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An experimental study of two shorthand systems Sangster, Norman 1937

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TWO SHORTHAND SYSTEMS by . NOBMAN SANSSTBB A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. APRIL, 1937. AN EZBEEIHEBTAL STUDY OF TWO SHORTHAND SYSTEMS. Table of Contents. CHAPTER I. The Experiment: 1. Purpose of the Study. 2. Description of Procedure, P a g e s 1 - 3 CHAPTER II . The Detailed Results: 2. Test 2 3. Test 3 4. Test 4 5. Test 5 6. Test 6 7. Test 7 8 . Test 8 4 - 1 1 CHAPTER I I I . History of Shorthand Principles 12 - 16 CHAPTER IY. The Basic Principles of A Good System 17 - 33 1. Longhand as a Basis of Shorthand. 2. Curvilinear Motion. , 3. Elimination of Obtuse Angles. 4. Joined Vowels. 5. One Thickness no Shading. 6. One Position. 7. L i n e a l i t y — the Easy Flow of TJriting along the Line. CHAPTER V. APPENDIX Conclusion A. Supplementary Observations B. Copies of F i n a l Tests. C. An Outline of the Methods, employed by Gregg and Pitman i n expressing Sounds. 34 - 36 37 - 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 - 61 1 A * AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TWO SHORTHAND SYSTEMS. by Norman Sangster. CHAPTER I. The Experiment. The purpose of t h i s study i s to give the results of an experiment i n the teaching of two different systems of shorthand* The classes were held i n the Eairview High School of Commerce and the systems used i n the experiment were Gregg and Pitman. The teacher of each system was aware of the ex-periment and was interested i n showing the superiority of his system. • Tko groups of students, taking a one year intensive commercial course, were selected for the experiment* At the beginning, there was one class of forty students, a l l g i r l s , taking Gregg Shorthand, and two classes of forty g i r l s each, taking Pitman Shorthand. Two years of training i n the general academic course was a prerequisite for entrance into either group. The groups were made comparable as far as possible, the bases for selection being the I. Q. and the previous aca-demic record of the student. Both groups took the same general course and had the same teachers, except for Shorthand. The other subjects of the course were Bookkeeping, Business English, Typewriting and Arithmetic. Two forty minute periods 8. were spent on Shorthand each day by both groups. Tests were given throughout the school year, under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. Robert Straight of the Vancouver Bureau of Measurements. These t e s t s were to serve as a basis f o r comparison between the two groups. A f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of these t e s t s and the r e s u l t s w i l l be given i n the next chapter. I t w i l l be observed that the number o f students tak-ing the t e s t s v a r i e s . At the beginning of the experiment there were three classes under observation-^one Gregg c l a s s and two Pitman classes, each c o n s i s t i n g of approximately f o r t y students. In accordance w i t h the organization of classes i n the school, students taking Pitman Shorthand who ranked "D" or "E" (the lower 25fo of the group) on the Christmas examinations, were moved i n t o . r e g u l a r l y e n r o l l e d classes as they were not making s u f f i c i e n t progress to warrant t h e i r continuance i n a " s p e c i a l " c l a s s (1). The "D" and "E" ranking students i n the Gregg clas s had to remain i n the o r i g i n a l c l a s s as there were no regular classes t a k i n g t h i s system o f shorthand* The de-crease i n the number of students i n the Gregg clas s at the end of the experiment i s due to the p o l i c y of the school i n recom-mending the best students f o r p o s i t i o n s at the end of the term. This a f f e c t e d the Gregg c l a s s very s e r i o u s l y as they reached a (1) A " s p e c i a l " c l a s s i n the Eairview High School of Commerce refer s to a class of students who have had two years of general academic t r a i n i n g and are now taking a s t r i c t l y v ocational course i n Shorthand, Typewriting, Bookkeeping ' and Business E n g l i s h . .;• 3. d i c t a t i o n speed, s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r business purposes, much sooner than the Pitman c l a s s e s . Had i t been pos s i b l e to keep the same numbers throughout the experiment, the r e s u l t s would have been more favorable to the Gregg students, since, i n the case of the Gregg c l a s s the best students found p o s i t i o n s i n business before the f i n a l t e s t s of the experiment, while the weaker students i n the Pitman c l a s s were dropped from the ex-perimental group because they were unable to carry the work of a " s p e c i a l " c l a s s . 4. CHAPTER I I . The Detailed Results. Test One. The f i r s t test was given on October 1, af t e r the students had one month of instruction. It consisted of a l i s t of one hundred words from a shorthand vocabulary,equally favorable and common to both groups (1). The l i s t was dic-tated at the same rate for both groups and the results were based on the transcription. Marks of the Gregg group ranged from 25% to 100% with a group median of 77.5%. The marks of the Pitman group ranged from 5fo to 95% with a median mark of 51%. Detailed results were as follows • Score •G.r9.gg Pitman Score Gregg Pitman 95-100 1 0 45-49 0 7 90-94 8 1 40-44 1 4 85-80 2 4 35-39 0 9 80-84 3 3 30-34 1 6 75-79 2 4 25-29 2 3 70-74 4 6 20-24 0 2 65-69 3 3, 15-19 0 4 60-64 6 4 10-14 0 1 55-59 1 6 5-9 0 1 50-54 2 0 0-4 0 0 (1) See appendix for l i s t . 5. Test Two. This test was given after two months' instruction. It consisted of a l i s t of one hundred words from a shorthand vocabulary common to both groups. The l i s t was dictated at the same rate for both groups and the results were based on the transcription. The marks of the Gregg group ranged from 30% to 100% with a median of 71.6%. The marks of the Pitman group ranged from 5% to 70% with a median mark of 31.5%. The detailed results were : Score Gregg Pitman Score Gregg Piti 95-100 1 0 45-49 5 3 90-94 2 0 40-44 1 6 85-,89 3 0 35-39 0 9 80-84 1 0 30-34 1 18 75-79 5 0 £5-29 0 14 70-74 6 2 20-24 0 11 65-69 4 2 15-19 0 4 60-64 5 1 10-14 0 2 55-59 1 0 5-9 0 3 50-54 0 6 0-4 0 0 Test Three. This test was given after three months' instruction and again consisted of a l i s t of one hundred words dictated at a common rate and taken from a vocabulary common to both groups. The results were based on the transcription. The marks of the Gregg group ranged between 60% and 100% with a class median of 98.25%. The marks of the Pitman group ranged from 15% to 100% with a median of 63.25%. The detailed results were : Score Gregg Pitman So ore Pitman 100 10 1 95-99 20 4 45-49 0 10 90-94 1 6 40-44 0 7 85-89 0 5 35-39 0 2 80-85 2 3 30-34 0 2 75-79 0 3 25-29 0 1 70-75 0 4 20-24 0 0 65-69 0 8 15-19 0 1 60-64 1 10 10-14 0 0 55-59 0 6 5-9 0 0 50-54 0 2 0-4 0 0 Test Pour. •..  This test was given i n A p r i l after about s i x months' training. It consisted of an a r t i c l e , with a shorthand vocabulary common to both groups, dictated at sixty words a minute for a period of five minutes. The results were based on the transcription. The marks of the Gregg group ranged from 55% to 100% with a median o f 85.96%. The marks of the Pitman group ranged from 15% to 90% with a median of 58.1%. Detailed r e s u l t s were as follows • Score Gregg Pitman Score Pitman 100-95 4 0 45-49 0 13 90-94 4 0 40-44 0 £ 85-89 13 3 35-39 0 80-84 7 0 30-34 0 2 75-79 5 £5-29 0 2 70-74 3 9 20-24 0 0 65->69 0 5 15-19 0 1 60-64 1 6 10-14 0 0 55-59 1 4 5-9 0 0 50-54 0 6 0-4 0 0 8 e Test Five. This test consists of a passage i n longhand, with a shorthand vocabulary common to both group s, dictated at a ra of 70 words a minute for a period of five minutes. The results were based on the transcription. The gregg group ranged from 50% to 100% with a median of 73.1%. The Pitman class ranged from 10% to 65% with a median of 40.7%. De-ta i l e d results were : Score Gregg Pitman Score Gregg Pitman 95-100 3 0 45-49 0 6 90-94 0 0 40-44 0 11 85»89 1 0 35-39 0 7 80-84 8 0 30-34 0 7 75-79 1 0 25-29 0 ' 4 70-74 8 0 20-24 0 6 65-69 3 1 15-19 0 2 60-64 5 3 10-14 0 2 55-59 2 4 5-9 0 0 50-54 1 6 0-4 0 0 Test Six. This test consisted of a passage, with a shorthand vocabulary common to both groups, dictated at a rate of 80 words a minute for a period of five minutes. The transcrip-tion was considered i n getting the results. The Gregg group ranged from 60% to 100% with a median of 79.1%. The Pitman class ranged from 15% to 85% with a median of 58%. Detailed results were : -Score Pitman Score Gregg Pitman 95-100 3 0 45-49 0 3 90-94 3 0 ' 40-44 0 7 85-89 5 1 35-39 0 3 80-84 4 1 30-34 0 0 75-79 6 1 25-29 0 0 70-74 4 6 20-24 0 1 65-69 6 6 15-19 0 1 60-64 1 5 10-14 0 0 55-59 0 9 5^9 0 0 50- 54- 0 3 0-4 0 0 10. Test Seven, This test was a passage dictated at 100 words per minute for a period of five minutes. The results were based on the transcription. The marks of the Gregg group ranged from 55% to 95% with a median of 76.87%, The Pitman group ranged from 20% to 90% with a median of 61%. Detailed results were : Score Pitman Score Gregg Pitman 95-100 0 0 45-49 0 2 90-94 a. 0 40-44 P 5 85-89 l 1 55-39 0 6 80-84 7 2 30-34 0 1 75-79 4 5 25-29 0 1 70-74 4 6 20-24 o 1 65-69 4 7 15-19 0 0 60-64 2 5 10-14 0 0 55-59 1 4 5-9 0 0 50-54 0 4 0-4 0 0 Test Eight. H i This was the f i n a l examination conducted by the Depart-ment of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. It consisted of three pass-ages, dictated at 80* 100 and 120 words per minute., It repre-sented the f i n a l test i n the series. A l l members of the Gregg class who had not obtained business positions wrote this test, while only the students of the Pitman class who had obtained a mark of 55% or better i n Test 7, wrote t h i s f i n a l examination (1). This explains the small number of students who took part i n this test. Transcription, only, was marked. The range of marks for the Gregg group was from 50% to 100% with a median of 82.5%. The range of the Pitman group was from 5% to 85% with a median o f 57.9%, Detailed results were : Score Greg g Pitman Score , Gregg Pitman 95-100 3 0 45-49 0 0 90-94 3 0 40-44 0 1 85-89 