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Recording playroom activities of young handicapped children Slater, Mabel Marie 1965

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R E C O R D I N G P L A Y R O O M A C T I V I T I E S O F Y O U N G H A N D I C A P P E D C H I L D R E N  by  M A B E L M A R I E S L A T E R B . H . E . University of British Columbia, 1949 Dip. C.S. University of Toronto 1950  AT H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R THE D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in the D e p a r t m e n t of E D U C A T I O N W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y O FB R I T I S H C O L U M B I A April, 1965  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  mission  for reference  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  be  advanced  of  and  written  Department  of  for  °  s  Head o f my  Columbia,  fulfilment  University  of  of •  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  I further  agree that for  Department  shall  not  per-  scholarly or  t h a t ; c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l gain  'fts^  the  this thesis  permissions.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  Library  I t i s understood  this thesis  w i t h o u t my  study.  the  in partial  degree at  the  c o p y i n g of  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  cation  this thesis  Columbia, I agree that  available  his  presenting  be  by publi-  allowed  A B S T R A C T This study was c o n c e r n e d with the recording of observations of preschool activities of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children. S t a t e m e n t of p r o b l e m Is it possible to develop a useful, concise and c o m p r e h e n s i v e recording instrument that can be u s e d in m a k i n g observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of y o u n g children in preschool settings at special education centres? A record form was developed with a five point rating scale for a checklist of t w e n t y o n e items with s o m e anecdotal information.  This  recording instrument was u s e d by teachers in four preschool special education settings to assess the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the y o u n g child over a period of time. The material was evaluated in t e r m s of: a) A d e q u a c y for description of the child and his d e v e l o p m e n t . b) A d e q u a c y for evaluation of and planning for the p r o g r a m m e . c) Opinions of preschool teachers and other professional people. d) Quantitative information provided by the records w e r e studied by m e a n s of profiles. The results s h o w e d . t h a t the time limitations i m p o s e d on m o s t teachers of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children w o u l d m a k e it impossible for t h e m to c o m p l e t e the extensive records developed in earlier studies. A recording instrument with as few as t w e n t y o n e items could be  iii  u s e d to provide an a d e q u a t e description of a y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d child. Two consecutive periodic a s s e s s m e n t s s h o w e d d e v e l o p m e n t .  P r o g r a m m e  planning and evaluation was facilitated by using the record f o r m to note areas of strength and w e a k n e s s .A v e r a g e s of g r o u p ratings s h o w e d characteristics of specific handicaps. Although a recording instrument developed in one centre may not be u s e d adequately without adaptation in another centre, the kind of record u s e d in this study w o u l d be useful. The record u s e d in this study was divided into specific areas of developmental g r o w t h i.e. c o m m u n i c a t i o n , social participation, imaginative and creative expression. I t e m s significant to the specific handicaps could then be selected. The five point rating scale could be applied to all items. By utilizing basic e l e m e n t s such as these a useful, concise and c o m p r e h e n s i v e s y s t e m of recording that contains a great deal of flexibility could be developed. The contribution m a d e by the preschool in the field of special education c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d and evaluated until those people working in this area realize the importance of recording their observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the children with w h o m they w o r k .  T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C H A P T E R  P A G E  I. I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D P R O B L E M  11  T h e P r o b l e m  12  S t a t e m e n t of the p r o b l e m  12  P u r p o s e of this study  12  Plan for study Definitions  13 13  R e c o r d s a n d Evaluation  1 5  W h y records?  1 5  H o w is information obtained for records?  19  W h a t kind of records?  22  W h a t are the criteria for records?  2 5  W h y special education during the preschool years? . Organization of Thesis  2 7 30  II. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W  3 2  Research with H a n d i c a p p e d Preschool Children  3 2  Evaluating D e v e l o p m e n t in Preschool Children  3 3  Evaluation of Exceptional Children  35  Preschool Education  36  Special Education in the Preschool Years  37  III. D E V E L O P M E N T O F T H E R E C O R D A N D P R O C E D U R E F O R T E S T I N G R E C O R D Preschool R e c o r d s  41 41  V  C H A P T E R  P A G E Public school kindergartens  42  Nursery schools  42  Laboratory schools  43  Special education centres C o m m o n Features  45 46  The Rating Scale U s e d for this Study Pretests  4V 53  The Present R e c o r d F o r m  54  Routine Self C a r e  56  L a n g u a g e  56  Social Participation  59  Play Activities  62  E m o t i o n s Procedure for Use of the R e c o r d  63 70  The children  71  Procedure  71  S u m m a r y  73  IV. R E S U L T S AND A N A L Y S I S OF THE R E C O R D F O R M  74  C o m m e n t s and Suggestions from Directors  74  Total N u m b e r of R e c o r d F o r m s U s e d in S t u d y  76  School A - Physical H a n d i c a p s The records The school situation . The teacher . '  77 77 77 77  vi  C H A P T E R  P A G E School B - Physical H a n d i c a p s  7 9  The records The school situation  7 9 .  The teacher  7 9 8 0  School C - Hearing H a n d i c a p s  8 1  The records  8 1  The school situation  8 2  The teacher  8 2  School D - Intellectual H a n d i c a p s  8 3  The records The school situation The teacher Analysis of the R e c o r d F o r m s Individual records and profiles  8 3 .  84 84 8 5 8 5  Single a s s e s s m e n t s  8 6  D o u b l e a s s e s s m e n t s  9 3  Short term a s s e s s m e n t s A v e r a g e Scores School A - Physical handicaps School B - Physical handicaps School C - Hearing handicaps School D - Intellectual handicaps  9 8 1 0 1 .... 1 0 1 1 0 8 Ill 1 1 3  vii  C H A P T E R  P A G E  V. D I S C U S S I O N AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S  119  D e v e l o p m e n t of the Instrument  119  Recording Observations of G r o w t h and D e v e l o p m e n t .. . P r o g r a m m e Evaluation and Planning  .  121 125  Short T e r m A s s e s s m e n t  126  Usefulness for C o m m u n i c a t i o n  127  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  130  Research  131  S u m m a r y  132  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  137  O T H E R R E F E R E N C E S  U l  A P P E N D I X A .  S a m p l e R e c o r d F o r m  M a n u a l of Instructions A P P E N D I X B .  I44 14-5  Subjects - Information from R e c o r d F o r m s  Schools Participating in Study  152 1 5 4 -  L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E  P A G E  I. Individual, Totals, a n d A v e r a g e Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Physical H a n d i c a p s Attending School A in the Junior G r o u p  1 D 2  II. Individual, Totals, a n d A v e r a g e Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Physical H a n d i c a p s Attending School A in the Senior G r o u p  1 0 5  III. Individual, Totals, a n d A v e r a g e Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Physical H a n d i c a p s Attending School B . .  1 0 9  IV. Individual, Totals, a n d A v e r a g e Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Hearing H a n d i c a p s Attending School C . V.  Individual, Totals, a n d A v e r a g e Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Intellectual H a n d i c a p s Attending School D  1 1 6  1 1 2  L I S T O F P R O F I L E S P R O F I L E  P A G E  1 . Rating of Level of D e v e l o p m e n t of Subject M . A . - Single A s s e s s m e n t  8 7  2 . Rating of Level of D e v e l o p m e n t of Subject L . B . - Single A s s e s s m e n t 3.  8 9  Rating of Level of D e v e l o p m e n t of Subject V . C . - Single A s s e s s m e n t  9 1  4 . Rating of Levels of D e v e l o p m e n t of 94-  Subject J . A . -D o u b l e A s s e s s m e n t 5.  Rating of Levels of D e v e l o p m e n t of 96  Subject W . D . -D o u b l e A s s e s s m e n t 6.  Rating of Levels of D e v e l o p m e n t of Subject J . B . - Short T e r m A s s e s s m e n t  9 9  7 . A v e r a g e of Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Physical H a n d i c a p s Attending School A in the Junior G r o u p  104-  8 . A v e r a g e of Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Physical H a n d i c a p s Attending School A in the Senior G r o u p  1 0 7  9 . A v e r a g e of Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Physical H a n d i c a p s Attending School B  1 1 0  10. A v e r a g e of Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Hearing H a n d i c a p s Attending School C  1 1 5  P R O F I L E 11. A v e r a g e of Ratings of D e v e l o p m e n t of Children with Intellectual H a n d i c a p s Attending School D  C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N AND P R O B L E M A persistent p r o b l e m in the field of special education is that of reporting on the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t * of y o u n g children in a preschool setting. This p r o b l e m is d e m o n s t r a t e d in several w a y s . The first is in reporting to other m e m b e r s of a multidisciplinary treatment t e a m — "And how is he (the child) doing in the nursery school?" It is not easy to give a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n s w e r , in t e r m s that are meaningful to all the professions involved. A description of w h a t a child can do d o e s not describe progress. Another problem, an outgrowth of the first, is that of putting this information (on g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t ) in a f o r m suitable for cumulative histories. The p r o b l e m of p r o g r a m m e planning for the individual child and for the w h o l e group, is also involved. W h a t are the p e r f o r m a n c e goals for e a c h child' W h a t are the goals for the w h o l e p r o g r a m m e and how can these goals be reached' The beginning of a solution to these p r o b l e m s may be in an a d e q u a t e s y s t e m of records. The n e e d for a quantified s y s t e m of recording the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children was expressed by L.J. Linch. He said that s o m e quantitative, as well as qualitative information on results in special preschool g r o u p s is n e e d e d . * G r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t - This phrase is u s e d in a general s e n s e and includes physical, social-emotion, intellectual etc. in its scope.  12  I. THE P R O B L E M Statement of the p r o b l e m Is it possible to develop a useful, concise and c o m p r e h e n s i v e recording instrument that can be u s e d in m a k i n g observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of y o u n g children in preschool settings at special education centres? In special education centres with several contributing disciplines, records often b e c o m e very voluminous. Therefore, recording m u s t be concise. To provide information for a d e q u a t e evaluation of the child and the preschool p r o g r a m m e , the recording m u s t be c o m p r e h e n s i v e . To s h o w d e v e l o p m e n t , or lack of it, in the child, a quantitative m e a s u r e m u s t be established. H o w e v e r , since g r o w t h is individual and c a n n o t be entirely r e d u c e d to figures, there m u s t also be r o o m for qualitative information. M o s t important of all, the record m u s t m e e t the n e e d s of the people working with the child. The record m u s t be useful. P u r p o s e of this study; 1. D e v e l o p an instrument that could be u s e d to record the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of preschool children in special education centres. 2. Use the recording instrument in several special education centres to see if it met the a b o v e m e n t i o n e d criteria of usefulness, conciseness and c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s .  13  Plan for study The data gathered is presented as 1. Opinions f r o m medical directors regarding the usefulness of the recording instrument. Opinions of preschool staff using the recording instrument regarding its usefulness. 2. The w a y s in which the instrument was used. a) For description - of the child - activities, abilities. - of the d e v e l o p m e n t of the child w h e n u s e d m o r e than once, over a period of time. b) For p r o g r a m m e evaluation and planning - for the individual child - D o e s the p r o g r a m m e n e e d to be c h a n g e d to aid d e v e l o p m e n t ? W h a t is the next step for this child? How can it be achieved? c) To m a k e the quanititative information provided by the record f o r m m o r e significant records are presented as profiles: - as individual profiles. - as averages for school groups. II. D E F I N I T I O N S H a n d i c a p p e d child (exceptional) - The child who deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally so m a r k e d l y f r o m w h a t is considered n o r m a l g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t that he c a n n o t receive m a x i m u m benefit f r o m a regular school p r o g r a m and requires special classes or supplem e n t a r y instruction and services. (Cruickshank & J o h n s o n p.3)  . 14  This study d o e s not include the intellectually gifted in this definition. Special education - Education of h a n d i c a p p e d children (as defined above). Special education centre - A centre for the education of handic a p p e d children (as defined above). Preschool - T h a t part of the p r o g r a m m e of a special education centre, apart f r o m the therapies and medical treatment, set up for children too y o u n g a n d / o r i m m a t u r e to benefit f r o m an a c a d e m i c school p r o g r a m m e . The chronological age r a n g e is wider than for n o n h a n d i c a p p e d children. The y o u n g e s t is a b o u t 3 years and the oldest a b o u t 7 years. It includes nursery school (juniour groups) and kindergarten (senior groups). The t e r m s preschool, nursery school and kindergarten will be u s e d interchangably unless otherwise stated. Record(s) - This study u s e d this w o r d as both a verb ( " . . . u s e d to record..." p. 1 2 ) and as a n o u n ("...records often b e c o m e . . . " p.11). v - register, put in writing or other legible shape, represent in s o m e p e r m a n e n t form. n - Piece of recorded evidence of information, account of fact preserved in p e r m a n e n t f o r m or d o c u m e n t . (Concise Oxford Dictionary 4-th Edition) Cumulative records (case history) Cumulative records - A cumulative record is one maintained for an individual pupil or client over a period of years, with  15  successive additions to the record at relatively frequent intervals, .... Ac o m p l e t e picture of the child as a unified personality d e p e n d s largely on the details found in a cumulative... record system. ( G o o d & Scates pp. 762, 763) III. R E C O R D S A N D E V A L U A T I O N Why records? This question, w h e n a s k e d of special education for the h a n d i c a p p e d preschool child, can be a p p r o a c h e d in at least two w a y s : A. Preschool children - The y o u n g child c a n n o t tell you in w o r d s why he acts the way he does. If the adult is going to try to find out, the child m u s t be observed in details of how, w h e n and w h a t , noted and recorded. Gathering clues f r o m the child's activities will lead to understanding. C o h e n and Stern (p^) express it this way - Y o u n g children Think with their h a n d s (they touch to find out) - socialize with their feet (stamping and kicking)... - think with their feet ( W h a t h a p p e n s to a w o r m ? ) and socialize with their h a n d s ( W h a t will h a p p e n if I touch him in the eye?) Children c o m m u n i c a t e with us through their eyes, their voices, their bodies and their gestures. Recording of their activities help us not only to see a child as he is but helps us r e m e m b e r w h a t he was. B. Education - If the contribution m a d e by the preschool to the total educational p r o g r a m m e is to be m e a s u r e d then records m u s t be kept and used. Tyler has outlined p u r p o s e s of records in an educational system. S o m e of these are that: 1. T h e y furnish data a b o u t the individual pupil essential for  16  guidance. This implies a c o m p r e h e n s i v e evaluation of all significant aspects of the pupils accomplishments. It should s h o w progress and difficulties. 2. T h e y provide a periodic c h e c k which gives direction to p r o g r a m m e i m p r o v e m e n t s . 3. T h e y can serve as a s o u n d basis for public relations. T h e s e p u r p o s e s are not only applicable to educational s y s t e m s for the n o n h a n d i c a p p e d .T h e y are also applicable to educational s y s t e m s for the handicapped. Education for the h a n d i c a p p e d preschool child is usually only a part of the total p r o g r a m m e for him. D e p e n d e n t on the specific handicap there may also be physiotherapy a n d / o r occupational therapy, a n d / o r speech therapy and others. T h e r e are records kept on the child's developm e n t in e a c h of these areas. The child's medical history, the reports of psychological tests, and the reports on the family and h o m e are also kept. Together they comprise the cumulative record. The significant g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t which g o e s on in a preschool p r o g r a m m e should be considered. R e c o r d s m u s t be kept. But w h a t is to be recorded? T h e r e is one aspect of the child's  g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t which c a n n o t be fully noted by the m a n y specialists. (The w o r d "fully" is u s e d b e c a u s e it is a part of their records. No area of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t can be isolated f r o m another.) It is the way in which the child actually u s e s his abilities and skills in his own world - for e x a m p l e the difference b e t w e e n s p e e c h and c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  At  17  the special education centre that world is the preschool - a world created to m e e t the n e e d s of the child. It is a record of living in the nursery school that m u s t be m a d e . And it can only be d o n e by careful observation of the child and a recording of his activities. How can a record of preschool activities help in guiding the child? To continue with the illustration of s p e e c h and c o m m u n i c a t i o n already used: an a d e q u a t e record should include information of a child's ability to c o m m u n i c a t e with the children and adults a r o u n d him. O v e r a period of time the records should s h o w an increase, not only in the a m o u n t of communication, but also an increase in the vocabulary u s e d by the child. If there has b e e n no increase in a six m o n t h period then s o m e questions should be a s k e d of the child's p r o g r a m m e . Is he being given opportunities to s p e a k or to c o m m u n i c a t e with others? Are his n e e d s being so efficiently anticipated that he has no n e e d to c o m m u n i c a t e ? Are the materials or toys with which he plays so simple they present no prob l e m s to h i m ? Is the adult taking time to "unravel" his gestures and s o u n d s ? Is he m a k i n g g o o d gains in other areas of d e v e l o p m e n t ?  T h e s e  are the kind of questions which could be a s k e d of a child's individual  p r o g r a m m e if a d e q u a t e records w e r e kept and areas of n e e d could be s h o w n . D e p e n d i n g on the answers, appropriate c h a n g e s could then be m a d e in his p r o g r a m m e . An evaluation of the total p r o g r a m m e can also be m a d e with periodic  18  checks of the individual records. Ask the question " W h a t are we trying to do in the school?" If the objectives of the preschool are clear the records will s h o w if they are being achieved. For e x a m p l e - One of the objectives of the preschool could be stated this way - "To provide opportunities to increase intelligible c o m m u n i c a t i o n " . The records of e a c h child should s h o w , from one time to another, if there has b e e n an increase in intelligible c o m m u n i c a t i o n . If there has b e e n little or no increase with m o s t of the children then the p r o g r a m m e m u s t be critically e x a m i n e d to.see if there are e n o u g h opportunities provided for c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Are the adults so b u s y caring for the physical n e e d s of s o m e of the children that they h a v e no time to listen to the others in the g r o u p ? Are the adults so b u s y telling the children w h a t to do there is no n e e d for the children to talk? Are the children being provided with e n o u g h materials to provide incentive for conversation? T h e s e are only a few of the questions that could be a s k e d of a p r o g r a m m e if records s h o w e d little or no increase in intelligible c o m m u n i c a t i o n a m o n g s t an u m b e r of the children. The point of using records as a basis for public relations (Tyler) can be paralleled with one given by Olson as a m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n professional workers. This is m o s t important in a multidiciplinary setting. The s p e e c h therapist n e e d s to k n o w m o r e than "He u s e s gestures instead of vocalizing." The physiotherapist will n e e d to k n o w if the walking ability d e m o n s t r a t e d in her presence is consistently carried over to the playroom. But m o r e than this is the n e e d to s h o w  19  that the preschool is a learning situation, not just in social-emotional d e v e l o p m e n t , but in all other areas. And it can only be d o n e if the broad role of the preschool is adequately reported. Another use for records is given by Olson; He says that they can be u s e d as a basis for a b o d y of k n o w l e d g e for study and research purposes. If records are to be u s e d for these p u r p o s e s there has to be s o m e standardizing in the f o r m of recording, and in.the use of terms. Qualitative information is not e n o u g h . Quantitative information is n e e d e d . In s u m m a r y , records of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of h a n d i c a p p e d children in the preschool can be u s e d for several purposes. The four that h a v e b e e n discussed are 1. For individual guidance and evaluation. 