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Calcium phosphorus relationship in canning peas Smith, Laurence Samuel 1938

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CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS RELATIONSHIP IN CANNING PEAS  Laurence Samuel Smith  A t h e s i s submitted f o r the degree Master of Science i n A g r i c u l t u r e  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1938  Table o f Contents  Introduction - Object of work - Review of l i t e r a t u r e . M a t e r i a l s and Methods - M a t e r i a l s used - Time and p l a c e of work - Methods used Results - S o i l analysis - Pea a n a l y s i s D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s - Soils - Peas - carbohydrates - proteins - c a l c i u m and phosphorus - magnesium and potassium - Conclusions Summary L i t e r a t u r e Cited  Calc ium-phosphorus R e l a t i o n s h i p i n Canning Peas  I n a s e r i e s of experiments conducted three y e a r s ago, the w r i t e r (15) found t h a t p l a n t s grown i n a n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n h i g h i n phosphorus showed the same e x t e r n a l symptoms as those shown by p l a n t s grov/n i n c a l c i u m d e f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n s .  This  l e d the w r i t e r to ponder on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c a l c i u m to phosphorus under the u s u a l c o n d i t i o n s of growth and to decide to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between c a l c i u m and phosphorus  i n the p l a n t s and the c a l c i u m and phosphorus i n  the s o i l s growing them. S i n c e canning peas are an important crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was decided t o use t h i s crop f o r the study of the oalcium-phosphorus  relationship.,  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e A d e s c r i p t i o n of c a l c i u m d e f i c i e n t pea p l a n t s was g i v e n by Day (.6) who d e s c r i b e d them as b e i n g s h o r t e r than normal w i t h the lower l e a v e s c h l o r o t i c and the youngest l e a v e s o u r l e d and tough. seeds.  She does not mention the e f f e c t upon the  Sayer and Nebel (14) found t h a t the c e l l s i n c a l c i u m  d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s were p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y o l d e r than those not so deficient. metabolism.  T h i s they i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of d i s t u r b e d Low potassium, they s t a t e d , caused  p h y s i o l o g i c a l aging.  similar  They a l s o found a calcium-potassium  r a t i o i n the pea seeds.  The calcium decreased as the pot-  assium i n c r e a s e d and made the peas more tender.  Musbach and  S e l l (11) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g and a t t r i b u t e d the tenderness t o a r e d u c t i o n of c a l c i u m i n the seed coat's.  S t r e e t (17)  observed t h a t the a b s o r p t i o n of c a l c i u m and t o a l a r g e  extent  t h a t of magnesium bore a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n to that of potash* Morgan (10) r e p o r t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the q u a n t i t i e s of potassium and magnesium present and the amounts of c a l c i u m taken up by the p l a n t s . N i g h t i n g a l e , Addams  s  Bobbins and Schemerhorn (12) found  t h a t tomato p l a n t s grown i n c a l c i u m d e f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n s were unable t o a s s i m i l a t e n i t r o g e n as n i t r a t e and such p l a n t s accumulated carbohydrate as a r e s u l t .  I f the p l a n t s were  p l a c e d I n darkness they were able to a s s i m i l a t e the n i t r a t e s . Hibbard's work (8) on peas showed t h a t an accumulation of n i t r o g e n i n p l a n t s grown i n short l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s was propo r t i o n a l t o the amount o f c a l c i u m p r e s e n t .  On the o t h e r hand  S t r e e t (17) has s t a t e d that peas grown i n s h o r t l i g h t  periods  showed a h i g h percentage of n i t r o g e n and concludes t h a t the only f a c t o r which i n f l u e n c e d the n i t r o g e n content was the amount of l i g h t .  Parker and Truog (13) i n t h e i r work on fodder  p l a n t s found t h a t grasses, which are t o l e r a n t to a c i d s o i l s , had a low c a l c i u m - n i t r o g e n  r a t i o and that legumes and other  p l a n t s which are s e n s i t i v e t o a c i d s s o i l s have a h i g h nitrogen r a t i o .  calcium-  T h i s l e d them t o conclude t h a t c a l c i u m  entered  i n t o the composition of p r o t e i n s as a p l a n t food element.  