0 0 35-39 0 1 80-84 7 2 30-34 0 0 7 5-79 2 2 25-29 0 0 70-74 1 4 20-24 0 1 65-69 1 2 15-19 0 0 60-64 1 1 10-^ 14 0 0 55-59 0 6 5-9 0 1 50-54 1 6 0-4 0 0 (1) A fee of $5.00 was charged by the Department of Education to write this examination. Students who had very l i t t l e chance of meeting the requirements were advised not to write. CHAPTER III. The E v o l u t i o n of Shorthand P r i n c i p l e s . As the r e s u l t o f the experiment, the w r i t e r became int e r e s t e d i n a h i s t o r i c a l study of shorthand systems. Why had the r e s u l t s from the Gregg c l a s s been superior to those of the Pitman c l a s s ? Only a c a r e f u l study o f the underlying p r i n c i p l e s of shorthand w r i t i n g can answer that question s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y . A b r i e f survey o f the steps i n the ev o l u t i o n of shorthand w r i t i n g w i l l be considered before analysing the re-s u l t s o f t h i s experimental study. The f i r s t important p r i n c i p l e i n the growth of short-hand systems was the d e r i v a t i o n o f the characters of the . Tiron i a n (1) notes from the majuscules or c a p i t a l l e t t e r s of the L a t i n w r i t i n g of that time. The minuscules, or small l e t t e r s that could be joined and which were w r i t t e n i n one d i r e c t i o n — o u r current running h a n d — d i d not come i n t o general use u n t i l the n i n t h century. As the majuscules of l a t i n are drawn i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , f o r example Y, A, T, the shorthand characters derived from them were w r i t t e n i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s — back slope, forward slope and v e r t i c a l . (1) Tiro was a Greek slave, belonging to Cicero, the Roman statesman and orator. He invented a system of short-hand notes which he used i n recording the orations of his master. The second step was the imitation of the Tironian notes by the early English authors, and, consequently, the adoption of the majuscule basis, which imposed upon the art of shorthand the multi-sloped style of shorthand writing. The t h i r d step was the very evident progress, through a series of early English systems, toward the expression of each l e t t e r i n the alphabet by a single character (2). This i s probably the most cl e a r l y defined step of any (3). (2) The f i r s t alphabetic system, that of John W i l l i s (1602), contained no less than nineteen compound forms f o r the twenty-six l e t t e r s represented i n the alphabet of that system. (3) An interesting i l l u s t r a t i o n i s the evolution of and "v". In the Tironian "notae", the l e t t e r "v" was expressed by two s t r o k e s — a back-slope stroke and a for-ward upstroke, i n imitation of the Latin capital V. Beginning with John W i l l i s (1602), the compound sign used by Tiro for "v" was adopted by E. W i l l i s , (1618),.Witt, (1630), Dix, (1633), Mawd, (1635), SheIton, (1641), and more than a score of other authors of early English systems and continued i n use for that very purpose and i n that very form, down to and including the noted system of James Weston, published i n 1727. 14. The fourth important p r i n c i p l e was the gradual accept-ance o"f the principle of writing by sound and the provision of characters that rendered i t possible to express the phonetic alphabet (4). As the alphabets of the early English systems were not arranged on a phonetic basis, since they provided a character for "o" (which i s sounded as "k n or "s") and did not provide characters f o r such simple sounds as "sh, th, ch," i t waw impossible to carry out the directions to write words according to their sound. Most of the early authors recog-nized this and contented themselves with directing the student to omit s i l e n t l e t t e r s . It was not u n t i l the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries that the negative statement of the principle (omit sile n t l e t t e r s ) was changed to the positive statement—write by sound. Characters were provided which enabled the principle to be carried into effeet (5). (4) The author o f the f i r s t system of alphabetic shorthand, John W i l l i s , said : "It i s to be observed that this art prescribeth the writing of words, not according to the orthography as they are written, hut according to their sound as they are pronounced." (5) Holdsworth and Aldridge, (1766), Phineas Bailey, (1831), Pitman, (1837). The f i f t h step was the arrangement of the consonant characters according to their phonetic relationship, "p,b; t, d; ch, j ; k, g." (6). The sixth step was the founding of the characters of the alphabet partly upon modern longhand forms instead of upon the ancient Soman capitals. Even the alphabet of John W i l l i s (160S) took a hesitating step i n this direction i n the ex-pression of "y" by a character that imitated the small uy" of current writing. Other authors extended the use of cursive characters to " r , h, n and some other l e t t e r s (7)* That for-ward-running characters were more f a c i l e than back-slope characters was recognized early i n the history of modem short-hand. This i s shown by the fact that characters on the for-ward slope of writing, or with an onward movement, were given the preference i n the representation of frequently occurring l e t t e r s (8). The seventh step was towards the joining of vowels and consonants i n the natural order i n which they occur i n a word. The expression of vowels by strokes i n the e a r l i e r systems was so awkward, that, i n seeking r e l i e f from the burden of their (6) Holdsworth and Aldridge, Byrom, Pitman and others. (7) Richard Roe, (1802), Thomas Oxley, (1816). (8) One of,the most noted and talented of shorthand authors, John Byrom, said : "The other " t h n (a back-slope charac-ter) by reason of our customary method of leaning the let t e r s the contrary way i n common writing, i s not so readily made." 16 . expression, i t is not surprising that some of the early short-hand authors (Samuel Taylor, for example) went to the other extreme of expressing any vowel by a dot. Others attempted to give a more definite expression by placing dots, commas, or dashes i n various positions alongside the consonants. In practice most of the vowels were l e f t out. The eighth step was i n the direction o f the use of characters of one thickness. The d i f f i c u l t y of finding material to express the l e t t e r s without resorting to compound forms suggested the use of characters of varying degrees of thickness. When shading was f i r s t introduced, i t was i n harmony with the s t y l e of longhand writing then i n vogue, as may be seen from the specimens of longhand writing of that period. But the demand for rapidity i n more modern times has put the ornate shaded style of writing i n the discard. The f i n a l step i s the most recent of a l l and i t has not yet received the attention and appreciation that i t w i l l prob-ably receive i n the near future. It i s the principle of writing with a curvilinear motion as opposed to the angular style of writing. More w i l l be said of this principle i n the next chapter. CHAPTER IV. > The Basic Principles o f a Good Shorthand System. Thomas Anderson, who was for many years a-reporter i n the Law Courts of Glasgow (and a writer of Pitman Shorthand) and who wrote a very valuable and scholarly "History of Short-hand" , sets forth the following axioms as a sound basis f o r a shorthand system. They are : 1. The alphabet of a good shorthand system must include inde-pendent characters for the vowels, which characters must be adapted f o r writing i n union .with the forms for the consonants. In other words every l e t t e r of the common alphabet must have a special and dist i n c t i v e shorthand mark. 2. The characters of a good shorthand system must be a l l written on the one slope. 3. In a good shorthand system no di s t i n c t i o n of le t t e r s made thick, from l e t t e r s made thin is admissible. 4. The rules of abbreviation i n a good system of shorthand must be few, comprehensive and sure. 5. In a good shorthand system there must be only one line of writing (1). (1) Prom an address on "The True Theory of Shorthand", de-livered before the Shorthand Society, London, March 7. 1882. l o r the purpose of this study, these "axioms" may be re-stated as seven basic principles, each of which w i l l be considered i n d e t a i l , as i t applies to the two systems which were subject to the experiment. They are : l e Longhand as a basis of shorthand. 2. Curvilinear motion. 3. Elimination of obtuse angles by natural blending of l i n e s . 4. Joined vowels. 5. One thickness—elimination of shading. 6. One position-—-elimination of "position writing". 7. L i n e a l i t y — t h e easy, continuous flow of the writing along the l i n e . An examination of each of these principles i s now given: !