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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Form (a study of its relation to aesthetics and to life) Wilson, Frank 1936

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FORM (A STUDY OF* ITS RELATION TO AESTHETICS AND TO LIFE) by FRANK WILSON. A Thesis submitted f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS. i n the department of PHILOSOPHY. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. AUGUST 1936. CONTENTS. Chapter. Page 1* Unity i n D i v e r s i t y . 1, 2. Excellence and Per f e c t F i t n e s s . 9 . 3 . Introduction to Form. 17. Form i n Sport. 21. 5 . Form and Stru c t u r e s . 26. 6. Functional A r c h i t e c t u r e , 38. 7* Form and Arrangement. 42. 8 . Form and the Appeal to the senses. 58 9 . Rhythm and Line. 66 10. Form and the Expression of Emotion. 79 11. Goodness and Beauty. 9 0 . 12. Conclusion. 9 8 . ILLUSTRATIONS. 1. Norwegian Stone Bridge. To f o l l o w page 26 2 . Mission Bridge. . . " " " 27 3 . Sidney Harbour Bridge. " " " 27 2j I! II » 5 an<a 6. Functional B u i l d i n g s . « « " 28 II ii » 4o. UNITY IN DIVERSITY. In approaching moat branches of knowledge i t i s possible to master th» basic principles by a study of the established authorities. Such authorities w i l l be found to be i n agreement upon a central core of fact and theory. Their differences w i l l generally be discovered about the growing edge of their subject, or i n matters where the accepted theories are to be applied to sp e c i f i c problems. The beginner must of necessity preserve an attitude of proper humility and exercise his c r i t i c a l powers only on the controversial fringe of the subject. In Aesthetics there are writers of eminence, but since these writers disagree with one another with remarkable com-pleteness they may hardly be termed authorities. Croce, Santayana, Dewey, Clive B e l l , and E r i c G i l l a l l have v i t a l and valuable things to say, but the common ground of agree-ment between them i s , a t least s u p e r f i c i a l l y , very small. These men a l l have minds of great range and penetration, they are sensitive, they know beauty and t h r i l l to i t , they express themselves cogently and they come to different con-clusions. (2) The beginner has thus p r a c t i c a l l y no body of accepted theory upon which to trtkild. He i s compelled therefore to take the advice of Herbert Spencer, and look for the common assumptions, whether i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t , upon which a l l are agreed. Where, as i n this case, the area of disagreement Is so extensive, the common assumptions w i l l he found to be very general and of extreme simplicity. There i s one principle which runs l i k e a thread through Aesthetic theory from the very e a r l i e s t times, that of Unity i n Diversity or Unity i n Complexity. Not always stated i n these words, i t recurs at least I m p l i c i t l y i n Aesthetics from the time of A r i s t o t l e to the present day. It provides the central principle In the Aesthetics of a reli g i o u s mystic l i k e Plotinus, plays an important part i n the theories of the expressionist Croce, and i s refined and q u a l i f i e d hut not denied by the pragmatist Dewey. Here,apparently, Is a princip l e of considerable v a l i d -i t y and generality, one which should provide an excellent starting point for our study. E.F.Carritt summarizes the position of Plotinus thus: "Physical beauty then w i l l be the u n i f i c a t i o n of the formless m u l t i p l i c i t y of matter by the unity of"some essential • 1 • ' • character". Plotinus himself i n the Enneads says," For everything that i s formless, though i t s nature admits of form and essential character,so long as i t i s devoid of ra t i o n a l i t y and essential character i s ugly and excluded from the divine and r a t i o n a l . That i s the absolutely ugly. • C if. I'. Ccirif-l) C3) But a thing can also be ugly i f i t be not completely mastered by form and r a t i o n a l i t y , But when essential character has been added to a thing so as to make i t one by organizing i t s ' p a r t s , i t confers system and unity of plan and makes the the thing coherent. For,since/essential character was one., that which was formed by i t had to become one,so far as the m u l t i p l i c i t y of i t s parts allowed. Beauty i s then enthroned upon the unity thus created,conferring I t s e l f . . 1 . « both upon the parts and upon the whole" The following quotation from A r i s t o t l e i s not quite so ^ ^ x p l i o i t , but the insistence upon unity i n a whole, of diverse parts i s obvious enough. "For an animal or anything else made up of parts to be beautiful i t must not only have these parts ordered, but must have a certain magnitude. ^ For beauty consists i n proper order and size. So neither could very small creatures be beautiful since our perception of them becomes confused as i t approaches instantaneousness, n§r again could a very large one,say a thousand miles long. For here we do not see i t a l l at once, but i t s unity and wholeness escape bur eyes. Just as a beautiful physical body or l i v i n g thing then,must have a certain size,namely one that can be e a s i l y comprehended at a glance, so a plot must have a cer t a i n length,namely, one that can be 2 easily remembered." Z ibid p 3 Z . (4) The principle Is s p e c i f i c a l l y stated once again i n Francis Hutchison's l i t t l e treatise on Beauty and Virtue published i n 1725. "The figures which excite i n us the ideas, of Beauty seem to be those i n which there i s Uniform-i t y amidst variety. There are many conceptions of objects which are agreeable upon other accounts, such as Grandeur, Novelty, Sanctity and some others which s h a l l be mentioned hereafter. But what we c a l l Beautiful i n objects, to speak i n the mathematical style,seems to be i n a compound r a t i o of 1 Uniformity and Variety." Croce accords this principle a very important place In his theory. "What i s art? I reply i n the b r i e f e s t and simplest terms that art i s v i s i o n or i n t u i t i o n . The a r t i s t produces an image or a dream and those who appreciate his art turn t h e i r eyes i n the direction he has indicated, look through the keyhole which he has opened and reproduce In ihemselvesf that Image. But i t may be asked, what place can there be i n man's mind for a world of pure imag-ination, without philosophical, h i s t o r i c , r e ligious or sclent i f i c truth, without even moral or hedonistic value? What can be more f u t i l e than to dream with our eyes open, i n a l i f e that needs not only open eyes but open mind and active s p i r i t . Mere imagination, we have no very f l a t t e r i n g names for the man who' l i v e s upon that, we c a l l him dreamer,and , ,j3e<x<~tV Francis \\^tclxe£,on j O . >7 (5) often as not idle:,'dreamer. — In t r u t h , i n t u i t i o n i s the creat-ion of an image, not of a mass of incoherent images produced by c a l l i n g up* old images and l e t t i n g them followo one another at random, or at random combining them together— a man's head with a horses body-as i n a c h i l d i s h game. I t i s to express this difference between i n t u i t i o n and fantasy that the ancient poetics c h i e f l y used the Idea of Unity, requiring that every work of art should be simplex et unum, or the a l l i e d idea of Unity i n Variety according to which the manifold images should f i n d a focus and be absorbed i n one complex image" " What we admire i n genuine works of art Is the perfect imaginative form i n which a state of mind clothes i t s e l f j that i s what we c a l l the l i f e , the unity, the fulness of a work of a r t . What offends us i n false or faulty work i s the unresolved discord of different moods, their mere superimpositlon or confusion or their alternation, which gets but a s u p e r f i c i a l unity forced upon I t by the author, who for t h i s purpose makes use of some abstract idea or plan.-- What gives unity and coherence to i n t u i t i o n i s fee l i n g . Intuitions are t r u l y such because ' ' ' 2 they represent feeling and only thence can they arise." Groce's position might be summarized somewhat i n this way: Art i s expression of fee l i n g . Expression means i t s embodiment i n some sensible medium. This embodiment i s the work of the creative imagination which Imposes Unity upon the oomplex elements involved. G a r r i t t rather p i t h i l y puts i t , "Emotionally coherent imagination". Unity i n d i v e r s i t y i s thus an essential part of his theory. Ph.l ( 6 ) The very widespread authority of this principle i s shown "by i t s unquestioned acceptance "by a noted psychologist i n connection with certain problems of human conduct. Wm.McDougall uses these words i n h i s , " S o c i a l Psychology". "Not a l l admiration Is aesthetic admiration, but, i f the object that we admire on account of i t s strength or excellence of any kind presents a complex of harmoniously organized and central-ized relations and a c t i v i t i e s , the mere contemplation of i t pleases us, i n so far as we are capable of grasping the 1 harmony of i t s complex features". As a principle In musical c r i t i c i s m the significance of the Unity i n Diversity concept has been re a l i z e d very completely and stated most cogently by S i r Henry Hadow. "Now the highest type of formal perfection which our minds are capable of conceiving i s that of Unity i n Diversity. The discovery of this p r i n c i p l e i n nature as a whole was the main problem of Greek philosophy, i t s discovery i n different departments of nature i s the entire problem of modern science. Knowledge i s the u n i f i c a t i o n ofl isolated facts under a single law. Truth, which i s the correlative of knowledge finds Its climax i n the existence of law and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of fact s . More especially i s this the case with that particular form of u n i f i c a t i o n which we c a l l organic, that i s , i n which the details are absolutely diverse (7) i n character, hut a l l play Interdependent parts i n one single economy. The organism i s not only our supreme example of physical structure, i t i s the type of a l l human society and,all natural order. Again, our great evolutionist philosopher has to l d us that an organism must possess three main attributes. -First i t must be de f i n i t e , clear i n outline, complete i n substance and f i l l i n g with unbroken continuity the fixed l i m i t s by which i t i s circumscribed. Secondly, I t must be heterogeneous, composed that i s of a p l u r a l i t y of parts each of which has i t s own special function and no two of which are interchangeable. Thirdly i t must be coherent, holding this p l u r a l i t y i n exact balance and equipoise so that each part, Incapable by i t s e l f of maintaining the whole body,is yet essential to the due health and e f f i c i e n c y of the others. I l l u s t r a t i o n s of this p r i n c i p l e are the primary facts of biology. They may be traced i n steady gradation from the e a r l i e s t and most rudimentary forms of l i f e u n t i l they culminate i n the ordered complexity of the human frame. And a l i n e of similar development runs through a l l p o l i t i c a l history from the primitive tribe to our present c i v i l i z a t i o n . —When we speak of a great picture, a great poem, a great novel we mean one that groups i t s diverse elements around a central p r i n c i p l e , one i n which variety Is never chaotic 1 and unity never monotonous." i-Studies m Hocfem /%.s/<!_ (8) This l a s t quotation i s somewhat double edged. I t shows the significance of Unity i n Diversity,not only as a principle i n 'Aesthetics but i n every aspect of l i f e . Unity i n d i v e r s i t y i s a characteristic of a l l wholes but not a l l wholes have an aesthetic appeal. An old Model T Ford i s a complex whole, has unity i n divers i t y , but few I think would claim that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y beautiful. John Dewey remarks:" There i s an old formula for beauty i n nature and art:Unity i n Variety. Everything depends upon how the preposition " i n " i s understood. There may be many a r t i c l e s i n a box, many documents i n a safe, many figures i n a single painting, many coins In one pocket. The unity i s extran-eous and the many are unre l a t e d . — T h e r e i s nothing more diverse than furniture scattered about a side walk waiting for the moving van. Yet order and serenity do not emerge when these things are forced together i n the van. They nEStl. be distributed i n r e l a t i o n to one another as In the furnish-1 ing of a room to compose a whole". The concept thus requires to be q u a l i f i e d and refined. As i t stands i t covers too much ground. I t i s true,I believe, that a l l aesthetic objects are characterized by Unity i n Diversity but many wholes are far from beautiful. I t i s only as Unity i n Diversity becomes a factor i n that highest of a l l types of Integration, Form, that i t plays a part i n Aesthetics. 1. Art as Experience. pl60. EXCELLENCE AND PERFECT FITNESS. Excellence and Perfect Fitness are two closely related Aesthetic principles with a history almost as venerable and as persistent as Unity i n Diversity. They have^moreover, the advantage of being c l e a r l y and d i r e c t l y supported by everyday experience. There i s an element of high e x c e l l -ence, an approach to perfection i n any object or action to which we give the name beau t i f u l . A young painter Is reputed to have shown one of his works to Whistler with the remark,"Do you not think that i t i s a tolerable picture"? Whistler's reply was, " S i r , did you ever eat a tolerable egg?" I f a work of art i s not clear i n conception and sure i n execution, i f i n our judgement i t ffialls short of remarkable excellence we f e e l that i t does not j u s t i f y i t s existence. An aesthetic experience i s certainly bound up i n a very Intimate way with a' judgement of complete 'Tightness' and remarkable excellence. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the simpler crafts i s this principle obvious. Craftsmanship i s simply a continual s t r i v i n g after perfection and masterly workmanship i s invariably an ingredient i n the beautiful product. Slovenly workmanship and aesthetic appeal are u t t e r l y incompatible. They never have and never could l i v e together. S And t h i s i s just as true of the fine arts, although of course i t does not t e l l the whole story. "The chief conscious concern of the a r t i s t ( 1 0 ) 1 i s therefore with labour i n the intere s t of perfection" says Max Schoen. Perfect^fitness i s of course a par t i c u l a r aspect of excellence but one with such great aesthetic significance that i t Is often stated alone."After a l l , p e r f e c t aptitude, unobtrusive eff i c a c y of serviee, are qu a l i t i e s so delight-f u l , so l i f e enhancing that i f you cannot c a l l them beauty, 2 you must invent another name" writes B a s i l de Selincourt i n the London Observer. John Dewey says,"in some sense the t y p i c a l shape of even a u t e n s i l and tool indicates that the meaning of the whole has entered into the parts to qualify them. This i s the fact which led some theorists l i k e Herbert Spencer to id e n t i f y the source of beauty with e f f i c i e n t and economical adaptation of parts to the func-tion of the whole. Indeed i n some cases fftziesa i s so exquis-i t e as to constitute v i s i b l e grace independent of any thought • 3 of u t i l i t y " . I might mention a racing yacht, or a well bred Clydesdale horse as i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Socrates appears to have been a very uncompromising supporter of this p r i n c i p l e . Xenophon reports the follow-ing dialogue i n his Memorabilia. The speakers are A r i s t i p -pus -and Socrates. , flrt~ and J)e^ty f 7 * 2 . kr^J.^ Observer ^)a-(z U M - L ^ W 3 f\rir as Erperrenee J^kn ^}«K>cy . p / / 5 " ~ ( 1 1 ) A r i s t . But how can a thing, unlike what Is beautiful be beautiful? Soc. Why, -because a man who i s a beautiful runner i s unlike another who i s a beautiful wrestler, and a shield which i s a beauty for defence i s as different as possible from a j a v e l i n which i s a beauty for speed and power. A r i s t . You answer me just as you did when I asked whether you recognized anything as good. Soc. Then do you think that good and beautiful are two different things? Don't you know that whatever i s b e a u t i f u l l i s alsatgood from the same point of view. A r i s t . . Why then i s a dung basket a beautiful thing? Soc. Of course i t i s , and a golden shield i s ugly i f the one be beautifully f i t t e d to i t s purpose and 1 the other i l l . This same homely, somewhat earthy quality appears i n a remark attributed to Socrates i n Plato's Hippias Major. "But my good man, what about a beautiful porridge pot? Has that no beauty then? I f the porridge pot i s turned out by a good potter, smooth and round and well baked l i k e some of those beautiful two handled porridge pots, the lovely six pint s i z e — i f that i s the kind of porridge pot i n question we must allow i t to be beautiful" , "Ph.-7~ (JoicL p 6' (12) More recently Bishop Berkeley has argued at some length that perfect fitness i s the foundation of Beauty. His argument In The Hew Alciphron i s i n the form of a Socratic dialogue between Euphranor and Alciphron. Since,however, the former unfolds the entire argument, while the l a t t e r i n t e r -polates conventional expressions of agreement, I t w i l l make for easier reading to allow Euphranor to develop his reasoning without interruption. "Alciphron after a short pause said that beauty consisted i n a certain proportion or symmetry pleasing to the eye. Euph. Is thi s proportion one and the same i n a l l things or i s i t di f f e r e n t i n different kinds of things? Ale. Different doubtless. The proportions of an ox would not be beautiful i n a horse. And we may observe i n things inanimate, that the beauty of a table, a chair, a door consists i n different proportions. Euph. Doth not this proportion Imply the relationship of one thing to another? And are not these relations founded on size and shape? And to make proportions just, must not those mutual relations of size and shape i n the parts be such as s h a l l make the whole complete and perfect i n i t s kind? Is not a thing said to be perfect i n i t s kind when i t answers the end for which i t was made? • ( 1 3 ) Euph.(cont) The parts therefore i n true proportion must be so related and adjusted to one another that they maj best^conspire to the use and operation of the whole. The beauty, therefore or symmetry of a chair cannot be apprehended but by knowing i t s use^ and compar-ing i t s figure with that use, which cannot be done by the eye alone, but i s the e f f e c t of judgement. I t i s therefore one thing to see an object and another - e to discern i t s beauty". The argument Is deyLoped s t i l l furither i n the following extract. Euphranor Is s t i l l speaking: " T e l l me Alciphron, Is there not something truly decent and beautiful i n dress? Are any l i k e l i e r to give us an idea of this beauty i n dress than painters and sculp-toBS whose proper business and studj; I t i s to aim at graceful representations? Let us then examine the draperies of the great masters of these ar t s . Cast your eye on those figures ( said he,pointing to some prints a f t e r Raphael and Guido that hung upon the wall) what appearance do you think an English courtier or magistrate, with his Gothic succinct p l a i t e d garment,and his ffc l l bottomed wig; or one of our ladles i n her unnatural dress, pinched and stiffened and enlarged with hoops and whalebone and buckram, must make among those figures so decently clad i n draperies that f a l l into such a variety of natural and easy folds with so much dignity and simplicity, that cofeer the body without encumbering I t , and adorn i t without a l t e r i n g i t s shape? (14) And what do you think this proceeds from? Whence i s i t that the Eastern nations, the Greeks and the Romans, naturally ran into most becoming dresses; while our Gothic gentry aft e r so many centuries racking their inventions, mending and a l t e r i n g and improving and whirling about i n a perpet-ual motion of rotating fashions have never yet had the luck to stumble on anything that was not absurd and ridiculous? Is i t not from hence- that instead of consulting reason, use and convenience they abandon themselves to irregular fancy the unnatural parent of monsters. Whereas the ancients considering the use and end of dress made i t subservient to the freedom, ease and convenience of the body and, having no botion of mending or changing the natural shape,aimed only at showing i t with decency and advantage.