UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Calcium phosphorus relationship in canning peas Smith, Laurence Samuel 1938-11-01

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1938_A4_S6_C2.pdf [ 3.47MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105551.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105551-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105551-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105551-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105551-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105551-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105551-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105551-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105551.ris

Full Text

CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS RELATIONSHIP IN CANNING PEAS Laurence Samuel Smith A t h e s i s submitted for the degree Master of Science i n A g r i c u l t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1938 Table of Contents Introduction - Object of work - Review of l i t e r a t u r e . M a t e r i a l s and Methods - Mat e r i a l s used - Time and place of work - Methods used Results - S o i l a n a l y s i s - Pea analysis Discussion of Results - S o i l s - Peas - carbohydrates - proteins - calcium and phosphorus - magnesium and potassium - Conclusions Summary L i t e r a t u r e Cited Calc ium-phosphorus i n Canning Rela t i o n s h i p Peas In a s e r i e s of experiments conducted three years ago, the w r i t e r (15) found that plants grown i n a nu t r i e n t s o l u t i o n high i n phosphorus showed the same exte r n a l symptoms as those shown by pla n t s grov/n i n calcium d e f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n s . This l e d the w r i t e r to ponder on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of calcium to phosphorus under the usual conditions of growth and to decide to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between calcium and phosphorus i n the plants and the calcium and phosphorus i n the s o i l s growing them. Since canning peas are an important crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was decided to use t h i s crop f o r the study of the oalcium-phosphorus r e l a t i o n s h i p . , Review of L i t e r a t u r e A d e s c r i p t i o n of calcium d e f i c i e n t pea plants was given by Day (.6) who described them as being shorter than normal with the lower leaves c h l o r o t i c and the youngest leaves ourled and tough. She does not mention the e f f e c t upon the seeds. Sayer and Nebel (14) found that the c e l l s i n calcium d e f i c i e n t plants were p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y older than those not so d e f i c i e n t . This they inte r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of disturbed metabolism. Low potassium, they stated, caused s i m i l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l aging. They also found a calcium-potassium r a t i o i n the pea seeds. The calcium decreased as the pot assium increased and made the peas more tender. Musbach and S e l l (11) reported a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g and a t t r i b u t e d the tender ness to a reduction of calcium i n the seed coat's. Street (17) observed that the absorption of calcium and to a large extent that of magnesium bore a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n to that of potash* Morgan (10) reported a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the q u a n t i t i e s of potassium and magnesium present and the amounts of calcium taken up by the p l a n t s . Nightingale, Addamss Bobbins and Schemerhorn (12) found that tomato plants grown i n calcium d e f i c i e n t solutions were unable to a s s i m i l a t e nitrogen as n i t r a t e and such plants accumulated carbohydrate as a r e s u l t . I f the plants were placed I n darkness they were able to a s s i m i l a t e the n i t r a t e s . Hibbard's work (8) on peas showed that an accumulation of nitrogen i n p l a n t s grown i n short l i g h t conditions was prop o r t i o n a l to the amount of calcium present. On the other hand Street (17) has stated that peas grown i n short l i g h t periods showed a high percentage of nitrogen and concludes that the only f a c t o r which influenced the nitrogen content was the amount of l i g h t . Parker and Truog (13) i n t h e i r work on fodder plants found that grasses, which are tol e r a n t to acid s o i l s , had a low calcium-nitrogen r a t i o and that legumes and other plants