P r o t e i n metabolism, they s t a t e d , p r o b a b l y produces many a c i d s and consequently the c a l c i u m i s needed t o remove the a c i d s from the c e l l sap. B o s w e l l and J o d i d i (5) found t h a t phosphorus and potassium f e r t i l i z e r s i n c r e a s e the p r o t e i n content o f peas and t h e r e f o r e advanced m a t u r i t y . Fonder (7) c o n s i s t e n t l y found g r e a t e r amounts of calcium, than o f magnesium i n peas and t h a t the growing pea p l a n t s g r e a t l y reduced t h e amounts of c a l c i u m and magnesium i n the s o i l . Musbach and S e l l (11) observed t h a t a l l f e r t i l i z e r s reduced c a l c i u m and i n c r e a s e d phosphorus  i n the seed c o a t s .  P a r k e r and Truog (13) found t h a t phosphorus d i d not bear so great a r e l a t i o n t o n i t r o g e n as does c a l c i u m . B o s w e l l has done much work on the c o m p o s i t i o n o f peas from t h e s t a n d p o i n t of carbohydrate content and q u a l i t y . In one paper (2) he r e p o r t e d that i n the r i p e n i n g o f peas there was a r a p i d decrease i n sucrose w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n s t a r c h and a slow decrease i n t o t a l n i t r o g e n ,  he concluded t h a t a low  sugar and a h i g h s t a r c h content were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of poor q u a l i t y i n peas.  I n two l a t e r papers ( 3 ) , (4) he r e p o r t e d  t h a t h i g h temperature had an e f f e c t on both y i e l d and q u a l i t y of peas by r e d u c i n g t h e p e r i o d f o r growth and by i n c r e a s i n g the  f o f a i i t i o h of s t a r c h .  B i s s o n and Jones (1) worked on t h i s  problem and found that the seeds gained i n weight up t o the t h i r t y - s e c o n d day of development.  A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d the  peas l o s t weight because the water l o s s was g r e a t e r than t h e  g a i n i n sugars.  They found that sucrose reached a maximum  about the t h i r t y - s e c o n d day (about h a r v e s t i n g time) and then f e l l off rapidly.  The peas gained i n p r o t e i n , s t a r c h and ash  throughout the whole growing season.  M a t e r i a l s and Methods I n order t o o b t a i n r e s u l t s that c o u l d be compared, i t was necessary t o use the same v a r i e t y o f peas and to p i c k them a t the same stage of m a t u r i t y . The b u l k o f the pea canning crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s composed of f o u r or f i v e v a r i e t i e s w i t h such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that they come i n t o maturity at d i f f e r e n t times.  The use o f the d i f f e r e n t  v a r i e t i e s and the p r a c t i c e of sowing the same v a r i e t y on d i f f e r e n t d a t e s , u s u a l l y one t o two.weeks a p a r t , r e s u l t s i n a succession of f i e l d s maturing.  I t was found that peas o f  the v a r i e t y P e r f e c t i o n were used e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e and that i n the areas t o be s t u d i e d there would be peas of t h i s v a r i e t y maturing a t the same t i m e . On August S, 1937, samplespof peas and s o i l were taken from farms l o c a t e d i n the lower E r a s e r V a l l e y area of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The farms from, which samples were obtained were  l o c a t e d near M a t s q u i and on B a r n s t o n I s l a n d which i s i n the F r a s e r R i v e r down stream from M a t s q u i . On August 5, 1937, samples were taken from farms s i t u a t e d on Sea I s l a n d , L u l u I s l a n d and Westham I s l a n d s . These I s l a n d s are i n c l u d e d i n the broad term "Delta a r e a " .  G u t t i n g o f the peas i n eaoh f i e l d had j u s t commenced on the day the samples were taken. I n sampling, the sample of s o i l was taken f i r s t and then the sample o f peas.  A two i n c h auger was used t o  o b t a i n the s o i l t o a depth of eighteen i n c h e s , was  i l l i s depth  chosen as Weaver and Bruner (18) show that t h e pea p l a n t  has. the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f f e e d i n g r o o t s w i t h i n t h i s , depth.  Immediately a f t e r sampling the s o i l the pods o f the  p l a n t s nearest the hole were p i c k e d .  Since i t was impossible  to weigh the peas w i t h any accuracy i n the f i e l d , the peas were l e f t i n the pods w h i l e t r a n s p o r t i n g them t o the l a b o r a t o r y "Thusiloss of water from the peas before weighing was prevented. Each sample was p l a c e d i n a c l e a n paper bag c l e a r l y marked w i t h t h e f i e l d and sample number. The  samples were taken t o the p l a n t n u t r i t i o n l a b -  o r a t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia where the a n a l y s i s o f them was made d u r i n g the 1957 - 38 s e s s i o n .  Upon  a r r i v a l at the l a b o r a t o r y the peas were s h e l l e d , weighed and p l a c e d i n an oven a t 65 - 70° C. and d r i e d t o constant  weight.  When d r y , the peas were ground up f i n e l y and sealed i n g l a s s jars.  The s o i l samples were a i r d r i e d and s t o r e d c a r e f u l l y  u n t i l a convenient time f o r t e s t i n g them. Spurway (16) were f o l l o w e d w i t h one change.  