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An experimental study of two shorthand systems Sangster, Norman 1937

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TWO SHORTHAND SYSTEMS by .  NOBMAN SANSSTBB  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. APRIL, 1937.  AN EZBEEIHEBTAL STUDY OF TWO SHORTHAND SYSTEMS. Table o f Contents. P a g e s CHAPTER I .  The  Experiment: 1. 2.  CHAPTER I I .  1-3  Purpose o f the Study. D e s c r i p t i o n of Procedure,  The D e t a i l e d Re s u l t s : 2. 3. 4.  Test 2 Test 3 Test 4  5. 6. 7. 8.  4-11 Test Test Test Test  5 6 7 8  CHAPTER I I I .  H i s t o r y of Shorthand P r i n c i p l e s  12 - 16  CHAPTER IY.  The Basic P r i n c i p l e s of A Good System  17 - 33  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  CHAPTER V.  Longhand as a Basis o f Shorthand. C u r v i l i n e a r Motion. , E l i m i n a t i o n of Obtuse Angles. Joined Vowels. One Thickness no Shading. One P o s i t i o n . L i n e a l i t y — the Easy Flow o f TJriting a l o n g the L i n e .  Conclusion  APPENDIX  37 - 59 A. B. C.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  34 - 36  Supplementary Observations Copies of F i n a l Tests. An Outline o f the Methods, employed by Gregg and Pitman i n expressing Sounds. 60 - 61  1  * AN EXPERIMENTAL  A  STUDY OF TWO SHORTHAND SYSTEMS. by Norman Sangster.  CHAPTER I. The Experiment. The purpose of t h i s study i s to give the r e s u l t s of an experiment i n the teaching o f two d i f f e r e n t systems of shorthand*  The c l a s s e s were h e l d i n the Eairview High School  of Commerce and the systems used i n the experiment were Gregg and Pitman.  The teacher of each system was aware o f the ex-  periment and was i n t e r e s t e d i n showing the s u p e r i o r i t y of h i s system. • Tko groups of students, taking a one year i n t e n s i v e commercial course, were s e l e c t e d f o r the experiment*  At the  beginning, there was one c l a s s of f o r t y students, a l l g i r l s , taking Gregg Shorthand, and two c l a s s e s of f o r t y g i r l s t a k i n g Pitman Shorthand.  each,  Two years of t r a i n i n g i n the general  academic course was a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r entrance i n t o e i t h e r group. the  The groups were made comparable as f a r as p o s s i b l e ,  bases f o r s e l e c t i o n being the I. Q. and the previous aca-  demic record of the student.  Both groups took the same  general course and had the same teachers, except f o r Shorthand. The other subjects of the course were Bookkeeping, Business E n g l i s h , Typewriting and A r i t h m e t i c .  Two f o r t y minute periods  8. were spent on Shorthand each day by both groups.  Tests were  g i v e n throughout the s c h o o l y e a r , under the d i r e c t i o n o f Mr. Robert S t r a i g h t o f the Vancouver Bureau o f Measurements. These t e s t s were to serve as a b a s i s f o r comparison between the two groups.  A f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f these t e s t s and the  r e s u l t s w i l l be g i v e n i n the next c h a p t e r . I t w i l l be observed t h a t t h e number o f s t u d e n t s taki n g the t e s t s v a r i e s .  A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the experiment  there were three c l a s s e s under observation-^one Gregg c l a s s and two Pitman c l a s s e s , each c o n s i s t i n g o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y students.  I n accordance w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s e s i n  the s c h o o l , students t a k i n g Pitman Shorthand who ranked "D" or "E" ( t h e lower 25fo o f the group) on the Christmas examinations, were moved i n t o . r e g u l a r l y e n r o l l e d c l a s s e s as they were not making s u f f i c i e n t p r o g r e s s t o warrant t h e i r continuance i n a "special" class (1).  The "D" and "E" r a n k i n g students i n the  Gregg c l a s s had to remain i n the o r i g i n a l c l a s s as there were no r e g u l a r c l a s s e s t a k i n g t h i s system o f shorthand*  The de-  crease i n the number o f students i n the Gregg c l a s s a t the end of the experiment i s due t o t h e p o l i c y o f the s c h o o l i n recommending the best s t u d e n t s f o r p o s i t i o n s a t the end o f the term. This a f f e c t e d the Gregg c l a s s v e r y s e r i o u s l y as they reached a  (1)  A " s p e c i a l " c l a s s i n the E a i r v i e w High School o f Commerce r e f e r s to a c l a s s of students who have had two years o f g e n e r a l academic t r a i n i n g and are now t a k i n g a s t r i c t l y v o c a t i o n a l course i n Shorthand, T y p e w r i t i n g , Bookkeeping ' and Business E n g l i s h .  .;•  3.  d i c t a t i o n speed, s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r b u s i n e s s purposes, much sooner than the Pitman c l a s s e s .  Had i t been p o s s i b l e t o keep  the same numbers throughout the experiment, the r e s u l t s would have been more f a v o r a b l e to the Gregg s t u d e n t s , s i n c e , i n the case o f the Gregg c l a s s the best s t u d e n t s found p o s i t i o n s i n business b e f o r e the f i n a l t e s t s o f the experiment, w h i l e the weaker s t u d e n t s i n the Pitman c l a s s were dropped from the exp e r i m e n t a l group because they were unable t o c a r r y the work o f a "special" class.  4.  CHAPTER I I . The D e t a i l e d Results. Test One. The f i r s t t e s t was given on October 1, a f t e r the students had one month o f i n s t r u c t i o n . list  I t consisted of a  of one hundred words from a shorthand vocabulary,equally  favorable and common to both groups ( 1 ) .  The l i s t was d i c -  tated a t the same rate f o r both groups and the r e s u l t s were based on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  Marks of the Gregg group ranged  from 25% to 100% with a group median o f 77.5%.  The marks o f  the Pitman group ranged from 5fo to 95% with a median mark o f 51%.  D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s  Score  •  • . .gg  Pitman  Score  Gregg  Pitman  95-100  1  0  45-49  0  7  90-94  8  1  40-44  1  4  85-80  2  4  35-39  0  9  80-84  3  3  30-34  1  6  75-79  2  4  25-29  2  3  70-74  4  6  20-24  0  2  65-69  3  3,  15-19  0  4  60-64  6  4  10-14  0  1  55-59  1  6  5-9  0  1  50-54  2  0  0-4  0  0  (1)  G  r9  See appendix f o r l i s t .  5. Test Two. This t e s t was given a f t e r two months' i n s t r u c t i o n . consisted o f a l i s t  It  o f one hundred words from a shorthand  vocabulary common to both groups.  The l i s t  was d i c t a t e d at  the same rate f o r both groups and the r e s u l t s were based on the  transcription.  The marks o f the Gregg group ranged from  30% to 100% with a median of 71.6%.  The marks of the Pitman  group ranged from 5% to 70% with a median mark o f 31.5%. detailed Score  The  r e s u l t s were : Gregg  Pitman  Score  Gregg  Piti  95-100  1  0  45-49  5  3  90-94  2  0  40-44  1  6  85-,89  3  0  35-39  0  9  80-84  1  0  30-34  1  18  75-79  5  0  £5-29  0  14  70-74  6  2  20-24  0  11  65-69  4  2  15-19  0  4  60-64  5  1  10-14  0  2  55-59  1  0  5-9  0  3  50-54  0  6  0-4  0  0  Test Three. This t e s t was g i v e n a f t e r three months' i n s t r u c t i o n and a g a i n consisted o f a l i s t  of one hundred words d i c t a t e d a t  a common rate and taken from a vocabulary common to both groups.  The r e s u l t s were based on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  The  marks o f the Gregg group ranged between 60% and 100% with a c l a s s median of 98.25%.  The marks o f the Pitman group ranged  from 15% to 100% with a median of 63.25%.  The d e t a i l e d  r e s u l t s were : Score  Gregg  Pitman  So ore  Pitman  100  10  1  95-99  20  4  45-49  0  10  90-94  1  6  40-44  0  7  85-89  0  5  35-39  0  2  80-85  2  3  30-34  0  2  75-79  0  3  25-29  0  1  70-75  0  4  20-24  0  0  65-69  0  8  15-19  0  1  60-64  1  10  10-14  0  0  55-59  0  6  5-9  0  0  50-54  0  2  0-4  0  0  Test Pour. •.... This t e s t was given i n A p r i l a f t e r about s i x months' training.  I t c o n s i s t e d o f an a r t i c l e , with a shorthand  vocabulary common to both groups, d i c t a t e d a t s i x t y words a minute f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e minutes. on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  The r e s u l t s were based  The marks o f the Gregg group ranged  from 55% to 100% w i t h a median o f 85.96%.  The marks of the  Pitman group ranged from 15% to 90% with a median o f 58.1%.  D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s • Score  Gregg  Pitman  Score  100-95  4  0  45-49  0  13  90-94  4  0  40-44  0  £  85-89  13  3  35-39  0  80-84  7  0  30-34  0  2  5  £5-29  0  2  75-79  Pitman  70-74  3  9  20-24  0  0  65->69  0  5  15-19  0  1  60-64  1  6  10-14  0  0  55-59  1  4  5-9  0  0  50-54  0  6  0-4  0  0  8e  Test F i v e . This t e s t c o n s i s t s of a passage i n longhand, with a shorthand vocabulary common to both group s, d i c t a t e d at a ra o f 70 words a minute f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e minutes. r e s u l t s were based on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  The  The gregg group  ranged from 50% to 100% with a median o f 73.1%.  The Pitman  c l a s s ranged from 10% to 65% with a median o f 40.7%.  De-  t a i l e d r e s u l t s were : Score  Gregg  Pitman  Score  Gregg  Pitman  95-100  3  0  45-49  0  6  90-94  0  0  40-44  0  11  85»89  1  0  35-39  0  7  80-84  8  0  30-34  0  7  75-79  1  0  25-29  0'  4  70-74  8  0  20-24  0  6  65-69  3  1  15-19  0  2  60-64  5  3  10-14  0  2  55-59  2  4  5-9  0  0  50-54  1  6  0-4  0  0  Test S i x . This t e s t consisted of a passage, with a shorthand vocabulary common to both groups, d i c t a t e d a t a rate o f 80 words a minute f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e minutes.  The t r a n s c r i p -  t i o n was considered i n g e t t i n g the r e s u l t s .  The Gregg group  ranged from 60% to 100% with a median of 79.1%. c l a s s ranged from 15% to 85% with a median o f 58%. r e s u l t s were : Score  The Pitman Detailed -  Pitman  Score  Gregg  Pitman  45-49  0  3  40-44  0  7  95-100  3  0  90-94  3  0  85-89  5  1  35-39  0  3  80-84  4  1  30-34  0  0  75-79  6  1  25-29  0  0  70-74  4  6  20-24  0  1  65-69  6  6  15-19  0  1  60-64  1  5  10-14  0  0  55-59  0  9  5^9  0  0  50- 54-  0  3  0-4  0  0  '  10.  Test Seven, This t e s t was a passage d i c t a t e d a t 100 words per minute f o r a period  of f i v e minutes.  on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  The r e s u l t s were based  The marks of the Gregg group ranged  from 55% to 95% with a median o f 76.87%,  The Pitman group  ranged from 20% t o 90% w i t h a median o f 61%.  Detailed  results  were : Score  Pitman  Score  Gregg  Pitman  95-100  0  0  45-49  0  2  90-94  a.  0  40-44  P  5  85-89  l  1  55-39  0  6  80-84  7  2  30-34  0  1  75-79  4  5  25-29  0  1  70-74  4  6  20-24  o  1  65-69  4  7  15-19  0  0  60-64  2  5  10-14  0  0  55-59  1  4  5-9  0  0  50-54  0  4  0-4  0  0  Test E i g h t .  H i  This was the f i n a l examination conducted ment o f Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C.  by the Depart-  I t c o n s i s t e d o f three pass-  ages, d i c t a t e d a t 80* 100 and 120 words per minute., sented the f i n a l t e s t i n the s e r i e s .  It repre-  A l l members o f the Gregg  c l a s s who had not obtained business p o s i t i o n s wrote t h i s t e s t , while only the students of the Pitman c l a s s who had obtained a mark o f 55% or b e t t e r i n Test 7, wrote t h i s f i n a l (1).  examination  This e x p l a i n s the small number o f students who took part  i n this  test.  T r a n s c r i p t i o n , only, was marked.  The range of  marks f o r the Gregg group was from 50% to 100% with a median of 82.5%.  