which are s e n s i t i v e to a c i d s s o i l s have a high calcium- nitrogen r a t i o . This l e d them to conclude that calcium entered i n t o the composition of proteins as a plant food element. P r o t e i n metabolism, they stated, probably produces many acids and consequently the calcium i s needed to remove the acids from the c e l l sap. Boswell and J o d i d i (5) found that phosphorus and potassium f e r t i l i z e r s increase the pro t e i n content of peas and therefore advanced maturity. Fonder (7) c o n s i s t e n t l y found greater amounts of calcium, than of magnesium i n peas and that the growing pea plants g r e a t l y reduced the amounts of calcium and magnesium i n the s o i l . Musbach and S e l l (11) observed that a l l f e r t i l i z e r s reduced calcium and increased phosphorus i n the seed coats. Parker and Truog (13) found that phosphorus d i d not bear so great a r e l a t i o n to nitrogen as does calcium. Boswell has done much work on the composition of peas from the standpoint of carbohydrate content and q u a l i t y . In one paper (2) he reported that i n the ri p e n i n g of peas there was a rapid decrease i n sucrose with an increase i n starch and a slow decrease i n t o t a l nitrogen, he concluded that a low sugar and a high starch content were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of poor q u a l i t y i n peas. In two l a t e r papers (3), (4) he reported that high temperature had an e f f e c t on both y i e l d and q u a l i t y of peas by reducing the period f o r growth and by increasing the f o f a i i t i o h of starch. Bisson and Jones (1) worked on t h i s problem and found that the seeds gained i n weight up to the thirty-second day of development. A f t e r t h i s period the peas l o s t weight because the water loss was greater than the gain i n sugars. They found that sucrose reached a maximum about the thirty-second day (about harvesting time) and then f e l l o f f r a p i d l y . The peas gained i n p r o t e i n , starch and ash throughout the whole growing season. M a t e r i a l s and Methods In order to obtain r e s u l t s that could be compared, i t was necessary to use the same v a r i e t y of peas and to pick them at the same stage of maturity. The bulk of the pea canning crop i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s composed of four or f i v e v a r i e t i e s with such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that they come into maturity at d i f f e r e n t times. The use of the d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s and the p r a c t i c e of sowing the same v a r i e t y on d i f f e r e n t dates, u s u a l l y one to two.weeks apart, r e s u l t s i n a succession of f i e l d s maturing. I t was found that peas of the v a r i e t y P e r f e c t i o n were used extensively i n t h i s province and that i n the areas t o be studied there would be peas of t h i s v a r i e t y maturing at the same time. On August S, 1937, samplespof peas and s o i l were taken from farms located i n the lower Eraser V a l l e y area of B r i t i s h Columbia. The farms from, which samples were obtained were located near Matsqui and on Barnston Island which i s i n the Fraser River down stream from Matsqui. On August 5, 1937, samples were taken from farms situ a t e d on Sea Is l a n d , Lulu Island and Westham Islands. These Islands are included i n the broad term "Delta area". Gutting of the peas i n eaoh f i e l d had just commenced on the day the samples were taken. In sampling, the sample of s o i l was taken f i r s t and then the sample of peas. A two inch auger was used to obtain the s o i l to a depth of eighteen inches, i l l i s depth was chosen as Weaver and Bruner (18) show that the pea plant has. the greatest proportion of feeding roots w i t h i n t h i s , depth. Immediately a f t e r sampling the s o i l the pods of the plants nearest the hole were picked. Since i t was impossible to weigh the peas with any accuracy i n the f i e l d , the peas were l e f t i n the pods while t r a n s p o r t i n g them to the laboratory "Thusiloss of water from the peas before weighing was prevented. Each sample was placed i n a clean paper bag c l e a r l y marked with the f i e l d and sample number. The samples were taken to the plant n u t r i t i o n l a b  oratory of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia where the analy s i s of them was made during the 1957 - 38 session. Upon a r r i v a l at the laboratory the peas were s h e l l e d , weighed and placed i n an oven at 65 - 