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Nature symbolism and moral isolation in Hawthorne Stott, Jon Copeland 1964

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NATURE SYMBOLISM AND MORAL ISOLATION IN HAWTHORNE by JON COPELAND STOTT B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1964  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  mission  for reference  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  be  advanced  of  and  written  Department  of  study.  the  for  I further  Head o f my  1  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  H Columbia,  University  agree for  that  of  of  or  c o p y i n g or  shall  per-  scholarly  Department  that  f i n a n c i a l gain  fulfilment  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  this thesis  permission,,  h. TV Q L I £  the  Library  I t i s understood  this thesis  w i t h o u t my  by  in partial  degree at  the  c o p y i n g of  granted  representatives.  cation  this thesis  Columbia, I agree that  available  his  presenting  not  be  by publi-  allowed  Abstract  The of and  purpose of t h i s  thesis i s to present a systematic  the major groups of n a t u r e symbols used t a l e s t r e a t i n g moral i s o l a t i o n .  examination  by Hawthorne i n h i s n o v e l s  S i n c e Poe's and M e l v i l l e ' s e a r l y r e -  marks on Hawthorne's l o v e of a l l e g o r y and h i s power of b l a c k n e s s , many critics  have s t u d i e d the e x t e n s i v e use of symbolism and the d e t a i l e d a n a l -  y s i s of human n a t u r e i n h i s works.  While  critics  have n o t i g n o r e d the  numerous examples of n a t u r e symbolism c o n t a i n e d i n the works, none has made a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of Hawthorne's s y s t e m a t i c p a t t e r n s .  Such  an a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of the a l r e a d y acknowledged  depth  and genius of h i s symbolic method and shows t h a t h i s use of n a t u r e symb o l i s m , d i f f e r i n g from t h a t of both h i s p u r i t a n a n c e s t o r s and transcendentalist  contemporaries,  serves as f u r t h e r evidence  of h i s g r e a t  artistic  originality. In all  Chapter  Two, an examination  the n a t u r e symbols a r e used,  i t y w i t h which Hawthorne develops is  the c h i e f  of The S c a r l e t L e t t e r ,  i n which n e a r l y  r e v e a l s the g r e a t r i c h n e s s and complexthem.  The journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s  symbol, g i v i n g n o t only a s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y t o s e v e r a l v i t a l  c h a p t e r s i n the c e n t r e of the n o v e l , but a l s o r e v e a l i n g the e x t e n t of the moral i s o l a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s . o t h e r p a t t e r n s emerge: sical  the i n t e r p l a y  n a t u r e of the w i l d e r n e s s i t s e l f ,  c h a r a c t e r s to n a t u r e symbolise  W i t h i n t h i s major p a t t e r n , s e v e r a l  of s u n l i g h t and darkness,  the phy-  and the a t t i t u d e s of the v a r i o u s  the moral natures of Hester,  P e a r l , and  Dimmesdale. The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s examine the s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of each set  of symbols to a s p e c i f i c a s p e c t of moral i s o l a t i o n .  Moral  innocence  and attempts and  to r e g a i n or r e t a i n i t a r e symbolized by sunshine,  the harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p  flowers  of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h nature; moral  evil  and g u i l t by the journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s , the w i l d n a t u r e of the forest itself,  and darkness.  A t h i r d group of symbols r e l a t i n g to the  garden r e f l e c t another a s p e c t of i s o l a t i o n , that of the i s o l a t e d dual attempting  to e n t e r i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s .  indivi-  W i t h i n each of these  t h r e e symbolic p a t t e r n s , the i n d i v i d u a l symbols a r e m o d i f i e d to r e f l e c t the unique moral  c o n d i t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r s .  Hawthorne's use of n a t u r e imagery  takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e when  c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to h i s a l l e g o r i c a l method.  I t becomes an i n t e g r a l  p a r t of the method by which he was a b l e to r e t e l l  o l d m a t e r i a l and common  themes i n such a way as to g i v e each a new  l i f e and meaning.  It is a  p a r t of the method which has helped to e s t a b l i s h h i s p o s i t i o n as a major American a u t h o r .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish t o thank Mr. P. A, Quartermain and the members of my  thesis  committee f o r the a s s i s t a n c e they have g i v e n me i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of this  thesis.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  Page  One  Introduction  Two  Nature Symbolism  Three  Nature as Symbol of Innocence  33  Four  Nature as Symbol of M o r a l E v i l  54  Five  The Garden as Symbol  74  Six  Conclusion  99  Bibliography  1  i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r  11  Chapter  One  INTRODUCTION  Two he was  b a s i c and acknowledged f a c t s about Hawthorne's w r i t i n g s a r e  concerned  p r i m a r i l y w i t h human s i n and  w r i t i n g makes e x t e n s i v e use of symbols.  isolation,  and  that  that h i s  S i n c e Poe'sand M e l v i l l e ' s  early  remarks on Hawthorne's l o v e of a l l e g o r y and h i s power of b l a c k n e s s , many c r i t i c s have s t u d i e d the e x t e n s i v e use of symbolism and ses of human n a t u r e i n h i s works.  While  the d e t a i l e d a n a l y -  c r i t i c s have not i g n o r e d the numer-  ous examples of n a t u r e symbolism c o n t a i n e d i n the works, none has made a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of Hawthorne's s y s t e m a t i c use of such i n h i s treatment  of s i n and moral  isolation.  symbolism  An a n a l y s i s of h i s n a t u r e  symbols r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of the a l r e a d y acknowledged and genius of h i s symbolic method and bolism, d i f f e r i n g  shows t h a t h i s use of n a t u r e sym-  from t h a t of both h i s p u r i t a n a n c e s t o r s and h i s t r a n s -  c e n d e n t a l i s t contemporaries, tic  depth  s e r v e s as f u r t h e r evidence of h i s g r e a t a r t i s -  originality. Before p r o c e e d i n g to an examination  i t w i l l be u s e f u l toward  of Hawthorne's n a t u r e  to c o n s i d e r the major a s p e c t s of and  symbolism,  critical  viewpoints  h i s symbolic methods and h i s view of human n a t u r e i n order to p l a c e  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i n the g e n e r a l framework of Hawthorne's w r i t i n g and criticism. and  Since h i s own  Hawthorne  remarks on h i s " i n v e t e r a t e l o v e of a l l e g o r y "  Poe's on "the s t r a i n of a l l e g o r y -which completely overwhelms the g r e a t e r  number of h i s subjects"''", dozens of c r i t i c s have c a r e f u l l y examined Hawthorne's symbolic method.  A g l a n c e a t any  of h i s works, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the American  2 Notebooks and Davidson's t r u t h of M a t t h i e s s e n ' s  e d i t i o n of Dr. Grimshawe's S e c r e t  statement  will  reveal  that Hawthorne had a "predetermined  the  habit  -2-  of l o o k i n g f o r emblems everywhere...."  3  Modern c r i t i c a l  o p i n i o n may be  p l a c e d between the two extremes of Ivor Winters and Q. D. L e a v i s .  Winters 4  emphatically w h i l e Mrs. separate  Leavis writes  paraphrasable  evocative.""' those  s t a t e s t h a t "Hawthorne i s ... e s s e n t i a l l y an a l l e g o r i s t . . . . symbol i s the t h i n g i t s e l f w i t h no  meaning as i n an a l l e g o r y :  Perhaps the most a c c e p t a b l e  the language i s d i r e c t l y  explanations  of the problem a r e  g i v e n by the foremost of the r e c e n t Hawthorne c r i t i c s ,  F o g l e and Hyatt best tales e x i s t as  that "the  those  Howe Waggoner. ... i n a realm  Harter  Waggoner suggests t h a t "most of Hawthorne's somewhere between symbolism and a l l e g o r y ,  terms a r e used t o d a y . F o g l e  interesting i n itself,  Richard  writes  that "the symbol must be  n o t merely as i t p o i n t s t o something e l s e .  This  c r u c i a l requirement, which d i v i d e s mere a l l e g o r y from l i t e r a t u r e ,  Hawthorne  fulfills.  the com-  plexity  Hawthorne's symbols have the c l a r i t y  of l i f e . " ^  of a l l e g o r y , w i t h  One may then form the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that, on the one  hand, the symbols do n o t simply  g i v e a t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y t o the a u t h o r ' s  a b s t r a c t i d e a s , o r that, on the other hand, they do n o t e x i s t in  themselves, b u t t h a t they  human concerns of h i s  embody w i t h i n them Hawthorne's v i s i o n , the  fiction.  Marius Bewley suggests a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Hawthorne's method of w r i t i n g and h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . b o l i c method p r e s e n t s  independently  This c r i t i c  shows how the sym-  the e s s e n t i a l concern of the works:  of man as he g r a p p l e s w i t h  symbolic  the i n n e r  reality  the t e n s i o n s e x i s t i n g between h i m s e l f and s o c i e t y :  [Hawthorne] p r o j e c t s the i n n e r moral or p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a v a i l outward i n t o a w o r l d of e x t e r n a l symbols where i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e c o n t i n u e s to e x i s t f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n a p a r t from the protagoni s t i n whom i t had i t s concern. The tendency of Hawthorne's a r t i s always outward; i t shows a h a b i t of endowing the hidden  -3-  and the p r i v a t e w i t h a h i g h degree of p u b l i c i t y , and of r e v e a l ing not the unique d i f f e r e n c e s i n men's s o u l s but the hidden samenesses.^ This inner r e a l i t y , long f a s c i n a t e d c r i t i c s .  the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of Hawthorne's works, has James, who  wrote  t h a t "the f i n e  thing i n  Haw-  9 thorne i s t h a t he cared f o r the deeper p s y c h o l o g y , "  r e c o g n i z e d what  later  c r i t i c s have expanded upon, the concern i n Hawthorne's f i c t i o n f o r the isolated  individual.  T h i s q u o t a t i o n from M a t t h i e s s e n s American R e n a i s 1  sance perhaps b e s t e x p l a i n s t h i s concern: To escape from such moods [of discouragement] Hawthorne d i d not have the r e c o u r s e of Emerson, who c o u l d say good-bye to the 'proud w o r l d , ' and go home to f i n d h i m s e l f i n s o l i t u d e . Hawthorne c o u l d never f e e l t h a t a man became more human i n t h i s way. I n the f i r s t number of h i s S p e c t a t o r , ... he had a n t i c i p a t e d , w i t h amazing completeness, h i s mature p o s i t i o n . He s t a t e d , i n a b r i e f essay 'On S o l i t u d e ' ...: 'Man i s n a t u r a l l y a s o c i a b l e b e i n g ... I t i s only i n s o c i e t y t h a t the f u l l energy of h i s mind i s aroused. Perhaps l i f e may pass more t r a n q u i l l y , e s t r a n g e d from the p u r s u i t s and vexa t i o n s of the m u l t i t u d e , but a l l the h u r r y and w h i r l of p a s s i o n i s p r e f e r a b l e to the c o l d calmness of i n d i f f e r e n c e . ' In s p i t e of h i s l a s t i n g shyness, Hawthorne never saw any reason to a l t e r t h i s b e l i e f . He d i d not share Thoreau's unswerving c o n f i d e n c e that man c o u l d f i n d h i m s e l f by s t u d y i n g nature, indeed, i n no r e s p e c t i s h i s d i f f e r e n c e more fundamental than i n t h i s . For society.  Hawthorne, the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m o r a l l y s e p a r a t e d from A l t h o u g h H. B. Parkes statement t h a t Hawthorne "came to r e g a r d  i s o l a t i o n as almost the r o o t of a l l e v i l , " * * it  overexaggerated,  does g i v e a h i n t a t one a s p e c t of the n a t u r e of moral i s o l a t i o n i n  Hawthorne's works. that e v i l it  i s certainly  I f Parkes' statement i s r e v e r s e d and a l t e r e d  to read  i s the r o o t of much i s o l a t i o n , we a r e c l o s e r to the t r u t h , f o r  i s the e v i l  of h i s c h a r a c t e r s which causes t h e i r g r e a t i s o l a t i o n .  most p e n e t r a t i n g of Hawthorne's s t o r i e s ,  those c o n t a i n i n g  The  the "power of  blackness"  which M e l v i l l e so admired, a r e concerned  d u a l s whose s i n s have i s o l a t e d Ethan  or have " l o s t  Hester  Prynne,  [ t h e i r ] h o l d of the magnetic c h a i n of humanity."  s i n s o f Hawthorne's c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n r e s u l t from a w i l l f u l  t i o n from  society.  Thus the p r i d e of Hester,  them, i n v a r i o u s ways, from j o i n i n g ever,  child.  Brand, and Brown prevents  Because c h i l d r e n  The  writes:  a child, Donatell  category.  symbolic  human concerns  fall  i n t e r e s t e d i n the moral n a t u r e of the  P e a r l , Abraham, and, a l t h o u g h he i s n o t l i t e r a l l y  into this  How-  F o r Hawthorne, the m o r a l l y  or amoral i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o i s o l a t e d .  i n t o t h i s category, he i s extremely  dissocia-  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities.  t h e r e i s another a s p e c t of i s o l a t i o n .  uninitiated  fit  society.  indivi-  Brand, and Young Goodman Brown a r e but a few of those who have  broken, The  them m o r a l l y from  w i t h those  f u n c t i o n of n a t u r e i n Hawthorne's treatment  of these  i s h i n t e d a t , b u t n o t expanded upon by Harry L e v i n , who  "he has an eye f o r the moral p i c t u r e s q u e , r a t h e r than f o r p u r e l y 13  local color...." graphers,  Hawthorne's long walks i n nature,  o f t e n noted by b i o -  and sometimes r e c o r d e d i n h i s American Notebooks, a r e t h e r e f o r e  i n t e r e s t i n g as they r e l a t e t o h i s f i c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s .  Obviously not  the m i n u t e l y a c c u r a t e r e c o r d e r and o b s e r v e r t h a t Thoreau was, he g e n e r a l l y saw  the w i l d e r n e s s as i t r e l a t e d  to human b e i n g s .  F o r example,  travelling  by stage coach he remarks: How v e r y d e s o l a t e looks a forest,when seen t h i s way, -- as i f , should you v e n t u r e one step w i t h i n i t s w i l d , t a n g l e d , many stammed, and dark-shadowed verge, you would i n e v i t a b l y be lost f o r e v e r . ^ However, he d i d n o t f e e l  that nature d i r e c t l y  i n f l u e n c e d human b e i n g s .  Toward man, the p r o c e s s e s of n a t u r e were completely unsympathetic  and  -5-  impersonal: her n e t . why,  "Nothing  comes amiss to Nature -- a l l i s f i s h t h a t comes to  I f t h e r e be a l i v i n g form of p e r f e c t beauty i n s t i n c t w i t h s o u l --  - i t i s v e r y w e l l , and  as l i e f  s u i t s Nature w e l l enough.  have t h a t same, b e a u t i f u l ,  meat of and  to  she would  just  s o u l - i l l u m i n e d body to make worm's  to manure the e a r t h w i t h . "  marks are d i r e c t l y symbolic;  But  (AN,  p. 118)  Most o f t e n h i s r e -  the h a b i t of l o o k i n g f o r emblems leads  use h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of n a t u r e as symbols of moral concerns.  him  For  ex-  ample he w r i t e s : I t i s a marvel whence t h i s p e r f e c t flower d e r i v e s i t s l o v e l i n e s s and perfume, s p r i n g i n g , as i t does, from the b l a c k mud over which the r i v e r s l e e p s , and where l u r k the s l i m y e e l and s p e c k l e d f r o g and the m u d - t u r t l e whom c o n t i n u a l washings cannot c l e a n s e . I t i s the v e r y same b l a c k mud out of which the y e l l o w l i l y sucks i t s obscene l i f e and noisome odor. Thus we see, too, i n the w o r l d t h a t some persons ass i m i l a t e o n l y what i s u g l y and e v i l from the same moral c i r cumstances which supply good and b e a u t i f i e d r e s u l t s -- the f r a g r a n c e of c e l e s t i a l f l o w e r s -- to the d a i l y l i f e of o t h e r s . (The O l d Manse) What i s i n t e r e s t i n g and of  nature  s i g n i f i c a n t about Hawthorne's d e s c r i p t i o n s  i s h i s awareness of a d u a l i t y i n n a t u r e .  and harsh,  g e n t l e and v i o l e n t ,  grim and b e n e f i c e n t .  I t i s both  beautiful  For example, i n  "The  P r o p h e t i c P i c t u r e s , " Hawthorne speaks of the d u a l aspects of n a t u r e , " s t e r n or l o v e l y n a t u r e , ing  peacefulness..."^  [ofj  the p e r i l s of the f o r e s t or i t s overwhelm-  ( I , p. 208).  T h i s b e i n g so, the v a l u e of  as a symbol f o r the human h e a r t i s even more apparent. itself,  of  nature  F u l l of v a r i e t y  n a t u r e can serve as an e x c e l l e n t symbol f o r the complexity  of  human nature which so f a s c i n a t e d Hawthorne. Any  d i s c u s s i o n of Hawthorne's works which c o n s i d e r s h i s use of  as i t r e l a t e s to moral innocence  and  g u i l t , must take i n t o account  nature the  -6-  s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s work and the ideas of P u r i t a n i s m and T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m .  While  i t i s n o t the purpose of t h i s paper to ac-  cess Hawthorne's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h those two f o r c e s , a b r i e f  examination  of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l h e l p to focus a t t e n t i o n on the o r i g i n a l i t y o f Hawthorne's own w r i t i n g .  Concerned, l i k e the P u r i t a n s , w i t h  the moral e v i l o f man, and, l i k e the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s , w i t h the s e l f reliant  i n d i v i d u a l , Hawthorne, l i k e both o f these groups, made e x t e n s i v e  use o f n a t u r e i n d e v e l o p i n g h i s i d e a s .  But the r e s u l t s , n e i t h e r t r a n s -  c e n d e n t a l nor p u r i t a n , r e v e a l the unique  greatness of h i s treatment o f  the human h e a r t . Herbert  Schnieder's  o f t quoted  remark t h a t Hawthorne "saw the e m p i r i 16  c a l t r u t h behind  the C a l v i n i s t  a t t i t u d e toward P u r i t a n i s m . all  symbols,"  Although,  c o n t a i n s the key t o Hawthorne's  l i k e the P u r i t a n s , he r e a l i z e d t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t a i n e d moral e v i l w i t h i n them, and a l t h o u g h he made  e x t e n s i v e use o f the w i l d e r n e s s t o symbolize w i t h the s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s  t h a t i d e a , he d i d not agree  they h e l d r e g a r d i n g the f o r e s t s .  tans, s e e i n g c o n s c i o u s p a r a l l e l s between themselves I s r a e l , maintained  and the C h i l d r e n of  t h a t t h e w i l d e r n e s s was a t e s t i n g ground.  f o r e s t , Satan and h i s c o h o r t s met t o l u r e the l o n e l y wayfarer C h r i s t i a n community i n t o deep s i n .  The P u r i -  Heimert has suggested  Deep i n the from the  t h a t the image  of the garden p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e f o r the P u r i t a n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g f o r them the f a c t  t h a t they must overcome the w i l d e r n e s s and e s t a b l i s h a  s o c i e t y i n God's name. C o t t o n Mather's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f New England, l a t e i n the [ l 7 t h X c e n t u r y as "the almost o n l y Garden, which our L o r d Jesus has i n the v a s t c o n t i n e n t o f America" shows how pers i s t e n t l y the P u r i t a n s r e f u s e d t o i d e n t i f y . t h e garden which  -7-  they sought or a t t a i n e d w i t h a mere untamed and unchurched p a r a d i s e , however l u s h , f e r t i l e , or r o l l i n g i t s a c r e s might be. 1 7  The P u r i t a n b e l i e f s and  natural  law w i l l  t h a t "adherence of the unregenerate man to n a t u r e  l e a d to a l i f e  of r i o t and c o n f u s i o n  [and that]  such  18 a man i s a c r e a t u r e  of i n s t i n c t s . . . . "  ^ere n o t d i r e c t l y h e l d by Hawthorne.  Concerned as he was w i t h the human heart, symbol.  Impersonal and amoral i t s e l f ,  n a t u r e served  e s s e n t i a l l y as a  i t was used t o r e f l e c t  the moral  s t a t e s of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . Particularly  i n "Young Goodman Brown," Hawthorne w h i l e a c c e p t i n g the  moral t r u t h s , r e f u t e s the s u p e r s t i t i o n s by p r e s e n t i n g duced i n the mind of Brown. witch  sabbath a r e p l a c e d  of the s t o r y , M i s t r e s s  In The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , the r e f e r e n c e s  i n the mouth of the most u n b e l i e v e a b l e  Hibbins.  dreams and madmen's r e v e r i e s . " wanderer would be captured  character  ( I , p. 228) and a r e " f a n t a s t i c  Hawthorne b e l i e v e d ,  by demons,  n o t t h a t the l o n e l y  but that, as S c h n i e d e r ' s  statement  the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s u f f e r e d the danger of i n c r e a s i n g the  moral e v i l which was h i s by v i r t u e of h i s human n a t u r e .  While t h i s  bears d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the C a l v i n i s t i c i d e a of i n n a t e it  to the  Elsewhere Hawthorne notes t h a t such be-  l i e f s a r e the r e s u l t of "gray t r a d i t i o n "  suggests,  them as a dream pro-  idea  depravity,  i s Hawthorne's own, one he o f t e n g i v e s , added f o r c e by d e s c r i b i n g i n  terms of n a t u r e imagery which a c h i e v e s some of i t s power through i t s echoes of p u r i t a n t h e o l o g y . hewn out of the w i l d e r n e s s  S i m i l a r l y the i d e a of the garden as an area by the p'uritan s o c i e t y bears some s i m i l a r i t y  to Hawthorne's i d e a of the garden.  However,  the garden was n o t f o r Haw-  thorne the product of the chosen people overcoming the w i l d e r n e s s  i n God's  -8-  name, but a symbol, based  p a r t l y on h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , o f the human  heart i n r e l a t i o n to others. nature i s mainly psychological  Whereas, f o r the p u r i t a n s , the concern w i t h  t h e o l o g i c a l , f o r . Hawthorne, i t i s symbolic of moral and  conditions.  Although,  i n "The C e l e s t i a l R a i l r o a d , " and other works, Hawthorne  openly condemns T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m , of T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m . and  p a r t s of h i s w r i t i n g s resemble  In h i s concern w i t h  i n h i s use o f n a t u r e to symbolize  i s d e a l i n g w i t h matters ample, passages  the s e l f - r e l i a n t  aspects  individual  the innocence o f the i n d i v i d u a l , he  examined as w e l l by Emerson and Thoreau.  F o r ex-  from " F o o t p r i n t s on the Sea-Shore" and "The O l d Manse" i n  t h e i r emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o be a c h i e v e d by s o l i t u d e i n n a t u r e , appear t o p a r a l l e l passages  i n Emerson's Nature and Thoreau's Walden.  More-  over, the c a r e f r e e s y l v a n e x i s t e n c e e x p e r i e n c e d by D o n a t e l l o , and, t o a degree by P e a r l , would c e r t a i n l y have appealed as Emerson wrote and Thoreau  t o the two men.  But, where-  p r a c t i c e d t h a t men must c a s t o f f the oppres-  s i v e customs and t r a d i t i o n s and journey i n t o n a t u r e where, surrounded by symbols which r e f l e c t  the u n i t y o f e x i s t e n c e , they may a s s e r t t h e i r  self-  r e l i a n c e and u l t i m a t e l y become the t r a n s p a r e n t e y e b a l l , Hawthorne, though i n the two sketches mentioned above, b e l i e v i n g a b r i e f or country r e f r e s h i n g , b a s i c a l l y f e l t to man.  In h i s personal b e l i e f s  that extended  t r i p t o the seashore  s o l i t u d e was dangerous  (as opposed to h i s f i c t i o n a l ) the v a l u e  of n a t u r e f o r him was n o t i n i t s a s s i s t i n g a person's but i n h e l p i n g him t o a c q u i r e s u f f i c i e n t  total  self-reliance,  i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o oppose b e i n g  c o m p l e t e l y crushed by laws and customs which a r e , n o n e t h e l e s s , n e c e s s a r y i f man i s to remain a s o c i a l a n i m a l . able to l i v e  i n society.  Contact w i t h n a t u r e made man b e t t e r  -9-  More b a s i c a l l y as regards h i s f i c t i o n , Hawthorne, who a p p r e c i a t e d the beauty o f n a t u r e as much as d i d the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s , d i f f e r e d  from  them i n t h a t he was i n t e r e s t e d not i n f o r m u l a t i n g a p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r e but i n u s i n g n a t u r e s y m b o l i c a l l y symbols do n o t , as perhaps  i n p r e s e n t i n g human n a t u r e .  His nature  Emerson's do, r e v e a l the u n i t y of a l l e x i s t e n c e  i n the O v e r s o u l , but g i v e a m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l l y i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t i e s of the human h e a r t . The  f o l l o w i n g chapters examine these n a t u r e symbols as they a r e  a p p l i e d t o the f i c t i o n a l works.  An examination  o f The S c a r l e t  Letter,  i n which n e a r l y a l l the n a t u r e symbols a r e used, r e v e a l s the great r i c h n e s s and c o m p l e x i t y w i t h which Hawthorne develops atic  examination  classifications, treatment  them.  A  system-  o f the symbols r e v e a l s t h e i r d i v i s i o n i n t o t h r e e major each one r e f l e c t i n g a major aspect i n Hawthorne's  o f moral  isolation.  Moral  innocence and attempts  to r e g a i n  or r e t a i n i t a r e symbolized by sunshine, f l o w e r s and the harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h nature; moral  e v i l and g u i l t by the  journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s , the w i l d n a t u r e of the f o r e s t and  darkness.  A third  group of symbols r e l a t i n g to the garden  another a s p e c t o f i s o l a t i o n ,  that o f the i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l  to e n t e r i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s .  reflects  attempting  W i t h i n each o f these t h r e e symbolic  p a t t e r n s , the i n d i v i d u a l symbols a r e m o d i f i e d t o r e f l e c t moral  itself,  c o n d i t i o n s o f the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r s .  the unique  -10FOOTNOTES  •I  Edmund W i l s o n , ed., The Shock o f R e c o g n i t i o n (New York, 1943), I , p. 159. 2 Cambridge, Mass., 1954. 3 F. 0. M a t t h i e s s e n , The American Renaissance (London, 1941), p. 244. 4 Ivor W i n t e r s , In Defense of Reason (Denver, 1947), p. 157. 5 Q. D. L e a v i s , "Hawthorne as Poet," Sewanee Review, L I X ( S p r i n g and Summer, 1951), P a r t . I , 182. 6 Hyatt Howe Waggoner, Hawthorne (Cambridge, Mass., 1955), p. 58. 7 R i c h a r d H a r t e r F o g l e , Hawthorne's F i c t i o n ; The L i g h t and The Dark (Norman, O k l a . , 1952), p. 15. By mere a l l e g o r y F o g l e appears to mean a simple and obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p between an ideaand the p h y s i c a l substance used f i c t i o n a l l y t o c l o t h e i t . 8 Marius Bewley, The E c c e n t r i c Design (London, 1959), p. 141. 9 Henry James, "Hawthorne," Shock o f R e c o g n i t i o n , p. 476. 10 M a t t h i e s s e n , op. c i t . , p. 238. 11 Quoted from Q. D. L e a v i s , "Hawthorne as Poet," 180. 12 Herman M e l v i l l e , "Hawthorne and h i s Mosses," Shock o f R e c o g n i t i o n , pp. 148-9. 13 Harry L e v i n , The Power of B l a c k n e s s (New York, 1948), p. 58. 14 N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, The American Notebooks, ed. by R a n d a l l Stewart (New Haven, 1932), p. 131. ( A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from The American N o t e b o o k s - - a b b r e v i a t e d AN--are documented i n t e r n a l l y . ) 15 A l l q u o t a t i o n s from Hawthorne's f i c t i o n a r e taken from The Works of N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, 15 v o l s , (Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1891), and a r e documented i n t e r n a l l y . 16 The P u r i t a n Mind (New York, 1930), p. 262. 17 A l a n Hiemert, " P u r i t a n i s m , the W i l d e r n e s s and the F r o n t i e r , " NEQ, XXVI (September,.1953), 378-9. 18 C h e s t e r E i s i n g e r , " P e a r l and the P u r i t a n H e r i t a g e , " C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , X I I (March 1951), 324.  Chapter  Two  NATURE SYMBOLISM IN THE  In The S c a r l e t L e t t e r , mon  SCARLET LETTER  Hawthorne burrows i n t o the depths  nature; indeed so much so that one  critic,  I v o r Winters,  of our comattributes  the success of the work to the f a c t  that i t i s a p e r f e c t a l l e g o r y of three  major moral  the r e p e n t a n t s i n n e r , the h a l f - r e p e n -  types of human b e i n g s :  t a n t s i n n e r , and than t h i s , any  the unrepentant  sinner.''"  Undoubtedly  the n o v e l i s more  but i t does examine w i t h a r i c h n e s s and complexity g r e a t e r than  to be found  ted Hawthorne.  i n h i s o t h e r works, the major moral I t i s , as Bewley s t a t e s ,  types which so i n t e r e s -  "a s u b t l e e x p l o r a t i o n of moral  2 i s o l a t i o n i n America." excellent  A c c o r d i n g l y , The  S c a r l e t L e t t e r serves as an  s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r an examination  In t h i s work, he develops  of Hawthorne's n a t u r e  symbolism.  to the f u l l e s t n e a r l y a l l the symbols used i n  h i s o t h e r works, c a r e f u l l y and d e l i c a t e l y  o r d e r i n g them so that they  vividly  r e v e a l the c o n d i t i o n s of the human h e a r t s which form the c e n t r e of the story. may  The n a t u r e symbolism i s of three k i n d s :  the s c e n i c background  serve as a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of the i n n e r s t a t e s of the c h a r a c t e r s ;  the c h a r a c t e r s ' a t t i t u d e s to n a t u r e may n a t u r e s may  r e v e a l themselves;  and  their  be d e s c r i b e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n terms of e x t e r n a l n a t u r e .  The most s i g n i f i c a n t , v i v i d and complex n a t u r e symbol i n The  Scarlet  L e t t e r i s the f o r e s t scene which covers f o u r c h a p t e r s i n the second of the n o v e l . Nature  moral  Hawthorne had r e f e r r e d  of the f o r e s t , never  higher t r u t h . . . . "  subjugated by human law,  (V, p. 243)  f o r emblems, had used  to the f o r e s t as " t h a t w i l d , nor i l l u m i n e d  half heathen by  and a p p l y i n g t o i t h i s method of l o o k i n g  i t to symbolize  the moral  H e s t e r and Dimmesdale, but a l s o of P e a r l ,  i s o l a t i o n not only of  t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s who,  though  -12-  closely  l i n k e d together, possess c o n s i d e r a b l y  A b r i e f survey of a few scene w i l l as  natures.  