The range o f the Pitman group was from 5% to 85%  w i t h a median o f 57.9%, Score  Greg g  Detailed  Pitman  r e s u l t s were :  Score  , Gregg  Pitman  95-100  3  0  45-49  0  0  90-94  3  0  40-44  0  1  85-89  0  0  35-39  0  1  80-84  7  2  30-34  0  0  7 5-79  2  2  25-29  0  0  70-74  1  4  20-24  0  1  65-69  1  2  15-19  0  0  60-64  1  1  10-^14  0  0  55-59  0  6  5-9  0  1  50-54  1  6  0-4  0  0  (1)  A fee of $5.00 was charged by the Department o f Education to write t h i s examination. Students who had very l i t t l e chance o f meeting the requirements were advised not to write.  CHAPTER I I I . The E v o l u t i o n o f Shorthand P r i n c i p l e s . As the r e s u l t o f the experiment, the w r i t e r became i n t e r e s t e d i n a h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f shorthand systems.  Why  had the r e s u l t s from the Gregg c l a s s been s u p e r i o r to those o f the Pitman c l a s s ?  Only a c a r e f u l study o f the u n d e r l y i n g  p r i n c i p l e s o f shorthand w r i t i n g c a n answer t h a t q u e s t i o n s a t i s factorily.  A b r i e f survey o f the steps i n the e v o l u t i o n o f  shorthand w r i t i n g w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e a n a l y s i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h i s experimental study. The f i r s t important p r i n c i p l e i n the growth o f s h o r t hand systems was the d e r i v a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r s o f the . T i r o n i a n (1) notes from the majuscules or c a p i t a l l e t t e r s o f the L a t i n w r i t i n g o f t h a t t i m e .  The m i n u s c u l e s , or s m a l l  l e t t e r s that c o u l d be joined and which were w r i t t e n i n one d i r e c t i o n — o u r c u r r e n t r u n n i n g h a n d — d i d n o t come i n t o g e n e r a l use u n t i l the n i n t h c e n t u r y .  As t h e majuscules o f l a t i n are  drawn i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , f o r example Y, A, T, the shorthand c h a r a c t e r s d e r i v e d from them were w r i t t e n i n a l l  directions—  back s l o p e , forward slope and v e r t i c a l .  (1)  T i r o was a Greek s l a v e , b e l o n g i n g to C i c e r o , the Roman statesman and o r a t o r . He i n v e n t e d a system o f s h o r t hand notes which he used i n r e c o r d i n g the o r a t i o n s o f h i s master.  The second  step was  the i m i t a t i o n of the  Tironian  notes by the e a r l y E n g l i s h authors, and, consequently,  the  adoption of the majuscule b a s i s , which imposed upon the a r t of shorthand the multi-sloped s t y l e of shorthand The t h i r d step was  writing.  the very evident progress,  through  a s e r i e s of e a r l y E n g l i s h systems, toward the expression o f each l e t t e r i n the alphabet by a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r ( 2 ) .  This  i s probably the most c l e a r l y defined step of any ( 3 ) .  (2)  The f i r s t a l p h a b e t i c system, that of John W i l l i s (1602), contained no l e s s than nineteen compound forms f o r the twenty-six l e t t e r s represented i n the alphabet of that system.  (3)  An i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n i s the e v o l u t i o n o f and "v". In the T i r o n i a n "notae", the l e t t e r "v" was expressed by two s t r o k e s — a back-slope stroke and a f o r ward upstroke, i n i m i t a t i o n o f the L a t i n c a p i t a l V. Beginning with John W i l l i s (1602), the compound s i g n used by Tiro f o r "v" was adopted by E. W i l l i s , (1618),.Witt, (1630), Dix, (1633), Mawd, (1635), SheIton, (1641), and more than a score of other authors of e a r l y E n g l i s h systems and continued i n use f o r that very purpose and i n that very form, down to and i n c l u d i n g the noted system of James Weston, published i n 1727.  14. The f o u r t h important p r i n c i p l e was  the gradual accept-  ance o"f the p r i n c i p l e of w r i t i n g by sound and the p r o v i s i o n of characters that rendered i t p o s s i b l e to express the phonetic alphabet (4).  As the alphabets o f the e a r l y E n g l i s h systems  were not arranged on a phonetic b a s i s , s i n c e they provided a character f o r "o" (which i s sounded as "k  n  or "s") and d i d not  provide characters f o r such simple sounds as "sh, t h , ch," i t waw  impossible to c a r r y out the d i r e c t i o n s t o write words  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r sound.  Most o f the e a r l y authors recog-  n i z e d t h i s and contented themselves with d i r e c t i n g the student to omit s i l e n t l e t t e r s .  I t was  not u n t i l the end of the  eighteenth and the beginning o f the nineteenth c e n t u r i e s that the negative statement was  o f the p r i n c i p l e  (omit s i l e n t  letters)  changed to the p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t — w r i t e by sound.  Characters were provided which enabled the p r i n c i p l e to be c a r r i e d into e f f e e t ( 5 ) .  (4)  The author o f the f i r s t system of a l p h a b e t i c shorthand, John W i l l i s , s a i d : " I t i s to be observed that t h i s a r t p r e s c r i b e t h the w r i t i n g o f words, not a c c o r d i n g to the orthography as they are w r i t t e n , hut a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r sound as they are pronounced."  (5)  Holdsworth and A l d r i d g e , (1766), Phineas B a i l e y , Pitman, (1837).  (1831),  The f i f t h step was the arrangement o f the consonant characters according t o t h e i r phonetic  r e l a t i o n s h i p , "p,b; t ,  d; ch, j ; k, g." ( 6 ) . The s i x t h step was the founding the alphabet  o f the characters o f  p a r t l y upon modern longhand forms i n s t e a d o f upon  the ancient Soman c a p i t a l s .  Even t h e alphabet  of John W i l l i s  (160S) took a h e s i t a t i n g step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n the exp r e s s i o n o f "y" by a character that i m i t a t e d the small y " of u  current w r i t i n g .  Other authors  characters to " r , h ,  n  extended the use o f c u r s i v e  and some other l e t t e r s  ward-running characters were more f a c i l e than  (7)*  That f o r -  back-slope  characters was recognized e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y o f modem shorthand.  This i s shown by the f a c t that characters on the f o r -  ward slope o f w r i t i n g , or with an onward movement, were given the preference  i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f r e q u e n t l y occurring  letters (8). The  seventh step was towards the j o i n i n g o f vowels and  consonants i n the n a t u r a l order i n which they occur i n a word. The  expression o f vowels by strokes i n the e a r l i e r systems was  so awkward, that, i n seeking r e l i e f from the burden o f t h e i r  (6)  Holdsworth and A l d r i d g e , Byrom, Pitman and others.  (7)  Richard Roe, (1802), Thomas Oxley, (1816).  (8)  One of,the most noted and t a l e n t e d o f shorthand authors, John Byrom, said : "The other " t h (a back-slope charact e r ) by reason o f our customary method o f l e a n i n g the l e t t e r s the contrary way i n common w r i t i n g , i s not so r e a d i l y made." n  16 . expression,  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that some of the e a r l y short-  hand authors (Samuel T a y l o r , f o r example) went t o the other extreme o f expressing any vowel by a dot.  Others attempted  to give a more d e f i n i t e expression by p l a c i n g dots, commas, or dashes i n various p o s i t i o n s alongside  the consonants.  In  p r a c t i c e most of the vowels were l e f t out. The eighth step was i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the use of characters of one thickness.  The d i f f i c u l t y o f f i n d i n g  m a t e r i a l to express the l e t t e r s without r e s o r t i n g to compound forms suggested the use of characters o f varying degrees o f thickness.  When shading was f i r s t  introduced,  i t was i n  harmony with the s t y l e o f longhand w r i t i n g then i n vogue, as may be seen from the specimens of longhand w r i t i n g of that period.  But the demand f o r r a p i d i t y i n more modern times has  put the ornate The  shaded s t y l e of w r i t i n g i n the d i s c a r d .  f i n a l step i s the most recent of a l l and i t has not  yet received the a t t e n t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n that i t w i l l proba b l y receive i n the near f u t u r e .  I t i s the p r i n c i p l e of  w r i t i n g w i t h a c u r v i l i n e a r motion as opposed to the angular style o f writing. next  chapter.  More w i l l be s a i d of t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n the  CHAPTER IV. > The Basic P r i n c i p l e s o f a Good Shorthand System. Thomas Anderson, who was the Law Courts o f Glasgow  f o r many years a-reporter i n  (and a w r i t e r of Pitman Shorthand)  and who wrote a very valuable and s c h o l a r l y " H i s t o r y o f Shorthand" , sets f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g axioms as a sound basis f o r a shorthand system. 1.  They are :  The alphabet o f a good shorthand system must include inde-  pendent characters f o r the vowels, which characters must be adapted f o r w r i t i n g i n union .with the forms f o r the consonants. In other words every l e t t e r of the common alphabet must have a s p e c i a l and d i s t i n c t i v e shorthand mark. 2.  The characters o f a good shorthand system must be a l l  w r i t t e n on the one slope. 3.  In a good shorthand system no d i s t i n c t i o n of l e t t e r s made  thick, from l e t t e r s made t h i n i s a d m i s s i b l e . 4.  The r u l e s of a b b r e v i a t i o n i n a good system o f shorthand  must be few, comprehensive and sure. 5.  In a good shorthand system there must be only one l i n e of  w r i t i n g (1).  (1)  Prom an address on "The True Theory o f Shorthand", del i v e r e d before the Shorthand Society, London, March 7. 1882.  l o r the purpose of t h i s study, these "axioms" may  be  r e - s t a t e d as seven b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , each of which w i l l be considered i n d e t a i l , as i t a p p l i e s to the two systems which were subject to the experiment. l  e  They are :  Longhand as a b a s i s of shorthand.  2.  C u r v i l i n e a r motion.  3.  E l i m i n a t i o n of obtuse angles by n a t u r a l blending of l i n e s .  4.  Joined vowels.  5.  One t h i c k n e s s — e l i m i n a t i o n o f shading.  6.  One p o s i t i o n - — - e l i m i n a t i o n of " p o s i t i o n writing".  7.  L i n e a l i t y — t h e easy, continuous flow of the w r i t i n g along the l i n e .  An examination o f each o f these p r i n c i p l e s i s now given: !•  Longhand as a Basis o f Shorthand: Shorthand characters may be based on the c i r c l e and  i t s segments ( f o r example,  Pitman) or they may be based on  the e l l i p s e or oval ( f o r example,  Gregg).  As Pitman Short-  hand i s based on the c i r c l e , i t s characters are supposed to be drawn with geometric p r e c i s i o n and are s t r u c k i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g c o n t i n u a l change i n the p o s i t i o n  '  1  9  •  of the hand while w r i t i n g ( 1 ) . As Gregg Shorthand  a  i s based  on the e l l i p s e or oval, i t  i s w r i t t e n with a uniform slope as i n longhand*  I t s characters  are, t h e r e f o r e , f a m i l i a r and n a t u r a l t o the hand and l i k e longhand do not r e q u i r e a change i n the p o s i t i o n o f the hand while writing.  "With a uniform slope as i n longhand"  does not mean  any p a r t i c u l a r s l o p e , but that the w r i t i n g i s uniform i n slope. Isaac Pitman, i n the seventh e d i t i o n of h i s manual said : "The student should be c a r e f u l not to hold the pen as f o r common w r i t i n g , f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n of the hand i s adapted f o r the formation of l e t t e r s constructed upon a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e from those of Phonography. The pen should be held l o o s e l y i n the hand, l i k e a p e n c i l f o r drawing, with n i b turned i n such a manner that the l e t t e r "k" can be struck with ease." Andrew Graham, author o f the most s u c c e s s f u l American m o d i f i c a t i o n of Pitman's Shorthand, Part Two  (1)  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to  o f h i s "Standard Phonography", s a i d :  In a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s on "Aids and Hindrances to Shorthand W r i t i n g " i n Pitman's Shorthand Weekly, A l f r e d Kingston said : " I have f r e q u e n t l y n o t i c e d that the shorthand student s k i l l e d i n drawing always makes the best s t a r t upon the shorthand alphabet. The student should be encouraged, therefore, to t r e a t the pireliminary^work of mastering the simple geometric forms and e s p e c i a l l y the curves, as something r e a l l y i n the nature of a drawing l e s s o n and to draw them as c a r e f u l l y and a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e at the s t a r t . "  20. ''The p o s i t i o n given to the pen and hand i n hack-hand w r i t i n g seems best adapted f o r the easy and g r a c e f u l formation o f phonographic characters. The pen should be h e l d very l o o s e l y , so that the n i b may be r e a d i l y turned and s u i t e d to the execution o f characters made i n various directions." David Wolfe Brown, f o r many years one of the s t a f f of o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e r s o f the House o f Representatives, Washington, i n h i s book "The Factors o f Shorthand Speed", declares : "In the shorthand w r i t e r ' s manual o f d i s c i p l i n e the f i r s t step i s to get r i d o f c e r t a i n h a b i t s o f t e n acquired i n longhand, and which, unless corrected, must make high stenographic speed a physical impossibility. I t may be d e s i r a b l e , f o r a time a t l e a s t , that longhand p r a c t i c e be, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , suspended, so that a new set o f manual h a b i t s may be the more e a s i l y acquired." "One o f the h a b i t s which shorthand w r i t e r s need e s p e c i a l l y to overcome a r i s e s from the p e c u l i a r s l a n t o f t h e longhand characters........as the shorthand characters are w r i t t e n i n almost every d i r e c t i o n — p r o b a b l y more o f them with a backward i n c l i n a t i o n , or with a h o r i z o n t a l motion, than with a forward s l o p e — t h e hand and f i n g e r s , , i n being educated f o r shorthand w r i t i n g , must be emancipated from the f i x e d p o s i t i o n to which they have been accustomed i n longhand." From these quotations i t w i l l be seen that, instead of previous experience and t r a i n i n g i n the w r i t i n g o f longhand being regarded  as an advantage to the student of Pitman Short-  hand, i t i s declared by these Pitman a u t h o r i t i e s to be an obstacle.  In the Pitman system the student has to l e a r n new  h a b i t s o f w r i t i n g and t o get r i d o f c e r t a i n h a b i t s acquired i n longhand.' established.  In Gregg Shorthand he c a r r i e s over h a b i t s already This may be a very fundamental reason why i n  the experimental c l a s s e s the Gregg system proved e a s i e r to  .  /  21.  l e a r n and w r i t e "by the students. I f i t he true that the movements and characters used f o r longhand w r i t i n g have been adopted because they are easy and n a t u r a l to the hand, we b e l i e v e that i t does not r e q u i r e argument to prove that the same easy, n a t u r a l movements and characters a r e the l o g i c a l b a s i s o f a b r i e f e r s t y l e o f w r i t i n g . Indeed, n e a r l y a l l authors and expert w r i t e r s of geometric systems have been w i l l i n g to acknowledge t h i s , but have asserted that, on account of the l i m i t e d shorthand m a t e r i a l , i t was impossible to construct a p r a c t i c a l system on such a basis. At t h e f i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Shorthand  Congress, i n 1887,  Professor J.D. Everett, author of " E v e r e t t ' s Shorthand f o r General Use", a geometric system, acknowledged that, "to employ characters which slope a l l one way i s advantageous i n s o f a r as i t enables the w r i t e r to make a given number of movements i n a given time". The famous j o u r n a l i s t , e d i t o r , author, and Member of Parliament, Mr. 2T.P. O'Connor, i n w r i t i n g on the subject o f shorthand i n the Weekly Sun, London, s a i d : "I am not an e n t i r e b e l i e v e r i n the Pitman system o f shorthand; but as I began with i t I never t r i e d to change- I have known very few Pitman w r i t e r s whose notes could be read by anybody e l s e , and I have known a great many--including myself-—who found i t very d i f f i c u l t to read t h e i r own notes. " I t s t r i k e s me now, that the system i s best which can be made most l i k e the o r d i n a r y longhand. Obviously the same muscles, the same nerves, the same a t t i t u d e s , a l l that conglomeration o f causes, open and l a t e n t , which provide the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f one's longhand w i l l be employed i n producing the shorthand. In other words one w i l l w r i t e h i s shorthand as he does h i s longhand."  In an a r t i c l e on "The Mr.  6..G.  5  One  Slope  1  Theory i n Shorthand"  Mares s t a t e d the p r a c t i c a l advantages obtained  u n i f o r m i t y of slope i n a very convincing way  from  :  " I t w i l l be evident to the vast majority of shorthand w r i t e r s that i n Pitman Shorthand many words can be w r i t t e n much f a s t e r than others, even though the number of pen strokes and i t s i n e f f e c t i v e movements ( l i f t s ) are the same. Thus the word cherry can be w r i t t e n f a s t e r than p i t y ; r e j e c t i s more f a c i l e than shave, although i t has an a d d i t i o n a l s t r o k e , and the same may be s a i d o f hundreds oif other words. Ehat causes the difference i n f a c i l i t y ? The answer i s that cherry, r e j e c t , are w r i t t e n on the 'one slope' whilst"""pity, shave, employ back strokes. Att.the commencemenE™then, we see that an advantage e x i s t s i n favor o f one-slope w r i t i n g ; but no one has yet, I b e l i e v e , shown the existence o f t h i s advantage. I w i l l , therefore, i n v i t e a t t e n t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s : (a) A r a p i d penman can write 30 words a minute, each word containing on an average o f 16 movements-— 16 x 30 equals 480 longhand strokes a minute. (b) The l i m i t of the power of the hand to form shorthand strokes, i s , at the outside f i g u r e , 300 a minute; 300 to 480 shows 60% i n favor of longhand strokes. (c) As the formation o f shorthand strokes r e quires more care than longhand, on account of the necessary observance of length, thickness, e t c . , an allowance of, say 25 per cent must be made, and t h i s , with an allowance of 10 per cent f o r l o s s of b r e v i t y ( i f any) as compared with other systems, w i l l leave us 25 per cent advantage i n the matter of f a c i l i t y o f execution gained by the use o f one-sloped or longhand signs or s t r o k e s . " Other features of longhand w r i t i n g are : (a)  There i s no compulsory shading of the  (b)  or thickening  characters.  Words are not placed i n s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s with r e l a t i o n to the l i n e of w r i t i n g .  (c)  A l l the l e t t e r s , vowels and  consonants are joined.  23* A l l these features are found i n the Gregg system o f shorthand. 2.  C u r v i l i n e a r Motion: Many a u t h o r i t i e s on handwriting agree that a s t i f f , •  angular s t y l e of longhand w r i t i n g always connotes a slow w r i t ing,  and that an easy, r a p i d , e f f o r t l e s s s t y l e o f w r i t i n g  abounds i n curves, because curves are w r i t t e n w i t h a f r e e , r o l l ing, continuous motion (1). e l l i p t i c a l curves. i t y o f hand ( 2 ) .  The muscles are relaxed i n making  S t r a i g h t l i n e s n e c e s s i t a t e greater r i g i d I f t h i s be t r u e o f longhand, i t must be  e q u a l l y true of shorthand.  Gregg Shorthand i s based on the  e l l i p s e or o v a l , and t h i s i s the v i t a l d i s t i n c t i o n between i t and Pitman Shorthand, which i s founded on the e i r e l e and i t s segments.  This i s the feature which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the Gregg  system not only from the Pitman system but from a l l other (1)  Mr. Hugh B. Callendar, -B.A., o f Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y , author of "Cursive Shorthand", s t a t e s t h i s very w e l l when he says • r " I t i s commonly s t a t e d that s t r a i g h t l i n e s are more f a c i l e than curves. This i s t r u e o f a s e r i e s o f s t r a i g h t l i n e s described independently; but the curve often has the advantage i n the matter of j o i n i n g to the other characters, for i t s curvature may g e n e r a l l y be v a r i e d e s p e c i a l l y near the ends, so as to make the j o i n i n g e a s i e r . "  (2)  Some very s i g n i f i c a n t admissions about the value of curve motion occur i n "Phonography i n the O f f i c e " a book by Mr. A l f r e d Kingston, published by Isaac Pitman and Sons. He says : "The increased f r i c t i o n from the r e s i s t a n c e of the paper makes i t a serious obstacle to the a c q u i s i t i o n of speed, to say nothing of the d i f f i c u l t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h i n and t h i c k strokes." Mr. Kingston then proceeds to give an exercise to be pract i s e d f o r the purpose of counteracting t h i s heavy s t y l e : "The exercise i s so framed as to c o n s i s t almost e x c l u s i v e l y o f l i g h t curves."  24. systems that c l a i m to be founded on longhand or on the slope of longhand.  Curves embody the n a t u r a l motion o f the hand i n  w r i t i n g and so tend toward greater f a c i l i t y i n w r i t i n g , ing  i n greater speed w i t h l e s s e f f o r t .  result-  In t h i s connection the  f i n d i n g s o f The N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l Psychology (London) on the mental and p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s of operatives i n factories i s interesting : "While the s h o r t e s t distance between two points i s a s t r a i g h t l i n e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found that curved movements o f the hands, though longer than s t r a i g h t movements, may be quicker i n the end——--rWorkers were t r a i n e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to f o l l o w e l l i p t i c a l paths and n a t u r a l rhythms instead of s t r a i g h t l i n e s , and an increase of t h i r t y per cent output was obtained, f a r less effort resulting." 5.  Blended  Consonants:  One of the great hindrances to r a p i d shorthand w r i t i n g i s the obtuse angle.  A few quotations from w e l l known s h o r t -  hand a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l support t h i s statement.  In the preface  to Munson's Shorthand D i c t i o n a r y , w r i t t e n by the author of a popular system of shorthand, the f o l l o w i n g appears : "Too frequent obtuse angles between stems—-a. very great impediment to speed, as may be r e a d i l y demonstrated by t r a c i n g with exactness, but as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , a l i n e l i k e the f i r s t o f the f o l l o w i n g diagrams, and then i n l i k e manner, one l i k e the second." Mr. Munson then gives two l i n e s of o u t l i n e s , one with sharp, and the other with obtuse angles.  