , pp. 496-7) -72-As this chapter reveals, Hawthorne uses four major patterns of nature imagery to symbolize the moral conditions of his characters i s o l a t e d be-cause of t h e i r e v i l . The journey i n t o the wilderness i s of two types: f i r s t , as i n the case of Young Goodman Grown and Reuben Bourne, i t i s into the depths of the f o r e s t and symbolizes t h e i r great moral i s o l a t i o n ; second, i t i s beyond the f o r e s t into areas devoid of natural growth. Richard Digby, Ethan Brand and the searchers of the Great Carbuncle a l l suffer from an excessive pride which i s symbolized by the completely desolate destinations of t h e i r journies. The second major symbol i s the overpower-ing darkness or the unnatural l i g h t which shines i n t o these desolate areas. The varying degrees of this physical gloom p a r a l l e l the varying degrees of s p i r i t u a l gloom wi t h i n these characters. The f i n a l major symbol i s the desolation of the wilderness areas themselves. The f o r e s t clearing, the lake beside the Great Carbuncle, the limestone cave, and the area about the lime k i l n are symbolic projections of hearts of Brand , Bourne, the searchers of the Carbuncle, Richard Digby and Ethan Brand. There i s one other pattern of nature symbolism used by Hawthorne. In the following chapter are examined the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e s of the entrance into and the uses of the garden. I t i s seen that i n both "Rap-paccini's Daughter" and The House of the Seven Gables Hawthorne makes extensive use of this symbolic pattern to emphasize a d i f f e r e n t aspect of h i s o f t considered moral problems. -73-'FOOTNOTES 1 Chicago, 1959, p. 113. 2 The Eccentric Design, p. 143. 3 Ibid., p. 144. 4 Fogle, op. c i t . , pp. 15-32, 5 Fogle, op. c i t . , p. 79. 6 Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 79. 7 Op. c i t . , p. 80. 8 "From Whose Bourne No T r a v e l l e r Returns: A Reading of 'Roger Malvin*s B u r i a l ' , " NCF, XVIII (June, 1963), 6. 9 Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 95. 10 Fogle, o p . c i t . , p. 47. 11 "The Machine i n the Garden," NEQ, XXIX (March 1956), 38. Chapter Five THE GARDEN AS SYMBOL In the tales we have examined, Hawthorne has been primarily concerned with the moral i s o l a t i o n of sing l e characters. In two of his major works, "Rappaccini's Daughter," and The House of the Seven Gables, while he i s s t i l l p rimarily concerned with i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , he s h i f t s his em-phasis to a consideration of the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between three or four persons, each of whom, though e s s e n t i a l l y i s o l a t e d , i s placed i n a si t u a t i o n whereby he may end his i s o l a t i o n and achieve a meaningful human re l a t i o n s h i p with another. Indeed, i n these s t o r i e s the natures of the characters are revealed mainly through these contacts with others. With the s h i f t i n emphasis there comes a s h i f t i n the nature images used to symbolize the moral conditions of the characters. whereas Hawthorne had previously used the wilderness as his main symbol he now uses the garden. A key to discovering the reason f o r the change may be found i n two passages, one from The American Notebooks, ore from The House of the Seven Gables. In the former he writes of the orchard surrounding the Old Manse as follows: The trees possess a domestic character; they have l o s t the wild nature of th e i r f o r e s t kindred, and have grown humanized by receiving the care of man as well as by contributing to his wants. (II, p. 21) While i n the l a t t e r work he writes of Phoebe, the youthful heroine: She impregnated [the a i r ] ... not with a wild-flower scent--f o r wildness was no t r a i t of hers,--but with the perfume- of garden-roses, pinks and other blossoms of much sweetness, which nature and man have consented together i n making grow from summer to summer, and from century to century. Such a flower was Phoebe.... ( I l l , p. 174) In the f i r s t passage, the key word i s domestic; what most impresses Haw-thorne about the garden i s i t s usefulness for human beings. This u s e f u l --75-ness forms a d i r e c t contrast to the wildness of the f o r e s t . In the second passage, t h i s useful q u a l i t y i s treated symbolically, as Hawthorne, speak-ing i n a t y p i c a l l y symbolic manner, applies the q u a l i t i e s of the garden to a g i r l who i s noted throughout the novel f o r her domestic a b i l i t y and for her a b i l i t y to meet with and respond to other people. Hawthorne considered the garden as a place of great importance, and devoted many pages of The American Notebooks to discussing i t s v i r t u e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . While obviously the passages are i d e a l i z e d because he wrote them i n the f i r s t year of his marriage--a time when he himself f e l t that he had, for the f i r s t time, come out of h i s almost l i f e l o n g s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n - - t h e y are nonetheless s i g n i f i c a n t . Viewing things symbolically as he did, i t i s probable that the at t i t u d e s toward the garden were i n h i s mind when he formulated the major symbols f o r "Rappaccini's Daughter" and The House of the Seven Gables. Indeed, by comparing the q u a l i t i e s of h i s f i c t i o n a l gardens with those of h i s garden ci-n Concord, and considering the d e t a i l s symbolically we may gain a keener i n s i g h t i n t o the moral q u a l i -t i e s of the characters of the st o r i e s themselves. For Hawthorne, the most pleasing feature of the garden about the Old Manse i s i t s seclusion. Although not i n the midst of the flow of human l i f e , i t i s not completely i s o l a t e d . I t has "near retirement and acces-s i b l e seclusion" and i s "the very spot for the residence of ... a man not estranged from human l i f e , yet enveloped i n the midst of i t with a v e i l woven of mingled gloom and brightness." Hawthorne notes that his wife provides a l l the company he needs: "My wife i s , i n the s t r i c t e s t sense, my sole companion; and I need no other--there i s no vacancy i n my mind, any more than i n my heart."' (AN, p. 174). However, without this one com--76-panion, the Old Manse i s no paradise: " T o - n i g h t — t o - n i g h t — y e s , within an h o u r — t h i s Eden which i s no Eden to a s o l i t a r y Adam, w i l l regain i t s Eve^" (AN, p. 180), More company i s neither necessary nor desired, and, though Hawthorne finds i t pleasant to see a person walking along the d i s -tant lane, he i s happy that "his fi g u r e appears too dim and remote to d i s -turb [his] sense of b l i s s f u l s e c l u s i o f A . ( A N , p. 145), Also important are the benefits of the garden for other people. Haw-thorne imagines that "Adam must have been g a l l e d because he had no neigh-bors with whom he might share his excess f r u i t . I have one advantage over the Primeval Adam, inasmuch as there i s a chance of disposing of my super-fluous f r u i t s among people who inhabit no Paradise of t h e i r own..1' (AN, p. 161)« He i s happy that even insects and other animals reap the b e n e f i t s l o f the produce,, f o r through t h e i r e f f o r t s , human beings are helped. He blesses the work of a honey bee, remarking: ^. I was glad thus to f l i n g a benefaction upon the passing breeze with the certainty that somebody must p r o f i t by i t , and that there would be a l i t t l e more honey i n the world to a l l a y the sourness and bitterness which mankind i s always complaining of. Yes, indeed; my l i f e was the sweeter for that honey. (II, P. 23) Not only must the excess products of the garden be given to others, but the plants themselves must be of a useful nature; mere ornamental value i s not s u f f i c i e n t : Flower-shrubs, i f they w i l l grow old on earth, should, besides t h e i r lovely blossoms, bear some kind of f r u i t that w i l l s a t i s f y earthly appetites, else neither men nor the decorum of nature w i l l deem i t f i t that the moss should gather on them. Apple-trees, on the other hand, grow old without reproach. Let them l i v e as long as they may, and contort themselves into whatever perversity of shape they please, and deck t h e i r withered limbs with a spring-time gaudiness of pink blossoms; s t i l l they are respectable, even i f they a f f o r d us only an apple or two i n a season. These few apples — o r , at a l l events, the remembrance of apples i n by-gone years--are the atonement which u t i l i t a r -ianism inexorably demands for the p r i v i l e g e of lengthened l i f e . ( I I , p. 174) 2 In the garden, t o i l i s both necessary and good. Hawthorne i n h i s garden was aware of the many tasks: k i l l i n g insects, manuring, weeding.