2.  For p r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation.  3. For c o m m u n i c a t i o n . U. For study and research. How is information obtained for records? Having provided s o m e reasons for keeping records the next question will be - how is the information on g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t to be obtained? It has already b e e n pointed out that a preschool child c a n n o t explain or report on his own activities. The adult m u s t observe the behaviour of the child. W h a t the child does, not w h a t he thinks or feels, is w h a t is noted or recorded.  20  M e t h o d s of observation d e p e n d on the n e e d s of the observer and on the physical set-up of the situation. Certainly there are s o m e basic guide lines but the student, the research w o r k e r and the teacher will e a c h h a v e different reasons for observing. For the teacher C o h e n and Stern says that: The teacher m u s t literally snatch time to record observations. Cards, p a d s etc. should be kept in pockets and on shelves for brief notations. "Be casual and unobtrusive a b o u t it all." (p.7) A l w a y s include date, n a m e of child and the setting for the action. T a k e records at different times of the day. For any observer "Observation" m u s t h a v e direction. If it d o e s n ' t the attention of the observer will be attracted by certain qualities of behaviour which m a y not be important. The child who is constantly m o v i n g f r o m one activity to another will attract m o r e attention than the child who w o r k s with just one kind of material. The child who shouts, w h i n e s or cries is m o r e noticeable than the quiet child. The child who is strikingly different in size, behaviour, or dress will attract m o r e attention than other children in the group. The observers n e e d s of the m o m e n t will c a u s e certain children  21  or activities to be m o r e attractive than others. For e x a m p l e , the observer with a h e a d a c h e is m o r e apt to c h o o s e a quiet child or a quiet activity to observe. The observers own interests will influence the choice of activity for observation. So before observation begins there m u s t be a plan. The observations m u s t be organized. ( M e t h o d s of recording observations will be discussed later). The process of observation may be interfered with by several errors. Observations, e v e n w h e n directed, can be interrupted by m o r e attention getting activity, so that s o m e information may be omitted. Observation, may be incomplete b e c a u s e the observer was unable to note all of the activity, (e.g. Portions of conversation that w e r e carried on in very low voices,) or failed to note details of the setting for the action (e.g. 'Tom his M a r y ' is meaningless unless additional information is provided. 'Tom hit M a r y w h e n she g r a b b e d his cap. gives 1  a better picture). Error may arise b e c a u s e of faulty m e m o r y w h e n reporting is delayed. It is important to r e m e m b e r that errors will arise. Allow a margin of safety by validating observations with further observations, before acting. (Almy, 1955) Although only one m e t h o d of observation, that of noting details  22  of external behaviour, can really be u s e d with preschool children, the n e e d s of the observer will determine the direction or focus that the observation will take. For any observer 'observation' m u s t be directed. If it isn't, the attention of the observer will be taken up by s o m e kinds of activities and others, equally important, will be overlooked. Observations m u s t be validated by further observation before interpretation of the activities or behaviour are useful. Observation m u s t be organized. The organization will be determ i n e d by a predetermined m e t h o d of recording. W h a t kind of records'? R e c o r d s of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children m u s t be kept if the n e e d s of the children and the special education centre are to be met.  (Tyler, Olson).  The next question is " W h a t kind of records are n e e d e d ? " This will be determined by the n e e d s of the school, the teacher, the student observer, etc. T h e r e are several m e t h o d s described and r e c o m m e n d e d by authorities in the field of education. S o m e of these are m o r e useful in the preschool than others. 1. The diary (Almy, 1959* C o h e n & Stern, Christianson et al., Strang).  This involves a detailed account of a child's activities  for a specific length of time. It is the m o s t difficult kind of recording to do. But with a little planning it can be objective and include a fair  23  a m o u n t of detail. It should create a picture of the child as he is " n o w " , at the time of recording. 2. The a n e c d o t e (Almy, 1959? C o h e n & Stern, Christianson et al., Isaacs).  This m e t h o d involves accounts of specific incidents of  behaviour. Pertinent and interesting behaviour is quickly recorded as it occurs. T a k e n over a period of time it will s h o w g r o w t h and developm e n t in a particular child. 3. Selective (Blatz et al., Isaacs, Christianson et al., Strang). This is similar to the anecdotal m e t h o d but is c o n c e r n e d with a particular aspect of behaviour. It m a y be the type u s e d for research projects. 4- Snapshots, movies, recordings etc. (Almy, 1959). T h e s e are a very accurate m e a n s of recording behaviour. Their use is increasing but cost is the chief d r a w b a c k . The time n e e d e d for rerunning of films and tapes m u s t also be considered. 5. Checklists ( A l m y , 1959, T h o m a s ) . This could be a list of all toys and materials u s e d by one child or the n u m b e r of times certain materials are used. It is m a r k e d to indicate presence or a b s e n c e of w h a t is being observed.  6. Rating m e t h o d s ( A l m y , 1959, Wrightstone et al., T h o m a s , Isaacs, Strang).  Characteristics or activities are arranged on a basic scale.  C h e c k lists and rating scales help to orgahize.e the recording of observation. Both are basically d e p e n d e n t on observation. T h e y give the teacher an overview of the g r o u p and give perspective in studying and understanding the individual child. The m e t h o d s are similar. The checklist is a list  24  of the characteristics or activities to be noted and the rating scale has characteristics or activities arranged in a scale of values. The usefulness of these m e t h o d s d e p e n d largely on how well the teacher has observed the children. Rating scales s e e m to w o r k best for judging behaviour which is easily observable and d e m a n d s little f r o m the rater in t e r m s of interpretation ( T h o m a s ) . T h o m a s gives s o m e u s e s for rating scales a) Diagnosing w e a k areas in the student's (child's) developm e n t . b) Providing g u i d a n c e in strengthening these areas. c) Reporting student's (the child's) progress to the student, their parents and administrators. Point c. , in application to the field of special education, could be e x t e n d e d to include medical and treatment personnel. 7. Sociometric m e a s u r e m e n t (Christianson et al.) T h e s e are u s e d to study social d e v e l o p m e n t of the child and is a type of selective m e t h o d (3). A nursery school in a special education centre will develop one or m o r e of the a b o v e m e t h o d s to s h o w up the e m p h a s i s of the centre and the specialized n e e d s of the child - physical handicap, sensory handicap, mental handicap, long t e r m treatment or a s s e s s m e n t . It will b e c o m e part of the cumulative history kept on e a c h child.  25  The choice of methods of recording observation w i l l be determined by the needs of the centre and by what the observer f i n d s most e f f i c i e n t . The ultimate t e s t of any record system i s i t s usefulness t o the teacher and any other person(s) who may consult i t .  Unless records are consulted  and used t o improve the c h i l d r e n ' s development there i s no reason f o r keeping them. What are the c r i t e r i a f o r records'No matter what type of recording i s u t i l i z e d  there are c e r t a i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are e s s e n t i a l t o good recording.  The f o l l o w i n g  i s one a n a l y s i s of the e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s (Good & Scates). Accuracy and o b j e c t i v i t y Conciseness and c l a r i t y Ease of reference and v i s i b i l i t y Uniformity and "up-to-dateness" P r o v i s i o n should a l s o be made f o r anecdotal information, summaries, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and treatment. Accuracy and o b j e c t i v i t y To be o b j e c t i v e and accurate i n reading and recording behaviour is difficult.  O b j e c t i v i t y can only be r e l a t i v e .  I t has been s a i d ,  "What we perceive ' o b j e c t i v e l y ' may be, t o a large degree a p r o j e c t i o n of one's own subjective s t a t e and t h i s t e l l s more about oneself than about the people whom one observes."  (Almy 1955 p.7)  To v a l i d a t e ones observations, f u r t h e r observation and compar-  26  ison to another observer are important. Data m u s t be objective to m a k e professionally valuable interpretations (Almy, 1955). To obtain an accurate picture of a child every aspect of child d e v e l o p m e n t m u s t be covered and yet it m u s t be selective or the record will s h o w only behaviour that is attention catching or will be so filled with unimportant details that there will be no diagnostic value to t h e m . Conciseness and clarity • Conciseness is important b e c a u s e to the teacher time both to record and to read are limited. Yet there m u s t be a balance b e t w e e n brevity and clarity. One author suggests the use of a T h e s a u r u s if the recorder d o e s not h a v e a g o o d working k n o w l e d g e of descriptive t e r m s ( C o h e n & Stern). C h e c k s and s y m b o l s are a devise suggested by another (Blatz et al.) although if the s y m b o l d o e s not apply to a previously described activity the brevity w o u l d m a k e it very inadequate. E a s e of reference and visibility Again, these characteristics contribute to efficiency both in recording and reading of records. If the spacing and a r r a n g e m e n t are planned, s u m m a r i z i n g and analysis will be facilitated (Blatz et al.). Uniformity and "up-to-dateness" Uniformity of spacing and a r r a n g e m e n t will m a k e the record m u c h m o r e useful for study and research purposes. Uniformity of terminology will contribute to clarity and understanding. Uniformity in long t e r m (cumulative) records will ensure against o m m i s s i o n s or errors.  27  Provision m a d e for anecdotal information etc. Although there are m a n y occasions w h e n detailed information is unnecessary, anecdotal records provide m u c h information not available through any other m e a n s .  Recording behaviour is recording growth.  M a n y  "stills" are n e e d e d before a c o m m o n m o v e m e n t is visible ( C o h e n & Stern). All the information contained in records may not be n e e d e d for every occasion but well balaced records can be analysed in m a n y w a y s to m e e t n e e d s as they arise. Effective recording is d e p e n d e n t on careful observation and discriminative selection. G o o d recording displays accuracy, objectivity, clarity and visibility. Why special education during the preschool years? The n o n h a n d i c a p p e d , a v e r a g e preschool child learns a great deal. He learns m a n y physical skills as his b o d y g r o w s and matures. He also learns that characteristically h u m a n ability of combining s p e e c h and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . He learns that the w o r d " o r a n g e " may m e a n s o m e t h i n g to eat or that it may be a colour; he learns that "chairs" can be soft or hard, big or little, white, b r o w n or any other colour. And so on. The m a n y skills and k n o w l e d g e , particularly the ability to handle abstractions, of the a v e r a g e six year old d e p e n d on b r o a d experiences in the preschool years (McV Hunt). The h a n d i c a p p e d preschool child d o e s not h a v e access to the environmental experiences of other children. The crippled child c a n n o t run outdoors to feel the first snowflakes; the blind child c a n n o t see the colour of the orange; the deaf child c a n n o t hear the warning growl  28  in the throat of an approaching dog.  The child's m o t h e r m u s t protect  and "do" for him w h e r e another child is free and independent. The h a n d i c a p p e d child is m o r e likely to be too d e p e n d e n t on others to develop emotional maturity. He may be fearful, just f r o m lack of " k n o w h o w " , of things that should p r o v o k e curiosity and the desire to investigate. For these children, at this crucial time of life, the n e e d for special services is very real. The nursery school and kindergarten for h a n d i c a p p e d children is part of these special services. It is a world set up especially for the y o u n g child. The preschool p r o g r a m m e for the h a n d i c a p p e d child is essentially the s a m e as for any other child. The h a n d i c a p p e d child is m o r e like than unlike other children but with special n e e d s . The preschool prog r a m m e for the h a n d i c a p p e d child is m o r e like than unlike other prog r a m m e s but with special e m p h a s i s . The chief difference b e t w e e n preschool p r o g r a m m e s for h a n d i c a p p e d and n o n h a n d i c a p p e d children are e m p h a s i s and a w a r e n e s s . This e m p h a s i s and a w a r e n e s s can be m a d e clearer by examining the attributes of a g o o d nursery school (Millichamp) in t e r m s of special education. 1. Respect - for the y o u n g child's person. Regard, consideration, courtesy, attention - these are s o m e of the s y n o m n s for respect. The h a n d i c a p p e d child has as m u c h right as any other child to his share of these qualities. In the preschool setting he will be regarded as an individual with s o m e t h i n g of  29  value to contribute to society (that is, school life). He will not be ignored or l a u g h e d at b e c a u s e of his inadequacies. 2. A c c e p t a n c e - of his childishness, his "unadultness". Also of his disabilities and limitations. In the preschool the h a n d i c a p p e d child, may for the first time, be accepted just as he is - without w e e p i n g or s y m p a t h y , without o v e r e m p h a s i s or an ignoring of his differences. 3. A place and an activity - suited to his way of being a person. To the casual observer this will probably be the m o s t noticeable area for differences. Special furniture (chairs and tables), special e q u i p m e n t (hearing aids and braces), special toys and special activities (to e n c o u r a g e the d e v e l o p m e n t of perceptual abilities and manipulative skills) are provided. The special n e e d of e a c h child will determine this. W h a t suits one d o e s not necessarily suit another. 4..  T i m e - to live through e a c h new way of being himself. This is w h e r e the " a w a r e n e s s " is m o r e obvious. In therapy  sessions the y o u n g child is learning new skills and techniques. He m u s t h a v e the opportunity to integrate t h e m into his living processes. H o m e , with its family needs, may not provide this time at the right m o m e n t .  For the m o t h e r with several children to get off to school it  is nearly impossible to give her h a n d i c a p p e d child the time and attention necessary to assist him through his self-help efforts. In the preschool it is possible to give the necessary time and attention. The adult is a w a r e of w h a t he can do ( k n o w l e d g e gained f r o m a therapist)j the school  30  schedule is arranged so that there is time at the right time; the child k n o w s that honest effort (as well as results) is counted. 5.  Adults - to give care, concern and control in support of his efforts. This is the crux of the w h o l e situation. On the adults  in the preschool p r o g r a m m e d e p e n d all the foregoing qualities.  E n o u g h  care, concern and control m u s t be given to prevent the child f r o m being defeated before he starts. On the other h a n d there m u s t not be so m u c h care, concern and control that the child n e v e r has an opportunity to learn that failure can be a challenge. The adult m u s t be a w a r e of the particular n e e d s of e a c h child to determine the type of care, concern and control given. The g r o w i n g k n o w l e d g e of d e v e l o p m e n t during the preschool years m a k e s preschool education vitally important for the child who is restricted by a handicap. IV. O R G A N I Z A T I O N OF T H E S I S The Introduction (Chapter I) to this study has a s k e d a question. By asking and answering several other questions which arise f r o m this m a i n question the p u r p o s e of this study has b e e n presented. The R e v i e w of Literature (Chapter II) not only presents related research it also presents s o m e of the related literature that was u s e d for b a c k g r o u n d information for this study: Special Education, and Preschool Education.  31  Chapter III presents in s o m e detail the d e v e l o p m e n t of the structure of the recording instrument. It is b a s e d on the w o r k of other , researchers and on the experience of this writer. The plan for the use of the record will be included in this chapter. The results will be presented in Chapter IV and the discussion of these results and s o m e conclusions will be presented in Chapter V. This study attempts to d e m o n s t r a t e that it is possible to devise a concise and c o m p r e h e n s i v e instrument for recording observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of preschool children in special education centres. It also h o p e s to s h o w that such an instrument will provide a useful basis -  for p r o g r a m m e planning and pupil evaluation. for an increase in c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n professions.  C H A P T E R II L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W Research studies of developmental c h a n g e s in children are n u m e r o u s but studies related .just to preschool activities of h a n d i c a p p e d children are limited. The research that is reviewed here deals with three g r o u p s of children. 1.  H a n d i c a p p e d preschool children.  2.  N o n h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children.  3. H a n d i c a p p e d children in general. The research studies dealing with this last g r o u p h a v e included record f o r m s for rating developmental c h a n g e s . Also presented are reviews of a sampling of publications dealing with preschool education in general and m o r e specifically, with preschool education for the h a n d i c a p p e d child. I. R E S E A R C H W I T H H A N D I C A P P E D P R E S C H O O L C H I L D R E N Early Education of the Mentally Retarded by S.A. Kirk, one of two research studies with h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children, presents evidence that nursery school experiences for mentally retarded children do tend to raise the rate of d e v e l o p m e n t . Unfortunately it d o e s not present any information regarding the m e a n s by which the children w e r e evaluated in the nursery school situation. Personal c o m m u n i c a t i o n with Dr. Kirk on this matter did not bring any further information. O t h e r w o r k s by S.A. Kirk ( 1 9 6 1 ,  1962) i nclude  information on pre-  33  school g r o u p s for h a n d i c a p p e d children but n o n e of t h e m present any information regarding m e t h o d s of observation, recording and evaluation. Another study with h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children, The Effects of a Preschool P r o g r a m m e u p o n Y o u n g Educable Mentally Retarded Children Vol. II by M.H. Fouracre, F.P. C o n n o r and I.I. Goldberg presents in great detail the curriculum developed during the study. The conclusions in this study s h o w that the enriched environmental experiences of a preschool p r o g r a m m e tend to raise a c a d e m i c school performance. The curriculum guide, as presented in Chapter II is pertinent to this study. It was u s e d "a)  for observing and rating the behaviour of the preschool children and  b)  for p r o g r a m planning and evaluation. " (p. 14.)  The guide consists of 190 items, e a c h with a five point developmental scale, with e a c h point of the scale described in detail. This tool m a d e "it possible to m a r k the position of an individual child,... on a readiness scale which functioned as a set of intermediate goals." (p. M) II. E V A L U A T I N G D E V E L O P M E N T IN P R E S C H O O L C H I L D R E N The p u r p o s e of a study by A g a t h a H . B o w l e y "A Study of the Factors Influencing the General D e v e l o p m e n t of the Child During the Pre-School Years by M e a n s of R e c o r d F o r m s " was to fill a n e e d for s o m e sort of record form which w o u l d serve as a basis for observation, especially  34  w h e n untrained adults w e r e assisting with preschool groups. The s t u d y e m p h a s i z e s the importance of noting every aspect of the developing child and the inter-relationships of the various areas of d e v e l o p m e n t . The record form consists of m o r e than sixty items; m o s t of t h e m in the f o r m of a question. S o m e of the questions are a n s w e r e d by "Yes" or "No"; e.g. " D o e s he a p p e a r to follow a simple story easily?" ( p . 1 0 2 ) T h e r e is s p a c e provided for s o m e anecdotal episodes: e.g. " H a v e any of the following characteristics b e e n observed T e m p e r tantrums Nail biting ... N o t e any if not included on list." (p. 103) The a n s w e r s are rated and the results obtained can be presented in the f o r m of a profile. Profiles of the d e v e l o p m e n t of the children u s e d in the study are included in the report. Two other publications that deal specifically with evaluation of preschool children are Observing and Recording the Behaviour of Y o u n g Children by D.H. C o h e n and V . Stern and "Written R e c o r d s on Children" by Betty S h u e y . The material in both of these publications again e m p h a s i z e s the importance of obtaining a picture of the w h o l e child. C o h e n and Stern present in great detail different m e t h o d s of recording observations of the different aspects of a child's activities in the nursery school situation. The n e e d for accurate observation is e m p h a s i z e d .  35  III. E V A L U A T I O N O FE X C E P T I O N A L C H I L D R E N  •  In "The Functional Classification of Exceptional Children", Ira Isccepoints out that exceptional children are so classified b e c a u s e they are different f r o m n o r m a l children. He has selected four aspects of behaviour, (l. Visibility 2. L o c o m o t i o n 3. C o m m u n i c a t i o n  U-  Psychological Acceptance.) presenting e a c h aspect with a five point rating scale, as follows: 1. No indication of exceptionality. 