70° C. and d r i e d to constant weight. When dry, the peas were ground up f i n e l y and sealed i n glass j a r s . The s o i l samples were a i r dried and stored c a r e f u l l y u n t i l a convenient time f o r t e s t i n g them. The methods of Spurway (16) were followed with one change. I t was the use of an e x t r a c t i n g l i q u i d made by d i s s o l v i n g 100 grams of sodium acetate, i n 500 c.c. of d i s t i l l e d watfcr with 200 c.c. of g l a c i a l a c e t i c acid added and the whole made up to a l i t r e . S p i l r e a c t i o n was determined with the La Motte pH t e s t e r . JL mechanical an a l y s i s was made by thoroughly mixing B.5 grams of s o i l Y/ith 10 c.c. of water i n a 15 c e . graduated een t r i f u g •tube and e e n t r i f u g i n g for f i v e minutes at 2750 r.p.m. The volume of each f r a c t i o n was measured and the percent composi t i o n of the s o i l c a l c u l a t e d from the measurements. Upon the dried and pul v e r i z e d pea m a t e r i a l analyses were made fo r reducing sugars, t o t a l sugars, starch, p r o t e i n , phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The methods used are described i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. Carbohydrates T.wo grams of the dry, ground plant m a t e r i a l were placed i n a folded f i l t e r paper i n a small Soxhlet e x t r a c t i o n apparatus. 50 c.c. of a l c o h o l of 90$> strength were placed i n the f l a s k and the e x t r a c t i o n process c a r r i e d on f o r four hours. The alcohol extract thus obtained was then trans f e r r e d to a 400 c.c. beaker, the residue and apparatus were washed with hot d i s t i l l e d water and the washings added to the e x t r a c t . The volume i n the beaker was about 300 c.c. •^eating the extract i n the beaker on a water bath u n t i l the volume was about h a l f e f f e c t i v e l y removed the a l c o h o l . The s o l u t i o n was then made up to 250 c.c. with d i s t i l l e d water. Carbon (Eastman Kodak) s p e c i a l l y prepared f o r such purposes, was used i n c l e a r i n g the solu t i o n s . Half a gram of the carbon was b o i l e d with the s o l u t i o n for one minute and f i l t e r e d o f f while hot with suction. Of the cleared s o l u t i o n , lOQOevc. was saved on which to make the t o t a l sugar determination. The r e s t was used i n the reducing sugars determination. The extract was t i t r a t e d i n t o 5 c.c. of b o i l i n g ifehling's s o l u t i o n according to the Lane and Eynon method. The 100 c.c. p o r t i o n saved, was b o i l e d with 10 grams of c i t r i c a c i d f o r 10 minutes, cooled and n e u t r a l i z e d with 40$ sodium hydroxide and as the volume was under 100 c.c. water was added to make up the volume. T i t r a t i o n was ca r r i e d out as for reducing sugars and c a l c u l a t e d the same way. The fac t o r 0.95 was used to determine the sucrose i n the t o t a l sugars. The residue from the a l c o h o l i c e x t r a c t i o n was weighed and 1 gram taken f o r the starch determination. The 1 gram was placed i n a 250 c.c. erlenmyer f l a s k and heated f o r two and a h a l f hours under a r e f l u x condenser with 20c.c. of concent rated hydrochloric acid and 200 c.c. of water. A f t e r d i g e s t  ing the solu t i o n s were -cooled and n e u t r a l i z e d with 40% sodium hydroxide and made up to 250 c.c. I t was then f i l t e r e d and t i t r a t e d fegainst .10 c.c. of Eehling's s o l u t i o n according to the method of Lane and Eynon. Starch or rather acid heyd'jlo- dizable carbohydrates were expressed as s t a r c h by m u l t i p l y i n g the amount of glucose by the f a c t o r 0.91 Pr o t e i n One h a l f a gram of the ground dry peas was digested •yaUci Kyeldahl f l a s k with 5 grams of a mixture of potassium sulphate and copper sulphate 14:1) and 15 c.c. of concentrated sulphuric a c i d , s e a t i n g was continued f o r about h a l f an hour a f t e r the* s o l u t i o n cleared and the dense white fumes above i t had disappeared. When the f l a s k was cool 200 c.c. of water were added. A spoonful of pumice, a piece of wax and 70 c.c. of almost saturated sodium hydroxide were also added. The ammonia thus formed was d i s t i l l e d o f f and c o l l e c t e d i n 20 c^c. of 0.089 normal hydrochloric a c i d . Methyl orange was added to the r e c e i v i n g f l a s k s and t h i s served as the i n d i c a t o r i n the t i t r a t i o n with tenth normal sodium hydroxide. P r o t e i n was ca l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the- t