UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Vocational guidance Dimock, Marjorie Campbell 1937

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VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE by M a r j o r i e Campbell Dimock A Thesis Submitted For The Degree MASTER 01? ARTS In The Department of PHILOSOPHY THE UNIVERSITY OJ1 BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL. 19; TABLE 01? CON TENTS VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE , PREFACE* PART I . VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE A WORLD NEED. CHAPTER I . The Growth of the Idea. CHAPTER I I . The Movement ira Europe, America and Other C o u n t r i e s . CHAPTER I I I . V o c a t i o n a l Guidance.. A World Problem. SUMMARY. '. PART I I . VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE ..... PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION. CHAPTER IV. Outline of the General P r i n c i p l e s • CHAPTER V. The Study ©f She I n d i v i d u a l . CHAPTER VI. The Study of the Sphere i n Which the I n d i v i d u a l i s to F u n c t i o n . CHAPTER V I I . The Techniques "by Which These Two Spheres of Knowledge are Brought Together. STTiffiTiiTj/^ '^'y • • • » • « • • ••»•« •••«»«*»»«•*»•«•»••••••••• PART I I I . VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE.... ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION. CHAPTER V I I I . The Or g a n i z a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance• TABLE OE CONTENTS VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CHAPTER IX. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance. CHAPTER X. The Equipment and T r a i n i n g o f the C o u n s e l l o r . CHAPTER X I . Our L o c a l Problem and the Proposed S o l u t i o n . 3TJ^0iHARY» CONCLUSION. BIBLIOGRAPHY. I ERBFACE I t i a the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s to d i s c u s s the need there e x i s t s f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance and the "benefits, "both to the i n d i v i d u a l and to s o c i e t y , which would' f o l l o w i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n into our e d u c a t i o n a l system. j What i s V o c a t i o n a l Guidance? To quote the d e f i n -i t i o n adopted "by the N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Guidance A s s o c i a -t i o n of the United States at t h e i r Convention i n 1924, i t i s "the g i v i n g of information, experience, and advice i n regard to choosing an occupation, p r e p a r i n g f o r i t , and advancing i n i t . " But since that time the concept of Guidance, of which V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i s an important aspect, has grown; and now any adequate d e f i n i t i o n must i n c l u d e , "besides the g i v i n g of information and experience, a s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y of the I n d i v i d u a l and h i s c a p a c i t i e s . This i s shown i n the r e v i s e d d e f i n i t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n adopted i n 1930 which reads: "Vocational Guidance i s the process of a s s i s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l to choose an occupation, prepare f o r i t , enter upon and pro-gress i n i t . " In other words,it i s organized e f f o r t to help the i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i z e h i s c a p a c i t i e s , a s s i s t him i n the d i s c o v e r y of h i m s e l f , so that he may he able to s e l e c t i n t e l l i g e n t l y h i s own best f i e l d of s e r v i c e . By V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i s under-stood a p o l i c y that attempts, on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , to guide each i n d i v i d u a l into an occupation f o r which h i s psycho-p h y s i c a l make-up f i t s him. I I This concept of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, namely, that i t has to do with the r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l to the occupational world, was the one f i r s t adopted i n the e a r l y stages of the movement. I t was not u n t i l some years l a t e r that there came a confusion of terms when d i f f e r e n t educators "began suggesting that the term "guidance" embraced a much broader f i e l d ; and we began to hear of many d i f f e r e n t types of Guidance. There was i n 1929 an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt to change the name &£ the name of the N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n by dropping the word " V o c a t i o n a l " . For a time t h i s trend had the e f f e c t of subordin-a t i n g the v o c a t i o n a l aspects o f Guidance. The f o l l o ? a n g s t a t e -ment by Brewer helped to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n : "When vocat-i o n a l guidance became f a i r l y w e l l formulated a few years ago, educators began t a l k i n g about e d u c a t i o n a l guidance* and l a t e r about h e a l t h guidance, c i v i c guidance, guidance f o r home r e l a t i o n s h i p s , l e i s u r e time guidance, and many other k i n d s . I t i s qu i t e c l e a r that i f the word "guidance" must be given a broad d e f i n i t i o n , i t should seldom be used without a q u a l -i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e . S t r a n g e l y enough, some of the workers i n v o c a t i o n a l guidance have expressed alarm over the use of the term i n connection with the other areas of l i f e a c t i v i t y , and one has voiced the f e a r that v o c a t i o n a l guidance i s " i n danger of being thrown out of i t s own house." Another w r i t e r s t a t e s that there i s "danger that the movement f o r guidance w i l l become so broad as to be p r a c t i c a l l y meaningless and d i s s i p a t e I l l i t s e l f i n t o the t h i n a i r of general education or of general i n s t r u c t i o n . " Others c a l l the "broader concept of guidance ."sheer i n f l a t i o n . " "But i f we who are i n t e r e s t e d i n v o c a t i o n a l g u i d -ance s t i c k to our d e f i n i t i o n s when we are d e a l i n g with that s u b j e c t , and i f we use our other terras c o r r e c t l y , e s p e c i a l l y the e x a c t l y r i g h t q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s to designate the s e v e r a l k i n d s , how can there he the s l i g h t e s t danger to guid-ance f o r one area of l i f e by the f o r m u l a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n of other forms? V o c a t i o n a l guidance has i t s own d e f i n i t e work to do and need not s u f f e r i n the l e a s t because educat-i o n a l workers i n other f i e l d s are also doing t h e i r work. I t w i l l s u f f e r , however, i f we use words i n wrong ways, I f we expand or r e s t r i c t our d e f i n i t i o n s undualy, and e s p e c i a l l y i f we f a i l to d i s t i n g u i s h among the major kinds of l i f e activity.'-" ( I ) . We w i l l then approach t h i s study from the point of view that the work of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, i n the main, i s that implied by the r e v i s e d d e f i n i t i o n adopted by the N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n , wi th i t s four o b j e c t i v e s : -choosing* p r e p a r i n g f o r , e n t e r i n g and making progress in an occupation. Our e d u c a t i o n a l procedures must be adjusted to meet the needs of the ever i n c r e a s i n g enrolment i n our schools, whose f u n c t i o n today i s to analyze a l l the agencies which (I) Brewer, John M., "Let's A l l Speak the Same Lamguage," Occupations- The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Magazine, May 1934. IV a i d and i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d and then incorporate what i s use-" f u l . Our schools must have a guiding r e l a t i o n to l i f e and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance must he the l i n k which hinds home and school to l i f e - c a r e e r . I t s aim should he to help our hoys and g i r l s f i n d themselves i n the complexity of twentieth century s o c i e t y ; and, by c o n t i n u a l l y studying t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which l i e before them, to a i d them i n f i n d i n g the work f o r which they are f i t t e d , thus conserving human e f f o r t , f o r only when the i n d i v i d u a l i s doing the work f o r which h i s a b i l i t y , h e a l t h , i n t e r e s t and person-a l i t y f i t him, does he give the maximum s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y . The need f o r Guidance i n general, and f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s beginning to be r e a l i z e d i n our country. E d u c a t i o n a l reform i s today moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s great movement, a movement which i s world-wide i n i t s scope. And i f our country i s to take her r i g h t f u l place among the nations of the world, her human resources must be conserved, her c h i l d r e n aided i n meeting the demands of our century with I n t e l l i g e n t purpose and pre-p a r a t i o n . Our problem, then, i s to show how i t i s both p r a c t i c a l and p o s s i b l e f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance to be so organized and administered as to become the necessary l i n k between the i n d i v i d u a l and the o c c u p a t i o n a l world. This t h e s i s inadequate though i t may be i n i t s treatment of the subject, i s w r i t t e n from a genuine i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d , and from the v f e e l i n g of the great need there i s f o r that l i n k , the Vocat-i o n a l Guidance l i n k , we a h a l l c a l l i t , "between the home, the school and the l i f e - c a r e e r . This need was r e a l i z e d from a perhaps t o o - b r i e f experience of working with young people, who,, on account of t h e i r l a c k of experience, information, and oftentimes understanding, had d i f f i c u l t y i n making a wise choice as to t h e i r f u t u r e . The hope i s expressed t h a t " t h i s study w i l l , at l e a s t , s t i m u l a t e the reader to an i n t e r e s t i n , and a study of, t h i s most important s u b j e c t . VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE PART I. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE- A WORLD NEED. CHAPTER I. THE GROWTH OP THE IDEA. P l a t o , Bo C. 429»/~347; Juan Huarte, 1530-92; P a s c a l , 1670; Benjamin Franklin,1706-90; f a c s i m i l e s of t i t l e -pages i n I8th Century English,1747; Henry Mac Ice nizie, 1795: C a r l y l e , 1866; Lyaander Richards,19th Century; Charles E l i o t , , 28th Century; Thos. E d i s o n , 1917 CHAPTER I I . THE MOVEMENT INI EUROPE, AMERICA AND OTHER COUNTRIES. 1. In Europe. A. United Kingdom. B'.» France. C. Belgium. D. Germany. E . A u s t r i a . F. S w i t z e r l a n d . 2. lu America. A» In Canada » B. In United S t a t e s . 3. In Other C o u n t r i e s . A. In New Zealand. 3* In Japan. G. In China• CHAPTER I I I . VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE--A WORLD PROBLEM. C h a p t e r I . T h e G r o w t h O f T h e I d e a , I f w e t r a c e t h e h i s t o r y o f a n y g r e a t m o v e m e n t , we f i n d t h a t i t h a s h a d i t s e a r l y e x p o n e n t s . S o w i t h V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e ; a n d a l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a e e t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s m o v e m e n t , y e t w e f i n d e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e . T h e d e s i r e f o r g u i d a n c e , s e l f - a n a l y s i s , a n d s e l f - s t u d y , i s r e c o r d e d a l l t h r o u g h h i s t o r y . W h e n w e g l a n c e a t t h e a n c i e n t s y s t e m s o f s o c i e t y w h i c h w e r e f o u n d e d o n s l a v e r y , w e f i n d a n a t t e m p t t o p l a c e d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ? a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e s e f a i l e d , y e t w e m u s t a p p r e c i a t e t h e e f f o r t m a d e . T h e s o o t h - s a y e r s a n d a s t r o l o g e r s w e r e c o n - . . o e r n e d w i t h t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e p e o p l e ; a n d a l t h o u g h , o w i n g t o l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r s u b j e c t , t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o d i s c o v e r t h e t r u e c a u s e s l e a d i n g t o t h e s e , y e t m a n y o f t h e m w e r e g e n u i n e l y s i n c e r e . We s e e t h e i d e a o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i n t h e m i n d o f P l a t o , w h o , w r i t i n g o f h i s i d e a l S t a t e , t h e R e p u b l i c , s t a t e s , i n t h e w o r d s o f S o c r a t e s , r i h e S t a t e s p r i n g s f r o m t h e m u t u a l n e e d s o f m e n , w h o s e s i m p l e s t o u t f i t w i l l r e q u i r e f o o d , s h e l t e r a n d c l o t h i n g , s o t h a t t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e c i t y m u s t c o n s i s t o f f o u r o r f i v e m e n ; a n d a s t h e y w i l l h a v e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s , a n d o n e m a n c a n d o o n e t h i n g " b e t t e r t h a n m a n y , t h e r e w i l l b e a n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r s . S o o n , h o w e v e r , f r e s h w a n t s w i l l a r i s e . , S m i t h s , c a r p e n t e r s , a n d s h e p h e r d s w i l l b e f o u n d n e c e s s a r y , a n d t h u s a p o p u l a t i o n w i l l s o o n s p r i n g u p . -2-T h e n c o m e s t h e n e o e s s i t y f o r i m p o r t i n g e n d e x p o r t i n g , e n d t h i s w i l l p r o d u o e m e r c h a n t s a n d s a i l o r s ; a n d "by d e g r e e s t h e e x c h a n g e o f p r o d u c t i o n s w i l l g i v e r i s e t o a m a r k e t a n d c u r r e n c y . " A g a i n h e o o n t i n u e s , " I s e e t h a t w e s h a l l h a v e t o e n l a r g e a n d d e c o r a t e o u r S t a t e w i t h t h e f i n e a r t s , a n d a l l t h e ' f a i r h u m a n i t i e s ' o f l i f e : g o l d a n d i v o r y , p a i n t i n g s e n d e m b r o i d e r y w i l l h e f o u n d t h e r e ; a n d a h o s t o f . o r n a m e n t a l t r a d e s w i l l s o o n s p r i n g u p ; d a n c e r s , c o o k s , " b a r t e r s , m u s i c i a n s a n d c o n f e c t i o n -e r s . S o l a r g e l y , i n f a c t , w i l l o u r p o p u l a t i o n t h e n i n c r e a s e , t h a t t h e l a n d w i l l n o t "be a b l e t o s u p p o r t i t . H e n c e f r e s h t e r r i t o r y m u s t b e a c q u i r e d , a n d w e m u s t g o t o w a r t o g e t I t . We w i l l t h u s w a n t a c a m p a n d a s t a n d i n g a r m y . " f l ) (Dhus P l a t o , s e e r t h a t h e w a s , f o r e s a w t h a t a s a d -v a n c i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n b r o u g h t n e w a n d g r e a t e r n e e d s , s o t h e r e w o u l d b e a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f o c c u p a t i o n s a n d a c o r -r e s p o n d i n g , i n c r e a s e i n t h e n e e d f o r t r a i n e d w o r k e r s . P l a t o a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e w e r e f i t t e d b y N a t u r e f o r d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , f o r h e s a i d , " T o u r C r e a t o r m i n g l e d g o l d i n t h e n a t u r e o f y o u r o h i e f s ; s i l v e r I n t h a t o f t h e s o l -d i e r s ; a n d i r o n w e n t t o f o r m t h e a r t i s a n s a n d l a b o r e r s , w ; a n d h e f u r t h e r s t a t e d a m o r e i m p o r t a n t t r u t h , " N o c h i l d o f g o l d m u s t r e m a i n a m o n g t h e a r t i s a n s ; n o c h i l d o f i r o n a m o n g t h e r u l e r s ; f o r t h e S t a t e s h a l l s u r e l y p e r i s h ( s o s a i t h a n o r a c l e ) i f r u l e d " "by b r a s s o r i r o n . . . » T h e r u l e r s t h e r e f o r e h a v e r e c e i v e d t h i s i n c h a r g e f i r s t a n d a b o v e a l l f r o m t h e g o d s , t o o b s e r v e n o t h i n g m o r e c l o s e , i n t h e i r o h a r a o t e r o f v i g l l a n t s f l ) P l a t o : R e p u b l i c B . I i ; C14 Davies, J . 1. and'-Vaughan, D. • J . A. .1. Burt Co., N.Y. o r g u a r d i a n s , t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t a r e h o r n , t o s e e w h i c h o f t h e s e m e t a l s e n t e r s i n t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r s o u l s ; a n d I f a c h i l d "be h o r n I n t h e i r c l a s s w i t h a n a l l o y o f c o p p e r o r i r o n , t h e y a r e t o h a v e n o m a n n e r o f p i t y u p o n i t , h u t g i v i n g i t t h e v a l u e t h a t " b e l o n g s t o i t s n a t u r e , t h e y a r e t o t h r u s t i t a w a y i n t o t h e o l a s s o f a r t i s a n s o r a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ; a n d i f a g a i n , a m o n g t h e s e a c h i l d i s h o r n w i t h a n y a d m i x t u r e o f g o l d o r s i l v e r , w h e n t h e y h a v e a s s a y e d i t , t h e y a r e t o r a i s e i t e i t h e r t o t h e o l a s s o f g u a r d i a n s o r t h a t o f a u x i l i a r i e s * " ( 1 ) A g a i n q u o t i n g f r o m P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c , " W e l l , w h e n i s a m a n l i k e l y , t o s u o o e e d " b e s t ? W h e n h e d i v i d e s h i s e x e r t i o n s a m o n g m a n y t r a d e s , o r w h e n h e d e v o t e s h i m s e l f t o o n e ? U o t w o p e r s o n s a r e h o r n a l i k e , h u t e a c h d i f f e r s f r o m t h e o t h e r i n i n d i v i d u a l e n d o w m e n t s , o n e b e i n g s u i t e d f o r o n e t h i n g a n d a n o t h e r f o r a n o t h e r ; a n d a l l t h i n g s w i l l "be p r o v i d e d i n s u p -e r i o r q u a l i t y a n d q u a n t i t i e s a n d w i t h g r e a t e s t e a s e w h e n e a c h m a n w o r k s a t a s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n , a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s n a t u r a l g i f t s A s w e c a u t i o n t h e s h o e m a k e r w e k n o w a g a i n s t a t t e m p t i n g t o b e a n a g r i c u l t u r i s t : o r a w e a v e r , o r a h u i l d e r , b e s i d e s w i t h . a v i e w t o o u r s h o e m a k i n g b e i n g w e l l -d o n e , a n d t o e v e r y o t h e r a r t i s a n w e a s s i g n i n l i k e m a n n e r o n e o c c u p a t i o n , n a m e l y , t h a t f o r w h i c h h e w a s n a t u r a l l y f i t t e d . A n d i n w h i c h , i f h e l e t o t h e r t h i n g s a l o n e a n d w r o u g h t a t i t a l l h i s t i m e w i t h o u t n e g l e c t i n g h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s , h e ' w a s l i k e l y t o p r o v e a s u c c e s s f u l w o r k m a n . " ( 2 ) ( 1 ) P l a t o : R e p u b l i c B . I l l 0 . 2 1 ( 2 ) . i b i d B . I I C . 1 4 . As the c e n t u r i e s passed and many of P l a t o ' s prop-h e c i e s regarding the State were f u l f i l l e d , w e f i n d that others, too, r e a l i z e d the need f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance. The f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n g quotation i s from a l e t t e r sent by Juan Huarte (1530—92) to K i n g Philip.. II of Spain:-"As I have f r e q u e n t l y remarked,the mind of man i s very narrow and circumscribed,and when i t attempts to do more than one t h i n g a t o n c e , i t only embarrasses i t s e l f . I have always thought i t never c o u l d thoroughly know two p r o f e s s i o n s ; and when t h i s was attempted,one of the two was sure to be imper-f e c t l y understood. "Thus i t seems to me, that i t i s r e q u i s i t e to s e t apart a number of sagacious and learned men, to examine and i n v e s t i g a t e into the mental q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and c a p a c i t i e s of young persons, i n order to o b l i g e them to make a choice of such s c i e n c e s and p r o f e s s i o n s , as v/ould be most i n accordance wi t h t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s , and not to leave the matter to t h e i r own choice or d i r e c t i o n . For i n general cases, t h i s choice w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y he an i n j u d i c i o u s one, and w i l l induce them to give a preference to some l i n e of l i f e which w i l l prove l e s s advantageous and u s e f u l to them than i f they were under the d i r e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e and q u a l i f i e d c o u n s e l l o r s . " I t would happen from a l l t h i s , S i r e , that you would have b e t t e r workman, and more f i n i s h e d workmanship, throughout your dominions, and persona who know b e t t e r , t&an those at p r e s e n t , h o w t o u n i t e n a t u r e w i t h a r t . " ( 1 ) P a s c a l i n 1 6 7 0 s t a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a w i s e c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n . ( S ) T h e n , w i t h t h e " b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t -ury, we d i s c o v e r a n e w e l e m e n t e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e c h o i c e o f a c a r e e r , n a m e l y , t h e r i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h a v e h i s o w n I n t e r e s t s c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s i s e v i d e n c e d i n t h e l i f e o f B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n ( 1 7 0 6 — 1 7 9 0 ) . F r o m t h e a g e o f t e n t o t w e l v e h e w a s a p p r e n t i c e d t o h i s f a t h e r t o l e a r n s o a p a n d c a n d l e - m a k i n g ; "but s o m u c h d i d h e d i s l i k e t h e t r a d e t h a t i t w a s o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y h e w a s d i s s u a d e d b y h i s f a t h e r f r o m g o i n g t o s e a . H i s f a t h e r , s e e i n g t h a t t h e t r a d e w a s u n c o n -g e n i a l t o t h e l a d , h a d t h e w i s d o m t o g i v e h i m a n o p p o r t u n i t y o f b e c o m i n g a c q u a i n t e d w i t h o t h e r t r a d e s i n t h e h o p e o f d i s -c o v e r i n g h i s i n t e r e s t . I n h i s o\m w o r d s B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n w r i t e s o f M s f a t h e r , " H e t h e r e f o r e t o o k me t o w a l k w i t h h i m e n d s e e j o i n e r s , b r i c k - l a y e r s , t u r n e r s a n d b r a z i e r s , e t c a t t h e i r w o r k , t h a t h e m i g h t o b s e r v e my i n c l i n a t i o n a n d e n d e a v o r t o f i x i t o n s o m e t r a d e o r o t h e r o n l a n d . " ( 3 ) I n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o B l o o m f l e l d * s " R e a d i n g s i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e " , o r e t h e f a c s i m i l e s o f t w o t i t l e - p a g e s w r i t t e n i n t h e q u a i n t p h r a s e o l o g y a n d f o r m o f e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h , a n d r e p r o d u c e d , a s B l o o m f l e l d s a y s , ' f r o m a n a n c e s t o r i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e * ; a n d t h e d a t e i s 1 7 4 7 . To q u o t e o n e : r -( 1 ) B i n g h a m , vT. V . A n c i e n t V o c a t i o n a l • G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m ? V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e ; V o l . IV, P g . 2 3 ; O c t o b e r 1 9 2 5 . ( 2 ) P a y n e — O r g a n i z a t i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l . G u i d a n c e ; P g . 9 . (3) F r a n k l i n , B e n j a m i n , A u t o b i o g r a p h y . B l a c k i e & C o . , L o n d o n P . 