—In ef f e c t have we not learned from this digression that, as there i s no beauty without proportion, so proportions are to be esteemed Just and true only as they are r e l a t i v e to some certain use and end, t h e i r aptitude and subordination to which end i s , a t bottom, that which makes them please and 1 charm." Another eighteenth century writer, Thomas Reid, expresses similar opinions more b r i e f l y and with an important modification, pointing out that our response to excellence and perfect fitness may be direct rather than the result of conscious ra t i o c i n a t i o n . " A work of art may appear beaut-i f u l to the most ignorant, even to a c h i l d . I t pleases but (15) he knows not why. To one who understands i t perfectly, and perceives how every part i s f i t t e d with exact judge ment to i t s end, the "beauty i s not mysterious; i t i s perfectly comprehended; and he knows wherein i t consists, as well as how i t affects him. Internal taste ought to be accounted most just and perfect when we are pleased with things that are most excellent i n the i r kind. In some cases, that superior excellence i s d i s t i n c t l y perceived, and can be pointed out; i n other cases, we have only a general notion of some excellence which we cannot describe. In every species, the more perfectly any individual Is f i t t e d for i t s end and 1 manner of l i f e , the greater i s i t s beauty". Today t hese same principles have a very doughty champion i n Mr.W.R.Lethaby. His opinions may not have the systemization of Philosophy and at times he confuses that of which he approves with that which he finds beautiful. But he i s a man passionately engaged i n trying to open people's eyes and make Beauty an active and powerful principle i n c i v i l i z a t i o n and he does show, with sanity^clearness and strength wherein l i e s the beauty of simple things. His opinions have great pragmatic v a l i d i t y , they work i n daily l i f e , which cannot always be said of some of the more impressive systemizations. His comments are worth quoting at some length, i f for no (bther reason than to show how v i t a l and aggressive the attitude of Socrates towards beauty s t i l l remains i n the modern world. I "Philosophies J5?°-^(:ij f> \ot> • (16) "Art l a high competence In doing what i s worthy to he 1 " done". Art i a the element of good quality i n a l l production * "Beauty i n art i a evidence of high humanity i n work. Apprec-i a t i o n of beauty should be one with our Judgement of essent-3 i a l quality" "Design i s not some curious contortion of form or some superadded atrocity, but i t should rather be conceived as the f i t t i n g of means to ends i n the production 4 of works which are good each i n their own order" "Beauty i s a necessary function of fitneas; Beauty l a the smile of .5 Health" "Style i n a reasonable and universal sense—inter-penetrates the whole texture of a work, i t i s clearness, 6 effectiveness, mastery^" "We confuse ourselves with these unreal and destructive oppositions between the serviceable and the aesthetic, between science and art. Consider any of the great forms of l i f e a c t i v i t y , seamanship, farming, housekeeping- can anyone say where u t i l i t y ends and style 7 order, clearness and precision begin? i 167 H P 5"0 (17) INTRODUCTION TO FORM Allowing*the principles of Excellence and Perfect Fitness to modify the principle of Unity i n Diversity we come very close to the concept of Form. The Unity i n Diversity principle simply means, unless we read into words more than their ordinary meaning, that Beauty i s a quality of Wholes. Now certain kinds of very excellent wholes make such an appeal to us that we get intense pleas-ure out of merely contemplating them. We negleat, for the time being, to consider them from the point of view of t h e i r u t i l i t y , we do not consider what p r a c t i c a l benefits they may bring to us. Rather we delight in,"the thing i n i t s e l f " . Such objects have Form, and such delight i s the elementary Aesthetic experience. Now the nature of Form i s not the easiest thing to define. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the modern world with i t s machinery and i t s countless materials from which things may be made, many very cheap effective and serviceable things are far removed from Form. I f we define Form as the quality of a whole excellently adapted to i t s function we can quickly think of many objects which s a t i s f y the d e f i n i t i o n but which are far from being beautiful, which give us no pleasure to contemplate as"things i n themselves'.' A very valuable d e f i n i t i o n so far as the works of man are concerned is:"the perfect embodiment of an idea i n a sensible medium", but that would involve us i n endless controversy as soon as we t r i e d to apply i t to natural (18) forms, since i t i m p l i e s the existence of a planning i n t e l l i g e n c e as the moving force of the universe. A short t h e s i s i n Aesthetics i s not the place to make f a r reaching assumptions regarding the nature of the Absolute. The c l o s e s t approach that I can make to a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e f i n -i t i o n i s t h i s : Form i s the i n t r i n s i c excellence of Wholes. The word i n t r i n s i c i s important. So many of our e f f i c i e n t and serviceable modern products are not b e a u t i f u l because a l l manner of e x t r i n s i c considerations c o n t r o l t h e i r shape,-ease of manufacturing, cheapness,sales appeal and the l i k e . I t i s only when an object i s made w i t h a singleminded regard f o r i n t r i n s i c excellence that Form emerges. This d e f i n i t i o n also r a i s e s the question of the meaning of Excellence. A few Important points may be es t a b l i s h e d immediately. < Excellence i s not a subjective value but an objective q u a l i t y of wholes. In i t s u n i v e r s a l sense i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y synonymous wi t h s u r v i v a l value. The wholes which have survived the vigorous pounding of n a t u r a l f o r c e s , the organisms which have succeeded i n the struggle f o r existence, the things discovered and made by man which have earned the r i g h t to p e r s i s t have q u a l i t i e s which are e x c e l l e n t In a fundamental and permanent sense. Coherence, s t a b i l i t y , r e s i l i e n c e , harmonious f u n c t i o n i n g of the parts i n the (19) interest of the whole, economical adaptation of means to end are excellent properties of Wholes apart altogether from the changing opinions of man. They are the fundament-al- conditions of persistence i n a universe which destroys very ruthlessly. One thing can be said quite confidently; there i s no Form i n the absence of these Universal excellences. However, an abstract treatment of this topic w i l l not take us very far. I t i s necessary to consider the nature of Form by studying examples and discovering their peculiar characteristics. I t will,moreover, be wise to chose simple examples. Much of the confusion i n Aesthetics i s due, I believe, to the fact that i t has been founded too frequently upon the Fine Arts and the works of Genius. Such works are Immensely complicated. They are the products of unusually r i c h and talented personalities. To commence the study of Aesthetics with them i s rather l i k e attempting to discover the basic laws of chemistry from a study of the coal tar derivatives. The simple elementary manifestations of Form must provide our starting point. From them we may gain some insight into Its nature and i t s laws which may then be applied, with some hope of success to more complicated cases. ( 2 0 ) As John Dewey says: "The sources of a r t i n human experience w i l l he learned by him who sees how' the tense grace of the b a l l player i n f e c t s the onlooking crowd, who notes the d e l i g h t of the housewife i n tending her plants and the i n t e r e s t of her goodman i n tending the patch of green i n f r o n t of the house, the zest of the spectator i n poking the wood burning on the hearth and i n watching the dart-' 1 i n g flames and crumbling c o a l s . " And f u r t h e r : "The i n t e l l i g e n t mechanic engaged i n h i s job, i n t e r e s t e d i n doing w e l l and f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h i s handiwork, c a r i n g f o r h i s materials and t o o l s w i t h genuine a f f e c t i o n I s a r t i s t -i c a l l y engaged. The di f f e r e n c e between such a worker and the i n e p t and careless bungler i s as great i n the shop as 2 i n the studio." Lethaby expresses a s i m i l a r point of view w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vigour. "Beauty has been ground to dust i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y theories of A e s t h e t i c s . Indeed some books on t h i s simplest and sweetest t h i n g , Beauty, must make the animals gl a d they have not learned to read. This a r t about which such elevated yet confusing things may be s a i d when i t i s considered at i t s remoter end as genius, emotion, and poetry, at I t s nearer end i s j u s t good workmanship, q u a l i t y , s k i l l , f i t n e s s and Tightness i n 3 a l l things done and made. / / l r f " e t s trpenencer p>  i • ^ Rt-(-"a-s i=v-p<zrte:tiCQ' p $ . (21) Form In Sport. ("Fortunately people are a r t i s t s who know i t not rbootmakers (the few l e f t ) gardeners, and basket makers, and a l l players of games. We do not allow shoddy i n cricket and fo o t b a l l , we reserve i t for serious things l i k e houses 1 and books, furniture and funerals') The idea that Form should be considered i n i t s simplest and best known manifestations leads us d i r e c t l y to the consideration of sport. Here the movements of the expert inevitably display a smooth harmonious coordination, a l o g i c a l 7 i n t r i n s i c unity and a fine economy which make them tr u l y d e l i g h t f u l to watch. Here are examples of Form which appeal to, which are understood by, nearly everyofae. Watch the r e a l golfer as he makes his stroke. The man i s perfectly poised and controlled, his body acts as a strong,coherent, sensitively adjusting whole, the action Is smooth,effortless and accurate. So much i s obvious to the observer. The player can t e l l you more. A perfect shot i s the perfect expression i n action of an idea. The shot i s imagined before i t i s played. To have the'right idea' i s absolutely necessary i f progress i s to be made i n any sport. The perfect shot i n golf or tennis, the running of (22) a perfect, race, i s a victory for'Mind! The actions of the runner, the jumper, the swimmer and the tennis player a l l r i s e to the l e v e l of'Form'. Think of the rhythmic grace, the economy of motion, the smoothness and the perfect timing of a f i r s t rate tennis player. Notice the assurance and accuracy with which he makes his shot, and the i n t e l l i g e n c e with which he plans i t . Here i s , "The perfect embodiment of an idea i n a sensible medium"j here i s an example o f " I n t r i n s i c excellence"in a very complicated "Whole". We are not misusing language when we c a l l such an experience Beauty, our appreciation i s the,true Aesthetic delight In "the thing i n i t s e l f " . Now the mind i n achieving these excellent results i s not too aggressive or domineering. I t i s victorious over the ineptitude of the untrained body partly as the result of discovery. I t i s necessary to discover how to l e t each part of the body make i t s characteristic contribution i n i t s own way. The natural functioning of the muscles must be used together with the natural rhythms of the body. Relaxation and a sense of freedom must be retained. There i s no violence i n Form. The problem is,paradoxically, control through freedom. Motions which give the freest and most e f f i c i e n t play to the muscles but which at the same time cam be accurate-l y controlled and coordinated must be discovered . The function of the mind i s not that of a ruthless dictator but that of a t a c t f u l coordinator, knowing precisely what It wants but w i l l i n g to study carefully each part of the whole so that i t may make i t s characteristic contribution) (23) i n i t s own way. Any coach w i l l agree that a l i t t l e i n t e l l i g e n c e and understanding i s more e f f e c t i v e than a great deal of mechanical p r a c t i c e . Of course t r a i n i n g , p r a c t i c e , determination are necessary. But i n sport, as i n any other a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g i n Form,it w i l l be found that s e n s i t i v e responsiveness to r e a l i t y must work harmoniously w i t h p e r s i s t e n t determination, To summarize, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Form i n s p o r t ~ are these: A complex s e r i e s of motions must be completely U n i f i e d by an Idea ; the act i o n s must be p e r f e c t l y coordin-ated and must u t i l i z e the n a t u r a l rhythms of the body and they the n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s p a r t s ; x ± must be harmonious and free from s t r a i n and as a r e s u l t give that sense of ease, that e f f o r t l e s s e f f e c t i v e n e s s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of expert play of any kind . Form i n sport must not be confused w i t h formalism. Form i s e s s e n t i a l l y a personal t h i n g and must be discovered afresh by each i n d i v i d u a l . I n s t r u c t i o n i s valuable but i t has to be a s s i m i l a t e d and adapted by the i n d i v i d u a l . The usual experience i s something l i k e t h i s : the i n s t r u c t o r t r i e s to describe the r i g h t way to perform the a c t i o n ; the p u p i l f e e l s clumsy and hopeless i n h i s attempt to Imitate. He goes home and at the back of h i s mind the i n s t r u c t i o n s are at work. He v i s u a l i z e s the a c t i o n made according to the i n s t r u c t i o n s , imagines the k i n a e s t h e t i c sensations, and i n thought the thi n g becomes reasonable. The next day h i s (24) attempts to put the new idea i n t o p r a c t i c e are much more suc c e s s f u l . This process of imaginative mastery -in which 'one makes a new idea one's own always leads to s l i g h t personal v a r i a t i o n s which are healthy and necessary. Any attempt to remove such personal p e c u l i a r i t i e s i s unhealthy and leads to a r i g i d formalism, which, while aping Form i s t r u l y i t s ' a n t i t h e s i s . Formalism i s the impo s i t i o n of a s u p e r f i c i a l r e g u l -a r i t y and smoothness. Form emerges i n e v i t a b l y as a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l n e c e s s i t y when the problems of a c e r t a i n k i n d of a c t i o n are f u l l y solved. When we f i n d people upholding d i s c i p l i n e and decrying i n t e l l i g e n c e we know that Formalism rather than Form i s t h e i r aim. The t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h love of d i s c i p l i n e had the r e s u l t , f o r some years, of imposing an academic formalism upon the sport of rowing. Real coordination and eff e c t i v e n e s s were s a c r i f i c e d to the rather showing q u a l i t i e s of,"a s t r a i g h t back" and a,"smooth f i n i s h " . ( I am not at a l l sure that t h i s i s not the reason that Oxford so c o n s i s t e n t l y loses the Boat Race) I have a v i v i d r e c o l l e c t i o n of a race between two s c u l l e r s , one very s t y l i s h and the other r a t h e r inexperienced . The former with back s p l e n d i d l y s t r a i g h t and making never a splash came smoothly down the course while the l a t t e r , r ocking and splashing drove home four lengths ahead. The s t y l i s h oar was the v i c t i m of Formalism which imposed a (25) e x t e r n a l r e g u l a r i t y upon h i s movement. S t y l e here had not grown out of expert a b i l i t y to row ; i t had been c u l t i v a t e d at the expense of r e a l rowing a b i l i t y . The movements of the novice had not yet become smooth and easy. He lacked experience , but he was on h i s way to the discovery of h i s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e . With the development of a l i t t l e more s k i l l the balance would improve, the discordant movements would be e l i m i n a t e d and he would a t t a i n r e a l Form. I t i s worth noting at t h i s p o i n t that the d i f f e r e n c e between r e a l Form and Formalism can only be n o t i c e d by the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . The f a c t that the ' s t y l i s h ' oarsman pleased the eye of the u n i n i t i a t e d I s quite s i g n i f i c a n t . ( I n s i n c e r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s of any a r t gain the applause of the multitude by surface p o l i s h , imposed o r d e r l i n e s s and s l i c k n e s s ) Form i n any appect of human e f f o r t i s not discerned without s e n s i t i v e a t t e n t i o n and a measure of understanding. The c u l t i v a t i o n of taste i s simply the development of a b i l i t y to see and appreciate e s s e n t i a l s , to perceive the r e a l i t y of Form and not to be misled by s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s . FORM AND STRUCTURES. Form i s , not an imposed extrinsic regularity, i t i s a l o g i c a l I n t r i n s i c coordination emerging inevitably from the"function of the whole and the nature of the parts. The whole,moreover does not abuse or violate the parts, i t uses them by allowing them to be most e f f e c t i v e l y themselves. Where we f i n d arbitrary arrangement, where we f i n d extrinsic considerations controlling the organization of the parts, or where we f i n d parts abused i n the interest of the whole we have something less than Form, Of the objects made by man only a small proportion attain Form. Quite the most numerous are mere Arrangements. The things which are f a i r l y simple to make, the ordinary routine objects are generally of this nature. Ease of manufacture rather than i n t r i n s i c excellence i s the controlling consideration i n their making. The shape i s not inevitable, i s not the l o g i c a l outcome of the properties of matter and the function of the object. Those things,however , of which we make intense demands, that must stand up to the most exacting circumstances or operate with absolute precision are l i k e l y ho have Form since nothing but the highest degree of I n t r i n s i c excellence i s good enough. The ordinary bridge carrying a r a i l r o a d over an ordinary r i v e r with l e v e l banks i s seldom beautiful. A more or less Fie, i (27) monotonous succession of fabricated girders has no great Aesthetic appeal. But consider any of the great bridges which reach, i n a single span across a great distance; the San Franeisco new bridge, the bridge across the Sidney Harbour, the Quebec Bridge or the bridge I l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g 1. These have Form. They have l i n e which emerges inevitably from the properties of the materials, the distance to be spanned and the loads to be carried. The demands made upon the structure are so great that the designer i s compelled to reach out to the extreme l i m i t of efficiency'.: Every piece of steel must contribute the maximum of strength for the minimum of weight, every element must make the greatest possible contribution to the strength of the whole. Under these conditions no a r t i s t can be called i n to design the lines of the bridge, nothing can be considered but the greatest possible e f f i c i e n c y . Yet structures of t h r i l l i n g beauty are the res u l t . Wow the essential difference between the great bridge and the routine bridge l i e s i n the fact that the former i s completely, thoroughly, r a d i c a l l y designed, "completely ' ' • 1 • possessed by Form and Rationality" while the l a t t e r i s put together from standardized parts which w i l l work well enough. The shape of many units i n an ordinary structure have no complete and l o g i c a l connection with the various I TUfmu.6 • Ph.'foSopK/CS ' X<Zo-i.tij p FlCy 3. (28) stresses to which i t i s subjected. Consider the very simple case of a short bridge g i r d e r supported at each end and ca r r y i n g a''uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d load. The a p p l i c a t i o n o.f a l i t t l e m a t r i c u l a t i o n Mechanics shows that the bending momentsr.at each end are zero and r i s e to a maximum at the middle. The l e s s important shearing stresses are greatest at the ends and disappear at the centre. Now i f the g i r d e r i s designed i n accordance with these considerations i t s shape w i l l be fo^nd to be quite pleasing and. i n t e r e s t i n g . However,, c e r t a i n considerations which have nothing to do with the i n t r i n s i c excellence of g i r d e r s comes i n t o play. I t i s much cheaper ; i n the case of a simple job, to use a uniform g i r d e r strong enough to take at every point the maximum stresses which occur only at one. I t i s only i n a d i f f i c u l t job that the form of the structure i s developed l o g i c a l l y from the nature of. the forces Involved.(Cc: -;;::••••:•.