2. Slight indication of exceptionality - apparent to trained w o r k e r - not to l a y m a n . 3. Fairly obvious indication of exceptionality - observable to l a y m a n . U. Moderately severe condition of exceptionality - easily noticeable to l a y m a n . 5. Severe condition, clearly manifested. His suggestions for the use of this scale are: 1. Descriptive device for c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n professional workers. 2. P r o g r a m m e planning. 3. To j u d g e c o n g r u e n c e or discrepency of child's ability. The T . M . R . P e r f o r m a n c e Profile for the Severely and Moderately  Retarded by Alfred J. DiNola, Bernard P. K a m i n s k y and Allan E . Sternfield, contains' six m a j o r areas. T h e s e are: Social behaviour  IP items  36  Self-Care  4O items  C o m m u n i c a t i o n  4 0 items  Basic k n o w l e d g e  4O items  Practical skills  40 items  B o d y u s a g e  40 items  T h e s e items are presented in a booklet with provision for rating e a c h on a four point scale (0-4.). The P e r f o r m a n c e Profile is devised f r o m this rating. The items given suggest that the device is m o r e suitable for rating children older than those in the preschool g r o u p - as defined for this study. In order to assess behaviour of trainable, mentally retarded children L.F. Cain and S. Levine, developed a social c o m p e t e n c y scale. The scale was c o m p o s e d of four subscales: Self-help (23 items), Initiative-Responsibility (16 items), Social Skills (15 items), and C o m m u n i c a t i o n (18 items). T h e r e w e r e four or five alternatives arranged in order of difficulty for e a c h item. The items represent only a s a m p l e of social c o m p e n t e n c y behaviours. This scale was u s e d with children who w e r e not less than five years of age. IV. P R E S C H O O L E D U C A T I O N In the past forty years a great n u m b e r of publications dealing with preschool education h a v e b e c o m e available. For this study three b o o k s h a v e b e e n u s e d to provide a basic b a c k g r o u n d of information a b o u t preschool education.  37  The earliest of these is Nursery Education by W.E. Blatz, D. Millichamp and M. Fletcher. It provides a theory of d e v e l o p m e n t through the preschool years and a description of the nursery school p r o g r a m m e that has b e e n built on this foundation. Katherine H. R e a d , in The Nursery School: A H u m a n Relationship Laboratory, places e m p h a s i s on the educational p u r p o s e of nursery schools and kindergartens. The similarity of their goals, to education in general, is s h o w n by the d e v e l o p m e n t and structure of experiences in the curriculum. The m o s t recent of the three books, The Nursery School by H.M. Christianson, M.M. Rogers, and B.A. L u d l u r a reiterates the educational p u r p o s e of the nursery school. The following statement c o m e s f r o m the F o r e w o r d of the b o o k and serves to justify early childhood school experiences for every child, h a n d i c a p p e d or not. " T h e s e early years may well prove to be the m o s t fruitful for the kind of education which will determine the future of civilization." (p. xii) V. S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N IN THE P R E S C H O O L Y E A R S Mental Retardation In the general field of special education there is not m u c h specific reference to the preschool years. For the m o s t part "school" starts at age six years and teaching m e t h o d s s e e m to be chiefly related to reading, arithmetic, social studies, etc. An exception to this is  38  the material related to teaching the mentally retarded child of six+ years who is not yet ready for a c a d e m i c school subjects. Curriculum Adjustments for the Mentally Retarded by Elsie H. c Martins and Education of the S l o w Learning Child by Christine P. I n g r a m both present material for teaching this g r o u p of children. T h e r e are othersj b e c a u s e this age g r o u p is part of the regular school population and m u s t be taken care of educationally. No further attempt is m a d e to cover this area of literature here. Both of these b o o k s give further references. An article by H . Ikeda "Adapting the Nursery School P r o g r a m for the Mentally Retarded Child" deals with school for preschool children, as defined in this study. And Chapter 7 of Kirk and J o h n s o n ' s Educating the Retarded Child also deals with a p r o g r a m m e for the y o u n g child. O t h e r literature related to preschool children with specific handicaps is: D e a f and Hard-of-Hearing Children L a n g u a g e for the Preschool D e a f Child by G r a c e L a s s m a n . Visually H a n d i c a p p e d Children The Blind Preschool Child Berthold L o w e n f e l d ed. Cerebral Palsied Children "Adapting the Nursery School for the Multiply H a n d i c a p p e d Cerebral Palsied Child" by L.G. Yum. S p e e c h H a n d i c a p p e d Children S l o w to Talk by J a n e Beasley.  39  Although the title of this last v o l u m e w o u l d s e e m to refer just to the s p e e c h h a n d i c a p p e d child it actually has a m u c h broader application. In it the learning situation is discussed f r o m three aspects: 1. Motivation for learning c o m e s f r o m the child. 2. Learning c o m e s f r o m the child. 3. The m o s t effective teaching procedures are b a s e d on meaningful wholes. The material presented in all these b o o k s are apt illustrations of the following: Exceptional children, defined as children with differences, h a v e both the s a m e n e e d s as do their peers and s o m e different n e e d s pertinent to their type of exceptionality. (Cruickshank & J o h n s o n p. 20) S o m e of the general reference b o o k s on education of h a n d i c a p p e d children also include special sections on the preschool years. "The Education of Children with Impaired Hearing" Chapter 9? by Charlotte B. Avery and "The Education of Crippled Children" Chapter 11, by Frances P. C o n n o r in Education of Exceptional Children and Y o u t h both m a k e special reference to the n e e d s of the preschool years. "The Preschool Area of Special Education" by Frances A. Mullen gives a general picture of the growing provisions being m a d e for preschool children with special n e e d s . The research reviewed here in this chapter has b e e n related to this study in at least one of two w a y s .T h e y h a v e b e e n studies of develo p m e n t a l c h a n g e s in preschool children a n d / o r studies in which rating scales h a v e b e e n developed and u s e d to record developmental c h a n g e s .  AO  Included in this review are also s o m e of the publications which are especially directed to preschool education - for both h a n d i c a p p e d and n o n h a n d i c a p p e d children.  C H A P T E R III D E V E L O P M E N T OF THE R E C O R D AND P R O C E D U R E FOR T E S T I N G R E C O R D The n e e d for an a d e q u a t e s y s t e m of recording p l a y r o o m activities of h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children has already b e e n discussed.  M e t h o d s  of recording and criterea for records h a v e also b e e n presented. This chapter will be a practical illustration of the foregoing information (Chapter I). E x a m p l e s of s o m e types of records that are m a d e in various preschools will be presented. It will also present s o m e of the limitations and requirements of preschool special education facilities and so s h o w the practical criterea for the recording instrum e n t u s e d for this study. Conclusions f r o m the pretest study which h a v e effected the d e v e l o p m e n t of the final record f o r m will be discussed. And the basis for the establishment of the recording instrument in its present f o r m will be given in detail. Finally, the procedure for the testing of the use of record will be presented. I. P R E S C H O O L R E C O R D S This chapter is chiefly a detailed presentation of the record form u s e d for this study. Before going into it s o m e m e t h o d s of reporting on preschool children's behaviour and d e v e l o p m e n t in different settings will be e x a m i n e d . W h e n various records are c o m p a r e d the d e g r e e of variation and e m p h a s i s of e a c h setting can be noted.  42.  Public school kindergartens In kindergarten classes in public schools the information o n the records varies with the school. For e x a m p l e , the following are items from three kindergarten report cards in public schools. School A . 1 . Social d e v e l o p m e n t (6 items) C h e c k  Consistent Usually S e l d o m  2 .W o r k habits (6 items) 3 .R e a d i n g readiness (3 items) Rating scale - A b o v e , Average, B e l o w School B . 1 . Progress in habits - social a n d w o r k (3 items each) 2 . Progress in skills - reading a n d arithmetic Rating - A B C D F School C . 1 . Physical g r o w t h 2 .  Educational a n d social g r o w t h (5 items)  3 . Scholastic g r o w t h (3 items) 4 .  Evidence of reading readiness (5 items) Rating - A b o v e average, Average, B e l o w average.  Nursery schools A .  T h e report card of o n e private nursery school w a s quite br 1 . Health a n d Physical Control ( 8 items) 2 . Diction, Music, R y t h m n , Folk Dancing, G a m e s (7 items) 3 . Habits of Safety (7 items)  4. L a n g u a g e and Arts (7 items) 5. Appreciation and K n o w l e d g e (5 items) 6. Cooperativeness, Courtesy, Self Control and Self Reliance (L4 items) 7. Health report - Monthly inspection by nurse. Rating  - Satisfactory g r o w t h - Improving - N e e d s improving  B. A record f o r m r e c o m m e n d e d for use in Cooperative Playschools provide a s p a c e for qualitative c o m m e n t s for five broad areas of school behaviour. E a c h is broken into several sub-areas. 1. Behaviour in routine situations in the playschool (7 items) 2. Self-behaviour in playschool situations (7 items) 3. "Social" behaviour in g r o u p situations (6 items) 4 . . Motivation to attend playschool. 5. N o t e s concerning specific techniques for this child in the playschool. Laboratory schools A laboratory school in a university setting will h a v e m a n y types of records. E a c h will be d e p e n d e n t on the n e e d s of the observer and the information required. 1. Student observation forms. e.g. A. 1. D a t e of observation.  44  2. N u m b e r of children 3. E q u i p m e n t 4. Schedule 5. R e c o r d of individual child a) Skill in using h a n d s b) Play alone or with others c) T o y s and materials u s e d B.  1. M o t o r Activities 2. Mental - Adaptive Behaviour 3. L a n g u a g e 4. Social - Emotional Behaviour  2. School records e.g. A. B.  Social and D e v e l o p m e n t History Health R e c o r d s  3. Research e.g. Emotional Episode T i m e of day-:  Date:  N a m e :  Apparent cause: Behaviour: T r e a t m e n t : T r e a t m e n t by w h o m : Reaction to treatment: R e c o r d e d by:  Duration:  45  Special education centres M e t h o d s of recording at special education centres (observed during the pretest of the record f o r m ) w e r e not standardized. Two types of records w e r e m a d e . School A . 1. A checklist m a r k e d e a c h m o n t h (with v) to note the child's characteristic behaviour in specific aspects of the p r o g r a m m e . (47 items) A. Routines  W a s h r o o m - turns tap  B. Play  O u t d o o r s - s w i n g s Indoors - Floor blocks  C. Emotional and Social Level - over social D. S p e e c h  w o r d s only babbles 2.  A short qualitative report of "the child  in the preschool" prepared for clinical presentation and the cumulative history. B a s e d on recall and s o m e anecdotal records. U s e s such w o r d s as well adjusted, shy, i m m a t u r e , etc. School B . Qualitative reports of the child's d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on anecdotal records. An examination of these record f o r m s s h o w s that records reflect the n e e d s of the observer and the goals of the school. T h e r e are s o m e similarities in these records in the items to be reported on. The w a y s of reportingare basically rating scales a n d / o r qualitative reports. The  46  a m o u n t of detail a s k e d for s h o w the greatest variation. A c o m p a r i s o n of these record f o r m s s h o w s that it is difficult to report adequately on the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of preschool children. II. COMMON F E A T U R E S W h a t are s o m e of the features c o m m o n to all special education preschools which determine the criteria of the recording s y s t e m ? T h e r e w o u l d be one a n s w e r to the question: " W h y d o n ' t you k e e p m o r e records on the children in the preschool?" It is " L a c k of time."' For this reason the efficiency of checklists and rating scales s e e m to m a k e t h e m m o s t suitable. H o w e v e r , children c a n n o t be r e d u c e d entirely to signs and symbols. The individuality of e a c h child, particularly if in n e e d of special help, is of p r i m e importance. Therefore, there m u s t also be r o o m for s o m e anecdotal material. Another feature c o m m o n to multidisciplinary settings of which the special education preschool is usually a part, is the cumulative case record on e a c h child. A recording instrument in this setting m u s t be concise. This writer decided that one p a g e was the s p a c e limitation for this study. This decision was b a s e d on experience in trying to present a d e q u a t e evaluation of these children to clinics and for written histories. M o r e than one p a g e is too m u c h : material presented at clinics  47  m u s t be brief. And yet to present only a few items d o e s not give a clear picture of the child: material presented m u s t be a d e q u a t e . The multidisciplinary a p p r o a c h to treatment and the inadequate supply of trained preschool teachers h a v e ac o m m o n effect in the recording instrument. In order that e a c h m e m b e r of the t e a m understands w h a t is being discussed and that preschool teachers are saying approximately the s a m e thing there m u s t be a standardizing of t e r m s and structure. A standardized m e t h o d of speaking of various stages of g r o w t h in the areas of d e v e l o p m e n t is n e e d e d . III. THE R A T I N G S C A L E U S E D FOR T H I S S T U D Y To m e e t this requirement (a standardized m e t h o d of reporting), the recording instrument developed for this study utilized a five point rating scale on various items categorized into developmental areas. The origin of the five point scale lay with the writer's experience in helping h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children learn skills in self care. It was necessary to start with a b a s e applicable to all children. 1. The child cannot, d o e s not or will not do anything to help himself. The adult m u s t do it all. S o m e children are past this stage in s o m e self help activities by the time they c o m e to nursery school. Others are not. But they all start, at s o m e time, at this point. 2.  The child m a k e s an effort to help in the activity. This  effort is not too efficient and the adult actually d o e s m o s t of the " w o r k " .  48  3. T h e n the child's efforts b e c o m e m o r e effective and the adult just helps in the m o r e difficult part of the w o r k . 4. The child can and d o e s carry through the procedure of the activity with only verbal reminders and an occassional helping h a n d from the adult. The child may be inefficient but he d o e s it. 5. The final step in this developmental s e q u e n c e is when the procedure is so well u n d e r the control of the child that he is not only able to carry through with the job at h a n d but is also able to do s o m e t h i n g else at the s a m e time. An illustration of this pattern can be s e e n in the following series of anecdotal records. The child is mentally retarded (approximate CA. 6-9  M.A. 3-9  at the beginning of the record.) Sept. 15  Child directed to fasten buttons on coat. C. "I can't do it."  Sept. 30  G o i n g h o m e time. Adult turns C. a w a y f r o m other children t o w a r d s  herself. A. "Now, let's do up that coat." Adult p u s h e s button part way through buttonhole. "See the button C. Catch it.'" As C. d o e s this adult p u s h e s button the rest of the way through the buttonhole. C. " I did it.'"  4 9  Oct. 23  G o i n g h o m e time. Adult turns C. a w a y f r o m the other children tow a r d s herself. A. " T a k e hold of that.button C." Adult points to button. C. takes it. Is a w k w a r d . A. "Now put it through the button hole." Adult holds buttonhole in proximity to button. A. " P u s h it t h r o u g h . ' That's it.' Now catch it with this h a n d . " Adult puts C.'s other h a n d ready to pull button. G. pulls button through hole. E d g e of button sticks so adult pulls coat to m a k e it go through all the v ? a y .  Nov. 2 4 -  G o i n g h o m e time. Adult h a n d s C. her coat and directs her to a quiet corner.  *  C. puts on coat and starts to do button. Is distracted by "ruckus" of other children. Button slips. A. " L o o k at the button C." She starts over again. Carefully p u s h e s e d g e of button through buttonhole with one h a n d and catches it with other h a n d . Pulls it through. C o m e s over to adult. Big smile. " S e e . ' " Adult says " G o o d . ' " and gives her a hug.  50  Jan. 6  Going home time. A. C. you can get your things on now." n  C. goes t o cupboard gets out boots and puts them on.  Gets out coat and puts that on. Stands i n midst  of s m a l l group of c h i l d r e n (3+C), and does up coat but she has i t buttoned i n c o r r e c t l y .  She looks a t  i t , turns t o adult and says "I've done i t wrong."  She unfastens the buttons,  walks over t o A. saying " I d i d i t wrong." As she walks she does the buttons up again, corr e c t l y and without any trouble. Iscoe's F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n shows how a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e could be a p p l i e d t o many aspects of development.  By u t i l i z i n g h i s  basic form a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g scale f o r four general " a c t i v i t y " areas i n a preschool programme w i t h a check l i s t of twenty-one items was developed. Mc. V. Hunt has provided the t h e o r e t i c a l basis f o r t h i s kind of development p a t t e r n i n I n t e l l i g e n c e and Experience. i s not a simple process of adding.  This development  With i n c r e a s i n g experience the growth  p i c t u r e not only lengthens i t a l s o broadens.  The a c t i v i t y pattern of  one stage i s s t i l l present i n the next stage but i n a new form.  Thus C.  i s passing from Step 3 t o Step 4 s t i l l u t i l i z e s the "push i t through p u l l i t out" p a t t e r n taught i n Step 2 but she now does i t without a c t u a l p h y s i c a l assistance.  And i n passing from Step 4 t o Step 5 she maintains  5 1  her ability to perform the job without help a n d a d d s other areas functioning - c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d motility.  To i l l u s t r a t e the wider a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e two f u r t h e r examples are presented. 5 Point Scale  1. No i n t e r e s t . No e f f o r t . Nothing.  2. I n t e r e s t , e f f o r t but inefficient. Something but very inadequate.  3. E f f o r t purposeful and knowledgeable but not quite adequate.  4-. Adequate performance.  5. Combines adequate performances w i t h others t o achieve another goal.  Social participa t i o n with peers.  Indifferent - ignores. Afraid.  Watching interested.  P a r a l l e l play beside but not with.  Tries t o relate to peers. Demands attention. Associative play.  Cooperative play - plays easily with peers.  Walking  Just s i t s . Is not able t o walk or i s not interested.  I f given adequate body support t r i e s to walk but i s unable t o walk anywhere.  Needs helping hand f o r balance, Cannot be expected t o walk anywhere without nearby a s s i s t ance.  Can walk short distances una s s i s t e d . On occasion may need spoken reassurance. Walking i s a goal i n i t s e l f .  I f something i s wanted, i f there i s someplace t o go: the c h i l d walks. No help or reassurance, necessary. Walking i s a means o f achieving other goals.  N.B. Crutches, braces, canes etc. are considered an extension of the c h i l d and are not considered to be "assistance".  53  The question might be asked "Shouldn't there be a negative or zero r a t i n g f o r the c h i l d who i s capable of performing but refuses?" The c h i l d w i t h a severe p h y s i c a l handicap i s not given a negative r a t i n g f o r not being able t o "perform" p h y s i c a l l y ; the c h i l d who refused may have an emotional handicap that prevents him from "performing". r a t i n g i s not to be made on a predetermined evaluation. made on the a c t u a l l e v e l of performance.  The  I t i s t o be  Evaluation comes l a t e r .  Although each step i n t h i s s c a l e i s numbered i t i s done only f o r convenience  of reference.  There i s no "value" attached t o each number.  Each point on the s c a l e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a step of equal s i z e .  They  are observable l e v e l s of performance and r e f l e c t development. By using the r a t i n g s c a l e and c h e c k l i s t methods of recording observed behaviour most of the " c r i t e r i a f o r record forms" as already set out (Chapter I , p. 25) have been met. are quick t o mark.  Check l i s t s and r a t i n g scales  The r a t i n g s c a l e w i t h pre-established d e s c r i p t i o n s  f o r each step are concise and make terminology standard. a l s o standardized.  Because so l i t t l e space i s needed f o r marking, the  recording can be comprehensive. s m a l l space.  The format i s  Many items can be covered i n a r e l a t i v e l y  And by providing some space f o r anecdotal m a t e r i a l the  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c h i l d i s a l s o preserved. IV. PRETESTS The p r e t e s t i n g of the recording instrument demonstrated s e v e r a l things. 1.  An instrument designed along the ideas presented above  54  was useful to preschool teachers. It provided t h e m with a basis for a c o m p r e h e n s i v e evaluation of a child. The m o r e noticeable aspects of behaviour w e r e not the only observed "things'*. 2. A five point rating scale provided a m o r e a d e q u a t e rating than a three point (originally u s e d to rate Emotions), or a six point (originally u s e d to rate Play Activities). The three point scale was not fine e n o u g h and the six point was too fine for e a s y discrimination b e t w e e n the stages. 3. Validity - T h e r e w e r e two pretests. The observations of each child u s e d in the pretests w e r e recorded separately, by two adults. Rating differed by no m o r e than one place on e a c h item on the s e c o n d pretest. 4. A quantitative record c o m b i n e d with a little qualitative material presented an a d e q u a t e "picture" of a child to a person who had not k n o w n the child personally. Therefore, a recording instrument of this type can be u s e d by other m e m b e r s of a multidisciplinary t e a m as well as by the teacher. V. THE P R E S E N T R E C O R D F O R M Organization and f o r m The results of the pretests s h o w e d that the five point scale provided a better rating than a three point or six point scale. The recording instrument u s e d for this study utilized a five point rating scale throughout.  