2 6 . A G E N E R A L D E S C R I P T I O N OF A L L T R A D E S d i g e s t e d i n A l p h a b e t i c a l O r d e r ; • • by w h i c h ' P a r e n t s , - G u a r d i a n s a n d T r u s t e e s , m a y , w i t h g r e a t e r e a s e a n d c e r t a i n t y , m a k e c h o i c e o f T r a d e s a g r e e a b l e t o t h e C a p a c i t y , E d u c a t i o n , I n c l i n a t i o n , S t r e n g t h a n d F o r t u n e o f t h e Y o u t h u n d e r t h e i r o a r e . (1) A . q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h e s e c o n d i s : - -" I t m a y b e t r u l y s a i d , t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f t h i s w o r k i s e n t i r e l y n e w . " T h e u s e s o f i t p r e t t y w e l l a p p e a r b y t h e T i t l e , w h i c h . I d o u b t n o t i n t h e l e a s t , w i l l a n s w e r t h e c h i e f e n d p r o p o s e d , t h a t o f g i v i n g P a r e n t s , G u a r d i a n s , a n d T rus tees„ a s w e l l a s t h e y o u t h s t h e m s e l v e s i n t e n d e d f o r T r a d e s a n d B u s i n e s s n o t o n l y a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l m o s t a l l H a n d i c r a f t s , T r a d e s a n d E m p l o y s i n v o g u e b u t a l s o s u c h p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e m (1) B l o o m f i e l d , M e y e r ; R e a d i n g s i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . I n t r o d u c t i o n . a s w i l l e n a b l e b o t h t h e o n e a n d t h e o t h e r t o f o r m a t o l e r a b l e . j u d g m e n t w h i c h o f t h e m a l l a r e a g r e e a b l e a n d b e s t a n s w e r t h e i r p u r p o s e . " A n d p r a y n o w , w h a t s t e p i n l i f e i s o f g r e a t e r c o n -s e q u e n c e t h a n t h e w e l l p l a c i n g - o u t o f y o u r o f f s p r i n g i n B u s - , i n e s s ? D o e s n o t t h e i r f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g v e r y m u c h d e p e n d u p o n t h i s ? H o w m a n y h o p e f u l y o u t h s h a v e b e e n r u i n e d b y b e i n g p u t t o T r a d e s a n d C a l l i n g s e i t h e r i m p r o p e r f o r t h e m o r t h e y u n f i t f o r ? B u t n o w , * t i s p r e s u m e d , t h e s p l i t t i n g o n t h a t R o o k , m a y , i n a g r e a t m e a s u r e b e p r e v e n t e d . T h e r e f o r e , ' t i s h o p e d o u r e n d e a v o r s w i l l m e e t w i t h a p p r o b a t i o n . " ( 1 ) I n 1 7 9 5 H e n r y M a o K e n s i e w r o t e , " I n d e e d , t h e e d u c a t i o n o f y o u r y o u t h i s i n e v e r y w a y p r e p o s t e r o u s ; y o u w a s t e a t s c h o o l y e a r s i n i m p r o v i n g y o u r t a l e n t s , w i t h o u t h a v i n g e v e n d i s c o v e r e d t h e m ; o n e p r o m i s c u o u s l i n e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o g e n i u s , c a p a c i t y , o r p r o b a b l e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e C o m L m o n w e a l t h " . D o w e n o t h e r e s e e s o m e t h i n g a k i n t o P l a t o ' s t h o u g h t ? I n 1 8 6 6 , C a r l y l e t o l d t h e s t u d e n t s o f E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y , " A .man i s b o r n t o e x p e n d e v e r y p a r t i c l e o f s t r e n g t h t h a t G o d A l m i g h t y h a s g i v e n h i m , i n d o i n g t h e w o r k h e f i n d s h e i ? f i t t e d f o r ; t o s t a n d u p t o i t t o t h e l a s t b r e a t h o f l i f e , a n d t o d o h i s b e s t . " f l ) B l o o m f i e l d , M e y e r : R e a d i n g s i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . I n t r o d u c t i o n . -8-T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L y s a n d e r S . R i c h a r d s , i n M s P r e f a c e t o a l i t t l e h o o k o n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e w r o t e , " A l l w e c l a i m t o p e r f o r m i s t o b r i n g o r d e r o u t o f c h a o s , a n d t o f o r m o r e s t a b l i s h a s y s t e m t o e n a b l e a p e r s o n t o f i n d t h e m o s t f i t t i n g p u r s u i t i n w h i c h h e c a n r e a p t h e g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s t h a t i s p o s s i b l e f o r h i m i n d i v i d u a l l y t o a t t a i n . " ( 1 ) P r e s e n t t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e g r o w t h o f t h i s g u i d a n c e i d e a m a y b e s a i d t o h a v e b e g u n ? ; i t h t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , w h e n t h e r e c a m e a d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s i n a l l f o r m s o f h u m a n e n d e a v o r . ( T h e r e w a s a g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s o n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a n d t h e i d e a o f t h e u s e o f t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d o f s o c i e t y . T e s t s , s c a l e s a n d m e a s u r e s o f m a n y k i n d s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d , a l l o f w h i c h h a v e a c o m m o n o b j e c t — - t h a t o f g u i d a n c e i n s o m e o n e o f i t s f o r m s . I n t h e c h o i c e o f a l i f e - c a r e e r m u o h g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i s n o w p a i d t o t h e o a p a c i t y h e a l t h a n d i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v -i d u a l . S h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t m a d e b y C h a r l e s W. E l i o t , l a t e P r e s i d e n t - E m e r i t u s o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , i s w o r t h y o f n o t e , f o r t o d a y w e s e e h i s p r o p h e c y a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z e d , " T o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e a d d e d i n t i m e , t h e s t u d y o f e a c h p u p i l ' s t e m p e r a m e n t , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d m e n t a l a p t i t u d e s a n d d e f e c t s . " (2) III J W © — O r g a n i z a t i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . P g s . 9—10. i d i C o h e n — P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . P . 7 -9-O n t h e f r o n t c o v e r o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l M a n a g e m e n t f o r J a n u a r y 1 9 1 7 , a p p e a r e d t h i s q u o t a t i o n f r o m T h o m a s A * E d i s o n , " P r o b l e m s i n h u m a n e n g i n e e r i n g w i l l r e c e i v e d u r i n g t h e c o m i n g yea rs„ t h e s a m e g e n i u s a n d a t t e n t i o n w h i o h t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y g a v e t o t h e m o r e m a t e r i a l f o r m s o f e n g i n e e r i n g . Y/e h a v e l a i d g o o d f o u n d a t i o n s f o r i n d u s t r i a l p r o s p e r i t y . l o w w e w a n t t o a s s u r e t h e h a p p i n e s s a n d g r o w t h o f t h e w o r k e r s t h r o u g h v o c a -t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a n d v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e a n d w i s e l y m a n a g e d e m p l o y m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s . A g r e a t f i e l d f o r i n d u s t r i a l e x p e r -i m e n t a t i o n a n d s t a t e s m a n s h i p i s o p e n i n g u p . " ( 1 ) T h u s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s , w e c a n t r a c e t h e g r o w t h o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n o e i d e a , u n t i l t o d a y i t i s r e g a r d e d a s o n e o f t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g p r o b l e m s . f l ) B e c k m a n , H . 0 . — G u i d a n c e a s H u m a n E n g i n e e r i n g . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 3 . -10-Chapter I I . The Movement in Europe, America  and Other C o u n t r i e s . I. Europe. (A) In the United Kingdom. One of the e a r l i e s t records of work done along this, l i n e comes from Scotland, where, in 1904, Mrs. O g i l v i e Gordon, a s o c i a l s e r v i c e worker i n Aberdeen, advocated some method of a s s i s t i n g young people i n the choice of an o c c u p a t i o n Four years l a t e r Mrs. Gordon issued "A Handbook of Employment?! and i t was due to her influence that the E d u c a t i o n a l Act of Scotland (1908) provided f o r " c o l l e c t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as to employment open to c h i l d r e n upon l e a v i n g s c h o o l . " In England, the B r i t i s h Labor Exchanges were organ-ized i n 1909. They are supported by n a t i o n a l funds, and i n f o r -mation re g a r d i n g n a t i o n a l employment conditions can be secured t h e r e . These Labor Exchanges have separate J u v e n i l e Departments and these* together with A f t e r - S c h o o l Care Committees, o f f e r guidance to those seeking i t . In I9Io the Choice of Employment Act was passed; and the f o l l o w i n g phrase i n t h i s Act i s worthy of our a t t e n t i o n , "This Act s h a l l i n clude a power to make a r r -angements, subject to the approval of the Board of Education, f o r g i v i n g to boys and g i r l s , under seventeen, a s s i s t a n c e with r e s p e c t to the choice, of s u i t a b l e employment by means of the c o l l e c t i o n and communication of information and the f u r n i s h i n g of a d v i c e . " . - l i -l t h a s b e e n , h o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e c l o s e o f t h e G r e a t W a r t h a t E n g l a n d h a s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o p e r p l a c i n g o f h e r y o u t h a n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a n d h a s l a i d p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s u p o n I t - . " I n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , " i t h a s b e e n u r g e d , " t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n b e g i v e n a g o o d c h a n c e o f h e a l t h y a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y m e n t a n d a b o v e e l l o f d e v e l o p i n g c h a r a c t e r a n d g i v i n g t h e m a l i f e , n o t a l i v i n g . " A n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n E n g l a n d o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t o r i g i n i s t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y . I t . a i m s t o a p p l y t h e l a t e s t f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h e s i n p s y c h o l o g y t o h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r t h e i r a p t i t u d e s . T h i s I n s t i t u t e w a s f o r m e d a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l F a t i g u e R e -s e a r c h B o a r d o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d w a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e r e p o r t m a d e i n t h e B o a r d b y M r . R . M u s c i o o n h i s f i n d i n g s a f t e r a n e l a b o r a t e a n d e x h a u s t i v e r e s e a r c h , m o s t o f w h i c h w a s c a r r i e d o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e B o a r d f e l t t h a t V o c a t i o n a l G u i d -a n c e m i g h t b e r e g a r d e d a s h a v i n g a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n h u m a n e f f i c i e n c y a n d f a t i g u e i n i n d u s t r y , s i n c e t h e d e g r e e o f f a t -i g u e i n a t a s k d e p e n d e d o n t h e i n h e r e n t c a p a c i t y o f t h e w o r k e r t o d o t h e t a s k . O n e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d o n b y t h i s n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e h a s b e e n t h e " L o n d o n E x p e r i m e n t F o l l o w - U p , " r e s u l t s o f w h i c h h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d r e c e n t l y . . - . T h i s r e s e a r c h h a s s t r e n g t h e n e d b e l i e f i n t h e v a l u e o f a- s o u n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . S t u d i e s w e r e m a d e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l h i s -t o r y o f b o y s a n d g i r l s o v e r a f o l l o w - u p p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s , a s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r f u r n i s h i n g v a l u a b l e d ? - t e . Q u o t i n g f r o m t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , " I n s p i t e o f t h e g r e a t c o m p l e x -i t y o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d t h e m a n y c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s i n -v o l v e d , i t w a s s h o w n q u i t e c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a k e - u p a n d v o c a t i o n a l s u c -o e s s , b o t h i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h i s l a t t e r g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f b o y s a n d g i r l s o f t h e s a m e a g e ( 1 4 ) l e a v i n g f r o m t h e s a m e s c h o o l a t t h e s a m e t i m e . B u t , w h e r e a s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m a k e - u p h a d t o b e g u e s s e d f r o m s c h o o l m a r k s a n d t e a c h e r s ' r e p o r t s , i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i t w a s b a s e d o n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n i n w h i c h m a r k s a n d r e p o r t s p l a y e d a m i n o r p a r t . T h e s u p e r i o r -i t y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w a s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d , a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t s h o w e d t h a t e v e n t h e p o o r e s t c h i l d r e n o f c i t y w o r k e r s c o u l d b e s u c c e s s f u l l y a d v i s e d . " ( 1 ) A s i m i l i a r e x p e r i m e n t w a s c o n d u c t e d i n B i r m i n g h a m , i n w h i c h t h e s a m e g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e w a s f o l l o w e d : a n d h e r e , t o o , t h e s a m e s t r i k i n g e v i d e n c e w a s p r o d u c e d . I n b o t h i n v e s t -i g a t i o n s t h e f i n a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s t o t h e c h o i c e o f a n o c -c u p a t i o n w a s t h e o u t c o m e o f a s u r v e y o f t h e c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l a n d t e m p e r a m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n , a s d e t e r m i n e d b y s c h o o l m a r k s , p e r f o r m a n c e s i n s p e c i a l t e s t s a n d o r a l i n t e r v i e w s . T h e c o n c l u s i o n d r a w n f r o m t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s i s t h a t a b i l i t i e s a n d c h a r a c t e r q u a l i t i e s - s h o w n b y a n i n d i v i d u a l i n ( 1 ) E a r l e , F r a n k M . , "The P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n , O c c u p a -t i o n s , A p r i l 1 9 S 4 . -13-y o u t h h a v e a p o w e r f u l I n f l u e n c e o n l a t e r s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e , a n d t h a t t h e s e o a n "be m e a s u r e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t a c c u r a c y f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s . N e i t h e r e x p e r i m e n t , h o w e v e r , s h o w e d w h e t h e r a s i n g l e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h a t i s , a j u d g m e n t a t t h e a g e o f e l e v e n , o f f o u r t e e n o r f i f t e e n , w e r e a d e q u a t e , o r i f i t w e r e b e t t e r t o s t u d y t h e c h i l d d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d o f g r o w t h . I n t h i s t h e s i s , w e h a v e t a k e n t h e v i e w t h a t t h e l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e i s . t h e m o r e a d e q u a t e o n e . A t h i r d e x p e r i m e n t , i n w h i c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s b e g a n a t t h e a g e o f e l e v e n , w a s s t a r t e d i n t h e C o u n t y o f F i f e b y t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y f i v e y e a r s a g o , a n d a r e p o r t o f i t s r e s u l t s i s e x p e c t e d s o m e t i m e " i n ' . , t h e . - n e a r f u t u r e . ( B ) I n F r a n o e . F r a n c e ' s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s m o v e m e n t h a s b e e n i n t h e f i e l d o f m e n t a l m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d m e d i c a l p s y c h o l -o g y . I n a s m u c h a s i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d h e a l t h a r e p r i m a r y f a o t o r s i n t h i s s t u d y , s o h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n h a s b e e n a b a s i c o n e . I n F r a n c e , e a o h y o u t h i s e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e h i s q u a l i t i e s ; a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f m a n y t e s t s a r e u s e d t o g u i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c h o o s i n g a w o r k f o r w h i c h h e o r s h e i s m e n t a l l y a n d p h y s i c a l l y w e l l - e q u i p p e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , H e n r i P i e r o n . ' H e a d o f t h e S o r b o n n e L a b o r a t o r y o f P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , r e g a r d s t h e s e a c h i e v e -m e n t s a s o n l y a g o o d b e g i n n i n g , a n d h e s a y s t h a t s o m e d a y t h e e x a c t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t r a d e s a n d p r o f e s s i o n s m a y b e c l a s s i f i e d , a n d t h e e x a c t q u a l i t i e s o f m e n a n d Y /omen c l o s e l y d e t e r m i n e d , s o t h a t w o r k e r s m a y b e f i t t e d i n t o t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e s i n t h e w o r l d , w h e r e t h e y c a n d o t h a t f o r w h i o h t h e y a r e b e s t a b l e . ( 1 ) (0) I n B e l g i u m . I n B e l g i u m t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , f r o m a n a c a d e m i c v i e w - p o i n t , b e g a n i n 1 9 1 9 , a n d w a s u n d e r t a k e n b y m e m b e r s o f a p r i v a t e s o c i e t y , rI>a- S o c i e t e B e i g e d e P e d o -t e c h n i e u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f M r . A r t h u r M j n e . I n 1 9 1 5 t h e ' B r u s s e l s S y s t e m ' w a s i n a u g u r a t e d , a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h w e r e t h e o u t c o m e o f l o n g e x p e r i e n c e , w e r e a d o p t e d : — 1 . N a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n i s o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e . A l l e l s e t h a t m a y b e a c q u i r e d i s s e c o n d a r y . 2 . S u c c e s s i n m o s t o c c u p a t i o n s r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l a p t i -t u d e s . N a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n i s t h e s o u r c e o f a p t i t u d e . A p t i t u d e s a r e t h o s e d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h d i f f e r m a r k e d -l y i n d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . S p e c i a l a p t i t u d e s a r e t h o s e d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n a d a p t -a t i o n t o w o r k , a n d w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e w o r k e r c a n n o t p r o d u c e a r e a l l y s u p e r i o r p r o d u c t . 3 . l o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e s , o n e m u s t a n a l y z e t h e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e a i d o f a n e x p e r t t e c h n i c i a n . T h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h c a n b e u s e f u l f l ) C o h e n : P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i o e s o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e P a g e 2 3 7 . -15-only by d i s c o v e r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between the very good workman and the average workman. 4. A l l d i s p o s i t i o n s and counter i n d i c a t i o n s of a p h y s i o l o g i c a l order must be determined by a qual-i f i e d p h y s i c i a n . 5. The choice of an occupation cannot be made w i s e l y without t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t -o r s : — fa) s t a t e of the l a b o r market. fb) immediate f u t u r e of each occupation. (1) We f i n d that i n Belgium, at l e a s t before 1929, l i t t l e a p p l i c -a t i o n had been made of s c i e n t i f i c s e l e c t i o n methods i n indus-t r y or commerce. The reason f o r t h i s , as s t a t e d by P r o f . A. G. C h r i s t i a e n s , D i r e c t o r of the Intercommunal O f f i c e f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i n B r u s s e l s , i s that the B e l g i a n s do not jump at new methods. They p r e f e r to study them c a r e f u l l y , make an exact e v a l u a t i o n of them, and then adopt them only when c e r t a i n of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s and r e l i a b i l i t y . In 1928, however, an experiment on s e l e c t i o n was s t a r t e d i n an important c o l o n i a l f i r m . In t h i s experiment t e s t s were used, but the t e s t scores were subordinate i n im-portance to the behavior of the a p p l i c a n t when placed i n the t e s t s i t u a t i o n . I t was on the b a s i s of h i s behavior that the diagnosis was made, f o r the a c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l are more r e v e a l i n g than judgments of vague char a c t e r t r a i t s . t l ) C h r i s t i a e n s , A.G., V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i n Belgium, Person-n e l Journal, V o l . IX December 1929, Page 322. -16-T h i s p r o v e s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e l i g h t o f r e o e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r a n d c h a r a c t e r m e a s u r e m e n t . ( B ) G e r m a n y H o t o n l y d i d t h e y e a r 1 9 0 8 s e e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t i n . t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t a l s o w i t n e s s e d i t s i n c e p t i o n i n G e r m a n y . I n t h a t y e a r D r . W o l f f , D i r e c t o r o f t h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r a t H a l l e G e r m a n y , h a d c e r t a i n h o u r s f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s o f y o u n g p e o p l e s e e k i n g e m -p l o y m e n t . I n t h a t y e a r a l s o , t h e C e n t r a l O f f i c e f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e s e n t o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o t h e v a r i o u s G u i l d s , C h a m b e r s o f C o m m e r c e a n d T r a d e s a n d E m p l o y m e n t E x c h a n g e s * T h e i n f o r m -a t i o n t h u s o b t a i n e d s e r v e d a s a b a s i s f o r r e p o r t s t o t h e A s s o c -i a t i o n o f P u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t E x c h a n g e s i n 1 9 1 0 , I n 1 9 1 2 D r . L i p m a n o , a s D i r e c t o r o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y i n B e r l i n , s e n t o u t l e t t e r s t o a g r e a t m a n y p e o p l e , a s k i n g t h e m t o n a m e i n t h e i r r e p l i e s t h e q u a l i t i e s e s s e n t i a l f o r m a k i n g a ' s u c -c e s s i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n s . . H e t h u s o b t a i n e d a v e r y v a l u a b l e c o l -l e c t i o n o f d a t a * ( 1 ) I n M a y o f 1 9 1 3 t h e B e r l i n L a b o r E m p l o y -m e n t B u r e a u , p r e s e n t e d t h e f i r s t m o t i o n p i c t u r e f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A s i n E n g l a n d , s o i n G e r m a n y , i t w a s p o s t - w a r c o n -d i t i o n s t h a t m a d e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e a r e a l p r o b l e m . M a n y o f t h e G e r m a n S t a t e s o r g a n i z e d s c h e m e s f o r c a r r y i n g o n t h i s w o r k ; ( 1 ) J o r g e n s e n , C h r i s t o p h e r ! A B e r l i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m ; V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , V o l , I I M a r c h 1 9 3 3 . P a g e 2 7 2 . - 1 7 -a n d i n 1 9 2 2 t h e r e w e r e 5 9 2 p u b l i c o f f i c e s , w h i c h g a v e 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n t e r v i e w s . T h e m o s t p r a c t i c a l s t e p t o w a r d s t h e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e s c h e m e s i n G e r m a n y w a s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l f e e - o h a r g i n g e m p l o y m e n t a g e n c i e s , a n d t h e i r c o n s e q u e n t s u p e r v i s i o n b y t h e S t a t e E m p l o y m e n t B u r e a u s . I n 1 9 2 5 t h e F e d -e r a l E m p l o y m e n t B o a r d a t B e r l i n i s s u e d a n o r d e r l a y i n g d o w n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l p u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t E x c h a n g e s , a n d V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e b e c a m e a n a c t i v i t y c o n t r o l -l e d a n d s u p e r v i s e d b y t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t . T h e r e , E x c h a n g e s t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e e i n g t h a t y o u n g p e o p l e a r e g i v e n e v e r y f a c i l i t y f o r c h o o s i n g a n o c c u p a t i o n , a n d , f a r m o r e i m p o r -t a n t , t h a t t h e p u b l i c I s e d u c a t e d o n t h i s s u b j e c t . T h e s e B u r e a u s f o r m t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d i n d u s t -r y . T h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e E m p l o y m e n t E x c h a n g e h a s a n u n p a i d a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e t o a s s i s t i n g u i d a n c e . T h i s C o m m i t t e e c o m p r i s e s n o t o n l y e x p e r t s i n t h e G u i d a n c e f i e l d , b u t a l s o l e a d e r s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y , d o c t o r s a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t s . T h e v o c a t i o n a l m o t i v e f i n d s i t s p l a c e i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , a n d b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s h e a r l e c t u r e s o n e c o n o m i c t r e n d s a n d i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . A c a d e m i c V o c a t i o n a l B u r e a u s a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , t o o , a r e s e r v e d b y t h e V o c a -t i o n a l D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e n e a r e s t S t a t e E m p l o y m e n t B u r e a u . -18-O n e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s i n M u n i c h , i n s p e a k i n g o f t h i s w h o l e M o v e m e n t s a y s , " V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i n G e r m a n y i s a t t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s w e l l a s i n d u s t r y a t l a r g e . I t i s n o t o n l y a n e d u c a t i o n a l b u t a l s o a n e c o n o m i c f a c t o r . W i t h m a n y t r a d e s u p r o o t e d b y n e w m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s , we m u s t g u a r d t h e c o u n t r y a g a i n s t t h e i n c r e a s i n g d a n g e r s o f ; ' w o r n - o u t s ' a n d ' m i s f i t s ' a n d we m u s t d e v i s e m e a s u r e s t o a r o u s e o u r y o u t h t o t h e n e e d o f t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e s b r o u g h t o n b y m a c h i n e s a n d t h e a u t o m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s . We m u s t e d u c a t e p a r e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e v ; c o n d i t i o n s , a n d m u s t h e l p t h e m g u i d e t h e i r o f f s p r i n g i n t o p r o p e r v o c a t i o n a l c h a n n e l s . T h e n e e d o f o u r w o r k i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d i n G e r m a n y , a n d t h e l a t e s t r e f o r m s i n o u r s e r v i c e h a v e b e c o m e n e c e s s a r y t o m e e t t h e d e m a n d s o f a l l a g e n c i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n a c o n t e n t e d a n d e f f i c i e n t w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n . " ( 1 ) S o w e s e e t h a t G e r m a n y , w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o s t a b -i l i z e h e r c o u n t r y , l a y s g r e a t s t r e s s o n t h e p r o p e r g u i d a n c e o f h e r y o u t h . ( E ) I n A u s t r i a I n A u s t r i a , t h e M o v e m e n t , t h o u g h o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t d a t e , h a s a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d g o o d r e s u l t s . I n 1 9 2 6 t h e V i e n n a V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e O f f i c e e x a m i n e d 1 5 , 9 6 4 p e r s o n s a n d ( 1 ) M a r x , K a r l T . — V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i n G e r m a n y ; V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e V o l . 