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Calcium phosphorus relationship in canning peas 1938

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CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS RELATIONSHIP IN CANNING PEAS Laurence Samuel Smith A t h e s i s submitted for the degree Master of Science i n A g r i c u l t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1938 Table of Contents Introduction - Object of work - Review of l i t e r a t u r e . M a t e r i a l s and Methods - Mat e r i a l s used - Time and place of work - Methods used Results - S o i l a n a l y s i s - Pea analysis Discussion of Results - S o i l s - Peas - carbohydrates - proteins - calcium and phosphorus - magnesium and potassium - Conclusions Summary L i t e r a t u r e Cited Calc ium-phosphorus i n Canning Rela t i o n s h i p Peas In a s e r i e s of experiments conducted three years ago, the w r i t e r (15) found that plants grown i n a nu t r i e n t s o l u t i o n high i n phosphorus showed the same exte r n a l symptoms as those shown by pla n t s grov/n i n calcium d e f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n s . This l e d the w r i t e r to ponder on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of calcium to phosphorus under the usual conditions of growth and to decide to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between calcium and phosphorus i n the plants and the calcium and phosphorus i n the s o i l s growing them. Since canning peas are an important crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was decided to use t h i s crop f o r the study of the oalcium-phosphorus r e l a t i o n s h i p . , Review of L i t e r a t u r e A d e s c r i p t i o n of calcium d e f i c i e n t pea plants was given by Day (.6) who described them as being shorter than normal with the lower leaves c h l o r o t i c and the youngest leaves ourled and tough. She does not mention the e f f e c t upon the seeds. Sayer and Nebel (14) found that the c e l l s i n calcium d e f i c i e n t plants were p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y older than those not so d e f i c i e n t . This they inte r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of disturbed metabolism. Low potassium, they stated, caused s i m i l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l aging. They also found a calcium-potassium r a t i o i n the pea seeds. The calcium decreased as the pot- assium increased and made the peas more tender. Musbach and S e l l (11) reported a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g and a t t r i b u t e d the tender- ness to a reduction of calcium i n the seed coat's. Street (17) observed that the absorption of calcium and to a large extent that of magnesium bore a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n to that of potash* Morgan (10) reported a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the q u a n t i t i e s of potassium and magnesium present and the amounts of calcium taken up by the p l a n t s . Nightingale, Addamss Bobbins and Schemerhorn (12) found that tomato plants grown i n calcium d e f i c i e n t solutions were unable to a s s i m i l a t e nitrogen as n i t r a t e and such plants accumulated carbohydrate as a r e s u l t . I f the plants were placed I n darkness they were able to a s s i m i l a t e the n i t r a t e s . Hibbard's work (8) on peas showed that an accumulation of nitrogen i n p l a n t s grown i n short l i g h t conditions was prop- o r t i o n a l to the amount of calcium present. On the other hand Street (17) has stated that peas grown i n short l i g h t periods showed a high percentage of nitrogen and concludes that the only f a c t o r which influenced the nitrogen content was the amount of l i g h t . Parker and Truog (13) i n t h e i r work on fodder plants found that grasses, which are tol e r a n t to acid s o i l s , had a low calcium-nitrogen r a t i o and that legumes and other plants which are s e n s i t i v e to a c i d s s o i l s have a high calcium- nitrogen r a t i o . This l e d them to conclude that calcium entered i n t o the composition of proteins as a plant food element. P r o t e i n metabolism, they stated, probably produces many acids and consequently the calcium i s needed to remove the acids from the c e l l sap. Boswell and J o d i d i (5) found that phosphorus and potassium f e r t i l i z e r s increase the pro t e i n content of peas and therefore advanced maturity. Fonder (7) c o