55  The twenty-one items were divided i n t o f i v e general areas 1.  Routine S e l f Care  2.  Language  3.  Social Participation  4.  Emotions  5.  Play A c t i v i t i e s Play A c t i v i t i e s were f u r t h e r divided t o cover s p e c i f i c  areas of development. a)  I n t e l l e c t u a l Development  b)  Imaginative and Creative Expression  c)  Manipulative Development  d)  Motor Development  These general "areas" f o r development are comparable t o those described by F. Connors (Cruickshank & Johnson) and Fouracre et a l . (Chapter 2). The d e s c r i p t i o n of each part of the r a t i n g s c a l e w i l l be presented i n the order i n which they appear on the record form, w i t h the exception of "Emotions". This w i l l be presented l a s t because i t does d i f f e r from the r e s t . The d e s c r i p t i o n s as presented here were contained i n a manual of directions.  56  Routine S e l f Care This s e c t i o n has already been presented i n t h i s chapter i n the s e c t i o n on the o r i g i n of the f i v e point r a t i n g s c a l e . presented again here f o r the sake of completeness. each point on the r a t i n g i s the same f o r each item.  I t w i l l be  The d e s c r i p t i o n of The items used are  routines common t o most preschool programmes. Toilet Washing Dressing Nourishment Rest  1. Dependent on adult - no e f f o r t or no effective effort.  4. C h i l d able t o accomplish task but requires spoken help (support) t o complete i t .  2. Adult does most of work but c h i l d ' s e f f o r t s are productive.  3. C h i l d does most of work but needs assistance to complete task.  5. C h i l d completes task without help and w i t h adequate s k i l l .  These stages of development i n l e a r n i n g t o be independent i n routines can be found i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of teaching methods i n books on preschool procedures.  (Read, B l a t z et a l . )  Language Receptive  1. No response to v e r b a l or gesture.  4. S l i g h t l y retarded i n understanding.  2. R e l i e s mostly on gesture.  3. R e l i e s on gestures t o c l a r i f y spoken.  5. No observable r e t a r d a t i o n handicap or immaturity.  57  Expressive  1. Speech cannot be understood.  4. Speech r e a d i l y but not normal.  Other Expressive Behaviour  2. Speech understood w i t h difficulty.  5. No immaturity, s l u r r i n g , omissions etc.  understood  2. Reaching gesture. No •yes* or 'no' gesture.  1. No gesture.  3. Reaching pointing 'y ' and 'no* - a few w i t h symbolic value. es  5. No need.  U» Fluent use of gesture and sound.  Vocabulary  3. Speech understood w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y .  1. No meaningful sounds.  2. Signs, sounds, etc. used with meaning.  3. S i n g l e words.  5. F u l l sentences.  4.. Minor sentences.  Three items i n t h i s part of the record (Receptive, Expressive and Other Expressive Behaviour) are a m o d i f i c a t i o n of a system put forward by H. A u f r i c h t i n "A Proposed System of C l a s s i f y i n g the Language Defects of C h i l d r e n w i t h Cerebral P a l s y . 0  Here, language i s taken as communication  r a t h e r than the mechanics of speech. 1.  Receptive language i s the a b i l i t y t o understand what i s  being s a i d by r e a c t i n g meaningfully.  58  2.  Expressive language i s the a b i l i t y t o communicate w i t h  others by speech. 3.  Other Expressive Behaviour i s the a b i l i t y t o communicate  w i t h others by means other than speech - gestures. e.g.  J . - c e r e b r a l palsy - f i v e years o l d - S t i l l on  baby food - i s fed breakfast i n the nursery school i n an attempt t o get him t o eat coarser food. breakfast.  The teacher asked him i f he had eaten h i s  J . s t a r t e d t o move h i s jaw up and down with h i s hand and  then gagged.  The teacher s a i d , "Oh, you s p i t i t out, d i d you?"  i n the a f f i r m a t i v e .  J . nodded  The a s s i s t a n t , who had f e d him h i s breakfast confirmed  the s t o r y . 4.  Vocabulary - The d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t h i s item evolved from  s e v e r a l sources. Bowley i n The N a t u r a l Development of the C h i l d gave the stages of sentence development as o r i g i n a l l y presented by Nice.  She designated  two stages between the " s i n g l e word" stage and the "complete sentence" stage.  These were " e a r l y sentence" and "short sentence".  there was no c l e a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n made between them.  Unfortunately  Mowrer, i n a  d i s c u s s i o n on the development of language provided the phrase "minor sentences" t o describe the stage between s i n g l e words and f u l l sentences. This i s the d e s c r i p t i o n u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s study.  59  Social Participation 2. Aware of adult watches adult(s) and t h e i r activities.  1. I n d i f f e r e n t ignores interest i n toys e t c .  With Adults  U. Come t o adult with news and information. Adults part of c h i l d ' s world.  4.. T r i e s t o r e l a t e t o peers - t r i e s t o help demands a t t e n t i o n . A s s o c i a t i v e play.  Group Activity  5. Relates e a s i l y t o adults i n f a m i l i a r situations.  2. Watching interest i n activities.  1. I n d i f f e r e n t ignores afraid.  With Children  3. P a r a l l e l play beside but not with.  5. Cooperative play play e a s i l y w i t h peers.  1. No i n t e r e s t - 2. Joins group j o i n s group only w i l l i n g l y with adult watches pressures. interested.  Enjoys a c t i v i t y .  3. Ask adult f o r help. Accepts direction i n play a c t i v i t i e s .  3. I m i t a t i o n .  5. Makes suggestions f o r a c t i v i t y , that are o r i g i n a l . A n t i c i p a t i o n of next part of a c t i v i t y .  The pattern of development of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n with both adults and c h i l d r e n i s very s i m i l a r . to identify.  The f i r s t three stages are not d i f f i c u l t  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the f o u r t h and f i f t h stages i s  60  more d i f f i c u l t . With adults In stage three the c h i l d accepts adults as r o u t i n e . i s there, so i s the c h a i r ; they are both u s e f u l .  The adult  In stage four he i s  demonstrating the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p . He comes t o the adult with a d e f i n i t e purpose i n mind.  "See me", but he i s not y e t  ready f o r the adult t o come t o him i n the same way. adult.  Stage 4 i s c h i l d  *  Stage 5 i s a give and take r e l a t i o n s h i p : child£=;adult. With c h i l d r e n Stage Three - P a r a l l e l play i s e a s i l y described - beside but  not with. Stage Five - Cooperative play can be described as - with. A d e f i n i t i o n of Stage Four i s not so simple.  I t i s play that  i s 'beside' but i s complimentary t o the a c t i v i t y of another c h i l d . For example - In the d o l l centre. P a r a l l e l - Two l i t t l e g i r l s , both p u t t i n g d o l l s t o bed i n separate  cribs.  A s s o c i a t i v e - Two l i t t l e g i r l s : one i s p u t t i n g the baby t o bed, the other i s s e t t i n g the t a b l e .  They are aware  of each other but t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s could be c a r r i e d on without the other, but won't be. When one moves out, the other w i l l too. Cooperative - Two l i t t l e g i r l s : one i s s e t t i n g the t a b l e ,  61  the other is cooking supper. Their conversation indicates that their activities are related. One is " M o t h e r " , the other is "Sister", and w h e n s u p p e r is c o o k e d they will both sit d o w n to the table to eat it. Stage 4-.  could also be that time w h e n the child d e m o n s t r a t e s  his n e e d for a m o r e specific relationship with another child but d o e s  not h a v e a d e q u a t e social skills to m a n a g e it. This stage is p e r h a p s m o r e noticeable with the h a n d i c a p p e d child than with the n o n h a n d i c a p p e d . The crippled child c a n n o t m o v e his truck f r o m his g a r a g e to the next child's garage. The mentally retarded child d o e s not k n o w w h a t to do w h e n he joins another child in an activity. The emotionally disturbed child can use only one way of approaching another child and it may not be acceptable. And so on. It is a stage that h a n d i c a p p e d children s o m e times get "stuck" in and recognition of it and the next stage should help adults arrange social opportunities that e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . G r o u p activity. G r o u p activities, as the phrase is u s e d on the record form, are those controlled and directed by an adult - as c o m p a r e d to the informal g r o u p s that f o r m in a free play situation. It could refer to story time, music, expeditions outside the school or special g r o u p s for learning new skills and concepts. H e r e again the d e v e l o p m e n t has its parallel in the two previous items. The important w o r d in Stage 5 is 'original. Adults may h a v e 1  62  d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a l i z i n g that a c h i l d whom they think of as having ideas i s j u s t very s k i l l f u l i n doing what i s expected of him.  n  original  Originality"  i s not recognized. Although the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the stages of s o c i a l development are drawn c h i e f l y from the w r i t e r ' s own observations corroboration f o r them can be found i n the more extensive l i s t of items i n the Curriculum Guide of Fouracre et a l .  Play A c t i v i t i e s In a preschool s e t t i n g "play" i s the c h i e f avenue of l e a r n i n g . The adult provides appropriate m a t e r i a l and arranges the s i t u a t i o n s i n such a way as t o promote the a c q u i s i t i o n of desired s k i l l s and knowledge. For example, when a c h i l d plays with one t o y (a t r a i n ) day a f t e r day and f o r as much of each day as he can, the removal of that t o y from the shelves w i l l push the c h i l d i n t o playing w i t h something e l s e .  And a t  the same time the teacher should b u i l d on the c h i l d ' s l i k i n g of that t o y by showing him known concepts i n a new form (making a t r a i n w i t h c l a y ) . Because play does provide so many learning experiences  'Play  A c t i v i t i e s ' have been used t o provide r a t i n g scales i n four more areas of development. Intellectual Imaginative and Creative Manipulative - small muscle c o n t r o l Motor - large muscle c o n t r o l  63  On the record form u n d e r e a c h of these headings are three spaces with no specific activities a s k e d for. Instead the teacher is supplied with four lists of play activities u n d e r the appropriate headings to use as suggestions. T h e y are as follows Intellectual: Imaginative and Creative: B o o k s S a n d Colour recognition W a t e r M a t e h i n g s h a p e s i z e n u m b e r s D r a w i n g {Quantity Painting brush a n d / o r finger Interest in Project - animals Clay - plastercine s e a s o n etc. Dramatic play  Manipulative: . Cutting D r a w i n g Colouring Pasting B e a d stringing P e g s Block Building Tinker toys etc. Puzzles  M o t o r D e v e l o p m e n t : Walking Marching J u m p i n g Stairs - up and d o w n Slide Ball Tricycle W a g o n R h y t h m Instruments  T h e s e are just suggestions and are not intended to restrict the person marking the record. T h e r e is no reason why an activity such as  m a k i n g Halloween m a s k s could not be u s e d to rate Intellectual D e v e l o p m e n t , Manipulative D e v e l o p m e n t , and Imaginative and Creative D e v e l o p m e n t so long as the appropriate rating is u s e d for e a c h area of d e v e l o p m e n t . The chief reason for allowing the observer to select the activities to be rated is that m a n y items may not be applicable for the particular child being observed. If the adult is observing a three year old the activities c h o s e n  6A  for rating of manipulative abilities m i g h t be Block building B e a d stringing Nine m o n t h s later the list could be Block building Tinker toys Pasting At five years the list for the s a m e child m i g h t be Block building Pasting Cutting In this way the type of activities d e m o n s t r a t e the child's interests: there is a "carry-over" for c o m p a r i s o n f r o m one recording to the next; the adult d o e s not h a v e to try to rate activities that are a very small part of the child's total day and s p a c e is not required for items that are not applicable. The points on the rating scales for all the four areas of developm e n t u n d e r Play Activities are presented on p. 52 as the Basic FivePoint Scale. 1. Nothing 2.  S o m e t h i n g  3. Functional but not a d e q u a t e . 4. A d e q u a t e 5. C o m b i n e s a d e q u a t e skill with others to achieve a broader goal.  65  As i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n the d i s t i n c t i o n between Stages Four and Five i s much f i n e r than between the other stages. I n t e l l e c t u a l development l.No i n t e r e s t or r e f u s a l .  2.Interested in-manipulates no r e a l purpose.  e.g. Books  3.Uses materials in routine manner.  4-Choose materials with a purpose i n mind.  5.Combines materials utilizes in unique way.  1.  Does not look at books at a l l .  2.  Turns pages without looking at p i c t u r e s .  No  conception of front-back, r i g h t - s i d e up e t c . 3.  Looks at book when given a book.  r i g h t - s i d e up etc.  Knows front-back  Does not ask f o r a book as a f r e e - p l a y  activity. 4-.  Chooses a book as a f r e e - p l a y a c t i v i t y .  f a v o u r i t e books. 5.  Has  Knows s t o r i e s of preferred books.  Uses books t o gain more knowledge. May consult a  book t o f i n d out how t o feed a pet or may 'read' a s t o r y to another c h i l d .  66  Imaginative and c r e a t i v e expression l.No i n t e r e s t or r e f u s a l .  2.Touching exploring.  E.g. Clay  3.Imitation.  1.  Refuses.  2.  Handles i t .  4.Enjoys 5.Originality a c t i v i t y - creative. plays easily i n situation or with materials.  Pushes i t around t o change the shape.  Enjoys the f e e l of i t . 3.  Copies actions of other c h i l d r e n or adults - snakes,  eggs, e t c . 4.  Can f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r new work.  Makes nests,  p l a t e s , snakes etc. e a s i l y and without d i r e c t i o n . 5.  Has own ideas f o r work.  Has some knowledge of how  to form them.  Manipulative development l.No i n t e r e s t or r e f u s a l .  2. I n t e r e s t tries requires adult help (physical).  3 . S k i l l 'understood' - ha3 difficulties and requires some help and direction.  4.Skill mastered - uses i n routine manner,  5. O r i g i n a l i t y in utilizing skill.  e.g. Cutting 1. Not i n t e r e s t e d . Has no idea of how t o manipulate sci§g rs. 0  2. T r i e s t o use s c i s s o r s . and guide d i r e c t i o n of c u t t i n g .  Adult must hold paper  67  3. Can manipulate scissors - understands "following the line" and can cut in general proximity to it. Still n e e d s adult help. 4. Can cut out simple shapes. Follows adult's directions for projects - cutting Christmas decorations etc. 5. W h e n working on a project can utilize cutting skill to p r o d u c e n e e d e d material.  Motor d e v e l o p m e n t 1.Uninterested 2.Tries 3.Functional 4 . A d e q u a t e 5 . G o o d control, unable to requires help but still control - - purposeful, m a n a g e . to bring a w k w a r d no support - appropriate. efforts to m a y require necessary. completion. verbal help. e.g. See Walking (p. 52) Stairs - up 1. M u s t be carried up. 2. Tries to lift feet up stairs w h e n held by adult. Tries to get up by s o m e other m e a n s such as crawling but n e e d s adult assistance. 3. Can get up in s o m e way but adult m u s t be close to give occasional help. 4. Can get up stairs without help but getting up the stairs is the goal. 5. G o e s up the stairs with another p u r p o s e in m i n d -  68  to slide d o w n . Is efficient and requires no adult help or supervision. E m o t i o n s The basic scale has already b e e n presented and the only area of behaviour that is not rated in this way is "Emotions". A five point rating scale is u s e d for e m o t i o n s but not in the a b o v e m e n t i o n e d form. The scale u s e d is an adaptation of material presented by Betty S h u e y in "Written R e c o r d s on Children". U n d e r the topic of "Handling of Emotions" she s p e a k s of the child's inner control pattern and u s e d the w o r d s - a d e q u a t e - too m u c h - too little This type of rating was utilized in a five point scale as follows: Too little  1  A d e q u a t e 2  Too m u c h  X  3  5  1. Too little - impulsive - very easily frustrated - displays of e x t r e m e s ' in a n g e r or affection (kissing, hugging etc.) 2. No description provided. 3. A d e q u a t e -s p o n t a n e o u s - suitable to situations. 4. No description provided. 5. Too m u c h - inhibited - withdrawn. Steps 2 and 4 w e r e not described. The rating of a child who was not " A d e q u a t e " and was not "Too Littlewas to be rated b e t w e e n the points n  69  according to his display of emotional control. To describe the w a y s in which a child displays his emotional control (Bridges) w o u l d be impossible and unnecessary for this kind of recording instrument.  H o w -  ever s o m e qualitative information of the way the child displays his e m o t i o n and w h a t situation percipitate it are necessary if any evaluation and planning is to be d o n e . For this reason information relating to the w a y s in which the child m o s t frequently displays his e m o t i o n s is a s k e d for. S p a c e is provided for R e s p o n s e , C a u s e and F r e q u e n c y for expressions of anger, fear etc. and pleasure, affection etc. as follows: Expressions of anger, fear, anxiety, aggression etc. R e s p o n s e - Tears, complains, screams, yells, hits, runs a w a y or runs to adult for protection, t e m p e r tantrums, pouts. C a u s e - Arrival at school, leaving school, requirements of routines, w a n t s s o m e t h i n g (include example), a p p r o a c h of animals, hurt (accident or by another child), frustration. F r e q u e n c y - Often, rarely. Expressions of pleasure, affection etc. R e s p o n s e -L a u g h s , claps h a n d s in delight, vocal exclamation, smiles, joins in g r o u p activity with display of enthusiasm, s h o w s affection t o w a r d s (give e x a m p l e - teacher, peer, etc.) C a u s e - Activity of another person, child or group, pleasure in own activity or accomplishment, s o m e t h i n g 'funny' (give example), s o m e t h i n g 'nice* (give example).  70  One other item is also provided in this section: O t h e r items M a n n e r i s m s - thumbsucking, sighing, sucks lip, rocks b o d y , affected m a n n e r of speaking (unrelated to disability). R e s p o n s e to discipline - accepts without objection, objects vocally, by stiffening b o d y , by relaxing b o d y , s e e m s to understand and modifies behaviour. The descriptive t e r m s u s e d here w e r e m e a n t to be u s e d by the teachers as suggestions or guides and w e r e not intended to restrict the teacher to only these f o r m s of behaviour. To s u m m a r i z e : in the introduction to this study (Chapter I, p. l) s o m e questions a b o u t goals w e r e related to p r o g r a m m e planning for both the individual child, and the w h o l e p r o g r a m m e . This presentation of e a c h part of the record f o r m d e m o n s t r a t e s how a n s w e r s to those questions may be provided. E a c h point on the scale of d e v e l o p m e n t of e a c h item is an intermediate goal. The last stage is the final goal. This final stage constitutes the goals for the preschool p r o g r a m m e . VI. P R O C E D U R E FOR USE OF THE R E C O R D Pretesting had s h o w n that the recording instrument was reasonably valid. The procedure that wasIfollowed in testing the use of the record form required that it be u s e d with special education preschool groups.  71  In order to m e e t the definition of h a n d i c a p p e d - as u s e d in this study the g r o u p s of children w e r e representative of different types of handicaps. The children Four g r o u p s of y o u n g children attending preschool classes in special education centres w e r e the s a m p l e population u s e d for the testing of the use of the recording instrument. Two of these g r o u p s had b e e n u s e d for the pretests. The following handicaps w e r e presented by the children in these groups. School A - Crippling conditions which result in m o t o r handicaps. Cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, etc. School B - Crippling conditions which result in m o t o r handicaps. Like School A. School C - Hearing impairments. School D - Intellectual handicaps. Procedure 1. Permission f r o m the medical directors of Schools A, B, and C to carry out the study, was first obtained. It was requested that the preschool teachers use the record forms, instead of any other m e a n s of recording that they m i g h t be using, to record their observations of the children's school behaviour during  72  a period of at least three m o n t h s . And further, that they w o u l d use the record as the basis for reporting on the children's g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t during that time. T h e y w e r e also a s k e d to criticize it in t e r m s of its usefulness to t h e m , as teachers of y o u n g children with handicaps. The directors w e r e also a s k e d for their opinions on the usefulness of such an instrument as a record. 2. The teachers w e r e then instructed in the use of the record form with the m a n u a l of directions. The writer u s e d the record form, in the presence of the teachers, to record the behaviour of one of the children, at Schools A and B . (No children w e r e present w h e n the teacher at School G was being instructed in the use of the instrument.)  Questions  were a n s w e r e d and the teachers w e r e a s k e d to contact the writer if any further questions arose. E a c h teacher was provided with a m a n u a l of instructions and e n o u g h record f o r m s to m e e t the n e e d s of her group. 3. S e v e n m o n t h s later the writer again contacted the teachers to ask t h e m to h a v e the records ready for collection in one m o n t h ' s time. 4. The records w e r e collected at the end of an eight m o n t h period. The only communication, during that time b e t w e e n the writer and the teachers relating to the use of the record form, was that which c a m e f r o m the teachers. The writer did not ask t h e m ' h o w things w e r e going'. This procedure was u s e d to obtain a truer picture of the use of records in preschool p r o g r a m m e s .  