9 J a n . 1 9 3 1 . - 1 9 -g a v e 4 2 , 9 3 4 c o n s u l t a t i o n s . T h e M e n t a l T e s t I n s t i t u t e o f t h e " I n d u s t r i e l l e B e z i r f c s l c o m m i s s 1 o n r t a t V i e n n a c o - o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e M e d i c a l F a c u l t y o f t h e V i e n n a P h y s i o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , a n d t h u s a s s i s t s i n t h e s t u d y o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l a p t i t u d e s . ( 1 ) ( F ) I n S w i t z e r l a n d T h e I t e m s o n t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e p r o g r a m m e i n S w i t z e r l a n d i n c l u d e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w s w i t h e n g i n -e e r s , c h e m i s t s a n d p h y s i c i a n s , a n d l e c t u r e s g i v e n b y p r o m i n e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n t o t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . ' T h e c l a s s a b o u t t o g r a d u a t e i s r e c o m m e n d e d t o r e a d w h a t i s t e r m e d ' B e r n -f e b i l d e r * , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s . A l l t h e e f f o r t s i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e w e r e u n i t e d i n 1 9 S 7 t h r o u g h t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a c e n t r a l b u r e a u f o r t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e M o v e m e n t . ( 2 ) 2 . I n A m e r i c a . ( A ) I n C a n a d a . I n C a n a d a t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t i s s t i l l v e r y y o u n g , b u t o u r F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t g i v e s a n a n n u a l g r a n t o f f 7 5 0 ^ 0 0 0 f o r V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , i n c l u d i n g T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n * ( 1 ) H a u s m a n n , M a x F . — V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i n E u r o p e . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e . V o l . I X , J a n . 1 9 3 1 . ( 2 ) H a u s m a n n , M a x F . — V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i n E u r o p e . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , V o l . I X , J a n . 1 9 3 1 . - 2 0 -O u r e m p l o y m e n t s e r v i c e i s o r g a n i z e d o n a n a t i o n a l b a s -i s w i t h e m p l o y m e n t o f f i c e s i n s i x t y - f i v e c e n t r e s o f i n d u s t r y . A n E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e C o u n c i l a s s i s t s t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f l a b o r i n a n a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y . T h e r e i s a l s o d e f i n i t e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e w o r k b e i n g d o n e i n t h e s c h o o l s o f o u r l a r g e r c i t i e s . I n T o r o n t o t h i s w o r k i s c a r r i e d o n i n t h e C e n t r a l H i g h S c h o o l o f C o m m e r c e . I n V a n c o u v e r a V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e D i r e c t o r f o r t h e c i t y w a s a p -p o i n t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 3 0 . I n S t . J o h n ' s H i g h S c h o o l i n W i n n i p e g t h e r e i s a b u r e a u d e v o t e d t o t h i s w o r k . D e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n w a s s e c u r e d f r o m M r . H . J . R u s s e l l , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e M a n i t o b a E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , r e g a r d i n g t h e w o r k i n t h i s s o h o o l , a n d a s y n o p s i s o f t h e p l a n f o l l o w e d i s g i v e n h e r e : ( a ) K e e p i n g a c a r d i n d e x o f p o s i t i o n s s e c u r e d b y s t u d e n t s . ( b ) L e n d i n g s t u d e n t s b o o k s d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i o u s c a r e e r s . ( o ) W r i t i n g t o p r o s p e c t i v e e m p l o y e r s o n b e h a l f o f s t u d e n t s . ( d ) M a i n t a i n i n g a c a r d i n d e x , c o n t a i n i n g i n b r i e f , . p a r t i c u l a r s o f v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . f e ) S e c u r i n g v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a n y s t u d e n t u p o n r e q u e s t . O n e o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e w o r k o f t h i s B u r e a u h a s b e e n t h a t a l e a d i n g s t o r e i n t h a t c i t y h a s d e c i d e d t o e n g a g e a l l n e w j u n i o r e m p l o y e e s f r o m t h e r a n k s o f S t . J o h n ' s H i g h S o h o o l S t u d e n t s . I n M o n t r e a l a n a s s o c i a t i o n o f l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s h a s b e e n f o r m e d w i t h V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e a s i t s c h i e f o b j e c t . - 2 1 -( B ) I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e l a t e P r o f e s s o r F r a n k P a r s o n s o f B o s t o n h a s j u s t l y b e e n c a l l e d t h e F a t h e r o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s * P a r s o n s c o m m e n c e d h i s w o r k b y c o n s u l t i n g b o y s a b o u t t o l e a v e s c h o o l c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r c h o i c e o f o c c u p -a t i o n . F i n d i n g t h a t t h e y h a d l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p r a c t -i c a l w o r l d o f a f f a i r s , h e s t u d i e d e a c h o n e i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n a n a t t e m p t t o a d v i s e h i m i n t h e c h o i c e o f h i s c a r e e r . G o o d r e s -u l t s f o l l o w e d , a n d a l i t t l e o f f i c e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n B o s t o n i n 1 9 0 8 . L a t e r t h e w o r k w a s a s s u m e d b y t h e B o s t o n V o c a t i o n a l B u r -e a u , a n d , s t i l l l a t e r , b y H a r v a r d . I n M a y o f t h e y e a r 1 9 0 5 , D r . P a r s o n s i s s u e d h i s f i r s t r e p o r t , a n d i n i t u s e d t h e t e r m " V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e " , w h i c h w a s , a s f a r a s w e k n o w , t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e t e r m a p p e a r e d i n p r i n t . " P a r s o n s " , we a r e t o l d , " d i s c a r d e d t h e p s e u d o - s c i e n c e , u s e d t h e s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d w a s s a n e a n d p a i n s t a k i n g i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r a n d a b i l i t i e s w h i c h h e m a d e . " H i s b o o k , " C h o o s i n g a V o c a t i o n " , i n w h i c h h e t o l d o f h i s w o r k , i s s t i l l a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e b o o k i n t h e f i e l d . T h e g u i d a n c e h e o f f e r e d w a s i n t e n s i v e r a t h e r t h a n e x t e n s i v e , l a t e i n t h e y e a r 1 9 0 8 D r . P a r s o n s d i e d . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e n e x t y e a r , p l a n s w e r e p e r f e c t e d f o r r e - o r g a n i z i n g a n d c a r r y i n g o n t h e w o r k ; a n d t h e f i r s t V o c a t i o n a l B u r e a u i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n B o s t o n i n 1 9 0 9 , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f M r . M e y e r B l o o m f i e l d . T h e s t a t e d g e n e r a l a i m s o f t h i s B u r e a u w e r e a s f o l l o w s j — 1. To s t u d y t h e c a u s e s o f t h e w a s t e w h i c h a t t e n d s t h e p a s s i n g o f u n g u i d e d a n d u n t r a i n e d y o u n g p e o p l e f r o m s c h o o l t o w o r k , a n d t o a s s i s t i n e x p e r i m e n t s t o p r e v e n t t h i s w a s t e . 2. T o h e l p p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , c h i l d r e n a n d o t h e r s i n t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h o u g h t f u l c h o o s i n g , p r e p a r i n g f o r , a n d a d -v a n c i n g i n , a c h o s e n l i f e w o r k . 3 . T o w o r k , o u t p r o g r a m s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n s c h o o l a n d o c c u p a t i o n s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m a k i n g a m o r e s o c -i a b l y p r o f i t a b l e u s e b o t h o f h u m a n t a l e n t s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 4» T o p u b l i s h V o c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s f r o m t h e v i e w - p o i n t o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a n d e f f i c i e n c y r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d o f t h e i r c a r e e r - b u i l d i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 5. T o o o n d u o t a t r a i n i n g c o u r s e f o r q u a l i f i e d m e n a n d w o m e n t o p r e p a r e t h e m f o r V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e s e r v i c e i n s c h o o l s a n d b u s i n e s s . 6. T o m a i n t a i n a c l e a r i n g - h o u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l -i n g w i t h l i f e - c a r e e r p r o b l e m s . B u s i n e s s m e n , e d u c a t o r s a n d s o c i a l w o r k e r s w h o b e c a m e i n t e r e s t -e d c o - o p e r a t e d i n t h e d i r e o t i o n o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e ; a n d , i n a s h o r t t i m e , t h e B u r e a u w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , b e c o m i n g t h e B u r e a u o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e u n d e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , n o w a D e p a r t m e n t o f - t h e G r a d u a t e S c h o o l . D u r i n g t h e n e x t t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s t h e m o v e m e n t s p r e a d r a p i d l y f r o m B o s t o n t o m a n y o f t h e l a r g e r o i t i e s , ? ; h e r e i t was f o u n d t o b e o f g r e a t v a l u e . M a n y o f t h e s m a l l e r t o w n s a n d c i t i e s . , t o o , h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c i n g v a r i o u s f o r m s o f t h e g u i d a n c e p l a n i n t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , m o d i f y i n g t h e c o u r s e s t o m e e t t h e i r l o c a l n e e d s . T h e s e o o u r s e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o g i v e p u p i l s a n i n s i g h t i n t o m a n y v o c a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n - t h e i r o w n v i c i n i t y . • • , • N o t o n l y t h e s c h o o l s , h u t m a n y c i v i c a n d r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o , h a v e a i d e d i n t h e w o r k . T h e m o r e r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w h o l e G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s w e l l s t a t e d "by F« L . S t e t s o n , P r o f e s s o r o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , a n d 0 . 1 . H u f f a k e r , P r o f e s s o r o f S o h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n , i n t h e i r h o o k , " P u p i l C o u n s e l l i n g i n G r a d e s V I I — X I I . " . . . . . " F o l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , ' t h e p r a o t i c a l w o r k o f g u i d a n c e h a s a d v a n c e d i n s e o o n d a r y s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . M o r e o r l e s s p r e t e n t i o u s p r o g r a m s h a v e "been o u t l i n e d , o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e "been c r e a t e d , r a n g i n g f r o m s i m p l e t o e l a b -o r a t e , a n d m u c h h a s b e e n d o n e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . I n m a n y c i t i e s s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l o r s h a v e b e e n e m -p l o y e d f o r g u i d a n c e w o r k ; i n o t h e r s r e s e a r c h a n d g u i d a n c e b u r -e a u s h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d ; w h i l e i n n u m e r o u s s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , g o o d w o r k i n v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f g u i d a n c e i s b e i n g d o n e t h r o u g h t h e o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s o f t h e r e g u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t e a c h i n g s t a f f . A w e a l t h o f l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f m o d e r n p r a c t i c e s i n n e a r l y e v e r y t y p e o f g u i d a n c e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d . " S i n c e t h a t s m a l l b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 0 8 t h e M o v e m e n t h a s m a d e t r e m e n d o u s s t r i d e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d t h e p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m a r k e d b y t h e s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w o r k . -24-T h e r e h a v e "been s o i e n t i f i e a n a l y s e s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f c a s e g r o u p s , d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i f i c t e s t s , s t a n d a r d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s * A C o n f e r e n c e o n G u i d a n c e , w h i c h i t w a s t h e w r i t e r ' s p r i v i l e g e t o a t t e n d , w a s h e l d r e c e n t l y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n i n S e a t t l e , J u l y 9—13, 1934. We s h a l l q u o t e f r o m t h e f o r e w o r d t o t h e s y l l a b u s , w r i t t e n "by D r . W i l l i s 1. U h l , D e a n o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , " T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s C o n f e r e n c e i s t o i n v o i c e o u r m u t u a l r e s o u r c e s a n d a v a i l o u r s e l v e s o f t h e " b e s t w o r k i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f 1934 i n t h e g u i d -a n c e a n d c o u n s e l l i n g o f y o u t h T h i s C o n f e r e n c e d e v e l o p e d . s l o w l y . M a n y f o r c e s l e d u s t o w a r d i t . C h a n g e d m o d e s o f l i v i n g , c h a n g e d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , c h a n g e d s c o p e o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a -t i o n , c h a n g e d v i e w s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , c h a n g e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f y o u t h t h e s e a r e a m o n g t h e n e w v a r i a b l e s w h i c h d r o v e u s t o w a r d t h i s s e m i n a r . " M a y g r e a t e r c o m p e t e n c e i n t h e a i d i n g o f y o u t h c o m e t o t h o s e o f y o u w h o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h u s i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e m o m e n t o u s f o r o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n . " T h e s e q u o t a t i o n s g i v e t h e k e y - n o t e s t r u c k a t t h i s C o n f e r e n c e , a n d a r e b u t i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e t r e n d i n t h i s c o u n t r y . 3. I n O t h e r C o u n t r i e s . f A ) I n H e w Z e a l a n d . T h e l e w Z e a l a n d P a r l i a m e n t p a s s e d t h e " A p p r e n t i c e A c t i o n A u g u s t 29, 1923. I n S e c t i o n 18 o f t h i s A c t we r e a d , " T h e h e a d t e a c h e r o f a n y s c h o o l m a y b e r e q u i r e d t o f u r n i s h a -25-r e p o r t o n e v e r y o h i l d t h a t l e a v e s t h e s o h o o l f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e n t e r i n g e m p l o y m e n t , a n d o n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d o r h i s p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n , t h e D i s t r i c t R e g i s t r a r s h a l l a d v i s e a n d a s s i s t t h e c h i l d i n o b t a i n i n g s u i t a b l e e m p l o y m e n t ; f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e D i s t r i c t R e g i s t r a r s h a l l k e e p a r e g i s t e r o f s u c h a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d o f v a c a n c i e s , w h i c h s h a l l b e o p e n , w i t h o u t c h a r g e , t o i n s p e c t i o n , b y a n y o n e c o n c e r n e d . T o e n a b l e t h e h e a d t e a c h e r t o p r e p a r e s u c h a r e p o r t , i t s h a l l b e h i s d u t y t o w a t c h c a r e f u l l y t h e p r o g r e s s o f e a c h c h i l d i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s o f h i s s c h o o l , a n d t o t a k e n o t i c e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a p -t i t u d e s a n d a t t a i n m e n t s . w (1) ( B ) I n J a p a n . J a p a n . i s t a k i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f h e r f u t u r e c i t i z e n s , a s i s s h o w n b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e T o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t i s r e c e i v i n g m a r k e d a t t e n t i o n t h e r e . L e c -t u r e s o n t h e s u b j e c t a r e g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r s , a n d t h e f o l l o w -i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e ; — I . C l o s e r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e l l i g e n t c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s a n d E m p l o y m e n t E x c h a n g e s f o r y o u n g p e o p l e , a n d b e t w e e n s c h o o l a n d p a r e n t s . < 2 . S p e c i a l a d v i s e r s d e v o t i n g t h e i r e n t i r e t i m e t o t h e g u i d a n c e o f y o u n g p e r s o n s s h o u l d b e a p p o i n t e d i n c i t i e s a n d d i s t r i c t s . T h e s e a d v i s e r s m u s t g i v e a s s i s t a n c e n o t o n l y i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s b u t a l s o i n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n ( 1 ) P a y n e : O r g a n i z a t i o n o i V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e — P g . 3 0 . a f t e r e m p l o y m e n t h a s b e e n s e c u r e d . 3 . V o c a t i o n a l ( D r a i n i n g s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d i n t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s o f E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . M e n t a l a n d o t h e r t e s t s s h o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d . 4 . L i b r a r i e s , m u s e u m s a n d o t h e r a g e n c i e s s h o u l d b e m o r e f u l l y u t i l i z e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p i n g o f a p t i t u d e s a n d i n -c r e a s i n g e f f i c i e n c y . (1) CO) I n C h i n a . I n C h i n a V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i s b e i n g s t u d i e d a n d p r o g r a m m e s b e i n g p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n . f 2 ) f l ) C o h e n , P r i n c i p l e s a n d . P r a c t i c e s o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , P g . 3 0 2 . f 2 ) i b i d . -27-O h a p t e r I I I . — V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , A W o r l d P r o b l e m . T h e n e e d f o r V o o a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o a n y c o u n t r y , f o r t h e p r o b l e m i s w o r l d - w i d e i n i t s s c o p e . A l -t h o u g h i t s i m p o r t a n c e h a s b e e n f e l t t h r o u g h m a n y c e n t u r i e s , y e t i t i s t h e c h a n g e d c o n d i t i o n s o f I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y t h a t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t u r g e n t n e e d f o r t h e o r g a n i z e d g u i d -a n c e o f y o u t h . I n e a r l y s o c i e t y t h e f a m i l y w a s a u n i t , s u f f i c i e n t u n t o i t s e l f • s u p p l y i n g i t s o w n m e a g r e n e e d s . B u t a s t h e w o r l d a d v a n c e d , n e e d s m u l t i p l i e d , a n d , a s a r e s u l t , t h e r e c a m e a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r a n d a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . I n -s t e a d o f e a c h f a m i l y s u p p l y i n g i t s o w n n e e d s , a n f o r m e r l y , t r a d e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d , e a c h d e a l i n g w i t h o n e d e p a r t m e n t o f l a b o r a n d s u p p l y i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y i n o n e p a r t i c -u l a r c o m m o d i t y . T h u s o r i g i n a t e d t h e T r a d e s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s ; a n d m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m e t r a d e f o r m e d g u i l d s . T h e s e t r a d e g u i l d s w e r e a n e a r l y a t t e m p t a t t r a i n i n g t h e y o u t h , b y t h e s y s t e m o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , f o r t h e w o r k t h e y w o u l d d o i n l a t e r l i f e . B u t v e r y l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s g i v e n e i t h e r t o t h e c a p a c i t y o r t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . W i t h t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n b e g a n o u r M o d e r n E r a . I n v e n t i o n s r e v o l u t i o n i z e d i n d u s t r y , b u t t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d -j u s t m e n t i n s o c i e t y w a s s l o w i n b e i n g e f f e c t e d . E f f i c i e n c y a n d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w e r e d e m a n d e d ; a n d w i t h t h i s g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o a m e t h e g r e a t e r d e m a n d t h a t o u r y o u t h b e g u i d e d a n d t r a i n e d f o r s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e W o r l d - W a r -28-i n c r e a s e d l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n , a n d l i k e w i s e i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o b l e m s a t t e n d i n g i t . B u t t o d a y m e n a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h a t m a c h i n e r y i s s e o o n d a r y t o t h e h u m a n f a c t o r . T h e r e h a s b e e n a s w i n g o f t h e p e n d u l u m . A s o n e w r i t e r h a s a p t l y p u t i t , t h e s l o g a n o f a f e w y e a r s a g o w a s ' C o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ' — t o d a y i t i s 1 C o n s e r v e r e s o u r c e s , n a t u r a l a n d h u m a n ' . ( 1 ) I t i s w i t h t h i s h u m a n f a c t o r t h a t o u r r e a l p r o b l e m l i e s . T h e q u e s t i o n n e x t a r i s e s a s t o h o w h u m a n r e s o u r c e s c a n b e c o n s e r v e d ; a n d t h e o n e a n s w e r w h i c h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s of" i n d u s t r i a l p r o b l e m s g i v e ; u s i s , " P l a c e t h e r i g h t m a n , p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d , i n c o n g e n i a l e m p l o y m e n t , a n d t h e g r e a t e s t c a u s e o f w a s t e , i n e f f i c i e n o y a n d d i s c o n t e n t w i l l b e e l i m i n a t e d . " (2) I n o r d e r t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l m a y r e a c h h i s h i g h e s t d e v e l o p m e n t , h e m u s t b e i n t h e w o r k f o r w h i c h h i s c a p a c i t y a n d i n c l i n a t i o n f i t h i m . T h e n a n d t h e n o n l y w i l l t h e f u l l t i d e o f h i s e n e r g y b e r e l e a s e d . H u m a n e n e r g y i s t h e g r e a t e s t a n d m o s t u n i q u e f o r m o f e n e r g y i n t h e w o r l d . T h a t e n e r g y m u s t b e c o n -s e r v e d j m u s t b e p u t t o u s e , a n d o n l y w h e n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s i n h i s p r o p e r s p h e r e w i l l t h i s b e t h e c a s e . M e n m u s t b e i n t -e r e s t e d i n t h e i r w o r k , f i n d a j o y i n i t , b e p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d a n d q u a l i f i e d f o r I t , b e f o r e t h i s c o n s e r v a t i o n o f h u m a n e n e r g y b e c o m e s a f a c t a n d n o t o n l y a n i d e a l . T o o o f t e n h u m a n e n e r g y i s d i s s i p a t e d , b e c a u s e i t i s m i s - d i r e c t e d . A g r e a t d e a l o f c r i m e i s , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , b u t m i s - d i r e c t e d e n e r g y ; ( 1 ) C o h e n — " P r i n c i p l e s a n d P r a c t i c e s o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e " P . 