He adds :  " I t w i l l be seen that the o u t l i n e with obtuse or blunt angles r e q u i r e s a much slower movement than the one with sharp angles." The famous reporter, and foremost exponent of Isaac Pitman Shorthand i n England, Thomas A l l e n Heed, i n "Leaves  25. from my Note Book", i n e x p l a i n i n g the nature of various phrases, said Si  •  "The e a s i e s t j o i n i n g s are those of s t r a i g h t l i n e s or curves that run i n t o one another. Bight angles and obtuse angles are l e s s easy. Unless the j u n c t i o n i s easy and flowing, no time i s saved; indeed i t w i l l o f t e n take l e s s time to w r i t e such words s e p a r a t e l y than without l i f t i n g the pen." Pitman Shorthand i s f u l l of angles where Gregg arranges the h o r i z o n t a l and upward l i n e s that,when they blend i n the form of curves, these curves represent very frequent combinations of sounds. 4.  Joined Vowels: Joined vowels have been used i n shorthand since the  first  systems were invented.  The T i r o n i a n Notes, which were  used i n r e p o r t i n g the orations of Cicero, employed joined-vowel s i g n s , as did n e a r l y a l l the e a r l y E n g l i s h systems.  In a d i s -  c u s s i o n before the Shorthand Society, London, i n 1883, famous reporter, Thomas. A l l e n Seed, an a u t h o r i t y on  the  Pitman's  Shorthand, has t h i s to say : "The advantage of joined vowels i s no doubt very great. I f a good system could be constructed i n which the vowels and consonants could be a l l joined continuously, and, at the same time, the system could be as b r i e f , as other systems without vowels are, such a system would be a desideratum we should a l l h a i l with d e l i g h t . " The Gregg System has proved t o be such a system with i t s joined vowels.  The u n s c i e n t i f i c and i l l o g i c a l nature of  d i s j o i n e d vowels as used by Pitman has been pointed out by the -great E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t and philosopher, Herbert Spencer :  26. "The vowels are not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The sounds "e, a, ah" are i n d i c a t e d by dots, and "Jou, o, oo" by s m a l l dashes; and i t i s h a r d l y expected t h a t i n r a p i d w r i t i n g these marks can be made w i t h such accuracy as t o i n s u r e t h e i r i d e n t i fication. Moreover, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l vowels, dependent as i t i s upon the p l a e i n g of the dot or dash a t the b e g i n n i n g , middle, or end o f a consonant i s such as cannot be observed with certainty. And, f u r t h e r , the g r e a t e r heaviness of touch by which the l o n g vowels are known from the s h o r t ones can never be g i v e n w i t h a n y t h i n g l i k e p r e c i s i o n w i t h o u t an amount o f care i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h expedition-." "Phonography l o o k s simple i n consequence o f these movements h a v i n g no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s upon paper, w h i l s t i n r e a l i t y they r e q u i r e an equal amount o f time w i t h those that leave v i s i b l e s i g n s behind them. May, more: to l i f t the p o i n t o f a p e n c i l from the paper and c a r r y i t over the s u r f a c e to make a dot a t some other p l a c e , i n v o l v e s a more complicated muscular a c t i o n than i t s t r a n s f e r e n c e to the same p o i n t a l o n g the s u r f a c e ( t h a t i s , w i t h out l e a v i n g the p a p e r ) , and p r o b a b l y more time i s expended i n the motion." The i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t y which the student encounters i n s e p a r a t i n g vowels and consonants i s well-known of shorthand.  to a l l teachers  I f the student takes up Pitman, he i s taught  to make o u t l i n e s of the consonant  c h a r a c t e r s and omit a l l  s i l e n t l e t t e r s and vowels, which may  g i v e him the same out-  l i n e s f o r such words as " e a s t e r n , S a t u r n , A u s t r i a n , s t e r n and strain".  Since the student has f o r t e n or f i f t e e n years  looked upon language as composed of consonants and  vowel  sounds, i t w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y take him s e v e r a l months to l e a r n to l o o k a t the language difficult,  i n t h i s new way.  While w r i t i n g i s  the r e a d i n g i s s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t , and  conse-  q u e n t l y the t r a n s c r i p t i s o f t e n f a u l t y . One of the most p o w e r f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the agree-  ments i n favor of joined vowels was made by Mr. Hugh Callendar, B.A. „ Fellow o f T r i n i t y College, Cambridge, author o f "Cursive Shorthand" : "In the d i s j o i n e d vowel systems the consonant o u t l i n e of each word i s w r i t t e n f i r s t , and the vowels are dotted i n afterwards i n t h e i r proper p l a c e s . This i s c a l l e d v o c a l i z i n g ' the o u t l i n e . The w r i t e r has to go over each word twice, i n a h i g h l y a r t i f i c i a l and unnatural order, i f he wants to put i n the vowels, that i s to say, i f he wishes h i s w r i t i n g to be l e g i b l e 1  •^  L  11  " I t i s o f t e n maintained that a detached vowel mark counts i n l o s s of time only about as much as an extra l i f t i n g of the pen. This i s very f a r from true. In a d d i t i o n to the l i f t i n g o f the pen there i s the time occupied i n making the stroke o r dot and l o c a t i n g i t c a r e f u l l y i n i t s proper p o s i t i o n . This i s found to be longer than the time required f o r the mere making o f the same number o f dots and ticks irrespective of position. Besides t h i s , detached vowels u s u a l l y involve h e s i t a t i o n . After f i n i s h i n g the consonant o u t l i n e the w r i t e r has to make up h i s mind what vowels to i n s e r t , and where; or whether he can leave the o u t l i n e u n v o c a l i z e d . But the most serious h e s i t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y occurs, and t h i s even w i t h the most s k i l f u l w r i t e r s , a f t e r i n s e r t i n g the vo?>/els and before proceeding to the next words. This i s most s t r o n g l y marked a f t e r i n s e r t i n g two or more vowels i n one o u t l i n e . It i s probably due to the i l l o g i c a l order i n which the vowels are w r i t t e n . The r e s u l t i s that the i n s e r t i o n of detached vowel marks involves such a d i s proportionate expenditure of time that they must be omitted when w r i t i n g at any reasonable speed." "The c h i e f advantage o f detached vowels i s that they present an appearance of b r e v i t y , and look neat, especially i n print. They are so inconspicuous that the inexperienced person does not r e a l i z e the d i f f i c u l t y of i n s e r t i n g them a c c u r a t e l y and takes no account of the a e r i a l movements of the pen which their insertion involves." 5,  Shading: Pitman employs the shading p r i n c i p l e , whereas Gregg  uses a l i g h t l i n e method.  The "Phonographic  Magazine",  C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio, (the organ of the Ben Pitman-system) f o r May,  1889,  has t h i s statement :  "Undoubtedly, there are many o u t l i n e s which are recogn i z a b l e from t h e i r general form without reference to s h a d i n g — w i t h the shading omitted, or even with the shaded and l i g h t strokes reversed. But such o u t l i n e s are r e l a t i v e l y few, and are only the forms o f l o n g words or o f h i g h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phrases. Thousands of words and phrases of only one and two strokes depend upon c o r r e c t shading not only f o r ready l e g i b i l i t y , but f o r a degree of l e g i b i l i t y which enables the w r i t e r to read them at a l l . " Some years ago a well-known Chicago law r e p o r t e r , Mr W.B.  MeDermut, i n w r i t i n g on the subject o f shading, s a i d : " F o r t y years ago Mr. Graham t a b u l a t e d the r e s u l t s of experiments made to test the r e l a t i v e b r e v i t y of c e r t a i n characters and combinations. His t a b l s s showed that l i g h t characters are at l e a s t ten per cent more r a p i d than heavy ones. I have demons t r a t e d with shorthand c l a s s e s that t h i s , i s the minimum d i f f e r e n c e and some w r i t e r s c l a i m that the advantage of l i g h t strokes amounts to t h i r t y per eent." In the preface to the "Modern Stenographer",  George H. Thornton, former president of the New  Mr.  York State  Stenographers A s s o c i a t i o n and o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e r of the Supreme Court, Hew  York, s a i d :  " I t has f i n a l l y become the experience o f the most expert stenographers that o u t l i n e s which depend upon shading f o r t h e i r l e g i b i l i t y are i n general unsafe o u t l i n e s to adopt. — - ^ - I f , as experience has taught, t h i s shading of the o u t l i n e s can be done away with, i t i s u s e l e s s to t e l l a p r a c t i c a l stenographer of the immense advantage i n p o i n t of speed to be gained thereby . The essence of t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s recognized by Mr. Munson i n h i s ""Complete Stenographer*, f o r he says that increase of speed i s attended with decrease of f o r c e , and t h e r e f o r e that a l l stems would be w r i t t e n as l i g h t as consistent with l e g i b i l i t y . I f t h i s i s true, the converse of the p r o p o s i t i o n most n a t u r a l l y follows, that the increase of force n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e d i n the shading of the o u t l i n e s  29. "must be attended with decrease o f speed. It i s so apparent that a p l a i n system can be w r i t t e n with.a g r e a t l y increased r a p i d i t y that i t i s 'hardly worth while t o demonstrate i t . " A pamphlet on b e h a l f o f Sloan-Duployan Shorthand, ent i t l e d "Revolution i n Shorthand" ( w r i t t e n and copyrighted by Mr. Thomas S. Malone, then the Glasgow agent f o r SloanDuployan and who l a t e r became i d e n t i f i e d with " S c r i p t Phonography") claims that one of "the l e a d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f s t r u c t u r e from which the system derives i t s c h i e f excellence i s the absence of shading,  or the use o f l i g h t and heavy signs,  which i s only introduced by Mr. Sloan into h i s adaptation to meet a p e c u l i a r i t y of the E n g l i s h language with regard to one p a r t i c u l a r l e t t e r o f constant reourrence". t h i s s u c c i n c t statement  Then follows  of t h e e v i l s o f shading :  "The extensive use o f the process o f shading o u t l i n e s , although very g e n e r a l i n the o l d systems, i s a most objectionable p r i n c i p l e i n shorthand, being an. obs t r u c t i o n o f speed, i f used, and a source o f i l l e g i b i l i t y , i f neglected." 6.  Position Writing: The expedient  of w r i t i n g words i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  p o s i t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the l i n e of w r i t i n g i s a very o l d one, and one that has been used f o r almost purpose. ing  every conceivable  I t has been used f o r doubling l e t t e r s , f o r i n d i c a t -  omission o f vowels o r consonants and as a means o f d i s -  t i n c t i o n between word forms. It i s not g e n e r a l l y known t h a t Isaac Pitman r e j e c t e d p o s i t i o n - w r i t i n g i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n s of h i s system and condemned i t u n s p a r i n g l y .  