n s i s t e n t l y found greater amounts of calcium, than of magnesium i n peas and that the growing pea plants g r e a t l y reduced the amounts of calcium and magnesium i n the s o i l . Musbach and S e l l (11) observed that a l l f e r t i l i z e r s reduced calcium and increased phosphorus i n the seed coats. Parker and Truog (13) found that phosphorus d i d not bear so great a r e l a t i o n to nitrogen as does calcium. Boswell has done much work on the composition of peas from the standpoint of carbohydrate content and q u a l i t y . In one paper (2) he reported that i n the ri p e n i n g of peas there was a rapid decrease i n sucrose with an increase i n starch and a slow decrease i n t o t a l nitrogen, he concluded that a low sugar and a high starch content were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of poor q u a l i t y i n peas. In two l a t e r papers (3), (4) he reported that high temperature had an e f f e c t on both y i e l d and q u a l i t y of peas by reducing the period f o r growth and by increasing the f o f a i i t i o h of starch. Bisson and Jones (1) worked on t h i s problem and found that the seeds gained i n weight up to the thirty-second day of development. A f t e r t h i s period the peas l o s t weight because the water loss was greater than the gain i n sugars. They found that sucrose reached a maximum about the thirty-second day (about harvesting time) and then f e l l o f f r a p i d l y . The peas gained i n p r o t e i n , starch and ash throughout the whole growing season. M a t e r i a l s and Methods In order to obtain r e s u l t s that could be compared, i t was necessary to use the same v a r i e t y of peas and to pick them at the same stage of maturity. The bulk of the pea canning crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s composed of four or f i v e v a r i e t i e s with such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that they come into maturity at d i f f e r e n t times. The use of the d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s and the p r a c t i c e of sowing the same v a r i e t y on d i f f e r e n t dates, u s u a l l y one to two.weeks apart, r e s u l t s i n a succession of f i e l d s maturing. I t was found that peas of the v a r i e t y P e r f e c t i o n were used extensively i n t h i s province and that i n the areas t o be studied there would be peas of t h i s v a r i e t y maturing at the same time. On August S, 1937, samplespof peas and s o i l were taken from farms located i n the lower Eraser V a l l e y area of B r i t i s h Columbia. The farms from, which samples were obtained were located near Matsqui and on Barnston Island which i s i n the Fraser River down stream from Matsqui. On August 5, 1937, samples were taken from farms situ a t e d on Sea Is l a n d , Lulu Island and Westham Islands. These Islands are included i n the broad term "Delta area". Gutting of the peas i n eaoh f i e l d had just commenced on the day the samples were taken. In sampling, the sample of s o i l was taken f i r s t and then the sample of peas. A two inch auger was used to obtain the s o i l to a depth of eighteen inches, i l l i s depth was chosen as Weaver and Bruner (18) show that the pea plant has. the greatest proportion of feeding roots w i t h i n t h i s , depth. Immediately a f t e r sampling the s o i l the pods of the plants nearest the hole were picked. Since i t was impossible to weigh the peas with any accuracy i n the f i e l d , the peas were l e f t i n the pods while t r a n s p o r t i n g them to the laboratory "Thusiloss of water from the peas before weighing was prevented. Each sample was placed i n a clean paper bag c l e a r l y marked with the f i e l d and sample number. The samples were taken to the plant n u t r i t i o n l a b - oratory of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia where the analy s i s of them was made during the 1957 - 38 session. Upon a r r i v a l at the laboratory the peas were s h e l l e d , weighed and placed i n an oven at 65 - 70° C. and d r i e d to constant weight. When dry, the peas were ground up f i n e l y and sealed i n glass j a r s . The s o i l samples were a i r dried and stored c a r e f u l l y u n t i l a convenient time f o r t e s t i n g them. The methods of Spurway (16) were followed with one change. I t was the use of an e x t r a c t i n g l i q u i d made by d i s s o l v i n g 100 grams of sodium acetate, i n 500 c.c. of d i s t i l l e d watfcr with 