} When we speak of the economy, the e f f i c i e n c y of Form these terms must be construed from the point of view of the "th i n g i n i t s e l f " . The economical and e f f i c i e n t g i r d e r i s that which gives the greatest strength f o r the smallest amount of m a t e r i a l . An e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t g i r d e r may serve the purpose and be ea s i e r and cheaper to make. I t i s these e x t r i n s i c considerations which r e s u l t i n most of our s t r u c t -ures being a e s t h e t i c a l l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g . They are not f'0ompleteiy mastered by Form and R a t i o n a l i t y , and are therefore, h e , /f ( 2 9 ) according to P l o t i n u s , ugly. ( I t i s rather s t r i k i n g that the words of a r e l i g i o u s mystic should receive such d i r e c t confirmation from modern engineering) . In a l l the things made by man, where the very highest peak of e f f i c i e n c y , the highest l e v e l of attainment of any k i n d , i s demanded^the object produced i s l i k e l y to have Form. Consider the ra c i n g yacht, the high speed a i r p l a n e , f i n e s c i e n t i f i c instruments and p r e c i s i o n t o o l s , great l i n e r s . These are a l l b e a u t i f u l . The owner of a yacht aims to win races. I f an ugly yacht would do so we should not have to wait long u n t i l i t made i t s appearance. That i t has not done so yet i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the very close connection between Form and high e f f i c i e n c y . The search for,"the one best way" eliminates on the one side a l l weakness, Ineffectiveness and crudeness and on the other, a l l c a p r i c e , meaningless decoration and a r b i t r a r y 1 6 r i g i n a l i t y ' . I t also prevents the i n t r o d u c t i o n of elements w h i c h , " w i l l do", which are "good enough". I t compels singleminded s i n c e r i t y i n making and prevents s l o v e n l i n e s s and poor workmanship, as i t does os t e n t a t i o n and v u l g a r i t y . The a r t of the maker must be Fine since anything l e s s w i l l lead to f a i l u r e . I t i s no accident that the modern transport plane, the great new Z e p p i l i n , or one of those e x c e l l e n t s a i l i n g ships which race each year from A u s t r a l i a with g r a i n , are b e a u t i f u l . I t i s , by the way, very d i f f i c u l t to f i n d an ugly ship. To do so i t i s necessary to leave the f i e l d of high attainment and search among the vessels which Just,"get by". (Although I am beginning to wonder i f the sales manager didn't c a l l (30) an "artist".';to design the upper works of the "Normandie", i n t r o -ducing an element of p l u t o c r a t i c v u l g a r i t y and heaviness of l i n e which the arduous nature of seagoing has h i t h e r t o prevented.) I f Naval Achitecture should ever reach such a l e v e l that the sea ceased to be a dangerous adversary ships could q u i c k l y become as vulgar as V i c t o r i a n mansions. I t i s the remorseless and i n c a l c u l a b l e q u a l i t y of the sea which has compelled great ships to r e t a i n t h e i r clean thoroughbred l i n e . The a r t of making some p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of object i s l i k e l y to pass through three stages. The f i r s t stage i s one of crudeness due to unsolved problems. Destructive forces are withstood without being eliminated, discordant elements are t o l e r a t e d so long as the whole w i l l work. Not yet has the one best way been discovered; there i s i n t e g r a t i o n but not economical and e f f i c i e n t i n t e g r a t i o n , the parts are not yet completely harmonized i n the service of the whole. At t h i s s t a g e , u t i l i t a r i a n values are supreme, i f the thing w i l l work, i f i t serves i t s purpose, i t i s considered success-f u l . The e a r l y a i r p l a n e , the Model "T" Ford, the f i r s t steamships i l l u s t r a t e t h i s phase. The second stage brings us to the emergence of Form. Better methods are c o n t i n u a l l y being discovered. The good craftsman never r e s t s content with imperfection, i s never s a t i s f i e d with something that j u s t gets by. He seeks ( 3 D c o n t i n u a l l y the highest excellence i n t r i n s i c to h i s product, f o r i t s own sake, and because h i s pride and a f f e c t i o n are engaged. (A t r u l y a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e , by the way) Out of t h i s search emerges Form. An e a r l y E n g l i s h Gothic Cathedral, a modern transport plane, a f i n e s h i p , t y p i f y t h i s stage. A t h i r d stage, one of decadence may then develop. When the t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s have been mastered, when the a c t u a l problems of c o n s t r u c t i o n cease to be a challenge, cease to demand the whole energy and thought of the maker extraneous considerations begin to creep i n . Singlemindedness and s i n c e r i t y are no longer exacted by the conditions of the work; caprice , a r b i t r a r y decoration and "Art f o r a r t ' s sake can now appear. V i c t o r i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , l a t e Gothic cathedrals p a r t i c u l a r l y on the continent of Europe and some of the l a t e s t automobiles i l l u s t r a t e t h i s stage. The. conditions of the unselfconscious c r e a t i o n of Form appear to depend upon a rather d e l i c a t e e q u i l i b r i u m between the a b i l i t y of man and the d i f f i c u l t y of the problems he i s c a l l e d upon to solve. Form i s the symbol of man's v i c t o r y , i t i s evidence of h i s complete success i n embodying h i s idea i n the medium w i t h which he works. But i t must be a v i c t o r y not a walkover. The task must be d i f f i c u l t enough and s i g n i f i c a n t enough to c a l l f o r t h the e n t i r e energies of the maker, i n t e l l i g e n c e warmed by emotion and harness to executive s k i l l . Form i s evidence of the very highest kind of human (32) achievement, evidence that the imagination of the maker has s discovered the solutionAto a l l the problems involved and that the d i f f i c u l t i e s of execution have been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y overcome. I am i n c l i n e d to b e l i e v e that much of our d e l i g h t i n Form i s a kind of sympathetic r e j o i c i n g with the maker i n h i s v i c t o r y . There i s always an element of,the paean of praise^, i n Aesthetic emotion. Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e , while s t i l l meeting and s o l v i n g t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s wSs healthy and produced forms of great beauty. How might the w a l l s be made so that they could support the s t r a i n s of a great roof and at the same time allow the i n t r o d u c t i o n of windows. The s o l u t i o n of that problem l e d to the f l y i n g b u t t r e s s , i t s e l f a d e l i g h t to the eye. The great Gothic arches were the s o l u t i o n of a problem i n S t a t i c s rather than i n A e s t h e t i c s . The arrangement of the roof beams i n Westminster H a l l i s a p e r f e c t example of splendid Form emerging i n e v i t a b l y from the s o l u t i o n of a quite d i f f i c u l t engineering problem. "The great mediaeval b u i l d i n g s are, a l l the best c r i t i c s u nite i n t e l l i n g us, the s o l u t i o n of problems of how to throw stones high i n t o the re a i r and balance them the£r. A great French c a s t l e was not designed as beauty , i t was developed along a l i n e of e x p e r i -ment as surely as the great ocean l i n e r s have been so devel-oped.--- The e s s e n t i a l construction was conceived by any of the great masters as a problem of s t r e s s and poise, j u s t as^ the designer of the Forth bridge so conceived h i s problem." | \~~or*n in . Cui 1 17 a- t~i on p- ~? 3 ' ( 3 3 ) Once the s t r u c t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were overcome, as soon as b u i l d i n g ceased to be a rigorous i n t e l l e c t u a l problem G-othic degenerated and became ornate, vulgar and meaningless. A comparison between an example of e a r l y E n g l i s h perpendic-u l a r Gothic such as York Minster with some of the l a t e r c o n t i n e n t a l structures l i k e the Antwerp Cathedral w i l l make the point obvious enough. This t h i r d stage of decadence has h i t h e r t o been avoided i n the case of ships and w i l l probably be avoid completely i n the case of a i r p l a n e s . The sea i s too exacting a master to permit any slackness of f i b r e i n i t s servants. F l i g h t i s f a r too hazardous to permit c a p r i c e . Nothing l e s s than completely u n i f i e d , strong, economical Form w i l l serve i n these cases. This probably explains the immense s u p e r i o r i t y of Naval A r c h i t e c t u r e to land A r c h i t e c t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y during the Nineteenth Century. A r c h i t e c t u r e was considered to be a and Fine Art,/the f u n c t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t , s e l f expression. A r t f o r A r t's sake was v i c t o r i o u s . Having nothing to do but design b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g s the a r c h i t e c t achieved i n f a c t unique mons t r o s i t i e s , or at best, academic reproductions of the work of a previous age. During the same period Naval Architecture was producing c o n s i s t e n t l y structures of r e a l beauty. At worst i t s products were free from offence, at best they were t h r i l l i n g . (34) I t i s no accident that the development of the s t e e l frame skyscraper had much to do with r e s t o r i n g A r c h i t e c t u r e to h e a l t h and s i n c e r i t y once more. Here were e n t i r e l y new t e c h n i c a l problems which could not be sidestepped. The designer was compelled to think i n terms of b u i l d i n g w e l l , to think that i s , of the i n t r i n s i c excellence of h i s product. He had to r e t u r n to the l o g i c of e f f i c i e n c y and the d i s c i p l i n e of f u n c t i o n . B u i l d i n g once more became s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f i c u l t to absorb the i n t e l l e c t u a l energy of b r i l l i a n t men w i t h the r e s u l t that the o l d slack decadence was l e f t behind and the discovery of new forms commenced once morel. The new s p i r i t c a r r i e d over i n t o the design of simple b u i l d i n g s . It'was found that the problems of r e a l convenience of l i g h t , a i r , e f f i c i e n c y and h e a l t h could not be solved so e a s i l y as had been thought, and that the complete s o l u t i o n of these problems l e d to new Forms of considerable i n t e r e s t . Since the a r c h i t e c t has given up t r y i n g to design b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g s and has taken to s o l v i n g e s s e n t i a l problems l i k e a sensible man h i s products have improves! immensely. (The consideration of Functional a r c h i t e c t u r e however leads to one or two d i f f i c u l t i e s which I do not wish to discuss here. I have therefore added a b r i e f chapter f o r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s . ) The close connection between the c r e a t i o n of Form and t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t y may be i l l u s t r a t e d from the Fine (3$) A r t s . . I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g provides an e x c e l l e n t example. The gradual i n f u s i o n i n t o I t a l y of the s p i r i t of the Renaissance turned men's minds away from the rather formal r e l i g i o u s designs of the Byzantine t r a d i t i o n towards a greater i n t e r e s t i n nature, much of i t deeply r e l i g i o u s and m y s t i c a l , somewhat i n the s p i r i t of S t . F r a n c i s . This awakening of d e l i g h t i n the world around them l e d the a r t i s t s towards an attempt to depict, to express i n paint t h i s b r i g h t new s p i r i t . I t l e d them away from the rather abstract and otherworldly symbolism of the Byzantine t r a d i t i o n towards representation of those aspects of nature which they found so entrancing. This at once l e d to d i f f i c u l t i e s . In the t h i r t e e n t h century, Cimabue showed a strong sense of pattern and design, but p r a c t i c a l l y no knowledge of perspective, anatomy, the representation of the t h i r d dimension, of the e f f e c t s of l i g h t and a i r . These things were not considered to concern him at that time. His Job was to symbolize p i c t o r i a l l y c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s conceptions. The new p a i n t e r s , warmed by the s p i r i t of St F r a n c i s , had to break new ground. The t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which beset them were not completely solved f o r two hundred years, and i n that two hundred years l i e s the g l o r i o u s age of I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g . The d i f f i c u l t i e s compelled the a r t i s t to be singleminded, prevented caprice and canalized and c o n t r o l l e d h i s emotion, compelling i t to f i n d i t s o u t l e t In strenuous e f f o r t . This two hundred years was an age of happy craftsman-(36) ship, of complete s i n c e r i t y and of s p i r i t u a l h e a l t h so i n f e c t ious that i t s q u a l i t y a f f e c t s us today, Giotto and Fra Angelico have something to say and say i t w i t h a directness and s i m p l i c i t y which today seems almost naive. These men have a c h i l d l i k e d e l i g h t i n t h e i r growing a b i l i t y to p a i n t . In sheer love of t h e i r c r a f t , quite humbly and s i n c e r e l y , ' they embellish t h e i r p i c t u r e s with flowers of gem-like c o l o r . Their characters are portrayed with deep a f f e c t i o n , t h e i r design i s always'strong and sure ;and^breathing through the w h o l e ? i s a s p i r i t u a l v i t a l i t y . Every p i c t u r e of Fra Angelico Is a h e a r t f e l t song of p r a i s e . Leornardo da V i n c i was the supreme -experimenter and s c i e n t i s t . His studies i n perspective and anatomy are i n themselves s u f f i c i e n t to give him a place i n h i s t o r y . I t i s no accident that t h i s I n t e r e s t i n the t e c h n i c a l problems of h i s c r a f t should f i n d i t s outcome i n paintings of r e a l beauty. The discovery of the best way of doing something which one f e e l s i t i s very important to do i s the essence of a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y . By the time of Raphael and Del Sarto\the t e c h n i c a l problems had been e s s e n t i a l l y solved. Moreover t e c h n i c a l cleverness began to be lovertvalued.." T h e o a b i l i t y of an a r t i s t to represent appearances with remarkable f i d e l i t y became the measure of h i s greatness. D e x t e r i t y became an end rather than a means. G i o t t o and Fra Angelico had something to express and succeeded magnificently i n expressing i t . Raphael,great pain t e r that he i s , had l e s s to say ?although h i s technique i s mpjb:'only "unsurpassed, but probably unsurpassable. (37) The,fruit was ri p e . After Raphael the painters were subject to a less rigorous i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e . Softness caprice ana! sentimentality could now appear. The austere and unassuming si n c e r i t y of the e a r l i e r painters began to be l o s t . Painters began to strive for effect, to play to the gallery, to f l a t t e r wealthy patrons. Virtuosity took the place of Virtue and the great age of I t a l i a n painting was over. As soon as the technical problems ceased to be a challenge representational painting became decadent. Clive B e l l makes a si g n i f i c a n t remark in,"Since Cezanne": "Most a r t i s t s have got to canalize their emotion and concentrate t h e i r energies on some more definite and maniable problem than that of making something which sh a l l be aesthetically"right" . They need a problem that w i l l become the focus of their; vast emotions and vague energies, and when that problem i s solved their work w i l l be "Right"." Right for the spectator means aesthetically satisfying, for the a r t i s t at work I t means the complete r e a l i z a t i o n of a conception, the perfect solution of a problem." A r t i s t s of great genius often appear to f e e l the need for some d i f f i c u l t problem which w i l l compel directness and economy of statement. Shakespeare, i n his verse, used the in t r i c a t e sonnet form, Bach used the Fugue and Christopher Wren the Dome as an architectural SH E S I element i n order to maintain the tension necessary for fine creation. (38) FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE. There has been growing f o r the l a s t few years, p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n Europe, a vigorous Functional school of A r c h i t e c t u r e . The more uncompromising supporters of t h i s school say that the job of the a r c h i t e c t , l i k e that of the engineer, I s to design something that w i l l f u n c t i o n , smoothly, economically and w e l l , that the shape, of the b u i l d i n g should a r i s e l o g i c -a l l y from considerations of the materials a v a i l a b l e , the purpose of the b u i l d i n g and the stresses involved, and , that a l l conscious c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s t y l e s and decorative e f f e c t s should be barred. S t y l e , they hold, w i l l emerge as an i n e v i t a b l e consequence of sound f u n c t i o n a l design. Now t h i s i s almost ex a c t l y the p o s i t i o n which I am attempting to e s t a b l i s h , that beauty i s a kind of glow which l i g h t s up i n t r i n s i c excellence . I t therefore seems unfortunate that a s t r i c t l y f u n c t i o n a l design of,say, a fa c t o r y or a department store i s quite l i a b l e to produce something w i t h a l l the appeal of an oversize packing case. I have to admit that a f u n c t i o n a l b u i l d i n g such as that i l l u s t r a t e d i n ^ b~~ i s ^ to me,, t r u l y ugly. This looks as though -OUP f i r s t attempt to apply our p r i n c i p l e to a p a r t i c u l a r case has been a f a i l u r e . However, a l i t t l e c l o s e r consideration and the use of some of the information gained by the study of bridges w i l l c l e a r up the d i f f i c u l t y . (39) There are two aspects from which?:the b u i l d i n g may. be considered; as a f a c t o r y and as a s t r u c t u r e . As a f a c t o r y i t may be wonderful. The f a c t o r y superintendent may quite p o s s i b l y gain r e a l d e l i g h t from the mere contemplation of i t s excellences, the p e r f e c t l i g h t i n g , the abundant a i r , the strong r e s i l i e n t f l o o r s , the b r i g h t clean w a l l s and the con-venient layout. As a f a c t o r y i t may have Form. The man i n the s t r e e t , however, knows nothing about t h i s . He sees the s t r u c t u r e . Now as a structure the b u i l d i n g may be on the same ae s t h e t i c l e v e l as the simple routine bridge made of standardised members. I t does not r i s e to the l e v e l of Form because i t i s too easy to make. The shape has l i t t l e l o g i c a l connection with the forces involved because s t e e l and r e i n f o r c e d concrete provide such an abund-ance of cheap strength. I t i s not u n t i l a b u i l d e r i s pushed to the extreme l i m i t of h i s capacity, u n t i l he i s compelled by the d i f f i c u l t y of h i s problem to |et the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r a i n s and stresses d i c t a t e the shape and arrangement of the parts that Form emerges. The arched roof of a great cathedral, the great dome of St.Paul's i n London, the proud arch of the Sidney Bridge and the t h r i l l i n g l i n e of the new San Franeisco Bridge a r i s e i n t h i s way, as the s o l u t i o n of problems i n s t a t i c s . The f u n c t i o n a l design of a factory or department store i s too easy to give r i s e to s t r u c t u r a l Form of t h i s kind. (40) An a r c h i t e c t i s t r y i n g to do two things at the same time and there i s no reason why the s o l u t i o n of one problem should lead i n e v i t a b l y to the other. He i s designing a place i n which c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r human a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d on, and which must be made apt and f i t f o r those purposes. He i s also making a structure which w i l l be seen, which w i l l become part of the v i s u a l environment of,"the man i n the s t r e e t " . The uncompromisingly f u n c t i o n a l type of b u i l d i n g at i t s best r i s e s to the l e v e l of Form from the point of view of those w i t h i n , but i t may, at the same time make a v i o l e n t attack upon the eyes of the man outside. There appears to be nothing I l l o g i c a l , t h e r e f o r e , about the a r c h i t e c t taking steps to make h i s b u i l d i n g pleasing to the eye. Bad a r c h i t e c t u r e r e s u l t s from h i s making t h i s very minor consideration the centre of a t t e n t i o n . Beauty must grow out of f u n c t i o n a l excellence, otherwise i t i s mere p o l i s h and sham. Moreover, as the man i n the s t r e e t learns to understand the aims of f u n c t i o n a l design he w i l l l e a r n to "see" i t d i f f e r e n t l y . A l i t t l e c onsideration by the a r c h i t e c t f o r the sensory q u a l i t i e s of h i s materials, a l i t t l e c onsideration of the mechanism of the human eye w i l l r e l i e v e the harsh b r u t a l i t y of pure f u n c t i o n a l structure and produce a b u i l d i n g which appeals to the eye as w e l l as to the mind. FIG, 6 I ' u n c T i o r l f l l , 3 U T CIVIL. (41) The. very great di f f e r e n c e which i s made by a l i t t l e thought f o r the man "outside", a l i t t l e c i v i c courtesy, i n f u n c t i o n a l * b u i l d i n g i s shown by a comparison of the photographs 1-13s 4~f-6 .