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Mormonism in a Maori village: a study in social change Schwimmer, Erik Gabriel 1965

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M O R M O N I S M IN A M A O R I VILLAGE A study in Social C h a n g e by  E R I KG A B R I E L S C H W I M M E R M . A . , Victoria University of Wellington, 1 9 4 9  AT H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H ER E Q U I R E M E N T S F O RT H ED E G R E E O F M . A . in the Department  Anthropology a n d Sociology W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H EU N I V E R S I T YO F BRITISH C O L U M B I A M a y ,1 9 65  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  mission  for reference  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  be  cation  of  that  and  by  Library  study*  the  for  Head o f my  written  permission*  Department  of  ^ ^ ^ / - g ^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  < W  Columbia,  fulfilment  University  shall  this thesis  agree for  that  not  fi?C*b'{<ipj  of  per-  scholarly  Department  shall  of  make i t f r e e l y  or by  t h a t . c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l gain  w i t h o u t my  the  I further  I t i s understood  this thesis  in partial  degree at  the  c o p y i n g of  granted  representatives.  this thesis  advanced  Columbia, I agree  available  his  presenting  be  .  publiallowed  i i ABSTRACT  This community had  a  i n New  deep  religion  i s a  descriptive Zealand,  impact  and  on  social  behaviour  may  While  chapters  and  the  the  aspects, and  crises  of  An  than  provide  problems  values and  attempt  community The  the dominant f o r the  are  facing  s e l f - c o n c e p t the  linkage  with  to  tribal  two  made  white  cope  ancestors.  given  less  to a  are  The rapid  so  and  but  with  Maori  attention  shown  in  that  demands  some  specific acceptance upon  demands  needed the  Mormon  systems.  traditional  some  these  change  that  r i t u a l ,  progressive  drastic  adequately  of  belief  has  traditional  cultural  to demonstrate  social  them.  ideals  two  Mormonism,  society,  of  the  of  systems  Maori  movement  function,  been  leading  makes  minimum  of Whangaruru that  are  Church  have  the  been  upon  of  in a  to  organization,  society  has  elements  either  focus  between  Mormonism  millennial  continue by  church  of  this  community,  structure  on  culture  i n the  people  his  of  Mormonism.  Maori to  teaching  Though  legitimized  contradictions  detail.  of  be  the  account  by  the seem  the  socio-economic combines  modernization  and  of  in sacral  iii  CONTENTS Page Introduction General Church  1  Survey  23  organization  Religious  Life  47  i n Modern  The  Bipolar Value  The  Process  Whangaruru  77  System  105  o f Change  131  Conclusion List  152  o f Books  Quoted  156  Append ices Appendix  I:  Appendix  I I : Maori  by  Map  of Whangaruru  localities,  AppendixIII:  Maori  census  Utilisation  Whangaruru Appendix  Population  District  IV: Age and s e x  161 of Whangaruru  data  1936-1961  of Maori  Land  in  •,  163 distribution:  of Whangaruru  Appendix  V: M a o r i  Appendix  VI: Chart  organization  162  religious o f Mormon  164 affiliations  165  Church  i n the Northland  District  166  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This during  my  work  stay  data  was  begun  this  f i r s t  while  support  from  New  Prof. and  I  work. acted  could  they  but  n o t have  this  occasion.  may  me  R.  aspect t o my  organized  perhaps  my  better  of  and i n  entire  the data  enabled  Prof. gave  with  with  me  be e x p r e s s e d  financial  t o do t h e A  only  Ritchie valuable  aspect  briefly  of  B.  to the people  of  here,  Finally,  a t U.  later,  number  notably  J . E.  the degree  of study  of a  extremely  argument.  debt  submitting  Generous  f o r the historical  i s dealt  these  i n the form  and guidance,  Library  immense  collected  of the report.  Piddington,  the stimulus  acknowledge  Zealand  Board  advice  I  Analysis  report  version  of sources  this  now w i t h o u t  also  gave  data  I_received.  Fund  The T u r n b u l l  as a b u t t r e s s  have  should  Though  research  first  Prof.  i n the collection  i n New  the help  a  scholars  J. Forster.  i n 1960-1961,  Purposes  and t o w r i t e  E. B e a g l e h o l e ,  help  it  mention  of the field  s t i l l  o f my  the Maori  Zealand  Dr  the  I was  instalment  I should  of  part  i n Whangaruru  thesis,  fieldwork  utilizes  of  course,  coherence  C. of  on a more  I Whangaruru, appropriate  I INTRODUCTION  This of  field  material  Zealand  in  most  whom  of  short  work I  collected  1960-61.  The  belonged  had  a  revita1isation  During  my  reaching purpose which  changes  in  the  way  was  to  study  the  to  general  here God*,  a l l e g i a n c e to As  only  to  a  God,  of  guilt  to  service  of  a  but  in  hereafter  changes  a  in  the  the  shortly  obtain  in  a  of  the  for  of  this 70  years,  arrival.  rather  far-  community.  The  the  mass  conversion.  process  religious formal  New  Maori  over  my  on  more  370  Though  in  analysis  d i s t r i c t  data  of  conversion, to  a  people's  millennial  I  sense sense  of  change  am  using  of of  lifted  and  the  church  organization;  they As.a  racial  would result  occurred  in  social  A  anthropology  equality  meet of  thoughts  future  be  Kingdom.  the  the  were  before  resulted  of  a a  transfer  faith.  also  where  study  d i s t r i c t  traditional  not  new  my  religion.  l i f e  of  beginning  Whangaruru  of  this  of  shape  and  result  would  Celestial  in  the  occurred field  'conversion'  of  established  the  my  the  Mormon  in  took  'turning  the  period  of  in  subjects  to  religion sudden  been  represents  and  their  this  relations,  in  in  which  would to  the  far  philosophy  the  be  ancestors  belief,  turned  not burden  achieved;  contemplation in  the  reaching and  in  values.  much  of  this  structural  x  Social work  model  will of  the  be  cannot  taken  social  up  ignore  with  system.  the The  structure,  so  establishing structural  that of  a  2 complexities  of  clarified  the  but to  as  by  these  say  am  what  not  movements  cannot  work.  order  In  works  authors  briefly I  m i l l e n n i a l movements  be to  proceeds  But  I  do  think  as  he  placed  I  impact  before  already  been.  within  can show  a  this  caused be  point  the  terms  Lanternari  another  view  he  that  I  have  millennial  the  frame-  distinguishes  Having  within  only  and  structura 1-functiona1  change.  placed  that  Jarvie's  greatly  the  established  second  "internal*  category  are  that  category,  (Jarvie :  externa1/interna1  between  is  158).  quite  as  proposes.  Instead, externa 1  has  one  structural-functional explanation  not  exclusive  to  approach by  been  Jarv ie  with  convinced  externally  Burr idge. agree  demonstrate  movements  of  own  recently  always  studied  millennial  capable  Belshaw.  not  quite  and  then  do my  internally  he  of  have  would  follow  generates  alternative  outdated  by  Lanternari  c r i s i s ,  the  choices  between  events  and  a  new  who  says:  society a  life  is  'Whenever  interna 1ly  traditional  to  be  life  elaborated  o inside  the  culture  Burridge dialectic, as  a  result  by  the  of  does implies  not  explicitly  i t .  colonisation  administration,  crucial this  but  itself. '  relationships  triangle. ^Authors  These  the are  He  depicts  in  the  missions perceived  relationships  underlined  present  are  the  form  of  and by  this  roles a  are  included  of in  of  developed  triangle,  Tangu Tangu  type  formed  themselves. as  two the  occurring types; "List  A l l in  among of  Books  Quoted" by  Knopf  2 L a n t e r n a r i 1960:295. The English i n 1963 has a vague p a r a p h r a s e of  I t a l i c s are a c c u r a c y to  the a u t h o r ' s . Regrettably, go t o t h e Italian original.  i t  translation published t h i s s e n t e n c e on p.310. is  s t i l l  necessary  for  3 the  Tangu  themselves  and  equivalence;  type  of  ment  i s to  action  throughout  within  calls  the  feature  of  cult  as  which  i t s affinity  logical  coherence.  to  follow  Talcott  an  action  system.  make value A  system  up  the  feature  patterns which  (of w h i c h  are  creative &  not  Shils ;  so  the  see  elements which  of  of are  this  serving  as  of  the  therefore  s t i l l  Tangu  have  generated  social  dialectic  the  system.  is a  behaviour  this  cognitive  system  Melanesian I  value  shall  find a  system,  is  institutionalised i s that  objects  of  and  i t s  and  expressive  standards  the  source  and  internalised  detail  i t convenient  the  would  own  in  be  of  internalised.  i t recognises  'myth-dream*  the  cultural  orientation This  of  their  systems  between  symbol  or  move-  inter-  ideas  of  culture.  theory  Burridge's  the  an  but  orientation.  cultural example)  which  are  (Parsons  182-3)  The acknowledged  u s e f u l n e s s of explicitly  by  the  concept  Jarvie  amity  colonial  of  framework  analysis  of  a  norm  the  cognitive system  a  are  of  millennial  and  the  ideal  triangle.  Jarvie  earlier own  the  f a r as  they  the  groups,  Lanternari's  this  analyse  my  The  of  Christianity  source,  i ns t i t i l t i ona 1 i s e d  variants  In  within  with In  orientations  useful  goal  Parsons * d i s t i n c t i o n  and  main  The  that  within  rational  showing  symbol  shows  They  white  Burridge calls  B u r r i d g e and  system.  the  e q u i v a l e n c e as  from  external  interaction  followers  cognitive  an  towards  and  triangle.  evidence  Belshaw,  and  derive  triangle  Ethnographic  Tangu  amity  the  movement  oriented  prevails.  establish  Jarvie  are  between  relationship  millennial what  they  and  of  the  myth-dream  implicitly  by  is  Belshaw  4 and  Lanternari.  from  a  variety  desires, find  and  such  ideas  e x p r e s s i o n i n myths, 27)  cultural  arisen  The  tradition,  as  spontaneous days,  themselves  which  gain  docteinal,  Prior  to the messianic  system'.  but  into  a  this  tension  i t does  later,  through  In the  unstructured  of time,  remains  has  sense.  s e t of  of  is a  which  few demands  as  anecdotes.'  that  crisis  i n this  which  i n terms  generation parts  force  system;  only  situation  relatively  movement,  and  i n t e l l i g i b l e ,  period  derived  environment  stories  i t is a a  notions  personal experiences,  generated  or a  compulsive  happens  popular  makes  'over  of  the total  myth-dream  years  i n the symbol This  dreams,  indicates,  months,  s i f t  innovation  about  for a  creations,  dream  rumours,  Externally  Burridge  weeks,  as  the intolerable  precondition  beginning,  i s 'a b o d y  myth-dream  i n the society.  necessary  be  myth-dream  of sources  conflicts  ,( B u r r idge : the  The  may  of  the  myth-  or  precepts  mounts.'  s t r i c t l y  not enter  an  the  the mediation  'action of the  mes s i a h . Burridge's belief the  systems:  messiah's  anterior, await  but  paradigm  f a r from  a c t i v i t i e s ,  makes  being  an  an  important  'automatic  t h e Tangu  belief  i t sinstitutiona1isation  the establishment of  and  the m i l l e n n i a l  point  about  reflection*  system  was  of  demonstrably  interna1isation  had  movement.  II  With fairly  this  framework  straightforward  in  account  mi n d , of  it  i s possible  the history  of  to give  Whangaruru  a  to  5 Mormonism. period: started the in  The  myth-dream  developed  very  i n the m i l l e n n i a l  movements  of  i n the  d i s t r i c t the  Io  i n the  was  disastrous  tion was  of  racial  1953:  79;  instability  with  they  Maori  myth-dream.  of  Lehi,  Maori, total  long  what  more story,  (Ta t a n a .  god  But  i t was  they  I o was  the Chosen hands  on  this  I t  orthodox  which  (Henry  had  become  Williams  Williams  had  come  to  that  1872,  Reed  f u l f i l  the Maori  were  like  and  they  not  they  that  to  the  had  truths  Whangaruru  them;  People;  knew;  basis  deteriora-  the period.  visited  the m i s s i o n a r i e s  millennial  epidemics,  i n the  i n prayer  already  -  below.  the constant  known  of  form  294,33U  first  revealed  the Maori  precise  and  Edward  that  complete  the severe  1840.  had  their  reached  the  Mormon children  baptised  come  only  had  to reveal.  To  were  the  ancient  also  they  in  new  by  to and  summarise  accepted,  Zobell) We  of  Smith  raised  by  Carletonll:  The  which  Anglicanism  1921,  to say  influences  confidence  missionaries  able  immersion.  reiterate  a  339^  descendants  they  fuller,  Holmes  Mormon  Joseph  of  in particular  1868,  were  loss  which  characterised  i n Whangaruru  1887,  founder  a  contact  North  discuss  economic  1936:  When  I shall  i n the  the Far  i n t h e most  i n the wars,  well-established Maning  -  nurtured  religions,  1:100,  which  and  r e l a t i o n s which  associated  mission  i n t h e Hauhau  1880's  religion,  It the  1830's,  early  should  t h e Mormon There  now  consider  incursion  on  is fairly  wide  how  we  Whangaruru agreement  can  analyse  social today  the  effect  structure. that  structural  6 models  need  not  invariant, 128-9) stable  but  they  in  the  of  the  are  analysing  we  able  formulations  in  (Nadel  time  change  synchronic Only  to  and  only  in  Levi-Strauss  history.  sums  up  Whangaruru  very  the  by  is  1957:  (1958:28-9)  showing  enduring  what  apparently  structures  discover  precisely  social  the  implies  institutions  structure  through  to  i t in  'Political  where  R.  Leach  built  E,  systems,  the  systems,  Thus  will  appear  They  present * i t is  Katchins  (Leach  stratified  1964  'the  to a  a  and  under  to  the  under-  succession  We  a  find  such  interpret  (to  social  phenomena  which  of  alternative  at  themselves they  gumlao  any  one  and  observe  time  systems.*  verbal  categories  in  Burma*,  different  set  faced  useful  Highland two  be  egalitarian  quite  structured of  to  consideration  several  terms  of  problem  containing  to  categories  as  these  to  others)  around  that the  them.*  : x i i - x i i i )  Similarly, choose  model  persistent in  Systems  gumsa  facts  belong  always  seek  empirical  a  the  structure.  approach  to  of  of  contain  events,' This  and  seeds  1964:22).  to  they  'event-structures'  analysis  recourse  multiple  Certainly  'show  (Firth  transformation  lying  are  should  "Even  constant  static.  they  society*  proposes: - a  be  from,  the  Whangaruru  perceived  by  them  Maori as  always  being  had  two  systems  'old-time'  and  'Mormon'. These  a l t e r n a t i v e s are  structure  (Levi-Strauss  including  the  social,  open  1958:305-6,  r i t u a l ,  at  a l l levels  347-51;  religious  and  of  the  1962:123), philosophic  levels.  7 At  the  level  contains for  of  i t s own  the  the  Mormon,  dictory level, can  we  term;  matakite)  are  Maori  using  demonstrably the  in  that  have,  in  folk  language  to  as  speaking  category  the  necessity, a cultural  present  become  the  or  of  firmly  the  believe  crucial  event,  in due  in  is  (such  called  eternally  to  occur  in  seen  as  school  Mormon hapu  may  would  be  place  later  of  do  they  seems  categories  the  pro-  modern  of  Mormonism  not  belong  may to  time.  universe  distant  them  acculturation  elements  that  belonging  These  therefore  progressing  system,  flags,  t r a n s f e r r e d from  and  of  definitely  as  are  (Maori  source  essays.  for  which  not.  a  as  Children  not  contra-  philosophic  panikeke)  Mormonism  the  a  are  and  i t s conception  an  between the  are  they  a l l , though  of  the  pantheon.  'revelation'  system  there  understood  notably  epistemologies  of  content be  on  of  and  level,  choices  Finally,  Furthermore,  established  Mormons  that  s t i l l  at  most  so  food  may  elements  arise,  pre-contact  system  set  forbidden;  the  category.  universe  can  i t s own  of  Traits  shifting  not  or  traditional  but  has  religious  Maori  a  the  each  system  qualifications  the  types  Mormon of  of  different  are  element  are  Whangaruru One  two  spontaneously  traditional.  in  here  Maori  to  at  in  and  each  At  arise,  there  post-contact  any  which  do  the  bibles  ceeds, the  some  categories.  traditional  of  systems  idolatry  and  which  whereas  In  is  instance,  permitted  funerals.  example  conflict  knowledge  we  for  level,  two  retains  can  find  again  of  this  beliefs  ritual  the  for  genealogy  enjoined,  between  system  of  the  are  conducting  traditional To  At  that  contradiction  structure,  concept  leadership.  observances  in  social  enter i t . have  The in  future,  which is  the  a  8 coming  of the millennium.  selves  how  doctrine with  the world  that  this,  contradictory way,  situation  as  they  of  this  conceptualisation  It there I  may  were  have  a  well  significance  of these  best  on  two  categories  of such  the  traditional  The  Mormons  this  of  strict  the  their  policy,  a  the State  government  and  supports  officer  good  i n a choice  alternative  deal  not presented  this  than  level:  of  Whangaruru  Mormon  what  ones  validated  The  and  schools, housing  a r e good  and  legitimacy.  Mormon  schemes  The  be  Unlike  many  of Latterday  Saints  never  this,  by  medical  supported. as  other  effect.  a  matter religious  argues  t h e two  the Church.  but without  only  of the  Church,  between  are  authority.  the secular  should  does  validated  the State.  with  i s perhaps  say there  those by  and  propositions  I would namely  kind  i s different.  i n the world  true?  of  this  f o r internal structure  to argue  tries  a  purpose  i s contradiction  presumes  Maori  of  are  where  other  the secular  ultimate  which  i n the s t r u c t u r a l model.  those  Affairs  there  my  them-  along  i n any  statements  propositions,  the Church  Thus  as  development  of Maori  State.  where  that  the land  organizations,  regard  system  teach  lies  that  the philosophical Maori  In  since  and  put this  alternative  I have  argued  To  I collected  influences  Whangaruru  Department  work  skin  the traditional  point,  for this  the  services,  and  among  I t i s part  order  disappear.  of influences  not accounted  tested  will  occurred,  be  number  a white  of informants'  i n the present  discuss  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  'progressive' On  often  acquire  s e e t h e Mormon  i n the form  evidence  Maori  i n the millennium.  will  aspects  'vanishing'.  evidence  be  t o Mormonism  different  as  will  the Maori  those  The  with  only  Occasionally I t also  9 happens scorn  from  on  time  the  hibition  on  Mormon liquor  is  assigned  is  constantly  a  system. analyse local  the  and  field  to  of  the  the  local  hereafter no  such  statements.  Though  the  deeply  influencing  order  to  show with  present  data  has  that  population, a the  the  become  this  government task  work,  which  but  sort  part  pro-  authority population  the  would  so  be  from social  internal need  to  with  the  outside  the  and  lies  not  the  Whangaruru  officers  would  of  heap  i t does  of  I  again  to  white  the  i s so,  farmers  or  situation,  therefore outside  Mormonism  relationships  of  one  Again,  whereas  In  that  attitude  externally,  white  subject  time  tobacco.  to  distance,  structure,  to  d i f f i c u l t  with  available.  Ill  The to  perform  churches. to  the  the  Church  Any  adult  Melchidezek  But  fessionals,  for  that  by  a  web  the of  male  that  in  than  millennium  not  the  than  the  the  in  the  orthodox  dichollomy  to  be  ordained  perform a l l professional  one  idea  sacred  pro-  part-time. of  churches:  between  Christian  sense  charisma  Mormon  authority  the  duties  t o g e t h e r , as the  can  to  strict  religious  held  him  churches  the  orthodox  standing  a l l possess is  spread  entitles  other  Furthermore, of  has  i n good  their  they  membership  that  in  are  perform  charisma.  i s wider  Saints widely  member  'elders'  they  whole  more  reserved  Nonetheless  l i f e  the  much  Day  P r i e s t h o o d , which  acts  these  (Wach : 3 6 0 f ) so  Latter  sacraments  sacramental  clergy.  of  office, might  of  religious  i t is and  say,  believed secular  10 w i l l  fade  and  the church  organization. of  the State  outside  izations  the Church  i tascribes  istic  control  power  a  s t i l l  and  concerns  i t conducts sphere.  activities  i s perceived  primacy,  with  subsidiary To  but  a l l the  these  maintaining  organ-  organiza-  i texercises  authority -  human  the authority  claims  itself  character;  The  of  i t recognizes  economic  their  a l l aspects  the State  Thus  relationships.  organizations  time,  religious  over  control  where  o f i t smembers.  i n the social  detailed  the  the present  i n the sphere  this,  activities  tions  At  will  a  very  i t s character-  of o f f i c e - b e a r e r s i n  at least  i n Whangaruru  - as  charismatic. One  feature  record-keeping records also  individual  authority.  f o r these  members  -  affect  hereafter.  was  the ultimate  receiver  ing  bureaucratic  activities  with  charisma.  amount  servants.  extremely  detailed  it  high  places  between  occurs  The  system  the church  on  copes  with  member's  church  also  a  professional  this  problem while  pleasurable  at a l l the different  i n God  t h e demand-  were  such  of  that  bureaucratic  any  these  status  felt  Thus,  officers  of supervision, and  of  the a c t i v i t y  records.  hardly  elaborate  significance i s  definitely  i n this  constant  workers  a  organizing,  with  church  value  way  of church  that  sacral  showing  i n some  of these  preaching,  control  -  i s  the forwarding  this  i n Whangaruru  i s paradoxical  of formal  financial time  People  and  To  records  the  It  administration  of a l l a c t i v i t i e s ,  to central  ascribed,  of church  imbued  vast and or  f u l l -  by i t s  concurrently communication levels.  Thus,  11 a  vast  amount  of  communication seem  to  have  is given  system;  indeed,  no  instructions is  time  other  from  attributed  to  church  officers,  is  not  complete  as  charismatic As  a  one  another.  of  membership  in  the  formal  hierarchy.  ordinary two  types  more to  members of  detail  which  whatever  aspects with  the  Mormon is and  of  to  members  details  It  always has  maintains  My  a  i s no  Joseph  so  a  here  In  an  aspect  accident  many  Smith's  passages  learn  as  well  only  of  of  later  show  show  the  taken  administrative  the  in  extent  involvement,  which  determining I  shall  control  of  the  organization belief  sacred  with  deal  rituals  that  Mormon  up  these  i n chefrisma.  and  Mormon  as  hierarchical  belief  beliefs  of  two  keep  Church  chapters  both  functions  phenomenon  to  ritual  i s to  proportion  to  this  their  system  that  charisma  functions,  participation  concern  by  of  i t from  experienced  that  system  web  f u l f i l  in  discuss  arrangements,  present  extent  contain of  suggest  performance.  striking  r i t u a l .  writings  was  organizational  Church. a  to  character  large  i n some They  shall  of  messages  sexes  involved  concerned  organization  role  I  the  very  and  figures  roles  communicated  of  a  records. a  i n Whangaruru  also  i t and  are  of  sacred  thus  and  functions.  am  i t took,  Every legitimates  and  and  form  authority  A  charismatic  factors,  They  number  of  communicating  sketch  allages  separate.  below,  organization;  of  in other  role  active  include  the  are  short  these  Church  as  that  activities  the  points:  our  we  of  vantage  to  maintaining  large  level  persons,  result  very  the  than  that  until  a  to  function  a l l messages so  over  v,  ;  the over  his  12 Church.  I t i s i n fact  millennium. a  The  religious  to  this  way,  provided  an  could  parts  o f t h e Mormon  the  be  content  anything the  social  It  the high  important  disprove that  archies, social  was  such  even  a  seen  ritual  i t be  said  Joseph  evidence  though  itself  in a  general  because i t  that  and  myth-  important responded  that  to  there  Smith's  was  vision  of  i n the myth-dream,  of the Io  of this  this  origin,  essay.  cult,  concerns  at least  these  me  Johansen  here  1860 onwards,  of elaborate were  missing  celebrat-  nor i si t  a t our d i s p o s a l can either What  and  religion.  whether  Io, i s of pre-contact  from  seen,  pre-existing  content  question  f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n  1958  prove  i s to  have  had  demonstrate a  administrative from  the  or  divine hier-  pre-contact  structure.  ancient  kept  there  Io's antiquity.  In  Maori  Can  have  related  accepted  also  presaging  the viewpoint  the Maori,  charter  as  no  members,  structure?  debatable  god  from  that  have  i n the eschatology i s a  was  of belief  i n the myth-dream  i s found  shows  system  We  which  of the myth-dream.  millennial  ing  We  i s , to Church  Whangaruru  faith.  through  realised.  Curiously it  how  i n Whangaruru  institution  dream  model  structure of the  importance.  arises  o f t h e Mormon  the church  of the social  of this  of the f i r s t  the question  aspect  that  realising  task  Now  h i s model  the Maori and  secret,  priesthood. until  sources,  The  t h e eighteen  the Io  passed  on  secret  (real  sixties,  rreligion  only  when  was  to the highest  or supposed) two  large  was  presented class  of  perfectly  intertribal  13 meetings  were  housd  learning  of  were  taught  very  ancient  -  and  was by  held  a  will  (Herbert  and  is  most  are  on  the  how  Poutiriaos  by  Io....  of  European  end  of  (i.e. bands, Best.'  became could  less  highest  by  (through  position  administration.  last  and  the  beginning  (Johansen belief though  identified be  special  in  Te  of  the  detailed  rituals  to  be  in  created  Bible.  links  that It have  definite  offices,  and  the  as  late  to  only  the the  Pohuhu anonymous  recorded  the  of  century.  Nepia  became  knowledge  towards  present and  a  element  power  among  is  ordained  presupposes  text  the  God  ancient  in  modern  widespread.  monotheistic  known  i t  pantheon  i t i s an  a  between  persons....  Whatukuras  never  Christian also  were  the  growing of  in  influential  Io  claimed  the  tapu  been  the  effect  teaching  intermediaries  1924a:251f.)  has  men and  Christianity  Best  Io  the  to  of  d o c t r i n e ) are  in  with  very  Matorohanga  account  1958:46-7,  for  Indeed,  a  a  the  obviously  bad  find  angels  Tane) to  the  intermediate  authorities  subordinate  we  thus  two  served  or  a  1958:48f)  with  version  even  Johansen  young  principal this  in  them  1865  of  of  and  metaphysic  The  ( I o ) , as  compare  the  cosmology,  -  tradition  number  god  the  Poutiriaos  Io  from,  has  the  a  purpose  from  whole  Here  1913).  Apart  Io  the  desended  than  is  of  were  which  The Maori  Maori  food  are  Smith  principal  these  Their  the  Whereas  to  when  appointed  mythology  no  world....  remarkable  the  the  omftapotent  are  Maori  (Percy  1937:107,  natural  (1865).  developed  the  an  Williams  inserted  been  also  that  'There Io  opened  history.  prove  the  was  highly  probably  to  discussing versions  Io  who Maori.  14 But  there  endured  was  an  until  element  today.  containing  the  angels  celestial  few  and  words  story of  of  the  the  Io  Omnipotent of  When  the  (aDout  fuller  and  more  learnt  aoout  Mormon  God  was  in  the  Io  a  new  from  system  orientation  of  in  could  imply  not  conform  a  social  -  very  a  structure  in  to  shudder  to  understand  their what  that  may  the  therefore a a  the  New  already  the  traditional  tnat  of  to  a  tne  sacred as  concept  was  oeing  hadalready  availaole,  remained  Zealand  as  idea  nunioer  was  deeply  1940:349)  Maori  new  the  majesty  more  religion the  and  through  at  to  'These  Ngata  been  preaching  of  gods,  Johansen  of  accept  tapu the  and  Mormon  intermediaries. Mormonism  therefore  beginning, and new  form.  a b s o l u t e l y to we  have  (Sutherland  presented  A l l that  belief  model  Instead  God.'  started  idea  of  towards  expressed  thus  convey.*  has  pamphlet  thoughtfully:  can  well  learnt  and  me  a c c e s s i o l e through  proper  the  to  ' I t may  not  suggests,  as  said  English  Maori  This  Acceptance probably  no  they  universe.  authorities  of  I t was  intermediaries. penetratingly  names  correct version  only  that  Polynesian  Mormons  Io.  pantheon  mellifluous  Christian  1880),  Io  a  Creator  the  the  shown  Beings,  many  before  informant,  written:  that  awe  Whangaruru  something  have  nature  Maori  strange  mean  Sutherland  A  of  more  ritual. social But  structure  in  1887,  their  this  new  model.  containing  than  It also  i t did  discern,  meant  as  two  I  not  the  which  society  basic  Maori,  acceptance  implied  imply  have  t o the  at  an  unconscious  can  be  and  in  once  already  categories  of  practice  began  indicated,  to  15 -  the  traditional  and  as  vanishing  and  of  the  structure  by  a l l Maori  Maori  ceased  to  in  Whangaruru  two  legitimised  was  seen and  New  exist,  the  fits  the  the  as  Mormon  other as  as  ceased  people  did  to  starts,  was  goal  which  was  imply  towards  perception  shared  generally  henceforth  legitimacy.  themselves these,  perceived  this  that  accorded  Of  was  But  (which  not  be  adjusted  ultimate  of  progressive.  alternatives.  an  one  vanishing  Zealand)  or  -  to the  which  the  i t  Rather,  existence  of  Mormon a l t e r n a t i v e  the  community,  by  progressing.  IV  One  of  the  complex  structure  while  was  the  I  in  'social  In  this  it  was  of  the  dramas'  work a  best  I  have  feature  of  ways  Whangaruru  field,  a l l of  conflict  ideological  the  other. But  such ies  The on  be  what  for  an  answer,  challenged.  principles  of  culture V.  far  them  the  that  became  one an  appeal  The social  has  than  I  the  was  involved Church and  closely, called  community.  recorded,  basic  the to  regularities  only  1957  the  but  structural soon  tended,  Maori  imbued at  least  tradition  on  allegory.  One  these  follow  the  side  does  as  to  obsessed  The  principles cannot  understand  was  fewer  content. on  to  Turner:  community  ranged  drama  alternatives?  acutely rock  to  which  learning  periodically  described  in  symbolically,  what  which  contradiction with  of  basis  for  organization,  community any  decide  structural  themselves choice such  as  lies have  are in  between, regularitbeing  the  been  bed-  16 proposed status  by F i r t h :  exercise  involvement,  compensation  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  economy  of effort,  and f o r e s i g h t .  (Firth  accommodation,  coor.din.at i o n , . b a s i c  1964:  70-75,  80-82; 1951:  75-78) The made  study  i n actual  crisis  of process  crisis  resolved?  o f f e r s , us  situations.  Is i t p o s s i b l e  I f n o t , does  collapse  m i l l e n n i a l movement  succession power it  of crisis  o f Mormonism  was  a  useful  qualities  made  Many ascribed complex called  over  tool i t  Mormonism  situations  c r i t i c a l  to 'factionalism'. phenomena.  First,  'opposition',  a  in  a  similar  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p has t h e f u n c t i o n  of  'Te  that  New  of smaller  desent  ties  tribe  were  what  The by a  The  staying  suggests may  ask  both  Zealand  that what  authors  Maori  by  Brown  and  that  cohesion.  type Winiata system  function:  socio-political I t was  related  a  by  loose common  The s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s the constant  'conflict*  this  t h e same  society.  (1952)  disagreement,  socio-political  served  groups,  of  t h e term  hold  the largest  constituent  maintained  used  c a n be  a bundle  Radcliffe  of promoting  i n Maori  of a f f i n i t y .  situations  of agreement  i n the segmented  existed  federation  the  We  labels  Gluckman  i w i ( t h e t r i b e ) was  organization  and  sense;  conflict  the pre-contact  term  'combination  and d i f f e r e n c e . *  that  crises.  i t covers  solidarity  shown  to solve.  conflict  This  of  has  procedures  be e x p l a i n a b l e  i n Whangaruru  with  i s the  a solution?  well  i tfails  choices  so.  o f t h e most  somewhat  the  principles  offer  may  the years  i n coping  what  on  t o use t r a d i t i o n a l  effectively? of a  On  facts  interaction  within between  17 constituent and  on  the other  specific that  groups,  action  back  found  fundamental system of  to a  leadership,  romanticised  i n the forces  and Beals  factionalism extended tribes, segments members alism  on t h e same o f a more  On  segmentation  occurs  i m p l i c a t i o n always change  have,  the contrary  case  previously  Whangaruru  as  a t odds  over  the  technicalities  schismatic  pervasive  down  and  to the level  i n opposition i n vying  as w e l l .  nothing.  of a  of leases;  showed  i n one  how  schism  the community i s as  begin.  lease  of land,  i f they  differ  i s acquired  c a n be  demonstrated  had  true f o r  as a m a t t e r  learning  faction-  Conditions  changed  who  to  with  "schismatic*  a s was  This  of  (families, sub-  be  t o which  as soon  does  t h e terms  knowledge  1956:216 ) as  Thus,  (1950:112),  issues  Kom:  then,  are  change  was  to distinguish,  respect,  consideration.  f o r Chan  and only  theological  cultural  inter-  in the structure  relationships of 'opposition'  of v i t a l  given  important  together  pervasive  i n this  by Red f i e Id  awareness  terms,  segment.  