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Recording playroom activities of young handicapped children Slater, Mabel Marie 1965

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RECORDING PLAYROOM ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG HANDICAPPED CHILDREN by MABEL MARIE SLATER B.H.E. University of British Columbia, 1949 Dip. C.S. University of Toronto 1950 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that; copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permissions. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date  s° 'fts^ ABSTRACT This study was concerned with the recording of observations of preschool activities of young handicapped children. Statement of problem Is it possible to develop a useful, concise and comprehensive recording instrument that can be used in making observations of the growth and development of young children in preschool settings at special education centres? A record form was developed with a five point rating scale for a checklist of twenty-one items with some anecdotal information. This recording instrument was used by teachers in four preschool special education settings to assess the growth and development of the young child over a period of time. The material was evaluated in terms of: a) Adequacy for description of the child and his development. b) Adequacy for evaluation of and planning for the programme. c) Opinions of preschool teachers and other professional people. d) Quantitative information provided by the records were studied by means of profiles. The results showed.that the time limitations imposed on most teachers of young handicapped children would make it impossible for them to complete the extensive records developed in earlier studies. A recording instrument with as few as twenty-one items could be iii used to provide an adequate description of a young handicapped child. Two consecutive periodic assessments showed development. Programme planning and evaluation was facilitated by using the record form to note areas of strength and weakness. Averages of group ratings showed characteristics of specific handicaps. Although a recording instrument developed in one centre may not be used adequately without adaptation in another centre, the kind of record used in this study would be useful. The record used in this study was divided into specific areas of developmental growth i.e. communication, social participation, imaginative and creative expression. Items significant to the specific handicaps could then be selected. The five point rating scale could be applied to all items. By utilizing basic elements such as these a useful, concise and comprehensive system of recording that contains a great deal of flexibility could be developed. The contribution made by the preschool in the field of special education cannot be measured and evaluated until those people working in this area realize the importance of recording their observations of the growth and development of the children with whom they work. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM 11 The Problem 12 Statement of the problem 12 Purpose of this study 12 Plan for study 13 Definitions 13 Records and Evaluation 15 Why records? 15 How is information obtained for records? 19 What kind of records? 22 What are the criteria for records? 25 Why special education during the preschool years? . 27 Organization of Thesis 30 II. LITERATURE REVIEW 32 Research with Handicapped Preschool Children 32 Evaluating Development in Preschool Children 33 Evaluation of Exceptional Children 35 Preschool Education 36 Special Education in the Preschool Years 37 III. DEVELOPMENT OF THE RECORD AND PROCEDURE FOR TESTING RECORD 41 Preschool Records 41 V CHAPTER PAGE Public school kindergartens 42 Nursery schools 42 Laboratory schools 43 Special education centres 45 Common Features 46 The Rating Scale Used for this Study 4V Pretests 53 The Present Record Form 54 Routine Self Care 56 Language 56 Social Participation 59 Play Activities 62 Emotions 63 Procedure for Use of the Record 70 The children 71 Procedure 71 Summary 73 IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE RECORD FORM 74 Comments and Suggestions from Directors 74 Total Number of Record Forms Used in Study 76 School A - Physical Handicaps 77 The records 77 The school situation . 77 The teacher . ' 77 vi CHAPTER PAGE School B - Physical Handicaps 79 The records 79 The school situation . 79 The teacher 80 School C - Hearing Handicaps 81 The records 81 The school situation 82 The teacher 82 School D - Intellectual Handicaps 83 The records 83 The school situation . 84 The teacher 84 Analysis of the Record Forms 85 Individual records and profiles 85 Single assessments 86 Double assessments 93 Short term assessments 98 Average Scores 101 School A - Physical handicaps . . . . 101 School B - Physical handicaps 108 School C - Hearing handicaps Ill School D - Intellectual handicaps 113 vii CHAPTER PAGE V. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 119 Development of the Instrument 119 Recording Observations of Growth and Development . . . 121 Programme Evaluation and Planning . 125 Short Term Assessment 126 Usefulness for Communication 127 Recommendations 130 Research 131 Summary 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 OTHER REFERENCES U l APPENDIX A. Sample Record Form I44 Manual of Instructions 14-5 APPENDIX B. Subjects - Information from Record Forms 152 Schools Participating in Study 154-LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Individual, Totals, and Average Ratings of Development of Children with Physical Handicaps Attending School A in the Junior Group 1D2 II. Individual, Totals, and Average Ratings of Development of Children with Physical Handicaps Attending School A in the Senior Group 105 III. Individual, Totals, and Average Ratings of Development of Children with Physical Handicaps Attending School B . . 109 IV. Individual, Totals, and Average Ratings of Development of Children with Hearing Handicaps Attending School C . 112 V. Individual, Totals, and Average Ratings of Development of Children with Intellectual Handicaps Attending School D 116 LIST OF PROFILES PROFILE PAGE 1. Rating of Level of Development of Subject M.A. - Single Assessment 87 2. Rating of Level of Development of Subject L.B. - Single Assessment 89 3. Rating of Level of Development of Subject V.C. - Single Assessment 91 4. Rating of Levels of Development of Subject J.A. - Double Assessment 94-5. Rating of Levels of Development of Subject W.D. - Double Assessment 9 6 6. Rating of Levels of Development of Subject J.B. - Short Term Assessment 99 7. Average of Ratings of Development of Children with Physical Handicaps Attending School A in the Junior Group 104-8. Average of Ratings of Development of Children with Physical Handicaps Attending School A in the Senior Group 107 9. Average of Ratings of Development of Children with Physical Handicaps Attending School B 110 10. Average of Ratings of Development of Children with Hearing Handicaps Attending School C 115 PROFILE 11. Average of Ratings of Development of Children with Intellectual Handicaps Attending School D CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM A persistent problem in the field of special education is that of reporting on the growth and development* of young children in a preschool setting. This problem is demonstrated in several ways. The first is in reporting to other members of a multidisciplinary treatment team — "And how is he (the child) doing in the nursery school?" It is not easy to give a comprehensive answer, in terms that are meaningful to all the professions involved. A description of what a child can do does not describe progress. Another problem, an outgrowth of the first, is that of putting this information (on growth and development) in a form suitable for cumulative histories. The problem of programme planning for the individual child and for the whole group, is also involved. What are the performance goals for each child' What are the goals for the whole programme and how can these goals be reached' The beginning of a solution to these problems may be in an adequate system of records. The need for a quantified system of recording the growth and development of handicapped preschool children was expressed by L.J. Linch. He said that some quantitative, as well as qualitative information on results in special preschool groups is needed. * Growth and development - This phrase is used in a general sense and includes physical, social-emotion, intellectual etc. in its scope. 12 I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem Is it possible to develop a useful, concise and comprehensive recording instrument that can be used in making observations of the growth and development of young children in preschool settings at special education centres? In special education centres with several contributing disciplines, records often become very voluminous. Therefore, recording must be concise. To provide information for adequate evaluation of the child and the preschool programme, the recording must be comprehensive. To show development, or lack of it, in the child, a quantitative measure must be established. However, since growth is individual and cannot be entirely reduced to figures, there must also be room for qualitative information. Most important of all, the record must meet the needs of the people working with the child. The record must be useful. Purpose of this study; 1. Develop an instrument that could be used to record the growth and development of preschool children in special education centres. 2. Use the recording instrument in several special education centres to see if it met the above-mentioned criteria of usefulness, conciseness and comprehensiveness. 13 Plan for study The data gathered is presented as 1. Opinions from medical directors regarding the usefulness of the recording instrument. Opinions of preschool staff using the recording instrument regarding its usefulness. 2. The ways in which the instrument was used. a) For description - of the child - activities, abilities. - of the development of the child -when used more than once, over a period of time. b) For programme evaluation and planning - for the individ-ual child - Does the programme need to be changed to aid development? What is the next step for this child? How can it be achieved? c) To make the quanititative information provided by the record form more significant records are presented as profiles: - as individual profiles. - as averages for school groups. II. DEFINITIONS Handicapped child (exceptional) - The child who deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotion-ally so markedly from what is considered normal growth and development that he cannot receive maximum benefit from a regular school program and requires special classes or supple-mentary instruction and services. (Cruickshank & Johnson p.3) . 14 This study does not include the intellectually gifted in this definition. Special education - Education of handicapped children (as defined above). Special education centre - A centre for the education of handi-capped children (as defined above). Preschool - That part of the programme of a special education centre, apart from the therapies and medical treatment, set up for children too young and/or immature to benefit from an academic school programme. The chronological age range is wider than for non-handicapped children. The youngest is about 3 years and the oldest about 7 years. It includes nursery school (juniour groups) and kindergarten (senior groups). The terms preschool, nursery school and kindergarten will be used interchangably unless otherwise stated. Record(s) - This study used this word as both a verb ("...used to record..." p. 12) and as a noun ("...records often become..." p.11). v - register, put in writing or other legible shape, represent in some permanent form. n - Piece of recorded evidence of information, account of fact preserved in permanent form or document. (Concise Oxford Dictionary 4-th Edition) Cumulative records (case history) -Cumulative records - A cumulative record is one maintained for an individual pupil or client over a period of years, with 15 successive additions to the record at relatively frequent intervals, .... A complete picture of the child as a unified personality depends largely on the details found in a cumulative... record system. (Good & Scates pp. 762, 763) III. RECORDS AND EVALUATION Why records? This question, when asked of special education for the handicapped preschool child, can be approached in at least two ways: A. Preschool children - The young child cannot tell you in words why he acts the way he does. If the adult is going to try to find out, the child must be observed in details of how, when and what, noted and recorded. Gathering clues from the child's activities will lead to understanding. Cohen and Stern (p^) express it this way - Young children Think with their hands (they touch to find out) - socialize with their feet (stamping and kicking)... - think with their feet (What happens to a worm?) and socialize with their hands (What will happen if I touch him in the eye?) Children communicate with us through their eyes, their voices, their bodies and their gestures. Recording of their activities help us not only to see a child as he is but helps us remember what he was. B. Education - If the contribution made by the preschool to the total educational programme is to be measured then records must be kept and used. Tyler has outlined purposes of records in an educational system. Some of these are that: 1. They furnish data about the individual pupil essential for 16 guidance. This implies a comprehensive evaluation of all significant aspects of the pupils accomplishments. It should show progress and difficulties. 2. They provide a periodic check which gives direction to programme improvements. 3. They can serve as a sound basis for public relations. These purposes are not only applicable to educational systems for the non-handicapped. They are also applicable to educational systems for the handicapped. Education for the handicapped preschool child is usually only a part of the total programme for him. Dependent on the specific handicap there may also be physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy, and/or speech therapy and others. There are records kept on the child's develop-ment in each of these areas. The child's medical history, the reports of psychological tests, and the reports on the family and home are also kept. Together they comprise the cumulative record. The significant growth and development which goes on in a preschool programme should be considered. Records must be kept. But what is to be recorded? There is one aspect of the child's growth and development which cannot be fully noted by the many specialists. (The word "fully" is used because it is a part of their records. No area of growth and development can be isolated from another.) It is the way in which the child actually uses his abilities and skills in his own world - for example the difference between speech and communication. At 17 the special education centre that world is the preschool - a world created to meet the needs of the child. It is a record of living in the nursery school that must be made. And it can only be done by careful observation of the child and a record-ing of his activities. How can a record of preschool activities help in guiding the child? To continue with the illustration of speech and communication already used: an adequate record should include information of a child's ability to communicate with the children and adults around him. Over a period of time the records should show an increase, not only in the amount of communication, but also an increase in the vocabulary used by the child. If there has been no increase in a six month period then some questions should be asked of the child's programme. Is he being given opportunities to speak or to communicate with others? Are his needs being so efficiently anticipated that he has no need to communicate? Are the materials or toys with which he plays so simple they present no pro-blems to him? Is the adult taking time to "unravel" his gestures and sounds? Is he making good gains in other areas of development? These are the kind of questions which could be asked of a child's individual programme if adequate records were kept and areas of need could be shown. Depending on the answers, appropriate changes could then be made in his programme. An evaluation of the total programme can also be made with periodic 18 checks of the individual records. Ask the question "What are we trying to do in the school?" If the objectives of the preschool are clear the records will show if they are being achieved. For example - One of the objectives of the preschool could be stated this way - "To provide opportunities to increase intelligible communication". The records of each child should show, from one time to another, if there has been an increase in intelligible communication. If there has been little or no increase with most of the children then the programme must be critically examined to.see if there are enough opportunities provided for communication. Are the adults so busy caring for the physical needs of some of the children that they have no time to listen to the others in the group? Are the adults so busy telling the children what to do there is no need for the children to talk? Are the children being provided with enough materials to provide incentive for conversation? These are only a few of the questions that could be asked of a programme if records showed little or no increase in intelligible communication amongst a number of the children. The point of using records as a basis for public relations (Tyler) can be paralleled with one given by Olson as a means of communication between professional workers. This is most important in a multidicip-linary setting. The speech therapist needs to know more than "He uses gestures instead of vocalizing." The physiotherapist will need to know if the walking ability demonstrated in her presence is consistently carried over to the playroom. But more than this is the need to show 19 that the preschool is a learning situation, not just in social-emotional development, but in all other areas. And it can only be done if the broad role of the preschool is adequately reported. Another use for records is given by Olson; He says that they can be used as a basis for a body of knowledge for study and research pur-poses. If records are to be used for these purposes there has to be some standardizing in the form of recording, and in.the use of terms. Qualitative information is not enough. Quantitative information is needed. In summary, records of the growth and development of handicapped children in the preschool can be used for several purposes. The four that have been discussed are -1. For individual guidance and evaluation. 2. For programme planning and evaluation. 3. For communication. U. For study and research. How is information obtained for records? Having provided some reasons for keeping records the next question will be - how is the information on growth and development to be obtained? It has already been pointed out that a preschool child cannot explain or report on his own activities. The adult must observe the behaviour of the child. What the child does, not what he thinks or feels, is what is noted or recorded. 