• Longhand as a Basis of Shorthand: Shorthand characters may be based on the c i r c l e and i t s segments (for example, Pitman) or they may be based on the e l l i p s e or oval (for example, Gregg). As Pitman Short-hand i s based on the c i r c l e , i t s characters are supposed to be drawn with geometric precision and are struck i n a l l directions, necessitating continual change i n the position ' 1 9 • of the hand while writing (1). a As Gregg Shorthand i s based on the e l l i p s e or oval, i t i s written with a uniform slope as i n longhand* Its characters are, therefore, familiar and natural to the hand and l i k e long-hand do not require a change i n the position of the hand while writing. "With a uniform slope as i n longhand" does not mean any particular slope, but that the writing i s uniform i n slope. Isaac Pitman, i n the seventh edition of his manual said : "The student should be careful not to hold the pen as for common writing, for this position of the hand i s adapted for the formation of le t t e r s constructed upon a t o t a l l y different principle from those of Phonography. The pen should be held loosely i n the hand, l i k e a pencil for drawing, with nib turned i n such a manner that the l e t t e r "k" can be struck with ease." Andrew Graham, author o f the most successful American modification of Pitman's Shorthand, i n the introduction to Part Two of his "Standard Phonography", said : (1) In a series of a r t i c l e s on "Aids and Hindrances to Shorthand Writing" i n Pitman's Shorthand Weekly, Alfred Kingston said : "I have frequently noticed that the shorthand student s k i l l e d i n drawing always makes the best start upon the shorthand alphabet. The student should be encouraged, therefore, to treat the pirelim-inary^work of mastering the simple geometric forms and especially the curves, as something r e a l l y i n the nature of a drawing lesson and to draw them as carefully and accurately as possible at the s t a r t . " 20. ''The position given to the pen and hand i n hack-hand writing seems best adapted for the easy and graceful formation of phonographic characters. The pen should be held very loosely, so that the nib may be readily turned and suited to the execution of characters made i n various directions." David Wolfe Brown, for many years one of the s t a f f of o f f i c i a l reporters of the House of Representatives, Washington, i n his book "The Factors of Shorthand Speed", declares : "In the shorthand writer's manual of disci p l i n e the f i r s t step i s to get r i d of certain habits often acquired i n longhand, and which, unless corrected, must make high stenographic speed a physical impossibility. I t may be desirable, for a time at least, that longhand practice be, as far as possible, suspended, so that a new set of manual habits may be the more easily acquired." "One of the habits which shorthand writers need especially to overcome arises from the peculiar slant of the longhand characters........as the shorthand characters are written i n almost every direction—probably more of them with a backward in c l i n a t i o n , or with a horizontal motion, than with a forward slope—the hand and fingers,, i n being educated for shorthand writing, must be emancipated from the fixed position to which they have been accustomed i n longhand." From these quotations i t w i l l be seen that, instead of previous experience and training i n the writing of longhand being regarded as an advantage to the student of Pitman Short-hand, i t is declared by these Pitman authorities to be an ob-stacle. In the Pitman system the student has to learn new habits of writing and to get r i d of certain habits acquired i n longhand.' In Gregg Shorthand he carries over habits already established. This may be a very fundamental reason why i n the experimental classes the Gregg system proved easier to . / 21. learn and write "by the students. I f i t he true that the movements and characters used for longhand writing have been adopted because they are easy and natural to the hand, we believe that i t does not require argument to prove that the same easy, natural movements and characters are the l o g i c a l basis of a br i e f e r style of writing. Indeed, nearly a l l authors and expert writers of geometric systems have been w i l l i n g to acknowledge this, but have asserted that, on account of the limited shorthand material, i t was impossible to construct a p r a c t i c a l system on such a basis. At the f i r s t International Shorthand Congress, i n 1887, Professor J.D. Everett, author of "Everett's Shorthand for General Use", a geometric system, acknowledged that, "to employ characters which slope a l l one way i s advantageous insofar as i t enables the writer to make a given number of movements i n a given time". The famous journalist, editor, author, and Member of Parliament, Mr. 2T.P. O'Connor, i n writing on the subject of shorthand i n the Weekly Sun, London, said : "I am not an entire believer i n the Pitman system of shorthand; but as I began with i t I never t r i e d to change- -I have known very few Pitman writers whose notes could be read by anybody else, and I have known a great many--including myself-—who found i t very d i f f i c u l t to read their own notes. "I t strikes me now, that the system i s best which can be made most l i k e the ordinary longhand. Obviously the same muscles, the same nerves, the same attitudes, a l l that conglomeration of causes, open and latent, which provide the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of one's longhand w i l l be employed i n producing the shorthand. In other words one w i l l write his shorthand as he does his longhand." In an a r t i c l e on "The 5 One Slope 1 Theory i n Shorthand" Mr. 6..G. Mares stated the p r a c t i c a l advantages obtained from uniformity of slope i n a very convincing way : "It w i l l be evident to the vast majority of shorthand writers that i n Pitman Shorthand many words can be written much faster than others, even though the number of pen strokes and i t s ineffective movements ( l i f t s ) are the same. Thus the word cherry can be written faster than pity; reject i s more f a c i l e than shave, although i t has an additional stroke, and the same may be said of hundreds oif other words. Ehat causes the difference i n f a c i l i t y ? The answer i s that cherry, reject, are written on the 'one slope' whilst"""pity, shave, employ back strokes. Att.the commencemenE™then, we see that an advantage exists i n favor of one-slope writing; but no one has yet, I believe, shown the existence of this advantage. I w i l l , therefore, i n -vite attention to the following figures : (a) A rapid penman can write 30 words a minute, each word containing on an average of 16 movements-— 16 x 30 equals 480 longhand strokes a minute. (b) The l i m i t of the power of the hand to form shorthand strokes, i s , at the outside figure, 300 a minute; 300 to 480 shows 60% i n favor of longhand strokes. (c) As the formation of shorthand strokes re-quires more care than longhand, on account of the necessary observance of length, thickness, etc., an allowance of, say 25 per cent must be made, and t h i s , with an allowance of 10 per cent for loss of brevity ( i f any) as compared with other systems, w i l l leave us 25 per cent advantage i n the matter of f a c i l i t y of execution gained by the use of one-sloped or longhand signs or strokes." Other features of longhand writing are : (a) There i s no compulsory shading or thickening of the characters. (b) Words are not placed i n several positions with relation to the line of writing. (c) A l l the l e t t e r s , vowels and consonants are joined. 23* A l l these features are found i n the Gregg system of shorthand. 2. Curvilinear Motion: Many authorities on handwriting agree that a s t i f f , • angular style of longhand writing always connotes a slow writ-ing, and that an easy, rapid, effortless style of writing abounds i n curves, because curves are written with a f r e e , r o l l -ing, continuous motion (1). The muscles are relaxed i n making e l l i p t i c a l curves. Straight lines necessitate greater r i g i d -i t y of hand (2). I f this be true of longhand, i t must be equally true of shorthand. Gregg Shorthand is based on the e l l i p s e or oval, and this i s the v i t a l d i s t i n c t i o n between i t and Pitman Shorthand, which i s founded on the eirele and i t s segments. This i s the feature which distinguishes the Gregg system not only from the Pitman system but from a l l other (1) Mr. Hugh B. Callendar, -B.A., of Cambridge University, author of "Cursive Shorthand", states this very well when he says • r "I t i s commonly stated that straight l i n e s are more f a c i l e than curves. This i s true of a series of straight lines described independently; but the curve often has the advantage i n the matter of joining to the other characters, for i t s curvature may generally be varied especially near the ends, so as to make the joining easier." (2) Some very significant admissions about the value of curve motion occur i n "Phonography i n the Office" a book by Mr. Alfred Kingston, published by Isaac Pitman and Sons. He says : "The increased f r i c t i o n from the resistance of the paper makes i t a serious obstacle to the acquisition of speed, to say nothing of the d i f f i c u l t y of distinguishing t h i n and thick strokes." Mr. Kingston then proceeds to give an exercise to be prac-tised for the purpose of counteracting this heavy style : "The exercise is so framed as to consist almost exclusive-l y of l i g h t curves." 24. systems that claim to be founded on longhand or on the slope of longhand. Curves embody the natural motion of the hand i n writing and so tend toward greater f a c i l i t y i n writing, result-ing i n greater speed with less e f f o r t . In this connection the findings of The National Institute of Industrial Psychology (London) on the mental and physical qualities of operatives i n factories i s interesting : "While the shortest distance between two points i s a straight l i n e , the investigators have found that curved movements of the hands, though longer than straight movements, may be quicker i n the end——--rWorkers were trained by the investigators to follow e l l i p t i c a l paths and natural rhythms instead of straight l i n e s , and an increase of t h i r t y per cent output was obtained, far less effort resulting." 5. Blended Consonants: One of the great hindrances to rapid shorthand writing is the obtuse angle. A few quotations from well known short-hand authorities w i l l support this statement. In the preface to Munson's Shorthand Dictionary, written by the author of a popular system of shorthand, the following appears : "Too frequent obtuse angles between stems—-a. very great impediment to speed, as may be readily demonstrated by tracing with exactness, but as quickly as possible, a line l i k e the f i r s t of the following diagrams, and then i n l i k e manner, one l i k e the second." Mr. Munson then gives two lines of outlines, one with sharp, and the other with obtuse angles. He adds : "It w i l l be seen that the outline with obtuse or blunt angles requires a much slower movement than the one with sharp angles." The famous reporter, and foremost exponent of Isaac Pitman Shorthand i n England, Thomas Al l e n Heed, i n "Leaves 25. from my Note Book", i n explaining the nature of various phrases, said Si • "The easiest joinings are those of straight lines or curves that run into one another. Bight angles and obtuse angles are less easy. Unless the junction i s easy and flowing, no time i s saved; indeed i t w i l l often take less time to write such words separately than without l i f t i n g the pen." Pitman Shorthand i s f u l l of angles where Gregg arranges the horizontal and upward lines that,when they blend i n the form of curves, these curves represent very frequent combina-tions of sounds. 