1 6 ( 2 ) i b i d . - 2 9 -t h e w o r l d s p e n d s m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s y e a r l y i n t h e t i p - k e e p o f i t s p r i s o n s , r e f o r m a t o r i e s a n d s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e w a s t e t h a t i s t h e r e r e p r e s e n t e d i s i n c a l c u l a b l e , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t m u o h o f i t i s n e e d l e s s , m a k e s u s m o r e f u l l y r e a l i z e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m , " T h e w o r l d p a y s d e a r e a c h h o u r , F o r t h e w o r k o f t h e m i s - f i t c r e w " T o q u o t e f r o m t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e C h i l d r e n 1 ^ B u r e a u o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , " T h e r e i s a g r o w i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t c r i m e h a s i t s b e g i n n i n g i n t h e d e l i n q u e n c i e s o f c h i l d h o o d , a n d t h a t we a r e p a y i n g t o o m u c h f o r t h e c a r e a n d p u n i s h m e n t o f t h e c r i m i n a l s a n d t o o l i t t l e f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f c r i m e . " ( 1 ) D r . S h o w a l t e r , S u p t . o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n f o r W a s h -i n g t o n , a t t h e G u i d a n c e C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n S e a t t l e i n J u l y 1 9 3 4 , , . m a d e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t , w h i c h i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e l i g h t o f o u r d i s c u s s i o n : - - " D u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r , t h e u p - k e e p o f a h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t y - f i v e b o y s i n a S t a t e R e f o r m a t o r y a t M u n r o h a s e q u a l l e d t h e c o s t o f k e e p i n g f i f t e e n h u n d r e d b o y s i n o n e o f o u r p u b l i c s c h o o l s . T h e s a m e f i g u r e s a r e t r u e o f a s i m i l i a r i n s t i t u t i o n f o r g i r l s . " Y e t , d e s p i t e t h e c o m p l i c a t e d c o n d i t i o n s o f m o d e r n i n d u s t r y , t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y e n t e r i t w i t h l i t t l e s e r i o u s t h o u g h t a n d l i t t l e o r n o p r e p a r a t i o n . One h a s o n l y t o t u r n ( 1 ) A b b o t , G r a c e — C h i e f o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s B u r e a u o f t h e U . S . D e p t . o f L a b o r — A n n u a l R e p o r t . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e V o l . V I F e b . 1 9 2 8 . - . 3 0 -t o t h e m a n y s u r v e y s t h a t h a v e b e e n m a d e o f I n d u s t r i a l c o n d i -t i o n s i n o u r o i t i e s t o k n o w t h e t r u t h o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t . We s p e a k o f s q u a r e p e g s i n r o u n d h o l e s — i t i s a n a l l t o o - f a m i l i a r e x p r e s s i o n . We s p e a k t o o , o f m i s f i t s ; b u t t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e r e a r e s o m a n y i s t h a t t h e i r c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n h a d t o o o f t e n d e p e n d e d u p o n c h a n c e . V e r y f r e q u e n t l y o u r y o u n g p e o p l e d i s c o v e r , t o o l a t e , h o w a h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n a t t h e c r i t i c a l m o m e n t m i g h t h a v e s h a p e d t h e i r d e s t i n i e s . F r a n k P a r s o n s s a y s , "We g u i d e o u r b o y s a n d g i r l s t o s o m e e x t e n t t h r o u g h s c h o o l , t h e n d r o p t h e m i n t o t h i s c o m p l e x w o r l d t o s i n k o r s w i m , a s t h e c a s e m a y b e . T h e b u i l d i n g o f a c a r e e r i s q u i t e a s d i f f i c u l t a p r o b l e m a s t h e b u i l d i n g o f a h o u s e , y e t f e w e v e r s i t d o w n w i t h p e n c i l a n d p a p e r , w i t h e x p e r t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d c o u n s e l , t o p l a n a w o r k i n g c a r e e r a n d d e a l w i t h t h e l i f e - p r o b l e m s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , a s t h e y w o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f b u i l d i n g a h o u s e , t a k -i n g a d v i c e o f a n a r c h i t e c t t o h e l p t h e m . " ( 1 ) S o c i e t y m u s t t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g h e r f u t u r e w o r k e r s c h o o s e t h e i r c a r e e r s w i s e l y , a n d s o c i e t y m u s t r e a l i z e t h a t s u c c e s s f u l c h o i c e o f l i f e - w o r k i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t h e u n a d v i s e d a n d t h e u n p r e p a r e d . A n o t h e r w r i t e r h a s s a i d , " I f e d u o a t o r s c o u l d g o u p o n a v o y a g e o f d i s c o v e r y i n t o t h e a r m y o f b o y s a n d g i r l s w h o e n t e r i n d u s t r y e a c h y e a r , w h a t v a l u e s m i g h t t h e y d i s c o v e r , w h a t t r e a s u r e s m i g h t t h e y c o n s e r v e I" ( 2 ) (1) P a r s o n s — C h o o s i n g a C a r e e r — P g . 4 . ( 2 ) A d d a m s , J a n e — T h e S p i r i t o f Y o u t h a n d t h e C i t y S t r e e t s . P . 1 2 4 . Again we repeat that i t i a the s w i f t l y changing s o c i a l and economic world that Mas brought about so many changes i n our c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s * During the past few gener-a t i o n s i nventions have been r a p i d l y changing our l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s * Modern i n d u s t r y with a l l i t s s p e c i a l i z -a t i o n , l a c k of employment,greater amount of l e i s u r e time, . ; mass secondary education, increased urban p o p u l a t i o n , changed status of women— these are the f a c t o r s which have f o r c e d upon us a new and broader conception of education* S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y has reached the p o i n t where i t i s impossible f o r the home to provide adequate info r m a t i o n upon which boys and g i r l s can base t h e i r choice of occupation. Organized V o c a t i o n a l Guidance must be provided to meet the needs o f our modern world* I f i t i s to be e f f e c t i v e , i t must s t a r t from the foundation. Dr, Brewer says, that V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i s bound up f i r s t of a l l w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l problems,and second wi t h enonomic and s o c i a l problems* The importance o f V o c a t i o n a l Guidance a p p l i e s both to the i n d i v i d u a l and to s o c i e t y * Proper v o c a t i o n a l adjustment not only means i n d i v i d u a l happiness but a l s o helps to prevent enormous s o c i a l and economic waste. S u m m a r y o f P a r t I . F r o m t h i s s h o r t s t u d y w e s e e t h a t , t h o u g h o f u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f u t u r e w e l f a r e o f t h e w o r l d , t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t i s o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t d a t e , n o t b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d a s a; m a j o r p r o b l e m u n t i l t h e e a r l y l p a r t o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . l i k e m a n y g r e a t m o v e m e n t s , f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s i t h a d e x i s t e d o n l y a s a n i d e a i n t h e m i n d s o f s o m e g r e a t t h i n k -e r s , n o t b e i n g r e g a r d e d a s o f p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e u n t i l c h a n g -i n g i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s m a d e i t n e c e s s a r y . B u t n o w o f n e c -e s s i t y t h e q u e s t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . G r e a t e r i m p e t u s h a s b e e n g i v e n t h e m o v e m e n t b y t h e f a c t t h a t a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s i s i n t e r e s t e d i n i t a n d i s f o s t e r i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e f u t u r e o f t h e M o v e m e n t i s a s s u r e d , b e -c a u s e i t h a s w i t h i n i t t h a t w h i c h m a k e s f o r u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s , n a m e l y , t h e w e l f a r e a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h o f t h e w o r l d . VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE PART II VOCATIONAL GUI DANCE - -PR INC IPLE S AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION CHAPTER IV. OUTLINE OP THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 1. Re c o g n i t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . 2. R e c o g n i t i o n o f the Complexity of Modern I n d u s t r i a l L i f e . 3. R e c o g n i t i o n of the R e l a t i o n s h i p Between These Two F a c t o r s . CHAPTER V. THE STUDY OF THE INDIVIDUAL. I. Yftiat he has "been and done. 2-. What he i s now. 3. What he may hecome. Cumulative Record Card; Graphic Representation of E d u c a t i o n a l Record; Student's Autobio-graphy; V o c a t i o n a l and E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n ; Parents' P l a n s ; Reports o f Interviews. CHAPTER V I . THE STUDY OF THE SPHERE IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL IS TO FUNCTION. 1. Occupational Research. 2. Dissemination of Information. (a) Through Classes on Occupations. (b) Through Present Curriculum O f f e r i n g s . (c) Through P u b l i c a t i o n s and the L i b r a r y . (d) Through E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . -34-(e) Through Outside Agencies. i . Lectures hy Outside Speakers, i i . Interviews, i i i . Part-Time Employment, i v . The Cinema, v. The Radio. CHAPTER V I I . THE TECHNIQUES BY WHICH THESE TWO SPHERES 01? KNOWLEDGE ARE BROUGHT TOGETHER. 1. The Counsellor and H i s Du t i e s . 2. Counselling,Group and I n d i v i d u a l . 3 . Placement. 4 . Follow-up. Chapter I V Ou t l i n e of General P r i n c i p l e s . The u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s which govern V o c a t i o n a l Guidance a c t i v i t i e s are based o n : — 1. Recognition of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s * 2» Recognition of the complexity of modern i n d u s t r i a l l i f e * 3* Recognition of the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between these two f a c t o r s . 1* The Recognition of I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . Ho two i n d i v i d u a l s are a l i k e i n n a t u r a l endowments nor are they surrounded by the same environmental c o n d i t i o n s . Each d i f f e r s from the other i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , h e a l t h and i n t -e r e s t s * as w e l l as i n s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n . These very d i f f e r e n c e s challenge the edu c a t i o n a l procedures of the day, and c a l l f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . Every e f f o r t must be made to know the i n d i v i d u a l and to a s s i s t him i n knowing h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s , thus making e a s i e r h i s a d j u s t -ment to a complex world* A s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment r e s u l t s i n i n d i v i d u a l happiness and a saving to s o c i e t y * 2. Recognition o f the Complexity of Modern I n d u s t r i a l L i f e . The advance of the modern s c i e n t i f i c world, with i t s s o c i a l and economic changes, has made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f -f i c u l t to be f a m i l i a r with a l l occupations. l o longer i s i t p o s s i b l e f o r the home to provide adequate inf o r m a t i o n upon which boys and g i r l s can base t h e i r choice of an occupation, n o r , w i t h , t h e g r o w t h o f o u r m o d e r n s o h o o l a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , h a s t h e a v e r a g e t e a o h e r t o d a y t i m e f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d , T h e s t u d y o f c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s a s a w h o l e , a n d o f s e p a r a t e o c c u p a t i o n s , . m u s t b e u n d e r t a k e n u n d e r s k i l l e d l e a d e r s h i p a n d g u i d a n c e . T h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r k t o b e d o n e , i t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d v a n c e -m e n t , i t s d e m a n d s o n i n t e l l i g e n c e , h e a l t h , i n t e r e s t a n d p e r -s o n a l i t y , a l l t h e s e m u s t b e k n o w n . 3 . R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n T h e s e Two F a c t o r s . T h e f i r s t p r i n c i p l e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n d u s t r y i s t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e a d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f h i s d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s w i l l b e n e f i t s o c i e t y i n t e r m s o f s e r v i c e a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f i n t e r m s o f h a p p i n e s s a n d b e t t e r a d j u s t -m e n t . I n d u s t r y a n d t h e s c h o o l m u s t c o - o p e r a t e , t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v -i d u a l . T o g e t h e r t h e y m u s t s t u d y t h e t e n d e n c i e s i n m o d e r n s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c l i f e . T h e n e w p r o g r a m m u s t b e f l e x i b l e . B u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s n e e d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a n d o n l y t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s c i e n t i f i c V o c a -t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , c a n t h i s b e a c c o m p l i s h e d . " T o b e p r a c t i c a l t o d a y a s a b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e , i s t o k n o w h o w t o b e a b u i l d e r o f f e l l o w - w o r k e r s . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , a n i n -c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f e x e c u t i v e s h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e g u i d a n c e m o t i v e , I n d e a l i n g w i t h , t h e h u m a n w i l l s a n d a s s e t s w h i c h t h e y e n g a g e . " ( 1 ) T h e c o n d i t i o n s o f m o d e r n c i v i l -i s a t i o n m a k e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a p u r p o s i v e a n d s k i l l f u l l y c o n d u c t e d s e r v i c e o f Y o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , "by s o c i e t y , f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . S i n c e Y o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e m u s t "become t h e l i n k b e t -w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d i n d u s t r y , a r e c o u n t i n g o f t h e a i m s o f t h i s m o v e m e n t m i g h t w e l l h e i n o r d e r h e r e . T h e p u r p o s e s o f Y o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e a r e : — 1 . T o h e l p a d a p t t h e s c h o o l t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l a n d t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d t o m a k e s u r e t h a t e a c h c h i l d o b t a i n s t h e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y w h i c h i t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e s c h o o l t o p r o v i d e . 2 . T o a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c h o o s i n g , p r e p a r i n g f o r , e n t e r i n g u p o n a n d m a k i n g p r o g r e s s i n a n o c c u p a t i o n . 3 . T o s p r e a d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e o c -c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o m m o n o c c u p a t i o n s . 4 . To h e l p t h e w o r k e r t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o w o r k e r s i n h i s o w n a n d o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d t o s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . 5 . T o s e c u r e b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d t h e v a r i o u s c o m m o n i n d u s t r i e s (1) B l o o m f l e l d , M . " T w e n t y Y e a r s o f V o c a t i o n G u i d a n c e " — V o c a -t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . M a g a z i n e , V o l . 6 , M a r c h 1 9 2 8 . a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s o n t h e o t h e r . 6 . To e n c o u r a g e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o u r s e s o f s t u d y i n a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h w i l l h a r m o n -• i o u s l y o o m b i n e t h e c u l t u r a l a n d p r a c t i c a l s t u d i e s . A l l V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e s h o u l d f i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r v o c a t i o n a l s e l f - g u i d a n c e , a n d a l s o f o r o o - o p e r a t i v e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l l i f e . f l ) f1) S h e P r i n c i p l e s o f V o o a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e — a S t a t e m e n t a d o p t e d b y t h e N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n o|. U . S . A . , 1 9 2 1 . I n c o n v e n t i o n , F e b . 2 5 — 2 6 , 1 9 2 1 . -39-C H A P T E R U . T h e S t u d y O f T h e I n d i v i d u a l . ' K n o w t h e c h i l d ' i s t h e s e c r e t o f s u c c e s s h e r e . I n t h i s s t u d y , w e o a n n o t s t r e s s t o o m u c h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a s y m -p a t h e t i c k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a n d t h e % r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t h e i s n o t a s t a t i c e n t i t y , b u t a h u m a n b e i n g , w h o i s c o n t i n a u l l y g r o w i n g a n d d e v e l o p i n g , a b e i n g w h o h a s b e -f o r e h i m a l i f e - l o n g p e r i o d o f p r o g r e s s a n d l e a r n i n g . F o r p u r p o s e s o f G u i d a n c e a n d P l a c e m e n t , t h e i n d i v i d -u a l m u s t b e s t u d i e d f r o m t h r e e a n g l e s : — 1. W h a t h e h a s b e e n a n d d o n e . 2. W h a t h e i s n o w . 3. W h a t h e m a y b e c o m e . T h i s t h r e e - f o l d a p p r o a c h m u s t b e k e p t e v e r b e f o r e U S J t h e f i r s t t w o f a c t o r s a i d i n g i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t h i r d . A s i n g l e i n t e r v i e w o r t h e r e s u l t s o f o n e s e t o f e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t g o r g u i d a n c e , f o r we c a n o n l y v i e w t h e p o t e n t i -a l i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p a s t d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g m a n y l i n e s . A n i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e s u m - t o t a l o f h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e c h i l d m u s t b e s e e n , n o t a t o n e s p e c i f i c t i m e i n h i s d e v e l o p m e n t o n l y , b u t i n t h e l i g h t o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h e x p l a i n s a n d i n t e r p r e t s t h e p r e s e n t p i c t u r e . I t i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e g r a d u a l u n f o l d i n g , t h a t i s t h e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g — a m o v i n g p i o t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , n o t a s t i l l p o r t r a i t . T h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o r f a i l u r e s , t h e p e r -s i s t e n c y o f h i s i n t e r e s t s , t h e r e c o r d o f h i s p h y s i c a l w e l l -b e i n g , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s s o c i a l a n d - 4 0 -e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y — t h e s e a r e t h e t h i n g s we l o o k f o r i n t h a t m o v i n g p i c t u r e . N o w , h o w a r e w e t o o b t a i n t h i s p i c t u r e w h i c h we l o o k u p o n a s a v a l u a b l e a s s e t , i n d e e d a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e f a c t o r I n o u r s t u d y ? T h e a n s w e r i s , i n t h e C u m u l a t i v e R e p o r t C a r d , W h a t i s t h i s c a r d ? I t i s t h e r e s u l t o f a v e r y c a r e f u l a n d d e t a i l e d s t u d y o v e r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s , b y d i f f e r e n t t r a i n e d w o r k e r s w h o h a v e c o m e i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c h i l d , a n d h a v e c o m e t o k n o w h i m . S u c h a c a r d i s a . r e c o r d o f a l l t h e s e e s s e n t i a l s we h a v e m e n -t i o n e d , k e p t f r o m t h e t i m e t h e c h i l d f i r s t e n t e r i c s t h e s c h o o l u n t i l h e l e a v e s t o g o o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d o f i n d u s t r y . T h e p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d t h e k e e p i n g o f t h i s c a r d " m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d ' a n d a p p r e c i a t e d b y a l l t h o s e w h o h a v e a s h a r e i n k e e p i n g i t , o t h e r w i s e t h e e f f o r t w i l l b e f r u i t l e s s , a n d m a y a r o u s e a n t a g -o n i s m . We w i s h t o s t r e s s a g a i n t h e n e e d , f i r s t o f a l l , o f s e c u r i n g t h e s y m p a t h y a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n o f a l l t h o s e w h o m a y h a v e a s h a r e i n m a k i n g u p s u c h c a r d s , b e f o r e a n y s u c h p l a n i s p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n . W h a t c r i t e r i a s h o u l d b e f o l l o w e d i n m a k i n g s u c h a r e c o r d c a r d ? l e t u s l i s t w h a t s e e m t o b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e s s e n t i a l s ; — 1 . T h e r e c o r d m u s t b e b a s e d o n r e l i a b l e a n d a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e s . O n e w a y t h a t t h i s m a y b e a c c o m p l i s h e d i s t o f o l l o w D r , J o n e s ' i n s t r u c t i o n s , g i v e n i n h i s b o o k , ' P r i n c i p l e s o f G u i d a n c e ' : ' R e o o r d f a c t s j R e o o r d f a c t s I 2. T h e r e p o r t m u s t h e c a p a b l e o f q u i c k r e a d i n g , a b l e t o b e r e a d , a s o n e c h i l d s a i d o f s c h o o l n o t i c e s , * o n t h e r u n ' . 3 . T h e d a t a m u s t b e s o a r r a n g e d t h a t t r e n d s o f d e v -e l o p m e n t m a y r e a d i l y b e s e e n ; a l s o t h a t t h e i n t e r -r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f d a t a m a y b e r e a d i l y o b s e r v e d . W h a t f a c t s s h o u l d b e r e c o r d e d o n t h e s e c a r d s ? 1 * T h e r e s u l t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , b e i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e o f m e n t a l c a p a c i t y a n d o f a b i l i t y . 2. T h e c o m p l e t e e d u c a t i o n a l r e c o r d , a r e c o r d o f a c h i e v e m e n t o r f a i l u r e . 3. H e a l t h r e c o r d , s o a r r a n g e d a s t o s h o w t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d . 4. I n t e r e s t s r e c o r d , s o a r r a n g e d a s t o s h o w d e v e l o p -m e n t . 5. P e r s o n a l i t y r e o o r d , r a t i n g s a g a i n s o a r r a n g e d a s t o s h o w g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 6 . R e c o r d o f C o n d u c t o r B e h a v i o u r , w h i c h m a y b e i n d i c a t i v e o f a d j u s t m e n t o r m a l - a d j u s t m e n t . 7 . E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r R e c o r d , w h i c h m a y b e i n d i c a t i v e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s a n d a b i l i t i e s . 8* A t t e n d a n c e R e c o r d , t o s h o w h a b i t u a l p u n c t u a l i t y o r t a r d i n e s s . I t m a y a l s o b e i n d i c a t i v e o f h e a l t h . -42-9 , S o c i a l and Economic Record,to give the s o c i a l hack-ground,a knpwledge of which is so important in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . We a l s o suggest to accompany t h i s cumulative r e c o r d card a graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the educational record which shows the achievement progress. This can e a s i l y he worked out on a simple graph. In f a c t a student can be shown how to do t h i s work h i m s e l f . Such a recdrd w i l l prove very convenient and valuable as i t i s a v i s u a l a i d that i s p r a c t i c a l . This graph w i l l show the general trend of development,and w i l l probably prove a key f o r s o l v i n g many problems. E i t h e r a drop or a r i s e i n grades w i l l become a s i g n a l . For a d e t a i l e d study of e i t h e r of these,supplementary m a t e r i a l must be brought i n to help i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Mrs. L.O. Anderson,Dean of G i r l s at' Wenatehee High School,Wash., giv e s the f o l l o w i n g graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l records with accompanying explanation. B r i e f E x p l a n a t i o n 1. The e n t i r e academic re c o r d i n Senior High School appears on one sheet. 2. Each square represents one semester;the dote are s i x weeks 5 grades;the f i n a l grade i s i n -d i c a t e d by the dot on the l i n e . 3. The subjects i n a given semester are arranged i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n unless a b e t t e r sequence can be oltherwise obtained. 4. The grades are i n d i c a t e d i n 5% i n t e r v a l s . 1. 95-100. 4. 80-85, 2. 90-95. 5. 75-80. 3» 85-90. 6„ below passing. 5* The blank below the "6" denotes a d d i t i o n a l check-up between times when the r e p o r t cards are i s s u e d . Among The B e n e f i t s . I. The student can do t h i s work and keep h i s own graph up-to-date. The p i c t u r e of h i s progress or otherwise i s a gr e a t b e n e f i t to him. The s t r e s s i s l a i d not upon merely passing but upon the trend of h i s grades. He uses h i m s e l f as a measuring s t i c k . &• Both p u p i l s and teachers are quicker to sense any d i f f i c u l t y when i t f i r s t appears j l i k e w i s e i n d i c a t i o n s of g a i n s . 3. The graph i s u s e f u l i n conferences with parents. 4. I t brings teachers and students together f o r a r e g u l a r , p e r i o d i c and complete checking. "V. 5. The graph puts the i n t e r v i e w on a; f a c t u a l b a s i s . I t saves conversation and gives point to the conference. 6. I t i s an index to many d i f f i c u l t i e s ( i l l n e s s , maladjustment, trouble a t home, etc.) 7. I t shoY/s a t a glance whether remedial e f f o r t s have been s u c c e s s f u l . 