20 Methods of observation depend on the needs of the observer and on the physical set-up of the situation. Certainly there are some basic guide lines but the student, the research worker and the teacher will each have different reasons for observing. For the teacher Cohen and Stern says that: The teacher must literally snatch time to record observations. Cards, pads etc. should be kept in pockets and on shelves for brief notations. "Be casual and unobtrusive about it all." (p.7) Always include date, name of child and the setting for the action. Take records at different times of the day. For any observer "Observation" must have direction. If it doesn't the attention of the observer will be attracted by certain qualities of behaviour which may not be important. The child who is constantly moving from one activity to another will attract more attention than the child who works with just one kind of material. The child who shouts, whines or cries is more noticeable than the quiet child. The child who is strikingly different in size, behaviour, or dress will attract more attention than other children in the group. The observers needs of the moment will cause certain children 21 or activities to be more attractive than others. For example, the observer with a headache is more apt to choose a quiet child or a quiet activity to observe. The observers own interests will influence the choice of activity for observation. So before observation begins there must be a plan. The observa-tions must be organized. (Methods of recording observations will be discussed later). The process of observation may be interfered with by several errors. Observations, even when directed, can be interrupted by more attention getting activity, so that some information may be omitted. Observation, may be incomplete because the observer was unable to note all of the activity, (e.g. Portions of conversation that were carried on in very low voices,) or failed to note details of the setting for the action (e.g. 'Tom his Mary' is meaningless unless additional information is provided. 'Tom hit Mary when she grabbed his cap.1 gives a better picture). Error may arise because of faulty memory when reporting is delayed. It is important to remember that errors will arise. Allow a margin of safety by validating observations with further observations, before acting. (Almy, 1955) Although only one method of observation, that of noting details 22 of external behaviour, can really be used with preschool children, the needs of the observer will determine the direction or focus that the observation will take. For any observer 'observation' must be directed. If it isn't, the attention of the observer will be taken up by some kinds of activities and others, equally important, will be overlooked. Observations must be validated by further observation before interpretation of the activities or behaviour are useful. Observation must be organized. The organization will be deter-mined by a predetermined method of recording. What kind of records'? Records of the growth and development of handicapped preschool children must be kept if the needs of the children and the special education centre are to be met. (Tyler, Olson). The next question is "What kind of records are needed?" This will be determined by the needs of the school, the teacher, the student observer, etc. There are several methods described and recommended by authorities in the field of education. Some of these are more useful in the preschool than others. 1. The diary (Almy, 1959* Cohen & Stern, Christianson et al., Strang). This involves a detailed account of a child's activities for a specific length of time. It is the most difficult kind of recording to do. But with a little planning it can be objective and include a fair 23 amount of detail. It should create a picture of the child as he is "now", at the time of recording. 2. The anecdote (Almy, 1959? Cohen & Stern, Christianson et al., Isaacs). This method involves accounts of specific incidents of behaviour. Pertinent and interesting behaviour is quickly recorded as it occurs. Taken over a period of time it will show growth and develop-ment in a particular child. 3. Selective (Blatz et al., Isaacs, Christianson et al., Strang). This is similar to the anecdotal method but is concerned with a particular aspect of behaviour. It may be the type used for research projects. 4- Snapshots, movies, recordings etc. (Almy, 1959). These are a very accurate means of recording behaviour. Their use is increasing but cost is the chief drawback. The time needed for rerunning of films and tapes must also be considered. 5. Checklists (Almy, 1959, Thomas). This could be a list of all toys and materials used by one child or the number of times certain materials are used. It is marked to indicate presence or absence of what is being observed. 6. Rating methods (Almy, 1959, Wrightstone et al., Thomas, Isaacs, Strang). Characteristics or activities are arranged on a basic scale. Check lists and rating scales help to orgahize.e the recording of observation. Both are basically dependent on observation. They give the teacher an overview of the group and give perspective in studying and understanding the individual child. The methods are similar. The checklist is a list 24 of the characteristics or activities to be noted and the rating scale has characteristics or activities arranged in a scale of values. The usefulness of these methods depend largely on how well the teacher has observed the children. Rating scales seem to work best for judging behaviour which is easily observable and demands little from the rater in terms of inter-pretation (Thomas). Thomas gives some uses for rating scales -a) Diagnosing weak areas in the student's (child's) develop-ment. b) Providing guidance in strengthening these areas. c) Reporting student's (the child's) progress to the student, their parents and administrators. Point c. , in application to the field of special education, could be extended to include medical and treatment personnel. 7. Sociometric measurement (Christianson et al.) These are used to study social development of the child and is a type of selective method (3). A nursery school in a special education centre will develop one or more of the above methods to show up the emphasis of the centre and the specialized needs of the child - physical handicap, sensory handicap, mental handicap, long term treatment or assessment. It will become part of the cumulative history kept on each child. 25 The choice of methods of recording observation w i l l be determined by the needs of the centre and by what the observer finds most e f f i c i e n t . The ultimate test of any record system i s i t s usefulness to the teacher and any other person(s) who may consult i t . Unless records are consulted and used to improve the children's development there i s no reason for keeping them. What are the c r i t e r i a f o r records'-No matter what type of recording i s u t i l i z e d there are certain characteristics which are essential to good recording. The following i s one analysis of the essential attributes (Good & Scates). Accuracy and o b j e c t i v i t y Conciseness and c l a r i t y Ease of reference and v i s i b i l i t y Uniformity and "up-to-dateness" Provision should also be made for anecdotal information, summaries, interpretations and treatment. Accuracy and o b j e c t i v i t y To be objective and accurate i n reading and recording behaviour i s d i f f i c u l t . Objectivity can only be r e l a t i v e . I t has been said, "What we perceive 'objectively' may be, to a large degree a projection of one's own subjective state and t h i s t e l l s more about oneself than about the people whom one observes." (Almy 1955 p.7) To validate ones observations, further observation and compar-26 ison to another observer are important. Data must be objective to make professionally valuable interpretations (Almy, 1955). To obtain an accurate picture of a child every aspect of child development must be covered and yet it must be selective or the record will show only behaviour that is attention catching or will be so filled with unimportant details that there will be no diagnostic value to them. Conciseness and clarity • Conciseness is important because to the teacher time both to record and to read are limited. Yet there must be a balance between brevity and clarity. One author suggests the use of a Thesaurus if the recorder does not have a good working knowledge of descriptive terms (Cohen & Stern). Checks and symbols are a devise suggested by another (Blatz et al.) although if the symbol does not apply to a previously described activity the brevity would make it very inadequate. Ease of reference and visibility Again, these characteristics contribute to efficiency both in recording and reading of records. If the spacing and arrangement are planned, summarizing and analysis will be facilitated (Blatz et al.). Uniformity and "up-to-dateness" Uniformity of spacing and arrangement will make the record much more useful for study and research purposes. Uniformity of term-inology will contribute to clarity and understanding. Uniformity in long term (cumulative) records will ensure against ommissions or errors. 27 Provision made for anecdotal information etc. Although there are many occasions when detailed information is unnecessary, anecdotal records provide much information not available through any other means. Recording behaviour is recording growth. Many "stills" are needed before a common movement is visible (Cohen & Stern). All the information contained in records may not be needed for every occasion but well balaced records can be analysed in many ways to meet needs as they arise. Effective recording is dependent on care-ful observation and discriminative selection. Good recording displays accuracy, objectivity, clarity and visibility. Why special education during the preschool years? The nonhandicapped, average preschool child learns a great deal. He learns many physical skills as his body grows and matures. He also learns that characteristically human ability of combining speech and communication. He learns that the word "orange" may mean something to eat or that it may be a colour; he learns that "chairs" can be soft or hard, big or little, white, brown or any other colour. And so on. The many skills and knowledge, particularly the ability to handle abstract-ions, of the average six year old depend on broad experiences in the preschool years (McV Hunt). The handicapped preschool child does not have access to the environmental experiences of other children. The crippled child cannot run outdoors to feel the first snowflakes; the blind child cannot see the colour of the orange; the deaf child cannot hear the warning growl 28 in the throat of an approaching dog. The child's mother must protect and "do" for him where another child is free and independent. The handicapped child is more likely to be too dependent on others to develop emotional maturity. He may be fearful, just from lack of "know-how", of things that should provoke curiosity and the desire to investigate. For these children, at this crucial time of life, the need for special services is very real. The nursery school and kindergarten for handicapped children is part of these special services. It is a world set up especially for the young child. The preschool programme for the handicapped child is essentially the same as for any other child. The handicapped child is more like than unlike other children but with special needs. The preschool pro-gramme for the handicapped child is more like than unlike other pro-grammes but with special emphasis. The chief difference between preschool programmes for handicapped and nonhandicapped children are emphasis and awareness. This emphasis and awareness can be made clearer by examining the attributes of a good nursery school (Millichamp) in terms of special education. 1. Respect - for the young child's person. Regard, consideration, courtesy, attention - these are some of the synomns for respect. The handicapped child has as much right as any other child to his share of these qualities. In the pre-school setting he will be regarded as an individual with something of 29 value to contribute to society (that is, school life). He will not be ignored or laughed at because of his inadequacies. 2. Acceptance - of his childishness, his "unadultness". Also of his disabilities and limitations. In the preschool the handicapped child, may for the first time, be accepted just as he is - without weeping or sympathy, without overemphasis or an ignoring of his differences. 3. A place and an activity - suited to his way of being a person. To the casual observer this will probably be the most noticeable area for differences. Special furniture (chairs and tables), special equipment (hearing aids and braces), special toys and special activities (to encourage the development of perceptual abilities and manipulative skills) are provided. The special need of each child will determine this. What suits one does not necessarily suit another. 4.. Time - to live through each new way of being himself. This is where the "awareness" is more obvious. In therapy sessions the young child is learning new skills and techniques. He must have the opportunity to integrate them into his living processes. Home, with its family needs, may not provide this time at the right moment. For the mother with several children to get off to school it is nearly impossible to give her handicapped child the time and attention necessary to assist him through his self-help efforts. In the preschool it is possible to give the necessary time and attention. The adult is aware of what he can do (knowledge gained from a therapist)j the school 30 schedule is arranged so that there is time at the right time; the child knows that honest effort (as well as results) is counted. 5. Adults - to give care, concern and control in support of his efforts. This is the crux of the whole situation. On the adults in the preschool programme depend all the foregoing qualities. Enough care, concern and control must be given to prevent the child from being defeated before he starts. On the other hand there must not be so much care, concern and control that the child never has an opportunity to learn that failure can be a challenge. The adult must be aware of the particular needs of each child to determine the type of care, concern and control given. The growing knowledge of development during the preschool years makes preschool education vitally important for the child who is restricted by a handicap. IV. ORGANIZATION OF THESIS The Introduction (Chapter I) to this study has asked a question. By asking and answering several other questions which arise from this main question the purpose of this study has been presented. The Review of Literature (Chapter II) not only presents related research it also presents some of the related literature that was used for background information for this study: Special Education, and Pre-school Education. 31 Chapter III presents in some detail the development of the structure of the recording instrument. It is based on the work of other , researchers and on the experience of this writer. The plan for the use of the record will be included in this chapter. The results will be presented in Chapter IV and the discussion of these results and some conclusions will be presented in Chapter V. This study attempts to demonstrate that it is possible to devise a concise and comprehensive instrument for recording observations of the growth and development of preschool children in special education centres. It also hopes to show that such an instrument will provide a useful basis - for programme planning and pupil evaluation. for an increase in communication between professions. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Research studies of developmental changes in children are numerous but studies related .just to preschool activities of handicapped children are limited. The research that is reviewed here deals with three groups of children. 1 . Handicapped preschool children. 2 . Non-handicapped preschool children. 3. Handicapped children in general. The research studies dealing with this last group have included record forms for rating developmental changes. Also presented are reviews of a sampling of publications dealing with preschool education in general and more specifically, with pre-school education for the handicapped child. I. RESEARCH WITH HANDICAPPED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Early Education of the Mentally Retarded by S.A. Kirk, one of two research studies with handicapped preschool children, presents evidence that nursery school experiences for mentally retarded children do tend to raise the rate of development. Unfortunately it does not present any information regarding the means by which the children were evaluated in the nursery school situation. Personal communication with Dr. Kirk on this matter did not bring any further information. Other works by S.A. Kirk ( 1 9 6 1 , 1962) include information on pre-33 school groups for handicapped children but none of them present any information regarding methods of observation, recording and evaluation. Another study with handicapped preschool children, The Effects of a Preschool Programme upon Young Educable Mentally Retarded Children Vol. II by M.H. Fouracre, F.P. Connor and I.I. Goldberg presents in great detail the curriculum developed during the study. The conclusions in this study show that the enriched environmental experiences of a preschool programme tend to raise academic school performance. The curriculum guide, as presented in Chapter II is pertinent to this study. It was used "a) for observing and rating the behaviour of the preschool children and b) for program planning and evaluation. " (p. 14.) The guide consists of 190 items, each with a five point develop-mental scale, with each point of the scale described in detail. This tool made "it possible to mark the position of an individual child,... on a readiness scale which functioned as a set of intermediate goals." (p. M) II. EVALUATING DEVELOPMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN The purpose of a study by Agatha H. Bowley "A Study of the Factors Influencing the General Development of the Child During the Pre-School Years by Means of Record Forms" was to fill a need for some sort of record form which would serve as a basis for observation, especially 34 when untrained adults were assisting with preschool groups. The study-emphasizes the importance of noting every aspect of the developing child and the inter-relationships of the various areas of development. The record form consists of more than sixty items; most of them in the form of a question. Some of the questions are answered by "Yes" or "No"; e.g. "Does he appear to follow a simple story easily?" (p.102) There is space provided for some anecdotal episodes: e.g. "Have any of the following characteristics been observed Temper tantrums Nail biting ... Note any if not included on list." (p. 103) The answers are rated and the results obtained can be presented in the form of a profile. Profiles of the development of the children used in the study are included in the report. Two other publications that deal specifically with evaluation of preschool children are Observing and Recording the Behaviour of Young  Children by D.H. Cohen and V. Stern and "Written Records on Children" by Betty Shuey. The material in both of these publications again emphasizes the importance of obtaining a picture of the whole child. Cohen and Stern present in great detail different methods of recording observations of the different aspects of a child's activities in the nursery school situation. The need for accurate observation is emphasized. 35 III. EVALUATION OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN • In "The Functional Classification of Exceptional Children", Ira Isccepoints out that exceptional children are so classified because they are different from normal children. He has selected four aspects of behaviour, (l. Visibility 2. Locomotion 3. Communication U-Psychological Acceptance.) presenting each aspect with a five point rating scale, as follows: 1. No indication of exceptionality. 2. Slight indication of exceptionality - apparent to trained worker - not to layman. 3. Fairly obvious indication of exceptionality - observable to layman. U. Moderately severe condition of exceptionality - easily noticeable to layman. 5. Severe condition, clearly manifested. His suggestions for the use of this scale are: 1. Descriptive device for communication between professional workers. 2. Programme planning. 