• Both b u i l d i n g s are f u n c t i o n a l , the f i r s t b r u t a l , uncompromising and harsh; the second urbane courteous and pleasing. Good craftsmanship of any k i n d i s an attempt to make w e l l what needs to be made. But man i s so c o n s t i t u t e d that when making w e l l h i s s p i r i t sings. The p r i m i t i v e craftsman expressed t h i s l y r i c a l mood by a f f e c t i o n a t e embellishments, gratuitous g i f t s of f i n e workmanship which show that he i s not a mere slave to the pressure of necessity. The whole man,.working w e l l , i s a happy man and h i s happiness i s r i g h t l y expressed i n h i s work. This i s decoration i n the best sense. The a r c h i t e c t , l i k e any other maker must be allowed to r e j o i c e i n and through h i s work. I t i s only when we i n t e r p r e t 'function' i n a narrow commercial sense that d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s . P e r f e c t f u n c t i o n means effe c t i v e n e s s i n the service of man, but man i s more than p r o f i t and l o s s , more than ledgers and more than a machine. Lethaby puts i t : " E f f i c i e n c y , i t w i l l be s a i d , i s not a i l . What i s the next step i n design? The next step i s best thought of as s t i l l more b e a u t i f u l f i n i s h , trimness, smartness, brightness. Then i f the thing i s i n the hands of a r e a l master designer, some l i t t l e embroidery, as i t were, on the p l a i n garment, some l i t t l e added fun of workmanship, may be permitted, and 1 t h i s i s ornamentation. 1 Form i n C i v i l i z a t i o n p 52. (42) ' , FORM AND ARRANGEMENT It i s necessary, I believe, to c l a r i f y s t i l l further the meaning of the -word Form as I am using i t and to show very cl e a r l y wherein Form d i f f e r s from mere Arrangement. The emphasis i n thi s chapter l i e s upon the word, I n t r i n s i c . Form i s the l o g i c a l and necessary consequence of the function of the whole and the nature of i t s parts. I t has the quality of ' I n e v i t a b i l i t y ' i n the sense that i s the antithesis of capricious or arbitrary. To produce an arrangement i s comparatively easy; a measure of determination, possibly quite ruthless and insensitive, w i l l s u f f i c e . To achieve Form i s the most completely strenuous task which man undertakes. ~s It demands the perfect coordination of s e n s i t i v i t y , understanding and consideration with steely determination and executive s k i l l . The true a r t i s t , and I use the word i n Its broadest sense, must allow his medium to guide him to some extent^as the novelist must sometimes allow his characters.to take him where he had not planned to go) Otherwise his product w i l l be mechanical and s t i f f , w i l l be, that i s , an Arrange-ment rather' then a Form. "A r i g i d predetermination of the end-product whether by a r t i s t or beholder leads to the turning out of a mechanical or academic product.-- Like the s c i e n t i f i c inquirer, the a r t i s t permits the subject matter of his (4-3) perception i n connection with the problems i t presents determine the i s s u e , instead of i n s i s t i n g upon i t s agreement 1 w i t h a conclusion decided upon i n advance." The c r e a t i o n of Form demands s e n s i t i v i t y without weak-ness, determination which i s not stubborness and i n t e l l i g e n c e which Is warmed by emotion.( Cold i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y i s as f a r from the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t as i s s o f t s entimentality) A submissive w i l l i n g n e s s to l e a r n must be coupled with the strongest k i n d of executive determination. These statements are abstract and probably obscure. They need to be i l l u s t r a t e d by p r a c t i c a l examples. These I have chosen d e l i b e r a t e l y from many f i e l d s of human e f f o r t , f o r one of the c e n t r a l aims of t h i s t h e s i s i s to show that a l l the s i g n i f i c a n t human a c t i v i t i e s may, at t h e i r f i n e s t x and most pe r f e c t a t t a i n the l e v e l of Form, Doggerel i s an example of purely a r b i t r a r y arrangement imposed upon words. I t s amusing q u a l i t y a r i s e s from the incongruity of sense and sound. A true poem has Form. There i s nothing a r b i t r a r y about i t . One cannot f e e l that the poet might have s a i d i t d i f f e r e n t l y , used a d i f f e r e n t metre or chosen d i f f e r e n t words. The whole i s i n e v i t a b l e . Max Schoen puts i t : "The l e t t e r must not only r e f l e c t the s p i r i t but become s p i r i t . The form must so f i t the content, the matter so clothe the idea that the two are merged, wedded and united- to a point where matter loses i t s i d e n t i t y by 2 becoming idea." 1 A r t as Experience. John Dewey, p 138 2 A r t and Beauty. Max Schoen. 71 (44) A poet does not abuse words f o r the sake of h i s t o t a l e f f e c t , on the contrary he uses them i n a l l t h e i r fulness and richness i n such a way as to give them the greatest possble e f f e c t . In prosaic w r i t i n g we u t i l i z e only a small f r a c t i o n of each word, i t s meaning i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l sense. The poet uses the whole word, i t s sound, rhythm, emotional a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as i t s sense. He uses i t moreover so that i t s r e l a t i o n s to the whole enhance i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . The word i s not s a c r i f i c e d to the poem, but rather, l i k e a jewel, given a p e r f e c t s e t t i n g . In a very s i m i l a r way the decorator , i n planning the arrangement of a room, gives each p i c t u r e , vase, or piece of f a b r i c a s e t t i n g which shows i t o f f to the very best advantage. His room when f i n i s h e d must be harmonious, a u n i t y , but not at the expense of the objects which he uses. They can contribute f u l l y to the richness and colour of the whole only when set i n a way favorable to themselves. The good act o r b u i l d s up h i s e f f e c t s i n a s i m i l a r way g i v i n g tremendous s i g n i f i c a n c e , by h i s timing, pauses and voice c o n t r o l , t o every word spoken, and every t i n y gesture. The playwright, who i n the I n t e r e s t s of the structure of h i s play, prevents h i s characters from a c t i n g , each according to h i s nature, i s not c r e a t i n g Form. We r i g h t l y say h i s play i s mechanical, an a r t i f i c i a l arrangement. Most popular f a r c e s , t h r i l l e r s and melodramas are of t h i s type. The v i t a l i t y of the parts i s s a c r i f i c e d to the t i d i n e s s of (.45) the whole. The great playwright i s the one who can endow h i s characters with abundant l i f e and s t i l l ariblte a play which has coherence and u n i t y . The same p r i n c i p l e i s true i n music. Bach as a composer could weave a close strong f a b r i c of sound out of a number of "voices", each as v i t a l and as dainty as a b a l l e t dancer. The commonplace composer takes a t h i n s t r i n g of a i r and marches a l o t of meaningless 'pom poms' underneath. He applies some rather mechanical r u l e s of harmony so that none of the voices other than the a i r have any character of t h e i r own. Form i s the harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n of v i t a l and s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s , Arrangement s t e r i l i z e s the parts that they may be more e a s i l y and t i d i l y put i n t o place. The d i f f e r e n c e between Form and Arrangement i s of great importance i n the case of communities. The rather s t r i c t V i c t o r i a n conception of d i s c i p l i n e was i n c l i n e d to produce s o c i a l organizations c h a r a c t e r i z e d by imposed arrangement rather than i n t r i n s i c Form. The home provides a good example. In many cases the order and u n i t y of the whole was obtained by the r u t h l e s s subjugation of the i n d i v -i d u a l . "The B a r r e t t s of Wimpole Street" and Samuel But l e r ' s "The Way of A l l Flesh" are s u f f i c i e n t l y v i v i d i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s . The home i n t h i c h the father's word i s law, from which there i s no appeal, and against which no argument i s t o l e r a t e d may have been orderly and s u p e r f i c i a l l y peaceful, but the i n t e r n a l s t r a i n s must have been t e r r i f i c . There was no true harmony., only i t s semblance. I f the c h i l d r e n continued to submit they were e f f e c t i v e l y prevented from (46) developing n a t u r a l l y and f u l l y . I f they l e f t home, the un i t y of the whole was destroyed. Such a home was b r i t t l e arrangement, f u l l of de s t r u c t i v e forces which were never resolved but merely r e s i s t e d by the force of a u t h o r i t y . But a home may be a smoothly fun c t i o n i n g whole while a l l o w i n g each memfefer to be f u l l y himself and to make h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n . To create such a home i s one of the most d e l i c a t e of the a r t s , f o r freedom must not degen-erate i n t o l i c e n c e , nor s e l f development i n t o s e l f i s h n e s s ; spontaneity must not become i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y nor freedom of dis c u s s i o n b i c k e r i n g . There must be order and e f f e c t i v e cooperation but i t must spring from a f f e c t i o n a t e l o y a l t y r a t h e r than from fear and coercion. I t i s therefore a matter of d e l i c a t e balance, of t a c t f u l coordination and c l e a r formulation of aims upon the part of the a u t h o r i t a t i v e members. Such a home provides a perfect s e t t i n g f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . I t s o r d e r l i n e s s leads to e f f i c i e n c y and to a sense of s e c u r i t y . The frank and f r i e n d l y sanity of the atmosphere allows mutual readjustments to take place without b i t t e r n e s s , provides a s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e which does not destroy naturalness and s i n c e r i t y . I t i s a t r u l y d e l i g h t -f u l experience to observe a wte home of t h i s kind, a d e l i g h t t which i s t r u l y a e s t h e t i c ; a d i s i n e r e s t e d pleasure, that i s , i n contemplating,"the t h i n g i n i t s e l f " without any thought of possible b e n e f i t s to be derived. (47) Here i s a principle of great value i n Sociology. The concept of."Form provides a c r i t i e r i o n for the evaluation of a l l manner of groups, societies and organizations. It resolves the old d i f f i c u l t y of whether a community exists for the benefit of the members or the members fov the benefit of the community, for, i f a community ris e s to the l e v e l of Form the members gain from i t a setting which makes possible the highest measure of personal health and effici e n c y and development. At the same time the group as a whole gains strength and f l e x i b i l i t y by the enthusiastic loyalty of i t s members. This i s not,the place to consider the ways and means of bringing such Form into being. My point i s that Form i s the expression of the highest attainable excellence i n communitiesj as i n a i l other complex integrations. A regiment of soldiers may be held together by coercive d i s c i p l i n e and fear. But the wise leader knows that this i s not enough. Such a regiment i s b r i t t l e , l i a b l e to disruption when subject to severe s t r a i n . However, men are so constituted that loyalty to the group i s a very natur-a l expression of the se l f respect. Man i s always hungry for something,closely i d e n t i f i e d with himself, In which he may take a pride. I t i s for this reason that military leaders pay so much attention to tr a d i t i o n . Discipline, smartness, (48) and p r e c i s i o n a l l begin to play t h e i r part. A man cannot f e e l proud of h i s membership i n a slovenly carele.ss troop. I t i s i n t h i s way that I n t e r n a l cohesion, l o y a l t y , and even s e l f s a c r i f i c e are born i n a regiment. To a man without pronounced i n d i v i d u a l i t y membership i n such an organization may w e l l provide a c o n d i t i o n f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g f a r superior to the discouraging chaos of our indust-r i a l , so c a l l e d , c i v i l i z a t i o n . Whether or not t h i s Is so, the u n i t y of a f i n e regiment i s an i n t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e h e l p f u l to the s e l f respect and pride of every s o l d i e r i n I t and so i s c l o s e r to Form than mere Arrangement. I t i s of course very d i f f i c u l t to draw the l i n e i n any p a r t i c u l a r case and say, here i s Arrangement and here i s Form. The thing i s complicated i n the case of human organ-i z a t i o n s because a great deal of quite s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e I s o r i g i n a l l y necessary to b r i n g the whole up to that p i t c h of excellence that w i l l engage the personal pride of i t s members. Most people f u n c t i o n best, f i n d t h e i r highest l e v e l as i n d i v i d u a l s i n a framework of considerable f i r m -ness. A good school, a w e l l run h o s p i t a l , a strong p o l i c e force, or an e f f i c i e n t r a i l r o a d w i l l always be found to be f i r m l y administered. Yet these organizations do not stunt or warp t h e i r members. On the contrary they often develop t h e i r highest p o s s i b i l i t i e s , by providing a job to be done and making I t a matter of group pride that nothing but the best s h a l l be acceptable. In cases of t h i s kind, the d i s c i p l i n e i s e x t e r n a l , imposed and irksome only to the (49) beginner. The older member gives himself w i t h r e a l personal enthusiasm to the work of the group and holds h i s head high i n consequence of h i s membership. S t u p i d i t y of leadership, v a n i t y leading to abuse of a u t h o r i t y and l a c k of sense of proportion may e a s i l y t urn such an organization,, h e l d together from w i t h i n by l o y a l t y and p r i d e , Into one c o n t r o l l e d by f e a r . When I n t e r n a l cohes-i o n becomes exte r n a l coercion Form degenerates to mere arrangement. The d i f f e r e n c e , though of immense importance i s not always easy to d i s c e r n by the casual observer. As i n any other I n t e g r a t i o n a s u p e r f i c i a l t i d i n e s s and order can deceive the u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . The d i f f e r e n c e i s quite to a. obvious ^ t r a ined observer. The School Inspector f o r example, learns to become s e n s i t i v e to the "Tone" og a school. From a v a r i e t y of subtle i n d i c a t i o n s he can t e l l whether the s p i r i t i s one of mutual respect and w i l l i n g cooperation or merely one of s^Llen obedience and conformity. Good tone i n a school Is simply that pleasant overtone, that happy atmosphere which marks a l l communities which approach the l e v e l of Form. Dewey i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between imposed Arrangement and i n t r i n s i c Form by a simple comment upon the nature of courtesy. "The d i f f e r e n c e between the a r t i f i c i a l or a r t f u l , and the a r t i s t i c l i e s on the surface. In the former there i s a s p l i t between w&at i s o v e r t l y done and what i s intended. The appearance i s one of c o r d i a l i t y , the i n t e n t i s one of gaining favor. Wherever t h i s s p l i t (50) "between what i s done and i t s purpose exists, there i s ins i n c e r i t y , a t r i c k , a simulation of an act that i n t r i n s i c -a l l y has another e f f e c t . When the Natural and the c u l t i v -ated blend i n one, acts of soc i a l intercourse are works of art. The animating impulsion of genial friendship and the deed performed completely coincide without intrusion of u l t e r i o r purpose. Awkwardness may prevent adequacy of express-ion. But the s k i l l e d counterfeit, however s k i l l e d , goes through the form of expression; i t does not have the form of friendship and abide i n i t . The substance of friendship 1 i s untouched." The great c l a s s i c a l and humanist t r a d i t i o n i n Europe has long associated gracious courtesy i n action with a similar grace and cu l t i v a t i o n of the mind. The scholar and the gentleman have had a long and close association. Is not the difference between pedantry and true culture *ka another example of the difference between Arrangement and Form? The pedant accumulates second hand furniture for the mind and keeps an accurate catalogue of a l l his possessions. He knows exactly what 'who* said about 'this and that'; his knowledge i s c l a s s i f i e d , t i d i l y arranged and as dead as mutton. The r e a l l y cultured man has a mind which grows rather than accumulates. He is,as Herbart says," a man of many sided interests". His mind grows as a result of enthusiasms, of vital,vigorous, f u l l y conscious l i v i n g /\rl" c^s trypan a nee (51) It becomes discipl i n e d , orderly, accurate and also impartial as a r e s u l t of much experience regarding the prevalence of error. The v i t a l i t y of i t s Interests keep i t open, growing and searching. The owner ofl this kind of a mind responds with v i v i d interest to anything bearing upon the various enthusiasms which motivate his mind. New Information arouses his attention, he examines it,rebates i t to the material already i n his possession. I f I t i s not wholely consistent with these a period of c r i t i c a l thought begins. The v a l i d i t y of the new information i s carefully probed and i f established, leads to a readjustment of the opinions already In the mind. Thought of this kind i s not cold and formaly.trather i t i s enthusiastic and personal, intimately bound up with the l i f e interests of the thinker. A mind which grows i n this way i s not chaotic. A l l the knowledge.is integrated into x the whole as i t i s aquired, but the principle of unity i s not some external system or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Rather, i t i s the unity i f a growing organism assimilating from i t s environment what Is essential for i t s needs. This kind of mental growth i s simply the fcntellectuaiht aspect of f u l l and abundant l i v i n g , of the response to l i f e of a Whole man. Contact with this kind of a mind i s as del i g h t f u l as contact with pedantry i s unpleasant. ( provided always that the v i t a l mind i s not so far ahead of us that we cannot understand i t . Failure to understand i s always painful) (52) I r e a l i z e that I am dealing, sketchily and incon-clusively with some very d i f f i c u l t and important problems i n this chapter. My aim,however, i s simply to show that i n every si g n i f i c a n t aspect of l i f e Form i s the character-i s t i c of the v i t a l , the d e l i g h t f u l and the lovely, while external arrangement may be quite s t e r i l e and dead; that Form i s the embodiment of wisdom, warmth and abundant l i f e and that arrangement may be the expression of Incomplete humanity, of stupidity, vanity or ruthlessness. In the problems of personality these principles find their f u l l e s t and most signifi c a n t application. The modern psychologist c a l l s the healthy-minded,effective, happy man a well integrated personality. The bible uses the simpler word'Whole' to represent a similar idea,and old fashioned c o l l o q u i a l speech, 'Hale' as in'Hale and Hearty.' On the other hand we speak of a chaotic personality, of dissociation, of c o n f l i c t when referring to various person-a l i t y weaknesses. Here above a l i b i s a f i e l d i n which Form must be discovered and realized, and i n which mere Arrangement Imposed, extrinsic Emcm i s ut t e r l y inadequate. Why i s i t that the term Moralistic has become one of reproach, an indication of the second-rate? Is i t not because we f e e l that so much morality Is merely imposed arrangement having no necessary connection with internal integration and harmony*'., a form of prudence suited only (53) to those without without the courage and a b i l i t y to make an Ar t of l i v i n g . Q u a l i t y of l i v i n g does not r e s u l t from doing