4. Joined Vowels: Joined vowels have been used i n shorthand since the f i r s t systems were invented. The Tironian Notes, which were used i n reporting the orations of Cicero, employed joined-vowel signs, as did nearly a l l the early English systems. In a dis-cussion before the Shorthand Society, London, i n 1883, the famous reporter, Thomas. Al l e n Seed, an authority on Pitman's Shorthand, has this to say : "The advantage of joined vowels i s no doubt very great. If a good system could be constructed i n which the vowels and consonants could be a l l joined continuously, and, at the same time, the system could be as br i e f , as other systems without vowels are, such a system would be a desideratum we should a l l h a i l with delight." The Gregg System has proved to be such a system with i t s joined vowels. The un s c i e n t i f i c and i l l o g i c a l nature of disjoined vowels as used by Pitman has been pointed out by the -great English s c i e n t i s t and philosopher, Herbert Spencer : 26. "The vowels are not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The sounds "e, a, ah" are i n d i c a t e d by dots, and "Jou, o, oo" by small dashes; and i t i s hardly ex-pected that i n rapid w r i t i n g these marks can be made with such accuracy as to insure t h e i r i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n . Moreover, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l vowels, dependent as i t i s upon the plaeing of the dot or dash at the beginning, middle, or end of a consonant i s such as cannot be observed w i t h c e r t a i n t y . And, f u r t h e r , the greater heaviness of touch by which the long vowels are known from the short ones can never be given with anything l i k e p r e c i s i o n without an amount of care i n c o n s i s t e n t with expedition-- - ." "Phonography looks simple i n consequence of these movements having no representations upon paper, w h i l s t i n r e a l i t y they require an equal amount of time with those that leave v i s i b l e signs behind them. May, more: to l i f t the point of a p e n c i l from the paper and c a r r y i t over the surface to make a dot at some other place, involves a more complicated muscular a c t i o n than i t s transference to the same point along the surface (that i s , with-out lea v i n g the paper), and probably more time i s expended i n the motion." The i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t y which the student encounters i n separating vowels and consonants i s well-known to a l l teachers of shorthand. I f the student takes up Pitman, he i s taught to make o u t l i n e s of the consonant characters and omit a l l s i l e n t l e t t e r s and vowels, which may give him the same out-l i n e s f o r such words as "eastern, Saturn, A u s t r i a n , s t e r n and s t r a i n " . Since the student has for ten or f i f t e e n years looked upon language as composed of consonants and vowel sounds, i t w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y take him several months to l e a r n to look at the language i n t h i s new way. While w r i t i n g i s d i f f i c u l t , the reading i s s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t , and conse-quently the t r a n s c r i p t i s often f a u l t y . One of the most powerful presentations of the agree-ments i n favor of joined vowels was made by Mr. Hugh Callendar, B.A. „ Fellow of T r i n i t y College, Cambridge, author of "Cursive Shorthand" : "In the disjoined vowel systems the consonant outline of each word i s written f i r s t , and the vowels are dotted i n afterwards i n their proper places. This i s c a l l e d 1 vocalizing' the outline. The writer has to go over each word twice, i n a highly a r t i f i c i a l and unnatural order, i f he wants to put i n the vowels, that i s to say, i f he wishes his writing to be legible • ^ L 11 "It i s often maintained that a detached vowel mark counts i n loss of time only about as much as an extra l i f t i n g of the pen. This i s very far from true. In addition to the l i f t i n g of the pen there i s the time occupied i n making the stroke or dot and locating i t carefully i n i t s proper position. This i s found to be longer than the time required for the mere making of the same number of dots and ticks irrespective of position. Besides this, de-tached vowels usually involve hesitation. After f i n i s h i n g the consonant outline the writer has to make up his mind what vowels to insert, and where; or whether he can leave the outline unvocalized. But the most serious hesitation generally occurs, and this even with the most s k i l f u l writers, after inserting the vo?>/els and before proceeding to the next words. This i s most strongly marked after inserting two or more vowels i n one outline. It i s probably due to the i l l o g i c a l order i n which the vowels are written. The result i s that the i n -sertion of detached vowel marks involves such a dis-proportionate expenditure of time that they must be omitted when writing at any reasonable speed." "The chief advantage of detached vowels is that they present an appearance of brevity, and look neat, especially i n p r i n t . They are so inconspicuous that the inexperienced person does not realize the d i f f i c u l t y of inserting them accurately and takes no account of the a e r i a l movements of the pen which their insertion involves." 5, Shading: Pitman employs the shading principle, whereas Gregg uses a li g h t line method. The "Phonographic Magazine", Cincinnati, Ohio, (the organ of the Ben Pitman-system) for May, 1889, has this statement : "Undoubtedly, there are many outlines which are recog-nizable from their general form without reference to shading—with the shading omitted, or even with the shaded and l i g h t strokes reversed. But such outlines are r e l a t i v e l y few, and are only the forms of long words or of highly characteristic phrases. Thousands of words and phrases of only one and two strokes depend upon correct shading not only for ready l e g i -b i l i t y , but for a degree of l e g i b i l i t y which enables the writer to read them at a l l . " Some years ago a well-known Chicago law reporter, Mr W.B. MeDermut, i n writing on the subject o f shading, said : "Forty years ago Mr. Graham tabulated the results of experiments made to test the rela t i v e brevity of certain characters and combinations. His tablss showed that l i g h t characters are at least ten per cent more rapid than heavy ones. I have demon-strated with shorthand classes that this, i s the minimum difference and some writers claim that the advantage of l i g h t strokes amounts to t h i r t y per eent." In the preface to the "Modern Stenographer", Mr. George H. Thornton, former president of the New York State Stenographers Association and o f f i c i a l reporter of the Supreme Court, Hew York, said : "It has f i n a l l y become the experience of the most expert stenographers that outlines which depend upon shading for th e i r l e g i b i l i t y are i n general unsafe outlines to adopt. — - ^ - I f , as experience has taught, this shading of the outlines can be done away with, i t i s useless to t e l l a p r a c t i c a l stenographer of the immense advantage i n point of speed to be gained thereby . The essence of this principle i s recognized by Mr. Munson i n his ""Complete Stenographer*, for he says that increase of speed i s attended with decrease of force, and therefore that a l l stems would be written as l i g h t as consistent with l e g i b i l i t y . I f this i s true, the converse of the proposition most naturally follows, that the increase of force necessarily required i n the shading of the outlines 29. "must be attended with decrease of speed. It i s so apparent that a p l a i n system can be written with.a greatly increased rapidity that i t i s 'hardly worth while to demonstrate i t . " A pamphlet on behalf of Sloan-Duployan Shorthand, en-t i t l e d "Revolution i n Shorthand" (written and copyrighted by Mr. Thomas S. Malone, then the Glasgow agent f o r Sloan-Duployan and who later became ide n t i f i e d with "Script Phon-ography") claims that one of "the leading principles of structure from which the system derives i t s chief excellence i s the absence of shading, or the use of l i g h t and heavy signs, which i s only introduced by Mr. Sloan into his adaptation to meet a p e c u l i a r i t y of the English language with regard to one particular l e t t e r of constant reourrence". Then follows this succinct statement of the e v i l s of shading : "The extensive use of the process of shading outlines, although very general i n the old systems, i s a most objectionable principle i n shorthand, being an. ob-struction of speed, i f used, and a source of i l l e g i b i l i t y , i f neglected." 