W r i t i n g about some o f the e a r l i e r  systems, he s a i d : "Systems of shorthand that depend f o r t h e i r existence ^upon staves, l i k e music, or even on a s i n g l e l i n e on which the l e t t e r s have a t h r e e - f o l d power of expressi n g d i f f e r e n t words above, on, or below the l i n e are c e r t a i n l y p r a c t i c a b l e , but they are not p r a c t i c a l . " But as time went on Pitman found that, on account o f the omission o f vowels i n h i s system i n p r a c t i c a l w r i t i n g , many words c o n t a i n i n g the same consonants but d i f f e r e n t vowels, were misread.  He, t h e r e f o r e , r e l u c t a n t l y introduced  position-writing. In a discussion a t a meeting o f the Manchester D i s t r i c t of the Incorporated Society of Shorthand  Teachers,Mr.  Sandiford, a well-known and accomplished teacher o f Pitman's Shorthand, s a i d : "Mr. Hallam has dwelt on the point that v o c a l i z a t i o n i n Pitman i s now much l e s s s c i e n t i f i c than i t used to be, that i t i s more d i f f i c u l t than ever to decipher a word, that more i s thrown upon p o s i t i o n w r i t i n g than ever before, and that p o s i t i o n - w r i t i n g i n i t s e l f is.one of the most dangerous expedients you can p o s s i b l y have i n any system o f shorthand." "That i s my c o n c l u s i o n , too. I t i s , i t seems to me, a mistake on the p a r t of the Pitmanites to l a b o r the question o f the p o s i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f vowels. A f t e r a l l , p o s i t i o n t e l l s you n e i t h e r what the vowel i s , where i t i s , i n what part of the word i t occurs, whether i t i s before a c onsonant or a f t e r a consonant, nor supposing i t i s , say, a f i r s t - p l a c e vowel, which p a r t i c u l a r f i r s t - p l a c e vowel or diphthong i t i s . In point o f f a c t , i f you t r y to decipher an outline apart from content, you may have to run through a dozen .words before you h i t upon the correct one." Mr. David Wolfe Brown, i n h i s book, "The F a c t o r s of Shorthand Speed", i n d e t a i l i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s which students encounter, s a i d  31. " I f thus u n s k i l l e d as to the requirements of the r e p o r t i n g s t y l e , he must not only t h i n k out the whole o u t l i n e before s t a r t i n g to write i t , but with the ."outline mentally suspended, must decide which o f perhaps half-a-dozen vowels (heard p o s s i b l y none too d i s t i n c t l y ) i s the one which should determine the ' r e p o r t i n g p o s i t i o n ' of the o u t l i n e — • I ask them to w r i t e some word, not very d i f f i c u l t , but whieh they have never w r i t t e n before and they hesitate painfully. The pen seems u n w i l l i n g or unable to touch the paper. Mind and hand appear paralyzed. 'What boggles you?' I ask; and they r e p l y , Oh, I can write the o u t l i n e but I am t r y i n g to t h i n k o f the p o s i t i o n l ' This i s o f t e n t h e i r p i t i a b l e p l i g h t a f t e r . t h e y have been w r i t i n g s h o r t hand f o r months and months I" 1  There i s mental e f f o r t i n t h i n k i n g ahead about the p o s i t i o n i n which words should be p l a c e d .  There i s p h y s i c a l  e f f o r t i n dodging from one p o s i t i o n to another, i n s t e a d of proceeding continuously along the l i n e of w r i t i n g .  Not  only  i s p o s i t i o n - w r i t i n g a tax on the memory and a constant source of h e s i t a t i o n , but the changing of the p o s i t i o n of the hand i n p l a c i n g the words,.now above, now below, now i n t e r f e r e s w i t h both speed and 7.  on the l i n e ,  legibility.  Lineality: l i n e a l i t y i n shorthand w r i t i n g i s understood  to mean  w r i t i n g . t h a t keeps to the l i n e i n s t e a d o f running i n a downward or i n an upward d i r e c t i o n .  It i s obvious that i f the  w r i t i n g descends below the l i n e of w r i t i n g or shoots upward, there i s an i n e f f e c t u a l movement i n g e t t i n g back to the l i n e . The great E n g l i s h philosopher, Herbert Spencer, i n d i s c u s s i n g shorthand  systems, described such i n e f f e c t u a l e f f o r t s as the  "unregistered movements o f the  pen".  In comparing shorthand systems, the importance  of  32. l l n e a l i t y - - t h e continuous  movement o f the hand along the l i n e  •^-is too often overlooked  and yet i t i s a f a c t o r of paramount  importance.  When p r o p e r l y understood, t h i s matter o f l i n e a l -  i t y makes c l e a r some otherwise hand h i s t o r y .  i n e x p l i c a b l e events i n short-  We constantly see references to the extraord-  i n a r y v i t a l i t y o f the systems o f Gurney and Taylor^-the former having been i n existence n e a r l y two c e n t u r i e s and the l a t t e r more than a century.  The explanation o f the l o n g e v i t y o f  these o l d systems i s to be found i n the fact that they are free from shading and p o s i t i o n - w r i t i n g ; consequently, the authors were able to s e l e c t l i n e a l , easy characters f o r the most frequent l e t t e r s .  The w r i t i n g although lengthy, i s  more l i k e a f r e e , onward running s c r i p t — a n d therefore r a p i d . In h i s keen a n a l y t i c a l c r i t i c i s m o f Pitman's Shorthand, Herbert  Spencer s a i d , among other t h i n g s :  " I t does not keep to the l i n e . This i s an e v i l common to a l l shorthand h i t h e r t o published—-an e v i l productive not only o f inelegance, but of great i n convenience, and one which must s e r i o u s l y m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t the general adoption o f any method of w r i t i n g which does not a v o i d i t . " David Wolfe Brown, i n commenting on Mr. Spencer's views, s a i d : "Whatever e l s e we may think o f Herbert Spencer as a shorthand c r i t i c , there i s a t l e a s t one o f h i s r e marks that should give us food f o r s e r i o u s r e f l e c tion. I t i s undoubtedly true that 'the unregistered movements'—-those i n which the pen or p e n c i l moves over the paper without touching i t — c o n s u m e an equal amount of time with s i m i l a r movements that leave v i s i b l e signs behind them. This being true, one o f the most obvious o f shorthand lessons i s to spend as l i t t l e time as p o s s i b l e i n 'unregistered movements'—• i n executing unwritten s t r o k e s - — i n w r i t i n g ' i n the air'."  Among the suggestions  made by Mr,  Brown f o r reducing  "the unwritten stroke" to a minimum, i s t h i s : "By a v o i d i n g a l l unnecessary c a r r y i n g of the pen or p e n c i l above or below the normal l i n e of w r i t i n g . " In a s e r i e s of s c h o l a r l y and h i g h l y - a n a l y t i c a r t i c l e s on "The A r t of Phrasing", which were published i n "The grapher and Phonographic World" i n 1919,  Professor  Steno-  A.H.  Codington (a Pitman w r i t e r ) discussed the subject of l i n e a l i t y as f o l l o w s : "The e a s i e s t n a t u r a l method o f w r i t i n g i s upon or close to the l i n e . As only two to four v e r t i c a l or s l o p i n g stroke-lengths can occupy the space between two l i n e s o f w r i t i n g (depending upon the shorthand system and the s i z e of the w r i t e r ' s notes) any ascent or descent o f more than two or two-and-ah a l f strokes below or above the l i n e of w r i t i n g i s l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e with the w r i t i n g on the l i n e above or below. long ascents or descents cramp the hand and impair speed and l e g i b i l i t y . Lineality avoids the i n t e r m i x i n g o f o u t l i n e s and the delays i n dodging o u t l i n e s which ascend or descend too far,and should c o n t r o l good phrasing. The s u p e r i o r l i n e a l i t y of Gregg Shorthand to that of Pitmanic and others, through i t s h o r i z o n t a l s , slopes, and l a c k of downward perpendiculars and I t s consequent a d a p t a b i l i t y to easy, sweeping phrases along the l i n e of w r i t i n g , i s one of i t s strongest p o i n t s . " The  Committee on Shorthand Standards of the New  State Shorthand Reporters"  York  A s s o c i a t i o n has declared that :  "Assignment of signs to sounds should give a f a c t o r of h o r i z o n t a l l i n e a l i t y o f not l e s s than 75%. This f a c t o r of l i n e a l i t y v a r i e s f o r well-known shorthand systems from just under 50% f o r most Pitmanic systems to just over 90% f o r Gregg."  34.  ' " .  CHAPTEB V. Conclusion.  The f i r s t chapter o f t h i s t h e s i s has described the experiment which was c a r r i e d on a t the Eairview.High School of Commerce f o r the purpose o f seeing which system o f shorthand, Gregg o r Pitman, gave the b e t t e r r e s u l t s .  I t was noted that  the experiment was conducted with groups o f students who were s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the v o c a t i o n a l aspect o f the commercial  course  and not with students e n r o l l e d i n the regular four year high sohool course.  The two groups were approximately-equal i n  i n t e l l i g e n c e and previous academic t r a i n i n g .  Both took the  same course, spending two periods o f f o r t y minutes each day on the study of shorthand. In the second chapter the d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s o f each t e s t were presented.. i t s superiority.  In every t e s t the Gregg group proved  These r e s u l t s have also been s e t up i n  graphic form and w i l l be found i n the appendix o f t h i s  thesis.  A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the e v o l u t i o n of shorthand p r i n c i p l e s was then o u t l i n e d .  Ho attempt was made to catalogue  the names and works o f the various shorthand authors, as i s the case with most of the h i s t o r i e s that have appeared i n the past.  T h i s l e d to a d i s c u s s i o n of some o f the basic p r i n -  c i p l e s which the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s should be embodied i n a good shorthand system.  Many shorthand a u t h o r i t i e s were quoted i n  support o f these p r i n c i p l e s .  Most of the a u t h o r i t i e s  quoted  - ; • .  3.5.  were Pitman w r i t e r s who recognized system which they were u s i n g .  the weaknesses  o f the  They agreed t h a t a system  which f o l l o w e d the p r i n c i p l e s o f longhand w r i t i n g was p r e f e r able to the system which they used ( 1 ) .  Some o f these  f e a t u r e s were the use of c h a r a c t e r s which s l o p e i n one way, no shading o r t h i c k e n i n g o f the c h a r a c t e r s , the j o i n i n g of vowels and consonants and the p l a c i n g o f words i n one p o s i t i o n w i t h r e l a t i o n to the l i n e o f w r i t i n g . Much space could be g i v e n to a more e l a b o r a t e present a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f both Pitman and Gregg Shorthand. But the purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o see which system gave the better results.  The a c t u a l achievement of the group studying  Gregg Shorthand has shown the soundness o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h i s system.  The fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between Pitman  Shorthand and Gregg Shorthand i s t h a t , Pitman Shorthand i s based on the c i r c l e and i t s segments and Gregg i s based on the e l l i p s e or o v a l .  As Pitman Shorthand i s based on t h e c i r c l e ,  i t s c h a r a c t e r s a r e supposed to be drawn w i t h geometric prec i s i o n (2) and are s t r u c k i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s .  The  characters,  being s t r u c k i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , n e c e s s i t a t e c o n t i n u a l change i n the p o s i t i o n of the hand w h i l e w r i t i n g . As Gregg Shorthand i s based on the e l l i p s e or o v a l , i t i s w r i t t e n with a uniform slope.  