3. To judge congruence or discrepency of child's ability. The T.M.R. Performance Profile for the Severely and Moderately Retarded by Alfred J. DiNola, Bernard P. Kaminsky and Allan E. Sternfield, contains' six major areas. These are: Social behaviour IP items 36 Self-Care 4O items Communication 4 0 items Basic knowledge 4O items Practical skills 40 items Body usage 40 items These items are presented in a booklet with provision for rating each on a four point scale (0-4.). The Performance Profile is devised from this rating. The items given suggest that the device is more suitable for rating children older than those in the preschool group - as defined for this study. In order to assess behaviour of trainable, mentally retarded children L.F. Cain and S. Levine, developed a social competency scale. The scale was composed of four subscales: Self-help (23 items), Initiative-Responsibility (16 items), Social Skills (15 items), and Communication (18 items). There were four or five alternatives arranged in order of difficulty for each item. The items represent only a sample of social compentency behaviours. This scale was used with children who were not less than five years of age. In the past forty years a great number of publications dealing with preschool education have become available. For this study three books have been used to provide a basic background of information about preschool education. IV. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION 37 The earliest of these is Nursery Education by W.E. Blatz, D. Millichamp and M. Fletcher. It provides a theory of development through the preschool years and a description of the nursery school programme that has been built on this foundation. Katherine H. Read, in The Nursery School: A Human Relationship  Laboratory, places emphasis on the educational purpose of nursery schools and kindergartens. The similarity of their goals, to education in general, is shown by the development and structure of experiences in the curriculum. The most recent of the three books, The Nursery School by H.M. Christianson, M.M. Rogers, and B.A. Ludlura reiterates the educational purpose of the nursery school. The following statement comes from the Foreword of the book and serves to justify early childhood school experiences for every child, handicapped or not. "These early years may well prove to be the most fruitful for the kind of education which will determine the future of civilization." (p. xii) V. SPECIAL EDUCATION IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS Mental Retardation In the general field of special education there is not much specific reference to the preschool years. For the most part "school" starts at age six years and teaching methods seem to be chiefly related to reading, arithmetic, social studies, etc. An exception to this is 38 the material related to teaching the mentally retarded child of six+ years who is not yet ready for academic school subjects. Curriculum Adjustments for the Mentally Retarded by Elsie H. c Martins and Education of the Slow Learning Child by Christine P. Ingram both present material for teaching this group of children. There are othersj because this age group is part of the regular school population and must be taken care of educationally. No further attempt is made to cover this area of literature here. Both of these books give further references. An article by H. Ikeda "Adapting the Nursery School Program for the Mentally Retarded Child" deals with school for preschool children, as defined in this study. And Chapter 7 of Kirk and Johnson's Educating  the Retarded Child also deals with a programme for the young child. Other literature related to preschool children with specific handicaps is: Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children Language for the Preschool Deaf Child by Grace Lassman. Visually Handicapped Children The Blind Preschool Child Berthold Lowenfeld ed. Cerebral Palsied Children "Adapting the Nursery School for the Multiply Handicapped Cerebral Palsied Child" by L.G. Yum. Speech Handicapped Children Slow to Talk by Jane Beasley. 39 Although the title of this last volume would seem to refer just to the speech handicapped child it actually has a much broader application. In it the learning situation is discussed from three aspects: 1. Motivation for learning comes from the child. 2. Learning comes from the child. 3. The most effective teaching procedures are based on meaningful wholes. The material presented in all these books are apt illustrations of the following: Exceptional children, defined as children with differences, have both the same needs as do their peers and some different needs pertinent to their type of exceptionality. (Cruickshank & Johnson p. 20) Some of the general reference books on education of handicapped children also include special sections on the preschool years. "The Education of Children with Impaired Hearing" Chapter 9? by Charlotte B. Avery and "The Education of Crippled Children" Chapter 11, by Frances P. Connor in Education of Exceptional Children and Youth both make special reference to the needs of the preschool years. "The Preschool Area of Special Education" by Frances A. Mullen gives a general picture of the growing provisions being made for pre-school children with special needs. The research reviewed here in this chapter has been related to this study in at least one of two ways. They have been studies of devel-opmental changes in preschool children and/or studies in which rating scales have been developed and used to record developmental changes. AO Included in this review are also some of the publications which are especially directed to preschool education - for both handicapped and non-handicapped children. CHAPTER III DEVELOPMENT OF THE RECORD AND PROCEDURE FOR TESTING RECORD The need for an adequate system of recording playroom activities of handicapped preschool children has already been discussed. Methods of recording and criterea for records have also been presented. This chapter will be a practical illustration of the fore-going information (Chapter I). Examples of some types of records that are made in various preschools will be presented. It will also present some of the limitations and requirements of preschool special education facilities and so show the practical criterea for the recording instru-ment used for this study. Conclusions from the pretest study which have effected the development of the final record form will be discussed. And the basis for the establishment of the recording instrument in its present form will be given in detail. Finally, the procedure for the testing of the use of record will be presented. I. PRESCHOOL RECORDS This chapter is chiefly a detailed presentation of the record form used for this study. Before going into it some methods of reporting on preschool children's behaviour and development in different settings will be examined. When various records are compared the degree of variation and emphasis of each setting can be noted. 42. Public school kindergartens In kindergarten classes in public schools the information on the records varies with the school. For example, the following are items from three kindergarten report cards in public schools. School A. 1. Social development (6 items) Check 2. Work habits (6 items) 3. Reading readiness (3 items) Rating scale - Above, Average, Below Consistent Usually Seldom School B. 1. Progress in habits - social and work (3 items each) 2. Progress in skills - reading and arithmetic Rating - A B C D F School C. 1. Physical growth 2. Educational and social growth (5 items) 3. Scholastic growth (3 items) 4-. Evidence of reading readiness (5 items) Rating - Above average, Average, Below average. Nursery schools A. The report card of one private nursery school was quite broad. 1. Health and Physical Control (8 items) 2. Diction, Music, Rythmn, Folk Dancing, Games (7 items) 3. Habits of Safety (7 items) 4. Language and Arts (7 items) 5. Appreciation and Knowledge (5 items) 6. Cooperativeness, Courtesy, Self Control and Self Reliance (L4 items) 7. Health report - Monthly inspection by nurse. Rating - Satisfactory growth - Improving - Needs improving B. A record form recommended for use in Cooperative Playschools provide a space for qualitative comments for five broad areas of school behaviour. Each is broken into several sub-areas. 1. Behaviour in routine situations in the playschool (7 items) 2. Self-behaviour in playschool situations (7 items) 3. "Social" behaviour in group situations (6 items) 4. Motivation to attend playschool. 5. Notes concerning specific techniques for this child in the playschool. Laboratory schools A laboratory school in a university setting will have many types of records. Each will be dependent on the needs of the observer and the information required. 1. Student observation forms. e.g. A. 1. Date of observation. 44 2. Number of children 3. Equipment 4. Schedule 5. Record of individual child a) Skill in using hands b) Play alone or with others c) Toys and materials used B. 1. Motor Activities 2. Mental - Adaptive Behaviour 3. Language 4. Social - Emotional Behaviour 2. School records e.g. A. Social and Development History B. Health Records 3. Research e.g. Emotional Episode Time of day-: Date: Apparent cause: Behaviour: Treatment: Treatment by whom: Reaction to treatment: Recorded by: Name: Duration: 45 Special education centres Methods of recording at special education centres (observed during the pretest of the record form) were not standardized. Two types of records were made. School A. 1. A checklist marked each month (with v) to note the child's characteristic behaviour in specific aspects of the programme. (47 items) A. Routines Washroom - turns tap B. Play Outdoors - swings Indoors - Floor blocks C. Emotional and Social Level - over social D. Speech words only babbles 2. A short qualitative report of "the child in the preschool" prepared for clinical presentation and the cumulative history. Based on recall and some anecdotal records. Uses such words as well adjusted, shy, immature, etc. School B. Qualitative reports of the child's development based on anecdotal records. An examination of these record forms shows that records reflect the needs of the observer and the goals of the school. There are some similarities in these records in the items to be reported on. The ways of reportingare basically rating scales and/or qualitative reports. The 46 amount of detail asked for show the greatest variation. A comparison of these record forms shows that it is difficult to report adequately on the growth and development of preschool children. II. COMMON FEATURES What are some of the features common to all special education preschools which determine the criteria of the recording system? There would be one answer to the question: "Why don't you keep more records on the children in the preschool?" It is "Lack of time."' For this reason the efficiency of checklists and rating scales seem to make them most suitable. However, children cannot be reduced entirely to signs and symbols. The individuality of each child, particularly if in need of special help, is of prime importance. Therefore, there must also be room for some anecdotal material. Another feature common to multidisciplinary settings of which the special education preschool is usually a part, is the cumulative case record on each child. A recording instrument in this setting must be concise. This writer decided that one page was the space limitation for this study. This decision was based on experience in trying to present adequate evaluation of these children to clinics and for written histories. More than one page is too much: material presented at clinics 47 must be brief. And yet to present only a few items does not give a clear picture of the child: material presented must be adequate. The multidisciplinary approach to treatment and the inadequate supply of trained preschool teachers have a common effect in the record-ing instrument. In order that each member of the team understands what is being discussed and that preschool teachers are saying approximately the same thing there must be a standardizing of terms and structure. A standardized method of speaking of various stages of growth in the areas of development is needed. III. THE RATING SCALE USED FOR THIS STUDY To meet this requirement (a standardized method of reporting), the recording instrument developed for this study utilized a five point rating scale on various items categorized into developmental areas. The origin of the five point scale lay with the writer's experience in helping handicapped preschool children learn skills in self care. It was necessary to start with a base applicable to all children. 1. The child cannot, does not or will not do anything to help himself. The adult must do it all. Some children are past this stage in some self help activities by the time they come to nursery school. Others are not. But they all start, at some time, at this point. 2. The child makes an effort to help in the activity. This effort is not too efficient and the adult actually does most of the "work". 48 3. Then the child's efforts become more effective and the adult just helps in the more difficult part of the work. 4. The child can and does carry through the procedure of the activity with only verbal reminders and an occassional helping hand from the adult. The child may be inefficient but he does it. 5. The final step in this developmental sequence is when the procedure is so well under the control of the child that he is not only able to carry through with the job at hand but is also able to do something else at the same time. An illustration of this pattern can be seen in the following series of anecdotal records. The child is mentally retarded (approximate CA. 6-9 M.A. 3-9 at the beginning of the record.) Sept. 15 Child directed to fasten buttons on coat. C. "I can't do it." Sept. 30 Going home time. Adult turns C. away from other children towards herself. A. "Now, let's do up that coat." Adult pushes button part way through buttonhole. "See the button C. Catch it.'" As C. does this adult pushes button the rest of the way through the buttonhole. C. " I did it.'" 4-9 Oct. 23 Going home time. Adult turns C. away from the other children to-wards herself. A. "Take hold of that.button C." Adult points to button. C. takes it. Is awkward. A. "Now put it through the button hole." Adult holds buttonhole in proximity to button. A. "Push it through.' That's it.' Now catch it with this hand." Adult puts C.'s other hand ready to pull button. G. pulls button through hole. Edge of button sticks so adult pulls coat to make it go through all the v?ay. Nov. 24- Going home time. Adult hands C. her coat and directs her to a quiet corner. * C. puts on coat and starts to do button. Is dis-tracted by "ruckus" of other children. Button slips. A. "Look at the button C." She starts over again. Carefully pushes edge of button through buttonhole with one hand and catches it with other hand. Pulls it through. Comes over to adult. Big smile. "See.'" Adult says "Good.'" and gives her a hug. 50 Jan. 6 Going home time. A. nC. you can get your things on now." C. goes to cupboard gets out boots and puts them on. Gets out coat and puts that on. Stands i n midst of small group of children (3+C), and does up coat but she has i t buttoned incorrectly. She looks at i t , turns to adult and says "I've done i t wrong." She unfastens the buttons, walks over to A. saying "I did i t wrong." As she walks she does the buttons up again, cor-r e c t l y and without any trouble. Iscoe's Functional C l a s s i f i c a t i o n shows how a five-point rating scale could be applied to many aspects of development. By u t i l i z i n g his basic form a five-point rating scale f o r four general " a c t i v i t y " areas i n a preschool programme with a check l i s t of twenty-one items was developed. Mc. V. Hunt has provided the the o r e t i c a l basis f o r t h i s kind of development pattern i n Intelligence and Experience. This development i s not a simple process of adding. With increasing experience the growth picture not only lengthens i t also broadens. The a c t i v i t y pattern of one stage i s s t i l l present i n the next stage but i n a new form. Thus C. i s passing from Step 3 to Step 4 s t i l l u t i l i z e s the "push i t through -p u l l i t out" pattern taught i n Step 2 but she now does i t without actual p h y s i c a l assistance. And i n passing from Step 4 to Step 5 she maintains 51 her ability to perform the job without help and adds other areas functioning - communication and motility. To i l l u s t r a t e the wider application of the five-point scale two further examples are presented. 5 Point Scale 1. No interest. No e f f o r t . Nothing. 2. Interest, e f f o r t but i n e f f i c i e n t . Something but very inadequate. 3. E f f o r t purposeful and knowledgeable but not quite  adequate. 4-. Adequate performance. 5. Combines adequate per-formances with others to achieve another goal. S o c i a l p a r t i c i p -a t ion with peers. Indifferent - ignores. Afraid. Watching -interested. P a r a l l e l play -beside but not with. Tries to rel a t e to peers. Demands attention. Associative play. Cooperative play - plays ea s i l y with peers. Walking Just s i t s . Is not able to walk or i s not interested. I f given adequate body support t r i e s to walk but i s unable to walk anywhere. Needs helping Can walk short hand for balance, distances un-Cannot be expect- assisted. On ed to walk any- occasion may where without nearby assist-ance. need spoken reassurance. Walking i s a goal i n i t s e l f . I f something i s wanted, i f there i s some-place to go: the c h i l d walks. No help or reassurance, necessary. Walking i s a means of achieving other goals. N.B. Crutches, braces, canes etc. are considered an extension of the c h i l d and are not considered to be "assistance". 53 The question might be asked "Shouldn't there be a negative or zero rating f o r the c h i l d who i s capable of performing but refuses?" The c h i l d with a severe physical handicap i s not given a negative rati n g f o r not being able to "perform" physically; the c h i l d who refused may have an emotional handicap that prevents him from "performing". The r a t i n g i s not to be made on a predetermined evaluation. I t i s to be made on the actual l e v e l of performance. Evaluation comes l a t e r . Although each step i n t h i s scale i s numbered i t i s done only f o r convenience of reference. There i s no "value" attached to each number. Each point on the scale i s not necessarily a step of equal size. They are observable levels of performance and r e f l e c t development. By using the rating scale and checklist methods of recording observed behaviour most of the " c r i t e r i a f o r record forms" as already set out (Chapter I , p. 25) have been met. Check l i s t s and rating scales are quick to mark. The rating scale with pre-established descriptions f o r each step are concise and make terminology standard. The format i s also standardized. Because so l i t t l e space i s needed f o r marking, the recording can be comprehensive. Many items can be covered i n a r e l a t i v e l y small space. And by providing some space for anecdotal material the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c h i l d i s also preserved. IV. PRETESTS The pretesting of the recording instrument demonstrated several things. 1. An instrument designed along the ideas presented above 54 was useful to preschool teachers. It provided them with a basis for a comprehensive evaluation of a child. The more noticeable aspects of behaviour were not the only observed "things'*. 2. A five point rating scale provided a more adequate rating than a three point (originally used to rate Emotions), or a six point (originally used to rate Play Activities). The three point scale was not fine enough and the six point was too fine for easy discrimination between the stages. 3. Validity - There were two pretests. The observations of each child used in the pretests were recorded separately, by two adults. Rating differed by no more than one place on each item on the second pretest. 4. A quantitative record combined with a little qualitative material presented an adequate "picture" of a child to a person who had not known the child personally. Therefore, a recording instrument of this type can be used by other members of a multidisciplinary team as well as by the teacher. V. THE PRESENT RECORD FORM Organization and form The results of the pretests showed that the five point scale provided a better rating than a three point or six point scale. The recording instrument used for this study utilized a five point rating scale throughout. 