The methods of I t was the use  of an e x t r a c t i n g l i q u i d made by d i s s o l v i n g 100 grams of sodium acetate, i n 500 c.c. o f d i s t i l l e d  watfcr w i t h 200 c.c. o f  g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d added and the whole made up to a l i t r e .  S p i l r e a c t i o n was determined w i t h t h e L a Motte pH t e s t e r . JL mechanical a n a l y s i s was made by t h o r o u g h l y m i x i n g B.5 grams of s o i l Y / i t h 10 c.c. o f water i n a 15 c e . graduated e e n t r i f u g •tube and e e n t r i f u g i n g f o r f i v e minutes a t 2750 r.p.m. The volume o f each f r a c t i o n was measured and the percent composit i o n o f t h e s o i l c a l c u l a t e d from the measurements. Upon the d r i e d and p u l v e r i z e d pea m a t e r i a l analyses were made f o r r e d u c i n g s u g a r s , t o t a l sugars, s t a r c h , p r o t e i n , phosphorus, potassium, c a l c i u m and magnesium.  The methods  used a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. Carbohydrates T.wo grams o f t h e d r y , ground p l a n t m a t e r i a l were p l a c e d i n a f o l d e d f i l t e r paper i n a s m a l l S o x h l e t e x t r a c t i o n apparatus.  50 c.c. of a l c o h o l of 90$> s t r e n g t h were p l a c e d  i n the f l a s k and the e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s c a r r i e d on f o r f o u r hours.  The a l c o h o l e x t r a c t thus o b t a i n e d was then t r a n s -  f e r r e d t o a 400 c.c. beaker, the r e s i d u e and apparatus were washed w i t h h o t d i s t i l l e d water and t h e washings added t o the e x t r a c t .  The volume i n the beaker was about 300 c . c .  •^eating the e x t r a c t i n the beaker on a water bath u n t i l the volume was about h a l f e f f e c t i v e l y removed the a l c o h o l .  The  s o l u t i o n was then made up t o 250 c.c. w i t h d i s t i l l e d water. Carbon  (Eastman Kodak) s p e c i a l l y prepared f o r such purposes,  was used i n c l e a r i n g t h e s o l u t i o n s .  H a l f a gram o f the carbon  was b o i l e d w i t h the s o l u t i o n f o r one minute and f i l t e r e d o f f w h i l e hot w i t h s u c t i o n .  Of the c l e a r e d s o l u t i o n , lOQOevc. was saved on which to make the t o t a l sugar d e t e r m i n a t i o n . i n the r e d u c i n g sugars d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  The r e s t was used The e x t r a c t was  t i t r a t e d i n t o 5 c.c. o f b o i l i n g i f e h l i n g ' s s o l u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the Lane and Eynon method.  The 100 c.c. p o r t i o n saved,  was b o i l e d w i t h 10 grams of c i t r i c a c i d f o r 10 minutes, c o o l e d and n e u t r a l i z e d w i t h 40$ sodium hydroxide and as the volume was under 100 c.c. water was added t o make up the volume. T i t r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out as f o r r e d u c i n g sugars and c a l c u l a t e d the same way. i n the t o t a l  The f a c t o r 0.95 was used t o determine t h e sucrose sugars.  The r e s i d u e from the a l c o h o l i c e x t r a c t i o n was weighed and 1 gram taken f o r the s t a r c h d e t e r m i n a t i o n . was  The 1 gram  p l a c e d i n a 250 c.c. erlenmyer f l a s k and heated f o r two and  a h a l f hours under a r e f l u x condenser w i t h 20c.c. o f concentr a t e d h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d and 200 c.c. of water.  After digest-  i n g the s o l u t i o n s were -cooled and n e u t r a l i z e d w i t h 40% sodium hydroxide and made up to 250 c.c.  I t was then f i l t e r e d and  t i t r a t e d fegainst .10 c.c. of E e h l i n g ' s s o l u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the method of Lane and Eynon. d i z a b l e carbohydrates  S t a r c h o r r a t h e r a c i d heyd'jlo-  were expressed  as s t a r c h by m u l t i p l y i n g  the amount of glucose by the f a c t o r 0.91 Protein One h a l f a gram o f the ground d r y peas was d i g e s t e d •yaUci  K y e l d a h l f l a s k w i t h 5 grams o f a mixture of potassium  sulphate and copper sulphate 14:1) and 15 c.c. o f c o n c e n t r a t e d  sulphuric acid,  s e a t i n g was continued f o r about h a l f an hour  a f t e r the* s o l u t i o n c l e a r e d and the dense white fumes above i t had  disappeared.  added.  When t h e f l a s k was c o o l 200 c.c. o f water were  A s p o o n f u l o f pumice, a p i e c e of wax and 70 c.c. o f  almost s a t u r a t e d  sodium hydroxide were a l s o added.  The ammonia  thus formed was d i s t i l l e d o f f and c o l l e c t e d i n 20 c^c. of 0.089 normal h y d r o c h l o r i c  acid.  M e t h y l orange was added t o  the r e c e i v i n g f l a s k s and t h i s served as the i n d i c a t o r i n t h e t i t r a t i o n w i t h t e n t h normal sodium h y d r o x i d e . c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the- t o t a l n i t r o g e n  P r o t e i n was cound by the  f a c t o r 6.25. Phosphorus Three t e n t h s of a gram of the d r y m a t e r i a l were brushed i n t o a 100 c.c. K j e l d a h l f l a s k , 1 e.i8. o f p e r c h l o r i c a c i d (60$) was  added, and the mixture heated v e r y g e n t l y but i n c r e a s i n g  the heat as the "popping'' subsided. flask  Yvhen the l i q u i d i n the  was c l e a r , the heat was removed and the f l a s k allowed  to c o o l .  