200 c.c. of g l a c i a l a c e t i c acid added and the whole made up to a l i t r e . S p i l r e a c t i o n was determined with the La Motte pH t e s t e r . JL mechanical an a l y s i s was made by thoroughly mixing B.5 grams of s o i l Y/ith 10 c.c. of water i n a 15 c e . graduated een t r i f u g •tube and e e n t r i f u g i n g for f i v e minutes at 2750 r.p.m. The volume of each f r a c t i o n was measured and the percent composi- t i o n of the s o i l c a l c u l a t e d from the measurements. Upon the dried and pul v e r i z e d pea m a t e r i a l analyses were made fo r reducing sugars, t o t a l sugars, starch, p r o t e i n , phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The methods used are described i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. Carbohydrates T.wo grams of the dry, ground plant m a t e r i a l were placed i n a folded f i l t e r paper i n a small Soxhlet e x t r a c t i o n apparatus. 50 c.c. of a l c o h o l of 90$> strength were placed i n the f l a s k and the e x t r a c t i o n process c a r r i e d on f o r four hours. The alcohol extract thus obtained was then trans- f e r r e d to a 400 c.c. beaker, the residue and apparatus were washed with hot d i s t i l l e d water and the washings added to the e x t r a c t . The volume i n the beaker was about 300 c.c. •^eating the extract i n the beaker on a water bath u n t i l the volume was about h a l f e f f e c t i v e l y removed the a l c o h o l . The s o l u t i o n was then made up to 250 c.c. with d i s t i l l e d water. Carbon (Eastman Kodak) s p e c i a l l y prepared f o r such purposes, was used i n c l e a r i n g the solu t i o n s . Half a gram of the carbon was b o i l e d with the s o l u t i o n for one minute and f i l t e r e d o f f while hot with suction. Of the cleared s o l u t i o n , lOQOevc. was saved on which to make the t o t a l sugar determination. The r e s t was used i n the reducing sugars determination. The extract was t i t r a t e d i n t o 5 c.c. of b o i l i n g ifehling's s o l u t i o n according to the Lane and Eynon method. The 100 c.c. p o r t i o n saved, was b o i l e d with 10 grams of c i t r i c a c i d f o r 10 minutes, cooled and n e u t r a l i z e d with 40$ sodium hydroxide and as the volume was under 100 c.c. water was added to make up the volume. T i t r a t i o n was ca r r i e d out as for reducing sugars and c a l c u l a t e d the same way. The fac t o r 0.95 was used to determine the sucrose i n the t o t a l sugars. The residue from the a l c o h o l i c e x t r a c t i o n was weighed and 1 gram taken f o r the starch determination. The 1 gram was placed i n a 250 c.c. erlenmyer f l a s k and heated f o r two and a h a l f hours under a r e f l u x condenser with 20c.c. of concent- rated hydrochloric acid and 200 c.c. of water. A f t e r d i g e s t - ing the solu t i o n s were -cooled and n e u t r a l i z e d with 40% sodium hydroxide and made up to 250 c.c. I t was then f i l t e r e d and t i t r a t e d fegainst .10 c.c. of Eehling's s o l u t i o n according to the method of Lane and Eynon. Starch or rather acid heyd'jlo- dizable carbohydrates were expressed as s t a r c h by m u l t i p l y i n g the amount of glucose by the f a c t o r 0.91 Pr o t e i n One h a l f a gram of the ground dry peas was digested •yaUci Kyeldahl f l a s k with 5 grams of a mixture of potassium sulphate and copper sulphate 14:1) and 15 c.c. of concentrated sulphuric a c i d , s e a t i n g was continued f o r about h a l f an hour a f t e r the* s o l u t i o n cleared and the dense white fumes above i t had disappeared. When the f l a s k was cool 200 c.c. of water were added. A spoonful of pumice, a piece of wax and 70 c.c. of almost saturated sodium hydroxide were also added. The ammonia thus formed was d i s t i l l e d o f f and c o l l e c t e d i n 20 c^c. of 0.089 normal hydrochloric a c i d . Methyl orange was added to the r e c e i v i n g f l a s k s and t h i s served as the i n d i c a t o r i n the t i t r a t i o n with tenth normal sodium hydroxide. P r o t e i n was ca l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the- t o t a l nitrogen cound by the fa c t o r 6.25. Phosphorus Three tenths of a gram of the dry ma t e r i a l were brushed in t o a 100 c.c. K j e l d a h l f l a s k , 1 e.i8. of p e r c h l o r i c acid (60$) was added, and the mixture heated very gently but increasing the heat as the "popping'' subsided. Yvhen the l i q u i d i n the f l a s k was c l