of  socio-political  segments  and j o i n  inclusive  i n promoting  interesting  versial,  between  of these  and a h i s t o r y  process  (Winia ta  suggested,  level  The  to a  and c o o p e r a t i o n  i t i s impossible  Each  gods  of the Maori  tribes) can, i n Winiata's  cultural  created  because  f a m i 1 iaeis-?..  i s by  helpful  have  hand,  attachment  past.  and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  context  t h e one  common  of conflict  to the maintenance  this  w a r on  sentimental  the relationships i n the tribe.*  Siegel  not  common  at a l l levels  In  of  through  by k i n s h i p ,  district,  traced  expressed  becomes  When they  contro-  two f a c t i o n s inquire  into  i n religion,  as a v a l u a b l e  weapon  against  18 the if  opposition. one  faith  faith must  quite  of  piano  one  the  community culture  term  has  found.  that  case  of  legitimate  of  constructive  services,  This  between  rivalry:  the  other  is  a  importance  far  groups,  greater  Whangaruru  enterprises;  real  this people  of  even  the  was  of  of  activities in  conditions  contains  two  accommodation  rejected  cannot  without  being  an  available.  and  the  absence  problem. total though  Status  than  absence  for  p s e u d o - p r o b 1 em  the  basis.  be  phenomena  occur  authority  appearance  an  may  which  may  may  conflicting  the  s t r u c t u r a l model  legitimate  an  covers  responsibility  is  be  also  describe  authority  t r i v i a l  many  the  factionalism  apparently  In  may  authority  of  an  formed.  to  i t s Sunday  undertake.  chiefly  There attitude  take  systems  source  In  It  to  when  social Or  lead  'factionalism*  to  change  alternative  of  for  may  too.  authority  alternative be  a  d i f f e r e n t order.  legitimate the  has  have  But a  Factionalism  r i g i d i t y the  seen  as  that  the  felt  that  only  partly  seems  has  cause  nothing  the  conflict  involvement  action  in  to  has  to  assume  be  of  per-  failure  could  ever  get  done. But societies  this  feeling  flourished,  conflict  occurred,  obstacle  occurring,  house  resulted  Nonetheless, same  people.  but  in  the  the  church  in  immediate  protagonists  Much  the  seemed  to  were  building and  in  j u s t i f i e d :  functioned.  accommodations  say,  an  was  of  The  protracted the  depend  conflicts on  the  same  found, a  new  the  funeral  types  whereas tribal  cessation were  any  meeting of  always  importance  of  work. the  attached  19 to  the  goal  reward  was  that great  The finding  deal  fore,  as  was  Was  of  worth  goals  as  conflict  bundle  of  social  organization,  public  useful  issues.  an  need  Culture  was  able  for  reaching  exigencies it  is  act of  a  'as ...  suit  It of  common a  by  was the  a  the  in  less  function  supernatural  was by  groups  requires  the  arose  goal,  against of  a  Therewhether  really?  i t s  immediate  sifting  a one  did The  that  important  As  Firth  other  which  are  to  Thus,  exigencies  of  the  weakness,  i t s own  and  the will  procedure  authority  but  i t met  the  demonstrates, practices  weakest  to  points  sacrifice commonly  r e l i g i o u s but  which  of  organization  (1964;:247)  people  i t  effective  p r i n c i p l e s , which overtly  this  procedure  support  overcome  evaluation  an  religious beliefs  buttress  be  Church  of  'faction-  Whangaruru  though  create  work  'democratic'  in  and  the  not  term  could  enough  Mormon  frame  the  weakness  i t s adherents  the  of  under  enforcing  i t .  and  administrative  was  subsumed  strong  organization.'  reasons  The  management.  function  i t was  situation.  involvement for  i f  effort.  question  warning  obstacle,  offering  decisions  social  status them,  help  of  careful the  the  contact  certainly accentuated  structure.  unite  ones.  function  but  to  omen  though  community's a  could  conflicting and  phenomena  was  economy  important  an  important  undoubtedly  f u l f i l l e d  People  occurred, How  perhaps  alism*  the  ingenuity  a l t e r c a t i o n had  less  The  is  between  resolving.  Thus  from  when  involved  effort,  conflict  pursuit?  pursued.  enough.  accommodation  soon  the  being  principle  of  great  it  was  their  community  may  motivate actions not  20 b e fully conscious. Finally, the study of process provides r a w material for the analysis of values. It w a s possible to discern t w o alternative value systems corresponding to the t w o alternative world views to which Whangaruru w a s oriented. In m y analysis I concentrated o n those areas w h e r e conflict between the t w o systems w a s of acute concern to the community. For this purpose I w a s able to m a k e use of a list of thirteen binary oppositions compiled b y Clyde Kluckhohn. T h e y express 'fundamental questions of value u p o n which all cultures have felt compelled to take a position, explicit or implicit  T h e entities of value-  culture cannot b e expected to have the 'all or n o n e character of a simple physical event like a p h o n e found in language culture. Rather they will have the character of weightings or e m p h a s e s that are,  o n the whole, dominant in a culture,' (Kluckhohn  ii8-9) N o w in Whangaruru, t w o systems coexist a n d their value e m p h a s e s differ.  T h u s the traditional Maori system has a  passive emphasis, the M o r m o n system an active one. F r o m this viewpoint, Kluckhohn's binary oppositions^ fall into three ca tegor ies : a) those w h e r e Maori a n dM o r m o n e m p h a s e s 'coincide, such as the opposition self/other, w h e r e both systems are other-oriented;  b) those w h e r e Maori a n dM o r m o n e m p h a s e s are opposed, a n d w h e r e the contradiction leads to intensive search for a n accommodation;  Kluckhohn expressed ' m u c h sympathy* with the suggestion that these pairs m a y b e regarded 'not as dichotomies, but rather J  'v. " ^ . v r . " ! " * '  (  i  b  i  d  -  1  3  1  >•  ™  si  st  h  e  *pp»«  h  i  21 c)  those  no  need  where  seemed  opposition  to  i s the  was  able  to  note  choice  Mormon,  t o be  meant  test  the  to  De  to  some  'Maori  into  a  'Mormon  Kinship  of  New  new  concepts  where  Mormon  The New  the  But  society;  i s not  Zealand the  i t does  roles  Mormons mean  my  essay  and  new  value  was  included so  as  by  to  individual  being  is trans-  transformation the  boundaries  accomodation a  would  new  with  epistemology,  orientations.  the  themselves  integration with  strong  process  integration with  for outside regard  of  structure,  i t introduces  oppositions.  f o r the  profound  of  active  systematically  have  study  pattern  an  experiences  Rut  present  This  strictly  society  life  i n Whangaruru  the  and  present-oriented;  I d i d not  of  community  Dinary  implications  community'.  social  the  r e j e c t i o n of  values,  purpose  study  opposition:  Maori'  other  early  structure, authority  result  authority  the  i n the  this  (Mormon)  situations,  where  community'  Zealand of  active  autonomy.  extent  the  example  which  s e l f - i n d u l g e n t and  s o c i o - p o 1 i t i c a 1 u n i t :•,  white  the  with  oppositions  a  the  apart.  but  (e.g. the  an  involved  dependence  how  dominant  opposed,  on  'traditional  same  passive,  generally,  State  as  i n s i s t e n c e on  binary  as /  Mormon'  More  the  are  categories  in c r i t i c a l  the  Mormonism,  affects  take  choice  'good  these  Maori)  accepting  formed  of  of  least  show  of  interna 1isation  analysis  of  accommodation  and  accepting  prompted  at  a to  have  show  f o r an  that  passive  inclinations it  felt  (trad.  a  Efforts  emphases  L e t us  perceived as  Mormon  second  concentrate. passive  I  oe  and  tense/relaxed).  It will  Maori  sphere as  a  the white  the of community Mormons:  set  22 it  means  an  standards  i n the educational  Furthermore the  Mormon  therefore social use  i d e o l o g i c a l l y motivated  i t means authority  with  system.  such  and  processes  that  social  through  with  r a t i o n a l processes I t i s largely  on  towards  socio-economic  familiarity, structure,  movement  sphere.  the experience  formal  organization  of control the ability  development  equal  i n an  of and  advanced  to understand depends.  a  23  GENERAL  SURVEY  I  The  Setting  The a  stretch  of a  Mokau,  Whangaruru of rocky  coastline  28  north  distance  one  miles  o f 11  bus a day  census,  d i s t r i c t ,  miles.  each  way  The  population  was  310 Maori  as d e f i n e d  which  extends  of Whangarei  by  public  a  study,  i s  the  settlement  to  Ngaiotonga,  narrow  winding  road;  transport.  of the d i s t r i c t , and  from  northwards  I t i s reached provides  in this  110 w h i t e s .  according The  Maori  t o t h e 1961 were  mostly  4 in  s i x localities,  1.  Mokau:  the t r a d i t i o n a l  Uri-o-Hikihiki. narrow The  river  meeting  2.  namely  Oakura:  Ten  flat  A  along  one  the school  3. a 4.  Ohawini: few Maori Punaruku:  almost by  a  burnt  European beach.  and  a  largest  a l l occupied,  by  road,  post Maori  situated  occupied,  not  this  settlement,  mile  inland.  with  many  holiday  storekeepers;  van.  beach  and  a  a  rebuilt.  a r e two  the mail  office,  along  half  locality, There  (subitribe) l i e along  to about  i n 1 9 5 1 , was  bus, the other  Not reachable  The  seven  down  beautiful  houses  o f t h e hapu  the seashorle  predominantly  cottages runs  houses,  from  house,  centre  settlement  telephone with  the main  ^ F o r map s e e A p p e n d i x I . An a n a l y s i s localities, i s given i n Appendix I I .  20  road of  contains  exchange, residences,  3 - 5  miles  population  24 north  of  Mokau.  than  Mokau  also  a  5.  or  Maori  It  A  the  government  on  ary  school  a  become  of  1,000.  over  Ngati  rest, needs, a  Today  Tautahi;  the  mostly but  prefer  Maori,  extent,  Some  claim  but  to  the  adult  education,  but  virtually  tenth  or  examination High  by  eleventh at  School.  d i s t r i c t  where  examination Of  Maori  61  the A  through  a  number s t i l l  minority academic  station It  of  which  halls,  next  managed  has  an  6  has  Ngaiotonga, hapu  regarded  to by  elementto  and as  recently  was  had  the  a  in population  centre  of  There  was,  English;  the  families.  the  school. 75%  speak  enough  Maori. are  learnt  few the  population,  Few  grade attend  results  good  English  Children  a l l young  of  community  b u i l d i n g s , intended  area,  houses  know  grade.  end  flats  locality.  road  there  have  tribal the  population  speak  river  situated  owners.  hilly  i t is  Of  the  only  elementary  to  of  houses  sheep  This  of  people,  Maori  i t s Maori  i t s t i l l  Maori  older  limited  clay  alluvial  Maori-owned  Station, a  not  centre  r e c e n t l y , an Of  to  the  by  two  13  complex  tribe,  accessible  are  of  of  Peninsula:  days  until  large  entire  earlier  hapu  behalf  extensive  School.  Development  and  Whangaruru  High  settlement  Maori  6.  Land  more  There  District  the  the  far  Oakura.  Ngaiotonga:  serve  has  11  at  25%  now  the the  has  everyday  only  who  language  boarding are  are  adults  people pass  for  cannot  speak  in  adulthood.  had  secondary  growing  'school local  schools  somewhat  bilingual  up  reach  certificate*  Maori  District  outside  the  higher  (judging  with  government  figures). households,  31  have  been  housed  25 loan  finance.  most  common  sized  These  having  bedrooms,  a  Tank  The  i s an  tjuilt  since  Regular other by  of  them  set  payments  a  no  means  they  minute  materials. of  a  at  of  hold  most  farm a  The  total  Maori  small,  t i t l e ,  dairying. was  has  lending  In addition,  °An A n a l y s i s o f i n Appendix I I I .  are  sold  and  houses.  streams  food  and  Ten  scheme  of river  individual  which  land. to  much  purposes  i s  first-class include  flats.  settlers  of subdividing  Out  which  I t does  established  Land  supply  working  for pastoral  to whites.  Affairs  M a o r i land  The  generally  i s declining,  not include  the Ngaiotonga  i n t h e hope  houses,  interest.  i s pastoral  total  acreage  of Maori  and  of  dwellings.  i n the d i s t r i c t  does  mostly  f e r t i l e  land,  established,  given  been  Department this  ofland  this  category  houses.  lands  resource  the u t i l i s a b l e  extremely  on  acres  but even  which  The  of the poorest garden  copper.  up t o .  i n the d i s t r i c t  natural  i s in a  the government  of the community's  major  16,000  6,000,  land  scheme  fraction  plumbing  to the government  to live  sea, forest,  full  the occupiers,  For the others,  sought  moderate  modern  principal  by  inferior  t o the abandonment  a  second  are fully  t o pay  population  Today,  The  the  three  and  but heating  p i t .  fifties  poor.  two c a t e g o r i e s ,  lavatory/bathroom  outdoor  always  into  living-room/kitchen,  i s used,  a r e made  are very  Maori  but  water  f a l l  ( 3 0 ) ,constructed  standard  leads  large  the middle  houses  but  a  combined  f a c i l i t i e s . lavatory  dwellings  a  farming  money f o r  Development i n the future  utilisation  Station and  i n Whangaruru  i s  26 settling of  local  financing  assignments The  i s by on  holdings,  1930,  are  and  27  to  1,500  nine  of  average  if  the  Though  for  multiple  development Farm  of  the  As  settlers  were  department  and  educational  change  group  was  a  or  by  neither settlers  were  established  these  are  are  now  makes  uneconomic The  land  economic  existing  instruction  owned  declined  idle. 25  in  today's  s t i l l  perhaps  settled,  farming  which  to  Maori  i n the  was  i t d i f f i c u l t  is  farms,  holdings  were  provided.^  individually,  settlers Affairs,  with  of of  loans,  to  to  and  to  up  no  most deal  more  and  were  blocks with  them  lucrative  dependent  being  The  only  related  meant  to  being  much.  on  administrative  entirely  attempt  jobs  o f f i c i a l supervisor*.  combined  production  punishments  an  'field  farming.  The  by  a  was  punishments  finance. the  role  Interaction  regard  nor  take  given  called  the  settlers,  rewards loan  was  department's, d e b t ,  individual  rewards  left  were  support  attributes.  system  the  stock.  they  1930  interestsare  of  norms  withholding  of  since  for further  and  the  on  by  purposes.  Department  supervisor  most  instruction  the  secured  sale  actively  basis  are  farmed  would  ownership  which  the  of  holdings  adequate  land  Again,  of  1960;  and  loans  b i l l s when  herds.  under  station  and  dairy  for economic"farming  developed  Ngaiotonga  redistributed  have  number  quality  and  adequate  small  in  acres  i t with  produce  though  The  on  interest-bearing  the  f a r too  conditions. from  farmers  between made  the  to  control the  granting  very  small,  Most  elsewhere.  " T h i s e s t i m a t e i s b a s e d o n my own d e t a i l e d s u r v e r y o f t h e land resources, together with a p r i v a t e communication from C.E. B a l l i n g e r , Farm A d v i s o r y y O f f i c e r , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , W h a n g a r e i , d a t e d 9 t h J u n e 1 9 6 1 , i n w h i c h he a n a l y s e s the g e o g r a p h i c and a g r i c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the district.  27 Apart living.  Eight  fifteen ends,  men  the  The  to  the  elsewhere.  life  history  ulation 16  does  50.  Thus country  and  the  town  suggests,  heart,  but  also who  of  been  town  as  since  the the  decline to  the  in  out  the  came  as  mostly  a  ways  jobs  only  23.5%  very  in  are  few  of  between  Of whose  Age  62.1%  age  town.  absence.  were  week-  working  to  there  for  large  of  a  d i s t r i c t ;  only  migrate  migration:  making  the  home  people  lengthy  of  in  is  d i s t r i c t ,  of  no  older days  great  Maori,  This  because  the the  decided in  a  town  country they  dis-  the  the  pop-  ages  have  Zealand  they  were  gardening;  except  description and  is  of  for  know  excessive  'Age and sex distribution in Appendix IV.  in  Joan  countrymen mostly  They  veneer  almost  as  has  is  increase suffered  given  bread,  of.the  about  permanently.  deficiency, i t  diet  have always  much  Whangaruru  has  at  one-time  country.  great  Diet  Maori  Metge  there  the  this  as  town  standards,  children.  between  are  the  the  settled  outlook  remain  Maori  prefer and  in  merely,  Maori  inhabitants stress  they  MS)  not  village  who  New  difference is  Nonetheless,  average  (unpublished  set  and  is  kinsmen  general  in  extent  born  superficial.  though  and  few  pensioners  include  16,  have  their  regular  population,  because  been  By  not  there  urbanites  of  were  7  (1964)  course  number total  under  and  had  occupations  resident  shows  was  there  School-leavers  now  tribution:'  of  town  i f then.  adults  farming,  non-farmers  had  proportion move  from  by  Dr  though  Whangaruru  poor in  wealth  under  the  conforms Ian  I would  Maori  Prior not  28 say  in  most  fatty  meat,  families  did  There especially a  small  butter, not  used  the  potatoes  suffice  to  be  a  heavy  home-brewed  minority  of  for  or  such  since  for  income  in  over-eating.  consumption  *paikaka*,  families  sugar,  but  the  of  this  Mormon  strong was  liquor,  confined  to  conversion.  II  Social  Structure  I the  now  contemporary  •old in  shall  time  spite  account  social  Maori*. of  of  a  attempt  In  great  Maori  a  system  doing  number  social  so of  geographic,  the  i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between help  been  traced.  only  serves  of but  this no  us  social,  to  The to  work.  sketchy  supply  the  Sources  c r i t i c i s m of Starting  order  takes  the  makes  statements  on form on  of  am  the  the  and  been  have  I  give  a  needed  noted  in  a  The  as  adequate  recorded  on  levels,  but  which  alone  later  have  not  here chapters  bibliography,  here. level,  s u b j e c t s such  an  subject  for  as  absence,  system,  the  philosophical genealogy.  been  the  of  regards  of  levels,  as  part  the  philosophic  culture  is attempted  by  sources,  different  background  that  community  Facts  treatment  of  hampered  available  Maori  have  them the  I  religious  understand  summary  which  structure.  the  will  brief  the  Maori  psychology,  Maori  world  philosopher physiology,  F o r f a c t u a l d a t a , see F i r t h 1941, 1959a, Buck 1950, Best 1924a, 1924c, Grey 1955, Johansen 1954, Ritchie 1963; and f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s , L e v i - S t r a u s s 1962, van der Leeuw 1938, Scheffler 1964. Other sources are g i v e n below. 8  29 astronomy; creation, are  part  natural  with that  Just  seen  other  as  which  Mormon  waves,  implies  church  i s not superior  plants  that  we  to the animals,  A l l and  they  meeting,  a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be  as  ' t h o u g h t * , 'memory^  related  (Taylor  standing  concepts  1855),  by  s o human  only  animals  are  con-  s t i l l  heard  based  on  and  'consciousness'  making beings  genealogical  one  can only  be  c a n be  traced  only  (according  the threads  possible  as  between  to ambilineal principles.)  of the social  principle  only  of the  seen  link  relation-  can  the father  i n any r e l a t i o n s h i p i f a g e n e a l o g i c a l  Hence The  winds,  form.  grounds.  ship.  them  At a  man  i n genealogical  the stars,  genealogy,  man.  Thus,  be  are a l l cast  including of this  argument these  these  fabric  are  i n a  human  of coherence  genealogies. group i s  genealogy. Turning  now  general  type  (P i r i p i  1961 and  of  a  tribe.  distance  south  t i pon  Otawa the to  as  spied  was  Arawa  tribe  level,  prevalent  at  very  Whangaruru with  w r i t i n g about  t h e Arawa  who  live  some  myths  very  usefully:  analyses  these  a t Maketu,  and  Hei also  he  with  parts  By  of the chief's  and a c k n o w l e d g e d , "  i s the ancestor their  from  genealogy.  the  claimed  looked  of h i s son Waitahanui  trace  i s a  landmarks  of h i s nose.  fixed  there  identifying  the point  landmarks  Tamatekapua the  also  of Whangaruru  the belly  area  myth,  1962 ),  t h e end  various that  of Maori  W i n i a t a,  "Tamatekapua the  to the geographical  and  ancestor  i t as claimed  identifying body,  t i t l e  ( W i n i a t a :215) whom  As  a l l members  this  myth  of  shows,  30 all  the land  the  body  for  ancestor  land. but  and  not only  Genealogy  i s continuous. War,  cated  this  here  -  land  a n d man  man  terms,  Maori  put i t .  piece  live if  This  rule  h a s no  i s crucial  contact  system,  owned  piece A  ethos, descent the  Maori  social  i n that common  into  with  i t fades; or  man life  have  compli-  I cannot  t o an  contact  at least  there  'closing'  between  of fires.  who  cold' do  I f  who  occupy goes  h i s inheritance; with  was  would  to but  the land, the  the pre-contact  (Firth  i n  as t h e  not  individual  claim  enter  or to put i t  'grows  to communities  applies  of  which  the keeping  i s different.  no way  t o Europeans  alight  Such  1959: 386) be, under  the group  rule,  The  t h ep r e -  of people  who  land, social by  unit,  then,  two n e c e s s a r y  an a n c e s t o r  unit  by a  humans,  to the  by  f o r otherwise  i s defined from  between  The communion  applies  claim.  of  i_s_ t h e  be m e n t i o n e d .  not reestablish  the law today  a  matter  H i s son can s t i l l  t h e son does  though  sales  to i t i s lost,  i talso  elsewhere.  Tamatekapua he  cultures,  a r e permeated  h i s unity  h i s right  of land;  grandson  must  i s maintained  legal  a  picture - a  the land  has  i t i s similar  i n other  and land  b u t one d e t a i l  leaves  i s actually  (Durkheim :224)  conquest ideal  who  the link  and the land;  counterpart  claim  to the land;  not only  and h i s totem  h i s non-human  lays  anyone  can l a y claim  humans  man  tribe  Therefore  i s therefore  between  between  which  t h e Arawa  of Tamatekapua.  also  link  to which  occupies;  whose and  body  according  to the  conditions: i s identified  (b) a degree  pre-contact  ( a ) common with  the land  of continuity  i n  31 occupation  of that  land.  right  he  that  when  boundaries bound  of a Maori  together  by  h i s sketch  It  was  where  he  i b i l i t y  group.  more  land  claim  only  today,  but a  share  Maori  joint  stock  Maori,  thus  with  than  company that  he  ancestry.  leaving  a  kindred.  could unit  This  certain  of chaos  the operations  i s implied  of  i n any s o c i a l  following i w i  Maori  socio-political  English  among  meaning  'my  loose  means  each  other,  confederation common  was flex-  Fortes  of the  Maori  The  number  of coastal  settlements  have  a  scattered  common  meeting  full  genealogical  political  as p a r t  of the  when  use the phrase  speaking  'my  bones'  i w i , i n anthropological bound  domain.  together  between  and n o t very on  usage, by a  common  In Whangaruru,  people  W a i , an a p p e l l a t i o n which  house  rights  units:  the Maori,  t e r r i t o r i a l  Ngati  not only  himself  of v i l l a g e s ,  themselves  very  sees  often  f o r membership i n  1954, part I I )  membership  called  Islands,  needs  t o have  'bones*;  relations*.  and a  person  da u g h t o n  Whangaruru  The word  ancestor  A  qualification  i n the land  community.  The  to  the group i s  ambilineal  the dual  linkage  a  hand  rule  the  Court.  persists.  is  the other  or c i t i z e n s h i p  began  group  1.  not define  positive structural  common  undoubtedly  does  i n a l l e g i a n c e , but not the degree This  1 9 5 9 was  alone  f o r the pre-contact  Maori  a  Fortes  rule  On  land-holding  claim  Even  in  descent  f o r two g e n e r a t i o n s ,  suggests.  a  of a  could  true  Land  by a  not true,  indefinitely  only  said  Therefore  Whangarei populous.  the Whangaruru  covers  a  and  t h e Bay o f  The  i w i used  peninsula;  32 they 2.  s t i l l  have  some  hapu  The  segment  than  the  usehold  over  part  a  hapu  formed  p o l i t i c a l ongoing  the  and  basis  of  the  hapu  3.  the  wha n a u  families. together another 4  in  common  houses,  Thirty 4.  out  patterns  created  be  of  ones  s t i l l  the  farming  and  Ngaiotonga,  set  up  on  a  are  locality  their  of  a  out  to  as  a  build  are  no  of  longer  resident  1960,  part  result  on  on  basis:  a  a  socio-  of  for  12  of  but  the  descent  today,  to  clusters or  such  live  of  part  of  were  four  to one.  residence  of  in  Mokau,  Punaruku  functioning organizations  there  2  alignments^  and  flats  while  clusters.  hapu  peninsula  to  extended  development,  f e r t i l e  p o l i t i c a l  households),  to  but  genealogical  families  whanau,  land  the  as  of  in  of  functions  significant  60  conform  the  most  of  houses  accommodate  the  factionalism,  number  (23  is  of  lines  dwelling  economic,  national  On  p o l i t i c a l l y  of  amount  Whangaruru,  extended  settlements By  in  for  households  hapu  for  outsiders.  up  largest  f u n e r a l s , and  defined  made  together  Mainly  focus  common  pattern  60  most  exclusive  members  significant  eroded  inclusive  had  the  the  sales,  and  less  days,  Land  emphasise  who  was  i n Whangaruru of  can  a  a  i n Whangaruru  a  in weddings  hapu  same  which  loca1ity  Members  the  subsist  property.  Often  i t was had  britannica  with  hapu  is  which  providing  ancestors  It  territory.  dealings  other  Each  unit  them  cooperation  nine  iwi  pre-contact  community;  pax of  in  in  landed  i t denotes  i t s members.  alignments,  members  'pregnant';  the  over  two  alone,  two  of  the  representation  corporate  i w i , which,  military  hapu;  for  means  village  control  p o l i t i c a l also  a  and  government of  word  common  branches  of  were the  33 Mormon  church,  four  basis;  community  whereas  halls  were  distinctive possible  Cohesion  was  as  down  of these  and  i n Punaruku  of r i v a l  strong.  localities  hapu.  obvious  was  a  on  Ngaiotonga the peninsula  usually  which  would  not the basis  affairs, rivalry  locality  had d e v e l o p e d  Though  Nonetheless,  than  on and  and  and Ngaiotonga  In everyday  f a r more  i n Mokau  genealogical links this  each  i n Punaruku  atmosphere.  kindreds,  both  members  very  style  societies,  existed  burnt  Each  to find  localities  of  halls  that  rebuilt.  funeral  was  between  i t would  of recruitment.  an  uneasy  alliance  loyalty  between the  be  present  locality  rivalry  i t s own  the  was localities  hapu.  Ill  Tapu.  Mana  and  Stratification  Turning to  refer  Maori  briefly  world  purity  category;  avoidance spheres regarded  The  t h e male  two and  ( o r a )were  fate,  On  to the philosophic level,  to the basic  view.  respectively ritual  again  death  customs  o f o r a and that  t h e two  parents  tapu  to prevent  i n those  spheres  Eternal  (a it u a ) i s a a  to the  conjunction  remain  where  Earth, life  and  celestial terrestrial.  collective  situations  should  or  necessary by t h e  a r e Sky and  t o t h e male  pollution  level,  distinguished  principle.  assigned  designed aitua  primal female  and  the religious  opposites  i t i s  term f o r of the  i t was  disjoint,^  ^ F o r a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the terms • c o n j u n c t i o n * and ' d i s j u n c t i o n * see L e v i - S t r a u s s 1964: 292-305. For detail on t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e c o n j u n c t i o n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , s e e Steiner.  34 Animals to  and  the  sphere  pollute, ising  of  unless  the  opening such  plants  *ora*  the  up  by  State  law.  But  in  their  garden,  avoidances  shells  and  pieces  of  fish  once  very  most  s t r i c t l y  similar  kept  of  The  tapu  burial  for  the  the  most  dead  death  depend  on  of  Maori  is  the  other  danger is  and  those  the  potent  between was  the  to  cause  spiritual  sexual the of  to  potency  most  man's  possible  enough,  more  for  in  a  tapu  dangerous the  dead.  The  wake  sphere  when  of  fate  activities  often  hunting,  war  and,  intercouse.  The  unavoidable  and  mortality.  But is  fishing,  in  man,  i f he  over  them.  It  sphere  where  fate  prevail  tapu,  occasions  Even so  oyster  unwanted  The  and  the  human  i t .  crop.  burning  most  the  takes,  harvested  leaving  observed.  man  even  kumara  as  living  practice  supported  personal  the  taken.  to  In  remain.  were  access  fact,  the  the  their  or  the  rules  indeed,  fate;  i t is  Of  f u n e r a l were  world-view,  true  beach,  s t r i c t l y  intrude;  seeking  such  preventing  precautions  i s , in  dangers,  s p i r i t u a l l y strength  Maori  significance  of  author-  are:  unless  eating  observed.  taken  first  belonged  therefore  muttonbirds.  the  the  could  were  enforceable  on  materials  Examples  for  before  precautions  always  them  vestigial  places  subject  the  myth  few  namely  whatever  actually  mentioned  s t i l l  ( t a ng i ) a n d  w i l l  industry, terms  a l l ,  with  roasted  exposed  were  elaborate  But  family r i t u a l ,  a  working  precautions  longer  of  were  or  oysters,  a  rigorous,  of  contact  as  conjunction  and  one  food  conjunction.  no  heads  flax,  a  for  are  as  ritual  of  season  prohibitions  Other  and  certain  setting  of  utilised  the lastin  as  for  strong is  and  this  normally  35 rules, 1963,  that  the Maori  u t i l i s i n g Mana,  primarily which it  is  though  i s h i s oody. on  t h e man  from  who  ancestor  According  has  is  of mana^is  maintained  misfortunes signs the  as  To  the conflict  at  times  very The  large  is  the duty  not  gods  done and  part  by oy  -  visions. the  Some  tneir  the chief  we  One  a  other  shall  Thus,  and  primogeniture,  no  o f mana  advice  oy  and  societies  I t  suffer  cause,  are  o f mana  can  t o any other  afford  person. Church,  increases;  are i t s ancestors. them  -  f o r they  I t are  (ma n a a k i ) w h i c h i s  tending they  bring  their  offer  species  graveyard  i n dreams  offerings  a r e those  animal  -  lesser  not  disappearing,  mana  and warnings  i n Whangaruru  ' c h i e f  later.  trine  tangi,  o f an  a  do  their  holder  not to worship  proper  as  t h e a u t h o r i t y o f Mormon  their  so  i n t h e hapu.  whatever  f a r from  and modern  of funeral  of  and h i s people  return  o f any  source  with -  i n the land  while  man  or of deference  mana  memDers  senior  f o r these,  o f mana.  people  descendants  organising  as  i n the i w i ;  t h e most  the advice  specific  therefore  senior  of the dead,  One  and  to the principle  out to acknowledge  graveyard.  entered  oy  of the l i v i n g ,  heeding  i t , i s deposited  to i n English  between  them  have  referred  o f t h e mana  giving  may  1941.)  i tusually  of defeat,  mana  of Firth  to his successors,  long  real,  (See Schwimmer  ancestor  and d e f e a t s ;  appearnance  mana.  the tribal  held  of diminution  call  approach  individuals  g e n e a l o g i c a l l y t h e most  amount  a  the theoretical  i n the tribal  i s passed  that  of Whangaruru  or  of oread  ancestors a n d who  who  to have  assist  warnings. form  called  of  'manaaki'  pouka i  i s the  (= f o o d  uottress).  36 These  societies  dries.  Although  the  make there  has  operation of these  funds,  they  sphere  of status  of  gifts  s t i l l  a  societies,  continue;  they  and  even  defalcation  structural  principles  In the t r a d i t i o n a l  the  line  was  practice  there  senior  Under  Continued  clear  and  the system  junior  to another  arranging of  room  of  similar  level, of  social  there  f o r honest  he  i n one may  genealogies  status  from  of rank  can quote, line  to suit*  therefore  ...  a  so  been  a  with  increase  ideal,  community.  that  a  has a  person  'fictional  Further-  attempt  there  was  between Until  large  c a n be  i n another.  unremitting.  to  of a l lbut the  person  Competition  people  (Winia ta : 229)  Maori  each  (Winiata :223),  of  society  lines'.  was  by  also  tended  of the  but senior  n o t have  implied  i n the status  descent  classes,  to rules  intermarriage  members  disagreement. was  according  the senior  humble  social  structurally  intermarriage  of ambilineal  of genealogies  though  through  f l e x i b i l i t y  t h e most  number  more,  the  t o t h e women  'The a i m i n M a o r i  demarcation  was  a r e two  s u c c e s s i o n t o mana  of the j u n i o r  Though  there  of descent  chieftainship  class.  distance  of the  from  the principles  'determined  to the chieftainship.  similar  most  line  Generally,  to preserve  the  being  to the senior  succession  handed  the religious  legitimise  world-view  of demarcation  succession.'  on  been  them  i n  which a r e :  1.  proximity  t o remove  have  The  above,  anyone  of factionalism  to a d m i n i s t e r .  summarised  when  deal  i n order  involvement  family  good  localities  stratification,  in  been  the four  briefly  of  to the bereaved  at plenty  people  the  second  37 world  war, Whangaruru  wielded  real  support  f o ra  counts  power.  f o r a good  the chief  2.  Because  the  generations,  is  decisions group, the  'the 3.  this  to  devoid  cannot  play  about  had  ancestor status  until  of the extended  (kaumatua) even  or t h e community  as a  was u n c o n t e s t e d . power*,  family  though  power.  