^ and cleaning. These, however, he c a l l s "pleasant trouble" ( I I , p. 21) for they are productive. Surveying his garden he r e f l e c t s on the r e s u l t s of his labors. "Gazing [at the squashes he grewj , I f e l t that by my agency something worth l i v i n g f o r had been done. A new substance was born into the world" ( I I , p. 24). He experiences the joy of having produced h i s own food, for "the l i g h t t o i l r e q u i s i t e to c u l t i v a t e a moderately-sized garden imparts such zest to kitchen vegetables as i s never found i n those of the market gardener" ( I I , p. 22). Hawthorne goes so far as to suggest that the garden " r e a d i l y connects i t s e l f with matters of the heart" (II, p. 21). Indeed, Hawthorne p a r a l l e l i t s growth to that of a human family. He remarks how the garden must have brought out the kindness of the former occupant, the minister: "He loved each tree, doubtless, as i f i t had been his own c h i l d " ( I I , p. 21). Although the ambiguities of "Rappaccini's Daughter" have generated considerable c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , scholars generally agree that the o v e r a l l meaning of the story r e l a t e s to the complex intermixture of good and e v i l human beings. Waggoner i n his excellent discussion of the symbolism of the story writes that " t h i s t a l e concerns the o r i g i n , the nature and the 3 cure of man's r a d i c a l l y mixed , h i s good and e v i l being." Roy R. Male writes that "the r e a l subject of the story i s the dual nature of man: a l i t t l e lower than the angels yet close to the brute, p o t e n t i a l l y almost divine yet stained with mortal corruption'!" These c r i t i c s and others, while examining the symbolism of the tale, have not related i t to the pas-sages discussed above. Such an examination, while i t does not a l t e r the established readings of the symbols, does present another perspective which reinforces t h e i r various meanings. A c a r e f u l examination of "Rappaccini 1s Daughter" w i l l reveal that the seclusion (as opposed to isolation),' 1 useful productivity, and true connexion with the heart Hawthorne found i n his own garden are not present:.in t h i s garden, and that t h e i r absence symbolizes the moral i s o l a t i o n of the charac-ters of the story. Hawthorne sets the tone with which the garden i s to be viewed by placing i n Giovanni's mouth early i n the story words which are undoubtedly h i s own: I t was strangely f r i g h t f u l to the young man's imagination to see t h i s a i r of i n s e c u r i t y i n a person c u l t i v a t i n g a garden, that most simple and innocent of human t o i l s , and which had been a l i k e the joy and labor of the unf a l i e n parents of the race. (II, p. 112) Waggoner sees t h i s passage as s i g n i f i c a n t i n u n i v e r s a l i z i n g the theme from mere f a c t to myth. Related to the iiotebook entries examined above, they have another s i g n i f i c a n c e . Although these passages are important as they h i n t at the i n s e c u r i t y of Giovanni's character, they are also s i g n i f i c a n t i n that they ind i c a t e an unnatural q u a l i t y about the garden which i s l a t e r f u l l y revealed. This perverted q u a l i t y of the garden i s symbolic of the perverted q u a l i t y of i t s founder whose unnatural actions i n creating the garden symbolize his unnatural moral q u a l i t i e s . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the garden i s the f a c t that although i t i s surrounded by a busy c i t y , i t i s completely i s o l a t e d . To gain en-trance to i t Giovanni must force h i s way through a long and obscure passage: -79-His withered guide led him along several obscure passages, and f i n a l l y undid a door.... Giovanni stepped forth, and, fo r c i n g himself through the entanglement of a shrub that wreathed i t s t e n d r i l s over the hidden entrance, stood beneath h i s own window i n the open area of Dr. Rappaccini's garden. (II, p. 127) The i s o l a t i o n of the garden and the d i f f i c u l t y of entering i t symbolizes the i s o l a t i o n of Beatrice and the d i f f i c u l t y of meeting her. Baglioni t e l l s Giovanni that " a l l the young men i n Padua are wild about [her], though not ha l f a dozen have ever had the good hap to see her face-" (II, p. 118), And Giovanni, on meeting her, r e a l i z e s that she has had l i t t l e contact with the outside world: Evidently her experience of l i f e had been confined within the l i m i t s of that garden. She now talked about matters as simple as the daylight or summer clouds, and now asked questions i n reference to the c i t y , or Giovanni 1s.distant home, h i s friends, his mother, and h i s s i s t e r s — q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g such seclu-sion, and such lack of f a m i l i a r i t y with modes and forms, that Giovanni responded as i f to an in f a n t . (II, p. 131) The plants of this garden are c a r e f u l l y described by Hawthorne as being- unnatural, poisonous flowers: There was hardly an i n d i v i d u a l shrub which a wanderer, straying by himself through a forest, would not have been s t a r t l e d to f i n d growing wild, as i f an unearthly face had glared at him out of the thicket. Several also would have shocked a d e l i c a t e i n s t i n c t by an appearance of a r t i f i c i a l n e s s i n d i c a t i n g that there had been such commixture, and, as i t were, adultery, of various vegetable species, that the production was no longer of God's making, but the monstrous o f f s p r i n g of man's depraved fancy, glowing with only an e v i l mockery of beauty. They were probably the r e s u l t of experiment, which i n one or two cases had succeeded i n mingling plants i n d i v i d u a l l y lovely i n t o a com-pound possessing the questionable and ominous character that distinguished the whole growth of the garden. (II, p. 128) These flowers, p a r t i c u l a r l y the large purple one which dominates the garden, are, as Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes, monstrous and poisonous. As many c r i t i c s have noted, they symbolize e v i l . This i s partly because they re-present perversion of the natural goodness and beauty of the garden. Haw--80-thorne emphasizes t h i s f a c t by emphasizing a s p e c i f i c d e t a i l of the garden: "One plant had wreathed i t s e l f around a statue of Vertumnus, which was thus quite v e i l e d and shrouded i n a drapery of hanging f o l i a g e . . . . " (II, p. 111). The use of the word shrouded suggests death, here s i g n i f i c a n t l y of a mythological god, Vertumnus, the guardian of f r u i t trees, gardens and vegetables. When, as Fogle has emphasized,^ i t i s remembered that poisonous plants which creep "serpent-like" are shrouding the statue, the d e t a i l becomes ominously important. A l l that i s good about the garden has been destroyed. The symbolic value of these plants becomes obvious when the aims of t h e i r creator are studied. The poisons, which are the products of the shrubs, are not primarily used to contribute to man's wants. Although they are powerful medicines, they are used mainly to f o s t e r h i s purely i n -t e l l e c t u a l and " f a t a l love of science." (II, pi- 143)*The words of Baglioni to Giovanni, regarding Rappaccini's use of h i s medicines, are, though sharply prejudiced, undoubtedly true: He cares i n f i n i t e l y more f o r science than f o r mankind. His patients are i n t e r e s t i n g to him only as subjects f o r some new experiment. The poison from the purple plant i s used by Rappaccinlffor h i s most h o r r i -f ying experiment, that of changing the physical nature of Beatrice. The products of the garden do not a i d the well being of Beatrice, but make of her an i s o l a t e d being who, because of the poisons i n her system^becomes f e a r f u l to a l l other people. Thus i t i s seen that the purple shrub, which Male and Waggoner see as a mixture of good and e v i l , i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a sym-bol of e v i l . The garden, which Beatrice t e l l s us i s "his world," (II, p. 129) and -81-the purple shrub i n i t which i s "the o f f s p r i n g of h i s science, of h i s i n -t e l l e c t , " (II, p. 142) symbolizes i n i t s h o r r i d and perverted nature the e v i l nature of Rappaccini and the i s o l a t i o n which that e v i l causes i n him-s e l f and others.