of the many a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s f o r e s t  serve as a u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n  they a r e used by  differing  Hawthorne.  Frederick  to an  examination of  the  symbols  I. Carpenter, a r g u i n g t h a t  the  n o v e l i s a f a i l u r e because Hawthorne confused a Romantic a t t i t u d e to m o r a l i t y w i t h a T r a n s c e n d e n t a l one,  writes  of the  f o r e s t scene  that:  T h i s scene between Hester and her l o v e r i n the f o r e s t a l s o suggests the r o o t of Hawthorne's c o n f u s i o n . To the t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i s t s , the " f o r e s t , " or " w i l d e r n e s s , " or " u n c i v i l i z e d Nature" was the symbolic abode of e v i l - - t h e v e r y negat i o n of moral law. But to the romantics, w i l d n a t u r e had become the v e r y symbol of freedom. In t h i s scene, Hawthorne e x p l i c i t l y 'condemned Hester f o r her w i l d n e s s - - f or "breathing the w i l d , f r e e atmosphere of an unredeemed, u n c h r i s t i a n i z e d , lawless region." And a g a i n he damned her "sympathy" w i t h " t h a t w i l d , heathen Nature of the f o r e s t , never subjugated by human law, nor i l l u m i n e d by h i g h e r t r u t h . Such an  explanation,  while i t reveals  a t t i t u d e s of thought of which Haw-  thorne must c e r t a i n l y have been aware, tends to move the the more b a s i c and  more u n i v e r s a l concerns which i n f l u e n c e d  the fundamental problems of the mind and Lewis' a s s e r t i o n choice....  emphasis from  that  [ t h a t ] The  the f o r e s t "was f o r e s t was  h e a r t of man.  Hawthorne,  Thus R. W.  B.  the ambiguous s e t t i n g of moral  the p i v o t i n Hawthorne's graad! r e c u r r i n g  4 pattern  of escape and  return,"  comes c l o s e r to the  truth.  however, i s more than a mere s e t t i n g f o r moral c h o i c e . remark i s even c l o s e r to the rather bride:  the a l l e g o r i c a l the  truth:  "the  'dark, i n s c r u t a b l e  loses himself  s e l v a oscura i s a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of the f i e d as a p p l i e d  to The  f o r e s t ' seems  s e l v a oscura of Dante than Natty Bumppo's  i n which he  Scarlet Letter.  forever.""'  self,  First,  the  forest,  Leslie Fiedler's  symbol of t h a t moral w i l d e r n e s s i n t o which man  the byways of s i n , and  The  living  wanders a l o n g I f Dante's  term must be  the f o r e s t i s not  quali-  completely  -13-  dark; i t r e v e a l s both the e v i l of  Pearl.  Second,  of Hester and Dimmesdale and  the innocence  i t i s not obscure as i t r e l a t e s to the g u i l t of Hester  4  and Dimmesdale, f o r both a r e k e e n l y aware of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e moral ditions.  D a n i e l G. Hoffman and R a n d a l l Stewart c a p t u r e the essence of the  n a t u r e symbolism the  con-  of the f o r e s t scene; both showing  t h a t Hawthorne takes  amoral n a t u r e and uses i t f o r h i s complex symbolic purposes.  emphasizes  the complete a m o r a l i t y of nature f o r Hawthorne:  Hoffman  "For Hawthorne,  Nature i s amoral but not m a l i g n .  W i t c h c r a f t i s not the f o r e s t ' s n a t u r e . . . .  The f o r e s t ,  can s h e l t e r e i t h e r  h a v i n g no moral w i l l ,  Maypole or the self-damned gestion follows  is dualistic.  of the  Stewart's  sug-  Hawthorne, aware of t h i s a m o r a l i t y can mani-  to r e f l e c t more than one moral c o n d i t i o n .  The f o r e s t i t s e l f has a double s i g n i f i c a n c e :  f o r moral e r r o r , it  coven of the P r i n c e of A i r . " ^  logically.  p u l a t e h i s symbols  the s p i r i t  "The  symbolism  i t stands  being the p l a c e where H e s t e r and A r t h u r go a s t r a y ;  and  stands f o r n a t u r a l innocence, f o r here l i t t l e P e a r l becomes a c h i l d of  nature...."^ forest:  Waggoner s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s e r t s the symbolic n a t u r e of the  "The most extended h e a r t image i s the f o r e s t  scene.  The f o r e s t i n  which H e s t e r and P e a r l take t h e i r walk has a l l the a t t r i b u t e s common to normal human h e a r t s i n Hawthorne's work.  I t i s black, mysterious, dismal, Q  dim, it  gloomy, shadowy, obscure, and d r e a r y . "  is partially  bright,  pure, and u n r e s t r a i n e d as i s the h e a r t ^ o f P e a r l .  The f i r s t major a s p e c t of the f o r e s t journey.  I t i s a l l t h i s and more:  scene to be c o n s i d e r e d i s the  Of Hawthorne's use of the symbol of the journey, Waggoner w r i t e s :  9 "The moral journeys a r e ... l a r g e l y is,  as w e l l , another a s p e c t .  suggested by p h y s i c a l imagery."  Throughout  There  the n o v e l , as i n many of the s h o r t  -14-  s t o r i e s , a s p a t i a l movement away from  the town i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s  as an index of the moral i s o l a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s . above, sees t h i s as a journey  each i n t o h i s g r e a t e s t moral i s o l a t i o n :  has,  f o r the f i r s t  symbolizes  Hester has  time i n the n o v e l , s l i p p e d from  s u s t a i n e d him;  ever b e f o r e from her mother.  of  as a l s o  the  severed  progress  the s l e n d e r  t h a t have h e r e t o f o r e bound her to the P u r i t a n community; Dimmesdale  work which had  for  noted  The g e o g r a p h i c a l movement of Hester,  P e a r l and Dimmesdale i n t o the depths of the f o r e s t  threads  as  to an a r e a of moral c h o i c e , and,  noted above, i t i s more than t h i s .  of  Lewis,  serves  the symbolic  and  the r i g i d  social  frame-  P e a r l f e e l s h e r s e l f more estranged  In each case, Hawthorne c a r e f u l l y  journey by p r e s e n t i n g e a r l i e r  than  prepares  the g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s  the c h a r a c t e r s . F o r example, Hawthorne v e r y s p e c i f i c a l l y  p l a c e as b e i n g a p a r t from Hester determines (V, p. 102)  the community.  l o c a t e s Hester's d w e l l i n g  A f t e r her r e l e a s e from  not to escape i n t o "the dark,  inscrutable  forest...."  Such a r e s o l v e r e f l e c t s her d e c i s i o n to r e f r a i n from  isolating herself.  The  p o s i t i o n of the c o t t a g e i n nature,  c l o s e to P u r i t a n s o c i e t y , y e t excluded from i t . to meet w i t h C h i l l i n g w o r t h marks the f i r s t the P u r i t a n community.  community, to the seashore, v e r y much a t i t s own w i l l , h a r d l y any attempts final  Significantly,  However, H e s t e r ' s w i t h d r a w l  t h a t of Hester,  However, H e s t e r ' s  step of her complete  an a r e a which "heaved, swelled, and  decision  severance  she moves f u r t h e r from  the  foamed,  s u b j e c t only to the tempestuous wind, w i t h  a t r e g u l a t i o n by human law."  stage of the journey,  completely  c l o s e to the  town, and y e t somewhat a p a r t from other d w e l l i n g s , p a r a l l e l s  from  prison,  (V, p. 27 8).  Thus,  the  i n t o the f o r e s t , has been w e l l prepared f o r . i n t o complete moral i s o l a t i o n i s only temporary,  -15-  as i s symbolized by the f a c t t h a t the journey, l i k e those o f so many of Hawthorne's c h a r a c t e r s , i s c i r c u l a r . to her former way o f  Hester r e t u r n s to h e r c o t t a g e , and  life.  The journey l i k e w i s e symbolizes  Dimmesdale's g r e a t e s t moral  His  journey a l o n g the gloomy f o r e s t path i s l i k e w i s e c a r e f u l l y  for  by Hawthorne.  isolation.  prepared  To d e s c r i b e Dimmesdale's p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the g r e a t e r  p o r t i o n of the n o v e l - - t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l s e p a r a t e d from, y e t c o n f i n e d w i t h i n society--Hawthorne b e i n g who  uses  the image of a pathway.  D e s c r i b e d as "a  f e l t h i m s e l f q u i t e a s t r a y and at a l o s s i n the pathway of human  e x i s t e n c e . . . " (V, p. 8 8 ) .  Dimmesdale, "so f a r as h i s d u t i e s would permit,  ... t r o d i n the shadowy by-paths..." pathway i n the range  of thoughts  (V, p. 8 8 ) .  He kept an "accustomed  f a m i l i a r to him..." (V, pp. 150-1).  The  pathway serves as an a p p r o p r i a t e image f o r Dimmesdale's i s o l a t e d , y e t confined l i f e ,  f o r i t i s a c o n f i n e d passageway which i s n o n e t h e l e s s n o t a  common t h o r o u g h f a r e . lels his spiritual  H i s g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from the community  s e p a r a t i o n from h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s .  a l o n g which he walks b e f o r e meeting the community, symbolizes dale himself f e e l s .  of  path,  H e s t e r , "isolated and s e p a r a t e d  from  the l a c k of d i r e c t i o n and the i s o l a t i o n Dimmes-  H i s s t e p p i n g from the path i n t o the depth o f the  f o r e s t , t h e r e to meet H e s t e r , p a r a l l e l s h i s complete For Pearl,  The f o r e s t  withdrawal  into s i n .  the movement away from Dimmesdale and H e s t e r , i n t o the depths  the f o r e s t ,  symbolizes h e r g r e a t e s t s e p a r a t i o n from o t h e r s .  A l t h o u g h Hawthorne does not p r e s e n t C h i l l i n g w o r t h i n the f o r e s t he n e v e r t h e l e s s uses tion.  paral-  the i d e a of the journey to symbolize h i s moral  scene, isola-  He i s f i r s t p r e s e n t e d as h a v i n g j u s t emerged, i n the company of an  -16-  I n d i a n , from He  the w i l d e r n e s s , where f o r some time he has been h e l d p r i s o n e r .  i s " c l a d i n a strange d i s a r r a y of c i v i l i z e d and  savage costume"  p. 84) which i s i n t e n d e d to cover a p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y . i n the f o r e s t by  the Indians, elsewhere  d e s c r i b e d as "the  (V, p. 83) and as being d i s t i n c t l y a p a r t from symbolizes  C h i l l i n g w o r t h s s e p a r a t i o n from 1  The d e t e n t i o n heathen-folk"  the p u r i t a n s (V, p.  the moral law of the  community, a moral law he v i o l a t e s i n h i s d i a b o l i c a l s e a r c h . i n d i a n c l o t h i n g f u r t h e r symbolizes  (V,  277)  little  H i s use  of  t h i s separation, f o r , i n arranging i t  to cover h i s p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y , he i s a t t e m p t i n g  to h i d e the e x t e r n a l  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of h i s moral n a t u r e and  i n the a n n i h i l a t i o n of  h i s i d e n t i t y noted above.  i s engaging  Furthermore,  f o r e s t w i t h the Indians t h a t he  i t i s w h i l e l i v i n g deep i n the  l e a r n s the m e d i c i n a l p r o p e r t i e s of the  weeds which he uses w h i l e s e a r c h i n g f o r the p a r t n e r of H e s t e r ' s The is  crime.  second major a s p e c t of the n a t u r e symbolism i n the f o r e s t  the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n p r e s e n t e d by Hawthorne.  T h i s o f t e n serves  as a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s ' moral c o n d i t i o n s . the i n t r i c a c y and  complexity  scene  Herein,  of Hawthorne's symbols a r e b e s t seen.  The  major elements of the f o r e s t c l e a r i n g - - t h e brook, the decaying v e g e t a t i o n and  the i n t e r p l a y  of s u n l i g h t and  shadow--are so d e s c r i b e d as to r e p r e s e n t  not o n l y Hester, but a l s o Dimmesdale and  sometimes P e a r l .  As he d i d w i t h the symbol of the journey, prepares us f o r the.moral ing.  so too Hawthorne c a r e f u l l y  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  J u s t as Dimmesdale, b e f o r e s t e p p i n g o f f the f o r e s t path, had  m e t a p h o r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as a wanderer a l o n g a gloomy f o r e s t path, the use of the f o r e s t  to symbolize  H e s t e r ' s moral l a w l e s s n e s s had  clearbeen so too been  -17-  skillfully  prepared f o r .  First,  s e t t i n g of Hester's i s o l a t e d  Hawthorne m i n u t e l y d e s c r i b e s the p h y s i c a l  cottage.  On the o u t s k i r t s of the town, w i t h i n the verge of the p e n i n s u l a , but not i n c l o s e v a c i n i t y to any other, h a b i t a t i o n , t h e r e was a s m a l l thatched c o t t a g e . I t had been b u i l t by an e a r l i e r s e t t l e r , and abandoned, because the s o i l about i t was too s t e r i l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , w h i l e i t s comparative remoteness put i t out of the sphere of that s o c i a l a c t i v i t y which a l r e a d y marked the h a b i t s of the emigrants. I t stood on the shore, l o o k i n g a c r o s s a b a s i n of the sea a t the f o r e s t covered h i l l s , towards the west. A clump of scrubby t r e e s , such as a l o n e grew on the p e n i n s u l a , d i d not so much c o n c e a l the c o t t a g e from view, as seem to denote t h a t here was some o b j e c t which would f a i n have been, or a t l e a s t ought to be, concealed. (V, p. 104) The e n t i r e d e s c r i p t i o n serves as a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of H e s t e r ' s c o n d i t i o n and worth.  The  p o s i t i o n up to the meetings w i t h Dimmesdale and  sterility  womanliness and  of the s o i l  orthodox  conformity.  reflects  the i n a b i l i t y  directed  Prynne, whose h e a r t had  w i t h Dimmesdale, H e s t e r ' s moral We  are t o l d  condition  that  "Hester  l o s t i t s r e g u l a r and h e a l t h y throb, wandered w i t h l a b y r i n t h of mind:  mountable p r e c i p i c e ; now  now  turned a s i d e by an  s t a r t i n g back from a deep chasm.  and g h a s t l y scenery a l l around  her...."  wandered, w i t h o u t r u l e or guidance,  The  the d w e l l i n g  of Hester to h i d e her shame.  i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms of s p e c i f i c n a t u r e images.  t r i c a t e and  the f o r e s t , i s  toward moral w i l d e r n e s s r a t h e r than to  The f a i l u r e of the t r e e s to obscure  Second, b e f o r e her meeting  out a clew i n the dark  Chilling-  i s l i k e H e s t e r ' s r e p r e s s e d or w i t h e r e d  the p o s i t i o n of the c o t t a g e , f a c i n g toward  l i k e H e s t e r ' s thoughts,  moral  (V, p. 201)  and  insur-  There was later  that,  wild "she  had  i n a moral w i l d e r n e s s ; as v a s t , as i n -  shadowy, as the untamed f o r e s t . . . . "  l i t t l e brook which runs through  (V, p.  239),  the c l e a r i n g i s d e s c r i b e d as  follows:  -18-  [There was] a brook f l o w i n g through the midst, over a bed of f a l l e n and drowned l e a v e s . The t r e e s impending over i t had f l u n g down g r e a t branches, from time to time, which choked up the c u r r e n t and compelled i t to form e d d i e s and b l a c k depths a t some p o i n t s . . . . L e t t i n g the eyes f o l l o w a l o n g the course of the stream, they c o u l d c a t c h the r e f l e c t e d l i g h t from i t s water, a t some s h o r t d i s t a n c e w i t h i n the f o r e s t , but soon l o s t a l l t r a c e s of i t amid the bewilderment of t r e e trunks and underbrush, and here and t h e r e a huge rock covered over w i t h gray l i c h e n s . A l l these g i a n t t r e e s and b o u l d e r s of g r a n i t e seemed i n t e n t on making a mystery of the course of t h i s s m a l l brook; f e a r i n g , perhaps, that, w i t h i t s neverc e a s i n g l o q u a c i t y , i t should whisper t a l e s out of the h e a r t of the o l d f o r e s t whence i t flowed, or m i r r o r i t s r e v e l a t i o n s on the smooth s u r f a c e of a p o o l . (V, p. 223) S e v e r a l a s p e c t s serve to make t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n an a p p r o p r i a t e metaphor of Dimmesdale's s i n f u l and, t h e r e f o r e , mentioned  isolated heart.  First,  above t h a t the f o r e s t was "never subjugated by human law, nor  i l l u m i n a t e d by h i g h e r t r u t h , "  (p. 146) the broken branches and decayed  leaves i n the stream r e p r e s e n t the s i n s that have s u l l i e d spirit.  Second,  parallels  the s u n l i g h t r e f l e c t e d  the s p i r i t u a l  Finally,  order of the brook p a r a l l e l s  her  r a t h e r than absorbed i n t o the water,  the h i d d e n n a t u r e of the stream sym-  the h i d d e n n a t u r e of Dimmesdale's s i n . As w e l l ,  sees the melancholy  the m i n i s t e r ' s  t r u t h s and p u r i t y Dimmesdale r e f l e c t s i n h i s c a l l -  i n g b u t does n o t a b s o r b . ^ bolizes  g i v e n the f a c t  the complete  the d i s o r d e r of H e s t e r ' s mind.  sound of the brook as a symbol  dis-  She h e r s e l f  of the melancholy i n  soul. As r e l a t e d  and h e r p a r e n t s .  to P e a r l ,  the brook r e v e a l s the d i f f e r e n c e between h e r s e l f  She, u n l i k e h e r mother and f a t h e r ,  i s unable to sympathize  w i t h the l i t t l e brook which had symbolized the s i n of h e r p a r e n t s .  Signi-  ficantly,  from  a l l h e r a c t i o n s take p l a c e on the other s i d e of the brook  those of the p a r e n t s who have j u s t excluded h e r from t h e i r  conversations.  -19-  As Dimmesdale notes, more c o r r r e c t l y dary between her w o r l d and t h e i r s .  than he r e a l i z e s ,  the brook i s a boun-  I t i s the symbolic boundary  between  a m o r a l i t y and m o r a l i t y . -<  I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Hester, Dimmesdale s i t s upon a heap of moss  which,"at some epoch of the p r e c e d i n g century, had been a g i g a n t i c pine, w i t h i t s r o o t s and trunk i n the darksome shade, and i t s head a l o f t i n the upper atmosphere."  (V, p. 2 2 3 ) . Here i s a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of the  r u i n e d mind of Dimmesdale,  which, l i k e  the t r e e had r i s e n above  others,  e x i s t i n g i n a r e g i o n pure and e t h e r i a l , " but which, when overthrown by pass i o n , by r o o t s i n the s i n of man's nature, had f a l l e n and decayed. Not only does the gloom and c o n d i t i o n of the c l e a r i n g p a r a l l e l the m i n i s t e r ' s c o n d i t i o n , b u t i t p a r a l l e l s as w e l l ,  Hester's s t a t e .  Hester  blends w i t h the scenery.  She i s "a form under the t r e e s ,  so sombre,  r e l i e v e d from the gray t w i l i g h t i n t o which the  and ... l i t t l e  c l a d i n garments  clouded sky and heavy f o l i a g e had darkened the n o o n t i d e . . . . " The r i c h n e s s of the decay about the c l e a r i n g ,  parallels  (V, p. 227).  the r i c h  humanity  mouldering w i t h i n h e r . Throughout the n o v e l , Hawthorne foreshadows the harmony r e v e a l e d by P e a r l f o r the animals of the f o r e s t .  From the e a r l y c h a p t e r s Hawthorne  d e s c r i b e s her a m o r a l i t y and innocence i n n a t u r e images.  Hawthorne makes  e x t e n s i v e use of two of the major symbols he used throughout h i s works t o describe children:  f l o w e r s and s u n s h i n e .  Waggoner w r i t e s of t h i s use by  Hawthorne of f l o w e r imagery: The rose i s "good" i n the same sense i n which the cemetary i s an " e v i l " : i t s beauty i s n e i t h e r moral nor immoral but i s certainly a positive value. L i k e the beauty of a h e a l t h y c h i l d or an animal, i t i s the product n o t of c h o i c e but of n e c e s s i t y , of the laws of i t s being, so t h a t i t can be admired b u t not judged. P e a r l , l a t e r i n the s t o r y , i s s i m i l a r l y immune from judgment.^  -20-  P e a r l ' s innocence and  p u r i t y are f i r s t  described i n flower  She  i s " t h a t l i t t l e c r e a t u r e , whose i n n o c e n t  and  immortal f l o w e r ,  p. 113) 114)»  and has  bol to  is  of hope, a token  i n a d d i t i o n to s u g g e s t i n g her  P e a r l , who  The  had  innocence, rose was  i n her,  i s the hope of her mother, During  the v i s i t  by comparing her  she  Mr.  a l s o a sym-  Belling-  i t i s emphasized  looks i n t o the governor's garden,  to be g i v e n a domestic red rose which she does not r e c e i v e .  Wilson  t h a t "she  her own  w i l d , and  200)  preventing  to Governor  of P e a r l i s most important,  As  p.  also  "the blossom of womanhood" (V, p.  into greater s i n .  to a r o s e .  (V,  (V,  c o u l d p i t y and be k i n d  ham's mansion, when t h i s a s p e c t  f a c t symbolizes  lovely  a symbol of "some sweet moral blossom."  c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h nature,  her from f a l l i n g  chahter.  " t h a t the deep h e a r t of n a t u r e  [the p r i s o n e r ] " (V, p. 68) and  cries  ... a  "the w i l d - f l o w e r p r e t t i n e s s of a peasant baby."  to the w i l d rose of the f i r s t  (V, p. 68)  sprung  out of the rank l u x u r i a n c e of a g u i l t y p a s s i o n "  These preferences,  l i n k her  l i f e had  imagery.  isolated,  r e f e r s to her as a red rose,  r a t h e r than domestic  (V, p. 135)  and  she  This nature.  she h e r s e l f remarks  had not been made a t a l l , but had been plucked by her mother o f f  the bush of w i l d r o s e s t h a t grew by Regarding the use  of sunshine  the p r i s o n - d o o r . "  (V, p.  138),  i n the n o v e l , F o g l e w r i t e s :  There i s no hue of heaven i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r which r e a l l y o f f s e t s [the shades of h e l l ] . S u n l i g h t i s the n e a r e s t approach to i t , and i t s sway i s too f l e e t i n g to have any g r e a t effect. 1 2  However, the s u n l i g h t , which, as Waggoner has  shown "suggests  both  truth  13 and h e a l t h , " purity, forest  and,  i t may  be added, i n the case of P e a r l , innocence  i s used e x t e n s i v e l y throughout the n o v e l , and  particularly  and  i n the  scene, as a means of r e v e a l i n g the moral s t a t e of the c h a r a c t e r s .  -21-  D u r i n g the opening  scenes H e s t e r stands i n the b r i l l i a n t noonday  l i g h t as the t r u t h of her moral villagers. light,  One  s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e a l e d to the a t t e n d a n t  t h i n g , however, i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  "she had dark and abundant h a i r ,  sunshine w i t h a gleam...."  (V, p. 73),  cause of her s i n f u l nature, absorb and  t h i n e own  e n t e r s the f o r e s t ,  T h i s r e v e a l s t h a t she cannot,  Bellingham's mansion,  (V, p. 129),  As  Hester from  She walks amid the gloom of the f o r e s t and f i n d s the s u n l i g h t  L e t t e r and  About to commit a g r e a t s i n , she  It i s significant  loosens her h a i r ,  can-  t h a t as H e s t e r d i s c a r d s the S c a r l e t  Hawthorne d e s c r i b e s the f u l l n e s s of the sun-  T h i s i s not to be taken as the r e v e l a t i o n of a harmony between ;;the  s i n n e r s and  the sunshine, f o r , as Hawthorne h i m s e l f notes:  "Had  the f o r e s t  kept i t s gloom, i t would have been b r i g h t i n H e s t e r ' s eyes...."  pp. 243-4)v Dimmesdale. light.  There i s no mention Indeed,  throughout  the scene,  only P e a r l i s seen i n the sun-  had not been hidden by the brook which had  T r u t h , i n the form of sunshine,  symbolically  the S c a r l e t L e t t e r , which i s " g l i t t e r i n g  p. 242)  revealing  signi-  symbolized s e c r e t s i n .  s h i n e s on the emblem of H e s t e r ' s l i k e a l o s t j e w e l . . . . " (V,  the f a c t t h a t Hester i s i n c r e a s i n g her s i n by a t t e m p t i n g  to escape her punishment f o r and acknowledgment of i t . toward  (V,  of the sunshine f a l l i n g upon Hester or  What i s i l l u m i n a t e d , however, i s the S c a r l e t L e t t e r , which,  ficantly,  sin,  Governor  This  Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes t h a t she i s excluded  not embrace t r u t h .  still  be-  c o n t a i n p u r i t y and innocence.  I have none to g i v e thee'."  v a n i s h i n g b e f o r e she can grasp i t .  shine.  sun-  to P e a r l ' s demands f o r sunshine by s a y i n g t h a t "thou must g a t h e r  sunshine.  sunshine.  As she stands i n the  so g l o s s y t h a t i t threw o f f the  i s made e v i d e n t a g a i n when, as she approaches she r e p l i e s  sun-  Hester's a t t i t u d e  the f o r e s t a t t h i s time, s e e i n g i t as a p l a c e of happiness and of  -22-  escape from e v i l ,  i n t h a t i t i s wrong, symbolizes  view t h a t she can escape her s i n .  the i n c o r r e c t n e s s of her  Only a t the end  of the n o v e l does Hester  stand a g a i n i n the s u n l i g h t , as the t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f  and  Dimmesdale i s r e v e a l e d . This i s s i m i l a r l y  the case w i t h Dimmesdale.  of the n o v e l , Dimmesdale a v o i d s f u l f i l l i n g which Hawthorne suggests: the s c a f f o l d i n the dark and  lurid  "Be  Until  the c o n d i t i o n s of the moral  true', be t r u e ! "  (V, p. 307)„ When he ascends  i n a mockery of c o n f e s s i o n , i t i s only an u n n a t u r a l  l i g h t , what Waggoner c a l l s a " f a l s e  l i g h t , " which s h i n e s on  r e v e a l i n g the f a l s e n e s s and h y p o c r i s y i n h i s n a t u r e . he p l a n s a f i n a l c a u s i n g him  escape,  the sun i s shrouded  to t r a v e l i n a t w i l i g h t gloom.  l i g h t i n t o which the clouded noontide...." was  (V, p. 227)  p a s s i n g through  it."  sky and  and  Hawthorne who  notes  220),,  and  by the t r e e s and We  and  spiritual  symbolizes  (V,  shines i n t o the f o r e s t .  of  p.  not only  the p u r i t a n s o c i e t y but h i s r e j e c t i o n of t r u t h ,  t h i n k i n g , upon h i s pledge w i t h Hester,  and  sunshine  seen a t i t s s o l i t a r y p l a y a l o n g the p a t h . "  absence of the s u n l i g h t i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  (V, p. 243)  that  ... i m p e r f e c t glimpses  t h a t a "gleam of f l i c k e r i n g  1  from  the  The gloom i s emphasized by  Thus as Dimmesdale s entrance i n t o the f o r e s t  h i s withdrawal  clouds,  sense°fthe g u i l t which has weakened  t h a t the f o r e s t " d i s c l o s e d  then be  while  the heavy f o l i a g e had darkened  from h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s .  him,  a r e t o l d of "the gray t w i -  (V, p. 234). W i t h i n Dimmesdale i s a  the sky above...." (V, p. 220) might now  In the f o r e s t ,  of the f o r e s t c r e a k i n g "with a b l a s t  gloom c r e a t e d by h i s overpowering m o r a l l y separated him  the c l o s i n g pages  He only deludes h i m s e l f  the  into  t h a t "a sudden s m i l e of heaven,"  Hawthorne r e v e a l s the e r r o r :  "Had  the f o r e s t s t i l l kept i t s gloom, i t would have been b r i g h t i n Hester's  -23-  eyes, and b r i g h t i n A r t h u r Dimmesdale's!" of  (V, p. 146), Only a t the end  the n o v e l , i n h i s c o n f e s s i o n , does he f a c e t r u t h , and here  symbolically,  the sun shines upon him as he stands upon the s c a f f o l d w i t h H e s t e r and Pearl. man,  "The  sun, but l i t t l e  past i t s m e r i d i a n , shone down upon the c l e r g y -  and gave a d i s t i n c t n e s s  to h i s f i g u r e , as he stood out from a l l the  e a r t h to put i n h i s p l e a of g u i l t y a t the bar of E t e r n a l J u s t i c e . "  (V,  p. 301), T r u t h s h i n e s on Dimmesdale as he too passes the m e r i d i a n of h i s life. Whereas w i t h Dimmesdale, Hester and C h i l l i n g w o r t h , t h e i r s i n , when a p p l i e d truth. its  She,  q u i v e r i n g sunshine over  around  her...."  "little proaches  [her] t i n y f e a t u r e s . . . . "  t h a t " t h e r e was  (V, p. 114),  seen w i n k i n g and  l i g h t of day...."  When she  the governor's mansion she demands t h a t Hester g i v e her the o f f the w a l l .  the sunshine, w h i l e P e a r l , stand i n i t and  I t i s i n the f o r e s t scene t h a t the  to absorb i t .  the sunshine r e f l e c t s her innocence.  a f r a i d of something  sunshine  to stand i n  Both H e s t e r and P e a r l see  " Mother," s a i d l i t t l e :,  on your bosom....I am but a c h i l d ,  away c h i l d  sun-  Hester, whose  i s unable  I t runs away and h i d e s i t s e l f ,  f o r I wear n o t h i n g on my  " "Run  truth.  ap-  i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to her mother, i s a b l e to  even appears  sunshine does not l o v e you.  as  t u r n i n g a s i d e her  (V, p. 73),  and f a l s e h o o d a r e most e v i d e n t i n t h i s s e c t i o n ,  plies  that threw  (V, p. 113) and  used most f o r c e f u l l y as a symbol of her p u r i t y and  from me,  l o v e of  an a b s o l u t e c i r c l e of r a d i a n c e  She i s f i r s t  f a c e from the too v i v i d  shine r e f l e c t e d  sin  i t r e v e a l s her innocence and  h e r s e l f i s d e s c r i b e d as having an " i n t e l l i g e n c e  p o s s e s s i n g such beauty  is  to P e a r l ,  s u n l i g h t had shown  bosom yet'.' " r  Pearl, because  i t w i l l not  that 'the  i t is flee  (V, p. 220), Hester r e -  ... and c a t c h the sunshine'.  It will  soon be gone!'' "  -24-  (V, p. 221), When the sunshine fades, i t appears absorbed  by P e a r l :  "To  judge from  as though i t has been  the b r i g h t e x p r e s s i o n t h a t was  dancing  on P e a r l ' s f e a t u r e s , her mother c o u l d have f a n c i e d t h a t the c h i l d had sorbed i t i n t o h e r s e l f . . . , "  (V, p.  In C h i l l i n g w o r t h ' s case, absence.  S e v e r a l times,  however, h i s e v i l and  h i s revenge on Dimmesdale, he b e f o r e her eyes."  221).  s u n l i g h t images a r e conspicuous  i n the terms of u n n a t u r a l l i g h t .  ab-  by  their  perverted soul i s described  F o r example, i n d i s c u s s i n g w i t h  l e t "the l u r i d f i r e  Hester  of h i s h e a r t b l a z e out  (V, p. 207)» I t i s the red l i g h t of the meteor t h a t  s h i n e s on C h i l l i n g w o r t h as he watches Dimmesdale s t a n d i n g on the w i t h P e a r l and Hester, and  this  light  serves to r e v e a l h i s e v i l  scaffold nature.  "Then might Roger C h i l l i n g w o r t h have passed w i t h them f o r the a r c h - f i e n d ..„."  (V, p.  189),  Another a s p e c t of n a t u r e symbolism i s found s u n l i g h t i s used  to d e s c r i b e P e a r l :  i n the  novel  resembles  the n o r t h e r n l i g h t s , " people  only  Her i n -  " n o t h i n g so much as the phantasmagoric p l a y of  (V, p. 120)  i s l i k e an A p r i l  Not  other a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y which  render her i s o l a t e d a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e n a t u r e images. f i n i t e variety  .  