'executive  down  wage  In corporate Certainly  b u t i f we  must  ( v i z R i t c h i e : 1963:100), the elders  o f mana  their  a modern  and u s u a l l y  pattern  personal  where  these  the  Whangaruru  of status  4.  Wealth,  t h e men  though  were  Hence  of personal  rivalry. without  t h e women roles  they  tapu,  While the being find  i t easier  required  were  able  constantly  to  to  succeed  failed. principles of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of recent  structure  independent  affairs  and s p e c i f i c  traditional  power  also  status,  organization.  add two w h i c h ,  source  s t i l l  dependence  t h e kaumatua's  participate i n public  To  a  and  to ensure  veto  h i s f u l l  Control  of the elders  t h e male  the poukai  should  chiefly  t h e hapu  not acquire  lessened  the universalistic  conduct with  does  of theelder  often  metaphor  outside  concerned  i s inadequate  though  from  of h i s father.  men  obedience  of d i r e c t o r s * .  Women,  men  o f mana  affecting the family  board  stand  a man  has g r e a t l y  younger  power  to exact  a n d t h e c o m m u n i ty's d i f f u s e  of the flow  the authority  pursue  this  able  obvious.  i n t h e hands  employment  were  enterprise  deal  seems  the death  s t i l l  Today  communal  on  after  chiefs  of  origin,  deeply  we  influence  today:  of genealogical  of prominence i n the period  status,  of Maori  f i r s t  land  became  sales  and  38 determinations not  of  necessarily  wealth  as  elder  subordinate family has  now  became  comparatively wealthy  5. in  his  Some  the community  tribal  such  as  (administering  the  One  a  previously s o much  com-  land  Also  i s an  farmer  men,  accumulated  chief.  framework, as  educated  status,  o f hapu  not of high  secretaries  the Maori (since  tribal  that  prominent,  immigrant  and  and  rank,  and  village  1945),  trust  the sports  ibuilt  a  who meeting  have  chairmen council  the Ngati  lands  become  since  o f modern  organ-  (up t o 1945),  Wai  Trust  1945),  recreational  prominent  clubs  the  Board  the  school  and,  especially,  church. There  leadership sphere, they The  men, as  committee  committees,  t h e hapu  two  land.  educated  izations,  tribal  accumulated  the status  not within  on  when  the community.  though  house  t i t l e s ,  of the highest  attorneysfor  paratively its  individual  was  of these  commanded  could pattern  a  have  reluctance  men  undoubtedly,  more  done  was  certain who  wealth  l i t t l e  t o change  rather  frequently  Church  too preferred  the tenancy a  else,  of a  even  though veto.  of these  o f power.  leadership  the  instrumental  chiefly  o f some  balance  episodic  i n the  anyone  i n the face  to maintain such  than  to acknowledge  The  roles  to  offices Mormon permanent  ones. After groups  i n Whangaruru  successfully, a  new  the decline  meeting  A  generally  meeting  house  of the chieftainship,  on  have  found  i t hard  of the i w i decided  the peninsula,  corporate  where  to  i n 1938  operate to  the highest  build chiefs  39 of  the  the  i w i used  building  started. to  get  mill  to  but  this  also  1945  repute  job  for  a  but  also  which  annual  that  be  state  job  was  was  to  at  but never  equally  occasion  done  house  done  for  a  mill  hard  timber  timber  Ngaiotonga,  the  associated with  was  where  i n t i m a t e symptoms  the  debt,  the  heavyydrinking  heart  disease  and  the  While  the  Maori  sense  pattern,  children's in  rapidly  progressing  lacking  opportunities other  the  than  the  a  judicial  failed  vires.  were  too  The  was  destined  even  remain  settlement  of  of  were  success  the  and  station  and with  school. were  often  Whangaruru,  m i g r a t i o n , remained  in  impossible.  coupled  at  but  i t s  poverty  country  socially,  the  forever  was  infrequently  lack  and  to  scheme  interested  covered  failure  not  small  government  v i t a l l y  never  of  role  because  holdings  and  i t s  timbermill  development  rest  economically  lost  land  subdivision a  passed  Maori  mastered.  was  f u l f i l  i t had  community  and  of  to  ultra  responsibility,  expenses  legislation  self-government,  Here  the  been  under  tried  sphere,  in which  operating  the  one  work  up  been  i t had  not  no  On  Maori  disputes.  to  had  forthcoming  support  meeting  set  i t had  failure,  i t bore  financial  More  a  somehow  houses  limited  economic  skills  Ngaiotonga,  for  a  needed  the  the  was  failure.  of  community  been  necessary at  before  and  disputes.  committee,  because  support  cooperative  for  a  scheme  that In  had  became  partly  meeting  much  money  tribal  settling  the  and  earn  burnt  factional  The  debacle,  Financial  other  of  bought  sale  in  the  because  for  in  live.  m a t e r i a l s were  For  was  to  static.  40  IV  Mormonism  among  t h e New  Statistics that  i n New  ulation  at that  total  by  Maori  claimed New  Maori  very  exact,  religion, orthodox Maori  population.  the support  Zealand  because  millennial  Mormon  where  allegiance  and  some  a  or  4%  sects  of the t o t a l usually  show  pop-  classed  of 16,5% of the  of Latterday Maori  The  Those  Saints  out of a  percentages refuse  adherence  real  26,3%.  as  membership  12,941  claim  *°  was  Church  their  Whangaruru  percentage  of 17,978.  while  total  are not  to state  t o one  allegiance  their  of the  i s t o one  of the  sects.  Whangaruru communities  The  about  13.1% of the Maori  because  churches  had  o f 7.3%,  membership  and  time  the Maori  prophets  and a t  a f f i l i a t i o n s f o r 1961  to the churches  mi 1 l e n n i a 1 , * * w h e r e a s founded  Maori  of religious  Zealand  adhered  Zealand  was  one  of a  the majority was  limited  number  of  of the population  72%, orthodox  churches  Maori was  Mormon.  20%, Ratana  Church  12 8%,  with  the  Those  who  p r o f e s s e d membership  l^For Maori religious 1 9 5 6 , s e e A p p e n d i x V. l*The word m i l l e n n i a l meaning proposed i n Conn  of the Church  of  a f f i l i a t i o n s i n 1961 and  i s used 1962:31.  throughout  England,  comparison  according to  ^The Ratana Church i s an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d M e s s i a n i c movement w h i c h grew o u t o f t h e v i s i o n s o f t h e p r o p h e t T a h u p o t i k i Wiremu Ratana. The movement r e a c h e d i t s peak i n t h e 1920's, but s t i l l h a s a l a r g e m e m b e r s h i p a n d much political influence. (Henderson, 1963; f o r typology see Lanternari 1960:296)  41 the  Roman  were  widely  clergy, was  ground  they  Maori this  for  these  the Methodist  any  organization.  churches  religious  Church  contact with  were  A l lthe Ratana's  not pursue prone  was  reasons  t h e New  services  their  This  no  doubt  constantly  lived  in  and  strong  a  Maori.  special  observing today.  a  losing  Ngaiotonga, sense  Maori  much  of  less  26,3%,  no  and  words, and  Jarvie  also  i n i t i a l  apply  converts  the solution i n terms  why  The  and  doubt  to which i t would  of deprivation Maori  be  On  that  of  provided their  of adherents  than  i s obtained  join  such  to trust  of the  assumption,  ' d e p r i v e d ' i n 1961  Changes  s t i l l  unwise  a c c u r a t e measure  today.  proportion  Lanternari  i s rational  the sense  the extent  an  religions  the  system.  measure  as  deprivation  q u e s t i o n why  i n Whangaruru.  movements  In other  movement  Nonetheless  statistics the  symbol  strong  Worsley,  of m i l l e n n i a l  the m i l l e n n i a l  A  by  the general millennial  particularly  Zealand  under  here  to follow  advanced  the genesis  cognitive  the  why  regular  shall  tendency  suffer  to  had  hardly  of r e l i g i o u s  the reason  a r e more  general  the  sort  had  or  identity. I  by  and  i n the d i s t r i c t .  where  to  the Presbyterian  scattered  nor any  partly  of  Catholic,  to  religions census  'deprivation*  the Maori  felt  d i d not  i n 1956, f o r i n these  t o mi 1 l e n n i a 1 i s m d r o p p e d  can, however,  be  discerned  by  i f we  feel years  from  26,7%  scrutinise  deta i l s . First  membership  of a l l ,  Maori  i s increasing,  Messianic churches,  are growing  much  more  by  while slowly  their than  42 Maori  p o p u l a t i o n , whereas  faster  'tnan  Maori  over  t n e same  of white  origin  showed  churches  increase,  confirming  memoers  impressive achieved centage  oy  urban We  that  explain increase  seeking  Whangaruru  was  me  to denominational  very  allocation  of  In  atic  ( s e e pages  Affairs  as  we  shall  was  the  per-  Mormon  f a i r l y  converts  were  i n an IUnfa mi 1 i a r  significance  into  the  are hierarchical  scored The  see,  fact  while  i s less how  hierwe  percentage  Presbyterians, like to Maori  Mormon  among  organization  t h e New  the  uroan  O r g a n i z a t i o n t h e r e f o r e seems expansion  the  would  higher  a  environment.  i n  to  Zealand  time.  the regeneration possible  consideraDle  1959, Whangaruru  most  declined  organizations helpful  strong.  at the present  only  The  t o 1961  i n popularity,  Saints.  Similarly,  was  1956  s t a t i s t i c a l  were  precondition of success,  a  Other  they  was  migrants.  Whangaruru  tnat  dropped  strong  Certainly,  and  slightly  remarkaDle  which  had  Maori  a  Meanwhile,  guidance  churches  the Latterday a  period.  of England  t o o much  Catholics,  the key  Church.  the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church  than  i s growing  churches. from  Catholic  last-mentioned  I f this  that  Catholic  not read  of England,  archical.  Messianic  memoership  o f t h e Roman  should  impression  of the Church  migrants  t h e two  Church  i n Maori  t h e Roman  Most  general  Maori  of adherents  sharply. Maori  a  from  gain  Church  population  Messianic  drawing  t h e Mormon  was  54-55  and E d u c a t i o n a  with  careful  resources  regarded  below)  by  just  regarded  o f t h e Mormon  as  i t .  by  planning  Church  and t h e  the church  these  at  authorities.  authorities  the Departments  as of  problemMaori  Episodic expressions  of  43 genuine out  of  a  amount dozen  drank. been on  a  devoted  gether but  faith,  eyes to  or  ordained  fact  lived  were  not  according  beginning,  manner  to  land  Church  was  charge  of  land  The  the  and  were  four  is  in  These  crises  give  ments, the or  for we  as  a  death  Very  few  of  been  arrested only  affection  few  of  to-  the  even  and  men  half-way  in  Church  difference  services  as  though  after  in  a  had  placed  fewer  i t seemed  the  A l l  reliance  community,  than  not  smoked  commandments.  Mormon  The  did  eg.  the  altogether  turn-  religion.  elders,  a  the  of  of  at  The  in  a  similar  was  that  authorities  unusual of  a  which  emergence  their  ignore  a and  the in  of  heart  failure  a  child  are  the i f a  was  factor,  in  social  man  which  health  whatever  of  authority  conversion,  habits  threat  felt  by  of  of  reasons move-  breakdown  continues  a l l v i c i s s i t u d e s which  or  imperative.  millennial a  be  already  chiefly  breakdown  change  probably  have  individual  regeneration  that  I  that  of  second  r»adical made  can  which  failure The  enough, or  to  deprivation  the  explained either  Whangaruru  f i r s t ,  progress.  genuine  never  or  occurred  result  conflict  were  can  family, the  sense  crises,  domestic  we  that  interviews  acute  Mormon  index  huge  visitors  Wisdom,  into  factors.  the  private  of  Mormon  correct;  had  a l l attempts  people  the  greater  change  to  the  a  development.  d i s t r i c t  of  in  an  these  development.  held  to  Word  is  Of  development  promising  in  which  to  Mormon  haphazardly.  conformity.  Whangaruru's  referred,  the  paid  elders,  conformists,  prominent  ignored  were  of  obedience  l i t u r g i c a l l y  ascribed  nucleus  for  real  so  Tithes  members'  small  in  drinking, may  be  called  44 the  universal perceptual The  sphere of  a  of  church  temple  which  not  centre  New  in  the  with  provided  a  Whangaruru good the  of  to  sake  temple  be  very  own  ially  with  revelation  to  regard of  regular  activity  and  paying  of  of  great  the  promise would the  bring.  temple  exercising blessing of  the  the  in  and  temple  for  a  a  was  laying  church  advantages not  'work'  would  I  must  have  ancestors the  temple  This  to  highest  enter  exalt-  undoubtedly  conformity;  sacrifice  for  to  admission  of  the  i f the  make  to  the  for  the  Word  of  dietary  also  only  the  opportunity  for  one's  ancestors,  instance that  l i t t l e  by  effect  in  on  prohibitions),  of  out  the  the  church  of but  visiting also  anointing  itself  (a  organizations  held  membership  espec-  Wisdom,  i t s associated  full  church  conformity,  the  campaign  stress  had  for a l l  ancestors.  completed,  down  and  This  religious  commandments  standard  authority, for  sick.  chance  And  f o l l o w i n g of  Smith,  edifices  l i f e ' .  temple the  impressive  their  easier  'pure  building  religious the  the  the  these  ancestors.  the  was  to  for  follow  i t was  the  doing  sacral  the  incentive  the  a  This  tithes.  There  they  improve  Joseph  offered  was  l i e in  striking  descendants.  their  to  a  share  required  campaign  with  chance  readily  after  most  sealed  revival  there  can  souls,  serving  Shortly a  not  be  where  Mormon  would  to  thought.  Mormon  First,  also  only  strong  s t r i c t l y  began  the  the  Mormonism  standing  their  of  of  religious  Hamilton,  but  Kingdom  their  in  provided Zealand,  Celestial  ation  factors  college  good  believed  two  of  organization.  and  only  in  members is  other  basis  the  of  and  opening  Whangaruru;  i t  45 was  only  the  enumerated  operative  The included them ful  to  Hamilton  But  for the  one  the  American giving  for  a  of  end  It also  the  attack  1959,  lessons and  attended.  in  for  In  the  the  was  the  Church  had  the  houses  of  in  though  they  because  of  were this)  families  they  to  At  but 82  God. the  Mormon  represented  by  they  end had  adults  the  local  deputies lived  with: of  been  three  a  from  or  following  table:  leader-  were  duties.  twelve  visiting  homes,  courses  members  rumours  the  But  that  main  Its  messengers  Utah  At  degree  their (or  open  entirely  months,  they  the of  most  the  borrowed  distant  and  for  a p a t h e t i c of  control.  reestablished. the  about  humble,  four  youth-  Whangaruru,  theoretically  equally  of  o f f i c i a l  to  of  members,  l i f e  i n Whangaruru  the  taken  from  their  excommunicated.  firmly  cadre  Whangaruru  .There  vague  sending  those  months  most  i t  many  sending  some  were  effort;  a  have  district's  force  the  up  I  revival.  o r g a n i z i n g of  about  task  even  be  God's  stayed  the  Church  would  the  the  hall.  background  sinners  that  learn  spent  adults;  the  including  a  local  hardened  lived  of  religious  built  which  was  factors  m i s s i o n a r i e s and  included  to  a  three  nationwide  this  to  other  about  labour  service;  month,  of  the  complex  as  m i s s i o n a r i e s who  children  made  o f f i c e - b e a r e r si  day  brunt  towards  a  i n Whangarei  ecclesiastical went  was  Maori  workers.  meetings  which  in bringing  campaign  gathering  church  ship  campaign  end  horses;  rather to  the  devoted  were of  event  withdrawn, 1960.  conformity  among  is  1 °.  i ^ T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e 170 C h u r c h members u n d e r the age o f 16 ( f r o m 4 y e a r s u p w a r d s ) w e r e ' a c t i v e ' i n t h a t t h e y attended Church, S u n d a y S c h o o l as w e l l as a w e e k l y meeting of Primary or M.I.A. A n u m b e r o f p a r e n t s who k e p t away f r o m C h u r c h were happy to send their children.  46 Conformity Non  Conformists  Near  28  5  Conformists  Complete  Conformists 49  Tota 1 The I  total  have  numoer  reliable  Word  and  Church  village  of  not  people  on  are  satisfy whose  only  of  the as  who,  age  shown  are,  as  of  16  on  this  stated,  tithes,  Conformists  those  known  82,  payments  authorities,  the  above  conformity  activity.  Church  over looked.  of  Wisdom,  conformists did  members  data  Criteria the  of  82 was  90, Table  adherence  regular  Church  are  those  who,  satisfied  these  criteria;  according  criteria.  The  to  the  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s were  in  same  intermediate t r i v i a l  but  to attendance  the  view non-  authorities, category  enough  to  are oe  of  47  CHURCH  ORGANIZATION  I  In I  have  order  the brief  presented and  concern  none  where  this  dealt  ication  A proposed of the  c a n be  how  opinion target  done,  they  change. group  how  The  does  agent,  not accept  i s able  rewards Kelman meaning  as  in  positing  he  writes:  systems this  process,  by  dilemmas another.  into  except  where  originality  occurs  he  assigns  calls  the  and  extreme,  of h i s approach  which  by t h e  but where  punishments  he  when  intrinsically  the other  to which  was  processes  observable  opinion,  On  commun-  question  behavior  by  must  communication.  compliance,  t h e new  mode  main  material  entered  to this  the behaviour  intermediate  my  t h e two  d i s t i n g u i s h e s three  * i n t e r n a 1 i s a t i o n *, The  As  preliminary question  to the innovation.  Parsons. an  who  its  world  i n o p p o s i t i o n t o one  the underlying  to enforce  external places  not adopt  between  detailed  approach  first  order.  chapter  situationsand typical  t h e two  not find  does  agent  more  further  Kelman.  i n the last  of the Maori  world  are maintaining  satisfying, does  a  theoretical  Herbert  my  a r e seen  namely  useful by  sketch  of concrete  systems  with, and  given  i s the interaction  to present  series  t h e two  Before be  a  incomplete  work  I propose  describing  survey  a t a l l o f t h e Mormon  in this  systems,  an  general  the  same  consists  'identification';  48 'Identification individual  does  content  per se  differs  from  believes  i s accepted  agent.  role  does  a t any  given  i s activated  the  relationship  the  induced  primarily what  meeting Thus,  moment -  only  upon  concerned  the other's  opinions  external  not  integrated t o be  i n that  actions  publicly on  and  i n time. when  which  he  privately  the role  Only  with  pleasing  The  when  source  through  the other,  on  the individual's  isolated  from  the  the rest  an  value  within  i s based  giving  role do  will  him  with  performance. remain  support. system,  of h i s values  -  i s not  i s concerned  social  individual  appropriate  with  identification  and dependent  with  that  influenc-  i s acting  e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r h i s own  adopted  The  the  individual  b u t he  actually  and i t s  by  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  expressed.  because i t s  adopts.  the individual  be  the  the i n d i v i d u a l  that  on  i n that  Identification  observability  however  (as i n compliance)  the  tend  both  depend  opinions  he w a n t s  and  behaviour  satisfying.  however  not depend  I t does  to compliance  the induced  i s intrinsically  compliance  manifestation  takes  not adopt  i n the opinions  behaviour  ing  i s similar  -  tied  to  They a r e  but to  rather  remain  encapsulated.* I has  many  have  this  of the features  differences knowledge, compliance  as w e l l . t o have  and  Though several  quoted  types  at  he  because  describes,  Kelman  proposed  length  show  to  process  my  between  1  later  of communicator,  Mormonism  there are  theorist,  intermediate  internalisation. I shall  though  i s the only an  Whangaruru  that  t h e Mormon  the prototype  Church  setting  the  uses tone  49 for  a l l the others  City,  who  was  messenger whose  was  seen  from  by  the Maori  God, y e t l i k e  influence i s accepted  establish  and m a i n t a i n  ship  him',14  the  with  church  alive  contacts  Also,  one r e g u l a r other,  were  'only  criticism  of  used  w a s , a s we long  the church,  f i r s t role  on  were  being  we  that  'encapsulated'  accept  i n a  kept  i n church  contrary  i n  t o make  was  that  1960-61  i s no  whose  ethos*  they  doubt  to the  of the  of  this  spirit  and, at least  the picture  culture  the  activity.  used  but there  indeed  i t was  interruption  For the years  prevalent may  that  i n general,  a c t i v i t i e s ,  -  relation-  the years  Mormons  see, unfair,  Q  want ' t o  over  protracted  Whangaruru  Lake  figure  self-defining  to a decline  many  very  approximation,  h i s hosts  congregation  shall  Salt  one o f t h e f a m i l y  missionaries  Any  Sunday'.  period  brother,  questions  to lead  from  as an a t t r a c t i v e  satisfying,  of these  or of their  missionary  because  criticism  Mormons  f o r a  a  i n Whangaruru.  these  each  a  Nobody  occasional visits  that  t h e young  as a church  was  quite  d ifferent. Where of  the agent  to  ideas  that  Kelman's as  Mormonism  formally  a myth-dream  introduced  under  not a  vacuum  Cora  not apply  i n the 'target  Whangaruru  met  does  i n t r o d u c i n g something  pre-existing  before  model  Du  which  the flag but a  Bois  that  i s i n h i s i s utterly  culture'.  entered  the scene  contained  many  of Mormonism,  The  I have there  treatment alien shown was i n  of the core f i r s t  ideas  missionaries  dialectic.  1 9 6 2 . i n a d i s c u s s i o n on K e l m a n ' s  concept.  50 which  l e d to the development  thought  i n Whangaruru  I  now  shall  In  clarify  this  the former  ferocious  wailing  they  i n dreams  give  are  honoured  with  a r e some  traditional question  temple  what  much  this  criterion  of what  say that  not  the choice  visits  of the elders.  is  somewhere  na  lisation'. We  Maori has  t o be  between  began  system  identification isation  t h e two  this  into  one  f o r open made  can say  with  that  to say  that  which  f o r then  is a  Yet  we  there  nor the dependence the Whangaruru  'identification'  asking  two q u e s t i o n s : How  The  *i n t e r n a 1 i s a t i o n ' ,  communication.  maintained?  promoted?  where  words,  by  to the  alternatives.  alternatives,  chapter  sometimes  i s complete  of  today,  way.  i s reorganised',  by  they  relationship  adhere  I t i s possible  t h e modes  system,  i s a subject  choice,  field  commands  t o t h e Mormon  t o do  a  In other  maintained  split  thing  means  between  one.  by  In Whangaruru respects,  adhere  i n t e r n a 1i s a t i o n  cannot be  Kelman  the  the t r a d i t i o n a l  wrong.  encapsulated.  'cognitive  Mormon  are honoured  I n t h e Mormon  and  follows  between  and a  following  i s not a s i t u a t i o n  remains  community's  by  i n these  who  i s the right Behaviour  Now Mormonism  visits,  others  heartburning,  ancestors  visions.  who,  Maori  of  example.  and  i s thought  people  way,  discussion.  the  by  i n an  system,  and  o p p o s i t i o n a l systems  traditional  at tangis  the ancestors  there  - a  o f two  How  how We  would on  situation  and  'inter-  t h e Mormon  and t h e  now  see that  i s the process  i s the process  of  this of  internal-  51 The a  vqst  process  external  missionaries the  interactions -  Whangaruru  as  these a  these ing  itself roles own  dozens  their  work  in  met  the  occasionally particular  to of  through  to  see  maintained  and  function  more  of  who  of  which  officials  identify  with  themselves"  as  to  were New  with  Though  membership the  i . e . to  religious  were  contact  encourage  them;  American  who  hierarchy.  Whangaruru  was  the  frequent  maintained the  through  as  local  help  leaders  represent-  Mormonism.  process by  the  meetings,  i n t e r n a 1 i s a t i o n of  of the  Maori  church  consistency with in  contacts  Mormon  officers which  within  in  they  the  values  was  Whangaruru  played  community  these  and  in  their  homes. In  mediators the  this in  the  as  senior  on  a  survey  five  American  of  two-year  and  District  white  Whangaruru, Maori  have  e m i s s a r i e s who  may  or  as  youths  mission  to  New  New  with  organization.  The  (b)  to  (d)  positions  Whangaruru,  the  a l l the  first  belong New in  their  the  Maori,  making  up  to the  are  top  usually last  in  of  either  there the  from  sent are  Mission  outside  category; local  or  ranks  twenties,  addition  entire  up  Mission,  positions  the  made  the  early  In  have  communicators  to  Zealand  who  similar  two  (a)  Zealand.  Zealanders  hierarchy;  of  classed  or  officers  the  I  categories.  hierarchy;  (c)  the  many  of  largely  at  the  Far  part  officials  The  aspect.  -  forces  promoted  with  one  white  officials  the  only  was  communications,  or  their  Whangaruru  of  Maori  officials  whole,  identification  network  were  Zealanders  of  branch  (e)  52 The  Mormon  members,  differs  Mahayana  Buddhism  members  get paid  for  limited  periods  and  than  i n fully  other  normally  d i stiiimc lions Rather  hierarchical  function  (O'Dea  between  p  structure,  o f an  army  and a  with save  a r e f a r more  priesthood training  laity  i t sc a r e f u l the Church  carrying  so  male  spread  i n good  through  The  usual  blotted  of equals; limiting  out.  the  of the has the  the Church  out the undisputed  priest-  and the  proceeds  Presidency,  that  the  order,  a r e thus  do  duties  widely  f o r every  brotherhood  charisma  most  can  will  maintain o f God.  165) The  hierarchy The  fullest  Church  rank  to their  Furthermore,  religions,  clergy  i n that  ordinary occupations,  years).  offices  are  Catholicism,  religions  t o t h e o r d i n a r y member.  of containing  unity  2-3  people  o f Roman  are called  theological  open  of each  that,  to the highest  i s t h e Mormon  authority  work,  Church  of the Church's  channels  from  a l l these  authoritarian  authoritarian  progresses  of which  hierarchy follow  (often  consecrated  standing  (a)  and  for religious  hood  the  essentially  o f t h e Mormon  not  whole  hierarchy,  Mormon  as  of Whangaruru  sense  as This  of  the charisma  of the  Church  follows:  P r e s i d e n t of the Church  i n f a l l i b l e .  sees  same  aura  ally  v i s i t  (b)  The  have  unmistakable  prophet,  seer  i s standard  i n f a l l i b i l i t y  New  other  Zealand Americans  as  has  and  personal  revelator  doctrine,  surrounds  and as  the Apostles  of the mission, the people  i n the  such  is  but f o r the Maori  the President's"  charisma;  charisma  who  personal  occasion-  representatives.  irrespective say they  the  of  regard  rank, them  53 as  messengers  from  have  limited  this  authority  full  time  (even to  upon  on  their  powers  and to  Sunday  calling,  so  had  sacral  any  other  Zealand  Iltftre  were  any  respected  rulings  member.  Such were  healers,  but the Church  would  might  achieve  e x c e p t i o n a l l y good d i d not recognise  no W h a n g a r u r u  holders For  i n that  School,  examples,  he a  though  of  instance,  i n that capacity  would  be  certain  teachers this  lacking  dedicated  consecrated  make  the Sunday  people  partly as  whether  was  callings.  be  might  similar  confers  Zion  obeyed  of specific  he  with  i s only and  i s  of the church,  contact  officers  role  supported  limits-revelation.  officers  direct  Outside  that  their  financially  and-within  i f they  had  and  Spending  of healing  Superintendent  were  own.  Mormonism  force.  there  though  except  i n virtue  that  even  clergymen,  charisma  v i s i t  their  people  their  They  School  than  these  the Church,  functions  by  of the local  authority  by  that  the church,  t h e New  religion.  church a  priestly  or European,  the l i f e  down  wider  nominally)  Among Maori  i s much  of other  them  Yet i s recognized  authority, laid  i f only  that  God.  or  like  personal effective  and d u r i n g earlier  my there  been.  II  External  Mediators  How function  as  do  carriers  mediators?  of these  types  In the rest  of charisma  of this  or a u t h o r i t y  chapter,  I  shall  54 summarise chapters of  the role  the description  change  and  occurring  Apostles  Apostolic  together  Authorities yearly short  leaving  taught  the impact  of these  and  Maori  November  extensive  1960.  policies  and  for later the  processes  interactions  Punaruku  branches, bership,  met  report  setting  by  part  about  weeks.  mediators  of these  good  General  occur  a  i n January  speech  spoke,  were  Fielding  In such or  the 'grass  was  observations  a  congreroots'  tours.  For  1959 and a g a i n  visits  i n  to inspire on w h i c h  very  f o l l o w e d by d r a s t i c Smith,  ( i . e .Apostles),  the  new  and a d i r e c t hall,  the p r e s i d e n t s of the four  attendances and g e n e r a l fellowship charmingly,  depressing  attitude  where  was  a  he  Whangaruru  church  than  and sang  descendant  statistics  and o t h e r  rather  changes:  President of the  at the local  out the rather  and e s t a b l i s h  also  the  with  the people  ordinations,  Apostle's  up  yet contact  first-hand  1959, Joseph  a  (the twelve  or three Maori  of these  visits  of the Twelve  given  with  visited  object  make  by  based.  the Prophet,  wife  was  Zealand  of the Church)  fortnight  up  o f New  day S a i n t s  others,  contact  t o make  were  January  inspire  a  possible;  The  and  Both  The  last  Punaruku  membership  was  some  Monmonism takes  instance,  Tours  of Latter  with  usually  time,  Council  v i s i t s .  or top l e a d e r s h i p  gations i s hardly  of  type,  of the ideas  under  of the Church  Apostles,  in  t o each  ideas.  (a)  of  assigned  o f mem-  activities.  designed  to  admonish; Maori  song;  his but  55 shortly  afterwards,  one  no  and  area  to  less  November  a  though  full on  a  chapel  level) a  a  significant mission,  Stake  church  into  to this  small  s t i l l  face-to-face meeting,  was  meetings  a  deep  with  unusually Whangaruru  they  frank  to place  which  as  as  of  (on a  life. were  less  d i s t r i c t  postponed,  the Latter  but  prep-  day S a i n t s ' ,  the d i s t a n t  New  f o r Apostolic  mediators  through  Decisions  therefore within  at a  situation were  the category  made  lengthy  and  their  were  given  by t h e  taken  significant  City.  problems;  speeches both  Lake  both  local  furthermore,  Zealand  v i s i t s .  i n that Maori  their  of the local  the Apostles  way  Authorities of Salt  reason  officers;  were  slightly  branches  and  w e l l - b r i e f e d on  themselves.  was  mission  the Whangaruru  came  appraisals  people  contacts,  a  impression  branch  was  regarding  classed with  Kimball's  o f t h e Mormon  approved,  been  accelerated.  the General  be  contact  to which  both,made  by  largely  t h e two r e m a i n i n g  centralised even  had  generalities,  of the Church  as  came, i n  Apostle  of the Northland  is.undoubtedly  may  held;  points  f o r Punaruku  a r e made  was  followed:  decisions,  this  Apostles  enough  fused  v i s i t  the f i r s t  inspiring  f o r the change-over In  these  of  translation  regular  arations  Though  xvere  assigned  Apostolic of  meeting  the finer  consequences  local  missionaries  the second  general  hortatory  fused,  into  the time  Again  Again  12  1960, the o b j e c t i v e s  address, more  than  of the branches  'activate* i t . By  met.  three  and of  only  after  close mediators.  56 (b)New  Zealand  New  Zealand  was  established  under  has  which  had  a  Mission Mormon  and Z i o n  mission;  f o r the Southern  Whangaruru  falls,  Elders.  Since  recently, a  areas.  i s s t i l l  The  1897,  second  Northern  called  one  one,  t h e 'New  Zealand  Mission'.  age,  The  Mission  President  i s always  called  to this  full-time  task  perhaps  three  years.  nowadays  usually  European  or Maori.  160  young  Mormon  He  American  years  but  they  of  their  also  allegiance  when  Superintendent.  approval; to the  nobody he  questions arbiter.  tasks,  appoints  site  priesthood. of a  task  help  president  chapel  of d o c t r i n e , worship  branch He  the  converts,  their  church  i n the mission  organ-  to a  holds  without  mission  President, the  relatively the  undeveloped crucial  his personal  officers,  i s the only  - as  During  i s to find  are attached  i s s t i l l  some  education,  to strengthen  the temple  senior  officers,  solidly  course.  e.g. the Temple  the mission  can v i s i t  the Mechidezek contested  aiming  organization  areas,  main  men  Building  powers:  a  their  from  -  organizations  Zealand  a r e good  missionary  few s e n i o r  for special  mission  short  they  full-time  in  New  mature  has a t h i s d i s p o s a l  necessary,  Lastly,  local  a  members,  ization.  As  part-time  of  period  of d i s t r i c t  qualifications  mission,  v i s i t  and  limited  missionaries, volunteers  p e r s o n a l i t y and  two  by  I n a d d i t i o n he  f a mi 1 i e s , w h o s e  suitable  for a  i s i n charge  controlled  an A m e r i c a n  ordains o n e who  a t Whangaruru;  men*, can  decide  on a l l  a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , he  i s  final  57 The  Whangaruru  president:  every  a l l  conferences  one  reason  once the  president,  burial  branch  of a  when  address,  saw  commended  leadership  down  branch had  new  were  farewell  he  tablecloth),  at for  about occasions: branch  his departure  the winding  had  to plan the  instructed.  noticed  new  upon  p r e s i d e n t or once,  who  seen  special  of a  leadership  and members  progress  meetings,  P r e s i d e n t was  car crossed  t o be  the mission  of the d i s t r i c t ;  appointment  Whangaruru  to a  many  These  His fast  officers  any  encountered  of branches,  States.  