^ Throughout the tale, Rappaccini reveals "a face singu-l a r l y marked with i n t e l l e c t and c u l t i v a t i o n , but which could never, even i n h i s more youthful days, have expressed much warmth of heart." (II, p. 112), Toward his creation which i s so useless f o r ordinary people, he re-veals none of the kindness of heart Hawthorne f e l t was brought out i n gardening. It seemed as i f he was looking into t h e i r inmost nature, making observations i n regard to t h e i r creative essence, and discover-ing why one leaf grew i n t h i s shape and another i n that, and wherefore such and such flowers d i f f e r e d among themselves i n hue and perfume. Nevertheless, i n spite of t h i s deep i n t e l l i -gence on his part, there was no approach to intimacy between himself and these vegetable existences. (II, p. 112) His chief creation, h i s "chief treasure" he approaches with great f e a r . This action symbolizes the manner i n which Rappaccini reacts toward people. Like Ethan Brand, he takes a purely i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t i n them, and, accordingly, also l i k e Brand, becomes i s o l a t e d because, having no warmth of heajt, he loses "his hold on the magnetic chain of humanity." For ex-ample, as he sees Giovanni, he " f i x e d h i s eyes upon [him] with an intent-ness that seemed to bring out whatever was within him worthy of notice. Nevertheless, there was a peculiar quietness i n the look, as i f taking merely a speculative, not a human, i n t e r e s t i n the young man.'1 (II, p. 124), His perversion of h i s i n t e l l e c t and h i s misuse of the garden and of the products he garners symbolize his use of people. Throughout, the greatest of these shrubs, the purple one, i s associated with Beatrice. In her physical appearance, i n her dress, and i n the scent of her breath -82--she resembles the poisonous flower. The likeness goes deeper, Beatrice h e r s e l f c a l l s the plant s i s t e r and says, "at the hour when I f i r s t drew breath, t h i s plant sprang from the s o i l , the o f f s p r i n g of his science, of hi s i n t e l l e c t , while I was but h i s earthly c h i l d " ( I I , p. 142). The poisonous plant became a symbol of what Rappaccini has made of Beatrice. In the de s c r i p t i o n of the plants quoted above, Hawthorne notes that "they were probably the r e s u l t of an experiment, which i n one or two cases had succeeded i n mingling plants i n d i v i d u a l l y lowly into a compound possessing the questionable and ominous character that distinguished the whole growth of the garden" (II, p. 128). Rappaccini had changed her physical nature, transforming her physical beauty into something as powerfully destructive as the shrub. This has i s o l a t e d her. I t was, says Beatrice, "the e f f e c t of my father's f a t a l love of science, which estranged me from a l l society of my kind" ( I I , p. 143). The reasons for Rappaccini's experiment were as heartless and useless as h i s experiments with the garden. He has attempted to s a t i s f y his i n t e l l e c t u a l desires, making her the "daughter of fhis} pride and triumph" ( I I , pp. 146-7). He has sought not to a i d her i n the world but to separate her from the "condition of a weak woman, exposed to a l l e v i l and capable of none" (II, p. 147). There i s one part of the garden which Rappaccini cannot change, and i t symbolizes a corresponding part of Beatrice. That i s the fountain i n the centre of the garden: The water ... 'continued to gush and sparkle into the sunbeams as c h e e r f u l l y as ever. A l i t t l e gurgling sound ascended to the young man's window, and made him f e e l as i f the fountain were an immortal s p i r i t that sung i t s song unceasingly and without heeding the v i c i s s i t u d e s around i t , while one century imbodied i t i n marble and another scattered the garniture on the s o i l . (II, p. I l l ) -83-y As Male, Waggoner and Fogle have a l l stated, t h i s p a r a l l e l s Beatrice's soul, which l i k e the fountain, cannot be altered; as she l i e s dying, she t e l l s Rappaccini that "the e v i l which thou hast s t r i v e n to mingle with my being w i l l pass away l i k e a dream." This pure soul i s described i n terms which l i n k i t to the fountain; Her s p i r i t gushed out before him l i k e a fresh r i l l that was just catching i t s f i r s t glimpse of the sunlight and wonder-ing at the r e f l e c t i o n s of earth and sky .which were flung into i t s bosom. (II, p. 131) This p u r i t y of s p i r i t emerges i n Beatrice's actions. She alone of the characters of the story displays a tender a f f e c t i o n to the garden. "With a l l the tenderness in her manner that was so s t r i k i n g l y expressed in her words, she busied h e r s e l f with such attentions as the plant seemed to re-quire..." (II, p. 114). S i m i l a r l y she alone of the characters reveals a se l f l e s s n e s s i n her actions toward the others. Although she i s the most p h y s i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , she i s also the only one who responds to others from the depths of her heart. She c h e e r f u l l y assumes the task her father fears might be f a t a l to him, and she c a r e f u l l y seeks to prevent Giovanni's im-bibing the poison of the plants. Although admitting her loneliness with-out Giovanni, she s e l f l e s s l y refuses to a c t i v e l y further her love, fearing the consequences for him. " I dreamed only to love thee, and be with thee a l i t t l e time, and so to l e t these pass away, leaving but thine image i n mine heart; f o r , Giovanni, believe i t , though my body be nourished with poison, my s p i r i t i s God's creature, and craves love as i t s d a i l y food. ... But i t was not I Twho poisoned theej . Not for a world of b l i s s would I have done i t " (II, p. 145). At the close of the story, she tests the f a t a l antidote before Giovanni, t e s t i n g i t s r e s u l t s and thus saving h i s l i f e . -84-There are many s i m i l a r i t i e s between "Rappaccini's Daughter," and The  House of the Seven Gables. In both, the garden serves as the meeting point fo r several i s o l a t e d persons; and, i n both, the garden i s completely en-closed by an old building, and contains a fountain arid a wide v a r i e t y of plants. However, i n The House of the Seven Gables the s i t u a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y opposite to that of "Rappaccini's Daughter," f o r here an outsider, Phoebe, enters the house and garden and helps to bring about the end of the i s o l a -t i o n of i t s three occupants. Although c r i t i c s have presented many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the novel, they generally agree that i t s basic theme i s th i s union of the four members of the household. P h i l i p Young writes: One thing that Hawthorne i s surely t r y i n g to say ... i s that the most important thing i n l i f e i s to be engaged i n i t - - t o be a l i v e and functioning i n the thick of i t . to 8 have a place i n the stream and not i n some eddy. A l f r e d J. Levy writes that: "This