This i s i n accordance  (1)  See Chapter IV.  (2)  Isaac Pitman, i n the Seventh E d i t i o n of h i s Manual.  36. with the p r i n c i p l e s o f the Maclean System of Handwriting which most of the students i n t h i s province  (B.C.) study.  .The students who studied Gregg Shorthand found that the chara c t e r s were f a m i l i a r and n a t u r a l to the hand.  Those who  studied Pitman Shorthand had to l e a r n new habits o f w r i t i n g . The student or w r i t e r o f a system founded on a system o f longhand w r i t i n g , as Gregg, r e q u i r i n g the same p o s i t i o n o f hand and f i n g e r s , and the same movements as longhand, s t a r t s on the study with an i n i t i a l advantage over the student who has to change from w r i t i n g h a b i t s already e s t a b l i s h e d .  The w r i t e r  b e l i e v e s that t h i s explains i n a l a r g e measure the superior r e s u l t s o f the.Gregg group. incorporates  In a d d i t i o n , the Gregg system  the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s which have been discussed.  The f o l l o w i n g quotation  from the "Story of Gregg Shorthand"  gives a concise r e p e t i t i o n o f these p r i n c i p l e s : " I regard the alphabet as a n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n o f the best p r i n c i p l e s of a l l systems mentioned. In i t s making, therefore, c r e d i t i s due to the great shorthand authors of the past, whose genius cleared the path f o r progress. The c h i e f d i s t i n c t i o n I claim f o r Gregg Shorthand i s that while other systems embody one or more n a t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s — r s u c h as absence o f shading or p o s i t i o n of w r i t i n g , or uniform s l a n t , or l i n e a l , continuous movement, or connective vowels—Gregg Shorthand i s the only system embodying a l l these n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . "  37.  APPENDIX A. Supplementary Observations. During the course o f the experiment, i n a d d i t i o n to the  t e s t s conducted by the Bureau o f Measurements, an accurate  record  o f the speed c e r t i f i c a t e s won by the Gregg c l a s s and  the time i t took to a t t a i n the various speeds, was kept by the writer.  These are presented below.  Each d i c t a t i o n t e s t was  f i v e minutes and the t r a n s c r i p t i o n had to have l e s s than two per cent of e r r o r . (a)  (b)  In March a f t e r s i x months' t r a i n i n g : 19  members o f the c l a s s had received c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed o f 60 words per minute.  4  members o f the c l a s s had received c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed o f 80 words per minute.  In A p r i l a f t e r seven months' t r a i n i n g : 29  members o f the c l a s s had received c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed o f 60 words per minute.  15  members o f the c l a s s had received c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed o f 80 words per minute.  2  members o f the c l a s s had received certificates  (c)  f o r a speed of 100words per minute.  In May a f t e r eight months' t r a i n i n g : 31 28 9  members of the c l a s s had c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed members o f the c l a s s had c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed  received of 60 words per minute. received o f 80 words per minute.  members o f the c l a s s had received c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r a speed o f lOOwords per minute.  In June a f t e r n i n e months' t r a i n i n g : A l l members o f the o l a s s had 60-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . A l l members o f the c l a s s had-80-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . 14 members o f t h e c l a s s had 100-word c e r t i f i c a t e s . 3 members o f t h e c l a s s had 125-word c e r t i f i c a t e s .  APPENDIX B. Copies o f P i n a l T e s t s .  TEST l i bank cash check money youth happy bill away tenth back early mail envy coach shabby keg shed month judge canoe fetch fish Canada party vote  pack pocket ledge candy dock ready hurry baggage penny golf share reach relay pity orb web tap live kill gull roam bale hook bit leave  fear show page may cape boat pool way teach cool move keep fee meek tea sho re fair coal hawk tare rogue folk towed bay bought  cocoa gate goat both thawed chalk shave ace loaf rake malm yolk loam eel range meal veer hoop beam four launch fourth dollar wing hinge  TEST 2.  cube tile boil dial rout loyalty towel item oiling argue now type alive deny enjoy review duly loudly occupy failure wash five enjoy deputy knife  lively affair allow tenth assume authority purity rowdy refuge defy power enemy tunic ready early out big likely easy nephew accuracy guarantee thorough fellow voyage  happy lame shabby tube wrong fish long belonged rod cash length ring hotel  farm  thief took avenue manage seat suppose series race seal zenith spice  sailing sleep rejoice excites sixty seeming muscle sneak sunk sings desk raisin custom unsafe hazel casks wiser facing spokes speed solo self revise risks tacit  ESS 3?  stake store coast arms e d poster masterpiece lustres style stages steamer stave chests guests infused faster registers elastic best stop wastes voiced dismissed ministers coasters already  sweep raises necessity exist exercise aware necessary walk wag awoke swiftest swear voices laces leases census possessive worry assail daisy beset science saucer joyous saw-dust  3 assume carry absence business officer arrive pray keeper blows couple delicacy places reply cable claim smuggle stable label cloud desirable title crow cruises break trust  address ledger great crowd reader crossing robber louder dream track pride breathe apply country week black cloth price bottles cost supposed sorry assist lesson happy  42. TEST 4. Dear Robert: I was very pleased to r e c e i v e your l e t t e r l a s t Saturday and to hear of the good news which i t contained.  I am  glad that you are teaching a t the T e c h n i c a l and Commercial College and that you f i n d the work so agreeable.  I shall  always be pleased to hear from you whenever you can spare the time to w r i t e . I l i k e your suggestion that we should spend a h o l i d a y on tour with our b i c y c l e s , but I am a f r a i d that the d i s t r i c t you suggest w i l l not prove so i n t e r e s t i n g nor so enjoyable as some other parts o f the country which we might cover.  As you  are probably aware, the country round Norwich i s very f l a t indeed and w h i l s t the Broads are i n t e r e s t i n g , the scenery cannot be compared with that o f the West*  Instead of taking  the route you mention, I would suggest that we make a tour o f the Wye V a l l e y with the s t a r t i n g point a t Hereford, r e t u r n i n g by way of Bath and the Midland Counties.  I am sure you  would enjoy t h i s round, because there are so many places of i n t e r e s t through which we should pass, and, although  cycling  would be a l i t t l e harder, we should be w e l l repaid f o r our efforts.  I f , however, you have a l r e a d y been over t h i s part  of the country, a f u r t h e r suggestion would be to go up into the lake D i s t r i c t and spend most o f the time walking instead of c y c l i n g ; or, i f you are fond o f climbing, you would f i n d  43. many o p p o r t u n i t i e s among the mountains f o r t h i s k i n d o f enjoy ment.*  Perhaps you w i l l c o n s i d e r these suggestions and l e t m  •know what you t h i n k about them.  I f you a r e a b l e t o come t o  L i v e r p o o l a t E a s t e r we could d i s c u s s them t o g e t h e r and I have no doubt would soon reach a d e c i s i o n , Yours s i n c e r e l y , Ered.  44.  TEST 5. E x p l a i n i n g that they have not attempted i n any way to consider problems of p o l i c y , the committee nevertheless are of the opinion that the economic information a v a i l a b l e i n Great B r i t a i n i s inadequate to enable the country to deal w i t l the d i f f i c u l t economic questions with which the country i s faced*  The committee agree that the d i s c l o s i n g o f informa-  t i o n alone w i l l not create i n d u s t r i a l peace, but they are s a t i s f i e d that i n d u s t r i a l peace cannot be a t t a i n e d without i t . In an atmosphere o f secrecy, i t i s s a i d , i t i s impossible f o r the wage-earners to be sure that they are r e c e i v i n g equitable treatment, or f o r the p u b l i c to form a sound opinion on the merits o f any p a r t i c u l a r dispute.  An a n a l y s i s of i n d u s t r i e s  i n which a c e r t a i n amount o f p u b l i c i t y already e x i s t s convinces the committee that the c o l l e c t i o n of complete and r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l information has been u s e f u l i n i n d u s t r i a l n e g o t i a t i o n s , since a l l p a r t i e s are made aware o f the true position.  The information, however, i s very p a r t i a l , and the  committee recommend as a necessary and p r a c t i c a l b e minimum that i t should include the f o l l o w i n g points f o r each industry: (a)  total  production,  (b)  cost o f m a t e r i a l ,  (c)  cost o f labour.  It i s not suggested that the a c t u a l r e s u l t s o f p a r t i c u l a r firms should be published, but that they should be made  45. a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c i n an aggregate form. The  committee recommend that the Board o f Trade should  be g i v e n s t a t u t o r y powers to inaugurate a l t h o u g h i t should be p e r m i t t e d  a scheme of p u b l i c i t y ,  to delegate  i t s powers where  there i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body i n an i n d u s t r y capable of doing the work.  I t i s a l s o suggested t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s should  be  f u r n i s h e d of s t o c k s , d e l i v e r i e s , and o r d e r s , s i n c e i t i s bel i e v e d t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l tend to check v i o l e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n trade and m i t i g a t e the r i s k o f sudden trade booms and d e p r e s s i o n s .  I n the i n t e r e s t s o f i n v e s t o r s the committee  a l s o recommend the p u b l i c a t i o n o f much f u l l e r i n f o r m a t i o n company t r a d i n g accounts.  The  of  report indicates further  p o i n t s on which a d d i t i o n a l p a r t i c u l a r s might be made a v a i l a b l e i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the p u b l i c , as w e l l as of those who p e r s o n a l l y concerned w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s .  are  TEST 6, • Dear Madam: You are t h e winner o f the enclosed c e r t i f i c a t e which i s sent as a r e s u l t o f your g r a d i n g i n our recent a r t t e s t . We c o n g r a t u l a t e you upon your success. You seem t o understand one o f the very important fundamentals i n a r t , and t h a t i s proper p r o p o r t i o n . Though your technique i s not p e r f e c t , we b e l i e v e i t i s s u p e r i o r to t h a t o f t h e average u n t r a i n e d a r t i s t . Your questions have been i n t e l l i g e n t l y answered and are an i n d i c a t i o n o f good a r t i s t i c understanding. With t h i s t e s t e d p r o o f o f your a b i l i t y , - we b e l i e v e you can e n t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h a good chance o f success i n the commercial a r t f i e l d . There i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t you should be able to earn a good income, i n a compara t i v e l y s h o r t time. Your o p p o r t u n i t y has come and we are going t o be very much i n t e r e s t e d i n your p r o g r e s s , f o r i t can e a s i l y be seen by your work that you should do very w e l l as a commercial a r t i s t . A g a i n l e t me t e l l you how g l a d we a r e going to be to welcome you as a s t u d e n t . Your progress w i l l - b e f o l l o w e d very c l o s e l y and we are c o u n t i n g on you f o r b i g t h i n g s . You s h o u l d be a c r e d i t t o y o u r s e l f and our s c h o o l s , I w i l l be g l a d t o see you make your s t a r t , n o t o n l y because t h e work of an a r t i s t i s so f a s c i n a t i n g , but because I b e l i e v e that your a b i l i t y should b r i n g good r e t u r n s i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s . That means f i n a n c i a l independence—having what you want. I am g l a d you r e c e i v e d the g r a d i n g you d i d . We send you our h e a r t y c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s . Please do n o t f o r g e t the date, because your c e r t i f i c a t e cannot be accepted by us u n l e s s your a p p l i c a t i o n reaches us before J u l y SO.  