o t a l nitrogen cound by the fa c t o r 6.25. Phosphorus Three tenths of a gram of the dry ma t e r i a l were brushed in t o a 100 c.c. K j e l d a h l f l a s k , 1 e.i8. of p e r c h l o r i c acid (60$) was added, and the mixture heated very gently but increasing the heat as the "popping'' subsided. Yvhen the l i q u i d i n the f l a s k was c l e a r , the heat was removed and the f l a s k allowed to cool. When cold 20 c.c. of d i s t i l l e d water were added and the contents of the f l a s k made f a i n t l y a l k a l i n e to phenol- p h t h a l M n with 40$ sodium hyrdoxide and then just s l i g h t l y acid with hydrochloric a c i d IN. The s o l u t i o n was then washed into a 100 c.c. graduated f l a s k with several r i n s e s of water and made up to volume. A 10 c.c. a l i q u o t was mixed w e l l with 1 o , o , ammonium molybdate, :9.5 c.c. of a 20$ sodium sulphate s o l u t i o n and 0.5 c.c. of 0.2$ s o l u t i o n of hydroquinone, and l e t stand for f o r t y - f i v e minutes.. Standards containing various amounts of phosphorus were treated i n l i k e manner. The standard*having a color i n t e n s i t y nearest to that of the un-- known was chosen f o r comparison with the unknown (or the extract) i n the K l e t t colorimeter. Ash Constituents Two grams of the ground peas v-rere ashed i n the e l e c t r i c furnace at a temperature not above 700° c. The organic matter was f i r s t charred by heating on a hot p l a t e at a medium heat u n t i l there were no more fumes given o f f . When the ash and c r u c i b l e were at constant weight the ash was digested with hot hydrochloric a c i d . F i r s t with 2.5 c.c. of concentrated acid and then three times more with 10 c.c. each time of h a l f normal a c i d , f i n a l l y the c r u c i b l e was washed out with hot water and the wash added to the e x t r a c t . The whole was made up to 100 c.c. upon t h i s extract determinations f o r potassium, calcium and magnesium were made. Potassium To 5 c.c. of the sample 5 drops of sodium c o b a l t i o n i t - r i t e reagent and 2 c.c. of e t h y l a l c o h o l were added and mixed. The s o l u t i o n was allowed to stand f o r 20 minutes f o r the susp ension to develop, which was then compared i n the colorimeter with a standard s i m i l a r l y treated. Calcium. 5 c.c. of ammonium oxalate were added to 5 c.c. of the ash extract and d i l u t e d to 25 c.c. This was b o i l e d f o r 10 minutes, c o l l e d and made up to 25 c.c. again. The white - 10 - suspension was compared i n the colorimeter with a standard which re ce ive d >similar treatment. Magnesium The s o l u t i o n from the calcium t e s t was f i l t e r e d to remove the calcium p r e c i p i t a t e . To the f i l t r a t e 10 c.c. of sodium aci d phosphate were added and the mixture made strongly a l k a l i n e with ammonium hydroxide. The test tube containing the s o l u t i o n was shaken thoroughly and then l e t stand for h a l f an hour. The suspended p r e c i p i t a t e was compared with d stand ard s o l u t i o n of magnesium i n the K l e t t colorimeter. A second determination of each sample was made and agreed c l o s e l y with the f i r s t . The mean of the determinations are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . Res u l t s. The r e s u l t s of the s o i l a n a l y s i s are shown i n tables 1 and 2. They do not show s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s except i n the amounts of calcium, present and i n the proportion of cl a y . S o i l D was found to be extremely dry. , S o i l E showed signs of poor drainage i n that the surface was hard and caked i n the low spots. Table No. 1 Analysis of s o i l samples .from the Delta jand V a l l e y areas. a © 1 3 • -p •H H © o Sa mp le  CO © -p . oS 0 tt PH - P PH •H 05 •H » a 0 2 P H 1 ft to © -p . •H a PH - P PH • H H O PH S 02 PH O p , ,B P-l • H a O f t r j PH o Po ta ss iu m pp m.  a CO • © a S3 PH 5? ^  cd m w PH A l 2 •2 - 1 150 10 l 5.9 A2 2 10 - 1 150 20 1 6.0 • H A3 2 10 - 1 150 20 1 5.7 P" Crt 03 4-= - A4 : 2 2 - 1 150 20 i 5.9 1 B l : 10 - 1 3 150 - i 5.3 > ' B2 - .10 - 1 3 150 - i 5.7 B3 - 10 1 gr 150 i 5.5 B o a : «J ca a PQ (- — - 01 1 2 - , a ,150 10 : i 5.7 02 1 2 - o 150 .16. 5.3 5=1 cd 08 rH . D l 2 '3 - i s 100 5 - ; 4.6 © ta ta M D2 5. ; 10 - l 3 100; 20 - 4»6- 0 Ct? rH rH E l 2 10 5 - : - i 4.4. EH p) oo (H M E2 2 10 12 - - - l 4.6 DE L es th am  Is la nd  PI 2 2 - 1 3 20 10 l 5.0 es th am  Is la nd  E2 10 2 - 1 3 20 10 I 5.3 j es th am  Is la nd  G l 2 2 - 1 40 5 I 5.7 GE •5 2 1 1 3 40 5 I 5.5 - 12 - ••• -Table N o . 