73  Permission from the director of School D, to carry out the study, was also obtained. This writer u s e d the record f o r m s to assess the children's level of d e v e l o p m e n t at the end of their first m o n t h at School D .  She assessed  t h e m again, using the recording instrument, three m o n t h s later. The difference in the time periods b e t w e e n Schools A, B and C and School D is accounted for by the date of the opening of School D. The record f o r m s w e r e distributed to School A, B and C in the spring. School D did not start the school year until the fall.  V I I . SUMMARY  This chapter has s h o w n how the recording instrument u s e d in this study was developed. S o m e m e t h o d s of reporting on the progress of y o u n g children in preschool settings w e r e e x a m i n e d first. The c o m m o n n e e d s of special education preschools that w o u l d affect record keeping w e r e then outlined. By c o m p a r i n g these actual n e e d s to the general information f r o m Chapter I the f o r m and m e t h o d of recording for this study evolved. The m a j o r portion of this chapter has presented an explanation of e a c h step of the scale for e a c h item to be rated. Finally the procedure for the testing of the use of the recording instrument was given.  C H A P T E R IV R E S U L T S AND A N A L Y S I S OF THE R E C O R D F O R M S M a n y c h a n g e s can take place in a preschool r o o m in an eight m o n t h period. T h e s e can include not only c h a n g e s in the g r o w t h and developm e n t of the children but also c h a n g e s in staff and p r o g r a m m i n g .  In  reporting on the results of this study these c h a n g e s are m a d e very apparent. In this chapter the results will be presented in the order that they w e r e received. T h a t is, first, the directors of the centres w e r e visited to obtain their permission to carry out the study. The c o m m e n t s , suggestions for use etc. that resulted f r o m these m e e t i n g s will be presented. T h e n after presenting the total n u m b e r of records u s e d during the time of the study, the results will be presented school by school. The analysis of the results will d r a w this information together. I. C O M M E N T S AND S U G G E S T I O N S F R O M D I R E C T O R S 1. All the directors received the study plan with interest and all g a v e their approval to it as it was presented. All indicated that the teachers w e r e in c h a r g e of their own d e p a r t m e n t s and within those limits w e r e free to utilize any tools that they felt w o u l d m a k e their w o r k m o r e effective. 2. C o m m u n i c a t i o n ; , : Two directors were very interested in the aspect of i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Both asked, in one way or another, with w h o m was i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n necessary. Both also said that if  75  the recording instrument could be a basis of i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n then it w o u l d be worth using. 3. Size of recording instrument: One director pointed out that although the one p a g e limit on the record f o r m was a g o o d one, the size of the p a g e was too big. Cumulative records are kept on 1 1 x 8 ^ - paper. The record form was L 4 x 8 g .  The suggestion that both sides of the smaller  sized p a p e r be u s e d was met with approval. For the time period of the study the larger sized p a p e r was accepted. 4 . . Suggestion for \fmrther use: One director said that for microfilming of records, c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n treatment centres and m o r e efficient reference and e v e n m o r e c o n d e n s e d f o r m of the recording w o u l d be better. His suggestion was as follows a) For the aforementioned p u r p o s e s eliminate the anecdotal material. b) A s s u m e that the five point rating scale was understood and record consecutive a s s e s s m e n t s as follows D a t e  Sept.  30  Nov. 25  3  A  3  3  Routine Self C a r e 1. Toilet 2.  W a s h i n g  3. Dressing etc.  76  I n t h i s way t h e growth and development o f t h e c h i l d over a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f time c o u l d be r a t e d on the one r e c o r d . 5.  Procedure f o r use o f r e c o r d :  the t e a c h e r s  The r e q u e s t had been made t h a t  use t h e r e c o r d form twice f o r each c h i l d over a t l e a s t a  t h r e e month p e r i o d . One d i r e c t o r s a i d t h a t he thought t h a t t h e t h r e e month p e r i o d was h a r d l y l o n g enough t o r e c o r d changes i n growth and development i n h a n d i capped c h i l d r e n .  I I . TOTAL NUMBER OF RECORD FORMS USED IN STUDY The recorded records  observations  by t e a c h e r s  o f t h e growth and development o f 44 c h i l d r e n were  i n four s p e c i a l education  came from one s c h o o l .  centres.  H a l f o f these  The a c t u a l d i v i s i o n o f r e t u r n s a r e as  follows:  School  A  B  Doubles*  7  1  Singles*  15  7  Total  22  8  C  D  Total  9 5 5  9  *  Doubles - Where two assessments were made on one c h i l d .  +  S i n g l e s - Where o n l y one assessment was made on a c h i l d .  17 2  7 44  77  H Y S I C A L H A N D I C A P S III. S C H O O LA- P The records D o u b l e s  7  Singles  12  Incomplete Total  3  22  The school situation The period of the study in this school was f r o m the beginning of the spring t e r m to N o v e m b e r of the next school year (approximately eight m o n t h s ) . At this school there was a c h a n g e of teachers. The teacher who started keeping the records left at the end of the school year - July - and the new teacher started at the beginning of the next school year - S e p t e m b e r . The preschool p r o g r a m m e was a double one, with the y o u n g e r children c o m i n g for nursery school in the m o r n i n g s and the older children c o m i n g for kindergarten in the afternoon. One teacher w o r k e d with both groups. As a part of their treatment p r o g r a m m e the children received physio and occupational therapy. The teacher 1. The new teacher had b e e n working with the children for three m o n t h s ( S e p t e m b e r -N o v e m b e r ) w h e n the records w e r e collected. It was her first experience in working with h a n d i c a p p e d children in a multidisciplinary treatment centre.  78  2. The teacher w e l c o m e d the opportunity to develop a s y s t e m of records. Although she u s e d the record f o r m s developed for the study she felt that it was not efficient e n o u g h for her n e e d s . She did not include any anecdotal material on the record form. W h e n discussing the a d e q u a c y of the record f o r m she a s k e d how an observer could record the personality of the individual child. In further discussion she said she did note special incidents that revealed characteristic qualities of e a c h child. She then realized that the anecdotal material a s k e d for in the record f o r m helped to give an a d e quate "picture of the individuality of e a c h child. 1  3.  In developing her own s y s t e m of records she utilized the rating  m e t h o d s u s e d during the study. She prepared an 8x5 file card on e a c h child, with a checklist similar to the one u s e d in the study, horizontally across the top of the card. The dates of the a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e arranged vertically on the left h a n d side of the card. e.g. Self C a r e T W D etc.  L a n g u a g e  etc.  Jan. 6 Feb. 4 etc. She c h a n g e d the m e t h o d of rating e m o t i o n s by rating e a c h "side" (too m u c h control and too little control) on a five point scale with five (5) as normal or a d e q u a t e for both. The reverse side of the card was u s e d for very brief anecdotal r e m a r k s on items and characteristics not included in the checklist.  79  e.g.  - Toilet training started on — - Specific causes of emotional upsets such as going for physiotherapy. The teacher planned to do m o n t h l y a s s e s s m e n t s on e a c h child. She  felt she understood the s y s t e m of rating and could u s e it efficiently. 4. The teacher reported that she f o u n d that this m e t h o d of rating a child's level of d e v e l o p m e n t did provide her with concrete information for " t e a m ' ' c o m m u n i c a t i o n . IV. S C H O O L B  -P H Y S I C A L H A N D I C A P S  The records D o u b l e s  1  Singles  7  Incomplete Total  8  The school situation The period of the study in this school was f r o m the beginning of the spring t e r m to N o v e m b e r of the next school year (approximately eight months). T h e r e was no c h a n g e of staff. T h e r e was the normal c h a n g e of children f r o m one g r o u p to another at the beginning of the new school year in S e p t e m b e r . No record was m a d e of the n u m b e r of these c h a n g e s b e c a u s e only one child involved in the study m o v e d to a new group. The chief difficulty in this school in using the record f o r m s was in having the child in the classroom for a long e n o u g h period for  80  a d e q u a t e observation. The teacher said that the child could be in the classroom for twenty minutes then he w e n t out for physiotherapy.  After  physiotherapy he w e n t for occupational therapy, and f r o m there for s p e e c h therapy. He got b a c k in time to sit in the story circle for a couple of minutes. It was then time for rest and preparation for the trip h o m e . She felt there w a s n ' t time for observation of the child in the preschool w h e n he had a schedule like that. The p r o g r a m m e was a doiible one, with y o u n g e r children c o m i n g for nursery school in the m o r n i n g s and the older children for kindergarten in the afternoons. T h e r e w e r e two teachers. Both w o r k e d with both groups. The teacher  1. Prior to the time w h e n this study was b e g u n this teacher already kept m o n t h l y records on the children in the form of a checklist - m a r k e d simply with the c h e c k (v") to indicate w h e t h e r or not the child "did" the item on the list. (See Chapter III p.45). She did not, as was requested substitute the recording instrument of this study for her own recording instrument. She continued to use her own recording instrument with the result that only one child was assessed for this study during the spring term. She did not h a v e time to carry two s y s t e m s of records. She did start to use the recording instrument of this study in the fall term but still along with her own recording instrument. 2. The teacher said that the recording instrument did not " s h o w " the personality of the child.  81  3. W h e n the records w e r e returned to the writer no anecdotal material was contained in t h e m . The teacher then took time to describe e a c h of the children, assessed for the study, by presenting a n e c d o t e s of their behaviour. The writer instructed the teacher to add this information to the records in the s p a c e provided for anecdotal records. W h e n she had d o n e this she was a s k e d if the record f o r m now s h o w e d the personality of the child m o r e adequately. She a g r e e d that they did. 4. W h e n the record f o r m s w e r e c o m p l e t e d (as in 3) the teacher s h o w e d the writer her own checklist records. W h e n she expressed doubts a b o u t its usefulness the suggestion was m a d e that the substitution of a rating scale, such as was u s e d in the study, w o u l d m a k e her checklist m o r e a d e q u a t e . " U s e s scissors ( V ) " doesn't tell the reader m u c h .  But " U s e s  scissors (3)" w o u l d let the reader k n o w that the child understood the way in which scissors are used, that the child u s e d scissors w h e n n e e d e d but also that the child still n e e d s help to use t h e m successfully. The teacher agreed that the rating scale was m o r e useful than a check. V. S C H O O L C • - H E A R I N G H A N D I C A P S The records D o u b l e s Singles  4  Incomplete 1 Total  5  82  The school situation The record f o r m s w e r e given to the teacher in this school during the spring t e r m (May) and w e r e collected nine m o n t h s later. At this school there was a c h a n g e in class groupings. The g r o u p with w h o m the teacher was working in the spring all m o v e d on to a m o r e a d v a n c e d class for the fall term. The teacher started the fall t e r m with a new g r o u p of children. The school p r o g r a m m e was a double one. The y o u n g e r children c a m e in the morningj the older children c a m e in the afternoon.  T h e r e  was also a p r o g r a m m e for parents of infants in the afternoon. The teacher who had b e e n instructed in the use of the record f o r m taught the m o r n i n g g r o u p of children and the afternoon parent p r o g r a m m e . The teachers 1. The teacher who m a d e the a s s e s s m e n t s had not b e e n working with the children during the fall term. She had t h e m during the previous school year. 2. No a s s e s s m e n t was m a d e during the spring term b e c a u s e other teaching responsibilities w e r e too h e a v y for her to take on any extra ones. R e c o r d s received for the study w e r e m a d e just prior to the time of collecting t h e m . 3. The teacher consulted the present teacher of the children w h e n m a k i n g the assessments. This s e c o n d teacher had received no previous instruction in the use of the recording instrument. 4. Both teachers contributed to the criticism of the recording  83  instrument. Both teachers felt that the record could not be d o n e quickly. It required time to sit d o w n and to think a b o u t the child being assessed. The time e l e m e n t m a d e it difficult to c o m p l e t e but having to think a b o u t the child and his d e v e l o p m e n t was a g o o d thing. It helped t h e m to " k n o w " the child better. Both teachers thought that this kind of record w o u l d be valuable at the end of the school year w h e n the child was being a d v a n c e d to another class and another teacher. It w o u l d be a g o o d kind of report card. The teachers thought that m o r e use of the rating scale w o u l d m a k e it easier to use. Practice with it w o u l d enable t h e m to be m o r e efficient in rating a child. 5.  The teachers felt that the section on L a n g u a g e was not a d e -  q u a t e for rating children with hearing handicaps. M o r e items w e r e n e e d e d . N T E L L E C T U A L H A N D I C A P S VI. S C H O O L D - I The records o u b l e s a) D  9  Singles Incomplete Total  9  to record form: h a n g e s m a d e b) C Self C a r e Routines  84  i.  N o u r i s h m e n t c h a n g e d to L u n c h  ii. No rest period. L a n g u a g e All children u s e d verbal expressive l a n g u a g e so O t h e r Expressive Behaviour was not noted. The school situation The period of the study in this school was f r o m the beginning of the school year ( S e p t e m b e r ) to the end of the fall t e r m (end of D e c e m b e r ) approximately four m o n t h s . This was the first t e r m that the school had b e e n in operation. No s y s t e m of recording the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the children in the classroom had b e e n developed. The p r o g r a m m e was a half day one. The children arrived at 10:00 a had lunch (which they brought f r o m h o m e ) at n o o n , and left for h o m e at 12:45 p.m..  T h e r e w e r e two teachers. The writer of this study was one  of t h e m . The teacher a) The writer of this study was one of the teachers working in this school. A s s e s s m e n t s w e r e m a d e of all the children in attendance both at the beginning of the time of the study and at the end. She had no trouble using the record. b) The teacher f o u n d that at the time of the s e c o n d a s s e s s m e n t the checklist was not entirely a d e q u a t e to describe the d e v e l o p m e n t m a d e by s o m e of the children. The o n e s who had progressed f r o m a preschool  85  p r o g r a m m e to a m o r e a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m m e required m o r e variety in the items u n d e r Intellectual D e v e l o p m e n t and the section on M o t o r Developm e n t could h a v e b e e n rated o n c e without any itemizing. VII. A N A L Y S I S OF THE R E C O R D F O R M S This study h o p e d to s h o w that the instrument developed w o u l d provide a useful basis for: 1. A description of a child and his d e v e l o p m e n t . 2. P r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation. All records received w e r e analyzed with these points in m i n d . The analysis and profile of the rating of a s a m p l e of the records will be presented to illustrate s o m e of the uses to which the records can be put. Individual records and profiles A total of forty-four children w e r e assessed, at least once, using the record f o r m developed for this study, to rate the level of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . 1. Descriptive a) of the child: S o m e anecdotal material was necessary if the description of the child was to s h o w his individuality. b) of d e v e l o p m e n t : Two a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e n e e d e d to see d e v e l o p m e n t . Questions a b o u t d e v e l o p m e n t could be a s k e d with only one a s s e s s m e n t if the age and type and d e g r e e of handicap w e r e included in the record. 2. P r o g r a m m e evaluation and planning -  86  Questions a b o u t d e v e l o p m e n t and tentative suggestions for p r o g r a m m i n g could be m a d e on the basis of one a s s e s s m e n t .M o r e definite suggestions for p r o g r a m m i n g could be m a d e on the basis of two assessm e n t s . Single a s s e s s m e n t s T h r e e profiles with the a c c o m p a n y i n g analysis, representing one child f r o m three of the g r o u p s are presented here. T h e s e are b a s e d on single assessments. 1. Physical handicap - nursery school group. 2. Physical handicap - kindergarten group. 3. Hearing handicap.  87  12 Routines  3 45  T  W  L a n g u a g e  Age - U years  D  H a n d i c a p - Mild athetoid C.P.  N  Description:  R R E GE V  Social  N a m e - M.A.  A  This child s h o w s a v e r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t in Self C a r e except for dressing. L a n g u a g e developm e n t is g o o d . The level of Social  C  Participation and Play Activities  G  is lower than s h o w n by Self C a r e  E m o t i o n s Play  and L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t .  He  enjoys adult attention but d o e s I&C Man.  not s e e k activities with his peers. Play Activities m a r k e d are usually solitary. If these are typical  Mot.  activities they e m p h a s i z e this child's general level of develop-: •..  m e n t . P R O F I L E I R A T I N G OF L E V E L OF D E V E L O P M E N T OF S U B J E C T M.A. - S I N G L E A S S E S S M E N T P r o g r a m m e evaluation and Planning The level of Emotional control (4-too m u c h ) m i g h t be indicative of the reason for levels of d e v e l o p m e n t in Play Activities and Social Participation. D o e s he lack self-confidence? Is he afraid to try s o m e thing that m i g h t result in failure? He n e e d s to be e n c o u r a g e d to try  88  m o r e m a t u r e activities. He also n e e d s to be e n c o u r a g e d in peer activities: block play, h o u s e centre m i g h t be g o o d places to start. If this has already b e e n d o n e a further recording will probably s h o w g r o w t h in the social and emotional areas of d e v e l o p m e n t . Anecdotal material is n e e d e d for a m o r e accurate description.  89  1 2 3 45 Routines  T W D N  R L a n g u a g e  R E CE V  Social  A  N a m e - L.B. Age - bfe years H a n d i c a p - Mod. severe athetoid C.P. Description: This child still n e e d s help or supervision in Routines. This is a low level for her CA.  C  " I n d e p e n d e n c e being insisted on,"  G  in routines. B e c a u s e of her h a n d -  E m o t i o n s Play  icap she has probably lacked opportunities to develop independI&C  Man.  ence. The level of Emotional control indicates immaturity. She  Mot.  objects to p r o g r a m m e requirements. The variety of play activi-  P R O F I L E 2 R A T I N G O FL E V E L O F D E V E L O P M E N T ties indicates interest and effort O FS U B J E C T L.B. - S I N G L E in school activities. A further A S S E S S M E N T report in 2-3 m o n t h s w o u l d s h o w if she succeeds. P r o g r a m m e evaluation and planning This child s e e m s to n e e d a lot of support in anything she tries to do. She n e e d s e n c o u r a g e m e n t and approval for her efforts.  B e c a u s e  90  the w h o l e picture is o n e of immaturity a n d retardation, care should b e  taken not to p u s h her too hard. For the present acceptance of the tre  m e n t p r o g r a m m e a n d insistance o n i n d e p e n d e n c e in routines w o u l d s e e m to b e e n o u g h .  91  1 2  Routines  3 4 5  T W  D  L a n g u a g e  Social  N R R E OE V A G G  E m o t i o n s Play  I I&G Man. Mot.  N a m e - V.C. Age - 4 years 2 m o n t h s H a n d i c a p - Profound hearing loss Description: This child still n e e d s supervision in Routines (except Rest) but d e m o n s t r a t e s a d e q u a t e k n o w ledge and skill in carrying t h e m out. He finds c o m m u n i c a t i o n difficult but he is trying. He is not yet playing "with other 0  children and he is just beginning to include adults in his activities. M o s t of the time he w a t c h e s t h e m . This is an anxious child. Anecdotal note, " W a n t s to be sure he's right..." Emotional Control  P R O F I L E 3 u o h " and R A T I N G OF L E V E L OF D E V E L O P M E N T is rated as "too a OF S U B J E C T V.C. - S I N G L E Expressions of Fear "Quiet anxiety, A S S E S S M E N T m o s t of the time". Play Activities rate this child's d e v e l o p m e n t level at a d e q u a t e or better on all items. P r o g r a m m e evaluation and planning T h e r e doesn't s e e m to be m u c h that can be d o n e a b o u t the "quiet anxiety" except continued support and reassurance from the adults. As  92  h e develops a confidence in the adults in the school h e m a y lose s o m e of his anxiety. Another a s s e s s m e n t in t w o or three m o n t h s w o u l d b e necessary before anything m o r e could b e suggested.  93  D o u b l e a s s e s s m e n t s Two profiles with the a c c o m p a n y i n g analysis, representing one child from two of the g r o u p s are presented here. T h e s e h a v e b e e n b a s e d on double assessments. 1.  Physical handicap  2.  Intellectual handicap  94  i Routines  2 ;I  5  A  T  Age - 5 years and 5 m o n t h s  W D  /  H a n d i c a p -M o d e r a t e cerebral  N  L a n g u a g e  palsy  R R  V  \  //  E OE  /  V •\  V  Social  E m o t i o n s Play  N a m e : J.A.  A C G  .} •*  •  \  Description: The records kept of the activities of this child s h o w that he is i n d e p e n d e n t in all Self C a r e Routines, requiring no direction or supervision. Although there is a s p e e c h impedi-  I  m e n t it d o e s not interfere with I&C Man.  his c o m m u n i c a t i o n . He takes part in social activities without any  "v.  difficulty and his emotional  i  Mot. First a s s e s s m e n t »-— » — • S e c o n d a s s e s s m e n l .  