55 The twenty-one items were divided into f i v e general areas -1. Routine Se l f Care 2. Language 3. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 4. Emotions 5. Play A c t i v i t i e s Play A c t i v i t i e s were further divided to cover s p e c i f i c areas of development. a) I n t e l l e c t u a l Development b) Imaginative and Creative Expression c) Manipulative Development d) Motor Development These general "areas" f o r development are comparable to those described by F. Connors (Cruickshank & Johnson) and Fouracre et a l . (Chapter 2). The description of each part of the rating scale w i l l be presented i n the order i n which they appear on the record form, with the exception of "Emotions". This w i l l be presented l a s t because i t does d i f f e r from the rest. The descriptions as presented here were contained i n a manual of directions. 56 Routine S e l f Care This section has already been presented i n t h i s chapter i n the section on the o r i g i n of the f i v e point rating scale. I t w i l l be presented again here for the sake of completeness. The description of each point on the rati n g i s the same f o r each item. The items used are routines common to most preschool programmes. T o i l e t Washing Dressing Nourishment Rest 1. Dependent on adult - no e f f o r t or no effective e f f o r t . 2. Adult does most of work but child's e f f o r t s are productive. 3. Child does most of work but needs assistance to complete task. 4. Child able to accomplish task but requires spoken help (support) to complete i t . 5. Child completes task without help and with adequate s k i l l . These stages of development i n learning to be independent i n routines can be found i n descriptions of teaching methods i n books on preschool procedures. (Read, Blatz et al.) Language Receptive 1. No response to verbal or gesture. 2. Relies mostly on gesture. 3. Relies on gestures to c l a r i f y spoken. 4. S l i g h t l y retarded i n understanding. 5. No observable retardation handicap or immaturity. 57 Expressive 1. Speech cannot 2. Speech under-be understood. stood with d i f f i c u l t y . 3. Speech understood with some d i f f i c u l t y . 4. Speech re a d i l y understood but not normal. 5. No immaturity, s l u r r i n g , omissions etc. Other Expressive Behaviour 1. No gesture. 2. Reaching gesture. No •yes* or 'no' gesture. 3. Reaching pointing 'y e s' and 'no* - a few with symbolic value. U» Fluent use of gesture and sound. 5. No need. Vocabulary 1. No meaningful 2. Signs, sounds. sounds, etc. used with meaning. 3. Single words. 4.. Minor sentences. 5. F u l l sentences. Three items i n t h i s part of the record (Receptive, Expressive and Other Expressive Behaviour) are a modification of a system put forward by H. Aufricht i n "A Proposed System of Cl a s s i f y i n g the Language Defects of Children with Cerebral Palsy 0. Here, language i s taken as communication rather than the mechanics of speech. 1. Receptive language i s the a b i l i t y to understand what i s being said by reacting meaningfully. 58 2. Expressive language i s the a b i l i t y to communicate with others by speech. 3. Other Expressive Behaviour i s the a b i l i t y to communicate with others by means other than speech - gestures. e.g. J. - cerebral palsy - f i v e years old - S t i l l on baby food - i s fed breakfast i n the nursery school i n an attempt to get him to eat coarser food. The teacher asked him i f he had eaten his breakfast. J. started to move his jaw up and down with his hand and then gagged. The teacher said, "Oh, you s p i t i t out, did you?" J. nodded i n the affirmative. The assistant, who had fed him his breakfast confirmed the story. 4. Vocabulary - The descriptions i n t h i s item evolved from several sources. Bowley i n The Natural Development of the Child gave the stages of sentence development as o r i g i n a l l y presented by Nice. She designated two stages between the "single word" stage and the "complete sentence" stage. These were "early sentence" and "short sentence". Unfortunately there was no clear d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n made between them. Mowrer, i n a discussion on the development of language provided the phrase "minor sentences" to describe the stage between single words and f u l l sentences. This i s the description u t i l i z e d for t h i s study. 59 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n With Adults 1. Indifferent ignores -interest i n toys etc. 2. Aware of adult -watches adult(s) and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . 3. Ask adult f o r help. Accepts d i r e c t i o n i n play a c t i v i t i e s . U. Come to adult with news and information. Adults part of child's world. 5. Relates e a s i l y to adults i n f a m i l i a r situations. With Children 1. Indifferent ignores -af r a i d . 2. Watching interest i n a c t i v i t i e s . 3. P a r a l l e l play beside but not with. 4.. Tries to relate to peers - t r i e s to help -demands attention. Associative play. 5. Cooperative play -play e a s i l y with peers. Group A c t i v i t y 1. No interest - 2. Joins group joins group only w i l l i n g l y -with adult watches -pressures. interested. 3. Imitation. Enjoys a c t i v i t y . 5. Makes suggestions f o r a c t i v i t y , that are o r i g i n a l . Anticipation of next part of a c t i v i t y . The pattern of development of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n with both adults and children i s very s i m i l a r . The f i r s t three stages are not d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the fourth and f i f t h stages i s 60 more d i f f i c u l t . With adults -In stage three the c h i l d accepts adults as routine. The adult i s there, so i s the chair; they are both useful. In stage four he i s demonstrating the establishing of a d e f i n i t e relationship. He comes to the adult with a d e f i n i t e purpose i n mind. "See me", but he i s not yet ready f o r the adult to come to him i n the same way. Stage 4 i s c h i l d * adult. Stage 5 i s a give and take relationship: child£=;adult. With children -Stage Three - P a r a l l e l play i s e a s i l y described - beside but not with. Stage Five - Cooperative play can be described as - with. A d e f i n i t i o n of Stage Four i s not so simple. I t i s play that i s 'beside' but i s complimentary to the a c t i v i t y of another c h i l d . For example - In the d o l l centre. P a r a l l e l - Two l i t t l e g i r l s , both putting d o l l s to bed i n separate cribs. Associative - Two l i t t l e g i r l s : one i s putting the baby to bed, the other i s setting the table. They are aware of each other but t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s could be carried on without the other, but won't be. When one moves out, the other w i l l too. Cooperative - Two l i t t l e g i r l s : one i s setting the table, 61 the other is cooking supper. Their conversation indic-ates that their activities are related. One is "Mother", the other is "Sister", and when supper is cooked they will both sit down to the table to eat it. Stage 4-. could also be that time when the child demonstrates his need for a more specific relationship with another child but does not have adequate social skills to manage it. This stage is perhaps more noticeable with the handicapped child than with the non-handicapped. The crippled child cannot move his truck from his garage to the next child's garage. The mentally retarded child does not know what to do when he joins another child in an activity. The emotionally disturbed child can use only one way of approaching another child and it may not be acceptable. And so on. It is a stage that handicapped children some-times get "stuck" in and recognition of it and the next stage should help adults arrange social opportunities that encourage development. Group activity. Group activities, as the phrase is used on the record form, are those controlled and directed by an adult - as compared to the informal groups that form in a free play situation. It could refer to story time, music, expeditions outside the school or special groups for learning new skills and concepts. Here again the development has its parallel in the two previous items. The important word in Stage 5 is 'original1. Adults may have 62 d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a l i z i n g that a c h i l d whom they think of as having o r i g i n a l ideas i s just very s k i l l f u l i n doing what i s expected of him. n O r i g i n a l i t y " i s not recognized. Although the descriptions of the stages of s o c i a l development are drawn c h i e f l y from the writer's own observations corroboration f o r them can be found i n the more extensive l i s t of items i n the Curriculum Guide of Fouracre et a l . Play A c t i v i t i e s In a preschool setting "play" i s the chief avenue of learning. The adult provides appropriate material and arranges the situations i n such a way as to promote the acquisition of desired s k i l l s and knowledge. For example, when a c h i l d plays with one toy (a train) day after day and f o r as much of each day as he can, the removal of that toy from the shelves w i l l push the c h i l d into playing with something else. And at the same time the teacher should build on the child's l i k i n g of that toy by showing him known concepts i n a new form (making a t r a i n with clay). Because play does provide so many learning experiences 'Play A c t i v i t i e s ' have been used to provide rating scales i n four more areas of development. I n t e l l e c t u a l Imaginative and Creative Manipulative - small muscle control Motor - large muscle control 63 On the record form under each of these headings are three spaces with no specific activities asked for. Instead the teacher is supplied with four lists of play activities under the appropriate headings to use as suggestions. They are as follows -Intellectual: Imaginative and Creative: Books Sand Colour recognition Water Matehing-shape-size-numbers Drawing {Quantity Painting brush and/or finger Interest in Project - animals - Clay - plastercine season etc. Dramatic play Manipulative: . Motor Development: Cutting Walking Drawing Marching Colouring Jumping Pasting Stairs - up and down Bead stringing Slide Pegs Ball Block Building Tricycle Tinker toys etc. Wagon Puzzles Rhythm Instruments These are just suggestions and are not intended to restrict the person marking the record. There is no reason why an activity such as making Halloween masks could not be used to rate Intellectual Development, Manipulative Development, and Imaginative and Creative Development so long as the appropriate rating is used for each area of development. The chief reason for allowing the observer to select the activities to be rated is that many items may not be applicable for the particular child being observed. If the adult is observing a three year old the activities chosen 6A for rating of manipulative abilities might be -Block building Bead stringing Nine months later the list could be -Block building Tinker toys Pasting At five years the list for the same child might be -Block building Pasting Cutting In this way the type of activities demonstrate the child's interests: there is a "carry-over" for comparison from one recording to the next; the adult does not have to try to rate activities that are a very small part of the child's total day and space is not required for items that are not applicable. The points on the rating scales for all the four areas of develop-ment under Play Activities are presented on p. 52 as the Basic Five-Point Scale. 1. Nothing 2. Something 3. Functional but not adequate. 4. Adequate 5. Combines adequate skill with others to achieve a broader goal. 65 As i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n the d i s t i n c t i o n between Stages Four and Five i s much f i n e r than between the other stages. I n t e l l e c t u a l development l.No interest 2.Interested 3.Uses mater- 4-Choose 5.Combines or refusal. in-manipulates i a l s i n materials materials -no r e a l pur- routine with a u t i l i z e s i n pose. manner. purpose i n unique way. mind. e.g. Books 1. Does not look at books at a l l . 2. Turns pages without looking at pictures. No conception of front-back, right-side up etc. 3. Looks at book when given a book. Knows front-back right-side up etc. Does not ask f o r a book as a free-play a c t i v i t y . 4-. Chooses a book as a free-play a c t i v i t y . Has favourite books. Knows stories of preferred books. 5. Uses books to gain more knowledge. May consult a book to f i n d out how to feed a pet or may 'read' a story to another c h i l d . 66 Imaginative and creative expression l.No interest 2.Touching - 3.Imitation. 4.Enjoys 5.Originality -or refusa l . exploring. a c t i v i t y - creative. plays e a s i l y i n si t u a t i o n or with materials. E.g. Clay 1. Refuses. 2. Handles i t . Pushes i t around to change the shape. Enjoys the f e e l of i t . 3. Copies actions of other children or adults - snakes, eggs, etc. 4. Can follow instructions f o r new work. Makes nests, plates, snakes etc. e a s i l y and without d i r e c t i o n . 5. Has own ideas f o r work. Has some knowledge of how to form them. Manipulative development l.No interest 2. Interest - 3 . S k i l l 'under- 4 . S k i l l 5. O r i g i n a l i t y or refusal. t r i e s stood' - ha3 mastered i n u t i l i z i n g requires d i f f i c u l t i e s - uses i n s k i l l . adult help and requires routine (physical). some help and manner, dire c t i o n . e.g. Cutting 1. Not interested. Has no idea of how to manipulate sci§g0rs. 2. Tries to use scissors. Adult must hold paper and guide di r e c t i o n of cutting. 67 3. Can manipulate scissors - understands "following the line" and can cut in general proximity to it. Still needs adult help. 4. Can cut out simple shapes. Follows adult's directions for projects - cutting Christmas decorations etc. 5. When working on a project can utilize cutting skill to produce needed material. Motor development 1.Uninterested 2.Tries 3.Functional 4.Adequate 5.Good control, unable to requires help but still control - - purposeful, manage. to bring awkward - no support - appropriate. efforts to may require necessary. completion. verbal help. e.g. See Walking (p. 52) Stairs - up 1. Must be carried up. 2. Tries to lift feet up stairs when held by adult. Tries to get up by some other means such as crawling but needs adult assistance. 3. Can get up in some way but adult must be close to give occasional help. 4. Can get up stairs without help but getting up the stairs is the goal. 5. Goes up the stairs with another purpose in mind -68 to slide down. Is efficient and requires no adult help or supervision. Emotions The basic scale has already been presented and the only area of behaviour that is not rated in this way is "Emotions". A five point rating scale is used for emotions but not in the above mentioned form. The scale used is an adaptation of material pre-sented by Betty Shuey in "Written Records on Children". Under the topic of "Handling of Emotions" she speaks of the child's inner control pattern and used the words - adequate - too much - too little This type of rating was utilized in a five point scale as follows: Too little Adequate Too much 1 2 3 X 5 1. Too little - impulsive - very easily frustrated - displays of extremes' in anger or affection (kissing, hugging etc.) 2. No description provided. 3. Adequate - spontaneous - suitable to situations. 4. No description provided. 5. Too much - inhibited - withdrawn. Steps 2 and 4 were not described. The rating of a child who was not "Adequate" and was not "Too Littlenwas to be rated between the points 69 according to his display of emotional control. To describe the ways in which a child displays his emotional control (Bridges) would be impossible and unnecessary for this kind of recording instrument. How-ever some qualitative information of the way the child displays his emotion and what situation percipitate it are necessary if any evaluation and planning is to be done. For this reason information relating to the ways in which the child most frequently displays his emotions is asked for. Space is provided for Response, Cause and Frequency for expressions of anger, fear etc. and pleasure, affection etc. as follows: Expressions of anger, fear, anxiety, aggression etc. Response - Tears, complains, screams, yells, hits, runs away or runs to adult for protection, temper tantrums, pouts. Cause - Arrival at school, leaving school, requirements of routines, wants something (include example), approach of animals, hurt (accident or by another child), frustration. Frequency - Often, rarely. Expressions of pleasure, affection etc. Response - Laughs, claps hands in delight, vocal exclamation, smiles, joins in group activity with display of enthusiasm, shows affection towards (give example - teacher, peer, etc.) Cause - Activity of another person, child or group, pleasure in own activity or accomplishment, something 'funny' (give example), something 'nice* (give example). 70 One other item is also provided in this section: Other items Mannerisms - thumbsucking, sighing, sucks lip, rocks body, affected manner of speaking (unrelated to disability). Response to discipline - accepts without objection, objects vocally, by stiffening body, by relaxing body, seems to understand and modifies behaviour. The descriptive terms used here were meant to be used by the teachers as suggestions or guides and were not intended to restrict the teacher to only these forms of behaviour. To summarize: in the introduction to this study (Chapter I, p. l) some questions about goals were related to programme planning for both the individual child, and the whole programme. This presentation of each part of the record form demonstrates how answers to those questions may be provided. Each point on the scale of development of each item is an intermediate goal. The last stage is the final goal. This final stage constitutes the goals for the preschool programme. VI. PROCEDURE FOR USE OF THE RECORD Pretesting had shown that the recording instrument was reason-ably valid. The procedure that wasIfollowed in testing the use of the record form required that it be used with special education preschool groups. 71 In order to meet the definition of handicapped - as used in this study -the groups of children were representative of different types of handi-caps. The children Four groups of young children attending preschool classes in special education centres were the sample population used for the testing of the use of the recording instrument. Two of these groups had been used for the pretests. The following handicaps were presented by the children in these groups. School A - Crippling conditions which result in motor handi-caps. Cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, etc. School B - Crippling conditions which result in motor handi-caps. Like School A. School C - Hearing impairments. School D - Intellectual handicaps. Procedure 1. Permission from the medical directors of Schools A, B, and C to carry out the study, was first obtained. It was requested that the preschool teachers use the record forms, instead of any other means of recording that they might be using, to record their observations of the children's school behaviour during 72 a period of at least three months. And further, that they would use the record as the basis for reporting on the children's growth and development during that time. They were also asked to criticize it in terms of its usefulness to them, as teachers of young children with handicaps. The directors were also asked for their opinions on the useful-ness of such an instrument as a record. 2. The teachers were then instructed in the use of the record form with the manual of directions. The writer used the record form, in the presence of the teachers, to record the behaviour of one of the children, at Schools A and B. (No children were present when the teacher at School G was being instructed in the use of the instrument.) Questions were answered and the teachers were asked to contact the writer if any further questions arose. Each teacher was provided with a manual of instructions and enough record forms to meet the needs of her group. 