what one i s *tol&, from conforming b l i n d l y to the prejudices and opinions of the group, or from accepting the author&t&t ive i n s t r u c t i o n s of r e l i g i o u s bodies (although a l l such i n s t r u c t i o n s should be most c a r e f u l l y considered and u t i l i z e d as negative safeguards) I t r e s u l t s rather from the growth of c l e a r , d e f i n i t e , personal aims and Idea l s , from the a p p l i c a t i o n of energy, i n t e l l i g e n c e and s k i l l i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of those I d e a l s , As In any other a r t , as i n the c r e a t i o n of Form of any kind there must be a stage of discovery, of problem s o l v i n g , i n the sense that some way must be envisaged of organizing the complex elements involved i n t o a u n i t y , and the kind of unlty^ moreover; that we d e s i r e . The attempt to embody that discovery w i l l lead always to modifications so that, i n l i f e ^ t h e formulation of i d e a l s and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t e r a c t continuously. This p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , myself, must l e a r n how to harmon-i z e and u n i f y the complex elements i n my make up, must l e a r n how to l i v e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with my fellows that my l i f e may be f u l l and harmdmlous w i t h i n and without. I must discover my v i t a l enthusiasms and b u i l d my l i f e around them. I f I do not, I am wasting, even antagonizing the springs of energy which are the foundations of v i t a l i t y . Only so can I make my f u l l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n to the group i n which I l i v e . A second hand morality never yet produced (54) a strong.integrated p e r s o n a l i t y . A recent book by Henry C.Link,. "The Return to R e l i g i o n " t y p i f i e s "this m o r a l i s t i c point of view. I quote: "My .reason f o r attending church again i s that I have recommended i t to so many others. I go because I would rather l i e i n bed l a t e on Sunday mornings. I go because I would rather read the Sunday papers. I go because I Enow '.it w i l l please my o l d father when he learns of I t , and my parents i n law whom I s h a l l undoubtedly see there. I go because I s h a l l have to meet and shake hands with people, many of whom do not interest, me i n the l e a s t , because i f I don't go my c h i l d r e n consider that they have a good reason f o r not going to Sunday school, because I might be asked to do something I don't want to do, because I disagree with what the min i s t e r has to say. I go because I do not believe i n a l l the doctrines of the church. I go i n short because I hate to go and because I know i t w i l l do me good". ( I n a l l reverence I say, Heaven save the church from her new fr i e n d s ) He continues: "But today, rather than "Know Thyself", the phrse, "Behave Yourself" epitomizes the findi n g s of modern psychology. A good p e r s o n a l i t y i s achieved by constant p r a c t i c e , not by i n t r o s p e c t i o n . Just as the p i a n i s t masters the i n t r i c a c i e s of music through hours K£ and years of p r a c t i c e , so the mastery of l i f e i s achieved by the ceaseless pr a c t i c e of the mechanics which make up the a r t of l i v i n g " . 1 "The Return to R e l i g i o n " Henry C.Link. Readers' Digest J»*y 1936. June (55) I wonder what St Francis, or S i r Thomas More would have thought about a r e t u r n to r e l i g i o n of t h i s kind? One -A can imagine the very amusing and i n s t r u c t i v e h a l f hour that Socrates would have had with a man who set up an a n t i t h e s i s between,"Know t h y s e l f " and "Behave Yourself". The e r r o r of course a r i s e s from a complete i g n o r i n g of the d i f f e r e n c e between imposed arrangement and i n t r i n s i c Form. "The ceaseless p r a c t i c e of the mechanics which make up the a r t of l i v i n g . " This sentence summarizes I t . No a r t i s made up of mechanics, e s s e n t i a l as sound technique may be. Technique i s always the servant of a v i t a l personal conception to be expressed i n r e a l a r t . The q u a l i t y of any true a r t i s t depends upon a d e l i c a t e balance being maintained between the most s e n s i t i v e understanding of h i s medium, i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , and executive determination. This i s as true of the a r t of l i v i n g as of any other a r t . Determination without understanding i s merely r u t h l e s s s t u p i d i t y , technique without personal ' v i s i o n ' i s dead, useless v i r t u o s i t y , which i s j u s t about what the divorce of,"Know Thyself" from "BehaveYourself" would lead to. In contrast, consider t h i s e x t r a c t from the work ef a man imbued with the s p i r i t of Form. "Holiness i s moral i n t e g r i t y become an a r t , a thing admirable i n i t s e l f , a thing made. Holiness l i k e a r t i s more than prudence, i t i s prudence become an end instead of remaining simply a means. Such Is the h o l i n e s s of the saints and there i s always a (56) certain gaiety about i t , the gaiety of men set free. U t i l i t a r i a n i s m i s burdensome. To do things always.in order that, i n order that something else should follow, never to dp things because they are themselves worth doing, that i s the bore, the burden of mere prudence, that i s the burden, tte the bore of mere p i e t y . - - - — The word(holiness) l o s t i t s meaning. I t ceased to mean hale and hearty. The holy man was no longer thought of as the whole man. Holiness came to be a p a r t i a l i t y , an excess, an overgrowth. I t even came to be a cutting off, an asceticism i n the narrow and negative sense of a voluntary privation of sensual enjoyment. To enjoy came to be the reverse of to":be holy. And the holy man was no longer the man f u l f i l l e d , the man re a l l y enjoying himself, the whole man seeing things whole. He became simply the negative man, the man who did not marry, the man who did not gfcrink beer or wine, the man from whose vocabulary the 1 "best words" were expunged". L i t t l e comment i s needed. The f i r s t quotation, that of Henry C.Link, deals with an imposed moral!sm, mere extrinsic arrangement. The second deals with the man who has discovered and realized Form i n his own nature and so has be-come joyful and complete. One more point needs to be made before completing this chapter. There i s a very close connection between Form and happiness, both on the side of the maker and on the side of the observer. We recognize this i n everyday speech 1. Art. E r i c G i l l , p 132. (57) •when we say that a w r i t e r has f e l i c i t y of expression, that a craftsman has a happy knack. Of course the maker has h i s struggles, h i s disappointments and h i s b i t t e r experiences, but they culminate i n the deepest of a i l joys, that of the worker who surveys k the product of h i s hands and f i n d s i t good. The appreciative observer i s always delighted by Formj i n any community the i n f a l l i b l e i n d i c a t i o n of Form i s a s p i r i t of happy v i t a l i t y ; the whole man i s the happy man. There i s an i n f e c t i o u s , glowing warmth about Form wherever discovered. "Like the bloom on the cheek of youth i n the p e r f e c t i o n of h e a l t h at the height of h i s powers; i t i s something added, an essence that i s d i s t i l l e d only when a f i n e t h i n g i s f u n c t i o n i n g i n a way appropriate to i t s 1 nature, a fragrance to things good when they are being good." 1. Matter L i f e and Value. C.E.M.Joad. p 210. (A quotation from A r i s t o t l e ) (58) Form and the Appeal.to the Senses. I have suggested i n several places throughout the preceding d i s c u s s i o n that the appreciation of Form i s not possible unless the observer i s s e n s i t i v e , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and a t t e n t i v e . Without some knowledge and t r a i n i n g i t i s too easy to mistake the s u p e r f i c i a l i m i t a t i o n s of Form f o r the r e a l t h i n g . The pleasure which Form gives i s therefore part of a remarkably complete experience, i t i s a pleasure which suffuses, which i s quite inseparable from a c t i v e a t t e n t i o n , from the a p p l i c a t i o n of judgement and of d i s c r i m -i n a t i o n . The emotional experience i s not passive but an e s s e n t i a l aspect of the e f f o r t of appreciation which c a l l s f o r the harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n of the senses and of the mind. Such a state of mind i s , I b e l i e v e , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Aesthetic experience. In any p a r t i c u l a r aesthetic experience there may be much more, but unless appreciation of Form i s the c e n t r a l f a c t o r , the experience i s not aest h e t i c but something e l s e . Santayana expresses a very s i m i l a r opinion:-"Form therefore does not appeal to the unattentive, they get from objects only a vague sensation which may awaken / e x t r i n s i c a s s o c i a t i o n s ; they do not stop to survey the parts o r to appreciate t h e i r r e l a t i o n , and consequently are insens-i b l e to the various charms of various u n i f i c a t i o n s ; they can (59) f i n d i n objects only the value of mate r i a l or fu n c t i o n , not of Form. Beauty of Form however i s what s p e c i f i c a l l y appeals to "an aes t h e t i c nature,* i t i s equally removed from the c r u d i t y of formless s t i m u l a t i o n and from the looseness of re v e r i e and d i s c u r s i v e thought. The indulgence i n sentiment and suggestion of which our time i s fond, to the s a c r i f i c e of formal "beauty marks an absence of c u l t i v a t i o n as r e a l , i f not as confessed as that of the barbarian who revels i n 1 gorgeous confusion." There are c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s about t h i s point of view which need to be discussed. Many w r i t e r s , impressed by the 'immediacy', the spontaneity of our response to beauty i n s i s t that beauty i s a d i r e c t appeal to the senses rather than to the mind. John Dewey w r i t e s : "A good deal of i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t has been expended i n t r y i n g to ident-i f y e f f i c i e n c y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r end with beauty or E s t h e t i c q u a l i t y . But these attempts are bound to f a i l , fortunate as i t i s that i n some cases the two coincide and humanly desir a b l e as i t i s that the two should always meet. For adaptation to a p a r t i c u l a r end i s xxxajcx of ten, (always i n the case of complicated a f f a i r s ) something perceived by thought, while E s t h e t i c e f f e c t i s found d i r e c t l y i n sense 2 perception." 1. The Sense of Beauty. Santayana. p 96 2. A r t as Experience. John Dewey, p 115.(My i t a l i c s ) (60) This argument f a i l s to oarry oonvietion. In the f i r s t p l a c e - i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to a t t r i b u t e d e f i n i t e meaning to the phrase,"perceived by thought" i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to',"direct sense perception". What we perceive, as d i s t i n c t from crude sensation i s always conditioned by the mind. Perception involves r e c o g n i t i o n of meaning and although the process may be almost instantaneous, i t i s d e f i n i t e l y a mental process. I t i s c o g n i t i o n become h a b i t and therefore quick and e f f o r t l e s s . The meanings that we recognize are determined by our previous experiences and our previous thoughts. Perception i s absolutely dependent upon the resources of the mind. With the r i g h t kind of t r a i n i n g the mind acquires the power to perceive very complicated r e l a t i o n s h i p s almost instantaneously. Observe the school boy i n a r u r a l d i s t r i c t l e a r n i n g to Judge c a t t l e . The process of judgement i s slow, conscious and d e l i b e r a t e . Point by point he compares the a c t u a l animal w i t h the i d e a l portrayed on h i s chart and f i n a l l y decides that the beast i s good, bad or i n d i f f e r e n t . Observe the same boy a f t e r a few years of experience has made him expert. He now merely looks at a beast and perceives i t s q u a l i t y at a glance. Training has turned a process of conscious d e l i b e r a t i o n Into one of immediate perception. Perception of complicated r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the w e l l t r a i n e d mind. (61) Mr L.A.Reid expresses an opinion of t h i s kind as f o l l o w s : — "For ae s t h e t i c experience, as we have s a i d , i s not-mere f e e l i n g ; i t i s knowledge. And i n t o knowledge there enters at any moment a vast complexity of assumptions and presuppositions and past judgements. This needs l i t t l e e xf any argument since we a l l admit that aesthetic appreciation may be t r a i n e d , and t r a i n i n g means the d i r e c t i o n of a t t e n t i o n upon e s s e n t i a l s which are i n turn determined f o r us p a r t l y by a n a l y s i s . As i n the realm of perception we see snow to be c o l d , so i n the realm of aest h e t i c experience we may be s a i d to see a thing t h i s way or that way because of a c e r t a i n h i s t o r y , a c e r t a i n t r a i n i n g , a c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n , which i s p a r t l y determined at every step by some sort of r e f l e c t i o n . And i f the r e f l e c t i o n has been profound and thoroughgoing and true, surely the actu a l v i s i o n w i l l be 1 c l a r i f i e d . " There i s r e a l l y nothing i n c o n s i s t e n t i n the f a c t that appreciation of Form involves an element of judgement and that response to beauty ( to which we are capable of responding) i s immediate. In almost any trade or profession the man with the w e l l t r a i n e d mind i s able to see at a glance quite complicated r e l a t i o n s h i p s which would demand of the novice a long and arduous process of thought. We do not there fore claim that the t r a i n e d man i s not using h i s mental pov/ers. 1 A Study i n Ae s t h e t i c s . L.A.Reid. p 27. (62) That the r e c o g n i t i o n of beauty may be a very complic-ate matter i s made evident by the degree of preparation which i s necessary to enable ..us, ? to appreciate much of the very f i n e s t i n the world of a r t . A Beethoven Symphony, or a Bach Fugue has l i t t l e or no appeal to the simple and untrained. The most musical person b e n e f i t s from pa t i e n t study and frequent rehearing^in discovering the f u l l r ichness and beauty of such a work. An u n f a m i l i a r type of a r t often repels us at f i r s t since out minds are not prepared to perceive the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n i t . A man knowing only the music of the c l a s s i c a l period up t o , say, the time of Mozart, would probably experience b i t t e r d i s t r e s s on f i r s t hearing the works of Wagner and Richard Strauss. His a b i l i t y to enjoy these l a t e r works would develop slowly as the r e s u l t of a quite strenuous period o f readjustment, much of i t i n t e l l e c t u a l . Only a f t e r such a readjustment had been made and a new set of l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s formed would the music be able to give that d i r e c t and spontaneous t h r i l l that we c a l l Beauty. The long mental preparation i s proof however that the experience i s dependent upon the r e c o g n i t i o n of quite complicated r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between sensuous pleasure and the a e s t h e t i c experience Is a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t to define i n a general way. The f i n e a r t s p a r t i c u l a r l y are meant to be • (63) perceived through the senses, they are attempts to communic-ate and must not therefore v i o l a t e the senses through which they are to" pass. A p a i n t i n g i s to "be seen, to be looked at ..attentively. I f i t i s , i n the s t r i c t l y ' p h y s i o l o g i c a l sense hard on the eyes, producing unbalanced s t r a i n s and tensions, providing i t w i t h no s a t i s f y i n g p o s i t i o n of r e s t from which i t can move rhythm i c a l l y to take i n the d e t a i l s of the whole, i t defeats i t s own ends, since i t destroys sustained a t t e n t i o n . I t i s therefore quite an e s s e n t i a l part of the painter's problem to make h i s p i c t u r e please the eye. But the magazine i l l u s t r a t o r , and the c o l l a r a d v e r t i s e r know a l l about that. The mediocre commercial a r t i s t always makes a d i r e c t appeal to the senses, knows how to balance h i s pi c t u r e so that the eye w i l l r e s t comfortably about i t s centre of g r a v i t y , knows what colour combinations the eye fin d s soothing and pleasant. The pleasure which such work gives i s many steps removed from the aest h e t i c experience. Every tenth rate p r a c t i t i o n e r of pseudo a r t knows how to t i t i l a t e the senses. S i r Henry Hadow puts the casewery c l e a r l y w i t h respect to music. "Almost a l l people of Imperfect musical c u l t i v -a t i o n have t h e i r f a v o r i t e instruments; one enjoys the v i o l i n , but cares nothing f o r the piano, another remains i n frozen i n d i f f e r e n c e u n t i l he i s melted by the human voic e , another fin d s a l l music comprised i n the i n v i g o r a t i n g s k i r l of the bagpipes. I t must be remembered that such influences are wholly p h y s i c a l . They have nothing to do with a r t i s t i c a p preciation i n the proper sense of the term, they are as (64) purely sensuous as our d e l i g h t i n the colour of a flower or the taste of a d i s h . In music i t i s not the sensuous question which matters, hut the i n t e l l e c t u a l , not the f a c t o f concord or d i s c o r d but the way i n which they are employed."— " I f a chord does not f u l f i l l some duty, i f i t does not j u s t i f y i t s e l f by becoming some d e f i n i t e organic part i n the t o t a l plan, then i t i s not a r t but confectionery. Any musician who d e l i b e r a t e l y aims at sensuous e f f e c t s alone 1 ipso facto commits a r t i s t i c s u i c i d e . " I f beauty i s , " p e r c e i v e d by the senses" rather than theQ^, mind Tschaikovsky would be a greater composer than Bach, and Rimsky Korsakov than Mozart, f o r these flambuoyant romantics have composed works of much greater sensuous appeal . They use, with great s k i l l and contrivance, every resource of the great modern orchestra,every shade of tone colour. Bach weaves h i s entrancing patterns out of the simplest materials, depending hardly at a l l upon the sensuous appeal of v a r i e d instrumentation and r i c h chords . Tschaikovsky i s f o r t h i s reason much more popular than Bach with the ,"man i n the s t r e e t " . With the growth of musical appreciation t h i s changes. Once a person has r e a l l y learned to l i s t e n ±s amaxsa the music of Bach becomes the highest kind of d e l i g h t , the true a e s t h e t i c experience i n a l l i t s p u r i t y , c o o l , f i n e and bracing. The l o v e r of Bach w i l l have no d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l e g a t i n g the sensuous q u a l i t i e s to t h e i r proper p o s i t i o n \%<L<zrv, Compters -J,r (65) and of appreciating the supreme s i g n i f i c a n c e of Form. The same point may be i l l u s t r a t e d from other branches of a r t . I f beauty were dependent upon d i r e c t sensory appeal, T i t i a n would be greater than G i o t t o , and Alma Tadema than Cezanne, any mid V i c t o r i a n maker of statuary would be grea,ter than Epstein and Flo Z l e g f e l d than G.B.Shaw. A shiny coat never yet made a beauty out of a horse w i t h a sagging back. (66) RHYTHM AND LIME The u n i v e r s a l nature of rhythm i s a commonplace and i t s intimate connection with Form i s generally recognized. Just why i t should be so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Form i s not so widely understood. There are a number of aspects of t h i s problem, of great s i g n i f i c a n c e to Ae s t h e t i c s , which need to be discussed at t h i s stage. The e n t i r e universe,as we know i t , i s , i n a l l i t s s i g n i f i c a n t aspects, composed of stable and p e r s i s t e n t wholes, organized u n i t i e s of varying complexity,which hold, i n some form of K i n e t i c E q u i l i b r i u m , large amounts of contained motion. The atom, the molecule, the c r y s t a l , the s o l a r system^ the si n g l e c e l l u l a r organism, the community, may a l l be described i n t h i s way. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the contained motion has been pointed out by Spencer i n h i s , " F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s " . He defines e v o l u t i o n as, " i n t e g r a t i o n of matter and concomitant d i s s i p a t i o n of motion, during which matter passes from an i n d e f i n i t e incoherent homogeneity to a d e f i n i t e , coherent, 1 heterogeneity." A simpler statement of the above which might be s a t i s f a c t o r y i s ; that the universe appears to be engaged i n producing r i c h and v a r i e d Forms from a chaos of 1. F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s . Herbert Spencer. (67) motion. He goes on to point out that^unless a whole contains a great deal of motion f u r t h e r adaptation becomes impossible and t h i s i n an ever changing^active universe i s f a t a l . "So long as the parts of a body or mass have motion,rearrange ment i s p o s s i b l e . As soon as they lose t h e i r motion rearrang ment becomes impossible. Incident forces work secondary r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s e a s i l y when the contained motion i s large i n quantity and work them with i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y as the contained motion diminishes.---- Secondary r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s can have permanence only when the contained motion has become small, opposing conditions which seem to negative any large amount of permanent r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . " A simple i l l u s t r a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s may be found i n the blacksmiths shop. The Iron, when r a i s e d to white heat,now contains much more molecular motion than when cold and the,"incident force" of the hammer can now work r e d i s t r i b utions of the ma t e r i a l e a s i l y . Cool the metal and the new shape becomes permanent; the molecules have l o s t much of t h e i r motion and changes i n shape are now d i f f i c u l t to make. Pouring molten metal i n t o a mold and allowing i t to c o o l , moistening clay when we wish to work i t and baking i t when we desire a permanent shape are fu r t h e r examples. Spencer then goes on tb. show that the apparent 1. F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s . Herbert Spencer. (68) i n c o m p a t a b i l l t y between f l e x i b i l i t y and. s t a b i l i t y i s solved, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i v i n g organisms by the discovery of forms which combine s t a b i l i t y with great contained motion. Such K i n e t i c E q u i l i b r i u m i n wholes appears therefore to be a fundamental c o n d i t i o n of ev o l u t i o n and of persistence i n a changing universe. Which brings us back to rhythm. A l l motion contained w i t h i n a p e r s i s t e n t whole must be e i t h e r rhythmic or r o t a t i o n a l , otherwise the moving p a r t i c l e s would lose touch with the whole and d i s r u p t i o n would r e s u l t . Try to conceive f o r instance, a steam engine i n which the p i s t o n moved forward continuously i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e , or a steam turbine i n which the blades moved s t r a i g h t ahead instead of r o t a t -i n g about an a x i s . Now c i r c u l a r motion i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to rhythm. Any r o t a t i n g body, unless p e r f e c t l y balanced, produces rhythmic forces i n the object which holds i t i n p o s i t i o n . The g r a v i t a t i o n a l e f f e c t s of a body moving i n a c i r c u l a r path are rhythmic, as witness the t i d e s . R o t a t i o n a l and r e c i p r o c a l motion are mutually interchange-able by a very simple mechanical device. Geometrically^ c i r c u l a r motion i s compounded of two equal harmonic motions at r i g h t angles to one another and so i s i t s e l f a compound rhythm. Now^when we consider that the universe i s made up of wholes i t w i l l obviously be very d i f f i c u l t to f i n d motion ( 6 9 ) which i s not rhythmic. Spencer states quite p o s i t i v e l y , and, I b e l i e v e , proves h i s case that a l l motion without exception i s rhythmic. Even the motion of a planet i n i t s o r b i t i s disturbed by the varying g r a v i t a t i o n a l p u l l s of the other planets, and thus becomes rhythmic. The electrons speeding round the nucleus of an atom, held i n t h e i r o r b i t s by a t i g h t complex of forces, are c o n t i n u a l l y disturbed,and, v i b r a t i n g l i k e a taut s t r i n g , produce those electromagnetic waves that we c a l l l i g h t , radiant heat, 'x' Rays and u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t . There i s no need to go on enumerating examples. Rhythm permlates the whole m a t e r i a l f a b r i c of the universe. In s t i l l another way i s rhythm connected with the economical s t a b i l i z a t i o n of wholes. I r e f e r to the very intimate connection between rhythm and r e s i l i e n c e . A l l matter has a degree of e l a s t i c i t y ; d i s t u r b i n g forces can produce some small change i n the shape of the m a t e r i a l , but a r e s t o r i n g force at once begins to b u i l d up, proportion-a l to the disturbance produced. Perfect r i g i d i t y simply could not e x i s t since the smallest impact with an outside body would shatter the object concerned. This point perhaps demands a l i t t l e explanation. Any moving body has K i n e t i c Energy, a b i l i t y to do work, that i s . We can conveniently express that K i n e t i c Energy i n terms of any of the standard work u n i t s such as,'ergs', 'joules' or 'foot pounds'. Now a moving body can be brought '(70) to r e s t only by making i t do the amount of work of which i t i s capable. Suppose, f o r example, that a b u l l e t has a K i n e t i c Energy of IO0 foot-pounds. To b r i n g i t to r e s t i n two feet would require a r e s i s t i n g force f o r i t to overcome averaging f i f t y pounds; to b r i n g i t to r e s t i n one foot, a hundred pounds; i n an i n c h , twelve hundred pounds; i n a tenth of an in c h , twelere thousand pounds, and so on. Now imagine t h i s b u l l e t h i t t i n g a p e r f e c t l y r i g i d object, an object without the s l i g h t e s t element of'give'. The b u l l e t would be brought to r e s t instantaneously and the r e s i s t i n g force would be i n f i n i t e . The object would i n e v i t a b l y be shattered. Such an object, of course, does not and cannot e x i s t , but w i t h i n the range of our experience we know that the l e s s a body 'gives' at impact the g r e a t e r ' i s the danger of breakage, thus the ease w i t h which c r y s t a l l i z e d g l a s s , cast i r o n , or a hard s t e e l f i l e may be shattered. However, our i n t e r e s t i s with p e r s i s t e n t s t r u c t u r e s . An object which merely changes i t s shape every time an extern-a l force acts upon i t i s of no greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than one which i s broken by impact. The p e r s i s t e n t whole must not only give, i t must restore i t s e l f to i t s o r i g i n a l condition; that i s i t must possess, e l a s t i c i t y or r e s i l i e n c e , The a c t i o n of r e s i l i e n c e i s always rhythmic. As the p a r t i c l e s of a body move under the influence of an ex t e r n a l force an i n t e r n a l r e s i s t i n g force b u i l d s up proportional to the distance which the p a r t i c l e s have moved from t h e i r normal p o s i t i o n . . This force succeeds i n stopping the motion (71) only when i t has become great enough to do two things; to over come the exte r n a l force and also to absorb the momentum of the moving p a r t i c l e s . As soon as i t has succeeded t h i s momentum ceases to e x i s t and the r e s i l i e n t force now fin d s i t s e l f greater than the ex t e r n a l force, and a r e t u r n motion begins. A rhythmic a c t i o n w i t h i n the body i s , i n t h i s way,set up and continues u n t i l the energy Involved has been d i s s i p a t e d . The swaying of the branches of a tree , the waving of the heads pf g r a i n i n a breeze, the spring i n a board walk, the 'whip' i n a f i s h i n g rod are a i l examples of t h i s kind of rhythm. Such r e s i l i e n t rhythm i s a property of a l l matter, and a p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable property of nearly a l l economical and e f f i c i e n t s t r u c t u r e s . R e s i l i e n c e i s nearly always accepted as\evidence of the excellence of a whole. As we have already pointed out, sport i s one f i e l d i n which i n t r i n s i c excellence i s pursued whole heartedly. I t w i l l be no t i c e d that t h i s rhythmic r e s i l i e n c e of which I speak i s always found i n the highest grade of sports equipment; the c r i c k e t bat, the g o l f club, the f i s h i n g rod and the fencing f o i l . These things gain much of t h e i r aesthet-i c appeal, which i s , by the way, very great to those i n t e r e s t e d from t h i s rhythmic q u a l i t y . I t i s , of course, a commonplace that r e s i l i e n c e , i n v o l v i n g rhythmic response to external d i s t u r b i n g forces i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c excellence , not only of structures and (72) . m a t e r i a l objects, but also of organisms of a l l kinds, of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and of communities. To'give' e a s i l y to small d i s t u r b i n g forces and q u i e t l y to r e t u r n to normality makes f o r harmonious f u n c t i o n i n g . To b u i l d up ever i n c r e a s -i n g r e s i s t a n c e to forces threatening the i n t e g r i t y of the whole i s an e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n of s u r v i v a l . Such reactions are what produce the rhythmic q u a l i t y i n human a f f a i r s . I t i s s t e e l that we use as our symbol of strength and glass as our symbol of weakness, though the l a t t e r i s the much harder substance, I have,attempted to show i n t h i s b r i e f , somewhat mechanical d i s c u s s i o n , not only how i n t i m a t e l y rhythm i s connected w i t h the e s s e n t i a l properties of matter, but also that i t i s a necessary condition of the persistence of wholes, an i n t r i n s i c excellence, and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Form even at i t s simplest l e v e l . Dewey develops a very s i m i l a r argument from b i o l o g i c a l considerations. A few b r i e f e x t r a c t s w i l l make h i s point p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . 11 L i f e i t s e l f c o n s i s t s of phases i n which the organism f a l l s out of step with the march of surrounding things and then recovers unison with i t — e i t h e r through e f f o r t or by some happy chance. And i n a growing l i f e , the recovery i s never mere retu r n to a p r i o r s t a t e , f o r i t i s enriched by the state of d i s p a r i t y and resistance through which i t has s u c c e s s f u l l y passed. I f the gap between organism and e n v i r -creature onment i s too wide the axsaoaisBi dies . I f i t s a c t i v i t y i s not enhanced by the temporary a l i e n a t i o n , i t merely s u b s i s t s . (73) L i f e grows when a temporary f a l l i n g out i s a t r a n s i t i o n to a more extensive balance of energies of the organism with those of the conditions under which i t l i v e s . - The marvel of organic, of v i t a l adaptation through expansion ( i n s t e a d of by c o n t r a c t i o n and passive accomodation) a c t u a l l y take place. and 1 Here i n germ are balance/ harmony attai n e d through rhythm." " "The rhythm of lo s s of i n t e g r a t i o n with environment and recovery of union not only p e r s i s t s i n man but becomes conscious with him; • D i r e c t experience comes from man and nature I n t e r a c t i n g with each other. In t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n human energy gathers, i s released, dammed up, f r u s t r a t e d and v i c t o r i o u s . There are rhythmic beats of want and f u l f i l l -ment, pulses of doing and being withheld from doing. A l l i n t e r a c t i o n s that a f f e c t s t a b i l i t y i n the w h i r l -i n g f l u x of change are rhythms. There is-ebb and flow, systole and diasttble; ordered change.--- The l i v e being r e c u r r e n t l y loses and re e s t a b l i s h e s e q u i l i b r i u m with h i s surroundings. The moment of passage from disturbance i n t o harmony i s that of intensest l i f e . In a f i n i s h e d world, sleep and waking could not be di s t i n g u i s h e d . In one wholly p e r t -urbed conditions could not even be struggled with. In a world made a f t e r the patte r n of ours, moments of f u l f i l l m e n t puncuate 2 experience w i t h r h y t h m i c a l l y enjoyed i n t e r v a l s . 1. A r t as Experience, p 14. 2 i b i d p 16-17 (74). "The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the environing world that makes possible the existence of a r t i s t i c form i s rhythm. There i s rhythm i n nature before poetry, p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e and music e x i s t . Were i t not so, rhythm as an e s s e n t i a l property of form would be merely imposed upon m a t e r i a l , not an operation through which material e f f e c t s I t s culmination 1 i n experience." II "Because rhythm i s a u n i v e r s a l scheme of existence, underlying a l l r e a l i z a t i o n of order i n change, i t pervades a l l the a r t s . Since man succeeds only as he adapts h i s behav-i o u r to the order of nature, h i s achievements and v i c t o r i e s as they ensue upon resist a n c e and struggle become the matrix of a l l a e s t h e t i c subject matter; i n some sense they c o n s t i t -ute the common pattern of a r t , the ultimate conditions^ o'f form.—Underneath the rhythm of every a r t and of every work of a r t there l i e s , as a substratum i n the depths of the subconsciousness, the basic pattern of the r e l a t i o n s of 2 the l i v e creature to h i s environment." I t I s hardly s u r p r i s i n g therefore, that deep i n the nature of man i s an innate tendency to respond to rhythm with a f e e l i n g of pleasure. The pleasure which any kind of smooth rhythm gives to a baby, the spontaneous d e l i g h t wMx w i t h which the most p r i m i t i v e people respond to the rhythm of the drums and of the dance are evidence of t h i s . I t i s t h i s immediate, t h i s innate response to the rhythmic 1. A r t as Experience, p 147. 2. i b i d p 250 (75) q u a l i t y which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l Form which gives the a e s t h e t i c experience that sense of spontaneity, that immediacy which sometimes leads people to deny the influence of the mind upon the appreciation of beauty. 'Line 1 i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to rhythm, and has, I b e l i e v e , a s i m i l a r d i r e c t appeal. C e r t a i n l y one of the d e l i g h t f u l elements i n a l l f i n e a r t i s ' l i n e ' . We know what we mean by the word when ap p l i e d to drawing, p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , pottery and even to music, but to define i t , to say wherein good l i n e d i f f e r s from bad l i n e i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . Of course, bearing i n mind the organic u n i t y of Form;we might define good l i n e a s , l i n e which knows where i t i s going and what i t i s doing and which performs i t s essent-i a l f unction i n the service of the whole with as l i t t l e fuss and e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e . There i s much t r u t h i n t h i s . But there i s more to good l i n e than t h i s . One of the e s s e n t i a l s of Form i s that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the parts must not be s a c r i f i c e d to the whole but rather given,within the whole, a pe r f e c t s e t t i n g . The expression, l o v e l y line,has meaning i n i t s e l f . Great a r t does not cramp and t o r t u r e l i n e f o r the sake of the t o t a l e f f e c t . The music of Bach has a f i r m i n t e g r i t y , but an examination of the strands from which i t i s woven shows that each i s cha r a c t e r i z e d by v i t a l ' l i n e ' . The entrancing q u a l i t y of the music of Mozart i s dependent even more upon the (76) l o v e l y q u a l i t y of the m u s i c a l ' l i n e ' with which he works. Shaw's recent l i t t l e hook of epigrammatic commonplaces, "The Black G i r l i n Search of God", i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a ser i e s o f . e x q u i s i t e wood-cuts i n which the l i n e i s l i t t l e short of g l o r i o u s . "Lovely Line" means something more than the e f f i c -iency w i t h which the l i n e plays i t s part i n the whole. Detach the l i n e from the whole, and while i t w i l l lose g r e a t l y i n s i g n i f i c a n c e i t w i l l s t i l l r e t a i n an independent aesthetic q u a l i t y . I t i s impossible to be dogmatic about t h i s matter. I am i n c l i n e d to believe,however, that Mine' i s j u s t as e s s e n t i a l an element of Form i n motion as rhythm i s of Form i n s t r u c t u r e , and that, at l e a s t i n part, our d e l i g h t i n l i n e i s based upon our experiences of d i r e c t e d and purposive movements which have been r a i s e d to a high degree of p e r f e c t i o n . Watch the slow motion pi c t u r e s of any kind of a t h l e t i c s and see how i n e v i t a b l y f i n e l i n e characterizes the movements depicted. Watch the f l i g h t of the s e a g u l l , the motions of a f i s h , the progress of an e x c e l l e n t skater, a l l wonderfully e f f i c i e n t motions i n which change of d i r e c t i o n takes place  without l o s s of energy. Rhythm and l i n e are i n e x t r i c a b l y fused i n motions of t h i s kind Line i n a r t i s always dynamic, i t always goes some-where and takes the eye and ear with i t . I t moves,and the sense of motion i t gives to the observer i s ak i n to the t h r i l l i n g rhythmic motion of the seagull or the skater. (77) C e r t a i n l y the movements of the eye are p l e a s a n t l y rhythmic when f o l l o w i n g a f i n e l i n e i n pottery or" i n p a i n t i n g . Our d e l i g h t i n ' l i n e ' i s somehow very c l o s e l y connected w i t h w i t h our a p p r e c i a t i o n of harmonious and economical motion and our response to rhythm. Human behaviour operates on three main l e v e l s . Our emotional response to s t i m u l i may be, innate, h a b i t u a l or learned, or the outcome of a period of d e l i b e r a t e thought. Now rhythm and l i n e are such u n i v e r s a l elements i n Form that pur r e a c t i o n to them has become innate, a r a c i a l h a b i t rather than a personal h a b i t . They are therefore of tremendous import-ance i n the a e s t h e t i c experience. The concept of Form as the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the a e s t h e t i c experience often meets with opposition because i t appears to imply a measure of conscious r a t i o c i n a t i o n which i s incompatible with the spontaneous t h r i l l which marks our r e c o g n i t i o n of beauty. Our response to Form, however, i s on a l l three l e v e l s and i t i s Line and Rhythm which are c h i e f l y responsible f o r the innate response. A f u r t h e r aspect of the *immediateSresponse i s the r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g , a learned, h a b i t of l o o k i n g -at once f o r the e s s e n t i a l things and p e r c e i v i n g t h e i r significance.