romance ... belongs to people who re j e c t 9 i s o l a t i o n f o r a normal l i f e i n society." The novel i s , as Hawthorne him-s e l f noted, a happy book, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the garden should as-sume the importance that i t does. Only one c r i t i c has e x p l i c i t l y recognized t h i s . P h i l i p Young writes that: The house i s not the only setting f o r the action of the novel. The Puncheon's have also a garden, and what transpires there can be ignored, but at the cost of misunderstanding the book. However, Young suggests only that the " u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y " of the garden re-f l e c t s the f a c t that humanity i n general "does not know what makes [ i t ] what [ i t i s ] " * * I t would seem that, w r i t i n g a story with a "happy ending," Hawthorne has i n mind his own experiences i n the garden about the Old Manse, for, i n using symbols to describe the overcoming of the age old i s o l a t i o n -85-of the family, he uses descriptions of the garden which strongly resemble passages i n The American Notebooks. In The House of the Seven Gables, the incr e a s i n g l y domestic nature of the garden symbolizes the domestic q u a l i -t i e s of Phoebe, the a c t i v e agent who helps end the generations long iso-l a t i o n of the Maule and Pyncheon f a m i l i e s . In the opening pages, the i s o l a t e d q u a l i t y of the occupants i s sym-boli z e d by the degree to which w i l d nature has adapted i t s e l f to the house "A l i t t l e withdrawn from the l i n e of the street ... i n pride, not modesty ..." ( I l l , p. 24) the house i s now notable for the elm tree which com-p l e t e l y overshadows i t , the flowers strewn i n the m o s s - f i l l e d crevices of the roof, and the weeds festooned about the base of the house. " I t was both sad and sweet to observe how Nature adopted to h e r s e l f t h i s desolate, decaying, gusty, rusty o ld house of the Pyncheon family..." ( I l l , p. 44). Standing before the house, the Pyncheon Elm casts i t s gloom over the hous and "seemed to make i t a part of nature" ( I I I , p. 43). The great branches of the tree are classe.'d'as "some inscrutable s e c l u s i o n . . . " ( I l l , p. 342). The tree, termed one of the antiquites of the area, being one hundred year old, symbolizes the long lineage of the family which, l i k e the tree, casts i t s gloom upon the members of the family, a c t i n g as one of the causes of 13 t h e i r i s o l a t i o n . The moss growing i n the dampness "seemed pledges of f a m i l i a r i t y and sisterhood with Nature..." ( I l l , p. 337). The descrip-tions of the weeds and of A l i c e ' s posies gives the best i n d i c a t i o n of the i s o l a t i o n within the house. The house i s dominated by weeds: " E s p e c i a l l y i n the angles of the b u i l d i n g , [there wasj an enormous f e r t i l i t y of burdoc with leaves, i t i s hardly an exaggeration to say, two or three feet long" (I I I , p. 43). The legend of A l i c e ' s posies further indicates i s o l a t i o n , -86-for hers i s a useless garden i n the a i r , composed^ of " a r i s t o c r a t i c flowers" (III, p. 112) which feed upon the decay of the house and which, l i k e she did, exist> above the common l e v e l . They symbolize the i s o l a t i n g pride of the f a m i l i e s . Nor must we f a i l to d i r e c t the reader's eye to a crop, not of weeds, but flower-shrubs, which were growing a l o f t i n the a i r , not a great way from the chimney, i n the nook between two of the gables. They were c a l l e d A l i c e ' s Posies. The t r a d i t i o n was, that a c e r t a i n A l i c e Pyncheon had flung up the seeds, i n sport, and that the dust of the street and the decay of the roof gradually formed a kind of s o i l f o r them, out of which they grew, when A l i c e had long been i n her grave. ( I l l , p. 144) Within the house, the occupants are revealed as extremely i s o l a t e d . A member of a family whose i s o l a t i o n i s seen i n i t s chief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - -"an absurd delusion of family importance" ( H I , p. 33) and a "native i n -a p p l i c a b i l i t y ... to any useful purpose,"1 (III, p. 53) --Hepzibah has, u n t i l shortly before the novel opens, l i v e d completely alone. Hawthorne comments on the harmful e f f e c t s of her i s o l a t i o n , suggesting that, by en-forced seclusion from society, she i s dead to human r e l a t i o n s h i p s : In her g r i e f and wounded pride, Hepzibah had spent her l i f e i n d i vesting herself of friends; she had w i l f u l l y cast off the support which God has ordained h i s creatures to need from one another.... ( I l l , p. 290) C l i f f o r d , as Holgrave notes, " i s another dead and long-buried person...." ( I l l , p. 258) who, through circumstance and temperament, has l i v e d a lonely l i f e apart from society. Not only has he spent many years i n prison, but he has entered the world u n f i t f o r i t s stern duties: "Such a man should have nothing to do with sorrow; nothing with s t r i f e , nothing with the martyr-dom which, i n an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of shapes, awaits those who have the heart and w i l l , and conscience, to f i g h t a b a t t l e with the world " ( H I , P. 134). -87-Like Hepzibah and C l i f f o r d , Holgrave, the other occupant of the old house, comes from a family t r a d i t i o n a l l y noted for i t s f e e l i n g of separa-t i o n from the rest of the community. The o r i g i n a l founder of the family, Matthew Maule, had b u i l t on what was to become the s i t e of the Pyncheon home, a house that was "somewhat too remote from what was then the centre of the village.," ( I l l , p. 19), Holgrave, as a Maule, continues this i s o -l a t i o n . L i v i n g alone i n his section of the House of the Seven Gables, he i s early seen as a young man of lawless nature who has no reverance f o r human i n s t i t u t i o n s . By his own admission "responsible neither to public opinion nor to i n d i v i d u a l s , " (III, p. 212) he must reveals his i s o l a t i o n i n h i s lack of warmth for others. The symbolic importance of the garden i n revealing the overcoming of the i s o l a t i o n i s seen i n the f a c t that the characters, p a r t i c u l a r l y C l i f f o r d and Hepzibah, f a i l i n t h e i r attempts toopen intercourse with the v i l l a g e . The r e s u l t s of the attempt to e s t a b l i s h a cent shop, of C l i f f o r d ' s obser-vations from the arched window, of the f l i g h t on the r a i l r o a d , and of the contacts with J a f f r e y Pyncheon a l l reveal how t o t a l l y inadequate they are to meet the world at large. Only i n the garden do they f i n d the seclusion, but yet company they need. Their i n a b i l i t y to meet the outside world i s perhaps revealed i n the fear with which they avoid Judge Pyncheon. His destructive q u a l i t y i s also emphasized by the f a c t that, throughout the novel he presents a d i r e c t con-t r a s t to Phoebe, who, also an outsider, i s the agent who ends the i s o l a -t i o n . He suggests for C l i f f o r d a destructive contact with the outside world, while she suggests f o r him pleasant seclusion i n the garden. Where-as the l a t t e r , as her name suggests, i s f u l l of brightness and sunlight, -88-th e former always radiates an h y p o c r i t i c a l and a r t i f i c i a l sunlight. When he meets Phoebe, he becomes angered at her r e f u s a l to k i s s him and his sun-shine disappears as he speaks " i n a voice as deep as a thunder-growl, and with a frown as black as the cloud whence i t issues." ( I l l , p. 155) t Although they f a i l to break t h e i r i s o l a t i o n by attempting to achieve a r e l a t i o n s h i p with the outside world, C l i f f o r d and Hepzibah achieve greater success i n the garden. This i s because the garden, secluded and domestic, symbolizes the type of care they need. Phoebe i s unlike both Beatrice and Giovanni, the two characters i n "Rappaccini 1s Daughter" to whom she can be most obviously compared. Although an outsider, l i