6. Position Writing: The expedient of writing words i n several different positions i n re l a t i o n to the li n e of writing i s a very old one, and one that has been used for almost every conceivable purpose. It has been used f o r doubling l e t t e r s , for indicat-ing omission of vowels or consonants and as a means of dis-t i n c t i o n between word forms. It i s not generally known that Isaac Pitman rejected position-writing i n the f i r s t editions of his system and con-demned i t unsparingly. Writing about some of the ea r l i e r systems, he said : "Systems of shorthand that depend for their existence ^upon staves, l i k e music, or even on a single l i n e on which the letters have a three-fold power of express-ing different words above, on, or below the lin e are certainly practicable, but they are not p r a c t i c a l . " But as time went on Pitman found that, on account of the omission of vowels i n his system i n p r a c t i c a l writing, many words containing the same consonants but different vowels, were misread. He, therefore, reluctantly introduced position-writing. In a discussion at a meeting of the Manchester D i s t r i c t of the Incorporated Society of Shorthand Teachers,Mr. Sandiford, a well-known and accomplished teacher of Pitman's Shorthand, said : "Mr. Hallam has dwelt on the point that vocalization i n Pitman i s now much less s c i e n t i f i c than i t used to be, that i t i s more d i f f i c u l t than ever to de-cipher a word, that more i s thrown upon position-writing than ever before, and that position-writing i n i t s e l f is.one of the most dangerous expedients you can possibly have i n any system of shorthand." "That is my conclusion, too. It i s , i t seems to me, a mistake on the part of the Pitmanites to labor the question of the positional representation of vowels. After a l l , position t e l l s you neither what the vowel i s , where i t i s , i n what part of the word i t occurs, whether i t i s before a c onsonant or after a consonant, nor supposing i t i s , say, a f i r s t - p l a c e vowel, which particular f i r s t - p l a c e vowel or diphthong i t i s . In point of fact, i f you t r y to decipher an outline apart from content, you may have to run through a dozen .words before you h i t upon the correct one." Mr. David Wolfe Brown, i n his book, "The Factors of Shorthand Speed", i n detailing the d i f f i c u l t i e s which students encounter, said 31. " I f thus unskilled as to the requirements of the re-porting style, he must not only think out the whole outline before starting to write i t , but with the ."outline mentally suspended, must decide which of perhaps half-a-dozen vowels (heard possibly none too d i s t i n c t l y ) i s the one which should determine the 'reporting position' of the o u t l i n e — • I ask them to write some word, not very d i f f i c u l t , but whieh they have never written before and they hesitate painfully. The pen seems unwilling or un-able to touch the paper. Mind and hand appear paralyzed. 'What boggles you?' I ask; and they reply, 1 Oh, I can write the outline but I am trying to think of the p o s i t i o n l ' This i s often their p i t i a b l e plight after.they have been writing short-hand for months and months I" There i s mental e f f o r t i n thinking ahead about the position i n which words should be placed. There i s physical e f f o r t i n dodging from one position to another, instead of proceeding continuously along the lin e of writing. Not only i s position-writing a tax on the memory and a constant source of hesitation, but the changing of the position of the hand i n placing the words,.now above, now below, now on the l i n e , interferes with both speed and l e g i b i l i t y . 7. L i n e a l i t y : l i n e a l i t y i n shorthand writing i s understood to mean writing.that keeps to the line instead of running i n a down-ward or i n an upward direction. It i s obvious that i f the writing descends below the l i n e of writing or shoots upward, there i s an ineffectual movement i n getting back to the l i n e . The great English philosopher, Herbert Spencer, i n discussing shorthand systems, described such ineffectual efforts as the "unregistered movements of the pen". In comparing shorthand systems, the importance of 32. l l n e a l i t y - - t h e continuous movement of the hand along the line •^-is too often overlooked and yet i t i s a factor of paramount importance. When properly understood, this matter of l i n e a l -i t y makes clear some otherwise inexplicable events i n short-hand history. We constantly see references to the extraord-inary v i t a l i t y of the systems of Gurney and Taylor^-the former having been i n existence nearly two centuries and the l a t t e r more than a century. The explanation of the longevity of these old systems i s to be found i n the fact that they are free from shading and position-writing; consequently, the authors were able to select l i n e a l , easy characters for the most frequent l e t t e r s . The writing although lengthy, i s more l i k e a free, onward running s c r i p t — a n d therefore rapid. In his keen analytical c r i t i c i s m of Pitman's Shorthand, Herbert Spencer said, among other things: "It does not keep to the l i n e . This i s an e v i l common to a l l shorthand hitherto published—-an e v i l productive not only of inelegance, but of great i n -convenience, and one which must seriously militate against the general adoption of any method of writ-ing which does not avoid i t . " David Wolfe Brown, i n commenting on Mr. Spencer's views, said : "Whatever else we may think of Herbert Spencer as a shorthand c r i t i c , there i s at least one of his re-marks that should give us food for serious reflec-tion. It is undoubtedly true that 'the unregistered movements'—-those i n which the pen or pencil moves over the paper without touching it—consume an equal amount of time with similar movements that leave v i s i b l e signs behind them. This being true, one of the most obvious of shorthand lessons i s to spend as l i t t l e time as possible i n 'unregistered movements'—• i n executing unwritten strokes-—in writing 'in the a i r ' . " Among the suggestions made by Mr, Brown for reducing "the unwritten stroke" to a minimum, i s this : "By avoiding a l l unnecessary carrying of the pen or pencil above or below the normal line of writing." In a series of scholarly and highly-analytic a r t i c l e s on "The Art of Phrasing", which were published i n "The Steno-grapher and Phonographic World" i n 1919, Professor A.H. Codington (a Pitman writer) discussed the subject of l i n e a l i t y as follows : "The easiest natural method of writing i s upon or close to the l i n e . As only two to four v e r t i c a l or sloping stroke-lengths can occupy the space be-tween two l i n e s of writing (depending upon the shorthand system and the size of the writer's notes) any ascent or descent of more than two or two-and-a-half strokes below or above the l i n e of writing i s l i k e l y to interfere with the writing on the l i n e above or below. long ascents or descents cramp the hand and impair speed and l e g i b i l i t y . L i n e a l i t y avoids the intermixing of outlines and the delays i n dodging outlines which ascend or descend too far,and should control good phrasing. The superior l i n e a l -i t y of Gregg Shorthand to that of Pitmanic and others, through i t s horizontals, slopes, and lack of downward perpendiculars and Its consequent adaptability to easy, sweeping phrases along the l i n e of writing, i s one of i t s strongest points." The Committee on Shorthand Standards of the New York State Shorthand Reporters" Association has declared that : "Assignment of signs to sounds should give a factor of horizontal l i n e a l i t y of not less than 75%. This factor of l i n e a l i t y varies for well-known shorthand systems from just under 50% for most Pitmanic systems to just over 90% for Gregg." 34. ' " . CHAPTEB V. Conclusion. The f i r s t chapter of this thesis has described the ex-periment which was carried on at the Eairview.High School of Commerce for the purpose of seeing which system of shorthand, Gregg or Pitman, gave the better results. It was noted that the experiment was conducted with groups of students who were sp e c i a l i z i n g i n the vocational aspect of the commercial course and not with students enrolled i n the regular four year high sohool course. The two groups were approximately-equal i n intelligence and previous academic training. Both took the same course, spending two periods of forty minutes each day on the study of shorthand. In the second chapter the detailed results of each test were presented.. In every test the Gregg group proved i t s superiority. These results have also been set up i n graphic form and w i l l be found i n the appendix of this thesis. A b r i e f history of the evolution of shorthand prin-ciples was then outlined. Ho attempt was made to catalogue the names and works of the various shorthand authors, as i s the case with most of the histories that have appeared i n the past. This led to a discussion of some of the basic prin-ciples which the writer believes should be embodied i n a good shorthand system. Many shorthand authorities were quoted i n support of these principles. Most of the authorities quoted - ; • . 3.5. were Pitman w r i t e r s who recognized the weaknesses of the system which they were using. They agreed that a system which followed the p r i n c i p l e s o f longhand w r i t i n g was prefer-able to the system which they used (1). Some of these features were the use of characters which slope i n one way, no shading or thickening of the characters, the j o i n i n g of vowels and consonants and the p l a c i n g of words i n one p o s i t i o n with r e l a t i o n to the l i n e of w r i t i n g . Much space could be given to a more elaborate presen-t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of both Pitman and Gregg Shorthand. But the purpose of t h i s study was to see which system gave the b e t t e r r e s u l t s . The a c t u a l achievement of the group studying Gregg Shorthand has shown the soundness o f the p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s system. The fundamental difference between Pitman Shorthand and Gregg Shorthand i s that, Pitman Shorthand i s based on the c i r c l e and i t s segments and Gregg i s based on the e l l i p s e or o v a l . As Pitman Shorthand i s based on the c i r c l e , i t s characters are supposed to be drawn with geometric pre-c i s i o n (2) and are s t r u c k i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . The characters, being struck i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , necessitate continual change i n the p o s i t i o n of the hand while w r i t i n g . As Gregg Shorthand i s based on the e l l i p s e or oval, i t i s w r i t t e n with a uniform slope. This i s i n accordance (1) See Chapter IV. (2) Isaac Pitman, i n the Seventh E d i t i o n of h i s Manual. 