and her complete l a c k of concern f o r  breeze:  The mother ... had schooled h e r s e l f to hope f o r l i t t l e other r e t u r n than the waywardness of an A p r i l breeze; which spends i t s time i n a i r y s p o r t , and has i t s gusts of i n e x p l i c a b l e p a s s i o n , and i s p e t u l a n t i n i t s b e s t of moods, and c h i l l s o f t e n e r than c a r e s s e s you, when you take i t to your bosom; i n r e q u i t a l of which misdemeanors, i t w i l l sometimes, of i t s own vague purpose, k i s s your cheek w i t h a k i n d of d o u b t f u l tenderness, and p l a y gently, w i t h your h a i r , and then begone about i t s other i d l e b u s i n e s s , l e a v i n g a dreamy p l e a s u r e a t your h e a r t . (V, p. 216) Her  r e l u c t a n c e to be touched  by other people and  the w i l d n a t u r e of her  -25-  d r e s s which causes people to a v o i d her as the S c a r l e t L e t t e r i n c a r n a t e are  r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s image:  familiarity  tial  c h i l d , unaccustomed to the touch of  of any but her mother, escaped  stood on the upper ready  "The  step l o o k i n g l i k e a w i l d  to take f l i g h t i n t o the upper a i r . " a f f e c t i o n i s expressed thus:  "She  through the open window, and t r o p i c a l b i r d of r i c h plumage, (V, p. 137). F i n a l l y ,  possessed a f f e c t i o n s ,  her  too,  poten-  though  h i t h e r t o a c r i d and d i s a g r e e a b l e , as a r e the r i c h e s t f l a v o r s of u n r i p e frui-t."  (V, p. 216),  The image i s important:  orchards g i v e evidence, as  w i l l be noted i n a l a t e r chapter, of human care bestowed upon w i l d to and  make i t u s e f u l to mankind. s e r v e a purpose In  to  the f i n a l  Pearl,  in life.  scene of the n o v e l , when P e a r l ' s i s o l a t i o n i s  As  she capers about  the v i l l a g e  no connexion w i t h the v i l l a g e r s . (V, pp. 271-2) and seemed an e f f l u e n c e , of  " [ h e r ] d r e s s , so proper was  has  sunny a p p a r i t i o n  i t [ t o her that i t ]  or i n a v i t a b l e development and outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n  a bird.  (V, p. 272).  She f l i t s  In her a c t i o n s she i s c o n s t a n t l y compared  "with a b i r d - l i k e movement," (V, p. 272)  be borne upward, l i k e a f l o a t i n g  sea-bird,"  (V, p. 281)  Dimmesdale, "with the b i r d - l i k e motion which was  istics." for  Pearl  from a b u t t e r f l y ' s wing, or the p a i n t e d g l o r y from the l e a f of  a bright flower."  to  i s extensively  square on e l e c t i o n day,  She i s a " b r i g h t and  emphasized  her c h a r a c t e r , no more t o be separated from her than the many-hued  brilliancy  to  l i k e the u n r i p e f r u i t , w i l l mature  c o n t r a s t her approaching "humanization," n a t u r e imagery  used.  nature  (V, p. 299),  finally,  flies  one of her c h a r a c t e r -  The only people i n the square t h a t h o l d any  Pearl are s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  the seamen.  and,  "seemed to  interest  other c r e a t u r e s of nature, the Indians and  The former, when l o o k i n g a t P e a r l , become " c o n s c i o u s of a  -26-  n a t u r e w i l d e r than [ t h e i r ] own." A f i n a l aspect clearly  In the f o r e s t ,  t i o n of h i s s o u l .  a c t i o n s i n nature  p h y s i c a l l y separated  isolated, "He  lockadfJiaggard and  l i a b l e to n o t i c e .  nor  nearest him,  and  t r e e , and  f e e b l e , and  i n any  Lacking  "He  to  and  nature.  s t r e n g t h and  s i t u a t i o n where he  wofully v i s i b l e ,  no  T h i s weakness i s sees the  reason  had  241-2) and  from Hester  symbolized  wilderness  f o r taking  The  one  form a l i t t l e  i n i t or no!"  the  leaves might bestrew h i l l o c k over h i s (V, p.  226),  a morbid energy which possesses  imagery, remarks that Dimmesdale's  "the e x h i l a r a t i n g e f f e c t  ... of b r e a t h i n g  f r e e atmosphere of an unredeemed, u n c h r i s t i a n i z e d , l a w l e s s (V, pp.  i n this i n -  i n t o g r e a t e r s i n , i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s changed a t t i t u d e  Hawthorne, u s i n g nature  pledge to Hester  saw  him  so, but would have been g l a d ,  the s o i l g r a d u a l l y accumulate and  leads him  he  a nervous  to f l i n g h i m s e l f down a t the r o o t of  frame, no matter whether there were l i f e  him  other  l i e there p a s s i v e for„.evermore.  His r e c e i v i n g Hester's  betrayed  s t r e n g t h , he  d e s i r e to do  c o u l d he be g l a d of anything,  condi-  from a s o c i e t y from which  (V, p. 226),  only as a p l a c e i n which to c o l l a p s e . step f a r t h e r , nor f e l t any  to p o r t r a y t h e i r moral  Here i t was  s e c l u s i o n of the f o r e s t . . . . "  h i s a t t i t u d e to the f o r e s t .  charac-  never so remarkably c h a r a c t e r i z e d  h i s walks about the settlement,  deemed h i m s e l f  in  one which i s most  Dimmesdale's a c t i o n s r e v e a l the t r u e c o n d i -  despondency i n h i s a i r , which had  tense  symbolism,  seen i n the f o r e s t scene, i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s  i s already mentally  in  291),  of Hawthorne's n a t u r e  t e r s a t t i t u d e s toward and tions.  (V, p.  he has  Dimmesdale f i n d s t h a t w i t h achieved  a sympathy w i t h  the w i l d ,  region...."  the moral w i l d n e s s i n h e r i t e d  the p h y s i c a l w i l d e r n e s s  about . 1  -27-  Remarking of h i s change that "I  l e f t him [ h i s o l d s e l f ] yonder i n the f o r -  est, withdrawn i n t o a s e c r e t d e l l , ancholy brook,"  (V, p. 259)  by a mossy t r e e trunk, and near a mel-  he e n t e r t a i n s s i n f u l thoughts  mind i n t o a f r e n z y and f u r t h e r i s o l a t e him.  t h a t work h i s  T h i s s t a t e i s symbolized  by  the r e c k l e s s abandon w i t h which he t r a v e l s through the f o r e s t , and by h i s changed a t t i t u d e to n a t u r e : The pathway among the woods seemed w i l d e r , more uncouth w i t h i t s rude n a t u r a l o b s t a c l e s , and l e s s trodden by the f o o t of man than he remembered i t on h i s outward j o u r n e y . But he leaped a c r o s s the plashy p l a c e s , and t h r u s t h i m s e l f through the c l i n g i n g underbrush, climbed the a s c e n t , plunged i n t o the hollow, and overcame, i n s h o r t , a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the t r a c k , w i t h an unweariable a c t i v i t y t h a t a s t o n i s h e d him. (V, . 258) P  Similarly,  P e a r l ' s a c t i o n s r e f l e c t her nature.*"'  prepares f o r the f o r e s t scene.  A g a i n Hawthorne  E a r l y i n the n o v e l , her d i s l i k e of the  p u r i t a n s i s r e f l e c t e d i n her s y m b o l i z i n g "the u g l i e s t weeds of the  garden  [as] t h e i r c h i l d r e n , whom [she] smote down and uprooted, most u n m e r c i f u l l y . " (V, p. 120)»  Her  l a c k of concern f o r people i s symbolized by the f a c t  alone, i n the f o r e s t or 'at the sea-shore, natural.  "She was  away from.others  that  she i s most  g e n t l e r here than i n the g r a s s margined s t r e e t s of the  s e t t l e m e n t , or i n her mother's c o t t a g e . "  (V, p. 295),  Finally,  her  pelting  her mother's S c a r l e t L e t t e r w i t h both f l o w e r s and weeds h e l p s c l a r i f y p o s i t i o n as the agent  her  s a v i n g Hester from g r e a t e r e v i l and of s e r v i n g as  a "messenger of a n g u i s h . " hope, and i n the l a t t e r ,  In the former  case, she i s u s i n g symbols of  symbols of e v i l and both times she makes Hester  a c u t e l y aware of her s i n . As Hester c o n f e r s w i t h C h i l l i n g w o r t h , presence,  she d i s m i s s e s P e a r l from  her  b i d d i n g her "run down to the margin of the water, and p l a y w i t h  -28-  the s h e l l s and  t a n g l e d sea-weed..,."  (V, p. 203).  symbolized by the r e v e l a t i o n of her complete  Pearl's amorality i s  harmony w i t h the a s p e c t s of  the sea which "heaved, s w e l l e d , and foamed, v e r y much a t i t s own w i l l ,  or  s u b j e c t only to the tempestuous-wind, w i t h h a r d l y any attempts a t r e g u l a t i o n by human law."  (V, p. 278). She attempts  to become one w i t h the  scene  about her by e n t e r i n g i n t o a sea p o o l i n which she f i n d s ' her own  image  reflected.  and  She  i s i n her a c t i o n s compared to a b i r d  upon the wind "with winged f o o t s t e p s . " human s o c i e t y i s f u r t h e r symbolized by e n t e r p r i z e " a t the seashore f a i l s : bark, and f r e i g h t e d the mighty  d i c t a b l e a t t i t u d e toward  d i e and p e l t s s e a - b i r d s .  the c r e a t u r e s and h e r s e l f , w h i t e b r e a s t , P e a r l was  similar  (V, p. 214)  England;  l a y s crabs and  boats out of b i r c h on  but the l a r g e r p a r t of i n e x p l i c a b l e and  unpre-  s t a r f i s h out on the sand  However, r e c o g n i z i n g the s i m i l a r i t y  Pearl d e s i s t s .  "One  little  But then the e l f - c h i l d  between  gray b i r d , w i t h a  or as w i l d as P e a r l h e r s e l f . "  to her mother i n "a g i f t  flut-  sighed, and gave up  i t g r i e v e d , her to have done harm to a l i t t l e  being  that  (V, p. 214). A l -  f o r d e v i s i n g drapery and  P e a r l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r s from her mother, f o r she  h e r s e l f w i t h the p l a n t s of the sea-shore, to n a t u r e .  "commercial  almost sure, had been h i t by a pebble, and  w i l d as the sea-breeze,  though  s e p a r a t i o n from .  sent out more v e n t u r e s  (V, p. 213), Her  She  t e r e d away w i t h a broken wing. h e r s p o r t ; because  and  flies  o t h e r people i s r e f l e c t e d i n her treatment of the  v a r i o u s animals on the shore.  was  "She made l i t t l e  deep than any merchant i n New the shore."  Her  the f a c t t h a t her one  them w i t h s n a i l - s h e l l s ,  them f l o u n d e r e d near  to  (V, p. 214),  (V, p. 203)  costume," clothes  thus a p p e a r i n g to be even c l o s e r  A l t h o u g h Hester d e n i e s i t s importance,  the sea-weed l e t t e r of  -29-  gireen t h a t P e a r l f a s h i o n s i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. letter  Whereas H e s t e r ' s  symbolizes her connexion w i t h humanity through moral  broken,  Pearl's,  c o n s t r u c t e d out of the products of nature,  the f a c t t h a t she,  law,  albeit  symbolizes  l i k e nature, has never been subjugated by human law.  P e a r l ' s a c t i o n s i n the f o r e s t r e v e a l the d i f f e r e n c e between her her p a r e n t s .  "The  g r e a t b l a c k f o r e s t - - s t e r n as i t showed i t s e l f  whojbrought the g u i l t and the playmate  and  to those  t r o u b l e s of the w o r l d i n t o i t s bosom--became  of the l o n e l y i n f a n t , as w e l l as i t knew how."  (V, pp.  244-5),  Here, even more than a t the seashore i s her harmony w i t h n a t u r e r e v e a l e d . T h i s i s a p p r o p r i a t e , because here, moreso than a t the seashore, being i s o l a t e d from human concerns P e a r l has "never truth."  [been]  (V, p. 243).  subjugated by human law, nor i l l u m i n a t e d by -higher  Hawthorne f a n c i f u l l y  to the w i l d animals who  appear  to r e c o g n i z e i n her a k i n d r e d s p i r i t .  she decks h e r s e l f w i t h the products of n a t u r e .  f o r Pearl,  i n her i s o l a t i o n ,  i n the f o r e s t  that i s not. revenge.  He uses  While  i t i s the use to which he puts them  them to f u r t h e r what becomes an inhuman d e s i r e f o r  In the e a r l y p a r t of the n o v e l , b e f o r e h i s dehumanization  cess has advanced  in  Extensive  the n o v e l of h i s use of weeds and h e r b s .  are b e n e f i c i a l ,  she  scene, much of  h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a l s o symbolized through h i s use of n a t u r e .  the herbs themselves  Hester  (V, p. 246) <  A l t h o u g h C h i l l i n g w o r t h does not appear  i s made throughout  Here,  (V, p. 247) and  looks l i k e "whatever ... was  c l o s e s t sympathy w i t h the a n t i q u e wood."  mention  relation-  suggests t h a t she wanders c l o s e  remarks t h a t "they c o u l d not have become her b e t t e r , " i s right,  L i k e the f o r e s t ,  Here she w i l l not r e c e i v e the t r u t h of her  s h i p w i t h Dimmesdale.  as a t the seashore,  t h a t r e l a t e to h e r .  she i s  pro-  v e r y f a r , he eases H e s t e r ' s and P e a r l ' s p h y s i c a l p a i n  -30-  w i t h h i s knowledge of "the k i n d l y p r o p e r t i e s of simples.*' However, l a t e r i n the n o v e l , so much of herbs but cognized that: and  of weeds.  The  p.  95)  i s made to h i s use,  a  not  import of t h i s change of image i s r e -  when i t i s remembered t h a t Hawthorne had w r i t t e n i n h i s notebooks  "there  the bad  world...."  i s an unmistakeable  h a b i t s and (AN,  to the p r i s o n , its  s p e c i f i c reference  (V,  s i n f u l p r o p e n s i t i e s which have overrun the moral  p. 186)  and  "the b l a c k  emblem of s i n , and  [ s i c ] analogy between these wicked Weeds  t h a t i n the opening chapter weeds are  flower  of c i v i l i z e d  s o c i e t y , " (V,  that C h i l l i n g w o r t h himself  had  p. 68)  been lodged  linked and there  16 on h i s f i r s t n i g h t i n the v i l l a g e . t h a t the g r a v e s t o n e weeds he deadman's h e a r t .  Therefore  Chillingworth himself  i s examining r e p r e s e n t  the  had  suggested  s e c r e t s i n s of a  h i s d e r a c i n a t i o n of weeds, o v e r t l y done i n  the  name of m e d i c a l a i d , symbolizes h i s hideous d e r a c i n a t i o n of Dimmesdale's c l o s e l y guarded  secret.  To r e v e a l the change i n C h i l l i n g w o r t h from a calm seeker f o r to an e v i l l y image:  possessed and  dehumanized searcher,  story represent be  Hawthorne uses a new  t h a t of a miner probing the e a r t h f o r p r e c i o u s m e t a l s .  d i s c u s s i n g "Ethan Brand" has  a p i c t u r e of a v i o l a t i o n . o f n a t u r e . * ^  This  s a n c t i t y of a human h e a r t .  i n t o the poor clergyman's heart, 158).  The  image continues,  gest a b l a s t f u r n a c e  Leo Marx,  seems a l s o  to  S c a r l e t L e t t e r where the images are  used to symbolize a c t i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t i n "Ethan Brand",  p.  nature  suggested t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l images i n t h a t  the case of the mining images i n The  v i o l a t i o n of the  justice  We  are  told  l i k e a miner s e a r c h i n g  Chillingworth's  t h a t "He  now  for gold...."  dug (V,  d e s c r i b i n g C h i l l i n g w o r t h i n terms which sug-  used i n r e f i n i n g  "Sometimes a l i g h t glimmered out  the p r o d u c t s taken from n a t u r e .  of the p h y s i c i a n ' s  eyes, b u r n i n g blue  and  -31-  ominous, l i k e the r e f l e c t i o n of a f u r n a c e . . . . "  (V, p.  158),  T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of C h i l l i n g w o r t h s use of weeds and herbs 1  h i s moral e v i l  c o n s t i t u t e s only one  Scarlet Letter.  As  of the major symbolic p a t t e r n s of  the a n a l y s e s i n t h i s chapter r e v e a l ,  symbolism i s not only v e r y r i c h and into basic patterns.  The  to r e v e a l  Hawthorne's n a t u r e  complex, i t i s a l s o c a r e f u l l y  arranged  journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s i s the c h i e f  g i v i n g not only a s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y to s e v e r a l v i t a l  The  symbol,  c h a p t e r s i n the c e n t r e  of the n o v e l , but a l s o r e v e a l i n g the e x t e n t of the moral i s o l a t i o n of characters.  W i t h i n t h i s major p a t t e r n of the journey,  t e r n s emerge:  the i n t e r p l a y  of the w i l d e r n e s s i t s e l f , n a t u r e symbolize over,  s e v e r a l other pat-  of s u n l i g h t and darikness, the p h y s i c a l  and  the moral n a t u r e s of Hester,  P e a r l , and Dimmesdale.  thorne makes c o n s i s t e n t use of them throughout  p a t t e r n s a r e not unique  f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s examine t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n  to The  complexity  Scarlet Letter.  the symbols of f l o w e r s and and attempts  The  to s i m i l a r moral problems  sunshine  to s t o r i e s  the n o v e l s  offPearl,  t r e a t i n g moral  fol-  a r e to be found  romance, The Marble Faun.  innocence  These symbols, used by Hawthorne i n his early  f o r example i n "The Maypole of Merry Mount," throughout l a s t completed  i n this  The next chapter examines the a p p l i c a t i o n of  to r e g a i n l o s t innocence.  i n h i s examination  Haw-  Scarlet Letter.  p r e s e n t e d by Hawthorne i n the s h o r t s t o r i e s preceeding and lowing The  scene.  More-  the n o v e l .  A l t h o u g h used w i t h t h e i r g r e a t e s t r i c h n e s s and these symbolic  nature  the a t t i t u d e s of the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s to  these symbolic p a t t e r n s a r e not c o n f i n e d to the f o r e s t  novel,  the  s h o r t stories,  h i s work to h i s  -32FOOTNOTES  1 See I n Defense of Reason, pp. 157-175. 2 The E c c e n t r i c Design, p. 61. 3 Quoted from The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : T e x t , Sources and C r i t i c i s m , B r a d l e y , B e a t t y , and Long (New York, 1962), p. 291.  ed.  4 I b i d . , p. 321.  1  5 L e s l i e A. F i e d l e r , Love and Death i n the American Novel (New York, p. 510.  i960),  6 3 r a d l e y , B e a t t y , and Long, op. c i t . , p. 371. 7 I b i d . , p. 347. 8 Waggoner, op. c i t . , pp. 137-8. 9 I b i d . , p. 144. 10 See below page 22. 11 Waggoner, op. c i t . , pp. 120-1. 12 F o g l e , op. c i t . , p. 106. 13 Waggoner,, op. c i t . , p. 125. 14 Op. c i t . , p. 127. 15 C h e s t e r E i s i n g e r has f u l l y d i s c u s s e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between P e a r l ' s a c t i o n s and the P u r i t a n a t t i t u d e to n a t u r e i n " P e a r l and C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , X I I (March, 1951), 323-9. 16 Waggoner w r i t e s : "The u n n a t u r a l f l o w e r s and u n s i g h t l y v e g e t a t i o n are a l i g n e d w i t h moral e v i l and w i t h C h i l l i n g w o r t h i n p a r t i c u l a r . " Op. c i t . , p. 131. 17 "The Machine i n the Garden," NEQ, XXIX (March, 1956), 27-42.  Chapter  Three  NATURE AS A SYMBOL OF INNOCENCE  Many of the n a t u r e symbols p o r t r a y i n g moral innocence i n which they appear a r e v e r y c o n v e n t i o n a l .  and the s t o r i e s  F o r example, i n two American  Notebook e n t r i e s p r o p o s i n g s u b j e c t s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s the images a r e t r e a t e d as f o l l o w s : 101)  flowers--a child's  and, "The Magic P l a y o f Sunshine,  101). two  "The immortal  fora child's story..."  sampling  writes:  " I have been gladdened  a young g i r l  the s u n s h i n e "  t h a t had  Or I might compare them t o cherubs,  ( I , p. 3 5 ) . Here by c o u p l i n g the n a t u r e image  w i t h t h a t o f a n g e l s , t h e innocence Elsewhere,  little  f r o c k s , b u r s t i n g sud-  l i k e a swarm o f gay b u t t e r f l i e s  been shut up i n the solemn, gloom. haunting that holy p l a c e "  F o r example, he  by the s i g h t o f a s c o r e of these  and boys, i n p i n k , b l u e , y e l l o w , and crimson  denly f o r t h i n t o the sunshine,  these  o f i n c i d e n t a l r e f e r e n c e s t o the  c h i l d r e n who appear i n the v a r i o u s t a l e s and s k e t c h e s .  of  (AN, p.  The c o n s i s t e n c y and the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y w i t h which he uses  b a s i c symbols i s seen i n t h i s  girls  s t o r y . . . " (AN, p.  o f the c h i l d r e n i s f o r c e f u l l y  d r e s s e d i n white  i s d e s c r i b e d as wearing  presented. "a garment  ( I , p. 3 6 ) . I n comparing an aged b r i d e w i t h h e r youth-  f u l attendants,, Hawthorne c o n t r a s t s "au o l d , brown, w i t h e r e d r o s e , on the same s t a l k w i t h two dewy buds..." the c h i l d , who, throughout is  likened  f u l beauty this of  ( I , p. 345),,  I n " L i t t l e Annie's  Ramble,  the s k e t c h , i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h c a r e - r i d d e n a d u l t  to "some b r i g h t b i r d  i n the sunny a i r "  o f a maiden i s d e s c r i b e d as a "beauty  dim and d i s m a l chamber, as w i t h s u n s h i n e "  ( I , p. 143). The youth-  t h a t would have  gladdened  ( I , p. 519). The p u r i t y  one o f Dimmesdale's young p a r i s h i o n e r s i s d e s c r i b e d as " f a i r and pure  as a l i l y  t h a t had bloomed i n P a r a d i s e "  (V, p. 262).  -34-  Hawthorne a p p l i e s another c o n v e n t i o n a l symbol t o innocence: romantic r e t u r n to and harmony w i t h n a t u r e . Adam and Eve," a f a n c i f u l after  the  F o r example, i n the "New  treatment of the l i v e s of a couple newly c r e a t e d  the t o t a l a n i h i l a t i o n of humanity, Hawthorne symbolizes the innocence  of the young man and woman by emphasizing of n a t u r e . rounded  t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n toward o b j e c t s  A l t h o u g h they have been c r e a t e d i n the c e n t r e of a c i t y ,  by the most b e a u t i f u l and s p l e n d i d of man made o b j e c t s ,  their f i r s t  they  d e l i g h t i n the b l u e sky and i n t u f t s of g r a s s growing  the pavement.  Eve r e j e c t s c o s t l y j e w e l r y found i n a v a c a n t s t o r e ,  i n g g r e a t e r enjoyment i n p l a c i n g f l o w e r s i n h e r h a i r .  surfind  through receiv-  Hawthorne summarizes  t h e i r innocence w i t h t h i s a n a l y s i s of t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r the t h i n g s of nature.  G i v e n a c h o i c e between a r t and n a t u r e : t h e i r i n s t i n c t s and i n t u i t i o n s would immediately r e c o g n i z e the wisdom and s i m p l i c i t y of the l a t t e r , w h i l e the former w i t h i t s e l a b o r a t e p e r v e r s i t i e s , would o f f e r them a c o n t i n u a l s u c c e s s i o n of p u z z l e s . ( I I , p. 280)  A l t h o u g h these major symbols,  f l o w e r s , sunshine, and harmony w i t h  nature, which i s symbolic of a moral a t t i t u d e , a r e used  i n an e s s e n t i a l l y  c o n v e n t i o n a l manner i n the examples above, they are, i n the major  tales  and romances which a r e concerned w i t h moral innocence, g i v e n complex v a r i a t i o n s which r e v e a l the s p e c i f i c n a t u r e s of the moral c o n d i t i o n s examined. T h i s v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n i s found i n a l l a s p e c t s of Hawthorne's n a t u r e symbolism: remain b a s i c a l l y  h i s symbols a r e g e n e r a l l y  traditional,  they  the same throughout h i s works, and y e t they a r e m o d i f i e d  to meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l works, g i v i n g both symbols and works a new v i t a l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e . Hawthorne devotes f o u r s t o r i e s - - " T h e Snow Image," " L i t t l e  Daffydown-  -35-  dilly," and  "The  G e n t l e Boy,"  i n each of these,  a r e symbolized "The  through  and A Wonderbook--to the treatment  the c a r e f r e e and  innocent q u a l i t i e s of the  the use of the images of f l o w e r s and  the common sense  from  the m a t t e r - o f - f a c t world  and  r e p r e s e n t e d by  faith  the c h i l d r e n are themselves symbolic  of  f l o w e r s ; V i o l e t and  The  two  frame of mind,"  t h a t s e t s them a p a r t  their father,  d e s c r i b e s them  as t h i n g s of n a t u r e and p r e s e n t s t h e i r sympathy w i t h n a t u r e . of  imagina-  of t h e i r f a t h e r .  c h i l d r e n a r e d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g of "simple and undoubtable Hawthorne, to emphasize the innocence  children  sunshine.  Snow Image" p r e s e n t s a c o n t r a s t between the f a i t h and  t i o n of two young c h i l d r e n and  and  of c h i l d r e n ,  The names  of t h e i r nature, both b e i n g names  Peony:  The e l d e r c h i l d was a l i t t l e g i r l whom, because she was of a tender and modest d i s p o s i t i o n and was thought to be v e r y b e a u t i f u l , her parents, and other people who were f a m i l i a r w i t h her, used to c a l l V i o l e t . But her b r o t h e r was known by the s t y l e and t i t l e of Peony, on account of the r u d d i n e s s of h i s broad and round l i t t l e p h i z , which made everybody t h i n k of sunshine and g r e a t s c a r l e t f l o w e r s . ( I l l , p. 391) The mother, seeing them f r o l i c k i n g like  snow-birds,  flects  (IHj  t h e i r innocence  p. 392), and  i n the snow, c o n s i d e r s them as  T h e i r tremendous enjoyment of n a t u r e r e -  s i m p l i c i t y and  c r e a t i o n of the snow image out of n a t u r e . they are a b l e to see l i f e t h e i r f a t h e r , who,  being  t h i s i s symbolized  i n their  So g r e a t i s t h e i r b e l i e f ,  that  i n the c r e a t i o n , a c o n t r a s t to the a t t i t u d e of  stern r e a l i s t  t h a t he i s , cannot  enter i n t o  sympathy  w i t h t h e i r i n n o c e n t b e l i e f s and d e s t r o y s the image. The children. flowers:  framework of A Wonderbook r e p r e s e n t s another As i n "The Primrose,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  Snow Image," the c h i l d r e n are g i v e n the names of  Sweet Fern, Cowslip,  Buttercup and  others.  Throughout  -36the i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o the t a l e s , the c h i l d r e n r e v e a l a c a r e f r e e a t t i t u d e which seems t o v e r i f y the statement i t was is  of the book's opening  a " b e a u t i f u l and c o m f o r t a b l e w o r l d "  (IV, p. 15).  paragraph  that  This a t t i t u d e  r e f l e c t e d by the complete harmony they r e v e a l w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e .  Even i n w i n t e r , "the c h i l d r e n l i k e d the snow-storm b e t t e r than door games .  I t suggested  the remainder  of the w i n t e r "  An  their i n -  so many b r i s k enjoyments f o r to-morrow, and a l l (IV, p.  79).  inconsequential piece, e n t i t l e d " L i t t l e Daffydowndilly," deals  w i t h the d i s c o v e r y by the y o u t h f u l hero of the n e c e s s i t y to t o i l The hero's name i s chosen i n o r d e r t o symbolize character: resembled ..."  " L i t t l e D a f f y d o w n d i l l y was a f l o w e r , and  the i n n o c e n t n a t u r e o f h i s  so c a l l e d because i n h i s n a t u r e  l o v e d to do o n l y what was  b e a u t i f u l and  he  agreeable  607).  ( I l l , p. Although  in l i f e .  the images o f f l o w e r s and  sunshine which r e f l e c t a harmony  w i t h n a t u r e a r e employed c o n s i s t e n t l y by Hawthorne as a means o f emphasiz i n g the innocence  o f h i s f i c t i o n a l c h i l d r e n , they a r e i n "The G e n t l e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y absent*  Ilbraham,  the main c h a r a c t e r , has  many r e s p e c t s s i m i l a r to t h a t of P e a r l . p e r s e c u t e d by s o c i e t y , and  L i k e h e r , he is  led a l i f e  in  an o u t c a s t , s a v a g e l y  l i k e her he does not p l a y w i t h o t h e r  children.  However, u n l i k e P e a r l , he does not have the care of a mother, and, of  because  h i s u n s e t t l e d l i f e : , "sorrow, f e a r , and want had d e s t r o y e d much of  i n f a n t i l e expression" Pearsons,  ( I , p. 80).  Ilbraham begins  b r i e f l y regain a c h i l d - l i k e a i r . d e s c r i b e s him  Only when, a f t e r h i s a d o p t i o n by  t o l e a d a more secure and I t is  i n terms of n a t u r e images :  from a thousand  Boy"  settled l i f e ,  his the  does he  o n l y a t t h i s time t h a t Hawthorne "His a i r y gayaty,  s o u r c e s , communicated i t s e l f  coming to  to the f a m i l y , and  him  Ilbraham  -37-  was  l i k e a domesticated  sunbeam, b r i g h t e n i n g moody countenances, and  i n g away the gloom from the dark c o r n e r s Hawthorne's f l o w e r  imagery and  t h a t of r e f l e c t i n g  the innocence and  inevitability  of the end  nocence, must w i t h e r ,  of the c o t t a g e . "  ( I , p.  chas-  108)^  symbolism serves another purpose beyond p u r i t y of c h i l d r e n .  of t h e i r innocence.  and must s u f f e r  Flowers,  the doom of age  It reflects  the  l i k e childhood i n and m o r t a l i t y :  Old age i s not v e n e r a b l e when i t embodies i t s e l f i n l i l a c s , rose bushes, or any other ornamental shrub; i t seems as i f such p l a n t s , as they grow only f o r beauty, ought to f l o u r i s h always i n immortal youth, or, a t l e a s t , to d i e b e f o r e t h e i r sad d e c r e p i t u d e . T i e s of beauty are t i e s of p a r a d i s e , and t h e r e f o r e , not s u b j e c t to decay by t h e i r o r i g i n a l nature, though they have l o s t t h a t p r e c i o u s b i r t h r i g h t by being t r a n s p l a n t e d to an e a r t h l y s o i l . There i s a k i n d of l u d i c r o u s u n f i t n e s s i n the i d e a of a t i m e - s t r i c k e n and g r a n d f a t h e r l y l i l a c bush. The analogy holds good i n human l i f e . Persons who can only be g r a c e f u l and ornamental--who can g i v e the world n o t h i n g but f l o w e r s — should d i e young, and never be seen w i t h gray h a i r and w r i n k l e s , any more than the f l o w e r shrubs w i t h mossy bark and b l i g h t e d f o l i a g e , l i k e the l i l a c s under my window. ( I I , P. 173) Y o u t h f u l innocence,  l i k e p r e t t y flowers,  humanity, and must fade and w i t h e r .  i s of l i t t l e use  to the r e s t of  L i t t l e Daffydowndilly,  l i k e Pearl  D o n a t e l l o , must l e a v e h i s c h i l d h o o d  innocence to e n t e r i n t o the world  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s governed by Mr.  Toil.  t h i s process  i s the rose,  ment, " a w i t h e r e d  t r a d i t i o n a l f l o w e r of y o u t h .  various characters  been c a l l e d a "rosebud."  rose symbolizes  In the s h o r t s t o r y  the e l i x i r of l i f e ,  restored  to o r i g i n a l beauty.  f a l l a c i o u s and  In "Dr.  the w i t h e r i n g of y o u t h f u l l o v e .  unsuccessful,  the rose, a l s o n o u r i s h e d  As  by  i n the f l u i d ,  the f a c t  the  through is  However, the attempts of the c h a r a c t e r s as i s symbolized  re-  Heidegger's E x p e r i -  i n t h i s s t o r y attempt to r e v i v e t h e i r y o u t h  drinking  of  Hawthorne's f a v o r i t e symbol of  "Edward Fane's Rosebud," an aged widow r e c a l l s a y o u t h f u l romance and members t h a t she had  and  that the  rose  are  -38-  itself  soon w i t h e r s when d e p r i v e d of the m i r a c u l o u s l i q u i d .  Hawthorne uses t h i s a s p e c t of f l o w e r imagery most f o r c e f u l l y i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Phoebe Pyncheon who, i n The House of the Seven Gables, emerges from y o u t h f u l innocence i n t o mature womanhood. p a r t of the n o v e l , her i n n o c e n c e . flowers...." referred  the u s u a l images  of both f l o w e r s and sunshine symbolize  Her " f r e s h and maidenly f i g u r e (Ill,  D u r i n g the e a r l i e r  [ i s ] both sunshine and  p. 135); she i s c o n s t a n t l y compared to a rose, b e i n g  t o as a "young  rose-bud of a g i r l . . . ' .  1  (Ill,  p. 144) and as h a v i n g  a s p i r i t which resembled " i n i t s potency, a minute q u a n t i t y of o t t a r of rose...."  (Ill,  p. 166), "She impregnated  of garden r o s e s . . , , "  (Ill,  [ t h e a i r ] . . . . w i t h the perfume  p. 124). However, the f a c t  symbolize the f a d i n g of y o u t h f u l innocence foreshadows will  soon come over Phoebe.  arrival,  that f l o w e r s a l s o the changes  Hawthorne notes her i n t e r e s t ,  soon a f t e r her  i n the b l i g h t e d white r o s e s of the garden to emphasize  h e r s e l f cannot m a i n t a i n her y o u t h f u l p u r i t y .  that  that Phoebe  A s u b t l e change g r a d u a l l y  overcomes her: Her eyes looked l a r g e r , and darker, and deeper; so deep a t some s i l e n t moments, t h a t they seemed l i k e A r t e s i a n w e l l s , down, down, i n t o the i n f i n i t e . She was l e s s g i r l i s h than when we f i r s t b e h e l d her a l i g h t i n g from the omnibus; l e s s g i r l i s h , but more a woman. ( I l l , p. 210) Hawthorne, t r a c i n g t h i s change,  a p p r o p r i a t e l y uses f l o w e r imagery:  i t must be s a i d , her p e t a l s sometimes drooped a l i t t l e , the heavy atmosphere  about h e r .  "Yet,  i n consequence of  She grew more t h o u g h t f u l than h e r e t o f o r e . "  (Ill,  p. 174) and, " t h e blooming g i r l must i n e v i t a b l y droop and f a d e . . . . "  (Ill,  p. 209). In s e v e r a l s t o r i e s ,  these symbols  of f l o w e r s ,  s u n l i g h t and the r e t u r n  -39-  to  nature are applied  innocence.  to another a s p e c t of Hawthorne's concern w i t h moral  Particularly  Mount," and The  i n "The L i l y ' s Quest,"  B l i t h e d a l e Romance they r e v e a l the n a t u r e and e x t e n t of  the i s o l a t i o n a t t e n d a n t on those persons who mal  society  i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t  t i e s of l i f e and In  "The Maypole of Merry  to r e c a p t u r e l o s t  scenes i l l u s t r a t e s  the f o l l y  and  to a v o i d the c a r e s and  "The  L i l y ' s Quest,"  shine..,."  they planned  of  ( I , p. 495). and  drooping elms,"  surrounds  they appear  Although  i s a "breezy and  They walk "down the avenue symbolizes the gloom which  them and from which they cannot escape.  A l t h o u g h each s i t e  to them to be completely f r e e from any  would n e c e s s i t a t e the proposed  sorrow.  The f i r s t  Temple's f a c i n g westward toward  l o c a t i o n i s surrounded by gray p r e c i p i c e s .  Hawthorne f u r t h e r  chosen  taint,  location  symbol not of y o u t h and f r e s h n e s s , but of age and death.  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  cloudless  "as i f moulded of Heaven's sun-  landscape does n o t .  each has i n i t a symbol of human c a r e and  sun,  ( I , p. 495),  ( I , p. 429) whose appearance  by Adam and L i l i a s appears  to c r e a t e  to " c o n s e c r a t e [themselves] to.  with their a t t i t u d e - - i t  ( I , p. 496),--the  Hawthorne's  c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s  a l l manner of r e f i n e d and i n n o c e n t enjoyments."  afternoon...!'  responsibili-  of the y o u t h f u l c h a r a c t e r s ' attempts  a Temple of Happiness wherein  the weather harmonizes  from nor-  innocence.  one of the l e s s e r known t a l e s ,  s k i l l f u l use of f l o w e r imagery  remove themselves  chosen  the  setting  The  second  symbolizes  of t h e i r a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l by r e v e a l i n g t h a t each of  these supposedly A r c a d i a n a r e a s , w h i l e a p p a r e n t l y i s o l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , is  in reality  emphasized lated,  the scene of a major human tragedy.  by the f a c t  proves  t h a t the l o c a t i o n f i n a l l y  to be a tomb, a p l a c e of death,  T h i s i s most chosen,  forcefully  f a r from b e i n g  the most i n e s c a p a b l e f a c t  iso-  -40-  of human l i f e . The  ^  rose and  the l i l y  a r e a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y used  to symbolize  reality  of the q u e s t .  cluster  l i k e r o s e s among the p i l l a r s of the e d i f i c e and blossom  and  spontaneously."  the  un-  The couple p l a n t h a t " a l l pure d e l i g h t s were to  ( I , p. 494)*  not remain ever f r e s h and new,  These i n n o c e n t thoughts  ever  new  l i k e roses, can-  but w i l l w i t h e r to be r e p l a c e d by  thoughts  of c a r e and death.  The name Hawthorne g i v e s the h e r o i n e i s s i g n i f i c a n t :  "Adam F o r r e s t e r was  wont to c a l l her L i l y ,  and her cheek almost as p a l e , " bolizes,  ( I , p. 495),  has a d e l i c a t e innocence and  f a c e d w i t h the f a c t s of a d u l t l i f e . L i l i a s dies.  "The  because her form was  purity  She,  as.fragile  l i k e the f l o w e r she sym-  t h a t cannot S u r v i v e when  When the Temple i s b u i l t  c h i l l winds of the e a r t h had  on the tomb,  long s i n c e breathed a  b l i g h t i n t o t h i s b e a u t i f u l f l o w e r , so t h a t a l o v i n g hand had now planted i t ,  to blossom  b r i g h t l y i n the garden  of P a r a d i s e . "  trans-  ( I , p.  502)  m  In "The Maypole of the Merry Mount, " the same b a s i c symbols of f l o w e r s and  sunshine and  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g harmony w i t h n a t u r e a r e used.  Critisism  of the s t o r y g e n e r a l l y ©flows a l o n g l i n e s s i m i l a r to those of F o g l e  who  w r i t e s t h a t "the a l l e g o r i c a l element of "The Maypole of Merry Mount" r e s i d e s i n the c l e a r - c u t statement  and development of a problem which i s  embodied i n the c o n f l i c t between Merry Mount and Plymouth, j o l l i t y gloom, Merry England and thorne's] purpose of the two  P u r i t a n New  England."''"  i s to i s o l a t e the i n h e r e n t e v i l  and  S t e i n w r i t e s that "[Hawi n the dogmatic  positions  i d e o l o g i e s . . . . The hedonism of the v o t a r i e s of the Maypole i s  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the gloomy acceptance  of e x i s t e n c e as an o r d e a l of tempta-  2 tion."  The n a t u r e symbolism operates w i t h i n the framework of these i d e a s .  Critics,  however, have not noted  the f u l l  i m p l i c a t i o n s of these  symbols.  -41F o g l e , w r i t i n g of the a l l e g o r i c a l and s y m b o l i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the s t o r y , r i g h t l y notes t h a t "Merry Mount i s the dream o f P a r a d i s e , " ^ but does not n o t i c e s e v e r a l important d e t a i l s which appear  t o c o n t r a d i c t h i s remarks  t h a t "the commencement o f the t a l e i s a p o e t i c c e l e b r a t i o n o f Merry Mount ...." "are  4  .  S i m i l a r l y , D a n i e l G. Hoffman's remark t h a t the r e v e l l e r s  i n p e r f e c t sympathy w i t h Nature and Nature w i t h t h e m , d o e s not  account o f these d e t a i l s . are  Indeed,  the u n r e a l i t y of the r e v e l l e r s  take  attempts  symbolized by the maypole, t h e i r focus of u n i t y and the emblem of  t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y of p l e a s u r e . n a t u r e , i t appears  A l t h o u g h c r e a t e d from the m a t e r i a l s of  u n n a t u r a l and  incongruous  i n i t s forest setting.  An  a r t i f i c i a l m i x t u r e o f many t r e e s , i t r e f l e c t s not o n l y the i n e v i t a b l e f e a t of t h e i r attempt of  f a c i n g the s t e r n r e a l i t i e s  v e n e r a t e d emblem was of (I, of  to l i v e  i n complete  de-  j o y , but a l s o the n e c e s s i t i e s  o f l i f e they had sought  to a v o i d .  "This  a p i n e - t r e e ^ which had p r e s e r v e d the s l e n d e r grace  youth, w h i l e i t e q u a l l e d the l o f t i e s t h e i g h t of the o l d wood monarchs." p. 70)  T h i s c e n t r a l p i n e i s f u r t h e r made incongruous by the a d d i t i o n s  b i r c h boughs which,  i n themselves, r e f l e c t  t h e i r b e i n g p a r t l y green, p a r t l y s i l v e r . w i t h e r i n g deciduous f o o l i s h l y attempt  l e a v e s , which,  on by r i b b o n s which,  ficial  rainbow  contrast  In a d d i t i o n , they a r e  through  easily  l i k e the innocent joys the p i l g r i m s  to r e c r e a t e , soon d i e to be mourned o n l y by the ever-  green p i n e which remains.  knots o f twenty  the age-youth  These branches  a r e l o o s e l y and f l i m s i l y  Hawthorne i s c a r e f u l t o n o t e , " f l u t t e r e d  different  c o l o r s , but no  sad ones"  tied  in fantastic  ( I , p. 71).  An  arti-  i s c r e a t e d by the p a r t i c o l o r e d r i b b o n s f l o a t i n g from the  s t a i n e d top o f the t r e e , and both w i l d and c u l t i v a t e d f l o w e r s a r e u n n a t u r a l l y mixed i n the greenery.  Among these f l o w e r s i s "an abundant wreath  of roses,  -42-  some t h a t had been gathered  i n the s u n n i e s t spots o f the f o r e s t , and  of s t i l l  r i c h e r b l u s h , which c o l o n i s t s had  p. 71).  Hawthorne by r e f e r r i n g to r o s e s , symbols of t r a n s i t o r y q u a l i t y  of the a s p e c t s  of youth, a g a i n  Endicott's vigorous  the easy f a l l i n g of the l e a v e s and  f e a t of the dream and  from E n g l i s h seed"  shows the u n n a t u r a l n e s s  r e c r e a t e the innocence of y o u t h . Maypole and  reared  others,  Because they a r e w i l l i n g t o f a c e the c a r e s and human l i f e ,  of t h i s attempt d e s t r u c t i o n of  p e t a l s symbolizes  the n e c e s s i t y of the r e v e l l e r s  1  revellers.  " B r i g h t roses  there"  q u a l i t y of  glowed i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the dark and  ( I , p. 73).  The  apparent s p o n t a n e i t y  T r u l y i n n o c e n t , where t h e i r companions a r e not, They w i l l  the r o s e s . gaiety:  not by any  o f these  fall  At  spon^  flowers  they a r e more n a t u r a l than  i s our  golden time!  shadow of the mind; f o r i t may  by  of  the  Tarnish i t  be t h a t n o t h i n g  of  passing"  futurity (I,  t h i s moment, the showering down of the r o s e p e t a l s r e v e a l s  their  from innocence. S i m i l a r l y , the attempt of the p i l g r i m s i n The  create a  Utopian  socialistic  c r e a t e a new  B l i t h e d a l e Romance to  farm i s r e v e a l e d , from the opening pages of  the n o v e l , as b e i n g h i g h l y u n r e a l i s t i c . to  glossy  f a c e the r e a l i t y of f a d i n g innocence symbolized  E d i t h , " remarks Edgar, " t h i s  pensive  roses  the scene about them.  w i l l be b r i g h t e r than the mere remembrance of what i s now p. 74).  of  sprung up  U n l i k e the o t h e r s , both r e a l i z e the t r a n s i t o r y a s p e c t s  "0,  de-  the  by the d e s c r i p t i o n of the  enhances the c o n t r a s t between the young couple and  the o t h e r s .  the  responsibilities  c u r l s of each, and were s c a t t e r e d round t h e i r f e e t , or had taneously  the  c h a r a c t e r s , Edgar and E d i t h , appear detached from the  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s symbolized  about the two:  to  facing reality.^  and because they a r e aware o f the dreamlike  f e s t i v i t i e s , two  (I,  D e s e r t i n g the c i t y , they  A r c a d i a , o v e r t l y proposing  "to g i v e up whatever  intend LtheyJ  had  -43-  heretofore attained, governed  f o r the sake of showing mankind the example of a  by o t h e r than the f a l s e and c r u e l p r i n c i p l e s on which human s o c i e t y  has a l l a l o n g been based.. ' 1  (V, p. 342),  Merry Mount, they a r e evading r e a l i t y . i n d i v i d u a l s "who  However, l i k e the r e v e l l e r s a t As Coverdale notes, they are, as  had gone through such an e x p e r i e n c e as to d i s g u s t them  with ordinary p u r s u i t s . . , . "  (V, p. 390)  b a s i c a l l y p l a n n i n g an a r e a i n  which to escape from many of the h a r d s h i p s of the human c o n d i t i o n . had i n d i v i d u a l l y found one life,  "We  t h i n g or another to q u a r r e l w i t h i n our past  and were p r e t t y w e l l agreed as to .the i n e x p e d i e n c e of lumbering a l o n g  w i t h the o l d system any  further."  (V, p. 391), As F o g l e notes they b e g i n  t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the Golden Age b o l i z e s the u n r e a l i t y  of t h e i r attempt.  storm, huddled b e f o r e a warm f i r e , Later, of  life  the appearance  t h e i r scheme.  had f e l t  In the midst of a v i o l e n t snow-  they more resemble  of t h e i r s y l v a n f e s t i v a l  Based  i n weather which sym-  Eskimos than A r c a d i a n s .  symbolizes the u n r e a l i t y  on an a c t u a l Brook Farm e x p e r i e n c e which Hawthorne  showed t h a t "the every day  laws of Nature were suspended, "  p. 78) i t i s d e s c r i b e d by Coverdale as "weird and f a n t a s t i c , " rendered u n r e a l and evanescent by the f a l l i n g leaves...upon  In  the r e v e l l e r s . "  (V, p.  (V, p.  (AN,, 558)  of "a shower of September  558),  the c h a r a c t e r of D o n a t e l l o , hem of The Marble Faun, Hawthorne p r e -  sents h i s most e x t e n s i v e examination of the i n e v i t a b l e movement from i n nocence to g u i l t . to  As F o g l e and Waggoner s t a t e ,  be found i n Miriam's  statements  the core of the theme i s  that:  The s t o r y of the f a l l of man! Is i t not repeated i n our romance of Monte Beni? And may we f o l l o w the analogy y e t f u r t h e r ? Was t h a t v e r y s i n , - - i n t o which Adam p r e c i p i t a t e d h i m s e l f and a l l h i s race,--was i t the d e s t i n e d means by which, over a long pathway of t o i l and sorrow, we a r e to a t t a i n a h i g h e r , b r i g h t e r ,  -44-  and profounder happiness, than ( O u r v l o s t b i r t h r i g h t gave? W i l l not t h i s i d e a account f o r the p e r m i t t e d e x i s t e n c e of s-in,, as no other theory can? Although fully  critics  accepted  c o n t i n u e to debate the q u e s t i o n of whether or not Hawthorne  the d o c t r i n e of the F o r t u n a t e F a l l ,  t h a t the s t o r y f i t s pattern,  novel, to  i n t o the major p a t t e r n suggested  the major symbols a r e a g a i n employed.  in detail  they g e n e r a l l y agree above.  Within  F o g l e t r e a t s these images  to r e l a t e them to what he c o n s i d e r s the b a s i c c o n f l i c t of  t h a t between s i m p l i c i t y and  complexity.  this  the  The n a t u r e images a p p l i e d  D o n a t e l l o r e l a t e to h i s s i m p l i c i t y . ' ' Before the murder, of the Capuchin? monk, D o n a t e l l o i s p r e s e n t e d as a  c o m p l e t e l y amoral, u n f a l l e n state'.  i n n o c e n t being, c h i l d l i k e andalmost sub-human i n h i s  L i k e the marble faun he resembles,  he i s "endowed w i t h  no p r i n c i p l e of v i r t u e , and would be i n c a p a b l e of comprehending (VI,  p. 24). A l t h o u g h much advanced i n y e a r s from c h i l d h o o d , D o n a t e l l o ' s  p u r i t y and him  such...."  innocence,  childlike.  Miriam  h i s s e p a r a t i o n from normal human concerns, constantly refers  to him as a c h i l d ,  render  and a l l h i s  friends i n s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e ... h a b i t u a l l y and i n s t i n c t i v e l y a l l o w e d f o r him, as f o r a c h i l d or some other l a w l e s s t h i n g , e x a c t i n g no s t r i c t obedience to c o n v e n t i o n a l r u l e s , and h a r d l y n o t i c i n g h i s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s enough to pardon them. There was an i n d e f i n a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c about D o n a t e l l o t h a t s e t him o u t s i d e of rules. (VI, p. 28) T h i s i n d e f i n a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems to a r i s e from u n l i k e h i s companions, has  the f a c t  " n o t h i n g to do w i t h time, but has a look of  e t e r n a l youth i n h i s f a c e . "  (VI, p. 29)„  ity,  and more l i k e " n e i t h e r man  yet  that Donatello,  even l e s s than a c h i l d ,  In many ways he i s , i n h i s  no monster, but a b e i n g i n whom both r a c e s met  nor animal,  on f r i e n d l y  amoraland  ground."  -45-  (VI,  p. 25).  His f a l l , and  by  However, D o n a t e l l o s 1  s t a t e of innocence i s not  permanent.  which i s foreshadowed by h i s almost f a t a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r Miriam  the g e n e r a l deadening e f f e c t of the c i t y upon him,  human being  of  makes a moral  him:  I t had k i n d l e d him i n t o a man; i t had developed w i t h i n him an i n t e l l i g e n c e which was no n a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the D o n a t e l l o whom we have h e r e t o f o r e known. But t h a t simple and joyous c r e a t u r e was gone f o r e v e r . (VI, p. 203) Donatello himself r e a l i z e s the c h i l d he was: his  "I am  shadow b e h i n d . "  not a boy  now.  (VI, p. 258),  the p e r v a s i v e e f f e c t s character.  t h a t h i s l o s s of innocence has  the s i n and  D o n a t e l l o i s no  The new  Time f l i e s last half  over us,  More important,  but  from  leaves  of the n o v e l d e a l s  with  knowledge--have upon D o n a t e l l o ' s  l o n g e r i s o l a t e d from humanity:  become "members of an innumberable c o n f r a t e r n i t y of g u i l t y p. 208),  changed him  he and  Miriam  ones...."  (VI,  i n h i s s i n , he becomes i n e x t r i c a b l y u n i t e d w i t h  Miriam. T h e i r deed ... had wreathed i t s e l f ... l i k e a serpent, i n i n e x t r i c a b l e l i n k s about both t h e i r s o u l s , and drew them i n t o one, by i t s t e r r i b l e c o n t r a c t i l e power. I t was c l o s e r than a marriage-bond. (VI, p. 205) Donatello's  s y l v a n a n c e s t r y and  childhood,  resemblance to the c r e a t u r e s of the f o r e s t , all,  by  l i n k i n g him  to the A r c a d i a n  b o l i z e the n a t u r e and ing  Monte Beni,  ancestry  of  ancestral line,  the G r e c i a n Golden Age,  maiden and  innocence.  the peasant neighbors  D o n a t e l l o w i t h a s y l v a n faun who  born,  The  sym-  Kenyon, of a  roamed the  r e p u t e d l y descended from the  visit-  legendary neighfounders  o r i g i n a t e d i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p between an  a sylvan creature.  his  to the marble f a u n - r  c o u n t r y s i d e i n which he was  l e a r n s from Thomaso and  The  especially  e x t e n t of h i s i s o l a t i o n and  t h a t connects  boring forests.  h i s a c t i o n s i n nature,  geneology of the f a m i l y t r a c e s a  innocent con-  -46-  tinued closeness  to n a t u r e .  I t was a p l e a s a n t and k i n d l y race of men, but capable of savage f i e r c e n e s s , and never q u i t e r e s t r a i n a b l e w i t h i n the trammels of s o c i a l law. They were strong, a c t i v e , g e n i a l , c h e e r f u l as the sunshine, p a s s i o n a t e as the tornado. T h e i r l i v e s were rendered b l i s s f u l by an unsought harmony w i t h n a t u r e . (VI, p. 270) Although  many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l o s t i n time,  they  periodically  r e c u r r e d i n a descendant c o n s i d e r e d a r e i n c a r n a t i o n of the founder  of  race.  honesty,  and  To t h i s person  are a t t r i b u t e d  intellectual deficiencies.  the c r e a t u r e s of n a t u r e . and  He  symbolizes  i s , as w e l l , a b l e to communicate w i t h  Hawthorne, by p l a c i n g D o n a t e l l o i n t h i s l i n e a g e ,  by emphasizing that he has  istics,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of simple  i n h e r i t e d many of these r e c u r r e n t c h a r a c t e r -  the innocence of the  hero.  These q u a l i t i e s are f u r t h e r emphasized by own  childhood.  writes:  "The  Of the symbolic chapters  the  the d i s c u s s i o n of  Donatello's  v a l u e of D o n a t e l l o ' s homeland, Waggoner  on D o n a t e l l o ' s n a t i v e country  and  on h i s r e l a t i o n  to i t i n the past a r e I think, among the b e s t t h a t Hawthorne ever wrote. Everything  c o n t r i b u t e s to the e f f e c t of innocence and v i t a l i t y . "  beautiful,  p a s t o r a l c o u n t r y s i d e i n which D o n a t e l l o has  i s an a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a f o r so i n n o c e n t a c r e a t u r e . i t as "a v e r i t a b l e A r c a d i a , "  (VI, p. 274)  enjoyed  h i s youth  Kenyon, r e f e r r i n g  i s most impressed  with  d e l l which D o n a t e l l o c o n s i d e r s the scene of h i s h a p p i e s t moments. by a marble f o u n t a i n , i t has a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t the legends and  i s the scene of h i s c l o s e s t k i n s h i p w i t h Kenyon, the neighbors,  t h a t made him  sylvan  Dominated  of h i s a n c e s t r y ,  and D o n a t e l l o h i m s e l f note the s y l v a n q u a l i t i e s  says Kenyon, "a g r e a t d e a l of animal nature had  the  to  nature.  so c l o s e l y resemble the founder  i n the woods, and  The  of the f a m i l y .  i n him,  "There i s , "  as i f he had been born  run w i l d a l l h i s c h i l d h o o d , and were as y e t but  im-  -47-  p e r f e c t l y domesticated.''  (VI, p. 128), From the people of the  district  come t a l e s of h i s having always p l a y e d unharmed i n even the most p e r i l o u s areas of the f o r e s t , and of h i s having p l a y e d w i t h the w i l d c r e a t u r e s . Donatello himself credits ability call  to c a l l  the b i r d s ,  these s t o r i e s ,  t e l l i n g Kenyon of h i s c h i l d h o o d  to h i m s e l f the v a r i o u s s m a l l a n i m a l s . considers his c a l l s  to use i n n a t u r e :  "The  the most a p p r o p r i a t e language  of the human i n t e l l e c t formed what we as the sympathies  of the c i t y ,  call  language.  that prowl  h i s innocence remains,  h i s a c t i o n s i n the Borghese Gardens. ences  now  b e f o r e the  In t h i s  the woods...." and  broad  For him,  (VI, p.  i s b e s t symbolized  Here, away from  he i s j o y o u s l y e l a t e d .  r e t u r n to nature, as the gardens  sophistication  of n a t u r e — t h e human b r o t h e r might have  spoken to h i s i n a r t i c u l a t e brotherhood Even as a young man,  f o r man  s c u l p t o r f a n c i e d t h a t such might have been the  o r i g i n a l v o i c e and u t t e r a n c e of the n a t u r a l man,  dialect—broad  Kenyon, h e a r i n g him  the deadening  286),  by  influ-  this i s essentially a  i n t h e i r semi-neglected s t a t e  the c o u n t r y s i d e about his home r a t h e r than an a r t i f i c i a l  resemble  promenade;  These wooded and f l o w e r y lawns a r e more b e a u t i f u l than the f i n e s t of E n g l i s h park-scenery, more touching, more impress i v e , through the n e g l e c t t h a t l e a v e s Nature so much to her own ways and methods. S i n c e man seldom i n t e r f e r e s w i t h her, she s e t s to work i n her q u i e t way and makes h e r s e l f a t home. There i s enough of human c a r e , i t i s true, bestowed, long ago and s t i l l bestowed, to prevent w i l d n e s s from growing i n t o d e f o r m i t y ; and the r e s u l t i s an i d e a l landscape, a woodland scene t h a t seems to have been p r o j e c t e d out of the poet's mind. (VI, p. 91) In the gardens, off  D o n a t e l l o c a p t u r e s the beauty  the s t u l t i f y i n g  animals  of the scene about him,  i n f l u e n c e of Rome, and gambols j o y o u s l y about.  show no f e a r of him as he r a c e s a l o n g the paths and  trunks and  climbs l o f t y branches.  "His joy was  casts  Small  embraces  tree  l i k e that of a c h i l d  that  -48-  had  gone a s t r a y from home, and f i n d s him suddenly i n h i s mother's arms  again"  (VI, p. 95).  His innocence i s emphasized by t h e f a c t t h a t , l i k e P e a r l , he i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n images t h a t l i k e n him t o the c r e a t u r e s of t h e f o r e s t .  His  songs i n the Borghese gardens "seemed as n a t u r a l as b i r d - n o t e s " (VI, p. 103).  When M i r i a m attempts to examine h i s ears he " s t a r t e d back, as s h y l y  as a w i l d d e e r . . . " (VI, p. 127) and even when i n f l u e n c e d by the f a l l e n M i r i a m he i s c o n s t a n t l y compared to a devoted dog.  The c r e a t u r e of n a t u r e  he most resembles i s the Faun o f P r a x i t e l e s , a legendary the s t a t u e o f which, p o r t r a y i n g a t h i n g of n a t u r e ,  creature of nature,  r e v e a l e d a b e i n g "en-  dowed w i t h no p r i n c i p l e o f v i r t u e , and ... i n c a p a b l e of comprehending such ..."  (VI, p. 2 4 ) . Such a b e i n g e x i s t s o u t s i d e o f human m o r a l i t y and i t s  s y l v a n q u a l i t y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t s b e i n g : of s y l v a n l i f e , dwell  a l l the g e n i a l and happy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t u r e s  i n woods and f i e l d s , w i l l  along with  " A l l the p l e a s a n t n e s s  the k i n d r e d  was more s t r i c t . . . "  seem to be mingled i n t o one substance,  q u a l i t i e s i n the human s o u l .  been ... a poet's r e m i n i s c e n c e  that  ... The i d e a may have  of a p e r i o d when man's a f f i n i t y w i t h  nature  (VI, p. 2 5 ) . Miriam, l o o k i n g a t the s t a t u e , notes  how the innocence of such a c r e a t u r e would l e a v e i t i n nature  o u t s i d e human  relationships: Imagine, now, a r e a l b e i n g , s i m i l a r to t h i s mythic Faun; how happy, how g e n i a l , how s a t i s f a c t o r y would be h i s l i f e , enjoying the warm, sensuous, e a r t h y s i d e o f nature; r e v e l l i n g i n the merriment o f woods and streams; l i v i n g as our f o u r - f o o t e d k i n d r e d do, as mankind d i d i n i t s innocent c h i l d h o o d ; b e f o r e s i n , sorrow or m o r a l i t y i t s e l f had even been thought o f ! ( V I , P. 27). Such a b e i n g  i s D o n a t e l l o , and when these q u a l i t i e s a r e mcBt e v i d e n t , h i s  s i m i l a r i t y t o the marble faun  i s emphasized.  F o r example, i n the Borghese  -49-  Gardens, t h i s l i k e n e s s i s seen. character theory  of the scene e x c i t e d i n him,  to s e t him  semblance" (VI, p.  f a r remote, of t h a t w i l d ,  89).  for sunlight.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sunshine.  He  i n o l d , gloomy houses, and  t e l l s M i r i a m that hs  i n the d a r k " (VI, p. 58)  Even i n the wooded shadows, he  Like  He  i s "apt and,  i n the catacombs, c o n s t a n t l y a g i t a t e s to r e t u r n to the " b l e s s e d (VI, p. 40).  sweet,  to whose marble image he bore so s t r i k i n g a r e -  i s a t t r a c t e d to and  a marked p r e f e r e n c e  sylvan  fanciful  f u r t h e r n a t u r e image i s used to symbolize h i s innocence.  Pearl, Donatello  fearful  the p l e a s u r e which the  i t might be no merely  down as the kinsman, not  p l a y f u l , r u s t i c creature,  One  "Judging by  expresses to  be  while daylight!"  f e e l s t h a t " i f a s t r a y sunbeam  s t e a l i n , the shadow i s a l l the b e t t e r f o r i t s c h e e r f u l glimmer" (VI, p. He  i s o f t e n compared to sunshine.  e f f e c t "was and  an e n l i v e n i n g as  i f one  f r o l i c around the w a l l s , and  (VI, p. 64).  as  dances about Miriam's s t u d i o ,  b r i g h t ray had  finally  indeed, as he  r e s t j u s t i n the c e n t r e of the  lands by her  i f the swaying of the branches had  (VI, p. 95).  Another aspect  the  c o n t r i v e d to shimmer i n  Kenyon r e f e r s to the " n a t u r a l s u n s h i n e " (VI, p. 129)  b r i n g s M i r i a m , and, " i t was  As he  58).  floor"  Donatello  s i d e i n the Borghese gardens l e t a ray of s u n l i g h t  through"  of sunshine a s s o c i a t e d w i t h D o n a t e l l o  is  the Monte Bene wine " s u n s h i n e . " The  very  symbols used to present  them elements foreshadowing h i s f a l l . w i t h the p u r i t y of the teristics,  and  innocence c o n t a i n  His a n c e s t r y ,  s y l v a n scene, had  although  The  enjoyed so much of h i s youth has  within  associated  l o s t many of the o r i g i n a l  even those members of the f a m i l y who  of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i n l a t e r l i f e . Donatello  Donatello's  charac-  r e t a i n e d them l o s t much  b e a u t i f u l countryside  i n which  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s t o r i e s of  -50-  murder and b e t r a y a l ; and the Borghese  Gardens,  the scene of h i s l a s t  hours  of innocence, c o n t a i n w i t h i n them the l i n g e r i n g t r a c e s of m a l a r i a and the Capuchin monk whose presence immediately f i r e s a v i o l e n t h a t r e d i n Donatello.  A l t h o u g h he i s o f t e n r e l a t e d  to the g e n t l e r animals of nature,  D o n a t e l l o i s o f t e n compared to the f i e r c e r animals when he r e v e a l s the rage which w i l l  lead him t o murder.  He h i m s e l f , when angered,  he " s h a l l be l i k e a wolf of the Apennines...."  (VI, p. 26) and once r e -  v e a l s a " t i g e r - l i k e f u r y gleaming from h i s w i l d eyes." he resembles its  the marble  says t h a t  (VI, p. 176)« I f  faun's i s o l a t i o n and innocence, he a l s o  resembles  c a p a c i t y f o r b e i n g "educated through the medium of h i s emotions...."  (VI, p. 24). Even sunshine, i n the form of the famous Monte Beni wine, c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t symbols  of D o n a t e l l o ' s d o w n f a l l .  I t i s closely associated with  the f a m i l y i t s e l f and has q u a l i t i e s of D o n a t e l l o h i m s e l f i n t h a t i t i s l i k e "the a i r y satisfy!"  sweetness  of y o u t h f u l hopes,  that no r e a l i t i e s w i l l  (VI, p. 258). Two of i t s q u a l i t i e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t :  first, i t s  f l a v o r soon evaporates a f t e r the b o t t l e i s opened; and, second, i t s f l a v o r when shipped from the f a m i l y e s t a t e s .  ever  i t loses  In these r e s p e c t s i t  symbolizes D o n a t e l l o ' s i n n o c e n c e - - p a s s i n g , and sonn l o s t when removed from i t s native  scene.  D o n a t e l l o ' s l o s s of innocence i s symbolized by h i s changed r e a c t i o n s to the a s p e c t s of n a t u r e t h a t had p l e a s e d him b e f o r e . symbolized i n h i s v i s i t , an a r e a c l o s e l y before,  the day a f t e r the murder, t o the M e d i c i  resembling the Borghese  whereas he had danced  vivacious s p i r i t ,  This loss i s f i r s t  Gardens he had v i s i t e d  through the Borghese  Gardens,  two days  Gardens a c a r e f r e e and  l o v i n g and e n j o y i n g the t h i n g s of n a t u r e about him, he  -51-  now  walks s u l l e n l y about, not only not e n j o y i n g , but a l s o not even n o t i c i n g  the l o v e l y  t h i n g s about him.  Hawthorne comments on the n o t i c e a b l e change,  u s i n g the image of the marble faun to show j u s t how innocent with  c r e a t u r e of nature has f a l l e n :  the n o v e l t y of s i n and  grief,  had  fantastically  (VI, p. 235) . He  that,  Praxiteles."  g e n t l e animals  and  lizard.  change i s f u r t h e r symbolized  by h i s r e a c t i o n to h i s country home. scenes,  He h i m s e l f attempts to shut out  He d i s l i k e s  l e f t of t h a t s i n g u l a r  the k i n d and  His home, g a y l y decorated w i t h A r c a d i a n gloomy.  