k e Giovanni, there i s a close connexion between Phoebe and the garden, f o r i t i s she who, as a r e l a t i v e outsider not s t i f l e d by the influences of the i s o l a t e d house, exercises her domestic a b i l i t i e s to improve the garden and to encourage the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s to meet i n i t . Unlike Beatrice, her connexion with the garden i s an active one. She influences the garden with her domestic q u a l i t i e s while Beatrice i s influenced by the e v i l q u a l i t i e s of her father's garden. I t i s Phoebe's domestic charm, symbolized by that of the garden which she clo s e l y resembles that helps C l i f f o r d , Hepzibah and Holgrave to form with her a pleasant and secluded l i t t l e group, the existence of which removes the t e r r i b l e and b l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s of t h e i r past i s o l a t i o n . Hawthorne symbolizes the differe n c e between the influences of the quiet domestic nature and that of the outside world by the use of the pear and elm trees r e s p e c t i v e l y . The elm tree, which, as e a r l i e r noted, seemed to make the i s o l a t e d house a part of wi l d nature, impeded the progress of the sunlight, causing gloom to f a l l i n the store, the place i n which -89-Hepzibah had unsuccessfully essayed to enter into contact with the outside world. The d i r e c t opposite i s the case with the pear-tree, which i s , by i t s very nature, domestic and useful to man. I t f r e e l y allows the sun to shine from the garden into the kitchen, both areas which, because of Phoebe's presence, have acquired warm and f r i e n d l y domestic atmospheres. "The early sunshine--as fresh as that which peeped into Eve's bower while she and Adam sat at breakfast there--came twinkling through the branches of the pear-tree...." ( I l l , p. 1 2 6 - - i t a l i c s mine.). I t i s i n the garden, symbolic of the secluded, yet domestic, that they w i l l f i n d t h e i r greatest happiness. The contrast between Phoebe and her i s o l a t e d r e l a t i v e s i s introduced symbolically: "You at once recognized her to be ... widely i n contrast ... with everything about her. The sordid and ugly luxuriance of gigantic weeds that grew i n the angle of the house ... none of these things belonged to her sphere." ( I l l , p. 90). Unlike her i s o l a t e d r e l a t i v e s , she has not attempted to withdraw from human contact, f o r she comes from "a r u r a l part of New England, -where the old fashions and fe e l i n g s of r e l a t i o n s h i p are s t i l l p a r t i a l l y kept up." ( I l l , p. 91), C l i f f o r d , Judge Pyncheon, Uncle Venner and Holgrave a l l recognize the truth that Hepzibah ut t e r s : "But these things [domesticity, etc.] must have come to you with your mother's blood. I never knew a Pyncheon that had any turn f o r them." ( I l l , p. 100), The difference i s heightened when she i s compared to the only other young woman mentioned i n the novel, the legendary A l i c e Pyncheon. whereas A l i c e was proud, fond of ethereal pleasures, and very a r i s t o c r a t i c ; Phoebe i s humble, an eager worker and of democratic tendencies. Phoebe's great g i f t i s one which Hepzibah could never acquire: domestic a b i l i t y . Likened to -90-"a verse of household poetry," (III, p. 96) and praised f o r "the g i f t of p r a c t i c a l arrangement," (III, p. 94) she ably performs household chores, cooking well and so neatly rearranging her bedroom as to cause i t to lose i t s desolate q u a l i t y . She throws "a kindly and hospitable smile over the apartment." ( H I , p. 94), Whereas A l i c e ' s proud i s o l a t i o n i s represented by the a r i s t o c r a t i c flowers, throughout the novel Phoebe's domestic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are cl o s e l y r e l a t e d to those of the garden. She i s described i n images of the garden; various facets of her character p a r a l l e l objects of the garden; and she her s e l f finds that her love of a c t i v i t y overflows into the garden, making i t pleasant and joyous f o r her to work there. I t i s extremely s i g n i f i c a n t that, i n discussing her domestic a c t i v i t y , Hawthorne likens her to a gar-den, rather than a wild, flower: "She impregnated [the a i r ] not with a wild flower scent,--for wildness was no t r a i t of hers,--but with the per-fume of garden-roses, pinks, and other blossoms of much sweetness, which nature and man have consented together i n making grow from summer to summer, and from century to century. Such a flower was Phoebe...." ( H I , p. 174), Household and garden images are often employed side by side, to create the picture of her busy labor about the house: "As graceful as a b i r d ... as pleasant about the house as a gleam of sunshine f a l l i n g on the f l o o r through a shadow of twinkling leaves, or as a ray of f i r e l i g h t that dances on the wall while evening i s drawing nigh." ( H I , p. 104)„ Just as Beatrice's nature was symbolized by objects i n the garden, so too various aspects of Phoebe's character f i n d p a r a l l e l s i n domestic objects of the garden. Her busy labor about the house i s l i k e the a c t i v i t y of the -91-bees about the squash blossoms, " p l y i n g t h e i r golden labor" ( I I I , p. 112). Phoebe, as she sings about the house i s often likened to a b i r d , and i n t h i s , she resembles the "conjugal robins i n the pear-tree" of the garden who "were making themselves exceedingly busy and happy i n the dark i n -timacy of i t s boughs" ( I I I , p. 112). She, l i k e the robins, i s not engaged in i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y , but i n a c t i v i t y which benefits others. In her name and i n her actions, the g i r l i s likened to a ray of sunshine, "Even as a ray of sunshine f a l l . i n t o what dismal place i t may, instantaneously creates for i t s e l f a propriety i n being there, so did i t seem altogether f i t that the g i r l should be standing at the threshold" ( I I I , pp. 90-1). In this she i s not u n l i k e the sunshine which shines i n the garden; "Tine eye of Heaven seemed to look down into i t pleasantly..." (IT.I, p. 111). Phoebe is often likened to f r u i t blossoms. She i s " l i g h t and blommy" ( I I I , p. 102) and "her l i t t l e womanly ways [ were] budding out of her l i k e blossoms on a young f r u i t - t r e e . . . " ( I l l , p. 172). She i s l i k e the domestic pear tree of the garden, one which had, undoubtedly, "received the care of man ... [and contributed] to his wants" ( I I , p. 22). Like Beatrice, Phoebe h e r s e l f feels a great a t t r a c t i o n toward the garden; however, t h i s a t t r a c t i o n i s an index of her s o c i a l a b i l i t y rather than her i s o l a t i o n . A farm g i r l , whose ide a l of l i f e i s that " f o r t h i s short l i f e of ours, one would l i k e a house and a moderate garden-spot of one's own," ( I I I , p. 188) she awakens, a f t e r her f i r s t night i n the House of the Seven Gables, to f i n d that her room overlooks the garden. Her reac-t i o n to i t i s favorable, for she "found an unexpected charm i n t h i s l i t t l e nook of grass, and f o l i a g e , and a r i s t o c r a t i c flowers, and plebeian vege-ta b l e s " (III, p. I l l ) and she immediately suggests to Hepzibah that by -92-working i n the garden she may f i n d refreshing r e l i e f from the dreariness of the House. Her a b i l i t y i n the garden i s immediately revealed i n her successful c a l l i n g of the chickens. So great becomes her attachment to the garden, that i t i s with reluctance that she leaves i t to return temp-o r a r i l y to the countryside. "She peeped from the window into the garden, and f e l t h e r s e l f more r e g r e t f u l at leaving t h i s spot of black earth, v i t i a t e d with such an age-long growth of weeds, than j o y f u l at the idea of again scenting her pine forests and fresh c l o v e r - f ie lds." ( H I , p. 262) Phoebe's a c t i v i t y i n the garden accords with the ideals Hawthorne expressed i n The  American Notebooks, and symbolizes the a b i l i t y with