deceased  when He  had  new  always  gave  problems,  ( a n d he  seemed  noted  to  and d i s c r e e t l y  notice  hinted  imper f e e t i o n s . While  the mission  congregations concentrate their are  and  on  office  few, f o r l o c a l  when  t h e most  two  happens living  with  cramped,  holders,  stay  year.  have  the slightly  no  transport  and  they  n o t even  larger walk  taken  elders  they  v i s i t ,  Zealand  over.  contact with  Supposedly,  i s with  Zion  i n t h e New  i n the d i s t r i c t  the people  is  have  task  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  organization  members  main  the young  life  characteristic  o f them every  president's  the religious  tasks i n church  people  too  conference;  to the temple  everything, a t  the Mission  amalgamation  range  visitors  and  at d i s t r i c t  of t h e m i s s i o n , and  or another,  the United  mountain  an  month  often  i n two months a t W h a n g a r u r u , annual  for  leaders  missionaries  travel  hope  of clearing  homes  that  harbour  a  a  occurs  months,  home  to  as  home,  o f t h e homes a r e  them.  or borrow  four  from  many  a  or h i t c h h i k e  Mission  For the Whangaruru  f o r about  b u t as  Today,  spare  room, i t  Mostly horse.  they Every  have  58 Mormon  home  response, back. but  is visited  they  They  come  also  people  close  relatives  much  v i s i t  concentrating  often  twice;  on  from  religious  deep  desire  a  more  those  who  benefit, member  -  has  whose  has  seeking to  that  them  them,  respond,  to  them,  would  harmony,  close  any  to win  to  mentioned  family  give  convert  likely  conversion  promote  always  members  seeking  a r e most  president  members,  lapsed  frequently,  non-members,  the branch of  where  -  apart  f u l f i l  relation  the  shall  join  him. Influential Temple the  President  Temple,  gently, while only  but  and also  warmly,  damnation  and  to  The  Mormons  was  refreshing  (c  and  Hierarchy.  As  ship,  activity  should  be  regular d i s t r i c t  aration  d) a  ever,  New  t o my  the  made  f a r more  Zealanders  only  severe;  a  d i s t r i c t  becomes  church  he  but  was  Church.  In  quite  reached  this  pattern  status.  and  minister. constrast  District i n member-  provides  the  but  of a  the  to  organised  1960-61, stage  the  stronger  and  spoke  respectful.  policy  control  at  popular,  Protestant  in Mission  the  the wife  very  impressed,  the  of  herself  like  mission  change  not  when  tactful,  were  the elaborate  met  were  knowledge, to refer  of  of  were  blunt,  sinful,  conformity,  out  after  f o r the  forceful,  mission  not  and  the Maori  and  "Stake"  reorganised  meetings,  mission  usually  and  taken  had  at  f l a i l  were  mediators,  Both  was  speaker  American  his wife.  charmingly,  the husband Mormon  t o o , among  that i t as  a  Northland  i t had Stake  in  been prep-  59 The mission  accompanying  and d i s t r i c t h i e r a r c h y ,  directly  affected  mission,  d i s t r i c t and  some  Whangaruru.  mediation hold  therefore  the p o s i t i o n s  mission  leadership.  hierarchy without  A  i s Maori;  regard  personnel  problems  of transport.  (1)  the  member  assigned High  Whangaruru  to Branch  branches.  The  Council  most  regular  Council  of the D i s t r i c t  would  about  a  Primary,  Chorister.  These  ee  great  extent)  (to a  Zealand-born  that  contact  are  with  extensive,  made  the d i s t r i c t officers  limited  only  face-to-face  once  monthly,  in by  contact  visitors  Society  were  dozen  These  of the Priesthood Society  organizations  Appendix VI.  w i l l  who  or so  had  and be  of the  t h e same  officers  included: Quorum,  were:  Presidency  t h e member  Relief a  officers  to Punaruku  the branch;  year.  Genealogical  d i s t r i c t  of the D i s t r i c t  with  there  M.I.A.,  members  occasions:  i n touch  officers  their  least  twice  shows  of  church  appointments  Institutionalised  In a d d i t i o n  President,  Zealand-born  chart  i s quite  function. come  the burden  o f t h e New  - At  of the High  t o keep  New  part  The  the following  Visits  v i s i t  good  level  American. structure,  upon  numerous;  like  on  are  levels:  at the mission  f o r a l l church  branches  occurs  Only  of the  f a r as i t  are three  i n t h e d i s t r i c t and  to race.  are very  out the plan  i n 1 9 6 1 , i n as  the hierarchical  falls  sets  There  branch.  (but not a l l ) o f f i c e r s Within  who  chart*"*  the D i s t r i c t  the Sunday  the D i s t r i c t  described  who  later.  School,  60 ( i i ) by  Leadership  the  and  d i s t r i c t  would  spheres  they  of  ( i i i )  was  either  occasions, displays  Even  where  The Mormon  Over  70  or  Church  between  membership  of  2000  only  in  procedures. pass  on  they  also  As  messages spoke  and in  strong  mediators, to to  the full  the  asked  what  help  for  lax, a l l current  d i s t r i c t  year;  presidency or  these  contacts  branch. the  of  branches;  American with  religious  allegiance  leaders  the  importance  communication.  organization functioned  racial  their  special  for, with  strengthening the  a  the  congregations.  i f we  add  traveling Northland I t was  Mormon was  heterogeneous but  Even  also  They  mainly  branches,  so,  they  in  were  doctrines  often  various  the  church  knowledge. to  as  elders,  a  background,  function of  and  r a l l i e s ,  are  prepared  impressive.  and  and  given,  processes  and  touch  truly  status in  the  in a l l  were  o r g a n i z a t i o n shows  to  author-  Addresses  conferences  outside  advisers  occasions.  carefully  mission  national  social  however,  was  a  called  d i s t r i c t  leaders  was  monthly  d i s t r i c t  i t s e l f  the  officers  mission,  this  the  mediators  united,  would  further  attaches in  numerous  branches.  times  and  of  of  education,  The  festive,  vastness  personnel  not  so  these  four  number  group  as  meetings,  president, his  correspondence  -  inside  officers  mission  well  the  performances,  intermediaries mission  as  monthly  o r g a n i z a t i o n s run  somewhat  officers  the  branch  on  rallies  twice  and  in  on;  reviewed  once,  between  work  auxiliary  these  present;  passed  Periodic  the  be  church  needed.  business  the  At  presidency,  always  instructions  the  -  organizing assistants,  ities  all  m e e t i ngs  and to but  always  61 made to  sure  the  that  top  passing  to  the  Also, the  branch  problems  return would but  to  a  form  the  be  on  a  by  High  position. core  was  up  made  of  of  experienced  have  that  to  a  had  their  branch  was  real  not  own  given job  been  in heard  higher  activities  only  organiz-  or  any  them.  this  the  message  would  back  before of  the  things  created  constant  and  of  these  reported  raised  branch  rest  conforming  that  membership  might  part  membership  impression  The person  so  they  ations  a  certain  officers  on  before.  a  a  group  was  always  Council  for  Certain  highly  mission  and  fairly  a  changing:  period,  then  qualified  d i s t r i c t  random  <sfooij.de>  Mormon  Church,  officers  organizations, of  active,  members.  Ill  (e)  Maori  of  Like Whangaruru branches before held  any  had  were  a  more  whose  mediator,  for  great  many  authority  in  instructing; d i s t r i c t were  one  their when  acting  as  over  40  far  even  <$o,  there  seemed of  to  the  reporting or  were  Even  wa,s  dealings  authorities  the  number  post;  holder  of  officers.  there  the  position as  Mediators  branch  combined  than  as  other  amalgamation  members  they  Whangaruru  when  with on  posts  was  they  those their  receiving  representatives  of  a to  be  f i l l e d ;  Some  members  great that  represented  they  were  activities  at  a l l the to  greater.  correspond  post  when  those  number of  a  Church  teaching to  instructions Whangaruru.  of  or  the from  them,  62 If make  we  call  a l l these  a distinction  between  members'  a t Whangaruru  icating?  For i t looks  the  membership In  perform tion, role Let of  take  District  Such  member,  and as  officers. as  a  such is a  a  d i s t r i c t  revered donor  t r i c t  rather  i s under  ship  branch that  person e . g . on  and  terms  the d i s t r i c t  of afoS  authoritarian holds  office  system. i n one  the Committee  to the a u t h o r i t y  member a  of the  a  member  the Whangaruru to the local  the receiver outranks  t h e others  This  on w i t h  representative or  means  Society  of a  higher  present  attached  at a  i n s t r u c t i o n s he  the  a t the branch  in practice  wi11,  suitable  to dis-  meeting, leader-  that  programme,  has  tier  of view  Though  usual  As  suddenly  people,  their  branch  then  point  culture.  as a  of the  or R e l i e f  t h e member  representative, from  Society  of the congregation.  Genealogical  changes:  superior  branch  to  the  services  information  of  congrega-  ordinary  carry  commun-  person  attends  performed.  authorities  communicate  f o r a  i n s t r u c t i o n s not to i n t e r f e r e with  i f properly  i s  Relief  holds  representative  'ordinary  or the D i s t r i c t  common  we  percentage  of teacher  i n an  a  i s subject  than  large  i n organizational  where  and -  outsider  the  Society  the s i t u a t i o n  the hierarchy,  the  he  He  person  can  the mediator  very  the role  organizations,  the branch  meeting,  in  a  and  i t i s the rule  subordinate  Genealogical  Board.  becomes  and  a  how  mediators.  system,  the example  the d i s t r i c t  soon  of  put this  of superior  t o whom  though  at d i f f e r e n t times i f we  mediators,  the 'mediators'  those  as  consists  t h e Mormon  or -  us  -  people  the but  moment,  received  at the  63 latest point  meeting he  of the d i s t r i c t  becomes  representative source  namely  meeting  sets  up  an  or board.  At  I f the  district  of authority,  i s somewhat  of power,  d i s t r i c t again  the voice  committee  bumptious,  the threat  inadequacy  of  the representative  he  or she has a  to report local  as  a  this  to the  second  next  organization.  bearer  of  This  superior  authority. Yet  he  prerogative He branch  may  never  of the branch  genealogical too.  instructions  there.  higher  and  level  when  he  attends  i s an  ordinary  in  the genealogical and an The  dual  role.  responsible greatly  dealings such  must  reports  the Sunday  kind  of European  with  dangers;  their  criticism  Also,  the ties  no  not often  experiences  with  never  with  i t , b u t he  of the  the  d i s t r i c t  too gets  activities  what  he  his  at a  has been  told.  or h i s Priesthood  longer  take  counts.  h i s high He  group, position  i s both  great  and  they they  of f a i l u r e The  Mormon  a  usually  Church  and  offices  any church  of the people  work  this  a  dp n o t  a r e , i n many  at school  i n  to take  respects,  in are  a u t h o r i t i e s are not harsh  declare  the rest  satisfaction  get the opportunity  because  f o r the higher and  of  h i s branch  role  roles  Europeans,  i n touch  School  Whangaruru  to such  i s the  member.  do  with  be  of the congregation;  society  ordinary  that  the president  to his flock  They  aspire  associated  He  member  Maori;of  Thus  i s not part  transmits  he  mediator  role.  society He  at the meeting;  officdr.  t o o has a d u a l  organization  Yet  preside  a  a r e never  other without i n  failure. severed;  64 the  office  remains  in  formance system in  holder, other  of  is  though  respect  subordinate  made  another  much  church  apart?  for  his  church  task,  part  of  the  congregation.  The  roles  in  the  authoritarian  church  more  role,  'set  congenial  by  follower'-  the  knowledge  becomes  leader  per-  that,  and  is  obeyed  i n h i s t u r n . Let roles  we  us  find The  always, Maori his  consider in  highest  since  who,  the  more  their  elected, the  the  next  President service,  been one  rival  the  two  such  most the  his  only  even  prominent  do  themselves  not  of  1887,  the  a  burden  congregation,  new  officers  one  local of  frequently  dentre  of  are  Bran  w i l l  the  Mission  as  though  they  had  b e 1:$eve  that  revelation  have  *.!i;..: . civ8S  who  know  how  are  weighed out,  i t is  the  Sunday  sense  the of  heard  ,  really  consulted,  during  as  be  the  those  a  to who  when of  the  attention  question:  end  slip  at  members  leak  can  President,  the  of  indeed  carefully  feels  mediating  Whangaruru,  in  speculates;  though  local  as  branch  others  When  moved  Most  the  time,  Everyone  deeply  Presidents  discussions  the  talks  Bra nch  the  that  announcement,  feel  are  of  is  the  into  important such  officer,  Church,  decision,  candidates  while  most  branch  of  other  officer  revelation.  Branch or  for  president?  people  Church  seniority  any  community  makes  portentous prompts  of  the  establishment  of  i s , for  representative  As  in  than  role  President  -  Mormon  responsibility,  from  be  a  briefly  a  J  done,  merits  of  discussion. mystery  remains. The  only  new  Branch  President  I  saw  elected,  normally  65 stolid  man,  jerked  incoherent  that  he  God's  began  would  to  sob,  sounds,  never  have  representative As  quite  could  a  told  in  number  of  men  ordinances,  special  position,  like  priest,  to  have  the  same  qualified received for  a  by  of  how  but  other  Sitting table  on  of  members  a l l during  He  surveys  purity. failingly  other  the  or  sinned  they  are  and  by  the  few voice  would  be  performs, A  dying; else  can  i s , furthermore, their  monthly the  avoids  the  the  congregation,  service,  but  he  instance,  President  told  Sacrament dare  previous keep  community  week out  take they  of  gossip,  he  to  be  member  give  (which  centre he  a he  auxiliary he  knows  for the  of  the  is  watched  the  others.  state could  of do  ritual this  nobody  who  By  president  If  that  tokens  unhad  sacrament.  h e s i t a t e at  sight. the  a  a l l the  watches  service, to  the  their me  can  independence).  facing  for  at  also  as  possible, for  their  would  are  tithes  assignments  whenever  the  recommend  of  his  service  expected  officers  value  to  others  but  owe  to  Catholic  but  Sunday  authority  not  m i n i s t e r , or  hall,  they  a  awed  have  does  absence;  nobody  d r i n k i n g would  afraid;  an he  branch  the  the  the  day  of  Branch  in  his  officers  platform  during  have  these,  he  except  in  President  he  and  control  carefully,  One  smoking  to  o f f i c i a l s ,  by  in  sick  he  (which  the  of  him;  v i s i t ;  these  the  Protestant  force  the  one  the  presiding.  regularly);  much  a  in  function  none  organizations  that  acts  ritual  speech  afterwards  sacramental  bless  Temple  number does  to  no  Whangaruru,  spiritual  administrative  me  believed  perform  the  make  they  moment;  such  knows  been  his  as flock.  66 Certain baptisms Mormon men  and  12-21,  takes  the  them  road,  meeting,  and he  are  confirmations,  practice,  aged  he  ordinances  he  has  who  to  funerals.  special  belong  a  quiet  while  the  instructs  peculiarly  to  spot,  them,  province:  Also,  according  responsibility  the  other  his  lower  perhaps adult  the  Priesthood; his  men  according  for  own  have  to young  on  house their  Sundays  across  priesthood  to  the  programme  his  fl:bck  laid  down. At which  often  regularly his  times,  branch  moneys,  are  every  vested  has in  month  work  the  Next is  passed  to  explain  following  in  restored Israelite  the  the  the  lesser  a  be  If  active  in  the  after,  enter  branch  or  a  The of  find,  full  President;  statistics for  people  Aaronic of  an  may  of  branch be  orders  meeting  in  have  and  been  regular  in  to  live at  the the  Melchidezek  a  believes  the  of  in in  priest. Church  teacher,  age  Church  in either  arranged  Gospel  i t  existing  Mormon  comprising, and  continues  w i l l ,  in  teacher  fifteen  authority  priesthood  mentioned  Priesthood  deacon,  or  Church  therefore,  at  higher  highest  ancient  deacon,  he  the  Mormon  These  behaviour  Church, the  his  president  pries thood.  good  the  instructions,  programme.  offices  he  report  District  a u t h o r i t y , account  Testaments.  ordained  priest.  must  priestly  order,  w i l l  the  a l l the  New  of  by  We  the  twelve,  him  to  times.  or  of  give  offices  Old  the  he  to  a l l the  names  line,  on  task  d i f f i c u l t i e s  church to  his  higher  any  the  ing  of  i t is  19  or  Priesthood,  rank ascend-  A  boy  activities  at  and  the  seventeen  remains shortly He  is  then  67 ca 1 l e d  " e l d e r *. Male  ing  i f they  authority  adults belong  to  his  for  At was  quite  spiritual  these  to  to  this  and  lost  When  an  adult,  in  the  Church,  s t i l l  his  progression adolescent  a  many  through  for  years  deacon,  boys.  enough  touch  Whangaruru,  after  or  the  in  to  were  is  elders  a  about  great  s t i l l  in  or,  the  the  even  Gospel,  living,  returns  Priesthood  at a l l ,  much  faster  than  monthsof  activity  gradual  degrees,  the  by  over  the  1960-61,  19,  It  to  that  eighteen  reaching,  from  Temple.  of  Church  -  meetings,  cautious  living  the  of  because  haphazard  not  Church  instructions  was  the  stopped  the  number  also  with  of  of  stand-  them  throughthe  the  they  offices  Twelve  go  good  conduct  Church  when  Priesthood stayed  the  partly  d i s t r i c t  full gives  needs  may  order,  the  they  the  recently,  leave  when  which  he  elders  because  in  ordinances  ordinances  until  partly  only  blessings,  Whangaruru,  many  usually  the  are  Priesthood,  Only  Maori  of  this  President.  ordaining  Aaronic  of  small,  used  Church  ordinations,  some  Branch  the  to  perform  confirmations, though  in  is"  status  of  elder. Thus, elders  reached  sacrament,  blessed  organizations. they  met  as  branch,  to  a  hear  theorliO;gj i ca 1 months  I  a  than  attended  was  the  For body  years  sick,  one to  they  hour,  discuss  special  who,  the in  presided after the  others  taught  the  Priesthood,  of  most  of  affairs more  by  Church.  the  subject  the  the auxiliary  sacrament  lesson the  Whangaruru  blessed  weekly  business  religious  any  turn,  over  the  number  was  of  meeting,  the  recondite, During 'the  more the  great  68 apostasy', the  early  another  the  history  of  Church  fathers  made  which  doctrines no  -  of  attempt  history  the  was  the  priesthood  preside  over  control  the  the  finances  elders  of  month of  the  the  ritually at  the  the  meetings  the  previously  the  time  of  was  the  leader,  of  the  of  discussions,  for  the  to  appointed  number  are  meetings. very  been  In  group  Church  was  the  was  to  actually  the  two  quorums,  fully  of  ordained  met  The Elders  both  a Stakes  in Northland  the to  close  once  established  and of  and the  i n change  members,  highlight  a  President.  of  influential,  the  select  96  the  subject  not  man  These  of  out;  business.  did  one  set  was  function  Branch  The  present,  main  main he  d i s t r i c t .  base.  Whangaruru  but  the  the  how  after  though  there  branch  whose  a l l belonged  rather  Christ  priesthood  indubitably  long  wicked,  Church  Northland  they  had  seem  This  change  systematically  them  Mormon  showing  i t s sacred  meetings,  leadership  Church,  from  were  from  Church  doctrinal  make  the  weekly  Whangaruru of  fathers  apart  group  was  one  lost.  of  business  branch  the  head  Christian  Church  the  was  discussed,  At  to  at  essentially  Priesthood  Quorum's  to  that  is sacredness  branch  the  Church  made  assumed  resembling that  divorced  the  Church the  life  of  Melchidezek  Priesthood. Whangaruru to  be  at  the  parts  of  Northland. The  leader  who  elders  Priesthood  main  local  received  had  ridden  meetings  mediator  instructions  on  which  in  the  from  horseback were  usually  priesthood the  f o r many  Quorum  was  in  hours  other  the  group  President,  69 reported  h i s group's  mediary  i n the organization  introduced one,  in  leader  local he  real  generally  community,  should  t o me  would  this  the  position,  and  family  had an  feud  by  one  up  flouting  a  he  formal but our  a  position  had t h e  strong  President,  pressure  and t h e  i n h i s position,  though  irrepressible  feature  the highest  to this  failure,  a  inter-'  information,  and f e l t  from  as  rather  Presidency;  h i s Quorum  expect  as a r e g r e t t a b l e  was  h i s was  authority  not, i n the end, live  see  role  that  i n a way  picnics,  on r o u t i n e  to the Branch  of wielding  behave  o f quorum  and passing  next  t o him and acted  His mediating  explained  the Church  feeling to  i n 1961.  of presiding  group  activities  urge  ideal,  he  o n e man  the authority  of a  would  who  to pursue  a  new  I f  held  personal Branch  President. In priesthood meeting women them In  the hall meeting  i s over;  a n d some home,  where  t h e Sunday  i s from t h e men  1 to 2 s i ton  c h i l d r e n , who  s i t about  to ensure  the necessary  meeting,  a curtain  i s drawn  to the  a r e never  them  sure  i t i s secret,  Priesthood,  deeply  quite  respect.  emphasised cur ta i n .  by  have  theaar  what  or sacred.  Their  hall  goes  the Sacrament  body  while  the  of the  f o r the  take hall.  Priesthood  and p l a t f o r m .  on b e h i n d  F o r t h e men, powers  every  The  the platform; belonging  which  to officiate  position,  are held, the  f o r t h e bus t o  privacy  sacral  authority  weighty  wait  between  special  after  i n t h e main  order  women  pm,  the platform,  must  chatting  services  to  t h e women  and t o b l e s s i s  Sunday,  behind  the  70 The Relief the  women  Society;  rights  f o r women  advocated  Women's  Relief  today,  own  relief  society,  following  The  every  texts  on w h i c h  four  their  essential  contained  i n the lesson  the relief  leadership  might „ public  were  about  child  speaking.  City  function  receives  lessons  material They  ensure  f o r poor i t s  health,  social  meetings',  work.  the d i s t r i c t  organiz-  c a n be b a s e d ;  i t  of the courses.  mediators,  the rather  and impart  because  alien  material  i t t o t h e members  were  helped  and s t i m u l a t e d  monthly  byr the  d i s t r i c t  of craft  given  work  care,  meeting,  the form  Whangaruru  society that  at least  i n a  s e t f o r the next t h e women  of prayer  could  president  by t h e  organization.  was d i s p l a y e d  on t h e s u b j e c t s  leadership  and what  of the r e l i e f  times, the  'work  one f o r each sense  suffrage,  operates  of craft  from  towards  to care  N e v e r t h e l e s s a gap remained  planned  she could  programme  of  are devoted, i n  are also  to interpret  held  A t one s i n g l e  hear  There  programme  and t a l k s  period.  gap;  meetings,  the monthly  bazaar  Lake  society.  was  meetings  i n the f u l l e s t was  In e a r l i e r  of theology, family  teachers,  task  bias  employment,  o f the Church  weekly  t h e Women *s  the authority  the Church  function  the weekly  branch  t e a c h e r s were  Here  whose  Society  These  of  branch  s e t monthly  Relief  n o t have  Young.  chief  and l i t e r a t u r e . out a  does  reflects  to the teaching  questions,  organization,  i n education,  Society's  sick;  appoints  this  by B r i g h a m  and  ation  parallel  i t s power  already  rotation,  a  Though  priesthood,  equal  have  was  teachers  and t h e a r to f  between  achieve,  what The  t o narrow  the homecraft  work  this was  Salt  71 done  and  the  child  theology  and  literature,  subjects  the  President  less,  they  were  care  of  necessary  preliminary  of  herself  and  personnel  President Wha  words  the  to  the  might  much  phrases  time  the  .'Society  who  given  the  was.  a  the was  as  At  the  trained  intera  concepts.  such  were Nonethe-  to  comprehension  branch,  questions,  understand.  being  whose  Social  last-mentioned,  not  understanding  visited  ^.Relief  understood..  especially  discussed,  pretation  d i s t r i c t  programme  times,  District nurse  born  in  ngaruru. The  which Salt  in  the  Lake  Union*  well  suggesting the  are  and  teachers'  a  understood  in  As  courses three  the  young  aids  copies  of  of  read,  plans be  lesson  attendance  amalgamated,  in  fact  ones  Though ever  a  a l l in  printed  are  teachers'  For  issued  as  the  others,  of  charge,  free  again  The  School  a l l lessons,  preparation,  School,  a l l ages.  useful.  separately,  Sunday  Sunday  there  for  I  for  rarely i t would  never the  saw  age  exceeds be  greatly  but  not  100  even  fully  absurd  to  since  offer  more  than  five  classes  groups  4-8,  8-12,  12-16  s e n i o r c l a s s e s .  hardly  for  courses,  may  the  'Deseret  textbooks,  printed  task  the  to  that  courses  is  Whangaruru.  were  junior  of  age-graded  too  guide  Church  and  offers  word-for-word  personal  simplifying  branches  24  teaching  there  organization  headquarters  children  0  as  Church  prepared  F r  guides  teaching  Mormon  Centre  has  books.  largest  the  24 given and  -  two  A  plenty  of  questioning  d i s c u s s i o n was of  doctrine,  allowed, but  rather  there an  was  attempt  to  72 discover, really would  from  meant. give  knew  I f the teacher  an  explanation.  the main  dealt  a u t h o r i t a t i v e sources,  with  basic  The School  point  intendent would  such  a  was  the  teacher's  was  that  to focus  learner not  played  wrote  offered  asked  on a  firmly  i n a  was  lessons.  was  Supernor  teachers  knowledgeable  and  he  than  satat  finish.  for a l l classes  (this  of special  ceremonial  teacher,  playing  of teacher  points,  And  fashion.  s t i l l  and  the  portion  or allowed  interest,  not  whatever  and e n c o u r a g e d  to the point  the role  perhaps  the appropriate  questions  strictly  The  of d i f f i c u l t  institutionalised.  formal,  the branch  conscientiously  explanations  Thus,  and  Branch  not the only,  summarised  question  helped  h i s reports.  the class  kept  Sunday  supervision,  to start  available  of these  he  by more  when  of doctrine  i n that  the subject. were  nobody  Superintendent,  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e :  were  of h i s knowledge,  and e i t h e r  notably  classes  teachers  function  liveliness,  within  told  task),  at  class  was  ceremonial  table,  the syllabus,  that  i t always  seena  appreciated  of  cussion  never  been  role,  as  and supposedly  have  t h e main degree  progress  role  Transmission even  happen  the D i s t r i c t  of professional  h i s hardest  member  the branch  task  His role  sure  over  this  officers'  class  lesson,  up  they.  made  presiding  But I have  the Superintendent  He  School  i n s t r u c t i o n s from  unless  the  a  lesson  doctrines.  the teachers. take  d i d n o t know,  Sunday  t o h i m on b r a n c h  supervised  the printed  I t d i d not often  Superintendent  received  reported  of a  what  aimed  disthe broadly  the r o l e  these  roles  The  teacher  of  were had t o  73 speak the  fervour  norms  than the in  with  of  Maori  orator  for  lesson. animated  without  his  the  old that  and  The  the  they  but in  of  this  teacher  external  relationships;  did  a  so  quarrel.  One  did  could  out  realising  the  meaning  the  of  The  a t t r i b u t e s were  selves have  what  been  Goffma n  too  solidarity,  1961  counted : and  the  calls It  the  of  of  who  engaged  incomplete there  the  by  to  communiity  drowsy  assent.  quite  rigidly  f e 1 1 o w - p u p i 1,  to  week  relationships. roles  so  factional  week  affectively  'role  over'  'put  were  from  other  the  to  current  church  was  rather  felt  a  by  teacher  excluded  were  withOnly  strictly  neutral.  fixity  members  was  torrents  who  became  in  these  tension  have  lessons  maintained;  dangerous.  that  of  specific, of  father  church  lessons  sign  learner  judged  minority  presence,  adversaries  attend  and  only  a  was  sanction  mere  and  existence  the  universa1istic,  role  the  a  background  by  also  remained  was  the  was  he  i t would  had  a l l  chief,  there  the  he  yet  always  yet  lesson  did  roles  duty  class,  ladies  for  speaking,  f i r s t  discussion,  the  large,  conviction,  public  Among  demonstrate at  and  with  never  which  permitted  distance'.  necessary,  for  sentiment  should  This the  them-  would  sake  be  these  of  kept  in  check. The were The  the  4  of  above  the  these  and  recreational those  Church  Pr i m a r y .  first  between  other  12  active  M.I.A,  and  the  undertook  the  religious  years,  programme, 12  organizations  years  of  the  second  while age,  also men  and  in  Genealogical  women.  the  some The  community  Society.  education  implements teaching  the  of  children  elaborate theology  to  Genealogical  74 Society in  a  sought  form  to  suitable  organizations members, the  had  whereas  period  of  From mediation not  yet  complete:  was  the  the  performing  had  20  the of 6  but  Branch people  a month,  ' either  to  each  through  of  one  can  most  hands two  month  family  the  the  which  most  they  were  a whole,  visits  also  other,  but  less  of of a  In  them  to or  to  serve  single  a  secretary  called the  for  one  assigned  make such  the  lesson both  a  number  perhaps  a devotional woman o f  for  branch  Furthermore,  the  in Whangaruru formal  president,  and  alone  is  organiz-  home v i s i t s ,  to  of  picture  addition  give  by  during  seven  calling  making  these  extent  the  the  a month.  of  of  attended  the  Yet  trees  headway.  counsellors  of  as  troubles,  see  Relief Society  task  two  much  organizations  lesson  and  former  members. of  family  i r r e g u l a r l y .a n d ,  distinct roles.  for  their  m e e t i n g s , ..we 11  one  by  the  positions,  such  The  make v e r y  in the  assisted  22  during the  not  branch  not  Presidency  domestic  known  of  some  Theoretically any  was  record  more  control  control  teaching  did  by  the  usually  Therefore,  weekly  b r i e f survey, on  to  work.  t h i r d met  visit,  carried  for  a week,  regular  this  mentioned  members  for Temple  the  my  ations he  induce  the  Church  troubles  lesson house. aware became  channels.  IV  Mormon  Roles  There  i s no  doubt  that  people  liked playing  their  75 church  roles.  ality  and  While  the  enough  to  poukai  (where  personal  carry  'Sister')  and  which  a  was  in daily  them  touch,  over  to  also  called  even  into  their  weekly  love  this  the  Maori  they  liked  each  event  the  many,  informroles  like  'Brother'  during  for  on  church  activities  other  homes  insist  their  non-church  they  popular  life  the  and  Family  Hour  especially  the  children. The of  what  they a  Kelman  felt  -  were  they  from  life.  And  one  first  of  These  lessons  least  twelve  of  to  daily  a l l giving  life and  hours  of  every  particularly  language.  Most  to  learn  about It  was  the  also  of  part  rience  most  in  in  people  time,  they  played  Church.  whole  of  many  It  l i f e ,  significant  i t was  but  i t  part  of  d i f f i c u l t i e s  church,  the  week. The  was  of  to  To  play  the  that  role lay  to  be  the  role  be  really  lessons. at to  too  in  d i f f i c u l t with  highly  desirable  universe. a  reliable  otherwise  outside  Monthly  prepared  meant  meant  in grappling  i t was  to  role  altogether  written  i t s cognitive  the  -  were  were  Church,  This  had  time  lessons  they  the  discussing  Church  in Whangaruru.  lessons  playing  and  occupied  the  acquire  administrator.  sent  the  of  time  efficient of  the  most  face  because  servant i t , to  When  and  the  the  to  curiosity.  of  God  listening  most  a  -  of  up  For  of  characteristic  overcome,  d i f f i c u l t ,  meaning.  view  took  intellectual  undoubtedly  I t was.not  strength  hard  the  was  servants  point  i t gave  role  'identification'.  liked.  otherwise In  show  called  themselves  feeling  was  of  'and the  reports  and  Church  expes  had  to  be  meetings  76 had  to start  that  always  later  than  stressed  did start  where  there  i s the task  security It  of a  The  fact  of being  disobey  Thus  without  question.  and  painful - worse  injured for made  sure  branch  To  s t i l l  -  I  Nonetheless  could was  neutral,  I t was  decisions  were  Tribal  and were  have  always  already  characteristically  roles.  suspension  decisions  which have  a  of  the authority the external taken.  projects,  authority; of  more  the  activity  authority  by  the available  organization  pressed, by  and  gossip  always  Church  taken  Holy  d i f f i c u l t  c r i t i c a l  I f sorely  out that  reason,  by  'Superin-  t o obey  was  universe.  a  the  higher  effective.  universa 1i s t i c ,  accepted  role  future  the decision  pointed  for this  or a  denial  d i d not eliminate  confidence  the  unchallengeable  was  that  responsibility  'President'  authority  in  disorderly.  encompassed  of the church  exercise  decision;  president  authority,  part  f o r the  otherwise  be  organ-  church  that  i t would  always  his part  to take  a  minute  human  role  be  f o r obedience  that  as  not a  Though  valued  gave  i t became  to a  i t was  meetings  I t was  to play  servant.  colossus  apostasy,  finished  i s t h e one  order:  the Church  the only  down.  organization  parties.  