When c o l d 20 c.c. o f d i s t i l l e d water were added and  the contents of the f l a s k made f a i n t l y a l k a l i n e to phenolp h t h a l M n w i t h 40$ sodium hyrdoxide and then j u s t s l i g h t l y acid with hydrochloric  a c i d IN. The s o l u t i o n was then washed  i n t o a 100 c.c. graduated f l a s k w i t h s e v e r a l r i n s e s of water and made up to volume.  A 10 c.c. a l i q u o t was mixed w e l l w i t h  1 o , o , ammonium molybdate, 9.5 c.c. o f a 20$ sodium sulphate :  s o l u t i o n and 0.5 c.c. of 0.2$ s o l u t i o n of hydroquinone, and l e t stand f o r f o r t y - f i v e minutes..  Standards c o n t a i n i n g  various  amounts o f phosphorus were t r e a t e d i n l i k e manner.  The  standard*having a c o l o r i n t e n s i t y nearest t o that of t h e un-known was chosen f o r comparison w i t h the unknown ( o r the e x t r a c t ) i n the K l e t t c o l o r i m e t e r . Ash C o n s t i t u e n t s Two grams o f t h e ground peas v-rere ashed i n t h e e l e c t r i c furnace a t a temperature  not above 700° c. The  o r g a n i c matter was f i r s t charred by h e a t i n g on a hot p l a t e a t a medium heat u n t i l there were no more fumes given o f f .  When  the a s h and c r u c i b l e were a t constant weight the ash was d i g e s t e d w i t h hot h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d .  F i r s t w i t h 2.5 c.c. of  concentrated a c i d and then three times more w i t h 10 c.c. each time of h a l f normal a c i d ,  f i n a l l y the c r u c i b l e was washed out  w i t h hot water and the wash added t o the e x t r a c t . was made up t o 100 c.c.  The whole  upon t h i s e x t r a c t determinations f o r  potassium, c a l c i u m and magnesium were made. Potassium To 5 c.c. o f the sample 5 drops of sodium c o b a l t i o n i t r i t e reagent and 2 c.c. o f e t h y l a l c o h o l were added and mixed. The  s o l u t i o n was allowed t o stand f o r 20 minutes f o r the susp-  e n s i o n to develop, which was then compared i n the c o l o r i m e t e r w i t h a standard s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d . Calcium. 5 c.c. of ammonium o x a l a t e were added t o 5 c.c. of the ash e x t r a c t and d i l u t e d t o 25 c.c.  T h i s was b o i l e d f o r  10 minutes, c o l l e d and made up to 25 c.c. a g a i n .  The white  -  suspension  10 -  was compared i n the c o l o r i m e t e r w i t h a standard which  re ce ive d >similar  treatment. Magnesium  The s o l u t i o n from the c a l c i u m t e s t was f i l t e r e d t o remove the c a l c i u m p r e c i p i t a t e .  To the f i l t r a t e 10 c.c. o f  sodium a c i d phosphate were added and the mixture made s t r o n g l y a l k a l i n e w i t h ammonium h y d r o x i d e .  The t e s t tube c o n t a i n i n g  the s o l u t i o n was shaken thoroughly and then l e t stand for h a l f an hour.  The suspended p r e c i p i t a t e was compared w i t h d stand-  ard s o l u t i o n of magnesium i n t h e K l e t t c o l o r i m e t e r . A second d e t e r m i n a t i o n of each sample was made and agreed c l o s e l y w i t h the f i r s t .  The mean o f t h e determinations  are shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s .  Results. The r e s u l t s of the s o i l a n a l y s i s are shown i n t a b l e s 1 and 2.  They do not show s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s except i n  the amounts o f calcium, present and i n the p r o p o r t i o n of c l a y . S o i l D was found t o be extremely d r y . , S o i l E showed s i g n s of poor drainage the low s p o t s .  i n t h a t the s u r f a c e was hard and caked i n  Table No. 1 A n a l y s i s o f s o i l samples .from the D e l t a jand V a l l e y a r e a s .  Sample  •H  ©  H © o  3  •H P"  >  Boa:  «J ca a  (-  rH  Ct? rH  (H  M  estham Island  •H  PH  S  PH  02  O  p,  ,B  a  •H  O f t rj PH  o  P-l  •  CO  © a S3 PH  5? cd ^  w PH  m l  5.9  -  1  150  20  1  6.0  -  1  150  20  1  5.7  2  -  1  150  20  i  5.9  : 10  -  150  -  i  5.3  .10  -  1 3 1 3  150  -  i  5.7  1 gr  150  i  5.5  a  ,150  10  o  150  .16.  100  5  2  10  2  •2  -  B3  -  01  1  2  - ,  02  1  2  -  2  '3  -  10  i  :  5.7 5.3  -  ; 4.6  20  -  4»6-  : -  i  4.4.  -  l  4.6  D2  5. ; 10  -  is l  El  2  10  5  -  E2  2  10  12  -  -  PI  2  2  1 3  20  10  l  5.0  cd . D l M  PH PH  -P  O  10  A3  -  . a  •H  a  150  10  :  H  to © -p  1  2  rH  p) oo  EH  ft  — -  © ta  0  •H  a 0 2 PH 1  A2  5=1  ta  -P  »  •H  2  ' B2  08  PH PH  Bl  1  PQ  tt  05  Al  - A4  Crt 03 4-=  DEL  1  CO  © -p . oS 0  Potassium ppm.  • -p  a  E2  10  2  Gl  2  2  -  GE  •5  2  1  3  100;  1 3  20  10  I  5.3 j  1  40  5  I  5.7  1 3  40  5  I  5.5  - 12 ••• -Table N o . 2 -Mechanical a n a l y s i s o f  rH  *>» -P  © U  ...  «!  ®.  ©  «H «H «S  CQ  ' n  r  1 O 0 0 43 OS ra f-i a5 ro te  OS  rH  ©  ca  03  M  0 0  a?  t—j  CQ  •»  m  R  $ ^  ran  t>  CO f-H  •  >i  •H  OS rH O  rH  ©  • O ^  •rH  © o  '  o  as  •ri  soils  &  rH I O  6  O  4=^ rH • •H CO  Al  3.80  .48.1  28.9  19.2  A2  1.89  35.8  .28.3  34.0  A3  2.12  29.8  61.7  6.38 p  A4  6.65  26.6  62.3  4.45  Bl  4.17  43.8  35,4  16.63  B2 . ,.'  4.00  50.0  42.0  4.0  B3  1.94  19.6  72.6  5.86  CI  4.40  11.1  35.5  49.0  C2  9.00 , 18.1  27.3  45.4 ',  Dl  3.30  5.0  28.4  63.3 .  D2  3.90  9.6  13.4  73.1  El  3.50  10.5  21.0  65.0  E2  6.30  8.8  15.8  70.1  F.l  8.00  11.3  12.9  6 7.8  E2  3,30  8.3  21.7  66.7  Gl  3.80  15*4  17.3;  63.5  G2  5.00  16.6  28.4  50.0  •Table Ha.. 5 Dry weight and ash content of peas. VA11E Y ARIA  DELTA AREA  L o c a l - Sample Dry Ash :j o o a l i t j Sample Dry Ash! matter $,4ry. matter $ dry lo. Up. matter % matter ti  • 35*7  • Air  .. 41*5  A3 ••  •H  &  ','39;,a .  -2.*85. •  S"  H 0) CQ © M CQ •1< Pi 0} J*rH rH CO  : A4 : . :S6*s : .S-«-72 • 0 ,49*,3. 'si:'' .2*87" •  CO  :  S9.*.l 'f^ Hfj -—: O Bl  r  1 +» <B Pi e in 8$ H  :  e l •'  .33*0  .Bl  3B.6  12  37.8  Si • .sa.  M  ii  2.«6? ,  • B3''.-' •41*0 .. Sv4S , : > : :  -  3« X i  F2-  g-*87 . . 69 ©.  '  , 41*8 - 3.90 37,3 ••.37»9 \  35.5  /:  '  Q2 • .  3.00 3.07 3.10 .  C-I  Ol rH +> M  •2«f7  •34*5 y 2.60  3*00  m. •••  ' • Average; '• ..  .2*79 .  •.. Average |  •fable 3 gives the dry matter and 'ash content of the " 1  pea samples..  The dry weight i s close for both the areas but  the ash content i s higher f o r the pass.-grown' in the Delta-  area.  •  .- 14 -  Table N o . .4 •Pea c o n s t i t u e n t s c a l c u l a t e d on d r y weight b a s i s .  ©  ©  O  O  . r4 ; .  H  1 •Al A2 •H  0 0  08  rH  rH  OTfc  HO-  •P O C3  6Q s*o  60 P*o  O  -,M O • •• HI r H  A 60  a. 1DI3," 42.5 52.8 24.6 1500 14*1 . 44 34.6 CO  OJ  5.98 51.7 57.6 22.0 1350 54.7  A3 , 7.5  54.6 62.1 22.4 1380 17.0  32 22.9 . 64 25.6  A4  5.24 24.6 29.8 24.8  730 15.2  96 28.8  1 • Bl  6.85 53.6 60.4 23.3  960 17 .:2  45 25.5  -p  ©  0 u  Magnesium .mg/lOOg'  tf  rH 6»  •  t—  u  Calcium .mg/lOOg  •PH  —  Protein .g/lOOg  Sucrose  0  43  Mi  r-i© ,\u$  •rs-P  potassium mg/lOOg  • • >»  r-i *  •  B2  0. 00 62.7 62.7 26 .6 1450  B5  0.Q0 55.2 55.2 24.7  1  1 0 fl B+» fH C3 r H 03 CQ OQ M  7.4  70 3350 G  980 22«2  69 19.6  <3 CT  12.4  34.8 47.2 2 2«2 1160 25.2  54 24.8  C2  14.2  38.2 52.4 •24.3 1250 15.3  130 11.7  6.94 46.4 53.8 23.8 1193 18«2  67 25.1  Aver age f or Ya l l e y Dl  14.3  29.9 44.2 25.7 1200 13.3  D2  20.1  30,8 50.9 24.6 1260 14.1 • 57 20.6  El  23«2  29.6 52.8 20.3 1240 15.4  60 56,0  20.4  33.0 53.4 19,6 1160 13. %  50 54*5  PI : 26.9  26.9 53.8 25.4  366  5.5  54 62.  stham Island  —  F2  26.1  26.6 52.7 25.4  640  9.1  54 60.  Gl  22.2  33.7 55.9 25.4  827  9.6  110 60.  ©  G2' •17.4  42.5 59.9 25.2  195 13.5  55 47  32.8 52.9 23.9  860 11.8  54 46.8  03  rH CQ H  or)  ©  09  - flrH rH p* M IH  m  6$ •P rH  ©  |2  Average f o r Delta  ;  22.5  32 14.8  Table No* 5 . Pea constituents'calculated on a fresh weight basis. o © rH  «H  *  ©  . © o  V.  ,02  a  fX 60  ©o  u o a) t-H •+»'**>^ . co 60  -p  rH 1 dbi1 «8 O UO P.fi'rtC O U Pa-i : O  e,  I  Pi £»0 © © -P o O rH  O  60  xi o PiO CO rH o \ f H \ .A 60 P4 60 P« S 8.87 535 TH  Al  3.68  15.2  18.9  A2  2.48  21.5  -23.9  A3  2.97  21.7  24.7  8.92  549  A4  1.92  9.0  10.9  9.09  Bl  3.38  26,4  29.?  ; B2  0.00  24.5  O.JOO-  22.6  ca © H H 0} s>  g/lOOg  •P  1—BQ  CQ  .Sucrose  " »  :  ,B3  9.  as  552  •H bo CQ O ra o 0} rH O 69 5.03 14.4  «$ rH © CO 03 H T i  . PI rH 0 CO in" H  r-i  -p ©  a,Pi ^3 rH a) •P ca ca M ©  Average for Delta  O  1  9  PI rH 60  12.3  6.77  25.5  10.2  267  5.57  35.1  10.5  11.5  473  8.49  22.2  12.4  24.5  10.4  567  2.89  27.3  12.9  22.6  10.1  402  9.1  28.3  8.05  383  7.65  17.8  8.19  535  5.68  55.7  5.0  10.0-  CI  4.08  11.5  15.6  C2  6.09  16.3  22.4  8.98 .10.4  •  Average for Yalley  ©  9.5  M  cS  60 CQ O  •H  13.3  i I-PCS PI ton U CO  a 6o 3o •ri O O rH r H \ 05 60 o a 15.7  2.73  18.7  21.6  9.7  484  7.28  26.7  Dl  5.52  11.5  17.0  9.92  464  5.14  12.4  5.11  D2  7.60  11.6  19.2  9.3  464  5.33;  14.0  7.79  El  9.70  .12.4  22.1  8.48  518  6.44  25.1  23.4  E2  7.60  12.3  19.9  7.31  433  5.18  18.6  20.3  11  10.20  10.2  20.4  9.63  139  2.06  20.4  23.7  F2  9.25  9.5  18.7  9.02  227  5.23  19.2  .21.3"  SI  7.6  11.3  18.9  8.70  279  3.24  37.2  20.3  G-2  6 .05  14.5  20.7  8.60  66  4.66  i2.i;  16.2  7.94  11.6  19.6  8.8  323  4.41  17.6  17.2  - 16 T a b l e s 4 and. 5 show the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s o f the peas c a l c u l a t e d on a dry weight b a s i s and a f r e s h weight b a s i s . The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that the peas from the V a l l e y a r e a have a h i g h e r s t a r c h content but a lower scurose content than the peas from the D e l t a a r e a .  The p r o t e i n and t o t a l carbohydrates  contents are the same f o r both a r e a s .  