which she works with other people. Phoebe's cheerfulness and domestic q u a l i t i e s soon help to overcome the i s o l a t i o n hovering about the House of the Seven Gables. The grime and sordidness of the House of the Seven Gables seemed to have .vanished since her appearance there; and the gnawing tooth of dryrot was stayed among the old timbers of i t s skeleton frame; the dust had ceased to s e t t l e down so densely, from t'he antique c e i l i n g s , upon the f l o o r s and f u r n i t u r e of the rooms below,--or, at any rate, there was a l i t t l e housewife, as l i g h t - f o o t e d as the breeze that sweeps a garden walk, g l i d i n g hither and thither to brush i t away. ( I l l , p. 166) Phoebe's domestic influence extends i t s e l f to the garden, overcoming the wildness and rendering i t a pleasant place f o r the secluded gatherings of the group. Although, upon her a r r i v a l , Phoebe notices Holgrave's p a r t i a l c u l t i v a t i o n of the area, what most s t r i k e s her eye i s the lawlessness about. "The black, r i c h s o i l had fed i t s e l f with the decay of a long period of time; such as f a l l e n leaves, the petals of flowers, and the stalks and seed-vessels of vagrant and lawless plants, more useful a f t e r t h e i r death -93-than ever while f l a u n t i n g i n the sun." ( I l l , p. 110). She also sees the chaotic condition of the fountain and, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the ruinous aspect of the one-time gathering place, the old summer house. Shortly a f t e r Phoebe's appearance, a f t e r she and Holgrave have agreed to work the garden together, the garden loses i t s wild nature, and becomes more domesticated. With people working together, i t f l o u r i s h e s and be-comes a hive of a c t i v i t y . Uncle Venner and Holgrave f i x the ruinous ar-bour. Summer squashes, of which Hawthorne had said i n his American Note- books that "except a pumpkin, there i s no vegetable production that imparts such an idea of warmth and comfort to the beholder," (AN, p. 153) f l o u r i s h , and the s c a r l e t runner beans, which Holgrave had found dormant and deserted i n a garret of the House, grow into a "splended row of bean-vines, clamber-ing, early, to the f u l l height of the poles, and arraying them, from top to bottom, i n a s p i r a l profusion of red-blossoms.'/ ( I l l , p. 179), Bees and hummingbirds f l o c k to the garden, there to b u s i l y move about the flowers gathering honey. F. 0. Matthiessen has noted that the chickens i n the garden symbolize the PyncheonS"- themselves. Thus, the change i n the somewhat emaciated hens symbolizes that of the family. In responding to Phoebe, they overcome the r e t i r e d q u a l i t i e s which had lead Holgrave to compare them to the Pyncheon family, and f r e e l y run about the garden laying eggs, and, now that t h e i r talk "had such a domestic tone," (III, p. 182) they r e f l e c t the sociable q u a l i t i e s which, Hawthorne had suggested i n The American Notebooks, a l l hens have. With Phoebe's departure, the chickens hide i n t h e i r coop and refuse to lay. The Pyncheon family responds to Phoebe i n the same manner, coming out of t h e i r i s o l a t i o n as she exerts her influence, and r e t i r i n g into -94-i.t as she departs. Like the garden she has influenced, they f l o u r i s h . However, when Phoebe departs, the domestic q u a l i t i e s of the garden d i s -appear, and the family s e t t l e s again i n t o i t s i s o l a t i o n . The arbour i s damp, deserted and bestrewn with leaves, the fountain has overflowed and the weeds set about reclaiming the garden: The garden, with i t s muddy walks, and the c h i l l , dripping f o l i a g e of i t s summer-house, was an image to be shuddered at. Nothing f l o u r i s h e d i n the cold, moist, p i t i l e s s atmos-phere, d r i f t i n g with the brackish scud of sea-breezes, ex-cept the moss along the j o i n t s of the shingle-roof, and the great bunch of weeds, that had l a t e l y been s u f f e r i n g from drought, i n the angle between the two front gables. ( I l l , p. 266) Because Phoebe's domestic q u a l i t i e s have reached the garden, giving i t the q u a l i t i e s Hawthorne f e l t a garden should have, Phoebe's e f f e c t on the garden symbolizes the e f f e c t she has on C l i f f o r d . As the garden im-proves, C l i f f o r d p r a c t i c a l l y r loses his i s o l a t i o n . Phoebe's influence on C l i f f o r d , Hepzibah and Holgrave i s remarkable. As Uncle Venner and Holgrave both remark, her presence i s necessary to prevent C l i f f o r d ' s i s o -l a t i o n from becoming destructive: "I should not wonder i f he were to crumble away, some morning, a f t e r you are gone, and nothing be.seen of him more, jexcept a heap of d u s t i " (III, p. 258). Phoebe's e f f e c t on them i s symbolized by the e f f e c t the garden has upon them. She has brought C l i f f o r d i n t o the garden and he s i g n i f i c a n t l y sees her influence i n terms of the garden. When, upon his f i r s t a r r i v a l , he sees Phoebe, he remarks: "That young g i r l ' s face, how cheerful, how blooming'.--a flower with the dew on i t , and sunbeams i n the dewdrops! Ah! this must be a l l a dream! A dream! A dream! But i t has quite hidden the four stone walls'." ( I l l , p. 136) and he often sees a likeness between Phoebe and the garden flowers: , -95-"He was fond of s i t t i n g with one i n h i s hand, i n t e n t l y observing i t , and looking from i t s petals into Phoebe's face, as i f the garden flower were the s i s t e r of the household maiden" (I I I , p. 178). I t i s by taking him out into the garden that Phoebe i s best able to help him overcome h i s i s o l a t i o n . "They [ p l a n t s ] had the earth-smell i n them and contributed to give him health and substance" ( I I I , p. 186). What he most appreciates i n the flowers that surround him i s t h e i r sense of l i f e of "character and i n d i v i d u a l i t y " ( I I I , p. 178). He also enjoys the v i t a l i t y of the b u s i l y working bees. Just how important Phoebe, sym-bo l i z e d by the garden, i s to him i s revealed i n the f a c t that i t i s here that he recaptures the only true i n d i v i d u a l i t y and personality he ever had, that of h i s childhood. The perfect rose Phoebe picks i n the garden reminds him of h i s youth, and i n i t s perfection i s symbolic of the inno-cence of childhood. "Ah!--let me see!--let me hold i t ! ... Thank you! This has done me good. I remember how I used to p r i z e t h i s flower,--long ago, I suppose, very long ago'.--or was i t only yesterday? It makes me f e e l young again!" ( I l l , p. 137). The s c a r l e t runner beans which Holgrave had planted also r e c a l l the delights of h i s childhood: " I t had always been thus with C l i f f o r d when the humming-birds came,—always, from his babyhood,--and ... his delight i n them had been one of the e a r l i e s t tokens by which he showed his love for b e a u t i f u l things" ( I I I , p. 180). The garden i s also important i n that, for C l i f f o r d , i t i s here that he can enjoy the secluded society he needs. Hawthorne had remarked that " i t was now far too l a t e i n C l i f f o r d ' s l i f e for the good opinion of society to be worth the trouble and anguish of a formal v i n d i c a t i o n . What he needed was the love of a very few; not the admiration or even the respect, of the -96-unknown many," (III, p. 370) and, i n the arbor, with Phoebe, Venner, Hol-grave and Hepzibah, he achieves that love. These gatherings i n the gar-den bring out the highest i n C l i f f o r d : C l i f f o r d , as the company partook of t h e i r l i t t l e banquet, grew to be the gayest of them a l l . . . . Indeed, what with the pleasant summer evening, and the sympathy of t h i s l i t t l e c i r c l e of not unkindly souls, i t was perhaps natural that a character so susceptible as C l i f f o r d ' s should become animated, and show i t s e l f r e a d i l y responsive to what was said around him. ... He had bean as cheerful, no doubt, while alone with Phoebe, but never with such tokens of acute, though