8. I t i n d i c a t e s v o c a t i o n a l and a v o c a t i o n a l trends. 9. I t does take time but i t i s , nevertheless, a time-saver. The teacher knows i n s t a n t l y where to spend her time and e f f o r t * A G -P% e ftt.i s f~,r. . / A O jr e et-s s 5/?o r. J~.A>a.xc/~, V *>7.e .• _ -44-A d d i t i o n a l information obtained from p u p i l s them-selves may prove very v a l u a b l e . One suggestion i s an auto-biography, w r i t t e n by each student,Y/hich w i l l not only r e v e a l valuable f a c t s , but a l s o show the student's outlook on l i f e . This plan has been t r i e d out by the w r i t e r and found to be most h e l p f u l . In one p a r t i c u l a r instance the student's autobiography r e v e a l e d the s t o r y of h i s f a m i l y ' s gradual r i s e to prosperity.. This was r e f l e c t e d i n the student's character and a t t i t u d e towars h i s work,both of which were more r e a d i l y understood in the l i g h t of h i s own statements. He had a b s o l u t e l y no ambition to e x c e l i n h i s work,thinking e v i d e n t l y that h i s f a t h e r ' s p r o s p e r i t y was the c r i t e r i o n of h i s own success. Another autobiography revealed a student's keen sense of the supposed i n j u s t i c e done him i n the promotion of the previous year. The informationtthiks gained proved the key to the problem of d e a l i n g with the strange a t t i t u d e he had developed at the beginning of term. S t i l l others gave i n s i g h t i n t o students' ambitions and Pro-posed c a r e e r s . Another suggestion i s an e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l plan,worked out by the student with the a i d and c o n s u l t a t i o n of a t r a i n e d worker. This v o c a t i o n a l p l a n , t e n t a t i v e at f i r s t of n e c e s s i t y , i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n guidance,because sub-j e c t s , c u r r i c u l a and schools are chosen i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h i s p lan. It w i l l change of course. So i t must b e , i n the f i r s t instance,broad and f l e x i b l e and so capable of change, l a t e r the plan w i l l narrow down. But some p l a n , t e n t a t i v e although -45- . i t may be,i s b e t t e r than none. Changes i n the plan should be made onl y when the next step i s c l e a r l y seen and the new pla n seems b e t t e r than the o l d . Elans of the parents f o r the c h i l d , t o o , s h o u l d a l s o be deserving of c o n s i d e r a t i o n and record.The Guidance o f f e r e d by the school should supplement and not re p l a c e the parent guidance. Acquaintance with the parents' plans sometimes helps one see the influences which have a f f e c t e d the c h i l d ' s t h i n k i n g * I t i s the duty of the school to i n t e r p r e t to parents the f a c t o r s to be considered i n formulating an educa t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p l a n . Interviews with p a r e n t s , s o c i a l workers,doctors and many others i n t e r e s t e d i n the welfare of the c h i l d , a l l thro?/ l i g h t on h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . A l l the m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to the study of the i n d i v i d u a l , t e s t s of various kinds f u r n i s h i n g valuable d a t a , r e s u l t s of interviews with parents or others i n t e r e s t e d , should be kept together with the cumulative r e c o r d i n one f o l d e r , w i t h the c h i l d ' s name on the outside of the f o l d e r . Such a f o l d e r must be kept i n a place easy of access. Some c h i l d r e n w i l l have a f o l d e r c o n t a i n i n g few data,others c o n t a i n i n g many. We wonder i f the s i z e or weight of the f o l d e r might be s i g n i f i c a n t i n our a n a l y s i s . -46-C h a p t e r l T I — S t u d y o f t h e S p h e r e i n W h i c h t h e I n d i v i d u a l  i a t o F u n c t i o n T h e r e a r e t w o p a r t s t o t h i s s t u d y o f O c c u p a t i o n s : 1 , O c c u p a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 * D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n . 1 * O c c u p a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s t h e o b t a i n i n g o f i n f o r -m a t i o n . a b o u t t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d a n d h a s a n e s s e n t i a l p l a c e i n t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m m e , S t u d e n t s m u s t b e i n -f o r m e d c o n c e r n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a n d , f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , t r a i n e d w o r k e r s m u s t h a v e a f u n d o f a c c u r a t e , u p - t o -d a t e a n d r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e y n e e d t o k n o w t h e e d u c a t i o n -a l a n d t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t , t h e w a g e s a n d t h e d e m a n d s o n h e a l t h ; T h e y s h o u l d a l s o k n o w t h e v o c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y • W h e r e a r e t h e y t o g e t a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ? We s h a l l a p p r o a c h t h a t p h a s e o f t h e s u b j e c t f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n g l e . ' T h e e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s o n o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n L o n d o n , I n 1 9 0 8 t h e r e a p p e a r e d a p a m p h l e t e n t i t l e d , " T r a d e s f o r L o n d o n B o y s " , a n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r a n o t h e r e n t i t l e d , " T r a d e s f o r L o n d o n G i r l s . " T h e s e p a m p h l e t s w e r e p r e p a r e d b y t h e A p p r e n t i c e s h i p a n d s k i l l e d E m p l o y m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n o f L o n d o n , E n g l a n d . I n 1 9 0 8 t o o , t h e " H a n d b o o k o f E m p l o y m e n t s " w a s p u b -l i s h e d i n A b e r d e e n , , S c o t l a n d , M e n t i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m a d e o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n . F r o m 1 9 1 0 — 1 8 t h e r e w e r e p u b l i c a t i o n s --47-o f t h e B o s t o n V o c a t i o n a l B u r e a u i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b y F r e d -e r i c k J . A l l e n , a p i o n e e r i n t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M o v e m e n t . T h e n a f t e r t h e w a r m a n y p a m p h l e t s a p p e a r e d c o n t a i n i n g j o b a n a l y s e s , a n d t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t e m p l o y -m e n t s . B y 1 9 2 0 , m a n y s c h o o l s w e r e g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o c c u p a t i o n s a n d i n d u s t r i e s . "Efoig. o f t h e d a t a w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n p a m p h l e t f o r m . S t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n b y e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , a n d w e r e i n t e n d e d f o r g u i d a n c e p u r p o s e s . T o d a y m a n y s t u d i e s o n O c c u p a t i o n s a r e p u b l i s h e d b y s c h o o l s , i n d u s t r i e s , s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d r e s e a r c h g r o u p s . C a r e m u s t b e t a k e n t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e a c c u r a t e a n d u n p r e j u d i c e d , b e c a u s e f r e q u e n t l y t h e y m a y b e m a d e f o r t h e s a k e o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t . A s t h e n e e d a r i s e s , t h e s e s t u d i e s w i l l m o s t p r o b a b l y b e c o n t r o l l e d b y a c e n t r a l a g e n c y , a n d m a y e v e n c o m e u n d e r g o v e r n m e n t s u p e r v i s i o n . • U o o t h e r f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s m o r e r e s e a r c h t h a n t h a t o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e a n d V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , a n d o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l b r a n c h o c c u p i e s a v e r y i m p -o r t a n t p l a c e ' . I t i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y n e w f i e l d , a n d w e c a n l o o k a h e a d t o e v e n g r e a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e f u t u r e a n d m o r e c o -o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s u n d e r t a k i n g t h e w o r k . T h e r e m u s t b e a c o n t i n u a l s t u d y o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f ^ a l l o c c u p a t i o n s , a c o n s t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c , i n d u s t -r i a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l t r e n d s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e c a u s e s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , a n d , a b o v e a l l , a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i s b r o a d e n o u g h t o s t u d y a l l t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n t e r m s o f c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s . - 4 8 -F o r t h e s t u d e n t w h o i s u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s s t u d y , m a t -e r i a l a n d i n f o r m a t i o n m a y h e s e c u r e d t h r o u g h t h e l i b r a r y , i n -v e s t i g a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r y a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e m p l o y e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s . D a t a s e c u r e d s h o u l d i n c l u d e : ~ ( a ) n a t u r e , i m p o r t a n c e a n d h i s t o r y o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n . ( b ) o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t . ( c ) p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a t t e n d i n g w o r k . ( d ) a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n . ( e ) b i b l i o g r a p h i e s a n d s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g l i s t s . 2. The D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n . The d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g i n d u s t -r i e s a n d o c c u p a t i o n s i s o n e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s o f Y o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . O n e o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e a n d e c o n o m i c a l w a y s o f g e t t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s i s b y t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c l a s s e s f o r t h e s p e c i a l p u r p o s e o f d i s c u s s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . J o h n B r e w e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e i s n o f o r c e w h i c h h a s s o f a r b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s m o v e m e n t w h i c h h a s q u i t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e s c h o o l c l a s s f o r t h e s t u d y o f O c c u p a t i o n s . S u c h a c l a s s i s o r g a n i s e d t o g i v e n e c -e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , p r o b l e m s e n d o p p o r -t u n i t i e s , b u t i t a l s o h a s a s o c i a l p u r p o s e , n a m e l y , o f g i v i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a -t i o n s a n d t h e s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h , a s w e l l a s o f d e v -e l o p i n g a c o m m u n i t y c o n s c i o u s n e s s o n e c o n o m i c a n d c i v i c p r o b -l e m s . S u c h a s t u d y , w i t h i t s t w o - f o l d a s p e c t , a i m s t o h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l m a k e h i s o w n o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a n d s o ^ v e -49-h i s own problems. The formation of such a c l a s s w i l l be d i s -cussed i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . Where the formation of t h i s type of c l a s s i s not f e a s i b l e , t h e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s must be sought i n the present c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r i n g s . I t has been found that quite e f f e c t i v e work can be done by v o c a t i o n a l i z i n g c e r t a i n branches of study a l r e a d y i n the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m , v i z . English,Home Economics,Art and Science. K l t s o n says, "Every sabject on the curriculum, Geography, H i s t o r y , Chemistry, L a t i n and Algebra can be used as a v e h i c l e f o r the dissemin-a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Information and the arousing of V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s • u Then,too,certain courses a l r e a d y i n use maybe found to have d e f i n i t e e x p l o r a t o r y value and may give students t r y - o u t experiences i n these subj e c t s . 3?or example, r e s u l t s i n c e r t a i n subjects; may be i n d i c a t i v e of e i t h e r success or f a i l u r e i n the occupations f o r which these subjects are e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s . Another source 6f information w i l l be found i n reO--i a b l e publications,programmes of study,school handbooks and v a r i o u s v o c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . The l i b r a r y , t o o , s h o u l d o f f e r e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s f o r a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i n the way of biographies and occupational s t u d i e s . The L i b r a r i a n has an important place i n t h i s scheme,as Mary E. H a l l i n her Thesis " V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Through The L i b r a r y " has s a i d , *Moat important of a l l i n t h i s work the L i b r a r y can do, i n V o c a t i o n a l Guidance,is the personal work of the L i b r a r i a n -50-with the teachers and students. Be may have our l i b r a r y mat-e r i a l well-organized,our machinery i n p e r f e c t working order, but i f the human element i s lacking,we s h a l l f a i l to accom-p l i s h a l l that we ought," (I) E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i n the way of organized games and the formation of c l u b s ^ a f f o r d a s p l e n d i d opportunity f o r d i s s e m i n a t i n g v o c a t i o n a l Information, For example, a Chemistry Club i n i t s program could study a l l the a l l i e d occupations. Valuable information may a l s o be obtained from many outside agencies. Talks and d i s c u s s i o n s l e d by outside speakers are v e r y o f t e n h e l p f u l , a l t h o u g h eare must be taken that r e l i a b l e speakers are procured,and i f p o s s i b l e more thai one i n the same f i e l d , s o that d i f f e r e n t points o f view may be obtained. These t a l k s should not be too (Long,perhaps twenty minutes i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the subject and t h i r t y or f o r t y minutes f o r d i s c u s s i o n and que s t i o n i n g . Interviews and contacts with outside business men,as w e l l as part-time employment,often in f l u e n c e a student i n h i s choice of occupation. The cinema and the radio,too are agencies which could be used to a much greater extent than they are at p r e s e n t , f o r the dissemination of information concerning occupations. (I) Ha11,Mary E» s V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Through The L i b r a r y ; American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n P u b l i s h i n g Board: 78 E , Washington S t C h i c a g o . Summing up, we would say that a study of Occupations w i t h i t s two phases, Occupational Research and the Dissemina-t i o n o f Information, a necessary p a r t of any Y o c a t i o n a l Guid-ance Program, should serve the f o l l o w i n g p u r p o s e s : — 1. Provide a "background of adequate i n d u s t r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the Y o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l o r . 2. Give i n f o r m a t i o n concerning occupations, c o n d i t -i o n s o f work, requirements e t c , to the students. 5. Provide a ge n e r a l programme i n so f a r as the i n f o r m a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e n a t i o n a l l y , hut a s p e c i f i c programme when the in f o r m a t i o n i s only a p p l i c a b l e l o c a l l y . Sometimes n a t i o n a l s i m i l a r -i t i e s and l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be found i n a giv e n occupation. 4. Provide a source o f r e l i a b l e i nformation, con-t r o l l e d , i f p o s s i b l e , by a c e n t r a l agency. Chapter "SHI—The Teohnigues by Whioh These Two Spheres of Knowledge are Brought Together. 1. The C o u n s e l l o r and h i s Duties. . The work of the Counsellor i s a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d one, r e q u i r i n g , besides the very e s s e n t i a l p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c -a t i o n s , thorough t r a i n i n g i n Psychology, Sociology, and Econ-omies. The d u t i e s of the Counsellor are of course i n f l u e n -ced by the s i z e and type of the s c h o o l and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Sometimes the C o u n s e l l o r does no teaching at a l l , h i s e n t i r e time being devoted to c o u n s e l l i n g and r o u t i n e work. But a combination of teaching w i t h v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i s thought to c o n t r i b u t e to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program, as i t makes f o r b e t t e r contacts. The type of teaching which the Counsel-l o r w i l l do w i l l i n c l u d e teaching of the c l a s s e s i n Occupations, f o r whioh h i s t r a i n i n g and necessary research best f i t him. Occupational research demands continuous contact with the world o f i n d u s t r y . There must a l s o be on the p a r t of the Counsellor continuous r e s e a r c h i n t o b e t t e r methods f o r d e a l i n g wi th the i n d i v i d u a l . The duties of the C o u n s e l l o r may be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : — 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of students, by a b i l i t y grouping, psycho-l o g i c a l t e s t s and personnel records. 2. Research; occupational, f o r the dissemination of informa-t i o n ; i n d i v i d u a l , f o r g a i n i n g b e t t e r methods of -53-o f d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e . G r o u p C o u n s e l l i n g , u s u a l l y t h r o u g h a c l a s s o n O c c u p a t i o n s , f o r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l C o u n s e l l i n g , a n d I n t e r v i e w s , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f : — ( A ) P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g ? a s s i s t i n g i n t h e E d u c a t i o n a l a n d V o c a t i o n a l p l a n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a t h i n g w e c o n s i d e r e s s e n t i a l . I n t h i s t h e C o u n s e l l o r m u s t t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e v a l u e o f a b r o a d a n d f l e x i b l e p l a n w h i c h m a y d e v e l o p a s t h e c h i l d ' s o u t l o o k g r o w s a n d a s h e d e s i r e s t o b r o a d e n h i s c h o i c e s i n t h e f u t u r e , ( a ) h e l p s t u d e n t i n c h o i c e o f c o u r s e s , e l e c t i v e s , m e t h o d s o f s t u d y . ( b ) s t u d y f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . ( o ) h e l p s t u d e n t t o h e l p h i m s e l f , b y s h o w i n g h i m h i s o w n a s s e t s a n d l i a b i l i t i e s , a n d t h e o c -c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s h e h a s b e f o r e h i m . P u t h i m i n t o u c h w i t h s o u r c e s o f a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . ( d ) k e e p c h e c k o n h i s e d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l p l a n , a n d k e e p i n t o u c h w i t h i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . (p>) S t u d y o f s p e c i a l o r p r o b l e m o a s e s . C a s e - w o r k , w h i c h m a y b e p e d a g o g i c a l o r s o c i a l . T h i s m a y r e q u i r e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l a n d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I t a l s o -54-i n v o l v e s c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h p a r e n t s . N e e d f o r co -? o p e r a t i o n h e r e i s r e c o g n i z e d . C a s e - w o r k i s d o n e w l t h s — ( a ) F a i l i n g S t u d e n t s f i n d c a u s e o f f a i l u r e , i n t e r v i e w c h i l d a n d p a r e n t s i f n e c e s s a r y . H e l p i n m a k i n g a b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t , p e r h a p s i m p r o v e s t u d y m e t h o d s o r a d v i s e c h a n g e o f c o u r s e t o i n c l u d e s u b j e c t s w h i c h m o r e a d e q -u a t e l y s u i t i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s a n d a b i l i t i e s . ( b ) C h i l d r e n L e a v i n g S c h o o l . - - F i n d r e a s o n f o r w i t h d r a w a l . ( c ) P e r s o n a l i t y P r o b l e m s , - - S t u d y t h e c h i l d w h o g i v e s e v i d e n c e o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t * S u c h s t u d -i e s r e q u i r e p a t i e n t w o r k a n d m a y r e q u i r e t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f o t h e r s o c i a l a n d r e m e d i a l a g e n c i e s , t h e p h y s i c i a n , t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t , e t c . ( d ) C h i l d r e n n e e d i n g m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l s e r v i c e o r s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . C o u n s e l l o r m u s t g e t t h e m i n t o u c h w i t h t h e r i g h t a g e n o i e s • 5v H o m e C o n t a c t . ( A ) C o n s u l t i n g p a r e n t s i n t h e ' e d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a -t i o n a l p l a n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . ( B ) I n p r o b l e m c a s e s , g e t t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f p a r -e n t s , i f p o s s i b l e . -55-6. C o n t a c t W i t h O u t s i d e A g e n c i e s , ( A ) I n d u s t r y . ( B ) W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n s . ( C ) l a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s . (D ) C h u r c h e s . 7. K e e p i n g o f R e c o r d s . ( A ) C u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d . ( B ) R e c o r d o f s c h o o l g r a d e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t , i n f o r m o f g r a p h . ( C ) E d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l p l a n f o r e a c h s t u d e n t . ( A c o p y o f t h i s p l a n s h o u l d a l s o b e k e p t b y t h e s t u d e n t . ) ( D ) R e c o r d o f home s i t u a t i o n a n d v i s i t s . ( E ) S t u d e n t ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y . ( F ) A n y o t h e r m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . (G ) A l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e p l a c e d i n a n i n d i v -u a l f o l d e r — a n d f i l e d i n t h e s c h o o l o f f i c e . 