((Phis i s the true meaning of the c u l t i v a t i o n of the taste.) However, even the two aspects of the immediate response, the innate and the |earned, do not complete the a e s t h e t i c experience. A t h r i l l i s t r a n s i t o r y . Our joy i n a f i n e work of a r t abides, because conscious consideration (78) and d e l i b e r a t e judgement f o l l o w spontaneous d e l i g h t . No aes t h e t i c experience i s complete unless i t r i s e s to the l e v e l of understanding. "The t o t a l - overwhelming impression comes f i r s t , perhaps i n seizure by a sudden g l o r y of the landscape, or by the e f f e c t upon us of entrance i n t o a cathedral when dim, l i g h t , incense, stained glass and majestic proportions fuse i n one i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e whole. We say with t r u t h that a p a i n t i n g s t r i k e s us. There i s an impact that precedes a l l d e f i n i t e r e c o g n i t i o n of what i t i s about. As the painter Delacroix s a i d about t h i s f i r s t and p r e - a n a l y t i c phase,"before knowing what the pi c t u r e represents you are seized by i t s magical accord". This e f f e c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y conspicuous f o r most persons i n music. The impression d i r e c t l y made by an harmonious ensemble i n any a r t i s often described as the musical q u a l i t y of that a r t . Not only, however, i s i t impossible to prolong t h i s stage of e s t h e t i c experience i n d e f i n i t e l y , but i t i s undes-i r a b l e to do so. There i s only one guarantee that t h i s d i r e c t seizure be at a high l e v e l , and that i s the degree of c u l t i v a t i o n of the one experiencing i t . In i t s e l f i t may be, and often i s , the r e s u l t of cheap means employed upon m e r i t r l c i o u s s t u f f . And the only way i n which to r i s e from that l e v e l to one where there i d i n t r i n s i c assurance of 1 worth i s through intervening periods of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . " 1. A r t as Experience, p 145. (7?) FORM AND THE EXPRESSION OF EMOTION. A number of modern writers on Aesthetics, notably, Mr.E.F.Carritt, MR.L.A.Reid'; and Signor Groce identify Beauty with the expression of emotion. For obvious reasons I find i t impossible to accept such a theory without considerable modification. I f a splendid bridge, a racing yacht, a microscope, a fine horse, have Aesthetic appeal, and I i n s i s t most emphatically that they have, then the theory i s , to say the least, very d i f f i c u l t to apply. . Of course the chief proponents of this idea are in t e r -ested almost exclusively i n the Fine Arts and here i t i s of considerable value. Emotion i s always intimately involved i n creative a c t i v i t y of this kind. Fine Art i s a develop-ment of language, i t i s an attempt to communicate a complete experience i n a l l i t s richness , and a complete experience always has an emotional aspect. However, the quality, the beauty of- the product, i s not dependent upon the nature of the emotion but upon the success of the expression. The beauty of a work of art arises from the perfect embodiment i n some sensible medium of the experience with which the a r t i s t i s concerned. A very delicate, tiny, emotional exper-ience, clearly and truly f e l t , may, i f expressed with p e r f e c t f i t n e s s r e s u l t i n an enduring work of a r t . A great overpowering emotion, on the other hand may he badly expressed and as a work of a r t be v a l u e l e s s . " While there i s no expression unless there i s an urge from w i t h i n outwards, the w e l l i n g up must be c l a r i f i e d and ordered by taking i n t o i t s e l f the values of p r i o r exper-iences before i t can be an act of expression. "There i s no expression without excitement, without t u r m o i l . Yet an inner a g i t a t i o n that i s discharged at once i n a laugh or cry passes away with i t s utterance. To discharge i s to get r i d of; to express i s to stay by, to carry forward i n development, to work out to completion. A gush of tears may b r i n g r e l i e f , a spasm of d e s t r u c t i o n may give o u t l e t to inward rage. But where there i s no administration of object-iv e conditions, no shaping of materials i n the i n t e r e s t of embodying the excitement there i s no expression. What i s sometimes c a l l e d an act of s e l f expression might b e t t e r be termed one of s e l f exposure; i t d i s c l o s e s character-or lack of character to others. In i t s e l f ijs i s only a 1 spewing f o r t h . " A Prayer f o r Toads. Lighten Lord my load, I no beast of brawn But t i r e d and troubled toad A simple son of spawn. 1. A r t as Experience. John Dewey, p 61 A harmless f o o l i s h toad, Whom dog disdains to clutoh, Who shuns the hur t f u l road But loves the lawn's touch. Encourage me who creep With warted limb and back And send me s i s t e r sleep, When winter cometh back. And I w i l l worship well In manner of my mind, Fold fingers, hunch and t e l l 1 The garden, God i s kind. The poet's mood here i s one" of gen t i e , playful melancholy, quite unimportant and t r i v i a l u n t i l he attempts to express i t . I t is,however, s u f f i c i e n t l y clear and true to dominate the process of expression, to make the whole unified, a perfect embodiment of an experience. I t i s this perfect embodiment which i s beauty. Croce summarizes the point c l e a r l y : "What we admire i n genuine works of art i s the perfect imaginative form which a state of soul assumes. Feeling without image i s blind, and image without feeling i s void. Expression and beauty are not two concepts but a single concept, a r t i s t i c imagination i s 1 G.I.Scott Moncrieff. New Stateman and Nation. May 3 1930 always corporeal, but i t i s not obese, being always c l a d « • • • 1 i n i t s e l f and never charged w i t h anything else ornate" Thus the emphasis must be on the ex66e~Bslon rather than on the emotion , and t h i s brings us r i g h t back to the concept of Form. To express means to embody and to embody i s to give Form. The word emotion i n t h i s phrase,"expression of emotion" must be q u a l i f i e d i n yet another way. The a r t i s t does not express mere emotion, he expresses a whole,vivid, s i g n i f i c a n t experience of which the emotion I s only a part. An emotion i s not s e l f s ubsistent, i t i s merely one aspect of a t o t a l s i t u a t i o n In which a person i s a c t i v e l y involved. I f an experience or idea i s of v i t a l importance to the i n d i v i d u a l i t i s bound to be emotional but i t i s the whole s i g n i f i c a n t experience, not merely the emotion which the a r t i s t expresses. Croce appears to recognize t h i s f a c t when he uses the very broadest term a v a i l a b l e , " t h e perfect imaginative form which a state of soul assumes". Although the emotion,then, i s not what i s expressed, i t does play an e s s e n t i a l part i n the creative process, i n the s e l e c t i o n and u n i f i c a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l . The mood, the feeling-tone of an experience impregnates the expression and excludes a l l elements a l i e n to i t s e l f . Both Dewey and Croce are agreed on t h i s p o i n t . Thus Qroce: 1. E s s e n t i a l s of Aesthetic Croce. p /r-1 "What gives u n i t y and coherence to i n t u i t i o n i s f e e l i n g . — What offends us i n f a l s e or f a u l t y work i s the u n r e s o l v e d d i s c o r d of d i f f e r e n t mmods, t h e i r mere superimposition or confusion, or t h e i r a l t e r n a t i o n which gets but a s u p e r f i c i a l u n i t y forced upon i t by the author, who f o r t h i s purpose makes use of some abst r a c t idea or plan or of some unaesthetic passion" Dewey covers very s i m i l a r ground:- "That a r t i s s e l e c t i v e i s a f a c t u n i v e r s a l l y recognized. I t i s so because of the r o l e of emotion i n the act of expression. Any predominant mood automatically excludes a l l that I s uncon-g e n i a l w i t h i t . An emotion I s more e f f e c t i v e than any challenging s e n t i n e l could be. I t reaches out tentacles f o r that which i s cognate, f o r the things which feed i t and carry i t to completion. Only when emotion dies can material to which i t i s a l i e n enter consciousness. I f one examines i n t o the reason why c e r t a i n works of a r t offend us one Is l i k e l y to f i n d that the cause Is that there Is no personally f e l t emotion guiding the s e l e c t i n g and assembling of the materials presented. We derive the impression that the a r t i s t i s t r y i n g to regulate by conscious i n t e n t the nature of the emotion aroused. We are ifcbltated by a f e e l i n g that he i s manipulating materials to secure an e f f e c t decided upon i n advance. The facets of the work, the v a r i e t y so indispensable to I t are held together by ©ome external force. The movement of the parts and the conclusion d i s c l o s e 1. Philosophies of Beauty. (Croce) p243. no l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . The author, not the subject matter i s the arbiter*"(The r e s u l t , t h a t i s , i s arrangement rather than form ) Dewey continues:- "Just because emotion i s e s s e n t i a l to the act of expression I t i s easy f o r inaccurate a n a l y s i s to misconceive I t s mode of operation and conclude that the work of a r t has emotion f o r i t s s i g n i f i c a n t content.--Yes emotion must Operate. But i t works to e f f e c t c o n t i n u i t y of movement, singleness of e f f e c t amid v a r i e t y . I t i s s e l e c t i v e 1 of m a t e r i a l and d i r e c t i v e of i t s order and arrangement." One does not wish to d r i f t i n t o a f u t i l e argument about the r e l a t i v e Importance of Form and Content i n a work of a r t . Form i s simply embodied Content. The e s s e n t i a l point which must be made c l e a r i s that I t i s perfect embodiment which marks the true work of a r t . As C a r r i t t says, " I cannot d i s t i n g u i s h beauty from success i n a r t . I am,myself, sure that I have always meant the same by a successful work of a r t and a b e a u t i f u l one and by an ugly work of a r t and a f a i l u r e . " Now the p e r f e c t embodiment of an Idea or an experience i n a sensible medium i s Form. The great advantage of the concept of Form as the basic p r i n c i p l e of-Aesthetics i s that i t includes w i t h i n i t s e l f the idea of Expression as applied to the f i n e a r t s while s t i l l being a p p l i c a b l e to the beauty of s t r i c t l y u s e f u l things. I t i s impossible to b r i n g the Sidney Bridge under the expression formula unless we go round i n c i r c l e s and say that I t expresses the desire of the b u i l d e r to make a f i n e bridge. But the foridfp, a poem, 1 A r t as Experience, p 69. 2 ( «T) a painting, a symphony and a racing yacht are a l l , i n their own way, Examples of Form. So too are the airplane, the fine horse and the cathedral. The concept of Form i s thus equally satisfactory when applied to the Fine Arts, the P r a c t i c a l Arts, and to natural objects. Physiologically, emotion involves a redistribution of energy,a mobilization of the forces of both body and mind. Anger ;for instance,affects the beat of the heart, the secret-ion of adrenalin and ;through it,the release of glycogen into the blood. I t marks the preparation of the organism for a stage of intense a c t i v i t y . The other exciting emotions working through the sympathetic nervous system have a similar e f f e c t . To balance these there are other emotions which are^in the l i t e r a l sense of the word, recreational; feelings of affection, of contr^etment, of internal peace. These emotions^ associated with the sacral and cranial sections of the nerv&us system rest the heart, encourage the processes of digestion and i n general bring about conditions favoring recuperation. I t i s only under the influence of the arousing emotions that m&n reaches his highest pitch of effectiveness and i s capable of the sustained and intense a c t i v i t y necessary for his highest achievement. Unemotional work, work which doesn't matter to the in d i v i d u a l , i s necessarily i n e f f i c i e n t since the energies of the worker are not properly mobilized. Since Form i s the highest kind of attainment, i t cannot g o s s i b l y ^result from i n d i f f e r e n t , h a l f speed e f f o r t of t h i s kind. I t i s r e a l l y a b i t t e r commentary upon the q u a l i t y of our c i v i l i z a t i o n that we have come to accept as normal and usual t h i s d i s s o c i a t i o n i n d a i l y work,(for i t i s d i s s o c i a t i o n to be only h a l f engaged i n a t a s k ) ; that we have come to associate the greater part of the work of the world with the performance of mechanical and routine tasks too i n s i g n i f i c a n t to engage the whole a t t e n t i o n of a human. The rhythm of the a r t i s t i c worker, and jshis does not mean only the p r a c t i t i o n e r of one of the f i n e a r t s , i s from excitement and passionate struggle to achievement and deep s a t i s f a c t i o n , when having completed a piece of work he surveys i t and f i n d s i t good. Work which matters deeply and which leads to stages of achievement^ raise^the human organism to the highest p i t c h of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The greatest m o b i l i z a t i o n of energy f o r work and the most per f e c t state f o r recuperation are at t a i n e d by the emotional rhythms inherent i n any kind of a r t i s t i c e f f o r t , i n any kind of e f f o r t which r e s u l t s i n Form. Man acts i n response to external necessity or to i n t e r n a l urge. In so f a r as he responds only to necessity, to e x t e r n a l pressure or to the i n s i s t e n t demands of h i s appetites he i s s t i l l a slave and h i s work, l i k e a i l slave labour, i s grudging. I f i t will'get by^then i t Is s a t i s f a c t o r y . Fortunately, however, man i s so c o n s t i t -- - ( « 7 ) uted that many tasks which are o r i g i n a l l y done of necessity come to engage h i s pride and to he done f o r t h e i r own sake. With the growth of s k i l l and mastery the task becomes i n t r i n s i c a l l y pleasurable. Give a man something to make (not merely something to do), something, the excellence of which i s dependent upon h i s own care and a b i l i t y and see how qu i c k l y c r a f t pride w i l l develop. I t i s t h i s s p i r i t which provides the motive f o r that search f o r the highest degree of i n t r i n s i c excellence which leads to form. The worker now keeps ahead of the pressure of nec e s s i t y , he has gone beyond the stage where u t i l i t y values s u f f i c e , and i n so doing he has become free . His freedom i s not that of the wealthy man, i t i s not the r e s u l t of abandoning the work of the world; there i s no divorce from u t i l i t y , rather t h e i r i s a growth through and beyond u t i l i t y . This, i n c i d e n t a l l y t o u c h e s one of the most serious f a l l a c i e s which continues to beset Aesthetics; I r e f e r to the notion that everything b e a u t i f u l i s e s s e n t i a l l y useless, that there i s a c l e a r cut a n t i t h e s i s between the b e a u t i f u l f u l l , and the useless. I do not wish to discuss t h i s point here, f u r t h e r than to point out the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the c u l t i v a t i o n of i n t r i n s i c excellence f o r i t s own sake and the d e l i b e r a t e avoidance of every form of u s e f u l a c t i v i t y i n order to make possible the c u l t i v a t i o n of s e n s i b i l i t y . I t i s no accident that t h i s , A r t f o r Art's sake ; doctrine, t h i s c u l t of the useless^should f i n d i t s most recent supporters amongst the nineteenth century decadents. I t was Oscar Wilde who s a i d , "We can forgive a man f o r making a u s e f u l -thing as long as he does not admire i t . The only excuse f o r making a useless t h i n g i s that one admires i t i n t e n s e l y . A l l a r t i s quite useless." "~ To r e t u r n from t h i s d i g r e s s i o n ; Every s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y of man i s emotional i n one aspect. Good craftsman-ship i s always a f f e c t i o n a t e , good management i s proud and l o y a l good philosophy i s suffused with a passionate devotion to t r u t h , good a r t with deep s i n c e r i t y . Science compounds a s p i r i t of adventure w i t h an uncompromising devotion to p r e c i s i o n , accuracy of statement and i m p a r t i a l i t y . These may he hard emotions to name, hut that they are emotions i s undoubted. These emotions which are i n t r i n s i c to the v i t a l a c t i v -i t i e s of man explain the s u r p r i s i n g l y r i c a l q u a l i t y which sometimes appears i n most u n l i k e l y places. S i n c l a i r Lewis has r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n a book about a hotel; keeper, who turned that most prosaic of occupations i n t o a work of a r t . A good mechanic often developd a r e a l a f f e c t i o n f o r a piece of f i n e machinery f o r which he i s responsible. The case of the simpler c r a f t s i s now a commonplace. P r i m i t i v e decoration i s simply the expression of the worker's d e l i g h t i n h i s task, a piece of f i n e workmanship added g r a t u i t o u s l y as a token of a f f e c t i o n and d e l i g h t i n s k i l l . Such a s p i r i t makes i t very d i f f i c u l t to draw a c l e a r l i n e between the f i n e a r t s and the p r a c t i c a l a r t s , i n f a c t much of the f i n e s t and most s i g n i f i c a n t a r t that the world tess knows has been made by f i n e craftsmen expressing w i t h i n t h e i r work no more than t h e i r i n t r i n s i c d e l i g h t i n i t . The segregation of a se c t i o n of the l e i s u r e d c l a s s as s e l f conscious a r t i s t s i s a thoroughly unhealthy development. The harnessing of the emotions to a job of f i n e 'making' i s the very foundation of healthy Integrated p e r s o n a l i t y . Emotion may be denied an o u t l e t , may be repressed. This i s u l t i m a t e l y harmful to the s e l f . Habitual f r u s t r a t i o n of emotion leads to the d i s s i p a t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l energies of the i n d i v i d u a l , to i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t and abnormality. Emotion may, on the other hand be allowed to discharge v i o l e n t l y and i m p u l s i v e l y , u n c o n t r o l l e d by reason and d i s c i p l i n e , as when the mother s p o i l s her c h i l d through uncontrolled a f f e c t i o n or the father breaks the crockery i n an outburst of rage. This too Is wasteful and d e s t r u c t i v e . But emotion may be used c o n s t r u c t i v e l y , made to work through i n t e l l i g e n c e and s k i l l , used to impose order upon i n d i f f e r e n t elements i n the environment. When so used i t r a i s e 6 t h e s e l f to the highest p i t c h of e f f i c i e n c y , concentrates a t t e n t i o n and u n i f i e s the aim. This i s the place taken by emotion i n the strong, i n t e g r a t e d ; p u r p o s e f u l character; t h i s too i s the part i t plays i n the c r e a t i o n of Form. G-oodness and Beauty. -a The very close r e l a t i o n "between goodness and beauty has i n t e r e s t e d w r i t e r s on Aesthetics from the e a r l i e s t times, and remains a v i t a l t opic today. Plato., though g i v i n g to the i m i t a t i v e a r t s a very subservient p o s i t i o n and even threatening the poets with banishment, conceives goodness i t s e l f i n terms of beauty. No sooner does he begin to wr i t e d e s c r i p t i v e l y of the good man than he uses expressions such as, grace, harmony and n o b i l i t y . In speaking of things made^he uses the terms v i r t u e , beauty and excellence as synonyms. "Now does not the v i r t u e , beauty and excellence of every product or l i v i n g t h i ng or a c t i o n depend upon the purpose f o r which i t was 1 made or developed?" The f o l l o w i n g quotation from "The Republic" i l l u s t r a t e s the very intimate way i n which he connects morality or goodness with beauty; a connection which amounts almost to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . "Then good speech and good music and grace and good rhythm fol l o w good nature, not that s i l l i -ness which we c a l l good nature i n compliment, but the mind that i s r e a l l y w e l l and nobly c o n s t i t u t e d i n character.--But p a i n t i n g and a l l craftsmanship are,we know, imbued with these; so are weaving and embroidery, ar c h i t e c t u r e and the making of a l l other a r t i c l e s ; so too i s the body and other I . Philosophies of Beauty. E . F . G a r r i t t . (Plato's Republic) P 25. ( V) l i v i n g things. A l l these show e i t h e r grace or absence of grace. And absence of grace and bad rhythm and bad harmony are s i s t e r s to bad words and bad nature, while t h e i r opposites are s i s t e r s to and copies of the opposite, a wise and good nature. Then we must speak to our poets and compel them to impress upon t h e i r poems.only the image of the good or not make poetry i n our c i t y . And we must speak to the other craftsmen and f o r b i d them to leave the impress of that which i s e v i l i n character, unrestrained, mean and ugly on t h e i r likenesses of l i v i n g creatures, or t h e i r houses or on anything else they make. He that cannot obey must not be allowed to p l y h i s trade i n our c i t y . For we would not have our guardiand reared among images of e v i l as i n a f o u l pasture, and there, day by day and l i t t l e by l i t t l e gather many Impressions from a l l that surrounds them, taking them a l l i n u n t i l at l a s t a great mass of e v i l gathers i n t h e i r inmost souls and they know i t not. No we must seek out those craftsmen who have the happy g i f t of t r a c i n g out the nature of the f a i r and the g r a c e f u l , that our young men may dwell as i n a h e a l t h - g i v i n g region, where a l l that surrounds them i s beneficent, whencesoever from f a i r works of a r t there smile upon t h e i r eyes and ears an affluence l i k e a wind b r i n g i n g h e a l t h from happy regions, which though they know i t not, leads them from t h e i r e a r l i e s t years i n t o likexxness ,and f r i e n d s h i p and harmony with the p r i n c i p l e of beauty." " i s j i o t musical education of paramount Importance f o r those reasons, because rhythm and harmony enter most powerfully i n t o the innermost parts of the soul and l a y f o r c i b l e hands upon i t , bearing grace with them and so making g r a c e f u l him who i s r i g h t l y t r a i n e d . - - - B e a u t i f u l things he would p r a i s e , and r e c e i v i n g them wi t h joy i n t o h i s soul would be nourished by them and become noble and good. Ugljj things he would r i g h t l y condemn and hate even i n h i s youth before he was capable o f reason, but when reason cemes he would welcome her as one he knows, with whom h i s 1 t r a i n i n g has made him f a m i l i a r . " Notice how moral and a e s t h e t i c judgements are i d e n t i f i e d throughout t h i s e x t r a c t ; f o r instance, i n the phrase,"—and f o r b i d them to leave the Impress of that which i s e v i l i n character, unrestrained, mean and ugly." For Plato a thing which i s not b e a u t i f u l i s not completely good. Plato's devotion to f i n e character i s an aesthetic passion; :.. f o r grace, harmony, poise and d i g n i t y which mark the highest goodness are q u a l i t i e s which he f i n d s l o v e l y i n themselves. That there could be any d i f f e r e n c e between goodness of l i f e or character and beauty i s u t t e r l y incon-ceivable to him.