36. with the principles of the Maclean System of Handwriting which most of the students i n this province (B.C.) study. .The students who studied Gregg Shorthand found that the char-acters were familiar and natural to the hand. Those who studied Pitman Shorthand had to learn new habits of writing. The student or writer of a system founded on a system of long-hand writing, as Gregg, requiring the same position of hand and fingers, and the same movements as longhand, starts on the study with an i n i t i a l advantage over the student who has to change from writing habits already established. The writer believes that this explains i n a large measure the superior results of the.Gregg group. In addition, the Gregg system incorporates the basic principles which have been discussed. The following quotation from the "Story of Gregg Shorthand" gives a concise repetition of these principles : "I regard the alphabet as a natural evolution of the best principles of a l l systems mentioned. In i t s making, therefore, credit i s due to the great short-hand authors of the past, whose genius cleared the path for progress. The chief d i s t i n c t i o n I claim for Gregg Shorthand i s that while other systems embody one or more natural principles—rsuch as ab-sence of shading or position of writing, or uniform slant, or l i n e a l , continuous movement, or connective vowels—Gregg Shorthand i s the only system embodying a l l these natural features." 37. APPENDIX A. Supplementary Observations. During the course of the experiment, in addition to the tests conducted by the Bureau of Measurements, an accurate record of the speed c e r t i f i c a t e s won by the Gregg class and the time i t took to a t t a i n the various speeds, was kept by the writer. These are presented below. Each dictation test was five minutes and the transcription had to have less than two per cent of error. (a) In March after s i x months' training : 19 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 60 words per minute. 4 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 80 words per minute. (b) In A p r i l after seven months' training : 29 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 60 words per minute. 15 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 80 words per minute. 2 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 100words per minute. (c) In May after eight months' training : 31 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 60 words per minute. 28 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of 80 words per minute. 9 members of the class had received c e r t i f i c a t e s for a speed of lOOwords per minute. In June a f t e r nine months' t r a i n i n g : A l l members of the olass had 60-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . A l l members o f the class had-80-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . 14 members of the class had 100-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . 3 members of the cl a s s had 125-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . APPENDIX B. Copies of P i n a l Tests. TEST l i bank cash check money youth happy b i l l away tenth back e a r l y m a i l envy coach shabby keg shed month judge canoe f e t c h f i s h Canada party vote pack pocket ledge candy dock ready hurry baggage penny g o l f share reach r e l a y p i t y orb web tap l i v e k i l l g u l l roam bale hook b i t leave fear show page may cape boat pool way teach cool move keep fee meek tea sho re f a i r c o a l hawk tare rogue f o l k towed bay bought cocoa gate goat both thawed chalk shave ace l o a f rake malm yolk loam e e l range meal veer hoop beam four launch fourth d o l l a r wing hinge TEST 2. cube t i l e b o i l d i a l rout loyalt y towel item o i l i n g argue now type aliv e deny enjoy review duly loudly occupy f a i l u r e wash five enjoy deputy knife l i v e l y a f f a i r allow tenth assume authority purity rowdy refuge defy power enemy tunic ready early out big l i k e l y easy nephew accuracy guarantee thorough fellow voyage happy lame shabby tube wrong f i s h long belonged rod cash length ring hotel farm t h i e f took avenue manage seat suppose series race seal zenith spice s a i l i n g sleep rejoice excites sixty seeming muscle sneak sunk sings desk r a i s i n custom unsafe hazel casks wiser facing spokes speed solo s e l f revise risks t a c i t ESS 3? stake sweep store raises coast necessity arms e d exist poster exercise masterpiece aware lustres necessary style walk stages wag steamer awoke stave swiftest chests swear guests voices infused laces faster leases registers census e l a s t i c possessive best worry stop a s s a i l wastes daisy voiced beset dismissed science ministers saucer coasters joyous already saw-dust 3 assume address carry ledger absence great business crowd of f i c e r reader arrive crossing pray robber keeper louder blows dream couple track delicacy pride places breathe reply apply cable country claim week smuggle black stable cloth label price cloud bottles desirable cost t i t l e supposed crow sorry cruises assist break lesson trust happy 42. TEST 4. Dear Robert: I was very pleased to receive your l e t t e r l a s t Satur-day and to hear of the good news which i t contained. I am glad that you are teaching at the Technical and Commercial College and that you find the work so agreeable. I s h a l l always be pleased to hear from you whenever you can spare the time to write. I l i k e your suggestion that we should spend a holiday on tour with our bicycles, but I am afraid that the d i s t r i c t you suggest w i l l not prove so interesting nor so enjoyable as some other parts of the country which we might cover. As you are probably aware, the country round Norwich i s very f l a t indeed and whilst the Broads are interesting, the scenery cannot be compared with that of the West* Instead of taking the route you mention, I would suggest that we make a tour of the Wye Valley with the starting point at Hereford, returning by way of Bath and the Midland Counties. I am sure you would enjoy this round, because there are so many places of interest through which we should pass, and, although cycling would be a l i t t l e harder, we should be well repaid for our ef f o r t s . If, however, you have already been over this part of the country, a further suggestion would be to go up into the lake D i s t r i c t and spend most of the time walking instead of cycling; or, i f you are fond of climbing, you would fi n d 43. many opportunities among the mountains f o r t h i s kind of enjoy ment.* Perhaps you w i l l consider these suggestions and l e t m •know what you think about them. I f you are able to come to Liv e r p o o l at Easter we could discuss them together and I have no doubt would soon reach a d e c i s i o n , Yours s i n c e r e l y , Ered. 44. TEST 5. Explaining that they have not attempted i n any way to consider problems of policy, the committee nevertheless are of the opinion that the economic information available i n Great B r i t a i n i s inadequate to enable the country to deal witl the d i f f i c u l t economic questions with which the country i s faced* The committee agree that the disclosing of informa-t i o n alone w i l l not create i n d u s t r i a l peace, but they are s a t i s f i e d that i n d u s t r i a l peace cannot be attained without i t . In an atmosphere of secrecy, i t i s said, i t i s impossible for the wage-earners to be sure that they are receiving equitable treatment, or for the public to form a sound opinion on the merits of any particular dispute. An analysis of industries in which a certain amount of pu b l i c i t y already exists con-vinces the committee that the co l l e c t i o n of complete and re-l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l information has been useful i n industrial negotiations, since a l l parties are made aware of the true position. The information, however, i s very p a r t i a l , and the committee recommend as a necessary and practicalbe minimum that i t should include the following points for each industry: (a) t o t a l production, (b) cost of material, (c) cost of labour. It i s not suggested that the actual results of partic-ular firms should be published, but that they should be made 45. a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c i n an aggregate form. The committee recommend that the Board of Trade should be given s t a t u t o r y powers to inaugurate a scheme of p u b l i c i t y , although i t should be permitted to delegate i t s powers where there i s a representative body i n an industry capable of doing the work. I t i s also suggested that p a r t i c u l a r s should be furnished of stocks, d e l i v e r i e s , and orders, since i t i s be-l i e v e d that t h i s information w i l l tend to check v i o l e n t f l u c -tuations i n trade and mitigate the r i s k of sudden trade booms and depressions. In the i n t e r e s t s of investors the committee also recommend the p u b l i c a t i o n of much f u l l e r information of company t r a d i n g accounts. The report i n d i c a t e s further points on which a d d i t i o n a l p a r t i c u l a r s might be made available i n the i n t e r e s t s of the p u b l i c , as w e l l as of those who are p e r s o n a l l y concerned with i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s . TEST 6, • Dear Madam: You are the winner of the enclosed c e r t i f i c a t e which i s sent as a r e s u l t of your grading i n our recent a r t t e s t . We congratulate you upon your success. You seem to understand one of the very important fundamentals i n a r t , and that i s proper proportion. Though your technique i s not p e r f e c t , we be l i e v e i t i s superior to that of the average untrained a r t i s t . Your questions have been i n t e l l i g e n t l y answered and are an i n d i c a t i o n o f good a r t i s t i c understanding. With t h i s tested proof of your a b i l i t y , - we believe you can enter t r a i n i n g with a good chance of success i n the commercial a r t f i e l d . There i s reason to believe that you should be able to earn a good income, i n a compar-a t i v e l y short time. Your opportunity has come and we are going to be very much i n t e r e s t e d i n your progress, f o r i t can e a s i l y be seen by your work that you should do very w e l l as a commercial a r t i s t . Again l e t me t e l l you how glad we are going to be to welcome you as a student. Your progress w i l l - b e followed very c l o s e l y and we are counting on you f o r b i g things. You should be a c r e d i t to y o u r s e l f and our schools, I w i l l be glad to see you make your s t a r t , not only because the work of an a r t i s t i s so f a s c i n a t i n g , but because I