coming  of  laid  environment  'set apart*  would  Ghost.  more  i n an  were  they  the Church  the Church  hieratic  i n that  and  schedule  burdensome,  part  servant  tendent'  of  They  time-;  that  i t gave  was  time.  i s perfect  was  as  to  on  the o f f i c i a l  administration and  the proper  i n preaching  ization order  at  people  since  Church  specific no  doubt,  when  are  and  affectively  that  unpopular  acting  the decline  roles  of  i n their  church  the c h i e f t a i n s h i p .  77 had  always  the  men  foundered  felt  structure  where  In  a Church  to  a  man  to was  and  outside  that  they  We  called  they  notice and  system.  spreading  of  and  This  Rather  called  status  was  which  i n any  made  according  sphere  and  I t i s understandable other  'Sisters'  to intrude  fictively  in  not. i n  (which  was  each  tried  them.  to give  the Church  feelings.  tribal  bypass  afford  into  establishing those  their Church  present  to  could  lead  to  It  i s likely to a  return  that  t h e Mormon  role  i s no  from  i n many  i s encouraged  and  areas by  large  when  teachers  they  extent  with  of the  play  peaceful,  grow  These  the Church  by  them  at a very  they  will  education  young  people  principles young  conduct  to the Church  o f Mormon  i s  participation  that  up,  which  traditional  so  according  to the process  the  longer  Whangaruru  system  the extensive  administration.  are assimilated  that  the rest  i t i s a l t e r n a t i v e value  i n the church  organization  chapter.  outside  roles  by  status  i n the  paramount  to persuade  again  competing  of  shall  istic  could  be  was  rival  the decision  who  thus  managed  here  secretaries  affairs  might  women  t h e men  a  for his tribal  of family  By  to promote  chief  effect  'isolated'  trend  teenagers  become  no  but the  decisions.  'encapsuled*  one.  rank,  'Brothers'.  effective  value  had  of universa1  kind  high  the poukai  relationships, the  and  not allow  his will  the reach  that  authority  involvement;  not) but i n Church  rules,  therefore  a  lower  Outside,  Church  dared  situation,  i t was  status  to protect  they  o f much  question. case  bound  on  age. public  pattern.  i n the  next  I  78 Whatever and  a l l the  is  done  in  teachers seen  as  l i f e , not l i f e  the  in  that  Church  is  being  above a  world.  Though  chapter  is  Church  is wielded  is is  in  listened  a  heaven.  to.  The  man  as  a  mortal  and  with  the  ancestors  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n as  The  as  sacred  whole  have  i t reaches  out  of  but  are  I  structure  is  daily  existence.  being,  who  Whatever  teen-age  miseries  millennial  with  e a r t h l y enough,  perceived  charismatic.  limitations.and  f o r e t a s t e of  concerned  hereafter  the  the  recorded  respectfully  rising  only  done  authority  are  as  is  It  with  already  is  the  in  another  sketched  i t in  this  at  point  to  every  eternity. It the  therefore  traditional  between  the  universe,  conceived  shall  show  I  shall  f i r s t ,  two  world  Maori  living  I  how  views  equals, world  and  the  as  in as  the  dead  and  was  is  chapter,  oppose  where  one  comprehensiveness,  communion  was  open  mastery  over  the  where  also  doctrine  next  they  i t s mystical  order,  mana,  Mormon  in  available  prevailing set  out  another  man.  over  the in  to  mana  content  modern  Later, but of  the  Whangaruru.  79  RELIGIOUS  LIFE  I N MODERN  WHANGARURU  I  When 1830,  the Church  i t was  i n opposition  denominations. had  lost  century was  A . D.;  outside among  same  believed  of the Holy through  s p i r i t  churches  also  the United  peoples  possible  same  that  Spirit  him that  eighteen  to present  Christian  a l l Christian  as e a r l y  churches  as t h e t h i r d  the Church  of  Jesus  By  and n o t only  prophets  introduced  among  Zealand  the whites,  systems  t o which  Christian  1887, the Maori  had been  but also  i n  Anglican  had a l s o  both  only  so that i t  of the gospel  the since  made  a  i n Whangaruru  somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d  with  many  these  nativistic  i n opposition.  i n recently  had a c o m p l e x i t y  f o r i n New Z e a l a n d opposition  activity  established  the Catholics  t h e Mormons  task  view  Whangaruru  faiths  Mormon  were  mission  to Christianity,  t h e Mormon  had become  churches  a s New  converted  though  to the established  Mormon  Missions  a s a t home.  thirties,  elsewhere,  such  determined  States.  of converts.  The  of opposition  previously  framework  number and  was f o u n d e d i n  to the established  Smith  i t was  day Saints  restored.  Christian  the  Joseph  the blessing  This  was  of Latter  was  Christianized absent there  necessary:  one and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  Maori  from were  countries i t s mission  two  religious  the orthodox  one, f u l l  of  beliefs  80 inconsistent  with  Mormon  circumstance  that  the Maori,  regarded People some  as  and  children  Concepts social last  like  mana  structure,  f i r s t  rather  strategy,  the agreement,  to the problem and  the  of Mormonism  enemies  t h e Mormon progress  increase shall  was  vision by  a  have  was  over  by  their  This  n o t mere  often  was  the universe.  was  which  To  to  begin  opposition churches  as  consistent allows for  and  this  in  introduced  but  of revelations,  a  agreement.  expediency,  charged, plan  of the  created  of the mission  idolatry.  Israel.  and g e n e r o s i t y ,  circumstances,  of the divine series  aspects  tempered  to direct  of  thus  a  gradual  doctrine  I  return. analysis  i n any  Mormonism in  of  the gradualism  i n mastery  My show,  and  were  form,  to the people  i n I o , - a l l these  i n these  further  confused  hospitality  instance to the teachings  than  gradual  on  opposition  gradually;  with  given  in a  the patriarchal  the belief  i n which  stressing  tapu,  the  t h e r e f o r e of the Chosen  possessing,  the emphasis  but not least  Mormon  the  and  was  of Polynesian descent,  part  of the revelations  relationship  by  s t i l l  There  being  o f Laman,  supposedly  memories  doctrine.  case,  fact  the  sense  while  side  orthodox  of Kluckhohn are  This  there  to the orthodox  that  Mormonism  that  can genuinely  opposition  the  of the Maori  and  Mormon  world  are significant with  traditional  churches. Christianity  1956) both  There  view  will  areas  where  Maori  religion,  i s for instance  i s pluralistic ( i n  the Maori  world  view  and  unitary.  appears  i n the a t t i t u d e  to the health  and  well  81 being  of  the  composed  of  difference becomes  body  well the  as  provide  a  teaches  spirit  two.  and  Tending health,  crucial  that  the  that of  soul  there  the  opportunity  is  body  education, for  of  man  no  is  essential  therefore  recreation,  the  progress  of  soul.  combines man's  original  Rev.  of  Anglicanism  'I  found  he  is  not  Baker  in  by  is  merit  no  i t  had  doctrine  not  the  punishment justice our  doctrine,  the  New  parents  again,  question  the  the  1835-42  an  was  entry, to  He  teach cannot  grasping  t o terras  with  in  that  conceive  that  is  the a  the  1841:  mistake  likely basic  is  gloss message  Paulinism.  and  soul  sin  was  mortality  of  accounted  sinners  would  mark  Zealander  body  be  diary  a  New  May  there  we  the  highwater  them  that  their  27  alas  It  in  of  dated  easily  but  Maori  doctrine  in  trangressed.'  they  in  read,  though  of  and  such  Zealanders.*  Adam's  forbids  no  iown w o r k s ,  told  unity  is  Mormon  i n t e r e s t i n g to  Grace.  come  for  had  d i f f i c u l t  his  where  churches  Whangaruru,  Mormons  of  is  ministry  in  area  Maori  Whangaruru,  The  because  and  Living  to  1887  Christ,  divine  The  i t exceeding  saved  by  orthodox  sin.  whose  confined  that  essential  the  system  of  there  such  against  pre-contact  the  as  between  Another  of  Mormonism  religious service:  economics the  body.  was  no  need  follows  to.  From  the  view  the  body,  the  that 'but  solely  (Talmage:474-5)  For  easily  get  Maori  chapter  I  wholehearted  this  support. In of out  the  agreements of  which  rest and  of  this  disagreements  modern  religious  shall  between  l i f e  in  show  Mormon  and  Whangaruru  the  pattern  Maori emerges.  doctrine  82  II  11  Objects  of  Religion  The  Mormons  traditional materials, these  a  Maori in  i s a  thought,  Mormon  Mormon  view  ought  o f man's  to f a i l '  Mormon man  over may  -  mana  men, which  i f he  disuse  and  under  to bury  b u t as  European  than  people  f o r such  working  rituals,  more  issue  felt  i t ,this  of the divine  thought  saw  Godhood  mana  as  'to succeed  t h e same.  as  and, i n a  distinguishes  to maintain  h i s mana  receive,  place  a  a  uncomfort-  was  hardly  But  that  extends; achieves  traditional  special from  i s t h e Mormon  by  the notion of  of gaining human  way,  mastery  reckoning  the expectation of the i t was  constantly  over  in  the Maori  means  where  (Lehma nn:9) and  as w e l l  and  Y e t i f many  potential  Maori  i s precisely  with  other  What  -  plants  l i t t l e  preferred  dwelling  the universe  food  into  does  in Christian  The  as  shown  issue.  thought,  obedience. over  and  religious  Man  passing  to time.  flax,  of the respect  i n avoidances  teaching  time  burning  serious  case  Church  from  objects  expressed  a r e i n any  warning able  religious as  influence,  disapproved  mastery,  active  f o r the  his superiority  aspect  whatever  essential  he  of the natural  over a l l order  supernatural help i t i s i n h i s own  he  name,  l°In t h i s a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o s e d t i o n s I h a v e f o l l o w e d a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a 1 - m e t h o d o f d e s c r i p t i o n b a s e d on Van d e r Leeuw. F a c t s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m v a r i o u s Mormon s t a n d a r d w o r k s , especially Ta l e m i a g e a n d W i d t s Q ' e 1 9 3 9 .  83 his  personal In  name  this  Christianity.  and  is  stated  'Faith  is  ination  of  world  as  rivalry  with  The different the  Here  the  der  out  blind,  in  this  however, him  in  through  the  universe, purity,  (O'Dea  122-8,  O'Dea:  152  gaining this  points  world,  and  manipulative It seriously  out  over their  kind is  with  the  form  following  of  dom-  i t regards  of  the  he  this  God's  to  Covenants  84,  subordinate  world.  mastery  is  Both of  in  open  the  the  of  eyes  only  the  the  world.  possible, which  67-9).  and  of  mana.  authority  same  tongues,  dominate  he He  engaged God  with  God-like  ordinances  whose  as  advanced  connatural  concept is  but  eternal  more  speak  sick,  slightly  man's  s t i l l  can  Godhood  obeys  in  creator,  of  potentia, the  towards  as  a l l the  the  in  accepts  God's  must i s ,  with  man type  an  defer.  as  Him  are -  reach  in  part  of  external,  mastery'.  therefore  against  can,  and  the  has  heal  put  infinitely yet  today,  Church,  Doctrine  control  Man  Even  ma^  Mormon  De  spearhead  Mormonism  as  to  the  therefore  much  need  race,  and  advancement as  in  since  name.  orthodox  every  regarded  miraculously  Man  This  trioal  conflicts  560,  not  potentia.  respect  to  his  for  is  developing  devils,  etc.  Leeuw:  hostile  ( O ' D e a : 1 2 4 , 1 2 6 , 128, 133)  cast  In  a  human  intelligence  attributes  conflict,  would  God  than him.  mana  exception,  position  in  in  van  without  progression man  this  of  -  God.'  terms!. of  identical  concept  of by  is  essentially  Mormon  father  the  Dasis  words:  the  which  respect The  Christianity,  -  logical  idea  that  that men  Mormonism can  have  took  mana,  issue and  quite  that  in  84 the  many  speeches  the  need  for  fran  der  were man  namely  God  and  as  emphasis  accepting  the  fell  always  Church's  on  authority,  can  understand  concerning  the  idea  power,  Devil. of  from  If  the  God.  but  this  other  many  mana.  this  Church, In  of  the  can  mana in  In  come is  sermons  the  Mormon  from  two  exercised  obedience  to  circumstances  that view,  sources,  by  a  God's  duly  commands,  i t is  regarded  Satanic.  religious dead  are  during with  dead,  ever  as  ness,  much as  detail  the  power  to  of  religion, the  Mormonism. dead  the  Maori  one  of  the  Israel.  as  the  Mormons,  too,  affective Unlike  as  contact other  sense other  tokens  with by  as  with  the  this  the  is directed.  Christians,  they  do  not  which  they  can  the  have  recognized  to  they indeed as  tenet  Nonethe-  treat  contrary  meritorious, be  conscious-  essential  central  as  known  dead  is  dead  felt  family.  dead  their  the  the  f r e q u e n t l y , or in  of  contact  in  the  On  that  in is  Christians,  preaching  say  and  present  of  object  intensely  life  Towards  i r r e v o c a b l y damned.  concern  is  continuous  s t i l l  main  cannot  presence  living.  Mormon  the  revelations,  are  to  be  one  recited  deep  the  much  in  not  to  today,  most  before,  of  used  Their  Their  influence  as  of.  though  basis  the  Even  cemeteries,  which,  no  pagan  in  guardians.  To  less,  the.Maori,  disposed  tangis,  the  to  relationships.  genealogies  of  for  the  we  officer  The  in  basis  the  i t comes  subject  84)  supernatural  authorised then  ch  this  preached has  this  obedience,  Leeuw: On  on  the regard as  descendants  85 The more  Mormon  relationship  detail  in  another  performance  of  ordinances  their  spiritual  impeded  by  ulars.  Thus  thus  qualify  they  are  proxy hood.  Thus,  ordinance his  the  dead  can  for  the  dead  earth  living  help  the  reward  ancestors,  lineage the  greater  which  enter  a  they  can  in  in  the of  discussed  the  main  help  continue only  thedead  ordained  to  earthly  the  priest-  by  performing  for  this  lies  in  a  can  be  forming,  will  be  reunited  thus  the  Godhood  of  united the  the  further  temple  (mystically  with  them,  in  in  the  the  and  an  dead  thus  partic-  glory, i f  the  sealed,  in  progress,  Church,  similarly,  be  the  certain  Mormon  in  of  to  celestial  proxy;  k i n s h i p group degree  dead,  living  dead  degree  by  the  man  the  only  before  a  the  p h y s i c a l body  highest  on  whereby  powerful greater  the  necessary  ordinances;  to  of  For  the  consists  whereby  lack  baptised  is  context,  progress.  their  with  a  joined) numerous  and  hereafter.  The  Celestial  Kingdom,  is  to  family  deemed  have  achieved. Such ing  notion  person  is  to  very  Maori  reunited  Polynesian precise  communion  church with  intricate. lies  Mormons  they  part  of  the  much  trouble  are  The in  community to  teach  the  power  objects  the  The  ancestors  essential  of  ancestors  members.  though For  the  not  the  his  eschatology,  codification.  Polynesian  with  not  with  rules  idea  highly that  present the  to  this  a  in  same  governing  worship,  worshippers. Maori  a  satisfydead  traditional  tidiness  sealing  d i f f e r e n c e between  assigned of  is  is  and  are  Mormon  and  the  dead.  To  the  but  rather  an  integral  Mormon concept  t e a c h i n g goes of  the  dead  to  not  as  86 powers which  b u t as f e 1 1 o w - w o r s h i p p e r s , van d e r Leeuw:  teaching the  i s most  fully  conception  t o be w i d e l y  understood  by t h o s e  o f t h e dead  prevalent. Maori  who  This v i s i t  temple. Mormons,  taught  about  'Mormon  from  religious  those  to  omniscience,  meaning  used  i n older,  terms  developments.  ceived  differently  that  o f man;  O'Dea that  then  and  whom  pollute bear  figure,  they  love  themselves  His presence,  capricious  man,  Not 'development'  much  the  i n the context of o f God  Christian  i s conbelief.  i s not unlike  i s subject to the law of progression.'  theologian, over  a Person  they  only  God  known,  they  o f God, but a great  H  who  i t seems  loves  obedience.  e  w i l l  1  them,  I f they  n o t De  able to  revealed His  t o t h e Mormon  Church.  a t Whangaruru,  deal  above a l l  i s n o t d e p i c t e d as  has , ;fully  heard,  gradually  i s presented  shape,  ashamed. f o r He  explains  process.  owe  by t r a n s g r e s s i o n ,  t e a c h i n g was  1 9 1 5 , who  to our understanding  i n human  a n d t o whom  W id t s o e  the universe  of Whangaruru,  as a t p r e s e n t  terms  referring  Yet obviously  function  a developing  or i n s c r u t a b l e ,  commandments,  etc.  to the universe  and though  but feel  i n t h e same  theologies,  i n orthodox  h i s conquest  the people  a Father  creation,  that  a Mormon  i ti s i n fact  To  o f God  traditional  relation  God, l i k e  quotes  speak  are constantly  123, e x p l a i n s :  i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d  from  self-effort,  complete,  more  onwards,  O'Dea:  The c r e a t i v e  God's  God a c h i e v e d  through  often  omnipotence,  of these  Mormonism,  o f God.  writers  Mormon  For  t h e age o f four  the nature  as  as  2 1 3 shows  a  about  His -  about  the  t o human  87 eyes was  -  infinite  f o r some  jected as  by  by  God  time  some  some  a  and  as  a  attending  Today,  accepted;  shape.  of c o n f l i c t ,  non-Mormons  is learnt  reiterated,  H i s human  source  converts.  i s firmly  nature  power  The  being  church  latter  indignantly r e -  services,  the anthropomorphic  God  i s 'the fellow  from  the standard  core  tenet  of  Church  doctrine  up  as  well  conception there*;  of  His  l e s s o n s , and c o n s t a n t l y  doctrine.  Ill  Life  Cycle  Newly ordinance At  gives the  they  one  group  kind  of person  they  are taught  performed  a  He  week;  through  and  only  p r e s c r i b e what  but  also  what  At  teaching  eight  Sunday  religious  almost years  capable  and  i s t o be methods from  minute  children  which  another.  learn  about  God  At  for this  graded  of  ordinance  i s presumed The  a t each  aids  should  to  minute.  which  lesson be  and  In what 7-8 i s t o be  teacher  textbooks  are baptised  'and  t h e ages  the child  taught  and  education  'Primary*  of repentance.  planned  month.  gives  of baptism, when  of the  an  School  His attributes'.  of eight,  carefully  asked,  the Sunday  the meaning  not  questions  formal  (4-6) the children i s and  t o God  the f i r s t  but blessed,  the organization called  a t t h e age  accountable  on  the children's  enter  lesson  are not baptised  i n chapel  of four,  youngest  works  children  performed  t h e age  begins:  born  used,  do  period, what  confirmed  a  88 member  of  children paring  i s 'graduation*  learn  f i r s t  by  of the Northland  and  by  the Branch  that  the children  very  special  Like  a l l other  children  tuously very  as  ship  do  Thus  interest  and  they  are  of the local  been  assure  branch  adviser themselves  taught.  or boy  I t i s a  i s graduating.'  graduation  of t h e month. enter  -  the Priesthood  events,  Once  the Mutual  takes  place  graduated,  Improvement  where Nor  church  the Church  the  government's  the  same  I t operates at Hamilton,  members  i s t h e work  to create  at high  lines.  school  the sphere  school-going,  in children's education  doctrine.  at Kaikohe,  members  well  have  pre-  o f Wisdom  graduate  officers  girl  and  boarding  and  beyond  meeting  regular  Sunday  to religious  children.  church  to  Church's  appointed  being  they  branch  the Primary  by  These  any  they  President  then  While  at the Primary  t h e Word  When  f o r Mormon  (M.I.A.)  moderate  their  when  the f i r s t  Association.  restricted  what  important  leave  The  President.  passage  of twelve.  of Faith,  d i s t r i c t ,  de  - s t i l l  the Primary  occasion  on  children  know  rite  a t t h e age  the Church.  and  chapel  second  the Articles  organization of  interviewed  in  The  for graduation,  'mostly the  the church.  of the State  stressed  a  atmosphere  school  encouraged publicity  that and  children  on  that  Maori  are  to  send  be  attend  to take  education,  ignored  At a  i t was  sump-  fees  schools  favourable  should  i f possible  i t s member  where  concern.  i t was  and  i t s own  are encouraged  of r e l i g i o u s  home  i s not  a  leaderduty  of  to  encouraged a  university.  serious which  note  of  followed  89 In sought  to  through  addition, improve  and  active  To activity more the  and  rites lesser  According a  even  these a of  of  were  these,  many  new  they  a  progress  great  more  deal  there  through  i s centered  plan,  this and  of numbers,  There  t o 21  of  are several  the steps  i n the  of  f o r women  but at  the groups  and  met  the lessons  members  together, f o r boys  the a d u l t s .  tend  consist  Whangaruru,  a division  but the atmosphere  the junior  M.I.A.  organization should  i s also  years,  present,  lesson,  a  things  handbook  oratory,  branch this were  has could  dance,  In  o f M.I.A.  half  n o t be a In  with  provides  between  A  number  o f M.I.A.  to hold  and  the  the of  is  centre  pageant,  1 9 6 1 , when  up  a  a  variety:  remarkable parlour music,  games. dance  at Whangaruru. singing  there  by  activities.  of drama,  managed  1960,  i s taken  recreational  folkdance,  a director  tried;  f o r example.  experiment.  period  the other  t h e M.I.A.  but  oratory, a  health;  communities  f o r the boys,  f o r men  the weekly  drama,  Ideally, speech  teaching,  stage.  devotional  music,  up  one:  offers  the amalgamation,  always  youthful the  as  keptseparate.  Half  Of  section  members,  for children's  to Maori  Mormonism  the a c t i v i t y  after  society  priesthood.  the smallness  were  junior  passage,  relief  of recreation.  to the Church  though  girls  forms  or Aaronic  separate  because  of care  responsibility;  de  through  i t introduced  adolescents,  Much  of  the standard  t h e M.I.A.  varied  Mormonism,  was  a  lessons, religious  amalgamation  had  and  Even  so,  and pageant,  greatly  added  96 to  t h e number  simple  standard  European  a  introduced  Church  partly  played  by  much  younger  but causing  much  amusement  when  they  meeting.  M.I.A. some  holds  branches  are  performed  tap  dances,  dramatic  but never  was  also  supposed  got beyond  by  many; and  t h e same  time,  as  of the branch  Primary  and  Sunday  the  t o be  formalities  older  man  members;  as  Sacrament-,  was  on  priest,  standing  one  action  well  boys as  as  in a  well  proxies -  songs  very  are from a l l  and  hakas dances,  jazzy,  religious  frantic  as  pageants.  rush  especially  not heavy they  ofi S u n d a y s ; visits young  girls  o f one  when man  as  there  the platform  baptisms  i n the  are, in  but portentous  serve  the Sacrament  teachers,  they  are given  help before  many  secretaries - in  teachers  lessons may  are given  f o r posthumous  ^ o r t h e boys  deacons,  on  concert  a r e Samoan  as  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as  a  devotional,  c a n s e e items:  there  done  some  performance.  officers  As  home  as  partly  and a  singing, often  School.  t o members  of r a l l i e s ,  dance  Maori  of the priesthood,  sacredness.  a  skits,  each  various  water  are again  solo  called  before  i n the Temple,  their  These  i n addition  responsibilities:  duties  number  the concert,  f o r the r a l l i e s  At  large  Swimming, At  choral  two weeks  Church  a  i n the d i s t r i c t .  sketches  Practising  an  Scouting  annually.  organised.  the  and  introduced,  long  recreational.  usually  the  were  badges,  quarterly,  is  games  ones,  i n t h e M.I.A.,  The  or  parlour  European  children,  lightened  of  attending,  by bread  accompany to  to administer the  addition,  branch the  congregation  91 and  saying  the  standard  There  was  only  leave  the  community  and  can  was  done  fully  one  become by  The becomes  priest for  when  full  clear  he  this  white  mainly  Zealand  wholly  as  school  irresponsible. is  emphasised  them  as  even  young  unfamiliar  more  them  activities  -  lay  within  same  On ally Maori with which  coincided life  to  be  grown  the with  cycle  but  there  a  child  was  and the up',  with  the  is  the  their  of  17  the  or  18  sacrament  felt  adolescent of  contact  school. is  Maori  wonder-  The  to  The  the  dominant  attitude  of  the  adolescents  this  Church, in  a  of  attitude  by  treating  role  experience,  giving  total  supposedly  them  school  the  treat  and  activities  with  schools  cast  the  usually  turn  family  context  in  strongly.  attitude that  not  practice  men  entirely  even  lessons  though  -  often  area.  seems  were  young  they  water.  office.  supervised  of and to  of  same  Church.  have  regarded  speak  Maori  community In  responsibility  fostered. to  the  the  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  pride  as  his  these  the  instance  status  age  community. nomy  this  for  and  generally  in  or  blessing  the  therefore  from  the  the  youth  closely  adults,  to  in  through  Perhaps  of  them  system  children,  the  attained  Whangaruru  New  Mostly  he  environment.  bread  before  therefore,  see  the  Whangaruru,  significance  i f we  society  in  blessing  employment  priests.  elders;  pleased  prayer  to  sort  as  been a  no  (Firth  at  age  an  traditional  sharply  early  *as  below  member  of  age;  1959a:189)  children  increase  barrier  responsible  given  of  the  tradition-  though  It  autoit;  they  respectful attitude,  the  used were (Best  92 1924c:409f) pattern  Under  the impact  has g r e a t l y  very  responsible  Most  day-to-day  convenient,  and  changed,  family  supervision  the school  role One it  i n that might  combines  status  of  Church  i t demands  call  i t a  said, the  the  follows hours  teaching service  positions and  behaviour:  the responsible  these  preparations:  week,  the Mission  of a  and  that  other  time,  there  is l i t t l e basic  But  One  fully  means  t o the,T e m p l e  has  t o be  i n Whangaruru,  mission and  s t i l l  involves  should  be  an  rallies  do  time  member  busy,  i n  programme  l i t t l e  time  anything  of frequent  found  special  active  In this  indeed  add  strenuous  a l l the  constantly  to the rhythm  people  This  contemplation, or  President  B u t we  of the Church.  i n solitude  to adjust  To  almost  of  about  o f t h e more  and  involve.  life  the assignments f o r  activities.  for religious  problems  Mormon.  auxiliaries,  the d i s t r i c t  t h e work  time  active  of the holders  activities  on  a  regular  the v i s i t s  church  free  solitude.  from  work  i s asked  these  t h e Mormon  tasks.  with  home  rules.  smoothly  of the various  conferences,  ponder  formal  and  to  t h e home  the religious  of church  one's  to  of school  i s thought  from  plan,  i n the branch,  preparation of  to s t r i c t  of school  not  t o t h e Mormon  are expected  attending  home  synthesis  this  f a r closer  but i t d i f f e r s  obedience  continued.  when  i s definitely  i s therefore  role;  of assigning has  t o them  this  home.  adulthood t o 12  role  the formality  According  11  to adolescents  close  the  that  roles  are delegated  The  influences.,  but the practice  tasks  appropriate. home  of white  to  in  practical talk  93 religion  outside  sessions, *  or d u r i n g  preparation hours  the Church  of  ponder,  so  that  be.  Many  Whangaruru  more The  at  once  The  to  time  similar  was  view  probably  of the household,  than  conception  natural  intermediary  contemplative,  between  female  was  different.  i n the p r i e s t l y  tapu  jobs,  else.  and  that  to  regular  and very  as  and t o  i s expected  of male  o f the male  solitary  to anything  characteristic  The  texts  not having  of the Maori  a  the  more  Mormon  talking  tasks.  religious  members,  lay especially  informal  t o spend  of the r o l e  to that  at  shared  the average  church  the Maori  the  some  to the Church  Mormon  similarity  head  than  other  i n reading  Whangaruru  matter-of-fact  and  induced  evening  less  devoted  fishing  lessons  of the late  functions,  function was  congenial  and  the household  of the  therefore and  the  spirit  world. Before Whangaruru  male  Ritchie  also  village  Rakau  went  no  community  points  outside  permanently  themselves  and  began  as  to take  the lack  his role  role.  a t home  effect  i t , he  Many only they  was  men  responsibility definition  hallowed once was  inhis  represent-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , he  worked  preferred  as  his superiority  away  on w e e k e n d s ,  as  role  the natural  t o day  of the  ill-defined  the male  from  that  i f they  responsibility  they  authority  again.  the  but even  to leave  o f M o r m o n i s m was  patriarchs,  of role  was  I n t h e home,  Y e t , i n day  a t home,  The  -  describing  (1956:57-61),  and were  see  that  o u t when  leadership  t h e women.  of 1959, the p o s i t i o n  ambiguous  of h i s family.  played  to  was  unchallenged;  ative  were  the conversion  began  to  figures,  I t i s possible  the d i r e c t  result  of the  94 collapse a  new  of belief  type  o f tapu  When both The  they  where had  t h e men  spoke more  that  to  time  men.  men  became  women's that  cooking.  that  t h e men  i n chapel  husbands  lunches stay  and e l s e -  enough', their  were  huge  spiritual  and  emphasis when  the  spent  lunch,  was leader-  most  of  according  a t any  gathering  i fpossible,  but to  give  duties.  at the meetings  The C h u r c h  women's  accustomed,  at the Whangarei  was  This  t h e women a  status  educational  f o r instance,  preparing  their  granted  women  authorities reacted  patriarchs, a  role.  Utah  t o men's.  to listen  kitchen  The k i t c h e n  their  attitudes.  the priesthood,  started,  T h e women  talked,  Church  should  the  seriously,  had n o t acknowledged  i n giving  equal  a t Whangarei  to their The  women  early  i n the kitchen  t h e men  sumptuous  their  high,  to the Maori;  custom.  priority  domestic  testimonies  hold  been  opportunities  strange  Maori  cannot  has always  meetings  where  women  i n 1 8 7 9 , was  vocational  their  priesthood  satisfaction  t o o much,  offered  as p a t r i a r c h s .  Mormonism  somewhat  Mormonism  suitable substitute.  had t o change  i t most:  them  and that  their  had n o t ' r e s p e c t e d  with  Though  ship  wives  s  to take  responsibility;  quarreled  suffrage  tapu  provided  began  about  they  sacredness  in  which  and t h e i r  women  accepted  i n personal  less new  chapel  important.  dimension  was  cutting  out the  altogether:  the  and p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y  had a s s e r t e d ,  progress  by  more  Thus,  was  also  while added  f o r the f i r s t important  than  like the  to the time, their  95 The until  the  full  husband  according  to  Whangaruru  men -  in  age  middle bottle  was  the  adulthood  a  religious  whose  were or  age.  and  blesses  the  o i l ,  the  sick. can  then  ordinance  is  preaching, be  Temple for  the  family  in  Temple  both  pure.  19,  becomes be  an  qualify  for  bride  is and  to  healing a  such  have  ordinances,  too,  are  of  'recommend',  One  no  buys  quality  bridegroom been  Church  he  in  have  early  the  encouraged  There  most  in  high  for  ordinances.  which  though  elder  very  readiness  wife  wedding,  which  of  eternity,  and  entire  the  Celestial  person  a  to  endure  whose  purpose  is  to  the  sealing  which  join  the  family  the  circle  person's  times  are  God',  the  a  group  of  sealed  Kingdom.  These  l i f e ,  the  to  Temple  family  sealing  often  is  relations,  that  thus  year; who  other  bonds,  endowment  truths  of  his  happens,  returned  must  i t in  begin  a l l religious  they  man  of  not  such  Mormon to  weddings  Whangaruru.  with  in  part  entirely  All  the  a  and  sexually  from  take  a  does  which  age  at  o i l - i t  holding and  the  not  Once  family  elder,  until  olive  i f he  a  from  was  old  finest  they  life  ordained  the  an  plan,  not  of  Also,  of  ordained  Mormon  -  life  be  work living  is  but the  can  are  the  Temple  visitors  baptised  or  never  and  infinite.  dead, The  beyond  obtain  together  is act  often  concerned  mortal  l i f e :  'knowledge  man  and  group to  wife  enables  joined  vital  proxies  in  ordinances  usually visited as  the  for  which  remain  most  of  for  several a  dead  ordained.  be who  complete, can  living,  be  because sealed  before  to  they  the  number  the can  be  -  96 sealed, their have It  often  way  have  t o be  of l i f e .  t o be  For the dead,  gathered  i s quite  an  converted,  which  event  i s an  t o add  or persuaded accurate  arduous  even  one  to  family  records  piecemeal  person  change  process.  to the  celestial  f a m i l y c i r c l e . The of  Mormon  lessons,  Temple  esoteric People  hereafter.  teaches,  above  doctrine  than  come  Before  back  going  with  of the Church  about  i t s work  i n the hereafter.  the people  terrestrial  Church  things  happen,  proximity  much  seen would a  as  as a  the l i f e  of  the Maori  of  grief,  in  and  kind  of the  usually  know  but a r e vague  visits  of mirror  gradually  image  where  heightened  cycle  comes  tangi.  religious  fewer  funerals  of the  t h e same  by  the closer  assurance, into  direct  family.  