2. C o u n s e l l i n g , G r o u p a n d I n d i v i d u a l . C o u n s e l l i n g w a s t h e e a r l i e s t f o r m o f Y o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n o e . i n t h e s c h o o l , a n d w a s k n o w n l o n g b e f o r e t h e t e r m G u i d a n c e c a m e i n t o u s e . G u i d a n c e , a m o d e r n s c i e n c e , w a s a v e r y a n c i e n t a r t a n d w a s p r a c t i s e d b y d i s c e r n i n g m e n a n d w o m e n i n m a n y s c h o o l s o f l o n g a g o . I n t h e s m a l l e r s c h o o l t h e t e a c h e r h a d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r k n o w i n g h e r s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r e n v i r o n -m e n t , a s w e l l a s t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f h e r o o m m u n i t y i A n i n f o r m a l m e t h o d o f f r i e n d l y a d v i c e w a s t h e n s u f f i c i e n t t o m e e t t h e n e e d s . B u t w i t h t h e g r o w t h i n s i z e o f o u r m o d e r n s c h o o l a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e a v e r a g e t e a c h e r t o d a y h a s n o t t i m e f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f p u p i l a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r a d e q u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r h a s h e l p e d t o c r e a t e t h e p r e s e n t c o m p l e x i t y of t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . One a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a i d that t h i s f a c t w a s n e v e r b r o u g h t home t o h i m s o c l e a r l y a s w h e n h i s s e v e n y e a r o l d Bon, r e t u r n i n g f r o m s o h o o l , a s k e d " D a d d y , w h o i s my t e a c h e r ? " P u p i l s h a v e a n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f a d j u s t m e n t s t o - m a k e a n d a r e m o r e t h a n e v e r I n n e e d o f a d e q u a t e c o u n s e l l i n g . T o m e e t t h i s n e e d t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m o f c o u n s e l -l i n g m u s t b e c o m e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . T o q u o t e f r o m t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f D r . A n d e r s o n ' s t h e s i s , " A S t u d y o f t h e A p p a r e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p o f I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t t o S u c c e s s i n a H i g h S c h o o l o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B . C . " " L a s t l y , t h e r e s e e m s t o b e g r a v e n e e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g f o r t h e s e y o u n g ' p e o p l e . T h i s p h a s e o f e d u c a t i o n i s n o t y e t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l s a d e e p n e e d f o r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n . S o m e o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s s h o w h o w g r e a t l y s o m e m e a s u r e o f g u i d a n c e w a s n e e d e d b y t h e s e b r i g h t e r p u p i l s , f o r t h e s e v e r y p u p i l s o f t e n e x h i b i t a r e s t l e s s n e s s and i n s t a b -i l i t y u n k n o w n t o t h e d u l l p l o d d i n g p u p i l . " ( 1 ) ( 1 ) b y H e n r i e t t a A l e x a n d r i n a R a m a g e A n d e r s o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 2 9 . -57-I n i t s broadest sense, c o u n s e l l i n g i s h e l p i n g the student adjust h i m s e l f to h i s school environment, and through that, a i d i n g him to make the necessary adjustment to the l a r g e r environment i n which he w i l l soon f i n d h i m self. Since, most important among the c h i l d ' s l a t e r o b l i g a t i o n s w i l l be h i s v o c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t f o l l o w s that Y o c a t i o n a l Coun-s e l l i n g i s a very necessary p a r t of any Guidance Programme. I t i n c l u d e s g i v i n g counsel i n r e l a t i o n to a l l those problems which a f f e c t the l i f e of the c h i l d while he i s s t i l l i n school so that he may be b e t t e r equipped to meet h i s l a t e r o b l i g a t i o n s outside the sc h o o l . C o u n s e l l i n g may be d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s : — (A) Group C o u n s e l l i n g . (B) I n d i v i d u a l C o u n s e l l i n g . (A) Group C o u n s e l l i n g . Shis form of C o u n s e l l i n g i s best c a r r i e d out a. c l a s s on Occupations which should, be taught by Yoca t i o n a l Counselors or s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d teachers who are given time to keep i n -formed on occu p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and on the best methods f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n such c l a s s e s there w i l l be a study of general and l o c a l o ccupational and v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Occupational problems common to the group w i l l be studied and discussed here. Information as to the forms of higher education., and of the edu c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s of the community i n the way of l i b r a r i e s and museums w i l l be a f f o r d e d and b e t t e r methods -58-o f s t u d y w i l l b e . s u g g e s t e d . T o q u o t e f r o m t h e r e p o r t of t h e W e s t e r n G u i d a n c e C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n C a l i f o r n i a i n M a r c h of .1934 y , " G r o u p C o u n s e l l i n g p r o v i d e s a n a d e q u a t e m e a n s o f a c q u i r i n g t h e I n f o r -m a t i o n n e e d e d f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . ( a ) I t o p e n s u p a v e n u e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n t e r e s t s " , ( b ) I t h e l p s t h e c h i l d i n t e g r a t e a n d i n t e r p r e t h i s s c h o o l a n d o u t s i d e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o a g r o w i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e . ( o ) I t g i v e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c q u i r i n g s e l f -k n o w l e d g e , ( d ) I t g i v e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d t r e n d s , ( e ) I t m a p s ' o u t a l i f e - p l a n , ( 1 ) ( B ) I n d i v i d u a l C o u n s e l l i n g T h i s f o l l o w s g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g , s u p p l e m e n t s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n g r o u p p e r i o d s , a n d a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e d i f f i c u l t p e r s o n a l a n d f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , w h i c h a r e o f t e n t h e k e y t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d w h i c h c a n n o t b e s o l v e d i n t h e g r o u p . T h e C o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d a c q u a i n t t h e s t u d e n t w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l a s s e t s a n d l i a b i l i t i e s , t h e m o t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g c o n d u c t , ^ e n d -e a v o r t o h a v e h i m s e t u p f o r h i m s e l f s t a n d a r d s o f v a l u e s a n d ( 1 ) K e l l e r , F r a n k l i n J , — N e w F r o n t i e r s i n G u i d a n c e . O c c u p a t i o n s , M a r c h 1 9 3 4 . l i f e g o a l s , o r , t o u s e t h e m o t t o o f M e n t a l H y g i e n e , " A t t a i n a b l e l i f e - g o a l s . " T h e C o u n s e l l o r , f r o m h i s k n o w l e d g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s a n d t h e s t u d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s h o u l d h e l p t h e s t u d e n t i n t e r -p r e t h i s w o * a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s l h t h e l i g h t o f h i s o w n a b i l i t i e s a n d p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t n o d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d b e h u r r i e d . T h e c h o i c e m u s t c o m e f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h e C o u n s e l l o r h e l p s o n l y i n t h e m a k i n g o f t h e n e o e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s , a n d g i v e s t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a -t i o n . T o t h i s e n d , t h e C o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d c o n f e r w i t h p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s . a n d o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c h i l d , a n d m a k e u s e o f a l l f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d b y t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , p s y c h o -l o g i c a l a n d m e d i c a l c l i n i c s e t c . I n some s c h o o l s s p e c i a l l e t -t e r s a r e s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s t o k e e p t h e m i n t o u c h w i t h p r o b -l e m s w h i c h t h e C o u n s e l l o r a n d c h i l d a r e d i s c u s s i n g a n d t o a s k t h e p a r e n t s t o t a l k o v e r t h e s a m e p r o b l e m s a t h o m e . T h i s w e c o n s i d e r a g o o d p l a n . I n t h e i n d i v i d u a l C o n f e r e n c e , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d t h e v o c a t i o n a l p l a n , c o m m e n c e d p e r h a p s i n t h e g r o u p p e r i o d , w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , a n d t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a b r o a d a n d f l e x i b l e p l a n w h i c h w i l l g r o w w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s f u t u r e i n t e r e s t s a d v o c a t e d . . T h e t i m e a n d p l a c e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e a r e i m p o r t a n t . M a n y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a d v o c a t e a q u i e t o f f i c e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w . O n e c o u n s e l l o r , w h o h a s a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s i n h i s w o r k , r e p o r t s t h a t h e h o l d s a l l h i s i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s i n t h e h o m e s o f -60-t h e o h i l d r e n , w h e r e t h e a r t i f i c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s p l a n h e h a s f o u n d v e r y s u o o e s s f u l . T h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e v a r i e s , b u t t h e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t h e r e i s t h a t n o f e e l i n g o f u n d u e h a s t e h e f e l t b y t h e c h i l d c o u n s e l l e d . T h i s m e t h o d o f i n t e r v i e w i n g , t h e f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t , h a s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y t h a n o t h e r s d i s c u s s e d . H e r e m e a s u r e -m e n t i s l a c k i n g , b u t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o m e s i n . T h e e s s e n c e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a n i m p e r s o n a l , o b j e c t i v e v i e w i n g o f t h e c h i l d a n d h i s o u t l o o k . E x p e r i e n c e i s t h e m o s t e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i s t h i s . I n t e r v i e w s m a y b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : — ( a ) D i a g n o s t i c — t o s e e k t o d i s c o v e r f a c t s . ( b ) R e s e a r c h — t o s e c u r e d a t a t o h e l p s o l v e p r o b l e m s . ( c ) T r e a t m e n t — t o a s s i s t a n d p e r h a p s s u g g e s t c h a n g e s . T h e p u r p o s e s o f i n t e r v i e w s d i f f e r , a n d e a c h p u r p o s e r e q u i r e s i t s o w n t e c h n i q u e . T h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o r e m e m b e r i s t h a t t h e d a t a s h o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d t o t h e c h i l d a n d h i s p r o b l e m s d e f i n e d a n d a n a l y z e d . G u i d e h i m i n h i s t h i n k i n g , b u t d o n ' t t h i n k f o r h i m . I n t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . A f t e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e m u s t b e a r e c o r d i n g , a f o l l o w - u p b y t h e C o u n s e l l o r . I t i s u n w i s e t o t a k e a n y n o t e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e x c e p t t o r e c o r d f a c t s w h i c h m i g h t e s c a p e t h e m e m o r y . A g a i n q u o t i n g f r o m t h e r e p o r t o f t h e -61-W e s t e r n G u i d a n c e C o n f e r e n c e , " T h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w b e s t f u l f i l l s i t s f u n c t i o n w h e n t h e C o u n s e l l o r : — I , U s e s I n t e r v i e w w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 2, T h i n k s t h r o u g h h i s p r o b l e m . 3. E l i m i n a t e s p e r s o n a l b i a s . 4. H a s a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n . 5. C o n s i d e r s c h i l d * s a t t i t u d e * 6. T r i e s t o u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d . 7. H e l p s c h i l d d e v e l o p a c o n s t r u c t i v e p l a n . 8. S h i f t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n i t i a t i v e t o c h i l d , 9. R e c o r d s f a c t s . 10, I n t e r p r e t s e q u i t a b l y . I I . A r r a n g e s f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s i f n e c e s s a r y . 5. P l a c e m e n t . I n P l a c e m e n t t w o f a c t o r s m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d : ( a ) t h e i n d i v i d u a l . ( b ) t h e o c c u p a t i o n . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e f i r s t , t h e i n t e l -l i g e n c e , h e a l t h , i n t e r e s t a n d p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e c o n d , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n , t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l c o n d i -t i o n s a t t e n d i n g t h e w o r k , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e -m e n t , a l l t h e s e m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d . W h e r e P l a c e m e n t i s c a r r i e d o n a s a r e g u l a r p a r t o f t h e -62-V o o a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a l l p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d h e m a d e b e f o r e a n y a r e f i l l e d . T h e r e s h o u l d b e a c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l , p l a c e m e n t o f f i c e r s a n d t h e e m p l o y e r s i n i n d u s t r y . E a c h h a s a r i g h t t o e x p e c t s o m e d e f i n i t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f r o m t h e o t h e r . We s h a l l l i s t t h o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h each-may e x p e c t - o f " t h e " b t h e r j - - •-- : — • WHAT I N D U S T R Y H A S A R I G H T TO  E X P E C T F R O M T H E S C H O O L . 1 . T h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s b e e n t r a i n e d t o t h i n k . 2. T h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s b e e n t a u g h t t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3. T h a t a d e q u a t e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d , 4; T h a t g r o u p - c o - o p e r a t i o n h a s b e e n t a u g h t . 5 , T h a t V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n t h e w a y o f s e l f - a n a l y s i s a n d t h e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d . WHAT T H E S C H O O L M A Y E X P E C T  F R O M I N D U S T R Y . 1 . T h a t i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t -a n c e b e g i v e n t o h u m a n w e l f a r e . 2. T h a t h e a l t h y w o r k i n g a n d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s b e p r o v i d e d . 3. T h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l f o r c e s t o i m p r o v e c o n d i t i o n s b e c o n s i d e r e d , 4 . T h a t a d v a n c e m e n t o p p o r t -u n i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s a n d a p t i t u d e s o f t h e i n d i v i d -u a l b e p r o v i d e d . 5. T h a t I n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d -e r a t i o n i n v a r i o u s w a y s b e g i v e n . I n P l a c e m e n t t h e r e m u s t b e s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y w h i c h a f f e c t t h e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e m a y b e g i v e n . T h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e a g e n c i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e h o m e , t h e c h u r c h a n d o t h e r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , m a y c o m e t h r o u g h a m u t u a l e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a m u t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p u r p o s e s , a n d p r o g r a m s • P l a c e m e n t m e a n s s e n d i n g t h e b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o f i l l t h e v a c a n c y . I t a l m s t o c o n s e r v e t h e h u m a n f a c t o r a n d e l i m i n -a t e s u n n e c e s s a r y w a s t e i n i n d u s t r y . I n c o n s i d e r i n g P l a c e m e n t , t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t ; a l l s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d b e u n d e r o n e s u p e r v i s i o n , s o t h a t t h e r e m a y b e a s t a n d a r d p o l i c y i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d . P l a c e m e n t m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s b e i n g o f t h r e e t y p e s s -(A) P e r m a n e n t . ( B ) T e m p o r a r y . ( C ) P a r t - T i m e . P l a c e m e n t i s p e r m a n e n t w h e n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e -m e n t w i t h i n t h e b u s i n e s s i s g i v e n . I t i s t e m p o r a r y w h e n i t p r o v i d e s m e r e l y a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e a r n a l i t t l e m o n e y , b u t l e a d s t o e i t h e r l i t t l e o r n o a d v a n c e m e n t . P a r t - t i m e p l a c e m e n t o c c u r s w h e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o r k s a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . I n t h i s t y p e , i t h a s o f t e n b e e n f o u n d a d v i s a b l e f o r t h e s c h o o l p l a c e -m e n t o f f i c e r t o h a v e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a l l j u n i o r e m p l o y m e n t t o -64-see that the s p i r i t of a l l laws concerning minors i s c a r r i e d out. 4. Follow-up,* This i s the l a s t f u n c t i o n of the school in the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Program. I t i s the follow-up of those i n d i v i d u a l s who have "been placed i n i n d u s t r y , and may be c a r r i e d on by personal interviews and by correspondence. I t i s necessary that the v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r and placement o f f i c e r (sometimes these tv/o o f f i c e s may be combined i n the one o f f i c e r ) know whether or not the i n d i v i d u a l has been c o r r e c t l y placed,and whether h i s personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and school t r a i n i n g were the best to equip him f o r h i s work. This f u n c t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i s an i n -c r e a s i n g l y important one,and i t shows whether or not the work being done by the s c h o o l and the advice of the c o u n s e l l o r are s a t i s f a c t o r y . The experiments c a r r i e d on i n England,which have been p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,had that purpose i n view. I t i s becoming more and more necessary that the successes of workers of v a r y i n g a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , a n d t r a i t s of character be known f o r d i f f e r e n t types of work. Follow-up i n v e s t i g a t i o n s take a long time to c a r r y out,but,upon t h e i r r e s u l t s , r e s t s the measure of success which the e d u c a t i o n a l system with i t s V o c a t i o n a l Guidance branch i s a t t a i n i n g . -65-SUMMARY OF BART. I I . We have here l i s t e d the P r i n c i p l e s o f V o c a t i o n a l , Guidance,and as regards i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , we have discus s e d the study of the Individual,which i s the f i e l d of E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Psychology; the study of the sphere i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s to function,which i s the f i e l d of I n d u s t r i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Sociology; and the techniques by which these two spheres o f knowledge are brought together,which i s the f i e l d of E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance. Here we have attempted to show that the e s s e n t i a l purpose of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i s to make the i n d i v i d u a l sure o f h i m s e l f , o f the spheres i n which he could f u n c t i o n f u l l y and r e a l i z e h i m s e l f to the greatest p o s s i b l e degree, and then so r e l a t e these two, that both the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y w i l l be mutually b e n e f i t e d . -66-VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE PART I I I 'VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE--- ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION. CHAPTER V I I I . THE ORGANIZATION OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE. 1. The Aims and Objectives to be Sought i n the Orga n i z a t i o n . (a) To incorporate the P r i n c i p l e s into an Orga n i z a t i o n . (b) To i n t e g r a t e the Program throughout a l l Departments of S c h o o l - L i f e . 2. F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g the Organiz a t i o n . (a) Sanction of the Ed u c a t i o n a l A u t h o r i t i e s • (b) L o c a l Conditions of the Community. (c) Co-operation o f S t a f f . (d) Co-operation of Community, 3. Personnel of the Organization. CHAPTER IX. THE ADMINISTRATION OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE. 1. E n l i s t i n g the Co-operation of a l l Agencies Concerned i n the Guidance Program. (a) S o c i a l Welfare Clubs and R e l i g i o u s Agencies. (b) C i v i c Agencies,e.g. Board of Trade. (c) L i b r a r i e s . 2 . C a r r y i n g out the A c t i v i t i e s L i s t e d Below* (a) Study of the I n d i v i d u a l . -67-(b) Study of Occupations. i . P l a n of Class on Occupations,from the John M a r s h a l l High School, S e a t t l e , i i . Home-Room Organization, Suggestions. 3, Measurement of R e s u l t s . CHAPTER X. EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING OP COUNSELLORS. 1. Personal Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 2. General T r a i n i n g . 3. P r o f e s s i o n a l B r a i n i n g . CHAPTER X I . OUR LOCAL PROBLEM AND THE PROPOSED SOLUTION. -68-CHAPTER mi^TSSl O R G A N I Z A T I O N OF V O C A T I O N A L GUIDANCE. 1 . T h e A i m s a n a O b j e c t i v e s t o b e S o u g h t i n t h e • O r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i r s t a i m t o b e s o u g h t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be the incorporation of the principles of V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e as set forth i n Part II Chapter U T o f this Thesis, and w h i c h a r e b a s e d on: — 1 * R e c o g n i t i o n o f I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . B . R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e C o m p l e x i t y o f M o d e r n I n d u s t r i a l L i f e , 3. Recognition of the Relationship Existing Between T h e s e T w o Factors. The second aim w i l l be to put those principles into p r a c t i c e , i n suoh a manner as to ensure the harmonious co-operation o f a l l those who are interested i n the welfare of youth. The t h i r d aim w i l l be to have the organization s o function t h a t i t w i l l net r e s u l t s i n better equipped young people and happier s o c i a l conditions. Then i t must b e the objective of the organization, not only to integrate th« programme with the other branches of the school curriculum, but also, going deeper than that, to ensure integration at the different school l e v e l s , the elem-entary school, the junior and senior high schools, and the university. I f the programme be oarried on at one l e v e l only -69-a n d n o t o o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r l e v e l s , t h e e f f o r t e x p e n d e d w i l l h e f u t i l e a n d t h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d n e g l i g i b l e • A s c h i l -d r e n p a s s t o e a c h h i g h e r l e v e l , t h e y s h o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d a c -c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n b r o u g h t u p f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s o n e * M a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n c e r n i n g p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n m a y t h u s b e f o r e -s t a l l e d , i f t h e i r p r e v i o u s r e c o r d s b e k n o w n a n d s t u d i e d , Zm F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n , B e f o r e a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n j b e s e t u p , t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s m u s t b e s e c u r e d , a n d t h e f u n d s b e a v a i l a b l e • T h e l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n — t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r r a c i a l o r i g i n a n d t h e i r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o r l a c k o f i t . E v e r y c o m m u n i t y h a s a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m ; a n d , b e c a u s e o f t h e s e v a r -i a t i o n s i n l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , n o u n i f o r m p r o g r a m o f o r g a n i z -a t i o n c a n b e a d v o c a t e d t h a t w i l l f i t a l l s i t u a t i o n s . A n y s c h e m e m u s t g r o w o u t o f e x i s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t * a n d m u s t b e p l a n -n e d t o f u n c t i o n i n t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e g r o w t h m u s t b e g r a d -u a l * T h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m i s a n e v o l u t i o n a r y o n e , a n d m u s t ohaqg e t o f i t a c h a n g i n g w o r l d . T h e m a c h i n e r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d n e v e r o v e r s h a d o w t h e a i m s a n d p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h i t e n d e a v o r s t o p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e , n o r s h o u l d t h e s t u d e n t s e v e r b e c o n s c i o u s o f t h a t m a c h i n e r y . T h e w i s e a d m i n i s t r a t o r m a k e s h a s t e s l o w l y . I t i s h i s d u t y t o m a k e t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m m e c o m e a s a r e s u l t o f a -70-. c a r e f u l l y d i r e c t e d growth from w i t h i n . F i r s t of a l l , a n d we f e e l t h a t we cannot s t r e s s t h i s too much, the p r i n c i p a l must have the coQoperation of h i s s t a f f as w e l l as t h e i r sympathy toward the idea•.They f i r s t must catch the vision,and be f i l l e d w i t h that s p i r i t of s e r v i c e which a s u c c e s s f u l ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n of the guidance program r e q u i r e s . The s p i r i t of the s c h o o l and the a t t i t u d e of the s t a f f depend on the p r i n c i p a l . The planning and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the programme l i e with him. I f he should f e e l that he has not the co-operation and sympathy of h i s s t a f f , t h e n he must f i r s t succeed, i n e n l i s t i n g them,even should i t take one or two years* One method of educating the s t a f f to the guidance idea would be to c a r r y on at the s t a f f meetings a co-operative study of the e n t i r e philosophy of guidance,and a l l that i t involves.One c o u n s e l l o r t e l l s of having a l l interesting-a r t i c l e s on the subject placed on the s t a f f b u l l e t i n board fo r every one to read. This,he said,kept the e n t i r e s t a f f a l e r t to the idea. Nextpthe sa n c t i o n of the community i s necessary. A community s p i r i t on guidance must be b u i l t up. Several c i t i e s i n the Unites States are doing t h i s