believe that your a b i l i t y should bring good returns i n d o l l a r s and cents. That means f i n a n c i a l independence—having what you want. I am glad you received the grading you d i d . We send you our hearty congratulations. Please do not forget the date, because your c e r t i f i c a t e cannot be accepted by us unless your a p p l i c a t i o n reaches us before Ju l y SO. Yours t r u l y , 47. TEST 7. Mr. President, I s h a l l be very b r i e f i n what I have to say. They t e l l us that we are seeking to confer s p e c i a l favors on a c e r t a i n class of our c i t i z e n s . I r e c a l l the time when we did s i n g l e out these ex-service men and d i s t i n g u i s h between them and a l l other classes of our people. I remember when we c i t e d them to appear when others had no notice to ap-pear f o r service i n the Army and i n the Navy. I r e c a l l when we took them away from t h e i r homes and loved ones. We did not ask them whether they were ready to go or w i l l i n g to go. We n o t i f i e d them that they had been drawn under the draft system f o r s e r v i c e , not only to f i g h t i n t h e i r own country, to r e p e l an invading foe, but that they were to do something that no United States s o l d i e r s had ever done before, namely, go abroad and f i g h t on f o r e i g n s o i l , w ith f o r e i g n armies. We placed s p e c i a l duties upon them then, d i f f e r e n t from that im-posed upon any other c i t i z e n . We are t o l d here that these men are not e n t i t l e d t o any s p e c i a l consideration; that they should be treated l i k e the other c i t i z e n s . Many o f them would have been delighted to have been treated that way i n 1917. Many of them saw boys remain a t home that they thought ought to go to the war; but they did not murmur. Not one of them raised his hand i n prote s t . They put on the uniform of t h e i r country. They took guns and marched away, and they gave an account of them-selves on the b a t t l e l i n e i n Prance that r e f l e c t e d c r e d i t and g l o r y not only upon themselves, but upon the people of the United States and upon the a l l i e d cause. Mr. President, we trusted them not only with the l i t t l e sum they were drawing of $50,00 a month, but we trusted them to protect and guard a l l the wealth of t h i s Nation, the r i c h -est n a t i o n i n a l l the world. We did not f a i l to t r u s t them then. We f l u n g no cloud of suspicion upon them then. We did not i n any way b e l i t t l e them then. But long'after our fortunes were preserved, and long a f t e r the p r o f i t e e r s have made t h e i r m i l l i o n s , r i d i c u l e i s hurled a t them. I t seems that the s o l d i e r boy who stood between us and the German Army i s forgotten now. The cry o f d i s t r e s s that comes up from these ex-service boys i n the States, the n o t i c e given that the wolves of want and hunger are howling around t h e i r doors, and that t h e i r loved ones are i n d i s t r e s s do not seem to appeal to some gentlemen now who were p a t t i n g the boys on the back i n 1917 when they were journeying to a f o r e i g n b a t t l e f i e l d to protect t h e i r r i g h t s and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . 48. Mr. President, during the two years that these boys were serving t h e i r country i n uniform, the men who remained at home, many of whom are now s t r o n g l y opposing t h i s arrange-ment, made m i l l i o n s f o r themselves out of the war. 49. TEST 8 DEPARTMENT 01 EDUCATION, B.C. High School Examination, June, 1930. Third-year Course, Commercial. Shorthand D i c t a t i o n (Time, 3 hours.) (To the P r e s i d i n g Examiner, - Three hours are to be allowed the candidates from the time that the d i c t a t i o n i s f i n i s h e d . Provide candidates with p l a i n white l e t t e r paper, or books, f o r t r a n s c r i p t s ; and with foolscap, or stenographers' note-books, for taking notes. Notes may be taken with e i t h e r pen or p e n c i l . Transcripts may be e i t h e r pen-written or type-w r i t t e n . The teacher of the candidates may d i c t a t e the s e l e c t i o n s , and may be given the m a t e r i a l f i f t e e n minutes be-fore d i c t a t i n g , so that he may prepare the timing o f h i s d i c -t a t i o n . Important.- The teacher's d i c t a t i o n must be c l o s e l y checked for time; and he must be p o s i t i v e l y stopped at the end of the f i f t h minute on each s e l e c t i o n . ) (To the D i c t a t o r . - The d i c t a t i o n must be at a uniform rate of speed with close a t t e n t i o n to the quarter-minute marks and ' with watch i n hand. .The m a t e r i a l must not be read, nor any word i n i t mentioned, p r i o r to the a c t u a l d i c t a t i o n . Allow three minutes a f t e r each se c t i o n , i n order that candidates may review t h e i r notes and recover from the tension of a f i v e -minutes' take.) 50, (To the Candidates.- Candidates w i l l hand i n three transcripts-A, B, and C. Each transcript should begin on a separate page. Shorthand notes must be handed in* Examination numfeer must be placed on each separate sheets) "A" (Eighty words per minute. Syllabic intensity not exceeding 1,5) The information of the agencies i s given out i n three forms (1) Daily sheets containing mention of a l l new (1 / 4 ) incorporations, bankruptcies, f a i l u r e s , and new business establishments; (E) a quarterly register or directory (1 / 2 ) of the name, ca p i t a l rating, and credit rating of every individual and firm i n the United States and ( 3 / 4 ) Canada occupied i n mer-cantile, f i n a n c i a l , or i n d u s t r i a l c a l l i n g ; and ( 3 ) special confidential reports furnished (1) upon request to subscribers, concerning any specific business house* Every precaution i s taken (1 / 4 ) against the sue of these re-ports for purposes not legitimately mercan-t i l e . They are carefully detailed (l/E) summaries of the character, history, a b i l i t y of the individual i n question; his wealth and debts, social ( 3 / 4 ) standing and habits; and a general expert opinion as to the ex-tent to which his credit i s good and the proper ( 2 ) manner of approaching him. The report i s intended to put together s i g n i f i c -ant facts, from which the experienced (1 / 4 ) credit man can build up his own impression* The general directory contains the names of a l l firms ffioing any (1 / 2 ) important business in the United States, ar-ranged by States and c i t i e s , with an assigned rating for each firm. One ( 3 / 4 ) agency publishes the names and addresses ,etc., 5 i j of 1,300,GOG firms and corporations. These are (3) f r e -quently changed "by a d d i t i o n s , o b l i t e r a t i o n s , and other a l t e r e d , r a t i n g s , but every e f f o r t i s made to keep them up (1/4) to date. N a t u r a l l y , t h i s m a t e r i a l i s i m p a r t i a l , and i t i s now l a r g e l y prepared with the a c t i v e assistance of (1/2) the houses which are being rated. Houses wish to e s t a b l i s h an accurate r a t i n g upon going i n t o business, (3/4) e s p e c i a l l y where t h e i r dealings are i n dis t a n t markets. In t h i s way the commercial world i s dependent upon the responsible agency. (4) The two ratings given i n the quarterly rate book are the c a p i t a l r a t i n g - an estimate of the amount of the (1/4) c a p i t a l invested; and the c r e d i t r a t i n g - an estimate of the degree of confidence which can s a f e l y be granted (1/2) to the given f i r m or i n d i v i d u a l . These r a t i n g s are the f i n a l judg-ment of the agency's experts, and that they are u s u a l l y (3/4) sound may be surmised from the confidence placed i n them by the e n t i r e business .worid„ The c a p i t a l r a t i n g i s the opinion (5) ©f the commercial value of the assets. "B" (One hundred words per minute.) The p r o t e c t i o n of forests from f i r e i s undoubtedly the most urgent and most important part of the work of the d i f f e r e n t agencies administering f o r e s t lands (1/4) i n Canada. In the case of the Dominion Government, t h i s duty f a l l s c h i e f l y on the Forest Service of the Department of the In-t e r i o r for a l l Dominion (1/2) Grown timber lands, whether within.forest reserves or not. Certain of f i c e r s of the various forest authorities are appointed ex- o f f i c i o o f f i c e r s of the Board of (3/4) Railway Commissioners and are respons-i b l e for f i r e protection along railway l i n e s . These guards co-operate with the railway f i r e rangers employed by the various (1) railway companies, the compulsory patrol of a l l li n e s throughout the country being a Dominion law. Other Dominion l e g i s l a t i o n regulates the use of f i r e for clearing (1/4) and other legitimate purposes and provides for closed seasons during dangerous periods. Each of the Provincial Governments maintains a f i r e protection organization which co-operates with (1/2) owners and licensees for the protection of a l l timbered areas, the cost being distributed or covered by special taxes on timber lands• An interesting development (5/4) i n this connection i n the province of Quebec i s the organization of a number of co-operative protective associations among lessees of timber l i m i t s . (2) These associations have their own s t a f f s , which co-operate with those of the Board of Railway Commissioners and the Provincial Government. This l a t t e r contributes i n the (1/4) way of money grants and also pays for the protection of vacant Crown lands lying within the areas of the associa-tion's a c t i v i t i e s . The most important (1/2) single development i n forest f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i n l a t e years has been the use of a i r c r a f t for^the detection and suppression of i n c i p i e n t f o r e s t f i r e s , (5/4) c o n s t i t u t i n g a measure of prevention rather than a cure. 'Shere lakes are numerous f l y i n g boats can be used both f o r detection and f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (3) of f i r e - f i g h t e r s and t h e i r equipment to f i r e s i n remote areas. Where safe landing places are few, land machines are used f o r the detection and (1/4) i n s p e c t i o n of f i r e s only. The a i r c r a f t are equipped with w i r e l e s s and can report the exact l o c a t i o n of a f i r e as soon as i t has been detected.