2 -Mechanical a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s © U ' ... « ! *>» -P «H «H «S © o ®. © o CQ rH as •ri •H • O ^ rH •rH 6 O >i OS rH O © & rH I O 4 = ^ rH • •H CO A l 3.80 .48.1 28.9 19.2 A2 1.89 35.8 .28.3 34.0 A3 2.12 29.8 61.7 6.38 p ' n A4 6.65 26.6 62.3 4.45 r B l 4.17 43.8 35,4 16.63 B2 . ,.' 4.00 50.0 42.0 4.0 B3 1.94 19.6 72.6 5.86 1 O 0 0 43 OS CI 4.40 11.1 35.5 49.0 te ra f-i a5 ro C2 9.00 , 18.1 27.3 45.4 ', OS rH Dl 3.30 5.0 28.4 63.3 . © ca 03 M D2 3.90 9.6 13.4 73.1 • 0 a? t—j E l 3.50 10.5 21.0 65.0 • » 0 CQ E2 6.30 8.8 15.8 70.1 m R F.l 8.00 11.3 12.9 6 7.8 $ CO E2 3,30 8.3 21.7 66.7 ^ f-H ran Gl 3.80 15*4 17.3; 63.5 t> G2 5.00 16.6 28.4 50.0 •Table Ha.. 5 Dry weight and ash content of peas. VA11E Y ARIA DELTA AREA Local- Sample l o . Dry matter Ash : $,4ry. matter jooalitj Sample Up. Dry matter % Ash! $ dry matter •H & CO - r'f^ Hfj -—: • 35*7 3 « X i ti S" H 0) CQ © M CQ .Bl 3B.6 •2«f7 • Air . 41*5 12 37.8 A3 •  ','39;,a . -2.*85. • •1< Pi 0} J*rH rH CO 0 M Si , 41*8 - 3.90 : A4:  . :S6*s : .S-«-72 • • .sa. 37,3 ' s i : ' ' ,49*,3. .2*87" • Ol rH +> M ' 69 © . ' ii ••.37»9 \ 3.00 S9.*.l 2.«6? , F2- 35.5 /: 3.07 • B3:'>:':.-:' • 41*0 .. Sv4S , C-I 3.10 . O Bl 1 +» <B Pi e in 8$ H m. ••• e l •' .33*0 g-*87 . . Q2 • . •34*5 y 2.60 3*00 ' • Average; '• .. .2*79 . •.  Average | •fable1 3 gives the dry matter and 'ash content of the " pea samples.. The dry weight is close for both the areas but the ash content is higher for the pass.-grown' in the Delta- area. • .- 14 - Table N o . .4 •Pea constituents calculated on dry weight b a s i s . tf © >» 4 3 •PH r H 6» O O . r4 ; . • • 0 © H 1 Su cr os e 0 0 u 0 0 8 r H CO 6Q Mi r-i© • r s - P ,\u$ rH O T f c • P HO- O C3 s*o OJ Pr ot ei n .g /l OO g — • t— u O 60 -,M O •• P*o HI r H A 60 a. p ot as si um  mg /l OO g Ca lc iu m .m g/ lO Og  Ma gn es iu m .m g/ lO Og ' © r - i * • H - p 1 • • 1 •Al 1DI3," 42.5 52.8 24.6 1500 14*1 . 44 34.6 A2 5.98 51.7 57.6 22.0 1350 54.7 32 22.9 A3 , 7.5 54.6 62.1 22.4 1380 17.0 . 64 25.6 A4 5.24 24.6 29.8 24.8 730 15.2 96 28.8 B l 6.85 53.6 60.4 23.3 960 17 .:2 45 25.5 B2 0. 00 62.7 62.7 26 .6 1450 7.4 70 3350 G B5 0.Q0 55.2 55.2 24.7 980 22«2 69 19.6 1 0 fl B + » <3 fH C3 r H 03 CQ OQ M CT 12.4 34.8 47.2 2 2«2 1160 25.2 54 24.8 C2 14.2 38.2 52.4 •24.3 1250 15.3 130 11.7 Aver Y age f a l l e y — or 6.94 46.4 53.8 23.8 1193 18«2 67 25.1 6$ • P r H © 03 r H CQ or) H © Dl 14.3 29.9 44.2 25.7 1200 13.3 32 14.8 D2 20.1 30,8 50.9 24.6 1260 14.1 • 57 20.6 09 - f l r H r H m p* M I H E l 23«2 29.6 52.8 20.3 1240 15.4 60 56,0 |2 ; 20.4 33.0 53.4 19,6 1160 13. % 50 54*5 PI : 26.9 26.9 53.8 25.4 366 5.5 54 62. st ha m Is la nd  F2 26.1 26.6 52.7 25.4 640 9.1 54 60. st ha m Is la nd  Gl 22.2 33.7 55.9 25.4 827 9.6 110 60. © G2' •17.4 42.5 59.9 25.2 195 13.5 55 47 Average f o r Delta 22.5 32.8 52.9 23.9 860 11.8 54 46.8 Table No* 5. Pea constituents'calculated on a fresh weight basis. © V . " » •P « H * . © o o © rH ,02 .S uc ro se  g /l O O g  fX 60 © o u o a) t-H •+»'**>^ . co 60 CQ -p rH 1 dbi «8 O UO P.fi 'rtC O U Pa-i : O e Pi 1 T H £»0 © © -P o O rH , f H \ I P4 60 1—BQ O 60 xi o P i O CO rH o \ .A 60 P« S •H bo CQ O ra o 0} rH O 69 a 6o 3 o •ri O O rH r H \ 05 60 o a •H 60 CQ O © O PI rH 60 1 9 A l 3.68 15.2 18.9 8.87 535 5.03 15.7 12.3 A2 2.48 21.5 -23.9 9 . as 552 14.4 13.3 9.5 ca A3 2.97 21.7 24.7 8.92 549 6.77 25.5 10.2 A4 1.92 9.0 10.9 9.09 267 5.57 35.1 10.5 © H H 0} s> a : B l 3.38 26,4 29 .? 11.5 473 8.49 22.2 12.4 ; B2 0.00 24.5 24.5 10.4 567 2.89 27.3 12.9 ,B3 O.JOO- 22.6 22.6 10.1 402 i 9.1 28.3 8.05 I-PCS PI ton U CO cS M CI 4.08 11.5 15.6 8.98 383 7.65 17.8 8.19 C2 6.09 16.3 22.4 .10.4 535 • 5.68 55.7 5.0 Average for Yalley 2.73 18.7 21.6 9 .7 484 7.28 26.7 10.0- D l 5.52 11.5 17.0 9.92 464 5.14 12.4 5.11 «$ rH © CO 03 H D2 7.60 11.6 19.2 9.3 464 5.33; 14.0 7.79 T i . PI E l 9.70 .12.4 22.1 8.48 518 6.44 25.1 23.4 - p © r-i rH 0 CO in" H E2 7.60 12.3 19.9 7.31 433 5.18 18.6 20.3 11 10.20 10.2 20.4 9.63 139 2.06 20.4 23.7 a,Pi 3 a) F2 9.25 9.5 18.7 9.02 227 5.23 19.2 .21.3" ^ rH•P ca ca M SI 7.6 11.3 18.9 8.70 279 3.24 37.2 20.3 © G-2 6 .05 14.5 20.7 8.60 66 4.66 i 2 . i ; 16.2 Average for Delta 7.94 11.6 19.6 8 .8 323 4.41 17.6 17.2 - 16 - Tables 4 and. 5 show the r e s u l t s of the ana l y s i s of the peas calcul a t e d on a dry weight basis and a f r e s h weight b a s i s . The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that the peas from the V a l l e y area have a higher starch content but a lower scurose content than the peas from the Delta area. The pr o t e i n and