The D e l t a peas show  l e s s e r amounts of Phosphorus potassium and c a l c i u m V a l l e y peas.  than tie  Magnesium i s h i g h i n the D e l t a grown peas.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o s e t f o r t h the a n a l y s i s of peas g i v e n by Hodgman ( 9 ) . H i s f i g u r e s are compiled from v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . For peas they a r e : Oarbohy drat ess Protein  15. fo 7 .f>  Phosphorus  .13%  Calcium  .026$  In the f o l l o w i n g pages the r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s found i n t h i s r e p o r t are compared w i t h those of Hodgman.  Discussion Soils.  What e f f e c t the l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n  o f c l a y i n the D e l t a  s o i l s has upon the peas grown on the s o i l s can not be decided from the r e s u l t s obtained h e r e . The V a l l e y s o i l s are only s l i g h t l y a c i d and should be good s o i l s f o r pea growing.  The D e l t a s o i l s v a r y i n a c i d i t y .  Those w i t h v e r y a c i d s o i l s should be poor pea  soils.  This w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h phosphorus i n the peas. The  o n l y D e l t a s o i l showing a good supply of c a l c i u m  'had been limed two years p r e v i o u s l y and had been g i v e n an c a t i o n of superphosphate the year b e f o r e .  appli-  It i s interesting  t h a t t h i s s o i l shows low amounts of phosphorus. The a c i d i t y of the s o i l c a u s i n g the phosphorus t o be p r e c i p i t a t e d out cannot fexplain  t h i s p o i n t as the peas from t h i s s o i l show l a r g e amounts  of phosphorus, i n f a c t , l a r g e r amounts than peas from l e s s a c i d s o i l show. I n the f i e l d s showing very a c i d r e a c t i o n s the peas were w i l t e d , brovm i n c o l o r w i t h some dead.  The  proportion  of dead p l a n t s was not e x c e s s i v e but n o t i c e a b l e . was  extremely  d r y even to a f o o t i n depth.  The  One  soil  (Q)  surface of  the  s o i l was hard and caked.  No i n d i c a t i o n of poor drainage  found i n t h i s s o i l as was  found i n s o i l E.  s i g n s of having been f l o o d e d .  The  was  S o i l E sho.wed  s m a l l depressions  i n the  f i e l d were devoid of peas and grew n o t h i n g but a m u l t i t u d e of weeds.  The  surface i n these hocklows had  the t y p i c a l  appearance of s o i l on which water had c o l l e c t e d and dried o f f . deep c r a c k s .  slowly  The hard b r i c k - l i k e cakes were separated by wide I n t h i s s o i l there were found present  nitrites,  another i n d i c a t i o n of f l o o d i n g and poor a e r a t i o n . The n i t r o g e n supply was found to be ;lowdb.ut as the  pea  has the n i t r o g e n f i x i n g t u b e r c l e s i n i t s r o o t s which exchange w i t h the p l a n t f i x e d n i t r o g e n f o r carbohydrates, low supply of s o i l n i t r o g e n i s not s e r i o u s .  t h i s apparent  S o i l E, as  has  been p o i n t e d o u t , showed the presence of c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts of n i t r i j e .  i h i s i n i t s e l f i s not s e r i o u s but i n d i c a t e s poor  a e r a t i o n and poor d r a i n a g e . Pea A n a l y s i s - The percentage of dry matter l i s t e d i n t a b l e 3 i s approximately the amounts r e p o r t e d by B o s w e l l ( 4 ) .  The  amount of ash m a t e r i a l i s low compared w i t h the r e s u l t s o f B l s s o n and dones (1) i f an average i s taken f o r the whole, but i f the r e s u l t s are d i v i d e d i n t o the two groups of D e l t a and V a l l e y i t i s seen t h a t the peas from the D e l t a area have a h i g h e r percentage of ash c o n s t i t u e n t s than the V a l l e y grown peas.  T h i s higher amount n e a r l y i s equal t o t h a t g i v e n by  B i s s o n and Jones.  S t r e e t (17) found that h i g h magnesium i n the  n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n caused low crude ash but t h a t h i g h potash and c a l c i u m caused h i g h crude a s h . Yfithout e x c e p t i o n magnesium i s present i n the V a l l e y s o i l s and may have a n i n f l u e n c e on the a s h m a t e r i a l s of the peas grown on them.  This influence  of the magnesium i s probably of g r e a t e r power than the i n f l u e n c e of the c a l c i u m p r e s e n t ,  however, the w r i t e r found that the  peas having the h i g h e r magnesium.content had the lower ash percentage.  Whether t h i s i s a p p o s i t e t o S t r e e t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s  cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d s i n c e S t r e e t d i d not analyse h i s peas for  magnesium.  Carbohydrates .She  r e s u l t s of t h i s .investigation'-are opposite to  those of S t r e e t ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h a t the s o i l s showing magnesium produced peas not h i g h e s t i n sucrose but h i g h e s t i n starch.  