e a r , the heat was removed and the f l a s k allowed to cool. When cold 20 c.c. of d i s t i l l e d water were added and the contents of the f l a s k made f a i n t l y a l k a l i n e to phenol- p h t h a l M n with 40$ sodium hyrdoxide and then just s l i g h t l y acid with hydrochloric a c i d IN. The s o l u t i o n was then washed into a 100 c.c. graduated f l a s k with several r i n s e s of water and made up to volume. A 10 c.c. a l i q u o t was mixed w e l l with 1 o , o , ammonium molybdate, :9.5 c.c. of a 20$ sodium sulphate s o l u t i o n and 0.5 c.c. of 0.2$ s o l u t i o n of hydroquinone, and l e t stand for f o r t y - f i v e minutes.. Standards containing various amounts of phosphorus were treated i n l i k e manner. The standard*having a color i n t e n s i t y nearest to that of the un-- known was chosen f o r comparison with the unknown (or the extract) i n the K l e t t colorimeter. Ash Constituents Two grams of the ground peas v-rere ashed i n the e l e c t r i c furnace at a temperature not above 700° c. The organic matter was f i r s t charred by heating on a hot p l a t e at a medium heat u n t i l there were no more fumes given o f f . When the ash and c r u c i b l e were at constant weight the ash was digested with hot hydrochloric a c i d . F i r s t with 2.5 c.c. of concentrated acid and then three times more with 10 c.c. each time of h a l f normal a c i d , f i n a l l y the c r u c i b l e was washed out with hot water and the wash added to the e x t r a c t . The whole was made up to 100 c.c. upon t h i s extract determinations f o r potassium, calcium and magnesium were made. Potassium To 5 c.c. of the sample 5 drops of sodium c o b a l t i o n i t - r i t e reagent and 2 c.c. of e t h y l a l c o h o l were added and mixed. The s o l u t i o n was allowed to stand f o r 20 minutes f o r the susp- ension to develop, which was then compared i n the colorimeter with a standard s i m i l a r l y treated. Calcium. 5 c.c. of ammonium oxalate were added to 5 c.c. of the ash extract and d i l u t e d to 25 c.c. This was b o i l e d f o r 10 minutes, c o l l e d and made up to 25 c.c. again. The white - 10 - suspension was compared i n the colorimeter with a standard which re ce ive d >similar treatment. Magnesium The s o l u t i o n from the calcium t e s t was f i l t e r e d to remove the calcium p r e c i p i t a t e . To the f i l t r a t e 10 c.c. of sodium aci d phosphate were added and the mixture made strongly a l k a l i n e with ammonium hydroxide. The test tube containing the s o l u t i o n was shaken thoroughly and then l e t stand for h a l f an hour. The suspended p r e c i p i t a t e was compared with d stand- ard s o l u t i o n of magnesium i n the K l e t t colorimeter. A second determination of each sample was made and agreed c l o s e l y with the f i r s t . The mean of the determinations are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . Res u l t s. The r e s u l t s of the s o i l a n a l y s i s are shown i n tables 1 and 2. They do not show s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s except i n the amounts of calcium, present and i n the proportion of cl a y . S o i l D was found to be extremely dry. , S o i l E showed signs of poor drainage i n that the surface was hard and caked i n the low spots. Table No. 1 Analysis of s o i l samples .from the Delta jand V a l l e y areas. a © 1 3 • -p •H H © o Sa mp le  CO © -p . oS 0 tt PH - P PH •H 05 •H » a 0 2 P H 1 ft to © -p . •H a PH - P PH • H H O PH S 02 PH O p , ,B P-l • H a O f t r j PH o Po ta ss iu m pp m.  a CO • © a S3 PH 5? ̂  cd m w PH A l 2 •2 - 1 150 10 l 5.9 A2 2 10 - 1 150 20 1 6.0 • H A3 2 10 - 1 150 20 1 5.7 P" Crt 03 4-= - A4 : 2 2 - 1 150 20 i 5.9 1 B l : 10 - 1 3 150 - i 5.3 > ' B2 - .10 - 1 3 150 - i 5.7 B3 - 10 1 gr 150 i 5.5 B o a : «J ca a PQ (- — - 01 1 2 - , a ,150 10 : i 5.7 02 1 2 - o 150 .16. 5.3 5=1 cd 08 rH . D l 2 '3 - i s 100 5 - ; 4.6 © ta ta M D2 5. ; 10 - l 3 100; 20 - 4»6- 0 Ct? rH rH E l 2 10 5 - : - i 4.4. EH p) oo (H M E2 2 10 12 - - - l 4.6 DE L es th am  Is la nd  PI 2 2 - 1 3 20 10 l 5.0 es th am  Is la nd  E2 10 2 - 1 3 20 10 I 5.3 j es th am  Is la nd  G l 2 2 - 1 40 5 I 5.7 GE •5 2 1 1 3 40 5 I 5.5 - 12 - ••• -Table N o . 2 -Mechanical a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s © U ' ... « ! *>» -P «H «H «S © o ®. © o CQ rH as •ri •H • O ^ rH •rH 6 O >i OS rH O © & rH I O 4 = ^ rH • •H CO A l 3.80 .48.1 28.9 19.2 A2 1.89 35.8 .28.3 34.0 A3 2.12 29.8 61.7 6.38 p ' n A4 6.65 26.6 62.3 4.45 r B l 4.17 43.8 35,4 16.63 B2 . ,.' 