I  d e v e l o p m e n t is a d e q u a t e . No items  /  i  h a v e b e e n given u n d e r Intellectual  P R O F I L E A D e v e l o p m e n t on the s e c o n d record R A T I N G OF L E V E L S OF D E V E L O P M E N T OF S U B J E C T J.A. - D O U B L E but the rating of the items on A S S E S S M E N T the first record u n d e r Play Activities indicate that he was just beginning to be interested in activities and concepts other than those requiring m o t o r and manipulative skills. The rating of those play activities that are checked, on the s e c o n d record, indicate a d e q u a t e concepts and skills. M o r e items in e a c h category w o u l d give a better picture of this  95  child's level of play. (The limited play items m i g h t suggest a child with limited ideas.) D e v e l o p m e n t : During the past eight m o n t h s this child has developed f r o m d e p e n d e n c e on other people to i n d e p e n d e n c e . He has d e m o n s t r a t e d increased skills in his social life as well as in his play activities, there is also an increase in his emotional control. P r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation If the limited n u m b e r of play activities m a r k e d on the s e c o n d record is an indication of the extent of this child's play activities it is necessary to help him b r o a d e n his interests with new e q u i p m e n t , new suggestions for old e q u i p m e n t etc. If it is not, then the child s e e m s to be doing very well in his present p r o g r a m m e and no special c h a n g e s are indicated. First and s e c o n d ratings w e r e d o n e by different teachers.  96  1 2  Routines  T  Age - 7 years  D  H a n d i c a p - Intellectually  R  R  E OE ¥  Social  N a m e - W.D.  W  N L a n g u a g e  3 4 5  retarded Description: This child is i n d e p e n d e n t in self care routines.  Anecdotal  A  notes indicate that he takes  C G  pleasure in his independence, in  E m o t i o n s  m a n a g i n g at lunch time ( " E n j o y s pouring own milk"). L a n g u a g e is  Play  not a d e q u a t e .T h e r e s e e m s to be I&C Man.  s o m e difficulty in his receptive abilities if r e m a r k s m u s t be directed right to him and g r o u p  Mot. First a s s e s s m e n t S e c o n d a s s e s s m e n t  instructions are not understood. Expressive s p e e c h and vocabularly  P R O F I L E 5 e e m s to R A T I N G OF L E V E L S OF D E V E L O P M E N T level are minimul. He s OF S U B J E C T W.D. - D O U B L E get along better with his peers A S S E S S M E N T than with the adults. His refusal to s p e a k w h e n s p o k e n to, by an adult, is a g o o d illustration of this difficulty. Emotional control is adequate. Anecdotal notes s h o w that adult requirements m a k e him w i t h d r a w f r o m a situation. He receives special pleasure in "having a turn". Except for m o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t this child's play activities reach the a d e q u a t e level  97  on only two items. D e v e l o p m e n t This child has s h o w n a great deal of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t in the last three m o n t h s . The rating levels of the items u n d e r Play Activities are to be noted. Intellectual d e v e l o p m e n t items h a v e risen from "definitely not a d e q u a t e " (2) to "understanding, real effort, etc. although not yet a d e q u a t e " (3).  Imaginative and Creative Expression  has s h o w n e v e n m o r e g r o w t h f r o m (2) "definitely not a d e q u a t e " to (4)' " a d e q u a t e " and (3) "understanding, real effort etc." Cutting - an item in Manipulative d e v e l o p m e n t has g o n e f r o m (l) "nothing" to (3)"understanding, real effort etc." L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t and Social Participation s h o w the s a m e kind of growth. P r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation Despite this child's apparent fears of adult requirements he is s h o w i n g a lot of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . His present p r o g r a m m e s e e m s to suit him. As he c a n n o t be m a d e to s p e a k the p r o g r a m m e m u s t m a k e him w a n t to s p e a k -g a m e s with turns, and speaking parts s e e m to be m o s t effective.  98  Short t e r m a s s e s s m e n t W h e n the directors w e r e being consulted for permission to carry-  out the present study, o n e director said that h e thought that the thre m o n t h period w a s hardly long e n o u g h to record c h a n g e s in g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t in h a n d i c a p p e d children (p. 76). O n e child w a s assessed twice over a t w o m o n t h period. analysis of his records follow.  T h e  99  1 2 3 4 5  Routines  L a n g u a g e  T W D N R R  1 if  E m o t i o n s Play  I  H a n d i c a p - Tranverse myelitis -  Description: This child is now almost  V A C G  Age - 5 years 3 m o n t h s  legs.  E OE Social  N a m e - J.B.  j / /  completely i n d e p e n d e n t in routine self care. The only limitation is i m p o s e d by braces which prevent  /'  him f r o m being able to m a n a g e his clothing. T h e r e is no l a n g u a g e involvement and he displays m a t u r e  I&C Man.  behaviour in social situations. Play Activity items indicate broad interests and the rating level  Mot. First a s s e s s m e n t S e c o n d a s s e s s m e n  indicates a d e q u a t e or better skills and abilities in his w o r k .  P R O F I L E 6 e v e l o p m e n t R A T I N G OF L E V E L S OF D E V E L O P M E N TD OF S U B J E C T J.B. - S H O R T T E R M The c h a n g e in the levels in A S S E S S M E N T Routine self care over a two m o n t h period is m o s t noticeable.  Toilet  training had just b e e n started at the time of the first record. Two m o n t h s later this was successfully achieved. He is now able to follow through the w a s h i n g routine without direction and requires only minimal support or direction in dressing himself. D e v e l o p m e n t has also b e e n  100  s h o w n in the c h a n g e of rating for play activities. P r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation: This child is doing very well on his present p r o g r a m m e .  No  c h a n g e s s e e m to be indicated. Could there be a c h a n g e in the type of clothing so that he can m a n a g e to be completely i n d e p e n d e n t in toileting?  101  A v e r a g e scores The a v e r a g e rating for e a c h items was determined on the basis of school groups. This was d o n e to see if characteristics of the specific handicaps could be s h o w n .E a c h g r o u p profile is presented individually. A v e r a g e s are b a s e d on ratings m a d e at the time of the s e c o n d assessment, if two a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e m a d e , or on the single a s s e s s m e n t . School A - Physical handicaps R e c o r d s of the children in School A are divided into two groups: Nursery school or junior group. Kindergarten or senior group. Junior G r o u p : An analysis of Table I s h o w s characteristics that can be identified with physical handicaps. T h e s e are ratings of children in a nursery school or junior group. The a v e r a g e s are generally low. Out of 21 items only 4 or 19.5 per cent are rated at a d e q u a t e (4 or 3 for emotions) level. This rating is characteristic of the level of d e v e l o p m e n t of the nursery school group. I t e m s that could be considered characteristic of the handicap are to be noted. 1. Routine Self C a r e - lowest a v e r a g e rating - Dressing (2) 2. L a n g u a g e - low a v e r a g e ratings - Expressive (3.6) - Vocabulary (3.33) 3. Manipulative d e v e l o p m e n t - both just b e l o w "purposeful effort but not quite a d e q u a t e " level (2.9, 2.66)  T A B L E I I N D I V I D U A L , T O T A L S , A N D A V E R A G E R A T I N G S O F D E V E L O P M E N T O F C H I L D R E N W I T H P H Y S I C A L H A N D I C A P S A T T E N D I N G S C H O O L A .. IN T H E J U N I O R G R O U P I T E M S O F R E C O R D T W O . A . *1 1  D N 1  1  R R E. O EV A C G E Int.  s  N.A.* 4  A  A  A  5  U  V . A . *1  2  1  5  5  B  A .A .1  2 2  J E  M . A .A  C  5  -  5  4  4  3  5  3  4  4  3  4  3  4  5  A  A  A  A  -  3  A  4  4  A  A  3  A  A  A  4  2 4  G . A . 2 2 2 A  -  5  5  5  -  5  5  5  A  2 5  5  5  -  A  4  3  2 4  L . A . 3  3  2 A  A  3  2 3  2 3  3  3  2 3  T  P .A .1  1  1  5  A  5  3  2 2 3  4  4  5  S  CA. 2 2 1  3  A  2 1  -  2 2 2 4  1  4  D . A . *5  5  5  5  5  -  3  4  5  A  4  4  3  4  4  -  I & C 2 —  M a n . 2 —  3  5  -  5  5  3  4  3  -  2  2 2 4  T w o a s s e s s m e n t s  2 1  2 22  -  3 . 5 5  4  -  -  3  -  2  2  4  5  4  2 2 2 2 2 3  3  - 2- 2- - -  Totals 24 25 20 40 41 42 36 16 30 36 3-5 36 30 38 13 24  *  -  M o t . 2 -  '  5  2  3  -  2  5  2  -  5  3  4  -  4  -  4 29 , 8 33 26  303  U. M o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t - "not quite a d e q u a t e " (3.3j 3.71) O t h e r items of interest are: 1. Social d e v e l o p m e n t - very consistent (3.6, 3.5, 3.6) 2.  Intellectual d e v e l o p m e n t - one item close to a d e q u a t e (3.8);  The other a little lower (3.25). Profile 7 is a graphic illustration of the a v e r a g e of the ratings of d e v e l o p m e n t of the junior g r o u p of School A. Physical handicap d o e s s e e m to s h o w up. Dressing is the m o s t difficult part of self care for the physically h a n d i c a p p e d preschool child. The vocabulary of these y o u n g children is very limited and they h a v e difficulty expressing themselves. L a n g u a g e involvements are c o m m o n a m o n g y o u n g physically h a n d i c a p p e d children b e c a u s e the handicap may involve ability to s p e a k and b e c a u s e the handicap i m p e d e s their opportunities for c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Manipulative skills are low and m o t o r skills are only just approaching the a d e q u a t e level. Social d e v e l o p m e n t , for the nursery school is normal - still parallel but beginning to m o v e t o w a r d s associative. Senior group: An analysis of Table II s h o w s characteristics that can be identified with physical handicaps. T h e s e are ratings of children in a kindergarten or senior group. Out of 21 items 18 or 85.7 per cent are rated at a d e q u a t e (A.) or better. O t h e r items c o m e b e l o w the a d e q u a t e (4 or 3 for emotions) level. Two items are rated as " a d e q u a t e and integrated into other goals" (5)  104  1 2 3 45 Routines T W D N  R L a n g u a g e R E O E V Social  I  A C G  E m o t i o n s Play I I & C M a n . Mot.  P R O F I L E  7  A V E R A G E O FR A T I N G S O FD E V E L O P M E N T O F C H I L D R E N W I T H P H Y S I C A LH A N D I C A P S A T T E N D I N G S C H O O L A IN T H EJ U N I O R G R O U P  T A B L E II I N D I V I D U A L , T O T A L S , A N D A V E R A G E R A T I N G S O F D E V E L O P M E N T O F C H I L D R E N W I T H P H Y S I C A L H A N D I C A P S A T T E N D I N G S C H O O L A I N T H E S E N I O R G R O U P I T E M S O F R E C O R D S T W  D N RREOEVACG E Int. 5 5 "5 4 - 4 4 5 4 3 - - 4  J.A.*  5  5  5  s  E.A.  5  5  4 5  u  K.A.  5  5  5  B  I. A.  5  5  5  J  F.A.  5  4  4 5  E  T.A.  5  5  5  5  5  5  3  C  B.A.  5  4 4 5  5  5  T  S.A.  5  5  4 5  -  4  5  5  - - 5 - 5 - 5  S  H.A.  5  5  4 5  4 5  5  5  Totals  *  -  3  5  5  4  4  4  4  3  5  4  2  -  4  -  2 4  5  5  4  5  3  5  5  5  5  3  3  5  5  5  5  3  3  3  4  -  4  5  4  4  2 5  5  4  4  3  5  5  4  4  3  5  -  4  4  4  2 4  4  - -  2  5  -  2 3 5  I & C M a n . M o t . 4 4 4 4  -  3  -  2 2 4  3  4  5  5  5  5  4  5  5  -  5  5.  5  -  5  5  5  5  4  4  •-  -  4  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  -  5  -  5  5  4  3  4  4  4  4  45 43 40 45 29 39 30 12 38 40 37 38 23 33 15 38 22 3 5 20 41 41  T w o a s s e s s m e n t s  106 - T o i l e t and Nourishment Items that could be considered c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the handicap are t o be noted. 1.  Routine S e l f Care - lowest average r a t i n g - dressing (4-44)  2.  Language - lowest average r a t i n g - expressive (3.33)  3.  Manipulative development - lowest average - adequate (4-)  4.  Motor development - both the same (4-. 55)  Other items of i n t e r e s t are: 1.  S o c i a l development - a l l above adequate (4.4-4? 4-. 11> 4-. 22)  2.  I n t e l l e c t u a l development - both close t o adequate (3.75» 4.12)  P r o f i l e 8 i s a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the average of the r a t i n g s of development of the senior group of School A. The p h y s i c a l handicap does show up i n some areas but not as obviously as with the younger group. of S e l f Care. ication.  Dressing i s the most d i f f i c u l t part  Expressive language i s the most d i f f i c u l t part of commun-  Manipulative and motor s k i l l s f o r t h i s group of handicapped  c h i l d r e n are good.  Of these c h i l d r e n i n the senior group, only one was  i d e n t i f i e d as having a handicap severe enough to i n t e r f e r e noticeably w i t h hand c o n t r o l . group.  The r a t i n g s of E.A. are lower than the others i n the  (Also see Appendix B. p. 154) S o c i a l development i s normal f o r a kindergarten group during the  w i n t e r term. level.  I n t e l l e c t u a l development l e v e l s c l u s t e r at the adequate  107  1 2  Routines  3 45  T W  (  D N  R L a n g u a g e R E 0E  Social  V A C  G E m o t i o n s Play I I&C  Man.  \  Mot.  P R O F I L E  8  A V E R A G E O FR A T I N G S O FD E V E L O P M E N T O F C H I L D R E N W I T H P H Y S I C A L H A N D I C A P S A T T E N D I N G S C H O O L A IN T H ES E N I O R G R O U P  108  S c h o o l B - P h y s i c a l handicaps An a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e I I I shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p h y s i c a l handicaps. Out o f 21 i t e m s , 12 or 57.1 per c e n t a r e r a t e d adequate better.  7 o r 33.3  p e r cent o f the items are r a t e d "not q u i t e  but w i t h knowledge o f and e f f o r t toward adequacy * ( 3 ) . 1  p e r cent o f the items has the average formance  (4) o r adequate  Only 1 o r  l e v e l o f "combines adequate  w i t h o t h e r t o a c h i e v e another g o a l " .  (5)  4.7 per-  That i s Rest.  Items t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the handicap are  t o be noted: 1.  Routine S e l f Care - lowest average r a t i n g - d r e s s i n g  2.  Language - lowest average r a t i n g - e x p r e s s i v e (3.62)  3.  M a n i p u l a t i v e development  (3.5)  (3.87,  - b o t h s c o r e s c l o s e t o adequate  4.14) 4.  Motor development  - both s c o r e s c l o s e t o adequate  (3.87,  4.14)  Other items o f i n t e r e s t a r e : 1.  S o c i a l development  - a l l the same  2.  I n t e l l e c t u a l development  (4.5)  - h i g h e s t r a t i n g here i s f o u r ( 4 ) .  P r o f i l e 9 i s a g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the average o f the r a t i n g s o f development  o f the group from S c h o o l B.  P h y s i c a l handicap does seem t o show up.  D r e s s i n g i s the most  d i f f i c u l t p a r t o f s e l f c a r e f o r t h e p h y s i c a l l y handicapped e x p r e s s i v e language.  child.  Also  T h i s i s o f t e n one o f the n o t i c e a b l e a s p e c t s o f a  p h y s i c a l handicap i n young c h i l d r e n .  A l s o m a n i p u l a t i v e and motor  g e n e r a l l y are n o t enough t o be i n t e r g r a t e d i n t o l a r g e r a c t i v i t i e s .  skills The  T A B L E III I N D I V I D U A L , T O T A L S , A N D A V E R A G E R A T I N G S O F D E V E L O P M E N T O F C H I L D R E N W I T H P H Y S I C A LH A N D I C A P S A T T E N D I N G S C H O O L B I T E M S O F R E C O R D s  J . B . *  EV A C G E Int. T WD N R R E O 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4  u  S.B.  5  5  3  5  5  4  4  5  5  5  5  5  3  4  -  B  P.B.  1  2  2  2  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  3  4  4  J  A.B.  5  5  4  5  5  3  2  3  2  4  4  4  2  4  E  N . B .  2  3  4  5  5  4  4  5  5  4  4  4  3  3  C  D . B .  4  4  4  4  5  4  3  1  5  4  4  4  4  3  T  L . B .  3  3  3  4  5  5  2  4  5  4  4  4  2  3  s  K . B .  5  4  4  5  5  5  4  5  5  5  5  5  2  5  -  Totals 30 3 1 28 38 40 35 29 33 37 36 36 36 22 30  *  T w o a s s e s s m e n t s  I & C 4. 5  M o t . 3 5  5  -  M a n . 4 5  4  4  5  5  4  5  4  4  3  2  4  4  5  5  - - - 4 4 - 4 3 - 4 4 - 4 5  3  -  4  -  4  4  4  4  2  3  2  4  5  5  5  4  4 29 26 30 29 3 1 29  110  L 2 34 5 Routines  L a n g u a g e  Social  I  T W D N R R E O E V  )  A C G  E m o t i o n s Play  <  I I & G  H Man. Mot. P R O F I L E  9  A V E R A G E O FR A T I N G S OF D E V E L O P M E N T O F C H I L D R E N W I T H P H Y S I C A L H A N D I C A P S A T T E N D I N G S C H O O L B  Ill  skills are a goal in themselves. Social d e v e l o p m e n t is well up. W h e n provided with opportunity for social experiences physically h a n d i c a p p e d children develop fairly normally. Intellectual d e v e l o p m e n t rating is four (4-). For kindergarten children during the winter t e r m this is g o o d . The p r o g r a m m e should provide enriched experiences for intellectual activities during the rest of the year. School C - Hearing handicaps An analysis of Table IV s h o w s that characteristics that can be identified with hearing handicaps are present in the a v e r a g e ratings of the group. Out of 21 items, 9 or 4-2.8 per cent are rated " a d e q u a t e (4-) or better. 10 or 4-7.6 per cent are rated "not quite a d e q u a t e " (3). Two or 9.5 per cent of the items h a v e the a v e r a g e level of " c o m b i n e s a d e q u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e with others to achieve another goal" (5) - one is an Intellectual item, the other is a M o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t item. T h e s e w e r e b a s e d on only one item for e a c h of two children and therefore are not reliable as averages. I t e m s that could be considered characteristic of the handicap are to be noted: L a n g u a g e - Receptive - "not quite a d e q u a t e " (3) - Expressive - "inadequate but trying" (2.5) - O t h e r expressive - "inadequate but trying" (2.5) - Vocabulary - "not quite a d e q u a t e " (3.5)  TABLE IV INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL C ITEMS OF RECORD  s u B J E C m r S  Man. 5 -  Mot. 5  3  -  5  2  2  4  4  4  -  4  13  14  2  18  R.C.  T 5  W 4  D 5  N 5  R 2  R 3  E 3  OE V 4 4  A 4  C 4  G 5  E 2  Int. 5 -  I&C 5  D.C.  5  4  5  4  4  4  3  4  4  2  3  1  5  4  -  4  M.C.  5  5  4  4  2  3  3  3  4  5  5  4  3  4  -  4  -  V.C.  4  4  4  4  5  2  1  2  2  2  3  3  5  5  5  4  19  17  18  17  13  12  10  13  14  13  15  13  15  18  5  17  Totals  4  5  113  S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n - With a d u l t s - "not q u i t e adequate"  (3.5)  With c h i l d r e n - "not q u i t e adequate" Group - "not q u i t e adequate"  (3.75)  (3.25)  P r o f i l e ID i s a g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the average o f the r a t i n g s development  o f t h e group from S c h o o l C.  language s k i l l s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d i n t h i s group. level.  The averages c l u s t e r around the "not q u i t e adequate"  (3)  The d i f f e r e n c e i n the r a t i n g between S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h  a d u l t s and w i t h c h i l d r e n i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  Lack o f v e r b a l  communication  a p p a r e n t l y doesn't i n t e r f e r e w i t h peer a c t i v i t i e s as much as w i t h a d u l t child  activities. The low s c o r e o f "inadequate" (2) f o r one o f the M a n i p u l a t i v e  items i s based on one item f o r one c h i l d and i s t h e r e f o r e not a r e l i a b l e average f o r the group. T h i s group o f j u s t f o u r c h i l d r e n i s r e a l l y t o o s m a l l t o be a b l e t o see any c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d i n s c o r e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the items under Language  Development.  School D An a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e V shows t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l handicaps are p r e s e n t i n the average  ratings  o f the group. Out o f 19 i t e m s , 8 o r 4.2.1 per c e n t are r a t e d adequate  (4) o r b e t -  1L4  ter.  11 or 57.8 per cent of the item are rated below the four (4) level.  Only one item is at the five (5) or "combines adequate performance with others to achieve another goal" level.  That is Toilet.  Items that can be used to identify the specific handicap of this group show up in a summary of the averages of the ratings. Routine Self Care - A l l items at a better than adequate level. (4.55-5)  Language - Only one item at a better than adequate level Receptive language - (4.66) Other two items below adequate (3.77 - 3.88) Social Development - Relationships with adults is the only item above the adequate level (4.33). Relationships with peers and in groups both below the adequate level (3.77 - 3.88) Emotions - Rates a little on the side of too little control (2.88) Intellectual Development - Neither score reach adequate (3.44 3.88)  Imaginative and Creative Expression - The scores are similar to Intellectual Development - below adequate (3.44 - 3.55) Manipulative Development - Fine muscle control is not adequate (3.66 - 3.77)  Motor Development - Large muscle control - adequate or better (4 - 4.33)  Profile 11 is a graphic illustration of the average of the ratings of development of the group from School D.  115  1 2 3 4 5 Routines  T W D N R  language  R E OE V  Social  A C G  Emotions Play  I I&C Man. Mot.  PROFILE 3D AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL C  TABLE V INDIVIDUAL, TOTALS AND AVERAGE RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL D ITEMS OF RECORD T  D  P.D.*  5  W  s  S.D.*  5  4  5 -4  u  M.D.*  5  4  5  5  B  A.D.*  5  5  5  5  J  D.D.*  5  5  5  5  E  W.D.*  5  5  5  5  C  B.D.*  5  3  4  T  CD.*  5  4  s  J.D.*  5  5  Totals  5  5  N  5  -  R  E  4  4  5  4  5  4  5  4  5  4  4  3  5  -  4  4  5  4  -  5  4  5  5  5  4  45 41 44 43  Two a s s e s s m e n t s  R  -  - 42 35  4  4 - 5 4  5  Man. 5 5  Mot.  4  5  4  3  2  3  2  3  2  2  4  3  4  4  2  3  4  4  4  3  4  5  5  5  4  4  3  5  5  5  2  5  4  5  5  4  5  4  4  3  2  3  3  4  4  4  4  4  3  4  5  4  3  3  3  4  3  4  3  5, 5  4  4  2  4  3  5  4  5  3  4  5  5  5  5  5  3  4  2  3  3  2  3  3  4  3  4  5  5  5  4  3  4  5  2  5  3  3  4  4  3 .4  G  3  E  4  3  4  4  4  OE V  A  c  3  —  -  2  Int.  