However, peas h i g h e s t i n magnesium were found h i g h e s t  i n sucrose and peas h i g h e s t i n potassium were found h i g h e s t i n starch.The cause of t h i s h i g h e r s t a r c h i n the v a l l e y peas may  a l s o be the h i g h e r temperatures p r e v a i l i n g i n the v a l l e y  area d u r i n g the l a t e r p a r t of the growing season The  P r o v i n c i a l c l i m a t i c r e p o r t s r e c o r d the  (§)(4).  temperatures  around Matsqui as being two to f i v e degrees Fahrenheit h i g h e r than around S t e v e s t o n ( c e n t r e of the D e l t a a r e a ) .  Thus the  c o n e l u s i o n must be drawn t h a t the D e l t a a r e a produces a b e t t e r q u a l i t y pea f o r canning  purposes.  The t o t a l carbohydrates are the same i n the peas from the v a l l e y and from the D e l t a areas.  The carbohydrates found  i n peas from both areas are h i g h compared w i t h those of Hodgman and of BOSwell  (4). Protein  Hodgman's value f o r p r o t e i n content of peas i s much lower than any shown f o r p r o t e i n i n t a b l e 5.  The h i g h amount  of p r o t e i n i n the peas used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n cannot be caused by a l a r g e supply of n i t r o g e n i n the s o i l .  Results of  the s o i l a n a l y s i s show them to be low i n t h i s n u t r i e n t  element.  Calcium may be the i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n those peas from  soils  w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h l i m e , s i n c e n i g h t i n g a l e and co-workers  and  P a r k e r r e p o r t e d the need of c a l c i u m f o r n i t r o g e n metabolism. However, ./this can h a r d l y be the case s i n c e the peas from the D e l t a s o i l s which are not so w e l l S u p p l i e d w i t h c a l c i u m a l s o show a h i g h amount of p r o t e i n .  The p r o t e i n content  of t h e  pea seems t o bear no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c a l c i u m content of the pea. No d e f i n i t e cause f o r the h i g h amount o f p r o t e i n can be found u n l e s s the c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s g i v e t h i s  effect.  An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t to observe i s t h a t peas from s o i l s c o n t a i n i n g n i t r i t e s have the lowest amounts of p r o t e i n . No c o n c l u s i o n can be made on t h i s p o i n t s ince there a r e o n l y two such cases occurring.  I t i s probable t h a t the poor c o n d i t i o n  of the s o i l s showing n i t r i t e s had some e f f e c t upon the n i t r o g e n supply of the p l a n t , p o s s i b l y by i n h i b i t i n g  the a c t i v i t y of  n i t r o g e n f i x i n g organisms. Ash c o n s t i t u e n t s. Phosphorus and c a l c i u m - Since the p a r t s analysed were the seeds, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t most of the samples have a h i g h phosphorus content. phosphorus content  •What i s s u r p r i s i n g £s t h a t t&e  found i n a n a l y s i n g these peas i s three times  as great as the phosphorus r e p o r t e d in, peas by Hodgman.  This  l a r g e amount i s hard t o account f o r . The s o i l analyses  show the s o i l s to be low i n phosphorus,  i n those s o i l s which are p l e n t i f u l l y s u p p l i e d w i t h c a l c i u m i t may be kept out of s o l u t i o n as a c a l c i u m s a l t .  ±n the other  s o i l s not so w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h c a l c i u m i t may be h e l d as aluminium s a l t s .  Aluminium was not present  i n any of the s o i l s ,  not even i n the extremely a c i d s o i l s .  (Spurway s t e s t f o r T  aluminium i s Deputed t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y sinoe i t t o o f t e n shows low amounts of the element.) There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount, of c a l c i u m i n the s o i l and the amount of phosphorus i n t h e ^ p l a n t s ' seeds. T h i s may be caused by the f a c t o r s mentioned i n the paragraph.  preceding  The r e l a t i o n seems qruite d e f i n i t e l y between the  calcium of the s o i l and the phosphorus i n the peas.  Acidity  of the s o i l i s not an important f a c t o r s i n c e the v e r y a c i d s o i l s grew peas w i t h h i g h e r amounts of phosphorus than some of the s o i l s with less acid reaction. She r e s u l t s as shown i n t a b l e 5 do not show any r e l a t i o n s h i p between phosphorus content o f the pea and the calcium or magnesium content of the pea.  The only r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h a t can be s t a t e d . c o n c l u s i v e l y i s that s o i l s w i t h a good supply o f c a l c i u m y i e l d peas c o n t a i n i n g g r e a t e r amounts of phosphorus than do s o i l s w i t h a poor supply of calcium. P o t a s s i u m and Sagne:slum..- These two elements have been as having s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on p l a n t s .  described  S t r e e t showed the e f f e c t s  of magnesium and potassium upon carbohydrates.  