The  Mormons  decorous  and  thus  conflict  concrete  subdued,  t h e Mormon with  the  image spirit  expression  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  While follows  c l o s e l y , t h e Mormon  and  the v i o l e n t  immoderacy  of Whangaruru  i n  i s  the ghost,  and  tragic  and  For at the tangi with  less  mysteries  become  are institutionalised.  very  becomes  f o r the whole  objects  of the people  general,  people,  holds  quiet  the struggle  indulgences cycle  place  to see Maori  of faith  as  earth,  Temple  spiritually  t o t h e Temple  meeting  of  dead  though  people  i n the hereafter,  the hereafter  like  time  seen  a  this  image  ordinary  o f God.  Death, as  with  on  version  i n the  f a r clearer  to the Temple,  t h e work  complete  i s discussed a  about  familiarize  a l l , a more  i n food  and  other  the religious t h e Mormon  death-customs  the  l i f e -  pattern,  were  only  97 beginning  to  be  established  in  1960-61.  IV  Sacramental  A  crucial  Mormonism these  Acts  are  must  therefore  have  -  been  crucial used  total  times,  After  the  waters  their  present  levies  to  with  for  pay The  the  by  total  for  immersion does the  not  purification  in  sea  and the  in  of  the  Maori  was  an  born, was  the  old  Mormonism,  by  phenomena;  always  newly  ritual the  by  summarised.  under  tithing,  and as  old  Maori  appear but  Punaruku  other People  river.  use..of  this  to  at  needed.  ritual  the  home  re-introduction  proving  which  church  blessing.  God  the  As  the  going;  introduced  had  College  stresses buy  therefore  such, good  Church  Church  never  and  one's  though  arithmetical precision  Church  with  tithed;  briefly  interlude,  of  to  covenant  be  law  to  keep  f u l l  when  income  chapel.  related  and  introduced  the  truth  of  faith.  pressed of  acts  only  talked  The  10%  goods  not  restored  a l l is  been  -  cultural  immersion  places  above  the  the  Anglican  was  be  (tohi)  though  certain  of  i t s sacramental  Baptism practice  part  income  standing  since  added and  that  rather  in  i t for  social  the  new  is  i t  is  special  this  money  part  of  obtaining  security  Church  only  Whangarei  i t needs  that  has  1959;  certain  the  essential from  early,  (and  man's God's  must  the  also  issuing  98 of  Temple  recommends)  Eating for  the  the  plan  Mormon, of  sacred  liquor,  laws.  tobacco,  whether  is  expression  of  recommends  and  and  also  any  rich the to  poise  of  the  food  food  and  is  in  but  foods  for  main  are  sober  a  the  been  a  body  of  as It  planned  of  a  many  these  basic  is a  criterion  clear for  The  other  Temple  Work  not  for  for  middle  the  pleasure being  teaching  aged  people  valuable reinforcement  body;  ideally,  Obesity  Mormon  of  stimulants  expense;  battle. the  and  alcoholic  i s bad  unjustifiable  in  inflexible  observance  Overeating  ''or  (Doctrine  are  flexibly,  meals  in a l l cultures;  most  quoted  tithes.  is crucial  priesthood.  more  of  pre-condition  problems,  enough.  acts  the  Gospel!.  i t s spiritual  health  i t hqs  is  the  allegiance,  small  pertinent  Whangaruru,  the  paying  Wisdom'  frequently  'living  the  prohibitions  immoderation.  body  of  coffee:  most  of  habits  tea  advancement  of  Maori  'Word  principal  Church  eats  the  is  the  The  expensive  Mormon  health  the  discourages,  form  and  whom  the  somebody  the  are sacramental  regulating  prohibitions  Wisdom  to  on  drinking  salvation,  Covenants89) of  and  i s dependent  of  but one  on in  doctor's  orders. As  a  further  instituted  a  fast,  food  i s eaten  enjoined  At 'communion* by  'pure  on  until  before  water'  the  by  of  services,  called a  the  towards  first  evening.  blessings  Sunday is  gesture  Sunday  Fasts the the  each  are  Mormonism  month,  when  recommended  but  has  no not  sick, e q u i v a l e n t of  sacrament.  revelation  moderation,  of  Wine Joseph  has  the  Christian  been  Smith,  replaced  Nobody  kneels  99 except  t h e two c e l e b r a n t s Prayers  other  f o r the blessing  sacramental  acts  follow a  t h e y are'spontaneous. them',  so  that  appropriate able to  standard dom.  which  themes  Talks  correct  correct prayed  -  were  given  Priesthood  sufferer present  Thee,  that  gave Thy  by  suffering  i n labour.  consecrated  and  prays  have  appropriate  i s s t i l l on w h a t  many  a brief  ofs i x much  On  free-  constitutes  prayers  i n the  one  occasion  e x p o s i t i o n on t h e  and Thine.  lay their  hands  a blessing.  speaking  'what  t h e name  No  the heart  of Jesus  members from  S me  older  0  people  fixed  and  by  of  an  accidents make  person's  but necessary virtue  pours  of the  a l l elders  head,  i s used,  regular  elder  o f t h e head  Afterwards  formula  prompts',  Christ  First,  the crown  the sick  Melchidezek  missionaries  purpose.  anointing. on  of the  sickness  American  o i l on  while  speaking  hood,  himself  to hospitals f o r this  previously  'in  there  considerpublicly,  sequence  not y e t 'correct'.  are given  to people  to mothers  calls  fixed  to time  at  i n Maori, Blessings  and  were  of Thou,  - a  intimated  something  to speak, must  rest,  prompts  up, sometimes  these, time  f o r the  meeting  a.prayer  water.  and a few  the heart  f o r a n y Mormon  from  i t was  President  usage  i s made  are taught:  and  form;  'what  of every  but within  d i s t r i c t  Mission  standard  is standardised  prayer;  Northland the  i t i s normal  the bread  of the sacrament  say  a t the opening  Yet forms  structure,  People  to the occasion  length;  God.  sanctifying  one  the  of  them  officiant  i s the  of the Holy  phrase Priest-  100 Like  other  without  authority  he  be  must  keeps  Mormon professional  Even  active One  books even At  though  most  was  may  Maori  rather  o f t h e way  more  symbols  of American  cut suits. generalised went  way,  The model image  learned  from  one o r g a n i z a t i o n  what  reminiscent  elsewhere,  mostly  Bow-ties  Here  was  of speech  mission  At Whangaruru, quite  possession objects.  l V o r  t  n  i t h  pronounced.  common a n d elder, but  these  outward  varying  M.I.A.  e  somewhat  i t was  some-  one a s s o c i a t e s  were  personnel, their  sometimes  f o r a l l t h e women  pressure They  me  not the Zion w  dress  i n what  were  and a c t i n g  of the cheer-leader;  womanhood.  sharp,  i treminded  jazz.  of American  devotional  but not a t Whangaruru,  though  the  role.  any s t y l i s h  but s l i g h t l y  and g e n t l e  i s widely  symbols.  common  sweetness  sacramental  distinguishing  own  that  i s used,  i s a very  to another.  of the American  sign  this  a  attitudes  outward  i n which  officers, ideal  the Ministry  of Americanism.  modes  the b e l i e f  satchel  gatherings,  and c a r e f u l  t o , not instead o f ,  leather  not otherwise  f o r the American  a  new  of the  substance.  Church  common  given  or i n emergencies President  from  t h e same  or other  certain  passes  sharply  garb  are carried;  neat  arise  i n t h e Mormon  have  a man  not only  They  n o t be  given.  are complementary  i s the fine  Mormon  of a l l blessing  care.  priestly  and papers  President, The Quorum  are essentially  do  blessing should  the Branch  record  though  members  a  afterwards.  medical  a n d no  of these  a  acts,  blessings  and s p i r i t  spread,  from  informed  Priesthood  body  sacral  with  the perceived model  impact  was  of the minimal;  101 A  special  Blessing] living. an  i s given Such  officer  e.g.  a  by  Enoch,  foresee  branch and  sacramental  sacred  meetings  ation  of their  events there  being  specific  Sunday  the  Maori.  Finally,  Temple,  the  architecture,  fittings  t h e many  indeed  Testament  t h e two  their  the yearly  cycle,  by t h e ability  o f t h e month.  i t s own  monthly,  The  rhythm  presents  a  a r e the Church College  chapels  and  right  clean, to a  i n style; spacious, potent  and  quarterly bazaar,  through  sharp highly  and  annual  regular  innovation to  buildings: the Church  organiz-  t h e M.I.A.  o f s o many  t h e Temple  community  the country.  t h e most  t o New  - or  Church  significant  In  sacraments  Sunday  Each  are the  cycle.  certain  to the f i r s t  the sumptuousness,  are American  ultra-modern, gateway  there  the Church  the  -  rally.  a t s e t dates  Hamilton,  who  member,  astounded  and  i n  by  President,  innovations  S o c i e t y ' s monthly  activities  at  lives  enliven  apportioned  d i s t r i c t  modern  life-time,  .especially  Church  i s a monthly  e t g . the Relief  quarterly  Mormon  which  has, i n addition,  cycle,  guide  of the Old  are often  past  a  of the Church  Manasseh, people  as  future.  services  another  Maori  knowledge  Other periodic  The  the  i n a  t h e Temple  the lineage  Ephraim,  Patriarchal  standing  once  o r by  the  t o one o f t h e p a t r i a r c h s  last-mentioned.  to  Patriarch,  Joseph,  Patriarch's  o f good  i s given,  revelation,  him back  a c t ,called  t o members  blessing  called  pronounces, tracing  sacramental  Here  insignificant  Zealanders,  and s i m p l e  facin  they  i n line,  prestigious  look the  culture.  102 The Christian ly  very  seen  Mormon  tradition,  ancient  as  life  an  sacramentals.  form,  of  to  Wisdom'were  accepted  in  this  sense.  it  was  peculiarly  drinking; that  I  and  faculty  sacramental  str ictly  stitute of  of  The  Mormon  for  the  these not  paying  a  the  a  there the  were  The  was  to  elders of  of  the  'Word  me  smoking  that and  'recidivism*  for  no  doubt  a  observing  food  seasonal  quite  to  signified  the  in  sacredness  remarked up  supposed-  similarly  ancient  l i t t l e  Israel  though  mostly  of  this  some  i t was  rules  give  very  of  Judaeo-  restoring,  elders  Maori  indeed,  the of  but  rather  for  his  as  (an a  God  exchange.  On  of (or  Maori  sick  taboos  ones,  Maori  was  among  they  supposedly parallel are  were  by  Best  priestly  i s seen  by  the  Nothing  operates other  hand,  to  they  for the  find  in a  not  God's the  pat-  of high  function. as  subpowers  performing  non-members  is easier  a  The  faculty  have as  Maori  reciprocity:  according  the  to  of  necessary  as  displayed) in  in  said  white  adopted  faith-healers.  type  insinuation  the  the  classified  highest, tithes  of  their  some  were  blessing.  that  blessing  have  gift  people  exploitation  than  for  displayed  blessing  'matakite',  the  Maori  restoration  American  activities  sight  riarchal  though  the  the  kept.  second  and  a  children  And  Maori  Among  The  To  the  rules.  pre-contact  as  within  restoration  sacramentals.  i t was,  couId observe.  special  the  so  easy  the  A n g l i c a n i s m and  Maori  of  double  i f regarded  represents  opposition  different  cycle,  degree; one,  Finally,  e c c 1 e s ias t i c a 1  like  to  demand  make)  in  return  Maori  to  believe  principles  of  gift  i t harder  to  accept  103 the  idea  Maori  in  paying  Mormons  Saints box,  of  did  and  error.  between  for  told  me  make  such  charges  was  This  meant  to  argument,  and  tithing  specific  but  performing  that  prove  for  which  rather  a  a  sacrament.  the  Church  of  nor  handed  round  that  whatever  c o n t r a c t u a l payment  non-sacred) thing  priest  often  not  this  a  the  Latter-day  other  i t s source,  services  general  no  collection  churches  were  distinguishes  (which  represents  a  is  seen  payment  maintaining  as  for  of  any-  (sacred)  reciprocity. Whether mental  acts,  Mormons, Early the  we  we  but  note  not  teenth  as  a  belief.  This  churches  and  Mormonism.  set  and led  to  the  Anglican-Maori Yet  cognitive when exist  the  and now  with  system,  the  in  the a  strong  of  in  they  events of  the  or  to  Maori  at  one  lost of  the  strong  was  seen  as  d i s t r i c t s , Christian a  time this nine-  ritual  millennial  had  and  majority.  Maori  certain  sacra-  c o n t r a d i c t i o n to  hoped  panacea,  restoration  others,  common  white  Maori  emergence  cycle  and  n a t i v i s t i c of elements;  synthesis  resolvi  opposition.  synthesis, described  modified  which  a  life  dominant  historical  movements  symbolic  the  the  acceptance,  like  this  If  the  features  system  provide  the  A l l these  Mormonism,  a  sought  the  the  one.  of  to  and  by  up  would  result  century  beliefs,  significant  Maori  Anglicanism  illusion  at  shared  Anglicanism  traditional  that  look  aspects, and  modernised  significantly became  led  in  to  chapter  in i t s  further contradiction  MaorLL  different  increasingly  this  system  values  explicit  as  had  to  co-  of  the  Mormon  to  i t s demands  104 not To  only these  on  religious  demands  we  but a l s o shall  now  on  social  turn.  and  economic  behaviour,  105  THE  Beyond described, Often,  the explicit  Mormonism aims  when  wrong  BIPOLAR  I asked  VALUE  o b l i g a t i o n s a n dp r o h i b i t i o n s I have  a t fundamental  by informants:  books,  b u t I was t o l d  People  evidently felt  that, over  they  knew,  seek  t o follow, modelled  t h e r e was a n i d e a l  missionaries a model  were  white  New Z e a l a n d e r s  every  lighter  This  these  objectives  perhaps  shall  Mormons  me - w e r e  culture, basic value  sent  way made h e a v y see later  theory  emphases,  way*.  should  t h e y saw t h e  American  t o them a s  demands, y e t  - than  what t h e  people.  my d e s c r i p t i o n o f M o r m o n Kluckhohn's  out o fthe  t h e commandments  r e q u i r e o f the Maori  base  on Clyde  and above  told  - a s we s h a l l  this i s  i t i s n o t t h e Mormon  on what  Mormon  in attitudes.  a commandment  mode o f l i f e  d i d who - a s t h e y  tofollow.  I  'that  changes  'why d o y o u t h i n k  - o r b a d - ? ' , I was n o t q u o t e d  sacred  SYSTEM  educational  that there are,  o f which  i n  he i d e n t i f i e d  thirteen. If  the Maori,  systems  a r e compared,  spheres  ofbeliefs,  degree White  Mormon  An  New Z e a l a n d  t h e same r e l a t i o n s h i p  life  c y c l e and r i t u a l .  o f o p p o s i t i o n i s found systems,  and Dominant  t h e Mormon  between  system  takes  a n a l y s i s o f the Dominant  White  i s observed While  the Maori  a very  and  system,  in  as i n t h great  Dominant  an intermediate  White  valu  position. Kluckhohn's  106 terms, other  fell  studies  However, white my  outside  value  are  not great  more  a  American  group  finely  graded.  be  New  Zealand  culture,  the  facts.  In any  the  details  of the comparison  draw,  White  I  though we  and  follow  I do  table  Beaglehole.  miscellaneous  for  some  but  establishing  o f my  would  do  other  and  weightings them  make  this  work  and  from  imagine  New  Zealanders though  weightingswere results  much  much  violence  importance Mormon  conclusions  white to to  and I ivish  to  legitimate. the profiles  Homesteaders  Metge. such  are given  a l l by  of a  to the dominant  Maori,  general  shows  and  n o t do  between  sources  system  use Kluckhohn's  not attach  t o me  Ritchie,  constructed.  of emphases,  applied  f o r the very seems  of any  I should  i f the  ? ) , I follow Kluckhohn;  and  evidence  they  F o r t h e Mormons  Zealanders  i f we  probably  case,  following  'cultures'. New  as  the substitution The  the l i s t  Therefore,  Homesteaders  Dominant  Zealanders  differences  for  c a n be  the value  Homesteaders  to affect  undoubtedly  profile  I know  (the Homesteaders),  New  d i f f e r e n c e s between  would  n o r do  d i d analyse  of white  enough  plan,  reliable  himself  observation  the  research  which  Kluckhohn  Protestant  own  there  from  my  of the  (=Dominant  f o r the Maori my  own  as  Grey  later  unwieldy.  field  of  White  system  material  1855.  in this  the marshalling  three  Reasons chapter,  detailed  107  PROFILES  OF  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. On the  say  would than the  indetermina te plura 1 istic evil ind ividua 1 self a u tonomy active fulfilment phys i c a1 relaxed then quantity genera 1  determina te unitary good group other autonomy acceptant fulfilment physical relaxed now qua 1 i t y unique  steader the  that  they  one  may  has  here : New  great  are less  doubt  Kluckhohn:126  whether  states  that  i s somewhat d u b i o u s : tense-disciplined.*  Zealanders, deal tense  more  a l l observers  tense  and  I would  and  disciplined  disciplined  the Maori  would  than  perceive the  significant. these  the degree  /  are a  10,  culture  to white  I f they  (or White  sign  variant  regard  as  8 a nd  Homesteader  Omitting consider  CULTURES  determina te unitary good group other dependence active discipline physical tense then quantity general  the Maori.  difference  THREE  Ma o r i  in  Mormons,  OF  Homes t e a d e r  with  agree  ORIENTATIONS  Mormon  strong  i s a  that  VALUE  orientations  emphasis  'There  BASIC  two d o u b t f u l  of coincidence  Dominant  been  used  categories,  between  t h e Mormon,  C u l t u r e ) and Maori  to denote  / Maori:  = Homesteader  Mormon  =  Maori  / Homesteader:  1, 2 ,  Mormon  /  Maori  = Homesteader:  6  Mormon  = Maori  s  9  Homesteader:  7,  opposition:  Mormon  11, 12, 3,  4,  l e t us  13 5  profiles:  now Home-  108 The (and,  value  I am  almost  suggesting,  as g r e a t  orientations only  'physical*.  The  easy  distance  between  Maori  to the oasic  fundamentally  good,  Maori  like  the  rules  of the Church  not find  adventitious of  a  Maori)  includes  In  a  also  The  Word  very  and  seems  the sphere  that  strong  warmest close  to  and i n in  further  joining sphere to  that  idea  on  many  moral  already man  i s i s unitary,  points  that  d e t e r m i n i s t , who  that  as  o f much  grace  a  'mistake'  that  might  from  or s i n .  I  be the hara  making in  Maori  strongly determinist.  of social  the  simple,  probing  e x p l i c a b l e by  (translated  observes  motive  I t i s seen  than  five  the universe  In spite  "mistake*  t o me  orientation  in this  I have  them  confirm  other  a  i s  d i f f e r e n c e s help  chapter  to follow.  much  the  pleasure  are a  between  i s a  o f any  there  of sports,  developed  there  consequence. trace  basic  that, t h e  f o r the matter-of-fact  i s bound  Zealand) are  something  great  value  Homesteaders  races.  data  or m i s f o r t u n e  'mistake',  mythology  field  t h e Mormon  automatic  could  the  not e v i l ;  the  logical,  extent  agreement  My  reward  take  In the l a s t  p l u r a l i s t i c .  promised  indeed  i n the world  and Mormon  not  namely  therefore  fellowship that t o what  i n New  of the eleven  coincide,  and white  and  are obtainable,  and w h i t e ,  of coincidence.  alluded  data  occurs  Maori  Between areas  Maori  to emphasise  maintain  Out  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  where  together.  clear  the Maori  majority  can be.  and w h i t e  integration,  army,  serves  they  Maori  between  complete the  as  the white  f o r which  one where  relations  d i f f e r e n c e s between  organization, i t creates  a  109 strong  bond  wellbeing crucial merit  objects  lies  to  about  particular. man's  evil  within  view  to strengthen  h i s own  to others  t h e M o r m o n s , a s we of salvation;  the  right  and  Mormon, In  congenial  one.  only  a  crucial from  s e e , do  creates  one  r e s p e c t . Mormon  a  i n the matter  of autonomy.  state,  the white  Zeqlanders  dependence  t h e Mormons  indeed  i t i s one  But  Dominant  and  insist  existed  on  i s a  also  desire and  now  analyse  the Maori  obedience  Maori  and  against  help  to this  end.  individualistic Maori  view  between  Zealand  i s  Maori  less  values,  of the welfare  oriented  towards  the degree  strain  t  conformity  shall  In spite  are less  i n  are clearly  New  the  sewice  fights  means  bond  of the principa 1 problems  whites  he  this  values  Certainly,  demand  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l I  strong  the dominant  t h e Mormons.  of  sees  on  Maori  of members;  of Church to limit  f a r more  life.  h i s autonomy  severe  than  system.  the main  and  of Protestantism  the c o l l e c t i v i s t  namely  than  as a  not support  this  dependence  Maori  of h i s family  mainly  And  consists  organization  i n terms  the battles  think  New  as  as  man's  service  concept  the  the others  i n the community  seen  than  this  the Church  they  to the Maori  and  members  Work  i s probably  and  F o r t h e Mormon,  entirely  and  results soul.  emphasise  o f t h e o t h e r s . The  almost  i n general  both  community  concern.  the s a l v a t i o n  salvation  that  service,  I t i s probably  that  Mormon  sacred  i n his religious  h i s community  But  as  of the individual  given  and  of religious  i n seeking  bring  merit  Maori  of the group  precisely to  between  o p p o s i t i o n s between  the  110 Mormon of  and  Maori  Mormon  value  teaching  systems  in  which  were  also  the  main  foci  Whangaruru,  II  Orientation A  value  system  adherents progress  Activity  culture  acceptant value  to  may  predominantly  choises.  Kluckhohn  to  this  and  a  in  philosophy  advancement  higher  system  the  of  can  explains  in  engendered  and  attention  doctrine are  a  own  new  ment  a  an  time effort  kind  of  towards  earlier doctrine  in  power  of  probation with  material  in  and  the  own  category. doctrine  in  necessity  of  would  and  in  oy  by  experience his  works  salvation is a  life  man,  transformed  for  the  intelligences  which  hasten  a'nd  effort  present  acquire  thus  effort  that  'Mormon  Mormonism  Active  to  implies  in which  advancement help,  does  0*Dea:143  here-and-now  universe  which  efforts.  and  status  for  orientation: the  for  misfortunes,  hand,  'active'  Mormon  the  transmigration  The  environment  desire  one's  perfection  God's  accomplishment.  as  or  Indeed,  any  and  his  toward  dynamic  active acceptant  other  active  how  activity  uncreated  and  the  way  directed  God-like  belief of  strong  the  classes  into  an  that  soul  by  of  multiply  on  the  either  Epicureans,  only  progress  falls  were  advancing  became his  of  he  following a  the  Buddhism  achieve  the  has  woudl  oeing,  Mormonism  example  believed  i m m o r t a l i t y of  order  man  an  mentions  ( L u c r e t i u s ,V, 1 1 0 5 - 1 1 3 5 ) believe  As  make  in  developthe into  a  fundamental  I l l characteristic living. they  of  Through  will  the  action,  contineu  represents  a  and  oriented  expressed around and  today  and  education  Mormon  differed  from  activity  and  encounter  them  found in  events  I  tendency  was  to  even  a  spirits  an  a  that  willingness  Mormonism  of  people  American  work,  to  De  to  active  attitude  is  clustering  health,  recreation  to  the  even drop  at  action  enjoins  are  of  18bO  oriented  was  at  tne  any  rate  towards  lead  one  with  opposed  to  rather  this:  Deing  meets  same  the The  Katana's  one  should  parents.  Their  a  succession  many i t .  pushing  of  obstacles, Such  tentativeness than  tne  itself,  dead  type  to  planned.  for  one's  caution,  projects  Whangaruru,  since  presented  that  action  spirits  -  Whangaruru  explanation  omens,  proposed  wno  of  7  warnings  them  Maori  and them  a  view a through  opposition.  17 Psychological t e s t s a t Rakau have shown modern M a o r i c u l t u r e t o be a c c e p t a n t ( o r ' p a s s i v e ' ) rather than active (Ritchie 1956:161-162) A  action,  attitude  This  attitudes  equally  oostacle  any  the  show  If  and  against  drop  against  means  grave.  the  the  Deing  3  would  justifies  not  transcenidie n ta 1  oDstauies. this  a  ODserved  Wherever  act  the  the  with  accomplishment.^  conclusion.  never  everyday  through  accomplishment.  configuration  of  below;  i t s adherents  development;  missionaries  had  tasks  complex.'  their  The  of  the  here  beyond  version  towards  to  develop  I t admonishes  in a  activity  In  men  theological  activism.  ne  attitude  development  practical to  Mormon  112 Thus, after  a  press  for  ment  the  t r i v i a l  Ngaiotonga  quarrel;  i t s rents?  scheme  the  when  accumulated  dining Ngati  the  in  the  settling  many  speeches  but  no  broke No  at  stake  were  they  were  measures  were  taken  maize  crops,  The  tendency  act  of  was  often  for  Certainly  private nobody  complaining  no*  They  and  were  though  When  the  cars  unrepaired.  spreading  of  be  causing  even  left  not  develop-  there  community.  to  did  not  often  an  for  the  same  make  reason.  preventing  them.  assistance  from  their  could  only  there or  Only the  housing  was have  were  sooner,  circumstances  matters  among  remedies  accepted  was  as  in  enough  of  about  else  were  money;  an  the  known. unalterable  i t and  seemed to  raise  I would  always  be  told  built  Department bad,  this  their  reasons  why  undoubtedly  which  they  his  Maori  accepted  overcome  one  of  were  making  in  too  effort  man  were  exploiting  intense  one  equally  they  exploitable  d i f f i c u l t i e s  several but  people  to  dreamed  anything the  the  land  farms,  parasite  did  debts,  taken,  existence  having  happened;  often  a  indifferent  nothing  town;  the  setback  economic  g e t t i n g more.  Some  unit  uncompleted  board  Maori  unnecessarily  the  any  was  about  holiday-makers  if  to  against  though  trust  high  was  left  fate. In  for  even  of  action  crucial  down,  Wai  unjustifiably  delay  issues  was  Ngaiotonga  indefinite angry  hall  own  great.  about  But Farmers  production the  home  obstacles  without The  an  of  act  did  forests!,  sight.  d i f f i c u l t i e s  was  crops,  Affairs.  they  always plans  dairy  an  passive.  by  not  others, fate.  moving do  the  tendency  placed,  whatever  to  this to  more accept  these  113 might  be. Nonetheless,  of  progress,  people  disappointed  expressed,  at  least  to  consequences  of  their  acceptant  this  respect  more  active  were  to  so  attitude  Apostles  Church  preaching  and  practical more  conversion  help  in the  farms  visited  uneconomic  advancement  under of  mortgages  house  plans  usual  New  large  windows  a  service  in  the  helping  obtained  from  for  purpose,  Zealand and  this  low-cost other  effect  the  was  Maori  to  education, vigorous  offered  of  to  them  advise to  should jobs  ways with  Church  in  town  a  similar  series to  attractive  m o d i f i c a t i o n s which  town  thought  the  had  the  that  to  were  houses  in  be  go  sense;  get  members  President  I t even  but  the  housing  making  State. most  a  people  more  liable  religious  housing,  minor  of  farmers  advice  that  for  and  The  Regular  ways  operated  the  in  officers.  preaching  available.  of  to  were  with  from  work,  members,  families  jobs  they  Whangaruru  Church  Whangaruru  and  well  were  convinced  that  regular  also  beyond  his  values  farm  accomplishment'.  where as  from  have  I960,  encouragement  effort  went  lack  they  addresses,  more  active  d i f f i c u l t i e s ; ,  were  fully  public  more  By  own  i f the  for  as  dissatisfaction  whose  less  would  towards  Quorum  financial  they  which  'oriented  Priesthood  the  behind,  their  attitude.  were  In  hygiene,  from  Sometimes  their  necessary  theycalled  better work  was  Mormons.  downwards,  improvement, more  as  me,  different,  about  districts.  missionaries,  very  advance  other  left  often  American  in  being  compared  The  Maori  at  embarrassed  knew,  the  to  felt  gave  the fittings,  them  a  114 slightly of  unusual  America.  Whangaruru some  and  This  housing  people  Whangaruru  the  Department  and  provided  luxurious  a  desire  members of Maori  ment,  both  was  unrelenting.  for  instance  Presidency, Everything  Dr  and  i t will  who be  These especially  themeselves,  speech  does  often  i s now  been  at  leadership from  risking  a  into  quoted  to  by  advance-  criticism.  though  be  they  gentle,  the  pace;  Mission saying:  t o move  will  very  left  fast  behind  up a f t e r w a r d s . * speakers  at  had  verbatim, claim  their  This  more  but they  preached  could  and d r i v e  Whangaruru,  minority.  them,  supposedly  level  of  of the community  i f they  meetings,  discipline  line  wanted  Ill  Orientation  sort  meeting  oriented'  the rest  reporting,  higher  services  of the  beginning  to catch  presumptuous  this  leadership  the Church  merely  applications,  i t s own  t o speed  counsellor  'actively  as  up  matters,  tried  the small  more  towards  i n Church  were  t o make  1 9 6 1 , when  housing  speeded  i n the  help.  at a  keen  t o make  had  sentences  By  without  ready  harder  thought  instructions  b u t by  n o t come  sermons. said  rehoused,  s o much  by  was  been  a  t o be  first  i n the d i s t r i c t  everyone  have  Paewai,  made  and  minority  Speakers  reminiscent  stimulated  Affairs  and  style  certainly  the pressure  i n economic  and a  scheme  felt  the necessary  Nonetheless,  look  like  would  their what  own had  to act  message  under home  115 The consider had  second  fundamental  i s between  i n mind  discipline  roughly  and D i o n y s i a c  control  expansion,  Here category.  o f t h e human  progress of  Mormonism  i n a  and use o f laws,  important  part  (O'Dea  130)  p.  natural  believes  with  by  a  curbing  of desires; -  balance  power';  it  harmony.  emphasises  upon  However, a  proper  doctrine  a  the  'as  knowledge  plays  an  in this  constant  l i f e . '  curbing  upon  even  feelings  strong  against  of  t h e Mormon death  and  i s possible  f o r a  religious  i f man  are -  believes have  the  control. attached  t o be  - restrained  activities,  lesson  He  smoking  under  i s expected  only  these  courtship. and  conceals  f o r instance  the importance  of kinsmen  h i s many  that  of -  drinking  him, and a l l i n t h e p r o p e r  i s wrong  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  control  inhibitions  explains  between  mastery  t h e warmth  c h i l d - r e a r i n g ( i nAmerica)  sexual  analysis  circumstances a  adventure,  strongly  involves  aggression  taboos  of keeping This  made  markedly  the strong  that  incestuous  cross-sexual  function  keep  o f Mormon  unconscious  modesty, that  and  Appollonian  i n h i s progress  obedience  Kluckhohn  desires.  characteristic  coped  safety  and w i 11,  to  between  internal  t o Mormon  man  have  i n the  depends  obedience  i n advancing  Whiting  strong  the religion  universe  Such  and  clearly  inte11igence  lawful  between  we Here  distinction  cultures,  falls  opposition  fulfilment.  'adjustment*  Admittedly,  freedom  and  the traditional  Appollonian and  binary  to the  i na l l and  moderate;  f o r 'balance  meets  measure,  to exceed,  i s  a l l t h e demands ( f o r instance, even  by  one  116 minute,  the  allotted  Activities authority that  is  has  laid  given  -  i t .  private  inspiration the  artistic strict away  Church  Mormon far  to  God  what  safety,  no  only  god;  peasant  once  of  do  the the  the  from  class,  must  be  man  must  every  harmful  pursuing  lesson  to  the  wrong  to  1959:12-13)  adjust  this  for  bounds be  Mormonism  venture  their  opportunities  within  be  -  (Woodruff  many  enthusiasms.  plays,  of are  of  the  carried  aims  to  desire  he for  course,  many  roles  highly  valued  and  internal  endure;  in  provided forces  devil is  attitude  to  harmony. no  continually  where preferred  Without  culture  has  occasional  normally  to  the  Ratana's of  full  such  Dionysos  release,  pent  in  a  up  by  prudence  expression  of  feelings,  believe, for  anger  taking  is  the  anger  expression  money  and  desire;  self-control,  but  food people they  instance,  positively  possession  express  violent  immediate of  values  feelings  tangi,  f u l f i l virtue  Maori  ones;  to  the  could  modern  thing  to  a  i t is  plan  custom.  the  alised;  too  and  society,  in  At  of  the  matters  and  discouraged  adjustment  rather  result  with.  to  and  suppression  right  plan,  i t would  but  expansion  negative  w i l l  this  Maori  society  The  the  set  front  closely  a l l Church  programme .p r o v i d e s  modern  social  even  in  desire,  adventure,  the  are  artistic  control  values,  is a  follow  permits.  The  and  for  discipline; by  every  simple  down;  expression,  too  been  always  Teachers  satisfy  to  should  there  outside  Though  time.)  of and  a  grief  is  to  will will  dangerous,  person;  have  of  i t  is  consume do have  that and  the finished  institutioni t  at  lip-service l i t t l e  respect  117 for.a the  kinsman  pattern  ferocity,  who  practises  i s similar.  i t .  Maori  i t sreckless  In c o u r t s h i p  dancing,  and  above  marriage,  a l l ,  e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g ,  in  i t s  belongs  to the  1R world  of  Dionysus. Probably  ment  which  person  i s penalised  prone  considered whole such  peculiarly  impulses. was  European  influence,  very  were  supply  insecure.  how be  money much  had  more  without  remained,  89)  -  other it  was  time  until  careful  gave  up  to be,  In 1960, had  made  become  now  fulfilment deeply  Mormon  disease  and  the family  food  subject  often  that  of  i t had  under  fully  people  the  the Dionysiac  heart  d i d n o t become  had  because  drinking  habits  the 1930's;  offences is  the effect  by  A  repression  of Whangaruru  spending  they  money.  Zealand,  threatened  Whangaruru  teaching  enjoyments.  moderation  who  sexual  from  f u l f i l -  Zealanders.  the severe  apart  on  complained  nothing  could  orientation  s t i l l  conscious  of the  i t brought.  Mormon their  quite  immoderate  but people  insecurity  in  that  aconomy  on  emphasis  New  and  i n New  to the Maori  Many  white  quarrels  i s based  costly,  at  by  dangerous  opinion.  