I&C  - 34 39 34 35 26 31 35 31 32 33 34 39 36  117  The intellectual handicap definitely s h o w s up. language, Social D e v e l o p m e n t with peers or in controlled situations, Intellectual Develo p m e n t , Imaginative and Creative Expression are all less than a d e q u a t e . T h e s e are all areas that are c o m m o n l y associated with the d e v e l o p m e n t of children with intellectual handicaps. The c o m m e n t s and suggestions of the directors of the centres that u s e d the record f o r m for this study w e r e presented first in this chapter b e c a u s e they w e r e the first "results" received. The data f r o m e a c h of the schools was presented next. The n u m b e r of record received, a brief description of the school situation and c o m m e n t s and reactions f r o m the teachers of e a c h school are s h o w n . The information gathered from the record f o r m s was analyzed in several w a y s . Individual record f o r m s w e r e studied to see if they presented a description of the child and his d e v e l o p m e n t and if they could be u s e d for p r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation. A sampling of the record analysis with profiles was presented. A v e r a g e scores w e r e determined on the basis of school groups. Tables with all the individual ratings and profiles of the g r o u p a v e r a g e s w e r e included. The a v e r a g e ratings w e r e e x a m i n e d to see if characteristics of the g r o u p handicaps classification (physical, hearing, intellectual) s h o w e d up.  118  -  •••  -  1  -  Routines  2 ;> 4 i  T  {  W D N R Language  R  /  E GE V Social  \ 1  A  >  C G Emotions Play  <  I I&C Man. Mot.  PROFILE  /  \  11  AVERAGE OF RATINGS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL HANDICAPS ATTENDING SCHOOL D  C H A P T E R V D I S C U S S I O N AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S This study was c o n c e r n e d with the recording of observations of preschool activities of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children. A record f o r m that c o m b i n e d a checklist and a five point rating scale with anecdotal information was developed. This recording instrument was u s e d in four preschool special education settings by teachers to assess the g r o w t h and developm e n t of the y o u n g children over a period of time. ID E V E L O P M E N T OF THE I N S T R U M E N T One of the purposes of this study was to develop a useful, concise and c o m p r e h e n s i v e instrument for recording observations of activities of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children. The record as it was developed had t w e n t y o n e items with e a c h item rated on a five point scale. Of the forty-four (UU) children observed for this study only seventeen (38.6 per cent) w e r e assessed twice, although this was originally requested for all children. The reason given for thisomission n  n  was lack of T I M E .T h r e e of the four teachers using the record taught two g r o u p s of children a day. Although Fouracre et al. said that the teachers in his study did not find it difficult to rate the children on the 180 items of his record form it is doubtful if teachers such as those using the recording instrum e n t developed for this study could find time for such an extensive  120  record. The teachers in this study, with the exception of the writer, all carried a double teaching load, - one g r o u p in the morning, another g r o u p in the afternoon. The teachers in the Fouracre study had only one g r o u p a day and spent several hours a w e e k discussing g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o g r a m m i n g , etc. T h e r e was also a full time observer. The Social C o m p e t e n c y Rating developed by Cain, Levine, and Elzey with 72 items was also u s e d by full time observers, not the teachers. The T . M . R . P e r f o r m a n c e Profile d e v e l o p e d by DiNola, K a m i n s k y and Sternfield has s o m e 240 items. If teachers h a v e difficulty finding time to use an instrument with just 21 items, how could they m a n a g e 240 items? A recording instrument with as few as t w e n t y o n e items d o e s s h o w up characteristics of the different types of handicaps. T e a c h e r s using it felt it was w e a k in different places. The teacher of children with  hearing handicaps felt that m o r e items w e r e n e e d e d in the L a n g u a g e area. The teacher of intellectually retarded children felt that m o r e items w e r e n e e d e d in the area of Intellectual D e v e l o p m e n t . The writer's original area of w o r k was with preschool a g e d children with physical handicaps. The record f o r m reflected this bias in that the teachers of children with physical handicaps did not point out any special area that they felt was w e a k . This kind of recording instrument could be a d a p t e d to m e e t the n e e d of the g r o u p without losing its ability to describe the w h o l e child. General areas of d e v e l o p m e n t , as u s e d on the record f o r m for this study (Routine Self Care, L a n g u a g e , Social Participation, Emotions, Intellect—  121  ual D e v e l o p m e n t , Imaginative and Creative Expression, Manipulative D e v e l o p m e n t , and M o t o r D e v e l o p m e n t ) could be retained. This w o u l d provide a uniformity in f o r m and a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o v e r a g e of developm e n t . The teacher could then select items for e a c h of the areas that she felt w e r e m o s t significant in the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the children with the specific handicap of that group. The way in which Play Activities was organized on the record f o r m for this study, with lists of s a m p l e items that can be adjusted to suit the child, is the suggestion for the w h o l e record. The five point rating scale has now b e e n u s e d e n o u g h to p r o v e its usefulness. This could be u s e d on all record f o r m s regardless of the specific items to be rated. E a c h p r o g r a m m e , e a c h handicap and e a c h teacher are different. No recording instrument b a s e d on one p r o g r a m m e or one type of handicap can be u s e d without a d j u s t m e n t in another setting. But the results of this study s e e m to indicate that there are basic e l e m e n t s in recording that can be applied to m a n y situations. By utilizing these basic elem e n t s as y s t e m of recording which is relatively objective, concise, easy to read and uniform can be developed in special education centres for h a n d i c a p p e d preschool children. II R E C O R D I N G O B S E R V A T I O N S OF G R O W T H AND D E V E L O P M E N T The p u r p o s e of the record developed for this study was to provide a basis for reporting on the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the preschool  122  child. To do this the record m u s t give a d e q u a t e information for a description of the child and his d e v e l o p m e n t . The information provided by the record f o r m s was a d e q u a t e for describing the individual child. Of the forty-four records collected for this study four ( 9 per cent) w e r e discarded as being too incomplete to provide information for descriptive purposes. Only the nine records ( 2 0 . 4 - per cent) m a d e by the writer had anecdotal material for all areas of d e v e l o p m e n t . Anecdotal information on records m a d e by other teachers was very brief. For the m o s t part it was presented verbally to the writer and then a d d e d to the record after a discussion a b o u t the child. If no anecdotal material was included on the record the "picture 1  of the child was inadequate. And yet with just a very few w o r d s of explanation or description along with the rating the "picture" of the child (the description) was fairly complete. The profile created by the rating did present a picture that was representative of the child e v e n t h o u g h two observers m i g h t not h a v e entirely a g r e e d on the rating. The record of a child with a w i d e variation in his behaviour w o u l d s h o w an erratic profile and the record of a child displaying a steady level of d e v e l o p m e n t s h o w e d only m i n o r variations in the profile. The rating of the Self C a r e Routines presented the d e g r e e of the child's i n d e p e n d e n c e in this area. For e x a m p l e , w h e n all items except Toilet w e r e rated consistently at the a d e q u a t e or better level the reason  123  could be found in the p r o b l e m of motility also. It is interesting to note that only one child was rated b e l o w the a d e q u a t e level for Nourishm e n t or L u n c h . And this child's handicap was noted as very severe. ( D . A . ) The section on Routine Self C a r e n e e d e d the least a m o u n t of anecdotal information for descriptive purposes. The description provided by the rating of L a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t was very difficult if no anecdotal material was provided. A generalized description could be m a d e h o w e v e r . If ratings w e r e consistently low then it was obvious that the child had a great deal of trouble c o m m u n i c a t i n g or if they w e r e consistently high, the child had little trouble c o m m u n i c a t i n g e v e n t h o u g h there may h a v e b e e n a noticeable i m p e d i m e n t in the verbal L a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . Anecdotal material in other parts of the record w e r e often excellent sources of additional information on L a n g u a g e . Social Participation and Play Activities w e r e especially useful. By c o m b i n i n g the ratings of Social Participation with the information of E m o t i o n s the description of the child was m u c h improved. "Expressions of a n g e r etc." w e r e usually descriptive of the child's relationship with adults. W e r e the t e a c h e r s . u n a w a r e of fears, anxieties etc. that w e r e within the peer g r o u p relationship? Difficulties that arose in analyzing the record f o r m s w e r e the results of inadequacies of the instrument and the use of the instrument. W h e n only one item had b e e n included in e a c h of the divisions of  124  Play Activities it was very difficult to determine the kinds of play activities in which the child usually took part. Anecdotal information was almost a necessity in m a k i n g the ratings of the play activities meaningful. Just one "story" of one brief episode in the child's normal activities helped to describe the child. Minor alterations w e r e m a d e to the items on the record in s o m e schools. T h e s e alterations w e r e omissions of items not observed and did not c h a n g e the a d e q u a c y of the profile of the individual child. Possibly with a little thought items that w e r e essential to the description of the handicap could also h a v e b e e n a d d e d . The r e m a r k s of the teacher of the hearing h a n d i c a p p e d children and the teacher of the intellectually retarded children s h o w e d the i n a d e q u a c y of the items of the checklist in certain areas. It was not possible to report on d e v e l o p m e n t w h e n only one a s s e s s m e n t had b e e n recorded. O n l y seventeen of the forty-four (38.6 per cent), w e r e double records. Two a s s e s s m e n t s did s h o w g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t in the individual child. E v e n in a three m o n t h period (School D) g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t was evident although it was not as noticeable as in the records that covered a longer period of time. It was not necessary to h a v e a c h a n g e of rating on all items to s h o w g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . If there had b e e n a rise in the rating of s o m e items in e a c h of the areas g r o w t h had taken place and g r o w t h could be expected on other items at a later date. W h e n little or no g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t in specific areas was  125<  noted in records which had covered a longer period of time it was possible to utilize this information in p r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation. The record form was u s e d as an initial a s s e s s m e n t record for two children. The s e c o n d a s s e s s m e n t recorded just a short time later s h o w e d a seemingly a m a z i n g a m o u n t of c h a n g e . This s e e m s to indicate that alt h o u g h the record form can be u s e d for initial a s s e s s m e n t s on children no real evaluation of the child's actual level of functioning can be m a d e on that basis. It can serve only as an indication of the child's first reactions to the school situation. The s e c o n d assessment, m a d e after the child has b e c o m e a c c u s t o m e d to the school e n v i r o n m e n t is the one u p o n which a m o r e reliable evaluation can be m a d e * III P R O G R A M M E E V A L U A T I O N AND P L A N N I N G Not only was the record f o r m to provide a basis for a description of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t , it was also to provide a basis for p r o g r a m m e evaluation and planning. P r o g r a m m e evaluation and plans (if n e e d e d ) w e r e evolved from all the records retained for the study. Evaluation and planning, on the basis of one a s s e s s m e n t could only be tentative. H o w e v e r w h e r e two a s s e s s m e n t s had b e e n m a d e the evaluation and planning was m u c h m o r e definite. The evaluation and planning for V.A. is an e x a m p l e . " M o d e r a t e use of the left h a n d should enable this child to achieve m o r e in areas of Routine Self C a r e and in her Play Activities. Probably n e e d s to be supplied with ideas and uses for toys and materials ..."  126  The slow but steady d e v e l o p m e n t of this child s h o w e d on the records. A continuation of this kind of d e v e l o p m e n t should be channelled into Self Care. B e c a u s e she has b e e n so limited her k n o w l e d g e of the uses of play materials is also limited. She will n e e d specific teaching in Play as well as in Self Care. Her level of d e v e l o p m e n t , at the time of the first a s s e s s m e n t was so low that learning of specific skills w o u l d h a v e b e e n very slow. Her level of d e v e l o p m e n t is still low and will always be limited but can now start to be channelled into areas that are going to be m o s t meaningful to her. The record s h o w s that this is now possible. An e x a m p l e of the tentative suggestions that can be m a d e on a single a s s e s s m e n t is the record of E.A. "The difference in the rating b e t w e e n Routine Self C a r e ( a d e q u a t e or better) and Manipulative (inadequate) is quite noticeable.  W o u l d  special teaching of manipulative skills raise his developmental level?" With only one a s s e s s m e n t the planning can only be d o n e as a question. The direction of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t c a n n o t be determ i n e d so nothing definite can be said. IV S H O R T T E R M A S S E S S M E N T One of the medical directors said he thought that records m a d e over a three m o n t h period with physically h a n d i c a p p e d children w o u l d not s h o w m u c h c h a n g e . The records of J.B. (a physically h a n d i c a p p e d child) covered a period of only two m o n t h s .  ;127  W h e n the records cover only a short period of time (two to three m o n t h s ) there will not be a c o m p l e t e c h a n g e in ratings but s o m e c h a n g e should be evident in s o m e areas of d e v e l o p m e n t . A three m o n t h period is almost one third of the school year; it is one quarter of a full year; if no c h a n g e s h a v e taken place in that length of time then the preschool p r o g r a m m e , as planned for that child, should be e x a m i n e d . Also, the child's total treatment p r o g r a m m e and family and h o m e situation should be e x a m i n e d to see if c h a n g e s are taking place in other w a y s . If there has b e e n no significant c h a n g e s a n y w h e r e ap r o b l e m is indicated. If there h a v e b e e n c h a n g e s in areas other than the preschool one of two things is indicated. 1. The child is s h o w i n g sufficient gain and there is no n e e d to worry. But if this is the case a careful w a t c h on the child's activities in the preschool for a six to eight w e e k period is indicated. If there are no significant c h a n g e s in that s e c o n d period then 2. The preschool p r o g r a m m e , as planned for that child, is not adequate. It n e e d s a thorough examination by m e m b e r s of the treatment t e a m and then a revision in the light of the decisions reached by that group. VU S E F U L N E S S FOR C O M M U N I C A T I O N A record c o n v e y s information from one person to another a n d / o r from one time to another. This is c o m m u n c i a t i o n . If records are not  used for this p u r p o s e they n e e d not be kept. It was h o p e d that the recording instrument devised for this study w o u l d prove to be a useful basis for i m p r o v e d multidisciplinary c o m m u n ication. " I m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n " a m o n g s t the treatment t e a m was the aspect of this study in which two of the directors s h o w e d the m o s t interest. It was also the aspect that the author had least opportunity to evaluate. In one school (School D ) no multidisciplinary m e e t i n g s w e r e held during the time period of the study. In two schools (Schools B and G ) the teachers w e r e too b u s y with other responsibilities to do m o r e than c o m p l e t e a few single record forms, shortly before they w e r e collected. Therefore they could not be u s e d for c o m m u n i c a t i o n purposes. In only one school (School A) did the teacher actually use the information as a basis for her reporting at multidisciplinary t e a m meetings. She said that she felt it g a v e her a basis for factual information to p a s s on to others. The teachers in one school (School C ) did say that they thought it w o u l d m a k e ag o o d "report card" for school transfers. This is c o m m u n i c a t i o n but time did not permit a test of this suggested use. T h e s e results s h o w that the record form can provide a basis for reporting on the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of a child. A wider use of the record for c o m m u n i c a t i o n w o u l d h a v e given a better indication of the extent of its usefulness.  129  The lack of opportunity for t e a m c o m m u n i c a t i o n and the lack of concern in improving t e a m c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e e m to indicate lack of interest in the role of preschool education in the total treatment p r o g r a m m e . A clarification of the role and the goals of the preschool in special education is n e e d e d first. A d e q u a t e reporting ( c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) on the a c h i e v e m e n t of these goals to others will lead to a better understanding of the role. A d e q u a t e recording is one of the first steps. The responsibility lies with the preschool. The contribution m a d e by the preschool in the field of special education c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d and evaluated until those people working . in this area realize the importance of recording their observation of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the children with w h o m they w o r k .  While  the recording m u s t suit the n e e d s of the children and the school situation there should be a c o m m o n b a s e in t h e m all. This b a s e will, a m o n g other things, provide a standardization that will m a k e the descriptions of the child m o r e meaningful. This will not only i m p r o v e professional c o m m u n ication it will also m a k e the transfer of a child from one centre or class, to another, easier. R e c o r d s that s h o w individual strengths and w e a k n e s s e s will assist the teacher and other m e m b e r s of a multidisciplinary t e a m to plan m o r e effective p r o g r a m m e s , not only for the individual but also for the w h o l e group. Also, standardized information is the beginning of material for further study and research - a m u c h n e e d e d item in the field of special education for preschool children.  330  VI R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S The findings of this study h a v e s h o w n that the importance of recording observations of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children is not widely accepted in the preschool. The direct teaching responsibilities of the teachers o c c u p y so m u c h of their time records are looked u p o n as an extra chore not as an integral part of the w o r k . With this in m i n d and b a s e d on the data gathered in this study the following r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s are m a d e : 1. T e a c h e r s of h a n d i c a p p e d preschool a g e d children are as m u c h in n e e d of opportunities for further learning experiences as are teachers of h a n d i c a p p e d school a g e d children. Preschool teachers in special educations should be e n c o u r a g e d to take further courses which will b r o a d e n their k n o w l e d g e of special education. T h e y should also include observations at other centres to see w o r k with children with different h a n d icaps and by teachers with different training, in these experiences. By having a better understanding of the responsibilities of preschool education in the total picture of special education the importance of keeping a d e q u a t e records w o u l d b e c o m e m o r e apparent. 2. A standard but flexible type of instrument for recording observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children should be u s e d by preschool teachers in special education. The five point rating scale and checklist is not only useful, concise and c o m p r e hensive for the b u s y teacher, it also provides a c o m m o n f r a m e of refere n c e and facilitates the collection of material for research purposes.  13%  3. The recording of observations on a standard but flexible type of recording instrument w o u l d be a w a s t e of time if the information was not used. Not only the preschool teachers, but all m e m b e r s of a treatment t e a m should b e c o m e a w a r e of the uses to which such records may be put. S o m e of these are for transfer f r o m special preschool to special school, for reporting to parents, for reviewing the child's g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t over the m o n t h s and years of special care, for planning for the treatment outside of the preschool p r o g r a m m e and for planning for the child's return to " n o r m a l ' ' school experiences. Therefore a d e q u a t e records of g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t in the preschool should be u s e d by all people working with the children. VII R E S E A R C H The review of related studies (Chapter II) s h o w e d the limitation of research with y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children. A m o n g s t the reasons for this are difficulty of identification, limited facilities for care of the y o u n g child and limited facilities for training of personnel.  T h e r e  are m a n y p r o b l e m s related to this field of special education that n e e d s o m e m o r e study. S o m e of t h e m h a v e b e e n apparent during this study and the results of this study h a v e raised several questions that could be the basis for further study. 1. W h a t is the role of preschool education in special education? T h e r e is a n e e d for a study of preschool philosophies, practices and p r o g r a m m e s . The differences in the role of the preschool in the  132  treatment and education of different handicaps plays an important part in determining the effectiveness of certain teaching m e t h o d s and individual teachers. A clarification of this role in e a c h type of centre w o u l d m a k e a preschool experience m o r e valuable. 