t o t a l carbohydrates contents are the same f o r both areas. The Delta peas show l e s s e r amounts of Phosphorus potassium and calcium than tie V a l l e y peas. Magnesium i s high i n the Delta grown peas. I t i s of i n t e r e s t to set f o r t h the a n a l y s i s of peas given by Hodgman (9). His f i g u r e s are compiled from various p u b l i c a t i o n s of the United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . For peas they are: Oarbohy drat ess 15. fo P r o t e i n 7 .f> Phosphorus .13% Calcium .026$ In the f o l l o w i n g pages the r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s found i n t h i s report are compared with those of Hodgman. Discussion S o i l s . What e f f e c t the la r g e r proportion of c l a y i n the Delta s o i l s has upon the peas grown on the s o i l s can not be decided from the r e s u l t s obtained here. The V a l l e y s o i l s are only s l i g h t l y a c i d and should be good s o i l s f o r pea growing. The Delta s o i l s vary i n a c i d i t y . Those with very acid s o i l s should be poor pea s o i l s . This w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n connection with phosphorus i n the peas. The only Delta s o i l showing a good supply of calcium 'had been limed two years p r e v i o u s l y and had been given an a p p l i  c a t i o n of superphosphate the year before. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that t h i s s o i l shows low amounts of phosphorus. The a c i d i t y of the s o i l causing the phosphorus to be p r e c i p i t a t e d out cannot fexplain t h i s point as the peas from t h i s s o i l show large amounts of phosphorus, i n f a c t , l a r g e r amounts than peas from l e s s a c i d s o i l show. In the f i e l d s showing very a c i d reactions the peas were w i l t e d , brovm i n color with some dead. The proportion of dead plan t s was not excessive but n o t i c e a b l e . One s o i l (Q) was extremely dry even to a foot i n depth. The surface of the s o i l was hard and caked. No i n d i c a t i o n of poor drainage was found i n t h i s s o i l as was found i n s o i l E. S o i l E sho.wed signs of having been flooded. The small depressions i n the f i e l d were devoid of peas and grew nothing but a multitude of weeds. The surface i n these hocklows had the typical appearance of s o i l on which water had c o l l e c t e d and slowly d r i e d o f f . The hard b r i c k - l i k e cakes were separated by wide deep cracks. In t h i s s o i l there were found present n i t r i t e s , another i n d i c a t i o n of f l o o d i n g and poor aeration. The nitrogen supply was found to be ;lowdb.ut as the pea has the nitrogen f i x i n g tubercles i n i t s roots which exchange with the plant f i x e d nitrogen f o r carbohydrates, t h i s apparent low supply of s o i l nitrogen i s not serious. S o i l E, as has been pointed out, showed the presence of considerable amounts of n i t r i j e . i h i s i n i t s e l f i s not serious but indi c a t e s poor aera t i o n and poor drainage. Pea A n a l y s i s - The percentage of dry matter l i s t e d i n table 3 i s approximately the amounts reported by Boswell (4). The amount of ash m a t e r i a l i s low compared with the r e s u l t s of Blsson and dones (1) i f an average i s taken f o r the whole, but i f the r e s u l t s are divided i n t o the two groups of Delta and V a l l e y i t i s seen that the peas from the Delta area have a higher percentage of ash constituents than the V a l l e y grown peas. This higher amount nearly i s equal to that given by Bisson and Jones. Street (17) found that high magnesium i n the nu t r i e n t s o l u t i o n caused low crude ash but that high potash and calcium caused high crude ash. Yfithout exception mag nesium i s present i n the Valley s o i l s and may have an influence on the ash materials of the peas grown on them. This influence of the magnesium i s probably of greater power than the influence of the calcium present, however, the w r i t e r found that the peas having the higher magnesium.content had the lower ash percentage. Whether t h i s i s apposite to Street's observations cannot be ascertained since Street did not analyse h i s peas f o r magnesium. Carbohydrates .She r e s u l t s of t h i s .investigation'-are opposite to those of Street's i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n that the s o i l s showing magnesium produced peas not highest i n sucrose but highest i n starch. However, peas highest i n magnesium were found highest i n sucrose and peas highest i n