homes;  a  heavily  life  But  broken  to  a l l the Maori  to drunkenness,  of national  element on  i t i s above  concerns  In  fermented)  See  also  the Maori  were  eaten  this  (Doctrine  tobacco,  added,  anything  Ritchie  form,  of Wisdom  of alcohol,  foods and  t o make  i t ssimplest  t h e Word  the p r o h i b i t i o n stimulating  seeks  such  as  moderate  call  for  and  Covenants  tea, coffee. rotten  i n excess.  1963:144-146  more  But  corn(because  Very  frequent  118 too,  i s the  moderation  Mormon of  The attitude the  because  expenditure,  sex  and  intensive  for  missionaries  to  young  call  to  a  only  theft  very  the  also  more  This  very  few  addresses  on  more  than  one  speech  on  any  at  least  less,  usually  the  had  missionaries,  strongly  on  this  can  only  be  effectively  (in  this  case, With  Maori  of  tangi's  way*.  in general  desires  are  satisfy  desires  must t r a i n for  him.*  part  of  Nor  life  Therefore be  himself  'You  can  Temple  be  terms,  only There  damned  President.  He  under  a  a  or  the  Mormon  for  ones,  not  be  God  wish  Nonethe-  felt  very  a  of  doctrine mediators  one  the  'the  Mormon 'Man's  learn to  God  not  be  also  to  have.  has  Man  intended  injunction.  should  of  in  man  which  negative  just  never  district  told:  and  p o s s e s s i o n s , but  neglecting  heard and  system,  taught  would  multiplicity  I  the  numbers  was  A l l tasks  i t .  participate.  was  things  budgeting  addresses.  young  not  among less  Americans  the  obey  does  purely  material is a  must  in  and  though  ten  actively  those  task.  wisdom  i f large  people  God  enjoy  this  becomes  not  budgeted.  was  eight  moderation  things  to  occasion,  Maori  relatively  from  excessive wailing  intemperate. for  one  mediators)  conducting And  always  inculcated  success,  was of  the  particularly  participated  sex,  But  change  one,  work  especially  point.  more  the  the  debt.  to  teaching  mediators  only  meetings  a v o i d i n g of attempted  regarding  few  budgeting,  disciplined  unmarried.  than  household  Every  attended time  to.  should  responsibilities. of  them*,  said  the  119 A whole 1960 On  f  hui  tau*  afternoon was  the platform  spiritual, had  devoted bridge  the other  several  head:  a  t o t h e theme was  service  (including service  housing,  budgeting. speaker,  that  service  each  A on was  Mission  President  depends  on a c h i e v i n g  commands. value  Here  each a  a  then  theme,  i s a  type  leading  up  each  service the  bridge-  community  time  to the  that  teaching  good  by a  conclusion  In conclusion,  i n the obeying  systematic  of  organizations),  given,  saying  symbolising  marriage,  o f power.  spoke,  balance  was  i s Power*.  making  celestial  talk  source  himself  Each  to non-church  brief  of the  bridgehead  the blocks  books,  meeting  'Balance  one  service.  parts,  of sacred  different  placed,  physical  constituent  reading  of the Priesthood  fullness  the  of  power  of a l l divine of  the A p o l l i n i a n  emphasis.  IV  Autonomy  and  When discussed, basic only of  Dependence  accepting  the people  reason:  was,  on  the changes  earth  tells  us* and  which  has  i n t h e modern  Maori  being  of superior  authorities,  a u t h o r i t i e s a r e as  absolute  the  subject  those  same  i s the  This  innovation.  but the claims as  me  authority'. an  variety  gave  already  'the Church  already  unusual  I have  always  in itself,  nothing  these  of  of Whangaruru  'the Church  organization  authority  any  concept  There  to a  o f none  o f Mormonism  i s  great of and  -  120 in  spite  l i t t l e  of  greatest  a  possible  of  receiving  permit and  divine  and  develop  one  leader'.  anyone  more  remote  preaching, are In  many a  historical  prophesy finally  of  the  Only the  could  strong on  lesson test  the  present  the  principle  in  the on  humility  humility  i n s t r u c t i o n s of  the  but  not  Branch  up  that  a  this  the  of  i n i t i a l  that  no  pattern  were  two  It  could  Babel  smaller  of  restrain  prophesy  second  t i t l e  individuals  into  i t could and  to  of  Church,  into  the  the  organization  to  one  about  path,  that  vesting  'prophet, struggles  revelation  seer did  the  received  Church,  Church, the of  must we  need  for  (following a to  President.  Teacher  said,  have  s t i l l  authority  presented  Branch  at  splinter  hand,  the  due  'There  the  revelations  meaning  the  the  the  stress  crucial  for  fierce  rival  shows  revelation  Church  as  l i f e ,  autonomy  thereby  followed  the  humble,  of  and  group  not  directed  after  the on  open  other  govern  though  lessons  was  Mormon  obedience  breaking  centrally  possibility the  branch  On  leaves  the  stressed  development  accept  Today,  on  concept  which  Mormonism  else  laid  in  development:  a  revelator'.  membership  is  none  individual.  cohesion  restricting  President  the  -  a  groups,  man  to  agency'  O'Dea : 156  of  gifts,  'free  revelation;  revelation.  prophetic  by  This  unrestrained  private  and  is  paths  smaller  the  of  of  stress  Mormonism,  dependence  possible  in  principle  authority.  genesis  of  doctrine  e f f e c t i v e autonomy As  Church  the  become  find,  obedience. and  was  You giving  the There  obedience.  standard  us  in  a  pattern)  in can an  obeying be  poor  example  121 where This  pride  i s , indeed,  denial  of  the  forgive. the a  resulted  case  of  terrible  though  the  disobedience  worst  Ghost,  order  end  he  the  Holy  In  in  to  later  sins,  the  one  Marsh,  was  repented  of  this  an  clearly  for  is  idea,  early  never  his  i t  Church  God the  forgiven  with  does  by and  the  not  lesson  apostate,  disobedience  authorities.  equated  transgression  demonstrate  apostle and  of  towards  quoted  who  came  to  God,  even  re-entered  the  Church, In possible,  ordinary to  act  Church  according  superior.  Less  individual  religious  performance by a  the  of  discussion  their not an  an  views  ordinary to  for  in  him  his  decision  to  not  to  to  bind  acts  than  generally on  of  Dependence  'sustaining'.  the  The  (which  are  sustain  a  the  often those  right  asked  to  decision;  the  membership  The  true  by  meaning  the the  a of  next, same.  the  of  ritual  He  to  have  It  most  is  the  'set  solely,  announce  of  the  decision not  of  is  been  must  those  express  i t  decide  'sense  the  function  pledge  has  too,  follows  to  issue,  must  the  sustaining  often  who  authority. follows  on  discussion  officer,  hand; do  Church  a  enthusiastic  allowed  the  organization,  divine  very  which  their  a  responsible  particular  vested  after  such  wherever  expressed,  been  t r i v i a l  of  is  ceremony  however  end  and  This  Yet,  the  speaking,  punctilious  freely. at  desirable,  i n s t r u c t i o n from  have  raise  decision  placed,  definite  members  is  the  is  is  which  run  meeting*);  a  'assignment'.  vote.  apart'  to  i t  during  permitted  asked  value  ceremony  procedure,  are  sustaining unusual  'vote'  is  rather  'sustaining*  is  most  obedience. of  122 obvious  in the periodic  General  Authorities.  also  members  by  Temple. amount  to  Such expected public  that  approve  do  so, i n which  in  war,  case  families  chief  would  declaration  *I believe  would  he  no  power  out.  quarrels  and the  Authorities  beyond  Bes t  him, while  stand  year,  entering  formal  goes  follow had  a  the  of  (or better  i s true,''  of the Maori,  could  'innumerable  recurring  on a u t h o r i t y  a  once  before  the General  gospel  at which  i t and  at least  testimonies:  this  traditionally  to 'sustain*  i n interviews  Another  dependence  meetings  caused  i s done  i s to say, during I know)  o f members  'sustain'  to apostasy.  s t i l l ,  might  This  privately  Refusing  loyalty  vote  1924b:90  make  a  describes  might  to coerce  a n d much  was  proposal,  others  Lack  what  'Some  refuse  them.*  of respect  fighting*.  to  Even  for chiefs (Bes t  1924c:  389) Ritchie Maori,  At Rakau,  contractor, The  also  even  early  'that  or  problems.'  is  unhappy,  opinion  and deny  gossip,'  efforts  lower  have  bread  than  to depend easily. Dr  on  as  can't  a  grievances  I f a  marriage  'about  unPakeha  to the sanctions describing  these t i l l  Children  to express  thinks)  said,  boss.  i n their  tend  Ritchie  you g o t t o wait  independent  under  themselves.  t e l l  modern  prestige.  are susceptible  'You  an  t o be  People  of h i s informants  -  of the  are not interested  they  at leadership:  I t ' sl i k e  t o work  the highest  hollowly,  that One  income,  has  others  though  the autonomy  preferred  i t i s broken  (even  local  man  group  They  concern  do.  at  self-employed  learn  a  stresses  people  they  make  of  her  what  to  themselves  123 ready*.  (Ritchie At  Whangaruru,  stop  others  acts  such  minor  from  as  troublesome  same  was  The on  one  be  man  who was  If  person's  might  towards  concerns,  'conformity-  subordinate  their and  h i s tapu as  never even  by  some  other  way,  i t sinternal  was  sphere.  or betrayed  the community f l e x i b i l i t y ,  would  take  i t was  very  disagreed  to hold  them. family  than  seen  as  i fa  attempt  the  norm,  purely  any e f f e c t i v e  t h e community  The  people  lower  t o an  were.  Mormonism,  Probably,  to h i s people  their  they  housing,  clearly  I d i d not notice i n this  or  had  to put h i s hat  t o work,  were  reduce as  of  men  ostracised.  his right  higher  some  t o be  refusing  regard  anti-social  could  under  to  reporting  that  one  right  efforts  from  superstitious;  but they  loyalty  the 'pakeha'  with  providence  gossip,  with  a l l  nature;  but d i d not question  standards  be  accepted  opinions,  not decried  or f i n a n c i a l  individual  to  guarded  vigorous  the malicious  They  kinsmen  f o r deviant  his ideas,  there  as  made  t o do, even  or  but not i n f r i n g e  with  care  wanted  in their  treated  true  rarely  adultery  tendencies  the table  a  they  136, 156, 152, 161.)  to the police.  opportunities, would  what  people  stealing,  quarrels  They  1963: 70, 75,  pressure Maori  to  were  identify  to outsiders  in  countermeasures. sensitive  to  With  external  threa t . In led  the traditional  to intolerance  superordinate of  authority  everyone,  towards  position. and  people  As  system, anyone soon  the emphasis who  as  a man  therefore  had  tended  'get sick*  to  placed  to take  had  autonomy  himself some  decisions of him.  on  in a  positions  affecting  124 Perhaps than  this  struggle  the competition  for status.  charge  of the kitchen  charge  of the whole  On  the other  hand,  with  h i s running  been  a  would  be  to  one's  own  homage  only  where  authority  of  a  a  was  showed  that  there  was  t h e man  t o have no  i n  been  signs  of  i n the  would  fiercer  i n this.  slightest  certainly  have  said.  made  an  this  fault  Lamanites  was a  'hear*  rarely  open  strong  determination  The  resistance,  figure  elders  kept  outside  and  demonstrat-  were  obeyed  extremely  well  fundamental  and  mistake.  have  of the Lamanites proud  i s disobedience.  are not lacking  often  were  a t arm's even,  what  they  acted,  but  wrongly  The aided  presented  and  the length  f o r many  were  given  concealing  changes.  compliant. They  when  i n s t i t u t i ons d ema n d e d  of dependence;  Zealanders  are a  occurred  supervisor  A l lthese  to avoid  they  not to  the authority  behaviour  the f i e l d  easy-going  where  liked  I t effectively  attitude  New  the picture  paying  lent  pseudo-dependence,  never  There  but rather  while  ambiva  the Church.  t o be  people  inevitable.  teacher,  Maori  prime  like  affectionate allegiance.  determination  Mormon  be  interfered  the younger  European.  White  by  way  same  the Maori  was  had  of the kitchen,  i t was  school  years,  b u t he  i f anyone  dangerous,  and  The  the  tangi;  people  which  ive  a t tang i s would  a l l ages,  the older  go  I t may  autonomy  quarrel. At  what  to maintain  Mormon  in religious  insight  i n t h e Book people  of whose  of the narrative, ardour  and  the  missionaries  in their  stiff-necked  In parts  imagined  many  the other  125 good  qualities  but  they  image  on  the  it  be  passionately  to  its  authority.  their  mana,  question an  Maori,  they  their  how  devoted  to  the  a  the  Maori  than  chiefs, the  accept  President  the  Church  that  To  Transferring  easier  higher  lives.  Branch  repent.  much  i t insufferable  private  like  fully  saw  Especially  found  o f f i c i a l  never  to  found  recognise  s t i l l  Church  feeling  should  instructions  i s only  this  from  gradually  becoming  easier. The spoke  of  Temple  the  old  beliefs  for  a  'incomplete and  moment  proceeded Branch  to  President.  the  rank,  to  role  more  knew was  a  he  was  of  others'  by  human  instance  He  was  hierarchical call  manner  the  leadership the  live,' to  an  where  he  a  meeting,  Maori'. said.  superstitions,  in fact  Presidents,  of  responsibility But  a  member  teaching  'Many I  thought  but  was  he  rude  acceptance  to of  his the  principle.  their  preferred  s t i l l  referring  quote  Branch  in  was  during  c o n v e r s i o n of  attitudes  he  hierarchical  found  President,  a  would  was  lonely  role  be  not  of 'the  one;  his  representative  opinions,  f a l l i b i l i t y .  but  together  they  would  Mormon  the  out Maori  of  personal support.  lower  Church  tribal  officer's  unshared,  account  decision was  They  decisions  explicit  was  taking a  take  their  A  rank,  accept,  often  way',  earth,  to  have  responsibility on  chiefly  and  Then  leadership,  handing  Thus  hard  assembly.  less;  type  i f of  equally  membership  popular  modern  this  God's  the  especially  taught  for  perhaps  unpolluted dependence.  126 V  Values  and  Modernisation  Our sought Maori  to  analysis change  culture,  so  three  namely,  far  has  shown  fundamental the  We  the  other  o r i e n t a t i o n s where  ent  emphasis.  They  now  are,  value  acceptant,  orientations. four  shall  that  consider,  to  and  though  more  far  and  our  previous  10. 11. 12.  tense then quantity  relaxed now quality  13.  general  unique  Mormons  f i r s t  of  these  we  need  only  say  did  not  make  any  d i s c e r n i b l e attempt,  unconscious,  to  make  the  Maori  less  were;  nor  did  I  any  than least a  they in  heavy  tense  Whangaruru, load  than  of  church  other  (Kluckhohn:124, upon  In  number  ment In  or  the  with  three  possibly with  a  urban  regular  12 7 - 8 ,  o r i e n t a t i o n s are 131)  here-and-now  12,  other  number  work  increase  briefly,  had  a  the  conscious  in  more  or  tense  tension,  Mormons job  differ-  table:  that  and  the  at  combining  might  feel  more  before.  The  is  though  see  relaxed  in  autonomy  Maori  Ma o r i  the  fouridt  fulfilment  Mormon  On  teaching  emphases  Mormons  according  Mormon  13,  the  contrast  discreteness and  will  and  universa  teaching  number  opposed  standardization  abstraction Mormon  as  In  to  reflect  other  closely  11,  the  either the  than  linked.  main past  degree  purely  particularity  are  accent or  of  future. measure-  qualitative. constrasted  1ism,  strongly  emphasised  that  a l l action  127 should  be  applied soul,  aimed  not only  but also  between prepara  lived  some  be  accused  to  a  lay-by pay a  Church  a  frog  other  a  t o be  where  This of the  essential  distinction  a t a l l times  on  fallen and  then  vats  him.  are also  The  he  Thus, blind  nice  On  frog  second  preparation, lest  t h e Temple or  radio and  saw  faith  your  as t h e  another Into  occasion each  of  them,  about h i s  beat  until  around  He  third  was also  eaten  t h e dog  i n time  i s not enough,  the  looked  and  but  the  by a  churned  t h e r i m o f t h e v a t , he  he  they  d i d nothing  out.  The  Mormons beyond,'  i s the deposit doing  came,  community  and  frock  of cream,  jumped  reached  of the  likened  e t c .  One  of the cans.  had  moral:  Quantity conspicuously  he  three  the l i f e  to Church,  lessons,  drowned.  in front  about  planning  was  v i s i t  The  to overlook,  once  t o buy a  accident.  butter;  b u t when  The  by  members  man  are visits  about  with  f o r forethought  This  Temple  t h e Mormons  tomorrow..,.  perferred  y o u go  The  'Before  concerned  provident  learning  parable  sitting  safety.  and  t h e need  to heaven  became  carefully  f o r today  preachers  deposit.  had  cream,  and  about  plan  predicament  dog  only  instructs,  told  cream  i s no  lies  me:  of self-praise.  instalments  he  the w e l l - b e i n g  f o r there  told  of the least  to preach  theme  and  of  the accent  woman  the people  One  a  Thus,  Whangaruru  taught  liked  o f the body,  i n the hereafter.  tion.  people  have  situation  to the promotion  t h e two.  A the  a t man's  ran to  forethought  needed.  orientation  i n i t sbudgeting  i s taught scheme.  by  the Church  People  were  most encouraged  128 to  make  by  a  in  folders,  for  household  practical  of  showing  breakdown  in  each  for  a  This sye-1  aid: nominal  under used  category  the of  os t y l e d  a  The  of  sheets,  pay  was  expenditure,  provide  with  master  period  a  providing  for  Though  families  which  sheets  sheets  expenditure. some  supported  budgeting  expenditure,  over  categories  campaign  price.  a l l day-by-day expenditure  Whangaruru  for  budgets.  teaching  sold  entries  sheet a  out  did  served  nobody  use  the  envelopes  same  purpose. Quantity people  were  Such so  the  stated  have  already  teaching are  an  though  phenomena  With  the  regard  in  to  the  adopting  a  part  oriented  theory,  assignments and  in  Church by  the  analysed  terms  of  concept  role.  of  Church  This  increasingly  number  them  of  monthly  into  percentages.  significant,  previously analysed  Mormonism  of  work:  completed;  themselves  never  organizational  church  in  in  became any  quantity.  universalism (orientation  Maori  where  culture  had  that  spheres,  of  not  shown  essential  least  figures  Whangaruru  significant  at  number  these  practices,  because  constantly stressed  evaluated,  attendances, reports  was  was  very  no.  influential  universa1 istic  life.  They  problems device  can  tended  towards  13),  also be  in  roles  which  enter  other  solved  to  I  by  make.Whangaruru  generality  rather  than  uniqueness. If  we  consider  clear  that  they  are  these  orientations  orientations  a l l aspects  of  in Whangaruru,  11  -  13  together,  modernisation. Mormonism  was  By  i t is teaching  creating  some  129 minimum New  conditions  Zealand,  orientation  for  where are  adjustment  universalism  prerequisites  economic  roles.  To  isation,  one  probably  may  orientations, who  is  that,  for  in  i t s teaching  beyond  the  development. taught,  may  Americans  as  'insisting  He  on  these  cannot  points  not  of  dependence  of  is  importance  as  that  for  to  planners  that  rapid The  social  i t  If  decide  to  class  dependence  Mormonism  would  present  (at  least  the  are  happen.  that  elite  modern  as  of  the  dependence  is  an  process;  we  have  one  of  radical is  development  solve  social  'dominant'  question  to  modernisation  is and  attempt  of  to  children.  dependence  very  emphases  Soviet  and  conclude  went  responsibility  cannot we  may  successful  classes  infants  of  We  i t plain  the  modern-  is peculiarly  socialisation  happen.  of  and  discipline  value  makes  quantity  social  Church  of  opposition  s i t u a t i o n s where  intended  and  in  entrepreneur  expected  however,  the  and  the  five  autonomous  out,  impossible  future  Mormon  be  discussion  the  to  requirements  least  either  prerequisite  development  the  but  sharply  society  modernisation.  ' r a r e l y autonomous'  prerequisites  site  of  He  experienced'  I  of  as  activity  type.  individual'.  but  the  values,  development  be  overall  a l l responsible  essential  pivot  Kluckhohn's  societies  therefore  are  at  well  for  autonomy/dependence  d i f f i c u l t ,  essential  add  of  as  the  essential prerequisites  essential  Unless  social The  able  these  u n i v e r s a l l y the  l i t t l e  all  these  in  It the  is essential  social of  consider-  programmes,  here.  during  model  of  a  as  one  an  essential  crucial  modernisation  stage),  prerequithen  programme  130 which single  c o n t a i n s a l l the unnecessary  one,  orientations.  On  •integration',  which  orientations social aside.  the  should  development.  essential at  least  other  hand,  is widely be  taught  This  prerequisites, on  the  the  is another  not  a  level  of  basic  concept  of  Maori-white  advocated, which  and  are  implies  not  problem  that  essential I  have  to  five to leave  131  THE  PROCESS  OF  CHANGE  I The appendix at  present  of  various  what  I  the  s t r u c t u r e of  is  have  now  to  the  and  We  this  but  have  were  The  a l l seemed  of  the  a  a  over  took  the  passage  of  the  universa 1istic,  i t s e l f  also  an  future  the  Maori that  contraof  Maori-  gradualism,  i t became adopt  of  because  seen  stages of  work.  process  remaining  policy  interesting  longer  between  have  early  analysis  very  much  about  to  process,  estab1ishdng  many  in a  The  Whangaruru  have,  structural  of  We  years,  I  of  dialectic  Mormon  few  now  established  the  an  historical  This  one. in  the  last  desired  known  that  active,  and  quantity  view. certainly  come Where  field in  the  came  suddenly, previously  i t s place.  from  final  the  than  to  way  said  Mormonism  obvious  because  to  Temple.  passage  from  made  change  It  been  thought.  a  of  justice  systems not  Up  omission  do  yet  of  more  convenient  culture.  only  how  dependent,  world  a  to  authorities  oriented  fragments  with  has  no  said.  i t offered  was  contact,  disciplined,  diction  seen  not  especially  Church  could  systematic  synthesis  Mormon  I  perhaps  been  as  although  Anglican  dictions  this  Whangaruru  synthesis  the  already  done  which  nothing  change. of  only  is  introduced  completed,  details But  has  times,  but  -chapter  Perhaps  notes. Bible,  as  a  about  the  there the  As  so  St  Paul,  shock  was  mood  often, Heb.  to  time  Whangaruru, of  the  tolerance, is the  shown  completion now  most  discussion  5:12-14:  contraclearly started  'Strong  meat  by  132 belongeth  t o them "M.  said  he  the  change  the  easy  '.It  i s horsemeat,  it  used  know  things  whether  Previously see of  - you  they had  worship Now  accepted  to  the community, i n terms  To help  social  well  made  some  ask:  of practical  extent  -  the hard  only  things,  (a woman)  agreed:  b u t when  Y.  took  as  began, But  C.  (under  d i d what  over  d i d not Y.  they  was  best'.  Now  they  checked  really began)  commanded.  they  came  whether  back  to  the  form  Previously not," why  was  this  there  though  with  had  sudden  pressure  been  progressive  perhaps  to  a  a  'reveal'  f i t f u l  and  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of  action.  this  generalities  question.  B u t how  choice  about  did  progress,  a  o f t h e modern  and  conditions.  of this  cultural  N a t u r a l l y we  of the general  B u t none  Mormon  general  them  'milk*  F.  Clearly  to face  also  describe  too'.  i t possible  educational  1964), a  Also,  Mormonism,  made  a l l the histories  Metge  your  correct.  the influence and  b u t now  t o be  to  Mormon  this  proceed?  t o answer  account  'do i t .  towards  development  the  may  one, which  identity  in  said  really  i n Whangaruru?  development uneven  people  quotation  I t used  time,  the Maori,  fully  we  this  the pressure  t o do  was  -  age.*  the saddle  i n C's  to handle  checking  taught  with  easy  heard  teaching.  were  President,  how  are of f u l l  often  i n Church  t o be  Mission  that  In order  to take  environment,  phenomenon Maori.  tells  n o t some  have  us why  other  change  that  (Firth  to approach  i s  analysed  1959a, i n 1960  consistent this  into  general  Whangaruru  dhoice  may  with  question,  133 we  shall  analyse  in  s c a l e ' s i tua t ions two  systems as  Firth  and  study  reveals  study  reveals  summary  where  occurred  using  to  a  discussed  prevail  the  show  or  why  principles in  the  abstract  what  over  conflict  and  explanatory  manner  forces  obstacles  two  extremely  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between  a  Mormon  those  choice  proposed  introduction.  While  existed  Church  the  Whangaruru  made,  Raymond  Mormonism,  over  the  structural  of  iii  was  by  potentialities  in  small-  a  to  dynamic  enable  period  i t  of  time.  II  Genealogical  In genealogy  structure  classical was  the  the  framework  the  generations,  scientific disputes, by  i t .  valued old  are  core the  Metge  more  necessarily  it.was  tribe  form  the  for  basis  was  almost  with  them  mean  in  the  study  genealogy  At  no  time  ashamed  less  was  of of  befitting  Whangaruru  years them,  they and  them  the  is  determined s t i l l  highly  that  does  is  and  legal  dying; part  the  not but of  the  young,  indifferent  to  felt  embarrassed  as  result,  a  through  fact  young  interest  and  are  The  the  of  on  entirely  that  elder  number  the  formed  settling  genealogies  than  out,  a l l philosophic  for  acknowledges.  concerned  It  passed  also  an  sometimes  the  pointed  structure.  (52-4)  role  a  the  have  today,  that  for  of  I  communities  perhaps,  but  as  social  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  rather, of  the  i t provided  social most  of  culture,  history  statements,  In as  of  Maori  in  i t s about  an  genealogies, them,  unobtrusive  134 but  profound  three  way,  specific  the Maori  two  Judge. Court  Court  most the  individual  Court  will  In  this  the  in  the genealogies,  of.  some  deprived  parties It  much  land  i f a  allotted  tangis  and  usually part  to  offer  reasons) history  of  a  recited,  to  definite  were  community  had  to  f o r i t was  before  present from  are determined.  this  not always  does  benefit  a f f i l i a t e d to  and  with  have  that  the  other  tribal  gatherings  v e r s i o n and  only  highly Thus  injured  happen.  f a l s i f i c a t i o n s detriment  with  amended.  ever  where  have  pride  to  see  genealogies genealogies  been  dangerous  too  the utmost  records  was  The  to which  person  which  i t would  one.  the  the  hapu  the  ordinances,  that The  the judgment  i t s genealogies  i n the Church  the  Whangaruru.  almost  correct  to  on  to the  them  is given,  wonder  determined depended  genealogy  evidence  or  the  was  fruitless (for  i n the  legal tribal  lost. second  ahnumber  double  there  interests  they  own  treated  falsified offer  the  land  been  i t s temple  the  The over  their  lacked  them,  as  wrong  closely  have  are  this  representatives introduced  to  I must  local  blocks  p r o t e s t but  secrecy. At  evidence  i s t h e r e f o r e no was  For  their  genealogies,  two  hapu  the  1907,  i n Maori  that  beneficiaries  other  around  crucial  local  presumes  of  to represent  interests  case,  themselves.  ownership  members  The were  when  Land  educated  of  reasons.  First, by  ashamed  of  years,  standard stigma  source  of  of  illegitimate  prevailed:  attached  to  e m b a r r a s s m e n t was  i n the the  <the  births.  traditional  illegitimate  frequency,  Towards ethos,  lowering  these a  their  135 social  status  freedom,  pregnancy  conditions but  when  result  they  genealogy be  cited  pre-marital sexual  by m a r r i a g e .  pre-marital sexual  not always  was  Modern  freedom  available  members the  history  or  acceptable  There  wife's  each  family  marriage  the past  were  simply  same  the real  This  the history  together.  can trace  had  loss  of  o f a hapu, and  p o l i t i c a l  fusion  p o l i t i c a l  descent  groups most  to  the time  between  both  had  t h e two  considerations  b y whom  hapu.  Therefore, the  embarrassing; a  other  Nonetheless,  their  alliances.  of the ancestors  as  of  father  led to a  t h e two main  inhibiting  the ancestors  of  one's  eaten.  of a l lthis  embarrassment,  rejected  as  identity  a n d no o t h e r  they  psychological support. threat.  treated  people.  and promote  important  had been  spite  person's  serious  but peacefully today  were  and d i s s e n s i o n s w i t h  i n Whangaruru  through  recital  In be  t h e wars  illegitimacy;  But i n the sphere  here,  recall  o f d i s s e n s i o n had become  proud  not  that  to forget  hapu.  genealogies  anything  hapu  many  towards  children  remained.  among  o f the community  main  come  the earlier  and t h e stigma  so happened  tolerance  unacceptable:  necessarily  lived  greater  to the husband.  i n genealogy  therefore  had  was  belonged  Finally,  the  now  much  followed  to reduce  married,  this  interest  a  usually  f o r s e x were  t h e woman  though  It  was  After  marriage. The  to  21, 46)  d i d l i t t l e  partners  for  (Biggs :  defined  genealogies  the community's  avilable  Diffusion  definition  of identity  could and offered was a  136 From created Maori It  a  the  bond  were  between  quite  suggested  customs  beginning  to  other  the  Mormons  in  Ancient  belief  on  in  Mormons.  whites,  that  the  but  more  Maori  had  this  subject  is  shortly  before  Judgment  Day  'and  of  the  fathers  to  children  and  the  heart  to  their  smite  the  curse'.  Joseph  lest  Smith  baptism  without  knowledge  a  i t s laws The  their join  them  their And  and  Maori  genealogies  included  in  the  both  Mormon  complete  of  Maori  of  the  were to  seen  the  in  consisted  of  who  Maori  to  the  themselves.  retained  the  in  (unlike  two  parents,  itself  four of  in general,  him  p.  children  with  a  'the  keys ordinances,  from  earth  of  complying  in  presenting ancestors  that  unless  genealogical of  very  could they tables,  eternal  not  of  heart  18)  marriage. important,  influence. the  Records  Ancient show  grandparents, birth,  the  'vicarious  Mormon  those  bilineal.  places  to  two  will  the  earth  told  their  under  of  their  exaltation  f i r s t ,  history  in  were  last  turn  opportunity  that  the  Elijah  shall  interested so  on  passed  (TaImage,  They  wholly  are,  or  very  and  and  have  Gospel  partners  the  he  left  Temple  lose  that  Elijah  ordinances'.  dates  genealogies  and  dead  genealogies  circle with  the  would  ego-oriented  expanding  for  hereafter.  resulted  reformulation  are  come  believes  marriage  forebears  this  prophesying  d i s p e n s a t i o n ' , which  including  with  I  like  based  return  fathers,  suggested  Israel.  Testament,  the  genealogy  It  of  this  Old  and  interest  verses  of  the  Maori  unlike  revealed Mormon  common  marriage  ambilineal,  and  in so  and  quoting  Hebrews) an forth, death, one  137 name  (male  or  female)  circumstances the  a r e both  marriage  joined  Mormon  teaching  books,  both I  could  was  was  told  was  discover  was  that  hard:  special  for instance  lineages.  began  in  The  t o show,  where  effect  of  in their  family  generation.  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such  who  necessary  the spouses  some  o f t h e names  more  confusing  only  one  o r two  ancestors.  shown  as  married  distance  conjugal  people  i n Whangaruru  Mormon  Maori  no  resemblance  death,  data  there  Everybody  of time  were  Whangaruru  attended  fTh were shown, ordinances, Polynes ia:  e  lines  so, I  of pure  spouses  between  to  understand,  imagination or,  really  ladies  belong  to  of Whangaruru whom  there  as  and  they place  traditionally reaction  genealogy  of the temple  For then  bilineal  to genealogies  which  preference  many  are essential  genealogies.  details  The  product  the opening  i n the ego-oriented  to give  a  husbands  after  discovered  f i l l  but even  been  great  are  i s a  generations.  Whangaruru  to  had  the ancient  t o two  i s only  and  a  the added  Some  of eight It  to study  are either  s t i l l ,  other  in  people  f o r every  very  remembered,  important  that  Only  do i t . It  had  generation.  spouses  two  spouses  genealogies  i n each  to the alternative  d i f f e r e n c e s between  they  record  were  encouraged  sheets  which  bore  understood  them.  They  of b i r t h ,  marriage  and  considered  t o t h e new  classes  that  at  classes  insignificant.  system  leadership that  were  was  ambiguous.  meetings being  offered  Whangaruru Maori b e l i e v e d that unless both spouses an a n c e s t o r w o u l d n o t be a c c e p t a b l e i n T e m p l e but this i s not a c t u a l l y true. (Genealogy Handbook: 21)  138 on  the  same  hour.  people  were  hesitant  ancestors.  Some  that  Maori  i t was  Mormon to  ones.  search  for  of  be  sealed  in  one's  than  the  o f f i c i a l  eternity  man,  the  order  organizations*  United have  the them  States  this'system making  the  'family  35  of  or  miles  chief  These Tautahi,  Te  more  the  from  this  played by  records, are  of  for  work  to  no  role  more  'family  compiled  by  one  scrutiny.  members  deriving  generations decided,  one  who  In  the  ' f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' to  counteract  status was  common  from  a  ago.  when hapu  introducing divisions  'family'.  