p a r t i a l i n t e l l i -gence. ( I l l , p. 190) Even Hepzibah i s drawn out of h e r s e l f i n the pleasant company of the gar-den, where she "exhibited a not ungraceful h o s p i t a l i t y , " ( H I , p. 192) f I t i s i n the garden that Holgrave, too, overcomes his i s o l a t i o n . Phoebe by working with him i n the garden brings out h i s latent good q u a l i -t i e s . Whereas his early work i n the garden had been undertaken so that he might coldly f u l f i l l his desire to examine the Pyncheons, i t i s here that h i s f i r s t p o s i t i v e a c t i o n i n overcoming his s o l i t a r y l i f e occurs. The influence of Phoebe on him i s seen by the f a c t that on f i r s t meeting her, he suggests that they work together i n the garden. This represents the overcoming of h i s i s o l a t i o n and, i n t h e i r continued meetings i n the garden, he f a l l s i n love, and gives up his lawless nature, noting the domestic influences of Phoebe: "You crossed the threshold; and hope, warmth, and joy came i n with y o u l " (III, p. 362). As was the case with his use of the other nature symbols, Hawthorne here makes use of conventional and t r a d i t i o n a l symbols. As c r i t i c s have suggested, and as Hawthorne himself notes, his gardens are associated with the garden of Eden. But to t h i s established t r a d i t i o n Hawthorne -97-brings h i s personal a t t i t u d e s and experiences and c a r e f u l l y shapes each garden to r e f l e c t the peculiar circumstances of each story. Thus, a l -though both Rappaccini's garden and the Pyncheon garden are i s o l a t e d , contain d i s t i n c t i v e vegetation and a ce n t r a l fountain, each i s varied to r e f l e c t the unique moral conditions of the characters l i v i n g i n i t . FOOTNOTES Many of Hawthorne*s f i c t i o n a l characters r e f l e c t these ideas. For example, the clergyman in "The New England V i l l a g e " makes sure, that "The i n v a l i d s .of h i s parish might count upon the f i r s t mess of peas and the f i r s t place of strawberries from his garden." (Complete Short Stories (New York 1959), p. 585.) 2 "The New England V i l l a g e , " also notes the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of labor, "I do not think Eve was as happy i n her paradise as I was i n mine, for her f r u i t s grew spontaneously, but mine were produced by the united e f f o r t s of head and hands, and gave exercise to a l l my powers." (CSS, p. 588) 3 Waggoner, op, c i t . p. 113, 4 "Dual Aspects of E v i l i n 'Rappaccini*s Daughter,'" PMLA, LXIX (March, 1954), 100. 5 Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 104. 6 Fogle, op. c i t . , p. 96. 7 Male i n h i s analysis writes that: "the shrub i l l u m i n a t e s " the action which takes place i n the garden. I t i s d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people . ..." (op. c i t . , 99) Male treats the shrub purely as a symbol. I f i t i s taken l i t e r a l l y as an object i n a garden, the reactions of the various characters to i t as such also assume symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e . 8 P h i l i p Young, "Introduction,"House of the Seven Gables (New York, 1957), p. x v i i i . 9 A l f r e d J. Levy, "The House of the Seven Gables: The R e l i g i o n of Love," Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n ^ XVI (December, 1961), 189. 10 Young, op. c i t . , p. xx. 11 Ib i d . , p. xxiv. 12 A l f r e d Levy makes b r i e f mention of t h i s point i n his a r t i c l e r eferred to above. 13 Many c r i t i c s have seen the Pyncheon Elm as a p o s i t i v e symbol i n the novel, Fogle writes that "Pleasanter i s the Pyncheon Elm which ... i s a con-necting l i n k with nature, bringing the house, into i t s mercif u l fellow-ship." (Op. c i t . p. 135) Waggoner l i n k s the Elm to the p o s i t i v e c i r c l e imagery he finds i n the novel. Elmer A. Havens, noting Hawthorne's c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s j says that "Hawthorne's use of the "golden branch" i s ... a p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h and suggestive a l l u s i o n implying the future greatness of the new race Phoebe and Holgrave are to produce...." (MLN, LXXIV (January, 1959), 21) However, i f as t h i s chapter suggests, the elm i s a symbol of i s o l a t i o n , i t i s the autumnal death of the tree that i s symbolically important. That i s , i t i s the overcoming cf the i s o l a t i o n that brings true wealth, just as i t i s the seasonal death of the tree which turns i t s leaves to' gold. Chapter Six CONCLUSION The preceding chapters have examined Hawthorne's use of nature sym-bolism i n his consideration of moral i s o l a t i o n . I t was found that three major groups of symbols were used to r e f l e c t three aspects of moral i s o -l a t i o n . The d e s c r i p t i o n of many characters i n forms of sunshine and flowers revealed a harmony with nature which i n turn symbolized moral i n -nocence; the journey into the wilderness and the gloom and desolation found there p a r a l l e l e d the moral e v i l within the respective characters; the garden and i t s u t i l i t y r e f l e c t e d the degree to which several charac-ters meeting together were able to overcome t h e i r moral i s o l a t i o n . It was found that each of the symbolic patterns was often drawn from t r a d i -t i o n a l sources, but that Hawthorne adapted these to his own unique re-quirements . On the basis of these findings i t may be useful to attempt a re-d e f i n i t i o n of Hawthorne's p o s i t i o n as a symbolic w r i t e r . The common d i s -t i n c t i o n between allegory and symbolism i s c l e a r l y exemplified i n these comments by E. M. Halliday who, i n discussing Hemingway, generalizes that: In successful allegory, the story on the primary l e v e l i s dominated by the story on the secondary l e v e l , and i f the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning i s to be kept clear, i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c counterpart must pay f o r i t by surrending r e a l i s t i c proba-b i l i t y i n one way or another. A s t r a i n i s imposed on the whole narrative mechanism, for mere connotative symbolism w i l l not do to carry the all e g o r y : there must be a denota-t i v e equation, part f o r part, between symbols and things symbolized i n order to i d e n t i f y the actors and action on the a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l . The use of such an a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n with i t s r i g i d separation of the two terms and i t s relegation of allegory to a d i s t i n c t l y i n f e r i o r posi-t i o n i s inadequate f o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Hawthorne's use of nature. -100-Although h i s s t o r i e s on a narrative l e v e l are dominated by the secondary l e v e l , there i s not "a denotative equation, part f or part, between symbol and things symbolized i n order to i d e n t i f y the actors and actions.on the a l l e g o r i c a l love." For example, Young Goodman Brown's f a n t a s t i c adven-tures have s i g n i f i c a n c e only as they reveal a moral adventure; but the symbols themselves contain a richness of complexity and ambiguity which enhance and expand, rather than a denotative meaning. However, Hawthorne's own statements on h i s inveterate love of allegory mark him as an a l l e g o r i s t . Thus, i f he i s to be so c l a s s i f i e d , a d e f i n i -t i o n must be found which accounts for h i s r i c h complexity and l i f t s r a l l e -gory from i t s i n f e r i o r , almost s u b - l i t e r a r y p o s i t i o n . Edwin Honig, i n his d e t a i l e d study, Dark Conceit: The Making o f Allegory formulates such a d e f i n i t i o n . He writes "We f i n d the a l l e g o r i c a l q u a l i t y i n a twice-told t a l e w ritten i n r h e t o r i c a l , or f i g u r a t i v e language and expressing a v i t a l 2 b e l i e f . " Each of the s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s Honig a t t r i b u t e s to allegory Hawthorne's works contain. For example, Hawthorne's s t o r i e s are