(A c l e a r mark, by the way, of the s u p e r i o r i t y of the Greek s p i r i t over much of the unlovely moralism of the present day) 1. "Plato's Dialogues" G.Lowes Dickenson. ( 9 3 ) Francis Hutcheson i n the eighteenth century comments rather charmingly upon t h i s a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of v i r t u e . "The author of nature has much b e t t e r furnished us f o r a virtuous conduct than our m o r a l i s t s seem to imagine, by almost as quick and powerful i n s t r u c t i o n s as we have f o r the preservation of our Bodies. He has given us strong a f f e c t i o n s to be the springs of each virtuous a c t i o n and made V i r t u e a l o v e l y Form that we might e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h i t from i t s contrary and be made happy by the p u r s u i t of 1 IT.. More r e c e n t l y , both Santayana and Dewey have something to say regarding the matter. Thus Santayana:- "Not only are the various s a t i s f a c t i o n s which morals are meant to secure ae s t h e t i c i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , but when the conscience Is formed and r i g h t p r i n c i p l e s acquire an immediate au t h o r i t y , our a t t i t u d e to these p r i n c i p l e s becomes aesthetic a l s o . Honour, truthfulness,and c l e a n l i n e s s are obvious examples. When the absence of these v i r t u e s causes i n s t i n c t i v e disgust, as i t does i n a l l w e l l bred people, the r e a c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a e s t h e t i c , because i t i s not based on r e f l e c t i o n and benevol-ence but on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l sensitiveness. This aesthetic sensitiveness is,however, properly enough c a l l e d moral, because i t i s the e f f e c t of conscientious t r a i n i n g and i s more powerful f o r good i n society than laborious v i r t u e , 1. Beauty and V i r t u e . Francis Hutcheson. p x i v . (9#) because i t i s much more constant and catching. I t i s the aest h e t i c demand f o r the morally good, and perhaps the f i n e s t 1 flower of human nature." Dewey pays t r i b u t e to the Greek s p i M t as fo l l o w s : "The Greek i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of good conduct with conduct having proportion, grace and harmony•—is a more obvious example of the d i s t i n c t i v e a esthetic q u a l i t y i n moral a c t i o n . One grea-t defect i n what passes f o r morality i s i t s anesthetic q u a l i t y . Instead of exemplifying whole hearted a c t i o n , i t takes the form of grudging piecemeal concessions to the demands of duty. But i l l u s t r a t i o n s may only obscure the f a c t that any p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y w i l l , provided i t i s i n t -egrated and moves by i t s own urge to f u l f i l l m e n t , have 2 aesth e t i c q u a l i t y . " Of course, what we c a l l morality i n ordinary speech f a r i s frequently/removed from beauty. Conformity to the demands of the group, unquestioning acceptance of an imposed code are easy f o r the t i m i d and f o r those of l i t t l e v i t a l i t y . But such mo r a l i t y i s an i n f e r i o r product, i t has nothing to do wit h the highest a t t a i n a b l e human excellence. There i s i m p l i c i t here an abuse of the word'good.' When we use the word with respect to a p a i n t i n g , a poem, a bridge or a horse we are speaking of q u a l i t y ; of strength, coherence, u n i t y and f i t n e s s f o r purpose. When we speak of a 1. "The Sense of Beauty" Santayana. p 31 2. "Art as Experience" John Dewey, p 39. good man we are l i a b l e to mean something d i f f e r e n t ; we are not r e f e r r i n g to t*£ the q u a l i t y of h i s manhood but h i s w i l l i n g ness to conform to c e r t a i n imposed r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . So much i s t h i s the case that most of us hold i n low esteem our reputation forSgoodness'. We would much sooner someone s a i d of us,"he i s a r e a l man" than,"he i s a good man". And t h i s i s a sound i n s t i n c t , f o r we have divorced the meaning of goodness from p o s i t i v e q u a l i t y of l i v i n g . Where morality or goodness does not r i s e to the l e v e l of beauty i t i s incomplete, something imposed,::a response to ex t e r n a l pressure, rather than an inward urge towards excellence. When a c t i n g on t h i s l e v e l man i s s t i l l a slave. But j u s t as the craftsman seldom remains s a t i s f i e d w i t h merely,"getting By" but moves ahead and jstrives f o r q u a l i t y f a r i n advance of the pressure of ex t e r n a l forces, making of h i s work a source of pride and a form of s e l f expression, so man i n h i s conduct reaches ahead of necessity and the demands of convention and pursues excellence, grace and fineness f o r t h e i r own sake. Only on t h i s l e v e l does craftsmanship become a r t , and only on t h i s l e v e l do. character and conduct become b e a u t i f u l , and only so does man reach freedom. Santayana, using the word morality i n t h i s p a r t i a l sense makes a very s i m i l a r statement. He r e l a t e s morality to the aesthetic i n very much the same way that I have r e l a t e d Arrangement to Form. Morality,he says i s conduct ( 7/) imposed by necessity, the avoidance of de s t r u c t i o n i n a harsh world; while the search f o r beauty i s from w i t h i n , the a c t i v i t y of man set f r e e . "The r e l a t i o n between a e s t h e t i c and moral judgements, between the b e a u t i f u l and the good i s clo s e , but the d i s t i n c t i o n between them i s important. One f a c t o r of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s that, while aesthetic judge-ments are mainly p o s i t i v e , that i s , perceptions of good, moral•judgements are mainly and fundamentally negative, or perceptions of e v i l . Another f a c t o r of the d i s t i n c t i o n i s that, whereas, i n the perception of beauty our judgement i s i n t r i n s i c and based on the character of the Immediate experience, and never consciously on the idea of an eventual u t i l i t y i n the object, judgements of moral worth, on the contrary, are always based when they are p o s i t i v e upon the consciousness of be n e f i t s probably involved. The sad business of l i f e i s rather to escape c e r t a i n dreadful e v i l s to which our nature exposes us,-death, hunger, disease, weariness, i s o l a t i o n and contempt. The moment however, that society emerges from the e a r l y pressure of the environment and i s t o l e r a b l y secure against primary e v i l s , m orality grows l a x . The forms which l i f e assumes are not Imposed by moral a u t h o r i t y but are determined by the genius of the race, the opportunities of the moment and the tastes and resources of i n d i v i d u a l minds. The rei g n of duty gives place to the r e i g n of freedom, and the law and the covenant to the dispensation of grace." 1. The Sense of Beauty. Santayana. p 23 and 24. ( 9 7 ) The "beauty of objects i s more than u t i l i t y , more than e f f i c i e n c y , but yet grows out of these q u a l i t i e s . Beauty cannot e x i s t i n the i n e f f e c t i v e , the weak or the badly made. 'So too i n p e r s o n a l i t y i s beauty more than p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t -iveness, more than conventional morality; once again i t i s an outgrowth from such e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s . Beauty i s a flower which grows only upon a strong vigorous plant, with I t s roots deep i n the s o i l , i t s stem s t r a i g h t and f i r m and i t s leaves exposed to sun and a i r . I f the plant i s not strong, w e l l founded and e f f e c t i v e the flower does not appear. Beamty of l i f e i s simply the v i s i b l e evidence of f i n e q u a l i t y , of excellence become a grace. (Just as a motion of the body, i f r a i s e d to a s u f f i c i e n t l y high l e v e l embodies i n e v i t a b l y f i n e l i n e and rhythm and becomes grace-f u l ) I t i s not the good of the well-meaning, i t i s not the good of the merely w e l l behaved, i t has nothing to do wit h withdrawall from l i f e ; i t i s the good of a f i n e conception e f f e c t i v e l y r e a l i z e d , i t i s goodness become an a r t . On t h i s l e v e l goodness and beauty are one. (9*0 CONCLUSION. In an even deeper sense than that of the l a s t chapter are the Good and the B e a u t i f u l i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d ; they are d i f f e r e n t aspects of the same thing, Form. In a s t r i c t l y l i t e r a l sense Form Is the fundamental, the u n i v e r s a l Good. To a t t r i b u t e some p a r t i c u l a r purpose to t h e " L i f e Force", to the"Universal Power" or t t o the "Absolute" i s to become involved i n an endless p h i l o s o p h i c a l controversy which i s not relevant to the subject under d i s c u s s i o n . What can be s a i d , however, with a f a i r degree of assurance i s that l i f e does manifest a c e r t a i n consistent trend. The d i r e c t i o n of e v o l u t i o n has been towards b r i n g i n g order out of chaos, towards b u i l d i n g complex i n t e g r a t i o n s from simple elements and of so hammering and a t t a c k i n g the r e s u l t i n g wholes that only the most s t a b l e , r e s i l i e n t , coherent, and generally e x c e l l e n t can survive. (Fundamentally our idea of q u a l i t y i s based upon t h i s a b i l i t y to p e r s i s t under these destructive i n f l u e n c e s ) The trend of e v o l u t i o n , to use Spencer's c l a s s i c phrase, i s f r o m , " i n d e f i n i t e , incoherent homogeneity to d e f i n i t e coherent heterogeneity", or i n simpler language, from a formless chaos of simple elements to a r i c h m u l t i p l i c i t y of strongly integrated Forms. (99) The atoms are stable r e s i l i e n t i n t e g r a t i o n s of electrons and protons. "The order i s not imposed from without but i s made out of the harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n s that energies 1 bear to one another" The atom i s thus an example of Form. From the atoms of the ninety two elements are b u i l t the molecules of the countless compounds known to man, each molecule being an i n t e g r a t i o n of i n t e r n a l forces, and again therefore, an example of Form. The s i n g l e c e l l , i t s e l f a Form of immense complexity from the chemical and p h y s i c a l point of view i s the simple elementary u n i t of the b i o l o g i s t , and the foundation of a l l l i v i n g things. Each l i v i n g organism i s a complex u n i t y i n which the c e l l s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , organised and c o n t r o l l e d to serve a common end. The degree of i n t e g r a t i o n that we know of and, i n part, understand i n the case of any of the higher animals i s immense. Electrons and protons are integrated to form atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur etc. These atoms are combined to form molecules of sugars, f a t s , p r o t e i n s , vitamins and s a l t s of various kinds. Then some m i l l i o n s of these molecules are organized to form a s i n g l e c e l l . And t h i s brings us merely to the elementary u n i t of the b i o l o g i s t . Several b i l l i o n of them are brought together i n a most complex and d e l i c a t e l y u n i f i e d whole to produce the creature known as man, who then proceeds to organize himself by the m i l l i o n i n t o complex communities 1. A r t as Experience. John Dewey, p 14 (IOO) communities c a l l e d nations, which he f i n d s so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y that h i s most urgent present task i s to evolve some form of harmonious supernational organisation. I f i t i s agreed then, that i n t e g r a t i o n i s the basic a c t i v i t y of t h e , " L i f e Force", thoroughgoing success of i n t e g r a t i o n , that i s Form, must be the great u n i v e r s a l excellence which i s always v a l i d . The Universe accepts Form, allows i t to p e r s i s t , but destroys imperfect i n t e g r a t i o n s , e x t r i n s i c arrangements without i n t e r n a l cohesion. Some of our judgements of excellence are t r a n s i t o r y or personal^ a r i s i n g from p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n ourselves or of the times i n which we l i v e . These account, i n part f o r dif f e r e n c e s of t a s t e . But the excellence of Form i s bigger, deeper than any personal preference or any vagary of fashion. I t i s e x c e l l e n t &2&E2JOTE whether man e x i s t s to perceive i t or not, i t i s e x c e l l e n t because the Universe accepts Form f o r s u r v i v a l . I t i s Form which provides the deep and uniform r e a l i t y of Beauty, above the surface of which the l i t t l e vagaries of p e r s o n a l i t y and fashion play l i k e r i p p l e s on a deep and p l a c i d lake. When we come to the concerns of man we again f i n d the p r i n c i p l e of Form supreme. A l l the s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t i e s of man involve the imposition of order upon disorganized and r e f r a c t o r y m a t e r i a l , and when completely successful they r e s u l t i n Form. Science takes simple disconnected f a c t s and discovers w i t h i n them the pos s i b l e u n i t y of a hypothesis. I t them proceeds r u t h l e s s l y to hammer that hypothesis e i t h e r to des t r u c t i o n or i n t o a strong coherent theory. The aim of science,as of philosophy i s to give Form to knowledge. The task of the w r i t e r i s to choose and order words that they may express, without ambiguity, the exact shade of h i s meaning and every overtone of emotion that h i s whole experience may "be communicated. Every craftsman, engineer, and a r t i s t i s engaged i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of ma t e r i a l , i n the making of wholes. The craftsman and engineer design and execute works of u t i l i t y ; the a r t i s t , works which appeal to the mind and to the emotions, hut the task i n both cases i s so to order and u n i f y i n e r t material as to acheive the desired end. Every organizer, h o s p i t a l superintendent, ship's captain and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r attempts to give u n i t y of purpose and f u n c t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y to the a s s o c i a t i o n of people i n h i s change. I n any of these tasks, the mark of supreme achievement, of complete success i s Form. The i n t e g r a t i o n which i s not yet Form i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y imperfect, even i f i t happens to be cheap to make and s u f f i c i e n t l y good f o r commercial purposes. Equally i s i t necessary f o r every i n d i v i d u a l , through s e l f d i s c i p l i n e and a c l e a r aim to r e a l i z e Form i n h i s own nature. F a i l u r e i n t h i s respect i s the basis of a l l phys-i c a l and mental i l l h e a l t h . The function of the p s y c h i a t r i s t Is to restore strength and u n i t y to the shattered mind and to b r i n g back harmony to i t s discordant elements. The healthy p e r s o n a l i t y i s the integrated p e r s o n a l i t y . iioz) • I t i s a commonpiaoe of c r i t i c i s m that f i n e a r t i s not concerned with morality, that the most e d i f y i n g p i c t u r e or poem i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the best from the a r t i s t i c point of view. This of course i s p e r f e c t l y true. Aesthetic judgement i s concerned purely with the thing i n i t s e l f . When we evaluate a poem we are concerned with i t s I n t r i n s i c  q u a l i t y the p e r f e c t i o n with which i t embodies the experience of the poet, not how i t may a f f e c t the morals of the man who reads i t . A poor work of a r t , an ugly object i s , according to P l o t i n u s , one,"—not completely mastered by form and r a t i o n -a l i t y " ; e i t h e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y form has not been conceived or inadequate execution has f a i l e d to reve a l i t . What we mean by q u a l i t y i n a work of a r t i s i t s approximation to per f e c t Form. But t h i s i s the ultimate t e s t of the q u a l i t y of any whole. I f we leave the word morality out f o r a moment and think i n terms of q u a l i t y , we judge a good picture and a good man by the same standards. Is not a good l i f e , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a f i n e conception e f f e c t i v e l y r e a l i z e d , and i s not that e x a c t l y what we mean by a good picture? I n t r i n s i c q u a l i t y i s the same whether i n a bridge, a ship, a poem or a p a i n t i n g . The only reason that we have d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between goodness and beauty i s that we have allowed the word,"goodness" to mean something other than i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t y . How else can we describe an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y character than as,"—one not completely mastered by form and r a t i o n a l i t y " , how else describe-{'OS) a f i n e man than one who has found u n i t y , coherence, Form i n h i s own*nature and i n h i s l i f e . A r t i s merely l i f e i n microcosm. The deep s a t i s f a c t i o n s of A r t a r i s e from the f a c t that i n the turbulent f l u x of d a i l y l i f e Form may be approached but never r e a l l y attained. Too many fac t o r s are outside of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l . In the a r t s however, whether 'Fine' or ' P r a c t i c a l ' the problem i s nearer to man's a b i l i t y , the f a c t o r s are more n e a r l y under c o n t r o l and so a much c l o s e r approach to complete success i s p o s s i b l e . And t h i s , by the way, i s one of the dangers of the Fine A r t s , they may, and often do provide a way of withdraw-i n g from l i f e and of avoiding i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s . Any a r t i s good i n i t s e l f but the greatest a r t of a l l i s the a r t of l i v i n g . To become a slovenly p r a c t i t i o n e r of that a r t i n order to c u l t i v a t e one of the l e s s e r a r t s i s not an evidence of superior humanity. In l i f e and i n a r t however, q u a l i t y means simply approach to Form . As Ruskin says, Quality of l i v i n g i s the end of a l l r a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y " . The t r u e s t d e f i n i t i o n og the 'Good' therefore i s , That which makes f o r Beauty. BIBLIOGRAPHY. A r t . O l i v e . B e l l . Chatto and Windus. London. 1914. Since Cezanne. C l i v e B e l l . Chatto and Windus. London. 1923. Philosophies of Beauty. E . F . C a r r i t t . Oxford. The Clarendon Press. 1931 What i s Beauty. E . F . C a r r i t t . Oxford. 1932. A primer of Modern A r t . Sheldon Cheney. Horace L i v e r i g h t . New York. 1924. P l a t o and His Dialogues. G.Lowes Dickenson. The Essence of Aest h e t i c s . Benedetto Croce.(tr Douglas A i n s l i e ) Heinemann. London 1921. A r t as Experience. John Dewey. Mi l t o n Balch and Co. 1934. A r t . E r i c G i l l . The Bodley Head. London 1934. Studies i n Modern Music. S i r W.H.Hadow. Seeley and Co. London 1926. Modern Composers. S i r W.H.Hadow. Beauty and V i r t u e . Francis Hutcheson. London 1725. Matter L i f e and Value. C.E.M.Joad. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. 1929. Form i n C i v i l i z a t i o n . W.R.Lethaby. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press. 1922. Aesthetics and Psychology. Charles Mauron. ( t r Roger Fry and Katherine John) The Hogarth Press. London 1935. S o c i a l Psychology. Wm.McDougall. Methuen. London. 21st Ed. The C i v i l i z e d Man. F.McEachern Faber and Faber. London. Bibliography (cont) A Study irt A e s t h e t i c s . L.A.Reid. George A l l e n and Unwin. 1931. London. A r t and Beauty. Max Schoen. Macmillan. New York. 1932. The Sense of Beauty. George Santayana. Scribner. I896. F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s . Herbert Spencer. 

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