2. W h a t w o u l d be the best type of standard but flexible recording instrument? And how could it be developed to m e e t the n e e d s of e a c h centre? T h e r e should be m o r e of the kind of w o r k d o n e during this study to develop an instrument that is standard in f o r m but m e e t s specific n e e d s of preschool a g e d h a n d i c a p p e d children, (i.e. Hearing handicaps, intellectual handicaps, etc.) VIII S U M M A R Y T h e r e is a continuing n e e d for the d e v e l o p m e n t of instruments useful in assessing children in n e e d of special education. This study was c o n c e r n e d with the recording of observations of preschool activities of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children. To help explain the reason for the basic problem—Is it possible to develop a useful, concise and c o m p r e h e n s i v e recording instrument that can be u s e d in m a k i n g observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of y o u n g children in preschool settings at special education centres? the following questions w e r e asked: 1. Why records? 2. How is information obtained for records?  133  3.  W h a t kind of records?  U. W h a t are the criteria for records? and 5. Why special education during the preschool years? The a n s w e r s provided b a c k g r o u n d information for the c o m p l e t e study. Related studies w e r e limited to the intellectually retarded or to older children. R e c o r d f o r m s that had b e e n developed w e r e not concise—items to be rated n u m b e r e d f r o m seventy to two h u n d r e d forty. An examination of preschool record f o r m s s h o w e d that e a c h instrum e n t was developed to m e e t the n e e d s of the individual schools and the observer. For the p u r p o s e of this study a record form that c o m b i n e d a checklist and a five point rating scale with anecdotal information was develo p e d . It was felt that this type of record w o u l d m e e t the n e e d s of preschool special education centres. The five point scale was applied to t w e n t y o n e items of preschool activities categorized into developmental areas. Sources for the choice of categories and the application of the five point scale to e a c h item was presented in s o m e detail. Four g r o u p s of preschool children in different special education centres, presenting several handicaps, w e r e u s e d for testing of the record. It was requested that the teachers use the record at least twice for e a c h child over at least a three m o n t h period. Directors and teachers w e r e also a s k e d for criticisms regarding the record.  1 3 4  T h e records w e r e collected at the e n d of a n eight m o n t h period. R e c o r d s of the observations of forty-four children w e r e received from teachers. Half of these records c a m e f r o m o n e school. 1 .T h r e e of the teachers carried double teaching loads, i.e. O n e class in the m o r n i n g a n d another in the afternoon. O n e teacher, the writer, h a d o n e class. 2 . Teaching responsibilities of t w o teachers prevented t h e m from completing m o r e than a small n u m b e r of single records. O n e teacher c o m p l e t e d double records o n approximately o n e third of the children in her school. O n e teacher c o m p l e t e d double records o n all the children in her school. 3 .T h r e e teachers u s e d the record f o r m s without including anecdotal information. T h e s e s a m e teachers felt the record did not s h o w the personality of the children. Inclusion of anecdotal information increased the a d e q u a c y of the record form. 4 .  O n e teacher a d a p t e d the record f o r m to her o w n n e e d s in  developing her o w n s y s t e m of records.  This study h o p e d to s h o w that the instrument developed w o u l d provide a useful basis for: 1 . A description of a child a n d his d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 .P r o g r a m m e planning a n d evaluation. All records received w e r e analyzed with these, points in m i n d .  T h e analysis a n d profile of the rating of a s a m p l e of the records w e r e  035  presented to illustrate s o m e of the uses to which the records could' be put. Two a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e necessary to see d e v e l o p m e n t . Questions and tentative suggestions for p r o g r a m m i n g and evaluation could be m a d e on the basis of one a s s e s s m e n t .M o r e definite suggestions could be m a d e on the basis of two assessments. S o m e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t s h o w s on short t e r m a s s e s s m e n t s (two to three m o n t h s ) but not as m u c h as with longer t e r m assessments. A v e r a g e ratings w e r e determined on the basis of school groups. This information indicated that characteristics of specific handicaps could be s h o w n . T h e s e results s h o w e d that a recording instrument with as few as t w e n t y o n e items could be u s e d to provide an a d e q u a t e description of a h a n d i c a p p e d child. Two consecutive a s s e s s m e n t s s h o w e d d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o g r a m m e planning and evaluation was facilitated by using the record forms to note areas of strength and w e a k n e s s . The records also s h o w e d up characteristics of specific handicaps. B e c a u s e of the time limitations i m p o s e d on m o s t teachers of y o u n g h a n d i c a p p e d children it w o u l d be impossible to c o m p l e t e the extensive records developed in earlier studies but the results of this study s h o w that a record with only t w e n t y o n e items can be u s e d for several purposes. No one recording instrument developed in one centre can be u s e d without adaptation in another centre. The special n e e d s of the individual centres m u s t be met.  The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n was m a d e that  136  further w o r k be d o n e to develop a record that was standard in form, with all areas of d e v e l o p m e n t covered and using the five point rating scale. The aspect of C o m m u n i c a t i o n had the least opportunity for testing. The pressure of teaching responsibilities and lack of opportunities for c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e the reasons for this. H o w e v e r w h e r e the record f o r m was u s e d as a basis of c o m m u n i c a t i o n it was very useful. The contribution m a d e by the preschool in the field of special education c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d and evaluated until those people working in this area realize the importance of recording their observations of the g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t of the children with w h o m they w o r k .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B I B L I O G R A P H Y A l m y , M .  Child D e v e l o p m e n tH . Holt a n d C o m p a n yN e w York 1955  A l m y , M . W a y s of Studying Children B u r e a u of Publications College C o l u m b i a University N e w Y o r k 1956  Teachers  Beasly, Jane. S l o w to Talk B u r e a u of Publications T e a c h e r s College C o l u m b i a University N e w Y o r k 1956 Blatz, W . E . , Millichamp, D . , a n d Fletcher, M . Nursery Education T h e o r y a n d Practice W . M o r r o w a n d C o m p a n yN e w York 1936 Bo\jely, A g a t h a H . " A S t u d y of the Factors Influencing the General D e v e l o p m e n t During the Pre-School Years b y M e a n s of R e c o r d F o r m s "T h e British Journal of Psychology M o n o g r a p h S u p p l e m e n t s C a m b r i d g e University Press 1942 Bowely, A g a t h a H . T h e Natural D e v e l o p m e n t of the Child E . & S . Livingstone Ltd. Edinburgh 1 9 4 7  Bridges, K . M . B . T h e Social a n d Emotional D e v e l o p m e n t of the Pre-School Child K e g a n , Paul, French, T r u b n e r . & Col Ltd. L o n d o n 1931"  Cain, Leo. F . a n d Levine, S a m u e l . Effects of C o m m u n i t y a n d Institutiona School P r o g r a m s o n Trainable Mentally Retarded Children C E C Research M o n o g r a p h y Series B , N o . B - 1 W a s h i n g t o n D . C . 1963 Cain, L e o F . , Levine, S a m u e l , a n d Elzey, F . F .M a n u a l for the CainLevine Social C o m p e t e n c y Scale Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1963 Christianson, H . M . , Rogers, M . M . a n d L u d l u m , B . A . H o u g h t o n Mifflin C o m p a n y Boston 1961  T h e Nursery Scho  C o h e n , D . H . a n d Stern, V . Observing a n d Recording the Behaviour of Y o u n g Children Practical Suggestions for Teaching N u m b e r 18 B u r e a u of Publications Teachers College C o l u m b i a University N e w York 1958 T h e Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English H . W . Fowler a n d F . G . Fowler (editors) b a s e d o n T h e Oxford Dictionary Fourth Edition Oxford Cruickshank, William,M., a n d Johnson, G . Orville (editors) Education of Exceptional Children a n d Y o u t h Prentice - Hall, Inc. 1958  DiNola, Alfred J., K a m i n s k y , Bernard P. and Sternfeld, Allan E . T . M . R . P e r f o r m a n c e Profile for the Severely and Moderately Retarded Teachers M a n u a l Reporting Service for Exceptional Children 1963 Fouracre, M.H. , Connors, F . ' P . , and Goldberg, I.I. The Effects of a Preschool P r o g r a m U p o n Y o u n g Educable Mentally Retarded Children V o l u m e II The Experimental Preschool Curriculum D e p a r t m e n t of Special Education T e a c h e r s College C o l u m b i a University New Y o r k City 1962 G o o d , C.V. and Scates, D.E. M e t h o d s in Research Educational, Psychological, Sociological Appleton-Century Crafts Inc.  1954  Hunt, J. McV. Intelligence and Experience The Ronald Press C o m p a n y New Y o r k 1961 Ikeda, H. "Adapting the Nursery School P r o g r a m for the Mentally Retarded Child" Exceptional Children 1955 XXI 17-173 I n g r a m , Christine P. Education of the Slow-Learning Child The Ronald Press C o m p a n y Third Edition N e w York I960 Isaacs, S. Social D e v e l o p m e n t jn Y o u n g Children A Study of Beginnings Harcourt, Brace and C o m p a n y New York 1939 Iscoe, Ira "The Functional Classification of Exceptional Children" R e a d i n g s on the Exceptional Child Editors. E.P. T r a p p and P. Himelstein Appleton-Century Crafts, Inc. New. Y o r k 1962 pp. 6-13 Kirk, S a m u e l A . Educating Exceptional Children H o u g h t o n Mifflin C o m p a n y Boston 1962 Kirk, S a m u e l A . Early Education of the Mentally Retarded University of Illinois Press U r b a n a 1958 Kirk, S a m u e l A. and Johnson, G.O. Educating the Retarded Child H o u g h t o n Mifflin C o m p a n y Boston 1961 L a s s m a n , G r a c e L a n g u a g e for the Preschool D e a f Child Stratton New York 1950  G r u n e and  Lowenfeld, B. (ed.) The Blind Preschool Child A m e r i c a n Foundation for the Blind New Y o r k 1947 Linch, L a w r e n c e J. " R e a d e r s E x c h a n g e " Children V o l u m e 1 N u m b e r 6 N o v e m b e r -D e c e m b e r 1954 p. 240  Martins, Elsie H. Curriculum A d j u s t m e n t for the Mentally Retarded U.S. Office of Education Bulletin, W a s h i n g t o n D.C. G o v e r n m e n t Printing Office 1950 Millichamp, D. "Early Foundations for Mental Health Bulletin of the JLastitute of Child Study V o l u m e 23 N u m b e r 3 & 4 (90, 9lJ S e p t e m b e r -D e c e m b e r 1961 n  M o w r e r , O.H. Learning T h e o r y and the Symbolic Processes Wiley and S o n s Inc. I960 Mullen, Frances A. "The Preschool Area of Special Education" f r o m The Exceptional Child A B o o k of R e a d i n g s J a m e s F. M a g a r y and J o h n R. Erchoin Editors Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. New York I960  Nice, M.M. "Length of S e n t e n c e as a Criterion of a Child's Progress in S p e e c h " Journal of Educational Psychology 1925 p. 16 (Cited in The -Natural D e v e l o p m e n t of the Child by A. H. B o w e l y E. & S. Linvingstone Ltd. Edinburgh 194-7) Olson, W. "The C a s e M e t h o d " Chapter 6 M e t h o d s of Research in Education R e v i e w of Educational Research 9s449-646 D e c e m b e r 1939 (Cited in M e t h o d s of Research Education, Psychological, Sociological C.B. G o o d and D.E. Scates Appleton-Century Crafts Inc. 1954) R e a d , K.H. The Nursery School: A H u m a n Relationships Laboratory W.B. S a u n d e r s Co., Philadelphia Third Edition I960 S h u e y , Betty "Written R e c o r d s on Children" The Journal of Nursery Education V o l u m e XXIII N u m b e r 3 Spring 1958 (Abstract) Strang, R u t h An Introduction to Child Study Third Edition MacMillan Co. New Y o r k 1951 T h o m a s , R.M.  Judging Students Progress  L o n g m a n , G r e e n &C o m p a n y 1954  Tyler, R.VJ. "The Place of Evaluation in M o d e r n Education" School Journal XLI S e p t e m b e r 1940 pp. 19-27  Elementary  Wrightstone, J.W., Justman, J., and Robbins, I. Evaluation in M o d e r n Education A m e r i c a n B o o k C o m p a n y New Y o r k 1956 Yum, L.G. "Adapting the Nursery School for the Multiply H a n d i c a p p e d Cerebral Palsy Child" Exceptional Children V o l u m e 22 N u m b e r 1 O c t o b e r 1955  141  O T H E R R E F E R E N C E S Preschool R e c o r d F o r m s 1. Kindergartens in public schools A ..C o n c o r d Public School Kindergartens B. Cleveland Public Schools C. Q u i n c y Public Schools Kindergarten Report C a r d T h e s e record f o r m s w e r e found in the collection of school record f o r m s of Mrs. A. Borden, Child Study Centre, University of British Columbia. 2. Nursery Schools A. Private nursery school record - copied f r o m the collection of family school records of Mrs. E. Harding. B. Play school record - prepared by E . S . W . Belyea, Assistant Professor, D e p a r t m e n t of Psychology, University of British Columbia. 3. Student observation f o r m s A. Preschool Observation Report, Education 331, University of British Columbia. B. Observation Analysis, Psychology 320, University of W a s h i n g t o n . 4.  School records A. Child S t u d y Centre B. University of British C o l u m b i a  U2  Research record Institute of Child Study University of Toronto Special Education Centres A. G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre Vancouver, British Columbia. B. Children's T r e a t m e n t Centre North Surrey, B. C.  APPENDIX A  40  Included in this review are also s o m e of the publications w h i c h are especially directed to preschool education - for both h a n d i c a p p e d and oa-handicapped children.  N a m e :  A g e :  yr.  D a t e of Recording:  Handicap: - D e g r e e :  Routine Self Care  1 ..  1. Toilet 2. W a s h i n g 3. Dressing 4. N o u r i s h m e n t 5. Rest  2 , 3 . 4 . 5  i  L a n g u a g e 1. Receptive 2. Expressive 3. O t h e r exp. behaviour 4. Vocabulary  !  Social Participation 1. 2. 3.  With Adults With Children G r o u p Activity  Emotions 1.  Control Pattern  Too Little  A d e q u a t e  Too M u c h  2. - Expressions of anger, fear, anxiety, aggression etc. Usual response(s) F r e q u e n c y Cause(s) 3. Expressions of pleasure, affection etc. Usual response(s) F r e q u e n c y Cause(s) 4. O t h e r items - m a n n e r i s m s - response to discipline  Play Activities: 1.  Intellectual D e v e l o p m e n t :  2.  Imaginative and Creative Expressxons  3.  Manipulative D e v e l o p m e n t :  m o .  M A N U A L O F I N S T R U C T I O N S  1  2  3  5  R O U T I N E S E L F C A R E D e p e n d e n t on adult - no effort or no effective effort.  Adult d o e s m o s t of w o r k but child's efforts are productive.  Child d o e s m o s t Child able to of w o r k but accomplish task n e e d s assistancebut requires to c o m p l e t e s p o k e n help task. (support) to c o m p l e t e it.  Child completes task without help and with a d e q u a t e skill.  Receptive  No response to verbal or gesture.  Relies mostly on gesture.  Relies on Slightly gestures to retarded in clarify s p o k e n . understanding.  No observable retardation, handicap or immaturity.  Expressive  p e e c h u n d e r S p e e c h c a n n o t S be understood. stood with difficulty.  S p e e c h readily S p e e c h understood with understood but s o m e difficulty.not normal.  No immaturity, slurring, omissions etc.  Other Expressive Behaviour  No gesture.  Reaching gesture. No •yes' or 'no' gesture.  Reaching pointing 'yes' and ' n o ' a few with symbolic value.  Fluent use of gesture and s o u n d .  Vocabulary  No m e a n i n g ful s o u n d s .  Signs, sounds, etc. u s e d with m e a n i n g .  Single w o r d s .  Minor sentences. Full sentences.  Toilet W a s h i n g Dressing N o u r i s h m e n t Rest L A N G U A G E  No n e e d .  1  2  3  4  5  S O C I A L P A R T I C I P A T I O N With Adults  Indifferent ignores interest in toys etc.  A w a r e of adult-watches adult(s) a n d their activities.  Ask adult for C o m e to adult help. Accepts with n e w s a n d direction in information. play activities. Adults part of child's world.  Relates easily to adults in familiar situations.  With Children  Indifferent ignores afraid.  W a t c h i n g interest in activities.  Parallel play - Tries to relate Cooperative beside but peers-tries to play - play not with. help - d e m a n d s easily with attention. peers. Associative play.  G r o u p Activity  No interest joins g r o u p only with adult pressures.  Joins g r o u p willingly w a t c h e s interested.  Imitation.  a k e s suggestEnjoys activity. M ions for activity, that are original. Anticipation next part of activity.  E M O T I O N S Control Pattern: (1) Too little - impulsive - very easily frustrated - anger, etc. displays of e x t r e m e s in a n g e r • ( • • } or affection (kissing, h u g g i n g etc.) (2) A d e q u a t e -s p o n t a n e o u s - suitable to the situation. (3) Too M u c h - inhibited - withdrawn. Expressions of anger, fear, anxiety, aggression etc.: R e s p o n s e - Tears, complains, screams, yells, hits, runs a w a y or runs to adult for protection, t e m p e r tantrums, pouts. C a u s e - Arrival at school, leaving school, requirements of routine, w a n t s s o m e t h i n g (include example), a p p r o a c h of animals, hurt (accident or by another child), frustration. Expressions of pleasure, affection etc.: R e s p o n s e - laughs, claps h a n d s in delight, vocal exclamation, smiles, joins in g r o u p activity with display of enthusiasm, s h o w s affection t o w a r d s (give e x a m p l e - teacher, peer etc.) C a u s e - Activity of another person, child or group, pleasure in own activity or accomplishment, s o m e t h i n g 'funny' (give example), s o m e t h i n g 'nice.' (give example). Other items, m a n n e r i s m s , r e s p o n s e to discipline: M a n n e r i s m s -t h u m b sucking, sighing, sucks lip, rocks b o d y , affected m a n n e r of speaking (unrelated to handicap). R e s p o n s e to discipline - Accepts without objection, objects vocally, by stiffening b o d y , by relaxing b o d y , s e e m s to understand and modifies behaviour.  P L A Y A C T I V I T I E S Intellectual D e v e l o p m e n t Activity*  No interest or refusal.  Interested in - manipulates no real purpose.  h o o s e materialsC U s e s materials C o m b i n e s with a p u r p o s e materials in routine in m i n d . m a n n e r . utilizes in unique way.  Imaginative and Creative Expression Specific Activity*  No interest or refusal.  Enjoys activity Originality plays easily in creative. situation or with materials.  T o u c h i n g exploring.  Imitation.'  Interest tries requires adult help (physical).  Skill ' u n d e r Skill m a s t e r e d Originality in utilizing stood' - has - uses in a difficulties routine m a n n e r . skill. and requires s o m e help and direction.  Tries requires help to bring efforts to completion.  A d e q u a t e Functional control - no but still a w k w a r d - m a y support require verbal necessary. help.  Manipulative . ' D e v e l o p m e n t Specific Activity*  No interest or refusal.  M o t o r D e v e l o p m e n t Specific Activity*  *  Uninterested unable to m a n a g e .  G o o d control - purposeful - appropriate.  Specific Activities - e x a m p l e s - use at least one of e a c h - preferably two - use s a m e activities e a c h time of recording but n e w o n e s can be a d d e d as child matures.  Intellectual:  Imaginative and Creative:  B o o k s Colour recognition Matching - s h a p e - size - n u m b e r QuantityInterest in Project - animals - s e a s o n etc.  Manipulative: Cutting D r a w i n g Colouring Pasting B e a d stringing P e g s Block building Tinker toys etc. Puzzles  S a n d W a t e r D r a w i n g Painting brush a n d / o r finger Clay - Plastercine Dramatic play  M o t o r D e v e l o p m e n t : Walking Marching J u m p i n g Stairs - up and d o w n Slide Ball Tricycle W a g o n R h y t h m instruments  o  APPENDIX  B  SUBJECTS - INFORMATION FROM RECORD FORMS Subjects  Birthdate  0. A.  Age, as recorded on f i n a l record.  Handicap  5 years  C P . , s p a s t i c quad., very severe.  N.A.  October 19/59  5 years  C P . , s p a s t i c quad., mild.  V.A.  September 11/59  5 years  C P . , s p a s t i c quad., severe.  A. A.  A y r . 3 mo.  C P . , s p a s t i c quad., moderate.  G.A.  5 years  Arthrogrypos i s  M.A.  U years  C.P., a t h e t o i d , mild.  L.A.  Mentally retarded.  P. A.  C P . , moderate.  CA.  U years  D. A.  4|- years  C.P., mild. Brain damage.  5 years  C.P., moderate.  E. A.  6 years  C. P., s p a s t i c quad.  K.A.  6 years  Surgery on hands and feet.  6 years  CP., spastic & ataxia, mild.  F. A.  6 years  C P . , mild.  T.A.  7 years  Muscular dystrophy.  B. A.  6 years  C P . , s p a s t i c quad, mild.  J.A.  1. A.  October 22/59  October 17/58  153  5 years  S.A.  Kidney condition.  H.A. J.B.  CP., spastic mild.  A u g u s t 5/59  S.B.  o. 5 yr.3 m  Transverse myelitis, m o d e r a t e - legs.  o. 5 yr.8 m  Aoplasia congenital multiplex.  P.B.  D e c e m b e r 17/59  5 years  Arthrogryposis.  A.B.  N o v e m b e r 27/59  o. 5 yr.1 m  CP., athetoid.  N.B.  January 20/59  llmo. 5 yr.  Spina Bifeda  D.B.  July 20/59  5 yr.A m o.  CP., athetoid & ataxia visual p r o b l e m m o d e r a t e .  L.B.  N o v e m b e r 8/58  o. 6 yr. 1 m  CP., athetoid, moderately severe.  K.B.  S e p t e m b e r 15/58  5 yr.7 m o.  CP., spastic, m o d e r a t e .  R.C.  4 yr.7 mo.  S e v e r e hearing loss.  D.G.  5 yr.1 m o.  Profound hearing loss.  M.C.  A yr.  mo.  Profound hearing loss.  V.C.  4 yr.2 mo.  Profound hearing loss.  7  P.D.  D e c e m b e r 21/58  Intellectual retardation.  S.D.  O c t o b e r 29/57  Intellectual retardation.  M . D .  O c t o b e r U/58  Intellectual retardation.  A.D.  N o v e m b e r 3/58  Intellectual retardation.  D . D .  S e p t e m b e r 23/57  Intellectual retardation.  W . D .  February U/58  Intellectual retardation.  B.D.  May 20/58  Intellectual retardation.  154  CD.  S e p t e m b e r 17/58  Intellectual retardation.  J.D.  O c t o b e r 18/58  Intellectual retardation.  S P E C I A L E D U C A T I O N C E N T R E S C O O P E R A T I N G IN THE S T U D Y School A  Children's T r e a t m e n t Centre North Surrey, B. C.  School B  G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre Vancouver, B. C.  School C  Preschool for Hearing H a n d i c a p p e d Children Sunnyhill Hospital, Vancouver, B. C.  School D  Research Unit for Exceptional Children University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, B. C.  

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