bewildered  f o r t h e i r s p o r t , h i s three f r i e n d s  longer a t t r a c t  s h i e s away a t the approach of a The  little  r e c o g n i z e d him as the v e r i t a b l e Faun of can no  isolated,  "In t h i s d i s m a l mood,  he had  resemblance, on account of which, and  much the  the wine " s u n s h i n e . "  seems to him  the l i g h t i n h i s dim  solitary  and  chambers.  His deep gloom i s r e v e a l e d i n the  fact  s t a n d i n g i n the tower above h i s home, he can see only the darkness  of the storm i t s e l f and  not  the s u n l i g h t t h a t f o l l o w s i t . As  through the woods t h a t he had s o r t of strangeness  had  so loved, D o n a t e l l o t e l l s Kenyon t h a t "a  overgrown them, l i k e c l u s t e r s of dark  so t h a t he had h a r d l y r e c o g n i z e d so w e l l . "  (VI, p. 280).  the p l a c e s which he had known and  he e a r n e s t l y c a l l s  to the beings  f o r e s t i n the manner of h i s e a r l i e r days, but a g a i n f a i l s , summon only a deformed, t w o - t a i l e d l i z a r d . from a l l t h a t i s innocent  to a legendary  f o r e f a t h e r who,  maiden of the f o u n t a i n . from me,  and  shrubbery, loved  In a s i n c e r e and cesperate attempt to r e e s t a b l i s h  h i s l o s t community w i t h nature  i s o l a t e d him  they walk  He  shudders a t me!  ... No  i n nature,  being a b l e to  Donatello likens  "They shun mel innocent  the  R e a l i z i n g t h a t h i s crime  because of s i n , c o u l d not  laments:  of  himself  summon f o r t h  A l l nature  t h i n g can come near  has  the  shrinks me."  -52-  (VI,  p. 288),  Hawthorne a l s o sees these events as symbolic of the f a c t  that Donatello, i n f a l l i n g , "Nature  ... i s what i t was  has  suffered  the i n e v i t a b l e human d e s t i n y :  of o l d ; but s i n , care, and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s  have s e t the human p o r t i o n of the w o r l d askew..*." all  of us," says Kenyon, "as we  mity  to n a t u r e . In  (VI, p. 277),  "We  grow o l d e r . . . . l o s e somewhat of our  I t i s the p r i c e we  pay f o r experience.*'  (VI, p.  proxi289),  t h i s chapter, i t has been seen t h a t two major symbols and a sym-  b o l i c a t t i t u d e a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y used by Hawthorne to r e v e a l the moral i n nocence i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s . in  By d e s c r i b i n g the many c h i l d r e n of the  terms of sunshine and f l o w e r s and by emphasizing  the harmony w i t h which  they r e a c t to the o b j e c t s of nature, Hawthorne symbolizes ity  which s e p a r a t e s them from the normal a d u l t w o r l d .  been seen t h a t these symbols a r e a l s o used an end  to innocence.  Faun innocence  w i t h e r and f a l l , his  and  However, i t has  to r e v e a l the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  In the former  the sun s e t s ;  story,  symbolizing Donatello's f a l l  Marble  the p e t a l s of the maypole  sunlight.  by s t r e s s i n g h i s disenchantment  n a t u r e and h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r gloomy p l a c e s , and  with  the coming of the P u r i t a n  regime by the i n c r e a s e of the dusk, Hawthorne employs another group of n a t u r e symbols.  of  i n the l a t t e r D o n a t e l l o ceases to enjoy  a r c a d i a n c o u n t r y s i d e and a v o i d s the b r i g h t In  the i n n o c e n t q u a l -  In "The Maypole of the Merry Mount" and The  i s lost.  stories  The next chapter examines Hawthorne's d e t a i l e d use of  these and a s s o c i a t e d symbolic p a t t e r n s .  -53FOOTNOTES  F o g l e , op. c i t . , p. 60. W i l l i a m Bysshe S t e i n , Hawthorne's F a u s t Fogle,  op. c i t . , p. 62.  Ibid.,  p. 65.  Form and F a b l e i n American F i c t i o n  (Gainesville,  (New York,  1953), p. 60.  1961), p. 129.  T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y takes p l a c e a t sunset. As F o g l e notes, the f a d i n g of the day symbolizes the death of the u n n a t u r a l g a i e t y of the r e v e l l e r s and the coming of the moral gloom of the P u r i t a n s . Moreover, i t takes p l a c e on Mid-Summer N i g h t . The n a t u r a l rhythm of the season, which Norton's people have attempted to evade, has cont i n u e d ; j u s t as the c a r e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l i f e which they have a l s o attempted t o evade have come upon them. (See Hoffman, Op. c i t . , p. 132.) See Hawthorne's F i c t i o n ,  pp. 164-7.  Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 208.  Chapter  Four  NATURE AS SYMBOL OF MORAL EVIL  The major n a t u r e symbol Hawthorne uses t o r e v e a l t h e moral s t a t e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s i s o l a t e d through  s i n and g u i l t  the w i l d e r n e s s , a voyage symbolic  i s t h a t of t h e journey  into  o f a moral s e p a r a t i o n which has r e s u l t e d  e i t h e r because of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n a b i l i t y  t o a c c e p t t h e burden o f a  g u i l t which i s o f t e n common t o humanity o r because o f h i s h a r b o r i n g a deep evil,  o f t e n p r i d e , which he f e e l s p l a c e s him beyond other p e o p l e .  t h i s major symbol, t h e p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s e s the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n r e f l e c t  Within  surrounding  t h e i r p e c u l i a r mental s t a t e s .  As i n  h i s use o f other symbols, Hawthorne uses t h e symbol of the w i l d e r n e s s w i t h great d e l i c a c y ; w h i l e i t s g e n e r a l o u t l i n e remains c o n s t a n t , i t i s c a r e f u l l y a l t e r e d and shaped t o f u l f i l l  the requirements  c h a r a c t e r s i n "The Hollow o f t h e Three H i l l s , "  o f m i r r o r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l "Young Goodman Brown," "Roger  M a l v i n ' s B u r i a l , " "The Great C a r b u n c l e , " "The Man o f Adamant," and "Ethan Brand."  The symbol of a journey i s a l s o used by Hawthorne i n o t h e r  most n o t a b l y i n "My Kinsman, Major Molyneaux." i s not a journey s p e c i f i c a l l y analyzed i n t h i s chapter.  tales,  However, i n t h i s t a l e , i t  i n t o n a t u r e and does n o t f i t i n t o the p a t t e r n  Robin, whose voyage from h i s country home t o t h e  c i t y i s n e a r l y complete as t h e s t o r y commences, does n o t undergo a p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i o n into e v i l .  Moreover, he i s m a i n l y an onlooker v i e w i n g h i s u n c l e ' s  e v i c t i o n from o f f i c e , an a c t i o n l a r g e l y symbolic o f the overthrow of t h e B r i t i s h ; and, a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the s t o r y , he i s not a m o r a l l y  isolated  i n d i v i d u a l , f o r he has presumably l e a r n e d t h e l e s s o n s the n i g h t ' s  exper-  i e n c e s have taught him and i s now ready f o o t i n g with other  to enter the community on equal  people.  In The American Adam, R. W. B. Lewis remarks t h a t , i n Hawthorne's f i c -  -55-  tion,  "we  have the f r a n t i c s h u t t l i n g ,  v i l l a g e and  the f o r e s t ,  the c i t y and  i n n o v e l a f t e r n o v e l , between the the country...."''"  And,  i n "The  Hollow  of the Three H i l l s , " "Young Goodman Brown," "Roger M a l v i n ' s B u r i a l , " "The Man  of Adamant," the journey i n t o the country becomes the major sym-  b o l of the c h a r a c t e r s ' i n i t i a t i o n i n t o , The  and  or p r o g r e s s deeper i n t o  evil.  image of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s encounter w i t h moral e v i l and g u i l t was  dominant one  i n Hawthorne's mind, and  most famous and  served as the b a s i s f o r one  a  of h i s  o f t - q u o t e d notebook e n t r i e s :  The human Heart to be a l l e g o r i z e d as a cavern; a t the entrance there i s sunshine, and f l o w e r s growing about i t . You step w i t h i n , but a s h o r t d i s t a n c e , and b e g i n to f i n d y o u r s e l f surrounded w i t h a t e r r i b l e gloom, and monsters of d i v e r s kinds; i t seems l i k e H e l l i t s e l f . You a r e bewildered, and wander long w i t h o u t hope. A t l a s t a l i g h t s t r i k e s upon you. You peep towards i t , and f i n d y o u r s e l f i n a r e g i o n t h a t seems, i n some s o r t , to reproduce the f l o w e r s and sunny beauty of the entrance, but a l l p e r f e c t . These are the depths of the h e a r t , or of human nature, b r i g h t and p e a c e f u l ; the gloom and the t e r r o r may l i e deep; but deeper s t i l l i s the e t e r n a l beauty. (AN, p. 98) As  t h i s image i s expanded i n h i s f i c t i o n ,  differences. of nature,  First,  although  the journey  however, there are  significant  takes p l a c e i n the gloomy p l a c e s  i t i s g e n e r a l l y o u t s i d e of the cavern,  i n the f o r e s t  itself.  Second, the m a j o r i t y of Hawthorne's c h a r a c t e r s do not complete the and a r r i v e a t the a r e a of p e r f e c t i o n .  Finally,  the image i s seldom  as simple a l l e g o r y ; g e n e r a l l y , i t f u n c t i o n s as-."a complex The  symbol f i r s t appears  Hollow of the Three H i l l s . "  i n one  the s t o r y d e a l s w i t h the  meeting between a young woman and an o l d hag, lady, f i l l e d w i t h g u i l t , child  she has abandoned.  probably a w i t c h .  journey of the lady to the l o n e l y  "The twilight  Here the  l e a r n s of the f a t e of the parents, husband The  handled  symbol.  of Hawthorne's e a r l i e s t works,  Essentially,  journey  and  spot i s  -56-  not d i s c u s s e d , b u t i t i s made obvious meeting  has been chosen  countered,  of  fori t s isolation:  no m o r t a l c o u l d observe  Although  t h a t the p l a c e of t h e i r  them,"  the symbolic journey i t s e l f  the meeting  i s . As what Marius  pre-arranged  " I n the spot where they en(I,  p. 228),  i s n o t d e s c r i b e d , the s e t t i n g  Bewley r e f e r s to as "a p o e t i c a l l y  evoked  2 symbol," has  the w i l d e r n e s s which surrounds her r e f l e c t s  i s o l a t e d her.  pervading i t .  The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of the h o l l o w i s the gloom  Although,  w o r l d beyond the hollow, evil  the e v i l w i t h i n t h a t  throughout  the sketch, the sun has n o t s e t i n the  the h o l l o w i t s e l f becomes darker as the extent  of  h e r moral  i s r e v e a l e d to both the lady h e r s e l f and to the r e a d e r .  If  Bewley's view t h a t the t h r e e h i l l s " a r e symbols of her p r o f o u n d e s t human 3  relationships"  be a l t e r e d  to read t h a t they a r e symbols of the e v i l s  have e n t e r e d i n t o these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , significance.  the gloom of the h o l l o w g a i n s added  I t i s h e r e v i l which p r e v e n t s the s u n l i g h t , which as we  have seen i s symbolic of moral goodness and innocence, Bewley r i g h t l y soul,  that  suggests  from s h i n i n g on h e r .  t h a t the h o l l o w r e p r e s e n t s the woman's h e a r t or  i s o l a t e d and f i l l e d w i t h gloom.  Hawthorne do not, as Bewley suggests,  However, the items d e s c r i b e d by r e p r e s e n t the f a t e s of those d e s e r t e d ,  but the s t a t e of her own mind.  Thus the dwarfed  symbolize  ( I , p. 228) which marks the lady " i n what  " t h e untimely b l i g h t "  should have been the f u l l e s t brown g r a s s of October," and  s l u g g i s h water,  bloom of h e r y e a r s . . . "  ( I , p. 228) the decayed  symbolize  p i n e s r i n g i n g the hollow  ( I , p. 228).  "The  oak and the p o o l of green  the death of love, and the moral  decay and  s t a g n a t i o n which have l e d the lady to h e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . In  t h i s very e a r l y  sketch a r e b r i e f l y  Hawthorne uses i n the examination  t r a c e d the b a s i c n a t u r e  symbols  of those c h a r a c t e r s m o r a l l y e v i l . The  -57-  journey i t s e l f ,  the gloom of the w i l d e r n e s s , and  the f o r e s t a r e a l l expanded and  fully  developed  the p h y s i c a l s t a t e of i n later tales.  For  ex-  ample, i n "Young Goodman Brown," the e n t i r e s t o r y i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the framework of the journey, and  the a c t i o n takes p l a c e between dusk and dawn,  the appearance of the f o r e s t becomes a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of Brown's  moral and  psychological state.  Although  critics  debate about the meaning of the t a l e , and,  indeed,  4 F o g l e sees i t s ambiguity  as c e n t r a l ,  one a s p e c t of the meaning i s obvious:  Young Goodman Brown i s i s o l a t e d i n h i s d i s c o v e r y t h a t e v i l ity.  The  s t o r y opens w i t h h i s c o n s c i o u s r e j e c t i o n of human companionship,  t h a t of h i s w i f e , and as he c o n t i n u e s alone i n h i s e v i l teristic  becomes n o t i c e a b l e :  f e a t e d the d e v i l . ments by  e x i s t s i n human-  As  his pride.  He f e e l s  the d e v i l l e a v e s him:  journey one  charac-  t h a t he a l o n e has  "the young man  the r o a d s i d e , a p p l a u d i n g h i m s e l f g r e a t l y , and  de-  s a t a few  thinking with  mohow  c l e a r a c o n s c i e n c e he should meet the m i n i s t e r i n h i s morning walk..,." (II,  p. 96)  However, h i s egotism i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  to p r e s e r v e him  and,  completely alone, he s i n k s i n t o the d e s t r u c t i v e doubt d i s c u s s e d by F o g l e . G e n e r a l l y speaking,  the c l o s i n g  scenes d e a l w i t h t h e ' i n a b i l i t y  l a t e d Brown to r e c o g n i z e and a c c e p t the burden of g u i l t by h i s n e i g h b o r s but by h i m s e l f .  of the  iso-  shared not only  The n a t u r e symbolism r e f l e c t s  the moral  i s o l a t i o n of Brown. As noted above, the s t o r y opens a t sunset, w i t h Brown c o n s c i o u s l y r e jecting  the p l e a s of h i s w i f e and  alone, and one  determining  to then never a g a i n l e a v e h i s w i f e .  i n t o i n c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n and  the p h y s i c a l journey r e f l e c t s t h i s :  evil.  to go h i s journey  completely  H i s movement i s t h e r e f o r e  Hawthorne's v i v i d  d e s c r i p t i o n of  -58-  He had taken a dreary road, darkened by a l l the g l o o m i e s t t r e e s of the f o r e s t , which b a r e l y stood a s i d e to l e t the narrow path creep through, and c l o s e d immediately b e h i n d . I t was a l l as l o n e l y as c o u l d be; and t h e r e i s t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y i n such a s o l i t u d e , that the t r a v e l l e r knows not who may be c o n c e a l e d by the innumerable trunks and the t h i c k boughs overhead; so t h a t w i t h l o n e l y f o o t s t e p s he may y e t be p a s s i n g through an unseen m u l t i t u d e . ( I I , p. 90) O b v i o u s l y the movement i n t o the f o r e s t away from the v i l l a g e  parallels  the i n t e n t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n Brown a c q u i r e s i n h i s e g o t i s t i c a l attempt confront e v i l a a l o n e .  to  However, as he pursues h i s quest he e n t e r s areas  which i n t h e i r d e n s i t y and gloom symbolize the e v i l which he i s more d i rectly  encountering.  possibility  Moreover, the doubt he e n t e r t a i n s c o n c e r n i n g the  of persons h i d i n g behind t r e e s , foreshadows  he w i l l a c q u i r e r e g a r d i n g the e x i s t e n c e of When Brown meets the d e v i l ,  the i n t e r n a l  evil.  t h a t i s when he f i r s t  confronts e v i l ,  Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes the p h y s i c a l darkness which symbolizes moral darkness.  " I t was  now  92)  i s significant,  the  deep dusk i n the f o r e s t , and deepest i n t h a t  p a r t of i t where these two were journeying.' d e v i l ' s remarks t h a t "we  doubt  4  a r e but a l i t t l e way  ( I I , p. 91). However, the i n the f o r e s t y e t , " ( I I , p.  f o r the knowledge of e v i l as y e t a c q u i r e d by Brown  and h i s p r e s e n t moral  i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n i s s m a l l and w i l l  increase.  As Brown c o n t i n u e s h i s journey h i s awareness of the e v i l  of a l l men  i n c r e a s e s as he hears the v o i c e s of the v i l l a g e r s Goody C l o y s e and Deacon Gookin.  His a c t i o n s i n the f o r e s t  symbolize  the p r e s e n t s t a t e of h i s s o u l :  "Young Goodman Brown caught h o l d of a t r e e f o r support, b e i n g ready to s i n k down on the ground, his heart."  f a i n t and overburdened  w i t h the heavy s i c k n e s s of  ( I I , p. 97), A t t h i s p o i n t , h i s a c t i o n s a r e l i k e  A r t h u r Dimmesdale, who,  wandering  a l o n e i n the f o r e s t , wished  those of to d i s s o l v e  -59-  i n t o the f o r e s t f l o o r , While  r a t h e r than f a c e and assume the burden  Brown i s not g u i l t y  of a s p e c i f i c  s i n , he i s f i n d i n g ,  state,  t h a t he i s unable to a c c e p t man's o r i g i n a l  forest  symbolize  ness of e v i l cloud,  though  the weakness i n h i s s o u l .  increases,  brightening stars."  stirring,  of the f o r e s t , as "a  ( I I , p. 9 8 ) ,  to a c c e p t t h i s f a c t ,  c r y t h a t "My  H i s a c t i o n s i n the  h u r r i e d a c r o s s the z e n i t h and h i d the  His apparent d i s c o v e r y of the g u i l t ability  i n his isolated  A t t h i s moment, as h i s aware-  so too does the darkness  no wind was  sin.  of h i s g u i l t .  r e s u l t s i n h i s complete moral  F a i t h has gone!"  l o s s of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h ,  of h i s w i f e , F a i t h , and h i s i n His  ( I I , p. 99) i n a d d i t i o n to s y m b o l i z i n g a  suggests a l o s s ,  and w i t h her of h i s t i e s w i t h humanity. a t once to sympathize w i t h and  isolation.  perhaps  a rejection,  of h i s w i f e ,  F o g l e notes t h a t "Nature  to mock the anguished  chaos  i s made  i n Goodman  Brown; i n h i s rage the hero i s both u n i t e d w i t h and opposed to the f o r e s t and  the wind."^  I t i s more than t h i s ,  f o r the w i l d e r n e s s and h i s a c t i o n s -  i n the w i l d e r n e s s become a symbolic p r o j e c t i o n of h i s moral  condition:  And, maddened w i t h d e s p a i r , so t h a t he laughed loud and long, d i d Goodman Brown grasp h i s s t a f f and s e t f o r t h again, a t such a r a t e t h a t he seemed to f l y a l o n g the f o r e s t path r a t h e r than to walk or r u n . The road grew w i l d e r and d r e a r i e r and more f a i n t l y t r a c e d , and v a n i s h e d a t l e n g t h , l e a v i n g him i n the h e a r t of the dark w i l d e r n e s s , s t i l l r u s h i n g onward w i t h the i n s t i n c t that guides m o r t a l man to e v i l . The whole f o r e s t was peopled w i t h f r i g h t f u l sounds--the c r e a k i n g of the t r e e s , the howling of w i l d b e a s t s , and the y e l l of I n d i a n s ; w h i l e sometimes the wind t o l l e d l i k e a d i s t a n t church b e l l , and sometimes gave a broad r o a r around the t r a v e l l e r , as i f a l l Nature were l a u g h i n g him to s c o r n . But he was h i m s e l f the c h i e f horr o r of the scene, and shrank not from i t s o t h e r h o r r o r s . ( I I , P. 99) The complete  d i s a p p e a r a n c e of the f o r e s t path symbolizes Brown's  moral i s o l a t i o n ,  f o r , a l t h o u g h he a p p a r e n t l y rushes to the meeting  complete of the  -60-  witches'  sabbath,  he rushes away from  c o m p l e t e l y dominant.  The  the v i l l a g e ,  his e v i l influences  chaos of the w i l d e r n e s s p a r a l l e l s  the chaos i n  Brown s mind. 1  I t may  seem i l l o g i c a l  l a t i o n ; ' i s symbolized  t h a t the d e s t i n a t i o n of Brown's journey of  as a w i t c h e s '  t h e i r common bond of s i n .  sabbath a t which the v i l l a g e r s p r o f e s s  However, i t should be r e a l i z e d  not j o i n t h a t community and  t h a t the r e s t of h i s l i f e  i s o l a t i o n a p a r t from h i s w i f e , f a m i l y and a darkly meditative, a d i s t r u s t f u l , from by and  hood i n s i n .  confirmed.  ( I I , p. 106).  T h i s i s symbolized sabbath,  s e t t i n g of the w i t c h e s '  Brown by the acceptance  the c o l d  sabbath-sym-  of h i s b r o t h e r -  r e f e r s to as a grave  even w i t h the g u i l t i e s t ,  h i s hand be c l e a n , h i s h e a r t hath s u r e l y been p o l l u t e d . . . . " Thus Young Goodman Brown has  the is  However, Brown, a t the f i n a l moment, r e s i s t s communion.  must not d i s c l a i m h i s brotherhood,  The  but  the candles and a l t a r a t which the brotherhood  committed what Hawthorne elsewhere  a grave  d i d he become  Thus, as i s s t a t e d by Hawthorne, the b u r n i n g p i n e s and  g r e a t rock symbolize  has  The  the communion t h a t awaited  i s spent i n a gloomy  t h a t "a s t e r n , a sad,  t h a t h i s d e s t i n a t i o n i s not the w i t c h e s '  empty f o r e s t he wakes up i n .  bolizes  friends;  t h a t Brown does  i f not a d e s p e r a t e man  the n i g h t of t h a t f e a r f u l dream."  the f a c t  iso-  He  sin.  "Man  since,  though  ( I , p.  i s o l a t e d h i m s e l f from h i s f e l l o w s by  257),  committing  s i n h i m s e l f , t h a t of p r i d e . f i n a l n a t u r e symbol of the s t o r y serves to r e v e a l the e x t e n t of  the moral i s o l a t i o n brought  about by h i s p r i d e :  Hardly had he spoken when he found h i m s e l f amid calm n i g h t and s o l i t u d e , l i s t e n i n g to a r o a r of the wind which d i e d h e a v i l y away through the f o r e s t . He staggered a g a i n s t the rock, and f e l t i t c h i l l and damp; w h i l e a hanging twig, t h a t  -61-  had been a l l on f i r e , dew. ( I I , p. 105) The  complete  the complete like his  b e s p r i n k l e d h i s cheek w i t h the c o l d e s t  s o l i t u d e of Brown i n the depths i s o l a t i o n he w i l l  of the dark f o r e s t  f e e l f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e .  symbolizes His heart,  the rock a g a i n s t which he s t a g g e r s , w i l l become c h i l l and damp. nighttime t r i p  symbolizes n o t merely  but one of g r e a t s i n , p r i d e ,  a journey of i n i t i a t i o n i n t o  Thus evil,  i n which h i s r e j e c t i o n of human e v i l has  brought moral and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n upon him. L i k e "Young Goodman Brown," "Roger Marvin's  B u r i a l " also considers  the e f f e c t s of a young man's s t r u g g l e s w i t h a burden of g u i l t . remarks t h a t "here, most c l e a r l y ,  Waggoner  i s the u s u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h  g u i l t , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g i s o l a t i o n ,  and w i t h a sense of compulsion."  Howev^er, a l t h o u g h he notes t h a t " t h e two key scenes of the s t o r y p l a c e deep i n the h e a r t of the dark f o r e s t , unable  t o f o r g e t as he i s unable  s e p u l c h r e of h i s h e a r t , ' h e  secret  take  i n a g l a d e which Reuben i s  to c a s t out the s e c r e t t h a t l i e s i n 'the  summararily  d i s m i s s e s the n a t u r e  symbolism  g in  a paragraph.  Brown:  Agnes Donohue  " I n both t a l e s  notes the p a r a l l e l s  ... Hawthorne's i n t e r e s t  t o Young Goodman  l i e s i n the f o r e s t , the  w i l d e r n e s s , and what happens t h e r e ; " b u t she c o n s i d e r s mainly a s p e c t s of t h i s symbolism. only h i n t s ,  The f o r e s t i s indeed symbolic, but, as F o g l e  i t i s symbolic of Brown's moral  and Donohue f a i l  to.develop t h i s  condition.  two  However, both F o g l e  significance.  The b a s i c o u t l i n e of the symbolism i s s i m i l a r man Brown":  the m y t h i c a l  t h e r e i s the c y c l i c a l  to t h a t of "Young Good-  journey w i t h town and c o u n t r y as the  p o l e s , the major a c t i o n takes p l a c e i n an i s o l a t e d c l e a r i n g ,  the w i l d e r n e s s , and the dominant elements  deep i n  of the c l e a r i n g a r e a l a r g e rock  -62  and unusual  trees.  b o l s used:  most obvious,  r e v e r s e from  However, t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the symthe journey i n "Roger M a l v i n ' s  t h a t i n "Young Goodman Brown," moving from w i l d e r n e s s to town  and back to w i l d e r n e s s ; and, of the gloom i s p a r t i a l l y reflect  B u r i a l " i s the  i n the f i n a l h a l f of the journey the  dispelled.  These d i f f e r e n c e s i n rsymbols  the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h a r a c t e r s themselves,  both heroes  are i n i t i a t e d  into evil,  hero "on  used  f o r though  Bourne f i n a l l y a c h i e v e s a h i g h e r  t i o n than Brown, f o r the e x p i a t i o n of h i s g u i l t , great i s o l a t i o n .  totality  although  tragic,  posi-  ends h i s  Thus, w h i l e a t the end of "Young Goodman Brown," the  the Sabbath day, when the c o n g r e g a t i o n were s i n g i n g a h o l y psalm .  c o u l d not l i s t e n because an anthem of s i n rushed drowned a l l the b l e s s e d s t r a i n , " B u r i a l , " "a prayer,  the f i r s t  of Reuben Bourne,"  ( I I , p.  As he d i d i n The  ( I I , p. 106)  l o u d l y on h i s ear  a t the end  f o r y e a r s , went up  of "Roger M a l v i n  to Heaven from the  Scarlet Letter,  lips  Hawthorne makes the d e t a i l s of the  i s o l a t e d from the community as Bourne h i m s e l f i s . the a r e a around i t ,  s e t s him a p a r t from  1  406).  c l e a r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e symbols of h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s moral s t a t e .  s e t s i t a p a r t from  and  the community:  First,  i t is  Second, the v e g e t a t i o n  j u s t as Bourne's moody c o n d i t i o n  "Oaks and  o t h e r hard-wood t r e e s had  s u p p l i e d the p l a c e of p i n e s , which were the u s u a l growth of the l a n d . . . . " (II, mind.  p. 382),  The  oaks themselves  They have not  reflect  the s t a t e of Brown's h e a r t  and  the enduring q u a l i t y  of the p i n e s t h a t surround  them,  j u s t as Reuben, u n l i k e the other s e t t l e r s , in  the community.  he cannot  i s unable  to endure and  prosper  Because the c l e a r i n g i s l o c a t e d deep w i t h i n the f o r e s t ,  r e c a l l i t s exact l o c a t i o n ,  j u s t as he was  the s e c r e t p l a c e of h i s s o u l where h i s motives  "unable  to p e n e t r a t e  lay hidden...,"  ( I I , p.  402  -63-  The  oak  to which he a f f i x e d h i s blood  of Bourne h i m s e l f . young and v i g o r o u s  At  s t a i n e d bandage i s l i k e w i s e a symbol  the opening o f the  s a p l i n g " ( I I , p. 382).  s t o r y i t i s , l i k e the youth, At  the c o n c l u s i o n  of the  "a  story,  The s a p l i n g to which he had bound the b l o o d s t a i n e d symbol of h i s vow had i n c r e a s e d and strengthened i n t o an oak, f a r indeed from i t s m a t u r i t y , but w i t h no mean spread of shadowy branches. There was one s i n g u l a r i t y o b s e r v a b l e i n t h i s t r e e which made Reuben t r e m b l e . The m i d d l e and lower branches were i n l u x u r i a n t l i f e , and an excess of v e g e t a t i o n had f r i n g e d the t r u n k almost to the ground; but a b l i g h t had a p p a r e n t l y s t r i c k e n the upper p a r t of the oak, and the v e r y topmost bough was w i t h e r e d , s a p l e s s , and u t t e r l y dead. ( I I , pp. 402-3) What of course has  b l i g h t e d the t r e e i s the bandage, j u s t as  u n f u l f i l l e d h o l y vow Reuben's w e l l The  the bandage t h a t has  the a l t a r upon which Reuben Bourne must o f f e r the  Reuben's h e a r t . are t o l d that:  However, i t i s more than t h i s ;  I t i s introduced  ( I I , p. 382).  i t i s the c e n t r e  of  story,  and  surface  not u n l i k e a g i g a n t i c grave-  seemed to form an i n s c r i p t i o n i n f o r g o t t e n Roger M a l v i n  remarks t h a t "on  d y i n g hand s h a l l c a r v e the name of Roger M a l v i n . . . " l a t e r asks t h a t Reuben prop him watch the l a t t e r ' s d e p a r t u r e . Reuben's h e a r t .  Donohue  ritualistic  "the mass of g r a n i t e , r e a r i n g i t s smooth, f l a t  stone, upon which the v e i n s  as he  destroy  Agnes,  i n the second sentence of the  f i f t e e n or twenty f e e t above t h e i r heads, was  characters"  the  being.  s a c r i f i c e of h i s son.  r o c k and  h e l p e d to  major symbol of the c l e a r i n g i s the l a r g e gray r o c k .  sees i t as  we  symbolized by  i t was  against  ( t h i s rockj  ( I I , p. 384)  my  and  the r o c k so t h a t he might b e t t e r  There are many p a r a l l e l s here between  the  I t i s c o l d and h a r d , as Reuben's h e a r t becomes  develops h i s " i n s u l a t e d emotions";  ( I I , p. 396)  moreover, the  veins  f o r m i n g the s e c r e t h i e r o g l y p h i c s , p a r a l l e l the s e c r e t engraved on h i s  heart.  -64-  Hawthorne mentions the " s e p u l c h r e of h i s [Reuben's] h e a r t , "  ( I I , p. 402)  and  Roger's w i l d e r n e s s s e p u l c h r e forms an a p t comparison,  has  i n s c r i b e d h i s name upon the rock a g a i n s t which he leans, so, indeed,  has h i s name been engraved this heart. tion, (II,  i n Reuben's h e a r t , and h i s memory weighs on  F i n a l l y , when, a f t e r s l a y i n g h i s son, Reuben ends h i s i s o l a -  Hawthorne notes  t h a t " t h e t e a r s gushed out l i k e water from a r o c k . "  p. 4 0 6 ) . Thus, Reuben's unconscious  J  symbolizes heart. May  and y e t compulsive  h i s r e t u r n t o and u n c o v e r i n g  As Agnes Donohue notes,  of the g u i l t w i t h i n h i s i s o l a t e d  the journey i s c y c l i c a l .  later,  a t sunset.  I t begins  soul.  As he l e a v e s Roger:  shrubs  imbibed  gloom on Nature's  on a  eighteen  From the b e g i n n i n g of the n o v e l , there i s an i n -  c r e a s i n g gloom i n the f o r e s t which p a r a l l e l s  (II,  r e t u r n t o the c l e a r i n g  morning a t s u n r i s e i n the c l e a r i n g and ends i n the c l e a r i n g ,  years  and  f o r j u s t as:'he  the growing darkness  "The morning sun was unclouded,  of Reuben's  and the t r e e s  the sweet a i r of the month of May; y e t t h e r e seemed a f a c e , as i f she sympathized  p. 390), And, "on the second  day the clouds, g a t h e r i n g d e n s e l y  the sky, p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t i o n of the sun...."  w i t h m o r t a l p a i n and sorrow." over  of r e g u l a t i n g h i s course by the p o s i -  On the evening  on which he r e t u r n s to the c l e a r i n g ,  t h e i r camp i s made beneath the "gloomy p i n e s " ( I I , p. 399) and as Dorcas and  Reuben stand over  the h o r i z o n . . . . "  the body of t h e i r dead son, " t h e sun was ... beneath  ( I I , p. 405) .  Hawthorne emphasizes n o t only the deepening a l s o the f a c t "The  t h a t the journey i t s e l f  gloom of the journey but  i s i n t o a d e s o l a t e and d i s m a l a r e a .  