through the formation of what i s c a l l e d a C o - o r d i n a t i n g Association,members of which come from d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g the youth of the community. We are of the opinion t h a t , i n general,people w i l l be sympathetic toward the V o c a t i o n a l Guidance idea,when they u n d e r s t a n d w h a t i t m e a n s a n d w h a t i t i nvo l ves® P a r e n t s w o u l d w e l c o m e a n y s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d w h i c h w o u l d h e l p t h e i r y o u n g p e o p l e s o l v e t h e i r p r o b l e m s a t a t i m e w h e n i t s e e m s s o d i f f i -c u l t f o r t h e m t o d o s o w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e * V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i s o n e o f t h e p r e v e n t i v e m e a s u r e s i n m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n . T h e p u b 110 m u s t b e e d u c a t e d t o t h e i d e a , a n d m u s t b e t a u g h t t h a t t h e c o s t o f a g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m m e i s a l e g i t i m a t e e d u c a t i o n a l o n e -o n e w h i o h w o u l d r e s u l t i n a r e a l m o n e t a r y s a v i n g f o r b u s i n e s s , f e w e r f a i l u r e s i n l i f e , a n d l e s s l o s t t i m e f o r y o u t h . T h e m a k i n g o f a w e l l - d i r e c t e d l i f e c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d i n m o n e y v a l u e . T o e n l i s t t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p a r e n t s , p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d b e m a d e f o r v i s i t i n g t h e h o m e s o f t h e p u p i l s • M e e t i n g s o f t h e p a r e n t s m i g h t a l s o b e h e l d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h f a l l t e r m t o e x p l a i n t o t h e m t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , e l e c t i v e s a n d t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f t h e s o h o o l , f o r s o f r e q u e n t l y t h e p a r e n t s a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e m a t t e r s , w h i c h a r e o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . S , P e r s o n n e l o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . T h e r e i s , f i r s t o f a l l , t h e p r o b l e m o f s e c u r i n g t r a i n e d c o u n -s e l l o r s a n d w o r k e r s . T h e s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s o f g u i d a n c e m u s t b e u n d e r t a k e n b y s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d p e o p l e . A l a t e r c h a p -t e r i s d e v o t e d t o t h e t r a i n i n g a n d e q u i p m e n t o f s u o h c o u n s e l -l o r s * T h e n t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m of : u s i n g t h e p e r s o n n e l a l r e a d y i n t h e s o h o o l . T h e t e a c h e r s - i n - s e r v i c e m u s t b e c o m e g u i d a n c e -conscious,and through conferences,summer school courses and r e a d i n g , f i t themselves f o r many of the ordinary functions of guidance. There must he a t l e a s t a minimum of guidance t r a i n i n g f o r a l l teachers, sand a maximum f o r those p a r t i c -u l a r l y f i t t e d f o r and. i n t e r e s t e d i n i t . The guidance o f f i c e r s might he l i s t e d : -(a) The Pr.incipaljWho plans and co-ordinates the whole programme,assigning the various phases of the work to d i f f e r e n t members of h i s s t a f f . He i t i s whi> i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the philosophy of guidance i n h i s s c h o o l . (b) Dean of G i r l s and Dean of B o y s — who have charge of the work among the g i r l s and boys i n the school; the G i r l s ' and Boys' Clubs, e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s which come under t h e i r control,and any other problem p e r t i n e n t to t h e i r work. (c) Home -Room A d v i s e r s - - i f the Home-Room organiz-a t i o n i s used i n the school,then to these '= a d v i s e r s are delegated many of the functions o f guidance, (d) Class-Room Teachers,who maybe s a i d to have charge of the e d u c a t i o n a l phase of guidance. (e) Trained Counsellors—who administer the s p e c i a l -i z e d f u n c t i o n s of guidance. ( f ) Personnel Workers—who keep i n touch with Industry, -7.3-Chapter IX, The: A a m l n i a t r a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance „ The,Vocational Guidance organization,which can heat be administered through a s p e c i a l bureau or department,dir-e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the head of the school,makea f o r econ-omy.; of e f f o r t and c e r t a i n t y of r e s u l t . Such a department would do much to reduce the f i n a n c i a l cost of f a i l u r e s i n sohool. I t would prove an e f f e c t i v e agency i n h e l p i n g the school meet her o b l i g a t i o n s i n p r e p a r i n g u s e f u l and happy c i t i z e n s f o r the f u t u r e . Such c o u n s e l l i n g should become a permanent and necessary f u n c t i o n i n any e f f e c t i v e and pro-g r e s s i v e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t i s the t o o l f o r accomp-l i s h i n g c e r t a i n ends and should:-1. Co-ordinate and incorporate into i t s program a l l a v a i l a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and environmental influences,which are working toward the same goal,namely,the development of the i n d i v i d u a l to the maximum of s o c i a l usefulness and i n d i v i d u a l happiness. 2 , Cover a l l the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d under " P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n " i n P a r t II of t h i s Thesis; ad-m i n i s t e r i n g the s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i s a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and s u p e r v i s i n g any other agencies which contri b u t e to i t s programme. I, The sympathetic co-operation of a l l p o s s i b l e out s i d e agencies i n the community should be secured. The s o c i a l welfare clubs might co-operate by way o f g r a n t i n g s c h o l a r s h i p s to deserving students. The help of r e l i g i o u s agencies might -.74-be secured i n the g a i n i n g of information concerning i n d i v i d u a l s under t h e i r c a r e . To g i v e a personal experience, the w r i t e r remembers s e c u r i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from a clergyman who t o o k s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e b o y s u n d e r h i s care, t o f o l l o w t h e m t h r o u g h t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l c a r e e r s , f r e q u e n t l y c o n s u l t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s a b o u t t h e i r w o r k , p r o g r e s s a n d a t t i t u d e . C i v i c a g e n c i e s m a y a l s o c o - o p e r a t e i n t h e p l a n , b y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the community, a n d i n t a k i n g t h e i r s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h e i r o w n s t u d e n t s . T h e L i b r a r i e s t o o c a n g i v e m u c h a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e Guidance P r o g r a m m e • I f t h e l i b r a r i a n b e a l e r t a n d s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i d e a s h e c a n d o much i n t h e w a y o f r e f e r r i n g s t u d e n t s t o v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s o n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , r e c e n t t r e n d s i n e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e l i b r a r i a n c a n a l s o a s s i s t r u r a l c h i l d r e n b y p u t t i n g t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e r e s o u r c e s o f h e r l i b r a r y a t t h e i r c o m m a n d . 2. C a r r y i n g out the A c t i v i t i e s L i s t e d under " P r a c t i c a l ATjpl-lcafloni' i n Part I I . T h e p l a n h e r e i s a g a i n d e p e n d e n t u p o n a n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s , t h e t y p e a n d s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l , t h e m o n e y a v a i l a b l e f o r i n a u g u r a t i n g a n d c a r r y i n g o n t h e p r o g r a m m e , a n d t h e s e c -u r i n g o f a s u i t a b l e p e r s o n n e l . O n c e m o r e , w e s t r e s s t h e v a l u e -75-o f a s t u d y o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , w h i o h w i l l a i d i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e p l a n . A n y V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e p l a n w i l l , o f n e c e s s i t y , m a k e u s e o f o t h e r p h a s e s o f g u i d a n c e . We h e a r m u c h t h e s e d a y s o f d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f g u i d a n c e , e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , m o r a l g u i d -a n c e , s o c i a l g u i d a n c e a n d m a n y others« B u t w e t a k e t h e s t a n d -p o i n t t h a t V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e l s a n a l l - e m b r a c i n g t e r m , i n c l u d -i n g i n i t s v e r y p r i n c i p l e s , a n d c e r t a i n l y i n i t s p r a c t i c e , t h e s e o t h e r f o r m s o f g u i d a n c e . I t m u s t b e s e e n i n i t s p r o p e r p e r s p e c t -i v e ? T h e v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s h o u l d n o t b e a h u r r i e d d e c i s i o n , i t s h o u l d b e a t h i n g o f g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t • I t i n v o l v e s m a n y m i n o r c h o i c e s a n d d e c i s i o n s , o f w h i o h t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n -s e l l o r m u s t b e c o g n i z a n t . T h e s e c h o i c e s h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g o n t h e f i n a l o u t c o m e , M a n y a i d s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e . T h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r o o - o r d i n a t e s t h e k n o w l e d g e g a t h e r e d f r o m m a n y s o u r c e s . H e w e l d s t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s i n t o o n e c o m p l e t e w h o l e . ( a ) T h e S t u d y o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l . V a r i o u s G u i d a n c e o f f i c e r s a i d i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u m - t o t a l o f t h e k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g h i m . T h e c l a s s - r o o m t e a c h e r p r o v i d e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e c o r d ; t h e h e a l t h d e p a r t m e n t , t h e h e a l t h r e c o r d ; t h e p s y c h o -l o g i c a l c l i n i c , t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g , a n d s o o n . T h e n t h e c o u n s e l l o r m u s t c o - o r d i n a t e a l l t h e s e . ( 1 ) (!••} S e e K e e p i n g o f R e c o r d s — P a r t I I , ; 7 " C h a p . Y I I I o f t h i s t h e s i s . -76-( b ) S t u d y o f O c c u p a t i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g O c c u p a t i o n s i s m a d e a v a i l a b l e f r o m m a n y d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s , ( 8 ) B u t t h e s t u d y o f o c c u p a t i o n s i s b e s t c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h a c l a s s , s p e c i a l l y f o r m e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . A s a n e x a m p l e o f s u c h , t h e p l a n o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l C o u r s e f r o m t h e J o h n M a r s h a l l J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n S e a t t l e i s h e r e g i v e n : — O C C U P A T I O N A L C O U R S E - 4 - > J O H N M A R S H A E L H I G H S C H O O L — - S E A T T L E U N I T I . H I M S E L F A M ) H I S S C H O O L I N G . P u r p o s e s : — 1 , S e l f - a n a l y e i s , 8 , P h y s i c a l W e l l - b e i n g . 3, S e l f - p u r p o s e f u l n e s s • 4 . D i s c o v e r y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , e . g . i n i t i a t i v e . (A) HIMSELF. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r s e l f - s t u d y ; — ( a ) P r e l i m i n a r y v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s * ( b ) U s e o f L y o n ' s C h a r t s a s a b a s i s f o r a s e l f - s t u d y c h a r t . ( c ) P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s . ( d ) C h a r a c t e r T r a i t s . ( e ) E a c h r a t e s h i m s e l f , g i v i n g r e a s o n s . ( f ) T e a c h e r C o n f e r e n c e s , ( s m a l l c l a s s e s ) . ( 8 ) S e e S e c t i o n 2 , C h a p . H I , P a r t i r . o f t h i s T h e s i s . =77-( B ) S C H O O L I N G . ( a ) C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e s . i . E n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s • i i . L e n g t h o f C o u r s e s , i i i . M a j o r l i n e s o f s t u d y , i v . C o s t i n t i m e a n d m o n e y * v i S c h o l a r s h i p s o f f e r e d . ( b ) S t r e s s T r a d e s a n d S p e c i a l S c h o o l s . ( o ) S t r e s s R i g h t P r e p a r a t i o n f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e , ( d ) H a v e t h e I n d i v i d u a l W r i t e f o r t h e C a t a l o g u e * (G) COMMBUNCEMENT O F A L I F E - W O R K B O O K L E T , C O N T A I N I N G P U P I L ' S OWN P A R T I C U L A R P R O B L E M S . U N I T H . HOW WORKERS E A R N A L I V I N G . p u r p o s e s ; — 1. G e n e r a l v i e w o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n s * 2* A p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e d i g n i t y a n d w o r t h o f w o r k , a n d t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f w o r k . 3 . S t u d y o f r e l a t e d f i e l d s * 4* D i s c o v e r y o f b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d t o b o t h s c h o o l a n d b u s i n e s s , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o . E . G . A p p l i c a t i o n B l & n k s , e t c . 5. B a s i c p r o b l e m s i n E c o n o m i e s * 6 . R e a s o n s f o r m a k i n g a n i n t e l l i g e n t c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a n d t h e p r o p e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i t . 7. S t u d y o f s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s . - 7 8 -S u g g e s t i o n s : — 1 . V i s i t s a n d I n t e r v i e w s , 8. W o r k d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a j o r f i e l d s ; e a c h s t u d e n t t o s t u d y t h r e e f i e l d s , 3, B i b l i o g r a p h i e s m a d e , t o b e r a t e d , n o t o n i n t e r e s t , b u t o n o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e , T h e s e t o b e p r e p a r e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s , O o c u p a t i o n a l R e f e r e n c e s t o b e m a d e b y f i e l d s , 4 , V a r i o u s w a y s o f t r a i n i n g i n l i s t e n i n g . 5, V a r i o u s s t u d y t e s t s u s e d t o c h e c k d e t a i l w o r k . 6, D e t a i l r e p o r t o n " l i f e - W o r k " p r o p o s a l . U N I T I I I , R E V I E W A N D R E P O R T I N G . I . R E C A P I T U L A T I O N . 1, B o o k s ; b a s i c t e s t s , s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , 8, L i t e r a t u r e ; N e w s p a p e r s , p e r i o d i c a l s , p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s , c o l l e g e c a t a l o g u e s , g o v e r n m e n t p a m p h l e t s , b u l l e t i n s , v o c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f o t h e r o i t l e s , a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k s , 3 , T h e C o m m u n i t y ; B u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , w a t e r f r o n t , i n d u s t r i e s , p r o f e s s i o n s , 4 . O t h e r S o u r c e s o f M a t e r i a l ; F i l m s , O u t s i d e s p e a k e r s , r a d i o , b u l l e t i n b o a r d s , c h a r t s , g r a p h s , e t c . I I . A C T I V I T I E S . 1. S e l f - S t u d y : Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , T e s t s , C o m p a r a t i v e . C h a r t s • 2. M u c h C l a s s D i s c u s s i o n ; i n d i v i d u a l , g r o u p a n d c l a s s . 2. V i s i t s a n d R e p o r t s . 4 . D r a m a t i z a t i o n o f : — (a) A p p l y i n g f o r a p o s i t i o n . ( b ) M a k i n g I n t e r v i e w s , f o ) B o a r d M e e t i n g s . ( d ) R e p r e s e n t a t i v e M e e t i n g s o f C a p i t a l a n d L a b o r . 5. S o r a p - B o o k s , L i f e - B o o k s , C l a s s - R o o m B o o k s . 6. O u t s i d e R e a d i n g ; ( a ) B i o g r a p h i e s . ( b ) U o n - f l o t i o n . ( c ) F i c t i o n , f o r i t s v o o a t i o n a l b a c k -g r o u n d . 7 . C u r r e n t E v e n t s ; o c c u p a t i o n a l o n l y . I I I . C O U N S E L L O R ' S WORK", C L A S S I N O C C U P A T I O N S , I N D I V I D U A L C O U N S E _ L L I N G . n \ (1) B y p e r m i s s i o n o f J . M . K n i s e l e y , P r i n c i p a l John M a r s h a l l J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , S e a t t l e . M a n y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f e e l t h a t t h e H o m e - R o o m O r g a n i z -a t i o n h a s a d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e , " T h e h o m e - r o o m , w i t h i t s m a i n e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e p a s s i n g a l o n g o f a b o d y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , e p i t o m i z e s t h e v e r y s o u l o f t h e m o d e r n c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u -c a t i o n : t h a t t h e p u p i l h i m s e l f i s f a r m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d s a c -r e d t h a n a n y m a s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n h e m a y e v e r a c c u m u l a t e , , . . , , . I n r e a l i t y t h e h o m e - r o o m c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p u p i l h i m s e l f b e c o m e s t h e s u b j e c t s t u d i e d , w o r k e d w i t h , l e a r n e d a b o u t . H e a n d h i s a c t i v i t i e s , e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d i n t e r e s t s c o m p o s e t h e c u r r i c u l u m . A n d a l l s u b j e c t s , c o u r s e s , k n o w l e d g e , a n d i n f o r -m a t i o n a r e j u s t i f i a b l e o n l y i f t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y a n d d e f i n i t e l y t o h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , n ( 1 ) I t i s a m e a n s f o r c a r r y i n g o u t c e r t a i n g u i d a n c e o b j e c t i v e s t h r o u g h t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s a n d t h e c l a s s - r o o m . A t l e a s t t h i r t y m i n u t e s a d a y a r e d e v o t e d t o t h e H o m e - R o o m p e r i o d , a n d t h e p u r p o s e s o f s u c h p e r i o d s a r e : — ( a ) T o i m p r o v e t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s * ( b ) T o b u i l d u p a p o l i c y a n d s t a n d a r d s * ( o ) T o i n s t i l i d e a l i s m a n d o h a r a c t e r . - b u i l d i n g • ( F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , r e c e n t b o o k s o n M e n t a l H y g i e n e w i l l p r o v e v a l u a b l e , ( d ) T o p r o v i d e m o r e v i t a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e p u p i l s , | e ) T o m a k e u s e o f p e r t i n e n t r e c o r d s . ( 1 ) M o K o w n , H a r r y — " H o m e - R o o m G u i d a n c e " M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 3 4 . A s u g g e s t e d P r o g r a m m e f o r H o m e - R o o m O r g a n i z a t i o n , c o m m e n c i n g i n G r a d e V I I , a n d a l r e a d y i n u s e i n o n e H i g h - S c h o o l , i s a s f o l l o w s : — 1 . K n o w y o u r s c h o o l , i t s i d e a l s a n d t r a d i t i o n s . 8 . C o m m u n i t y P r i d e . 2 . C o n d u c t , C i t i z e n s h i p , C o u r t e s y * 4 , L e a d e r s h i p . 5 . P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o o e e d u r e . ( T h i s p r o v e d p a r t i c u l a r l y s t i m u l a t i n g ) 6 . T h r i f t , 7 . S a f e t y E d u c a t i o n . 8 * H o b b i e s . 9 . A t h l e t i c s . 10. U s e o f t h e L i b r a r y . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e t a u g h t t o u s e t h e L i b r a r y i n t e l l i g e n t l y . 11. H e a l t h A s p e c t s , E . G . P o s t u r e , p e r s o n a l a p p e a r -a n c e , m a n n e r o f d r e s s , 1 2 . W o r t h y H o m e - m e m b e r s h i p , I S . E f f e c t i v e M e t h o d s o f S t u d y . 1 4 , P a t r i o t i s m , I n t e r n a t i o n a l f r i e n d s h i p s . 1 5 . E l e o t i v e s a n d c h o i o e s , G u i d a n c e i n t h e s e . g , M e a s u r e m e n t o f R e s u l t s . A s v a l u e s i n t h e m o r a l a n d s p i r i t u a l r e a l m s o a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d , s o n e i t h e r c a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . Some o f t h e f i n e s t r e s u l t s w i l l e s c a p e -82-e v a l u a t i o n , f o r m a n y o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n s w i l l h e s u b j e c t i v e t h o u g h n o n e t h e l e s s v a l i d . T h e y w i l l h a v e h u m a n v a l u e b u t t h a t a g a i n c a n n o t b e e s t i m a t e d * T i m e a l o n e w i l l b e t h e c r i t e r i o n a s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e -n e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m . P r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r c e d t h e i s s u e u p o n u s , a n d t h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e p l a n i s o u r b e s t m e a n s f o r m e e t i n g t h a t i s s u e . T h e f u t u r e a l o n e h o l d s t h e p r o o f o f i t s s u c c e s s . Aa an example of what has been and i s being accom-p l i s h e d i n Boston, U.S.A., where organized V o c a t i o n a l Guidance had i t s e a r l i e s t s t a r t , the f o l l o w i n g statement i s most en-couraging and should be an in c e n t i v e to us to go forward: VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE IN BOSTON. ( Mimeographed statement issued by V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Depart-ment Boston P u b l i c Schools.) The Department of Vo c a t i o n a l Guidance i s one of the organized s u p e r v i s o r y departments i n the school system f o r the oare of the c h i l d . I ts v/ork begins i n the elementary s c h o o l , and c a r r i e s through the secondary school and beyond into the higher e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d of the commercial and i n -d u s t r i a l world. I t s reason f o r being i s due to the many complexities i n the s o c i a l and economic l i f e of the times. When one r e a l -i z e s t h a t the home occupations and apprenticeship systems no longer predominate, and that the kinds of occupations -82-A today number i n the hundreds,,if not thousands,, organized V o c a t i o n a l Guidance of some sort i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary. The enrichment of our s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a , i n keeping pace with the above changes i n our n a t i o n a l l i f e demands educational guidance. OBJECTIVES I» Through E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance. 1. To a s s i s t p u p i l s to a knowledge of educational and v o c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 2, To a s s i s t p u p i l s to a knowledge of the common occupations and an understanding of the problems of the o c c u p a t i o n a l world, so that they may prepare more f u l l y for l i v e s of u s e f u l n e s s i n the community. V o c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l c i t i z e n s h i p go hand i n hand. 3» To obtain f o r each p u p i l , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , every o p p o r t u n i t y which i t i s the duty of the p u b l i c schools to provide. 4. To a i d p u p i l s to r e a l i z e t h e i r educational or v o c a t i o n a l aims. I I . Through Placement. 1. To a s s i s t graduates and undergraduates, who must leave s c h o o l to work, i n f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n s . P h y s i c a l and mental f i t n e s s , school p r e p a r a t i o n , and v o c a t i o n a l inter-e s t s are the determining f a c t o r s i n placement. 2. To a i d those who need readjustment i n t h e i r work. 3. To a i d those, v/ho i n order to continue t h e i r s c hool work, must have a f t e r - s c h o o l , Saturday, or summer work, I I I . Through Follow-up, 1. To help young people to a b e t t e r understanding of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to other workers i n t h e i r own and other occupations and to s o c i e t y . 2. To Insure b e t t e r cooperation between the p u b l i c schools on one hand, and the higher educational i n s t i t u t i o n s or the various commercial and i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s on the other hand, i n order that there may be no gap between the two groups, 3. To make s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s o f the information gathered f o r the b e n e f i t of the c h i l d , the school, the employ-er and s o c i e t y . 4. To a s s i s t i n adapting the schools to the needs of the p u p i l s and the community, through m o d i f i c a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l a . -82-B SPECIFIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS I. Through E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, 1. For Elementary and Intermediate P u p i l a . "A Guide to the Choice of a Secondary School" was prepared to f u r n i a h information on a l l of the courses i n the aecondary schools i n Boston, and to serve as a basis of study f o r -counselors, teachera, p u p i l s and parents. These .pamphlets are d i a t r i b u t e d to a l l the p u p i l s of the eighth grades of tie c i t y , and become the personal property of the p u p i l s . 