Yours t r u l y ,  47.  TEST 7. Mr. P r e s i d e n t , I s h a l l be very b r i e f i n what I have to say. They t e l l us t h a t we a r e seeking to confer s p e c i a l f a v o r s on a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f our c i t i z e n s . I r e c a l l the time when we d i d s i n g l e out these e x - s e r v i c e men and d i s t i n g u i s h between them and a l l other c l a s s e s o f our people. I remember when we c i t e d them t o appear when o t h e r s had no n o t i c e to appear f o r s e r v i c e i n the Army and i n the Navy. I r e c a l l when we took them away from t h e i r homes and l o v e d ones. We d i d not ask them whether they were ready to go o r w i l l i n g t o go. We n o t i f i e d them t h a t t h e y had been drawn under the d r a f t system f o r s e r v i c e , not o n l y t o f i g h t i n t h e i r own country, to r e p e l an i n v a d i n g f o e , b u t t h a t they were t o do something t h a t no U n i t e d S t a t e s s o l d i e r s had ever done b e f o r e , namely, go abroad and f i g h t on f o r e i g n s o i l , w i t h f o r e i g n armies. We p l a c e d s p e c i a l duties upon them then, d i f f e r e n t from t h a t imposed upon any other c i t i z e n . We a r e t o l d here t h a t these men are n o t e n t i t l e d t o any s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; that they should be t r e a t e d l i k e the other c i t i z e n s . Many o f them would have been d e l i g h t e d to have been t r e a t e d t h a t way i n 1917. Many of them saw boys remain a t home t h a t they thought ought t o go to the war; but they d i d n o t murmur. Not one o f them r a i s e d h i s hand i n protest. They put on the u n i f o r m o f t h e i r country. They t o o k guns and marched away, and they gave an account o f thems e l v e s on the b a t t l e l i n e i n Prance that r e f l e c t e d c r e d i t and g l o r y not o n l y upon themselves, but upon the people o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and upon the a l l i e d cause. Mr. P r e s i d e n t , we t r u s t e d them not o n l y w i t h the l i t t l e sum they were drawing o f $50,00 a month, but we t r u s t e d them to p r o t e c t and guard a l l the wealth of t h i s N a t i o n , the r i c h e s t n a t i o n i n a l l the w o r l d . We d i d not f a i l to t r u s t them then. We f l u n g no c l o u d o f s u s p i c i o n upon them then. We did not i n any way b e l i t t l e them then. But l o n g ' a f t e r our f o r t u n e s were preserved, and l o n g a f t e r the p r o f i t e e r s have made t h e i r m i l l i o n s , r i d i c u l e i s h u r l e d a t them. I t seems that the s o l d i e r boy who stood between us and the German Army i s f o r g o t t e n now. The c r y o f d i s t r e s s t h a t comes up from these e x - s e r v i c e boys i n the S t a t e s , the n o t i c e g i v e n t h a t the wolves o f want and hunger a r e howling around t h e i r doors, and t h a t t h e i r l o v e d ones a r e i n d i s t r e s s do not seem t o a p p e a l to some gentlemen now who were p a t t i n g the boys on the back i n 1917 when they were j o u r n e y i n g to a f o r e i g n b a t t l e f i e l d t o p r o t e c t t h e i r r i g h t s and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .  48. Mr. P r e s i d e n t , d u r i n g the two years t h a t these boys were s e r v i n g t h e i r country i n u n i f o r m , the men who remained at home, many o f whom a r e now s t r o n g l y opposing t h i s arrangement, made m i l l i o n s f o r themselves out o f the war.  49. TEST 8 DEPARTMENT 01 EDUCATION, B.C. High School Examination, June, 1930. T h i r d - y e a r Course, Commercial. Shorthand D i c t a t i o n  (To the P r e s i d i n g Examiner, -  (Time, 3 hours.)  Three hours are t o be allowed  the candidates from the time t h a t the d i c t a t i o n i s f i n i s h e d . P r o v i d e candidates w i t h p l a i n white l e t t e r paper, or books, f o r t r a n s c r i p t s ; and w i t h f o o l s c a p , or stenographers' books, f o r t a k i n g n o t e s . or p e n c i l . written.  note-  Notes may be taken w i t h e i t h e r pen  T r a n s c r i p t s may be e i t h e r p e n - w r i t t e n or typeThe teacher o f the candidates may d i c t a t e the  s e l e c t i o n s , and may be g i v e n the m a t e r i a l f i f t e e n minutes bef o r e d i c t a t i n g , so that he may prepare the t i m i n g o f h i s d i c tation.  Important.-  c l o s e l y checked  The teacher's d i c t a t i o n must be  f o r time; and he must be p o s i t i v e l y stopped a t  the end o f the f i f t h minute on each s e l e c t i o n . ) (To t h e D i c t a t o r . -  The d i c t a t i o n must be a t a u n i f o r m r a t e  o f speed w i t h c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e quarter-minute marks and ' w i t h watch i n hand.  .The m a t e r i a l must n o t be read, nor any  word i n i t mentioned, p r i o r t o the a c t u a l d i c t a t i o n .  Allow  three minutes a f t e r each s e c t i o n , i n order t h a t candidates may review t h e i r notes and r e c o v e r from t h e t e n s i o n o f a f i v e minutes'  take.)  50,  (To the Candidates.- Candidates A, B, and C.  w i l l hand i n three  transcripts-  Each t r a n s c r i p t should begin on a separate page.  Shorthand notes must be handed i n * be placed on each separate  Examination numfeer must  sheets)  "A" (Eighty words per minute. S y l l a b i c i n t e n s i t y not exceeding  1,5)  The i n f o r m a t i o n o f the agencies i s given out i n three forms (1)  D a i l y sheets c o n t a i n i n g mention of a l l new ( 1 / 4 ) i n c o r p o r a t i o n s , bankruptcies, f a i l u r e s , and new business establishments;  (E)  a q u a r t e r l y r e g i s t e r or d i r e c t o r y ( 1 / 2 ) of the name, c a p i t a l r a t i n g , and c r e d i t r a t i n g of every i n d i v i d u a l and f i r m i n the United States and ( 3 / 4 ) Canada occupied i n merc a n t i l e , f i n a n c i a l , or i n d u s t r i a l c a l l i n g ; and  (3)  s p e c i a l c o n f i d e n t i a l reports furnished (1) upon request to s u b s c r i b e r s , concerning any s p e c i f i c business house* Every p r e c a u t i o n i s taken ( 1 / 4 ) against the sue of these r e ports f o r purposes not l e g i t i m a t e l y mercantile. They are c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d ( l / E ) summaries o f the character, h i s t o r y , a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l i n question; h i s wealth and debts, s o c i a l ( 3 / 4 ) standing and h a b i t s ; and a general expert opinion as to the extent t o which h i s c r e d i t i s good and the proper ( 2 ) manner of approaching him. The report i s intended to put together s i g n i f i c ant f a c t s , from which the experienced ( 1 / 4 ) c r e d i t man can b u i l d up h i s own impression*  The general d i r e c t o r y contains the names o f a l l firms ffioing any  ( 1 / 2 ) important business i n the United States, a r -  ranged by States and firm.  One  c i t i e s , w i t h an assigned r a t i n g f o r each  ( 3 / 4 ) agency publishes the names and addresses ,etc.,  5ij of 1,300,GOG f i r m s and c o r p o r a t i o n s .  These a r e (3) f r e -  q u e n t l y changed "by a d d i t i o n s , o b l i t e r a t i o n s , and o t h e r a l t e r e d ,  r a t i n g s , but every e f f o r t i s made to keep them up (1/4) t o date. N a t u r a l l y , t h i s m a t e r i a l i s i m p a r t i a l , and i t i s now l a r g e l y prepared w i t h the a c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e o f (1/2) the houses which are being r a t e d .  Houses wish t o e s t a b l i s h an  accurate r a t i n g upon going i n t o b u s i n e s s , (3/4) e s p e c i a l l y where t h e i r d e a l i n g s a r e i n d i s t a n t markets.  I n t h i s way  the commercial w o r l d i s dependent upon the r e s p o n s i b l e agency. (4) The two r a t i n g s g i v e n i n the q u a r t e r l y r a t e book are the c a p i t a l r a t i n g - an estimate of the amount o f the (1/4) c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d ; and the c r e d i t r a t i n g - an e s t i m a t e o f the degree o f confidence which can s a f e l y be granted (1/2) t o the given f i r m or i n d i v i d u a l .  These r a t i n g s a r e the f i n a l judg-  ment o f the agency's e x p e r t s , and t h a t they are u s u a l l y (3/4) sound may be surmised from the confidence p l a c e d i n them by the e n t i r e business .worid„  The c a p i t a l r a t i n g i s the o p i n i o n  (5) ©f the commercial value o f the a s s e t s . "B"  (One hundred words p e r minute.) The p r o t e c t i o n o f f o r e s t s from f i r e i s undoubtedly the most urgent and most important p a r t o f t h e work o f the d i f f e r e n t agencies a d m i n i s t e r i n g f o r e s t lands (1/4) i n Canada. In the case o f t h e Dominion Government, t h i s duty f a l l s  c h i e f l y on the F o r e s t Service of the Department of the Int e r i o r f o r a l l Dominion (1/2) Grown timber lands, whether w i t h i n . f o r e s t reserves or not.  C e r t a i n o f f i c e r s of the  various f o r e s t a u t h o r i t i e s are appointed e x - o f f i c i o of the Board o f (3/4) Railway Commissioners  officers  and are respons-  i b l e f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n along r a i l w a y l i n e s .  These guards  co-operate with the railway f i r e rangers employed by the various (1) r a i l w a y companies, the compulsory p a t r o l of a l l l i n e s throughout  the country being a Dominion law.  Other  Dominion l e g i s l a t i o n regulates the use o f f i r e f o r c l e a r i n g (1/4) and other l e g i t i m a t e purposes and provides f o r closed seasons during dangerous p e r i o d s . Each o f the P r o v i n c i a l Governments maintains a f i r e p r o t e c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n which co-operates with (1/2) owners and l i c e n s e e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of a l l timbered areas, the cost being d i s t r i b u t e d or covered by s p e c i a l taxes on timber lands• An i n t e r e s t i n g development (5/4) i n t h i s connection i n the province of Quebec i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a number of co-operative p r o t e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s among l e s s e e s of timber limits.  (2)  These a s s o c i a t i o n s have t h e i r own s t a f f s , which  co-operate with those o f the Board of Railway and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. the (1/4) way  Commissioners  This l a t t e r c o n t r i b u t e s i n  of money grants and a l s o pays f o r the p r o t e c t i o n  of vacant Crown lands l y i n g w i t h i n the areas of the association's a c t i v i t i e s . The most important (1/2) s i n g l e development i n f o r e s t  f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i n l a t e years has been the use of a i r c r a f t f o r ^ t h e d e t e c t i o n and suppression of i n c i p i e n t f o r e s t f i r e s , (5/4)  c o n s t i t u t i n g a measure of p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r than a cure.  