t a n g l e d and gloomy f o r e s t through which the personages of my  were wandering d i f f e r e d w i d e l y from  tale  the dreamer's land of f a n t a s y . . . . "  f  (II,  p. 398).  As  -65-  they make t h e i r f i n a l  camp, so c l o s e to the c l e a r i n g sym-  b o l i c o f Reuben's h e a r t , the l o n e l i n e s s of the f o r e s t "The  i s a g a i n emphasized:  dark and gloomy p i n e s looked down upon them, and, as the wind swept  through t h e i r tops, a p i t y i n g sound was  heard i n the f o r e s t . . . " ( I I , pp.  399-400). However, a l t h o u g h the journey i s one o f gloom and  isolation,  i t is  a l s o one which l e a d s to an e x p i a t i o n o f the g u i l t which had so l o n g caused the i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n Reuben, and, a l t h o u g h the n a t u r e symbols the former a s p e c t s , they do foreshadow the l a t t e r . i n May,  The  underscore  journey takes p l a c e  a t a time a t which n a t u r e i t s e l f undergoes a r e b i r t h .  Moreover,  as the f a m i l y begins i t s journey, Hawthorne notes i n n a t u r e a h i n t of a g r e a t e r happiness  than they now  t h e i r way  t h a t Nature a s s e r t e d as her own,  of l i f e  enjoy:  "And y e t t h e r e was  to "Tt  d o m e s t i c a t i n g "the gloomy f o r e s t  had a s t r a n g e a s p e c t , t h a t one l i t t l e  desolate heart of Nature" song,  obstructed their  The most s i g n i f i c a n t symbol i n d i c a t i n g an  i s o l a t i o n i s t h a t of Dorcas*  ( I I , p. 403).  i n t o which "the poet had  spot of homely comfort Although  instilled  and h o u s e h o l d happiness..." ( I I , p. 404)  in  and the gnawing c a r e s  which went w i t h them from the w o r l d were a l l t h a t now h a p p i n e s s " ( I I , p. 398).  something  end  clearing. i n the  i n one a s p e c t her  little  the v e r y essence o f domestic  love  is ironically tragic, i t is  a l s o a symbol o f the warm human f e e l i n g t h a t w i l l  e n t e r i n t o the h e r e t o -  f o r e l o n e l y and i s o l a t e d h e a r t o f Reuben.  The  journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s serves as a symbol not o n l y o f the  i s o l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s l a b o r i n g under a burden  of g u i l t , but a l s o o f  i n d i v i d u a l s whose e x c e s s i v e p r i d e causes them to i s o l a t e themselves other people.  from  F o r example, i n "The Great C a r b u n c l e , " a l l but two o f those  -66-  s e a r c h i n g a f t e r the f a b u l o u s gem  seek a means to i n c r e a s e t h e i r sense of  superiority  over and,  quest  them not only i n t o the h e a r t of the w i l d e r n e s s ,  takes  hence, i s o l a t i o n from t h e i r f e l l o w s .  the denuded s l o p e s of a mountainside "where [nature's] own had never been.."  ( I , p. 185),  And,  i n "The  p l a n to " s e c l u d e h i m s e l f to the s o l e and fortune,"  ( I I I , p. 564)  i s symbolized  Man  Thus  their  but even onto green f o o t p r i n t s  of Adamant," R i c h a r d Digby' s  c o n s t a n t enjoyment of h i s happy  by h i s journey  not only i n t o  the  h e a r t of the f o r e s t , but a l s o i n t o a deep cave where h i s c a l l o u s h e a r t literally The  turns to quest  stone.  f o r the Great  Carbuncle  t e r s f o r something which w i l l "They had  Hannah, "who  charac-  isolation.  i m p e l l e d by h i s own  ( I , p. 176)  of  others.  are not possessed  s t o r y opens w i t h  ingly, with symbolizes  ( I , p. 173).  Of  s e l f i s h and  solitary  the group, only Matthew  seemed s t r a n g e l y out of p l a c e among the w h i m s i c a l  nity,"  The  proud  the  come t h i t h e r , not as f r i e n d s nor p a r t n e r s i n the e n t e r p r i s e , but  l o n g i n g f o r t h i s wondrous gem."  the  the s t r i v i n g by  i n c r e a s e t h e i r s e l f i s h and  each, save one y o u t h f u l p a i r ,  and  represents  by  the s e l f i s h and  e g o t i s t i c a l motives  the c h a r a c t e r s w e l l i n t o t h e i r quest,  t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l senses of i s o l a t i o n w e l l marked. t h i s i s o l a t i o n by  frater-  emphasizing the l o n e l i n e s s of the  and  accord-  Hawthorne setting:  A v a s t extent of w i l d e r n e s s l a y between them and the n e a r e s t s e t t l e m e n t , w h i l e a scant m i l e above t h e i r heads was t h a t b l a c k verge where the h i l l s throw o f f t h e i r shaggy mantle of f o r e s t t r e e s , and e i t h e r robe themselves i n c l o u d s or tower naked i n t o the sky. The r o a r of the Amonoosuck would have been too awful f o r endurance i f only a s o l i t a r y man had l i s tened, w h i l e the mountain stream t a l k e d w i t h the wind. ( I , p. 174) Although  the i n t o l e r a b l e s o l i t u d e has  produced momentary f e e l i n g s of b r o t h e r -  -67-  hood w i t h i n the group, isolation.  As  t h e i r r e t u r n to the quest i n c r e a s e d t h e i r  they approach  the Carbuncle,  g o a l of t h e i r i s o l a t e d d e s i r e s ,  selfish  the symbol of t h e i r p r i d e and  the n a t u r e symbolism s i g n i f i c a n t l y  changes.  And upward, a c c o r d i n g l y , went the p i l g r i m s of the Great Carbuncle, now by t r e a d i n g upon the tops and t h i c k l y - i n t e r w o v e n branches of dwarf p i n e s , which, by the growth of c e n t u r i e s , though mossy w i t h age, had b a r e l y reached t h r e e f e e t i n a l titude. Next, they came to masses and fragments of naked rock heaped c o n f u s e d l y together, l i k e a c a i r n r e a r e d by g i a n t s i n memory of a g i a n t c h i e f . In t h i s bleak realm of upper a i r n o t h i n g breathed, n o t h i n g grew; t h e r e was no l i f e but what was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e i r two h e a r t s ; they had climbed so h i g h t h a t Nature h e r s e l f seemed no l o n g e r to keep them company. She l i n gered beneath them, w i t h i n the verge of the f o r e s t trees, and sent a f a r e w e l l g l a n c e a f t e r her c h i l d r e n as they s t r a y e d where her own green f o o t p r i n t s had never been. But soon they were to be hidden from her eye. Densely and dark the m i s t s began to gather below, c a s t i n g b l a c k spots of shadow on the v a s t landscape.... ( I , pp. 184-5) Here, the complete  i s o l a t i o n of the p i l g r i m s i s symbolized by  the f a c t  that  they have gone beyond the most i s o l a t e d p l a c e s of n a t u r e i n t o an a r e a not only d e v o i d of human l i f e ,  but even of n a t u r a l l i f e .  Moreover, the  l i g h t has not been dimmed by the shadows, i t has been completely ted  quest and d e c i d e to r e t u r n to s o c i e t y , the b a r r e n scenery about  them.  a glimpse of heaven.."  ( I , p. 185).  Their f i r s t  s i r e s of man,  They r e j e c t  d e s i r e i s " t o behold . . . they had  that  ever d e s i r e d  I t i s only w i t h t h e i r d e c i s i o n to t u r n  back t h a t they behold the c a r b u n c l e and, reject i t .  of t h e i r  i s symbolized by t h e i r r e a c t i o n s  green e a r t h again, more i n t e n s e l y , alas'I' than  men:  annihila-  by the g a t h e r i n g m i s t s . The change i n Hannah and Matthew, as they r e a l i z e the f o l l y  to  sun-  then,  they have the wisdom to  t h i s symbol of the s e l f i s h ,  proud,  f o r the sun and moon, symbols of what may  isolating  de-  be shared by a l l  -68-  We w i l l go hence, and r e t u r n t o our humble c o t t a g e . The b l e s s e d sunshine and t h e q u i e t moonlight s h a l l come through our window. We s h a l l k i n d l e t h e c h e e r f u l glow o f our h e a r t h , a t e v e n t i d e , and be happy i n i t s l i g h t . But never a g a i n w i l l we d e s i r e more l i g h t than a l l the world may share w i t h u s . ( I , p. 188) As Waggoner remarks:  "the Man o f Adamant| comes as c l o s e ... t o  b e i n g pure a l l e g o r y as any t a l e t h a t Hawthorne ever wrote."^ thorne makes the w i l d e r n e s s and journey  i n t o i t a symbolic  the mind and h e a r t o f R i c h a r d Digby, h i s most completely  Here Haw-  projection of  isolated  individual.  Digby i s a r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c whose c o n v i c t i o n s cause him to r e j e c t a l l other m o r t a l s :  "His p l a n of s a l v a t i o n was so narrow, t h a t , l i k e a plank  i n a tempestuous sea, i t c o u l d a v a i l no s i n n e r b u t h i m s e l f , who b e s t r o d e it  t r i u m p h a n t l y , and h u r l e d anathemas a g a i n s t the wretches whom he saw  s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the b i l l o w s o f e t e r n a l death"  (HI,  p. 5 6 4 ) .  To p r e s e r v e h i s i s o l a t i o n from other people Digby "plunged d r e a r i e s t depths o f the f o r e s t "  ( I I I , p. 565).  As i n t h e other  i n t o the stories  s t u d i e d , t h e i s o l a t i o n and gloom of the journey p a r a l l e l the i s o l a t i o n and moral e v i l w i t h i n Digby.  "The f a r t h e r he went, however, and the lone-  l i e r he f e l t h i m s e l f , and t h e t h i c k e r t h e t r e e s stood a l o n g h i s path, and the darker  the shadow overhead, so much the more d i d R i c h a r d Digby e x u l t "  ( I I I , p. 565).  The e v i l o f h i s i s o l a t i o n i s symbolized  the sun c o n t i n u e s  to s h i n e on the v i l l a g e he has l e f t , w h i l e he i s enveloped  i n gloom:  "The sunshine  fields..."  (Ill,  c o n t i n u e d to f a l l  p e a c e f u l l y on the c o t t a g e s and  p. 565) w h i l e , as Digby marches through  "the gloom of t h e f o r e s t h i d the b l e s s e d sky..." It  by the f a c t t h a t  i s i n the h e a r t of the w i l d e r n e s s  (Ill,  the w i l d e r n e s s , p. 5 6 5 ) .  t h a t he f i n d s a s u i t a b l e a r e a ,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f which p a r a l l e l h i s moral c o n d i t i o n s .  "There was so  -69-  dense a v e i l  of t a n g l e d f o l i a g e about i t , thaiE none but a sworn l o v e r of  gloomy r e c e s s e s would have d i s c o v e r e d the low a r c h of i t s entrance, have dared  to step w i t h i n i t s v a u l t e d chamber...,"  cave i t s e l f and,  i s d e v o i d of a l l l i f e ,  as such,  p. 566).  being f i l l e d w i t h a p e t r i f y i n g  i s a s u i t a b l e symbol f o r Digby's own  c o n t i n u a l hardening  (Ill,  life,  or The liquid,  which has been a  against others:  The r o o f ... was hung w i t h substances resembling opaque i c i c l e s ; f o r the damps of unknown c e n t u r i e s , d r i p p i n g down cont i n u a l l y , had become as hard as adamant; and wherever t h a t m o i s t u r e f e l l , i t seemed to possess the power of c o n v e r t i n g what i t bathed to stone. The f a l l e n l e a v e s and s p r i g s of f o l i a g e , which the wind had swept i n t o the cave, and the l i t t l e f e a t h e r y shrubs, rooted near the t h r e s h o l d , were not wet w i t h a n a t u r a l dew, but had been embalmed by t h i s wondrous process. ( I l l , p. 567) Digby f i n d s t h i s dreary and my  d e s o l a t e spot i d e a l f o r h i s way  of l i f e :  s o u l w i l l be a t peace; f o r the wicked w i l l not f i n d me."  In the cave,  he w i l l a l l o w no  s u n l i g h t , an a c t i o n symbolic  t i o n of the t r u t h s of C h r i s t i a n i t y : where he was  sitting,  (Ill,  "The  shadow had now  t h a t he made c o n t i n u a l mistakes  "Here  p. 5 6 6 )  of h i s r e j e c -  grown so deep,  i n what he read,  v e r t i n g a l l that was  g r a c i o u s and m e r c i f u l to d e n u n c i a t i o n s  and u n u t t e r a b l e woe  on every  c r e a t e d t h i n g but h i m s e l f . "  con-  of vengeance (Ill,  p.  570),  T h i s r e j e c t i o n of s u n l i g h t a l s o i m p l i e s a r e j e c t i o n of humanity, f o r he spurns Mary G o f f e , a c h a r a c t e r who a w h i t e garb, p. 568)  appears bathed  "which ... seemed to possess  and who,  possessed  the t r u e C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s Digby has  position,  p e t r i f i e d by  in  "Within  life:  i n sunbeams, d r e s s e d i n  a r a d i a n c e of i t s own^"  having w i t h i n her " f a i t h and  rejected.  Digby's  symbolizes  [the cave] s a t the f i g u r e of a man,  a t t i t u d e warned the f a t h e r and  (III,  l o v e u n i t e d " ( I I I , p.  the m i n e r a l s i n the cave,  t  final  his position  whose g e s t u r e  c h i l d r e n to stand back...."  568)  (Ill,  p.  and 572),  -70-  In  the s t o r y "Ethan  Brand," another  i n d i v i d u a l whose s i n has journey,  the darkness  Brand, a man (III,  p. 495)  ficant:  who  "had  the w i l d e r n e s s a r e a g a i n used.  suggested.  is  As F o g l e remarks:  f i n d s h i s end i n h i s b e g i n n i n g . mountainside" bol  of  i s o l a t e d him,  c a u s i n g him  to become  experiment...,"  l i k e t h a t of Brown and Reuben Bourne  "Ironically, The  signi-  of h i s search f o r  l o o k i n g on mankind as the s u b j e c t of h i s  p. 4 9 5 ) . Second, the journey,  circular.  journey  However, two a s p e c t s of i t a r e  h i s journey a c r o s s the e a r t h i s symbolic  "a c o l d observer,  The  l o s t h i s h o l d of the magnetic c h a i n of humanity"  the f o r b i d d e n s i n , the quest which had  (Ill,  by Hawthorne of an  i s o l a t e d him from mankind, the symbols of the  and  i s merely  first,  treatment  he  t r a v e l s c i r c l e wise,  Sin i s i n himself."*^  Thus the  and "wild  which i s the f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n of h i s journey becomes a sym-  of Brand h i m s e l f .  The area around the l i m e - k i l n i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s :  Beyond t h a t darksome verge, the f i r e l i g h t glimmered on the s t a t e l y trunks and almost b l a c k f o l i a g e of p i n e s , i n t e r m i x e d w i t h the l i g h t e r v e r d u r e of s a p l i n g oaks, maples, and p o p l a r s , w h i l e here and there l a y the g i g a n t i c corpses of dead t r e e s , decaying on.the l e a f - s t r e w n s o i l . ( I l l , p. 493) The gloom and  l o n e l i n e s s of the area p a r a l l e l s  t h a t w i t h i n Ethan  Brand.  However, Brand s e p a r a t e s h i m s e l f even from t h i s i s o l a t e d w i l d e r n e s s . Looking  i n t o the l i m e - k i l n he c r i e s out:  more my  Mother...."  the Carbuncle and  ( I l l , p. 496),  "0 Mother E a r t h ... who  Indeed, Brand, l i k e the s e a r c h e r s of  R i c h a r d Digby, i s i s o l a t e d  to an e x t r a o r d i n a r y degree.  L i k e them he i s possessed w i t h an e x c e s s i v e p r i d e and l a t i o n i s symbolized  through  i s o no  like  them, h i s i s o -  images which move beyond the c o n f i n e s of n a t u r e .  R i c h a r d Digby moved i n t o a cave where the t h i n g s of n a t u r e c o u l d not  live;  the s e a r c h e r s , onto a rocky mountaintop where n a t u r e would not f o l l o w . Brand ends h i s l i f e by p l u n g i n g i n t o the lime k i l n which resembles  his  -71-  heart.  Speaking  devastates  of the k i l n ,  Leo Marx w r i t e s :  the landscape...."*'''  " f i r e c r i p p l e s men  I f t h i s i s so, the f i r e i s p a r a l l e l  the h e a r t of Brand, i n which a l l good impulses had p r i d e which has the products own  h e a r t and  so i s o l a t e d him.  of nature,  Thus the'lonesome a i d ...  ( I l l , p. 479)  the changed  of burning  intensely  lime a t the k i l n ,  the l o n e l i n e s s of Brand's search f o r the Unpardonable S i n . pervading  these t a l e s of i s o l a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y a l -  t e r e d to f i t Brand's moral s t a t e . sunrise.  The  t a l e takes p l a c e between sunset  To emphasize Brand's u n n a t u r a l s t a t e ,  the i n e f f e c t u a l attempts  dispell  J u s t as the heat of the k i l n has  those of h i s s u b j e c t s .  The darkness  notes  been crushed by  to  so too does Brand's i n t e n s e s e a r c h change both h i s  thoughtful occupation...." parallels  and  Hawthorne  and  specifically  of the n a t u r a l l i g h t of sun and moon t o  the gloom. And, when, again, the i r o n door was c l o s e d , then reappeared the tender l i g h t of the h a l f - f u l l moon, which v a i n l y s t r o v e to t r a c e out the i n d i s t i n c t shapes of the n e i g h b o r i n g mount a i n s ; and, i n the upper sky, there was a f l i t t i n g congregat i o n of clouds, s t i l l f a i n t l y t i n g e d w i t h the rosy sunset, though thus f a r down i n t o the v a l l e y the sunshine had v a n i s h e d long and long ago.  What r e p l a c e s t h i s n a t u r a l l i g h t i s the l u r i d and u n n a t u r a l l i g h t from lime k i l n , which serves only to r e v e a l the d e s o l a t i o n of the a r e a and  the e v i l w i t h i n Brand's h e a r t .  the e v i l and  isolated  the m o u n t a i n s i d e . i t a r e now  Only a t the end  the  surrounding  of the t a l e when  Brand has been d e s t r o y e d does the s u n l i g h t s h i n e nn  The p u r i t y of n a t u r e and  the community elements w i t h i n  emphasized. The e a r l y sunshine was a l r e a d y p o u r i n g i t s g o l d upon the mountaintops, and though the v a l l e y s were s t i l l i n shadow, they smiled c h e e r f u l l y i n the promise of the b r i g h t day t h a t was h a s t e n i n g onward. The v i l l a g e , completely shut i n by h i l l s , which s w e l l e d away g e n t l y about i t , looked as i f i t had r e s t e d p e a c e f u l l y i n the hollow of the g r e a t hand of Providence. ( I l l , pp. 496-7)  -72-  As imagery cause  t h i s c h a p t e r r e v e a l s , Hawthorne uses f o u r major p a t t e r n s of n a t u r e to symbolize  of t h e i r e v i l .  first,  The  c o n d i t i o n s of h i s c h a r a c t e r s i s o l a t e d  journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s i s of two  of the f o r e s t and  symbolizes  t h e i r g r e a t moral  types:  isolation;  i s beyond the f o r e s t i n t o areas d e v o i d of n a t u r a l growth.  Digby,  be-  as i n the case of Young Goodman Grown and Reuben Bourne, i t i s i n t o  the depths it  the moral  Ethan Brand and  second,  Richard  the s e a r c h e r s of the Great Carbuncle a l l s u f f e r  from an e x c e s s i v e p r i d e which i s symbolized by the completely d e s o l a t e d e s t i n a t i o n s of t h e i r j o u r n i e s . i n g darkness  The  second major symbol i s the overpower-  or the u n n a t u r a l l i g h t which s h i n e s i n t o these d e s o l a t e a r e a s .  The v a r y i n g degrees  of t h i s p h y s i c a l gloom p a r a l l e l  of s p i r i t u a l gloom w i t h i n these c h a r a c t e r s .  The f i n a l major symbol i s the  d e s o l a t i o n of the w i l d e r n e s s areas themselves. l a k e b e s i d e the Great Carbuncle,  the v a r y i n g degrees  The f o r e s t c l e a r i n g ,  the l i m e s t o n e cave, and  the lime k i l n a r e symbolic p r o j e c t i o n s of h e a r t s of Brand the s e a r c h e r s of the Carbuncle, There i s one  R i c h a r d Digby and Ethan  the  the a r e a about , Bourne, Brand.  other p a t t e r n of n a t u r e symbolism used by Hawthorne.  In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r a r e examined the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e s of the entrance i n t o and  the uses  p a c c i n i ' s Daughter" and  of the garden.  I t i s seen t h a t i n both  The House of the Seven Gables  Hawthorne makes  e x t e n s i v e use of t h i s symbolic p a t t e r n to emphasize a d i f f e r e n t of h i s o f t c o n s i d e r e d moral  problems.  "Rap-  aspect  -73'FOOTNOTES  1 Chicago, 1959, p. 113. 2 The E c c e n t r i c  Design, p. 143.  3 I b i d . , p. 144. 4 F o g l e , op. c i t . , pp. 15-32, 5 F o g l e , op. c i t . , p. 79. 6 Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 79. 7 Op. c i t . , p. 80. 8 "From Whose Bourne No T r a v e l l e r R e t u r n s : A Reading of 'Roger M a l v i n * s B u r i a l ' , " NCF, X V I I I (June, 1963), 6. 9 Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 95. 10 F o g l e , o p . c i t . , p. 47. 11 "The Machine  i n the Garden," NEQ, XXIX (March 1956), 38.  Chapter THE  Five  GARDEN AS SYMBOL  In the t a l e s we have examined, Hawthorne has been p r i m a r i l y w i t h the moral i s o l a t i o n of s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r s .  concerned  I n two of h i s major works,  " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter," and The House of the Seven Gables, w h i l e he i s still  p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ,  he s h i f t s h i s em-  p h a s i s to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h r e e o r f o u r persons,  each of whom, though e s s e n t i a l l y  isolated,  i s placed i n a  s i t u a t i o n whereby he may end h i s i s o l a t i o n and a c h i e v e a m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p with another.  Indeed, i n these s t o r i e s  characters a r e revealed mainly  through  i n emphasis there comes a s h i f t  symbolize  the moral c o n d i t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r s .  p r e v i o u s l y used  the n a t u r e s o f the  these c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s .  the s h i f t  Gables.  With  i n the n a t u r e images used to whereas Hawthorne had  the w i l d e r n e s s as h i s main symbol he now uses the garden.  A key t o d i s c o v e r i n g the reason f o r the change may be found passages,  human  i n two  one from The American Notebooks, ore from The House of the Seven In the former  he w r i t e s of the orchard s u r r o u n d i n g  the O l d Manse  as f o l l o w s : The t r e e s possess a domestic c h a r a c t e r ; they have l o s t the w i l d n a t u r e of t h e i r f o r e s t k i n d r e d , and have grown humanized by r e c e i v i n g the c a r e of man as w e l l as by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h i s wants. ( I I , p. 21) While  i n the l a t t e r work he w r i t e s of Phoebe, the y o u t h f u l h e r o i n e : She impregnated [the a i r ] ... n o t w i t h a w i l d - f l o w e r s c e n t - f o r w i l d n e s s was no t r a i t of h e r s , - - b u t w i t h the perfume- of garden-roses, pinks and other blossoms of much sweetness, which nature and man have consented t o g e t h e r i n making grow from summer t o summer, and from century t o c e n t u r y . Such a f l o w e r was Phoebe.... ( I l l , p. 174)  In the f i r s t  passage,  the key word i s domestic;  what most impresses Haw-  thorne about the garden i s i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r human b e i n g s .  This u s e f u l -  -75-  ness forms a d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the w i l d n e s s of the f o r e s t . passage, ing to for  this useful quality  i n a typically  i s treated symbolically,  I n the second  as Hawthorne,  speak-  symbolic manner, a p p l i e s the q u a l i t i e s of the garden  a g i r l who i s noted throughout the n o v e l f o r h e r domestic a b i l i t y and her a b i l i t y  to meet w i t h and respond to other p e o p l e .  Hawthorne c o n s i d e r e d the garden as a p l a c e of g r e a t importance, and devoted many pages of The American characteristics. wrote  Notebooks to d i s c u s s i n g i t s v i r t u e s and  While o b v i o u s l y the passages a r e i d e a l i z e d because he  them i n the f i r s t y e a r of h i s m a r r i a g e - - a time when he h i m s e l f f e l t  t h a t he had, f o r the f i r s t  time, come out of h i s almost l i f e l o n g  i s o l a t i o n - - t h e y are nonetheless s i g n i f i c a n t .  Viewing t h i n g s s y m b o l i c a l l y  as he d i d , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the a t t i t u d e s toward mind when he f o r m u l a t e d the major symbols The House of the Seven G a b l e s .  Indeed,  the garden were i n h i s  f o r " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter" and  by comparing  the q u a l i t i e s of h i s  f i c t i o n a l gardens w i t h those of h i s garden ci-n Concord, the  social  and c o n s i d e r i n g  d e t a i l s s y m b o l i c a l l y we may g a i n a keener i n s i g h t i n t o the moral  t i e s of the c h a r a c t e r s of the s t o r i e s For  life,  themselves.  Hawthorne, the most p l e a s i n g f e a t u r e of the garden about  Manse i s i t s s e c l u s i o n .  quali-  the O l d  A l t h o u g h n o t i n the m i d s t of the flow of human  i t i s n o t completely i s o l a t e d .  I t has "near r e t i r e m e n t and a c c e s -  s i b l e s e c l u s i o n " and i s " t h e v e r y spot f o r the r e s i d e n c e of ... a man n o t e s t r a n g e d from human l i f e , y e t enveloped i n the midst of i t w i t h a v e i l woven of m i n g l e d gloom and b r i g h t n e s s . " p r o v i d e s a l l the company he needs:  Hawthorne notes t h a t h i s w i f e  "My w i f e i s , i n the s t r i c t e s t  my s o l e companion; and I need no o t h e r - - t h e r e i s no vacancy any more than i n my heart."'  sense,  i n my mind,  (AN, p. 174). However, w i t h o u t t h i s one com-  -76-  panion,  the Old Manse i s no p a r a d i s e :  "To-night—to-night—yes, within  an h o u r — t h i s Eden which i s no Eden to a s o l i t a r y Adam, w i l l Eve^"  regain i t s  (AN, p. 180), More company i s n e i t h e r necessary nor d e s i r e d , and,  though Hawthorne f i n d s i t p l e a s a n t to see a person w a l k i n g along the d i s t a n t lane, he i s happy t h a t " h i s f i g u r e appears turb  [ h i s ] sense of b l i s s f u l  t o o dim and remote t o d i s -  s e c l u s i o f A . ( A N , p.  A l s o important a r e the b e n e f i t s of the garden thorne imagines  145), f o r other p e o p l e .  Haw-  t h a t "Adam must have been g a l l e d because he had no n e i g h -  bors w i t h whom he might share h i s excess f r u i t .  I have one advantage over  the P r i m e v a l Adam, inasmuch as t h e r e i s a chance of d i s p o s i n g of my superf l u o u s f r u i t s among people who i n h a b i t no P a r a d i s e of t h e i r own..' 1  161)«  He i s happy that even i n s e c t s and other animals reap  the produce,, f o r through  their efforts,  the work of a honey bee,  remarking:  (AN,  p.  the b e n e f i t s l o f  human beings a r e h e l p e d .  He b l e s s e s  ^.  I was g l a d thus t o f l i n g a b e n e f a c t i o n upon the p a s s i n g breeze w i t h the c e r t a i n t y t h a t somebody must p r o f i t by i t , and that there would be a l i t t l e more honey i n the w o r l d t o a l l a y the sourness and b i t t e r n e s s which mankind i s always c o m p l a i n i n g of. Yes, indeed; my l i f e was the sweeter f o r t h a t honey. ( I I , P. 23) Not  only must the excess p r o d u c t s of the garden be g i v e n to o t h e r s , b u t  the p l a n t s themselves must be of a u s e f u l nature; mere ornamental not  value i s  sufficient: Flower-shrubs, i f they w i l l grow o l d on e a r t h , should, b e s i d e s t h e i r l o v e l y blossoms, bear some k i n d of f r u i t t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y e a r t h l y a p p e t i t e s , e l s e n e i t h e r men n o r the decorum of n a t u r e w i l l deem i t f i t that the moss should g a t h e r on them. Applet r e e s , on the other hand, grow o l d w i t h o u t r e p r o a c h . L e t them l i v e as long as they may, and c o n t o r t themselves i n t o whatever p e r v e r s i t y of shape they p l e a s e , and deck t h e i r w i t h e r e d limbs w i t h a s p r i n g - t i m e gaudiness of pink blossoms; s t i l l they a r e r e s p e c t a b l e , even i f they a f f o r d us only an a p p l e or two i n a season. These few a p p l e s — o r , a t a l l events, the remembrance  of a p p l e s i n by-gone y e a r s - - a r e the atonement which u t i l i t a r i a n i s m i n e x o r a b l y demands f o r the p r i v i l e g e of lengthened l i f e . ( I I , p. 174) 2 In the garden, garden was  toil  i s both n e c e s s a r y and good.  aware of the many t a s k s :  and c l e a n i n g .  i n s e c t s , manuring, weeding.^  These, however, he c a l l s " p l e a s a n t t r o u b l e " ( I I , p. 21) f o r  they a r e p r o d u c t i v e . his labors.  killing  Hawthorne i n h i s  S u r v e y i n g h i s garden he r e f l e c t s on the r e s u l t s of  "Gazing [ a t the squashes  he grewj , I f e l t  something worth l i v i n g f o r had been done.  A new  t h a t by my  substance was  agency  born  into  the w o r l d " ( I I , p. 24).  He e x p e r i e n c e s the j o y of h a v i n g produced h i s  own  t o i l r e q u i s i t e to c u l t i v a t e a m o d e r a t e l y - s i z e d  food, f o r "the l i g h t  garden  imparts such z e s t to k i t c h e n v e g e t a b l e s as i s never found i n those  of the market gardener" ( I I , p. 22). Hawthorne goes so f a r as to suggest t h a t the garden " r e a d i l y i t s e l f w i t h matters of the h e a r t " ( I I , p. 21). its  growth to t h a t o f a human f a m i l y .  brought  Indeed, Hawthorne p a r a l l e l  He remarks how  out the kindness of the former occupant,  each t r e e , d o u b t l e s s , as i f i t had been h i s own  connects  the garden must have  the m i n i s t e r : child"  "He  loved  ( I I , p. 21).  A l t h o u g h the a m b i g u i t i e s of " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter" have generated considerable c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y ,  s c h o l a r s g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t the o v e r a l l  meaning o f the s t o r y r e l a t e s to the complex i n t e r m i x t u r e of good and  evil  human b e i n g s .  of  Waggoner i n h i s e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n of the symbolism  the story w r i t e s t h a t " t h i s t a l e concerns  the o r i g i n ,  the n a t u r e and  the  3  cure of man's r a d i c a l l y mixed , h i s good and e v i l b e i n g . "  Roy R. Male  w r i t e s t h a t "the r e a l s u b j e c t of the s t o r y i s the d u a l n a t u r e of man: little  lower than the a n g e l s y e t c l o s e to the b r u t e , p o t e n t i a l l y  almost  a  d i v i n e y e t s t a i n e d w i t h m o r t a l corruption'!" w h i l e examining  the symbolism of the t a l e ,  sages d i s c u s s e d above.  These c r i t i c s and o t h e r s ,  have n o t r e l a t e d i t to the pas-  Such an examination,  w h i l e i t does n o t a l t e r the  e s t a b l i s h e d r e a d i n g s of the symbols, does p r e s e n t another p e r s p e c t i v e which r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r v a r i o u s meanings. A c a r e f u l examination seclusion  of " R a p p a c c i n i s Daughter" w i l l 1  (as opposed t o isolation),'  1  r e v e a l t h a t the  u s e f u l p r o d u c t i v i t y , and t r u e  connexion  w i t h the h e a r t Hawthorne found i n h i s own garden a r e n o t present:.in t h i s garden,  and t h a t t h e i r absence symbolizes  t e r s of the s t o r y . viewed  the moral  i s o l a t i o n of the c h a r a c -  Hawthorne s e t s the tone w i t h which the garden  i s to be  by p l a c i n g i n G i o v a n n i ' s mouth e a r l y i n the s t o r y words which a r e  undoubtedly  h i s own:  I t was s t r a n g e l y f r i g h t f u l t o the young man's i m a g i n a t i o n t o see t h i s a i r of i n s e c u r i t y i n a person c u l t i v a t i n g a garden, t h a t most simple and i n n o c e n t of human t o i l s , and which had been a l i k e the j o y and l a b o r of the u n f a l i e n parents of the race. ( I I , p. 112) Waggoner sees t h i s passage as s i g n i f i c a n t i n u n i v e r s a l i z i n g mere f a c t  to myth.  have another  R e l a t e d t o the iiotebook e n t r i e s examined above,  significance.  