2. For Secondary School P u p i l s , (1) Talks to hig h school assemblies and smaller groups have been given by members of the department. (2) I n d i v i d u a l interviews with members of the senior and freshman classes and with those i n need of e d u c a t i o n a l or s o c i a l adjustment. (3) Cooperation with departments of E n g l i s h , C i v i c s , and Economics, i n the study of occupations• ( 4 ) A f i l e of c o l l e g e and s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s which have i n t e r e s t e d high school graduates of t h i s community during the past ten years, i s a v a i l a b l e f o r use of p u p i l s , parents, counselors, teachers and a l l others i n t e r e s t e d . 3. For Elementary, Intermediate, and Secondary School P u p i l s . (1) Besides the D i r e c t o r , s i x v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t -ors (men) and eleven v o c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n t s (women) c o n s t i t u t i n g the c e n t r a l o f f i c e , the department has r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n each type o f school through a v o c a t i o n a l counselor. Meetings with these counselors have been held; a» For purposes of information, b. For d i s c u s s i o n . (2) The counselors, according to the time allowed, give c a r e f u l guidance a. In the choice of a aecondary schoo1. b. In the study of occupations. (3) In some schools s p e c i f i c work i n the teaching of occupations i s given by members of t h i s department. A v o c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n t has been assigned to one intermediate school f o r t h i s purpose. The pujbils i n the seventh, eighth, - 8 2 - C and n i n t h grades r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . One p e r i o d a week has been set aside i n the c u r r -iculum f o r t h i s purpose and a course of study ha;s been prepared by the department f o r use at that time. In the Boston Trade School and the Mechanic Arts High School v o c a t i o n a l i n -s t r u c t o r s are g i v i n g f u l l time to guidance aid classes i n occupational c i v i c s ^ V o c a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n t s also do t h i s work in the G i r l s ' High School, the Memorial High School f o r G i r l s , and the Dorchester High School f o r G i r l s . (.4) E v e r y undergraduate who appears at the o f f i c e f o r work i s c a r e f u l l y s t u died with the hope of r e t u r n i n g him to some place i n the school system where he may r e c e i v e f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t -ion before e n t e r i n g the working f i e l d . (5) The Boston P u b l i c L i b r a r y has cooperated with the department i n arranging f o r books on occupations on the shelves of a l l branch l i b r a r i e s . (6) A c a r e f u l study of a l l evening school oppor-t u n i t i e s (both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) f o r boys and g i r l s i n Boston, has been made by the department and the schools l i s t e d according to the subjects taught. I I . Through Placement. 1. The department functions throughout the year. The; o f f i c e i s open d a i l y (except Sundays and l e g a l h o l i d a y s ! from' 8:30—5 except Saturdays when the hour are 8:30—1 (summer 8:30—12. 2 . Placement i s made onl y when i t i s determined that t h i s i s the best thing to do. 3. A report i s requested from the school covering the school accomplishments, p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . T h i s , with our own interview of the c h i l d , gives the department a b a s i s f o r placement. On the hand the job i s c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d and recorded i n order that ?/e may p r o p e r l y s e l e c t the one f o r the other. 4. Those who enter permanent work are urged at time of placement to continue f u r t h e r study evenings. 5. Much time i s spent i n obtaining a f t e r - s c h o o l v/ork and summer v/ork f o r those who are compelled to work in order to continue s c h o o l i n g . 6 . Great care i s given i n readjustment cases, due e i t h e r to a b i l i t y or temperament. -82-D 7. Handicapped c h i l d r e n are given s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . The department cooperates v/ith medical and s o c i a l agencies i n a i d i n g t h i s group. I I I . Thro ugh Fo1lo w-up. 1. In order to help young workers to a better under-standing of r e l a t i o n s h i p s to other v/orkers and to s o c i e t y , the department conducts f o r these v/orkers afnoon o f f i c e hour and an evening o f f i c e hour twice a month, ihe young people b r i n g to us a l l s o r t s of problems, f i n a n c i a l , home d i f f i c u l t i e s , and many that may be termed temperamental. 2. In the f a l l of the year a f t e r graduation the de-partment checks up with the higher educational i n s t i t u t i o n s which our high school graduates i n d i c a t e d they intended to enter. The records of these young people are kept i n a separ-ate f i l e and followed up once a year u n t i l they have obtained a degree or have withdrawn when the reason f o r withdrawal i s requested. 3. For those i n commercial and i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s v a r i o u s methods are pursued. -Some are v i s i t e d on t h e i r job. Others are sent l e t t e r s i n q u i r i n g about t h e i r v/elfare. Tele-phone messages and l e t t e r s are sent to employers, asking an expression of opinion regarding the q u a l i t y of the young peoples' v/ork. Constructive c r i t i c i s m i s welcomed from both. 4. From time to time the department has made recomm-endations to committees i n charge of the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l a . 5. Many s c i e n t i f i c studies have already been made and charts and graphs prepared by the department * 6. Complete studies of the graduates of our high schools, both boys and g i r l s , f i v e years a f t e r high school graduation, have been made by the Department. 7:. A study of the graduates of high schools, ten years a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l graduation, i s under way. From the r e s u l t s of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to cheek the product of our schools in many aspects. Follow-up work, c a r e f u l l y and thoroughly done, o f f e r s to the educational ad-m i n i s t r a t o r a s p l e n d i d opportunity f o r the evaluation of the work of the schools. 8. As a r e s u l t of t h i s follow-up work better and more e f f e c t i v e cooperation between the s c h o o l department and the business and i n d u s t r i a l v/orld has been brought about. Follow-up presents a r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r both of these groups to l e a r n much concerning the work of the schools and the work of b u s i n e s s . C D (I) Taken from Appendix F- "Vocational Guidance In A c t i o n " . F i t c h , John A. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1935. C h a p t e r 3 & ' . E q u i p m e n t a n d g r a i n i n g o f t h e C o u n s e l l o r . T h e s e r v i c e o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e i s o f a s p e c i a l -i z e d n a t u r e , a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s t r a i n e d w o r k e r s . T h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l o r o a n h e c l a s s i f i e d t h u s s — ( A ) P e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . ( B ) G e n e r a l T r a i n i n g . ( C ) P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g . ( A ) F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e a r e t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l o r . T h e C o u n s e l l o r m u s t h a v e a n i n t e r e s t i n y o u n g p e o p l e , a s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p r o b l e m s , t a c t , p a t i e n c e a n d a r e s p e c t f o r s c i e n t i f i c a c c u r a c y a n d r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s . P e r s o n a l i t y , m a t u r i t y a n d a b a c k g r o u n d o f e x p e r i e n c e , t o o , a r e e s s e n t i a l . T h e C o u n s e l l o r m u s t b e a f r i e n d w h o c o m m a n d s r e s p e c t . H e m u s t h a v e o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s , a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n o t h e r f i e l d s . ( B ) T h e C o u n s e l l o r m u s t h a v e a g o o d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a s t u d y o f : — 1 . P s y c h o l o g y , b e c a u s e i t g i v e s k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l » h i a m e n t a l a n d e m o t i o n a l m a k e - u p . 2 i S o c i o l o g y a n d i e o n o m J e s , b e c a u s e t h e y e o s t r i b u t e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a -t i o n t o h i s s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n d i v i d u a l n e e d s a n d o u t l o o k a r e c o n d i t i o n e d l a r g e l y b y f a m i l y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s • S u c h a s t u d y i n c l u d e s an insight i n t o present s o c i a l a n d eoonomio trends a n d t h e b e a r i n g they h a v e o n p r e s e n t - d a y education. The underlying principles o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d and i t s accompanying problems m u s t a l s o b e s t u d i e d . Social case-work a l s o m i g h t v e r y w e l l b e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s part o f the p r o g r a m , g« Education and S t a t i s t i c s . ^C) The Professional Training of the Counsellor would include a formal course i n Vooational Guidanoe, taken preferably a s graduate study. The problems, methods and special technique of the s t u d y would be dealt with, and definite f i e l d work i n the l i n e undertaken. This field-work w o u l d include p a r t i c i p -ation i n occupational s t u d i e s , opportunities to v i s i t indust-r i e s , to interview employers and employees i n different occup-ations , a s well a s practice i n psychological testing and definite case-work. In the future there w i l l be c e r t i f i c a t e d Vooational Guidance workers who have, f i r s t of a l l , had s u c c e s s f u l teach-ing experience. The history of other professions leads us to believe that they w i l l also attain a professional statue before many years have passed. There are specialized services which can only be ren-dered e f f e c t i v e l y by trained w o r k e r s , for e x a m p l e , t h e f i e l d o f diagnosis, involving the knowledge and interpretation of tests and the f i e l d of Vocational Guidance, which involves not only -85-s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e of o c c u p a t i o n a l trends but also a study o f Individual interests and a b i l i t i e s . CHAPTER XI. OUR LOCAL PROBLEM AND THE PROPOSED SOLUTION. In no other p a r t of Canada i a the need f o r Vocat-i o n a l Guidance more evident than in our own province. B r i t i e h Columbia with i t a great d i v e r s i t y of n a t u r a l resources. the North.with i t s f o r e s t s , i t s m i n e r a l s , i t s f i s h ; the I n t e r i o r , with i t s r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l and f r u i t lands; the East and South.with t h e i r v a r i e d p r o d u c t s r - o f f e r s an u n l i m i t e d f i e l d f o r development. The p o t e n t i a l occupations are many, yet our young people are not being t r a i n e d to f i l l theae p o s i t i o n s and t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s an almost i r r e p a r a b l e l o s s both to the province and to i t s youth. Our resources lack development arid our y o t t h l a c k t r a i n i n g . A w e l l - d i r e c t e d programme of Vocat-i o n a l Guidance would remedy these d e f e c t s . But that programme must be an outgrowth of a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Attempts have been made i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the province,notably i n the C i t y of VancouvEr,to i n i t i a t e V o c a t i o n a l Guidance programmes, but t h e i r l a c k of success has been due to the f a c t that they were u n i t s working by themselves,with no p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n behind them. Work was commwnced,with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n instead of with the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Two other f a c t o r s also contributed to the f a i l u r e o f these smaller achemes,namely,the l a c k of occupat-i o n a l information and the l a c k of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance t r a i n i n g f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and teachers. However,with the release of the King Report and i t s proposed reforms i n our educational system, with the coming changes i a our secondary school curriculum, a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n seems nearer. The province would he di v i d e d into D i s t r i c t s , each under the c o n t r o l of an E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r . S e v e r a l Bureaus f o r u n i f i e d c o n t r o l would be inaugurated and a l l would operate under the d i r e c t i o n of and be responsible to the Superintendent of Educa t i o n . One of these Bureaus, under an able D i r e c t o r , could concentrate on V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, be i n d i r e c t touch with industry, c o l l e c t and get into a c c e s s i b l e form a l l the occupational information a v a i l -able in, our p r o v i n c e . This Bureau could also f o s t e r research i n the f i e l d of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance and form some scheme by which the teachers a l r e a d y i n s e r v i c e could become acquainted with the p r i n c i p l e s of the movement, while others s p e c i a l l y adapted might ob t a i n the t r a i n i n g necessary f o r Vocat i o n a l C o u n s e l l o r s . Then through the medium of the various D i s t r i c t D i r e c t o r s the f i n d i n g s of t h i s Bureau could be c a r r i e d to the schools f o r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g how l i t t l e many students i n B.C* know of the occupational l i f e and op p o r t u n i t i e s i n other parts o f the province. This has been e s p e c i a l l y noted by the w r i t e r i n her teaching i n the Southern and Northern d i s t r i c t s of the pr o v i n c e . The c h i l d r e n i n the I n t e r i o r know l i t t l e or nothing of l i f e and c o n d i t i o n s by the sea, while many of those l i v i n g by the sea, while i n t i m a t e l y acquainted with a l l t h e i r l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s * never saw f r u i t growing and are a p p a l l i n g l y ignorant of a l l things p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r e . They each should be made acquainted with the l i f e of the other and the occupational o p p o r t u n i t i e s attending i t . This might w e l l be done through the medium of the Occupational Glass already-mentioned. Another means of disseminating t h i s information might w e l l come through the medium of exchange teaching , which seems to he becoming ever more popular. The proposed edu c a t i o n a l reform, as f a r as the f u t u r e of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance i n our province i s concerned, would provide us With the necessary machinery of o r g a n i z a t i o n , which,up u n t i l the present, has been e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g . The e n t i r e V o c a t i o n a l Guidance programme could now be worked out along the l i n e s p r o p o s e d — from a c e n t r a l agency, namely, the Bureau o f V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, under the immediate d i r e c t i o n of the Superintendent and M i n i s t e r of Education f o r the p r o v i n c e . As a l r e a d y s t a t e d , no one d e f i n i t e plan woulfi f i t the needs of every school or oommmnity or d i s t r i c t , but the general u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s could be adhered to and from them schemes could be worked out varying with l o c a l needs, meeting l o c a l requirements. Such a programme, c a r e f u l l y worked out under an able D i r e c t o r , made a c c e s s i b l e through the l o c a l D i r e c t o r s of the various d i s t r i c t s and put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n the schools of our province would go f a r toward the forming of that l i n k between education and i n d u s t r y which we have so often s t r e s s e d throughout t h i s t h e s i s . . We f e e l that the p u b l i c would be i n sympathy with any p l a n which would help place our young men and women into those places i n i n d u s t r y where they woulid best f i t . Various means, i n c l u d i n g the press and the r a d i o , could be u t i l i z e d f o r a c q u a i n t i n g the p u b l i c with and educating them to the proposed reforms. Thus we have attempted to show how i t i s both p r a c t i c a l and p o s s i b l e f o r V o c a t i o n a l Guidance to be so incorporated into our sc h o o l system that, i t w i l l become the necessary l i n k between education and industr y . SUMMARY OF FART I I I ; In t h i s part,we have attempted to o u t l i n e the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Guidance, keeping c o n s t a n t l y i n mind the p r i n c i p l e s which must he incorporated i n t o i t . Our program must .be an outgrowth of a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Over a l l and governing a l l there must be a c e n t r a l agency. Then because ©f the varying l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s to be encountered,each l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n must grow out of and m i n i s t e r to the needs of the s p e c i f i c community i t s e r v e s . Plans of an Occupational Class and types of Home~Room Guidance a l r e a d y i n operation have been presented as guides to f u r t h e r study,and the equipment and t r a i n i n g of Counsellors o u t l i n e d . CONCLUSION. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y , we h a v e s e e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e w o r d g u i d a n c e i n m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n . J o h n B r e w e r g i v e s u s a r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g s l a n t o n t h e t e r m . I n a n a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " W h a t ' s i n t h e T e r m V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e " , h e w r i t e s : — " T h e u s e o f w o r d s i n t h e K i n g J a m e s B i M e h a s h a t a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e i r m o d e r n u s a g e s . T h e w o r d ' g u i d a n c e * d o e s n o t a p p e a r , h u t ' g u i d e 1 , b o t h a s n o u n a n d v e r b i s u s e d o v e r t h i r t y t i m e s . A s t u d y o f i t s u s e r e v e a l s s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a f o r i t s a p p r o p r -i a t e u s e t o d a y . 1 . T h e : p e r s o n b e i n g g u i d e d u s u a l l y t a k e s t h e i n i t i a -t i v e a n d a s k s f o r g u i d a n c e . 2. T h e g u i d e h a s s y m p a t h y , f r i e n d l i n e s s a n d u n d e r -s t a n d i n g . 3 . T h e g u i d e i s g u i d e b e c a u s e o f s u p e r i o r e x p e r i e n c e , k n o w l e d g e a n d w i s d o m s 4. T h e m e t h o d o f g u i d a n c e i s b y o f f e r i n g t h e o p p o r -t u n i t y f o r n e w e x p e r i e n c e a n d e n l i g h t e n m e n t • 5 . T h e p e r s o n g u i d e d , p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o n s e n t s t o r e c e i v e g u i d a n c e , h a s t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e g u i d -a n c e o f f e r e d , a n d m a k e h i s o w n d e c i s i o n s . 6. T h e g u i d a n c e o f f e r e d m a k e s h i m b e t t e r a b l e t o g u i d e h i m s e l f . (1) ( 1 ) B r e w e r , J o h n : " W h a t ' s i n t h e T e r m V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . " V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a s i n e , V o l . 6 , M a r c h 1 9 2 8 . I n o n e o f t h e r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s o n g u i d a n c e we read, w l t i s c l e a r , t h e n , t h a t a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f m o d e r n l i f e point unmistakably to the increasing necessity for ' o r g a n i s e d g u i d a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r o u r y o u n g people. T h i s h e l p m a y be g i v e n b y a l l p a r t s o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r , t h e h o m e , t h e church, the state, and the s c h o o l . Adequate guidance c a n n o t be given unless a l l these a g e n c i e s unite i n a co-oper-ative e f f o r t to give assistance needed* But upon the public school must f a l l the m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i n i t i a t i n g and carrying on t h e work." (1) In this thesis, we have endeavored to prove the truth of t h i s statement. We have shown the need there exists for Guidance, the benefits whioh would follow a well-developed a n d well-directed Guidance Programme, whioh c a n only oome i f Vocational Guidance becomes an integral part of our educational system* Education's most pressing p r o b l e m today i s h o w t o meet the universal need of a l l children for vocational preparation. "For every c h i l d an education which, through the discovery of his i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s , prepares him for a l i v i n g w h i c h w i l l y i e l d him the maximum of s a t i s f a c t i o n . " ( 2 ) As the Extra-ourrioular programme has become an integral p a r t of the educational system, so the G u i d a n c e Prog-ramme w i l l become integrated. In what has already been 1. Jones, "Principles of Guidance", Page 18. 2 . The Children's Charter, White House Conference. -93 accomplished j " w e h a v e * , to q u o t e M e y e r Bloomfield, % u t a foretaste o f what i s possible when sohool and employment take t h e i r cue from human n a t u r e and i t s capacities»•" (1) We conclude with the words of C i o e r o , " H o w o a n w e m o r e e s s e n t i a l l y b e n e f i t o u r c o u n t r y , t h a n b y i n s t r u c t i n g a n d giving a p r o p e r d i r e c t i o n t o t h e m i n d s o f our youths" (1) Bloomfield 9 M e y e r : " T w e n t y Y e a r s of V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . " •• Vocational Guidance Magazine. Vol. 6, March 19£8* B l B L I O G R A P H Y A b b o t t , G r a c e s A n n u a l R e p o r t , C h i l d r e n ' s B u r e a u o f t h e U . S . D e p t . o f L a b o r . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , V o l . V I . F e b r u a r y 1 9 2 8 , A l l e n , R . D . : O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n o f G u i d a n c e i n P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , I n o r P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 . Y . 1 9 3 4 . A l l p o r t , G o r d o n W. a n d V e r n o n , P h i l i p E . : T h e F i e l d o f P e r s o n -a l i t y P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 2 7 , ; P a g e s 6 7 7 — 7 3 8 ; 1 9 3 0 . A n d e r s o n , H e n r i e t t a A . R . , A S t u d y o f t h e A p p a r e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p o f I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t t o S u c c e s s i n a H i g h S c h o o l o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B , C . , U . O f W a s h . , 1 9 2 9 . A n d r e s s , J • M a c e a n d B r o w n , M a u d A . : S o i e n o e a n d t h e W a y t o H e a l t h . G i n n a n d C o . 1 9 2 9 . A r n o l d , F e l i x t A t t e n t i o n a n d I n t e r e s t , M a o M i l l a n a n d C o . N . Y , P a r t I I . I n t e r e s t . 1 9 1 0 . B e c x m a n , R . 0 . : G u i d a n c e A s H u m a n E n g i n e e r i n g . — V o o a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 3 , B i n g h a m , W. V . : A n A n c i e n t V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m , V o o a -t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , V o l . I V , P a g e 2 3 , O c t o b e r 1 9 2 5 . B l o o m f i e l d j M e y e r : 1 , R e a d i n g s i n V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o , . B o s t o n , 1 9 1 5 * 2 , T h e V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e o f Y o u t h , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , B o s t o n , . 1 9 1 1 . 3« Y o u t h , S o h o o l a n d V o c a t i o n * H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . R i v e r s i d e P r e s s . 1 9 1 5 . 4© T w e n t y Y e a r s o f V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e M a g a z i n e , V o l . V I . M a r c h 1 9 2 8 . B o d e , B o y d H e n r y : F u n d a m e n t a l s o f E d u c a t i o n , M a c m i l l a n C o . H e w Y o r k . 1 9 2 4 . B o o k , W. F. : L e a r n i n g H o w t o S t u d y E f f e c t i v e l y . C h a p t e r 1 6 . G i n n a n d C o . , B o s t o n . 1 9 2 6 * B r e w e r , J . M , : E d u c a t i o n a s G u i d a n c e . T h e M a c m i l l a n C o , 1 9 3 2 . V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e T h r o u g h t h e L i f e - C a r e e r C l a s s . S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , V o l * V I . 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