3. Seven months later the writer again contacted the teachers to ask them to have the records ready for collection in one month's time. 4. The records were collected at the end of an eight month period. The only communication, during that time between the writer and the teachers relating to the use of the record form, was that which came from the teachers. The writer did not ask them 'how things were going'. This procedure was used to obtain a truer picture of the use of records in preschool programmes. 73 Permission from the director of School D, to carry out the study, was also obtained. This writer used the record forms to assess the children's level of development at the end of their first month at School D. She assessed them again, using the recording instrument, three months later. The difference in the time periods between Schools A, B and C and School D is accounted for by the date of the opening of School D. The record forms were distributed to School A, B and C in the spring. School D did not start the school year until the fall. V I I . SUMMARY This chapter has shown how the recording instrument used in this study was developed. Some methods of reporting on the progress of young children in preschool settings were examined first. The common needs of special education preschools that would affect record keeping were then outlined. By comparing these actual needs to the general information from Chapter I the form and method of recording for this study evolved. The major portion of this chapter has presented an explanation of each step of the scale for each item to be rated. Finally the procedure for the testing of the use of the recording instrument was given. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE RECORD FORMS Many changes can take place in a preschool room in an eight month period. These can include not only changes in the growth and develop-ment of the children but also changes in staff and programming. In reporting on the results of this study these changes are made very apparent. In this chapter the results will be presented in the order that they were received. That is, first, the directors of the centres were visited to obtain their permission to carry out the study. The comments, suggestions for use etc. that resulted from these meetings will be presented. Then after presenting the total number of records used during the time of the study, the results will be presented school by school. The analysis of the results will draw this information together. I. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS FROM DIRECTORS 1. All the directors received the study plan with interest and all gave their approval to it as it was presented. All indicated that the teachers were in charge of their own departments and within those limits were free to utilize any tools that they felt would make their work more effective. 2. Communication;,: Two directors were very interested in the aspect of improved communication. Both asked, in one way or another, with whom was improved communication necessary. Both also said that if 75 the recording instrument could be a basis of improved communication then it would be worth using. 3. Size of recording instrument: One director pointed out that although the one page limit on the record form was a good one, the size of the page was too big. Cumulative records are kept on 11x8^- paper. The record form was L4x8-g-. The suggestion that both sides of the smaller sized paper be used was met with approval. For the time period of the study the larger sized paper was accepted. 4.. Suggestion for \fmrther use: One director said that for microfilming of records, communication between treatment centres and more efficient reference and even more condensed form of the recording would be better. His suggestion was as follows -a) For the aforementioned purposes eliminate the anecdotal material. b) Assume that the five point rating scale was understood and record consecutive assessments as follows -Date Sept. 30 Nov. 25 Routine Self Care 1. Toilet 3 A 2. Washing 3. Dressing 3 3 etc. 76 In t h i s way the growth and development of the c h i l d over a consid-erable period of time could be rated on the one record. 5. Procedure f o r use of record: The request had been made that the teachers use the record form twice f o r each c h i l d over at l e a s t a three month period. One d i r e c t o r s a i d that he thought that the three month period was hardly long enough to record changes i n growth and development i n handi-capped chi l d r e n . I I . TOTAL NUMBER OF RECORD FORMS USED IN STUDY The observations of the growth and development of 44 c h i l d r e n were recorded by teachers i n four s p e c i a l education centres. Half of these records came from one school. The a c t u a l d i v i s i o n of returns are as follows: School A B C D T o t a l Doubles* 7 1 9 17 S i n g l e s * 15 7 5 - 2 7 T o t a l 22 8 5 9 44 * Doubles - Where two assessments were made on one c h i l d . + Singles - Where only one assessment was made on a c h i l d . 77 III. SCHOOL A - PHYSICAL HANDICAPS The records Doubles 7 Singles 12 Incomplete 3 Total 22 The school situation The period of the study in this school was from the beginning of the spring term to November of the next school year (approximately eight months). At this school there was a change of teachers. The teacher who started keeping the records left at the end of the school year - July - and the new teacher started at the beginning of the next school year - September. The preschool programme was a double one, with the younger child-ren coming for nursery school in the mornings and the older children coming for kindergarten in the afternoon. One teacher worked with both groups. As a part of their treatment programme the children received physio and occupational therapy. The teacher 1. The new teacher had been working with the children for three months (September - November) when the records were collected. It was her first experience in working with handicapped children in a multi-disciplinary treatment centre. 78 2. The teacher welcomed the opportunity to develop a system of records. Although she used the record forms developed for the study she felt that it was not efficient enough for her needs. She did not include any anecdotal material on the record form. When discussing the adequacy of the record form she asked how an obser-ver could record the personality of the individual child. In further discussion she said she did note special incidents that revealed characteristic qualities of each child. She then realized that the anecdotal material asked for in the record form helped to give an ade-quate "picture1 of the individuality of each child. 3. In developing her own system of records she utilized the rating methods used during the study. She prepared an 8x5 file card on each child, with a checklist similar to the one used in the study, horizontally across the top of the card. The dates of the assessments were arranged vertically on the left hand side of the card. e.g. Self Care Language etc. T W D etc. Jan. 6 Feb. 4 etc. She changed the method of rating emotions by rating each "side" (too much control and too little control) on a five point scale with five (5) as normal or adequate for both. The reverse side of the card was used for very brief anecdotal remarks on items and characteristics not included in the checklist. 79 e.g. - Toilet training started on — - Specific causes of emotional upsets such as going for physio-therapy. The teacher planned to do monthly assessments on each child. She felt she understood the system of rating and could use it efficiently. 4. The teacher reported that she found that this method of rating a child's level of development did provide her with concrete information for "team'' communication. IV. SCHOOL B - PHYSICAL HANDICAPS The records Doubles 1 Singles 7 Incomplete -Total 8 The school situation The period of the study in this school was from the beginning of the spring term to November of the next school year (approximately eight months). There was no change of staff. There was the normal change of children from one group to another at the beginning of the new school year in September. No record was made of the number of these changes because only one child involved in the study moved to a new group. The chief difficulty in this school in using the record forms was in having the child in the classroom for a long enough period for 80 adequate observation. The teacher said that the child could be in the classroom for twenty minutes then he went out for physiotherapy. After physiotherapy he went for occupational therapy, and from there for speech therapy. He got back in time to sit in the story circle for a couple of minutes. It was then time for rest and preparation for the trip home. She felt there wasn't time for observation of the child in the preschool when he had a schedule like that. The programme was a doiible one, with younger children coming for nursery school in the mornings and the older children for kindergarten in the afternoons. There were two teachers. Both worked with both groups. The teacher 1. Prior to the time when this study was begun this teacher already kept monthly records on the children in the form of a checklist - marked simply with the check (v") to indicate whether or not the child "did" the item on the list. (See Chapter III p.45). She did not, as was requested substitute the recording instrument of this study for her own recording instrument. She continued to use her own recording instrument with the result that only one child was assessed for this study during the spring term. She did not have time to carry two systems of records. She did start to use the recording instrument of this study in the fall term -but still along with her own recording instrument. 2. The teacher said that the recording instrument did not "show" the personality of the child. 81 3. When the records were returned to the writer no anecdotal material was contained in them. The teacher then took time to describe each of the children, assessed for the study, by presenting anecdotes of their behaviour. The writer instructed the teacher to add this information to the records in the space provided for anecdotal records. When she had done this she was asked if the record form now showed the personality of the child more adequately. She agreed that they did. 4. When the record forms were completed (as in 3) the teacher showed the writer her own checklist records. When she expressed doubts about its usefulness the suggestion was made that the substitution of a rating scale, such as was used in the study, would make her checklist more adequate. "Uses scissors ( V ) " doesn't tell the reader much. But "Uses scissors (3)" would let the reader know that the child understood the way in which scissors are used, that the child used scissors when needed but also that the child still needs help to use them successfully. The teacher agreed that the rating scale was more useful than a check. V. SCHOOL C • - HEARING HANDICAPS The records Doubles Singles 4 Incomplete 1 Total 5 82 The school situation The record forms were given to the teacher in this school during the spring term (May) and were collected nine months later. At this school there was a change in class groupings. The group with whom the teacher was working in the spring all moved on to a more advanced class for the fall term. The teacher started the fall term with a new group of children. The school programme was a double one. The younger children came in the morningj the older children came in the afternoon. There was also a programme for parents of infants in the afternoon. The teacher who had been instructed in the use of the record form taught the morning group of children and the afternoon parent programme. The teachers 1. The teacher who made the assessments had not been working with the children during the fall term. She had them during the previous school year. 2. No assessment was made during the spring term because other teaching responsibilities were too heavy for her to take on any extra ones. Records received for the study were made just prior to the time of collecting them. 3. The teacher consulted the present teacher of the children when making the assessments. This second teacher had received no prev-ious instruction in the use of the recording instrument. 4. Both teachers contributed to the criticism of the recording 83 instrument. Both teachers felt that the record could not be done quickly. It required time to sit down and to think about the child being assessed. The time element made it difficult to complete but having to think about the child and his development was a good thing. It helped them to "know" the child better. Both teachers thought that this kind of record would be valuable at the end of the school year when the child was being advanced to another class and another teacher. It would be a good kind of report card. The teachers thought that more use of the rating scale would make it easier to use. Practice with it would enable them to be more efficient in rating a child. 5. The teachers felt that the section on Language was not ade-quate for rating children with hearing handicaps. More items were needed. VI. SCHOOL D - INTELLECTUAL HANDICAPS The records a) Doubles 9 Singles Incomplete Total 9 b) Changes made torecord form: Self Care Routines 84 i. Nourishment changed to Lunch ii. No rest period. Language All children used verbal expressive language so Other Expressive Behaviour was not noted. The school situation The period of the study in this school was from the beginning of the school year (September) to the end of the fall term (end of December) approximately four months. This was the first term that the school had been in operation. No system of recording the growth and development of the children in the classroom had been developed. The programme was a half day one. The children arrived at 10:00 a had lunch (which they brought from home) at noon, and left for home at 12:45 p.m.. There were two teachers. The writer of this study was one of them. The teacher a) The writer of this study was one of the teachers working in this school. Assessments were made of all the children in attendance both at the beginning of the time of the study and at the end. She had no trouble using the record. b) The teacher found that at the time of the second assessment the checklist was not entirely adequate to describe the development made by some of the children. The ones who had progressed from a preschool 85 programme to a more academic programme required more variety in the items under Intellectual Development and the section on Motor Develop-ment could have been rated once without any itemizing. VII. ANALYSIS OF THE RECORD FORMS This study hoped to show that the instrument developed would provide a useful basis for: 1. A description of a child and his development. 2. Programme planning and evaluation. All records received were analyzed with these points in mind. The analysis and profile of the rating of a sample of the records will be presented to illustrate some of the uses to which the records can be put. Individual records and profiles A total of forty-four children were assessed, at least once, using the record form developed for this study, to rate the level of growth and development. 1. Descriptive -a) of the child: Some anecdotal material was necessary if the description of the child was to show his individuality. b) of development: Two assessments were needed to see development. Questions about development could be asked with only one assessment if the age and type and degree of handicap were included in the record. 2. Programme evaluation and planning -86 Questions about development and tentative suggestions for programming could be made on the basis of one assessment. More definite suggestions for programming could be made on the basis of two assess-ments. Single assessments Three profiles with the accompanying analysis, representing one child from three of the groups are presented here. These are based on single assessments. 1. Physical handicap - nursery school group. 2. Physical handicap - kindergarten group. 3. Hearing handicap. 87 Routines Language Social Emotions Play T W D N R R E GE V A C G I&C Man. Mot. 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE I RATING OF LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT M.A. - SINGLE ASSESSMENT Name - M.A. Age - U years Handicap - Mild athetoid C.P. Description: This child shows average development in Self Care except for dressing. Language develop-ment is good. The level of Social Participation and Play Activities is lower than shown by Self Care and Language Development. He enjoys adult attention but does not seek activities with his peers. Play Activities marked are usually solitary. If these are typical activities they emphasize this child's general level of develop-: •.. ment. Programme evaluation and Planning The level of Emotional control (4-too much) might be indicative of the reason for levels of development in Play Activities and Social Participation. Does he lack self-confidence? Is he afraid to try some-thing that might result in failure? He needs to be encouraged to try 88 more mature activities. He also needs to be encouraged in peer activi-ties: block play, house centre might be good places to start. If this has already been done a further recording will probably show growth in the social and emotional areas of development. Anecdotal material is needed for a more accurate description. 89 Routines Language Social Emotions Play T W D N R R E CE V A C G I&C Man. Mot. 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE 2 RATING OF LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT L.B. - SINGLE ASSESSMENT Name - L.B. Age - bfe years Handicap - Mod. severe athetoid C.P. Description: This child still needs help or supervision in Routines. This is a low level for her CA. "Independence being insisted on," in routines. Because of her hand-icap she has probably lacked opportunities to develop independ-ence. The level of Emotional cont-rol indicates immaturity. She objects to programme requirements. The variety of play activi-ties indicates interest and effort in school activities. A further report in 2-3 months would show if she succeeds. Programme evaluation and planning This child seems to need a lot of support in anything she tries to do. She needs encouragement and approval for her efforts. Because 9 0 the whole picture is one of immaturity and retardation, care should be taken not to push her too hard. For the present acceptance of the treat-ment programme and insistance on independence in routines would seem to be enough. 91 Routines Language Social Emotions Play T W D N R R E OE V A G G I I&G Man. Mot. 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE 3 RATING OF LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT V.C. - SINGLE ASSESSMENT Name - V.C. Age - 4 years 2 months Handicap - Profound hearing loss Description: This child still needs super-vision in Routines (except Rest) but demonstrates adequate know-ledge and skill in carrying them out. He finds communication difficult but he is trying. He is not yet playing "with0 other children and he is just beginning to include adults in his activi-ties. Most of the time he watches them. This is an anxious child. Anecdotal note, "Wants to be sure he's right..." Emotional Control is rated as "too auoh" and Expressions of Fear "Quiet anxiety, most of the time". Play Activities rate this child's development level at adequate or better on all items. Programme evaluation and planning There doesn't seem to be much that can be done about the "quiet anxiety" except continued support and reassurance from the adults. As 92 he develops a confidence in the adults in the school he may lose some of his anxiety. Another assessment in two or three months would be necessary before anything more could be suggested. 93 Double assessments Two profiles with the accompanying analysis, representing one child from two of the groups are presented here. These have been based on double assessments. 1. Physical handicap 2. Intellectual handicap 94 i 2 ; I A 5 Routines T W D / N R Language R V \ / E / OE V / V • \ .