h i n t a t the i n s e c u r i t y  Although  these passages  revealed.  This perverted q u a l i t y  perverted q u a l i t y garden  it  first  the garden which i s l a t e r  of the garden  i s symbolic of the  qualities.  s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of the garden  i s surrounded  significant  of i t s founder whose u n n a t u r a l a c t i o n s i n c r e a t i n g the  symbolize h i s u n n a t u r a l moral  The  they  a r e important as they  of G i o v a n n i ' s c h a r a c t e r , they a r e a l s o  i n t h a t they i n d i c a t e an u n n a t u r a l q u a l i t y about fully  the theme from  by a busy c i t y ,  i s the f a c t  i t i s completely i s o l a t e d .  that  although  To g a i n en-  t r a n c e to i t G i o v a n n i must f o r c e h i s way through a long and obscure  passage:  -79-  His w i t h e r e d guide l e d him a l o n g s e v e r a l obscure passages, and f i n a l l y undid a door.... G i o v a n n i stepped f o r t h , and, f o r c i n g h i m s e l f through the entanglement of a shrub t h a t wreathed i t s t e n d r i l s over the hidden entrance, stood beneath h i s own window i n the open a r e a of Dr. R a p p a c c i n i ' s garden. ( I I , p. 127) The i s o l a t i o n of the garden and the d i f f i c u l t y the  i s o l a t i o n of B e a t r i c e and the d i f f i c u l t y  Giovanni that " a l l  of e n t e r i n g i t symbolizes  of meeting h e r .  the young men i n Padua a r e w i l d about  h a l f a dozen have ever had the good hap t o see h e r f a c e - " And G i o v a n n i , on meeting her, r e a l i z e s the  Baglioni  [her],  though n o t  ( I I , p.  t h a t she has had l i t t l e  tells  118),  contact with  outside world: E v i d e n t l y h e r e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e had been c o n f i n e d w i t h i n the l i m i t s of t h a t garden. She now t a l k e d about m a t t e r s as simple as the d a y l i g h t or summer c l o u d s , and now asked q u e s t i o n s i n r e f e r e n c e to the c i t y , or G i o v a n n i s . d i s t a n t home, h i s f r i e n d s , h i s mother, and h i s s i s t e r s — q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g such s e c l u s i o n , and such l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h modes and forms, t h a t G i o v a n n i responded as i f to an i n f a n t . ( I I , p. 131) 1  The p l a n t s of t h i s garden a r e c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d by Hawthorne as being- u n n a t u r a l , poisonous  flowers:  There was h a r d l y an i n d i v i d u a l shrub which a wanderer, s t r a y i n g by h i m s e l f through a f o r e s t , would n o t have been s t a r t l e d t o f i n d growing w i l d , as i f an u n e a r t h l y f a c e had g l a r e d a t him out of the t h i c k e t . S e v e r a l a l s o would have shocked a d e l i c a t e i n s t i n c t by an appearance of a r t i f i c i a l n e s s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there had been such commixture, and, as i t were, a d u l t e r y , of v a r i o u s v e g e t a b l e s p e c i e s , t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n was no l o n g e r of God's making, but the monstrous o f f s p r i n g of man's depraved fancy, glowing w i t h only an e v i l mockery of beauty. They were probably the r e s u l t of experiment, which i n one or two cases had succeeded i n m i n g l i n g p l a n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y l o v e l y i n t o a compound p o s s e s s i n g the q u e s t i o n a b l e and ominous c h a r a c t e r t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the whole growth of the garden. ( I I , p. 128) These f l o w e r s , are,  particularly  the l a r g e p u r p l e one which dominates  as Hawthorne s p e c i f i c a l l y notes, monstrous  c r i t i c s have noted, they symbolize e v i l . p r e s e n t p e r v e r s i o n of the n a t u r a l goodness  and poisonous.  T h i s i s p a r t l y because  the garden, As many they r e -  and beauty of the garden.  Haw-  -80-  thorne emphasizes t h i s f a c t by emphasizing "One  p l a n t had wreathed  thus q u i t e v e i l e d and  i t s e l f around a s t a t u e of Vertumnus, which  shrouded  i n a drapery of hanging  p. 111). The use of the word shrouded of  a s p e c i f i c d e t a i l of the garden:  foliage...."  suggests death, here  a m y t h o l o g i c a l god, Vertumnus, the g u a r d i a n of f r u i t  and v e g e t a b l e s . poisonous  was (II,  significantly  trees,  gardens  When, as F o g l e has emphasized,^ i t i s remembered  that  p l a n t s which creep " s e r p e n t - l i k e " a r e shrouding the s t a t u e , the  d e t a i l becomes ominously  important.  A l l t h a t i s good about  the garden  has  been d e s t r o y e d . The  symbolic v a l u e of these p l a n t s becomes obvious when the aims of  t h e i r c r e a t o r are s t u d i e d .  The poisons, which a r e the products of the  shrubs, a r e not p r i m a r i l y used they are powerful medicines, t e l l e c t u a l and " f a t a l to  to c o n t r i b u t e to man's wants.  they are used mainly  l o v e of s c i e n c e . "  to f o s t e r h i s p u r e l y i n -  ( I I , p i - 143)*The words of B a g l i o n i  G i o v a n n i , r e g a r d i n g R a p p a c c i n i ' s use of h i s m e d i c i n e s , are,  s h a r p l y p r e j u d i c e d , undoubtedly  Although  though  true:  He c a r e s i n f i n i t e l y more f o r s c i e n c e than f o r mankind. H i s p a t i e n t s are i n t e r e s t i n g to him only as s u b j e c t s f o r some new experiment. The p o i s o n from the p u r p l e p l a n t i s used by R a p p a c c i n l f f o r h i s most h o r r i f y i n g experiment,  t h a t of changing  the p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of B e a t r i c e .  p r o d u c t s of the garden do not a i d the w e l l b e i n g of B e a t r i c e , her an i s o l a t e d b e i n g who, fearful  because  to a l l o t h e r p e o p l e .  of  but make of  of the poisons i n her system^becomes  Thus i t i s seen that the p u r p l e shrub, which  Male and Waggoner see as a m i x t u r e of good and e v i l , bol  The  i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a sym-  evil.  The garden, which B e a t r i c e t e l l s us i s " h i s w o r l d , "  ( I I , p. 129)  and  -81-  the p u r p l e tellect,"  shrub i n i t which i s "the ( I I , p. 142)  symbolizes i n i t s h o r r i d and  e v i l n a t u r e of R a p p a c c i n i s e l f and  others.^  l a r l y marked w i t h  o f f s p r i n g of h i s s c i e n c e ,  and  perverted  the i s o l a t i o n which t h a t e v i l  Throughout the t a l e , R a p p a c c i n i i n t e l l e c t and  cultivation,  of h i s i n nature  causes i n him-  r e v e a l s "a f a c e  singu-  but which c o u l d never, even  i n h i s more y o u t h f u l days, have expressed much warmth of h e a r t . " 112),  the  Toward h i s c r e a t i o n which i s so u s e l e s s f o r o r d i n a r y  v e a l s none of the k i n d n e s s of h e a r t Hawthorne f e l t was  ( I I , p.  people, he  re-  brought out i n  gardening. I t seemed as i f he was l o o k i n g i n t o t h e i r inmost nature, making o b s e r v a t i o n s i n r e g a r d to t h e i r c r e a t i v e essence, and d i s c o v e r i n g why one l e a f grew i n t h i s shape and another i n that, and wherefore such and such f l o w e r s d i f f e r e d among themselves i n hue and perfume. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e of t h i s deep i n t e l l i gence on h i s p a r t , t h e r e was no approach to i n t i m a c y between h i m s e l f and these v e g e t a b l e e x i s t e n c e s . ( I I , p. 112) His c h i e f c r e a t i o n , h i s " c h i e f t r e a s u r e " he approaches w i t h g r e a t f e a r . T h i s a c t i o n symbolizes the manner i n which R a p p a c c i n i L i k e Ethan Brand, he  r e a c t s toward p e o p l e .  takes a p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t i n them,  accordingly,  a l s o l i k e Brand, becomes i s o l a t e d because, having  of heajt, he  l o s e s " h i s h o l d on the magnetic c h a i n of humanity."  ample, as he  sees Giovanni,  he  there was  no warmth For  ex-  " f i x e d h i s eyes upon [him] w i t h an i n t e n t -  ness t h a t seemed to b r i n g out whatever was Nevertheless,  and,  w i t h i n him worthy of n o t i c e .  a p e c u l i a r quietness  i n the look, as i f t a k i n g  merely a s p e c u l a t i v e , not a human, i n t e r e s t i n the young man.'  1  His p e r v e r s i o n of h i s i n t e l l e c t and  h i s misuse of the garden and  the products he g a r n e r s symbolize h i s use  of people.  g r e a t e s t of these shrubs,  i s associated with  the p u r p l e  one,  In her p h y s i c a l appearance, i n her dress,  ( I I , p.  and  Throughout,  of  the  Beatrice.  i n the scent of her  breath  124),  -82-she resembles the poisonous f l o w e r . herself calls  The l i k e n e s s goes deeper, B e a t r i c e  the p l a n t s i s t e r and says, " a t the hour when I f i r s t  b r e a t h , t h i s p l a n t sprang from the s o i l , his  drew  the o f f s p r i n g of h i s s c i e n c e , o f  i n t e l l e c t , w h i l e I was but h i s e a r t h l y c h i l d "  ( I I , p. 142). The  poisonous p l a n t became a symbol of what R a p p a c c i n i has made o f B e a t r i c e . In the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a n t s quoted above, Hawthorne notes t h a t "they were p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t  of an experiment, which i n one or two cases had  succeeded i n m i n g l i n g p l a n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y l o w l y i n t o a compound p o s s e s s i n g the q u e s t i o n a b l e and ominous c h a r a c t e r t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the whole  growth  of the garden" ( I I , p. 128). R a p p a c c i n i had changed h e r p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , t r a n s f o r m i n g h e r p h y s i c a l beauty i n t o something as p o w e r f u l l y as t h e shrub.  T h i s has i s o l a t e d h e r .  destructive  I t was, says B e a t r i c e , "the e f f e c t  of my f a t h e r ' s f a t a l l o v e o f s c i e n c e , which e s t r a n g e d me from a l l  society  of my k i n d " ( I I , p. 143). The reasons f o r R a p p a c c i n i ' s experiment were as h e a r t l e s s and u s e l e s s as h i s experiments w i t h the garden.  He has attempted  to s a t i s f y h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s i r e s , making h e r the "daughter o f f h i s } p r i d e and triumph" ( I I , pp. 146-7).  He has sought n o t t o a i d h e r i n the  w o r l d b u t t o s e p a r a t e h e r from t h e " c o n d i t i o n o f a weak woman, exposed t o all  e v i l and c a p a b l e o f none" ( I I , p. 147). There i s one p a r t of the garden which R a p p a c c i n i cannot change, and  it  symbolizes a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a r t o f B e a t r i c e .  That i s the f o u n t a i n i n  the c e n t r e of the garden: The water ... 'continued to gush and s p a r k l e i n t o the sunbeams as c h e e r f u l l y as e v e r . A l i t t l e g u r g l i n g sound ascended t o the young man's window, and made him f e e l as i f the f o u n t a i n were an immortal s p i r i t t h a t sung i t s song u n c e a s i n g l y and w i t h o u t h e e d i n g the v i c i s s i t u d e s around i t , w h i l e one c e n t u r y imbodied i t i n marble and another s c a t t e r e d the g a r n i t u r e on the s o i l . ( I I , p. I l l )  -83-  y  As  Male, Waggoner and  F o g l e have a l l s t a t e d , t h i s p a r a l l e l s  s o u l , which l i k e the f o u n t a i n , cannot be a l t e r e d ; as t e l l s Rappaccini  that "the  e v i l which thou hast  b e i n g w i l l pass away l i k e a dream." which l i n k i t to the  she  Beatrice's  lies  dying,  she  s t r i v e n to m i n g l e w i t h  T h i s pure s o u l i s d e s c r i b e d  my  i n terms  fountain;  Her s p i r i t gushed out b e f o r e him l i k e a f r e s h r i l l t h a t was j u s t c a t c h i n g i t s f i r s t glimpse of the s u n l i g h t and wondering a t the r e f l e c t i o n s of e a r t h and sky .which were f l u n g i n t o i t s bosom. ( I I , p. 131) T h i s p u r i t y of s p i r i t characters all  emerges i n B e a t r i c e ' s a c t i o n s .  q u i r e . . . " ( I I , p. 114).  p h y s i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , she  fatal  to him,  toward the o t h e r s .  She  and  she  out G i o v a n n i ,  s e l f l e s s l y refuses  time, and  spirit  But  not  i t was  her  to a c t i v e l y f u r t h e r her  b e l i e v e i t , though my and  I Twho poisoned t h e e j .  f a t a l antidote before  At  Giovanni,  from  father  fears  Not  im-  love, fearing be w i t h thee  t h i n e image i n  body be n o u r i s h e d  craves l o v e as  a  l o n e l i n e s s with-  " I dreamed o n l y to l o v e thee, and  i s God's c r e a t u r e ,  have done i t " ( I I , p. 145).  life.  Although admitting  so to l e t these pass away, l e a v i n g but  f o r , Giovanni,  p o i s o n , my  responds to o t h e r s  c a r e f u l l y seeks to prevent G i o v a n n i ' s  o f the p l a n t s .  the consequences f o r him.  reveals  i s the most  c h e e r f u l l y assumes the t a s k her  b i b i n g the poison she  A l t h o u g h she  i s a l s o the o n l y one who  the depths of her h e a r t .  "With  the p l a n t seemed to r e -  S i m i l a r l y she a l o n e of the c h a r a c t e r s  s e l f l e s s n e s s i n her a c t i o n s  mine h e a r t ;  the  so s t r i k i n g l y expressed i n her  words, she b u s i e d h e r s e l f w i t h such a t t e n t i o n s as  a little  a l o n e of  of the s t o r y d i s p l a y s a tender a f f e c t i o n to the garden.  the tenderness i n her manner t h a t was  might be  She  with  i t s d a i l y food.  f o r a w o r l d of b l i s s would I  the c l o s e of the s t o r y , she t e s t i n g i t s r e s u l t s and  tests  the  thus s a v i n g  his  ...  -84-  There a r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s between " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter," and The House of the Seven G a b l e s . for  I n both,  the garden serves  s e v e r a l i s o l a t e d persons; and, i n both,  c l o s e d by an o l d b u i l d i n g , and c o n t a i n s  as the meeting  point  the garden i s completely en-  a f o u n t a i n arid a wide v a r i e t y of  plants.  However, i n The House of the Seven Gables the s i t u a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y  opposite  to t h a t of " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter," f o r here an o u t s i d e r ,  enters  the house and garden and h e l p s  t i o n of i t s three  Phoebe,  t o b r i n g about the end of the i s o l a -  occupants.  A l t h o u g h c r i t i c s have p r e s e n t e d many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the n o v e l ,  they g e n e r a l l y agree that i t s b a s i c theme i s t h i s u n i o n of the  f o u r members of the household.  P h i l i p Young w r i t e s :  One t h i n g t h a t Hawthorne i s s u r e l y t r y i n g to say ... i s t h a t the most important t h i n g i n l i f e i s t o be engaged i n i t - - t o be a l i v e and f u n c t i o n i n g i n the t h i c k of i t . t o have a p l a c e i n the stream and n o t i n some eddy. A l f r e d J . Levy w r i t e s  that:  8  " T h i s romance ... belongs to people who  reject  9 i s o l a t i o n f o r a normal l i f e  i n society."  The n o v e l  s e l f noted, a happy book, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t sume the importance t h a t i t does. this.  P h i l i p Young w r i t e s  i s , as Hawthorne him-  that the garden should a s -  Only one c r i t i c has e x p l i c i t l y  recognized  that:  The house i s n o t the only s e t t i n g f o r the a c t i o n of the n o v e l . The Puncheon's have a l s o a garden, and what t r a n s p i r e s there can be ignored, but a t the c o s t of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g the book. However, Young suggests only flects  the f a c t  what [ i t i s ] " * *  that the " u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y " of the garden r e -  that humanity i n g e n e r a l  "does not know what makes [ i t ]  I t would seem t h a t , w r i t i n g a s t o r y w i t h a "happy e n d i n g , "  Hawthorne has i n mind h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s i n the garden about the O l d Manse, for,  i n using  symbols to d e s c r i b e  the overcoming of the age o l d i s o l a t i o n  -85-  of  the f a m i l y , he uses d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the garden which s t r o n g l y  passages i n The American Notebooks.  resemble  In The House of the Seven Gables, the  i n c r e a s i n g l y domestic n a t u r e of the garden symbolizes the domestic q u a l i t i e s o f Phoebe, the a c t i v e agent who l a t i o n of the Maule and Pyncheon In  h e l p s end the g e n e r a t i o n s l o n g  families.  the opening pages, the i s o l a t e d q u a l i t y of the occupants i s sym-  b o l i z e d by the degree to which w i l d n a t u r e has adapted i t s e l f "A l i t t l e withdrawn  from the l i n e o f the s t r e e t  ..." ( I l l , p. 24) the house p l e t e l y overshadows the  i s now  to the house  ... i n p r i d e , not modesty  n o t a b l e f o r the elm t r e e which com-  i t , the f l o w e r s strewn i n the m o s s - f i l l e d c r e v i c e s of  r o o f , and the weeds f e s t o o n e d about the base of the house.  both sad and sweet to observe how  Standing before  " I t was  Nature adopted to h e r s e l f t h i s  d e c a y i n g , gusty, r u s t y o l d house of the Pyncheon  desolate,  f a m i l y . . . " ( I l l , p. 4 4 ) .  t h e house, the Pyncheon Elm c a s t s i t s gloom over the hous  and "seemed to make i t a p a r t of n a t u r e " ( I I I , p. 43). of  iso-  The  the t r e e a r e classe.'d'as "some i n s c r u t a b l e s e c l u s i o n . . . "  great branches ( I l l , p. 342).  The t r e e , termed one o f the a n t i q u i t e s o f the a r e a , b e i n g one hundred year old, its  symbolizes the l o n g l i n e a g e of the f a m i l y which, l i k e the t r e e ,  casts  gloom upon the members of t h e f a m i l y , a c t i n g as one o f the causes of 13  their isolation.  The moss growing i n the dampness "seemed pledges of  f a m i l i a r i t y and s i s t e r h o o d w i t h N a t u r e . . . " ( I l l , p. 337).  The  descrip-  t i o n s of the weeds and of A l i c e ' s p o s i e s g i v e s the b e s t i n d i c a t i o n of the i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n the house. in  The house  i s dominated by weeds:  "Especially  the a n g l e s of the b u i l d i n g , [ t h e r e wasj an enormous f e r t i l i t y  o f burdoc  w i t h l e a v e s , i t i s h a r d l y an e x a g g e r a t i o n to say, two or t h r e e f e e t (III,  p. 43).  The l e g e n d of A l i c e ' s p o s i e s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s  long"  isolation,  -86-  for  hers i s a u s e l e s s garden i n the a i r , composed^ of " a r i s t o c r a t i c f l o w e r s "  (III, did,  p. 112) which f e e d upon the decay e x i s t > above the common l e v e l .  of the house and which,  l i k e she  They symbolize the i s o l a t i n g p r i d e of  the f a m i l i e s . Nor must we f a i l t o d i r e c t the r e a d e r ' s eye to a crop, n o t of weeds, but f l o w e r - s h r u b s , which were growing a l o f t i n the a i r , not a g r e a t way from the chimney, i n the nook between two of the gables. They were c a l l e d A l i c e ' s P o s i e s . The t r a d i t i o n was, t h a t a c e r t a i n A l i c e Pyncheon had f l u n g up the seeds, i n sport, and t h a t the dust of the s t r e e t and the decay of the r o o f g r a d u a l l y formed a k i n d of s o i l f o r them, out of which they grew, when A l i c e had long been i n h e r g r a v e . ( I l l , p. 144) W i t h i n the house, the occupants a r e r e v e a l e d as extremely A member of a f a m i l y whose i s o l a t i o n i s seen i n i t s c h i e f "an absurd d e l u s i o n of f a m i l y importance" applicability until  ... to any u s e f u l purpose,"  1  characteristics--  ( H I , p. 33) and a " n a t i v e i n ( I I I , p. 53) --Hepzibah has,  s h o r t l y b e f o r e the n o v e l opens, l i v e d completely a l o n e .  comments on the harmful e f f e c t s of h e r i s o l a t i o n , f o r c e d s e c l u s i o n from s o c i e t y ,  isolated.  Hawthorne  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , by en-  she i s dead to human r e l a t i o n s h i p s :  In h e r g r i e f and wounded p r i d e , Hepzibah had spent h e r l i f e i n d i v e s t i n g h e r s e l f of f r i e n d s ; she had w i l f u l l y c a s t o f f the support which God has o r d a i n e d h i s c r e a t u r e s to need from one a n o t h e r . . . . ( I l l , p. 290) Clifford, (Ill, life  as Holgrave notes, " i s another dead and l o n g - b u r i e d person...."  p. 258) who, through c i r c u m s t a n c e and temperament, has l i v e d a l o n e l y a p a r t from s o c i e t y .  Not only has he spent many y e a r s i n p r i s o n , but  he has entered the w o r l d u n f i t f o r i t s s t e r n d u t i e s : have n o t h i n g to do w i t h sorrow; dom which,  i n an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y  h e a r t and w i l l , P. 1 3 4 ) .  nothing with s t r i f e , of shapes,  "Such a man should n o t h i n g w i t h the m a r t y r -  awaits those who have the  and c o n s c i e n c e , to f i g h t a b a t t l e w i t h the w o r l d " ( H I ,  -87-  L i k e Hepzibah  and C l i f f o r d ,  house, comes from a f a m i l y  Holgrave,  Matthew Maule, had b u i l t on what was  of  the v i l l a g e . , "  of the o l d  t r a d i t i o n a l l y noted f o r i t s f e e l i n g of separa-  t i o n from the r e s t of the community.  home, a house t h a t was  the o t h e r occupant  The o r i g i n a l founder of the f a m i l y , to become the s i t e of the Pyncheon  "somewhat too remote from what was  then the c e n t r e  ( I l l , p. 19), Holgrave, as a Maule, c o n t i n u e s t h i s  iso-  lation.  L i v i n g a l o n e i n h i s s e c t i o n of the House of the Seven Gables,  is  seen as a young man  early  human i n s t i t u t i o n s .  By h i s own  o p i n i o n nor to i n d i v i d u a l s , " in  of l a w l e s s n a t u r e who  he  has no r e v e r a n c e f o r  admission " r e s p o n s i b l e n e i t h e r to p u b l i c  ( I I I , p. 212)  he must reveals h i s i s o l a t i o n  h i s l a c k of warmth f o r o t h e r s . The  symbolic importance  of the garden i n r e v e a l i n g the overcoming  the i s o l a t i o n i s seen i n the f a c t and Hepzibah,  fail  t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t h e i r attempts  The r e s u l t s of the attempt  to e s t a b l i s h a cent shop, of C l i f f o r d ' s  Pyncheon a l l r e v e a l how  to meet the world a t l a r g e .  Clifford  toopen i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the v i l l a g e .  v a t i o n s from the arched window, of the f l i g h t on the r a i l r o a d , contacts with J a f f r e y  of  totally  and of the  inadequate  Only i n the garden do they f i n d  obser-  they a r e  the s e c l u s i o n ,  but y e t company they need. Their i n a b i l i t y  to meet the o u t s i d e w o r l d i s perhaps  f e a r w i t h which they a v o i d Judge Pyncheon. emphasized trast tion.  by the f a c t that,  to Phoebe, who,  throughout  a l s o an o u t s i d e r ,  r e v e a l e d i n the  His d e s t r u c t i v e q u a l i t y i s a l s o  the n o v e l he p r e s e n t s a d i r e c t i s the agent who  ends the  con-  isola-  He suggests f o r C l i f f o r d a d e s t r u c t i v e c o n t a c t w i t h the o u t s i d e  world, w h i l e she suggests f o r him p l e a s a n t s e c l u s i o n i n the garden. as the l a t t e r ,  as her name suggests, i s f u l l  of b r i g h t n e s s and  Where-  sunlight,  -88-  th e former always r a d i a t e s an h y p o c r i t i c a l and a r t i f i c i a l  sunlight.  When  he meets Phoebe, he becomes angered a t h e r r e f u s a l to k i s s him and h i s suns h i n e d i s a p p e a r s as he speaks " i n a v o i c e as deep as a thunder-growl, and w i t h a frown as b l a c k as the c l o u d whence i t i s s u e s . " A l t h o u g h they f a i l  (Ill,  p.  155)  t  to break t h e i r i s o l a t i o n by a t t e m p t i n g to a c h i e v e  a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the o u t s i d e world, C l i f f o r d and Hepzibah a c h i e v e g r e a t e r success i n the garden. symbolizes Giovanni,  T h i s i s because the garden,  the type of care they need.  s e c l u d e d and domestic,  Phoebe i s u n l i k e b o t h B e a t r i c e and  the two c h a r a c t e r s i n " R a p p a c c i n i s Daughter" to whom she can 1  be most o b v i o u s l y compared. A l t h o u g h an o u t s i d e r ,  l i k e G i o v a n n i , there i s  a c l o s e connexion between Phoebe and the garden, f o r i t i s she who, as a r e l a t i v e outsider not s t i f l e d  by the i n f l u e n c e s of the i s o l a t e d  e x e r c i s e s h e r domestic a b i l i t i e s the  isolated  to improve  i n d i v i d u a l s to meet i n i t .  w i t h the garden i s an a c t i v e one.  house,  the garden and to encourage  U n l i k e B e a t r i c e , h e r connexion  She i n f l u e n c e s  the garden w i t h h e r  domestic q u a l i t i e s w h i l e B e a t r i c e i s i n f l u e n c e d by the e v i l q u a l i t i e s of her of  f a t h e r ' s garden.  I t i s Phoebe's domestic charm, symbolized by that  the garden which she c l o s e l y resembles t h a t h e l p s C l i f f o r d ,  and Holgrave to form w i t h h e r a p l e a s a n t and s e c l u d e d l i t t l e  Hepzibah  group, the  e x i s t e n c e of which removes the t e r r i b l e and b l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s of t h e i r past  isolation. Hawthorne symbolizes the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n f l u e n c e s of the  q u i e t domestic n a t u r e and that of the o u t s i d e w o r l d by the use of the pear and elm t r e e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The elm t r e e , which, as e a r l i e r noted, seemed  to make the i s o l a t e d house a p a r t of w i l d n a t u r e , impeded the  sunlight,  c a u s i n g gloom  to f a l l  i n the s t o r e ,  the p r o g r e s s of  the p l a c e i n which  -89-  Hepzibah had u n s u c c e s s f u l l y essayed t o e n t e r i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h world.  The d i r e c t o p p o s i t e  i t s v e r y nature,  i s the case w i t h  domestic and u s e f u l to man.  the o u t s i d e  the p e a r - t r e e , which i s , by I t f r e e l y allows  the sun t o  shine from the garden i n t o the k i t c h e n , both areas which, because of Phoebe's presence, have a c q u i r e d warm and f r i e n d l y domestic atmospheres. "The  e a r l y sunshine--as f r e s h as t h a t which peeped i n t o Eve's bower w h i l e  she and Adam s a t a t b r e a k f a s t of the p e a r - t r e e . . . . " symbolic  (Ill,  of the secluded,  there--came t w i n k l i n g through the branches p. 1 2 6 - - i t a l i c s m i n e . ) . I t i s i n the garden,  y e t domestic,  t h a t they w i l l  find  their greatest  happiness. The  c o n t r a s t between Phoebe and h e r i s o l a t e d r e l a t i v e s i s i n t r o d u c e d  symbolically:  "You a t once r e c o g n i z e d  w i t h e v e r y t h i n g about her.  The s o r d i d and u g l y  weeds t h a t grew i n the angle to h e r sphere." attempted  (Ill,  her to be ... w i d e l y  i n c o n t r a s t ...  l u x u r i a n c e of g i g a n t i c  of the house ... none of these  t h i n g s belonged  p. 90). U n l i k e her i s o l a t e d r e l a t i v e s ,  to withdraw from human c o n t a c t ,  she has n o t  f o r she comes from "a r u r a l  part  of New England, -where the o l d f a s h i o n s and f e e l i n g s of r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e still  p a r t i a l l y kept up."  (Ill,  Venner and Holgrave a l l r e c o g n i z e these blood. The  things  p. 91), C l i f f o r d ,  Judge Pyncheon, Uncle  the t r u t h that Hepzibah u t t e r s :  [ d o m e s t i c i t y , e t c . ] must have come t o you w i t h  I never knew a Pyncheon t h a t had any t u r n f o r them."  d i f f e r e n c e i s heightened  woman mentioned i n the n o v e l , was proud, fond  "But  your mother's (Ill,  p.  100),  when she i s compared to the only other young the legendary  of e t h e r e a l p l e a s u r e s ,  A l i c e Pyncheon.  and v e r y a r i s t o c r a t i c ;  humble, an eager worker and of democratic t e n d e n c i e s . i s one which Hepzibah c o u l d never a c q u i r e :  whereas A l i c e Phoebe i s  Phoebe's g r e a t  domestic a b i l i t y .  gift  Likened to  -90-  "a v e r s e  of household p o e t r y , "  ( I I I , p. 96) and p r a i s e d f o r "the g i f t of  p r a c t i c a l arrangement," ( I I I , p. 94) she a b l y performs household  chores,  cooking w e l l and so n e a t l y r e a r r a n g i n g her bedroom as t o cause i t t o l o s e i t s desolate q u a l i t y . apartment."  She throws "a k i n d l y and h o s p i t a b l e smile over the  ( H I , p. 9 4 ) ,  Whereas A l i c e ' s proud i s o l a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d flowers,  throughout the n o v e l  r e l a t e d t o those  by the a r i s t o c r a t i c  Phoebe's domestic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c l o s e l y  of the garden.  She i s d e s c r i b e d i n images of the garden;  v a r i o u s f a c e t s of h e r c h a r a c t e r p a r a l l e l o b j e c t s of the garden; and she h e r s e l f f i n d s that h e r l o v e of a c t i v i t y it  overflows  p l e a s a n t and joyous f o r h e r t o work t h e r e .  that, den,  i n d i s c u s s i n g h e r domestic a c t i v i t y , r a t h e r than a w i l d , f l o w e r :  w i l d flower  i n t o the garden, making  I t i s extremely  significant  Hawthorne l i k e n s h e r to a gar-  "She impregnated  [the a i r ] n o t w i t h a  s c e n t , - - f o r w i l d n e s s was no t r a i t of h e r s , - - b u t  with  the per-  fume of garden-roses, pinks, and other blossoms of much sweetness, which nature and  and man have consented together  from century  to c e n t u r y .  i n making grow from summer to summer,  Such a flower was Phoebe...."  ( H I , p. 1 7 4 ) ,  Household and garden images a r e o f t e n employed s i d e by s i d e , to c r e a t e the p i c t u r e of h e r busy l a b o r about the house:  "As g r a c e f u l as a b i r d  p l e a s a n t about the house as a gleam of sunshine f a l l i n g through a shadow of t w i n k l i n g l e a v e s , on the w a l l w h i l e  evening  J u s t as B e a t r i c e ' s nature was symbolized too v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the garden.  