Whangarei, as  great-  d i f f i c u l t .  records  for  wisely to  or  A  by  Church  member  in Whangaruru, asked  ancestor  to  act  was  but  as  chosen  Kauwhata.  arrangements the  on  had  began  prospect  children  more  authorities  into  in  who  not  'family representative',  genealogical  away  pleasant  me  and  and  deterred  had  work  sheets  own  told  in  grandparents  were  But  their  interested new  no  even  thousands  district  of  who  uncommon  Mission  the  Family  Temple  five  were  in  designated  not  senior  members  progenitor  was  in Whangaruru, whole  Church  woman  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e * and  famous  Ngati  a  up,  even  Maori  reasonably  residing  the  or  ancestor The  the  i t is  hundreds,  common  of  family,  active  they  coordinate set  for  i t was  a  problem  are  to  to  popular.  sheets  families  for  extremely  the  records  of  For  to  out  f i l l e d  illegitimacy,  In  forwards  number  were  very  genealogies others  A  for  of  making  otherwise  childhood.  one  member  in  visits  Yet  grandparents. because  Temple  most  were  senior  far  from  descendant  ideal. of  Te  The  chief  Kauwhata  of and  139  living  i n Whangaruru,  as  family  to  work  chief  a junior  the side-door  access  many  himself,  situation  Nonetheless,  way:  genealogy  sheets,  a  b u s was  qualified  attractions  experience,  on  and  own  (and  they  dead  persons  ordinances. attend  Each felt  they  had  indeed  offered.  whose Such  Those  who  had  submissions  been were  the Maori,  more  about  and  up  as  made  by  no  Every  from  few  nearly  every-  Here,  ceremony  of  few in  eternity,  genealogy  proxies  work  any  records  f o r  unknown  f o r posthumous  members  h a d no  their  religious  vision  submitted  who  i n the  to complete  i n their  t h e bus r e t u r n e d  learnt  trip  intense  uable  with-  thoughts  i n the t r i p .  majority) acted  records  the  t o draw  had done  and  contradictions.  objective,  mystical  or had been  of  the day-long  t h e most to a  the ceremonies time  from  The  nothing.  to the Temple,  joined  apart  the closest  a t the Temple;  performed  status  o f Te the organization  absorbed  reluctant  went  The  the d i s t r i c t  is full  f o r the 600 mile  the vast  cumbersome  alliances.  achieve  i t s basic  were  s t i l l  offered  account,  were  books, c o u l d  many  Church  was  from  proceeded,  they  This  Mormonism  their  own,  by  away  work  hired  were  Temple.  that  living  to enter  marriage  sketched  Through  to act  and  not a descendant  h i s hapu  and a c h i e v e d  following  the  was  I have  genealogy  families  i t pointless  of inter-hapu  to the family  The  one  who  at a l l , d i d not wish  representative  months  found  and a u t h o r i t y  representative i n Whangarei,  of Uri-o-Hikihiki,  through  of  the knowledge  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and  through  Kauwhata  out  had  unable  'work'  of  to  their  stead. the Temple,  the Church  and about  people the  nature  140 of  eternity.  trip.  The  This task  gain  of  in  knowledge  baptising their  was  own  the  reward  ancestors  of  had  the  been  postponed. While had  set  the  themselves,  efficiently. with a  one  For  of  For  Church  showed  was  so  the  the  in  this they  any  the  symbolic  of  ancestors  same  they  very a  ritual  recovery  meaning  objective baptised,  case,  reason  arrangements  l i t t l e  real  could  that  with  annoyance.  linkage  seen  Papa,  as  but to  It the  with  the  whether links  to  in  the  The  wait.  was  and  This  in  their  the  two  of  of the  i t made for  very  the  identity  as  chiefs,  family representative,  preparation  Contact  shame  of  the  now had  Mormon or  chain  was  the  no  with  of  longer  become, dead,  the  of  the  Temple  was  less  whether  from  Whangaruru  The not  hapu lead  a l l Lamanites,  concept  Whangaruru  much  did  in  between a  white.  that  forebear  i t was  disposed  It  Maori a  Laman,  Adam.  Temple  linkage  ancestors.  elsewhere,  him,  was  was  them,  records  i t s hapu  now  ancestors  task  mattered.  sense,  a l l  the  very  The  the  for  by  genealogical  or  i t  the  the  members.  frustrated  and  achieving  achievement  confirmed  It  what  actually  o b j e c t i v e , namely  This  d i f f e r e n c e whose  experience  evading  were  social  the  apparently  b a p t i s i n g of  identity.  ancestors.  were  they the  concrete  sense  1ittle  Maori  of  identity  specific  ancestors to and  Rangi  were and  through  offered  by  enough. of  all.the  past  -  the  previous  embarrassments  inter-hapu  battles,  the  and land  141 frauds,  the i l l e g i t i m a t e  denying  the past,  Moral The  community,  births;  by p l a c i n g as  possibility;  i t i s even  link  has never  in  larger  a  power  been  more  has been  the Maori  nineteenth  b a p t i s i n g and s e a l i n g  y e t i t d i d n o t do  century  severed.  The  organism  outside the  Anglicanism  of the ancestors encouraged  dynamic  ancestors  remains  as a v i r t u o u s  past  which  had  done.  as a a c t ; the  has become  within  s o by  incorporated  i t s mystical  restored.  Ill  Social  Control  How of  d i d this  everyday  they on  life?  thought  Sundays  new  ©ne  i t was  a  phoney  the surface  truth  i n that  been  fully  internalised  'identified' the less  an  instance It  the a  some  worth  quarrel  defending.  take  between  married  intendent  they  distrusted i t ; people  had.not  In  had n o t  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s way,  i t none  case  played  changed.  self-image  fairly  made  The  men  I shall  the less  valuable,  describe  now  self-defence. too long  P.  a n d W.,  s o n o f one o f t h e hapu  had  Yet this  to the challenges  which  t h e new  but was, i n a  with.  o f such  would  up  with  below  was  is  image,  but that  there  none  face  or two o f t h e o l d e r  this  being  self-image  a daughter  o f t h e Sunday  chiefs  to describe  two n e i g h b o u r s while  of the other School,  fully  W.  was  a  of  one o f whomowas  the other  hapu  the course  chief.  (W. , a n P.  was  non-member,  (P.)  immigrant) super-  whose  wife  14.1 remained law  very  was  lived  active  Branch  in a  President.  better  During for  a  lease  refused  had  to sign  stopped  belonging and  from  He  P. Wai  the lease.  He  vegetable  r  W's• s o n f r o m  to neither W.'s  more  P.  had  Trust  picking n o r W.,  complained  which  apples  had  a  i t o u t as  that  son had  W.*s  the  village.  the  g i r l  was The  some and of  P.  would that  n o t work  could He  had  then  and  land  the land.  grazed  his  right  to  cattle  collect  that  hearing  He  land  P.  had  the complaint,  retaliated  made  the  by  to the  fruitful  police,  a  girl  of as  o f a g e .  i t had  this  caused  quarrel fights  i t had  School  the Branch  decided  on  later  President,  this  as  to remind without  h i s daughter,  a  had  as  been  the help  a c t by  the  W.  resignation she annoyed  had a c c e p t e d  hostile  years  between  staff,  P.  the Branch  14  anxiously for  led to the  teaching  f o r the Superintendent.  interpreting  then  had d i s r e g a r d e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  the Sunday  made  and  tender  occupied  claiming  when  committee,  had w a t c h e d  not run the Branch  therefore  had  In the Church,  her brother,  He  P.  known  years  At school,  from  resignation, hapu.  police  community  children.  M r s , W.  t r i v i a l ,  carnally  nineteen  months.  P.  adjoining  P.  to the police  to the school  The  on  customary  h i s son, but the Magistrate,  first  than  b u t had  was  on w h i c h  assaulted  reporting  brother-in-  i n the  had, however,  garden  affines  W.  Board,  W,  thrown  His money  beaten  apples.  had  had  earned  the Ngati  W s  which  Church.  house.  the quarrel,  from  ahdndestroyed  i n t h e Mormon  the  the  President o f t h e P.  o l d ,resign  rival  that  he  family. from  the  142 secretaryship resignations  of  his  own  stopped  From  the  Sunday  viewpoint  of  personal  relations  there  been  cases  was  being  Church, point  brought  an  open  between  President's together leading he  and  into  fight  the  positions. good  and  continued  to  the  have  feuding the  places;  the  police: If  i t had  broken  out  families. most  not  been  interest  retaliated  seriously  hapu  lose  of  his  Branch,  at  the  would  Therefore  many  Church  a  for  before the  If  they  of a l l ,  community  to  t h e y had  was  the  long  But  vital  quarrel  worst  in which  the  reign  many  the  Branch,  number  wreck  in  community,  disrepute.  family  Mormon  the  before  would  two  large  the  a  Church  two  Fortuna tely  there.  upsetting had  School.  to  of  hold  the  against  interest  P.,  in  superficial  functions  this  Branch  was  most  the  the  amiability  during  this  per i o d . Community was  very  sympathetic  thoroughly the  wrong,  old-Maori of  matters  further  old-Maori  in  the  for  example. he  not  even  land by  main  the  manner  He  have  had  and  the  W.  though  behind under  their  of  -  giving  Their  Superintendent  to  motive  history  acted  gossip  the not  this  allowed  W.  to  among P.*s  only  (This I  affines  action  was  understood  was  not  The  considered  too  concerned  shall  history.)  W.'s  well  with  the  complicate  thing  was  too  tastes. of  P.  came  elder  of  the  Sunday shown  people  dispute;  criticism an  only  family,  i t .  present  of  not  School  love keep  to his  he his  to  this:  Church, should  he  though have  garden,  not  as  set  fellow-man.  vegetable  had  Why  a an could  seeing  he  143 did  n o t need  ruminated  became  non-member  put i t into  very  anxious  they  every  main  dealt  with  according  unequivocal:  must  be  a  present,  i f a  confession followed  reconciliation; of  the  as act  falling  the  community  from  He  within  and  She  C e r t a i n l y W. , was  children  had  how  said  how  were  so  could  i n Church:  P.  President  with  an a c t i o n  should  These  his brother,  to the wronged  t o be  that  of the Church,  has wronged  applied  d i d this,  to quote  supported  o f God  rules  there  one  person  showing  witness and a  the  i t as  by  public  to the d i s t r i c t a  phrase  i n Whangaruru;  the duties  his sister's  sincerity  nobody  battle.  opinion  and  What he  once  i t was  of h i s o f f i c e . such;  he  authorities  a  used, sacred  Everybody  accused he  had  in  him of  d i d was, always  i n any  kept  aloof  the quarrel, Sunday,  the Priesthood  some  to the roles  has  issue,  i f this  to the view  President  regarded  fighting  One of  there  main  husband.  an a p o l o g y  the representative  case,  this?  hardened  man  were  t o Mormonism:  to the.Branch  by  Branch  direction.  simply  my  faith.  that  repentance. The  for  his wife  like  The  religion,  him converted  the gossip  were  of their  And  i s to convert  the argments machine.  at their  to succeed  Finally be  laugh  t o have  task  gossip  practice.  hope  were  the s i n c e r i t y  could  they  my  Such  i n the Whangaruru  therefore, as  i t himself?  fifty  Priesthood  miles  the Chapel  Quorum,  a  was  European  t o a c t as w i t n e s s  meeting,  visited  the arraigned  farmer  by  who  i n the case. Sunday  the  School  President  had  travelled  During  the  Superintendent,  145 the  Branch  form  President  where  small  unlit,  kept. hymn  the  books, get  admitted return  his  to  W,  to  to  Mormon  from  Priesthood  had  where  teaching  only  There  part  the  to  make  his  he  heard  W.  their  aids,  of  W.,  when  'I would stayed.  and  the  seemed  hisgarden  they to  two  the  After  the  had  happened,  to  quite  hand',  afterwards rarely  P, l? and  my  hands,  the  Mrs  seen  ' I t was  he  to  went  according  was  not  said.  W.  And  took  a  hard  for  W.  should  in  People him  humiliation,  unjustified.  there  job  thereafter.  very  second  he  to  on  humble  the  have  same  accepted  patch. the  reconciliation  had  failed,  P.  disturbance  with  shorn  no  institution  neither  almost  the  f i r s t  had  tribal the  had  nor  the  with  known  of  a  the since  had  Ngati  committee;  authority  experience  identified  Whangaruru  secular  Courts,  defunct  Church  authority, that  service,  what  valuable.  people's  one  sincerity,  shake  ways  the  were  Superintendent  and  many  that  a  cups,  where  his  in  the  sacrament  School of  to  supplies  hall  proof  plat-  lesson,  offer  dirty  were  said; them  Though been  not  Shortly  sympathetic  himself.',  deal,  curtained  Church  Sunday  o f f e r e d , as  garden  the  the  custom.  Whangarei  yet  the  and  apologise,  matter  day,  withdrew  alcove  privacy. fault  interested.  now  the  i t was  vegetable  But  were  he  i t contained  but  any  the  of  windowless  Normally,  could  the  rest  and  to  firm,  been  Wai  but  a  been  Trust i t had  own  able  Board, been  him.  universally  collapse  incident  had  community  had  control  community's the  the  to nor  proved  I t was  the  respected  objectives, of  the  chieftain-  146 ship  as  an  executive  Shortly 'Should  after,  t h e Mormon  troubles?*.  force.  Ten  I asked  Church  take  favoured  qualification:  W.  a  been This  the  member, quarrel  qualities  disputes.  has  would  cause  through  was  informants  among  have  Cljurch  inter-family  marriage.  The  H i s house  and  added  the  members'.  I f  that  and  victim  community  to shake  interest  question:  of  but three  agreed  the s p e c i a l  land.  the  the s e t t l i n g  control  'only  of traditional  The  community  he  over  Church  spontaneous had  twelve  hands. i t has a l l  inter-hapu  had  entered  garden  the  had  caused  cease  to see  envy. At the In the  no  conflict, these  and  I t was  peacefully fight  d i d the Whangaruru  at least  terms,  chief  land.  time  P.  was  certainly  settled;  Maori  nowadays,  with  there  l i t t l e  was  But  way  t h e mana that  P.  by  hoped  was  closer that  W.'s  that  making  a  relations two  hapu  at  conceptual  model  should  always  that  be  summary  of  the argument mistake, would were  would  n o t be  able  involved,  be  to  and  i n the  difficult,  s o much  this  but i fa  settlement been  terms.  but the son of  occupancy  the community  n o t be  Maori  but  diminished,  done.  i t sd i s p o s a l ,  brief  have  of the elders  could  i t happened  i n my  t o be  would  model  and  upset  fellow,  prominent families,  conceptual  model;  in traditional  troublesome  Seeing  o f t h e most  traditional  and P.'s  him openly.  members  a  understandably  d i d develop,  oppose  partially,  community  namely  confused  had  a  second  t h e Mormon with  one.  the Dominant  o f the Whangaruru  gossip  This White one  147 does  not  find  any  to  Dominant  occurred to  the  garden,  property, None  of  that  are  within sense  he  he  arguments  White.  -  or  general the  were  ever  group  -  pattern  gossip  is troublesome,  of  hapu P.  is a  Sunday  School  Superintendent  lacks  a  namely  Church',  according  I f such  an  Church. (quite  actually  can  be  Raymond  of  the  a  One  may  well  the  efficacy  ask,  answered Firth  at of  was  principles one with who  hapu  to  not  other  than  the  laws  P.  duty which  of  in  one  to  saying: a  mistake',  as  a  words, family  had the  they or  undoubtedly would  that  P.'s  efficacy  the  hapu,  Church  so  the  arguments  ethos,  behave  actions,  son.)  this  i s making  In  undermining  find  Only  from  condoned,  people's  man's  of  Church  members  the  community  happened  to  danger.  solidarity  can  whose  right  words, l i e  addition  does  should.'  to  we  ethos.  P.  no  other  in other  case,  have  neighbour's  Instead  In  P.  the  his  Maori  necessary  the  avert  how  with  said.  the  seriously  i t became  u n i v e r s a 1 i st i c bonds;  destroyed  collectivity  over  to  whose  had  o f f e n s e were  control  Thus  maintain  hapu,  larger  irrespective  belong)  to  much  have  was  P,  charity,  recognized  action  (Contractually  hard  'P.  longer  once  loyalty.  said:  no  at  fundamentally  people  offended.  that  oriented,  differ  in suspending  the  would  t r e s p a s s e d , he  things  other  did  the  wrongfully interfered  these  the  namely 'P.  a  of  the  Church  the  "that  to  why  people  rather  than  being  Church.  between  reference  argues  point,  undoubtedly of  choose  this  them? some  their  that  undermined  Both I  preferred  are  think  in  the  by  the  mystical the  a p p o s i t e words  mysticism  of  this  question of respect  148 does  not f l yi n the face  point and  of view  leads  them  f a r as  while  to adopt  existed  the Church  over  isation  was  of a  larger new  that  organizational  belief  expresses  administrative practice."  t h e hapu  could  an  organizations, i n  not resolve  their  dispute,  and d i d r e s o l v e i t . a weakening  of Church a  knew  From  i n their  rational  at a l l ,  could  effect  Strengthening values  good  Whangaruru  they  The  sense.  the symbolic_qua 1ity  (1964:79-80) as  o f common  Loyalty,  area  weapon  o f hapu  the operation  of social  against  loyalty,  life  and  of  the  and a Mormon  institutional-  factionalism.  IV  The  Racial  A might way,  be  Problem  great  described,  namely  taught  many  as  people  a  with  Church  roles.  with  this  have  were  of f a i t h .  to perceive  as  contradictions  but they  test  genealogies  new  similar  separate  a  Next,  a l l resolved As  a  i n t h e same  step,  factions  Mormonism  in a as  provided  new  way:  conflicting consistent  perception. framed  social,  p o l i t i c a l  or economic  therefore  preaching  problematic  conflicts  problem  s o l u t i o n was  solution,  Mormon  first  the hapu,  This  surprising  a  troublesome  from  and  and  that,  in religious  i f we  action,  repercussions.  take  i t also  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  terms,  the broadest offers  Maori  and  a  would  I t i s not view  solution  white.  often  of to the  149 There ally The  classed Maori,  form  a r e 110 w h i t e s as  the lowest limited  and  apparently  type  each  Maori From  from  the problem  every  point  races  roles,  as w e l l  conversation. aloof  very  of view,  Dominant  minor  White  stereo-  But  i s the fact  inferior  gossip  way, i n  activities.  there  i n an  occasional two r a c e s  i n a  corporate  much  as  The  (except,  of stereotyping,  t h e Mormon  but  v a l i d a t e d by  the  Lamanites La man,  who  sons  America, Mormon  they white turn  never skin.  At greatly  that  the  position.  Society  fact  and  humbled But i n the  marks  i t made  were  giving  them  and  a  the white  we  them  and  enough  humble  The  disobedient  skin.  settled  places  f o r God  themselves  t o God  Book  Lamanites,  to restore  now,  the  i n  i n the  of the  of  sons  Afterwards  of Nephi  the nobility  themselves  i f they  were  i n many  explained  of the position  descended.  dark sons  are told  i s not only  statement  i n Israel,  their  they  will  s t i l l  doctrine  that  would  not  freely  millennium. sight  this  to the Maori  though  situation  the Maori  the virtues  first  this  living  although  appeal  discussed,  by  o f Laman  os  white  whom  s t i l l  them  and  view,  the mythological  from  when  punished  brown  of  t h e two  inferior. In  of  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between  other's  are economically  pensioners. wealth,  keep  each  and  occupation-  or even  easy-going and  c a n be  status  to instrumental  Ngaiotonga) beyond  of age, t r i b a l  c.aste.  other  who  teachers , shopkeepers  irrespective  are  as  farmers,  a t Whangaruru  i t was sense,  does and  n o t seem  a  i n Whangaruru  well-known.  The  for i t explained  i t was  myth why  was  accepted  the Maori  were  as  150 poorer only to  and  did  the  doubt myth  Church. the  was  On  the  condoned  54,8)  Hence  dec i d e  to  from  a s  and  as  Zealand.  that  obedience  there  the  Not  was  promise  no of  the  Mormons  had  many  Maori  more:  they  had  City  the  become  Europeans.  for  begin  Salt,Lake  the  Maori.  until  depend  the  In  utterly  on  problem  Mormon  Lamanites  Covenants:  white feel  a  only  this  Maori  Church  social nor  Thus,  their  belief  are  converted  49,24;  what  the  the  28,8;  Lamanites  the is  New  seethe  because  People  punished  s t i l l  the  membership prevents  people  of  practice,  the  theological  paradoxically,  whites  i n t e r m a r r i a g e seems  marriage  the  in  as  partner  mixed  myth  of  of  the Church  Whangaruru,  only  customary  are  and  the  the  Maori  they  Lamanites  often  and  to  People.  Zealand  For  Chosen  The;6 l o g i c a l l y ,  Mormons  minority  are  the  past.  Chosen  identity.  In  of  inferior,  white  equality  as  the  the  of  members  does  in-laws  of  32%  comfortable.  to  of  rather  part  is white, having  in  fragments  superior,  because  Though  the  the  are  equals;  inferior  superior,  with  whites  plane,  and  ( D o c t r i n e and  Lamanites  strictly  frequent,  not  God.  the  liberated  amounts  same  will  by  of  years  New  do.  The  they  forty  in  solution:  Bay,  m i s s i o n a r i e s from  and  these  Hawkes  the  millennium  from  In  For  the  a  Mormons,  equals  the  Church  Maori  the  essentially  both  for  whites  i t offered  and  was  not  of  the  socio-economic  true.  gospel  than  but  the  minds  coming  wealthy  be  powerful  i t explain,  in  lived  less  feel  with  whom  formula  to  be  as  awkward  marriages. descent  from  Laman  151 strengthens  rather  a  member  the Church  a  confidence  all  of  unreal  becoming  a  emerging, of and  that  than  against  identity  i t is tested  a  new  (which  and  against  as  when  When  self-image.  efficacy, is a  this  new  i t seems  sense  of  progress,  fact)  is  after  identity  supernatural  i t is  role  i s  is  baffling  identity  safe,  Being  the Church  the h i t h e r t o  t h e new  a  social  Slowly  factionalism, debt,  prejudice.  a l l these,  the Maori  i t i s temporary.  the environment: racial  brings  inequality  because Church  weakens  proves adopted.  dilemmas fears potent  152  CONCLUSION  Mormorrism obvious the  resemblances  Maori  Ringatu they so  are  and  ication  the  a  of  apprenticeship lead  to  new  as  a  in  differences.  the  i s an  now  of  are  they  chosen  is  . qua 1 i f -  take  past  are;  people  essentia1  Mormons  sign  which  the  transgression  not  an  acceptable  necessary. that  Western of  of  of  The  the  out  ways  whole skin  Maori  is  and  abandonment  is  the  many  e s s e n t i a l l y as  elect.  skin  change  the  brown  the  bears  significant  themselves  a  Maori  m i l l e n n i a l movements  also  has•pointed  for  Mi11 e n n i a 1 i s m  a l l mi 1 1 e n n i a 1 i s m  mentality.  thought  effort  for  I t can  is a be  an  and  action,  but  the  sake  dream.  r e l i g i o u s phenomenon  of  hesitates  i t  can  between  the  tendencies. It  for on  to  traditional  Zealand  being  in which  Ba s t i d e  two  as  brown  fundamental  mixture  but  p o s s e s s i o n of  view:  New  other  accept  Maori  position  A  also  to  f or'.be 1 o n g i ng  opposite  one,  the  the  the  involved,  Ratana  regard  that  and  among  a  seem  continuation  the  the  would  side  of  confidence  that  the  Maori  they  did  not  This  describes  social  of  the  Ratanaism dream,  reconstruction. to  modernise  had  dare  change;  that  put to  very yet  put  this  their  is  Mormonism  Certainly  f i r s t  precisely  Ringatuism  whereas  their  their  and  lives. foot  second the  the  foot  sort  sort  on  of  of  is  i t gives One the on  definitely  told  ladder, the  charters  i t s members  woman  terror  change  are  me but  second  rung.  involved  that  was  in  actually  153 occurring.  The  transcending putting  losses the  modernisation  the  for  the  are  is  used.-  as  mana,  must  preeminence  Yet, loss;  they  the  incorporated  that  by  seen  have  religion  God  diametrically  hapu  as  hapu  has  not  larger  unit  of  even  Maori  genealogies  become  part  of  a  Maori  culture  Mormonism white and  group  with  Though  in  a  'sealed  o f f  that  Mormon this  not  some  of  world.  for  the  chance  This  tendency  have of  universal  of  an  long  the  the  pursued.  Maori  to  seal  to  the  Church,  of  no  mana. cultural  but  rather  sacredness.  As so  with  the  dominant  both  socially  orientations. the  Maori  coupled  ideal  the  apart,  humiliation  situation,  opposed  culture.  value  the  phenomenon:  genealogy,  integration  yet  total  abandoned  greater  in  and  their  conscious  i t stands  because  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  been  especially  Europeans,  a  universal  significant  represents  Church,  a  imply  community  from  level,  of  Zealand, to  number  white  economic the  New  Mormon  contain  wider  does  respect  the  part  not  great  institutions  God,  the  are  in a  becomes  as  to  arts  attack  see  the  is  Maori  of  ladder.  because  to  the  leads  This  but -  Whangaruru  the  the  Mormonism  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  over of  of  traditional  we  sheets,  a l l examples  heritage.  them,  of  are rung  support  the  Maori  feel  second  the  They  but  genealogy  these  proposed  authority  of  -  the  to  head-on.  the  Mormon  cultural  they  authority have  on  opposed  indeed  hapu  only  foot  original  are  of  loyalties  The  doctrines  not  hapu  second  Mormons  like  of  in  the  in  crafts,  f i l l i n g  cities member  and  Some  a  also  people  himself  remains  rebuff  with  Maori,  does  off  in  the  high outside have from  thought the  154 wider  world  recent  is a  article,  sealing  himself  good  they  as  I  many  has  shown  off  that  tried  complex;  concern:  belief,  reaffirmed  Mormon  the  out  belief  the  and only  its  and  Church  rest  a  ones,  charged not but  of  the  and  highly  efficient  has  described  anchored  and of  is  race  in a  b r i l l i a n t  true.  It  relations  Maori  in  achievements,  in  meet for  the  are  is  by  as  far  but  of  The  i n New  charisma,  be are  i s anchored  crucial  for  Mormon with  modern  mode  role  to  community  concern. a  minority. of  rapid  but  d i f f i c u l t i e s  While  Mormonism  in rationality  i n many and  of  here  is  sooner  same  world,  a l l ,  European  development  modes  not  Above  process  of  other  the  States.  in a  of  those  i t became  solutions  religion  also  than  organization  because  is usual  the  from  significance.  offering  Zealand  United the  also  myth-dream,  contact.  Mormon a  are  ritual  to.them  played  was  religious  Maori  i t s institutional  always people  as  of  crucially  closer  millennial  answers  Mormon  culture  Finally,  system  thus  part  of  Mormonism  the  spheres  differing  society.  with  that  pre-existing  yet  comparison  the  shown  why  organization.  while  total,  w i l l  question  conflicts  development,  i t will  have  fragmentary,  crucial  change  later  keeps  the  i t s efficiency,  was  as  I  values,  Mormonism The  Maori  communication  organizations, problems  Mo 1,  opposite  l i e i n a l l the  early  white  of  highly  concern  relations; the  answer  ritual  Maori  because  itself  to  they  the  dominant  the  that the  contents  of  traditional of  race  in Whangaruru,  and  created  to  are,  have  successful  threat  or  O'Dea  is  i t s greatest the  educated  155  Mormon  meets  diction  contradiction.  between  democracy between  and  Mormon  authority  conservatism  These  t o meet  . Similarly  individualism;  Mormon  idealism. have  a  and and  are problems  sometime  and  there  obedience versus  the p o l i t i c a l  New  Zealand's  the people  i n the future;  i s the  contrawestern  conflict widespread  social  of Whangaruru  will  f o r the present,  they  a r e n o t y e t r e l e v a n t . From research a  a  seems  dominant  modern  thisstudy  role  western  crucial  urgently  be  though  I hope  two  needed:  interwoven why  i n the development societies;  symbol  cannot  emerge  in their  answered  from  and  does  Zealand  essay  religion  of coloured  religious  New  the present  how  does  questions  will  skin  universe? Mormon have  on  play  such  minorities  colour  enter  These  materials provided  a  which  in as  questions alone, basis.  156  LIST  Baker, Charles: 1840 - July Wellington  OF  BOOKS  QUOTED  The J o u r n a l o f C h a r l e s Baker. 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MAORI  POPULATION CENSUS  Localities  1)  DATA  1936  ngaruru  South  Whangaruru  Beach  Tutaema ta i  3)  Nga  4)  iotonga  1961  56  37  38  29  38  1  34  102  100  -  44  39  31  87  37  85  38  -  0  5  23  10  11  -  N/A  56  94  95  73  316  36 7  390  371  310  145  105  33  5)  1956  130  72  Wha  61  64  Punaisuku North  LOCALITIES:  1951  42  Whangaruru  -  BY  1945  2)  Total  WHANGARURU  1936  Mokau Oakura  OF  Notes 1)  The  eight for  Whangaruru localities  the  years  listed  1936-61  Unfortunately,  not  report.  Where  a  included  in  2)  Oakura  being of  then  Oakura's  one is  d i s t r i c t in  not  Maori  defined New  in  this  Zealand  study  names  shown  in  this  a l l locality  names  occur  in  every  is  omitted,  neighbouring  shown  as  with  a  small  locality  3)  In  1961,  this  4)  In  1936,  Ngaiotonga's  was  locality  Census table. census  i t s population  is  l o c a l i t i e s .  neighbouring  population  comprises  Population  the  more  included  the  under  locality or  as  in  population  i t s  Punaruku.  counted was  1945;  with  In  population 1956,  Whangaruru  amalgamated  with  was  mostly  counted  5)  To  Source:  this  outside total  the add  Department  scope an  of  of  unknown  this  study.  number  Statistics,  from  Population  Ngaiotonga. Census.  South.  Ngaiotonga.  \ localities  most  with  163 Appendix  I I I- UTILISATION  OF  MAORI  LAND  I N WHANGARURU  DISTRICT:  ACRES  Localities  Farmed under M a o r i Land Development  Farmed by independe nt settlers  Mokau Oakura Punaruku Ngaiotonga North  Whangaruru  South  Total  4,111  82  77  166  144  302  271  185  2,29 9  3,057  575  2,576  6, 1 9 4  111  187  72 5  --  --  151  151  10,006  16,018  329  further  category subdivided  'Farmed  762  under  1,494  Maori  land  4, 7 9 5  Settlers  Maori  Affairs,  1,352  d e v e l o p m e n t ' may  Maori  under  Land Deve lopment Sta  Maori  Land  tion  Development  be  2 ,712 1 ,044  Total Cpmpiled  469  into:  Ngaiotonga  Source :  Total  381  3,756+)  The  Undeveloped land  303  3,043+)  Whangaruru  +)  Land d e v e l since 1930, now i d l e  3, 7 5 6 from  the records  Whangarei  District  of the Department Office  of  164  Appendix  IV:  Age  Groups  0  IS years  -  16-  50  51  years  AGE  AND  Male  and  some and  people some  figures who  people  occasionally. Source : in  each  Female  46  85  29  46  52  185  177  362  collected before  who  only  household  were  the table  i n 1960.  the census  They  does  Whangaruru.  included  o f 1961 as  i n the d i s t r i c t  to questionnaire in  Tota1  39  migrated  Answers  WHANGARURU  225  were  Hence  OF  108  over  These  MAORI  117  years  Total  Note:  SEX DISTRIBUTION:  not tally  taken;  a t weekends with  administered  or  Appendix I I  t o an  adult  165  Appendix  V:  MAORI  RELIGIOUS  AFFILIATIONS,  1961  National Tota 1 1. T r a d i t i o n a l  Mission  Churches  C h u r c h o f E n g l a nd Roman C a t h o l i c Church Methodist Church Presbyterian Church 2. M a o r i  Messianic  835,434 363,964 174,026 539,223  Churches  Ratana Ringatu Others (Hauhau, A b s o l u t e Maori E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h , Te M a r a m a t a n g a , Te W h i t i , a n d 'Maori Church' 3. M i 1 l e n a r i a n C h u r c h e s Non-Maori Origin  2 3 , 126 5,377  5 . No  to  6, T o t a l  Census  data  i n this  table  f o r the purpose  millennial  and other  possible.  Source :  51,148 28,656 12,611 3,947  15.6 30.0 20.3 28.8  27,583  12.9  21,954 5,2 7 5 354  16.9 5.3 -34.8  33.2  12,179 1,56 7 934 622 1,024  23,8 97.2 96.4 34.6 49.3  203,747  21,814  28. 0  17,486  891  36,2  2,414,984  167.086  21.8  17,978 25,810 5, 9 4 4 8.220  Religion  Figures  20. 7  16,324  State  Note :  96,362  of  L a t t e r day S a i n t s Brethren Jehovah's Witness S e v e n t h Day A d v e n t i s t Others (Commonwealth Covenant, S a l v a t i o n Army, Apostolic Church, Church of C h r i s t , Church of Jesus Christ) 4,Object  Ma o r i  % increase in Maori members h i p 1956-1961  have  been  of showing  churches. Department  extracted Maori  National of  adherence  totals  Statistics.  from  New  Zealand  to  a r e shown  where  166 CHART  Appendix VI  OF MORMON  CHURCH  MISSION  ORGANIZATION  I N THE NORTHLAND  DISTRICT MISSION PRESIDENT  First Counsellor Social, Instructional a n d C h u r c h .Work  Mission Genealogical Society and Presidency Committee  Second lission  Mission Rel i e f Society Pres idency  Mission Sunday School Union Super i n t e n d e n t  M i s s i o n MIA (Men's, Wome n ' s ) Presidencies  Counsellor: Work  Mission Pr ima r y Association Pres idency  Traveling Missionaries  District Pres ident  12 H i g h Counsellors  President of E l d e r s ' Quorum  District Genealogical Society: Pres idency and Commi t t e e  District Rel i e f Society Board  Distr i c t Sunday School Superintendency  D i s t r i c t MIA Superintencies  District Pr i m a r y Super intendency  Bra nch Genealogical Society Pres ident  Bra nch Relief Society Pres i d e n t  Bra nch Sunday School Superintendent  B r a n c h MIA Presidencies  Bx a n c h Pr ima r y Pres idency  Tea c h e r s  Teachers  Tea q h e r s  Bra nch Pres ident  2  Cou n s e l l o r s  Bra nch Pr i e s t h o o d Group Leader  Tea c h e r s EMBERSHIP  


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