} •* Social A • C \ G Emotions Play I I&C Man. "v. i Mot. First assessment -Second assessmenl . » — » — • / I i PROFILE A RATING OF LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT J.A. - DOUBLE ASSESSMENT Name: J.A. Age - 5 years and 5 months Handicap - Moderate cerebral palsy Description: The records kept of the activities of this child show that he is independent in all Self Care Routines, requiring no direction or supervision. Although there is a speech impedi-ment it does not interfere with his communication. He takes part in social activities without any difficulty and his emotional development is adequate. No items have been given under Intellectual Development on the second record but the rating of the items on the first record under Play Activities indicate that he was just beginn-ing to be interested in activities and concepts other than those requir-ing motor and manipulative skills. The rating of those play activities that are checked, on the second record, indicate adequate concepts and skills. More items in each category would give a better picture of this 95 child's level of play. (The limited play items might suggest a child with limited ideas.) Development: During the past eight months this child has developed from dependence on other people to independence. He has demonstrated increased skills in his social life as well as in his play activities, there is also an increase in his emotional control. Programme planning and evaluation If the limited number of play activities marked on the second record is an indication of the extent of this child's play activities it is necessary to help him broaden his interests with new equipment, new suggestions for old equipment etc. If it is not, then the child seems to be doing very well in his present programme and no special changes are indicated. First and second ratings were done by different teachers. 9 6 Routines Language Social Emotions Play T W D N R R E OE ¥ A C G I&C Man. Mot. First assessment Second assessment 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE 5 RATING OF LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT W.D. - DOUBLE ASSESSMENT Name - W.D. Age - 7 years Handicap - Intellectually retarded Description: This child is independent in self care routines. Anecdotal notes indicate that he takes pleasure in his independence, in managing at lunch time ("Enjoys pouring own milk"). Language is not adequate. There seems to be some difficulty in his receptive abilities if remarks must be directed right to him and group instructions are not understood. Expressive speech and vocabularly level are minimul. He seems to get along better with his peers than with the adults. His refusal to speak when spoken to, by an adult, is a good illustration of this difficulty. Emotional control is adequate. Anecdotal notes show that adult requirements make him withdraw from a situation. He receives special pleasure in "having a turn". Except for motor development this child's play activities reach the adequate level 9 7 on only two items. Development This child has shown a great deal of growth and development in the last three months. The rating levels of the items under Play Activities are to be noted. Intellectual development items have risen from "definitely not adequate" (2) to "understanding, real effort, etc. although not yet adequate" (3). Imaginative and Creative Expression has shown even more growth from (2) "definitely not adequate" to (4)' "adequate" and (3) "understanding, real effort etc." Cutting - an item in Manipulative development has gone from (l) "nothing" to (3)"under-standing, real effort etc." Language Development and Social Participa-tion show the same kind of growth. Programme planning and evaluation Despite this child's apparent fears of adult requirements he is showing a lot of growth and development. His present programme seems to suit him. As he cannot be made to speak the programme must make him want to speak - games with turns, and speaking parts seem to be most effective. 98 Short term assessment When the directors were being consulted for permission to carry-out the present study, one director said that he thought that the three month period was hardly long enough to record changes in growth and development in handicapped children (p. 76). One child was assessed twice over a two month period. The analysis of his records follow. 99 1 2 3 4 5 Routines T W D if 1 N R Language R E OE V j Social A / / C G Emotions / ' Play I I&C Man. Mot. First assessment Second assessmen PROFILE 6 RATING OF LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SUBJECT J.B. - SHORT TERM ASSESSMENT Name - J.B. Age - 5 years 3 months Handicap - Tranverse myelitis -legs. Description: This child is now almost completely independent in routine self care. The only limitation is imposed by braces which prevent him from being able to manage his clothing. There is no language involvement and he displays mature behaviour in social situations. Play Activity items indicate broad interests and the rating level indicates adequate or better skills and abilities in his work. Development The change in the levels in Routine self care over a two month period is most noticeable. Toilet training had just been started at the time of the first record. Two months later this was successfully achieved. He is now able to follow through the washing routine without direction and requires only minimal support or direction in dressing himself. Development has also been 100 shown in the change of rating for play activities. Programme planning and evaluation: This child is doing very well on his present programme. No changes seem to be indicated. Could there be a change in the type of clothing so that he can manage to be completely independent in toilet-ing? 101 Average scores The average rating for each items was determined on the basis of school groups. This was done to see if characteristics of the specific handicaps could be shown. Each group profile is presented individually. Averages are based on ratings made at the time of the second assessment, if two assessments were made, or on the single assessment. School A - Physical handicaps Records of the children in School A are divided into two groups: Nursery school or junior group. Kindergarten or senior group. Junior Group: An analysis of Table I shows characteristics that can be identified with physical handicaps. These are ratings of children in a nursery school or junior group. The averages are generally low. Out of 21 items only 4 or 19.5 per cent are rated at adequate (4 or 3 for emotions) level. This rating is characteristic of the level of development of the nursery school group. Items that could be considered characteristic of the handicap are to be noted. 1. Routine Self Care - lowest average rating - Dressing (2) 2. Language - low average ratings - Expressive (3.6) - Vocabulary (3.33) 3. Manipulative development - both just below "purposeful effort but not quite adequate" level (2.9, 2.66) TABLE I INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS, AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL A .. IN THE JUNIOR GROUP ITEMS OF RECORD T W D N R R E . OE V A C G E Int. I&C Man. Mot. O.A.* 1 1 1 1 5 5 - 5 4 4 3 5 4 2 — 2 — 2 -s N.A.* 4 A A A 5 A A 3 4 4 3 4 - 3 - 5 - 5 5 U V.A.* 1 2 1 5 5 A A - 3 A 4 4 3 4 - 2 - 3 4 3 -B A. A. 1 2 2 A A 3 A A A 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 1 2 2 2 J G.A. 2 2 2 A - 5 5 5 - 5 5 5 3 . 5 5 4 - ' 5 - 2 4 E M.A. A A 2 5 5 5 - A 4 3 2 4 2 - 3 - 2 - 5 4 C L.A. 3 3 2 A A 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 T P. A. 1 1 1 5 A 5 3 - 2 2 3 4 4 5 - 2 - 3 - 2 5 S CA. 2 2 1 3 A 2 1 - 2 2 2 4 1 4 - 2 - 2 - 5 3 D.A.* 5 5 A 5 5 5 5 - 4 4 3 4 3 4 - - - 4 - 4 -Totals 24 25 20 40 41 42 36 16 30 36 3-5 36 30 38 13 24 4 29 , 8 33 26 * Two assessments 303 U. Motor development - "not quite adequate" (3.3j 3.71) Other items of interest are: 1. Social development - very consistent (3.6, 3.5, 3.6) 2. Intellectual development - one item close to adequate (3.8); The other a little lower (3.25). Profile 7 is a graphic illustration of the average of the ratings of development of the junior group of School A. Physical handicap does seem to show up. Dressing is the most difficult part of self care for the physically handicapped preschool child. The vocabulary of these young children is very limited and they have difficulty expressing themselves. Language involvements are common among young physically handicapped children because the handicap may involve ability to speak and because the handicap impedes their opportun-ities for communication. Manipulative skills are low and motor skills are only just approaching the adequate level. Social development, for the nursery school is normal - still parallel but beginning to move towards associative. Senior group: An analysis of Table II shows characteristics that can be identified with physical handicaps. These are ratings of children in a kindergarten or senior group. Out of 21 items 18 or 85.7 per cent are rated at adequate (A.) or better. Other items come below the adequate (4 or 3 for emotions) level. Two items are rated as "adequate and integrated into other goals" (5) 104 Routines T W D N R Language R E OE V Social A C G Emotions Play I I&C Man. Mot. 1 2 3 4 5 I PROFILE 7 AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL A IN THE JUNIOR GROUP TABLE II INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS, AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL A IN THE SENIOR GROUP ITEMS OF RECORDS T W D N RREOEVACG E Int. I&C Man. Mot. J.A.* 5 5 5 - 5 5 " 5 4 - 4 4 5 4 3 - - 4 - 4 4 4 4 s E.A. 5 5 4 5 5 5 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 - 2 2 4 3 u K.A. 5 5 5 5 - 4 2 - 5 5 4 5 3 5 - 4 5 5 - 5 5 B I. A. 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 4 - 4 5 5 - 5 5. J F.A. 5 4 4 5 - - 2 - - 3 3 4 - 2 3 5 - 5 5 5 5 E T.A. 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 - 5 5 4 4 2 5 5 4 4 •- - 4 5 C B.A. 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 - 5 5 4 4 3 5 - 5 5 5 5 5 5 T S.A. 5 5 4 5 - 5 5 - 5 5 4 4 3 5 - 5 - 5 - 5 5 S H.A. 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 Totals 45 43 40 45 29 39 30 12 38 40 37 38 23 33 15 38 22 3 5 20 41 41 * Two assessments 106 - T o i l e t and Nourishment Items that could be considered characteristic of the handicap are to be noted. 1. Routine Sel f Care - lowest average rating - dressing (4-44) 2. Language - lowest average ratin g - expressive (3.33) 3. Manipulative development - lowest average - adequate (4-) 4. Motor development - both the same (4-. 55) Other items of interest are: 1. S o c i a l development - a l l above adequate (4.4-4? 4-. 11> 4-. 22) 2. I n t e l l e c t u a l development - both close to adequate (3.75» 4.12) P r o f i l e 8 i s a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the average of the ratings of development of the senior group of School A. The physical handicap does show up i n some areas but not as obviously as with the younger group. Dressing i s the most d i f f i c u l t part of S e l f Care. Expressive language i s the most d i f f i c u l t part of commun-ic a t i o n . Manipulative and motor s k i l l s f o r t h i s group of handicapped children are good. Of these children i n the senior group, only one was i d e n t i f i e d as having a handicap severe enough to interfere noticeably with hand control. The ratings of E.A. are lower than the others i n the group. (Also see Appendix B. p. 154) S o c i a l development i s normal f o r a kindergarten group during the winter term. I n t e l l e c t u a l development levels cluster at the adequate l e v e l . 1 0 7 Routines T W D N R Language R E 0E V Social A C G Emotions Play I I&C Man. Mot. 1 2 3 4 5 ( \ PROFILE 8 AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL A IN THE SENIOR GROUP 108 School B - P h y s i c a l handicaps An analysis of Table I I I shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that can be i d e n t i f i e d with p h y s i c a l handicaps. Out of 21 items, 12 or 57.1 per cent are rated adequate (4) or better. 7 or 33.3 per cent of the items are rated "not quite adequate but with knowledge of and e f f o r t toward adequacy1* (3). Only 1 or 4.7 per cent of the items has the average l e v e l of "combines adequate per-formance with other to achieve another goal". (5) That i s Rest. Items that could be considered c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the handicap are to be noted: 1. Routine S e l f Care - lowest average r a t i n g - dressing (3.5) 2. Language - lowest average r a t i n g - expressive (3.62) 3. Manipulative development - both scores close to adequate (3.87, 4.14) 4. Motor development - both scores close to adequate (3.87, 4.14) Other items of i n t e r e s t are: 1. S o c i a l development - a l l the same (4.5) 2. I n t e l l e c t u a l development - highest r a t i n g here i s four (4). P r o f i l e 9 i s a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the average of the ratings of development of the group from School B. Ph y s i c a l handicap does seem to show up. Dressing i s the most d i f f i c u l t part of s e l f care f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped c h i l d . Also expressive language. This i s often one of the noticeable aspects of a p h y s i c a l handicap i n young children. Also manipulative and motor s k i l l s g e nerally are not enough to be intergrated i n t o larger a c t i v i t i e s . The TABLE III INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS, AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL B ITEMS OF RECORD T W D N R R E OE V A C G E Int. I&C Man. Mot. s J.B.* 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 - 4. 5 4 5 3 5 u S.B. 5 5 3 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 - 5 - 4 4 5 5 B P.B. 1 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 2 J A.B. 5 5 4 5 5 3 2 3 2 4 4 4 2 4 - - - 4 4 5 5 E N.B. 2 3 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 - 4 4 3 - 4 -C D.B. 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 1 5 4 4 4 4 3 - 4 3 4 4 4 4 T L.B. 3 3 3 4 5 5 2 4 5 4 4 4 2 3 - 4 4 2 3 2 4 s K.B. 5 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 2 5 - 4 5 5 5 5 4 Totals 30 3 1 28 38 40 35 29 33 37 36 36 36 22 30 4 29 26 30 29 3 1 29 * Two assessments 110 Routines T W D N R Language R E OE V Social A C G Emotions Play I I&G H Man. Mot. L 2 3 4 5 < I ) PROFILE 9 AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL B Ill skills are a goal in themselves. Social development is well up. When provided with opportunity for social experiences physically handicapped children develop fairly normally. Intellectual development rating is four (4-). For kinder-garten children during the winter term this is good. The programme should provide enriched experiences for intellectual activities during the rest of the year. School C - Hearing handicaps An analysis of Table IV shows that characteristics that can be identified with hearing handicaps are present in the average ratings of the group. Out of 21 items, 9 or 4-2.8 per cent are rated "adequate (4-) or better. 10 or 4-7.6 per cent are rated "not quite adequate" (3). Two or 9.5 per cent of the items have the average level of "combines adequate performance with others to achieve another goal" (5) - one is an Intell-ectual item, the other is a Motor development item. These were based on only one item for each of two children and therefore are not reliable as averages. Items that could be considered characteristic of the handicap are to be noted: Language - Receptive - "not quite adequate" (3) - Expressive - "inadequate but trying" (2.5) - Other expressive - "inadequate but trying" (2.5) - Vocabulary - "not quite adequate" (3.5) TABLE IV INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL C ITEMS OF RECORD s T W D N R R E OE V A C G E Int. I&C Man. Mot. u B J E C m R.C. 5 4 5 5 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 2 5 - 5 5 - 5 D.C. 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 1 5 4 - 4 4 3 - 5 M.C. 5 5 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 4 3 4 - 4 - 2 2 4 r S V.C. 4 4 4 4 5 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 4 - 4 Totals 19 17 18 17 13 12 10 13 14 13 15 13 15 18 5 17 13 14 2 18 5 113 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n - With adults - "not quite adequate" (3.5) With c h i l d r e n - "not quite adequate" (3.75) Group - "not quite adequate" (3.25) P r o f i l e ID i s a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the average of the ratings development of the group from School C. language s k i l l s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n seem to be associated i n t h i s group. The averages c l u s t e r around the "not quite adequate" (3) l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the r a t i n g between S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n with adults and with c h i l d r e n i s i n t e r e s t i n g . Lack of verbal communication apparently doesn't i n t e r f e r e with peer a c t i v i t i e s as much as with adult-c h i l d a c t i v i t i e s . The low score of "inadequate" (2) f o r one of the Manipulative items i s based on one item f o r one c h i l d and i s therefore not a r e l i a b l e average f o r the group. This group of just four c h i l d r e n i s r e a l l y too small to be able to see any consistent trend i n scores, with the exception of the items under Language Development. School D An analysis of Table V shows that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that can be i d e n t i f i e d with i n t e l l e c t u a l handicaps are present i n the average ratings of the group. Out of 19 items, 8 or 4.2.1 per cent are rated adequate (4) or bet-1 L 4 ter. 11 or 57.8 per cent of the item are rated below the four (4) level. Only one item is at the five (5) or "combines adequate performance with others to achieve another goal" level. That is Toilet. Items that can be used to identify the specific handicap of this group show up in a summary of the averages of the ratings. Routine Self Care - All items at a better than adequate level. (4.55-5) Language - Only one item at a better than adequate level -Receptive language - (4.66) Other two items below adequate (3.77 - 3.88) Social Development - Relationships with adults is the only item above the adequate level (4.33). Relationships with peers and in groups both below the adequate level (3.77 - 3.88) Emotions - Rates a little on the side of too little control (2.88) Intellectual Development - Neither score reach adequate (3.44 -3.88) Imaginative and Creative Expression - The scores are similar to Intellectual Development - below adequate (3.44 - 3.55) Manipulative Development - Fine muscle control is not adequate -(3.66 - 3.77) Motor Development - Large muscle control - adequate or better -(4 - 4.33) Profile 11 is a graphic illustration of the average of the ratings of development of the group from School D. 115 Routines T W D N R language R E OE V Social A C G Emotions Play I I&C Man. Mot. 1 2 3 4 5 PROFILE 3D AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL C TABLE V INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL D ITEMS OF RECORD T W D N R R E OE V A c G E Int. I&C Man. Mot. P.D.* 5 5 5 5 - 5 4 - 2 3 .4 3 4 4 - 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 s S.D.* 5 4 5 -4 - 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 3 u M.D.* 5 4 5 5 - 5 4 — 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 5 B A.D.* 5 5 5 5 - 5 4 - 4 5 4 4 3 5 5 5 2 5 4 5 5 J D.D.* 5 5 5 5 - 5 4 - 4 5 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 E W.D.* 5 5 5 5 - 4 3 - 3 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 5, 5 C B.D.* 5 3 4 5 - 4 4 - 4 4 2 4 3 5 4 5 3 4 5 5 5 T CD.* 5 4 5 4 - 5 4 5 5 3 4 2 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 s J.D.