potassium were found highest i n starch.The cause of t h i s higher starch i n the vall e y peas may also be the higher temperatures p r e v a i l i n g i n the v a l l e y area during the l a t e r part of the growing season ( § ) ( 4 ) . The P r o v i n c i a l c l i m a t i c reports record the temperatures around Matsqui as being two to f i v e degrees Fahrenheit higher than around Steveston (centre of the Delta area). Thus the conelusion must be drawn that the Delta area produces a better q u a l i t y pea f o r canning purposes. The t o t a l carbohydrates are the same i n the peas from the v a l l e y and from the Delta areas. The carbohydrates found i n peas from both areas are high compared with those of Hodgman and of BOSwell ( 4 ) . P r o t e i n Hodgman's value f o r p r o t e i n content of peas i s much lower than any shown f o r p r o t e i n i n table 5. The high amount of p r o t e i n i n the peas used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n cannot be caused by a large supply of nitrogen i n the s o i l . Results of the s o i l a n a l y s i s show them to be low i n t h i s nutrient element. Calcium may be the i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n those peas from s o i l s w e l l supplied with lime, since n i g h t i n g a l e and co-workers and Parker reported the need of calcium f o r nitrogen metabolism. However, ./this can hardly be the case since the peas from the De l t a s o i l s which are not so w e l l Supplied with calcium also show a high amount of p r o t e i n . The p r o t e i n content of the pea seems to bear no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the calcium content of the pea. No d e f i n i t e cause f o r the high amount of pr o t e i n can be found unless the c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s give t h i s e f f e c t . An i n t e r e s t i n g point to observe i s that peas from s o i l s containing n i t r i t e s have the lowest amounts of p r o t e i n . No conclusion can be made on t h i s point s ince there are only two such cases occurring. I t i s probable that the poor co n d i t i o n of the s o i l s showing n i t r i t e s had some e f f e c t upon the nitrogen supply of the plant, p o s s i b l y by i n h i b i t i n g the a c t i v i t y of nitrogen f i x i n g organisms. Ash constituent s.  Phosphorus and calcium - Since the parts analysed were the seeds, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that most of the samples have a high phosphorus content. •What i s s u r p r i s i n g £s that t&e phosphorus content found i n analysing these peas i s three times as great as the phosphorus reported in, peas by Hodgman. T h i s large amount i s hard to account f o r . The s o i l analyses show the s o i l s to be low i n phosphorus, i n those s o i l s which are p l e n t i f u l l y supplied with calcium i t may be kept out of s o l u t i o n as a calcium s a l t . ±n the other s o i l s not so w e l l supplied with calcium i t may be held as aluminium s a l t s . Aluminium was not present i n any of the s o i l s , not even i n the extremely acid s o i l s . (Spurway Ts t e s t f o r aluminium i s Deputed to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y sinoe i t to often shows low amounts of the element.) There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount, of calcium i n the s o i l and the amount of phosphorus i n the^plants' seeds. This may be caused by the f a c t o r s mentioned i n the preceding paragraph. The r e l a t i o n seems qruite d e f i n i t e l y between the calcium of the s o i l and the phosphorus i n the peas. A c i d i t y of the s o i l i s not an important f a c t o r since the very acid s o i l s grew peas with higher amounts of phosphorus than some of the s o i l s with l e s s a c i d r e a c t i o n . She r e s u l t s as shown i n table 5 do not show any r e l a t i o n s h i p between phosphorus content of the pea and the calcium or magnesium content of the pea. The only r e l a t i o n s h i p that can be s t a t e d . c o n c l u s i v e l y i s that s o i l s with a good supply of calcium y i e l d peas containing greater amounts of phosphorus than do s o i l s with a poor supply of calcium. Potassium and Sagne:slum..