'Shere l a k e s are numerous f l y i n g boats can be used both f o r d e t e c t i o n and f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (3) o f f i r e - f i g h t e r s  and  t h e i r equipment to f i r e s i n remote areas. Where safe l a n d i n g p l a c e s are few, land machines are used f o r the d e t e c t i o n and The  (1/4) i n s p e c t i o n of f i r e s o n l y .  a i r c r a f t are equipped w i t h w i r e l e s s and can r e p o r t the  exact l o c a t i o n of a f i r e as soon as i t has been detected.(1/2) These a i r c r a f t can be used i n c i d e n t a l l y f o r e x p l o r i n g remote areas, and mapping them by means of a e r i a l photography. As a g e n e r a l r u l e a i r c r a f t are used (3/4) i n the more remote d i s t r i c t s , w h i l e l o o k o u t towers connected by telephone l i n e s and equipped w i t h w i r e l e s s are e s t a b l i s h e d i n the more s e t t l e d and more (4) t r a v e l l e d f o r e s t areas. agencies have to a l a r g e extent supplanted  While these  the o l d canoe,  horseback and f o o t p a t r o l f o r d e t e c t i o n of f i r e s , a l a r g e  (1/4)  ground s t a f f w i t h i t s equipment s t o r e d a t s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s w i l l always be necessary f o r the f i g h t i n g of l a r g e r f i r e s  and  the maintenance of systems of communication (1/2) and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and of f i r e lanes and f i r e guards i n the f o r e s t . The most important  improvement i n f o r e s t f i r e  fighting  equipment has been (3/4) the p o r t a b l e g a s o l i n e f i r e pump. These pumps, which weigh a l i t t l e over a hundred pounds, can d e l i v e r e f f i c i e n t . w a t e r pressure (5).  three o r f o u r thousand f e e t .  54. tin  ,*  (One  it  hundred and twenty words per minute. )  I f I can a p p r e c i a t e my honourable f r i e n d ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h i s matter, he i s very desirous of p r o t e c t i n g both the i n v e s t o r s and the consumers i n a reasonable But  and f a i r way.  (1/4)  I cannot q u i t e agree w i t h h i s view as to'-the amount of  power l i k e l y to be used i n Canada.  I f i n d t h a t he bases h i s  estimate l a r g e l y on (1/2) t h a t made l a s t J u l y by the power commission. That commission estimated  t h a t some 40,000 horse-  power would be adequate f o r Canadian consumption.  But  one  o f the members o f the (3/4) O n t a r i o commission has t o l d us to-day t h a t 120,000 horse-power has been a p p l i e d f o r i n O n t a r i o , and t h a t , to a.very l a r g e e x t e n t , t h a t power would (1) be d e r i v e d from Niagara How i s correct?  Palls.  i s the m i n i s t e r going to a s c e r t a i n which estimate Yet t h a t i s an important  matter to determine  before the government grants any l i c e n c e s .  (1/4)  Suppose a company i n v e s t s s e v e r a l m i l l i o n s i n developi n g power a t Niagara P a l l s w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of s h i p p i n g the s u r p l u s to the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  I f t h a t company has the assur-  ance (1/2) of b e i n g able to s h i p 100,000 horse-power to the U n i t e d States during t e n years, i t knows what i t i s doing, i t b u i l d s i t s l i n e s a c c o r d i n g l y . (3/4)  and  I t s customers l i k e -  wise know what they are going to r e c e i v e , and they know f u r t h e r t h a t a t the end of t h a t p e r i o d the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that  55, t h i s s u r p l u s s u p p l i e d t o them (2) w i l l be r e q u i r e d by the Canadian consumers and they w i l l be no longer a b l e to get i t . But i f the r i g h t to s h i p power to the U n i t e d  States  may be (1/4) taken from t h a t company a t any moment, the s i t u ation i s altogether different. I t seems to me t h a t i t i s o f paramount importance that a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d should be f i x e d w i t h i n (1/2) which the r i g h t to export could be e x e r c i s e d , and that time should be suff i c i e n t l y l o n g t o enable the company to recoup i t s e l f f o r the cost o f i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s to (3/4) the U n i t e d States and the shipment o f that power. That i s a l s o of importance from the p o i n t o f view o f the purchaser.  Suppose there be no p e r i o d f i x e d and the (3)  company o f f e r s to s e l l to American manufacturers.  The f i r s t  q u e s t i o n the purchasers w i l l ask w i l l be :  For how l o n g a  p e r i o d can you supply us w i t h t h i s power?  And the (1/4) i n -  a b i l i t y t o g i v e such a guarantee may prevent the company from doing any b u s i n e s s on any k i n d o f a f a v o u r a b l e b a s i s . I f these l i c e n c e s may be c a n c e l l e d a t any moment (1/2) at the w i l l o f a m i n i s t e r , then the company cannot f a i l to be at a very s e r i o u s disadvantage.  Governments change and so  do m i n i s t e r s , and the m i n i s t e r o f to-morrow may (3/4) come t o the c o n c l u s i o n that a l l the power developed i s r e q u i r e d i n Canada, although h i s p r e d e c e s s o r may have held quite a d i f f e r ent  opinion. I f I had a power p l a n t , (4) I would much r a t h e r have  the r i g h t to export a l i m i t e d amount o f power w i t h i n a f i x e d  56. p e r i o d than the r i g h t to export a l a r g e r amount and be  subject  to * ( l / 4 ) the p o s s i b i l i t y o f having my l i c e n c e revoked a t moment.  Therefore,  an important  I t h i n k t h a t before f i n a l l y  any  d e c i d i n g on  clause o f t h i s k i n d , we should c o n s i d e r i t from  every p o i n t (1/2) of view, and w i t h the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e care, Suppose, f o r i n s t a n c e , a man  has i n v e s t e d h i s money  i n a power p l a n t and then o f f e r s to s e l l to an American consumer. (3/4)  The American consumer r e f u s e s to purchase un-  l e s s the o t h e r w i l l contract to give him h i s supply d u r i n g a c e r t a i n number o f y e a r s . can the m i n i s t e r do?  (5)  What, under such  circumstances,  APPENDIX G. Sounds as Expressed by Pitman and Gregg Shorthand. Sound a  Pitman. 1.  By a dot. I f the sound o f " a " i n " f a t " or "pa", i t i s w r i t t e n a t the f i r s t o f theo u t l i n e ; i f the sound of " a " i n " f a t e " , i t i s w r i t t e n i n the middle of the o u t l i n e .  2.  By w r i t i n g the o u t l i n e above or on the l i n e .  b  1.  By a downstroke.  e  1.  Is either " s " or "k" i n both systems.  d  1.  By a downstroke.  1.  By an u p s t r o k e .  2.  By h a l v i n g the precedi n g consonant i n c e r t a i n eases.  2.  By a s h o r t d i s joined u p s t r o k e i n c e r t a i n cases.  1.  I f necessary, by a dot i n the m i d d l e o f the o u t l i n e f o r s h o r t "e", and a t the end f o r a l o n g "e".  1.  By a s m a l l c i r c l e i n a l l cases.  2.  By w r i t i n g the o u t l i n e through, or on the line.  1.  By a curved downstroke.  2.  By a hook on c e r t a i n consonants i n c e r t a i n cases.  1. 2. 3. 4.  By By By By  e  an u p s t r o k e . a downstroke. a tick. a dot.  1.  By a l a r g e circle i n a l l eases.  By a downstroke.  By a curved downstroke.  1.  By a dot.  58. Sound  Pitman  g^  1. By a h o r i z o n t a l  i  1. By a s m a l l "v".  Gregg. stroke.  1.  By a curved h o r i zontal stroke.  1.  By a l a r g e c i r c l e w i t h or w i t h o u t an indentation.  2. By w r i t i n g the o u t l i n e above the l i n e . 0  1. By a downstroke.  1.  By a downstroke.  k  1. By a h o r i z o n t a l .  1.  By a h o r i z o n t a l .  1  1 , By a curved u p s t r o k e .  1.  By a h o r i z o n t a l curve.  2. By a curved downstroke. 3. By a s m a l l i n i t i a l hook to s t r a i g h t consonants. 4. By a l a r g e i n i t i a l hook to curved consonants. m  1. By a h o r i z o n t a l .  1.  By a h o r i z o n t a l .  n  1. By a h o r i z o n t a l .  1.  By a h o r i z o n t a l .  1.  By a hook.  2. By a s m a l l f i n a l hook. o  1. By w r i t i n g the outl i n e on the l i n e , o r above the l i n e , dependi n g on the sound. 2 . By a dash p l a c e d e i t h e r at the f i r s t or i n the middle, depending on the sound of the vowel.  p  1. By a downstroke.  1.  By a downstroke,  q  1. By a d d i n g a l a r g e hook to "k".  1.  By "kw".  59. Sound r  Pitman  Gregg.  1.  By an u p s t r o k e .  1. By a h o r i z o n t a l .  2.  By a downstroke.  3.  By a hook.  2. By r e v e r s i n g the vowel c i r c l e on s t r a i g h t strokes.  1.  By a s t r o k e .  1. By a downstroke.  2.  By a c i r c l e .  sh  1. 2.  By an u p s t r o k e . By a downstroke.  1. By a downstroke.  t.  1.  By a downstroke.  1. By an u p s t r o k e .  2  By h a l v i n g the preceding character.  s  shun  e  1. 2. 3.  u  By a l a r g e hook. By a. s m a l l hook. By "sh" and "n'V  1. By a vowel w r i t t e n beside the s t r o k e .  1. By the downstroke  T ,  sh . n  1. By a hook.  2.  By w r i t i n g through the l i n e .  1.  By a heavy downstroke.  2.  By a hook on a straight stroke.  w  1. 2. 3.  By a consonant. By a hook. By a vowel.  x  l . By "k" or "g" and " s " .  1. By s" w r i t t e n on a different slant.  y  1. 2.  By a s t r o k e . By a vowel.  1. By a s m a l l c i r c l e .  z  1. 2.  By a s t r o k e . By a c i r c l e .  1. By "S" w i t h a mark under, i f distinction i s necessary.  v  1. By a downstroke.  1. By a hook. 2. By a dash under the vowel. rt  B I B L I O G R A P H Y .  The w r i t e r had great d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g any recent l i t e r a t u r e on the p a r t i c u l a r phase of the study of shorthand ested.  systems i n which he was  inter-  There i s a very f i n e c o l l e c t i o n of hooks on  Shorthand i n the Mew York P u b l i c L i b r a r y but very are of recent date.  There are a number of s t u d i e s  i n the methods of teaching shorthand of Teachers'  few  i n the  library  College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , which the  w r i t e r consulted, but they had l i t t l e d i r e c t bearing on the study of the two systems given i n t h i s  thesis.  Tjtiis i s probably due to the f a c t that Gregg Shorthand i s taught  i n over 95% of the schools i n the  United States and therefore the problem does not warrang the a t t e n t i o n which the problem i s r e c e i v i n g i n Canada where Pitman i s taught schools at the present  time.  i n the majority of  B I B L I O G R A P H Y . Anderson, Thomas  H i s t o r y o f Shorthand, London, Pitman Company, 1892.  Brown, David Wolfe  The Factors of Shorthand Speed. Hew York, Phonographic I n s t i t u t e 1919.  Graham, Andrew J .  Handbook of Standard Phonography, Hew York, Phonographic I n s t i t u t e . 1858.  Gregg, Robert  The Basic P r i n c i p l e s o f Gregg Shorthand. Hew York, Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1923. The Story of Shorthand, Hew York, Gregg P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1936.  Kingston, A l f r e d  Phonography i n the O f f i c e , London, Pitman Company, 1902.  McHamara, Edward J.  Methods of Teaching Shorthand. Hew York, Pitman Company, 1915.  Mares,  A C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l Account of the A r t o f Shorthand, London, Pitman Company, 1898.  George and Innes.Hugh W.  Reed, Thomas A l l e n  Leaves from My Note-Book. London, Pitman Company, 1888.  Taylor, A l f r e d  Commentary on Pitman Shorthand London, Pitman Company.  

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