* 5 5 5 5 - 5 4 - 5 5 5 4 3 4 5 2 5 3 3 4 4 Totals 45 41 44 43 - 42 35 - 34 39 34 35 26 31 35 31 32 33 34 39 36 Two assessments 117 The intellectual handicap definitely shows up. language, Social Development with peers or in controlled situations, Intellectual Devel-opment, Imaginative and Creative Expression are all less than adequate. These are all areas that are commonly associated with the development of children with intellectual handicaps. The comments and suggestions of the directors of the centres that used the record form for this study were presented first in this chapter because they were the first "results" received. The data from each of the schools was presented next. The number of record received, a brief description of the school situation and comments and reactions from the teachers of each school are shown. The information gathered from the record forms was analyzed in several ways. Individual record forms were studied to see if they presented a description of the child and his development and if they could be used for programme planning and evaluation. A sampling of the record analysis with profiles was presented. Average scores were determined on the basis of school groups. Tables with all the individual ratings and profiles of the group averages were included. The average ratings were examined to see if characteris-tics of the group handicaps classification (physical, hearing, intell-ectual) showed up. 118 - ••• - - 1 2 ; > 4 i Routines T W D N R { Language R E GE V \ / S o c i a l A C G 1 > Emotions < / Play I I&C Man. Mot. \ PROFILE 11 AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL D CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study was concerned with the recording of observations of preschool activities of young handicapped children. A record form that combined a checklist and a five point rating scale with anecdotal inform-ation was developed. This recording instrument was used in four preschool special education settings by teachers to assess the growth and develop-ment of the young children over a period of time. I DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTRUMENT One of the purposes of this study was to develop a useful, concise and comprehensive instrument for recording observations of activities of young handicapped children. The record as it was developed had twenty-one items with each item rated on a five point scale. Of the forty-four (UU) children observed for this study only seventeen (38.6 per cent) were assessed twice, although this was origin-ally requested for all children. The reason given for this nomissionn was lack of TIME. Three of the four teachers using the record taught two groups of children a day. Although Fouracre et al. said that the teachers in his study did not find it difficult to rate the children on the 180 items of his record form it is doubtful if teachers such as those using the recording instru-ment developed for this study could find time for such an extensive 120 record. The teachers in this study, with the exception of the writer, all carried a double teaching load, - one group in the morning, another group in the afternoon. The teachers in the Fouracre study had only one group a day and spent several hours a week discussing growth and development, programming, etc. There was also a full time observer. The Social Competency Rating developed by Cain, Levine, and Elzey with 72 items was also used by full time observers, not the teachers. The T.M.R. Performance Profile developed by DiNola, Kaminsky and Sternfield has some 240 items. If teachers have difficulty finding time to use an instrument with just 21 items, how could they manage 240 items? A recording instrument with as few as twenty-one items does show up characteristics of the different types of handicaps. Teachers using it felt it was weak in different places. The teacher of children with hearing handicaps felt that more items were needed in the Language area. The teacher of intellectually retarded children felt that more items were needed in the area of Intellectual Development. The writer's original area of work was with preschool aged children with physical handicaps. The record form reflected this bias in that the teachers of children with physical handicaps did not point out any special area that they felt was weak. This kind of recording instrument could be adapted to meet the need of the group without losing its ability to describe the whole child. General areas of development, as used on the record form for this study (Routine Self Care, Language, Social Participation, Emotions, Intellect— 121 ual Development, Imaginative and Creative Expression, Manipulative Development, and Motor Development) could be retained. This would provide a uniformity in form and a comprehensive coverage of develop-ment. The teacher could then select items for each of the areas that she felt were most significant in the growth and development of the children with the specific handicap of that group. The way in which Play Activities was organized on the record form for this study, with lists of sample items that can be adjusted to suit the child, is the suggestion for the whole record. The five point rating scale has now been used enough to prove its usefulness. This could be used on all record forms regardless of the specific items to be rated. Each programme, each handicap and each teacher are different. No recording instrument based on one programme or one type of handicap can be used without adjustment in another setting. But the results of this study seem to indicate that there are basic elements in recording that can be applied to many situations. By utilizing these basic ele-ments a system of recording which is relatively objective, concise, easy to read and uniform can be developed in special education centres for handicapped preschool children. II RECORDING OBSERVATIONS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT The purpose of the record developed for this study was to provide a basis for reporting on the growth and development of the preschool 122 child. To do this the record must give adequate information for a description of the child and his development. The information provided by the record forms was adequate for describing the individual child. Of the forty-four records collected for this study four ( 9 per cent) were discarded as being too incomplete to provide information for descriptive purposes. Only the nine records (20.4- per cent) made by the writer had anecdotal material for all areas of development. Anecdotal information on records made by other teachers was very brief. For the most part it was presented verbally to the writer and then added to the record after a discussion about the child. If no anecdotal material was included on the record the "picture1 of the child was inadequate. And yet with just a very few words of explanation or description along with the rating the "picture" of the child (the description) was fairly complete. The profile created by the rating did present a picture that was representative of the child even though two observers might not have entirely agreed on the rating. The record of a child with a wide varia-tion in his behaviour would show an erratic profile and the record of a child displaying a steady level of development showed only minor varia-tions in the profile. The rating of the Self Care Routines presented the degree of the child's independence in this area. For example, when all items except Toilet were rated consistently at the adequate or better level the reason 123 could be found in the problem of motility also. It is interesting to note that only one child was rated below the adequate level for Nourish-ment or Lunch. And this child's handicap was noted as very severe. (D.A.) The section on Routine Self Care needed the least amount of anecdotal information for descriptive purposes. The description provided by the rating of Language development was very difficult if no anecdotal material was provided. A general-ized description could be made however. If ratings were consistently low then it was obvious that the child had a great deal of trouble communicating or if they were consistently high, the child had little trouble communicating even though there may have been a noticeable impediment in the verbal Language development. Anecdotal material in other parts of the record were often excellent sources of additional information on Language. Social Participation and Play Activities were especially useful. By combining the ratings of Social Participation with the inform-ation of Emotions the description of the child was much improved. "Expressions of anger etc." were usually descriptive of the child's relationship with adults. Were the teachers.unaware of fears, anxieties etc. that were within the peer group relationship? Difficulties that arose in analyzing the record forms were the results of inadequacies of the instrument and the use of the instrument. When only one item had been included in each of the divisions of 124 Play Activities it was very difficult to determine the kinds of play activities in which the child usually took part. Anecdotal information was almost a necessity in making the ratings of the play activities meaningful. Just one "story" of one brief episode in the child's normal activities helped to describe the child. Minor alterations were made to the items on the record in some schools. These alterations were omissions of items not observed and did not change the adequacy of the profile of the individual child. Possibly with a little thought items that were essential to the descrip-tion of the handicap could also have been added. The remarks of the teacher of the hearing handicapped children and the teacher of the intellectually retarded children showed the inadequacy of the items of the checklist in certain areas. It was not possible to report on development when only one assessment had been recorded. Only seventeen of the forty-four (38.6 per cent), were double records. Two assessments did show growth and development in the individual child. Even in a three month period (School D) growth and development was evident although it was not as noticeable as in the records that covered a longer period of time. It was not necessary to have a change of rating on all items to show growth and development. If there had been a rise in the rating of some items in each of the areas growth had taken place and growth could be expected on other items at a later date. When little or no growth and development in specific areas was 125< noted in records which had covered a longer period of time it was poss-ible to utilize this information in programme planning and evaluation. The record form was used as an initial assessment record for two children. The second assessment recorded just a short time later showed a seemingly amazing amount of change. This seems to indicate that al-though the record form can be used for initial assessments on children no real evaluation of the child's actual level of functioning can be made on that basis. It can serve only as an indication of the child's first reactions to the school situation. The second assessment, made after the child has become accustomed to the school environment is the one upon which a more reliable evaluation can be made* III PROGRAMME EVALUATION AND PLANNING Not only was the record form to provide a basis for a description of growth and development, it was also to provide a basis for programme evaluation and planning. Programme evaluation and plans (if needed) were evolved from all the records retained for the study. Evaluation and planning, on the basis of one assessment could only be tentative. However where two assessments had been made the evaluation and planning was much more definite. The evaluation and planning for V.A. is an example. "Moderate use of the left hand should enable this child to achieve more in areas of Routine Self Care and in her Play Activities. Probably needs to be supplied with ideas and uses for toys and materials ..." 126 The slow but steady development of this child showed on the rec-ords. A continuation of this kind of development should be channelled into Self Care. Because she has been so limited her knowledge of the uses of play materials is also limited. She will need specific teaching in Play as well as in Self Care. Her level of development, at the time of the first assessment was so low that learning of specific skills would have been very slow. Her level of development is still low and will always be limited but can now start to be channelled into areas that are going to be most meaningful to her. The record shows that this is now possible. An example of the tentative suggestions that can be made on a single assessment is the record of E.A. "The difference in the rating between Routine Self Care (adequate or better) and Manipulative (inadequate) is quite noticeable. Would special teaching of manipulative skills raise his developmental level?" With only one assessment the planning can only be done as a question. The direction of the growth and development cannot be deter-mined so nothing definite can be said. IV SHORT TERM ASSESSMENT One of the medical directors said he thought that records made over a three month period with physically handicapped children would not show much change. The records of J.B. (a physically handicapped child) covered a period of only two months. ;127 When the records cover only a short period of time (two to three months) there will not be a complete change in ratings but some change should be evident in some areas of development. A three month period is almost one third of the school year; it is one quarter of a full year; if no changes have taken place in that length of time then the preschool programme, as planned for that child, should be examined. Also, the child's total treatment programme and family and home situation should be examined to see if changes are taking place in other ways. If there has been no significant changes anywhere a problem is indicated. If there have been changes in areas other than the preschool one of two things is indicated. 1. The child is showing sufficient gain and there is no need to worry. But if this is the case a careful watch on the child's activities in the preschool for a six to eight week period is indicated. If there are no significant changes in that second period then 2. The preschool programme, as planned for that child, is not adequate. It needs a thorough examination by members of the treatment team and then a revision in the light of the decisions reached by that group. V USEFULNESS FOR COMMUNICATION A record conveys information from one person to another and/or from one time to another. This is communciation. If records are not used for this purpose they need not be kept. It was hoped that the recording instrument devised for this study would prove to be a useful basis for improved multidisciplinary commun-ication. "Improved communication" amongst the treatment team was the aspect of this study in which two of the directors showed the most interest. It was also the aspect that the author had least opportunity to evaluate. In one school (School D) no multidisciplinary meetings were held during the time period of the study. In two schools (Schools B and G) the teachers were too busy with other responsibilities to do more than complete a few single record forms, shortly before they were collected. Therefore they could not be used for communication purposes. In only one school (School A) did the teacher actually use the information as a basis for her reporting at multidisciplinary team meetings. She said that she felt it gave her a basis for factual inform-ation to pass on to others. The teachers in one school (School C) did say that they thought it would make a good "report card" for school transfers. This is communication but time did not permit a test of this suggested use. These results show that the record form can provide a basis for reporting on the growth and development of a child. A wider use of the record for communication would have given a better indication of the extent of its usefulness. 129 The lack of opportunity for team communication and the lack of concern in improving team communication seem to indicate lack of inter-est in the role of preschool education in the total treatment programme. A clarification of the role and the goals of the preschool in special education is needed first. Adequate reporting (communication) on the achievement of these goals to others will lead to a better understanding of the role. Adequate recording is one of the first steps. The respon-sibility lies with the preschool. The contribution made by the preschool in the field of special education cannot be measured and evaluated until those people working . in this area realize the importance of recording their observation of the growth and development of the children with whom they work. While the recording must suit the needs of the children and the school situation there should be a common base in them all. This base will, among other things, provide a standardization that will make the descriptions of the child more meaningful. This will not only improve professional commun-ication it will also make the transfer of a child from one centre or class, to another, easier. Records that show individual strengths and weaknesses will assist the teacher and other members of a multidisciplin-ary team to plan more effective programmes, not only for the individual but also for the whole group. Also, standardized information is the beginning of material for further study and research - a much needed item in the field of special education for preschool children. 330 VI RECOMMENDATIONS The findings of this study have shown that the importance of recording observations of growth and development of young handicapped children is not widely accepted in the preschool. The direct teaching responsibilities of the teachers occupy so much of their time records are looked upon as an extra chore not as an integral part of the work. With this in mind and based on the data gathered in this study the following recommendations are made: 1. Teachers of handicapped preschool aged children are as much in need of opportunities for further learning experiences as are teachers of handicapped school aged children. Preschool teachers in special educations should be encouraged to take further courses which will broaden their knowledge of special education. They should also include observ-ations at other centres to see work with children with different hand-icaps and by teachers with different training, in these experiences. By having a better understanding of the responsibilities of pre-school education in the total picture of special education the importance of keeping adequate records would become more apparent. 2. A standard but flexible type of instrument for recording observations of the growth and development of young handicapped children should be used by preschool teachers in special education. The five point rating scale and checklist is not only useful, concise and compre-hensive for the busy teacher, it also provides a common frame of refer-ence and facilitates the collection of material for research purposes. 13% 3. The recording of observations on a standard but flexible type of recording instrument would be a waste of time if the information was not used. Not only the preschool teachers, but all members of a treatment team should become aware of the uses to which such records may be put. Some of these are for transfer from special preschool to special school, for reporting to parents, for reviewing the child's growth and development over the months and years of special care, for planning for the treatment outside of the preschool programme and for planning for the child's return to "normal'' school experiences. Therefore adequate records of growth and development in the preschool should be used by all people working with the children. VII RESEARCH The review of related studies (Chapter II) showed the limitation of research with young handicapped children. Amongst the reasons for this are difficulty of identification, limited facilities for care of the young child and limited facilities for training of personnel. There are many problems related to this field of special education that need some more study. Some of them have been apparent during this study and the results of this study have raised several questions that could be the basis for further study. 1. What is the role of preschool education in special education? There is a need for a study of preschool philosophies, practices and programmes. The differences in the role of the preschool in the 132 treatment and education of different handicaps plays an important part in determining the effectiveness of certain teaching methods and individ-ual teachers. A clarification of this role in each type of centre would make a preschool experience more valuable. 