- These two elements have been described as having s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on p l a n t s . Street showed the e f f e c t s of magnesium and potassium upon carbohydrates. The influence i f any of these elements on the other constituents of peas cannot be seen i n these r e s u l t s . There i s , however, \Mkcon nection between the amount of magnesium a v a i l a b l e i n the s o i l and the amount i n the pea. -22 - Conclusions Irom these r e s u l t s i t may be concluded that peas of better q u a l i t y f o r canning are grown i n the Delta area of the Fraser Hiver of B r i t i s h Columbia since such peas have a higher sucrose content than peas•grown i n the v a l l e y area. Another conclusion may be made that peas grown on s o i l s w e l l supplied with calcium have a higher phosphorus content than do peas groYm on s o i l s not so wkllk stip^l'isd with calcium. Summary Samples of peas of the v a r i e t y P e r f e c t i o n were c o l l e c t e d with samples of the s o i l s they grew on from farms located i n the Eraser v a l l e y area and the Delta area of B r i t i h h Columbia. The samples were analysed, the s o i l s f o r the usual n u t r i e n t elements, the peas f o r sucrose, starch, p r o t e i n , phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium. The r e s u l t s were tabulated i n several t a b l e s , i t was found that the Delta area produced the better q u a l i t y peas, and that s o i l s w e l l supplied with calcium produced peas high i n phosphorus. Appreciation i s herein expressed f o r the patience and kindness shows the author lay Bean Clement, Dr. a, H, Harris, im&er whose d i r  ection the project was c a r r i e d otsib, and other nemoers o,f the staff, 57he writer wishes to express his thanks for the help i n c o l l e c t  ing samples given "by IS** Harold Pecrsaa and 15r» Wilbert Smith. - 23 - L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d . Bisson, C.S, and B.A.Jones "Changes accompanying f r u i t development i n the garden pea" Pl a n t Physiology - v o l . 7. 1932. Boswell, V. R. "Chemical changes during the growth and ripe n i n g of pea seeds" Amer. Soc. B o r t . Sot. Proc. 21 1924. « tt "Influence of temperature upon the growth and y i e l d of garden peas" Amer. Soc. n o r t . S c i . Proc. 23, 1926. It ft "Temperature influence upon the chemical composition and q u a l i t y of peas (Pisum Sativum,L.)" Amer. Soc. B o r t . S c i . Proc. 25, 1928, rt " and J o d i d i , s . L. "Chemical composition and y i e l d of the Alaska pea as influenced by c e r t a i n f e r t i l i z e r s and by the stage of development" Jour, A g r i c . Res. 48, 1934. Day, Dorothy. . "Some e f f e c t s of calcium d e f i c i e n c y on Pisum Sativum" P l a n t Physiology 4, 1929. Fonder, 'J. F. "Variat i o n s i n the calcium and magnesium contents of pea plants on d i f f e r e n t s o i l types" S o i l Science 28, 1934. - 24 - 8. Hibbard, B. P. "The influence of calcium and potassium d e f i c i e n c i e s on the transformation and u t i l i s  a t i o n of carbohydrates and pro t e i n s i n the pea" Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bienn. Report. 1950." 9. Hodgman, C D . "Handbook of chemistry and physics" 22nd e d i t i o n 1938. Chemical Bubber P u b l i s h i n g Co. Cleveland, Ohio. 10. Morgan,, M. F. "The s o i l s of Connecticut" Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . 320, 1930. Musbaak, F. L. and S e l l , 0. "Ef f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s on q u a l i t y and chemical composition of canning peas" Jour. A g r i c . Res. 53, 1936. n i g h t i n g a l e , G-.T.; Addams, R.M.; Bobbins, W.E.; and Schemerhorn, L. G. 11. IS e " E f f e c t s of calcium d e f i c i e n c y on n i t r a t e absorption and on metabolism i n Tomato" Pla n t Physiology 6, 1931. 13. Parker, F. ?/. and Truog, E. "The r e l a t i o n between the calcium and the n i t r o g content of p l a n t s and the f u n c t i o n of calcium" S o i l Science, 10, 1920. 14. Sayer, C. B. and Nebel, B.R. ".Some e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t n u t r i e n t solutions on the s t r u c t u r e , composition and q u a l i t y of peas" Amer. Soc. E o r t . S c i . Proc. 27, 1930. ~" - 25 - Smithj L. s. "The e f f e c t s of excesses and d e f i c i e n c i e s of mineral n u t r i e n t s upon pla n t growth" Thesis submitted f o r the degree of B.S.A. 1955 Spurway, C. H. " S o i l t e s t i n g " Michigan State College - Tech. B u l l . 152. Revised 1935. S t r e e t , 0. E. WCarbohydrate-nitrogen and base element r e l a t i o n s h i p s of peas grown i n water cultures under various l i g h t exposures" Pla n t Physiology 9. 1934. Weaver, J . E. and Bruner, W.E. "Boot development of vegetable crops" McGraw-Hill Book Go. N.Y. 1927. , 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105551/manifest

Comment

Related Items