4.00 50.0 42.0 4.0 B3 1.94 19.6 72.6 5.86 1 O 0 0 43 OS CI 4.40 11.1 35.5 49.0 te ra f-i a5 ro C2 9.00 , 18.1 27.3 45.4 ', OS rH Dl 3.30 5.0 28.4 63.3 . © ca 03 M D2 3.90 9.6 13.4 73.1 • 0 a? t—j E l 3.50 10.5 21.0 65.0 • » 0 CQ E2 6.30 8.8 15.8 70.1 m R F.l 8.00 11.3 12.9 6 7.8 $ CO E2 3,30 8.3 21.7 66.7 ^ f-H ran Gl 3.80 15*4 17.3; 63.5 t> G2 5.00 16.6 28.4 50.0 •Table Ha.. 5 Dry weight and ash content of peas. VA11E Y ARIA DELTA AREA Local- Sample l o . Dry matter Ash : $,4ry. matter jooalitj Sample Up. Dry matter % Ash! $ dry matter •H & CO - r'f^ Hfj -—: • 35*7 3 « X i ti S" H 0) CQ © M CQ .Bl 3B.6 •2«f7 • Air . 41*5 12 37.8 A3 •  ','39;,a . -2.*85. • •1< Pi 0} J*rH rH CO 0 M Si , 41*8 - 3.90 : A4:  . :S6*s : .S-«-72 • • .sa. 37,3 ' s i : ' ' ,49*,3. .2*87" • Ol rH +> M ' 69 © . ' ii ••.37»9 \ 3.00 S9.*.l 2.«6? , F2- 35.5 /: 3.07 • B3:'>:':.-:' • 41*0 .. Sv4S , C-I 3.10 . O Bl 1 +» <B Pi e in 8$ H m. ••• e l •' .33*0 g-*87 . . Q2 • . •34*5 y 2.60 3*00 ' • Average; '• .. .2*79 . •.  Average | •fable1 3 gives the dry matter and 'ash content of the " pea samples.. The dry weight is close for both the areas but the ash content is higher for the pass.-grown' in the Delta- area. • .- 14 - Table N o . .4 •Pea constituents calculated on dry weight b a s i s . tf © >» 4 3 •PH r H 6» O O . r4 ; . • • 0 © H 1 Su cr os e 0 0 u 0 0 8 r H CO 6Q Mi r-i© • r s - P ,\u$ rH O T f c • P HO- O C3 s*o OJ Pr ot ei n .g /l OO g — • t— u O 60 -,M O •• P*o HI r H A 60 a. po ta ss iu m mg /l OO g Ca lc iu m .m g/ lO Og  Ma gn es iu m .m g/ lO Og ' © r - i * • H - p 1 • • 1 •Al 1DI3," 42.5 52.8 24.6 1500 14*1 . 44 34.6 A2 5.98 51.7 57.6 22.0 1350 54.7 32 22.9 A3 , 7.5 54.6 62.1 22.4 1380 17.0 . 64 25.6 A4 5.24 24.6 29.8 24.8 730 15.2 96 28.8 B l 6.85 53.6 60.4 23.3 960 17 .:2 45 25.5 B2 0. 00 62.7 62.7 26 .6 1450 7.4 70 3350 G B5 0.Q0 55.2 55.2 24.7 980 22«2 69 19.6 1 0 fl B + » <3 fH C3 r H 03 CQ OQ M CT 12.4 34.8 47.2 2 2«2 1160 25.2 54 24.8 C2 14.2 38.2 52.4 •24.3 1250 15.3 130 11.7 Aver Y age f a l l e y — or 6.94 46.4 53.8 23.8 1193 18«2 67 25.1 6$ • P r H © 03 r H CQ or) H © Dl 14.3 29.9 44.2 25.7 1200 13.3 32 14.8 D2 20.1 30,8 50.9 24.6 1260 14.1 • 57 20.6 09 - f l r H r H m p* M I H E l 23«2 29.6 52.8 20.3 1240 15.4 60 56,0 |2 ; 20.4 33.0 53.4 19,6 1160 13. % 50 54*5 PI : 26.9 26.9 53.8 25.4 366 5.5 54 62. st ha m Is la nd  F2 26.1 26.6 52.7 25.4 640 9.1 54 60. st ha m Is la nd  Gl 22.2 33.7 55.9 25.4 827 9.6 110 60. © G2' •17.4 42.5 59.9 25.2 195 13.5 55 47 Average f o r Delta 22.5 32.8 52.9 23.9 860 11.8 54 46.8 Table No* 5. Pea constituents'calculated on a fresh weight basis. © V . " » •P « H * . © o o © rH ,02 .S uc ro se  g / lO O g  fX 60 © o u o a) t-H •+»'**>^ . co 60 CQ -p rH 1 dbi «8 O UO P.fi 'rtC O U Pa-i : O e Pi 1 T H £»0 © © -P o O rH , f H \ I P4 60 1—BQ O 60 xi o P i O CO rH o \ .A 60 P« S •H bo CQ O ra o 0} rH O 69 a 6o 3 o •ri O O rH r H \ 05 60 o a •H 60 CQ O © O PI rH 60 1 9 A l 3.68 15.2 18.9 8.87 535 5.03 15.7 12.3 A2 2.48 21.5 -23.9 9 . as 552 14.4 13.3 9.5 ca A3 2.97 21.7 24.7 8.92 549 6.77 25.5 10.2 A4 1.92 9.0 10.9 9.09 267 5.57 35.1 10.5 © H H 0} s> a : B l 3.38 26,4 29 .? 11.5 473 8.49 22.2 12.4 ; B2 0.00 24.5 24.5 10.4 567 2.89 27.3 12.9 ,B3 O.JOO- 22.6 22.6 10.1 402 i 9.1 28.3 8.05 I-PCS PI ton U CO cS M CI 4.08 11.5 15.6 8.98 383 7.65 17.8 8.19 C2 6.09 16.3 22.4 .10.4 535 • 5.68 55.7 5.0 Average for Yalley 2.73 18.7 21.6 9 .7 484 7.28 26.7 10.0- D l 5.52 11.5 17.0 9.92 464 5.14 12.4 5.11 «$ rH © CO 03 H D2 7.60 11.6 19.2 9.3 464 5.33; 14.0 7.79 T i . PI E l 9.70 .12.4 22.1 8.48 518 6.44 25.1 23.4 - p © r-i rH 0 CO in" H E2 7.60 12.3 19.9 7.31 433 5.18 18.6 20.3 11 10.20 10.2 20.4 9.63 139 2.06 20.4 23.7 a,Pi 3 a) F2 9.25 9.5 18.7 9.02 227 5.23 19.2 .21.3" ^ rH •P ca ca M SI 7.6 11.3 18.9 8.70 279 3.24 37.2 20.3 © G-2 6 .05 14.5 20.7 8.60 66 4.66 i 2 . i ; 16.2 Average for Delta 7.94 11.6 19.6 8 .8 323 4.41 17.6 17.2 - 16 - Tables 4 and. 5 show the r e s u l t s of the ana l y s i s of the peas calcul a t e d on a dry weight basis and a f r e s h weight b a s i s . The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that the peas from the V a l l e y area have a higher starch content but a lower scurose content than the peas from the Delta area. The pr o t e i n and t o t a l carbohydrates contents are the same f o r both areas. The Delta peas show l e s s e r amounts of Phosphorus potassium and calcium than tie V a l l e y peas. Magnesium i s high i n the Delta grown