(1/2) These a i r c r a f t can be used i n c i d e n t a l l y f o r exploring remote areas, and mapping them by means of a e r i a l photography. As a general r u l e a i r c r a f t are used (3/4) i n the more remote d i s t r i c t s , while lookout towers connected by telephone l i n e s and equipped with w i r e l e s s are established i n the more s e t t l e d and more (4) t r a v e l l e d f o r e s t areas. While these agencies have to a large extent supplanted the old canoe, horseback and foot p a t r o l f o r detection of f i r e s , a large (1/4) ground s t a f f with i t s equipment stored at s t r a t e g i c points w i l l always be necessary f o r the f i g h t i n g of l a r g e r f i r e s and the maintenance of systems of communication (1/2) and trans-p o r t a t i o n and of f i r e lanes and f i r e guards i n the f o r e s t . The most important improvement i n f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment has been (3/4) the portable gasoline f i r e pump. These pumps, which weigh a l i t t l e over a hundred pounds, can d e l i v e r e f f i c i e n t . w a t e r pressure three or four thousand f e e t . (5). 54. t i n it ,* (One hundred and twenty words per minute. ) I f I can appreciate my honourable f r i e n d ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h i s matter, he i s very desirous of p r o t e c t i n g both the i n -vestors and the consumers i n a reasonable and f a i r way. (1/4) But I cannot quite agree with h i s view as to'-the amount of power l i k e l y to be used i n Canada. I f i n d that he bases his estimate l a r g e l y on (1/2) that made l a s t J u l y by the power commission. That commission estimated that some 40,000 horse-power would be adequate for Canadian consumption. But one of the members of the (3/4) Ontario commission has t o l d us to-day that 120,000 horse-power has been applied f o r i n Ontario, and that, to a.very large extent, that power would (1) be derived from Niagara P a l l s . How i s the minister going to a s c e r t a i n which estimate i s correct? Yet that i s an important matter to determine before the government grants any l i c e n c e s . (1/4) Suppose a company invests several m i l l i o n s i n develop-ing power at Niagara P a l l s with the i n t e n t i o n of shipping the surplus to the United States. I f that company has the assur-ance (1/2) of being able to ship 100,000 horse-power to the United States during ten years, i t knows what i t i s doing, and i t b u i l d s i t s l i n e s accordingly. (3/4) I t s customers l i k e -wise know what they are going to receive, and they know fu r t h e r that a t the end of that period the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that 55, t h i s surplus supplied to them (2) w i l l be required by the Canadian consumers and they w i l l be no longer able to get i t . But i f the r i g h t to ship power to the United States may be (1/4) taken from that company at any moment, the s i t u -a t i o n i s altogether d i f f e r e n t . I t seems to me that i t i s of paramount importance that a d e f i n i t e period should be f i x e d w i t h i n (1/2) which the r i g h t to export could be exercised, and that time should be suf-f i c i e n t l y long to enable the company to recoup i t s e l f f o r the cost of i t s transmission l i n e s to (3/4) the United States and the shipment of that power. That i s also of importance from the point of view of the purchaser. Suppose there be no period f i x e d and the (3) company o f f e r s to s e l l to American manufacturers. The f i r s t question the purchasers w i l l ask w i l l be : For how long a period can you supply us with t h i s power? And the (1/4) i n -a b i l i t y to give such a guarantee may prevent the company from doing any business on any k i n d o f a favourable b a s i s . I f these l i c e n c e s may be cancelled at any moment (1/2) at the w i l l of a min i s t e r , then the company cannot f a i l to be at a very serious disadvantage. Governments change and so do m i n i s t e r s , and the min i s t e r of to-morrow may (3/4) come to the conclusion that a l l the power developed i s required i n Canada, although h i s predecessor may have held quite a d i f f e r -ent opinion. I f I had a power plant, (4) I would much rather have the r i g h t to export a l i m i t e d amount of power w i t h i n a f i x e d 56. period than the r i g h t to export a l a r g e r amount and be subject to *(l/4) the p o s s i b i l i t y of having my l i c e n c e revoked at any moment. Therefore, I think that before f i n a l l y deciding on an important clause o f t h i s k i n d , we should consider i t from every point (1/2) of view, and w i t h the greatest possible care, Suppose, for instance, a man has invested h i s money i n a power plant and then o f f e r s to s e l l to an American con-sumer. (3/4) The American consumer refuses to purchase un-l e s s the other w i l l contract to give him h i s supply during a c e r t a i n number of years. What, under such circumstances, can the m i n i s t e r do? (5) APPENDIX G. Sounds as Expressed by Pitman and Gregg Shorthand. Sound Pitman. a 1. By a dot. I f the sound of "a" i n " f a t " or "pa", i t i s w r i t t e n at the f i r s t of the-o u t l i n e ; i f the sound of "a" i n " f a t e " , i t i s w r i t t e n i n the middle of the o u t l i n e . 2. By w r i t i n g the o u t l i n e above or on the l i n e . b 1. By a downstroke. e 1. Is e i t h e r " s" or "k" i n both systems. d 1. By a downstroke. 2. By h a l v i n g the preced-ing consonant i n c e r t a i n eases. e 1. I f necessary, by a dot i n the middle of the o u t l i n e f o r short "e", and at the end f o r a long "e". 2. By w r i t i n g the o u t l i n e through, or on the l i n e . 1. By a large c i r c l e i n a l l eases. By a downstroke. 1. By an upstroke. 2. By a short d i s -joined upstroke i n c e r t a i n cases. 1. By a small c i r c l e i n a l l cases. 1. By a curved downstroke. 2. By a hook on c e r t a i n consonants i n c e r t a i n cases. By a curved down-stroke. 1. By an upstroke. 2. By a downstroke. 3. By a t i c k . 4. By a dot. 1. By a dot. 58. Sound Pitman g^ 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l stroke. i 1. By a small "v". 2. By w r i t i n g the outline above the l i n e . 0 1. By a downstroke. k 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . 1 1 , By a curved upstroke. 2. By a curved downstroke. 3. By a small i n i t i a l hook to s t r a i g h t consonants. 4. By a large i n i t i a l hook to curved consonants. m 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . n 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . 2. By a small f i n a l hook. o 1. By w r i t i n g the out-l i n e on the l i n e , or above the l i n e , depend-in g on the sound. 2 . By a dash placed e i t h e r at the f i r s t or i n the middle, depending on the sound of the vowel. p 1. By a downstroke. q 1. By adding a large hook to "k". Gregg. 1. By a curved h o r i -z o n t a l stroke. 1. By a large c i r c l e with or without an indentation. 1. By a downstroke. 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l curve. 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . 1. By a hook. 1. By a downstroke, 1. By "kw". Sound Pitman r 1. By an upstroke. 2. By a downstroke. 3. By a hook. s 1. By a stroke. 2. By a c i r c l e . sh 1. By an upstroke. 2. By a downstroke. t. 1. By a downstroke. 2 e By halving the preceding character. shun 1. By a large hook. 2. By a. small hook. 3. By "sh" and "n'V u 1. By a vowel w r i t t e n beside the stroke. 2. By w r i t i n g through the l i n e . v 1. By a heavy down-stroke. 2. By a hook on a s t r a i g h t stroke. w 1. By a consonant. 2. By a hook. 3. By a vowel. x l . By "k" or "g" and "s". y 1. By a stroke. 2. By a vowel. z 1. By a stroke. 2. By a c i r c l e . 59. Gregg. 1. By a h o r i z o n t a l . 2. By reversing the vowel c i r c l e on s t r a i g h t strokes. 1. By a downstroke. 1. By a downstroke. 1. By an upstroke. 1. By the downstroke T , s h n . 1. By a hook. 1. By a downstroke. 1. By a hook. 2. By a dash under the vowel. 1. By rts" w r i t t e n on a d i f f e r e n t s l a n t . 1. By a small c i r c l e . 1. By "S" with a mark under, i f d i s t i n c t i o n i s necessary. B I B L I O G R A P H Y . The writer had great d i f f i c u l t y i n getting any recent l i t e r a t u r e on the particular phase of the study of shorthand systems i n which he was inter-ested. There i s a very fine c o l l e c t i o n of hooks on Shorthand i n the Mew York Public Library but very few are of recent date. There are a number of studies in the methods of teaching shorthand i n the l i b r a r y of Teachers' College, Columbia University, which the writer consulted, but they had l i t t l e direct bearing on the study of the two systems given i n this thesis. Tjtiis i s probably due to the fact that Gregg Short-hand i s taught i n over 95% of the schools i n the United States and therefore the problem does not warrang the attention which the problem i s receiving i n Canada where Pitman i s taught i n the majority of schools at the present time. B I B L I O G R A P H Y . Anderson, Thomas History of Shorthand, London, Pitman Company, 1892. Brown, David Wolfe The Factors of Shorthand Speed. Hew York, Phonographic Institute 1919. Graham, Andrew J. Handbook of Standard Phonography, Hew York, Phonographic Institute. 1858. Gregg, Robert The Basic Principles of Gregg Shorthand. Hew York, Gregg Publishing Company, 1923. The Story of Shorthand, Hew York, Gregg Publishing Company, 1936. Kingston, Alfred Phonography i n the Office, London, Pitman Company, 1902. McHamara, Edward J. Methods of Teaching Shorthand. Hew York, Pitman Company, 1915. Mares, George and Innes.Hugh W. A C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l Account of the Art of Shorthand, London, Pitman Company, 1898. Reed, Thomas Al l e n Leaves from My Note-Book. London, Pitman Company, 1888. Taylor, Alfred Commentary on Pitman Shorthand London, Pitman Company. 

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