twice-t o l d i n more than t i t l e and republication, for, as Honig s t i p u l a t e s "the twice-told aspect of the t a l e indicates that some venerated or proverbial 3 antecedent (old) story has become a pattern f o r another (the new) story." As a study of several c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e s reveal, Hawthorne drew much of the material f or h i s s t o r i e s from t r a d i t i o n a l New England sources. For example, "Young Goodman Brown" makes use of passages from Cotton Mather's Wonders  of the I n v i s i b l e World; "The Great Carbuncle" centres around an old legend of the White Mountains; and "The Maypole of Merry Mount" expands upon a famous incident of c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . Other s t o r i e s draw from even older sources: "Rappaccini's Daughter" elaborates upon a passage from S i r Thomas -101-Browne, and The Marble Faun treats anew the story of the F a l l of Man. Hawthorne's works are, as well, constructed on a "complete, over a l l design shaped by a p a r t i c u l a r , often h i s t o r i c a l l y determined use of tropes. Hawthorne's nature symbols fopm basic patterns, the journey forming the major s t r u c t u r a l device of these patterns. Moreover, as Fogle notes, "Hawthorne's symbols are drawn from the major stream of Western thought.""' From Puritan times to those of Conrad and Faulkner, the journey into the wilderness has symbolized a moral journey of the s e l f . W. H. Auden writes i n The Enchafed Flood, a study i n Romantic iconography, that "the C h r i s t i a n conception of time as a divine creation ... made the journey or pilgrimage a natural symbol f o r the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . " ^ Hawthorne possesses the f i n a l major qu a l i t y Honig a t t r i b u t e s to a l l e -gory: "the management of a dominant view--the i d e a l . The i d e a l i s , var-iously or together, the theme of the work, the cen t r a l concept adapted from a system of b e l i e f s ... and which the whole work 'proves' or f u l f i l l s . ' In each of his st o r i e s , Hawthorne i s e s s e n t i a l l y treating various aspects of one cen t r a l theme, the moral and psychological state of the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l . His view i s neither s u p e r f i c i a l nor simple, f o r his keen and penetrating insight reveals the ambiguities and contradictions of l i f e . The human heart i s not t o t a l l y black, but every man can f i n d some shade of moral darkness i n him. Conversely, no man can hope to remain morally i n -nocent; yet when he does f a l l , some goodness remains i n him. If , from this discussion, i t can be assumed that Hawthorne i s ah a l -l e g o r i s t , there can be found i n Honig's discussion remarks which may cast l i g h t on the nature of Hawthorne's a r t i s t i c success: -102-An allegory succeeds when the writer's recreation of the ante-cedent story, subject, or reference i s masterful enough to provide his work with a wholly new authority; such an achieve-ment draws deeply on his a b i l i t y to project an i d e a l by mani-f o l d analogies i n the larger design of the whole work. The . subject matter already stands, i n whatever form, as true or f a c t u a l by common acceptance. When the subject i s taken over by the w r i t e r — p a r t i c u l a r l y the a l l e g o r i c a l writer, the author of a twice-told t a l e - - i t bears a c e r t a i n general but muted authority, mythical, r e l i g i o u s , h i s t o r i c a l , or philosophical, depending on the range of i t s acceptance. To come a l i v e , the subject must be recreated, completely remade, by the w r i t e r . To remake the subject the author creates a new structure, and, ine v i t a b l y , a new meaning. To the extent that the subject i s thus remade, i t exists f o r the f i r s t time and has an author-Q i t y independent of that of the antecedent subject. 0 The p r i o r existence of Hawthorne's materials and of h i s nature symbols has been stated. His subjects are completely remade, for his works have a v i t a l i t y of t h e i r own which enables them to stand independently beside and often to completely overshadow t h e i r o r i g i n a l s . "Young Goodman Brown," "The Maypole of Merry Mount" and "Rappaccini's Daughter" are f a r more widely read than are the works of Mather, Bradford and Brown. Perhaps this success i s largely due to the a l l e g o r i c a l method employed by Hawthorne. Conversely, one of the major reasons for the r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e of The Marble  Faun l i e s i n Hawthorne's improper handling of symbols. Within t h i s l a t e r framework of allegory, the nature images and pat-terns of imagery discussed i n the preceeding chapters assume an increased s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the understanding of Hawthorne's a r t . They become the symbols by which what Honig c a l l s the twice t o l d t a l e and the dominant idea are fused together. To put i t another way, they form a v i t a l func-t i o n i n a method of l i t e r a r y creation which has enabled Hawthorne to re-shape t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s and ideas i n t o works of f i c t i o n which have i n -sured him a p o s i t i o n of l a s t i n g greatness i n the hi s t o r y of American L i t e r a t u r e . -103-FOOTNOTES * E. M. Halliday, "Hemingway's Ambiguity: Symbolism and Irony," Ernest  Hemingway: Critiques of Four Major Novels, ed. Carlos Baker (New York, 1962), p. 64. 2 Evanston, 1959, p. 12. 3 Loc. c i t . 4 Ibid., p. 14. 5 T Loc. c i t . 6 New York, 1950, p. 9. ^ Honig, op. c i t . , p. 14. g Ibid., p. 13. -104-BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The American Notebooks. Ed. t y Randall Stewart, New Haven, 1932. . . The Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. 15 v o l s . Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1891. Secondary Sources i Books Baker, Carlos, ed. Ernest Hemingway, Critiques of Four Major Novels. New York, 1962. Bewley, Marius. The Eccentric Design. London, 1959. Bradley, Sculley et a l eds. The Scarlet L e t t e r : Text, Sources and  C r i t i c i s m . New York, 1961. F i e d l e r , L e s l i e . Love and Death i n the American Novel. New York, 1960. Fogle, Richard H. Hawthorne's F i c t i o n ; The Light and the Dark. Norman,. Okla., 1952. Hoffman, Daniel G. Form and Fable i n American F i c t i o n . New York, 1961. Honig, Edwin. Dark Conceit; The Making of A l l e g o r y . Evanston, I l l i n o i s , 1959. Levin, Harry. The Power of Blackness: Hawthorne, Poe, M e l v i l l e . New York, 1958. Lewis, R. W. B. The American Adam. Chicago, 1955. Male, Roy R., J r . Hawthorne's Tragic V i s i o n . Austin, 1957. Matthiessen, F. 0. American Renaissance. New York, 1941. Schnieder, Herbert. The Puritan Mind. New York, 1930. Stein, William Bysshe. Hawthorne's Faust: A Study of the Devil Arche-type . G a i n e s v i l l e , F l a . , 1953. Waggoner, Hyatt H. Hawthorne, A C r i t i c a l Study. Cambridge, Mass., 1955. Wilson, Edmund, ed. The Shock of Recognition. New York, 1943. Winters, Ivor. In Defense of Reason. Denver, 1947. -105-i i P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s > Donohue, Agnes. "From Whose Bourne No Tr a v e l l e r Returns: a Reading of 'Roger Malvin's B u r i a l ' , " Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , XVIII (June, 1963), 1-17. Levy, A l f r e d J. "The House, of the Seven Gables: The Re l i g i o n of Love," Nineteenth Century F i c t i o n , XVI (December, 1961), 175-184. Ei s i n g e r , Chester. "Pearl and the Puritan Heritage," College English, XII (March, 1951), 319-27. Havens, Elmer A. "The Golden Branch as Symbol i n The House of the Seven  Gables," Modern Language Notes, LXXIV (January, 1959), 20-22. Hiemert, Alan. "Puritanism, the Wilderness, and the F r o n t i e r , " New  England Quarterly, XXVI (September, 1953), 374-81. Leavis, Q. D. "Hawthorne as Poet," Sewanee Review, LIX (Spring and Summer, 1951), 17 9-205; 426-58. Marx, Leo. "The.Machine i n the Garden," New England Quarterly, XXIV (March, 1956), 27-42. 

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