peas. I t i s of i n t e r e s t to set f o r t h the a n a l y s i s of peas given by Hodgman (9). His f i g u r e s are compiled from various p u b l i c a t i o n s of the United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . For peas they are: Oarbohy drat ess 15. fo P r o t e i n 7 .f> Phosphorus .13% Calcium .026$ In the f o l l o w i n g pages the r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s found i n t h i s report are compared with those of Hodgman. Discussion S o i l s . What e f f e c t the la r g e r proportion of c l a y i n the Delta s o i l s has upon the peas grown on the s o i l s can not be decided from the r e s u l t s obtained here. The V a l l e y s o i l s are only s l i g h t l y a c i d and should be good s o i l s f o r pea growing. The Delta s o i l s vary i n a c i d i t y . Those with very acid s o i l s should be poor pea s o i l s . This w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n connection with phosphorus i n the peas. The only Delta s o i l showing a good supply of calcium 'had been limed two years p r e v i o u s l y and had been given an a p p l i - c a t i o n of superphosphate the year before. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that t h i s s o i l shows low amounts of phosphorus. The a c i d i t y of the s o i l causing the phosphorus to be p r e c i p i t a t e d out cannot fexplain t h i s point as the peas from t h i s s o i l show large amounts of phosphorus, i n f a c t , l a r g e r amounts than peas from l e s s a c i d s o i l show. In the f i e l d s showing very a c i d reactions the peas were w i l t e d , brovm i n color with some dead. The proportion of dead plan t s was not excessive but n o t i c e a b l e . One s o i l (Q) was extremely dry even to a foot i n depth. The surface of the s o i l was hard and caked. No i n d i c a t i o n of poor drainage was found i n t h i s s o i l as was found i n s o i l E. S o i l E sho.wed signs of having been flooded. The small depressions i n the f i e l d were devoid of peas and grew nothing but a multitude of weeds. The surface i n these hocklows had the typical appearance of s o i l on which water had c o l l e c t e d and slowly d r i e d o f f . The hard b r i c k - l i k e cakes were separated by wide deep cracks. In t h i s s o i l there were found present n i t r i t e s , another i n d i c a t i o n of f l o o d i n g and poor aeration. The nitrogen supply was found to be ;lowdb.ut as the pea has the nitrogen f i x i n g tubercles i n i t s roots which exchange with the plant f i x e d nitrogen f o r carbohydrates, t h i s apparent low supply of s o i l nitrogen i s not serious. S o i l E, as has been pointed out, showed the presence of considerable amounts of n i t r i j e . i h i s i n i t s e l f i s not serious but indi c a t e s poor aera t i o n and poor drainage. Pea A n a l y s i s - The percentage of dry matter l i s t e d i n table 3 i s approximately the amounts reported by Boswell (4). The amount of ash m a t e r i a l i s low compared with the r e s u l t s of Blsson and dones (1) i f an average i s taken f o r the whole, but i f the r e s u l t s are divided i n t o the two groups of Delta and V a l l e y i t i s seen that the peas from the Delta area have a higher percentage of ash constituents than the V a l l e y grown peas. This higher amount nearly i s equal to that given by Bisson and Jones. Street (17) found that high magnesium i n the nu t r i e n t s o l u t i o n caused low crude ash but that high potash and calcium caused high crude ash. Yfithout exception mag- nesium i s present i n the Valley s o i l s and may have an influence on the ash materials of the peas grown on them. This influence of the magnesium i s probably of greater power than the influence of the calcium present, however, the w r i t e r found that the peas having the higher magnesium.content had the lower ash percentage. Whether t h i s i s apposite to Street's observations cannot be ascertained since Street did not analyse h i s peas f o r magnesium. Carbohydrates .She r e s u l t s of t h i s .investigation'-are opposite to those of Street's i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n that the s o i l s showing magnesium produced peas not highest i n sucrose but highest i n starch. However, peas highest i n magnesium were found highest i n sucrose and peas highest i n potassium were found highest i n starch.The cause of t h i s higher starch i n the vall e y peas may also be the higher temperatures