on the f l o o r  or as a ray of f i r e l i g h t  i s drawing n i g h . "  ... as  t h a t dances  ( H I , p. 104)„ by o b j e c t s i n the garden, so  of Phoebe's c h a r a c t e r f i n d p a r a l l e l s  i n domestic o b j e c t s  Her busy l a b o r about the house i s l i k e the a c t i v i t y  of the  -91-  bees about the squash blossoms, " p l y i n g t h e i r golden l a b o r " ( I I I , p. 112). Phoebe, as she s i n g s about the house this, who  i s o f t e n l i k e n e d to a b i r d , and i n  she resembles the " c o n j u g a l r o b i n s i n the p e a r - t r e e " o f the garden  "were making themselves e x c e e d i n g l y  timacy of i t s boughs" ( I I I , p. 112). in  She, l i k e the r o b i n s , i s not  i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y , but i n a c t i v i t y which b e n e f i t s o t h e r s .  and i n her a c t i o n s , the g i r l  itself  the g i r l  p l a c e i t may,  instantaneously  should be s t a n d i n g a t the t h r e s h o l d " ( I I I , pp. 90-1). i n the garden;  Heaven seemed to l o o k down i n t o i t p l e a s a n t l y . . . " often  I n her name  creates  a p r o p r i e t y i n b e i n g t h e r e , so d i d i t seem a l t o g e t h e r f i t t h a t  she i s not u n l i k e the sunshine which shines  is  engaged  i s l i k e n e d to a r a y o f sunshine, "Even as a  r a y of sunshine f a l l . i n t o what d i s m a l for  busy and happy i n the dark i n -  l i k e n e d t o f r u i t blossoms.  In t h i s  "Tine eye of  (IT.I, p. 111).  She i s " l i g h t and blommy" ( I I I , p.  102) and "her l i t t l e womanly ways [ w e r e ] budding out of her l i k e on a young f r u i t - t r e e . . . "  Phoebe  ( I l l , p. 172).  blossoms  She i s l i k e the domestic pear  t r e e of the garden, one which had, undoubtedly, " r e c e i v e d the care of ... [ a n d c o n t r i b u t e d ] to h i s wants"  man  ( I I , p. 22).  L i k e B e a t r i c e , Phoebe h e r s e l f f e e l s a great a t t r a c t i o n toward the garden; however, t h i s a t t r a c t i o n i s an index o f her s o c i a l a b i l i t y than her i s o l a t i o n .  A farm g i r l , whose i d e a l o f l i f e  i s that " f o r t h i s  s h o r t l i f e o f ours, one would l i k e a house and a moderate one's  own,"  ( I I I , p. 188) she awakens, a f t e r her f i r s t  of the Seven G a b l e s , to f i n d t h a t her room o v e r l o o k s  rather  garden-spot o f  n i g h t i n the House  the garden.  Her  t i o n to i t i s f a v o r a b l e , f o r she "found an unexpected charm i n t h i s nook of g r a s s , and f o l i a g e , and a r i s t o c r a t i c tables"  reac-  little  f l o w e r s , and p l e b e i a n vege-  ( I I I , p. I l l ) and she immediately suggests to Hepzibah t h a t by  -92-  working i n the garden she may of the House.  Her a b i l i t y  successful c a l l i n g the garden, orarily and  find  refreshing r e l i e f  i n the garden i s immediately  of the c h i c k e n s .  t h a t i t i s w i t h r e l u c t a n c e t h a t she l e a v e s i t to r e t u r n temp-  to the c o u n t r y s i d e .  w i t h such an age-long  "She  peeped from the window i n t o the garden, spot of b l a c k e a r t h ,  vitiated  growth of weeds, than j o y f u l a t the i d e a of a g a i n  s c e n t i n g her pine f o r e s t s and  fresh clover-f ields."  (HI,  p. 262)  Phoebe's  i n the garden accords w i t h the i d e a l s Hawthorne expressed  American Notebooks, and other  r e v e a l e d i n her  So g r e a t becomes her attachment to  f e l t h e r s e l f more r e g r e t f u l a t l e a v i n g t h i s  activity  from the d r e a r i n e s s  symbolizes  i n The  the a b i l i t y w i t h which she works w i t h  people. Phoebe's c h e e r f u l n e s s and  domestic  qualities  soon h e l p to overcome  the i s o l a t i o n h o v e r i n g about the House of the Seven  Gables.  The grime and s o r d i d n e s s of the House of the Seven Gables seemed to have .vanished s i n c e her appearance there; and the gnawing t o o t h of d r y r o t was stayed among the o l d timbers of i t s s k e l e t o n frame; the dust had ceased to s e t t l e down so densely, from t'he a n t i q u e c e i l i n g s , upon the f l o o r s and f u r n i t u r e of the rooms below,--or, a t any r a t e , there was a l i t t l e housewife, as l i g h t - f o o t e d as the breeze t h a t sweeps a garden walk, g l i d i n g h i t h e r and t h i t h e r to brush i t away. ( I l l , p. 166) Phoebe's domestic w i l d n e s s and the group.  i n f l u e n c e extends i t s e l f  to the garden, overcoming  the  r e n d e r i n g i t a p l e a s a n t p l a c e f o r the secluded g a t h e r i n g s of Although,  upon her a r r i v a l ,  Phoebe n o t i c e s Holgrave's  partial  c u l t i v a t i o n of the area, what most s t r i k e s her eye i s the l a w l e s s n e s s "The time;  b l a c k , r i c h s o i l had  about.  f e d i t s e l f w i t h the decay of a long p e r i o d of  such as f a l l e n l e a v e s , the p e t a l s of f l o w e r s , and  s e e d - v e s s e l s of v a g r a n t and  the s t a l k s  l a w l e s s p l a n t s , more u s e f u l a f t e r t h e i r  and death  -93-  than ever w h i l e f l a u n t i n g  i n the sun."  (Ill,  c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n of the f o u n t a i n and, of the one-time  gathering place,  p. 110). She a l s o sees the  significantly,  the o l d summer  the r u i n o u s a s p e c t  house.  S h o r t l y a f t e r Phoebe's appearance,  a f t e r she and Holgrave have agreed  to work the garden together, the garden  l o s e s i t s w i l d nature, and becomes  more d o m e s t i c a t e d .  together, i t f l o u r i s h e s and  With people working  comes a h i v e of a c t i v i t y . bour.  Summer squashes,  be-  Uncle Venner and Holgrave f i x the r u i n o u s a r -  of which Hawthorne had s a i d i n h i s American  Note-  books t h a t "except a pumpkin, t h e r e i s no v e g e t a b l e p r o d u c t i o n t h a t imparts such an i d e a of warmth and comfort to the b e h o l d e r , " (AN, and  the s c a r l e t runner beans, which  early,  flourish,  Holgrave had found dormant and d e s e r t e d  i n a g a r r e t of the House, grow i n t o a "splended row ing,  p. 153)  of bean-vines,  to the f u l l h e i g h t of the p o l e s , and a r r a y i n g  to bottom, i n a s p i r a l p r o f u s i o n of red-blossoms.'/ and hummingbirds f l o c k to the garden,  (Ill,  clamber-  them, from top p. 179), Bees  t h e r e to b u s i l y move about  the f l o w e r s  g a t h e r i n g honey. F. 0. M a t t h i e s s e n has noted t h a t the c h i c k e n s i n the garden the PyncheonS"- themselves. symbolizes  Thus, the change i n the somewhat emaciated hens  that of the f a m i l y .  the r e t i r e d q u a l i t i e s which had f a m i l y , and f r e e l y t a l k "had  In responding to Phoebe, they overcome l e a d Holgrave to compare them to the Pyncheon  the garden  l a y i n g eggs, and, now  such a domestic tone," ( I I I , p. 182)  q u a l i t i e s which, hens have.  run about  symbolize  they r e f l e c t  Hawthorne had suggested i n The American  that  their  the s o c i a b l e  Notebooks, a l l  With Phoebe's d e p a r t u r e , the c h i c k e n s h i d e i n t h e i r coop and  r e f u s e to l a y .  The Pyncheon f a m i l y responds  to Phoebe i n the same manner,  coming out of t h e i r i s o l a t i o n as she e x e r t s her i n f l u e n c e , and r e t i r i n g  into  -94-  i.t as she d e p a r t s .  L i k e the garden she has i n f l u e n c e d ,  they  flourish.  However, when Phoebe d e p a r t s , the domestic q u a l i t i e s of the garden appear, and  the f a m i l y s e t t l e s a g a i n i n t o i t s i s o l a t i o n .  damp, d e s e r t e d and bestrewn w i t h l e a v e s , the  dis-  The arbour i s  the f o u n t a i n has overflowed and  weeds s e t about r e c l a i m i n g the garden: The garden, w i t h i t s muddy walks, and the c h i l l , d r i p p i n g f o l i a g e of i t s summer-house, was an image to be shuddered at. Nothing f l o u r i s h e d i n the c o l d , m o i s t , p i t i l e s s atmosphere, d r i f t i n g w i t h the b r a c k i s h scud of sea-breezes, except the moss a l o n g the j o i n t s of the s h i n g l e - r o o f , and the g r e a t bunch of weeds, t h a t had l a t e l y been s u f f e r i n g from drought, i n the angle between the two f r o n t g a b l e s . ( I l l , p. 266) Because Phoebe's domestic q u a l i t i e s have reached the garden,  it the  giving  the q u a l i t i e s Hawthorne f e l t a garden should have, Phoebe's e f f e c t garden symbolizes the e f f e c t  proves, C l i f f o r d on C l i f f o r d ,  practically r  she has on C l i f f o r d .  loses h i s i s o l a t i o n .  Hepzibah and Holgrave i s remarkable.  As  the garden  on im-  Phoebe's i n f l u e n c e As Uncle Venner and  Holgrave both remark, her presence i s n e c e s s a r y to prevent C l i f f o r d ' s l a t i o n from becoming d e s t r u c t i v e : crumble away, some morning,  is  i n t o the garden and he s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the garden.  When, upon h i s f i r s t  "That young g i r l ' s dew  f a c e , how  arrival,  c h e e r f u l , how  on i t , and sunbeams i n the dewdrops!  A dream!  A dream!  of  ( I I I , p. 258). Phoebe's e f f e c t on them  symbolized by the e f f e c t the garden has upon them.  Clifford of  " I should not wonder i f he were to  a f t e r you a r e gone, and n o t h i n g be.seen  him more, jexcept a heap of d u s t i "  iso-  brought  sees her i n f l u e n c e i n terms he sees Phoebe, he  blooming'.--a Ah!  She has  remarks:  f l o w e r w i t h the  t h i s must be a l l a dream!  But i t has q u i t e hidden the f o u r stone walls'." ( I l l ,  p. 136) and he o f t e n sees a l i k e n e s s between Phoebe and  the garden f l o w e r s :  , -95-  "He  was  fond of s i t t i n g w i t h one  i n h i s hand, i n t e n t l y o b s e r v i n g  l o o k i n g from i t s p e t a l s i n t o Phoebe's f a c e , as the s i s t e r of the household maiden" ( I I I , p. It  i s by t a k i n g him  overcome h i s i s o l a t i o n .  them and  c o n t r i b u t e d to g i v e him h e a l t h and  What he most a p p r e c i a t e s  individuality"  b o l i z e d by the garden, i s to him  T h i s has ago,  done me  had  s e e ! - - l e t me  I remember how  ( I l l , p. 137).  planted also r e c a l l  He a l s o  important  sense  enjoys  Phoebe, sym-  p e r s o n a l i t y he  i n i t s p e r f e c t i o n i s symbolic  i t only yesterday?  The  ever garden  of the  h o l d i t ! ... Thank  I used to p r i z e t h i s  I suppose, v e r y l o n g ago'.--or was  f e e l young a g a i n ! "  is their  p e r f e c t r o s e Phoebe p i c k s i n the  " A h ! - - l e t me  good.  186).  i s r e v e a l e d i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s here  The  of h i s youth, and  him  ( I I I , p. 178).  the o n l y t r u e i n d i v i d u a l i t y and  t h a t of h i s c h i l d h o o d .  cence of c h i l d h o o d .  s u b s t a n c e " ( I I I , p.  Just how  to  the e a r t h - s m e l l i n  t h a t surround  the v i t a l i t y o f the b u s i l y working bees.  reminds him  178).  "They [ p l a n t s ] had  i n the f l o w e r s  of l i f e of " c h a r a c t e r and  had,  i f the garden f l o w e r were  out i n t o the garden t h a t Phoebe i s best a b l e  h e l p him  t h a t he r e c a p t u r e s  i t , and  innoyou!  flower,--long I t makes  me  s c a r l e t runner beans which Holgrave  the d e l i g h t s of h i s c h i l d h o o d :  " I t had  always  been thus w i t h C l i f f o r d when the humming-birds came,—always, from h i s babyhood,--and ... h i s d e l i g h t i n them had been one by which he  showed h i s l o v e f o r b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s " ( I I I , p. 180).  garden i s a l s o important enjoy now  the s e c l u d e d  i n that, for C l i f f o r d ,  s o c i e t y he needs.  f a r too l a t e i n C l i f f o r d ' s  the l o v e of a v e r y  few;  not  i t i s here t h a t he  Hawthorne had  tokens  The can  remarked t h a t " i t was  l i f e f o r the good o p i n i o n of s o c i e t y to  be worth the t r o u b l e and anguish was  of the e a r l i e s t  of a formal v i n d i c a t i o n . the a d m i r a t i o n  What he needed  or even the r e s p e c t , of  the  -96-  unknown many," ( I I I , p. 370) grave and Hepzibah,  and,  i n the arbor, w i t h Phoebe, Venner, H o l -  he a c h i e v e s t h a t l o v e .  These g a t h e r i n g s i n the gar-  den b r i n g out the h i g h e s t i n C l i f f o r d : C l i f f o r d , as the company partook of t h e i r l i t t l e banquet, grew to be the gayest of them a l l . . . . Indeed, what w i t h the p l e a s a n t summer evening, and the sympathy of t h i s l i t t l e c i r c l e of not u n k i n d l y s o u l s , i t was perhaps n a t u r a l t h a t a c h a r a c t e r so s u s c e p t i b l e as C l i f f o r d ' s should become animated, and show i t s e l f r e a d i l y r e s p o n s i v e to what was s a i d around him. ... He had bean as c h e e r f u l , no doubt, w h i l e a l o n e w i t h Phoebe, but never w i t h such tokens of acute, though p a r t i a l i n t e l l i gence. ( I l l , p. 190) Even Hepzibah i s drawn out of h e r s e l f i n the p l e a s a n t company of the garden, where she " e x h i b i t e d a not u n g r a c e f u l h o s p i t a l i t y , " It  i s i n the garden t h a t Holgrave,  (HI,  p.  192)  f  too, overcomes h i s i s o l a t i o n .  Phoebe by working w i t h him i n the garden b r i n g s out h i s l a t e n t good q u a l i ties.  Whereas h i s e a r l y work i n the garden had been undertaken  he might c o l d l y f u l f i l l that h i s f i r s t The  h i s d e s i r e to examine the Pyncheons, i t i s here  p o s i t i v e a c t i o n i n overcoming h i s s o l i t a r y  i n f l u e n c e of Phoebe on him i s seen by  her, he suggests  domestic  he f a l l s  As was  "You  joy came i n w i t h y o u l "  occurs.  t h a t on f i r s t meeting This represents  i n t h e i r c o n t i n u e d meetings i n the  c r o s s e d the t h r e s h o l d ; and hope, ( I I I , p.  362).  the case w i t h h i s use of the other n a t u r e symbols, Hawthorne  here makes use of c o n v e n t i o n a l and suggested,  life  i n l o v e , and g i v e s up h i s l a w l e s s nature, n o t i n g the  i n f l u e n c e s of Phoebe:  warmth, and  the f a c t  t h a t they work t o g e t h e r i n the garden.  the overcoming of h i s i s o l a t i o n and, garden,  so t h a t  t r a d i t i o n a l symbols.  As c r i t i c s have  and as Hawthorne h i m s e l f notes, h i s gardens a r e a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h the garden of Eden.  But to t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n Hawthorne  -97-  b r i n g s h i s p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s and e x p e r i e n c e s and c a r e f u l l y garden to r e f l e c t  the p e c u l i a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of each s t o r y .  shapes  each  Thus, a l -  though both R a p p a c c i n i ' s garden and the Pyncheon garden a r e i s o l a t e d , c o n t a i n d i s t i n c t i v e v e g e t a t i o n and a c e n t r a l f o u n t a i n , reflect  each i s v a r i e d to  the unique moral c o n d i t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r s l i v i n g  in it.  FOOTNOTES  Many of Hawthorne*s f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e f l e c t these i d e a s . F o r example, the clergyman i n "The New England V i l l a g e " makes sure, t h a t "The i n v a l i d s .of h i s p a r i s h might count upon the f i r s t mess of peas and the f i r s t p l a c e of s t r a w b e r r i e s from h i s garden." (Complete Short S t o r i e s (New York 1959), p. 585.) 2 "The New England V i l l a g e , " a l s o notes the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of l a b o r , "I do not t h i n k Eve was as happy i n her p a r a d i s e as I was i n mine, f o r her f r u i t s grew spontaneously, but mine were produced by the u n i t e d e f f o r t s of head and hands, and gave e x e r c i s e to a l l my powers." (CSS, p. 588) 3 Waggoner, op, c i t . p. 113, 4 "Dual A s p e c t s of E v i l i n ' R a p p a c c i n i * s Daughter,'" PMLA, LXIX (March, 1954), 100. 5 Waggoner, op. c i t . , p. 104. 6 F o g l e , op. c i t . , p. 96. 7 Male i n h i s a n a l y s i s w r i t e s t h a t : "the shrub i l l u m i n a t e s " the a c t i o n which takes p l a c e i n the garden. I t i s d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s to d i f f e r e n t people . ..." (op. c i t . , 99) Male t r e a t s the shrub p u r e l y as a symbol. If i t is taken l i t e r a l l y as an o b j e c t i n a garden, the r e a c t i o n s of the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s to i t as such a l s o assume symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e . 8 P h i l i p Young, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " H o u s e o f the Seven Gables (New York, 1957), p. x v i i i . 9 A l f r e d J . Levy, "The House o f the Seven G a b l e s : The R e l i g i o n of Love," N i n e t e e n t h Century F i c t i o n ^ XVI (December, 1961), 189. 10 Young, op. c i t . , p. xx. 11 I b i d . , p. x x i v . 12 A l f r e d Levy makes b r i e f mention of t h i s p o i n t i n h i s a r t i c l e r e f e r r e d to above. 13 Many c r i t i c s have seen the Pyncheon Elm as a p o s i t i v e symbol i n the n o v e l , F o g l e w r i t e s t h a t " P l e a s a n t e r i s the Pyncheon Elm which ... i s a conn e c t i n g l i n k w i t h n a t u r e , b r i n g i n g the house, i n t o i t s m e r c i f u l f e l l o w ship." (Op. c i t . p. 135) Waggoner l i n k s the Elm to the p o s i t i v e c i r c l e imagery he f i n d s i n the n o v e l . Elmer A. Havens, n o t i n g Hawthorne's c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s j says t h a t "Hawthorne's use of the "golden b r a n c h " i s ... a p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h and s u g g e s t i v e a l l u s i o n i m p l y i n g the f u t u r e greatness o f the new r a c e Phoebe and Holgrave a r e to produce...." (MLN, LXXIV (January, 1959), 21) However, i f as t h i s c h a p t e r suggests, the elm i s a symbol of i s o l a t i o n , i t i s the autumnal death of the t r e e t h a t i s s y m b o l i c a l l y important. That i s , i t i s the overcoming c f the i s o l a t i o n t h a t b r i n g s t r u e w e a l t h , j u s t as i t i s the s e a s o n a l death of the t r e e which t u r n s i t s l e a v e s to' g o l d .  Chapter S i x CONCLUSION  The bolism  preceding  c h a p t e r s have examined Hawthorne's use of n a t u r e sym-  i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of moral i s o l a t i o n .  major groups of symbols were used to r e f l e c t lation. flowers  The d e s c r i p t i o n of many c h a r a c t e r s revealed  I t was found t h a t  three a s p e c t s of moral  iso-  i n forms of sunshine and  a harmony w i t h n a t u r e which i n t u r n symbolized moral i n -  nocence; the journey i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s  and the gloom and d e s o l a t i o n  found there p a r a l l e l e d the moral e v i l w i t h i n the garden and i t s u t i l i t y t e r s meeting together  the r e s p e c t i v e  characters;  r e f l e c t e d the degree to which s e v e r a l  were a b l e  charac-  t o overcome t h e i r moral i s o l a t i o n .  was found t h a t each of the symbolic p a t t e r n s was o f t e n drawn from t i o n a l sources,  three  It tradi-  but t h a t Hawthorne adapted these t o h i s own unique r e -  quirements . On  the b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s i t may be u s e f u l to attempt a r e -  d e f i n i t i o n of Hawthorne's p o s i t i o n as a symbolic w r i t e r . t i n c t i o n between a l l e g o r y and symbolism i s c l e a r l y  The common  exemplified  dis-  i n these  comments by E . M. H a l l i d a y who, i n d i s c u s s i n g Hemingway, g e n e r a l i z e s  that:  In s u c c e s s f u l a l l e g o r y , the s t o r y on the primary l e v e l i s dominated by the s t o r y on the secondary l e v e l , and i f the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning i s to be kept c l e a r , i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t must pay f o r i t by s u r r e n d i n g r e a l i s t i c probab i l i t y i n one way or a n o t h e r . A s t r a i n i s imposed on the whole n a r r a t i v e mechanism, f o r mere c o n n o t a t i v e symbolism w i l l n o t do to c a r r y the a l l e g o r y : there must be a denotat i v e equation, p a r t f o r p a r t , between symbols and t h i n g s symbolized i n order to i d e n t i f y the a c t o r s and a c t i o n on the a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l . The  use of such an a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i t s r i g i d  separation  two  terms and i t s r e l e g a t i o n of a l l e g o r y to a d i s t i n c t l y  inferior  of the posi-  t i o n i s inadequate f o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Hawthorne's use of n a t u r e .  -100-  A l t h o u g h h i s s t o r i e s on a n a r r a t i v e l e v e l a r e dominated level, and  by the  secondary  t h e r e i s not "a d e n o t a t i v e equation, p a r t f o r p a r t , between symbol  t h i n g s symbolized i n o r d e r to i d e n t i f y  allegorical  love."  the a c t o r s and a c t i o n s . o n the  F o r example, Young Goodman Brown's f a n t a s t i c adven-  t u r e s have s i g n i f i c a n c e only as they r e v e a l a moral adventure; symbols themselves  but  the  c o n t a i n a r i c h n e s s of complexity and ambiguity which  enhance and expand, r a t h e r than a d e n o t a t i v e meaning. However, Hawthorne's own mark him as an a l l e g o r i s t .  statements  on h i s i n v e t e r a t e l o v e of a l l e g o r y  Thus, i f he i s to be so c l a s s i f i e d ,  t i o n must be found which accounts f o r h i s r i c h complexity and gory from i t s i n f e r i o r , his  detailed  a definition.  almost s u b - l i t e r a r y p o s i t i o n .  study, Dark C o n c e i t : He w r i t e s "We  tale written i n rhetorical,  find  a  defini-  liftsralle-  Edwin Honig, i n  The Making o f A l l e g o r y f o r m u l a t e s such the a l l e g o r i c a l q u a l i t y  or f i g u r a t i v e  in a  twice-told  language and e x p r e s s i n g a v i t a l  2 belief."  Each of the s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s Honig a t t r i b u t e s  to a l l e g o r y  Hawthorne's works c o n t a i n .  F o r example, Hawthorne's s t o r i e s a r e t w i c e -  t o l d i n more than t i t l e and  republication,  f o r , as Honig  stipulates  "the  t w i c e - t o l d a s p e c t of the t a l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t some v e n e r a t e d or p r o v e r b i a l 3  antecedent  ( o l d ) s t o r y has become a p a t t e r n f o r another  As a study of s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e s r e v e a l , m a t e r i a l f o r h i s s t o r i e s from t r a d i t i o n a l New "Young Goodman Brown" makes use of passages of  the I n v i s i b l e World;  "The  of  the White Mountains;  and  story."  Hawthorne drew much of the  England  sources.  F o r example,  from C o t t o n Mather's Wonders  Great C a r b u n c l e " c e n t r e s around an o l d legend "The Maypole of Merry Mount" expands upon a  famous i n c i d e n t of c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . sources:  (the new)  " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter"  Other  s t o r i e s draw from even o l d e r  e l a b o r a t e s upon a passage  from S i r Thomas  -101-  Browne, and The Marble Faun t r e a t s anew the s t o r y of the F a l l Hawthorne's works are, as w e l l , d e s i g n shaped  by a p a r t i c u l a r ,  of Man.  c o n s t r u c t e d on a "complete,  often h i s t o r i c a l l y  over a l l  determined use of t r o p e s .  Hawthorne's n a t u r e symbols fopm b a s i c p a t t e r n s , the journey forming the major s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e of these p a t t e r n s .  Moreover, as F o g l e notes,  "Hawthorne's symbols a r e drawn from the major stream of Western From P u r i t a n times to those of Conrad w i l d e r n e s s has symbolized a moral in  and F a u l k n e r , the journey i n t o the  journey of the s e l f .  W. H. Auden w r i t e s  The Enchafed F l o o d , a study i n Romantic iconography,  c o n c e p t i o n of time as a d i v i n e c r e a t i o n a n a t u r a l symbol f o r the s p i r i t u a l  thought.""'  that "the C h r i s t i a n  ... made the journey or p i l g r i m a g e  life."^  Hawthorne possesses the f i n a l major q u a l i t y Honig a t t r i b u t e s gory:  " t h e management of a dominant view--the  ideal.  The i d e a l i s , v a r -  i o u s l y o r t o g e t h e r , the theme of the work, the c e n t r a l concept from a system of b e l i e f s  to a l l e -  adapted  ... and which the whole work 'proves' or f u l f i l l s . '  In  each of h i s s t o r i e s ,  of  one c e n t r a l theme, the moral and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e of the i s o l a t e d  individual.  Hawthorne i s e s s e n t i a l l y  t r e a t i n g v a r i o u s aspects  H i s view i s n e i t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l nor simple, f o r h i s keen and  p e n e t r a t i n g insight r e v e a l s the ambiguities and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of l i f e . human h e a r t i s n o t t o t a l l y b l a c k , but every man can f i n d moral darkness  i n him.  legorist,  some shade of  Conversely, no man can hope to remain m o r a l l y i n -  nocent; y e t when he does f a l l , If,  The  from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ,  some goodness remains  i n him.  i t can be assumed t h a t Hawthorne i s ah a l -  t h e r e can be found i n Honig's  d i s c u s s i o n remarks which may  l i g h t on the n a t u r e of Hawthorne's a r t i s t i c  success:  cast  -102-  An a l l e g o r y succeeds when the w r i t e r ' s r e c r e a t i o n of the antecedent s t o r y , s u b j e c t , or r e f e r e n c e i s m a s t e r f u l enough to p r o v i d e h i s work w i t h a w h o l l y new a u t h o r i t y ; such an a c h i e v e ment draws deeply on h i s a b i l i t y to p r o j e c t an i d e a l by manif o l d a n a l o g i e s i n the l a r g e r d e s i g n of the whole work. The . s u b j e c t matter a l r e a d y stands, i n whatever form, as t r u e or f a c t u a l by common a c c e p t a n c e . When the s u b j e c t i s taken over by the w r i t e r — p a r t i c u l a r l y the a l l e g o r i c a l w r i t e r , the author of a t w i c e - t o l d t a l e - - i t bears a c e r t a i n g e n e r a l but muted a u t h o r i t y , m y t h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , h i s t o r i c a l , or p h i l o s o p h i c a l , depending on the range of i t s acceptance. To come a l i v e , the s u b j e c t must be r e c r e a t e d , completely remade, by the w r i t e r . To remake the s u b j e c t the author c r e a t e s a new s t r u c t u r e , and, i n e v i t a b l y , a new meaning. To the e x t e n t t h a t the s u b j e c t i s thus remade, i t e x i s t s f o r the f i r s t time and has an authorQ  ity The  vitality  "The  of t h a t of the antecedent  p r i o r e x i s t e n c e of Hawthorne's m a t e r i a l s and  been s t a t e d .  and  independent  His s u b j e c t s are completely  of t h e i r own  which enables  o f t e n to completely  Conversely,  one  them to stand i n d e p e n d e n t l y  beside  "Young Goodman Brown,"  " R a p p a c c i n i ' s Daughter" are f a r more Brown.  Perhaps  to the a l l e g o r i c a l method employed by Hawthorne.  of the major reasons  Faun l i e s i n Hawthorne's improper Within this  has  remade, f o r h i s works have a  w i d e l y read than are the works of Mather, B r a d f o r d and t h i s success i s l a r g e l y due  0  of h i s n a t u r e symbols  overshadow t h e i r o r i g i n a l s .  Maypole of Merry Mount" and  subject.  f o r the r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e of The  h a n d l i n g of  l a t e r framework of a l l e g o r y ,  Marble  symbols. the n a t u r e images and  pat-  t e r n s of imagery d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s assume an i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of Hawthorne's a r t .  symbols by which what Honig  the twice t o l d  i d e a are f u s e d t o g e t h e r .  calls  To put i t another way,  t i o n i n a method of l i t e r a r y shape t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s and  c r e a t i o n which has  t a l e and  the dominant  they form a v i t a l  func-  enabled Hawthorne to r e -  i d e a s i n t o works of f i c t i o n which have i n -  sured him a p o s i t i o n of l a s t i n g g r e a t n e s s Literature.  They become the  i n the h i s t o r y  of American  -103FOOTNOTES  * E. M. H a l l i d a y , "Hemingway's Ambiguity: Symbolism and I r o n y , " E r n e s t Hemingway: C r i t i q u e s of Four Major Novels, ed. C a r l o s Baker (New York, 1962), p. 64. 2 3 4 5  Evanston,  1959, p. 12.  Loc. c i t . Ibid.,  p. 14.  T  Loc. c i t . 6  New York,  1950, p. 9.  ^ Honig, op. c i t . , p. 14. g I b i d . , p. 13.  -104BIBLIOGRAPHY  Primary Sources Hawthorne, N a t h a n i e l . New Haven, 1932. . Boston:  The American Notebooks.  Ed. t y R a n d a l l Stewart,  . The Works o f N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne. Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1891.  15 v o l s .  Secondary Sources i  Books  Baker, C a r l o s , ed. E r n e s t Hemingway, C r i t i q u e s o f Four Major N o v e l s . York, 1962. Bewley, M a r i u s .  The E c c e n t r i c D e s i g n .  London,  1959.  B r a d l e y , S c u l l e y et a l eds. The S c a r l e t L e t t e r : Criticism. New York, 1961. Fiedler, Leslie.  Hoffman,  Hawthorne's F i c t i o n ;  D a n i e l G.  Honig, Edwin. 1959.  The American Adam.  Jr.  The P u r i t a n Mind.  New  New  S t e i n , W i l l i a m Bysshe. Hawthorne's F a u s t : type . G a i n e s v i l l e , F l a . , 1953.  W i l s o n , Edmund, ed. Winters, Ivor.  Hawthorne, A C r i t i c a l  York,  1961.  Evanston, I l l i n o i s ,  Austin, York,  York,  New  1957.  1941.  1930.  A Study o f the D e v i l Arche-  Study.  The Shock o f R e c o g n i t i o n .  In Defense of Reason.  Norman,.  Chicago, 1955.  M a t t h i e s s e n , F. 0. American R e n a i s s a n c e .  Waggoner, H y a t t H.  New  1960.  Hawthorne, Poe, M e l v i l l e .  Hawthorne's T r a g i c V i s i o n .  Schnieder, Herbert.  York,  The L i g h t and the Dark.  The Making of A l l e g o r y .  L e v i n , H a r r y . The Power of B l a c k n e s s : York, 1958.  Male, Roy R.,  New  Form and F a b l e i n American F i c t i o n .  Dark C o n c e i t ;  Lewis, R. W. B.  T e x t , Sources and  Love and Death i n the American N o v e l .  F o g l e , R i c h a r d H. O k l a . , 1952.  New  Denver,  Cambridge, Mass., New  1947.  York,  1943.  1955.  -105-  ii >  Periodical Articles  Donohue, Agnes. "From Whose Bourne No T r a v e l l e r R e t u r n s : a Reading o f 'Roger M a l v i n ' s B u r i a l ' , " N i n e t e e n t h Century F i c t i o n , X V I I I (June, 1963), 1-17. Levy, A l f r e d J . "The House, o f the Seven G a b l e s : The R e l i g i o n o f Love," N i n e t e e n t h Century F i c t i o n , XVI (December, 1961), 175-184. E i s i n g e r , C h e s t e r . " P e a r l and the P u r i t a n H e r i t a g e , " X I I (March, 1951), 319-27.  College  English,  Havens, Elmer A. "The Golden Branch as Symbol i n The House o f the Seven G a b l e s , " Modern Language Notes, LXXIV (January, 1959), 20-22. Hiemert, A l a n . " P u r i t a n i s m , the W i l d e r n e s s , and the F r o n t i e r , " England Q u a r t e r l y , XXVI (September, 1953), 374-81.  New  L e a v i s , Q. D. "Hawthorne as Poet," Sewanee Review, L I X ( S p r i n g and Summer, 1951), 17 9-205; 426-58. Marx, Leo. "The.Machine 1956), 27-42.  i n the Garden,"  New England Q u a r t e r l y , XXIV  (March,  

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