The i n f l u e n c e  i f any o f these elements on the other c o n s t i t u e n t s of peas cannot be seen i n these r e s u l t s . There i s , however, \Mkconn e c t i o n between the amount o f magnesium a v a i l a b l e i n the s o i l and the amount i n the pea.  -22 -  Conclusions Irom these r e s u l t s i t may be concluded t h a t peas of b e t t e r q u a l i t y f o r canning are grown i n the D e l t a area of the Fraser H i v e r of B r i t i s h Columbia since such peas have a h i g h e r sucrose  content  than peas•grown i n the v a l l e y a r e a .  Another  c o n c l u s i o n may be made that peas grown on s o i l s w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h c a l c i u m have a higher phosphorus content groYm on s o i l s not so  wkllk  stip^l'isd w i t h  than do peas  calcium.  Summary Samples of peas of the v a r i e t y P e r f e c t i o n were c o l l e c t e d w i t h samples of the s o i l s they grew on from farms l o c a t e d i n the Eraser v a l l e y area and the D e l t a area of B r i t i h h Columbia.  The samples were analysed,  the s o i l s f o r the u s u a l  n u t r i e n t elements, the peas f o r sucrose, s t a r c h , p r o t e i n , phosphorus, c a l c i u m , potassium and magnesium. were t a b u l a t e d i n s e v e r a l t a b l e s ,  The r e s u l t s  i t was found that the D e l t a  area produced the b e t t e r q u a l i t y peas, and that s o i l s w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h c a l c i u m produced peas h i g h i n phosphorus.  A p p r e c i a t i o n i s h e r e i n expressed f o r t h e p a t i e n c e and kindness shows t h e author lay Bean Clement, Dr. a, H , H a r r i s , im&er whose d i r e c t i o n the p r o j e c t was c a r r i e d  otsib,  and other  nemoers o,f the s t a f f ,  57he w r i t e r wishes t o express h i s thanks f o r t h e h e l p i n c o l l e c t i n g samples  given  "by IS** Harold P e c r s a a and 15r» W i l b e r t Smith.  - 23 Literature Cited. B i s s o n , C.S,  and B.A.Jones  "Changes accompanying f r u i t development i n the garden pea" P l a n t P h y s i o l o g y - v o l . 7. 1932. B o s w e l l , V. R. "Chemical changes d u r i n g the growth and r i p e n i n g of pea seeds" Amer. Soc. B o r t . S o t . P r o c . 21 1924. «  tt  " I n f l u e n c e of temperature upon the growth and y i e l d of garden peas" Amer. Soc. n o r t . S c i . P r o c . 23, 1926. It  ft  "Temperature i n f l u e n c e upon the chemical composition and q u a l i t y o f peas (Pisum Sativum,L.)" Amer. Soc. B o r t . S c i . P r o c . 25, 1928, rt  "  and J o d i d i , s.  L.  "Chemical composition and y i e l d of the A l a s k a pea as i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n f e r t i l i z e r s and by the stage of development" J o u r , A g r i c . Res. 48, 1934. Day, Dorothy. . "Some e f f e c t s of c a l c i u m d e f i c i e n c y on Pisum Sativum" Plant Physiology 4, 1929. Fonder, 'J. F. " V a r i a t i o n s i n the c a l c i u m and magnesium contents of pea p l a n t s on d i f f e r e n t s o i l t y p e s " S o i l Science 28, 1934.  - 24 8.  H i b b a r d , B. P. "The i n f l u e n c e of c a l c i u m and potassium d e f i c i e n c i e s on the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and u t i l i s a t i o n o f carbohydrates and p r o t e i n s i n the pea" Mich. A g r . Exp. S t a . Bienn. Report. 1950."  9.  Hodgman,  CD.  "Handbook of c h e m i s t r y and p h y s i c s " 22nd e d i t i o n 1938. Chemical Bubber P u b l i s h i n g Co. C l e v e l a n d , Ohio. 10.  Morgan,, M. F. "The s o i l s of C o n n e c t i c u t " Conn. Agr. Exp. S t a . B u l l . 320, 1930.  11.  Musbaak, F. L. and S e l l , 0. " E f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s on q u a l i t y and chemical composition o f canning peas" J o u r . A g r i c . Res.  IS e  53, 1936.  n i g h t i n g a l e , G-.T.; Addams, R.M.; Schemerhorn, L. G.  Bobbins, W.E.;  and  " E f f e c t s of c a l c i u m d e f i c i e n c y on n i t r a t e a b s o r p t i o n and on metabolism i n Tomato" Plant Physiology 6, 1931. 13.  P a r k e r , F. ?/. and Truog, E. "The r e l a t i o n between the c a l c i u m and the n i t r o g content o f p l a n t s and the f u n c t i o n of c a l c i u m " S o i l Science, 10, 1920.  14.  Sayer, C. B. and Nebel,  B.R.  ".Some e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s on the s t r u c t u r e , composition and q u a l i t y of peas" Amer. Soc. E o r t . S c i . P r o c . 27, 1930. ~"  - 25 Smithj L. s. "The e f f e c t s of excesses and d e f i c i e n c i e s of m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s upon p l a n t growth" T h e s i s submitted f o r the degree o f B.S.A. 1955 Spurway, C. H. "Soil testing" M i c h i g a n S t a t e C o l l e g e - Tech. B u l l . 152. R e v i s e d 1935. S t r e e t , 0. E. WCarbohydrate-nitrogen and base element r e l a t i o n s h i p s of peas grown i n water c u l t u r e s under v a r i o u s l i g h t exposures" Plant Physiology 9. 1934. Weaver, J . E. and Bruner,  W.E.  "Boot development o f vegetable c r o p s " M c G r a w - H i l l Book Go. N.Y. 1927. ,  

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