p r e v a i l i n g i n the v a l l e y area during the l a t e r part of the growing season ( § ) ( 4 ) . The P r o v i n c i a l c l i m a t i c reports record the temperatures around Matsqui as being two to f i v e degrees Fahrenheit higher than around Steveston (centre of the Delta area). Thus the conelusion must be drawn that the Delta area produces a better q u a l i t y pea f o r canning purposes. The t o t a l carbohydrates are the same i n the peas from the v a l l e y and from the Delta areas. The carbohydrates found i n peas from both areas are high compared with those of Hodgman and of BOSwell ( 4 ) . P r o t e i n Hodgman's value f o r p r o t e i n content of peas i s much lower than any shown f o r p r o t e i n i n table 5. The high amount of p r o t e i n i n the peas used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n cannot be caused by a large supply of nitrogen i n the s o i l . Results of the s o i l a n a l y s i s show them to be low i n t h i s nutrient element. Calcium may be the i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n those peas from s o i l s w e l l supplied with lime, since n i g h t i n g a l e and co-workers and Parker reported the need of calcium f o r nitrogen metabolism. However, ./this can hardly be the case since the peas from the De l t a s o i l s which are not so w e l l Supplied with calcium also show a high amount of p r o t e i n . The p r o t e i n content of the pea seems to bear no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the calcium content of the pea. No d e f i n i t e cause f o r the high amount of pr o t e i n can be found unless the c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s give t h i s e f f e c t . An i n t e r e s t i n g point to observe i s that peas from s o i l s containing n i t r i t e s have the lowest amounts of p r o t e i n . No conclusion can be made on t h i s point s ince there are only two such cases occurring. I t i s probable that the poor co n d i t i o n of the s o i l s showing n i t r i t e s had some e f f e c t upon the nitrogen supply of the plant, p o s s i b l y by i n h i b i t i n g the a c t i v i t y of nitrogen f i x i n g organisms. Ash constituent s. Phosphorus and calcium - Since the parts analysed were the seeds, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that most of the samples have a high phosphorus content. •What i s s u r p r i s i n g £s that t&e phosphorus content found i n analysing these peas i s three times as great as the phosphorus reported in, peas by Hodgman. T h i s large amount i s hard to account f o r . The s o i l analyses show the s o i l s to be low i n phosphorus, i n those s o i l s which are p l e n t i f u l l y supplied with calcium i t may be kept out of s o l u t i o n as a calcium s a l t . ±n the other s o i l s not so w e l l supplied with calcium i t may be held as aluminium s a l t s . Aluminium was not present i n any of the s o i l s , not even i n the extremely acid s o i l s . (Spurway Ts t e s t f o r aluminium i s Deputed to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y sinoe i t to often shows low amounts of the element.) There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount, of calcium i n the s o i l and the amount of phosphorus i n the^plants' seeds. This may be caused by the f a c t o r s mentioned i n the preceding paragraph. The r e l a t i o n seems qruite d e f i n i t e l y between the calcium of the s o i l and the phosphorus i n the peas. A c i d i t y of the s o i l i s not an important f a c t o r since the very acid s o i l s grew peas with higher amounts of phosphorus than some of the s o i l s with l e s s a c i d r e a c t i o n . She r e s u l t s as shown i n table 5 do not show any r e l a t i o n s h i p between phosphorus content of the pea and the calcium or magnesium content of the pea. The only r e l a t i o n s h i p that can be s t a t e d . c o n c l u s i v e l y i s that s o i l s with a good supply of calcium y i e l d peas containing greater amounts of phosphorus than do s o i l s with a poor supply of calcium. Potassium and Sagne:slum..