2. What would be the best type of standard but flexible record-ing instrument? And how could it be developed to meet the needs of each centre? There should be more of the kind of work done during this study to develop an instrument that is standard in form but meets specific needs of preschool aged handicapped children, (i.e. Hearing handicaps, intellectual handicaps, etc.) VIII SUMMARY There is a continuing need for the development of instruments useful in assessing children in need of special education. This study was concerned with the recording of observations of preschool activities of young handicapped children. To help explain the reason for the basic problem—Is it possible to develop a useful, concise and comprehensive recording instrument that can be used in making observations of the growth and development of young children in preschool settings at special education centres? the following questions were asked: 1. Why records? 2. How is information obtained for records? 1 3 3 3 . What kind of records? U. What are the criteria for records? and 5. Why special education during the preschool years? The answers provided background information for the complete study. Related studies were limited to the intellectually retarded or to older children. Record forms that had been developed were not con-cise—items to be rated numbered from seventy to two hundred forty. An examination of preschool record forms showed that each instru-ment was developed to meet the needs of the individual schools and the observer. For the purpose of this study a record form that combined a check-list and a five point rating scale with anecdotal information was devel-oped. It was felt that this type of record would meet the needs of pre-school special education centres. The five point scale was applied to twenty-one items of preschool activities categorized into developmental areas. Sources for the choice of categories and the application of the five point scale to each item was presented in some detail. Four groups of preschool children in different special education centres, presenting several handicaps, were used for testing of the record. It was requested that the teachers use the record at least twice for each child over at least a three month period. Directors and teachers were also asked for criticisms regarding the record. 134 The records were collected at the end of an eight month period. Records of the observations of forty-four children were received from teachers. Half of these records came from one school. 1. Three of the teachers carried double teaching loads, i.e. One class in the morning and another in the afternoon. One teacher, the writer, had one class. 2. Teaching responsibilities of two teachers prevented them from completing more than a small number of single records. One teacher completed double records on approximately one third of the children in her school. One teacher completed double records on all the children in her school. 3. Three teachers used the record forms without including anecdotal information. These same teachers felt the record did not show the personality of the children. Inclusion of anecdotal information increased the adequacy of the record form. 4. One teacher adapted the record form to her own needs in developing her own system of records. This study hoped to show that the instrument developed would pro-vide a useful basis for: 1. A description of a child and his development. 2. Programme planning and evaluation. All records received were analyzed with these, points in mind. The analysis and profile of the rating of a sample of the records were 035 presented to illustrate some of the uses to which the records could' be put. Two assessments were necessary to see development. Questions and tentative suggestions for programming and evaluation could be made on the basis of one assessment. More definite suggestions could be made on the basis of two assessments. Some growth and development shows on short term assessments (two to three months) but not as much as with longer term assessments. Average ratings were determined on the basis of school groups. This information indicated that characteristics of specific handicaps could be shown. These results showed that a recording instrument with as few as twenty-one items could be used to provide an adequate description of a handicapped child. Two consecutive assessments showed development and programme planning and evaluation was facilitated by using the record forms to note areas of strength and weakness. The records also showed up characteristics of specific handicaps. Because of the time limitations imposed on most teachers of young handicapped children it would be impossible to complete the extensive records developed in earlier studies but the results of this study show that a record with only twenty-one items can be used for several purposes. No one recording instrument developed in one centre can be used without adaptation in another centre. The special needs of the individual centres must be met. The recommendation was made that 136 further work be done to develop a record that was standard in form, with all areas of development covered and using the five point rating scale. The aspect of Communication had the least opportunity for testing. The pressure of teaching responsibilities and lack of opportunities for communication were the reasons for this. However where the record form was used as a basis of communication it was very useful. The contribution made by the preschool in the field of special education cannot be measured and evaluated until those people working in this area realize the importance of recording their observations of the growth and development of the children with whom they work. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Almy, M. Child Development H. Holt and Company New York 1955 Almy, M. Ways of Studying Children Bureau of Publications Teachers College Columbia University New York 1956 Beasly, Jane. Slow to Talk Bureau of Publications Teachers College Columbia University New York 1956 Blatz, W.E., Millichamp, D., and Fletcher, M. Nursery Education Theory and Practice W. Morrow and Company New York 1936 Bo\jely, Agatha H. "A Study of the Factors Influencing the General Development During the Pre-School Years by Means of Record Forms" The British Journal of Psychology Monograph Supplements Cambridge University Press 1942 Bowely, Agatha H. The Natural Development of the Child E. & S. Livingstone Ltd. Edinburgh 1947 Bridges, K.M.B. The Social and Emotional Development of the Pre-School Child Kegan, Paul, French, Trubner.& Col Ltd. London 1931" Cain, Leo. F. and Levine, Samuel. Effects of Community and Institutional  School Programs on Trainable Mentally Retarded Children C E C Research Monography Series B, No. B - 1 Washington D.C. 1963 Cain, Leo F., Levine, Samuel, and Elzey, F.F. Manual for the Cain-Levine Social Competency Scale Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1963 Christianson, H.M., Rogers, M.M. and Ludlum, B.A. The Nursery School Houghton Mifflin Company Boston 1961 Cohen, D.H. and Stern, V. Observing and Recording the Behaviour of Young Children Practical Suggestions for Teaching Number 18 Bureau of Publications Teachers College Columbia University New York 1958 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English H.W. Fowler and F.G. Fowler (editors) based on The Oxford Dictionary Fourth Edition Oxford Cruickshank, William,M., and Johnson, G. Orville (editors) Education of Exceptional Children and Youth Prentice - Hall, Inc. 1958 DiNola, Alfred J., Kaminsky, Bernard P. and Sternfeld, Allan E. T.M.R.  Performance Profile for the Severely and Moderately Retarded Teachers Manual Reporting Service for Exceptional Children 1963 Fouracre, M.H. , Connors, F.'P., and Goldberg, I.I. The Effects of a Preschool Program Upon Young Educable Mentally Retarded Children Volume II The Experimental Preschool Curriculum Department of Special Education Teachers College Columbia University New York City 1962 Good, C.V. and Scates, D.E. Methods in Research Educational, Psychological, Sociological Appleton-Century Crafts Inc. 1954 Hunt, J. McV. Intelligence and Experience The Ronald Press Company New York 1961 Ikeda, H. "Adapting the Nursery School Program for the Mentally Retarded Child" Exceptional Children 1955 XXI 17-173 Ingram, Christine P. Education of the Slow-Learning Child The Ronald Press Company Third Edition New York I960 Isaacs, S. Social Development jn Young Children A Study of Beginnings Harcourt, Brace and Company New York 1939 Iscoe, Ira "The Functional Classification of Exceptional Children" Readings on the Exceptional Child Editors. E.P. Trapp and P. Himelstein Appleton-Century Crafts, Inc. New. York 1962 pp. 6-13 Kirk, Samuel A. Educating Exceptional Children Houghton Mifflin Company Boston 1962 Kirk, Samuel A. Early Education of the Mentally Retarded University of Illinois Press Urbana 1958 Kirk, Samuel A. and Johnson, G.O. Educating the Retarded Child Houghton Mifflin Company Boston 1961 Lassman, Grace Language for the Preschool Deaf Child Grune and Stratton New York 1950 Lowenfeld, B. (ed.) The Blind Preschool Child American Foundation for the Blind New York 1947 Linch, Lawrence J. "Readers Exchange" Children Volume 1 Number 6 November - December 1954 p. 240 Martins, Elsie H. Curriculum Adjustment for the Mentally Retarded U.S. Office of Education Bulletin, Washington D.C. Government Printing Office 1950 Millichamp, D. "Early Foundations for Mental Healthn Bulletin of the  JLastitute of Child Study Volume 23 Number 3 & 4 (90, 9lJ September - December 1961 Mowrer, O.H. Learning Theory and the Symbolic Processes Wiley and Sons Inc. I960 Mullen, Frances A. "The Preschool Area of Special Education" from The  Exceptional Child A Book of Readings James F. Magary and John R. Erchoin Editors Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. New York I960 Nice, M.M. "Length of Sentence as a Criterion of a Child's Progress in Speech" Journal of Educational Psychology 1925 p. 16 (Cited in The -Natural Development of the Child by A. H. Bowely E. & S. Linvingstone Ltd. Edinburgh 194-7) Olson, W. "The Case Method" Chapter 6 Methods of Research in Education Review of Educational Research 9s449-646 December 1939 (Cited in Methods of Research Education, Psychological, Sociological C.B. Good and D.E. Scates Appleton-Century Crafts Inc. 1954) Read, K.H. The Nursery School: A Human Relationships Laboratory W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia Third Edition I960 Shuey, Betty "Written Records on Children" The Journal of Nursery  Education Volume XXIII Number 3 Spring 1958 (Abstract) Strang, Ruth An Introduction to Child Study Third Edition MacMillan Co. New York 1951 Thomas, R.M. Judging Students Progress Longman, Green & Company 1954 Tyler, R.VJ. "The Place of Evaluation in Modern Education" Elementary  School Journal XLI September 1940 pp. 19-27 Wrightstone, J.W., Justman, J., and Robbins, I. Evaluation in Modern  Education American Book Company New York 1956 Yum, L.G. "Adapting the Nursery School for the Multiply Handicapped Cerebral Palsy Child" Exceptional Children Volume 22 Number 1 October 1955 141 OTHER REFERENCES Preschool Record Forms 1. Kindergartens in public schools A. . Concord Public School Kindergartens B. Cleveland Public Schools C. Quincy Public Schools Kindergarten Report Card These record forms were found in the collection of school record forms of Mrs. A. Borden, Child Study Centre, University of British Columbia. 2. Nursery Schools A. Private nursery school record - copied from the collection of family school records of Mrs. E. Harding. B. Play school record - prepared by E.S.W. Belyea, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia. 3. Student observation forms A. Preschool Observation Report, Education 331, University of British Columbia. B. Observation Analysis, Psychology 320, University of Washington. 4. School records A. Child Study Centre B. University of British Columbia U 2 Research record Institute of Child Study University of Toronto Special Education Centres A. G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre Vancouver, British Columbia. B. Children's Treatment Centre North Surrey, B. C. APPENDIX A 40 Included in this review are also some of the publications which are especially directed to preschool education - for both handicapped and oa-handicapped children. Name: Age: yr. mo. Date of Recording: Handicap: - Degree: Routine Self Care 1 . 2 , 3 . 4 . 5 1. Toilet 2. Washing 3. Dressing 4. Nourishment 5. Rest i Language 1. Receptive 2. Expressive 3. Other exp. behaviour 4. Vocabulary ! Social Participation 1. With Adults 2. With Children 3. Group Activity Emotions 1. Control Pattern Too Little Adequate 2. - Expressions of anger, fear, anxiety, aggression etc. Usual response(s) Cause(s) 3. Expressions of pleasure, affection etc. Usual response(s) Cause(s) 4. Other items - mannerisms - response to discipline Too Much Frequency Frequency Play Activities: 1. Intellectual Development: 2. Imaginative and Creative Expressxons 3. Manipulative Development: MANUAL OF INSTRUCTIONS 1 2 ROUTINE SELF CARE Toilet Washing Dressing Nourishment Rest Dependent on adult - no effort or no effective effort. Adult does most of work but child's efforts are productive. LANGUAGE Receptive No response to verbal or gesture. Relies mostly on gesture. Expressive Other Expressive Behaviour Speech cannot be understood. No gesture. Speech under-stood with difficulty. Reaching gesture. No •yes' or 'no' gesture. Vocabulary No meaning- Signs, ful sounds. sounds, etc. used with meaning. 3 5 Child does most of work but needs assistance to complete task. Child able to accomplish task but requires spoken help (support) to complete it. Child completes task without help and with adequate skill. Relies on gestures to clarify spoken. Speech understood with some difficulty. Reaching -pointing 'yes' and 'no'-a few with symbolic value. Single words. Slightly retarded in understanding. Speech readily understood but not normal. Fluent use of gesture and sound. No observable retardation, handicap or immaturity. No immaturity, slurring, omissions etc. No need. Minor sentences. Full sentences. 1 2 SOCIAL PARTICIPATION With Adults Indifferent ignores -interest in toys etc. Aware of adult-watches adult(s) and their activities. With Children Indifferent ignores -afraid. Watching -interest in activities. Group Activity No interest -joins group only with adult pressures. Joins group willingly -watches -interested. 3 4 5 Ask adult for help. Accepts direction in play activities. Parallel play -beside but not with. Imitation. Come to adult with news and information. Adults part of child's world. Enjoys activity. Relates easily to adults in familiar situations. Makes suggest-ions for activity, that are original. Anticipation next part of activity. Tries to relate peers-tries to help - demands attention. Associative play. Cooperative play - play easily with peers. EMOTIONS Control Pattern: (1) Too little - impulsive - very easily frustrated - anger, etc. displays of extremes in anger •(-••} or affection (kissing, hugging etc.) (2) Adequate - spontaneous - suitable to the situation. (3) Too Much - inhibited - withdrawn. Expressions of anger, fear, anxiety, aggression etc.: Response - Tears, complains, screams, yells, hits, runs away or runs to adult for protection, temper tantrums, pouts. Cause - Arrival at school, leaving school, requirements of routine, wants something (include example), approach of animals, hurt (accident or by another child), frustration. Expressions of pleasure, affection etc.: Response - laughs, claps hands in delight, vocal exclamation, smiles, joins in group activity with display of enthusiasm, shows affection towards (give example - teacher, peer etc.) Cause - Activity of another person, child or group, pleasure in own activity or accomplishment, something 'funny' (give example), something 'nice.' (give example). Other items, mannerisms, response to discipline: Mannerisms - thumb sucking, sighing, sucks lip, rocks body, affected manner of speaking (unrelated to handicap). Response to discipline - Accepts without objection, objects vocally, by stiffening body, by relaxing body, seems to understand and modifies behaviour. PLAY ACTIVITIES Intellectual Development Activity* No interest or refusal. Interested in - manipulates no real purpose. Imaginative and Creative Expression Specific Activity* No interest or refusal. Manipulative .'Development Specific Activity* No interest or refusal. Motor Development Specific Activity* Uninterested unable to manage. Touching -exploring. Interest -tries -requires adult help (physical). Tries requires help to bring efforts to completion. Uses materials in routine manner. Imitation.' Skill 'under-stood' - has difficulties and requires some help and direction. Functional but still awkward - may require verbal help. Choose materials with a purpose in mind. Enjoys activity plays easily in situation or with materials. Skill mastered - uses in a routine manner. Adequate control - no support necessary. Combines materials -utilizes in unique way. Originality creative. Originality in utilizing skill. Good control - purposeful - appropriate. * Specific Activities - examples - use at least one of each - preferably two - use same activities each time of recording but new ones can be added as child matures. Intellectual: Books Colour recognition Matching - shape - size - number Quantity-Interest in Project - animals - season etc. Manipulative: Cutting Drawing Colouring Pasting Bead stringing Pegs Block building Tinker toys etc. Puzzles Imaginative and Creative: Sand Water Drawing Painting brush and/or finger Clay - Plastercine Dramatic play Motor Development: Walking Marching Jumping Stairs - up and down Slide o Ball Tricycle Wagon Rhythm instruments APPENDIX B SUBJECTS - INFORMATION FROM RECORD FORMS Subjects 0. A. N.A. V.A. A. A. G.A. M.A. L.A. P. A. CA. D. A. J.A. E. A. K.A. 1. A. F. A. T.A. B. A. Birthdate October 19/59 September 11/59 October 22/59 October 17/58 Age, as recorded on f i n a l record. 5 years 5 years 5 years A yr. 3 mo. 5 years U years U years 4|- years 5 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 7 years 6 years Handicap CP., spastic quad., very severe. CP., spastic quad., mild. CP., spastic quad., severe. CP., spastic quad., moderate. Arthrogrypos i s C.P., athetoid, mild. Mentally retarded. CP., moderate. C.P., mild. Brain damage. C.P., moderate. C. P., spastic quad. Surgery on hands and feet. CP., spastic & ataxia, mild. CP., mild. Muscular dystrophy. CP., spastic quad, mild. 153 S.A. 5 years CP., spastic mild. H.A. Kidney condition. J.B. August 5/59 5 yr. 3 mo. Transverse myelitis, moderate - legs. S.B. 5 yr. 8 mo. Aoplasia congenital multiplex. P.B. December 17/59 5 years Arthrogryposis. A.B. November 27/59 5 yr. 1 mo. CP., athetoid. N.B. January 20/59 5 yr. llmo. Spina Bifeda D.B. July 20/59 5 yr. A mo. CP., athetoid & ataxia visual problem moderate. L.B. November 8/58 6 yr. 1 mo. CP., athetoid, moderately severe. K.B. September 15/58 5 yr. 7 mo. CP., spastic, moderate. R.C. 4 yr. 7 mo. Severe hearing loss. D.G. 5 yr. 1 mo. Profound hearing loss. M.C. A yr. 7 mo. Profound hearing loss. V.C. 4 yr. 2 mo. Profound hearing loss. P.D. December 21/58 Intellectual retardation. S.D. October 29/57 Intellectual retardation. M.D. October U/58 Intellectual retardation. A.D. November 3/58 Intellectual retardation. D.D. September 23/57 Intellectual retardation. W.D. February U/58 Intellectual retardation. B.D. May 20/58 Intellectual retardation. 154 CD. J.D. September 17/58 October 18/58 Intellectual retardation. Intellectual retardation. SPECIAL EDUCATION CENTRES COOPERATING IN THE STUDY School A Children's Treatment Centre North Surrey, B. C. School B G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre Vancouver, B. C. School C Preschool for Hearing Handicapped Children Sunnyhill Hospital, Vancouver, B. C. School D Research Unit for Exceptional Children University of British Columbia Vancouver, B. C. 

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