- These two elements have been described as having s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on p l a n t s . Street showed the e f f e c t s of magnesium and potassium upon carbohydrates. The influence i f any of these elements on the other constituents of peas cannot be seen i n these r e s u l t s . There i s , however, \Mkcon- nection between the amount of magnesium a v a i l a b l e i n the s o i l and the amount i n the pea. -22 - Conclusions Irom these r e s u l t s i t may be concluded that peas of better q u a l i t y f o r canning are grown i n the Delta area of the Fraser Hiver of B r i t i s h Columbia since such peas have a higher sucrose content than peas•grown i n the v a l l e y area. Another conclusion may be made that peas grown on s o i l s w e l l supplied with calcium have a higher phosphorus content than do peas groYm on s o i l s not so wkllk stip^l'isd with calcium. Summary Samples of peas of the v a r i e t y P e r f e c t i o n were c o l l e c t e d with samples of the s o i l s they grew on from farms located i n the Eraser v a l l e y area and the Delta area of B r i t i h h Columbia. The samples were analysed, the s o i l s f o r the usual n u t r i e n t elements, the peas f o r sucrose, starch, p r o t e i n , phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium. The r e s u l t s were tabulated i n several t a b l e s , i t was found that the Delta area produced the better q u a l i t y peas, and that s o i l s w e l l supplied with calcium produced peas high i n phosphorus. Appreciation i s herein expressed f o r the patience and kindness shows the author lay Bean Clement, Dr. a, H, Harris, im&er whose d i r - ection the project was c a r r i e d otsib, and other nemoers o,f the staff, 57he writer wishes to express his thanks for the help i n c o l l e c t - ing samples given "by IS** Harold Pecrsaa and 15r» Wilbert Smith. - 23 - L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d . Bisson, C.S, and B.A.Jones "Changes accompanying f r u i t development i n the garden pea" Pl a n t Physiology - v o l . 7. 1932. Boswell, V. R. "Chemical changes during the growth and ripe n i n g of pea seeds" Amer. Soc. B o r t . Sot. Proc. 21 1924. « tt "Influence of temperature upon the growth and y i e l d of garden peas" Amer. Soc. n o r t . S c i . Proc. 23, 1926. It ft "Temperature influence upon the chemical composition and q u a l i t y of peas (Pisum Sativum,L.)" Amer. Soc. B o r t . S c i . Proc. 25, 1928, rt " and J o d i d i , s . L. "Chemical composition and y i e l d of the Alaska pea as influenced by c e r t a i n f e r t i l i z e r s and by the stage of development" Jour, A g r i c . Res. 48, 1934. Day, Dorothy. . "Some e f f e c t s of calcium d e f i c i e n c y on Pisum Sativum" P l a n t Physiology 4, 1929. Fonder, 'J. F. "Variat i o n s i n the calcium and magnesium contents of pea plants on d i f f e r e n t s o i l types" S o i l Science 28, 1934. - 24 - 8. Hibbard, B. P. "The influence of calcium and potassium d e f i c i e n c i e s on the transformation and u t i l i s - a t i o n of carbohydrates and pro t e i n s i n the pea" Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bienn. Report. 1950." 9. Hodgman, C D . "Handbook of chemistry and physics" 22nd e d i t i o n 1938. Chemical Bubber P u b l i s h i n g Co. Cleveland, Ohio. 10. Morgan,, M. F. "The s o i l s of Connecticut" Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . 320, 1930. Musbaak, F. L. and S e l l , 0. "Ef f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s on q u a l i t y and chemical composition of canning peas" Jour. A g r i c . Res. 53, 1936. n i g h t i n g a l e , G-.T.; Addams, R.M.; Bobbins, W.E.; and Schemerhorn, L. G. 11. IS e " E f f e c t s of calcium d e f i c i e n c y on n i t r a t e absorption and on metabolism i n Tomato" Pla n t Physiology 6, 1931. 13. Parker, F. ?/. and Truog, E. "The r e l a t i o n between the calcium and the n i t r o g content of p l a n t s and the f u n c t i o n of calcium" S o i l Science, 10, 1920. 14. Sayer, C. B. and Nebel, B.R. ".Some e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t n u t r i e n t solutions on the s t r u c t u r e , composition and q u a l i t y of peas" Amer. Soc. E o r t . S c i . Proc. 27, 1930. ~" - 25 - Smithj L. s. "The e f f e c t s of excesses and d e f i c i e n c i e s of mineral n u t r i e n t s upon pla n t growth" Thesis submitted f o r the degree of B.S.A. 1955 Spurway, C. H. " S o i l t e s t i n g " Michigan State College - Tech. B u l l . 152. Revised 1935. S t r e e t , 0. E. WCarbohydrate-nitrogen and base element r e l a t i o n s h i p s of peas grown i n water cultures under various l i g h t exposures" Pla n t Physiology 9. 1934. Weaver, J . E. and Bruner, W.E. "Boot development of vegetable crops" McGraw-Hill Book Go. N.Y. 1927. ,

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